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FUNK & WAGNALLS, Publishers^ 
x8 AND 20 AsTOR Place. 










FUNK & WAGNALLS, Publishers, 







A.D. 9U-12d4. 



I OS. KnszoirABT Ehtbbpbibbs .•••••• 1 

(1) The SoandinatUn llissiim Field • • • • • S 

(2) Denmark •••• S 

(3) Sweden ••• B 

(4) Norwaj 8 

(5) The North-Western Groop of Islandi • • • • i 

(6) The SUTO-Magyar Mission Field 5 

(7) Bohemia ••••••••• 6 

<8) Hnngary .•••••••• 6 

(9) The Wendish Baees • • 7 

(10) Pomerania • • • 8 

(11) The Finns and Lithoanians, Lapland • • • • 8 

(12) Esthonia, livonia, and Conrland 9 

(13) PnissU 10 

(14) Liihnani« 11 

(15) Mongolia 11 

(16) Mission Field of Islam «18 

I 94. Tbb CsüiADBa ••••••••• 14 

(1) The First Onisade, A.S. 1096 «16 

(2) nie Second Crusade, a.D. 1147 • • • • • 17 

(8) The Third Crorade, kJ>, 1189 • • • • • 17 

(4) The Fourth Cmsade, a.D. 1217 • • • • t 18 

(5) The Ftfth Cmsade, aj>. 1228 19 

<6) The Siith Cmsade, a.D. 1248, and the Seventh, a.D. 1270 19 

VOL. IL ^ b 




I 95. Islam and thb Jswb nr Eubopb • • • • • 20 

(1) l8lam in Sicily 21 

(2) Islam in Spain •••••••• 81 

(3) The Jews in Europe ••••••• 28 


I 96. Th« Papacy Ain> ths Holt Roman Empibb nr thx Gbbmas 

(1) The Romish Pomocraey and the Emperor Otto I., a.d 

(2) The Times of Otto II., HI., A.D. 973-1002 • 
(S) Otto III., Pope Sylvester 11 

(4) From Henry H. to the Synod at Satri, a.D. 1002-1046 

(5) Henry UI. and his German Popes, a.d. 1046-1057 
(G) The Papacy nnder the Control of Hildebrand, aj> 


(7. 8) Gregory VII.. a.D. 1073-1085 . 
(9) Central Idea of Gregory's Policy . 
(10) Victor Za a^d Urban U., A.D. 1086-1099 
(XI) Paschalis IL, Gelasias IL, and Calixtas XL 
1124 . 

(12) English Inyestitore ControTersy . 

(13) Times of Lothair III. and Conrad III., a.D. 1125-1152 

(14) Times pf Frederick L and Henry VI., a.D. 1152-U90 

(15) Pope Alezaoder III., a.D. 1159-1181 

(16) Thomas 4 Beoket 

(17) Innocent III., a.q. 1198-1216 

(18) -; — Fourth Lateran Council 

(19) Times of Frederick IL and his Snooessors 

. 1268 

(20) Innocent IV. and Sncoessors, a.D. 1243-1268 

(21) Times, of the House of Anjou to Boniface VIIL 


(22) Nicholas HL to Coeleatine V., aj>. 1277-4294 

(23) Temporal Power of the Popes • • 



|'97. Thb Clbbot ...••••• 

(1) The Roman College of Cardinali • • • 

(2) Political Importance of the Superior Clergy • 

(3) The Bishops and the Cathedral Chapter • 

(4) Endeavours to Reform the Clergy • • • 

(5) The PatariA of Milta 

, A.D 











I 98. MoMAsno Obdebs jlni) Ihstitutions • • • • • 64 

(1) OffBhoots of the Benedictines • • • • • 66 

(2) New Monkish Orders • 67 

(3) The Franciscans. [See also Appendix, p. 449] • • 69 

(4) Splits and Offshoots of the Franciscans • • • 71 

(5) The Dominicans 72 

(6) The other Mendicant Orders •••••• 73 

(7) Working Guilds of a Monkish Order • • • • 74 

(8) Spiritaal Order of Knights 75 

(9) Bridge Brothers and Mercedarians • • • • 76 


I 99. ScHOUkSTICtSM ZH Gsif BB4L . •••••• 77 

(1) Dialectic and Mysticism 78 

(2) Philosophical Basis of Dialectic Scholasticism • • 79 

(3) Nurseries of Scholasticism •••••• 80 

(4) Epochrof Scholasticism •••••• 81 

(5) The Canon Law • • 81 

(6) Historical Literature 82 

I 100. The «*Sjiculüm Obscübüx**: tiis Tshth CmuBV • 82 

(1) Classical Studies ..'••••.. 83 

(2) Italy, Franoe, and England .84 

I 101. The Elstkitr Czmtubt ••••••• 85 

(1) Mest Celebrated Sohooknen of this Centory^ • • • 85 

(2) Berengar*s Buoharist OontroTersy, aj>. 1050-1079 • 87 

(3) Anselm's ControTersies •••••• 88 

I 102. The Twblptr OBKTiniT • • 89 

(1) Contest on French Soil: (i.) The Dialeetio Side of the 

6nU« Abnlard 90 

(8) AbssUrd 91 

(8) (ii.) The Mystic Side of the Gulf. Bernard ... 92 

(4) (iii.) Bridging the GuU from the Side of Mysticism. The 

St. Victors .•.••.... 94 

(5) (iT.) Bridging the Gulf from the Side of Dialeetioi. Peter 

the Lombard, etc «95 

(6) Tfaie Controrersy on German Soil 96 

(7) Theologians of Biblical Taodenoy. BoperiofDeoti,ete. 97 
(8) John of SaUsbury ••••/•• 98 

(9) Homanist Philosophers • • • • • • «99 

1 103. The T hie ij im th Cbvtvbt •••••• 99 

(1) Arirtotk Md his Arabio Inten;iveter« • • • «100 

(5) Twofold Tinth ; ; . 101 

(8) Jippeannofl of HanJicMit Otätn 101 

(4) Froncijcan Soboolmen. Alei. o( HalM, BoDKVnitm , 101 

(G) Dominiun Soboolin«!!. Aibtrt tbe OiMt . . . IM 

(6) Thon.«8Aq.iin« lOt 

(T) Rernnoer« of the t-cboU^tio Matfaod. RBimund Lau , 105 

(8) nogerHaoun ■ . 10» 

(0) Tbeologi&niot Biblical TandoD^ lOT 

(10) PneurMn ol Ganukn Mjitioi. Dkrid of Angibnrg, ato. 107 


I lOi. PoBLia WoraBir un> Amr, •....■ 106 

(1) The Litnrg7 ud the Sertnon 109 

(3) DefiniÜoii uid Nnmber of tha BMnmaaU . . • lOV 

(8) Sccnmant of the AlUr , 110 

{i) Panuioa HI 

(E) Eitrema TTuction US 

(0) Sacrn.mcnt otMarriag« I ••••.! 113 

(7) NewPflBliY»! 118 

(6) Veuerfttioa of SAinU Ill 

(9) St. UrsulftudthelLOOOTiiKim US 

(10) Jijmnologj US 

(11) Church Musis U« 

(IS) EcolPiiiuUcal Architeotiire ••.... IIT 

(18) Tree Uuon LnAgei . Ufl 

(14) StatuHj and Fainting 118 


(1) Enigh thood BuJ Uie PaMB ol Ood .... 119 

(3) rüputaiCiistoma 119 

(8) TwoBoyalSBiiitB: Eliubelh and Hedwig ... 130 

(4) Eviilencesof Sainthood. Stigmatiiation, «to. . . 130 

(fi) Beligioui Culture of the Paopl« 131 

(6) Nstionnl Litcmtui« 131 

I 106. CarocB Disctplins, I)rD[rLaBNCiB,4ini Aacmouif . . 191 

(1) Ban aod iDterdict 138 

(9) Indulgences ..:,.,.. 138 

(8) CburohBofltriue of tlM Hereafter 138 

(4) FUgellatioQ .134 

I 107. Fnuui UTanoi , 194 

(1) T>o Bbeiiiib Propbeteaaaa of tha 13th CentiU7 . . 195 

(9) Tlu«eThnilngiaBPiophetNtN«lt)MlStliC«atiu7 . m 







I 108. Thb Pbots^tbbs aoaiksz thb Chubgh • ^ • • 126 

(1, 2) The Cathari • • • 126 

(3) The PaMtgians 128 

(4) Pantheistifl Heretics. Amahrioh, David of Dinant, Ort- 

libarfans • • • 128 

(5) Apocalyptic Heretxca. Joachim of Floiis • • • 180 

(6) GhibeUine Joachites 180 

(7« 8) Beyohitionary Befonnen. Petrobrariaas, Arnold of 

Brescia, etc. • • • 181 

(9) Beformmg Enthasiaste. . Tanchelm, Eon • . • 182 
(10-12) The Waldenaiant. [Sabstitate || 10-16 in Ap- 
pendix, p. 464] 188 

I 109. Thb Chubcb aoaikst thb Pbotbstbbs • • • • 187 

(1) Albigensian Crusade, kj>, 1209-1229 • • • • 137 

(2) The Inquisition •••••••• 138 

(8) Conrad of Marborg and the Stedingers • • • • 188 


THE 14th and 15th CENTURIEa 

AJ). 1294-1617. 

I 110. Thb Papacy 

(1) BoniXace YIH. and Benedict XI., a.D. 1294-1804 
(8) Papacy during Babylonian Exile, a.D. 1805-1877 
(8) John XXIL, a.D. 1816-1834 .... 
(4) Benedict XH. and Clement VI., a.D. 1884-1352 
(8) Innocent V f. to Gregory XL, a.D. 1882-1878 . 

(6) Papal Schism and Council of Pisa, 1878-1410 

(7) Council of Constonoe and Martin V., a.1. 1410-1481 

(8) Eugenius IV. and Council of Basel, a.D. 1431-1449 

(9) Pragmatic Sanction, etc, a.D. 1488 

(10) Nicholas Y. to Pius II. a.D. 1447-1464 . 

(11) Paul n. and Innocent YU., a.D. 1464-1492 

(12) Alexander YL, a.D. 1492-1608 
(18) JnUus n., A.D. 1503-1618 . 
(14) Lm X., A.D. 1518-1521 . • • • 



(15) Papftl ClainiB to BoTBragn^ ...*•. 1S5 

(16) The Papal Curk 166 

I 111. Tn Olwii 166 

(1) Jloral Coalition o( Clergy 157 

(3) Commenilatoc ALbots .....■■ 157 

I 113. MoNiiTKi Obdrbi and Boctniu 157 

(1) B^uedictiDB Orders 168 

(2) Pruuaisc&us 169 

(3) ObB«rvmnl9juidCi>nT«Dlli«Il 160 

(4) The Dominicani 160 

(G) ADgualini»i>s 161 

(6) JüLiiYonStaupüi!. ....... 163 

(7) Orerthrow of the Tamplua 163 

(8) NewOnlen 164 

(9) Brothen ol die Common Lite 166 


I lis. ScBOLiBTtCIHK Uf» It! BxtOaUtB» ..... IGS 

(1) JobD Dmu Soolas 1G7 

(2) Thomiits ud SootiEts 167 

^ (8) Nominalist« and Bealiata 166 

(4) CuDiiti; 169 

(E] Fonnder of Nkltinl TIiMlegr : B^mnnd ot Babnod* . 169 

(if) Nioholai of Cnsa 170 

(7) BibUcnl and Fnotlaal Ibeologiaoi .... 171 

I 114. Tn Quiux Mimca .173 

(1) Meister EckliBrl 178 

(3) Mji^ticBorl^piHrOerinanralterEckhart. Tankr,«t«. 174 

(5) Fcipnd ot God ID th« Uplands 176 

(4) Nioholaa of Baael 176 

(6) Sato ^176 

(6) Esncy of NOrdlingsn, «to. 177 

(7) If ;Btiei of NetlMrlaiida. Bnjibnak, A Eempia, ete. . 177 

I llEi. PcDLio "WoasBir unt jam Bnuaioci Enccinoi or im 

Pbofu 179 

(1) Faita and FeitinU 179 

(3) Preaching 179 

(Si lliUia Fa-p^am ISO 

(4) Bible in tbe VerDS^uW .181 

ifi) CaUchiimi anl PnTor-Booki •■ . . . . .181 

COKTfiKXa. . » 


(6) Dance of Deftth • .182 

(7) H^mnology «182 

(8) Church Maaio 182 

(9) Legendary Belies • • • 183 

I 115b. National Lttsbatubs ahd EocLBSUtrxcAL Abt • • 183 

(10) Italian National liiteratare 184 

(11) Qerman National Literatnta •••••• 186 

(12) The Saored prama 186 

(13) Architecture and Painting 186 


(1) Two National Saints : John of Nepomnk and IHoolaas 

of Flue 188 

(2) Maid of Orleans, 1.0. 142&-1481 190 

(3) Lollards, Flagellants, and Dancers • • • »191 

(V) The Friends of Qod 191 

(5) Pantheistic Libertine Societies 192 

I 117. Chubcb Discipumb • • • 193 

(1) Indnlgenoes • • 193 

(2) Inquisition • • • 194 

(3) The Bull** In Ccena Domini** 195 

(4) Prosecution of Witches 195 


f 118. Attihpted Revobms in Chüboh Poutt . . • « 197 

(1) Literavy War between Imperialists and Curiallsts. 

Marsilius 198 

(2) Literary War between ImperialiBts and Cnrialists. 

Occam . 198 

(8) Reforming Councils of the 15th Century . . • 199 

(4) Friends of Reform in France in 15th Century. Peter 

D^Ailly, Oerson, etc 199 

(5) Friends of Reform in Qermany • . • • . 201 
(l5) Italian Apostate from Party of Basel : £neas Sylvius . 202 
(7) Reforms in Church Policy in Spain « • • • 203 

I 119. Etanobuoal ErroBU at Rbidbk • • • • . 203 

a) Wlclif and WicUfitea 204 

(2) Psscuraors of the Hussite Morement • • • • 206 

(2M) John. Huss 207 

(7) Calixtines and Taborites 212 

(8) Bohemian and Moravian Brethren • • . . 213 

(9) Winkekrs. [Substitute ( 119, ^ 9m^, in J^ipeadU, p; ^19i 214 


(10) Dnioh Befonnen : John of Qoeh, Von Wesel, and Weeed 214 

(11) An liaUAn Befonner ; BavonaroU • • • • S15 

I 120. Tax BxTxvAL or LsAEimra •••••• 217 

(1) Italian Hamanists ••••••• 218 

(2, 8) Qerman Hamanism ••••••• 220 

(4) John Beachlin 222 

(5) Rpütokß obicurorum viromm • • • • • 228 

(6) Erasmus of Botterdam 224 

(7) Hamanism in England ••••••• 225 

(8) — — in Franoe and Spain •••••• 227 

(9) and the Beformation of the 16th Oentnxy • • 228 



1 121. Ghaeaotu ahd DnTBiBunoM of Modxbm Chubob Histobt 229 



I 122. Thb BxonrNiRoe or thb Wittxxbbbo Bxroxiuno« • 231 

(1) Lather*s Tears of Preparation • • • • • 232 

(2) Lather's Theses of jld. 1517 288 

(8) Prierias, CajeUn, and MUtits, aj>. 1518, 1519 • • 284 

(4) The Leipzig Dispatation, aj>. 1519 • • • • 285 

(5) PbiUp Melanchthon 286 

(6) Ownge Spalatin • • 286 

I 128. Luthxb's Psbiod or Cohtuct, 1.0. 1520, 1521 • • 287 

(1) Lather's Three Chief Beformation Writings • • • 288 

(2) Papal Ball of Excommonication • • • • • 238 
(8) Erasmas, aj>. 1520 289 

(4) Lather's Controversj with Emser, A.». 151^1521 • 239 

(5) Emperor Charles V • • 240 

(6) Diet at Worms, a.D. 1521 240 

(7) Lnther at Wittenberg after the Diel • • • « 241 

(8) Wartbarg Ezfle, k.j>. 1521, 1522 248 

(9) Frederick the Wise and the Beformation • • • 245 

I 124. DxTBBioBAnoir axd Pubifioatiov or xn Wi TT Bxaxn a 

BxroxMATXOH, LD. 1522-1525 245 

(1) WHtanberg Fanatieism, k.9. 1521, 1522 • • • 246 



(3) Frans Ton Siokingen, a.D. 1532, 1623 • • • .247 
(8) Carlstadt, a.d. 1524, 1525 ...••• 247 

(4) Thomas Münzer, jld. 1523, 1524 • • • • • 248 

(5) The Peasant War, a.d. 1524, 1525 248 

I 125. FiixirM Axn Fosa or Luthsb'b Doonm, kJD, 1522-1526 249 

(1) Spread of Evangelical Views 250 

(2) *• Sam of Holy Scriptare " and its Author • . • 250 
(8) Henry Yin. and Erasmus 251 

(4) Thomas Mumer 252 

(5) Oil«« EecUtU» 25i 

I 126. DxTZLOPvaifT or ths BrroBiUTioir ni thb Empzbx, A.n. 

1522-1526 252 

(1) Diet at Nuremberg, A.n. 1522, 1523 . . . • 258 

(2) A^. 1524 254 

(3) Conyention at Begensburg, A.n. 1524 • • • • 254 

(4) The Evangelical Nobles, a.D. 1524 • • • • 255 

(5) The Torgau League, aj>. 1526 • • • • • 255 

(6) The Diet of Spires, aj>. 1526 . . • • • 256 

I 127. OiOAJniATXoir or tbb Etamobugal Pbotimoial Ghubcbss, 

▲.D. 1526-1529 257 

(1) In the Saxon Electorate, ^.d. 1527-1529 • • • 257 

(2) In Hesse, aj>. 1526-1528 257 

(3) In other Oerman Provinces, a.D. 1528-1530 • • • 258 

(4) Beformation in Cities of North Germany, aj>. 1524-1531 258 

I 128. llAiTna rom Etanosucal Tbutr, ajx 1521-1529 • • 258 

I 129. Lutbsb's Pbitatb abd Pubuo Lxra, a.D. 1523-1529 • 260 

(1) Luther's Literary Works 261 

(2) Döllinger's View of Luther 262 

I ISO. Thb BBroBXATXOB oi Gbbxab Switzbblamd, a.D. 151^1531 262 

(1) Ulrich ZwingU . . ; 262 

(2) Beformation in Zürich, aj>. 1519-1525 . • • • 264 

(3) Beformation in Basel, a.d. 1520-1525 . . • «265 

(4) Beformation in other Cantons, a.D. 1520-1525 • . 266 

(5) Anabaptist Oatbreak, a.D. 1525 266 

(6) Diq>uUtion at Baden, a.D. 1526 • • • • • 267 

(7) DispuUtion at Bern, a.D. 1528 267 

(8) Complete Victory of Beformation at Basel, St. Gall, etc. 267 

(9) First Treaty of Cappel, aj>. 1529 268 

(10) Beeood Treaty of Cappel, a.D. 1531 « • » • 268 



I 131. ThZ BkOBkUKKTJkXUM OoHTEOrBBSY, JLD, 152S-1S29 . • 

i 132. Tbi Pbotut jmd Gonrssior or ths Etaxoxxjoal Nobues, 
AJ>. 1527-1530 

(1) The Pack Incident, ^.d. 1527, 1528 • • 

(2) Emperor's AititudA, a.d. 1527-1529 • • 

(3) Diefc at Spires, a.d. 1529 . • • • 

(4) Marburg Conference, aj>. 1529 • • • 

(5) Conyention of Schwabaoh and Landgrare Philip 

(6) Diet of Augsburg, a.D. 1530 . • • . 

(7) Oonfession of Augsburg, a.D. 1530 • • 
(6) Ooneintions of IMet of Augsburg • • • 

I 133. Ingzpintb or jhs Tbabs a^. 1531-1536 • 

(1) Founding of the Schmalcald League • 

(2) Peace .of Nuremberg, aj>. 1532 

(3) EvangeUzation of Württemberg, ▲.!>. 1534, 1535 

(4) Beformation in Anhalt and Pomerania, a.D. 

(5) Beforxnation in Westphalia, aj). 1532-1534 . 

(6) Disturbances at Münster, a.d. 1534, 1535 

(7) Extension cH Sohmaloald League, a.D. 1536 • 

(8) Wittenberg Conoordat, a.D. 1536 • • • 


I 134. Ikctdxhtb or thb Ybabs a.D. 1537-1589 • • 

(1) Schmalcald Articles, a.D. 1537 • • • 

(2) League of Nuremberg, a.D. 1538 • • • 

(3) Frankfort Interim, aj>. 1539 

(4) Reformation in Albertine Saxony, a.D. 1539 • 

(5) Beformation in Brandenburg, etc, ajk 1539 • 

I 185. ÜNXOH Attxxpts or a.D. 1&40-1546 . • 

(1) Tbe Double Marriage of Pliilip of Hesse, a.D. 1540 

(2) Religious Conference at Worm», a.o. 1540 . 

(3) Religious Conference at Regensburg, a.D. 1541 

(4) The Regensburg Declaration, a.D. 1541 

(5) The Naumburg Bishopric, A.D. 1541, 1542 . 

(6) Reformation in Brunswick and Palatinate, a.D. 


(7) Reformation in the Electorate of Cologne, a.D. 1542 

(8) The Emperor's Difficulties, a.d. 1543, 1544 . 
(9)' Diet at Spires, a.D. 1544 .... 

(10) Emperor and Protestant ?7obles, aj>. 1545, 1546 

(11) £athelr*8 Dteth, aj>. 1546 . • . • 












I 186. Tn SoHHiuukLD Wab, ibc Imtrbm, , 
kj>. 1646-1G51 .... 
(1) Pnpustioni for tli> BobniftlMia Wir, 1.11. IMS . 
(S) Oampugn on Uta DuiuLc.ajd. lS-16 . 
(B) CunpaigQ on th« EILe, i.n.1617 . . 

(4) CotmoU el TMiit, a.». lS4S-lfi4T . 

(5) Atigtiburg Interim, k.11. IMS . . 
.(6) Eiecutiunolthelnterim 
.(7) TlMlMpiisoTLittleliitt^nm.AJ). 1548 
-iß] Tbt Q>iuioil letüi at TMnt, a.b. Ufil . 

I ISTa. itxoattm AKB THi Psioa or Aoouoaa, i.t>, 
(I) 3tat«of MiLttenui«.i>. ISSO . . 

(3) ElsotorUaiuioe, *.!>. IG51 . • . 
(8) Oomput of Pmud, k.o. ^S5i 
' (4) Da«th ol Hanrioe, a.d. 15S3 . 

(5) Beligioni PeM« of Ao^burg, a.b. I6GS . 
I 187b. OuutAKT Mm tbi Remoiodb Fsach • 

(6) TheTVormsCouäuUfttLon, A.i>. 1557 . 

(7) Sraond Attempt at Retormatiou in Electorat« of 

Cologne, A.t). 1582 .... 

(8) The Oernun Enip«n>n, aj>. 155G-1613 

I US. Taa BaaoiMArtoM n FutMcs BwnanLAaB 

(1) Calriu'B PreJeevSHOr«, A.n. le3$.16S~ 

(3) Calvin b<^[»» his QonevanUiDutrr 
JS) Calrin'i Fint MmiHtiy in Qenvr». 

(4) CftlTin'B SL-i'oitcl ^Liiiatrj in OenerB 

(6) CalTiD'B WriUngi .... 
(t) Cklvin'i Dottrine .... 

(7) Viotorj ot CclriDiu) orar Zwingt im inn 

(8) 0«lrin's BoooBtiot in Q«n«fft. B*t* . 


(1) Siraden 

(8) DaniDuk ftnd Norwaj . 

(5) CoQcluid, Lironia. uid Esthoaia . 
(4) BngUod. Heurj VUL 

(6) Edward YI 

(6) Bliulwtli .... 

(7) belaud 

(8) Sootlaod. HamiltOD and Winhart 

(9) '— iohn Knox .... 
. - 10) ^Ma Marr Staart , 



(11) Scotland. Knox and Marj •••••• 821 

(12) The Netherlands 822 

(13) France. Francis I. and Henry II. . • • • 824 

(14) *-— Haguenota, Francis II., and Charles IX. • • 825 

(15) — Hngoenot Persecution 827 

(16) "— Bloody Marriage. Massacre of St. Bartholomew . 828 

(17) Henry III. and IV. Edict of Nantes ... 829 

(18) PoUnd 831 

(19) Bohemia and Moraria • • • • . • • 833 

(20) Hungary and Transjlrania •••••• 835 

(21) Spain 836 

(22) Italy 838 

(23) Aonio Paleario 839 

(24) Ochino, Peter Martyr, Yergerios, etc. • • • 841 

(25) Protestantizing of Waldensians . . • • • 843 

(26) Attempt at Protestantizing the Eastern Chorch • • 844 


I 140. Thb DisTiNonTE Chabaotbe or thb Luthsban Chuboh • 844 


(1) The Antinomian ControYcrsy, ▲.!>. 1537-1541 • • 847 

(2) The Ostander Controrersy, a.i>. 1549-1556 • • • 848 
(8) £pinns* Controversy ..••••• 850 

(4) The Philippists and their Opponents . . • • 850 

(5) The Adiaphorist ControYcrsy, ld. 1548-1555 • • 851 

(6) The Majorist ControYcrsy, a.D. 1551-1562 • • • 852 

(7) The Synergistic ControYcrsy, ^.d. 1555-1567 . • 852 

(8) The Flaciao ControYersy on Original Sin, a.D. 1560-1575 858 

(9) Lutheran Doctrine of the Lord's Sapper . • • 854 

(10) CryptocalYinism in iU First Stage, jld. 1552-1574 • 855 

(11) The Frankfort Compact, a.D. 1558 . • • • • 857 

(12) Formula of Concord, a.D. 1577 858 

(13) Second Stage of Cryptocalvinism, a.D. 158^1592 • • 860 

(14) Huber Controversy, a.D. 1588-1595 . • • • 8GI 

(15) Hofmann Controversy, aj>. 1598 . • • • . 861 

I 142. Constitution, Worship, Livi, and Sauici nr Luthxran 

Chttrch • • • . 861 

(1) The Ecclesiastical Constitution • • • • • 8G3 

(2) PubUo Worship and Art •••••• 8H4 

(8, 4) Church Song •••••••• 865 

(5) Chorale Singing •••••••• 867 

(6) Theological Scieao« •••••••868 


(7) Oenaan NktioD«! LitsntOM 

(8j Mia^ions to Hotthea • • 

I U3. Tbb Inmbb DBTELornEirt or thb BnoutEO CatimoH • 

(1) EecteÜBitieal CoDsUtntioD 

(2) PublioWorhliip 

(3) TbeSuglUhPuriUiis 

(4) the bn)HiiUt5,sta 

(G) Theological Sciritoe 

(G) Philosoph; 

(7) Uüeion«i[7 EDterprite 

I lU. Cii.mizDia ot Oebvah Luthbrui Nuionui Ohokchm . 

(1) The PalatiDftt«, a.D. ISbO 

(2) Bremen, «.d. 1ÜS3 

(3) Anhalt, L.D. IS3T 

I US. CuBAcTsB or -mt DifoRUinos 

I 146. HTETtClBM AND PlHTRBItU .>•... 

(1) tichw.:ukMdauJhieFoltowcra 

i'l) Agrippa, PantreUuB, and Weigel . . , ' , , 

(3) Franck,Thanier,«Dd Bruno 

(4) Pantheiatlc LIb«itiDe Seoti of Spiritnala in Fnwee . 
(6) The FaniiluU 

I 147. AHABimax . 

(I) 'The Aanbaptiet UoTerneiit itt Outenl . • . . 
(3) KulLei'B V,vw.>fAnabaptUtHu(ot7 .... 

(3> TbeSa-iflsAnabapliaW 

<1) SüutliOertiian Auabnptieta 

(5) Tbs UuraTiiHi Anal.aptista 

<G) The Venetiu) Anabaptiati . i . , . . 
(T] uliUr.A|<<;.ul Auiib.L)>UäuiinKorth-Wert Oermui; 

(S) Jan MattUy« ot Hoailem 

(9) The Münster Cataetrophe. i.j). 1531, IGS6 . 

(10) MtrDDO Simons and the MeuQonitel .... 

I 14S, A-VTlTGITtlTABIINB UtD OülTABUHl . . ■ . . 

(1) Anabiiptift Antit iuitaiiaiu in Germanf . . 

(t) Mit:liw1Ser.«lQ 

(3) ItalianAjititriDiiAriansbetore Soeinna . . ■ • 
Hi The Two Bpdni and the Epoinian 



I 149. Ths ImrxBNAL Stbekothsnino and Rbtiyal or thb 

Catholio Chubch 414 

(1) The Popes before the CouocU . • . • • 415 

(2) The Popes of the Time of the CouucU . • . • 417 

(3) Tlie Popes after the Coancil 420 

(4) Papal InfaUibilitj 42i 

(5) Prophecy of St. Malaclii 422 

(6) Reformation of Old Monkish Orders • • • • 423 

(7) New Orders for Home Missions 425 

(8) Society of Jesus. Founding 42>i 

(9) Constitution 428 

(10) Doctrinal and Moral System . • • • • 43*) 

(11) Jesuit Influence upon Wocsliip and Superstition • • 43'i 

(12) Educational Methods of Jesuits 433 

(13) Theological Controyersies • 484 

(14) Theologiüil Literature 434^ 

(15) Art and Poetry 437 

(16) The Spani^ Mystics 438 

(17) Practical Christian Life. Borromeo, etc. • • • 440 

I 150. FoBBioN Missions 441 

(1) MisMons to Heathen : India and China • • .441 

(2) Japan 442 

(3) America 443 

(4) Nestorians, etc 444 

i 161. Attbmptkd Regenbbatioiy of Roman Catholicism . • 445 

(1) Attempts at Regeneration in Gerioany . • • .416 

(2) I'hroughout Euroi)e 448 

(3) Russia and the united Greeks 448 


Additions from Tenth Edition to S§ 98, 108, 119 • • • 449 


While the translator was working from the ninth edition 
of 1885, a tenth edition had appeared during 1887, to which 
unfortunately his attention was not called until quite re- 
cently. The principal additions and alterations atiTecting 
Vol. II. occur in §§ 1)8, 1C8, 119, and 147. On the section 
dealing with Anabaptism, the important changes have been 
made in the text, so that § 147 precisely corresponds to its 
latest and most perfect form in the original. As the mint- 
ing of the volume was then far advanced, it was impossible 
thus to deal with the earlier sections, but students will find 
references in the Table of Contents to the full translation 
in the Appendix of those passages where material altera- 
tions have been introduced. 


March, 1889. 

John Macpherson. 




AJ). 911-12d4 

L— The Spread of Christianitj. 

§ 93. MissiOKABT Ektebprisss. 

DuBiNG this period the Christianizing of Europe was well 
nigh finished. Only Lapland and Lithuania were reserved 
for the following period« The method used in conversion 
was still the same. Besides missionaries, warriors also 
extended the faith. Monasteries and castles were the 
centres of the newly founded Christianity. Political con- 
siderations and Christian princesses converted pagan 
princes; their subjects followed either under violent 
pressure or with quiet resignation, carrying with them, 
however, under the cover of a Christian profession, much 
of their old heathen superstition. It was the policy of 
the German emperors to make every effort to unite the 
converted races under the German metropolitans, and to 
establish this union. Thus the metropolitanate of Ham- 
burg-Bremen was founded for the Scandinavians and those 
of the Baltic provinces, that of Magdeburg for the Poles 
and the Northern Slavs, that of Mainz for the Bohemians, 
that of Passau and Salzburg for the Hungarians. But it 
was Rome's desire to emancipate them from the German 
VOL. n. 1 • T 


clergy and the German state, and to set them np as in- 
dependent motropolitanates of a great family of Christian 
nationalities recognising the pope as their spiritual father 
(§ 82, 9). The Western church did now indeed make a 
beginning of missionary enterprise, which extended in its 
range beyond Europe to the Mongols of Asia and the Sara- 
cens of Africa, but throughout this period it remained with- 
out any, or at least without any important, result 

1. The ScandinaTian Mission Field. — The work of Ansgar and Bimbert 
(§ 80) had extended only to the frontier provinces of Jutland and to the 
trading ports of Sweden, and even the churches founded there had in 
the meantime become almost extinct. A renewal of the mission could 
not be thought of, owing to the robber raids of Normans or Vikings, who 
during the ninth and tenth centuries had devastated all the coasts. 
But it was just those Viking raids that in another way opened a door 
again for the entrance of missionaries into those lands. Many of the 
home-going Vikings, who had been resident for a while abroad, had there 
been converted to the Christian faith, and carried back the knowledge 
of it to their homes. In France the Norwegians under BoUo founded 
Normandy in a.D. 912. In the tenth century the entire northern half 
of England fell into the hands of the Danes, and finally, in aj>. 1013, 
the Danish King Sweyn conquered the whole country. Both in Fronoe 
and in England the incomers adopted the profession of Christianity, and 
this, owing to the close connection maintained with their earlier homes, 
led to the conversion of Norway and Denmark. 

2. In Denmark, Gorm the Old, the founder of the regular Danish 
monarchy, makes his appearance toward the end of the ninth century 
as the bitter foe of Christianity. He destroyed all Christian institutions, 
drove away all the priests, and ravaged the neighbouring German coasts. 
Then, in a-d. 934, the German king Henry I. undertook a war against 
Denmark, and obliged Gorm to pay tribute and to grant toleration 
to the Christian faith. Archbishop Unui of Bremen then immediately 
began again the mission work. With a great part of his clergy he 
entered Danish territory, restored the churches of Jutland, and died in 
Sweden in A.n. 936. Germ's son, Harald Blaatand, being defeated in 
battle by Otto I. in A.n. 965, submitted to baptism. But his son Svreyn 
Gabelbart, although he too had been baptized, headed the reactionary 
heathen party. Harald fell in battle against him in a.d. 986, and 
Sweyn now began his career as a bitter persecutor of the Christians. 
Eric of Sweden, however, fo^nerly a heathen and an enemy of 


Christianity, droYe him out in ▲.!>. 980, and at the entreaty of a Gennan 
embassage tolerated the Christian religion. After Eric's death in a-d. 
998, Sweyn returned. In exil6 his opinions had changed, and now 
he as actively befriended the Christians as before he had perseonted 
them. In jLD. 1013 he conqaered all England, and died there in 
A D. 1014. His son Cannte the Great, who died in a.D. 1036, united 
both kingdoms under his sceptre, and made every effort to find in the 
profession of a common Christian faith a bond of nnion between th6 
two countries over which he ruled. In place of the German mission 
issuing from Bremen, he set on foot an English mission that had great 
success. In a.D. 1026 by means of a pilgrimage to Borne, prompted 
also by far -reaching political views, he joined the Danish church in the 
closest bonds with the ecclesiastical centre of Western Christendom. 
Denmark from this time onwards ranks as a thoroughly Christianized 

3. In Sweden, too. Archbishop Unni of Bremen resumed mission work 
and died there in a.d. 936. From this time the German mission was 
proeecuted oninterruptedly. It was, however, only in the beginning 
of the eleventh century, when English missionaries came to Sweden 
from Norway with Sigurd at their head, that real progress was made. 
By them the king Olaf Skötkonung, who died in a.D. 1024, was baptized. 
Olaf and his suooessor used every effort to further the interests of the 
mission, which had made considerable progress in Gothland, while 
in Swealand, vrith its national pagan sanctuary of Upsula, heathenism 
■till coutinued dominant. King Inge, when he refused in A.D. 1080 to 
renounce Christianity, was pursued with stones by a crowd of people at 
Upsala. His son-in-law Blot-Sweyn led the pagan reaction, and sorely 
persecuted those who professed the Christian faith. After reigning for 
three years, he was slain, and Inge restored Christianity in all parts. 
It was, however, only under St. Eric, who died in A.D. 1160, that the 
Christian faith became dominant in Upper Sweden.' 

4. The Norwegians had, at a very early period, by means .of the 
adventurous raids of their seafaring youth, by means of Christian 
prisoners, and also by means of intercourse with the Norse colonies in 
England and Normandy, gained some knowledge of Christianity. The 
first Christian king of Norway was Haoo the Good (a.D. 934-961), who 
had received a Christian * education at the English court. Only after 
he had won the fervent love of his people by his able government, did 
he Tenture to ask for the^egal establishment of the Christian religion. 
The people, however, compelled him to take part in heathen sacrifices ; 

1 Principal authorities for last two sections : Adam of Bremen, *'Gesta 
Hamburg eeoL Pontifionm," and Saxo Grammaticus, " Hist. Danlca«" 



and when he made the sign of the croas orer the eaorifioial eap before 
he drank of it, they were appeased onlj by his associating the action 
with Thorns hammer. Haco could never forgive himself this weakness 
and died broken-hearted, regarding himself as unworthy even of 
Cliristian burial. Olaf Trygvesen (a.d. 995-1000), at first the ideal of 
a Norse Viking, tlien of a Norse king, was baptized during bis last visit 
to England, and used all the powerful influences at his command, the 
charm and fascination of his personality, flattery, favour, craft, inti- 
midation and cruelty, to secure the forcible introduction of Christianity. 
No foreigner was ever allowed to quit Norway without being persuaded 
or compelled by him to receive baptism. Those who refused, whether 
natives or foreigners, suffered severe imprisonment and in many cases 
were put to death. He fell in battle with the Danes. Olaf Haraldson 
the Fat, snbsequently known as St. Olaf (ld. 1014-1030;, followed in 
Trygvesen^s steps. Without his predecessor's fascinatiog manners and 
magnanimity, but prosecuting his ecclesiastical and political ends with 
greater recklessness, severity, and cruelty, he 8o<>n forfeited the love of 
his subjects. The alienated chiefs conspired with the Danish Canute ; 
the whole country rose against him ; he himself fell in battle, and 
Norway became a Danish province. The crushing yoke of the Danes, 
however, caused a sudden rebound of public feeling in regard to Olaf. 
The king, who was before universally hated, was now looked on as the 
martyr of national liberty and independence. Innumerable miracles 
were wrought by his bonos, and even so early as a.d. 1031 the country 
unanimously proclaimed him a national saint. The enthusiasm over 
the veneration of the new saint increased from day to day, and with it 
the enthusiasm for the emancipation of their native country. Borne 
along by the mighty agitation, Olaf*s son, Magnus the Gt)od, drove out 
the Danes in a.D. 1035. Olafs canonization, though originating in 
purely political schemes, had put the final stamp of Christianity upon 
the land. The German national privileges, however, were insisted upon 
in Norway over against the canon law down to the 13th century.^ 

5. In the Horth-Westem Qroap of Islands, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, 
Shetlands, and Faroe Isles, the sparse Celtic population professing 
Christianity was, during the ninth century, expelled by the pagan Norse 
Vikings, and among these Christianity was first introduced by the 
two Norwegian Olafs. The first missionary attempt in Iceland was 
made in a.i>. 981 by the Icelander Thorwold, who having been baptized 
in Saxony by a Bishop (?) Frederick, persuaded this ecclesiastic to 
accompany him to Iceland, that they might there work together for the 

^ Snorro Sturleson*8, '* Heimskringla, or Chronicle of the Kings of 
Norway.'* Transl. from the Icelandic by Laing. 3 vols. London, 1844. 


«xmTttrtion 6f his heathen fellow ootititiymen. Daring a five yean* 
ministry several individnals were won, bot by a decision of the KationSl 
Gonncil the missionaries were forced to leave the island in a.d. 958. 
Olaf Trygtesen did not readily allow an Icelander visiting Norway to 
retom without having been baptized, and twice he sent formal ezpe- 
ditions for the conversion of Iceland. The first, sent ont in a.i>. 996, 
with Stefnin, a native of Iceland, at its head^ had little success. Thto 
second, aj>. 997-999, was led by OlaPs conrt chaplain Dankbrand, k 
Saxon. This man, at once warrior and priest, who when his sermons 
failed shrank not from buckling on the sword, converted many of the 
most powerfol chiefs. In a.D. 1000 the locUndic State was saved at the 
last hour from a eivU war between pagans and Christians which threat- 
ened its very existence, by the adoption of a compromise, according to 
which all Icelanders were baptized and only Christian worship was 
publicly recoguised, but idol worship in the homes, exposure of children, 
and eating of horses* flesh was tolerated. Bat in a.d. 1016, as the result 
of an embassage of the Norwegian king Olaf Uaraldson, even these 
last Vestiges of paganism were «iped oat. — Greenland, too, which had 
been discovered by a distinguished Icelander, Eric tbe Red, and had then 
been colonized in a.d. 985, oved its Christianity to Olaf Trygves^n, who 
in A.D. 1000 sent the son of the discoverer, Leif the Fortunate, with 
an expedition for its conversion. The inhabitants accepted baptism 
without resistance. The ehurdi oontinoed to flourish there uninter- 
ruptedly for 400 years, and the coast dintriots became rich through 
agriculture and trade. But when in a.D. 1408 the newly elected bishop 
Andrew wished to take possession of his see, he found the country 
surrounded by enormous masses of ice, and could not effect a landing, 
niis eatat»tröphe, and th^ subsequent incursions of the Eskimos, seem 
to have led to the overthrow of the colony. — Continuation, $ 166, 9. — 
Leif discovered on his expeditions a rich fertile land in the West, which 
on account of the vines growing wild there he called Yineland, and this 
region was subsequently colonized from Iceland. In the twelfth century, ' 
in order to eonfirm the colonists in the faith, a Greenland bishop Erio 
undertook a joomey to that country. It lay on the east coast of North 
Ameriea, and is probably to be identified with the present Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island. 

6. The Slave- Magyar Kisslon field. — Even in the previous period a 
beginning Lad been made of the Christianizing of Bohemia (§ 79, 8). 
After WratislaW*s death his heathen widow Drahomira administered the 
government in the name of her younger son Boleslaw. Ludmilla, with 
the help of the clergy and the Germans, wished to promote St. Wen- 
seslaw, the elder son, educated by her, but she was strangled by order of 
Drahomira in a.D. 927. Weuzeslaw, too, fell by the hand of his brother. 
Boleslaw now thought completely to root out Christianity, but was 


obliged, in oonseqnenoe of the yiotory of Otho L in A.D. 950, to ftgrM 
to the restoration of the church. His son Boleslas II., kj>, 967-999, 
contributed to its establisbmont by founding the bishopric of Prague. 
The pope seized the opportunity on the occasion of this founding of the 
bishopric to introduce the Boman ritual (ad. 973).' 

7. From Bohemia the Christian faith was carried to the Poki. In 
A.D. 9C6 the Duke Micislas was persuaded by his wife Dubrawka, a 
Bohemian priucesf*, daughter of Boleslaw I., to receive bapt'sm. His 
subjects were induced to follow his example, and the bishopric of Posen 
was founded. The church obtained a firm footing under his son, the 
powerful Boleslaw Chrobry, a.d. 992-1025, who with the consent of 
Otto III. freed the Polish church from the metropolitanate of Magdeburg, 
and gave it an archiepiscopal see of its own at Onesen (a.d. 1000). He 
also separated the Poles from German imperial federation and had 
himself crowned king shortly before his death in a-d. 1025. A state 
of anarchy, which lasted for a year and threatened the overthrow of 
Christianity in the land, was put an end to by his grandson Casimir in 
A.D. 1039. Casimir*s graudson Boleslaw II. gave to the Poles a national 
saint by the murder in a.D. 1079 of Bishop Stanislas of Cracow, which 
led to his excommunication and exile. 

8. Christianity was introduced into Huogaxy from Constantinople. 
A Hungarian prince Gylas received baptism there about a.D. 950, and 
rcturucd home with a monk H-erotheus, conf;ecrated bishop of the 
Hungarians. Connection with the Eastern church, however, was soon 
broken ofiF, and an alliiinee formed with the Western church. After 
Henry I. in a.d. 933 defeated the Hungarians at Keuschberg, and still 
more decidedly after Otto I. in a.d. 955 had completely humbled them 
by the terrible slaughter at Lechfelde. German influence won the upper 
band. The missionary labours of Bishop Piligrim of Passau, as well as 
the introduction of Christian foreigners, especially Germans, soon gave 
to Christianity a preponderance throughout the country over paganism. 
The mission was directly favoured by the Duke Geysa, a.D. 972-997, and 
bis vigorous wife Sarolta, a daughter of the above-named Gylas. The 
Christianizing of Hungary was completed by Geysa's son St. Stephen, 
A.D. 997-1038, who upon his marriage with Gisela, the sister of the 
Emperor Henry II , was baptized, a pagan reaction was put down, a 
constitution and laws were given to the country, an archbishopric was 
founded at Gran with ten suffragan bishops, the crown was put upon his 
head in a.d. 1000 by Pope Sylvester II., and Huugary was enrolled as 
an important member of the federation of European Christian States. 
Under his successors indeed paganism once more rose in a formidable 

I Cosmas of Prague [f a.D. 1125] , ** Chronicor Prag." 


revolt, bot was finally Btamped ont. 6t LadiBlaw, a.d. 1077-1095, 
rooted out its last festiges. 

9. Among the niimeroas Wendish Raees in Northern and North- 
Eastern Geimanj the chief tribe« were the Obotrites in what is now 
Holstein and Mecklenburg, the Lutitians or Wilzions, between the Elbe 
and the Oder, tlie Pomeranians, from the Oder to the Vistula, and 
the Sorbi. farther south in Saxony and Lusatia. Henry I., a.d. 
919-936, and las son Otto I., a.D. 936-973, in several campaigns 
anbjecte«! them to the German yoke, and the latter founded among 
them in ▲.!>. 963 the archbisboprie of Magdeburg besides several 
bishoprics. The passion for national freedom, as well as the proud 
contempt, illtreatment« and oppression of the German margraves, 
tendered Christiituity peculiarly hateful to the Wends, and it was only 
after their freedom and nationality had boon completely destroyed 
and the Slavic population had been outnumbered by German or 
Germanized colonists, that the Church obtained a firm footing in their 
huid. A revolt of the Obotrites under Mintewoi in a.d. 983, who with 
the German yoke abjured also the Christian faith, led to the destruction 
of all Christian institutions. His graudson Gottsohalk, educated as a 
Christian in a German monastery, but roused to fury by the murder of 
his father Udo, escaped from the monastery in a.D. 1032, renounced 
Christianity, and set on foot a terrible persecution of Christians and 
Germans. But he soon bitterly repented this outburst of senseless rage. 
Taken prisoner by the Germans, he escaped and took refuge in Den« 
mark, bat subsequently he returned and fouuded in a.D. 1045 a great 
Wendish empire which extended from the North Sea to the Oder. He 
now enthusiastically applied all his energy to the establishment of the 
eharch in his laud upon a. national basis, for which purpose Adalbert 
of Bremen sent him missionaries. He was himself frequeutly their 
interpreter and expositor. He was eminently successful, but the 
national party hated him aa the friend of the Saxons and the church. 
He fell by the sword of the assassin in a.D. 1036, and thereupon began 
a terrible persecution of the Christians. His son Henry having been 
let aside, the powerfal Banian chief Cruoo from the island of Rügen, a 
fanatical enemy of Christianity, was chosen ruler. At the instigation 
of Henry he was murdered in his own hous:) in a.d. 1115. Henry died 
in A.D. 1127. A Danish prince Canute bought the Wendish crown from 
Lothair duke of Saxony, but was murdered in a.d. 1131. This brought 
the Weudish empire to an end. The Obo trite chief Nik lot, who died in 
A.D. 1161, held his ground only in the territory of the Obotrites. His 
ion Pribizlaw, the ancestor of the present ruling family of Mecklenburg, 
by adopting Christianity in a.D. 1164, saved to himself a part of the 
inheritance of his fathers as a vassal undur the Saxon princes. All the 
rest of the land was divided by Henry the Lion among his German 


warriors, and the depopalated distriots were peopled with German 
ooloniflts. — In a.d. 1157 Albert the Bear, the founder of the MaigraTat« 
of Brandenburg, overthrew the dominion of the LatiÜans after protracted 
ttruRgles and endless revolts. He, too, drafted numerous German colon* 
ists into the devastated regions. — The Christianizing of the Sorhi was 
an easier task. After their first defeat by Henry I. in a.D. 922 and 927, 
tbey were never again able to regain their old freedom. Alongside of 
the mission of the sword among the Wends there was always carried on, 
more or less vigorously, the mission of the Cross. Among the Sorbi 
bishop Benno of Meissen, who died in a.d. 1107, wrought with special 
vigour, and among the Obotrites the greatest zeal was displayed by St. 
Vicelinns. He died bishop of Oldenburg in a.D. 1154. 

10. Pomerania submitted in a.d. 1 121 to the duke of Poland, 
Boleslaw III., and he compelled them solemnly to promise that thej 
would adopt the Christian faith. The work of conversion, however, 
fippeared to be so unpromising that BoleslaJr found none among all 
his clergy willing to undertake the task. At last in a.D. 1122, a Spanish 
monk Bernard offered himself. But the Pomeranians drove him away 
as a beggar who looked only to his own gain, for they thought, if the 
Christians* God be really the Lord of heaven and earth He would have 
aent tbem a servant in keeping with His glorious majesty. Boleslaw was 
then convinced that only a man who bad strong faith and a martyr's 
spirit, united with an imposing figure, rauk, and wealth, was fit for the work, 
and these qualifications he found in bishop Otto of Bamberg. Otto 
accepted tbe call, and during two missionary journeys in a.d. 1124-1128 
founded the Pomeranian church. Following Bernard's advice, he went 
through Pomerania on both occaisions with all the pomp of episcopal 
diguity, with a great retinue and abundant stores of provisions, money, 
ecclesiastical ornaments, and presents of all kinds. He had unparalleled 
success, yet he was repeatedly well nigh obtaining the crown of 
martyrdom which he longed for. The whole Middle Ages furnishes 
scarcely an equally noble, pure, and successful example of missionary 
enterprise. None of all the missionaries of that age presents so 
harmonious a picture of firmness without obstinacy, earnestness without 
harshness, gentleness without weakness, enthusiasm without fanaticism. 
And never have the German and Slavic nationalities so nobly, success- 
fury, and faithfully practised mutual forbearance as did the Pomeranians * 
and their apostle. — The last stronghold of Wendish paganism was the 
island of Bü^en. It fell when in a.d. 1168 the Danish king Waldemar 
I. with the Christian Pomeranian and Obotrite chiefs conquered the 
island and destroyed its heathen sanctuaries. 

11. Hlssisn Work among tba Finns and Lithuanians. — St. Eric of 
Sweden in a.D. 1157 introduced Christianity into Finland by conquest 
and compulsion. Bishop Henry of Upsala, the apostle of the Finns, 


wbo Moompanied him, snffered a martyT*8 death in the following year. 
The Finns detested Christianitj-as heartily as they did the rule of the 
oonqaering Swedes, wbo introduced it, and it was only after the third cam- 
paign which Thorkel Canutson undertook in a.D. 1293 against Finland, that 
the Swedish rule and the Christian faith were established, and unäisr a 
TigorouB yet moderate and wise govemmeot the Finns were reconciled to 
both.— Lapland came under the rule of Sweden in a.D. 1279, and there- 
after Obristiauity gradually found entrance. In a.d. 1835 bishop Hem- 
ming of Upsala consecrated the first church at Tornea. 

12. Est!ionia, Livonia, and Coarland were inhabited by peoples belong- 
ing to the Finnic stem. Yet even in early times people from the south 
and east belonging to the Lithuanian stem had settled in Livonia and 
Courland, Letts and Lettgalls in Livonia, and Semgalls and Wends 
in Courland. The first attempts to introduce Christiauity into these 
regions were made by Swedes and Danes, and even under the Danish 
king Sweyn III., Eric's son, about a.d. 1048 a chnrch was erected in 
Courland by Christian merchants, and in Esthonia the Danes not long 
after built the fortress of Lindanissa. The elevation of the bishopric of 
tiund into a metropolitanate in a.d. 1098 was projected with a regard to 
these lands. In a.D. 1171 Pope Alexander III. sent a monk, Fulco, to 
Lund to convert the heathen and to be bishop of Finland and Esthonia, 
but he seems never to have entered on his duties or his dignity. 
Abiding results were first won by German preaching and the German 
sword. In the middle of tbe 12th century merchants of Bremen and 
Lübeck carried on traffic with towns on tbe banks of the Dwina. A 
pious priest from the monastery of Segeberg in Holstein, called Moinhart, 
undertook in their company under the auspices of the archbishop of 
gramen, Hartwig ll., a missionary journey to those regions in a.D. 1184. 
He bnilt a oharoh at ÜxkttU on the D^rina, was recognieied as bishop of 
the place in a.d. 1186, but died in a.d. 1196. His assistant Dietrich 
earried on the work of the mission in the district from Freiden down 
to Esthonia. Meinhart*s saooessor in the bishopric was the Cistercian 
abbot, Berthold of Locoum in Hanover. Having been driven away 
■oon after his arrival, he returned with an army of German crusaders, 
and was kuled in battle in a.D. 1198. His successor was a canon of 
Bremen, Albert of Buxhöwden. He transferred the bishop's seat to Riga, 
which was built by him in a.D. 1201, founded in a.d. 1202, for the 
protection of the mission, the Order of the Brethren of tbe Sword 
(f ^f B), amid constant battles with Bussians, Esthonians, Courlanders 
and Lithuanians erected new bishoprics in Esthonia (Dorpat), Oesel, and 
Semgallen, and effected the Christianization of nearly all those lands. 
He died in a.d. 1229. After a.d. 1219 the Danes, whom Albert had 
called in to his aid, vied with him in the conquest and conversion of 
II» Bstboniaos. Waldemar IL founded Bevel in a.o. 1219, made it an 


opisoopal see, and did all in his power to resiriot the adTanees of the 
Germans. In this he did not succeed. The Danes, indeed, were obliged 
to quit Esthonia in a.D. 1257. After Albert's death, however, the 
difficulties of the situation became so great that Yolqnin, the Master of 
the Order of the Sword, could see no hope of success save in the onion 
of his order with that of the Teutonic Knights, shortly before estab- 
lished in Prussia. The union, retarded by Danish intrigues, was 
not effected until a.d. 1237, when a fearful slaughter of Germans by 
the Lithnanians had endangered not only the existence of the Order 
of the Sword but even the church of Livonia. Then, too, for the first 
time was Courland finally subdued and converted. It had, indeed, nomi- 
nally adopted GhriBtianity in ld. 1230, but had soon after relapsed 
into pasauism. Finally in a.d. 1255 Biga was raised to the rank of 
a metropulitanate, and Suerbeer, formerly archbishop of Armagh in 
Ireland, was appointed by Innocent IV. aichbishop of Prussia, Livonia, 
and Eüthonia, with his residence at Biga. 

13. The Old Prussians and Lithnanians also belonged to the Lettish 
stem. Adalbert, bisbop of Prague, first brought the message of salvation 
to the Prnssians between the Vistula and Memel, but on the very first 
entrance into Sameland in A.D. 997 he won the martyr's crown. This, 
too, was the fate twelve years later of the zealous Saxon monk Bruno 
and eighteen companions on the Lithuanian coast. Two hundred yean 
passed before anotber missionary was seen in Prussia. The first was the 
Abbot Gothfried from the Polish monastery of Lukina ; but in his case 
also an end was soon put to his hopefully begun work, as well as to that 
of his companion Philip, both suffering martyrdom in a.D. 1207. More 
successful and enduring was the mission work three years later of the 
Cistercian monk Christian from the Pomerania nmona&tery of Oliva, 
in a.D. 1200, the real apostle of the Prussians. He was raised to the 
rank of bisbop in a.D. 1215, and died in a.D. 1245. On the model of the 
liivonian Order of the Brethren of the Sword he founded in a.D. 1225 
the Order of the Knights of Dobrin (Alilite* Christi). In the very first 
year of their existence, however, they were reduced to the number of five 
men. In union with Conrad, Duke of Moravia, whose land had suffered 
fearfully from the inroads of the pagan Prussians, Christian then called 
in the aid of the Teutonic Knights, whose order had won great renown 
in Germany. A branch of this order had settled in a.D. 122S in Culm, 
and so laid the foundation of the establishment of the order in Prussia. 
With the appearance of this order began a sixty years* bloody conflict 
directed to the overthrow of Prussian paganism, which can be said 
to have been effected only in a.D. 1283, when the greater part of the 
Prussians had been slain after innumerable conflicts with the order and 
with crusaders from Germany, Poland, Bohemia, etc. Among the 
crowds of preachers of the gospel, mostly Dominicans, besides Bishop 



ChristiaD and the noble papal legate William, bishop of Modena, the 
Polish Dominican Hyacinth, who died in a.i>. 1257, a vigorous preacher 
of faith and repentance, deserves special mention. So early as a.D. 1243, 
William of Modena had sketched an ecclesiastical organization for the 
ooontrj, which divided Prussia into four dioceses, which were placed in 
A.n. 1255 under the metropolitanate of Riga. 

14. The introduction of Christianity into Lithuania was longest 
delayed. After Bingold had founded in a.D. 1230 a Grand Duchy of 
Lithuania, his son Bfindowe endeavoured to enlarge his dominions by 
conquest. The army of the Prussian- Li vonian Order, however, so 
humbled him that be sued for peace and was compelled to receive 
baptism in a.D. 1252. But no sooner had he in some measure regained 
strength than he threw ofif the hypocritical mask, and in a.d. 1260 
appeared as the foe of his Christian neighbours. His son Wolstinik, 
who had remained true to the Christian faith, dying in a.d. 1266, reigned 
too short a time to secure an influence over his people. With him every 
trace of Christianity disapp ared from Lithuania. Christians were 
again tolerated in his territories by the Grand Duke Gedlmin (a.D. 
1315-1340). Bomish Dominicans and Russian priests vied with one 
another under his successor Olgerd in endeavours to convert the 
inhabitants. Olgerd himself was baptized according to the Greek rite, 
bat apostatised. His son Jngello, bom of a Christian mother, and 
married to the young Polish queen Hedwig, whose hand and crown 
seemed not too dearly purchased by submitting to baptism and under- 
taking to introduce Christianity among his people, made at last an end 
to heathenism in Lithuania in a.D. 1386. His subjects, each of whom 
reoeived a woollen coat as a christening gift, flocked in crowds to receive 
baptism. The bishop's residence was fixed at Wiina. 

15. The HoogoUaa Mission Field — From the time of Genghis Klian, 
who died in a.D. 1227, the princes of the Mongols, in ooui>isteDcy with 
their principles as deists witii little trace of religion, showed themselves 
equally tolerant and favourable to Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. 
The Nestorians were very nnmeroils in this empire, but also very much 
deteriorated. In a.D. 12i0-1241 the Mongols, pressing westward with 
irresistible force, threatened to overflow and devastate all Europe. Russia 
and Poland, Silesia, Moravia, and Hungary had been already dreadfully 
wasted by them, when suddenly and unexpectedly the savage hordes 
withdrew. Innocent lY. sent an embassage of Dominicans under Nicolas 
Aacelinus to the Commander Batschu in Persia, and an embassage of 
Franciscans under John of Piano-Carpini to the Grand Khan Oktai, 
Genghis Ehan*s successor, to his capital Karakorum, with a view to their 
conversion and to dissuade them from repenting their inroads. Both 
missions were nnsoo^essfuL Certain adventurers pretending to be b?arer8 
of a message from Mongolia, told Louis IX. of France fabulous stories of 


klie readiness 6t tbe Gran^ Khan Gajak and his prinoea to reoisiTe Chris- 
tianity, and their intention to oonqner the Holj Land tor the Christiana. 
He acoordinglj sent out two missions to the Mongols. The first, in aji. 
1249 was utterly unsuccessful, for the Mongols regarded the presents 
given as a regular tribute and as a symbol of Toluntiry snbmissioii. 
The second misnon in a.D. 1233, to the Grand Khan Mangu, although 
under a brave and accomplished leader, William of Bnysbroek. yielded 
1)0 fruit ; for Mangu, instead of allowing free entrance into the land for 
the preaching of the gospel, at the close of a disputation with Moham- 
medans and Buddhists sent the missionaries back to Louis with the 
threatening demand to tender his submission. After Mangu*s dealli 
in A.D. 1257, the Mongolian empire was divided into Eastern anjl 
Western, corresponding to China and Persia. The former was governed 
by Kublai Khan, the latter by Hulagu Rhan.-Kublai Khan, the Em- 
peror of China a genuine type of the religious mongreUsm of the Mongol- 
ians, showed himself very favourable to Chri^^tians, but also patronised 
the Mohammedans, and in a.D. 1260 gave a hierarchical constitution and 
consolidated form to Buddhism by the establishment of the first Dalai 
Lama. The travels of two Venetians of the family of Polo led to the 
founding of a Latin Christian mission in China. They returned from 
their Mongolian travels in a.d. 1269. Gregory X. in A.D. 1272 sent two 
Dominicans to Mongolia along with the two brothers, and the son 6t 
one of them, Marco Polo, then seventeen years old. The latter won 
the unreserved confidence of the Grand Khan, and was entrusted bj 
him with an honourable post in the government. On his return in a.D. 
1295 he published an acoonnt of his travels, which made an enormona 
sensation, and afforded for the first time to Western Europe a proper 
conception of the condition of Eastern Asia.' A regular Christxaa 
missionary enterprise, however, was first undertaken by the Franciscan 
Joh. de Monte-Corvino, a.d. 1291-1328, one of the noblest, most intelli- 
gent, and most faithful of the missionaries of the Middle Ages. After he 
had succeeded in overcoming the intrigues of the numerous Nestoriana, 
he won the high esteem of the Grand Khan. In the royal city of 
Cembalu or Pekin he built two churches, baptized about 6,000 Mongols, 
and translated the Psalter and the New Testament into Mongolian. He 
wroaght absolutely alone till a.d. 1303. Afterwards, however, other 
brethren of bis order came repeatedly to his aid. Clement Y. appointed 
him archbishop of Cembalu in a.d. 1307. Every year saw new churches 
established. But internal disturbances, under Kublai's successor, 
weakened the power of the Mongolian dynasty, so that in a.d. 1370 
it was overthrown by the national Ming dynasty. By the new rulers 

> ** The Book of 8er Marco Polo the Venetian,'* edited with Com- 
mentary by Col. Tule, 2 vols., London, 1871. 


the ChxiBtian missionaries were driven pnt along with the Mongols, and 
ihos all that they had done was utterly destroyed. — The ruler of Persia, 
Bolaga Khan, son of a Christian mother and married to a Christian 
wife, pat an end in a.d. 1258 to the khalifate of Bagdad, bat was po 
pressed by the saltan of Egypt, that he entered on a long series of 
negotiations with the popes and the kings of France and England, who 
gave him the most encouraging promises of joining their forces with his 
against the Saracens. His successors, of whom several even formally 
embraced Chrif>tianity, continued tbese negotiations, but obtained 
nothing more than empty promises and protestations of fiiendship. 
The time of the crusades was over, and the popes, even the most 
powerful of them, were not able to reawaken the crusading spirit. The 
Persian khans, vaoillAting between Christianity and Islam, became 
more and more powerless, until at last, in a.d. 1387, Tamerlane (Timnr) 
undertook to found on the ruins of the old government a new univerf al 
MoogoliAn empire under the standard of the Crescent. But with his 
death in ^.n. 1405 the dominion of the Mongols in Persia was overthrown, 
and fell into the hands of the Turkomans. Henceforth amid all changes 
of dynasties Islam continued the dominant religion. 

16. The Mission Field of Islam. — The crusader princes and soldiers 
wished only to wrest the Holy Land from the infidels, but, with the 
exception perhape of Louis IK., had no idea of bringing to them the 
blessings of the gospel. And most of the crusaders, by their licentious- 
ness, oovetousness, cruelty, faithlessness, and dissensions among them- 
jelvee, did much to cause the Saracens to scorn the Christian faith as 
lepresented by their lives and example. It was not until the 18th een- 
tory that the two newly foiwded mendicant orders of Franciscans and 
Dominicans began an energetic but fruitless mii^sion among the Moslems 
at Atrica, Sicily, and Spain. St. Francis himself started this work in 
▲J>. 1219, when during the siege of Damietta by the crusaders he entered 
the eamp of the Sultan Camel and bade him kindle a fire and cause 
that he himself with one of the Moslem priests should be cast into it. 
When the imam present shrank away at these words, Francis offered to 
go «lone into the fire if the sultan would promise to accept Christianity 
along with his people should he pass out of the fire uninjured. , The 
soltan refused to promise and sent the saint away unhurt with presents, 
vhi^, however, he returned. Afterwards several Franciscan missions 
were sent to the Moslems, but resulted only in giving a crowd of 
martyrs to the order. The Dominicans, too, at a very early period took 
part in the mission to the Mohammedans, but were also unsuccessful. 
The Dominican general Baimund de Pennaforti, who died in a.d. 1273, 
devoted himself with special zeal to this task. For the training of the 
hrethien of his order in the oriental languages he founded institution! 
at Tunis and Mareia. The most important of all these missionaiy 


enterprises was that of the talented Baimand Lnllns of Majorca, who 
after his own conversion from a worldly life and after careful study of 
tbe language, made three voyages to North Africa and sought in dis- 
putations with the Saracen scholars to convinoe them of the truth of 
Christianity. But his Art Mayna (§ 103, 7), which with great ingenuity 
and enormous labour he had wrought out mainly for this purpose, had 
no cfTeot. Imprisonment and ill-treatment were on all occasions his only 
reward. He died in ^.d. 1315 in consequence of the ill-usage to which hm 
had been subjected. 

§ 94 The Crusades.» 

The Arabian rulers bad for tbeir own interest protected 
tbe Gbristian pilgrims to tbe Holy Sepulcbre. But even 
under tbe rule of tbe Fatimide dynasty, early in tbe 10th 
century, tbe oppression of pilgrims began. Kbalif Hakim, 
in order tbat be migbt blot out tbe disgrace of being bom 
of a Christian mother, committed ruthless cruelties upon 
resident Christians as well as upon tbe pilgrims, and pro- 
hibited under severe penalties all meetings for Christian 
worship. Under the barbarous Seljuk dynasty, which held 
sway in Palestine from about A.D. 1070, the oppression 
reached its height. The West became all the more con- 
cerned about this, since during the 10th century tbe idea 
that the end of the world was approaching bad given a new 
impulse to pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Pope Sylvester IL 
had in A.D. 999 ex persona devastatcß Hierosolymce sum- 
moned Christendom to help in this emergency. Gregory 
Vn. seized anew upon tbe idea of wresting the Holy Land 
from tbe infidels. He bad even resolved himself to lead a 
Christian army, but the outbreak of contentions with Henry 

> Michaud, ** History of the Crusades,** transl. by Bobson, 8 toIs. 
London, 1852. Mill, " History of the Crnsaaes.*' *2 voIh., London, 182a 
** Chronicles of the Crusades : Contemporsry Narratives of Richard Ccdur 
de Lion, by Richard of Devizes and Geoffrey de Yinsauf, and of the 
Crusade of St. Louis, by Lord John de Joinfille,** London (Bohn)« 
Gibbon, •' History of Crusades," London, 1869. 

§ 94. THB CBUSADES. 15 

IV. hindered the execution of this plan. Meanwhile com- 
plaints by returning pilgrims of intolerable ill-usage in- 
creased. An urgent appeal from the Byzantine Emperor 
Alexius Comnenus gave the spark that lit the combustible 
material that had been gathered throughout the West. 
The imperial ambassadors accompanied Pope Urban II. to 
the Council of Clermont in A.D. 1095, where the pope him- 
self, in a spirited speech, called for a holy war under the 
standard of the cross. The shout was raised as from one 
mouth, "It is God's will." On that very day thousands 
enlisted, with Adhemar, bishop of Puy, papal legate, at their 
head, and had the red cross marked on their right shoulders. 
The bishops returning home preached the crusade as they 
went, and in a few weeks a glowing enthusiasm had spread 
throughout France down to the provinces of the Rhine. 
Then began a movement which, soon extending over all 
the West, like a second migration of nations, lasted for two 
centuries. The crusades cost Europe between £ve and six 
millions of men, and yet in the end that which had been 
striven after was not attained. Its consequences, how- 
ever, to Europe itself were all the more important. In 
all departments of life, ecclesiastical and political, moral 
and intellectual, civil and industrial, new views, needs, 
developments, and tendencies were introduced. Mediaeval 
culture now reached the highest point of its attainment, 
and its failure to transcend the past opened the way for the 
conditions of modem society. And while on the other hand 
they afforded new and extravagantly abundant nourishment 
for clerical and popular superstition, in all directions, but 
specially in giving opportunity to roguish traffic in relics 
(§ 104, 8 ; 115, 9), on the other hand they had no small 
share in producing religious indifference and frivolous 
free-thinking (§ 96, 19), as well as the terribly dangerous 
growth of mediseval sects, which threatened the overthrow 


of church and State, religion and morality (§ 108, 1,4; 116, 
6). The former was chiefly the result of the sad conclu- 
sion of an undertaking of unexampled magnitude, entered 
upon with the most glowing enthusiasm for Christianity 
and the church ; the latter was in great measure occa- 
sioned by intercourse with sectaries of a like kind in the 
East (§ 71). 

1. The First Crusade, A.D. 1096. — In the spring of ▲.!>. 1096 Tast 
crowds of people gathered together, impatient of the delays of tha 
princes, and pat themselves an«ler the leadership of Walter the Penni- 
less. They were soon followed hy Peter of Amiens with 40,000 men. 
A legend, unworthy of belief, credits him with the origin of the whole 
moTement. According to this story, the hermit returning from a pil* 
grimage described to the holy father in Tivid colours tbe sufferings 
their Cbristian brethren, and related how that Christ Himself had 
appeared to him in a dream, giving him the command for the pope to 
summon all Christendom to rescue the Holy Sepulchre. The legend 
proceeds to say tbat, by order of the pope, Peter the Hermit then weni 
thron gh all Italy and France, arousing the enthusiasm of the people. 
The hordes led by him, however, after committing deeds of horrid 
violence on every side, while no farther than Bulgaria, were reduced to 
about one half, and the remnant, after Peter had already left them be- 
cause of their insubordination, was annihilated by the Turks at Nicaaa. 
Successive new crusades, tbe last of them an undisciplined mob of 
200,000 men, were cut down in Hungary or on the Hungarian frontier. 
In August a regular crusading army, 80,000 strong, uuder the leadership of 
Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine, passing through Germany and 
Hungary, reached Constantinople. There several French and Norman 
princes joined the army, till its strength was increased to 600,000. After 
considerable squabbling with the Byzantine government, tbey pasaed over 
into Asia. With great labour and heavy loss Nicfea, Edessa, and Antiuch 
were taken. At last, on 15th July, 1099, amid shouts of. It ia God*s will, 
they stormed the walls of Jerusalem; lighted by torches and wading 
in blood, they entered with singing of psalms into the Church of the 
Itesurrcction. Godfrey was elected king. With pious humility he 
declined to wear a king's crown where Christ had worn a crown of thorns. 
He died a year after, and his brother Baldwin was crowned at Bethlehem. 
By numerous impropriations crowds of greater and lesser vassals were 
gathered about the throne. In Jerusalem itself a Latin patriarchate waa 
erected, and under it were placed four archbishoprics, with a corresponding 
number of bishoprics. The story of these proceedings enkindled new 

§ 94. THB CBUSADES. 17 

entbiutAsm in the West. In a.d. 1101 three new ornsades of 260,000 
men were fitted oot in Germany, under Welf, duke of Bavaria, and in 
Italy and in France. They marched against Bagdad, in order to strike 
tprror into the hearts of Moslems by the terrible onslaught ; the undisci- 
plined horde, however, did not reach its destination, but found a grave in 
Asia Minor. 

2. The BeeoBd Crusade, A.D. 1147. -The fall of Edessa in a.D. 1146, 
as the frontier fortress of the kingdom, summoned the West to a new 
effort. Pope Eugenius III. called the nations to arms. Bernard of 
Clainranx, the prophet of the age, preached the crusade, and prophesied 
victory. Louis YII. of Franee took the sign of the cross, in order to atone 
lor the crime of having burnt a church filled with men ; and Conrad III. 
•f Germany, moved by the preaching of Bernard, with some hesitation 
followed his example. But their stately army fell before the sword of 
the Saracens, the malice of the Greeks, and internal disorders caused 
by famine, disease, and hardships. Damascus remained unoonqiiered, 
mod the princes returned humbled vdth the miserable remnant of their 

3. The TMrd C^rnsade, A.I). 1189. — ^The kingdom of Jerusalem before 
ft century had past was in utter decay. Greeks or Syrians and Latins 
liad a deadly hatred for one another : the vassals intrigued against each 
other and against the crown. Licentiousness!, luxury, and recklessness 
prevailed among the people ; the clergy and the nobles of the kingdom, 
hut especially the so called Pnlleni,i descendants of the crusaders born 
in the Holy Land itself, were a miserable, cowardly and treacherous 
lace. The pretenders to the crown also continued ttieir intrigues and 
oabals. Such being the corrupt condition of affairs, it was an easy 
thing for the Sultan Saladiu, the Moslem knight ** without fear and 
vrithont reproach,*' who had overthrown the Fatimide dynasty in Egypt, 
to bring down upon the Christian rule in Syria, after the bloody battle 
of Tiberias, the same fate. Jerusalem fell into his hands in October, a.d. 
1187. When this terrible pieee of news reached the West, the Christian 
powers were summoned by Gregory VI 11. to combine thi-ir forces in 
order to make one more vigorous effort, Philip Aagustus of France and 
Henry U. of England forgot for a moment their mutual jealousies, and 
took the erosB from the hands of Archbishop William of Tyre, the 
historian of the crusade. Next the Emperor Frederick I. joined them, 
with ail the heroic vaiour of youth, though in years and experience an 

* PuUmd dieuntur, vel quia recente» ft nooi\ quasi pulli respectu Suria- 
•omm reputati tunt, vel quia prineipaliUr de gente Apulia ituitri's 
hahufTWü. Cum eniia paueds nuäürea adduxisaent luntri^ qui in terras 
rewunterunt^ de regno Apulus, eo qiiod propitu euct aliis regionibui^ 
woeoMn mulUre$t cum ei$ wuUrimonia catUraxertinL 

▼OL. IL a. 


old man. He entered on the undertaking with an energy, considerate- 
nes8, and circum- pection wbioh seemed to desenre glorions snocens. After 
piloting his way through Byzantine intrigues and the indescribable 
fatigues of a watirrless desert, he led his soldiers against the well-equipped 
army of the sultan at loonium, which be utterly routed, and took the 
city. But in a d. 1190 the heroic warrior was drowned in an attempt 
to ford the river Calycadnus. A great part of his army «as now 
Bcftttered, and the remnant was led by his son Frederick of Swabi« 
ngainst Ptolemais. At that point soon after landed FhiUp Augustas and 
Eichard Coeur de Lion of England, who after his father's death put him- 
self at the head of an English crusading army and had conquered 
Cyprus on the way. Ptolemais (Acre) was taken in a.i>. 1191. But the 
jealousies of the princes interfered with their success. Frederick had 
already fallen, and Philip Augustus nnder pretence of sickness returned 
to France ; Bichard gained a brillant victory over Saladin, took Joppa 
and Ascalon, and was on the eve of marching against Jerusalem when 
news reached him that his brother John had assnmed the throne of 
England, and that Philip Augustus also was entertaining schemes of 
conquest. Once again Bichard won a great victory before Joppa, and 
Saladin, admiring his unexampled bravery, concluded with him now, 
in A.D. 1192, a three years' truce, giving most favourable terms to the 
pilgrims. The strip along tbe coast from Joppa to Acre continued 
under the rule of Bichard*s nephew, Henry of Champagne. But 
Bichard was seized on his return journey and cast into prison by 
Leopold of Austria, whose standard he had grossly insulted before Ptole- 
mais, and for two years he remained a prisoner. After his release he 
was prevented from thinking of a renewal of the crusade by a war with 
France, in which he met his death in a.D. 1199.^ 

4. The Fourth Crusade, A.D. 1817. — Innocent III. summoned Chria- 
tendom anew to a holy war. Tiie kings, engaged in their own affairs, 
gave no heed to the call. But the violent penitential preacher, Fnlco 
of Neuilly, prevailed upon the French nobles to o(^ect a considerable 
crusading army, which, however, instead of proceeding against the Sara- 
cons, was used by tbe Venetian Doge, Datidolo, in payment of transport, 
lor conquering Zaras in Dalmaiia, and then by a Byzaotiue prince 
for a campaign against Conutautinople, where Baldwin of Flanders 
fonnded a Latin Empire, a.D. 1204-1261. The pope put the doge and the 
crusaders under excommunication on account of tho taking of Zaias, 
and the campaign against Constantinople was most decidedly disapproved. 
Their unexpected success, however, turned away his anger. He boasted 
that at last Israel, after destroying tbe golden calves at Dan and Bethel, 
was Mguiu uuited to Judah, and in Borne bestowed the pallium upon the 

^ Stubbe, " Chronicle and Memorials ol Bichard L** London, 1864. 

§ 94. THE OBÜSADSS. 19 

flrtt Lfttin petriarob of Constantinople. — The Children*! Cmtade, which in 
A.B. 1212 snatched from their parents in France and Oennany 80,000 
boys and girls, had a most tragic end. Many died before passing from 
Eorope of famine and fatigue ; the rest fell into the hands of unprincipled 
aaen, who sold them as slaves in Egypt. — King Andrew II. of Hungary, urged 
by Honorina IIL, led a new crusading army to the Holy Land in ad. 
1217, and won some suecesses ; but finding himself betrayed and deserted 
by the Palestinian barons, he returned home in the following year. 
Bat the Germans ander Leopold YII. of Austria, who had accompanied 
bim remained, and, supported by a Cologne and Dutch fleet, undertook 
in A.D. 1218, along with the titular king John of Jerusalem, a crusade 
against Egypt. Damietta was taken, but the overflow of the Nile reser- 
voirs placed them in such peril that they owed their escape in a.D. 1221 
only to the generosity of the Sultan Camel. 

6. The Fifth Cmsada, A.D. 1228.— The Emperor Frederick II. had 
promised to undertake a crusade, but continued to make so many excuses 
lor dday that Gregory IX. (§ 96, 19) at lost thundered against him the 
long threatened excommunioation. Frederick now brought out a com- 
paratively small crusading foroe. The Sultan Camel of Egrpt, engaged 
in war with his nephew, and fearing that Frederick might attach himself 
to the enemy, free y granted him a large tract of the Holy Land. At 
the Holy Sepnlchi« Frederick placed the crown of Jerusalem, the in- 
heritance of his new wife lolaothe, with his own hands on his head, 
since no bishop would perform the coronation nor even a priest read 
the mass service for the excommnuicated king. He then returned home 
in A.D. 1229 to arrange his differences with the pope. The crusadiug 
anuiea which Theobald, king of Navarre, in a.D. 1239. and Richard Earl 
of Cornwall, in a.D. 1240, led against Palestine, owing to disunion among 
themselves and quarrels among the Syrian Christians, could accomplish 

6. Tha aizth, AJ>. 1248, and Serexith, A.D. 1970, Cni8ades.~The zeal 
lur emsading had by this time considerably cooled. St. Louis of France, 
however, the ninth of that name, had during a serioLS illness in a.D. 
1244, taken the cross. At this time Jerusalem had been conquered and 
•abject ed to the most dieadful horrors at the hands of the Chowares- 
mians, driven from their home by the Mongols, and now in the pay of 
Egyptian sultan Ayoub. Down to a.D. 1247 the rule of the Christians 
in the Holy Land was again restricted to Acre and some coast towns. 
Louis could no longer tUink of delay. He started in a.D. 1218 with a 
•OBsiderable fbroe, wintered in Cyprus, and lauded in £};ypt in a.d. 
1249. He soon eonquered Damietta, but, after his army had been in 
gzeat part destroyed by famine, disease and slaughter, was taken 
prisoner at Cairo by the sultan. After the murder of the 8ult;m t)j the 
llamtlukM, who overthrew Saladin.*B dynasty, be fell into their hands. 


Tlie king was obliged to deliver over Damietia and to pnitehane his own 
release by payment of 800,000 byzantines. He sailed with the remnant 
of his army to Acre in a.d. 1250, whence his mother*a death called him 
home in ad. 1254. But as his vow had not yet been fally paid, he sailed 
in A.D. 1270 with a new crusading force to Tunis in order to carry on 
operations from that centre. But the half of his army was cat o£f by a 
pestilence, and he himself was carried away in that same year. All sab- 
sequent endeavours of the popes to reawaken an interest in the erasadcs 
were unavailing. Acre or Ptolemais, the last stronghold of the Chris- 
tians in the Holy Land, fell in a j>. 1291. 

§95. Islam and the Jews in Europe. 

The Saracens (§ 81, 2) were overthrown in the 11th cen- 
cnry by the Normans. The reign of Islam in Spain too 
(§ 81, 1) came to an end. The frequent change of dynasties, 
as -well as the splitting up of the empire into small prin- 
cipalities, weakened the power of the Moors ; the growth 
of luxurious habits in the rich and fertile districts robbed 
them of martial energy and prowess. The Christian power 
also was indeed considerably split up and disturbed by many 
internal feuds, but the national and religious enthusiasm 
with which it was every day being more and more inspired, 
made it invincible. Rodrigo Diaz, the Castilian hero, called 
by the Moors the Cid, i,e. Lord, by the Christians Cam- 
peador, i.e. champion, who died in A.D. 1099, was the most 
perfect representative of Spanish Christian knighthood, 
although he dealt with the infidels in a manner neither 
Christian nor knightly. Also the Almoravides of Morocco, 
whose aid was called in in A.D. 1086, and the Almohadcs, 
who had driven out these from Barbary in A.D. 1146, were 
not able to stop the progress of the Christian arms. On 
the other hand, neither the unceasing persecutions of the 
civil power, nor innumerable atrocities committed on Jews 
by infuriated mobs, nor oven Christian theologians' zeal for 
the instruction and conversion of the Israelites, succeeded 
in destroying Judaism in Europe. 


1. Islam in Sieilj. — The robber raids apon Italy perpetrated by the 
Sicilian SaracenH were put an end to by the Normans who settled there 
in AJ>. 1017. Bobert Guiscard destroyed the remnant of Greek rule 
in soathem Italy, conquered the small Longobard duchies there, and 
founded a Norman duchy of Apulia and Calabria in a.o. 1059. His 
brother Boger, who died in a.d. 1101, after a thirty years* struggle drove 
the Saracens completely out of Sicily, and ruled over it as a vassal of 
his brother under the title of Count of Sicily. Uis son Boger U., who 
died in a.D. 1164, united the government of Si ily and of Apulia and 
Calabria, had himself crowned in a.o. IISO king of Sicily and Italy, 
and finally in a.D. 1139 conquered also Naples. In consequence of the 
marriage of his daughter Constance with Henry VL the whole kingdom 
passed over in ad. 1194 to the Hohenstaufens, from whom it passed in 
A.D. 1266 to Charles of Anjou; and from him finally, in consequence of 
the Sicilian Vespers in a.d. 1282, the island of Sicily passed to Peter oi 
Arragon, the son- in law of Manfred, the last king of the Hohenstaufea 
line. The Normans and the Hohenstaufens granted to the subject 
Saracens for the most part full religious liberty, the Emperor Frede- 
rick recruiting from among them his bodyguard, and they supplied 
the bravest soldiers for the Italian Ghibelline war. For this purpose 
he was constantly drafting new detachments from the African coast, as 
Manfred also had done. The endeavours made by monks of the men- 
dicant orders for the conversion of the Saracens proved quite fruitless. 
It was only under the Spanish rule that converdions were made by force, 
or persecution and annihilation followed persistent refusal. 

2. Islam in Spain— The times of Abderrhaman III., a.d. 912-961, 
and Hacem II., a.D. 961-976, were the most brilliant and fortunate of the 
Otnmaiadeaa khalifate. After the death of the latter the chamberlain 
AJmansor, who died in a.D. 1002, reigned in the name of Kbalif Hescham 
II., who was little more than a puppet of the seraglio, and his rule was 
glorious, powerful and wise. But interminable civil contentious were 
the result of this disarrangement of government, and in a.D. 1031, in 
eonseqnence of a popular tumult, Abderrhaman lY., the last of the 
Ommaiades, took to flight, and voluntarily resigned the crown. The 
khalifate was now' broken up into as many little principalities or emir- 
ships as there had been governors before. Amid such confusions the 
Christian princes continued to develop and increase their resources. 
Sancho the Great, king of Navarre, a.d. 970-1035, by marriage and con- 
quest united almost all Christian Spain under his rule, but this was split 
up again by being partitioned among his sons. Of these Ferdinand I., who 
died in a.D. 1065, inherited Castile, and in a.D. 1037 added to it Leon by 
conquest. With him begins the heroic age of Spanish knighthood. His 
•on Alfonso IV., who died in A.D. 1109, succeeded in a.D. 1085 in taking 
from th« Moors Toledo and a great part of Andalusia. The powerful 


leader of the AIxnoniTidei, Juasnf from Morooco, was now called lo their aid 
bv the Moors. On the plain of Salacca the Christians were beaten in a.D. 
10S6, but soon the victor turned his anus against his allies, and within 
six years all Moslem Spain was under his go?emment. His son Ali. in a 
fearfully bloody battle at Ucles in A.O. 1107, cat down the flower of the 
Castiliau nobility; this marked the summit of power reached by the 
Almoravides, and now their star began slowly to pale. Alfonso I. of 
Arragon, ad. 1105-1134, conquered Saragossa in A.D. 1118, and other 
cities. Alfonso YII. of Castile, A.D. 1126-1157, whose power rose so high 
that most of the Christian princes in Spain acknowledged him as sove- 
reign, and that he had himself formally crowned emperor of Spain in a.D. 
1135, conducted a successful campaign against Andalusia, and in a J>. 1144 
forced his way down to the south coast of Qranada. Alfonso I. of Portogal, 
drove the Moors out of Lisbon ; Baimard, count of Barcelona, conquered 
Tortosa, etc. At the same time too the government of the Almoravides 
was being undermined in Africa. In a d. 1146 Morocco fell, and with it 
North-western Africa, into the hands of the Alxnokades under Abdelmou- 
men, while his lieutenant Abu Amram at the same time conquered Mo&lem 
Spain and Andalusia. Abdelmoumen*s son Ju&suf himself orosst-d over 
into Spain with an enormous force in order to extinguish the Christian 
rule there, but fell in a battle at Santarem against Alfonso I. of Portugal. 
His son Jacob avenged the disaster by the bloody battle of Alarcos in 
A.D. 1195, where 30,000 Castilians were left upon the field. When, not- 
withstanding the overthrow, the Christians a few years later endeavonred 
to retrieve their loss, Jacob's successor Mohammed de8(9ended upon 
Spain with half a million fanatical followers. The critical hour for 
Spain had now arrived. The Christians had won time to come to 
agreement among themselves. They fought with unexampled heroism on 
the plain of Tolosain a.D. 1212 under Alfonso VIIL of Castile. The battle- 
field was strewn with more than 200,000 bodies of the African fanatics. 
It was the dealh-knell of the ru' e of the Almohad in Spain. Notwithstand- 
ing tlie dissensions and hostilities that immediately broke out among the 
Christian princes, they conquered within twenty-five years the whole of 
Andalusia. The work of oonqnest was carried out mostly by Ferdinand 
III., the e>aint of Castile, A.D. 1217-1254, and Jacob I., the conqueror of 
Arragon, a.d. 1213-1276. Only in the southernmost district of Spain a 
remnant of the Moslem rule survived in the kingdom of Granada, founded 
in A.D. 1238 by the emir Mohammed Aben Alamar. Here for a time 
the glories of Arabic culture were revived in such a way as seemed like a 
magical restoration of the day of the Ommaiades. In consequence of the 
marriage in a.d. 1469 of Ferdinand of Arragon, who died in ad. 1516, 
with Isabella of Castile, these two most important Christian empires were 
nnited. Soon afterwards the empire of Qranada came to an end. On 
Snd January, a.D. 1492, after an ignominious capitulation, the last khalif. 


Abo Abdllehi Boabflil, was driven out of the fair (Qranada), and a few 
moments later the Castilian banner waved from the highest tower of the 
proad Alhambra. The pope bestowed upon the royal pair the title of 
CathoUo monarchs. The Moors who refased to submit to baptism were 
ex|>elled, bat even the baptized, tbe so-called Moriscoes, proved so dan- 
gerous an element in the ktate that Philip III., ini.D. 1G09, ordered tlicm 
io be all banished from his realm. They sought refuge mostly in Af ri( a. 
and there went over openly again to Mohammedanism, which they had 
never at heart rejected.^ 

8. The Jews la fisrope.— By trad«, mon^ lending and vsary the 
Jews snooeeded in obtaining almost sole possession of ready money, 
which brought them often great influence with the needy princes and 
nobles, but was also often the ocoasion of sore oppression and robbery, 
as well as the eanse of popular hatred and violence. Whenever a coun- 
try was desolated by a plagne the notion of well-poisoning by the Jews 
was renewed. It was told of them that they had stolen the consecrated 
sacramental bread in order to stick it through with needles, and Chris- 
tian children, that they might slaughter them at their passover festival 
From time to time this popular rage exploded, and then thousands cf 
Jews were juthlessly murdered. The crusaders too often began their 
feats of Talour on Christian soil by the shuighter of Jews. From the 
13th century in almost all lands they were compelled to wear an insult- 
ing badge, the so ealled Jews' hat, a yellow, funnel-shaped covering of the 
bead, and a ring of red cloth on the breast, etc. They were also compelled 
to herd together in the cities in the so called Jewish quarter (Italian ■> 
Ghetto), which was often surrounded by a special wall. St. Bernard and 
■everal popes, Gregory VII., Alexander III., Innocent III., etc., interested 
tbemaelves in them, refused to allow them tobe violently persecuted, and 
poiuted to tbeir po^dtion as an incontrovertible proof of the truth of the 
gospel to all times. The German emperors also took the Jews under 
their special protection, for they classed them, after the example of Ves- 
pasian and Titus, among tbe special servants of the imperial chamber, 
Strvi camera noitra ipeeiales).* In England and France they were treated 
as the maneipium of the crown. In Spain under the Moorish rule they 
had vastly increased in numbers, culture and wealth; also under the 
Christian kings they enjoyed for a long time special privileges, their own 

' Preacott, " History of Ferdinand and Isabella,** good edition by Eirk, 
in 1 vol., London, 1886; Geddes, "History of Expulsion of Moriscoes,*' 
in **Miscell. Tracts,** vol. i., London, 1714; McCrie, *'Hi8t. of Prop, and 
Suppr. of Reformation in Spain," London, 1829; Kanke, "History of 
Beforraation," transl. by Mrs. Austin, vol. iii., London, 1847. 

* Milman, "History of the Jews.*' Book xxiv. 1, "The Feudal 


tribunals, freedom in the possession of land, etc., and obtained great 
influence as ministers of finance and administration, and also as astrolo- 
gers, pliysieians, apothecaries, etc. ; hut by their usury and merciless grocd 
drew forth more and more the bitter hatred of the people. Hence in the 
14th century in Spain also there arose times of sore oppression acd per- 
secution, and attempts at conversion by force. And finally, in a.D. 1492, 
Ferdinand the Catholic drove more than 400,000 Jews out of Spain, and 
in the following year 100,000 out of Sicily. But even the baptized Jews, 
the so-called ** New Christians," who were prohibited from removing, fell 
under the suspicion of secret attachment to the old religion, and many 
thousands of them became victims of the Inquisition. — Many apologetic 
and polemical treatises were composed for the purpose of disoussion with 
the Jews and for their instruction, but like so many other formal dispu- 
tations they did not succeed in securing any good result, for the Jewish 
teachers were superior in learning, aouteuess, and acquaintance with the 
exposition of Old Testament Scriptures, upon which in this discussion 
everything turned. But an interesting example of a Jew earnestly striv- 
ing after a knowledge of the truth and working himself up to a full oon- 
yiction of the divinity of Christianity and the church doctrine of that age, 
somewhere about a.d. 1150, is pieseuted by the story told by himseli of 
the conversion of Hermann afterwards a Premonstratensian monk in the 
monastery of Kappenberg in Westphalia.^ But on the other hand there 
are also isolated examples of a passing over to Judaism as the result, it 
would seem, of genuine conviction. The first known example of this 
kind appears in ▲.». 839, in the case of a deacon Boso, who after being 
circumcised received the name Eleazar, married a Jewess, and settled in 
Saracen Spain, where he manifested extraordinary zeal in making con- 
verts to his new religion. A second case of this tort is met with in the 
times of the Emperor Henry II., in the perversion of a priest Wecelinus. 
The narrator of this story gives expression to his horror in the words, 
Totui eontremifco et hotrentibus pilU capitis Urrort eoncutior. Also the 
Judaising sects of the Pasagiaus in Lombardy during the 11th century 
(§ 108, 8) and the Russian Jewish sects of the 15th century (§73, 5) were 
probably composed for the most part of proselytes to Judaism.' 

1 *• De sua conversione," in Carpzov*8 edit, of the ** Pugio Fidei *' of 
Baimund Martiui, § 103, 9. 

> Milman, " History of the Jews," 3 vols., London, 1863; bks. zxiv.^ 
zxvi. Presoott, " Ferdinand and Isabella," Pt. L, oh. xvii. 


n. — ^The Hierarchy, the Clergy, and the MonkB. 

§ 96. The Papacy and the Holy Roman Empike in the 

German Nationalities.^ 

The history of the papacy during this period represents it 
jx: its deepest shame and degradation. But after this state 
of matterä was put an end to by the* founding of the Holy 
Roman Empire of German nationalities, it sprang up again 
from its deep debasement, and reached the highest point of 
power and influence. With the German empire, to which it 
owed its salvation, it now carried on a life and death con-" 
flict ; for it seemed that it was possible to escape enslave- 
ment under the temporal power of the emperor only by put- 
ting the emperor under its spiritual power. In the conflict 
with the Hohenstaufens the struggle reached its climax. 
The papacy won a complete victory, but soon found that 
?t could as little dispense with as endure the presence of 
a powerful empire. For as the destruction of the Caro- 
lingian empire had left it at the mercy of the factions of 
Italian nobles at the time when this period opens, so its 
victory over the German empire brought the papacy under 
the still more degrading bondage of French politics, as is 
seen in the beginning of the next period. It had during 
this transition time its most powerful props and advisers 
in the orders of Clugny and Camaldoli (§ 98, 1). It had a 
standing army in the mendicant orders, and the crusaders, 
besides the enthusiasm, which greatly strengthened the 
p&pal institution, did the further service of occupying and 
engrossing the attention of the princes. 

* Bryce, " The Holy Boman Empire," London, 1866. O'Donoghne, 
** History of Church and Ck>art of Home, from Constantine to Presenl 
Time,*' 2 toIs., London, 1846. Bower's '* History of the Popes," vol. v. 


1. The Bomish Pornocracy and the Emperor Otto I, | A.D. 978. — ^Among 
the wild struggles of the Italian nobles which broke oat after the 
Emperor Amalf*B departure (§ 82-8), the party of the Margrave Adal- 
bert of Tuscany gained the opperhaud. His mistress Theodora, a well 
bom and beautiful, ambitious and voluptuous Boman, wife of a Boman 
senattT, as well as her like-minded daughters Marozia and Theodora, 
filU^ for half a century the chair of St. Peter with their paramours, sons 
and grandsons. These constituted the base and corrupt line of popes 
kuown as the pomocraoy. Sergios III., a.d. 904-911, Marozia*8 para- 
mour, starts this disagraoeful series. After the short pontificates of 
the two immediately following popes, Theodora, because Bavenna waa 
inconveniently distant for the gratification of her lust, called John, the 
archbishop of that place, to the papal chair under the title of John X., 
k.D. 914-928. By means of a successful crusade which he led in person, 
he destroyed the remnant of Saracen robbers in Oarigliano (§ 81 2), and 
crowned the Lombard king Btirnird L, a.d. 916-924, as em^>eror. But 
when he attempted to break off his disgraceful relations with the woman 
who hod advanced him, Marozia had him cast into prison and smothered 
with a pillow. The two following popes on whom she bestowed the 
tiara enjoyed it only a shorfc time, for in a.d. 931 she raised her own sob 
to the papal throne in the twentieth year of his age. His father was 
Pope Sergius, aud he assumed the name of John XI. But her other soo 
Alberich, who inherited the temporal kingdom from a.o. 932, restricted 
this pope's jurisdiction and that of hia four saocessors to the eocleaiastiQal 
domain. After Alberich^s death his son Octavianns, an arch-proOigata 
and blasphemer, though only in his sixteenth year, united the papacy 
and the terap >ral power, and called himself by the name of John XII. a.d. 
955-963 — tlie first instance of a change of name on assuming the papal 
chair. He would sell anything for money. He made a boy of ten years 
a bishop ; he consecrated a deacon in a stable ; in hunting and dice 
playing he would invoke the favour of Jupiter and Venus; in his orgies 
he would drink the devil's health, etc. Meantime things had reached a 
terrible pass in Germany. After the death of Louis the Child, the last of 
the Qermau Carolingiaos, iu a.d. 911, the Prankish duke Conrad I., a.d. 
911-918, was elected king of the Germans. Although vigorously sup- 
ported by the superior clergy, the Synod of Hohenaltheim iu a.o. 915 
tlireateuing the rebels with all the pains of hell, the struggle with the 
other dukes prevented the fouudiug of a united German empire. Hia 
successor, the Saxon Henry I., a.d. 919-936, was the first to free him^ elf 
from the faction of the clergy, and to grant to the dukes independent 
administration of internal affairs within their own domains. His greater 
•on, Otto I., A.D. 936-973, by limiting the power of the dukes, by fight- 
ing and converting heathen Danes, Wends, Bohemians and Hungarians, 
by decided action in the French troubles, by gathering aroond him * 


▼irtnovw Qennaii dergy, who proved trae to him and the empire, seoared 
after long continued civil wars a power and reputation such as no ruler 
in the West since Charlemagne had enjoyed. Called to the help of the 
Lombcund nobles and the pope John XII. against the oppression and 
tjxauny of Berengarius II., he conquered the kingdom of Italy, and was 
at Candlemas a-d. 962 crowned emperor by the pope in St. Peter's, after 
having really held this rank for thirty years. Thus was the Holy Roman 
Xmpire of GennaB BationalitiM founded, which continued for centuries 
to be tha centre around which the history of the church and the world 
revolved. Hie new emperor confirmed to the pope all donations of 
previous «mperors with the addition of certain cities, without detriment, 
however, to the imperial suzerainty over the patrimony of St. Peter, and 
without lessening in any degree the imperial privileges maintained by 
Charlemagne. The Privilegium. Otlonts, still preserved in the papal 
archives, and e!aiming to be an authentic document, was till quite re- 
cently kept secret from all impartial and capable investigators, so that 
the suspicion of its spariousness had come to be regarded as almost a 
eertainty. Under Leo XIII., however, permission was given to a capable 
Protestant scholar. Prof. Sickel of Vienna, to make a Photographie fac- 
simile of the document, the result of which was tbat he became con- 
vinced that the document was not the original but a contemporary 
oiBeial dupUcate, a literally faithful transcript on purple parchment with 
Litters of gold for solemn deposition in the grave of St. Peter. Its first 
part describes the donations of the emperor, the second the obligations 
of the pope in aooordanee with the Canttitutio Romana, § 82-4.— But 
searcely had Otto left Borne than the pope, breaking his oath, conspired 
with his enemies, endeavoured to roase the Byzantines and heathen 
Hungarians against him, and opened the gates of Borne to Adalbert the 
son of Berengarius. Otto hastened back, deposed the pope at the synod 
of Bome in ▲ o. 963, on charges of incest, perjury, murder, blasphemy, 
etc, and made the B(»mans swear by the bones of Peter never again to 
elect and consecrate a pope, without having the emperor's permission 
and confirmation. Soon arter the emperor's departure, however, the 
newly elected pope Leo VIII., a.D. 963-965, had to betake himsdf to 
flight. John XII. returned again to Bome, excommunicated bis rival 
pope, and took cruel vengeance upon the partisans of the emperor. On 
his death soon afterwards, in ▲ o. 964, the Bomans elected Benedict V. 
ns his successcHr; but he, when the emperor conquered Bome after a 
stobbom resistance, was obliged to submit to humiliating terms. Leo 
Vni. had in John ZIII., a.d. 965-972, a virtuous and worthy successor. 
A new revolt of the Bomans led soon after his election to his imprison- 
ment ; but he succeeded in making his escape in ld. 966. Otto now for 
the third time erossed the Alps, passed relentlessly severe sentences 
spon ths guilty, and had his son, now thirteen years of age, crowned 
in Bome ns Otto II., a.D. 967. 


9. The Timet of Otto II., UL., A.D. 973-1002.— After the death of 
Otto I., since Otto II., A.D. 973-983, was restrained from a Roman cam- 
paign in conseqaence of Ci^alpine troubles, the nobles* faction under 
Cresceutins, son of Pope John X. and the younger Tbeodora, again won 
the upperhand. This party had in ad. 974 overthrown Pope Bened ct 
VI., A.D. 972-974, appointed by Otto I., and cast him into priHon. But 
their own anti popo Bouiface VII. could not maintain his position, 
and fled with the treasures of St. Peter to Constantinople. By means 
of a compromise of parties Benedict VU., a.D. 974-983, was now raised 
to the papal chair and held possession in spite of manifold opposition, 
till the arrival of the young emperor in Italy in a.D. 980 obtained for 
him greater security. Otto IL again restored the imperial prestige in 
Bome in a.D. 981, but in a.D. 982 he suffered a complete defeat at the 
hand of the Saracens. He died in the following year at Bome, after 
he had in John XIV., A.D. 983-984, secured the appointment of a pope 
faithful to the empire. His son Otto III., three years old, was at 
the council of state, held at Verona, by the princes of Germany and 
Italy, there gathered together, elected king of both kingdoms. During 
the German civil wars under the regency of the Queen-mother Theo- 
phania, a Byzantine princess, and the able Archbishop Willigis, of 
Mainz, who, through his firmness and penetration saved the crown for 
the royal child Otto III., a.d. 983-1002, and maintained the existence 
and integrity of the German empire, Bome and the papacy fell again 
under the domination of the nobles, at whose head now stood the 
younger Cresoentius, a son of the above mentioned chief of the same 
name. In a.d. 984 the anti-pope Boniface YIL, who had fled to Con- 
stantinople, made his appearance in Bome, won a following by Greek 
golJ, got possession of John XIV. and had him cast into pritiou, but 
was himself soon afterwards murdered. The new pope John XV., a.D. 
985-996, who was thoroughly venal, was an obedient tool of the 
tyranny of Crescentius, which, however, soon became so intolerable to 
him, that he yearned for the restoration of imperial rule under Otto III. 
At this same time great danger threatened the imperial authority from 
France. Hugh Capet had, after the death of the last Carolingian, 
Louis v., in a.D. 987, taken possession for himself of the French crown. 
He insisted upon John XV. deposing the arolibishop Arnulf of Bheima, 
who had opened the gates of Bheims to his uncle Charles of Lorraine, 
the brother of Louis V.'s father. The pope, who was then dependent 
upon German power, hesitated. Hugh then had Amnlf deposed at a 
synod at Bheims in a.D. 921, and put in his place Gerbert, the greatest 
scholar (§ 100, 2) and statesman of that age. The council quite openly 
declared the whole French church to be free from Bome, whose bi^opa 
for a hundred years had been steeped in the most profound moral 
oorruption, and had fallen into the moat disgraceful Benritnde, aad 


Gerbert issued a eonfe^sion of faith in which celibacy and fasting were 
repudiated, and only the first four oeoamenioal councils were acknow- 
ledged. But the plan was shattered, not so much through the ap- 
parently fruitless opposition of the pope as through the reaction of the 
high ohuroh party of Glugny and the popular este:>m in which that 
party was held. Qerbert could not maintain his position, aud was 
heartily glad when he oould shake the dust of Bheims off his feet 
by accepting an honoorable call of the young emperor, Otto III., who 
in A.D. 997 opened new paths for his ambition by inviting the celebrated 
scholar to be with him as his classical tutor. Hugh's successor Bobert 
reinstated Arnulf in the see of Bheims. John XV. called in Otto HI. 
to his help against the intolerable oppression of the youuger Ores* 
eentius, but died before his arrival in a.o. 996. Otto directed the choice 
of his cousin Bruno, twenty-four years of age, the first German pope, 
who assumed the name of Gregory V., a.d. 996-999, aud by him he 
was crowned emperor in Bome. Gregory was a man of an energetic, 
almost obstinate character, thoroughly in sympathy with the views of 
the monks of Clugny. The emperor having soon returned home, 
Cresoentius violated his oath and made himself again master of Bome. 
Gregory fled to Pavia, where he held a synod in a.D. 997, which thun- 
dered an anathema against the disturber of the Boman church. Mean- 
while Crescentius raised to the papal throne the archbishop John of 
Piacenza, formerly Greek tutor to Otto III., under the title of John XVI. 
It was not till late in autumn of that year that the emperor could 
hasten to the help of his injured cousin. He then executed a fearfully 
severe sentence upon the tyrant and his pope. The former was be- 
headed, and his corpse dragged by the feet through the streets and 
then hung upon a gallows ; the latter, whom the soldiers had cruelly 
deprived of his ears, tongue, and nose, was led through the streets 
seated backward on an ass, with the tail tied in his hands for reins. — 
From Pavia Gregory had issued a command to Bobert, the French 
king, to put away his queen Bertha, who was related to him in the 
lonrth degree, on pain of excommunication. But he died a suspiciously 
•ndden death before he could bring down the pride of this king, which, 
however, his spccessor accomplished. 

8. Otto in. now raised to the papal chair his teacher Gerbert, whom 
he had previously made Archbishop of Bavenna, under the title of 
Sylvester XL, a.d. 999-1003. Already in Bavenna had Gerbert's ecclesi- 
astical policy been changed for the high church views of his former 
opponents, and as pope he developed an activity which marks him out 
as the worthy follower of his predecessor and the precursor of a yet 
greater Gregory (VIL). He energetically contended against simony, 
that special canker of the church, and by sending the ring and staff to his 
lunner opponent, Amulf, made the first effort to assart the papal olaim 


to the exclusiTe investiture of bishops. But he had prerionsly, m 
tutor of Otto, by flattering his vanity, inspired the imaginative, high- 
spirited youth with the ideal of a restoration of the ancient glory of 
Borne and its emperors exercising universal sway. And just with this 
Tiew had Otto raised him to the papal chair in order that he might 
have his help. The pope did not venture openly to withdraw frrm 
this understanding, for in the condition of Italy at that time in a 
sti-uggle with the emperor, the victory would be his in the first instance, 
and that would be the destruction of the papal chair. So tbere was 
nothing for it but by clever tacking in spite of contrary winds of imperial 
policy, to make the ship of the church hold on as far as possible in th« 
high church course and surround the emperor by a network of craft. 
The phantom of a Renovatio imperii Rvmaui with the mummified form 
of the Byzantine court ceremonial and the vain parade of a title was 
called into being. On a pilgrimage to the grave of his saintly friend 
Adalbert in Gnesen ($ 83, 13) the emperor emancipated the Polish 
church from the German metropolitanate by raisiog its see into an arch- 
bishopric. He slso, in a.d. 1000, released the Polish duke Boleslaw 
Ghrobry (§ 93, 7), the most dangerous enemy of Germany, who schemed 
the formation of a groat Slavic empire, from liis fenlty as a vassal of 
the German empire, enlisting him instead as a " frieod and oonfedexate 
of the Boman people *' in his new fantastic universal empire. In the 
same year, however, Sylvester, in the exercise of papal sovereignty, 
conferred the royal crown on Stephen tlie saint of Hungary (§ 93, 8), 
appointed the payment by him of a yearly tribute to the papal vioar 
with ecclesiastical authority over his country, and made that land 
ecclesiastically independent of Passau and Salzbiurg by founding a 
separate metropolitanate at Gran. Though Otto let himself be led in 
the hierarchical leading strings by his papal friend, he yet made it abun- 
dantly evident by bestowing upon his favourite pope eight counties of 
the States of the Church, that he regnrded these as merely a free gift 
of imperial favour. He also lashed violently the extravaganoes af 
well as the greed of the popes, and declared that the donation of Con- 
stantino was a pure fabrication (§ 87, 4). The emperor, however, had 
meanwhile thoroughly estranged his German subjects and tlie German 
clergy by his un-German temperament. The German princes denounced 
him as a traitor to the German empire. Soon all Italy, even the much 
fondled Bome, rose in open revolt. Only an early death ad. 100*3 
saved the unhappy youth of twenty-two years of age from the most 
terrible humiliation. With him, too, the star of the pope's fortunes 
went down. He died not long after in a.d. 1003, and left in the popa- 
lar mind the reputation of a dealer in the black art, who owed his 
learning and the success of his hierarchical career to a compact with 


4. ?rom Henry II. to the Synod at Sntri, A.D. 1002-1046.— After the 
death of Otto ni., Henry II., a.». 1002-1024, prerionsly duke of Bavaria, 
a great-grandson of Henry I. and as such the last scion of the Saxon 
Hoe, obtained the German orown — a ruler who proved one of the ablest 
that ever oooupied that throne. A bigoted pietint and under the power of 
the priests, although pious-hearted according to the spirit of the times 
and strongly attached to the church, and seeking in the bishops sup- 
ports of the empire against the relaxing influence of the temporal 
princes, yet no other German emperor ruled over the church to the 
same extent that he did, and no one Tentured so far as he did to 
impress strongly upon the church, by the most extensive appropriation 
of ecclesiastical property, especially of rich monasteries, that tbis was 
the shortest and surest way of bringing about a much needed refor- 
mation. Meanwhile in Bome, after the death of Otto III., Joannes 
Crescentius, the son of Crescentius II., who was beheaded by order of 
Otto, assumed the government, and set upon the chair of Peter crea- 
tures of his own, John XVLI., XVIII., and Sergius IV. But as he and 
his last elected pope died soon after one another iu a.D. 1012, the long 
subjected faction of the Tusculan counts, successors of Alberich, came 
to the front again, and chose as pope a scion of one of tbeir own 
families. Benedict VIII., a.D. 1012-1024. The anti-pope Gregory, chosiu 
by the Crescentians, was obliged to retire from the field. He sought 
protection from Henry 11. But this monarch came to an understanding 
with the incomparably nobler and abler Benedict, received from him 
for himself and his Queen Cunigunda, subsequently canonized by 
Innocent III., the imperial crown, in a.D. 1014. and continued ever 
after to maintain excellent relations with him. These two, the em- 
prror and the pope, were on friendly terras with the monks of Clugny. 
They both acknowledged the need of a thorough reformation of tbe 
^urcK, and both carried it out so far as tbis could be done by tbe 
influence and example of their own personal conduct, disposition, and 
character. But the pope had so much to do fighting the Crescentians, 
then the Greeks and Saracens in Italy, and the emperor in quelling in- 
ternal troubles in his empire and repelling foreign invasions, that it was 
only toward the close of their lives that tbey could take any very decided 
action. The pope made the first move, for at the Synod of Pavia in 
AJ>. 1018, he excommunicated all married priests and those living in 
eoueabinage, and sentenced their children to slavery. The emperor 
entertained a yet more ambitious scheme. He wished to summon a 
Western cscumenical council at Pavia. and there to engage upon the re- 
formation of the whole church of the West. But the death of the pope 
in A.D. 1024. which was followed in a few months by the death of the 
emperor, prevented the carrying out of this plan. After tbe death of 
tlie nhiHIttt Henry U., Coorad II., a.D. 1024^1039, the founder of th« 


Franconian or fialic dynasty, ascended the German throne. To him the 
empire was indebted lor great internal reforms and a great extension of 
power, but he gave no attention to the carrying out of his predecessor*« 
plans of ecclesiastical reformation. Still less, howoTer, was anything of 
the kind to be looked for from the popes of that period. Benedict VIIL 
was succeeded by his brother Bomanns, under the name of John XIX., 
▲.D. 1024-1033, as void of character and noble sentiments (§ 67, 2) as his 
predecessor had been distinguished. When he died, Ck)ant Alberich of 
Tusculum was able by means of presents and promises to get the Bomans 
to elect his son Theophylact, who, though only twelve years old, was 
already practised in the basest vice. He took the name of Benedict IX , 
A.D. 1033-1048, and disgraced the papal chair with the most shameless 
profligacy. The state of matters became better under Gonrad*s ton, 
Henry III., a.d. 1039-1056, who strove after the founding of a universal 
monarchy in the sense of Charlemagne, and by a powerful and able 
government he came nearer reaching this end than any of the German 
emperors. He was at the same time inspired with a zeal for the 
reformation of the church such as none of his predecessors or successors, 
with the exception of Henry U%, ever showed. Benedict IX. was, in 
A.D. 1044, for the second time driven out by the Bomans. They now 
sold the tiara to Sylvesti^r lU., who three months after was driven 
out by Benedict. This pope now fell in love with his beautifnl cousin, 
daughter of a Tusculan count, and formed the bold resolve to marry her. 
But the father of the lady refused his consent so long as he was pope. 
Benedict now sold the papal chair for a thousand pounds of silver to 
tbe archdeacon Joannes Gratian. This man. a pious simple individual, 
in order to save the chair of St. Peter from utter overthrow, took upon 
himself the disgrace of simony at the bidding of his friends of Clngny, 
among wh"m a young Bomau monk called Hildebrand, son of poor 
parents of Soana, in Tuscany, was already most conspicuous. The new 
pope assumed the name of Gregory YI., a.d. 1044-1046. He wanted 
the talents necessary for the hard task he had undertaken. Benedict 
having failed in carryiog out his matrimonial plans, again claimed 
to be pope, as did also Sylvester. Thus Bome had at one and the same 
time, three popes, and all three were publicly known to be simonists. 
The Clugny party cast off their protege Gregory, and called in the 
German emperor as saviour of the church. Henry came and had all the 
the three popes deposed at the Synod at Sutri, a.d. 1046. The Bomans 
gave to him the right of making a new appointment. It fell upon 
Suidger, bishop of Bamberg, who took the name of Clemtat II., and 
crowned the king emperor on Christmas, a.d. 1046. The Bomans were 
■o delighted at having order restored in the city, that they gave over to 
the emperor witb the rank of patrician the government of Uome and the 
right of papal election lor all time, and swore never to oonseorato a 



pope wiihoat the emperor's ooDoorrenee. Henry took the ex-popt 
Gregory aloog with him, back to Germany, where he died in exile, at 
Cologne. Hildebrand, his chaplain, had accompanied him thither, and 
miter his death retired into the monastery of Clugny. 

