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THE VOYAGE 

OP 

LA PÉROUSE 

ROUND THE WORLD, 

IN THE YEARS 1785, 1780, 1787, AND 1788, 
WITH THE NAUTICAL TABLES. 

Arranged by M. L. A. MILET MUREAU, 

Infpeftor of Fortifications and Member of feveral literary Societies at Paris. 



»«>4>e« 



TO WHICH IS PREFIXED, 

NARRATIVE OF AN INTERESTING 

VOYAGE FROM MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE, 

AND ANNEXED, 

TRAVELS OVER THE CONTINENT, 

With the Difpatches of La Péroufe in 1737 and 1788, 
BY M. DE I ESSEPS. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH. 

Illujîrated with Fifty-one Plates^, 
> IN TWO VOLUMES. . 



VOL. I. 






^HINTED FOR JOHN STOCKDALE, PICCADILLYt 



1798. 



c 



4^ 



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«^^/.{yv-^iî• C^« > ^. ; A^rf • ?>'"^^3) .~jv^^> ( * ^vj 



THE 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 



^••»^«4 



NAVIGATION, the moft important bond 
of the great fbciety of mankind, has in 
the prefent age been advanced nearly to perfec- 
tion. It has been employed for purpofes the 
moft honourable to its patrons, to its condudors, 
and to human nature, and its narratives have ex- 
cited a more univerfal intercft than any other 
branch of literature. It has perfcàl:ed the hiftory 
of man, united the extremities of the earth in 
the mutual intercourfe of peaceful commerce, 
and notwithftanding the temporary ftorms of re- 
volution, has chara<5lerifed the prefent century as 
its peculiar asra. 

Englifhmen, who have fo much to boaft 
among contending nations, will proudly remem- 
ber that Cook ftands in the higheft rank both as 
a navigator, and a bcnefaiftor of his fpecics : 
while France, our conftant competitor, whether 
in difcovery, in commerce, or in the arts, has at- 
tempted to rival us even at the extremity of the 

A 2 globe, 



THE TRANSLATORS PREFACE. 

globe. With that fplrit of emulative ambi- 
tion which has ever marked her charadcr, Ihe 
planned the voyage detailed in the following 
pages ; Ihe configned to the perils of the ocean 
men of the dccpcft fcience, and moft brilliant 
talents in France, and her vefTels failed with 
an aufpicious promifc of the happieft fuccefs. 
Their ill fated end is now but too ftrongly con- 
firmed. Europe will deplore that an expedition, 
which, like that of Cook, may be called a circum- 
navigation of charity and benevolence, fhould fb 
fatally terminate in the dcflru^ion of all who 
embarked in it, and of a commander who feem- 
cd to vie with his great prcdcceflbr in the vir- 
tues and benevolences of a wife and prudent 
chief. Honourable and candid in his rivalfliip, 
he feems to exult in beflovving a juft tribute of 
applaufe on him, whom he confiders as his 
archetype, while his own narrative is modeft 
pcrfpicipus, interelling, and important. 

To a commercial nation, it is particularly de- 
firablc to receive the earlieft and moft accurate 
information of every geographical difcovery. 
But while we regret that fcience and curiofity 
have been fo long ungratified, and that the com- 
piler of the narrative was not from among the 
aftors in thefc novel fcenes, few of whom efcaped 
the general cataftrophe ; it is fome confolation 
that the original journal, as the Editor aflurcs us. 



THE TRANSLATOR 3 PREFACE. 

is moft faithfully adhered to, without ever 
deviating from the fenfc and meaning of the 
narrator. M. Millet Mureau appears to have 
juftly conceived the duties of the undertaking, 
and the execution docs honour to his tafte and 
judgment. Verfed in the accounts of former 
difcoveries, and the fcicnces allied to navigation, 
he has illuftrated the work by many valuable 
notes, for which, however, he is often indebted 
to our countrymen Cook, Dixon, Portlock and 
others ; and when he ventures to differ from the 
opinion of his author, fubmits his own with a 
candour entitled to applaufe. 

In one inftance he has deviated from his ac-^ 
cuftomed liberality, in an unfounded fufpicion 
of the veracity of Hearn. But this he retraits 
in a preliminary difcourfe *. He conftantly pro- 
fefles rather to colledl materials for the fpecula- 
tion and enquiry of others, than to form iyftems 
for himfelf, a pradice to which he declares him- 
felf an enemy. 



* Vide page xxxii. Where, as if it was his fate to wreak 
all his calumny on an opponent invulnerably fecurc in the. 
armour of integrity, honour, and fidelity, he aims an invidi- 
ous attack at that gentleman, which the publication of his 
narrative previous to the following pages, has rendered equal- 
ly invalid with the former accufation, and muft again expofe 
him to the fame humiliating recantation, 

A 3 In 



TH£ TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. 

In reading the narratives of thofc who have 
viiited favage nations, it is impoilible to avoid 
contemplating with fclf-exultation, the fuperi- 
ority of civilized Man over a Jîaie of nature^ 
which if it means any thing, fignifics a ftatc of 
ignorance, where cunning and treachery almofl 
univcrfally prevail. The mind is ftrengthened 
by the cultivation of the arts and fciences ; Man 
in fociety alone perceives the mutual advantage 
of reciprocal good faith, and virtue flourifhes un- 
der the banners of truth and general utility : 
while the ignorance of the Indian, which renders 
his pleafurcs uncertain and tranfient, is compen- 
fated by no one fupcriority of enjoyment, either 
mental or corporeal : nor does the moft finilh- 
ed picture of favage life exceed a mere abicnce 
of care, or that inaélive unintcrefting tranquillity 
which civilization alone can render fecure. 

To expatiate further on the utility of this ex- 
pedition is unneceflary» The Public intereft and 
curiofity, which ever anticipate works of this na- 
ture, will not have been diminifhed by the un- 
happy fate of La Péroufe, his paiTcngers and 
crews. 

Accuracy being no lefs important in a tranila- 
tor than veracity in a traveller, the Engliih Edi- 
tor has been folicitous rather to convey the true 
meaning of his author, than to decorate his lan- 
;; guage 



;r/,r 



I. i 



THE TtlANSLATOR'i PREFACE. 

guagc with graces foreign to the original. This 
principle, itfelf fufRciently obvious, acquires ad- 
ditional force from La Péroufe's exprefs defire ; 
he wiftied, that to avoid facrificing fenfc to 
found, as might happen in the unpoliftied phrafes 
of the fea, and other technical terms, his narra- 
tion, iliould it be publifhed without his infpec- 
tion, might be committed to the care rather 
of a feaman than a man of letters. 

With this fimple declaration the Tranflator 
would have fubmitted himfelf to the Public, had 
not a competitor appeared, whofe agents, with 
the petulance of ungenerous rivallhip, have mif- 
reprefented his defign, and accufed him of muti- 
lating the original. Had it been poffible fooner 
to complete the work, this calumny could not 
have been fupported for a moment; and the Au^ 
thor only laments, fmcercly laments, that the 
Public in general have feldom the inclination or 
the opportunity to enter into a comparifon of the 
feparate merits of thoie who appear as candi- 
dates for their favour. He is therefore unwil- 
lingly compelled to urge his claim to their pro- 
teélion, by ftating his defign and plan in the exe- 
cution of the work. 

Confidering the Narrative and Tables of the firft 
importance, particularly to the man of fcience 
and the navigator, he has given thele, together 

: A 4 with 



/ 



THE TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. 

\vith all the memoirs and corrcrpondcncc in a 
complete and accurate tranflation. The tables in 
particular mull be viewed as the guide of future 
navigators, the clue to conduél them through 
the labyrmths of the South Sea Iflands, the bea- 
con to warn them from rocks, and Ihoals, and 
breakers, and to dircd their courfc through the 
mifts of the ocean. To have omitted thefe, or 
to have negle£lcd their accuracy, would have been 
to endanger the lives of others, and render the 
labour of navigators fruitlefs. Of the preliminary 
papers, however, which are by no means equally 
important or interefting, it appeared more dc- 
firablc for every clafs of readers to perufc, at moft 
a copious abridgment, comprifing every ufeful 
information without the circumlocution and 
redundancy, fo frequent in official papers. To 
no Ens-lifliman could a detail of thcfc minu- 
tia?, or voluminous catalogues of French names 
compofmg tlic crews of the vcixcls have been 
ufeful. It is with no fmall fatisfadlion that the 
Editor has availed himfclf of the vacancy this 
fuperfluous matter has alibrdcd, to introduce 
a comprehcnfive abridgment of another ex- 
pedition, that of M. de 1 vcifeps over-land to 
Kamtfcliatka, which is no lefs intereftinsc in it- 
felf thanby its conncilion with that of La Pc- 
roufc, of the narrative of whofe voyage it feems 

'■ '^' , . ;■'■-, ^ 



i.. 
p. 



THE TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. 

to form a part. A full and accurate tranflatîon 
is alio i^ivcn of the voyage of the Spanifli navi- 
gator Maurillo ; and the vvhc^le illuilrated by 
additional notes of tlie Tranflator. 

Of the Engravings, which arc numerous, little 
need be faid. They are cafily compared, and 
fcarcely need challenge comparifon to obtain the 
moft decided preference. In the conditions of 
publication yf9;*/y plates are promifed, but the en- 
couragement fliewn to the work during its pro- 
grefs, has induced the Publifiicr to encreafe their 
number toffty-one. 

It mull- be noticed, however, that many of 
the original drawings having arrived in France 
without corrcfponding defcriptions, arc fo pub- 
liflied ; the French Editor having only ventured 
to add an account of a plant from Chili, written 
by M. Ventinat. In one place in particular the 
figiu-cs have been numbered, though unaccom- 
panied by any reference in the work. 



r -i^ 1 



LIST 



/ 



• LIST OF PLATES* - V ,j 

: ' '" " VOL. I. • >'':'*^v:, i,>Aîi^-:^H:t!^,'; 

■ 'liil PAGE 

Portrait of La Péroufe, to front the Title. 

Cliart of a Part of the Great Pacific Ocean - - _ cxv 

Chart of the World 1 

View of the Ifland of St. Catharine ------ 27 

.Drefs of the Inhabitants of La Conception - - - - 53 

Natives and Monuments of Eafter Ifland - - - - 70 

Canoe of Eafter Ifland ---.--___- 75 
Anchorge of the Frigates at Mowee ------91 

Chart of the N. W. Coaft of America ----- i05 

Wreck of the two Boats at Port des Français - - - 135 
Canoe found at Port des Français (with the Skin ufed 

inftead of Planks) --^----_-_ 145 

Plan of Port des Français --------_i46 

Blackbird of Port des Français --.---_i5o 
Eftabliihment at Port des Français for the filhing Seafon 154- 
Drcfs of the Inhabitants of Port des Français - - 156 

Woman of Port des Français -------.15g 

Canoe of Port des Français - - - - - - . -I6+ 

Partridge, Male and Female, of California - - - - 201 

Promerops or Bee-eater of California - - _ _ . ihid. 
Great Sea Urchins of the N. W. Coaft of America - 222 
Echini Marini --------__-: 223 

View of Macao ------_-___- 254 

Chart of the Difcovcries in the Seas of China and 

Tartary -----_-._--_._ 269 

View of Cavita - ---------__ 271 

Parao, a Pafl!àge Boat of Manilla ------ 272 

Drefs of the Inhabitants of Manilla ------ ihïd. 



LIST 



LIST OF PLATE3. 



VOL. II. 

PAGE 

Frontifpiece, reprefenting Navigation, to face the Title. 
Sarambeau, a filhing Raft of Manilla ----- 5 

Champan, a Chinefe Boat -------- 6 

Boat of Formofa ------------17 

Japanefe Boat ------------21 

Japanefe Boat, front View --------23 

Drefs of the Inhabitants of Langle Bay 44 

Nifhani, Aoucantouroi and Erougantoi, Inhabitants of 

Langle Bay ------------51 

Canoe of the Orotchys ----------67 

Drefs of the Inhabitants of Caftries Bay - - - - 68 

Tombs in Caftries Bay ------.-- 70 

Orotchys, Inhabitants of Caftries Bay ----- 72 

Canoe of the Betchys ----------75 

Canoe of Tchoka ----------- 90 

View of Company's Land ---------93 

View of St. Peter and St. Paul, at Kamtfchatka - - 138 
Part of the Ifland of Maouna, and Plan of the Creek ^^ 

du Maflacre ---- ------- isi 

Maflacre of Meflrs. de Langle, Lamanon, and ten 

others ---- --------- 133 

Plan and Views of Eafter Ifland ------- 248 

Geometrical details of the Monuments of Eafter Ifland 254 

Infers --- 280 

Poulettes 324 

Male Cotton Plant of Chili -- 440 

Female Cotton Plant of Chili 442 

Kamtfchadale Caravan (Leflcp's Travels) - - - - i 

DIRECTION» 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER 

For placing the Letter-Prefs and PJateu 



VOL. I. . 

Title, Preface, Contents, Lift of Plates. 
Compiler's Preface, and Preliminary Difcourfe. 
Decrees of the Aflembly, and Preliminary Inftruftion». 
Narrative of aii interefting Voyage from Manilla to Saint 

Blaife. 
Voyage round the World. 

VOL. IL '[ 

Voyage round the AVorld. 

Excurfion to TenerifFe, Supplementary Papers, &c. ^ 

Tables (hewing the Courfe of the Bouflble and Aftrolube. ^ 
Travels, over the Continent. 

The Plates to be placed in each Volume according to the 
Lift in Vol. L with Silver Paper between each. 



*^* The Binder is requcfted to pare the bottom of the 
Plates before inferting them, left the top of the Engrav- 
ings fhould be cut. 



CONTENTS. 



"'I'.. 



CONTENTS. 




««oeiix 



MISCELLANEOUS CHAPTER. 

PACK 

The Coj?ipiler^s Preface • • i 

Preîhnïnary Dïfcourfe xv 

Extraâl from the Minutes of the Municipal Court 
of the City and Community of Morlaix xlii 

The Frigates of the King of France, La Boujfole 
and Ï Afirolahe, commanded by Mejfrs. de La 
Péroufe and De Langle, failed from the Port of 
Brefl, In June, 1785 xïv 

Decree of the National AJfcmhJy, of February 
^th, 1791 xlxi 

Decree of the National AJfcmvly, of April 22^, 
1791.... I 

. Memorial from the King, toferve as particular In- 
JlruBions to the Sieur de la Péroufe, Captain m 
the Navy, commanding the Frigates la Boujfole 
and TAjirolabe — 26/// June, 1785 li 

Part Flrjl.— Sketch of the Voyage liii 

Part Second. — Objeâis relative to Politics and 
Commerce Ix 

Part Third. — Operations relative to Agronomy, -^ 

Geography, JSavlgatlon, Phyjlcs, and the dlf- Aï-O 

ferent Branches of Natural Hljiory Ixvii 

' > - . c .%>> i^. <^... V Part 



CONTENTS, VOL. I, 

PAOB 

Part Fourth. — Cotiduâi to be ohferved toward the 
Natives of the different Countries Ixxii 

Part Fifth. — Precautions to he employed for pre^ 
ferving the Health of the Cre^vs Ixxv 

Extraits from M. de la Pêroufé' s general Inflruc- 
tions Ixxx 

Southern Atlantic Ocean ibid. 

Great South Sea Ixxxiv 

Great Equatorial Ocean Ixxxv 

Great Northern Ocean , Ixxxvii 

Supplement Ixxxix 

Letter from M. le Marefchal de Cajiries, to M. 
de Condor cet. Secretary to the Academy of Sci- 
ences xc 

A digejled Alemoir, for the Ufe of the learned and 
fcientific Perfons about to embark under M. de 
la Pêroufe , ibid. 

Geometry, Aflronomy, Mechanics xci 

Phyfics , . , xcii 

Chemiflry ibid. 

Anatomy , xciii 

Zoology ibid' 

Mineralogy. ........................ xciv 

Botany ibid. 

Ohfervations of M. Buache.-^Thefe indicate the 
Parts of the Ocean in which New Difcoveries 
may moft probably be made xcy 

JLxamination of the Nature of the Air .,....,... xcvi 

Specific Gravity of the Air .................. xcvii 

Examination of Water ibid. 

Que/lions propofed by the Medical Society to the 
Gentlemen who are to accompany M. de la Pê- 
roufe, read in the Sitting of May 2,\ , 1785 xcviii 

Sketch 



CONTENTS, VOL. I. 

PAOI 

Sketch of Experiments to he rnade for preferving 
Water on Ship'board from Corruption, commu- 
nicated by the Abhê TeJJter, of the Academy of 
Sciences, ar^ of the Medical Society civ 

Memoir to direât the Gardener in the Labours of 
his Voyage round the World \ by M, Thouin, 
: fîrfl Botanical Gardener , cvii 

Part Firfl. — Choice, Nature and Culture of the 
Vegetables to be tranfported from France ibid. 

V art Second. — Of the gathering of Vegetables that 
may be ufeful to Europe, and of their Preferva- 
tion on the Voyage , cviii 

A lift of Seeds to be packed up for the Expedition cix 

Vegetables to be tranfported in their natural State cxi 

Inventory of Goods and Merchandize to be given in 
Prefents or Barter ibid. 

Lift of the Names of the Officers, Scientific Men, 
Artifts, and Seamen, embarked on Board of the 
Frigates la Boujfole and r Aflrolabe, July 1785 cxii 

SPANISH VOYAGE. 

Narrative of an interefiing Voyage from Manilla 
to Saint Blaife, in J780 and 178I cxv 

Departure from Sifiran, on the Eajlern Coajl of 
Luconia , cxxi 

Departure from Refuge Harbour, in the IJland of 
Don Martin de Mayorga c\ 

Departure from the Road of Umata, in the I/land 
of Quam, the Capital of the Marianas, fituated 
in 30° 10' N. Lat. 1\^ 28^ Lon^r. of Manilla clxii; 

Extraât from the Narrative of a Voyage made in 
1779? b J^^^ Francis Anthony Maurelle, En- 
feigne de Frégate, in the Service of the King of 
Spain, for the Difcovery of the Weft Coajt of 
^ori^h America clxvi 



/% 



\ 



CONTENTS, VOL. I. ,, . 

I 

LA PEROUSE's VOYAGE. 
CHAP. I. 

PAGE 

Ohjeél of the Voyage and Equipment of the ttvo 

Frigates ; Jiay in Brejl Road — Pajfage to Ma- •• >• 

deira and Teneriffe-, Jiay in thofe IJlands — Ex- • - 

curfion to the Peak — Arrived at Trinidad — .: 
Touched at St. Catharine s on the Coajl of 

Brafil 1 

CHAP. II. 

Defcriptlon of St. Catharine s — Ohfcrvations and 
Events during our Jîay — Departure from St. .. 
Catharines — Arrival at La Conception 27 

CHAP. III. 

i 
Defcrlptlon of Conception Bay — Manners arid Cuf- 
toms of the Inhabitants — Departure from Tal- 
caguana — Arrival at Eafler IJland 47 

CHAP. IV. 

Defcrlptlon of Eajier Ifland — Incidents and Events 
ivhich took Place there — Manners and Cufioms 
of the Inhabitants 64 

■ . CHAP. V. :,<r 

Excjirfon of M. de Langle Into the interior of - 
Eafler I/land — New Obfervatlons on the Man- 
ners and Arts of the Natives, the Qualify and 
Cultivation of their Soil, ^c 78 

CHAR 

1/*":'. ' " '' ' ^' • .. , * ; 



CONTENTS; VOL. I. j 



CHAP. VI. 

PAOX 

Departure from Eafter Ifland-^jlftronomlcal Oh' 
Jervations — Arrival at the Sandwich Iflands — 
Anchorage in the Bay of Keriporepo, in the 
JJland of Mowee — Departure from that Ifland 83 

' CHAP. VII. 

Departure from Sandwich Iflands — Signs of ap^ 
proaching the Coqft of America — DeJcriedMount 
St. Elias — Difcovery of the Bay of Monti — Our 
Boats reconnoitre the Mouth of the great River 
Behring f and a very deep Bay — The favourable 
Report of jeveral of our Officers induces us to 
put into it-^Dangers incurred in enter ing-^De- ^ 
Jcription of this Bay, which I named French- 
mans Bay and Port — Manners and Cuftoms of \,\. 
the Inhabitants'— Barter with them — Journal of 
Tranfaâlions during our flay 104 

CHAP. VIII. 

Continuation of our ftay in Port des Français—" 
Dreadful Misfortune when on the Point of de- 
parting — Hiftory of this Event — Return to our 
jirft Anchorage — Departure 127 

Written Injlruâlions delivered to M. ^Efcures by 
M. de la Pêrouje .- 130 

Narrative of M. Boutin , 134 

/ CHAP. IX. 

Defcfiption of Port des Français, its Latitude and 
Longitude — Advantages and Inconveniences of ,, 
that Harbour-^ Fegetable and Mineral Produc- 



\ 



C0NTBNT8, VOL. I. 



PAor 



tions — Birds, Fifi, Shells, Quadrupeds — Man- 
ners and Cuflonis of the Indians — Their Aris, 
Arms, Drejs, and Dijpojition to Theft — Great 
Pre/umption that only the Ritgiam have a Com- 
munication indireâity with theje People — Their 
Mujic, Dances, and PaJJion for Gaming — Dif- ^; 
fertation m their Language 1^6 

Remarks on the Language of the Indians of Port 
des Français 1 66 



A. 



CHAP. X. 

Departure from Port des Français — Exploration 
of the Coafi of America — Bay of IJlands — Poi~t 
of Los Remédias, and Port Buccarelli of the 
Pilot Maurello — Croyère Iflands — IJlands of San 
Carlos — Defer iption of the Coajl from Crofs 
Sound to Cape HeSor — J great Gulph or Chan- 
nel— -Exaât Determination of its Breadth — 
Sartine Iflands — H^oody Point of Capt. Cook — 
P^erification of ourTime-keepers — BreakersPomt 
•—Necker IJlands — Arrival at Monterey 



v^ 



CHAP. XI. 



Dejcription af Monterey Bay-^Hiftorical Account 
of the two Californias, and the Mijftons there — 
Manners and Cujloms of the converted, and of 
the independent Indians — Grain, Fruit, and 
Leguminous Plants of every Kind — Quadrupeds y 
Birds, Fijh, Shells, &c. — Military Conjlitution 
of theJe two Provinces-^^Particulars relative to 
Commerce, &c 



-I. - 
Z 

'^ 

i\ 

log 

- -■«■ ,t 

A 

A 



'A\fV 






195 



.iUi r CHAP. XIL 



a 



Agronomical Ohfervations — Comparijon of the Re-^'-'T' 
fults obtained by the Dtftances of the Moon from *'V 

the 



'Vim 



M 

;.t£W 



CONTENTS, VOL. I, 



YAOX 



ih Sun, and hy our Tiyne-heepers^ ii'hich Jerved 
as the Groiind-'worh of our Chart of the Ame- 
rican Coajl — Reafons for thhiking out Labours 
deferve the cmfidence of Navi^atvrs — Focaint^ *»• 
iary of the Language of the 4ijferent Tribes in 
the Vicmity of Monterey y with Remarks on ihe'ir 
Pronunciation 2W 

aiAP. XIII. 

Departure from Monterey — Our projeâled Route 
for crojtng the Weft em Ocean to China — Vain 
Jearch for the Iflatid of Nueflra Senora de la 
Gorta^-^Difcotyery of the JJland of Necker—^ 
We meet with a Sunken Rock in the Night, wt 
which we were nearly cajlmvay — Dcfcrtption of 
this Rock'^Determination of its Latitude and 
Jjongitnde — Fain fearch for the Ifland of La 
^Mira and Garden Iftand-^We make the JJland 
of AJfumptioriy one of the Marianas or Ladrones 
— Defcrtption and true Place of this IJland, both 
in Latitude and Longitude — Error in the ancient 
Chart of the Marianas — We determine tht La- 
-'i titude and Longitude of the Bajhe'e JJlands—^ 
We Anchor in the Harbour of Macao 231 

CHAP. XIV. 

Arrival at Macao — Stay in the Road of Typa— 
Polite Reception of the Governor — Defcription 
of Macao — Its Government — Population — And .. 
Relation with China — Departure from Macao-—' 
Our Land-fall in the IJland of Luconia — Un- 
certainty of the Situation of the Banks of Bulinao, 
Manjiloq, and Marivelle — We enter the Bay of 
Manilla by the South Channel, having tried the 

. North in vain — Marks for working into the' 
Bay of Manilla without Danger — Anchorage 
at Cavita t 248 



im7 lïBï' 



CHAP. 



CONTENTS, VOL. I. 



CHAP. XV. 



FAOB 



jir rival at CavUa — Manner of out Reception hy 
the Commandant — M, Boutin, Lieutenant de 
Faiffeau, is difpatched to the Governor General 
at Manilla — Reception of this Officer — Details 
relative to Cavita and its Arferuil — Defcription 
of Manilla and its Environs-^Its Population — 
Dijadvantages refulting from the Government 
there efiahltjhed — Penances, at which we were 
prefent,, during Pajion Week — Impofts on To- 
oacco^-'Inftitution of the New Philippine Com- 
pany — RefleéHons on thatEftabli/hment — Details 

J relative to the Southemmoft Philippine IJlands-^ 
Continual Wars with the Moors, or Mahome- 
tans, of thefe JJlands — Stay at Manilla — Mili- 
tary State of the IJland ofLucoma 269 



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THE COM- 



THE 



COMPILER'S PREFACE. 



»«^«4 



^X^HE Public, inured to the painful impreiHon 
•*• which muft have been produced by the lofs 
of the two vcflcls employed in the unfortunate 
expedition committed to the charge of la Péroufc, 
will be furprized.at the publication of the journal 
of his voyage. The decree of the Conflituent 
AiTembly, which has ordered the impreffion of 
the charts and memoirs tranfmitted by that na- 
vigator, muil> however, have announced that we 
were not entirely deprived of the fruit of that 
expedition. His fagacity engaged him not only 
to fcizc, but to feek for opportunities of fending 
his journals to Europe. It were to be wiihcd that 
the felf-love of the learned gentlemen, embarked 
with him, had permitted them, in like manner, 
to forego the fruit of their labours ; we fhould not 
have had to regret the almoft total lofs of them. 

La Péroufe, occupied with the difficult and 
numerous details, which the command of an ex- 
pedition as important as perilous rendered neççf- 
fary, conftrained at every ftep to excrcife judg- 

VoL. I. a ment 



tt 

u 






THE COMPILER S PREFACE. 

ment and forcfight, and confcqucntly to modify 
his ideas conformably to circumilanccs, could 
not poflibly collcél in their order, nor digcfl me- 
thodically, the materials which were one day to ' 
enable him to compofe the hiftory of his voyage. 
Thofe materials mull have appeared ftill more 
deflitute of form in the eyes of a Compiler who 
had no part in that enterprize. 

As nothing that can ferve to promote the pro- • 
grefs of the human mind ought to be negleéled in 
voyages of difcovery, pcrfons of fciencc and artifts 
conflitute an ciTcntial part of fuch expeditions : 
on their return, each one arranges his own ma- 
terials, and gives to the particular objecfl in which 
he was employed that degree of pcrfedion of 
which he believes it to be fufceptible : from a 
judicious union of thefe different parts a com- 
plete relation is obtained, in which the particu- 
lars appear in connexion, and every thing is in 
its proper place. In the prcfent cafe, through a 
fatality which has no example, our new Argo- 
nauts have all perilhed ; and I am called upoa 
alone to fupply, by colleding what could be fav- 
cd from the ihip wreck, the true and energetic 
touch of navigators,, who would not have faid a 
word but what confided with their perfonal ex- 
perience. _. i- , i . o^ , ^» 

In complying, not without reludance, with 



• *• . 

m 



THE compiler's PREFACENT, 

the ibllcltations which induced mc to engage in 
this painful though honourable undertaking, it 
•was impoiTible for mc to overlook the difHcultics 
which I had to encounter in a work, all the parts 
of which no human faculties could equally cm- 
brace. 

The Public will undoubtedly regret, with mc, 
that the ex-marine-minifter, Fleurieu, now a 
member of the National Inflitutc and of tho 
Board of Longitude, a fcholar of rare and dif- 
tinguifhed merit, who at firft exprefled a ftrong 
inclination to undertake himfelf the compilation 
of this work, has been obliged by circumflances 
to abandon his defign. 

The fame intereil which induced me to ma- 
nifeft, from the tribune of the Conftituent Af- 
fembly> the moft ardent zeal for the publication 
of this voyage, for the benefit of the refpeélablc 
widow of la Péroufe, prompted me to direét the 
choice of government to a perfon poûeifed of > 
maritime talents capable of replacing the gentle- • 
man who had been firft appointed to the tafk : 
but France had already loft, in a great meafure, 
the moft diftinguifhed of her naval officers ; the 
reft were fully employed, or had voluntarily re- 
tired. The minifter could feledl only one who 
had at leaft made a ftudy of the mathematical 
fciences and of phyfics, the eiTential bafis of fuch 

a 2 a work. 



't. 

< 






If»; THE COMPILER S PREFACE. '- 

a work. The choice of a man poiTeiTed, in a fu- 
perior degree, of thoie fciences was beildcs con- 
formable to the intention of la Péroufe himfelf ; 
for he wrote to one of his friends in words near- 
ly to this effeO: : *' Should my journal be fent to 
" the prefs before my return, let care be taken 
" not to commit the compilation of it to a man 
" of letters : for he will either take upon him to 
** facrificci to an agreeable turn of expreffion the 
" proper term, which may appear to him harfh 
'* and barbarous, but which the feaman and the 
" man of fcience would prefer, and will in vain 
'* look for ; or elfe, putting afide all the nautical 
" and aftronomical details^ and defirous of pre- 
** fcnting to the world an interefting romance 
** merely, he will commit, through want of that 
" kind of knowledge which his education may 
" not have permitted him to acquire, errors 
" which {hall prove fatal to my fucceflbrs : but 
" feledt a compiler well verfed in mathematical 
" fcience, one who is a mafter of calculation, 
" one capable of combining my data with thofc 
" of other navigators, of reélifying the miftakes 
" which may have efcaped me, without making 
" others of his own. Such a compiler will go 
" to the bottom of the fubjeft ; he will fupprcfs 
nothing eiTcntial ; he will prefent the techni- 
cal details, in the blunt and rough, but concife 

«ilile. 



(( 



tc 



THE COMPILER S PREFACE. V 

*' ftilc, of a fcaman ; and he will well difcharge 
** the cruft repofed in him by fupplying my de- 
*' feds, and by publilhing the work fuch as T 
*' myfelf would have wiftied to make it." 

Having made this wifh of the author my con- 
ftant rule, I advife that clafs of readers who have 
amufement for their fole obje£t to proceed no 
farther ; I have not laboured for them, but only 
for the feaman and the man of fcience. 1 h^ye 
endeavoured, in a work whofe fubftance ought 
to have a preference to the form, and in which 
fidelity as to fads and exadnefs of expreffion are 
the moft important qualities, to be clear and pre- 
cifc ; I have niade no facrifice to grace at the ex- 
pence of truth. This acknowledgement is all 
the apology I make, at the lame time that it {o- 
licits the indulgence of the reader. 

In this view I have rcligioufly reipeded the 
character of flyle employed by each author, fim- 
ply adapting its forms to the received ftandard of 
language : but when any idea ftruck me which 
could ferve to conned others, an expreffion which 
might complete an image, render it more promi- 
nent, or give to the phrafeology more harmony, 
without altering the fenfe, I thought myfelf at 
liberty to employ it. 

The work which is now prefented would un- 
doubtedly have been much more valuable, had 

a 3 it 



. V 



Vi THE COMPILER S PREFACE. 

it proceeded from the pen of the cx-minifter, 
Fleurieu, enriched as it muft have been with his 
various and profound literature : I am bound at 
the fame time to declare, that I have confulted 
him whenever 1 found myielf in doubt ; and I 
have ever found in him that complaifance and 
that modefty which are the infeparable atten- 
dants of real fcience and talents. 

If to colleâ:, to difpofe, to digeft in a proper 
manner, all the parts of fuch a work, was a dif- 
ficult undertaking, the details relative to its pub-, 
lication, the pains, the refcarches, the exertions 
of every kind, which the moft indefatigable zeal 
alone could have iupported, and the delays 
neceiTarily occafioned by unforefeen accidents, 
feemed to render it impraflicable. 

The impreffion had been decreed in 179I 
and no commencement was made in 1 7Q3, the 
asra when the labour devolved on me. A paper 
currency continually decreafmg in value, diflblv- 
ed the engagements made with artifts, and 
with undertakers in every department, almoft 
as foon as formed, or induced them to op- 
pofe to my efforts a moft difcouraging indo- 
lence, which formed its calculation on the prof- 
peel of a more fortunate futurity ; an opinion, 
bordering on delirium, which then produced a 
forced accommodation to the times, in contra- 
. I. didion 



. I 



i» 



« « 

VII 



Lifter, 
:h his 
nd at • 

fulted • 
and I ^ 
;e and 
attem- 

proper 
a dif- 
s pub- 
ertions 
lie zeal 
delays 
idents, 

1791, 
)3, the 
^ paper 
diffolv- 
;, and 
almoft 
to op- 
; indo- 
le prof- 
opinion, 
luced a 
contra - 
didion 



THE COMPILER S PREFACE. 

didion to the truth of hiftory, of the denomina- 
tions, the ufages of very different times, laid me 
under the neceffity, in this refpeft, of remaining 
paffive for more than a year ; finally a new pa- 
per money, and embarraffment in the public 
finances, when gold and filvcr again appeared in 
circulation: thefe have been the phyfical and 
moral caufes of the delay to which I have been 
forced to fubmit. 

In order to enable me to eonciliate the diffi- 
culties of compilation, arifing out of the difîiculr 
ties of the moment, it had been powerfully re- 
commended to me to write the hiftory of this 
voyage in the third perfon. By thb* means tranf- 
formed into an hiftorian, and appropriating to 
myfelf the materials intrufted to me, I removed 
the navigator to a diftance, that I might place 
myfelf between the reader and him. This pro- 
pbfal has not feduced my. vanity ; I have facri- 
ficed it to the intereft which always infpires the 
man who relates what he has felt, who defcribes 
the painful fituations through which he has paiT- 
cd, and renders you the affociate of his pleafures 
as well as of his diftrefTes. 

If circumftances have involved me in fetters 
and obftacles during the progrefs of my labour, 
the refult will at leaft demonftrate that Govern- 
ment has not ccafed to protect the arts and 

'» a 4 - fcicnccs 



V , 



i 



-iiil 



via THE COMPILER s PREFACE. 

fcienccs through the whole courfc of the moil 
aflonifhing of revolutions, which has excited 
againft it a war as general as oppreilive. 

1 have explained the nature and difficulties of 
the undertaking ; it is now incumbent on me to 
fay fomething refpeéling the form of the work, 
of its diftribution, and of the care employed in 
the execution in every material point. 

The title of Voyage round the World which I 
have given it, though not in ftridnefs of ipccch 
due to it till the return of la Peroufe into one of 
our French ports, will affuredly not be difputed, 
as we may confider a voyage round the world to 
be completed, when, taking his departure from 
Europe, the navigator has arrived in China after 
doubling Cape Horn and croiling the South Sea. 
Befides, have not our navigators fumifhed, dur- 
ing the year of naval refearch which followed 
their arrival in China, a career much longer, 
more brilliant and more perilous, than that of 
fimply their return to Europe ? 'ïi « r: .:^^ 

The work, coniifting of four volumes in oc- 
tavo, and of an Atlas in quarto *, is divided in the 
following manner : 
.The firft volume contains all the preliminary 

* The Paris edition, from whence the plates of this 
tranflation are engraved, is four vols. 4to. and a folio vo> 
lume of plates. 

' ^ a '* ' ' pieces 



THE COMPILER S PRFACE. IX 

pieces relative to the expedition; I have only 
added to it the tranilation of a Spaniih voyage, 
the manufcript copy of which has been tranf- 
mitted by la Péroufe, and which I could place 
no where elfc without rendering the volumes of 
a fize too unequal. 

A celebrated author refcued from oblivion the 
magnanimous felf-facrifice of d'Affas, who de- 
voted his own life to favc the French army, 
calling aloud. Here am /, Auvergne, that is the 
enemy. The Society of Natural Hiftory at Paris 
had the merit of fixing the attention of the re- 
prefentatives of the nation on the expedition of 
la Péroufe, by the petition which they prefented 
the 22d of January 1 701. The National AfTem-» 
bly delayed not a moment to take it into confi- 
deration, however important the other fubjedb of 
deliberation in which they were engaged, i 

The two decrees which were the refult of thb, 
as honourable for the Affembly as for the perfons 
who were the objeft of them, are placed at the 
head of the work. They breathe humanity and 
fcnfibility, and will announce for ever, to every 
one who fhall form the refolution of walking in 
the footftcps of la Péroufe : " When thou fhalt 
" have performed thy career through the quickr 
" fands and dangers of every kind which furround 
*^ thee, thou mayeft reft aflured, ihouldft thou 



■M 



^ 

:-.{( 



È 



THE COMPILER S PREFACE. 



■►^^ 



%. 



•f 



« 



" fall by the way, that a grateful country will 
** honourably enrol thy name in the temple of 
" Fame." 

I have not reftriéled myfelf to the pradice of 
preferving the names of only the officers and 
fcientific men employed in fimilar expeditions : 
the publication of an exaél lift of the fliips' crews 
appeared to me to be an a<ft more conformable 
to juftice and to the fpirit of the French govern- 
ment ; and I farther thought that this regifter 
might be henceforward the only mortuary ex- 
tract which the families of our unfortunate na- 
vigators could produce. i 

Thé inftru<5lions and the geographical notes 
which follow, for which 1 am indebted to the ex- 
minifter of the marine, Fleurieu, are a model too 
precious to be with-held from the public eye : 
they conftitute befidcs the only reply that I mean 
to give to a note of George Forfter, which has a 
tendency to difcredit the motives purely relative 
to the advancement of the fciences, which de- 
termined this expedition. It fills me with regret 
to think that a man whom 1 efteem Ihould have 
expreffcd himfelf thus in his Hijiortcal and Pk^ 
turefque Tour along the Banks of the Rhine, vol. i. 
pag. 311, of the French tranflation. r .[ .. 

" At the period when the interefting and ill-. 
" fated la Péroufe took his departure to make 
ib\i - ' • ^ " new 



t 



'^ 



» 



' will 
)le of 

ice of 
5 and 
ions : 
crews 
mablc 
)vcrn- 
îgifter 
ry cx- 
,te na- 

- -■ A 

notes 
:he ex- 
iel too 
: eye : 

mean 
1 has a 
elative 
ch de- 

rcgret 



THE COMPILERS PREFACE. 

<* new conquefts for commerce and philofophy, 
** a minifter prefcnted to the Council a memorial 

V refpcding the incalculable advantages of that 
" entcrprize. This memorial, though a long 
<* one, was read with avidity ; ncverthelefs it con- 
" tained but a fmglc idea, and here it is : Would 
** you wt/hijtre, faid the minifter, to divert the at- 
** tention of your fuhje^is from that dangerous an- 
** gkmania, from that pajpon for liberty ^ the de^ 
" dared enemy of peace and good order ; amufe 
" them with new ideas, deceive their hours of lei/ure 
by images, whofe poignant variety may furni/h 
aliment to their frivolity. It were much better 
that theyfhould employ themf elves in cotUemplat" 
ing the ridiculous tricks of a Chinefe monkey, than 
<* that they fhoujfd perftft in the prefent fafhion of * 
" running mad after the horfes and the philofophers 
** of England'* 

The fécond and third volumes comprehend the 
journal of the totality of the voyage, and tables 
of the track of the two frigates, in which is to « 
be found the refult of the aftronomical and me- 
teorological obfervations. fHm».n.'^> jh/>r^ ^%%d4. k. • 
We {land indebted to the progrefs made in 
aftronomy for the means of determining, at pre- 
fent, the longitude at fea to a high degree of prc- 
ciflon. To announce that the aftronomer Da- 
gelet, a member of the Academy of Sciences, un- 



*'. . « 



(( 



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it 



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■ïîî- 



Xll 



THE COMPILER S PREFACE. 



dcrtook the fuperintcndancc of this part of the 
labour, is to infpire the moft complete confidence 
reipeding its exadnefs, and that of the tables and 
charts which refult from it. ^'^ > 

If the journal does not in every point coincide 
with the tables of the fhip*s track and with the 
charts, it arifes from the impoflibility of delay- 
ing the imprcffion of the journal, till they were 
completely verified. At any rate thefe differ- 
ences are neither frequent nor coniîderable ; when 
they occur, the preference ought to be given to 
the tables, and efpecially to the charts» which 
were executed under the diredion of the firfl 
hydrographer of the marine, Buache, a member 
of the National Inflitute and of the Board of 
Longitude. I am bound here to acknowledge, 
with particular refped, the folicitude which that 
gentleman has difcovered to fupport rne in this 
important part of my engagement. 

Through the whole courfe of the work, the 
longitudes, which are indicated by rio particulaf 
meridian, are reckoned from that of Paris. 

I have endeavoured to be cxad in the orthor 
graphy of proper names of perfons and places ; 
but thefe lafl being as various in the relations, as 
the languages of their authors are different j it 
was necefTary to adopt, in tranfcribing fuch 
^ords indicative and merely of convention, the 
;^iu:jr%.ij orthography 



-'^ 



THE COMPILER S PREFACE. 






of the 
idcncc 
les and 

)incidc 
th the 
delay- 
Y were 
differ- 
when 
ven to 
which 
le firft 
lember 
)ard of 
/ledge, 
:h that 
in this 



orthor 
places ; 
ons, as 
;nt; it 
5 fuch 
3n, the 
graphy 



orthography tnoû generally received, by combin- 
ing it with the idiom of the country. s 

The fourth vohime is compofed of memoirs, 
or detached pieces tranfmitted to government by 
the fcientific gentlemen employed in the expedi- 
tion, and of thofe which I was able to collc<fl. 
I had, for this purpofe, made application to the 
late Academy of Sciences, and to individuals 
whom I fufpeAcd to have kept up a correfpond- 
cnce with the co-operators of la Peroufe, in order 
to obtain fiich memoirs as they might have com- 
municated : but this labour was fruitlefs ; I could 
procure only thofe of which I found fomc fcattered 
fragments in the journal of phyfxcks, and I was at 
pains to place them together in this volume. 

I have added, in the courfe of the work, a va- 
riety of notes, wherever I thought they could be 
ufeful; and I have diftinguilhed them by the 
initial letters of the words. Compiler's note.* 

In order to facilitate refearch, I have terminat- 
ed the work by a general table of the fubjcdb 
contained in it. 

The number, the magnitude and the beauty of 
the engravings and charts, made me determine 
to give them together in a feparate atlas, and of 
a larger fize. I thought that a national work, 
executed with fo much care, well merited fuch a 

* In this tranflation, by the words— ir^wj^ Editer. 

prefer vative 



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# 



^ 



^*^" 



XÎV 



THE COMPILER S PrtEFACE. . 

prcfervativc precaution. If it is not generally 
approved, I have this to fay for myfelf, that fuch 
is the form of the beautiful edition of Cook's 
Third Voyage, publifhcd by order, and at the ex- 
pence» of the Englifh government. 

I have been under the neccflity, in order to 
bring the work at length to conclufion, to dif- 
tribute among a great number of engravers, the 
drawings at firft committed to five artifts of emi- 
nent ability : from thi^has refulted an unavoid-. 
able defeél in point of uniformity and perfection ; 
I have done my utmoft to render this as imper- 
ceptible as it could be. 

If this work be fuch as the Public had a right 
to expedt from the materials put into my hands, 
and after the unexpeéled lofs of our navigators, 
my moft pleafing recompcnfe will be to reflet, 
that I have fulfilled the views of Government, 
and that I contributed my efforts towar<l that 
monument of gratitude which it meant to rear 
to their memory. ^ 



:i.-'iu 



'■tr-i; '^ 



•»■ - - - H 









/.n^^A-Sw-V^v. • v<,5i ;; ... 









h' 



PRELi- 



w 



PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE 



BY 



THE COMPILER. 






r 



i 



ALL Europe, in the favourable reception given 
to the rehitions of the modern voyages round 
the world, appears to have manifeilcd a wifli to pro- 
mote the progrefs of, the phyfical and natural fci- 
ences: but, it mull be acknowledged, among the 
numerous amateurs of works of this kind, fome have 
nothing in view but amufement merely ; the objcél 
of others is to ellabliih, by means of a felf-compla- 
cent comparifon between our manners and cuftoms, 
and thofe of favagcs, the fuperiority of civilized man 
over the reft of mankind : men of fcience alone, and 
they are few in number, fearch for and find in them, 
almofl always, materials which conduce to the in- 
creafe of their ftock of knowledge. *^ 

The relations of voyages of difeovery may be reck- 
oned among the mofl interefting books of modern 
hiftory, Man, naturally fond of what is new and 
extraordinary, tranfports himfelf in thought into dif- 
tant regions; he identifies himfeif with the naviga- 
tor ; he partakes in his dangers, his pains, his plea- 
fures, and becomes his infeparable companion from 
the diverfity of objects which attach him, and which 
furnifh a confiant fupply of aliment to his curiofity. 

In this lafl point of view, there can be no doubt 
that extracts from voyages, fuch as thofe which Pre- 
voft has given us, diiengaged from all the dry and 
tirefome details which refpedl aflronomy and navi- 
gation, may be more agreeable to read than the works 

at 



» 



>|pi 



^K 



* 



*• # 



»rt 



Hf..- 



m 
#.»• 



IRA PRELIMINARY DISCOURS!?. » ^ 

at large ; but fuch cxtradls arc not the Tources front 
which the mariner and the man of fcicnce derive 
their fupplics, bccaufc the materials thus paflcd 
through the crucible of the man of letters, from 
which they iflTued light and brilliant, no longer pre- 
fent the folid principle which conftitutcs fciencc, and 
which is deftroyed by the change it has undergone. 

The authors or tranflators of works of the fame 
kind with the prefent, have almoft all of them given 
an enumeration of the voyages which preceded the 
one they were publifhing, and of the difcoveries 
which had refulted from them. They thus exhibited 
a piélure of the fucceffive acquilitions which geo- 
graphy had made, at the fame time that they indi- 
cated the works which gave an account of them. I 
iTiall not repeat this detailed enumeration, which may 
be fouj;id elfewhere, but fatisfy myfelf with giving a 
more complete chronological lift of the principal na- 
vigators to whom we are indebted for difcoveries in 
the South Sea : 



Magellan, a Portugucze, in the fervîcc of Spain 

Garcia de Loaes or Loayfa, a Portugucze, idem 

Alphonzo de Salazar, a Spaniard 

Alvar Suvacdra, a Spaniard 

Ferdinand Grijalva and Alvarcdo, Spaniards 

Gaétan, a Spaniard 

Alvar de Mendana, a Spaniard 

Juan Fernandez, a Spaniard 

Drake, an EnçUlhinan 

Thomas Candifh, (Cavendifh) an Englifhman 

Sir Richard Hawkins, an F.nglifhman 

Alvar de Mendana, a Spaniard 

Oliver de Nort, a Dutchman 

Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, and Luis Vacs de 

Torres, Spaniards - < , 

George Spelberg, a Dutchman 
Le Maire and Schouten, Dutchmen 
L^Hermite, a Dutchman 
Abel Tafman, a Dutchman 
Anthony la Roche, a Frenchman 
Cowley, an £ngU(hman 



} 



1519 
15L'5 
1525 
1526 
1537 
1542 
1667 
1576 
1577 
1586 
1594 
1595 
1598 

160G 



1614 

- 1616 

- 1623 

- 1642 

- 1675 

- 1683 
Dampicr, 



» . 



1519 
1525 
1525 
1526 
1537 
1542 
1667 
157G 
1577 
1586 
1594 
1595 
1598 

1606 

1614 
1616 
1623 
1642 
1675 
1683 
)ampicr, 



• V'j 



xvii 

1687 
1687 
1689 
1693 
1699 
1703 
170» 
170rt 
1712 
1715 

1719 



PRELIMINAllT DISC0UR8R. 

Danipler, an iLn|;lifhman - 

DuvicH, an Enghfhman ^ • 

John Strong, an Englilhraart - - > « 

Gemelli Carreri, a Neapolitart * - 

fieauchéne Gouin, a Krcnclimaii 
William Funnel, an Engiiihman ^ 

AVood Roecr, an Kngliiuinan *• 

LquIs Feuillet-, a Frenchman • - 
Frczier, a Frenchman - • 

(jentll de la Baibinais, a Frenchman 
John Cliperton aftd and George Shelvocke, j 
Englilhmcn - - } 

Ro^gewein, a Dutchman 
Anion, an F-nglilhman m 

Le Hen-Uvignon, a Frenchman - - • 

Byron, an Englifhman 
Wallis, an Englifhman 

Carteret, an Engliftiman •> , * * 

Pages, a Frenchman - - - 

Bougainville, a Frenchman 
Cook, an Engliftiman »• 

Survillc, a Frenchman * - * 

Marion and du Clefmeur, Frenchmen 
Cook, an F^ngliftiman 
Cook, Clerke and Gore, Englifhmen 

Cook's laft voyage was hitherto known only by the 
tragical end of the illullrious commander of that ex- 
pedition, when France, availing lierfelf of the leifure 
procured by the peace which hud juft been conclud- 
ed, confidered it as n duty which (lie owed to her 
own rank among the firll maritime powers, and ftill 
more to her zeal, and to the means which (he pof- 
feflcd for the advancement of the fcicnces, to ifliie 
orders for a voyage of difcovery, that (he might con- 
cur in carrying to perfedlion the knowledge of the 
globe which we have fo long inhabited. If progrefs 
has been made in modern times in the explor;^tion of 
unknown regions, if the pofition of each of the 
known parts of the globe is henceforth fixed, in a 
word, if every ftep vvc take biings us nearer to the 
objcdl in view, we owe all to the improvement of 

Vol. I. bi ' aftronon\ical 






1722 

- 1741 

- 1747 

- 1764 

- 1766 

- 1766 

- 1766 
--•1766 

- 1769, 

- 1769 

- 1771 

- 1772' 

- 1775 



u m 



\ I 
♦ 



é 



;isi;; 



Kvlii tRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 

aftronomical knowledge. This fcience gives us, in 
the dillances of certain "ftars, whofe motion is calcu- 
lated with extreme preciflon, an infallible bafis by 
which we are enabled to determine, with an accuracy 
fafficicnt for the fecurity o( navigation, the longi- 
tude in the middle of an immenfe ocean, where, till 
now, it had been impoffible to fettle it, except to an 
approximation in a great meafure arbitrary, which 
expofed the navigator to mi flakes of ferious import- 
ance. This benefit of aftronomy enfures, for the 
time to come, the fuccefs of our expeditions, and 
the perfe6ling of geography. 

Means undoubtedly exift for accelerating this 
happy refult of Scientific refearch ; and this is the 
place to fuggcft fome ideas refpeéling an objeâ of fo 
great magnitude. Thefe means might be combined 
into a iyftem, in a fpecies of Gongrefs to be compofed 
df» agents commiflioned by the principal maritime 
powers, which might wi(h to participate in the glory 
of fuch an enterprize. . , i 

^^ The Congrefs, confifiing of aflronomers, hydro- 
graphers, and feamen, would make it their bufinefs 
to retrace all the ancient difcoveries not complete- 
4y verified till now ; they would prefent a pic- 
ture of allthe parts of the globe where difcoveries 
•are Hill to be made, to be completed, or details to he 
'coinmunicated ; they would prepare a view of the 
ifeafons in every latitude of the two hemifpheres, of 
the prevailing winds, of the raoonfons, of the cur- 
Tents, of the refreftiments, of the affiftance to be ex- 
ceeded, &c. 

iOpon fuch a bafis as this, a general inftru6^ion 
might be draWn up to be given to the commanders 
of a great expedition ; and in order to prevent the 
direélion of feveral projeéls to the fame object, the 
totality of difcoveries to be made might be divided 
among the maritime powers, regard being had to the 
'à^; ;;,::^£ii' .ro jrfi u r ,ii - . ,polièffions 



i 



^ 



PRELIMINARY DIS^ÇOURSE. 



XIX. 



us, 111 

calcu- 
las by 
luracy 
long^- 
;re, till 
t to an 
which 
m port- 
er the 
m, and 

ig this 
s is the 
aof fo 
mbined 
impofed 
laritime 
le glory 

hydro- 
bulinefs 
mplete- 

a pic- 
coveries 
ils to be 

of the 
leres, of 
the cur- 
o be ex- 



|)oflè{rions and re^tlcments whiqh might refpedively 
î^cilitatc the execv<tion of fuch enterprifes. 

if England, Sp^in, Holland, Portugal, Ruffia, 
the United States, and France, were to agree to de- 
fray the expence of ^n expedition every three years, 
it is next to a certainty that geography, in lefe than 
twenty years, wguld be brought tp 9- ftate q( perfec- 
tion. 

France would unqueftionably have continued to 
favour the prqgrcfs of geography, unlefs, for feverai 
years paft, interefts of a far different importance, 
and an expenfive war, uudertai^en to maintain them, 
had entirely occupied her, and concontrat^ed all her 
refources : but peace, by recalling in a great mea- 
fure the attentiqn of government to the arts and 
fcicnces, promifes us new expeditions to be jfet on 
foot to promote them. 

When fuch enterprizes are fet afloat with enlarg- 
ed views, all the fcicnces are gainers by them. 
Though the philofopher is not fond of Ihiking ins 
place, the refults of voyages do not the lefs on thjat 
account become a province of his domain : prompt 
to collect the obfervations of the mariner, he makes 
himfelf mailer of his ideas, unfolds theni, çonneâ;s 
them with the general iyftem, by analyzing.and claf- 
fing the fcnfations which produced them, and thus 
give a new life to all the parts of the fcicncc. 

If navigation thus improved muft powerfully con- 
tribute to extend the boundaries of human know- 
ledge, it is the part of government to ftimulate in 
this refpedl the efforts of talent, to reward its fuc- 
ccfîès, to collect ai)d publifh the difcoveries, to re- 
ceive and to refle6t all the irradiations of thought, 
all the views of genius, and to attach to itièlf, oyer 
every point of the globe, the men who by their me- 
rit and their labours appertain to every country and 
to e-ery age, without regard to their opinion refpecft- 
ing events already removed to a diftance from us, 

• ' h :i and 



XX 



PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 



and of which nothing but the refult need to be 
fcen, and which may become favourable, when on 
the re-eftablifhment of general peace the propofed 
plan may be put in execution. o^;' ^ '''■ 

This plan would, bring forward the difcuffion of 
fomc important queftions in geography, and particu-^ 
larly of that of an univerfal meridian ; for there is 
no geographer but has experienced' the inconvc-' 
niences arifing from the difference of meridians on 
which our charts have been laid down. It is necef- 
fary to guard continually againft falling into errors ; 
the fmalleft comparifon to fettle between two me- 
ridians requires an operation of addition or fub- 
traétion. This confufion is occafioned by naviga- 
tors employing refpe6lively, in the formation of their 
charts, the meridian adopted by their nation, or even 
by their frequently affuming one of their own. On 
the other hand, fome in reckoning longitude pro- 
ceed from the weft, others from the eaft, counting 
up to 3Ô0 degrees. Others, and they arc the majori- 
ty among the moderns, have divided their longitudes 
into eaftern and wcftern : now, the difference be- 
tween the meridians of the obfervatorics of Europe 
being the fame for the meridians of their antipodes, 
it is found, by this divifion to the eaft and to the 
weft, that one longitude was, as in our hcmifphere, 
wcftern to the one, whereas it was eaftern to the 
other. From this miftakes have refultcd, which it 
would be eafy to avoid by reckoning longitude uni- 
formly up to 3()0 degrees, and by a general agree- 
ment to proceed weftward. The only objcélion 
againft this mode of reckoning is, that it does not 
conftantly give, by the progreftion of the degrees, 
an idea of the diftance ; that is, that up to 160 de- 
grees, the meridian of the antipodes, it is clearly 
perceptible that degrees mark diftance ; but on pro- 
ceeding from that point, every one is not in a con- 
edition to comprehend that at 200 degrees of longi- 
tude, 






XXI 



to be 




hen on 


ropofcd 


ffion of 




)articu* 




.here is 




iconvc-' 


É 


ians on • 


m 


I necef- 




errors ; 




wo mc- 




or fub- 




naviga- 


o( their 


or even 




n. On 


ide pro- 


ounting 


majori- 


igitudes V 


ncc be- ^ 


Europe 




itipodes, 


•-. ^'- 


I to the 


" « 


lifphere, 




to the 




vhich it 




jde uni- 




1 agree- 


-"■ 


)bicélion 




loes not 




degrees. 


\ 


160 de- 


'■k 


> clearly 


t on pro- ^ 


n a con- "^ 


)f longi- 1 


tude, 


u 



PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 

tnde, the diftance from the meridian where the 
reckoning commenced is lefs than at 180, whereas 
by faying l6o degrees of eaft longitude, inftead of 
'400 degrees of longitude, one fenfibly perceives 
where he is. .;^fl> '.nr,; 

It innft be admitted that the objeélion againft 
numbering the degrees up to 3Ô0 is very feeble, re- 
gard being had to the merit of a procefs fimple and 
fccured from error ; a merit which fhould make us 
overlook the inconiidcrable number of perfons who 
will not learn to comprehend the fmallnefs of the, 

didance between their . own meridian and that of 

/ • * . "»< , . 



'JSnO 



**' r%vt fr »f"| 



33y 

The advantage refulting from the mode of reck- 
oning longitude up to 300 degrees, is however a 
matter of little importance compared to that of the 
adoption of a common meridian to fcirve, in future,' 
as the bafis of the geography of all nations. It is 
abundantly fcnfible that the felf love of each of them 
will make inceflTant efforts to cry up and prefer its 
own. Putting afide every conlideration of this fort, 
tlie meridian which, it would appear, is the mod 
proper to afîlnne, in that it pafîès over very little 
land, and leaves the meridians of the maritime pow- 
ers of Europe to the eaû, is hat of the remarkable 
peak which Nature feems to have placed in the midft 
of the ocean, to ferve as a pharos to navigators ; I 
mean the peak of Teneriffe. > A pyramid conftrué^-. 
ed at the expence of the aflbciated powers might be 
raifcd on the point through which the meridian line 
fhould pjifs ; and aboard of aftronomers, chofcn from 
among the members of the propofed congrefs, would 
determine, by a feries of operations, the exaét dif- 
ferences between this common meridian, and that of 
the grand obfervatories 6f the two worlds. 

Thcfe operations, to which the perfeétion of the 
means we poilefs would enfure the higheft degree 
of aceiiraey, mufl remove all uncertainty of calcu- 

b 3 lation. 



liM 



Fà'éttM'M4HY Diëcôurié'É. 



i 



lâtiôri, réfjjiecfting thé c|uffntities to be addtd or ftib-. 
tfa6!ed, in ctxmparing meridian' wrth melfidian ; they 
^ôuiM ârtriihilate the difièrencés produced in the re- 
fold of their com pariibii obtained at different epochs, 
and which may be taken for errors, if we lofë iîght 
ôif thÎ6' fdéïj that ftfîronomers, after rtèw obiêrVtftiôfts, 
madte with ^eatér attention, aiïd by the affiftance of 
bettet iti^uiMûtÉf have changed the relations of 
diûàù^ fettled between the Meridians of the obfer- 
Vatories of Paris and Greenwich. That diftance, 
\(rhich was fixed at 2^ I9', is now afcertained to be 
Q^ 20^ : tvAy], if a rigorous precifion were exa<fted, it 
ought to be carried to 2° 20/ 15^ or 9' 2l" of 
tiiWCi mâkihg allowance fot the flattening, fuppof- 
iftg it T^rVij according to the ôbfervâtions of the 
âfti-bÀônîcfi Lalande, with whôfé rnerit the world is 
well aeqttâiKftëd, and whofe calculations unite, to a 
Very high degree^ perfpicuity and precifion. 

The idea of a common meridiàft, which I j^refènt 
dt the heaki of a journal of an important voyage, 
arofe from the reflexions fuggeflfed to me by the ex- 
amination of that work, while employed 'in thé la- 
bour of compilation ; it fmiled upon me as I proT 
cççded in that undertaking : it pofîibly may rtot be 
tiniverfally relifhed ; but I mufl be permitted to form» 
a wifh for its adoption, till the inconveniences^ttend- 
ihg it, if there be any, are poin1?Rd out. 

Thii neW meridian leaves, at Icafl, our immenfe 
geographical materials in all their value ; were it 
not for that, the idea of it ought to be rejc<Sted, as 
i reject:, for the prefent, though with no fmall re- 
g;ret, that of tbo new divifion of the circle, becaufe 
it prefents- tbe ferious deftéï of almoft annihilating 
them. This needs to be explained, and cannot be 
çonfidered as a digrefîion from my fubje6i:. 

Morç tbam any one I am acquainted with the 

partifan of decimal calculation, which has been 

treated with fo much accuracy in the writings of 

. ' . the 



«* 



XXIU 



or fub- 
; they 
thç ré-* 
epochs, 
h fight 

ancç of 
ions of 
; obfer- 
iftance, 
d to be 
6led, it 
21" of 
fuppof- 
oC the 
^^orld is 
te, to a 



PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 

the learned and ingenious Borda, as well as in tboffî 
of the other members of the temporary board of 
weights and meafures; I cannot however difguife th^ 
inconveniences of the divilion of the circle into 40Q 
degrees. They are fuch, that it would require thf 
lapfe of feveral ages, from the epoch of its genepw 
adoption, completely to obliterate theno,, during 
which it would be neceflatfy to preferve both divi» 
fions, in order to facilitate the labour of comparing 
our new charts with thofe of other powers, and: wijth 
the ancient materials in geography. 

If the portion of time known by the name of 
day admits of the decimal divilion, the fun„ in his 
annual revolution, caonot be reduced tp it. ^nqç 
there is, therefore, in nature, a boundary at which 
decimal calculation ftops, and as it cannot divide the 
period of a folar revolution, wherefore ibould it bç 
adapted to the cUviiion of the circle ? 

It will be alleged, that this divilion of the circlç 
into 400 degrees is perfectly in unifon with that of 
the day into ten hours, of the hour into JOG mi^ 
mîtes, -and x)f the minute into tOO féconds; which 
makes one degree of the circle correfpbnd to two 
minutes and a half of time. It v^'ill be farther ob- 
fcrved, and with good reafon, that the balis of all 
meafurements, called mèfre, being taken in nature, 
and formed of the ten-millionth part of the quarter 
of the meridian, there relults from it a natural de- 
cimal divilicMi, as the degree is found to contain 
a bundled thoulknd metres, or twenty lçagues*of 
five thoufand metres each : but thefe advantages, 
and that of prefenting, in general, a confiant fcale 
in the degree, and its fubdivifions, cannot counter- 
balance the inconveniences which refult from the 
changes propofed. 

The grand idea of rendering weights tnd mea- 
fures uniform, has produced the fublime one of 
looking for the ftandard of them in nature. That' 

b 4 flandard 



XXIV 



PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 



ilandard is precifely fuch, in faél, as we would have 
found it among a nation well informed and new to 
us, had it made the fame progrefs in the arts and 
fciences, and had it conceived, as we have done, the 
projcift of eftablîfliinfç the uniformity of weights 
and meafures, by feeking the bafis of it in nature. 
f>, -What opportunity more favourable for difcuffing 
tïie advantages and the inconveniences of adopting 
an uniformity of weights and meafures, and that of 
the decimal divifion, than that of a congrcfs, con- 
lifting of the reprefentativcs of the moft illuftrious 
fcientific focieties in the world ! If the different 
governments would agree to admit this uniformity 
in every cafe in which it would be deemed ufeful, 
its fimultapeous and univerfal reception would double 
the benefit of it ; and then would be the time to 
make the greateft effort to overcome the difficulties 
of its application to the divifion of the circle ^nd the 
meafurement of time. 

What power preferably to France would hence- 
forth, by an influence equally extenfive and com- 
manding, realize the plan of fuch a congrefs ? 
As grca:t in her enterprizes as in her conceptions, 
in her operations as in her views, fhe determined, 
as 1 have faid, to fet on foot a voyage of dif • 
covery; the proje<ft agreed upon was adopted 
by government : the preliminaiy inftructions will 
demonfirate that it was as vaft as ably conceived, 
in the totality and in the details. A commander 
i n chief, of acknowledged ability, was requifite 
to condu6l the expedition : La Péroufe was fc- 
le(5led. His exertions, and his conftant fucceflès, 
in military marine enterprizes, had inured him to 
the approach of every fpecies of danger, and ren- 
dered him fitter than any man to purfue the painful 
and perilbus career of a long navigation over un- 
known feas, and through the midft of countries in- 
Ji'abited by barbarous nations. | feel an obligation 

tQ 






PRELIMINARY DISOQURSB, 



XXV 



d have 
lew to 
ts and 
ne, the 
v'cights 
ture. 
cuffing 
lopting 
that of 
s, con- 
jftrious 
ifferent 
formity 
ufeful, 
double 
time to 
[lenities 
md the 

hencC'- 
com- 
ngrefs ? 
sptions, 
rmined, 
of dif- 
idopted 
ns will 
iceivcd, 
mander 
equifite 
;\'as fc- 
icceflcs, 
him to 
îd ren- 
painful 
rer un- 
tries in- 
ligtition 
ta 






to the reader, on this fubje<^, to enter into certain 
details reipc(^ling tl?e life of this çclebrateçj ^pd jU- 
fated officer. 

John Francis Galaup de la Péroufe, commodore 
in the navy of France, was born at Albi, in the year 
1741. Admitted at an early age intq the marine 
fchool, his firft attention was turned toward the il- 
luftrious navigators who had raifed the reputation of 
their country, and from almoft the firft moment he 
formed the refolution o( purfuing their tract; but, 
enabled to advance but by flow degrees in this diffi- 
cult career, he prepared himfelf, by feeding his mind 
in advance with the fruit of their labours, to become 
one day their equal. Hq had united betimes experi- 
ence to theory. He already completed eighteen naval 
campaigns, when the command of the laft expedi- 
tion was cpnfided to him. Appointed midfliipman 
November 19, 1756, he fcrved at firft five cam- 
paigns in a war with England : the firft four on 
board the Célèbre, the Pomone, the Zephyr, and the 
Cert; and the fifth on board the Formidable, com- 
ïnanded by St. André du Verger. This vefïèl was 
pne of the fquadron under the command of the Ma- 
refchal de Conflans, when it fell in withi the Englifh 
fleet oft' Bellifle. The fliips of the rear divifion, the 
Magnifique, the Hero, and the Formidable, were 
attacked and furroundàd by eight or ten fail of the 
enemy. The engagement commenced and became 
general ; it was fo defperate, that eight yeflels, Eng- 
lifli Or French, went to the bottom during the aélion, 
or run a-ground, and were burnt on the coaft of 
France. The Formidable alone, more roughly 
handled than the reft, was taken after a vigorous 
refiftance. La Pcroufe difplayed Angular bravery in 
this combat, and was feverely wounded. . ^^ 

Rcftored to his couptry, he ferved in the fame rank 
three campaigns more on board the Robattc : here 



1 



1 



II 



XXVI PRELIMINARY DTSCOUKSE. 

he diftingiiiOied himfelf in feveral trying fitiiatiôhs| 
and his rifing merit began- to attraél the attention of 
his fupcriors. 

Odober ift, 1764, he was promoted to the rank of 
iignal officer. A man of a lefs active difpofition would 
have enjoyed the fweets of peace ; but a paflion for 
the pFofeffion wRich he had embraced, permitted 
him not to remain unemployed. It is fuMcient, in 
order to form a judgment of his indefatigable acti- 
vity, to cad an eye over the outline of his military 
and naval exiftence from that era up to the year 1777 ^ 
He was. 

In 1765, on board the Adour, armed en flute; 10 

1766, on board Le Gave, armed en flutes 1*^4^3 

1767, he commanded T Adour, armed en ^ute 5 

1768, he commanded the Dorothée y ^ ^iyM tnjp 

1769, he commanded the Bugalet ; iâî^/aife 
1771,00 board the Belle-Pdule; ^^ iff sagiuq 
1772, ibid; •-'•^ ■^ ' '-*-' r ...J-jD-'ijHl-biSKjë 

He commanded the Seme, en flute, 
and Les Deux Amis, on the eoaft of 
Malabo; his lieutenant^s commiit 
lion bears date April 4th, 1777V 



Î.' 



jpff* 



T 



3773, 
1774, 
1775, 
1770, 
1777, 



JV/ 



' The year 1778 rekindled the war between France 
and England ; hoftilities commenced June 1 7th, by 
the capture'of the Belle-Poule. 

In the year 1 779, La Péroufe commanded the Aroa^ 
zone, one of the fquadron under the command of vice- 
admiral d'Eftain-g. Appointed to cover the landing 
of the troops at Grenada, he anchored within piftoU 
fhot of one of the enemy's batteries. In the engage- 
ment of this fquadron with that of admiral Byron, 
he was charged with carrying the orders of the com- 
mander in chief over the whole line. Finally, he 
captured, on the coall of New-England, the Ariel 

frigate. 



-*: 



PRELIMFNARY DISCOURSE. 



XXVlt 



fiigate, and affiftcti in the capture of the Expcri- 
incnt. 

Appointed Captain April 4th, 1780, he com- 
manded the frigate Aftrea, when being on a cruize 
with the Hermione, commanded by Captain La 
Touche, he fought, July 2 Hi, a very obftitiate battle 
with fix Englifh (liips of war, fix leagues off the north 
cape of rifle Royale. Five of theje fhips, the Al- 
legiance of 14 guns, the Vernon of the fiwnc force, 
the Charleftowu of 2», the Jack of 14, and the 
Vulture of 20, formed a line to receive them ; the 
fixth, the Thompfon of 18 guns, kept out of can- 
non (hot. The two frigates advanced together upon 
the enemy with all their fails fet. It was feven 
o'clock in the evening when the firft gun was fired. 
They extended the Englifh line to leeward, to cut 
off all hopes of efcaping. The Thompfoîi kept ftill 
to windward. The two firigatcs manoeuvred id dex- 
teroufiy, that the Englifll little fquadron was fooiv 
thrown into diforder: in little more than half an 
Jiour, the Charlefl:own, which bore the commodore's 
pendant, and the Jack, were obliged to fi:rike ; the 
other three fhips woukl have (hared the fkme fate; had 
not the night favcd them from the purfuit of the 
two fi-igates. "* '> 

The year after, the French government formed 
the defign of taking and deftroying the Englifh fet- 
tlemants in Hudfon's Bay. La Péroufe was deemed 
a proper perfon for executing this painful fervice, in 
feas of difficult navigation. He received orders to fail 
from Cape Français, May 31ft, 1782. He com- 
manded the Sceptre, of 74 guns, and was attended 
by the Afl'rea and Engageante frigates, of 36 gunS 
each, commanded by captains De Langle and La 
Jr-lUe : there were embarked on board this fquadron 
200 infantry, 40 artillery men, four field pieces, two 
mortars, and 300 bombs. 

July 17th, became up with Refolution Ifiand ; 

but 



XXVIU 



PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 



II 



but fcarccly had he advanced 25 leagues In Iliidfon's 
Strait, when he found his (hips entangled among 
the ice, by which they received conliderable da- 
mage. 

Oh the 30th, after a confiant ftruggle with ob- 
ftacles.of every fpecics, he got fight of Cape Wal- 
lingham, fituated in the moù weftcrly part of the 
ftrait. In order to arrive cxpediliouily at Fort Prince 
of Wales, which he propofcd immediately to attack, 
he had not a, linglc moment to lofc, the rigour of the 
feafon obliging all vefîèls to quit thofe fens early in 
September : but as foon as he had fairly entered 
Hudfon's Bay he was involved in thick fogs ; qnd 
on the 3d of Auguft, when it began to clear up, he 
faw himfelf furrounded by ice as far as the eye 
could carry, which forced hirn to make for the cape, 
He triumphed nevert^clefs oyer tjicfe obllaclcs ; and, 
toward evening on the 8th, having defcricd the flag 
of Fort Prince of Wales, the French fliips made for 
it, founding till they came \yithin a Ic^igue and a 
half, and anchored in 18 fathom water, pn a bottom 
of mud. An officer, fent to reconnoitre the ap- 
proaches to the fort, reported that the yeïiçls could 
be fafcly moored a little vvay*ofF. La Pcroufc hav- 
ing no doubt that the Sceptre alone could not eafily 
reduce the enemy, ftiould they refift, made prepara- 
tion for efteé^ing a landing in the night time. Though 
retarded by the tide and the darkncfs, t!ic boats 
reached the land without meeting any oppofition, 
about three quarters of a league from the fort. La 
Péroufe, obferving no defenlive difpofition made, 
though the fort appeared in a condition to make a 
vigorous reliftancc, ordered the enemy to be fum - 
moned. The gates were thrown open ; the gover- 
nor and garrifon furrendered at difcretion. 

This part of his orders being executed, he fct f'lil, 
Auguft 11, for Fort York: in order to reach it, he 
bad to encounter, dangers .Aill greater than thofe 

which 






PRELIMINARY DiSCOUllSB. XXlK 

which he had hitherto experienced ; he failed in fix 
or fcven fathom water, along a court of continued 
rocks and quiekfands. After running through rifles 
innumerable, the Sceptre and the two frigates difco- 
vercd the entrance into Nelfon's river, and anchor- 
ed, Auguft 20th, about /ive leagues from (hore. 

La Péroufe had taken three decked boats at Fort 
Prince of Wales ; he font them, with the Sceptre's 
b»at, to reconnoitre Hayes' river, near which ftands 
Fort York. 

On the 21ft of Auguft, the troops' embarked on 
board the boats ; and La Péroufe, having nothing to 
fear from the enemy by fea, thought it his duty to di- 
reél the debarkation in perfon. 

The ifle of Hayes, on which Fort York ftands^ is 
fituatcd at the mouth of a great river, which it di- 
vides into two branches; that which pafles before 
the fort is called the river of Hayes, and the other 
Nelfon's river. The French commander knew that 
all the means of defence were placed upon the for- 
mer ; there was befides a veflcl belonging to the 
Hudfon's Bay Company, carrying 24 nine pounders, 
moored at the mouth of the river. He determined 
on forcing his way up Nelfon's river, though his 
troops would have, in this dire6lion, to perform a 
march of about four leagues ; but he thereby gained 
the advantage of rendering ufelefs the batteries plant- 
ed on the river of Hayes. 

He arrived on the evening of the 21 ft, at the 
mouth of Nelfon's river, with 250 foldiers, the mor- 
tars, the cannon, and provilions for eight days, that 
there might be no neceflily to depend on the (hips, 
the communication with which was extremely diffi- 
cult. La Pérou fe gave orders for the great boats to 
anchor in three fathoms water, in the mouth ol' the 
river, and advanced himfclf in his long-boat, with 
the fécond in command Langle, the commander of 
the troops to be landed Roflaing, and Monnëroii, 

■ . captain 



^1 



ui 



IM'. 






rtx 



PRSLIMIKART t)I8C0U|lSf;. 



captom of nrtillcry, to found the rivca* and examine 
the banks, on which he apprehended the enemy 
might have provided fomc means of defence. 
• This operation demonftrated that the river wns ifi • 
accelKble ; the fmallcft boats could get no neorer thon 
about a hundred fathom, and the bottom from tbflt 
to the dry land was a fo^t mud. He thought it pru- 
dent, therefore, to remain at anchor, and to wait for 
the return of day-light ; but the tide lofing much 
more than he had reckoned upon, the bouts were 
lefl dry at three o'clock in the morning. 

Irritated by this obftaclc, but not in the leafl dil^ 
couraged,aU the troops difembarJced ; and after having 
walked for near a mile in the miid up to mid-leg, 
they at length gained a green field, where they drew 
up : thence they marched in order towards a wood, 
^'herc they laid their account with finding a path 
which would lead to the fort. No one could be dif- 
covered, and the whole day was employed in feek- 
ing for roads which had no exiftence. 

La Péroufe ordered Monneron, the captain of 
engineers, to trace one by the compafs through the 
middle of the woods. The execution of this ex- 
tremely-painful fervice difcovered that there were 
two leagues of a morals to be crofllèd, in which the 
men frequently funk up to the knees in mud. A 
gale of wind, which fprung up in the night, forced 
the reftlcfs La Péroufe to return to the (hips. He 
reached the fiiore ; but, the tempeft continuing, he 
could not get on board. He availed himfelf of an 
interval of moderate weather, and next day reached 
his (hip, an hour before a fécond gale came on. An 
officer, who fet off at the fame time with him, was 
ihipwrecked : he had, as well as his boat's crew, the 
good fortune to gain the land ; but they could not 
return on board till the end of three days, naked 
and perifliing with hunger. The Engageante and 

the 




* 



(( 



îre were 



PRBLIMINARY DISCOURSE. XXXl 

the Aftrca loft two anchors each, in the fécond gale 
of wind. 

Neverthelefs the troops arrived before the fort on 
the morning of the QAihy after a very troublcfome 
march, and it was furrendered on the firft fummons. 
La Péroufc ordered the fort to be dcftrayed, and the 
troops immediately to re-embark. 

Thefe orders were rendered ineffc6lual by a new 
gale of wind, which expofed the Engageante to the 
grcatcft dangers ; her third anchor broke, as well as 
the tiller of the helm, and her longboat was carried 
away. The Sceptre likewife loft hers, her pinnace 
and an anchor. 

At length fine weather returned, and the troops 
were re-embarked. La Péroufe, having on board 
the governors of forts York and Prince of Wales, fet 
fail to bid adieu to thofe latitudes, abandoned to 
llorms and ice, in which military fucccfs, obtained 
without the flighteft refiftance, had been preceded by 
fo much pain, danger, and fatigue. ^, 

If La Pcroufe, a&« military commander, was under ' 
the neceflity of conforming to the ftri<Sl orders wJiich 
he had received of deftroying the enemy's fcttle- 
jnents, he forgot not at the fame time the refpeét due 
to calamity. Having difcovcred that on his approach 
fome of the Englilh had made their efcape into the 
woods, and that his departure, confidering the de- 
ftruélion of the fettlements, ej^pofed them to periili 
with hunger, and to fall defencelefs into the hands of 
favages, he had the humanity to leave thc^jfi provi- 
iions and arms. 

Can there be, on this fubjeâ, an elogium more 
flattering than this fincere acknowledgment of :m 
Englilh feaman, in his relatiçn of a voyage to Botany 
Bay ? *^ We are bound to recolledl with,gratitu*:ki, in 
" England efpecially, that humane and geaerous 
** man^ for the condutâ which he obfcrved in a<iling^ 

under 



9EXX11 



l^nELI^flNÀRt DÏSCÔUllStf. 



** under orders to dcftroy our fettlements in Hud- 
" fon's Bay, in the courfe of the laft war." .k^ùm 

After a. teftimony fo juft afid fo conformable to 
truth, and at a period when the EngHfli nation haà 
acquired fo much merit with the friends of the arts 
and fciences, by her zeal td publiih the refahs of the 
voyages of difcovery which fhe has Ordered, fhall wd 
be under tlie neceflity of reproaching another Eng- 
lifh military chàraéler with a breach of faith pledged 
to La Péibufe ? 

Governor Hearh had, iri 1 77'2'i perfcJi'mcd a joutney 
over land, toward the north, taking his departure 
from Fort .Churchill ; a journey of which the detailed 
account is expeAed with much impatience. The 
manufcript journal of it was found by La Péroufe 
among the papers of that governor, who infilled that 
it (hould be reftored to him as his private property; 
This journey, however, having been undertaken by 
orders of the Hudfon's Bay cciinpany, in the vievir of 
acquiring farther knowledge of part ci{ North Aiuc- 
rica, the journal might well be cdnfidered to belong 
to that company, arid, cortfeqtiently, to have devolved 
to the conqueror i neverthelefs. La Pcroufe, from 
motives of pure benevolence, yielded to the folicita- 
tions of Governor Hearn ; he reftored him the ma- 
nufcript, but under the exprefs condition that he 
would have it printed and publifhed immediately 
upon his return to England. This condition does 
rot appear to have been hitherto fulfilled : but it is 
to be hoped that the remark now made, and laid be- 
fore the public, will produce the effe6l intended, or» 
at leafl:, induce the governor to make it known whe- 
ther the Hudfon's Bay company, from an averfion to 
have the proceedings of their commerce difcloled, 
has forbidden the publication of it.* 

* This anecdote had not come to my knowledge when* I wrote 
the note to be found in a fubfequent part of this volume. 

The 



w- 



#' 



XXXIU 



1 Hud- 

lable ta 
ion has» 
;hc arts 
s of the 
(hall wei 
er Eng- 
plcdged 

joutney 
epafture 
detailed 
e. The 
Péroufe 
ifted that 
pidpcrtyj 
taken by 
e vieviT of 
:th Avjc- 
o belong 
devolved 
fe, from 
folicitu- 
the ma- 
that he 
cdiately 
Ition does 
but it is 
laid be^ 
idcd, or* 
>WD whe- 
erfion to 
.ifcloled, 

len'I wrote 

The 



PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. 

The era of the re-eftabli(hment of peace with Eng- 
land, in 1783, terminated this naval campaign. The 
indefatigable La Pcroufe did not enjoy long repofe ; 
a more important expedition awaited him : alas ! it 
\vas to be his lafl. He was deftined to take the com- 
mand of an intended voyage round the world, for 
which preparations were making at Breft. 

I (hall not conform to the common practice, by 
indicating beforehand the track which our navigator 
purfued through the two hemifpheres, the coafts, 
and the illands, which he explored or revifited in the 
Pacific Ocean, the difcoveries which he made in the 
feas of Afia, and the important fervices which he 
has rendered to geography : I make this facrifice to 
the Reader, whofe curiolity will rather be excited 
than anticipated, and who will undoubtedly be bet- 
ter pleafed to follow our navigator himfelf in his 
courfe. 

Hitherto I have coniidered La Péroufe only as the 
military man and the navigator : but he defervcs to ^ 
be equally known for his perfonal qualities ; for he 
was not lefs capable of gaining the afFeélions of men 
of all countries, or of commanding their refpeét, than 
of forefeeing and overcoming the obftacles which hu- 
man fkgacity is permitted to furmount. 

Uniting to the vivacity of the inhabitants of 
ibuthem countries, an agreeable humour and an even 
temper, his gentlenefs and amiable gaiety made his 
converfation to be always eagerly courted. On the 
other hand, matured by long experience, he joined 
to uncommon prudence that firmnefs of character 
which is the portion of a vigorous mind, and which^ 
ftrengthened by the painful kind of life to which a fea- 
man is doomed, qualified him for attempting, and for 
conducing, with fuccefs, the molt arduous enter- 
prizes. ^ ^ 

From the union of thefe different qualities, the 
Reader, himfelf witnefling his inconquerable patience 

Vol. L € in 



XXXIV 



.^■ 



#, 



PHEttMtNAllY DISCOURSE. 

in jeitértioii* governed by circumftanceis, tWifeVéré 
cdridu6l which hisforefight ditîtatcd, the ifieafures of 
bfécdiitibtl ^hith he ethpîôyed with the people whom 
lie vitod, will not bie gi-eatly Mohiïhèd at theberte- 
fîcéhl arid moderate, as Virell as circumfpe6l, b^àyi- 
ôur of La Pérdufé toward thc^j at the cohfidencej 
nay fometimès tnè deréretice, >^hich hé eXprëflèd fbf 
iîk ôMcërS, atitî at the bàtfefnal iriarfe Avhich he exer- 
cîféd over hiècré^s : notnrngthat could interleft thétn, 
either by preventing their diftrei^, or prortiorting' thfeir 
Welfare, efàâpèd his vigilance ôi- his folicitude. Not 
tvifhihg to convert a fcientiltc enterprise intoa riiér- 
Câïitile f^ëculatiôh, and lèâViilg eiltirely the profits bf 
the ôbje(ftà bf interchange as a beiient folely to thié 
feàth'en of the 'ci^éw, he referviéd foi* himfdf the fatis- 
fa^f^iort of refi:é'aihg that îte had been ufpful to Ws 
courrtly aild tb the fciences. PerFëétly well ïfecortdfed 
in his attentions to the . prefervation of their health, 
iiO ilUvi^tbr eVei- performed â Voyage of fo Tong du- 
f^foirt, Si- bf 'fufch vaft extent, throngh ah jrlcciîànt 
charijg'e tjf bliriiate, with çre%s fo healthy; ï'Ctv, bri 
th^ir ârnVàï àt Nbw Hoïknd, iffer bfeing thirty 
iWoh^h's at ^, ah^ rtltîVïing bVà- ^ track of mbre tha'ri 
liîitreèii thouïàtid leagues, mty were in as good health 
as when they left Bluett. ' ^ ' "f'^ 

> Maiter of himfdf,' and hevfei' giVing way tb flrft 
?Ài|!)i^eiffîons, he ^as in â condit?ôïi to reduce to prac- 
tice, eitJècial'ly on this expedition, the precepts of a 
found phriofophy, friendly to humanity. Wèrfe 
lïiore dïfporfed to cortipôfe his clogium, ftecefïàïily 
ifolated and ijicafrnplete, than to leave "to the Reader 
the pîeafurë df formitig an èftimate of him from faéls 
clothed with all their d'rcû'i^ftanccs ; and of foùrid- 
irig a judgment on his writings taken together, t 
might qtibte a multitude of pafîàges from his jourrial, 
the charadler and turn of which faithfully paint the 
man, and whicli I have preferved as 'k precious trèa- 
fuVe. I might fhciw him, in a pafrtiiiularfnaiiner, ad- 

',: • héring 



\Ti 



''^H 


narti 


-Wk 


Ti 


'°H 


is to 


fwk 


regre 


r-^m 


hlyc 




they 



^ 



PRSLIMIRART DISCOURSE. 



XXXV 



feVcfd 
ires of 
whoni 
iberie- 
àehayi-. 
idenccj 
fled fbi^ 
le exer- 
ft them; 

) a 1^^' 
jrôfitsdf 
y to thé 
the fatis- 

al to Ws 
fecotidfed 

ir îïéàl!<^> 
Totig du- 

; for, bti 
g tïiirtj 
ibrethaÎTl 



ly to -fiift 
[e to prttc- 
iepts of a 
Wèrfc 
lecelîanîy 
le Redder 
from fafts 
ûf foù^â- 
lôgcthér, t 
lisjburtial, 
paint the 
IcioUs trfca- 
laiftflér, ad- 
hering 



r; 



hcring Tcmpuloufly to that article of his i»ftru6lions, 
engraven upon his heart, which directed him to avoid 
the fhedding of a (ingle drop of human blood-; hav- 
ing followed it conftantly through a voyage of fuch 
length, with a fuccefs due to its principles ; and, 
when attacked by a barbarous horde of iavages, he had 
loft his fécond in command, a naturalift, and ten men 
of the two crews, notwithftanding the powerful means 
of vengeance which he jpoflèflèd, and motives fo ex- 
eufable to employ them, he reftrained the fury of his 
men, fearing to strike a fingle innocent vidlim among 
thoufands of the guilty. ) H ? 

Equitable and modeft, as well as enlightened, we 
(hall fee with what refpedl he makes mention o( the 
immortal Cook, and how zealous he is to do jufticc to 
the great men who had preceded him in the fame 
career. 

E<}ually juA to all. La Péroufe in his journal and 
in his correfp' -' lence, difpenfes with impartiality the 
jraifes to vvhv' > coadjutqirs are entitled. Helike- 
' wife makes g. . \.l mention of the ftrangers who, 
in diffèrent parts of the world, received him with 
kindnefs, and pmcured afliilance for him. If go^ 
vernment, as there is no room to doubt^ means to 
fulfil the intentions of La Peroufe, it owes to thefe 
laft a public token of acknowledgment. 

Valued according to his worth by the Engliih na- 
vigators who had an opportunity of knowing him, 
they have given him an unequivocal teftimony of 
efteem in their writings. 

All who enjoyed his intimacy have pronounced his 
juft elogium, but it would be endlefs to defcend to 
particulars. ,^.. «< 

To fpeak, however, of his virtues, of his talents, 

is to recolleéfc his misfortunes, is to awaken our own 

I regret : the idea of the one is henceforward infepara* 

I bly conneded with the recolleélion of the other ; and 

they lay the foundation for perpetuity of a monu- 

6 2 " ' ment 



'■* 



XXXVl 



PRELIMINART DISCOURSE. 



ment of forrow and gratitude in the heart of every 
friend of the fciences and of humanity. If I feel any 
emotion of delight at the clofe of the painful labour 
which this work required, and after the care and 
trouble which it coft me up to the day of publica^ 
tion, it is undoubtedly at this in fiant, when I am per- 
mitted to be the organ of the French republic, in 
paying to his memory a tribute of national gratitude. 
La Péroufe^ after his lafl letters from Botany Bay, 
was to have gone to the Jdc of France, in 1778.* 
The two following years having clapfed, the impor- 
tant events which occupied and fixed the attention 
of all France, could not divert her attention from the 
fate which feemed to threaten our navigators. The 
firft expreilions of folicitude on the fubje<Sl, the firil 
accents of fear and forrow, ifTued from the bar of the 
National Afîèmbly, through the organ cf the mem- 
bers of the Society of Natural Hiflory. i\ 

" For thefe two years," faid they, " France has to 
" no purpofe been lookii^g for the return of M. de 
" la Péroufe ; and thofe who take an interefl in his 
perfon and in his difcoveries, are totally in the dark 
as to his fate. Alas ! that which they fufpeâ, is 
perhaps Aill more terrible than tnat which he ac-^ 
tually endures ; and perhaps he has efcaped death 
*• only to be fbbje(5ted to the inceflant torment of a 
" hope continually reviving and continually difap- 
** pointed ; perhaps he may have fufFered fhipwrccfc 
" on one of the illands of tne South Sea, from whence 
" he flretcbes forth his hands toward his country, 

** and in vain experts a deliverer. ^ . . " 

" It was not in the purfuit of frivolous objeéls, or 
" for his private advantage*,that M. de la Péroufe has 
** braved danger of every kind ; the generous nation 
" which was to have reaped the fruit of his labours, 
** owes him likcwife her interefl and her aid." 

* See vol. ii. extraftS from Wo léttefs of La Péroufe, dated Bo- ^J 
tany Bay, February 7th, 1788. 

«We 



(C 

(( 



(( 



<c 



i 



» 



* 



# 



i# 



<{ 

(t 



€t 






PRELTMINAHY DISCOURSE. XXXVli 

* We are already informed of the lofs of many of 
his companions, fwallowed up by waves, or maf- 
facred .by favages : cleave to the hope which re- 
mains tous, of recovering fuch of our brethren as 
may have efcaped the fury of the billows or the 
rage of cannibals ; let them return to. our (hores, 
** were they even to die of joy in embracing this land 

*' of liberty. " . ; , - . 

The demand of the Society of Natural Hiflory, 
r-eceived with the moft lively interelt, was followed 
up foon after by the law which dirededthe arming of 
tvvo frigates to go in queft of La Pepoufe. 

The motives which diékted this decree, the very 
terms of the report difcover the tender and afFeéling 
rntereft whjch our navigators had infpired, apd the 
ardor with which, from a defire to find them ao^ain, 
a lingle ray of hope was eagerly catched at, without 
refleiâing on the great ^crifices which this voyage of 
refearch demanded. 