5. Henry III. and his Oerman Popes, A.D. 1046-1057.— With Clement 
nL, 1046-1047, begins a whole series of able German popes, who, 
elected by Henry m., wrought under his protection powerfully and 
successfully for the reform of the church. All interested in the reforma- 
tion, the brethren of Clugny, as well as the disciples of Bomuald and 
the settlers in Yallombrosa (§ 98, 1), agreed that at the root of all the 
eormptiou of the church of that age were timony, or obtaining spiri- 
tual o£Sces by purchase or bribery (Acts yiii. 19), and Nicolaitanism 
(§ 27, 8), under which name were included all fleshly lusts of the 
clergy, marriage as well as concubinage and unnatural rices. These 
two were, especially in Italy, so widely spread, that scarcely a priest 
was to be found who had not been guilty of both. Clement II., in the 
emperor's presence, at a synod in Bome in a.d. 1047, began the battle 
against simony. But he died before the end of the year, probably by 
poison. While Boman envoys presented themselves at the German 
ooort about the election of a new pope, Benedict IX., supported by 
the Tusonlan party, again laid claim to the papal chair, and the 
emperor had to utter the severest threats before the man of his choice, 
Poppo, bishop of Brixen, was allowed to occupy the papal chair as 
DamssDS II. Twenty-three days afterwards, however, he was a corpse. 
This eooled the ardour of German bishops for election to so dangerous 
a position, and only after long persuasion Bishop Bruno of Toul, the 
emperor's cousin and a zealous friend of Cluguy, accepted the ap- 
pointment, on the condition that it should have the approval of the 
people and clergy of Bome, which, as was to be expected, was given 
with acclamation. He ascended the papal throne as Leo IX., ld. 1049- 
105i. According to a later story conceived in the interests of Hilde- 
brandism, Bruno is said not only to have made his definite acceptance 
of the imperial call dependent upon the supplementary free election of 
people and clergy of Bome, but also to have been prevailed upon by 
Hildebrand, who by his own request aocompanied him, to lay aside his 
papal ornaments, to continue his journey in pilgrim garb, and to make 
his entrance into the eternal city barefoot, so that the necessary 
sanetion of a formal canonical election might be given to the imperial 
nomination. Leo found the papal treasures emptied to the last coin 
and robbed of all its territorial revenues by the nobles. But Hilde- 
brand was his minister of finance, and soon improved the condition ot 
bis exchequer. Leo now displayed an unexampled activity in church 
leform and the purifying of the papacy. No pope travelled about 
so much as he, none held as many synods in the most distant places 

VOL. IL ^ 


ftnd yariouB lands. The aprooiing of simony was in all oases the main 
point in their decrees. By bonds of gratitude and relationship, but 
above all of common interest?, he was attached to the German emperor. 
He could not therefore think of emancipating the papacy from the 
imperial suzerainty. Practically Leo succeeded in clearing the Augean 
stable of the Boman clergy, and filled vacancies with virtuous men 
brought from far and near. In order to chastise the Normans, put by him 
under ban because of their rapacity, he himself took the field iu a.d. 
1053, when the emperor refused to do so, but was taken prisoner after 
his army had been annihilated, and only succeeded, after he had 
removed the excommunication, in getting thf>m to kiss hia feet with 
the most profound devotion. He demanded from the Greek emperor 
full restitution of the donation of Constantino, so far as this was still in 
the possession of the Byzantines, and his envoys at Constantinople 
Tendered the split between the Eastern and Western churches irreparable 
(S 67, 3). Leo died in a.D. 1054, the only pope for centnries whom the 
church honours as a saint A Boman embassy called upon the emperor 
to nominate a new pope. He fixed upon Gebhardt, bishop of Eichstadt, 
who now ascended the papal throne as Victor II., a.D. 1055-1057. 
Here again monkish tales have transformed a single matter of fact 
into a romance in the interests of their own party. The Bomans wished 
Hildebrand himself for their pope, but he was unwilling yet to assume 
such a responsibility. He put himself, however, at the head of an 
embassy which convinced the emperor of the sinfulness of his former 
interferences in the papal elections, and persuaded him to set baide the 
tyrannical power of his patrician*s rank and to resign to the clergy and 
people their old electoral rights. As candidate for this election, Hilde- 
brand himself chose bishop Gebhardt, the most trusted counsellor of 
the emperor. After long opposition Henry's consent was won to this 
candidature, he even urged the bishop to accept it, who at last submitted 
with the words : '* Now so do I surrender myself to St. Peter, soul and 
body, but only on the cotidition that you also yield to him what belongs 
to hira." The latter, however, seems not mere beating of the air, for tb« 
emperor restored to the newly elected pope the patrimony of Peter in 
the widest extent, and bestowed on him besides the governorship of all 
Italy. — Henry died in a.d. 1056, after he had appointed his queen Agnes 
to the regency, and had recommended her to the counsel and good 
offices of the pope. But the pope's days were already numbered. He 
died in a.d. 1057. Hildebraud could not boast of having dominated him, 
but the positiou of the powerful monk of Clugny under him had become 
one of great importance. 

6. The Papacy under the Control of Hildebrand, A.D. 1057-1078. — After 
Victor's death the cardinals without paying any regard to the imperial 
right, immediately elected Cardinal Frederick of Lorraine, at thaft 


time abbot of Monte Gassino, and HUdebrand travelled to Oennanj in 
order to obtain^ the poit factum approval of the empress. Stephen IZ.» 
▲.D. 1057-1058, for so Frederick styled himself, died before Hildebrand*s 
retarn. The Tnscnlan party took advantage of his abseuce to put 
forward as pope a partisan of their own, Benedict X., a.d. 1058. But 
an embassy of Hildebrand's to the empress secured the succession to 
bishop Gerhard of Florence. Benedict was obliged to withdraw, and 
Gerhard ascended the papal throne as Nicholas U., a.d. 1058-1061« 
With him begins the full development of Hildebrand's greatness, and 
from this time, a.d. 1059, when he became archdeacon of liome, till he 
himself mounted the papal chair, he was the moving spirit of the 
Bomish hierarchy. By his powerful genius in spite of all hindrances 
he raised the papacy and the church to a height of power and glory 
never attained unto before. He thus wrought on, systematically, firmly, 
and irresistibly advancing toward a complete reformation in ecclesias- 
tical polity. Absolute freedom of the church from the power and in- 
fluence of the state, and in order to attain this and make it sure, the 
dominion of the church over the state, papal elections independent 
of any sort of temporal influence, the complete uprooting of all 
■imoniacal practices, nnrelentiog strictness in dealing with the im- 
morality of the clergy, invariable enforcement of the law of celibacy, 
as the most powerful means of emancipating the clergy from the 
world and the state, filling the sacred offices with the most vir- 
tuous and capable men, were some of the noble aims and achieve- 
meuts of this reformation. HUdebrand sought the necessary secular 
protection and aid for the carrying out of his plans among the 
Normans. Nicholas H., on the basis of the donation of Coustantine, 
gave as a fief to their leader, Bobert Guiecard (§ 05, 1), the lordsliip of 
Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily, out of which the Saracens had yet to be 
expelled, and exacted from him the oath of a vassal, by which he bound 
himself to pay a yearly tribute, to protect the papal chair against all 
encroachments of its privileges, and above all to maintain the right of 
papal elections by the **meliore$ cardinale$,** Yet again, Nicholas, when, 
at a later period, by the help of the Normans, he had broken the power 
of tlie Tosculan nobles, issued a decree at a Lateran synod at Borne, in 
A.0. 1059, by which papal elections (§ 82, 4) were regulated anew. Of 
the two extant recensions of this decree, which are distinguished as the 
papal and the imperial, the former is now universally acknowledged to 
be the more authentic form. According to it the election lies exclu- 
sively with the Boman cardinal priests (§ 97, 1) ; to the rest of the clergy 
as to the people there is left only the right of acclamation, that brought 
BO advantage, and to the emperor, according to Boichorst, the right of 
ooneurzence after the election and investiture, according to Granert, the 
lighi at veto before the election. This decree, and not less the lea^uA 


vith the Normans, were open slights to the unperial claims npon Italy 
and the papal chair. The empres't therefore convened about Easter, aj). 

1061, a council of German bishops, at which Nicholas was deposed, and 
all his decisions were annulled. Soon after the pope died. The Tnsca- 
Ian party, now joined with the Germans under the Lombard cbanceilor 
Wibert, asked a new pope from the empress. At the Goaucil of Basel 
in A.D. 1061, bishop Cadalus of Parma was appointed. He assumed 
the name of Honorius IT., ^.d. 1061-1072. But Hildebrand had 
already five weeks earlier in concert with the Margravine Beatrice of 
Canossa, wholly on his own responsibility, chosen bishop Anselm of 
Lucca, and had him consecrated as Alexander II. ^.d. 1061-1073. 
Honorius advanced to Borne, accompanied by Wibert, and frequently in 
bloody conflicts conquered the party of his opponent. Duke Godfrey 
the Bearded of Lorraine, the husband of Beatrice, now appeared as 
mediator. He made both popes retire to their dioceses and gave to the 
empress the decision of the controversy. But meanwhile a catastrophe 
occurred in Germany that led to the most important results. Arch- 
bishop Anno of Cologne, standing at the head of a rising of the princes, 
decoyed the young king of twelve years of age on board a ship at 
Kaiserswerth on the Bhine, and took him to Cologne. The regency and 
the conduct of government were now transferred to the G^man bisbopa 
oollectively, but lay practically in the hands of Anno, who meanwhile, 
however, since a.D. 1063, found himself obliged to share the power with 
Archbishop Adalbert of Bremen. At a council held at Augsburg in a.D. 

1062, Alexander was acknowledged as the true pope, but Honorius by 
no means resigned his claims. With a small army he advanced upon 
Bome in a.D. 1064, seized fort Leo, which had been built and fortified 
by Leo IV. for defence against the Saracens, entrenched himself in the 
eastle of St. Angelo, and repeatedly routed his opponent's forces. But 
Hildebrand reminded the Normans of their oath of fealty. At a council 
held at Mantua in a.d. 1064 (or 1067?) Alexander was once again 
acknowledged, and Honorius, whose party the council sought in vain 
to break up by force of arms, was again deposed. The proud, ambitious 
and self-seeking priest of Cologne had meanwhile been obliged to trans- 
fer to his northern colleague, Adalbert of Bremen, the farther education 
and training of the young king, who, though only fifteen years old was 
now proclaimed of age in a.D. 1065, as Henry IV., a.D. 1056-1106« If 
the bishop of Cologne injured the disposition of the royal youth by 
his excessive harshness and severity, the bishop of Bremen did him 
irreparable damage by allowing him nnrestrained indulgence io his evil 

7. Gregory VU., A.D. 1078-1085.— Hildebrand had at last brought the 
papacy to such a height of power that he was able now to put the finish- 
ing stroke to his own work in his own name, and bo now he moonted 


the ehidr of the ehief of the apostles, as Gregory VII., elected and 
enthroned by a disorderly mob. The Lombard and German bishops 
appealed to the emperor to have the election dechred invalid. But he 
being on all sides threatened with wars and revolution, thought it 
advisable to forego the assertion of his rights and to win the favour 
of the pope by a letter full of devotion and humility. At the Boman 
Fast Synod of a.o. 1074, Gregory renewed the old law of celibacy and 
rendered it more strict, deposed all married priests or those who got 
office through simony, and pronounced their priestly acts invalid. The 
lower clergy, who were generally married, violently opposed the measure, 
but Gregory's stronger will preva led. Papal legates visited all lands, 
and, supported by the people, iftsisted upon the strict observance of the 
papal decree. At the nest fast synod in ^.d. 1075, the pope b^gan the 
contest against the usual investiture of the higher clergy by the temporal 
priness, with ring and stafif as svmbols of episcopal office. Whoever 
should accept ecclesiastical office from the hand of a layman was to be 
deposed, and any potentate who phonld give investiture should be put 
under the ban of the church. Here too he thundered his anathema 
against the oounsellors of Heury who should meanwhile prove guilty of 
the sole of ecclesiastical offices. Henry, whose hands were fully occu- 
pied with the rebellious Saxons, at iir.^t dismisse I his counsellors, but 
after the close of the wars he reinstated them, and quite ignored the 
papal prohibition of investiture. Gregory had for a while quite enough 
to do in Italy. Cencius, the head of the nobles opposed to reform, fell 
upon him on Christmas, a.D. 1075, during Divine sei^ice, and made him 
prisoner, bat the Bomans rescued him, and Cencins had to take to 
flight. On New Year's Day, a.d. 107G, there appeared at the royal ref^i- 
dence at Goslar a papal embassy which threatened the king with 
excommunication and deposition should he not immediately break ofiF 
all reUtions with the counsellors under the ban, and reform his own 
infamous hfe. The king burst out in furious rage. He heaped in- 
sults upon the legates, and at the Synod of Worms, on 24th January, 
had the pope formally deposed as a perjured usurper of the papal chair, 
a tyrant, an adulterer and a sorcerer. The Lombard bishops, too, gave 
their consent to this decree (§ 97, 5j. At the next Roman Fast Synod 
on 22ud February, the pope placed all bishops who had taken part 
in these proceedings under ban, and at the same time solemnly excom- > 
muuicated and deposed the king, and released all his subjects from the 
obligation of their oaths of allegiauce. Moreover he had the king's 
ambassadors, whose life he had preserved from the fury of those present 
at the meeting of synod by bis personal interferenue, cast into prii»on, 
and then in the most contemptuous manuer led through the ntreets. 
The papal ban made a deep impression upoii the German people and 
frineai. One bishop after another gave in, the Saxons raised a new 


revolt, and at the princes* conference at Tribnr, in October, aj>. 1076, the 
poi>e waR invited to come personally to Aagsborg on 2nd Febraary, to 
meet and confer with the princes aboat the affnirs of the king. It was 
resolved that if Henry did not succeed by 22nd Febraary, the first 
anniversary of the ban, to get it removed, he shoald for ever forfeit the 
erown, but that meanwhile he should reside at Spires and oontiuue in 
the exert ise of all royal prerogatives. 

8. It was for the pope's advantage to have the business settled upon 
German soil with the greatest possible publicity. Therefore he soom- 
fully refused the humble petition of the king to send him absolution 
from Borne, and hastened his preparations for travelling to Augsburg. 
But Henry went forth to meet him on the way. Shortly before Christ- 
mas he escaped from Spires with his wife and child, and in spite of a 
severe winter crossed Mount Cenis. The Lombards protected him in 
defying the pretensions of the pope. But Henry's whole attention was 
now directed to overturoing the machinations of the hostile German 
princes. So he suddenly appeared at Canossa, where Gregory was 
staying with tlie Margravine Matilda, daughter of Beatrice, a princess 
enthusiastically attaobed to him and his ideal. This meeting was un- 
expected and undesired by the pope. There during the cold winter days, 
from 25th to 27th January, a.d. 1077, stood the son of Henry III. bare- 
loot in the courtyard of the castle of Canossa, wearing a sackcloth shirt, 
fasting all day and supplicating access to the proud monk. With inflexi- 
ble severity the pope refused, until at List the tears, entreaties, and 
reproaches of the margravine overcame his obduracy. Henry promised 
to submit himself to the future judgment of the pope in regard to his 
reconciliation witb the German prince -(, and was absolved. Neverthe- 
less the princes at the Assembly at Forche' m in March, with the oon- 
ourrence of the papal legate, elected a new king in the person of 
Budolph of Swabia, Henry-s brother-in-law. Boused to fury, Henry 
now hastened back to Germany, where soon he gathered round him a 
great army. Notwithstanding all pressure brought to bear upon hin*, 
Gregory maintained for three years a position of neutrality, but at last, 
in A.D. 1080, at the Boman Fast Synod, where the envoys of the contend- 
ing kings presented their complaints, he renewed the excommunication 
and deposition of Henry. Then the bishops of Henry's party immedi- 
ately met at Brixen, and hurled the anathema and pronounced sentence 
of deposition against Gre^^ory, and elected as anti-pope Wibert, formerly 
chancellor, then archbishop of Bavenua, who assumed the title of 
Clement III., a.d. 1080-1100. After the death of Budolph in battle, 
at Merseburg, in a.D. 1080, Henry marched across the Alps and appeared 
at Pentecost before the gates of Bome, which were opened to him after 
a three years* siege. Clement III. then at Easter, a.o. 1084, set upon 
him knä his queen the imicrial crown. Gregory had withdrawn to 


the Caatle of St Angelo. Henry, however, was compelled by the 
appearance of a new riral for the crown, Henry, Count of Laxemboig, 
to retom to Germany, and Bobdrt Goiscard, the Norm an dake, hastened 
from the south to deliver the pope, which he accomplished only after 
Rome had been fearfully devastated. Gregory died in the following year, 
▲j>. 1085, at Salerno. Gregory VII. also took the field against- the 
dissolute and prodigal king of France, Philip I., and tbreateued him, 
because of simony, with interdict and deposition. His success here, 
however, was comparatively small. Philip avo wedly submitted to the 
papal decree, bat did not in the least alter hi<i conduct, and Gregory 
felt that it was not pmdent to push matters to an extremity. He 
showed himself more indulgent toward tbe powerful William the Con- 
queror of England, although this prince ruled the church of his domiuions 
witb an iron band, pronounced all church property to be freehold, and 
was scarcely less guilty of simony than the kings of Germany and 
France. Tet the pope himself, who hoped to secure the aid of his arms 
against Henry IV., and sougbt therefore to dazzle him with the prospect 
of the imperial throne, winked at his delinquenoies, and loaded him 
with expressions of his good- will. The primate of Eu gland, too, tbe 
powerful Conqueror's right-hand supporter, Lanfrano of Canterbury, 
who bore a gmdge against Gregory because of his patronage of the 
heretic Berengarius (| 101, 2), showed no special zeal for the reforms 
advocated by the pope. At a synod held at Winchester in a.d. 1076, the 
law of celibacy was enforced, with this limitation, however, that those 
of the secular clergy who were already married should not be required to 
put away their wives, but no farther marriages amo ng them were to be 

0. The Central Idea in Gregory's Policy was the establishment of a nni- 
▼ersal theocracy, witb the pope as its oue visible head, the representative 
of Christ upon eartb, who as such stands over the powers of the world. 
Alongside of it, indeed, the royal authority was to stand independently 
AS one ordained of God, but it was to confine itself strictly to temporal 
affairs, and to be directed by the pope in regard to whatever might be 
partly within and partly without tbese lines. All states bearing tbe 
Cbriiitian name were to be bo und together as members of one body in 
the great papal theocracy which had superior to it only God and His 
law. The princes must receive consecration and Divine sanction from 
the spiritual power ; they are " by the grace of God," not immediately, 
however, but only mediately, the church as the middle term stands 
between them and God. The pope is their arbiter and bighest hege 
lord, whose decisions they are under obligation unconditionally to obey. 

I For Lanfranc, fee Hook, ** Lives of Archbishops of Canterbury)** Tol* 
& Loodon, 18G1. 


Royalty stands related to the papacy as the moon to the san, from which 
she receives her light and warmth. The charoh, which lends to the power 
of the world her Divine authority, can also withdraw it again wlien h 
is being misused. When this is done, the obligation of subjects to obey 
also ceases. Ghregory began this gigantic work, not so much to raise 
himself personally to the utmost pinnacle of power, but rather to save 
the church from destruction. He certainly was not free from ambition 
and the lust of ruling, but with him higher than all personal interests 
was the idea of the high vocation of the church, and to the realizing of it 
he enthusiastically devoted all the energies of his life. On the other 
hand, he cannot escape the reproaoh of having striven with carnal 
weapons for what he called a spiriraal victory, of having meted out 
unequal measures, where his interests demanded it, in the exercise of 
his assumed function as judge of kings and princes, and of having 
occupied himself more with political schemes and intrigues than with 
the ministry of the church of Christ. His whole career shows him to 
have been a man of great self-reliance, yet, on the other hand, he was 
able to preserve the consciousness of the poor sinner who seeks and 
finds salvation only in the mercy of Christ. The strict morality of his 
life has been admitted even by his bitterest foes. Not infrequently too 
did he show himself in advance of his time in humanity and liberality 
of sentiment, as e,g. in the Berengarian controversy (§ 101, 2), and in 
his decided disapproval of the prosecution of witches and sorcerers.^ 

10. Victor lU. and Urban n., A.D. 1086-1099.— Gregory VII. was 
succeeded by the talented abbot of Monte Cassino, Desiderius, under the 
title of Victor III., a.d. lOSd-1087. Only after great pressure was brought 
to bear upon him did he couRcnt to leave the cloister, which under his 
rule had flourished in a remarkable manner ; but now aged and sickly, 
he only enjoyed the pontificate for sixteen months. His successor was 
bishop Odo. of Ostia, a Frenchman by birth, and a member of the 
Cluguy brotherhood, who took the name of Urban II., a.o. 1083-1099. 
For a long time he was obliged to give up Borne to the party of the 
imperial anti-pope. But the enthusiasm with which the idea of res- 
ening the Holy Si;pulohre was taken up, which he proposed to Western 
Chriätemlom at the Council of Clermont, in a.d. 1093 (§ 94), secured for 
him the highest position in his time, and made him strong enough 
to withstand the opposition of Philip I., king of France, whom he had 
put under ban at Clermont, on account of his adulterous connection 

* Bowden, *• Life and Pontificate of Gregory VII.," 2 vols., London, 
1840. Villemain, "Life of Gregory VU.," traosl. by Brockley, 2 vols. 
London, 1874. Stephen, " Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography," 2 vols. 
London, 1850. Hallam, **MidJle Ages," vol. i. London, 184a Mil- 
man, '* Latin Christianity,*' voL iii., London, 1854. 


with Bertimdft. Returning to Italy from his viotorioat campaign 
through France, he was able to celebrate Christmas once again in the 
Lateran at Rome in ^.d. 1036. EUs main supporters in the conflict 
against the emperor were the powerful Margravine Matilda, and the 
emperor's most dangerous opponent in Oermauy, dake Welf of Bavaria, 
whose son of the same name, then in his seventeenth year, was married 
by the pope to the widowai Matilda, who was now forty years of age, 
whence arose the first of the anti- imperial and strongly papistical Welf 
or Ouelph party in Germany and Italy. On the other side the margra- 
▼ine succeeded in stirring np Conrad, the son of Henry lY., to rebel 
Ag linst his father, and had him crowned king in a.D. 1087. At Cremona 
this prince held the pope's stirrap, and took the oath of obedience to 
liim. The emperor had him deposed in ld. 1098, and had his second 
■on elected and crowned as Henry V. Urban, who received on his 
death-bed the news of the destruction of Jerusalem, died in a.D. 1099, 
and his anti-pope Clement III., who had withdrawn to Ravenna, died in 
the following year. 

11. FaschaUs n., GeUsLus n., and Calixtvs XL, AJ). 1099-1134.— Urban*t 
laecessor, PasehaUs II., a.D. 1099-1118, also a member of the Clugny 
brotherhood, at once stirred up the fire of rebellion against the excom- 
municated emperor, and favoured a conspiracy of the princes. The 
young king, at the head of the insurgents, took his father prisoner, and 
obliged him to abdicate in a.d. 1106. Six months afterwards the emperor 
died. The church's curse pursued even his corpse. Twice interred in 
holy ground, first in the cathedral of Lidge, then in the cathedral of 
Bpires, his bones were exhumed and thrown into unconsecrated ground, 
until at last, in a.D. 1111, his son obtained the withdrawal of the ban. 
At the Council of Guastalla in a.D. 1106, Paschalis renewed the pro- 
hibition of Investiture« But Henry V., a.d. 1106-1126, concerned him- 
felf as little about this prohibition as his father had done. No sooner had 
be seated himself upon the throne in Germany than he crossed the 
Alpe to compel the pope to crown him emperor and concede to him the 
right of investiture. The pope, who was willing that the church should 
be poor if only she retained her freedom, being now without counsel 
or help (for Matilda was old and her warlike spirit was broken, and 
from the Normans no assistance could be looked for), was driven in a.D. 
1111, in his pei-plexity to offer a compromise, whereby the emperor should 
surrender investiture to the church, but on the other hand the clergy 
should return to him all landed property and privileges given them by 
the state since the times of Charlemagne, while the Patrimony of Peter 
should continue the property of the pope himself. On the basis of this 
agreement the coronation of the emperor was to be celebrated in St. 
Peter's on 13th Feb., A.D. 1111. But when after the celebration had 
begun the document which set forth the compact was read, the prelatai 


present in the cathedral raised load ories of dissent and demanded that 
it should immediately be cancelled. The coronation was not proceeded 
with, the pope and his cardinals were thrown into prison, and a revolt 
of the Romans was suppressed. The pope was then compelled to rescind 
the synodal decrees and formally to grant to the king the right of in- 
Testiture ; he had also, after solemnly promising never again to put the 
emperor under ban, to proceed with the coronation. But Hildebrand*s 
party callcil the pope to account fur this betrayal of the church. A synod 
at Bome in a.d. 1112 declared the concessions wrung from him invalid, 
and pronounced the ban against the emperor. The pope, however, 
remembering his oaths, refused to confirm it, but it was nevertheless 
proclaimed by his legate in the French and German synods. Matilda's 
death in a..d. 1115 called the emperor again to Italy. Sbe had even in 
the time of Gregory VII. made over all her goods and possessions to the 
Boman Church ; but she had the right of free disposal only in regard 
to allodial property, not in regard to her feudal territories. Henry, how- 
ever, now laid claim to all her belongings. At the Fast Synod of a..d. 
1116 Paschalis asked pardon of God and man for his sin of weakness, 
renewed and made more strict the prohibition of investiture, but still 
stoutly refused to confirm the ban of the emperor. In consequence of 
a rebellion of the Romans he was obliged to take to flight, and he died 
in exile iu a..d. 1118. The high church party now chose Gelasios II., a.d. 
1118-1119, but immediately after the election he was seized by a second 
Cenoius (see No. 7) on account of a private grudge, fearfully maltreated 
and confined in chains within his castle. The Bom-uis indeed rescued 
him, but the emperor's sudden arrival in Bome led him, in order to avoid 
making inconvenient terms of peace, to seek his own and the church's 
safety iu flight. The people and nobles in concert with the emperor set 
up Gregory VIII. as anti-pope. So soon as the emperor left Bome, 
Gelasius returned. But Cencius fell upon him during Divine service, 
and only with difhcnlty he escaped further maltreatment by flight into 
France, where he died in the monastery of C.ugny after a pontificate 
of scarcely twelve months. The few cardinals present at Cluguy elected 
archbishop Guido of Vienne. He assumed the title of Calixtoa II., ▲ d. 
1119-1124. Pope and emperor met together expressing desires fur peace. 
But the auspiciously begun negotiations never got beyond the statement 
of the terms of contract, and ended in the pope renewing at the Couapii of 
Bheims, in a.d. 1119, tbe anathema against the emperor and anti-pope. 
Next year Calixtus crossed the Alps. He received a hearty greeting in 
Bome. He laid siege to the anti-pope in Sutr, took him prisoner, and 
after the most contumelious treatment before the Boman mob, cast him 
into a monastic prison. The investiture question, now better understood 
through learned discussions on civil and ecclesiastical law, was at last 
definitely settled in the Worms Concordat, as the result of mutual oon« 



eeuions made at the National Assembly at Worms, a.D. 1122. The 
airangement come to was this : canonical election of bishops and abbots 
of the empire by the diocesan clergy and the secular nobles should be 
restored, and under imperial inspection made free from all coercion, but 
in disputed elections decisions should be given in accordance with the 
judgment of the metropolitan and the rest of the bishops, the investing 
d the elected with the sceptre in Germany before, in other parts of the 
empire Mat, aonsecration, should belong to the emperor, and investiture 
with ring and staff at tiie oonseoration should belong to the pope. This 
agreement was solemnly ratified st the Ylnt (Eeomeaical Lateran Synod 
in ÄJ}. 1123. 

12. The contemporary EngUsh Investiture Controversy was brought 
earlier to a conclusion. William the Conqueror had unopposed put 
Norman prelates in the place of the Euglish bishops, and had homage 
tendered him by them, while they received from him investiture with the 
ring and the staff. William Rufus, the Conqueror's sou and successor, 
A.D. 1067-1100, a domineering and greedy prince, after Lanfranc's death 
in A.D. 1089 (§ 101, 1) allowe>l the archbishopric of Canterbury to remain 
Tacant for four years, in order that he might himself enjoy the undis- 
torbed possession of the revenues. It was not till a d. 1093, during a 
■evere illness and nnder fear of death, that he agreed to bestow it upon 
Anselm, the celebrated Abbot of Bee (§ 101, 1, 3), with the promise 
to abstain ever afterwards from simony. No sooner had he recovered 
than he repented him of his promise. He resumed his old practices, and 
even demanded of Anselm a large sum for his appointment. For peace 
sake Anselm gave him a voluntary present of money, but it did not satisfy 
the king. When, in a.D. 1097, the archbishop asked permission to 
make a journey to Bome in order to have the conflict settled there, the 
king banished him. In Bome Anselm was honourably received and his 
oonduct was highly approved ; but neither Urban U. nor Paschalis II. 
eonld venture upon a complete breach with the king. William the Con- 
queror's third son, Henry I. Beauclerk. a.d. 1100-1135, who, having also 
snatched Normandy from his eldest brother Robert, needed the support 
of the clergy to secure his position, agreed to the return of the exiled 
primate, and promised to put a stop to every kind of simony ; but he 
demanded the maintenanoe of investiture and the oath of fealty which 
Anselm now, in consequence of the decrees of a Boman synod whicb be 
had himself agreed to, felt obliged to refuse. Thus again the conflict 
was renewed. The king now confiscated the goods and revenues of the 
see, and the archbishop was on the point of issuing an excommunication 
against him, when at last an understanding was come to in a.d. HOG, 
through the mediation of the pope, according to which the crown gave up 
the investiture with ring and staff, and the archbishop agreed to take the 
OAth of fealty — ^In France, too, from the end of the 11th century, owing 


to the pressure used by the high ehoroh reforming party, the eeenlar 
power was satisfied with seearing the oath of fealty from the higher 
eler^y, without making farther claim to investiture.^ 

13. The Times of Lothair IIL aad Coarad m., AJ>. 112S-n53.--Afier 
the death of Henry V. without issue, the Saxon lothair, a.d. 1125-1137, 
was elected, and the Hohenstaufen grandson of Henry IV. descended in 
the female line was passed over. HonorifU II., a-d. 1134-1130, suooessor 
of Caliitus II. , hastened to confer the papal sanction upon the newly elected 
emperor, who already upon his election had, by accepting spiritual in- 
Testitare before temporal investiture, and a minimising of the oath of 
fealty by ecohesiastical reservations, showed himself ready to support the 
claims of the clergy. But neither ban nor the preaching of a crusade 
against Count Roger 11. of Sicily (§ 95, 1) could prevent him from building 
up a powerful kingdom comprehending all Southern Italy. The next 
election of the cardinals gives us two popes : Innocent II.. a.o. 1130-1113, 
and Anacletus II., ld. 1130-1138. The latter, although not the pope of 
the majority, secured a powerful support in the friendship of Roger II., 
whom he had crowned king by his legate at Palermo. Innocent, on the 
other hand, fled to France. There the two oracles of the age. the abbot 
Peter of Ciuguy and Bernard of Ciairvaux, took his side and won for him 
the favour of all Cisalpine Europe. Both popes fished for Lothair*s 
favour with the bait of the promise of imperial coronation. A second 
edition of the Synod of Sutri would probably have enabled a more 
powerful king to attaiu the elevation of Henry III. But Lothair.was not 
the man to seize the opportunity. He decided in favour of the protSgi 
of Bernard, led him back in a.d. 1133 to the eternal city, had himself 
erowned emperor by him in the Lateran and invested with Matilda's 
inheritance, which was declared by the curialists a fief of the empire. 
But Lotbair's repeated demands, that what had been acquired by the 
Concordat of Worms should be renounced, were set aside, through the 
opposition not so much of the pope as of St. Bernard and St. Norbert 
(S 98, 2). At the prayer of the pope, who immediately after Lothair's 
departure had been driven out by Roger, and moved by the prophetic 
exhortations of Bernard, the emperor prepared for a second Roman 
campaign in ld. 113C. Leaving the conquest of Rome to the eloquence 
of the prophet of Ciairvaux, he advanced from one victory to another 
until he brought all Southern Italy under the imperial sway, and died 
on Lis return homeward in an Alpine hnt in the Tyrol. Fuming with 
rage Roger now crossed over from Sicily and in a short time he recon- 
quered his southern provinces of Italy. The appointment, however, of 

^ Church, "St. Anselm,** London, 1870. Rule, «'Life and Times of 
St. Anselm," 2 vols London, 1883. Hook, ** Lives of Arohb. of Canter- 
bury,*' vol. ii., London, 1879, pp. 169-270. 


m new pope after the death of Anacletas miscarried, and Innocent mm 
able at the Secend (Ecameaical Lateran Sjnod in a.d. 1139 to declare the 
achifun at an end. The pope then renewed the excommunication of 
Boger and pronounced an anathema against the teachings of Arnold of 
Brescia (§ 108, 7), a young enthusiastic priest of the school of Abelard, 
who traced all ecclesiastical corruption back to the wealth of the church 
and the secular power of the cler;;/. He next prepared himself for war 
with Boger. That priuce, however, waylaid him and had him brought 
into hit tent, where be and bis sous cast themHelves at the holy father's 
feet and begged for mercy and peace. The pope could do nothing else 
than play the role of the magnanimous given him in this comedy. He 
had therefore to confirm the hated Norman in the possession of the con- 
qnered provinces as a hereditary monarchy with the ecclesiastical privilege 
of a native legate, and, as gome set oft to comfort himself with, the prince 
was to regard the territory as a fief of the papal see But still greater 
ealamities befell this pope. The republican freedom, which the cities of 
Tuscany and Lombardy won during the 12th century, awakened also 
among the Bomans a love of liberty. They refused to render obedience 
in temporal matters to the poi>e and established in the Capitol a popular 
aenate, which undertook the civil government in the name of the Boman 
Commune. Innocent died during the revolution. His successor CoBles- 
tiae U. held the pontificate for only five months, and Ladns II., after 
Tainly opposing the Commune for seven months, was killed by a stone 
thrown in a tomult. Engenioa HL, a.d. 1145-1158, a scholar and friend 
of St. Bernard, was obliged immediately after his election to seek safety 
in flight. An agreement, however, was come to in that same year : the 
pope acknowledged the government of the Commune a« legitimate, while 
it recognised his superiority and granted to him the investiture of the 
tanators. Yet, though taken back three times to Bome, he could never 
remain there for more than a few months. He visited France and 
Germany (Treves) in ▲ o. 1147. In France he heard of the fall of Edessa. 
Supported by the fiery zeal of Bernard, the summons to a second 
emsade (| 94, 2) aroused a burning enthusiasm throughout all the West. 
Bat in Bome he waa unable to offer any effectual resistance to the dema- 
gogical preaching by which Arnold of Brescia from a.D. 1146 had inflamed 
the people and the inferior clergy with an ardent enthusiasm for his ideal 
eonstitntion of an apostolic ohuroh and a democratic state. Since this 
diange of feeling had taken place in Bome, both parties, that of the 
Capitol as well as that of the Lateran, had repeatedly endeavoured to 
win to their side the first Hohenstaufen on the German throne, Conrad 
IIL, LD. 1138-1152, by promise of bestowing the imperial crown. But 
Conrad, meanwhile otherwise occupied, refrained from all intermeddling, 
and when at last he actually started upon a journey to Bome death over- 
took him on the waj. 


14. Tha Timei of Frederick I. and Henry YI., A.D. 1153-1190.— The 
nephew and successor of Conrad III., Frederick I. Barbarona, a.d. 1152- 
1190, began his reign with the firm determination to realize folly the 
ideas of Gharlemngne (§ 82-3) by his pope Pasohalis III., whom at a later 
period, in a.d. 1165, he had canonized. With profound contempt at 
heart for the Roman demoordusy of his time, he concluded a compact in 
A.D. 1153 with the papal see, which confirmed him in the possedsion of 
the imperial crown and gave to the pope the Dominium Umporale in the 
Church States. After the death of Eugenius which soon followed, the 
aged Anastasios IV. occupied the papal chair for a year and a half, a 
time of peace and progress, fie was succeeded by the powerful Hadrian 
IV., A.D. 1151-1159. He was an Englishman, Nicholas Breakspear, son of 
a poor English priest, the first and. down to the present time, the only 
one of that nation who attained the papal dignity. He pronounced an 
interdict upon the Romans who had refused him entrance into the inner 
part of the city and had treacherously slain a cardinaL Rome endured 
this spiritual famine only for a few weeks, and then purchased deliver- 
ance by the expulsion of Arnold of Brescia, who soon thereafter fell into 
the hands of a cardinaL He was indeed again rescued by force, bot 
Frederick I., who had meanwhile in a.d. 1154 begun his first journey 
to Rome, and on his way thither had humbled the proud Lombard cities 
struggling for freedom, urged by the pope, insisted that he should be 
surrendered up again, and subsequently gave him over to the Roman city 
prefect, who, in a.d. 1155, without trial or show of justice condemned 
him to be burnt and had his ashes strewn upon the Tiber. In the camp 
at Sutri the pope personally greeted the king who, after refusing for 
several days, at length agreed to show him the customary honour of 
holding his stirrup, doing it however with a very bad grace. Soon too 
the senatorial ambassadors of the Roman people, who indulged in bom- 
bastio, turgid declamation, presented them<«elves professing their read!- 
•nes« on consideration of a solemn undertaking to protect the Roman 
republic, and on payment of five thousand pounds, to proclaim the Ger- 
man king from the Capitol Roman enaperor and ruler of the world. With 
a furious burst of anger Frederick silenced them, and with scathing words 
showed them how the witness of history pointed the contrast between 
their miserable condition and the glory and dignity of the German name. 
Tet on the day of the coronation, which they were not able to prevent, the 
Romans took revenge for the insults he had Leaped upon them by an 
attack upon the papal residence in the castle of Leo, and upon the im- 
perial camp in froüt of the city, bat were repelled with sore loss. Soon 
thereafter, in a.d. 1155, the emperor made preparations for returning 
home, leaving everything else to the pope. The relations between the 
two became more and more strained from day to day. The Lombards, 
too, onoe again rebelled. Frederick therefore in a.D. 1158 made his 


■eoond expedition to Borne. On the Boncalian plains he held a great 
assembly which laid down to the Lombards as well as to the pope the 
imperial .prerogatives. Hadrian would have given utterance to his wrath 
by thundering an anathema, bat he was restrained by the hand of 

15. The cardinals of the hierarchical party elected Alexander III., 
A.D. 1159-1181, those of the imperial party, Victor IV. A synod con- 
Tered by the empercr at Pavia in a.D. 1160 decided in favour of Victor, 
who was now formally reoogaised. Meanwhile Milan threw ofif the yoke 
that had been laid upon her. After an almost two years* siege the emperor 
took the city in a.d. 1162 andrazed it to the ground. From France whither 
he had fled, Alexander, in a.d. 1163, launched his anathema against the 
emperor and his pope. The latter died in a.d. 1164, and Frederick had 
Paschalis III. (f a.o. 1168) chosen his successor ; but in a.D. 1165, Alex- 
ander returning from France, pressed on in advance of him and was 
meknowledged by the Boman senate. Now for the third time in a.d. 
1166, Frederick crossed the Alps. A small detachment of troops that 
had been sent in advance to aooompany the imperial pope to Bome 
nnder the leadership of the archbishops of Cologne and Mainz, in a 
bloody battle at Monte Porzio in a.D. 1167 utterly destroyed a Boman 
army of twenty times its size. Frederick then himself hasted forward. 
After an eight davt* furious assault the fortress of Leo Barren dered, and 
Paschalis was able to perform the Te Deum in St. Peter*s. The Trans- 
tiberines, too, after Alexander had sought safety in flight, soon took the 
oath of fealty to the emperor upon a guarantee of imperial protection of 
their repablic. But at the very climax of his success *' the fate of Sen- 
nacherib " befell him. The Boman malaria during the hot August became 
a deadly fever plague, thinned the lines of his army and forced him to with- 
draw. So weakened was he that he could not even assert his authority 
in Lombardy, but had to return to Germany in a.D. 1168. The emperor's 
disaster told also unfavourably upon the fortunes of his pope, whose 
successor Calixtus HI. was quite disregarded. In a.d. 1174 Frederick 
again went down into Italy and engaged upon a decisive battle with the 
confederate cities of Lombardy, but in a.d. 1176 at Legnano he suffered 
a complete defeat, in oonsequenoe of which he agreed at the Congress of 
Venice, in a.D. 1177, to acknowledge the freedom of the Lombard cities, 
abandoned the imperial claims upon Bome, and recognised Alexander 
in., who was also present there, as the rightful pope, kissing his feet and 
holding his stirrup according to custom. Bome, which he had not seen 
for nearly eleven years, would no longer shut her gates against the pope. 
Welcomed by senate and people, he made his public entrance into the 
Lateran in March a.D. 1178, where in the following year he gathered 
together 300 bishops in the Third Lateran Cooncil (the 11th cecumenical), 
in order by their advice to heal the wounds which the schism of the 


elmrch had made. Here also, in order to preTent double elections in 
time to come, it was resolved that for a valid papal election two-thirda 
of the whole college of cardiunls must be agreed. The right of concur- 
rence assigned by the decree of Nicholas II. in a.D. 1059 to the people and 
emperor was treated as autiquated and forgotten, and was not even 
alluded to. 

16. Even before his victory over the powerful Hohenstaufen, Alexander 
m. during his exile won a yet more brilliant success in England. Kiug 
Henry n., a.d. 1154-1189, wished to establish again the supremacy of the 
state over church and clergy, and thought that he would have a pliant 
tool in carrying out his plans in Thomas 4 Becket, whom he made arch- 
bishop of Canterbary, in a.d. 1162. But as primate of the English 
church, Thomas proved a vigorous upholder of hierarchical principles. 
Instead of the accommodating courtier, the king found the archbishop 
immediately upon his consecration the bold asserter of the claims of the 
church. The jo\ial man of the world became at once the saintly ascetio. 
At a council at Tours in a.D. 1163, he returned into the pope's own 
hand the pallium with which an English prin-^e had invented him in 
name of the king, resigning also his arohiepiscopal dignity, that he might 
receive these directly as a papal gift. Straightway began the conflict be- 
tween the king and his former favourite. Henry summoned a diet at 
Clarendon, where he obtained the approval of the superior clergy for his 
anti-hierarchical propositions; Thomas also for a time withst(X)d, promis- 
ing at last, when urged on all sides, to a:^sent to the constitutions, but 
refusing to sign the document when it was placed before him. The 
king now ordered a process of deposition to be executed against him, 
and Thomas then fled to France, where the pope was at that time 
residing. The pope released him from his promise, condemned the Con- 
stitutions of Clarendon, and threatened the king with anathema and 
interdict. At last, after protracted negotiations, in a.d. 1170 by meant 
of a personal interview on the frontiers of Normandy, a reconciliation was 
effected ; by which, however, neither the king nor the archbishop re- 
nounced their claims. Thomas now returned to England and threatened 
with excommunication all bishops who should agree to the Constitutions 
of Clarendon. Four knights seized upon an unguarded word of the king 
which he had uttered in passion, and murdered the archbishop at the 
altar in a.D. 1170. Alexander canonized the martyr to Hildebrandism, 
and the king was so sorely pressed by the pope, his own people and his 
rebellious sons, that he consented to do penance humbly at the tomb of 
his deadly sainted foe, and submitted to be scourged by the monks. 
Becket's bones, for which a special chapel was r( ared at Canterbury, 
were vii^ited by crowds of pilgrims until Henry VUI., when he had broken 
with Bome (§ 139, 4), formally arraigned the saint as a traitor, had hia 


Bftme stmck out of the calendar and his ashes scattered to the winds.* — 
Thas by a^d. 1178 Alexander III. had risen to the summit of ecclesias- 
tical power; but in Borne itself as well as in the Church States, he 
remained as powerless politically as before. Soon, therefore, after the 
great coaneil he again quitted the city for a voluntary exile, and never 
saw it more. His three immediate successors, too, Luclas III. ( t A.r. 
1185), Urban HI. (f a.d. 1187), and Gregory VIII. (f a.d. 1187), were 
•lected, consecrated and buried outside of Bome. Clement III. (f a.d. 
1191) was the first to enter the Lateran again in a.D. 1183, on the basis 
of a compromise which acknowledged the republican constitution under 
the papal superiority. Meanwhile Frederick I., without regardiug the 
protest of the pope as liege lord of the Sicilian crown, had in a.d. 1186 
eonsummated the fateful marriage of his son Heury with Constance, the 
posthumous daughter of king Boger, and aunt of his childless grandson 
William U. (f a.d. 1194), and thus the heiress of the great Norman king- 
dom of Italy. From the crusade which he then undertook in a.d. 1189 
Frederick never returned (§ 94, 3). His successor, Henry YI., a.d. 1190- 
1197, compelled the new pope Coslestine III., ad. 1191-1198, to crown 
him emperor in a.d. 1191, conquered the inheritance of his «ife, pushed 
back the boundaries of the Church States to the very gates of Bome, and 
ftsserted his imperial rights even over the city of Bome itself. He 
pressed on to the realizing of the scheme for making the German crown 
together with the imperial dignity for ever hereditary in his house. 
The princes of the empire in a.d. 1196 elected his son Frederick II., when 
■earcely two years old, as king of the Bomans. He then thought under 
the pretext of a crusade to conquer Greece, to which he had laid grouud- 
less claims of succession, but while upon the way his plans were over- 
thrown by his sadden death at Mrssina. 

17. Innocent m., A.D. 1108-1216.— After the death of Alexander HI. 
ibo power and reputation of the Holy See had fallen into the lowest degra- 
dation. Then the cardinal deacon, Lothair Count of Segui in Anagni, 
Buoceeded in a.d. 1198 in his 87th year, under the name of Innocent III., 
•nd raised the papacy again to a height of power and glory never reached 
before. In point of intellect and power of will he was not a whit bebind 
Gregory VII., while in culture (§ 102, 9), scholarship, subtlety and adroit- 
he far excelled him. His piety, too, his moral earnestness, his en* 


^ **Vita et EpistoliB Thomas Cantuari,** edited by Giles. 4 vols. 
London, 1846. Morris, **Life and Martyrdom of Thomas k Bccket 
London, 1859. Bobertson, *' Thomas A Becket, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury.** London, 1859. ** Materials for Life of Thomas k Becket.** 2 vols. 
London, 1875. Hook, "Lives of Archbishops of Canterbury," vol. ii. 
London, 1879, pp. S54-507. Stanley, "Memorials of Canterbury." 
London, 1855. Freenuui, " Historical Essays." First Series, Essay IV. 

VOL« IL ^ 


ihnsiasm and devotion to the chnroh and the theoeratical interest of the 
chair of St. Peter, were at least as powerful and decidedly purer, deeper 
and more epiritual than Gregory's. And in a<ldition to all these great 
endowments he enjoyed an inyariable good fortune which never foniook 
him. His first task was the restoration of the Church States and his 
political prestige in Rome. In both these directions be was favoured by 
the sudden death of Henry VI. and the internal disorders of the Capi* 
toline government of that time. On the very day of hU enthronement 
the imperial prefect tendered him the oath of fealty and the Capitol did 
homage to him as the superior. And also before the second year hod 
passed the Church States in their fullest extent were restored by the ex> 
puli^ion of the greater and smaller feudal lords who had been settled there 
by Henry VI. Rome was indeed once more the scene of wild party conflieta 
which forced the {>ope in a.d. 1203 to fly to Anagni. He was able, however, 
io return in a.D. 1204 and to conclude a definite and decisive peace with 
the Commune in a.D. 1205, according to the terms of which the many> 
headed senate resigned, and a single senator or podesti^ nominated by 
the pope was entrusted with the executive authority. Meanwhile Inno« 
cent had been gaining brilliant successes beyond the limits of the States 
of the Church. These were won first of all in Sicily. The widow of 
Henry VI. had her son Frederick of four years old, after his father's 
death, crowned king in Palermo. Unadvised and helpless, pressed upon 
all sides, she sought protection from Innocent, which he granted upon 
her renouncing the ecclesiastical privileges previously claimed by the 
king and making acknowledgment of the papal suzerainty. Dying in 
A.D. 1198, Constance transferred to him the guardiauship of her son, and 
the pope justified the confidence placed in him by the excellent and 
liberal education which he secured for his ward, as well as by the zeal 
and success with which he restored rest and peace to the land. In Ger- 
many, Philip of Swabia, Frederick's uncle, was appointed to carry on the 
government in the name of his Sicilian nephew during his minority. 
The condition of Germany, however, demanded the direct control of a 
firm and vigorous ruler. The princes, therefore, insisted upon a new 
election, for which Philip also no\f appeared as candidate. The vote« 
were split between two rivals; the Ghibelliues voting for Philip, a.d. 
119S-1208. and the Guelph party for Otto lY. of Drundwick, a.D. 1198- 
1218. The party of the latter referred the decision to the pope. For 
three years he delayed giving judgment, then he decided in favour of 
the Guelph, who paid for the preference by granting all the demands 
of the pope, and calling himself king by the grace of God and the pope. 
The States of the Church were thus represented ks including the Dnehy 
of Spoleto, and in the election of bibhops the church was freed from the 
influence of the state. By a.d. 1204, however, Philip's power and repute 
had risen to soch a pitch that even the pope found himself obliged to 


teke into aooount the altered position of matters. A papal oonrt of arbi- 
tration at Borne to wbioh both cUimante had agreed to sabmit, was on 
the point of giving its decision oneqaivooally in favour of the Hohen- 
atanfen, when the murder of Philip by Otto of Wittelsbaoh, in A.D. 1208, 
rendered it void. Otto IV. was now acknowledged bj all, and in a.D. 1209 
lie was erowned by the pope after new conoessions had been made. But 
as Boman emperor he either would not or eould not perform what he 
bad promised before and at his coronation. He took to himself the 
posaessious of Matilda as well as other parts of the States of the Church, 
aod was not prevented from pursuing his victorious campaign in Southern 
Italy by the anathema which Innocent thundered against him in a.D. 
1210. Then Innocent called to mind the old rights of his former pupil 
to the Qennan crown, and insisted that they should be given effect to. 
In Aj>. 1212, Frederick IL, now in his eighteenth year, accepted the call, 
was received in Germany with open arms, and was crowned in a.D. 1215 
at Aachen. Otto could not maintain his position against him, and so 
withdrew to his hereditary possessions, and died in ad. 1218. 

18. King Philip Augustus II. of France, had in a.D. 1193 married the 
Danish princess Ingeborg, but divorced her in a.D. 1196, and married the 
beautiful Duchess Agnes of Meran. Innocent compelled him in A.D. 
1200 to put her away by issuing against him an interdict, but it was only 
in A.D. 1218 that he again took back Ingeborg as his legitimate wife. — 
From far off Spain the young king Peter of Arragou went in a d. 1204 to 
Borne, laid down his crown as a sacred gift upon the tomb of the chief 
of the apostles, and voluntarily undertook the pajrment of a yearly 
tribute to the Holy See. In the same year a crusading army, by founding 
a Latin empire in Constantinople, brought the schismatical East to the 
leet of the pope ($ 94, 4). In England, when the archbishopric of 
Canterbury became vacant, the chapter filled it by electing their own 
■nperior Beginald. This choice they had soon cause to rue. They 
therefore annulled their election, and at the wish of the usurping king John 
Lackland made choice of John, bishop of Norwich. Innocent refused to 
confirm their action, and persuaded certain members of the chapter stay- 
ing in B(»me to choose the cardinal priest Stephen Langton, whose elec- 
tion he immediately confirmed.* When the king refused to recognise this 
appointment, and on an interdict being threatened swore that he would 
drive all priests who should obey it out of the country, the popo issued it 
in AJ>.1208 against all England, excommunicated the king, and finally, in 

> On Stephen Langton see Pearson, *' History of England during Early 
anl Midde Ages," vol. ii. Milman, ** History of Latin ChristiHuity,** 
Tol. iv. London, 1864. Hook, •• Lives of Archbishops of Canterbury," 
vol. ii., 4th ediiion. Loudun, 1870, pp. 657-7Ö1. Maurice, ''Lives of 
English Popular Leaders. 1. Stephen Langton." London. 


A.D. 1212, released all his subjects from their oath of allegiance and de- 
posed the monarch, while he conmiissioned Philip Augustas of France to 
carry the sentence into effect. John, now as cringing and terrified as 
before he had been proud and despotic, humbled himself in the dust, and 
at Dover, in a.D. 1213, placed kingdom and crown at the feet of the papal 
legate Pandulf , and received it from his hands as a papal fief, undertaking 
to pay twice a year the tribute imposed. But in aj>. 1214 the English 
nobles extorted from their cowardly tyrant as a safeguard against lo diy 
wilfulness and despotism the famous Magna Chana, against which the 
pope protested, threatening excommunication and promising legitimate 
reilress of their grievances, though in consequence of confusion caused 
by the breaking out again of the civil wars he was unable to enforce his 
protest. And now his days were drawing to an end. At the famous 
Fourth Lateran Cooncil of A.D. 1215, more than 1,500 prelates from all 
the countries of Christendom, along with the ambassadors of almost all 
Christian kings, princes and free cities, gave him homage as the repre- 
sentative of God on earth, as visible Head of tbe Church, aud supreme 
lord and judge of all princes and peoples. A few months later he died. — 
As in Italy and Germany, in France and England, he had also in all 
other states of the Christian wurld, in Spain and Portugal, in Poland, 
Livonia and Sweden, in Constantinople and Bulgaria, shown himself 
capable of controlling political as well as ecclesiastical movements, 
arranging and smoothing down differences, organizing and puttin»( into 
shape what was tending to disorder. Some conception of his activity 
may be formed from the 5,316 extant decretals of the eighteen years of 
bis pontificate. 

19. The Times of Frederick n. and his Successors, A.D. 1215-1268.— 
Frederick II,' a.d. 1215-1250, contrary to the Hohenstaufen custom, had 
not only agreed to the partition of Sicily from the empire in favour 
of his son Henry, but also renewed the agreements previously entered 
into with the pope by Otto IV. He even increased the papal possession! 
by ceding Ancona, aud still further at his coronation at Aachen he 
showed his goodwill by undertaking a crusade. He also allowed this 
same Henry who became king of Sicily as a vassal of the pope, to be 
elected kiug of the Komans in a.d. 1220. and then began his journey to 
Bome to receive imperial coronation. The new pope Uonorios III., a.d. 
1216-1227, formerly Frederick's tutor and even still entertaining for him 
a fatherly affection, exacted from him a solemn renewal of his earlier 
promises. But instead of returning to Germany, Frederick started for 
Sicily in order to make it the basis of operations for the future carrying 
out of the ideas of his father and grandfather. The peace-loving pope 

1 Kingston, " History of Frederick II., King of the Bomans.'* London, 


coDKiantly nrged him to fulfil his promise of fitting out a crusade. .But 
it was only after his successor Gregory IX., a.d. 1227-1241, a high church- 
man of the stamp of Gregory YII. and Innocent III., urged the matter 
with greater determination, that Frederick actually embarked. He 
tamed back, however, as soon as an epidemic broke out in the ships, 
but he did not himself escape the contagion, and died three days after. 
In A.D. 1327 the pope had in a senseless passion hurled an anathema 
against him, and, in an encycUcal to all the bishops, paiuted the 
emperor's ingratitude and breach of faith in the darkest colours. The 
emperor on his part, in a manifesto justifying himself addressed to the 
piiuces and people of Europe, had quite as unsparingly lashed the world- 
liness of the church, the corruption, presumption and self-seeking of tlie 
papacy, and then in a.d. 1228 he again undertook the postponed crusade 
(S ^^^ ^)* "^^o pope's curse followed ** the pirate " to the very threshold 
of the Holy Sepulchre, and a papal crusading force made a raid upon 
Southern Italy. Frederick therefore hastened his return, landed in a.D. 
1229 in Apulia, and entered into negotiations for peace, to which, how- 
erer, the pope agreed only in a.D. 1230, when the emperor's TictoriouHly 
advancing troops threatened him with the loss of the States of the 
Church. In consequence of the pope*s continued difficulties with his 
Bomans, who drove him three times out of the city, Frederick had 
frequent opportunities of showing himself serviceable to the pope by 
giving direct aid or mediating in his favour. Nevertheless he continu- 
ally conspired with the rebellious Lombards, and in a.d. 1239 renewed 
the ban against the emperor. The pope who had hitherto only charged 
Frederick with a tendency to freethiuking, as well as an inclination to 
&vonr the Saracens (§ 95, 1), and to maintain friendly intercourse with 
the Syrian sultans, now accused him of flippant infidelity. The em- 
peror, it was said, had among other things declared that the birth of 
the Saviour by a virgin was a fablC; and that Jesus, Moses and Moham- 
med were the three greatest impostors the world had ever seen, — a form 
of unbelief which spread very widely in consequence of the crusades. 
Manifestoes and counter-manifestoes sought to outdo one another in 
their violence. And while the wild hordes of the Mongols were over- 
spreading unopposed the whole of Eastern Europe, the emperor's troops 
were victoriously pressing forward to the gates of Rome, and his ships 
were preventing the meeting of the council summoned against him by 
catching the prelates who in spite of his prohibition were hastening to 
it The pope died in a.d. 1241, and was followed in seventeen days by 
his successor ('oslestine IV. 

20. For almost two years the papal chair remained vacant. Then this 
position was won by Innocent lY., a.d. 1243-1254, who as cardinal had 
been friendly to the emperor, but as pope was a most bitter enemy to 
ham and to hia houe. The negotiations about the removal of the ban 


were broken off, and Innocent escaped to France, where at the Tint 
Lyonese or 13ch (Ecamenical CaoncU of AD. 1245, attended by scarcely 
any bat Frenchoien and Spaniards, he renewed the excommunication of 
the emperor, and declared him as a blasphemer and robber of the church 
deprived of his thr >ne. Once as^ain with the most abjtict humility 
Frederick sued for reconcHlation with the church. The pope, however, 
wished not for reconcUiatioo, but the destruction of the whole *' vi)>er 
brood *' of the Hohenstaufens. But the rival king, Henry Raspe of 
Thuringia, set up by the papal party in Germany, and William of 
Holland, who was put forward after hie death in a.D. 1247, could not 
maintain their position against Frederick's son, Conrad IV., who as 
early as a.d. 1235 had been elected in place of his rebel brother Henry as 
king of the Bomans. Even in Italy the fortune of war favoured at first 
the imperial arms. At the siege of Parma, which was dibloyal, the tide * 
began to turn. The sorely pressed ciiizens made a sally in jl.d. 124d, 
while Frederick was away at a hunt, and roused to courage by despair, 
put his army to flight. His brave son, Enzio, king of Sardinia and 
governor of Northern Italy, fell in a.d. 1249 into the hands of the 
Bolognese, and was subjected to a life-long imprisonment. Frederick 
himself in a.D. 1250 closed his active life in the south in the arms of his 
son Manfred. The pope then returned to Italy, in order to take posses- 
sion of the Sicilian kingdom, which he claimed as a papal fief. But 
in A.D. 1251 Conrad lY., summoned by Manfred, hasted thither from 
Germany, subdued Apulia, conquered Naples, aud was resolved to lay 
bands on the person of the pope himself, who had also excommunicated 
him, when his career was stopped by death in a.D. 1254, in his twenty- 
sixth year. On behalf of Conrad's two-year-old son. Conradin, who had 
been bom in Germany after his father's departure, Manfred undertook the 
regeucy in Southern Italy, but found himself obliged to aoknowledge the 
pope's suzerainty. Nevertheless the pope was determined to have him 
also overthrown. Manfred, however, escaped in time to the Saracenio 
eolony of Luceria, and with its help utterly defeated the papal troops sent 
out against him. Five days after Innocent IV. died. Alexander lY., 
▲.D. 1254-1261, although without his predecessor'^ ability, sought still 
to continue his work. He could not, however, either by ban or by war 
prevent Manfred, who on the report of Conradin's death had had himself 
erowned, from extending the power and prestige of his kingdom farther 
aud further into the north. Urban lY., a.D. 1261-1264, a FTenchman 
by birth, son of a shoemaker of Troyes, took np with all his heart the 
heritage of hate a^^aiust the Hohenstsufens, and in A.D. 1263 invited 
Charles of Anjou, the youngest brother of Louis IX. of France, to win 
by conquest the Siciliau crown. While the prince was preparing for the 
campaign Urban died. His successor, Clement lY., A.D. 1265-1268, also 
ft Frenchman, ooold not but carry out what his pxwUoesaor had began. 


Charles, whom the Bomans withoat the knowledge of the pope had 
elected their senator, proceeded in a.D. 12t55 into Italy, took the Tassal 
oath of fealty, and was crowned as Charles I., A.D. 1265-1285, king of the 
two Sicilies. Treachery opened np his way into Naples. Manfred fell in 
A.D. 12G6 in the battle of Benevento ; and Conradin, whom the Obibcl- 
lines had called in as a deliverer of Italy, after the disastroas battle of 
Tagliacozzo in a.d. 1268, died on the scaffold in his sixteenth year. 

21. The Times of the House of Anjon down to Boniface Till., A.D. 1268- 
1294. — The papacy had emerged triumphantly from its hundred years' 
straggle with the Hohenstaufens, and by the overthrow of this powerful 
hoase Germany was thrown into the ntmost confusion and anarchy. 
But Italy, too, was now in a condition of extreme disorder, and the 
tmconscionable tyrants of Naples subjected it to a much more intoler- 
able bondage than those had done from whom they pretended to have 
delivered it. After the death of Clement IV. the Holy See remained vacant 
for three years. The cardinals would not elect such a pope as would 
be agreeable to Charles I. During this papal vacancy Louis IX. of 
France, a.d. 1226-1270, fitted out the seventh and last crusade (§ 94, 6), 
from which he was not to return. As previously he had reformed the 
administration of justice, he now before his departure introduced drastic 
reforms in the ecclesiastical institutions of his kingdom, which laid the 
first fonndations of the celebrated ** Galilean Liberties.** Clement IV. 
gave occasion for such procedure on the part of the monarch who was a 
model of piety after the standard of those times, by claiming in a.d. 1266 
for the papal chair the pUnaria dispositio of all prebends and benefices. 
In opposition to this assumption the king secured by a Pragmatio 
Sanction of a.o. 1269 to all churches and monasteries of his realm un- 
conditional freedom of all elections and presentations according to old 
existing rights, confirmed to them anew all privileges and immunities 
previously granted them, forbade every form of simony as a heinous 
erime, and prohibited all extraordinary taxation of church property on 
the part of the Boman curia. — At last the cardinals took courage and 
elected Gregory Z., a.d. 1271-1276. an Italian of the noble house of 
Visconti. The desolating interregnum in Germany was also put an end 
to by the election of Count Rudolf of Hapsburg, a.D. 1273-1291, as king of 
the Germans. At the Second Lyonese or 14th (Ecnmeoical Council of A.D. 
1274. the worthy pope continued his endeavours without avail to rouse 
the flagging enthusiasm of the princes so as to get them to undertake 
another crusade. The union with the Greek church did not prove of an 
enduring kind (J 67,4). The constitution, too, sanctioned at the council, 
whieh provided, in order to prevent prolonged vacancies in the papal 
■ee, that the election of pope should not only be proceeded with in 
immured conclaves in the place where the deceased pope last resided 
with tb« onria, but alio (though this was again abrogated in a.D. 1351 


by a decree of Clement VI.) Rboald be expedited by limiting tbe supply of 
food after three days to one dish, after other five days to water, wine, and 
bread. Yet this completely failed to secure the object desired. More 
succeßsful, however, were the negotiations carried on at Lyons with the 
ambassadors of the new German king. Rudolf, in entering upon his 
government, renewed all the concessions made by Otto IV. and Frederick 
II., renounced all imperial claims upon Rome and the States of the 
Church, with the exception of the possessions of Matilda, and abandoned 
all pretension to Sicily. The pope on his part acknowledged him as king 
of the Romans and undertook to crown him emperor in Rome, where 
this agreement was to be formally ratified and signed. But Gregory died 
before arrangements had been completed. 

22. The three following popes. Innocent Y., Hadrian Y., and John 
XXI., died soon after one another. The last named, previously known 
AS Petrus Hispaous, had distinguished himself by his medical and 
philosophical writings. He was properly the twentieth Pope John, but 
as there was a slight element of uncertainty (§ 82, 6) he designated 
himself the twenty- first. After a six months* vacancy Hicholas III., 
A.D. 1277-1280, mounted the papal throne. By diplomacy he secured 
the ratification of the still undecided concordat with the German king- 
dom, and Rudolf, who had enough to do in Germany, immediately 
withdrew from Italian affairs, even abandoning his claims to imperial 
coronation. The powerful pope, whose pontificate was marked by 
rapacity and nepotism, and who is therefore put by Dante in hell, did 
not live long enough to carry out his plans for the overthrow of the 
French yoke in Italy. But he obliged Charles I. to resign Jiia Roman 
senatorship, and secretly encouraged a conspiracy of the Sicilians, which 
under his successor Martin lY., a.d. 1281-1285, a Frenchman and a 
pliable tool of Charles, broke out in the terrible ** SioiUan Vespers " of 
A.D. 1282. The island of Sicily was thereby rent from the French rule 
and papal vassalage, and in a roundabout way the Hohenstaufens bv the 
female line regained the government of this part of their old inherit 
tance (§ 95, 1). Rome now again in a.d. 1284 shook off the senatorial rule 
which Charles I. had meanwhile again assumed, and after his death and 
that of Martin, which speedily followed, they transferred this dignity to 
the new pope Honoriiur lY., a.d. 1285-1*287, whose short but vigorous 
reign was followed by a vacancy of eleven months. The Franciscan 
general then mounted the papal throne as Hicholas lY., a.D. 1288-1292. 
He filled up the period of his pontificate with vain endeavours to 
revive the spirit of the crusades and secure the suppression of heresy. 
Violent party feuds of cardinals of the Orsini and Colonua factions 
delayed the election of a pope after his death for two years. They 
united at last in electing the most unfit conceivable, Peter of Mnr- 
I0D8 (S 98, 2), who, as CalettiBe Y. changed the monk's eowl for tk« 


papal tiara, bnt was persuaded after four months by the sly and ambi- 
tioas Cardinal Cajetan to resign. Cajetan now himself sacceeded in a.d. 
1294 as Boniface VIII. Tlie poor monk was confined by him in a tower, 
where he died. He was afterwards canonized by Pope John XXII. 

23. Temporal Power of the Popes. — ^During the 12th and 13th centuries, 
when the spiritual power of the papacy had reached its highest point, 
the p3pe came to be regarded as the absolute head of the church. 
Gregory VII. arrogated the right of confirming all episcopal elections. 
The papal recommendations to vacant sees {Freces, whence those so 
recommended were called PrecUUe) were from the time of Innocent IIL 
transformed into mandates (Mandata), and Clement IV. claimed for the 
papal chair the right of a ptenario dupoiitio of all ecclesiastical benefices. 
Even in the 12th century the theory was put forth as in accordance with 
the canon law that all ecclesiastical possessions were the property not of 
the particular churches concerned but of God or Christ, and so of the 
pope as His representative, who in administering them was responsible to 
Him alone. Hence the popes, in special cases when the ordinary revenues 
of the curia were insufficient, had no hesitation in exercising the right 
of levying a tax upon ecclesiastical property. They heard appeals from 
all tribunals and could give dispensations from existing church laws. The 
night of canonization (§ 101,8), which was previously in the power of 
each bishop with application simply to his own diocese, was for the first 
time exercised with a claim for recognition over the whole church by 
John XV., in a.D. 993, without, however, any word of withdrawing their 
privilege from the bishops. Alexander III, was the first to declare in 
AJ}, 1170 that canonization was exclusively the right of the papal chair. 
The system of Gregory VIL made no claim of doctrinal infallibility for 
the Holy See, though his ignorance of history led him to suppose that 
no heretic had ever presided over the Boman church, and his under- 
standing of Luke xxii. 32 made him confidently expect that none ever 
would. Innocent III., indeed, publicly acknowledged that even the 
pope might err in matters of faith, and then, but only then, become 
Amenable to the judgment of the church. And Innocent IV., fifty years 
later, taught that the pope might err. It is therefore wrong to say, 
** I believe what the pope believes " ; for one should believe only what 
the church teaches. Thomas Aquinas was the first who expressly main- 
tained the doctrine of papal infallibility. He says that the pope alone 
can decide finally upon matters of faith, and that even the decrees of 
councils only become valid and authoritative when confirmed by him. 
Thomas, however, never went the length of maintaining that the pope 
can by himself affirm any dogma without the advice and previous 
deliberations of a council. — Kissing the feet sprang from an Italian 
eustom, and even an emperor like Frederick Barbarossa humbled 
himaelf to hold the pope's stirrup. According to the Donation of Com» 


ttantine doeoment (§ 87, 4), Constantine the Great had himself per- 
formed this office of equerry to Pope Sylvester. When the ooronation 
of the pope was introduoed is still a disputed point. Nicholas I. was, 
according to the Lib'r pontißcalist formally crowned on his accession. 
Previously the successors of the apostles were satisfied with a simple 
episcopal mitre (§ 84, 1), which on the head of the crowned pope was 
developed into the tiara ($ 100, 15). At the Lateran Council of a.d 1033 
Hildebrand is said to have set upon the head of the new pope Nicholas 
II. a double crown to indicate the council's recognition of lus teiupond 
and spiritual sovereignty. The papal granting of a golden rose con- 
seerated by prayer, iuceose, balsam and holy water to princes of exem- 
plaxy piety or even to prominent monasteries, ehurches, or cities, 
conveying an obligation to make acknowledgment by a large money gift, 
dates as far back as the 12th century. So far as is known, Louis VIL 
was the first to receive it from Alexander III. in a.D. 1163. — The popes 
appointed legates to represent them abroad, aa they had done even 
earlier at the synods held in the East. Afterwards, when the institu- 
tion came to be more fully elaborated, a distinction was made between 
Legati misti or nuotios and LcgaU nati. The former were appointed 
as required for diplomatic negotiations, visitation and organization of 
churches, as well as for the holding of provincial synods, at which they 
presided. They were called Legati a latere^ if the spacial importance of 
the business demanded a representation from among the nearest and most 
trusted councillors of the pope, i.e. one of the cardinals, as PofUificc$ 
eollateralet. The rank of horn legate, Legatut natut, on the other hand, 
was a prelatic dignity of the highest order conferred once for all by papal 
privilege, sometimes even upon temporal princes, who had apooially 
served the Holy See, as for example the king of Huugary and the 
Norman princes of Italy (Nos. 3, 13), which made them permaneutly 
representatives of the pope invested with certain ecclesiastical preroga- 
tives. — Among the numerous literary and documentary ficLions aad 
forgeries with which the Gregorian papal system sought to support its 
•ver-advancing pretensions to authority over the whole church, is one 
which may be regarded as tht contemporary supplement to the work of 
the Pseudo-Isidore. It is the production of a Latin theologian residing in 
the East, otherwise unknown, who, at the time of the controversies waged 
at the Lyonese Council of k,v. 1274 between the Greeks and Ltttius 
(§ 67, 4), brought forth what professed to be an unbroken chain of tradi- 
tions from alleged decrees and canons of the most famous Greek Coun- 
cils, e,g. Nicaea, Chalcedon, etc., and church fathers, most frequently from 
Cyril of Alexandria, the so-called Pseudo-Cyril, in which the controverted 
questions were settled in favour of the Boman pretensions, and especially 
the most extreme claims to the primacy of the pope were asserted. It 
was presented in a.D. 1261 to Urban IV., who immediately guaranteed 

§ 97. THB CLEBGY. 59 

M genoinenesB in a letter to the emperor Michael Palieologns. On its 
Adoption by Thomas Aquinas, who diligently employed its contents in 
his controverdies against the Greeks as well as in his dogmatic works, it 
won respect and authority throoghout all the countries of the West. 

§ 97. The Clergy. 

By tithes, legacies, donations, impropriations, and the 
rising value of landed estates, the wealth of churches and 
monasteries grew from year to year. In this way benefit 
was secured not only to the clergy and the monks, but also 
in many ways to the poor and needy. The law of celibacy 
strictly enforced by Gregory VII. saved the church from 
the impoverishment with which it was beginning to be 
threatened by the dividing or squandering of the property 
of the church upon the children of the clergy. But 
while an absolute stop was put to the marriage of the 
clergy, it tended greatly to foster concubinage, and yet 
more shameful vices. Yet notwithstanding all the cor- 
ruption that prevailed among the clerical order it cannot 
be denied that the superior as well as the inferior clergy 
embraced a great number of worthy and strictly moral 
men, and that the sacerdotal office which the people could 
quite well distinguish from the individuals occupying it, 
still continued to be highly respected in spite of the 
immoral lives of many priests. Even more hurtful to the 
exercise of their pastoral work than the immorality of indi- 
vidual clergymen was the widespread illiteracy and gross 
ignorance of Christian truth of those who should have been 

1. The Soman College of Cardinals. — ^All the clergy attached to one 
particular church were called Clerici eardinaie$ down to the 11th 
century. But after Leo IX. had reformed and re-organized the Roman 
elergy, and especially after Nicholas 11. in a.D. 1059 had trannf erred the 
right of papal election to the Roman cardinals, i.e, the seven bishops of 
the Roman metropolitan dioceses and to the presbyters and deacons of 
the principal churches of Rome, the title of cardinal was given to them 
at fM hj way of aminenoe and Tery soon exclusively. It was not till 


the 13th centary that it became nsnal to give to foreign prelates the 
rank of Boman cardinal priests as a mark of distinction. Under the 
name of the holy college the cardinals, as the spiritual dignitaries most 
nearly associated with the pope, formed his ecclesiastical and civil council, 
and were also as such entrusted with the highest offices of stute in the 
papal domains. Innocent IV. at Lyons in a.D. 1245 gaye to them ai a 
distinction the red hat ; Boniface VIII. in a.D. 1297 gave them the purple 
mantle that indicated princely rank. To these Paul II. in a.d. 1464 
added the right of riding the white palfrey with red cloth and golden 
bridle; and finally, Urban VIII. in a.d. 1630 gave them the title 
** Eminence.*' Sixtas V. in a.D. 1586 fixed their number at seventy, after 
the pattern of the elders of Israel, Exod. xxiv. 1, and the seventy disciples 
of Jesus, Luke x. 1. The popes, however, took care to keep a greater or 
less number of places vacant, so that they might have opportunities of 
showing favour and bestowing gifts when necessary. The cardinals were 
chosen in aecordaoce with the arbitrary will of the individual pope, who 
nominated them by presenting them with the red hat, and installed 
them into their high position by the ceremony of closing and opening 
the mantle. From the time of Eugenius IV., a.D. 1431, the college of 
cardinals put every newly elected pope under a solemn oath to maintain 
the rights and privileges of the cardinals and not to come to any serious 
and important resolution without their advice and approval. 

2. The PoliticAl Importance of the Superior Clergy (§ 84) reached itg 
highest point during this period. This w^vs oarried furthest in Germany, 
especially under the Saxon imperial dynasty. On more than one 
occasion did the wise and firm policy of the German clergy, splendidly 
organized under the leadership of the primate of Mainz, save the 
German nation from overthrow or dismemberment threatened by 
ambitious princes. This power consisted not merely in influence over 
men*s minds, but also in their position as members of the states of the 
empire and territorial lords. Whether or not a warlike expedition was to 
be undertaken depended often only on the consent or refusal of the 
league of lords spiritual. It was the policy of the clergy to secure a 
tmited, strong, well-organized Germany. The surrounding countries 
wished to be included in the German league of churches and states ; not, 
however, as the emperor wished, as crown lands, but as portions of the 
empire. Against expeditions to Bome, which took the attention of Ger- 
man prinoes away from German affairs and ruined Germany, the German 
clergy protested in the most decided manner. They wished the chair of 
St. Peter to be free and independent as a European, not a German, in- 
stitution, with the emperor as its supporter not its oppressor, but tbey 
manfully resisted all the assumptions and encroachments of the popes. 
One of the most celebrated of the German dignitaries of any age was 
Bmno the Great, brother of the Emperor Otto I., equally distinguished 

§ 97. THE CLBBQ7. 61 

M A titatemuui and as a reformer of the charoh, and the unwearied pro* 
moter of libeial studies. Chancellor under his imperial brother from 
A»D. ViO, he was his most trusted coansellor, and was appointed by him 
in A.D. 953 Archbishop of Cologne, and was soon after made Duke of 
Loirraine. He died in a d. 965. Another example of a German prelate 
of the true sort is seen in Willigis of Mainz, who died in ▲•d. 1011» 
under the two last Ottos and Henry U., whom he raised to the throne. 
The good understanding that was brought about between this monarch 
and the clergy of Germany was in great measure owing to the wise 
policy of this prelate. Under Henry I V. the German clergy got split up 
into three parties, — the papal party of Clugny under Gebhard of Salz- 
burg, including ahnost all the Saxon bishops ; an imperial party under 
Adalbert of Bremen, who endeavoured with the emperor's help to found 
a northern patriarchate, which undoubtedly tended to become a northern 
papacy; and an independent German party under St. Anno U. of 
Cidogne ($ 96, 6), in which notwithstanding much violence, ambition, 
and self-seeking, there still survived much of the spirit that had character- 
ized the policy of the old German bishops. Henry V., too, as well aa 
the first Hohenstaufens, had sturdy supporters in the German clergy ; 
but Frederick II. by his ill treatment of the bishops alienated their 
clergy from the interest of the crown. The rise of the imperial digni- 
taries alter the time of Otto I., and the transfereuce to them under 
Otto IV. of the election of emperor raised the archbishops of Mainz, 
Treves, and Cologne to the rank of spiritual electoral princes as arch- 
ebaplains or archohanoellors. The Golden Bull of Charles IV., in aj>. 
1356 (S 110, 4), confirmed and tubulated their rights and duties. 

3. The Bishops and the Cathedral Chapter. — The bishops exercised juris- 
diction over all the clergy of their diocese, and punished by deprivation 
of office and imprisonment in monosteriea. Especially questions of 
marriage, wills, oaths, were brought before their tribunal. The German 
synodal judicatures soon gave way before the Boman judiciary system. 
The archdeacons emancipated themselves more and more from episcopal 
authority and abused their power in so arbitrary a way that in the 12th 
eentury the entire institution was set aside. For the discharge of busi- 
ness episcopal officials and vicars were then introduced. The Chorepi* 
Mcapi (S 81) had passed out of the 10th century. But during the 
erusades many Catholic bishoprics had been founded in the East. The 
occupants of these when driven away clung to their titles in hopes of 
better times, and found employment as assistants or suflragaus of Western 
bishops. Thus arose the order of Episcopi in partibus (*e, inßdelium) 
which has continued to this day, as a witness of iualienable rights, 
and as affording a constant opportunity to the popes of showing favour 
and giving rewards For the exercise of the archepiscopal office, the 
Fourth Lateran Council of a.d. 1215 made the receiving from the pope the 

62 THE OBBMANO-fiOMAlttO d^JBOH TO A.D. 199i. 

palliam (J 59, 7) an absolutely essential condition, and those elected were 
obliged to pay to the onria an arbitrary tax of a large amount called the 
palliom fee. The canonical life (§ 84, 4) from the 10th century began 
more and more to lose its moral weight and importance. Out of attempts 
ftt reform in the 11th century arose the distinction of Canonici neculare» 
and reffularei. The latter lived in cloisters according to monkish rules, 
and were zealoas for the good old discipline and order, but sooner or later 
gave way to worldliiiees. The rich revenues of cathedral chapters made 
Ibe reversion of prebeudal stalls the almost exclusive privilege of the 
higher nobility, notwithstanding the earnest opposition of the popes. 
In the course of the 13th century the cathedral clergy, with the help of 
the popes, arrogated to themselves the sole right of episcopal elections, 
ignoring altogether the claims of the diocesan clergy and the people or 
nobles. The cathedral clergy also made themselves independent of 
episcopal control. They lived mostly outside of the cathedral diocese, 
and had their canonical duties performed by vicars. The chapter filled 
np vacancies by co-optation. 

4. Endeavours to Heform the Clergy. — k» a reformer of the English 
clergy, who had sank very low iu ignorance, rudeness and immorality, the 
most conspicuous figure during the 10th century was St. Dwistan. He 
became ArcU bishop of Canterbury in a.d 969 and died in A.D. 988. He 
■ought at once to advance the standard of education among the clergy 
and to inspire the Church with a higher moral and religions spirit. For 
these ends he laboured on with an energy and force of will and an 
indexible consistency and strictne^is in the pursuit of his hierarchical 
ideals, which mark him out as a HUdebrand before Hildebrand. Even 
as abbot of the monastery of Qlastonbury he had given a forecast of his 
life work by restoring and making more severe the ifule of St. Benedict, 
and forming a brotherhood thoroughly disciplined in science and in 
ascetical exercises, from the membership of which, after he had become 
bishop of Worcester, then of London, and finally primate of England and 
the most influential councillor of four successive kings, he could fill the 
places of the secular priesti and canons whom he expelled from their 
cures. As the primary condition of all clerical reformation he insisted 
upon the unrelenting'y consistent putting down of marriage and con« 
enbinage among the priests.^ — In the 11th century St. Peter Damiani 
distinguished himself as a zealous snppoiter of the reform p.irty of 
Clttgny in the struggle against simony, clerical immorality, and the 
marriage of priests. This obtained for him not only his position as 
cardinal-bishop of Ostia, but also his frequent employment, as papal 

^ Stubbs, '* Memorials of St. Dunstan. Collection of six Biographies." 
London, 1875. Soames, " Anglo-Saxon Church." London, 1835. Hook, 
^* Livee of Arohb. of Canterbury.*' Vol i., pp. 38d-426. Loudon, 184iO. 

§ 97. THE CLEBOT. I 63 

legate in serioiui negotiations. In a.d. 1061 he resigned his bishopric 
and retired into a monastery, where he died in a.d. 1072. His friend 
Hildebrand, who repeatedly called him forth from his retreat to oocapy % 
•onspicuoufl place among the contenders for his hieravebiool ideil, was 
therefore called by him his ** holy Satan." He had indeed little interest 
in pressing hierarchical and political claims, and was inclined rather 
to nrge moral reforms within the church itself. In his Liber Oomof' 
rhiamu he drew a fearful picture of the clerical depravity of his times, 
ard that with a nakedness of detail which gave to Pope Alexander II. a 
eolourable excuse for the suppression of the book. For himself, how- 
ever, Damiani sought no other pleasure than that of scourging himself 
till the blood flowed in his lonely cell (§ 106, 4). His collected works, 
consisting of epistles, addresses, tracts and monkish biographies were 
puhlished at Bome in a.d. 1602 in 4 vols, by Cardioal Oajetan.— In the 
12th century St. HiMeg.vrd (§ 107, 1) and the abbot Joachim of Floiis, 
($ 108, 5) raised their voices against the moral degradation of the clergy, 
and among the men who contributed largely to the restoring of clerical 
diseipline, the noble provost GervKsh of Kf icher.:tberg iu Bavaria, who died 
in A n. 1169 (J 102, 5) and the canon Norbert, subsequently archbishop 
of Magdeburg (§ 98, 2), are de3<)rving of special mention. — In the 13th 
century in England Bobert Orosseteite distinguished himself as a prelate 
of great nubility and force of character. After being chancellor of Oxford 
he became bishop of Lincoln, en3rgetically reforming many abases in his 
diocese, and persistently contending against any form of papal encroach- 
ment. He died in a.d. 1253. ^ 

5. The Pataria of Milai. — Nowhere during the 11th century were 
■imony, concubinage and priests' marriages more general than among 
the Lombard clergy, and in no other place was such determined opposition 
offered to Hildebrand's reforms. At the head of this opposition stood 
Guido, archbishop of Milan, whom Henry IH. deposed in a.d. 1016. 
Against the papal demands, he pressed the old claims of his chair to 
autonomy (§ 46, 1) and renounced allegiance to Bome. The nobles and 
the clergy supported Guido. But two deacons, Ariald and Landulf, about 
A.D. 1057 formed a conspiracy among the common people, against *' the 
KicoLiitan sect*' (§ 27, 8). To this party its opponents gave the oppro- 
brious name of Pataria, Paterini, from patalia, meaning rabble, riffrafP, 
or from Pattarea, a back street of ill fame in Milau, the quarter of the 
rabble, where the Arialdists held their secret meetings. They took the 
name gi^en in reproach as a title of honour, and after receiving military 
organization from Erlembald, Landulf 's brother, they opened a campaign 
against the married priest«. For thirty years this struggle continued to 
deluge city and country with blood. 

1 Lnard, '* Boberti Grösf eteste, Epi^copi quondam Lineolniensis Epi« 
stole." Louvlon, lSi2. 


5 98. Monastic Orders and Institutions. 

In spite of the great and constantly increasing corrup- 
tion the monastic idea during this period had a wonderfully 
rapid development, and more persistently and successfuUy 
than ever before or since the monks urged their claims 
to be regarded as " the knighthood of asceticism." A 
vast number of monkish orders arose, taking the place 
for the most part of existing orders which had relaxed 
their rules. These were partly reformed oflf-shoots of the 
Benedictine order, partly new organizations reared on an 
independent basis. New monasteries were being built 
almost every day, often even within the cities. The re- 
formed Benedictine monasteries clustered in a group 
around the parent monastery whose reformed rule they 
adopted, forming an organized society with a common 
centre. These groups were therefore called Congregations. 
The oldest and, for two centuries, the most important, of 
these congregations was that of the Brethren of Clugny, 
whose ardent zeal for reform in the hierarchical direction 
was mainly instrumental in raising again the church and 
the papacy out of that degradation and corruption into 
whic^ they had fallen during the 10th and 11th centuries. 
The otherwise less important order of the Camaldolites 
was also a vigorous promoter of these movements. But 
Clugny had in Clairvaux a rival which shared with it on 
almost equal terms the respect and reverence of that age. 
The unreformed monasteries of the Benedictines, on the 
other hand, still continued their easy, luxurious style of 
living. They were commonly called the Black Monks to 
distinguish them from the Cistercians who were known 
as the White Monks. In order to prevent a constant 
splitting up of the monkish fraternities, Innocent III. at 
tihe Lateran Canncil of A.D. 1215 forbade the founding 


of new orders. Yet he himself took part in the formation 
of the two great mendicant orders, and also the following 
popes issued no prohibition. — The papacy .had in the 
monkish orders its standing army. It was to them, in a 
special manner, that Gregory's system owed its success. 
But they were also by far the most important promoters 
and fosterers of learning, science, and art. The pope in 
various ways favoured the emancipation of the monasteries 
from episcopal control, their so-called Exemption ; and con- 
ferred upon the abbots of famous monasteries what was 
practically episcopal rank, with liberty to wear the bishop's 
mitre, so that they were called Mitred Abbots (§ 84, 1). 
The princes too classed the abbots in respect of dignity 
and order next to the bishops; and the people, who saw 
the popular idea of the church more and more represented 
in the monasteries, honoured them with unmeasured reve- 
rence. From the 10th century the monks came to be 
considered a distinct religious order {Ordo religiosorum). 
Lay brethren, Fratres conversi, were now taken in to dis- 
charge the worldly business of the monastery. They were 
designated Fratres, while the others who received clerical 
ordination were addressed as Patres. The monks rarely 
lived on good terms with the secular clergy; for the 
former as confessors and mass priests often seriously 
interfered with the rights and revenues of the latter. — 
Besides the many monkish orders, with their strict seclu- 
sion, perpetual vows and ecclesiastically sanctioned rule, 
we meet with organizations of a freer type such as the 
Humiliati of Milan, consisting of whole families. Of a 
similar tjipe were the Beguines and Beghards of the 
Netherlands, the former composed of women, the latter of 
men. These people abandoned their handicraft and their 
domestic and civic duties for a monastic-like mode of life 
retired from the world. The crusading enthusiasm also 

VOL. Q. c 


occasioned a combination of the monastic idea with that 
of knighthood, and led to the formation of the so-called 
Orders of Knights, which with a Grandmaster and several 
Commanders, were divided into Knights, Priests, and Serv- 
ing Brethren. — Continuation, § 112. 

1. GAboots of the Benedictines.— (1) The Brethren of Clngny* Among 
tbe Benedictines, since tiieir reformation by the second Benedict 
(§ 35, 2) many serious abases had crept in. After the Bargandian Count 
Bemo, who died in a.D. 927, had done useful service by restoring dis- 
cipline and order in two monasteries of which he was abbot, tbe Duke 
William of Aquitaine founded for him a new institution. Thus arose in 
A.D. 910 the celebrated monastery of Clugny, Cluniaeumt in Burgandy, 
which the founder placed under immediate papal control. Berno*s suc- 
cessor Odo, who died in a.D. 942, abandoning the life of a courtier on his 
recovery from a severe illness, made it the head and heart of a separate 
Clagny- Congregation as a brauch of the Benedictine order. Strict 
asceticism, a beautiful and artistic service, zealous prosecution of science 
and the education of the young, with yet greater energy in the pro- 
motion of a hierarchical reform of the church as a whole, as well as an 
entire scries of able abbots, among whom Odilo (f a.d. 1048), the friend 
of Hildebrand, and Peter the Venerable (f a.d. 1156) are specially pro- 
minent, gave to this congregation, which in the 12th century had 2,000 
monasteries in France, an iufluence quite unparalleled in this whole 
period. The abbot of Clugny stood at the head, and appointed the priors 
for all the other monasteries. Under the licentious Abbot Pontius, who 
on account of his base conduct was deposed in a.d. 1122, the order fell 
into decay, but rose again under Peter the Venerable. Continuation, 
I 164, 2.— (2) The Congregation of the Camaldoiltes was foanded in a.D. 
1018 by the Benedictine Komuald, descended from the Duke of Bavenna, 
at Camaldoli (Campus Maldoli)^ a wild district in the Apennines. In a.d. 
1086 a nunnery was placed alongside of the monastery. The president 
of the parent monastery at Camaldoli stood at the head of the whole 
order as Major. The order carried out enthusiastically the liigh church 
ideal of Clugny, and won great influence in its time, although it by no 
means attained the impurtauce of the French order. — (3) Twenty years 
later, in a.d. 1038, the Florentine Gualbertus fcunded the Order of Val- 
lombrosa, in a romantically situated shady valley of the Apennines ( VallU 
tiiii&rota), according to the rule of Benedict. This was the first of all 
the orders to appoiut lay brethren for the management of worldly busi- 
ness, in order that the monks might observe their vow of silence and 
strict seclusion. The parent mouastcry attained to great wealth and 
reputation, but it never had a great number of alEUated institutions.— 



(4) The Cistercians. In a.d. 1098 the Benedictine abbot Bobert founded the 
monastery of Citeaux (CUtercium) near Dijon, which as the parent mona- 
atery of the Congregation of the Cistercians became the most fi>rmidable 
rival of Clngny. The Cistercians were distinguished from the Brethren 
of Ciugny by voluntary submission to the jarindiction of the bishops, 
avoidance of all interference with the pastorates of others, and the 
ban shing of all ornaments from their churches and monasteries. The 
order continued obscure for a while, till St. Bernard (§ 102, 3), from a.D. 
1115 abbot of the monastery of Clairvanx (Claravallis), an o£f shoot of 
Citeaux, by his ability and spirituality raised it far above all other orden 
in the esteem of the age. la honour of him the French Cistercians took 
tlie name of Bemardines. The hostility between them and the Brethren 
of Ciugny was overcome by the personal friendship of Bernard and 
Peter the Venerable. By the statutory constitution, the so-called Cliarta 
eharitatii, drawn up in a.D. 1119, the administration of all the affairs of 
the order was assigned to a general of the order, appointed by the 
abbot of Citeaux, the abbots of the four chief affiliated monasteries, and 
twenty other elected representatives forming a high council. This 
council, however, was answerable to the general assembly of all the 
abbots and priors, which met at first yearly, but afterwards every third 
year. The affiliated monasteries had a yearly visitation of the abbot of 
Citeaux, but Citeaux itself was to be visited by the four abbots just referred 
to. In the 13th century this order had 2,000 monasteries and 6,000 nun- 
neries. — (5) The Congregation of Scottish Monasteries in Germany owed 
its origin to the persistent love of travel on the part of Irish and Scottish 
monks, which during the 10th century received a new impulse from the 
Danish invasions (§ 93, 1). The first monastery erected in Germany for 
the reception exclusively of Irish monks was that of St. Martin at 
Cologne, buUt in the 10th century. Much more important, however, was 
the Scottish monastery of St. James at Kegensburg, founded in a.d. 10G7 
by Marianus Scotus and two companions. It was the parent mona- 
stery of eleven other Scottish cloisters in South Germany. Old Celtio 
sympathies (§ 77, 8), which may have originally bound them together, 
could not assert themselves in the new home during this period as they 
did in earlier days ; and when Innocent III., at the Lateran Council of 
A.D. 1215, sanctioned them as a separate congregation bound by the 
Benedictine rule, there certainly remained no longer any trace of Celtic 
peculiarities. They were distinguished at first for strict asceticism, 
severe discipline and scientific activity, but subsequently they fell lower 
than all the rest in immorality and self-indulgence (§ 112). 

2. Hew Monkish Orders. — Reserving the great mendicant orders, the 
following are the most celebrated among the vast array of new orders, 
not bound by the Benedictine rule: (1) The Order of Grammunt in 
Vnuioe, founded by Stephen of Ligerno in a.D. 1070. It took simply the 


gospel as its mle, cultivated a quiet, humble and peaceable temper, and 
BO by the 12th century it had its very life crushed out of it by the bold 
assumptions of its lay brethren. — (2) The Order of St. Anthony, founded in 
A.D. 1095 by a French nobleman of Dauphiny, called Guaaton. in grati- 
tude for the recovery of his son Gu^rin from the so-calhd St. Authouy's 
fire on his invoking St. Anthony. He expended his whole property u(k>q 
the restoring of a hospital beside tbe church of St. Didier la Mothe, in a 
chapel of which it was supposed the bones of Anthony lay, and devoted 
himself, together with his son and some other companions, to the nursing 
of the sick. At first merely a lay fraternity, the meml)ers took in a.d. 1218 
the monk's vow. Boniface VIII. made them canons under the rule of 
St. Augustine (§ 45, 1). They were now called Antonians, and devoted 
themselves to contemplation. The order spread greatly, especially in 
France. They wore a black cloak with a T- formed cross of blue upon 
the breast (Ezek. ix. 9) and a little bell round the neck while engaged 
in collecting alms. — (3) The Order of Fontevranz was founded in a.d. 1094 
by Bobert of Arbrissel in Fontevraux (Fona hbraldi) in Poitou. Preach- 
ing repentance, he went through the country, and founded convents for 
virgins, widows and fallen women. Their abbesses, as representatives of 
the Mother of God, to whom the order was dedicated, were set over the 
priests who did tbeir bidding.— (4) The Order of the Gilbertines had its 
name from its founder Gilbert, an English priest of noble birth. Here 
too the women formed the main stem of the order. They were the 
owners of the cloister property, and the men were only its adminiKtrators. 
The monasteries of this order were mostly both for men and women. 
It did not spread much beyond England, and had at the time of the 
suppression of the monasteries twenty-one well endowed convents, with 
orphanages and houses for the poor and sick. — (5) The Carthusian Order was 
foimded in a.d 1086 by Bruno of Cologne, rector of the High School at 
Bheims. Disgusted with the immoral conduct of Archbishop Manasseh, 
he retired with several companions into a wild mountain gorge near Gre- 
roble, called Chartreuse. He enjoined upon his monks strict asceticism, 
rigid silence, earnest study, prayer, and a contemplative life, clothed them 
in a great coarse cowl, and allowed them for their support only vegetables 
and bran bread. Written statutes, Consuetudinft Cartmiat which soon 
Bpread ov?r several houses of the Carthusians, were firtit given them in 
▲.D. 1134 by Guido, the fifth prior of the parent mouastery. A steward 
had management of the afiTairs of the convent. Each ate in his own 
cell; only on feast days had they a common meal. At least once a 
week they fasted on salt, water and bread. Breaking silence, permitted 
only on high festivals, and for two hours on Thursdavs, was punished 
with severe flagellation. Even the lay brethren were treated with great 
severity, and were not allowed either to sit or to cover their heads in 
the presence of the brothers of the order. Carthusian nans were added 


to the order in the 13th oentary with a modified mle.^(G) The Premon- 
ftratenslan Order was founded in a d. 1121 by Norbert, the only German 
founder of orders beftides and after Bruno. A rich, worldly-minded 
canon of Xanthen in the diooese of Cologne, he was brought to anoth*'r 
mind by the fall of a thunderbolt beside him. He retired along with 
several other like-minded companions into the rough valley of rr6montr6 
in the bishopric of Laon {Pramonstratnm, because pointed out to him in 
A vision). In his rule he joined together the canonical duties with an 
extremely strict monaHtio life. He appeared in a.d. 1128 as a prear^her 
of repentance at the Diet of Spires, was there elected archbishop of 
Magdeburg, and made a most impressive entrance into his metropolis 
dressed in his mendicant garb. His order spread and CHtablis'ied many 
convents both for monks and for nuns. — (7) The Trinitarian Orier, ordti, 
Trinitatis de redemptione raptivorunif was called into existence by Innocent 
III., and had for its work the redemption of Christian captives. — (8) The 
CoBlestine Order was founded by Peter of Murrone, afterwards Pope Cooles- 
tine Y. (§ 96, 22). Living in a cave of Mount Murrone in Apulia, under 
strict penitential diKoipline and engage.! in mystic contemplation, the 
fame of his sanctity attracted to him many companions, with whom in 
A.D. 1254 he established a monastery on Mount Majella. Gregory X., in 
whose presence Peter, according to his biographer, hung up his monkish 
cowl in empty space, upon a sunbeam which he took for a cord stretch- 
ing across, instituted the order as Brethren of the Holy Spirit. But 
when in a.D. 1201 their founder ascended the pipal throne, they took 
his papal name This or ler, which gave itself up entirely to extravagant 
mystic contemplation, spread over Italy, France and the Netherlands. 

3. The Franciscans.— The mendicant orders had their origin in the 
endeavours to carry out as exactly as po'tKible the vow of poverty. 
They would live solely on charitable i^afts, which, as voluntary alms, were 
partly paid into their cloisters, partly gathered outside of the cloister at 
set times by monks sent out for the purpose (TerminanU)A The author 
of this idea was St. Francis, born in a.d. 1182, the son of a wealthy 
merchant, at As^isi in Umbria. His proper name was Giovanni Ber- 
nardone. The name Francis was given him on account of his early 
proficiency in the French language. As a rich merchant's son he gave 
himself up to the enjoyments of the world, from which he was first 
estranged by means of a dream, in which he saw a vast number of 
weapons marked with the sign of the cross, which were meant for him 
and his warriors. He wiftlied now to enter on military service. But 
a new vision taught him that he was called to build up the house of 
God that had fallen down. He understood this to refer to the decayed 

* Trench, ** The Mendicant Orders," in *' Lectures on Mediieval Church 
History.** London, 1878. 


ehapel of St. Damiani at Aßsisi, and began to expend on the bnflding 
of the oliapel the proceeds got from the sale of valuable webs of cloth 
from his father*B warehoase. Disowned by his father in consequence 
of such proceedings he lived for several years as a recluse nntil the 
reading in the church one day of the gospel passage about the sending 
out of the disciples without g«>l.l and silver, without staff or purse 
(Matt. X.), shot like a flash of lightning into his soul. Benouncing all 
property, begging for the necessaries of life, from about a.d. 1208, he 
began to go through all countries in the East and West, preaching re- 
pentance, taken by the people sometimes for a crazy, harebrained 
enthusiast, sometimes for a most venerable saint (§ 93, 16). In the un- 
oxampled thoroughness of his self-denial and renunciation of the world, 
in the purity and simplicity of his heart, in the enthusiasm of his 
love for God and man, in the sacred riches of his poverty, St. FraneiH 
appeared a heavenly stranger in a selfish world He had wonderful depths 
of tender feeling for nature. With the birds of the forest, with the beasts 
of the field, he maintained a childlike iutercourse as with brothers and 
sisters (§ 10 i, 10), exhorting them to praise their Creator. The para- 
disaical relation of man to the lower animals seemed in this saiut to 
have been restored. When attempting to deliver carefully studied 
speeches before the pope and the cardinals he failed ; but his unpre- 
meditated speeches were poured fortli from the depth of his heart in 
an uninterrupted as well as powerful and irresitttible torrent of elo- 
quence. Innocent III., struck with his simplicity and humility, gave 
his approval to this remarkable saiut. According to an old legend he is 
said to have sent him at first to the swine, and the saiut obeyed the 
command. Innocent's successor Honorius III. formally instituted in 
A D. 1223 the company of like-miuded men which had gatijered around 
Francis as the order of Fratres minoreit Minorites or Franciscaas, and 
gave them the right of preaching and discharging pastoral duties in 
anyplace wheiesoever they might go. It was, however, the founder's 
intention that the order should signalise itself by acts of self-denial 
lather than by preaching. A brown frock with a caiK>uoh, and instead 
of a girdle a rope round the body, couHtituted the badge of the order. 
They were also the first Barefooted mouks, Diteulcenti ; for they either 
wore no covering on the feet, or on long journeys put on merely sandals 
to protect the soles of the feet (Matt. x. 10; Murk vi. 9). The holy pride 
of contempt for the world, the genuine humility, the enthusiasm and 
completeness of their self denying love made a powerful impression, and 
won for tlie pious brethren the honourable designation of the Seraphic 
order. A like-minded virgin, St. Clara of Assisi, founded in a.d. 1212 
the order of the Nuns of St. Clara, to whom as a second order St. 
Francis gave a rule in a.D. 1224. The fraternity of the Tertiaries (Ter- 
tint ordo de pcßiiittntia)^ to whom he also gave a role, allowed their 


members to oontinae in the world, and seonred a broad basis for the 
Franciscan order among the people. The central seat of the order wai 
the charch of Portiuncula in Assisi, dedicated to Mary, which the pope 
endowed with the plenary powtr of bestowing indulgeoces. The founder 
himself died in a.D. 122G, stretched out naked on the floor of the Porti- 
nnculai church« Gregory IK. canonized him in a.d. 1288 ; and in a.d. 
12G4 his order nunrbered 8,000 cloisters, containing 200,000 monks. In 
AJ). 1.399 the chief authorities of the Franciscans at Assisi authorized 
the T'ibfr ronformitatum of Bartholomew of Pisa, which enumerated forty 
resemblances between Christ and St. Francis, in which geuerally the 
saiut was made to transcend the Saviour. On the legend of the 
stigmatization of St. Francis, see § 105, 4. His life embellished by the 
record of many miracles was written in a.d. 1229 by Thomas of Celano, 
an edition enlarged by the Tres Socii was published in A.D. 1246 ; and 
another appeared in a.d. 1261, by Bonaventura.^ 

4. Splits and Offshoots of the Franciscans.— During the lifetime of 
St. Francis, Elias of Cortona, to whom the founder duriug a journey 
to the East had entrusted the command of the order, sought to modify 
the severity of its rules. Francis set aside these proposed changes with 
disapproval. But when Elias was appointed general in a.D. 1233 he 
successfully renewed his attempt. The stricter party, however, adhered 
to Anthony of Padua (born in a.d. 1195, at Lisbon ; died in a.D. 1231, 
at Padua), who lived and wrought quite in the spirit of the founder. 
When men refused to listen to his teaching, he preached with success 
to the fishes, and wrought many other miracles. Gregory IX. canonized 
him in A.D. 1232. Violent contendings soon arose within the order. 
Twice was Elias thrust out from the generalship. Then he attached 
himself to Frederick IL, was excommunicated along with him, but died 
at peaee with the church in a.D. 1253. The more lax party, Fratres de 
Commtmitatti endeavoured to reconcile the possession of rich monastio 
property with the founder's fundamental principle of poverty by affirm- 
ing that these goods were placed by the donors in their hands only in 
usufruct, or that they were given not really to the order but to the 
Roman church, though with the intention of supporting the order. 
Nicholas III. in a.d. 1279 sanctioned this view, deciding by the bull 
Exiii qui ieminat that the disciples of St. Francis were allowei the 
usufruct but not the possession of earthly goods, as permitted by the 
example of Christ and the Apostles. But now a new controvt rsy arose 
Ofer the form and mea«)ure of the usufruct. A distinction was made 
between ü»ut moderuta$ and a Usus tenuis or piui-er. The latter 

> Milman, ** Hintory of Latin Christianity," vol. ▼. Wadding, ** An- 
Dales Minorum Fratrum.'' 8 vols. Lugd., 1625. Stephen. ** tit. Francis 
of Aasifd,** in ** Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography.*' London, 1860. 


allowed of no proyision beyond what was eyidently necessary for the 
indispensable support of life. The rigorists, Zelatore*, with Oliva and 
Cäsale at their head, took up a position of open and fanatical antagon- 
iem to the papacy, which they identified with antichrist (§ 108, 5). 
One portion of them, that took offence at the views of the lax party 
about dress reform as well as about the use of property, got permission 
from C<jelestine V. in a.D. 1294 to separate from i\\h main body of the 
order, and under the designation of CoDlestine Eremites they formed an 
independent community with a general of their own. They settled for 
the most part in Greece and on the islands of the Archipelago. Bouifaoe 
VIII. in A.D. 1302 ordered them to return to the Went, and to the prireut 
order. Bat as he soon after^xrards died, they still maintained their 
separate existence and their distinguishing garb. 

6. The Dominicuis. — The founder of this order was Dominic, bom 
A.D. 1170 of a noble Italian family, a priest at Osma, a man of ardent 
temperament and liberal culture. His burning zeal for the salvation of 
men led him with his fellow workers to proceed to the south of France 
in A.D. 1206, to labour there with great self-denial and in a condition of 
apostolic poverty for the conversion of the Albigenses (§ 109, 1). In 
A.D. 1215 he went in company with the bishop of Toulouse to the gr(*at 
Lateran Couucil at Rome. He was at first refused permission to found 
a new order. Innocent III., however, at last gave ear to his persistent 
entreaties, and Honorins III., in a.d. 1216, authorized the rule which 
Dominic had drawn up. The Dominicans or preaching order, Ordofra' 
trum pradicataruin, thus obtained the right of prcachiugand hearing con- 
fession everywhere, with the sptx;ial tai^k of restoriug heretics by means of 
their preaching and teaching to the church in wbioh aloue salvation is to 
be found. It was not till a.d. 1220 that Dominic and his order pronounced 
themselves mendicants like the Franciscans. He died in a d. 1233.* — 
An offshoot of this order composed of converted Albigensian women 
attached itself in later times to the Tertiaries, Fratres H sorores de 
militia ChriM.— Both orders, Franciscans as well as Dominicans, called 
forth by the needy circumstances of the age, as mendicant orders 
requiring no endowments and invested with privileges by the pope, 
spread rapidly over the whole West. Each of them had a general at 
its head in Rome, a provincial presiding over the convents of each 
country, and among the Franciscans a guardian, among tbe Dom uicans 
a prio", over each separate cloister. Among the Domini^aus, owing 
to the disiK>sition of their founder and their endeavours to convert tbe 
heretics, liberal studies were encouraged and prosecuted. At a later 
period they displayed a great zeal for misnions. But most important of 
all was the energy with which they secured the occupancy of academical 
^^^— ^^— ^-^-"^ "^^^^ ■~^^'^~^^^'" ■^^^^—^■^^»^— ^ 

' ** Aimales Ordlnis Prsdicatorom," vol. i. Borne, 17i6. 


ehain. Sometimes the Franciscans, too, inspired by the example of the 
Dominicans, soagbt after liberal culture and inflnence in the uuiversities, 
and were scarcely behind their rivals in zeal fur missions to the 
heathens and the Mohammedans. Tiie veneration of the people, who pre- 
ferred to confide their secret confessions to itinerant begging monks, . 
roased the jealousy of the secular clergy ngainst both orders, and their 
preponderating influence at the universities awakened the animosity of 
the learned. The University of Paris most vigorouKly witLstood their 
aggression (§ 10 J, 3). But when this ptruggle had ended in victory for 
the monks, bitter jealousies and rivalrie.'i arose between the two 
orders and led to the estabhsbment of two opposing philosophical schools 
(§ 113, 2). The Dominicans won a great increase of power from 
their being entrusted by Gregory IX. with th« exclusive management of 
the inqnisitiou of heretics (§ 100, 2). The Franciscans, on the other 
baud, were more beloved by the common people tlian the more courtly 
and haughty Dominiotms. — Continuation, § 112, 4. 

6. The other Mendicant Orders. — Tbe brilliant success of the Francis- 
cans and Dominicans led other societies, either previously existing, or 
only now called into being, to adopt the character of mendicants. Only 
three of them succeeded, though in a much less degree than their 
models, in gaining position, name and extension throughout the West. 
The first of these was the Carmelite Order. It owed its origin to the 
crusader Berthold, Count of Limoges, who in a.d. 1 156 founded a mona- 
stery at the brook of Elias on Mount Carmel, to which in a.d. 1200 the 
patriarch of Jerusalem prescribed the rule of St. ])asil (§ 44, 3). Hard 
pressed by the Saracens, the CHrmeUtes emigrated in a.d. 1238 to the 
West, where as a mendicant order, under the name of Frates Maria de 
Monte CafTiwln^ with unexampled hardihood they repudiated their founder 
Berthold, and maintamed that the prophet Elias had been himself their 
foander, and that the Virgin Mary had been a sister of their order. What 
they most prided themselves on was tie sacred scapular which the 
Mother of God herself had bestowed upon Simon Stock, the general of 
the order in a.D. 1251, with the promise that who^oever should die wear- 
ing it should be sure of eternal blessedness. Seventy years later, accord- 
ing to the legends of the order, the Virgin appeared to Pope Jobn XXII. 
and told him she descended every Saturday into purgatoi-y, in order to 
take such souls to herself into heaven. In the 17th century, when violent 
controversies on this point had arisen, Paul V. authenticated the miracu- 
lous qualities of this scapular, always supposing that the prescribed fasts 
and prayerd were not neglected. Among the Carmelite», just as among 
the Franciscans, laxer principles fioon became current, causing con- 
troversies and splits which continued down totlie ICth century (§ 149, 6). 
— Tht Ordflr of Angnstiniani arose out of the combination of several 
Italian monkish societies. Innocent IV. in a.d. 1243 prescribed to them 


the rale of St. Angastine (§ 45, 1) as tbe directory of their oommon life. 
It was only under Alexander IV. in A.D. 1256 that they were welded 
together into one order as Ordo Fratrum Eremitarum S. Augtutini, with 
the daties and privileges of mendicant monks. Their order spread over 
the whole West, and enjoyed the special favour of the papal chair, 
which conferred upon its members the permanent distinction of the office 
of sacristan to the papal chapel and of chaplain to the Holy Father 
(Continuation, § 192, 5). — Finally, as the fifth in the series of mendicant 
orders, we meet with the Order of Servites, !servi b. Virg,, devoted to 
the Virgin, and founded in a.d. 1233 by seven pious Florentines. It 
was, however, first recognised as a mendicant order by M^irtin V., and 
had equal rank with the four others granted it only in a.D. 1567 by 
Pius V. 

7. Working OoildB of a Monkiah Order. — (1) During the 11th century, 
midway between the strictly monastic and secular modes of life, a 
number of pious artisan families in Milan, mostly weavers, under the 
name of Hamiliati, adopted a communal life with spiritual exercises, 
and conmiunity of handicraft and of goods. Whatever profit came 
from their work was devoted to the poor. The married continued their 
marriage relations after entering the community. In the 12th century, 
however, a party arose among them who bouud themselves by vows of 
celibacy, and to them were afterwards attached a congregation of priests. 
Their society was first acknowledged by Innocent III. in a.d. 1021. 
But meanwhile many of them had come under the influence of Arnold 
(§ 103, 6), and so had become estranged from the Catholic church. At 
a later period these formed a connection with the French Waldensians, 
the Faiiperes de Lugdnnot adopted their characteristic views, and fur the 
Bake of distinction took the name of Paupere» Italiei (§ 108, 12). — Re* 
lated in every respect to the Lombard Humiliati, but distinguished from 
them by the separation of the sexes and a universal obligation of celi- 
bacy, were the communiiieR of the Begoines and Beghards. Priority of 
origin belongs to the Beg nines. They took the three monkish tows, but 
only for so long as they belonged to the society. Hence they could 
at any time withdraw, and enter upon marriage and other relations of 
social life. They lived under the direction of a lady superior and 
a priest in a so-called Beguine-house, CurtU Beguinaram, which gene- 
rally consisted of a number of small houses connected together by one 
surrounding wall. Each had her own household, although on entrance 
she had surrendered her goods over to the community and on with- 
drawing she received them back. They busied themselves with handiwork 
and the education of girls, the spiritual training of females, and sewing, 
washing and nursing the poor in the houses of the city. The surplus 
income over expenditure was applied to works of benevolence. Every 
Beguine house had its own costume and colour. These institutions soon 


qjnread oyer all Belgium, Germany, and France. The first Begaine honee 
known to as was founded about 1180 at Li^ge, by the iamous priest and 
popnlar preacher, Lambert la B^ghe, i.e. the Stammerer. Hallmann 
thinks that the name of the society may have been derived from that of 
the preacher. Earlier writers, without anything to support them but a 
Tagae similarity of sound, were wont to derive it from Begga, daughter 
of Pepin of Landen in the 7th century. Most likely of all, however, 
is Mosheim^s derivation of it from " beggan," which means not to pray, 
*' beten,'* a praying sister, but to beg, as the modem English, and so 
proTes that the institute originally consisted of a collection of poor 
helpless women. We may compare with this the designation ** Lollards," 
I 116, 8. — After the pattern of the Beguine communities there soon 
arose communities of men, Beghards, with similar tendencies. They 
rapported themselves by handicraft, mostly by weaving. But even in the 
18th century corruption and immorality made their appearance in both. 
Brothers and sisters of the New (§ 108, 4) and of the Free Spirit 
(I 116, 5), Fratricelli (§ 112, 2) and other heretics, persecuted by the 
church, took refuge in their onions and infected them with their heresies. 
The Inquisition (| 109, 2) kept a sharp eye on them, and many were 
executed, especially in France. The 15th Creneral Council at Vienna, in 
▲•D. 1812, condemned eight of their positions as heretical. There was 
now a multitude of Beguine and Beghard houses overthrown. Others 
maintained their existence only by passing over to the Tertiaries of the 
Frauciscans. Later popes took the communities that were free from 
suspicion under their protection. But even among these many forms 
of immorality broke out, concubinage between Beguines and Beghards, 
and worldllness, thus obliging the civil and ecclesiastical authorities again 
to step in. The unions still remaining in the time of the Reformation 
were mostly secularized. Only in Belgium have a few Beguine houses 
continued to exist to the present day as institutions for the maintenance 
of unmarried women of the citizen class. ^ 

8. The Spiritual Order of Knights.— The peculiarity of the Order of 
Knights consists in the combination of the three monkish vows of 
poverty, chastity, and obedience with the vow to maintain a constant 
struggle with the infidels. The most important of these orders were 
the following. (1) The Templars, founded in A.n. 1118 by Hugo de 
Payens and Godfrey de St. Omer for the protection of pilgrims in the 
Holy Land. The costume of the order was a white mantle with a red 
eross. Its rule was drawn up by St. Bernard, whose warm interest in 
the order secured for it papal patronage and the unanimous appro- 
bation of the whole West. When Acre fell in a.D. 1291 the Templars 

> Oieseler, •• Eoolesiastical History/' | 72, Edln., 1858. Vol. ill., pp. 


settled in Gypnu, bat soon most of them retnmed to the West, making 
France their headqaarters. They had their name probably from a 
palace built on the site of Solomon's temple, which king Baldwin U. 
of Jerusalem assigned them as their first residence.* — Continuation, 
§ 112, 7.— (2) The Knights of St. John or Hospitallers, founded by 
merchants from Amalfi as early as the middle of the 11th oeutnry, 
residing at first in a cloister at the Holy Sepulchre, were engaged in 
showing hospitality to the pilgrims and nursing the sick. The head 
of the order Raimund du Pay, who occupied this position from a.D. 
1118, added to these duties, in imitation of the Templars, that of fight- 
ing against the infidels. They carried a white cross on their breast, 
and a red cross on their standard. Driven out by the Saracens, they 
settled in Rhodes in a.d. 1310, and in a.d. 1530 took possession of 
Malta.*~(3) The Order of Teutonic Knights had its origin from a hospital 
foanded by citizens of Bremen and Lübeck during the siege of Acre 
in A.D. 1120. The costume of the knights was a white mantle with a 
black cross. Subsequently the order settled in Prussia (§ 93, 13), and 
in A.D. 1237 united with the order of the Brothers of the Sword, which 
had been founded in Livonia in a.d. 1202 (93, 12). Under its fourth 
Grandmaster, the prudent as well as vigorous Hermann v. Salza, a.d. 
1210-1239, it reached the summit of its power and influence. — (4) The 
Knights of the Cross arose originally in Palestine under the name of 
the Order of Bethlehem, but at a later period settled in Austria, 
Bohemia, Moravia and Poland. There they adopted the life of regular 
canons (| 97, 5) and devoted themselves to hospital work and pastoral 
duties. They are still to be found in Bohemia as holders of valuable 
livings, with the badge of a cross of red satin. — In Spain, too, various 
orders of spiritual knights arose under vows to fight with the Moors 
(§ 95, 3). The two most impoi'tant were the Ordir of Calatrava, founded 
in A.D. 1158 by the Cistercian monk Velasquez for the defence of the 
frontier city Calatrava, and the Order of Alcantara, founded in a.d. 1156 
for a similar purpose. Both orders were confirmed by Alexander HI. 
and gained great fame and still greater wealth in the wars against the 
Moon. Under Ferdinand the Catholic the rank of Grandmaster of 
both orders passed over to the crown. Paul HI. in A.D. 1540 released 
the knights from the vow of celibacy, but obliged them to become 
champions of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin. Both orders 
still exist, but only as military orders of merit. 

9. Bridge Brothers and Mercedarians.— The name of Bridge Brothers, 
Frhres Povtifex^ Fratres Pontijices, was given to a union founded under 
Clement lU., in Southern France, in a.D. 1189, for the building of hos- 

* Addison, ** History of the Knights Templars,'* etc. London, 1842. 

* Taafe, ** Order of St. John of Jerusalem.** 4 vols. London, 1852. 


]^ioe8 and bridges at points where pilgrims crossed the large riven, or for 
the ferrv ing of pilgrims over the streams. As a badge they wore a pick 
upon their breast Their constitution was modelled u(>od that of the 
Knights of St. John and u)K)n their gra^lual dissohition in the 13th 
eentary most of the^'r number went over to that order. — Petrus Nolescens, 
bom in Languedoc, of noble parents and military tutor of a Spanish 
prince, moved by wliat he had seen of the suffcnngä of Christian slaves 
at the baud of thmr Moorish masters and strengthened in bis resolve by 
an appearance of the Queen of Heaven, founded in ad. 1228 the knightly 
order of the Mercedat ians, Maria Virg. de mercede pro redfmptione Capiu 
v*>rum» They devoted all their property to the purchase of Christian 
captives, and where such a one was in danger of apostatising to Islam 
and the money for redemption was not procurable, they would even give 
themselves into slavery in his place. When in aj>. 1317 the Grand Com- 
ioan<ler8hip passed over into the hands of the priests, the order waa 
gradually transformed into a monkish order. After a.d IGOO, in con- 
sequence of a refonn after the pattern of the rule of the Burefoots, it 
became a mendicant order, receiving the privileges of other begging 
fraternities from Benedict XIII. in a.d. 1725. The order proved a useful 
institution of its time in Spain, France and Italy, and at a later period 
also in Spanish America. 

in. — Theological Science and its Controversies. 
§ 99. Scholasticism in General.^ 

The scientific activity of the Middle Ages received the 
name of Scholasticism from the cathedral and cloister 
schools in which it originated (§ 90, 8). The Schoolmen, 
with their enthusiasm and devotion, their fidelity and per- 
severance, their courage and love of combat, may be called 
the knights of theology. Instead of sword and spear they 
used logic, dialectic and speculation ; and profound scholar- 
ship was their breastplate and helmet. Ecclesiastical 
orthodoxy was their glory and pride. AristotlCj and also 
to some extent Plato, afforded them their philosophical basis 
and method. The Fathers in their utterances, sentcntioB^ 

* Ueherweg, •* History of Philosophy," vol. i.. pp. 855-377. Hamp- 
den, **The ScholAstio Philosophy considered in its relation to Christian 
Theology.'* Oxford, 1832. Maurice, ** Mediasval Philosophy." Loudon, 
1870. Harper, ** The Metaphysics of the School." London, 1880 f. 


the Councils in their dogmas and canons, the popes in their 
decretals, yielded to this Dialectic Scholasticism theological 
material which it could use for the systematising, demon« 
strating, and illustrating of the Church doctrine. K we 
follow another intellectual current, we find the Mystical 
Scholasticism taking up, as the highest task of theology, the 
investigating and describing of the hidden life of the pious 
thinker in and with God according to its nature, course, and 
results by means of spiritual contemplation on the basis of 
one's individual experience. Dogmatics (including Ethics) 
and the Canon Law constituted the peculiar field of the 
Dialectic Theology of the Schoolmen. The standard of dog- 
matic theology during the 12th century was the Book of the 
Sentences of the Lombard (§ 102, 5) ; that of the Canon Law 
the Decree of Gratian. Biblical Exegesis as an independent 
department of scientific study stood, indeed, far behind these 
tw(^ but was diligently prosecuted by the leading represen- 
tatives of Scholasticism. The examination of the simple 
literal sense, however, was always regarded as a secondary 
consideration; while it was esteemed of primary impor- 
tance to determine the allegorical, tropological| and ana- 
/ ^gical signification of the text (§ 90, 9). 

1. DUIectio and Mysticism. — With the exception of the speculative 
Scotus Erigena, the Schoolmen of the Garlovingian Age were of a 
practical torn. This was changed on the introduction of Dialectic in 
the 11th century. Practical interests gave way to pure love of science, 
and it was now the aim of scholars to give scientific shape and perfect 
logical form to the doctrines of the church. The method of this Bialectie 
Scholasticism consisted in resolving all church doctrines into their 
elemeutary ideas, in the arranging and demonstrating of them under all 
possible categories and in the repelling of all possible objections of the 
sceptical reason. The end aimed at was the proof of the reasonableness 
of the doctrine. This Dialectic, therefore, was not concerned with exe- 
getical investigations or Scripture proof, but rather with rational demon- 
stration. Generally speaking, theological Dialectic attached itself to the 
ecclesiastical system of the day as positivism or dogmatism ; for, appro- 
priating Augustiners Credo ut inteUigam^ it made faith the principal 


gUrtiDg point of its theological thlDkingaud the raising of faith to know- 
ledge the end toward which it laboured. On the other hand, however, 
scepticism often made its appearance, taking not faith but doubt as the 
starting point f jr its inquiries, with the avowed iutention, indeed, of 
raising faith to knowledge, but only acknowledging as worthy of belief 
what survived the purffying fire of doubt. — Alongside of this double- 
edged Dialectic, sometimes in conflict, sometimes in alliance with it, we 
uieet with the Mystical Scholasticism, which appealed not to the reason 
but to the heart, and sought by spiritual contemplation rather than by 
Dialectic to advance at once theological science and the Christian life. 
Its object is not Dogmatics as such, not the development of Fides qwB 
ereditur, but life in fellowship with Qod, the development of Fide» qua 
ereditur» By contemplative absorption of the soul into the depth of the 
Divine life it seeks an immediate vision, experience and enjoyment of the 
Divine, and as an indispensable condition thereto requires purity of heart, 
the love of God in the soul and' thorough abnegation of self. What is 
gained by contemplation is made the subject of scientific statement, and 
thus it rises to speculative mysticism. Both contemplation and specula- 
tive mysticism in so far as their scientific procedure is concerned are em- 
braced under the name of scholastic mycticism. The practical endeavour, 
however, after a deepening and enhancing of the Christian life in the 
direction of a real and personal fellowship with God was found more 
important and soon out-distanced the scientific attempt at tabulating and 
formulating the facts of inner experience. Practical mysticism thus 
gained the ascendency during the 12th, 18th and 14th centuries, and 
formed the favourite pursuit of the numerous inmates of the nunneries 

(1 107). 

2. The Philosophical Basis of Dialectic Scholasticism was obtained 
mainly from the Aristotelian philosophy, which, down to the end of the 
12th century, was known at first only from Latin renderings of Arabic 
and even Hebrew translations, and afterwards from Latin renderings of 
the Greek originals (§ 103, 1). Besides Aristotle, however, Plato also had 
his enthusiastic admirers during the Middle Ages. The study of the 
writings of Augustine and the Areopagite (§ 90, 7) led back again to him, 
and the speculative mystics vigorously opposed the supremacy of 
Aristotle.— At the outset of the philosophical career of scholasticism in 
the 11th century we meet with the controversy of Anselm and Rosoel- 
linns about the relations of thinking and being or of the idea and the 
substance of things (§ 101, 3). The Nominalists, following the principles 
of the Stoics, maintained that General Notions, Univertalia, are mers 
abstractions of the understanding, Nomina, which as such have no 
reality outside the human mind, Unioersalia post r««. The Se^^lists, on 
the contrary, affirmed the reality of General Notions, regarding them as 
objeottTB existences before and apart from haman thinking. Bat there 


werotwo kinds of realism. The one, based on the Platonio dootrin« 
of ideas, taught that General Notions are really existent before the origin 
of the several things as archntvpes in the Divine reason, and then also 
in the human mind before the contemplation of the things empirically 
given, Universalia ante res. The other, resting on Aristotle's doctrine, 
considered tbem as lying in the thin^^s themselves and as first getting 
entrance into the human mind through eiperiencp, UnioersaHa in rebus. 
The Platonic Bealism thought to reach a knowledge of things by puro 
thought from the ideas latent in the human mind ; the Aristotelian, on 
the other hand, thougiit to gain a knowledge of things only through 
experience and thinking upon the things themselves. — Continuation, 
§ 103, 1. 

8. The Iforseriee of Scholasticism — The work previously done in 
cathedrals and cloister schools was, from about the 12th century, taken np 
in a more comprehensive and thorough way by the Universities. They 
were, as to their origin, independent of church and state, emperor and 
pope. Here and there famous teachers arose in the larger cities or 
in connection with some celebrated cloister or cathedral school. 
Youths from all countries gathered around them. Around tlie teacher 
who first attracted attention others gradually grouped themselves. 
Teachers and scholars organized themselves into a corporation, and thus 
arose the University. By this, however, we are to understand nothiug 
toss than a Univtnitas litterarum, where attention was given to the 
wnole circle of the sciences. For a long time there was no thought of a 
distribution into faculties. When the multitude of teachers and students 
demanded a distribution into several corporations, this was done accord- 
ing to nations. The name signifies the Unioersitoi mafistrorum et 
BcJiolariwn rather than an articulated whole. The study here pursued 
was called Studium generale or univenaU, because the entrance thereto 
stood open to every one. At first each university pursued excJusively 
and in later times chiefly some special department of science. Thus, 
e.g. theology was prosecuted in Paris and Oxford and sabsequencly also 
in Cologne, jurisprudence in Bologna, Medicine in Salerno. The first 
university that expressly made provision for teaching all sciences was 
founded at Naples« in k.D. 1221 with imperial munificence by Frederick II. 
The earliest attempt at a distribution of the sciences among distinct 
faculties was occnsioned by the struggle between the university of 
Paris and the mendicant monks (§ 103, 1), who separated themselves 
from the other theologicsd teachers and as members of a guild formed 
themselves in jl.d. 1259 into a theological faculty. The number of the 
students, among whom were many of ripe years, was immensely great, 
and in some of the most celebrated univerdities reached often to ten or 
even twenty thousand. There was a ten years' coarse prescribed for 
the training of the monks of Clugny : two years' LogiecUia, three years, 


JAterm naturaUi et philosopkiem, and five years* Theology. The Conncil 
mt Toon in a-d. 1236 inrtisted that every priest should have passed 
throogh a five years* course of study.^ 

4. The Epochs of Scholasticism. — The intellectual work of the theo- 
logians of the Middle Ages during our period ran its course in four 
epochs, the boundaries of which nearly coincide with the boundaries 
of the four centuries which make up that period. (1) From the 10th 
century, almost completely destitute of any scientific movement, the so- 
called Saculum obscurum, there sprang forth the first buds of scholar- 

, ship, without, however, any distinct impress upon them of scholasticism. 
(2) In the 11th century scholasticism began to show itself, and that in 
the form of dialectic, both sceptical and dogmatic. (3) In the 12th 
eentury mysticism assumed an independent place alongside of dialectic, 
carried on a war of extermination against the sceptical dialectic, and 
finally appeared in a more peaceful aspect, contributing material to 
the positive dogmatic dialectic. (4) In the 13th century dialectic scho- 
lasticism gained the complete ascendency, and reached its highest glory 
in the form of dogmatism in league with mysticism, and never, in the 
persons of its greatest representatives, in opposition to it. 

5. The Canon Law. — After the Pseudo-Isidore (§ 87, 2) many collec- 
tions of church laws appeared. They sought to render the material 
more complete, intentionally or unintentionally enlarging the forgeries 
and massing together the most contradictory statements without any 
attempt at comparison or sifting. The most celebrated of these 
were the collections of bishops Burchard of Worms about a.d. 1020, 
Ansclm of Lucca, who died in ^.d. 1086, nephew of the pope of tho 
•ame name, Alexander II., and Ivo of Chartres, who died in a.d. 1116. 
Then the Camaldolite monk Oratian of Bologna undertook not only to 
gather together the material in a more complete form than had hitherto 
been done, but also to reconcile contradictory statements by scholastic 
argumentation. His work appeared about ld. 1150 under the title 
Concordantia discordantium canonuMt and is commonly called Deeretun 
Gnuiani, A great impulse was given to the study of canon law by 
means of this work, especially at Bologna and Paris. Besides the 
Legiiti, who taught the Soman law, there now arose numerous 
Vecretisti teaching the canon law and writing commentaries on 
Oratian*s work. Gregory IX. had a new collection of Decree^ of Conticils 
and Decretals in five books, the so-called Liber extra Decretum, or shortly 
Extra or Decretum Grtgorii, drawn up by his confessor and Grand- 
Penitentiary, the learned Dominican Baimnndus de Peunaforti, and sent 

1 Eirkpatrick, '* The Historically Received Conception of a University." 
London, 1857. Hagenbach, '* Eni^clopaedia of Theology,*' transl. by 
Crooks and Horst. New York, 1834, § 18, pp. 50, 51. 

VOL. IL ^ 


it in A.D. 1234 to the üniversity of Bologna. Boniface VIII. in a.d. 1298 
added to this collection in five parts his Liher Sextn^^ and Clement V. 
in A.D. 1314 added what are called after him the CUvtenthia. From 
that time down to a.d. 1483 the decretals of later popes were added as 
an appt-ndix under the name ExtravafjantcSt and with these the Cvrpm 
juris caiwniei was concluded. An official edition was began in a.d. 1566 
by the so-called Correctores Bonuini^ which in a.D. 1580 received papal 
sanction as authoritative for all time to come.* 

6. The Schoolmen as such contributed nothing to Historical Literatore. 
Histories were written not in the halls of the universities but hi the 
cells of the monasteries. Of these there were three kiuds as ne have 
already seen in § 90, 9. For workers in the department of Biblical 
IliBtory, see § 105, 5 ; and of Legends of the Saints, § 104, 8. For 
ancient Chnrch History Bufinus and Cassiodorus were the authorities 
and the common text books (§ 5, 1). An interesting example of the 
manner in which universal history was treated when mediaeval culture 
had reached its highest point, is afforded by the Speculum magnum s. 
quadruplrx of the Dominican Vincent of Beauvais (HelhvacensU). This 
treatise was composed about the middle of the 13th century at the com- 
mand of Louis IX. of Franco as a hand-book for the instruction of the 
royal princes. It forms an encyolopnodio exposition of all the sciences 
of that day in four parts, Speeulum historiaU, natural, doctrinale, and 
moralf. The Speculum doctrinale breaks off just at the point where it 
should have passed over to theology proper, and the Speculum morale is 
a later compilation by an unknown hand.' 

§ 100. TiiE S^cuLUM Obscurum: the 10th Century.' 

In contrast to the brilliant theological scholarship and 
the activity of religious life in the 9th century, as well as 
to the remarkable culture and scientific attainments of the 
Spanish Moors with their world-renowned school at Cordova, 
the darkness of the 10th century seems all the more con- 
spicuous, especially its first half, when the papacy reached 
its lowejst depths, the clergy gave way to unblushing world- 

» Cunningham, " Historical Theolopgr." Edinburgh, 1870. Vol. i., 
ch. XV., »• The Canon Law,'* pp. 426-438. 

3 Räbiger, " Theological Encyclopapdia." Vol. i., p. 28. Edin., 1884. 

* Maitland, ** The Dark Ages: a Series of Essays, to Illustrate the 
State of Religion and Literature in the Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and 
Ttt-elfth Centuries.' London, 1844. 


linesB and the chnrch was consnmed by the foulest cormp- 
tion. Daring this age, indeed, there were gleams of light 
even in Italy, bat only like a will o' the wisp rising from 
swampy meadows, a fanatical outborst on behalf cf ancient 
classic paganism. The literatare of this period stood in 
direct and avowed antagonism to Christian theology and 
the Christian charch, and commended a godless frivolity 
and the most ondisgaised sensaality. A grammarian Wil- 
gard of Ravenna taught openly that Virgil, Horace, and 
Juvenal were better and nobler than Paul, Peter, and John. 
The church had still so much authority as to secure his 
death as a heretic, but in almost all the towns of Italy he 
had sympathisers, and that among the clergy as well as 
among laymen. It was only by the influence of the monks 
of Clugny, the reformatory ascetic efforts of Romuald 
(§ 98, 1) and St. Nilus the Younger, a very famous Greek 
recluse of Gaeta, who died in A.D. 1005, aided by the refer« 
matory measures for the purification of the church taken by 
the Saxon emperors, that this unclean spirit was gradu- 
ally driven out. The famous endeavours of Alfred the 
Great and their temporary success were borne to the grave 
along with himself. From A.D. 959 however, Dunstan's 
reformation awakened anew in England appreciation of a 
desire for theological and national culture. The connection 
of the imperial house of Otto with Byzantium also aroused 
oatside of Italy a longing after old classical learning. The 
imperial chapel founded by the brother of Otto I., Bruno 
the Great (§ 97, 2), became the training school of a High- 
German clergy, who were there carefully trained as far as 
the means at the disposal of that age permitted, not only in 
politics, but also in theological and classical studies. 

I. The degree to which ClassieRl Studies were pursued in Germany 
during the period of the Saxon imperial house is shown by the worlcs 
of the learned nun Cotwitha of Gandersheim, north of Göttingen, who 
died about ad. dS4. The first edition of her works, which comprise nix 


dramas on biblical and ecolesiastioal themes in tbe style of Terence, In 
prose interspersed with rhymes, also eight legends, a history of Otto L, 
and a hintory of the founding of her cloister in leonioe hexameters, was 
issued by the humanist Conrad Geltes, with woodcuts by Dürer in ld. 
1501.— Fotker Labeo, president of the cloister school of St. Gall, who 
died in a.D. 1022, enriched the old German literature by translatious of 
the Psalms, of Aristotle's Organont the Moralia of Gregory the Great, 
and various writings of Boethius. — In £ngland the educational efforts of 
St. Dunstaa (§ 97, 4) were powerfully supported by Bishop Ethelwold of 
Winchester, who quite in tbe spirit of Alfred the Great (§ 90, 10) wrought 
incessantly with his pupils for the extension and euriclmient of the 
Anslo-Saxou literature. Of his scholars by far the most famous was 
Aelfric, sumamed Grammatious, who flourished about ad. 990. He 
wrote an Anglo-Saxon Grammar, prepared a collection of homilies for 
all the Sundays and festivals and a free translation from sermons of tbe 
Latin Fathers, translated also the Old Testament heptateuch, and wrote 
treatises on other portions of Scripture and on biblical questions.^ 

2. Italy produced during the second half of the century many theo- 
logians eminent and important in their day. Atto, bishop of Veroelli, 
who died about a.d. 960, distinguished himself by his exegetioal com- 
pilations on Paul's epistles, aud as a homilist and a vigorous opponent 
of the oppressors of the church during these rough times. Still more 
important was his younger contemporary Satherins, bishop of Verona, 
afterwards of Li^ge, but repeatedly driven away from both, who died 
A.D. 974. A strict and zealous reformer of clerical morals, he insisted 
upon careful study of the Bible, and wrought earnestly agaiust the un- 
blushing paganiflm of the Italian scholars of his age as well as against 
all kinds of hypocrisy, superstition, aud ecclesiastical corruptions. This, 
and also his attachment to the political interests of the German court, 
exposed him to much persecution. Among his writings may be named 
De coHtemptu eanonum, Mrditationei cordis. Apologia nit ipsius, De 
diseordia inter iptum et clericos. — In France we meet with Odo of Clognyy 
who died in a.o. 942, famed as a hymn writer and homilist, and, in hia 
Collationum LI, tit., as a zealous reprover of the corrupt morals of his 
age. In England and France, Abbo of Fleuy taught toward the end of 

1 The Aelfric Society founded in 1842 has edited his Anglo-Saxon 
writings and those of others. The Homilies were edited by Thorpe in 
2 vols., in 1843 and 1846. " Select Monuments of Doctrine and Worship 
of Catliolic Church in England before the Norman Conquest, consisting 
of Aelfjic*s Paschal Homily,'* etc. London, 1875. On Aelfric and Ethel- 
wold see an admirable sketch, with full references to and appropriate 
quotations from early chronicles, in Hook's *' Lives of the Archbiahops 
of Canterbury," voL i., pp. 434-455. 


the oentury. From EDgland, where he had been iodaoed to go by St. 
Dunstan, he returned after some years to his own cloister of Fleary, imd 
by his academic gifts raised its school to great renown. He wrote on 
astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and history. He also composed 
a treatise on dialectics, in which he makes his appearance as the first 
and most eminent precursor of tbe Schoolmen. Chosen abbot of his 
monastery and exercising strict discipline over his monks, he suffered a 
martyr*s death by the band of a murderer in a.d. lOOl.^Gerbert of 
KheixDs. afterwards Pope Sylvester II. (§ 96, 3, 4), during his active 
career lived partly in France, partly in Italy. Distinguished both for 
classical and Arabic scholarship, he shone in the firmament of this dark 
century as it was passing away (f ld. 1003) like a star of the first 
magnitude in theology, mathematics, astronomy, and natural science, 
while by the common people he was regarded as a magician. Under him 
the Bohool of Bheims reached the summit of its fame. 

§ 101. The Eleventh Century. 

During the 11th century, with the moral and spiritual 
elevation of the church, eager attention was again given to 
theological science. It was at first mainly prosecuted in the 
monasteries of the Cistercians and among the monks of 
Clugny, but afterwards at the seminaries which arose toward 
the end of the century. The dialectic method won more and 
more the upper hand in theology, and in the Eucharist con- 
troversy between Lanfranc and Berengar, as well as in the 
controversy between Anselm and Gaunilo about the existence 
of God, and between Anselm and Roscelin about the Trinity, 
Dogmatism obtained its first victory over Scepticism. 

1. The Most Celebrated Schoolmen of this Century. — (1) Folbert opens 
the list, a pupil of Gerbert, and from A.D. 1007 Bishop of Chartret. 
Before entering on his episcopate he had founded at Chartres a theo- 
logical seminary. His fame spread over all the West, so that pupils 
poured in upon him from every side. — (2) The most important of these 
WMS Berengar of Tours, afterwards a canon and teacher of the cathedral 
school of his native city, and then again archdeacon at Angers. He died 
in LD. 1088. The school of Tours rose to great eminence under him. — 
(3) Lanfhinc, the celebrated opponent of the last-named, was abbot of 
the monastery of Bee in Normandy, and from ld. 1070 Archbishop of 
Canterbury (f 96, 8). He died in ▲.]>. 1089. He wrote against BezeoQix 


Liber de corpore et sanguine Domini. — (4) Bishop Hildebert of Toon, wb 
died in a.d. 1134, famous as a writer of spiritaal songs, was a pupil o 
Berengar. But he avoided the sceptical tendencies of his teaoher, an^i, 
warned of the danger of dialectic and following the mystical bent ^ 
his mind, he applied himself to the cultivation of a life of faith, so tha.t 
Bt. Bernard praised him as tantam columnam eccletice, — (5) The monastic 
•chool of Bee, which Lanfrano had rendered celebrated, reached the 
summit of its fame under his pupil Anselm of Cantorbury, who far 
excelled his teacher in genius as well as in importance for theological 
science. He was bom in a.d. 1033 at Aosta in Italy, educated in the 
monastery of Bee, became teacher and abbot there, was raised in a.d. 
1093 to the arohiepiscopal chair of Canterbury, and died in a.d. 1109. As 
a churchman he courageously defended the independence of the charch 
Aocording to the principles of Hildebrand (§ 96, 12). As a theologian 
he may be ranked in respect of acuteness and profoundity, speculative 
talent and Christian eamestuess, as a second Augustine, and on the 
theological positions of that Father he based his own. Thougii carrying 
dialectic even into his own private devotions, there was yet preseat in him 
a vein of religion-^ mysticism. According to him faith is the condition of 
true knowledge, Fid>'S pracedit inteUrctam; but it is also with him a sacred 
duty to raise faith to knowledge. Credo ut intelligam. On^y he who in 
respect of endowment and culture is not otu>able of this intellectual 
activity should content himself with simple Veheratio, His Momtlogiam 
contains discussions on the nature of God, his PriUlogium proves the 
being of Qod ; his three books, De fide Trinitatit et de incamatione Verbiß 
develop and elaborate the doctrine of the Trinity and Ghristology ; while 
the three dialogues De veritate, De libera arbitrio^ and De catu diaboli 
treat of the object, and the tract Cur Drut homo f treats of the subject, of 
BOterlology. The most able, profound, and impressive of all his writings 
is the last-named, which proves the necessity of the incarnation of God 
in Christ for the reconciliation of man with God. It was an epoch- 
making treatise in the historical development of the church doctrine 
of satisfaction on Pauline foundations.^ Anselm took part in the 
eontroversy of the Greeks by his work De proceesione Spiritus (§ 67, 4). 
He discussed the question of predestination in a moderate Aagustinian 
form in the book. De concordia prascimtia etpradest, et gratia Dei cum 
libero arbitrio. In his Meditatioties and Orationes he gives expression 
to the ardent piety of his soal, as also in the voluminous collection 
(426) of his letters.^ — (6) Anselm of Laon, sumamed Scholasticus, was 

' Macpherson on ** Anselm*s Theory of the Atonement ; its Place in 
History*' ; in Brit, and For. Evang. Review (or 1878, pp. 207-232. 

s Church, *' St. Anselm.'* London, 1870. Bole, ** Life and Timea of 
8t Anselm." 2 Toli. London, 1888. 


the papil of Anselm of Canterbury. From i.D. 1076 be tangbt with 
brilliant saccess at Paris, and thus laid the first foundation of its nni- 
Tersity. Subsequently he returned to his native city Laon, waa made 
there archdeacon and Scholasticus, and founded in that place a famous 
theological school. He died in ld. 1117. He composed the Glossa 
interlinearist a short exposition of the Vulgate between the lines, which 
with Walafrid*8 Glcua ordinaria (§ 90, 4), became the favourite exe- 
getical handbook of the Middle Ages. — (7) William of Champeaax, the 
proper founder of the University of Paris, had already taught rhetoric 
and dialectic for some time with great success in the cathedral school, 
when the fame of the theological school of Laon led him to the feet of 
Anselm. In a.D. 1108 he returned to Paris, and had immense crowds 
Ustening to his theological lectures. Chagrined on account of a defeat 
in argument at the hand of Abaalard, one of his own pupils, he retired 
from public life into the old chapel of St. Victor near Paris, and there 
founded a monaRteiy under the same name for canons of the rule of St. 
Augustine. He died in a.D. 1121 as Bishop of Chalons. — (8) The abbot 
0iub«rt of Nogent, in the diocese of Laon, who died about a.d. 1124, a 
scholar of Anselm at Bee, was a voluminous writer and, with all his own 
love of the marvellous, a vigorous opponent of all the grosser absurdities 
of relic and saint worship. He wrote a useful history of the first crusade, 
and a work important in its day entitled, Lihtr quo ordine termo fieri 
deheat. His great work was one in four books, De pignorilmt Sanctorum, 
against the abases of saint and relic worship, the exhibition of pretended 
parts of the Saviour's body, e,g. teeth, pieces of the foreskin, navel oord, 
etc., against the translation or distribution of the bodies of saints, against 
the fraud of introducing new saints, relics, and legends. 

2. Berengar's Eacharist Controversy, A.D. 1060-1079.— Berengar of 
Tours elaborated a theory of the eucharist which is directly i^tago- 
nistic to the now generally prevalent theory of Badbert (§ 91, 3). He 
taught that while the elements are changed and Christ's body is really 
present, neither the change nor the presence is substantial. The 
presence of His body is rather the eziF.tence of His power in the ele- 
ments, and the change of the bread is the actual manifestation of this 
power in the form of bread. The condition however of this power- 
presence is not merely the consecration but also the faith of the receiver. 
Without this faith the bread is an empty and impotent sign. Such views 
were publicly expressed by him and his numerous followers for a long 
while without causing any offence. But when he formally stated them 
in a letter to his friend Lanfranc of Bee, this churchman became 
BereDgar*s accuser at the Synod of Rome in a.D. 1050. The synod 
ooudemned him unheard. A second synod of the same year held at 
Vercelli, before which Berengar was to have appeared but could not 
because he had meanwhile been imprisoned in France, in an outburst of 


fanatical fary had the treatise of Ratramnus on the enoharist, wrongly 
ascribed to Erigena, torn up and burnt, while Berengar's doctrine was 
again condemned. Meanwliile Berengar was by the intervention of 
influential friends set at liberty and made the acquaintance of the power- 
ful papal legate Hildebrand, who, holding by the simple Scripture doc« 
trine that the bread and wine of the sacrament was tbe body and blood 
of Christ, occupied probably a position intermediate between Hadbert's 
grossly material and Berengar's dynamia hypothesis. Disinclined to 
favour the fanaticism of Berengar's opponents, Hildebrand contented 
himself with exacting from him at the Synod of Tours in kj>, 1054 a 
solemn declaration that he did not deny the presence of Christ in the 
Supper, bat regarded the consecrated elements as the body and blood of 
Christ. Emboldened by this decision and still always persecuted by his 
opponents as a heretic, Berengar nndertook in a.d. 1059 a journey to 
Rome, in order, as he hoped, by Hildebrand's influence to secure a dis- 
tinct papal verdict in his favour. But there he found a powerful opposi- 
tion headed by the passionate and pugnacious Cardinal Humbert (§ G7, 
3). This party at the Lateran Council in Rome in ^.d. 1059, compelled 
Berengar, who was really very deficient in strength of character, to cast 
his writings into the fire and to swear to a confession composed by Hum- 
bert which went beyond even Radbert*s theory in the gross corporeality 
of its expressions. But in France he immediately again repudiated this 
confession with bitter invectives against Rome, and vindicated anew 
against Lanfranc and others his earlier views. The bitterness of the 
controversy now reached its height. Hildebrand had meanwhile, in ad. 
1073, himself become pope. He vainly endeavoured to bring the con- 
troversy to an end by getting Berengar to accept a confession couched in 
moderate terms admitting the real presence of the body and blood in the 
Sapper. The opposite party did not shrink from casting suspicion on 
tbe pope*8 own orthodoxy, and so Hildebrand was obliged, in order to 
avoid the loss of his great life work in a mass of minor controversies, to 
insist at a second synod in Rome in a.d. 1079 upon an anequivocal and 
decided confession of the substantial change of the bread. Berengar was 
indiscreet enough to refer to his private conversations with the pope ; 
but now Gregory commanded him at once to acknowledge and abjure his 
error. With fear and trembling Berengar obeyed, and the pope dis- 
missed him with a safe conduct, distinctly prohibiting all farther disputa- 
tion. Bowed down under age and calamities, Berengar withdrew to the 
island of St. Come, near Tours, where he lived as a solitary penitent in 
the practice of strict asceticism, and died at a great age in peace with 
the church in A.D. 1088. His chief work is De Coma S, adv. Lanfr. — 
Continuation, § 102, 5. 

8. Anselm's Controversies.— I. On the basis of his Platonie realism, 
Anselm of Canterbury constracted the ontolo^cal proof of the being of 


God, that tbeie is giTen in inan*8 reason tbe idea of the most perfect 
being to whose perfection existence also belongs. When he laid this 
proof before the learned world in his Monologium and Proilogiam^ tbe 
monk Gauuilo of Marmonticrs, who was a supporter of Aristotelian 
realism, opposed him, and acutely pointed out tbe defects of this proof 
in his Liber pro inripitnff. He so named it in reference to a remark of 
Anselm, who had said that even the inaipiens who, according to Psalm xiv. 
1, declares in hia heart that there is no God, affords thereby a witness for 
tbe existence of the idea, and consequently also for the existence of God. 
Anselm replied in his Apolopeticus c. Oaunilonem. And there the cou- 
troveiey em^ed without any definite result. — II. Of more importance was 
Anselm*B controversy with Boscelin, the Nominalist, canon of Compidgne. 
He in a purely nominalistio fashion understood the idea of tbe Godhead 
as a mere abstraction, and thought that tbe three persons of the Godbead 
could not be una res^ oMa, as then they must all at once have been 
incarnate in Christ. A synod at Soissons in a.D. 1092 condemned him 
as a tritheist. He retracted, but afterwards reiterated his earlier views. 
Anselm then, in his tract De fide Trinitatis et de incarnatione VerH 
contra Utupliemia» Rxicelini, proved that the drift of his argumentation 
tended toward tritheism, and vindicated the trinitarian doctrine of the 
church. For more than two centuries Nominalism was branded with a 
snspicion of heterodoxy, until in the 14th century a reaction set in 
(f 113, 8), which restored it again to honour. 

§ 102. The Twelfth Century. 

In the 12th century dialectic and mysticism are seen con- 
tending for the mastery in the department of theology. On 
the one side stands AbaBlard, in whom the sceptical dialectic 
had its most eminent representative. Over against him 
Btands St. Bernard as his most resolute opponent. Theo- 
logical dialectic afterwards assumed a pre-eminently dogmatic 
and ecclesiastical character, entering into close relationship 
with mysticism. While this movement was mainly carried 
on in France, where the University of Paris attracted teachers 
and scholars from all lands, it passed over from thence into 
Germany, where Provost Gerhoch and his brother Arno gave 
it their active support in opposition to that destructive sort 
of dialectic that was then spreading around them. Although 
the combination of dogmatic dialectic and mysticism had for 


a long time no formal recognition, it ultimately secured the 
approval of the highest ecclesiastical authorities. 

1. The Contest on Freneli Soil :— I. The Dialectic Side of the Onlf.-^ 
Peter Abelard, superior to all his contemporaries in acateoess, learning, 
diftlectic power, and bold freethinking, but proud and disputatious, was bom 
at Palais in Brittany in jld. 1079. His first teaolier in philosophy wiis 
Rosc«>liu. Afterwards he entered the school of William of Champeanx 
at Paris, the most celebrated dialectician of his times. Having defeated 
his master in a public disputation, he founded a school at Melun near 
Paris, where thousands of pupils flocked to him. In order to be nearer 
Paris, he moved his school to Corbeil ; then to the very walls of Paris 
on Mount St. Qenoveva ; and ceased not to overwhelm William with 
humiliations, until his old teacher retreated from the field. In order to 
secure still more brilliant success, he began to study theology under the 
Schoolman Anselm of Laon. But very soon the ambitious scholar 
thought himself superior also to this master. Relying upon his dia- 
lectical endowments, he took a bet without further preparation to ex- 
pound the difficult prophet Ezekiel. He did it indeed to the satisfaction 
of scholars, but Anselm refused to allow him to continue his lectures. 
Aboilard now returned to Paris, where he gathered around him a great 
number of enthusiastic pupils. Canon Fulbert appointed him teacher 
of his beautiful and talented niece Heloise. He won her love, and they 
were secretly married. She then denied the marriage in order that he 
might not be debarred from the highest ofiices of the church. Persisting 
in this denial, her relatives dealt severely with her, and Ahielard had 
her placed in the nunnery of Argenteuil. Fulbert in his fury had Aba- 
lard seized during the night and emasculated, so that he might be dis- 
qualified for ecclesiastical preferment. Overwhelmed with shame, be fled 
to the monantery of St. Denys, and there in a.D. 1119 took the monastic 
vow. Heloise took the veil at Argenteuil. But even at St. Denys Abaa- 
lard was obliged by the eager entreaties of former scholars to resume his 
lectures. His free and easy treatment of the church doctrine and his 
haughty spirit aroused many enemies against him, who at the Synod of 
Soissons in a.D. 1121 compelled him before the papal legate to oast into 
the fire his treatise De Unitate et Trinitate diviruit and had him com- 
mitted to a monastic prison. By the intercession of some friends he was 
soon again set free, and returned to St. Denys. But when he made the 
discovery that Dionysius at Paris was not the Areopagite the persecution 
of the monks drove him into a forest near Troyes. There too his scholars 
followed him and made him resume his lectures. His oolony grew up 
nnder his hands into the famous abbey of the Paradete. Finding even 
there no rest, he made over the abbey of the Paraclete to Heloise, who had 
Dot been able to oome to terms with her insabordinate nmui at ArgenteoiU 


He himself now became abbot of the monastery df St. Glldasias at Hays 
in Brittany, and, after in vain endeavouring for eight years to restore the 
monastic discipline, he again in ad. 1136 resumed liis office of teacher 
and lectured at St. Genoveva near Paris with great saocesA. He wrote an 
ethi6al treatise, " Scito te iptnm,'* issued a new and enlarged edition of 
his Theoltfgia ehriitiana^ now extant as the incomplete Infroductio ad 
theologiam in three books, and composed a Dialog 'is inter Philosopkum^ 
Jitdteum et ChrUtianum, in which the heathen philosophers anl poets of 
antiquity are ranked almost as high as the prophets and apostles. In 
Sic et Non, ** Tes and No," a collection of extracts from the Fathers 
under the various heads of doctrine contradictory of one another, the 
traditional theology was held up to contempt. 

2. AbsBlard maintained, in opposition to the Augnstinian-Anselmian 
theory, that faith preceded knowledge, that only what we comprehentl is 
to be believed. He did indeed intend that his dialectic should be used 
not for the overthrow but for the establishment of the church doctrine. 
He proceeded, however, from doubt as the principle of all knowledge, 
regarding all church dogmas as problems which must be proved before 
they can be believed : Dabitando tnim ad inquisitionem ventmtw, inqui- 
rendo veritatem percipimus. He thus reduced faith to a mere probability 
and measured the content of faith by the rule of subjective reason. This 
was most glaring in the case of the trinitarian doctrine, which with him 
approached Sabellian modalism. God as omnipotent is to be called 
Father, as all wIkc the Son, as loving and gracious the Spirit ; and so the 
incarnation becomes a merely temporal and dynamic immanence of the 
Logos in the man Jesus. The significance of the ethical element in 
Christianity quite overshadowed that of the dogmatic. He taught that 
fill fundamental truths of Christianity had been previously proclaimed 
by philosophers and poets of Greece and Rome, who were scarcely less 
inspired than the prophets and apostles, the special service of the latter 
consisting in giving currency to these truths among the uncultured. He 
turns with satisfaction from the theology of the Fathers to that of the 
apostles, and from that again to the religion of Jesus, whom ho represents 
rather as a reformer introducing a pure morality than as a founder of a re- 
ligions system. Setting aside Anselm*s theory of satisfaction, he regards 
the redemption and reconciliation of man as consisting in the awakening 
in sinful man, by means of the infinite love displayed by Christ's teaching 
and example, by His life, sufferings and death upon the cross, a respond- 
ing love of such fulness and power, that he is thereby freed from the 
dominion of sin and brought into the glorious liberty of the children 
of God.^ — Abffilard's fame and fallowing grew in a wonderful manner 

1 On Anselm*8 and Abielard's thories of atonement, see Bitsohl, 
** History of Christian Docthne of Justification and Beconciliation,** 
pp.2a-i0. Edin. 1872. 


from day to day ; bat also powerfal opponents dragged his heresies into 
light and vigoroasly combated tbem. The most important of these vere 
the Cistercian monk William of Thierry and St. Bernard, who called 
attention to the dangerous tendency of his teaching. St. Bernard dealt 
personally with tbe heretic, bnt when he failed in converting him, he 
appeared in a.d. 1141 at the Synod of Sens as his accuser. The svnod 
condemned as beretical a series of statements culled from his writings by 
Bernard. Abielard appealed to the pope, but even bis friends at Borne 
among whom was Card. Guido deCasteUa, afterwards Pope CoBlestine IL, 
oould not close their eyes to his manifest heterodoxies. His frieudship 
for Arnold of Brescia also told against him at Bome (§ 108, 7). Innocent 
II. therefore excommunicated AbiBlard and his supporters, condemnad 
his writings to be burnt and himself to be confined in a monastery. 
AbflBlard found an asylum with the abbot Peter the Venerable of Clugny, 
who not only efifected his reconcilation with Bernard, but also, on the 
ground of his Apologia s. Confeuio fidei^ in which he submitted to the 
judgment of the church, obtained permission from tbe pope to pass his 
last days in peace at Clugny. During this time he composed his Hi-U 
calamitaUim Abalardi^ an epistolary autobiography, which, though not 
free from vanity and bitterness, is yet worthy to be ranked with Augustine's 
" Confessions " for its unreserved self-accusation and for the depth of self- 
knowledge which it reveals. He died in jl.d, 1142, in tbe monastery of St. 
Marcellus at Chalons, where he had gone in quest of health. He was buried 
in the abbey of the Paraclete, where Heloise laid on his coffin the letter of 
absolution of Peter of Clugny. Twenty- two years later Heloise herself 
was laid in the same quiet resting place.* 

3.— U. The Mystic Side of the Gulf. — Absplard^s most famous opponent 
was St Bernard of Clairranx (§ 98, 1), bom in a.o. 1091 at Fontaines 
near Dijon in Burgundy, died in a.o. 1153, a man of such extraordinary 
influence on his generation as the world seldom sees. Venerated as a 
mii-acle worker, gifted with an eloquence that carried everything before 
it {doctor nieUißuus)^ he was the protector and reprover of the Vicar of 
Ckhl, the peacemaker among the princes, the avenger of every wrong. His 
genuine humility made him refuse all high places. His enthuRiasm for 
the hierarchy did not hinder him from severely lashing clerical abuses. 
It was his word that roused the hearts of men throughout all Europe to 
undertake the second crusade, and that won many heretics and schis- 
matics back to the bosom of the church. Having his conversation in 
heaven, leading a life of study, meditation, prayer, and ecstatic contem- 
plation, h^ had also dominion over the earth, and by counsel, exhortation, 

^ Berington, " History of the Lives of Abslard and Heloise.** London, 
1787. Ueberweg, "Hislory of Philosophy," vol L, pp. 3d&-397. Lon- 
don, 1872. 


and etereise of discipline exerted a qaiokening and healthful inflaence on 
all the relations of life. His theological tendency was in the direction 
of contemplative mysticism, with hearty submission to the doctrine of 
the church. Like Abslard, bat from the opposite side, he came into con- 
flict with the theory of Auselm ; for the ideal of theology with him was 
not the development of faith into knowledge by means of thought, but 
rather the enlightenment of faith in the way of holiness. Bernard was 
not at all an enemy of science, but he rather saw in the dialectical hair- 
spl.tting of Abielard, which grudged not to cut down the main props of 
saving truth for the glorification of its own art, the overthrow of all true 
theology and the destruction of all the saving efficacy of faith. Heart 
theohigy founded on heart piety, nonrished and Ktrengthened by prayer, 
meditation, spiritual illumination and holiness, was for him the only true 
theology. 2'aiUum Deus eogiunciturt quantum diligitur, Oraudo faciliu» 
quam tiiiputando H digniuM Dewi quaritur et invenitur. The Bible was 
his favourite reading, and in the recesses of the forest he spent much 
time in prayer and study of the Scriptures. But in ecstasy {exee»sus) 
which oonsiüts in withdrawal from sensible phenomena and becoming 
temporarily dead to all earthly relations, the soul of the pious Christian 
is able to rise into the immediate presence of God, so that ** more avge- 
l»rum*' it reaches a blessed vision and enjoyment of the Divine glory and 
that perfect love which loves itself and all creatures only in God. Yet 
o 'en he confesses that this highest stage of abstraction was only attained 
unto by him occasionally and partially through God's special grace. Ber- 
nard's mysticism is most fully set forth in his eighty-six Sermons on 
the first two oliapters of the Song of Solomon and in the tract De diligendo 
Deo. In his controversy with Abaelard he wrote his Tractattis de en ort- 
bn$ Petri Abalardi. To the department of dogmatics belongs De gratia 
et lihero arbitrio ; and to that of history, the biography of his friend Mala- 
chias (§ 149, 5). The most important of his works is De Comideratione^ 
in 6 bks. , in which with the affection of a friend, the earnestness of a 
teacher, and the authority of a prophet, he sets before Pope Eugenius IIL 
the duties and dangers of his high position. He was also one of the 
most brilliant hymn writers of the Middle Ages. Alexander UI. canonized 
him in a.D. 1173, and Pius VIII. in a.d. 1830 enrolled him among the 
doctorei eeelesia (§ 47, 22 c). — Soon after the controversy with Abslard 
had been brought to a close by the condemnation of the church, Bernard 
was again called upon to resint the pretensions of dialectic. Gilbert de 
la Porr^ (Porretauns), teacher of theology at Paris, who became Bisho^ 
of Poitiers in lo. 1142 and died in a.d. 1151, in his commentary on the 
theological writings of Boöthius (§ 47, 23) ascribed reality to the uni- 
versal term ** God" in such a way that instead of a Trinity we seemed 
to have a Quaternity. At the Synod of Bheims, ad. 1148, under the 
preeidency of Pope Eugenius lU., Bernard appeared as accuser of Porre- 



tanna. Gilbert's dootrine was oondemned, but he himself was left 

4. III. Bridging the Gulf from the Side of Myiticism.—At the school of 
the monastery of St. Victor in Paris, founded by William of Champeanx 
after his defeat at the hands of Abs lard, an attempt was made daring the 
first half of the 12th century to combine mysticism and dinleotic in the 
treatment oi theology. The peaceable heads of this school would indeed 
have notliing to do with the speculatitms of Abielard and his followers 
which tended to overthrow the mysteries of the faith. Bat the mystics 
of St. Victor made an important concession to the dialecticians by en- 
tering with as much energy upon the scientific study and construction 
of dogmatics as they did upon the devout examination of Scripture and 
mystical theology. Tbey exhibited a speculative power and a profundity 
of thought that won the hearty admiration of the subtlest of the dialec- 
ticians. By far the most c<ilebrated of this school was Hogo of St. Victor. 
Descended from the family of the Count of Halberstadt, born in a.d. 
1097, nearly related to St. Bernard, honoured by his contemporaries as 
Alter Auffustinw or Lingua Auf/tutini, Hugo was one of the most pro- 
found thinkers of the Middle Ages. Having enjoyed a remarkably com- 
plete course of training, he was enthusiastically devoted to the pursuit 
of science, and, endowed with rich and deep spirituality, he exerted a 
most healthful and powerful influence upon his own and succeeding ages, 
although church and science had to mourn their loss by his early death 
in A.D. 1141. In his Eruditio didatcaliea we have in 3 bks. an ency- 
clopaedic sketch of all human knowledge as a prepara'ion to the study of 
theology, and in other 3 bks. an introduction to the Uible and church 
history.^ His Summa senteutiartim is an exposition of dogmatics on 
patristic liuos, an ecclesiastical counterpart of Abas lard's Sic tt Non, 
The ripest and most influential of all his works, and the moet inile- 
pendent, is his De sacTanientis chritt.ßdei, in 2 bks., in which he treats 
of the whole contents of dogmatics from the point of view of the Sacra- 
ments (§ 104, 2). His exegetical works are less important and less 
original. His mysticism is set forth ex profeno in his Soliloquium de arrha 
aniwa and in the series of three tracts. De area morally De area myttica^ 
and De vanitaU mundi. He makes Noah's ark the symbol of the church as 
well as of the individual soul which journeys over the billows of the world 
to Groil, and. by the successive stages of lectio^ cogitatio, meJitatiOt oratio^ 
and ttpetatio reaches to contemplatio or the vision of God. — Hugo 9 pupil, 
and from a.i>. 1162 the prior of his convent, was the Scotchman Richard 
St Victor, who died in ld. 1173. With less of the dialectic faculty than 

> Neander, " St. Bernard and his Times." London, 1843. Moriaon, 
•* Life and Times of St. Bernard." London, 1863. 
« Bäbiger •* Theological Encyclopedia," vol. i., p. 27. Edin. 1884. 


his mutor— though this too is shown in his 6 hks. De trirUtaU, a 
scholasiio exposition of the Cognitit or Fides qua ereditur — he mainly 
devoted his energies to the development ou the mystico-contemplative 
side of the ** Affeetm " or Fidf$ qua creditur^ which aims at the vision 
and enjoyment of God. Tliis he represents as reached hy the three 
stages of contemplation, distinguished as mentis dilatatio, MubUvatio, and 
alUnatio. Among his mjHtical tracts, mostly myatical expositions of 
Scriptuie passages, the most important are, De praparatiote an Una ad 
enntemplationenit $, de xii. patriarchis, and the 4 bks. De gratia eon^ 
templationis «. de area mystica. These are also known as Benjamin minor 
and B. major. In Richard there appears the first indications of a mis- 
noderstanding with the dialecticians which, among the late Victorines, 
and especially in the case of Walter of St. Victor, took the form of 
vehement hostility. 

5. IV. Briiging the Galf fh>m the Side of Dialectics.— After Abce- 
lard's condemnation theological dialectics came more and more to be 
associated with the church doctrine and to approach more or less nearly 
to a friendly alliance with mysticism. Hugo's writings did much to 
bring this about. The following are the most important Schoolmen of 
this tendency. (1) The EugUshman Eobert FoUeyn, teacher at Oxford 
and Paris, afterwards OArdinal and papal chancellor at Bome, who died 
aboat A.i>. 1150. His chief work is Sententiamm LI. VllI, Though 
very famous in its day, it was soon cast into the shade by the Lombard's 
work. — (2) Petmt Lombardus, bom at Novara in Lombardy, a scholar of 
Abtelard, but powerfully inflaenced by St. Bernard and Hugo St. Victor, 
was Bishop of Paris from a.d. 1159 till his death in a d. 11G4. Ue pub- 
hsbed a dogmatic treatise under the title of Sententiarum LI. IV ; of 
which Bk. 1 treated of Ood, Bk. 2 of Creatures, Bk. 3 of Kedemption, 
Bk. 4 of the Sacraments and the Last Things. For centuries this was 
the textbook in theological seminaries and won for its author the desig- 
nation of Magister Sententiarum, He himself compai'ed this gift laid 
on the altar of the chnrch to the widow's mite, but the book attained a 
place of supreme importance in mediaeyal theology, had innumerable 
commentaries written on it and was officially authorized as the theo- 
logical textbook by the Lateran Council of a.D. 1215. It is indeed a well 
arranged collection of the doctrinal deliverances of the Fathers, in which 
apparent contradictions are dialeoticaily resolved, with great skill, and 
wrought up together into an articulate system, but from want of indepen- 
dence and occasional indecision or withholding of any definite opinion, 
it falls behind Hago*8 Summa aod Bobert's Sentences, It had this advan- 
tage, however, that it gave freer scope to scholars and teachers, and so 
was more stimulating as a textbook for academic use. The Lombard's 
works include a commentary on the Psalms and Catena ou tlio Piiuline 
Epistles.— (3) The Frcnclimon Petar of Peltiers {Plctaviensis), one of 


the ablest followers of the Lombard, was chancellor of the TTniversity of 
Paris toward the end of the century. He wrote 5 bks. of Sentences or 
Distinctions, which in form and matter are closely modelled on the 
work of his master. — (4) The most gifted of all the Sammistd of the 12th 
oentary was the German Alanns ab Insulis, bom at Lille or Ryssel, lat. 
ImuUe. After teaching long at Paris, he entered the Cistercian or(?er, 
and died at an advanced age at Clairvaux in a.d. 120 1. A man of exten- 
sive erndition and a voluminous writer, ho was called Doctor univenalii. 
He wrote an allegorical poem Anticlaudianu9t which describes how reason 
and faith in union with all the virtues restore human natnre to perfection« 
His Regults de », theoV>gia give a short outline of theology and morals in 
125 paradoxical sentences which are tersely expounded. A short but ab^e 
summary of the Christian faith is given in the 5 bks. De arte eatholiea 
fidri. This work is characterized by the use of a mathematical style of 
demonstration, like that of the later school of Wolf, and an avoidance of 
references to patristic authorities, which would have little weight with 
Mohammedans and heretics. He is thus rather an opponeut than a 
representative of dialectic scholasticism. The Summa quadripartita e« 
JIareticot tui temporU ascribed to him was written by another Alanns. 

6. The Coutroversy on German Soil.—The provost Gerhoch and his 
brother, the dean Arno of Reichersberg in Bavaria, were representatives of 
the school of St. Victor as mediators between dialectics and mysticism. 
In A.D. 1150 Gerhoch addressed a memorial to Engenius HI., De cormpto 
ecclesia statu, and afterwards he published De incestigatione AntichrUU» 
He found the anticlirist in the papal schisms of his times, in the ambi- 
tion and covetousness of popes, in the corruptibility of the curia, in the 
manifold corruptions of the church, and especially in the spread of a dia- 
lectic destructive of all tho mysteries of the faith. The controversy in 
wh oh both of these brothers took most interest was that occasioned by 
the revival of Adoptionism in consequence of the teaching of French 
dialecticians, especially Abaslard and Gilbert. It led to the formulating 
of the Christological doctrine in such a form as prepared the way for 
the later Lutheran theories of the Communieatio idiomatum and the 
VbiquUat corporis Christi (§ 141, 9). — In South Germany, conspicuously 
in the schools of Bamberg, Freisingen, and Salzburg, the dialectic of 
Abielard, Gilbert, and the Lombard was predominant. Its chief repre- 
sentatives were Folmar of Triefenbtein in Franconia and Bishop Eberhard 
o.*' Bamberg. The controversy arose over the doctrine of the eucharitit. 
Folmar had maintaiued like Berengar that not tlie actually glorified body 
of Christ is present in the sjjcrament, but only the spiritual substance of 
His flesh and blood, without muscles, sinews and bones. Agiiinst this 
gross CHpemaitic view (John vi. 52, 50) Gerhoch maintained that the 
eucharistic body is the very resurrection body of Christ, the substance of 
which ii a glorified corporeity without flesh and blood in a carnal sense, 


without sinews and bones. The bishop of Bamberg took oflfenee at hii 
friend's bold rejection of the doctrine approved by the church, and so 
Fohnar modified his position to the extent of admitting that there was 
on the altar not only the true, but also the whole body in the perfection 
of its haman substance, under the form of bread and wine. But never- 
theless both he and Abielard adhered to their radical error, a dialectical 
dismemberment of the two natures of Christ, according to which the 
divinity and humanity, the Son of God and the Son of man, were two 
strictly separate existences. Christ, they taught, is according to His 
humanity Son of God in no other way than a pious man is, Le. by 
adoption; but according to His Divine nature He is like the Father 
omnipresent, omnipotent, and omniscient. In respect of His human 
nature it must still be said by Him, ** My Father is greater than I." He 
dwells, howeyer, bodily in heaven, and is shut in by and confined to it. 
Only His Divine nature can claim Latna or adoratio, worship. Only 
Duliat eultutf reverence, such as is due to saints, images, and relics, 
should be given to His body and blood upon the altar. Gerhooh*8 
doctrine of the Supper, on the other hand, is summed up in the pro- 
position : He who receives the flesh of the Logos {Caro Verbi) receives 
also therewith the Logos in His flesh (Verbum eariiU). Folmar and 
Eberhard denounced this as Eutychian heresy. A conference at Bam- 
berg in A.D. 1158, where Gerhoch stood alone as representative of hia 
views, ended by his opponents declaring that he had been convicted ol 
heresy. In A.n. 1162 a Council at Friesach in Carinthia, under the 
presidency of Archbishop Eberhard of Salzburg, reached the same cou- 

7. Theologiani of a Pre-emiaeiitly Biblical and Bodosiastiao-Practieal Tea- 
deaqr.— (1) Alger of Id^e, teacher of the cathedral school there, was one 
of the most important German theologians in the beginning of the 12th 
century. He resigned his appointment in A.n. 1121, to spend his last 
year« in the monastery of Glugny, in order to enjoy the company and 
triendshlp of its abbot, Peter the Venerable ; and there he died about 
A.D. 1180. The school of Li^ge, in whicli he had himself been trained up 
in the high church Cluniac doctrine there prevalent, flourished greatly 
during his lule of twenty years. His chief works are De SacrameutU 
eorparit et sanguinis Domini in 8 bks., distinguished by acuteness and 
lucidity, and a controversial tract on the lines of Badbert against 
Berengar's doctrine condemned by the church. In his De misericordia et 
jtfiiiia he treats of churcli discipline with circumspection, clearness, and 
decision. — (2) Bapart of Dents, more than any medisval scholar before 
or after, created an enthusiasm for the study of Scripture as the people's 
book for all times, the fleld in which the precious treasure is hid, to 
be found by any one whose eyes are made sharp by faith. He was a 
contemporary and follow countryman of Alger, and died in aj>. 1186, 
VOL. n. 1 


Though he refers to the Hebrew and Greek texts, he cares less for the 
literal than for the speculative- dogmatic and mystical sense discoYercd 
by allegorical exegesis. In his principal work, De trinitaU et oprrH'UM 
ejtUt he sets forth in 8 bks. the creation work of the Father, in 30 
bks. the revealing and redeeming work of the Son, from the fall to the 
death of Christ, and in the remaining 9 books the sanctifying work 
of the Holy Spirit, from the resurrection of Christ to the general resur- 
rection. He maintains in opposition to Anselm (who was afterwards 
followed by Thomas Aquinas) that Christ would have become incarnate 
even if men had not sinned (a view which appears in Ireusus, and 
afterwards in Alexander Hales, Duns Scotus, John Wessel, and others). 
In regard to the Lord's Sapper he maintained the doctrine of consub- 
stantiation, and he taught Uke pope Gelasius (§ 58, 2) that the relation of 
the heavenly and earthly in the eucharist is quite analogous to that of 
the two natures in Christ.^ — (3) The Benedictine Hermiis in the cloister 
of Bourg-Dieu, who died about aj>. 1150, was distinguished for deep 
piety and zealous study of Scripture and the fathers. He wrote commen- 
taries on Isaiah and on the Pauline Epistles, the latter of which was 
Mcribed to Anselm and so published among his works. 

8. — (4) John of Salisbury, Johannet Partm» SaritberientiM, was a 
theologian of a thoroughly practical tendency, though a diligent student 
of Abielard and an able classical scholar, specially familiar with the 
writings of Cicero. As the trusted friend of Hadrian IV. he was often 
tent from England on embassies to the pope. In Becket's struggle 
against the encroachments of the Crown upon the rights of the church 
(I 96, 16) he stood by the primate's side as his faithful counsellor and 
fellow soldier, wrote an account of his life and martyrdom, and laboured 
diligently to secure his canonization. He was made Bishop of Chartrea 
in A.D. 1176, and died there in ▲.!>. 1180. His works, distinguished by 
singularly wide reading and a pleasing style, are pre-eminently practical. 
In his Polieratieus t, de nugit Curitilium et vutigiu Philotophorum he 
combats the nuga of the hangers on at court with theological and pbilo- 
Bophical weapons in a well balanced system of eodesiastico-poUtical and 
philosophioo-theological ethics. His Metalogieui in 4 bks. is a pole- 
mic against the prostitution of science by the empty formalism of the 
■choolmen. His 329 Epistles are of immense importance for the literary 
and scientific history of his times. — (5) Walter of St. Victor, Richard's suc- 
cessor as prior of that monastery, makes his appearance about a.i>. 1130, 
as the author of a vigorous polemic against dialectic scholasticism, in 
which he combats especially Christological heresies and spares the ido- 

^ Westcott, •* Epistles of St. John," London, 1883. Dissertation on 
'* The Gospel of Creation,*' pp. 277-280. Bmoe, ** Humiliation of Christ.*' 
Edin., 1876, pp. 354 If., 487 f. 


luei Lombard just as little as the condemned Abielard.^ He combats 
with special eagerness a new heresy springing from Abaelord and developed 
by the Lombard which he styles '* Nihilism/* because by denying tho 
independence of the homan natnre of Christ it teaches that Christ in so 
far as He is man is not an AUquUi, i.e. an individual.— (6) Innocent III. 
is deserving of a place here both on account of his rich theological learning 
and on account of the earnestness and depth of the moral and religions 
view of life which he presents in his writings. The most celebrated of 
these are De conUmtu mundi and 6 bks. Mytteria evang, legi» ac tacrO' 
menti Eucharistia, and during his pontificate, his epistles and sermons. 

9. Hnmanist Philosophers.— While Abslard was striving to prove 
Christianity the religion of reason, and for this was condemned by the 
church, hi« contemporary Bernard Sylvester, teacher of the school of 
Chartres, a famous nursery of classical studies, was seeking to shake 
himself free of any reference to theology and the church. Satisfied with 
Platonism as a genuinely spiritual religion, and feeling therefore no per* 
Bonal need of the church and its consolations, he carefully avoided any 
allusion to its dogmas, and so remained in high repute as a teacher and 
writer. His treatise. De mundi universitatet, Meyacotmut et Microcoitnut^ 
in dialogue form discussing in a dilettante, philosophizing style natural 
phenomena, half poetry, half prose, was highly popular in its day. It 
fared very differently with his accomplished and like-miuded scholar 
William of Conches. The vehemence with which he declared himself a 
Catholic Christian and not a heathen Academic aroused suspicion. 
Though in his Philasopkia mündig sometimes erroneously attributed to 
Honorins of Autun, he studiously sought to avoid any contradiction 
of the biblical and ecclesiastical theory of the world, he could not help 
in his discussion of the origin of man characterizing the literal inter* 
pretation of the Scripture history of creation as peasant faith. The book 
fell into the hands of the abbot William of Thierry, who accused its 
author to St. Bernard. The opposition soon attained to such dimensions 
that he was obliged to publish a formal recantation and in a new edition 
to remove everything objectionable. 

§ 103. The Thirteenth Century. 

Scholasticism took a new departure in the beginning of 
the 13th century, and by the middle of the century it 
reached its climax. Material for its development was found 

^ This work is entitled Contra qtMtwtr labyrinthoe Franci€Bf Sen contra 
novae fuereeee, qua* Abalardue, Lombardus, Petrue Pictaviensit, et Oilber* 
tue Porretanue librU eententiarum acuunt UmaiUt roborant LL IV* 


in the works of Aristotle and his Moslem expositors, and 
this was skilfully used by highly gifted members of the 
Franciscan and Dominican orders so that all opposition to 
the scholastic philosopliy was successfully overborne. The 
Franciscans Alexander of Hales and Bonaventura stand side 
by side with the brilliant Dominican teachers Albert the 
Great and Thomas Aquinas. As reformers of the scholastic 
philosophy from diflforent points of view we meet with 
Baimund Lull and Roger Bacon. There were also numerous 
representatives of lihin simple biblical and practical tendency 
devoted to Scriptura study and the pursuit of the Christian 
life ; and during this period we find the first developments 
of German mysticism properly so called« 

1. Tht Writings of Aristotle and liis Arabio Interpreters.— Till the end 
of the 12th ceutory Aristotle was known in the Christian West only 
through Porphyry and Boetiiios. This philosophy, however, from the 9th 
Century was diligently studied in Arabie translations of the original text 
(S 72) by Moslem scholars of Badgad and Cordova, who wrote expositions 
and made original eontribntions to science. The most distiuguidhed of 
these, besides the logicians Alkindi in the dih, and Al/arabi in the 10th 
century, were the snpematiu^listic Avicenna of Bokhara, f a.D. 1037 
Algazel of Bagdad, inclined to mysticism or sufism, tA.i>. 1111, and 
ihe pantheistic-natnralistic Averroes of Cordova, fin. 119S. The Moors 
and Spanish Jews were also devoted students of the peripatetic philo- 
iophy. The most famous of these was Maimonides, f a.d. 1204, who 
wrote the rationaUstic work More NeboelUm. On the decay of Arabie 
philosophy in Spain, Spanish Jews introduced the study of Aristotle into 
France. Dissatisfied with Latin translations from the Arabic, they began 
in A.D. 1220 to make trant>latious directly from the Greek. Suspicions 
were now aroused against the new gospel of philosophy. At a Synod 
in Paris a.D. 1209 (§ 108, 4) the physical writings of AriMotle were 
condemned and lecturing on them forbidden. This prohibition was 
renewed in a.D. 1215 by the papal legate aud the metaphysics included. 
But no prohibition of the church could arrest the scientific ardour of 
that age. In a.D. 1231 the definitive prohibition was reduced to a 
measure determining the time to be devoted to snch studies, and in 
A.D. 1254 we find the university prescribing tlie number of hours dur- 
ing which Aristotle's phj sics and metaphysics should be taught. Some 
decades later the ehoreh itself declared that no one should obtain the 


degree of master who was not familiar with Aristotle, ** tht precunor 
of Christ in natur<il thiiiffs a< John Baptist was in the things of grace.** 
This change was brought about by tiie belief that not Aristotle but 
Erigena was the author of all the pintheistio heresies of the age (§§ 90, 
7 ; 108, 4), and also by the need felt by the Franciscans and Domini- 
cans for UHlng Aristotelian methods of proof in defence of the doctrine 
of the chorch. Philosophy, however, was now regarded by all theolo- 
gians as only the handmaid of theology. Even in the 11th century 
Petrus Damiani had indicated the mutual relation of the eoienoes thus : 
Debet vHut aneilla domina qu(idam famulatus obsequio subservire, ne $i 
prmeedit, oberret.^ 

2. On aocount of their characteristic tendencies Avicenna was most 
popular with the Schoolmen and after him Algazel, whi'e Avorrocs, though 
carefully studied and secretly follt>wed by some, was generally regarded 
with suspicion and aversion. Among his secret admirers was Simon of 
Tonrnay, about a.d. 1200, who boasted of being able with equal ease to 
prove the falseness and the truth of the church doctrines, ani de^ared 
that Hoses, Christ, and Mohammed were the three greatest deceivers the 
world had ever seen. The Parisian scholars ascribed to Averroes the 
Theory of a twofold Truth. A positive religion was required to meet the 
religions needs of tlie multitude, but the philosopher might reach and 
maintain the truth independently of any revealed religion. In the 
Christian West he put tliis doctrine in a less offensive fi)rm by saying 
tbat one and the same affirmation might be theologically true and 
philosophically fa^se, and vice versa. Behind this, philosophical scepticism 
as well as theological unbnlief sought shelter. Its chief opponents were 
Thomas Aquinas and Kaimund Lull, while at a later time Dons Sootos 
and the Scotists were inclined more or less to favour it. 

8. Tht Appearance of the Mendicant Orders. — The Dominican and 
Franciscan orders competed with one another in a show of zeal for the 
maintenance of the orthodox doctrine, and each endeavoured to secure 
the theological chairs in the University of Paris, the principal seat of 
learning in those days. They were vigorously opposed by the university 
eorporation, and especially by the Parisian doctor William of St. Amour, 
who characterized them in his tract De pericuhs novissimorum temporun 
of A.D. 1255 as the precursors of antichrist. But he was answered by 
learned members of the ordera, Albert the Great, Aquinas, and Bonaven- 
tura, and finally, in a.i>. 1257, all opposition on the part of the university 

* Ueberweg, " History of Philosophy," London, 1872. Vol. i., pp. 405- 
428. Oinsburg, '* The Kabbalah, its doctrine«, developineut, and litera- 
ture,** London. 18C5. Palmer, " Ori^^ntal Mysticism," a tnatise on the 
Soffistio and Unitarian Theobopliy of the Persians, compiled from nativt 
•oozMS, London, 1867. 


was checked by papal anthority and royal command. The Aügnstinians, 
too, won a seat in the University of Paris in ▲.]>. 1261. — The learned 
monks gave themselves with enthusiasm to the new science and applied 
all their soieutifio gains to polemical and apolegetical parxx>8e8. They 
diligeutly conserved all tbat the earlier Fathers down to Gregory the 
Great had written in exposition of the doctrine and all that the later 
Fathers down to Hugo St. Victor and Peter the Lombard had written 
in its defence. But what had been simply expressed before was now 
arranged under elaborate scientific categories. The Summists of the 
previous century supplied abundant material for the work. Their 
Summa iententiaruni, CEpecially that of the Lombard, became the theme 
of innumerable commentaries, but besides these, comprehensive original 
works were written. These were no longer to be described as Swnma 
BenterUiarum^ but assumed with right the title of Summa theologuB or 

4. Diiiingnished Franciscan Schoolmen.— Alexander of Halee, trained in 
the English cloister of Hales, doctor irrefragnbilis, was the most famous 
teacher of theology in Paris, where in a.D. 1222 he entered the Seraphic 
Order. He died in a.i>. 1245. As the first church theologian who, 
without the excessive hair-splitting of later scholastics, applied the forms 
of the peripatetic philosophy to the scientific elaboration of the 
doctrinal system of the church, he was honoured by his grateful order 
with the title of Monarcha theologoram^ and is still regarded as the first 
Mh )la8tio in the strict sense of the word. ELis Summa theolog iea, pub> 
lished at Nuremberg in a.D. 1482 in 4 folio vols, was accepted by his 
successors as the model of scientific method and arrangement. The 
first two vols, treat of God and His Work, the Creature ; the third, of the 
Bedeemer and His Work ; the fourth, of the Sacraments of the O. and 
N.T. The oondusion, which is not extant, treated of Pramia icdutit 
per futuram gloriam. Each of these divisions was subdivided into a great 
number of Quattioneif these again into Membran and these often into 
ArtictUi. The question at the head of the section was followed by 
•everal answers affirmative and negative, some of which were entitled 
Aueforitates (quotations from Scripture, the Fathers, and the teachers of 
the church), some Bationes (dictates of the Greek, Arabian, and Jewish 
philosophers), and finally, his own conclusion. Among the authorities 
of later times, Hugo*s dogmatic works ($ 102, 4) occupy with him the 
highest place, but he seems to have had no appreciation of his mystical 
speculations. — His most celebrated disciple John fUansa, better kuowu 
as Bonaventura, had a strong tendency to mysticism. Born at Baguarea 
in the district of Florence in a.D. 1221, he became teacher of theology in 
Paris in a.D. 1253, general of his order in a.D. 1237, was made Cardin.ü« 
bishop of Ostia by Gregory X. in a.D. 1278, and in the following year 
was a member of the Lyons Council, at which the question of the 


reanion of the ohorohes was discassed (§ C7, 4). He took an active 
port iu the proceedings of that council, but died before its close in a.o. 
1274. His aged teacher Alexander had named him a. I'enu Itraflita, 
in quo Äd<im nun p ecassf. videtiir. Later Franciscans regarded him as 
the noblest embodiment of the idea of the Seraphic Order next to its 
founder, and celebrated the angelic pnrity of his personality by the 
title doctor ieraphiciu. Sixtiis IV. canonized him in a.D. 1482, an.l 
Sixtas v., edited his works in 8 fol vols, in a.D. 1588, and gave him in 
A.D. 1587 the sixth place in the rank of Doctores eecle^ia as the greatest 
church teacher of the We:it. Like Hugo, he combined the mystical and 
doctrinal sides of theology, bat like Bichard St. Victor inclined more to 
the mystical. His greatest dogmatic work is his commentary in 2 vols. 
fol. on the Lombard. His able treatise, De reduetione artium ad 
thenlogiam, shows how theology holds the highest place among all the 
Bciencet. In his Bretiloquium he seeks briefly but with great expendl* 
tore of learning to prove that the church doctrine is in accordance with 
the teachings of reason. In the CenUloquinmy consisting of 100 sections, 
he treats summarily of the doctrines of Sin, Grace, and Salvation. In 
the Pharetra he gives a collection of the chief authorities for the 
conclusions reached in the two previously named works. The most 
celebrated of his mystical tri'atises are the Diai€B tulmit^ describiug the 
nine days' journey (dicsta) in which the soul passes from the abyss of 
■in to the bles6eduess of heaven, and the Itineradum mentis in Deum. 
in which he describes as a threefold way to the knowledge of God % 
theologia $yinboUca {^ extra no«), propria (=^ intra nos) and myttica 
{^tttpra not), the last and highest of which alone leads to the beatiüo 
▼isiou of God. 

5. Distingniihed Dominican Schoolmen.— (1) Albert the Great, the oldest 
son of a knight of Bollstadt, born in a.d. 1193, at Laningcn in Swabia, 
f ent in a.d. 1212, because too weak for a military career, to the Univer- 
sity of Padua, where he devoted himself for ten years to the diligent 
study of Aristotle, entered then the Dominican order, and at Bologna 
pursued with equal diligence the study of theology in a six years' course. 
He afterwards tauglit the roj^ular curriculum of the liberal arts at Cologne 
and in the cloisters of his order in other German cities ; and after taking 
his doctor's degree at Paris, he taught theology at Cologne with such 
success that the Cologne school, owing to the crowds attracted to his 
lectures, grew to the dimensions of a university. In ad. 1254 he became 
provincial of his order iu Germany, was compelled in a.d. 12G0 by pnpal 
command to accept the bishopric of Bcgensburg, but returned to Culogu^ 
in AJ>. 12u2 to resume teaching, and died there in a.d. 12S0, in his 87tl^ 
year. His amazing acquirements in philosophical, theological, cabalistic, 
And natural science won for him the surname of the Great, ^ud the title 
of doctor unicersalis. Since the time of Anstoße ^n^ Thepphrastus th^ra 


bad been no inTOBtigator in nataral science like bim. Traces of mysticism 
may be discovered in bis treatise ParadUtu anima, and in Itis commen- 
tary on the Areopagtte. Indeed from bis school proceeded the greatest 
master of speculative mysticism (§ 114, Ij. His chief work in nataral 
BcicDce is the Sumtia de Creaturü, the fantastic and saperstitious charac- 
ter of whicb may be seen from the titles of its several books : De rirtuti- 
bu* herharum, tapidum, et ontmaZium, De miruhilibut mumlif and De reeretis 
muliertim. He wrote three books of commentaries on the Lombard, and 
two books of an independent system of dogmatics, the Summa tluo^ 
logica. The latter treatise, which closely follows the work of Alexander 
of Ilales, is iacomplete.^ 

6. The greatest and most inflnential of all the Schoolmen was the 
Doctor angelicuii Thomas Aqtiinas. Bom in a.D. 1227, son of a ooant 
of Aquino, at his father's castle of Boccasicca, in Calabria, he entered 
against his parents* will as a novice into the Dominican monastery at 
Naples. Removed for safety to France, he was followed by his brothers 
and taken back, but two years later he efifected his escape with the aid of 
the order, and was placed under Albert at Cologne. Afterwards he taaght 
for two years at Cologne, and was then sent to win his doctor's degree at 
Paris in a.d. 1253. There he began along with his intimate friend Bona- 
ventura his brilliant career. It was not until a.d. 1257, after the oppo- 
sition of tlie uni?ersity to the meudicant orders had been overcome, that 
the two friends oLtaineii the degree of doctor. Urban IV. recalled him 
to Italy in a.D. 1261, where he taught successively in Rome, Bologna, 
Pisa, and Naples. Ordered by Gregory to take part in the discussions 
on union at the Lyons Council, he died suddenly in a.d. 1274, soon after 
his return to Naples, probably from poison at the hand of his country- 
man Charles of Anjoo, in order that he might not appear at the council 
to accuse him of tyranny. John XKII. canonized him in a J>. 1323, and 
Pins v. gave him the fifth place among the Latin dttetoret eccletim. — 
Thomas was probably the most profound thinker of the century, and 
was at the same time admired as a popular preacher. He had an intense 
veneration for Augustine, an enthusiastic appreciation of the church 
doctrine and the philosophy which are approved and enjoined by this preat 
Father. He had also a vein of genuine mysticism, and was distinguished 
for worm and deep piety. He wa.-i the first to give the papal hierarchical 
system of Gregory and Innocent a regular place in dogmatics. His 
Snmma philotophia contra GentiUf, is a Christian philosophy of religion, 
of which the first three books treat of those religious truths which human 
reason of itself mxy recognise, while the fourth book treats of those 
which, because transcending reason though not contrary to it, i.e, doo- 

> Sigh art, •* Albert the Great: his Life and Scholastic Labours.** 
Translated from the French by T. A. Dixon. London, 1876. 


irinet of the inoanmtion and the trinity, can be known onty by Divine 
rBvelatiou. He wrote two books of commeniaries on the Lombard. By 
far the most important work of the Middle Ages is liis .Sumnia theologica, 
in three vols^, in which he gives ample spacu to ethical questions. His 
polemic against the Greeks is found in the section in which he defines 
aud proves the primacy of the pope, basing his arguments on ancient 
and modern fictions and forgeries (§ 96, 23), which he, iguorant of Greek 
and deriving his knowledge of antiquity wholly from Gratian's decree, 
accepted bona fide as genuine. His chief exegetical woik is the Catena 
aurea on the Gospels and Pauline EpiMtles, translated into Fnglish by 
Dr. Pusey, in 8 vols , Oxf., 1841, fiF. In commenting on Aiistotle Thomas, 
unlike Albert, neglected the treatises on natural science in favour of those 
on politics. — The Dominican order, proud of having in it the greatest 
philosopher and theologian of the age, made the doctrine of Thomas in 
respect of form and matter the authorized standard among all its mem- 
bera {% 113, 8), and branded every departure from it as a betrayal not 
only of the order but also of the church and Gbri5?tianity. The other 
monkish orders, too, especially the Augustiuians, Cistercians, and Car- 
melites, recognised the authority of the Angelical doctor. Only the 
Franciscans, moved by envy and jealousy, iguored him and kept to Alex- 
ander and Bonaventura, until the close of the century, when, in Duns 
Scotus (§ 113, 1), they obtained a brilliant teacher within their own 
ranks, whom they proudly thought would prove a fair rival in fame to 
the great Dominican teacher, i 

7. fieformers of the Scholastic Xethod.— Baimasd Lull, a Catalonian 
nobleman of Majorca, bom in a.d. 1231, roused from a worldly life by 
▼isions, gave himself to fight for Christ against the infidels with the 
weapons of the Spirit. Learning Arabic from a Saracen slave, he passed 
through a full course of scho'astio training in theology and entered the 
Franciscan order. Constrained in the prosecution of his mission to 
seek a simpler method of proof than *that afforded by scholasticism, he 
snccec^ed by the help of visions in disooveriug one by which as he and 
his followers, the Loll lata, thought, the deepest truths of all human 
sciences could be made plain to the untutored human reason. He called 
it the An Magna, aud devoted his whole Ufe to its elaboration in thejry 
and practice. Bepresenting fundameutal ideas and their relations to 
the objects of thought by letters and figures, he drew cou elusions from 

' Hampden, *'Life of Thomas Aquinas : a Dissertation of the Scholastio 
Philosophy of the Middle Age s.** London, 1848. Cicognani, ** Life of 
Thomas Aquinas." London, 1882. Townsend, ** Great Schoolmen of 
the Middle Ages.** London, 1882. Vaughan, " Life and Labours of St« 
Thomas of Aquino.*' 2 vols. London, 1870. 


their TarioiiB eombinations. Iq his missionary iravels in North Airica 
(§ 93, 16) he used his art in his dispatatioua with the Saracen soholars, 
and died in ^.d. 1315 in conseqnence of ill treatment received there, in 
his Slst year. Of his writings in Latin, Catalonian, and Arabic, 
nombering it is said more than a thousand, 282 were known in a.]>. 
1721 to Salzinger of Mainz, bat only 45 were incladed in his edition of 
the collected works. 

8. Soger Bacon, an English monk, contemporary with Lull, worked 
out his reform in a soander manner by going back to the original 
soorces and thus obtaining deliverance from the aocomnlated errors of 
later times. He appealed on matters of natural science not to corrapt 
translations bat to the original works of Aristotle, and on matters of 
theology, not to the Lombard bat to the Greek New Testament Ht 
prosecuted his stadiee laboriously in mathematics and the Greek 
language. Boger was called by his friends Doctor nUrnbilit or profuii' 
dus. He was a prodigy of learning for his age, more in the department 
of physics than in those of philosophy aud theology. He was regarded, 
however, by his own order as a heretic, and imprisoned as a trafficker 
in the black arts. Bom in a.i>. 1214 at Hohester, he took his degree of 
doctor of theology at Paris, entered the Franciscan order, and became a 
resident at Oxford. Besides diligent study of languages, which secured 
him perfect command of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic, he busied 
himself with researches and experiments in physics (especially optics), 
ehemistry, and astronomy. He made several important discoveries, 
e.g. the principle of refraction, magnifying glasses, the defects of the 
calendar, etc., while he also succeeded in making a oombustible material 
which may be regarded as the precursor of gunpowder. He main« 
tained the possibility of ships and 'land vehicles being propelled most 
rapidly without sails, and without the labour of men or animals. Yet 
he was a child of his age, and believed in the philosopher's stone, in 
astrology, and alchemy. Thoroughly convinced of the defects of 
scholasticism, he spoke of Albert the Great and Aquinas as boys who 
taught before they learnt, and especially reproached them with their 
ignorance of Greek. With an amount of brag that smacks of the 
empiric he professed to be able to teach Hebrew in three days and Greek 
in the same time, and to give a full course of geometry in seven days. 
With fearless severity he lashed the corruptions of the clergy and the 
monks. Only one among his companions seems to have regarded Boger, 
notwithstanding all his faults, as a truly great man. That was Clement 
rV. who, as papal legate in England, had made his acquaintance, and 
as pope Uberated him from prison. To him Boger dedicated his 
Opus tnajut $, de e7nendandi$ ieientiii. At a later period the general 
of the Franciscan order, with the approval of Nicholas IV., had him 
again cast into prison, and only after that pope's death was he libe- 


lated through the mtercesEion of his friends. He died soon after in 
4.i>. 1291.' 

9. Theüo^ans of a Biblical and Practical Tendenoj.— (1) OMarios of 
Beisterbach near Bonn was a monk, then prior aud master of the 
novices of the Cistercian monastery there. He died in a.D. 1230. His 
Dialogus magnm vUionum et miiaculorum in 12 bke., one of the best 
specimens of the finest calture and learning of the Middle Ages, in the 
form of conversation with the novices, gives an admirable and complete 
sketch of the morals and manners of the times illustrated from the 
history and legends of the monks, clergy, and people. — (2) His younger 
contemporary the Dominican William Peraldns (Peranlt), in his Summa 
virtutum aud Sumiua vitiorum, presents a summaij of ethics with illos- 
trations from life in France. He died about a.d. 1250, as bishop of 
Lyons. — (3) Hugo of St. Caro (St. Cher, a suburb of Vienno), a Domini- 
ean and cardinal who died in a.d. 1263, gives evidence of careful Bible 
study in his PottUla in univ. Bihlia juxta quadrupL ieutuni (a commen- 
tary accompanying the text) and his Concnrdaiitia BUdiorum (on the 
Tolgate). To him we are indebted for our division of the Scriptures into 
ahaptcrs. At the request «f his order he undertook a correction of the 
Tolgate from the old MSS.— (4) Bobert of Sorben in Champagne, who 
died in a.d. 1274, was confessor of St. Louis and teacher of theology at 
Paris. He nrged upon liis pupils the duty of careful study of the Bible. 
In A.D. 1250 he founded the Sorboune at Paris, origiually a seminary 
for the education and su)iport of the poorer clergy who aspired to the 
highest attainments in theology. Its fame became so great that it rose 
to the rank of a full theological faculty, and down to its overthrow in the 
French Bevolution it coutiuued to be the highest tribunal in France for 
all matters pertaining to religion aod the church. — (5) Baimnnd Martini, 
Dominican at Barceh*na, who died after A.D. 1284, was unweariedly 
engaged in the conversion of Jews and Mohammedans. He spoke 
Hebrew and Arabic as fluently as Latin, and wrote Pugio fidei contra 
Uauroi et Judteot} 

10. Precursors of the German Speculative Hyslles. — David of Augsburg, 
teacher of theology and master of the novices in the Franciscan monas- 
tery at Augsburg, deserves to be named first, as one who largely antici- 
pated the style of speculative mysticism that flourished in the following 

^ '* Monumenta Franciscana,*' in " Chronicles and Memorials of Great 
Britain aud Ireland,*' edited for the ** Master of the Bolls Series ** by 
Brewer, London, ld58. In addition to the Opui Majus referred to above, 
Brewer has edited Fr, liogeri Buctm Opera quadam inedita^ vol. i., con- 
taining OjruM TertiujHf Opui Minute and Compendium P hilosopUia, 

* Neubauer, ** Jewish Controversy and the * Pugio Fidei/" in Expoiitor 
lor Febmazy and March, 1888. 


oentmy (| 114). His writings, partly in Laiia, partly in O^nnan, aM 
merely ascetic directories and treatises of a contemplative mystical ordert 
distingnisUed by deep spirituality and earnest, humble piety. The Qer- 
man works especially are models of a beautiful rbythruical style, worthy 
of ranking with the finest creations of any century. He is aatbor of the 
important tract. De barest favperum de Luyduno, in which the pious 
m}stic shows bimself in the less pleasing guise of a relentless inquisitor 
and heresy hunter. — ^A brilliant and skilful allegory, The Daughter of 
Zlon, the human soul, who, having become a daughter of Babylon, went 
forth to see the heavenly King, and under the guidance of the virgins 
Faith, Hope, Love, Wisdom, and Prayer attained unto this end, was first 
written in Latin prose ; but af terwtirJs towards the close of the 13th cen- 
tury a free rendering of it in more than 4.000 verses was published by the 
Franciscan Laroprecht of Begensburg. Its mysticism is Uke that of St« 
Bernard and Hugo St. Victor. — Li speculative power and originality the 
Dominican Theodorich of Freiburg, Meitter Dietrich^ a pupil of Albert the 
Great, far excelled all the mystios of Uiis century. About a.d. 1280 he 
was reader at Treves, afterwards prior at A^'ürzburg, took his master's 
degree and taught at Paris, a.D. 1235-1289. About a.d. 1320, however, 
along with Meister Eckhart (| 114, 1), he fell under suspicion of heresy, 
and nothing further is known of him. Among his still unpublished writ- 
ings, mostly on natural and religious philosophy, the most important is 
the book De beatifiea vUitme Dei prr eaentiam, which marks him out aa 
A precursor of the Eckhart speculation.— On Female Mystics, see § 107. 

IV.— The Chnreh and the People. 

§ 104. PuBLio Worship and Art. 

Public worship had for a long time been popularly re- 
gaixled as a performance fraught with magical power. The 
ignorant character of the priests led to frequent setting 
aside of preaching as something unessential, so that the 
service became purely liturgical. But now popes and 
synods urged the importance of rearing a race of learned 
priests, and the carefully prepared and eloquent sermons of 
Franciscans and Dominicans found great acceptance with 
the people. The Schoolmen gave to the doctrine of the 
sacraments its scientific fonn. The veneration of saints, 
relics, and images became more and more the central point 
of worship. Besides ecclesiastical architecturei which 

§ 104. Public wobship and abt. 109 

reached its highest development in the 13th century, the 
other arts began to be laid under contribution to beautify 
the ceremonial, the dresses of the celebrants, and the inner 
parts of the buildings. 

1. The Liturgy and the Semoa. — ^Tbe Boman Liturgy was nDiversally 
adopted except iu Spain. When it was proposed at the Sj'uod of Toledo 
in A.D. loss to set atside the old Mozarabic liturgy (§ 88, 1), the people 
rose against the proposal, and the ordeals of combat and fire decided in 
favour of retaining the old service. From that time both liturgies wore 
used side by side. The Slavic ritual was abandoned in Moravia and 
Bohemia in the 10th century. The language of the church services 
everywhere was and continued to be the Latin. The quickeniug of 
the monkish orders in the 11th century, especially the Cliiniaos aud 
Cistercians, but more particularly the rise of the Franciscans and 
IXominicaoB in the 18th century, gave a great impulse to preaching. 
Almost all the great monks aud schoolmen were popular preachers. 
The crowds that flocked around them as they preached iu the vernacular 
were enormous. Even in the regular services the prciching was gene- 
rally in the laugnage of the people, but quotations from Scripture and 
the Fathers, as a mark of respect, were made in Latin and then trans- 
lated. Sermons addressed to the clergy and before academic audiences 
were always in Latin. — As a preacher of rei>entance and of the crusades, 
Fnlco of Neoilly, f a.o. 1202, regarded by the people as a saint and a 
miracle worker, had a wonderful reputation (§ 94, 4). Of all medisBval 
preaohevB, however, none can be compared for depth, spirituality, and 
popular eloquence with the Franciscan Btrthold of Begenslarg, pupil 
and friend of David of Augsburg (| 103, 10), one of the most powerful 
preachers ia the German tongue that ever lived. He died in a.d. 1272. 
He wandered from town to town preacliing to crowds, often numbering 
100,000 mea, of the grace of God in Ohrist, against the abuse of indul- 
gences and false trust in saints, and the idea of the meritoriousness 
of pilgrimages, etc His sermons are of great value as illustrations of 
the strength and richness of the old German language. Roger Bacon 
too (i 108, 8), osually so chary of praise, eulogises Frater Berttu)'du$ 
AleuMnnus as a preacher worth more than the two mendicant orders 

2. BeAnitioa and Vamber of the Sacraments (§§ 58 ; 70, 2).— Badbert 
acknowledged only two: Baptism including confirmation, and the Lord's 
Supper. Babanus Maurus by separately enumerating the bread and the 
eup, and counting confirmation as well as baptism, made four. Hugo 
St. Victor again held them to be an indeOnite number. But he dis- 
iinguishad three kinds: those on which salvation depends, Baptism, Con- 


firmation, and the Sapper; thoee not neeessarj and forming important 
aids to salvation, sprinkling with holy water, oonfession, extreme 
unction, marriage, etc. ; those necessary for particular callings, the 
Ordination of prie.sts, sa?red vestments. Tet he prepared the way for 
the final ecclesiastical conception of the sacraments, by placing its 
Eh'm€nta Co'pnralia under the threefold category as divinam gra\iam 
ex timilitndin^ reprasentaiitia, ex in$titutione »ignißeantia^ and ex «on- 
iecratione continent ia, Peter the Lombard took practically the same 
view, but fixed the number of the Sacraments at seven : Baptism, Con- 
firmation (§ 35, 4). the Supper, Penance, Extreme Unction, Marriage, 
and Ordination (§ 45, 1). This number was first officially sanctioned by 
the Florentine Council of a.d. 1439 (§ 67, 6). Alexander of Hales gave 
a special rank to Baptism and the Supper, as alone instituted by Christ, 
while Aqninas gave this rank to all the seven. AU the eoolesiastioal 
consecrations and benedictions were distinguished from the sacraments 
as SaeramenUdia, — The Schoolmen distinguished the sacraments of 
the O.T., as ex (ypera operanUt i.e. efficacious only through faith in a 
coming Bedeemer, from the s'lcraments of the N.T. as ex opera operate, 
i.e. as efficacious by mere receiving without the exercise of positive 
faith on the part of all who had not committed a mortal sin. Against 
old sectaries (§ § 41, 3; 63, 1) and new (§ § 108. 7, 12) the scholastic 
divines maintained that even unworthy and unlielieving priests could 
validly dispense the sacraments, if only there was the intentio to ad- 
minister it in the form prescribed by the church.' 

8. The Sacrament of the Altar. — At the foorth Lateran Councu of u». 
1215 the doctrine of Transubstantiation was finally accepted (§ 101, 2). 
The fear lest any of the Uood of the Lord should be spilt led to the 
withholding from the 12th century of the cup from the laity, and its being 
given only to the priests. If not the cause, then the consequence, of 
this was that the priests were regarded as the only foil and perfect 
partakers of the Lord's table. Kings at their coronation and at the 
approach of death were sometimes by special favour allowed to partake 
of the cup. The withdrawal of the cup from the laity was dogmatically 
justified, specially by Alex, of Hales, by the doctrine of eoneomitantia, 
i.e, that in the body the blood was contained. Fear of losing asy 
fragment also led to the substitution of wafers, the hoit, for the bread 
that should be broken. — A consecrated host is kept in the Tabemaculum, 
a niche in the wall on the right of the high altar, in the so-called 2tfru- 
rium or Sanctissimumf i.e. a gold or silver casket, often ornamented with 
rich jewels. It is taken forth, touched only by the priests, and exhibited 
to the kneeling people during the service and in solemn processions. 

4. Penance.— Gratian*8 decree ({ 99, 5) left it to the individual believer's 

> Hodge, •• Systematic Theology,*' toI. HL, pp. 493-497. 


deeision whether the sinner eould be reconciled to Qod bj heart penitence 
without confession. But in accordance also with the teaching of the 
Lombard y confession of mortal sin? (Gal. v. 19 Ü. and Cor. y. 9 f.)« or, in 
case that could not be, the desire at heart to make it, was declared 
indispensable. The forgiveness of sins was still, however, regarded 
as God's exclusive prerogative, and the priest could bind and loose 
only in regard to the fellowship of the church and the enjoyment of 
the sacraments. Before him, however, Hugo St. Victor had begun to 
transcend these limits ; for he, distinguishing between the guilt and the 
punishment of the sinner, ascribed indeed to God alone the absola- 
tion from the guilt of sin on the ground of sincere repentance, but ascribed 
io the exercise of the priestly function, the absolution from the punish- 
ment of eternal death, in accordance with Matthew xviii. 18 and John 
xz. 33. Bichard St. Victor held that the punishment of eternal death, 
which all mortal sins as well as venial sins entail, can be commuted 
into temporal punishment by priestly absolution, atoned for by penances 
imposed by the priests, e.g, prayers, fastings, alms, etc. ; whereas with- 
oot such satisfaction they can be atoned for only by the pains of purga- 
tory (I 61, 14). Innocent III., at the fourth Lateran Council of ajd, 1215, 
had the obligation of confesi>ion of all sins raised iuto a dogma, and 
obliged all believers under threat of excommunication to make C4)nfession 
at least once a year, as preparation for the Easter communion. The 
Proviucial Synod at Toulouse in a.D. 1229 (S 109, 2) insisted on compul- 
sory confession and communion three times a year, at Christmas, Easter, 
snd Pentecost. The three penitential requirements, enforced first by 
Hildebert of Tours, and adopted by the Lombard, Cohtritio cordis^ Con- 
fettio orit, and SatUfactio operi$ continued henceforth in force. But 
Hngo*8 and Bichard*s theory of absolution displaced not only that of the 
Lombard, but, by an extension of the sacerdotal idea to the absolution of 
the sinner from guilt, led to the introduction of a full-blown theory of 
indulgence (§ 106, 2). As the ground of the scientitic construction given 
it by the Schoolmen of the 13th century, especially by Aquinas, the 
Catholic Church doctrine of penance received 4ts final shape at the 
Council of Florence in a.d. 1439. Penance as the fourth sacrament con- 
■istsof hearty repentance, auricular confession, and satisfaction ; it takes 
form iu the words of absolution, Rgo te ahsolco ; and it is efficacious for 
the forgiveness of sins. Any broach of the secrecy of the confessittnal 
was visited by the fourth Lateran Council with excommunication, depo- 
sition, and lifelong confinement in a monastery. The exaction of a 
confessional fee, especially at the Easter confession, appears as an 
increment of the priest's income in many mediieval documents. Its 
prohibition by several councils was caused by its simoniacal abuse. 
By the introduction of confessors, separate from the local clergy, th« 
enstom fell more and more into disuse. 


5. Eztrenie Unctloii.— Although as early as k.i>, 416 Innooent I. ha4 
described anointing of the sick with holy oil (Mark yi. 13 ; Jas. y. 14) 
as a Genut Sacramenti (§ 61, 3), extreme nnctioii as a sacrament made 
little progress till the 9th century. The Synod of Chalons in a.d. 813 
calls it quite generally a means of grace for the weak of soul and body. 
The Lombard was the first to gi?e it the fifth place among the seven 
sacraments as Unctio extrema and Sacranuntuni rxtuntium, ascribing to 
it Peccatorum rfmissio et corporalis inßrmitatio alleviatus. Original sin 
being atonad for by baptism, a>id actual sins by penance, Albert the 
Great and Aquinas describe it as the purifying from the HeliquuB 
peccatorum which even after baptism and penance hinder the soul from 
entering into its perfect rest. BovUly healing is only a secondary aim, 
and is given only if thereby the primary end of spiritual healiug is not 
hindered It was long debated whether, in case of recovery, it should 
be repeated when death were found approaching, atid it was at last 
declared to be admissible. The Council of Treut defines Extreme Unc- 
tion as Sacr, paniteutuB totUu vita eoniummatioum. The form of 
its administration was finally determined to be tbe anointing of eyes, 
ears, nose, mouth, and hands, as well as (except in women) the feet and 
loins, wiih holy oil, consecrated by tbe bishop on Maundy Thursday. 
Confession and communion precede anointing. The three together con> 
stitate the Viaticum of the soul in its labt journey. After receiving 
axtreme unction recipients are forbidden again to touch the ground with 
their bare feet or to have marital intercourse. 

6. The Sacrament of Marriage (§89, 4). — When marringe oame gene- 
rally to be regarded as a sacrament in the proper sontto, the laws of 
marriage were reconstructed and the administration of them committed 
to the church. It had long been insisted upon by the church with ever- 
increasing decidedness, that the priestly beuediotion most precede the 
marriage ceremonial, and that bridal communion must accompany the 
oivil action. Hence marriage had to be performed in the immediate 
Tioinity of a church, ante ostium ecclesia. As another than the father 
often gave away the bride, this position of sponsor was claimed by the 
church for the priest. Marriage thus lost its civil character, and the 
priest came to be regarded as performing it in his official capacity not 
in name of the family, but in name of the church. Christian marriage 
in the early times required only mutual consent of parties (§ 39, 1), bat 
the Council of Trent demanded a solemn agreement between bride and 
bridegroom before the officiating priest and two or three witnesses. In 
order to determine more exactly hibdrauces to marriage (§ 61, 2) it was 
made a law at the second Lateran Council in a.D. 1139, and con üi med 
at tlie fourth in ^.d. 1215, that the parties proposing to luarry should 
be proclaimed in church. To each part of the sacrament the character 
indelibilit is ascribed, and so divoroe was absolutely forbidden, even ia 


the ease of adaltery (in spite of Matt. v. 82 and xiz. 9), though teparatio 
a mema et toro was allowed. Innocent III. in a.D. 1215 reduced the 
prohibited degrees from the seventh to the fourth in the line of blood 
relationship (61, 2). 

7. Vew PestiTals. — The worship of Mary (§ 57, 2) received an Im- 
pulse from the institution of the Feast of the Birth of Mary on 8th of 
September. • To this was added in the south of France in the 12th 
century, the Feast of the Immaculate Concaptioa on the 8th December. 
Badbert (§ 91, 4) by his doctrine of Sanctißcaiio in utero gave basis to 
the theory of the Virgin's freedom from original sin in her conception 
and bearing. Anselm of Canterbury, however, taught in Car Deut 
Homof it 16, that Mary was couoeived and bom in sin, and that she 
like all others had sinned in Adam. Certain canons of Lyons, in a.D. 
1110, revived Badbert*s theory, but raised the Sanetif. in utero into the 
Immaculata eonceptio, St. Bernard protested against the doctrine and 
the festival ; sinless conception is a prerogative of the Bedeemer alone. 
Mary like us all was conceived in sin, but was sanctified before the 
birth by Divine power, so that her whole life was faultless ; if one 
imagines that Mary's sinless conception of her Son had her own sinless 
conception as a necessary presupposition, this would need to be carried 
hack <id tn/imtum, and to festivals of Immaculate Conceptions there 
would be no end. This view of a Saiietißcatio in ut^ro^ with repu- 
diation of tlie Coneeptio imma^ulata, was also maintained by Alex, of 
Hales, Bonaventura, Albert the Great, and Aquinas. The feast of the 
Conception, with the predicate *' immaculate " dropped, gradually came 
to be nniversally observed. The Frauoiscans adopted it in this limited 
■ense at Pisa, in a.d. 1263, but when, beginning with Duns Scotus (§§ 113, 
112], the doctrine of the immaculate conception came to be regarded 
as a dii)tinotive dogma of the order, the Dominicans felt called upon to 
offer it their most strenuous opposition.^ (Continuation, § 112, 4.) — To 
the feast of All Saints, on 1st November, the Cluniacs added in a.d. 993, 
the feast of All Souls on 2nd November, for intercession of believers 
on behalf of the salvation of souls in purgatory. In the 12tb century the 
Feast of the Trinity was introduced on the Sunday after Pentecost. Oat 
of the transubstantiation doctrine arose the Corpus Christi Festival, on 
the Thursday after Trinity. A pious nun of Li^ge, Juliana, in ad. 12G1, 
saw in a vision the full moon with a halo around it, and an inward 
revelation interpreted this phenomenon to indicate that the festal cycle 
of the church still wanted a festival in honour of the eucharist. Urban 
IV. gave effect to this suggestion in a.d. 1264, avowedly in consequence 
of the miracle of the mass of Bolsena. A priest of Bolsena celebrating 

* Prenss, ** The B'lmish Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception 
traced from its Sonrce." Edinburgh, 1867. 

VOL. IL ^ 


mass spilt a drop of cf>nf^crated wine, which left a blood-red stain en 
tho corporal or pall (§ 60, 5). in the form of a host. The festival did 
not ooine into favour till Clement Y. renewed its institntion at the 
Coancil of Yienne, in a d. 1311. The church, by ordc r of John XXUl. 
in A.D. 1316, celebrated it by a magnificent prooe&6ion, in which the 
Uburium was carried with all pomp. 

8. The Veneratioii of Saints (§ 88, 4.) — The nnmerons Canonisations, from 
the 12th century exclusively in the hands of the popes, gave an impulse 
to saint wcrship. It was the duty of Advoeatiu diaboli to try to dis- 
prove the reports of virtues and miracles attributed to candidates. The 
proofs of holiness adiluced were generally derived from thoroughly 
fabulous sources. The introduction of the name of accepted candidates 
into the canon of tbe mass gave rise to the term canonization. Beat!- 
flcation was a lower degree of honour, often a preliminary to canoni- 
zation at a later period. It carried with it the veneration not of the 
whole church, but of particular churches or districts. The Dominican 
Jacobus a Yoragine, who died in a.o. 1298. in his Legeada aurra 
afforded a pattern for numerous late legends of the saints. A Parisian 
theologian who styled it Lrgenda ferrea, was publicly expelled fn»m his 
office. The Veneration of Mary, to whom were rendered Hyperdoulia 
in contradistinction from the Houlia of the saints, not only among the 
people, but with the most cultured theologians, publicly and privately, 
literally and figuratively, in prose and poetry, was almost equal to the 
worship rendered to God, and indeed often overshadowed it. The 
angel's salutation (Luke i. 28) was in every prayer. Its frequent repe- 
tition led to the use of the notary , a rose wreath for the most blessed 
of women. The great rosary attributod to St. Dominic has fifteen 
decades, or 150 smaller pcnrls of Mary, each of which represents an 
Ave Maria^ and after evei^ ten there is a greater Paternoster ]K'arl. 
The small or common rosary lias only five decades of bciuls of Mary 
with a Paternoster bead for each decade. Thrice repeated it forms the 
so-called Psalter of Mary, The first appearance of the rosary in 
devotion was with the monk Macarins in the 4th century, who took 300 
■tones in his lap, and after every Paternoster threw one away. The 
rosary devotion is also practised by Moslems and Buddhists. In 
cloisters, Saturday was usually dedicated to the Mother of God. and 
was begun by a special Officium S, Maria, May was called the 
month of Mary. — In the 11th century no further trace is found of the 
Fraukish opposition to Image Wcrship (§ 92, 1). But tliis in no way 
hindeied the growth of Belie Worship. Beturning crusaders showered 
on the West innumerable relics, which not^^ithstandiug many sceptics 
were received generally with snpei-stitious reverence. Castles and 
estates were often bartered for pretended relics of a distingnithed saint, 
and such treasures were frequently stokn at the risk ol life. No story 


of a traOlckor in relics was too absard to be believed. — Fil^imagM, 
espfciaUy to Borae and Palestine, were no less in esteem among the 
We-^teru Chribtians of the lOtli century during tlie lU)mau pomocracy 
(§ 96, 1) or the tyranny of the Seljuk dynasty in Palestine (§ 94). The 
expectation of the approaching end of the world, rather gave them an 
impalse daring this century, which reached its fullest expression in 
the crusades.— Continuation, { 115, 9. 

9. The earliest trace of a oommemoration of 8t Ursula and her 
11,C00 Virgins ia met with in the lOih century. Excavations in the 
Ager Ursnlunus near Cologne in a.o. 1155 led to the discovery of some 
thousand skeletons, several of them being those of males, with inscribed 
tablets, one of the fictitious inscriptions referring to an otherwise nn* 
known pope Cyriasus. St. Elizabeth of Schönau (§ 107, 1) at the same 
time had visions in which the Virgin gave her authentic account of 
their lives. Ursula, the fair daughter of a British king of the 8rd 
eeutury, was to have married a pagan prince ; she craved three yean' 
reprieve and got from her father eleven ships, each with an equipment 
of a thousand virgins, with which she sailed up the Bhine to Basel, 
and thence with her companions travelled on foot a pilgrimage to Bome. 
On her return, in accordance with the Divine instruction. Pope CyrÜBoa 
accompanied her, whose name was on this account struck out of the 
list by the o£Fcnded cardinals ; for as Martinus Polonus says, CredebcuU 
pUriqiu eum non prttpter devotiimem ted propter olUctametUa virgUtum 
papatum dimitsisße. Near Cologne they met the army of the Huns, by 
whom they were all massacred, at last even Ursula herself on her per- 
sistent refusal to marry the barbaric chief. — In the absence of any his- 
torical foundations for this legend, an explanation has been attempted 
by identifying Ursula with a goddess of the German mythology. An 
older suggestion is that perhaps an ancient inscription may have given 
rise to the legend.* 

10. HymnolQgy. — The Augustan age of scholasticism was that also of 
the composition of Latin hymns and sequences (§ 88, 2). The most 
dLitingiiished sacred poets were Odo of Clugny, king Bobert of France 
(Veni, tanrte Spiritut, et emitU)^ D»imiani, Abslard, Hildebert of 
Tours, St. Bernard, Adam of St. Victor,' Bonaventura, Aquinas, the 

1 Haocall, ** Christian Legends of Middle Ages, from German of von 
Bulow,*' London. Cox and Jones, ** Popular Bomances of the Middle 
Ages,** London. Baring Gould, *' Curious Mytlis of tbe Middle Ages," 
London, 1884. *' The Legend of St. Uruula and the Virgin Martyrs of 
Cologne," London, 1860. 

' ** Liturgical Poetry of Adam of St. Victor," with transl. into English, 
and notes, by Wrangham, 3 vols., London, 1881. Bird, " The Latin 
Hymns of the Church," in the Sunday Magazine for 1865, pp. 580 if., 
679 ff., 776 ff. Trench, ** Sacred Latin Poetry," London, 1849. Neala, 
'* Modi« vol Uymus." 


Franciscan Thomas of Celano, ^.d. 1260 (Diet ira), and Jacopone da 
Todi, t A.D. 1306 {Stabat mater dolorota). The latter, an eccentrio 
entliasiast and miracle- working saint, called himself ** stultua proyttr 
Christum.^* Originally a wealthy advocate, living a life of revel and riot, 
he ^as led by tlie sadden death of his young wife to forsake the world. 
He courted the world's scorn in the most literal manner, appearing 
in the public market bridled like a beast of burden and creeping on 
all fours, and at luiother time appearing naked, tarred and feathered 
at the marriage of a niece.- But he glowed with fervent love for the 
Ci'ucified aud a fanatical veneration for the blessed Virgin. He also 
fearlessly raised bis voice against the corruption of the clergy aud the 
papacy, and vi^^orously denounced the ambition of Boniface VIU. For 
this he was imprisoned and fed on bread and water. When tauntingly 
asked, ** When wilt thou come out 7 ** be answered in words that were 
soon fulfilled, ** So soon as thou shalt come down." Baorsd Poetry in the 
▼eruaculor was used only in extra-eccleaiastical devotions. The oldest 
German Easter hymn belongs to the 12th century.' The Minnesingers 
of the 13th century composed popular songs of a religious character, 
especially in praise of Mary ; there were also sacred songs for travellers, 
sailors, soldiers, etc. Heretics separated from the church and its 
services spread their views by means of hymns. St. Francis wrote 
ItaUan hymns, aud among his disciples Fra Pacifioo, Bonaventura, 
Thomas of Celano, and Jacopone followed worthily in his footsteps. 

11. Church Music i§ 83, 2).— The Gregorian CantuM ßrmut soon fell 
into dit-favour and diäuetude. The rarity, costliness, and corruption of 
the autiphonaries, the difficulty of their notation and of their musical 
system, and the want of accurately trained singers, combined to bring 
this about. Singers too had often made arbitrary alterations. Hence 
alongside of the Cantus ßnnut there gradually grew up a Diaeantus or 
Canius Jiguratust ftiid instead of singing in unison, singing in har- 
mony was introduced. Bules of harmony, concord, and intervals 
were now elaborated by the monk Hucbald of Bheims about A.D. 800, 
while the German munk Beginns about ▲.!>. 920 and the abbot 
Opo of Clugny did much for the theory and practice of music. In 
place of the intricate Gregorian notation the Tuscan Benedictine 
Guido of Arezzo, a.D. 1000-1050, introduced the notation that is still 
used, which made it possible to write the harmony along with the 
mehidy, counterpoint, i.e. pviietum contra punctum* The discoverer of 
the measure of the notes was Franco of Cologne about a.D. 1200. The 
organ was commonly used in churches. The Germans were the greatebt 
masters in its construction and in the playing of it. — Continuation, 
f 115, 8. 

^ ** Christus ist erstanden Ton der Marter Banden." 


12. Ecdesiutical Architecture. — Charcli bnilding, which the barbarism 
of the 10th century, and the widespread expectation of the coming 
end of the world had restrained, flourislied duriog tUe 11th century 
in an extraordinary manner. The endeavour to infuse the German 
spirit into the ancient style of architecture gave rise to the Romance 
Style of Architoctaref whicli prevailed during the 12th ceutury. It was 
based npon the structure of the old basilicas, the most important 
innovation being the introduction of the vaulted in place of the flat 
wooden roof, which made the interior lighter and heightened the perspec« 
tive effect. The symbolical and fanciful ornamentation was also richly 
developed by figures from the pUnts and animals of Germany, from 
native legends. Towers were also added as fingers pointing upward, 
sometimes over the entrance to the middle aisle or at both side« 
of the entrance, sometimes over the point where the nave and tran- 
septs intersected one another, or on both sides of the choir. The 
finest specimens of this style were the cathedrals of Spires, Mainz, 
and Worms. But alongside of this appeared the beginnings of the 
so-called Gothic Architactare, which reached its height in the 13th and 
14th centuries. Here the German ideas shook themselves free from the 
bondage of the old basilica style. Betaining the early ground plan, its 
pointed arch admitted of development in breadth and height to any 
extent. The poiute<l arch was first learnt from the Saracens, but its 
application to the Gothic architecture was quite original, because it 
was not 8d with the Saraceus decorative, but constructive. The blank 
walls were changed into supporting pillars, and became a magnificent 
framework for the dinplay of ingenious window architectare. A rich 
stone structure rose upon the cruciform ground plan, and the powerful 
arches towered up into airy heights. Tall tapering pillars symbolized 
the heavenward strivings of the soul. The rose window over the portal 
as the symbol of silence teaches that nothing worldly has a voice there. 
The gigantic peiiked windows send through their beautifully painted 
glass a richly coloured light full on the vast area. Everything in the 
structure p »ints upward, and this symbolism is finally expressed in the 
lofty towers, which lose themselves in giddy heights. The victory over 
the kiugdom of darkness is depicted in the repulsive reptiles, demonie 
forms, and dragon shapes which are made to bear np the pillars and 
posts, and to serve as water carriers. The wit of artists has made 
even bishops and popes perform these menial offices, just as Dante 
eoudemned many popes to the infernal regions.' 