" For a long time our vows call for M. de la Pé- 
** roufe, and the companions of his glorious, too pro- 
^' bably, alfo, of his unfortunate voyage," 

" The Society of Naturalifts of this capital is come 
'f to tear afunder the vail which you dared not to raife 
" up ; the mourniiîg which they have announced is 
" become univerfal ; and you have appeared to em- 
" brace, with tranfport, the idea which has juft been 
" fuggefted to ydu, of fending out ihips in fearch of 
*f M. de la Péroufe. You have given orders to your 
" committees of the marine, of agriculture, and .com- 
merce, to prefentyou with their views mfpeking an 
objed io deeply interefting : the fentiment which 
appeared to determine your refolution, has likewife 
" didated their opinion." * 

" There fcarcely remains to us the confolation of 
doubting on the fubjed: M. de la Péroufehas' 
f' fuflfered fome dreadful difafter." 
" It is impoffible for us reasonably to hope that 

c 3 his 



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xxxviii 



PREtlMTINART DISCOURSE. 






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*' his vçflèls are at this moment ploughing the fur- 
** face of the deep. That navigator and his com- 
*' panions are either now no more ; or elfe, thrown 
^ on fome.difmal ihore, loft in the imineniity of 
^ innavigable feas, and confined to the extremities 
" of the world. They are, perhaps, contending 
" with inclemency of climate, with ferocious animals, 
" with men, with all nature, and calling for afïift- 
" ance on their country, which can only fcwrm con- 
** jcétures about the calamity which may have bc-- 
** fallen them. Stranded, perhaps they are, upon 
** fome unknown coaft, upon Ibme barren rock ; 
** there, if they have been fo fortunate as to fell inta 
'* the hands of a hofpitable people, they breathe ; 
** but neverthelefs, ftill implore your aid ; or if they 
** have been cafl upon a bare folitude, wild fruita 
** and fhell-filh are the only fupport of their cxift- 
** ence :. fixed on the Ihore, their eyes travel along 
** the face of the ocean in fearch of fome aufpicious 
" iail which might waft them back to France, to 
" their families, to their friends." 

" Reduced to embrace an idea which is, perhaps, 
" nothing more after all than a pleating error, you 
"are difpofed undoubtedly, as we are, to prefer this 
** conjeéhire to the overwhelming idea of their totat 
"lofs: it is that which the Society of Naturalifts 
** of Paris have juft prefented to you ; it is that 
«which M. de la Borde had before imprefled on 
every heart pofïèffing fenfibility, in a memorial 
read before the Academy of Sciences.'* > ' 
" But if you are affeûed, if you are flruck with this 
idea, it will be impoffible for you any longer to give 
yourfelves up to impotent regret: humanity re- 
quires it ; we muft fly to the rçlief of our brethren. 
Alas! where (hall we go to look for them ? Whom 
have we to interrogate concerning their dcftiny ? 
Is it polfible to explore all the coafts of feas in fome 
" meafure unknown ? Is it poflible to touch at a'l 
' the 



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PSBI.lMmi.EY PISGOVUB. xxx!i 

^f the ifland* of thafe iipmenfc afcbipeleigos which 
*f préfent <b many dangers to the mariner î Is it pof*- 
« fible to vifit all the gulfs, to penetrate" into all the 
" bays of the ocean ? Is it not even poffible, on 
** reaching the ifland which might contain thcro, to 
** land on one point, and leave them on another ?5^ 

/^ The difficulties are undoubtedly great, the fuc- 
*« cefs is more than hopelefs.; but the motiye of the eii- 
'^ terprize is powerful . It is poffible that our ill-fated 
" brethren may be flretchin^ out their arms toward 
*' us, it is not impoflSWe that we ihouhX reftore them 
" to their country ; and henceforth are no longer 
*^ permitted to recede from an attempt which cannot 
" but do us honoiM?. We owe this intereft to the 
" men who have devoted themfelves; we owe it to 
" fciences, which are expééling the fruit of their re- 
^' fearches : and, what ougiitto incrcafethis intereft, 
" M. de la Péroufe was not one of thofe adventurers 
^' who thruft themfelves on great enterprizes, either 
to procure for themfelves an illuftrious nan'e, or 
to make them fubfervient to the raifing of the r «for- 
tune; he had not even difcovered the ambitioi^ of 
*' commanding the expeditibn entrufted tto iis caire ; 
f* he could have wiftied it had been in his power to 
*' refufe it; and when he accepted the commande 
^' his friends well Jknew that it wap an a^t of pure re- 

" fignation '* 

**^ Fortunately we know the track to bepurfued in 
" a rcfearch fo painful; fortunately we can put iàtO 
^* the hands of the peribns to be charged with this 
" afFe6ting miffion, the conducing thread of the 
" perilous labyrinth which they have to trace." 

" The propofal of a refearch which humanity ,en- 
** joins, cannot be carried to this tribune to be comr 
batted by the maxims of parfimony, or to be dif^ 
culfed by cold reafon, when it ought to be decided 
purely by feeling." . . 

i>à" This expedition will be to M. de la Péroufe, or 

c 4 « to 



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PRBLIMINART DTSCOURSB. 



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to his memory, the mod glorious reoompence with 
" which you can honour his fervices, his felf-dedica- 
" tion or his misfortunes. Thus it becomes a great 
" nation to difpenfe rewards.** 
«^t« Afts like this confer celebrity on the nation alio 
*' which has the fpirit to perform them; and the fen- 
*' timent of humanity which gives them birth, will 
" characterize the age in which we live. It is no 
*' longer to invade, and to ravage, that the European 
" penetrates into latitudes the mod remote, but to 
*' introduce into them enjoyment and benefits; it is 
" no longer to rob them of corruptive metals, but ta 
** fubdue thofe ufeful vegetables which contribute to 
" the fupport and delight of human life. FiDally,^ 
** there will be feen, and the favage tribes will not 
" be able to contemplate it without the mehing» of 
" lympathy, there will be feen, at the extremity of the 
" globe, pioufly afieélionate navigators demanding 
** information with intereft, concerning the deftiny 
** of their fellow failors, of the men and the deferts, 
** of the caves and the rocks, and even of (helves and 
" quickfands ; there will be feen on feas the mc^ per- 
" fidious, in the linuolides of archipelagos the moll 
''dangerous, around all thofe illands peopled with 
" anthropophagi, men wandering about in fearch of 
** other men, to precipitate themlelves into their 
" arms, to fuccour and to fave them." ' 

Scarcely had the (hips difpatched in quefi of La 
Péroufe taken their departure, when a report was 
circulated that the Captain of a Dutch vefTel failing 
through the Admiralty Iflands, to the weft of New 
Ireland, had perceived a canoe manned by the natives, 
who appeared to him to be dreiled in the uniforms of 
the French marine. 

General d*Entrecafteaux, who commanded the 
new expedition, having 'put in to the Cape of Good 
Hope, heard this report. Notwithftanding its want 
of authenticity and of probability, he did not heiitate 

" a lingle 



'« 



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TltBLIlllNART DI8COUB8B. 



^ 



a fingle inilant; he changed the track which ho 
had propofed to purfue, and flew to the place which 
the report indicated. His zeal having bc«n foUowed 
with no manner of fuccefs, he recommenced his le- 
fcarch in the order prefcribed by his inftru£ti6ti%' - 
and he iinifhed it without being able to obtain the 
flighteil intelligence^ or any thing that had the Iha- 
dow of probability, refpedtmg the fate of our unfor- 
tunate navigator. 

The caufe of the lofs has been reafoned upon in' 
France, in various ways. Some perfons, unacquaint- 
ed with the track which remained for him to purfuo 
from Botany Bay, and which is traced in his laft 
letter, have alleged that his (hips muft have been 
caught in the ice, and that La Péroufe and all his 
companions muft have periOied by a death of the 
moil horrid form. Others have taken upon them to ^ 
affirm, that before his arrival at the Ifle of Franjce, 
I toward the clofe of 1788, he had become the vidUm. 
|of the violent hurricane which had proved fo fatal to 
the Venus frigate, for (he was never more heard o^ 
^«nd which had entirely difmailed the frigate Reiblu- 
tion. 

Though it be impofîible to difpute the afïèrtion of 
thefe lafi, at the fame time it ought not to be admit- 
ted without proof. If it is not the true account» 
La Péroufe muft probably have periftied through 
ftrefs of weather, on the numerous (hallows which / 
line the (hores of the archipelagos which he had yCt 
to explore, and which General d*£ntrecafteaux aélu- 
ally reconnoitred. The manner in which the two ; 
frigates always failed, within reach of voice, muft 
have rendered the fame accident common to bolh ; 
they muft have (hared the difafter which had (b nearly 
befallen them November 6th, 1786^ and been fwai- 
lovved up before they could reach land. 

The only hope which can remain is, that they may 
have been (hipwrecked on the coaft of (bme uninhabit- 
ed 



# 



km 



•4 i^Und S il) tki9 c«f9 thoi^B^y Ml exiil romii indi^ 
yMMs ofthe two creinfs, or» orie^jf the innumtjrablo 
ifiwMili of ^hoTe urçJiipeliçgQ»; Fat from the tracks 
iitheito puf<He4, they may h^ve «fcaped all fcarch 
VMldfe i^fthem, and m$y wver ag^in rcvifit their 
«mnit'y* e^Qfspt i^om )tJ»«» eflfe^ftof ebancc whieh may 
iboii % (hi|^ th^t iva^i ft9 ti)i9y «ve prc^iably deprivsci of 
all «fi^birQ^si^r liuildiiii; one. 

Wc cannot, however, but admit, the obfervation, 
^klfit Ihe ^«giW pepform very loiig voyages in canoes 
fimf>lyi nod WfJ m»y jwdgp, oo mrpeelingtlie chart, 
Ifeot a* Oiir (hipwreok(^d ffiamen had got aihbre, whe^ 
Hm «^OR a d^«rt jflflnd, or among favages who 
Ipirtd th«irU^ they mighfc, have been able, in the 
C0|}^« of pioe years, to approach nearer and nearer 
Ion place irom which th^y couM convey news of 
tbewfolvQ*; for it i^ prob*bie, that they would have 
Jittwipted^very thing to deliver themfelves from 
t^iiaie of W»*»«ty md fequeftration inexpreflibly 
wohfe ihfto ^th. If* theni out: hopes be not enT 
jlipely Mf)ii^i«^dj they are »t ieaH extremely faint. 
: A flftvig^tor has emitted a declaration of his hav- 
ing proofs of the ihipwrcck of La Péroufe. The 
•Relier wijl jydgeof the confidence due to them, 
irofo h^ di^po&tion, of w^h I ihall giyt an exaâ 
pQpy^ wjtbottt prefumiQg to mftke any other obferva- 
taoattiian that of comprijig the author with himfelf, 
flod 4i{ eontrafting hi& ftfiirmatian with the relatioi\ 
M Bougw«îviJle. 

-tfki ■ ■ ' . ■ J il'y,'- 

Exiraû from the Minutes of th* Municipal Court of the 
1 City and Community of Morlaix, 



>t€i 



'** QfOFge Bpw«n, commander of the flaip Albc- 
*' flf^rk, bowjid from Bombay to JU>ndon, and 
<< brought into Morkiis^i htmg i^terr^ated whether 
^< he i^ any ](^QOw|jsdge of X<a P^oufe, who had 
>*< left Ffmfi^ 91^ * vpya^ rom3«l t^ie world, replied 

"that 



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TRBtlMINARY UlftCOVlWa. xKîl 

« that in December, 179'» ^^ himfolf faw, oil hif 
« return from Port Jackfon to Bombay, brt thécôftO: 
« of New Georgia*, in the eaftern ocean, the wr«cl; 
« of M. de La Péroufe*» vôflel, floating on the wa- 
« tcr+, and that in his opinion it wa» cart of à 
« veflTel of French conftfuAion ; that he did not go 
<* on ftiore, but that the natives of the country oam6 
« on board his fhip î that h* could not comprehend 
« their language, but that by thfeir fign* he had 
« been enabled to undedland that a veflfel had oc^nô' 
« aihore in thofé latitudes i that tliefe ijirtivet Un- 
« derftood the ufc of feVerâl pieces of iron-worlf, 
« of which thfey were curioufly fortd j' and that he, 
« the Examinee, had exchanged fevetal articles- of 
** iron ware with thofe' Indians, for glafs-warc and 
** bows Î as to thé idharaéter' of thofe Imliano, that 
** to him they appeared pea6eable:|:j and better in- 
** formed than the inhabitants of OtSheitc, as they 
*^ had a perfe<ft knovi^ledgc of works of iron ; that 
" their canoes were fînifhedîn a verylUperior ftyle: 
" that when the natives "werte on boavd his (hip, hé 
" had not' as yet any knowledge of ' the wreck in 
" queftioh, and that in éôafting along the land, he 
•* perceived it by the help of a great fire kindled on 
^' ll^ore, toward the middle of the i^ght^ of Decem- 

T 

f Seen again by Shortland, a lieutenant in the Engli<]b navy, in 
Ï788 ; but difcovered in part by Bougainville, the captain of a 
French ihip, in 1768; and ftill Urtber by Survillç, caf^ain of one 
of the Eaft India Company's thips, who g^ve it the name of the 
country of the Arfacides,— French Editor. 

f La Péroufe could perith only in 17B8. I leave it to thofe who 
are acquainted with the effeâs of the waves of the fea on a ihip» 
wrecked velTel, to judge whether this wreck could ftill exilt floating 
on the water, at the end of December, 1791. — French Editor. 

X Thofe Indians, charaéierized as^ peaceable, attacked the boats 
which Bougainville had fcnt aftiore for water, upon their coming 
into Choifeul's Bay. — French Editor. 

§ It IS undoubtedly furprizing, that the wreck feen by George 
Bowen, and aflfirmed to be that of the veflel of La Péroufe, and of 
French conftruélion, which fuppofes it to have been confiderable 

in 



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* 



XIÎV PBBLIMINARY DISCOURSE. 

** ber 30, t7Ql ; that, but for this fire, he would 
** probably have run aground on, the rocks of Cape 
*.' Deception. The Examinee delares that, in all this 
'5 part of New Georgia, he obferved a great number 
** of cottages or huts ; that thofe Indians were of a 
*f robuft form, and of a gentle character, from whence 
**,hù prefumes that if M. dc I«a Péroufe, or any of 
** hit fl)ip*s company, got on fhore, they may ftill 
^ exift^i and that, to his knowledge» of all the (hips 
<^ which have navisated in thofe latitudes, no one, ex- 
f* cept thftt of M. de Bougainville, the Alexander, the 
^ FriendOiip of London» that of M. de la Péroufe, 
** tnd kis own^ were ever on that part of the coaft : 
^ that of conieauence he prefumes this to be the 
*• wreck of M. de La Péroufe*8vefrel-(-, as the Alex^ 
** «ider went to the bottom in the Strait of Macaila, 
¥ and the Friçndfhip reached her port in England. 
^ Being tnterrogated whether he had feen -on the 
** natives of the country any article of drefs which 
^ Indicated a eommunication with Europe, replied, 
^ that thdê Indians were naked ; that the climate 
is very hot, and that, by their iigns, he underiiood 
that they mufk have feen ihips before that time ; 
that .he perceived in the poileiiion of thof^ Indians 
nets for Hiding, the threads of which were of 
flax, and whoife mefhes were of European manu- 
facture § ; that he had out of curioiity, taken a 






u 



# 



u 



k 



1» in <|aantity, ind examined clofijy and with minute attention, k 

here found to have been perceived only at midnight, by the light 
of a fire kindled on the land.— -/rmc/& Editor, 

* Bougainville, obliged to irepel by force, the attack of thofe 
ladtaos» captured two of their canoes, in which he found among 
other articles, a human Jaw half bmltdj an evident proof of their 
teincmen-eaters,)— />«««& Editor, 

fThe Engliih captain no longer ilates it as a matter of cer> 
tainty, that the wreck which he faw, was part of the ihip of La 
Péroufe ; it is now no more than fimply a prefumption.-— JFi-^r/^ 
Editor. 

§ Bougain^lle found m the canoes which fell into his hands, netj 

vjith 



'P. 



W'. 



fniaH % 



PRBLtMUfAHY DI8C0U1IB< 



kW 



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" fmall piece of erne of them, from which it would 
** be eaiy to judge that the materials and the workr 
" manfhtp were both from Europe." . < 

Such are, up to this day, the only indications ob- 
tained refpeéting the fate of our navigator. - , ', 

The public documents, always fubfifting, of the 
track which he purfued, and of tl^ countries which 
he viiited, are the medals flruck on occalion of hb 
voyage, and left or dillributed by La Pérouic in tbo 
courfe of his progrefs. There had been ; delivered 
to him about a hundred, partly filver, partly copper^ 
and fix hundred of different metals. The remainder 
of his route being known, thefe medals may cie Jlay 
indicate to us nearly the place where bis diiafter iuitci'- 
rupted it. 

The medal relative to the voyage having betomc 
an hiftorical monument, and being within- the pro- 
bability ofprefenting itfelfto future navigators inthci 
fame track, I cannot redd my inclination to defcriilfs 
it, though I did not think myfelf bound to get it en* 
graved. It has, on the one fide, the effigies of thd 
king, with the ufual infcription ; the reverfc is io* 
fcribed with thefe words, furrounded by tWo oIi\^ 
branches bound with a knot of ribband : ^ -y^ 



, ' < 



Thefrigatei of the King of Frattcty Xd BouJoU ditâ 
TAftrolahe, commanded by Mejfrs. de La Péroujh 
and De LangUy failed from ihe port of Brefty itf 
June, 1785. 

■•■ -' ii\s 

So many precautions employed to enfure the fuc- 
cefs and authenticity of a great expedition, the ex- 
penfe which it occafioned, the vexation and calami* 

wth m^sof a very deKcate threud and mofl ijrtritHy woven. It il 
probable that their perfeAncA led Gf<Jige Uowen into ao error.— 
JFretuh EdUsr, 

:. ■ ■ • if 



i> 



♦ 



-;f 



1,» 



' '' ' 

ty with which it is attended, will excite a doubt îrï 
the minds of certain prejudiced ahd fyftematic gen- 
tlenfen, whether this trouble and anxiety are com- 
pensated by the reciprocal benefit which nations de- 
riy# K ^-n yo3rBges of difcovery. Though I myfelf 
have relufed to acknowledge as a benefit the intro- 
duction of our domeilic animals, and of fome fari- 
naceous vegetables among lavage tribes, comprired 
to the fhifoiief refulting to them from the falfe or 
fuî^erfîciàî notions which our principles fugged to 
them^ and from the fudden communication of our 
mariners and tulloms ; I fay, that after having given 
thcin detached particulars of knowledge, which they 
Hre infcapable to extend or to apply, vegetables and 
animals which they neither preferve nor perpetuate^ 
to abandon them to themfeJves, is to render fruitlefs 
the dcfire excited in them to know and to enjoj', it 
59 to make them miferable; but that to inftruét 
them waduàîfy in order to civilize them, to form 
them Into orderly col^onies, before attempting to 
khakc them p6R(hed nations, and not to communi* 
tjate to them new wants and hew modes of ading^, 
withotit givin^them, at the fame time, the means 
of providing^ the one, and <Â ferving themlelves 
advantageoufly oli the other, is to prepare and enfure 
to their fKjfteri^ the happy refuits <m the eïcpanlion 
pf the human faculties. 

if there could refuît to us as to them iniconve- 
hienoes from tht^é communications, when the- rela- 
tions are fo different, the great advant^es which 
the arts and fciences derive from voyages of difco- 
very, cannol be reafonably difputed. Qyilized, man 
feels the neceffity of proportioning his acquirements 
in knowledge, and his eigoyments, to the capacity of 
his underftanding, and to the extent of his defires. 
The navigator, as he advances, difcovers new pro- 
duélions beneficial to humanity ; he alcertains the 
4ifferent points of the globe, and gives fecurity to 
' ■■ -■■■■ -,-,.*■■ his 



♦ 



1 



his own l'otite and to tkt ôf otheffe ; hé têâchéé Utt 
to form a judgment of otir fellov^ orèatureà frofti ft 
greater nlimber of felatîdns, artd éVery ftep of his 
)rogrefs is a new ap^iroximatiôn - té^Vftf ft .thè kttOW- 
edge of man arid of nature. It is great, it is nobie', 
thus to incur expenfe and to encounter danger for 
the benefit of fociety at large, and for the increafe of 
true riches. 

If fome philofophers have condemned voyages irt 
general, becaufe expeditions undertaken from am- 
bitious and interefted views, have exhibited a6fs of 
barbarity following in their train, it is undoubtedly 
becaufe they confounded them with voyages merely 
of difcovery, which have for their objedt the com- 
munication of bleffings to favage nations, and the 

ïi enlargement of the field of fcience. 

'^ Thefe benefits, it will perhaps be alleged, are the 
price of their blood, becaufe thefè favage tfibeSf 

'3 are to be reflrained only by muftering a force, wfaich^ 
becoming fatal to the navigators themfelves, occa- 
fions a double crime in the eyes of philofophy and of 
nature. 

Let us confult the navigators who have made 
themfelves known by their moderation ; their rela- 
tions demonftrate, that by employing the meanis 
which prudence diélates, it is eafy to reflrain favages 
by the difplay of force fimply : foon conceiving an 
attachment, from benefits received, to navigators 
whom they refpeél, they are fufceptible of gratitude^ 
and confequently of every other moral feeling. 

Juflice mufl be done to the motive which haa 
mifled thofe philofophers ; that refpeélabïe motive is 
humanity. We ought, then, henceforth to be 
agreed, as to the condudl of our navigators, in ob- 
ferving their extreme tendernefs where the life of 
favages is concerned, who deflroy one another on 
the ilightefl pretext ; in contemplr.ting the ferocity 
^ " of 



#- 






§• 



% 



Slviti PKELIMINART BISCOUBSE. 

of theie laft, ibflened down by civilization, and the 
immenie quantity of blood Ipared by the abolition of 
human faerifices, (b ibocking to humanity, and yet 
fi> generally praâifed among favage nations. 



^15 



•'a^,Jf;it' 



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f RELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 



xlix 



DECREE 

I 

OP THE , 

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, 

bp FEBRUARY pTJi, l791. 

THE National Àfîèmblyj hhving îieard the report 
of the united Gomtnittees ipf agriculture, com- 
merce, atid the marine, decrees, 

'that the King bfe requefted tb iffue ordéfs io all 
imbaiïàdors, t-clidcnts^ cbhfuis, national agents, em- 
;mployed ât the courte bfiltit févefkl maritime powprs, 
to ufe their influence ^ith the reipèétive iovereigns 
It whofe courts they refide, in the name of burnanity, 
ind of the arts and fcienees, to charge all nayigators 
id agenfs whatever, who a^l under their inftrpcr 
ions, in whatever place of the globe they may be, 
^ut efpecially in the foutherij parts of the South Sea, 
make every enquiry in their power refpedljng the 
o French frigates Boujfoh and V AJirola];>e^ com- 
janded by M. de la Péroufe, and a|fo refpec^ing 
Lheir crews, in the view of obtaining fuel? informa- 
tion as may afcertain their cxiftence or their fhip- 
^reck ; to the end that, in cafe M. de la Péroufe 
md his fellow navigators fhall be found or heard of, 
lo matter in what place, all pofîîbîe affiltance may 
)e given them, and means procured for affiftingthem 
|o return to their country, as well as for enabling 
mem to recover and carry off Whatever property they 
nay p .flefs : the National Aflembly beconiing- bound 
indemnify, and even to rewat-d, according to the 
Importance of thé fervicé, the pferfoh or perfonS who 
mil lend afliftance to thefe navigators, obtain infor- 
lation concerning them, or fo much as procure for 
•"ranee the reftitution " of fuch yapers qr clher eAdts 
Vol. I. 4 0|' 



% 



n 






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% 



1 PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS, 

of whatever kind, which belonged, or might have be* 
longed to their expedition. 

Decrees, farther, that the King be requefted to 
ilfiie orders for the equipment of one or more fliips, 
on board of which (hall embark men of fcience, na- 
turalifts and draughtfmen, and to inftruél the com- 
manders employed in the expedition, to fulfil the 
twofold million of fearching after M. de la Péroufe, 
agreeably to the documents, rules and orders which 
fhall be given them, and at the fame time to purfua 
refearches relative to fcience and commerce, taking 
every meafure to render the expedition, independently 
of the enquiry after M. de la Péroufe, or even in the 
event of recovering him, or of procuring intelligence 
concerning him, ufeful and advantageous to navi- 
gation, geography, to commerce, to the arts and 
fciences. 

Compared with the original, by us the Prefident 
and Secretaries of the National AfTembly. At 
Paris, this 24th of February, 1791. 

(Signed) duport, Prefident ; 



»••»;>«« 



J' 



i. 



DECREE OF 
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, 

op APRIL 22d, 1791. 



V r 



THE National Aflembly decrees, that the relations 
and charts fçnt by M. de la Péroufe, of part of his 
voyage, up to his arrival in Botany Bay, be printed 
and engraved at the expence of the nation, and that 
this expence be defrayed out of the fund of two mil- 
lions ordered by article xiv of the decree ofAugull 
3d, 1790 ; 5 .,; -.. 

^.„ : Decrees, 



,l:li: I 



t have be* 

juefted to 
nore fliips, 
ience, na- 
the com- 
fulfil the 
la Péroufe, 
ders "which 
3 to purfue 
rcc, taking 
ependently 
even in the 
ntelligence 
IS to navi- 
e arts and 

e Preiident 
bmbly. At 

pfident ; 
ecretaric^ 



y. 



i ^d I. 



the relations 
f part of his 
, be printed 
3n, and that 
I of two mil- 
;e of Augull 

Decrees, 



PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. H 

Decrees, that as foon as the edition fhall be com- 
pleted, and as many copies fet apart as the King may 
be pleafed to difpofc of, the reft fhall be fent to Ma- 
dame de la Péroufe, together with a copy of the pre- 
fçnt decree, in teftimony of the public fatisfaéîion 
with M. de la Péroufc's devotednefs to the general 
welfare, and to the improvement of human knowledge 
and ufefiil difcovcry ; 

Decrees, that M. de la Pcroufe fhall remain on the 

>lift of naval officers till the return of the (hips dif- 

Ipatched in fearch of him, and that his pay be remit- 

|ted to his wife, conformably to the difpofal which he 

had made of it previous to his departure. 

Compared with the original, by us the Prcfident 
and Secretaries of the National Aflembly. At 
Paris, this 25th of April, 179I. 

(Signed) REUBELL, Prcfident ; 

GOUPIL-PREFELN •\ 

MouGiN-ROG^uEFORT [Secretaries 

ROGER } 

MEMORIAL FROM THE KING, 

^ojerve as particular Injlru allons to the S'leur de la 

i^^ Péroufe^ Captain In the Navy, commanding the Fri' 

gates la Boiijfole and TJJirolahe.-^lQth June, 1785. 

Ills Majcfty having given dire»5lions to equip in 
|he harbour of Breft the frigates la Bonfible, com- 
nanded by the Sieur de la Peroufc, and I'Aftrolabe 
3y the Sieur de Langle, captains in his navy, to be 
îmployed on a voyage of difcovery ; hereby notifies 
b the Sieur de la Péroufe, whom he has appointed 
tommnnder in chief of thefe two veficls, the particu- 
br fervices which he will have to execute in the courfe 
It the important expedition committed to his care. 

d 2 The 




in PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 

The different objedls which his Majcfty had i^ 
view, when he ifïùed orders rcfpeding this voyage, 
render it neceflary to divide the prefent infl:ru6tions 
into fevcral heads, in order to explain with greater 
clearnefs to the Sieur de la Péroufe, his Majefty's par- 
ticular intentions as to each of the objeéls which are 
to engage his attention. 

The firft part will contain his itinerary, or the 
fketcb of his voyage, according to the order of the 
difcoveries to be made, or carried to perfeélion ; and 
%q this will be annexed a colledlion of geographi- 
cal and hiftoric notes, to ferve him as a guide in the 
various refearches which he is to purfue. 

The fecpnd part will treat oi' objeds ^dative tp 
politics and to commerce. 

The thifd will explain operations relative to aftro- 
pomy, to geography, tp navigation, to phylics, and to 
the different branches of natural hiftory, and will re- 
gulate the feveral funtSlions of the aftronomers, the 
naturalifts^ the hiftorians, the fcientiiic charaélers, and 
the artifts employed in the expedition. 

The fourth part will prcfcribe to the Sieur de la 
Péroufe, the cqndu6t which it may be proper for him 
to obferve with refpeft to the favage nations, and the 
natives of different countries, which he may difcover 
pr have occafion to vilit. 

Finally, the fifth will indicate to him the precau- 
tions to be obfcrved for the prefer vation of the health 
of his crews *. 



len 



* The particulars detailed, in the original worlc, under each of 
thefe heads, are numerous, ami to the generality of readers would 
probably appear tedious and uriiicterefting. Inftead, therefore, of 
giving an sxaél tranflation, the çaft<!M' thinks himfelf warranted to 
prefent a concife and general view of de la Péroufe 's inftruétions, 
that the reader may not be detained too long in the threfliold. 



ç^ ^■*.^.»;*?»,if*ijf i 



^Mi:r 



,._ i./j.JUJ'uiv'î i^\:^l::Lj-^-:'j :.:;;J'i.,',rr' 

w J " PART 



c 



th 



ly had in 
lis voyage, 
[i{lru6tions 
ith greater 
jefty's par- 
, which are i 



geographi- 
uide in the 

i relative to 

ive to aftro- 
yfics, and to 
and will re- 
nomers, the 
ira6ters, anà, 

Sieur de la 
Dper for him 
)ns, and the 
fiay difcover 

the precau- 
)f the health 

. - .r >* î ■ 
, under each of 
f readers would 
d, therefore, of 
îlf warranted to 
e's inftru£lions, 
threfliold. 



^ï 



•fART 



iiRELIMINÀRY INSTRUCTIONS i t «S 

PART FIRST. 

Sketch of the Foyage, 

ON leaving Breft de laPeroufe isdireéled to fteerfor 

Madeira, and there take i n wine, and thence for St. Jago, 

to complete his wood and water, andlay in rcfrefhments i, 

he is to crofs the line in the 29th or 30th degree of 

weft longitude from the meridian of Paris, and try to 

hit Pennedo de San-Pedroj and fix its pofition ; td 

proceed to Trinidad to wood and water, and on leav- 

îing it to run into the latitude of Ifle Grand de la 

oche, but to delift from looking for this ifland, if 

he docs not fall in with it before reaching 50° weft 

liongitude : He is to run into the latitude of Terre 

*^e la Roche, Cook's Ifle of Georgia, and confine his 

iifit to its fouthern coaft, hitherto inexplored. He is 

"en to look out for Sandwich Land in about 57^ 

uth, and having afcertained its extent, to fteer for 

aten Land, try to double Cape Horn, and anchor 

Chriftmas Sound, on the fouth-weft coaft of Terra 

el Fuego, and take in wood and water. In the 

vent of being unable to get to the weft by the winds 

nd currents that oppofe that pafîàge, he is to make 

r the coaft of Brafil, touching if necefîàry at Falk- 

nd's Iflands, which prefent a variety of accommoda- 

ons to the mariner. He is afterwards to pafs Strait le 

air, or double Staten Land by the eaft, in order to 

f each Port Chriftmas Sound, which, at all events, was 

"|o be the firft place of rendezvous for the fliips in 

'^afe of feparation. 

On leaving Chriftmas Sound, he is to fliape his 

ourfe fo as to cut the meridian of 85° weft in tha 

titude of 57° fouth, and purfue this parallel up to 

5° of longitude, in queft of Drake's Port and Land. 

e is then to proceed to cut the meridian of 105° 

the parallel of 38°, and continue in it to 115° 

d 3 longi- 



liv J»IIBLIMINAIIY INSTRUCTIONS. 

longitude, looking out for land faid to be difcovered 
by the Spaniards in 1714. He is then to get into 
the latitude of 27° 5' on the meridian of 108° weft, 
looking out for Eafter Ifland, where he is to anchor, 
and execute a particular article of his inftruélions. 
He is thence to return to the latitude of 32° on the 
meridian of 120° weft, and keep on that parallel to 
135°^ of longitude, in fearch of land feen by the 
Spaniards in 1773- Here the frigates are to feparate. 
The firft is to proceed to the intermediate parallel 
between l6° and 17°, and perfevere in it from 135° 
to 1 50° to the weft of Paris, and then fteer for Ota- 
heite, it being prefumable that in this track new in- 
habited iflands may be difcovercd. The fécond fri- 
gate, from the fame point of departure, is to run into 
25° 12'' fouth latitude, and endeavour to keep in this 
parallel, beginning at the meridian of 131° or 132*^, 
and look out for Pitcairn's Ifland, difcovercd by Car- 
teret in 1767» in the view of afcertaining its longitude, 
becaufe the exaél knowledge of its pofttion would 
ferve to determine that of the other iflands or lands af- 
terwards difcovercd by Carteret. On leaving Pitcairn's 
Illand, the fécond frigate is to fteer weftward arid 
then to the north-weft, looking out in fucceffion for 
the iflands of the Incarnation, of St. John Baptift, 
of St. Elmo, of the Four Crowns, of St. Michael, and 
of the Converfion of St. Paul, difcovercd by Quiros 
in 1606, and fuppofed to be fituated to the fouth-eaft 
of Otaheite. The fécond frigate will thus, in a north- 
eaft courfe, arrive at the meridian of 1 50° weft, and 
at 19° fouth latitude, and then fteer for Otaheite, 
where it is prefumed both veftels may arrive about 
the end of April ; and this to be their fécond place 
of rendezvous. ^ 

De la Péroufe's ftay at Otaheite is limited to one 
month ; he is then to vifit, on his way, the iflands of 
Huaheine, Ulietea, Otaha, Bolabola, and the other 
Society Iflands, to procure fuppl'^mental provifions 

to 



iiP 



difcovereJ 
3 get into 
108° weft, 
to anchor, 
iftru6lions. 
32° on the 
: parallel to 
;en by the 
to feparate. 
iate parallel 
from 135^ 
eer for Ota- 
ack new in- 
3 fécond fri- 
, to run into 
keep in this 
Bi^or 132*^ 
ered by Car- 
ts longitude, 
fition would 
s or lands af- 
ing Pitcairn's 
Tllward arid 
ucceffion for 
John Baptift, 
Michael, and 
;d by Quiros 
:hc fouth-eaft 
IS, in a north- 
50° weft, and 
for Otabeito, 
J arrive about | 
• fécond place 

imited to one 

the iflands of 

and the other 

tal proviftons 

to 



M 



^ïlËLIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. Iv 

to furnifti the inhabitants with ufeful European ar- 
ticles, to fow grain, to plant vegetables, trees. See. 
which might hereafter aftbrd fupplies to the naviga- 
tors of thofe remote feas. He is to fteer to the north- 
weft, from the Society Iflands, to get into the lati- 
tude of the iftand of St. Bernard of Quiros, about 
1 1° fouth, but not to purfue his fearch after it be- 
yond the meridians of 158° to 102° weft longitude : 
he is then to get into the parallel of 5° fouth, and to 
the meridian of l66° to 107°, and then fteer to the 
fouth-weft, and, in that dirc(5lion, crofs the fea which 
wafhes the northern fliores of the archipelago of the 
Friendly Iflands, where he will probably find others 
inhabited which have not yet been vifited by any Eu- 
ropean. He is to look for the ifland of Bella Nacion 
of Quiros between the parallel of 1 1° and that of 1 1° 
30', from the meridian of 169° to 171° longitude; 
and for the Navigators' Iflands of Bougainville one 
after another, and thence proceed to the Friendly 
|Ifles for refrefhments. He is then to get into the la- 
ftitude of the Ifle of Pines, fituated on the fouth-eaft: 
point of New Caledonia, and afcertain whether that 
land be a fingle ifland, or compofed of feveral. If 
he can make Queen Charlotte's Iflands, he is to try to 
reconnoitre the ifland Santa-Cruz of Mendana, and 
determine its extent fouthward. Should contrary 
winds prevents this, he is to make for Deliverance 
Iflands, and afcertain whether the Terre des Arfacides, 
difcovered by Surville in 1769, is not compofed of a 
clufter of iflands, which he will endeavour to particu- 
larize. P>om Cape Deliverance he is to fteer for En- 
deavour Strait, and in paflling it, try to afcertain whe- 
ther the land of Louifiade be contiguous to that of 
New Guinea, and examine the hitherto inexplored 
coaft from Cape Deliverance to the ifland of St. Bar- 
tholomew. He is defired to furvey the gulf of Car- 
pentaria, paying clofe attention, at the fame time, to 
the ftate of the north-weft- monfoon, fo as to make 

d 4 fure 



!( 






Ivi PnELIMINARY IN5XBUCTI0NS. 

fure of his paflage rouncl thp fputh-w^lV point of the 
ifle of Timor beifore the txycMticth of Novcrnber. 
In cafe he Ihcjuld npt have be.en able to procure re- 
frefhments, whercs ne may have touched (ince he left 
the Friendly Illc^, he is to. ftpp at Prince's Ifland, at 
the entrance o.f the ftri^its of Sui^da. On leaving it, 
and quitting the channel to tjic north of New Hol- 
land, he will Ihape his courfe fo as to exan>\ne the 
vveflern coaft of tha,t jand, and begin his furvey as 
near the equator as the wind will pendit. He is then 
to take a more particular infpcétiun of its , foythern 
coafl, which will bring him to the extremity of Van- 
Dienian's Land at AflYen,turp Bay, or Frcdric-Henry 
Bay ; from whence he wjll m§kc for Q)ofc's Strait?, 
and anclior in Queen -Ch(ar|qttc's Sqund (ituated in 
tiia^ (Irait, which fepara,tes_ the two iflands whereof 
New Zealand is formed. This port is to be the third 
place of rendezvous to the flïfps in cafe of feparation. 
Here he can rçlit, and provide himfelf with refrçfh- 
rrients, wood, and water. It is prefumed thjit he mpy 
be in a condition to fail frpm this port early in March, 

1787. 

On leaving Cook's Straits, he is to get into the pa- 
rallel of 41** to 42°, and keep in it till he reach the 
meridian of 130** weft. He is thence to ftand to the 
north, in order to get to windward, and into the la- 
titude of the Marqucfas, where he is to ftop, and 
take in necefîàries in the port Madre de Dios pn the 
weft coaft of Ifte Santa Chviftiana, called by Cook 
Refolution Bay. This is to be the fourth rendez- 
vous in cafe of parting company. About two months 
are allowed for this pnliage. 

On quitting the Marqnefus, if the wind permits, 
he may vilit fomc of the iflands to the eaft of Sand- 
wich liles, he is then to proceed to thefe laft and lay 
rn provifions, but to make no ftay. Thence he is to 
make the bcft of his way toward the north-weft coalt 
of America, ftauding to the north as f^r as, 30^, to 

get 



•ocurc rc^ 
ce he left 
Ifland, at 
leaving it, 
vcw Hol- 
irnine the 
furvey as 
le is then 
1 . ibythern 
ty of Van- 
ric-Henry 
i's Strait^, 
[ituated in 
s whereof 
e the third 
feparation. 
th refrçih- 
lat he may 
in March, 

mto the ,pa- 
reuch the 
and to the 
:ito the la- 
ftop, a,nd 
>ios on the 
:l by Cook 
th rendez- 
wo months 

id permits, 
t of Sand- 
ift and lay 
ce he is to 
-weft coaft 
as 30^ to 
get 



» '^1 



prbliminAry instructions. Ivit 

^et ontpf the trade windg, and gain that coaft in the 
latitude 36° ac/, at Punta de Pinos, fouth of Port 
Monterey. He is fuppofed to reach this from the 
10th ta the 15th of July. In profecuting his rc- 
fearches he is to avoid the parts which have been fur* 
vcyed by Cook, but carefully to examine whether 
there muy npt be fome river, gulf, or inland lake, 
forming à, communication with Hudfon's Bay. He 
is to purfue his furveys up to Behring's Bay and 
Mount St. Elitis, viftting ports Biicarelli and de lots 
Remedios, difcovcred by the Sipaniards in 1775. 
Hence he is to dirc<Sl his courfe toward the Shumagin 
Iflands, near the pcninfula of AJaika, and then vifit 
the archipelago of the Aleutian IHands, and after 
them the tvv:o. clufters of iflands to the vvcftward, 
whofc number and true pofition.are unknown, and 
which all together forn), with the coafts o( Aiia and 
America, the gnrnd, northern bufin or gulf. Having 
completed this furvey, he is to flop at port Awatfcha, 
;or St. Peter and St. Paul, on the fouth*ea%rq*cxtrc- 
niity of the pcninfula of Kamtfchatka, which he may 
reach toward the 1 5th to the 2Qtb of September ; and 
this port will betfcbe fifth rendezvous in cafe of fepa- 
ration. Here he will provide himfelf with nccelia- 
ries,and procure information requifite toward making 
fure of provilionson his return thither in 1788 ; and. 
order matter^ fo us to be ready to put to fea by the 
10th of Oaobcr. 

He is to coaft along and examine. all the Kurile;. 
Iflands, the north-eaft coaft, the eaft, and the fouth 
of Japan ; and, according to the ftate of the wea- 
ther, extend his refearcbes to the iflands on the eafl: 
and on the fouth of the Japanefe, and to the Lekeyo 
Iflands, as far as Formofa. This furvey finiflied, he 
is to put into Macao and Canton, or Manilla, accord- 
ing to circumftances. This port will be the fixth: 
rendezvous in cafe of feparation. It is prefumed he 

may reach it by the. end of 1787. . „,. 

Here' 



• i - 



J 



I I 



Here he is to refit and victual his fliipp, and wnit 
in port the return of the fouth-wcft moiifixjn, which 
nfuully fcts in about the beginning of March, with 
permiiflfion, however, to remain till the firft of April, 
ii' the crews have need of longer refl, and if he fliall 
judge that a navigation northward would be hazard- 
ous prior to that period. From this port he is to 
ihape his courfe To as to pafs through the (Irait which 
feparates Formofa from the coaft of China. He is 
carefully to examine the wcftern coaft of Corea, and 
the guÛ of Hoan-hay, taking care not to (land in 
too far, but always to keep it in his power cafily to 
weather the fouth coaft of Corea with a foulh-wcft 
or fouth wind. He is then to examine the callcrn 
coaft of this peninfula, that of Tartary, where a pearl 
fifhery is eftablifhed, and that of Japan oppofite to it. 
He is to pafs the ftrait of Teflby, and vifit the lands 
known by the name of Yeflb, and that which the 
Dutch call Staten Land, îind the RuflJians the Ifle of 
Nadezda, of which we have no certain information, 
He will now finifh his furvey of the Kurilc Iflands, 
and force his way through the frith which feparates 
fome of them, as near as poflible to the fouthcrn 
point of Kamtfchatka ; and come to an anchor in 
the port of Awatfcha, the feventh rendezvous in cafe 
of feparation. i> :;.*b 

Having there refitted and victualled, he is to put 
to fea early in Auguft, and run into the latitude of 
37*^ 3(y north, on the meridian of 180°. Hence he 
is to ftccr weftward, looking out for land faid to be 
difcovered by the Spaniards in 1610, and to profccutc 
this refearch to the meridian of 105° eaft : he is then 
to fteer fouth-wcfl, and fouth-fouth-wcfl, looking out 
for the iflands fcattered over thofe Teas to the north- 
eall of the Marianne Iflands. He may put into Ti- 
nian, but regulate his flay there, and his courfe after- 
ward, by the north-eafterly nionfoon, which does not 
fet in, to the north of the line, till 0(5lober, fo that, on 
; . leaving 



10(1 waîl 

n, which 

•ch, with 

:)f April, 

' he (liall 

haziirci- 

he is to 

lit which 

He is 

orea, and 

iland in 

cafily to 

3ulh-well 

ie cnllcrn 

re a pearl 

>fite to it. 

the lands 

'hich the 

he Ifle of 

ormation, 

e Iflands, 

feparatcs 

fouthcrn 

anchor in 

us in cafe 

is to put 
atitude of 
Hence he 
faid to be 
profccutc 
lie is then 
oking out 
;he north- 
it into Ti- 
urfe aftcr- 
1 does not 
fo that, on 
leaving 




MBLIMtNARY ÎNSTHUCTtOÎÎS. Iljt 

leaving Titican, he may have it in his power to furvey 
the New Carolinas^ to the fouth-weft of Guaham, one 
of the Mariannes, and to the cad of Mindanao, one 
of the Philippines. This furvey to be purfued us far 
as St. Andrew's Iflands. He is after that to flop a fort- 
night at Mindanao to take in provifions and refrelh- 
ments; then to fleer for the Moluccas, and anchor 
at Ternate to take in farther fupplics. As the nion- 
foon will not permit him to pafs the Straits of Sunda, 
he mufl: avail himfelf of the variable winds near the 
equator, to pafs between Ceram and Bourro, or be- 
tween Bourro and Bouton, and endeavour to force a 
paflage between fome of the iflands to the eaft or 
weft of Timor. Having then probably run beyond 
the parallel of 10^ fouth, he will find himfelf out of 
the north-weft monfoon, and be able with eafe, with 
the wind from the eaft and fouth-eaft, to make the 
Ifle of France, which will be the eighth rendezvous 
for the fliips in cafe of feparation. 

He is to remain there no longer than is abfolutely 
neceflary to prepare for his return to Europe. On 
leaving it, he is to run into the mean parallel between 
54** and 55° fouth, and look out for Cape Circumci- 
fion, difcovered in 1739 by Lozier Bouvet. CroiTmg 
this latitude at 15° eaft, he will continue in the fame 
parallel to the meridian of Paris, or of no longitude, 
and then give up the fearch. Should he then judge 
that the (hips are not fuffieiently provided with ne- 
ceflàries, he is to put into the Cape of Good Hope 
to fupply them. This to be the ninth rendezvous in 
eafe of feparation. 

He is to endeavour, on his return to Europe, to 
make Cough's Ifland, and thofe of Alvarez, of Trif- 
tan d'Acunha, of Saxenberg, and Dos Picos, and if 
he find them, afccrtain thar true pofition. He will 
then fleer for Brefl, where he will probably arrive in 
July or Augnft 178g. 

Though this is the track flcetched for M. de la Pé- 

roufc. 



It p *_ 



it' ' PiEilMINARY XKStBUGTIONS. 

roufe,1n his Majefty's iriflru6lions, he is veiled never-' 
thelefs with a ailcretionary power of deviating from 
it according to circumftances, provided that the main 
«►bjeél of tlie expedition be kept continually iii view. 



PART SBCOIÏD. 



A :r r 



H 






OhjeÛs relative to Politics and Commereei 

I. The ftay which the Sienr de la Péroufe is iè 
make at Madeira^ and at St. Jago, will he too fhort 
to admit of his obtaining exaél information refpeél- 
ing the ftate of thofe Portugueze colonies ; he will, 
however, procure intelligence refpe<Sling the force 
which Portugal keeps up in them, refpeéling the 
trade which the Engliih and other nations carry on 
there, and refpeéling the leading obje(^s which it 
may be interefting to k«now. ,,;, ,,' ' | r 

II. He will afcertain whether the Engliih have en- 
tirely evacuated Trinidad, whether Portugal has form- 
ed an eftablifliment in it, and of what it coniifls. 

HI. Should he hit the Ifle Grande de la Roche, he 
will fatisfy hinifelf whether it contains any fafe and 
commodious harbour, capable of fupplying wood and 
water ; what accommodation it prefents for the for- 
mation of a fettlement, in cafe the fouthern whale- 
^(hcry ihould attra<!^ French adventurers that way ; 
whether there is any poil which could be eaiily for- 
tified, and defended by a fmall garrifon, at a diilance 
fo great from France. 

IV. He will examine Georgia in the fame view. 
But this ifland, being in a higher latitude, "prefents 
lefs attraélion, and the ice which obilruéls the navi- 
gation during part of the year, would probably dif- 
courage the fidicrmcn from making this a place of 
rendezvous or retreat. -; , f r : . , i ^ I < .. » 

V. The iflands of the great equatorial Ocean pre- 
fcnt few fubjeds of obfervation relative to politics 
and commerce, from their immenfe diilance, except 

perhaps 



m 



i 



»3 



me view. 



?REHMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. Ixi 

perhaps to the crown of Spain. M. de la Përoufe 
is, however, dire<Sied to attend tQ the dimate, and 
the produfftions of the different ifles of that ocean 
which he may vifit, to the manners and cuftoms of 
the natives, their religion, form of government, mode 
pf making war, arms, veflels, diftindive charaéler of 
each tribe, what they have in common with other 
favage, and with civilized, nations ; and the particu- 
iar diftindion of each. In fuch of thofe iflands as 
have been viiited by Europeans, hé will endeavour 
to find out whether the natives could didinguifh the 
different nations of their vifitors, and what opinion 
they may have formed of each of them in particular, 
^c will enquire what ufe they have made of the va- 
rious articles of merchandize, metals, tools, ftufFs, 
&c. introduced into their country. He will inform 
himfelf whether the beads and birds left by Captain 
Cook in fome of them have multiplied ; what Euro- 
pean feeds and pot-herbs have thriven bed ; what 
mode of culture is employed by the iflanders ; and 
what ufe they make of the produce. He will exa- 
mine the fadls related by former navigators, and fup- 
ply their omiiîions. 

At Eafler Iflarjià he will fatisfy himfelf whether the 
human fpccies is there on the decreafe, which Cap- 
tain Cook's obfei*vation and belief render credible. 

On touching at Huaheine, he will try to get ac- 
quainted with Omai, whom the Englilh navigator 
iettlcd there in the courfe of his third voyage, and 
learn what treatment he received from his feilow- 
iflanders after the Englifh were gone, and what ufe 
he himfelf had made of the knowledge he mufî have 
acquired in Europe, tow ard the improvement of his 
own country. 

VI. In his furvey of the iflands of the great equa- 
torial Ocean, and thecoads of the continents, fhould 
he meet at fea any vefîèls belonging to a foreign 
power, he will condud himfelf conformably to the 

• - modes 



jxa PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 

modes of behaviour eftablifhed among polifhed and 
friendly nations ; and on meeting any fucb in a port 
pertaining to a nation confidcred as favage, he will 
concert meafures with the commander of the foreign 
veflel, efFeélually to prevent all altercation between 
the crews which may happen to be on (bore together, 
and to fecure mutual affillance in cafe either fbould 
be attacked by the iflanders. 

VII. In his viiit to New Caledonia, Queen-Char- 
lotte's Iflands, the land of the Arfacidcs, and Loui- 
liade, he will carefully examine the natural produc- 
tions of thofe countries, which being lituated in the 
torid zone, nnd in the fame latitude with Peru, may 
open a new field of commercial fpeculation, and, 
without trufting to the exaggerated accounts given 
by the ancient Spanifh navigators of the fertility and 
riches of fome of the illands which they difcovered 
in this part of the world, he will obferve only that ap- 
proximations founded on geographical combination, 
and on information derived from modern voyages, 
furnifh room to think that the land difcovered by 
Bougainville in 1768, and by Survillc in 176q, may 
be the illands difcovered by Mendana in 1567, ^"^^ 
fincc known by the name of Solomon's Iflands, from 
their real or fiippofcd fruitfiilncfs. 

He will examine, with equal attention, the north 
and weft coafts of New Holland, thofe parts particu- 
larly which, being within the torrid zone, may par- 
take of the productions peculiar to countries fituated 
in the lame latitudes. • ::!;r.i:n"t :LK.vyr î , 

VIII. He will have to repeat the fame enquiries at 
the iflands of New Zealand, of which the relations 
of Englifh navigators have given an ample detail. 
But, during his flay in Queen-Charlotte's channel, he 
will make it his bullncfs to find out whether England 
has formed or proje6led any fcttlement there, and in- 
form hiinfelf or Lhe fpot refpccting the llatc, ftrength, 
and object, of fuch eftablillimeiit. 

..X. If 



I . '1/ 



m 



m 



led and 
I a port 
he will 

; foreign 
between 
ogether, 
r ihould 

;n-Char- 
id Loui- 

produc- 
'A in the 
eru, may 
on, and, 
nts given 
tility and 
ifcovered 

that ap- 
ibination, 

voyages, 
*vercd by 
769, may 

567, and 
nds, from 

he north 
parti cu- 
niay par- 
s iituated 

quirics at 
relations 

)le detail. 

annel, he 
England 
, and in- 
ftrength, 




i.X. 



u 




PRELIMINART INSTRUCTIONS. îxîÏÏ 

IX. If in reconnoitring the north-weft cwaft of 
America, he (hall fall in with any forts or fa^ories 
belonging to his Catholic Majefty, he fhall carefully 
avoid giving offence to the officers commanding fuch 
fettlements, and improve the ties of blood and amity 
which unite the two fovereigns, as the means of pro^ 
curing fuch affiftance and refrefliments as the country 
may afford lîe will endeavour to obtain information 
refpeaing the ftate, ftrcngth, and objeél, of thofe 
Spanifh fettlements. He will enquire at what lati- 
tude peltry becomes procurable ; what quantity tiic 
native Americans are abJe to furnilh ; what articles 
are beft adapted to the fur trade ; what conveniency 
prefents for forming an eftablifhment on that coaft, 
fuppofing this branch of commerce were to engage 
the attention of the French merchant, in the profpe^t 
of importing peltry into China, where it would find 
a certain market. He will likewife procure informa- 
tion re (peeling the fpecies of Ikins to be purchafed, 
-• and vvhether that of the otter, which fetches the 
higheft price in Alia, is the moft common in America. 
He will bring to France famples of all the different 
furs he is able to procure : and as, in the profecution 
of his voyage, he is to {top fome time in China, per- 
haps touch at Japan, he will inform himfelf what 
fpecies of Ikin promifes to have the eafieft, fafeft, and 
moft lucrative fale in thofe two empires, and what 
benefit France may derive from this new branch of 
commerce. Finally, he will endeavour, during his 
ftay on the coaft of America, to difcover whether the 
Hadfpn's Bay fettlements, the forts or fadlories of 
the mterior» or any province of the United States, 
have opened through the imervention of wandering 
favages, any intercourfe of - ommerce or barter with 
the tribes on the weft coaft. • ' - -. v^ ;» i ,. 

X. It is probable that in vifiting the Aleutian 
1 (lands, and the other clufiers to the fouth of the 
great bafin of the north, he may fall in with fome 
. / Ruffian 



ma 



Jxîv PRELIMIXÂÎIY ÏXSt'kÛCl'IONS. 

Rufîîan rcUleiTients. He will try to find 6lit their 
conftitutron, thfcif force, their objc6t ; what is the 
navigation of the Ruffians in tl^ofe feas, what flîips, 
what men they employ ir» it? how far their com- 
jnerce extends ; whether any of thofe iflcs acknow- 
ledge the fovcreignty of Ruffia, or are all indepen- 
dctit ; finally, whether the Rikffians have not been 
advancing nearer atid nearer to the continent of 
Aorjerica. He will avail himfelf of his ftay at Awat- 
icha to extend his information on thefe particulars, 
and to procure, at the fame time, all pojflible light 
refpe6ling the Kurile Ifles, the land of JcfJb, and the 
empire of Japan. 

XI. He will ejçamine the Kiiriîe iiles and the land 
of Jefib with all poffible cirGumfpej5\ion, not only in 
the view q{ obje*6ts relative to navigation in feas un- 
J:nmvn to Europeans^and underftood to be tempeftur 
ous, but alfo in coniideration of the intereourfe which 
may take placte with the inhabitants of thofe coun- 
tries, whofe character aiid manBriu mud have an af- 
finity to thofe of thjB Japanefé, who may have fub- 
jugatcd part of them, and maintain a communication 
with the rcfi. As Ruffia extends her fovereignty over 
only fome of the Kuriles, adjacent to Kamtfchatka, 
he will examine whether, among the fouthern and 
independent iflands, fome one may not be found on 
which, in cafe pf a peltry trade being opened for 
Frarxe, it might be pofifible to form a fettkmerit or 
factory, which could be fecured againft every infult oq 
the part of the iflanders. 

XII. He will reconnoitre the eafl: and north-eafi: 
coaft of Japan) and anchor in fome of its ports, to 
obtain certain information whether its government 
aïftually oppofes invincible obfiacles to all cfmblilli- 
nient, to every operation of cqmmercc or barter on the 
part of the Europeans ; and whether, by the attrac- 
tion of peltry, an object at once of utility and luxurv 
10 the Japanefcj it might not be |)aiîible to prevail 

i .,. .. oil 



^beo 



[acqi 
Iflcs 
pil 



)n 



f)\it their 
it is the 
lat iliips, 
cir com- 
acknow- 
indepen- 
not been 
Linent of 
at Awat- 
irticulars, 
ble light 
>, and the 

I the land 
ot only in 
1 feas un- 
tempeflu- 
iffe which 
ofe coun- 
ave an af- 
have fub- 
mnication 
gtity over 
ntfchatka, 
hern and 
found on 
3cned for 
lemerit or 
y iiifult on 

north-eafi: 

ports, to 

)vern merit 

cfuibliili- 

rter on the 

he attrac- 

nd luxui'v 

to prevail 

on 






\t 





PREf-IMINARY INSTRUCTIONC. IxV 

on the ports to the eaft and north-eaft, to admit vef- 
fels loaded with this commodity, and to give in ex- 
change the teas, the filks, and the other productions 
of their foil, and the articles of their manufaélure. 

xiii. On his arrival at Macao, he (hall take the 
mcafures neceflTary to facilitate his wintering at Can- 
ton. For this purpofe he will addrcfs himfelf to the 
Sieur Vieillard, his Majefty's conful in China, and 
engage him to take the proper fteps with the Chinefe 
government to obtain permifîion. He will avail him- 
felf of his ftay there, to acquire accurate informa- 
tion rcfpeéting the rétual ftate of commerce between 
European nations and Canton, under every relation 
which it is of importance to know. He will procure 
intelligence of every particular that may affift his far- 
, ther navigation in the feas north of China, on the 
[ coafts of Corca and eaft Tartary, and all the other 
Uands to be vifited in thole parts. He will fecure, if 
poffible, a Chinefe and Japanefe interpreter, and a 
^^uffian one for his fécond call at Avvatfcha ; making 
fn agreement with them for the time they are to be 
- in the fervice of the fhip, and on his return, will put 
them athore at Mindanao or on the Moluccas. 

XIV, He mufl be apprized, that Japanefe pirates 
f(-metimes fwarm in the fea furrounded by Japan, 
Corea, and Tartary. The feeblencfs of their veflels 
renders no other precaution necefiary, except being 
on his guard againft furprize by night : but it might 
be of advantage to hail one of them, and engage him, 
by prefcnts and promifes, to pilot his Majefty's (hips 
on the excurfion to Jcflb, part of which is fuppofed 
to be under the dominion of Japan ; in pafling the 
ilraits of Tciiby, with which the Japanefe muil be 
acquainted ; and in reconnoitring fuch of the Kurile 
. Illes as they are in the habit of frequenting. Such 
pilot might likewife be ufeful in viliting fome port 
n the welt coaft of Japan, in cafe circumftances 
ould not have permitted him to land on any point 
Vol, I. e * of 



<, 



lU 



)!,t i \l I 



liiN 



Ixvi PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 

of the eaft or north-eaft coaft. But whatever ufe may 
be made of fuch pilot, he is not to be trufted impli- 
citly. M. de la Péroufc will likewifc, if poflible, 
engage fomc fifhermcn of the Kuriles to pilot him 
through the iflands adjoining to Kamtfchatka. He 
will thus endeavour, in flanding northward, to com- 
plete his furvey of the iflands which he could not re- 
connoitre on his way from Awatfcha to Macao, and 
to fupply on the weftern coaft of Japan, what he was 
not able to accomplifh on the euft and north-eaft. 
His furvey of the coafts of Corea and Chinefe Tar- 
tary muft be taken with great circumfpcélion ; the 
Chinefe government being extremely punélilious, he 
ought not to dil'play his colours on that coaft, nor 
permit any operation which might give oftence, left 
it fhould be refentcd on French Ihips trading to 
Canton. 

XV. In examining the Carolina Iflands, known only 
by name to moft of the nations of Europe, he will 
take care to inform himfelf whether the Spaniards 
have formed any fettlement there. He will endea- 
vour to acquire the knowledge of the produélions of 
thofe iflands, and of all thofe which he may difcovcr 
to the norih-caft, and to the weft-fouth-weft of the 
Mariannes. 

XVI, In flopping at Tinian he vvil! procure infor- 
mation refpeéting the fettlements, the ftrength, and 
the commerce of the Spnuiards in thnt archipelago 
and its vicinity. He will make the fame inquiries at 
Mindanao, to Icaj-n, as far as pofîibie, the political, 
military, and commercial ftate of that natiori in the 
Philippine Iflands. 

xvii. During his ftay at the JMolucca;'! he will care- 
fully intbrm hin)l'clf relpcélinfr the fituUici and the 
commerceof the Dutch in thofe iflands, ai.i particu- 
larly in the view of knowing what advantages miiil 
reluit to the commerce of England, from the lil)erty 
which that power has obtained by her late u'caty of 

pcacf 



ir ufe may 
îed impli- 
f poffible, 
pilot him 
atka. He 
1, to com- 
ulcl not re- 
/lacao, and 
hat he was 
north-eaft. 
linefe Tar- 
6lion ; the 
^iUous, he 
, coaft, nor 
>fFence, left 
trading to 

:nown only 
pe, he will 
; Spaniards 
will endea- 
du6lions of 
ay difcovcr 
weft of the 

t)cure infor- 
ength, und 
iirchipelngo 
inquiries at 
he political, 
at ion in the 

le will care- 

■,ci and V-\c 
m particu- 
ntiiiics muft 
the lil)erty 
tc treaty of 
peace 




PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. IxvH 

peace with Holland to navigate and traffic through 
the whole extent of the Adriatic leas ; and he will 
endeavour to find out what ufe England has made of 
that liberty, and whether (lie has yet been able, 
through this channel, to open any new vein of com- 
merce with that part of the world. 

XVIII. Should he put in to the Cape of Good 
Hope, he will procure accurate information refpeél- 
ing the aétual ftate of this colony ; of the force which 
Holland, or the Dutch Eaft India Company, keeps 
up there fince the peace, and of the ftate of the old 
and new fortifications which defend the town and 
anchorage. 

XIX. In all the iflands, and in all the ports of con- 
tinents occupied or frequented by Europeans, where 
he may touch, he will prudently, as far as circum- 
ftances permit, make every enquiry which may enable 
~ im to difcover, in detail, the nature and extent of 

he commerce of each nation, the fea and land force 
^'hich each keeps up, the relations of intereft or 
frienddiip which fubfift between them and the chiefs 

r natives of the countries where they have fettle- 

ents, and, in general, every thing that concerns 

olitics and commerce. 



':>''>"i- 



PART THIRD. 



\Operatioiis Relative to AJironomy^ Geography^ Nav'tga- 
tmiy VhyJlcSy and the different Branches of Natural 
Hiflory. 

I. Two aftronomers having been appointed to a6l 
funder the orders of the Sieur de la ?< roufe, on the 
expedition entrufted to his charge, and the two fri- 
Igates being furnifhed with all the inftruments of 
laftronomy and navigation which need to be ufed by 
Jfea or land, he will take care that, during the courfe 
lof the voyage, neither of them neglc6l any opportu- 

e2 * nity 



Mê 



Ixviiî PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 

nity of making fuch aftronomical obfcrvations as may 
to him appear ulbful. 

Tlie objc6l of grcatcft importance toward the fafc- 
ty of navigation, is to afccrtain, with precifion, the 
latitude and longitude of the ])laccs where he may 
land, or in fight of which he may pafs. He will ac- 
cordingly dire6l the aftronomcr employed on board 
each frigate to obferve, with extreme accuracy, the 
movement of the marine time-keepers, and to avail 
himfelf of every favourable circumftance for afcer- 
taining on fhore how far the regularity of their mo- 
tion has been kept up during the run, and to con- 
firm, by comparifon, the change which may have 
taken place in their daily motion, for the purpofe of 
keeping an account of that change, in order to de- 
termine with more precilion the longitude of the 
iflands, capes, or other remarkable points which he 
may have reconnoitred in the interval of the two ob- 
fcrvations. 

As often astheftate of thefky will permit, hemufl 
have lunar obfcrvations made to afcertain the longi- 
tude of the veflel, and to compare it with that which 
the time-keepers indicate at the fame infiant : he will 
take care to repeat obfcrvations of every kind, that 
the mean refult of different operations may procure a 
more prccifc determination. On paffing within fight 
of any land where he does not mean to ftop, he will 
take care to keep as nearly as pofilble on the parallel 
of that point, at the infiant of obferving the meri- 
dian altitude of the fun or any other fi;ar, from which 
to' calculate the latitude of the fhip ; and continue 
in the fame meridian at the moment of making ob- 
fcrvations for determining her longitude, in order to 
avoid all error of pofition or calculation of diftance, 
which might injure the exaélnefs of determination. 
He will, every day that the weather permits, obferve 
the declination and inclination of the magnetic needle. 

. On 



Ml 



%1 



►ns as may 

d the fafc- 
îcifion, the 
re he may 
^e will ac- 
l on board 
:nracy, the 
id to avail 
for afcer- 
f their mo- 
md to con- 
may have 
purpofe of 
rder to de- 
ude of the 
s which he 
the two oh- 

Tiit, hemuft 
1 the longi- 
r» that which 
ant: he will 
y kind, that 
ay procure a 
; within fight 
ftop, he will 
1 the parallel 
ig the meri- 
; from which 
and continue 
■ making ob- 
5. in order to 
\ of diftance, 
elcrmination. 
rmits, obferve 
srnetic needle. 
^ On 




FRELIÎvIINAKY INSTRUCTIONS. IxiX 

On arriving in any port be will choofe a convenient 
fpot on which to pitch his tents, and raife his portable 
obfcrvalory, and place a guard over it. 

Befide obfervations relative to the determination of 
longitude and latitude, for which every known and 
pradicable method is to be employed, and thofe for 
afccrtaining the variation of the compafs, he will not 
fail to obferve every celeftial phenomenon, which may 
be perceived ; and, on every occafion, procure for 
the aftronomers all poffible alHllancc toward enfuring 
the fuccefs of their operations. His Majefty is pcr- 
fuaded, that the naval officers will manift'ft a proper 
zeal to make themfelvcs, in concert with the aflro- 
nomers, every obfcrvation tending to improve navi- 
gation ; and that they, in their turn, will be eager to 
impart to the officers the fruit of their ftudies, and 
the theoretic knowledge wliich may contribute to- 
ward the perfection of the nautical art. 

On board each of the frigates there muft be kept 
a double journal, on which fhall be entered every 
day, both at fea and on fhore, the aftronomical ob- 
fervations, thofe relating to the employment of time- 
pieces, and all others. Thcfe obfervations (liall be 
entered rough, that is (imply indicating the quantity 
of degrees, minutes, &c. given by the inftrument at 
the moment of obfervation, without any calculation, 
only pointing out the error of the inftrument em- 
ployed, if it has been afcertained by the ufual veri- 
fetions. Each of the aftronomèrs to keep polfef- 
fion of one of the journals, and the refpedlive com- 
manders the other. The aftronomer fhall befides 
keep a fécond journal, containing, day by day, all the 
obfervations made, and add, for each operation, all 
the calculations leading to the ultimate refult. At 
the end of the voyage the Sieur de la Péroufc fhall 
take pofièffion of the two journals kept by the aftro- 
nomers, after their truth has been certified by their 
fignatnres. . ,. . 

e 3 II. When 



IXX PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 

II. When he (hall (lop at places which it may be 
of importance to know in a military view, he will 
have the country furvcycd by the chief engineer, 
who mud give him a circutnltantial report of all 
his remîirks, and of the plans he may have prepared. 
He will have exac^ charts drawn of all ihe coails and 
idands he miiy vifit ; and if they are already known, 
he will afccrtain the cxaétnefs of preceding naviga 
tors. For this purpofc, in navigating along coalts 
or in fight of idands, he mud have them very exactly 
furveyed with the quadrant or azimuth compaf<;, ob- 
fervingthat the furveys, the mod to be depended on 
for con drudging charts, are thofeby which one cape, 
or any other remarkable objeét, can be laid down by 
another. 

He will employ the ofdcers of the frigates, and the 
geographic engineer, carefully to lay ilown plans of 
coads, bays, ports, and anchoring grounds, which he 
may have an opportunity of infpeéting, and affix to 
each plan indruétions which (hall exhibit every thing 
relating to the appearance and bearing of coads, the 
getting in or out of harbours, the mode of anchorage 
and crofs- mooring, and the bed dtuation tor water- 
ing ; the foundings, the quality of the bottom, the 
dangers, rocks and (hoals ; the prevailing winds, 
breezes, monfoons, the length of their duration, and 
the period of their change ; in a word, every nautical 
detail that may be ufeful to a mariner. All plans of 
countries, coads, and harbours, mud have duplicates, 
one copy to red with each of the captain>< ; and, at 
the end of the voyage, the Sieur de la Péroule ihall 
take poficdion of the whole, with the indrudions re- 
lative to them His Majffty leaves to him the fixing 
of the era when the deched boats are to be put to- 
gether, which are on board each frigate in pieces : 
hi<; dop at Otaheitemay be the proper ieafon. I'hefe 
boats may be employed to advantage in attending the 
frigates, whether on exploring the archipelagoes litua- 
. i. .'■ . . , ' . i ted 



i" 



i(.4 



"% 




es, nnd the 
;n plans of 
5, which he 
ind affix to 
every thing 

confis, the 
' anchorage 
1 tor vvater- 
)ottom, the 
ling winds, 
LU'ation, and 
ery nautical 
Ail plans of 
; duplicates, 
ns ; and, at 
éroule iliall 
mêlions rc- 
n the fixing 

be put to- 
e in pieces : 
fon. Thefe 
tending the 
lugoes litua- 
ted 



PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. Ixxi 

ted in the great equatorial Ocean, or furvcying in de- 
tail the parts of the coafi, and in founding bays, 
harbours, paflhges, and, in a word, on every fervice 
that can be performed by a vcHel of finall draught 
of water, and capable of carrying feveral days pro- 
vifion lor its crew. 

III. I'he naturalifts appointed to make obfervations 
analogous to their feveral purfuits, arc to be employed 
each in his peculiar department. M. de la Péroufe 
will prefcribe the objeèls of refcarch, and dillribute 
the proper infiruments and apparatus, taking care that 
no one have a complicated talk, but that the zeal and 
intelligence of every individual may produce their 
complete cffeét toward the general fucccfs of the ex- 
pedition. He will communicate to them the memo- 
rial tranfmittcd by the Academy of Sciences, point- 
ing out the particular obfervations recommended to 
their attention. 

He will in like manner communicate to the fur- 
geons of the fhips the memorial of the medical So- 
ciety, that they may purfue their profeffional re- 
fearches to advantage. Both in the ])rogrefs of fail- 
iniT, and. in port, he will have ajournai kept on board 
both vefit'ls of daily obfervations made on the ft ate of 
the weather, the winds, the currents, the variations 
of the atmofphere, and every thing relating to meteo- 
rology. W hen in port he will obferve the genius, 
charaéler, manners, cuftoms, temperament, language, 
government, and number of the inhabitants. He 
will examine the nature of the toil, and the produc- 
tions of the different countries, and every thing re- 
lative to the natural hiûory of the globe. He will 
colleét natural curiofities both of the land and of the 
water ; and have them claHed, with a defcriptive ca- 
talogue of each fpecies, mentioning the places where 
they were found, the ufes to which the natives apply 
them, and, if they be plants, the virtues afcribed to 
them. He will likewife colled and clafs the cloth- 

e4 ing, 



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Photographic 

Sciences 

Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716)872-4503 




Uxii FREUMmABY INSTRUCTIOJÎÇ, 

ing, arms, ornaments, furniture, tools, mufical inllru- 
ipents, and all other efFeéls ufed by the different na- 
tions he may vifit, and every article muft be labelled 
and numbered correfpondently to the catalogue, 

tje will direél the draughtfmen to take drawings 
of all the remarkable land views and iituations, por- 
traits of the natives, their peculiar drefs, ceremonies, 
paftimes, edifices, boats, all the land and fea produc- 
tions of the three kingdoms, if drawings of thefe ob- 
jets appear to him likely to facilitate the compre- 
benfion of defcriptions given by the fcientific gentle- 
men on board. All drawings made on the voyage, 
all boxes containing natural curiofities, with descrip- 
tions of them, and the colledlions of ailronomical 
obfervations Iball, at the end of the voyage, be put 
into the hands of the Sieur de la Peroufe ; and no one 
of the literati or artifts (hall referve to himfelf, or for 
any other, any article of natural hiftor}', or other ob- 
jeâ, which M. de la Peroufe (hall deem worthy of a 
place in the colleélion de(igned for his Majefty. 

IV. Before entering the port of Breft, at the end 
of the voyage, or before his arrival at the Cape of 
Good Hope, (hould he flop there, he (liall take pof- 
feffion of all journals kept by the naval officers, ailro- 
nomers, literati, artifts, pilots, and all other perfons ; 
enjoining ihem, on their word of honour, toobferve 
9 profound filence rcfpeéling the object of the expe- 
dition, and the difcoveries made, with an a(îurance 
that their journals and papers (hall be reftored. 



PART FOURTH. 

Conduâf to he objerved toivard the Natives of the dif- 
ferent Countries. 

The relations of former navigators have difclofed 
the charaéiers and manners of part of the different 
nations with whom be may come into contad:, both 
in the iflands of the great fouthern Ocean, and on the 

I ) : north- 



FREUMINABY XNSTRUCTIQVS. UxiU 

north-weft coaft of America. He is thereby pre» 
pared to imitate the good conduél of fome of his prc- 
decefTors, and to (hun the faults of others. 

On his arrival in any port, he will endeavour to 
ingratiate himfelf with the chiefs, by expreffing be- 
nevolence, and making prefents ; he will fecure the 
refources which the place furniihes for fupplying tho 
wants of his (hips* companies, and employ all honour- 
able means of forming intimacy with the natives. 
He will find out on what European commodities they 
fet moft value, and make up a proper afibrtment which 
may encourage them to barter. He will fee the ne- 
ceflityof ufing every prudent precaution to maintain 
his fuperiority againll a multitude, without employing 
force; and, however well received by favnges, he 
muft ever (hew himfelf in a flate of defence, left fe- 
curity on his part might tempt them to come on him 
by furprize. In no cafe fhall he fend a boat on (hore 
but what is provided with arms and ammunition, and 
commanded by an officer, with orders never to lofe 
[iight of the boat under his charge, and always to leave 
fome men to guard her. He muft not permit any 
officer, feaman, or other to lleep on (hore, except on 
duty ; and perfons obliged by adual fervice to pa(s 
the night on land, (hall retire betimes to. the tents 
creeled to fervc as obfervatories and magazines, with 
a guard placed over them under the command of an 
officer, to maintain good order among the feamen 
and foldiers, and to prevent, by adtive and unremit- 
ting vigilance, every attack or entcrprize of the fa- 
vages. He will take care to have the (hips moored 
within reach to protedl the fettlement, and give in- 
ftruélions to the officer on guard refpe6ling the (ig- 
nals to be made in cafe of alarm. 

Thefe difpofitions being made, he will prepare for 
providing fubliftence, and other neccflaries for the 
(hips' companies ; and, having made a feleétion from 
the commodities with which the frigates are furnilhed, 

he 



Ixxiv PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 

he will form a magazine on fhore under protection 
of a guard : but as all the iflanders of the South Sea 
have an irrefiflible propcnfity to fteal, he will take 
care, that they may not be tempted by the fight of 
too many obje(5ts in one place, to have no more goods 
brought afhore every day but what are fufficient. for 
the daily demand. He will regulate the value of 
thofe exchanges, and never allow the rate once fixed 
to be exceeded, left by giving, at fii*ft, too high a 
price for the articles to be procured, the natives fhould 
afterwards refufe to deal on lower terms He will 
open but one magazine for both frigates ; and on 
purpofe to maintain good order and prevent abufe, 
he will fpecially charge an officer to treat with the 
favage?, and to felc6t the petty officers or others, who 
fhall under his own infpe61:ion perform the duty of 
the magazine. No officer, or other perfon on board, 
fhall be permitted, under any pretence, to carry on 
any fpecies of barter, without exprefs permiffion from 
the Sieur de la Péroufe, and after the rate of exchange 
is fixed. If any of the crew fhall be found ftealing 
the effeéls of the (hip, or any of the commodities 
fet apart to be exchanged, he muft have him punifh- 
ed feverely according to law, and more efpecially fiich 
as being in the fervice of the magazine have abufed 
his confidence, and fecreted goods for carrying on a 
fniudulent trade. * He will ftri6lly enjoin all under 
his command to maintain a good underftanding with 
the natives, and try to conciliate their friendfhip by 
fair-dealing and kindnefs, and prohibit them, under 
the moft rigorous penalties, to take by force what the 
inhabitants refufed voluntarily to fiirrender. 

The Sieur de la Péroufe will, on every occafion, 
treat the people he may vifit with gentlenefs and hu- 
manity ; he will zealoufly exert himfelf to ameliorate 
their condition, by procuring for them the ufeful pot- 
herbs, fruits, and trees of Europe ; by teaching them 
the method of cultivation, and the ufe they ought to 

make 



PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIQNS. IxXV 

make of thofe prefents, the obje^ of which is to mul- 
tiply on their foil the prod «étions ncccfîâry to nations 
which derive almoft all their fullcnance from the 
ground. 

Should imperious circumftances, againft which pru- 
dence ought to provide Jn an expedition of fo long 
duration, ever oblige the Sieur de la Pcroufe to ufe 
fuperior force, to procure the necefîàries of life, that 
force is to be exerted with the utmort moderation, 
and every tranfgreflion of orders to be punKhed with 
extreme rigour. In every other cafe, if he cannot 
make fure of the fricndfhip of favages by kind treat- 
ment, he will endeavour to over-awe them by terror 
and threatenings, but never have recourfe to arms, 
except in the laft extremity, that is, in cafes of felf- 
defcnce, and when moderation might endanger the 
[(hips, and the lives of Frenchmen entrufted to his 
Icare. 

His Majefty will coniider it as one of the aufpici- 
)us circumftances of the expedition, that it terminate 
I'ithout coding the life of a fingle individual. 



PART FIFTH. 

'Precautions to he employed for preferving the Health of 

the Cre^vs. 

The Sieur de la Péroufe being fully apprized of his 
[Majelly's wifhes, that the propofed expedition, fo far 
from proving injurious to favage nations whom he 
lay vi(it, Ihould rather procure for them bleffings 
which they want, muft furely feel what particular at- 
tention he is bound to pay to the prefervation of the 
:revvs under his command. 

The thips are amply provided with every article that 
:an either prevent the" difeafes of the fea, or check 
their progrefs, as alfo with thofe which are dcligned 
as fubftitutcs for ordinary provifions, and to corred 
^heir bad etFeds. He will take care that thefe cor- 
dials 



Ixxvi VRE1.IMINJLRY INSTRUCTIONS. 

dials and correctives be fcafonably applied, and with 
Utoderation ; and will pay fpecial attention to the re-, 
fources which may prcfent themlelves in the port» 
where he may touch, to procure refrefhments and 
wholefomc food, in order to correct the effeét of a 
long ufe of faked provifions. He will ufe his own 
difcretion in direéling the proper mode of flowage of 
the frigates, and when in port, will caufe to be in- 
fpe(Sted and aired fuch parts of the provifions as dif- 
cover a tendency to decay, in the view of flopping it» 
progrefs. 

He will negledl no opportunity of procuring freflî 
fifh for his men, and of frefliening bis falted fiorcs 
by the methods put into his power, and fuccefsfully 
pradtifed by late navigators. He knows well that one 
of the precautions which moft cffcélually contribute» 
to the health of fcamen, is unremitting attention to 
cleanlincfs, both in their perfons and in the (hips. 
He will employ for this purpofe all the known me- 
thods of ventilation, fumigation, perfuming for fweet- 
ening and purifying the air in the hold, and between 
decks. He will every day, if poflible, caufe the fea- 
mcns' hammocks and bedding be expofed to the air : 
and that they may not ncgle6): perfonal cleanlincfs, 
he will divide them into parties, and confide the in- 
fpcéiion of each divifion to an officer, who fiiall once 
a week report to the captain the flate of the clothing, 
and the wants of his particular charge, and, upon an 
order from.M. dc la Péroufe, the fupplemental cloth- 
ing which has been put on board fhall be diftributcd 
among the crews, according to the regulation laid 
down by the commanding officer, and as circum- 
ftances may require. 

He will cftablifb the moft exaél difcipline on board 
the frigates, and carefully guard againlt every relaxa- 
tion in this refpeél. But the feverity necefiary to all 
fcrvice, efpecially during an expedition of feveral 
years, will be tempered by the confiant expreffion of 
^ ' ^ . r . ^ the 



PRELIMX17ART INSTRUCttOKS. IkXVÎI 

the paternal regard which he owes to the compa-» 
nions of his labours ; and the King, knowing the fen- 
timents with which he is animated, rcfts alTured that 
he will unremittingly cxcit himfclf to procure for 
them all the accommodation and comfort compatible 
with the interefts of the fervice, and the obje<$l of 
the embnrkntion. His Majefty could not give a more 
diftinguiflied mark of the confidence he repofes in 
the Sicur de la Pcroufe*8 zeal, capacity, and pru- 
dence, than by cntrurting to his charge one of the 
moft extenfive enterprifes ever projc<5ted. Preceding 
navigators in the career of difcovcry have left him 
great lefibns and examples ; but the King is perfuaded 
that as ambitious of gloiy as his predeceflbrs, as zeal- 
ous for the extenfion of ufeful knowledge, and as 
perfevcring, he will one day merit himfelf to fervc as 
a model to thofe who, animated by the fame fpirit, 
aim at the attainment of the fame celebrity. 



NOTE. 



In forming a plan of navigation for the expedition 
^confided to M. de la Peronfe, the objeél was to point 
lout a trad not pnrfued by former navigators; this 
[appeared the furcft method of multiplying difcovery, 
[and of promoting the great work of attaining a com- 
Iplete dcfcription of the terreftrial globe. It was ne- 
[ceflàry, however, to indicate iflands already known, as 
I places of call where he was fure of procuring the 
[means of fnbfiftence, by the aid of barter for the com- 
fmodities with which he was provided, and adapted to 
I the taftes of the iflanders. But in pointing out to 
■the French commander ports already frequented, he 
iisdireéted to find his way to them in tracks not 
[hitherto purfued, and the commodities to be ex- 
changed confift of many articles yet unknown to the 
jiflandersj which will convince them that the importers 

belong 



IxXviii PRELIMINART INSTRUCTIONS* 

belong to a nation different from any of their former 
vifitors. Various principles of calculation have been 
employed to eftimate the duration of the feveral runs. 
In open feas the (hips are Aippofed to m«kc 30 leagues, 
under the trade winds, in 24 hours : 25 leagues only 
have been allowed to the fame fpace of time, in la- 
titudes where it is prudent to lie to in the night ; and 
only 20 leagues when the (hips are on difcovery, and 
in this cafe a certain number of days is added, to 
make up the time employed in reconnoitring. On 
thefe data are founded the durations of the runs and 
reftings, but the whole fubmitted to the direélion of 
unforefeen events and circumftances. The whole 
voyage will necefl!àrily exceed four years : the objeéls 
in view could not have been accomplithed in Icfs time. 
The periodical returns of the monfoons, to the north 
and fouth of the line, are data to which the courfe 
muft be fubjecSted, and which mightily impede navi- 
gation in certain feas. This confideration has re- 
quired various combinations to regulate particular 
courfes, fo as not greatly to incrcafe the total dura- 
tion of the voyage. The (hips are amply provided 
tvith flores of every kind, more than lufficicnt for 
four years, making allowance for the incidental fup- 
plies to be expected at the various flopping places. 
Captain Cook's laft voyage lafted four years, two 
months, and twenty-two days, and his (hips were not 
provided as the King's will be. From the known 
character of M. de la Péroufe, his voyage, it is ex- 
pected, will leave nothing to future navigators, but 
the merit of giving more circumftantial details re- 
fpeéling fome portions of the globe. 

All that remains is to indicate the method employ- 
ed in conlîruéling the hydrographie charts, to be 
tranfmitted to the commander, when approved of by 
his Majefty. , 

A firft chart of the Southern Ocean has been pre- 
pared, on which are traced-, after the journals of na- 

- vigators, 



m 



PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 



Ixxix 



vigators, the courfes which led to difcovery, and thofe 
arc indicated which are ftill to be made or verified. 
This chart is conftructed after the bed French, Spa- 
nifh, Enghfh, and Dutch charts, and regulated by 
aftronomical oblervation, by which the pofition of the 
principal points of the continents and iflands have 
been determined. The extent of the great Ocean, 
commonly called the South Sea, or Pacific Ocean, has 
rendered it necefîàry to divide it into three belts or 
zones; the 1(1 contains the great Southern Ocean, 
or the fpace contained between the antarélic polar 
circle and the tropic of Capricorn ; the 2d is the 
grand equatorial Ocean, or interval contained be«* 
tween the tropics; and the 3d, the grand boreal 
Ocean, or the fea (ituated between the tropic of can* 
' cer and the arélic polar circle. As the courfe pre- 
fcribed is not to extend beyond the 60th parallel, 
[north and fouth, it was unneceflary to trace on the 
:harts the great boreal polar, or the great fouthern 
)lar Oceans. 

In order to prepare a chart of the Great Ocean, 
le journals of all the navigators of the paft and pre- 
sent century have been examined ; their detailed 
)lans have been confulted, and, by reducing the fcale, 
lave been brought into the general chart. All the 
Lnown tracks of ancient and modern navigators are 
traced on it, to bring into one view recent and ancient 
lifcoveries, and to prove, in fevcral cafes, their iden- 
tity. This general chart is the refult of all that has 
)een produced by navigators and geographers up to 
this day. To prefent in detail the materials employ- 
would fill a volume. It is deemed fufficient to 
fubjoin to the King's inftnidions to M. delà Péroufe, 
fonie geographical and hilloric notes on parts that 
need to be detailed ; and to the general charts of the 
[jreat Ocean will be added thirty-l'even other charts 
^r original manufcript plans of the lefs frequented 



)arts of thofe fcas. 



EX- 



hsx 



PRSCIMIKARY INSTRUCTIONS. 



EXTRACTS 

From M. âe h Péroufi's General Jnfiruâiiont, 

iGth June, 1785. 

HIS Majefty authorizes the Sieur de la Pcroufc to 
grant to his crews a bounty of fome months pay, the 
quantify to be regulated by circumftances, but that 
tJie amount of the bounties for the whole voyage 
fhall not exceed a year's pay to each crew. Befulcs 
thefe bounties, which he is to announce to the petty 
officers, feamen, and foldiers, in cafe they have merit- 
ed them, he will inform the two crews that it is his 
Majefty's intention, that the pay of fuch as may die 
on the expedition, reckoning from the day of their 
death, (hould go into a mafs to be diftributed, as a 
farther bounty, among the furvivors of the crews to 
which the deceafed refpeâively belonged ; and that 
his pay up to the day of his death be accounted for 
to his family, as well as the value of his effeéls, if 
they have been given away. 



NOTES GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORIC, 

To hefuljoined to the Memorial from the King, tofervt 
as Particular Injtruélions to M. de la Pérouje, Cap- 
tain in the Navy, and Commander of the Frigates la 
Boujfoleand AJirolahe, 

SOUTHERN ATLANTIC OCEAN. 

1 . The three rocks, fituated S. S. W. of St. Jago, 
one of the Cape de Verds, as well as the French bea- 
con and breakers feen by the Ccfar, in 1730, S. S. E. 
of the fame ifland, are laid down after the Englifh 
chart of the Atlantic, publifhed at London, in 1777. 

2. Pennedo de S. Pedro. The latitude is 55'' north, 
as M. Daprès fays he obferved in 1 750 : he fettles its 

'■ > , . longitude 



PRfiLlMINARY INSTRUCTIOirff* JkXXÎ 

longitude at 2p" weft of Pari , but from later an4 
more accurate obfervation, it appears to be 34' mor^ 
to wertward. 

3. The ihoals near the line arc laid down confor-» 
mably to the inftru(5lions of the Neptune Oriental. 

4. The fmall Illand of St. Paul, fecn in the fàmo 
latitude by the (hip of Ic Vaillant, is laid down after 
Sailing Direéiions for the Eaji Ituiies, London 1781 ; 
but it differs 35' as to longitude. 

5. Fernando do Noronha, is laid down conformably 
, to Captain Cook's determination 3° 53' fouth, 34^ 
1 63' 60" weft from Paris. 

6. St. Matthew's Ifland was difcovered by a Por- 
tugueze, in 1525, but had been difcovered 87 year$ 
)efore. It is laid down after the general chart o^ 
book's third voyage. Its polition is however ftill un- 

îrtain. 

7. The Iflands Fernando Po, Prince's, St. Thomas, 
id Annobon, are placed according to obfervations 
lade by Varella, a Spanifh navigator, in 177Q) a» 

ider ; Fernando Po, 3° 28' north, 6° 30/ weft from 

iris; Prince's, 1° 30' north, 5° 2' weft ; St. Tbo- 

kas's, 2(y north, 4° 34' weft ; Annobon, 1** 25' fouth, 

25' weft. Conformable to thcfe longitudes, thofe 

Cape Vcrd, Sierra Leone, the Iftands of Los, and 

le Cape of Grood Hope, where obfervatioos have 

sen made in like manner, the pofttions of the dif- 

Irent points on the weft coaft of Africa have been 

igulated. 

8. Afcenfion Iftand is placed agreeably to Cook's 
fervations ; middle of the ifland 8° fouth> l6° 50^ 
ft from Paris. 

9. Ifland of St. Helena is likewife placed confof- 
ably to Cook's and Halley's obfervations, at fort 
mes, 16° fouth according to Halley, 8° 11' weft, 
cording to Cook. But according to Dr. Maflcelyne, 
-yal Obfervcr at Greenwich, the latitude of St. He- 

a is 15<* 55' fouth, and its longitude, from an ob.* 
Vol. I, 4* fervation 



IXTIXÎÎ nfBLIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 

fcrvation niaHc by liimfelf on the firll of Jupiter's 
fatellites, is 8" 9' weft. 

10. Thelfland of Trinidacl is pl.iccd accordinp^ to 
its diflancc from Cape Frio, on tlie coati of Brafd, as 
given by Daprès ; north coail, '10° 1b' fouth, 'à1° \b' 
Weft from Paris. Dos Picos is placed after the Duteh 
charts, fubje^tinjç its pofttion to that of Trinidad. 

1 1. Iftes of Martin-Vas, are three rocks lying re- 
latively to each other north and Ibuth, excepting the 
moft northerly, which is thrown a little more to the 
weft : their extent is not above a mile. Bouvet fays 
that they are eight leagues diflant, and lie \ nortli- 
eaft from Trinidad, being in the fume latitude with 
that ifland. 

12. Iftand of Afccnqaon, on the coaft of Brafd is 
placed after Daprès, 20° 'lb' fouth, 38° weft. This 
pofition fuppofes its diftanee from Cape Frio to be 
120 leagues. 

13. Rock difcovered in 1692, and Rock under 
water in 1701. Thefe dangers are placed after Dal- 
rymple's chart of the South Sea. 

14. Saxenburg, and ifland difcovered by Linde- 
man, a Hollander, in lt)70, in 30^ 45'! fouth, and 
a^bout IIP weft. ' ." 

- 15. Kattcndyke is laid down after Dalrymple's 
chart, and the general chart of Cook's third voyage. 