> Eastlake, ** History of the Gothic Bevival," London, 1872. Norton, 
*' Historical Studies of Church Building in the Middle Ages,'* New York, 
1880. Didron, *• Hibtory of Christian Art in the Middle Ages,** London, 


13. The most famona architects were Benediotines. The master 
bnilder along with the scholars trained by him formed independent 
corporations, free from any other Jurisdiction. They therefore called 
themselves *' Free Masons," and erected ** Lodges/* where they met for 
consultation and discassion. From the 13th century these lodges 
fell more and more into the hands of the laity, and became training 
schools of ai'chitecture. To them we «re largely indebted for the 
development of the Gothic style. Their most celebrated works are the 
Cologne cathedral and the Strassburg minster. The foundation of the 
former was laid under Archbishop Conrad of Hochsteden in a.D. 1248 ; 
the choir was completed and consecrated in a.o. 132*i (§ 173, 9). Erwin 
of Steinbaeh began the building of the Strassburg minster in a.d. 1275. 

14. Statuary and Painting. — Under tbe Hobenstaufens stataary, which 
had been disallowed by the ancient church, rose into favour. Its first 
great master in Italy was Nicola Pisano, who died in ajd. 1274. 
Earlier indeed a statuary school had been formed in Saxony, of which 
no names but great works have come down to us. The goldsmith's 
craft and metallurgy were brought into the service of the church by the 
German artists, and show not only wonderful technical skill, but also high 
attainment in ideal art. In Painting the Byzantines taught the Italians, 
and these again the Gennans. At the beginning of the 13th century 
there was a school of painting at Pisa and Siena, claiming St. Luke 
as its patron, and seeking to impart more life and warmth to the stiff 
figures of the Byzantines. Their greatest masters were Guido of 
Siena and Giunta of Pisa, and the Florentine Cimabue, t Jld, 1300. 
Mosaic painting mostiy on a golden ground was in favour in Italy. 
Painting on glass is first met with in the beginning of the 11th century 
in the monastery of Tegernsee in Bavaria.and soon spread over Germany 
and all over Europe.' — Continuation, 1 116, 13. 

§ 105. National Customs and thb National 


It was an age full of the most wonderful contradictions 
and anomalies in the life of the people, but every pheno- 
menon bore the character of unquestionable power, and the 
church applied the artificer's chisel to the unhewn marble 
block. In club law the most brutal violence prevailed, but 
bowed itself willingly or unwillingly before the might of an 

' Kägler, **Handbo<^ of Painting: Italian Schools,'* translated by 
EastbOce, London, 1855. Warrington, ««Bistoiy of Stained Glast," 
Loudon, 1850. 


idea. The basest sensuality existed alongside of the most 
simple self-denial and renunciation of the world, the most 
wonderful displays of self-forgetting love. The most sacred 
solemnities were parodied, and then men turned in awful 
earnest to manifest the profoundest anxiety for their souVs 
salvation. Alongside of unmeasured superstition we meet 
with the boldest freethinking, and out of the midst of 
widespread ignorance and want of culture there radiated 
forth great thoughts, profound conceptions, and suggestive 

1. Knighthood and the Peace of God. — ^Notwithstanding its rade Tiolenoo 
there was a deep religious ondertone in knighthood, which oame out in 
Spain in the war with the Saracens, and throughout Europe in the 
crusades. What princes oould not do to check savagery was to some 
extent accomplished by the church by means of the injunction of the 
Peace of Ood. In a.D. 1034 the severity of famine in France led to acts 
of cannibalism and murder, which the bishops and synods severely 
punished. In a.D. lOil the bishops of Southern France enjoined the 
Peace of God, according to which under threat of anathema all 
feuds were to be suspended from Wednesday evening to Monday morn- 
ing, as the days of the ascension, death, burial, and resurrection of 
Christ. At a ater council at Narbonne in a.d. 1051, Advent to 
Epiphany, Lent to eight days after Easter, from the Sunday before 
Ascension to the end of the week of Pentecost, as well as the ember 
days and the festivals of Mary and the Apostles, were added. Even on 
other days, churches, doisters, hospitals, and churchyards, as well as 
priests, monks, pilgrims, merchants, and agriculturists, in short, all 
unarmed men, and, by the Council of Clermont, a-d. 1095, even all cru- 
saders, were included in the peace of Qod. Its healthful influence was 
felt even outside of France, and at the 8rd Lateran Council in a.d. 1179 
Alezander III. raised it to the rank of a universally applicable law of 
the church. 

2. Pepnlar Customs. — Superstition resting on old paganism introduced 
a Christian mythology. In almost all the popular legends the devil bore 
a leading part, and he was generally represented as a dupe who was 
cheated out of his bargain in tlie end. The most sacred things were 
made the subjects of blasphemous parodies. On 7o<>l*s Festival on New 
Tear*8 day in France, mock popes, bishops, and abbots were introduced 
and all the holy actions mimicked in a blasphemous manner. Of a 
similar nature was the Festum innocentum (§ 67, 1) enacted by school- 
boys at Christmas. Also at Christmas time the so-called Feast of 


was colebrated. At Boucn dramaiio representation of the prophecies of 
Christ's birth were given; at Boauvais, the flight into Egypt. This 
relio of pagan license was opposed by the bishops, but encouraged by 
the lower cler(;y. After bishops and councils succeeded in banishing 
these fooleries from consecrated places they soon ceased to be celebrated. 
Under the name of Calends, because their gatherings were on tlie 
Calends of each month, brotherhoods composed of clerical and lay 
members sprang up in the beginning of the 13th century throughout 
Germany and France, devoting themseWes to prayer and saying masses 
for living and deceased members and relatives. This pious purpose was 
indeed soon forgotten, and the meetings degenerated into riotous 

8. Two Boyal Saints. — St. Elisabetli, daughter of Andrew 11. of Hun- 
gary, married in her 14th year to St. Louis lY., Landgrave of Thuringi.% 
was made a widow in her 20th year by the death of her husband in the 
crusade of Frederick II. in k.D. 1227, and thereafter suffered many priva- 
tions at the hand of her brother-in-law. Her father confessor inspired 
her with a fanatical spirit of self denial. She assumed in Marburg the 
garb of the Franciscan nuns, took the three vows, and retired into a 
house of mercy, where she submitted to be scourged by her confessor. 
There she died in her 24th year in a.d. 1231. Her remains are credited 
with the performance of many miracles. She was canonized by Gregory 
IX., in A.D. 1235, and in the 14th century the order of Elizabethan nuns 
was instituted for ministering to the poor and sick.' — St. Hedwig, auut 
of Elizabeth, married Henry duke of Silesia, in her 12th year. After 
discharging her duties of wife, mother, and princess faithfully, she 
took along with her husband the vow of chastity, and out of the sale of 
her bridal ornaments built a nunnery at Trebnitz, where she died in 
A.D. 1243 in her f 9th year. Canonized in a.o. 1268, her remains wer« 
deposited in the convent chorch, which became on that account a favou- 
rite resort of pilgrims. 

4. Evidences of Sainthood. — (1) Stigmatization. Soon after St. Francis* 
death in a.o. 1226, the legend spread that two years before, during a forty 
days* fast in the Apennines, a six-winged seraph imprinted on his body 
the nail prints of the wounded Saviour. The saint's humility, it was 
said, prevented him speaking of the miracle except to those in closest 
terms of intimacy. The papal bull canonizing the saint, however, issued 
in A.0. 1228, knows nothing of this wonderful occurrence. What was then 
told of the great saint was subsequently ascribed to about 100 other asce- 
tics, male and female. Some sceptical critics attributed the phenomenon 
to an impressionable temperament, others again accounted for all such 

> Kingaley, '* The Saint's Tragedy,'* London, 1848. A dramatio poem 
founded on the stoiy of St. Elizabeth's life. 


■tories by assuming that they were pnrely fabulous, or that the marks 
had been dcceiifnllj ma<1e with human bauds. Undoubtedly St. Fraucis 
had luade those wouuds upon hia own body. TLat pain should have 
been felt on certain occasions in the wuunds may be accounted for, 
especially in the case of fem^Ues, who constituted the great majority of 
stigmatized individuals, on pathological grounds. — (2) Bilocation. The 
Catholic Church Lexicon, published in a.D. 1382 (II. 8i0), maititaius 
that it is a fact uuiversally believed that saints often appeared at the 
same time at places widely removed from one auotiier. Examples are 
given from the live:) of Anthony of Padua, Francis Xavicr, Liguori, etc. 
This is explained by the supposition that either God gives this power to 
the saint or sends augels to ns^ume his form in different places. 

G Religions Ca! tare of the People. — Uusuct^essf ul attempts were made by 
the Hoh<'n8taufen8 to institute a public schm)! system and compulsory 
education. Waldeusiaus and such like (§ 103) obtained favour by spread- 
ing instruction through vernacular preaching, reading, and singing. The 
Dominicans took a hint from this. The Couucil of Toulouse, a.d. 1229 
(1 100, 2), forbade laymen to real the Scriptures, even the Psalter and 
Breviary, in the vulgar tongue. Summaries of the Scripture history were 
allowed. Of this sort was the Bhyining Bible in Dutch by Jacob of 
Maerlant, f a.D. 1291, which gives in rhyme the O.T. history, the Life 
of Jesuf, and the history of the Jews to the destruction of Jerusalem. 
In the 13th ceutury Rhymiag Le3:8Dds ^^avo in t'le vernacular the sub- 
stance of the Latin Marlyrologies. The oldest German example in 3 
bks. by an unknown author contaius 100 000 rhyming Hues, on Christ 
and Mary, tbe Apostles and the saints in the order of the church year. 
Still more effectively was information spread among the people during 
the 11th and subsequent centuries by the performance of Sacred Plays. 
From simple responsive songs they were developed into regular dramaa 
adapted to the dilTerent fentivals. Besides historical plays which were 
called Mysteries = i/i("}<(eiia a^ representations of tlie Mini<triect'l.^ there 
were allegorical and moral {days colled Moraliiies. in which moral truths 
were persobified under the names of the virtues and vices. The nume- 
rous pictures, moi<aics, and rclicfd upon the walls helped greatly to spread 
instruction among the people.* 

6. The National Literature (§89, 3). — TT'a^f^ r. d. VogeJweide^ f A.D. 
1230, sang the praises of the L )rd, the Virgin, and the church, and lashed 
the clerical vices aud hierarchical pretensions of his ago. The 12th 
century editor of the pagan Sihe.hinjenlied ;;ave it a slightly Christian 
gloss. Wolf rain of Ktchenbach, however, a Cliristian poet in the highest 

^ On HDarius, an English monk, author of several plays, see Moiley*f 
•• Writers be<ore Chaucer/' London, 1864, pp. 512-552. 


seDse, gave to the pagan legend of Parcival a thoroughly Christian 
character in the story of the Holy Grail and the Knights of the Round 
Table of King Arthur. His antipodes as a purely secular poet vrtLS 
Godfrey of Strcusburg, whose Tristan and Isolt sets forth a thoroughly 
sensual picture of carnal love; yet as the sequel of this we have a 
strongly etherealized rhapsody on Divine love conceived quite in the spirit 
of St. Francis. — The sprighfcly songs of the Trouhadonn of South-=>ni 
France were often the vehicle of heretical sentiments and gave expres- 
sion to bitter hatred of the Bomish Babylon.' 

§ 106. Chübgh Discipline, iNnm^GEKCES, and Asceticism. 

The ban, directed against notorious individual sinners and 
foes of the church, and the interdict, directed against a 
whole country, were formidable weapons which rarely failed 
in accomplishing their purpose. Their foolishly frequent 
use for political ends by the popes of the 13th century was 
the first thing that weakened their infiuenco. The peni- 
tential discipline of the church, too (§ 104, 4), began to lose 
its power, when outward works, such as alms, pilgrimages, 
and especially money fines in the form of indulgences were 
prescribed as substitutes for it. Various protests against 
prevailing laxity and formality were made by the Bene- 
dictines and by new orders instituted during the 11th 
century. Strict asceticism with self-laceration and morti- 
fication was imposed in many cloisters, and many hermits won 
high repute for holiness. The example and preaching of 
earnest monlis and recluses did much to produce a revival 
of religion and awaken a penitential enthusiasm. Not satis- 
fied with mortifying the body by prolonging fasts and 
watchings, they wounded themselves with severe scourg- 
ings and the wearing of sackcloth next the skin, and some- 
times also brazen coats of mail, heavy iron chains, girdles 
with pricks, etc. 

1 Delepierre, ** History of Flemish Literatuze from the 12th Genftory,** 
London, 1860. 


1. Ban and Ininrdict. — ^From the 9th oentary a di!:tinotion was made 
between Kxcommunicatio nutjor and minor. The latter, ioflictcd upon 
less serions offeaces against the canon law, merely ezcladcd from partici- 
pation in tlie sacrament. The former, called Anathema, directed against 
hardened sinners with solemn denunciation and the church's curse, 
involved exclusion from all ecclesiastical communion and even refusal of 
Christian burial. Zealot.) who slew such excommunicated persons were 
declared bj Urban II. not to be murderers. Innocent III., at the 4th 
Lateran Council a.D. 1215, had all eivil rights withdrawn from excom- 
municates and their goods ooufisjated. Bnlers under the ban were 
deposed and their subjects released from their oath of allegiance. 
Biäbops exercise 1 the right of patting under ban within their dioceses, 
and the popes over the whole church. — The Interdict was first recng. 
nised as a church institution at the Synod of Limoges in ^.d. 1031. 
While it was in force against any oouutry all bells were silenced, litur- 
gical services were held only with closed doors, penance and the eucharist 
Administered only to the dying, none but priests, mendicant friars, 
strangers, aud children under two years of age received Christian burial, 
and no one oould be married. Barely could the people endure this long. 
It was therefore a terrible weapon in the hands of the popes, who not 
infrequently exercised it effectually in their straggles with the princea 
of the 12tli and 13th centuries. 

2. Inuulgances. — The old German principle of composition (} 89, 6), 
and the Gregorian doctrine of purgatory (§ 61, 4), formed the bases on 
which was reared the ordinance of indulgences. The theory of the 
monks of St. Victor of the 12th century regarding penitential satisfao- 
lion (§ 104, 4), gave an impetus to the developmeut of this institution of 
the church. It oopestone was laid in the 13th century by the formulat- 
ing of the doctiino of the superabundant merit of Christ and the saintf 
(Tl:esaunu »upererogationis Christi et per/ectorum) by Alexander of Hales, 
Albeii the Great, and Afxuiuas. The members of the body of Christ could 
Bauer and serve one for another, and thus Aquinas thought the merits of 
one might lessen the purgatorial pains of another. Innocent III., in a.D. 
121C, allowed to bishops the right of limiting the pains of purgatory to 
forty days, but claimed foi the pope exclusively tlie right of giving full 
indulgence (Indulgentia plenaria), Clement VI. declared that the pope 
aE entrusted with the keys was alone the dispenser of the The*auriu 
tupererogutioitit. Strictly indulgence was allowed only to the truly peni- 
tent, as an aid to imperfect not a substitute for non-existent satisfaction. 
This was generally ignored by preachers of indulgences. This was 
specially the cose in the times of the crusaders. Popes also frequently 
gave indulgences to those who simply visited certain shrines. 

8. The Church Doctrine of the Hereaf er. — All who had perfectly ob- 
served every requirement of the penances and sacraments of the ohoroh 



to the close of their lives had the gates of Heaven opened to them. All 
others passed into the Lower World to suffer either poslÜTely-BMiuiay 
inexpressible pains of fire, or negatively— ^famnum, loss of the vision of 
God. There are four degrees corresponding to four places of punish- 
ment. Hell, situated in the midst of the earth, abysnu (Bev. xx. 1), if 
place and state of eternal punishment for all infidels, apostates, excom- 
municates, and all who died in mortal sin. The next circle is the pori- 
fjing fire of Purgatory, or a place of temporary punishment positive or 
negative for all believing Christians who did not in life fully satisfy the 
three requirements of the sacrament of penance (§ KU, 4). The Idmbu 
infantom is a side chamber of purgatory, where all onbaptized infanta 
are kept for ever, only deprived of blessedness in consequence of original 
sin. Then above this is the Limbns Patram, ** Abraham's bosom," where 
the saints of the Old Covenant await the second coming of Christ. 

4. Flagellation. — ^From the 8th century discipline was often exercised 
by means of scourging, administered by the confessor who prescribed it. 
In the 11th century voluntary Self*Plagellation was frequently practised not 
only as punishment for one's own sin, but, after the pattern of Christ and 
the martyrs, as atonement for sins of others. It originated in Italy, had 
its great patron in Damiani (§ 97, 4), and was earnestly commended by 
Bernard, Norbert, Francis, Dominic, etc It is reported of St. Dominie 
that he scourged himself thrice every night, first for himself, and then 
for his living companions, and then for the departed in purgatory. The 
zealous Franciscan preachers were mainly instrumental in exerting au 
enthusiasm for self-mortification among the people ({ 98, 4). About 
A.D. 1225, Anthony of Padua attracted crowds who went about publicly 
lashing themselves while singing psalms. Followers of Joachim of Floris 
(§ 108, 5) as Flagellants rushed through all Northern Italy in great num- 
bers during ▲.!>. 1260, preaching the immediate approaoh of the end of 
the world. ^ 

§ 107. Feicale Mtstics. 

Practical mysticism wliich concerned itself only with the 
salvation of the soul, had many representatives among the 
women of the 12th and 13th centuries. Among them it was 
specially characterized by the prevalence of ecstatic visions, 
often deteriorating into manifestations of nervons affections 
which superstitious people regarded as exhibitions of mira- 
culous power. Examples are found in all countries, but 
especially in the Netherlands, and the Rhine provinces, in 

1 Cooper, *' Flagellation and the Flagellants.** London, 1878. 

§ 107. FEMALB MYSTICS. 125 

France, Alsace and Switzerland, in Saxony and Thnringia. 
Those whose visions pointed to the inauguration of reforms 
are of particular interest to us, as they often had a consider- 
able influence on the subsequent history of the church. 

1. Two Bheniih Prophetessat of the 13tb Century. — St. Hildegard was 
foander and abbess of a cloister near Bingen on the Rhine, where she 
died in A.D. 1178 in her 74th year. Grieving over clerical aud papal 
eorruptions, she had apocalyptic visions of the antichrist, and travelled 
far and engaged in an extensive correspondence in appealing for radical 
reforms. St. Bernard and pope Eugenius 111. who visited Treves in a.d. 
1147 acknowledged her prophetic vocation, and thepeop'e ascribed to her 
wonderful healing power. — UilJegard*s younger contümporary was the 
like-minded St. Eliiabeth of Schdnaoi abbess of the neighbouring convent 
of Sohönau, who died in a.d. 1165. Her prophecies were mostly of the 
apocalyptic-visionary order, and in them with still greater severity she 
lathed the corruptions of the clergy. She also gave currency to the 
legend of St. Ursula (§ 104, 9). 

3. Three Thnringian Prophetesses of the 13th Centnry.— Mechthild of 
Xa^debnrg, after thirty years of Beguine life, wrote in a beautiful rliyth- 
mical style in German her "Light of Deity," setting forth the sweet* 
ness of God*s love, the blessedness of glorified saints, the pains of 
purgatory and hell, and denouncing with great moral earnestness the 
corruptions of the clergy and the church, and depicting with a poet's or 
propheVs power the coming of the last day. Intlnenced by the apoca- 
lyptic views of Joachim of Floris (§ 108, 5), she also gives expression to 
a genninely German patriotism. With her it is a new preaching order 
that leads to victory against antichrist, and the founder of this order, who 
meets a martyr's death in the conflict, is a son of the Boman king. In 
contrast with Joachim, she thus makes the German empire not a foe but 
the ally of the church. Mechtliild's prophecies largely influenced Dante, 
and even her name appears in that of his guide Matilda. — Hechthild of 
Hackeborn, who died in a.D. 1310, in her Speculum itpintualU gratia 
published her visions of a reformatory and eschatological prophetio 
order, more subjective and personal than those of the foruier. — Gertrude 
the Great, who died in a.i>. 1311, is more decidedly a reformer than either 
of the Mechthilds or any other woman of the Middle Ages. A diligent 
inquirer into the depths of Scripture, she renounced the veneration 
nsually shown to Mary, the saints, and relics, repudiated all the ideas of 
her age regarding merits, ceremonial exercises, and indulgences, and in 
the exercise of simple faith trusted only to the grace of God in Chridt. 
She seems to belong to the 10th rather than to the 13th century. Her 
rvgioDB, too, are more of a spiritual kind. 


y.— Heretical Opposition to Ecclesiastical Authority. 

§ 108. Tue Protesters against the Church. 

Mediaeval endeavoars after reform, partly proceeded from 
within the chnrch itself in attempts to restore apostolio 
purity and simplicity, partly from without on the part of 
those who despaired of any good coming out of the church, 
and who therefore warred bitterly against it. Such attempts 
were often lost amid the vagaries of fanaticism and heresy, 
which soon threatened the foundation of the social fabric, 
and often came into collision with the State. Most widely 
spread and most radical were the numerous dualistic sects 
of the Cathari. Montanist fanaticism was revived in apo- 
calyptic prophesyings. There were also pantheistic sects, 
and among the Pasagians a sort of Ebionism reappeared. 
Another group of sects originated through reformatory 
endeavours of individual men, who perceiving the utter 
corruption of the church of their day, sought salvation in 
a revolutionary overthrow of all ecclesiastical institutions 
and repudiated often the truth with the error which was 
the object of their hate. The only protesting church of a 
thoroughly sensible evangelical sort was Uiat of the Wal- 

1. The Cathari. — Opposition to hierarohioal pretenaiona led io the 
apread of aecie, espeoially in Ncrt'iem Italj and Franoe, from the 11th 
Century. Hidden remnanta of Old Manicbean secta got new conrage 
and ventured into the light daring the period of the oraaadea. In 
France tbej were called Tisseranda, becanse moatlj oompoeed of weavers. 
In Italy they were called Patareni or Paterini, either from the original 
meaning of the word, rabble, riff-raff ($ 97, 6), or because they so far 
adopted the attitude of the Pasaria of Milan, aa to offer lay opposition 
to the local clergy, or because of the frequent nse of the Paternoster. Of 
later oi igin are the names Pnblicani and £ulg&ri, given aa opprobrious da- 
eignations to the Paulicians. The most widely current name of Cathari^ 
from early times a favourite title aasumed by rigorist sects ($ 41, 8), 
Lad it origia in the East. In France they were called Albigenaians, 


from tbe proTioee of Albigeois, which was the'r chief seat in Southern 
France.— Of the Writinjs of the Cathari we posaiss from the end of the 
13th century a Provencal translation of the N.T., free from all falsifica- 
tion in favour of their sectarian views. Their tenets are to be learnt 
on}j from the polemical writings of their opponents, Alanu9 ab Insulis 
(§102, 5), the Dominican Joh. Moneta, ab)at ad. 1210, and BaineriuB, 
Bacchoui, Dominican and inquisitor, about ▲ d. 1250. 

2. Besides their opposition to the hierai-ohy, all these Fects had in 
common a dualisilc basis to their theological systems. They held in a 
more or less extreme form the following doctrines : The good God who 
i« proclaimed in the N.T. created in the beginning the heavenly and 
invisible world, and peoj^led it with souls clothed in ethereal bodies. 
The earthly world, on the other hand, is the work of an evil spirit, who 
i« held up as object of worship in the O.T. Entering the heavenly 
world he succeeded in seducing some of its inhabitants, whom he, when 
defeated by the archangel Michael, took with him to earth, and there im- 
prisoned in earthly bodies, so as to make return to their heavenly home 
imposbible. Yet they are capable of redemption, and may, on repent- 
ance and Bubmiiiision to purificatory ordinances, be again freed from their 
eartlily bonds and brought home again to heaven. For this redemption 
the good God sent *'the heavenly man" Jesus (1 Cor. xv. 47) to earth 
in the appearance of roan to teach men their heavenly origin and the 
means of restoration. The Cathari rejected the O.T., but accepted the 
N.T., which they read in the vernacular. ^larriage they regarded as a 
hindrance to Christian pei-fection. They treated with contempt water 
baptism, the Supper, and ordination, as well as all veneration (^f saints 
and relics, and tolerated no images, crosses, or altars. Prayer, absti- 
nence, and baptism of the Spirit were regarded as the only means of 
salvation. Preaching was next to prayer most prominent in their pultlio 
ocrvices. Tbey also laid great stress upon fasting, genuflection, and repe- 
titions of stated formulie, especially the Lord's Prayer. Their members 
were divide>l into Cregentz {credenUi or catechu men») and Bos Imme« or Bot 
crettiat (boni h/minett bohi Chrutiaui^yeTfecti or elreti). A lower order 
of the catechumens were the Auditores, These were received as Creden'et 
after a longer period of training amid various ceremonies and repetition of 
the Lord's prayer, etc. The order of the Pfiffcti was entered by spiritual 
LaptiHrn, tbe Co i sol amentum or communication of the Holy Spirit as the 
premised Comfurter, without which no one can enjoy eternal Ufe. Even 
opponents such as St. Bernard admit that there was great moral earnest- 
iiesa shown by some of them, and many met a mart>-r*8 death with true 
Chrit'tian heroism. Symptoms of decay appeared in tlie t^pread among 
them of antinomian practices. This moral deterioration showed itself aa 
a radical part of this system in the so-called Ludferians or devil wor« 
shippers, whose dualism, like that of the Euchites and Bog«)mils (§ 71), led 


to tbe adoption of two Sons of Ood. Lnoifer the elder, wrongly driven 
from heaven, ie the creator and lord of this earthly world, and hence 
alone worshipped in it. His expulsion (Isa. xiv. 12) is carried oat by the 
jouDger son, Michael, who will, however, on this account, whenever 
Lucifer regains heaven, be sent with all his company into eternal punish- 
ment. Of an incarnation of Ood, even of a docetio kind, tliey know 
nothing. They regarded Jesus as a false prophet who was crucified on 
account of the evil he had done. — Catharist sects suspected of Mani- 
chscan tendencies were discovered here and there during the Uih century. 
In the following century their number had increased enormously, and 
they spread over Lombardy and Southern France, but were also found 
in Southern Italy, in Germany, Belgium, Spain, and even in England. 
Thoy had a pope residing in Bulgaria, twelve magistri and seventy-two 
bishops, each with a Filius tn/ijor and minor at his side. In A..D. 1167 
they were able to muster an oecumenical Catharist Council at Toulouse. 
Keither clemency nor severity could put them down. St. Bernard pre- 
vailed most by the power of his love, and subsequently learned Domi- 
nicans had more effect with their preaching and disputations. They 
found abundant opportunity of displaying their hatred of the pnpapy 
during the struggles of the Gnelphs and Gliibellines. In spite of ter- 
rible persecution, which reached it« height in the beginning of the 
13th century in the Albigensian crusade (§ 109, 1), remnants of them 
were found down into the 14th century. 

8. The small sect of the Pasagians in Lombardy during the 12th 
Century, protesting against the Maniohean depreciation of the O.T. of 
the Catharists, adopted views of a somewhat Ebionite character. With 
the exception of sacrifice, they enforced all the old ceremonial obser- 
vances, even circumcision, and held an Arian or Ebionite theory of the 
Person of Christ. Their name meaning "passage,** seems to refer to 
pilgrimages to the Holy Land, and possibly from this a clue to their 
origin may be obtained. 

4. Pantheistic Heretics.— (1) Amalrich of Bena taught first philosophy, 
then theology, at Paris in the end of the 12th century. In a.d. 1204 
Innocent III. called him to account for his proposition. Christian in 
sound, but probably pantheistically intended, that no one could be saved 
who is not a member in Christ's body, and obliged him to retract. His 
death occurred soou after, and some years later we find traces of a pan- 
theistic sect founded on tbe alleged doctrines of Amalrich vigorouKly 
propagated by his disciple Wi'.lium the goldsmith. God had previously 
appeared as Father incarnate in Abraham, and as Son in Christ, and 
now henceforth as the Holy Spirit in every believer, who therefore in the 
same sense as Christ is God. As such, too, he is without sin, and what 
to others would be sin is .not so to biro. In the age of the Son the 
Mosaic law lost its validity, and in that of the Spirit, the sacraments and 


■ervioes of the new covenant. God has always been all in all. Wa 
find him in Ovid as well as in Angastlne, and the body of Christ is in 
common bread as well as in the consecrated wafer on the altar. Saint 
worship is idolatry. There is no resurrection; heaven and hell exist 
only in the imagination of men. Borne is Babylon, and the pope is 
antichrist ; bnt to the king of France, after the overtbrow of antichrist, 
shall the kingdoms of the earth be subject, etc. A synod at Paris in 
A.D. 1209 condemned William and nine priests to be burnt, and four 
other priests to imprisonment for life, and ordered that Amalrioh's bones 
should be exhumed and scattered over an open field. Begarding the 
physical works of Aristotle as the source of this heresy, the council 
also prohibited all lectures upon these (§ lOS, 1). This was seen to be a 
mistake, and so in aj>. 1225 Honorius III. fixed on the true culprit and 
condemned the De divisione natura of Erigena (§ 90, 6). The penalties 
inflicted did not by any means lead to the rooting out of the sect. Dur- 
ing the whole 13th century it continued to spread from Paris over all 
eastern France as far as Alsace, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, and 
in the 14th century reached its highest development in the pantheistic- 
libertine doctrines of the Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit (§ 116, 5). 
We never again meet with the name of Amalrich, and the sects were 
never called after him.— (2) David of IHnant at the same time with Amal- 
rich taught philosophy and theology in the University of Paris. He also 
lived for a long while at the papal court in Borne, high in favour with 
Innocent HL as a subtle dialectician. The Synod of Paris of a.D. 1209, 
which passed judgment on the Amalricians, pronounced David a heretic 
and ordered his works to be burnt. He avoided personal punishment by 
flight. The central point of his system was the assumption of a single 
eternal substance without distinctions, from which Qod, spirit (yoSs), 
and matter (0X9) sprang as the three principles of all later forms of 
existences {corpora, anima, and tubttantia atema). God is regarded as 
the primum eßeient, matter as the primwn suteipUiUt and spirit as the 
medium between the two. David's scholars never formed a sect and 
never had any connection apparently with the followers of Amalrich. — 
(8) The Ortlibarians were a sect condemned by Innocent III., followers of 
a certain Ortlieb of Strassbnrg about a.D. 1212. They held the world to 
be witboat beginning. They looked upon Jesus as the son of Joseph 
and Mary, siuless like all other children, but raised to be son of God 
only tbrou;{h illumination from the doctrines of their sect, which had 
existed from the earliest times. They admitted the gospel story of 
Christ's life, su£Feriugs, and resurrection, not, however, iu a literal bat 
only in a moral aud mybtical acceptation. The consecrated host was but 
common bread, and in it was the body of the Lord. A Jew entering their 
sect neeied not to be baptized, and fellowship with them was suffi* 
dent to secure salvation. There is no resurrection of the flesh ; man'a 

VOL. U. ^ 


spirit alone is immortaL After the last jnclgment, which will come 
when pope and emperor are converted to their views and all opposition 
is OYercome, the world will last for ever, and men will he horn and die 
jnst as now. They professed a strictly ascetic life, and many of them 
fasted every second day. 

5. Apocalyptic Heretics. — The Cistercian ahhot Joaehion of Tlorit, 
who died in a.d. 1202, with his notions of the so called ** Rverlatting 
Go'pelf'* as a reformer and as one indioed to apocalyptic prophecy, 
followed in the footstei» of Hildegard of Bingen and Elizabeth of 
Schönau (§ 107, 1). His prophetic views spread among the Franciscans 
and were long unchallenged. In a.D. 1254 the University of Paris, 
warning against the begging monks ($ 103, 3), got Alexander IV. to 
condemn tbese views as set forth in commentaries on Isaiah and 
Jeremiah ascribed to Joachim, bnt now found to be spurious. Pregor 
doubts but, Reuter maintains the genuineness of the three tracts grouped 
ander the title of the Evangelium aUmum. The main points in his 
theory seem to have been tbese : There are three ages, that of the Father 
in the O.T., of the Son in the N.T., and of the Holy Spirit in the 
approaching fulness of the kingdom of Ood on earth. Of the apostles, 
Peter is representative of the first age, Paul of the second, and John of 
the third. They may also he characterized as the age of the laity, the 
eleigy, and the monks, and compared in respect of light with the stars, 
the moon, and the sun. The first six periods of the N.T. age are divided 
(after the pattern of the forty-two generations of Matt. i. and the forty- 
two months or 1260 days of Bev. xi. 2, 8) into forty-two shorter periods 
of thirty years each, so that the sixth period doses with ▲.]>. 1260, and 
then shall dawn the Sabbath i>eriod of the New Covenant as the age of 
the Holy Spirit. This will he preceded by a short reign of antichrist as 
a punishment for the corruptions of the church and clergy. By the 
labours of the monks, however, the church is at last purified and 
brought forth triumphant, and the life of holy contemplation becomes 
universal. The germs of antichrist were evidently supposed to lie in the 
Hohenstaufen empire of Frederick I. and Henry VI. The commentaries 
on Isaiah and Jeremiah went so far as to point to the person of Frederick 
II. as that of the antichrist. 

6. Ghibelline Joachites in Italy, mostly recruited from the Franciscans, 
sided with the emperor against the pope and adopted apocalyptic views 
to suit their politics, and regarded the papacy as the precursor of anti- 
christ. One of their chiefs, Ohva, who died in a.d. 1297, wrote a Po§tUla 
M'tper Apoe., in which he denounced the Boman church of his day as the 
Great Whore of Babylon, and liis scholar Ubertino of Casale saw in the 
beast that rose out of tbe sea (Bev. zili.) a prophetic picture of the papacy. 
— In Germany these views spread among the Dominicans during the 13th 
eentuxy, especially in Swabia. The movement was headed by one Arnold, 


who wrote an EpiHola de correctione tcdesia aboat a.i>. 1216. He flnds 
in Innocent lY. the antichrist and in Frederick II. the ezecationer of 
the Divine judgment and the inau>{uration of the reformation. Fred^ 
rick*8 death, which followed soon after in a.d. 12o0, and the catastrophe 
of A.D. 12G9 (S OG, 20), must have put an end to the whole movement. 

7. Sevolotionary Beformei's. — (1) The Petrobrasians. whose founder, 
Pe'er of Brays, was a pupil of Abs lard and a priest in the south of 
Fr.mce, repudiated the outward or visible church aud sought the true 
or invisible church in the heai-t^ of beUevers. He insisted on the de- 
struction of churches and sanctuaries because God could be worahippod 
in a stable or tavern, burnt crucifixes iu the cooking stove, eagerly 
opposed celibacy, mass, and infant baptism, and after a twenty }eara* 
career perished at the stake about a.D. 1126 at the hands of a raging 
mob. One of Peter's companions, Henry of Lausanne, who.^e fiery elo* 
quence had been influential in inciting to reform, succeeded to the 
leadership of the Petrobrusians, who from him were calloil Henridani. 
St Bernard succeeded in winning many of them back. Henry was 
condemned to imprisonment for life, and died in a.D. 1149. — (2) Arnold of 
Bresda, who died in a.d. 1135, a preacher of great moral and religious ear- 
nestness, addressed himself to attack the worldliness of tlie church and 
the papacy. Except in maintaining that saorameots dispensed by un worthy 
priests have no efficacy, he does not seem to have deviated from the 
ohuroh doctrine. Officiating as reader in his naiive town, his bishop 
complained of him as a heretic to the second Lateran Council of a.d. 
1139. His views were ooodemued, aud he himself was banished and 
enjoined to observe perpetual silence. He now went to his teacher 
Abflßlard in France. Here St. Bernard accused him at the synod oon* 
▼ened against Abeslard at Sens in a.d. 1141 (§ 102, 2) as " the armour* 
bearer '* of this '* Goliath -heretic," aud obtained the condemnation of 
both. He was then excommunicated by Innocent U. aud imprisoned in 
a cloister. Arnold, however, escaped to Switzerlan I, where be lived and 
taught undisturbed in Ziirich for some years, till Bishop Hermann of 
Constance, at the instigation of the Saint of Clairvaux, threatened him 
with imprisonment or exile. Ho was now taken uuder the protection of 
Guido de Castella, Abaelard's friend aud patron, aud accompanied him 
to Bohemia and Moravia. On Guido's elevation as Ooelestine II. to the 
pipal chair in a.d. 1143, Arnold returned to his native lauJ. From a.D. 
1146 we find him in Bome at the head of the agitation for political and 
ecclesiastical freedom. For further details of his history, see § 96, 13, 
14. A party of so-called Arnoldists occupied itself long after his death 
with tUe carrying out of his cccleMiastico-political ideal. 

8.— (3) The so called Pastorelles were routed to revolution by the mise* 
ries following the crusaies. An impulse was giveu to the sect by ihm 
news ol the imprisonment of St. Louis (§ 94, 6). A Cibteroian Magister 


Jacol» from Hnngarj appeared in a.D. 1251 with the annonneement that 
he had seen the Mother of God, who gave him a letter calling upon the 
pastors to rescue the Holy Sepulchre. Those who have heard the 
Christmas message are called of God to undertake the great work which 
neither the corrupt hierarchy nor the proud, ambitious noMes were able 
to perform ; but before them, the poor shepherds, the sea will open a way, 
BO that they may hasten with dry feet to the release of king Louis. H's 
fanatical harangues soon gathered immense crowds of common people 
around him, estimated at about 100,000 men. Bat instead of going to 
the Holy Land, they first gaye vent to their wrath against the clergy, 
monks, and Jews at home by murdering, plundering, and ill treating them 
in all manner of ways. The queen- mother Bianca, favourable at first, 
now used all her power against them. Jacob was slain at Bourges, his 
troops scattered, and their leaders executed. — (4) In the Apostolic Brolbert 
we have a blending of Amoldist and Joachist tendencies, llieir founder, 
Gerhard Segarelli, an artisan of Parma, was moved about a..d. 1260 by 
the sight of a picture of the apostles in their poverty to go about preach- 
ing repentance and calling on the church to return to apostolic sim- 
plicity. He did not question the doctrine of the church. Only when 
Honorius in a.D. 1286 and Nicholas IV. in a.d. 1290 took measures against 
them did they openly oppose the papacy and denounce the Boman church 
as the apocalyptic Babylon. Segarelli was seized in a-d. 1294 and perished 
in the flames with many of his followers in a.i>. 1300. Fra Boleloo, a 
younger priest, now took the leadership, and roused great enthusiasm by 
his preaching against the Boman antichrist. He bravely held his ground 
with 2,000 followers for two years in the recesses of the mountains, but 
was reduced at last in a.D. 1807 by hunger, and died like his predecessor 
at the stake. He distinguished four stages in the historical development 
of the kingdom of God on earth. The first two are those of the Father 
and the Son in the O.T. and the N.T. The third begins with Con- 
stantino's establishment of the Christian empire, advanced by the 
Benedictine rule and the reforms of the Franciscans and Dominicans, 
but afterwards falling into decay. The fourth era of complete restora- 
tion of the apostolic life is inaugurated by Segarelli and Dolcino. A new 
chief sent of God will rule the church in peace, and the Holy Spirit will 
fkewt leave the restored communion of His saints. Bemnants of the sect 
were long in existence in France and Germany, where they united with 
the Fraticelli and Beghards. Even in a jo. 1374 we find a synod at 
Narbonne threatening them with the severest punishments. 

9. Keforniing Enthusiasts.— (1) A oettain Tanchelm about aj>. 1115 
preached in the Netherlands against the corruptions of the church. He 
claimed like honour with Christ as being assisted by the same Spirit, is 
said to have betrothed himself to the Virgin Mary, and to have been 
kOled at last in a.D. 1124 by a priest.— (2) A Frenchman, Son da Stdla 


of Brittany, bearing in a ehoroh the words *' per Erm qui venturuM eit 
jndicare vicoi et mortuoSt** and understanding it of his own name, went 
through the country preaching, prophesying, and working miracles. He 
secured many followers, and when persecuted, fled to the woods. He 
denied the Divine institution of the hierarchy, denounced the Boman 
ehnrch as false because of the wicked lives of the priosts, rejected the 
doctrine of a resurrection of the body, denied that mnrriage was a sacra- 
ment, and regarded the communication of the Spirit by imposition of 
hands the only true baptism. In a.d. 1148 troops were seut against him, 
and he and many of his followers wore taken priüouers. His adherents 
were burnt, but Eon was brought before a synod at Bheims, where he 
answered the question of the pope Eugenius III., ** Who art thou?" by 
saying 1$ qtti venturns est^ etc. Ho was then pronounced deranged and 
delivered over to the custody of the srchbishop. 

10. The Waldensians. —A rich citizen of Lyons called Waldus had first 
the gospels, then other books of the O. and N.T., and finally a selection 
from the works of the fathers, translated by two priests for his own in- 
struction into the Romance dialect. Moved by the careful study of these 
writings and impressed by the sudden death of a friend, about a,.d. 1170 
he distributed his goods to the poor and founded a society for preaching 
the gospel among the pooplo. They went forth like the seventy disciples 
two and two, without stafif or scrip, with wooden sandals or sabots on 
their feet, a pattern of apostolic poverty and simplicity, preaching and 
teaching through the Isnd and calling upon the people to return to 
apostolic purity of life and to study the Scriptures for themselves. They 
were called Paup^ret de Lnyduuo^ Leonitta, as coming from Lyons; 
and Sahatati as wearing sabots. The Archb'shop of Lyons forbade their 
preaching ; but they referred to Acts v. 29 and appealed to the third Late- 
ran Council of A.D. 1179 under Alexander UI. They were there, how- 
ever, treated with contempt. As they still persisted in preaching, Lucius 
III. in A.D. 1184 put them under the ban. They had not hitherto shown 
any opposition to the doctrine, worship, or constitution of the Catholio 
church. Even the ecclesiastical authorities had made no objection to 
the substance of their preaching, but only to their exercising that func- 
tion without a legitimate call. Innocent III. acknowledged the injudi- 
cioosness of his predecessor, and agreed in a.D. 1209 to the plan of a 
Spanish Waldensian, Durandus of Osca, or Hnesca, to have the society of 
Pavpert'i de Lugduvo organized as an order of lay monks of Pavperee 
Catholicif who should preach, expound Scripture, and give practical 
instruction muler e| iscopnl snpervisiru. But this came too late. The 
ehnrch itf^lf had severed the ties which had hitherto bound them to the 
traditional doctrines of Catholicism, and the Leonists were now too far 
advanced on the path of evangelical freedom to be thus induced to ra- 
tom. Innocent now renewed the ban against them at the fourth Lateran 


Gönnen of a.i>. 1215. Of the later life sod MÜTity of the fonnder onlj 

this is known with certainty, that he made extensire journeys for the 
advancement of his cause. Even during his lifetime his followers had 
spread greatly over all the south of France, the east of Spain, the north of 
Italy, the south of Germany ; they were even found in the Netherlands 
and as far as England. Although they had a great abhorrence of the 
Catharists and denounced their proceedings as demoniacal, they yrete 
often confounded with tliem, and were with eqial eagerness perseoiite<l 
by the Spanisli Inquisition, which sent thousands of them to the stake. 
— The remnants of the German Waldensiaus got mixed up during tlie 
15th oentury with the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren ($ 119, 8, 9) ; 
those of France and Italy retired into the remote valleys of the western 
and eastern spuis of the Cotttan' Alps, into Dauphin6, Provence, and 
Piedmont. From a. d. 1310 they sent forth from Pie<lmont, with the 
connivance of the local government, thriving colonies into Calabria and 
Apulia. The French Waldeusians in Provence and Dauplda6 succumbed 
in A.D. 1545 to the vio!e:it persecutions to which they were subjected, 
and those of Southern Italy were routed out some sixtcn years later 
(S 139, 25). But the Pi^dmont-jse, in spite of the mo^t severe and per- 
sistent persecution, continue to the present day (§ 201, 4). The per- 
secutions began at the beginning of the 15th oentury, when their country 
came under the rule of the hoase of Savoy, and continued till a-d. 1477, 
when Innocent VIII. organized an exterminating crusade from Savoy and 
France which shiuglitered 18,000 men. They had now rest for a long 
wbile, until their Protestant sympathies in the 16th century roused per- 
secution anew (§§ 139, 25; 153, 5). 

11. The most important Sources of Infbrmatioii for the early history of 
the Waldensians, besides the Acts of Synod and the Inquisition, are the 
Catholic controversalists. Of these the most important are the following: 
Bernard, abbot of Fonscalidus^ Alanus (§ 102, 6). Walter Mapes. arch- 
deacon of Oxford (De Kcta Waldem)^ Stephen de Borbone about A.D. 
1250, the Dominicans Moneta and Bainerius, and David of Augsburg, 
who wrote De hareii pauperum de Lftgduno (| 103, 10). False views in 
oontradiction to the description given in these works prevailed antong 
historians till the present generation. Dieckhoff, Herzog, Todd, anil 
Preger have thoroughly sifted this Waldensian mythology. It had been 
maintained that long before Waldos of Lyons Waldfuainn communities 
existed in the valleys of Piedmont, the '* Israel of the Alps,*' preserving 
the gospel in its purity, and owing their origin to CUudius of Turin 
(S 92, 2) or even to the Apostle Paul, who on his journey to Spain had 
visited these recesses. From them Peter of Lyons had got his religious 
quickening and the surname of Waldus. the Waldensian. For proof of 
this assertion they referred to the WaMsaslaa Maauoripts, preserved in 
Geneva, Dublin, Cambridge, ZOrioh, Grcnohle, and Paris, composed in a 


peenliar Bomanee dialect. But when these were examined they were 
found to belong to three different periods. In the tracts belonging to 
the first period, which cannot be pliced enrlior than the 14th centurj, 
the complete separation of the Waldeniian doctrine and practice from 
those of the Catholic charch is not yet maintaine 1. Complaint is made 
of the corruptions of tha church, but the meritoriousuess of fasts and 
abLsgiving, clerical celibacy, the mass, and auricular confession are 
still insisted upon. They occupy the position described by the Catholic 
«ontroversialibts, and like them know nothing of Waldensians before 
Waldiis. The writings of the second period were composed under Hui-^ite 
influence, but such views they do not seek to ascribe to an old Waiden- 
siau source In the documents of the third period, however, that of the 
Protestantising Waldensians of the 16th century (§ 139, 25), Borne is 
identified with Babylon, the pope is antichrist, worship of saints is 
idolatry, enforced celibacy is repudiated, monkery is denounced, the 
doctrine of merits and indulgences, purgatory, the mass, auricular con- 
fession, etc., are condemned. They do not shrink from barefaced forgery 
as well by means of interpolation, excisioa, and alteration in earlier works 
as by means of new writings, in order to vindicate a venerable antiquity 
for the evangeliaal purity of their community. These documents were 
industriously and succeäsfully used by their historians, Perrin, Leger, 
Mnston, Mouastier, etc. In the ** Noble Lesson/* belonging to the former 
class of writings, a didactic religious poem, where the statement occurs 
that 1,400 yeiurs had passed since the composition of the N. T. Scriptures, 
tlie figure 4 was erased, to show that Waldensian communities existed 
in A..D. 1100, seventy years before the appearance of Wuldus of Lyons. 
But when in a.d. 18C2 the Morlan 1 MS ^., lost for 200 years, were discovered 
again at Cambrilge (§ 153. 5), a text of the *' Noble Lesson '* was found 
in which before the word *' cent.** an erasiu*e had been made, in which, 
however, the loop of the Arabic figure 4 was still discernible, while in 
another passage the statement referred to was quoted as " Mil e CCCÖ 
am.** The Hussite writings were introduced among the Waldensians by 
the Bohemians as genuine works of the earlier centuries. To the Cori' 
fettion of Faith of the IVaUUndans was assigned the date a.d. 1120. but 
from MoruPs account of his negotiations with (Ecolampadius and B icer 
(§ 139, 25) it appears that the Protestant tone of the formulary is largely 
the work of theaa reformers.' 

* Perrin. " Hiptory of the Vimdois,** liondon, 1624. Muston, *'L-rael 
of the Alps," 2 vols., Glasgow, 1858. Monastier, " History of the 
Vaudois Church from its Origin." New Ydik, 1819. Peyran, " Historical 
Defence of tho Waldens^s or Van lois," London, 1826. Todd, '• Th« 
Waldensian Manuscripts," LonJon, 18oi5. Wylie, "History of the Wal- 
densians," London, 1880. Comba, *'Histoipy of the Waldenses," Loxf: 
don, 1638. 


19. The Poor Hen of Italj or Lomberdy, ead their Bdatfoii to the Waiden« 
•itiis. — These were called Pauperet Spiritn and HumiWiU^ as having 
their origin probably from the workmen*8 guilds of the 12th centnry 
(§ 98, 7). Adopting Arnoldist views they became estranged from the 
Catholic chnrch and were brought into friendly relations with the French 
Waldeusians. They were distinguished from the Waldensians. however, 
by these two characteristics : (1) They maintained that the efficacy of 
the means of grace depended on the worthiness of the officiating priest, 
and (2) they had workmen's leagues {Öongretjationet hiborantium). The 
former associates them with the Arnoldists ; the latter, with the Humili- 
ates. In common with the Waldensians they acknowledged the Scriptures 
as the only source of religious knowledge and spiritual priesthood as the 
right of all baptized believers, and claimed for all Christians tlie privilege 
of studying the word of God. Their clergy wrought with their hands 
for their own support, to which the Waldensians took exception, founding 
upon Luke z. 7, 8. More serious was the difference of view as to the 
effect of a priest's unworthtness on the dispensation of the sacrament. 
Begarding all Catholic priests as unworthy, they were obliged to have a 
priesthood of their own, whom they designated not Sacerdotrg but Ministri, 
with a Praposittts corresponding to a bishop at their h^ad. The Wal- 
densians, on the other hand, had recourse to their own iUinistri only 
where they could not have the sacrament from Catholic priests. Their 
pastors they named Darbft^ i.e. Uncle ; and the institution was regarded 
as temporary, and the appointments were at first only for a year, but 
subsequently for life. Among both the spiritual priesthool of believers 
was strongly insisted upon. The pastors had stricter obligations laid 
upon them in the enforcement of celibacy and absolute poverty. This 
distinction between the clergy and the laity was soon dropped by the 
Italians, but retained by the Waldensians till they became Protestantised 
during the 16th centnry. The Italians seem also to have been inadvanoe 
of the Waldensians in the rejection of compulsory confession and fast- 
ing, wozship of saints, the doctrine of purgatory, and probably also in 
the refusal of canonical authority to the apocryphal books of the O.T. 
About AD. 1260 they had forty-two congregations in the diocese of 
Passau, with a bishop at their head. From this centre tliey spread out 
over the neighbouring countries as far as Northern Qermany. In spite 
of ccnstiint persecution, which repeatedly brought hundreds of them to 
the stake, they maintained a footing in Austria, Bohemia, and Moravia 
down to the 15th century, when the remnants went over into the ranks 
of the Bohemian Brethren. 

§ 109. thb chubch against the protbstbbs. 1s7 

§ 109. The Church against the Protesters. 

The church was by no means indifferent to the spread of 
those heresies of the 11th and 12th centuries, which called 
in question its own very existence. Even in the 11th cen- 
tury she called in the aid of the stake as a type of the fire 
of hell that would consume the heretics, and against this only 
one voice, that of Bishop Wazo of Liege (t A.D. 1048), was 
raised. In the 12th century protesting voices were more 
numerous : Peter the Venerable (§ 98, 1), Rupert of Deutz, 
St. Hildegard, St. Bernard, declared sword and fire no fit 
weapons for conversion. St. Bernard showed by his own 
example how by loving entreaty and friendly instruction 
more might be done than by awakening a fanatical enthusi- 
asm for martyrdom. But hangmen and stakes were more 
easily produced than St. Bernards, of whom the 12th and 
13th centuries had by no means a superabundance. By-and- 
by Dominic sent out his disciples to teach and convert here- 
tics by preaching and disputation ; as long as they confined 
themselves to these methods they were not without success. 
But even they soon found it more congenial or more effec- 
tive to fight the heretics with tortures and the stake 
rather than with discussion and discourse. The Albigensian 
crusade and the tribunal of the Inquisition erected in con- 
nection therewith at last overpowered the protesters and 
drove the remnants of their sects into hiding. In the 
administration of punishment the church made no distinction 
between the various sects ; all were alike who were at war 
with the church. 

1. The Albigensiaii Crusada, A.D. 1209-1229.— Toward the end of the 
12tU oentory sects aboanded in the soath of France. Innocent III. 
regarded them as worse than the Saracens, and in a.d. 1203 sent a 
legate, Peter of Castelnau, with fall powers to seonre their extermina« 
iion. Bat Peter was murdered in a.d. 1208, and snspioion fell on 
fiaymond IV., Count of Tonlouse. A crosade ander Simon de Montfort 
mm now sammoned against the sectaries, who as mainly inhabiting the 


district of Albigeois were now called Albi^niiaiii. A twenty years* war 
was carried on with mad fanatioism and cmelty on both sides, in which 
guilty and innocent, men, women, and children were ruthlessly slain. 
At the sack of Beziers with 20.000 inhabitants the papal legate cried, 
'* Slay all, the Lord will know how to seek ont and save liis own.'* ^ 

2. The Inquisition.— Eveiy one screening a heretic forfeited lands, 
goods, and olUce; a houRO in which such a one was discovered was 
levelled to the ground ; all citizens had to communicate tlnice a year, 
and every second year to renew their oath of attachment to the church, 
and to refuse all help in sickness to those suspected of heresy, et«. The 
bishops not showing themselves sealous enough in enforcing these laws, 
Gregory IX. in a.D. 1232 founded the Tribunal of the Inquisition, and 
placed it in the hands of the Dominicans. These as Domini eaitei subjected 
to the most cruel tortures all on whom the suspicion of heresy fell, and 
all the resolute were handed over to the civil authorities, who readily 
undertook their execution.' — Continuation 117, § 2. 

3. Ckmrad of Marburg and the Stedingers. — The first Inquisitor of 
Germany, the Dorainicnn Conrad of Marburg, also known as the severe 
confessor of St. Elizabeth (§ 105, 3), after a three years* career of ornelty 
was put to death by certain of the nobles in a.D. 1233. Et «tc, say the 
Annals of Worms, divino cuxHio liberata est Teutonia ab isto judicio 
enormi et inaudito. He was enrulled by Gregory IX. amoug the martyrs. 
Perhaps wrongly he has been blamed for Gregory's omaade of a.D. 1234 
against the Stedingers. These were Frisians of Oldenburg who revolted 
against the oppression of nobles and priests, refused socage and tithes» 
and screened Albigensian heretics. The first crusade failed ; the second 
•ucceeded and plundered, murdered, and burned on every hand. Thou- 
sands of the unhappy peasants were slain, neither women nor children 
were spared, and all prisoners were sent to the stake as heretics. 

*■ Sismondi, ** History of Crusades against the Albigenses of the 13tU 
Century.'* London, 1826. 

* Limborch, ** History of the Inquisition.'* 2 vols. London, 1781. 
Lea, ** History of the Inquisition.*' 3 vols. Philad. and London, 1888. 
Baker, '* Uintory of Inquisition in Portugal, Spain, Italy,*' etc. Louden, 
1763. Prc8C0tt, '* History of Ferdinand and Isabella,** pt. i., ch. vii. 
Llorente, ** Histoire crilique de Tlnquisition d'Espngne.*' Paris, I8I81 
Bule, " History of Inquisition.'* 2 vols. London, 1874. 


THE Uth and 15th CENTURIES (a.d 1294-1517). 

L The Hierarchy, Clergy, and Uonks. 

§ 110. The Papacy.i 

From the time of Gelasius n. (§ 96, 11) it had been the 
custom of the popes whenever Italy became too hot for them 
to fly to France, and from France they had obtained help to 
deliver Italy from the tyranny of the latest ropresantatives 
of the Hohenstaufens. But when Boniface "VUI. dared boldly 
to assert the universal sovereignty of the papacy even over 
France itself, this presumption wrought its own overthrow. 
The consequence was a seventy years' exile of the papal chair 
to the banks of the Rhone, with complete subjugation under 
French authority. Under the protection of the French 
court, however, the popes found Avignon a safe asylum, and 
from thence they issued the most extravagant hierarchical 
claims, especially upon Germany. The return of the papal 
court to Rome was the occasion of a forty years' schism, 
during which two popes, for a time even three, are seen 
hurling anathemas at one another. The reforming Coimcils 
of Pisa, Constance, and Basel sought to put an end to this 
scandal and bring about a reformation in the head and 
the members. The fathere in these councils, however, in 
accordance with the prevalent views of the age, maintained 
the need of one visible head for the government of the 

^ CreightoD, '* Histoiy of the Papacy daring the Beformation.** Vols. 
l.-iv., A.D. 7378-1618. Loudon, 1882 ff. GoReelin, "The Power of the 
Popes daring the Middle Ages." 2 vols. London, 1853. Beichel, ** See 
of Bome in the Middle Ages.*' London, 1870. 



church, such as was afforded by the papacy. But the corrup- 
tions of the papal chair led them to adopt the old theory 
that the highest ecclesiastical authority is not the pope 
but the voice of the universal church expressed in the 
OBcumenical councils, which had jurisdiction over e^en the 
popes. The succassful carrying out of this view was 
possible only if the several national churches which had 
come now more decidedly than ever to regard themselves as 
independent branches of the great ecclesiastical organism, 
should heartily combine against the corrupt papacy. But 
this they did -not do. They were contented with making 
separate attacks, in accordance with their several solEsh 
interests. Hence papal craft found little difficulty in ren- 
dering the strong remonstrances of these councils fruitless 
and without result. The papacy came forth triumphant, and 
daring the 15th century, the age of the Renaissance, reached 
a degree of corruption and moral turpitude which it had not 
approached since the 10th century. The vicars of God now 
used their spiritual rank only to further thoir ambitious 
worldly schemes, and by the most scandalous nepotism (the so- 
called nephews being often bastards of the popes, who were 
put into the highest and most lucrative offices) as well as by 
their own voluptuousness, luxury, revelry, and love of war, 
brought ruin apon the church and the States of the Church. 

1. Boniface YUI, and Benedict XI., A.D. 1294-1301.— Boniface Vm., a.D. 
1294-1303 (§ 96, 22), was not inferior to liis great predecessor in political 
talents and strength of will, bnt was destitute of all spiritual qualities 
and without any appreciation of the spiritual functions of the papal 
chair, while passionately maintaining the most extravagant claims of the 
liierarcby. The opposition to the pope was hoadei by two cardinals of 
the powerful Colonna family, who maintained that the abdication of 
Ccelestine V. was invalid. In a.d. 1297 Boniface stripped them of all 
their dignities, and then they appealed to an ceoumenical council as a 
court of higher jurindiction. The pope now threatened them and their 
supporters with the ban, fitted out a crusade against them, and destroyed 
their castles. At last after a sore struggle Palsstrina, the old residenee 
of their family, capitulated. Also the Colonoas themaelyea submitted. 

§ 110. THE PAPACY. 141 

Nevertheless in A.D. 1293 he had the faraoas old city and all its chnrchet 
and palaces levelled to the groand, and refused to restore to the outlawed 
familj its confiscated estates. Then again the Colonnas took up arms, 
bat were defeated and oblig*^d to üy the couutry, while the pope forbade 
under threat of the ban any city or realm to give refuge or shelter to the 
fugitives. But neither his anathema nor his army was able to keep the 
rebeliiona Sicilians under papil dominion. Even in his first o^mtest 
with the Frenoli king. Ph lip IV. the Fair, a.D. 1285-1314, he had the 
worst of it. The pope had vainly sought to mediate between Philip and 
Edward I. of Enghiud, when both were usin<^ church property in carry- 
ing on war with one another, and in a.o. 1295 he isjtied the bull Cleiici» 
laicos, releasing subjects from their allegiance and anathematizing all 
laymen who should appropriate ecclesiastical revenues and all priests 
who should put them to uses not sanctioned by the pope. Philip then 
forbade all payment of ohurch dues, and the pope finding his revenues 
from France withheld, made important concessions in a.D. 1297 and 
canonized Phiap*s grandfather, Louis IX. His hierarchical assumptions 
in Germany gave promise of greater success. After the first Hapsburger's 
death in a.D. 1291, his son Albert was set aside, and Adolf, Count of 
Nassau, elected king; but he again was overthrown ani Albert 1. crowned 
in A.D. 1293. Boniface summoned Albert to his tribunal as a traitor and 
murderer of the king, and released the German princes from their oaths 
of allegiance to him. Meanwhile, during a.d. 1301, Boniface and Philip 
were qoarrelling over vacant benefioes in France. The king haughtily 
repudiated the pretensions of the papal legate and imprisoned him as 
a traitor. Boniface demanded his immediate liberation, summoned the 
French bishops to a council at Bome, and ii;i the bull Ausenlta ßU showed 
the king bow foolish, sinful, and heretical it was for him not to be subject 
to the pope. The bull torn from the messenger's hands was publicly burnt, 
and a version of it probably falsified published throughout the kingdom 
along with the king's reply. All France rose in revolt against the papal 
pretensions, and a parliament at Notre Dame in Paris a.d. 1302, at which 
the king assembled the three estates of the empire, the nobles, the 
clergy, and (for the first time) the citizens, it was unanimously resolved 
to support Philip and to write in that spirit to Bome, the bishoi)s under- 
taking to pacify the pope, the nobles and citizens making their complaint 
to the oardinals. The king expressly forbade his clergy taking any part 
in the council that had been summoned, which, however, met in the 
Lateran, in Nov., 1302. From it Boniface issued the famous bull Unatn 
Sanetam, in which, after the example of Innocent 111. and Gregory IX., 
he set forth the doctrine of the two swords, the spiritual wielded by 
the chnrch and the temporal for the church, by kings and warriors 
indeed, but only according to the will and by the permission of the 
tpiritoal ruler. That the temporal power is independent was pronounced 


Maniebean heresy; and finally it was declared that no human being 
coald be saved unless he were subject to the Bomon pontiff. King and 
parliament now accused the pope of heresy, simony, blasphemy, sorcery, 
tyranny, immorality, etc., and insinted that he should answer these 
charges before an Odcumentcal council. Meanwhile, in aj>. 1B03, 
Boniface was negotiating with king Albert, and got him not only to break 
his league with Philip, but also to acknowledge himself a vassal .of th« 
papal see. The pope had all his plans laid for launching his anathemm 
against Philip, but their execution was anticipated by the king*s assassins, 
nis chancellor Nogaret and Sciarra, one of the exiled Colonnas, who, 
with the help of French gold, had hatched a conspiracy among the 
barons, attacked the papal palace and took the pope prisoner while he 
eat in full state upon his throne. The people indeed rescued him, bat 
he died some weeks after in a raging fever in his 80th year. Dante ansigus 
him a place in hell. In the mouth of his predecessor Ccelestine V. have 
been put the prophetic words, Ateendinti ut vulpes, regnatit ut Uo, morieri» 
ut eaiiis.^ His successor Benedict XI., a.d. 1303, 1304, would have will- 
ingly avenged the wrongs of Boniface, but weak and unsupported as he 
was he soon found himself obliged, not only to withdraw all imputations 
against Philip, who always maintained his innocence, but also to absolve 
those of the Colonnas who were less seriously implicated. 

3. The Papacy during the Babyloaiaa Exile, A.D. 130 5-1 377.— After a 
year*8 vacancy the papal chair was filled by Bertrand de Got, Archbishop 
of Bordeaux, a determined supporter of Boniface, who took the name of 
Clement Y., a.D. 1305-1314. He refused to go to be enthroned at Bome, 
and forced the cardinals to come to Lyons, and finally, in a.d. 1309, 
formally removed the pai>al court to Avignon, which then belonged to the 
king of Naples as Couut of Provence. At this time, too, Clement so far 
yielded to Philip's wish to have Boniface condomned and strcusk ont of 
the list of popes, as to appoint two commissions to consider charges 
against Boniface, one in France and the other in Italy. Most credible 
witnesses accused the decea<^ed pope of heresies, crimes, and immoralities 
oommitted in word and deed mostly in their presence, while the rebutting 
evidence was singularly weak. A compromise was effected by Clement 
surrendering the Templars to the greedy and revengeful king. In the 
bull Rex gloria of A.D. 1311 he expressly declares that Philip's proceed* 
ing against Boniface was bona ßde^ occasioned by zeal for church and 
country, cancels all Btmiface's decrees and censures upon the French king 
and his servants, and orders them to be erased from the archives. The 
15Ü1 CBComeuical Council of Yienne in A.D. 1311 was mainly occupied with 
the affairs of the Templars, and also with the consideration of the oontro* 

' On Boniface VIU. see a paper in Wiseman^s ** Essays on Yarioo« 
8abjects.*' London, 1888. 

$ 110. THB PAPACY. 143 

TOTElasin the Franciscan order ($112, 27). — Henry VII. of Lnxembnrg 
▼as raised to the German throne on Albert's death in a.d. 1209 in opposi' 
kion to PliiUp*8 brother Charles. Clttinent supported Iiim and crowned 
him emperor, hoping to be protected by him from Philip's tyranny. At 
Milan in a.D. 1311 Henry received the iron orown of Lombardy ; but at 
Rome the imperial coronation was effeoted in a.d. 1312, not in St. Peter's, 
the inner city being held by Robert of Naples, papal vassal and governor 
of Italy, but only in the Lateran at the hands of the cardinals com- 
missioned to do so. The emperor now, in S[)ite of all papal threats, 
pronounced the ban of the empire against Robert, and in concert with 
Frederick of Sicily entered on a campaign against Naples, but his 
sudden death in a.D. 1313 (according to an unsupported legend cansed 
by a poisoned host) put an end to the expedition. Clement also died 
in the following year ; and to him likewise has Daute assigned a place 
in hell. 

8. After two years* murderous strife between the Italian and French 
cardina's, the French were again victorious, and elected at Lyons John 
XXII., A.D. 1316-1334, son of a shoemaker of Cahors in Gascony, who 
was already seventy-two years old. He is said to have sworn to the 
Italians never to use a horse or mule but to ride to Rome, and then to 
have taken ship on the Rhone for Avignon, where during his eighteen 
years* pontificate he never went out of his palace except to go into the 
neighbouring cathedral. Working far into the night, this seemingly weak 
old man was wont to devote all bis time to his studies and his business. 
The weight of his official duties will be seen from the fact that 60,000 
minutes, filling 59 vols, in the papal archives, belong to his reign. — In 
Otennany, after the death of Henry VII. there were two rivals for the 
throne, Lo«is IT. the Bavariaa, a.D. 1314-1347, and Frederick III. of 
Austria. The pope, maintaining the closest relations with Robert of 
Anjon, his feudatory as king of Naples and his protector as Count of 
Provence, and esteeming his wish as a command, refused to acknowledge 
either, declared the German throne still vacant, and assumed to himself 
the administration of the realm during the vacancy. At Mübldorf in a.D. 
1322 Louis conquered his opponent and took him prisoner. He sent 
a detachment of Ghibellines over the Alps, while he made himself master 
of Milan and put an end to the papal administration in Northern Italy. 
The pope in a.d. 1323 ordered him within three months to cease dis- 
charging all functions of governmeuc till his election as German king 
should be acknowledged and confirmed by the papul chair. Louis first 
endeavoured to come to an understanding with the pope, but soon em- 
ployed the sharp pens of the Minorites, who in May, 1324, drew op a 
solemn protest in which the king basing his claims to royalty solely on 
the election of the princes and treating the pope as one who had forfeited 
bis ebair in consequence of his heresies (f 112, 2), appealed from this 


false pope to an oecumenical oonncil and a fntnre legitimate pope. 
John now thandered an anathema against him, declared that he was 
dnprived of all his dignities, freed his snbjeots from their allegiance, for- 
bade them, under pain of anathema, to obey him, and sammoned all Euro- 
pean potentates to war a;:;ainst the excommunicated monarch. Louis 
now sought Frederick's favour, and in A.D. 1325 shared with him the 
royal dignity. In Milan in a.D. 1327 he was crowned king of Lombartly, 
and in a.d. 1328 in Borne he recciTed the imperial crown from the Roman 
democracy. Two bishops of the Ghibeliine party gave him consecration, 
and the crown was laid on his head by Sciarra Colonna in the name of 
the Roman people. In vaiu did tl • pope pronounce all these proceedings 
null and void. The kiog began a process against the pope, deposed him 
as a heretic and antichrist, and finally condemned him to death as guilty 
of high treason, while the mob carried out this sentence by burning the 
pope in effigy upon the streets. The people and clergy of Rome, in accord- 
ance with an old canon, elected a new pope in the person of a pious 
Minorite of the sect of the Spirituales ({ 112, 2), who took the name of 
Nicholas V. Louis with his own hand placed the tiara on his head, and 
was then himself crowned by him. All this glory, however, was but 
short lived. An unsuccessful and inglorious war against Robert of Naples 
and a consequent revolt in Rome caused the emperor in a.d. 1328, with 
his army and bis pope, amid the stonethrowing of the mob, to quit the 
eternal city, which immediately became subject to the curia. He did 
not fare much better in Tuscany or Lomhardy; and thus the Roman 
expedition ended in failure. Returning to Munich, Louis endeavoured 
in vain amid many humiliations to move the determined old man al 
Avignon. But Nicholas V., the most wretched of all the anti-popes, went 
io Avignon with a rope abdut his neck in a.D. 1328, cast himself at the 
pope's feet, was absolved, and died a prisoner in the papal palace in 
A.D. 1333. Next year John died. Notwithstanding the expensive Italian 
wars 25,000,000 gold guldens was found in the papal treasury at his 
death. — Roused by his opposition to the stricter party among the Fran- 
ciscans (§ 112, 2), its leaders lent all their influence to the Bavarian and 
supported the charge of heresy against the pope. Against John's favour- 
ite doctrine that the souls of departed saints attain to the vision of Go<l 
only after the last judgment, these zealots cited the opinions of the 
learned world (§ 113, 3). with the University of Paris at its bead. Philip 
VI. of France was also in the controversy one of his bitterest opponents, 
and even threatened him with the stake. Pressed on all sides the pope 
at last in a.d. 1333 convened a commission of scholars to decide the ques- 
tion, but died before its judgment was given. His successor hasted to 
still the tumult by issuing the story of a deathbed recantation, and gavo 
ecclesiastical sanction to the opposing view. 
4. Benedict Xn., a.d. 1334-1342, woold pxobaUy hvf jiddedto the 

$ 110. THB PAPACY. 145 

Qrgtnt entreaties of ibe Bomans to retam to Borne had not hU cardinale 
been so keenly opposed. He then built a palace at Avignon of imposing 
magnitade, as though the papacy were to have an eternal residence 
there. Louis the Bavarian retracted his heretical sentiments in order to 
get the ban removed and to obtain an orderly coronation. The first diet 
of the electoral union was held at Bhense near Mainz, in ▲. d. 1333, where 
it was declared that the election of a German king and emperor was, by 
God*s appointment, the sole privilege of the elector-princes, and needed 
not the confirmation or approval of the pope. This encouraged Louis 
to assert anew his imperial pretensions. Benedict's successor Clement 
YI., A.D. 1342-1352, added by purchase in a.d. 1348 the city of Avignon to 
the county of Yenaissin, which Philip III. had gifted to the papal chair in 
A D. 1273. Both continued in the possession of the Boman court till A.D. 
1791 (§ 164, 13). Louis, now at feud with some of the powerful German 
nobles, sought to make terms of peace with the new popo. But Clement 
was not conciliatory, and made the unheard of demand that Louis should 
not only annul all his previous ordinances, but also should in future issue 
no enactment in the empire without permission of the papal see ; and on 
Maunday Thursday, a.d. 1346, he pronounced him without title or dig- 
nity and called upon the electors to make a new choice, which, if they 
failed to do, he would proceed to do himself. As fittest candidate he 
recommended Charles of Bohemia, who was actually chosen by the five 
electors who answered the summons, under the title of Charles IV., a.d. 
1346-1378, and had his election confirmed by the pope. The new 
emperor solemnly promised never to set foot on the domains of the 
Boman ehurch without express papal permission, and to remain in Bome 
only 10 long as was required for his coronation. Louis died before 
he was able to eugage in war with his rival, and when, six months later, 
the next choice of Louis* party also died, Charles was acknowledged with- 
out a dissentient voice. He was crowned emperor in Bome by a cardinal 
appointed by Innocent VI., in a.D. 1355. Without doing anything to 
lestore the imperial prestige in Italy, Charles went back like a fugitive 
to Germany, despised by Guelphs and Ghibellines. But in the following 
year, at the Diet of Nuremberg, he passed a new imperial law in the 
00 eaUed Golden Bull of a.d. 1356, according to which the election of 
emperor was to be made at Frankfort, by three clerical electors (Mainz, 
Cologne, and Treves) and four temporal princes (Bohemia, the Palatine 
of the Bhine, Saxony, and Brandenburg), and he appeased the pope's 
wrath by various concessions to the curia and the clergy. 

5. The famous Bien%i was made apostolic notary by Clement VI. in 
A.D. 1343, and as tribime of the people headed the revolt against the 
barons in a.d. 1347. Losing biü popularity through his own exti-ava- 
gances he was obliged to flee, and being taken prisoner by Charles at 
Prague, he was sent to Avign'»n in a.d. 1:^50. Instead of the stake with 
VOL. n. 10 


which Clement had threatened him, Iimosent YI., ad. 1352-1362, be» 
stowed senatorial rank upon him, and sent him to Borne, hoping that 
his demagogical talent would succeed in farthering tlie interests of the 
papacy. He now once more, amid loud acclamations, entered the eternal 
city, but after two months, hated and cursed as a tyrant, he was 
murdered in a.d. 1354, while attempting flight.— By a.d. 1367 things 
ha^l so improved iu Rome that, notwithstanding the opposition of king and 
court and the objections of luxurious cardinals unwilling to quit Avignon, 
Urban Y., a d. 1362-1370, in October of that year made a triumphal 
entrance into Rome amid the jubilations of the Romanfi. Charles* 
Italian expedition of the following year was inglorious and without 
result. The disquiet and party strifes prevailing through the country 
made the position of the pope so nncomfortable, that notwithstanding 
the earnest entreaty of St. Bridget (§ 112, 8), who threatened him with 
the Divine judgment of an early death in France, he returned in a.D. 
1370 to Avignon, where in ten weeks the words of the northern pro- 
phetess were fulfilled. His successor was Gregory XI., a.d. 1370-1378. 
Rome and the States of the Church had now again become the scene of 
the wildest anarchy, which Gregory could only hope to quell by his 
personal presence. The exhortations of the two prophetesses of the 
age, St. Bridget and St. Catherine (§112, 4), had a powerful influence 
upon him, but what finally determined him was the threat of the ex- 
asperated Romans to elect an anti-pope. And so in spite of the 
renewed oppositiiin of the cardinals and the French court, the curia 
again returned to Rome in a.d. 1377 ; but though the rejoichig at the 
«vent throughout the city was great, the results were by no means what 
had been expected. Sick and disheartened, the pope was alrearly begin- 
ning to speak of going back to Avignon, when his death in a.D. 1378 put 
an end to his cares and sufferingfl. 

6. The Papal Scbism and tho Council of Pisa. — Under pressure from the 
people the cardinals present in Rome almost unanimously chose the 
Neapolitan archbishop of Bari, who took the name of Urban YI., a.D. 
1378-1389. His energies were mainly directed to the emancipating of the 
papal chair from French interference and checking the abuses intro- 
duced into the pnpal court during the Avignon residence ; bet the 
impatience and bitterness which he showed in dealing with Üb greed, 
pomp, and luxury of the cardinals roused them to choose another pope. 
After four months, they met at Fundi, declared that the choice of 
Urban had been made under oomi'U^sion, and was therefore invalid. In 
his place they elected a Frenchman, Robert, cardinal of Geneva, who 
was enthroned under the name of Clement VII., a.D. 1378-1394. The 
three Italians present protested against this proceeding and demanded, 
but in vain, the decision of a council. Thus began the greatest and 
most misohieyous papal schism, a.d. 1378-1417. Franoe, Naples, an4 

§ 110. THE PAPACY. 147 

Bayoj at once, and Spain and Scotland somewhat later, declared in 
fayoar of Clement ; while the rest of Western Europe acknowledged 
Urban. The two most famous saints of the age, St. Catherine and St. 
Vincent Ferrer (§ 115, 2), though both disciples of Dominic, took dil- 
fwant sides, the former as an Italian favouring Urban, the latter as 
a Spaniard favouring Clement. Failing to secure a footing in Italj, 
Clement took possession of the papal castle at Avignon in a.d. 1379. 
The schism lasted for forty years, during which time Boniface IX. , a.d. 
138971101, Innocent TIL, i.n. 1401-1406, and Gregory XII., a.d. 140S- 
1415, elected by the cardinals in Bome, held sway there in succession, 
while at Avignon on Clement*s death his place was taken by the 
Spanish cardinal Pedro de Luna as Benedict XIII., a.d. 1394-1424. 
The Council of Paris of a.D. 1395 recommended the withdrawal of both 
popes and a new election, but Benedict insisted upon a decision by a 
two-thirds majority in favour of one or other of the two rivals. An 
oeamenical council at Pisi in a.D. 1409, dominated mainly by the 
influence of Gerson (§ 118, 4), who maintained that the authority of the 
eouncils is superior to that of the pope, made short work with both 
eontestiug popes, whom it pronounced contumacious and deposed. 
After the cardinals present had bound themselves by an oath that 
whosoever of them might be chosen should not dissolve the coancil 
nntil a reform of the church in its head and members should be carried 
oat, they elected a Greek of Candia in his seventieth year, Cardinal 
Philangi, who was consecrated as Alezander Y., a.d. 1409-1410, and for 
three years the council continued to sit without effecting any consider- 
able reforms. The consequence was that the world bad the edityiug 
spectacle of three contemporary popes anathematizing one another. 

7. The CooncU of Constance and Martin Y. — Alexander Y. died after 
a zeign of ten months by poison administered, as was snpposed, by 
Balthasar Cossa, resident cardinal legate and absolute military despot, 
suspected of having been in youth engaged in piracy. Cossa succeeded, 
as John XXIII., a.d. 1410-1415. He was acknowledged by the new 
Boman king, Sigismand, a.D. 1411-1437, and soon aiterwards, in a.D. 1412, 
by LadislHB of Naples, so that Gregory XII. was thus deprived of his last 
support. The University of Paris continued to demand the holding of a 
council to effect reforms. Sigismund, supported by the princes, insieted 
on its being held in a German city. Meanwhile Ladislas had quarrelled 
with the pope, and had overrun the States of the Church and phmdered 
Borne in a.D. 1413, and John was obliged to submit to Sigismund's de- 
mandi. He now summoned the 16th oscnmenical Coancil of Constance, a.d. 
1414-1418 (§ 119, 5). It was the most brilliant and the most numerously 
attended council ever hold. More than 18,000 priests and vast numbers 
of princes, counts, and knights, with an immense following ; in all about 
100,000 strangers, including thoubauds of harlots from all countries, and 


hordes of merobaots, artisans, showmen, and players of every 0ort 
Gerson and D*Ailly, the one representing European learning, the other 
the claims of the Gallican church (§ lid, 4), were the principal a<lyiser8 
of the oottnciL The decittion to vote not iudiviJually hut by nations 
(Italian, German, French, and English) destroyed the predominance of 
the Italian prelates, who as John's creatures were present in gr^at num- 
bers. Terrified by an anonymous ac(3u<9ation, which charged the pope 
with the most heinous crimes, he declared himself ready to withdraw if the 
other two popes would also resign, but took advantage of the excitement 
of a tournament to make his escape disguised as an ostler. Sigismund 
could with difficulty keep the now popeless council together. John, 
however, was captured, seventy-two serious charges fonnalated against 
him, and on 2Gth July, a.d. 1415, he was deposed and condemned to im- 
prisonmeut for life. He was giveu up to the Count Palatine Louis of 
Baden, who kept him prisoner in Mannheim, and afterwards in Heidel- 
berg. Meanwhile the leader of an Italian band making use of tlio name 
of Martin V. purchased his release with 3,000 ducats. He now sub- 
mitted himself to that pope, and was appointed by him cardinal -bishop of 
Tuscoli, and dean of tbe sacred college, but soon afterwards died in Flor- 
ence, in A.D. 1419. Gregory XII. also submitted in a.d. 1415, and was made 
cardinal-bishop of Porto. Bene lict, however, retired to Sp liii and refused 
to come to terms, but even the Spanish princes withdrew their allegiance 
from him as po|>e. The cardinals in conclave elected the crafty Oddo 
Colonna, who was consecrated as Martin Y., a.d. 1417-1431. Tliore was no 
more word of reformation. With great pomp the council was closed, and 
indulgence granted to its members. As the whole West now recognised 
Martin as the true pope the schism may ba said to end with his acces- 
sion, though Benedict continued to thumler anathemas from his strong 
Spanish caHtlo till his death in a.d. 1424, and three of hia four cardinal! 
elected as his successor Clement VIU. and the fourth another Benedict 
XIV. Of the lalter no notice was taken, but Clement submitted in a.d. 
1429, and received tlie bidhoprio of Majorca. — Martin Y. on entering 
Bome in a.d. 1420 found everything in confusion and desolate. By his 
able administration a change was soon effected, and the Bome of the 
Benaissauce rose on the ruins of the medisBval eity.^ 

8. Ea<eiiius lY. and fie Coancil of Baa^l. — Martin Y. oommi-aionel 
Cardinal Julian Cesar iui to look after the Hussite controversy in the 
Basel CoancU, a.d. 1431-1440. His successor Eajenins lY., a.d 1431-1447, 
confirmed this appointment. After thirteen montlis he ordered the 
council to meet at Bologna, finding the heretical element too strong in 
Germany. The members, however, unanimously refused to obey. Sigis- 

> Lenfant, ** History of the Council of Constance.** 3 vols. London, 

§ 110. THE PAPACY. 149 

mnnd, too, protested, and the ooancil claimed to be tnperior to the pope. 
The withdrawal of the bull within sixty days was inKintcd upon. As a 
oompromise, the pope offered to call a ne^ council, not at Bologna, bni 
at Basel. This was declined aud the pope tlireatened with deposition. 
A rebellion, too, broke out iu the States of the Church ; and in a.d. 1433 
Eugenius was completely humbled and obl'^ed to acquiesce in the demands 
of tbe council. One danger was thus averted, but he was still threatened 
by another. In jl.d. 1434 Boioe proclaimed itself a republic and the pope 
flei to Florence. The success of the democracy, ho«rever, was now again 
of but bhort duration. In five months Borne was once more under the 
dominion of the pope. Negotiatious for union with the Greeks were 
begim by tbe pope at Ferrara a.d. 1438. A small number of Italians 
under the presidency of the pope here assumed the offices of an csou- 
menical council, those at Basel being ordered to join them, the Basel 
Council being suspended, aud the oontinaanoe of that ooun*til being 
pronounced schismatical. Julian, now styled ** «/li^ian/M A,Mttata II.,** 
with almost all the cardinals, betook himself to Ferrara. Under the 
able cardinal Louis d'Aleiuiui (§ 118, 4), archbisihop of Aries, some 
still continued the proceedings of the council at Basel, but in con- 
sequence of a pestilence they moved, in a.d. 14'i9, to Flordnce. A union 
with the Greeks was here effected, at least upon paper. The Basel 
Council banned by the pope, deposed him, aud iu a.D. 1439 elected a new 
pope in the person of Duke Amadeus of Savoy, who on his wife's death 
had resigned his crown to his son and entered a monkish order. He 
called himself Felix V. Princes and people, however, were tired of rival 
papacies. Felix got little support, and the council itself soon lost all its 
power. Its ablest members one after another passed over to the party 
of Eugenius. In a.d. 1449 Felix resigned, and died in the odour ol 
sanctity two years afterwards.^ 

9. Only Charles TTII. of France took advantage of the reforming d»- 
oree of Basel for the benefit of his country. He assembled the most 
distinguished churchmen and scholars of his kingdom at Bourges, and 
with their concurrence published, in a.d. 1438, twenty-three of the con- 
clusions of Basel thiit bore on the Gallican liberties under tbe name of 
the Pragmatic Sanction, aud made it a law of his realm. For the rest 
he maintauied an attitude of neutrality towards both popes, as also 
shortly before the electors convened at Frankfort had done. Those 
aftsembled at the Diet of Mainz in a.D. 1439 recognised the reforming 
•diets of B.isel as applying to Germany. Frederick IT., a.D. 1439-1493, 

' Jenkins, **The Last Crusader; or. The Life and Times of Cardinal 
Julian of the House of Cesarini." London. 1861. Creighton, " History 
of the Papacy,*' yol. ii., " The Council of Basel : the Papal Bestoration, 
kJ>. 1418-1464." 


who as emppror is known as Frederick III., nnder the influence of th« 
ennuing Italian iEoeas Sylvias Piccolomini (§ 118, 6), though at first 
in the opposition, went over to the side of Engenius IV. in a.d. 1446 
upon receiving 100,000 guldens for the expenses of an expedition to 
Bume and certain ecclesiastical privileges for his Austrian subjects. 
Some weeks later the electors of Frankfort took the same steps, stipu* 
lating that Eugenius should recognise the decrees of the Council of 
Ck>n8tanoe and the reform ing decrees of Basel, and should promise to 
convene a new free council in a German city to bring the schism to an 
end, which if he failed to do they would quit him in favour of BaseL 
But at the diet, held in September of that year at Frankfort, the 
legates of the pope and of the king succeeded by diplomatic arts in 
coming to an understanding with the electors met at Mainz. Thus 
it happened that in the so-called Frankfort Concordat of the Prinoae a 
compromise was effected, which Eugenius oonfirzned in a.D. 1447, with 
a careful explanation to the effect that none of these concessions in 
any way infringed upon the rights and privileges of the Holy See. In 
the following year Frederick in name of the German nation oonoluded 
with Eugenius' successor, Nicholas V., the Concordat of Vienna, a.d. 1449. 
The advantages gained by the German church were quite insignificant. 
Frederick received imperial rank as reward for the betrayal of his 
country, and was crowned in Bome, in a.D. 1453, as the last German 

10. NichohM v., Calixtas IH., and Pius H., A.D. 1447-146 i.~ With 
Vicholas Y., a.D. 1447-1455, a miracle of classical scholarship and founder 
of the Vatican Library, the Boman see for the first time became the 
patron of humanistic studie«, and under this mild and liberal pope the 
secular government of Bome was greatly improved. The conquest of 
Constantinople by the Turks, in a.d. 14«'>d, produced excitement through- 
out the whole of Europe. The eloquence of the pope roused the eru- 
•ading spirit of Christendom, and oratorical appeals were thundered 
from the pulpits of all churches and cathedrals. But the princes re- 
mained cold and indifferent. After Kicholas, a Spaniard, the cardinal 
Alphonso Borgia, then in his seventy- seventh year, was raised to the papal 
chair as Calixtas III., a.D. 1455-1458. Hatred of Turks and love of 
nephews were the two characteristics of the man. Tet he could not 
rouse the princes against the Turks, and the fleet fitted out at his own 
cost only plundered a fe^Mr islands in the Archipelago. Calixtns* successor 
was £neas Sylvius Piccolomini, the able and accomplished apostate 
from the Basel reform party, who styled himself, with intended allu- 
sion to Virgil's '*piui jEneas,'* Pins II., A.D. 1458-1464. The pope's 
Ciceronian eloquence failed to secure the attendance of princes at the 
Mantuan Congress, summoned in a.D. 1459 to take steps for the equip- 
ment of a crusade. A war against the Torks was indeed to hsTS been 

§ 110. THE PAPACY. 151 

imdertalcen hj emperor Frederick III., and a tax was to have been levied 
on Christians and Jews for its cost ; but neither tax nor crusade waf 
forthcoming. Pius demanded of the French ambassadors a formal repu- 
diation of the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, and when they threat- 
ened the calliog of an (Ecumenical council, he issued the bull Ext" 
erabiliit which pronounced " the execrable and previously unheard of ** 
enormity of an appeal to a council to be heresy and treason. In A.n. 
1461 the pope, by a long epistle, attempted the conversion of Mohammed 
II., the powerful conqueror of Constantinople. As the discovery of the 
great alum deposit at Boms in a.d. 1462 was attributed to miraculous 
direction, the pope was led to devote its rich resources to the fitting out 
of a crusade against the Turks. He wished himself to lead the army in 
person, in order to secure victory by uplifted hands, like Moses in the 
war with Amalek. But here again the princes left him in the lurch. 
Coming to Ancona in a.D. 1464 to take ship there upon his great under- 
taking, only his own two galleys were waiting him. After long weary 
waiting, twelve Venetian ships arrived, just in time to see the pope 
prostrated with fever and excitement. 

11. Paul II., Sixtas lY. and Innocent 711., A.B. 1464-1493.— Among the 
popes of the last forty years of the 15th century Paul II., a.d. 1464-1471, 
was the best, though vain, sensual, greedy, fond of show, and extrava- 
gant. He was impartial in the administration of justice, free from 
nepotism, and always ready to succour the needy. His successor, Siztus 
IV., A.D. 1471-1481, formerly Franciscan general, was one of the most 
wicked of the occupants of the obair of Peter. His appeal for an ex- 
pedition against the Turks finding no response outside of Italy, his love 
of strife found gratification in fomenting internal animosities among 
the Italian states. In favour of a nephew he soaght the overthrow in 
AD. 1478 of the famous Medici family in Florence. Julian was mur- 
dered, but Lo reuzo escaped, and the archbishop, as abettor of the crime, 
was hanged in his official robes. The pope placed the city under ban 
and interdict. It was only the conquest of Otrauto in a.d. 1480, and 
the terror caused by the landing of the Turks in Italy, that moved him 
to make terms with Florence. His nepotism wa<i most shamelessly 
practised, and he increased his revenues by taxing the brotbels of Home. 
His powerful government did something towards the improvement of 
the administration of justice in the Church States and his love of art 
beautified the city. In a.d. 14S2 Andrew, archbishop of Crain, a Slay 
by birth and of the Dominican order, baited at Basel on his return from 
Bome, where he had been as ambassador for Frederick, and, with the 
support of the Italian league and the emperor, issued violent invectives 
against the pope, an I summoned an oecumenical council for the re- 
form of the church in its head and members. The pope ordered hia 
•ireat and extradition, bat this the municipal authorities refused. After 


a Yolley of balls and briefs, charges and appeals, and after innnmenble 
embftssics and ucgotiations between Dasei, Vienna, Innsbruck, Florence, 
and Rome, in which the emperor abandoned the archbishop and the 
papal legates dangled an interdict over Basel, the aathorities deciled 
to imprison the objectionable prelate, bat refused to deliver him up. 
After eleven months' imprisonment, however, he was found hanged in 
his cell in a.d. 1484. Sixtus had died three months before and Basel 
was absolved by his successor Innocent VIIL, a.d. 1484-1492. In chnr- 
acter and ability he was far inferior to his predecessor. The nnmber 
of illegitimate children brought by him to the Vatican gave occasion 
to the popular witticism : *' Octo Socrn* genuit pueros totidemque puelUu, 
Jtlunc merito poterit dicert Roiua patrem,** The mighty conqueror of 
half the world, Mohammed II., had died in a.d. 1481. His two sons 
contested for the throne, and Bajazet proving successful committed the 
guardianship of his brother to the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. Tue 
Grandmaster transferred his prisoner, in a.d. 1489, to the pope. Inno- 
cent rewarded him with a cardinalate, and Bajazet promised the pope not 
only continual ^eace, but a yearly tribute of 4O,0C0 ducats. He also 
voluntarily presented his holiness with the spear wliich pierced the 
Saviour's side. All this, however, did not prevent the pope from re- 
peatedly but ineffectually seeking to rouse Christendom to a crusade 
against the Turks. To this pope also belongs the odium of familiarizing 
Europe with witch prosecutions (§ 117, 4).i 

12. Alexander VI., A.O. 1492-15;)3.— The Spanish cardinal Roderick 
Borgia, sister's son of Calixtus III., purchased the tiara by bribing his 
colleagues. In him as Alexander VI. we have a pjpe whose government 
presents a scene of unparalleled infamy, riotous immorality, and un- 
mentionable crimes, of cruel despotism, fraud, fHithlessness, and murder, 
and a barefaced nepotism, such as even the city of the popes had 
never witnessed before. He had already before his election five children 
by a concubine, Rosa Vanossa, four song and one daughter, Lucretia, 
and his one care was for their advancement. His favourite son waa 
Giovanni, for whom while cardinal he had purchased the rank of a 
Spanish grandee, with the title Duke of Gaodia, and when pope he 
bestowed on him, in a.d. 1497, the hereditary dukedom of Benevento. 
'But eight days after his corpse with dagger wounds upon it was taken 
out of the Tiber. The pope exclaimed, " I know the murderer." Sus- 
picion ft'll first upon Giovanni Sforsa of Pesaro, Lucretia*s husband 
who had charged the murdered man with committing incest with hit 
sister, but afterwards upon Cardinal Cfesar Borgia, the pope's second 
son, who was jealous of his brother because of the favour shown him 

1 Creighton, " History of the Papacy,*' vols. iii. and iy., ** The Italian 
Princes, a.o. 1461-1513.** 

§ 110. THE PAPACY. 153 

by Lvoretia and by her fcitlier. AIexand<>r*8 grief knew no bonnds, but 
songbt escape from it by redoubled love to the suspected son. In 
A.D. 1498 the papal bastard resigned the cardinnlate as an intolerable 
burden, married a French priucess, and was mode hereditary duke o( 
Bomagna. Snd lenly at the same time, and in the same manner, in a.i>. 
I9O3, father and son took ill. The father died after a fev days, 
but tUe vigour of youth aided the son's recovery. Cs^tar Borgia was 
at a later period cast into prison by Juliu-t II., and fell in a.d. 1507 
in the service of his brother-in-law, the king of Navarre. It was 
generally believed that Alexander died of poisoued wine pri^pared by 
his sou to secure the removal of a rich cardinal. The father as well as 
the two brothers were suRpected of incest with Luorctia. This pope, 
too, did not hesitate to intrigue with the Turkish sultan against Charles 
VIII. of France. With unexampled assumption, during the contention 
of Portugal and Spain about the American discoveries, he presente<l 
Ferdinand and Isabella in a.d. 1493 with all islands and continents that 
had been discovered or might yet be discovered Ijing beyond a line 
of demarcation drawn from the North to the South Pole. Once only, 
when grieving over the death of his favourite son, had this pope a 
twinge of conscience. He had resolved, he said, to devote himself to 
his spiritual calling and secure a reform in church discipline. But 
when the commission appointed for this purpose presented its first 
reform proposals the momentary emotion had already passed away. 
Nothing was further from his thought than the calling of an oecu- 
menical council, which not only the king of France, but also the Floren- 
tine reformer Savonarola demanded (§ 119, 11). 

18. Jnlios II., A.D. 1503-1513. —Alexander's successor, Pius III., son of 
a sister of Pius II., died after a twenty-six dajs* pontificate. He was fol- 
lowed by a nephew of Sixtus IV., a bitter enemy of the Borgias, who took 
the name of Julius II. He was essentially a warrior, with nothing of 
the priest about him. He was also a lover of art, and carried on the 
works which bis uncle had begun. His youthful excesses had seriously 
impaired his health. As pope, he was not free from nepotism and 
simony, in controversy passionate, and in policy intriguing and faithless. 
He transformed the States of tlie Cliurch into a temporal despotic mon- 
archy, and was himself incessantly engaged in war. When he broke* 
with France, which held Milan from a.d. 1499 with Alexander's oon- 
>tnt, Iionii XII., a.d. 1498-1515, convened a French national council 
atToars in a.d. 1510. This council renewed the Pragmatic Sanction, 
which in a weak hour Louis XI., in a.d. 1462, had abrogated, and had in 
oonsequenoe obtained, in a.d. 1469, the title Rrx ChiutinnUsimuSt and 
refused to obey the pope. Also Maximilian I., a.D. 1493-1519, who even 
without papal eoronation called himself *' elected Roman emperor,** 
directed the learned humanist Wimpfeling of Heidelberg to collect the 


graTamina of the Germdns against the Roman coria, and to iketoh oat 
a Pragmatic Sanction for Germany. France and Germany, with five 
revolting cardinals, convoked an oecumenical oonncil at Pisa, in a.D. 
1511. Half in sport, half in earnest, Maximilian spoke of placing on 
his own head the tiara, as well as the impeHal crown. The pope pni 
Pisa, where only a few French prelates ventured, under an interdict, 
and anathematized the king of France, who then had medals cast, 
with the inscription, Perdam Babylnnit nomen. In a murderous battle 
at Bavenna, in a.o. 1512, the army of the papal league was all but 
annihilated. But two months later, the French, by the revolt of the 
Milanese and the successes of the Swiss, were driven to their homea 
iogloriounly, and the schismatic Council, which had been shifted from 
Pisa to Milan, had to withdraw to Lyons, where it was dissolved by the 
pope '* on account of its many crimes.** Meanwhile the pope had sum- 
moned a council to meet at Bome, the fifth CBcamenical Lateran ComicU, 
A.D. 1512-1517, at which however only fifty-three Italian bishops were 
present. There the ban upon the king of Franee was renewed, but a 
concordat was concluded with Maximilian, redressing the more serious 
grievances of which he had complained. The pope succeeded in freeing 
Northern Italy from French oppression, and only his early death pre- 
vented him from delivering Soutbem Italy from the Spanish yoke. 

14. Leo Z., A.D. 1518-1521. — John, son .of Lorenzo Medici, who was 
cardinal in a.D. 1488, in his eighteeuth year, when thirty-eight years of 
age ascended the papal throne as Leo X.; a great patron of the 
Benaissanee, but luxurious and pleasure-loving, extravagant and frivolous, 
without a spark of religion (§ 120, 1), and a sealous promoter of the 
fortunes of his own family. The attempt of Louis XII., with the help 
of Venice, to regain Milan failed, and being hard pressed in his own 
oountry by Henry VIII; of England, the French king decided at last, in 
Dec., 1513, to end the schism and recognise the Lateran Council. His 
successor, Francis L, a.D. 1515-1547, was more fortunate. In the battle 
of Marignano he gained a brilliant victory over the brave Swiss, in con- 
sequence of which the duchy of Milan fell again into the hands of 
France. At Bologna, in a.D. 1516, the pope in person now greeted the 
king, who proferred him obedience, and concluded a political league and 
• an ecclesiastical concordat with his holiness, abrogating the Pragm-Uio 
Sanction of Charles VII., but maintaining the king*s right to nominate 
all bishops and abbots of his realm, with reservation of the annats for 
the papal treasury. The Lateran Council, though attended ooly by' 
Italian bishops, was pronounced oecumenicaL During its five yearn* 
sittings it had issued concordats for Germany and France, the papal 
bull Poitor atemus was solemnly ratified, which renewed the bull Unam 
$anctam and by various forgeries proved the power of the pope to Ik» 
superior to the authority of ooonoila, quieted the bishops* objections to 

§ 110. THB PAPACT. 155 

Ute privileges of the begging friars by a eompromise, and as a proteetioa 
against heresy gave the right of the censorship of the press to bishops, 
while explicitly asserting the immateriality, individaaiity, and immor- 
tality of the hnman soul.^ . 

15. Papal Claims to SoTereignty. — From ^.d. 1319 the popes secured 
large revenaes from the Annats, revenues for a full year of all vacan- 
eies ; the Beservations, the holding of rich benefices and bestowing them 
upon payment of large sums; the Expectances, naming for payment a 
successor to an incumbent still living ; the Offices held in eomuiendam, 
provisionally on payment of a part of the incomes ; the Jum tpoUaium^ the 
Holy See being the legitimate heir of all property gained by Churchmen 
from their offices ; the Taxing of Church propei-ty for particularly press« 
ing calls ; innumerable Indulgences, Absolutions, Dispensations, etc. Tue 
bappy thought occurred to Paul II., in ▲.n. 1469, to extend the law of 
Annats to such ecclesiastical institutions as belonged to corporatious. 
He reckoned the lifetime of a prelate at fifteen years, and so claimed his 
tax of such institutions every fifteenth year. The doctrine of the papal 
infallibility in matters of faith, under the influence of the reforming 
oouncils of the 15th century, was rather less in favour than before. 
The rigid Franciscans opposed the papal doctrine of poverty (§§ 98, 4 ; 112, 
2) ; and John XKII. was almost unanimously charged by his contem- 
poraries with heresy, because of his views about the vision of fiod. 
Even the most zealous curialists of the 15th century did not venture 
to ascribe to the pope absolute infallibility. A distinction was made 
between the infaUibility of the office, which is absolute, and that of the 
person, which is only relative ; a pope who falls into error and heresy 
thereby ceases to be pope and infallible. This was the opinion of the 
Dominican Torquemada (§ 112, 4), whom Eugenius IV. rewarded at the 
Basel Council with a cardinalate and the title of Defensor ßdei, as the 
most zealous defender of papal absolutism. From the 14th century the 
popes have worn the triple crown. The three tiers of the tiara, richly 
ornamented with precious stones, indicated the power of the pope over 
heaven by his canonizing, over purgatory by his granting of indulgences, 
and over the earth by his pronouncing anathemas. Until the papal 
court retired to Avignon the Lateran was the usual residence of the 
popes, and after the ending of the schism, the Vatican.' 

IC. The Papal Curia. — The chief courts of the papal government are 
spoken of collectively as the curia, their members being taken from the 
higher clergy. The following are the most important : the Cancelluria 
Rtrmanat to which belonged the administration of affairs pertaining to the 

> Bosooe, ** Life and Pontificate of Leo X.'* 4 vols. Liverpool, 180o* 
* 8«*.mon, ** The Infallibility of the Church.*' London, 1888. 


pope and the college of cardinals ; the DataHa Romauut which had to 
do with matters of grace not kept secret, saoh as absolutions, dispen- 
sations, etc.; while the Piznitentiaria Uomana dealt with matters whieh 
were kept secret; the Camera 7^/?nana, which administered the papal 
finances ; and the Rota Romana. which was the supreme court of justice« 
Important decrees issued by the pope himself with the approval of the 
cardinals are calh^d huIU, They are written on parchment in the 
Gothic character in Latin, stamped with the great seal of the Roman 
church, and 83cured in a metal ease. The word bull was originally 
applied to the case, then to the seal, and at last to the document itself. 
Less important decrees, for which the ad?ice of the cardinals had not 
been asked, are called hrieft. The brief is osually written on parch- 
ment, in the ordinary Roman characters, and sealed in red wax with the 
pope's private seal, the fisherman s ring. 

§ 111. The Clergy. 

Provincial synods had now lost almost all their impor- 
tance, and were rarely held, and then for the most part under 
the presidency of a papal legate. The cathedral chapters 
afforded welcome provision for the younger sons of the 
nobles, who were nothing behind their elder brothers in 
worldlincss of life and conversation. For their own selfish 
interests they limited the number of members of the chap- 
ter, and demanded as a qualification evidence of at least 
sixteen ancestors. The political significance of the prelates 
was in France very small, and as champions of the Gallican 
liberties they were less enthusiastic than the University 
of Paris and the Parliament. In England they formed an 
influential order in the State, with carefully defined rights ; 
and in Germany, as princes of the empire, especially the 
clerical elector princes, their political importance was very 
great. In Spain, on the other hand, at the end of the 1 5th 
century, by the ecclesiastico-political reformation endea- 
vours of Ferdinand " the Catholic " and Isabella (§ 118, 1\ 
the higher cler^v were made completely dependent upon 
the Crown. 


1. The Mond Cindition of the Cler^ was in general Teiy low. The 
bishops mostly lived in open concabinage. The lower secular clergj 
followed their example, and had toleration granted by paying a yearly 
tax to the bishop. The people, distinguishing office and person, made 
no objection, bat rather looked on it as a sort of protection to their 
wives and da ighters from the dangers of the confessional. Especially 
in Italy, unnatural vice was widely spreal among the clergy. At Con- 
«tance and Basel it Was thought to cure such evils by giving permission 
to priests to marry ; but it was feared that the ecclesiastical revenues 
would be made heritable, and the clergy brought too much under the 
State. — The mendicant orders were allowed to hear confession every- 
where, and when John de PoUiaco, a Prussian doctor, maintained that 
the local clergy only should be take a as coufessors, John XXII., in a.D. 
1322, pronounced his views heretical. 

2. The French concordat of ^.d. 1516 (§ 110, 14), which gave the 
king the right of appointing commendator abbots (§ 85, 5), to almost 
all the cloisters, induced many of the youuger son?) of old noble families 
to take orders, so as to obtain rich sinecures or offices, which they could 
hold in eoinmei'dam. They bore a semi-clerical character, and had the 
title of abbe, which gradually came to be given to all the secular clergy 
of higher culture and social position. In Italy too it became cubioiuary 
to give the title abbaie to the youuger clergy of liigh rank, before receiv- 
ing ordination. 

§ 112. Monastic Orders and Societies. 

The corruption of monastic life was becoming more evi- 
dent from day to day. Immorality, sloth, and unnatural 
vice only too often found a nursery behind the cloister 
walls. Monks and nuns of neighbouring convents lived 
in open sin with one another, so that the author of the book 
De ruina ecdesia (§ 118,4, c) thinks that Virginem velare 
18 the same as Viryinem ad scortandum exponere. In the 
Benedictine order the corruption was most complete. The 
rich cloisters, after the example of their founder, divided 
their revenues among their several members {proprietär it). 
Science was disregarded, and they cared only for good liv- 
ing. The celebrated Scottish cloister (§ 98, 1) of St. James, 
at Regensburg, in the 14th century, had a regular tavern 
within its walls, and there was a current saying, Uxor 


amissa in monasterio Scotarum quoeri debet. The men- 
dicants represented even yet relatively the better side of 
monasticism, and maintained their character as exponents 
of theological learning. Only the Garthoaians, however, 
still held fast to the ancient strict discipline of their order. 

1. The BenedieÜBe Orden. — For the reorganizAtion of this order, whieh 
had Abandoned itself to good living and laxnry, Clement V., at the 
Council of Vienna, aj>. 1311, issued a set of ordinances which aimed 
principally at the restoration of monastic discipline and the reviral of 
learning among the monks. But thej were of little or no avail. Bene- 
dict XI 1. therefore found it necessary, in a.D. 1336, with the co-opera- 
tion of distinguished French abbots, to draw up a new eonstitaiion for 
the Benedictines, which after him was called the Beuedictina. The 
houses of Black Friars were to be divided into thirty-six provinres, and 
each of them was to hold every third year a provincial chapter for con« 
ference and determination of oases. In each abb<>y there should be a 
daily penitential chapter for maintaining discipline, and an annual chap- 
ter for giving a reckoning of accounts. In order to reawaken interest in 
scientific studies, it was enjoined that from every cloister a number of 
the abler monks should be maintained at a university, at the cost of the 
cloister, to study theology and canon law. Bat the disciplinary pre- 
scriptions of the Benedictina were powerless before the attractions of 
good living, and the proposals for organization were repugnant to the 
proud independence of monks and abbots. The enactments in favour 
of scientific pursuits led to better results. The first really successful 
attempt at reforming the cloisters was made, in a.d. I<i35, by the general 
chapter of the Brothers of the Common Life, who not only dealt with 
their own iuKtitutions, but also with all the Benedictine monasteriee 
throughout the whole of the West. The soul of this movement was 
Joh. Busch, monk in Wiudesbeim, then prior in various monasteries, 
and finally provost of Suite, near Hi desbeim, a d. 1458-1479. The so 
called Barsfeid union or Congregation resulted from his intercourse with 
the abbot of the Benedictine monastery at Bursfeld, on the Weser, John 
of Hagen (ab Andagine). Notwithstanding the bitter hostility of corrupt 
monks and nuns, there were in a short time seventy- five monasteries 
under this Bursfeld rule, where the original strictness of the monastic 
life was enforced. The rule was confirmed by the council of A.D. 1440, 
and subsequently by Pius II. Most of the cloisters ander this rule 
joined the Lutheran reformation of the 16th century, and Bursfeld itself 
is at this day the seat of a titular Lutheran abbot. — ^A new branch of the 
Benedictine order, the Olivetact, was founded by Bernard TolomieL 
Blindness having obliged him to abandon his teaching of philosophy at 


Biena, the blessed Virgin restored him his sight ; and then, in a.d. 1313, 
he forsook the world, and withdrew with certain companions into almost 
inaccessible motintniu recesses, ten miles from Siena. Disciples gathered 
ftroand him from all sides. He built a cloister on a hill, which he called 
the Monnt of Olives, and founded ander the Benedictine rule a congre- 
gation of the Most Blessed Virgin of the Mount of Olives, which obtained 
the sanction of John XXI [. Tolomflei became its first general, in a.d. 
1322, and held the office till his death, caused by infection caught while 
attending the plague stricken in a.d. 1348. There were new elections 
of abbots every third year. The Olivetans were zealous worshippers of 
Mary, and strict ascetics. In several of their cloisters, which numbered 
M many as one hundred, the study of theology and philosophy was dili- 
gently prosecuted. They embraced also an order of nuns, founded by 
St. Francisca Bomana. 

2. The Franciscans. — At the Connoil of Vienna, in a.d. 1312, Clement 
y. renewed the decree of Nicholas III., and by the Constitution Kxioi de 
paradiso decided in favour of the stricter view (§ 98, 4), but ordered all 
rigorists to submit to their order. But neither this nor the solemn 
ratification of his predecessor's decisions by John XXII. in a.d. 1317 put 
an end to the division. The contention was now of a twofold kind. 
The Spiritoals confined their opposition to a rlgoristio interpretation of 
the vow of poverty. The Fraticelli carried their opposition into many 
other departments. They exaggerated the demand of poverty to the 
utmost, but also repudiated the primacy of the pope, the jurisdiction of 
bishops, the admissibility of oaths, etc. In the south of France within 
a few .Years 115 of them had perished at the stake ; and the Rpiritunls 
also BufTered severely. — The Dominicans were the cause of anew split 
iu the Seraphic order. The Inquisition at Narbonne had, in a.d. 1321, 
eondemned to the stake a Beghard who had affirmed, what to the 
Do'uiuicans seemed a heretical proposition, that Christ and the apostles 
had neither pergonal nor common propexty. The Franciscans, who, on 
tlie plea of a pretended transference of their property to the pope, 
elaimed to be without possessions, pronounced that propos tlon ortho- 
dox, and the Domuucans complained to John XXII. He pronounced 
in favour of the Dominicans, and declared the Franciscans* transfe- 
rence of property illusory ; and finding this decision contrary to decrees 
of previous popes, he assei'ied the right of any pontiff to reverse the 
findings of his predccessord. The Franciscans were driven more and 
more into open revolt against the pope. They made common cause 
with the persecuted Spirituals, and like them sought support from the 
Italian Gbibellines and the emperor, Louis the Bavarian (§ 110, 8). 
The pope summoned their general, Michael of Cesena, to Avignon { 
and while detaining him there sought unsuccessfully to obtain his de- 
position by the general synod of the order. Michael, with two like« 


minded brothers, William Occam ({ 118, 8) and Bonagratia of Ben^amo, 
escaped to Pisa in a ship of war, which the emperor sent for them in 
▲.D. 1328. There, in the name of his onler, he appealed to an CBca- 
menical coancil to hare the papal excommunicatiou and deposition 
annalled which had now been issaed against him. After the disastrous 
Italian campaign in a.d. 1330, the excommunicated churchmen accom- 
psuieJ the emperor to Munich, where they conducted a literary defence 
of their rights and privileges, and charged the pope with a mnltitude of 
heresies. Michael died at Munich, in a.d. 1342. — After the overthrow 
of the schismatic Minorite pope, Nicholas Y. (§ 110, 8), the opposition 
soon gave in its submission. But to the end of his life John XXII. 
was a bloody persecutor of all scbismatical Franciscans, who showed a 
fanatical love of martyrdom, rather than abate one iota of their oppo- 
sition to the possession of property. 

3. The strict and lax tendencies were brooght to b'ght in connection 
with successive attempts at reformation. In a.D. 1368 Paolucci of Foligni 
founded the fraternity of Saudal- wearers, which embraced the remuanta 
of the Coelestine eremites (§ 98, 4). This strict rule was soon modified 
so to admit of the possessiou of immovable property and liviug together 
in conventual establishments. Those who adhered rigidly to the original 
requirements as to seclusion, asceticism, aud dress were now called 
Observants and the more lax Coaventnals. Crossing the Alps in ad. 
1388, they spread through Europe, converting heretics and heathens. 
Both sections received papal encouragement. Their leader for forty 
years was John of Capistraso, born a.D. 1386, died a.D. 1456, who 
inspired all their movements, and as a preacher gathered hundreds of 
thousands around him. His predecessor in office, Bernardino of Siena, 
who died in a.D. 1444, was canonized after a hard fight in a.D. 1450. 
John was deputed by the pope in that same year to proceed to Austria 
and Germany to convert the Hussites and preach a crusade against 
the Tnr\-s. His greatest feat was the repulse, in a.d. 1456, of the Turks, 
under Mohammad II., before Belgrade, ascribed to him and his crusade, 
which delivered Hungary, Germany, and indeed the whole West, from 
threatened subjection to the Moslem yoke. Capistrano died three 
months afterwards. Notwithstanding all the efforts of his followers, his 
beatification was not secured till a.D. 1690, and the decree of canoni- 
sation was not obtained till a.D. 172 L —Continuation § 149, 6. 