• l(). Iflamls of Triftan d'Aeunha; their pofition is 
regulated after Daprès, who fixes them between 3/" 
1(/ and 37*^ 45^ fouth, and from 16" 30' to 17<^ weft, 
after a mean refult between the difterent runs of fc- 
veral ftiips, which give 34° for the ditterence of me- 
ridian bt^tween thofe ifles and the Cape of Good 
Hope, which is 1 ÇP 3'' 45" eaft of Paris. Hnllcy places 
the fouthmoft of them in 37" 25'' fouth. Befides the 
anchoring ground on the north of the largeft, there 
is a fort of harbour to the ealt of the fouthmoft point, 
fiot vifible in running down the coaft, from the vaft 
quantity of canes thrown down and floating acrofsin 

. . certain 



.\ 



Jupiter's 

ordinpc to 
' Brafil, as 
h,3'2° 15' 
the Dutch 
Tinidad. 
.8 lying rc- 
ccptingthe 
nore to tlic 
Bouvet fays 
ie J north- 
ititude with 

; of Brafd is 
weft. This 
Î Frio to be 

Rock under 
cd after Dal- 

|a by Linde- 
' fouth, and 

Dalrymple's 
bird voyage, 
eir pofition is 
between 37" 

to 17*^ ^'^^' 
ht runs of fc- 
rence of mc- 

ape of Good 

Hallcy places 

Betides the 

largeft, there 

Ulhmoft point, 

from the vaft 

ating acvofsin 

certain 



PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. Ixxxiîî 

^e^tnin winds. It is about half a mile broad, and 
three fourths deep, in form of a horfe-fhoc It has 
28 fathoms water at the middle of the inlet, and 14 
near thelhorc: the depth is likewife 14 fathom in 
the middle of the length, and 10 at the head of the 
harbour ; the bottom is black fand, and good holding 
ground. 

17. Ifland of Diego d' Alvarez, is laid down after 
the general chart of Cook's third voyage, and its bear- 
ing and dillance from the Iflands of Triflan d'Acunha, 
according as they arc given in that chart, 38" 53' 
fouth, 13° weft. 

1 8. Gough's Ifland, fo called from an Englifh Eafl:- 
India captain, who dilcovcred it in 1715. It is very 

[high land, in 40" 1 5' fouth, and I" 57' weft of Green- 

iwich, that is, 4" 17' weft of Paris. Vincent, com- 

[mander of the Oftcrley Eaft-Indiamnn, found it in the 

latitude indicated by the difcoverer, but from his own 

calculations, he reckons the longitude to be fixed too 

ar to the eaft by fome degrees. This iftand is not 

Inown to French navigators : but as it may lie in 

"^e way of Ihips going dire^Hy to India or China, 

irly in the feafon, without touching at the cape, it 

Ippears an interefting objccl to afcertain its true po- 

ttion, and M. de la Péroufe, it is hoped, may be able 

accomplilh this. 

19. Tile Grande de la Roche can be laid down only 
)y conjedlure, from a relation extraded and tranflatcd 
rom a Spanilh geographical workj printed at Ma- 
Irid in 1 690 *. In laying down the Ifle Grande, its 
ïofition has been regulated by that of the firft land 
\'hich la Roche had difeovered to the eaft of Staten 

The French compiler here introduces a long quotation from 
1c above-mentioned Spailifli Work, containing an account of la 
Locbe's palTage round Cape Horn, and fubiequent difroveries, 
'•hich we omitted, as foreign to the defign of this publication. For 
ie fame reafon we have not tranflated many other tedious quota- 
onsand diil'uflions. 



f 2 



Land, 



IxXîdv PRÏLIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. ' 

Land, and which has recently been re-difcovered, 
and called by Cook the Ifland of Georgia. There is 
reafon to thtnk that the Ifle Grand of !a Roche is the 
fame land which had been difcovered by Americus 
Vefpuifus, on his third voyage, in 1502. 

20. Terre de la Roche, the Georgia of Cook, and 
laid down by him between 53** 57' and 54° 57' fouth, 
and between 40° 33' and 37** 54' weft. 

21. Sandwich 7^nd, difcovered in 1775 : it is laid 
down on the chart conformably to Cook's journal 
and determination. "^'^'^ 

22. Chriftmas Sound, on the fouth-weft coaft of 
Terra del Fuego, laid down after the journal and charts 
of Cook*s fécond voyage. 



^ ; ' GREAT SOUTH SEA. 

23. Drake's Ifland and Harbour, placed by geo- 
graphers in 180 or 200 leagues W. S. W. from Cape 
Horn. Many accounts of Drake's voyage round the 
world have been publifhed in England ; they differ 
eflentially from each other refpeéling the pofition of 
the lands difcovered by that celebrated navigator, 
after his paûàge through ^he ftraits of Magellan. It 
is not to be doubted that, if the weather favour M. 
de la Péroufe, he will one day furnifli a verification, 
which fhall ferve to deftroy for ever an error in geo- 
graphy. Cook, in 1769, and Furneaux, in 1775, 
purfued trades which, if thefe lands exifted at the 
place aiîigned them by geographers, muft have en- 
abled thcdTc navigators, if not to fee them, at Icaft to 
perceive fome lign, fome indication of land ; and it 
is well known that neither of them difcerned the 
flighteft trace. 

24. Theodore Gerard's Land. He was among the 
firft Dutch navigators who made a voyage in the 
Great Ocean ; he was driven by a ftorm in 1599, as 
far as 64® fouth, where he difcovered a xnountainoHS 
j'iv,A ; ' I . country ' 



laced by geo- 
W. from Cape 
age round the 
id ; they differ 
the poiition of 
ted navigator, 
Magellan. It 
ler favour M. 

a verification, 
a error in geo- 
;aux, in 1775, 

exifted at the 
muft have en- 
lem, at Icaft to 
I land ; and it 

difcerned the 

was among the 
voyage in the .' 
rmin ISgQ, ^ 
a OTOuntainous 
country 



PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. IxXX^ 

country covered with fnow, refembling Norway. It 
is laid down at l6° Weft of the meridian of Gape 
Horn. 

25. Land faid to have been feen by the Spaniards 
1714, but of uncertain exiftence and pofition. It id 
placed on the chart of the Great South Sea, 33° fouth, 
and between 108** and 109° weft. This pofition 
agrees with the opinion of Cook. 

2Ô. Ealier Ifland, difcovercd in 1722 by Rogge- 

wein, a Dutchman, and vilited by Cook in 1774, who 

determined its pofition. The Spaniards touched here 

in 1770, and called it San Carlos. They place it at 

.27" 6^ fouth, and 208° 19^ from the meridian of Te- 

jnerifF, or 110° 41'' weft from Paris, that is, they have 

[carried it about 1 1 degrees too far to the eaft. The 

[variation of the con^afs was there, according to the 

ipaniards, in 1770, 2° 30^ north-eaft, 

27. Illands faid to be fcen by the Spaniards in 
773, 32° fouth, and. 130° wcfl: from Paris. «This 
)fition has been adopted by Cook, but is ftill dif- 
iutablQ. 



GREAT EQUATORIAL OCEAN. 

28. Iflands of this vafi Sea, between 26° and 10° 
fouth, in the fpace contained between 130° weft, and 
170° eaft of Paris. For all thefe M. de la Péroufe is 
referred to the voyages of B)'ron, Bougainville, Car- 
teret, Wallis, Furneaux, and Cook, as containing 
iîvery neceflàry geographical, phyfical, and hiftorical 
detail, for the purfuit of his objeé^. For the illandâ 
lanciently difcovercd in thofe latitudes, he is referred 
jto the chart conftruélcd on the obfcrvations made by 
iMendana, Quiros, Torrez, Maire, Schouten, Tafm.^n, 
land Roggewein, with inftrii6lions to verify, by his 
:)wn obfervation, the miftakcs of the ancient, re(^ifie(l 
by modern, navigators. For this purpofe he is fur- 
^iHied with an abftrad (1) of Magellan's voyage, in 

f3 1519; 



I ( 



IxXXvi PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 

1519 ; (2) of Mendana's, in 1507 ; (3) ofMendana's 
fécond voyage, in 1 595 ; (4) of the voyage of de 
Quiros and de Torrcz, in l6o(3 ; (5) of the voyage of 
le Maire and Schouten, in 1 ()l6 ; (6) of Abel Tafman, 
in 1642; (7) and of Roggcwcin, in 1722. 

29. New Caledonia. It docs not appear that the 
ancient navigators knew any thing of this ifland. De 
la Péroufe is referred to Cook's details of it, who dif- 
covcred it on his fccond voyage, and to the chart re- 
lative to its difcovery. 

30. Santa Cruz, difcovercd by Mendana on his fc- 
cond voyage, or Egmont and Queen Charlotte's 
Iflands, vifited by Carteret, in 1767. 

31. Terra del Efpiritu Santo, difcovcred by Quiros 
in 1606; or the Great Cycladcs of Bougainville, in 
1768, and the New Hebrides of Cook, in' 1774. 

All this part has been laid down on the chart of the 
Gfcat EcjUfitorial Ocean, after Cook's journal and ob- 
fervations. 

32. Land of the Arfacides, difcovercd by Sur- 
villc, in 1769. At the moment of difcovery, the la- 
titude of the vefîel was 6^ 57^ fouth, and her longi- 
tude, by calculation, 1 52° 28^ eaft of Paris. But this 
longitude, corre^led by that of New Zealand, as de- 
termined by Cook, mutl be 1 53^ 45'' at the point 
where land was firft deferied. 

33. Terres de la Louifiade, difcovercd by Bougain- 
ville, in 17C8. La Pcroufc is here referred to Bou- 
gainville's voyage. 

34. Endeavour Straits, between New Holland and 
New Guinea. La Pcroufc is here referred to Hawkcf- 
worth's collection of voyages round the world, vol. 
iii. p. 610, &e. 

35. North and wcfl coafts of New Holland. There 
is nothing to offer that can be deemed authentic or 
fufficicntiy detailed refpeéling this part of the grcateft 
ifland in the world. La Pcroufe is referred to Dam- 
];ier's voyages, for the north coafl, and to de Brollè's 

Naviiratlonâ 






Mendana*s 
yage of de 
c voyage of 
)el Tafman, M 

ar that the 
ifland. De 
it, who dif- 
le chart rc- 

la on his fc- 
Charlotte's 

?d by Quiros 
gainviile, in 
i'l774. 
chart of the 
rnal and ob- 

•ed by Sur- 
fvcry, the la- 
d her longi- 
is. But this 
aland, as de- 
at the point 

by Bo n gain - 
rrcd to Bou- 

Holhind and 
d to Havvkcf- 
e worldj vol. 

lUand. There 
authentic or 
)f the greatell 
rrcd to Dam- 
to de Broiîè's 
Navic;ations 




PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. IxXXvH 

Navigations aux Terres Aullrales, for the north and 
weftern coafts, and he is furnillied with a copy of the 
foundings, and other particulars extraélcd from the 
journals of the Englilb navigators who have more re- 
cently vilited thofe parts. î 

36. Van Dienicn's Southern Land, part of the fouth 
of New Holland. Confult Cook's fécond and third 
voyages. 

'37. New Zealand. Cook's voyages fupply every 
thing to be wilhed on this fubjci'^, as they contain, 
beiides aftronomical and nautical obfervations, and 
defcriptions, all the particular plans and charts con- 
flruéted by Engliih navigators. . .-, 

38. The Marquefas de Mendoqa, difcovered by 
Mendana, in I ago, and re-difcovered by Cook, in 
1774, to whofo relation reference may be had for 
every thing that concerns their defcription and geo- 
graphical polition. 

39. Nublada, Rocca Partida, and others, E. S. E. 
of Sandwich Iflands. They are laid down on the chart 
of the Great Equatorial Ocean, after that of Anfon's 
voyage, and which is copied from one found on board 
the Manilla galleon which he had captured. 

40. Sandwich Iflands, difcovered by Cook, on his 
third voyage, in 1778. To him and Captxiin King 
we owe every detail which has reached us refpeéting 
thofe iflands. 

^ GREAT NORTHERN OCEAN. • , - 

41. North -weft coafts of America, from port Mon- 
terey, lituated toward 36^ 42^ north, to the Aleutian 
Iflands. In tracing the chart of thofe coafls of the 
Great Boreal Ocean, for the ufe of M. dc la Péroufe, 
the geographical pofitlons laid down by the Spaniards 
are combined with thofe of Cook, which laft ferve to 
re(^ify the former. He is defired to verify fa6ts by 
his own obfervation, and is referred to Cook's third 

f4 voyage, 



IxXXviii fRELlMlNAllY INSTRUCTIONS. 

voyage, and the charts annexed to it, as well as to 
thofe which make part of the M. S. collection. 

42. The Aleutians, or Iflands of Foxes, and others, 
which are fuppofed to be fituated to the W., the W. 
S. W., and the W. N. W. of thcfc. Cook vifited 
only thofe of Oonalaflika, the ftraits which feparate 
them, and a few of their harbours. The other ifles 
of this clufter, and thofe fituated more to the weft 
are known to us only from the Ruffian accounts of 
them, which are too inaccurate to be depended on. 
De la Péroufe will confider them merely as a voca- 
bulary, and look out for thofe iflands as if they were 
abfolutely unknown. He may however confult Coxe's 
work entitled, Di/coveries of the Rujftans. 

43. Port d'Awatfcha, or St. Peter and St. Paul, at 
the extremity of the peninfula of Kamtfchatka. He 
is furniflied with a particular plan of this port, on a 
great fcale, differing from that in Cook's third voyage, 
to which he is referred on touching there. 

44. Kurile Iflands. Captain Gore, who fucceeded 
Cook and Clorke in the command, vifited none of 
them. Muller fays, that Yefo or Jejfo is the name 
given to all the iflands denominated by the Ruflians 
Kurtljki or Kuriles. The moft northern of them is 
very near the fouthmofl: point of Kamtfchatka. They 
are 22 in number, and at no great diftance from 
each other. The inhabitants are fuppofed to be fuf- 
ccptible of friendfliip, hofpitable, generous, and hu- 
mane. Coiifult Cook's third voyage. 

45. Land of Yeiib or Jeflb. The Japanefe con- 
found this with the Kuriles, but they are generally 
believed to be different. Cook has thrown no light 
on the fubjcdt. De la Péroufe is furnifhed with a 
copy of the chart conflruded by the Dutch, which 
prefents a detail of all their difcoveries in thofe feas. 

46. Eaft coall of Jajian, A chart of a fmall por- 
tion of it is to be found in Cook's third voyage, and 
nautical obfcrvations relative to it. 

47, 



PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS» Ixxxix 

47. Lekeyo Iflands, to the S. W. of Japan. Buache 
[has given extracts from all the letters of zniilionaries 
[relative to thofc iflands. 

48. Great Ifland, populous and rich, faid to have 
3een difcovered by the Spaniards about 1600. Re- 
ferred to a paflhfre in the Philofophical Tranfadlions 
)f the Royal Society for 1674, for fome particulai's 
relating to this ifland. 



IS port, on a 
bird voyage, 

fucceeded 
ited none of 

is the name 
the Ruffians 

of them is 
hatka. They 
iftance from 
ed to be fuf- 
)us, and hu- 

apanefe con- 
ire generally 
own no light 
nifhed with a 
Dutch, which 
n thofe feas. 
a fmall per- 

1 voyage, and 



SUPPLEMENT. 

49. Caroline Iflands. Of thefc a particular chart 
fas been conftruéled after that of Father Cantova, 

id the relations of other miflSonaries, which have 
Den printed as a Supplement to the Hiftoire des Na- 
Bgation aux Terras Auftrales, by de Brofîès. 

50. An iflandio the fouth, between Mindanao and 
le Moluccas. Confult, for all this part, Forftcr'4 
lyage to New Guinea. 

|5 1 . Straits the eaft and weft of Timor. M. do la 
Iroufe is referred to Dampier's voyages for inflruc- 
ms which may afïift him in navigating the (hips 

[rough one or the other of thofe ftraits, as the wind 
id other circumllances may dircél. 

52. As to the Ifle of France and Cape of Good 
lope, he is referred to the Neptune Oriental of Da- 
^s, and the inftrudlions fubjoined. 

53. Marfeveen and Denia ; two little iflands known 
the Dutch, and furnifning them a fupply of wood, 

id yet their pofition is not determined. Cook re- 
rets that it was not in his power to look for them, 
'hey are laid down cotiformably to the pofition given 
k'm on the general chart of his third voyage ; Mar- 
yeen, in 40*^ 3(y fouth, and 2° 45' eaft. of the Cape 
■ Good Hope ; and Denia in 41^ fouth, and 3«eaft 
" the Cape. 

54. Cape, or Ifle, Circumcifion, difcovered January 
'* 1739, by M. de Lozier Bouvet, Its pofition is 

V" ftill 



■■ .-v 



m 



•*' 



XC PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 

ftill undetermined ; having efcapcd the refearches 
both of Cook and Furncaux, and all poilcrior navi- 
gators ; ami the difcovcrer not having fixed it with 
fufiicient accuracy. 



!>«•»•«': 



LETTER 

From M. le Marefchal de CafirieSy to M. de Condor ctt, 
Secretary to the Academy of Sciences. 

Dated Ferf ailles, March, 1785. 

IN this farther preliminary piece, the Marefchal 
informs the Academy of his Majcfly's relblution to 
itilic orders for a voyage of difcovery round the globe, 
and explains the general and particular objects which 
it had in view. He calls upon them to digelt a memoir 
containing a detail of the dilicrent phyfical, aftro- 
nomical, geographical, and other obfcrvations proper 
to be made, both by fea and land, to dirc6l and aflil't 
the perfons to be employed on ihe expedition ; and 
concludes with exprefliiig a wifh that the illumina- 
tion of that learned body, co-opcraling with the zeal 
and exertions of the naval ofilccrs might be produc- 
tive of the happicft effeéh on the progrefs and im- 
provement of icience. 

This produces, on the part of the Academy, 

A DIGESTED MEMOIR, 

For the life of the learned and fcleutific Ferfons ahii< 
to embark under M, de la Féroufe. 

To reduce this fummary to all poffible order an(i 
pcrfpicuity, the Academy collcCls, under one pointe: 
view, oblervations relative to feveral branches of fc:- 
ences, allied by the nature of their objcét, thougij 
"*"" cultivatcti 



PBEHMINAKY INSTRUCTIONS. • 

[cultivated by diflerent defcriptions of men. 
Ihcad of the memoir they place in one clafs. 



xci 

At the 



de Comîorcut, 
me es. 

[be Marefchal 
s reiblution to 
.und tbe glob", 
• objects which 
Lligeit a memoir 
phyfical, aftro- 
hvations proper 
Àirca and afl'.Û 
xpcdition; aud 
t the illmnina- 
g with the zeal 
ght be pvoduc- 
ogrefs and ii^i- 

Academy, 



ifc Perjons alw'' 
éroufe. .;--. 

llible order aii^]^ 

uder one point et i 

branches of ^ | 

r objca, thoiig^^ ; 
cultivat^^' • 







GEOMETRY, ASTRONOMY, MECHANICS. 

They recommend, as peculiarly interefling, to ap- 
Iply unremittingly to afcertain the length of the pen- 
fdulum of a fecond's vibration, in different latitudes, 
from a perfuafion that an aggregate of operations to 
, this effe6\:, carefully performed by the fame pcrfons, 
Vith the fame inftruments, would be invaluable ; they 
lerefore intrcat the navigators to purfue this objedl, 
'ith all poffible exaélnefs, wherever they flop. 
The determination of longitudes being a primary 
)je6t to navigators, they are requefted to prefervc 
le original calculations of obfervations of longitude, 
the diftance of the moon from certain flars, that 
cafe fome aftronomer Ihould afterwards, by new 
|fervations made on land, correal the principles 
;h may have determined the longitudes in quef- 
I, that correélion may be emj)loyed in its turn, to 
:ify the calculation of thofe very longitudes, 
[avigators know before hand the moment of the . 
lipfes to take place during their voyage, and the 
;es where they will bevifible. They are requefted 
>t to confine their obfervation to the inftants of be- 
ining and ending, but to delignate the progrefs 
h all polîible precifion. 

The phenomena of the tides arc too interefting to 

imen to be overlooked. They mult carefully mark 

double tide of every day. And fome perhaps need 

be informed, that we have no accurate obferva- 

»ns of the tides on the weft coaft of Africa, on that 

America, any more than of the Moluccas and 

lilippincs. 

Obfervations relative to geography being fuggeftcd 
his Majefty's inftrudions, the Academy wilf only 
■)join a few remarks communicated by M. Buachc 
;lr geographic alipciate. 



PHYSICS. 



:fcii 



PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 



PHYSICS. 



Under this head the navigators arc dircéled to 
' Flake accurate obfcrvations of" the daily variation of 
tiie magnetic needle, every time they go on Ihore, 
and at fea whenever the weather permits : to keep 
an cxa6l account of the height of the barometer, 
near the equator, at different hours of the day ; and 
try to afcertain whether, as fome have remarked, the 
mercury flands an inch higher on the weft coaft of 
America than on the eafl : to employ fmall air bal- 
loons to detennine the height at which the winds 
llowing in the lower region of the atmofphere change 
their dire6lion, and the courfe of thofe direâions ; 
and to prepare themfelves to give an accurate ac- 
count of the currents in the various parts of the 
globe. They are defired to obferve the auroras, 
boreal and auftral, and examine their height and 
amplitude ; and to mark every circumilance which 
may ferve to explain the phenomenon of water- 
^uts : to make frequent experiments on the dif- 
ferent degrees of temperature of the fea, and its 
faltnefs in different latitudes, and at different depths: 
to examine and diftinguifti the floating ices they may 
meet ; and to obferve more clofely the phenomenon 
of the light which fometimes fliines on the furface 
of the fea, in the view of afcertaining its real caufe. 



CHEMISTIIY. 



To throw light on the theory of gas, it would be 
of importance to afcertain whether or not the air is 
purer or contains more vital particles, at the furface 
of great extents of fea, than elfewhere. ' They arc 
defired to enquire whether fedative fait is found in 
the lakes of the countries they vilit, as it certainly 
is in fome we know. They may probably meet with 

mineral 



• •• 

xcin 



PIELIMINARY INSTEUCTIONS. 

mineral alkali, and will examine the fubflances with 
which it is mixed, its diftancc from the fca, &c. in 
order to trace the procefs of nature in producing 
the alkalization of marine fait. They will obfcrvc 
in the fevcral countries they vifit, the colours cm- 
ployed in dying, the fubftances whence they arc cx- 
tradcd, and the mode of application. 



.'X 



ANATOMY. 



Befide attention to the exterior of the various 
tribes of the human race, comparifon might be ex- 
tended to the interior pails. The ikuJl and os hyoides 
of a full-iized body might be procured, among a 
people fenfibly differing from Europeans in the form 
of the face, or of the whole head, and thus know- 
ledge might be acquired refpe<fting the varieties of 
I the human fpecies from the form of the bones of the 
head. The proportions of the human figure, in dif» 
iferent nations, might be compared with thofe which 
limners obferve in reprefenting beautiful nature, by 
lividing the height, taken in a (Irait line, into eight 
>arts, from the heel to the crown of the head. The 
limenfions moft accurately to be afcertained are, 
the length of both arms, extended from tip to tip of 
the middle fingers ; the length of one ann, from 
the arm-pit to the tip of the middle finger ; the cir- 
[cumference of the head, at the height of the fore- 
head ; that of the cheft, at the paps ; that of the 
belly, at the navel. Examine whether, in countnes 
where the men are of extraordinary itature, there be 
fix lumbar vertebra, or only five ; enquire what is 
the duration of life, and the age of puberty. 



ZOOLOGY. 



The hi/loire naturelle générale & particulière, and 
the ornithology of Brifion are recommended as mo- 
dels. 



Xciv PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 

dels. In examining uncommon fliells, the objcdl 
fhould be to difcover all that are to be found on the 
fame coaft, the predominant fpccics, and the con- 
formation of the animals they contain ; to compare 
the petrified fhell-fifli of different latitudes, with the 
•live ones in the fcas adjoining, and to difcover whe- 
ther the petrefaélions of Europe have their living 
analogies in diftant fcas. 



MINERALOGY. 

The examination of the ftrata which form the cor- 
refpondcnt coaffs of a firait, or the foil of an ifland. 
on one fide, and that of the continent which front? 
it, on the other, will lead to form a conclufion whe- 
ther a coaft be of ancient or recent formation ; , whe- 
ther an ifland is adjacent to the mouth of a river, or 
has made part of the continent. Obferve, in fmall 
•iflands, and parts of continents that can be examined 
in detail, at what height above the level of the fea 
marine depofits arc found in horizontal ftrata. Try 
to afcertain whether mountains, compofed of hori- 
;zontal and calcareous ftrata, diminifh in height as 
you approach the equator. ColIc6t as great a num- 
ber as poflible of cryfializations. To this is fub- 
joined a lift of the fpecies exhibited in Daubenton's 
nomenclature. They will procure fpecimens of the 
mofl fingular woods and marbles; and they will fa- 
tisfy themfelves whether cryftais, which become elec- 
tric by fimple heat, manifcll the polltive or negative 
elc(5lricity at one of their extremities, relatively to 
their pofition. ' v"i v ^ v; ; - 



%* yf 



BOTANY. 



f t.v 



Let their refearchcs be direéled to objects of 
utility, fuch as the knowledge of the plants ufed by 
différent nations for food, medicine, or in works of 

art. 



^i|^ 



:m 



lof 



, the objc6l 
bund on the 
id the con- 
to compare 
les, with the 
lifcovcr whe- 
thcir living 



PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. XCV 

art. Let them make a rich and varied coUed^ion of 
the grains of exotic trees and plants, picked up in a 
temperature, not greatly different from that of France, 
whofe productions, naturalized to our climate, may 
one day enrich our plantations, and adorn our mea- 
dows. 

. r 



brm the cor- 
of an iflancl 
which fronts 
iclufion w he- 
nation ; whc- 
of a river, or 
2rve, in fmall 
I be examined 
vel of the fea 
1 ftrata. Try 
ofed of hori- 
in height as 
great a num- 
i this is fub- 
1 Daubenton's 
cimens of the 
they will fa- 
become elec- 
e or negative 
relatively to 




to objeéls of 
Dlants ufed by 
or in works of 

art. 



OBSERVATIONS OF M. BUACHE. 

Tkefe huUcate the Parts r>f the Ocean in which Knv 
Difcoveries may mojl frobahly be made. rr 

1. IN the fouthcrn divifion of the Pacific Ocean 
there are two fpaces hitherto very little known, and 
n which there is every rcafon to hope that new lands 

luay be found. The firfl is that iituatcd to the fouth 

' f Eallcr and Piteairn Iflands, between 30° and 35" 

I. and the fécond fpace, which dcfcrvcs to be more 

larticularly reconnoitred, is that contained between 

e New Hebrides and New Guinea. 

2. The northern part of this ocean, flill lefs known, 
ay open a field of ftill more extenfive difcoverv. 
b the fouth of the Mariannes, between 5" and \qP 

there is a chain of iflands, divided into fevcral 
luûers, and extending more than 25*^ in longitude ; 
nd which are known only in a vague dcfcription, 
^ nd from a chart conlkucted on the report of fomc 
. '/.xjf the iflanders, who were thrown by a llorm on the 
;,!|1fle of Guaham. The part ofthofc leas to the north 
,ofthe Mariannes, or to the caft. of Japan, are cquallv 
[unknown, only we have fufiieient indications that 
his fpace contains a conlidcrable number of. iflands, 
nd thefe very interelling ; one particularly of great 
.'xtent, about 300 leagues eafl of Japan, whither its 
nhabitants come to trade. The land of Jeflo can- 

' ' • ' not 



xcvî 



MELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 



not poHîbly bc fuch as the £ngli(h and RufTians 
have reprefcntcd it. 

3. On the weft coaft of America, to the north of 
California, the river of Martin d'Apuilar may afliir- 
edly be found again, in the latitude of 43°. He was 
one of the pilots of Scbaftian Vifcaino, whofe voyape 
through thofe feas is highly intercfling. It were to 
bc wUhed that fomc information could bc obtained 
refpec^ling the inland nations to the north of Cali- 
fornia ; and that on the return, the iflands of Dcnia 
and Marfevecn, to the fouth of the Cape of Good- 
Hope, could be explored. The navigators would do 
well to procure for us the names given by the na- 
tives to the iflands they may difcovcr, and a voca- 
bulary of names given by them to objedts the moll 
remarkable^ and of the firft importance. 



EXAMINATION OP THE NATURE OP THE Alll. 

In order to determine the degree of its falubrity, 
in different latitudes, and at different elevations, 
the application of nitrous air feeras the moft fimplc 
and mofl infallible. The firft requifite is to procure 
nitrous air, nearly pure. That produced from the 
folution of mercury by the nitrous acid, is the purcll ; 
for want of it, that obtained from iron may be ufed. 
Introduce 200 parts of nitrous air into the eudiome- 
ter ; add to it loO parts of the air to bc proved, and 
obferve the number of parts remaining after abforp- 
tion. Subtradt this remainder from the fum of the 
two airs, multiply this refult by 40, and divide the 
produdt by lOQ^ the quotient will exprefs the quantity 
of vital air contained in the 100 parts of the air ex- 
amined. Make a memorandum of the height of the 
barometer and thermometer. •; '^ ■ 



SPECIFIC 



PRBLIMINART INITRUCTIOMI. 



leva 



the north of 
r may aiiUr- 
3°. He was 
hofe voyape 
It were to 
be obtained 
rth of Cali- 
ids of Denia 
pc of Good- 
)rs would do 
n by the na- 
and a voca- 
361s the moll 



THE AlU. 

■ its Hilubrity, 
\i elevations, 
c moft fimplc 
; is to procure 
ccd from the 
is the purcft ; 
may be ufed. 
the eudiome- 
3 proved, and 
T after abforp- 
ic fum of the 
md divide the 
fs the quantity 
of the air ex- 
t height of tbe 



SPECIFIC 



SPECIFIC ORAVITV OP THE AIR. 

The navigators muft have a globe of glafs fitted 
to their air pump, which they ean cshauu and fill 
at picafure. fiy wdphing this globe full iin(i empty, 
the fpecifie gravity of air, in dltFercnt luritades, will 
be thus obtained. During ca< h experiment the 
height of the barometer and thermometer muft bo 
accurately obferved, and the operator provided with 
a very cxaél balance, capable of afcertaining the 
I gravity with eafe, to the precifion of half a grain. 

EXAMINATION OP WATER. 

They are referred to the experiments of the Abbé 

Miappe, and the refults of them publiflied by M. de 

'aflini. Thefc may affift them in determining, 

ipon a fingle voyage, the degree of faltnefs of al- 

loft every fea. They only need, for this purpofe, 

very accurate hydrometer; which may likewife be 

jployed for determining the fpecifie gravity of the 

Iter of lakes, rivers, and fprings ; and by joining 

thefe ibme experiments made with re agents, an 

lea may be acquired not only of the quality, but 

*:ewife of the quantity of (alts contained in thofe 

raters. When a particular water (hall appear to 

krefent any thing interefiing, a part of it may be 

bvaporated, and the refiduum put up, carefully la? 

ïllcd, to be more clofely examined at the end ùf 

le voyage. 



■•«»■■ 



•■''■,/t .-■,.' 






■>;r;;,.I 



.1 



VftL. t 



V,::-k 



QUESTIONS 



XCVlll 



PRELÎMIîTiniY INSTRUCTIONS. 



QUESTIONS 



'T/T^i 



Propofed hy the Medical Society to the Gentlemen whu 
are to accompany M. de la Vêrouje^ read in the 
Sitting of May 31, 1765. >ç>(|'l • rT 

As thefe queftions are numerous, they are exhi- 
bited under titles which form fo many heads of me- 
dical refearch. 

I. ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY. 

Struâîure of the Human Body, and Funéliom of its 
],,- Organs. ,,■,,.„,., <,,.. ,,.:. . 

THE defcriptions of moft travellers, on this fiib- 
je»5l, are known to be exaggerated and erroneous ; 
but more exaèlnefs is expeéled from the fcientific 
perfons who accompany M. de la Pérou fe, and they 
are requefted to obfcrve the following objects with 
peculiar attention : 

1 . The ordinary ftrudlure of both fexes ; the 
great and fmall diameter of the head ; the length of 
the upper and lower extremities, meafured from the 
elbow to the tip of the middle finger, of the thigh to 
the extremity of the great or fécond toe ; the cir- 
cumference of the pelvis ; the breadth of the chcft, 
of the fhoulders ; the height of the vertebral co- 
lumn, from the firft vertèbre of the neck to the fii- 
crum. 

2. The form, the colour of the Ikin, and its dif- 
ferent regions ; as alfo of the hair and nails. 

3. The particular form of the fcuU ; that of the 
face, particularly of the forehead, of the nofc, eyes, 
ears, mouth, chin, teeth, tongue, the hair of the 
head and of the beard. Thefe parts of the body 
iflanders are accuflomcd to deform in various ways. 

4. Procure an exad defcription of the procefN 

an<l 



mtlemen whi 
read in the 

ley are cxhi- 
leads of mc- 

un3lons of its 



, on this fub- 
»d erroneous; 
the fcientific 
lufe, and they 
; objeéls with 

. „„, f ■ ^ ; 

th fexes; the 
, the length of 
fured from the 
of the thigh to 
toe ; the cir- 
h of the chcft, 
e vertebral co- 
neck to the fa- 

cin, and its dif- 
id nails, 
ill; that of the 
f the nofc, eyes, 
the hair of the 
rts of the body 
in various ways. 
of the procelN 



■^ 




PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. XcJX 

and the fnbftanccs employed in making indelible 
marks on the Ikin, and all other circumftanccs rela- 
tive to fuch disfigurations. 

5. The defect, exccfs, or different confornriation 
of varions parts of the body ; are thefe the uniform 
produâion of natural organization, or the effedt of 
certain particular pra(^iccf> ? Are there ambidexters, 
or is the right-hand univerfally pre-eminent ? 

6. The comparative ftrcngth of the men, capabili- 
ty of bearing buithens ; of walking, running, as to 
time, and fpacc. 

7. The fei; /es of Teeing, hearin.or, fmellirlg. Docs 
the acutcncfs of one feiifc impair that of any other ? 

8. The voice, diftinétnefs of articulation, the mode 
of cxpreliingjoy, pleafure, foirow. 

9. The age of puberty in both fexcs, the men- 
ftrual flux, pregnancy, child-bearing, fuckling, pro- 
portion of males and females. 

10. Proportion of deaths before the age of puber- 
y : the medium length of human life in ditFercnt cli- 

atcs. 

1 1 . Frequency or flownefs of the pulfe, which 13 
Europe from Ô5 to70 in a minute. 

1 2. The affinity between the colour of the fkin 
,and that of the humours. 

13. Are there men with milk in their breafts ? 
What is to be faid of the hermaphrodites of Louifiana ? 
"s the fexual inclination periodical among favages ? 



ÏI. HEALTH. ' : ^ :,'•> 

i. . ' 

^0/ fjje Jir, Water, Food, Bahtauons, Chthing, Ex- 

ercije, Pajkns^ 

1. Air in different places to be tried by the eudi- 
ometer ; higheft and lowed temperature in the lun 
nd in the fhade, dryncfs, humidity, gravity, elalli- 
ityj elcdlric ilate j divifion of feafons ; prevailing 
,. ..-. J V ', • ' ga winds, 




V 



li 



'^^., ; . PRÈtiMlNiâV iNStRÙCtioké. 

winds, their variations ; the nature of the meteors, 
fnow, hail, rain, thunder, hurricanes, water- fpouts ; 
corruption by vapours or emanations. 

2. Examination of fca-water ât various depths and 
diftanccs from land ; frefli and brackifh water, the 
nature of fait contained ; what fort the natives drink, 
mineral waters, cold and hot ; made drinks, fweet or 
fermented ; their mode and materials of preparatiort, 
the fubftances of which they are compofed, their ef- 
fe6l, particularly the kava defcribed by Anderfon. 

3. Aliments. Vegetable or animal food, or both ? 
Seafoning, cookery, times of eating, quantity ? Do 
they ufe fait ? The refemblance which their roots, 
fruits, &c, have to our pot-herbs } Their farinace- 
ous plants, the fern of New Zealand, fugary fub- 
flances ? ' ' ' ." ,' . v '; '■'• • ■^' 

4. Habitations, their form, extent, openings, ex- 
pofure, of what foil, of what materials, what (belter 
they afford, drynefs, humidity ? Do the natives re- 
fort thither during the night, the whole year round, 
or occafionally ? What numbers to one houfe ? On 
what do they fleep ? Are there tribes who always live 
in the air ? Their clothing, form, materials, varie- 
ties ? 

5. Employments of both fexes, labour, exercife, 
how far conducive or injurious to health ? 

6. Paffions, manners, leading chara<5ler ? Prac- 
tices favourable to the fecretidn of humours, chew- 
ing tobacco, betel, &c. fmoking, friétions, undlions, 
bathings, with their effeéls, particularly that of tat- 
tooing ? 



III. 



DISEASES. 



. . . ; 1 . Are there arc any acute difeafcs or fevers among 
thofe iflanders ? "VV^hat eruptive diforders ? Does 
the fmall-pox exift ? What is its progrefs, its ra- 
vages ? Is inoculation praélifed ? Is the fmall-pox 
any where endemical ? What other contagious or 

epidemical 



le meteors, 
ter-fpouts; 

I depths and 

water, the 

itives drink, 

ks, fweet or 

preparatioil, 

ed, their ef- 

nderfon. 

>d, or both ? 

antity ? Do 

1 their roots, 

eir farinace- 

fugary fub- 

ipenings, ex- 
what ihelter 
le natives re- 
year rouiid, 
5 houfe ? On 
ho always Hve 
Lterials, varie- 



'**»*■ 



PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. CI 

epidemical difeafes ? Have they been vifited with 
the plague ? Arc children fubjcdl to the tetanus and 
the croup ? 

2. To what are we to afcribe the frequency of 
tetters and ulcers in (bme of thofe ifliinds ? To oily 
un étions or the flinging of infers ? Do thefe breed 
in them frequently, as in the ulcers of hot climates ? 
Are the ulcers which corrode the face cancerous ? 
Are they fubjed to the ieprofv, the loufy diftemper, 
and the dracuMCuius ? 

3. Does the venereal difeafc exifl among them ? 
Docs it appear to be natural, or to have been import- 
ed ? The mode of cure ? In what (late is it in the 
Friendiv or Society Ifliîids ? The fymptoms ? Is 
it true that the gonorrhea is unknown among thofe 
iflanders ? 

4. Is the fcur\7 endemical in any particular lati- 
tude ? What its fymptoms and ravages in hot or 
cold climates ? What its cure ? 

5. Are the rickets known in thofe countries ? Do 
I nervous, convulHve, fpafmodic, but efpecially epilep- 
tic diforders exift among them ? Are children fub- 
3^9; to any ilhiefs, particularly convulfions, while 
they are teething ? 

6. Arc there any perfons, male or female, particu- 
larly charged with tending the fick ? What reme- 
dies or procèdes do they employ ? Are there hofpi- 
tals, or do they fcclude patients of certain clafTes from 
fbciety ? ,^ c. ,r, '.•...,-..,,..; .- ■..„,.> , -.J.'- .■ 

IV. MATERIA MEDICA. ' " 

The navigators will inveftigate the virtue of the 
phmts whofc favour and other phyfical properties may 
communicate to them any medical information. The 
foliowing articles arc f^binitted to their confidera- 
tion : 

1. Examine the tafte, the fmell, of the roots, 
woods, barks, leaves, flowers, fruits, and feeds of the 

g 3 vegetable 



■( 



I 



l|!lr;i 



ctl PRELIMINAIIY INSTRUCTIONS. . 

vegetables of countries imperfcélly known, and com- 
pare them with the different vegetable lubllnnces 
ul'ed as medicines in Europe, and make ilie fame ex- 
periments on the faps of trees, as well as on animal 
fnbfianccs. 

2. Obfcrve the remedies ufed in warm coimtriesto 
counteradl peculiar difordcrs, and even dcfcribe the 
fuperftitious proceHcs which arc frequently the only 
medicine of barbarous nations. '•' n"';^'» i.^h • 

3. Try the deco61ions of fome of the emollient, 
aromatic, acrid plants, on cutnticons difordcrs. 

4. Employ meirr.ry in fric'^ion in venereal cafes, 
and aflift the iflaudcrs in delivering themlclves fora 
this terrible fcourge ; above all, obfcrve the cfFcds of 
mercury. 

Difcover whether certain fudorific vegetables have 
not an anlivenereal virtue in thofe iflarids. 't 

6. Difc(;vcr whcihcr there may pot cxift, in fome 
warm countries, plants analogous to the jefu it's bark, 
the fimarouba, the ipecacuanha, the camphor, the 
opium, Src, and whether the iilands produce emetic 
or purgative plants which might be turned to good 
jiccount. 

7. Procure information, and ma]^e obfcrvations on 
the properties of the anaeardium, which is faid to be 
a cure ibr infanity ; on the virtues of the tekphmm 
and of the granum niarimim, which the Grecnlanders 
prefer to the coehlearia asanantifcorhutic ; onWin- 
ter*s bark, the root of Belaage, of Columbo, and that 
of Juan Lopez. 

8. What nations ufc poifoned arrows, what fub- 
ilanccs they employ for this purpofe, what antidotes 
to counterad their deleterious action, and, above all, 
whether fait and fugar poflTcfs this quality ? 

g. Examine the animals, particularly ferpents and 
venomous fiOies, and difcover the caufe of this dan- 
gerous property in tbcfe laft, and the means of pré- 
vention. 

10. Colica 




cm 



and com- 
lululanccs 
c fame ex- 
on animal 



PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 

10. Colled carefully the remedies, internal and 
external, which are applied as fpecifics, the mode of 
preparation, of application, the dofes, the efFeéls, 
and the period of the difeafe at which they are ad- 
mi ni ftered. 

11. Put up in a fcpîirate herbal the plants or 
parts of plants which are ufed as food, medicine, or 
poifon. 



emollient, 
irrlcrs. 
crcal cafes, 
ilclves from 
he cfFc6ls of 

ctablcs have 
Is. —I 
.ift, in fome 
jefuit's bark, 
amphor, the 
duce emetic 
ncd to good 

crvations on 
is faid to be 
he telephmm 
jrccnlandci"S 
ic ; on Win- 
ibo, and that 

s, what fub- 
hat antidotes 
nd, above all, 

^yj ■"■■ 

ferpcnts and 
Î of this dan- 
ncans of prc- 

10. coiica 



-m 




CHIRURGERY. 

i.i 

1. Arc diflocations, fra6lures, ruptures, and chi- 
rurgical maladies, in general, common among peo- 
ple who live in a ftate of nature ? 

2. What means do they employ for curing thofe 
diforders ? 

3. Have they particular inftruments ? What is 
[their form, of what materials, how ufed ? Buy fome, 

and make a colle6lion. - ru, 

4. Are circumcilion and infibulation pra6tifed ? 
^ow is the operation performed ? 

5. Are there any perfons, male or female, parti- 
ularly entrufled with the treatment of fuch and 
iich a chirurgical cafe, as of the eyes, ears, teeth, 
" in, child bearing ? 

6. What is the form and nature of their warlike 
inftniments, that of the wounds they inflidl, the mode 
of treatment and cure ? 



\ 'A- 






(Signed) mauduyt. 






VIC-D AZYR, 

DE FOURCROY, and 

THOURET. 



\^i tht LouvrCj Z\ft May, 1789. :'^ 



";' %.'.% 



\ ,,.. 






.;">>. ii*'ti • r 



''-;j«.j-.iv inti :' 



\ /, ,;.-'^T 



J ■;' 



g 4 - •^v '. , ' • 



SKETCH 



. \ 



iw. 



to 



'î>;: 



SKETCH 






CÎV PtBilMIWARY INSTRUCTIONS. 

0/* Experiments to he made for preferv'mg Wafer on 
Ship' hard from Corruption, communicated by the 
•' j4hbé Teffier, of the Academy of Sciences , and of the 
V- Medical Society. 



.ui. 



TWENTY cafks of equal fize are to be fele^ed on 
the voyage, (iniilar to thofe which contain the reft of 
the frefli water ; thev are to be of the fame wood, 
and hooped as the otners, flowed in the fame part of 
the (hip, and without any particular precaution. 

1 ft Experiment. The water with which two of the 
calks are to be filled, muft firft be boiled for half an 
hour. There are no infeéts' eggs which can ftand this 
degree of heat without perilhing. Mark the calks 
No. I . E. B, No. 2. E. B. the initials of eau ùotiillie, 
boiled water. ;» . r*. a 

2d Experiment. Let the infi''le of other two be 
impregnated with quick lime diftblyed in boiling wa- 
ter, repeating the operation twice or thrice ; for this 
purpofe a brufh mufl be ufed, and ftrongly applied to 
the ftnves and feams, that the lime water may pene- 
trate the deeper. It is plain that one of the ends muft 
be out when this is doing, and the infide of it muft 
be likewife impregnated before it is replaced. Thefe 
two are to be filled with water which has not boiled, 
and marked No. I . E. C. S. No. 2. E. C. S. the initials 
of eau chaulée implement, water limed fimply. 

3d Experiment. This is to combine the two pre- 
ceding, by filling the two caiks, impregnated as be- 
fore, with boiled water; let the one be niarked No. 
1 . E. B. C. the other No. 2, È. B. C. the initials of 
eau bouillie, chaulée, boiled water, limed. 

4th Experiment. To two cafks of wa+c*. boiled 
and liined as before, add four ounces of the fpirit of 
vitriol for every 250 pints of water, Paris meafure, 

marked 



r^m 



f 




FRELIMINART INSTRUCTIONS. 



C? 



)e feleéled on 

in the reft of 

{^me wood, 

fame part of 

;caution. 

ich two of the 

ed for half an 

can ftand this 

ark the caiks 

of eau ùoulllie, 

other two he 
in boiling wa- 
hrice; for thi? 
igly applied to 
jter may pene- 
■ the ends muft 
fide of it muft 
placed. Thefe 
bas not boiled, 
I. S. the initials 
fimply. 

le the two pre- 
regnated as be- 
be niarked No. 
the initials of 
id. 

f wa+c. . boiled 

of the fpirit of 

Paris meafure, 

marked 





marked No. 1 . No. 2. E. B. C. V. the initials of eau 
iowllie, chaulée, vitrioVtsée, boiled water, limed, vitriol- 
ated. 

5th Experiment. Fill two other caiks with frêfh wa- 
ter neither boiled nor limed, and add the vitriol in the 
above proportions, and mark them No. 1 . No. 2. E. 
S. V. the initials o{ eaujimpïe, vitriolisée, plain water, 
vitriolated. 

6th Ex{)eriment. To two cafks of boiled water add 
the vitriol as before, and mark them No. 1. No. 2. 
E. B. V. the initials of eau bouillie, vitrioliséej boiled 
water, vitriolated, 

7th Experiment. Let two caiks be tarred over on 
the ou tilde, and filled with boiled water without any 
internal impregnation, and mark No. 1. No. 2. E. B. 
G. E. the initials Q(eau bouillie, goudronnée extérieure' 
ment, boiled water, tarred externally. 

8th Experiment. Impregnate with lime internally, 

in the 2d, 3d, and 4th experiments, two cafks of 

iled water, and likewife tar then» on the outfide. 

ark them No. 1 . No. 2. E. B. C. G. the initials of 
rau bouillie, chaulée, goudronnée, boiled water, iimed^ 

rred. 

Qth Experiment. Let two be tarred fimply on the 
©utfide, and filled with plain water which has not 
boiled, marked No. 1. No. 2. E- S. G. E. the initials 
o( eaufmple, goudronnée extérieurement, plain water, 
tarred externally. 

10th Experiment. Fill two with plain water, with- 
out any preparation whatever, external or internal, of 
either the water or the calks. This experiment is an 
objc(5l of comparifon with all the others. .i' 

The water is not to be boiled till the calks are quite 
ready, and they muft be filled immediately, left other 
mleds fhould depofit their eggs in it; and it is ob- 
vious that all the experiment calks Ihould be clofely 
bunged up. When, from the heat, the reft of the 
water w board begins to corrupt, each of the expe- 
riment 



tn 



J'nELIMIN\RY INSTRUCTIONS. 

riment calks ought to be examined at the fame time, 
and their taiîe, fmeJl and tranrparcncy obferved ; the 
gravity niuft be tried by the hydroftatical balance, 
and the temperature, by introdueing the thermome- 
ter into the cafk ; in an equal quantity of eaeh fort, 
an equal quantity of dry pulfc, fuch as had been ufed 
before fliiling, mull be boiled ; finally, an equal 
quantity of the foap formerly employed, mUll be dif- 
(blved in equal quantities of the fcveral waters. 

Carefully remark if infe6ls are forming in them, 
of what fpceies, trace their metamorphofes, preferve 
fome of them in fpirits to be brought home. If the 
neceflities of the Ihip's company permit, the remain- 
ing calks of the ten experiments ought not to be 
touched before arriving in a different climate, and 
flill in a latitude where common water will corrupt ; 
in thiscttfe, let them be examined as beforCif; i '; 
. An exa6l account muft be kept of every thing 
done and obferved in the experiments, to be figned 
by M. de la Péroufe, his officers, and the naturalilts 
on board. It is to be wiihed that each of the fhips 
fhould repeat the experiments at the fame time. 
Double obfervations will confirm each other, and 
carry the fa<5l up to demon fi^ration. The experiment 
water will be as good as any other, and fo no room 
will be ufelefsly occupied. : -.nf, ^]y^ 

M. de la Péroufe is requeficd to fign two copies 
of this fketch, together with the author of it, each 
of the parties to keep one, as a tefi:imony of the en- 
gagement he enters into with the public, to fuperin- 
tend experiments which n^ay tend greatly to promote 
the comfort of navigators. 

^^'1/it RamhouiUet^ May IQth, 1785. 

(Signed) 



'î^ilii 



V 

TESSIER. 
LA PÉROUSE. 



'■^k.iQiii 'h}ii,iMy ■^iUi'-^tiriii kViifi-:* -tf 

^3ff • &#?'i04aJS'> ■ ,,^€moa^'4;| îiË^t:gasi; ^tmm . memoir 
inonii'r 



ÎRELIMIKARY INSTRtfCTIONS, 



cvn 



MEMOIR 

To àireB th. Gardener in the Labours of his VoyagB 
round the îVorîd\ hy M. Thouin, frji Botanical 
Gardener. 

The obied which this branch of the expedition has 
\ m view is two-fold ; to fend to the inhabitants of 

newly difcovcred eountrics the vegetable productions 
lof Europe which may be ufeful to them ; and to re- 
' ceive from them in return fuch of their produdlions 

as are calculated to enrich Europe. This memoir is 

accordingly divided into two parts correfponding to 

this double objeét of mutual benefit. 

PART FIRiT. 

Vioice, Nature and Culture of the Vegetahks to h 
tranfported from France. 

Nutritious plants defcrve the preference ; the 
loicc. therefore, muft be made among our legumi- 
nous plants, and mofl valuable trees. Such as need 
io preparation in order to be ufed as food, muft have 
[he firft rank ; and thofe which need only to be 
)n[l.xl to become eatable muft occupy the fécond. 
To thefe limits we ought to reftriét the prefents 
/hich we mean to make to a race of men who, def- 
titute of vcflels proper for boiling, could make no 
lie of vegetables that require this mode of cookery. 
^lants of erfy culture ought to have the preference. 

No f:ec]« to be put up but of laft year's growth, 
)errecliy matured and found. Some need only to 
)e kept from air and moifture, others muft be laid in 
;arth or fand, to prcferve their germinative power, 
""he gardener is di^eéled to mark and label every par- 
cel, and arrange the whole conformably to a written 
catalogue. On arriving at a place where he pro- 
)ofcs to fow, he muft examine the temperature of 
the climate, and obferve whether the native plants, 

particularly 



/•' 



cvni 



9ll^l.IMINAIir INSTRUCTIONS. 



1 1 

I ft 



particularly annuals, arc in a flate of growth, mat», 
rity, or decay. This will direél his choice of the 
proper fec^, and afpciSl. The time of the y^ear muft 
be carefully attended to, as well ^s the nature of the 
(oil. Let him try to engage the natives to aflift in 
the labours of the field. Befides more regular cul- 
ture, every time he walks abroad he ought to be pro- 
vided with an aflTortmcnt of feeds, to be fcattercd 
about occafionally where they are likely to fpring. 
He n)uft keep a regular journal of all his operations 
and their refults, which will furnifh points of com- 
parifon towards perfe6ling the art. 

particular direélions are then given refpedling the 
packing and carriage of growing plants, both by land 
and water. 

PART SECO^^D. 

0/ the gathering of Vegetables that may he ujeful lo 
^urope, and of their Prefervation on the Voyage. 

Tihe collection muft confift of l . Seeds : 2. Bulbs 
and fleiby roots of vivacious plants : 3. Slips of va- 
luable trees, the feeds of which cannot be procured. 
Seeds to be gathered when ^ choice 't to be had, and 
in a (late of perfeél maturity ; but in cafe o(f a (hort 
ftay, they muft be taken on the plant though imma- 
4;ure, and all means employed to vipep them on the 
pafîàge ; and every chance taj^en of procuring a pre- 
cious vegetable to Europe. Attention mull be paid 
to the manner of putting up even perf6d;ly ripe 
ibeds. Thofe which grow in hulks, pods and cap- 
itules, mull remain in their envelopes, ?Lnd thefe tied 
«up to prevent Ujeir opening ; the faipe (:are mull be 
taken of cojjes, and m general of all dry Iruits, s 
5mall (beds growing in eaJls, clullers, panicles, mult | 
be picked entire with (lalks of five or fix inches long, 
and all communication between the germ and the 
air prevented : they mud be carefully cleared of all 
infedls and their eggs. Samples of every fpecics of 

plant, 



1 


I 


:f 


% ai 


'Em. 


J cl 



fïiÊLiMtiffARy msntucTiotié. cît 

plnnt, and its refpeélive feed to be marked and 
numbered. Naked feeds of the fize of â ha£el-tiut 
or upward, require a different preparation. They 
muft be left expofcd to a free air for fome time, to 
fweat off the fuperfluous moifture, and perfect their 
maturity. When packed up they muft be depofited 
in fuch parts of the fhip as arc leaft expofed to varia- 
tions of the iitmofpherc, and equally fecured againft 
exccflive dryncfs and humidity. 

It cannot be doulned that the trees and plants 
which may be ufcd as food are of the firft import- 
ance, fuch as the fern whofc root fervcs as aliment to 
the inhabitants of New Zealand : thofc ufeful in the 
arts will occupy the fécond place ; fuch as are orna- 
mental to our gardens, the third ; and the fourth 
will comprehend thofe which are only proper for a 
I botanical collc6lion. The quantity gathered (bould 
|be in proportion to the climate of the country. 
|Where the temperature is analagous to that of Eu- 
rope, there can be no rifk in taking a great deal : iti 
"lottcr climates lefs will ferve, as the feeds need hot- 
)eds and frames to raife them, only a few can be 
Ppreferved ; unlefs it were an objedi to props^te 
them in our Eaft or Weft India fettlements. GjI- 
le6t more in the laft periods of the voyage than in the 
firft. Forward, as opportunity prefents, collections 
already made, with proper information. 

Diredions follow refpe6ling the mode of packing 
and conveyance, and of culture during the voyage; 
and a lift of ncceflaries to the gardener in the dif- 
charge of his office. 

A Lift of Seeds to be packed up pr tile Expedition, 

FIRST DIVISIOX. 

Subftances which need no preparation to become 
food. 



•"i" 



5 Jt- 



tntJïTS 



riEUMlNARY INSTRUCTIONS. 
FRUITS OF TREES. 

Seeds of apples, pears, grapes, goofcberric!*. 
Stones of peaches, apricots, plums, cherries. 
Ahnouds. Nuts. 

FRUITS OP HERBS. 

Seeds of melons, of different kinds ; artichokes, 
white and violet ; Guinea pepper. 

LB<}UMINOUS PLANTS. 

Seeds of celery of all varieties ; chervil, crcfl'es, 
pariley, purflain, golden ; forrcl, lettuce, cabbage 
and coos ; fmall lettuce for cutting ; wild fuccory. 

ROOTS. 

Onions white and red, turneps of various forts, 
radiflics, garlic, flialot. 



L 



SECOND DIVISION. 



Subftanccs that need no preparation, but roafting, 
to become food. 

ROOTS. 

Potatoes, carrots of all varieties, chiroui, parfnips, 
faliify, Spanifli and white; beet-root, red, white and 
yellow. 

^ FARINACEOUS SEEDS. 

Wheat of different fpccies, maize of all varieties, 
buck wheat, or black corn ; Piedmontefe rice, barley 
of different forts, oats of every variety, rye. 



THIRD DIVISION. 



Produ6lions not eatable till boiled, and Ihcrcfore 
proper only for nations provided with vellcls fit for 
this fpecies of cookery. 

Peas of all forts, kidney-beans of all forts, garden- 
beans of every variety, lentiles, the large fpecies; 
chick-peas, white and red ; lupines, vetches, white 
and black; fenugreek, white-muflard, egg-plant, 

\? - ' V cabbage, 



11 



!;■ 


]k;,^B \\[ 


'^M s^ 



tai 



PRRLIMIN ^RY INSTRUCTIONS. CXI 

cabbage, white and red ; ixniipion and mufliroom» 
nicumbcr, gourd, calabiidi, orach, chard-boct, to- 
bacco* 

l\'gclablcs to be tranfportcd in their tuitural State, 

FRUITI^C TREKS AND SHRITBS. , 

Ajjplc-trcc, rc<l < alville, white, rennet, d'apî ; 
Knglilli beurre pear-tree, bon chrétien, cniflàne, 
St. Germain ; vine, golden chaflelas, nuifcadine, 
lailln (le Corinthe ; peach, grolle mignonne ; nec- 
tarine, ])hun, reine-ehmde, mirabelle, large dama- 
Icene of Tours ; apricot, common, peach ; fig, white 
angeli(ju(*, violet ; cherry, Montmorcnci, black- 
heart, white-heart ; olive, native ; Portugal quince, 
black mulberry, garden cheftnut, walnut, thin-dicU- 
cd ; almond, thin-Hielled ; Maltefe ralpbcrry. y 

LEGUMINOUS PLANTS, 

Potatoes of every variety, Jerufalem artichoke, gar- 
lie, fhalot. 

Weft-India fwect-potatoe and yam to be taken in 
at the Cape de Verd illands, at the Cape of Good 
Hope, or in North America. *"» 



SHRUBS FOR PLEASURE. 

Rofe, hundred-leaved ; lilach, tuberofe. 



a 



INVENTORV 



Of Goods and Merchamiiz.e to be given in Prefents or 

Barter. k 

Thcfe confift of all forts of iron, copper and lead 
ware; clothes, fi(hing-nets and hooks, mirrors, 
glafs, crockery, trinkets, coins, jewellery, ftufFs, 
woollen, linen, filk, tape, cordage, paper, &c. &c, 
to the amount of 58,305 livrer. The articles con* 
tained in M. Thouin's inventory, 2,330 livres. In- 

ftruments 



cut 



FRRLIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS. 



firumehts of aftronomy. navigation, phyfics, &c. 
and books purchafed in France, 17,034 livres. Ar- 
ticles purchafed in England, about 6*000 livres. Bc- 
fides thefe, clîcnce of fpruce, malt, and other anti- 
Icorbutics, to the value of 30,000 livres. The total ex- 
traordinary expence for the expedition about 1 50,000 
livres, 62501. fterling, excluiive of the table of the 
fdièntilic gentlemen and artifts. 

*^ This is followed by a lift of aftronomical and other 
infftruments for the ufe of the navigators, and a ca- 
talogue of books of voyages, of aftronomy, naviga- 
tion, phyfics, natural hiftory, and others, and the pic- 
iirhinàry matter concludes with a 

LIST OP THE NAMES 

Of the Officers^ Scientific metiy Artifis, and Seamen^ em- 
barked on Board of the Frigates la Boujfole and 
TJftrotabey July, 1785. 

LA fiOUSSOLE. 

\ M. de la Péroufe, Poft-captain, Commander in 
Çhjef, employed as Chef de Divifion^ and made Chj 
SEfcadre, November 2d, 1786. 



Ï 



LIEUTENANTS. 

De Clonard, made Pofl. \\.\t\,^ 

I D'Elcures. ' *"^'"^ 

ENSIGNS. 

Boutin, made lieutenant. May ift, 1786, and Ma- 
jor, April 14th, 17 68. 

De Pierrevert. • 

i. . Colinet, made fous-lieutenant dc vaifîèau. May 

1^.1786. ..... v,.(/ .-.: 

MARINE GUARbs. t! !*/ 

., ^el de Saint Ceran, put afhore at Manilla, April 
iB'th, 1787. 
■De Montarnal. 






■i?vt^î|;j 



VOLUNTEERS. 



PRELIMINAllY INSTRUCTIONS. 



cxiîi 



VOLUNTEERS. 

De Roux Darbaud, and Frederic Broudou^ both 
promoted on the voyage. 



VOLUNTEERS. 



ENGINEERS, SCIENTIFIC MEN, AND ARTISTS. 

Dc Monneron, Enginner in Chief. 

Bernizet, Geographical Engineer. r 

Rollin, Surgeon -major. 

Lepaute Dagelet, Profe(îbr of the Military School, 
Aftronomcr. 

De Lamanon, Natural Phiîôfopher, Mineralogift, 
Mctcorologift. 

L'Abbé Mongès, Naturalift, and Almoner. 

Duché de Vancy, Draughtfman of Figures and 
[Landlcapes. 

Prevoft le Jeune, Botanical Draughtfman. , 

Colignon, Botanic Gardener. . - * 

Guery, Clockmaker. ; j; '* ': - 

Warrant Officers 

Gunners and Fufileers 

Carpenters, Caulkers, and Sail-makers 

Topmen, Steerfmen, and Sailors 

Quarter Gunners _ - - 

Supernumeraries • • 

Domeftics f» 

Supplementary - » . 



9 

8 

10 

38 
12 

7 



l'astrolabe. 
M. de Langle, Commander. 
De Monti, Lieutenant. 



ensigns, 



Freton de Vaujuas. 

Daigrement. 

De la Borde Marchainville. 

Blondella. 

Vol. L 



MARINE 



CXIV 



tRELÎMIXARY INSTRUCTIONS. 



MARINE GUARDS. 

De la Borde Boutervillicrs. 
Lîiw de Laurifton. 
Raxi de Flalîàn. 

SClkNTif IC MEN AND ARTISTS. 

Monge, Profeflbr of the Military School, Aflro- 
nomcr. 

De la Martiniere, Do6lor of Medicine, Botanift. 

Dufrefiie, Naturalift. 

Le Pcrc Receveur, Naturalifl: and Almoner. 

Prevoft, Botanical Draughtfman. 

Lavaux, Surgeon in Ordinary of the Navy. 

Leiflèps, Vicé-conful of Rufîia, Interpreter; put 
afhore at Kamtfchatka, and intrullcd with M. de la 
Péroufe^s difpatehes to Paris. » 

Warrant Officers - - 8 

Gunners - - - - 8 

Carpenters, Caulkers, and Sailniakers 1 2 

Topmen, Steerfmen, and Sailors 42 

Quarter Gunners - - J 1 

Supernumeraries. '^ " - - - y 

Domeftics '^ - - 7 

Supplemcntaries - - 11 



L« 4..'»>j-i'.,i «Ijjjvi.'if.i ,;;^-. :. 






NARRATIVE 



^in i mH i a i f ii »ii »M i II ii^w»»»^fw^»»<|y i ii ■ mi n hv^. ■-•<■>' v ii j ufii y.i- i -rf^ 



k 



)1, Aftro- 
iotanift. 



ler. 



I 



Lvy. 
retei 


■; put J 

de la ^ 




8 


. 


8 


« ' 


1*2 




42 




11 




y 


U' .' 


7 
11 



1 _ 






Y'f^-f 



x'hMVfit .' 






^^ n "Br.n 












,aA 






JJ-T,"--- 



'•X-Ai^V**** 



«^K 






;„«»*' 



^RRATIVE 



stm. 



,., 



t/Û 



I 



\ 



OK 



■U. 



4l 



!>,. 

d 



% 



Tropic 



m 



Utfl 



Ifi6 



\ 



\ 



\ 



dtll^UJtÙI ' 



\*utt»!. 



{"Eniiutt pa-)iu \ 



Bam/. 






\: 



WUHtiJ. 



i '\Hopef. 






, Amtinfura/. 
• f «rjtnurnui/ 



— It'u/oa ; i,- liV, — I 



F KI É X J H.Y • ■ • • 1 S I.FS I 



of Caprtrorn 



'{,-^: { 



\ 



77te namiv o/' LHand^' luuicrà'nfd.arc 
thOxte w?uch were .'«r// lH' MaureQe . 



IVgrrcs of f^ongitudf Kaftuf Taris. 
170 176 



hiV 



■ !f:-\ 



ekdak. JVf£ta67^ . 



NARRATIVE* 

OF AN 

INTERESTING VOYAGE 

FROM 

MANILLA TO SAINT BLAISE,^ 
In 1780 and 1781. 



»e-M«»asB 



IMMEDIATELY upon my arrival at Manilla, 
the commander of the frigate that carried me thi- 
ther difembaiked the maritime forces which he 
brought, flationed them at the port of Cavita J for 
its defence, and appointed me major of the troops : 
:it the fame time defiring that 1 would take a plan of 
|ihe harbour and its environs. The objcét of this 
»i-vas to fix on the moft advantageous fituation for 
[placing the force to oppofe the defcent of an enemy. 
The governor fitted out the frigate La Princefla 
[for an expedition which he thought to keep fecret. 
[When the frigate was ready to fail, I received orders, 
[very unexpededly, to take the command of it. The 
jfurprife which this unlooked-for appointment occa- 
[fioned me, my entire ignorance as to the obje(5t of 
the r xpedition, the fear of feeing my miflion thwart- 
ed by the neccffity of fome engagement, were to my 

* The Spanith originals of this narrative, and the following ex. 

Kra(îl, were lent by La Pcroufe ; the trandation is the work of A. 

^i. Pingre, and the rorrefponding chart compofed according to 

Ihcfe accoinits ; and the ancient journals is by Buanche, member 

bf the national inftitute. — French Editor. 

t It is well known that Manilla, in the lOand of Luconia, is 
file capital of the Philippine Ides. Saint-Blaife, or Saint-Bias, is a 
na-bonr on the weftern coaft of Mexico. 
X Cavita is three leagues from Manilla, 

h 2 mind 



•-. t 



.J5- ( 



I \ 



•v — 



'«;?*. Vf 




London J^ublislwd , . Ui^iu't •tj.i 






w 



m 



1 



ri • 



<HlH{tfJtlttl 










^ 



■I 

•I i 

P ;i 

11 



VS 



f^ 



■7*»^ 



•«1 



NEW 



HRHKIOKS 



^ 



% 



'.. 



\ 






É ■ 



€ K* A Jli T ^V^'^ 
of a part of the 

Great fa^jifïc 

.;; OCEAN, 
theEaajt l^outbËaftof 

mà\f; (he Itack ofûie ^aiiù/i l-fif/ati 
IdlViucesa comnuindiu/ <J » 
}onI"'ranc?Aii touio Muurelle, 
in J7Hi. 



.p 



Troptc 



las 



m 



ififi 



\ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



J.t1i^ujtin I 



fùtp^l 



\ 



I'Enikntpertlu 

» 

fforn/. 



^•?S 



-X'l' ^*^«^/. .*//. 



nmij. 



\Hcptl. 



tt^é 



J^nJoùUùnY 



• erJntt 



urti/. 






FKI 4 XI) LV^-^ • '•' 1 8 l,R8 

JonthiUtlnHl ^. 
hJMiirtor ■ 

.•■«if/*: 



of Cupriconi 



Note. rgj^uetl- 

JTte nanuv o/' /j/a/idf uttiicrit'iu'd.arc 
t/ii>jte whù'h were xwen liv Maurello. 



Drgrres of tongitudr F.aftof itiris. 
IJO 176 



hIV 



J,om1on PublisheU, Uif/iuH -ij, ijt^, fy IJA^/i/rdtUf. flltCtu67^' . 



lilt 



CXVl INTERESTING VOYAGE PROM 

mind the fource of a thoufand anxieties : but the go- 
vernor reprefented to me that this commiffion would 
do me as much the greater honour as the objed was 
more interefting ; that (hould the enemy think of 
feeking me, which he would not be backward in do- 
ing, the expertnefs and aftivity of my manœuvres 
would be a proof of my ability ; and that, in fhort, 
the fuccefs of my expedition would be of material 
advantage to our Sovereign. Thefe expreffions were 
fo powerful an incitement, that I confidered myfelf 
particularly honoured by the governor's having cho- 
fen me for this expedition, in fuch critical circum- 
ftances. I accepted the command, and failed the 
24th of Auguft, after receiving from government a 
fealed packet, containing inftrudions and orders for 
my obfervance, and the port whither I was defired 
firft to repair. This packet I was not to open till 
twelve leagues diftant from Cavita. 

The 25th, being at thediftance prefcribed, I open- 
ed the packer. 1 vvas enjoined to make the port of 
Sifiran*, there to wait the final orders of government, 
always keeping on the watch to repel the attacks of 
the enemy, who without doubt would endeavour to 
intercept me/ fliould they come to blockade Ma- 
nilla. 

The winds fell, and becoming contrary, were againfl 
my getting clear of the ifles. 1 in confequence bore 
up conftantly on difFeient tacks, making every pof- 
fible effort to gain the weather gage; but I could 
not overcome the current, which forcibly put me 
back, running f oin the point of Efcarfea'j-, which it 
was out of my power 10 tlouble. I was then under 
the neccffity of coming to auchor, at ten o'clock in 

* Sifiran is a harbour on the eaftern coaft of Luconia, almoft 
directly oppofite to Manilla, being but t6 min. more foutherly than 
that city . 

t This point, the port of Las Caleras, the Ifl.s Tiaco, and St. 
Bernn-(i, are firir ted id tin rhiiii;el or (Irait which divides Luco- 
nia from the other Philippme iflanda. 

the 



\' 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. 



txvii 



the morning, near this point oppofite Galeras Bay, 
in 2 s fathoms, and a fandy bottom. ;•>*>•);. 

At half paft three on the morning of the 30th the 
wind changed to the weft, but it was fo violent that 
I drove from my anchors. 1 wanted to put to fca, 
but the current prevented me, and even drifted me 
towards the port. 1 was in ten fathoms water, and 
let go an anchor that was the fport of the current 
and winds, which trelhened more and more, fo that 
I foon found myfelf in only five fathoms water. I 
let go a fécond, and by the affiftance of the flieet an- 
chor, which I caft witti great velocity, I got further 
from (hore, from whence 1 was only about the fliip's 
length dittant ; and thv)ugh ftiil detained wiihin. the 
point of AlagaiiLan, which forms the port of Galeras, 
Î could neverthelefs get under way, but it was by 
leaving an anchor, (heet anchor, two cables, and a 
iheet cable faft in the rocks*. At nine o'clock in the 
mornmg I doubled the point, and although the wind 
abated in getting to the third quarter -j-, I neverthe- 
lefs, by a prefs of fail, fuccceded in coming to anchor 
at eight o'clock in the evening of the 31ft, under 
flielter of the Ifland of Tiaco, to quit it again on the 
morrow. 

I again put to fea on the ift September, and at 
four o'clock in the evening found myfelf a quarter 
of a league to the north of St. Bernard. Thence I 
lliaped my couife for paffing between the Cantadu- 
anes J and Luconia : as this route muft bring me to 
the narrovveft pafl'age between the breakers and this 

* I have much abridged this, as well becaufe the detail would be 
ufelefs and tirefome, as becaufe there are fome palTages which I do 
not comprehend, either through |ny own want of knowledge, which 
however I do not believe, or through the fault of the copier, who 
may have mutilated the original. 

t The Spaniards divide the horizon into four quarters: the firft 
extending from north to eaft, the fécond from eaft to fouth, the 
third from fouth to weft, and the fourth from weft to north. 

X This ifland is oppofite to the moft fouth-eafterly part of Luco- 
nia; its fouthern point is almoft parallel with Siiiran. 

h 3 ifland. 



CXVIU 



INTERESTING VOYAGE PROM 



ifland, I at ten o'clock brought to, and found myfelf 
at day-break of the 2d, diflunt ten leagues from Can- 
taduanes. I fct every fail, and at half pad eleven 
had reached its mod north-weftern point, and pafled 
at a very Hiort diftance from the laft iflots in the vi- 
cinity of that point. Thence 1 fteered W. S. VV., 
and to W., keeping clofe to the wind to gain 
Sifiran, which port 1 neared at fix o'clock in the 
evening. 

I Hood off and on all night, and the following day, 
3d, came to anchor at two o'clock in the afternoon, 
and moored the frigate in the bell poffible manner, 
in expedlation of the laft orders which were to be 
fent. As foon as I arrived I employed myfelf in ex- 
ercifing the men in every thing which might be of 
fervice for our defence, in cafe we fhould be attacked, 
and had it occurred, all were fufficiently accuftoni- 
ed to the ufe of arms. I alfo wrote to the governor, \ 
informing him of my arrival at Sifiran, and requeft- 
ing his final orders. 

Sifiran is fituated in the vicinity of very high 
mountains, which render the air extremely damp. 
From thence likewifc arife the continual hurricanes 
I experienced during my day there. The perpe- 
tual damp occafioned difeafes among my crew, of 
which I lod one failor. 

i We were thirty or thirty- five leagues from the 
neared inhabited parts ,* and to have a communica- 
tion with them it were neceflary to climb {\.eei> 
mountains, inhabited by favages, which rendered 
this communication extremely difficult. It was nor, 
in confequence, without the greated trouble that I 
fucceeded in procuring fome of the refrefhmenrs 
which I thought would be of fervice to us in the 
courfe of fo long a campaign. ... J» , 

To replace the two cables and (heet cable I had 
lod, 1 requedcd the alcade, or commander of this 
province, to get me new ones made, which he did, 

and 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. CXlX 

and fcnt thcni as foon as finifhed. I in like manner 
afked for fonie anchors, but there was not one to 
the bcft of his knowledge throughout his whole ju- 
rifdiétion. 

On the loth November an officer came on board 
and put into my hands a great box, containing dif- 
patches refpedlino; jus Majelty's fervice. The go- 
vernor-general ordered me lo fend, with the utmoft 
expedition, this box to his excellency the viceroy of 
New Spain, and to that effe(ft, to make fail towards 
the port of St. Blaife, or Acapulco, as I (liould judge 
mofl: expedient. 1 immediately got ready for my 
departure; but two iucceflive tempefts delayed mc 
till the 2 111. 

To fail from the Philippines to New Spain, the 
vcflel mud leave in June, the wefterly winds which 
then blow, carrying the fliips to theeallofthe Mari- 
anne Illands : at any other time a fuccefsful voyage 
could not be hoped for. I therefore confidcred my 
felf as on the eve of undertaking a voyage abfolutely 
new, on tracks of fen, till then, almofl; unknown. 
Though a navigator might even have taken a courfe 
finiilar to mine, had he the fame winds ? Had he 
fleered the fame points ? Had he gone through 
the fame parallels or meridians ? I might therefore 
conclude the courfe I took had never been before 
attempted by any navigaior. 

I had nothing mo e at heart than the faithful exe- 
cution of the orders entrufted to me, and to render 
my expedition u(eful to his Majcfty's fervice, and the 
welfare of his fubjects. This fentiment animated me 
in furmounting my apprehenfions with refpeft to the 
abfolute ignorance I was in as to the courfe I was to 
take. My knowkdge went no further than New 
Britain j and even in that run I might meet with aa 
infinity of iflands, of which not the leaft veftige was 
to be found on the marine charts. 

M. de Bougainville, who failed from the eaft of 

b 4. New 



CXX INTERESTING VOYAGE FROM 

New Guinea to the Cape of Good Hope in the fame 
iiland, gives the pofuion of only two fmali ifles, which 
he called the Anchorets, and a group of other flat in- 
fignificant iilcs, which he termed Mille Ifles* (Thou- 
fand Iflands). He has doubtlefs placed them in their 
proper latitude : but befides thcfe, not a day paflcd 
withoiitdifcovcring others onalllidesjofwhich any one 
may eafily be convinced by looking over my chart. 
The only choice left me, and which I took from the 
firft moment of my expedition, was to employ the 
moft fcrupulous attention, and exercifc the moft un- 
ceafing vigilance during the whole courfe of our na- 
vigation, to acquit myfelf with honour of the com- 
miflion with which i was charged in fpite of the con- 
tinual riiks I had to encounter. 

Though I had quitted a port from whence I could 
have been fupplied with every thing neceffiry for fo 
long a voyage, 1 at the fame time was thereby fpared 
much diltrcfs. My fhip's crew were attacked by 
difeaie more or lefs acute : the provifions, preciic- 
ly fuffic ient for fix months, were for the moft part 
fly-blown and putrified; the water, limited to fe- 
venty pipes and forty barrels, without regarding the 
■wafte, was a fupply veiy infufficient for a voyage of 
fuch a length, anl the cordage was fuch that it broke 
the fiiH time it was ufed. 1 defired from the alcade 
fome tar, of which we were abfolutely in want, but 
there being none in the province, 1 fupplied its place 
with pitch. Though all thefe reafons left me almoft 
' deftitute of hope, my zeal for «he King's fervice fuf- 
fered no abatement ; and I prepared myfelf to un- 
dergo all the calamities with which the nature of our 
provifions and the ftate of the rigging threatened me. 

* Bougainville did not give this group the name of Mille Ifles, 
but l'Echiquier. , 



[ I' 



:J,y ;, I. 



» ■ V 



Departure 



/( "',i.' 



KANILLA TO 8T. BLAISS. 



CXSl 



Departure from Sijiran, on the eaftern co^/i of Luconia, 
1 4" 20^ N, tat. \ 26° 3 \f weft of St. LncaSt 9r Luear, 
in California^ 121° lof eaft of Partly 20' weji of St, 
Bernardf in the Mouth of the Strait, 

I PUT to fca the 21ft November with flight 
breezes at Ë. N. E. and by £., which Toon becom* 
ing ilrong, and being diredly contrary, 1 ran upon 
digèrent tacks, to gee to the north, and clear the 
liland of Caiktuadanes. Thefe winds carried me to 
latitude 16*^ 14', which 1 obferved on the 30th. I 
then bore away to S. S. £., and again faw the iiland 
on tlie 3d December: its bearing was fouth ea(t by 
a quarter fouth, didant 6ve lengqes. 1 concluded 
that the currents* had thrown me back a° 2b' to the 
weft, notwididandmg the correction I made in my 
N. N. W. courfe. 

In this pofition, where I was detained by the 
winds, which prevented my fteering S. E., I was af- 
failed by a heavy mountainous fea, and extremely vio- 
lent winds, which frequently obliged me to lay to 
under the fore fail, taking every poilible method of 
getting to windward, to enable me to continue my 
voyage. 

The 9th December, after running on different racks, 
I found myfelf again in fight of the Cantuadmes, 
from whence I took my final departure, the (out hern- 
mod point bearing W. N. W. 3° weft, at the dif- 
tance of ten or twelve leagues, which made me iti 
13^ z4''lat and 122^ 2(/ long, eaft of Paris, and \i/ 
eaft of St. Bernard. 

We then had tolerably fair frefli breezes from the 
third quarter, of which I took the advantage to run 
eaftward till the 14th, when the winds veei U E. N. 

* Befides the currents the K-e-way had undoviV>Ied on tlie direc- 
tion of the courfe ; but it was Kopaiently upon ijjg \;iUculation of 
this lee-way that the courfe had been correded» 

E. E. 



CXXll 



INTERESTING VOYAGE PROM 



E: E. and E. S. E. This change obliged me to keep 
two points nearer the fouih. The i8th, according 
to one of the charts on whicli I had laid down my 
courfe, I mud have been weft of the Martyr ifland 
at feven leagues diftance j and between the 20th and 
21ft came upon that called the Triangle: but by 
another chart, I was on the 19th near the Yap Ifland, 
or Great Caroline, and on the 20th, off the Pelew 
]flands, without having obfcrved either of them : but 
there could be no other caufe for the fhort and bil- 
lowy fea which we had, than the proximity of the 
Carolines or New Philippine Iflands, agreeable to 
their fituation on the French chart. i ? -y: 

On the 29th, croffing the line, I entered the fou- 
thern hemifphere. The winds then came from the 
third and fourth quarter, fufficiently freQi, but inter- 
rupted by frequent calms, which much incommoded 
us, owing to the excefl'ive heat which they occafion*- 
ed. I then fteered in the fécond and firft quarter, 
next to the eafl:, not however lofing fight of my de- 
fign to bear up rather to the fouth, and fail in 
with the wefterly winds, which muft predominate in 
the higher latitudes. Steering this courfe we remark- 
ed many large trunks of trees, birds of different 
kinds, boobies and others called dominicos. In this 
fame courfe Ï propofed taking an obfervation of the 
Mille Ifles, the mod northerly and eaftcrly of which 
Bougainville places in his chart at 1^ 10'' fouth, and 
— — •* eaft of Paris. I accordingly met with them 
on the 7th January; they extended from the 38th 
degree of the fécond quarter to the 9th of the third -f-. 
The latitude of the mofl: north- eafterly one was pre- 
cifcly as laid down on the chart, but its longitude 

* The longitude is wanting in the M. S. It is 13g deg. 30 
min. by Bougainville's chart. As to the reft the Mille Ifles are 
clearly the fame as his Exchiquier. 

t Their extent mull then have been from the eaft 38 deg. fouth, 
to ibuth 9 deg. weft. 

according 



cxxiii 



: MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. 

according to me 141° 12' eaft of Paris. I deter- 
mined on coafting thefe iflands as near as poffible,and 
took an infinity of their bearings which, together 
with the way the frigate made, enabled me to de- 
termine, with the utmoft precifion, the pofition of 
twenty-nine of thefe iflands that we have difco- 
vered. There are undoubtedly many others in 
the fouthern part, of which we could not take ac- 
count. It is impoffible to defcribe, on the chart, the 
extent of each, when fcarce any in the longed pare 
is one league. They are all flat, and covered with 
trees; fome are furrounded by reefs which join 
them to the neighbouring iflands. On thefe reefs 
the fea breaks, bur ihe breakers are only perceptible 
at a fliort difi:ance. I continued to near thefe iflands, 
fo that I pafled the moft northerly at the diftance 
only of two miles. At fevea o clock in the evening 
I defcried many fires on the moft eaftern ones, and 
could not but be very much fuiprifed at feeing fuch 
faiall portions of land inhabited. 

Quitting thefe iflands, 1 fl.eered to eaft, a quarter 
rorth-eaft; and on the 8th difcovered to the fouth, 
three degrees eaft, diftant five or fix leagues, two 
iflots, which I named the Hermits ; and in the even- 
ing of the fame day faw the Anchorets at the north 
and weft, diftant five miles ; I found them precifely 
in the latitude given by Bougainville. We at the 
fame moment defcried two fmall iflots to the eaft ; 
I pafled to the fouth of them at midnight, at a 
league diftant; I called them the Monks. 

Thence I bore away for the north coaft of New 
Britain; but on the loth, fcarce had the day broke 
when 1 difcovered other iflands to the S. S. E.* This 
and the following day I ran the length of the moft 
wefterly, at a reafonable diftance. I took every pof- 

* It is in the M. S. fudoefte : it (hould undoubtedly be read Ai, 
defte, or fud-fiièfte, fouth-eaft, or foutli-fouth-eall ; all that follows 
proves that this ifland could not be weft of the frigate. 

fibU 



CXXIV 



INTERESTING VOYAGE FROM 



fibjc method by means of bearings to make myfelf 
acquainted with its true fituation, and am fure that 
its northern coaft is eleven leagues long, and with- 
out douht proportionably wide : far beyond the 
plains, wnich extend to the fea fide, are feen many 
high mountains. The chart gives its perfpedive. 
Beyond this are four other flat iflands, covered with 
trees, the coafts of which, rifing in fucccffion, are 
bold and free from reefs, and 1 doubt not in the 
channels which feparate them is good anchorage, 
where fliips may be fufficiently flieltered from the 
wind and fea. ; ^ 

, The inhabitants of thefe iflands, feeing me on the 
jith two miles diftant from their moft eaftern point, 
came near in their canoes to the number of twelve, 
befides many others which did not put to fea. Cu- 
rious to know the charafter of thefe iflanders, 1 lay 
to : they came along fide, but would not venture 
qn board : they carneftly requefted fome food, and 
prefled us to come to anchor between the ifles. We 
threw them fome cocoa nuts, and pieces of bifcuir, 
which they fcramblcd for with great eagernefs, and 
»lmoft fought to obtain ; but when they faw at the 
poop a, net containing fome garden fl:uff, they ufed 
their utmofl efforts to reach it with long wooden 
hatchets. All this was a convincing proof of the 
dreadful flate in which they lived ; and fo far from 
Jioping for any rcfrefliment from them, I faw they 
iwanted it themfelves more than me. I was therefore 
from necefTuy conflrained to leave them in their mi' 
ferable flate. I faw no difference between them and 
the negroes of Guinea; colour, hair, lips, eyes, every 
part feemed to correfpond. The only arms of thele 
people were arrows, but without bows to flioot with. 
The points were armed with very clumfy flints ; they 
had alfo fome fifhing nets, which undoubtedly fur- 
nifhed them with their principal article of fubfiftence 
Purfuingmy track, on leaving this ifland, to which 

I gave 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. ' CXXV 

I gave the name of Don Jofeph Bafco, I difcovcrcd 
in the evening of the fame day fix others, and named 
the moft wefterly of the two neareft the fouth, St, 
Michael, and the moft eafterly, Jefus Maria. Their 
coafts are more extenfive than I (hould have con- 
ceived from the bearings I had an opportunity of 
taking; for the mountains are very high, and the 
diftance I was at did not permit me to overlook the 
wliole extent of the coafts. 

I at the fame time coafted along two other iilands 
at a diftance of two miles. The moft wefterly I call- 
ed St. Gabriel, and the moft eafterly St. Raphael : 
between thefe and the two preceding ones were two 
very fmall iilands, that of the north was called Flat, 
or Low Ifland, and the fouth Oven Ifland. Thence 
ftanding as before to the eaft, I found 1 was at mid- 
night to the north of three iilands, which I named 
the Three Kings. 

On thfj ^th I left a very fmall iflot at the 38th 
degree o* \ third quarter, (S. 38° W.) at fix lea- 
gues diftai/wc. ' ' " 

At half paft one in the afternoon of the fame day 
we defcricd at N. E. 3** E. another ifland eight or 
nine leagues off. It pfefented to our view a very 
high mountain ; and fufpeding it to be Ifle Mat- 
thias, which the French chart places north of 
New Britain, I fteered E. N. E. to get nearer to it, 
and convince myfelf of its fituation. At fix o'clock 
in the evening the bearing of the mountain was ac 
the zid degree of the firft quarter, (N. 22° E.) at 
the diftance of fix or feven leagues ; and its fitua- 
tion, determined by our bearings, did not leave a 
doubi of its being Matthias Ifland. 

1 continued the fame courfe to find out Stormy 
Ifland, placed on the French ciiart more to the eaft. 
This ifland certainly has its proper name. We in- 
ceflantly, during the whole night, experienced ftrong 
gufts of wind, and a high Tea. Neverihelefs, on the 

13th, 






CXXVl INTERESTING VOYAGE PIIOM 

13th, notwitliftanding the fogs and frequent Ihowers 
which began with the break of day, we difcovered 
at the nordi-weft by north, at feven leagues dif- 
tance, another which feemed fmaller than Stormy 
Illand, as reprefented on the chart; but its diftance, 
and the circumflance of the horizon being far from 
clear, might have made it appear lefs than it in 
fad was. latlaftjudged this cither to be Stormy 
Iflûiid, or a little one very near it. 

As, according to my obfervations, I found the fou- 
thern point of Matthias Ifland to be in latitude 1^ 
23^ and the French chart places it 2° 10'', I thought 
it better to give iliis laft up, and I placed this illand 
on my chart in the latitude I concluded it to be in 
from the obfervations I made at noon, and which I 
believe to be very exadl*. I have corretfled the la- 
titude of Stormy Illand in the fame proportion. The 
pofition of theie two illands, fo clofc one to the\ 
other, are doubtlefs fubjeA to the fame error. 

On a comparilon of my longitude, reckoned from 
Matthias Illand 144° 20' eaft of Paris, with that of 
143*^ 35', which is affigned it on the chart *{", I found 
my point, according to the chart, vvas erroneous by 
I*' \tf towards the weft. Siippofing the difcovercrs 
of this ifland to have accurately afcertained its dif- 
tance by the Cape of Good Hope of New Guinea J, 
I correfted the longitude of 143*^ 39'' eaft of Paris, 
which I obtained ac noon for that of 144° 34' which 
was the refult of the longitude of Matthias Illand. 

* The latitude ot the fouthern point of Matthias Ifland is i deg. 
38 min. in Bougainville's chart. 

f The longitude of the ûune point is on the fame chart 14c deg. 
10 mill. «Stormv Jilaiul is there reprefented double: the middle 
ot the moiV eaitern iilnnd is there i deg. 45 min. lat. and 145 de^i;. 
37 min. long Bougainville faw, but took no obfervation of thcle 
ifiands. . ■•' . :. , ■ « 

% Modern navigators would rather regulate the dirtance of this 
ifland by Cape St. George, whofe geographical fituation is bettti" 
llciermined tluii tlmt ol the Cape of Good Hope ot New Guinea. 
.■ '. • idif- 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. 



CXXVll 



fhowers 
covered 
jes dif- 
Stormy 
iiftance, 
far from 
n it in 
Stormy 

the fou- 
itude 1° 
thought 
lis illand 
to be in 
which I 
I the la- 
)n. The 
e to thev 



1 diftributed this well-timed corredlion over the pofi- 
tion of the iflands I before difcovered. I there- 
fore fixed my new point of departure in long. 144^ 

The fame day, 13th January, I came in fight of 
an extenfive coaft ; the fécond and third quarter of 
the horizon (throughout the whole of the fouth) was 
loaded with clouds, thick fogs, and tornadoes. If 
the weather became fine, it foon changed again, fo 
that it was impoffible for me to determine what land 
I faw. I believe it to be, however, the coaft of Nevr 
Britain, as well becaufe, the following days, we con- 
tinued to difcover portions of land, which could only 
belong to a large ifland, or continent, as becaufe that 
in coalting ihel'e fliores we diftinguilhed very high 
mountains, fiich as are rarely feen in fmall iflands. 

In the afternoon of the 14th we faw a high moun- 
tain in the foulh-weft, and a coaft of great extent 
from eaft to weft. Theie was no doubt of its being 
a coaft of New Britain. 1 could not exadly afcer- 
tain ils bearing, being twelve leagues diftant. I at 
the fame time pafl'ed near three other iiles, which 
bore from me S. by S. W., to the moft northerly 
of which I gave the name of St. Francis ; it 
was two leagues and a half offj the middle one I 
called St. Joleph, and the third St. Anthony : the 
latter was diitant feven leagues and a half. After 
pafling them, we at midnight faw a little illand at 10^ 
of the fécond «quarter (E. 10^ S.) which 1 named St. 
Peter. - ; ..... :. . ■■ y ■."■ 

We faw two iflands on the 1 5th ; at noon they 
bore S, E. 8° S. ai the diftance of ten leagues. Tho 
moft weftern was termed St. Laurent ; the moft eaft* 
ern St. BLiife. 

From the 1 5th to the 17th the winds were light 
and changeable from the Hrft to the fourth quarter : 
on the lyih a Imall ifland came in view, to which I 
g^ve the appellation of St. Hyacinth ; its bearina; 



CXXVlll 



INTÈRESTmO VOYAGE f «OM 



58°of the third quarter, or W. 32° S. diftant ten 
leagues. 

On the 1 8th we difcovered, eight miles off, three 
other iilands, one of which runs from north to fouth ; 
the m« ft wtfterly was named St. Rofe, the large one 
Refuge liland ; and the fmall one, very near the fore- 
going, Madalene. The fame day we faw, to the 
louth-weft of Refuge liland, a coaft covered with 
very high mountains. I fuppofed myfelf twelve 
leagues from its (hore, in the direâion of 65^ of the 
firft and third quarter (N. 65° E. and S. 6^^ W.). 
This was the only affiftance I had in determining the 
poiiiion of this iiland. 

I at firft doubted whether this land were not part 
of New Britain : but was afterwards convinced of 
its being the ifland of St. John, reprefented on the 
French chart as a large ifland, and (ituated in the pa- 
rallel where I obferved it * ; the more fo, as we had 
feen numberlefs little iflands (ince that of Matthias, 
none of which could be taken for the ifland of St. 
John. 

The 19th at fun-rife we faw two very low iflands, 
both of which run from N. W. to S. W. at fix 
leagues diftance : they were feparated on a narrow 
ftrait, open on the S. W., which we named Les Cai- 
mans. ,>^. !^i ,■ 

At fun-fet we came in fight of two iflands towards 
the fouth ; the moft northerly, which was very fmall, 
had the name of St. Anne, the other St. Barbe j by 
my bearings the length of the coaft of the latter was 
feven miles. 

* I (hould like to know by what French chart our navigator 
fleered. The Ifland of St. John \% placed, according to a chart of 
Fleurieu, in 3 deg. 45 min. lat. 150 deg. 3a min. eaft of Paris: 
but by Carteret's Voyage, (French edition, 410.) the chart of which 
is on ia larger fcale, the latitude is 4 deg. 19 min. long. 153 deg. 

3 min. ealt of Greenwich, 1 50 deg. 43 min. eaft of Paris. Carte- 
ret obferved this ifland. The author of the Di/coveriei of the French^ 
page 300, (Englilh edition, printed for Stockdal ) is decidedly for 

4 deg. lat. and 151 deg. 30^ min. eaft of Paris. 

At 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. 



CXXIX 



At day-break the center of a large illand, which I 
named Don Manuel Flores, bore S. 5** W. at the 
diftance of 13 leagues ; upon it was oblerved a pretty 
high mountain, and its coafl appeared to run from 
E. S. E. to W. N. W. for the fpace of fix leagues. - 

At eight, o'clock in the morning we got fight of 
nine iflots, which I did not doubt of being the On- 
tong Java of the French chart. The latitude of 
thefe iflands is precifely the fame as thofe which is 
afTigned to the centet of Ontong Javn on the chart. 
1 (leered diredly for them to get at .ear as poflîble, 
and obferved that thfey were furrOunded by a fand- 
bank which cannot be feen till within ttvo miles of 
the coa'fti Near the edges of this bank we faw, 
above the water, at fliort diftances, fome fmall rocks 
a very little way from the fand-bank itfelfé / 

The bank leaves a narrow opening on the fouth 
coaft, oppofite to which the hititude was by obferva- 
tion 4^ 53''; we were but two cables' length from 
this mouth j which leads to a gulph where the fea is 
perfeftly ftill, and where is a fccure harbour, if ne- 
ceflary to put in for wood or water. This gulph is 
Iheltered on the north by the iflots : we gave it the 
name of Princefs's Harbour. On the chart we have 
given a very correét plan of this port, pafling it near 
enough to be anfwerable for the accuracy of the 
urart'"* . ,1 ». • vi* .-'i*^ ^ 



* Ontong Java, (or Jaba, vyhich is all one to the Spaniards) was 
difcovered they fa^ in 1616 by Maire and Schouten. They enu- 
merated twelve or thirteen iflands, but did not obferve them any 
thing like fo ntar as our navigator. At a diftance they could nor 
have ken fome very low (lips of landj which conneéled two parts of 
one ifland, and thus they defcribed one ifland as two. In 1 767 Car- 
teret difcovered, ifl the fame latitude, nine iflands which he con- 
ceived to be the Ontong Java of Schouten. Théfe ifles eitended 
tiom the N. W. «quarter W, to the S. E. a quarter E. for the 
Ipace of about fifteen leagues, one of which is very extenfive; 
whereas Ontong Java does not extend three leagues, and all the 
'llands of which it is compofed are verv fmall. Notwithftandin« 

NT .-. * . • I ■ *■' 

OJL. I. \ ihï 



cxxx 



INTERESTING VOYA»!^ ¥ROM 



From thcle illots, which arc not above a mile fVom 
each other, iflucd out about fixty canoes which ap- 
proached us within a (hon gun-fhot; but the wind 
being favourable, I did not think it worth while to 
wait for them, but flood on always in the fame 
courfe. They returned to their iflots, on which it 
appeared to me impofTible for human creatures ta 
fubfift. We faw there a tolerable number of palm- 
trees, which no doubt bore fruit, and by this and 
the help of filh> thefe iilanders drag on their mifera< 
ble life. 

After leaving Ontong Java I continued my way 
^ith gentle 'pieafant winds during the day, but 
ftormy in «"he night, which obliged me to keep a 
ftrid look but for whatever might offer itfelf to our 
view, and recommended a fimilar vigilance to all the 
fhip's company. They at once faw the rifks we had 
to encounter ; confequently no fboner was an object 
defcried in the horizon, than I was informed of it; 
the ifland obferved, and the danger avoided.. 

I failed the Z2d without feeing any land, but the 
night being dark we heard at tea o'clock a dreadfiï) 
roaring in the N. Ë. and faw wideof the Oiip*s quar- 
ter, at an incoriiiderable diftanee, the iêa all white 
with foam. I wa^ obliged to bear away to the S. VY. 
until the noife of this Ihoal, which 1 called the 
Snorei*, were no longer heard. I then flood again to 
the eaft as before. 

If themany accidents which occurred during my voy- 
age be taken into confideration, the conftancy I inva- 
riably ïhowed in my aim at two obje^ of equal mo- 
ment, yet direclly oppolîte one to the other, may be 
eafily conceived. My commifTion required the ur- 

ihis, we flittll en(ieavt)iir to prove that the nine iflands of our navU 
gator, as well as thofe of Carteret, Maire and Schouten, are one 
and the fafne groupe, diftinét frotn the Ontong Java of Tafman. 

* Fleurieu takes this SnOrer (Le Ronfleur) to be the fame rock 
as the Candlemas Shoals of Medana, which is not innprobable. 

■ - mod 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. 



CXXXl 



ihod celerity, and confcquently obliged me to prels 
every fail without a moment's lofs of time. On the 
other hand the tornadoes under the line only took 
place during the night ; the winds then frefhening 
cotiiiderably, rendered the air dark and gloomy, 
emitting thunder and lightning. During the day 
there was almoft a perfedl calm, and I could there- 
fore take advantage of the night alone to get for- 
ward; At one time I fell in with land during the day, 
at another during the night. Prudence undoubted- 
ly required me not to expofe myfelf to dangers which 
tnight in an inflant put an end to the very aim of the 
voyage j but I might thereby have experienced a de^ 
Jay which had been prejudicial to my commifldon. I 
therefore fupplied the defeft of tardy prudence by 
the mofl aétive vigilance in looking out for every ob- 
iUcle that might prefent itfelf, and profiting by every 
favourable breeze^ 

For the remainder of January the winds were lights 
and blew between N. N. W. and N. E. j obliging 
me either to purfue my courfe eafterly, or in the fé- 
cond quarter ilext to it. I therefore encreafed my 
fouthern latitude, without having it in my power to 
bear up to the north, the wind conftantiy blowing 
from the firft quarter, except a few puffs which came 
from the fourth and fécond quarter, and of which I 
took advantage by nearing the line: but the calms 
were fo fréquent, that the longeft way I Tnade in 
twenty-four hours was but 70 miles. 

Frorti the commencement of February the cajms 
were yet more confiant : from the 6th to the 17th 
our longeft run being 40 miles, and commonly only 
from 12 to 15. I in vain endeavoured to pafs to the 
north of the line, in hopes of doubling the weflem 
fhoals of St. Bartholomew* : light airs from the N. 
N. W^ and N. N. E. obliged me to fleer in the 

* This I guefled at, as the M. S. gives no intdltgiUe meaning : 
1 think my guefs is tolerably right. 

i a .. fourth 



CXXXii I{ïTERESTING VOYAGE FROM 

fourth quarter to a point fo near weft, that I loft the 
longitude I gained in the eaft at the expence of fuch 
multiplied hazards. Thcfe reafons induced me again 
to keep my way in the firft quarter, in hopes that the 
eafterly winds would loon facilitate my getting north- 
ward of the line. 

As my voyage was Icngthing, Î took the pre- 
caution from the 20th January oT leflening the ordi- 
nary ration of bread, two ounces per man, befides 
an ounce lefs in the pound, which 1 took oft' the mo- 
ment we embarked : but on the i6ih February, fee- 
ing that time did not ameliorate our condition, and 
confidering that we were at fufl only vidualled for 
fix months, that the 70 pipes and 40 barrels of water 
put on board were not near fufficient for that fpacc 
of time only J that where I then was, in S. lat. 3^ 32' 
and long. É. from Paris 1 74^ 8^ with fcarcely pro- 
vifions left for three months, and a very infufficient 
quantity of water, I concluded that neceflity required 
the diminution of a ration more, which I ordered 
from that day, reducing it to two thirds. 

Our diftrefs was infinitely increafed by the innu- 
merable quantity of cockroaches* which infefted our 
fliip. The bifcuit was much lighter than when tirft 
put on board ; but what difcouraged me molt was 
the ftate of our water cafks, which we not only found 
empty, but frequently unlerviceable, the cockroaches 
having perforated the ftavcs by holes as big round 
as two fingers. 

After moft ferioufly refleding on all thefe ctrcurn- 
ftances, I conceived that it was not poflîble for me 
to continue my courfe north of the line, without 
putting into fome ifland to replace the water 1 had 

* Cancrelas, or Kakerlaquer, is a coleoptorous infeél like a cock- 
chaffer, but larger and much flatter; it foils and devours every 
thing. It is faid to be called ravet at the Antilles ; the cockroaches 
of the Ifle of France feemed to ms much larger than the ravet oî 
St. Domingo, but thev are equally tormenting. . 

■ '* loft. 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISB. éXXXiii 

loft. • I could not flatter myfclf ihat I fliould reach 
the Marianne iflands in time. The rcfult of my rc- 
fledions was (he refolution of ftanding for Solomon's 
J (lands, which I was then 107 leagues weftward 
of; hoping the winds, which blew from the North, 
would not prevent this, and from thence 1 might 
with greater feciirity and fpeed reach the Prcfidio 
of Monterey. 

1 therefore made fail for Solomon's iflands ; but the 
winds blowing uninterruptedly from the firft quarter 
next the North, obliged me to drive infenfiblv to 
the South. The 20th February, I found myfelf 17 
leagues weft of the Cape of Santa Cruz or GuadaU 
canar. We then began to meet with breezes from 
E.N. E. and E. ; which made me lofe all hopes of put- 
ting into, or even getting fight of Solomon's iflands. 
Finding myfelf therefore in 12^8. lat. I was compel- 
led to take the refolution of getting into the fouth- 
crn hemifphere, confident that I (hould full in 
with fome iflands where I could remedy the extreme 
dearth to which I was reduced ; at the fame time 
not without the hope, after having traverfed 29 or 
22 degrees of latitude, of meeting with winds favour- 
able for carrying us eaftward, which I could not 
promife Hiyfelf in navigating in the north, unlefs by 
pufliing on to 44 or 46 degrees, and keeping clofe to 
the wind, which would have been an infinite lofs of 
time ; and even in adopting this courfe, I muft ftill 
have put in to the Mariannes. 

After thefe and other reflexions which never ceafed 
to torment me, I refolved to fteer in the fécond quar- 
ter (between Eaft and South) purfuing that courfe 
while the eafterly winds would permit. On the 
26th I faw a fmall ifland, which 1 immediately ftood 
for, hoping to caft anchor and take in water there. 
The crew leaped for joy, thinking that this ifland 
would put an end to all their wants ; their joy 
equalled their diftrefs, but not tor long : when with» 
, - ' . i -5 in 






CXXxiv INTIIISTJNO VOYAOt PROM 

in two miles of the iiltnd, we clearly faw, that (o Ut 
from any anchorage, not even a boat could get aQiorc. 
It was abfolutely barren ; on its mountain, ^bich 
was by no nncâiis fmall, there was not a Angle tree to 
bç (et^- This was named Bitter liland. 

On the 27th WÇ difcovered an ifland direâiy a- 
bead, on which was a very high mountain» its tutp. 
mit apparently burnt, but the declivity, covered with 
trees, difplayed an agreeable ver()ure. We plainly 
diftinguifhed many cocoa-nut trees, which ftrength- 
cned my defire to bring ^o i but the lightncfs otihc 
breeze would not fuffer me to get nearer than about 
a league from its weft fide, from whence came many 
canoes with cocoa-npts and bananas, s^nd exchanges 
immediately commenced. The Indians came on 
board with ^he mod perfed confidence; he who 
commanded them muniftfting the moft tender friend- 
(hip, dancing on tf^e deck, and fipging feveral fongs. 
Among other prefents, he gave us a large kind of 
counterpane, lijcc blptting-paper, but compofed of 
two or three fons of (heeis interwoven with each 
other, to give more ftrength to the texture. I re- 
turned his civility, and he retired well fatisfied. He 
told me that this ifland, of which he was the chief, 
was called Latte, fertile in different for^s of fruit, 
with foft water in alnindance, and that I (hould find 
good anchorage. This news was very fatisfaélory, 
but, for my own part, 1 could difcover po place 
where 1 could be fecurely flieltered. 

In ftretcbing round the ifland to Icok for a good 
anchoring place, we faw at E. N. E. about 1 2 leagues 
off, other iflands not fo high, but of greater extcnt| 
with feveral channels between .them ; the wind faint 
but favourable for our appro;vch. The perfpedtive of 
thefe illands promifing abundant relief, 1 borp up for 

them. 

The calms and light contrary airs, which I ex- 
perienced on the ift of March, was of piany days 

diiratipflj 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. CXXXV 

duration, but on the 4ih, after fcveral tacks, I ran 
into an opening, formed by thefe iflands, at N. NY. 
and came to anchor in 45 fathoms, at a fhort didanco 
from land, whence we faw within the gulph, houfes, 
abundant plantations of banana and cocoa-trees, 
very fatisfai^tory appearances as to water, which laft 
was nearell our hearts ; and in Ihort, in the inte- 
rior of this groupe of iflands, many harbours, where 
vefl'els might lay in fafety from the rage of the winds 
and fea : (o that we were thoroughly perfuadcd of 
our mifery being at an end. 

In the evening of the fame day, we drew vp the 
anchor, and as the depth of water confiderfxbiy *n- 
creafed, 1 gained the o(fing by fliifiing the anchor 
to the water's edge (or between wind and water) fo 
that it would be ready to let go again. As foon tin 
it was weighed, I again tacked towards the port, ifnù 
the 5th at day-break, anchored in 38 vares (about îj 
fathoms*) bottom of fand and ftone, ,twc cables* 
length from the fliore, in a cçcqk where, the evcn/ng 
before, I had feen the houfcs. 

Every day which 1 Iqil in getting .near ^thefe ifland?, 
from fifty to a hundwd canoes came along fide, 
bringing pigs, fowl^ banana^, and potatoes, which 
had fomeihing of the flavour of cuftard ; fome of 
thefe potatoes were five vares long,''!" and in thickncfs 
about thetilze of alully man's thigh ; the leafl weighed 
three pounds. They offered us, likewtfe, a kind of 
cloth wotven from >the bark of the palm-tree, others of 
a finer make, an4 laftly, fome of the cloaks or counter- 
panes, refembling blotting-paper, of which 1 h^.xn 
already fpqken^ the counterpanes, particularly, they 
held in high eftimation. All the commerce was c^v- 
ried on aver the fliip's ftern. The iflanders wmited 

* I. think it (hould be 38 tathc-i(>s. 

t The Spaniili word popa or {^apa, fiffnifies a kind of panada, 
made with milk, with which infaiitj are red. It feetns very jultifi- 
able to fufpeâ exagg<(ration in the length of the potatoes. 

.= U in 



/ 



CXXXVi INTERESTING VGYAGK FROM 

in change for their fruit and produce of their manu- 
failures, hatchets, adzes, and other cutting inflru- 
ments ; but I forbade, under the fevereft penalties, 
^Int any Ihould be given, and 1 believe I was obey- 
ed. They were, therefore, obliged to content them- 
felves with bits of cloth or ftuff. My crew cut their 
Ihirts, jackets, and trowfers into pieces, and with 
thefe bandages procured pigs, and other refrefli- 
ments. On account of ihefe provifions, I fufpended 
the allowance of meat, and reduced that of the bread 
to one half. 

The Indians who came on board prefTed me to go 
into the interior of their archipeligo ; each pointed 
out his ifland, affuiing me I (hould there find water 
and every thing elfe I wanted : the equis or captains 
ihewed me the greateft friendfliip as they arrived, 
and I endeavoured not to be in their debt. Many 
fat down at the table with me, though they only par* 
took of their own fruits. I imagined that thefe 
iflanders were divided into many cafts or tribes, from 
the number of their equis j but, on the other hand, I 
obferved among the whole the greateft harmony. 

We were likewife vifited by women, whofe coun- 
tenances were by no means dilagreeable; their cloth- 
ing confifted in a kind of petticoat, which reached 
from the waift to the feet ; the men were drefled the 
fame. I admired the fine bulk of the latter ; fome 
of them whom I meafured being fix feet four inches 
high, and large in proportion, and thefe by no means 
the talleft. It is certain that the fhortefl: of thofe I 
fiiw, equalled the talleft and ftouteft of my (hip's 
company. Thefe iflinders are in general tall and 
robuft 

We no fooner caft anchor than I received a pre- 
fcnt of fruits fent by the Tubou ; the meflenger be- 
ing, as I was told, his Ton. This name of Tubou, 
which the equis repeated with a particular tone of 
lifledion — what can it fignify- ? I then thought that 

it 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. CXXXVIl 

it tlenoted apparently the eqvii of the ifland, near 
which we were, who muft hold fome pre-eminence 
over the others, on account of their refpeclful man- 
ner of treating him. Whatever it might be, 1 re- 
ceived his fon in the befl poflîble manner, from the 
wifli to conciliate his friendfliip, that we might meet 
with no impediments in our operations, when we 
went to take in water, and that he might, on the 
contrary, favour us with all his authority. 

From eight in the morning the frigate was fur- 
rounded by a hundred canoes : the cr:es of thofe who 
manned them and bartered around the Ihip, were fo 
Ihrill, that it was not poffible to hear each other on 
board. Neverthelefs, this fame hour they informed 
us that the Tubou was coming to pay us a vifu, who 
no fooner approached, than all the canoes which 
were on our {larboard fide difperfed. I received 
the Tubou with every poffible mark of refpeâ:. His 
age and enormous fize had deprived him of the 
agility neceliary for getting on the deck; fo that his 
cqnis, whom till then I had confidered as little kin<;s, 
were under the neceffity of fupporting him on their 
Ihoulders, while he mounicd the ladder. He was 
followed by his wife, who furpa. "*d in beauty all the 
other females I had feen on this ill.md ; and I could 
almoft at once have fworn that Ihe was daughter of 
fome European, fo ftriking were the graces I re- 
marked in her ; and not being at moft in her twenty- 
fifth year, youth ftill added to her charms. They 
both took their feats on the watch-bench , and all 
the others profoundly proftrating themfelves, kifTcd 
the feet of the Tubou. He brought me as a prefent 
a canoa * load of potatoes. In return, I decorated 
both of them with a fcarf of flame-coloured filk, from 
the neck to the waift, to which 1 ("upended by a 
flefli-colonred ribband, two large piaiires flumped 

* The Spauifli term canoa, means boat ; but the boats of the 
South Sea were probably only canoes, 

V'ith 



'I 
.1.1 

NT 



CXXXVkii INTERESTING VOYAGE FROM 

with the refemblance of our auguft fovereign. I at 
ttic fame time dillributed feveral reals* with the 
fame ftamp, to l)c at a future period incontroveriible 
proofs of our having put in here. The fubordination 
of the equis towards the Tnbo^l was fuch, that none 
o( them dared to be feated in his prefence : even his 
fon, who before his arrival aifoéted a naajeftic gra- 
vity, was now as refpeiftful as the others. 1 can ù.y 
with truth, that the Tubou fcarcely honourçd them 
with one or two wards. Ï conduded them to the 
date cabin ; they wiere (Irucjk with admira^ioiB at the 
fight of the equipment of the frigate and other 
things which 1 (hewed them. In Qiort> quite fatis- 
fied with the reception they had met with ; they re- 
tired, after giving me unequivocal aliurances of their 
mod fincere friendfliip, and a thoufand embraces, 
with which the good old man inftantiy overwhelm- 
ed me. 

To avoid the excefTes which the crew gften give 
themfelves up to when they go afhore, I pwbjilhcd 
an order, threatening with fevere penalties, any one 
that Hiould difturb thofe iflanders, under whatever 
pretence. 

I defired -my men, notwithftanding., to keep them- 
felves at all; events on their guard ; and to give the 
Indians an idea of the power of our arms, I ordered 
a few guns to be fired againft the rocks ; the noife 
produced by the bullets and cafe (hot infpired them 
with the greateft fe;ir, and they intreated that î would 
not repeat it. This difcharge in the prelence of 
Jwelve or fifteen hundred perlons produced the de- 
iîred tffed, infpiring them with the dread of our 
arms, which I hoped in the fequcl they would not; 
put me under the ncccflTity of employing againft 
ihem, 
f On the 6th I chofe from among ray complement, 

• The piaftre contains 20 reals ; the real is w«rth a trile more 
than two pence half penny of oui- nioney. 

iifieen 



I 

MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. CXXxU. 

fifteen meo, well armed with mufkets, piHiols, fwords 
and cartridge, and embarked with them in the boar, 
which carried four fwivels j we landed on the beach^ 
which I found covered with men and women, 
whom I made difperfe, and brought up my force, in 
order, under arms, at about ten varcs * from the 
boat ; the fwivels were pqinted againft the crowd of 
Indians, in cafe we mould perceive any hoftile 
movement. 

The Tubou*s fon offered to condufl one of my 
men to a running ftrcam of water; but after having 
walked for half an hour and afcended a fmall hill, he 
fdid they were ftill at fome diftance from ii ; the perfon 
\ fent thought proper to come back to the beach, 
where I waited his return. I had, however, funk a 
well on the beach, which, when on aievel with the fea, 
gave water though not fit to drink. I caufed another 
to be dug twenty vares from the beach, wilhing to 
avoid ihe receffity of weighing anchor, and taking 
the frigate n\ore within rhe archipelago, where they 
^ave me the moft pofitive afllirance of finding water. 
To do that \ mud give up many days, and I did not 
like to lofe tjme. 

On the 7th, I was in my boat, with a detachment 
well armed, and an Indian accompanied rne to one 
of the places wherethey told me I might be fure of 
water; but this water was too far from the (hip. 
After filling a few barrels I returned, with the rçfo- 
lution of continuing the well I had begun. I went 
on (bore th<? fame day, always taking like pre- 
cautions; the work of the well advanced, which I 
l^^t in fuch a ftate as to be able to afford us water on 
the morrow. 

Tlie Tubou or king, came to pay me a vifit in 
great pomp; the equis were ranged in two files, 
M/itlx venerable old men at each extremity ; walking 



* The vareï» equal to abovt three feet. 



before 



C^V "^ IKTF.nKSTING VOYAGE PHOM 

before the king. The Tnbou, as a proof of his (eir- 
der friendfliip, careflcd aud embraced mc a hundred 
times. His retinue fat down, making a large circîe, 
in the fame order which it arrived in. Two carpets 
made of palm were brought; the king (lit down on 
one, and made his fon be feated on the other, at his 
right hand. The whole kept a profound filence; 
thofe only near the king and whofe great age cer- 
tainly made the mofl refpedable, faithfully repeating 
all his wordG. Some roots were foon brought, with 
which they made a drink in a kind of troughs. By 
the faces of thofe who drank it muft be very bitter. 
This refrefbment was ferved up in veflels made of 
banana-leaves. Three or four yoang Indians prc- 
fented it to the Tubou and me firft. The illander 
neareft the Tubou pointed out thofe who were to 
drink ; the others were not offered any. Roafted 
potatoes and perfeélly ripe bananas were afterwards 
put before me, of which 1 eat. Soon after two canoes 
appeared full of the fame kind of provifion, to be 
divided among my foldiers. This refrefliment over, 
the Tubou returned home : I returned the vifir, ap- 
pointing the firft pilot to command in my place, vvith 
orders to let nobody approach under any pretext 
whatever. The Tubou received me in the beft pof- 
fible manner; the queen foon appeared, preceded by 
eight or ten young girls, from fixteen to eighteen 
years of age, all of whom v\aited upon her; fome 
drove away the flics which might incommode her, 
on the others flie leaned. She was wrapped up in 
many cloaks which made her look extremely fat. She 
receiving us with a fmilino; countenance, gracioufly 
repeating the word li'ey, hiey, liley, which fignifies 
very well or welcome. After the firft vifit, 1 made 
but few others, left the Tubou (hould ftrip himfelf 
of all his clothes to put on me, which is confidered as a 
fignal mark of favour. The king gave me two great 

doradoes 



MAtîiLLA to ST. BLAtSE. 



cxli 



doradoes * and one of his weapons, which was no- 
thing but a ftick of acanaf painted of different co- 
lours. I returned on board, hoping to get water on 
the morrow. 

Our well being completed, in the evening of the 
8th, we began to draw water, to the great aftônilh" 
ment of the Indians ; but it was fo bad that we were 
compelled to give up this method of getting afupply. 
I this day made a fécond vifit to the King and Queen, 
who never miffed fending, every evening, a great 
quantity of roafted potatoes, undoubtedly from a rt> 
colleftion of the lar^e number I had to feed. As foon 
as I was affured of the unhcalthinefs of the water near 
the fea, without hopes of finding any but at a great 
diftance from the bank, owing to the proximity of 
the mountain, I weighed anchor and brought to in 
another bay, at a league and a half or two leagues 
diftance. On weighing one of the anchors, the cable, 
which was in ufe for the firft time, abfolutely failed, 
all the ftrands of which it Was compofed having bro- 
ken ; the whole length of the cable was entirely rot- 
ten and unferviceable. I fried to fifh up the anchor 
but in vain, not being able to (lay long, and the 
depth of water giving me but little hopes of meeting 
with it'eafily. 

The new bay was perfedly proteded both againft the 
wind and fea, which I fome days after experienced, 
the weather being extremely violent out at fea, with 
a wind from the N. and N. \V. and 1 perceiving no 
other effeft from it than a guft now and then, which 
came from that diredion. I was at anchor in 32 fa- 
thoms in a bottom of fand and Oone ; fome hills, 
which formed the harbour on the north fide, co.n- 
pletely Iheltered us ; the bottom all around us was 
rock. 

• Dos dorado Î. The Spanifh word dorado, taken adject ively, 
fignifies gilt, fubftantively, i know no other meaning than dorado, 
a well-known fifh. 

t I am ignorant of this kind of wood, 

Oa 



cxiii 



INl'ERESTIXO VOYAGE FRO^ 



On th« 9th, we began taking in water, at onl^ 
live vares dillance from the beach. The work went 
on fader than I wanted it, the equis having com- 
manded their Indians to roll our cafks, but when 
the Tubou came no one befides himfelf dared to give 
any more orders. 

The loth, nth, and 12th, we got as liiuch water 
as we chofe to put on board i an innumerable quan- 
tity of canoes came however to barter, and fheir con- 
fidence in us was fuch, that many pafled the night 
and (lepi on board. 

During this time, the king invited me to a feaft, 
which he dcfigncd preparing for that purpofci. When 
I went alhore on the 12th, 1 faw in the thick wood 
near the port a vail circular fpace, which had been 
cleared with fuch care, that not the lead vedige of 
what it had been, remained. A little after, the In- 
dians went two by two to the Tubou*s houfe With 
long poles on their flioulders, from which were 
fufpended many potatoes, bananas, cocoa-nuts, and 
filh. Thefe, by the dire<5tion of the Tubou, were 
taken to the newly cleared camp, where they were 
piled, in a cubical form, to the height of two 
vares. The equis and venerable old men came to 
condudt the Tubou, who took me by the hand, and 
we repaired to the vaft circle, where upwards of 2000 
Indians waited our coming. We took our feats on 
the carpets of palm prepared for that purpofe, as did 
all the people, always keeping each caft or family 
diftinct, as they never mix with each other* 
. The king then made me an offer of all the fruits» 
and had them taken to my boat, which they com- 
pletely filled. The porters being returned to their 
refpedtive pods, a profound filence was obferved, 
while the king fpoke; ihofe who had the right, from 
their age and dignity, of fitting near him, repeat- 
ing all his wordSé Not knowing to what this tended, 
I ordered ihofe of my foldiers, whom I had left 



au, were 



MANIILLA TO ST, BLAISE. CXiiii 

in command of the firil pilot, to hold themfelves in 
fead'mefs to fire both with their muikets and piftols, 
ihouM they perceive any hoftile movement. A 
ftrongTobu ft young man now ftepped forward froca 
the ranks, the right hand placed on his breaift, 
and ftriking his elbow with his left, making many 
gambols round the place oppofite the groupe of diif- 
I'crent tribes to himlelf. One of another tribe then 
ftepping out with the fame geftures, they begam so 
ivrcltlc, Jaymg body to body, clofing with, and irc- 
pelling each other with fuch animodty, that dieix 
veins and nerves fwelled and extended prodigioiiHy. 
At laft one of them fell with fuch violence, that I 
thought he would never rife again ; he neverthelefs 
got up all covered with duft, and retired without 
daiiag to turn afide his head. The conqueror pre- 
fcnted himfelf to do homage before the king; while 
thofe of his tribe fang, but whether in praife of the 
conqueror, or coniem|7t of the vajiqutthed, i can- 
not lay. 

Thefe wreftling combats laded two hours j one of 
ihe combatants had an arm broken, and I faw others 
receive terrible blows. While this wreftling lallcd, 
other champions with their hands and wriits bound 
with thick cords, which frrved inftead of gauntlets, 
4)refented themfelves. This kiuJ if comb.it was far 
more dreadful than the wrcllling, ilie comb.uams, 
from the commencement, ftriking at-.ihe fo ehead, 
eyes, cheeks, and all parts of the fice, while thoic 
who received the blows became more impetuous and 
ardent. Some weic felled to the ground by the firft 
blow. The alfcmbly regarded thcle com bats with 
ft certain degree of refpett, and all wcie not indifcri- 
minaiely admitted to thcm^ 

Some women, particularly thofe who attended on 
the Queen, aflifted at this fête, and 1 found them 
quite otherwife than what they had hitherto appeared 
«0 be. 1 had not judged of them imfavourably , bat on 
;v . • this 



CXIÎV IXlTîRESTlNG VOVAGE PROM 

this day ihcy were clothed in their beft attire, with 
tiicir mantles well plaited and tied up in a knot on 
the left fide, chapleis of large glafs beads round their 
necks, the hair carefully drelfed, the body waflied 
and perfumed with fwect-fcented oil, and fo clean a 
fkin, that they would not have futfered the fmalicll 
particle of fand to remain on itj they completely' 
fijccd my attention, appearing more beautiful than 
ever. 

The King ordered the women to fight with their 
fids like the men, which they did with fuch fury, 
that had they not been feparated now and then, they 
would not have had a tooth left. The fpc(5\acle 
touching me to the foul, I intreated the King to 
conclude the combat, which he did ; and all applaud- 
ed the companion 1 had for thefe young ftmales. 

The Toiibou, after this defiring an old woman, 
who carryed a tin bottle at her neck, to fing, which 
fhe did for half an hour without ceafing, at the fame 
time with fuch accompanying geftures and adion, 
as might have led us to take her for an adrefs de- 
claiming on the ftage. 

' The entertainment at length concluded, and we 
returned with the King to his houfe, where 1 found 
the Qiieen, who received me with her cuftomary 
marks of regard : 1 afked her why flie was not pre 
fent at the feafl, to which (he anfwJ'éred, that tliofc 
forts of combats were by no means agreeable to her. 

The bands of friendlhip were fo clofely tied be* 
tvveen us, that theTubou called me his hoxa or fon. 
I took leave of the Queen and him, and returned to 
embark. The beach was entirely covered with the 
natives, who loaded my people with a thoufand 
carefles for having condefcended to aflTift at the feaft. 
The conquerors even took me on their flioulders 
and carried me to the boat. The Tubou, who from 
his houfe faw this crowd, and knew how much I 
fuffered when the Indians mixed with my men, or* 

de red 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAIS£. Cxlv 

^éred his captains to purfiie them, and he himfelf 
went into fvjch a paflion, that he ran out with a great 
flick, ftriking fuch as came within his reach. All 
faved themfelvcs in the woods but two, worfe mauled 
than the refl, who were left for daad on the fpot; whe- 
ther they recovered I do not know. 

Nothing; now prevented my putting to fea, which 
I was refolved to do on the 13th, but a guft of 
wind from the N. and N. W. that rofe the fame day, 
and biew almoft diredtly into the channel through 
which I muft go out. The wind rofe higher and 
higher, notwithllanding which» the fea at our an»* 
choragc was fcarcely agitated more than ordinarily ; 
for all that, and riding at three anchors, the Iheet 
cable gave way and I remained with the hope* and 
third anchor only. 

On the 15th, the wind fomewhat abated; but 
when I worked Ihip to get under way, the cable of 
the hope broke, fo that I had now nothing more to 
hold by than the third anchor. Thefe accidents, 
joined to the crofles I met with in the courfe of my 
navigation, much difconcerted me. All my cables 
were rotten, as were the haliards, flieets, tacks, braces, 
ropes, and, in a word, all my tackling -j~. The bad 
ftate of my rigging left me in the dreadful cxpefta- 
tion of lofing the only anchor I had, and Ihould 
that happen, I could not but confider my lofs as cer- 
tain in thofe didant climates. 

To remedy our moft immediate want, I fattened a 
cable to a neighbouring rock, which, conjointly with 
the remaining anchor, ferved to hold me faft. I alfo 
employed fot]ie of the men to endeavour to look for 
and fiQi up the two loft anchors ; after a labour ot 

• Is the name of an anchor in Spain. 

t I here omit a long detail of the damage the tackling fuftained, 
and a tedious ftory of the author's complaints ; that would not be 
very amuHng to the reader ; beiides which there are feveral errors 
«n the manufcript. 

Vol. I. k twenty- 



cxlvi 



INTE&EBTINO VOTAÔB FHOM 



twenty-four hours we found it ufelefs, the water being 
too deep. 

The vexations whereby I was tormented, did not 
permit me to accept an invitation the Tubou 
gave to aflift at an entertainment itmilar to what he 
had before given on my account : but this prince, who 
called me his fon, and undoubtedly loved me as fuch, 
did not forget to fend every evening two baikets of 
potatoes, fome fowls, and fi(h. He ordered the 
whole great quantity of provilions which had been 
got together for this new feaft to be brought to mej 
and came feveral times to the frigate, often dining with 
me, and afterwards taking his afternoon's nap on 
board. 

On the i6ih, I endeavoured to fet off, and the 
wind being contrary, ran upon different tacks, and 
altiiough the current wasalfoagainft me, and the gut 
fo narrow as hardly to give me room to tack abdur, 
J found myfelf at the laft tack to windward of all the 
points ; but a furious fquall blowing direâly in my 
teeth, threw me back among the rocks through which 
I was fteering. I was now more than ever perplexed, 
having no choice left but to return to my old har- 
bour, let go the anchor, and carry a cable fpeedily on 
fliore to hold me in the bed manner that was poffible, 
I, on the i8th, fent my firft pilot in the boat toibund 
another channel, (hut in, it is true, by feveral iilands, 
but which, however, promifed us an eafy entry with 
the' then prevailing winds. The pilot, on his re- 
turn, affured us that the channel had throughout a 
good bottom, entirely free from (helves, and the paf- 
fage large enough for running on tacks if requifite. 
1 accordingly got ready for going out on the 19th, 
and at two o'clock the fame afternoon, had cleared 
all the iflands, which was all that 1 could then defire. 

The, Indians and Tubou were not prepared for 
this feparation which they undoubtedly were much 
affeded with : the king and queen took leave of me 

with 



1IAI7ILLA TO éT, %LAïÈÉ» 



cxhrii 



with the greatefl demonftrations of forrow, and tht 
Indians, in their canoes, accompanied us till we were 
out of their archipelago. 

This port, which I named Refuge Harbour, is 
formed by three tolerably large iflands and feveral 
fmailer ones. The whole group I called Don Martin 
de Mayorga. The port is fituated in iS** 36' fouth, 
and 179** 5/ eaft of Paris. There may at all times be 
found the moft favourable (belter : ihe winds blow- 
ing in vain with their greateft fury, the fea could 
not be more tranquil, and the hurricane itfelf 
lofes its pouer. At entering between thefe iflands, 
whether by the W. N. or S. W. channel, the depth 
is from fifty to fifty-five fathoms, bottom of ftone and 
fand, which fame depth continues to ihe center of 
the gulph two cables length from (hore, when it is 
only from thirty -five to forty fathoms. In fome creeks 
the depth decreafes even to twelve or fifteen fathoms. 
In this place are neither Ihoals nor reefs ; the ancho- 
rage muft, however, be chofen by the plumb, in fome 
bays the bottom being partly earth* and partly fand. 

The fertility of the earth is fuch that it cannot but 
promife a favourable harveft. An immenfity of cocoa 
and banana trees, ranged in rows with the moft de- 
lightful regularity, are feen all around, much potatoe 
ground, as may be concluded from the great quantity 
fent on board, with other roots very pleaiant and nearlf 
of the fame fpecies. Lemon trees, fugar canes, fruit 
much refembling apples, oranges, &c. In (hort, two 
or three equis having once condudted me to a fruit- 
ful country, I admired the order with which every 
thing was difpofed, no weeds being fuffered to grow 
among the plants : their roads are kept up with a care 
worthy the imitation ofche moft polilhed nations. 
Seeing the zeal they had for agriculture, I gave them 
fome beans, maize, a few grains of allfpice and rice, 

* Should not this be roci infieactof earth. w 

k a explaining 



cxlviii 



XNtBRBSTINO VOYAGE FBOM 



explaining their ufes, and aifuring them that they 
would fucceed in their beft foil. 

They cultivate (hrubs all ranged in order, fimilar 
to the banana trees, the bark oi which (hrubs ferves 
for their cloaks or counterpanes, they likcwife make 
a kind of petticoat of it. 

Their condud during our (lay, is a proof of the 
confidence they placed in us ; it was ndt in my power 
to do the fame in this refpe(^, never going on (here 
without a detachment which infpired them with terror. 
Neither did they give us the leall caufc of complaint 
but in their inclination to Heal, a pafTion which In- 
dians cannot furmount. Every time they came on 
board, whatever cloaths or iron work fell into their 
way, they confidered as a lawful prize. They drew 
through the port holes or windows whatever they 
could carry away. They even dole the chains fpm 
the rudder, of which 1 complained to the king, ^ho 
gave me leave to kill any one I might furprife in the 
ad} and I was affured that he had not only difcover- 
cd but put to death the authors of the above men- 
tioned thefr. Our vigilance was increafed, and we 
furprifed fome of the iilanders taking away frelh 
chains from the helm j we fired a piftol at them, of 
whom one fell dead : it was a leflbn for thofe on 
board or aftern of the frigate, who cried out, chiio 
(thief) fama (dead). 

I ufcd every method to find out if they had any 
kind of religion, whether they adored any creature or 
faife gods ; but we obferved nothing that could even 
make us fufpedt it. 

We could eafily pronounce the words of iheir lan- 
guage, and they as eafily repeat ours ; a (lay of a 
tew months would have put it in the power of the 
one and the other toufe both languages indifferently. 
If my misfortunes had not totally abforbed me, I 
Ihould have coUefted all the words of their language, 
which could fcrve for holding converfation wirh thtfc 

Indians. 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. Cxll'x 

Indians. In the little intercourfe 1 had with them» I 
gathered the names of all the part;^ of the human 
body, a» well as of the numbers as far as ten. 

They allured me ihat two frigates had put into 
their iflands, tiic captains of which, with five or fix 
officers from each, had llept on (liore, and gave them 
thaplcts of glals beads, hatchets *, and adzes. 

The i6th of March, when I got ready for fetting 
off, ih'jy told me that two fimilar veffels with mine, 
were then making fail to the N. W and they en- 
tered into fucha detail that it was impoflible to doubc 
the truth ot the fa^. 

The equis, from cuftom, carry a mother of pearl 
fliell, fufpended from thpir neck, and have the two 
fmaller fingers of the hands cut off clofc to the roots. 

The T«il)ou ufed his utmoll endeavours to induce 
me to go with the frigate to his ordinary place of ' 
refidcnce, where I Ibould find vegetables in greater' 
abiintlance. I fliould certainly have acquiefced in 
hisdefire from thefirll: invitation, had the natureofmy 
commilfjon permitted itj and the rather as I fliould 
have found, by his affurance, as well as that of all 
the other Indian^;, a better Ihelter and afiiHance in 
repairing my rigging. 

During my Ihort (lay in this port, I could not 
find out what where the funéHons of the equis, 
how they were didributed, what the nature of the 
Tubou's authority was, and how far his power ex- 
tended. In the latter days of my remaining there, in 
particular, fuch was my chagrin that I thought of 
nothing but fetting (ail. This, indeed, I am fure of, 
that but for the unfortunate accident of lofing my ca- ' 
bles, which expofcd me to a thoufand dangers, I , 
never Ihould have made a plealanter (lay ; fince be- 
fides a fufficiency of water and the repair of twenty- 
five eiiîpty unfc;rviceable calks, we found for the (hip's 

* We may conclude from thence that the frigates were Spanifli, ' 
ai went thofe of which we are going to fpeak. » 

k 3 compani(î^ 



d INTERESTING VOYAGE FROM 

companies more refreftimcnts even than we fhould 
have had in our own ports; fo that they did not re- 
gret the demi-ration I difcontinued, having been 
provided for feveral days. Some who were fo afflidled 
with the fcurvy as to be given over by the furgeon, 
recovered their heahh, and in (hort we had met with 
a prince, whofe inclinations were fo favourable to- 
wards us, that he was conftantly clafping me in his 
^ms, and offering all the provifions he had. 



tJ jrif- 



»»^^< 



■V. !^U 



Departure from Refuge Harhour, in the IJlatid of Don 
Martin de Mayorga, in Lat. 1S°. 38^ S. and 179». 
52' E. from Paris. • - ' ' 

ON the 20th of March, having weathered all the 
islands, I kept as clofe to the wind E. N. E. as ky 
in my power, running fouth-eaft on the neareft points 
to it. In this track we difcovered E. S. E. 7°. S. 
a very elevated island, fifteen or lixtcen leagues dif- 
tant; and at fun-fet three other islands, which ex- 
tended from S, to W. S. W. 50\ W. at a diftance of 
five leagues from the moft eafterly, which obliged me 
to tack at 9 P. M. At one o'clock I again re-tacked 
to the fouth, to approach thefe islands. We per- 
ceived in thofe nearer to us forty-eight fîres. 

On the 2 1 ft, at fun rife, we counted ten iilands 
on the ftarboard, and fix on the larboard fide* We 
pafîèd betwe::n them on the fouth, through wide 
channels which they form. We faw none of them, 
a-head, until, come to a vart gulf, when we difcovered, 
at five or fix leagues diftance, iflands out of number, 
making a very extenfive circumference, in the center 
of which we were. In traverfing one of the ftraits 
formed by thefe iflands, we had taken foundings ; 
the plumb made it five fathoms, but only tor an in- 
ft^t, the moment after the depth having greatly 

increafed. 



fe MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE.'^ cl? 

increafed. Seeing myfelf furrounded by (o many 
low iflands, or fmall iflots, between which were left 
many channels, I attempted to fail through one of 
thefe openings, but as we approached we perceived 
that they were obftrudled by rough (helves, which 
would not let me fail through the fouthern part. I 
rcfolved to bear up wefterly, towards the very lofty 
iflands we had defcried in the evening, at a great 
diftance, not doubting that I muft find in its vici- 
nity a free paiiage out of this archipelago. ' ' 

From the break of day, fucceflively arrived many 
canoes laden with the fame fruits and provifions as 
thofe of the preceding iflands. The exchange began, 
fhreds of linen being the price of their commo- 
dities. 

The Tubou of this ifland fent me two pigs and 
feme cocoa nuts, and invited me to come to the 
illand, where he refided. He afterwards came him- 
felf on board, when he told me be would entertain 
me with the feat of wreftling, and that he would 
colleél for my crew a heap of potatoes, as high as 
our main-maft. He appeared jealous of the good 
reception that the Tubou of Mayorga had given us. 

I gave him to underfland that I would comply with 
his wifhes as foon as I fliould be to the fouth of the 
ifland before us, but they all agreed in informing me 
that the paflhges were fhut by ihoals and reefs, andi 
that on the contrary I fliould find fufficient depth by 
taking the courfe of the Tubou's Ifland and the 
•high one that I was already fleering for. Although 
I was aifured by all that this great equi was fovereign 
of forty-eight iflands, which they named to me in 
the moft minute detail ; I did not perceive that they 
had the fame afll:6lion and refpeéi for him as thofe 
of Refuge Iflands had. Immediately, on his coming 
on board, he put his beads of mother-of pearl round 
my neck, as a token of clofe friendfliip ; and alter 
having paflTed five or fix hours, returned to one of 

k 4 the 






i ■ il 



i 



■ * 



Clii INTERESTING VOYAGE FROM 

the iflands, in the expeélation that I (liould jojn him 
to-morrow. . " **e^î 

• I ran clofe along many {helves, and at fun-fet 
found myfelf to the eaft of St. Chriilopher* Islands^ 
at (ix leagues diftancç, clear of the little flat islands : 
but as the wind frefhened from the eaft, I remained 
all night under very little lail, that I might not expole 
myfelf to run upon any unobferved islot. 

I gave this group of islands the name of Don Jo- 
feph de Galvez. The fouthern cape of the Tubou's 
Jsland is in lat. 19°. 39^. and long. 179°. 38^ W. of 
jParis. .)■;, t. .: " ;!i- 

At day-break of the 22d I ran under a prefs of fail 
as near fouth on the next point, as poffible ; and in 
following this tra6l we faw two islands before us, 
which I called the Adders, beyond which was per- 
ceived a great ridge, the breakers whereof were f«jen 
very far ; it was five leagues from us. 

The prevalent winds from the call and north 
eaft, drove us forward, by which we continued our 
navigation more eafy in mind, finding ourfelves de- 
livered from the dangers whereto we had been ex- 
pofed, as well by the islands as reefs. We faw 
nothing more till the 24th, when we difcovcred in 
the third quarter (between S. and W.) at fevcn 
leagues diftancc, a fmall island, which I named The 
Solitary. On the 27th we faw another W. S. W. 
3" W. ten leagues diflant, to which I gave the 
name of Vafquez. >.^; T ; , ' . --■. •■ v :'~ • 

From the night of the 27th to the 28th, the wind 
became outraoicous, and the fea ran very bioh. At 
midnight I was obliged to lay to, till day-break, 
when the weather became mild, and I fiood towards 
the weft, with a light north-caltcrly wind. 

On the 29th, iinding myfelf S. lat. 25". 52^ and 

* What in this ifland of St. Chriftophei? Can it be the lofrv 
ifland whic.i was mentioned, and to which that name was given? 



It fliould have been explicit on this head. 



reckon- 



MANïtLA TO 3T. BLAISe. : cîiîî 

reckoning myfelf 179° 17' eaft from Paris, the 
wind veered to the weft, of which I took the advan- 
tage to make fail to the S. E, a quarter E. wifhing to 
bring myfelf more to the S. and at the iamc time 
gain fome longitude towards the eafl. This route 
I purfued to the 3d of April, on which day, in 30o 
lat. and 174° 22'' long. Vv^. from Paris, the'wind fell 
almoit into an abfolute calm. 

In fuch circumitances, and on account of the con- 
tinual complaints that the fhip bread was not eatable, 
I thought it advifeable to look into it myfelf. When 
I faw the aélual iiate in which it was, I could not 
but regard my fituation as the molt dreadful, to 
which thofe who navigate unknown feas, witliout 
hope of any relief, can be reduced. Never Oiall I 
call to mind that forrowful moment, without the rc- 
çollcdtion of the fpedlacle which then came to my 
view, picrcin,^ and rending my very heart. I can 
witli uuth alîirM), that if God had not fuftained me 
in that deplorable moment, I fiiould have fallen in 
the utmoll dcfpair, feeing no appearance of being 
able to continue our way. 

I ordered the firft pilot, Don Jofeph Kqfquez, the 
fécond, Don John d' Echeverria, and all the fea 
officers to attend, and made the furgeon, Don Pedra 
Carvapl, reporter of the counfel which we were 
going to hold, and of the deliberations which fliould 
be there taken. I conducied them, one after ano- 
ther, to the bread-room, when we found millions of 
cockroaches ; to convey an idea of the number of 
tbefc infects, they muft nave been fccn by the eye. 
This plague had fo infefted our frigate, that the holy 
Father was obliged to exorcife them more than once. 
For my own part, I took care to diltribute in the 
cabins, bread-rooms, and throu2:hout all the fhip, 
veflels* rubbed over the inlide with honey mixed uith 



t* 



* In the text it is wrote fpitting pots. 



i ! 

Ill 



m 



■i ^• 



[ugar ; 



CIÎV INTERESTING VOYAGE PROM 

fugar ; each clay brought me a large pail full of thofe 
inieéts. I thus confumed almoft my whole ftock of 
honey, while their number did not perceptibly di- 
minilh. ' 

The bread, at firft opening the room, appeared 
untouched, but near the partitions the bifcuit had 
entirely diHippeared, and the floor prefented to view 
nothing but a heap of bran and duft. From the 
dimunition of the allowance, which order I ifliied on 
the l6th of February, and from the drawback of 
one ounce in each pound, which took place from the 
time we left Sifiran, there ihould remain 8225lb. of 
bread, (ï6 oz. to the lb.) withoi^t reckoning the other 
provifions, which were in tolerable abundance : but 
on that day I faw myfelf reduced to two great boxes 
of dull rather than bread*. I had the three calks of 
referve opened, which were well bound with iron 
hoops, properly coated with pitch. There was no 
appearance of their having contained any bread, they 
were full of cockroaches alone. 

.1 finally took the precaution of picking out as 
much bread as poiUble, and inclofing it in the flag 
and arm chcfts. On weighing it I found it to be 
lOOOlb. weight. (l6 oz.) In the fécond place I col- 
lected all the potatoes that remained among the crew, 
but the provilion having been given out a fortnight 
before, hardly two bafkets full could be obtained. 
Thirdly, I had all the pigs and other animals killed, 
except fome fowls which were kept for the fick, for 
whom I abb preferved the little honey remaing from 
the flock I took in at Sifiran. The fourth precau- 
tion I thought necefiary to take, was inftantly to 
fufpend even the allowance of bread, and to diflribute 
per hc:i i to the fhip's company a fmall ration of pota- 
loc?. from the piovifion which I made of them with 
chc Indians, three ounces of pork and one of rice. 
In all this my only aim was to prefervc life until I 



I again abridge here. 



might 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAlSb. cW 

might be ill a iituation to grant them more abundant 
fupport. In (hort I refolved to divide with them my 
provifions, referving as a laft refource, the two cheils, 
which I looked upon as facred. 

After all thefe refolutions, I took counfel with tho 
officers already pointed out. I reprefcmted to them 
my proceedings fince the firft: of January, what bread 
ought to have remained, and what did adlually re- 
main. I told them that I the more willingly laid be- 
fore them the precautions I propofed taking, as they 
had themfeivcs fuffered from the retrenchments I 
thought it my duty to make, retrenchments which 
had caufed me to be treated like a tyrant, as having 
a bad heart, and as a man who had laid aiide every 
fentiment of humanity : that we were adually 1760 
leagues from Peru, 1 240 from Guaham in the Mari- 
anne iflands : that the winds were favourable for ei- 
ther the one or the other of thefe tracks, fave fome 
calms or croflcs which muft always be expected in 
fuch voyages; that they had themlclvcs fecnthe flate 
of oar victuals; that, in fhort, I entreated them to tell 
me how they would conduél themfclvei if they had 
the command of thefhip in fuch circum (lances. All 
unanimoufly anfwered, that death .alone could be 
worfe than our prefent Itate ; that of the two routes 
propofed, although either of them gave but very lit- 
tle hope of fafety, they could not difpenfe with choof- 
ingthat of the Mariannes, and trying whether they 
could not get fome affiftance at the iflands of Mayor- 
ga, not having a month's provifions. In the end the 
firft and fécond pilot fupported all their rep cfcnta- 
tiuns ; and myfelf, convinced that iheir advice would 
be beft, befides, being unwilling to be at all accef- 
fary to the lofs of fo many unhappy nien. or be obrti- 
natc againlt what feemed to me moft to the King's 
interetl, I gave orders for fleering to the north, with 
the intention of getting forty leagues to the eailward 
of thefe iflands, where I had already found, and hop- 
ed 



I.. 



Ï 



Clvi INTERESTING VOYAGE PRQM 

cd again to find refrcfhments. This refolution, how- 
ever, I did not take without a pain ftill more acute 
than that which I had felt on infpeéting our provi- 
fion : I would rather have chofcn death than to run 
again to the north ; and had I not given way to rca- 
Ibn, I fhould have taken the mad refolution of piir- 
fuing our navigation eaftward. The calmnefs of my 
mind entirely forfook me; I was far from experiencing 
that tranquillity wherewith I have borne up againil an 
infinity of croifcs in the dangerous voyages for dif- 
covcries * I had undertaken. The refleéfion that we 
had no other choice left was not fufficient for my tran- 
quillization,cfpecially when Ireflcéled that thisttate of 
diftrefs manifcfted itfelf precifely at the time when we 
furmounted the difficulties of our navigation, when 
we had reached a latitude where wc could not but cx- 
pe6f favourable winds, and with which I thoughtirve 
might terminate our voyage. It is neverthelels cer- 
tain, that if this whim of myfelf feeing into the flate 
of our provifions had been a fortnight later, our great- 
elt happinefs would have been to if ay in fome dcfiirt 
iflandj if we had had the good fortune to fall in with 
any. And even in the fituation wherein we found 
ourfelves, if the refrefhmcnts fumidied i;s by the In- 
dians had not been fo plentiful, I could then have 
taken no other part, than to look out for fome land 
whereto we could fly for refuge. It was then truly 
by an aél of Providence that we M\ in with the iflands 
of Mayorga, whence we had drawn fuch eflential af- 
fiftance. With variable winds which blew from all 
points of the horizon, I from the 4th of Ai)ril follow- 
ed a northerly courfe, or that which rpproached it 
neareft in the firft quarter (between N. r id E.). On 
the 9th a breeze from S. E. to N. E. Legan to pre- 
vail, which I availed myfelf of to get forty leagues c:i(t 

* Wliat fervice would not this navigator be of to geographv, 
would he communicate his dilcoveries to the public ? 

of 



MANILLA TO 9T. BLAISE. clvîî 

of thele iflands, that I might afterwards i\nd them 
with lefs difficulty by following their parallel. 

The wind on the 1 6th abated, but on the 18th it 
increafed, and was accompanied by ovcrcaft weather 
and rain in abundance; we laid to all night. At day 
break we ran for thefe iflands, but the current carried 
us fome minutes to the north : the bad weather af- 
forr''îd us no opportunity for taking an obfcrvation, 
befules which, thefe iflands being very low, we did 
not perceive them. We faw to the N. W. the ifland 
,vl)ich lies S. W. 7° S. of that of Lattc, upon coming 
near to which we recognized Latte at the diftance of 
fix leagues, the refult of which was, that my reckon- 
ing was thirty miles aftern of the frigate, and that we 
had confcquently pafled between the two groupes 
of the iflands of Galvez and Mayorga, at a fliort dif^ 
tance from both, which continual fogs and a cloudy 
horizon had prevented our feeing. 

As the only hope whereby the courage of my 
failors was fuftained, was being able to gain the 
ifland of Mayorga, I hauled my wind as clofe as 
poflible, and reefed the topfails ; but the fca run- 
ning high, the wind flrong, and the night dark, 
obliged me to give up the idea of landing on thefe 
iflands, convinced that I could not approach them 
(which was at any rate very doubtful) without loflng 
many days. My complement was difcouraged by the 
fight of its wretched ftate, the wcakncfs of which was 
f.iCh, that to hoifl: a topfail, the men of both decks 
were frequently obliged to put all hands to the work. 
The mofl rigorous hofpital diet could not have en- 
feebled them more. Tu cheer up their fpirits, I 
made them confldcr, that in our preient track, we 
muft infallibly fall in with other iflands, where tbjy 
might recruit their flrcngth. That the winds were 
favourable, and that we every dav advanced in full 
fail towards the end of our fafterings. Tranquillized 
by this reafoning, they became caim under tiicir at'- 
fiictions. On 






civiiî 



II^TfiRÉSTÏNG 1^0tA6É rROM 



On the 2lft we difcovered at N. N. E. and E. N. 
E. two iflands, which I named Cônfolation, becaufe 
iriy crew there found fome relief, having obtained po- 
tatoes, pigs, bananas, cocoa nuts, and fowls, which 
the iflanders brought during the thirty hours I laid 
off the coaft. Had the weather not been fo rough, 
the refrefiiments would have been more plentiful ; 
however, the (hip's company, by their barter, in which 
their apparel was not fpared, and at the rilk of being 
left abfblutely naked, made provifions for more than 
a week, whereby the failors recovered their ftrength, 
and were better enabled to fupport the laft misfor- 
tune which awaited them. * ' 

As, at our approach to the ifland, we faw a very 
great number of canoes, laden with provifions, com- 
ing to meet us, I fufpcnded the fcanty allowance 
which I furnifhed from my own ftore. It is eafy to 
conceive my obje6l in this parfimony. 
' The Indians of thefe, iflands fpeak the fame lan- 
guage as thofe of Refuge Ifland, and their charadler 
of mind is the fame. Such was the confidence they 
rcpofed in us, that nineteen of them flept on board, 
whether we would or not, and the next day we were 
obliged to rid ourfelves of them by force. 

They were defirous for me to land in their ifland, 
when they would exchange a great many large hogs 
with us, the fmall fize of their canoes only permitting 
them to bring lelîèr ones ; but time being precioiis 
I contented myfelf with feeing that no one neglected 
himfelf, and that every provifion was made that cir- 
cuTillanccs would admit of. 

The 22nd at night I flood to the N. N. W. with 
a light wind from the north*, and in this track dif- 

* There is fome miftake here. I cannot think that the Spaniards 
could, with a northerly wind, have fleered N. N. W. It muft 
certainly be read either a north eajîerly ivhu/^ or a courfe to the 

iv. N. ir. 

.. covered 



MANILLA TO 8T. BLAISE* 



di 



IX 



covered on the 24th another ifland, which I named 
Maurelle. The wind became calm, except fome 
fqualls and tranfient puffs from the north eaft, that 
prevented my Handing for the idand before fun fet. 
A fouth callerly wind then fpringing up, I approach- 
ed it within three leagues, but night coming on, and 
the diftance being too great for the litttle canoes of 
tlie Indians, made two of them, coming under fail, 
and, no doubt, laden with refrefhments, return. 

The winds continued to blow from the firft and 
fécond quarter (from N. to E. and E. to S.) fomc- 
times frelh,»*and then fo faint that they fell into a 
calm. I took advantage of every favourable mo- 
ment, and found myfelf, on the 3d of May, in 6® 
lat. In this pofition we found a very low ifland, 
lurrounded with a fandy fhore, tenninating in one 
impenetrable reef, near which I could reach no bot- 
tom with a line of upwards of 50 fathoms. The 
illand was covered with a thick plantation of cocoa- 
nut trees*. This fight was the more agreeable to 
the fhip's company, as the provifions obtained at 
Confolation Illand were exhaufted that very day. 

I fent the long-boat, armed, to try to bring us a 
good fupply of cocoa-nuts ; this the breakers of the 
reef prevented. The frigate, however, got fo near 
the coaft, that the natives fpoke to us from the beach, 
but we could dcvife no means of getting nearer. 
However the Indians put their canoes to fea with 
extreme difficulty, the reef being a great impedi- 
ment. They reached us in great numbers, though 
the hazard of the navigation had prevented them 
from bringing but very few nuts. They endeavoured 
to tow the frigate, by fallening feveral lines to her 






* It will be prefently feen that this ifland was called TJland of 
Cecal. Cocal fignifies a plantation of cocoa palm', (cocotaie) but 
I did uot dare to liik that term. 

prow 



CÎX INTEllKSTlKb VOVAÔR P»0^< 

prow, and paddlinp^ ail at once tov/ards the ifland, 
from whence they flung ropes to haul us in. Si:< 
hours having paflcd without their beinff able to cfTccfi 
it, and feeing noprofpedl of ultimate luccefs, I made 
fail towards the N. W. ?' 

The inhabitants of this iflot already began to vary 
much in their prot iinciation of feveral words, com- 
mon to the other iflands. They were fo fmearcd 
over with paint, that one might have taken them tor 
images of demons. They, for the moft part, had 
long beards, hanging down upon their breafts. Near 
the cocoa-nut ])lantation there were fo many huts, 
placed in fuch excclL'nt order, that the population 
of the ifland might be concluded to be confider- 
able. 

On the Gth I was under the nccefïîty of reducing 
the allowance of bread to rive ounces, pork two, 
and beans two, which I drew from my own private 
ilock, there being no more in the king s flores ; and 
although I thought it impofîible for any crew to 
fupport nature with ten ounces of bad vi6luals, the 
dreadful flate of our provifions did not permit mc 
to give out more. . ,t \)<v- . v i- >. 

The fame day, in the evening, we faw another 
ifland lower, but much larger than the preceding 
one. I named it St. Auguflin, and left it fix leagues 
to the S. W. 

We had, in recrofïing the line on the 13th, fqualls 
from every point of the compafs. All the remarks 
I had made on the flate of the horizon, fnice leav- 
ing Cocal Iflands, convinced me that we had left 
many lands to the cafl, which no doubt compofe, 
with Solomon's Iflands, a firing more or Icfs open to 
the fouth of the cquinodlial line. 

During the fhort time that the allowance of*brca(i 
remained at fix ounces, there was not a iinglc man 
among the crew but complained of a weaknefs in 

the 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. clxi 

the ftomach. The whole of them were Co feeble 
that all hands together could not hoiû the fails 
without great difficulty, which forced us frequently 
to difpenle with manoeuvres that would have been 
of great utility. 

On the 22nd I calculated that I was upon the 
(hoals of St. Bartholomew. Prudence would have 
uiKJoubtedly required me fometimcs to lay to during 
the night, particularly as the wind was not only 
pretty frefh but even violent ; but I was too much 
affected with the lamentable ftatc of my crew, the 
majority of whom were attacked by the fcurvy, ow- 
ing to the bad quality of the bread. I crowded fail, 
aiKJ the extreme vigilance I recommended to every 
individual of the (hip's company, fupplicd the place 
of thofe precautions which, under any other circum- 
Itanccs, I fliould have taken. 

Our latitude on the 24th, was 13° l6^ N. and all 
danger over ; I therefore fleered W. by N. W. for 
Guam, the capital of the Marianas, where I came to 
anchor on the 31 ft, in Umata road, and foon re- 
ceived the necefîàry affiftance for properly viélualling 
my ftiip's company. As I had only one anchor, too 
little to truft to in the road, I fent an exprefs to Don 
Phillip Zerain, governor of the ifland, whom I made 
acquainted with the adtual flate of my vefîèl, and 
the objedl of my commiffion, defiring him to put 
me in a liate for fctting fail as foon as poflible ; 
declaring that however bad the condition of my 
fails and rigging, I was neverthelcfs refolved to 
make the belt of my way for New Spain, to place 
in the hands of his excellency the viceroy of Mex- 
ico, the important difpatches with which I was 
charged. I added, that I hoped he would facilitate 
my being furnilhed with provifions, of thofe articles 
of food indifpenfable for fo^long a navigation. That 
I did not demand the provifions with which it is 
cufiomary to furnifh king's fhips, they would not 
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Photographie 

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Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716)872-4503 




fclxii INTERESTING VoVAGtE FIt(5^f 

have been found" in this prefidio, but fuch as could 
be got together in the ifland, provided that their 
quantity might make them equivalent to the ordi- 
nary provilions. 

The governor took upon himfclf to judge of every 
thing neccflary for the fuccefs of my commiihon. 
Conceiving the confequence of not being driven by 
the wind out of the roadftead while my crew wcra 
bereft of food, he fent fifteen days' provifions in rice, 
maize, and hogs, on board, without difcontinuinç 
the daily refrefhments we were furnifhcd with for the 
re-eflabliflimcnt of the health of thofe afflicted with 
the fcurvy, and preparing my crew for a new voyr.ge. 
He likcwifc ordered to be brought from a prefidio, 
ten leagues from Umata, a very old anchor, wanting 
it is true a quarter of the llock, but I repaired it fo 
as to make it fit for fcrvice, and by the help of ano- 
ther wooden anchor, which I conftru6tcd with my 
carpenter's aiîiftancc, we were, at the end of eight 
days, riding at three anchors, though not to the 
entire fiitisfaétion of the crew. 

Nothing now remained for us but to procure wa- 
tei^, to afiurc our fubfiftence whether at anchor or 
under fail. Since my arrival I had fuccelîivcly put 
on fhorc all my empty water cafks. It was not long 
lince they had been filled at the iflands of Mayorga. 
What then mud be our aflonifhmcnt, when wetounJ 
only two pipes of water left, one of which wanted a 
whole barrel of being full ! I rcquefted the governor, 
his major, and all my crew to be witnefies with ihcir 
"own eyes of this enormous wallc. All returned God 
"thanks for his having faved us frojn the imminent 
danger with which we were threatened. 

As all the flavcs and heads of the barrels were eaten 
throughout, we were obliged to repair them anew; 
but after this labour, the pipes which before held fix 
barrels, now contained only four ; befides we coiilJ 
only mak*^. up 48 pipes from thcfe wrecks. The 

govcr- 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. clxul 

gnvcrnor feeing the infufiiciency of this fupply, fent 
on board 30 cannes^ each holding eight quartiUos *. 
This fuccoiir was certainly unequal tO the raragè we 
had reafon to fear from our deflru6live infé6ts. I 
however took courage, hoping that in the abundance 
of our provifions they would ealily fatiate themfelves. 
The eatables I procured, without coll: to the royal 
treafure, were 140anègues| of maize, dp of rice, 30 

pia:s, 20 young bulls, (perhaps oxen) 45 • ' • t 

of dried meat, fait, butter, lamp-oil, brandy made of 
cocoa nuts for the crew, 6o cocoa nuts for the hogs, 
and all the other articles of importance necefïîiry fora 
(hip. Under more favourable circumftances we fhould 
not have been fatisiied with fuch provilions. I now 
got every thing in readincfs for fetting fail on the 20th 
June 1781, for new Spain, to complete the fulfil- 
ment of a commiffion, the refult of which might be 
highly beneficial to the welfare of the State; 



ie*jc<«4 



Departure from the Road of Umata, in the IJIand cf 
Guam, the Capital of the Maria?ias, fituated in 30® 
10^ N. Lat. 21" 28^ Long, of ManiUa. 

Ï GOT under way the 20th June, ahd onte more 
experienced the great weaknefs of my cablesj par- 

* This is probnhly a rtiiftake. Accortiing to Pàuâlons Treatife 
m Weight s and Meaf lires, &c. the thirty Cannes, of eight quartiUos 
each, would only have held 12c Paris pints, and above one haJf 
lefs, or only fixty pints, by Sejournaht's Diétituiaïy. This aflift- 
ance would have been very trifling. It muft apparently be read 
800 or 8000 quartiUos. 

t The Anegue, or rather Fanegue, contains very near four 
bufliels and a half, Paris meafure. 

} This abréviation probably means Ancgoes. The author has, 
however, el'fewhere ufed it for Ar-cbes. The arrobe, for fubftances, 
is a weight of twenty-five pounds, forty-five arrobes would only 
make, therefore, 1125 pounds, which would not be a very great 

itock. ît.ii.?wYfji'}c-y Wj . imn :p;:if ^ 

1 2 ticularly 



Cliiv INTERESTING VOYAGE FROM 

ticularly of that attached to the anchor which the 
Governor had procured. The anchor was fcarcely 
got out of the water before the cable broke, and the 
fh\p in cafting having greatly increafed the depth of 
water, it funk beyond the reach of the cable. 

The feafon permitted us to take a northerly courfe, 
the winds from È. and E. N. E. carried me to lat. 
20^ !(/. We were afterwards becalmed for feven 
whole days, during which time we only moved with 
the currents, whereby we were drifted to the N. W. 
' On the 3d July, in 24'» 26' lat., the wind of the 
fourth quarter (between W. and N.) began to blow 
now with great violence, and then more faintly ; it 
carried mc on the 7th to 25° g^ lat., and I then fup- 
pofed I might be off the Great- Volcano Ifland. This 
route we continued to the 1 1th, when finding my felf 
in 27« 52' of Iht., I judged that I might l?e 25 
leagues to the eaft of the ifland of Bad-Shelter, and 
that 1 had cleared all the firing of the Marian Iflands. 
The wind then veered to the third quarter, (between 
S. and W.) and I flood to the N. E., always endea- 
vouring to get a higher latitude, for the purpofe of 
falling in with a frefh weflerly wind. Arrived at 40^ 
lat., I fleered E. by N. E. as dw as the winds vould 
permit, but finding that I was in lat. 43°, long. 179<* 
28' E. from Paris, the wind fhifted to the fécond 
quarter (between E. and S.) and it became fo violent 
as to oblige me to lie by two days. t -: sS; 

. The 5th Augufl the wind blew from the N. W., 
I fleered E. by'S. E. till the 13th. In this interval 
the wind came from every point of the com.pafs, fixing 
at lafl in the fécond and firft quarter. I availed my- 
felf to the utmoft of thefe variations to proceed eait- 
- ward. 

•^ On the 30th I was in N. lat. 37» 5', and I reckon- 
*ed my longitude 144° 17' W. of Paris!, and 200 
ileagucb from Cape Mendocino. The wind being 
then in the fourth quarter, I flood eaftward until the 
\ . . • 3d 



¥s 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. clxV 

3d September, when we faw fea-weed, and trunks of 
fir-trees floating on the water, the firft (ign of thç 
proximity of the northern coaft of California. To get 
nearer it I bore up E. S. E. 

The fea on the 4th changed colour, and the fight 
of fome fmall birds was a confirmation of our not 
being far from a land which we fhould not be long 
before we came in fight of. , 

On the 8th I was off Point Pedernales or Gun- 
Flints, at the difiance of five leagues. Thefe bearings 
placed me in 123° 3'' long. W. of Paris. By reckon- 
ing I was in 130° 34'', lb that my calculation was 
122 leagues wrong, by which I made myfelf too 
much to the well. 

On getting fight of this Point I made for Cape St. 
Lucas. In the way I palled to the cad of the liland 
of Guadaloupe at the diftance of eight leagues. The 
weather was calm for fome days, after which on the 
20th, I came in fight of Morne St. Lazarus, and was 
on the 22d, near C;ipe St. Lucas. 

On the 2ôth after fome calms, during which I was 
almoft always within fight of the land of this Cape, 
a terrible hurricane arofc, that in the fpace of fix 
hours went round from the cafl to the north, weft 
and fouth, with fueh violence, that notwithftand-^ 
ing the impetuofity of the fea, which was againft 
us, we ran feven miles and a half an hour under 
the fore-fail only. Doubtlefs we fhould have 
been dilmafl.ed, had the tempeft continued much 
longer. 

The fame day, when the hurricane had fubfided, 
I let every fail and fl:ood for the Maria Iflands, which 
I doubled to the north on the 26th and 27th at 
night, and anchored in the roadftead of St. Bias, in 
lat. 210 3(y long. 107° 6' W. of Paris. I was fo for- 
tunate as to bring home my crew fafe and found, 
notwithftanding the horrible havoc made by the 
cockroaches in our provifions, and the mifery which 

1 3 was 



Clxvi INTERESTING VOYAGE FROM 

was the rcfult of it, with the lofs of only two men, 
one of whom died in the Port of Sifiran before our 
departure, and the other was attacked by a phthifis 
when he embarked *. 



F. A. MAURELLE. 



,St. Bias, lyth September, 1781, on board 
the La Princeffa Frigate. 



»»>N-»4 



Extraâifrom the Narrative of a Voyage made In 1779^ 
hy Don Francis Anthony Maurelle, Etifeigne de Fré- 
gate , in the Service of the King of Spain, for the DiJ- 
covery of the Weji Coaji of North America. 

THE Spaniards have within a few years under- 
taken three voyages for examining the v.efl coaft 
of North America. In the firft, l3on John Perez, 
firfl: pilot, got as high a3 55° lat., and on his returji 
twice reconnoitred the coafl between this point 
and the port of Monterey. , , 

V For the fécond voyage, undertaken in 1775, a fri- 
gate and fchooner were fitted out. The command cf 
the fchooner was given to Don John Francis dc la 
Bodega y Quadra, lieutenant de vaifllcau. Don Mau- 
relle, who accompanied Don de la Bodega, and was 
then but a fécond Pilot, had given a iketch of this 
expedition, a copy of which fell into the bunds of 
the Englifh. Sir Daines Barrington publiflicd an 
Englifh tranflation of it in England, and Captain 
Cook mentions it in the account of his third voyage. 
But Captain Dixon, in the narrative of his voyage in 

* I have not added any remark to the account of this voyage 
which Maurelle has termed interefting ; but as in hydrogiaphy, the 
leaft exaft journals may be ferviceable in fome degree, notwith- 
ftanding the fomewhat fevere judgment of La Pcroufe upon it, in 
the extraét from his correfpondence in the fécond volume, I 
thought it might be of iife to fome navigators, or throw light on 
fome geographical difcuflions.— /><:«c;& Eiiitor. 

' • thcfe 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAI8B. clxvi| 

thefe Teas, accufes Don Maurelle of manifoft falfe- 
hood ; according to him it is an indilputable fadt, 
that this officer has never been in the feas where he 
loads of having made fruitlefs rcfearches. The ac- 
cnlation is ftrong, and if well founded^ Don Man- 
lellc is entitled to no conHdencc what ver. " We 
" endeavoured," fays this navigator, " to find out the 
" ftraits of Admiral Fuentes, though we had not hither- 
" to difcovei'ed the archipelago of St. Lazarus through 
" which we failed. After all thefe unavailing re- 
" fearchcs, we can pronounce this (Irait not to be in 
" exillencc." There, fays Captain Dixon, fpcaking 
of Queen Charlotte's Iflands : " the fituation of thefe 
" ii^ands, viz. from 54° 20' to 51» 50'' N. lat., and 
" iio'.n 130" to 133° 30' W. long, evidently fhews, 
" that they arc the archipelago of St. Lazarus/' Buf 
is it fully proved, that what Captain Dixon calU 
Queen Charloties JJlandSf is really a groupe of fcveral 
iflaiuls ? " 'i here is every reafon to believe it, by con- 
*' fidcring the number of fniall ftraits which have 
" been fccn in ranging along the coaft." But may 
not thefe fmall ftraits be nothing but creeks, none 
of them having yet been penetrated ? Captain Dixon 
had other aftiiirs to attend to ; his obje6l was not to 
make difcoveries, but to purchafe fine furs cheap, and 
fell them dear at China. Neither is he the author of 
the narrative. It is, he fays in the introduélion, by 
a perfon as little verfed in a literary career as aecuf- 
toined to a maritime life. But Captain Dixon tells 
us in the introduélion, I hat he has carefully corre6fed 
what relates to navigation. The whole is, undoubt- 
edly, very well correéled ; but to fupport the errone- 
ous opinion which people appear to be in as. to the 
reality of Admiral Fuentes' dilcoveries, it vvere un- 
neceliiu-y to tax with jmpofition a n^ivigj^tpr vvhofe 
fole objc(9: was to make dilboyerjes. 

Maurclle's difcoveries, in this fécond expedition, 
extended to the 58th degree of latitude. Don Maur 
relic has particularized them on a chart, which may 

... 1 4 probably 



clxviii iNTETiESTii^ô voVagé prom 

probably riot have fkllen into the hands of the Eng- 
lifh : thé Spaniards will perhaps publifh it, arid the 
difcovcries of Maurclle may then be combined with 
thofe of Cook and Dixon. Don de la Bodega, and 
Don Maurelle, difcovered, among other places, in 
55° 18' lat., the entrance of an harbour, which they 
fuppofed to be a good one, and named it the Entrance 
of BucareUi, in honour of friar Don Anthony Maria 
Biicarelli y Urfua, Viceroy of Mexico, who fpared 
nothing, as far as depended upon him, to facilitate 
the fuccefs of thcfe expeditions. He difcovered alfo 
two very good harbours ; that of Guadelupa in sy'» 
1 1', and Los Remedies in 57° IS''. Cook, in his third 
voyage, faw thefc harbours, but did not put in there. 

A third expedition was, in 1777, ordered by the 
King of Spain, whereby he intended to complete the 
exploration of the N. W. coaft of America, from 
58" to 70°. Don Bucarelli equipped two frigates; 
the la Princeflîi commanded by Don Ignace Arteaga, 
lieutenant de vaillèau ; the Favourite, by Don de la 
Bodega, who took Maurelle, then enfcigne de fré- 
gate, as his fécond captain. Their firft place of ren- 
dezvous was agreed to be at the entrance of Buca- 
relli, where they were to take in wood, water, &c. 

On the nth February, 1779, they left the har- 
bour of St. Bias, which they place in lat. 21° 30' N., 
arvd long. 107® 6' W. of Paris. They arrived the 3d 
May at the entrance of Bucarelli, the geographical 
lituation of which is, by this account, in lat. 55° 18' 
N., and long. 139° 1^'' ^- of Paris. There docs not 
appear to be ground for calling in queftion the accu- 
racy of the latitudes determined by Don Maurelle; the 
fame cannot be faid of the longitudes, which were pro- 
bably only determined by account. According to an 
bbferyation taken by Cook the preceding year, of the 
coafts near the entrance of Bucarelli, that entrance 
muft be very nearly 227° E of Greenwich, or 135 j° 
W. of Paris. 



V ' .i * V,» J •.•«,""■ 



/»i-/ -l.'/;i' .•-■/>( ,;; 



The entrance ot Bucarelli intfoduced the Spaniards 

into 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAlÔfi. 



clxix 



into a vail gulph, where they anchored the 3d May 
in a port, as they fay, inferior to none in Europe. 
They named it Port of the Crofs (La Crux.) 

Don Maurelle was difpatched on the 18th of May 
with the two long boats to furvey the gulph all round. 
In this expedition, which lafted till the 12th of June, 
he took the bearings of all the capes, iflands, and 
principal parts of the great gulph, and delineated all 
the creeks, bays, and particular ports. All tbefe bays 
and harbours are, fays he, good and fecure. He 
named thcnn all, and afterwards conftruéled a large 
and very exa6l plan of the whole of the great gulph. 
It ismuchtobe wiftied that this plan were made public, 
as well as the chart which he compofed of the coafis 
and iflands difcovcrd by the Spaniards in the courfc 
of their expedition. The chart would not, however, 
be fo efl'ential as the plan, the fame coaft having been 
vifited the year preceding by Cook, though fome 
particulars might be found upon it which had ck-aped 
the Englifh argonaut. Don Maurelle met with but 
few habitations in his expedition, feeing only one vil- 
lage, fituate at the top of a fteep mountain, which 
could only be afcended by a flight of flops, or rather 
wooden ladder, whence if the foot flipped, one mufl 
fall down the precipice. 

The Spaniards were not long in the port of the 
Crofs (La Cruz) without being vifited by the Indians 
in its vicinity. Traffic commenced, the Indians giv- 
ing them furs, ami various trifles, for glafs beads, 
pieces of old iron, &c. From this barter, the Spa- 
niards were enabled to form a pretty good idea of 
their genius, ofîcnfive and detenfive weapons, manu- 
fadlures, &c. 

They are of a clear olive colour, many of them 
having notwithflanding a perfeetly white Ikin. Their 
countenance is well proportioned in all its parts. 
They are robufl, courageous, arrogant, and warlike. 
They cloath themfelves, apparently with the fur of 

one 



clxX INTERESTING VOYAGE PROM 

one or more undrcfied ildns of otters, fea wolves, 
benades, (a ipecics of deer) bears, or other animals 
which thoy take in the chace. Thcfe drefljes cover 
them from the neck to the middle of the leg. Se- 
veral of thtm wear boots of fmooth Ikin, not unlike 
the Englifh boots, ej^cept that thofc of the Indians 
open before, and arc laced m|V vyith a ilrjng, Th ir 
hats arc woven from fine bark of trepifii Vbc form of 
which is like a funnel or cone. At the wrift& tlujy 
have bracelets of copper, iron,' c»r for vvaat (it* thcfe 
metals, fins of whale ; and round the neck, necklaces 
of fmall fragments of the lone ol" fifti, or otIi'".r ani- 
mals, or even copper necklaces as thick as two fingers. 
Their ear-rings are of motl cr of pearl, or plates of 
copper, on which is emboiiul a topaz-coloured lorin, 
accompanied with jet beads. Tiicir hair is long and 
thick. They ufe a comb very like ours to hold it 
together in a fmall queue from the middle to its ex- 
tremity ; a narrow ribbon ol coarfe linen woven on 
purpofe, ferves as a ligament. 

They wear alio as a covering a kind of fearf *, 
about a varc -{- and a half long, and a vare wide, wo- 
ven like the peillons % of Peru, with a fringe half a 
quarter of a vare wide, the thread of which is regu- 
larly twilled. 

The drcfs of the women is a proof of the modelly 
and decency of their manners. Their phyliognomy 
is agreeable, their colour frelh, their cheeks of a live- 
ly red, and tlieir hair long, which they plait into our 
trefs. They vyear a long robe of fmooth Ikin tied 



* In the Spanifb it is algunas prefadas I do not know whether 
prefada fignifies any thing but a green colour. Prefadas is perhaps 
written for frafadas, a covering. P. for F, and f for z, frequently 
occur in the manufcript. 

t The Spanifh vare is about three French feet in length. 

+ The Spanilh peillon is a fpecies of ancient robe, which is yet 
in tile at Peru. I have not been able to find out of what texture 
it was. • f/. 'Uii-j-F^'TUfi -tei^Vi:;»; i;;';oi') 



about 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISB. clxXI 

about the loins, Ibmcthing fimilar to that of a nun ; 
it covers thcin from the neck to the feet : the fleeves 
reach down to the wrifts. On this gown they put 
many ikins of otters, or other animals, to defend 
tlicni from the inclemency of the weather. Many of 
them, if better drelled, mig:ht difpute the prize of 
beauty with the fined: Spanilh women ; but not con- 
tent with the charms bellowed upon them by nature, 
ihev have reeourfe to art, not to embelli (h but dis- 
fiirure themfelves. All the married women have a 
larfje a[)crture in the lower lip, which is filled upbv a 
piece of wood of an ov;il form, the fmalleft diameter 
of which ii nearly an inch ; the older a wpnjan i% 
the j;reater is the extent of this beautiful ornament. 
It renders them frightful, particularly the old wo- 
men, whofe lip, deprived of its natural fituation, and 
drawn down by the weight of this admirable jevi'el, 
neceiliirily hangs in a very difagreeable nuumcr. 
The girls only wear a copper needle, which crof icji 
the lip, where the ornament is intended allerwarcU 
to be pfaeed. 

Thefc Indians ufe, in war, cuirafîès and flioulder 
pieces, not unlike, in workmanfhip, the \vh;debonc 
flays of Europeans. Narrow boards form, in fome 
meafure, the woof of this texture, and threads are the 
warp; by thefe means the whole is very flexible, and 
Jeav es the arm a free motion for wielding the wea- 
pons. They wear round the neck a large coarfe gor- 
get, which covers them up to the eyes, and their 
head is protected by a helmet, ordinarily made of 
the head of fome wild beafl. From the waift to the 
feet they have a kind of apron of the fame tex- 
ture as their cuirafs. Laftly, a fine ikin* hangs 
from the fhoulder to the knee. With thefc arms 



* In the Spanifli it is written quera, which I do not believe to be 
a Spaniûi word. 1 fuppofed thdt it flioul'i be made caera, the name 
of a fpecies of ikin garment. 

they 



clxxii IlfTERESTINO VOYAQE FROI^ 

they arc invulnérable to their enemies ; but they 
cannot move with equal agility as if they were lefs 
encumbered. Arrowa arc their otîcnfive weapons. 
Bows, the (Irings of which are woven, like the large 
firing of our bell mufical inlbuinciits ; lances four 
vares in length, headed with iron ; knives of the fame 
métal, longer than European bayonets, a weapon 
which, however, is not common among them ; fmall 
hatchets of filex, or green ftone, fo hard as to cleave 
the clofeft wood, without turning its edge. 

The pronunciation of their language is extremely 
difficult, fpçaking from the throat with a motion of 
the tongue againft the palate. The little ufe the wo- 
men can make of their lower lip is a great impedi- 
ment to the plain nefs of the language. The Spa- 
niards could neither pronounce nor write the words 
they heard. , 

Thefe Indians, from their vivacity and attention to 
keep the market, eftablilhed at the port, well fup- 
plied, it may be concluded, are tolerably laborious. 
They continually brought ftuiFs, well woven, and 
{haded with different colours ; (kins of fea and land 
wolves; ottei-s, bears, and other fmaller animals. Of 
thefe Ikins fome were ravv,others drefled. At this mar 
kct we alfo found coverlets * of common cloth, inter- 
mixed with brown and black colours, very well woven, 
but in fmall quantities. Large ribbons of the fame, 
which might be compared to that of the Spanifh offi- 
pers* mattrefîès. Skeins of thread, of which this 
ploth was made ; wooden trenchers, prettily worked ; 
little boats, or canoes, painted of fevcral colours, 
the figures of which reprefcnted heads with all their 
parts ; perfect imitations, in wood, of frogs, which 
Opened like fnuft' boxes, and ferved for them to keep 
their trinkets in ; boxes, made of fmall planks, of a 



* TrrfaJas again occurs here. I fupp ofcdyraîflJar, bed cover- 
lets, were iveant. 

cubical 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. clxxiti 

cnbical foirn, three quarters of a vare on each (ide, 
with figures of difFereot animals, well fkctched, on 
the oulfide, the covers mndc like the etwees of 
Flanders, having indented edges, fo as to fliut into 
the body of the box ; animals of wood, both tcrref- 
trial and aerial ; figures of men, of the fame mate- 
rials, headed with helmets, to reprefent the heads of 
different beafls ; fnarcs and nets for fifhing ; copper 
necklaces and iron bracelets, which they would not 
part with, but at a very high price ; and beaks, from 
whence they drew a found like that of a German 
flute. The principal officers picked out from this 
merchandifc what they liked beft, leaving the reft to 
the difpofal of the (liip*s company. 

The Indians perceiving that the Spaniards were 
very dainty in fifli, did not let them want for choice. 
Thofe of which there was the grcateft abundance 
was falmon, and a kind of folc or turbot, three varos 
and a quarter long, and proportionably broad and 
thick; alfo cod, pilchard, and fi(h refcmbling trout. 
Hence it may be inferred, that this gulph muft be well 
filled with fifb. The banks likevvife arc lined with 
fhells. The quantity of mother-of-pearl that thefc 
Indians cut up to make ear-rings with, awakened 
the curiofity of the Spaniards, who endeavoured to 
find out whether thefe people had not in their pofîèf- 
fion, or the country did not produce pearls or pre- 
cious flones. Their refearches were fruitlefs, find- 
ing only ilones, which they judged to be of a me- 
tallic quality, and which they put on board the Ihip, 
not having the necefîàry means for cxtraéling the 
metal they might contain. 

The food of thefe Indians is frefh or dry fifh, 
boiled or roafted ; herbs and roots, the produce of 
their mountains, and that in particular called in 
Spain fea-parfley ; and, laftly, on the flefh of ani- 
mals which they take in the chace, which muft un- 

•doiibtedly 






CÏXXÎV INTERÉSrmG VOYAGE PRCnVf 

doubtedly be very plentiful, by the great number of 
dogs they breed up for that purpofe. 

The Spaniards perceived no veftige of wor(l)ip 
among them, except their fometimes bending to- 
wards the fun, but whether as an a6l of devotion, 
they could not afccrtain. Don Maurclle, in his ex- 
pedition round the gulph, found, in two iflands, 
three bodies laid in boxes, limilar to thofe before de- 
Icribed, and decked in their furs. Thefc biers were 
placed in a little hut, on a platform of the branches 
of trees. 

The country is very hilly, the mountains very 
high, their Hope extending, in almoft every inftancc, 
down to the leti. The foil, limeftone, is notwith- 
ftanding covered with a very impenetrable foreft 
of lofty, thick, and lirait pine trees. As their 
roots cannot Ihike deep into the ground, the vio- 
lence of the wind often tears them up. The)i rot, 
and change into a light mould, in which grows a 
bufhy thicket, wherein are found nettles, camomile, 
wild celery, anife, a fpecies of cabbiige, celandine, 
elder, wormwood, forrcl, and, no doubt, along the 
rivers, many other plants. 

t The Spaniards favv ducks, mews, divers, kites, 
ravens, geefe, cranes, goldfinches, and other little 
birds, to them unknown. 

The trafHc between the Spaniards and Indians was 
perfe6lly undiflurbed ; the former always keeping 
upon their guard, rendy to defend themfelves in cilc 
of attack, the others contenting themfelves with 
Healing to their utmoft, fecretly if not obferved, and 
openly if they thought they were the ftrongcfi. For 
tlie better maintenance of peace, the Spaniards flut 
their eyes to petty thefts ; but if any were committed 
too much to their prejudice, they feized upon feme 
canoe, or pcrfonnge of diftimSlion, which was not 
releafed till reliitution was made ; but this was at- 
tended with no bloodflied. 

The 



MANILLA. TO ST. BLAISE. clxXV 

The defire of procuring iron, cloth, and other 
(lutft, was ^vith fome Indians, prevalent over pater- 
nal love, they felling their children for fome vares of 
ftuffs, or broken pieces of iron hoops. The Spaniards 
purchafed, in this manner, three young boys, one 
live or (ix, the other four, and the third nine or 
ten years of age ; not to make flaves, bat Chriltians 
of them ; hoping, at the fame time, to derive from 
them ufeful information as to the nature of the 
country and its inhabitants. Thefc children were 
fo rejoiced at being with the Spaniards, that they 
concealed themfelves when their fathers came on 
board, for fear of being returned to their parents. 
"With the fame view two little girls had likewife been 
bought ; one, very ugly, fcven or eight years old, 
the other younger and better made, but lickly, and , 
almoft at death's door. 