4. The Dominicans. — The Dominicans, as they interpreted the tow of 
poverty only of pers'>nal and not of common property, soon lost tue 
character of a mendicant orier. — One of their most distinguished mem- 
bers was St. Catharine of Siena, who died in a.d 133J, in her thirty-third 
year. Having taken the vow of chastity as a child, living only on bread 
aud herbs, for a time only ou the eucharistic elements, she was in vision 
afiiunccd toChrist as His briie, and rccaived Hid he^irt instead of her own. 


Slia felt tlie paini of Christ*! woands, and, like St. Dominic, laahed her* 
self thrice a day with an iron chain. She gained unexampled fame, and 
along with St. Bridget procured the return of the pope from Avignon to 
Bome. — The controversy of the Dominicans with the Franciscans over 
the immaculata eoneeptio (§ 101, 7) was conducted in the most pas- 
sionate manner. The visions of St. Catherine favoured the Dominican, 
those of St. Bridget the Franciscan views ; during the schism the French 
popes favoured the former, the Boman popes the latter. The Francis- 
can yiew gained for the time the ascendency. The University of Paris 
sustained it in ^.d. 1887, and made its confession a condition of receiv- 
ing academic rank. The Dominican Torquemada combated this doctrine, 
in ▲ D. 1437, in his able Tractatut de veritate ConceptionU B, V, In a.d. 
1439, the Council of Basel, which was then regarded as sohismatical, 
sanctioned the Franciscaa doctrine. Siztus IV., who had previously, 
M general of the Franciscans, supported the views of his order in a 
special treatise, authorized the celebration of the festival referred to, but 
in A.D. 1483 forbade controversy on either side. A comedy with a very 
tragical conclusion was enacted at Bern, in connection with this matter 
in A-D. 1509. The Dominicans there deceived a simple tailor called Jetser, 
who joined them as a novice, with pretended visions and revelation of 
the Virgin, and burned upon him with a hot iron the wound prints of the 
Saviour, and eau^^ed an image of the mother of God to weep tears of blood 
over the godless doctrine of the Franciscans. When the base trick was 
discovered, the prior and three monks had to atone for their conduct by 
death at the stake. (Continuation { 149, 18.) A new controversy between 
the two orders broke out in a-d. 1462, at Brescia. There, on Easter Day 
of that year, the Franciscan Jacob of Marchia in his preaching said that 
the blood of Christ shed upon the cross, until its reassumption by the 
resurrection, was outside of the hypostatic union with the Logos, and 
therefore as such was not the subject of adoration. The grand*inqui- 
sitor, Jacob of Brescia, pronounced this heretical, and at Christmas, a.i>. 
1468, a three days' disputation was held between three Dominicans and 
as many Minorites before pope and cardinals, which yielded no result, 
Pius II. reserved judgment, and never gave his decision. 

6. The Aigustiniaas. — In a.d. 1482, Zelter, at the call of the general of 
the Augustinians, reorganized the order, and in a.D. 1438 Pius II. gave 
a constitution to the Observants. The ** Union of the Five Convents " 
founded by him in Saxony and Franconia, with Magdeburg as its centre, 
formed the nucleus of rsgnlar Aagnstinian Observants, which had 
Andrew Proles of Dresden as their vicar-general for a second time in 
A.D. 1473. Notwithstanding bitter opposition, the union spread through 
all Germany, even to the Netherlands. In a.D. 1475 the general of the 
order at Bome took offence at Proles for looking directly to the apostolic 
see, and not to him, for his authority. He therefore abolLihed the insti* 
VOL. n. \^ 


tiition of vican, insisted that all Obseryants should retnrp to their aHe* 
giance to the provinoials, and make fall zestitation ot all the cloisters 
ivhich they had appropriated, and empowered the provincial of Saxony 
to imprison and excommunicate Proles and his parly, in case of their 
refusal Proles did not submit, and when the ban was issued appealed 
directly to the pope. A papal commission in a.d. 1477 decided that all 
Observant cloisters placed by the duke under the pope's protection should 
so continue, confirmed all tbeir privileges, and annulled all mandates and 
anathemas issued against Proles and his followers. With redoubled 
energy and zcil Proles now wrought for the extension and consolida- 
tion of the congregation until a.d. 1503, when he resigned office in hia 
74th year, and soon after died. He was one of the worthiest and most 
pious men in the German Church of his time ; but Flacius is quite mis- 
taken when he describes him as a precursor of Luther, an evangelical 
martyr and witness for the trath in the sense of the Beformation of 
the 16th centnry. Energetic and devoted as he was in prosecuting his 
reformation, he gave himself purely to the correcting of the morals of 
the monks and restoring discipline ; but in zeal for the doctrine of merits, 
the institution of indulgences, mariolatry, saint and image worship, and 
in devotion to the papacy, he and his congregation were by no means 
in advance of the age. 

6. As his successor in the vicariate the shapter, in accordance with 
the wish of Proles, elected John Ton Stanplti. Ho had been prior of 
the Augustinian cloister at Tübingen, and became professor of theology 
in the IJuiTcrsity of Wittenberg, in a.D. 1602. Like his predecessor, he 
devoted himself to the interests of the congregation, and by the union which 
he effected between it and the Lombard Observant congregation, he 
grefttly increased its importauce. Li carrying out a plan for uniting ths 
Saxon Conventuals with the German Observants by combining in his 
own hand the Saxon provincial priorate with the German vicariate, he 
encountered such difficulties that he was obliged to abandon the attempt ; 
but he succeeded thus far, that from that time the Conventuals and 
Observants of Germany dwelt in peace side by side. He directed ths 
troubled spirit of Luther to the crucified Saviour ($ 122, 1), and thus 
became the spiritual father of the great reformer. The new constitutions 
for the German congregations, proffered by him and accepted by ths 
chapter at Nuremberg, a.D. 1504, are characterised by earnest recommen- 
dations of Scripture study. But of a deep and comprehensive evangelical 
and reformatory application of them ws find no traces as yet, even in 
Staupitz ; neither do we see any zealous study of Augustine's writings, 
and consequent appreciation of his theological principles, sach as is 
shown by the mystics of the 18 h and 14th centuries. All this appears 
later in his little treatise ** On the Imitation of the Willingly Dying 
Christ ** of A.D. 1515. A discourse on predestination in a.D. 1517 moras 


distinctly on Augastinian lines, and the mysticism of St. Bernard may 
be traced in the book *' On the Love of God " of that same year. Trae 
as he was to Lather as a oonosellor and helper daring the first eventfal 
year of straggle, the reformer's protest soon became too violent for him, 
and in a.d. 1520 he resigned his office, withdrew to the Benedictine 
cloister at Salzburg, and died as its abbot in a.d. 1524. His coniinned 
attachment to the positive tendencies of the Beformation is proved by 
his **Fast Sermons,*' delivered in a.D. 1523. — His successor Link,Luther*8 
fellow student at Magdeburg, was and continued to be an attached 
friend of the reformer. Unsuccessful in his endeavours to remove 
abuses, he resigned office in a.d. 1523, and became evangelical pastor in 
Alteuburg, and married. The very small opposition chose in place of 
him Joh. Spangenberg, who, unable to withstand the movement among 
the German Conventuals, as well as among the Observants, resigned in 
A.D. 1529. 

7. Overthrow of the Templars. — The order of Knights Templar, whose 
chief seat was now in Paris and the south of Frauce, by rich presents, 
exactions, and robberies in the island of Cyprus, vast commercial speca- 
lations and extensive money-leudiag and I aiking transactions with era« 
saders and pilgrims and needy princes, had acquired immense wealth 
in money and landed property in the East and the West. They had 
in consequence become proud, greedy, and vicious. Their independence of 
the State had long been a thorn in the eye of Philip the Fair of France, 
and their policy was often at variance with his. But above all their 
great wealth excited his cupidity. In a letter to a visitor of the order 
Innocent HI. had in a.D. 1208 bitterly complained of their unspirituality, 
worldliuess, avarice, drunkenness, and study of the black art, saying that 
he refrained from remarking upon yet more shameful offences with which 
they were charged. Stories also were current of apostasy to Mohamma- 
dauism, sorcery, unnatural vice, etc. It was said that they worshipped an 
idol Baphomet ; that a black cat appeared in their assemblies ; that at ini- 
tiation tUey abjured Christ, spat on tbe cross, and trampled it under foot. 
A Templar expi'Ued for certain offences gave evidence in support of these 
charges. Thereupon in a.d. 1307 Philip had all Templars in his realm 
soddeoly apprehended. Many admitted their guilt amid the tortures of 
the rack ; others voluntarily did so in order to escape such treatment. 
A Parliament assembled at Tours in a.d. 1308 heartily endorsed the 
king's opinion, and the pope, Clement V., was powerless to resist 
(§ 110, 2). While the pope's oonmiissioners were prosecuting inquiries in 
all countries, Philip without more ado in a.D. 1310 brought to the stake 
one hundred Templars who had retracted their confession. The cBca- 
menical conueil at Yienne la A«D. 1311, summoned for the final settlement 
of the matter, refused to give judgment without hearing the defence of 
the aocaaed. But Philip threatened the pope till a decree was passed 


disbanding tbe order because of the suspicion and ill repnie into wbieh 
it bad füllen. Its prop<^rt7 wa» to go to the Knights of St. John. Bal 
a great part had already beer se'zed by the princes, especially by Philip. 
Final decision in regazd to individaals was committed by the pope to 
tlie proTincial synods of tbe several countries. Judgment on tbe grand- 
master, James Molay, and tbe then chief dignitaries of the order, he 
reserved to himself. Philip paid no attention to this, but, when they re- 
fused to adhere to their conression of guilt, had them burnt in a slow fire 
at Paris in a.d. 131-1. Most of the other knights turned to secular employ- 
ments, many entered the ranks of the Knights of St. John, while others 
ended their days in monastic prisons. — Scholars are to this day divided 
in opinion as to the degree of guilt or innocence which may be ascribed 
to the Templars in regard to the serious charges brought against them.^ 
8. Vew Orders. — In a o. 1317 the king of Portugal, for the protection 
of his frontier from the Moors, instituted the Order of Christ, composed of 
knights and clergy, and to it Jolin XXII. in a.d. 1319 gave the privili^ges of 
the order of Calatrava ( § 98, 8). Alexander YI. released them from the 
▼ow of poverty and allowed them to marry. The king of Portugal was 
grand-master, and at the beginning of the 16th century it had 450 com- 
panies and an annual revenue of one and a half million livres. In a.d. 
1797 it was converted into a secular order. — Among the new mtmkish 
orders the following are tbe most important : (1) Hierouymitet, founded 
in A.D. 1370 by the Portuguese Basco and the Spaniard Pecha as an order 
of canons regular under tbe rule of Augustine, and confirmed by 
Gregory XI. in a.d. 1373. Devoted to study, they took Jerome as their 
patron, and obtained great reputation in Spain and Italy. — (2) Jetoatae, 
founded by Colombini of Siena, who, excited by reading legends of the 
saints, combined with several companions in forming this society for 
■elf-mortification and care of the sick, for which Urban Y. prescribed the 
August) nian rule in a.d. 1367. They greeted all they met with the 
name of Jesus : hence their designation. — (3) Hiuinii, an extreme sect of 
Minorites (§ 98, 3), fDunded by Francis de Paula in Calabria in a.D. 1436. 
Their rule was ex.remely strict, and forbade them all use of flesh, milk, 
butter, eggs, etc., so that tlieir mode of life was described as vita quad- 
rageiimalU, — (4) Vans of St Bridget. To the Swedish princes visions of 
the wounded and bleeding Saviour bad come in her childhood. Com- 
pelled by her parents to marry, she became mother of eight children ; but 
at her husband's death, in a.D. 1344, she adopted a rigidly ascetic life, 
and in a.D. 1363 founded a cloister at Wedstena for sixty nuns in honour 
of the blessed Virgiu, with thirteen priests, four deacons, and eight lay 
brothers in a separate establishment. All were under the control of 
the abbess. She also founded at Borne a hospice fur Swedish pilgrims 

1 Haye, ** Persecution of tbe Knights Templara." £din., 1866. 


«nd Bindenti, made a pilgrimage from Rjme to Jerasalem, and died at 
Itome in a.D. 1373. The Revelatiorui S, Brigitta ascribed to her were in 
high repute during the Middle Ages. Thoy are full of bitter invectives 
against the corrupt papacy ; call the pope worse than Luoifer, a mur- 
derer of the souls committed to him, who condemns the guiltless aud 
Bells believers for filthy lucre. There were seventy-four cloisters of the 
order spread over all Europe. Her successor as abbess of the parent 
abbey was her daughter, St. Catherine of Sweden, who died in a.]>. 
1381. — (5) The French Annnnciate Order was founded in a.d. 1501 by 
Joanna of Yalois, the divorced wife of Louis XII., and when abolished 
by the French Revolution it numbered forty-five nunneries. 

9. The Briithers of the Common Life, a society of pious priests, gave 
themselves to the devotional study of Soriptore, the exercise of contem- 
plative mysticism, and practical imitation of the lowly lifo of Christ with 
voluntary observanc«' of the three monkish vowd, and residing, without 
any lifelong obligation, in unions where tilings were administered in com- 
mon. Picas laymen were not exclud?d fron their association, and in- 
stitutions for sisters were soou reared alongside of those for the brothers. 
The founder of this organization wa^ Garhard Groot, Gera -dm fnagnut, 
of Deventer in the Netherlands, a fa /ourite pupil of the mystic John 
of Rnysbroek (§ 114, 7). Dying a victim to his bonivoleno) daring a 
season of pestilence in a.d. 1334, a year or two after the fou'iding of the 
first union institute, he was succeeded by his able pupil aud assistai^t 
Florentius Radewins, who zealously carried on the work he had be^un. 
The house of the brothers at Deventer soon besame the centre of 
numerous other houses from the Scheid to the Wesel. Florentius added 
a cloister for regular canons at Windesheim, from which went forth the 
famous cloister reformer Buroh. The most important of the later found- 
ations of this kind was the cloistar b-iilt on Mouut St. Agnes near 
ZwoU. The famous Thomas k Kempis (§ 114, 7) was trained here, and 
wrote the life of Groot and his fello«v labourers. E<ich house was pre- 
sided over by a rector, each sister house by a matron, who was called 
Martha. The brothers supported themselves by transcribing spiritual 
books, the lay broih^rs by soma hand craft ; the sisters by sewing, spin- 
ning, and weaving. Begging was strictly forbidden. Besides caring for 
their own souls* salvation, the brothers sought to benefit the people by 
preachiug, pastoral visitation, and instructing the youth. They had as 
many as 1,200 scholars uud>)r their care. Hated by the mendicant friars, 
they were accused by a Dominican to the Bishop of Utrecht. This dig- 
nitary favoured the brothers, and when the Dominican appealed to the 
pope, he applied to the Constance Council of a.D. 1418, where Gerson 
aud d'Ailly vigorously supported them. Their accuser was compelled 
to retract, and Martin V. confirmed the brotherhood. Though heartily 
Attached to the doctrines of the Catholic Chui-oli, their biblical and eTan- 


gelical tendencies formed an nnoonsoions preparation for the Beforma- 
iion (§ 119, 10). A great number of the brothers joined the partj of the 
reformers. In the 17th century the last remnant of them disappeared.^ 

IL — Theological Science. 

§ 113. Scholasticism and its Reformers. 

The University of Paris took the lead, in accordance with 
the liberal tendencies of the Gallican Chnrch, in the oppo- 
sition to hierarchical pretensions, and was followed by the 
universities of Oxford, Prague, and Cologne, in all of which 
the mendicant friars were the teachers. Most distin- 
guished among the schoolmen of this age was John Duns 
Scotus, whose works formed the doctrinal standard for the 
Franciscans, as those of Aquinas did for the Dominicans. 
After realism had enjoyed for a long time an uncontested 
sway, William Occam, amid passionate battles, successfully 
introduced nominalism. But the creative power of scholas- 
ticism was well nigh extinct. Even Duns Scotus is rather 
an acute critic of the old than an original creator of new 
ideas Miserable quarrels between the schools and a spirit* 
less formalism now widely prevailed in the lecture halls, as 
well as in the treatises of the learned. Moral theology 
degenerated into fruitless casuistry and abstruse discussion 
on subtlely devised cases where there appeared a collision 
of duties. But from all sides there arose complaint and 
contradiction. On the one side were some who made a 
general complaint without striking at the roots of the evil. 
They suggested the adoption of a better method, or the 
infusion of new life by the study of Scripture and the 
Fathers, and a return to mysticism. To this class belonged 
the Brothers of the Common Life (§ 112, 9) and d'Ailly and 
Oerson, the supporters of the Constance reforms (§ 118, 4). 

* Kettlewell, " Thomas k Kempis and the Brothers of the Common 
Life." 2 Yols. London, 1882. 


Here too we may place the talented father of natural theo- 
logy, Baimund of Sabunde, and the brilliant Nicholas of 
Cusa, in whom all the nobler aspirations of mediaeval 
ecclesiastical science were concentrated. But on the other 
side was the radical opposition, consisting of the German 
mystics (§ 114), the English and Bohemian reformers (§ 119), 
and the Humanists (§ 120). 

1. Jolin Duns 8ootii8.~Tbe dato of birth, whether a.d. 1274 or a.i>. 1266, 
and the p'aoe of birth, whether in Scotland, Ireland, or England, of this 
Franciscan hero, honoured with the title doctor iubtiUit are uncertain ; 
even the place and manner of his training are unknown. After lectur- 
ing with great success at Oxford, he went in a.d. 1304 to Paris, where 
he obtained the degree of doctor, and successfully vindicated the tmrna- 
culata conceptio B. V. (§ 104, 7) against the Thoroists. Summoned to 
Cologne in a.d. 130S to engage in controversy with the Beghards, he 
displaced great skill in dialectics, but died during that same year. His 
chief work, a commentary on the Lombard, was composed at Oxford. 
His answers to the questions proposed for his doctor's degree were after- 
wards wrougbt up into the work entitled QiuB^tiones quodlibetalei. The 
opponent and rival of Thomas, he controverted his doctrine at every 
point, as well as the doctrines of Alexander and Bonaventura of his own 
order, and other shining stars of the 13th century. In subtlety of thought 
and dialectic power he excelled them all, but in depth of feeling, pro- 
fundity of mind, and ardour of faith he was far behind them. Proofs 
of doctrines interested him more than the doctrines themselves. To 
philosophy he assigns a purely theoretical, to theology a pre-eminently 
practical character, and protests against the Thomist commingling of 
the two. He accepts the doctrine of a twofold truth (§ 103, 3), basing it 
on the fall. Granting that the Bible is the only foundation of religious 
knowledge, but contending tbat the Church under the Spirit's guidance 
has advanced ever more and more in the development of it, he readiiy 
admits that many a point in constitution, doctrine, and worship cannot 
be established from the Bible ; e.g. immaculate conception, clerical celi- 
bacy, etc. He has no hesitation in contradicting even Augustine and 
St. Bernard from the standpoint of a more highly developed doctrine of 
the Church. 

2. Thomitts and Scotlits. — The Dominicans and Franciscans were 
opposed as followers respectively of Thomas and of Scotus. Thomas 
regarded individuality, t.<f. the fact that everything is an individual, every 
res ia a /kee, as a limitation and defect ; while Duns saw in this hacitat 
a mark of perfection and the true end of creation. Thomas also preferred 



the Platonic, and Duns the Aristotelian realism. In theology Dans was 
opposed to Thomas in maintaining an nnlimited nrbitrary will in God, 
aooordiog to which God does not choose a thing because it is good, but 
the thing chosen is good because He chooses it. Thomas therefore was 
a determinist, and in his doctrine of sin and grace adopted a moderate 
Augustinianism (§ 58, 5), while Duns was a semipelagian. The atonement 
was viewed by Thomas more in acoordanoe with the theory of Anselm« 
for he as8igned to the merits of Christ as the God-Bian infinite worth, 
sntisfartio tniperabundaru^ which is in itself more than sufficient for 
redemption ; but Duns held that the merits of Cbrist were sufficient only 
as accepted by the free will of God, accepUiUo gratuiia. The Sootists 
also most resolutely contendel for the doctrine of the immaculate con- 
ception of the Virgin, while the Thomists as passionately opposed it. 
— Among the immediate disciples of Duns the most celebrated was 
Frauds Mayron, teacher at the Sorbonne, who died in a d. 1325 and was 
dignified with the title doctor ifluminatnt or acutitt. The most notable of 
the Thomists was Horvaus Vatalis, who died in a.D. 1323 as general of 
the Dominicans. Of the later Thomists the most eminent was Thomas 
Brtdwardine, doctor profundus, a man of doep religious earnestness, who 
accmed his 8ge of Pelagianism, and vindicated the truth in opposition 
to this error in his De cuvsa Dri e. Petagium. He began teaching at 
Oxford, afterwards accompanied Edward IH. as his confessor and chnp> 
lain on his expeditions in France, and died in a.D. 1349 a few weeks 
after his appo-ntment to the archbishopric of Canterbury.^ 

8. Hominalists and Bealists. — After uominalinm (§ 99, 2) in the person 
of Boscelin had been condemned by the Church (§ 101, 3) realism held 
sway for more than two centuries. Both Tliomas and Duns supported 
it. By sundering philosophy and theology Duns opened the way to freer 
discussion, so that by-and-by nominalism won the ascendency, and at last 
Bcarcely any but the precursors of the Befonnation ($ 119) were to be 
found in the ranks of the realists. The pioneer of the movement was 
the Englishman William Occam, a Franciscan and pupil of Duns, who 
M teacher of philosophy in Paris obtained the title doct^tr iingularis H 
invincibiHs, and was called by later nominalists venerabilU inctptor. He 
supported the Spirituals (§ 112, 2) in the controversies within his ord^r. 
He accompanied his general, Michael of Cevcna, to Avignon, and escap- 
ing with him in a.o. 1328 from threatened imprisonmeot, lived at 
Munich till his death in a.D. 1349. There, protected by Louis the 
Bavarian, he vindicated imperial rights against papal pretensions, and 
charged various heresies against the pope (§ 118, 2). In philosophy and 
theology he was mainly influenced by Scotus. In accordance with his 
nominalistic principles he assumed the position in theology that oor 

> Hook, ** Lives of Archbishop« of Canterbury,** toL It., ** Brad wardin«." 


Utas deriTed from experience eanoot reach to a knowledge of the tnper- 
natural ; and thus he may be called a precursor of Kant (§ 170, 10). 
The universalia are mere fictiones (§ 99, 2), things that do not corre- 
spond to our notions ; the world of ideas agrees not with that of pheno- 
mena, and so the unity of faith and knowledge, of theological and 
pbilosophical truth, asserted by realists, cannot be maintained (§ 103, 2). 
Faith rests on the anihority of Scripture and the decisions of the Church ; 
criticism applied to the doctrines of the Church reduces them to a series 
of antinomies. — ^In a.d. 1339 the Univert^ity of Paris forbade tbe read- 
ing of Occam's works, and soon after formally condemned nominalism. 
Thomists and Sootists forgot their own dififerences to corabiue against 
Occam ; but all in vain, for the Occamists were recruited from all the 
orders. The Constance reform party too supported him (§ 118, 4).t 
Of the Thomists who succeeded to Occam the most distinguished was 
William Durand of St. Poiir^ain, doct. rewUitissimw, who died in a.d. 1322 
as Bishop of Meauz. Hnertios of Inghen, one of the founders of the Uni- 
versity of Heidelberg in a.o. 1386 and its first rector, was a!so a zealous 
nominalist. The last notable schoolman of tlie period was Gabriel Blel 
of Spires, teacher of theology at Tübingen, who died a d. 1495, a nomi- 
nalist and an admirer of Occam. He was a vigorous supporter of the 
doctrine of the immaculate conception, and delivered public discourses 
on the "Ethics ** of Aristotle. 

4. Casniatry, or that part of moral theology which seeks to provide a 
complete guide to the solution of difficult cases of conscience, especially 
where there is collision of duties, moral or ecclesiastical, makes its first 
appearance in theppnitentials (§ 89, 6) and had a great impetus given it 
in the compulsory injnnction of auricalar confession (§ 104, 4). It was 
also favoured by the hair-splitting character of scholastic dialectics. Th« 
first who elaborated it as a distinct science was Raimundus de Pennaforte, 
who besides his works on canon law (§ 99, 5), wrote about a.D. 1238 a 
tumma de eatibm pcmit^ntialibiu. This was followed by the Franciscan 
AnUiana, the Dominican Pisana, and the AngeUca of the Geuoese 
Angelas of a.D. 1482, which Luther in a d. 1520 burned along with the 
papal bull and decretals. The views of the different casuists greatly 
vary, and confuse rather than assist the conscience. Out of them grew 
the doctrine of probabilism (§ 149, 10). 

5. The Founder of Hatiral Theology. —The Spaniard Raimand ofSabmidt 
Siettled as a physician in Toulonso in a.d. 1430, but afterwards turned his 
attention to theology. Seeing the need of infus -ng new life into the cor- 
rupt scholasticism, he sought to rescue it f otn utter formalism and fruit- 
less casuistry by a return to simple, clear, and rational thinking. Anselm 
of Canterbury was his model of a clear and profound thinker and believing 

1 Uoberweg, ** History of Philosophy,** voL i., pp. 460-464. 


theologian (§ 101, 1). He also tamed for ttmmlot and instraetioii to 
the book of nature. The resnlt of his stndies is seen in his Theologia 
naturalis t. liber ereaturarum, published in a.d. 1436. God*8 book of 
nature, in which every creature is as it were a letter, is the first and 
simplest source of knowledge accessible to the unlearned layman, and the 
surest, because free from all falsifications of heretics. But the fall and 
God*s plan of salvation have made an addition to it necessary, and this 
we have in the Scripture revelation. The two books coming from the 
one author cannot be contradictory, but only extend, confirm, and ex- 
plain one another. The facts of revelation are the necessary presup- 
position or consequences of the book of nature. From the latter all 
religious knowledge is derivable by ascending through the four degrees 
of creation, e$$e, vivere, sentire, and intelligertt to the knowledge of man, 
and thence to the knowledge of the Creator as the highest and absolute 
nnity, and by arguing that the acknowledgment of human sinfulness 
involved an admission of the need of redemption, which the book of re- 
velation shows to be a fact. In carrying out this idea Baimund attaches 
himself closely to Anselm in his scientific reconciling of the natural 
and revealed idea of God and redemption. Although he never expressly 
contradicted any of the Church doctrines, the Council of Trent put the 
prologue of his book into the Index prohibitorum, 

6. Hicholas of Cosa was bom in a.D. 1401 at Cues, near Treves, and 
was originally called Krebs. Trained first by the Brothers at Deventer 
(I 112, 9), he afterwards studied law at Padua. The failure of his first 
case led him to begin the study of theology. As archdeacon of Li^ he 
attended the Basel Council, and there by mouth and pen supported the 
Tiew that the council is superior to the pope, but in ▲.o. 1440 he passed 
over to the papal party. On account of his learning, address, and 
eloquence he was often employed by Eugenins IV. and Nicholas V. in 
difficult negotiations. He was made cardinal in a-d. 1448, an unheard of 
honour for a German prelate. In a.D. 1450 he was made bishop of 
Brixen, but owing to a dispute with Sigismond, Archduke of Austria, he 
suffered several years* hard imprisonment. He died in a.i>. 1464 at Todi 
in Umbria. His principal work is De docta ignorantia, which shows, 
in opposition to proud scbolasticism, that the absolute truth about 
God in the world is not attainable by men. His theological speculation 
approaches tbat of Eckhart, and like it is not free from pantheistic 
elements. God is for him the absolute maximum, but is also the abso- 
lute minimum, since He cannot be greater or less than He is. He begets 
of Himself His likeness, i.e, the Son, and He again turns back as Holy 
Spirit into unity. The world again is the aggregated maximum. His 
Dialogus de pace^ occasioned by the fall of Constantinople in a.D. 1453, 
represents Christianity as the most perfect of all religions, but recognises 
in all others, even in Islam, essential elements of eternal troth. Like 


Boger Baeon ({ 103, 8), be assigns a prominent place to mathematics 
and astronomy, and in his De geparatione CaUndarii of aj>. 1436 he 
recommended reforms in the calendar which were only effected in 
A.D. 1582 by Gregory XIII. (§ 149, 3). He detected the psendo-Isidore 
(S 87, 2) and the Donation of Coustantine (§ 87, 4) frauds. 

7. Biblical and Practical Theologians. — (1) The Franciscan Vioholas of 
Lyra, doctor planiu et utilis, a Jewish convert from Normandy, and teacher 
of theology at Paris, did good service as a gramroatico-historical exegote 
and an earnest expositor of Scripture. Luther gratefully acknowledges the 
help be got in his Bible translation from the postild of Lyra.' He died 
in A.D. 1340. — (2) Antonine of Florence played a prominent part at the 
Florentine Council of A.D. 1439, and was threatened by Eugenius 17. 
with the loss of his archbishopric. He discharged his duties with great 
zeal, especially during a plague and famine in a.d. 1448, and during the 
earthquake which destroyed half of the city in a.o. 1457. As an earnest 
preacher, an unwearied pastor, and upright churchman he was universally 
admired, and was canonized by Hadrian VI. in a.d. 1523. He had a high 
leputation as a writer. His Summa hUtorialu is a chronicle of universal 
history reaching down to his own time ; and his Summa theologica is a 
popular outline of the Thomist doctrine.— (3) The learned and famous 
abbot John Tritbemins, bom in ad. 1462, after studying at Treves and 
Heidelberg, entered in a.d. 14S7 the Benedictine cloister of Sponheim, 
became its abbot in the following year, resigned office in a.o. 1505 owing 
to a rebellion among his monks, and died in aj>. 1516 as abbot of the 
Scottish cloister of St. James at Wiirzburg. Influenced by Wessel*8 
reforming movement (§ 119, 10), he urged the duty of Scripture study 
and prayer, but still practised and commended the most extravagant 
adoration of Mary and Ann. Though he was keenly alive to the absur- 
dity of certain forms of superstition, he was himself firmly bound within 
its coils. He lashed unsparingly the vices of the monks, but regarded 
the monastic life as the highest Christian ideal. He pictured in dark 
•olours the deep and widespread corruption of the Church, and was yet the 
most abject slave of the hierarchy which fostered that corruption. 

^ Luther's Catholic opponents said. Si Lyra non lyratsett Lutherue 
non ialta$$et. This saying had an earlier form r " Si Lyra non lyrasset, 
nemo Doctomm in Biblia saltasset "; **Si Lyra non lyrasset, totus mundus 


§ 114. The German Mystics.^ 

The schoolmen of the 13th century, with the exception 
of Bonaventura, had little sympathy with mysticism, and 
gave their whole attention to the development of doctrine 
(§ 99, 1). The 14th century was the Augustan age of 
mysticism. Germany, which had already in the previous 
period given Hugo of St. Victor and the two divines of 
Reichersburg (§ 102, 4, 6), was its proper home. Its most 
distinguished representatives belonged to the preaching 
orders, and its recognised grand-master was the Dominican 
Meister Eckhart. This specifically German mysticism cast 
away completely the scholastic modes of thought and ex- 
pression, and sought to arrive at Christian truth by entirely 
new paths. It appealed, not to the understanding and 
cultured reason of the learned, but to the hearts and spirits 
of the people, in order to point them the surest way to 
union with God. The mystics therefore wrote neither 
commentaries on the Lombard nor gigantic sumrruB of their 
own composition, but wrought by word and writing to meet 
immediate pressing needs. They preached lively sermons 
and wrote short treatises, not in Latin, but in the homely 
mother tongue. This popular form however did not pre- 
vent them from conveying to their readers and hearers 
profound thoughts, the result of keen speculation ; but that 
in this they did not go over the heads of the people is 
shown by the crowds that flocked to their preaching. The 
" Friends of God " proved a spiritual power over many lands 
(§ 116, 4). From the practical prophetic mysticism of the 
12th and 13th centuries (§§ 107 ; 106, 5) it was distinguished 
by avoiding the visionary apocalyptic and magnetic somnam- 

1 Dalgairns, **The German Mystios in the 14ih Century.** Londont 
1850. Yanghan, " Hours with the Myitict/* 8rd ed., 2 vols. London, 


bnllstio elements through a better appreciation of science ; 
and from the scholastic mysticism of that earlier age (§§ 102, 
8, 4, 6 ; 103, 4) by abandoning allegory and the scholastic 
framework for the elevation of the soul to God, as well aa 
by indulgence in a somewhat pantheistic speculation on God 
and the world, man and the God-Man, on the incarnation 
and birth of God in us, on our redemption, sanctification, 
and final restoration. Its younger representatives however 
cut off all pantheistic excrescences, and thus became more 
practical and edifying, though indeed with the loss of specu- 
lative power. In this way they brought themselves more 
into sympathy with another mystic tendency which was 
spreading through the Netherlands under the influence of 
the Flemish canon, John of Ruysbroek. In France too 
mysticism again made its appearance during the 15th cen- 
tury in the persons of d'Ailly and Gerson (§ 118, 4), in a 
form similar to that which it had assumed during the 12th 
and 13th centuries in the Victorines and Bonaventura. 

1. Meiiter Eckhart. — One of the profoandesi thinken of all the Cbristitn 
eenturies was the Dominioan Meister Eckhart, the trae father of German 
■peealative mystioism. Bom in Strassburg about a.D. 12G0, he studied 
•t Cologne under Albert the Great, but took his master's degree at Paris 
in A.D. 1808. He had already been for some years prior at Erfurt and 
provincial Ticar of Thurin^ia. In a.d. 1304 he was made provincial of 
Saxony, and in a.d. 1307 vicar- general of Bohemia. In both positions h« 
did much for the reform of the cloisters of his order. In a.d. 1311 we 
find him teacher in Paris ; then for some years teaching and preaching 
in Strassburg ; afterwards officiating as prior at Frankfort ; and finally 
as private teacher at Cologne, where he died in a.d. 1827. While at 
Frankfort in a.D. 1320 he was suspected of heresy because of allege! 
intercourse with Beghards (| 9S, 7) and Brotliers of the Free Spirit 
d 116, 5). In A.D. 1325 the archbishop of Cologne renewed these charge«, 
but Eckhart succeeded in vindicating himself. The archbishop now set 
up an inquisition of his own, but from its sentence Eckbart appealed to 
the pope, lodged a protest, and then of his own accord in the Dominican 
ehurch of Cologne, before the assembled congregation, solemnly declared 
that the charge against him rested upon misrepresentation and misunder- 
standing, bat that he was then and always ready to withdraw anything 


that might he erroneoas. The papal jadgment, giyen two jean after 
Eckhart*8 death, prononnced twenty-eight of his propositions to he paa- 
theistic in their tendency, seventeen heing heretical and eleven danger- 
ons. He was therefore declared to he suspected of heresy. The ball, 
eontrary to reason and truth, went on to say that Eckhart at the end of 
his life had retracted and submitted all his writings and doctrines to 
the judgment of tlie Holy See. But Eckhart had indignantly protested 
agaiust the charge of pantheism, and certainly in his doctrine of God 
and the creature, of the high nobility of the human soul, of retirement 
and absorption into God, he has always kept within the limits of 
Christian knowledge aud life. Attaching himself to the Platonic and 
Neoplatonic doctrines, which are met with also in Albert and Thomas, and 
appealing to the acknowledged authorities of the Church, especially the 
Areopagite, Augustine, and Aquinas, Eckhart with great originality com- 
posed a singularly comprehensive and profound system of religion! 
knowledge. Although in all his writings aiming primarily at quickening 
and edification, he always grounds his endeavours on a theoretical inves- 
tigation of the nature of the thing. But knowledge is for him essen- 
tially union of the knowing 'subject with the object to be known, and 
the highest stage of knowledge is the intuition where all finite things 
sink into the substance of Deity.' 

2. Mystics of Upper Germany after Eckhart. — ^A noble band of mystics 
arose daring the 14th and 15th centuries influenced by Eckhart's writings, 
who carefully avoided pantheistic extremes by giving a thoroughly prac- 
tical direction to their speculation. Nearest to Eckhart stands the 
author of *' The Oennan Theology,*' in which the master's principles ars 
nobly popularized and explained. Luther, who took it for a work of 
Tauler, and published it in a.o. 1516, characterized it as ** a noble little 
book, showing what Adam and Christ are, and how Adam should die and 
Christ live in us.** In the most complete MS. of this tract, found in 
A.D. 1850, the author is described as a ** Friend of God.'* — The Dominican 
John Tauler was bom at Strassburg, studied at Paris, aud came into 
connection with Eckhart, whose mysticism, without its pantheisllo 
tendencies, he adopted. When Strassburg was visited with the Black 
Death, he laboured as preacher and pastor among the stricken with 
heroic devotion. Though the city was under an interdict ($ 110, 8), th« 
Dominicans persisted for a whole year in reading mass, and were stopped 
only by the severe threats of the master of their order. Tue magistrates 
gave thorn the alternative either to discharge their official duties or 
leave the city. Tauler now, in a.o. 1S41, retired to Basel, and afterwards 
to Cologne. In ▲.». 1437 we find him again in Strassburg, where ha 

1 See an admirable account of Eokhart by Dr. Adolf Lasson to 
Ueberweg's *' History of Philosophy," vol. i., pp. 467-484. 


died ia a.i». 1361. His thirty sermons, with some other short tracts, 
appeared at Leipzig in a.D. 1498. The most important of all Tauler*8 
works is, '* The Imitation of the Poverty of Christ." It was thought to 
be of French authorship, bat is now admitted to be Tauler*s.^ — Enlman 
Xerswin, a rich merchant of Strassbnrg, in his fortieth year, a.d. 1347, 
with his wife*s consent, retired from his business and forsook the world, 
gave his wealth to charities, and bought in a.d. 136G an old, abandoned 
convent near the city, which be restored and presented to the order of St. 
John. H«-re he spent the remainder of his days in pious cod tern plation, 
amid austerities and mortifications and favoured with virions. He died 
in a.D. 1382. Four years after his convernion he attained to clear con- 
ceptions and inner peace. His chief work, composed in a.d. 1352, ** The 
Book of the Nine Rocks,** was long ascribed to Suso. It is full of bitter 
complaints againtst the moral and religious corrnptirtn of all classes, and 
earnest warnings of Divine judgment. Its starting point is a vision« 
From the fountains in the high mountains stream many brooks over the 
rocks into the valley, and thence into the sea ; multitudes of fishes trans- 
port themselves from their lofty home, and are mostly takcu in nets, 
only a few succeed in reaching their home again by springing over 
these nine rocks. At the request of the " Friend of God from the Up- 
lands '* he wrote the ** Four Years from the Beginning of Life.** Hia 
** Banner Tract** describes the conflict with and victory over the Brothers 
of the Free Spirit under the banner of Lucifer (§ 116, 4, 5). 

8. The Friend of God in the Uplands.— In a book entitled ** The Story 
of Tauler*s Couversion." originally called **The Masters Book,** but 
now assigned to Nicholas of Basel, it is told that in a.d. 1346 a great 
** Master of Holy Scripture ** preached in an unnamed city, aud that soon 
hi« fame spread through the land. A layman living in the Uplands, 
thirty miles off, was directed in a vision thrice over to go to seek this 
Friend of God, companion of Rulman. He listened to his preaching, 
ohose him as his confessor, and then sought to show him that be had 
not yet the true consecration. Like a child the master submitted to 
be taught the elements of piety of religion by the layman, and at his 
command abstaining from all study and preaching for two year.-«, gave 
himself to meditation and penitential exercises. When he resumed hia 
preaching his success was marvellous. After nine years* labour, feeling 
his end approaching, he gave to the layman an account of his conver- 
aion. The latter arranged his materials, and added five sermons of the 
master, and sent the little book, in a d. 1369, to a priest of Rulman*8 
cloister near Strassbnrg. In a.d. 1486 the master was identified with 
Tcnler. This however ia contradicted by its contents. The historical 

» Winkworth, ** Life and Times of Tauler, with Twenty- five Sermons.'» 
London, 1857. Herrick, *' Some Heretics of Yesterday.*' London, 18S4. 


part is improbable and inoredible, and ita chronology ixraoonolaUa wiiih 
known facts of Taaler*s life. We find no trace- of the original idfaa or 
cbaracteristio eloqaeuoe of Tauler ; while the language and homiletioal 
arrangement of the sermons are qoite different from those of the great 
Dominican preacher. 

4. Nicholas of BascL — ^After long hiding from the emissaries of the 
Inquisition the layman Nicholas of Basel, in extreme old age, was taken 
with two companions, and bnmed at Vienna, as a heretic, between 
A J). 1393-1408. fle has been identified by Schmidt of Strassborg with 
the '* Friend of God.'* This is more than doabtful, since of the sixteen 
heresies, for the most part of a Waldensian character, charged against 
Nicholas, no trace is foimd in the writings of the Friend of Ood; while 
it is made highly probable by I>eQifle*s researches that the '* Friend of 
Qod " was bat a name assamed by Balman Merswin. 

5. Henry Snso, bom A.D. 1295, entered the Dominican cloister of Con^ 
stance in his 13th year. When eighteen years old he took the tow, and 
till his twenty-second year unceasingly practised the strictest asceticism, 
in imitation of the sufferings of Christ. He completed his studies, a.d. 
1S25-1328, under Eckhnrt at Cologne, and on the death of his pious 
mother withdrew into the cloister, where he became reader and after* 
wards prior. The first work which he here published, in a.D. 1335, the 
** Book of the Truth,'* is strongly influenced by the spirit of his master. 
Accused as a heretic, he was deposed from the priorship in a.d. 1336u 
His '* Book of Eternal Wisilom " was the favourite reading of all lovers 
of German mysticism. Blending the knight's and fanatic's idea of love 
with the Solomonic conception of Wisdom, which he ideutifies sometimes 
with Godt sometimes with Christ, sometimes with Mury, he chose her 
for his beloved, and was favoured by her with frequent visions and 
was honoured with the title of ** Amandus." — Like most of his fellow 
monks at Constance, Suso was a supporter of the pope in his contest 
with Louis the Bavarian, while the city sided with the emperor. When, 
in A.D. 1339, the monks, in obedience to the papal interdict, refused to 
perform public worship, they were expelled by the magistrates. Li his 
fortieth year Suso had begun his painful career of self-didcipline, which 
he carried so far as to endanger his life. Now driven away as an exile, 
be began his singularly fruitful wanderings, during which, passing from 
cloister to cloister as an itinerant preacher, he became either personally 
or through correspondence most intimately acquainted with all the most 
notable of the friends of mysticism, and made many new friends iu 
all ranks, especially among women. In a.D. 1346, along with eight com- 
panions, he ventured to return to Constance. There however he met 
with his sorest trial. An immoral woman, who pretended to him tb^t 
she sorrowed over and repented of her sins, while really she continued 1^ 
the practice of them, and was th«rsfore turaad «waj by him, took her 


revenge by oliarging him with being the father of the child she was aboat 
to bear. Probably this painful incident was the occasion of his retiring 
into the monastery of Ulm, where he died in a.d. 1366. In him the 
poetic and romantic element overshadowed the speculative, and in hit 
attachment to ecclesiastical orthodoxy he kept aloof from all reformatory 

6. Henry of HÖrdlingen is only slightly known to ns by the letters 
which he sent to his lady friend, the Dominican nun Margaret Ebner. 
He was spiritually related to Tauler, as well as to Snso, and shared with 
the great preacher in his sorrows over the calamities of the age, which his 
sensitive natnre felt in no ordinary degree during enforced official idleness 
under the interdict. His mysticism, by its sweetly sentimental character, 
as well as by its superstitious tendency to reverence Mary and relics, 
was essentially distinguished from that of Tauler. His friend Margaret, 

-who had also a spiritaal affinity to Tauler, and was highly esteemed by 
all the '* Friends of God,*' was religiously and politically, as a supporter 
of the anathematized emperor, much more decided. In depth of thought 
and power of expression however she is quite inferior to tbe earlier 
Thuiiugian prophetesses (§ 107, 2). — Hermann of Fritslar, a rich and 
pions layman, is supposed to have written, ld. 1343-1319, a life of the 
saints in the order of the calendar, as a picture of heart purity, with 
mystic reflections and speculations based on tbe legendary matter, and 
all expressed in pure and simple German. Hermann, however, was only 
the anthor of the plan, and the actual writer was a Dominican of Erfurt, 
GiMler of Slatheim.— A Franciscan in Basel, Otto of Pasaan, published, in 
AJ>. 1386, ** The Four-and-Tweuty Elders, or the Golden Throne,'* which 
became a very popular book of devotion, in which the twenty- four elders 
of Revelation iv. 4, one after another, show the loving soul how to win 
for himself a golden throne in heaven. Passages of an edifying and 
contemplative description from the Fathers and teachers of the Church 
down to the 13th century are selected by the author, and adapted to the 
ose of the unlearned '' Friends of God " in a German translation. 

7. Mystics of the Netherlands. — (1) John of Bnysbroek was born, in. 
A.D. 1298, in the village of Buysbroek. near Brussels. In youth he was 
addicted more to pious contemplation than to scholastic studies, and in 
his sixtieth year he resigued his position as secular priest in Brussels, and 
retired into a convent of regular canons (S 97, 3) near Brussels, where 
be died as its prior in a-d. 1481, when eight j-eight years old. He was 
called doctor ecstatieua, because he regarded his mystical views, which ho 
developed amid pious contemplation in the shades of the forest, and there 
wrote out in Flemish speech, as the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. His 
mysticism was essentially theistic. The unio mystiea consisted not in the 
deification of man, but was wrought only tlirough the free grace of God in 
Christ without the loss of man's own personality. His genoiue prücUcal 

VOL. II. \^ 


piety led him io Bee in Übe moral deprsTiiy of the eleigf, not less tban of tb» 
people generally, the cause of the decay of the Ghurob, so that even th9 
person of the pope did not escape his reproof. Nameroas pilgrims from 
far and mar sought tlie pions sage for counsel and qnickening. His 
favourite disciple iras Gerhard Groot of Deveuter, who impre:$8ed much of 
his master's spirit upon the brotherhood of the Common Life (S 112, 9).— 
Of this noble school of mystics the three following were the most distin- 
guished. — (2) Hendrik Mande, who died i.D. 1430, impressed by a sermon 
of Groot*s, and favoured during a long illness by Tisions, abandoned the 
life of a courtier for the fellowship of the Brethren of Deventer, and in 
A.D. 1895 entered the cloister of ^Vinde8heim, to which he bequeathed his 
wealth, and where he continued to enjoy Tisions of the Saviour and the 
saints. His works, written in Dutch, are characterized by spiritoalitj 
and depth of feeling, copious and appropriate imagery, and great moral 
eamettness.— (3) Qerlaeh Peters was the favourite scholar of Floreutius 
in Deventer. He subsequently entered the monastery of Windesheim, 
where, after a painful illness, he di»*d in a.D. 1411, in his thirty-third year. 
** An ardent spirit in a body of skin and bone,'* praising God for his 
terrible bodily sufferings as a means of grace bestowed on him, his 
devotion reaches the sublimest heights of enthusiasm. He wrote the 
Soliloquiwn, the voice of a man who has daily struggled in God's 
presence to free his heart from worldly bonds, and by God*s grace in 
the cross of Christ to have Adam*s purity restored and union with the 
highest good secured. — (4) Tkomas k Ksmpis, formerly Hamerken, was 
bom in a.d. 1380 at Kempen, near Cologne. He was educated at 
Deventer, and died as sub-*prior of tlie convent of St. Agnes, near ZwoU, 
in A.D. 1471. To him, and not to the chancellor Gerson, according to 
the now universally accepted opinion, belongs the world renowned 
book De Imitatione Chruti. Beprinted ab^ut five thousand times, oftener 
than any other book except the Bible, it has been also trun>]ated into 
more languagej than any other. Free from all Bomish superstition, it 
itf read by Catholics and Protestuuts, and holds an unrivalled position 
as a book of devotion. A photographic reproduction of the ori^;iual 
edition of A.D. 1441 was published from the autograph MSS. of Thomas, 
by Ch. Buelans, London, 1879.* 

> Kettlevrell, " The Authorship of the * Imitation of Christ.* '* London, 
1877. Kettlewell, ** Thomas k Kempis and the Brothers of the Common 
Li'e.** 2 vols. London, 1882. Ullmann, '* Beformers before the Refor- 
mation,** vol. ii. Edin., 1855. Cniise, ** Thomas k Ecmpis : Notes of a 
Visit to the Scenes of his Life.** London, 1887. 


ni— The Chnrcli and the People. 

§ 115a. Public Worship and the Eelioious Education 

OP THE People. 

Preaching in the vernacular was carried on mainly by 
the Brothers of the Common Life, the mystics, and several 
heretical sects, e,g, Waldensians, Wiclifites, Hussites, etc. ; 
and stimulated by their example, others began to follow the 
same practice. The so called Biblia pauperum set forth in 
pictures the New Testament history with its Old Testament 
types and prophecies ; Bible Histories made known among 
the people the Scripture stories in a connected form ; and, 
after the introduction of printing, the German Plenaries 
helped also to spread the knowledge of God's word by 
renderings for private use of the principal parts of the 
service. For the instruction of the people in faith and 
morals a whole series of Catechisms was constructed after 
a gradually developed type. The " Dance of Death " in its 
various forms reminded of the vanity of all earthly pleasures. 
The spirit of the Reformation was shown during this period 
in the large number of h^nnns written in the* vernacular. 
Church music too received a powerful impulse. 

1. Puts and Feitivals.— Now Mary Pesti? ala were introduoed : P. pro- 
MHtationU M. ou 21st Nov. (Lev. xii. 6-8), F, vi$itaUoni$ M, (Luke i. 
89-51), on 2Qd July. la the 15th century we meet with the festivAls of 
the Seven Pains of Mary, F. Spaitmi M , on Frlclay or Saturday before 
Palm Sunday. Dominie iu»titated a rosary festival, F, ro>arii A/., on 
Ist Oct., and its general observance was enjoined by Gregory XIII. in 
A.0. 1571. — The Veneratiou of Ann (§ 57, 2j was introducetl into Germany 
in the second half of the 15th century, but soon rose to a bcigbt almost 
equal to tliat of Mary. — The Y.sts of the early Church (§ 56, 7) had, even 
during the previous period, been greatly relaxed. Now the most special 
fast days were mere days of abstioeuce from flesh, while most lavifth 
meals of fish and fariimceouR food were indulged in. Papal and epi- 
acopal diapensAtions from fasting were also freulv given. 

2. Preaohin; (% 104, 1). — To aid and encourage pre.icbing in the lan- 
guage ol the people, unekiiled preachers were supplied with ViKabuldt ia 


pradieantium. Sargant, a priest of Basel, wrote, in the end of the 15th 
centary, a treatise on homiletics and catechetics most useful for his ag[e, 
BlanuaU Curatonim. In it he showed how Latin sermons might be 
rendered into the tongue of the people, and urged the duty of hearing 
aermons. The mendicants were the chief preachers, especially the mystics 
of the preaching orders, during the 14th century (| 114), and the Angus- 
iinians, particularly their German Observants, during the 15th (| 112, 5), 
and next to them, the Franciscans. — The most zealous preacher of his 
age was the Spanish Domiuican Vincent Yerrir« In k.t>, 1397 he began 
his unprecedentedly successful preaching tours through Spain, France, 
Italy, England, Scotland, and Ireland. He died in a.d. 1419. He 
laboured with special ardour for the conversion of the Jews, of whom he 
is said to have baptized 35,000. Wherever he went he was venerated 
as a saint, received with respect by the clergy and prelates, highly 
honoured by kings and princes, consulted by rich and poor regarding 
temporal and spiritual things. He was canonized by Gnlixtus III. in 
A.D. 1455. Certain Flagellants (§ 116, 3) whom he met in his travels 
followed bim, scourging themselves and singing his penitential sjngs, but 
he stopped this when objected to by the Council of Constance. His 
sermons dealt with the realities of ao ual life, and called all classes to 
repent of their sins. Of a similar spirit was the Italian Dominican 
Barletta, who died in a.D. 1480. whose buriesque and scathing satire 
render»! him the most popular preacher of the day. In his footsteps 
went the Frenchmen Maillard and Mc not, both Franciscans, and the 
German priest of Slrassburg. Geiler of Kaisersberg, quite e«iual to them 
in quaint terseness of expression and biting wit. All these were pre- 
eminently disUnguiitbed for moral earnestness and profound spirituality .^ 
8. The Biblia Panpemm. — The typological interpretation of the Old 
Testament history received a fixed and permanent form in the illustra- 
tions introduced into the service books and pictiues printed on the altars, 
walls, and windows of churches, etc., during the 12th century. A set of 
eeveuieen such picture groups was found at Vienna, of which the middle 
panels represent the New Testament history, sub gracia, above it an Old 
Testament type from the period ante Ugem, and under it one from the 
period tub lege. This picture series was completed by the Biblia pan- 
pera]D,so called from the saying of Gregory I., that pictures were tlie poor 
man's Bible. Many of the extant MSS., all depending on a common 
•onroe, date from tiie 14th and 15th eenturiea. The illustrations of the 
New Testament are in the middle, and round about are pictures of the 
four prophets, with volumes in their hands, on which the appropriate Old 
Testament prophecies are written. On right and left are Old Testament 

1 Baring-Gould, ** Medixval Preachers : Some Account of CelebrauMl 
Preachers of the 15th, 16th, and 17th Gentories.** London, 18G5. 

§ 115a. public worship op the people. 181 

types. The maltiplication of copies of this work by woodoats and types 
was one of the- first uses to which printing was put.* 

4. The Bible in the Yemaealar.— The need of translations of the Bible 
into the language of the people, specially urged by the Waldensians and 
Albigensians, was uow widely insisted upon by those of reformatory 
tendencies (§ 119). On the introduction of printing, about a.D. 1450, 
an opportunity was afforded of rapidly circulating translations already 
made in most of the European Linguages. Before Luther, there were 
fourteen printed editions of the Bible in High and five in Low German. 
The translations, made from the Vulgate, were in all practically the 
same. The translators are unknown. The diction is for the most part 
clumsy, and the sense often scarcely intelligible. Translations bad been 
made in England by the Wiolifites. and in Bohemia by the Hussites. 
In France, varioas renderings of separate books of Scripture were cir- 
culated, and a complete French Bible was issue 1 by the confessor of 
Cbarles VIII., Jean de Rely, at Pari^, in a-d. 1487. Two Italian Bibles 
were published in Venice, in a.d. 1471, one by the Gamaldulite abbot 
Malherbi, closely following the Vulgate; the other by the humanist 
Bruccioli, wuich often falls back on the original text. The latter was 
highly valued by Italian exiles of the Reformation age. In Spain a 
Carthusian, Ferreri, attempted a translation, which was printed at 
Valencia in a.d. 1478. More popular however than these translations 
were the Bible Histories, i.e. free renderings, sometimes contracted, 
sometimes expanded, of the historical books, especially these of the Old 
Testament. From a-d. 1470 large and frequent editions were published 
of the German Plenaries, containing at first only the gospels and epistles, 
afterwards also the Service of the Mass, for all Sundays and festivals 
and fiaints' days, witb explanations and directions. 

5. Catechisms and Prayer Books. — Next to preaching, the chief oppor- 
tunity for imparting religious instruction was confession. Later cats« 
ohisms drew largely upon the baptismal and confessional services. In 
the 13th and 14th centuries the decalogue was added, and afterwards 
the seven -deadly sins and the seven principsd virtues. Pictures were 
n»ed to impress the main points on the minds of the people and the 
youth. The catechetical literature of this period, both in guides for 
priests and manuals for the people, was written in the vernacular.— 
During the 15th century there were also numerous so-called Arte$ mori^ 
endif »howing how to die well, in which often earnest piety appeared side 
by side with the grossest superstition. There were also many prayer 
books, Uortuli animoe, published, in which the worship of Mary and the 
■aints often overshadowed that of God and Christ, and an extravagant 

1 ** Biblia Pauperum,** reproduced in facsimile from MS. in Brituh 
Moseom. London, 1869. 


belief in indalgenees led to a meohanioal Tiew of pxajer that waa 
tliorouglily pagan. 

6. The Daaoe of DeatlL— The fantastic hamonr of the Middle Age« 
foand drainatio and spiHstaeular expreasion in the Dance of Death, in 
whioh all classes, from the pope and princes to the begg.ira, in turn 
converse with death. It was introduced into Germany and France in 
the I eginniog of the 14th centar}\ with the view of raising mt-n oat of 
the pleasun« and troable^< of life. It was called in France the Dance of 
the Maccabees, because first introdnood at that festival. Pictures and 
Terbal descriptions of the Dance of Death were made on walls and doors 
of charches, around MS9. and woodcuts, where death was general!/ 
represented aa a skeleton. Hans Holbein the Younger gave the finiKh- 
ing touch to these representations in his Imagines I^Iortii, the originals 
of which are in St. Peteniburg. In tlits masterpiece, the idea of a 
dancing pair is sot aside, and in its place fort? pictures, afterwards 
increased to fifty-eight, full of humour and moral earnestness, pourtraj 
tlie power of death in tlie earthly life.^ 

7. Hynmology ($ 1C4, 10).— The Latin Church p^«try of the 14th and 
15th centuriee was far beneath tliat of the 12th and 13th. Only the 
mystics, e.g. Thomas k Kempis, still composed some beautiful hymns. 
We have now however the beginnings of German and Bohemian hymno- 
logy. The German flajcellators sang German hymns (§ IIG, 3), and 
■o obtained much popular favour. The Hu&iite movement of the 15th 
century gave a great impulse to ehnrch song. Huss himself earnestly 
urged the practice of congregational singiug in the language of the 
people, and himself composed Bohemian hymns. The Bohemian and 
Moravian Brethren were specially productive in this department (§ 119, 
8). In many ch lurches, at least on high festivals, German hymns were 
sung, and in some even at the celebration of mass and other parts of 
public worship. The spiritual songs of this period were of four kinds : 
some half German, half Latin ; others translations of Latin hymns and 
■equences ; others, original German compositions by monks and min- 
strels ; and adaptations of secular songs to spiritual purposes. In Uie 
latter case the original melodies were also retained. Popular forms and 
melodies for sacred songs were now secured, and these were subse- 
quently appropriated by the Reformers of the 16th century. 

8. Chnrch Music (§ 104, 11).— Great improvements were made in organs 
by the invention of pedals, etc. Chmeh matie was also greatly developed 
by the introduction of harmony and counterpoinL The Dutch were 
pre-eminent in t);is department. Ocktfnheim, founder of the second 
Dutch school of music, at the end of the 15th century, was tl:e inventor 
of the canon and the fugue. The greatest composer of this school waa 

1 Donee, ** The Dance of Death«** London, 1888. 

S 115b. national litebatubb. 188 

Jodoons Prfttenfdfl, about aj). 1500, and next to him may be named tha 
German, Adam of Fulda. 

9. legendary Belies. — The legend of angels having transferred the 
house of Mary from Nazareth, m a-d. 1291, to Tersato in Dalmatia, in 
A.0. 1294 to Beccanati, and finally, in ▲.d. 1295. to Loretto in Ancona, 
arose in the 14th century, in oonnoction with the fall of Acre ({ 94, 6) 
and the overthrow of the last remnants of the kingdom of Jerusalem. 
When and how the legend arose of the Scala santa at Borne being the 
marble steps of Pilate^s praetorium, brought there by Bt. Helena, is 
unknown. — Eren Frederick the Wise, at an enormous cost, brought 
together 1,010 sacred relics into his new chapel at Wittenberg, a mere 
look at which secured indulgence for 100 years. In a catalogue of relics 
in the churches of St. Maurice and Mary Magdalene at Halle, published 
in A-D. 1520, are mentioned a piece of earth, from a field of Damascus, 
of which Ood made the first man ; a piece from a field at Hebron, where 
Adam repented ; a piece of the body of Isaac ; twenty-five fragments of 
the burning bush of Horeb; specimens of the wilderness manna; six 
drops of the Virgin's milk ; the finger of the Baptist that pointed to the 
Lamb of Qod ; the finger of Thomas that touched the wounds of Jesus ; 
a bit of the altar at which John read mass for the Virgin ; the stone 
with which Stephen was killed ; a great piece of Paul's skull ; the hose 
of St. Thomas of Canterbury ; the baret of St. Francis, etc. The col- 
lection consisted of 8,933 articles, and could afford indulgence for 
89,215,100 years and 220 days I Benefit was to be had by contributions 
to the church, which went into the pocket of the elector-archbishop, 
Albert of Blainz. The craze for pilgrimages was also rife among all 
classes, old and young, high and low. Signs and wonders and newly 
discovered relics were regarded as consecrating new places of pilgrimage, 
and the stories of pilgrims raised the fame of these resorts more and 
more. In a.D. 1500 Düren, by the possession of a relic of Ann, stolen 
from Mainz, rapidly rose to first rank. The people of Mainz sought 
through the pope to recover this valuable property, but he decided in 
favour of Düren, because God had meanwhile sanctioned the transfer by 
working many miracles of healing. 

§ 115b. National Literatübe and Ecclesiastical 


Toward the close of the 13th century, and throughout the 
14th, a national literature, in prose and poetry, sprang up 
in Italy, which in several respects has close relations to the 
history of the church. The three Florentines, Dante, Pet- 


rarch and Boccaccio, boldly burst through the barriers of 
traditional usage, which had made Latin the only vehicle 
for literature and science, and became the creators of a 
beautiful Italian style ; while their example powerfully in- 
fluenced their own countrymen, and those of other western 
nations, during the immediately succeeding ages. The 
exclusive use of the Latin language had produced a uniform 
hierarchical spirit, and was a restraint to the anti-hicrar* 
chical movements of the age after independent national 
development in church and State. The breaking down of 
this barrier to progress was an important step. But all 
the three great men of letters whom we have named were 
also highly distinguished for their classical culture. They 
introduced the study of the ancient classics, and were thus 
the precursors of the humanists. They also presented a 
united front against the corruptions of the church, against 
hierarchical pretensions, the greed and moral debasement 
of the papacy, as well as against the moral and intellectual 
degradation of the clergy and the monks. Petrarch and 
Boccaccio too warred against the depraved scholasticism. 
The Augustan age of Oerman national poetry was contem- 
porary with the age of the Hohenstaufens. It consisted in 
popular songs, these often of a sacred character. During 
the 14th century the sacred drama reached the highest 
point of its development, especially in Germany, England, 
FrancCi and Spain. The spirit of the Renaissance, which 
during the 15th century dominated Italian art, made itself 
felt also in the domain of ecclesiastical architecture and 

10. The Italian Vatlonal Idteratmrt.i — Dant« Aligbi«ri, bom at Florence 
in ▲ D. 1265, waa in ad. 1303 baniahed aa a GhibeUine from liia native 
oity, and died an exile at Bavenna, in IuD, 1321. Ilia boyish love for 

> Bymonda, " Benoiaaance in Italy.** S Tola. London, 1881. 

§ 115 b. national litebatübb. 185 

Bentrioo, which after her early death continued to fill his sonl to the 
end of his life, gave him an Impulne to a " New Life/* and proved the 
unfailing source of his poetic inspiration. His studies at Bologna, 
Padna, and Paris made him an enthiisiasiio admirer of Thomas, but 
aloMgnide of hU scholastic culture there lay the quick perception of the 
beautiful, combined with a lively imngination. He was thus able to deal 
with the burning questions of his day in one of the greatest poetio 
mR6t*rpicces of any age, people, or tongne. His Divina Commedia 
Jescribes a vision in which the poet is led, first by the hand of Virgil, 
as the representative of human wisdom, through Hell and Purgatory; 
then by Beatrice, whose place at times is taken by the Oerman Matilda 
(§ 107, 2), and finally by St. Bernard, as representatives of revealed reli- 
gion, through Paradise and the several heavens up to the empyrsum, the 
eternal residence of the triune Ood. The poet presents his readers with a 
description of what he saw. and reports his conversations with his guides 
and the souls of more important personages, most of them shortly before 
deceased, in which the problems of philosophy, theology, and politics aie 
discussed. His political views, of which he treats ex profeuo in the three 
books of his De nionnrchia^ are derived from Aquinas' theory of the State, 
but breathe a strong Italian Ghibelline patriotism, so that he places 
not only Boniface VIII. but also Frederick II. in Hell. In the struggle 
between the empire and the papacy he stands decidedly on the side of 
the former. With profound sorrow he bewails the corruption of the 
ehnrch in its head and members, but holds firmly by its confession of 
faith. And while lashing vigorously the corruptions of monkery, he eulo- 
gizes the heavenliness of the lives of Francis and Dominic. * Petrarch, 
who died in a.D. 1374, broke away completely from scholasticism, and 
turned with enthusiasm to classical studies. He combated supersti- 
tion, e.g. af^trology, but also contends against the unbelief of his age, 
and in his letters and poems lashes with merciless severity the immora- 
lity of the papacy and the secularization of the church.' In Boccaccio 
again, who died in a-d. 1375, antipathy to scholasticism, monkery, and 
the hierarchy had reached its utmost stage. He has no anger and 

^ Church, ** Dante and other Essays." London, 1888. Plumptre, 
V Commedia, etc., of Dante, with Life and Studies." 2 vols. London, 
1886-1888. Oliphant, •' Dante." Edinburgh. 1877. Ozanara, *♦ Dante 
and the Catholic Philosophy of the 13th Century." London, 1854. 
Barlow, ** Critical, Historical, and Philosophical Contributions to the 
Study of the Divina Commedia.** London, 1884. Botta, ** Dante as 
Philosopher, Patriot, and Poet." New York, 1865. M. F. Bossotti, 
•* A Shadow of Dante." Boston, 1872. 

* Beeve. ** Petrarch," Edinburgh, 1879. Simpson, article on Petraroh 
in Contemporary Review for July, 1874. 


dennneiation, bat only contempt, reproMh, and wit to tboot «gaiiifll 
them. He also makes light of the moral requirements of Christianity 
and the church, espocially the seventh commandment. But in later 
years he mauifcsted deep penitence for the losciTioas writing of bis 
youth, to which he bad given reckless and ebameleaa expression in bia 
•* Decameron." 

11. The Oermaa VatloKal Literature. — The German prose style was 
greatly ennobled by the mystics (§ 114), and the highest development of 
German satire against the hierarchy, clergy, and monks was reached 
by Sebastian Brant, of Strassbarg, who wrote in A.D. 1404 bis ** Ship of 
Fools.*' Among popular preachers John Tauler held the first rank 
(§ 114, 2). In Strassburg, Geiler of Eaisorsborg distinguished himsdf 
as an original preacher. His sermons were fall of biting wit, keen 
sarcasm, and humorons expressions, bat also of profonnd earnestness 
and withering exposures of the sins of the clergy and monks. His best 
known work is a series of sermons on BranVs " Ship of Fools,** pablisbed 
in A.D. 1498. 

12. The Sacred Drama (§ 105, 6). — The poetic merit of most of the 
German mysteries performed at high festivals is not great. The 
Laments of Mary however often rose to true poetic heights. Ck>medy 
and burlesque too foand place especially in connection with Judas, or 
the exchangers, or the nnoonverted Magdalene. A priest, Theodorio 
Schcrnberg, wrote a play on the fall and repentance of the poposs 
Johanna (§ 82, 6). On Shrove Tuesday plays were performed, in which 
the clergy and monks were held up to ridicule. Hans Boseuplüt of 
Nuremberg, about A.D. 1450, was the most famoos writer of Gorman 
Shrovetide plays. In France, abont the end of the 14th oentury, a 
society of young people of the upper rank was formed, called Enfam tan» 
Boueit whose Sottifi, buffooneries, in which the church was ridiculed, 
were in high repute in the cities and at the court. Their most distin- 
guished poet was Pierre Gringoire, who, in the beginning of the 16th 
century, in the French Chaste du Cerf des Cerf*^ parodied the Servus 
iercorum (§ 46, 10), and the church is represented as the old befooled 
mother. Tlie numerous Italian mysteries were produced mainly by tlie 
gifted and cultured sons of Tuscany, who had already developed their 
native tongue into a beautiful and flexible language. In Spain, during 
the 15th century, the Autns, partly as Christmas plays and partly as 
sacramental or passion plays, were based on the ancient mysteries, aud 
in form inclined more to the allegorical moralities. 

13. Architecture and Painting (§ 104, 13, 14).— Gothic axehitecture wa<9 
the prevailing style in the churches of Germany, France, and Kngland. 
In Italy, the humanist movement ($ 120, 1) led to the imitation of 
ancient classical models, and thos the Benaissance style was introduced, 
which floorished for 300 yean. Its real creator was the Florentine 

{ 116. POPUULB 1C0TEMBNT8. 187 

Brtineleidil, ulio wen impertsfaahle renown bj the grand evpolA of the 
eatbedral of Florence. Bromante« died ▲.p. 1614, marks the transition 
from the earlier BenaisBanoe of the 15th century to the later of the 
16th, at the summit of which stands Michael Angelo, a.D. 1474-15C4. 
After a plan of Bramante Julius II., in a.D. 1506, began the magnificent 
reconstruction of St. Peter's at Bome, the execution of which in its 
gigantic proportions occupied the reigns of twenty popes. It was com- 
pleted under Urban VIII., in aj>. 1636. This great bnilding, in conse- 
quence of the traffic in indulgences, entered on to defray its cost, bocaime 
the occasion of the loss to the papacy of the half of western Christen- 
dom.—Sacred Statuary, in the hands of Ohibf rti, died a.D. 1455, and 
lUchael Angelo, reached the higliest stage of excellence. — Of Painting, 
the Augustan age of which was the 15th century, there were properly 
four schools. Giotto, who died in a.D. 1336, was founder of the Floien- 
tine school, which was specially distinguislied by its delineations of 
■acred history. To it belonged the Dominican Fra Giovanni da Fiesol», 
who painted only as he prayed, Leonardo da Vinci, Fra Bortolomeo, and 
Michael Angelo. Then there was the Lombard or Venetian School, at 
the head of which stands Giovanni Bellini, died A.D. 1516, which turned 
away from the church and applied itself with its fresh living colouring 
to the depicting of earthly ideals. Its most eminent represeutntives 
were Correggio, died A.D. 1534, and Titian, died a.D. 1576. In the 
Umbrian school, again, the spirit of St. Francis continued still to 
breathe. Its greatest maftter was Baphael of Urbino, the noblest and 
most renowned of all Chrintian painters, distinguished also as an archi- 
tect. The German school had its ablest representatives in the brothers 
Hubert and John van Eyk, Albert Dürer, and Hans Holbein the Elder. 
— Continuation { 149, 15. 

§ 116. Popular Movements. 
In consequence of the shameful debasement of. the papacy 
and the deep corruption of the clergy and monks, the 
influence of the church on the moral and religious culture 
of the people, in spite of the ardent zeal of the homilists 
and catechists, was upon the whole much less than formerly. 
BrCverence for the church as it stood was indeed tottering, 
but was not yet completely overthrown. The religious 
enthusiasm of earlier times was fading away, but occasional 
phenomena still continued to arise, like St. Bridget and St. 
Catharine of Siena (§ 112, 4, 8), Claus of Flue, and the 
Maid of Orleans. But in order to elevate a John of Nepo- 


mnk Into a recognised national saint, it was necessary to 
produce forged legendary stories in post-Reformation times. 
The market-place tricks of John of Gapistrano (§ 112, 8) 
were of s^ch a kind, that even the papal curia only after a 
century and a half had passed could venture to adorn him 
with the halo of saintship. The ever-increasing nuisance 
of the sale of indulgences smothered religious earnestness 
and crushed all religious spirit out of the people. But 
earnestness showed itself again in the reactions of the Beg- 
hards and Lollards, or in the explosions of the Flagellants, 
and spirituality often found rich nourishment in the preach- 
ing of the mystics. One current issuing from the wide- 
spread Friends of God passed deep into the heart of the 
German people ; another, springing probably from the same 
source, but with a quite different tendency, appears in the 
Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit. On the other hand, 
superstition also prevailed, and was all the more dangerous 
the more it parted with its poetic and naive character 
(§ 117, 4). Toward the end of that period however a new 
era dawned in social life, as well as in national literature. 
Knighthood paled before gunpowder. The establishment of 
civic corporations developed a sense of freedom, and intro- 
duced a healthy understanding and appreciation of civil 
liberty. The printing of books began the dissemination of 
knowledge, and the discovery of America opened to view a 
new world for trade, colonization, and the spread of Chris- 
tianity. To the pious heart of the discoverer the exten- 
sion of Christ's kingdom proved the most powerful motive to 
his continued exertions, and from the treasures of the new 
world he hoped also to obtain the means for conquering again 
the Holy Sepulchre and the Holy Land. 

1. Two Vatioikal Sainti. — John of Vepomnk, of Pomiik in Bohemia, 
was from jld. 1880 pastor, then oanon, arcbiepisoopal secretary, and 
Ticar-general of Pragoe. King Wonxel had him seized, omelly toriored. 


ftnd flang over the bridge into the Moldaa, becanse, so nme the legend, 
he as ooofesRor of the qaeen sturdily refused to betray the secrets of the 
«onfessional, bat rea ly because he had roused the king's anger to the 
nttermost in a violent controversy bet«reen the king's archbishop, John 
of Jenzenstein, and the chapter over their election and consecration of an 
abbot. The confession legend appears first in an Austrian writer of ▲.d. 
1451, who gives it distinctly as a tradition. It is evidently connected 
with the Taborite rejection of the Catholic doctrine of auricular con- 
fession (I 119, 7). If it be accepted as true, then, seeing that all the 
older chroniclers ascribe the cruel treatment of this prelate to the 
share he took in the abbot's election, it will be necessary to assume two 
victims of the king's wrath instead of one. The John Nepomuk of the 
legend, and the confessor of the queen, was tortured by the king's com- 
mand in A.O. 1383 ; the other, who figures in the old chronicles as 
orohiepiscopal vicar-general, and is simply called John, was tortured in 
▲.D. 1393, and then thrown over the bridge into the Moldau. This latter 
story appears first in a Bohemian chronicle of ^.d. 1541. In the 17th 
oentury the Jesuits, in order to deprive the heretical national saint and 
martyr John Huss of his supremacy by bringing forward another 
genuine Bohemian, but also a thoroughly Catholic saint, gave currency 
to the legend, adorned with many additional stories of miracles. Beue« 
diet XIII. (§ 164, 1) was just the pope to aid such a device by sanctioning, 
as he did in a.d. 1729, the eanonization of a purely fictitious saint- 
confessor John Nepomuk. He is patron saint of bridges, whose image 
in Bohemia, and other strictly Catholic lands, is met with at almost 
every bridge, and is reverenced as the protector from unjust accusations, 
as well as the dispenser of rain in seasons of great drought. Although 
no mention is made of the story about the confessional in the letter of 
complaint to Borne by Archbishop Jenzeustein, Catholic historians still 
insist that the confessor's steadfastness was the real cause, the election of 
the abbot the ostensible cause, of the martyrdom of ^.p. 1393.1 The need 
of strengthening the position of the Bomisli church, in face of the pro- 
gress of the Swiss Beformation of the 16th century, led also to the 
elevation of the recluse, Nicolaos of Fite upon the pedestal of a Swiss 
national saint. Esteemed even before hiu birth a saint by reason of 
signs and wonders, ** Brother Claus," after a long, active life in the world, 
in his 60th yt-ar, the father of ten children, forsook house and home, 
with the approval of his wife, abstained from all nourishment save that 
of the sacrament, and died, after spending nineteen years in the wilder- 
ness, in ▲.o. 1487. D'lring this period he was the trusted adviser of 
all classes upon pub io and private affairs. He is specially famous as 
having saved Switzerland, by appearing personally at the Diet of Btans, 

1 Wratislaw, " Life and Legend of St. John Nepomuoen." Lon., 1373. 


in AJ». 1481, stopping the eonfliei betwe en eitief and proriiicei, whidi 
threatened to break ap the confederation and bring abont ciyU war, aiNl 
suggesting the peaceable compromise of the ''Agreement of Stanz.'* 
That Brother Claus did asai»>t in seooring harmony is a well established 
fact, bat it is also demonstrable that he was not personally present at 
Stanz. He was beatified by Clement X. in a-o. 1671, bat notwithstand- 
ing repeated eudeavours by his admirers, he has not yet been canonized. 

2. The Kaid of Orleans, AJ>. 1438-1481.— Joan of Arc was the daoghter 
of a peasant in the village of Domremy, in Champagne. Even in her 
thirteenth 3'ear sLe thought she saw a peculiar brightness and heard a 
heavenly voice ezhortiug her to chostity and piety. She now bound 
herself by a vow to perpetual Tirginity. Afterwards the heavenly voices 
became more frequent, and the brightness took the shape of the arelt- 
angel Michael, St. Catharine, and other saints, who saluted her as saviour 
of her fatherland. France was, under the imbecile king Charles VL, and 
s'ill more after his death, rent by the rival parties of the Armagnaos and 
Burgundians. The former (ought for the rights of the danphin Charles 
VII.; the latter supported his mother Isabella and the English king Henry 
v., who was succeeJcil in a.d. 1422 by his son Henry VI., then only nine 
months old. Joan was the enthusiastic supporter of the danphin. He 
found liimself in a.D. 1428 in the greatest straits. The last bulwark of 
his might, the city of Orleans, was besieged by the English, and seemed 
near its falL Then her voices commanded Joan to relieve Oilcans, 
and to accompany the dauphin to his coronation at Bheims. She now 
published her call, which had been hitherto kept secret, overcame all 
difficulties, was recognised as a messenger of heaven, assumed the male 
attire of a soldier, and place! herself at the head of an enthosiavtio 
crowd. Great success attended the movements of this girl of seventeen 
years. In the latter campaigns of the war she became the prisoner cf 
Burgundy, who delivered her over to the English. At Bouen she was 
Bubji*cted to an ecclesiastical tribunal, which after four months' investi- 
gation condemned her to the stake as a heretic and sorceress. In view of 
the fire, her courage failed. Yieldin;; to the persuasion of her confessor, 
she acknowledged her guilt, and had her sentence ct^mmuted to that of 
iniprisonmeut for life. But eight days later she was led f jrth to the 
stake. Her rude keepers hod taken away her female attire, and forced 
her to wciir again male garments, and this act to which she Dcas com- 
pelled was made a charge against her. She died couragcoiisly and 
piou4y in a.D. 1131. At the demand of her family, which had been 
ennobled, a revision of the process against her was made in a.d. 1450, 
when she was pronounced innocent, and the charges against her false. 
The endeaToor of Dnpanlonp, Bishop of Orleans, in a.D. 1876, in the 
name of Catholic France, to have her canonized, was not responded to 
by the papal coria. The inlalUbla ohureh, that had burnt her as a 


wHoh in a.D. 1431, oonid soaroelj give her a plaoe among its laints, evsii 
after 460 years had gone. 

8. Lollards, Flagellants, and Daneors. — ^Daring a plagae at Antwerp in 
▲.D. 1300 the Ldlards made their appearance, nursing the siok and bury- 
ing the dead. They spread rapidly over the Netherlands and the 
bordering German provinoe3. Like the Beghards however, and for the 
same reasons, they soon fell under suspicion of heresy, and were sub- 
jected to the persecution of the Inquisition, until Gregory XI., in A.D. 
1347, again granted them toleration. But the name Lollard still con- 
tinued to be associated with heresy or hypocrisy (§ 119, 1).' The Fla- 
gellant fraternities, which had sprung up in the 12th ceutuiy (§ 106, 4), 
greatly increased during this period, and reached their height during the 
14th century. Their iDfluonce was greatest during the visitation of the 
Black Death, a.d. 134S-1350, which cost Europe many millions of lives. 
Issuing from Hungary, rushing forth with the force of an avalanche, 
and massing in great numbers on the upper Bhine, they spread over all 
Germany, Be1':^um and HoUaod, Switzerland, England, and Sweden. 
Entrance into France was refused them at the bidding of the Avignon pope 
Clement VI. In long rows of penitents, with uncovered head, screaming 
forth their penitential son^s, and with tears streaming down their cheeks, 
they rushed about lashing their bare backs. They also from city to city 
and from village to village read aloud a letter of warning, said to have been 
written by Ohrist, and brought to the Patriarch of Jerusalem by an angeL 
This paroxysm lasted for three years. In Lombardy. in a.D. 1399, when 
famine, pestilence, the Turkish war, and expectation of the end of the 
world inclined men to such extravagances, the Flagellants made their 
appearance again, dressed in white robes, and so called Bianehi^ Alluiti, 
Princes, scholars, and popes, universities and councils sought to check 
this silly fanaticism, but were not able to suppress it. Many Flagellants 
were also heretical in their views, spoke of the hierarchy as anti- 
christ, withdrew from the worship of the church, decloi-ed the bloody 
baptism of the scourge the only true sacrament, and died at the stake of 
the Inquisition. — The Dancers, Cfiori$antei, were a sect closely related to 
the Flagellants, but their fanaticism seemed more of a pathological than 
of a religious order. Half naked and crowned with leaves they rushed 
along the streets and into houses, dancing in a wild, tumultuous manner. 
They made a great noise in the Bhine Provinces in a.D. 1374 and in 
A.O. 1418. They were regarded as demoniacs and cured by calling upon 
8t. Vitus. 

4. The Friends of God. — During the 14th century many detachments of 
mystic sects spread through all Southern Germany, and even from the 

1 Gairdner and Speddlng, " Studies in English Histoiy ** : L •* Tha 


NetberlAnds to Hongarj and Italj. A powerful religions awakening, 
with an nndertone of contemplative mysticism, was now experienced ia 
the castles of the knights, in the shops of artisans, and in the stalls 
of traders, as well as in the Begnine houses, the mooaffteries, and 
nanneries of the Dominicans and other monkish orders. A great frea 
association was then called forth nnder the name of ** Friends of God '* 
(John zv. 15), whose members maintained personal and epistolary eorre- 
spondence with one another. The headquarters of this movement were 
Cologne, Strassbarg, and Basel. Its preachers and supporters were 
mostly Dominicans. They drew their intelleotaal and spiritual nonriab- 
ment from the writings of the German mystics. They repudiated all 
sectarian intentions, carefully observed the rites and ceremonies and 
attended on the worship of the church, and accepted all its dogmas. 
But all the greater on this account was their sorrow over the deep decay 
of religions and moral life, and their lamentations over the corruption 
of the clergy and hierarchy. Fantastic visionary conceptions, however, 
derived from the domain of mysticisui, were by no means rare among 

5. Pantheistic Libertine Societies. — ^A demoniacally inspired counter- 
part to the fraternity of the ** Friends of God '* is found in the sect of the 
Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit. This sect, derived for the most 
part from the artisan class, may be regarded as carrying out to a con* 
sistent development the views of Amalrich of Bena (§ lOS, 4). We meet 
with these in the beginning of the 14th century wandering about, mis- 
siouarising and agitating in all partx of Southern Germany as well as in 
Switzerland, while they were particularly numerous in the Rhine Pro- 
vinces, where Cologne and Strassburg were their main resiorts. Often 
associating with strolling Beghards (§ 99, 7) they are frequently con- 
founded with these. They were communistic libertine pantheists. 
Every pious man is a Christ, in whom God becomes roan. Whatever 
is done in love is pore. The perfect are free from the law, and cannot 
sin. The oh nrch with her sacraments and institutions is a thorough 
cheat ; purgatory, heaven, and hell are mere figments, the marriage bond 
contrary to nature, all property is common good, and theft of it mIIow- 
able. Their secret services ended with immoral orgies. The Inquisition 
exterminated the se*t by sword and stake. — The Adamites in Austria 
in A.D. 1312 and the Turlupines in the Isle of France showed similar 
tendencies. In the beginning of the 15th century they reappeared as 
Jloinines intelligtntia at Brussels. In ▲.o. 1421 the Hussite leader Ziska 
r(»oted out the Bohemian Adamites or Picards, who went naked after the 
pattern of paradise, and had a community of wives. Picard is just a 
modification of the heretical designation Beghard. Tliey gained a foot- 
ing in several villages, and built an establifhment on a small island 
in a tributary of the Moldau, from which they made excursions into ths 


■arxonnding districts, ontil Ziaka pat an end to them hj oonqnering tb« 
island in 1.0. 142L 

§ 117. Church DisciPLiNB. 

The reckless and shameless sale of indulgenoes often 
made the exercise of church discipline impossible, and the 
discreditable condact of the mendicant monks destroyed all 
respect for the confessional. The scandalous misuse of the 
ban and interdict had shorn these of much of their terror. 
Frightful curses were pronounced at Home every Maundy 
Thursday against heretics by the solemn reading of the bull 
In Ccßna Domini, The Inquisition was still abundantly 
occupied with persecuting and burning numerous hereticsi 
and at the end of our period Innocent VIII. carried to the 
utmost extreme the persecution and burning of witches. 

1. Indulgenoei. — The soholastio theoiy of indalgenoes (S 106, 2) was 
anthoritatively proclaimed by Clement VL in ▲.d. 1343. The reforming 
ooanoils of the 15th oentory wished only to prevent them being misused, 
lor the purpose of filling the papal treasnry. Bixtus IV., in 1.0. 1477, 
declared that it was allowable to take money for indulgences for the dead, I 
and that their souls might be freed from purgatory. The pert question, 
why the pope would not rather free all souls at once by the exercise 
of his sovereign power, was answered by the assertion that the church, 
in accordance with Divine righteousness, could dispense its grace only 
ditcrete et cum moderamine. The institution of the jubilee gave a great 
impulse to the sale of indulgences. In jlo. 1300 Boniface VIII., at the 
bidding of an old man, proclaimed a complete indulgence for one hun- 
dred years to all Christians who would do penance for fifteen dftys in 
the churches of the apostles at Bome, and by this means gathered from 
day to day 200,000 pilgrims within the walls of the Holy City. Later 
popes made a jubilee every fiftieth year, then every thirty-third, and 
finally every twenty-fifth. Instead of appearing personally at Bome, 
it was enough to pay the cost of such a journey. The nepotism and 
extravagance of the popes had left an empty exchequer, which this sale 
of indulgences was intended to fill. The war with the Turks and the 
building of St. Peter's gave occasion to repeated indulgence crusades. 
Traffickers in indulgences in the most barefaced way cried up the quality 
of their wares ; the conditions of repentance and purpose of reformation 
were scarcely so much as named. Indulgences were even granted before- 
hand for sins that were contemplated« 

VOL. IL \\ 


S. Tha Inqvititkm, sine« ▲.!>. 1333 under tbe direetioii of tbe Domini« 

eans (§ 109, 2), spread through all European countries during the 14th 
Century. While the papal conrt resided at Arignon the Inquisition irai 
at its height in Fraaoe, where Waldensians and Albigensians, Beglimrds 
and Lollards, Fraticelli and Fanatical Spiritnalists, were brought ia 
crowds to the stake and subjected to the most cruel tortures. Bernard 
Delicieux, a Franciscan, raised his Yoice, aj>. l:U)0-1320, against the 
inhuman cruelty of the inquisitors, and with noble independence and 
heroic bravery appealed to king and pope a^iust the merciless sacri- 
fice of so many victims. He was shut up for life in a dark dungeon, and 
fed on bread and water. — In Germany, where, from the murder of Conrad 
of Marburg in A.D. 1233 (§ 109, 3), for almost a century and a half we find 
no trace of a regularly constituted Inquisition, it made its appearanos 
again in a.D. 1368. During that year Urban V. issued a bull, by wbioh 
he required that the civil and ecclesiastical authorities of Germany 
should support with their counsel and influence the two inquisitors who 
were searching out the heretical Beghards and Beguines (§ 116, 5), and 
place their prisons at the disposal of the Holy Office, which had still no 
prison of its own. His successor, Gregory XL, in a.D. 1373 increased 
the number of inquisitors in Germany to five, one in each of the ardi- 
dioceses of Mainz, Cologne, Salzburg, Magdeburg, and Bremen ; while hig 
successor, Bonifaoe IX., in a.D. 1399 added a sixth for North Germany. 
But these papal bulls would probably, owing to the disincliuation of the 
Germans to the Inquisition, like the attempts of Gregory IX., never have 
been put in force, had not Charles IV. (| 110, 4, 5) taken up the matter 
with an ardent zeal that even went beyond the intentions of Urban and 
Gregory. During his second journey to Rome, in a.D. 1369, he issued 
from Lucca four imperial decrees, and in a.d. 1378 from Treves a fifth, 
by which he granted to the Inquisition throughout Germauy all the 
rights, powers, and privileges which it had anywhere, and required thai 
all civil and ecclesiastical authorities, under pain of severest penalties and 
oon fiscation of all their goods, should support the Inquisition in its search 
for heretics and in its discovery and burning of all religious writings 
in the vulgar tongue composed and circulated by laymen or semi-lay- 
men. — The Spanish Inquisition was re-estahlished uuder Ferdinivud 
and Isabella in ad. 1480, and thoroughly organized by the grand- 
inquisitor Torquemada, a.d. 1483-1499. One of the first inquisitors 
appointed by him in a.d. 1484 was an Angustinian, Pedro Arbires, who 
amid the most unrelenting cruelties performed the duties Qf his office 
with such zeal, that in sixteen months many hundreds had perished at 
the stake ; but his fanatical career was ended by his murder at the altar 
in AJ>. 1485. Not only the two who did the deed, but also all tbeir 
relatives and friends, to the number of two hundn^d, suspected of com- 
plicity in a plot| were homed, while the *' martyr *' himself was beatified 


by Alexander YIL in a.D. 1661, and canonized bj Pins IX. In a.i>. 1867. 
This terrible tribnnal farther undertook the persecution of the hated 
Moors and Jews who had been baptized under compulsion (§ 95, 2, 3), 
which through numerous confiscations greatly enriched the national 
exchequer of Spain. This institution reached its highest point under 
the grand-inquisitor the Cardiual Francis Ximenes, a.d. 1507-1517, under 
whom 2,536 persons were burnt alive and 1,368 in effigy. The auto da 
fe*, which ended at the stake, were conducted with a horrible pomp. 
Even those who were acquitted of the charge of heresy were compelled 
for a long time to wear the san benito, an armless robe with a red cross 
piarked on it before and behind. According to Llorente, who had been 
general secretary of the Inquisition at Madrid, the Spanish inquisition, 
down to its suppression by Joseph Buonaparte in a d. 1808, had executed 
in perscm 31,912, burned in effigy 17,659, and subjected to severe punish- 
ments 291,456.1 

8. The Boll ** In Coma Domini" — It was customary to repeat from 
time to time the more important decrees of exconununication, to show that 
they were still valid. In this way the famous bull In Coßna Domini was 
gradually constructed. The earliest sketch of it was given by Urban V., 
who died in a.d. 1370, and it was published in its final form by Urban 
Till, in A.D. 1627. It contains a summary of all the rights of the Boman 
hierarchy, with anathemas against all opposing claims, not only on the 
part of secular princes and laymen, but also of antipapal councils, and 
eoncludes with a solemn excommunication of all heretics, to which Paul 
V. in A.D. 1610 added Lutherans, Zwinglians, and Calvinists, together 
with all their sympathisers. Pius Y., in a.d. 1567, in a new redaction 
insisted that it should be read yearly in the Catholic churches of all lands, 
but could not get this carried out, especially in France and Germany. 
In A.D. 1770 Clement XIY. forbade its being read. 

4. Proiecntion of Witches. — Down to the beginning of the 13th century 
many churchmen had spoken against the popular superstition regarding 
torcery, witchcraft, and compacts with the devil, and a whole series of 
provincial councils had pronounced such belief to be heathenish« sinful, 
and heretical. Even in Qratian's decretal (§ 99, 5) there was a canon 
which required the clergy to teach the people that witchcraft was a 
delusion, and belief in it incompatible with the Christian faith. But 
upon the establishment of the Inquisition in the beginning of the 13th 
century witchcraft came more and more to occupy the attention of the 
ecclesiastical authorities. Heresy and sorcery were now regarded aa 

^^—^ ■ ■ II I ^ ■ ■ ■ ^ ■ ■ ■»■■■■ ■ I 1 1 »■ , 11 ^^^^^ 

1 Baker, ** History of the Inquisition in Portugal, Spain, Italy," etc. 
London, 1763. Llorente, '* History of the Inquisition from its Establish- 
ment to Ferdinand VII." Philadelphia, 1826. Mocatta, '* Jews in Spain 
and Portugal, and the Inquisition." London, 1877. 


correlates, like two agencies resting on and serviceable to the demoniacal 
powers, and were therefore treated in the same way as ofiFences to be 
punished with tortnre and the stake. The Dominicans, as adminis- 
trators of the Inquisition, were the most zealous defenders of the belief 
in witchcraft^ whereas the Franciscans generally spoke of it simplj as 
foolish, heathenish, and heretical. Thomas Aquinas included it in 
his theological system, and Eymerich in his Direetorium InquUitorium 
(§ 109, 2). Tet witch prosecutions were only occasional incidents during 
the 14th and 15th centuries, especially in Germany, where clergy and 
people were adverse to them. But it wasqaite otherwise after Innocent 
VIII., on 3rd December, 1184, by his bull 5umimt desideianta affectibui, 
complaining of previous laxity, called attention to the spread of witch- 
craft in the country, and appointed two inquisitors, Sprenger and Insti- 
tor, to secure its extermination. These administered their office with 
such zeal and success, that in A d. 1489 at Cologne they were able, as the 
result of their experiences, to publish under the title MalUut mal^fiearum 
a complete code for witch prosecutions. From the confessions wrung 
from their vict'ms by torture and suggestive questions, they obtained 
a full, dogmatic system of compacts and intrigues with the devil, of 
Succubit and Ineuldi, of witch ointment, broomsticks, and ovenforks, of 
witches' sabbaths, Walpurgis nights, and flights up chimneys. Soon 
this illusion spread like an epidemic, and thousands throughout Ger- 
many and all other Catholic countries, mostly old women, but also some 
young mai«lens, were subjected to the most horrible tortures, and after 
confession bad been extorted, to death by fire. The MaUeiu accounted 
for the fact that women and yery rarely men were found engaged in such 
proceedings, by this statement : Dicitur enim femina a feret minus, quia 
temper minorem habet et tervatjidem, et hoe ex natura, — The Beformation 
of the 16th century made no change in these horrible proceedings, which 
rather rose to a height during the 17th century. Theologians of all 
confessions believed in the possibility and reality of compacts with the 
devil, and regarded this to be as essential to an orthodox creed as belief 
in the devil's existence. The jurists and civil judges in Protestant and 
Catholic countries were no less narrow-minded and superstitious than the 
theologians. Among Catholics the most celebrated defenders of the 
witch prosecutions were Jean Bodin (§ 148, 8), Peter Biusfeld, and the 
Jesait Mart. Delrio (§ 149, 11). Among Protestant vindicators of these 
prosecutions may be named the Heidelberg physician Thomas Erastus 
(S 144, 1), James I. of England, and the famons criminal lawyer Carpzov 
of Leipzig. Noble men however were not wanting on both sides who 
were shrewd and sensible enough to oppose such crude conceptions. 
In the 16th century we have the physician Weier, who wrote his De 
prattigiit datnonorum in 1.0.1563, and in the 17th the Jesuits Tanner 
•nd Spec ({ 149, 11 ; 156, 8), and the Dutch Protestant Bekker (i 160, 6). 


The wriiingB of the Halle jurist Thomaftins in a.D. 1701, 1701, were the 
first to tell powerfallj in favour of liberal views. In a.D. 1749 a nun of 
seventy years old was burnt at Würzbarg as a witch. In a.D. 1754 a girl 
of thirteen and in a.D. 1756 one of fourteen years were put to death at 
Landshut as suspected of witchcraft. In German Switzerland a ser- 
vant girl at Glarus in a.D. 1782 was the last victim. In bigoted Catholic 
countries the delusion lasted longer, but prosecutions were seldomer 
carried the length of judicial murder. In Mexico however, the Alcade 
Ignacio Castello of San Jaoobo on 20th August, 1877, ** with consent of 
the whole population," burnt five witches alive. Altogether -since the 
issue of the bnU of Innocent tliere have been certainly no less than 
800,000 women brought to the stake as witches. 

17. Attempts at BeformatioiL 

§ 118. Attempted Reforms in Church Polity. 

The struggle between imperialism and hierarchism, which 
is present through the whole course of the Middle Ages, rose 
to a height in the times of Louis the Bavarian, A.D. 1314 -1347 
(§ 110, 3, 4), and is of special interest here because of the 
literary war waged against one another by the rival sup- 
porters of the emperor and the pope. It concerns itself first 
of all only with the questions in debate between the impe- 
rial and the sacerdotal parties ; but soon on the imperialist 
side there appeared a reforming tendency, which could not 
be given effect to without carrying the discussion into a 
multitude of other depai'tments where reformation was also 
needed. Of quite another kind was the '' reformation of 
head and members " desired by the great councils of the 
15th century. The contention here was based, not so 
much upon any superiority claimed by the emperor over the 
pope and by the State over the church, but rather upon the 
subordination of the pope to the supreme authority of the 
universal church represented by the oecumenical councils. 
Yet both agreed in this, that with like energy they attacked 
the corruption of the papacy, in the one case in the interest 
of the State, in the other in the interest of the church. 


1. Th0 literary Wir "between Imperialitti and Cnrialiitf ia the liHi 
Century. — The literary oontroversy over the debatable land between 
church and State was conducted with ppecial vigour in the earlier part of 
our period, on account of the conflict between Boniface VIII. and Philip 
the Fair of France (§ 110, 1). The ablest vindicators of the independence 
of the State were the advocate Peter Dubois and the Dominican theologian 
John of Paris. Among their scholars were the men who twenty years 
later sought refuge from the wrath of Pope John XXII. at the court 
of Louis the Bavarian at Munich. Of these the most important was 
the Italian Marsilius of Padua. As teacher of theology, philosophy, and 
medicine at Paris, in A.D. 1B24, when the dispute betwen emperor and 
pope had reached its height, he composed jointly with his colleague 
John of Jaudnn in Champagne a Defemor pacit, a civil and ecclesiastical 
memoir, which, with an insight and clearness very remarkable for that 
age, developed the evangeUcal mean of the superiority of the State over 
the church, and of the empire over the papacy, historically, exegetically, 
and dogmatically ; and for this end established theories of Scripture and 
tradition, of the tasks and place of the church in the State, of excommuni- 
cation and persi cution of heretics, of liberty of faith and conscience, 
etc., which even transcend the principles laid down on these points by 
the Befoi mation of the 16th century. Both authors accompanied Louis 
to Italy in a.d. 132C, and there John of Jandun died in a.d. 1328. Marsi- 
lius continued with the emperor as his physician, counsellor, and literary 
defender, and died at Munich between a.d. 1341-1343. In A.D. 1327 
John XXII. condemned the Deferuor pacis, and Clement YI. pronounced 
its author the worst heretic of all ages. The book, often reprinted during 
the ICth century, was first printed at Basel in a d. 1522. 

2. Alongside of Marsilius there also stood a goodly array of schis- 
matical Franciscans, with their general, Michael of Cesena, at their head 
(S 112, 2), who were like himself refugees at the court of Munich. They 
persistently contested the heresies of John XXII. in regard to the vision 
of God (§ 110, 3) and his lax theory of poverty. Their polemic also 
extended to the whole papal system, and the corruption of church and 
clergy connected therewith. The most celebrated of them in respect of 
Bcientific attainments was William Occam (§ 113, 8). His earlier treatises 
dealt with the pope's heresies, and only after the Diet of Bhense ($ llo, 4) 
did he take up the burning questions about church and State. In the 
oompreheuBive Dialogut he rejects the infallibility of the pope as decidedly 
as his temporal sovereignty, and denies the Diviue institution of tlie 
primacy. Also a German prelate, Leopold of Bebenbnrg, Canon of Würz- 
Lurg, and from A.D. 1353 Bishop of Bamberg, inspired by genuinely Ger- 
man patriotism, made his appearance in a.D. 1338 as a brave and prudent 
defender of imperial rights against the assumptions of the papacy. — The 
ablest of all Marsilioa* opponents was the Spanish Franciscan Alvama 


Pebifiw, who wrote in a.D. 1830 the treatiie De pJanctu ecel^i«, in which, 

while sadly complaining of tha corruption of the church and clergy, he yet 
ascribes to the pope as the vicar of Christ unlimited authority over all 
earthly principalities and powers, and regards him as the fountain of all 
privileges and laws. A still more thoroughgoing deification of the papacy 
had appeared a few years earlier in the Sumnia de potestaU eccle^ia ad 
Johatmem Papam by the Augustiuian Angastiniii Triamphos of Aacona. 
But neither he nor Pelagins, in view of the manifest contradictious of the 
pope*8 doctrines of poverty (§ 112, 2), dared go the length of maiutaiuing 
papal infallibiUty. A German canon of Kegensburg, Conrad of tfegent- 
hnrg, also took part in the controversy, seeking to vindicate and glorify 
the papacy. 

3. Befonning Councils of the ISth Century.— The longing for reform 
during this period found most distinct ezpresnion in the councils of Pisa, 
Ck>n8tance, and Basel (§ 110, 7-9). The fruitlessness of these endeavours, 
though they had the sympathy of the people generally, shows that there 
was something essentially defective in them. The movement had kept 
it'velf aloof from all sectaries and separatists, wlshiug to hold by and 
reform the presently existing church. But its fault was this, that it 
insisted only upon a refonuation in the head and members, not in the 
spirit, that it aimed at lopping ofif the wild growths of the tree, without 
getting rid of the corrupt sap from which tlie very same growths would 
attain proceed. Only that which was manifestly unchristiau in tlie pre> 
tensions of the hierarchy, tlie covetousness and greed of the pope, the 
immorality of the clergy, the depravity and ignorance of the monks, 
etc. — in short, only abuses in hierarchical constitution and discipline — 
were dealt with. There was no word about doctrine. The llomish 
system, in spite of all its perversions, was allowed to stand. The cur* 
rent forms of worship, notwithstanding the introduction of many un- 
evaugelical elements and pagan supers titious, were left untouched. It 
was not seen that what was most important of all was the revivHl of the 
preaching of repentance and of justification through Him who is the jus* 
tifier of the ungodly. And so it happened that at Constance Huss, who 
had pointed out and followed this way, was sent to the stake, and at 
Basel the doctrine of the immaculate conception (§ 112, 4) was adiuitted 
as a doctrine of the church. It was not merely the election of a new pope 
opposed to the Beformation that rendered the negotiations at Pi^a 
and Confctauce utter failures, the wrong principle upon which they pror 
oceded insured a disappointing result. 

4. Friends of Beform in France daring the 15th Century. — (1) Peter 
d*Ailly, professor and chancel!or of the University of Paris, Bishop of 
Cambray in a.i>. 1397 and cardinal in A.n. 1411, was one of the ablest 
members of the councils of Pisa and Constance, ^e die4 \n 4.0. li^o 
as cardinal-legate in Germany. His chief dogmi^tio treatise, the Qtuu» 


Uone$ on the Senienees of tbe Lombard, oo(nii>ie8 the stAndpoint of Oeeun. 
In many of his other works be falls back upon the position of the mystioi 
of St. Victor (§ 102. 4), and recommends with maoh warmth the diligent 
study of the Soriptnres. His ideas abont ehoroh reform are centred in 
the affirmation of the Gallican Liberties, which he had to maintain as a 
French bishop, bat are expressed with the moderation becoming a Roman 
cardinal. In opposition to Occam and the Spiritaals, he founds the tem- 
poral sovereignty of the pope on the Donatio Cowttantini, He also holds 
by the primacy of the Roman bishop, as firmly established by Scriptare. 
Bat the xirpa of Matthew zvi. 18 he understands not of Peter, bat of Christ. 
In this passage therefore no pre-eminence is given to Peter oyer the 
other apostles in the poUgtoi ordinUt bat by the injnnction of John n., 
** Feed My sheep,** sach pre-eminence is given in the poUita» regiminiM. 
The cecamenical coancil, as representative of the whole charoh, stands 
snperior to the pope as administrative head. — (2) d*Ailly*s successor as 
professor and chancellor was the celebrated Jean Charlier, better known 
from the name of his birthplace near Bheims as Gersoa. Having 
denounced the Dake of Burgandy*s murder of the Dake of Orleans, and 
having thus inonrred that prince*s hatred, he withdrew after the Ck>ancil 
of Constance into Bavana. Soon after the dake*s death, in a.D. 1419, he 
returned to France, and settled at Lyons, where he died in A.D. 1429. 
Like d'Ailly, (Person was a decided nominalist, and sought to give now 
life to scholasticism by combining with it Scripture study and mysticism. 
He, too, was powerfully influoncetl by the Victorine mystics, and yet 
more by Bonaventura. He had no appreciation of the speculative ele- 
ment in German mysticism. Gerson was the first French theologian 
who employed the lauguage of the people, particularly in his smaller 
practical tracts. He was mainly instrumental in bringing about the 
Council of Pisa. In the Council of Constance he was one of the most 
eouspicnous figures. Bostralned by no personal or official relationship 
with the curia, he could by speech and writing express himself much 
more freely than d'Ailly. The principle and means of the reform of the 
ehurcli, in its head and members, was recognised by Gerson in his state- 
ment that the highest authority of the church i« to be sought not in the 
pope, but in the oecumenical council. He held however in every point 
to the Roiuisli Rystem of doctrine. He did indeed unweariodly proclaim 
the Bible the one norm and source of all Christian knowledge, but he 
would not allow the rt'ading of it in the vcmocular, and regarded ail as 
heretics who did not in the interpretation of it submit unconditionally to 
the judgment of the church.— (3) Nicholas of Clemanges was in a.D. 1393 
rector of the University of Paris, bat afterwards retired into solitude. 
He had the profounlest insight into the corruption of the church, and 
acknowledged Holy Scripture to be the only source of saving truth. From 
this standpoint he demanded a thoroogh reform in theological study 


and tlie whole eonstitation of the oharch. — (4) Lotiis d'Aleman, car« 
dinal and Archbishop of Aries, who died in ▲. d. 1450, was the most 
powerfnl and most eloqaent of the anti-papal party at Basel. He was 
therefore ekcommonicated by Eugenins IV. At last submitting to the 
pope, he was restored by Nicholas Y. and in a.D. 1527 beatified by 
Clement VII. 

5. Friends of Befbrm in Germany. — (1) Even before the appearance of 
the Parisian friends of reform, a German, Henry of Langenstein, at Mar- 
burg had insisted upon the princes and prelates calling an cecnmenioal 
council for putting an end to schism and reforming the church. In a 
treatise published in a.D. 1381 he gave a sad but only too true picture of 
the desolate condition of the church. The cloisters he designated pro» 
ttibula meretrieium, cathedral churches tpeluncce raptorum et latronunif 
etc. From\.D. 1363 he taught in Paris, from a.D. 1390 in Vienna, where 
in A D. 1397 he died as rector of the unlTersity. — (2) Theodorich or Dietrich 
of Hiem in Westphalia accompanied Gregory XI. from France to Borne 
as his secretary in a.D. 1377. From a.D. 1395-1399 he was Bishop of 
Verdun, was probably present at the Council of Pisa, and certainly at that 
of Constance. He died in this latter place in a d. 1417. His writings 
are of great value for the histfiry of the schism and of the councils of 
Pisa and Constance. His language is simple, strong, and faithful. — (3) 
Gregory of Heimburg was present at the Basel Council, in terms of close 
friendship with Mnesa Sylvius, who was then also on the side of reform. 
He became in a.d. 1433 s^ndicus at Nuremberg, went to the council 
at Mantua in a.D. 1459 as envoy of Duke Sigismund of Austria, was 
banished in a.D. 1460 by his old friend, now Pius XL, afterwards led a 
changeful life, never free from the papal persecutions, and died at 
Dresden in a.D. 1472, His principal writings on civil and ecclesiastical 
polity, powerful indictments against the Boman curia inspired by love 
for his German fatherland, appeared at Frankfort in a.D. 1603 under the 
title Scripta nervo$a jtutitiaque pUna,~-{4) Jacob of Jftterboyk, who died 
io A.D. 1465, was first a Cistercian monk in Poland and teacher of theo- 
logy at Cracow, then Carthusian at Erfurt, and to the end of his life 
a Eoalous defender of the positions of the Council of Basel, at which he 
was present in a.D. 1441. His writings leave untouched the doctrines of 
the cliurch, but vigorously denounce the political and moral corruption 
of the papacy and monasticism, the greedy misuse of the sale of 
indulgences, and insist upon the subordinating of the pope under general 
councils, and their right even to depose the pontiff. Whoever contests 
this latter position teaches that Christ has given over the church to a 
sinful man, like a bridegroom who sm-renders his bride to the unre- 
strained will of a soldier. All possession of property on the part of those 
in sacred offices is with him an abomination, and unhesitatingly he oallg 
upon the oivil power to pat an end to this eviL — (5) The Cardiiisl Hieholat 


of CnM (§ 113, 6) also for a long time was one of the most sealons frienda 
of reform in the Basel Council. — (6) Felix HemmerÜn, canon at Zürich, 
iras to the end of his life an ardent supporter of the reform measures of 
the Coancil of Basel, at which he had been present. As he gave eflfect 
to his views in his oAdal position, he incurred the hatred and persecu- 
tion of the inmates of his convent to such an extent, that they laid a plot 
to murder him in a.D. 1439. His whole life was an almost unbroken 
aeries of snfiFerings and persecutions. Theee in great part he brought 
on himself by his zealous support of the reactionary party of the nobles 
that sided with Austria in opposition to the patriotic revolutionary party 
that struggled for freedom. Deprived of his revenues and deposed from 
office, he was imprisoned in a.D. 1454, and died between a.D. 1457-1464 
in the prison of tiie monastery of the Minorites at Lucerne, martyr as 
much to his political conservatism as to his ecclesiastical reformatory 
principles. His writings were placed in the Index prohibitorum by the 
Council of Trent. — (7) To this place also belongs the work written in the 
Bwabian dialect, <* The Sefbrmation of the Emperor Sigismnnd,** which de- 
mands a thoroughgoing and radical reform of the clergy and the secular 
priests, insisting upon the renunciation of all personal property on the 
part of the latter, enforcing against prelates, abbots, monasteries, and 
monks all the reforms of the Basel Council, and making proposals for 
their execution in the spirit of the Taborites and Hussites. The author 
is styled in the MSS. Frederick of Landscron, and describes himself as a 
eouncillur of Sigismund. The tract was therefore regarded during the 
15th and 16th centuries as a work composed under the direction of the 
emperor, setting forth the principles of reformation attempted at the 
Basel or Constance Council. According to Böhm its author was the 
Taborite Reiser (§ 119, 9), who, under the powerful reforming impulse of 
the Basel Council of a.D. 1435-1437, oomposed it in a.D. 1438. 

6. An Italian Apostate from the Basel Liberal Party. — Mntsm Sylvius 
Piecolomini, bom at Siena in a.D. 1405, appeared at Basel, first as sec- 
rotary of a bishop, then of a cardinal, and finally of the Basel anti-pope 
Felix v., as a most decided opponent of Eugenius IV., and wrote in a.D. 
1439 from this point of view his history of the oouncil. In a.D. 1442 
he entered the service of the then neutral Emperor Frederick III., was 
made Foeta laureatuM and imperial councillor, and as such still fought for 
the independence of the Qerman church. But in a.d. 1445, with all the 
diplomatic arts which were so abundantly at his disposal, he wrought to 
secure the subjection of the emperor and German princes under the pope 
(§ 110, 10). Made bishop of Siena in a.D. 1450, he was raised to the 
oardinalate by G&lixtus m. in a.D. 1456, and two years later ascended 
the papal throne as Pius II. The lascivionsness of his earlier life is 
mirrored in his poems, novels, dialogues, dramas, and letters. But as 
pope, old and weak, he maintained an bonouxable life, and in a boll of 


retractation addressed to the TJniyersity of Cologne exhorted Christendom 
JEneam rejicite^ Fium recipite I 

7. Beforms In Chnrch Policy in Spain. — Notwithstanding the church 
feeling awakened by the struggle with the Moors, a vigorous opposition 
to papal pretensions was shown daring the 14th century by the Spanish 
princes, and after the outbreak of the great schism the anti-pope Clement 
YIL, in A.D. 1381, purchased the obedience of the Spanish church by large 
concessions in regard to appointment to its bishoprics and the removal 
of the abuses of papal indulgences. The popes, indeed, songht not 
onsuccessfally to enlist Spain in their favour aga<nst the reformatory 
tendencies of the councils of the 15th century, until Ferdinand of Aragon, 
▲.D. 1479-1516, and Isabella of Castille, a.d. 1174-1504, who had on 
account of their seal for the Catholic cause been entitled by the pon* 
tiff himself ** their Catholic majesties," entered so vigorous a protest 
against papal usurpations, that toward the end of the 15th century the 
royal supremacy over the Spanish church had won a re< ognition never 
accorded to it before. They consistently refused to acknowledge any 
bishop appointed by the pope, and forced from Sixtus lY. the concf'ssion 
that only Spaniards nominated by the Crown should be eligible for the 
highest ecclesiastical oflices. AU papal rescripts were subject to the 
royal approval, ecclesiastical tribunals Were carefully supervised, and 
appeals from them were allowed to the royal judicatures. The cburch 
had also to give ordinary and extraordinary tithes of its goods and 
revenues for State purposes. The Spunisli inquisition (§ 117, 2), 
thoroughly recognised iu a.d. 1483, was more of a civil than an eccleKias- 
tical institution. As the bishops and inquisitors were appointed by the 
royal edict, the orders of knights (§ 98, 8), by the transference of the 
grand-mastership to the king, were placed in complete subjection to 
the Crown ; and whether he would or not Alexander VI. was obliged 
to accord to the royal commission for chnrch and cloister visitation and 
reform the most absolute authority. But in everything else these rulers 
were wortliy of the name of ** Catholics,'* for they tolerated in tbeir 
ehureh only the purely mediieval type of strict orthodoxy. The most 
distinguished promoter of their reforms in church polity was a Fran- 
eucan monk, Francis Ximenet, from a.d. 1492 confessor to Isabella, 
afterwards raised by her to the archbishopric of Toledo, made a Homan 
cardinal by Alexander YI., and grand-inquisitor of Spain in jld. 1507. 
He died in a.D. 1517. 

§ 119. Evangelical Efforts at Reform. 