The oldeft of the boys appeared to have a vivacity 
of fpirit and undcrfianding by no means common ; 
he foon made himfelf beloved by the whole crew. 
He (ignified, by very expreflivc figns, what his 
countrymen meditated, what they ought to do, and 
what was the end they propofed. He took the fol- 
(liers by the hand, condu6led them to the depui of 
arms, put the mulkets in their hands, made ligns for 
them to be charged, and give fire upon fuch or 
fiich a canoe, but to fpare fuch and fuch another, 
which belonged to friends. The environs of this 
port are therefore inhabited by different tribes ini- 
mical to each other. 

At the new and full moon the fea rifes in the 
harbour of La Cruz to feventeen feet three inches 
Englifh ; the water is there high at a quarter paft 
twelve at uoon. The iowell: tides are fourteen feet 
three inches ; he night tides exceeded thofe of the 
day by one foot nine inches. 

The fouth, Ibuth-eaft, and fouth-weft winds being 
aUvays accompanied by fogs, and continual rain, 

the 



Il 



ekxvî INTERESTIirG VOYAGE FILOU 

the Spaniards quitted La Cruz on the 1 5,th of June, 
end gainçd the port of St. Anthony, with the in- 
tent of getting with greater eafe out of the gulph, 
with the firft north- wefterly winds, which they eould 
not do till the 111: of July, 

The l6th of July they difcovered, half a league 
to leeward, a (hoal, which they calculate to be in 
lat. 59° 2' and bng. * 147'»46^ They at a great 
diftancefaw Mount St. Elias, whofe fummit they fay 
equals that of Orifba in height. 

The 17th, at noon, Cape St. Elias bore W. 40° N. 
at three leagues diftance. Its latitude they eilimate 
at 59" 63^ its longitude at 149° 2(/. The charts 
reprefent an ifland in the vicinity of this cape : the 
point of this ifland neareft the cape bore N. 18^ 
W. five leagues ofF. The two points formed be- 
tween them a channel three leagues wide. From 
the cape the coaft runs to the north, inclining a Ijttle 
towards the north-weft. In this part they diftin- 
guifhed large bays, which they think muft be well 
■ftieltered harbours. 

^ This ifland, fays Don Maurelle, is larger than is 
laid down in the charts. The Spaniards, being but 
half a league diftant, difcovered a (hoal to the S. W. 

They got fight, on the 18th, of a vaft gulph W. of 
Cape St. Elias, ten leagues in depth. On the 20th 
two canoes of a fingular conflrudlion came along fide, 
very thin boards or planks form the wood work, which 
are attached to each other by indifferently fi:rong 
cords, leaving however fpaces between them; fothat 
without the ikin, it would make a true flceleton of a 
boat. This ficcleton is furrounded completely with 
ikins of animals, leaving a round aperture only at top, 
•which ferves as a girdle for him that manages the ca- 
noe, and to prevent the water from getting in at this 

♦ All the latitudes are to the N. the longitudes to the W. of 
Paris. We have already obferved, that thcfe longitudes cannot 
be depended upon. 

orifice, 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. clxxvli 

orifice, the conduilor cloathes himfelf with a (kin 
made of bladders, tied exactly to fit the edges for the 
opening. Thefe canoes, it is conceived, mufi: be very 
light. Their form is exadlly that of a harp, their 
prow having a fimilar curve to that whereon the 
(brings of the harp are faftened. 

The Indians who manage thefe canoes were cloath- 
ed with a Ikin jacket, which was a fufficient protec- 
tion againft the cold. Their hats refembled thofe of 
the inhabitants of the port of Bucarelli, large glafs 
beads were the pendants they wore at their ears. 
Their fiihing inftrumcnts are worked as if by a lathe 
with the greateft nicety, à great rod, blown up blad- 
der, harpoon, the point of which is bone, and a long 
cord made with the entrails of animals properly twift- 
ed. They flrike the otter or fea wolf with the har- 
poon, which thus ftruck attempts to dive, but is pre- 
vented by the bladder, and the Indian foon draws him 
within reach. The young Indians embarked at Bu- 
carelli were defirous of communicating with tl>efe,but 
they neither undertlood the other. Thefe two canoes 
induced the Spaniards to put in at the neighbouring 
coaft, where they came to anchor the 20th of July at 
midnight, but early they next day they gained a creek 
which bore from them north, difl:ant one league. 
They were fheltered from N.W. to the N. and S ; a lit- 
tle further in they would have been proteéled from 
every wind. This port, which they named St. James's 
Harbour, lies in lat. 00° l6' and long. 157° 52'. To 
fatisfy themfelves whether they were near an illand 
or continent, they fentofFthe long boat, which after 
having failed fix or feven leagues to the N. N. W. re- 
ported that the coafi: turned E. whence they con- 
cluded that the land near which we were at anchor 

was an island *. i» • ' • - 

' ^ :... .^^. fy .y • -■ ,..:\:r^-n -.-.-- Six 

* Upon a thorough inveftigation, T think that this port is near 

Cape Hinchinbrooke. Cook took no obfervations about this Cape, 

You L m joeither 



Clxxviii INTERESTING \'OYAGE PROM 

Six canoes of Indians about 26 cubits long and 4 
wide, lined with white ikins, and by no means unlike 
the European boats in conftrudion, paid a vilit to the 
Spaniards. Before approaching, they hoiftcd three 
flags, the firft of a carnatic colour, the fécond white, 
and the third blue ; but they ftruck them before they 
came along fide. Their wives accompanied theni, 
whofe fex is diftinguifhed by glafs beads or other bau- 
bles hanging from both fides of the mouth. They 
are in other refpe(?ls nearly the fame in drefs as thç 
women of Bucarelli. 

The commandant having been once a fifhing in 
the long-boat, it was very foon filled with fiih of an 
agreeable flavour, which they called pargo muhto, but 
the fi(h of which there was the greateft abundance in 
thofe feas, is falmon, the pargo mulato being only 
plentiful in the little creeks which line the (horc, 

The Indians inhabiting this country are robuft, 
tall, and large in proportion, induftrious, and thieves. 
The points of copper with which all their arrows arc 
tipped, made the Spaniards believe that there arc 
mines of this metal in the country. s 

The 28th July our navigators weighed anchor to 
double a point which they ïiw in the S. W. 50° S. at 
1 1 leagues diftance (probably the fouthcrn point of 
Montagu Island). They wilbcd not to lofe fight of 
land, but the rain and fogs would not always permit 
them. They lay from the 30th to the Sift, when 
they found themfelvcs m the vicinity of a group of 
islands extending from S. S. W. to S. S. E. They 
came to anchor on the I ft of Auguft to the S. of one 
of thefe islands, which they named Isle deRegla(Rulc 

neither tlid Dixon. The long boat could have penetrated into the 
bay, which is called Rofe Bay upon Dixon's Chart j and feeing it 
entirely ciofed to the E. its courfe might have been continued to- 
wards the coaft running to the N. N. VV. As for the reft, I think 
the tranfcriber may have written for lonj^irude 157 min. 52 
deg.; long. 153 min. 52 deg. — The naanufciipt abounds with 
faults. - ^ . .. ^ . . 

■ ■ ' Lland). 



and A 

unlike 
to the 

I three 
white, 

)re they 

I them, 
ler bau- 

They 
as the 

hing in 

II of an 
Jato, but 
iance in 
ng only 
jore, 

I robui^, 

thieves. 

ows arc 

here arc 

ichor to 
)0° S. at 



d into the 
d feeing it 
itjnued to- 
ft, I think 
; mill. 52 
iinds with 



MANILLA TO ST. BLAISE. ' clxxi» 

Island). They place it in 155° 52^ of longitude by ac-» 
count, and SQ" 8' of latitude by obfervation *. Don 
Maurclleis of opinion, that thefe islands form what 
on Bellin's chart, engraved in 1 766, is called Cape St, 
Enmgene ; the latitude is the fame. The Ruifians 
obferving this groupe at a diftance, might not have 
fecn the intermediate channels which divide it into 
fcvcral islands, and therefore taken it for a point of 
Terra Firma. The island of Regla had many others 
towards the fouth. 

On the 3d of Augufl the flcy being clear, a moun- 
tain, certainly higher than the peak of TencrifF, en- 
tirely covered with fnow, was fcen to the N. W. 7" N. 
at more than 10 leagues diftancc. In the evening 
by twilight, it was obfcrved to vomit torrents of thick 
fmokc. The crater from whence thefe torrents ifliicd 
was a little more eafterly than the fummit of the 
mountuin ; it was thought to be a volcano. Near this 
another was obfervcd, very high, whereon was not the 
Icafl appearance of fnow ; it bore W. N. W. 8" W. 
at the diftance of 1 5 leagues. Two others were after- 
wards remarked, the bearing of the higheft of which 
was W. S. W. 4"» S. 13 leagues ditlant ; the two 
latter, although high, were lefs fo than the preceding 
ones, and they were notvvithftanding entirely covere4 
with fnow. 

On Regla Island were found fome fmall huts, fca 
wolves juli lkinncd,andagrcat number of birds' heads, 
but not a finglc inhabitant. After two or three days 
ilay, a canoe appeared at one of the neighbouring 

* On the chart of Prince William's Sound (Cook's third voyage, 
vol. iii.) ts a place that might be talcen for the groupe of iflands, of 
which the ifland of Regla makes a part ; it is to the S. W. of Mon- 
tagu liland, about lat. 59 min. 8 deg. long. 210 min. 30 deg. to 
4odeg.E. of Greenwich (or iço min. 40 deg. to 50 deg. W. of 
Paris). Cook pafled about 15 leagues to the weftward of thefe 
iflands, Dixon as much to the eaft. Thefe iflands may not be high 
enotigh to be feen at this diftance ; they may alfo be more wefterly 
than is imngipcd. •< ^ 1 n/)'* 

points. 



■fr fj 



JCiC iN'tÈafeôTIÎJè VOYAGÉ, ETC. 

points. The Indians uttered fome words, but ivould 
hot come to the frigates. The expedition of tho 
Spaniards terminated at this island, which they quit- 
tec! the 7th of Auguftj and anchored at St. Bias the 
a7th of November. From Cape St. £lias to the 
Island of Regia they took bearings with the greateft 
minutenefs, of all the islands^ capes, and bays which 
they recogniged ; but the winds and currents, very 
frequent, and violent, in thefe feas, drove them off 
the coail oftener than they would have wifhed, and 
Was prejudicial to the accuracy of their eflimated 
route; If, however, they publifh the chart which 
they have conftruélcd according to their bearings, 
their obfervations, in conjunélion with thofe of Gapt. 
Cook, La Peroufe, and Capt. Dixon, will contribute 
in a conliderable degree to bring the geography of that 
part of the coaft of North America to perfeétion. 



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CHAP. I. ^ 

OBJECT OF THE VOYAGE AND EQUIPMENT OP 
THE TWO frigates; STAY IN BREST ROAD- 
PASSAGE TO MADEIRA AND TENERIFFE ; STAY 

IN THOSE ISLANDS EXCURSION TO THE 

PEAK — ARRIVED AT TRINIDAD — TOUCHED 
AT ST. CATHERINE'S, ON THE COAST OF 
BRASIL. , <„ 

THE voyage of Ellis to Hudson's Bay, in 1747, 
had by no means answered the expectation of 
those who had advanced the fund for that enterprize. 
Captain Bouvet, on the first of January, 1739f who 
thought he had discovered land in 54" south lati- 
tude, which it now appears probable was only a 
mass of ice, had, by this mistake, retarded the pro- 
gress of geography, and the ancient spirit of dis- 
covery appeared almost extinguished. The makers of 
systems, who delineate continents and islands in tiie 
retirement of thecloset, concluded thatthepretended 
CapeCircumcision was the northernmost point of the 
southern continent, the existence of which appeared 
to them necessary to the equilibrium of the glob? ♦. 

The 

Those who maintain the existence of a southern continent, 
will deem the assertion of La Pérouse too b(»ld. Yet, without pre- 
tending that Cape Circumcision belongs to a field of ice rather 

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LA PÉROUSE's voyage 



[1785. 



The event of those two voyages might not unrea- 
sonably discourage individuals, who, from a mere 
spirit of curiosity, were sacrificing considerablesums 
to an object which had long ceased to attract the 
attention of the various maritime powers of Europe. 

In 1764, England fitted out a new expedition, 
the commandof which was entrusted to Commodore 
Byron. The accounts of that voyage, and those of 
Wallis, Carteret, and Cook, are generally known. 

In the month of November, I766, M. de Bou- 
gainville set sail from Nantes, with the Boudeuse 

than to an island* ; without resolving the idle problem of a southern 
continent, since it nnust be situated in a latitude by which it will be 
for ever insulated from the rest of the globe, I shall observe, that 
the first voyages of Cook round the south pole have fully deter- 
mineci the question ; and that the arguments of Le Monnier, to 
prove that Cook did not seek Cape C'ircumciaon in its true longi. 
tude, are not of the least importance t* But while I am declaring 
my opinion in favour of the existence of a southern continent, I do 
not believe that continent necessary to support the equilibrium of the 
globe. What, indeed, could be the effect of so small a protuberance, 
on so enormous a mass, when the least variation in the specific gra- 
vity of its internal component particles would be sufficient to couii. 
terbalance any inequality, however great^ on its surface. 

Though C'apiain Cook professes a hope that no more mil he said 
of a southern continent ||, it will perhaps be of service, some ages 
hence, to determine the progress which the ice may make towards 
the equator ; and thus establish a proof of the ingenious theory 
of BufFun, tliat the earth i» gradually losing it» heat. But it will 
require many centuries to establish a probable system : for navi- 
gators have met with ice in a higher or lower latitude, at the same 
periods of different years. Those engaged in the whale fishery 
who go annually to Spitsbergen, have, it is said,, once penetrated 
within one degree of the pole ; and a passage to the north appears 
to have been navigated by I^orcnzo Ferrer de Maldonado, oi" 
whom I shall elsewhere speak ; but this has never since been met 
with by our roost intrepid navigators, who have been constantly re- 
pulsed by the ice. — Nufcufthe French Editor. 

* Capf a\n Cook having passed consUlerably to thR southward of the land 
discovered by Bouvet, Cape Circumcision cannot possibly belong to a southern 
continent. 

+ Ste the Memoirs of tlie A cademy of Sciences at Paris for the yea» 1 76(î, 
p. fi65 J the year 1779, p. 12 ; Cook's Second Voyage, vol. iv. p. 109, and 
ibllowiiig pages ; Cook's Third Voyage, vol, i, p. 435, and following pages, 

(I Cook's Third Voyage, vol. iv. p. 120, 

frigate, 



1785. 

nrea- 

mere 

îsums 

et the 

Lirope. 

lition, 

lodore 

lose of 

Lnown. 

eBou- 

udeuse 

I soutlievn 
it will be 
erve, that 
jUy deter- 
onnler, to 
rue longi- 
dedaring 
nent, I do 
rium of the 
tuberance, 
^ecific gra- 
it to couu. 

•uill be Said 

some ages 

ikc towards 

ous theory 

But it will 

for navl- 
at the same 
hale fishery 

penetratei 
)rth appears 
dorado, ol' 
e been met 
instantly re- 

ird of the land 
g to a southern 

the year liefi, 
v.p. 109, and 
»llowing pages, 

frigate, 



1785.] itOUND THE world; $t. 

frigate, and a pink called l'Etoile. Steering nearly 
the same course as the Enjçlish navigators, he dis- 
covered several islands; and the account of his voy- 
age, written with animation, has not a little contri- 
buted to inspire the French with that taste foi drs- 
covery which had just revived with so much energy 
in England. 

In 1 77 1 , M . de Kerguelen was sen t upon a voyage 
towards the southern continent, the existence of 
which no geographer at that time had even ven- 
tured to dispute. In December, of the same year, 
he descried an island : but the weather prevented 
him from completing his discovery. Full of thô 
ideas which he entertained in common with all men 
of learning in Europe, he did not doubt but he had 
discovered a cape of the southern continent. His 
eagerness to announce this news, did not allow him 
for an instant to delay his return ; and he was rccei ved 
in France as a second Columbus. A ship of the 
line and a frigate were immediately equipped to pro- 
secute this important discov^ery. The choice of ves- 
sels so unusual for such an expedition, would alone 
be sufficient to demonstrate that enthusiasm had for 
a time banished reflection. M. de Kerguelen had 
orders to lay down achartof the supposed continent 
he had discovered. The ill success of this second 
voyage is well known. Even Captain Cook, ^hat first 
of navigators, could not have succeeded in a similar 
enterprize, with a ship of 64 guns, a frigate of 32, 
and 700 sailors. He, perhaps, would have declined 
tliecommandjor obtained amoresuitableequipnient. 
At length M. de Kerguelen returned to France with 
as little information as before, and discoveries were 
no longer pursued. The king died in the course of 
the last expedition, and the war of 1778 directed 
every attention to far different objects. It was not, 
however, forgotten that our enemies had the Dis- 
covery and Resolution at sea; and that Captain Cook, 

B 2 labouring 



y LA pérouse's voyage [7855. 

labouring to enlarge the sphere of our knowledge, 
deserved to be considered as a friend by all the na- 
tions of Europe*. . 

The principal object of the war of 1778 was to 
sefcure the tranquillity of the seas, and was accom- 
plished in 1783. The same spirit of justice which 
had recourse to arms to procure for the flags of those 
nations which were weakest by sea an equal respect 
with those of France and England, should, during 
peace, be directed to whatever is most conducive to 
the felicity of mankind. The sciences, by softening 
our manners, have contributed more perhaps than 
the laws themselves to the welfare of society. 

The voyages of the various English Navigators, 
by M'hich the sphere of science was enlarged, had 
merited the just admiration of the whole world. 
Europe had paid due veneration to the great talents 
and exalted character of Captain Cook : but, in a 
field so vast, succeeding ages will but furnish new 
objects of science to develope. Strange coasts will 
long remain to be explored ; plants and trees of new 
kinds ; birds and tish of unknown species are yet to 
be described; minerals to beanalized; volcanosto 
beinvcstigated,and nations to be studied; on whom, 
perhaps, we may bestow ne\C means of happiness. 
For, to the inhabitants of the South Sea, a new spe- 
cies of fruit, or a farinaceous plant, which we may 



* Every consideration engages me here to recal to view a fact 
equally, glorious to the French, and to him who became the object 
of their urbanity, amid the horrors which the policy of war renders 
necessary. 

At the period of hostilities against England, in 1778, orders 
were issued to all ships of war that should meet the Discovery and 
Kesolution, commanded by Captain Cook, to let them puss without 
interruption ; and so far from treating them as enemies, to furnish 
them with every needful supply. 

' Thus it is that a great nation manifests a religious respect for 
useful discoveries, and for the improvement of science. — Frcnc/i 
.Editor. 

, introduce 



quent x'i\ 

^eavin^T 

race."" 



J785.] 



ROUND THÏ WORLD. 



« 



introduce among them, are benefits of inestimable 
value*. 

These reflections suggested the project of a voy- 
age round the world; and learned men of every de- 

* But can the advantages to be derived from a new farinaceous 
plant, a new species of fruit, or even tlie introduction n{ domestic 
animals stand in comparison with that mass of evils whicfe must re- 
sult to these people from the introduction of European customs and 
manners ? 

Examining this problem in the different views of philosophy, of 
policy, or even of religion, considering what they now enjoy ; and 
well persuaded that nev/ desires can only sprmg from a knowledge 
with which they are yet unacquainted ; we must, 1 think, most 
ardently wish that they may long continue to enjoy that felicity, 
that unalterable tranquillity which can only be founded on the sa- 
tisfaction of the heart, the tender pleasures of sentiment, the unre- 
strained enjoyment of sympathy, and an obedience to the laws of 
nature and simplicity. 

The following passages, extracted from Cook's third voyage, 
come in support of my opinion : 

" When the Adventure arrived first at Queen Charlotte's Sound, 
in 1773, Mr. Bayly fixed upon this place for making his observa- 
tions ; and he, and the people with him, planted several spots with 
Jinglish garden-seeds. Not the least vestige of these now remained. 

Though the New Zealanders are fond of this root (the pota- 

toe), it Was evident that they had not taken the trouble to plant a 
single one (much less any of the other articles which we had intro- 
duced) ; and if it had not been for the difficulty of clearing ground 
where potatoes had been once planted, there would not have been 
any now remaining." Vol. i. p. 125. 

" These two Chiefs became suitors to me for some goats and 
hogs. I gave to Matahonah two goats, a male, and female with 
kid; and to Tomatongeauooranne two pigs, a boar and a sow. 
They made me a promise not to kill them ; though I must own I 
put no great faith in this. The animals which Captain Furneaux 
sent on shore here, and which soon after fell into tne hands of the 
natives, I was now told were all dead. Vol. i. p. 13 1 . 

" He said (i.e. Taweiharooa) that the Captain of her, during 
his stay here, cohabited with a woman of the country ; and that she 
had a son by him about the age of Kokoa ; who, though not born 
then, seemed to be equally well acquainted with the story. We 
were also informed by Taweiharooa, that this ship first introduced 
the venereal disease among the New Zealanders. I wish that subse- 
quent visitors from Europe may not have their share of guilt, in 
4eaving so dreadful a remembrance of them amongst this unhappy 



race." Vol. i. p. 141. 



B3 



script ion 



.* V» 



§ LA ^ÉROUSE*S VOYAGB' [WS. 

Bcription Mere employed in the expedition. M. Da- 
gelet, of the Academy of Sciences, and M Moniçe*, 
both Professors of Mathtmatics in the Mih'tary 
School, were appointed astronomers ; the former 
embarked on board ttie Boussole, and the latter in 
the Astrolabe. 

To M de Lanianon, of the Academy of Turin, and 
correspoiidiniç meinberof the Academy of Sciences, 
"was allotted the department of Geology or natural 
history of the earth and atmosphere; the Abbé Mon- 
gès, Canonof St. Geneviève, E^homï the Journal de 
jPA^.s7yi/c,analizingand examining minerals, andge- 
nerally tosupeimtend thediftenni branches of na- 
tural philosophy. M de la Maitinière, Doctor of 
Physic, graduated at Montptlier, was appointed by 
M. de Jussieu to the botanical departtnent. He was 
assisted by M Collignon,<)neof the Kin»*'» gardeners 
■who, on the recommendation of M. Thouin, was to 
cultivate and preserve the plants and seeds we might 
be able to bring back with us to Europe. Messrs. 
Prévost, uncle and- nephew, were engaged to make 
drawings of the various objects of natural history. 
M. Dufresne, a great naturalist^ and very expert 
in classing the différent productions of the earth, 
>vas appointtd for that purpose by the Controller 
General. And, lastly, JVJ. Duché de Van cy received 
orders to paint the dresses, landscapes, and in gene- 
ral whatever cannot, as it often .lappens, be other- 
wise described. All the learned bodies of the king- 
dom were upon tijis occasion earnestly desirous of 
testifying their ?eal for the improvement ot the arts 
and sciences. Tlie College ot Physicians and ihe 
Academy of Sciences each addressed a memorial to 
the Marshal de Castries, on the most important 
objects for ou., attention during the expedition. 

* The health of M. Monge became so had from Brest to Te- 
ncriff'e, that he was obliged to return to I'^rance. 

The 



l7S5i] '. BOUND THE WORLD. # 

The Abbé Tessier^ of the Academy of Sciences, 
proposed amethod of preserving fresh waterfromcor- 
ruption. M. du Fourni, Military Architect, furnished 
observations on trees, and the method of taking the 
level of the sea. M. le Dru addressed to us a me- 
morial, directing our attention to the variations of 
the compass in different latitudes and longitudes ; 
and presented us with a dipping-needle constructed 
by himself, the indications of which he requested us 
to compare with those of the two dipping-needles, 
sent us by the British Board of Longitude. I ought 
also to express my gratitude to Sir Joseph Banks^ 
who having been informed that M. Monneron co«ld 
not procure a dipping-needle in London, was pleased 
to lend us those which had been used by the cele- 
brated Captain Cook, which I received not without à 
sentiment of religious respect for that great man. 

M. Monneron, Captain in the corps of engineers, 
who had attended me in my expedition to Hudson^s 
Bay, embarked as principal engineer. His friend- 
sliip for me, as well as his partiality for the sea, 
induced him to solicit this appointment. He was 
engaged to lay down bearings and draw plans. M. 
Bernizet, geographical engineer, was his assistant 
in this department. 

In fine, M. de Fleurieu, an old naval Captain, sui- 
perintendant of the ports and arsenals, himself drew 
up the necessary charts for the voyage ; in addition 
to which he furnished us with a complete volume of 
notes and disquisitions of great learning, upon the 
different navigators from the time of Columbus to 
the present day. This public testimony of gratitude 
is due to him for the information he lias commu- 
nicated to me, and the friendship of which he has 
given me such repeated proofs*. 

The 

* The arts and sciences will share most deeply in the regret 
which all Europe must feel for the loss of our navigators. The 

B 4 immense 



« 



LA PÉROUSE S VOYAGE 



[1785. 



The Marshal de Castries, Minister of Marine, who 
had recommended me to the King for this com- 
mand, had given strict orders at the different ports 
that we should be supplied with every thing requi- 
site to ensure the success of the voyage. Lieute- 
nant-General d'Hector, who commanded the fleet 
at Brest, entered into his views, and attended to 
the particulars of my equipment with as much 
zeal as if he himself was to have conducted the 
expedition. 

Being indulged with the choice ofall the of- 
ficers, I appointed to the command of the Astro- 
labe, M. de Langle, a Captain in the navy, who had 
commanded the Astrée in my expedition to Hudson's 
Bay, and had given, on that occasion, the strongest 
proofs of talents and exalted character. A hundred 
officers proposed themselves to M. de Langle and 
myself for this expedition; and all whom we se- 
lected were distinguished for their scientific accom- 
plishments. On the Q6th of June my instructions 
"were sent me; and on the first of July I set off for 
Brest, where I arrived on the 4th, and found the 
equipment of the two frigates in a very forward 
state. The embarkation of different stores had been 
suspended, because it was necessary for me to choose 
between articles of exchange with the savages, and 
provisions with which I would gladly have stock- 
ed myself for several years. I gave the preference 
to articles for barter, thinking they might procure 
us fresh provisions ; when those on board would 
be nearly spoiled by keeping. We had also on 

immense collection made by their learned coadjutors, unda part of 
their notes have perished withihem. This voyage, highly interest- 
ing in its present state, would have presented a moït valuable whole, 
had it not been for this tragical event. If any hope be still per- 
mitted, its rays are very feeble, and every day destroys the small 
remains we arc yet willing to cherish. 

•' ""' "' ■•"■ ' . . , : ' board 



ms,] 



nOUND THE WOULTD* 



^ 



n we se- 



board the frame of a decked bo t*, of about SI tons 
burthen, two Biscay shallopsf, a sp ire main-mast, 
a rudder cheeky and a capstan. In shorty my ship 
contained an incredible quantity of stores M. de 
Clonard, my first Lieutenant, had stowed them with 
that zeal and intelligence of wliich he has afforded 
such frequent proofs. The Astrolabe had taken on 
board exactly similar articles. We were in the road 
on the 11th; but our vessels were so encumbered 
that it was impossible to heave at the capstan. We 
took our departure, however, in a fine season, and 
were in hopes of reachinjç Madeira without meeting 
with bad weather. M. d'Hector ordered us to take 
in harbour moorings, that we might have nothing 
to do, but slip our cables when the wind should 
permit us to sail. 

On the 12th we were reviewed. The same day, 
the astronomical clocks by which when in harbour 
we were to verify the daily rate of the time-keepers, 
were put on board. These had been accurately ob- 
served for afortnight. Messrs. Dagelet, and Monge; 
with the other men of science and the artists had 
reached Brest before me : Messrs. de Langle and 
d'Escures had observed the rate of the time-keepers 
before the arrival of the two astronomers; but un- 
fortunately the astronomical clock by which they 
were regulated, was found sp bad, that it was ne- 
cessary to begin the whole process anew. 

In the evening of the 13th; M. Dagelet sent me 
the following note ; . ^ . 

*' Upon our arrival at Brest we found an astro- 
nomical station established in the garden belonging 
to the Commissioner's house^ where Messrs. de Langle 

* A very strong kind of flat-bottomed vessel, used in Holland 
and Flanders, well calculated lor inland navigation. — French Editor» 

t Barca longa, long boats, very narrow at the extremities, and fit 

for navigating a swelling sea, — French Editor,. 

an4 



m 



LA pérouse's voyage 



[1785. 



and d'Esciires were engaged in making observations, 
in order to ascertain the rate of the time-keepers. 
But as the instruments of the Academy of Brest, 
and particularly the astronomical clocks they had 
used, were in the very worst state, they found it ne- 
cessary to refer every comparison of the time-keep- 
ers to No. 5jl5*, which was in the observatory. 
When our instruments were set up on shore, I de- 
termined the rate of my clock by the altitude of 
the sun and stars ; every day comparing the time- 
keepersj No. 18 and 19, by means of signals from oq 
board, and of which I drew up the following table ;" 







No. 18 


« 




No. 19. 


; , tf'-- ' ' !■■ ■^s•^' '.- 


LOSS OF TIME, 


LOSS OF TIME, 




according to mean 


According to meaa 


iOays of the Month. 


Time at Paris. 


Time at Paris. 


28th June 


3& 


4«" 


8 


27' 


51" 


30 ib. 


S7 


7 


1 


27 


47 7 


1st July 


37 


19 





27 


45 


2 ib. 


37 


31 





27 


44 2 


3 ib. 


37 


39 


5 


'47 


45 4 


4ib. 


37 


51 


8 


27 


44 


' Sib. 


38 


5 





27 


42 


6ib. 











27 


42 1 


7ib. 


38 


36 


7 




ditto 


', 8ib. 


38 


49 


3 




ditto 


5ib. ,, 


39 


3 





27 


48 8 


. 10 ib. 


39 


13 


6 


27 


42 5 


. 11 ib. 


39 


27 





stopped 


12 ib. 














36 6 


13 ib. 














36 4 



The westerly winds detained us in the road 'till 
the first of August ; during which time we had fogs 

* All the time-pieces on board the two frigates were invented 
' and constructed by Ferdinand Berthoud, who has distinguished 
them by numbers.— jR-encii Editor, 

t :'- and 



1785.] ROUND THE WORLD, ■ 11 

and rain ; and though 1 was fearful lest the health of 
the crews should suffer from the humidity of the 
weather ; yet, in \9 days, we only put one man on 
shore, who was in a fever. 

It set sail from Brest -road on the first of August, 
Nothing interesting occurred on my passage to Ma- 
deira, where we anchored on the 13th. The wind 
had heen constantly fair, a circumstance exceed- 
ingly favourable to our vessels, which, from having 
too muchweight forwards, steered very badly. Dur- 
ing the fine nights of this passage, M. de Lamanoa. 
noticed those luminous particies in the salt water, 
which proceed, in my opinion, from the decomposi- 
tion of marine substances. Were this light produ- 
ced by insects, as many natural philosophers assure 
us, they would not be spread in such profusion 
from the pole to the equator, and would be most 
abuitdanl in particular climates*. 

No sooner had we cast anchor at Madeira than Mr* 
Johhston,anËnglish n)erchant,sent on board my ship 
a boat-load of fruit. Several letters of recommenda- 



* Ace rding to the result of the experiments presented by Ri- 
gaud, in 1768, to the Academy of Sciences at Paris, we cannot 
doubt the existence of polypi, or luminous anima. s in sea-water. 
I cannot discover on what \.-a ^'érouse can rest an assertion combat- 
ted by Godeheu, who observed near the Maldives and on the Mala- 
bar coast, places where the sea is more luminous than in the parts 
of which our navigator speaks, and that the water was covered 
with small luminous anitua s, discharging an oily liquor which 
swam upon the surface and emitted a phosphoric light when agi- 
tated 

I therefore blievc the existence of these animalculœ, supported 
by the observations of Noliet, Roy, Vianella, Grisellini, &c. 1 
amalso ofopm!0.>, that the phosphoric oil of certain fish arriving 
at the surface of the water, prt/duces, in part, the luminous appear- 
ances obï'trved throughout the surlaceof the ocean. 

In support of my opinion 1 shall cite the effect of the oil of 
the borita, which becomes luminous when agitated. 1 may also 
refer to the observations if Forster upon the phosphoric light of 
sea-water, at the end of Cook's second voyage ; and those ol La- 
lande. Journal des Savans 1777. — French Editor. 

lion 









12 



lA pérouse's voyage 



[1785. 



tion from London had previously reached him, which 
greatly excited my astonishment, as I was entirely 
ignorant of the persons by whom they were written. 
A kinder reception than Mr. Johnston gave us, we 
could not expect from our own friends and relations. 
Having paid our visit to the governor, we went to 
dine with this gentleman, and the next day break- 
fasted at the delightful seat of Mr. Murray, the Eng- 
lish Consul, from whence we returned to the town, 
and dined with M. Moutcro, who was Chargé des 
Affaires of the French Consul. During the whole 
of that day, we enjoyed every pleasure the most 
select company or the most marked disposition 
to oblige, could afford, and were at the same time 
filled with admiration by Mr. Murray's beautiful 
villa. From the prospects presented by this charm- 
ing situation, our attention could only have been di- 
verted by the consul'shandsome nieces who soon con- 
vinced us no kind of beauty was wanting to this en- 
chanting spot. Had not unavoidable circumstances 
prevented, it would have afforded us great pleasure 
to have passed some days at Madeira, where we had 
met with so polite a reception. But the object of our 
going on shore could not then be accomplished. 
The English having raised the wine of this island to 
an exorbitant price, we could procure none for less 
than 13 or 14 hundred livres per ton, though it was 
sold for 6 hundred livres atTeneriffe. I tbereforeor- 
dered every thing to be prepared for our departure 
nex.t day, which was the l6th of August. The sea- 
breeze did not subside till six in the evening, when we 
immediately got under sail. 1 also received from Mr. 
Johnston a great quantity of fruits of various kinds^ 
a hundred bottles of Malmsey, half a hogshead of 
dry wine, some rum, and some preserved lemons. 
The most flattering civilities from this gentleman, 
distinguished every moment of my stay at Madeira. 
We reached Tcneriffe after a passage of only thjec 

days, 



1785.] 



ROUND THE WOltLD^ 



19. 



(lays, and anchored there on the 19th, at three in 
the afternoon. On the 18th, in the morning, I made 
Salvage island, the eastern part of which I ranged 
at the distance of half a league. It is very healthy ; 
and though I had no occasion for sounding, I am 
persuaded there are a hundred fathoms water within 
a cable's lengtlt of the shore. There is not a single 
tree on this island which is not entirely parched 
up, and appears to be formed of strata of lava, and . 
other volcanic matter. We took several bearings 
to determine its direction. 

The observations of Messrs. Fleurieu, Verdun and 
fiorda, leavenothingtobe accomplished with regard 
to the islands of Madeira, Salvage and TenerifFe. 
The sole object therefore of ours was to verify our 
instruments, and the rate of our time-keepers, which 
had been determined by M. Dagelet at Brest, with so 
much accuracy, that we could rely upon them for 
the longitude during several days. Our landing at 
Madeira was very convenient for ascertaining what 
degree of exactitude we might expect from them. 
The longitude we had observed in sight of land, and 
referred to that of the town of Funchal, did not dif- 
fer more than three minutes of a degree from that 
determined by M. Borda. The short stay we made 
in this island, did not allow us to erect an observa- 
tory. Messrs Dagelet, d'Escures, and Boutin, only 
made some sketches from the bearings taken when at 
anchor, which I have not laid down, as they may be 
found in many printed voyages. We were employed 
on the 1 8th ofAugust in taking observationsoff Sal- 
vage island ; and 1 think its longitude may be fixed 
in 18" 13' west, and its latitude in 50° 8' 15" north. 

Upon my first arrival atTenerifle, I employed my- 
self in establishins: an observatory on shore. Our in- 
struments were set up there the Qid of August, and 
we ascertained the rate of our astronomical clocks 
by correspondent altitudes of the sun or stars, in or- 
der, 



I'll 



1»^ 



LA PÉR0U5E*S VOYAOfî 



[178^. 






dcr, as soon as possible, to vc ity the motion of the 
time- keepers belonging to the two tVigitcs. The 
result of our observations, provided that the error of 
No. 19 had only been 18" too slow, since the 
13thofJuly,thelastdayc)f our observations at Brest; 
that our watches, No. 9 and No. ^5, had also been 
too slow ; the former 1' 0" 7, ami the latter no more 
than 28": thus in the space of three-and forty days, 
the greatest error was but a quarter of a decree of 
longitude. After some days oï uninterrupted obser- 
vations and comparisons, we established the daily 
motion of these clocks. M. Dagelet found that 
No. 19 gained about 2', 5b in ^4 hours; No. 29 
about 3" 6; and No 2.5 about O" 8. It is upon these 
principles this astronomer has drawn up the table of 
their apparent motions, pay ingdue regard to the cor- 
rections required by the variations which different 
temperaturesproduce, according to thedegrees of the 
thermometer and of the arches of tiie balance-wheel. 
M. Dagelet had his doubts on the mode of construct- 
ing the table of variation for N o. 1 9, according to the 
few data furnished by the experi ments made at Paris. 
He thought it would be very advantageous for those 
who make use of time-keepers, that the number of 
experiments should be augmented, and fewer terms 
left uncalculated, in the intermediate steps which lie 
lias been obliged to pursue, in order to obtain these 
data ; especially where the arches of the balance 
would enter into this species of correction, which 
renders a table by double entry necessary, and leaves 
a doubt respectingthe manner in which theordinates 
of the curve should vary. He made experiments on 
the simple pendulum on the 27th, 28th, and 29th, of 
August, and observed the number of oscillations in 
a given time, in order to determine the force with 
■which bodies gravitate in different latitudes. Seve- 
ral observations of latitude and longitude were made 
at Santa-Cruz, in Teneriffe, which, we think, may 



ROUND THF. WORLD, 



15 
«7' 



1785.] 

be fixed at 18" 36' 30" west longitiule, and 2^" 
30" north latitude. At len<;th we concluded our 
labours by experiments on the dipping-needle. But 
we found little agreement in the results, and only 
mention them to prove how far this instrument still 
remains from the degree of perfection necessary to 
procure it the confidence of astronomers. We pre- 
sume, however, that the quantity of iron with 
which the soil of Tenerifte is impregnated has great- 
ly contributed to the extraordinary variations we 
remarked. 

On the 30th of August I set sail with the wind 
blowing fresh from north -north-east. We had 
taken on board each ship sixty pipes of wine : and 
were obliged to unstow half our liold, in order to get 
at the empty casks destined to contain it. This 
took up ten days ; a delay which was, in fact, oc- 
casioned by the dilatory conduct of those who sup- 
plied us with this wine from Orotava, a small town 
on the other side of the island. 

I have already given an account of the manner in 
which the astronomers employed their time. Our na- 
turalists also wished to improve theirs while they re- 
mained in the road of Santa-Cruz ; and therefore 
set off for the Peak with several oliicers of both ships. 
M. de la Martinière collected herbs in his way, and 
found many curious plants. M.de Lamanon measur- 
ed the height of the Peak with his barometer, which 
at the summit of the mountain fell to IS inches, 4 
lines ~ : while by an observation made at Santa- 
Cruz, at the same moment, it was at 28 inches 3 
lines. The thermometer which at Santa-Cruz indi- 
cated 24 degrees and a half, was, at the top of the 
Peak, stationary at 9'. I leave every one at li- 
berty to calc-ulate the height ; for this method is so 
loose, that 1 prefer giving the data without the re- 
sults*. M. Monneron, Captain of the corps of 

* Those who would wish to make the calculations ^^Ul find the 

data 



16 



LA PEROUSES VOrAGE 



[1785. 



Engineers, also made an excursion to the Peak, in 
order to take its level as far as the sea, which was 
the only mode of measuring this mountain that 
had not yet been attempted. Local diffjculties, 
if not absolutely insurmountable, were unable to 
stop him, as he was extremely conversant in these 
pursuits. He found that the natural obstacles were 
much less than his imagination had suggested. For, 
in one day he had completed every thing in which 
there was any difficulty. He had reached a kind of 
plain, very elevated, but easy of access, and in pros- 
pect beheld with the greatest joy the termination of 
fiis labours^ when he experienced, on the part of his 
guides, difficulties which it was impossible to van- 
quish. Their mules had not drunk for three days ; 
and neither entreaties nor money could induce their 
drivers to continue their stay. Thus when he con- 
sidered his labour almost finished, Avas M. Monneron 
obliged to leave imperfect a work \vhich had cost 
him incredible pains, and considerable expence; 
for he had been obliged to hire seven mules and 
eight men to carry his baggage, and assist him in 
his operations In order, however, not entirely to 
lose the fruit of his labour, he determined the prin- 
cipal points, and one day more would now be suf- 
ficient to complete the level, and afford a conclusion 
more satisfactory than any hitherto produced by all 
the different travellers.* 

The 

data here omitted in every work of experimental philosophy. But 
if they wish to calculate with some degree of accuracy in this me- 
thod of measuring elevations, at best very liable to error, they 
should not omit such corrections as relate to the temperature of the 
air. Ihe difference of the logarithms of the heights of the baro- 
meter in lines gives the height in toises at If) degrees and a quarter 
OÏ the mercurial thermometer, on which the point of boiling wa- 
ter is 80 ('egrees. The two hundred and fifteenth part should be 
substracted for every degree of cold. See De Luc, Enquiries on 
the Modification of the A tmosphere. --FrcncA EdUvr, 

* The work of Monneron here announced has not reached our 

hands. 



1785.] 



Slight hsL\ 
ii 



1785.] HOUND THE WORLD* JT 

The Marquis Branciforte, Governor-General of all 
the Canary islands^ and Field Marshal, never ceased 
to shew us the greatest marks of friendship during 
our stay. 

We were unable to depart before three o'clock 
in the afternoon of the bOth of August, and were 
still more encumbered with stores than at our depar- 
tore from Brest. But these were c^'minishing every 
day, and we had nothing but woou and water to pro^ 
cure 'till our arrival at the Islands of the South 
Sea. With these two articles I intended to provide 
myself at Trinidad ; for I determined not to touch 
at the Cape de Verd Islands, which at this season 
are very insalubrious, and the health of the crews 
was of the first importance. To preserve this I gave 
orders to fumigate between-decks, and the ham- 
mocs to be taken down every day from eight o'clock 
in the morning 'till sun^set. But that every one 
might have sufiicient time for sleep, the crew was 
divided into three watches^ so that eight hoursofrest 
succeeded to four of labour. Having no more hands 

hands. Tliere is reason to believe he had left his operations in such 
a state as to be prosecuted by any other traveller. I imagine he 
made use of the water-level, notwithstanding the inconvenience of 
this instrument on very steep declivities. If his operations had 
been finished, he would have decided the dispute between those 
who, measuring the Peak each his own way, have assigned it \ery 
diffèrent heights. 

However defective, however tedious and difficult this mode of 
measuring heights may be, these inconveniences vanish before 
one much in the habit of such employments. It is evident it 
cannot require more than a thousand stations; and supposing, 
though almost impossible, an enor of three lines in each sta- 
tion, that these errors should not be mutually corrected, and that 
they should be always />/m5, or always minus, a thing still less pos- 
sible ; there would at last be an error of only three thousand 
Knes, or 90 feet 10 inches French. This difference, though barely 
possible, is nothing when compared with that of the various tra- 
vellers. For Heberdeen ascribes to the Peak a height of 2,409 
toises or fathoms; Feuillée (Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences 
for the year 1746, p. 140) 2,215. Bouguer 2,100, and Verdun, 
Borda, and Pingre, 1,904 French Editor, 

Vol. I. C on 



LA pérouse's voyage [\7H5i 

on board than were inrlispensahly neces'^ary, this ar- 
rangement could only takepiace in calm weather; 
and I have heen under the necessity of reverting to 
the ancient custom when sailuiir in stormy seas. 
Nothing renrarkahle occurred during our passage as 
far as the line. The trade- wind» left us in 1 4degrees 
N lat and hiew constantly hetween W, and S.W. 
'till ue reached the line, and obliged nie to run 
down the coast of Africa, m hich I did at the dis-, 
tance of 60 leagues z . s i , 

We crossed the line on the §pth of Sfptemher, in 
18" of W. longitude. I could have \u4ied, as my 
instructions were, to have passed it more to the west* 
ward : but fortunatelv the wind drove us always to 
the eastward, otherwise it would have been im- 
possible to have made Trinidad, the wind being S.E. 
at the line, and coivtinuing îhere 'tiM we reached 
20' 25' N. latitude: so that I always eat close to 
the wind, and was unable to get int.> i titudeof 
Trinidad nearer than about 25 leagues I,» ihe cast of 
that island. Had I made Pennedo de S. Pedro*, I 
should have found great dithcuUy in doubling the 
eastern point of Brasil. I passed, according to my 
reckoning, over the shoals, on which the ship Le 
Prince thought she had touched in 1747. We had 
no indication of land, except some birds called fri- 
gates, which followed us in pretty large flights from 
the 8th degree of N. to ' he 3d degree of S. latitude. 
During all that time our ships were surrounded by 
tunnies, of which we took but few, they being so 
large and heavy, that all ourfishing lines broke with 
their weight. Each of those we caught weighed at 
least sixty pounds. .^ 

The dread which some navigators entertain ofbe- 
îng,atthis season, becalmed underthe line, is found- 

* To touch at this ÎBland wa» no part of my instructions, it be- 
ing only suggested as advantageous, if it should not lie out of my 
track. 

, . j '''"'. ed 



l7SSiJ 

ed in err 

only one 

dant as i 

Thefe; 

into the I 

Clerical. 

drives shi 

I been b< 

should ha 



.;. 1 



1785: J HOUNP THE WORLD. )9 

ed in erFor. We were not a day without wind, and 
only once had rain ; when, indeed, it was so abua* 
dant as to fill 25 casks. 

The fear of being driven too much to the eastward 
into the bottom of the gulf of Guinea is equally chi« 
merical. The S. E. wind is soon met with, and even* 
drives ships too rapidly to the westward ; so that had 
I been better acquainted with this navigation^ t 
ghouM have steered away more large with the S. W*. 
wind which constantly prevailed to the N. of the 
line, and I should then nave crossed it in the lati- 
tude of 10 degrees. This circumstance would have 
permitted me to run, with a free wind, on the pa* 
rallel of Trinadad. A few days after our departure 
from Teneriflè, we left those serene skies only found 
in the temperate zones : instead of which, a dull 
whiteness, between fog and cloud, always prevailed» 
The horizon was contracted within lest than three 
leagues ; but after sun-set the vapour was dissi- 
pated, and the nights were constantly tine. 

On the 1 1th of October we took many obser* 
vations of distances between the sun and moon, in 
order to ascertain the longitude, and prove the rate 
of our time-keepers. By the mean result of ten 
observations taken with quadrants and sextants, 
we found our longitude 25° ii' VV. Tliat indicated 
by the time-keeper. No. 19, at three in the after- 
noon, was 85" 47'. We afterwards repeated the 
lame sort of observations. r 

On the li2th, about four o'clock in the after^ 
noon, the mean of ourobservationsgavt* aô" ai', and 
at the same moment the time-keeper. No. 19, gave 
£6° 53' for the longitude of the ship. On compari* 
ion, it appears that the longitude indicated by the 
time-keeper. No. 19, is I'i minutes more to the 
W. than that obtained by observation. By these 
operations we have fixed the longitude of the islands 
of Martin- Vas and Trinidad. We have also ascer- 

C2 tainëd 



sd 



LÀ PéRÔrSE^S VOYAdE 



[im* 



tained tlieîr latiturles with great exactnesâ, not only 
by takings the su^^s meridian altitude witlvpreciv 
sion. hut also a jrreat number of altitudes near the 
meridian, and reducing them al! to tlie true time 
from noon, inferred from corresponding altitudesr 
Tlie greatest error arising from this method cannot 
exceed twenty seconds. 

On tiie l6'tb of October, at ten in the morning, 
we descried the islands <»f Martin- Vas five lea&:ues 
to the N.W. They ought to have been seen in 
the uest, hut the currents Ijad driven us 13 miles 
to thestiuthward in the night. The winds unfortu- 
nately having blown, till then, constantly from the 
S. E. ohii<»ed me to make several boards, in order to 
r.ear those islands, which I passed at about the dis- 
tance of a league and a baif. Having accurately de- 
termined their situation, and taken several bearings 
to enable me to delineate relative positions on the 
chart, I hauled close to the wind, on the starboard 
tack, steering for the island of Trinidad, distant 
from Martin- Vas about nine leagues W. by S. 
These islantlsof Martin-Vas are,in fact, mere rocks; 
the largest of which may perhaps be a quarter of a 
league in circumference : there are ihree little 
islands, separated fromeach other by small intervals, 
which, seen from a distance, appear like five heads. 

At sun-set I made the island of Trinidad, bearing 
W. 8" N. . The wind being constantly at N.N.W. 
I passed the night in standing off and on, keeping 
to the E.S. E. of tlie inland. When day appeared! 
continued on the land tack, hoping to find smoother 
water, under shelter of the island. At ten in the 
morning I was but two leagues and a half from 
the S. E. point, which bore N.N.W. ; and I per- 
ceived, at the extremity of the creek formed by that 
point, a Portuguese flag hoisted in the middle ofa| 
small fort, surrounded by five or six wooden houses. 
The sight of this flag excited my curiosity; and Idf-I 

♦ ' tenniud 



J785.J 

terminée 
gence c< 
English. 



J785.] HOUND THE WOULD. 21 

termined tosenda boat on sliore to procure intelii^ 
gence concerning its cession and evacuation hy the 
English. For I already began to perceive, that at the 
island of Trinidad I could procure neither the wood 
nor water wanted A few treesonly could bepi-rceived 
onthesummitofthemountains The sea broke every 
where so violently, that it could not be supposed a 
boat could easily land. I therefore resolved to beat 
up with the wind on the beam all day, in order to 
be at day -break sutliciently to windward to gain the 
anchorage, or, at least, to send my boat on shore. At 
niglit 1 hailed the Astrolabe to apprize her of my 
imended manœuvre; and added, tiiat we should ob- 
serve no order in tacking, as, at sun-rise, the creek 
of the Portuguese establishment was to be our 
rendezvous. 1 instructed M. de L^ngle, that 
whichever of our ships should be nearest thesiiore, 
should send a boat to ascertain the resources this 
port might offer. The next morning, October 18th, 
the Astrotabe being but half a league from shore» 
sent off her long-boat under the command of M. de 
Vaujuas the lieutenant, accompanied by M, de la 
Martinière and Father Receveur, an indefatigable 
naturalist. They went quite up the creek, between 
two rocks. But the surf was so great, that the boat 
and her crew would infallibly have been lost, but for 
the prompt assistance of the Portuguese, who hauled 
the boat upon the beach to shelter it from the fury 
of the sea. Every thing was saved excepting a small 
anchor. At that station M. de Vaujuas counted 
about two hundred men, of whom I.^ only were in 
uniform, the rest in their shirts. The governor of 
this establishment, which being quite uncultivated, 
is not worthy the name of a colony, told him the 
governor of Rio Janeiro had, about a year before, 
caused possession to be taken of the island of Tri- 
nidad. He either did not or pretended not to know, 
that it had been previously in possession of the Eng- 

Cs lish; 



f M 



irè LA ï>É rouse's vôr AGS tl785i 

liâh ; hut we cannot depend much on any thing 
hientioned to M. de Vaujuas in this conversation. 
The governor, who thought himself under the necesi 
sity of disguising the truth on every subject, pre- 
tended that his garrison consisted of 40() men, and 
that his fort was defended by £0 pieces of cannon; 
though we are certain there was not a single battery 
in the establishment. This officer so much dreaded 
our discovering the miserable state of his govern- 
ment, that he would never permit M. de la Marti- 
nière and father Receveur to leave the beach in 
search of plants. After having manifested to M. 
de Vaujuas every external mark of politeness and 
good- will, he pressed him to return on board, as- 
suring him the island produced nothing; that sup- 
plies of provisions were sent every six months from 
Hio-Janeiro ; that he bad scarcely a sufficiency of 
wood and water for the garrison: and even these 
he was obliged to procure at a great distance on 
the mountains. 11 is detachment, however, assisted 
us in launching our long-boat. 

At day-break 1 sent a boat on shore under the 
command of lieutenant Boutin, accompanied by 
Messrs. de Lamanon and Monneron ; but I forbad 
M. Boutin to land, if the Astrolabe*5 boat had ar< 
rived before him : in which case he was to sound the 
road, and make as accurate a survey as possible in so 
short a time. Accordingly M. Boutin did not ap- 
proach within musket-shot of the shore; and in all 
his soundings he met with arocky bottom, mixed with 
a small portion of sand. M. Monneron took a draw- 
ing of the fort with as much exactness as if he had 
been on the beach ; and M. de Lamanon was near 
enough to perceive that the rocks were nothing but 
basaltes^j or substances that had been in a state of 
fusion, the remains of some extinguished volcanos. 

• A stone of a dose texture and brilliant fracture, strikes fire 
-with a fluit, and may be used as a touch -stone. 

' This 



ma,) 

This op 

brough 

canic, ! 

found n 

accord! 

tin, it \ 

Trini(|a( 

determi 

Catharii 

vhere tj 

use' .or 

admiral. 

wants. ] 

Catharin 



178^.1 



AOUNP tHE WQULP. 



m 



This opinion was confirmed by father Receveur, who 
brought on board a ti;reat number of stones^ all voU 
canic, as well as some of the sand, which was only 
found mixed » ith fragments of shells and coral. As, 
accordinjç to the report of M. Vaujuas, and M. Bou- 
tin, it was evident we could not, at the island of 
Trinidad, get either the wood or water we wanted, I 
determined immediately to steer for the island of St. 
Catharine on the coast of Brasil. This was the place 
where the French ships, bound for the Sputh-sea, 
use'' /ormerly to touch ; and at which premier and 
admiral Anson found an abundant supply forall their 
wants. In order not to lose a single day, I gave St. 
Catharine's the preference to Rio-Janeiro, where the 
necessary formalities would haveconsumed too much 
time. But, in shaping my course for St Catharine's, 
I wished to be assured of the existence of the island 
of Ascension, which M. Dapr^s has placed 100 
leagues W. of Trinidad, and only 15 miles more 
to the southward. According to Xh-e Journal of M. 
Ponceldela Haye, who commanded the Renommée, 
I was certain several navigators, and among others 
Frézier, a very well informed man, thought they had 
landed on Ascension island, when ^ in reality, they had 
only been on thatof Trinidad. Notwithstanding the 
^authority of M. Poncel de la Haye, I conceived this 
point of geography required fresh illustration. The 
two days we passed to the southward of Trinidad, 
enabled us to take bearings from which M. Ber- 
nizet delineated the plan of the south-side of the 
island. It differs but little from that of Doctor 
Halley, which had been sent me by M. Fleurieu. 
The view painted by M. Duché de Vancy is so 
■remarkably accurate, that it will alone prevent any 
«avieators that may land on the south side of Tri- 
nidad from falling into an error. That island 
presents to the eye nothing but a rock almost naked 
and barren; where no verdure, up shrubs, are 

C 4 seen 



24 



LA PtR0USE*8 VOTAÔE 



ti784r. 



iseeti but fn tlie narrow defiles of the mountains. It 
is in one of these val lies to the S. E. of the island 
Hvhich is only about 300 toises broad, that the Por> 
tuguese have formed their establishment. 

Nature had never designed this rock to be inha< 
bited, for it can furnish neither men nor animals 
with subsistence. But the Portuguese are fearful 
lest some European nation may avail themselves of 
its vicinity to establish a smuggling trade with 
Brazil : and to this motive alone we must ascribe 
the eagerness they have discovered to seize upon 
an island, which^ in every other point of view, must 
be a mere burthen. 

■'■ Latitude of the largest of the Martin- Vas isles, 
20* 30' 35" south. 

Longitude, by lunar observations, 80* 30' west. 
Latitude of the south-east point of the island of 
Trinidad, 20" 31' south. 

Longitude, by lunar observations, 30* 57' west 
On the 1 8th of October, at noon, I stood to the 
westward for the island of Ascension till the nightof 
the 24th, when I abandoned the search. I had then 
run 1 15 leagues west ; and the M'eather was suffi- 
ciently clear to see 10 leagues a-head. Thus, I may 
aver, that having directed my course on the parallel 
20° 32' with a view north and south of, at least, 
twenty, and having laid-to every night, after the 
first 60 leagues, when I had run the distance per- 
ceived at sun-set — I say, I may aver that the island 
of Ascension exists not from the meridian of Tri- 
nidad to about seven degrees west longitude, be- 
tween the latitudes of 20° 10', and 20"* 50', my view 
having embraced the whole of that space.* 

On 



'' i 



• La Pé rouse may be right in advancing that navigators have er- 
roneously itnaghied they landed on Ascension Island, while, in 
ftict, they touched at that of Trinadad. Not attending to the re- 
semblance which runs through the former description* of theK 



two 



• Il 

have n 
accoun 
the Be 

ters b) 



178.5.3 . ROUND THE WORLD. - S$ 

On the 25th of October we experienced a most vio- 
lent storm. At eight in the evening we were sur* 
rounded by an horizon of fire; while lightning burst 
from every part of the heavens. A cone • of lire ap- 
peared on thepointof the conductor: a phenomenon 
which was not confined to our ship : for the Astro- 
labe, not being furnished with a conductor, had also 

the 

two islands, proves that they have committed this error. For, froA 
these charts, they might indifferently suppose they were on the one 
or the other, their latitude being nearly the same, and their longi- 
tude very imperfectly ascertained. But these proofs are not suffi- 
cient for the enlightened geographer ; whereas the authentic testi- 
mony of Daprès, in his Jyeptune Orientait page 10, and the minute 
and very different plans which Dalrymple has given of these two 
islands and appearance, prove, beyond doubt, they are not the 
same. 

Had La Pé rouse felt greater confidence in the materials furnished 
him, he might on this subject have made a very easy calculation.— 
TheW. long, of the north coast of Trinidad, was there fixed at 32* 
15', and he himself found that of the S. £. point no more than 
30» 57'. 

According to the meridian of Rio-Janeiro, which is fixed at 
45° 5', the coast of America, under this parallel, may be calcu- 
lated at 43<* 30'. Daprès fixes the longitude of Ascension Islanxlat 
38°, because he believes it to be 120 leagues from the coast. 1 
have reason to think it still nearer. Hence, it is evident. La Pé- 
rouse has not pushed his researches far enough, and that having 
sailed about seven degrees upon this parallel, afler his departure 
from Trinidad, he abandoned his object at the very moment of its 
attainment. 

To the data of these two authors, so valuable on account of therr 
exactness, whom I have just cited, I shall add, that since writing 
this note I have accidentally met with a navigator (Lépine, a half- 
pay lieutenant) who has touched at both these islands, and who, 
not being provided with instruments, to determine their longitude 
with precision, has only fixed their latitude. 

That of Trinidad at 20» 22' 

That of Ascension at 20° 30' 

He thinks the latter 120 leagues from the coast of Brazil. 

* I am not in the least astonished that a ball of fire should also 
have rested on the mast-head of the Astrolabe, knowing from the 
accounts of La Férouse, that this ship was never out of hail of 
the Boussole. Every one knows that when the electric fluid en- 
ters by a point, it appears as a spart, but in flying off from one 
. Jia» 



LA I>£llOUSE*S VOrAOE 



[1785. 



•the Same appearance on her mast-head. From that 
liay the weather was constantly foul till our arrival 
^t St. Catharine's; and we were enveloped in a 
fog thicker than those on the coast of Brittany in 
' the 

bas the appearance of a luminous cone. The earth is the grand 
rrservnir of electric matter, and water is its best conductor. It 
api^ears then that when a low cloud, negatively electrified, passes 
^ve* u vessel, the masts and yards serve as conductors, and we see 
conic 6re from nil the extremities directed towards the cloud. 
^ It is evident that h vessel furnished with a conductor, must have 
.at its point a cone of a much more beautiful appearance, on ac- 
count of its chain, wlii( h has a diiect communication with the sea ; 
.while without that instrument it only communicates the fluid, by 
means of tarred wood, which is a very bad conductor. 

On the same principle we may i-ometimes observe electric fire on 
the surface of the sea, of whicn the following experiments are a 
convincing proof, and may be depended on, as 1 have frequently 
.performed tiem in my closet. 

' Electrify a quantity of water in a vase of glass or metal ; but, 
,in the latter case, place it upon an insulated stool. Then, in the 
dark, present your finger to the surface of the water, not close 
enough to draw sparks, but so as to make the water rise, when a 
luminous cone will arise in the direction of your finger. 

In this experiment the finger produces the effect of a cloud. But 
it will be said, perhaps, that the sea does not, like the bason, con- 
tain a superabundant quantity of electric matter. Should this 
■argument leave any doubt, the following experiment may be made : 

T?.ke a metal bason filled with water ; let this bason communi- 
cate with the earth, by means of a chain or any otiier conductor; 
electrify strongly the outside of the Leydcn vial, by which the in- 
side will be electrified negatively : place this vial upou an insulated 
stool, that you may be able to take hold of it by the outside with- 
out discharging it. Then present the knob of the bottle at a 
certain distance from the surface of the water, as you did your 
. finger in the former experiment, and you will produce the same effect. 

If in the first experiment, instead of your finger you make use 
of the knob of the vial electrified minuSj you will produce a 
stronger eiTect, as the electric fluid will make a greater effort to 
escape from the water when electrified plus into the vial, which is 
electrified minus. 

, This principle once laid down and demonstrated, will deve- 

lope the theory of electric vapours producing explosion, which are 

much more frequent than h generally imagined. But this digres- 

.sion, which has no connection with the subject, would lead me too 

far.— JFrtwcA Editor, 

■ the 



the 




^ 



%S»k 



1785.1 

the midst of \ 
Knvenibcr, b 
therontineot 
•fooiyMitd. 
then bore nc 
iMtj and the 
- Though ou 
^yn, wc had i 
èfciitiiate, thi 
en the health 
•f excellent q 
<ionthatexp( 
did our utriio 
mcouragrd t 
tUl ten, whec 



iiiiii 




îi' 



91SCRIPTI0 

• TIONS A» 

D£PARTr:V 

AT lA CO 

npHE isla 

lioadth fron 
leagues in th 
the continent 
Od the point 
çityofNossa 
comroahdery 
nuqS/xt ino 
vko^^Sfh ; dtïd ' 
^^ifT'iïng to F 
<heyear 171^ 
who escaped 



1785.] 



ROUND THl WORLD.' 



tt 



tbf midst of winter. We cast tnchnr on tke ScH of 
Koveniber, between the ialaod of St Catharine and 
therontineot, in seven fathoms water, with a bottom 
•f oosy sattd. The middle of tlie island of AlvarediO 
then bore north-east, Fleming's lalahd south by 
Aut, and the island of Gal north. .<, 

" Though our voyage had now continued ninety-si» 
days, we had not one man on board sick, Thechang« 
èfcliiiiate, the rains and fogs, had produced no eff'eci 
on the health of the crews. But our provisions w^r« 
•f excellent quality ; for I had neglected no precau^ 
tion that experience 04 prudence coîaUÎ suggest. Wd 
did our utmost to ke^.p up \\\t\< cheerfulness, and 
encouraged them to ddiice ev^r y ni^ht From cigh* 
till ten^ whenever th<i we&th<^f would vermit. :i 



«,:SKK«.^ 



,/*.' r 



CHAP. IL "-w -H\y» 



BSSCRIPTtOV Of 3T. CATVi,AK(W£'?i-'-OU<t'j:FVA'* 

• TIONS AND f.VEMTS DtTitllsil OUR tiTAY — 

DEPARTrRE FROM ST. CATM AEiNL's — Aiift W/, Ï, 

AT LA CONCEPTSOST. ^^ a 

THE island of St. Catharrae extends from 27' 
19' 10", to 27' 49' south latitude ; and its 
lieadth from east to west is not, rnor3 ^han two 
Wgues in the narrowest part, It is separated from 
tbecontinentonlybyachannelofSCCcoisesinwidth. 
Oo the point at tbe mouth of this struit is built the 
city of NossaSenhom '1 el D?stevro, the capital of this 
COmroandery^ w!iere the governor resides. It con- 
tains, ;^t }ri0&t, 3000 inhabitants, and about 400 
fco^fSfi, ; 'dtïà wear^a very agreeable appearance. Ac- 
4^;/rding to Frézier's account, this island served, in 
(he year \7\% as an asylum for a set of vagabonds, 
who escaped thither from different parts of Brazil^, 
w. ' ' '^'' and 






i 



ÛB LA pêrouse's votacet [1785; 

àncf were but nominally subject to Purtugnl, as they 
«cknowledgtd no lawful authority. The country is 
go fertile that they were able to subsist without any 
snppliesfromthenei^hbouringcolonies, and as they 
were destitute oF money, they could neither offer 
a temptation to the avarice of the governor-general 
of Brazil, nor inspire him with a hope of subduing 
them. The vessels which touched there gave them 
nothing in exchange for provisions but clothes and 
shirts, of which they were almost destitute. Not till 
towards the year 1740 did the Court of Lisbon esta- 
blish a regular government in St. Catharine's, and 
the parts adjacent on the continent. This govern- 
ment esetends from north to eouth 60 leagues, from 
the river St. Francisco to Rio-Grande. Its popula- 
tion amounts to âO,000 ; but I have seen so great 
a number of children in some families, that I think 
it will soon be more considerable. The soil is ex- 
tremely fertile, and produces, almost spontaneously, 
all sorts of fruits, vegetables and grain. It is co- 
vered with trees that are always green ; but so inter- 
mixed with briars and thorns, that the forests are im- 
passable, without cutting away with the hatchet; 
besides which they are intiEsted with serpents whose 
|)ite is mortal. Their houses, both on the island and 
continent, are all on the edge of the sea : and the 
woods, which surround them, yield a most delight- 
ful fragrance, from the abundance of orange- trees, 
and other aromatic plants and shrubs, with which 
they abound. But, notwithstanding these advan- 
tages, the country is very poor, and absolutely des- 
titute of manufactures; insomuch, that the peasants 
are almost naked, or covered with rags. Their soil, 
^hich would be very suitable for the cultivation of 
sugar, cannot be employed for that purpose without 
slaves, whom they are not rich enough to purchase. 
The whale-fishery is very productive, but the crown 
has conferred an exclusive right to it on a company 

at 



1*7851 



BOÙNt) THÉ WOtlîJ. 



m 



at Libbon This compan;»* lias, upon the coast, three 
great establish. nents, where they take about 4^>0 
whales every year, the prodiiee ot* vvhich, both in 
oil and spermaceti, is sent to Lisbon, by way of Rio- 
Janeiro. Of this fishery the inhabitants are merely 
spectators, for it yiebis them no profit ; and if 
the government do not relieve then), and grant 
them immunities or other encouragen^ents, one of 
the finest countries on the face of the globe will 
languish for ever in the depression of poverty, and 
become useless and burthensome to the mother* 
country. 

The approach of ships to St. Catharine's is very 
easy. Eighteen leagues in the offing there are 6& 
fathoms water, over a bottom of soft mud, gradually 
shoaling till within four cables length of the shores 
where there is still four fathoms water. 

The ordinary channel is between the island of AU 
varedo and the north point of St. Catiiarine*s : but 
there is another between the islands of Gal and 
Alvaredo, which however requires yet to be exr- 
plored. Our boats were so much employed during 
our stay, that I could not take the soundings. 
Tlie best anchorage is half a league from Fortresf 
Island^ in six fathoms, oozy bottom, the citadel 
bearing S. 3" W. the fort on the larger point S. 6* 
E. There are several wateiing places both on the 
island and the continent; and that creek may be 
chosen where the wind renders the landing most easy. 
This consideration is of great importance ; for the 
navigation of boats is very ditficult in this har- 
bour, which is two leagues wide as far as the bight 
where the town stands : and there is a violent surf 
always breaking on the lee shore. The tides are 
very irregular : and the flood comes in between 
the two cliannels lying north and south Up to 
this bight it rises but three feet. 

It appeared that our arrival had spread great terror 
" ■ _ through 



m 



liA PâHOUSE*S VOYAOE 



[1785. 



tb'^^ugh the whole country. The different forts fired 
several alarm ^uns, which determined me to cast an- 
chor early, and send my boat on shore with an offi» 
cer. to make known our pacific intentions, and our 
•want of water, wood, and refreshments. M. de 
Pierrevert, whom I empio} ed on this occasion, found 
the little garrison of the citadel underarms, con* 
sistinjj: of 40 soldiers, commanded by a captain, who 
immediately dispatched anexpresstothc city, toGo* 
yernor Don Francisco <le Baros, Brigadier-General 
of Infantry. He had been apprised of ourexpedi» 
tion bv the Lisbon Gazette ; and a bronze medal- 
iion thut I sent him left no doubt' respecting our 
"object in touching there. The most precise and 
«peedy orders were issued, that every thjng neces-^ 
l^ary sliouid be furiiii>hed us at a fair price : an<l an 
officer appointed to each frigate, who was entirely 
<at our command. We sent him with the clerks of 
Jthc commissary of stores to purchase provisions of 
Ahe inhabitants. On the 9th of November I re^ 
moved nearer the fortress, from which I had hi- 
^jtherto been at some distance. I went, the same day, 
.with M. de Laiigle and sevei al officers, to pay a visit 
;to the commander of this post, who saluted me with 
1 1 discharges of cannon, which were returned by my 
*iship. Next day I sent my boat, under the command 
'Ot Lieutenant Boutin, to the city ot'Nossa-Senhora 
xlel Desierro, to make my acknowledgements to the 
.Governor for the great abundance his atteutiops 
procured us. Messrs. de Monneron, de Lamanon, 
-and tlie Abbé Mongès. accompanied this officer, to- 
gether with M. de la Borde ^vlarchainville, and Fa- 
rther Receveur, who had been «iispatched by M. dc 
iangle for the same purpose ; they were all received 
with the utuu)st politeness and cordiality. 
'■ Dim Francisco cie Baros, governor of this com- 
mandery, spoke Fiençh with perfect ease, and his 
rcomprehcnsive knowledge inspired us with the 
f ,,,:».,/ •' * 'fuliest 



ROUND THE WORLD 



• T 



91 



fullest confidence. Our friends dined with him,'and 
were informed at dinner, that the supposed island of 
Ascension had no real existence» although the Go- 
vernor-General of Brazil had, upon the testimony of 
M. Daprès, dispatched a vessel the preceding year 
tosurvey ViW ihc points formerly laid down as parts of 
that island ; and the captain of the vessel having 
found none of them, it had heen expunged from the 
charts, that an ancient error might not be perpetuat- 
ed*. He added, that the island of Trinidad hari al- 
^yays formed a part of the Portuguese possessions^ 
and that the English had evacuated it on the first 
requisition of the Queen of Portugal; the English 
minister adding that the nation had never given its 
sanction to this establishment, which was no more 
than a private adventure. 

At eleven o'clock the next day, the boats of the- 
Astrolabe and Boussole returned, and announced 
an early visit from the Major-Geueral of tiie co» 
lony, Don Antonio de Gama, who did not how- 
ever arrive till the 1 3th, when he brought me a most 
obliging letter from the Governor. The season was 
so far advanced that I had not a moment to lose. 
Our crews enjoyed the finest health, and I had flat- 
tered myself on my arrival that I should provide for 
all our wants, and be reaHy to set sail iu five or six 
days. But the southerly winds and the currents were 
so violent, that all communication with the land was 

* It would be injurious to the improvement of navigation, and 
fatal to navigators, to adopt this metliod of effacing from our chaits, 
islands formerly discovered, because they have been sought in vain» 
or their position uncertain, through paucity of the means of laying 
them down accurately at theperiol of their discovery. 

I ought to oppose this method the more earnestly, as I have 
proved the existence of Ascension island. In thus effacing islands 
from the globe, we become, in some measure, responsible for the 
dangers incurred by navigators when they fall in with them, 
luUerl into security by their charts ; whereas, iflaid down, though 
uncertain, yet by rousing the attention of the navigator, they may 
•ssist him more easily to find them,— ^JprewcA Editor . 

frequently 



32 , LA pérouse's voyage [1785. 

frequently interrupted ; a circumstance which re- 
tarded my departure. 

I had chosen St. Catharine's in preference to Rio- 
Janeiro, merely toavoidthe ceremonious formalities 
of great cities, which always occasion a loss of time. 
Eut experience taught me that this harbour united 
several advantages. Provisions of every kind were 
extremely plentiful; a large ox cost eight piastres, 
a hog of 150 lb, weight cost four, and turkeys 
were sold for a piastre the pair. We had only to 
throw the net in order to draw it up full of fish. 
Oranges were brought on board and sold to us at the 
rate of 500 for less than half a piastre, and vegetables 
were also very reasonable. The following fact will 
give some idea of the hospitality of this good people. 
Sly boat having been overset by the surf, in a creek 
where the crew were cutting wood, the inhabitants 
whoassisted in saving it, obliged our sailors who had 
been cast away, togo into their beds; sleeping them- 
selves on matts in the middle of the room which was 
the scene of this affecting hospitality. A few days 
after, they brought on board the sails and masts of 
the boat with its grapnel and flag, objects of great 
Talue in their estimation, and which would have 
proved of the utmost utility in their canoes. This 
people are good, obliging, and of gentle manners; 
but they are very superstitious, and jealous of their 
wives, who never appear in public. 

Our officers shot many birds of most brilliant 
plumage, among others a rollier, a bird of a re- 
markably fine blue ; which, though not described 
by Buffon, is very common in this country. 

Not having foreseen the obstacles which detained 
lis twelve days in the road, we did not land our 
astronomical clocks, supposing we should not Heat 
anchor more than five or six days; a circumstance 
which, however, caused but little regret, as the sky 
was constantly cloudy. We thcrefoi-e determined 
V Î ' the 



1785.] 



^ ROUNp TUE WORLD. 



33 



the longitude of this island by thç moon's distance 
from the sun^ and accordinig ^to our observations, 
the most north-easterly point in St. Catharine's, 
may be fined m 49' 49' W. longitude, and 27" 1^^ 
S. latitude. . 

On the evening of the l6th, every thing being oii 
board, I sent my packets to the Governor, who had 
undertaken to send them to Lisbon, where I ad^ 
dressed them to Mv de Saint- Marc, our Consul- 
general ; every ope being permitted to write to his 
family and friends. We flattered ourselves with 
setting sail the next day, but the north wind, which 
would have been so favourable to us had we been 
out at sea, detained us in the bottom of the bay 
till the 19th of November. I then weighed at 
break of day, but the calm oblisjiug me to cast' 
anchor again for some hours, I did not clear all the 
islands till night. ' ' 

We had purchased at St. Catharine's oxen, hogs, 
and poultry sufficient for the ship's crew for more 
than a mouth, and had added some orange and le- 
mon trees to our collection, which, ever since our 
departure from Brest, had been well preserved in 
cases made at Paris under the eye and direction of 
M. Thouin. Our gardener was also furnished with 
the seeds of oranges and lemons, grains of rice, 
maize and cotton, and in general every species of 
esculent plant, of which navigators have described 
the inhabitants of the South Sea to be destitute, and 
which are more analogous to their climate and mode 
of living than the pot-herbs of France, of which we 
alo») carried an immense quantity of seeds. 

The day of my departure I sent to the Astrolabe 
ne\v^ signals of much greater extent than those we 
had hitherto used. We were going to navigate in 
the midst of fogs, and in the most stormy seas ; cir- 
cumstance: which required additional precautions. 
It was also agreed with M. de Langle, that in case • 

Vol. J. D of 



d4 



LA P£liOtf8£'S VOTAÔE 



[1785. 



of separaéioB our first rendezvous should be Port Sue- 
cesi, in the Straits of Le Maire, suppOHi»iiç us not to 
Jiave already passed beyond its latitude by the 1st of 
Jatiuary and the second, Veiius Po^nt. in the island 
ot Otaheite. I further informed htm, that I should 
limtt my researches in the Atlantic Ocean to 
risle Grande de la Roche, having no longer time 
to seek a passage to the southward of the Sand- 
wich Islande. I then rci^retted extremely that I 
CouKI not begin my researches to the eastward; but 
I did not dare to pursue a n>easure so contrary to 
the plan adopted in France, because in that case I 
could no whire have received the Minister's letters 
which had been announced to me, and which might 
contain the most important instructions. 

The weather was very fine till the 28th, when it 
blew a very heavy gale from the east for the first 
time since our departure from France ; and I saw 
with infinite pleasure that if our ships sailed very 
badly, they behaved very well in foul weather, and 
would be able to withstand the rough seas we had to 
encounter. We were then in 35* .4' south lati- 
tude, and 4S 40' West longitude : I steered E.S.E. 
becauNC i pu posed in my search after I'lsle Grande 
to get into Ui> latitude ten degrees to the eastward of 
the place assigned it in the difierent charts. I did 
not shut m^y eyes to the extreme difficulties I should 
have to struggle with ; but, in all events, I was under 
the necessity of running very far to the westward in 
order to reach the Straits of Le Maire ; and all the 
way I should make on that point of the compass, 
pursuing the parallel of Tlsle Grande^ brought me 
nearerthe coast of Patagonia, the soundings of which 
I was obliged to take before I doubled Cape Horn. 
The latitude of ITsle Grande not being perfectly de- 
termined^ it was more probable I shpuid meet with 
it in plying between 44" and 45" of latitude than 
if I steeredii direct course in 44" 30^ as I might do 

m 



fta sailing 
constant 
the east I 
It will 
advantag 
40 days i 
five heav 
my cours 
On the 
parallel oi 
34" W, lo 
taken the 
the sea-W( 
many day 
and petre 
but in the 
These fi 
hopes alivi 
T7ewere n 
quietude \ 
back to th 
Maire, wl 
before the 
I kept 
till the S4 
longitude 
cemberabî 
island of 
goémon at 
ofiand, sij 
made the 
our daily ri 

* If risle 

n»p« with in< 
signed him, 
its nosition h 
«Itrectivejourr 
5anus,tberea 
» the positioJ 



1785.] nOUND THE WORLD. SS 

fa sailing from west to east, the wind blowing as 
constantly from the west in these latitudes as from 
the east between the tropics. 

It will presently be perceived that I derived no 
advantages from these considerations, and that after 
40 days fruitless research, during which I met with 
five heavy gales of wind, I was obliged to direct 
my course for my ulterior destination. 

On the 7th of December I was on the pretended 
parallel of I'Isle Grande in 44** 38' S. latitude, and 
34* W. longitude, according to a lunar observation 
taken the preceding day, when we saw a species of 
the sea-weed called goémon pass us, and were for 
many days surrounded with birds of the albatross 
and petrel kind, which never approach the land 
but in the season for laying. 

These feeble indicia of land, however, kept our 
hopes alive, and reconciled us to the dreadful seas 
\re were navigating. But I was not without dis- 
quietude when I considered that I had 35** to run 
back to the westward, as far as the Straits of Le 
Maire, which it was of great importance to reach 
before the end of January. 

I kept plying between 44** and 45*" S. latitude, 
till the S4th of December, and ran down 15* of 
longitude on this parallel, and in the 27th of De- 
cemberabandoned my attempt, being convinced the 
island of La Roche had no existence*, and that the 
goémon and petrels by no means prove the vicinity 
of land, since I met with sea-weeds and birds till I 
made the coast of Patagonia. The chart on which 
oar daily run is traced will exhibit the track I followed 

* If I'Isle Grande de la Roche could hare been placed in the 
maps with morecertdnty, LaPérouse, in traversng the |>an]lel as- 
àgned him, might have been assured that it did not exist. But ai 
its jwsition has never been exactly determined, on account of the 
dcKctive journals of Anthony de la Roche, and Vespucius Ameri- 
canuSftbc researches of La Pérouse only prove that it docf not exist 
in the position indicated.— frcnM Editor, 

2 — *^ much 



36 



LA PÉROUSES VOYAGE 



ims 



much more' clearly than these details, and I am con- 
vinced th >t navi<4:ators who may succeed me in this 
research will not be more fortunate than myself: 
but they ought not topursuethiscourseexcept when 
they are steerinpf E. towards the Indian Ocean, where 
it is not more difficult or more tedious to run 90' on 
this parallel than on any other; and if they find no 
land thpy will at least have pursued a course approach- 
in ir the object. I am persuaded I'lsle Grande, like that 
of" Pep is, has merely a chimerical existence*, and 
that the report of La Roche, who pretended toha^e 
seen great trees there, is void of all probability, vit 
is very rertain thit in 45" nothing hut shrubs can 
be found upon an island placed in the midst of the 
southtTii ocean, since not a single large tree is.to 
be found on the islands of Tristan d'Acunha, a lati- 
tude infinitely more favourable to vegetation. 

On the 25tli of December, the wind settled in the 
S. W. quarter, and continued there several days, 
which obliged me to steer VV N.W. and quit the 
parallel I had constantly followed during 20 days. 
As I had then passed the point assigned in all the 
maps to risle Grande de la Roche, and the season 
was far advanced, I determined to steer that course 
which would most accelerate my progress to the west- 
ward, much fearing lest I should be exposed to dou- 
ble Cape Horn in the stormy season. But the wea- 
ther was more favourable than I hoped. The heavy 
gales ceased with the month of December, and the 
month of January was nearly as pleasant as that of 

* I know that New Georgia, as mentioned in the Journal of La 
RocHp, has a^ain been found, but I am mu* h in doubt whether 
we ought to ascribe \o him the honour qf this di8cx>very. Ac- 
eording to hi:» Journal there is a strait of ten leagues b^ tween the 
Isle of Bird? and Georgia, while in reality this strait is not more 
than one league; a mistake *oo great for the most inexperienced 
mariner to maite, had he been speaking pf the same place. It is 
however from the former place ihc dcpartute should be taken, in 
order to pldCe risle Grande between 43° and 54" of longitude, for 
I have crossed every meridian from 33" to 60" withoutd scoveringit. 

July 



\ I 



ROUND THE WORLD, ^j 



37 



1785.] 

July on the coasts of Europe. The wind only blew 
from the N.W. and S.W, But we were able to 
carry all our sails ; and these changes of the wipd 
were always so distinctly aunounced by the appear- 
ance of the sky, that we were certain of the moment 
when the wind was going so shift, and were there- 
by enabled to run on the most advantageous tack. 
The moment the horizon became hazy, and tbe sky 
cloudy, tbeS W. wind shifted to the west, and two 
hours afterwards it came round to the N. W, : on 
the contrary» when the haziness disappeared we were 
lure the wind would not be long before it came 
round by the W» to the S W. I do not believe 
that during 66 days sailing the wind veered from 
N. to S. by the E. more than J 6 hours. 

We had some days of calm weather, with a 
smooth sea, during which the officers of both fri- 
gates formed shooting parties in the boat^and killed 
a considerable quantity ot fowls with which we were 
almost always surrounded. This sport, which was 
generally productive, procured fresh provisions for 
the crew, and it often happened that we killed a 
sufficient quantity to make a general distribution. 
The sailors not only preferred them to salt meat, 
but 1 believe they contributed infinitely more to 
keep them in good health. 

in our different excursions we killed nothing but 
albatrosses of the large and small kind, witii four 
varieties of petrels. These birds when skinned and 
highly seasoned were nearly as good as the wild 
ducks eaten in Europe. Tliey have been well de- 
scribed by the naturalists who accotnpanied Captain 
Cook, and are the same as those of which Messrs. 
Banks, Solander, and Forster have given the most 
satisfactory descriptions. 

At length on the 14th of January we came into 
the soundings of Patagonia, in 47" 50' S. latitude, 
and 64° 37' W. longitude, according to our last 

-^ D3 . lunar 



38 



LA P£R0V8E*S VOTAOB 



[1785. 



lunar observations, for which we never suffered any 
opportunity to escape when the weather was fa* 
vourable. The officers of the ship were so accuse 
tomed to it, and seconded M. Dagelet so assidu* 
ously, that I do not believe our greatest error in 
longitude could exceed half a degree. 

On the 21st we made Cape Fair-Weather, on the 
north point of the river Gallegos, on the coast of 
Patagonia, being three leagues from the land in 41 
fathoms water, over a bottom of small clayey 
stones about the size of peas. Our longitude d& 
termined at noon, differed from the chart in Cook% 
second voyage only 15', which we were more to the 
eastward. We sailed along the coast of Patagonia 
at a distance of between three and five leagues 
from shore. 

On the Sad at noon we set Virgin's Cape, bear- 
ing four leagues west. This land is lowana without 
verdure. The view of it given by the editor of 
Admiral Anson*s Voyage appeared to me very ex- 
act, and its position is determined with perfect ac- 
curacy in the chart of Cook's second voyage. 

The soundings as far as Virgin's Cape always 
bring up soft mud, or those small stones mixed with 
ooze, which are generally found in a line with the 
mouths of rivers. But on the coast of Terra del 
ï'uego we had always a rocky bottom, and only 
from â4 to 30 fathoms water, tHoughat the distance 
of three leagues from the land, which makes me 
think this coast is not so bold as that of Patagonia. 

The charts of Captain Cook have determined 
with the mt>8t perfect accuracy the latitude and 
longitude of the different capes of this coast. ^ -^-^^^ 

The bearings of the coasts are delineated from 
exact surveys, but the minutise, in which consists 
the security of navigation, have not been attended 
to with sufficient care. Neither Captain Cook nor 
any other navigator can answer for more than the 

tracks 



LI 



1785. J 



19UND THE WOEID* 



99 



tracks they have followed, and the soundiogi they 
bave taken ; and it is possible that in smooth water 
they may have passed bv banks and shoals» which 
did not then break, so that this navigation requires 
JDlinitely more caution thaa that of our European 
continents. 

I have entered into these particulars with a view 
to point out the degree of confidente to be placed 
in these sort of charts, doubtless the most accurate 
th^t can be constructed in a rapid passage over a great 
extent of sea. It was impossible for the old navi- 
gators, before the method of taking iunar observa- 
tions, to approach this degree pf precision, which is 
such, that within 20 minutes, I can rely upon the 
points we hav^ veritied, as fully as on the longi- 
tude of the observatories of London and Paris. 

On the S^th, at twp o^clock^ I had Cape St 
Diego bearing south one league, that beiug the 
western point of the Straits of Le Maire. ! had 
since the morning kept at that distance from the 
shore, and foUoi«ved on Captai h Couk*s chart the 
bay where Mr. Banks landed in search of plants, 
Mobile the Resolution waited for him under sail. 

The weather was so favourable that it was impos* 
sible for me to shew the same compliance to ou** na- 
turalists. At three o*clock I entered the strait, hav- 
ing doubled point St. Diego at the distance of about 
|of a league, where there are breakers which I believe 
do not extend more than a mile : but, having ob- 
served the sea to break more m the olhng, I steered 
S.£. that I might increase my disiaiice from the 
breakers. I soon perceived this appearance wa^ 
occasioned by the currents^ and that the reefs of 
Cape St. Diego were at a considerable distance. 

Asitblew fresh from the north ward,anditwasiiHny 
power to approach Terra del Fuegb, I ran ;ilongit Kalf 
aleague from the shore. The wind wassotavourable, 
and the season so far advanced, that I deteniiiae^ 

D4 immediately 



ié 



LA Vt house's TOTAOÉ 



[1785. 



immediately tri give up the idea of touching at Suc- 
cess Bay, and ehdeavour to double Cape Horn, f 
considered that it was impossible to provide every 
thittg I Wanted iri less than ten or twelve days, and 
that this time had been absolutely necessary at St. 
Catharine's ; because, in these open bays where the 
sea breaks with violence on the shore, for half the 
day béats cannot land. If to these inconveniences 
were added the south winds, which might have for 
some time detained me in Success Bay, the fa- 
vourable season would elapse, and I should expose 
tny ship to dangers, and my crew to fatigues, very 
prejudicial to the success of the expedition. 

'These considerations detetitrfned me to steer for 
file island of Juati Ftrriandezi whichlay in my course, 
and Whe^e Î could prAcufc wood' and water, with 
s^ime refVesihments tar superiorto the penguins of the 
Stfaijt. At thîs'timel had not one sick man on 
bodrd. Fourscore casks of water remained unbroach- 
cd, and Terra del Fuego has been so often visited and 
described, that Pcould not flatter myself with ad- 
ding to what had beeh already said of it. 

During od^ pUssage through the strait of le Maire, 
the savages, according to custom, kindled great 
fires to induce lis to anchor. We observed one on 
tlrc north point of Success Bay, and another on the 
north point of Valentine's Bay. I am persuaded, 
with Captain Cook, that ships may anchor indiffe- 
rently in all these bays. There is plenty of wood 
dndVater, but doubtless less game than at Christ- 
itias Harboiir, oti account of the savages who fre* 
qubnt them great part tyf the year. 
^^ While navigating this strait about half a league 
from Teri'a del Fuego, we were surrounded by 
whales, who, it is evident, had never been disturbed, 
for our ships did ftot at all alarm them. 'J'bey 
swam majestically within pistolshot of us, and-^will 
remain sovereigns of these seas, till fishermen wage 
V • - ., on 



1785.] 



ROUND THE WOBII). 



41 



on them the same war as the adventurers of. G rven* 
land do in the north. There is not, perhaps, a bettef 
spot on-all the globe for this fishery. Vessels voiild 
find anchorage in excellent bays, abounding^ in 
wood and water, as M'ell as some antiscorbutic herbs 
and sea-fowl, and their boats, without quitting them 
more than a league, might take all the whales they 
wanted to complete their cargoes. Their only in- 
convenience would be the length of the voyage> 
which would require nearly five month» for, the 
passage out, and the same.:hii)nie ; an d^, I believe, 
these latitudes can only be frequented during the 
months of December, Janudry^and February. 13 

We were unable tomakeany observations respect- 
ing the current of the StrUits, for ve entered th^m at 
three o'clock ini the afternoon^ when the moon was 
fiédaysoldj.andtheycamMus'with violence to the 
southward till five, when the tide changed. But as 
we had a fresh breeze from the nortfi, we stemmçd 
it with ease; The horizon was so foggy towards the 
east, that we.had not perceived Statin Island ; frotki 
which, however, we could notbe five leagues distant, 
that being the whole breadth of tbe Straits But we 
had passed so near Terra del Fuega, that.wf^obserVed 
with our telescope some savages lighting g.f eat fires, 
their only means of communicating thçïr desire of 
inviting vessels on shore. Another motive yet more 
powerful, determined me to abandon my design of 
putting into Success Bay. For I had been' a long 
time forming a new plan, on which 1 could not de- 
termine till after I had passed Cape Horn, ^irunr^ii 

My design was to go to the N.^W,) coast of An?e* 
rica that year; a route which, although, l had 
received no such instrucMons, I kn^w had only 
been suppressed through fear that I should not have 
time to perform so lonji a vo3îage before winter : for 
this plan would otherwise have united a great num- 
er of advantages. In that qase 1 should pursue a 

, V» ne\y 



43 



lA pâbouse's voyage 



[1785. 



new route» and cross latitudes, vhere I might 
posiibl3[ discover many unknown islands. I should 
also visit much «ooner all the places of my desti- 
nation, for which a stay of two years had been allot- 
ted in the northern, and (wo in the southern hemi- 
sphere, my instructions expressly permitting me to 
execute his Majesty's commission in the manner 
which should appear to promise most success to the 
expedition; for the final adoption of my plan, there- 
fore, I only waited to know at what time 1 should 
arrive in the South Sea. 