Alongside of the Parisian reformers, but far in advance 
of thenii stand those of the English and Bohemian chorcheB 


represented by Wiclif and Hubs. The reformation aimed 
at by these two was essentially of the same kind, Wiclif 
being the more original, while Huss was largely dependent 
npon his great English precursor. For in personal endow- 
ment, speculative power, rich and varied learning, acnteneas 
and wealth of thought, originality and productivity of 
intellect, the Englishman was head and shoulders above the 
Bohemian. On the other hand, Huss was far more a man 
for the people, and he conducted his contention in a sensible, 
popular, and practical manner. There were also powerful 
representatives of the reform movement in the Netherlands 
during this period, who pointed to Scripture and faith in 
the crucified Saviour as the only radical cure for the cor- 
ruptions of the church. While Wiclif and Huss attached 
themselves to the Augustinian theology, the Dutchmen 
gave themselves to quiet, calm contemplation and the ac- 
quirement of practical religious knowledge. In Italy too 
a reformer appeared of a strongly evangelical spirit, who 
did not however show the practical sense of those of the 

1. Wiclif and the Wic1ült6i.~In England the kings and the Parliament 
had for a long time witliatood the oppressive yoke of the papal hierarohj. 
Hen too like John of Sa ishary, Robert Orosseteste, Roger Bacon, and 
Thomas Bradwardine had raised their voices against the inner oorrnp- 
lion of the ehnroh. John Wielif, a scholar of Bradwardine, was bom 
»boat A.D, 1820. As fellow of the university of Oxford, he supported 
in A.D. 1866 the English Grown against the payment of tribute to the 
papal court then at Avignon, admitted by John Lackland (§ 96, 18), of 
which payment had now for a long time been refused. This secured 
him court favour, the title of doctor, and a professorship of theology at 
Oxford ; and in a.D. 1874 he was chosen as member of a commission which 
was to discuss at Brügge in the Netherlands with the papal envoys the 
difTerences that had arisen about the appointing to ecclesiastical offices. 
After hift return he openly spoke and wrote against the papal " anti- 
christ" and his doctrines. Gregory XL now, in a.D. 1877, condemned 
nineteen propositions from his vnritings, but the English court protected 
him from the strict inquiry and punishment threatened. Meanwhile 
Widif was ever beooming bolder. Under his infloenoe religioiu iooietiet 


were formed which sent ont travelling preachers of the gospel among the 
people. By their opponents they wore called Lollards (§ 116, 3), a name 
to which the stigma of heresy was already attached. Wiolif translated 
for them the Scriptures from the Vulgate into English. The hitterness 
of his enemies now reached its height. Just then, in a.d. 138 1 , a rebellion 
of the oppressed peasants that deluged all England with blood broke out. 
Its origin has been quite gratuitously assigned to the religious movem^^ut. 
When he had directly repudiated the doctrine of ti-ansubstantiation, % 
Bynod at London, in a.D. 1382, condemned his wiitiugn and his doctiiuv 
as heretical, and the university also cast him out. Court and Parliament 
or>ald only protect his person. Ho now retired to his rectory at Lutter- 
worth in Leicestershire, whore he died on 31st December, 1384. — For 
five centuries his able writings were left unprintod, to moulder away in 
the f'bscnrity of libraries. His English works have now been edited by 
Matthews, Loudon, 18^0. Lechler of Leipzig edited Wie! if 's most com- 
plete and comprehensive work, the " Trialat/us " (Oxford, 18G9), ia which 
his whole theological system is developed. Buddensieg of Dresden pub* 
Ushed the keen aotipapal controversial tract, *' De Christo et nio adrer' 
tarin Aittirhri in " (Leii zig, 1880). The Wiclif Society, instituted at the 
fifth ceutenary of Wiclif *& death for the purpose of issuing critical editions 
of his most important wo)ks, sent forth as their first performance Bud- 
dcnsieg's edition of ** twenty-six Latin controversial tracts of Wiclif *8 
from M8S previously unprinted," in 2 vols., Loudon, 1883. Among 
Wiclif's systematic treatbes we are promised editions of the Summa 
theolnijia^ De inr.amatione Verbif De veritate t. Scr,^ De dominio divino, 
De ecclenat De actibus animal etc., some by English, some by Oermaii 
editors. — As the principle of all theology and reformation Wiclif con* 
eistently affirms the sole authority of Divine revelation in the Holy 
Scriptures. He has hence been called doctor evanpeliats. Anything that 
cannot be proved from it is a corrupting human invention. Consistently 
carrying out this principle, he denounced the worship of saints, relics, and 
images, the ose of Latin in public worship, elaborate priestly choir sing- 
ing, the multiplication of festivals, private masses, extreme unction, and 
generally all ceremonialism. The CathoUo doctrine of indulgence and 
the sale of indulgences, as well as the ban and the interdict, he pro- 
nounced blasphemous ; auricular confession he regarded as a forcing of 
conscience ; the power of the keys he explained as conditional, its binding 
and loosing powerless, except when in accordance with the judgment of 
Christ. He denied the real presence of the body and blood of Christ in 
the Lord's Supper, and afilrmed, like Berengar, a spiritual communication 
thereof, which however he makes dependent, not only on the faith of the 
receiver, but also on the worthiness of the officiating priest. The doctrine 
of purgatory he completely rejected, and supported Augustine's pre- 
destinationism against the prevalent semipelagiauism. The papacy wai 


•ntiohriBt ; the pope hM hie power only from the emperor, not tnm 
God. The bierarchioal system should be rep1a4Md by the apoetolio 
presbyterial conbtitation. Ord.'nAtion oonlen no indelible ehumeter; 
a priest who has fallen into mortal sin eannot dispense the Bacrament. 
Every believer is as sach a priest. The State ia a representation ol 
Christ, as the God- Man ruler of the universe ; the clergy represent only 
the poor and suffering life of His humanity. Monkery is contrary to 
nature, etc. — Wiclirs supporters, many of them belonging to the noblest 
and most cultured orders, were after his death subjected to violent per- 
se-cution, which reached its height when the House of Lancaster in the 
person of Henry IV. ascended the English throne in aj). 1399. An-aok 
of parliament was passed in a-d. liOO which made death by fire the 
punishment of the heresy of the Lollards. Among the martyrs which 
this law brought to the stake was the noble Sir John Oldcastle, who in 
▲.D. 1418 was hung up between two beams in iron chains over a fire and 
there slowly burnt. The Council of Constance in ^.d. 1415 oondemned 
forty-five propositions from Wiclif's writings, and ordered his bones to 
be exhumed and scattered abroad« Many germs sown by him continued 
until the Beformation came.i 

2. Precursors of the Hussite Hovement — Owing to its Greek origin 
(S 79, 2, 3), the Bohemian church had a certain character of its own 
and barely tolerated the Roman constitution and ritual In Bohemia 
too the Waldensians bad numerous supporters during the 13th century. 
And even before the appearance of Huss three distinguished clergymen 
in and around Prague by earnest preaching and pastoral work had 
awakened in many a consciousness of crying abuses in the church. (1) 
Conrad of Waldhausen was a famous preacher when called by Charles IV. 
to Prague, where after fifteen years' labour he died in a.i>. 1369. Preach- 
ing in German, he inveighed against the cupidity, hypocrisy, and 
immorality of the clergy and monks, against the frauds connected with 
the worship of images and relics and shrines, and threw back upon hia 
accusers the charge of heresy in hia still extant Apologia.— (2) More 
influential than Conrad as a preacher of repentance in Prague was John 
Milics of Cremsier in Moravia, who died in a-d. 1374. Believing the end 
of the world near and antichrist already come, he went to Home in a.d. 
1367 to place before Urban Y. his scheme of apocalyptic interpretation. 

1 Le«is, *« Hist, of Life and Sufferings of John Wiclif." Lond., 1720. 
Yaughan, ** John de Wycliffe. A Monograph.'* London, 1853. Lechler, 
**John Widif and his English Precursors." 2 fois. London, 1878. 
Buddensieg, **John Wyclif, Patriot and Beformer; his Life and 
Writings." London, 1884. Burrows, •* WioUfs PUoe in History.*' 
London, 1882. Btom, *• John Wycliffe and the first English Bible." 
New York, 1880. 


Bseaptng with diffienltj from the Inquisition, he returned to Prague, and 
there applied himself with renewed zeal to the preaching of repentance. 
His preaching led to the conversion of 200 fallen women, for whom 
he erected an institution which he called Jerusalem. But the begging 
friars accused him before Gregory XI. as a heretic. Milicz fearlessly 
went for examination to Avignon in a.D. 1374, where he soon died before 
judgment had been passed. The most important of his works is De 
AnUehristo. — (3) Matthias of Janow, of noble Bohemian descent, died in 
A.D. 1374, after fourteen years* work as a preacher and pastor in Prague. 
His sermons, composed in Bohemian, lashed unsparingly the vices of the 
clergy and monks, as well as the immorality of the laity, and denounced 
the worship of images and relics. None of his sermons are extant, but 
we have various theological treatises of his on the distinguiishing of the 
true faith from the false and the frequent observance of the communion. 
At a Prague synod of a.p. 1389 he was obliged to retract several of his 
positions, and especially to grant the propriety of confessing and com- 
municating half-yearly. Janow however, like Conrad and Milicz, did 
not seriously contest any fundamental point of the doctrine of the 

8. John Hun of Hussinecs in Bohemia, born a.D. 1369, was Bachelot 
of Theology at Prague, in a.D. 1394, Master of Liberal Arts in a.D. 1896, 
became public teacher in the university in a.d. 1398, was ordained 
priest in a.D. 1400, undertook a pastorate in a.D. 1402 in the Bethlehem 
chapel, where he had to preach in the Bohemian language, was chosen 
confessor of Queen Sophia in a.d. 1403, and was soon afterwards made 
synodal preacher by the new archbishop, Sbynko of Hasenburg. Till 
then he had in pious humility accepted all the doctrines of the Bomiah 
Church, and even in a.d. 1392 he offered his last four groscben for an 
indulgence, so that for a long time dry bread was his only nourishment. 
But about A.D. 1402 he reached an important crisis in his Ufe through 
the study of Wiclif's theological wosks. — Bohemians who had studied 
in Oxford brought with them WicUf's philosophical works, and in a.d. 
1348 the discussion on realism and nominalism broke out in Prague. 
The Bohemians generally aided with Wiclif for realism ; the Oermana 
with the nominalists (§ 113, 3). This helped to prepare an entrauoe for 
Wiclifs theological writings into Bohemia. Of the national party which 
favoured Wiclifs philoBophy and theology, Huss was soou recognised 
as a leader. A university decree of a.d 1403 condemned forty- five pro- 
positions from Wiclifs works as heretical, and forbade their promul- 
gation in lectures or sermons. Huss however was still highly esteemed 
by Archbishop Sbynko. In a^. 1405 he a))pointed Huss, with other 
three scholars, a commission to investigate a reputed miracle at Wile« 
naok, where on the altar of a ruined church three blood-red coloured 
hosts were said to have been found. Huss pronounced the miracle • 


oboatf and proyed in a traet that tbe blood of Christ glorified can onljbe 
invisibly present in the saoramont of the altar. The archbishop approved 
this tract, and forbade all pilgrimages to the spot. He also took no 
offünoe at Huss for uttering Wiclifite doctrine in his synod sermon. 
Only when, in a.d. 1408, the clergy of his diocese complained that Hubs 
by his preaching made the priests contemptible before the people, did he 
deprive him of his function as s^nnod preacher. When the majority of 
cardinals at Leghorn in a.D. 1408 took steps to put an end to the schism, 
king Wenzel determined to remain neutral, and demanded the assent of 
the university as well as the clergy of his realm. But only tbe Bohe- 
mian members of the university agreed, while the rest, along with the 
archbishop, supported Gregory XII. Sbynko keenly resented the revolt 
of the Bohemians, and forbade Huss as their spokesman to preach with- 
in his diocese. Huss paid no attention to the prohibition, but secured 
a royal injunction, that henceforth in the university Bohemians should 
have three votes and foreigners only one. The foreigners then withdrew, 
and founded the University of Leipzig in A.D. 1409. Huss was made 
first rector of the newly organized University of Prague ; but the very 
fact of his great popularity in Bohemia caused him to be profoundly 
hated in other lands.^ 

4. The archbishop escaped prosecution only by unreservedly oondemn- 
ing the doctrines of Wiclif, burning his books, and prohibiting all 
lectiures opon them. Huss and his friends appealed to John XXIII., 
but this did not prevent the archbishop burning in his palace yard about 
two hundred Wiclifite books that had previously escaped his search. 
For this he was hooted in the streets, and compelled by the courts of 
law to pay the value of the books destroyed. John XXIII. cited Huss 
to appear at Borne. King, nobles, magistrates, and university sided 
with him ; but the papal commission condemned him when he did not 
appear, and the archbishop pronounced anathema against him and the 
interdict against Prague (a.D. 1411). Huss appealed to the oecumenical 
council and continued to preach. The court forced the archbishop to 
become reconciled with Huss, and to admit his orthodoxy. Sbynko re- 
ported to the pope that Bohemia was free from heresy. He soon after- 
wards died. The pope himself was the cause of a complete breach, by 
baying an indulgence preached in Bohemia in a.D. 1412 for a crusade 
against Ladislaus of Naples, the powerful adherent of Gregory XII. 
Huss opposed this by word and writing, and in a public disputation 
maintained that the pope had no right to grant such indulgence. His 
most stanch supporter was a Bohemian knight, Jerome of Prague, who 
had studied at Oxford, and returned in a.D. 1402 an enthusiastic adherent 

& Gillet, ** Life and Times of John Hass.** BosUm, S vols., 1870. 
Wratislaw, ** John Hubs.** London, 1882. 


of WicliTs doctrines. Their addresses produced an immense impression, 
and two days later their disorderly followers, to throw contempt on the 
papal party, had the ball of indulgence paraded through the streets, on 
the breast of a public prostitute, representing the whore of Babylon, and 
then cast into the flames. But many old friends now withdrew from 
Hubs and joined his opponents. The papal curia thundered against 
him and his followers tbe great excommunication, with its terrible 
eurses. Wherever he resided that place was put under interdict. But 
Buss appealed to tbe one righteous Judge, Jesus Christ. At the wish of 
the king he left the city, and sought the protection of yarious noble 
patrons, from whose castles he went forth diligently preaching round 
about. He spread his views all over the country by controversial and 
doctrinal treatises in Latin and Bohemian, as well as by an extensive 
oorrespondence with his friends and followers. Thus the trouble and 
turmoil grew from day to day, and all the king's efforts to restore peace 
were in vain. 

5. The Boman emperor Sigismund summoned Huss to attend the 
Ck>uncil of Constance (§ 110, 7), and promised him a safe-conduct. 
Though not yet in possession of this latter, which he only got at Con- 
stance, trusting to the righteousness of his cause, for which he was quite 
willing to die a martyr's death, he started for Constance on 11th October, 
▲.D. 1414, reaching his destination on 8rd November. On 28th Novem- 
ber be was sentenced to imprisonmeut at a private conference of the 
cardinals, on the pretended charge of an attempt at flight, first in the 
Dominican cloister, then in the bi3hop*s castle of Qottlieben, where he 
was put in chains, finally in the Franciscan cloister. Sigismund, who 
had not been forewarned when he was cast into prison, ordered his release ; 
but the council convinced him that Huss, arraigned as a heretic before a 
general council, was beyond the reach of civil protection. His bitterest 
enemies and accusers were two Bohemians, Michael of Dentschbrod and 
Stephan of Palecz. Tbe latter extracted forty-two points for accusations 
from his writings, which Huss from his prison retracted. D*Ailly and 
Oerson were both against him. The brave knight John of Chlum stood 
faithfully by him as a comforter to the last. For almost seven months 
was he harassed by private examinations, in which, notwithstanding his 
decided repudiation of many of them, he was charged with all imagin- 
able Wiclifite heresies. The result was the renewed condemnation of those 
forty-five propositions from Wiclif 's writings, which had been condemned 
▲.D. 1408 by the University of Prague. At last, on 5th June, a.D. 1415, he 
was for the first time granted a public trial, but the tumult at the sitting 
was so great that he was prevented from saying a single word. Even on 
the two following days of the trial he could do little more than make a vain 
protest against being falsely charged with errors, and declare his williug- 
nesti to be better instructed from God's word. The humility and gentle* 

VOL n. H 


ness of his demeanour, as well as the enthmiasm and beliering joyfnln« 
which he displayed, won for him many hearts even oat>ide of the council. 
All posfäble motives were urged to induce him to submit. Sigismund 
BO exhorted him, with the threat that if he did not he would withdraw 
his protection. The third and last day of trial was 8th Jane, a.D. 1415, 
and judgment was pronounced in the cathedral church on the 6th July. 
After high mass had been celebrated, a bishop mounted the pulpit and 
preached on Romans vi. 6. He addressed Sigismund, who was present, 
** By destroving this heretic, thou shalt obtain an undying name to all 
ensuiug generations.'* Once again colled upon to recnnt, Huss repeated 
his previous protests, appealed to the promise of a safe-conduct, which 
made Sigismund wince and blush, and kneeling down prayed to God 
for his enemies and unjust judges. TLen seven bishops dressed him 
in priestly robes in order to strip him of them one after another amid 
aolemu execrations. Then they put on him a high pyramidal hat, painted 
with figures of devils, and bearing the inscription, Haresiarcha, and 
ottered the words, ** We give thy soul to the devil." He replied : ** I 
commend it into the hands of our Saviour Jesus Christ." On that some 
day he was given over by Sig^smuud to Louis Count-palatine of the 
Bhine, and by him to the Constance magistrates, and led to the stake. 
Amid prayer and praise he expired, joyfully, courageously, and confidently, 
showing himself worthy to rank among the martyrs ^ho in the best times 
of Christianity had sealed their Christian confession with their blood. 
His ashes ^ere scattered on the Bhine. Tlie later Hussites, in accordance 
with an old Christian custom (§ 39, 5), celebrated the day of his death 
as the die* iiatalit of the holy martyr Jolm Uuss. — Jerome of Prague had 
gone unasked to Constance. When he saw that his longer stay would 
not help his friend, but only involve himself in his fate, he left the city; 
but was seized on the way, and taken back in chains in April, a.d 1415. 
During a severe half-year's imprisonment, and wearied with the impor- 
tunities of his judges, he agreed to recant, and to acquiesce in the 
■entenee of Huss. But he was not trusted, and after as before his recan- 
tation he was kept in close confinement. Then his courage revived. 
He demanded a public trial before the whole council, which was at last 
granted him in May, a.D. 1416. There he solemnly and formally retracted 
his previous retractation with a believer's confidence and a martyr's joy. 
On May 30th, a.D. 1416, he, too, died at the stake, joyfully and coura- 
geously as Huss had done. The Florentine humanist Poggio, who was 
present, has given enthusiastic expression in a still extant letter to his 
admiration at the heroic spirit of the martyr. 

6. In all his departures from Bomish doctrine Huss was dependent 
upon Wiclif, not only for the matter, but even for the modes of expres- 
sion. He did not however separate himself quite so far from the 
Church doctrines as his English master. He firmly maivtained the 


doctrine of transnbatantiation ; he was also inclined to withhold tbe enp 
from the laity ; and, though he sought salvation only from the Saviour 
crucified for tu, he did not refuse to give any place to works in tbe 
justification of the sinner, and even invocation of tbe saints he did not 
wholly condemn. While he energetically protested against the corrup- 
tion of tbe clergy, he never denied that the sacrament might be efficaciously 
administered by an unworthy priest. In everything else however he was 
in thorough agreement with the English reformer. The most complete 
exposition of his doctrine is found in the Tractatus de ecclesia of a.D. 1413. 
Angnstine's doctrine of predestination is its fonn<1ation. Ho distinguishes 
from the church as a visible human institution the idea of the church ai 
the true body of Christ, embracing all elected in Christ to blessedness 
from eternity. Its one and only bead is Christ : not Peter, not the pope ; 
for this church is no monster with two heads. Originally and according 
to Christ's appointment the bishop of Bome was no more than the 
other bishops. The donation of Constantino first gave him power and 
dignity over the rest. As the church in the beginning could exist 
without a pope, so tbe church unto the end can exist without one. The 
Christian can obey the pope only where his commands and doctrines 
agree with those of Christ. In matters of faith Holy Scripture is the only 
authority. Fathers, councils, and popes may err, and have erred ; only 
tbe word of God is infallible. — That this liberal reforming Council of 
Constance, with a Gerson at its bead, should have sentenced such a man 
to death is not to be wondered at when we riglitly consider how matters 
stood. His hateful realism seemed to the nominalistio fathers of the 
council the source of all conceivable heresies. It had even been main- 
tained that realism consistently carried out would give a fourth person to 
the Godhead. His devotion to the national interests of Bohemia in the 
University of Prague had excited German national feeling against him. 
And, further, the council, which was concerned only with outward 
reforms, had little sympathy with the evangelical tone of his spirit and 
doctrine. Behides this, Huss had placed himself between the swords 
of two contending parties. The hierarchical party wished, in order to 
strike terror into their opponents, to show by an example that the church 
had still the power to bum heretics ; and the liberal party refused to 
this object of P'tpal bate all protection, lest they should endanger the 
cause of reformation by incurring a suspicion of sympathy with heresy. — 
The prophecy said to have been uttered by Huss in his last moments, 
" To-day you bnrn a goose (this being the meaning of Huss in Sla- 
vonian), but from its ashes will arise a swan (Luther's coat of arms), 
which you will not be able to burn," was unknown to his contempo- 
raries. Probably it originated in the Beforniati<>n age from thu appeals 
of both martyrs to tbe judgment of God and history. Huss had often 


declared tbat instead of the weak goose there would come powerfal eagle« 
and falcons.^ 

7. Calixtinos and Taborites. — During the imprisonment of their leader 
the Hussite party was headed by Jacob of Misa, pastor of St. Hichaors 
church in Prague. With consent of Huss he introduced the nse of the 
cup by the laity and rejected the jejuniwn tueharistieum as opposed to 
Matthew xxvi. 26. This led to an iuterohange of controversial tracts 
between Prague and Constance on the withholding of the cop. The 
council decreed that whoever disobeys the Church on this point is to be 
punished as a heretic. Tbis decree, followed by the execution of Huss, 
roused Bobemia to the uttermost. King Wenceslaw died in A.D. 1419 in 
the midst of national excitement, and the estates refused to crown his 
brother Sigismund, ** the word-breaker.*' Now arose a civil war, aj>. 
1420-1436, charact« rized by cruelties on both sides rarely equalled. 
At the head of the Hussites, who hah built on the brow of a steep hill 
the strong fortress Tabor, was the oue-eyed, afterwards blind, John Ziska 
of Trocznoy. The crusadiug armies sent against the Hussites were one 
after another deatroyod ; but the gentle spirit of Huss had no place 
among most of his followers. The two parties became more and more 
embittered toward one another. The aristocratic Calixtines {nalix, 
cup) or Utraquists (»ub utraqii*'), at whose head was Bishop liokxcana of 
Prague, declared that tliey would be satisfied if the Catholc church 
would coucede to them four articles : 1. Communion under both kinds ; 
2L Preaching of the pure gospel in the vulgar tongue ; 8. Strict dis- 
cipline among the clergy ; and 4. Benunoiatiou by the clergy of church 
property. On the other hand, the Taoorites would have no reconciliation 
with the Romisli church, regarding as fundamentally corrupt in doctrine 
and worship whatever is not found in Scriptnre, and passing over into 
violent fanaticism, iconoclasm, etc. After Ziska's death of the plague 
in A.D. 1424, the majority of the Taborites elected Procopius the Qreat 
fts his successor. A small party that regarded no man worthy of suc- 
ceeding the great Ziska, refused him allegiance, and styled themselves 
Orphans. They were the most fanatical of aUL — Meanwhile the Council 
of Basel had met (§ 110, 8) and after long fruitless negotiations it was 
resolved in a.D. 1433 that 300 Hussite deputies should appear at Basel. 
After a fifty days* disputation the four Calixtiue articles with certain modi- 
fications were accepted by the counciL On the basis of this Basel Compact 
the Calixtines returned to the Romish church. The Taborites regarded 
this as shameful treasou to the cause of truth, and continued the con- 
flict. But in A.D. 1434 they were utterly annihilated at Böhmisohbrod, 

^ Palacky, *' Documenta Mag. J. H., Vitam, Doctrinam, Causam," etc.» 
illust. Prag , 18G9. GUlett, *« Life and Times of John Huss.*' 2 vols. 
Boston, 1SC3. Loserih, ** Wiclif and Huss.*' Loudon, 1884. 


not tar from Pragae. In the Treaty of Iglaa in a.d. 1436 Sigismond 
swore to observe the compact, and was recognised as king. But the 
eonoessions sworn to by oharch and state were more and more restricted 
and ulfcimately ignored. Sigismand died in a.D. 1437. In place of hit 
son-in-law, Albert II., the Ufcraquists set np a rival king in the person of 
the thirteen year old Polish prince Casimir; bat Albert died in ad. 143r». 
£[is son, Lndislans, bom iiftar his father's death, had, in George Podiebrad, 
a Calixtine tutor. After he had grown up in A.D. 1453, he walked in his 
grandfather's footsteps, and died in a.D. 1457. The Cadiztines now elected 
Podiebrad king, as a firm supporter of the compact. Pius II. recognised 
him in the hope that he would aid him in his projected war agahist the 
Turks. When this hope was disappointed he cancelled the compact, in 
A.D. 1462. Paul II. put the king under him, and had a crusade preached 
against him. Podiebrad however still held his ground. He died in 
A.D. 1471. His successor, Wladislaw U., a Polish prince, though a 
zealous Catholic, was obliged to confirm anew to the Calixtines at the 
Diet of Gattenberg, in a.D. 1485, all their rights and liberties. Tet they 
eould not maintain themselves as an independent community. Those 
of them who did not join the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren gra- 
dually during the 16th century became thoroughly amalgamated with 
the Catholic church. 

8. The Bohemian and Moravitn Brethren. — George Podiebrad took 
Tabor in a.D. 1453, and scattered the last remnants of the Taborites. 
Joining with the evangelical Friends of God, they received from the 
king a castle, where, under the leadership of the local pastor, Michael 
of Bradacz, they formed a Unita» fratrum^ and called themselves Bohe- 
mian and Moravian Brethren. Bat in a.D. 1461 Podiebrad withdrew 
hb favour, and confiscated their goods. They fled into the woods, and 
met for worship in caves. In a.d. 1467 the most distinguished of the 
Bohemian and Moravian Brethren met in a Bohemian village, Shota, 
with the German Waldensiaus, and chose three brethren by lot as 
priests, who were ordained by Michael and a Waldensian priest. But 
when the validity of their ordination was disputed. Michael went to the 
Waldensian bishop Stephen, got from him episcopal consecration, and 
then again ordained the three chosen at Shota, one, Matthias of Cone« 
wald, as bishop, the other two as priests. This led Bokycana to perse- 
cate them all the more bitterly. They increased their numbers how- 
ever, by receiving the remnants of the Waldensiaus and many Utra- 
quists, until by the beginning of the 16th century they had four hundred 
congregations in Bohemia and Moravia. Under Wladislaw IL perse- 
cution was stopped from a.d. 1475, but was renewed with great violenoe 
in A D. 1503. They sent in A.D. 1511 a confession of faith to Erasmui 
(g 120, 6), with the request that he would give his opinion about it; 
which he howeYer, fearing to be compromised thereby, declined to dob 


After the death of Bishop Matthias, in aj). 1500, a dislike of monarchy 
led to the appointment of four Senion instead of one bishop, two for 
Bohemia and two for Moravia. The most important and influential of 
these was Luke of Prague, who died in A.D. 1518, rightly regarded as 
the second founder of the union. He impressed a character upon the 
brotherhood essentially distinct in respect of constitution and doctrine 
from the Lutheran Beformation. — Continuation § 139, 19. 

9. Tue Winkelers. — A sect sprang up in Bavaria, Swabia, and the'Bhine 
proyinces during the first half of the 15th century, derived maioly from 
the Waldensians and mystic Friends of God. They received their name 
from holding their services in out of the way comers. They had lay mis- 
sionaries, who went about evangelizing. To avoid the attentions of the 
Inquisition they took part in Catholic worship, even confessed in case of 
need to Catholic priests, but concealed their heretical views. About a.D. 
1400 we get a trace of them at Strassburg ; thirty- two of them were tai^en 
prisoners, and constrained under torture to confess. The Dominicans 
insisted they should be burnt, but the council was satisfied with banish- 
ing them from the city. One of their most distinguished teachers in 
later times was Reiser of Swabia. In his travels he had gone to 
Bohemia, and there joined the Hussites, was ordained a priest by them, 
and in a.D. 1433 accompanied their depnties to the Council of Basel. 
Procopius had him appointed to a pastorate in Landscron, a Bohemian 
town, which , however, he soon relinquished. He lingered on in Basel . then 
went on evangelbtio tours through Germany, at first on his own account, 
afterwards at the head of twelve Taborite missionaries. Finally, in a.D. 
1457, he went to Strassburg, intending to end his days there in peace. But 
soon after his arrival he was cast into prison, and in a.D. 1458, along 
with his faithful follower, Anna Weiler, put to death at the stake. 

10. The Dutch Befbrmert sprang mostly from the Brothers of the 
Common Life (J 112, 9).~(1) Jolm Fupper of Ooeh in Cleves, prior of a 
cloister founded by him at Mecheln, died A.D. 1475. His works show 
him to have been a man of deep spirituality. Love, which leads to the 
true freedom of sons of God, is the material^ the sole authority of 
Scripture is the fifrmal, principle of his theology, which rests on a purely 
Augustinian foundation. He contends against the doctrine of righteous- 
ness by works, the meritorionsness of towb, eto. — (3) John Bnehrath of 
Wesel, professor in Erfurt, afterwards preacher at Mains and Worms, 
died in a.D. 1481. On the basis of a strictly Augustinian theology he 
opposed the papal systems of anathemas and indolgenoes, and preached 
powerfully salvation by Jesus Christ only. For the ehnreh doctrine of 
transubstautiation he substituted one of impanation. He spiritualized 
the doctrine of the churoh. Against the eeolesiaatioal injunction of 
fasts, he wrote Dejejunio; against indolgencea, De indulgentiü ; against 
the hierarchy, D« poUitate toeluiatUca, Tbe DomimeaiiB of Mftins 


aocnsed and condemned him as a heretic in a.o. 1479. The old man, 
bent down with age and sickness, was forced to recant, and to bom his 
writings, and was sentenced to imprisonment for life in a monastery.— 
(8) John Wessel of Qronlngen was a scholar of the Brothers of the Com- 
mon life at Zwoll, where Thomas k Eempis exerted a powerful influence 
over him. He tanght in Cologne, Lyons, Paris, and Heidelberg, and 
then retired to the cloister of Agnes Mount, near Zwoll, where he died 
in A.D. 1489. His friends called him Lux mundi. Scholastic dialectics, 
mystical depths, and rich classical coltore were in him united with a 
elear and accurate knowledge of science. Luther says of him : '* Had 
I read Wessel before, my enemies would have said, Luther has taken 
everything from Wessel, so thoroughly do our ideas agree." His views 
are in harmony with Luther's, especially in what he teaches of Holy 
Scripture, the universal priesthood of Christians, indulgence, repentance, 
faith, and justification. He taught that not only popes but even 
councils may err and have erred ; excommunication has merely outward 
efficacy, indulgence has to do only with ecclesiastical penalties, and God 
alone can forgive sins ; our justification rests on Christ's righteousness 
and Ood*s free grace. Purgatory meant for him nothing more than the 
intermediate position between earthly imperfection and heavenly per- 
fection, which is attained only through various stages. The protection 
of powerful friends saved him from the persecution of the Inquisition« 
Many of his works were destroyed by the diligence of the mendicant 
friars. ~ The most important of his extant writings is the Farrago, a 
eollection of short treatises.*— (4) The priest of Bostock, Nicholas Bas% 
in the end of the 15th century, deserves honourable mention alongside of 
these Dutchmen. Living in intimate relations with Bohemian Walden- 
eians, he was subjected to many indignities, and died a fugitive in Livonia. 
He wrote in the Dutch language a tract against the hierarchy, indul- 
gences, worship of saints and relics, etc., which was translated into 
German by Flacius. A copy of it was found in Bostock library in a.d. 
1850. It is entitled, ** Of the Bope or of the Three Strings.*' The rope 
that will raise man from the depths of his corruption must be made up 
of the three strings, faith, hope, and love. These three strings are 
described in succession, and so the book forms a complete compendium 
of Christian faith and life, with a sharp polemic against the debased 
church doctrine and morals of the age. 

11. An Italian Beformer.» Jerome Savonarola, bom ▲.]>. 1452, monk 
and from aj>, 1481 prior of the Dominican cloister of San Marco in 
Florence, was bom a.D. 1489, in high repute in that city as an elo- 

^ On these three consult Uilmann, '*Beformers before the Befor- 
mation.'* 3 vols. Edin., 1855. Braodt, ** History of the Beformatios 
in the Low Gonntries," vol. i. London, 1720. 


qnent and passionate preacher of repontanee, with even reelcless bold 
nc88 declaiming aj^ainst the depravity of clergy and laity, princes and 
people. With his whole soul a Dominican, and as such an enthnsiAStio 
admirer of Thomas, practising rigid self-discipline by fasts and flagel- 
lations, he was led by the study of Augustine and Scripture to a pure 
and profound knowledge of the evangelical doctrine of salvation, which 
he sought, not in the merits and intercession of the saints, nor in the 
performance of good works, but only in the grace of God and justifi- 
cation throQgh faith in the omcified Saviour of sinners. Bat with this 
he combined a prophetic-apocalyptic theory, according to which he 
thought himself called and fitted by Divine inspiration, like the prophets 
of the Old Testament, to grapple with the political prcblems of the age. 
And, in fact, he made many a hardened sinner tremble by reveahng con- 
templated secret sins, and many of his political prophecies seem to have 
been fulfilled with surprising accuracy. Thus he prophesied the death 
of Innocent YIII. in a-d. 1492, and proclaimed the speedy overthrow 
of the house of the Medici in Florence, as well as the punishment of 
other Italian tyrants and the thorough reformation of the church by 
a foreign king crossing the Alps with a powerful army. And lo, in the 
following year, the king of France, Charles YIII.. crossed the Alps to 
enforce his claims upon Naples and force from the pope recognition of 
the Basel reforms ; the Medici were banished from Florence, and Naples 
unresistingly fell into the hands of the French. Thus the ascetic monk 
of San Marco became the man of the people, who now began with ruth- 
less energy to carry out, not only moral and religious reformatory 
notions, but also his political ideal of a democratic kingdom of God. 
In vain did Alexander VL seek by offer of a cardinal's hat to win over 
the demagogical prophet and reformer ; he only replied, '* I desire no 
other red hat than that coloured by the blood of martyrdom.*' In vain 
did the pope insist that he should appear before him at Bome ; in vain did 
be forbid him the pulpit, from which he bo powerfully moved the people. 
An attempt to restore the Medici also failed. At the carnival in a.Dw 
1497 Savonarola proved the supremacy of his influence over the people 
by persnading them, instead of the nsual buffoonery, to make a bonfire of 
the articles of luxury and vanity. But already the political movements 
were turning out unfavourably, and his utterances were beginning to 
lose their reputation as true prophecies. Charles VIII. had been com- 
pelled to quit Italy in a.d. 1495, and Savonarola's assurances of his 
speedy return were still unfulfilled. Popnlar favour vacillated, while 
the nobles and the libertine youth were roused to the utmost bitterness 
against him. The Franciscans, as members of a rival order, were his 
•worn enemies. The papal ban was pronounced against him in a.d. 1497, 
and the city was put under the interdict. A monk of his cloister, Fra 
Domenico Pesda, offered to pass the ordeal of fixe in behalf of his mästet. 


it any of his opponents wonid submit to the same trial. A Frandsean 
declared himself ready to do so, and all arrangements were made. Bat 
when Domenico insisted upon taking with him a consecrated host, the 
trial did not come off, to the great disappointment of a people devotedly 
fond of shows. A fanatical mob took the prophet prisoner. His bitterest 
enemies were his judges, who, after torture had extorted from him a con- 
fession of false prophecy most repugnant to his inmost convictions, con- 
demned him to death by fire as a deceiver of the people and a heretic. 
On 23rd May, A.D. 1498, he was, a^ong with Domenico and another monk, 
hung upon a gallows and then burned. The believing joy with which 
he endured death deepened the reverence of an ever-increasing band of 
adherents, who proclaimed him saint and martyr. His portrait in the 
cell once occupied by him, painted by Fra Bartolomeo, surrounded with 
the halo of a saint, shows the veneration in which he was held by hie 
generation and by his order. His numerous sermons represent to U8 
his burning oratory. His chief work is his Triumphug cruets of a.D. 
1497, an eloquent and tlionghtfal vindication of Christianity against the 
half pagan scepticism of the Renaissance, then dominant in Florence and 
at the court. An exposition of the 51st Psalm, written in prison and 
not completed, works out, with a clearness and precision never before 
attained, the doctrine of jnbtiiication by faith. It was on this tccount 
republished by Luther in a.d. 1523.^ 

§ 120. The Revival of Learnino. 

The classical literature of Greek, and especially of Roman, 
antiquity was during the Middle Ages in the West by no 
means so completely unknown and unstudied as is commonly 
supposed. Rulers like Charlemagne, Charles the Bald, 
Alfred the Great, and the German Ottos encouraged its 
study. Such scholars as Erigena, Gerbert, Barnard Syl- 
vester, John of Salisbury, Roger Bacon, etc., were relatively 
well acquainted with it. Moorish learning from Spain and 
intercourse with Byzantine scholars spread classical culture 

* Heraud, ** Life and Times of Savonarola." London, 1848. Villari, 
•• History of Savonarola.*' 2 vols. London, 1888. Madden, " The Life 
and Martyrdom of Savonarola." 2 vols., London, 1854. MacCrie, 
" HiBtory of Reformation in Italy." Edin., 1827. Roscoe, ** Lorenzo 
de Medici.** London, 1796. See also chaptci-s on Savonarola in Mrs. 
Oliphant's *• Makers of Florence.*' London, 1831. Milman, *' Savona- 
rola, Eiasmos,*' eto. Essays. liondon, 1870. 


daring the 12th and 13th centuries, and the Hohenstanfen 
rulers were its eager and liberal patrons. In the 14th 
century the founders of a national Italian literature, Dante, 
Petrarch, and Boccaccio, earnestly cultivated and encouraged 
classical studies. But an extraordinary revival of interest 
in such pursuits took place during the 15th century. The 
meeting of Greeks and Italians at the Council of Florence 
in A.D. 1439 (§ 67, 6) gave the Erst impulse, while the 
Turkish invasion and the downfall of Constantinople in A.D. 
1453 gave it the finishing touch. Immense numbers of 
Byzantine scholars fled to Italy, and were accorded an 
enthusiastic reception at the Vatican and in the houses of 
the Medici. With the aid of printing, invented about A.D. 
1450, the treasures of classical antiquity were made ac- 
cessible to all. From the time of this immigration, too, 
classical studies took an altogether new direction. During 
the Middle Ages they were made almost exclusively to 
subserve ecclesiastical and theological ends, but now they 
were conducted in a thoroughly independent spirit, for the 
purpose of universal human culture. This "humanism" 
emancipated itself from the service of the church, assumed 
toward Christianity for the most part an attitude of lofty 
indifference, and often lost itself in a vain worship of pagan 
antiquity. Faith was mocked at as well as superstition ; 
sacred history and Oreek mythology were treated alike. 
The youths of all European countries, thirsting for know- 
ledge, crossed the Alps, to draw from the fresh springs of the 
Italian academies, and took home with them the new ideas, 
transplanting into distant lands in a modified form the liber- 
tinism of the new paganism that had now over-run Italy. 

1. Italian Ha]naiiistt.~Ital7 was the cradle of hamanism, the Greeks 
who settled there (§ 62, 1, 2), its fathers. The first Greek who appeared 
as a teacher in Italy was Emmanael Chrysoloras, in a.d. 1396. After the 
Counoil of Florence, Bessarlon and Oemlsthiis Pletho settled there, both 
ardent adherents of the Platonio phfloiqphy, for which they created aa 


enthnsiasm throaghoat all Italy. From a.d. 1453 Greek littiraUvn came 
in crowds. From tbeir schools classical culture and pa^an ideas spread 
through the land. This paganism penetrated even the highest ranks of 
the hierarchy. Leo X.* is credited with saying, ** How many fables about 
Christ haye been used by as and ours through all these centuries is Tery 
well known.*' It may not be literally authentic, but it accurately expresses 
the spirit of the papal court. Leo*8 private secretary, Cardinal Bembo, 
gave a mythological Tersion of Christianity in classical Latin. Christ 
he styled ** Minenra sprung from the head of Jupiter," the Holy Spirit 
'*the breath of the celestial Zephvr/' and repentance was with him a 
Deoi mpero$qu€ manetqne piaeare. Even during the council of Florence 
Pletho had expressed the opinion that Christianity would soon develop 
into a oniversal religion not far removed from classical paganism ; and 
when Pletho died, Bessarion comforted his sons by saying that the 
deceased had ascended into the pure heavenly spheres, and had joined 
the Olympic gods in mystic Bacchus dances. In the halls of the Medici 
there flourished a new Platonic school, which put Plato's philosophy above 
Christianity. Alongside of it arose a new peripatetic school, whose repre- 
sentative, Peter Pompanaszo, who died a.D. 1526, openly declared that from 
the philosophical point of view the immortality of the soul is more than 
doubtful. The celebrated Florentine statesman and historian Macchia- 
¥elli,^ who died a.D. 1527, taught the princes of Italy in his '* Prince,'* in 
direct contradiction to Dante's idealistic ** Monarchia," a realistic polity 
which was completely emancipated from Christianity and every system 
of morality, and presented the monster Csesar Borgia (§ 110, 12) as a pat- 
tern of an energetic prince, consistently labouring for the end he had in 
▼i^w. Looseness of morals went hand in hand with laxity in religion. 
Obscene poems and pictures circulated among the humanists, and their 
practice was not behind their theory. Poggio's lewd facetiae, as well as 
Boccadelli*» indecent epigrams, fascinated the cultured Christian world 08 
much by their lascivious contents as by their classical style. From the 
dialogues of Laurentius Valla on lust and the true good, which were 
meant to extol the superiority of Christian morals over those of the 
Epicureans and Stoics, comes the saying that the Greek courtesaus were 
more in favour than the Chribtian nuns. The highly gifted poet, Pietro 
Aretino, in his poetical prose writings reached the utmost pitch of obsce- 
nity. He was called " the divine Aretino," and not only Cliarles V. and 
Francis I. honoured him with presents and pensions, but also Leo X., 
Clement VIII., and even Paul III. showed him their esteem and favour. 
In their published works the Italian humanists generally iguored rati. er 
than oontesied the church and its doctrines and morality. But Lauren- 

* Boscoe, " Leo X.*' London, 1805. 

* YilUri,**MicooloMaochiaveUi, and his Times.*' 4yol& Lond., 1878. 


tiiu Tana, who died a.d. 1457, ventnred in his Ädnotati<me$ im N,T. fredj 
to find fault with and oorroct the Vulgate. He did even more, for h» 
pronounced the Donation of Conßtantino (§ 87, 4) a forgery, and poured 
forth bitter invectives against the cupidity of the papacy. He ako 
denied the genuineness of the eorreitpondence of Christ with Al)gani9 
(§ 13, 2), as well as that of the Areopagite writings (§ 47, 11) and 
questioned if the Apostles' Greed was the work of the apostles (§ 35, 3). 
Tbe Inquisition songlit to get hold of him, but Nicholas V. (§ 110, 10) 
frustrated the attempt and showed him kindness. With all his classical 
culture, however, Yalla retained no small reverence for Christianity. In 
a still higher degree is this true of John Pieos, Prince of Miraadola, the 
phoenix of that age, celebrated as a miracle of leiruing and culture, 
who united in himself all the nobler strivings of the present and the 
past. When a youth of twenty-one he nailed up at Borne nine hundred 
theses from all departments of knowledge. The proposed disputation did 
not then come off, because many of those theses gave rise to charges of 
heresy, from which he was cleared only by Alexander VI. in a.d. 1493. 
The combination of all sciences and the reconciliation of all systems of 
philosophy among themselves and with revelation on the basis of the Cab- 
bala was the main point in his endeavours. He has wrought out this idea 
in his lle-ptapluM^ in which, by means of a sevenfold sense of Scripture, he 
succeeds in deducing all the wisdom of the world from the first chapter 
of Qenesis. He died in A.D. 1494, in the thirty-first year of his age. In 
the last year of his life, renouncing the world and its glory, he set him- 
self with all his powers to the study of Scripture, and meant to go from 
land to land preaching the Cross of Christ. His intentions were frus- 
trated by death. His saying is a very characteristic one : Philoiophia 
veritaUm qtutritt theohgia invenit^ religio pot$idet. 

2. Gemsn Homanism.~The home of German humanism was the 
University of Erfort, founded ^.d. 1392. At the Councils of Constance 
and Basel Erfurt, next to Paris, manifested the greatest zeal for the 
reformation of head and members, and continued to pursue this course 
during the twenty years* activity of John of Wesel (§ 119, 10). About 
A.D. 1460 the first representatives of humanism made their appearance 
there, a German Luder and a Florentine Publicius. From their school 
went forth among others Budolph of Langen, who carried tbe new light 
into the schools of Westphalia, and John of Dalberg, afterwards Bishop 
of Worms. When these two had left Erfurt, Matenms Pistorins headed 
the humanist movement. Crowds of enthusiastic scholars from all 
parts of Germany gathered around him. As men of poetic tastes, who 
appreciated the ancient classics, they maintained excellent relations 
with the representatives of scholasticism. But in a.d. 1504 Busch, a 
violent revolutionist, appearing at Erfurt, demanded the destruction of 
the old ■oholaitie tezt-booka, and thus produced an absolute breach 


between the two tendenciefl. Materous retired, and Mntiaa, an old 
Erfurt student, assumed the leadership in Gotha. Erfurt and Gotha 
were kept associated by a lively intercourse between the students resident 
at these two places. Mutian had no literary ambitions, and firmly 
declined a call to the new University of Wittenberg. All the more 
powerfully he inspired his contemporaries. His bitter opposition to 
hierarchism and scholasticism was expressed in keen satires. On retiring 
from public life, he devoted himself to the study of Holy Scripture and 
the Fathers. Shortly before liis death he wrote down this as his con- 
fession of faith: Multa icit rtuticuit qtite phiU) ophut ignorut ; ChrUtuM 
v^opro nobit mortuus ett, qui ett vita nostra, quod certissime credo. The 
leadership passed over to Eoban Hesse. The members of tlie society 
joined the party of Luther, with the exception of Crotus Bubianns. 
Ulrich von Hütten was one of the followers of Mutian, a knight of a 
noble Franoouian family, inspired with ardent patriotism and love of 
freedom, who gave his whole life to battle against pedantry, monkery, 
and intolerance. Escaping in A.D. 1501 from Fulda, where he was being 
trained for the priestliood, he studied at Erfurt, fought in Maximilian*8 
army with the sword, in Mutian*s and Beuchlin's ranks with the pen, 
and after the fall of Sickiugen became a homeless wanderer, uutil he 
died in want, in a.D. 1523, on Ufenan, an island in the Lake of Zürich.* 

3. Next to Erfurt, Heidelberg, founded in a.d. 1386, affonled a con- 
genial home for humanist stu<lies. The most brilliant representative of 
humanism there was Badolph Agricola, an admirer and dißciple of A. 
Kempis and Wessel. His fame rests more on tlie reports of those who 
knew him personally than on any wiitings left behind by him. His 
pupils mostly joined the Reformation. — The University of Wittenberg, 
founded by Frederick the Wise in a.D. 1502, was the nursery of a wise 
and moderate humanism. Humanist studies also found an entrance into 
Freiburg founded in a.D. 1455, into Tübingen, founded in a d. 1477, where 
for a long time Beuohlin taught, and into Lagolstadt, founded in a.D. 
1472, where the Duke of Bavaria spared no efforts to attract the most 
distinguished humanists. Gonrad Celtes, a pupil of Agricola. taught at 
Ligolstadt until hi«« removal to Vienna in a.d. 1497. Eck and Bhegius, 
too, were among its ablest alumni. As a bitter opponent of Luther, Eck 
gave the university a most pronounced anti-reformation character; whereas 
Bhegius preached the gospel in Au;;sburg, and si>ent hid life in the service 
of the Beformation. Beuchlin also taught for a time in Ingolstadt, and 
the patriotism and reformatory tendencies of Aventinus the Bavarian 
historian received there the first powerful impulse. At Noremberg the 
humanists found a welcome in the home of the learned, wealthy, and 

> Strauas, " Uh'ioh von Hütten,*' trans, by Mrs. Sturge. London, 
1874. HauBser, " Period of the Beformation." 2 \ols. London, 1873. 


noble CJonneinor Pirkheimer. In Beadilin*s e ont roverity with the Mholmn 
of Cologne he showed himself «n eager apologist, and headed the partj 
of Beuohlin. He greeted Lnther*8 ai;ypefiranee with enthnsiamn, and 
entertained the reformer at his own honse on his retnm from the disens- 
sion with Cajetan ({ 122, 8), on aebonnt of which Eck made the papal boll 
against Luther tell also against him. What he regarded aa Lnther'a 
Tiolence, however, soon estranged him, while the cloister life of his 
three sisters and three daughters preeented to him a picture of Catholi- 
cism in its nobleet and purest form. His eldest sister, Christas, abbess 
of the Clara convent at Nuremburg, one of the noblest and most cultured 
women of the 16fch century, had a powerful influence over him. He died 
in A.D. 1530. 

4. John Reochlin, bom in ^.d. 1455 at Pforsheim, went to the celebrated 
school at Schlettstadt in Alsace, studied at Freiburg, Paris, Basel, and 
Orleans, tapght law in Tübingen, and traTeUed repeatedly in Italy with 
Eberhard the Bearded of Württemberg. After Eberhard*s death he went 
to the court of the Elector-palatine Philip, and along with D*Alberg did 
much for the reputation of the University of Heidelberg. Afterwards 
he was for eleven years president of the Swabian court of justiciary at 
Tübingen. When in a.d. 1513 the seat of this court was removed to 
Augsburg he retired to Stuttgart, was called in a.D. 1519 by William of 
Bavaria to Ingolstadt as professor of Greek and Hebrew. On the outbreak 
of the plague at Ingolstadt in a.o. 1520, he accepted a call back to Tübin- 
gen, where he died in A.O. 1522. He never gave in his adhesion to the 
reforming ideas of Luther. He left unanswered a letter from the 
reformer in a.D. 1518. But as a promoter of every scientifle endeavour, 
especially in connection with the study of the original text of the O.T., 
Beuchlin had won imperishable renown. He was well entitled to con* 
elude his Ruuimmta lingua Hebraica of kj>, 1506 with Horace's words, 
Stat montimentum lühre perenmno, for that book has been the basis of all 
Christian Hebrew philology.' He also discussed the difficult subject of 

* A young Minorite, Oonrad PelUeanus of Tübingen, had as early ai 
A.D. 1501 composed a very creditable guide to the study of the Hebrew 
language, under the title De modo legendi et intelligendi Hebratim, 
which was first printed in Strassburg in a.D. 1504. Amid inconceivable 
difficulties, purely self taught, and with the poorest literary aids, he had 
secured a knowledge of the Hebrew language which he perfected by 
unwearied application to study and by intercourse with a baptized Jew. 
He attained such proficiency, that he won for himself a place among the 
most learned exegetes of the Reformed Chnreh as professor of theo- 
logy at Basel in a.D. 1523 and at Zürich from a.D. 1525 till his death, 
in A.D. 1556. His chief work is Comwuntaria Bibliorum, 7 «rols. foL, 


Hebrew accents in a special treatise« De Ace. et Orthoßr, Hehr, 11. iii, and 
the secret doctrines of the Jews in his De arte Cabbalittica. He offered 
to instract any Jew who wished it in the doctrines of Christianity, a»d 
also to care for his temporal affairs. His attention to rabbinical studies 
involved him in a controverny which spread his fame over all Europe. 
A baptized Jew, Pfefferkorn, in Cologne in A.D. 1507 exhibited a neo« 
phy te's zeal by writing bitter invectives against tlie Jews, and in a.D. 1509 
called upon the Emperor Maximilian to have all rabbinical writings burnt 
because of the blasphemies against Christ which they contained. The 
emperor asked the opinion of the universities of Mainz, Cologne, Erfurt, 
and Heidelberg, as well as of Bcuclilin and the Cologne inquisitor Hoog- 
straten. Erfurt and Heidelberg gave a qualiüed, Keuchlin an unquali- 
fied answer in opposition to the proposal. The openly abusive Jewish 
writing», e.g. the notorious ToUdoth Jeachu^ he would indeed condemn, 
but all other books, e.g. the Talmud, the Cabbala, tbe biblical glosses and 
commentaries, books of sermons, prayers, and sacred songp, as well as 
all philosophical, scientific, poetic, and satirical wiitings of the Jews, he 
was prepared unconditionally to defend. Pfefferkorn contended against 
him pastiiouately in his ** Handspiegel" of a.d. 1511, to which Keuchlin 
replied in his "Augenspiegel.** The theological faculty of Cologne, 
mostly Dominicans, pronounced forty- three statements in the ** Augen- 
spiegel ** heretical, and demanded its suppression. Keuchlin now gave 
free vent to hU passion, and in his Defensio c. calumniatores suoi Colo- 
nienMCM denounced his opponents as goats, rw n -, and children of the 
devil. Hoogstraten had him cited before a heresy tribunal. Keuchlin 
did not appear, but appealed to Pope Leo X. (a.d. ir>13). A comiuisKion 
apiK)inted by Leo met at Spires in a.d. 1514, and declared him not guilty 
of heresy, found Hoogstraten liable in the costs of the process, which 
was enforced with hearty satisfaction by Franz von Sickingeu in a.d. 1519. 
But meanwhile Hougstraten had made a personal explanation of his 
affairs at Rome, and had won over the influential magister tacri palatii, 
Sylvester Prierias (§ 122, 2), who got the pope in a.d. 1520 to annul tbe 
judgment and to condemn Keuchlin to pay the costs and observe eternal 
silence. The men of Cologne triumphed, bat in the public opinion of 
Germany Keuchlin was regarded as the true victor. 

5. A multitude of vigorous and powerful pens were now in motion oq 
behalf of Keuchlin. In the autumn of a.D. 1515 appeared tbe first book 
of the Epistola obscoronun vlroroxn, which pretended to be the correspon- 
dence of a friend with the Cologne teacher Ortuinus Qratius of Deveuter. 
In the most delicious monkish Latin the secret affairs of the mendicant 
monks and their hatred of Keuchlin were set forth, so that even the 
Dominicans, according to Erasmus, for a time regarded the correspon- 
dence as genuine. All the more overwhelming was the ridicule which 
fell upon them throughout all Europe. The mendicants indeed übtaiue<^ 


from Leo a ball against the writers of the book, bat this only increased 
its circalatioQ. The authors remained unknown ; but there is no doubt 
tbey belonged to the Mutian party. Justus Jonas, a member of thai 
guild, affirms that Crotus Bubianus had a principal hand in its com- 
position. The idea of it was probably suggested by Mutian himselL 
Ulrich Ton Hütten repudiated any share in it, and on internal and ex- 
iternal grounds this is more than probable. Busch, Urban, Petrejus, 
and Eoban Hesse most likely contributed to it. In order to keep up the 
deception, Veuice was given as the place of publication, the name of the 
famous Aldus Manutius, the papal publisher of Venice, was put upon 
the title, and a pseudo-papal imprimatur was attached. The second 
book was issued in a.d. 1517 by Frobenius in Basel. The monkish party 
published as a counterblast Lamentatione$ obicurorum rtrorum at Cologne 
in A.D. 1518, but the lame and forced wit of the book marked it at once 
as a ridiculous failure. The monks and schoolmen were once and for 
ever morally annihilated.^ 

6. Besiderins Erasmus of Botterdam was the most brilliant of all th« 
humanists, not only of Germany, but also of all Europe. Bom in A.n. 
14G5, ho was educated by the Brothers of the Common Life at Dementer 
and Herzogenbusch, and afterwards forced by his relatives to enter % 
monastery in a.D. 1486. In aj>. 1491 he was relieved from the monastie 
restraints by the Bishop of Cambray, and sent to finish his studies al 
Paris. He visited England in a.o. 1497, in the company of young Eng- 
lishmen to whom he had been tutor. There the humanist theologian 
Colet of Oxford exerted over him a wholesome influence that U>ld upon 
his whole future Ufe. After spending a year and a half in England« 
he passed the next six years, sometimes in France, sometimes in the 
Netherlands; was in Italy from a.o. 1507 till a.D. 1510; then again 
for five years in England, for most of that time teaching Greek at 
Cambridge; then other six years in the Netherlands ; and at last, in A.n. 
1521, he settled with his publisher Frobenius in Basel, where he enjoyed 
intercourse with the greatest scholars of the day, and maintained an 
extensive correspondence. He refused every offer of official appointment, 
even the rank of cardinal, but in reality held undisputed sway as king 
in the world of letters. He did much for the advancement of classical 
studies, and in various ways promoted tlie Protestant Beformatiou. The 
faults of the scholastic method in the study of theology he unsparingly 
exposed, while the misdeeds of the clergy and the ignorance and sloth of 
the monks afforded materials for his merciless satires. The lieathuuinh 
spirit of many of the humanists, as well as the turbulent aud revolu- 
tionary procedure of Ulrich von Hütten, was quite distabteful to him ; but 
his Pelagianising tendencies also prevented him from appreciating the 

> Strauss, " Ulrich von Hütten.*' London, 187i, pp. 120-140. 


trae oburaoter of the gospel. He desired a refonnation of the Church» 
hut he had not the reformer's depth of religions emotion, world-oonqaer- 
ing faith, self-denying love, and heroic preparation for martyrdom. He 
was mneh too fond of a genial literary life, and his perception of the 
oormption of the chnroh was mach too saperficial, so that he soaght 
reformation rather hy haman caltare than by the Dinne power of the I 
gospel. When the Reformation conqnered at Basel in ^.d. 1529, Erasmus 
withdrew to Freiburg. He returned to Basel in a-d. 1536 for conference 
with Frobenius, and died there under suspicion of heresy without the 
sacraments of the church. His friends the monks at an earlier period, 
on the occasion of a false report of his death, had said in their barbarous 
Latin that he died **iine lux, iine crux, tine Detu,** The most im- 
portant of his works are his critical and exegetical treatises on the N.T. 
The first edition of his Greek N.T., with Latin translation, short notes, 
and three introductory sections, was published in ^.d. 1516. In the 
second edition of ^.d. 1519, one of these introductory sections, Ratio vertB 
theologia, appeared in a greatly extended form ; and from a.d. 1522 it 
was issued separately, and passed through several editions. Scarcely less 
important were his paraphrases of all the biblical books except the 
Apocalypse, begun in ^.d. 1517. He did much service too by his editions 
of the Fathers. On his polemic with Luther see § 125, 8. His EccU» 
stattet t, eoncionator evangelicut of a-d. 1535 is a treatise on homiletics 
admirable of its kind. In his "Praise of Folly" {*Ey Kuffuoif /lutpias, t. 
Laut ttiUtitia) of a-d. 1511, dedicated to his friend Sir Thomas More, he 
overwhelms with ridicale the schoolmen, as well as the monks and the 
clergy; and in his ** Colloquies" of ▲.n. 1518, by which he hoped to make 
boys latinioret et melioret, he let no opportunity pass of reproaching the 
monks, the clergy, and the forms of worship which he regarded as super- 
stitious. Also his Adagia of a.i>. 1500 had afforded him abundant scope 
for the same sort of thing. A piety of the purest and noblest type, 
derived from the schools of the Brothers of the Common Life, and from 
intercourse with Colet, breathes through his Enchiridion mUitit ehrittianl 
of A.D. 1502.*— Continuation § 123, 8. 

7. Humanism in England. — In England we meet with two men in the 
end of the 15th century, closely related to Erasmus, of supreme influence 
as humanists in urging the claims of reform within the Catholic church. 

1 Erasmus, ** Colloquies,*' trans, by Bailey, ed. by Johnson. Loud., 
1877. •* Praise of Folly,'* trans, by Copner. Lond., 1878. Seebohm, 
'* Oxford Reformers of 1498 : Colet, Erasmus, and More.*' Lond., 1869. 
Drummond, '* Erasmus, His Life and Character,** 2 vols. Lond., 1873. 
Pennington, ** Life and Character of Erasmus.*' Lond., 1874. Strauss, 
•*ührioh von Hütten.'* Lond., 1874, pp. 315-846. Domer, **Hi8t. of 
Prot. Theology,** 2 vols. Edin., 1871. vol. i., p. 202. 

VOL. U. \\ 


Jolm Colet in ad. 1496 retnrned to England after a long flojonm in 
Italy, where he had obtained, not only homaniatio caltore, Imt also, 
through contact with Savonarola and Miraudola, a powerful religioiia 
impulse. He then began, at Oxford, hia leotnrea on the Pauline epiatlee, 
in which he abandoned the soholaatio method and retomed to the 
Bindy of Scriptare and the Fathers. There, in ▲.!>. 1498, he attached 
himself closely to Erasmns and to yoang Thomas More, who was studying 
in that place. In a.d. 1505 Colet was made doctor and Dean of St. 
Paul's, in which position he expounded with great suoeess whole biblical 
books and large portions of others in his sermons. After his father's 
death in a.d. 1510, he applied his great wealth to the founding of a gram- 
mar school at St. Paul*8 for the instruction of more than 150 boys in classi- 
cal, biblical, and patristio literature. A convoeation of English bishops 
in A.D. 1512, to devise means for rooting out heresy (§ 119, 1), gave him 
the opportunity in his opening sermon to speak plainly to the assembled 
bishops, fie told them that reform of their own order was the best waj 
to protect the church against the incursion of heretics. This aroused 
the bitter wrath of the old, bigoted Bishop Fitsjames of London, who 
disliked him exceedingly on account of his reforming tendencies and hii 
pastoral and educational activity. But the archbishop, Warham of Can- 
terbury, repelled the bishop^s fanatical charge of heresy as well as King 
Henry's suspicions in regard to the political sympathies of the simple, 
pious man. Colet died in a.D. 1519. —Thomas More, bom in a.d. 1480, was 
recommended to the king by Cardinal Wolsey, and rose from step to step 
until in a.D. 1529 be succeeded his patron as Lord Chancellor of England. 
In bonds of closest intimacy with Colet and Erasmus, More also shared 
in their desires for reform, but applied himself, in accordance with his 
civil and official position, more to the social and political than to ths 
ecclesiastical aspects of the question. His most comprehensive con- 
tribution is found in his famous satire, ** Utopia," of a.d. 1516, in which 
he sets forth his views as to the natural and rational organization of all 
social and political relations of life in contrast to the corrupt institutions 
of existing states. The religious side of this Utopian paradise is pure 
deism, public worship being restricted to the use of what is common to 
all religions, and peculiarities of particular religions are relegated to 
special or private services. We cannot however from this draw any 
conclusion as to his own religious beliefs. More continued to the end 
a zealous Catholio and a strict ascetic, and was a man of a aingulorly 
noble and steadfast character. In the controversy between the king and 
Luther (§ 125, 3) he supported the king, and as ehancellor he wrote, in 
direct contradiction to the principles of religions toleration commended in 
his ** Utopia," with venomous bitterness against the adherents of the anti- 
Catholic reformation. But he decidedly refused to acquiesce in the king's 
divorce; and when Henry qoarrelled with the pope in a.D. 1632 and began 


to oany out Fefomm in a CiBsaro-papistio manner (§ 139, 4), he resigned 
his oflBces, firmly refused to acknowledge the royal snpremacy over the 
English charoh, and, after a long and severe imprisonment, was he- 
headed in k,j>. 1635. 1 

8. Hnmantsxn in France and Spain.— In France homanist stndies were 
kept for a time in the background by the world-wide reputation of the 
University of Paris and its Sorbonne. But a change took place when the 
young king Francis I., a.o. 1515-1517, became the patron and promoter 
of humanism. One of its most famous representatives was Bndaai, royal 
librarian, who aided in founding a college for the cultivation of science 
trve from the shackles of scholasticism, and exposed the corruptions of 
the papacy and the clergy. But much as he sympathized with the spirit 
of the Reformation, he shrank from any open breach with the Catholic 
church. He died in A.D. 15iO. His like-minded contemporary, Faber 
pupils around him, and from ^.d. 1507 applied himself almost exclusively 
Stapulensii, as a teacher of classical literature at Paris gathered crowds of 
to biblical exegetical studies. He criticised and corrected the corrupt text 
of the Vulgate, commented on the Greek text of the gospels and apo- 
stolio epistles, and on account of this, as well as by reason of a critical 
dissertation on Mary Magdalene of ^.d. 1521, was condemned by the 
Sorbonne. Francis I. and his sister Margaret of Orleans protected him 
from further persecution. Also his former pupil, William Bri^onnet, 
Bishop of Meaux, who was eagerly endeavouring to restore morality and 
piety among his clergy, appointed him his vicar- general, and gave him an 
opportunity to bring out his French translation of the New Testament from 
the Vulgate in a.d. 1523, which was followed by a translation of the Old 
Testament and a French commentary on the pericopcs of the Sundays 
and festivals. As Faber here represented the Scriptures as the only rule 
of faith for all Christians, and taught that man is justified not by his 
works, but only by faith in the grace of God in Christ, the Sorbonne 
charged him with the Lutheran heresy, and Parliament, during the king*8 
imprisonment in Spain ($ 126, 5) in a.D. 1525, appointed a commission 
to search out and suppress heresy in the diocese of Meaux. Faber* i 
books were condemned to the flames, but he himself, threatened with 
the stake, escaped by flight to Strassburg. After his return the king 
provided for him a safe retreat at Blois, where he wrought at his trans- 
lation of the Old Testament, which he completed in ld. 1528. He 
spent his last years at N^rao, the residence of his patroness Margaret, 
now Queen of Navarre, where he died in a.D. 1536 in his 86th year. 
Though at heart estranged from the Catholic church, he never formally 
forsook it.~In Spain Cardinal Ximenes ($ 118, 7) acted as the Meeoenas 

1 Seebohm, ** Oxford Beformers." Lond., 1869. Walter, ** Sir Thomas 
More." Lond., 1840. Mackintosh, "Life of Sir Thomas More." Lond.,18U. 


of bnmanist Btndies. The most distingoifihed Spanish hamanist 
Anton of Lebrija, profcRsor at Salamanca, a fellow labourer with Ximeiiea 
on tho Couiplutensian Polyglott, and protected by him from the Inqui- 
sition, wbicli would have called him to acooont for his criticism of the 
Valgaie. He died in 4.0. 1622. 

9. Homanism and the Beformation of the Sixteenth Century.— Hamanists, 
in common with tbe reformers, inveighed against tbe debased scholasti- 
cism as well as against the superstition of the age. They did so how- 
erer on very different grounds, and conducted theiv warfare by very 
different methods. While the reformers employed the word of God, and 
strove after the salvation of the soul, the humanists employed wit and 
sarcasm, and sought after the temporal well-being of men. Hence tlie 
reaction of the despised scholasticism and the contemned monasticism 
against hmnanism was oftun in the right. A reformation of the church 
by humanism alone would have been a return to naked paganism. But, 
on the other band, classical studies afforded men who desired a genuine 
reformation of the church a rich, linguistic, philosophical, and scientifio 
culture, without which, as applied to researches in church history, the 
exposition of Scripture, and the revision of doctrine, the reforms of the 
sixteenth century could hardly have been carried oat in a comprehensive 
and satisfactory manner. The most permanent advantage won for the 
church and theology by the revival of learning was the removal of Holy 
Scriptare from under the bushel, and giving it again its rightful place as the 
hunp of the church. It pointed back from the Vulgate, of which since 
▲.D. 1500, some ninety-eight printed editions had appeared, to the original 
text, condemned the allegorical method of exposition, awakened an 
appreciation of the grammatical and historical system of interi)retation, 
afforded scientific apparatus by iU philological studies, and by issuing 
printed Bibles secured the spread of the original text. From the time 
of the invention of printing the Jews were active in printing the Old 
T«itament. From ^.d. 1602 a nnmber of Christian scholars, under the 
presidency of Ximenes, wrought at Alcala at the great Complutensian 
Polyglott, published in ^.d. 1620. It contained tbe Hebrew and Greek 
texts, the Targums, the LXX., and the Vulgate, as well as a Latin trans- 
lation of the LXX. and of the Targums, with a much-needed grammatical 
and lexical apparatus. Daniel Bomberg of Antwerp published at Venice 
various editions of the Old Testament, some with, some without, rab- 
binical commentaries. His ansistants were Felix Pratensis, a learned 
Jew ; and Jacob ben Chaijim, a rabbi of Tunis. As the costly Complu- 
tensian Polyglott was available only to a few, Erasmus did great service 
by hid handy edition of the Greek New Testament, notwithstanding its 
serious critical deficiencies. Erasmus himself brought out five suooessivo 
editions, but very soon more than thir^ impressions were exhausted. 



History of the Deyelopment of the Chnrch under Kodem 

European Forms of Civilization. 

§ 121. Characteb and Distribution of Modern Ghuroh 


In the Reformation of the sixteenth centnry the intelli* 
gence of G^ermany, which had hitherto been under the train« 
ing and tutelage of the Romish church, reached maturity 
by the application of the formal and material principles of 
Protestantism, — the sole normative authority of Scrip ture, 
and justification by faith alone without works of merit. It 
emancipated itself from its schoolmaster, who, for selfish 
ends, had made and still continued to make strenuous efforts 
to check every movement towards independence, every endea- 
vour after ecclesiastical, theological, and scientific {reedonii 
every struggle after evangelical reform. Yet this emanci- 
pation was not completely effected in all the purely German 
nationalities, much less among those Romanic and Slavonio 
peoples which had bowed their necks to the papal hierarchy. 
The Romish church of the Reformation not only adhered to 
the form and content of its former unevangelical constitution, 
but also still further developed and formally elaborated its 
creed in the same unevangelical direction, and the result was 
a split in the western church into an Evangelical Protestant 
and a Roman Catholic church. Then again the principles of 
the Reformation were set forth in different ways, and Pro- 
testantism branched off into two divisions, the Lutheran 
and the Reformed. Besides those three new western 
churches and the one old eastern church, which all rested 
upon the common CBCumenical basis of the old Catholic 
church« a variety of sects sprang out of them. Through 


these greater and lesser divisions, modem chnrch history, 
where, with some advantages and some disadvantages, one 
church is pitted against another, possesst^d a character 
entirely different from the church history of earlier times. 

Modem ohoroh history natorally falls into fonr divisions. The dis- 
tinguishing charactcrisiio of each is found partly in the opposition of 
panicalar churches to one another, partly in the antagonism of faith 
and unbelief. The transition from one to another corresponds generally 
with the boundaries of the centuries. The sixteenth eentury forms the 
Beformation period, in which the new t^otestantism, parted from the 
old Boman Catholicism, east o£F the deformatory elements which had 
attached them selves to it, and developed for itself a system of doctrine, 
worship, and constitution ; while the Boman Catholic church, from the 
middle of the ceutury, set to work upon a connter-Beformation, by which 
it succeeded in large measure in reconquering the field that had been 
lost. The seTenteenth centwy was eharaoterised on the Protestant side 
as the age of orthodoxy, in which confessionalism obtained undivided 
supremacy, deteriorating however in doctrine and life into a frigid 
formaliäm, which called forth the movement of Pietism as a corrective ; 
but, on the Boman Catholic side, it was characterized as a period of 
•outinned succefteful restoration. In the eighteenth century begins the 
struggle against the dominant church and the prevailing conceptions 
of Christianity in the forms of deism, naturalism, and rationalism 
within both the Protestant and Catholic churches. The fourth division 
embraces the nineteenth century. The newly awakened 'faith strives 
Tigorouely with rationalism, and then, on the Protestant side, splits 
into unionism and confessiooalism ; while, on the Boman Catholic side, 
it makes its fullest development in a zealous ultramontauism. But 
rationalism again renews its youth under the cloak of science, and 
alongside of it appears a more undisguised unbelief in the distinctly 
antichristian forms of pantheism, materialism, and communism, which 
■eeks to annihilate everything Christian in ehnroh and state, in seienct 
and faith, in social and political life. 




I. The Reformation.^ 

§ 122. The Beginnings of the Wittenberg Reformation. 

A r the beginning of the sixteenth century everything seemed 
to combine in favour of those reforming endeavours which 
had been held back during the Middle Ages. There was a 
lively perception of the corruptions of the church, a deep 
and universal yearning after reformation, the scientific 
apparatus necessary for its accomplishment, a pope, Leo 
X., careless and indolent ; a trafficker in indulgences, Tetzel, 
stupidly bold and shameless ; a noble, pious, and able prince, 
Frederick the Wise (§ 123, 9), to act as protector of the 
new creed; an emperor, Charles V. (§ 123, 6), powerful 
and hostile enough to kindle the purifying fire of tribulatioii| 
but too much occupied with political entanglements to be 
able to indulge in reckless and violent oppression. There 
were also thousands of other persons, circumstances, and 
relations helping, strengthening, and furthering the work. 

1 Beard, •• The Berormation of the 16th Gent., in ito Relation to 
Modem Thoojiht and Knowledge.'* Lend., 1883. Wylie, ** History of 
Protestantism.'* 8 vols. Lend., 1875. Merle d*Aubign6, ** History of 
Beformation in the ICth Cent, in Switzerland and Germany.** 5 vols. 
Lond., 1840. D'Aubign^, *' History of Beformation in Times of Calvin." 
8 Tola. Lond., 1863. Banke, ** History of Beformation in Germany.** 
8 vols. Lond., 1845. Häasser, ** The Period of the Beformation.*' II 
Tols. liond., 1878. Hagenbaoh, ** History of the Beformation.'* 2 toIb. 
Ediiihargh, 1878. 

&33tlin, *• life of Martin Lather.*' Lond., 1884. Bayne, ** Martin 
Luther: bis Life and Work" 2 vols. Lond., 1887. Bae, "Martin 
Lnther, Stodeut, Monk, Beformer.** Lond , 18^. 

Dale, ** Prut'^stantidm : Its Ultimate Principle." Lond., 1875. Domep^ 
"History of Protevtant Theology." 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1871. Coi^r 
ningham, ** Beforoiers and the Theology of the Beformation." Ediii- 
biugh, 1862. ToUoch, ** Leaders of the Beformation." Edinburgh, 185(^ 


And now, at the right hoar, in the fittest place, and with 
the most saitablo surroundings, a religious genius, in the 
person of Luther, appeared as the reformer, with the rarest 
combination of qualities of head and heart, character and 
will, to engage upon that great work for which Providence 
had so marvellously qualiüed him. This mighty under- 
taking was begun by ninety-five simple theses, which he 
nailed to the door of the church of Wittenberg, and the 
Leipzig Disputation marked the first important crisis in its 

1. Lnther*8 Tears of Freparatloa. — ^Martin Lnther, a miner's son, was 
bom on November 10th, a.d. 1483. His ohildhood was passed ander 
severe parental control and amid pinohiug poverty, and be went to school 
at Monsfeld, whitber bis paronts bad migrated; then at Magdeburg, 
where, amun» the Brothers of the Common Life, he had mainly to secnra 
his own support as a singing boy upon the streets ; and afterwards at 
Eisenach, where Madame Ursula Cotta, moved by his beautiful voice and 
eimest entreaty, took hiiu into her house. In a d. 1501 he entered on 
the study of juri>«prii>lence at Erfurt (§ 120, 2), took the degree of 
bachelor in a.i>. 1502, and that of master in A.D. 1505. During a fearful 
thunderstorm, which overtook him as he travelled home, he was driven 
by terror to vow that he would b^Hsome a monk, impressed as he was by 
the sudden death of an unnamed friend which had taken place shortly 
before. On the 17th July, a.d. 1505, he entered the Augustinian convent 
at Erfurt. In deep concern about his soul's salvation, be sought by 
monkish nscoticism, fa^^ting, prayer, and penances to satisfy his con- 
science, but the inward struggles only grew stronger. An old monk pro- 
claimed to the weary inquirer, almost fainting under the anxiety of spirit 
and self-imposed tortures, the comforting declaration of the creed, ** I 
believe in the forgiveness of sins.'* Still more powerful in directing him 
proved the conversation of his noble superior, John Staupitz (§ 112, C). 
He showed him the way of true repentance and faith in the Savioinr 
emcifiüd not for painted sins. Following his advice, Luther diligently 
studied t le Bible, together with, of his own accord. Augustine's writings. 
In A.D. 1507 be was ordained priest, and in a.D. 1508 Staupitz promoted 
him to the Univert<ity of Wittenberg, foanded in a.d. 1502, where he 
lectured on the *' Dialectics** and ** Physics*' of Aristotle; and in a.d. 1509 
he was mode Baecalaureun bihlieui. In the autnmn of the same year he 
went sgain, probably l^ S'anpitz' advice, to Erfurt, until, a year and a 
half afterwards, ha obtained a definite lettlemeni at Wittenberg. Highly 


importnat for his sabseqaent developmont was the journey whioh, in aj>. 

1511, he took to Borne in the interests of his order. On the first view 
of the holy city, he sank upon his kneed, and wlt)i his hands raised to 
heaven cried oat, " I greet thee, holy Rome." Bat he withdrevr utterly 
disgusted with the godless frivolity and immorality which he wituessed 
among the clergy on every side, and dissatisfied with the exterualism of 
the penitential exercises whioh he had uadertaken. Dariug his whole 
journey the Scripture sounded in his ear, " The jast shall live by his 
faith." It was a voice of God in his soul, which at last carried tlie 
blessed pea^e of God into his wounded spirit« After his return, in a d* 

1512, Staupitz gave him no rest until he took the degree of doctor of 
divinity ; and now he gave lectures in the university on Holy Scripture« 
and afterwards preached in the city church of Wittenberg. He apphed 
himself more and more, by the help of Augustine, to the study of Scrip- 
ture and its fundamental doctrine of justification by faith alone. About 
this time too he was powerfully infiuenoed by Tauler's mysticism and 
the ** Deutsche Theologie," of which he published an edition in aj>. 

3. Lather's Theses of A.D. 1517. — The sasthetic and laxurious pop3 Leo 
X. (§ 110, 14), avowedly for the baildiog of St. Peter's, really to fill hit 
own empty coffers, had proclaimed a general indulgence. Germany was 
divided between three indulgence commissiouj. The elector-cardinal 
Albert of Mainz, archbishop of Magdeburg, and brother of Elector Joacliim 
of Brandenburg, undertook the dircctiun of the commission for his 
archiepiscopal province, for whioh he was to receive half the proceeds for 
the payment of his debts. The most shameless of the tralhckers in 
indulgences employed by him was the Leipzig Dominican prior, John 
Tetzel. This man had been sentenced at Inudbrück to be drowned for 
adultery, but on the intercession of the Elector of Saxony had his sentence 
oommuted to imprisonment for life. He now was token from his prison 
in order to do this piece of work for Albert. With great success he went 
from place to place, and offered his wares for sale, proclaiming their 
virtues in the public market with unparalleled audacity. He went to 
Jäterbock, in the vicinity of Wittenberg, where he attracted crowds of 
purchasers from all around. Luther discovered in the confessional the 
corrupting influence of such procedure, and on the afternoon of All 
Saints' Day, October 3 1st, A.D. 1517, he nailed on the door of the Castle 
Church of Wittenberg ninety-five theses, explaining the meaning oi 
the indulgence. Althoagh they were directed not so much against 
the principle of indulgences a^ agaiust their misunderstanding and 
abuse, they comprehen«led the real germ of the Reformation movement, 
negatively in the conception of repentance which they set forth, and 
positively in the distinct declaration that the grace of God in Christ eaa 
»lone avail for the forgiveness of sin. With incredible rapidity th» 


theses spread over all Qerman j, indeed over all Bnropt. Lather aeeom« 
panied them with a sermon on indalgenoe and graoe. The immensa 
appUuse whieh its deliTery called forth led the snpporters of the old 
Tiews to gird on their armour. Tetzel pnblioly burnt the theses al 
Jaterboek, and with the help of Wimpina posted np and oircolated ai 
FrankfcNTt and other places coanter-theses. The IJVlttenberg stndents 
purchased quantities of these theses, and in retaliation burnt them, but 
Lather did not approve their conduct. In April, A.n. 1518, Luther went 
to Heidelberg, to take part there in a xegular chapter of the Augustioians, 
which was usuallj accompanied hj 'public preaching and disputations 
by members of the order. The disputation, which on tliis occasion waa 
assigned to Luther, gave him the welcome opportunity of making known 
to wider circles these philosophical and theological views which he had 
hitherto uttered ouly in Wittenberg. The professors of the University 
of Heidelberg repudiated and opposed them, but in almost every case 
mildly and with tolerance. On the other hand, many of the yoong 
theologians studying there enthusiastically accepted his doctrines, and 
several of them, e.g. Martin Bucer of Strassburg (§ 125, 1), John Brenc 
and Erhard Schnepf of Swabia (§ 183, 3), as well as Theobald BiUicanus, 
afterwards reformer of Nördlingen, etc., there and then consecrated them- 
selves to their life work. 

3. Prierias, Cajetan, aad Miltits, A.B. 1618» 1610.— Leo X. at firrt re- 
garded the matter as an insignificant monkish squabble, and praised 
Brother Martin as a real genius. He gave no heed to Hoogstraten's oat- 
ery of heresy, nor did he encourage the Dominican Prierias in his attack 
on Lnther. The book of Prierias was a harmless affair. Lather gave it 
a short and crushing reply. Prierias answered in a second and third 
tract, which Lnther simply republished with sarcastic and overwhelming 
prefaces. The poi^e then enjoined silence npon his luckless steward. In 
Hay, A.D. 1518, Luther wrote a humble epistle to the pope, and added a 
aeries of Reiolutiottet in vindication of his theses. Staupits is said to 
have revised both. Meanwhile it had been determined in Borne to deal 
with the Wittenberg business in earnest. The papal procurator made a 
oomplaint against Luther. A court was commissioned, which summoned 
him to appear in person at Bome to answer for himself. But, on the 
representations of the University of Wittenberg uid the Elector Frederick 
the Wise, the pope charged Cardinal Ci^etan, his legate at the Diet of 
Augsburg, to take up the consideration of the matter. Luthmr appeared, 
and made his appeal to the Bible. The legate however wished him 
to argue from the schoolmen, demanded an unconditional recantation, 
and at last haughtily disnUasad " the beast with deep eyes and wonderful 
•peculations in his head.'* Lather made a fcnrmal appeal a $anetimmo 
Domino Leone ntale infomaUt ad meHit» i^fitrmandum, and quitted Augs- 
burg in good apiitta. The oardinal now tooght to rooae Frederick 


•gftiiiAt the reftrftotory monk« bat Lotiier's baoysnt and hnmUe oon- 
fidenoe won the noble elector's heart. Cajetan continued a vigorous 
opponent of the reformed doctrine. But Lather*» superiority in Scrip- 
ture knowledge had so impressed the cardinal, that he now applied him- 
self closely to tiie study of the Bible in the original tongues ; and thus, 
while firmly attached to the Bomish system, he was led on many points, 
s.|7. on Scripture and tradition, divorce, injunctions about meats, the 
use of the vernacular in public worship, the objectionableuess of the alle- 
gorical interpretation, etc., to adopt more liberal views, so tbat he was 
denounced by some Boman Catholic cdhtroversialists as guilty of various 
lieresies. — Luther had no reason in any case to look for any good from 
Home. Hence he prepared beforehand an appeal for an odcumenical 
eouncil, which the publisher, against Lutber*s will, at once spread 
Abroad. Li Bome the cardinal's pride was wounded by the failure of his 
undertaking. A papal bull defined the doctrine of indulgences, in order 
more exactly to guard against misrepresentations, and an accomplished 
eourtier, the papal chamberlain, Oarl von Miltits, a Saxon, was sent to 
Saxony, in a. d. 1519, as papal nuncio, to convey to the elector the con- 
secrated golden rose, and to secure a happy conclusion to the controversy. 
The envoy began by addressing a ^arp admonition to Tetzel, and met 
liUther with hypocritickl graoiousnees. Luther acknowledged tbat he 
had acted rashly, wrote a humble, submissive letter to the pope, and 
published *' An Itutruetion an 9ome Artielet atcribed to him by his Tra- 
«iseen.** But after all the retractations which he made at the diet he 
still firmly maintained justification by faith, without merit of works. 
Be promised the nuncio to abstain from all further polemic, on condition 
that his opponents also should be silent. But silent these would not be. 
4. Tbe Leipsig DispuUtioa, A.D. 1519.— John Eck of Ingolstadt had 
engaged in controversy with a zealous supporter and colleague of Lather, 
Andrew Bodenstein of Carlstadt, professor and preacher at Wittenberg, 
and Luther himself took part in the discussion between the two. This 
disputation came off at Leipzig, and lasted from June 27th to July 16th. 
But Eck's vanity led him not only to seek the greatest possible fame from 
bis present disputation, but also to drag in Luther by challenging his 
theses. Eck disputed for eight days with Oarlstadt about grace and free 
will, and with abundant eloquence, boldness, and learning vindicated 
Bomish semi-Pelsgianism. Then he disputed for fourteen days with 
Luther about the primacy of the pope, about repentance, indulgences, 
and purgatory, and pressed him hard about the Hussite heresy. But 
Luther sturdily opposed him on the grounds of Scripture, and confirmed 
himself in the conviction that even cscumenioal councils might err, and 
that not all Hussite doctrines are heretical Both parties claimed 
the victory. Luther continued the discussion in various controversial 
tnatises, and Ed^ too, was not silent. New combatants also, for and 


against, from all sides appeared opon the aeene. The liberal bnmaiiieti 
(§ 120, 2) had at first taken little notice of Lather*s oontention. Bnt the 
Leipzig Disputation led them to change their attitude. Lather teemed 
to them now a new Beuchlin, Eok another specimen of Ortoinns Gtratina. 
A biting satire of Pirkheimer ($ 120« 8), ** Der abgehobelte Eck," ap- 
peared in the beginning of A.D 1520, exceeding in Aristophanio wit any 
of the epistles of the Obscnrantists. It was followed by several satirei 
by Ulrich von Hatten, who receiTed new inspiration from Lather's 
appearance at Leipzig. Hatten and Sickingen, with their whole party, 
undertook to protect Luther wit& body and soul, with sword and pen. 
This was a covenant of some advantage to the Reformation in its early 
years ; but had it not been again abrogated, it might have diverted the 
movement into an altogether wrong direction. From this time forth 
Duke George of Saxony, at whose castle and in whose presence the dis- 
putation had been conducted, became the irreconcilable enemy of Luther 
and hi» Reformation. 

5. Philip Helaochthon. — At the Leipzig Disputation there also appeared 
a man fated to become of supreme importance in the carrying out of 
the Reformation. Bom on February 16th, a.d. 1497, at Bretten in the 
Palatinate, Philip Melanchthon entered the ünivertuty of Heidelberg in 
his thirteeuth year, and at the age of sixteen published a Greek grammar. 
He took the degree of master at seventeen, and at twenty-one, in ^.o. 
1518, on the recommendation of his grand-uncle Beuchlin, he was made 
ProfeBBor of Greek in Wittenberg. His fame soon spread over all Europe, 
and attracted to him thousands of hearers from all parts. Luther and 
Erasmus vied with one another in lauding his talents, his fine culture 
and learning, and his contemporaries have given him the honourable 
title of Praeeptor Oermania, He was an Erasmus of nobler form and 
higher power, a thorough contrast to Luther. His whole being breathed 
modesty, mildness, and grace. With childlike simplicity he received the 
recognised truths of the gospel. He bowed humbly before the powerful, 
pracfioal spirit of Luther, who also, on his part, acknowledgei with pro- 
found thankfulness the priceless treasure God had sent to him and to his 
work in this fellow labourer. Melanchthon wrote to his friend (Ecolam- 
padius at Basel an account of the Leipzig Disputation, which by chance 
fell into Eck*s hands. This occasioned a literary controversy, in which 
Eok^s vain over-estimation of himself appears in very striking contrast 
to the noble modesty of Melanchthon. He took part in the Reformation 
first in February, kJ>, 1521, by a pseudonymous apology for Luther.* 

6. George Spalatiii. — ^In consequence of his influential position at the 
court of the elector, which he obtained on Mutian's (§ 120, 2) recommen- 
dation, after completing his philosopliioal, legal, and theological studie« 

I Ledderhoae, ** Life of Kelanohthon," trans, by KroteL Philad., 1855. 

§ 123. I.ÜTHEB*S PBBIOD OF CONFLICT, A.D. 1520-21. 237 

at Erfurt, George Bnikbardl« bom in a.D. 1484 at Spalt, In the diooese of 
Eichstadt, and hence called SpalatinaB, played an important part in the 
German Beformation. Frederick tbe Wise, who had, in ^.d. 1509, en- 
trosted him with the education of his nephew John Frederick, appointed 
him, in a.i>. 1514, his coart chaplain, librarian, and private secretary', in 
which capacity he aorompanied the elector to all the diets, and was 
almost exclusively the channel for communicating to him tidiogrt about 
Lntber. John the Constant, in a.d. 1525, m ide him superinteudent of 
Alteuburg, and took him with him to the diets of Spires, in a.d. 1526, 
1629, and of Augsburg in a.D. 1530. John Frederick tbe Ma;;nanimouB, 
bis former pupil, employed him in a.d. 1537 on important negotiations 
at the conference of the princes at Schmalkald (§ 134, 1). From a.D. 
1627 Spalatin was specially busy with tbe visitation and organization of 
the Saxon church (§ 127, 1), conducted, in the interests of the Bofor- 
mation, an exteusive correspondence, and composed several works on the 
history of his times and the history of the Beformation. 

§ 123. Lutheb's Pebiod of Conflict, a.d. 1520, 162 1. 

The Leipzig Disputation had carried Luther to a more 
advanced standpoint. He came to see that he could not 
remain standing half way, that the carrying out of the 
Reformation principle, justification by faith, was incom- 
patible with the hierarchical system of the papacy and its 
dogmatic foundation. But amid all the violence and sub- 
jective one-sidodness which he showed at the beginning of 
this period of conflict, he had sufficient control of himself 
to make clear the spiritual character of his reforming en- 
deavours, and firmly to reject the carnal weapons which 
Ulrich von Hütten and his revolutionary companions wished 
him to take up, thankful as he was for their warm sympathy. 
His standpoint as a reformer is shown in the writings which 
he published during this period. The Romish bull of ex- 
communication provoked him to strong words and extreme 
measures, and with heroic boldness he entered Worms to 
present to the emperor and diet an account of his doings. 
The papal ban was followed by the imperial decree of out- 
lawry. But the Wartburg exile saved him from the hands of 
his enemies and — of his friends. 

238 onuBCH histobt of thb sixtbbnth gbmtübt. 

1. Liit]ier*8 Three Chief KefonaatloB Writliigi, A.D. ISM.^In Om 

powerful treatise, ** To His Imperial Majesty anil the Christian Nobiliij 
of the German Nation on the Improvement of the Christian Condition,'* 
whicli appeared in the beginning of Aagnst, a.i>. 1620, Lnther bombazdi 
first of all the three walls behind which the Romanists entrenched 
tliemselves, the superiority of the spiritual to the eivil power, the lole 
right of the pope to interpret Scripture and to summon ceeumenical 
councils. Then he commends to the laity, as consecrated by baptism to 
a spiritual priesthood, especially ciyil rulers ordained of God, the taak of 
carr^'ing out the reformation which Gcd's word requires, but the pope 
and clergy hinder ; and then finally he makes a powerful appeal lor 
carrying out this work in a practical way. He exposes the false preten- 
sions of the papal curia, demands renunciation of annate and papal 
confirmation of newly elected bishope, complete abandonment of the 
interdict and the abuse of excommunication, the prohibition of pilgri- 
mages and the begging of the monks, a limitation of holy d^ya, reform 
of the universities, permission to the clergy to marry, reunion with the 
Bohemian Picards (§ 119, 8), etc. — The second work, "On the Babylonish 
Captivity of tlie Church,** is a dogmatic treatise, and is directed mainly 
against the misuse of the sacraments and the reckoning of them a 
seven, which have been made in the hands of the pope an Instrument 
of tyranny over the church. Only three are recognised as founded on 
Scripture : baptism, penance, and the Lord's Sapper, with the remark 
that strictly speaking, even penance, as wanting an outward sign, can- 
not be styled a sacrament. The doctrine of transubstantiati3n, tiie 
withholding of the cup from the laity, and the idea of a sacrifice in the 
mass are decidedly rejected. The thinl treatise. " On the Freedom of % 
Christian Man," enters the ethical domain. It represents the life of the 
Christian, rooted in justifying faith, as complete oneness with Gbriai. 
His relation therefore to the world around is set forth in two proposi- 
tions : A Christian man is a free lord over all things, and subject to no 
one; and a Christian man is a ministering servant of all things, and 
subject to every one. On the one hand, he has the perfect freedom of s 
king and priest set over all outward things ; but, on the other hand, he 
yields complete submission in love to his neighbour, which, aa oonaiderft- 
tion of the weak, his very freedom demnnds.^ 

2. The Papal Bull of Excommimieatim, AJ). 1590.— In order to reap 
the fruits of his pretended victory at Leipzig, Eck had gone to Borne« 
and was sent back triumphant aa papal nnneio with the bull Exturgs 

1 Domer, •' History of Protestant Theology," vol. i., pp. 98-113. •* The 
First Principles of the Berorination Illustrated in the Ninety-five Thesea 
and Three Primary Works of Martin Luther,** edited with historioal and 
theological introductions by Waoe and Buoheim. Load., 1884. 

§ 123. lüthbb's pbriod of conflict, a.D. 1520-21. 239 

Jkimifd of June 16th. It charged Lather with forty-one heresies, reoom- 
mended the barning of his works, and threatened to put him and his 
lollowers, if they did not retract in sixty days, under the ban. Mil kits 
renewed bis attempts at conciliation, which, however, led to no result, 
although Luther, to show at least his good will, attended the conference, 
and, as a basis for a mutual understanding, published bis treatise, ** On 
the Freedom of a Christian Man," in Oct. , ▲.!>. 1520. He accompanied thia 
with a letter to the pope, in which he treated him with personal respect, aa 
a sheep among wolves and as a Daniel sitting among lions ; but there was 
in it no word of repentance or of any desire to retract. It could easily 
have been foreseen that these two documents would prove thoroughly 
distasteful to the Bomish court. Meanwhile Eck had issued the bull. 
- Lather published a seathing polemic against it, and renewed his appeal, 
made two years before, to an oscumenical council. In Saxony Eck 
gained only scorn and reproach with his bull; but in Lyons, Mainz, 
Cologne, etc., Lather's works were actually burnt. It was then that 
Lntber took the boldest step in his whole career. With a numerous 
retinue of doctors and students, whom he had invited by a notice posted 
up on the blackboard, on the iOth Dec., a.i>. 1520, at the Elster gate 
of Wittenberg, he cast into the blazing pile tbe bull and the papal 
deeretals with the words, *' Because thou hast troubled the saints of the 
Lord, let eternal fire consume thee.*' It was the utter renunciation of the 
pope and his church, and with it he cut away every possibility of a return. 

8. Erasmus, A.D. 1530.— Erasmus (§ 120, 6) had been hitberto on good 
terms with Luther. They entertained for one another a genuine regard. 
Diverse as their positive tendencies were, they were at one in contending 
against scholasticism and monkery. Erasmus was not sorry to see such 
heavy blows dealt to the detested monks, and constantly refused to write 
against Lutber ; he had also, he confessed, no wish to learn from his 
own experience the sharpness of Luther's teeth. When the papal bull 
appeared, without hesitation he disapproved it, and indeed refused to 
believe in its genuineness. He, as the oracle of his age, was applied to 
by many for his opinion of the matter. His judgment was that not the 
papal decision in itself but its style and form should be disapproved. 
He desired a tribunal of learned, pious men and three princes (the 
emperor and the kings of England and Hungary), to whose verdict 
Luther would have to submit. When Frederick the Wise consulted him, 
he expressed the opinion that Luther had made two mistakes, in touching 
the crown of the pope and tbe belly of the monks ; he regretted in Luther*a 
proceedings a want of moderation and discretion. Not without profit did 
tbe elector hear the oracle thus discourse. — Continuation § 125, 8. 

4. Lather's Controversy with Emser, A.D. 1519-1521.— Emser, secretary 
and orator in the service of Duke Qeorge, after the Leipzig Disputation, 
whieh he had attended, sooght by letter-writing to alienate the Bohe- 


mians (J 189, 19) from Lather, representing htm m having there spoken 
bitterly agaiust them. This ronsed Lather to mnke a passionate reply- 
After several pamphlets of a violent character had been issued hj both 
combatants, Emser issaed his charge in a fall and oomprebensive treatise« 
to which Luther replied in his work, ** The Answer of Ma. tin Lather to 
the Unchristian, Ultra-ecclesiastical, and Over-ingenions Book of Emser 
at Leipzig.'* They had also a sharp passage at arms with one another, 
in A.D. 1524, over the canonization of Bishop Benno of Meisseu, in which 
Eraser, by his duke's order, took a zealous part (§ 129, 1). Bot aU the 
later writings in this controversy Luther left unanswered. EmRer, with 
great bitterness, assailed Luther's translation of the Bible, in which he 
professed to have founl 1,400 heretical falsifications and more than 1.009 
lexical blunders. Lutber was candid enough to acknowledge that several 
of liis animadversions were not unfounded. On Em8er*s own translation, 
which appeared shortly before his death in a.D. 1527, see { 149. 14. 

5. The Emperor Charles 7. — The Emperor Maximilian had died on 12th 
Jan., A D. 1519. The Elector of Saxony, as administrator of the empire, 
managed to determine the election, which took place on 2dth June, a.d. 
1519, Against the French candidate, Francis I., who was supported hj 
the pope, in favour of the young king of Spain, Charles I., grandson of 
Maximih'an. Detained at home by Spani-^h affairs, it was 23rd Oct., 
A.D. 1520, before he was crowned at Aachen. AU hopes were now 
directed loward the young emperor. It was expected that he would put 
himself at the head of the religious and national movement in Grcrmany. 
But Charles, uninspired by German sentiment, and even ignorant of the 
German language, had other interests, which he was not inclined to sub- 
ordinate to German politics. The German crown was with him only an 
integral part of his power. Its interests must accommodate themselves 
to the common interests of the whole dominions, upon which the sun never 
•et. The German movement he regarded as one, indeed, of high import- 
ance, but he regarded it not so much from its religious as from its poli- 
tical side. It afforded him the means for keeping the pope in check and 
obliging him to sue for his favour. Two things required he of the pope 
as the price of suppressing the German movement : renunciation of the 
French alliance, and repeal of the papal brief by which a transformation 
had been recommended of the Spanish Inquisition, the main buttress of 
absolute monarchy in Spain. The pope granted both demands, and the 
hopes of the Germans in their new emperor, that he would finally free 
their nation from the galling yoke of Borne, were thus utterly blasted. 

6. The Diet at Worms, A.D. 1521 — Immediately after the arrival of 
the bull the emperor gave it the full force of law in the Netherlands, 
where he was then staying. He did not at once venture to make the 
same proclamation for Germany, speoially from regard to Frederick ihm 
'Wise, Luther's own prince, who insisted that he ahoald not be ooii« 

S 128. littheb's pbbiod of conflict, a.D. 1520-21. 241 

demned unheard. Penonal negotiations between Frederick and the 
emperor and his oonnoillors at Cologne, in November, a.d. 1520, ended 
with a demand that the elector should bring Luther to the diet, sum- 
moned to meet at Worms, on 28th January, a.d. 1521 ; but at the desire 
of Aleander, the papal nuncio, who energetically protested against the 
proposal that civil judges should treat of matters of faith with an already 
condemned heretic, the emperor, in December, withdrew this summons. 
Li the beginning of February there came a papal brief, in which he 
was urgently entreated to give effect to the bull throughout Qermany. 
Aleander even sketched an imperial mandate for its execution, but was 
not able to prevent the emperor from laying it before his councillors for 
their opinion and approval. This was done in the middle of February. 
And now there arose a quite unexpected storm of opposition. The coun- 
cillors demanded that Luther should be brought under an imperial safe 
conduct to Worms, there to answer for himself. His attacks on IU>mi8h 
abuses they would not and could not regard as crimes, for they them- 
selves, with Duke George at their head, hod presented to the pope a 
complaint containing 101 counts. On the other hand, they declared 
that if Luther would not retract his doctrinal vagaries, they would be 
prepared to cariy out the edict. They persisted in this attitude when 
another scheme was proposed to them, which insisted on the burning of 
Luther's writings. In the beginning of March a third proposal was 
made, which asked only for the temporary sequestration of his works. 
And to this they agreed. The emperor, though against his own will, 
submitted to their demand, and cited the reformer of Wittenberg to 
answer for himself at Worms. On 6th March he signed a summons, 
accompanied with a safe conduct, both intended, as Aleander said in 
writing to Bome, rather to frighten him from coming than with any 
desire for his presence. But the result was not as they desired. The 
oonrier appointed to deliver this citation was not sent, but instead of him, 
on the I2th, an imperial herald, who delivered to Luther a respectful 
invitation beginning with the address, ** Noble, dear, and worshipful &ir.** 
This herald was to bring him honourably and safely to Worms, and to 
conduct him back again in safety. All this was done behind the back of 
Aleander, who first came to know about it on the 15th, and certainly 
was not wrong in attributing the emperor's change of mind to a suspicion 
of French political intrigues, in which Leo X., notwithstanding his nego- 
tiations for an alliance with the emperor, was understood to have had 
a share. Two weeks later, however, such suspicions were seen to be 
unfounded. Too late the sending of the herald was regretted, and an 
effort was made to conciliate the nuncio by the publication of the seques- 
irnting mandate, which had been hitherto suppressed. * 

7. Lather was meanwhile not idle at Wittenberg, while waiting with 
heroic calm the issue of the Worms negotiations. Ho preached twice 
VOL. IL i6 

242 cnxTBCH histobt of thb sixtbenth cbntubt. 

dally, delivered lectures at the nniversitj, tanght and exhorted by hooka, 
letters, and convc rRations, fongbt with his opponents, especially Emser, 
etc. \Miile Luther was engaged with these multifarious tasks the im- 
perial herald arrived. He now set everything aside, and on 2nd April 
boldly and confidently obeyed the summons. The fears of his Witten- 
berg friends and the counsels to turn back which reached bim on his way 
were rejected with a heroic couFciousness that he was in the path of duty. 
He had written on 14th March to Spalatin, Intrabimiu iVormatiam inviti» 
vmnibtu portU inferni et potentatibut aXrii; and again from Oppenheim 
he wrote him, that he would go to Worms even if there were as many 
devils there as tiles upon the roofs. Still another attempt was made 
upon him at Oppenheim. The emperor's confessor, Glapio,a Franciscan, 
who was by no means a blind worshipper of the Roman curia, thought it 
possible that a good understanding might be reached. He was of opinion 
that if Luther would ouly withdraw the worst of bis books, especially 
that on the BabyU>nish Captivity, and acknowledge the dmsions of the 
Council of Constance, all might be agreeably settled. With this in hia 
mind he applied to the £lector of Saxony, and when he received no 
encouragement there, to Franz von Sickingen, who invited Luther, on 
his arrival at Ebernburg, near Worms, to an interview with Glapio ; but 
Luther deeliucd the invitation. — His journey all through was hke a 
triumphal march. On 16th April, amid a great concourse of people, he 
entered Worms, along with his friends Justus Jonas and Nie. Amsdorf, 
as well as his legal adviser Jerome Schürf. He was called to appear on 
the following day. He admitted that the books spread out before him 
were hi», and when called on to retract desired one day's adjournment. 
On the 18th the trial proper began. Luther distinguished three cladsoB 
of his writings, systematic treatises, controversial tracts againut the 
pspacy and papal doctrine, and controver^^ial tracts against private iudi- 
\iduals, and did not know that he had said anything in them that he 
eouhl retract. He was asked to give a direct answer. He then gave one 
i* without horuK or teeth," saying that he could and would retract nothing 
unk'fls proved false from Scripture, or on other good and clear grounds, 
and concluded with the words, ''Here stand I; I can no otherwise I 
God help me, Amen.*' Amoug the German knights and princes he had 
won ma')y hearts, but had made no favourable impression on the 
emptror, who, when liUthcr denounced the absolute authority of coun- 
cils, stopped proceedings and dismissed the heretical monk. On the 
following day, without consulting the opinion of the couucillois, he 
passed bentence of unconditional condemnation. But the touncillora 
would not have the matter settled in this fasliion, and the emperor was 
obligoi, on 24th April, to reopen negotiations before a select commia- 
aion, under the presidency of the Archbishop of Treves. Of uo avail 
was a private oo;jference of the archbishop and Lather on the 25th| 

S 123. lttthbb's pbbiod of conflict, a.D. 1520-21. 243 

in which the prelate accompanied his exhortation to retract with 
the promise of a rich priorate in his neighbourhood nnder his own and 
the emperor's protection and favour. Luther supported his refusal by 
confident reference to the words of Qamaliel, Acts y. 38. On 2Gth April 
he left Worms nnhindered ; for the emperor had decidedly refused to 
yield to the vile proposal that the safe conduct of a heretic should be 
violated. — In consequence of Luther's persistent refusal to retract any- 
thing, the majority of the diet pronounced themselves ready to agree j 
to the emperor's judgment against Lim. The latter now assigned to 
Aleander the drawing up of a new mandate, which should in the severest 
terms proclaim the ban of the empire against Luther and all his friends. 
After it had been approved in an imperial cabinet council, and was ready 
for printing in its final form in Latin and German, with the date 8th 
May, it was laid before the emperor for signature, which, however, he 
put off doing from day to day, and finally, in spite of all the nancio*g 
remonstrances, he decided that it must be produced before the diet. 
When it appeared that this must be done, the two nuncios were all im- 
patient to have it passed soon. But it was only on the 25tb May, after 
the close of the diet, and after several princes, especially the Electors of 
Saxony and the Palatinate, had gone, that Charles let them present the 
edict, to which all present agreed. On the 2Gth May, after Divine service 
in church, he solemnly signed the Latin and German forms, which were 
published with blast of trumpets on the following day, and on Wednesday 
the sequestrated books of Luther were burnt. — Undoubtedly political 
motives occasioned this long delay in signing the documents. Perhaps 
he suspected the lope of some new act of political treachery ; probahly 
also he wished to postpone the publication of the edict until the imperial 
oounciliors had promised to contribute to his proposed journey to Borne, 
and perhaps until the nobles dissenting from the proceedings against 
Luther had departed. 

8. The Wartburg £xüe, A.D. 1621, 1522.— Some days after Luther had 
dismissed the imperial herald, his carriage was stopped in a wood near 
Eisenach by two disguised knights with some retainers. He was himself 
carried off with show of violence, and brought to the Wartburg, where he 
waa to remain in knight's dress under tbe name of Junker Georg with- 
out himself knowing anything more of the matter. It was indeed a 
contrivance of the wise elector, though probably he took no active share 
in tbe matter, so that he could declare at Worms that he knew nothing 
of the Saxon monk. The most contradictory reports were spread. 
Sometimes the Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg (§ 122, 2) was thought 
of as tbe perp.trator of the act, sometimes Franz von Sickingeu (§124, 2), 
sometimes a Francouian nobleman who was on intimate terms with 
Frederick. And as tlie news rapidly spread that Luther's body, pierced 
with a sword, had been found in an old silver mine, the tumult in 


Wonns became so great that Aleander had good canse to fear for his lila. 
— From the Wartbnrg Lnther maintained a lively oorrespondence with hit 
friends, and even to the general public he proved, bj edifying and stirring 
tracts, that he still lived, and was not inclined to he silenced or re- 
pressed. He completed the exposition of the Magnificat, wrought npon 
the Latin exiK>8ition of the Psalms, issued the first series of his **OhQroh 
Postils," wrote an ** Instruction to Penitents," a book ** On Confession, 
whether the Pope have the Power to Enjoin it,*' another *' Against the 
Abuses of the Mass,'' also ** On Priestly and Monkish Vows,'* etc. When 
Cardinal Albert, in September, a.D. 1521, proclaimed a pilgrimage with 
unlimited iudalgence to the relic shrine at HsUe (§ 115, 9), Luther wrote 
a »cathing tract, ** Against the New Idol at Halle.'* And when Spalatin 
assured him that the elector would not snffer its being issued, he de- 
clined to withhold it, but sent him the little book, with imperative ordei« 
to give it over to Melanchthon for publication. While Spalatin still 
delaved its issue, Luther left his castle, pushed his way toward Witten- 
berg through the very heart of Duke George's territories, and suddenly 
a]>peared among his friends in the dress of a knight, with long beard 
and hair. When he heard that the mere report of wliat he was prr^pos- 
ing to do had led those in Halle to stop the traffic in indulgences, he 
decided not to proceed with the publica ion, but instead he addresf^ a 
letter to Albert, in which the archbishop had to read many a strong 
word about *Hhe knavery of indulgences," ** the Pharaoh-like hardened 
condition of coclesia>«ticul tyrants,'* etc. The pi elate sent a most humble, 
apologetic, and gracious reply to the bold reformer. Lnther then re^ 
turned to his protective exile, as he had left it, unmolested. But the 
longer it continued tl:e more insupportable did this electoral gnardian- 
ship become. He would rather '* burn on glowing coals than spend thus 
a half idle life." But it was jnst this enforced exile that saved Lather 
and the llcformatlon from utter overthrow. Apart from the dangers of 
the ban of the empire, which would have perhaps obliged him to throw 
himself into the arms of Hütten and his companions, and thns have 
turued the Beformation into a revolution, this confinement in the Wart- 
burg was in various ways a blessing to Lnther and his work. It was of 
importance that men should learn to distinguish between Lnthcr's woik 
and Luther's person, and of yet greater importance was the discipUne of 
this exile u)iou Luther himself. He was in danger of being drawn out of 
the path of positive reformation into that of violent revolutionism. J'he 
leisure of the Wartburg gave him time for calm reflection on himself and 
his work, and the extravagances of the Wittenberg fanatics and the wild 
excuses of the prophets of Zwickau (§ 124, 1) could be estimated with a 
freedom from prejudice that would have been impossible to one living 
and moving in the midst of them. Besides, he had not reached that 
maturity of theological knowledge needed for the conduct of his great 


undertaking, and was in many ways fettered by a one-sided subjectivism. 
In his seclusion be could turn from merely destructive criticism to con- 
struction, and by undisturbed study of Scripture became able to enlarge, 
purify, and confirm his religious knowledge. But most important of all 
was the plan which he formed in the Wartburg, and so far as the New 
Testament is concerned carried out there, of translating the whole of the 

9. The Attitude of Frederick the Wise to the BeformatioB. — ^Frederick 
the Wise, a.d. 1486-1525, has usually been styled *' the Promoter of the 
Beformation." Kolde, however, has sought to represent him as favour- 
ing Lather because of his interest in the University of Wittenberg 
founded by him, the success of which was largely owing to Luther, and 
because of his patriotic desire to have German questions settled at home 
rather than in Bome. This author supposes that after the Diet of 
Worms Frederick took no particular interest in the Beformation, beyond 
watcbing to see bow things would turn out. To all this Köstlin has 
replied that Frederick's whole attitude during the Diet of Worms be- 
trayed a warm and hearty interest in evangelical truth ; that his corre- 
pondence with Tücher of Nuremberg, a.d. 1518-1523, supports this view; 
that in one of these letters he addresses his correspondent with evident 
satisfaction as a good Lutheran ; that in another he incloses a copy of 
Luther's Aiaertio omnium articulorum ; that at a later period he forwards 
him a copy. of Luther*s New Testament, and expresses the hope that he 
will gain spiritual blessing from its perusal. He himself found it his 
greatest comfort in the hour of death, partook of the communion in 
both kinds after the reformed manner, which takes away all ground for 
the suspicion that he yielded only to the importunities of his brother 
John and his cbaplain Spalatin. And even though Frederick, as late as 
A^. 1522, continued to increase the rich collection of relics which he had 
previously made for his castle church, this only proves that not all at 
onoe but only bit by bit he was able to break away from his earlier 
religious tendencies and predilections. 

§ 124. Deterioration and Purification of the 
Wittenberg Reformation, a.D. 1522-1525. 

During Luther's absence, the Reformation at Wittenberg 
advanced only too rapidly, and at last ran out into the 
wildest extravagances. But Luther hastened thither, rega« 
lated the movement, and guided it back into wise evan- 
gelical ways. This fanaticism arose in Wittenberg, but soon 

I Morris, •« Luther at the Wartburg and Coburg." Philad., 18d2. 


spread into other parts. The Reformation was at the same 
time threatened with danger from another quarter. The 
religious movement came into contiict with the struggle of 
the German knights against the princes and that of the 
German peasants against the nobles, and was in danger of 
being identified with these revolutionary proceedings and 
sharing their fate. But Luther stood firm as a wall against 
all temptations, and thus these dangers were avoided. 