'■ I doubled Cape Horn with much greater facility 
than I expected : though I am now convinced that 
this navigation is not more hazardous than any other 
in these nigh latitudes. The dangers we dreaded 
were only the chimerical oifspring of an ancient prêt 
judice, which ought no longer to exist, and which 
the reading of Anson's voyages contributes not a 
little to support among navigators. 

On the 9th of February I was off the mouth of 
the Straits of Magellan, in the South Sea, steering 
for Juan Fernandez. By my reckoning I had passed 
over tlie supposed situation of the land which Drake 
pretended to have discovered ; but I lost little time 
in search of it, being convinced it did not exist. 
Since my departure from Europe, the tracks of the 
ancient navigators had occupied all my thoughts. 
But their Journals are generally so ill compiled, as to 
aiford little more than hints and conjectures ; and 
those geographers who are not seamen, are generally 
ignorant of these matters, and unable to investigate, 
with critical accuracy, accounts which require a 
strict and distrustful examination. Consequently 
they have laid down islands which never existed but 
in charts, and, being mere phantoms of the imagina- 
tion, soon disappearedbeforeour modern navigators. 

In 1578, five days after his departure from the 
Straits of Magellan, Admiral Drake met with very 

(ji V heavv 



178^.] ROUND THE WORLD, v' éH^ 

heavy gales of wind in the greatsouthern ocean, which \ 
continued near a month. It is difficult to follow him | 
on his various courses, but at length he touched at ; 
an island in 57° S. latitude» where he landed and re- < 
marked great flights of birds. Then, running to the i 
northward for the space of SO leagues; he fell in with - 
otherislands inhabited by savages possessedof canoes. 
These islands produce woodand antiscorbutic plants. 
Who but would recognize, from this description, t 
Terra del Fuego on which Prake landed ; and, pro- ^ 
bably, on the island of Diego Ram ires, which lies 
nearly in the latitude of Drake's pretended island ? 
At that time Terra del Fuego was unknown. X^ 
Maire and Schouten had not discovered the strait 
which is named after them, till 1 616 ; and the ge- 
neral opinion before that time had always been, that 
there existed in the southern, as well as in the 
northern hemisphere, a continent - hich extended to > 
the neighbourhood of the poles. The southern part 
oF America was thought to be intersected by straits, 
one of which, like Magellan, they supposed they had 
discovered. These erroneous ideas were calculated 
to mislead Admiral Drake, who was carried by the 
currents 42 oi iS degrees to the eastward of his reck- 
oning, as it has happened since to a great number of 
other navigators in the same latitudes. This opi- 
nion, so probable in itself, amounts to a certainty, 
when we reflect that a ship of the same squadron 
which had stretclied to the northward, while the 
Commodore stood to the southward, re-entered the 
Straits of Magellan which it had just quitted : an 
evident proof that it had made no way to the wes^t- 
ward, and that Admira! Drake had not passed beyond 
the longitude of America. We may add, that it is ex- 
tremely improbable that an island so far from tlie 
continent, and in 57° latitude, should be covered 
^vitb trees, when none are to be found on Falkland's 
Islands, which are situated only in 55" ; that nei- 
ther 



m>ii 






h'S^^M 






^•0 



«# 4 



1 44 



LA PÉROUSES VOTAGE 



[178. 



ï <her on these last, nor on Staten Island, whicliis 
, 1 -separated from the continent'by a strait of only five 

•Ï leagues wide, is there a single inhabitant; and, lastly, 

? the description which Drake gives of the savages, 
. ? thfcir boats, trees and plants, suits the Pécherais so 
well, and in general coincides so exactly with every 
other account of Terra del Fuego, that 1 am un- 
able to conjecture why Drake's Island still pre- 
serves its place on the maps. 
• The W.S.W. winds, therefore, being favourable 
for my getting to the northward, I did not suffer 
time so precious to be lost in this vain research, but 
'continued my route to Juan Fernandez. But on 
examining my stock of provisions, I found we had 
very little bread and flour, having been obliged, as 
well as M. de Langle, to leave 400 quarters at 
Brest for want of stowage. The worms also had got 

■ -into the biscuit; not that they had rendered it 
uneatable, but had reduced the quantity about a 
fifth. On these considerations I preferred Concep- 

L tion Bav to the island of Juan Fernandez, well 
knowing that part of Chili to aboutid in grain,-which 
was cheaper there than in any part of Europe, and 
that I should there find all other provisions in plenty, 
and at the most reasonable price. I therefore shaped 
my course somewhat more to the eastward. 

The 22d, in the evening, I made the island of 
Mocha, which is about 50 leagues to the south of 
La Conception. Fearing I should be carried by the 
currents too much to the northward, I had been 
induced to haul in for land ; a precaution which I 
now think was needless, it being sufficient to get 
into the latitude of the island of Santa Maria, which 
it is necessary to make, taking care however not to 
approach it nearer than about three leagues, oiiac- 
' count of the sunken rocks tliat extend very far out 
from the north-west point of the island. 

When that point is doubled you may range along 
''- the 



1785.] ROUND THE WORLD.' 45 

the land, there bein^ no lona^er any hidden danger, 
except within a small distance of the shore. At the 
same time you are in sight of the Mamelles de Biobio, 
two mountains of which the name indicates the 
shape. It is necessary to steer a little to the north- 
ward of the Mamelles for the point of Talcaguana. 
This promontory forms the western limit of Con- 
ceptioij Bay, which extends abciut three leagues 
from east to west, and as many in depth from north 
to south. But the mouth of the bay is contracted 
by the island of Quiquirina, which is situated in the 
middle and forms two entrances. Of these the 
eastern passage is the safest and most frequented, 
being about a league broad ; whereas that to the 
west, between the island of Quiquirina and the 
point of Talcaguana does not exceed a quarter of a 
league, and is full of rocks, through which a passage 
ought not to be attempted without a very skilful 
pilot. 

Soundings are found upon the coast from the 
island of ISanta Maria to the entrance of Concep- 
tion Bay. Three leagues in the offing we found 70 
fatlioms water over a bottom of black inud ; anti 
30 fathoms in the bay, in the direction of E. and W. 
From the north point of the island of Quiquirina 
the soundings gradually decreased to seven fathoms 
within two musket-shots of the land. There is ex- 
cellent anchorage in all parts of the bay, but there 
is no shelter from the north winds except off the 
viilaoe ot Talcaguana. 

We doubled the point of the island of Quiquirina 
at two in the afternoon, but the south winds which 
had hitherto been so aiuch in our favour were now 
become contrary. We therefore made several boards. 
taking caie to keep our lead going. We looked for 
the town of Conception wiih our telescopes, which 
from the cnart of Frézier we knew must lie to the 
south-east, and in the botlomofthe bay, but could 

not 






*'-^i>'^MI>i 






fh 









46 



LA PER0U8ES TOTiLOE 



[1785. 



not discover it. ^t five in the evenings pilots came 
on board, who informed \\s, that town had been de- 
stroyed by an earthquake in 175 1, and did not then 
exist ; and that the new town had been built on the 
river Biobio, three leagues distant from the sea. From 
thesepilots we also learnt, that ourarrival was expect* 
ed at La Conception, letters from the Spanish Mini- 
ster having already reached them. We continued 
working to wind ward^ to approach the bottom of the 
bay ; and at nine P.M. we anchored in nine fathoms 
water, about a league to the N.£. of the ?inchoraKe 
of Talcaguana, whither we were to remove in the 
morning. 

About ten o'clock that evening, M. Postigo, a 
captain in the Spanish navy, came on board my ship, 
with a message from the com mandant of La Concep- 
tion. He slept on board, and^ at day-break, depart^ 
eâ, to give an account of his mission, having first 
suggested to the pilot we had taken on board, the 
most convenient place for us to anchor. Before he 
took horse, hoM'Cver, he sent us some fresh provisions, 
fruits, and pulse in greater abundance than was ne- 
cessary even for the whole crew,, whose healthful ap- 
pearance seemed to excite his surprise. No vessel 
perhaps had ever doubled Cape Horn, and arrived 
at Chili, without having several sick on board, and 
there was not one in either of our ships. 
''■ At seven in the morning we weighed, and being 
tow^d in by our boats, we dropped anchor in the 
creek of Talcaguana, at 11 A.M. on the S4th of 
February, in seven fathoms water, over a bottom of 
black mud, the middle of the village of Talcagua- 
na bearing S. 21° W;, Fort St. Angustin S.,and Fort 
Galves near our watering place N.W. S" W. 

Since our arrival on the coast of Chili, we had 
ievery day taken lunar observations. Our longi- 
tudes differed very little from those laid down by 
Don George Juan. But as we had reason to believe 



.'^4^ 



our 



17UJ.] 



AOUMD ttlE WORLU. 



47 



our present method of taking them very ^perior 
to that made use of in 1744, we shall lay clown 
the northernmost point of the island of Santa Ma- 
ria, in 37° r S. lat. and 7A° S5' 45* W. lonpf. and 
the middle of the village of Talcaguana iu 36" 42f 
21" S. lat. and 75" 120' W. long, according to the 
observations made by M. Dagelet fiotn our astro- 
nomical tents, erected by the sea side. 

The plan delineated by Don George Juan is made 
with so much accuracy, that we had only to verify 
it; but Mr. Bernizet, our geographical engineer, 
added a partdf the course of the river Biobio, in or- 
der to shew the situation of the new town, and the 
road leading to it. 



?4^m CHAR HL *^"- • 

PESCRIPTION OF CONCEPTION BAT — MANNERS 
AND CUSTOMS Of THE INHABITANTS — i)E- 
PARTUHE FROM TALCAQUANA — ARRIVAL AT 
FASl'KR ISLAND. 

THE bay of Conception, is one of the most 
commodious that can be found in any part of 
the world. For though the tide rises six feet three 
inches, the water is smooth, and there is scarcely any 
current. It is high water here at the full and change 
ofthe moon, at 45 minutes past one. The bay is open 
only to the north winds, which never blow but iti 
the winter — that is, from the end of May to October. 
In this season also the rains fall, and continue 
throughout the monsoon, for so we may denominate 
constant winds, which are succeeded by others from 
the south, that continue to blow for the rest ofthe 
year^ und are accompanied with fine weather. The 
only anchorage, sheltered from the NE. winds» 
in tlîe winter, is before the village of Talcaguana^ 
on the south-west side. '"=**' •»'•*' -V'' -• - «fr^ . 

At 



■i 



/'/ 



4ê tA P£ROUSE*S VOTAAE [1785. 

At present there is no other Spanish settlement in 
this bay, the ancient town of Conception, as I have 
aliFeady mentioned, having been destroyed by au 
earthquake in 1751. It then stood at the mouth of 
the river St. Pierre, on the east of Talcaguana, and 
its ruins are still to be seen^ though unlike the re- 
mains of ancient magnificence in the other hemi- 
sphere. Their duration will be short, the build- 
ings of this country being only of clay, or bricks 
baked in the sun, andthe roofs covered with scallop 
tiles, as in the southernmost provinces of France. 
'' After the destructioïi of this town, which, during 
the earthquake, was rather swallowed up by the sea 
than by the land, the inhabitants dispersed, and en- 
camped in the environs. It was not till 1763 that they 
made choice of anotherspot, situated about a quarter 
of a league from the river Biobio, and three leagues 
from the ancient town of Conception, and the vil- 
lage of Talcaguana. On this spot they built a new 
town, to which the bishopric, the cathedral, and 
the religious houses were transferred. The houses 
consisting but of one story, that they may be 
the better able to resist the shock of earthquakes, 
which occur in these parts almost every year ; this 
town occupies a great extent of ground. 

The inhabitants are about 10,000; and here is 
the residence of the bishop and a colonel of horse, 
who is the military governor. The bishoprick is no- 
minally bounded on the nonh by that ofSant-Jago, 
the capital ot Chili, where the governor general re- 
tides ; and on theeast by the Cordilleras, and extend- 
ing on the south as far as the Straits of Magellan. 
But iv; true liaiit is the river Biobio, about a quarter 
of a k ague from the town. All the country to the 
south ot that river, with the exception of the isle of 
,Chiloe, and a small circle round Baldivia belongs 
to the Indians, who cannot be deemed subjects of 
the Spaniuids, wfth whom they arc continually at 
ff. ' • . war 



1785.1 ROUND tnR WORLDS ' 40 

war, which renders the Spaniih governor*8 ofRce at 
oDCe difficult and important. To him is entrufted 
the command of the militia of the country as well 
as the regular troops, from which he derives a great 
influencé over the inhabitants, whofc civil governor 
is the coiTegidor. The defence of the country alfo 
refis folely with him; fo that between war and nego- 
tion hé finds inceflant employ. A new adminiftra- 
tion is now forming, which perhaps will differ little 
from that of our colonies, and the authority will be 
divided between the governor and the intendant. 
In the Spanifh colonics it ihould be obferved, there 
is no fupreme council ; thofe who are invefted with 
the king's authority are alfo, with fome legal affift 
ants, the judges in all civil actions. Hence it is 
obvious, that juftice being adminiftered by officers 
of unequal rank, the opinion of the fuperior draws 
with it that of his inferiors. He therefore is, in 
fa6t, the fole judge ; and to expccSl that great mif- 
cbiefs will not enfuc from fuch an adminiftration, is 
to fuppofe him endowed with unufual talents, and 
fuperior to all paffion and prejudice. 

The whole world does not afford a more fertile 
fpot than this part of Chili. Corn produces iixty 
fold, and the vine is equally abundant, the fields are 
covered with innumerable flocks, which, without 
requiring any care, multiply beyond all calculation. 
The only care necefîàry is to keep feparate the dif- 
ferent property of individuals ; and oxen, horfes, 
mules and fheep herd together in the fame enclo- 
iures. A large ox is ordinarily worth eight dol- 
lar , u Iheep three quarters of a dollar ; but there 
are no purchafers, and the inhabitants kill every year 
a great quantity of cattle, the Ikins and tallow of 
which are fent to Lima. They alfo cure fome pro- 
vifions for the confumption of the fmall coafling vef- 
fels which navigate the fouth feas. 
No difeafe feems peculiar to this country, but 
Vol. I. E ^ * there 



60 lA PÉROU8E*6 VOYAGE [l785. 

there is one very common that I fliall not name, 
which thofe who are fo fortunate as to efcapc often 
Tive to a great age ; for at La Conception I met with 
fcvcral who had attained an hundred years. 

Notwithftanding fo many advantages, this colony 
ÎS far from making the progrefs which might have 
been expec^led from a fituation the mort favourable 
to great population, but the influence of the go- 
vernment is in conftant oppoiition to that of the 
climate. The fyftem of prohibition exifts at Chili in 
its fnlleft extent. This kingdom, of which the pro- 
du<f^ions would, if increafed to their maximum, fup- 
•p\y all Europe ; whofe wool would be fufficient for 
the manufaé^ures of France and England, and 
whofc he«ls, converted into fait provilion, would 
prodtice a vaft revenue— -this kingdom, alas ! has no 
commerce ! Four or five fmall veHèl^ bring every 
year from Lima, tobacco, fugar, and fome articles of 
European manufacture, which the miferauie inha- 
bitants can obtain only at fécond or third hand, 
after they have been charged with heavy cufloms 
at Cadiz, at Lima, and laftly at their arrival at 
ChiH ; in exchange they give their tallow, hides, 
(bme deals, and their wheat, which, however, is at 
fo Imv a price, that the cultivator has no induce- 
- ment to exterid his tillage. Thus the balance of 
trade is always againft Chili, which, with all its 
gold * awJ articles of exchange, can fbarely pur- 
cbalè fugars, tobacco, ll«fFs, linens, cambrics, and 
even the hardwares necefîàry to the ordinary wants 
of life. 

Ftom this very eonciib defcription, it is evident, 
that if Spain does not change her fyftipm ; if the 
freedom of commerce is not permitted; if.thedu- 



*i'!L^.ftrdm]fifto the accounts wliich hnve been tranimittcd toitif, 
the gold which they procure annually in the archbilhoprick of 
Cgficeptioi) cannot be eftimated at more than 200,000 piaiteis, A 
plantjttion at St. Domingo affords a revenue ftiJJ as large. 

■ ties 



1785.] ROUND THE W011L9. 51 

ties on fdrdgn manufaélures are not reduced : in 
(hort, if they lofe fight of the political axiom, that 
a \tty fm^l taxation, on an immenfe confumption, 
is far more produ<5live to the treafury, than a duty 
fo he&vy as to annihilate the confumption itfblf, the 
kingdom of Chili will never attain that flourilhing 
condition which its happy iituation appears to pro- 
mise. 

Unfortunately for this country it pit)duoe8 a fmall 
quantity of gold, and the bedà of almoft all thfc rivers 
are enriched with that metal. The inhabitant rtiay 
gain half a dcHIar a day merely by waftiitig the foil ; 
but, as provifions are extreme]^ abundant, want does 
not excite him to labour. Deprived of all communi- 
cation with 'fbreignersi he is e<)ually ignorant of our 
arts and luxury, and can feel HO déiii?es for thfem, 
fuffidently ftrong, to overcorne his inactivity. The 
land, therefore, remains uncleiared, and the mofl ac- 
tive are thofe who fpend a few hours in wafliing the 
fartd of the river ; an occupation fo eafy, that It be- 
coines unnecéflary for them to learn any trade. Thus 
the houfes c^ the moft opulent are almoft deftitule 
of furniture, and the only Workmen of La Concep- 
tion are foreigners. 

The drefs of the women conflfts in a plained pet- 
ticoat, of thofe ancient gold and iilv^cr fluffs formerly 
manuiaélured at Lyons. Thefe p)fctticoat$, which ate 
referved for grand oocafions, are tmrtsferred, like 
jewels, to the different individuals of a family, and 
pafs from grand-nw)ther to grand-dbughter. Su€h 
ornaments, however, are only within tlw; reach of fi 
few, and tiie reft have fcarcely clothes to cover their 
aakedneft. i^ i;î-. ./.^({i 

It is the kikawfs, rather than the credulity or lU- 
perftition, of the inhabitai^tSi which hais filled thi« 
kingdom ^ith convents, b(&th for meft and ytuman. 
The former tnjoy much more liberty tiian in «toy 
other cùuutry t and thé misfortiiue of having* ùofûmjl^ 

E2 to 



5a LÀ J»éR0USE*8 VOYAÔE [l785. 

to do, of bctonging to no family, anà being con- 
demned to celibacy, yet without fe|)aration from the 
world, ot confinement to their cells. Unavoidably 
renders them the word members of focicty in Ame- 
rica. Their effrontery cannot be expreffed. I have 
fcen them remain at a ball titl midnight, feparated, 
-it is true, from the company, and placed among the 
fervants. No one gave more exa(ft information to 
our young people concerning places which priefls 
(hould know, only to interdict them. 

The inhabitants of La Conception are much ad- 
dieted to theft, and the women are extremely com- 
plaifant. They are, however, but a degenerate race, 
mixed with Indians : yet the inhabitants of the firft 
rank, the true Spaniards, are extremely polite and 
obliging. I fhould be guilty of grofs ingratitude, if 
I did not paint them in their true colours. I (hall 
endeavour to do it, by relating the hiftory of our 
vifit. 

I had fcarcc anchored before the village of Talca- 
guana, when a dragoon brought me a letter fromM. 
Quexada, who was governor, ^ro temporff and aflured 
me we Oiould be received as fellow countrymen; 
adding, with the mod perfeél politenefs, that the or- 
ders he bad received on this occafion, were exadly 
in unifon with the fentiments of his heart, and of ail 
the inhabitants of La Conception. This letter was I 
accompanied with all kinds of refreihments, which 
every one was anxious to prefcat us; but we could 
not confume fo many objects, and we fcarcely knew 
even where to place them; 
ti; Being obliged to devote my fidl attention to the I 
refitting of my fhip, and getting up our aftronomical 
clocks and quadrants on fhore, I could npt iminc- 
dialtely make my acknowledgments to the gover- 
nor^ though I waited with impatience the moment I 
içrhen I migh^ difcharge that duty. He, however, 
pnevéntcd me by coming on board, attended by the 

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l^B^'Ji, KOUND THE WORLD. b$ 

o^ç&éodhccolùny. :,lM^vimtd the vi^ 

ï^nkàhfMéà^ tm^ and fevei«|r 

We wè|fftfi9çeded t^y a 40» 

ring 4)uarteiv 

•ùéMii, 9B well #i 

i^||lie oummi^ 

# lMi>e ^m li 

^M. Sabteto^a 

l|i!^nd a<r night 

^^ fi|ijmisip4i|adiiB»iif tb^ 

■^I0j^'' of . thfifc Indies; fill: irery diiFcrcnt 

)0$i 1^; Wlpçb we h«d lipiifc!<|uaintçd. A 

'^■-^mi^éÊÊmmi^hêM'éii^^md faiiened 

:|%|ielim t1lç^wai|l| frtped ilocKingg of 

fptol^LjM^,!? Ilbi%#at the to^^ 

i<M^;IÉ0#fii!i!imè;.lti*^^ made 

ItMNMol^MjN €^ C^ili. Their 

ler^éii4'f}lf^i4pdil|n^É9^ toupee» 

I, which lyi^^own iHl^j%iNi^NM^ Their 

icç3 a^ iiiUally of gt^ ç0 m^êf^tjmd are 

with two manttllftô ^. «tekfi, i^ ftrft of 

th^ ^afméh er 9w^rm^M vmci&m^ cloth 

C0foiir8, m^^mm* W«i% or ro^ Thefc 

rB^tiltiNt^ver the ImdêM the ladiei^^hen 
In tNi».4NelS) and in ^d weather; hut 
^ h(tH#§.they lay them inl|iek)^$> and tl^yi 
|^fÉ»f^,# ^e manitilla; eoaïlamly f^hi^i^^ar 
lApt$jp^e>r koce% in whii^^Miei of JU 
...^^.^: — _2 — "«-^-^-acçifal^t.H^FhtfjiùsS'in je-; 

J^]^«i&9^city in Europe wber© foi^elgi» na- : 

^r» ¥r0|ila h^ received in a soioher So, engaging 

illve»' . ' .' H ' •^f^/^.t:-- ^*' 

iji^ll concluded about midn^ht, ^Mr» Saba- 

nie not beii^ capable of accommodating j^l^ 

^^^' aiid pmeii^n, caéh irthabi^fÂ^*^^*^ 






ij^'çniwp^^.v.--' 



64 LA Béaouftï's toyaoe [l785. 

«fib-ed tîiem a bed, and wc were thus divided into 
the different quarters of th'e city. 
- Before dinner we had viiited the principal inhabi- 
tants; and, in particular, the bifhop, who was a 
man of intelligence, of amiable manners, and' that 
exemplary charity fo frequent among the Spanifli 
bifhops. He is a Creble of Peru, has never been in 
Europe, and owes his elevation to his virtues. He 
cxprefled to us the regret Mr. Higgins, a colonel of 
horfe, would feel, from having been detained by the 
Indians during our fbort ftay within his government. 
The praifes every one beftowed on that officer, and 
the general efteem for him, made me regret that cir- 
cumilances prevented our feeing him. A courier, 
however, was fent to him, and his anfvver, which 
arrived before our departure, announced a ipeedy re- 
turn ; for he had juft concluded a peace with the 
Indians glorious to his adminiflration, and particu- 
larly neceflbry to the people under his government, 
whofe diftant dwellings are expofed ta the depreda- 
tions of thefe favages, who mafikcre the men and 
children, and carry the women into captivity. 

The Indians of Chili are no louger tbofe ancient 
Americans whoni the arms of Europeans infpired 
with terror. The vaft multiplication of horfes fprcad 
over the immcnfe deferts of America, and Jhat of 
cattle and ibccp, which are alio extremely numerous, 
have made Arabians of thefe people ; and we may, 
in all refpe^s, compare them with the inhabitants of 
the defarts of Arabia itfelf Conftantly on horfe- 
back, to them journeys of 200 leagues are mere ex- 
cui»lions. They travel with their flocks, feed on their 
ftefh, their milk, and fometimes on their blood • ; 
and they cover thrai&lves with their fkins, with 
which they make cafques, cuirafîès, and fhiclds. Thus 
has the introdaélion of two domellic animals 



m 



^ I have been aflùred, thçy fometimes. open the* veins of their 
c^e and horfes, in order to drink their blood. 

America, 



1785.] ' BOUND THl WOtULD. 65 

America, produced the moil ilrikin^ effi^(5t on tbe 
manners of all its inh&bitantS) from St. Jage to tt^ 
ilreights of Magellan. They now no longer IbUow 
any of their ancient cuilonw, no longer iecd on the 
fame fruits, no longer wear the fame cloathing, and 
have a much flronger refemblancc to the Tartars, or^ 
the inhabitants of the borders of the Red Sea than to 
their own anccftors, who lived two centuries ago» 

It is cafy to conceive how dangerous fucb neigh* 
hours are to thé" Spaniards. How can they be pur- 
fued in fuch long expeditions, or how prevented front 
alîèmbling in a (ingle point, a nation fpread over a 
conntry 400 leagues acrofs, and thus forming an ormy 
of 30,000 men? 

Mr. Higgins had the good fortune to gain the good 
will of theie favages, and thereby rendered the moil 
fignal fcrvice to the nation which bad adopted him ; 
for he was a native of Ireland, defccnded from one o( 
the families there who have been perfecUted on ac* 
count of their religion, and ancient attachment to 
the houfe of Stuart. 1 cannot deny myfelf the pfea* 
fare of fpeaking of this loyal officer, whofe manners 
are fo accordant with thofe of every nation. Like the 
Indians I alfo granted him my entire coniidence aftc* 
an hour's converfation. His letter was foon followed 
by his return, and I waâ icarcely informed of it when 
hie arrived at Talcaguana. Again I was anticipated, 
for a colonel of cavalry is fooner monnted than a 
French failor ; and Mr. Higgins, who was charged 
with the defence of the country, was a man of al moll 
nnequalled activity .' In {)olitenef9 and attention he 
exceeded, if poffible, the M. Quexada. His kiftd* 
ncfs appeared fo fincerc and engaging to all the 
Frenchmen, that no expreiîions could convey out 
lentiments of gratitude. As we were indebted to all 
the inhabitants for their politcnefe, we refolvcd to 
give them a gerkeral fate before our departure, 
and to invite to it all the ladies of L» Concept 

E 4 ■ tion. 



5Û , LA piROUBB*ft VOTAOE [i7S5. 

tiôn. A large tent was therefore pitched by the iide 
of the fea, where we gave a dinner to 150 vifitors, 
who had the complaifance to come nine miles to ac- 
cept our invitation, which was followed by a ball, 
fire-works, and a paper balloon, large enough to af- 
afford them an intereiling fpe6lac1e. 
^ The next day we made ufe of the fame tent to 
give a great dinner to the crews of both our fhips, 
when we all fat at the fame table ; M. de Langle and 
myfelf at the head, and every officer, down to the 
laft of the failors, placed according to their rank on 
board. Our plates were wovoden platters, and gaiety 
and pleafure fmiled in the countenances of all the 
failors, who appeared more healthy, and a thoufand 
times happier than on the day of our departure from 
Brefl. 

The Colonel of cavalry gave a fête in his turn, 
and we all went to La Conception to attend it, ex- 
cept the officers on duty. Mr. Higgins came to meet 
us, and conducted our cavalcade to his houfe, where 
a table was laid with 100 covers, to which all the 
officers and inhabitants of diilinélion were, with fe- 
veral ladies, invited. At each courfe a Francifcan 
Jmprovifatore recited fbme verfes in celebration of the 
union between the two nations. At night there was 
a great ball, attended by all the ladies in their beft 
dreflfes, and fbme officers in mafks performed a very 
elegant ballet. It is impoffible to form a more 
charming /^^^ in any part of the world. It was given 
by a man whom the whole country adored, and to 
foreigners who had the advantage of belonging to a 
nation reputed the moft gallant in Europe. 

But thefe pleafures and this good reception did not 
induce me to lofe fight of my principal objed. I 
announced, on the day of my arrival, that I fhould 
fail on the 16th of March, and that fhould our vefTels 
be refitted, and^our wood, water and proviiions be on 
è^rd before tjjat time, every one fhould have liberty 
.... ' . to 



1785 J ROUND THE WOBLD. 67 

to go and amufe himfelf on ihore. Nothing could be 
better calculated to accelerate our work than this pro- 
mife, of which however I dreaded the effete as much 
OS the Tailors defired it ; becaufe wine is very abundant 
in Chili, where every houfe fells it, and the wives of 
the inhabitants are almoil as complaifant as thofe of 
Otaheite; yet no irregularity caufed me to regret the 
indulgence I had granted. . 

During our ftay at Talcaguana, M. Dagelet re- 
gularly made companions, to afcertain the rate of < 
our time-keepers, with the refult of which we were 
extremely well pleafed. , No. 19 had only loft Si" 
per day upon the motion of the fun, fincc our de- 
prture from France, which is a difference of but 
half a fécond from its daily rate at Breft, and one 
fécond from that at TenerifFe. The fmall time- 
keepers, Nos. 25 and 29, had Varied fo much as not 
to deferve our confidence. ^^ 

On the 1 5th, at day break, I made the fignal to 
prepare for failing; but the wind than fettled in 
the north, whereas, during our whole flay in this 
road, it had been conftantly between fouth-fouth- 
weft and fouth-weft. The breeze ufually came on 
at ten in the morning, and ceafed at the fame hour ; 
or earlier at night when it had begun earlier ; on 
the contrary, it continued till midnight, if ii had 
begun at noon ; fo that there were about twelve 
hours of breeze and twelve hours of calm. This 
rule conftantly prevailed till the 15 th, when the wind, 
after an abfolute calm and exccffive heat, fettled 
in the north. It blew very fre(h from that quarter, 
with much rain during the nights of the 15th and 
16th ; and on the 17th, about noon, a light breeze 
fprung up from the S. W. with which I got under 
fail, altho* it was very feeble, and only carried, us two 
leagues out of the bay, where we remained in a dead 
calm and a heavy fvvell, in confequence of the late 
northerly winds. We were furrounded during the 

whole 



> > 



» * 



$6 LA PiROU»E'£ TOTAGE [l765v 

whole night, by whales, vrliich came fo near our ihips 
that they fpouted water on board. Yet not on inha- 
bitant of Chili ever harpooned a fi(h ; for Nature has 
laviihed {o many riches on this kingdom, that fc- 
veral ages will elapfe before this branch of induiliy 
will require to be cultivated. 
SI, On the 1 Qth the fouth winds permitted me to fland 
oft' from the (liore, when I ihapcd my courfe to the 
eaflward of the iiktnd of Juan Fernandez, which I 
did not make, becaufc its fituation has been fixed 
according to the obfervations of Father FeuiUée at 
La Conception,^ and it is impoiîîble there iliould be 
an error of ten minutes in its longitude. 

On the 23d we were in 30° 29' S. latitude, and 
»5° 51' W. longitude by our time-krepery No. 19, 
whofe rate iincc our departure from La Conception 
was fo perfeâly exaél with that of No. 1 8, which 
was on board M. dc Langlc's ihip, that their refults 
did not differ two minutes of a degree till our arrival 
at Eafter Ifland. In the cold clhiiates in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cape Horn it was othcrwife, for it ap- 
pears that the table of tempterature given to M. 
Dagelet by M. Berthoud at Paris, was not correâ. 
The difference was fo confiderablc, as to occafion an 
error in the longitude, by No. 1 8, of more than s 
degree, between the Strait of Lc Maire and our ar- 
fival off the coail of Chili. 

On the 2>4tb the wind fettled to the eaflward, and 
did not vary five degrees till we were about 120 
leagues from Eafter liland. On the 3d of April, in 
27® 5' S. lat. and 101*^ W. long, we bad the wind 
from N. K to N. W. and we faw the only birds we 
had met with ikiœ we pafled the ifland ot Juan Fer- 
nandez, except one or two tailk-vents, that we bad 
&en in a run of Ô0O leagues. This frequent change 
of wind is the mofl certain lign of land, though nar 
tuealitts pei-haps will find it diâBcult to explain how 
the ioiâuence of a, ûasiii ifland in fo immenfe a fea 
. . ' fhould 



17S$.] ROUND TBS WORLD. 9A 

(hotild extend to 100 le^mies. Nor is it enough lor 
a navigator to prefumc that he is that diftance from 
81) ifland, becaufe nothing points out to him in what 
point of the compafs he may fall in with it. The 
iireélion of the flight of birds after fun^fet afforded 
me no information ; and I am fully convinced, that 
in all their motions they have no other objeél than 
the pnrfuit of pi-ey. I have at dufk obfcrvcd fea- 
brrds dire<^ their flight towards ten. different points 
of the horizon ; and I am of opinion that from fuch 
an appearance the mod enthuiiaftic augurs would not 
have ventured to diaw any conclufion. 

On the 4th of April I was only 6o leagues from 
Eafler Ifland, when I faw no birds, and the wind was 
N. N. Ë. and it is probable that had I not known the 
cxaâ iltuation of the ifland, I (hould have imagined 
I had paiïëd it, and ihould therefore have put about. 
Bat I made thefe refieétions at the time, and ! muft 
acknowledge that the diicovery of iilands is to be 
attributed to chance, and that very often the acuteft 
calculations from theory have only mifled fuccecding 
navigators. 

On the 8th of April, at two in the afternoon, I 
made Eafier Ifland, bearing W. 5^ S. diftant twelve 
leagues. The fea was then very high, and the winds 
northerly ; it had been fhifting chiring the laft four 
days, and had veered round from N. to S. by the 
W. I am of opinion that this variation was not oc- 
cafioned folely by the proximity of a fmall ifland, 
nor is it probable the trade winds are confiant in this 
fealbn in the 23d degree. The point I perceived was 
' that to the eaft ward. I was thca precifely in the fame 
place where Capt. DÀvis, in 1 686, had fellew in with 
an iltand of fand, and twelve leagues further to the 
weftward, a land which Captain Cook and Captain 
Dalrymple took for Eafler Ifland, and which was again 
found in 1722 by Roggewin. But thefe two fea- 
men, though very well inforrafid^ did not fuliicjcntly 

attend 



i 



60 LA rÂBOU8K*8 TOYAO£ [l785. 

attend to the account of Waffer, who fays, (Rouen 
edit. p. 300) '' That Captain Davis, departing from 
GallapagoSy with an intention of returning to Eu- 
rope by Cape Horn, and of only putting into the 
ifland of Juan Fernandez, experienced in 12® S. 
lat. a terrible (hock, and thought he had touched 
upon a rock ; he had then conûantly direéled his 
courfe to the fouthward, and reckoned he was 15o 
leagues from the continent of America ; but he af- 
terwards learnt that at the fame moment an earth- 
quake took place at Lima. 

*' Having recovered from his al^rm he continued to 
run S. S. by E. and S. W, as far as IT 20', and, he 
fays, that at two in the morning they heard a-head 
the noife of a fea breaking on the ihore. He lay-to 
till day, when he faw a fmall ifland of fand, which 
was not furrounded by any rocks. He approached 
it within a quarter of a mile, and perceived, fur- 
ther on, bearing 12 leagues to the well ward, a great 
land, which he took for a group of iflands, on aC' 
count of the intervals between the diiFerent capes. 
Davis did not fui-vey it, but continued his courfe 
towards the ifland of Juan Fernandez." But Waf- 
fer fays, that this little ifland of fand is 500 leagues 
fmm Copiapo, and 600 from Gallapagos ; but it has 
not been fufficiently obferved, that this refult is im- 
poflible. If Davis, in 12^ S. lat. and 150 leagues from 
the coail of America, had made a due S. S. E. courfe, 
as Waffer relates; as it is evident this buccaneer 
captain mud have fleered with the eafterly winds fo 
frequent in thefe feas, in order to perform his inten- 
tion of going to Juan Fernandez, we muft conclude 
with M. Pingre, that there is an error in the figures 
of the quotation of Dampier, and that the land feen 
by Davis, in lieu of being 500, is only 200 leagues 
from Copiapo. It would then be prqbable that the 
two iflands of Davis are thofe of St. Ambrofe and St. 
Felix, which are a little more to the northward than 

• • Co- 



« 
« 



« 






M 



li 






« 



I ^ 



1785.] KOUND THE WOkLOr. : 6l 

Cdpiapo'. But the buccaneer pilots were r H fô mi- 
nute, and feldom took the'latitude within 30 or 40 
minutes. I (hould have fpared my readers this g;eO'> 
graphical diflcrtation, had I hot to oppoTe the opi- 
nions of two. juilly celebrated Teamen. I ought, 
however, to obferve, that Captain Cook was in doubt, 
and declared he would have decided the queilion, 
had he had time to get into a higher latitude to the 
eailward of Eaûer ifland. As I ran down 300 leagues 
on that parallel, without feeing the ifland of fand, 
1 am of opinion, no doubt ought to remain ; and the 
problem appears to me completely folved •. 

During 

• While I adopt the folution of this problem riven by La Pé- 
roufe, I ought to give a complete view of the proo^ refultmg from 
the journals of other navigators. 

It evidently appears, as Pingre, Cook, and La Péroufe obferve, 
that there is an error in the figures of Dampier, and that the pre- 
tended land of Davis can be only sôo leagues from the coaft of 
America. 

I agree with. La Péroufe, that the methods of computing the lon- 
gitudes were fb erroneous in the time of Davis, that we can only 
rely on the latitudes. Thus it is by the account of Waffer, that we 
may delineate the track of Davis at his departure from the Galla- 
pages Iflaods, at which time be ûeered fouthward, as far as the 
twelfth degree of S. lat. whCtr lie experienced a terrible (hock, &c. 
He had cbnijtantly fleered fon^nward, and reckonied that he was 150 
leagues frbrti the continent bf ÂÏB«rica. ' "";" 

Inobfervii\gëu the chart the ftiip's pilacethusdefcribed, we fliall find 
that he was nearhr ip the 87th degree of W. long. He continued kis 
coiirfe fouthwtit'd, S. bv E. arid'S. W. as far as the land difcovered 
in zf 20' S. lat By t^us folloWihg tke track of Davis, it appean 
he muft have been about abo league» fiom Copiapo, 600 from the 
Gallapagos, and i* to the S. E; or the' S. point of the fhuation in 
which the, inlands of St. Felix aiyd St. Ambrofe are laid down in the 
French ma|js. Itnîayeafily therefore be perceived, that the great 
landfeen by Davis r2 leagues to the fûuthward,'muft be that of the 
iilandstif St.Felix ahd St. Ambrofe, and thatUie ifland'of fand mufl- 
be à few leagues to the eadward of thefe iltands. 

In order to eftablifli this; let us r<;view the fituktton pointed out 
for the pretended land of Dav'is, and fot* the illands St. Felix and 
St. Ambrofe, as well as the journals o^ 'ibe dîfferehr navigators. ' 

The Ehpliih maps place tl^efi?- iflartds firfr5oS^iat; the French 
in 25", and thofe of Green from 26» ao' to 87».* •• ^ ■ • * 

..l-t-^iî -,-,■_ -^ :,•,■,:.-■■,,,■ ; Cook 



■/*, 



61 LA ri&OU8B*S T0TA9E [l785. 

During the night of the 8th of ApHl, I coailed 
Eafter Iflasid, at three leagues di (lance. The wea» 
ther was clear, and the wind had veered round 
from North to S. E. in Icfs than three hours. At 
day-break I (leered for Cook's Bay, which is the 
moft fheltered from the winds between N. and S. by 
the Eail, in the whole ifland. It is only open to 
the Weft winds, and the weather was fo fine thit 
I had hopes they woiild not blow for feveral days. 
At eleven o'clock I was not above a league from the 
anchorage. The Aftrolabe had already dropped 
anchor, and I did the fame very near her : but the 
water deepened fo rapidly, that the anchors of both 

Cook agrees that he miiTed the true latitude of thefe idondj, 
rather in confequence of havins relied on the table of latitude» 
and longitudes, in RobertfonV Elements of Navigation, tbau 
on Or ' ' ' "' ' ' '^ i^ 1 J Î .t 

hood I 

and 31, ^ , 

St. Felix'and St. Annbr«(é, which muft exift in the 27th degree, 
and of which he perceived feme ûgiis» 

^f Xa Pcroufe, when coming from the edlvt^ard, and running down 
)oo leagues on the parallel of Ëafter ifland, could not fee either 
the land of Davis, which did not exift, or the iflands of St. Felix 
and St. Ambrofe, whofe longitude is bçtv^een 26 and 27 degrees to 
the eaûward of that ifland. It is therefore evident^ 9$ Cfaptaiii& 
Cook and Dalryinple thought, that llafitr ifland, which was founil 
again by Roggewem in i722,,d9not bç the land of Davis. . 

It is alfp evident, that t(ie Iflandi. of St. Felix and St. Ambrofe, 
cannot exifi in the fituation laid down in the £B^li|h noaps : for 
as Cook remarks, Davis would then have fallen m with tnem ia 
his track. And it i» evident, that the Iflands of iSt. Felix and St. 
Ambrofe cannot exifl ia the fituation laid down in the French 
maps, in conformity with that defcribed by Rebertfbn ; for thea 
Capt. Cook would have feen them. ^ 

It appears then aknoft «demondirative, that the land of Davis 
does not.exifl, but that there aie^ Iflands in the 27th degree of S. 
latitude, about 9fi6 leàsues from Copiopo, which «rf no other 
than the Iflands of St. FeHx and St. Ambrofe, kid flown erroae- 
«uflv in all die maps; and that thcfe Iflands are. the pretended 
landof Davisk Such^ at. leaA, is tny opinion, after acomparifpn 
of the journal pf tlic dii&oçnt davigators. It is alfo the opinion 
of a ipodern navigat^c, . |f^|i{|h eâàauû)»n,, î„ M. Bougain- 

:ioo'> - . * «lips 




- ( 



1785.1 lOUilft TRB WORtd. (A 

(hips came home. Thus wc were obliged to purchafe 
again, and make two boards to regtiin the anchorage. 

This contrariety did not abate the ardour of Uie 
Indians who fwam afler us to a league off (hore^ 
god came on board with a laughing carelefs air, 
which gave ine the bed opinion of their cbaraiSier. 
Men of a more fufpicious turn would have feared, 
when we got under fail again, that we were carrying 
them off from their native foil. But the idea of fuch 
pcrfidv did not fccm to prcfcnt itfelf to their mindh. 

NuKcdand unarmed, in the midft of U8, a (impie 
(Iring round their middle fupportcd a bundle o£ 
herbs that hung down before. Mr. Hodges, the 
painter who accompanied Capt. Cook in his fccbnd 
voyage, hflfi fuccceded very ill in pourtniying their 
phyfiognomy, which is generally agreeable and tx^ 
trciBcly various ; and has not, like that of the Mar 
lays, Chincfe, and inhabitants of Chili, a general 
charaéler that is peculiar to themfelves. 

I made fcvei-al |>refent8to thefe Indians, who pre • 
fen^ pieces of pointed cloth, half an ell long, tx> 
naib, knives, and beads. Even thefe yielded to 
their fironger inelinution for hats, of which how^- 
cver wc had too fmaU a quantity to give tcf many df 
them. At eight in the evening I took leave of iny 
new guefts, giving them to widcrltand by figns, 
that at day- break I fhould go ailiore. They then 
went dancing into their boat, and threw themfelves 
into the, fea, two muâcet (hots from the fhore, on 
which the billows broke with confiderablc forcq.' 
They had taken the precaution of making liulc 
packets of my prefents, and every one placed tbofe 
which belonged to him on his head/ to fccure them 
from the \vat^r. 









CITAP. 



ûé 



LA PJ&R0U8E*S VOYAGB 

CHAR IV. 



ri785. 



DESCRIPTION OF RASTEjt ISLAND — 'INCÎDENtS AND 

EVENTS WHICH TOOK PLACE THERE MANNE88 

AND CUSTOMS OF THE INHABITANTS. 

COOK*s Bay, in Eafter Ifland, is fituated in 
27" iV S. lat. and 111'» 51^ 30" W. Ion. and 
is the only anchorage that is (heltered from the 
S. E. and E. windà, which ufually blow in thefe 
leas. With weflerly winds it is very dangerous : but 
from that quarter, however, the wind never blows, till 
it has veered round by the Eaft to N. E., to the N. 
and from thence to the Weft. There is fufficient 
time, therefore, to get under way ; and, at three quar- 
ters of a mile in the ofRng, no danger is to be feared. 
This Bay is eaiily known. For after doubling the 
two rocks off the fouth point of the Idand, and run- 
ning along fhore at the diftance of a mile, a fmall 
Creek may be perceived, which is the moft certain 
land mark. When this creek bears E. by S. and the 
two rocks abovementioncd are {htit in with the point, 
there is anchorage in twenty fathoms water over a 
bottom of fand, at three quarters of a mile from the 
fhore. Further in the offing there is no bottom but 
in thirty- five or forty fathortis, and the depth of the 
water encreafes Co rapidly that the anchor does not 
hold. The landing is eafy at the foot of one of the 
fîatues, of which I fhall prelently fpeak. 

At day-break I ordered every thing to be made 
ready for us to go on fhore, where I had reafon to 
expert I fhould meet with friends, as I had loaded 
with prefents thofe who had come on boarc^ the pre- 
ceding evening. I was too well acquainted with 
the accounts of the different navigators, to be igno- 
rant that the Indians are but grown up children, 
whofe délires the light of our property would fo 
'> . u. . . . ilrongly 



•■•I. , ». 

1785.] ROUND THE WOtlLD. 63 

ftrongly excite, that they would take every pollible 
method to get poflfeffion of them. I was therefore 
convinced that I mull reftrain them by fear, and 
gave orders that this expedition fhould be accom- 
panied with a little warlike train. We put this in 
execution, with four boats and twelve armed fol- 
diers. M, de Langle and myfelf were followed by 
all the paiïèngers and officers, except thofe who 
were neceflary to carry on the duty on board our (hips. 
Thus we formed a body of about feventy perfons, 
including the crews of our boats. 

Four or five hundred Indians waited for us on the 
ihore. They were unarmed, and feveral of them 
covered with pieces of white and yellow ftufF; but 
the greater number were naked, feveral were tat- 
tooed, and their faces painted red. Their cries and 
their phyfiognomy equally exprefibd their joy, "as 
they advanced to give us their hands and afllfl us in 
landing. 

This part of the Illand has an elevation of about 
twenty feet, and the mountains are about feven or 
eight hundred toifes from the fea, to which the foil 
has a gentle declivity from the bafes. This interval 
is covered with a kind of herb, which I believe to be 
fit for pafturage. It grows on the furface of large 
ftones, that lie loofe upon the earth, and appear 
precifely limilar to thofe of the Ifle of France, called 
in the country giraumoru, becaufe they are in general 
of the fize of that fruit. Thefe very ftones, which 
were fo inconvenient to us in walking, are a very 
valuable prefent from nature. They keep the earth 
cool and moift, and fupply the place of that falutary 
Ihade which the inhabitants have imprudently ba- 
niftied by felHng their trees. This praétice, which 
has expofed their foil to be burnt up by the fun, 
and precluded the exiftence of floods, rivulets, or 
fpriugs, muft have taken place in very remote pe- 
riods. The iflanders were ignorant, that in the 

Vol. I. F fmall 



69 tA RépOÏTSÊ'S VGYAGB: [l7B5. 

^aîl iflandsof fuch an immenfe ocean, the cooU 
Hiêfs •of a iiiml coveit;d with trees can alone detain 
and condcwife clouds, and thus fceep up an almoft 
<30«tinïial rài"!! upon the mountains, which may 
^read on every (ide into fprings and rimlets. Iflands 
flopriVtd of this àdvantî^e, ftre fubjeéi to a honid 
: "di^oU^ht, which gfachialiy deftroys the plants aiid 

#irttb^y and relators the land almoft uninhabitable. 
M. de Langfe and myfelf did not doubt that this; 
^" pe©pie owed their unfoit«nûte iituation, in this rc- 

' fpeél, to the imprudence of their anceftoi-s ; and it 

w probable^ thnt other Iflands of the South Sea arc 
only watered, becaufe fortunately they have inaccef- 

' fible mountains, where it has been impoflible to cut 

wood. Thus has nature veiied her greater liberality 
to the latter behind the cloîtk of avarice, and by 
concealing her exuberance in reccfles which it wa? 
«mt of their power ta invade. A long Hay in the 
Ifle of France, which bears fo flrong a refemblance 
to Eafter Ifland, has tm»ght me that the trees never 
ftioot again> uhlefs fheltered from the fea breezes 
l)y other trees or by Walls. And it was the know- 
ledge «f this circnmftnnCe that explained to mc the 
eaiife of the deX'al'tirtion of Eafter Ifland, whole in- 
habitants have much Icfs caufe of complaint from 
the eruptions ot' their volcanos, which have long 
1?>een extinguiflicd, tlian from their own imprudence. 
But as man accommodat'es binafelf to every ^tuation^ 
with Bioi'e t;nfe than any other anitnal, thefe iflandefs 
j^ppeared left unfortunate to me than they did to 
Cai>t. Cook and Mr. Forfter, who arrived there after 
». long tedious voya^, eat up with fcur\^, and in 
want of every tlirng. I'hey found neither wood, 
water, nor pigs : a few tbwh, bananas, and pota- 
toes can, in fnch circumftanœs, afford bnt poor 
Ajpplfcs. Accordingly their ae/:ouM8 bear iItc mafi'ks 
of their more lanpleafant Iituation. Otfrs was in- 

" ' ' . iinitely more happy. Our cre^ €i^oy«d> porfei^ 
****wi .-''*■- ..,.,..... ■ -^ ^ -health; 



17 $50 ÏIOUND THE WORLD. 6/ 

health ; we had taken on board m Chili whatever 
neceliàries we wanted for feveral months ; and all 
we dciired of the inhabitants, was to afford us an 
opportunity of conferring benefits. We brought / > 
them- goats, (heep, and pigs; and we had feeds of 
oranges, lemons, cotton, maize, and in general every 
ipecies of pUnts moft likely to thrive upon their 
loil. 

Our firft Care, when we landed, was to form d , . . 
ring of armed foldiers, enjoining the inhabitants to 
leave this fpace void. Then pitching a tent, I had 
the prefents intended for them, and the different 
I'pecies of animals to be left, brought on fhore. But 
as I hyl exprefsly forbidden the foldiers to fire, or 
even with the butt end of their mulkets, to keep oflf ' 
the Indians who might be troublefome, the foldiers 
therrifelvcs were foon expofed to the rapacity of tlïolè 
iflanders, vvhofe numbers rapidly encreafed. They 
amounted at the leafl: to 800, out of whom full 150 
were women. The phyfiognomy of many among 
the latter were agreeable, and they offered their 
tàvors to thofe who were willing to give them pre- 
fents. The men endeavoured to induce us to com- 
ply, and while tli^ women lavifhed their careflcs on 
us, took our hats from our heads, and our hanA- 
kercbiefg from our pockets. They all fcemed to 
be accomplices in thefe thefts, for they had fcarcely 
comiuitted them, when they all took to flight at the 
iiime inftant, like a covey of birds. But observing 
that we made no ufe of our mulkets, they returned , 

a few minutés; afterwards, renewed their carefies, 
ai\d watched a favourable moment to commit new ■ 
thefts. Thefe manoeuvres continued all the morn- 
ing : and as we were to leave them at night, and fo . 
Ihort a fpace of time did not admit of our giving->^*x'..-' 
them much inftru6lion, wc only amufcd ourfdves ; 
with obferving the artifices thèfe iflanders employed •, 
to rob us. In order to remove every pretext for any 

F 2 kind 



7 



08 LA pérouse's voyage [1785, 

kind of force, which might have produced unfor- 
tunate confequences, I declared that I would replace 
the hats that might be taken from the foldiers and 
failors. Thefe Indians were unarmed. Only three 
or four, among fo great a number, had a kind of 
wooden club, not in the lead formidable. Some 
of them appeared to have a flight authority over 
the others, and taking them for Chiefs I diftributed 
Tome medals among them, which 1 hung about 
their necks with a chain. But I foon difcovered 
that thcfe were in fad the very men who were the 
moil notorious thieves ; and although they feemed 
to purfue thofe who dole our handkerchieft, it was 
eafy to perceive they were fully determined not to 
overtake them. 

^ Having but eight or ten hours to remain upon the 
ifland, . and being deiirous not to lofe that interval 
of time, I confided the care of our tent, and of all 
our efFe6ts, to M. d'Efcures, my firft lieutenant, to 
whom I alfo gave the command of all the foldiers 
and failors on Ihore. We then divided ourfelves into 
two parties, of which the iirft, under the orders of 
M. de Langle, was to penetrate as far as poffible 
into the heart of the Ifland, to fow the grain in fuch 
fpots as fliould appear bed adapted to their culti- 
vation ; and to examine the nature of the foil, 
plants, agriculture, population, monuments, and in 
general every thing interefling among this very ex- 
traordinary people. Thofe who were able to go 
over a great extent of ground, joined his party, and 
he was accompanied by Meflrs. Dagelet, Lamanon, 
Duché, Dufrefne, Marti nière, Father Receveur, 
M. Abbé Mongès, and the Gardener. The fécond 
party, of which I made one, vilited the mortuments, 
the platforms, and the houfes and plantations, within 
a league around our quarters. The drawing of thefe 
monuments^ given by Mr. Hodges, prefents but a 
feeble idea of the objects we faw. Mr. Forfier 

thinks 



I785.J » ROUND THE WORLD. ÔÇ • 

things they are the work of a people much more 
conficlerable than the prefent inhabitants of thc/ 
ifland ; but his opinion appears to me unfounded* 
The largeft of the clumfy bufts on thefe platforms^ 
or that we meafured, is only fourteen feet fix inches 
high, feven feet fix inches broad acrofs the (boulders, 
three feet thick in the belly, and fix feet broad and 
five feet thick at thebafe. Thefe bufts, I fay, may 
he the work of the prefent race, whofe population I 
believe, may, without exaggerating, be eftimated atr 
2000. The number of women appeared nearly 
equal to that of the men, and I faw as great a num- 
ber of children as in any other country. For though 
in about 1200 inhabitants, whom our arrival had 
drawn together round the Bay, there were not more 
^lan 300 women, I (hould from thence only con- 
jeélure, that although the men came from the ex- 
tremity of the ifiand to fee our fhips, the women, 
either becaufe more delicate, or more occupied with 
their children and families, were left at home ; and 
wc only faw thofe who inhabited the environs of 
the Bay. This opinion is confirmed by the account 
of M. de Langle, who found, in the interior of the 
ifland, a great number of women and children ; 
and we all explored the caverns where Mr. Forfter 
and fome of Capt. Cook's officers thought the 
women might be concealed. Thefe are fubterraneous 
dwellings, of the fame form with thofe I fliall here- 
after defcribe, where we found fmall faggots, of 
which the largeft pieces were not five feet long, and 
did not exceed fix inches in circumference. We can- 
not, however, difpute that the inhabitants had con-, 
cealed their wives when Capt. Cook vifited them 
in 1772, but I could not difcover their motive ; and 
it is perhaps to the kindnefs with which thofe navi- 
gators condudled themfelves towards this people, 
that we owe the confidence they feemed to place in 

F 3 us, 



Î 



|8 








118, ttndlby which wp were enibkU to :juid|^ 1i||ié^ 
of their pOpoUriiotii i ndt ' " • * > 

. All tlitt motiamcitits now raniaià|i^i^ Ind 4|jr il)«dkf 
M. Dudi^ bat givieti «ttekaâ^ di«Àra^>#^v^ 
aiieioiii,^i4 are placoti io a J;#id ^^^Àvi^dv br ii^4' 

lire to p»i^vtt'% -.^^û&n- >- . ^- ^ ^ 

ofthe côid&l mpH 

hav« here ^i^tuM 

the ihapeof a 

\rhiieiied with ÎÎ 

Vfhhh aire only an 

ed 01» the fea-fhorei :attâ Mb 

to tts fcy laying hittifi#^^*bi'if'^; 

objeâ: of t^cfe heapfe 

hisihûftds towards HcâVÇH^^- 

belief in a future exiftencew * 

tt» adapt Inch an Gptfii0fi^;^iûid[|^ tiii 

thciw far from pofleffir^ tSai 

fervcd them repeat thé (Êii 

M. de Langle, who traveHèd hi 



the country, having rep04rt©d?Jiie ^p^ fltç^'l''^ 
now no doubt on tlje Ailj^é4â,)and t^^fe^ afl 
officers and paflèngers entôjl^MÉ' a 
Yet we faw no trace of any iyKj|lÈlUS'M'Ojïi^ 
them ; for Ido not think tfeèir Tfelàt i^w^ <^tf. 
taken for idols, notwithfta<i<^>g the ^Indians «il 
have fhewn for them a fji^i^^pf ^fièrâtion. ■ 11^ 
colbflàl bufts, of which J ^^^IltàMljf given the 
meniions, and which fd^dently provéthe little |^ 
greft^|^<^y<havrtiàde in fcmlptiire, are ^put ou| of a 
volcslM^reciiJÉiion known atodfig>nat^i'alif)6 ^ the 
ïimmmMp^* a iloïie '%^%ift wii^' friabl&^lîèà 
iewirir Captain Cook's offictw rhâMé 3^|»dffit 'if 
ratght be a faditious fubftanco cotopofe^ of ihortar 

/ ib^ufate<it 













ii«i^ 



m^ 



t*Sç«»^ 









N^' 



a' 



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4 




iiiiiiiiiip 



Pi,i 



I k 



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j'YI' Mil 



w 



~^J^m 



î^s 



^^^m 



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. ,^-««^./ 









r»^< 



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îndurflted'bj 
^ how they 
«weight wi 
tiowev^ ceri 
ftone, and tl 
Jong, and flu 
very wolj Ci 
much great 
hundred mei 
not be rqon 
the marvello 
which is upt 
fon to believ 
jfland it ig bt 
be king ovei 
live on yaiT) 
and thefe I 
witr, bee^pfp 
of^chiçfin^ 

I cap only 
thefe people 
and whoro I 
hpwçver, by 
Jiave gone bç 
jïCQUâiiiiJed, 

pcjirççly t 
mA I i\m pei 
eknt tQ pi 

)-fîar. Sycb 
life has led 
eaith are in 
fjert^in their 
village or a < 
whjeii \y4S n 
in himidth., 

* T^iisbayfe 
pot have Jjçttp iç 



-^ 1 



*s 



jndurflted' hy the qi? , ït only remains to b^ fa^plwQ- 
^ how they havt bq^p ^^le to r^iCç fg Ç0«6deççkb\c 
* weight without the «id of p^achinee. We wç^e 
iowev^ certnin they wçr^ of ^ very light; v<?lc^nic 
ilone, «nd thî^t by mean» ^fiev^a fivQ w (ix ^«^tlnQms 
Jong, and Aiding iloBes uqdwnciitb, us CaptiiiQ Çopjc 
very wolj CKpIains, they might be aW^ tq r«^i(<? -a 
much greater weight-: aii <)pergtion for whiç^ an 
hundred men wowld bç fufiiçicnt, and there wowW 
not he room hr a greater number to a^. Tfaiis 
the marvellotts djfappeftrs, «àturç r^ega^ns h^y lapilli, 
which is not the prochu^^pn of 9rt, and there is re«- 
fon to believe thî^t \( no new monuments ador»\ tj^e 
iiland it ie boeayf^ tl^r^ ^1 conditions ar^ eqvi^I ,• tp 
be king over a people wfjip are alnioil naked and 
live on yarn? and potataos, excitçs little jealoyfy ; 
find thefe Indians, never having any oçcftfion fei* 
mr, beeaufei they have no iieighbovr^j ha^'^î no need 
of a chiçf Invpfted with any coniiderabio a^thoi-ity. 

I ca|i only hazar^l eonjeé^wres on the manners of 
thefe pçople, Y'hofp language I do not ynderftand, 
3od whom I bflvp (^cnhiii for a day, I \va§ affii^^d, 
hpwçver, by the ejtpcricnce q{ othar navigatoi's who 
Ibavegone bçf^M'p, wjtli whofe «iccounts I am j^rfv^^ljy 
ftCQuainted, and to thefç Ï adtied my own reflc^^tions. 

Scarcçly the teflth part of thiC i^^nd is çqltJViVtc^l, 
mA I am perfqaded thftt three d.ays labpur js (i]i}\- 
fieat to procure the M\^^ iuhi]i\mç^ for a 
ypar. Sych facility in pr^vidipg for the want$ pf 
lifii has led mP to beU<?vç the productions of the 
earth are in common, particularly .as 1 am almpft 
«certain their hoUf^^ ai-e commoft, at leaft to a whole 
village or a djCtfié^. I ifl^af^r^d one of thpf^ hpjuf^s 
whieh \ya6 near us* ; it ^as 3DP feet i;i length, èO 

in J3r^»a4tii, ft94 in th? m^Ah ten in h^ght^ Jits 

fctt'm wfts that of ;^ çflfto^ invertçda and thfife w^s no 

* T^iis tiaiife was not yet fijiiflied, {€( that Captain Cook could 
cot have Ipirfl Hf , 

F 4 entrance 



7î LA péROOSB's VOYAGE [l785. 

entrance except by creeping on the hands through 
two doors, both lefs than two feet high. This 
houfe, which would contain more than two hun- 
dred peribns, could not be the refidcnce of the chief, 
for there was no furniture, and fo great a fpace would 
have been ufelefs to him ; with two or three other 
houfes not far diftant, it therefore forms a village. 

There is probably in every diftric'ît a chief who 
particularly fupcrintends the plantations, of which 
Captain Cook imagined he was the proprietor. But 
if that celebrated traveller found fome difficulty in 
procuring a fufficient quantity of potatoes and yams, 
it muft be attributed not fo much to a fcarcity of 
thofe vegetables, as to the neceffity of obtaining an 
almofl: general confent for their fale. 

I cannot venture to fay whether the women are 
common to a diflridl, and the children to the repub- 
lic, but it is certain that no individual of the Indians 
appeared to have over any one women the authority 
of a hulband. If, however, they are individual pro- 
perty, their mailers are very prodigal of their rights. 

Some of their dwellings are, as I have already ob- 
ferved, fubtcrraneous, but as a proof that there are 
marfhy places in the interior of the ifland, others 
are conftru6led of rufhes, very neatly arranged, 
which afford a perfed fhelter from the rain. The 
building refts on a bafe of hewn ftone*, 18 inches 
thick, in which they have bored holes at equal dif- 
tances to admit poles which bending archwife, form 
the roof, the fpaccs of which are filled up with a 
thatch of reeds. 
• '• The identity of thefe people with the other iflan- 
ders of the South Sea, as Captain Cook obferves, 
cannot be doubted, for their language and national 
phyfiognomy are the fame, their manufaélurés alfô, 
made from the bark of the mulberry, though thefe 
trees are very rare, having been deftroyed by the 

* Thefe (lones are not granite, but folid lava. 
* ■ droughts. 



î785.] ROUND THE WORLD. 73 

droughts. Such as have fiirvived are only three 
feet high, and thefe they have even been obliged 
to encompafs with walls to fecure them from the 
winds : it is remarkable that the height of thefc 
trees never exceeded that of the walls by which 
they arc fhcltercd. 

I do not doubt that in former periods of time 
thefc iflanders have enjoyed the fame produdlions 
as the Society Iflands. But the fruit trees mufl: 
have pcrifhcd by the droughts, as well as the pigs and 
dogs to whom water is inoifpenfably nccefliiry, while 
man, who at Hudfon's Bay makes whale oil his be-: 
veragc, can accuftom himfelf to any thing, and I 
have feen the natives of Eafter Ifland drink fea-water 
like the albatrofs of Cape Horn. We were there ia 
the wet feafon, and finding a little brackifh water in 
fome hollows on the fea-fliore, they offered it to m 
in gourds : but it was rejeded by the moft thirfty 
of our crew. I do not flatter myfclf that the pig» 
which I prefcnted them will multiply ; but I hope 
that the goats and fheep which drink little and love 
fait, will fuccecd there. 

At one iri the afternoon I came back to the tent 
deiigning to return on board, that M. de Clonard, 
my fécond Captain, might go on fhore in his turn. I 
found almoft all my people without hats or handr 
kerchiefs ; for our gentlenefs had encouraged thefc 
plunderers, nor was I at all diftinguifhed from the 
reft. An Indian who had afîîfted me in defcending 
from a platform, took away tny hat, and as foon as 
he had rendered me this fervice, ran off at full fpccd, 
followed as ufual by all the reft. I did not how- 
ever caufe him to be purfued, for being nearly 
ail in the fame ftate, I would not alone enjoy the pri- 
vilege of being fheltered from the fun, and therefore 
continued examining the platform ; a monument 
which has given me the higheft opinion of the ta- 
lents thefe people once poiiefied for building, for 
^ ' ' ■ here 



rVSai 



^■tr 



,r 



fi LA pinOTTSE's VOTAOR [l785. 

here the pompous word architcdlurc cannot be ap. 
j)licd. They (com never to have been acqiminted 
%i ith any kind of cement, hut they cut and (hnprd 
their Itones with perfect accuracy, placing and join- 
inp[ them accordiiijç to the rules of art. 

I have colleélcd a few famplc« of thefc ilones, 
which ure lavas of various denfitics. The lip^htcfl, 
and which uiuft confcqucntly be the firft dccoin- 
pofed, forms the face towards the land ; that turned 
to the fca is conftruéW of a lava infinitely more 
rompaét, and 1 know not any inftrumcnt or fub- 
(lance which thefe iflandcrs pofiels, hard enough to 
tut thefe lad ; a longer ftay on the ifland might havR 
sffordcd fome light upon the fubject. At two o'clock 
I returned on bojird, and M. do Clonard went oa 
thore. Soon after\vards two officers of the Alb'olabc 
iarrivcd to inform me, that the Indians ha<l jiill coni- 
imitted a robbery, which had occafioned a ronliclcr- 
able contert. Some divers had cut the grapnel rope 
of the Aftrolabc's boat under water, and carried off 
her grapnel, which we did not perceive till the robbers 
had got a coiifiderable way into the interior of the 
ifland. As this anchor was ne>ceflary to hs, a couple 
of officei*», with fcveral ibldies, purfucd them, but 
were foon overwhelmed with a fhowcr of floncs. 
A mufquet fired in the air without fhot produced 
no effeét, and they were at lall obliged to fire a 
charge of fmall fhot, fome of which, doubtlel's, 
touched one of the Indians, for the throwing of 
■fiones then cealed, and our officers were able to gain 
the tent in tranquillity ; but it was impoliiblc to over- 
take the Indians, who mufl have been aftoniflicd at 
our patience, which ali their infults had not been fuf- 
iicient to fubdue. ^ 

They foon, however, returned aroTjnd our quar- 
ters, and again offering us their women, we becawe 
as good friend'^ as at our firft interwiew. At length, 
lÊ>y iîx in the cvcaing, every thing was got on board» 

the 

. .. . \ 



1785.] HOUND THB WORLD. 74 

the cnnocs returned on (hore, and I made the fîgna) 
to prq)nrc to weigh. Before 3vc got under fail, M, 
dc Langlc gave me an account of hisexcurfion intotho 
interior of the illand, which I (hall relate in the follow-, 
ing chapter. He had fowii feeds through all hi'' route, 
and (hewn thcfe iflanders every mark of his extrrme 
benevolence; yet, I think I ftinll complete lL * portrait 
of their character, when I relate, that a kindof rhief, 
to whom M. dc Langlc had prefented a male and 
female goat, received them with one hand, while, 
with the other, he dole his handkerchief. 

Doubtlcfs thcfe people have not the fame notions 
of theft vvith us. Probably among them no difgraec 
is attached to it. But they arc well apprifrd of the 
injuiliec ihey commit, for they inflantly fly, to elcapo 
the puniihmcnt which they evidently exjjcét, and 
which, had we continued on the ifland, we fliould 
not have failed to infli(':i in proportion to the offence. 
For our our extreme lenity had, in the end, produced 
the mod difagreeable confequences. 

No one who has read the accounts of modern na- 
vigators, can miilake the Indians of the South Sea 
for favagcs. On the contrary, they have nuule very 
çonfiderablc progrefs in civilization ; and, I believe, 
are as highly corrupted as poliiblc, under all the cir- 
cumftances of their fituation. This opinion is not 
founded on the various thefts they committed, but 
on the mani]cr in which thofe thefts were perpetrated. 
The moft hardened, unblufliing villains of Europe 
are not fuch hypocrites as thcfe iflanders, who earefs 
only to conceal fi'aud, and whofe countenance ex- 
prelfes not one fentimeiit of the heart. For the In- 
dian who had jull received a prefcnt, and appeared 
the mofl: eager to render us a thoufand fcrviees, was, 
ill reality, ever the moft to be fufpcéled. 

They forcibly dragged to us girls of 13 or 14 years 
of age, folely with tlic lîope of receiving the reward 
of panders. Their repugnance evinced, lliat in them 

, thtf 






LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE 



[1785. 



76 

the laws of the country were violated, and every 
Frenchman disdained to ufe the brutal power which 
he thus pofîeflèd. 

Ï have found, in this country, fll the arts poflèfîèd 
by the people of the Society Iflands, but with much 
lefs opportunity of exerciling them for want of ma» 
terials. The canoes alfo are of the fame fFiape, but 
they are compofed only of very narrow planks, fom 
or tîve feet long, and would, at the moft, carry but 
ibur men. I faw only three on this part of the ifland; 
and I fhould not be furprifed, if, in a fhort time,' 
through the want of wood, there (hould not be one 
remaining. In faél, they have learnt to do without 
them, for they fwim fo perfe6lly well, that in the high- 
cll fea they go two leagues out, and fearcb, by choice 
at their return on fhore, the places where the furf 
breaks with the greateft violence. - ..,, 

The coaft feemed to be flocked with very littte flift, 
and, I believe, the vegetable kingdom fupplies all the j 
food of the inhabitants, who live on potatoes, yams, 
bananas, fugar-cane, and a fmall fruit which grows 
on the rocks at the iea iide, refembling the bunches 
of raifins found in the neighbourhood of the tropics 
in the Atlantic Occj^n. We cannct reckon, airimg 
their rciburqe?, a few fowls, which, in this iiland, are 
fo rnrc, that our travellers did not fee a fingle land 
bird, and fea-fowl are by no means common. 
. In the cultivation of their land thcfe iflanders fhew ,| 
great intelligence, pulling up the weeds> burning 
them in heaps, and thus fertilizing the ground with 
their cinders. The banana trees are planted in a 
ftraight line by the cord. They alfo cultivate the 
folanum, morel, or nightfhade, but I know not to 
what ufe it is applied. If I had obferved veflbls ca- 
pable of relifting fire, I (hould haive fuppolfed that 
they drefs it like fpinage, as at Madagafcar or the lile 
of France. But they have no other mannerof cook* 
jng their vidluals than that of the Society lïlapdSj 



[1785. 
every 



poflèred 
th much 
I of ma^ 
ape, but 
nks, fou» 
arry but 
leifland; 
ort time,' 
>t beone 
) without 
thehigh- 
by choice 
'. the fuif 

little flfli, ij 
ies allthe ' 
es, yams, 
ch grows 
Î bunches 
he tropicj 
n, ani(Big 
iiland, are 
ingle land 
fi. ■ ■ _ •■ , 
iders fhewF ^1 
, burning 
3und with 
inted in a 
Itivate the 
ovv notto 
veflbls éâ- 
3oïed that 
or^heliie 
er of cool» 
•ty lïlapâs 



1 li, :\wy',l 


- '^ '- T ' '(ill',:. " ''i^ 


w§ 

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ii . 



HPil 




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II 


■f 


3 



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i 



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it'ïpl,- J l'i 



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'iiiiiii! 



!i:inili 



; liiiliiiin' 



rJll 



«S'Iii 



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IM 



\! 



by diggin 

potatoes i 

with eartt 

in an ovei 

The ea 

that they 

unobferva 

our cables 

wheel, an 

take the d 

had fome 

fome dou 

the lefs, 1 

By not ir 

we gave c 

minds, an< 

they were 

the mome 

So far d 

on their i 

them with 

grain ; in 

fheep, wF 

change de 

with ftonei 

I repeat, t 

with fuch 

dent : but 

and, I flati 

could no 1 

tribute thi 

their pracî 

be amende 

it is chimt 

events fin 



* Eafter I 
LaPcroufe o 



11S5.'] ROUND THÉ world; ' 77 

by digging a hole in the earth, and covering their 
potatoes or yams with hot ftones and coals mixed 
with earth, fo that all their food is baked as it were 
in an oven. ^.. 

The care they took to mearurMHy fhip, proved 
that they did not behold our works of art with the 
unobfervant gaze of fiupidity. For they examined 
our cables, our anchors, our compafs, our fteering 
wheel, and came the next morning with a line to 
take the dimenlions, which led me to think that they 
had fome difculfion of the fubjcét on fhore, and 
fome doubts remained. But I only efteem them 
the lefs, becaufe they are fo capable of refledlion. 
By not making ufe of our power againft them, 
we gave occafion for one refledtion to arife in their 
minds, and even that may perhaps cfcape them : yet 
they were not entirely blind to it, fince they fled at 
the moment a mullcet was prefented. 

So far different was our condu6t, that we landed 
on their ifland only to confer benefits, and l(^ad 
them with prefents. In their fields we fowed ufeful 
grain ; in their habitations we left pigs, goats, and 
fheep, which will probably increafe, and in ex- 
change demanded nothing; yet did they attack us 
with ftones, and rob us of every thing they could ftilfer. 
I repeat, that in other circumflances to have behaved 
with fuch lenity, would have been extremely impru- 
dent : but I was determined to depart in the night, 
and, I flattered myfelf, that in the morning when they 
could no longer pel ccive our veflcls, they would at- 
tribute this fudden departure to our juft contempt for 
their pradlices ; and, by this refleélion, they may 
be amended. Be this opinion as it may, and perhaps 
it is chimerical, navigators are little interefted in the 
cvent,^ fince this Ifland * fcarcely affords any re- 
'*'' fourccs 

* Eafter Ifland, difcovered in 1722 by Roggevirein, appear*;, as 
La Pcroufc obferves, to have experienced a revojution both in its 

population 







i 



7 s tA PE110USE*S VOYAO-E [l785. 

fources for fhips, and the Society Iflands are not 
far diftant. 



c. 



»e*M«94 



'-■i\ 



. I '.' u • 



CHAP. V. 



i\ 



EXCURSION OP M. DE LANGLE INTO THE INTERIOIi 

OF EASTER ISLAND NEW OBSERVATIONS ON THE 

MANNERS AND ARTS OP THE NATIVES, THE ÛUA- 
LITY AND CULTIVATION OP THEIR SOIL, ETC. 

** TT SET out at eight in the morning, accompanied 
•' ]^ by Meflrs. Dagelet, do Lamanon, Dufrcfnc, 
Duché, TAbbé ]V[ongt:s, Father Receveur, and the 
Gardener, and went about two leagues to the eaft- 
Avard towards the interior of the illand. Our jour- 
ney was very difficult over fmall hills covered with 
volcanic flones. But I foon perceived paths which 
communicated from dwelling to dwelling. VVc took 
advantage of them, and vilitcd feveral plantations of 
yams and potatoes. The foil of thefe plantations 
was a very fat vegetative earth, which the Gardener 
judged proper for the culture of our grain ; he 
therefore fowed cabbages, carrots, beet, maze, and 
eourds. We endeavoured to make the natives iin- 
aerfland that thefe feeds would produce fruits or 
roots for their fullenance. They underflood us per- 
fc6tly, and then fhowed us the bed land, pointing 
out the places where they wifhccl to fee our new pro-, 
du6lions arife. To thefe leguminous plants, v.c 

population and the produ6lions of its foil. We muft, at Icaft, draw 
that inference, from the diffeience in the accounts of îhei'o tv\o 
navigators. The Reader who wi flics to compare them, may con- 
fult the f 'oya^e ^û Rog^^enveiri, pv'wtcd at the Hague, in 1739, f>' 
the extraft v.huh the Prefident de Broffes gives in his work, en- 
titled, ///,?o;;rj ^£ Navigations aux Tents Âtijhales^ vol. ii. îi6, aiui 
follow ino pages. — French Editor. 
V • ■ , - added 



1785.] ROUND THE WORLD. 7Q 

added feeds of orange, citron, and cotton, endea- 
vouring to make them comprehend they were/ trees, 
and that what we had previoufly fown were plants. 

« We found HP other flirubs than the paper mul- 
berry tree *, and a fpecics of the raimofu or fenfitive 
plant : there appeared feveral confiderable fields of 
the morel, which they feemcd to cultivate in lands 
impoveriflicd by yams and j)otator,s. We continued 
our route towards the mountains, which, though very 
lofty, all terminate in gentle declivities, and are co- 
vered with grafs ; on them we perceived no traces of 
floods or torrents. 

" After having gone about two leagues to the cafl* 
ward, we returned by the fouth towards the fouth 
caft fide, which our Ihips had lailed along the evening 
before ; and where, with the aid of our telefcopcs, 
we IkkI obfervcd feveral monuments. Many of thefe 
were thrown down, and it appeared that the inhabi- 
tants Itike no care to repair them, while others re* 
mained ftanding, vith their platforms half ruined. 
Thelargeit of tho.c I meafured was l6 feet 10 inches 
high, comprehending the capital, which is three 
feet one inch, and of a very light porous lava. It» 
breadth, at the fboulders, \sas fix feet feven inches, 
and its thicknefs at the bafe two feet feven inches. 

Huring at length defcricd a colleelion of hut?^ 
I direeteci my fteps to this little village as it were, of 
which one of the houfes was 330 feet in length, and 
in the (hapc of an inverted canoe. Very near thiâ- 
hut we obferved tlic foundations of feveral- others, 
which now no longer exill ; they are eompofed of 
liiva cut into Hones, in which tliere are holes of about 





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* Mmis pnpxn/ura, which abounds in Japan, v/here a prepara- 
t'ion of the bark isuf'ed for paper. With this bark, which is very 
ligneous, the women of Louifiana make various articles, togethcir 
■vith tlie filk produced upon the tree, while the leaf affords nou- 
Mfliment for the filk-worai. This tree alia grows in France.— 
f^^•^ch Edim. '......■■ - - ^_ ■ • ' 

two 



80 . LA PÉKOUSÈ*S VOYAdE [1785^ 

two inched diameter. This part of the ifland ap- 
.peared better cultivated and more populous than 
Cook's Bay, and the monuments and platforms more 
numerous. On feveral of the ftones of which thefe 
platforms are compofed, we remarked Ikeletons 
rudely Iketched, and difcovered holes clofed up with 
ilones, which, as we conjeélured, lead to caverns con- 
taining the remains of the dead. An Indian explain- 
ed to us by very expreffive figns, that they were in- 
humed there, and afterwards afcended to Heaven. 
On the fea (hore we met with feveral pyramids of 
flone arranged nearly like balls in a park of artillery, 
and perceived fome human bones in the neighbour- 
hood of the pyramids and ftatues, of which the latter 
had always their backs direéled towards the fea. 

" The /lext morning we vifited feven platforms, on 
which were ftatues either Handing or fallen. They 
only differed in lize, or the ravages time had com- 
mitted on them in proportion to their antiquity. 
We found near the lall of them a kind of layman or 
effigy of reeds, reprefentinga man ten feet high, and 
covered with a white manufadture of the country; 
the head of a natural fize, the body thin, the legg 
pretty exadtly proportionate, and a net hanging to 
its neck in the fhape of a balket covered with white 
cloths, and apparently containing grafs. . By the fide 
of this fack was the figure of a child two feet long, 
with the arms crofled and the legs hanging down. 
This layman, which could not have ftood there many 
years, was perhaps the model from which ftatues are 
now creeling to the chiefs of their country. By the 
fide of this fame platform were two parapets forming 
an inclofure of 384 feet length by 324 broad. We 
could, not difcover whether this was a refervoir for 
•water, or the outline of a fortrefs againft enemies ; 
but it feemed a work left unfiniflicd hy its con- 
ilruélors. 

Continuing our route weftward. we met aboui 

• . twenty 



(t 



1785.] ROUND THB WORLD. : 81 

twenty children under the care of fome women, and 
walking apparently towards the houfes I have juil 
mentioned* 

" At the fouthernmoft extremity of the ifland, we 
faw the crater of an ancient volcano, whole fize, 
depth, and regularity excited our admiration. It re- 
fembled the fruftrum of the cone, whofe upper and 
larger balls appeared more than two miles in circum- 
ference. The extent of the lower bails may be efti- 
mated, by fuppofing the fide of the cone to form an 
angle of 30' with a perpendicular ; the inferior bafia 
forms a perfeél circle, its bottom, which is marfhy, 
containing lèverai confiderable pools of frelh water, 
whofe iurface appeared above the level of the fea. 
The depth of the crater is at leaft 800 feet.,, vuoâhv/ 

" Father Receveur, who defcended into the ctSL-^ 
ter, informed us that the marlh was furrounded by^ 
thefineft plantations of banana and mulberry trees ; 
and it appeared, as we had obferved when coalting 
the iiland, that there had been a confiderable falling 
away of the land on the fide next the fea, which had 
caufed a great breach in the crater, the height of 
which is equal to one third of the cone, and its breadth 
a tenth of the upper circumference. The grafs on 
the fides. of the cone, the marlh at the bafe, and the 
fertility of the adjacent lands, prove that the fubter- 
raneous fires have long been extinguilhed *, and we 
faw at the bottom of the crater the only birds we 
met with on the whole ifland : thefe were the water 
fwallow. Night obliged us to return towards our 
veiTels, when we obferved near one of the houfes we 
palTed a great number of children, who fled at our 
approach. We imagined that in this houfe all the 
children of the diftriâ were lodged, for their ages 
were too fimilar to admit of their belonging to the 

* On the fide of the crater next the fea is a ftatue almoft emirçly 
deftroyed bv tîme, which proves that lèverai ages have eiapkà 



fince the volcano has burnt ottt* 
Vol. I. 



G 



two 



// 



^-tdU -J 



S^ LA piftOUSB*8 TOTAGE [ifS^: 

two wofn«n who appeared to have the case of thnn. 
Near to tikis honfe was an earth- holc, where; yams and 
potatoes were drefled in the manner praélifed in the 
Society IflandISi 

'* On my return to the tent, I gave to three difFe- 
rent inhabitants the three fpecics of animals; we def- 
tined for this ifland, making choice of thofe which 
appeai>ed moA hkely to popagadc. 

'* Theiô' vflandcrs are hofpitahle, and frequently 
offered us potatoes and fagar canes, but never omit» 
♦ed an opportuntty of pluiraering us when they could 
eÉfèâ: it with impumty. Scarcely the tenth part of 
the Gountry is cultivated, and the lands already ciear- 
ed;^ ape in an oblong form, and extremely regular, but 
without any kind of inclofure, the reft of the ifland 
beiing covetôd with a very coarfe grafe, which ex- 
tends to the very fummit of the mountains. It was 
then the wet feaibn, and we found the earth moillen- 
ed a foot deep. Some holes in the bills contained a 
little freih water, but no where did we find anyi pun- 
ning ftream. The foil appeared of goodl quality, but 
were it advantagcoufly watered, would have a live- 
lier vegetation. We did not perceive among thefe 
people any implements of agriculture, and it is pro- 
bable that when they have- cleared the land, they 
make holes with (lakes, and then plant their }uin]8> 
and potatoes. We found, though very rarely, a few 
bulbes of mimofa, of which thethickeftare only three 
inches in diameter at the Ibem. The moft probable 
conjectures concerning the government of thefe 
iiknders is, that they corapofc but a iinglc nation 
divided into as many difbriéls as there are »wr^?« ; 
for we Obferved that the villages are built near thefe 
cemeteries. It appears that the productions of the 
earth are common to all the inhabitants of the fame 
diftriCt,. and as men offer their wives ta ftrangers 
without the lead delicacy or referve, it may be fup- 
pofed they do not belong to any roso. ia particular, 

and 



''<S^4 









atià thftt iê1(m HÉ fchildi^ri are wéatïéd, !hëy àfe dé- 
i;/er<îd to ôtJïér t^omen, who itt eJûdh dîftrîét" ài-e 
Chtt'ged with theif WAnttgôftieîttt. 

** Itl this iflarid we met tvith twice as many men 
5(s woitîèn i ahd îf thtfy are not in fàél lefs numerous 
than thfe tnén, f hèif appârènt pftucîtyiniift Have adfert 
frorii their b«în^ more dôrteftic. Their t^^hole bo^- 
j7iilaf iôri riiny hc eftimatéd ht 20001, While the numW 
of houfeîs #6 /aW buildirig, and of their children, 
gaVe us i^eîtfoft to conclude their Jiôpulation is not o 
the decline. But there is groriftd to believe, how- 
ever, that the inhabitairts were more numerous tvHert 
the iflànd was better' wooded. Had the inhabitants 
fufficient induftry to build ciftems, they wbuld tC' 
medy one of the greateft misfortunes of their fltua-' 
tion, and might evfcn prolong theii* lives^, for we di<f 
notice one man that appeared mofié thârt fikty-frVé 
years of ase, if we may be fuppdftd to judge with 
accuracy or at people We knew fo flliéhtly, àpf whofft 

mode of life is fo diffei-etit from àiiT bwri. ' ' 

ir>(n B Imhiit 



iirj'Niyd -^n 



**-K-9i 






H A P. YL) no-nii ^A 



DEPARTtftÊ FÈOSÏ EASTER ÏStAi^D-^ASTRONÔlilîC/At 
ÔBâEllVATlC^NS-^ARilïVAL AT THÉ SANDWiCtf 
ISLAïnïS-^ANCHORAGE liii tHÉ BAY ÔTP KERIPORÉFÔ, 
fN l-kE ISLANjy OP MOWEE^^DEtARTUitE PROM 



,0 "K! 



jfai.i 



; n^mfS 



ON quitting Cook'â Èay, \û Eaftér Ifland, Jri the 
eveniwgof the lôth, I fteerëdtdtbcs^northWàtd, 
coa-fting the iftand by moon light at a league's di(^ 
ftawce, and I did not lofe fight of it till the next day 
at two in the afternoon, though We were theft fréta 
it about 20 leagues. The wind blew conftantly be* 
ùveen S. E. and E. S. E. till the 17th, but the wea-: 

G 2 ther 



*lfll 



84 LA P£R0U8E*S VOYAGE [l785. 

ther was perfectly clear, and did not change and be- 
come cloudy till the wind came round to £. N. Ë. 
where it fettled from the 17th to the aoth. At that 
time we began to catch bon'ttas* which conilantly fol- 
lowed our (hips as far as the Sandwich iflands, and 
furnJQied every day, during fix weeks, a complete 
allowance for the whole of our crews. This wholefomc 
food prefervcd their health in the bed ftate ; and after 
ten months navigation, during which we were only 
twenty-five days in port, we had not one man firk 
on board either of our fhips. Wc were navigating 
in unknown fcas, and our track was parallel to that 
of Captain Cook, in 1777» when he failed from the 
Society Iflands for the N. W. coaft of America, 
though wc were about 800 leagues more to the eaft- 
ward. I had flattered myfelf that in a run of 
near 2000 leagues I fhould have made fomc dif- 
coveries, and conftantly kept men at the mail 
head, . to whom I had promifcd a reward for the firft 
who Ihould difcover land ; while, in order to com- 
mand a more extenfive view, our fhips kept a-breafl 
of each other during the day, leaving between them 
a fpace of 3 or 4 leagues. 

During this pafiSige, as on all other occafion^., M. 
Dagelet never omitted any opportunity to take 
lunar obfervations, which agreed fo well with M. Ber- 
thoud's time-keepers, that they never differed above 
10 or 15 minutes of a degree, and thus became a 
check on each other. M. de Langle found his re- 
fults equally fatisfadl^ory, and by the difference be- 
tween the longitude, by account, and that by ob- 
fcrvation, we knew each day the direélion of the 
currents. They carried us to the weftward as far as 
1^ S. lat. at the rate of about 3 leagues in 24 hours, 
where they changed to the eafiward, running with 
the fa^ dcgjfi^ gf rapidity as far as 7*^ north, where 

* A 6fh, fd caltejl, the oil of which becomes luminous when 
agitated.-^ee note, p. z I. 

i.^tï . ^ they 



1785.] ROUND THE WORLD. 85 

they again *refumcd their weflerly dirc6lion. On 
our arrival at the Sandwich iflands, our l^gitudc by 
account differed about 5° from that by obferva- 
tion, whereas, had wc, like the ancient navigators, 
po(îè(îcd no means of taking lunar obfcrvations, we 
ihould have laid down the Sandwich iflands. 5^ fur^ 
ther to the eaflward. Doubtlefs it is from this fct- 
ting of the currents, fo little attended to in former 
times, that the errors of the Spanifh maps have arifcn : 
for it is remarkable that the iflands difcovered by 
Quiros, Mcndana and other navigators of that nation, 
have been again found in thefe later periods, but al* 
ways at a greater diflance from the coaft of America 
than in their charts. And, I may add, that had not 
the felf-love of our pilots been hurt by the difference 
which daily occurred between our longitude by ac- 
count and that by obfervation, we fhould have found 
an error of 8 or 10° in making the ifland ; and con- 
fequcntly in lefs enlightened times we fhould have 
placed the Sandwich iflands 10° more to the eafl- 
ward. 

Thefe refledlions lefl me much in doubt concern- 
ing the exiflence of the cluftcr of iflands called by 
the Spaniards La Mefa^ Los Majos, La Difgraciada. 
In the chart which Admiral Anfon took on board the 
Spanifh galleon, and of which the Editor of his 
voyage has given an engraving, that clufler is placed 
precifely in the fame latitude as the Sandwich Iflandsy 
but l6° or 17° more to the eaflward. My daily 
differences in longitude made me believe thelc iflands 
were abfolutcly the fame* ; but what fully convin- 
ced 

* In the courfe of the years 1786 and 1787, Captain Dixon put 
in three times at the Sandwich Iflands, and entertaining the fame 
doubts as La Péroufe, on the identity of thefe iflands, and thofe 
called Los Majosy La Mefa^ &c. and after having made thefe re- 
marks, drew precifely the fame conclufions, as may be feen by the 
following extrafls from his voyage. 

f'The iflands Los Majos, La Me{h, and Santa Maria de la Gorta., 

G 3 > - laid 



'^m 



W rug'! Jj, ■'f%\,^:i 






8/3 LA ?££QUa|S*S VOVAQE [1785. 

çe4 me of it was the npme of Me/a, or T^ble^ given 
ty the Spaniards to the iflancl of Owhyhcic. I haa rca4 
in CaptaiA King*s 4efcriptIon of this fame jAanc], 
that after having doubled the caftcrnmpft poipt thcv 
difcovered a mountain called Mowna-iRjoa, which is 
perceived a long time before : *' It is, (fays he) flat 
at the top, making what is called by mariners table- 
land,'" an Pngliih word uncommonly exprp^Tivc of its 
form. 

Though the feafon was now far advanced, and I 
had not a nioment to facrifice before my arrival on 

laid down by Mr. Roberts, from i8 deg. 30 miti. to 28 dfg. nortji 
latitude, and from 135 deg. to 149 deg. weft longitude,* and co. 

Eied by him from a Spanifli M. S. chart, were in vain looked for 
y us, and to ufe Maureiie's words, '* // m(^ be p^qtctfu^fd fbqt tit 
fucb IJlands ofe to be found \^' fo that their intention has uniformly 
been to miflead rather than afflft fucceçding navigators. 

" Our obfervntions at nonn« on the 8th of May, gave 17 deg. 
** i.min. north latitude, and 129 deg. 57 min. weft longitude : m 
** tnis fituation we looked for an iftand called by the Spaniards Rtco 
*• Partieh^ but in vain ; however, we ftood to the northward yn- 
** der an eafy fail, and Icep^ a good look out, expelling foon to fall 
** in with the group of iflan^s already mentioned. 