1. The Wittenberg Fanatidim, A.D. 1581, 1528— In a-d. 1521 an 
Angustinian, Gabriel Didymna or Zwilling, preached a violent tirad« 
against vows and private masses. In consequence of this sermon, 
thirteen of the brethren of his order at once withdrew. Two priesta 
in the neighbourhood married. Carlstadt wrote against celibacy and 
followed their example. At the Wittenberg convent, secessions from the 
order were allowed at pleasure, and mendicancy, as well as the sacrifice of 
the mass, was abolished. Bat matters did not stop tliere. Didvmus, 
and still more Carlstadt, spread a fanatical spirit among the people and 
the students, who were encouraged in the wildest acts of violence. The 
public services were disturbed in order to stop the idolatry of the mass, 
images were thrown out of the churches, altars were torn down, and a 
desire evinced to put an end to theological science as well as to clerical 
orders. A fanatical spirit began now also to spread at Zwickau. At the 
head of this movement stood the tailor Nicolas Storch and a literate 
Marcus Stiibner, who boasted of Divine revelations ; while Thomas 
Münzer, with fervid eloquence, proclaimed the new gospel from the pulpit. 
Bestrained by energetic measures taken against them, the Zwickaa 
prophets wandered abroad. Münzer went to Bohemia, Storch and 
Stübner to Wittenberg. There they told of their revelations and in- 
veighed against infant baptism as a work of Satan. The excitement in 
Wittenberg became greater day by day. The enemies of the Beforma- 
tion rejoiced ; Me lanchthon could give no counsel, and the elector was 
confounded. Then could Luther no longer contain himself. Against 
the elector's express command he left the Wartburg on Srd March, a.D. 
1522, wrote him a noble letter, availed himself of his knight's incognito 
on the way, and appeared publicly at Wittenberg. For a week he preached 
daily against fanaticism, and got complete control of the wild revolution- 
ary elements. The prophets of Zwickau left Wittenberg. CarlstadI 
remained, but for a couple of years held his peace. Luther and Melanch- 
thon now laboured to secure a positive basis for the Beformation. 
Melanchthon had already made a beginning in a^. 1521 by the publi« 
cation of his Loci eommunei rerum theologiearumm Lather now, in aji 


1522, against the decided wish of his friend, published his Annotatione$ 
in epist. t. Pauli ad Rom. et Cor. In Sept. of the same year appeared 
Lnther^B translation of the N.T. Besides these be also issued several 
treatises in defence of the Beformation. 

2. Frans Ton 8ick ngen, A.D. 1522, 1523. — A private feud led Franz von 
Sickingen to attack the Elector and Archbishop of Treves in l.v. 1522, but 
soon other interests were involved, and he was joined by the whole party 
of the knights. Sickingen's opponent was a prelate and a pronounced 
enemy of the Beformation, and he was also a prince and a peer of the 
empire. In both characters he was opposed by Sickingen, who called for 
support in the name of religion and freedom. The knights, discontented 
with the imperial government and bureaucracy, with princes and 
prelates, crowded to his standard. Sickingen would also have gladly 
aecured the monk of Wittenberg as an ally, but Luther was not to be 
won. Sickingen's enterprise failed. The Elector of the Palatinate and 
the young Landgrave of Hesse hasted to the help of their beleaguered 
neighbours. The knights were overthrown one after another ; Sickingen 
dieil of mortal wounds in May, a.d. 1523, immediately after the taking of 
the shattered Ebernburg. The power of the knigbts was utterly broken. 
The Beformation thus lost indeed brave and noble protectors, but it 
was itself saved. 

8. Andrew Bodenstein of Carlstadt, A.D. 1524, 1626.— Even after the 
suppression of the Wittenberg fanaticism, Carlstadt continued to enter- 
tain bis revolutionary views, and it was only with dilBcalty that he 
restrained himself for a few years. In jld. 1524 he left Wittenberg and 
went to Orlamunde. With bitter invectives against Luther's popism, he 
there resumed his icouoclasm, and brought forward his doctrine of the 
Lord s Supper, in which the real presence of the body and blood of Christ 
was absolutely denied (§ 131, 1). In order to prevent disturbance, 
Lutber, by the order of the elector, went to Jena, and there in Carlstadt*! 
presence preached most emphatically against image breakers and sacra* 
mentarians. This roused Carlstadt's indignation. When Lutber visited 
Orlamunde, he was received with stone throwing and curses. Carlstadt 
was now banished from his territories by the elector. He then went to 
Btrassburg, where he sought to win over the two evangelical pastors, 
Bucer and Capito. Luther issued a letter of warning, ** To the Christians 
of Strassburg.'* Carlstadt went to Basel, and published violent tracts 
against Luther's ** nuspiritual and irrational theology.*' Luther replied 
in A.D. 1525, earnestly, thoroughly, and firmly in bis treatise, ** Against 
the Heavenly Prophets, or Images and the Sacramrnts." Carlstadt had 
secured the support of the Swiss reformers, who continued the oootro- 
ferny with Lntlier. He involved himself in the Peasants* War, and after- 
wards, by Luther's intercession with the elector, obtained leave to return 
to Saxony. He retracted his errors, but soon again renewed his old 


disorderly practices; and, after a siDgnlarlj eTonifal career, died M 
profeBsor a'>d preacher at Basel during the plague of a.d. 1541. 

4. Thomas Honxer, A.D. 1523, 1524.— The prophets when expelled from 
Wittenberg did not remain idle, but set themselTes to produce all sort 
of disorders in church and state. At the head of these disturbers stood 
Thomas Münzer. After his expulsion from Zwickau, he had gone to 
Bohemia, and was there received as an apostle of the Taborite doctrine 
($ 119, 7). In A.D. 1523 he returned to Saxony, and settled at Allstadt 
in Thuringia, and when driven out by the elector he went to Mühl- 
hausen. In both places he soon obtained a large following. Tho 
Wittenberg Reformation was condemned no less than the papacy. Not 
the word of Scripture but the Spirit was to be the principle of tho 
Keformation; not only everything ecclesiastical but also eyerything 
civil was to be spiritualized and reorganized. The doctrine of the evan 
gelical freedom of the Christian was grossly misconceived, the sacra- 
ments despised, infant baptism denounced, and sole weight laid on the 
baptism of the Spirit. Princes should be driven from their thrones, 
the enemies of the gospel destroyed by the sword, and all goods be held 
in common. When Luther wrote a letter of warning on these subjects 
to the church at Miihlbausen, Münzer issued an abusive rejoinder, in 
which he speaks contemptuously of Luther's ** honev- sweet Christ,** and 
** cunningly devised gospel.** From Mtthlhausen, Münzer went forth on 
a proselytising crusade in jld. 1524, to Nuremberg, and then to Basel, 
but found little response in either citv. His revolutionary extravagances 
were more successfiil among the peasants of Southern Germany. 

5. The Peasant War, A D. 1524, 1525.— The peasants of the empire had 
long groaned under their heavy burdens. Twice already, in a.d. 1503, 
1514, hud they risen in revolt, with little advantage to themselves. 
Wlien Luther*8 ideas of the freedom of a Christian man reached them, 
they hastily drew conclusions in accordance with their own desires. 
Münzer*s fnnatical preaching led to the adoption of still more decidedly 
eommunistic theories. In August, A.D. 1524, in the Black Forest, a 
rebellion broke out, which was, however, quickly suppressed. In the 
beginning of a.d. 1525 troubles burst forth afresh. The peasants stated 
their demands in twelve articles, which they insisted upon princes, nobles, 
and prelates accepting. All Franconia and Swabia were soon under 
their power, and even many cities made common cause with them. 
Münzer, however, was not satisfied with this success. The twelve 
articles were too moderate for him, and still more distasteful to him were 
the terms that had been made with the nobles and clergy. He returned 
to Thuringia and settled again at Mühlhausen. From thence he spread 
his fanaticism through the whole land and «organized a general revolt* 
With merciless cruelty thousands were massacred, all cloisters, Castles, 
•nd palaces were rothlessly destroyed. Boldly m Lnther bad altiMked 


the existing eoolesiastical tyranny, lie resolntely left cfyil matters alone. 
He preached that the gospel makes the soul free, hnt not the body or 
propel ty. He had profound sympathy for the sorely oppressed peasants, 
and so long as their demands did not go beyond the twelve articles, he 
hoped to be able to regulate the movement by the power of the word. 
The revolutionists had themselves in their twelfth article offered to 
abandon any of their claims that mipht be found to have no countenance 
from the word of God. When Münzer*8 disorders began in Thuriugia, 
Luther visited the cities most threatened and exhorted them to quiet 
and obedience. But the death of the elector on 5th May called him 
back to Wittenberg. From thence he now published his * ' Exhortations 
to Peace on the Twelve Articles of the Swabian Peasants,^ in which he 
speaks pointedly to the consciences of the nobles no less than of the 
peasants. But when the agitation continued to spread, and one enormity 
after another was perpetrated, he gave vent to his wrath in no measured 
terms in his book, ** Against the Bobbing and Murdering Peasants.** 
He there, with burning words, called upon the princes vigorously to 
stamp out the fanatical rebellion. Philip of Hesse was the first to take 
the fie!d. He was joiued by the new Elector of Saxony, Frederick's 
brother, John the Constant, ad. 1525-1532, as well as by George of 
Saxony and Henry of Brunswick. On 15th May, a.d. 1525, the rebels 
were annihilated after a severe struggle at Frankenhausen. Münzer 
was taken prisoner and beheaded. Even in Southern Germany the 
princes were soon in all parts roasters of the situation. In this war 
100,000 men had lost their lives and the most fertile districts had been 
tamed into barren wastes. 

§ 125. Friends and Foes op Luther's Doctrine, 

A.D. 1522-1526. 

Luther's fellow labourers in the work ot the gospel in« 
creased from day to day, and so too the number of the cities 
in Northern and Southern Germany in which pure doctrine 
was preached. But Wittenberg was the heart and centre of 
the whole movement, the muster-ground for all who were 
persecuted and exiled for the sake of the gospel, the gather- 
ing point and nursery of new preachers. Among the theo- 
logical opponents of Luther's doctrine appears a crowned 
bead, Henry VIII. of England, and also " the king of litera- 
ture," Erasmus of Bottordam, entered the lists against him. 
But neither the one nor the other, to say nothing of the rude 


invectives of Thomas Mumer, was able to shake the bold 
reformer and check the rapid spread of his opinions. 

1. Spread of Evaugelical Views.— The most powerful heralds of the 
Boformation were the monkish orders. Cloister life had become so 
utterly corrupt that the more virtuous of the bretlircn could no longer 
endure it. Anxious to breathe a healthier atmosphere, evangelists in- 
spired by a purer doctrine arose in all parts of Germany, first and most of 
all among the Augiistinian order (§ 112, 6), which almost to a man went 
over to the Boformation and had the glory of providing its first martyr 
(§ 128, 1). The order regarded Luther's honour as its own. Next to 
them came the Franciscans, prominent during the Middle Ages as a 
fanatical opposition (§ 98, 4; 108, 5; 112, 2), of whom many had the 
courage to free themselves of their shackles. From their cloisters 
proceeded, e.g.^ the two famous popular preachers. Eberlin of Gunzburg 
and Henry of Eettenbnch in Ulm, the Hamburg reformer Stephen 
Kempen, the fervent Lambert reformer of Hesse, Luther's friend 
Myconius of Gotha, and many more. Other orders too supplied their 
contingent, even the Dominicans, to whom Martin Bucer, the Str:issburg 
reformer, belonged. Blaurer of Württemberg was a Benedictine, Bhe- 
gius a Carmelite, Bugenhagen a Premonstratensian, etc At lenst one 
of the German bishops, George Polens of Samland, openly joined the 
movement, preaiched the gospel in Königsberg, and inspired tlie priestf 
of his diocese with the same views. Other bishops, such as (hose of 
Augsburg, Basel, Bamberg, Merseburg, sympatliised with the movement 
or at least put no hindrance in its way. But the secular clergy gave 
crowds of witnesses. In all the larger and even in some of the smaller ' 
towns of Germany Luther's doctrines were preached from the pulpits 
with the approval of the magistrates, and where these were refused the 
preachers took to the market-places and fields. Where ministers were 
wanting, artisans and knights, wives and maidens, carried on the work. 
— One of the first cities which opened its gates freely to the gospel was 
Btrassburg. Nowhere were Luther's writings more zealously read, dis- 
cussed, printed, and circulated than in that city. Shortly before Geiler 
of Kaisersberg (§ 115, 11) had prepared the soil for receiving the first 
seed of the Beformation. From a.D. 1518 Matthew Zell had wrought as 
pastor at St. Laurence in Münster. When the chapter forbade him the 
use of the stone pulpit erected for Geiler, the joiners* guild soon made 
him a wooden pulpit, which was carried in solemn procession to MUusti r, 
and set up beside the one that had been cloned against him. Zell was 
Boon assisted by Capito, Bucer, Hedio, and others. 

2. *<The Sum of Holy Scripture*' and its Author. —This work, called 
also DenUehe Theologie, appeared anonymously at Jjeyden in A.i>. 1523, 
and was confiscated in March, a.i>. 1524. In Tarioos Dutch editions and 


in French, Italian, and English translations, it was soon widely spread 
over Europe ; but so vigorously was it suppressed, that by the middle 
of the century it had disappeared and was forgotten. In a.d. 1877 the 
Waldensian Comba discovered and published an old Italian version, and 
Benrath translated into German in a.i). 1880 an old Dntch edition of a.d. 
1526, and succeeded in unravelling for the most part its interesting 
history. He found that it was composed in Latin, and on the entreaty 
of the author's friends rendered into Dutch. This led to the discovery, 
in the possession of Prof. Toorenenberger of Amsterdam, of the Latin 
original, which had appeared anonymously at Strassburg in a.d. 1527 
with tbe title, Mconomica Christiana. Benrath has also discovered the 
author to be Hendrik van Bommel, who was in the first half of a.d. 
1520 priest and rector of a sisterhood at Utrecht, expelled in a.d. 15:)6 
from Cleves, from a.d. 1542 to 15G0 evangehcal teacher and preacher 
at We.<iel, dying in a.D. 1570 as pastor at Du'sburg. The '*Sum*' is 
evidently influenced by those works of Luther which appeared up to a.d« 
1523, its thoroughly popular, edifying, and positive contents are based 
upon a careful study of Scripture, and it is throughout inspired by the 
one grand idea, that the salvation of sinful men rests solely on the grace 
of God in Christ appropriated by faith. 

8. Eenry YIII. and Erasmus.— Henry VIIL of England, as a second 
fon, had been originally destined for the church. Hence he retained 
a certain predilection for theological studios and was anxioas to be 
regarded as a learned theologian. In a.d. 1522 he appeared as the 
champion of the Bomish doctrine of the seven sacraments in opposition 
to Lnthor*s \>o6k on the ** Babylonish Captivity of the Church," treatiu;; 
the peasant's son with lordly contempt. Luther paid him in the same 
coin, and treated his royal opponent with less conwideration than he had 
shown to Emser and Eck. The king obtained what he desired, the 
papal honorary title of Defentor fidn^ bat Luther's crushing reply 
kept him from attempting to continue the controversy, tie complained 
to the elector, who consoled him by reference to a general council (comp, 
f 129, 1). The pretty tolerable relations between Erasmu» and Lutlier 
now suffered a severe shock. Erasmus, indebted to the English king for 
many favours, was roused to great bitterness by Luther's unmeaHured 
severity. He had hitherto refused all calls to write against Luther. 
Many pulpits charged him with having a secret understanding with t)ie 
heretic ; others thought he was afraid of him. All this tended to drive 
Erasmus into open hostility to the reformer. He now diligently studied 
Luther's writings, for which he obtained the pope's pormisnion, and 
seized upon a doctrine which would not oblige him to appear as defender 
of Bomish abuses, though to gauge and estimate it in its full meaning he 
was quite incompetent. Luther's life experiences, joined with the study 
of Paul's epistles and Augustiners writings, had wrought in him the coxft> 



▼ietion that man is by nature incapable of doing anj good, that his will ifl 
nufree and that he is saved without any well doing of his own by Ood'i 
free grace in Christ. With Luther, as with Augustine, this oonvietion 
found expression in the doctrine of absolute predestination. Melanohthon 
had alflo formulated the doctrine in the first edition of his Lod com- 
viiijut. This fundamental doctrine of Luther was now laid hold upon by 
Erasmus in A.D. 1524 in his treatise, LiaTpiß-fi de libro artntrio, prononnoed 
dang( rous and unbiblical, while his own semi-Pelagianism was set OTer 
against it. After the lapse of a year, Luther replied in his treatise. De 
§ervo arbitrio^ with all the power and confidence of personal, experimental 
conviction. Erasmus answered in his Hyperai/nstei diatribeM adv. Lutheri 
tervum arbitrium of a-d. 1526, in which he gaTe free vent to his passion, 
but did not advance the argument in the least Luther therefore law 
no need to continue the discussion.' 

4. Thomas Manier.— The Franciscan, Thomas Mumer of Strassboiig, 
had published in a.o. 1509 his ** Fools* Exorcism" and other pieoes, 
which gave him a high place among German satirists. He spared no 
class, not even the clergy and the monks, took Beuchlin*s part against 
the men of Cologne (§ 120, 4), but passionately opposed Luther*s move- 
ment. His most successful satire against Luther is entitled, ** On the 
Great Lutheran Fool as Exorcised by Dr. Mumer, a.D. 1622.** It does 
not touch upon the spiritual aspect of the Reformation, but lashes with 
biting wit the revolutionary, fanatical, and rhetorical extravagances 
which were often closely associated with it. Luther did not venture 
into the lists with the savagely sarcastic monk, but the hnmaniatf 
poured upon him a flood of scurrilous replies. 

5. A notable Catholic witness on behalf of the Beformation is the 
<* Onus ecclesiflB,'* an anonymous tract of a.D. 1524, written by Bishop 
Bertbold Pirstinger of Chiemsee. In apocalyptic phraseology it desoribea 
the corruption of the church and calls for reformation. The author 
however denounces Luther as a sectary and revolutionist, though he dis- 
tinctly accepts his \iew8 of indulgences. He would reform the church 
from within. Four years after, the same divine wrote a " TewUche Theo- 
logey^'* in which, with the exception of the doctrine of indulgenoe, tlie 
whole Romish system is vindicated and the corruptions of the church 
are ignored. 

§ 126. Development of the Beformatiok in the 

Empire, a.D. 1522-1526. 

In consequence of the terms of his election, Charles V. bad, 

^^••— ^__^^^»^^— ^■^^^^p^— .^i^»^^.^»^^— ^^^^^^— ^— ^— ^^— .^— ^^^^»^— ^^^»^.»^^^^»^.^^ 

1 Weber, ** Luther's Treatise, De Servo ArHtrio,** in BriL amd For. 
Evan. Review, 1878, pp. 7i)9-816. 


at the Diet of Worms, to agree to tlie erection of a standing 
imperial government at Nuremberg, which in his absence 
would have the supreme direction of imperial affairs. 
Within this commission, though presided over by Archduke 
Ferdinand, the emperor^s brother, a majority was soon 
found which openly favoured the new religion. Thus 
protected by the highest imperial judicature, the Beforma- 
tion was able for a long time to spread unhindered and so 
made rapid progress (§ 125, 1). The Nuremberg court 
succumbed indeed to the united efforts of its political 
opponents, among whom were many nobles of an evan« 
gelical spirit, but all the more energetically did these press 
the interests of the Reformation. And their endeavours 
were so successful, that it was determined that matters 
should be settled without reference to pope and council at 
a general German national assembly. But the papal legate 
Campegius formed at Regensberg, in A.D. 1524, a league 
of the Catholic nobles for enforcing the edict of Worms, 
against which the evangelical nobles established a defensive 
league at Torgau, in A.D. 152G. The general national assembly 
was vetoed by the emperor, but the decision of the Diet of 
Spires of AJ>. 152G gave to all nobles the right of determining 
the religious matters of their provinces after their own 

1. The Diet at Vvremberg. A.D. 1523, 1528.~The imperial court held its 
firHt diet in the end of jld. 1522. Leo X. had died in Dee., a.d. 1521, and 
Hadrian VI. (§ 149, 1), strictly conservative in doctrioe and worship, 
a reformer of discipline and hierarchical abuses, had succeeded with 
the determination ** to restore the deformed bride of Christ to her pris- 
tine parity,'* but vigorously to suppress the Lutheran heresy. His 
legate presented to the diet a letter confes.<dng abases and promising 
reforms, but insisting on the execution of the edict of Worms. The 
diet declared that in consequence of the admitted corruptions of the 
church, the present execution of the Worms edict was not to be thought 
of. Until a general council in a German city, with guaranteed freedom 
of diflcossion, had been called, discussion should be avoided, and the 


word of God, wi;h troe Christiaii and «Yuigelioal ezplanatkm, shoiild 

be taaglit. 

2. The Diet at Knremberg, AJ>. 1534. — K new diet wa4 held at Nnrem- 
berg on l-ith Jan., A.D. 1524. It dealt first of all with the question ol 
the existence of the imperial ooart The reformatory tendencies of the 
(^'ovenimeot showed that what was vital to this eoart was so also to the 
Beformation. This party had important supporters in the arch-eatholio 
FcTvlinand, who hoped thus to strengthen himself in his endeavour to 
obtain the Boman erown, in tlie Elector of Mainz, the prime mover in 
the trafRc in indulgences, who had personal antipathies to the foes of the 
c >urt, in the elector of Saxony, its proper creator, and in the princes of 
Brandenburg. But there were powerful o^iponents : the Swabiau league, 
the princes of Treves, the Palatiuate and Hesse, who had been success- 
ful in opposition to Sickingen, and the imperial cities, which, though at 
one with the court in favouring the Beformation, were embittered against 
it because of its financial projects. The papal legate Campe^ius also 
joined the opposition. Hadrian VI. had died in A.D. 1523, and was 
8u>!cee«Ied by Clement YII., a.d. 1523-1534. A skilful politician with no 
rcli^'ions convictions, he determined to strengthen in every possible way 
the temporal power of the papal see. His legate was a man after bis 
o« n mind The opposition prevailed, and even Ferdinand after a strnggle 
gave in. The ne ^ly organized governing body was only a shadow of the 
old, without power, influence, or independence. Thus a second ({ 124, 3) 
powerful snpport was lost to the Beformation, and the legate again pressed 
for the execution of the e<1iot of Worms. But the evangelicals mustering 
all their forces, eR])ccialIy in the cities, secured a majority. They were 
indeed obliged to admit the legality of the edict ; they even promised to 
carr.v it out, but with the saving clause ** as far as possible." A council 
in the sense of the former diet was demanded, and it was resolved to call 
a general national assembly at Spires, to be wholly devoted to religions 
and ecclesiastical questions. In the meantime the word of Qod in its 
simplicity was to be preach« d. 

3. The Convention at Segeosbarg, A.D. 1594.— While the evangelical 
nohles, by their theologians and diplomatists, were eagerly preparing 
for Spires, an assembly of the supporters of the old views met at Begens- 
burg. June and July, a.d. 1524. Ignoring the previous arrangement, 
they proceeded to treat of the religious and ecclesiastical qntstions 
whii-h had been reserved for the Spires Diet. This was the result of the 
maciiinations of Campegius. The Archduke Ferdinand, the Bavarian 
dukes, the Archbishop of Salzburg, and most of the South German 
bishops, joined the legate at Begensbnrg in insisting upon the edict of 
Worms. Luther's writings were anew forbidden, their subjects were 
strictly enjoined not to attend the Univerhity of Wittenberg ; several 
•xtezual abuses were condemned, ecclesiastical burdens on the peopls 


lightened, the nnmber of festivals reduced, the fonr Latin Fathers, 
Ambrose, Jerome, Aiignstine, and Gregory, set up as the standard of 
faith and doctrine, wLile it was commanded that the services should be 
conducted unchanged after the manner of these Futhers. Ihus \vas 
produced that reut in the unity of the empire whicli never again was 
honied. — The imperial and the papal policies wore so. bound up with one 
another, that the prifceedings of the Nuremberg diets, with their national 
tendencies, were didtastoful to the emperor ; and so in the end of July 
there came an imperial rescript, making attendance at the national 
assembly a crimen lattf. nuijeataiia^ punishable with ban and double-ban. 
The nobles obeyed, and the assembly was not held. With it Germany's 
hopes of a peaceful development were shattered. 

4. The Evangelical Nobles, A.D. 1524. —Several nobles hitherto in- 
different became now supporters of the Reformation. Philip of Hesse, 
moved by an interview with Melanchthon, gave himself enthuHiastically 
to the cause of evangelical truth. Also the Margrave Casimir, George of 
Lrandeuburg-Ansbach, Duke Ernest of Lüneburg, the Elector Louis of 
the Palatinate, and Frederick L of Denmark, as Duke of Schleswig and 
Holstein, did more or lees in their several countrien for the furtherance 
of the Beformation cause. The grand-master of the Teutonic order, 
Albert of Prussia, returned from the Diet of Nuremberg, where he liad 
heard Osiander preach, doibtful of the scripturalness of the rule of his 
order. He therefore visited Wittenberg to consult Luther, who odvihed 
him to renounce the rule, to marry, and obtain heirs to his Prussian 
dukedom (§ 127, 3). The cities took up a most decided position. At two 
great city diets at Spires and Ulm in a.d. 1521, it was resolved to allow 
the I reaciiing of a pure gospel and to assist in preventing the execution 
of the edict of Worms in their Jurisdiction. 

5. The Torgaa League, A.D. 1526. — Friends and foes of the B-iforma- 
tion had joined in putting down the peasant revolt. Their religions 
divergences however immediately after broke out afresh. George con> 
suited at Dessau in July, a.d. 1525, with several Catholic priuo« s as to 
means for preventing a renewal of the outbreak, and they unanimously 
decided that the condemned Lutheran sect must be rooted out as the 
source of all confusion. Soon afterwards two Leipzig citizens, who were 
found to have Lutheran books in their possession, were put to death. 
But Elector John of Saxony had a conference at Saalfold with Casimir of 
Brandenburg, at which it was agreed at all hazards to stand by the word 
of God; and at Fritdewald in November IJet^se and the elector pledged 
thcmielves to stand true to tho gospel. A diet at Augsburg in December, 
for want of a quorum, had reached no conclusion. A new diet was 
therefore summoned to meet at Spires, and all the princes were cited 
to ap|H;ar porsoually. Duke George meanwhile gathered the CuthoÜo 
princes at Halle and Leipzi;;, and they resolved to scud Henry of 


Branswick to Spain to the emperor. Shortly before hii trriTal, the 
emperor had concladed a peace at Bladrid with the king of Franoe, who 
had been taken prisoner in the battle of Pavia. Francis I., feeling hm 
could not help himself, had agreed to all the terms, inclnding an under- 
taking to join in suppressing the heretics. Charles therefore folly 
believed that he had a free hand, and determined to root oat heresy in 
Germany. Henry of Brandenburg brooght to the German princes an 
extremely firm reply, in which this Tiew was expressed. Bot before its 
arrival the elector and the landgrave had met at Gotha, and had subse- 
quently at Torgau, the residence of the elector, renewed the lei^gue to 
stand together with all their might in defence of the gospel. Pbilip 
undertook to gain over the nobles of the uplands. Bat the fear of the 
empire hindered his success. The elector was more fortunate among the 
lowland nobles. On 9th June the princes of Saxony, Lüneberg, Graben- 
hagen, Anhalt, and Mansfeld met at Magdeburg, and subscribed the 
Torgau League. Also the city of Magdeburg, emancipated since 4j>. 1634 
from the jurisdiction of its archbishop, Albert of Mains, and accepting 
the Lutheran confession, now joined the league. 

6. The Diet of Spires, A.D. 1526.— The diet met on 35th June, AJk 
1526. The evangelical princes were confident ; on their armour was the 
motto, Verbum Dei mauet in atenium. In spite of all the prelates' 
opposition, three commissions were approved to consider abuses. When 
the debates were about to begin, the imperial commissioners tabled an 
instruction which forbade them to make any change upon the old doo- 
trines and usages, and finally insisted upon the execution of the edict ol 
Worms. The evangelicals however took comfort from the date affixed to 
the document. They knew that since its issue the relation of pope and 
emperor had become strained. Francis I. had been relieved by the pope 
from the obligation of his oath, and the pope had joined with Francis 
in a league at Cognac, to which also Henry VI IL of England adhered. 
All Western Europe had combined to break the supremacy gained by the 
Burgundian- Spanish dynasty at Pa via, and the duped emperor found 
himself in straits. Would he now be inclined to stand by his instrue- 
tionf The commissioners, apparently at Ferdinand*s wish, had kept 
back the document till the affairs of Uie Catholics became desperate. 
The evangelical nobles felt encouraged to send an embassy to the 
emperor, but before it started the emperor realized their wishes. In a 
letter to his brother he communicated a scheme for aboUshing the 
penalties of the edict of Worms and referring religious questions to » 
co'incil. At the same time he called for help against his Italian enemies. 
Seeing then that in present circumstances it did not seem advisable to 
revoke, still less to carry out the edict, the only plan was to give to eaeh 
prince discretionary power in his own territory. This was the birthdaj 
of the territorial constitution on a formally legitimate basis. 


§ 127. Organization of the Evangelical Provincial 

Churches, aj>. 1526-1529. 

The nobles had now not only the right but also had it 
enjoined on them as a duty to establish church arrange- 
ments in their territories as they thought best. The three 
following years therefore marked the period of the founding 
and organizing of the evangelical provincial churches. The 
electorate of Saxony cam^ first with a good example. After 
this pattern the churches of Hesse, Franconia, Lüneburg, 
East Friesland, Schleswig and Holstein, Silesia, Prussia, 
and a whole group of Low German states modelled their 
constitution and worship. 

1. The Organization of tlie Chnrcli of the Saxon Eleetorate, A.D. 1527- 
1539. — Luther wrote in a.d. 1528 an instraction to visitors of pastors in 
the electorate, which showed what and how ministers were to preach, 
indicated the reforms to be made in worship, protested against abuse 
of the doctrine of justification by urging the necessity of preachiug the 
law, etc. The whole territory was divided under four coiomlhsions» 
comprising lay and clerical members. Ignorant and incompetent reli- 
gious teachers were to be removed, but to be provided for. Teachers 
were to be settled over churches and schools, and superintendents over 
them were to inspect their work periodically, and to these last the 
performance of marriages was assigned. Vacant benefices were to be 
applied to the improvement of churches and schools; und those not 
vacant were to be taxed for maintenance of hoKpitals, support of the 
poor, founding of new schools, etc. The dangers occasioned by the 
often incredible ignorance of the people and their teachers led to Luther*! 
composing his two catechisms in a.D. 1529. 

2. The Organisation of the Hessian Churches, A.D. 1526-1528.— Philip of 
Hesse had assembled the peers temporal and spiritual of his dominions 
in Oct., A.D. 1526, at Homberg, to discuss the question of church reform. 
A reactionary attempt failed through the fervid eloquence of the Francis- 
can Lambert of Avignon, a notable man, who, awakened in his cloister at 
Avignon by Luther's writings, but not thoroughly satisfied, set out for 
Wittenberg, engaged on the way at Zürich in public disputation against 
Zwingli's reforms, but left converted by his opponent, and then passed 
through Luther's school at Wittenberg. There he married in a.d. 1523, 
and after a long unofficial and laborious stay at Strassburg, found at last, 
in A.D. 1526, a permanent residence in Hesse. He died in a.d. 1580. — 

VOL. U. Y\ 


Lambert*8 personality dominated the Homberg Bjnod. He sketched aa 
organization of the charoh according to his ideal as a cominnuion of 
Baiuts with a democratic basis, and a strict discipline administered by the 
ooujmunity itself. Bat the impracticability of the scheme soon became 
evident, and in a.D. 1528 the Hessian church adopted the principles of 
tlic Saxon church visitation. Out of vacant church revenues the Univer- 
sity of Marburg was founded in A.D. 1527 as a seoond training school in 
reformed theology. Lambert was one of its first teachers. 

3. Organization of other German Provincial Churches, AJ>. 1528-1530. — 
George of Franconian-Brandenbnrg, after his brother Casimir*8 death, 
organized his church at the assembly of Anspaoh aft»^r the Saxon modeL 
ITaremberg, under the guidance of its able secretary of council, Lazami 
Spengler, united in carrying out a joint organization. In Bronswick- 
Lünebarg, Duke Ernest, powerfully impressed by the preaching of Rhogiui 
at Augsburg, introduced the evangelical church organization into his 
dominions. In East Friesland, where the reigning prinoe did not interest 
himself in the matter, the development of the church was attended to by 
the young nobleman Ulrich of Domum. In Schleswig and Holstein tha 
prelates offered no opposition to reorganization, and the civil authorities 
carried out the work. In Silesia the piinces were favourable, Breslau 
had been long on the side of the Beformation, and even the grand-duke 
who, as king of Bohemia, was suzerain of Silesia, felt obliged to allow 
Silesian nobles the privileges provided by the Diet of Spires. In Pmnia 
(§ 126, 4), Albert of Brandenburg, hereditary duke of these parts, with 
the hearty assistance of his two bishops, provided for his subjects an 
evangelical constitution. 

4. The Beformation in the Cities of Vorfhem Germany» A.D. 1584-1581. 
— In these cities the Beformation spread rapidly after their emancipa- 
tion from episcopal control. It was organized in Xagdebnrg as early 
as A.D. 1524 by Nio. Amsdorf, sent for the purpose by Luther (§ 126, 5). 
In Brunswick the church was organized in a.o. 1528 by Bugenhagen of 
Wittenberg. In Bremen in a.D. 1525 all ohnrches except the cathedral 
were in the hands of the Lutherans ; in a.o. 1587 the cloisters were turned 
into schools and hospitals, and then the cathedral was taken from the 
Catholics. At Ltlbeck, nobles, councillors, and clergy had oppressed and 
driven away the evangelical pastors; but the councillors in their financial 
straits became indebted to sixty- four citizens, who stipulated that the 
pastors must be restored, the Catholics expelled, the cloisters turned into 
hospitals and schools, and finally Bugenhagen was called in to prepare 
for their church a Lutheran constitution. 

§ 128. Martyrs for Evangelical Truth, a.D. 1521-1629. 
On the publication of the edict of Worms several Catholic 

§ 128. 1CABT7BS FOB TBXJTH, A.D. 1521-1529. 259 

prinoes, most conspicnonsly Duke George of Saxony, began 
the persecution. Luther's followers were at first imprisoned, 
scourged, and banished, and in A.D. 1521 a bookseller who 
sold Luther's books was beheaded. The persecution was 
most severe in the Netherlands, a heritage of the emperor 
independent of the empire. Also in Austria, Bavaria, and 
Swabia many evangelical confessors were put to death by the 
sword and at the stake. The peasant revolt of aj). 1525 
increased the violence of the persecution. On the pretence 
of punishing rebels, those who took part in the Regensburg 
Convention (§ 126, 3) were expelled the country, thousands 
of them with no other fault than their attachment to the 
gospel. The conclusion of the Diet of Spires in A.D. 1526 
(§ 126, 6) added new fuel to the flames. While the evan- 
gelical nobles, taking advantage of that decision, proceeded 
vigorously to the planting and organizing of the reformed 
church, the enemies of the Reformation exercised the power 
given them in cruel persecutions of their evangelical subjects. 
The vagaries of Pack (§ 182, 1) led to a revival and intensi- 
fication of the spirit of persecution. In Austria, during A.D. 
1527, 1528, a church visitation had been arranged very much 
in the slyle of that of Saxony, but with the object of track- 
ing out and punishing heretics. In Bavaria the highways 
were watched, to prevent pilgrims going to preaching over 
the borders. Those caught were at first fined, but later on 
they were drowned or burned. 

The flrtt martjn for eTang«lical truth were two young Aagustintan 
monks of Antwerp, Henry Voes and John Each, who died at the stake in 
A.D. 1523, and their heroism was celebra'ed by Lutber in a beautiful 
hymn. They were succee led by the prior of the cloister, Lampert Thorn, 
who was strangled in prison. The S^abian League, which was retiewei 
after the rising of the Diet of Spires, with the avowed purpose of rooting 
out the Anabaptists, directed its cruel measures agaiust all evangelicals. 
The Bishop of Constance in ^.d. 1527 had John HügUn burnt as an 
opposer of the holy mother church. The Elector of Mainz cited the 
court preacher, George Winkler, of Halle, for dispensiug the sacrament 


in both kinds at Asobeffenbnrg. WinUer defended himaelf, and 
acquitted, bat was murdered on tbe way. Luther then wrote his tract, 
" Coiijfort to the Cbiistians of Halle on the Death of their Pastor.*' In 
Korth Germany there was no blooJsheddiug, but Duke George had those 
who a)nfess«>d tlieir faith scourged by the gaoler and driven from tbe 
country. The Elector Joachim of Brandenburg with his nobles resoWed 
in A.D. 1527 to give vigorous support to the old religion. But the gospel 
took deep root in his land, and his own wife Elizabeth read Luther*« 
writings, and had the sacrament administered after the Lutheran form. 
But the secret was revealed, and the elector stormed and threatened. 
8he then escaped, dressed as a peasant woman, to her coa8i|i the Eleotcr 
of Saxony. 

§ 129. Luther's Private akd Püblio Iawe^ 

A.D. 1523-1529. 

Only in December, A.D. 1524, did Luther leave the cloisteri 
the last of its inhabitants but the prior, and on 13th June, 
A.D. 1525, married Catherine Bora, of the convent of Nimpt- 
schen, of whom he afterwards boasted that he prized her 
more highly than the kingdom of France and the gover- 
norship of Venice. Though often depressed with sicknesSi 
almost crushed under the weight of business, and harassed 
even to the end by the threats of his enemies against his 
life, he maintained a bright, joyous temper, enjoyed himself 
during leisure hours among his friends with simple enter- 
tainments of song, music, intellectual conversation, and 
harmless, though often sharp and pungent, interchange of 
wit. Thus he proved a genuine comfort and help in all 
kinds of trouble. By constant writing, by personal inter- 
course with students and foreigners who crowded into 
Wittenberg, by an extensive correspondence, he wpn and 
maintained a mighty influence in spreading and establishing 
the Reformation. By Scripture translation and Scripture 
exposition, by sermons and doctrinal treatises, he impressed 
npon the people his own evangelical views. A peculiarly 
powerful factor in the Reformation was that treasury oi 

§ 129. lutheb's pbivatb and public life. 261 

sacred song (§ 142, 3) which Luther gave his people, partly 
in translations of old, partly in the composition of new 
hymns, which he set to bright and pleasing melodies. He 
was also most diligent in promoting education in churches 
and schools, in securing the erection of new elementary and 
secondary schools, and laid special stress on the importance 
of linguistic studies in a church that prized the pure word 
of God. 

1. Lather*8 Literary Worka. — ^In ^.d. 1524 appeared the first eoUectioii 
of spiritual Fongs and psalmR, eigbt in number, with a preface by Luther. 
His reforms of worship were extremely moderate. In a d. 1523 be 
published little tracts on baptism and the Lord's Supper, repudiating the 
idea of a sacrifice in the mass, and iusicting on commnuton in both 
kinds. In a.D. 1527 he wrote liis " German Mass and Order of Public 
Worship " (§ 127, 1) which was introduced generally throughout th« 
elector's dominions. He wrote an address to burgomasters and coun- 
cillors about the improvement of education in the cities. Besi 'es hia 
polemic against Erasmus and Carlstadt, against Münzer and the rebellious 
peasants, as well as ngaitist tlie Sacramentarians (§ 131), he engaged at 
this time in controversy with Cochlffius. A papal bull for the o monization 
of Bishop Benno of Meissen (§ 93, 9) called forth in a.d. 1521 Luther'a 
tract, ''Against the new Goil and the old Devil boing set up at Meissen." 
He was persuaded by Christian II. of Denmark to write, in a.D. 1526, 
a very humble letter to Henry VIII. of England (§ 125, 3), which WM 
answered in an extremely venomous and bitter style. When his enemies 
triumphantly declared that he had retracted, Luther answered, in a.d. 
1527, with his book, *' Against the Abusive Writing of the King of Eu({- 
land,*' in which he resumed the bold and confident tone of his earlier 
polemic A humble, conciliatory epistle sent in a.d. 1526 to Duke George 
was no more successful. He now nnweariedly continued his Bible trans- 
lation. The first edition of the whole Bible was published by Haus 
Lufft in Wittenberg, in A.D. 1534. A collection of sayings of Luther 
collected by Lauterlmch, a deacon of Wittenberg, in a.D. 1538, formed the 
basis of later and fuller editions of "Luther's Table Talk.'* A chronolo« 
gically arranged collection was made ten years later, and wa^ published 
in A.D. 1872 from a MS. in the Royal Library at Dresden. Aurifaber in 
his collection did not follow the chronological order, but groui>ed the 
ntterances according to their subjects, but with many arbitraiy altera- 
tions and modifications. The saying falsely attributed to Luther, ** Who 
loves not wine, women, and song?*' etc., is aasigued by Luther himself 
to his Erfurt landlady, but has been recently traced to an Italian sonroa. 


2. The famous Catholio Chnreh historian DSllinger, who in hia histoiy 
of the Reformation had with nltramontane hittemc^ defamed Luther 
and his work, twenty years later could not forbear celebrating Luther 
in a public lecture as " the most powerful patriot and the moat popular 
character that Germany possessed.*' In a.d. 1871 he wrota m follows : 
** It was Luther's supreme intellectual ability and wonderful versatility 
that made Lim the man of his age and of his nation. There has never 
been a German who so thoroughly understood his fellow eountrymeu 
and was understood by them as this Angustinfan monk of Wittenberg. 
The wliole intellectual and fpiritual making of the Germana was in lita 
hands as clay in the hands of the potter. He has giren more to liia 
nati< n than any one man has ever done : language, popular education 
Bible, sacred song; and all that his opponents could say against him and 
alongside of him seemed inf^ipid. weak, and colourioss compared with bia 
overmastt ring eloqu<'noe. They stammered, he spoke. It «as he who 
put a stamp upon the German language as well as upon the German 
character. And even thof^e Germans who heartily abhor him as the 
great heretic and betra^^er of religion cannot help speaking bis worda 
and thinking his thoughts.*' 

§ 130. The Reformation in German Switzerland, 

A.D. 1519-1531. 

While Luther's RcforniJition spread in Germany, a similar 
movement sprang up in the neighbouring provinces of Gor- 
man Switzerland. Its earliest beginnings date back as far 
as A.D. 1516. The personal characteristics of its first pro- 
moter, and the political democratic movement in wliich it 
had its rise, gave it a complexion entirely different from 
that of the Lutheran Heformation. The most conspicuous 
divergence occurred in the doctrine of the supper (§ 131), 
and since the Swiss views on this point were generally 
accepted in the cities of the uplands, the controveray passed 
over into the German Reformed Church and hindered com- 
mon action, notwithstanding common interests and common 

1. Ulrich ZwioglL — Zwingli, bom at Wildhaua in Toggenbnrg on 
January Ist, a.d. 1484, a scholar of the famous humanist TLomaa Wji- 


tenbaob at Basel, was, after ten years' service as pnstor at Glams, made 
pastor of Mnria-EmBiedoln in a.D. 1516. The crowding of pilgrims to 
the famous shrine of Mary at that place led him to preach against super- 
stitions notions of meritorious performances. But far more decisive in 
determining his attitude toward the Reformation was his appointment on 
January Ist, a.d. 1519, as Lent priest at Zürich, where he first became 
acquainted with Luther's works, and took sides with him against tlie 
Romish court party. Zwingli soon took up a distinctive position of his 
own. He would be not oul^ a religious, but also a political reformer. 
For several years he had vigorously o])posed the sending of Swiss youths 
as mercenaiies into the armies of foreign princes. His political oppo- 
nents, the oh'garchs, whose incomes depended on this traffic, opposed also 
his religious reforms, so that his support was wholly from the democracy. 
Another important distinction between the Swiss and German move- 
ments was this, that Zwingli had grown into a reformer not through 
deep conviction of sin and spiritual conflicts, but through classical and 
biblical study. The writings of Pico of Mirandola (§ 120, 1), too, were 
not without influence upon him. To him, therefore, justification by 
fuith was not in the same degree aj to Luther the guiding star of his 
life and action. He began the work of the Reformation not so much 
with purifying the doctrine, as with improving the worship, the con- 
stitution, the ecclesiastical and moral life. His theological standpoint is 
set forth in these works: Comment, de vera et falsa relig,, a.D. 1525; 
Fidei ratio ad Car, Imp., k.i>, 1530 ; Christian, fidei brevis at clara expos,^ 
ed. BuUingcr, a.D. 153C; De procidentia Dei; and Apologeticus. Of the 
two principles of the onti-Romißh Reformation (§ 12J) the Wittenberg 
reformer placed the material, the Zürich reformer the formal, in the 
foreground. The former only rejected what was not reconcilable with 
Scripture ; the latter repudiated all that was not expressly enjoiued in 
Scripture. The former was cautious and moderate in dealing with forms 
of worship and mere externals ; the latter was extreme, immoderate, and 
violent. Luther retained pictures, altars, the ornaments of churches, 
and the priestly character of the service, purifying it simply from un- 
evangeh'cal corruptions; Zwingli denounced all these things as idolatry, 
and burnt even organ pipes and clock bells. Luther recognised no action 
of the Holy Spirit apart from the word and sacrament; Zwingli separated 
it from these, and identified it with mere subjective feeling. The sacra- 
ments were with him mere memorial sign); justification solely by the 
merits of Christ as a joyous assurance of salvation had for him a negatiye 
rather than a positive significanco, i.e. opposition to the Romish doctrine 
of merits ; original sin was for him only hereditary moral sickness, a ^ 
naturolii defectus^ which is not itself sin, and virtuous heathens, like 
Hercules, Theseus, Socrates, and Cato were admitted as such into the 
society of the blessed, without apparently sharini^ in the redemption of 


Cbrist. His speeolationB, whieh led on one gide •Imost to p«nfh«iiaii« 
favoared a theory of predestiDaiioo, according to which the moral will 
has DO freedom over agaiust Providence.' 

2. The Beformation in Zürich, A.D. 1519-1536.— In ▲.!>. 1518 a tnüBcker 
in indulgences, the Franciscan Bernard Samson, of Milan, carried on his 
disreputable business in Switzfrland. At Zwingli's desire Zurich's gate« 
^ere closed against him. In a.o. 1520 the council gave permission to 
pi iests and preachers in the city and canton to preach only from the 
O and N.T. All this happened ander the eyes of the two papal nuncios 
slaying in Zürich; but they did not interfere, because the curia was 
extremely anxious to get auxiliaries for the papal army for an attack on 
Milan. Zwingli was promised a rich living if he would no more preach 
against the pope. He refused the bait, and went on his way as a 
reformer. The continued indulg<^nce of the curia allowed the Beforma- 
tion to take even firmer root. Zwingli published, in a.D. 1522, his first 
work, " Of Election, and Freedom in Use of Food," and the Zürichers 
ate flesh and eggs during Lent of A.D. 1522. He also claimed liberty to 
marry for the clergy. At tliis time Lambert came from Avignon to 
Zürich (§ 127, 2). He preached against the new views, disputed in July 
with Zwingli, and ooufeRsed himself defeated and convinced. Zwingli's 
opponents had placed great hopes in Lambert's eloquence and dialectic 
skill. All the greater was the effect of the unexpected result of the 
disputation. The council, now impressed, commanded that the word 
of God should be preached without human additions. But when the 
adherents of the Bomish party protested, it arranged a public disputa- 
tion on 29th Jan., a.D. 1523, on sixty seven theses or coneluiumu drawn 
up by Zwingli : " All who say, The gospel is nothing without the 
guarantee of the Church, blaspheme God ; — Christ is the one way to sal- 
vation ; — Our righteousness and our works are good so far as they are 
Christ's, neither right nor good so far as they are our own,** etc. A 
former frit nd of Zwingli, John Faber, but quite changed since he had 
made a visit to Bome, and now vicar-general of the Bishop of Constanoe, 
undertook to support the old doctrines and customs against Zwingli. 
Being restricted to Scri))ture proof he was foroed to yield. The cloisters 
were fort^aken, violent polemics were published against the canon of the 
mass and the worship of saints and images. The council resolved to 
decide the question of the mass and images by a second disputation in 
October, A.D. 1523. Leo Judä, Lent priest at St. Peter's in Zürich, con- 
tended against image worship, Zwingli against the mass. Scarcely any 

1 Myconius, •* Vita Zwinglii " Basel, 1536. Hess, **Life of Zwingli, 
the Swiss Beformer.*' London, 1832. Christoffel, ** Zwingli ; or. The 
Kise of the Beformation in Switzerland." Edin., 1858. Blaokbum, 
*• Ulrich ZwingU." London, 1868. 


opposition was offered to either of them. At Pentecost, a.D. 1524, the 
oouncil had all images withdrawn from the chnrches, the frescoes out 
down, and the walls whitewashed. Organ playing and bell ringing were 
forbidden as superstitioas. A new simple biblical formula of baptism was 
iutrodaced, and the abolition of the mass, in a.d. 1525, completed the 
work. At Easter of this year Zwingli celebrated a lovefeast, at which 
bread was carried in wooden trenchers, and wine drnnk from wooden 
cups. Thas he thought the genuine Christian apostolic rite was restored. 
In A.D. 1522 he had married a widow of forty- three years of age, but he 
publicly acknowledged it only in a.d. 1524. He penitently confesses that 
his pre-Beformation celibate life, like that of most priests of his age, 
had not been blameless; but the moral purity of his later life is beyond 

8. BeformatioB in Basel, A.D. 1520-1525.— In Basel, at an early period, 
Capito and Hedio wrought as biblical preacbcrs. But so soon as they 
had laid a good foundation they accepted a call to Mainz, in a.D. 1520, 
which they soon again quitted for Stransburg, where they carried on the 
work of the Beformation along with Bncer. Their work at Basel was 
EealousJy and successfully continued by Bdubliu. He preached against 
the mass, purgatory, and saint worship, often to 4,000 hearers. On the 
day of Corpus Christi he produced a Bible instead of the usual relics, 
which he scornfully called dead bones. He was banished, and afterwards 
joined the Anabaptists. A new epoch began in Basel in a.d. 1523. (Eco- 
lampadins or John Hausschein, bom at Weinsberg in a.d. 1482, Zwingli's 
Melanchthon, was preacher in Basel in A.D. 1516, and was on intimate 
terms there with Erasmus. He accepted a call in a.d. 1518 to the cathedral 
of Augsburg, but a year after withdrew into an Augsburg convent of St. 
Bridget. There ^e studied Luther's writings, and, in a.D. 1522, found 
shelter from persecution in Sickingen's castle, where he officiated for 
some months as chaplain. He then returned to Basel, became preacher 
at St. Martin's, and was soon made, along with Conrad Pellican (§ 120, 4, 
footnote), professor in the university. Around these two a group of 
younger men soon gathered, who energetically supported the eyangelical 
movement. They dispensed baptism in the German Jaugoage, admi« 
nistered the oommnnion in both kinds, and were indefatigable in preach- 
ing. In A.D. 1524 the couucil allowed monks and nuns, if they so wished, 
to leave thair cloisters. Of special importance for the progress of the 
Beformation in Basel was the arrival in a.d. 1524 of William Farel from 
Danphin6 (§ 138, 1). He had been obliged to fly from France, and was 
kindly received by (Ecolampadius, with whom he stayed for some months. 
In February he had a public disputation with the opponents of the Be- 
formation. University and bishop had interdicted it, but all the more 
decided was the council that it should come off. Its result was a greal 
Impnlie to the Beformation, though Farel in thia same year, probably al 


the Bnggefltion of Erasmus, whom he had deseribed m a new Balaam, 

was banished by the oounoil ({ 138, 1). ^ 

4. The Beformatioii in the other Cantons, A.D. 1630-1536. In Ben, 
from A.D. 1518 Haller, Eolb, and Mayer carried on the work of the Befor- 
mation as political aud religions reformers after the style of Zwingli. 
Kic. Mannel, poet, satirist, and painter, supported their preaching by his 
satirical writings against pope, priests, and superstition generally. Also 
in his Dance of Death, which he painted on the walls of a cloister at 
Bern, he oovered the clergy with ridicule. In A.n. 1533 the council 
allowed departures from the convents, and several monks and nuns 
withdrew and married. The opposition called in the Dominican John 
Haim, as their spokesman, in aj>. 1524. Between him and the Franciscan 
Mayer there arose a passionate discnssion, and the council exiled both« 
Bat Haller continued bis work, and the Beformation took firmer root 
from day to day. — In Mnhlhansen, where Ulr. von Hütten spent his last 
days, the council issued a mandate in a.D. 1524 which gave free course 
to the Ileformation. At Biel, too, it was allowed unrestricted freedom. 
Ill East Switzerland, St. Gall was specially prominent under its burgo- 
master Joachim t. Watt, who zealously advanced the interests of the 
Beformation by word, writing, and action. John Earsler, who had studied 
theology* in Wittenberg in a.d. 1522, and was then obliged, in order to 
avoid reading the mass, to learn and practise the trade of a saddler, 
preached the gospel here in the Trades' Hall in his saddler's i4>ron in 
A.D. 1524, and took the office of reformed pastor and Latin preceptor in 
A.D. 1537. He died in A.D. 1574 as President of St. Gall. In Sehaff. 
hausen Erasmus Hitter, called upon to oppose in discussion tlie reformed 
pastor Hofmeister, owned himself defeated, and joined the reform party. 
In the canton Vaud Thos. Platter, the original and learned sailor, after* 
wards rector of the high school at Burg, laid the foundations of the 
Beformation. In Appensel and Glaros the work gradually advanced. 
But in the Swiss midlands the nobles raised opposition in behalf of their 
revenues, and the people of Berg, whose whole religion lay in pilgrimages, 
images, and saints, constautly opposed the introduction of the new 
views. Lucerne and Freiburg were the main bulwarks ol the papacy in 

5. Anabaptist Outbreak, AJ). 1685.— In Switzerland, though the re- 
formers there had taken very advanced ground, a number of ultra- 
reformers arose, who thought they did not go far enough. Their leaders 
were Hätzer (§ 148, 1), Grebel, Manz, Bdnblin, Hubmeier, and Stör. 
They began disturbances at Zolticon near Zürich. Hubmeier held a 
council at Waldshut, Easter Eve, aj>, 1535, and was rebaptiaed by 

1 Blackburn, «* WiUlam Farel (1487-1531) : The Story of the Swiss 
Beformation." Ediu. 1867. 


Böablin. During Easter week 110 received baptism, and subseqaentlj 
more than 300 besides. The Dasei Canton« whoro Milnzer had been living, 
broke ont in open revolt against the city. St. Gall alono had 800 Ana- 
baptists. Zürich at Zwingli*s request at once took decided measares. 
Many were banished, some were mercilessiy drowned. Bern, Basel, and 
8t. Gall followed this example.* r 

6. Disputation at Baden, A.D. 1525.— The reactionary party conld not 
decline the challenge to a disputation, bat in the face of all irotestn it 
was determined to bo held in the Catholic district of Baden. The 
champions and representatives of tlie cantons and bishops appeared 
there in May, a.D. 1526, Faber and Eck leading the papists and Haller 
of Bern and (Ecolampadius of Basel representing the party of reform. 
Zwingli was forbidden by the Zürich council to attend, but he was kept 
daily informed by Thos. Platter. Eck's theses were comhatted one after 
anotlier. It lasted eight days. Eck outcried Gf^eolampadius* weak voice, 
but the latter was immensely superior in intellectual power. At last 
Thomas Mnrner (§ 125, 4) appeared with forty abusive articles against 
Zwingli. (Ecolampadius and ten of his friends persisted in rejecting 
Eck's theses ; all the rest accepted them. The Assembly of the States 
pronounced the reformers heretics, and ordered the cantons to have 
them banished. 

7. Dispntation at Bern, A D. 1528.— The result of the Bern disputation 
was ill received by the democrats of Bern and Basel. A final disputation 
was arranged for at Bern, which was attended by 350 of the clergy and 
many noblemen. Zwingli, CEcolampadius. Haller, Capito, Bucer, and 
Farel were there. It continued from 7th to 27th January, a.d. 1528. 
The Catholics were sadly wanting in able dtspntants, and they sustained 
an utter defeat. Worsliip and constitution were radically reformed. 
Glo'sters were secularized ; preachers gave their official oath to the civil 
magistrates. There were serious riots over the removal of the images. 
The valuable organ in the minster of St. Vincent was broken up by the 
ruthless iconoclasts. A political reformation was carried out along with 
the religious, and all stipendiaries received their warning. 

8. Complete Victory of the Reformation at Basel, St. Gall, and Schaflbansen» 
A.D. 1529. — The Burgomaster von Watt brought to St. Gall the nev/s of 
the victorious issue of the disputation at Bern. This gave the finishing 
blow to the Catholic party. Thus in a.d. 1528, certainly not without 
some iconoclastic excesses, the Beformation triumphed. — In Basel» 
the council was divided, and so it took but half measures. On Good 
Friday, a.d. 1528, some citizens broke the images in St. Martinis Church. 
They were apprehended. But a rising of citizens obliged the council 
to set them free, and several churches from which the images had been 

^ Bnrrage, ** History of the Anabaptists in Switzerland.*' Philad, 1882. 


withdrawn were given OTer to the xefonnen. In December, aj>. 1SS8, 

the trades prescDted a petition asking for the final abolition of idolatzy. 
The Catholic party and the reformed took to arms, and a oi¥Ü war 
seemed imminent. The coanoil, however, snoceeded in qoelling the 
disturbauoe by announcing a dispntation where the majority of the 
citizens shoald decide by thdir votee. Bnt the Catholic minority pro- 
tested so energetically that the coancil had again reooorae to hall 
measures. The dissatisfaction of the reformed led to an explosion of 
violeut image breaking in Lent, A.D. 1529. Hnge bonfires of images and 
altars were set a blaze. The strict Catholic members of the oooncil 
fled, the rest quelled the revolt by an unconditional sorrender. Even 
Erasmus gave way (§ 120, 6). (Eoolampadios had married in a.D. 1528. 
He died in a.d. 1581. In Schaiflianien ap to a.D. 1529 matten weie 
undecided, but the proceedings at Basel and Bern gave victory to the re- 
formed party. The drama here ended with a double marriage. The abbot 
of All Saints married a nun, and Erasmus Bitter married the abbot*! 
sister. Images were removed without tumult and the mass abolished. 

9. The first Treaty of Cappel, A.D. 1539. — In the five forest cantons the 
Catholics had the upper hand, and there every attempted political as well 
as religious reform was relentlessly put down. Zurich and Bern could 
stand this no longer. Unterwaiden now revolted, and found considerable 
support in the other four cantons, and the position of the cities became 
serious. The forest cantons now turned to Austria, the old enemy of 
Swiss freedom, and concluded at Innsbruck in a.D. 1529 a formal league 
with Ring Ferdiuand for mutual assistance in matters touching the faith. 
Trusting to this league, they increased their cruel persecutions of the 
reformed, and burnt alive a Zürich preacher, Eeyser, whom they had 
seized on the public highway on neutral territory. Then the Züricliers 
rose up in revolt. With their decided preponderance they might certainly 
have crushed the five cantons, and then all Switzerland would have 
surrounded Zwingli in the support of reform. But Bern was jealous of 
Zurich's growing importance, and even many Zürichers for fear of war 
urged negotiations for peace with the old members of the league. Thus 
came about the First Treaty of Cappel in A.D. 1529. The five cantons 
gave up the Austrian league document to be destroyed, undertook to 
defray the costs of the war, and agreed that the majority in each canton 
should determine the faith of that canton. As to freedom of belief it 
was only said that no party should make th^ faith of the other penal. 
This was less than Zwingli wished, yet it was a considerable gain. 
Thnrgau, Baden, Scbaffhausen, Solothum, Neuenburg. Toggenbmrg, ete., 
on the basis of this treaty, abolished mass, images, and altars. 

10. The Second Treaty of Cappel, A.D. 1581.— Even after the treaty 
the five cantons continued to persecute the reformed, and renewed their 
allianoe with Austria. Their undue preponderanoe in the anembly M 

§ 131. SACBAMBNTAL CONTBOYBBSY« A.D. 1525'1629. 269 

Zürich to demand a revision of the federation. This led the forest 
eantouB to increase their cruelties upon the reformed. Zurich declared 
for immediate hostilities, but Bern decided to refuse all commercial 
intercourse with the five cantons. At the diet at Lucerne, the five 
cantons resolved in September, a.d. 1531, to avert famine by iuimcdia ely 
declaring war. They made their arrangements so secretly that the 
reformed party was not the least prepared, when suddenly, on the 9th 
October, an army of 8,000 men, bent on revenge, rushed down on the 
Zürich Canton. In all hast« 2,000 men were mustered, who were almost 
annihilated in the battle of Cappel on 11th October. There, too, Zwiugli 
fell. His body was quartered and burnt, and the ashes scattered to the 
winds. Zürich and Bern soon brought a force of 20,000 men into the 
field, bnt the courage of their enemies had grown in proportion as all 
confidence and spirit depar.ed from the reformed. Further successes 
led the forest cantons, which had hitherto acted only on the defeusive, to 
proceed on the offensive, and the reformed were constrained to accept on 
humbling terms the Second Treaty of Cappel of a.d. 1531. This granted 
freedom of worship to the reformed in their own cantons, but secured the 
restoration of Catholicism in the five cantons. The defeated had also to 
bear the costs of the war, and to renounce their league with Strassburg, 
Constance, and Hesse. The hitherto oppressed Catholic minority began 
now to assert itself on all hands, and in many places were more or less 
successful in securing the ascendency. So it was in Aargau, Thurgan, 
Bapperschwyl, St. Gall, Bheinthal, Solothurn, Glarus, etc. 

§131. The Sacramentabian Controversy, a.D. 1525-1529.' 

Lather in his " Babylonish Captivity of the Church," of 
A.D. 1520, had, in opposition to prevailing views, which made 
the efficacy of the sacraments dependent on the objective 
receiving without regard to the faith of the receiver, opui 
operatum, pressed forward the subjective side in a somewhat 
extreme manner. During the earlier period of his career 
as a reformer, and indeed even at a later period, as his letter 
to the men of Strassburg shows, he was in danger of going 
to the extreme of overlooking or denying the real objective 
and Divine contents of the sacrament. But decided as the 
opposition was to the scholastic theory of transubstantia- 

' Cnnningham, '* Reformers and Theology of the Beformation," Edin.« 
1862, pp. 312-291 ; " Zwingli and the Doctrine of the Sacraments.*' 


tion, and convinced as he was that the bread and wine were 
to be regarded as mere symbols, the text of Scripture seemed 
clearly to say to him that he must recognise there the pre- 
sence of the true body and blood of Christ. His anxiety to 
avoid the errors of the fanatics, and his simple acceptance 
of the word of Scripture, led him to that conviction which 
inspired him to the end, that IN, WITH, and UNDER the bread 
and wine the true body and blood of the Lord are received, by 
believers unto salvation, by unbelievers unto condemnation. 

Carlstadt (§ 121, 3) had denied utterly the preseDoe of the body and 
blood of the Lord in the sacramont. He sought to set aside the foroe of 
the words of institution by giving to rovro an absurd meaning : Ghriiit 
had pointed to His own present body, and said, ** This here is My body, 
which in death I will give for you, and in memory thereof eat this 
br(>ad.*' When Carlstadt, expelled from Saxony, came to Strassburg. b« 
sought to interest the preaohers there, Bncer and Capito, in himself and 
his sacramental view. But Luther was not moved by their attempts at 
eonoiliatiun. ZwingH, too, took the side of Garlstadt. In essential agre»> 
meiit with Garlstadt, but putting the matter on another basis, Zwingli 
interpreted the words of institution, *' This is," by '* This signifies," and 
reduced the significance of the sacrament to a symbolical memorial of 
Christ's suffering and death. In an epintle to the Lutheran Matthew 
Alber at Beutlingen in a.D. 1521 he set forth this theory, and sided with 
Garlstadt against Luther. He developed his views more fully in his 
dogmatic treatise, Commentariui de vera et faUa relig., k.T>. 1525, where 
he cliaracterizes Luther's doctrine as an opinio rum iolum rtutica ied 
etittm iwpia et frivo'a, (Ecolampadios, too, took part in the controversy 
as supporter of his friend Zwingli when attacked by Bugenhagen, and 
wrote in a.D. 1525 his D< gennina verbornm Vomini, Hoe e$t corpue 
meufii, expotitione. He wished to understand the c&fxa of the words of 
institution as equivalent to ** sign of the body.*' (Eoolampadins laid his 
treatise before the Swabian reformers Brenz and Schnepf ; but these, in 
concert with twelve other preaohers, answered in the Syngramma Sued* 
cum of AD. 1525 quite in accordance with Luther's doctrine. The con- 
troversy continued to spread. Luther first openly appeared against ths 
Swiss in A.D. 12ö6 in his ** Sermon on the Sacrament against the Fanatics," 
and to this Zwingli replied. Luther answertid again in his tract, ** That 
the words. This is My body, stand firm"; and in a.D. 1528 he issued his 
great manifesto, ** Confession in regard to the Lord's Supper " (§ 144, % 
note). Notwithstanding the endeavours of the Strassburgers at oon- 
oiliation the controversy still continued. Zwingli*s statement was tht 


shibboleth of the Swiss Beformation, and was adopted also in many 
of the npland cities. Strassbarg, Lindau, Moiningcn, and Ccuntance 
accepted it ; even in Ulm, Augsburg, BeutUugen, etc., it had its sup- 
porters.— Continuation, § 132, 4. 

§ 132. The Protest and Confession op the Evangelical 

Nobles, a.D. 1527-1530. 

For three years after the diet at Spires in A.D. 1526 no 
public proceedings were taken on religious questions. The 
success of the Reformation however during these years 
roused the Catholic party to make a great effort. At the 
next diet at Spires, in A.D. 1529, the Catholics were in the 
majority, and measures were passed which, it was hoped^ 
would put an end to the Reformation. The evangelicals 
tabled a formal protest (hence the name Protestants), and 
strove hard to have effect given to it. The union negotia- 
tions with the Swiss and uplanders were not indeed suc- 
cessful, but in the Augsburg Confession of A.D. 1530 they 
raised before emperor and empire a standard, around which 
they henceforth gathered with hearty goodwill. 

1. The Pack Incident, A.D. 1527, 1528.~ln a-d. 1527 dark rumoors of 
dangers to the evangelicals began to spread. The landgrave, suspecting 
the existence of a conspiracy of the German Catholic princes, gave to 
an officer in Duke George's government, Otto von Pack, 10,000 florins 
to secure documents proving its existence. He produced one with the 
ducal seal, which bound the Catholic princes of Germany to fall upon tlie 
elector's territories and Hesse, and to divide the lands among them, eto. 
The landgrave was all fire and fury, and even the Elector John joined 
him in a league to make a vigorous demonstration against the purposed 
attack. But Luther and Melanohthon pressed upon the elector our Lord's 
words, ** All they that take the sword shall perish with the sword,*' and 
convinced him that he ought to abide the attack and restrict himself to 
simple defence. The landgrave, highly offended at the failure of his pro- 
ject, sent a copy of the document to Duke George, who declared the whole 
affair a tissue of lies. Philip had begun operations against the elector, 
but was heartily ashamed of himself when he came to his sober senses» 
Pack when interrogated became involved in contradictious, and waa 
found to be a thoroughly bad subject, who had been before convicted ol 
falsehood and intrigues. The landgrave expelled him from his territories« 


He wandered long a bomeleis exile, and at last, in a.D. 1536, was ezeeatad 
by Dake George's orders in the Netherlands. All this seriously injured 
the interests of the gospel. Mutual distrast among the Protestant leaden 
ooutiuued, and sympathy was created for the Catholic princes as men who 
had been unjustly accused. 

2. The Emperor's Attitude, A.D. 1537-1539.~The faithlessness of the 
king of France and the ratification of the League of Cognac (S 12G, 6) 
led to very strained relations between the pope and the emperor. Uld 
Frundsbcrg raised an army in Germany, and the German peasants, with- 
out pay or reward, crossed the Alps, burning with desire to humiliate 
the pope. On 6th May, ad. 1527, the imperial army of Spaniards and 
Germans stormed Rome. The so-called sack of Bome presented a scene 
of plunder and spoliation scarcely ever paralleled. Clement YIL, besieged 
in St. Angelo, was obliged to surrender himself prisoner. But onoe again 
Germany's hopes were cast to the ground by the emperor. Considering 
the opinion that prevailed in Spain, and influenced by his own antipathj 
to the Saxon hereby, besides other political combinations, be forgot that 
he had been saved by Lutheran soldiers. In June, A.D. 1528, at Barcelona, 
he concluded a peace with the pope and promised to use his whole power 
in suppressing heresy. By the Treaty of Gambray, in July, ad. 1529, the 
French war also was finally brought to a conclusion. In this treaty both 
potentates promised to uphold the papal chair, and Francis I. renewed 
his undertakiDg to furnish aid agaiust heretics and Turks. Charles now 
hastened to Italy to be crowned by the pope, meaning then by his personal 
attentions to settle the afTairs of Germany. 

8. The Diet at Spires, A.D. 1529.— In the end of a.D. 1528 the emperor 
issued a summons for another diet at Spires, which met on Slst Feb., 
▲.D. 1529. Things had changed since a.D. 1526. The Catholics were 
routed by the Pack episode, halting nobles were terrorised bj the 
emperor, the prelates were present in great numbers, and the Catholics, 
for the first time since the Diet at Worms, were in a decided m^oritj. 
The proposition of the imperial oommisüioners to rescind the oonelusions 
of the diet of A.D. 1526 was adopted by a majority, and formulated aa 
the diet's decision. No innovations were to be introduoed until at least 
a council had been convened, mass was everywhere to be tolerated, the 
jurisdiction and revenues of the bishops were in all oases to be fully 
restored. It was the death-knell of the Beformation, as it gave the 
bishops the right of deposing and punishing preachers at their wilL As 
Ferdinand was deaf to all remonstrances, the evangelicals presented a 
( solemn protest, with the demand that it should be incorporated in the 
imperial statute book. But Ferdinand refused to receive it. The Pio- 
testants now took no further steps, but drew up a formal statement of 
{ their case for the emperor, appealed to a free ooonoil and Germaa 
•' national assembly, and dedarad their oonitant adherenoe to the deoiaioM 


of the preTions diet. This doenment was signed by the Elector of Saxon j, 
the Landgrave of Hesse, George of Brandenburg, the two dukes of Lüne- 
burg, and Prinoe Wolfgang of Anholt. Of the upland cities fourteen 
subscribed it. 

4. The Marburg Conference, A.D. 1529. — The Elector of Saxony and 
Hesse entered into a defensive league with Strassburg, Ulm, and Nurem- 
berg at Spires. The theologians preFent sgreed only with hesitation to 
admit the Zwinglian Sirassburg. The landgrave at the same time formed 
an alliance with Zürich, which attached itself to the interests of Francis 
I. of France. Thus began the most formidable coalition which had ever 
yet been formed against tbe liouse of Austria. But one point had been 
overlooked which broke it all up again, viz. the religious differences 
between the Lutheran and Zwiuglian confessions. Melanchtbon returned 
to Witteuburg with serious qualms of conscience; Luther had declared 
against any league, most of all against any fraternising with the * Sacra- 
mentarians,'* and the elector to some extent agreed with him. Even the 
Nuremberg theologians had their scruples. The proposed league was to 
have been, ratified at Botach in June. The meeting took place, but no 
conclusion was reached. The landgrave was furious, but the elector was 
resolute. Philip now summoned leading theologians on both sides to a 
conference at Marburg in his castle, which lasted from 1st till Srd Oct., 
▲.D. 1529. On the one side were Luther, Melanchtbon, Justus Jonas, from 
Wittenberg, Brenz from Swabia, and Oslander from Nuremberg ; on the 
other side, Zwingli from Zürich, (Ecolampadius from Basel, Buoer and 
Hadio from Strasbburg. After, by the landgrave^s well-meant arrange- 
ment, Zwingli had discussed privately with Melanchtbon, and Luther with 
(Ecolampadius, during the first day, the public conference bngan on the 
second. First of all several points were discussed on the divinity of 
Christ, original sin, baptism, the word of God, etc., in reference to which 
suspicions of Zwingli's orthodoxy had been current in Wittenberg. On all 
these Zwingli willingly abandoned his peculiar theories and accepted the 
dootrines of the oscumenical church. But his views of the Lord's Supper 
he stoutly maintained. He took his stand upon John vi. 63, " The 
flesh profiteth nothing " ; but Luther wrote with chalk on the table 
before him, ** This is My body," as the word of God which no one may 
explain away. No agreement could be reached. Zwingli declared that 
notwithstanding he was ready for brotherly fellowship, but this Luther 
and his party unanimously refu-ed. Luther said, ** You are of another 
spirit than we." Still Luther had found his opponents not so bad as he 
expected, and also the Swiss found that Luther's doctrine was not so 
gross and cai^^roaitic as they had imagine<l. They agreed on fifteen 
articles, in the fourteenth of which they determined on the basis of tho 
(ecumenical church doctrine to oppose the errors of Papists and Ana- 
baptists, and in the fifteenth the Swiss admitted that the true body and 

VOL. XL \^ 


blood of Christ are in the sacrament, bat th^ ooald not admit that tii^ 
were eorporeullj in the bread and wine. Three copies of these Marbarg 
articles were figncd by the theologians present. — Continuation, | 133, 8. 

5. The Conveution of Schwabach and the Landgrave Philip. — ^A oonTen- 
ti<)n met at Scliirabacb in Oct , a d. 15*29, at which a confession of leven- 
teeu Hrticlea was piopofted to the reprcseotatives of the Swiss, bat 
rejected by them. Meanwhile the im{>erial answtfr to the decisions of 
the diet bad arrived from Spain, containing very ungracious expretsiona 
against the Protestants. The evangelical nobles sent an embassy to the 
em})eror to Italy ; but he refused to receive the protest, and treated tha 
ambassadors almost as prisoners. They returned to Germany with a 
bad report. Hitherto there liad been only a defensive federation against 
attacks of the Swabian League or other Catholic princes. Lather*s hope 
tliat the emperor might yet be won was shattered. The question now 
WHB, what should be done if an onslaught upon the reformed alionld bo 
made by the emperor himself. The jurists indeed were of opinion that 
the German princes were not nnconditionally subject to the emperor ; 
tluy too have authority by God's grace, and in the exercise of this are 
bound to protect their subjects. But Luther did not hesitate for a 
moment to compare the relation of the elector to the emperor with that of 
the burgomaster of Torgau to the elector ; for he maintained the idea of 
the empire as firmly as that of the church. He insisted that the princes 
should not withstand the emperor, and that they should bear everything 
patiently for God's sake. Only if the emperor should proceed to per- 
secute their own subjects for their faith should they renounce their 
obedience. The landgrave's negotiations with Zwingli also led to no 
result. For political purposes, notwithstanding the opposition of Witten* 
berg, there was formed a coalition of all the Protestants of the north with 
the exception of Denmark, extending also to the south and embracing 
even Venice and France. The Swiss would stop the way of tho emperor 
over the Alps ; Venice would be of service with her fleet, and the most 
Christian king of France was to be summoned as the protector of political 
and religious freedom of Germany. But thei^e fine plans were seen to 
be vain dreams when the time for putting them in practice came round. 

6. The Diet of Augsburg, A.D. 1530 — ^From Boulogne, where the pop« 
crowned him, the emperor summoned a diet to meet at Augsburg, at 
which for the first time in nine he was to be personally present He 
would once a^^^ain seek to induce the Prote.'itünts quietly to return to the 
old faith, and so his missive was very conciliatory. But before its arrival 
new irritations had arisen at Augsburg. The Elector John allowed the 
prenchcrs accompanying him, Spalatin and Agricola, to engage frcily in 
preac!iiug. The emperor was greatly displeased at this, and sent him a 
request to withdraw this permission, which, however, he did not regard« 
On 15th Jane, accompanied by the papal legate Campegins ({ 126, S, 8), 


he made a brilliant entrance^ the Protestants, on the ground of 2 Eingi 
T. 17, 18, oflfering no opposition to all the civil and ecclesiastical reception 
ceremonies. This gave the emperor greater confidence in renewing the 
demand to stop the preaching. But the Protestants stood firm, and 
Margrave George called down the unmeasured wrath of the emperor by his 
decided bat humble declaration, that before he would deny God*s word, 
he would kneel where he stood and have his head struck o£f. Just as 
decidedly he refused the emperor^s call to join the Corpus Christi 
procession on the following day, even with the addition that it was ** to 
the gloiy of Almighty God.*' At last they yielded the matter of the 
preaching m> far as to discontinue it during the emperor^s stay, on the 
other party nndertaking to discontinue controversial discourses. On 
20th June the diet opened. The matter of the Turkish war was on the 
emperor's motion postponed, to allow of the thorough discussion of tha 
religions questions. 

7. The Aogsburg Confession, 85th June, A.D. 1530. — In view of the diet 
the evangelical theologians prepared for the elector a short confession in 
the form of a revision of the seventeen Sohwahach Articles, the so called 
Torgau Articles. Melanchthon employed the days that preceded the 
opening of the diet in drawing up on the basis of the Torgau Articles, in 
constant correspondence with the evangelical theologians, the Augsburg 
Confession, Confatio Äugtutana, This concise, clear, and decided though 
temperate document received the hearty approval of Luther, who, as still 
under the ban, was kept back by the elector at Coburg. It contained 
twenty-one Artieulifidci pracipaif and also seven Articuli in quibui re* 
eemeittur abutui mtUcUi, On 24th June the Protestants said they desired 
their confession to be pubUcly read. But it was with difficulty that thej 
obtained the emperor's consent to allow its being read on the 25th June, 
and even then not in the public hall, but in a much smaller episcopal 
ohapel, where only members of the diet could find room. The two ohan- 
eellors of the electorate, Baier and Brack, appeared, the one with a 
German, the other with a Latin copy of the confession. The emperor 
wished the Latin, but the elector insisted that on German soil the German 
eopy should be read. When this was done Dr. Brück handed both copies 
to the emperor, who kept the Latin one and gave the German one to the 
Klector of Mainz. Both were subscribed by Elector John, Margrave 
George, Duke Ernest of Lüneburg, Landgrave Philip, Prince Wolfgang 
of Anhalt, and the cities of Nurembers and Beutlingen. The confession 
made a favourable impression on many of the assembled princes, and 
many prejudices were dissipated; while the evangelicals were greatly 
strengthened by the unanimous confession of their faitli before tha 
emperor and the empire. The Catholic theologians Fabcr, Eck, Cochla>us, 
and Wimpina were ordered by the emperor to controvert the confession. 
Meanwhile Melanchthon entered into negotiations with the legate Cam- 


pegins, in which his love of peace went so far as to wiUidraw all demands 
for marriage of the clergy, tod the giving of the cup to the laity, and to 
allow the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the bishops, reserving the question 
about the mass to the decision of a council. But these weak conoessions 
found little or no favour among the otlier Protestants, and the legate coald 
make no biuding engagement until he consulted Borne. On 3rd An^ 
the confutation of the Catholic theologians was read. The emperor 
declared that it maintained the views by which he would stand. He 
expected the princes would do the same. He was defender of the Church, 
and was not disposed to suffer ecclesiastical schism in Germany. The 
Protestants demanded for closer inspection a copy of the confutation. 
This was refused. The landgrave now left the diet. To the elector he 
said that he gave over to him and to God's word body and goods, land 
and people ; and to the representatives of the cities he wrote : ** Say to 
the cities that they are not women, but men. There is no fear; Qod is oo 
our side." The zealous Papist Duke William of Bavaria declared to Eck, 
*' If I hear well, tl:e Lutherans sit upon the Scripture and we alongxide of 
it." The cities siding with Zwingli, Strassburg, Memmingen, Constance, 
and Lindau, presented their own confession drawn up by Bucer and 
Capilo, the Couft$*io Te tra pol i tana. In its eighteenth aitide it taught 
that Christ gives in the sacrament His true body and His true blood to be 
eaten and drunk for the feeding of the sonl. The emperor had a Catholio 
reply read, with which he expressed satinfaction. Luther had meanwhile 
from Coburg supported those contending for the confession by prayer, 
counsel, and comfort. He preached frequently, wrote many letters, nego- 
tiated with Bucer (§ 133, 8), wrought at the translation of the prophets, 
and composed several evangelical works of edification. 

8. The Conclusions of the Diet of Augsburg. — The firm bright spirit of tho 
minority made it seem to the Catholic majority too considerable to allow 
of an open breach. A further attempt was therefore made to reaoh soma 
agreement. A comniinsion was appointed, comprising from either side 
two princes, two doctors of canon law, and tliree theologians. On the 
twenty-one doctrinal articles, with the exception of that on the sacra- 
ments, they were practically agreed, but the Protestants were called npon 
to abandon everything in regard to constitution and customs. Thus the 
attempt failed. Five imperial cities took the side of the emperor, the 
rest attached themselves to the Protestant princes. The Protestants 
w ished to read Melauchthon's apology for the Augsburg Confession against 
the charge of the Catholio confutation, but the emperor with unbending 
stubbornness refused. This was the most decided piece of work Melauch- 
thon ever did. At the close of the diet, 22nd Sept., the Protestant 
princes were informed that time for reflection would be allowed them 
till 15 th April of the following year ; meanwliile they should not enforce 
any innovations and should allow confession and the mass in 

§ 133. INCIDENTS OF THE TEABS A.D. 1531-1536. 277 

territorieB. The early calling ofH oonnoil was expressly promised. The 
frinces of the ohnrch had all their rights restored. The emperor declared 
his firm determination to enforce in its fall rigour the edict of Wonns, 
and commissioned the public probccctor to proceed against the dis- 
obedient even to the length of putting them under the ban. The judi- 
cature was formally and expressly empowered to carry out the conclusions 
of the diet. Finally, the emperor expressed the wish that on account 
of his frequent absence his brother Ferdinand should be chosen King of 
Bome. The election was accordingly soon carried out at Frankfort; 
but the elector lodged a protest against it. 

>§ 133. Incidents of the Years aj>. 1531-1586. 

The Protestants now made an earnest effort to effect a 
union by forming in A.D. 1531 the Schmalcald League. To 
this decided action and the political difficulties of the 
emperor we owe the Peace of Nurembnrg of A.D. 1532. The 
bold step of the landgrave freed Württemberg &om the 
Austrian yoke and papal oppression. At the same time the 
Keformation triumphed in Anhalt, Pomerania, and several 
Westphalian cities. All Westphalia might have been one but 
for the Anabaptists. Bucer's unwearied efforts at last suc- 
ceeded by the Wittenberg concordat in opening the way for 
the Schmalcald League into the cities of the Uplands. The 
league now comprised an imposing array of powerful members. 

1. Tht Poandinj; of the Schmalcald league, AJ>. 1680, 1681. — ^The con- 
ferring upon the court of justiciary the power to execute the decrees of the 
Diet of Augsburg was most dangerous to the Protestants. For protection 
against this design, the Protestant nobles at a convention at Schmalcald 
in Dec, ad. 1530, formed the bold resolution, that all should stand aa 
one in resisting every attack of the court. But when the question came 
to be discussed, whether in case of need they should go the length of 
armed resistance to the emperor opinion was divided. The views of the 
jurists finally prevailed over those of the theologians, and the elector 
insisted on a league against every aggressor, even should it be the emperor 
himself. At a new convention at Schmalcald in March, a.D. 1531, a league 
on these terms was concluded for »ix years. The members of it were 
the electorate of Saxony, Hesse, Lüneburg, Anhalt, Mansfeld, and eleven 

S. Tht PtaM of VmalMTf I AJ). 1688.— The energetio cioinbinatlon U 


the Protestants had now rendered them formidable, and the Sultan 
Suliman was threateuing a new attack. If the Protestants were to b« oon- 
qaered, an agreement must be come to with the Turks ; if the Tiirki 
were to be humbled, a peaceable settlement with the Protestants was in- 
dispensable. Ferdinand's policy at first inclined to the latter direction, 
and by his advice the emperor summoned a diet at Begensburg, and till 
the meeting forbade any prosecutions on the basis of the decrees of the 
Diet of Augsburg. But soon the catastrophe in Switzerland (§ 130, 10) 
changed Ferdinand's policy. It seemed to him now the fittest time to 
deal a similar blow to the evangelicals in Germany. He therefore seni 
an embassy to the sultan, empowered to make the most humiliating con- 
ditions of peace. But Soliman rejected all proposals with scorn, and 
in April, a.D. 1532, advanced with an army of 300,000 men. Meanwhil« 
the Diet of Kegcnsburg had opened on 17th April, A.n. 1532. I'he Pro- 
tohtants no longer presented a humble petition, as they had done tvo 
years before, but they firmly made their demands. There was no longer 
talk of compromise or suffrance. They demanded peace in matters of 
religion ; the annulling of all religious prosecutions ; and, finally, a free 
general council, where matters should be decided solely by God's word. 
So long as Ferdinand had any hope of getting a favourable answer from 
the Turks, he would not seriously consider proposals for peace. But when 
that hope was shattered, and Soliman's terrible host approached, there 
was no time to lose. At Nuremberg the peace was concluded on 23rd 
July, A.D. 1532. The faithful elector was allowed to see the happy day, 
but died in that same year. He was succeeded by his son, John Frederick 
the Maguauimons, a.d. l$32-15-i7. A noble army was soon raised from 
the imperial guards. Soliman suHcred various misfortunes on land and 
water, and withdrew without accomplishing anything. The emperor now 
went to Italy, and insisted on the pope calling a general council. But 
the pope thought the time had not come for that. Also the annulling of 
prosecutions promised in the treaty remained long unfulfilled. Pending 
prosecutions, mostly about restituti(n of eoclesiaHtical goods and juris- 
diction, were pronounced to be not matters of religion, but of si^oliaition 
and breach of the peace. The Protestants made a formal complaint in 
Jan., A.D. 1534. This was disregarded^ and arrangements were being made 
to put certain nobles under the ban when events occurred at Württemberg 
which changed the aspect of affairs. 

3. The Evangelixatiou of Württemberg, A.D. 1534, 1535.— The Swabian 
League in tlie interest of Austria had obtained the banishment of Duke 
Ulrich in a.d. 1528, and frustrated every attempt to secure his return. 
His son Christopher had been educated at the court of Ferdinand, and 
in A.D. 1532 accompanied the emperor to Spain. He made his escape 
into the Alps, and publicly olaime<l his German inheritance. The Land- 
grave Philip, Ulrich'B personal friend, had long resolved to leoonqoer 

§ 133. INCIDENTS OF THE YEABS A.D. 1631-1536. 279 

Wfirttemberg for him. At last, in the spring of a.D. 1534, with aid of 
French gold, he carried oat his plan. At Laufen Ferdinand's armj 
was almost annihilated, and he himself was obliged in the Peace of 
Cadaa of a.D. 1534 to restore Ulrich to Württemberg as an under- 
fendatory, bat with seat and vote in the imperial diet, and to allow him 
a free hand in oarrjing out the Beformation in his territory. Luther's 
views hid from tbe first found hearty reception in Württemberg. The 
oldest and most distinguished of the Swabian reformers, whose reputa- 
tion had spread far beyond Württemberg, was John Brenz (§§ 131, 1 ; 
132, 4; 135, 2; 136, 6, 8). He was preacher in Swabian Halle from 
A.D. 1522, proyost in Stuttgart from A.D. 1553, and died in a.d. 1570. 
But Ferdinand's government had stretched its arm so far as to visit with 
death all manifestations of sympathy with the Beformation. All the 
more rapidly did the work of evangelization now proceed. Ulrich 
brought with him Ambrose Blanrer, a disciple of Zwiugli and friend of 
Bucer, and Erhard Schnapf, a decided supporter of Luther; to the 
former he assigned the evangelization of the npper, and to the latter 
the evangelization of the lower division of his territories. Both had 
agreed in accepting a common formula of Beformation principles. By 
the fuunding of the University of Tübingen, organized after the pattern 
of Marburg, Ulrich rendered important service to the cause of Protes- 
taut learning. Several neighbouring courts and cities were encouraged 
to follow Württemberg's example. 

4. The Reformation in Anhalt and Pomerania, A.D. 1532-1534. — 
Wolfgang of Anhalt had at an early date introduced the Beformation on 
the banks of the Saale and into Zerbst. Another prince of Anhalt, 
George, at first an opponent of Luther, but converted by means of his 
writings, began in a.d. 1532 the Beformation of the couutry east of tha 
Elbe. And when the Bishop of Brandenburg refused to ordain hii 
married priests, he sent them to be ordained by Luther in Wittenberg. 
Much more violent was the Beformation of Pomerania. Nobles and 
clergy sought to rouse the people against Lutherauism. Prince Barnim 
was an ardent supporter of Luther, but his brother George was bitterly 
opposed. On George's death, his son Philip joined with Barnim in 
introducing the Beformation into the land. At the Assembly of Treptow, 
in Dec., a.d. 1534, they presented a scheme of Beformation, which tlia 
nobles heartily accepted. It was carried into operation by Bugenhagen 
by a church visitation after the pattern of that of Saxony. 

5. The Beformation in Westphalia, A.D. 1532-1534.— In the Westpha- 
lian cities much was accomplished by Luther's hymns. Pideritz, priest 
of Lamgo, was a supporter of Eck ; but wishing to see the working of the 
new views for himself, he went to Brunswick, and returned to inaugurate 
the Beformation in his own city. At Soest, the Catholic council con- 
demned to death a workman who had spokeu of it with disrespeot. Two 


bTandGring attempts were made upon the scaffold, and the yiotim si Iftal 
was conducted home by the crowd in triumph. He died next daj. The 
ooiincil preci[>itateljr fled from the city. And thus in July, aj». 1533, 
CatholicisQi lost its last prop in that place. In Paderbofu, where Hbei^y 
of preaching had been enjoyed, the Elector of Cologne (§ 185, 7) bad 
some of the leading Lutherans imprisoned ; and when some on the rack 
confessed to a treasonable correspondence with the Landgrave of Hease^ 
of which they had been falsely accused, he condemned them to death. 
But moved by the request of an old man to share their death, and fay 
the weeping of the wives and maidens, Hermann spared their livea^ 
In Münster, Luther's doctrines were preached as early as aj>. 1581 by 
Bottmann, and soon the evangelicals won the ascendency, so thai 
council and clergy left the city. Tbe Bishop of Waldeck, after an 
unsuccessful attempt by force of arms, was obliged in aj>. 1588 to grant 
unconditional religions freedom. The neighbouring cities wore about 
to follow the example of the capital, when a catastrophe ooouired which 
resulted in the complete restoration of Catholicism. 

6. Disturbances at Kttnster, A.D. 1534, 1535.— Bottmann had added to 
his Zwingliau creed the renunciation of infant baptism, and prepared the 
way for Anabaptiut excesses. John of Leyden appeared in ▲.!>. 1584, 
gained great popularity as a preacher, and the council was weak enough 
to grant legal recognition to the fanatics. Mad enthusiasts flocked into 
the city. One of their propbets proclaimed it as God's will that un- 
believers should be expelled. This was done on 27th February, kJ>* 
1534. Seven deacons divided what was left among the believers. In 
May the bishop laid siege to the city. This had the effect of confining 
the mad disorder to Münster. After the destruction of all images, 
organs, and books, with exception only of the Bible, community of goods 
was introduced. John of Leyden got the council set aside as required 
by bis revelations, and appointed a theocratic government of twelve 
elders, who took tbcir inspiration from the prophet. He proclaimed 
polygamy, himself taking seven teen wives, while Bottmann contented 
himself with four. In vain did the moral conscience of the inhabitants 
protest. The objectors were executed. One of his fellow prophets pro- 
claimed John king of the whole world. He set up a showy and ezpensiva 
establishment, and committed the most frightful abominationa Ha 
regarded himself as called to inaugurate the millenninm, sent out twenty- 
eight apostles to extend his kingdom, and named twelve dukes who 
should rule the world under him. The besiegers made an unsuccessful 
attempt in August, A.D. 1534, to storm the city. Had not aid been sent 
them before the end of the year from Hesse, Treves, Cloves, Mainz, and 
Cologne, they would have been obliged to raise the siege. Even theo 
they could only think of reducing the city by famine. It was already in 
great straits. On St. John*B night, aj). ^^35, a deserter led the troopi 

§ 184. INCIDENTS OP THE TEARS A.D. 1537-1539. 281 

to the walls. After a stubborn repistanoe the Anabaptists were beaten. 
Bottinann threw himself into the hottest of the 6ght, and there perished. 
John, with his chief officers, was taken prisoner, put to death with fright« 
fnl tortures on 22nd Jan., a.d. 1536, and then hung in chains from St. 
Lamhert*8 tower. Catholicism was thus rcRtoretl to absolute supremacy. 

7. Extensioii of the Scbmalcald League, A.D. 1536. — A war with France 
had broken out in A.D. 1536, which taxed all the emperor's resources. 
Francis I. had made a league with Soliman for a combined attack upon 
the emperor. Instead therefore of puninhing the Protestant princes for 
their proceedings in Württemberg, he was obliged to do all he could to 
conciliate them, as Francis was bidding for their allianoe. Ferdinand 
therefore, from the summer of a.d. 1535, sought to ingratiate himself 
with the Protestants. In November he received a visit of the elector 
in Vienna, and granted the extension of the Peace of Nuremberg to all 
nobles who since its ratification had become Protestants. The elector 
then went to an as«emblj at Schnuilcald, where the Schmalcald League 
was extended for ten jears, the French embassy dismissed, and the 
opposition to Austria abandoned. On the bapis of the Vienna compact 
Württemberg, Pomrratiia, Anhalt, and several cities were added to the 
league. Signature of the Augsburg Confession was the indispensable 
condition of reception. Bucer managed to win over the upland cities to 
Accept this condition. 

8. The Wittenberg Concordat of A.D. 1686.~Bucer and ultimately (Eco- 
lampadius, made such concessions on the doctrine of the sacraments aa 
satisfied Luther, but they were rejected by BuUiuger of Zürich. In 
December, a.d. 1535, there was a conference at Cassel between Bucer 
and Melanchthon. A larger conference was afterward held at Witten- 
berg, at which Bucer and Capito from Strassbnrg, and eight other 
distinguished theologians from the uplands, were present. As they 
accepted the formula **in, with, and under," the only question remain- 
ing waa whether unbelievers partook of the body of Christ. They 
admitted this in regard to the unworthy, but not, as Luther wished, 
in regard to the godless and unbelieving. Luther was satisfied. On 
25th May, a.d. 1536, Melanchthon composed the ** Wittenberg Concord," 
which was signed by all, and ratified by the common partaking of the 
aacrsment. In consequence of this union effort, three of the Swiss 
theologians, Bullinger, Myconius, and GrynaBus seceded, and produced 
the Confettio Helvetica prior, in which the Zwinglian doctrine of the 
aacraments was modcrctely but firmly maintained. 

§ 1&4. Incidents of the Years a.d. 1537-1539. 

Clement Vll. made many excuses for postponing the calling 
of a council. At last, in A.D. 1533, he declared himself 


willing to do so in the conrse of the year ; but he 
of tho Protestants unconditional acceptance of its decisional 
to wLich thoy would not agree. His successor, Paul TTT,, 
A.D. 1534-1549, called one to meet at Mantua in AJ). 1&37. 
Luther composed for it as a manifesto the Schmalcald Arti- 
cles ; but finally the Protestants renewed their demand for 
a free council in a German city. In AJ>. 1538 the Catholic 
nobles concluded the Holy Alliance at Nuremberg for carry- 
ing out the decrees of the Diet of Augsburg; bat the 
political difficulties of the emperor compelled him to make 
new concessions to the Protestants in the Frankfort Interim 
of A.D. 1539. But in the same year the duchy of Saxony 
and the electorate of Brandenburg went over to the Refor- 
mation. By the beginning of A.D. 1540 almost all North 
Germany was won. Duke Henry of Brunswick alone held 
out for the old faith. 

1. The SclimalcaU Artidei, A.D. 1S87.— In aj>. 1535 Paul III. Mnt hit 
legate VergcriuB (§ 139, 24) into Germany to fix a place of meeting for 
tho council. At Wittenberg be conferred with Lntber and Bagenhagen. 
who scarcely expecting the conncil were indifferent as to the place. The 
council was formally summoned to meet at Mantna on May 23rd, A.D. 
1537. At a diet at Schmalcald in Feb., a-d. 1537, the Protestants stated 
their demands. Luther, by the elector's orders, had drawn np the articles 
of which the council must treat. These Schmalcald Articles are distinctly 
polemical, and indicate boldly the limits of the papal hierarchy dematidod 
by evangelicals. The first part states briefly four uncontested positions 
on the Trinity and the Person of Christ ; the second part deals with the 
office and work of Christ or our redemption, and marks abruptly the 
points of dififoreuce between the two oonfessions ; the third part treats 
of those points which the council may further discuss. In the seoontl 
part Luther unconditionally rejected the primacy of the pope, as not 
of Divine right and inconsistent with the character of a tme evangelioal 
Church. When the articles had been subscribed by the theologians, 
Mclanchthon added under his name : ** As to the pope, I hold that if he 
will not oppress the gospel, for the sake of the peace and unity of those 
Cliristians who are or may be under him, his superiority over binhope 
jure humino might be allowed by us." Melanohthon*s tracts on ** The 
Power of the Pope *' and the "Jurisdiction of Bishops *' were also nib- 

§ 134. IKOIDBNTS OF THB TEABS A.D. 1537-1539. 283 

scribed by the theologians and added to the Sehmaloald Articles. It 
was then decided that in order to secore a free Christian council it must 
be held in a German city. The elector even made the bold proposal to 
have a counter-council summoned, say, at Augsburg, by Luther and his 
fellow bishops. 

2. The League of Kuremberg, A.D. 1538. — The Protestant princes were 
astonished at the close of the Sohmalcald convention to be told by Vice- 
Chancellor Held, on behalf of the emperor, that he did not recognise the 
Peace of Cadau or the Vienna Compact, and that the prosecutions would 
be resumed. They therefore resumed their old attitude of opposition. 
But Held visited all the Catholic courts in order to complete the forma- 
tion of a Catholic league for the suppression of Protestantism. Ferdinand, 
who knew well that Held exceeded his instructions, was very angry, for 
the emperor was in the greatest straits, but he could not offer direct 
opposition without offending the Catholic princes. So on July 10th, a.D. 
1538, the Holy Alliance was actually formed at Nuremberg, embracing 
George of Saxony, Albert of Brandenburg, Henry and Eric of Brunswick, 
King Ferdinand, and the Archbishop of Salzburg. The Schmalcald nobles 
prepared to meet force with force. A general bloody engagement seemed 

8. The Frankfort Interim, AJ). 1539. — As the emperor needed help 
against Soliman, he recalled Held, and sent in his place John, formerly 
Archbishop of Leyden. The electors of Brandenburg and the Palatinate 
went as mediators with the new envoy to Frankfort, where negotiations 
were opened with the Protestants present, who demanded an uncon- 
ditional, lasting peace, and a judiciary court with Protestant as well as 
Catholic members. These demands were at first refused, but prest<ing 
need obliged the emperor to reopen negotiatiouR, proposing that a diet 
should be held, consisting of learned theologians and simple, peaceable 
laymen, to effect a final union of Christians in faith and worship. He 
would also grant suspension of all proceedings against the Protestants 
for eighteen months. The Protestants accepted in this ** Frankfort 
Interim*' what had been greatly sought for at the Diet of Nuremberg. 
It was a victory of the Scbmalcald over the Nuremberg League. The 
public confidouce in Protestantism grew, and the cause rapidly spread 
into new regions. 

4. The Beformation in Albertine Saxony, A.D. 1539. — Duke Georgo 
of Saxony, aj>. 1500-1539, was a devoted adlierent of the old faith. Of 
his four sons only one survived, and he almost imbecile. He had him 
married, but he died two months after the marriage. The old prince 
was in perplexity, for his brother H*mry, an ardent supporter of tiie 
Beformation, was his next heir. He could ill brook the idea of having 
the whole work of his life immediately undone. On the day of the death 
ol his last son he proposed to his nobles a scheme of sucoesidon, accord- 


ing to which his brother Henry shonld snooeed him only if he joined tht 
Noremberg League ; otherwise it should go to the emperor or the King 
of Rome. Duke Henry rejected the proposal, and Duke Geoiige died 
before he could produce another scheme. With loud rejoicing the people 
received their new prince, and their allegiance was sworn to him al 
Leipzig. Luther was there, for the first time for twenty years, and 
preached with extraordinary success. The Reformation proceeded rapidly 
throughout tbe whole district. The King of Rome wished indeed to 
qnerttion George's claim, bat the Schmalcald League resolved to stand 
by him. so that Ferdinand thought it prudent to take no farther 

6. The Reformation in Brandenburg and KeighboBrlng States, A.D. 1630. 
— Henry of Neumark joined the Schmalcald League, and introduced the 
Reformation into his territories ; but his brother Joaoliim II. of Branden- 
burg, A.D. 1535-1571, for several years adhered to the old faith without 
forbidding evangelical preaching, which gradually made an impression 
on his own mind. In tbe beginning of a.D. 1539, with the approval 
of his nobles, he gave his adhesion to the reformed doctrines. The city 
of Berlin asked for communion in both kinds, and a considerable section 
of the nobles of Brandenburg expressed a hearty longing for the pure 
gospel. On November 1st, a.D. 1539, Joachim assembled all the preachers 
of his land in the Nicolai Church at Spandau, the Bishop of Brandenburg 
held the first evangelical communiim, and the whole court and many 
knights received tbe communion in both kinds. The people followed 
the example of the prince. Joachim sketched a service which let several 
of the old ceremonies remain, but justification by faith was the oentral 
point of the doctrine, and communion in both kinds the centre of the 
worship. The Duchess Elizabeth of Galenberg-Brunswick followed her 
brother's example. After the death of her husband Eric, who was other- 
wise minded, sbe exercised her influence as regent for the spread of the 
reformed religion. The Cartlinal-archbishop and Elector of Mains, 
Albert of Brandenburg, sought to preserve his archiepiscopal dlooese of 
Magdeburg, but his constant calls for money would be responded to only 
on condition that he granted liberty of preaching. At his Halle residence 
he made vigorous resistance, but there too was obliged to yield. Before 
his eyes, Justus Jonas, Luther's most trusted friend and fellow labourer. 
Prof, and Provost of Wittenberg since a.D. 1531, carried on the work 
of Reformation in the city. The cardinal, in a rage, left Halle and the 
*' idol of Halle *' (§ 123, 8) for Mainz.— Mecklenburg also about this time 
adopted the evangelical constitution, mainly promoted by one of its 
princes, Magnus Bishop of Schwerin. The Abbess of Quedlinburg, Anna 
von Stolberg, had not ventured, so long as Duke Oeorge of Saxony lived, 
to bring forward her evangelical confession ; bat now withoat opposituHi 
she reformed hex convent and the oity. 

§ 185. UNION ATTBMPTS OF A.D. 1540-1546. 285 

§ 135. UNION Attempts of a.D. 1540-1546. 

The Frankfort Interim revived the idea of a free union 
among those who in the main agreed npon matters of faith 
and worship. With the object of realizing this idea a whole 
series of religious conferences were held. But near as its 
realization at one time seemed to be all the measures taken 
proved one after another abortive, because the emperor 
would not recognise the conclusions of any conference at 
which a papal legate was not present. And just at this 
time, when the imposing might of the Protestant nobles 
excited the brightest hopes, the Protestant princes them- 
selves laid the grounds of their deepest humiliation: the 
landgrave by his double marriage, and the elector by his 
quarrels with the ducal Saxon court. 

1. The Doable Karriage of tht LandirraTe, A.D. 15i0. — ^Landgraya 
Philip of HeRse had married GhriHiina, a daughter of the deoea»ed Duke 
George of Saxony. Various causes had led to an estrangemeut between 
them, and a strong sensuous nature, which he had been unable to control, 
bad driven him to repeated acts of unfaithfulness. His conscience reproved 
him ; he felt himself unworthy to be admitted to communion, great as 
his desire for it was, and doubted of his soul's salvation. From regard 
to his wife he could not think of a divorce. Then came the idea, suggested 
by the O.T. polvgamy that had not been abrogated in the N.T., that 
with consent of his wife he might enter into a regular second marriage 
with Margaret von der Saale, one of his sister's lady's-maids. In Nov., 
A.D. 1539, he sent Bucer to Wittenberg in order to get the advice of 
Luther and Melauchthon. The alternative was either continued adultery, 
or an honourable married life with a second wife taken with consent of the 
first. Luther and Melanchthon entreated him earnestly for his own and 
for the gospel's sake to avoid this terrible scandal, but haltingly admitted 
that the latter alternative was less heinously wicked than the former. 
They added, however, that in order to avoid scandal the marriage should 
be private, and their answer regarded not as a theological opinion, but 
confidential counsel. The landgrave had the marriage consummated 
in May, a.d. 1540. But the story soon spread. The court of Albertine 
■Saxony was deeply incensed, the elector beside himself with rage, the 
thH>logiaus in most extreme embarrassment. Melauchthon started ta 
attend a religious cooferenoe at Hagenan, but the excitement over the 
unhappy bosineas prostrated him on a sick-bed at Weimar. The emperor 


threatened Philip with the inflietion of capital ponishment, whieh by tbt 
law of the empire was attaclied to the crime of bignmj. At lafti the 
elector called a convention of Saxon and Hessian theologians at Eisenach 
to consult aboat the matter. Luther refused to treat it as a qaertion 
of law, and demanded absolute privacy as the condition of permission. 
Among the opponents of the Beromiation, it was Duke Hfnry of Brnna- 
wick who insisted upon exact iug the utmost penalties of the law. He 
iudeed was least fitted by his own character to assume the part of de- 
fender of moi-als. It was well known that he was then living in adultery 
with Eva von Trott, after her pretended death and burial. In his per- 
ploxity, riiilip turned to the imperial chancellor Oranvella, who waa 
willing to intercede for him, but on conditions to which the landgraTt 
c(»uld not accede. At last, at the Diet of Begensburg, in A.D. 1541, 
Pliilip undertook to further the imperial interests and to join no union 
in any way inimical to these ; and upon these terms the emperor agreed 
to grant him a full indemnity. 

2. The Keligions Conference at Worms. AD. 1540.— Negotiations for 
peace with France having failed, the emperor still required the support 
of the ProtcBtnnt party. Ho therefore agreed to the holding of a religioas 
conference at Worms, in order to reach if ponsible a good mutual ander» 
Btiinding on the basis of Holy Scripture. It was hold in Nov., a.D. 1540, 
under the presidency of GranvcUa. On one side were Melanchthon, 
Ducer, Capit«^, Brenz, and Calvin ; on the other. Eck Oropper. canon 
of Cologne, the Spaniard Malvenda, etc. But the emperor hail insisted 
on the papal nuncio Mar me taking part, and this, contrary to his inten- 
tion, brought the whole affair to naught. For Marone first of all pre* 
sented a number of formal objections, and whf-n at last, in Jan., a o. 
1541, the conference began, and awakened the utmost apprehensions for 
the papacy, he rested not till Oranvella, even before the first article on 
original sin had been discuoHed, dissolved the conference in the name 
and by command of the emperor. But the emperor did not give np the 
idea of conciliation, and called a diet at Begeusbnrg, at which the nego- 
tiations were to be renewed. 

3. The Keligioos Cojference at Regensburg, A.D. 1641.— The diet at 
Bc'gensbnrg was opened on April 5th, a.D. 1541. The emperor, aniious 
to reach a peaceable conclunion, named as members of the conference 
Eck. Gropper, and Julius von Pfiugk, Dean of Meissen, on the one side; 
and Mt'lanclitlion, Bucer, and Pistorius, on the other side ; with Oranvella 
and Frederick, count-palatine, as presidents. The nuncio Coutarini 
was representative of the curia. By such a gathering the emperor hoped 
to reach the wished for conclusion. In Iialy (§ 139, 22) there had spmog 
np a number of men well instructed in Scripture, who sought to reform 
the doctrine of the church by adopting the principle of justification by 
faith ¥dthoat touching the primacy of tho pope and the whole hitrarchical 

§ 135. UNION ATTEMPTS OP A.D. 1540-1546. 287 

Byptem. Contarini was one of the leaders of tbis partj. He had oome 
to an undorstanding with the emperor that jastification by faith, the nse 
of the cap in oommaniou bj tho laity, and marriage of priests shonld 
be allow 3d for Germany, and that, on the othe|r hand, the Protestants 
were to agree to the primacy of the pope. The juf>titia imputatira was 
acknowledged by both parties ; and even when Contarini, on the basis 
of that imputati'^n, insisted ni)on a jusiitia inluerenSt i.e. not merely 
a declaring but a making rigliteous. seeing that he grounded it solely 
on the merits of Christ, the Protestants aoqniesoed. Differences arose 
OTer the doctrine of the church, which were r served for another occasion. 
And now they came to the sacrament of the altar. Communion in both 
kinds was agreed to by both ; but trouble arose over the word tran- 
substantiation. Not only Eck, who had opposed all concessions, but 
even Contarini, who had his orders from Rome, would not yield. No 
more would the Protestants. The conference had therefore to be dis- 
solved. Tho emperor wished both parties to accept the articles agreed 
on as a common standard, and to have toleration granted upon the 
disputed points; but the Catholic majority would not agree to this. 
The Begensbnrg Interim, therefore, as the decision of the diet is usually 
called, extends the Nuremberg Peace (§ 133, 2) to all presently members 
of the Schmalcald League, and enforced upon Protestantu only the 
accepted articles. 

4. The Begeusborg Declaration, AD. 1541. — The emperor, in order 
to satisfy the naturally dissatisfied Protestants, made a special declara- 
tion, annulling the prosecutions decree of the Augsburg Diet and 
relieving the adherents of the Augsburg Confesäion from all disabilities. 
Also the injunction that no one should withhold their duos from tlie 
clergy was extended to the Protestant ministers. But on the very day 
when the declaration was issued the emperor held a private session with 
tlie Catholic majority, in which the Nuremberg League was renewed and 
the pope received into it. Thus he hoped to receive help from all 
parties and to ward off internecine conflict till a more convenient season. 
He concluded a separate treaty with the landgrave and the Elector 
Joachim II., both undertaking to support imperial interests. The elector 
expressly promised not to join the Schmalcald League ; and the land- 
grave promised to oppose all consurting of the league not only with 
foreign powers (England and France), but also with the Duke of Cle\es, 
with whom the emperor had a standing feud. In return the landgrave 
was granted an amnesty for all previous delinquencies and undisturbed 
liberty in matters of religion. The emperor*s neg )tiations with the 
Elector of Saxony broke down over the Cloves dispute, for the Duke of 
Cleves was his brother-in-law. 

6. The Hanmborg Bishopric, AD. 1541, 1512.— Since a.d. 1520 the 
Latheran doctrines had spread in the diocese of Naumburg. When the 


bishop died, in a.D. 1541, the chapter elected the leaned and mild 
provost Julias Ton Pflngk. Bat the elector regarded it aa proper in 
a Lutheran state to have a Lutheran bishop, and so refaied to confirm 
Pflugk's appointment, and had Nie. yon Amsdorf (§ 127,4) ordained bishop 
by Lutber, in jl.d. 1542, ** without obrism, butter, suet, lard, tar, grease, 
incense, and coals.** The civil administration of the diocese was com- 
mitted to an electoral officer; Amsdorf was satisfied with the small 
income of 600 florins and the rest of the revenues were applied to pioos 
uses. After the battle of Mühlberg, in a.D. 1547, Arnsdorf was expelled 
and Pfliigk restored. On his death in 1561, the chapter, though then 
Lutheran, did not restore Amsdorf, but gave over the administration to 
a Saxon prince. The elector's violent procednre in this case eansed 
great ofifince to the Albertine court. Duke Henry had died in a.d. 1541, 
and was succeeded by his son Maurice. The elector and the young duko 
quarrelled over a question of jurisdictiou, and it was only with great 
ditliculiy that Luther and the landgrave managed to effect a peace- 
ful solution of the dispute. But the mutual estrangement and rivaliy 
between the courts soon afterwards broke out in a violent form. 

6. The Reformation in Bnmswick snd the Palatinate, A.D. 1543-1M8. — 
Duke Henry of Brunswick accused the city of Goslar of the destmctton 
of two monasteries, and in spite of all the concessions to Protestants tba 
court pronounced the ban against the city, and empowered Heniy to 
carry it out. The elector and the landgrave, actiug for the Sohmalcald 
League in defence of the city, entered Henry*s territory in a D. 1542 
and conquered it. The gospel was now preached, and an evangelical 
constitution was given to Brunswick by Bugenhagen. This oompleted 
the conquest of Nortli Germany for the gospel.— In South Germany 
Begensburg received the Beformation in a.D. 1542 ; bat Bavaria, owing 
to Ferdinand's influence, gave no place to the heretics. In the Uppet 
Palatinate evangelical preachers had for a long time been tolerated. 
The ycung prince of the Neuburg Palatinate in a.D. 154S called Osiandei 
from Nuremburg, and joined the Schmalcald League. The Elector- 
palatine Louis died in a.d. 1543. His brother Frederick II., who sue- 
cceded him was not unfavourable to the Beformation, and formally 
introduced it into his dominions in a.d. 1546. Even in Aostria evan- 
gelical views made such advance that Ferdinand neither could nor wonld 
attempt those violent measures that he had previously tried. 

7. The He'^crmation in the Electorate of Cologne, A.D. 1542-1544.— 
Hermann von Weid (§ 133, 5), Archbishop and Elector of Cologne, now 
far advanced in life, by the study of Luthcr*s Bible bad convinced him- 
self of the scriptiiralness of the Augsburg Confession. He resolved to 
reform his province in accordance with God's word. At the Bona 
A.>^semhly of March, A.D. 1542, he made known his plan, and found 
himsi'lf supported by his nobles. He invited Bucer to inaagurate the 

§ 185. UNION ATTBMPTS OF A.D. 1540-1546. 289 

work, and he was Boon joined bj Melanohthon. In Jnly, ji.d. 15iS, 
the elector laid before the nobles his Beformation solieme, and tbej 
ananimoasly accepted it. The cathedral chapter and the aniversitj 
opposed it in the interests of the papacy ; also the Cologne council from, 
fear of losing their authority. Nevertheless the movement advanced, 
and it was hoped that the opposition would gradually be overcome. 
Cologne was to remain after as before an ecclesiastical principality, but 
with an evangelical constitution. The Bisbop of Münster prepared to 
follow the example, and had the work in Cologne been lasting, certainly 
many others would have parsued the same course. 