*' From the i ith to the 14th, we lay to every night, and when 
** we made fail in the^orning, fpread at the diftance of eight or 
•* ten miles, ftanding wefterly; it being probable that though the 
** Spaniards might have been correal in the latitude of thefe iflands, 
>* yet they might be enfily miftaken feveral degrees in their longi- 
*' tude: but our latitude on the 15th at noon being 20 deg. 9 min. 
"north, and in 140 deg. i min. weft longitude, which is confi- 
** dçrably to the weft ward of any ifland laid down by the Spaniards, 
*' we concluded, and with realon, that there mult be fome grofs 
** miftake in the chart." 

*' On the firft of November, we looked out for Sta. Maria le Gorta, 
*♦ which is laid down in Cook's chart, in 27 deg. 50 min north 
♦♦latitude, and 149 deg. weft longitude, and the fame afternoon 
*♦ failed dircftly over it. Indeed we fcarcely expeéted to meet with 
" any fuch place, as it is copied by Mr. Roberts into the above 
*' chart, from the fame authority which we had fpund to be erro* 
" ueous, refpecling Los Majps and Roco Partida." 

* It mud be obfervcd, that Dixon reckons the longitudes weftwarJ, y(\\\\t 
Coolt in his 3d voyage reckons them eaftward. For the former having failed 
weftv^d to double Cape Horn, found that mode of reckprnng içore natural an(i 
conveiiient. 



C'J.^ 



I ..) 



the 



J765.J KOUVO TUB Wa«LD. '■ li> 

the coaft of America, I itnmc(\iately detertnined to 
ihape a couHc fo as to denionihtite the truth or 
ftlfchood of my opinion. Had I been in an crroT;, 
the reAilt mull have brought tfic to a fécond cluf* 
tcr o{ iflands, forgotten perhaps for above a century 
by the Spaniards, aiul bavu determined their precilli 
fituation and didancc, from the Sandwich iflands. 
Thofe who know mc bell, ho\v ever, will not fuppoft 
I was guided in this rcfearch by any defîre to deprive 
Captain Cook of the honour of this difcovery. On 
the contrary, filled with adn)iration and rcfpc<ft for 
that great man, he will ever appear in tny eyes the 
ableft of navigators, and the firft who has prccifely 
determined the fituation of thcfc iflands ; explored 
their coafls, defcribed the manners, cuftoms, and re- 
ligion of their inhabitants; a knowledge, for which, 
we muft ever regret, he has paid with hiS life. He 
indeed is the Columbus of that country, of the coaft 
of Âlafka, and of almoil all the iflands of the South 
Sea. Ignorance may, by chance, difcover a few 
iflands but it belongs only to great men like him 
to leave nothing unexplored that appertains to the 
countries they have vifited. Mariners, philofophers, 
and naturalifls, all find in his voyages the objeéts 
of their refearch. Every man, at leall every naviga* 
tor, owes a tribute of gratitude to his memory, and 
how can I withhold my fuftrage at the moment 
when I am approaching the clufler of Iflands where 
he fo tragically finiflicd his career ? " 

On the 7th of May, in 8^ N. lat. we perceived 
feveral birds of the petrel kind, together with thofe 
caWcd frégates and j)aille en culs, of which the two 
firft are faid not to go far from land. We alfo ob- 
ferved feveral turtles pafs along fide ; and the 
Aftrolabe caught two exceedingly good, which were 
divided with us. The birds and turtles followed us 
as far as 14^, and I have no doubt we were paflling 
near fome ifland^ though probably uninhabited ; fcfr 
■ ' • G 4 a rock 



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88 LA pérouse's voyage [1785. 

a rock in the middle of the fea is a better refuge to 
thefe animals than a cultivated country. At that 
time we were very near Rocca-Partida and Nublada, 
and I fhaped my courfe to pafs nearly in fight of the 
former, if its longitude fhould appear to be accu- 
rately laid down ; but I was not willing to run 
into its latitude, not having a fingle day to give up 
to this refearch. I knew well that in this courfe it 
was improbable I fliould fall in with it, and I was 
but little furprifed at not getting fight of it. When 
we had pafl^d its latitude the birds difappeared, and 
till my arrival at the Sandwich illands over a fpace of 
500 leagues, we never faw more than two or three in 
a day. 

On the 1 5th I was in Ip® 17' N. lat., and 130° W. 
long, which is the latitude of the group of iflands laid 
down on the Spanilh charts, as well as of the Sand- 
wich illands, though 100 leagues to the eafl;ward of 
the former, and 400 of the latter. Thinking I 
fliould render an important fervice to geography, if 
I relieved our charts from thefe empty names of iflands 
that have no exiftence, and perpetuate errors that are 
extremely prejudicial to navigation ; I was defirous 
to banifii all doubt, by extending my track as far as 
the Sandwich Iflands. I even formed an intention of 
pafiiing between the ifland of Owhyhee, and that of 
Mowee, which the Englifh had not an opportunity 
of exploring. I therefore propofed to land at Mowee 
to barter for fome provifions, and to depart with- 
out lofing another moment. I knew that by only 
partially executing this plan, and running but 200 
leagues on that line, I fhould give room for thedoubts 
of fccplics. 1 was defirous that not the fmallefi: ob- 
jcélion (hould remain to oppofe my conclufions. 

On the 18th of May I was in 20^ N. lat, and 
I3g° "VV. long., prccifcly on the fpot afligned to the 
Spaniûi iflr.nd Difgraciada, and had no indication 
whatever of lan4. --'va/' {J •'^«*5il^;^^*;v:;u^^iï^:U . i 



1785.] KOUND THE WORLD. 89 

On the 20th I paflTed through the middle of 
the whole group of Los Majos, and I never had 
lefs reafon to think, myfelf in the vicinity of any 
ifland. I continued to run to the vveftvvard on this 
parallel between 20** and 21^, and at length, in the 
morning of the 28th, I defcried the mountains of 
Owhyhee covered with fnow, and foon after of Mo- 
wee, fomewhat lefs elevated. I crowded fail to near 
the land, but was at a diftance of feven or eight 
leagues from it at night-fall, which we fpcnt {landing 
off and on, waiting for day break to enter the chan- 
nel between thefe two iflands, and to fearch for an- 
chorage under the lee of Mowcc, near the ifland 
of Morokinne. Our longitudes, by obfervation, 
agreed fo perfeélly with thofe of Captain Cook, that 
having pricked off the ihip*s place, on the Englifh 
chart, by our bearings we found a difference of only 
10 miles, which we were more to the eaflward. 

At nine in the morning I had the point or Mowce 
bearing weft 15° N., and perceived a fmall ifland 
bearing weft 22° N., which the Englifh were not 
within fight of, and have therefore omitted to deli- 
neate on their chart, which is, in this part, very de- 
fedivc, while all they have laid down from their own 
obfervations deferves the higheft praifc. The ifland 
of Mowee afforded a moft fafcinating profpeél. I 
ranged along it at the diftance of a league, where it 
runs into the channel to the S. W. by W. We be- 
held the torrents rufhing in cataracts from the proud 
fummits of the lofty mourttains, and difcharging theîn- 
felves into the fea, after watering the habitations of the 
natives, which are fo numerous, that a fpace of three 
or four leagu-cs appears to form only a lingle village. 
But all the houfes are fituated by the fea fide, and the 
ijiGuntains are fo near them, that the inhabitable Ikirt 
feemed to be lefs than half a league in breadth. It 
would be impoffible to form an idea of the fenfations 
this profpçd excited in us, without beinga feaman, and 
'■'■•- reduced 



(' 



i 



go LA pbrouse's voyage [1785. 

redoced; like us, to a bottle of water per day. The 
trees that crowned thefe mountains, the verdure, the 
bananas, around the dwellings, every thing, except 
the Tea breaking with the greateft violence on the 
ihore, contributed to enchant us ; and, like Tanta- 
lus, we dclcried and devourçd with our eyes, what 
it was impoiîiblc for us to reach. 

The wind freihened, we were running fix miles 
an hour, and I was defirous, before night, to com- 
plete the furvey of this part of the ifland, as far as 
the ifland of Morokinne, under which I flattered 
myfelf we ihould find an anchorage iheltered frcfhi 
the trade- winds. This plan, which was the refult of 
unavoidable circumftances, did not. admit of my 
Shortening fail to wait for about 1 50 canoes that put 
off from fhore, loaded with fruits and pigs, which the 
Indians propofed to exchange for pieces of iron. 

Almoft all the canoes came along fide one or other 
of our (hips, but we failed fo faft that they filled with 
water. The Indians were forced to let go the rope we 
bad thrown out to them . They threw themfel ves into 
the fea, fwain after their pigs, and bringing them 
back in their arms, hoifi:ed up the canoes on their 
ihoulders, emptied the water they had Ihipped, and 
got into them again ; endeavouring, by means of 
paddling, to regain the fituation along fide of us they 
bad been obliged to abandon, and which had been 
immediately feized by othens, who fucceffively ex- 
perienced iimilar misfortunes. Thus we faw above 
40 canoes fuccefilively upfet ; and although the trade 
we carried on with thefe good Indians was extremely 
beneficial to both parties, we could not poffibly pro- 
cure above 1 5 pigs, and (bme fruit, for we were de- 
prived of opportunity to exchange near 300 more. 

The canoes had oat- riggers, each held from three 
to five men, and their medium length was 24 feet, 
only one foot broad, and nearly as much in depth. 
We weighed one of thatfize, which did not exceed 
. . . 50lb. 



/ * 



J 



# 



^.] 





Vu 
mi 



* 




TOI 



û 



f$»(bm 



fin 

m 

m win 



■j, 
at 



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*T. 



^çyjifp TH» WOB.LP. g\ 

vdXhU tbe i(^i«bitanl8 of j^)ç& 

çf pQ league», tmvlsrfeot^^- 

i fl^ ihjit n(p^w«eii, i|tppi «nd 

,> lîçry Wyy. biat t^py jTwflf» 

ife 9(|»rj!iK:e4 the munt^lii? fipci^- 

,.v .. jo #ff »9»ï5<J» which exhibit^ ;j& 

i^ii;ypi|>^qwhithQ4U«, tbcHig it? wrdui© 

jpfé, Wc n^ no longer |)crpçîi?«l 

lii' the treeg grew even much lefs clofe j the 

i^pàpfif^^ oqly of ten or twcjye huts a^ a coq. 

Ib di^ance from each other; we every mo^ 

.^^nd 'iH^uib to regret the isountiy we had 

Ê^^ériA- :i<>an(f: np Iheltcr Imt where our eyes 

f JB^ fiightfwl ftOf è, from which the lava had fpr- 

jpill^ |U(er^fCaibade8 which» -in the|4>tber 

)>'^atké^ ÏK^fall fjeom the mountains. 
^^ lybg ft^WS. W. by W, as ftr as the 
^Ippi ofth^wod of Mowee, I hauled up weft, 
(jg^se^^s N. W., to gain an anchorage which 
^||r611qEbe hid already taken in 23 fathoms wate^*, 
iiUm of grey faod, about a piile frqjn the land. 
r<|pn^ Sheltered from the fea breezes by a large 
"itiâpped with clouds, which, from time to time, 
V|l^ &me very hard fqualls ; and the winds ihift- 
inftant, we were inceflantly dragging our 
IpSv This road was rendered the more incom- 
by ;urrents, which prevented our coming 
^ wind, excepting in iqualls, which cauied {o 
'%<fca^ that Out boats had the greateft difficulty 
However I fent one off immediately to 
id rbund oUr fhips, and the officer informed me 
j^^<;^ hottpiti was the fame as far as the ihore, that 
ll^éer ihoaled gradually, and there were teven 
%t two cables length from the beach. But 
^#ei|;hlng the anchor, I found that our cable was 

abfolutely 



i 






92 LA PÉROUSB s VOYAGE [l785. 

abfolutcly ufelefs; and that there muft be many 
rocks covered only with a light thin bed of fand. 

The Indians from the villages on this part of the 
illand were eager to come on board in their canoc§ 
bringing us, for traffic, fome pigs, potatoes, banana 
roots of pied (le veauy which the Indians called /«r^, 
with cloths and fome other curiofities, which form 
part of their habiliments ; but I would not permit 
them to come on board till the Ibip was anchored, and 
the fails furled. I, told them I was Taho •; and that 

* A word which, according to their religion, exprefles any thing 
that may not be touched, or a confecrated place which they may 
)iot enter. 

For the fignification of words in the language of the Sandwich 
Iflands, we may rely on the vocabulary or Captain Cook, who 
made a long (lay in thefe iflands, and in his communications with 
the iflanders, poflcfled advantages which no other navigator has been 
able to obtain. To all thefe grounds of confidence in him, we 
may add the known talents of Anderfon, by whom he A^asfo well' 
aflifted. 

Dixon gives a vocabulary of their language, in which he makes 
faèoo (îgnify embargo, though in his journal he explains the ceremo- 
ny of impofing the taèoo in the fame manner as Captain Cook. 

The following is a comparifon of feveral words taken from tl^e 
two vocabularies, which proves what miftakes may be made when 
to a perfeét ignorance of a language is added the uncertainty of the 
pronunciation of the words, the manner of exprefling which va< 
riçB in aimoû every individual : 

CORRESPONDING WORDS TAKEN FROM THE VOCABULRIES. 

Rnglijh words. Cook^s. Dixm't. 

Cocoa Nuts, Eenèeo, . ...... Ncehu. 

The Sun, Hai, Raa, Malarma. 

A Gourd, . Aieeboo, Tiba. 

AT^»»». {Sc.t;} ^"^""^ 

Brother, Tooanna, ...... Titunanie. 

A Cord, Heaho, , Touro. 

Cook's vocabulary, though more perfeô than that of Dixon, 
fupports my aifertion. We find the word denoting a wÀman dif- 
ferent in two places ; he repeats it without hefitation, and proba- 
bly he learned its fignification of two perfons whofe pronunciation 
was different, for in one place he writes 'vcabeifie^ and jn the other 
maheine,— 'French Edihr. " ' 

word, 



1785.J ROUND THE WORLD. p^ 

word, which I had learnt from the accounts of Eng- 
lilh navigators, produced all the efFedt I could have ex- 
peâe^l. M. de Langle, not having ufed the fame 
caution, had for a moment the deck of his (hip 
greatly incommoded by a croud of Indians ; who 
were however fo docile and fearful of giving offence, 
that wc made them return to their canoes with the 
greatcft cafe. When I had fufFered them to come 
on board, they ftirrcd not a flep without our con- 
fcnt, their looks betrayed a confiant fear of dif- 
plealing us, and their commerce was condu<5led^ 
with the moft pcrfcd good faith. 

Old pieces of iron hoops particularly attraâedT" 
their attention and awakened their délire, nor did 
they want addrcfs to procure them by the managment , 
of their bargains ; for never would they fell a quan-^i 
tity of Huff, or a number of pigs by wholefale, well i 
judging it would be more advantageous to demand 
a feparate price fcr every article. ^^ 

Their habits of commerce, and their knowledge 
of the ufe of iron, for which, according to their 
own confeffion, they are not indebted to the Eng- 
liih, are additional proofs of tl^e communication 
which formerly exifted between thele people and the 
Spaniards*, who, a century ago, had very ftrong 

reafons 



,-t..,- 






U 'E^./c 






* It appears certain that thefe iflands were difcovered for the 
firft time by Gaétano, in 1542. This navigator failed from the 
port of La Natividad, on the weftern coaft of Mexico, in 20, N. 
lat. fteering to the weftward ; and after having run 900 leagues oa 
tiiat point tff the compafs, (confequently without changing his ia- 
tiniiie) he fell in with a gioup of iflands inhabited by favages al« 
mod naked. Thefè iflands were furrounded with coral, were 
flocked with cocoa-nuts, and feveral other fruiîs, but poflèlièd 
neither gold nor (ilver ; he caFed then» the Iflands of the Kings, 
probably on account of the day when the difcovery was made ; and 
lie named that which he difcovered about 20 leagues farther weft the 
Ifland of Gardens. From this account itVould have been impoflible 
for geographers not to place the difcoveries of Gaétano precifely in 
the fame l^ot where Captain Cook afterwards found the Sandwich 

. Iflands. 



^ LA PEROÛSê'S VÔtAÔÉ [l7d5. 

reafons forr the cortcealmcnt of théfé ifl^ndâ. The 
tç^eftcm fta« of America were fôrtnerly irtfefted \^}th 
pimies, tvho would have derived fupplies of -fn-ovi- 
ÛOM from ihefe iflander», the difficulty of procuring 
^hich obliged them to run weft ward towards the In- 
dian Seas, or returrt by Cape Horn to the Atlantic 
Ocean, When the navigation of the Spaniards in 
the weft was reduced to a iiftgle galleon from Ma- 
xlilla, I belitvc that teflTcI, \thich Was extremely 
rich, V7as limited by the proprietors to a certain 
track, which dimimfhed their rifk. Tlrus, by de- 
grees, has this nation loft perhaps even the remem- 
brance of thefe iflands, retained by Lietit. Roberts 
cm the general chart of Cook*s voyage, in their an- 
cient fuppofed fitnation of 1 5^ to the eaftward of the 
Satidwich Iflands. Their identity however with thefe 
Utter being, in my opinion, eflabliftied, I have 



w 



Iflands.: But the Sp»iifii Editor adds*, that thefe iflands are fliuated 
between 9* and 1 1' ht. infteâd of between 19" aind a i* , as naviga- 
toris muft conclude froti the traék ^urfued by Gaétano. 
. Was the omiflion of thefe ten degrees an en'or in the figures, or 
a contrivance of the policy of the Spanifli Court, which had a 
ereat intereft, a century ago» in concealing thé fifiiation of all the 
lÉinds in thii^ ocean ? 

I am inclined to believe it is an error in the figures, for it would 
Intve bfeea very bad management to have publiihed that Gaétano 
departed h'om 20" lat. and fteered due weu. Had it been their in> 
tention to have concealed the true latitude, they might, with a& 
little diftculty, have aicribed hir courfe to another point of the 
cottipafs. 

However this, may be, every thing coincides except the ten de> 
gfees, which mud be added to the latitude given them by Gaétano. 
Tl«e diftance fronv the coaft of Mexico ; the people; their natural 
produâions ; the coaft equally furrounded with coral ; and, laftly, 
the extent from north to fouth is the fame : the bearing of the 
Sandwich Iflands beingj nearly between the 19° and 21*, as that of 
Gaétano is between 9° and 1 1". t 

This further proof, joined witk thoie before cited, reduces this 
s/eographical qtieflion to the greateft degree of certainty j to which, 
however, I may add, that there does not exift any clufrer of Iflands 
between the 9° and 11° degree, through which lit» the ufual track 
of Ebfi galleons from Acapulco to Manilla. 

n .r ■ . ; thought 



>• 



.- f 



1.755.J noim» tan woRid. gs 

thought it my duty to expunge them from the for- 
face of the ocean. 

It was fo late before our fails were furled, that I 
\fsà obliged to defer till the morrow my larwliTig on 
the ifland, where nothing could detain me but the 
advantage of an cafy watering place. Wc (bon pei- 
ceivcd, nowever, that this part of the coaft enjoyed 
no running ftreams, the declivity of the niowiitains 
having direéVed the courfe of the raifls to windward. 
The labour of a few days would perhaps fufHce to 
render this bleffing common to the whole jfland ; but 
thdfe Indians who, m other refpedts, arc greatly ad- 
vanced, have not yet arrived at this fpecies of induftry. 
Their fprra of government may be learnt from the 
accounts of the Englifh, and the extreme fubordi- 
nation which reigns among them fufficiently proves 
an acknoiwledgcd authority exifts, extending gradu- 
ally irpin. the king to the moil inconfiderable chiei^ 
and uhimately bearing on the people. I was pleaCtd 
and entertained by an imaginary comparifon of tïiefe 
Indians with tho^ of ËAdcr Ifland, whoie industry 
iâ,. at lead, equally advanced ; for the monuments 
of the latter evince more intelligence^^ their clotli's' 
are better manufaétured, and their bouibs better 
conftru6ied,i though their government is fo defec- 
tive that no One has the power of fupprcffinjg difor- 
der. They acknowledge no authority, and tbough , 
I do not believe them to be depraved, it too com'^ 
monly happens that licentioufnefs generates difa^eë- 
«ble and often fatal confoqnenccs. In this comparir 
Ion every advantage was in favour of the Sandwich 
Mlaads, notwitbftantUng the death of Capt, Gook 
had excited all my prejudice againft theni.- It is tnorô 
natural for navigators to regret with anxiety the lofs^ 
offo ^reat aman, than to examine, in the cooU' 
blooded fpirit of inveftigation, whether fomc rafhnels 
or imprudence on his part did not, in fome meafure, 

compel 



9^ * LA PÉB0U8E*S VOYAGE [ijSS, 

compel the inhabitants of Owhyhee to (land on their 
own defence*. 
■ The 

• It is but too clearly proved, that the Enelifli were the ag. 

frelTors, a truth which they would in vain enoeavour to conceal, 
draw my proofs from the accounts of Captain King him* 
Iclf, who was the particular friend of Captain Cook, and regarded 
him as his father, while the iflanders believed him to bear tnat re- 
lation, and who, after a faithful narration of the events which 
led to his death, adds: " I was fearful that his confidence might 
** at foms unlucky moment put him too much off his guard." 
' The reader may judge of the faA himfcif, by a compariibnof 
the following circumftances. ' ^ > ' 

. Cook too inconfiderately gave orders for firing in cafe the work- 
men (hould be diilurbed, notwithilanding the experience he had 
of themaflacre of ten of Captain Furneaux's crew, occafioncdby 
two (hots fired on the Zealanders, who had committed a petty then 
of bread and fifh. 

. Pareea, one of the chiefs, on daioijing his canoe which had been 
feized by the crew, was knocked down by a violent blow with an 
oar which (Iruck him on the head. When recovered fi-om the 
fliock, he had the gencrofity to forgot the violence committed on 
him, and a fhort time afterwards retuvned with à hat that had been 
ilolen, which he refiored, and even qcprefled a fear that Captain 
Cook Ihould kill on punifli him. 

Previous to any other offence hàvhig been committed, except the 
ftcaling of the boat, two guns were fired on a couple of large canoes 
which were endeavouring to make ofT. 

Notwithflandi«g thefe circumflances. Cook marched to the vil- 
lage where the king was, and received all the ufual marks of re- 
fpcA, the inhabitants proftratins thKnlfelves before him. 

Nothing indicated any hoflile intehlions on the part of the 
Iflanders, when the boats Rationed acrpfs the bay fired aeain on the 
canoes which attempted to efcape, and unfortunately killed a chief 
of the higheft rank. " ' 

. His death enraged the inhabitants, one of whom only fhewed 
marks of defiance to Captain Cook by menacing him with a ftone. 
On this man Captain Cook fired, but the ball was prevented from 
taking ctfeél by the mat with which he was covered: that (hot, how- 
ever, becoming the fignal for combat, Phillips was on the point of 
being ftabhed, when Conk fired a fécond time whfh ball and killed 
the native who was neareft to him : the attack immediately became 
more ferious, and the marines and faîlois fired a difchar^e of muf- 
quetry. 

Already four of the former were kill«d> and three others, toge- 
ther with the lieutenant, wounded, when Captain Cook perceiv- 
Wg his danger, approadicd the water's- edge, calling to the boats 

to 



1786.] BOUND THE WORLD. g7 

The night was very moderate, with the exception 
bf a few (quails, which did not continue fo much as 
two minutes ^t a time. About day>break the long;-, 
boat of the Aftrolabe was difpatched with Meilrs. 
Do Vaujuas, Boutiri, and Bemizet, who had orders 
to ibiind a. very deep bay which lay to the N. W. 
and where t fufpeéled there was better anchorap:e ; 
but this other anchoring place, though equally attain- 
ablei was not more commodious than that we already 
occupied. According to the account of thefc offi- 
cers, this part of the iflarid df Mowee affording navi- 
gators neither Wood nor water, and having Very in- 
convenient rOad-fteds^ itliiit naturally be little fre- 
quented. ' 

At eight in the niorhing four bdats were ready to 
fet off from our two (hips ; the two firft carrying 20 
foldiers under arths, conlmanded by M. de Pierre- 
vert, one of niy lieutenantSj arid in the two others 
Were M. de Langle and myfelf, followed by all the 
bafTengers and the officers not on duty. This war- 
like train gave no alarm to the natives, who, from 
day-break, lay aldngfide Us in their canoes. They 
did not follow us on (hore, but continued their traf- 
fic, and preferved an air of confidence which their 
icountenarices had never before expre(ïèd4 About 
l20 people, nien and women, awaited our arrival on 
the beach. The foldiers with their officers firft 
landed ; we niarked the fpot we nieant to referve 
for our quarters^ arid the foldiers, with bayonets 
fixed, performed their manoeuvres with the -fame ex- 
aâitude as in the prefence of an enemy. The(ê ce-' 

to ceafe firing, and come clofe in (hore to re-embark his little 
party ; but he \^as the fame moiiient (tabbed in the back and fell 
forwards into the fea. 

Wemay addj that Cook intending, forcibly oc otherwife, to 
carry the king and his family on board ; and having for that 
purpofe to penetrate foiiie vràj up the country, made too weak an 
arrangeitient fdr his objeél, in taking with him only a detschment 
of ten tatu.r-Frencb Editor. 

Vol. I. H temonies 




QB LA PiROUfSfc's VOYAGE [l786« 

remonics made no iinprcffion whatever on the na- 
tives ; and the women evinced, by the moft une- 
quivocal geftures, that they would grant us every 
poflible mark of4heir kindncfs ; while the men, with 
a refpedlful demeanor, endeavoured to difcover the 
motives of our vilit merely to anticipate our wiflics. 
Two Indians, who appeared to have fome authority 
over the reft, advanced, and, with an air of confi- 
dcrable gravity, making a pretty long harangue, of 
which I did not comprehend a fyllable, offered me 
each a pig, by way of prcfent, which I accordingly 
accepted, and, in return, gave them fome medals, 
hatchets, and pieces of iron, which, in their eyes, 
are of ineftimablc value. My liberality produced a 
great effect, and the women redoubled their carefles, 
though their perfons were far from feducing. Their 
features were void of delicacy, and their drefs fufFcred 
us to perceive that the lyphilis had committed ra- 
vages on the greater number. As no woman came 
on board in the, canoes, I imagined they attributed 
to the Europeans that malady of which they bore the 
marks : but I foon perceived that this idea, if it 
cxiftcd, had not left a fpark of refentmcnt in their 
mind. 

Let me, however, be permitted to examine whe- 
ther the modern navigators are the real authors of 
thefe evils, and if the crime with which they reproach 
themfelvcs in their accounts is not, in faét, rather 
imaginary than real. That my conjeélures may have 
the greater wciglit, I Ihall reft them on the obfer- 
vations of Mr. Rollin, a very intelligent man, and 
furgeon-major on board my Ihip. He vifited feveral 
inhabitants in this iftand who were attacked by that 
difeafc, and not only remarked fyniptoms which in 
Europe wouM require 12 or 15 years to be gradually 
developed, but alfo obferved children fcven or eight 
years old infected with this diforder, which they 
could only have contra(5lcd at ihc brealL I fliall 

* . add, 



l^SÔ.J KOUNt) THE WORLD. QQ 

tiàà, that Capt. Cook, in his firft voyage to the 
Sandwich Iflands, only landed at Atooi and Once- 
heow ; and that nine months after, when returning 
from the north, he found almoft all the inhabitants of 
Mowce, who came on board, infc6lcd with that ma- 
lady. Mowee being 6o leagues to windward of 
Atooi, fo rapid a progrefs mull excite fome doubts 
concerning its origin*. If to thefe remarks we add 
the communication which formerly exifted between 
thefe iflanders and the Spaniards, it will appear pro- 
bable they have long (hared, with other nations, all 
the evils produced by this fcourge of the human 
race. 

This difcuffion was due to modern riavigators, 
whom all Europe, mifled by their own accounts, 
would for ever have reproached with a crime, the 
conduélors of thofc expeditions deemed it impoiiible 
to prevent. But their not having taken fufficient 
precautions to prevent the evil, is a reproach they 
cannot efcape. Were it even demonftrated, that the 
introduélion of this malady is not attributable to their 
imprudence, it is not equally clear that their com- 
munication with thefe people has not increafed its 
a6tivity, and rendered its confequences more terrible^ * 

After viiiting the village, I ordered a ferjeant and 
fix foldiers to accompany us, leaving the reft on the 

* It appeaired to Captain Cook, that the inhabitants of Mowee 
had been informed of his touching at Atooi and Oneeheow. Cooi'i 
^d Toy age y vol. iii. We ought not, therefore, to wonder, that 
the difeafe and the news pafled together. Bougainville is con- 
tinced the inhabitants of the iflands, at a confîderable diflance from 
each other in the Pacific Ocean, keep up a reciprocal communica- 
tion. Voyage Aufur du Monde far Bougainville^ p. 21^.— French 
EJifor. 

t Doubtlefs the modern navigators are juftly reproached f<\ 
knowingly communicating the venereal difeafe fo the iflands ot the 
South Sea ; Captain Cook does tiot difguife it in his accounts, as 
>nay be feen particularly from his obferv&tions in bis 3d Voyage, 
yol. ii. and vol. 'ûh—Freucb Editor. 

H 2 * beach, 



Ii: 





M 


If 


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ti^iiraiiwf^j)*] 




mawmm 


P' 


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nS^EH 


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Ëm 


i 


'l*' a 'H^SiMMBf 


mf 


1|;.^^^| 


m 


Ih 


mm 


pip^ 


bBwi 


1^4 ^i 





m 



100 LA i'Érousb^s voyagé [ifBÔi 

beach, under the orders of M. de Pierrevert, in whofe 
care I left the boats, from which not a failor had yet 
landed. 

Although the French were the firil: of the moderns 
who landed on the Ifland of Mowee, I did not think 
it my duty to take pofleffion of it in the king's name: 
for the cuftoms of Europeans, in this reîpeél, are 
completely ridiculous. Philofophers muft, doubt- 
lefs, regret there are men who, becaufe armed with 
bayonets and cannon, count for nothing 6o,000 of 
their fellow creatures ; and, regardlefs of thé moil 
facred rights, conlider as an objeél of conqueft, a 
land which the inhabitants have fertilized with the 
fweat of their brow, and has contained for ages the 
tombs of their anceftors. Happily thefe countries 
have been difcovered in times when religion no 
longer aCords a pretext for outrage and cupidity. 
The objedl of modern navigators in defcribing the 
manners of new nations is only to complete the hif- 
tory of man ; and their expeditions ought to com- 
plete our knowledge of the terraqueous globe, lince 
the lights they fpread around them are intended only 
to tranfmit new happinefs, and augment the means 
of fubliftence to the nations they viiit. 
J On thefe principles wc have already tranfported to 
their iflands, bulls, cows, goats, (beep, and rams ; 
we have planted their lands with trees, a.id fown 
their fields with grain ; we have carried them uten- 
fils to accelerate the progrefs of induftry : while, on 
our parts, the fatigues of our voyage would be am- 
ply repaid, could we but deftroy that horrid cnftom 
of human facrifice faid to prevail in all the Illands 
of the South Sea. But, notwithflanding the opinion 
of Mr. Anderfon and Captain Cook, I think with 
Captain King, that a people fo good, fo gentle, and 
fo hofpitable, cannot really be cannibals. It is dif- 
ficult to aflxjciate religious ferocity with gentlenefs of 
manners ; and fince Captain King relates, that the 

pricfts 



1786.3 AOUNB THE WORtD. 101 

priefts of Owhyhee were their beft friends, I muft 
con^^udc, that if gentlenefs and humanity have made 
any progrefs among a clafs devoted by their office to 
human facrifices, the reft of the inhabitants muft be 
ftill lefs ferocious. It is evident, therefore, the practice • 
q( devouring human flefti no longer fubfifts, though, 
probably, the period of its ceflàtion has not long 
elapfed.* 

The foil of this country is wholly compoled of 
fragments of lava, and other volcanic matter, and • 
the inhabitants drink only brackifh water from very 
fhallow wells, in fo little abundance as to fuppy lefs 
than half a hogfhead from each daily. 

During our excurfton we difcovered four little vil- 
lages, each containing about ten or twelve houfes, 
which are not only covered but built with ftraw, and 
(haped like thofe of our pooreft peaHmts ; the rooft 
being in the form of a penthoufe. The door, placed 
at the gable end, is only three feet and a half high, 
admits of no entrance without flooping, and is Ihut 
only with a hurdle which any one may open. The 
furniture of thcfe iflanders confifts of matts, ftrewed 
like carpets, on which they fleep; and their only 
kitchen utenfils are very large gourds, which they 
ihape at pleafure while green. They varnifh and 
delineate various defigns on them, in black ; and I 
have feen feveral joined together, fo as to make very . 
large vafes, with a glue that refifts moifture, and of 
which^ therefore, I was very defirous of knowing the 
compofition. Their cloths, of which they have great ' 
quantities, are made like thofe of the other iflands 
from the paper mulberry, but notwithftanding they 

* The horror of thefe people at our fufpeéling them of fuch a 
praélice, and efpecially when afked whether they had devoured the 
body of Captain Cook, confirms the opinion of La Péroufc ; yet 
Captain Cook has proved to a certainty its exiftence athong the 
New Zealanders ; and it cannot be dilTennbled, that the cuftom of 
naking human facrifices, and eating enemies killed in battle, is ge- 
lierai in all the iflands of the South Sea.-^/^rrnr^ Edîttr. 

H 3 -^ arc 






I 




102 LA pérouse's voyage [1786. 

are varloufly painted, yet, in this manufaôure, they 
are not equally ikilful with the latter. On my re- 
turn I received another harangue from ibme women 
who waited for me under a tree, and prefbnted me 
feveral pieces of cloth, for which I returned them 
fome hatchets and nails. 

The reader muft not expeâ many particulars of a 
people already fufficiently known from the account» 
of the EngUih navigators, who pafled four months in 
thefe iflands, where we remained only a few hours. 
The former had the advantage of knowing the lan- 
guage of the country, and, therefore, we muft con- 
line ourfelves to the hiftory of our own adventures. 

_We began to re-embark at eleven o'clock without 
the leaft reafon to complain of any mifbehaviour, and 
were all on board by twelve. M. de Clonard had 
received a Chief, and purchafed of him a mantle, and 
a beautiful helmet covered with red feathers; and 
had alfo bought more than 1 00 pigs, fome bananas, 
potatoes, taroy a great many cloths, fome matts, a 
canoe fitted with an outrigger, and other fmall arti- 
cles made of feathers and ihells. 

At our arrival on board, our fhips were driving, 
it blew very ilrong from the E. S. E., and we were 
dropping down upon the ifland of Morokinna, which, 
however, was fufficiently diftant to admit of our 
hoifting in our boats. 1 made the lignai to weigh, 
but before we could get our anchor up^ I was oblig- 
ed to make fail, and to drag it till I had pafled the 
ifland, left I fhould drive beyond the mouth of the 
channel. Had it unfortunately hooked in a rock, 
arid had not the bottom been fufficiently hard and 
level for it not to take hold, I fhould have been 
obliged to cut the cable. v 

We had not done weighing our anchor till five in 
the afternoon, when it was too late to fleer between 
Ranai and the weft fide of Mowee. Though it was 
a new channel which I was defirous to reconnoitre, 

prudence 



■A 



1786.] ROUND THE WORLD. 103 

prudence forbad my attempting it by night. Till 
eight o'clock we had baffling light airs, with which 
we could not make half a league. At length the 
wind fettled at N. E. when I fteered weft, paffing 
at an equal diftance from the N. W. point of the 
ifland of Tahoorowa, and the S. E. point of Ranai. 
At daybreak I Hood in for the S. W. point of the iflc 
of Morotoi, which I coaftcd at three-fourths of a 
league diftance, and came out, as the Englifti did, by 
the channel between the iflands of Wohaoo and Mo- 
rotoi. The latter did not appear inhabited on the 
fide next us, though, according to the Englifti, it is 
very populous on the other. It is remarkable, that 
in thefe iflands, the moft fertile and falubrious, and 
confequently the nioft inhabited parts are always to 
windward. Our iflands of Guadaloupe, Martinico, 
&c. are fo perfc6lly fimilar to this new clufter, that 
every thing appealed abfolutely the fame, at leaft, in 
regard to nayiga .i<./ , 

]\Jefli's. pagel J Bernizçt furveyed, with the 
minuteft care ana retention, all the parts of Mowee 
and Morokirina we coafted, which the Englifti were 
jinabl,e to do with accjuraçy, bgcayfe never within ten 
leagues of the land. 

On the ift June, At ^x in the morning, we were 
clear of all the iflands, having employed lefs than 
48 hours in thefe fiiryeys, and, at moft, a fortnight to 
cftablifti a geographical point of the greateft import^ 
ance, as it removes from our maps live or fix iflands 
which have no real cxiftence. The fifti that followed 
us from the neighbourhood of Eafter Jfland to pur 
laft anchorage now dif^ppe^red ; and it is worthy of 
remark, that the fame ihpal of fifli acconjpanied us 
1500 leagues. Several bonitas, woundçd by our fifli- 
gigs, * bore marks impoflible to be miftaken, and we 
thus recognized each morning the identity of the 



W 



* A fmall harpoon. 
H4 • 



m 



s » 



104 LA ÏBROUIE'S VOYAGE [l786. 

iiih we had obferyed the preceding evening. Doubt> 
lefs^ had we not put in at the Sandwich iflands, they 
would have followed us 2 or 3Q0 leagues further, 
till the climate became irreilftible. 



»<«t*e« 



CHAP. VII. 

D^PARTUKE F^OliI SANDWICH ISLA90S-~SIGNS. oy 
AFPROACKING THE COAST pP AMERICA— DESCRIEDf 

MOUNT ST. ELIAS PISCOVERY OP THE BAY OP 

MONTI— OUR- BOATS RECONNOITRE THE ]V[OUTH 
QP THE GREAT RIVER BEHRING, AND A VERY 
DEEP BAY— THE FAVOURABLE REPORT OP SEVE- 
3^AL OP OUR OPPICERS INDUCES US TO PUT INTO IT 
—DANGERS INCUHRED IN ENTERING— DESCRIP- 
TIO$I OP THIS BAY WHICH I NAMED ?RENCH- 
MAN*S BAY AND PORT-t-MANNERS AND, CUSTOMS 
OP THE INHABITANTS-;— BARTER W^TH THEM--- 
JOURNAL OP TRANSACTIONS DURING pUR STAY. 

THE eafterly winds continued till we arrived in 
30° N. lat. directing our courfe to the north- 
ward with fine weather. The frelh provifions we 
Bad procured during our fhort ftay at the Sandwich 
lilands, enfured falubrious and agreeable food for our 
crews during three weeks, though it was impoffible 
to keep our pigs alive for want of water and viduals. 
I was therefore obliged to have them falted in Cap- 
tain Cook's method. Thefe pigs being very fmall, 
the largeft not exceeding 20lbs weight, they would 
have been foon corroded, and their fubftance partly 
deftroyed, if long expofed to the aélivity Pf fait, 
for which reâfon we were obliged to confume them 
firft. 

On the 6th June, in 30** N. lat. the wind fhifted 
to S. E. The iky became watery and dull; every 

thing 



Great 




Ocean 



AChart 

ofrtip 

KoR TH'iŒST Coast 

of 

Ameri c a 



37^6-3 

thing anflp 
^he trade-v 
lofs of tbai 
pur health, 
flay made 
the fun, 01 
meridian ^ 

My fear 
menced ot 
plear iqter\ 
the feas, \ 
foggy, b«t 
this opinioi 
land, and J 
eminence 
with, their 
penetrated; 
flattered uç 
by nielapc] 
Bay, that 1 
^aufe of fciJ 
ed, yefib 
difppfàd us 
large \it9m 
between d^ 
a pair of b 
^nd breech 
from Cape 

My furg 
to the cre\y 
imce of gi 
without pe 
the moft fa 
he fecretly 
certainly r 
lion £ 



* The FrcJ 

a mixture of 



Put lis h'r/ July tofijyi.èy J.S'tockdale. 



]7è6.^ mOUKB .THE WORLD* t^S 

thing annpurtced that we hid quitted the track cff 
^he trade-winds : I found we (ho^ld fbon regret the 
lofs of th^t ierene weather which I^ad ti^^tained 
pur health, and by favour of which wej Had every 
4ay made obfervatipns of the nioon^s ^ifl^nçe froii^ 
the fun, or, at lead, con^pared thqlnie fi^ine of the 
nieridian with that of our time-keeper$. 

My fears were top fpeedily r^U^. The fogs com- 
menced on the Qth June, "in 34^ N. lat. without a 
plear interval till the I4th, in 41?. I aimed thought 
the feas, which divide ÉaixQp^ from Amp'^ica, lefs 
foggy, but it would be an error irrevocab»^ to adopt 
this opinion ; fpr the fogs of Npya Scotia, Newfpundr- 
land, and Hudfpn*s ^ay, enjoy an incontedible pre- 
eminence of ppapity, tho^gh th,çy can fcarcely vie 
with, their unequalled humidityl This rain of fog 
penetrated every ^ilor^s baggage, which not a folar ray 
nattered us with the pYofpeâ of drying ; and I knew, 
by nielapchply experience in my voyage to Hudfon's 
liay, that this ^igid humidity was tne moil eflential 
fcaufe of (curvy. Although no fymptoms yet appear- 
ed, yet ib long a continuance at feâ mud have pre- 
difppibd us aU tp that diforder. I therefore ordered 
large braziers to be placed under the half-deck, and 
between decks where the feamen lay ; I gave each 
a pair of boots, and didributed the dufF waidcoats 
and breeches I had kept in reforve finceour departure 
^m Cape Horn. 

My fur^epn, wl^o (bared M.' de Clonard's attention 
to the cre>y, propofed to mix with the morning allow- 
ance of grpg * a flight infufion of bark, which, 
ivithout perceptibly altering its tade, might produce 
the mod fali^tary effets. I ordered this mixture to 
be fecretly perfprmed, as the crew would otherwife 
certainly refufe it ; but as it waaf unperceived, no 
pbjeétion arofe tp this praçStice, which would doubt- 

* The French Narrator explains in a note, that this grog was 
a inixturc of one part of èraru^ and two parts water. 

left 






I06 LA piROUSE's VOYAGE [l786. 

kfs have been ftrenuoufly oppofed, had it been fub- 
mitted to the general opinion^ 

Thefe precautions, though crowned with perfeél 
fuccefs, engroflbd not our leifure during our long 
paflage. My carpenter, following the plan formed 
by M. de Langle, conftruéled a corn-mill, which be- 
came extremely ufeful. 

The infpeélors of provifions, convinced that baked 
gram keeps better than either flour or bifcuit, recom- 
mended our taking out a confiderable ftock of com, 
which we augmented in Chili. We were furnifhed 
with mill-ftones 24 inches in diameter, and 4| thick, 
requiring four men to put them in motion. Being 
afliircd that M. de Suffren had no other machinery 
for his whole fqnadron, we could not doubt they 
were fufficient for our little equipment. But when 
we began to ufe them, our baker obferved the corn 
was merely bruifed, while four men, though relieved 
every half hour, only produced 25tb. of ill-ground 
flour per day. As our corn fupplied near half our 
fubfiftence, we fhould have experienced the greateft 
embarrafifment, had not the inventive genius of M. dc 
Langle, with the affiftance of a failor, formerly a 
journeyman miller, contrived a fpecics of wind-mill 
adapted to our purpofe. At firft he employed, with 
fome degree of fuccefs, fails turned by the wind, but 
foon fubftituted a winch, and obtaining as perfed 
flour as that of ordinary mills, ground two hundred 
weight per day. 

On the 14th the wind fhifted to W. S. W. The 
following meteorological obfervations are the refult 
of our long experiei'ice. The iky is generally clear 
when the wind is only a few degrees to the north- 
ward of weft, and the fun appears on the horizon : 
from W. to S. W. cloudy, with fome little rain: 
from S. W. to S. E., and even to eaft, hazy weather 
and extreme bumidity, penetrating into the cabins 
and every part of the Ihips. Thus a reference to thç 

'ftatc 



r -f^'.^ f-t^ 



17 86. J ROUND THE WOULD. 107 

ftate of the winds will always convey to the reader 
the ftate of the atmofphere, and be a ufeful guide to 
thofe who may fucceed us in this navigation. Should 
readers, who amufe themfclves with our adventures, 
take an intereft in thofe who have experienced the 
difficulties and fatigues attending them, they will not, 
perhaps, contemplate with indifference, navigators 
who, beyond the limits of the habitable world, and 
after a continual contell with fogs, bad weather, and 
fcurvy, have explored an unknown coaft, the theatre 
of each romance *, that has found too ealy a reception 
lamong modern geographers •}-. 

Thîi 

^ Such as the voyage of Admiral Fuentes, and the pretended «x> 
peditions of the Chinefe and Japanefe on that coafi. 

t However extraordinary the accounts of the voyage performed 
by Admiral Fuentes, or de Fonte may appear, we cannot venture 
wholly to rejeô them, when we compare his chart of difcoverie* 
with thofe of Cook, La Péroufe, Dixon, and Meares. It appeari 
by the difcourfe pronounced by Buache before the Academy of 
Sciences, that Lorencio Ferrer de Maldonado found a north paf- 
fage by entering a ftrait in Hudfon's Bay, which is the fame as that 
which Adfniral de Fonte fell in with when coming from the South 
Seas, and laid down in the French charts as Repuyie Bay. The voyage 
of Maldonado appears authentic, and is dated 1588, that of Admi- 
ral de Fonte 1640, and unlefs it be proved, that he knew of the 
former expedition, and made that the bads of a romance, the coin- 
cidence between them mull flill leave fome doubts ; and, in geogra- 
phy, every doubt ihould be perpetuated, till it yields to the moft 
incontrovertible proofs. 

Neither the difcourfe of Buache, nor the Spaniflj voyage which 
formed its bafis, are yet printed. Thofe who wilh to know all the 
jdifputes to which the vovage of Admiral de Fonte gave birth, will 
Hiid them in the followmg works. 

Explication de la carte des nouvelles découvertes au nord de la 
mer du Stid. Var tk Lificy ûft. Paris y \ 7 52. 
. Confîdérations géographiques et phyHques fur les nouvelles dé- 
couvertes au nord de la grande mer, appelée vulgairement la mer 
du Sud. Par Philippe Buache^ isîc. Paris, 1753. 
' Nouvelles Cartes des découvertes de Tamiral de Fonte, &c. Par 
Je LiJJf, '^cy Pa'isy ''i 7 5 3^ 

Lettre d'un officier de la marine ruflîenne à un feigneur de la 
cour, &c. A Berlin. 

Obfervations critiques fur les nouvelles découvertes de l'amiral 
fuentes, &'f. Par Robert de Fçivgmdy.fils^ i^c, Paris, i/SS- 
t ..■,,.■. i .. ; ■ ' "• Journal 



i.- . 

■_ V 

•.,''■»■■ 

1 î » ^^ 



S! 



.RI 



'■«■KK 



Pllf 



I 



lOS LA perouse's voyage [1786, 

This part of America, as far as mount St. Ellas, in 
60^, was merely dcfcriecl at a diftance by Captain 
Cook, except the port of Nootka, where he put in. 
3ut from that mountain to the point of Alalka and 
frozen Cape, this celebrated circumnavigator kept in 
with the coaft with all the perfcverance and courage he 
was known "by all Europe to pplîèfs. Indeed the explo- 
ration of that coaft of America, from Mount St. Elias 
ta the port of Monterey, though a moft interefting 
pbjeéi: to navigation and commerce, required many 
years to perform ; and we were aware, that in the 
two or three months which the feafon, and the 
vaft plan of our voyage, permitted us at moft to de- 
vote to it, we fhould leave many objcéts to be in- 
veftigated by future navigators. Many ages, per- 
haps, will elapfe, before every bay and port of this 
part of America is perfedly known. But the tme 
direction of the coaft, the determination of the lati- 
tude and; longitude of its moft remarkable points, 
will attach to our labours a utility which no fcaman 
Vrill difputc. 

Since our departure from the Sandwich Iflands, and 
till our inaking Mount St. Elias, the wind was fair 
without a moment's interruption. As we approach- 
ed the land we faw fea weed float by, of a fpecies 
abiblutely new to us, confifting of a pipe 40 or 50 
feet long, terminating in a ball of the iize of an 
orange, and refembling the ftem of an overgrown 
onion. Whales of the largeft fpecies, divers, and 
gulls, announced the approach of land, which, at 
length, >ve defcried on the 23d, at four in the morn- 
ing, when the fog difperfing, permitted us fuddenly 
to perceive a long chain of mountains covered with 
fnow, which we might have feen in clear weather at 
the ^iftance of 30 leagues further out. We then re- 
Journal hiilorique, Mémoires pour I'hiftoire des fciences et des 
beaux arts, Journal des Savans, Journal économique, pur Vanm 
jy^l.—Frencè Ediicr, 

cognized 



1780.] ROUND THE WORLD. lOÇf 

cognized de Behriog's Mount St. Elias, whofe fum- 
mit appeared above the clouds. 

The fight of land, which ufually produces agree- 
able Tcnfations aflcr a tedious navigation, caufcd in 
us but little efFcdl ; for the eye found no pleafure or 
repofe on maiîcs of fnow, which covered a naked and 
barren foil. Thcfc mountains appeared at fome dif- 
tance from the fea, which broke on a flat 1 50 or 200 
toifes high. This black platform, as if calcined by 
fire, deflitute of every approach to verdure, afTordcd 
a ftriking contrail with the whitcnefs of the fnow 
which we perceived through the clouds, and ferved 
OS a bafis to a long chain of mountains that fcemed 
to extend 1 5 leagues from eaft to weft. At firft we 
thought them very near us, their fummits appearing 
as it were above our heads, the fnow fpreadinc a light 
extremely deceitful to eyes unaecuftomed to it. 
But advancing nearer, we perceived below the plat- 
form low lands covered with foliage, which we mif^ 
took for iflands, where we expcdled to find fhelter for 
our fhips, and wood and water for the crews. I pro- 
pofed, therefore, to reconnoitre thefe iflands at a very 
fmall diftance, favoured by the eaft winds that blov/ 
along the coaft. But they prefently chopped about 
to the fouthward, the atmofphere became very black 
in that quarter of the horizon, and I thought it better 
to wait for more favourable weather, and haul clofe to 
the wind which blew dead on the fhore. We had 
found ourfelves at noon in 59° Q.V N. lat. by obfer- 
ration, and 143^ 23' W. long, by our time-keepers. 
A thick fog covered the land throughout the day on 
the 25th, but on the 26th the weather was very fine, 
and the coaft was vifible, with all its windings, at two 
in the morning. I ranged along it at a diftance of 
two leagues, the depth of water being 75 fathoms, 
with a bottom of foft mud. I was very defirous of 
meeting with a harbour, and was foon flattered with* 
the belief that I had found one. 

'■■ I have 



\- f. 



"f 









lîd LA i»ÉROUSE's VOYAGE [l786. 

I have already fpoken of a platform 150 or 200 
toifes high, forming the bails of immenfe mountain» 
fome leagues in land. We foon perceived to the 
caftward a low point, covered with trees, which feem- 
ed to extend as far a; this plain, and terminate at a 
didance from a fécond chain of mountains further to 
the eaftward. We all unanimously agreed, that the 
platform terminated at the low point of land covered 
with trees, that it was an ifland feparated from the 
mountains by an arm of the fea, and that it moil lie 
cail and weil like the coail, and, confequently, we 
fhould iind in that imaginary channel a commodious 
fhelter for our ihips, 

I ilcered for this point, keeping our lead going, and 
fbnnd the fmalleil depth of water 45 fathoms, over a 
muddy bottom ; when, at two in the afternoon, I wa» 
obliged to anchor on account of the calm. The wind 
had been very faint throughout the day, varying from 
weil to north. We had obferved at noon, 59° 4 1' N. 
lat., and our time- keepers gave 143° 3' W. long., at 
three leagues to the S. E. of the woody point, which 
I continued to mi (lake for an ifland. At ten in the 
morning I had difpatched my long boat under the 
command of M. Boutin, to reconnoitre this channel 
or bay, and Meflrs. de Monti and de Vaujuas had left 
the Ailrolabe on the fame purfuit, while we lay at an-» 
chor waiting their return. The fea was unruffled, the 
current fet to the S. S. W. at the rate of half a league 
an hour, which confirmed me in the opinion, that 
if the woody point was not the mouth of a channel, 
it muil at leait be that of a great river. 

The barometer had fallen one-fourth of an inch in 
24 hours, the fky was very black, and every thing an- 
nounced that bad weather would foon fucceed the 
dead calm which had obliged us to come to an anchor. 
At length, about nine o'clock, our three boats returned', 
and the officers declared there was neither a channel 
nor a river, but the coail formed a conliderable femi* 

circular 



)780.] KOUND THE WORLD* 111 

circular recefs to the Ni E. with 30 fathoms water, 
and a muddy bottom, but without (belter from any 
wind between , S. S. W. and E. S. E. which are the 
mod dangerous. The fca broke with violence on 
the beacn, which was covered with drift wood. 
M. de Monti had great difHculty in landing ; and 
as he was the commandant in this little expedition, 
1 called it the Bay of Monti, They added, that the 
caiife of our miftake was the woody point joining 
fome land much lower than itfelf, and deftitute of 
trees, which gave it the appearance of a termiiia- 
tion. Meflrs. de Monti, dc Vaujuas, and Boutin, 
had taken the bearings of the difterciît points of thià 
bay, and the coincidence of their accounts left no 
doubt what to determine *. I made fignal to weigh, 
and as very bad weather was coming on, I took ad- 
vantage of a breeze from the N* W. to run to the 
S. E. and get oft' the coad. 

• Doubtlefs it will appear extraordinary I fliould controvert the 
opinion of three ofl[icers,and maintain that La Péroufâ could f jrni a 
ttiore accurate judgment of the coad from on board. It remains 
lor the reader to weigh the proofs of my aflèrtion } and fhould any 
doubt ftill remain, to confult the voyage and charts of Dixon. 

I maintain that the bay of Monti was the Hation where Dixon 
nnchored the 23d of May following, under which he was (heltcred 
from every wind by the projeélion of an illand that forms a kind of 
mole, which he called Port Mulgrave. 

Dixon fays, page 166, " The fituation Mr. Turner had pitched 
" on for us to anchor in was round a low pomt to the northwan!, 
" about three miles up the bay." 

And page 1 70, " Thefe ^flands, in common with the rell of the 
" coaft, are entirely covered witti pines of two or three different 
" fpecies, intermixed here and there with witch hazle, and various 
** kinds of bru (h-wood." 

Dixon Hxes the latitude of Tort Mulgrave at $9^ 33', and its 
long. W. from London 140°, equal to 142° 20' from Peris. L? 



ilk 



Péroufe fixes the latitude of Monti Bay at 59° 43', and its lo 
r42o 40'. 

If the three officers, commiflloned by La Péroufe to explore 
the bay, did not go to the head of it, ii' is not furprifing they 
jhould think it had a continuation of coa'i^ or toat the iittic 
i(lands in that part of it flîould conceal tie channel that feparate» 
them from the continent, ■■ ■ Fre^jcb Editor,, 

'""' The 



^aii 



iiâ LÀ pébouse's voyàôb [l78é. 

The night was calm but foggy, the wind chang- 
ing every moment. At length it fettled in thé 
caft, and bliew very frefh from that quarter for 24 
hours; X 

On t* ^ 28th the weather became fitier. We were 
ih 59P 19' N. iat. by obfervatioh, and 142° 41' W, 
longi by, our time-keepers. The cbaft was covered 
with fog, and we could not diftinguifh the points we 
had fet the preceding days. The wind was ftill eafterly, 
but the barometer rdfe, and every thing announced A 
favourable change. At five in the evening We were 
but three leagues from land, in 40 fathoms water, ovet 
a muddy bottom, ; and the fog having partly difper- 
Icd, we made fketches from our hearings^ which 
formed an uninterrupted continuation of our pre- 
ceding furvëys, and together with our fucceeding 
obfervations moll attentively performed, contributed 
to complete the general chart of our voyage. Navi- 
gators, and thofc in particular who make geography 
their ttudy, will perhaps be happy to learn, that to 
give dill further preciiion to the configuration and 
outline of the coafls and remarkable points, M. 
Dagclet verified and correâed the bearings taken with 
the azimuth compafs, by the mutual diftances of 
the hills, meafuring the relative angles they fomK 
with each other by a fextant, and determining the 
elevation of the mountains above the level of the fea. 
This method, though not rigoroufly exaét, is yet 
fufficient for navigators to judge by the height of à 
coaft at what diftance it is from them ;. and in this 
manner that learned academieian has determined the 
height of Mount St. Eiias to be 198O toifes, and 
its fituation eight leagues in land *i 

On the 29th of June we were, by obf^rvatioti, 
in 3Q» IC/ N. Iat* and 142* 2' W. long, by our time- 

♦ Cook fays, Motint St. EliaJ lies ii leagues up the land, in 
12« 27' Iat. and 219» longitude from the meridian of Greenwich. 
7&irJ Foyage, vol. iii.— — /IrrwcA Editor, 

keepers, 



Î786.] IrouNï) THE V^roRLÏ). us 

keepers, having in 24 hours run eight leagues to 
the eaftward. The fouth winds and the fogs conti- 
nued throughout the 29th, and the Weather was clear 
till the 30th at noon ; though at times we perceived 
low lands, but never more than four leagues diftant. 
According to our reckoning we were five or fix leagues 
to the ealiward of the bay, called by Captain Cook 
Behring's Bay, and Our foundings were confiantly 
from do to 70 fathoms, with a muddy bottom. Our 
latitude, by observation, was 58° 55', and our longi* 
tude, by the time-keepers, 141*^ 48^ I ftood riglit 
in for the land, under ti crowd of fail, with fome light 
airs from the W. S. W. We faw to the eaftward 
a bay, which appeared very deep, and which I at 
ïirft took for that of Behring. Having got within 
a league and a half of it, I diftindly perceived that 
the lowlands, like thofe - of the bay of Monti, were 
united to a more elevated foil, and that, in fa6l, 
there was no bay, though the water was whitifh, and 
almofl: frefh, which, with every other circumftance, 
announced the vicinity of a river, that mud be 
very confiderable to have changed the colour and 
the faltnefs of the fea for two leagues in the offing. 
1 made the fignal to anchor in 30 fathers, over a bot- 
tom of foft mud; and difpatchcd the long-boat, under 
M. de Clonard, my fécond captain, accompanied ly 
Meflrs. Monncron and Bernizet. M. de Langle had 
alfo fent off his long-boat, together with his bifcayan 
yawl, under the command of Meflrs. Marchainvillç 
and Daigremont. Thefe officers returned by noon, 
having kept along the (horc as near as the breakers 
would permit. They difcovered a fand bank even 
with the water's edgey at the mouth of a great river, 
difcharging itfelf into the fca by two confiderable 
channels, each having a bar, as at the river of Bayonne, 
on which the fea broke fo violently, that it was im- 
polTible for our boats to approach it. M. de Cloniird 
fpent five or fix hours in an unfuccefsful attempt to 
Vol. I. I enter, 



:f 



^\ ' '.fa 

• r ' 'If 



114 LA PÉROUSê's VOYAéE [l786. 

enter, though he difcovered fome fmdke, which proved 
the country inhabited, while from our ihip we per- 
ceived an unrufted fca beyond the bank, and a bafin 
of feveral leagues in breadth and two in depth. It 
is probable that with fmooth water, (hips, or at 
lead boats, may enter this gulph ; but as the cur- 
rent is very ftrong, and as the fea becomes extreme- 
ly rough, from one moment to another over the 
bars, the very appearance of this place is fufficient 
to deter navigators from approaching it. From the 
afpeél of this bay I have been inclined to think it 
was here Behring landed ; and it is more probable 
the lofs of his boat's crew is to be attributed to the 
fury of the fca than the barbarity of the Indians*. I 
have retained the name of Behring's River, and am 
of opinion the ftrait o( that name has no exiftence, 
but that Captain Cook, who pafled at a diftance of 
10 or 12 leagues, rather conjeélured than a(Slually 
perceived it t. 

On 



*• Here are two miftakes : firft, it was Captain Tfcherikow, 

not Sehring, who loll his boats; fecondly, this misfortune oc- 

cured in 50* lat. according to 'Mu\\er.'——f^oyages et tUcouvertts 

faites par les RuJ/es, page 248 of the French tranflation.— -/r^«fi 

Editor, 

f There is no doubt the place which La Péroufe defcribes as 
Behring's river, is the Behring's Bay of Captain Cook. It re- 
mains only to be known, whetiher the change in the colour and 
ialtnefs of the water is a fufficient proof that this bight in the 
land is à river, and whether the freflmefs of the water may not be 
occafioned by the enormous mafles of ice continually falling from 
the mountains, while the colour may arife from the foil of the 
coaft or of the beach, where the fea breaks with fuch fury. 

But whether it be river or bay, or both (for bays being formed 
by mountains ftretching into the fea, there may probably be a river 
or a torrent within), the identity of the place is proved in the fol- 
lowing manner: Conk determined the opening of this bay to be 
in 59* 18' of latitude. La Péroufe was to the weftward of the bay, 
and made its latitude 59° 20'. 

Cook's longitude, when on board, was 220» 19' E. from 
ihc meridi^in of Greenwich, which makes 139» 41' W. longitude, 
afid adding a" 20' for the difference between the meridian of Green- 
wich 



1786.J ROUND THE WORLD. ' ^ 115 

On the Ift of July, I got under fail with a light 
breeze from the S. W. ranging along the land at the 
diftance of two or three leagues. While at anchor, 
we were, by obfervation, in 59° 7' N. lat. and 141*^ 
17' W. long, by our time-keepers, the entrance of the 
river bearing N. 17° E. and Cape Fair Weath'^jr ^. 
5° S. We (leered along the fhore with a light bie^^ze 
from the W. at two or three leagues diftance, and 
might have perceived the inhabitants by the help of 
our glafles had there been any ; but the breakers 
appeared to render a landing impoffible» - 

On the 2d, at noon, I had Mount Fair Weather 
bearing N. 6° E. being, by obfervation, in 58° 36' 
N. lat. and by our time-keepers in 140*^ 31'' W. 
long, diftance two leagues off (hore. At two, a little 
to the eaftward of Cape Fair Weather, we got fight 
of a bight, which appeared a very fine bay, and 
ftood in for it. When within a league of it, I fent 
oiF the jolly-boat, under the command of M. de 
Pierrevert, to reconnoitre it, together with M. Ber- 
nizet. The Aftrolabe alfo difpatched two boats, 
commanded by Mefïi*s. de Flaflan and Boutervil- 
liers, on the fame purfuit. We perceived from on 
board a great ledge of rocks, behind which the fea 

wich and that of Paris, we have 142" i' W. for Cook's longitude 
from the meridian of Paris. 

La Péroufe fixes his longitude at 1 42» 2', which makes only % 
difference of one minute, Capt. Cook was two leagues farther off 
from the coaft. 

Cook fdw the opening of the bay bearing N. 47^ E. 

La Péroufe, who was two leagues neare.- the coaft, faw that open- 
ing bearing N. 33'E. • 

Cook was eight leagues from the land, and found 70 fathoms 
water over r muddy bottom. 

La Péroufe was five or fix leagues from the coaft, and had con- 
ftantly from 60 to 70 fathoms water, over a muddy bottom. 

Had I not already proved my pofition to demonftration, I 
would requeft the reader himfelf*^ to fix Capt. 'Cook's place oa 
the map, on the 6th of May, 1778, and that of La Péroufe on the 
29th of June, 1786, and purfue their trafts, with due rp^ar 1 to the 
variation of the needle, as determined by thofe t'',o navigators, 
frmh Editor, . ' - 

1 2 water 



r-.f; 



A ' > 11' 



, J. 




Il6 LA PBROUSR^S VOYAGE [l7ôÇ, 

water was very fmooth. This ledge appeared to be 
three or four hundred toifes long from eaft to weft, 
and to terminate at about two cables length from the 
point of the continent, leaving a confiderable open- 
ing ; fo that nature feemcd to have formed, at the 
extremity of America, a port like that of Toulon, 
though both lier plans and her materials were here 
exhibited on a more magnificent fcale, for this port 
was three or four leagues in depth. Meiîrs. de FlalTan 
and Boutervilliers gave the moft favourable report of 
it ; they had gone in and out of it feveral times, and 
found conftantly feven or eight fethoma water in the 
middle of the channel, and five fathoms within 20 
toifes of each extremity, while in the interior of the 
tay there were 10 or 12 fathoms over a good bot- 
tom. From their report I determined to ftecr for the 
ciiannel ; and fent our boats to found a- head, with 
orders, when we approached the points, to place 
themfelves one off each extremity, fo that the ftiips 
might only have to pafs betweea them. 

We ibon perceived fome fava'jres making fignals 
of friendftiip, by difplaying and waving about white 
cloaks and various ikins, in the manner of flags. 
Several canoes of thefe Indians were fiihing in the 
bay, where the water appeared as fmooth as a mill- 
pond, while the ledge was covered with furf by the 
breakers.. The feà. was very calm, however, beyond 
the channel, and this afforded an additional proof 
that its depth was confiderable. 

At feven in the evening we attempted the paflige^ 
but the win.d was faint and the ebb fo ilrong, that we 
could not poffibly fterti it. The Aitrolabe was carried 
out with great rapidity, and I was obliged to anchor, 
left I (hould be fwept away by the current, of which 
I did not know the direélion; but finding that it 
fet towards the offing, I weighed anchor, and re- 
joined the Aflrolabe, ftill undecided what plan to 
purfuc in the morning. This very rapid current, 

which. 



•CO. ' -rf 



which our officers had not mentioned, checked my 
cagernefs to put into this port. I was not ignorant 
of the great difficulties to be encountered in enter- 
ing and at coming out of narrow paiîès, where the 
tides are very ftrong; and, as it was necefîàry to em- 
ploy the fummer in exploring the coafts of America, 
I feared a forced continuance in a bay, from which 
my departure might require the concurrence of many 
favorrable circumftances, would be extremely injuri- 
ous to the fuccefs of my expedition. However, 1 
pafTed the night, {landing off and on, and, at day- 
break, I hailed M. de Langle, and communicated 
my opinion to him. But the report of his two of- 
ficers was very favourable ; for, having founded both 
the ftrait and the interior of the bay, they reprefented, 
that although the current appeared fo llrong, they 
had fcveral times ftemmed it with their boats. M, de 
Langle therefore eftecmed this port very commodious, 
and his rcafons appeared fo convincing, that I could 
not withhold mv afîènt. 

This port, which had been difcovered l)y no former 
navigator, is iituated 33 leagues to the N. W. of that 
of Los Remedios, which is the extreme boundary of 
the navigation of the Spaniards, about 224 leagues 
from Nookta, and 1 00 leagues from Prince William's 
Sound. Should the French government therefore en- 
tertain any defign of eftabliihing à faélory on this part 
of the American coafl:, other nations cannot claim the 
fmallcft right of oppofition *. The fmoothnefs of 

the 

♦ Since L3 Peroufe explored the north weft coaft of America, 
from Mount ^t. Ellas to Monterey, two Englifh ..avigators have 
taken the fame roiite, though merely with commercial views. 

Dixon Tailed fropi England in September 1785, in the Queen 
Charlotte, accompanied by Captain Portiock, in the King George, 
and anchored at 0\vliyhee,onepfjheSandwich Iflands, the 26th May 
1786. La Péroufe pafTed by Owhvheç the 28th of the fame month ; 
anchored at Mowee on the next day, and, quitting itvpn the 30th, 
got fight of Mount St. Elias on the 23d June, 1786: while Dixon 
quitted Owhvhee Tune 15th, and having fleered for Cook's River, 

I 5 did 



pn 






118 LA pÉnouafi's VOYAGE \i7s6. 

the inner part of this bay was very feducing to U8 
who were in abfolute neceffity of changing our ftow- 
age almoft entirely, in order to get up fix guns from 
the bottom of the hold, without which, it would 
be very imprudent to navigate feas * fo frequently 
infefted with pirates as thofe of China. To this 
place I gave the name of Port des Français, or 
Frenchmen's Port. 

At fix in the morning we fi:ood for the bay with 
the lafh of the flood, the x\fl:rolabe preceded me, and 
a boat, as on the preceding evening, was fi:ationed qif 
each point. The wind was between wefl: and W. S. 
W., the entrance lies north and fouth. Thus every 
thing appeared favourable. But at feven, when we 
were already in the channel, the wind Ihifted to 
W. N. W. and N. W. by W. fo that it was necef- 
fary to fhiver the fails, and even to throw all a-back. 
Fortunately the flood-tide carried us into the bay, 
fetting us along the rocks ori the eaft point, at the 
difi:ance of half a piftol fliot. I anchored within the 
bay, in three fathoms and a half, over a rocky bot- 
toni, about half a cable's length from the fliore. The 
Aftrolabe anchored upon a fimilar bottom, and in an 
equal depth of water. 

did not arrive at the north weft coaft of America till the 8th Sep- 
tember, which he ranged along from the entrance of Crofs Sound 
to that of Nootka, without being able to come to an anchor. 
Leaving that coaft on the 28th of the fame month, he returne4 
to the Sandwich Iflands, and not till the 23d of May, in the fol- 
lowing year, made Mount St. Elias, and caft anchor in port Mul- 
grave. The priority of La Péroufe is therefore fully eftabliftied. 

Dixon, before his departure from London, was spprifed of the 
expedition from France, but never falling in with the French fhips, 
was ignorant of their difcoveries. 

Captain Meares, in the Snow Nootka, failed from Bengal in 
March 1786; touched at Oonolafka in Auguft, and, by the end 
of September, arrived at the entrance of Prince William's Sound, 
where he wintered : and it was not till 1788 and 1789, that he 
ran down the coaft of America. Of his voyage there is yet no 
French trarillation. — French Editor. 

* We were to arrive China in the beginning of February. 
' , ; . During 



)786f| ROUND THE WORLB. IIQ 

During thirty years experience at fea, I never faw 
two (hips fo near deflrudion ; and to meet that fate 
at the extremity of the earth, would have rendered 
our misfortune ftill more tragical ; but we were now 
out of danger. Our boats were inftantly hoifted 
out, and carried out our fmall anchors ; and be- 
fore the tide had perceptibly fallen, we warped 
into fix fathoms water ; yet our heel touched fe- 
yeral times, but fo flightly as not to damage the 
fhip. Our fituation would not have been at all 
difficuitj had we not anchored on a bottom of 
rock, extending feveral cables length round us, very 
differently from the report of Meiih. de Flafllin and 
Boutervilliers. This, however, was no time for re- 
fledlion. It was neceiîàry to quit this dangerous 
anchorage, to which the rapidity of the current 
was a qonfiderable obfjlacle, and its violence obliged 
me to drop a bower anchor. I fcjared each mo- 
ment left the cable fhould part, and our fhip drive 
QP (hore ; and our uneafinefs was much increafed, 
when the wind frefhened much from the W. N. W. 
Thus our fhip was clofe in with the land, and her 
(lern very near the rocks, from which it was impof- 
iible to think pf towing her. I therefore ftfuck the 
top gallant mails, and waited for the foul weather to 
ceafe, which would have been lefs dangerous, had 
we even anchored in better ground. 

I feat imm,ediately to found the bay, whence M. 
Boutin very foon returned with an account, that he 
had found an excellent bed of fand in ten fathoms 
water, four cables length to the weftward of our an- 
choring place ; but that further up the bay to the 
northward, he could not llrikv'î ground with a line of 
60 fathoms, except within half a cable of the 
ftiore, where he found 30 fathoms with a muddy 
bottom. He informed me alfo, that the north weil 
wind did not penetrate into the inner part of the 
Jharbour, where it was abfolutelv caim. 

" ' 1 4 " M. crEfcures 









4 



1 



I 



îio LA pA»0c««> voyage ' [1786., 

M. dWcurcs had been difpatched, at the famfr 
time, td explore the head of the bay, of which he gave 
the moil favourable account. He had gone round 
an iiland, near which was anchorage in 25 fathoms 
water, over a muddy bottom. No place could be 
more convenient for creeling oar obfervatory ; wood 
already cut lay fcattered along the fhore, and caf- 
cades of the fineft water rolled from the fummits 
of the mountains into the fea. He had penetrated 
to the head of the bay, two leagues beyond the ifland 
"which was covered with ice, and perceived the en- 
trance of two vaft channels ; but, being eager to 
render an account of his miffion, he did not ftay 
to examine them. After this account, the poflibility 
of penetrating by thefe chai^nels into the interior of 
America prefented itfelf to our imagination. The 
wind having fallen by four P. M. we towed up to 
the fand-bank which M. Boutin had difcovered, and 
the Aftrolabe was enabled to get under fail, and gain 
the anchorage of the ifland. I rejoined her the next 
day, being favoured with a light Wceze from the 
E. S. E. and alîifted by our boats. 

During the flay we were compelled to make at 
the entrance of the bay, we had been conftantly fur- 
rounded by canoes of favages, who, in- exchange for 
our iron, offered us fifh, otter Ikins, with thofc of 
other animals, and various fmall articles of their ap- 
parel. To our great aftonifhment, they appeared per- 
fectly accuftomed to traffic, and made their bargains, 
with as much addrefs as the moft able dealers of Eu- 
rope, but of all the articles of commerce, iron alone 
was delired with eagernefs ; fome glafs beads were 
alfo taken, tho' rather as a makeweight to conclude 
a bargain^ than as the bafis of our exchanges. At 
length we induced them to take fome plates, and tin 
pots, but thefe articles fucceeded only for a time, and 
iron was paramount to all. This mct^l was not un- 
known to them, for each had a dagger of it hanging 

fron^ 



I786.J ' ROUND THE WORLD. 1^1 

from his neck, refcmbling, in ihape, that of the Indian 
cry; but without any iimilarity in the hanf'le, which 
was only a continuation of the blade, roumied off 
vjrithout an edge. This weapon is kept in a (heath 
qf tanned leather, and feemed the moll valuable arti-»^ 
cle of their polieffions. As we examined iheie poig- 
nards very attentively, they informed us by (igns that 
they were only ufed againfl bears and other beafta 
of the foreft. Some were of red copper, but to thefe 
they (howed no marks of preference. This metal is 
very common among them, being ufed chiefly for 
collars, bracelets, and other ornaments, and to arm 
the points of their arrows. 

It was a great queftion with us where they procur- 
ed thefe two metals. Native copper might poflibly 
be found in this part of America, and the Indians 
might reduce it into flat plates and ingots : but na- 
tive iron has no exifl:ence perhaps in nature, or at 
leaft is û> rare, that the greater number of mineralo- 
gifts have never feen it. * Thefe people cannot be 
fuppofed acquainted with the method of reducing 
iron ore to the metallic ftate ; and befldes we had 
obferved the very day of our arrival fome bead-neck- 
laces and trinkets in brafs, which every one knows 



■• * 



* Virgin or nsttive iron is very rare, yet fome is found in Swe- 
den, Germany, Senegal, Siberia, and the ifland of the Elbe. I 
have found it at the village of Eria Longa, two leagues north of 
Baflia, the capital of Coriica. It pervaded, in great profofion, 
the mafs of a rock fituated on the fea fide, and was conft.intly of 
an octaiyral form. The exiftence of native iron is further proved 
by the fpecimcns in moft of the cabinets of Natural Hiftory, and 
by the opinion of Stahl, Linnaeus, MargrafF, &r. 

Since, therefore, iron mines exift in America, it may alio con- 
tain native iron : though I do not from thence infer, that the iron 
fen by La Péroufe among thefe Indians had that origin. I am of 
opinion with Cook, they might obtain it either from the Ruffians 
who come from Kamtfchatka, and extend their commerce thither, 
or by their connexion with the interior tribes, who receive it from 
our eftabliihmcnts on the north eaft coall of America. — I'rencb 
Edikr. 

td 



t rijjfl 



m 



Kits 



10,2 LA pérouse's voyage [178G, 

to be a mixture of copper and zinc •. Every cir- 
cumftance, therefore, indicated that the metals we 
ikw came either from the Ruffians, from the fcr- 
vants of the Hudfon*8 Bay Company, from feme 
American dealers, who travel into the interior of that 
vaft continent, or, laftly, from the Spaniards ; but I 
Ihall hereafter ihew it to be more probable thefe me- 
tals are procured from the Ruffians. We have pre- 
fervcd feveral fragments of this iron, which is very 
foft, and as eafily cut as lead f ; from which, perhaps, 
it is not impoffible but mineralogifts may difcover the 
country, and even the mine where it is produced. 

Gold itfelf is not more eagerly delired amonç 
Europeans than iron in this part of America, which 
is an additional proof of its rarity. In fadi, each 
individual poflèflës but a fmall quantity, and they 
purfue it with fo much avidity, that they employ 
every means to procure it. On the very day of our 
arrival, we were vifited by a Chief of the principal 
villa|j;c, who, before he came pn board, apparently 
addrefîëd a prayer to the fun, and afterwards made a 
long harangue, which concluded with agreeable 
fongs, very fimilar to the chanting in our cathe- 
drals, and accompanied by all the Indians in the ca- 
noe, who repeated the fame air in chorus. After the 
ceremony, almoft the whole company came on boar^, 

* Red copper fufed with zipc forms pinchbecjc ; but to obtaii> 
brafs it muft be fufed with calimine. 

This laû ipentioned mineral undoubtedly contains a portion of 
zinc, but it alfo contains an earth, fome fand, martial ochre, and 
not unfrequently galena or fulphure of lead. That which contains 
little zinc is, however, unfit for making brafa. 

The fcmi-metal zinc whei^ impure, may alfo contain pyrites both 
ftf fulphure and iron, as well as lead, pfeudo-galena, and a very 
hare!, e:u-thy fiibilam e. 

Tlius, 'a.cisfore, it appears, that by fufing red copper with pure 
zinc, a veiy tiitfereiit metal is obtained from that produced by fu« 



nng It With cuiamme. 



■Fiench Editor, 



■\ 'i'lii: (|iin!'iy indicates a virgin or native iron. — French EJltor. 
r i ' ■• and 



J786.] ROUND THE WORLD. 123 

and danced nearly an hour, finging at the fame time, 
which they do with great accuracy. To this Chief Î 
made feveral prefents, till he became very trouble- 
fome, paffing four or five hours every day on board. 
I was obliged to renew my donations very frequently, 
for without them he looked difcontcnted, and mur-if 
mured threats, which however gave us no alarm. 

No fooner had wc taken up our lituation behind the 
ifland, than almoft all the favages of the bay flocked 
tl)ither; and the noife of our arrival having foon 
ijpread in the neighbourhood, feveral canoes came 
loaded with otter-lkins, in very confiderable quan- 
tities, which the Indians exchanged for hatchets, 
and bar iron. They gave us their falmon at firfl for 
old hoops, but they foon became more fcrupulous ; 
and we could only procure that fi(h in exchange for 
nails, or (onie other fmall inflruments of iron. There 
is, I think, no country where the fea-otter is fo 
common as in this part of America ; and I fhould 
not be furprized if a fadlory, extending its commerce 
only about 40 or 50 leagues along the coaft, (hould 
colleél annually 10,000 Ikins of that animal. M. 
Rollin, furgeon of my (hip, Ikinned, difîèâed, and 
fluffed the only otter we were able to procure, which 
unfortunately was but four or five months old, and 
weighed only eight pounds and a half. The Afi:ro- 
iabe caught one, which had evidently efcaped from 
the favages, for it was feverely wounded, though 
it appeared full grown, and weighed 70 pounds. M. 
de Langle had it ikinned, in order to ftulFit, but be- 
ing at the critical moment of our entering the bay, 
that operation was . not performed with fufiicient 
f;are, and we were unable to preferve cither the head 
or the jaw. 

The fea otter is an amphibious animal, better 
known by the beauty of its Ikin than any other de- 
scription. The Indians of Port des Français, call 

them 



111 

|, «if: I 



• ! 



^1 






I 
! 



ml 



u 



124 LA pérouse's voyage [i786. 

them Jkeeter ; the Ruffians, colry-merjky *, diftin- 
guifhing the females by the word majka. Some na- 
tural ids have fpoken of it under the name ofyir/Vo- 
viavn^ but the defcription of the /ûricoviemtey of M. 
dc Buffon, in no refpedl applies to this animal, which 
rcfembles neither the otter of Canada nor of Europe, 
On our arrival at our fécond anchoring place 
we fet up our obfervatory on the ifland, which was 
but a muikct-ftiot from our fliips, and there formed 
an eftablifhment for the time of our (lay in this port. 
Wc pitched tents for our fail -makers and bfack- 
fmiths, depofiting there our water-calks, which wc 
fet up afrcm. As all the Indian villages were upon 
the continent, we flattered ourfelves with refling in 
fecurity upon the ifland ; but experience foon proved 
lis to be miftaken. Though we had already found 
the Indians wrere great thieves, we did not fuppofe 
them capable of executing long and difiicult proje6ts 
with perfevcrancc and activity. We foon learned to 
know them better. They paflled the whole night 
watching a favourable moment to plunder us ; but 
"we maintained a conftant watch on board, and rarely 
could they elude our vigilance. I even eftabliflicd 
the Spartan law, to punifli thofe who were unwary 
enough to be plundered ; and though wc applauded 
not the robber, we demanded no rellitution, that wc 
might avoid quarrels, the tragical confequcnces of 
which might afford caufe for regret. I was aware 
that our extreme lenity would render them info- 
3ent, thouG:h I endeavoured to convince them of the 
fuperiority of t)ur arms, by firing a gun fliotted in 
their prefencc, to fliew them no diflance could pro- 
te61 them ; and diicharged a mufket-ball, bcfor;,- a 
large company of them, through fevcral folds of a 

♦ ArcordinjT to Coxe, ioity-morjiy, or fea-caftor; the female 
«natka \ and the young, when uader five months, medvicdky^ &c. 
Fftncb Editor. 

. . * cuirafj 



1786.] • BOUND THE WORLD. 125 

cuisars we had purchafcd of them, after their expreillng 
by figns, that it was impenetrable to arrows and 
poignards, while our Ikilful fportfmen killed the birds 
that flew above their heads. I am certain they never 
hoped to infpirc us with fear, but their condudl 
proved that they believed our patience inexbauftible. 
They prefently obliged me to remove our eftablilh- 
ment from the ifland, where they landed in the night, 
on the fide neareft the offing, traverfed a wood 
impenetrable to us even by day, and creeping on 
their bellies, like fcrpents, moving fcarcely a leaf as 
they went, contrived to plunder feme of our ef- 
fedts without being perceived by the fcntincls. They 
had even the addrefs to enter in the night the tent 
where Meflrs. de Laurifton and Darbaud, who were 
on guard at the obfervatory, flept, and carried off a 
mulket mounted in iilvcr, and both their clothes, 
though placed under their bolfl:er for fecurity. A 
guard of twelve men did not perceive them, nor were 
their officers awakened. Wc ihould however have 
regretted this lofs but little, had they not taken the 
original papers of all our allronomical obfcrvations 
fince our arrival in Port des Français. 

Thcfe obftacles did not prevent our boats from 
getting wood and water ; and all our officers were 
continually employed at the head of their feveral 
working parties. Their prefence, and the dif- 
cipline they maintained, contributed to rcftrain the 
favages. 

While we were making the fpeedicll arrangements 
for our departure, Meffi-s. Monneron and Bernizet 
took a plan of the bay, in a boat well armed. I 
could not fpare any naval officers to accompany, 
them, becaufe they were all employed ; but 1 had de- 
termined that they (hould, before our departure, ve- 
rify the bearings of all the points, and lay down the 
foundings. We propofed afterwards to devote 24 

:; - !; . - -I V ' '*.. hour» 



.-.1 h. ! •'?'( 



V^i" 



126 LA PÉROU'SES VOYAfeE ^iHÔ, 

hours to a boar-hunt, having perceived fome tracks 
of that animal on the mountains, and immediately 
after fet fail, the advanced ftatc of the feafon not 
permitting a longer ftay. 

We had already explored the bottom of the bay, 
which is perhaps the moft extraordinary fpot on the 
whole earth. To form an idea of it, we muft ima- 
gine a balin, the middle of which is unfathomable, 
furrounded by peaks of great h eight, covered with fnow, 
without a blade of grafs to enliven this enormous chaos 
of rocks, condemned by nature to perpetual fterility. 
I never faw a puff of wind ruffle the furface of the 
water, nor is it diflurbed but by enormous mafîès of 
ice, which often fall from five different glaciers, with 
a thundering noife that re-echoes from the fartheft 
recefs of the furrounding mountains. The air is fo 
tranquil, and the lilence fo undifturbed, that the hu- 
man voice and the fea birds that lay among the rocks, 
are heard at the diftance of half a league. We 
hoped to difcover, at the bottom of the bay, chan- 
nels that penetrated far into the interior of America. 
We fuppofed it might lead to fome great river, of 
which the bed might lie between two mountains, and 
the fource be one of the extenfive lakes to the north 
of Canada. Such was the phantom of our imagina- 
tion. We got off in our two long-boats ; MefTrs. 
c^ ' Monti, de Marchainvillc, de Boutervilliers, and 
jL ather Receveur attended M. de Langle, while I was 
accompanied by Meflrs. Dagelct, Boutin, St. Céran, 
Duché, and Prévoit. We entered the wefternmoft 
channel, where we found it prudent not to approach 
the fhore, on account of the falls of ftoncs and ice. 
At length, after advancing only a league and a half, 
we arrived at a cul-de-fac, terminated by two im- 
menfe glaciers. We were obliged conftantly to re- 
move the mafTes of ice with which the fea was cover- 
ed, to penetrate into this inlet, where the water was 
fo deep, that a cable length from fhore wt found 

no 



1786.] ' • HOUND THE WORLD. . 1^7 

no bottom with a line of 1 20 fathoms. Meflrs. dc 
Largle, de Monti, and Dagelet, and feveral other 
officers, were defirous to afcend the glacier, when, 
«fter indefcribable fatigues, and advancing to a dif- 
tance of fix miles, paffing with great danger the 
deepeft fifliires, they only perceived a contant fac- 
ceffion of ice and fnow, without any profpeél of a 
termination, but at the fummit of Mount Fair- 
weather. 

My long-boat '•"maining during this expedition 
upon the beach, a mafs of ice, which fell more than 
400 toifes from it, caufed fo great a difturbancc in the 
water, as to overfet the boat, and throw it a confi- 
derable diftance on the Ikirts of the glacier. This 
accident, however, was prefently repaired, and wc 
returned on board, after finifliing, in a few hours> 
our expedition into the interior of America. 

I had caufed the eallern channel to be examined 
by Meflrs. de Monneron and Bernizet. It terminated 
like our's, with two glaciers ; and we both took, 
draughts of the parts wc had explored. 






tOHH-ei 



,; j.V' 



:;;,,. chap.viil ; ; . _ 

CONTINUATION OP OUR STAY IN PORT DES FRANÇAIS 
— DREADFUL MISFORTUNE WHEN ON THE POINT 
OF DEPARTING HISTORY OP THIS EVENT RE- 
TURN TO OUR FIRST ANCHORAGE DEPARTURE. 

THE next day the Chief arrived on board better 
attended, and more decorated than ufual. 
After feveral fongs and dances, he offered to fell me 
the ifland where our obfervatory was fixed, referving, 
no doubt, for himfelf, and the other Indians, the right 
of plunder. It was by no means evident, that this 
Chief was proprietor of any land. The government 

cf 




' -TIL •- 















l!28 tA PÉROTySE*S VOYAGÉ [l7^6^ 

of thefc people is fuch, that the country muftbe the 
property of the whole people ; yet, as many favages 
were witnefles to this contract, I had a right to con- 
clude they jrave it their fancftion, and accepted the 
offer of the Chief, though I was perfuaded that the 
contrad^ might be invalidated by various tribunals, 
fhould the nation ever plead againfl us : for we had 
no proofs that the vvitneflès were their reprefentatives, 
or the Chief the true proprietor. I gave, however, 
feveral ells of red cloth, fome hatchets, iron in bars, 
and nails. I alfo gave prefents to all his fuite. The 
bargain being thus concluded, 1 fent to take pofîèf- 
iîon with the ufual for.nalities ; burying a bottle 
which contained an infcription to that effeél, and 
with it one of the bronze medals ftruck before our 
departure from France. 

The principal obje6t, however, of our putting in- 
to port, was obtained. Our guns were mounted, 
and our. ftowage completed, and we had taken on 
board as much wood and water as at our departure 
from Chili. No port in the world can afford more ad- 
vantages for accelerating this employment, frequently 
fo difficult in other countries. Cafcades from the tops 
of the mountains poured their limpid waters into our 
caflcs as they lay in the boat, and wood ready cut 
was flrcwed along a beach wafhed by an unruffled 
fea. The plan of Meffrs. de Monneron and Bcr- 
nizet was completed, as well as the meafure of the 
bafe-line by M. Blondela, by which Mefirs. de Langlc, 
Dagelet, and moft of the officers, had trigonometri- 
cally meafured the height of the mountains. Wc 
have only to regret the papers containing the obfcr^ 
valions of M. Dagelet, and even this misfortune was 
nearly repaired by means of the different notes wc 
found. In (hort, we conlidered ourfclves as the 
moft fortunate of navigators, to have arrived at fo 
great a difhince from Europe, without one of our 
crew being fick or exhibiting any fvmptoms of fcurvy. 
^ ' But 



1786.} * Hound THE WORLD. 4,, 1Q,Q 

But the greateft of inisfortunes now awaited us, 
without the poiîîbility of prevention by foreiight : , 
and it is with the keeneft ferifations of grief I deli* 
neatc a difailer a thoufand times more cruel than all 
the maladies or calamities of the mod tedious voy-, 
age. I yield unwillingly to the duty I have under- 
taken, of relating an event which I will not deny to 
have given birth to feelings conftantly fucceeded by 
tears, and which can only be allayed by the foothing 
hand of time. Each object that prefcnts itfelf, • each 
moment that paiîès, but recals the lofs we fuftered, in- 
circumllances apparently the moft fecurq from fo. 
great a misfortune. 

I have already faid the foundings were to be laid 
down on the draught of Meflrs. de Monneron and 
Bernizet, by the fea-officers. Confequently the yawl 
of the Aftrolabe, under the orders of M. de Marchain- 
ville, was appointed to be in rcadinefs the next day. 
I prepared that of my (hip, as well as the jolly boat, 
of which I gave the command to M. Boutin. M. 
d'Efcures my firil lieutenant, and knight of St. Louis, 
commanded the Bouflble's yawl, and was chief of this 
little expedition. As his zeal, however, appeared 
fometimes too unbounded, I deemed it prudent to 
commit his inllrudlions to writing : and the details of 
prudence I required were fo minute, that he alked' 
if I took him for a child, adding he had command- 
ed fhips of the line. I explained my motives in a 
friendly manner, telling him, M. de Langle and my- 
felf had founded the channel of the bay two day» 
before, and that I found the officer who command- 
ed the fécond boat that accompanied us, had pafled 
too near the point, on which he had even touch- 
ed; adding, that young officers efleem it a point 
of etiquette, during a liege, to afcend the parapet 
of the trenches, and that the fame fpirit induces 
them to brave the rocks and breakers they encounter 
at fea : whereas this inconfiderate courage might 

Vol.. I. He, occalion 



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130 ' LA PÉBOUSE's VOYAGE [l786. 

occafion the moft fatal efFeéts in an expedition like 
oiirs, where fimilar dangers occur every moment. 
After this converfation I delivered him the following 
inftruétions, which I read to M. Boutin. They will 
explain his miflîon,- and my precaution, better than 
a long dilïèrtation. 