8. The Emperor's Difficnlties, A.D. 1543, 1544.— Soliman in a-d. 1541 
had overran Hangary, converted the principal church into a mosque» 
and set a pasha over the whole land, which now became a Turkish 
province. Aid against the Turks was voted at a diet at Spires in the 
beginning of a.d. 1542, and the Protestants were left unmolested for five 
years after the conclusion of the war. The campaign against the Turks 
led by Joachim II. was unsnocessf al. Meanwhile new troubles arose with 
France, and Soliman prepared fur a second campaign. The emperor 
DOW summoned a diet to meet at Nuremberg, Jan., a.d. 1543. Ferdi- 
nand was willing to grant to the Protestants the Begensburg Declara- 
tion, but William of Bavaria would rather see the whole world perish 
or the crescent ruling over all Germany. In summer of a.D. 1543 the 
emperor was beset with dangers from every side ; Franoe attacked the 
Netherlands, Soliman conquered Grau, the Danes closed the Sound 
against the subjects of the emperor, a Turoo French fleet held sway in 
the Mediterranean and had already taken Nizza, and the Protestants 
were assuming a threatening attitude. Christian III. of Denmark and 
Gustavus Yasa of Sweden asked to be received into the Sohmaloald 
League. The Duke of Cleves, too, broke his truce. This roused the 
emperor most of all. He rushed down upon Cleves and Gelderland, 
and conquered them, and restored Catholicism. The emperor's circnm« 
Btances now improved : Cleves was quieted ; Denmark and England came 
to terms with him. But his most dangerous enemies, Soliman and 
Francis L, were still in arms. He could not yet dispense with the 
po«-erful support of the Protestants. 

9. Diet at Spires, AD. 1544.— In order to get help against the Tarks 
and French, at the Diet of Spires, in Feb., a.D. 1544, the emperor 
relieved the Protestants of all disabilities, promised a genuine, free 
Christian council to settle matters in dispute, and, in case this should 
not succeed, in next autumn a national assembly to determine matters 
definitely without pope or council. The emperor promised to propose 
a scheme of Befonnation, and invited the other nobles to bring forward 
schemes. After such concessions the Protestants went in heartily with 
the emperor's political projects. Ue wished first of all help againit the 

VOL. II. \^ 


French. In the same year the emperor led against France an armj 
composed mostly of Protestants, and in Sept., A.n. 1544, obliged the king 
to conclude the Peace of Grespy. The Turks had next to be dealt with, 
aud the Protestants were eager to show their devotion to the emperor. 
In prospect of the national assembly the Elector of Saxony set his 
thoologians to the composition of a plan of Reformation. This doea- 
ment, known as the " Wittenberg Reformation,** allows to the prelates 
their spiritnal and civil functions, their revenues, goods, and jnriKdietioiiy 
the right of ordination, visitation, and discipline, on condition thai 
these be exercised in an evangelical spirit. 

10. Differences between the Emperor and the Protestant Voblss, A.1>. 

1545, 1546. — The pope by calling a council to meet at Trent sowed seeds 
of discord between the emperor and the Protestants. The emperor*s 
proposals of reform were so far short of the demands of the Protestants 
that they were unanimously rejected. The Reformation movement in 
Cologne had seriously imperilled the imperial government of the Nether- 
lands. An attempt of Henry to reconquer Brunswick was frustrated by 
the combined action of the Landgrave of Hesse and the Duke of Saxony. 
Frederick II., elector-palatine, began to reform his provinces and to 
seek admission to the Schmalcald League. Four of the six electors 
had gone over, and the fifth, Sebastian, who after Albert's death in ▲.]>. 
1545 had been, by Hessian and Palatine influence, made Elector ol 
Mainz, had just resolved to follow their example. All these things had 
greatly irritated the emperor. He concluded a truce with, the Tnrki 
in Oct., A.D. 1545, and arranged with the pope, who pledged his whole 
possessions and crown, for the campaign against the heretics. On 13th 
Dec, A.D. 1545, the pope opened the CooncU of Treat, and made it no 
secret that it was intended for the destruction of the Protestants. The 
etiiperor attempted to get the Protestants to take part. In Jan., A.n. 

1546, a conference was held in which Cochleus (§ 129, 1) and othem 
met with Bucer, Brenz, and Major ; but it was soon dissolved, owing to 
initial differences. The horrible fratricide committed at Nenburg upon 
a Spaniard, Juan Diaz, showed the Protestants how good Catholics 
thought heretics must be dealt with. The murderer was seized, bat by 
order of the pope to the Bishop of Trent set again at liberty. He 
remained unpunished, but hanged himself at Trent a.d. 1551. 

11. Lather's Death, A.D. 1546.— Lather died at Eisleben in his BSrd 
year on 18th Feb., 1546. During his last years he was harassed with 
heavy trials. The political turn that affairs had taken was wholly 
distasteful to him, but he was powerless to prevent it. In Wittenberg 
itself much was done not in accordance with his will. Wearied with 
his daily toils, suffering severe pain and consequent bodily weakness, ha 
often longed to c^ie in i.eace. In the beginning of a.D. 1516 the Oonnto 
of Mansfcld called him to Eisleben iu order to compose differeoMi 



between ihem bj bis impartial judgment. In order to perform tbie 
business be spent tbe three last weeks of bis life in his birthplace, and, 
with scarcely any previous illness, on the night of the 18th Feb., he 
peacefully fell asleep in Jesus. His body was taken to Wittenberg and 
there buried in tbe castle ohurcb. 

§ 136. Thb Schmalcald War, the Interim, and the 

council, a.d. 1646-1551. 

All attempts at agreement in matters of religion were at 
an end. Tbe pope, however, bad at last convened a conn oil 
in a German city. Tbe emperor hoped to conciliate the 
Protestants by bringing about a reformation after a fashion, 
removing many hierarchical abuses, conceding the marriage 
of the clergy, the cup to the laity, and even perhaps accepting 
the doctrine of justification. But he soon came to a rupture 
with the Protestants, and war broke out before the Schmalcald 
Leaguers were prepared for it. Their power, however, was 
far superior to that of the emperor ; but through needless 
scruples, delays, and indecision they let slip the opportunity 
of certain victory. The power of the league was utterly 
destroyed, and the emperor's power reached the summit of 
its strength. All Southern Germany was forced to submit 
to the hated interim, and in North Germany only the out- 
lawed Magdeburg ventured to maintain, in spite of the 
emperor, a pure Protestant profession. 

1. Preparations for the Schmalcald War, A.D. 1546. — In oonseqnenoe of 
Tarianoes among the members of the league the emperor conceiTed a 
plan of securing allies from among the Protestants themselves by a 
judicious distribution of favours. The Margrave Hans of Ciistrin and 
Duke Eric of Brunswick, the one cousin, the other son-in-law, of the 
exiled and imprisoned Duke of Wolfcnbiittel, were ready to take part in 
war against the robbers of their friend's dominions. Much more eager, 
however, was the emperor to win over the young Duke Maurice of 
Baxony. He tempted him with tbe promise of the electorate and the 
greati^r part of the e)ector*s territory, and was successful. The emperor 
eonld not indeed formally release any of them from submission to the 
eoiinoil, but he promised in any ease to reserrt for their countries the 


d-Kstriae of jastification, the cup in laj eomiDimion, and the marriage of 
prients. Now when he was eare of Maurice the emperor proceeded 
openly with his preparations, and made no secret of his intention to 
punish those princes who had despised his imperial authority and taken 
to th'eiiiselves the possessions of others. The Schmalcald Leagners 
could no longer deceive themselves, and so they began their preparations. 
Vrith such an open breach the Diet of Begensburg ended in Jane, ao». 

2. The Campa-'gn on the Danube, A.D. 1546. — Sehartlin, at the bead of 
a powerful army, could have attacked the emperor or taken the Tyrol ; 
but the council of war, listening to William of Bavaria, who professed 
neutrality, and hoping to win over Ferdinand, foolishly ordered delay. 
Thus the emperor gained time to collect an army. On 20th June, A.n. 
1546, he issued from Begensburg a ban against the Landgrave Philip and 
the Elector John Frederick as oath-breaking yassals. These princes 
at the head of their forces ha<l joined Sehartlin at Donauwörth. Papal 
despatches fell into their hand.*), in which the pope proclaimed a cmsade 
for the rooting out of heretics, promising indulgence to all who woold 
aid in the work. Fatal indecision still prevailed in the counoU of war, 
and winter came on without a battle being fought. The news that 
Maurice had taken possession of the elector's domains led the landgrave 
and the ex elector to return home, and Sehartlin, for want of money and 
ammunition, was unable to face a winter campaign in Franoonia. Thus 
the whole country lay open to the emperor. One city after another 
accepted terms more or less severe. In the beginning of a.D. 1547 he 
was master of all Southern Germany. Now at last he pat an end to the 
Cologne movement (§ 135, 7). The pope had issued the ban against the 
archbishop in a.D. 1546, and now the emperor had the former coadjntor 
proclaimed archbishop and elector, in spite of the opposition of the noblea. 
Hermann was willing to secure the religious peace of bis dominions by 
resignation, but this was refused, and being too weak to offer resistance, 
be resigned unconditionally. Thus the Bhine provinces were irretrievably 
lost to Protestantism. 

8. The Campaign on the Elbe, A.D. 1547. — After rapidly reconqnering 
bis own territories, the Elector John Frederick hastened with a oon> 
siderable army to meet his enemy. At Mühlberg he 8ud<lenly came upon 
the emperor's forces. There scarcely was a battle. His comparatively 
small armament melted away before the superior numbers of the imperial 
host, and the elector was taken prisoner on 2ith April, a.D. 1547. He 
had already been sentenced to death as a rebel and heretic. It was 
deemed more prudent to require of him only the surrender of his fortresses. 
The pious prince willingly resigned all temiK>ral dignities, but in matters 
of religion he was inflexible. He was sentenced to life-long imprison* 
ment and his possessions were mostly given to Maurice. The Landgrave 


Philip, for want of money, ammnnltion, and troops, had been prevented 
from doing^nything. The news of John Frederick's misfortunes brought 
him almost to despair. Too powerless to offer opposition, he surrendered 
at discretion to the emperor. He was to prostrate himself before the 
emperor, surrender all his fortresses, neither now nor in future sufiFer 
enemies of tlie emperor in his lands, and for all his life to renounce all 
leagues, to liberate Henry of Brunswick and restore him to his dominions. 
The ceremony of prostration was performed at Halle on 19th July. The 
two electors with the landgrave then went by invitation to a supper 
with the Duke of Alba. After supper the duke declared the laudgrave 
his prisoner. The elector's remonstrances then with Alba and next 
day with the imperial councillors were all in vain. The emperor was 
equally deaf to all representations« 

4. Tje Council of Trent, A.D. 1545-1547.— The Council of Trent opened 
in Dec., jl.d. 1515 (§ 149, 2). At the outset, contrary to the emperor's 
wishes, the pope laid down conditions that excluded Protestants from 
taking part in it. Scripture and tradition were first discnsned. The 
O.T. Apocrypha (§§ 59, 1 ; ICO, 8) had equal authority assigned it with 
the other books of the O. and N.T., and the Vulgate was declared to be 
the only authentic text for theological discussions and sermons. Tradi- 
tion was placed on equal terms alongside of Scripture, but its contents 
were carefully defined. Original &ia was extinguished by baptism, and 
after baptism there is only actual transgression. The scholastic doctrine 
of justification was sanctioned anew, but accommodated as far as possible 
to Scripture phraseology ; justification is the inward actual change of a 
Bioner into a righteous man, not merely the forgiveness of sins, bat 
pre-eminently the sauctificatiou and renewal of the inner man. It is 
effected, not so much by the imputation of Christ's merits, as by the 
infusion of habitual righteousuess, which enables men to win salvation by 
works. It is not forensic, but a physical act of God. is wrought not onoe 
for all, and not by faith alone, but gradually by the free co-operation of the 
man. The emperor, who saw in these decisions the overthrow of his 
attempts at conciliation, was highly diRpleased, and wished at least to 
postpone their promulgation. The pope obeyed for a time ; but when the 
emperor threatened to interfere in the proceedings of the council, he 
had the decrees pubUshed, Jan., a.d. 1547. and some weeks after, on the 
plea of a dangerous plague having broken out, removed the council to 
Bologna, where for the time proceedings were suspended. 

6. The Aagsbarg Interim, A J). 1548.— At a diet at Augsburg in Sept» 
A.D. 1547, the Protestants declared themselves willing to submit to tk 
council meeting again at Trent, and beginning afresh ; but as the pope 
refused this, the emperor was obliged to plan an interim, which shoold 
form a standard for all parties till a settlement at a proper counoil 
shoold be reached. It granted the cup to the laity and marriage ol 


priests, bat held by tbe Tridentine doctrine of justification. It repre- 
sented the pope as simply the highest bishop, in whom the unity of 
the church is viäibly set forth. The right of interpreting Scriptare 
was given excluäively to the church. The sacraments were enumerated 
as seven, and the doctrine of transubstantiation emphatically main- 
tained. The duty of fasting, and seeking the intercession of the mother 
of God and the saints, observing all Catholic ceremonies of won^hip, 
processions, festivals, etc., was strictly insisted upon. The emperor 
was satisfied, and so too some of the Protestant princes. Maurice, how- 
ever, felt that his people would not agree to its adoption. He gave at 
last a half assent, which the emperor accepted as approval. The emperor 
took no notice of those who opposed it, tbe presence of his S]ianiard8 
in their dominions would prevent all trouble. The emperor was n.t 
strong enough to force the Catholic nobles to accept his interim, and so 
its observance was to be binding only on the Protestants. Landgrave 
Philip, whose power was forever broken, gave in, but nothing in the world 
would induce the noble John Frederick to submit. The pope too refused 
persistently to recognise the interim, and only in Aug., jl.d. 1549, did he 
allow the bishops to agree to the concessions msde by it to the Protestants. 

C. The Execution of the Inter m had on all sides to be compulsorilj 
enforced. Nuremberg, Angäburg, Ulm were one after another coeroed 
into adopting it. Constance resisted, was put under the ban, and lost all 
privileges, till at la^t instead of the interim tbe papacy found entrance, 
and evangelical Protestantism got its death-blow. The other cities sub- 
mitted to the inevitable. All preachers refusing the interim were exiled 
and persecuted Over 400 true servants of the word wandered with 
wives and children through South Germany homeless and without bread. 
Freeh t of Ulm was taken in chains to the emperor's camp. Brenz, one 
of the most determined opponents of the interim, during his wanderings 
often by a miracle escaped capture. Much more lasting was the opposi- 
tion in North Germany. In Magdeburg, still lying under the imperial 
ban, tbe fugitive opponents of the interim gathered from all sides, and 
there alone was the press still free in its utterances against the interim. 
A flood of controversial tracts, satires, and caricatures were sent out 
over all Gennauy. In Hesse and Brandenburg the princes were unable 
to enforce the obnoxious measures ; still less could Maurice do so in the 

7. The Leipzig or Little Interim, A J). 1549.— Maurice in his difficulties 
sent for Melanchtlion. Since the death of Luther and the overthrow of 
John Frederick of Saxony, Melanchthon's tendency to yield largely for 
peace' sake bad lost its wholesome checks. In writiug to the minister 
Carlo witz, the bitterest foe of Luther and the eleetor, he even went so 
far as to complain of Luther's combativeness. The result of various 
negotiations was the drawing up of a document at the assembly in Leipii^ 


83nd Deoember, a j>. 1548, bj the Wittenberg theologians In tooordanoe 
with the Tiews of Melanohthon. This modified interim became the stan- 
dard for religious practice in Saxony, and a directory of worship in 
harmony with it was drawn np by the theologians, and published in July, 
A.D. 1549. Calvin and Brenz wrote letters that out Melanohthon to the 
heart. The measure was everywhere viewed by zealous Lutherans with 
indignation, and the Interim of Leipzig was even more hateful to the 
people than that of Augsburg. Imprisonment and exile were vigorously 
carried out by means of it, yet the revolution and ferment continued to 
increase. — ^The Leipzig Interijn treated Bomish customs and ceremonies 
almost as things indifiFerent, passed over many less essential doctrinal 
differences, and gave to fundamental differences such a settiog as might 
be applied equally to the pure evangelical doctrine as to that of the 
Augsburg Interim. The evangelical doctrine of justification was essen- 
tially there, but it was not decidedly and unambiguously expressed; and 
still less were Bomish errors sharply and unmistakably repudiated. 
Good works were said to be necessary, but not in the sense that one 
could win salvation by means of them. Whether good works in exoesa 
of the law's demands could be performed was not explicitly determined. 
On church and hierarchy, the positions of the Aagsburg Interim were 
■imply restated. To the pope as tbe highest bishop, as well as to the 
other bishops, who performed their duties according to God's will for 
edification and not destraction, all churchmen were to yield obedience. 
The seven sacraments were acknowledged, though in another than the 
Bomish sense. In the mass the Latin language was again introduood. 
Images of saints were allowed, but not for worship ; so too the festivals of 
Mary and of Corpus ChrUti, but without processions, etc. 

8. The Coimeil again at Trent, A.D. 1551.— In September, a.D. 1549, 
Paul III. dissolved the council at Bologna, where it had done nothing. 
His successor, Jnlins IIL, a.D. 1550-1555, the nominee of the imperial 
party, acceded to the emperor's wia^hes to have tbe council again held at 
Trent. The Protestant nobles declared their willingness to recognise it, 
but demanded the cancelling of the earlier proceedings, a seat and vote 
for their representatives. This the emperor was prepared to grant, but 
tbe pope and prelates would not agree. The council began its proceed- 
ings on 1st May, a.D. 1551, with the doctrine of the Lord's Supper. 
Meanwhile the Protestants prepared a new confession, which might form 
the basis of their discussions in the council. Melanohthon, who was 
beginning to take courage again, sketched the Confe$$io Saxoniea, or, 
as it has been rightly named, the Repetitio ConfeaionU Auguitana, in 
which no trace of the indeciKion and ambiguity of the Leipzig Interim 
is to be found. The pure doctrine is set forth firmly, with even a 
polemical tone, though in a moderate and conciliatory manner. Brens, 
who had been in hiding up to this time, by orde|: of Puke Christopher 


of Württemberg, sketched for a like pnrpoee the ** Württembefg Con- 
fension.'* In November, A.D. 1551, the flrat Protestants, lay delegates 
from Württemberg and Strassburg, appeared in Trent. Thej were 
followed in Janoary by Saxon statesmen. On 24th Jannary, a^. 1553, 
these laid their credentials before the oonncil, but, notwithstanding all 
the effort of the imperial oommissioners, they oonld not gain admission. 
In March the Württemberg and Strassbozg theologians arrived, with 
Breuz at their bead, and Melanchthon, with two Leipsig preaehen, was 
on the way, when suddenly Maurice put an end to all Huh well eon- 
certed plans. 

§ ISTa. Maurice and the Peace of AügsbdbO| 

A.D. 1550-1555. 

In the beginning of A.D. 1550 the affairs of the Beforma- 
iion were in a worse condition than ever before. In the 
fetters of the interim, it was like a felon on whom the death 
sentence was about to be passed. Then just at the right 
time appeared the Elector Maurice as the man who could 
break the fetters and lead on again to power and honour. 
His betrayal of the cause had brought Protestantism to the 
verge of destruction ; his betrayal of the emperor proved its 
salvation. The Compact of Passau guaranteed to Protest- 
ants full religious liberty and equal rights with Catholics 
until a new council should meet. The Beligious Peace of 
Augsburg removed even this limitation, and brought to a 
conclusion the history of the German Reformation. 

1. The State of Hatters in A.D. 1550. — It was a doleful time for Qermany. 
The emperor at the height of his power was laying his plans for aeouriog 
the succession in the imperial dignity to his son Philip of Spain. In 
a bold, autocratic spirit he trampled on all the rights of the imperial 
nobles, and contrary to treaty he retained the presence of Spanish troop« 
in the empire, which daily committed deeds of atrocious violence. The 
deliverance of the landgrave was stubbornly refu»ed, though all the 
conditions thereof were long ago fulfilled. Protestant Germany groaifed 
under the yoke of the interim ; the council would only confirm this, if 
not rather enforce something even worse. Only one bulwark of evan- 
gelical liberty stood in the emperor*s way, the brave, outlawed Magde- 
burg. But how could it continue to hold out f Down to autumn, a.D. 
1552, all attempts to storm the city had failed. Then Biaorioe under- 

§ 137a. maubice and the peace of auosbubg. 297 

took, hj the ozder of th« emperor and at the eoet of the empire, to 
execute the ban. 

2. The Elector Xaorice, A.D. 1551.— Maarioe had lost the hearts of his 
own people, and was regarded with detestation by the Protestants of 
Germany, and notwithstanding imperial faTonr his position was by no 
means secure. Tet he was too much of the German and Protestant 
prince to view with faTour the emperor's proceedings, while he felt 
indignant at the illegal detention of his father-in-law. In tbese circum* 
stances he resolved to betray the emperor, as before he had betrayed 
to him the cause of Protestantism. A master in dissimulation, he con- 
tinued the siege of Magdeburg with all diligence, but at the same time 
joined a secret league with the Margrave Hans of Güstrln and Albert 
of Franoonian Brandenburg, as also with the sons of the landgrave, for 
the restoration of evangelical and civil liberty, and entered into negotia- 
tions with Henry II. of France, who undertook to aid him with money. 
Bfagdeburg at last capitulated, and Maurice entered on 4th November, 
A.D. 1561. Arrears of pay formed an excuse for not disbanding the 
imperial troops, and, strengthened by the Magdeburg garrison and the 
auxiliary troops of his allies, he threw o£F the mask, and issued public 
proclamations in which he brought bitter charges against the emperor, 
and declared that he could no longer lie under the feet of priests and 
Spaniards. The emperor in vain appealed for help to the Catbolie 
princes. He found himself without troops or money at Innsbruck, which 
oould not stand a siege, and every road to his hereditary territories 
seemed closed, for where the leagued German princes were not the 
Ottomans on sea and the French on land were ready to oppose him. 
Maurice was already on the way to Innsbruck " to seek out the fox in 
his hole." But his troops* demands for pay detained him, and the 
emperor gained time. On a cold, wet night he fled, though not yet re- 
covered from fever, over the mountains covered with snow, and found 
refuge in Yillaoh. Three days after Maurice entered Innsbruck; the 
oouncil had already dissolved. 

8. The Compact of Passau, I.D. 1653. — Before the flight of the emperor 
from Innsbruck, Maurice had an interview with Ferdinand at Linx, 
where, besides the liberation of the landgrave, he demanded a German 
national assembly for religions union, and till it met unconditional 
toleration. The emperor, notwiilistunding all his embarrassments, 
would not listen to the proposal. Negotiations were reopened at Passau, 
and Maurice's proposals were in the main accepted. Ferdinand con- 
sented, but the emperor would not. Ferdinand himself travelled to 
Yillach and employed all his eloquence, but unconditional toleration the 
emperor would not grant. His stubbornness conquered; the majority 
gave in, and accepted a compact which gave to the Protestants a full 
amnesty, general peace, and equal rights, till the meeting of a national 


or (Bcnmenical connoil, to be aiTaiiged for al the next diet KouiwiiSle 
the emperor had made great preparations. Frankfort waa his main 
stronghold, and against it Maoriee now adTaneed, and began the siege. 
Matters were not promising, when the Passau delegate appeared in hia 
oump with the draft of the terms of peace^ Had he rsf used his signa- 
ture, the ban would have been pronoonoed against him, snd his oonsin 
would have been restored to tlie electorate. He therefore subscribed 
the document. With difBcalty Ferdinand secured the sobsrariptioo of the 
emperor, who believed himself to be saf&cientl/ strong to eany on the 
battle. The two imprisoned princes were now at last liberated, and tha 
preachers exiled bj the interim were allowed to ratom. John Fkedeiiok 
died in ^d. 1554, and the Landgrave Philip in aj). 1567. 

4. Death of Kaurioe, A.D. 1563.— The Margrave Albert of Brandenburg 
had been Maurice's comrade in the Schmalcald war, and with him also faa 
turned against the emperor. But after the ratification of the Passaa 
Compact, to which he was not a party, Albert continued the war against 
the prelates and their principalities. He now fell out with Maurice, and 
was taken into his service by the emperor, who not only granted him 
an amnesty for all his acts of spoliation and breaches of the trace, but 
promised to enforce recognition of him from all the bishops. Albert 
therefore helped the emperor against the French, and then eanied hia 
conquests into Germany. Soon an open mptnrs occurred between him 
and Maurice. In the battle of Sievershausen Maurice gained a brilliant 
victory, but received a mortal wound, of which he died in two days. 
Albert fied to France. The rude soldier was broken down by misfortune, 
the reli;;iou8 convictions of his youth awakened, and the composition of 
a beautiful and well-known German hymn marks the turning point in his 
life. He died in a-d. 1557. — The year 1554 was wholly occupied with 
internal troubles. A desire for a lasting peace prevailed, and the eala» 
mities of both parties brought Protestants and Catholics nearer to ona 
anotlier. Even Henry of Brunswick was willing to tolerate Proteatantism 
in his dominions. 

5. The Religions Peace of Angsbnrflr, A.D. 1556.— When the diet met 
at Augsburg in February, a.D. 1555, the empemr's power was gone. To 
save his pride and conscience he renounced all share in its proceedings 
in favour of his brother. The Protestant members stood well together 
in claiming nnconditional religious freedom, and Ferdinand ineliued to 
their side. Meanwhile Pope Julius died, and the cardinals Morons and 
Truoliscss hasted from the diet to Borne to take part in the papal 
election. The Catholic opposition was thus weakened in the diet. The 
Protestants insisted that the peace should apply to all who might in 
future join this confession. This demand gave occasion to strong 
contests. At last the simple formula was agreed upon, that no one 
should be interfered with on account of the Augsburg Confsssion. But 


A more Tehement dispute arose m to what ahoald happen if prelates 
or spiritual princes shonld join the Protestant party. This was a yital 
qnestion for Catholicism, and aoo^tance of the Protestant yiew wonld 
be ite deathblow. It was therefore proposed that eyery prelate who went 
oyer would lose, not only his spii^tual rank, but also his civil dominion. 
But the opposition would not give in. Both parties appealed to Ferdi- 
nand, and he delayed giving a decision. Advice was also asked about 
the peace proclamation. The Protestants claimed that the judges of the 
imperial court should be sworn to observe the Beligious Peace, and should 
be chosen in equal numbers from both religious parties. On 30th Aug. 
Perdinand stated his resolution. As was expected, he went with the 
Catholics in regard to prelates becoming Protestants, but, contrary to 
all expectations, he also refused lasting unconditional peace. On this 
last point, however, he declared himself on 6th Sept. willing to yield 
if the Protestants would concede the point about the prelates. They 
•ought to sell their concession as dearly as possible by securing to 
evangelioal subjects of Catholic princes the right to the free exercise of 
their religion. But the Catholic prelates, on the ground of the territorial 
•ystem (i 126, 6) advocated by the Protestants themselves, would not 
give in. It was finally agreed that every noble in matters of religion 
bad territorial authority, but that subjects of another faith, in case of 
the free exercise of their religion being refused, should have guaranteed 
unrestricted liberty to withdraw without loss of honour, pro|/erty, or 
freedom. On 25th Sept., a.D. 1555, the decrees of the diet were pro- 
mulgated. The Beformed were not included in the Beligious Peace; 
this was first done in the Peace of Westphalia (i 158, 2). 

§ 137b. Germany after the Religious Peace« 

The political importance of the Protestant princes was 
about equal to that of the Catholics; the Electors of 
Cologne, Mainz, and Treves were not more powerful than 
those of Saxony, the Palatinate, and Brandenburg; and the 
great array of Protestant cities, with almost all the minor 
princes, were not behind the combined forces of Austria 
and Bavaria. The maintenance of the peace was assigned 
to a legally constituted corporation of Catholic and Protes- 
tant nobles, which held power down to A.D. 1806. The hope 
of reaching a mutual understanding on matters of religion 
was by no means abandoned, but the continuance of the 
peace was to be in no way dependent upon it) realization. 


A new attempt to eiFect a union, which like all previous 
efforts ended in failure, was soon made in the Worms 
Consultation. Equally unsuccessful was a union project 
of the emperor Ferdinand I. Protestantism could get no 
more out of the Catholic princes. A second attempt to 
protestantize the Cologne electorate broke down as the fixst 
had done (§ 136, 2). 

6. Tht Worma Confultatioii, A JO. 1557. — Another effort wm made aftn 
the failure of the council in the interests of nnion. Catholic and 
Protestant delegates ander the presidency of Pflogk met at Worms in A.D. 
1507. At a preliminary meeting the princes of Hesse. WOrttembarg. and 
the Palntinate adopted the Augsburg Confession as bond of anion and 
standard for negotiations. The Saxon delegates insisted npon a distinct 
repudiation of the interim and the insertion of other details, which gate 
the Catholics an excuse for putting an end to the negotiations. They 
bad previously expressly refused to acknowledge Scripture as the ancon- 
ditioDal and sole judge of oontroTersies, as that was itself a matter in 
dispute (§ 136, 4). 

7. Second Attempt at Beformatioa ia the Ileetorate of Cologne, A.D. 168S. 
— The Arclibisbop and Elector of Cologne, Gebhard Tniohsets of Wald- 
burg went over in a d. 15R2 to the Protestant Church, msrried the 
Countr-BS Agnes of Mansfeld, proclaimed religious freedom, and M>a{^t 
to convert his eccIeHiastical principality into a temporal dominion. His 
plan was acceptable to nobles an«! people, but the rli?rgy of his dlooeao 
opposed it with all their migVit. The pope thundered the ban against 
him, and Emperor Rudolph II. deposed him. The Protestant princes 
at last deserted him, and the newly elected archbishop, Doke Ernest of 
Bavaria, overpowered him by an armed force. The issae of Gebhard's 
attempt struck terror into other prelates who had been contemplating 
similar moves. 

8. The German Emperor.—Ferdiaand L, a.D. 1556-1664, coneiliatoTj 
toward Protestantism, thoroughly dissatisfied with the Tridentine Council, 
once and again made attempts to secure a anion, which all ended in 
failure. Maximilian II., a.d. 1564-1576, imbued by his tator, Wolfgang 
Severus, with an evaugelical spirit which was deepened under the infla* 
ence of his physician Crato yon CraCftheim ({ 141, 10), gave perfeet liberigr 
to the Protestants in his dominions, admitted them to many of the 
higher and lower offices of state, kept down the Jesuits, and was pre- 
yeuted from himself formally going oyer to Protestantism onlj'byhii 
political relations with Spain and the Catholic princes of the empire. 
These relations, however, led to the adoption of half meuuzee, ool ol 


vhlch afterwards sprang the Tbirtj Tears* War. His'son Bodolph IL, a.]>. 
1576-1612, educated by Jesuits at the Spanish court, gave again to that 
order unlimited scope, injured the Protestants on eyerj side, and waa 
only prevented by indecision and cowardice from attempting the complete 
suppression of Protestantism. 

§ 138. The Reformation in French Switzerland.^ 

In French Switzerland the Reformation appeared some- 
what later, but in essentially the same foim as in German 
Switzerland. Its special character was given it by Farel , 

and Viret, the ••«cessors of Calvin. The powerful genius of / pA-^^ 
Calvin secured for his views victory over Zwinglianism in 
Switzerland, and won the ascendency for them in the other 
Reformed Churches. 

1. CalThi's Predecessors, A.D. 1533-1585.— WiUiRm Farel, the pnpil and 
friend of the liberal exegete Faber Stapalensis (% 123, 8), was born in 
▲.D. 1499 at Gap in Daiiphiu6. When in a.d. 1521 the Sorbonne con- 
demnoil Lather's doctrines and writings, he waa obliged, as a suspected 
adherent of Lather, to qait Paris. He retired to Meanx, where he waa 
well received by Bishop Bri<;onnet, bat so boldly preached the reformed 
doctrines, that even the bishop, on renewed complaints being made, 
neither coald nor would protect him. He then withdrew to Basel 
(} 130, 3). His first permanent residence was at Neuchatel, where in 
November, a.d. 1530. the Beformation was introduced by his influence. 
He left Neuchatel in a.D. 1532 in order to work in Gt^neva. But the civil 
authorities there could not protect him against the bishop and clergy. 
He was obliged to leaye the city, but Saunier, Fromant, and Olivetan 
(f 148, 5) continaed the work in his spirit. A revolution took place ; 
the bishop thundered his ban against the refractory ooancil, and the 
■enate replied by declaring his ofiice forfeited. Farel now returned to 
Geneva, a.D. 1535, ^nd there accompanied him Peter Viret, afterwards the 
reformer of Lausanne. Viret was bom at Orbe in a.D. 1511, and had 
Attached himself to the Protestant cause during his studies in Paris. He 
therefore had alsa been obliged to quit the capital. He retired to his 

' Calvin, ** Tracts relating to the Beformation, nith Life of Calvin by 
Beza." 3 yols. Edinburgh, 1844-1851. Henry, ** Life of John Calviu." 
2 vols. London, 1849. Audin (Cath.). ** History of Life, Writings, and 
Dootrines of Calvin." 2 vols. London, 1854. Dyer, ** The Life of John 
Calvin.** London, 1850. Bungener, ** Calvin: his Life, Labours, and 
Writings.'* Edinburgh. 1868. 


native town, and aonght there dOigently to spread the knowledge of tha 
f?o<p<>]. The arrival of these two eutliasiastic reformers in Geneva led to 
a life and death straggle, from which the evangelicals went forth trinm- 
phant. As the result of a puhlio disputation in Aagast, a.d. ir>35, th« 
m.a;^istracy declared in tbeir favour, and Farel gave the movement a doc- 
trinal basis by the issaing of a confession. In the following jear Calvin 
was passing through Geneva. Farel adjured him in God*8 name to 
remain there. Farel indeed needed a fellow labourer of soeh genioB and 
power, for he had a hard battle to fight. 

2. Calvin before his Genevan Ministry. — John Calvin, son of dioeesan 
I)rociirator Gerhard Caavin, was bom on 10th Jnly, ▲.!>. 1509, at Noyoa 
in Picardy. Intended for the church, he was, from his twelfth year, in 
possession of a benefice. Meeting with his relation Olivetan, he had 
his tirst doubts of the truth of the Catholic system awakened. With 
his father 8 consent he now turned to the study of law, which he 
eaget ly prosecuted for four year.s at Orleans and Bourges. At Boorges, 
Melchior Wolmar, a German, professor of Greek, exercised so powerful an 
influence over him, especially through tbe study of the Scriptores, thai 
he decided, after the death of his father, to devote himself excluaively to 
theology. With this intention he went to Paris in ax). 1532, and there 
enthusiastically adopted the principles of the Reformation. The newly 
appointed rector of the university. Nie. Cop, had to deliver au address 
on the Feast of All Saints. Calvin prepared it for him, and expressed 
therein such liberal and evangelical views, as had never before been 
uttered in that place. Cop read it boldly, and escaped the outburst of 
wrath only by a timely flight. Calvin, too, found it prudent to quit 
Paris. The bloody persecution of the Protestants by Francis L led him 
at last to leave France altogether. So he went, in a.D. 1535, to Basel, 
where he became acquainted with Capito and Gryneus. In the follow* 
ing year he issued the first sketch of the Itutitutio IUHgiani$ Chrutianm, 
It was made as a defence of the Protestants of France, persecuted by 
Francis on the pretext that they held Anabaptist and revolutionary views. 
He therefore dedicated tbe book to the king, with a noble and firm 
address. He soon left Basel, and went to the court of the evangelical- 
miuded Duchess Benata of Ferrara (§ 139, 22), in order to secure hiet 
good offices for his fellow countrymen suffering for their faith. He won 
the full confidence of the duchess, but after some weeks was banished 
the country by her husband. On his journey back to Basel, Farel and 
Viret detained him in Geneva in a.x>. 1536, and declared tliat he was 
called to be a preacher and teacher of theology. On lE>t October, a.i>. 
lo.'}6, the three reformers, at a pnblio disputation in Lausanne, defended 
the principles of the Beformation. Viret remained in Lausanne, and 
perfected the work of Beformation there. As a confession of faith, » 
catechism, not in dialogue form, was composed by Calvin as a popular 


sammary of his Tn$titutio in the French langnage, and was sworn to, in 
A.D 1536, by all the citizens of Geneva. The Catechismut Geiuven$ii, 
highly prized in all the Reformed churches, was a later redaction, wbich 
appeared first in French in a.D. 1542, and then in Latin, in a.d. 1545.^ 

3. Cal?in*8 First Ministry in Geneva, A.D. 1536-1538.— In Geneva, as 
in )tbcr places, tbere sprang np alongside of tbe Reformation, and soon 
in deadly opposition to it, an antinomian libertine sect, which strove for 
freedom from all restraint and order (§ 146, 4). In the straggle against 
this dangerous development, which found special fdvour among the aris- 
tocratic youth of Geneva, Calvin put forth all the power of his logical 
mind and nnbeuding will, and sought to break its force by the exercise 
of an excessively strict church discipline. He created a spiritual consis- 
tory which arrogated to itself the exclusive right of church discipline 
and excommunication, and wished to lay upon the magistrates the duty 
of inflicting civil punishments on all persons condemned by it. But not 
only did the libertine sections offer the most strenuous opposition, but 
also the magistrates regarded with jealousy and suspicion the erection of 
such a tribunal. Magistrates and libertines therefore combined to over- 
throw the consistory. A welcome pretext was found in a synod at 
Lausanne in A.n. 1538, which condemned the abolition of all festivals 
but the Sundays, the removal of baptismal fonts from the churches, and 
the introduction of leavened bread at the Lord's Supper by the Genevan 
ohnrch as uncalled for innovations. The magistrates now demanded 
the withdrawal of these, and banished the preachers who would not < bey. 
Farel went to Neuchatel, where he remained till his death in a.D. 1565 ; 
Calvin went to Straseburg, where Bncer, Capito, and Hedio gave him 
the ofllce of a professor and preacher. During his three years* residence 
there Calvin, as a Straseburg delegate, was frequently brought into close 
relatiooship with the German reformers, especially with Melanchthon 
(§} 134, 135). But he ever remained closely associated with Geneva, 
and when Cardinal Sadolet (§ 139, 12) issued from Lyons in a.d. 1539 an 
appeal to the Genevese to return to tbe bosom of the Romish church, 
Calvin thundered against him an annihilating reply. His Genevan 
friends, too, spared no pains to win for him the favour of the council 
and the citizens. They succeeded all Vie more easily because since the 
overthrow of the theocratic consistory the libertine party had run into 
all manner of riotous excesses. By a deci-ee of council of 20th Oct., 
A.D. 1540. Calvin was most honourably recalled. After long considera- 
tion he accepted the call in Sept., a.d. 1541, and now, with redoubled 
energy, set himself to cany out most strictly the work that had been 

> M'Crie, " The Early Years of John Calvin, ad. 1509-1536.'* Ed. hj 
W. Fergnsson. Edinburgh, 1880. 


4. Calvin*B Second Ministry in Oenera, ▲.!)• 1541-1564. — CalTin wsk 

np again, after his retam, the consistory, consisting of six ministen 
and twelve lay elders, and by it raled with almost absolute power. It 
was a thoroughly organized inquisition tribunal, which regulated in all 
details the moral, religious, domeKtic, and social life of the citizens, 
called thorn to accoimt on every suspicion of a fault, had the incorrigible 
banished by tlie civil authorities, and the more dangerous of them 
put to death. The Ciceronian Bible translator, Sebastian Casttllio, 
appointed rector of the Genevan school by Calvin, got out of sympathy the rigorous moral strictures and compulsory prescriptions of mat- 
ters of faith under the Calvinistio rule, and charged the olei^ with in- 
tolerance and pride. He also contested the doctrine of the descent into 
hell, and described the Canticles as a love poem. He was deposed, and 
in order to escape further penalties he fied to Basel in a.d. 1544. A 
libertine called Grnet was executed in ▲.!>. 1547, because he had oirea- 
luted an abusive tract against the clergy, and blasphemous references 
were found in 'his papers ; e,g, that Christianity is only a fable, that 
Christ was a deceiver and His mother a prostitute, that all ends with 
death, that neither heaven nor hell exists, etc. The physician, Jerome 
Bolsec, previously a Carmelite monk in Paris, was imprisoned in aj>. 
löol, and then banished, because of his opi)Osition to Calvin's doctrine 
of predestination. lie afterwards returned to the Bomihh church, and 
revenged himself by a biography of Calvin full of spiteful calumnies. 
Ou the execution of Servetus in a-d. 1533, see { 148, 2. Between the 
years 1542 and 154G there were in Geneva, with a population of only 
20,000, no less than fifty-seven death sentences carried out with Calvin*! 
approval, and seventy-six sentences of banishment. The magistzatea 
faithfully supported him in all his measures. But under the inquisi- 
torial reign of terror of his consistory, the libertine party gained strength 
for a vehement struggle, and among the magistrates, from about ▲.!>. 
1546, there arose a poi^erful opposition, and fanatical mobs repeatedly 
threatened to throw him into the Bhone. This struggle lasted for nine 
years. But Calvin abated not a single iota from the striotnees of hit 
earlier demands, and so great was the fear of his powerful personality 
that neither the rsge of riotous mobs nor the hostility of the magistracy 
could secure his banishment. In a.d. 1555 his party again won the as- 
cendency in the elections, mainly by the aid of crowds of refugees from 
France, England, and Scotland, who had obtained residence and thus 
the rights of citizens in Geneva. From this time till his death on 27th 
March, a.d. 1564, his influence was supreme. The impress of his strong 
mind was more and more distinctly stamped upon every institution of 
the commonwealth, the demands of his rigorous discipline were willingly 
and heartily adopted as the moral code, and secured for Geneva that 
pre-eminence which for two centuries it retained among all the Beformi)d 


ohnrohes as an honourable, pious, and strictly moral city. In spite of m 
weak body and freqnent attacks of sickness Calvin, during the twenty- 
three years of his two residences in Geneva, performed an amazing 
amount of work. He had married in aj). 15*10. at Strassburg, Idaletta 
de Bures, the widow of an Anabaptist converted by him. His wife died 
in A.D. 1549. He preached almost daily, attended all the sittings of tha 
consistory and the preachers* association, inspired all their deliberations 
and resolutions, delivered lectures in the academy founded by his orders 
in A.D. 1559» composed numerous doctrinal, controversial, and apologe* 
iical works, conducted an extensive correspondence, etc. 

5. Calvin's Writings. — The most important of the writings of Calvin 
is his already mentioned Jmtitutio Rfliyiom$ Chriitiana, of which the 
best and most complete edition appeared in aj>. 1559, a companion 
volume to Melanchthon*8 Loci, but much more thorough and complete 
as a formal and scientific treatise. In this work Calvin elaborates hit 
profound doctrinal system with great speculative power and bold, relent- 
less logic, combined with the peculiar grace of a clear and charming 
style. Next in order of importance came his commentaries on almost 
all the books of Scripture. Here also he shows himself everywhere 
possessed of brilliant acuteness, religious geniality, profound Christian 
sympathy, and remarkable exegetical talent, but also a stickler for small 
points or seriously fettered by dogmatic prejudices. His exegetical pro- 
ductions want the warmth and childlike identification of the commen- 
tator with his text, which in so high a degree distinguishes Luther, while 
in form they are incomparably superior for conciseness and scientific 
precision. In the pulpit Calvin was the same strict and consistent logi- 
cian as in his systematic and polemical works. Of Luther's popular 
eloquence he had not tbe slightest trace. ^ 

6. Calvin's Doctrine. — Calvin set Zwingli far below Luther, and had no 
hesitation in characterizing the Zwiiiglian doctrine of the sacrameuts as 
profane. With Luther, who highly respected him, he never came into 
olose personal contact, but his intercourse with Melancbthon had a 
powerful influence upon the latter. But decidedly as he approached 
Luther's doctrine, he was in principle rather on the same platform with 
Zwingli. His view of the Protestant principles is essentially Zwinglian. 
Just as decidedly as Zwiugli had he broken with ecclesiastical tradition. 
In the doctrine of the person of Christ he inclined to Nestorianism, aud 
could not therefore reach the same believing fulness as Luther in his 

^ ** English Translation of Calvin's Works,*' by Calvin Transition 
Society, in 52 vols. Edinburgh, 1842-1853. For a more sympathetic 
and true estimate of Calvin as m commentator, see Farrar, ** History 
of Interpretations." London, lb86. Also papers by Farrar on th$ 
** lieformers as Commentators,** in Expotitor, Second Series. 

VOL. IL «^ 


doctrine of tlie Lord's Supper. He tanght, as Bcrengar before had done, 
that the boli(>vcr by means of faith partakes in the sacrament on'y 
Bi>iritually, but vet rtally, of the body and blood <»f the Lord, through a 
power issuing from the glorified body of Christ, whereas the nubeliever 
re'cives only bread and wine. In his doctrine of justification he forma'ly 
aj^reCH with Luther, but introduced a very marked difference by hi« strict, 
almost Old Testament, legalism. His predestination doctrine goes 
beyond even that of Augustine in its rigid consistency and unbending 
severity » 

7. Thd Victory of Calvinism over Zvringlianism. — By his extendri 
correspondence and numerous writings Calvin's influence extended far 
beyond the limits of Switzerland. Geneva became the place of refuge 
for all who were exiled on account of their faith, and the univer^tity 
founded there by Calvin furnished almost all Reformed churches with 
teachers, who were moulded after a strict Calviuistic pattern. Bern, 
not unintluenccd by political jealousiei*, showed most reluctance in 
ad(>pting the Calvinistio doctrine. Zürich was more compliant. After 
Zwingli's death, Henry Bullmger stood at the head of the Zürich clergy. 
With him Calvin entered into d)ctrinnl negotiation««, and succeeded in 
at last bringing him over to his views of the Lord's Supper. Li the 
CotiiienKtis Tujnriutti of A.D. 1549, drawn up by Calvin, a union was 
broiigLt about tm a Calvinistic basis,; but B'rn, where the Zwinglians 
contending with the Lutbcranised friends of Calvin had the majority, 
refused subscription. The CongfnsuM pantorum Genecensiumf of ljd, 
15-'4, called forth by the conflict with Bolsec, in which the predestination 
doctrine of Calvin liad similar prominence, not only Bern, but also 
Ziiricli refused to accept. Yet these two confessions gradually rose in 
repute throughout German Switzerland. Even Bnllinger's personal 
objection to tbe predestination doctrine was more ami more overcon>e A.I). loöO by the inlluence of his colleague Peter Martyi- (§ 130, 
24), though he never accepted the Calvinistic system in all its severity 
nn<l harshness. When even the Elector-palatine Frederick III. (§ 14 i, 
1) wi<}ied to lay a justificatory confession before the Diet of Augsburg in 
A p l.'CO, which threatened to exclude him from the peace on acotmnt 
of liis griiv^ over to the Keft)rmed church, Bullinger, who was entrusted 
wicl» its c »ruposition, sent him, as an appendix to the testament ho had 
»•, a «M'lift ssion, whicli caine to bo known as the Co>ffcs»in Helve' 
ti(i fc.^irrinr ("^ 1I>3, 8). This coiifes- ion, not only obtained recognition 
iii all the Swiss cantons, with the excej)tion of Basel, whirh likewise 
aft jr eighty years adojited it, but also gained groat consideration in the 

» See Dorner, "Histoiy of Protestant Tbeologj*," vol. i., pp. 381-414, 
for a much truer outline of Calvin's doc^j*iije from another Lutheran 


Reformed ohnrohes of other lands. Its doctrine of the saoraments is 
Calvinistio, with not unimportant leanings toward the Zwinglian theory. 
Its doctrine of predestination is Calvinism, yery considerably modified. 

8. CalTin*s Snccessor in Oeneya.— Theodore Besa was from a.d. 1559 
Calvin's most zealons fellow labonrer, and after his death snccecded liim 
in his offices. He soon came to be regarded at home and abroad with 
something of the same reverence which his great master had won. Ha 
died in a.D. 1605. Bom in 1.0. 1519 of an old noble family at Vezelay 
in Burgundy, he was sent for his education in his ninth year to the 
humanist Melchior Wolmar of Orleans, and accompanied his teacher when 
he accepted a call to the Academy of Bourges, until in a.x>. 1534 Wol- 
mar was obliged to return to his Swabian home to escape persecution aa 
a friend and promoter of the Beformation. Beza now applied himself to 
the study of law at the university of Orleans, and obtained the rank of a 
licentiate in a.d. 1539. He then spent several years in Paris as a man of 
the world, where he gained the reputation of a poet and wit, and wasted 
a considerable patrimony in a loose and reckless life. A secret marriage 
with a young woman of the city in humble circumstances, in a.d. 1544, 
put an end to his extravagances, and a serious illness gave a religioui 
direction to his moral change. He had made the acquaintance of Calvin 
at Bourges, and in a.d. 1548 he went to Geneva, was publicly married, 
and in the following year received, on Viret's recommendation, the pro- 
fessorship of Greek at Lausanne. Thoroughly in sympathy with all 
Calvin's views, he supported his doctrine of predestination against the 
attacks of Bolsec, justified the execution of Servetus in his tract De 
hareticii a civili niagiitratu pwuendiM^ zealously befriended the per- 
secuted Waldensians, along with Farel made court to the German Pro- 
testant princes in order to secure their intercession for the French 
Huguenots, and negotiated with the South German theologians for a 
union in regard to the doctrine of the supper. In a.D. 1558 Calvin 
called him to Geneva as a preacher and professor of theology in the 
academy erected there. In a.D. 1559 he vindicated Calvin's doctrine 
of the supper against WestpbaPs attacks ({ 141, 10) in pretty moderate 
lanipiage ; but in a.d. 1560 he thundered forth two violent polemical 
dialogues against Hesshus ({ 144, 1). The next two years he spent 
in France (§ 139, 14) as theological defender and advocate of the 
Huguenots. After Calvin's death the whole burden of the government 
of the Genevan church fell upon his shonlderA, aud for forty years the 
Bcformed churches of all lands looked with confidence to him as their 
well-tried patriarch. Next to the church of Geneva, that of his native 
laud lay nearest to his heart. Bepcatedly we find him called to France 
to direct the meetings of synod. But scarcely less lively was the interest 
which he took in the oontroverFies of the German Befornied with their 
Lutheran opponents. At the Keligious Conference of Mönii)clgHrd, wk ich 


the Latheran Coant Frederick of Wflrttembeig called in kJK 1586, to 
make terms if poRsible whereby the Calvinistio refageee might have tha 
commnnion together with their Latheran brethren, Beza himBelf in 
person took the field in defence of the palladium of GalFinistic orthodoxy 
againht Andrea, whose theory of nbiquity ({ 141, 9, 10) he had already 
contented in his writings. Very near the close of his life the Catholic 
Church, through its experienced converter of heretics, Francis de Sales 
(§ 15C, 1), made a vain attempt to win him back to the Church in which 
alone is salvation. To a foolish report that this effort had been socoessf nl 
Beza himself answered in a satirical poem full of all his yoathiul fir».^ 

§ 139. Tub Hefobmation in Otheb Lands. 

The need of reform was so groat and widespread, that the 
movement begun in Germany and Switzerland soon spread 
to every country in Europe. The Catholic Church opposed 
the Reformation everywhere with fire and sword, and suc- 
ecodod in some countries in utterly suppressing it; while 
in others it was restricted within the limits of a merely 
tolerated sect. The German Lutheran Confession found 
acceptance generally among the Scandinavians of the north 
of Europe, the Swiss Reformed among the Romanic races of 
the south and west ; while in the east, among the Slavs and 
Magyars, both confessions were received. Calvin's power- 
ful personal influence had done much to drive the Latheran 
Confession out of those Romance countries where it had 
before obtained a footing. The presence of many refugees 
from the various western lands for a time in Switzerlakid| 
as well as the natural intercourse between it and such coan- 
tries as Italy and France, contributed ta the same resiilt. 
But deeper grounds than these are required to account for 
this fact. On the one hand, the Romance people are inclined 
to extremes, and they found more thorough satisfaction in 
the radical reformation of Geneva than in the more moderate 
reformation of Wittenberg ; and, on the other hand, they 

1 Cunningham, '* Reformers and Theol«^gy of the Beformation,** Essay 
vii., " Calvin and Beza," pp. 345-412. Edin., 1862. 


have a love for democratic and repablican forms of govern- 
mont which the former, but not the latter, gratified. — 
Outside of the limits of the Grerman empire the Lutheran 
Reformation first took root, from A.D. 1525, in Prussia, the 
seat of the Teutonic Knights (§ 127, 3); then in the 
Scandinavian countries. In Sweden it gained ascendency 
in A.D. 1527, and in Denmark and Norway in A.D. 1537. 
Also in the Baltic Provinces the Beformation had found 
entrance in A.D. 1520; by a.D. 1539 it had overcome all 
opposition in Livonia and Esthonia, but in Courland it took 
other ten years before it was thoroughly organised. The 
Reformed church got almost exclusive possession of England 
in A.D. 15C2, of Scotland in A.D. 1560, and of the Netherlands 
in AJ). 1579. The Reformed Confession obtained mere tolera- 
tion in France in A.D. 1598 ; the Reformed alongside of the 
Lutheran gained a footing in Poland in aj>. 1573, in Bohemia 
and Moravia in AJ>. 1609, in Hungary in A.D. 1606, and in 
Transylvania in A.D. 1557. Only in Spain and Italy did the 
Catholic Church succeed in utterly crushing the Reformation. 
Some attempts to interest the Greek church in the Lutheran 
Confession were unsuccessful, but the remnants of the Wald- 
ensians were completely won over to the Reformed Confession« 

1. Sweden. — ^For fifty yean Sweden had been free from the Danish 
yoke which bad been imposed upon it by the Calmar nnion of aj>. 1897. 
The higher clergy, who poseessed two*thirdi of the bind, had oontinaonaly 
oonftpired in favour of Denmark. The Archbishop of Upsala, Gastams 
TroUe, fell oat with the chancellory Sten Stare, and was deposed. Pope 
Leo X. pronounced the ban and interdict against Sweden. Christian IL 
of Denmark conquered the country in a.d. 1520, and in the frightful 
massacre of Stockholm during the coronation festivities, in spite of his 
sworn assurances, 600 of the noblest in the land, marked out by the aroh- 
bishop as enemies of Denmark, were slain. But scarcely had Christian 
reached home when Oustavus Yasa landed from Lübeck, whither he had 
fled, drove out the Danes, and was elected king, a.D. 1523. In his exile 
he had become favourably inclined to the Beformation, and now he joined 
the Protestants to have their help against the opposing clergy. Olaf 
PetersoB, who had sUidied from a.i>. 1516 in Wittenberg, soon aft« bis 


retam boroe, in a.D. 1519. began as deacon in Strengnss, along witii 
Lawrence Anderson, afterwards administrator of tbe diocese of Strengnes, 
to spread tho reformed doctriues. Subsequently tboy were joined by Olafs 
younger brotlier, Laurence Peterson. During tbe king's absence in ajd., 
1524, two Anabaptists visited Stockholm, and even tbe calin-miDded Olaf 
was for a time carried away by them. Tbe king qniokly suppresi^ed the 
disturbances, and entered heartily upon the work of reformation. Ander- 
son, appointed cbauoellor by Yasa, in a.d. 1526 translated tbe N.T., and 
Olaf with tbe help of bis learned brother undertook the O.T. The people, 
however, still clung to tbe old faitb, till at the Diet of WestnKS, in ▲.Db 
1527, the king set before them the alternative of accepting bis resigna- 
tion or the Reformation. The people's love for their king overcame 
all clerical opposition. Church property was used to snpply revenues 
to kings and nobles, and to provide salaries for pastors who should 
preach the gospel in its purity. The Reformation was peacefully intro- 
duced into all parts of the land, and tbe diets at Orebro, in aj>. 1529t 
1537, and at WostnsQS, in aj>. 15-14, carried out tbe work to completion. 
Tbe new organization adopted the episcopal constitution, and also in 
worship, by connivance of the people, many Catholic ceremonies were 
allowed to remain. Most of the bishops accepted tbe inevitable. The 
Archbishop Magnus of Upsala, papal legate, went to Poland, and Bishop 
Brask of LinkOping fled with all the treasures of bis church to Danzig. 
Laurence Peterson was made in a.D. 1531 first evangelical Archbishop 
of Upsala, and married a relative of the royal house. But his brother 
Olaf fell into disfavour on account of his protest against the king's 
real or supposed acts of rapacity. He and Anderson, because they bad 
failed to report a conspiracy which came to their knowledge in the con- 
fessional, were condemned to death, but were pardoned by tbe king. 
Oustavus died in a.D. 15G0. Under his son Eric a Catholic reaction set 
in, and his brother John III., in a.d. 1578, made secret confession of 
Catholicism to the Jesuit Possevin, urged thereto by bis Catholic queen 
and the prospect of the Polish throne. John's son Sigismund, also king 
of Poland, openly joined the Romish Church. But his uncle Charles of 
Sodermanland, a zealous Protestant, as governor after John's death, 
called together the nobles at Up^-^ala in ad. 1593, when the Latin mass- 
book introduced by John wad forbidden, and tbe acknowledgment of 
the Augsburg Confession was renewed. But as Sigismund contiuued to 
favour Catholicism, the jieers of the realm declared, in a.d. 1601, that be 
had forfeited the throne, which his uncle now ascended as Charles IX.— 
The Reformation hod been already carried from Sweden into Finland.^ 

> Butler, " The Reformation in Sweden, its Rise, Progress, and Crisis, 
and its Triumph under Charles IX." New York, 1883. Geijer, ** History 
of the Swedes," trans, from tbe Swedish by Turner. Lond., 1847. 


2. Denmark and Korwaj. — Chrittlaii n., nephew of the Eleotor of 
Saxony and brotber-inlaw of the Emperor Charles V., although he had 
associated himself with the Bomish hierarchy in Sweden for the OTer- 
throw of the national party, had in Denmark taken the side of the 
Beformation against the clergy» who were there snpreme. In a.d. 1521 he 
sncceeded in getting Carlstadt to oome to his assistance, bat he was soon 
forced to qnit the oonntry. In a.i>. 1523 the clergy and nobles formally 
renounced their allegiance, and gave the crown to his nncle Frederick L, 
Doke of Schleswig and Holstein. Christian fled to Saxony, was there 
completely won over to the Beformation by Luther, converted also his 
wife, the emperor's sister, and had the first Danish N.T., by Hana 
Michelson, printed at Leipzig and circulated in Denmark. To secure the 
emperor*s aid, however, he abjured the evangelical faith at Augsburg in 
▲.D. 1530. In the following year he conquered Norway, and bound him- 
self on his coronation to maintain the Catholic religion. But in a.x>. 
1532 he was obliged to surrender to Frederick, and spent the remaining 
twenty-seven years of his life in prison, where he repented his apostasy, 
and had the opportunity of instructing himself by the study of the Dauish 
Bible.— Frederick L had been previously favourable to the Beformation, 
yet his hands were bound by the express terms of his election. His son 
Christian III. unreservedly introduced the Beformation into his duchies. 
In this he was enooaraged by his f athen In ▲.!>. 1526 he openly professed 
the evaugelical faith, and invited the Danish reformer Hans Tausen, a dis- 
ciple of Luther, who had preached the gospel amid much persecution since 
▲.D. 1524, to settle as preacher in Copenhagen. At a diet at Odensee in 
▲.D. 1527 he restricted episcopal jurisdiction, proclaimed universal religious 
toleration, gave priests liberty to marry and to leave their cloisters, and 
thus laid the foundations of the Beformation. Tausen in ▲.!>. 1530 sub- 
mitted to the nobles his own confession, Confet$io Haßnea, aud the 
Beformation rapidly advanced. Frederick died in a.D. 1533. The bishops 
now rose in a body, and insisted that the estates should refuse to 
acknowledge his son Christian III. But when the burgomaster of Lübeck» 
taking advantage of the anarchy, plotted to subject Denmark to the 
proud commercial city, and in ld. 1534 actually laid siege to Copen* 
hagen, the Jutland nobles hastened to swear fealty to Christian. He 
drove out the Lübeckers, and by ld. 1536 had possession of the whole 
land. He resolved now to put an end for ever to the machinations of the 
clergy. In August, A.D. 1536, he had all bishops imprisoned in one day, 
and at a diet at Copenbagun had them formally deposed. Their pro- 
perty fell into the royal exchequer, all monasteries were leculorized, 
some presented to the nobles, some converted into hospitals and sohooli. 
In order to complete the organization of the church Bugenhagen was 
called in in aj>. 1537. He crowed tbe king and queen, sketched a direc- 
toiy of worship, which was adopted at the Diet of 04ensM in aj). 1539, 


and returned to Wittenberg in a.d. 1543. In pltfCe of bishops Latherui 
pnperintendents were a])pointed» to whom snbBequently tho titlo of 
biähop was given, and the Augsbarg Confession aooepted as the Standard. 
Tbe Reformation was contemporaneously introduced into Vorwaj, which 
acknowledged the king in ad. 1536. The Archbishop of Drontheim, 
Olaf Engelbrechtzen, fled with the church treasures to the Netherlands. 
Iceland stood out longer, but yielded in ▲.n. 1551, when the power of tha 
rebel bishops was broken.^ 

3. Coorland. Lifonia, and Esthonia. — ^Liyonia had seceded from the 
dominion of the Teutonic knights in a.D. 1521, and under the grand- 
master Walter of Plattenburg assumed the position of an independent 
principality. In that same year a Lutheran archdeacon, Andr. Ki.6pken, 
expelled from Pomerania, came to Riga, and preached tbe goepel wiüi 
moderation. Soon after Tegetmaier came from Rostock, and so yigorously 
denounced image worship that excited mobs entered the churches and 
tore down tbe images; yet he was protected by the council and the 
grand-master. The third reformer Briesmaan was the immediate scholar 
of Luther. The able town clerk of Riga, Lohmüller, heartily wronglit 
with them, and the Reformation spread through city and country. At 
Wolmar and Dorpat, in a.d. 1524, the work was carried on by Melchior 
Hofifmann, whose Lutheranism was seriously tinged with Anabaptist 
extravagances (§ 147, 1). Tbe diocese of Oesel adopted the reformed 
doctrines, and at the same time a Lutheran church was formed in 
Reval. After strong opposition had been offered, at last, in a.x>. 1538, 
Riga accepted the evangelical confession, joined the Schmalcald League, 
and iu a short time all Livonia and Esthonia accepted the Augsburg 
Conression. Political troubles, occasioned mainly by Ruasia, obliged tbe 
last grandmaster. Settler, in a.d^ 1561 to surrender Livonia to Sigismund 
Augustas of Poland, but with the formal assurance that the rights of 
tbe evangelicals should be preserved. He himself retained Coorland aa 
an hereditary duchy under the suzerainty of Poland, and gave himself 
unweariedly to the evangelical organization of his country, powerfoUy 
assisted by Biilau, first superintendent of Gourland. — The Lutheran 
church of liivonia had in consequence to pass through severe trials. 
Under Poliöh protection a Jesuit college was established in Riga in a.D. 
1584. Two city churches had to be given over to the Catholics, and 
PoFsevin conducted an active Catholic propaganda, which was ended oiOj 
when Livonia, in a.D. 1629, as also Esthonia somewhat earlier, came 
under the rule of Sweden. In consequence of the Norse war both coun- 
tries were incorporated into the Russian empire, and by the Peace of 
Nystadt, of A.D. 1721, its Lutheran church retained all its privileges, on 

^ Pontoppidan, ** Annales eed^. Dan ," ii., iii. Han., 1741. Banke» 
** History of the Reformation," tuL >ü 


condition that it did not interfere in anj way with the Greek Orthodox 
Church in the province. In a.d. 1795 Coarland also came under Knssian 
Bwajf and all these are now known as the Baltic Provinces. 

4. England. i-> Henry VIIL, a.d. 1509-1547, after the literary fend with 
Luther (§ 125, 3), sought to justify his title, " Defender of the Faith,*' 
by the use of sword and gibbet. Luther's writings were eagerly read in 
England, where in many circles Wiolifs movements were regarded with 
favour, and two noble Englishmen, John Fryth and William Tyndal, 
gave to their native laud a translation of the N.T. in a.D. 1526. Fryth 
was rewarded with the stake in a.D. 1538, and Tyndal was beheaded in 
the Netherlands in a.d. 1535.' But meanwhile the king quarrelled with 
the pope. On assuming the government he had married Catharine of 
Arragon, daughter of Ferdinand the Catholic and Isabella, six years older 
than himself, the widow of his brother Arthur, who had died in his 16th 
year, for which he got a papal dispensation on the ground that the former 
marriage had not been consummated. His adulterous love for Anne 
Bolejrn, the fair maid of honour to his queen, and Cranmer*s biblical 
opinion (Lev. xviii. 16, xx. 21) convinced him in A.D. 1527 of the sinful- 
ness of his unoanonical marriage. Clement VII., at first not inJisposed 
to grant his request for a divorce, refused after he had been reconciled 
to the emperor, Catharine's nephew (§ 132, 2). Thoroughly roused, 
the king now tbrew off the authority of the pope. Convocation waa 
forced to recognise him in a.d. 1531 as head of the English Church, 
and in 1532 Parliament forbade the paying of annats to the pope. In 
the same year Henry married Anne, and bad a formal divorce from 
Catharine granted by a spiritual court. Parliament in a.d. 1534 formally 
Abolished papal jurisdiction in the land, and transferred all ecclesiastical 
rights and revenues to the king. The venerable Bishop Fisher of 
Bochester and tbe resolute chancellor, Sir Thomas More (§ 120, 7), in 
kJ>. 1535 paid the price of their opposition on the scaffold. Now come 

^ The chief documentary authorities for the whole period are the State 
Papers edited by Brewer and others, i^ee also Froude, ** History of 
England from Fall of Wolsey till Death of Elizabeth." 12 vols. Lond., 
1856-1869. Burnet, •* History of Beformation of Church of England.** 
2 vols. Loud., 1679. Blunt, ** Reformation of the Church of England," 
4th ed. Lond., 1878. Strype, '* Ecclesiastical Memorials.*' 3 vols« 
Loud., 1721. ** Annals of the Reformation." 4 vols. 1709-1731. Foxe, 
** AcU and Monuments " (pub. a.D. 1563). 8 vols. Loud., 1837-1841. 

2 Demaus, "Life of William Tyndal." London. 1868. Fry, "A 
Bibliographical Description of the Editions of the N.T., Tyndale's Ver- 
sion in English, eta , the notes in full of the Edition of 1534." London» 
1878. ** Facsimile Edition of Tyndale's first printei N.T." Edited b/ 
Arber. London, 1871. 


the lor.f; threatened han. under pretext of a highlj neoeisary leform 

no less than 376 monasteries were closed dnring the years 1536*1538* 
their occupiers, monks and nuns, expelled, and their rich property eon- 
fi8cau^.* NevertheleHs in doctrine the king wished to rem.iiu a good 
Catholic, and for this end pasi>ed in the Parliament of a-d. I53il the law 
of the Six Articles, whieh made any contradiction of the doctrines of 
traiisubstantiution. the withholding of the cap, oelihaoy of the elei^, 
the maKs, and auricular confession, a oaifi<«l offence. Persecntion ragt^d 
equally against Lutherans and Papists, sometimes more against the one, 
sometimes more against the other, according as he was moved by his own 
capiicc, or the influence of his wives and favonrites of the day. On the the head of thePapists, stood Gardiner, BLthopof Winchester, 
and Bonner, Bishop of London ; and on the other, Thomas Granmer, 
whom the king had raised in a.d. 1533 to the see of Canterbory, in order 
to carry out his reforms in the ecclusiastieal Constitution. But Cranmer, 
who as the kin;;*s agont in the divorce ndgotiations had often treated 
with foreign Protestant theologians, and at Nuremberg had leoretly 
niurrlt'd Osiander's niooe, was in heurt a zealous adherent of tlie Swiss 
Boforiuaiiun, and furlhtred as far as he could with safety its intriidue- 
tion into England. Among other things, he secure! the introduction in 
A.D. 15 «9, into all the churches of England, of an English translation of 
the Biblo, revised by himself. He was supported in his efforts by the 
king's gl c »nil wife, Anne Boleyn ; but she, having fallen under suspicion 
of unfaithfulness, was executed in a.d. 1536. The third wife, Jane 
Seyiniiur, died in A.D. 1Ö37 on the death of a son. The fourth, Anne 
of Cleves, was after six months, in a.D. 1540, cast aside, and the pro- 
moter of the marriage, the chancellor, Thomas Cromwell, was brought to 
the BcatTold. The king now in the same year married Catharine Howard, 
with whom the Catholic i>arty got to the helm again, and had the Act 
of the Six Articles rigorously enforced. But she, too, in a.i>. 1543, was 
charged with re])oaic.l adulteries, and fell, together with her friends and 
those roputfd as guilty with her, under the executioner's axe. The sixth 
wife, Catharine Parr, who again favoured the Protestants, escaped a liko 
fate by the Jcfitli of the tyrant.' 

5. Edward 71 , a.d. 1547-1553, son of Henry YIIL and Jane Seymour, 
luc'Cceded his fatlier in his tenth year. At the head of the regency stood 
hid mother's brother, the Duke of Somerset. Cranmer had now a free 

1 Gasquet. *' Henry YIII. and the English Monasteries.*' S Tola. 
London, iJ^BS. 

' Houk, ** Lives of Archb. of Canterbury," vols. ▼£., vii. r»Ayly, " Life 
and Death of Fisher, Bishop of Kochester.*' London, 10 J5. Dixon, 
•'History of Church of England.*' London, 1878. VoL L» " Heniy 
VllL*' Fronde, ** History of England." Tols. i.-iü. 


hand. Prirate masses and image worsbip were forbidden, the supper 
was administered in both kinds, marriage of priests was made legitimate, 
and a general church yisitation appointed for the introduction of the 
Beformation. Gardiuer and Bonner, who opposed tliese changes, were 
sent to the Tower. Somerset corresponded with Calvin, and invited at 
Cranmer*B request distinguished foreign theologians to help in the visita- 
tion of the ohurchcB. Martin Bucer and Paul Fagins from Strassburg 
eame to Cambridge, and Peter Martyr to Oxford.^ Bernardino Ochiuo 
was preacher to a congregation of Italian refugees in Loudon. A com- 
mission under Cranmer*s presidency drew up for reading in the churches 
a collection of Homiliet^ for the instruction of the young a Catechism^ 
and for the service a liturgy mediate between the Catholic and Protestant 
form, the so-called Book of Common Prayrr of a.D. 1549 ; but from the 
Becond e«Ution of which were left out chrism and exorcism, auricular 
confession, anointing the sick, and prayer for the dead. Then followed, 
in A.D. 1553, a confession of faith, consisting of forty-two articles, 
drawn up by Cranmer and Bishop Bidley of Bocliestcr, which was dis- 
tinctly of the reformed type, and set forward the esclesiastical supremacy 
of the king as an article of faith. The young king, who supported the 
Beformation with all his heart, died in A.D. 1553, after nominating as his 
successor Jane Grey, the grand-daughter of a sister of his father. Not 
she, however, but a fanatical Catholic, Mary, a.d. 1553-1558, daughter 
of Henry YIII. and Catharioe of Spain, actnally ascended the throne. 
The compliant Parliament now abrogated all the ecclesiastical laws of 
Edward VI., which it had itself sanctioned, reverted to Henry's law of 
the Six Articles, and entrusted Gardiner as chancellor with its execution. 
The Protestant leaders were thrown into the Tower, the bones of Bucer 
and Fagius were publicly burnt, married priests with wives and children 
were driven in thousands from the land. In the foUowiug year, A.D. 
1554, Cardinal Bpginald Pole, who had fied during Henry's reign, re- 
turned as papa! legate, absolved the repentant Parliament, and received 
all England back again into the fold of the Bomish church.' The noble 
and innocent Lady Jane Grey, only in her sixteenth year, though she 
had voluntarily and cheerfully resigned the crown, was put to death with 
her husband and father. In the course of the next year. a.D. 1555, 
Bishops llidley, Latimer, Forrar, and Hooper with noble constancy 
endured death at the stake.' In prison, Cranmer had renounced his 

> Heppe, " The Reformers of England and Germany in the Sixteenth 
Century ; their Intercourse and Correspondence." London, 185U. 

« Phillip, •» History of the Life of Beg. Pole." 2 vols. London, 1765. 
Hook, *' Lives oi Arehb. of Caut.," vol. viii. Lee, **Pkegiuald Pole, Car* 
dinal- Archbishop of Canterbury : an Historical Sketch." London, 188^ 

* Demaus, ** Life of Latimer." London, 1869. 


erangelical faith, but abnndftntlj atonad for tliii VMkneH 1^ Um bcrcie 
firmness with which he retracted his retractation, and held the hand 
which had «abscribod it in the flames, that it might be fint ^w>rwTnf* 
He saffered in a.d. 1556.— The qneen had married in 4^. 1554 Philip XL 
of Spain, eleren years her junior, and when in aj». 1565 he retamed to 
Spain, she fell into deep melancholy, and vnder itt preeanre her hatred 
of Protestantism was shown in the most bloody and omel deeds. ▲ 
heretic tribunal, after the fashion of the Spanish Inquisition, waa created, 
which under the presidency of the " Bloody Bonner,*' oonmgnad to the 
flames crowds of confessors of the gospel, clergymen and laymsn, men 
and women, old and young. After the persecution had raged lor five 
} earfi, ** Bloody Mary " died of heart-break and dropsy.> 

6. Elizabeth, a.d. 155d-160S, the daughter of Anne Bol^yn. ihou^ 
previously brancled by the Parliament as a bastard, now aseended the 
throne unopposed as the last living member of the family of Henry VIIL 
Educated under the supervision of Cranmer in the Protestant faith of 
her mother, she had been obliged during the reign of her sister oatwardily 
to conform to the Bomish church. She proceeded with great pnidenoe 
and moderation; but when Paul IV. pronounced her illegitimate, and 
the Scottish princess Mary Stuart, grand-daughter of Henry's sister, as- 
sumed the title of queen of England, Elizabeth more heartily espoused 
the cause of Protestantism. In a.D. 1559 the Parliament passed the Act 
of Uniformity, which reasserted the royal supremacy oTer the national 
church, prescribed a revision of the Book of Commum Prm^er^ which set 
aside the prayer for deliverance from the ** detestable enormities *' of 
the papacy, etc. , and practically reproduced the earlier, lesa perfect of 
the Prayer Books of Edward VI., while every perversion to papacy wai 
threatened with confiscation of goods, imprisonment, banishment, and 
in caLes of repetition with death, as an act of treason. At the head of 
the clergy was Matthew Parker, oonsecrated Archbishop of Canterbniy 
by some bishops exiled under Mary. He had formerly been ^«>^p'*'" 
to Anne Boleyn. Under his direction Cranmer's forty-two articles were 
reduced to thirty-nine, giving a type of doctrine midway between Lather- 
anism and Calvinism; these were confirmed by convocation in A.n. 
1562, and were adopted as a fundamental statute of England hj Act of 
Parliament in a.d. 1571. This brings to a close the first stage in Uta 
history of the English Beformation,— the setting np by law of the 
Anglican State Church with episcopal constitution, with apostolical sno- 

> Hayward, ** Life of Edward VI." London, 1630. Hook, '«Lives of 
Archb. of Cant.,'* vols. vii. and viii. Fronde, ** History of Eng.," Tols. 
iv. and v. Strype, " Life of Cranmer." London, 1694. Norton, " Lifl 
of Archb. Cranmer.'* New York, 1863. Foxe, *' Acts and Monnmenta.' 
Maitland, ** Essays on the Befonnaiion in EngUmd." London, 1840. 


OMsion, voder rojal sopremaey, as the Estobliehed Chnroh.* (For the 
Puritan opposition to it see § 143, 3.) The somewhat indalgent manner 
in whieh tbe Act of Uniformity was at first enforced agaiust the Catho- 
lics encouraged them more uid more in attempts to secure a restoration. 
Even in a.D. 1568 William Allen founded at Douay a seminary to train 
Catholic Englishmen for a mission at home, and Gregory XIII. some 
years later, for a similar purpose, founded in Borne the "English College.** 
His predecessor, Pius V., had in a.D. 1570 deposed and issued the ban 
against the queen, and threatened all with the greater excommunication 
who should yield her obedience. Parliament now punished every with- 
drawal from the State church as high treason. Day and night houses 
were searched, and suspected persons inquisitorially examined by torture, 
and if found guilty they were not infrequently put to death as traitors.' 
^Continuation, §§ 153, 6 ; 154, 3. 

7. Ireland. — Hadrian IV., himself an Englishman (§ 96, 14), on the 
plf'a that the donation of Constautine (§ 87, 4) embraced aläo the 
'* islands," gave over Ireland to King Henry II. as a papal fief in a.D. 
1154. Yet tbe king only managed to conquer the eastern border, the 
Pale, during the years 1171-1175. Henry VIII. introduced the Keforma- 
tion into this province in a.D. 1535, by the help of his Archbishop of 
Dublin, George Brown. The ecclesiastical supremacy of the Crown was 
proclaimed, monasteries dosed and their property impropriated, partly 
divided among Irish and English peers. But in matters of faith there 
was little change. More opposition was ab own to the sweeping reforma- 
tion of faith and worship of Edward VI. The bishops, Brown included, 
resisted, and the inferior clergy, who now were required to r( ad the Book 
of Conunon Prayer in a language to most of them strange, diligently 
fostered the popular attachment to the old faith. The ascension of 
Queen Mary therefore was welcomed in Ireland, while Elizabeth's 
attempt to reintroduce the Beformation met with opposition. Bepeated 
outbreaks, in which also the people of the western districts took part, 
enJed in a.d. ICOl in the complete subjugation of tbe wbole is'and. By 
wholesale confiscation of estates the entire nobility was impoverished 
and the church property was made over to the Anglican clergy ; but 
the masses of the Irish people continued Catholic, and willingly sup- 

' Procter, " History of Book of Common Prayer.** Cambr., 1855. 
Hole. " Tbe Prayer Book.** London, 1887. Hardwick, "History of the 
Articles of Beligion.** Cambr , 1851. Stephenson, " Book of Common 
Prayer,*' 8 vols. London, lb54. Burnet, ** Exposition of the Thirty- 
Nine Articles." London, 1699. Browne, ** Exposition of Thirty-Nine 
Articles.'* London, 1858. 

3 Froude, ** History of England,** toU. ▼i.-xii. Hook, ** Lives of 
Aruhb. of Cant.,*' vol. ix. 


ported ibeir priests oat of their own teantj nioiirees.i — Ooatiniimüon« 
S 153, 6. 

8. Scotland.— Patrick Hamilton, who had studied in Wittenberg and 
Marburg, fir^t preached the gospel in Scotland, and died at the stake in 
his twenty- foarth year in a.D. 1528.' Amid the political eonfnsions of 
the regency during the minority of James V., kJ>. 1513-1543, a sister's 
son of Uenry Vlll. of England, the Beformation obtained firm root 
among the nobles, who hated the clergy, and among the oppressed people, 
notwithstandiog that the bishops, with David Beaton, Aiehbishop of St. 
Andrew's at their head, songht to omsh it by the most Tiolent perse- 
cution. When Henry VIII. called on his nephew to assist him in his 
Beformation work, James refused, and yielding to Beaton's adyice formed 
an alliance with France and married Mary of Goise. This occasioned 
a war in a.d. 1540, the disastrous issue of which led to the king's death 
of a broken heart. According to the king's will Beaton was to under- 
take the regency, for Mary Stuart was only seyen days old. But the 
nobles transferred it to the Protestant Earl of Arran, who imiirisoned 
Beaton and had the royal child affianced to Henry's son Edward. Beaton 
escaped, by connivance of the queen-mother got possession of the child, 
and com2)elled the weak regent, in a-d. 1543, to abjure the English 
alliance. Ihe persecution of the Protestants by fire and sword now 
began afresh. After many others had fallen victims to bis persecuting 
rage, Beaton had a famous Protestant preacher, George Wishart, bnmt 
before his eyes ; but was soon after, in a.D. 1546, surprised in his eastle 
and slain. When in a.d. 1548 Somerset, the English regent after 
Henry's death, sought to renew negotiations about the marriage of 
Mary, now five years old, with Edward VI., her mother had her taken 
for safety to France, where she was eduoated in a convent and affianoed 
to the danphiu, afterwards Francis 11. By hypocritical acts she con- 
trived to have the regency transferred in a.d. 1554 from Arran to herself. 
For two years the Beformation progressed without much opposition. In 
December, a.d. 1557, its most devoted promo* ers made a ** eoTenant," 
pledging themselves in life and death to advance the word of God and np- 
root the idolatry of the Bomish church. The queen-regent, however, after 
the marriage of her daughter with the dauphin in a.D. 1558. felt herself 
strong enough to defy the Protestant nobles. The old strict laws against 
heretics were renewed, and a tribunal established for the punishment of 
apostatizing priests. The last victim of the persecution was Walter Mill, 

1 Killen, *' Ecclesiastical History of Ireland from Earliest to Present 
Times." 2 vols. Lond., 1875. Mant, '* Hist, of Church of Irehmd from 
Be:ormation." London, 1839. Ball, *' Hist, of the Church of Ireland." 

3 Lorinier, ** Patrick Hamilton, First Preacher and Martyr of th« 
Scottish Beformation." Edinburghi 1857. 


% priest eighty-two yean old, who died at the stake at Perth (?) in a.D. 
1559 J The country now rose in open revolt. The regent was thus 
obliged to make proclamation of universal religious tolnration. Bat 
instead of keeping her promise to have all B'renoh troops withdrawn, 
their number was actually increased after Francis II. ascended the 
French throne. Elizabeth, too, was indignant at the assumption by the 
French king and queen of the English royal title, so that she aided the 
insurgents with an army and a fleet. During the victorious progress of 
the English the regent died, in a.d. 1560. The French were obliged to 
withdraw, and the victory of the Scotch Protestants was decisive. 

9. There was one man, whose unbending opposition to the eonstitn* 
tion, worship, doctrine, and discipline of the Church of Bome, manifested 
with a rigid determination that has scarcely ever been equalled, left its 
indelible impress upon the Scottish Beformation. John Knox, bom in 
A.D. 1505, was by the study of Aagustine and the Bible led to adopt 
evangelical views, which in A.D. 1542 he preached in the south of 
Scotland. Persecuted in consequence by Archbinhop Beaton, he joined 
the conspirators after that prelate's assassination, in a.D. 1546, was taken 
prisoner, and in a.d. 1547 served as slave in the French galleys. The ill 
treatment he thus endured developed his naturally strong and resolute 
character and that fearlessness which so characterized all his subsequent 
life. By English mediation he was set free in a.D. 1549, and became in 
A.D. 1551 chaplain to Edward YI., but took offence at the popish leaven 
allowed to remain in the English Beformation, and consequently declined 
an offered bishopric. When the Catholic Mary ascended the tlirone 
in A.D. 1553, he fled to Geneva, where he enjoyed the closest intimacy 
with Calvin, whose doctrine of predestination, rigid presbyteriani^tm, and 
rigorous discipline he thoroughly approved. After presiding for some 
time over a congregation of English refugees at Frankfort-on-the-Maine, 
he returned in a.D. 1555 to Scotland, but in the following year accepted 
a call to the church of English refugees at Geneva that had meanwhile 
been formed. The Scottish bishops, who had not ventured to touch him 
while present, condemned him to death after his departure, and bnrned 
him in effigj. But Knox kept np a lively correspondence with his native 
land by letters, proclamations, and controversial tracts, and with the help 
of several friends translated the Scriptures into English. In a.d. 1558 he 
published with the title, ** The First Blast of the Trumpet against the 
Monstrous Begiment of Women," the most violent of all his contro- 

1 It was certainly at St. Andrew's that the execution took place. The 
best and fulicät account of Walter Mill is given by Mr. Scott, of Arhroath, 
in his " Martyrs of Angus and Mearns." liondon, 1885, pp. 210-271. For 
George Wibhart, see same book, pp. 99-209 ; and Bogors, ** Life of George 
Wishart*' Edinburgh, 1876. . 


Terslal works, directed mftinly against the English Qneen Muy, who 
now dead. It roused against him the nneonqnerable dislike of her sne- 
cei>8or, and increased the hatred of the other two Maries against him to 
the ntmost pitch. Yet he accepted the call of the Protestant lorda, i^^ 
returned next year to Scotland, and was the heart and sonl of the revo- 
lution that soon thereafter broke out. Images and mass-books were 
bnmt, altars in churches broken in pieces, and 150 monasteries were 
destroyed ; for said Knox, ** If the nests be polled down, the orows will 
not come back." After the death of the regent in a.d. 15C0, the Par- 
liament proclaimed the abolition of the pai)aoy, ratified the strictly 
Calvinistic Confestio Scotica^ and forbade celebrating the mass on pain of 
death. Then in Dc>cember, the first General Attembly prescribed, in the 
''First Book of Discipline," a strictly presbyterial constitution under 
Christ as only head, with a rigidly puritan order of worship ({ 163, 8). 

10. In Aug., AD. 1561, Queen Mary Stuart, highly cultured and high* 
Fpirited, returned from France to Scotland, a young widow in her 19th 
year. Brought up in a French convent in fanatical attachment to the 
Konush Church, and at the French court, with absolutist ideas as well as 
easy- going morals, the severe Calviuism and moral strictness of Scottish 
Puritanism were to her as distasteful as its assertion of political inde- 
pt'ndence. At the instigation of her half-brother James Staart, whom 
site raised to the earldom of Moray, and who was head of the ministry 
as one of the lead( rs of the rcform*'d party, she promised on her arrival 
not to interfere with the eccFcsiastical arrangemeuts of the country, bat 
refused to give royal sanction to the proceedings of A.D. 1560, held 
Catholic service in her court chapel and on all hands favoured the 
KoniaTiists. By her marriage, in a.D. 1565, with the young Gatholie 
Lord Darnley, grandson by a second marriage of her grandmother KIar> 
garet of England, who now assumed the title of king, Moray was driTen 
from his position, and the restoration of Catholicism was vigoronsly 
and openly prosecuted by negotiations with Spain, France, and the pope. 
The director of all those intrigues was the Italian musician Da%id 
liiz/io, who came to the country as papal agent, and had become Mary*i 
favourite and private secretary. The rudeness and profligacy of the 
young king had soon estranged from him the heart of the queen. He 
therefore took part in a conspiracy of the Protestant lords, promising 
to go over to their faith. Their first victim was the hated llizzio. He 
was fallen upon and slain on 9th March, A.D. 1566, while he sat beside 
the qnet* u, already far advanced in pregnancy. Darnley soon repented 
his deed, was reconciled to the queen, fled with her to the Castle of 
Dunhar, and an army gathered by the Protestant Karl of Bothwell soon 
suppressed the riäing. The rebels and assassins were at Mary's entreat/ 
almost all pardoned. Darnley, now living in mortal enmity with the 
heads of the Prutobtant nobility, and again on bad terms with the qaeeoi 


fen sick in Dee., A.D. 1566, at Glasgow. On his sick-bed a reoonefliation 
with his wife was effected, and apparently in order that she might the 
better norse him, he was brought to a villa near Edinburgh. But on 
the night of 9th Feb., a.d. 1567, while Maty was present at the marriage 
of a servant, the house with its inhabitants was blown np by an explosion 
of gunpowder. Public opinion charged Bothwell and the queen with 
contriving the horrible crime. Bothwell was tried, but acquitted by the 
lords. Suspicion increased when soon after Bothwell carried off the 
queen to his castle, and married her on 15th May. In the dvil war that 
now broke out Mary was taken prisoner, and on 24th July obliged to 
abdicate in favour of her one-year old son James YL, for whom Mary 
nndertook the regency. Bothwell fled to Denmark, where he died in 
misery and want ; but Mary was allowed to escape from prison by the 
young George Douglas. He also raised on her behalf a small army, 
which, however, in May, a.D. 1568, was completely destroyed by Moray 
at the village of Langside. The unhappy queen could now only seek pro- 
tection with her deadly enemy Elizabeth of England, who, after twenty 
years* imprisonment, sent her to the scaffold in a.D. 1587, on the plea 
that she was guilty of murdering her own husband and of high treason 
in plotting the death of the English queen. — Mary*s guilt would be con- 
clusively established, if a correspondence with Bothwell, said to have 
been found in her desk, should be accepted as genuine. But all her 
apologints, with apparently strong conviction, have sought to prove that 
these letters are fabrications of her enemies. The thorough investiga- 
tion given to original documents, however, by Bresslau, has resulted in 
recognising only the second of these as a forgery, and so proving, not 
indeed Mary*s complicity in the murder of her husband, but her adul- 
terous love for Bothwell, and showing too that her apparent reconciliation 
with Darnley on his sick-bed was only hypocritical.i 

11. The young qneen had at first sought to win by her hii ipeeohes 
the bold and influential i-eformer John Knoz, who was then preacher in 
Edinburgh. But his heart was cased in sevenfold armour against all her 
flatteries, as afterwards against her threats ; even her tears found him 
as stem and cold as her wrath. When he called an assembly of nobles 
to put a stop to the Catholic worship introduced by her at court, he was 
charged with high treason, but acquitted by the lords. The marriage 
with Darnley and all that followed from this unhappy union only in- 
creased his boldness. He publicly preached without reserve against the 

I Strickland, *' Life of Mary Stuart.*' 5 vols. Lond., 1875. Hosack, 
«Mary Queen of Scots and Her Accusers." 2 vols. Lond., 1874. 
Schiern, ** Life of James Hepburn. Earl of Bothwell, from the Danish." 
Edin., 1880. Skelton, ** Maitland of Lethington and the Scotland of 
Mary Stuart" 2 vols. Edin., 1887 f. 

VOL. IL 2» 


papaey and the light carriage of the queen, on the outbreak of the eitfl 
war urgod her deposition, and demanded her execution for adaltery and 
the murder of her husband. The aesassination of Bogent Moray in a.D. 
1570 threw the country into further oonfasion, which was only OTer- 
come by bis third successor, Morton. The fugitive Enox now returned 
to E(]inburgh, and soon after died, on 21th Not., a.d. 1572. Of his 
extant writings the most important is his ** History of the Reformation,** 
reaching down to a.d. 1567. Morton's vigorous government completely 
destroyed Mary's party, but also restricted the pretensions of Presby- 
teriauism. After liis overthrow in a.d. 1578, James VI., now in his 12th 
year, himself undertook the government at the head of aoouncil of state. 
His wealiness of character showed itself in his vacillating between an 
alliance witli Catholio Spain and one with Protestant England, as well 
as between secret favouring of Catholicism and open endeavouring to 
supersede puritan Presbyterianism by Anglican- Protestant episcopacy. 
In A.D. 15S1 the parliament, enlarge.1 by the introduotion of the lower 
orders of the nobility, so defined the royal supremacy as to deprive the 
Presbyterian church of several of her rights and privileges. But in aj>. 
1592 the king was obliged absolutely to restore these. After Elizabeth's 
death in a.D. 1603, as the great-grandson of Henry YIL, he united Um 
kingdoms of England and Scotland under the title of James Li — Con* 
tinuation, § 154, 5. 

12. The Netherlands.— By the marriage of Mary of Burgundy, the heiress 
of Charles the Bald, with Maximilian I., in A.D. 1478, the Netherlands 
passed over to the house of Hapsburg, and after Maximilian's death, in a^. 
1519, went to his grandson Charles V. Even in the previous period the 
ground was broken in these regions for the introduction of the Befor- 
mation of the 16th century by means of the Brothers of the Common 
Life (§ 112, 9) and the Dutch precursors of the Beformation ({ 119, 10), 
working as they did among an intrepid and liberty loving people. The 
writings of Luther were introduced at a yery early date into Holland, sad 

> ** The Works of John Knox." Collected and edited by David Laing. 
7 vols. Edin., 1816-1864. M*Crie, **Life of Knox.*' 2 vols. Edin., 
1811. Lorimer, **Johu Enox and the Church of England." Lond«, 
1875. Calderwood, ** History of Church of Scotland.'* Lond., 1075. 
Stuart, ** Hiutory of Beformation in Scotland." Lond., 1780. Cook, 
<• History of Church of Scot, from Bef." 8 vols. Edin., 1815. M*Grie, 
" Sketches of Scottish Church History.'* 2 vols. Lond., 1841. Gunning- 
ham, " History of the Church of Scotland." 2 vols. Edin., 1859. Lee» 
** Lectures on History of Church of Scotland from Bef. to Bev." 2 vols. 
Edin., I860.— General Histories of Soothmd: ** Bobertson," 2 vols., Eduu, 
1759 ; ** Tytler," 9 vols., Edin., 1826 ; ** Burton," 8 toIb. Edin., IBTd ; 
••Mackenzie," Edin., 1867. 


tiie first martyrs from the Latheran Confession (§ 128, 1) were led to tba 
stake at Antwerp« in a.D. 1523. The alliance with France and Switzer- 
land, however, was the occasion of subsequently securing the triumph 
of the Reformed Confession (see § 160, 1). But fanatical Anabaptists 
soon followed in the wake of the reform movement, and sent forth their 
emissaries into Germany and Switzerland. As the emperor had here 
an authority as absolute as his heart could desire, he proceeded to execute 
unrelentingly the edict of Worms, and multitudes of witnesses for the 
go-<pel as well as fanatical sectaries were put to death by the sword and at 
the stake. Still more dreadful was the havoc committed by the Inqui- 
sition after Charles' abdication, in a.d. 1555, under his son and successor 
Philip n. of Spain, which had for its aim the overthrow alike of ecclesias- 
tical and political liberty. In order the more successfully to withstand 
the Bdformation, the four original bishoprics were increased by the addi- 
tion of fourteen new bishoprics, and three were raised into archbishoprics, 
Utrecht, Mechlin, and Cambray. But even these measures failed in 
securing the end desired, because the Dutch, even those who hitherto had 
remained faithful to the Romish Church, saw in them simply an instru* 
ment for advancing Spanish despotism. — In a.d. 1523 Luther's trans« 
lation of the N.T. had already been rendered into Dutch and printed 
at Amsterdam. In a.d. 1515 Jacob yan Liesfield translated the whole 
Bible, and was for this sent to the scaffold in a.D. 1545. A Calvinistio 
symbol was set forth in a. d. 1562 in the Belgic Confession. The league 
formed by the nobles, in a.d. 1566, to offer resistance to the tyranny of 
the Spaniards, to which their oppressors gave the contemptuous desig- 
nation of the Beggars — a name which they themselves adopted as a 
title of honour— increased in strength and importance from day to day, 
aad the people, thirsting for revunge, tore down churches, images, and 
altars. The prudent regent, however, Margaret of Parma, Philip's half- 
sister, would have been more successful in preventing an outburst of re- 
bellion by her conciliatory manceuvres, had her brother given her greater 
freedom of action. Instead of doing so he sent to her aid, in a.D. 1587, 
the terrible Dnke of Alva, with a standing army of 10,000 Spaniards. 
The " Bloody CouncU *' instituted by him for stamping out the revolt 
now began its horrible proceedings, sending thousands u|K>n thousands 
to the rack and the scaffold. The regent, protesting against such acts, 
demanded her recall, and Alva was put in her place. Tbe bloody 
tribunal moved now from city to city ; all the leading throughfares were 
covered with victims hanging from gibbets, and when Alva at laKt, in a.d. 
1573, was at his own request recalled, he could boast of having carried 
out in six years 18.000 executions. Meanwhile the great Prince of Orange, 
William the Silent, formerly royal governor of the Dutch Provinces, bnt 
since a.d. 1568 a fugitive under the ban, had now openly signified his 
adhesion to Protestantism, and in 1572 placed himself at the head of 


the revolt. After gnining seyeral Tietories by land ftnd by sea, he n»' 
ceeded, in the so called Pacification of Ghentt of a.D. 1576, in aoitiDg 
almost all the provinces, Protestant and Catholic, under a resolution to 
exercise toU'ration to one another and show resistance to the common 
foe. The new governor, Alexander Famese, Duke of Parma, managed 
indeed to detach the southern Catholic provinces from the league, but 
all the more closely did the seven northern provinces bind themselves 
together in the Union of Utrecht of a.D. 1579, promising to fight to tbe 
end for their religious and political liberty. William*s truest friend, 
counsellor, and director of his political actions, s:nee the formation of 
the lea^'ue of a.D. 15GC, was Philip van Kamiz, Count of St. Aldegonde. 
He had drawn up the articles of the league, and was equally celebrated 
as a statesman and soldier, and as theologian, satirist, orator, and poet. 
He was pre-eminently an ardent patriot, and an enthusiastic adherent 
of Calvin's Reformation. He had been himself a pupil of the great 
Genevan. Bc>ides a spirited material version of the Psalter, his chief 
siitirico-theological work was " The Beehive of the Holy Boman Church," 
written in the Flemish dialect. — After William's assassination by the 
hnnd of a Catholic, in a.D. 1584. he was succeeded by his son Haurioe« 
who after long years of bloody conflict succeeded, in aj>. 1609, in eoni* 
pletcly freeing his country from the Spanish yoke.^ 

13. Frasce.— The Beformation in France had its beginning from 
Wittenberg, but subsequently the Geievan reformers obtained a domi- 
nating; influence. Even in a.d. 1521, the Sorbonne issued a Determinatio 
super doctr. Luth., pronouncing Luther*s teaching and writings heretical, 
which Melanchthon in the same year answered with unusual vigour in 
his Apologia adv./urioium Parisientium theologattritrum deerttum. Every* 
thing depended upon the attitude which the young king Fraada L, tujy. 
1515-1517, might assume in reference to the various religious parties. 
His love of humanist studies, now flourishing in France, whose xealoua 
promoter and protector he was against the attacks of the seholastio 
Sorbonne (§ 120, 8), as well as the traditional policy of hit family in 
ecclesiastical matters since the time of St. Louis (% 96, 81), seemed to 
favour the hope that he would not prove altogether hostile to the ideas 
of the Be formation. But eveu as early as a.D. 1516 he had, in his con- 
cordat witb the pope (§110, 14), surrendered the acquisitions of the Basel 
Council by the revocation of the Pragmatic Sanction of Charles VIL, and 
in this way, by the right given him to nominate all the bishops and 
abbots, he obtained a power over all the clergy of his realm which waa 
too much in accordance with his dynastic ideas to allow of his saerifieing 

1 Brandt, *' History of the Beformation in the Low Countries.'* 4 Tola. 
Lond., 1720. Motley, " Bise of the Dutch Bepublic.*' 8 vols. LoDd.« 


it in favoar of the Lutheran autonomy in the management of the church, 
let alone the yet more radical demands of the Calviiiistic constitution» 
Even in his antagonism to the emperor (§§ 126, 5, 6 ; 133, 7), which led 
him to befriend in a very decided manner the German Protestants, his 
interests crossed one another, inasmuch as he required to retain the good- 
will of the pope. Suppression of Protostintism in his own laud and 
the fostering of it in Germany were thus the aims of his crooked policy. 
He did indeed for a time entertain the idea of introducing a moderate 
Beforniation into France arter the Erasmian model, in order to secure 
closer attachment uf and union with German Protestantism. He entered 
into negotiations with Philip the Magnauimous. aud had Melauchtiion 
invited in a.d. 1535 to attend a conference on these matters in Frauce. 
Melanchthon was not indisposed to go, but was interdicted by his prince 
tlie elector, who feared lest he might make too great concessions. And 
just about this time fanatically violent pamphlets and placards were 
published, which were even thrown into the royal apartments, and thna 
the anger of the king was roused to the utmost pitch. The persecutions, 
which, from a.d. 1524, had already brought maoy isolated witnesses 
to the scaffold aud the stake, now assumed a systematic and general 
ohaructcr. In a.D. 1535, an luquisition tribunal was set up, with mem- 
bers nominated by the pope, and as supplementary thereto there was 
instituted in the Parliament of Paris the so-called chamhre ardenU : the 
former drew up the process against the heretics, the latter pronounced 
and executed the sentence. Thousands of heroic confessors died under 
torture, on the gallows, by sword, or by fire. Under Henry II., a.D. 1517- 
1559, wh6 continued his father's crooked policy, the chamhre ardente 
became more aud more active, and the cruelty of the persecution in- 
creased. Among the sworn foes of the Reformation, Diana of Poitiers, 
an old love of his father's, had for a time the greatest influence over the 
king. He raised her to the rank of duchess. With diabolic satisfaction 
she gloated upon the spectacle of autoidt-fi carried out at her request, 
and enriched herself with the confiscated goods of the victims. Side by 
aide with her, inspired by a like hate of Protestantism, stood the great 
marshal and all-powerful minister of state, the Constable Montmorency. 
These two were further backed up by all the iuflucnce of the powerful 
ducal family of the Guises, a branch of a Lorraine house naturalized 
in France, consisting of six brothers, at their head the two eldest, the 
Cardinal Charles of Lorraiue, Archbishop of Rheims, who died in a.d. 1574, 
and Francis, the conqueror of Calais. The least induential in the league 
at that time was the queen, Qatharine de Medici. 

14. In spite of all persecutions, tlie Reformed church made rapid 
progress, especially in the southern districts. Its adherents came to 
be known by the name of Hogiusnots, meaning originally Leaguers, Cove» 
naDtera, on account of their connection with Geneva. A popular ety- 

326 cHuacH histouy of tus sixtsenih cBirruBT. 

mology of the word derives it from the nightly assemblies in a loeaJity 
haunted by tlie spirit of King Hugo. CalTia and Beza, as sous of Frmnce, 
assisted the young cliurch with counsel and help. But even within the 
l>ouiuls of the kingdom it had very important poUtical supportf^rs. Cer- 
tain members of the Ijouse of Bourbon« a powerful branch of the royal 
family, Anton, who married the brilliant heiress of Navarre, Jeanne 
d'Albret, and his brother Louis de Conil^, had attached themseive<< to 
ilie Protestant cause. Also other distinguished personages, e.g, the noble 
Admiral Gaspnrd de Coligny, a nephew of Montmorency, and several 
prominent memb. rs of Parliament, were enthusiastically devoted to Pro- 
tehtaiitism, and, withdrawing from the frivolous and licentious court, 
gave to tbo profession of the reformed faith a wide reputation for strict 
morality and deep piety. The first general synod of the reformed 
church was held in Paris from 20th to '28th May, 4.D. 1559. It adopted 
a CaUiuistic symbol, the Conjfssio (ia'ticana^ aud, as a directory for the 
constitution and di>cip:ine of the chnich, forty articles, also inspired by 
the 8}>irit of Calvin. — ileury II. was followed in succession by his three 
sons, Francis, (Jliarles, and Henry, all of whom died without issue. 
Uniler Fra*.:cis II., a d. loö'J, I5t)0. who ascended the throne in his six- 
teenth year, the two Guises, the uncles of his queen Mary Stuart, held 
unliniitcl sway and gave abundance of work to the chim^ire ardente, A 
conspiracy din ctjil ngainst them in A.n. 1560 led to the execution of 
I,2u0 persons iniplieatt d in it. Even the two Bourbons were cast into 
prison, aud tlic younger comleumed to death. The king*s early death, 
howevtT, prevented tiie execution of the sentence. The queen-mother, 
Catliurine do Medici, now sucjeedod in breaking off the yoke of the 
Guises and securing to herself the regency during the minority of her 
son Charles IX., ad. 15C0-I574. But the attempts of the Guises to 
undermine her autliority obliged her to seek supporters meanwhile 
among the Protestants. Coligny was able in a.d. 15o0 to demand reli- 
gious toleration of tne itnpcf ial Parliament, and succeeded at lost so far 
that in a.d. 15G1 an edict was issued ab. dishing capital punishment 
for heresy. In order to bring about wherever that was possible an ander« 
standing between the two great religious parties, a five weeks' religious 
conference was held in September of that saine year in the Abbey of 
Poissy, near Paris, tj whi<'h on the evangelical side Beza from Geneva 
and Peter Martyr from Zurich, besides many other theologians, wrre 
invited. On the Catholic side, the Cardinal of Lorraine represented the 
doctrine of his church, and subsequently also the general of the Jesuit'«, 
Lainez. Tlie proceedings, in which Beza's learning, elo ^uence, and 
praiseworthy courtesy toward his opponents had great weight, were con- 
centrated on the doctrines of the Church and the Lord s Supper, but 
yielded no result. In order that they might be able to luflame tho 
Lutherans and the lieformed against one another, the Catholics end6»> 


routed to bring forward sapporters of the Aagsbnrg Confession into 
tbe discussions on t'lose points. Five German theologians were actually 
brought forward, among them Jao. Andrea of Württemberg, but too late 
to take part in the conference. On 17th January, a.d 1562, the regent 
issued an edict, by which the Protestants were allowed to hold religions 
services outside of the towns, and also to have meetings of synod under 
the supervision of royal commissioners. 

15. Tbe rage of the Gui*«es and their fanatical party at this edict knew 
no boundi}. Francis of Guise swore to cut it up with his sword, and on 
1st March, a.D. 1562, at Passy in Champagne, he fell upon the Huguenots 
assembled there for worship in a barn, and slew them almost to a man. 
At Cahors, a Hngnenot place of worship was surrounded by a Catholic 
mob and set on fire. None of those gathered together there survived, 
for those who escaped the flames were waylaid and murdered. At 
Toulouse, the oppressed Protestants, with wives and children, to the 
number of 4,003, had betaken themselves to the oapitoL They were 
promised a free outlet, and were then slaughtered, because no one, it was 
said, should keep his word with a heretic (§ 200, 3). Louis Cond6 sum- 
moned his fellow Protestants to take up arms in their own defence against 
such atrocities, entrenched himself in Orleans, and obtained, by the help 
of the Landgrave Philip of Hesse, German auxiliaries. The Guises, on 
the other hand, won over to their side the king and his mother. And 
now the strict legitimist Coligny placed himself at the head of the 
Huguenot movement. The battle of Dreux in Deo., a.d. 1562, resulted 
unfavourably to the Protestants, but during the siege of Orleans Francis 
of Guise was assassinated by a Huguenot nobleman. The regent now, 
in the peace edict of Amboise, of 19th Nov., a.d. 1563, allowed to the 
Protestants liberty of worship except in certain districts and cities, of 
which Paris was one. After securing emancipation from the yoke of the 
Guises, however, she soon began openly to show her old hatred of the 
Protestants. She joined in a league with Spain for the extirpating of 
heresy, restricted in a d. 1564 by the Edict of Boussillon her previoui 
concessions, and laid incessaut plots in order to efiPect the capture or 
murder of the two great leaders of the Huguenot party. The threatening 
incursions of the Duke of Alva upon the neighbouring provinces of the 
Netherlands, in A.D. 1567, occasioned the outbreak of the second reli- 
gious war. The projected removal of the court to Moncoaux fell through 
indeed, in ooui^equence of the ha^ty flight of the king to Paris, but the 
overthrow of the royal army in the battle of St. Denys, in Nov., a.D. 
1567, in which Montmorency fell, as well as the reinforcement of the 
Huguenot army by an auxiliary corps under the leadership of John 
Casimir, the prince of the Palatinate, led Catharine to conclude the 
Peace of Longjumeau, of March, a.D. 1568, which guaranteed anew all 
previous concessions. But when the persecution of the Huguenots w«| 


continued in numberless executions, before the jesr was out they had 
again, for the third time, to have reoonrse to arm«. England supported 
them with money and ammunition, and Protestant Germany gave them 
11,000 auxiliaries ; while Spain helped their opponents. Lonis Cond6 
fell by the hand of an assassin in a.d. 1569, but the Huguenots had so 
evidently the best of it. that the king and his mother found themselves 
obliged to grant them complete liberty of conscience and of worship in 
the peace treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye, on 8th, a.D. 1570, except- 
ing in Piiris and in the immediate surroundings of the palace. As a 
guarantee for the treaty, four strongholds in southern France were sur- 
rendered to them. It was further stipulated, in order to confirm for ever 
the good undertaking, that Henry of Navarre, son of Jeanne d*Albret, 
should marry Margaret, the sister of Charles IX. 

IC. At the marriage, consummated on 18th August, A.i>. 1572, siihae- 
qnently known as the Bloody Marriage, the chiefs of the Huguenot party 
were gathered together at Paris. Jeanne d*Albret had died at the court, 
probably by poison, on 9th June, and Coligny had been fatally wounded 
by a shot on 22nd Angust, On the night of St Bartholomew, between 
the 23rd and 2 1th August, the castle bell tolled. This was the concerted 
signal for the destruction of all the Hngucnota present in Paria. For 
four days the carnage was unweariedly carried on by the city militia 
appointed for the purpose, the royal Swiss guards, and crowds of fanatical 
artisans. Coligny fell praying amid the blows of his murderers. No 
Huguenot was spared, neither children, nor women, nor the aged. Their 
princely chiefM, Henry of Navarre and Henry Gond6, the son of Louis, 
were offered the choice between death and taking part ia the celebration 
of mass. They decided for the latter. Meanwliile mesaengera had 
hasted into the provinces with the death-warrants, and there th« slaugh- 
ter began afresh. The whole number of victims is variously estimated 
at from 10,000 to 100,000 ; in Paris alone there fell from 1,000 to 10,000. 
— The death decree was not indeed so much the result of long planned 
and regularly con.'eived conspiracy, as a sudden resolve suggested by 
political circumstances. The queen-mother was at variance with her 
son witli reHpect to his anti-Spanish policy, which had always inclined 
him favourably to Goligny ; and so, in concert with her favourite son, 
Henry of Anjou, she succeeded in dealing a deadly stroke at the great 
admiral by the hand of an assassin. The king swore to take fearful ven- 
geance on the unknown perpetrators of this ciime. Catharine now made 
every effort to avert the threatened blow. She managed to convince the 
king, by means of her fellow conspirators, that the Huguenots regarded 
him as an accomplice in the perpetrating of the outrage, and that so hia 
life was in danger because of them. He now swore by God's death that 
not merely the chiefs, to whom Catharine and her auxiliaries had directed 
•pedal attention, but all the Huguenots in France, should die, in order 


Ühat not one sbonld remain to bring this charge against him. On the 
other hand, it is all bnt certain that the thought of such a diabolical 
deed had preyioosly saggested itself, if indeed expression had not been 
explicitly given to it. To the Spanish aud Homish courts, the French 
govemment represented the deed as an acte primidiU, to the German 
court as an acte rum primiditi. But even before this a letter from Bome 
to the Emperor Maximilian n. (§ 137, 8) had contained the following : 
^Ät that hour (referring to the marriage festivities) when all the birdi are 
in the eage^ they can seize upon them altogether ^ aud can have any one that 
they detire.** He was profoundly excited about the villauy of the trans- 
action, while Philip II. of Spain on hearing of it is said to have laughed 
for the first time in his life. Pope Gregory XIII. indeed feared the worst 
consequences, but soon changed his mind, and had Bome illuminated, 
all the bells rung, the cannons fired, a Te Deum performed, processions 
made, and a medal struck, with the inscription, Ugonottorum strages. 
He instructed the French ambassador to infurm his king that this perfor- 
mance was a hundred times more grateful to him than fifty victorlea 
over the Turks.' 

17. The dreadful deed, however, completely failed in accomplishing 
the end in view. Even after 100,000 had been slaughtered there still 
femained more than ten times that number of Huguenots, who, iu posses- 
non of their strongholds, occupied positions of great strategetical import- 
ance. After a brief breathing time of peace, therefore, they were able, 
on five occasions, in A.n. 1573, 1576, 1577, 1580, to renew the religious 
civil war, when once and again the truce had been broken by the Catho- 
lics. Charles IX. was succeeded by Catharine's favourite son, Henry IIL, 
iuD. 1574-1589, who, joining the most shameless immorality to the nar- 
rowest bigotry and asceticism (§ 149, 17), was no way behind his brother 
in dissoluteness, and was still more conspicuous for dastardliness and 
cowardice. Henry Condd had, just immediately after Charles's death, 
abjured again the Catholic confession, and put himself at the head of the 
Huguenot revolt. Henry of Navarre rejoined his old friends two years 
later, after having in the meantime vied with his brother-in-law and his 
incestuous wife in frivolity and immorality. He was sble to take part 
successfully in the fifth religious war, iu which the Huguenots, supported 
once more by the German auxiliaries under the Connt-palatiue John 
Casimir, secured such advantages, that the court, in the Treaty of Beau- 
lien, of A^D. 1576, were obliged to grant them complete religious freedom 

1 Bersier, ** Coligny : the Earlier Life of the Great Huguenot.** Lond., 
1884. White, ** The Massacre of St. Bartholomew.*' 2 vols. London, 
1868. Lord Mahon, ** Life of Louis, Prince of Condi.*' New Tork, 1848. 
Baird, ** History of the Bias ol the Hngaenots.*' 2 vols, London and 
Haw York, 1880. 


and a larger number of strongholds. Bat now Henry of Guise, in ooneexi 

with his brothers Louis, cardiual and Archbishop of Rheims, and Charles, 
Duke of Mayenne, formed the Holy League, which he compelled the king 
to join, aud renewed the war with increased vigour. In the eighth wax 
since a.d. 1564, which on the part of the (raises was really as xnnch 
directed against the king*s Huguenot policy as against the Hagaenota 
themselves, Henry was obliged, by the Treaty of Nemoars, of a.^. 1585, to 
declare that the Protestants were deprived of all rights and privileges. 
In the battle of Coutras, however, in jli>. 1587» Henry of Navarre anni- 
hilated the opposing forces. But as he failed to follow up the advantage« 
then secured, the Guises again recruited their strength to snoh a degree 
that they were able openly to work for the dethronement of the king. 
Henry could save himself only by the murder of both the elder Guises at 
the Diet of Blois. There wa^s now no alternative left him bat to oast 
himself into the arms of the Huguenots, and on this account, at ihm 
siege of the capital, he was murdered by the Dominican Clement. Heniy 
of Navarro, as the only legitimate heir, now ascended the throne as 
Henry IV., a.d. 1589-1610. After a hard struggle, lasting for four years, 
in which he was supported by England and Germany, while his oppo- 
nents, headed by the Duke of Mayenne, were aided with money and men 
by Spain, Savoy, and the pope, he at last decided, in jli>. 1503, to pass 
over to Catholicism, because, as he said, ** Paris is well worth a mass.** 
Ho secured, however, for his former co-religionists, by the Edict of Vaatet, 
of 13th April, a.D. 1598, complete liberty of holding religious services in 
all the cities where previously there had been reformed congregations, as 
well as thorouKh equality with the Catholics in all civil rights aud priyi- 


leges, e^x'cially in regard to eligibility for all civil and military offices. 
The fortresses and strongholds hitherto held by them were to be left with 
them for eight years, and in the Parliament a special *' Chamber of the 
Edict " was instituted, with eight Catholic aud eight Protestant members. 
But, on the other hand, they continued to be under the Catholic marriage 
laws, were obligid to cease from work on the Catholic festivals, and to 
pay tithes to the Catholic cUrgv. After a stubborn resistance on the part 
of the Parliament of Paris, the university, and the Sorbonne, as well