• Written Jnftru£iions delivered to M. d'Efcures hy 
M. de la Péroufe, 

' « Before I declare to M. d'Efcures the objed of his 
qiiffion, I premife that he is exprefsly charged not to 
expofe the boats to any danger, or approach the chan- 
nel, (hourd the fea break there. He will fet off at 
fix in the nioming, with two other boats under the 
" command of Meifrs. Marchainville and Boutin, 
** iand found the bay from the little creek to the eaft- 
** ward of the two Mammelon or forked hills. He will lay 
*^ down the foundings on the chart I have delivered 
*f him, or fketch one himfelf, from which they may be 
*f transferred. Should the fea not break in the chan- 
nel, but only have a fwell, as this work is not prefl« 
ing, he may defer the founding it till another day, 
" for he will remember that all operations of this 
" nature, when performed with difficulty, are ill exe- 
^* cuted. Probably the beft time to approach is at 
^* flack water, about half pafl eight. Should cir- 
" cumllances at that time be favourable, he v ill 
" endeavour to meafure its width by a log-line, 
" and place the three boats in parallel diredions, 
" founding acrofs the channel from eafl to weft. He 
*' will afterwards found it from north to fouth. But it 
" is fcarcely probable he can take thefe fécond found- 
" ings the fame tide, becaufe the current will have 
*' acquiried too much ftrength. 
- " While M. d'Efcures is waiting for flack water, 
" he will found the interior of the bay, particu- 
*' larly the creek behind the Mammelons, where, I 
^' am of opinion, there is very good anchorage. He 
. , «;vill 






1786.] ' ROUND THE WORLD. ■ 131 

« will endeavour alfo to lay down on the plan the 
« limits of the rocky ground and fandy bottom, in 
" order to make the good ground perfei^ly known. I 
" am of opinion, that where the channels to the 
" fouthward of the ifland appear open, towards the 
" point of the Mammelons, there is a good fandy 
" bottom. M. d'Efcures will verify this conjecture. 
" But I again repeat, that I rcqueft him not in the 
" leaft to relax from the fevered prudence.'* 

After fuch inftruélions delivered to a man 33 years 
old, who had commanded men of war, what dan- 
ger could I fear ? How many pledges of fecurity did 
I not poflefs ? 

Our boats put off according to my directions, at 
fix in the morning, on an expedition which was at 
once a party of pleafure, of information, and of uti- 
lity. They were to hunt, and then breakfaft be- 
neath the foliage of the trees. I aflbciated with M. 
d'Efcures, M. de Pierrcvcrt, and M. de Montarnal, 
the only relation I had in the navy, and to whom I 
was attached as tenderly as if he were my fon. 
Never did a young officer afford me a warmer hope, 
and M. de Pierrevert had already acquired what I 
expeéled the former very fpeedily to attain. 

The feven bed foldiers of the detachment com- 
pofed the crew of this yawl, in which the chief 
pilot of my (hip alfo embarked to take the foundings. 
The next in command to M. Boutin in the jolly- 
boat was lieutenant M. Mouton. The Aftrolabe's 
boat was commanded by M. de Marchainville, but I 
was uninformed whetheraccompanied by otherofficers. 
At ten o'clock our jolly boat returned. Sur- 
prifed at this unexpeéled difpatch, I enquired of M. 
Boutin before he came on board, if any thing had 
happened ; fearing, at firft, fome attack of the favages. 
M. Boutin's manner iucreafed my alarm, for I ob- 
ferved the deepeft expreflion of grief in his counte- 
nance. He immediately informed me of the dread- 

K 2 ful 




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\\\i"^''^' 






181 LA PÉRÔUSE's VOYAGE {\79^, 

fui wreck he had juft witnefïèd, He had himfclf 
cfcaped but by the firmnefs of his fnind, which pre- 
fented to him all the refources that remained in the 
midft of the greateft danger. Obliged to follow his 
commander into the midft of the breakers which fet 
into the channel, while the tide was running out 
at the rate of three or four leagues an hour, it oc- 
curred to him to lay his boat's ftern to the fea which 
thus pufhed her forwards, fo as to avoid filling while 
(he was driven out of the harbour, ftern foremoft, by 
the tide. He foon faw the breakers a- head of his 
boat, and found himfelf in the open fea. More anxi- 
ous for the iafety of his comrades than his own, 
he Ikirted the breakers in hopes to fave fome of them. 
Though he repeated his attempt, he was ftill driven 
back by the tide, till at length mounting on the 
ihoulders of M* Mouton to command a more extcnfivc 
view, he found his exertions in vain. All had difap- 
|)eard, all were fwallowed up ! and M. Boutin re-en- 
tered at ilack water. The fea then became fmooth, 
and this oiEcer entertained fome hope of the Aftro- 
labe's yawl ; having only feen ours go down. M. 
de Marchainville was at that tiipe a full quarter of a 
league from any danger, in a fea as perfectly undif- 
turbed as the beft fheltered port. But that young of- 
ficer, urged by too imprudent a generoiity, fince all 
affiftance was impoffible, and having too elevated a 
mind, and too fearlefs a courage, to make this reflec- 
tion while his friends were in extreme danger, flew 
to their aid, precipitated himfelf among the fame 
breakers, and falling a viâim to his own generofity, 
and his difobedience to his commanding officer, was 
involved in the fame fate. 

M. de Langle foon came on board my fhip qually 
overcome with grief as myfelf, telling me, with 
tears, that the cataftrophe was even greater than I 
thought. For, fîncc our departure from France, he 
had made an inviolable rule never to difpatch the two 

brothers 



Î786.J ROUND THE WOBLU. 133 

brothers (Meflrs. la Borde Marchainville, and la Btrde 
Boutervilliers) upon the fame duty, and had, on this 
occafion, alone yielded to their defire of hunting and 
amufing themfelves together; for we had both con- 
fidered the expedition in that view, thinking them 
as little expofed to danger as in the road of Breft, 
or in the fincft weather. 

The canoes of the favages came at the fame mo- 
ment to announce this calamitous event. The figns 
of thefe uncultivated men exprefled their having be- 
held the lofs of our two boats, and that afliftance 
was impoffible. We loaded them with prefents, and 
endeavoured to make them i^nderftand that all our 
riches fhould belong to whofoever could faye a Angle 
man. i^ 

Nothing could have afFeéled their humanity to a 
greater degree. They ran to the fea fide, and fpread 
themfelves on both fides of the bay. I had already fent 
my long-boat, under the command of M. de Clonardj, 
to the eaftward, where, had any one the good for- 
tune to fave himfelf, he would probably have landed. 
M. de Langle went to the weftvvard to leave nothing 
unexamined, while I remained on board to take care 
of the two (hips, with the precautions necefilhry to de- 
fend us againfl: the favages, towards whom, prudence 
required us to be ever on our guard. Almofi all 
ihe officers, and feveral others, followed Mefirs. de 
Langle and Cionard, who went three leagues along 
the beach, without perceiving the fmallefi: frag- 
ment thrown upon it. I had, till then, indulged 
a ray of hope : for the mind palfcs with difficulty 
from a flate of happinefs to fo profound an abyfs 
of grief. But the return of our boats foon diffipated 
the illufion, and threw me into a flate of conflerna- 
tion and defpair, not to be defcribed by the moft 
nervous language. 

I fhall give the account of M. Boutin, the friend 

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134 LA péROUSE'S VOYAGE (^1786. 

of M. d'Efcures, thou^içh we are not agreed as to the 
imprudence of that officer. 

Narrative of M. Boutin, 

" On the 13th of July, at 50 minutes paft five in 
** the morning, I quitted the Bouflble in the jolly- 
** boat, with orders to foltew M. d'Efcures, who 
" commanded our yawl. M. de Marchain ville, with 
" the command of that of the Aftrolabe, was to 
join us. The inftru6tions delivered to M. d'Ef- 
cures by M. de la Péroufe, and communicated to 
me, charged him to employ thefe three boats to 
*' found the bay, to lay down the foundings, accord- 
" ing to the bearings, on the draught which had 
" been given to him ; to found the channel, if the 
*' water was fmooth, and to meafure its breadth. 
♦' But he was exprefsly ordered not to expofe the 
** boats under his command to the leaft danger, or 
*' to approach the channel, (liould the fea at ail 
** break, or even were there any fwell. After hav- 
*' ing doubled the wefternmoft point of the ifland, 
** near which we lay at anchor, I obferved that the 
" fea broke entirely acrofs the channel, and that it 
*' was impoffible to (hew ourfelves before it. M. 
<' d'Efcures was then a-head, lying on his oars, 
" ' and feemingly waiting for me ; but as foon as I had 
" approached him within muiket-fhot, he ftood on- 
*' ward, and, as his boat rovVed better than mine, he 
" repeated the fame manoeuvre feveral times, with- 
out my being able to join him. At a quarter paft 
feven, having conftantly fleered for the channel, 
we were within two cables length of it, when the 
yawl of our fhip put about. I followed his mo- 
*^ tiens, keeping in his wake, and we fleered back to 
" re-enter the bay, leaving the channel behind us.. 
** My boat was aÔern of our yawl, but within hail, 

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I7ô60 ROUND THE WORLD. 133 

** and I perceived that of the Aftrolabe a quarter of 
Jf » league witi^inlho bay. M. d'Efcures then hailed 
s^^ith a ha%h, and iàid-r^T^M think the beft 
- we can £ i$ to biea^, for the fea break» 
in tile H^Hnel.** I anfwcred— « Ccrtàiflu 

4ur labour willbe confined *K> 
^ the^ftndv bav, that is onttH 
fCffif iHf^* n M. cic Kerrevert, mho 
1^* b^tft was going to an^i^/ 
^ i :tbe (»|ÂeffQ coail, lie perccC^ 
away by the ebb, which Irfib 
hb^ats rowed with the greatell 
iÉBjaihJifard, in order to get furtbe^ 
fâoçi^fi^iciMi^ wMchwas ftill a, hundred ««^kTc» 
^f '^il^aipdi i /itutt Éè^^^ no appreheniioQi j»a % get^ 
, ^^^ tng ikia <Uftaiioe^<»ir only 20 toiies on 0& me we 
'fffitM ttfH tJ^I^Di^ on the beach. After pulling 




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lout bein j;abk to ftem m tide,* 
lyain, tPgat^tlie eaftem ihore;' 
was arbâd^ attempted, though' 
i|l«j|p$ that to the weilwiurdf 
_ Hbliged to put about again td' 
" tb» nortbwm^toftiroidi^lling in the trough of the 
<* th« Weii^ers. TktfiisÛ. Teas beginning lo breal? 
**; 1^ oear iny boat ; I. dropped my gi^apneh which 
<f ji^W^erdid not take botdi and luckily the i^pe* 
*f jaQt l^ing ^eni^d to a bench, it ran out thwart end' 
^< for end,' ai^d dîfburthençd u« of a weight which' 
*/ ^ffh(t have proy/àd fatal. { was inûantly in the 
** vm^e q£ top hAavieu leas, wihich almoft filled* 
f thetkoat^ Howev^ fhe did not iink, ai\d conti- 
'< nued to fleer, f^ tliat I ^ouM always keep her 
^ern. to the bi:eakers, which afforded me gteat< 
^^^fcopes of ^oapngthe danger. 
. f?^ Our yawl litd got to a difUnce white t was* 
^; letting , go 4i<K. grapnel, but was not amoiig the 
[lii^bitAkerstilll^w minutes afler. I lofl fi^t of 
1Ç /hiçr when I fhipped the firû, fea^ but in onjç.of 

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ISd I.A péROVâ&*S VÛYAOfe . [1786. 

** thofe moments when I was at the top of them, I 
** again faw her going down, 30 or 40 toifes a-hcad, 
** lying broadfide to, but I could perceive neither 
•* men nor oars. My only hope had been her 
*' ftemming the current, and I was but too cer- 
«^ tain (he muft unavoidably be loft, if ihe fhould 
•< be drifted out by it j for to efcape there, a boat 
" ** muft be able to anfwer her helm when full of 
f water, in order to avoid overfetting ; unfortu- 
f' nâtely none of thefe qualities belonged tp our 
*' yawl. 

** I was ftill in the midft of the breakers, look-i 
. " ing out on each fide, and faw aftern of my boat 
^ that the waves formed a chain towards the foutb, 
^ extending as far as my eye could follow it. The 
** breakers fecmed al fo to run a great way out to the 
** weftward, and I perceived, at length, that could 
^ I but gain 50 toifes to the eaftward, I (hoiild 

find a lels dangerous fea. I tried every efïbrt to 
<* fucceed in that obje6t, pulling away to (larboard 
** between the waves, and at 25 minutes after feven 
** J was out of every danger, having nothing to en- 
^ counter but a heavy fwcU and a (hort fea, occa- 
^* fioned by the breeze from the W. N. W. 

** After baling the water from my boat, I confi- 
<* dered of the beft means to aflift my unfortunate 
^* Companions, but from that time no ray of hope 
<^ dawned upon my mind. 

** From the moment I had perceived our boat go 
^* down among the breakers, I had conftantly kept 
*' pulling to the eaftward, and coiiM not get clear of 
** them for fome minutes. It was therefore impoffi- 
^ ble for men drawn into the middle of fo rapid a 
" current to get out of its direélion, which miuft in- 
'^ «viitably carry them along for the remainder of the 
*' tidij» which mn out to the offing till 45 minutes 
•* paft «ight : nor could the beft fwimmer refill, 
<* ^VW fpra ^ «wments. the force of thefe waves. 

i' Yet 



(t 



l^ySÔj HOUND THB WORLD. 13/ 

^' Yet as I could make no reafonable fearch, but in 
<' the dire<5lion of the current, I fleered back to the 
♦* fouthward, keeping clofc along the edge of tho 
f< breakers on my ftarboard hand, and changing m^ 
** courfe every inftant to get near Ibme lêa-wolve§ 
" or fea-^wced, which, from time tq tjme, deluded 
** my hopes. 

" As there was a great fwell, my view became 
f« very extenfive, when on the tops of the waves ; 
** and I could have perceived an oar or § piece of 
" wreck at more than 200 toifes diftance, 

" My eyes were foon direéled to the eaftern point 
^* of the channel, where I perceived men jnakin? 
** lignais with their cloaks. Thefe, as I afterwarcfe 
** learnt, were iavages ; but at iirft I took them for 
** the crew of the Aftrolabe's yawl, and imagined 
*' fhe waited for the turn of the tide to come to our 
^* alïîftance ; little did I think my ill-fated friends 
** had already fallen vidims to their own generous 
f* courage. 

» " At three quarters paft eight * the tide having 
" turned, there were no longer any breakers, but 
** only a heavy fwell ; and I continued my fearch in 
" that fwell, following the fct of the ebb, which 
" was fpent, but was equally unhappy in my fe- 
" cond attempt. At nine' o'clock, perceiving the 
*^ flood came fix)m the S. W. that I had neither 
" provifions, grapnel, nor fails ; that my crew was 
" wet and cold ; and fearing left I fhould not be 
♦' able to re-enter the bay, when the tide fhould 
^* have acquired its full flrength ; obferving alfo that 
" even then it fet violently to the north-eaft, which 
** would have hindered me from getting to the 
'* fouthward, where only I mufl have continued my 

, * Half p,alf eight was the time I 'had appointed in my inftrue- 
tions for them to approach the channel without danger, becauib the 
current would then in all events have r\m inwards. It wa^ a quar^- 
paft feven when the boats were lofl. -. w, • " 

/ fearch. 



138 LA P£ROUSE*S VOTAOE [1786. 

&arch, if the tide had permitted, I re-entered the 
bay fleering to the northward. 
" The channel was already nearly (htit in by the 
£. point, and the Tea Aill broke on the twp points^ 
" but was finooth in the middle. At length I gained 
the entrance, keeping very clofe in with the lar- 
board point, on which the Americans ûood, who 
made iignals to me, and whom I had taken for 
my countrymen. Their geftures exprefled that 
they had ièen two veflcls overfet, and not per- 
ceiving the Aftrolabe's yawl, I was -but to well af- 
** fured of the fate of M. de Marchainville, with 
whom I was too thoroughly acquainted to ima- 
gine he would refled: on the inutility of the dan- 
ger to which he expofed himfelf. Yet as we encou- 
rage hope to the lail, a faint poiîîbility ilill flat- 
'* tered me that I (hould find him on board, whither 
*' he might have gone to procure afïiflanc ; and the 
" firfl words I uttered on my return to the (hip were, 
" Have you heard of Marchainville ?'* Thejanfwer, 
" No, afTured me he was loft. 

'* After all thefe details I muft explain the mo- 
** tives to which I attribute the conduct of M. d'Ef- 
5* cures. As it was impofïîble he fhould entertain 
an idea of getting into the channel, his only de- 
fign mufl have been merely to approach it, while he 
" beheved himfelf at a diftance more than fufficient 
to avoid danger : but of that diftance neither he, 
nor myfelf,nor the 18 perfonswith us formed an ac- 
curate judgment. I cannot fay how far this miftake 
is pardonable, nor why it was impofïible to know 
" the violence of the current ; for though it may 
" be thought I would excufe myfelf, I repeat that 
** I believed our diftance more than fufficient ; and 
'^ even the appearance of the coaft, which feemed 
to fly to the northward with incredible fwiftnefs, 
did not alarm, though it aftonifhed me. With- 
out running into a detail of all the caufes which 

« con- 






It 



€( 
U 
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€t 
i( 
4t 



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(C 

ts 



it 
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it 
te 

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j\iyUi3, 



1786.J BOUND THE WOULD. 13^ 

<< contributed to infpire us with a fatal confidence, I 
" cannot refrain from obferving, that on the very 
" day we entered this bay, our boats founded the 
" channel for more than two hours, in every direc- 
" tion, without finding any current. It is true, 
" when our fhips prefented themfelves before it, 
*' they were driven back by the ebb ; but the 
" wind was fo faint, that, at the fame time, our 
" boats ftemmed the tide with the greateft facility. 
'• Laftly, on the nth of July, the day of the full 
" moon, both our commanders, in perfon, with {&• 
" veral officers, founded this channel, went out with 
" the ebb,- and returned with the flood, without 
" remarking any thing which could afford the leafl: 
" fufpicion of any danger, efpecially with boats well 
" manned. We may therefore conclude, that on 
'' the 1 3th of July the violence of the current was 
" occafioned by fome adventitious caufe ; fuch as 
*^ an extraordinary melting of the fnows, or tem- 
** peftuous winds, which, though they did not pe- 
" netrate iptp the bay, doubtlefs had blown ftrong in 
" the offing. 

** M. de Marçhainville was a quarter of a league 
" within the channel, when I was drawn into it, and 
" from that moment I faw him uo more ; but all who 
" know him will readily imagine what his noble and 
" generous charaéler would lead him to attempt. It 
is probable when he perceived our boats among 
" the breakers, unable to conceive how we could 
" poffibly be drawn in by it, perhaps he fuppofed 
" a grapnel rope had fnapped, or an oar been loft. At 
" that inftant he might have rowed to us, up to the 
" edge of the firft breakers, and feeing us ftraggling 
*^ with the waves, he would liften to his courage alone, 
" and endeavour to pafs through the breakers to affift 
" us, even at the rilk of periihing with us. Such 
•* a death was indeed glorious for him ; but how 
'* cruel muft be its remembrance to him, who, tho* 

efcaped 



« 



(( 



140 I.A p^rouse's voyage [1786, 

♦* efcaped from the danger, can never again behold 
*' bis companions who (bared it, or the heroes who 
'* came to his afliftance. 

•* Far be it from me to omit any eiïèntial fa6^, 
*' or miftate thofe I relate. M. Mouton, the lieu- 
" tenant, who was fécond in command of my boat, 
** is able to correct my errors, if my memory has 
^* deceived me. His firmnefs, added to that of the 
" coxfwain and the four rowers, contributed not a 
" little to our fafety. Even in the midft of the 
" breakers my orders were executed with all the ac- 
♦* curacy of the moft unembarrafled fituations. 

(Signed) <* Boutin." 

It now only remained for us to quit with expedition 
ft country which had proved fo fatal to us. Some de- 
lay, however, was due to the families of our unfortu- 
nate friends. Too precipitate a departure would have 
left doubts and inquietudes in Europe, where it could 
not have been imagined the current extends at moft 
only a league out of the channel ; that neither the 
boats nor their crews could have been drawn in frorn 
9 greater diftance, and the fury of the fca in that 
place left us no hope of their return. If againft all 
probability any one had been able to return, as he 
mull be in fome part of the environs of the bay, 
I determined to wait feveral days longer. How- 
ever I quitted the anchoring place of the ifland, and 
removed to a birth on the fandy flat, at the entrance 
on the weftern ihore. I devoted five days to this 
pafîàge, which is only a league, during which we 
experienced a gale of wind from the eaftward, which 
would have greatly endangerfed us, had we not been 
at anchor on a good bottom of mud ; happily our 
anchors did come home, as we were without a cable's 
length of the (bore. The contrary winds had detain- 
ed us much longer than I had intended to remain, and 
we did not fail till the 30th of July. Eighteen days 

after 



l^SÔ.] ftOUKD tHB WORLD. l4t 

ftfler this event, which it has given me Co much pain 
to defcribe, and of which the remembrance will 
render me for ever unhappy. Before our departure 
we erc6led a monument to the mempry of our brave 
companions on the iflnnd, in the middle of the bay, 
to which I gave the name of Pl/Je du Cénotaphe, or* 
Monument Ifland. M. dc Lamanon wrote the fol- 
lowing infcription, which he buried in a bottle, at 
the foot of the monument i 

*« At the entrance of this port 21 brare Mafiners pertflied. 
** Reader, mingle your tears with cur's ! 

** On the 4th of July, 1 786, the BoulTole and Aflrdabe frigates 
«arrived in this port, having left Breft the ift of Auguft, i7«5. 
" Through the care of M. de la Péroufe, Commodore of the ex* 
" pedition, M. le Vicomte de Lanfle, Captain of the other frigate, 
" MefTrs. Clonard and de Monti, fécond Captains of the two ihips 
** and of tlie furgeons and other oncers, none of the maladies, 
'* the ordinary confequence of long voyages, had then affcâed the 
** crews. M. dc la Péroufe and all of us rejoiced that we had con» 
" from one end of the world to the other, through all kinds <^ 
" dangers, and having vifited nations of reputed favages, withotit 
" lofing one man, or fpilling one drop of blood- Tiie 1 3th of July 
** three .boats departed at five in the morning» to lay down the 
" foundings of this bay on the draught. They were under the com- 
" mand of M . d'Ëfcures, a lieutenant, and a knight of St. Louis, 
** to whom M. de la Péroufe had delivered written inftruétions, ex- 
** pre&ly charging him not to approach the current, by which how* 
" ever he was drawn in, when he thought himfelf at a fufficient 
" diftance. MefTrs. de la Borde, brothers, and M. de FlafTan, who 
*' were in the boat of the other (hip, courageoufly expofed them- 
" felves to the fame danger, in attempting to aflift their compa- 
*^ nions, but, alas! they iTiared the fame fate. The third boat was 
" under the orders of Lieut. M. Boutin, who, boldly ftruggling 
•' with the breakers, made ufelefs efforts, for feveral hours, to afRft 
*' his friends, and was indebted for his own fafety only to the fuperior 
" conftruâion of his boat, his own prudence, and that of his fe- 
** cond in command, Lieut. M, Laprife Mouton, and the adivity 
♦' and prompt obedience of his crew, confifting of John Marie, 
«'coxfwain, Lhoftis, ie Bas, Corentin Jers, and Monens, Tea* 
<* men. The Indians appeared to (hare in our grief, which is ex< 
<' tremc. On this 30th of July, moved and foftened, though not 
<' difcouraged by misfortune, we proceed on our voyage. 



fm 



142 



LA PAROUS B*8 VOTAOB 



17 è6. 



Namn of the Officen, Soldiers, and Sailors, loft on the 13th of July, «t 
a quarter pail feven in the morning. 

OF THB BOU8SOLI. 

Ofieers. — Meflh. d'Efcures, de Pierrevert, de Montarnal. 

Ovw.— Le Maître» chief pilot) Lieutor, corporal and cox* 
IWain ; Prieur, Fraichot, Berrin, Bolct» Fleury, Chaub, foldiers ) 
the eldeft not 33 years of age. 

or THB ASTROLABE. 

Q^rrr/.— MefTrs. de la Borde Marchainvillei de la Borde Bou* 
tervilliers, brothers ; and FlaflTan. 

Cmu.---Soulas, corporal and coxfwain ; Philiby, Julien le Penn, 
and Pierre Rabicr, foldiers. Thomas Andrieux, Goulven, Tarreau, 
Guillaume Duqueihe, all three top- men, in the prime of life. 

Our Hay at the entrance of the bay afforded us a 
fund of information on the manners and cullomsof 
the favages, impoflible to be obtained at our former 
anchorage. For our Ihips being at anchor near their 
villages, we vifited them every day, and as often receiv- 
ed caulb of complaint, though our condu6t towards 
them never varied, and we conftantly afforded them 
proofs of our gentlenefs and benevolence. 

The 22d of July they brought us fome pieces of 
the wreck of our boats, thrown by the fea on the 
caftern ihore, very near the bay, and made us com- 
prehend, by figns, that they had buried one of pur 
unfortunate companions on the ihore, where he had 
been thrown by the waves. Upon this information, 
Meflrs. de Clonard, de Monneron, and de Monti, 
fet out immediately, direfting their courfe to the eaft- 
ward, accompanied by the favages, who had brought 
thefe pieces of wreck, and whom we loaded with pre- 
fents. 

Our officers went three leagues over rocks and 
ilones on a dreadful road. • The guides every half 
hour exaéled a frefti compenfation, or refufed to pro- 
ceed, and, at length, ran into the woods, and took to 
flight. Our officers too late perceived their account 
to be a mere trick invented to obtain more prefents. 

During 



f 



1786.1 ' ROUND THB WORLD. 143 

Durinff their route they faw immenfe forei^s of firs 
of thelargeft dimeniions. They meafured fome that 
were five feet French in diameter^ and apparently 
more than 140 in height. 

The account they gave of this artifice of the fava- 
'ges created no furprife, for the addrefs of thefe 
people in ftealing and cheating is without a parallel. 
Meilrs. de Langle and Lamanonr, with feveral ofHcers 
and naturaliûs, had, two days before, made an excur- 
iion to the weftward, of which alfo thefe fad enquiries 
were the objeé)', though purfued with as little fuccefs. 
They met with a village of the Indians, lituated on 
a fmall river, entirely blocked up with flakes for 
catching falmon. We had for fbme time fufpeâed 
thefe filh came from that part of the coaft, but were 
hot certain till this difcovery fully fatisfied our curio- 
fity, and M. Duché de Vancy took a drawing illuftra- 
tive of the manner of performing this fifhery *. The 
falmon endeavouring to afcend the river, are ob- 
ftruéled by the flakes, which being unable to pafs, 
they return towards the fea, and, in their paffege, 
jneet with very narrow bafkets clofed at the end, and 
placed in the angles of this caufeway, when having 
once entered, they are unable to efcape. This fifhery 
is fo abundant, that both our fhips crews had a great 
quantity of fifh during our flay, and each fhip falted 
down two hogfheads of them. 

Our travellers alfo met with a moraif, which 
proves thefe Indians bum the dead bodies, preferving 
only their heads, one of which was found wrapped 
up in feveral fkins. This kind of monument confifts 
of four flrong flakes, fupporting a fmall wooden 
chamber, where the afhcs are depofited inclofed in 
chefts. They opened thefe chells, unfolded the 
fkins which envelloped the he?ids, and having thus 
gratified their curiolîty, fcrupuloully replaced every 

* This drawing has been loft. 

t I have prcferved the term Mra/, becaufes it cxprcfTes, better 
than that of tmt, an expoûtion to the open air. 

thing 



144 LÀ PÀAOUSSV VOTÀOB [1766. 

thing în its former il«te, adding ibveral prefents of 
glafs, beads, and inUruments of iron. The lavages 
who bad witneiïèd this v^fît, fhewed feme marks of 
inquietude, but did not fail ipeedily to carry olf the 
prefenta our travellera had left ; and other enquirers 

going to the ikme place the next day, found nothing 
Ut the afhea and head. They alfo left prefents, 
which had the fame &te with thofe of the preceding 
travellers, and no doubt the Indians wiOied for many 
fuch viûtaqts every day. But though they permitted 
us, with fome reluâance, to vifit their cemeteries, 
they would not fnifer us to explore their huts, 
which we were not allowed even to approach, till 
their wives, the moft diigufting creatures in the uni^ 
vcrfe, had been prcvioufly removed. 

Every day we obferved a frefli fucceiHon of canoes 
entering the bey, and every day we beheld entire 
villages remove, and yield their place to others. The 
Indians apparently dread the channel, and never 
truAed themfelves but at flack water ; and we could 
diilindlly perceive with our flai&s, that when they 
arrived between the two points, their Chief, or at 
leail the mofl coniiderable perfonage among them, 
rofe up and flrctched his arms towards the fun, as 
if addrefling a prayer to him, while the reil paddled 
with all their firenzth. On making fome enquiries 
concerning this cultom, we learnt that of eight large 
canoes^ leven had been wrecked in the channel fome 
time ago, ana one only was iaved, which the Indians, 
who had efcaped, confecrated to their Grod, in me- 
mory of their con>panions. This canoe which we 
had the fortune to fee,, ilands by a moraif where the 
afhes of fonie Indians who l^d been wrecked are 
doubtlefs depofited. 

It bears no refemblance to the canoes of the coun- 
try, which are formed only of an hollowed tree, raifed 
on each fide by a plank fewed to the bottom ; but 
this had ribs, timber, and rails, like our boats. 

This 



[1786. 

ents of 
ikvagcft 
wrks o( 
off the 
iquirers 
nothing 
»refênts, 
ecedii))^ 
}r many 
ïrmitted 
oeteries, 
r hut8, 
ach, till 
the uni* 

if canoes 
d entire 
sre. I^he 
id never 
ve could 
hen they 
sf, or at 
ig them, 
t fun, ag 
: paddled 
enquiries 
ght large 
nel fotne 
i IndianS) 
in nie- 
irhich we 
vhere the 
eked are 

he coun- 
ec, raifed 
:om; hut 
ur boats. 
This 




IM 



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"M*'-, 



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V\ 



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:»# ■ ■ 

'¥--■■■ : 

;■? V-'. 






i7B6,\ ROUND THE WORLD. 145 

iJThli irsmiog, which wm very well con(lru<^cd, was 
}trtâ\ifiih ikint of the (ba wolf, inliead of planks^ 
IM9t^ fewed thftfe the . be(^ workmen of Europe 

ImW M great dil|Biit V w imhatlug tha^ opera- 

htaini^lt thjp |Einiei> wbtftroie Mréjl 







WHS 



on ûàitkÈ ei^cd Utief ftal 



alld< 
Was 

tajprcvcntl 
f^fei*lçrs<ni!' 



:t0 çpri#^ this ildlnrcpKf) to 
•%ly wlrfin Mmiti'for 
ùninhawtedi tHefb irai no 
î^^n3 lam p<^adedt1ie unfor- 
ip Wreck were (Iran^ers, of whom 
ïtijeéluréç tft ^he following chap- 
But the moidltifin'èrtts of the "Uekfphiiti a feligi- 
1$ tefp^ among all nations of the Jivorld, and I 
hknini the violation of an. àfyl^vti reverenced 
by images, 
r; ;At Icpgth on the 30th of July, at four m the cv6n- 
, we ibt'fail ^th a very light "breeze from the 
«tij^'^^hich did not go down till we had got about 
^reelea^ÇSto the offing, and the horizon Was fo 
Wj that We perceived Mount St. Elias bearing 
(7w. (variation allowed for) diilant at leaft forty 
iSgùés. 'At eight in the evening the entrance of 
Pf ^^é bay bore north. We were three leagues off 
Jllhbre, having then 90 fathoms water over a inuddy 
l^^tom. 






jr 



{.•■• ■■ 









C?HAP. 






n 



vn 



m 



n 



\ià 



ï.X 



a twfAins 



'TSSSSSSii 



C 



?» -vv. 




• ■ - ';■.,■■ •.■■ .ïv <., ■ -■ w,-,. y«! " 

1^JB3C&IFTiaK;;OF^>0ÎT 9ES FiâÉ^ÂIS, ITS LATITUDE 
.:|^D LONGÎTUliï'^BVAKTi^S AND lK<|b|îVSKI- 
.,,^Mk£BA OJf THJ0: HAR10im-*-tBGETABLE Itliii^ lïi. 

"jfcERAL PRODUGTidNS BIRÎt)», FISH, SHELL^ jOi^-^r 

irln^PEOft — MANNERS ^NJ) CUSTOMS OP T«f ^- 

DI^8--»THEIR. ARTS^ AJtMS, DRESS, AND Dis;pèé(r. 

, ïi^ f ,0^. THEFT — GREAT, FRESUMPTÏON ^À't 

'.01|L1CT»E RUSSIANS HAVE À C9MMU}7ICA,TIO>N IN- 

^DliÉEi^TLY WITH THESE PEÛFtE-— TSEïk ll^|iCj 

. DANÇ|S^ AND PASSION . FOR OAMIÎ^i^^i^èçfiïtTA- 

TIOIJ Qi^ THEIR LANGUAGE* ^^^^S-v 




JE 1%, ofynit^ef aie hsarhùtfrp wMch î; nap^ 

called Poi^ des Fi^èçais, is^tùatecj, acçc^dij^g. 

ta o)ir ^iei^îatiDias ajsd thpfe oCSÀ. pagelet in '58^ 
37^|l. ^ and 1^9° ;6(/ W. %aj|t^^ fîie vai^ 
H^og^of the cx)inpft(8 is 2B^ towards tbe £ai|, and t|||| 
jii|i«,«)f th^|^i^fdl9r^% hut the* plan will fpplain ti^l 
exti^t ap^direé^KHipr the port hett^ thâti any yelî | 

bal dJBicfiMî^^^ ^^ ^^^ 4^y^ of the liew and full i 
moqii, ih^^de ridCes fevea i^et and a half, and it is0- 
higjh water at one o'clod^ The winds from the 
vO^^g, pei^aps from fome unknown caufe, a<5^ With 
'fo much violence on the current of the channel, 
that I have feen the flood tide enter with the rapidity 
of a torrent, though at fimilar periods of the moon, 
even a boiit might fometimes have ilemmed it. 

I meafurcd, in my excurfions, the bank raifed by fe- 
veral tides 15 feet above the level of the fea ; and, it 
is probable, that the tides by which it had been occa- 
iiolied were thofe of the winter. When the winds 
blow violently from the fouth,the channel pafs muft be 
impraéticable, and at all times the currents render the 
earonce difficult. The getting out requires alfo a con- 
' ' currencc 




.iÉBt-'.#fjaihB|?. . 



-i*>- v.-:»>-t^a**-<t:vi h^afct|fcWttiii--»K».-^'bi.1te«:.'i<<l»|tf- ^ 



■ji^^'^Wi 



PITUDE 



ION m- 



iin^fi? ! 
le variii- | 
andtlj(^|; 
►lain iJâ^i 
my veèi f 
and lull f 
md it ifc- 
Tom tfee 
a6t With 
channel, 
Î rapidity 
e moon, 
lit. 

*ed by fe- 
; and, it 
;en occa- 
le winds 
s mull be 
enderthe 
foa con- 
currence 





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% 



J786.] ROUND THE WORLD. 147 

cuiTcnce of circumftances, which mufl retard a veflel 
many weeks, as (he can only get under weigh at high- 
water ; the breeze fiom the wefi:, or the N. W., fel- 
dom rifes till about ten o'clock, when it is too late 
to take advantage of the morning tide : and, laftly, 
the eafterly winds, which are contrary, appear to be 
more frequent than thofc from the weft, and the 
height of the furrounding mountains never permit^ 
the land or north winds to penetrate into the road. 
This port pofïèfîing many advantages^ I have alfp 
thought it neceflary to explain all its inconveniences. 
in my opinion it would not be commodious for mer- 
chantmen trading for furs on fpeculation. They 
would be under the neceffity of coming to an anchor 
in many bays, making but a (hort ftay in each, be- 
caufe thefe Indians fell all their ftock in the iirft week^ 
and any delay muft be very prejudicial to mere tra- 
ders. But a nation dcfigning to form a facSlory fimi- 
lar to that of the Englilli at Hudfon's Bay*, cannot 
make choice of a better fituation for fuch an efta- 
feliflimcnt. A fingle battery of four cannon, placed 
on the point of the continent, would be fufficient to 
defend {o narrow an entrance, rendered difficult by 
the currents ; and fuch a battery could neither be 
turned nor carried by land, becaufe the lea alwayp 
breaks with great violence on the coaft, where it 
would, therefore, be impoflible to make a defcent. 
The fort, the magazines, and all the commercial eftar 
blifhment, might be ere6led on ITfle du Cénotaphe^ 
which is about a league in circumference, very capable 
of cultivation, and fupplied with wood and water. 
The (hips not having to fearch for cargoes, being cer- 
tain of finding them already collected at one point, 
would not he expofed to any delay 4 forae buoys^ 
laid down for the interior navigation of the bay, 
would render it extremely (life and cfifyj and pilots 
would be formed^ who, .knowing th^ Seating and 

L2 *^ drift 



V,-. • .. 1 



h'.M 



ifit 



■•%- 



"V 



«r 



/-... 



148 LA PÉROUSE's X'OYAOE [1786. 

drift of the currents at certain periods of the tide, 
would enfure the fafety of fhips coming in, and go- 
ing out : and, laftly, we found there fo confider- 
. able a fupply of otter ikins, that I may venture to 
prefume ^ greater quantity could not have been col- 
leéled in any other part of America. ' 

The climate of this coaft feems infinitely milder 
than that of Hudfon*s Bay, in the fame latitude. 
We found pines meafuring fix feet in diameter, and 
140 in height, while thofe of the fame fpecies at 
Prince of Wales's, and Duke of York's forts, are fcarce- 
ly of a fufficient dimenfion for ftudding-fail booms. 

Vegetation is extremely vigorous during three or 
four months of the year, and I fiiould not be fur- 
prifed to find Ruflîan wheat, and an infinity of other 
common plants, fucceed well there. We found ce- 
lery, round leaved forrel, lupines, wild peas, mil-foil 
t)r yarrow, chicory, and mimulus, in fuch abundance» 
that every day, and every meal, the fliips* coppers 
were filled with them. We had them in foups, in 
ragouts, and in falads, and they contributed not a 
little to preferve our health. Among thefe efculents 
we found nearly all the field and mountain plants 
of France, as the angelica, bouton d*or, violet, and 
lèverai fpecies of grafs for fodder. All thefe herbs, 
doubtlefs, we might have cooked and eaten without 
danger, had they not been migled with fome plants 
of the hemlock kind, very acrid, on which we mad© 
no experiments. 

The woods are replete with llrawberries, rafp- 
berries, and goofeberries. We found alfo the elder, 
the dwarf willow, difi^ercnt kinds of broom, which 
grow in the (hade, the balfam-poplar, /wr^-poplar, 
marfaut-willow, yoke-elm ; and, laftly, thofe fuperb 
pines adapted for the mafts of the largefl: veifels. 
None of the vegetable productions are ftrangers to 
Europe, for M. de la Martinière, in all his various 

■ - excurfions, 



1786.] ROUND TftE WORLD. 149 

excurfions, found only three plants which he believed 
to be new ; and it is well known the fame may hap- 
pen in the environs of Paris. 

The rivers were full of trout and falmon, but, in 
the bay, we only caught flétans^ * fome of which 
weighed lOOlbs, fmall vieilles, -fa lingle ray or thorri- 
back, fome caphns, \ and fome plaice. Preferring 
the trout and falmon to all thefc fiOi, and the Indians 
felling them in greater quantities than we confumed, 
we fifhed very little, and that only with the line, 
for our confiant occupation never permitted us to 
bawl the feine, which required ihe united force of 
25 or 30 men to drag it afhore. Mufcles grow in 
profufe heap^ on that part of the (horn which is left 
(Iry at low water, and the rocks are ai lb covered with 
very curious little Upas. In the hollows of the rocks 
pre found cornets, and other fhells of the pcrriwinkle 
kind. I have feen on the fands cames of a conlider- 
able fize, and M. de Lamanon brought from a place 
elevated above 200 toifes from the level of the fea, 
fome well preferved and very large petrifications of 
the (hell, called, by naturalifts, manteau royal, and by 
the vulgar coquille de Saint Jacques. This circum- 
fiance is not uncommon to naturalifts who could 
have found thefe fhells at much greater heights, but 
it will Iqng continue difficult to explain, fo as to ob- 
viate all objeélions. We never found a fingle (hell 
of this fpecies cafl on the fands of the fhore, which 
is well known to be the chief cabinet of naturç. 



* Orfaîtan^ a flat fifli, longer and narrower than tlic turbot, and 
its upper fl^in covered with fmall fcales. Thole caught in Europe 
are of a much fmailer fize. — French Editor. 

t A fifli in tafte and appearance like a cod, but commonly 
larger, though, froni its avidity, caught with equal eafe. — French 
Editor. 

X This fifli refembles a whiting, though much larger, and its flefli 
foft, well tafted, and eafy of digeftion. It abounds on the coaft 
^i Provence, where it is called capeldn,— French Editor, 

L 3 Our 



.,-"',■"1 a» t's^ ' j-v 



i'V: ■ 



m 






'*a*. 



f 



15Ô LA pérôusb's VOYACm [l786. 

Our hunters faw in the wcxjds, bears, martens, and 
fquirrefs, and the Indians fold us fomc bear Iklns, 
both black and brown, together with thofe of the 
Canadian lynx, the ermine, the marten, Xht petit grïsy 
the fquirrel, the beaver, the monax or mountain-rat 
of Canada, and the red-fox. M. de Lamanon took 
alfo a mujaraigne^ or fhrew-moufe, alive ; and we faw 
fome tanned flcins of the &r/^«rt/ or elk, and a horn 
of the wild-goat ; but the moil valuable, tl^jii 
moft common Ikins, are thofe of the fef^ÂtlSr 
lyolf, and fca-bear. Of birds there are not 
different fpecies, but the individuals of each are yi 
numerous, and the copfcs were full of linnets, ni^ 
tingalcs, black -birds^ and water-quails^y^jfe foç 
Were very agreeable,, this being tMf^ppI^ |' 
The white headed eagle, and vAf^'<fi^Wl^ 
cies, werefeen hovering in thé ail*} il 
killed ^ing-fi{her,and fcTdfida Ve^llBé^!]^ 
fome Miaming birds, ''tfl^ilrallo^ 'xi^m 
t^e hfesk.4îtiltrier, biiàdfetï^ h<^^^ 

were this ^1|«^ iflle tçdilfet«)d^^|a^ 
mallards, àhcl pfe t<^ tfe ')lfe «iSf É 

jipecie^,. --•-'",;■;', ■■'v:-^ - ■ ■ " ' . ^V-./"' ■■.'"'■':-'■■ 

;fiâ^;àA|liJ(b nearly jôiîai^ble ^^jfec^^fer te- 
îte^'^^lfebe, ' its fcertëpy has no |^âiStti^,aitid J 
IOut)tj|hëther the lofty mountains, and deèp^litr^; 
of th#Àfps and Pyrenees, affoid fo trem^n^i^ ^ 
fo piélurcfque, a fpeé^acle, well deferving the aftteti* 
tion of the curious, were it not placed ^t the extre- 
mity of the earth. 

The primary mountains of granite, or of fchift, 
covered with eternal fnows, where no trees, no, j^IantSj 
are fecn, reft their bafes in the water, and form a 
kind of quay along the fhore. Tb^ fides - are 
fo fleep, that wild goats cannot climb beyond the 
fjrft 2 or 300 toifes ; and all the fleams by which 

they 






.a. ***! 



I / ' 



Bl-ACKBIR D of FORT des FRANÇAIS. 



4i 

I'D . 

i4' 



TuhJu/u 4<\ //v*. ^^ IStockdaU . 



t' 



17S6.] ROUND THB WORLD. ' 151 

they are divided, are converted into immenfe glaciers» 
wbofe fummits rife beyond the reach of fight, while 
their bafes are wafhed by the Tea, and, at the diftance 
o( a cable*s length from (hore, the water r^nnot b« 
founded with a line of 6o fathom. 

The fides of the harbour are formed of mountains of 
the fécond order, only 8 or QOO toifeshigh, decorated 
with pines and vejrdiirc, and only covered with fnow 
on their fummits. They feemed entirely compofed 
of fchifi in the commencement of its decompofition, 
Bnd are not quite inacceffible, though very difficult 
to afcend. Mefirs. de Lamanon, de la Martinière, 
Çollignon, abbé Mongès, and father Receveur, all of 
them zealous and indefatigable naturalifis, although 
they could not. attain the very fummit, yet mounted 
withJnexpreffible fatigue to a conliderable height, 
where not a ftone or flint efcaped their notice. Too 
well (killed in the hifiory and economy of nature to 
be ignorant, that in the vallies may be found fome 
fpeoimens of whatever conftitutes the mafs of the 
mountains ; they did not fail to colIeA ochre, pyrites 
of copper, very friable, though very large, and per- 
feélly chryfl:alized grapite, (hoerl in chryftals, granite, 
fchifts, pierre de corne, very pure quartz, mica, plum- 
bago, and pit-coal, from all which, it is evident thefe 
mountains contain iron and copper, though we could 
perceive no traces of any other metal. 

To a region Ça tremendous nature hag adapted the 
inhabitants, differing as much from civilized nations, 
as the country I have juft dcfcribed differs from the 
cultivated plains of Europe. Equally rough and 
barbarous, as their foil is ftony and unimproved, they 
inhabit this land only to fpread devaflation, and 
waging continual war with every kind of animal, 
defpife the vegetable produdions that fpring up 
around them. I have, indeed, fecn women and chil- 
dren eat ftrawberries and rafpberrics, but, doubtlefs, 
fuch food is infipid to men who, on the furface of 

L4 the 



Ï52 LÀ PÉROUSE's VOYAGE [l78fl. 

the enrth, a6ï the part of vultures in the regions of 
the air, or wolves and tigers in the forcft. * 

The arts of life are there confiderably advanced, and 
they have already made great profirefs to civilization. 
But that civilization which polifhes manners, and 
foftens ferocity, is yet in its infancy ; for their man- 
ner of life excluding all fubordination, cxpofes them 
to be continually agitated by fear or vengeance, and 
being choleric, and prone to violence, we faw them 
inceîlàntly raifing their poignards againft each other. 
Though fubjeél to famine in the winter, as the chacc 
may not produce a fufHcicnt fupply, they enjoy in 
fummer the mofl profnfe abundance; for, in lefs 
than an hour, they catch lifh enough for the fubfift- 
ence of their families during the day. Thus the re- 
mainder of their time being condemned to idlenefs, 
it is pafled in play, which they purfue with as much 
ardour and paflion as the diiîipated inhabitants of a 
great metropolis ; and, like them, make it the grand 
inexhauftible fourcc of their quarrels. Tf to all thefe 
vices were added the baneful knowledge of fome in- 
toxicating liquor, I fhould not hefitate to pronounce 
thefe people hafteniiig, by rapid ftrides, to total ex- 
tirpation. 

In vain may philofophers exclaim againft this pic- 
ture. While they are making books by the lire-iidc, 
I have been traverling the globe for thirty years, and 
have aélually witnelîëd the cuuniiig and injufticc of 

* An old proverb warns credulity againft the account? of tra- 
TcUers, and may, perhaps, prejudice the opinions, anddiminifli the 
confidence of fome readers, who may not confider the*ure?.t atten- 
tion a nnvigator is interelled to pay to his reputation, the leart de- 
viation from the truth being fufticient to provoke a formal cpptra- 
diiftion froni the numerous body of wituelFei by whom lie was ac- 
companied. If, however, fuch a prejudice, which refl^iftion would 
exclude, cannot be prevented, let me recommend, as its certain re- 
medy, a çomparifon of our author's account with the details given 
by Dixon of the north weft coaft of America, not forgetting that 
his voyûge was performed a year after that of La Péi oufe, whofe 
journal muft therefore hsve been unknown to him.— jR^nci Ec/hor. 
- ' ^C • nations 



3me in- 



!786.*| ROUND THE WOilLD. 153 

nations whom the) j^ourtray as nccefîàrily fimplcanll 
virtuous, becaufe little removed from a ftatc of na- 
ture. But nature is fublimc only in the mafs, while 
(he is ever negligent of minutia;. It is impoflible to 
penetrate through woods not thinned by the labours 
of civilized man ; to traverfe plains tilled with rocks 
and Hones, or inundated by impayable marfhes ; or, 
in fhort, to alîociatc with man in a ftate of nature, 
becaufe in that flate man is cruel, bafc, and deceitful. 
Confirmed in this opinion by fad experience, I have 
never had recourfeto that fupcrior force with which 
I was intrufted in order to repel the iujufiice of thefe 
favages, and teach them there is a law of nations 
which ihould never be violated with impunity. 

Our (hips were incefllintly funoundcd by canoes 
of Indians, who would fufFcr three or four hours to 
pafs away before they commenced an exchange of a 
few (i(h, or two or three otter (kins; fcized every 
opportunity of plunder; ftole every piece of iron 
that could ealily be carried away ; and, in the night 
particularly,^ tried every means of eluding our vigi- 
lance. I iiivited all the principal perfonagcs on 
board and loaded them with prcfents, yet thefe very 
men, who had been eminently diftitiguilhed, were 
never a(hamed to (leaj a nail or an old rag of cloaths. 
Whenever they aflumed an air of mirth and docility 
I was aflured fome theft had been committed, and 
very often merely pretended not to obferve it. 

I exprcfsly recommended the children to be ca- 
rpfîèd and loaded with fmall prcfents, but their pa- 
rents were infenfible to this mark of benevolence, 
which I thought common to all nations. The only 
rcfliedlion it excited among them was, that by 'dik- 
ing to accompany their children when I invited them 
on board, they would (ind new oj)portunities for 
plunder; and for my inftruélion 1 often had the 
pleafure of obferving the father take advantage of 
fnoments when we appeared moft occupied with 

his 



^ 









154 LA FâBOUSB*8 VOYAGE |l786. 

lîiç child, to pilfer and conceal under bU covçrHif 9i 
Hkiti every thing within his reach. ^f^ 

I pretended to dcfîre Tome triflings srticlei of liltle 
value belonging to the Indians to whom I h«d^J;ift 
made large prcfents, that J might awaken tlifir||ep 
ncrolity ; but without effect. 

I will readily admit that fociety cannot pofRblj 
exift without fome virtues, but I muft c<)nfcis. I h^ 
not the fugacity to difcover any here. Atwaya quar<r 
relHn^ between themfclvcs, indifferent to^ }heir 
children, and tyrants to their wtvei, wh^ll^ ihey 
/condemn to the mod incefiant and intolerable labour, 
1 have obferved nothing among thefe people to in- 
duce me to foften the dark colouring of the pi^urc. 

Wc never landed without being anned fm4 in a 
body, for they greatly dreaded our miiiketl; and 
eight or ten Europeans together might command a 
whole village. ^-Thc two furgeon-majors of our {h\\1fi 
imprudently venturing alone to the chace were at^ 
tacked by the Indians, who endeavoured to feize 
their mulkets, but fortunately without fuccefa> «nd 
only two men were fufiicient to drive them away. 
A îlinilar accident occurred to M. dc Lcfïèp9» our < 
young Ruffian interpreter, when a boat*s crew forf. 
Innately came to his affiftancCk Yet thcib holtilitiei? 
appeared to them of fo little momentthat they did 
not difcontinue their vifits on board, and feemed 
never to flifpeet it poifible for ua to make reprifalf, 

I give the name of village to three or fouç pènt- 
houfes, 25 feet long, and 15 or 20 broad, covered 
only to windward with planks or bark of trees, in 
the middle of which is a fire with falmon andji?/r- 
fnns fiilpendcd over it to dry in the; fmoke. Eighteen 
or twenty perlons lodge in each of thefe penthoufes; 
the wTjmen and children on one fide, and thib men 
on the othen Each cabin appeared to me toéon- 
ftitute a tribe independent ofits neighbours; which 
pQâèf&d each a boat and a fort of Chief, went 
f*^ . out 



[1786. 
iring «^ 

m^ 

pofWy 
» I hii4 
• quar^ 
> \hctr 

Ki Ibcy 
labour, 
s to in- 
^i^ure. 
nd in a 
$i and 
mmd a 
i)r (hi}t|i 
irere at*- 

feize 
Ç9, and 

1 away. 
pf, our w 
ew foff. 
)^tiIitie^ 
bey did 
feemed 
iri^alf , 
icpcnt- 
covcrcJ 
rees, in 
andjfie- 
ightcen 
ihouies; 
hk men . 
toeon- 

; which 
r, went 
out : 



^- 



.«HKC;.. 



i • J^ 



s t^'lfki 



ITBÔ.^ ROUND THE WOULD. 155 

out, left the bay, and carried away their fifh and 
wood, while the reft of the village appeared to take 
no (hare in their proceedings. 

1 am almoft certain this port is inhabited only 
during fummer, and that the Indians never pafs the 
winter there. For I did not perceive a fingle cabia 
iheltered from the rain, and although there were 
not at any time more than 300 Indians together in 
the bay, we were vifited by 7 or 800 others. 

The canoes were continually coming in and goin^ 
out, carrying with them their houfes and furniture, 
which conlifts of feveral little chefts containing their 
mod valuable efFe6ls^ Thcfe chells are placed at the 
entrance of their cabins, which are more unclean 
and llinking than the dens of the moll loathfome 
animal with which we arc ycf acquainted. They 
never withdraw two fleps for any common occafion 
of neceffity, nor in the relief of nature do they feek 
any concealment or obferve any myflery, but con- 
tinue the converfation in which they are engaged, 
as if there was not a moment to be loft; and lliould 
this occur during a repaft, refurae their places with-; 
out concern, from which, however, they ilo not 
ftir two yards *'. The wooden vÊifels in which 
they cook their iifli are never wathcd, but ferve 

♦ <* The infide of thetr dwellings exhibitsa complent piflure of 

' ** dirt and filth, indolence and lazinefs ; in one corner are thrown 

** the bones, and remaining fragments of victuals left at their meals ; 

" in another are heaps of fifh, pieces of ftinking flefli, greafe, oil, 

♦' &c." Dixon's I'yiage, p. 173. 

Cook has depifted the naftinefs of the houfes occupied by the 
inhabitants of Nootka Sound in the following pafllige: 

" The naftinefs and ilench of their hoiifts are, however, at lead 
" equal to the confufion. For as4hey dry their fifli within doors, 
*• they alfo gut them there, which with their bones and fragment^ 
" thrown down at meals, and the addition of other forts of filth, 
'' lie every where in heaps, and are, I believe, never carried away 
" till it becomes troublefome, from their fize, to walk over them. 
*' In a word, their houfes are as filthy as hog-fties, every thing in 
f' and about them ftinking of fifti, train-oil and fmoke," 

equally 







LA PÉROUSe's VQYA»E p7^^» 

red hot mats, e^iSii^ykimm^ 
\0 liîeit food, is completely drefe^j^JChâ^l 
4H» |jèjî,açqi;iwnted wi^^ method. Ql;fPftil«*f,f *" 
^vi^iililÎK^lililar -tc^ that ùfed by Ibldiers m''eai|ip£^ % *^>.,, 
f';P^ei>^|ê^p$.only a lînaH|»ii^the<^ people^ *^' 
fifihs^^^St^m^i^oe^^^ GOBiiderable ipacco» 

theHîcà Wi^>s "^iiplg^^ about tb$ 

digèrent bay» like fcati^yes in fçarch of ibod; and 
during winter penetiïi^yj^'into the heart of |he coupât 
try ta hunt the: cailo^âild 0ber animals, of which 
they brpughtJJ« th^ ejtUîfiee. ISfotwithftanding they 
always g€^barefopted»lhe fples of their feet are not 
^pallous, but continue fo tender they cannot wôlk on 
•Iheiloncs;^ a proof they travel only in canoes ox 
iwitil ftiowriboes. i 

'I'll^ dog being the only animal with whoii^ thçy 
bave made any aUiancè, there arc commonly two «p 
.three of thosi in a cabiii. Tbey are finall, and. re-* 
fembie the^fiiepherd's dog of M. Buffon ; .they dritukli 
little or nothiïig, ^ke a wbiflling noife like the ^\'' 
a^h»c£ J^^l^t «lid are fo ferocious as to bear ' 
the iànw'âi^ligy to other do^s as their mafters to ci* 

;!3?he léeïi prcrcc the cartilage of their nofe iin(| 
^^«ars; t^wfeçli their attach various little ornaments» 
They fëài^ly^éir breafts^a^ arms with a very iharp 
iron inftrunient, whetting it upon theîr teeth as 
on a hone. Their teeth are filed down even with ' 
the gimn with a piece of rough ilone rounded off , 
in the (hnpe of a tongue. Tnty paint thçir faces 
and other parts of their bodiçs in a frightful man» 
ner, with ochi-e, lampblack, and black lead^^misLed- 

* A w'ld beàft between the wolf and the dog, very coriiînon iii 
,^{ia, carnivorous, and dangerou? to men. It b*rk» in the nij^t fike 
• d»g, but not equally Icud. Its (i^tq is yetlOwiÛi} and is efteeo)'* 










'''tliÊmâ 



m 



canoes ox 







tV'f, 


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(( 



178^.] ROUND THE WOHLD. . 157 

up with the oil of the fea wolf. During ^eat cefe- 
TDonics their hair is long and powdered, and dréflèd 
with the down of various fea birds. This feems to 
be their greateft luxury, and is refer ved perhaps 
only for the heads of families. A plain fkin covers 
their (liouldcrs while the reft of the body is abfolutely 
naked : but they ufually cover their head with finall 
bats of draw very neatly made. Sometimes however . 
they wear on their heads a bonnet with two comers, 
eagles plumes, and laftly, the entire head of a bear, 
in which they introduce a fkull cap of wood. Of 
thefe different head-drefles they have great varieties, 
but their principal obje6l feems, like their other cuf- 
toms, to render them only more frightful, and per- 
haps to infpire their enemies with terror. 

Some of the Indians had entire (hirts of otter 
IkinSj and the ordintiry drefs of the grand Chief was 
a (liiit made of the elk Ikin. This veiy drefs 
is well known among the fiivages of Canada, and 
other nat'':ns on the eailern (ide of America*. 

I faw xio tattooing but on the arms of the wo- 
men, who have alfo a cuftom which makes thero 
fo hideous, that I could fcarcely have credited had 
I not been an eye witncfs to it. Every one of them 
without exception has the under lip cut acrofs even 
with the gums, the whole width of the mouth. 
In this incifion they wear a kind of ladle without 
handles, which prelies againft their gums, to which 
their cut lip ferves as a pad outwards, fo that the 
lower part of the mouth proje<Ss 2 or 3 inches-}'. 

M. de 

* " The chief, who always condiicls the vocal concert, puts on 
^' a large cloak, made of the elk fkin, tanned, round the lower 
" part of which is one, and fometimcs two rows of dried berries, 
*' or the beaks of birds, which make a rattling noife whenever he 
*' moves." Dixon's Voyage , p. 242. 

f This cuftom appears very general among the tribes who inha» 
bit the north-weft coaft of America, from the §0* to the .60% and 
;e;!ctend8 even to the favages of the Ifle of Foxes and the Aleutiaa 

lilands. 



M 



ill 

mm 




mm 

-■.' '"i' Mi. > 



iff ■'' 

P É i 






îifc'ii' 



t5ê lA j>£fiouax^« roTAOS 

M. lié Vancy*s drawiilig, wj)ich is t pei&<sijr apt 
iî«Sii irëpefeotation of it, will b^ the belt ilkHbitt 
^b<i of thiVnsvoll^g ciiilQjp, tbah whicit: tbe^ w|^ 
èMd perhapv does not afl^ord /Mother e^ufdle dii^ 
jguftlng. The young girÏB <mJy wear a kini bf bôd« 
kin, ^hiiç the married women alone are entitled to 
the honours of the ladle *. We fometimes perfuaded 

them 

Iflarids. Victe die obfenrations of Coxe in hit tfanflation of JV«r- 
ffriiu ÙécQsverts Jes Sbtfes^ pages 3d, 54, 104, and 158. 

At Port Miiigrave, 59" 3^' north lat. 1 40* 22' wpft from themeri- 
<iian of Paris, ** dn aperture is made in the thick part of the under lip, 
«* and int.reai(»l b^ degrees in a line parallel with the mouth, and 
^* «^ally- long: in this aperture, a piece of wood is conftantly wore, 
.** o^ an elKpticftl form, about half an inch thick ; the ibperficies not 
*^ ftâti but hollowed out on ea«h fide like a fpoon, thdugh not 
'» quitt fo deep j the edges are lifcewife hollowed in the form of 
'*< a pully, in order to fix this precious droament more £rmiy in the 
** lip, which by this meahs is/requently extended at leaft three inches 
." horizontally, and coni*cqueBtIy diftorts every feature in the loiter 
^' part of the face. This curious piece of wood is vore only by the 
** women, and feeftis to be con0dered as a mark of didinaion, it 
*' not beine wore by aUindiicrimtnatdy, butonly thofe who appear- 
.** ed in a mperior ftation to the reft." — Dixon's foyage^^. 17a. 

At Norfolk Sound, in 57° 3' north lat. 135» 36' weft lone, fiom the 

meridian of Paris, "the women, too, ornament, or rather diftort 

i** their lips in the fame manner as I have ah'eady defer i bed ; and it 

*< fhould feem^ that the female who is ornamented with the largeft 

•* piece of wood, is generally moft refpeâed by her friends, and 

^' the community in general." — Dixon*s voyage p. i96, 

■ At Hippab, one of Queen Charlotte's Iflands in 53^4^' north lat. 

1 35' ao* weft 1«^. from the méridien of Paris, ** there were likewife 

** aftw women amongft them, who all feemed pretty well advanced 

«* in years; their under lips were diftorted in the fame manner to 

^' thofe of the women at Port Molgi-ave, and NorfolkSound, and the 

■*• pieces of wood were particularly large. One of thcfe lip-pieces ap- 

** pearing to be peculiarly ornamented. Captain Dixon wiihed 

** to purchafe it. This curious lip-piece meafured three and feven- 

"«^idgnth inches long, and two and five^eighth inches in the wideft 

'** part ; h was inlaid with a fmall pearJy fhell, round which wai 

t** a rim of copper."— £>;>o«'j voyage» p. 208. • 

:^ 'Compare alio what Cook fays on the cuftoms of the tavages ^ 



'^onalauca and Norton's Sound, in 64* 31' N. lat. and 165» 7' 
-tbt^. from themeridian of Paris, and of Prince William's Sound, 
in^i* it' yo" N. lat. 148» 52' W. long, from the meridian of 
î*aris. C<K)k'8 3d Voyage. — -^Fnttcb Editor^, 
,. V * ^kmong thefe favages marriage being fubje£l to no formal^: ? 

except 



M 



m the méri- 
té under lip, 



Kàf# 






mi 



^ ■^■mf.m.û 






A WOMA N'of UieFOR'.r of the FKE^CH . 

Puh:June to.ijga.by [StochiaLt. 



J •' 



1786.3 ROUÎCD THB WORLI). 15^ 

them to tftke off this ornament, which they confent- 
ed to with difficulty, making the fame modeil gcf- 
turcs and experiencing the fame embarraiTment uê 
an European lady would ihew at uncovering her 
bofom. The under lip then fell down on the chin, 
^nd this fécond pidure was no lefs hidcou» than 
the former; 

Yet thefc women, the moft difgufting on earth, 
covered with fetid, and frequently untanned, ikins, 
excited the deftres of fome perfons who, in truth, 
were well privileged for fuch carefles. At firft they 
cxpreflcd unwiliingnefs, and declared, by their get- 
turcs, th^ ran the rilk of their lives. But overcome 
at laft by prefents, they made the fun witnefs of their 
rites, and refufed to conceal themfelves in the woods.* 

It 

except thofe diAated by nature, I am of opinion with Dixon that 
the lip-piece is rather thediftini^ion of puberty or of maternity, than 
adiftinélion of rank) or the badge of excluHvely belonging to one 
man. The refpeft they pay to fuch as . bey this ornament may 
originate in this principle, fori cannot fuppofe the privation of 
this honour to be a puniflunent in a country fo little civilized, 
and where it would be fo eafy to recognize thofe who once enjoy, 
edit. 

" This curious Operation of catting the under lip of the females, 
** never takes place during their infancy, but from every obferva- 
*' tion I was able to ntake, feems confined to a peculiar jperiod of 
'' life. When the girls arrive to the age of fourteen or fifteen, the 
" center of the under lip, in the thick part near the mouth, is (imply 
" perforated, aad a piece of copper wire introduced to prevent thie 
"aperture from clofing; the aperture afterw'ards is iengthenedi 
"from time to time, in a line parallel with the mouth, and the 
" wooden ornaments are enlarged in proportion, till they are fre- 
" quently incVeafed to three, or even four inches in length, and 
** nearly as wide, but this generally happens, when the matron is 
" advanced in year», and confequently the mufcles are relaxed; to 
" that poffibly old age may obtain greater refpeél than this very 
" fingular ornament." Dtxon*s Fixage, p. 187. 

* The minutiae of Captain Dixon's defcriplion coincide, in ge- 
neral, fo exaftly with thofe of La Péroufe, that I can fcarcely con- 
ceive how they fliould differ fo much in their eflimation of female 
charms. 

Did chance prefent to Dixon an object pei-feélly unique among 

hit 



1; 



l60 LA FjÉROUSB*» voyage [1786; 

It cannot be doubted, but that orb is the god of thefe 

Feople, who frequently addrefs prayers to him. But 
could perceive neither temple nor prieils, nor the 
traces of any re/rular religion. 

In (ize and ligure thefe Indians differ little from 
ws ; their features are greatly varied, and afford no 
peculiar charaél:criftic, except in the cxprellion of 
their eyes, which never communicate one tender 
fentiment. The colour of their fkin is very brown,, 
being conflontly cxpofed to the fun ; but their chil- 
dren arc born as white as any among us. They havo, 
inded, lefs beard than Europeans, but enough, how- 
ever, to remove all doubt upon the fubjed ; and the 
fuppofition that the Americans arc without beards, is 
an error that has been too readily adopted. I havo 
feen the aborioincs of New England, Canada, Nova 
Scotia, and Hudlbn's Bay, and among each of thofe 
nations have found matiy individuals with a beard, 

his fpccies? or does the différence of his opinion originate in the 
tvell known indulgence of a failor after fo long a voyage? Be that 
as it may, he gives the following account : 

♦* They are particularly fond of painting their faces with a va- 
•^ riety of colours, fo that it is no eafy matter ^o difcover their reaf 
•* complexion ; however, y^e prevailed on one woman, by perfua- 
♦' (ion, and a trifling prefent, to wafh her face and hands, ani 
** the alteration it made in her appearance abfolute';/ furprifed iis ; 
*' her cQuntenance had all the cheerful glow of an ijinglifh milk- 
" maid ; and the healthy red which fluflied her cheek, was even 
*' ^(fdrw//)'»//)' contraftcd with the whitenefs of her neck; her eyes 
" were black and fparkling ; her eye-brows the fame colour, and 
" moft beautifully arched ; her forehead fo remarkably clear, that 
♦* the tranflucent veins were ften meandering even in their minuteft 
" branches — in flioi t, fbe was what would be reckoned handfome 
*• even in England : but this f mnictry of features is entirely dc« 
*' ftroyed by a cuflom extremely lingular." Dixon's f^eyage^ p. 171. 

In fuppo't of Dixon, however, I muft cite the Spanifh account 
of a voyaj;e undertaken in 1777. written by Don Mau,relio, fécond 
Captain of La Favorecida. This navigator, after confirming the 
accounts of rhe ridiculous ornamf;nt placed in an orifice cut in the 
middle of the under lip, adds: " If better dreflêd, many of them 
*' nnight difpute the prize of beauty with the fined wouien of Spain." 
Ireuch Editor, ' . 

which 



/ 



l786;J ROUND THE WORLD. iQl 

which made me think a cuftom of deftroyinff it ha» 
prevailed where it does not appear.* In the frame of 
their bodies they are feeble, and, in wreftling, the 
weakeil of our failors would have thrown the moft 
robaft of the Indians. I remarked fome whofo 
fwollen legs gave fymptoms of the fcurvy, although 
their gums were found ; but I doubt they will never 
arrive at a great age : nor did I fee more than one 
woman apparently of the age of fixty ; and (he en- 
joyed no privilege, but fubmitted, like the reft, to the 
«various labours of the fex. 

My voyages have enabled me to compare various 
nations, and I am certain the Indians of Fort des 
Français are not Efquimaux. They have evidently a 
common origin with nil the inhabitants of the interior 
of Canada, and the northern parts of America. 

Cudopis entirely peculiar to themfelves, and a very 

* " The voung men have no beards, and I was at fii ft inclined 
" to think that this arofe from a natural want of hair on that part, 
" but I was foon deceived in this particular, for all the men we faw, 
^ who were advanced in years, had beards all over the chin« and 
" fome 6f them whi(kers on each fide the upper lip. At thisi fup^ 
" pofed defeâ among the natives of America has occafioned much 
" fpeculative enquiry amongft the learned and ingenious, I took 
*' every opportunity of learning how it wasoceauoned, and wa» 
" given to underftand, that the young men got rid of their beardi 
" by pulling them out, but that' as tney advance in years, the hair 
" is fuffered to grow." Dixtuls Vvfage^ p. 238. 

An enemy to all fyftems and aiming folely at truth in my re- 
fearches, I ihall not difcard the aflertions of^thofe who contradiâ' 
La Péroufe, and I believe the reader will derive pleafure firom the 
following extraâ from the Lettres Américaines tii Carli, let. ai. : 

*' It is not at ail furprifing indeed to fee the Americans without 
** beard, or hair on their bodies, fince the Chinefe and Tartars, if 
'^ we credit hiftorians, are equally deprived of it. Hippocrates tells 
' us the Scvthians of his time were without them. Tne Huns were 

pei'b^pstne defcendants of the Scythians ; for, as Fernandez relates, 

they grow old without beards, and become adult without the or- 
*' namcnts of puberty. The hiftory of Hyton, the Armenian, who 
" fled from Tartary m 130^, and became a monk at Cyprus, in- 
" forms us the Tartars, particularly thofe of Cata^, have no beard :. 
** and how many people in Afia and Africa are in the fame fitua> 
'♦ tion!"—Fw/<r/j £<///«r. 



« 



Vol. I. 



M 



lingular 



ii 



': 



ti 



I 



■ -^ 11*11 



II 



101 LÀ péROUSK s VOTAOE [l786. 

lingular countenance, didinguiOi the Efquimaux from 
âU other Americans. The former, in my opinion, 
refemble the Greenlanders, and inhabit the coail of 
Labrador, Hudfon*6 Straits, and a drip of land along 
the whole extent of America, up to the Pcninfula of 
Alaika. It is doubtful whether Ada or Greenland 
was the original country of thefe people, but thnt 
quedion is frivolous, and will, probably, remain for 
ever problematic and undecided. Suffice it to fay, 
the Efquimaux arc a people who delight more in dlh- 
ing than the chace, and preferring oil to blood, nay, per-» 
haps, to every thing elfe, commonly eat their d(n raw. 
The framing of their canoes is always covered with 
Ikin of the fea-wolf very tightly dretched. Nimble 
and adlive in alt their movements, they differ little 
from fea-calves, and wanton in the water with as 
much agility ns if naturally amphibious. Their face 
is almod fquare, their eyes and bread large, tHeii 
figure fhort. Of all thefe charaâeridics not one 
Agrees with the natives of Port des Franfais, who are 
much larger, meagre, far from robud, and very un- 
ikilful in the condru6lion of their boats, which arc 
fbrmed of an excavated tree, raifed on each dde with 
a iingle plank. 

The latter catch fiih like us by dopping the rivers, 
or with a line, which they ufe in a very ingenious 
manner. They faden a large bladder of the fea- 
wolf to each line, and abandon it to the waves. Every 
eatioe throws out 12 or 13 lines. When a fifh is 
booked he carries off the bladder, and is purfued by 
the canoe. Thus two men are enabled to attend 12 
or 15 lines, without the trouble of holding them in 
the hand *. 

\ Thefe 

* " I cannot think thjJt this was altogether defigned as an orna- 
" ment to their hooks, but that it has fome religiou9 alJufion, and 
•• poflSbly is intended as a kind of deity, to enfure their fuccefs in 
*' fifhing, which is conduced in a fingular maoner. They bait their 
" hook with a kind of fifli, called by the failorsy^«/JIf, and having 

*• funk 



f 



V- 



< • 



1766.] «OUVD TMI WORLD., lOS 

. "Thefe Indianf have made ftr greater progreA in 
the arti than in morals, iund their induilry is more ad- 
vanced than that of the inhabitants of the South Sea 
lAands. I muft, however, except agriculture, which, 
by rendering man domeftic, fecuring him a fubdft^ 
ence, and fubjeéling him to the fear of the land he 
has cultivated being expofed to ravages, contributes 
more, perhaps, than any other caufe to ibflen his 
manners, and render h' m fit for focietv. 

The Americans of Porf des Prançats arc acquaint- 
ed with the method of forging iron and moulding 
copper. They fpin the hair of various animals, and, 
with a needle, form of that wool a manufadlure fîmi- 
lar to our tapedry. With this web they mingle 
llrips of the otter (kins, which makes their cloaks 
refcmble the fineft filk (hag. In no part of the world 
arc draw hats and baikcts more ikilfully made. They 
adorn thele with plealing deiigns ; and fculpture, in 
a paflable manner, men and animals in wood and 
Hone. They decorate boxes of an elegant form with 
(hell-work) and cut the ferpentine ilone into jewels, 
to which they give the poliih of marble. Their arms 
confifl of the poignard already defcribed, a lance of 
^ood, hardened in the fire, or of iron, according to 
the riches of the proprietor, and a bow and arrows 
ufually pointed with copper. But their bows are in 
no rcfpeâ remarkable, and much weaker than thoib 
of many other nations. 

I fpund among their jewels pieces of yellow amber, 
but know not whether it is indigenous, or imported, 
like their iron, from the ancient hemifphere, by an 
indireA communication with the Ruffians. 

I have already mentioned that feven large canoes 
had been wrecked at the mouth of the harbour. Their 

" funk it to the bottom, they fix a bladder to the ehd of the line as 
" a buoy, and ftiould that not watch fufficiently, they add another. 
" Their lines are very ftrong, being made of the finews or inteilines 
" of animals. One man is fufficient to look after five or fix of tkefe 
" buoyg." Dixw's Fyagey p. 174. — Frtné Editor. 

M 2 • dimenfions. 



iif 






104 tA;péROUS£'s VOYAfil 

dimenfîons, as taken from the onl^; oine-tliât â^j(Nl« 
\^cre 34 feet long by four feet brood,: ànd'iîi;; 'deej» 
Thefe large dimenfions qualified themÉ)r eiipeditkni» 
of cbniiderable length. They were covered yfx\h the 
ikiniof the féa-wolflikë thofe of the Efquiinau^, whkà 
led us to imagine the Port des Frànfàh Mia bï^ tm> 
poriùm only inhabited in the fiOitng foi^»».. ^ ) We 
thought it poiHble that the Ëfquiroi^ux in thefvidi^ > 
of the Shumagin Iflands, and «f the penlnfula e^ 
pldred by Captain Cook» might extend thfeir ,com* 
merce tothis part of America^ furniihing itj with iron» 
and other articles^ and taking, witfefrdil advantage 
to themfelves» the otter-Oiins whioliutb^;!»; «agçny 
delirci The form of thefe canoes^ t|^;v|hef grcià 
. quantity of ikins we dealt for (probably çolleéied b)e^ 
for fale to thefe traders), confirm this .oon^c^tire^ 
whit^h I merely throw out, bécajtïf^^t ^nis to act 
count for the iron and other £ulx>p0an articles th|^ 
jpoiiefs. ' '' : 

I have fpokch of the paf^on of thefe. Indians fdr 
play. That to wh^ch they devote themftlyts with the 
greateft fUry.is a X^tnt of pure hazardv , Th«sy havp 
30 fticksi each dim*rently marked in the ftianner ol 
dice. Of thefe they hide feven ; each plays in his 
turn, and he who comes neareft to the numbers 4» 
the feven flicks wins the flake, which is ufimlly a 
piece of iron, or a hatchet. This game renders them 
ferious and melancholy, though I have often heard 
then) fingi and when the Chief came on board>; hs 
generally firiV went all round the fhip finging,:!»*^ 
his arms extended in the form of a crofs, as a%(i 
of amity, and then came on board, performing a pan- 
tomime expreiîive of battles^ of furprize8,.or 0f death. 
The air which pieceded this ballad was pte^ng iaiUl 
harmonious^ and, as nearly as we could, note it dov^iii,/^ 
is as follows** ' 

* There who have the (Irongeft voices take ditlir àthil^iyilQ 
and the women a third above the principal piir^;)Wliile othéÉ, 
an oéiave, and often make a paufe of two baTiit the higheft '^' 



■'fi 



'M 







^^'^5^ 



zàvBRpm 

Usaedbio^é 

;ni9 to acf 
rtiéles Ihjpy 

' i ri» 

Indians îdt 
rfts with the 
Thttjr have 
<nanner0^ 
îlays ifihis 

umbers «^ 
) viiiaRy A 
ndeiAtbc^ 
Dften betted 
ï board^ ho 
ïgingrWÎ<^ 
3, asa%ti 
pyigapa»- 
iir0f death, 
lè^ngwïd 
otcitdown.» 



^fttbîffl^ 


itle otl«IÉ,tiË 


: bigheft:'iMP 


* ■ 'B 


. ■■.VV!v;-; 



t786.J 



ROUND THE WORLD. 



laô 



"^^ 




r-Q 



^ tajtdj j 



»^> 




^^ 



?3zp: 



v^ 



?:q: 



ivx 



ggg 




^^wm 



.Ml 



;^ 


i-^H-ï-ïH- 


=FFi- irnT" 


èJj 


'-iJi^i-îS^ 


ESn-:iidy:-^ 



v>' 



^-/ 









cip: 



^EQ 



Î3^ 



t 



i 



■fatt l ^B 



!" ■■ . fW 



M 3 



a*C 



Hi!:'' 



;-s ;(,..(,. 



.f^ 



'd'il 



'Mil 



f*/i''i.iJ 



;iRV 



mV^ 



'■mi4;< 



>,-* 



M S^MiVIÏ 



|f.ftï8iyi 



]m 



M Ms ft.' ' ' 



Bi 



t r, mi 



ail r 



i i 



f m 



l6(5 LA piROUSE*S VOYAGÉ [iTSÔ. 

M. de Lamanon is the author of the followinjç 
Remarks on the language of this nation, of which I 
fhall only quote the numerical words, for the fatis- 
faélion of thofe readers who wi(h to compare varioua 
tongues.* 

Remarks BH^lke Langïiage of the Indians of Port 

des Français, 

One .keirrk. 

.-Two theirh.\ 

iThree neiflt. 

^•^ Four taakhoun^ 

Five keitfchine. f 

ISix kîeitouchou, 

' '^ Seven takatouchoti, 

^ Bight . . . i netjkatouchoii, \ 

' Kine , TtoueJmk, ' 

Ten tchinecate. 

Eleven keirkrha-keirrk, 

^Twelve ieirkrha-theirk^ 

Thirteen keirkrha-nei/k. 

Fourteen keirkrha-taakhoun, f 

Fifteen keirkrha-keitfchine, \ 

Sixteen keirkrha-kîeitouchou. 

Seventeen keirkrha-takatouckou,_ 

Eighteen keirkrha-netjkatouchoti, f 

Nineteen keirkrha-kouehek. 

Twenty theirha. 

* A more comprehenfive vocabulary of the languages of all the 
nations vifited by thefe navigators was annoanced, and its pub* 
Jication is a juft debt to the afliduity of Meflis. Monneron, Leit 
feps, Lavaux, Lanianon, Mongès and Receveur ; but it is not ar< 
rived. 

f The r guttural) which this nation pronounces (lill inoré harfli* 
ly than the German cbr^ is here exprefled by M, as if the French 
word rhatîttér were pronounced with a'ftrong and difficult vibra» 
tion. 

, « . Thirty 



ire varioua 



1786.] , ROUND THE WORLD.' I67 

Thirty .' netjkrha, '■'■■■ 

Forty . . • • taakliounrha. 

Fifty keitj'chinerka. 

Sixty Ï . . kleitouchmrha. * 

Seventy. . . < takatouchourha, - ' 

Eeighty netjkatouchourha* 

Ninety kouehokrha. 

Hundred. ............ tchinecaterha 

" Our letters are not adapted to exprefs the lan^ 
" guage of this nation : for, though they have many 
*^ founds fimilar to ours, many of their articulations 
** are totally foreign to us. They make no ufe of the 
" confonants, b, p, x, j, d, p> v, and notwithftanding 
" their talent for imitation, they were never able to 
" pronounce the four firft, or the l mouillée* y and.cN 
" mouillé. They articulate the r as if it were double, 
*•' with a ftrong vibration ; and they pronounce the 
" chr of the Germans with as much harfhnefs as the 
" Swifs of certain Cantons. They have an articulate 
" found extremely difficult to catch, and which we 
" could not endeavour to imitate, without exciting 
" their rifibility. It is in fome degree reprefented 
" by the letters khlrl, which form one Syllable, pro^ 
^' nounced at the fame time with the throat and the 
" tongue. It occurs in the word khlrleies, which fig- 
" nifies hair. Their initial confonants are, k, t, n, s, m, 
" of which the former are thofe moft frequently ufed. 
" None of their words begin with an r, and they 
" almoft always terminate in ou, ouls, ouleh, or other 
" vowels. Their guttural pronunciation, the. great 
" number of Ks, and their double confonants, ren- 
" der this language extremely Jiarlh, It is even left 
" guttural when fpoken by the men than by women, 
" as the wooden ornament they wear ir^ their under 

* Of this pronunciation the word mouillée is itfelf aa exampk, 
as bagnio is of the g»,-^Tran/Iator's Note. 

M 4 «lip, 






1 



; : » 



'te 



131 



C( 



« 



cr 



168 tA PÉROUSE^S VQYAQE [l786|. 

*•' lip, which they call kentaga, incapacitates them 
** from pronouncing the labials. 

" The harfhnefs of their language is lefs ftriking 

when they ling. I was unable to make piany 

obfervations on the parts of fpeech they employ, 

as it is extremely difficult to con^municate abftraèt 

ideas by figns ; but I difcovered that they ufe 

" interjetions to exprefs admiration, anger, and 

** pleafure, though I do not believe they have any 

" articles, for I perceived no words that recur with 

' ** fufRcient frequency, or appeared to ferve as con- 

" nedives to their difcourfe. They are acquainted 

" with numbei-s, for which they have names, but 

** have no mode of diftinguiihingthe plural from the 

•* lingular, either by a difference of termination or by 

** an article. I fhewed them a fea calf's tooth, 

** which they called kaourrê, and they gave the fame 

*^ name to a number of thefe teeth, without the leaft 

** change in the found. Their colledlivc nouns are 

'' very few; nor have they fufficiently generalized 

^* their ideas to have formed words of abftraâion. 

They have not even fufficiently definite ideas to 

avoid giving the fame name to objedls perfeâly 

diflinét. Thus kaaga figniiies at once head and 

face^ and alcaou both chief ^nà friend. \ perceived 

no refemblance between this language and that of 

** Alalka, Norton Sound, Nootka, Greenland, or the 

*' £fquimaux, Mexicans, Nadoelîis, and Chipa was, 

^' whofe vocabularies I have collated. I pronounced 

^ lèverai words of thefe languages, without their comr 

**. prehending any of them, although I varied my pro- 

" nunciation as much as poflible; but although there 

f* is not perhaps a fingle idea or thing exprelïèd by 

" the fame name among the Indians of Port des 

" Fr/infais, ^nd the nations juft named, there ought 

" to be a great affinity of found between this lan- 

/« guage and that of the cntr^mce of Nootka Sound^ 



a 



<t 



«( 



<€ 



. t . .. 



« . 



1786.] HOUND THE WORtD. I69 

^ fpr K is the predominant letter in each, and occurs 
" in alnnod every word. Their initial confonants and 
^* terminations arp very often the fame, and it is not 
♦* perhaps impoffible this language may have a com- 
" mon prigin with that of Mexico ; but if fo, this 
♦' origin mijft be very ancient, fincc their words have 
^' no refenjblance, excepts in the elements of words 
" and not in their fignification." 

I (hall conclude vfiy account of this nation by ob- 
ferving, that we perceived no trace of cannibalifm 
fimong them, though it is fo general a cuftom among 
the Indians of America, that I might even have to 
^dd this trait to the pidlure, had they been at war or 
|ajç.en a prifoner during our ftay *. 



CHAP. X. 

PEPARTUP.E PROM PORT DES FRANÇAIS EXPI<ORA- 

TION OF THE COAST OP AMERICA — BAY OP ISLANDS 
r— PORT op LOS REMEDIOS, AND PORT BUCCAREL- 

H OP THE PILOT MAURELLO CROYERE ISLANDS 

ISLANDS OP SAN CARLOS DESCRIPTION OP THE 

COAST FROM CROSS SOUND TO CAPE HECTOR 

A GREAT GULPH OR CHANNEL — EXACT DE- 



TERMINATION OP ITS BREADTH SARTINE 

ISLANDS WOODY POINT OP CAPT. COOK VERI- 
FICATION OP OUR TIME -KEEPERS BREAKERS 

POINT— NECKER ISLANDS ARRIVAL AT MONTEE- 

R^Y. 

THE forced ftay I had recently made in Port des 
Français^ obliged me to alter my plan of naviga- 
tion on the cpaft of America, though I had ftill time 

^ Capt. J. Meares has proved, in his voyages, that the nations who 
inhabit the N. W. coa^l of" America are cuiuxhai&r^French Editor, 



"-••''tKlii 




mm 
mm 

' ,1' I ■î'Sifl 




170 LA pÎ:rodse*s voyage [178(5. 

to range along it and determine its direélion ; but it 
was impoffiblc to think ofputting in at any other port, 
ftill lefs to reconnoitre every bay. All my proceedings 
muft now be fubordinatç to the abtblutc neceflity ot' 
arriving at Manilla by the end of January, and at Chi- 
na in the courfe of February, in order to employ the 
cnfuing fummer in exploring the coafts of Tartary, 
Japan, Kamtfchatka, and even the Aleutian iflands. 
I perceived with chagrin that fo vaft a plan fcarcely 
admitted of our defcrying objeé^s at a diftancc, 
without clearing up any doubts regarding them ; for 
being obliged to navigate within the reign of the mon- 
foons, it was necefîàry either to lofe a whole year, or 
arrive at Monterey between the toth and the 15th 
of September, and flay there but fix or feven days to 
take in wood and water, and then traverfe as rapidly 
as poflible the great ocean, over a fpace of 120*^ of lon- 
gitude, or near 2400 marine leagues: for between the 
tropics the deforces are nearly equal to thofe of the 
equator itfelf. 1 had the greateft realbn to fear I fhould 
not have time to vifit the Caroline Iflands, or thofe to 
the northward of the Marianas, in conformity to my 
orders. The exploration of the Carolines mufl ne- 
ceiîàrily depend, more or lefs, on the quicknefs of our 
run, which we had reafon to expedl would be very 
long, our fliips being very bad failers. The geogra- 
phical fituation of thefe iflands, which are far to the 
weflward, (or to leeward) would not, without confi- 
derabie difficulty, admit of comprehending them in 
the ultimate objedls of my navigation to the fouth- 
%vaTd of the line. 

Thefe various conliderations determined me to fix 
a new rendezvous with M. de Langle, in cafe of our 
feparation. I had before appointed the ports of Los 
Remedies and Nootka : it was now agreed that wp 
ihould only touch at Monterey, which we preferred, 
1)ecaufe, being the mofl diflant, we flipuld have more 
wood and water to replace. - • 

■". Our 



17 86. J ROUNIJ THE WORLD. ï7l 

Our misfbrtiincs at Pori des Français demanded 
fomc changes among our officers. I therefore gave 
M. Darbaud, a garde de la marine, and an extremely 
well informed man, orders to a<5l as enfeigne ; and to 
M. Broudou, a young volunteer, who had continually 
given me proofs of intelligence and afïiduity lînce 
our departure from France, a commilîion o( lieutenant 
de frégate. » 

I recommended to the officers and pafTengers to 
fell our furs in China, only for the profit of the 
failors ; and this propofal being acceded to unani- 
moufly and with enthufiafm, I gave M. Dufrefne an 
order to a6l as their fupercargo, a commiffion which 
he executed with a ikill and affiduity I cannot too 
highly extol. He had charge of the purchaie, pack- 
ing, aborting, and faleof the various fpeciesof furs ; 
and as I am certain there was not a fingle fkin pri- 
vately difpofed of, this arrangement gave us an op- 
portunity to know with precifion their price in China, 
which might have varied had there been a competi- 
tion of fellers. This alfo encreafed the profit of 
the failors, who were thus convinced their interefls 
and their health never ceafcd to be the principal ob- 
jeéls of our attention. 

The commencement of our new expedition was 
far from being fortunate or fatisfa^lory to my impa- 
tient expeélations. We only made fix leagues in the 
firft 48 hours, with light airs, which during that in- 
terval varied from north to eafl, and to fouth, with 
fbggy, cloudy weather. We were ftill three or four 
leagues from (bore, and within fight of low lands. 
We only perceived the mountains by intervals, lb 
as to connect our bearings, and lay down with ac- 
curacy the diredlion of the coaft. The latitudes 
and longitudes of the moll remarkable points we 
determined by very good obfervations. I was ex- 
tremely defirous the wind fhould permit me rapid- 
ly to explore this coaft as far as Cape Edgecombe 



> -* h"* "i -■' rïf-ii * I 



■N1 



r-îiO. 



or 



172 LA pérouse's voyage [1786, 

or Engiinno, as it bad already been Teen by Cpp- 
lain Cook, though he paffed it at a confiderablo 
diAance ; but his oblervations are fo exac^, that he 
«rould only have committed cn-prs infinitely minute, 
and I was convinced, that being equally limited in 
point of time with thpt celebrated navigator, I could 
not pay more attention than him to mirjutiae, which 
muft be the object of a feparate expedition, and 
would have employed us during fcveral feafons. I 
felt the greatell impatience to arrive in 55°, ^nd to 
kave a little time to devote to this furvey, as far as 
î*4ootka, from which a gale of wind had driven Capt. 
Cook 6o or 80 leagues. It was in this part of Ame- 
rica, according to M. Guignes, that fome Chinefe 
muft have landed, and it is in the fame latitude that 
Admiral Fuentps found the mouth of the AichipclagQ 
of St. Lazarus, 'i'':<fl} ! j 

I was very far from believing the conje<^ure pf M. 
«le Gpignes, pr the narrative of the Spaniih admiral, 
whofe very exiftence I conteft ; but ftruck with the 
obfervation I have already rnadq, that all the iflands 
and countries defcribed in the ancient Spanitb narra r 
tives, though very ill determined both in latitude and 
longitude, have been again difcovcrcd in thefe days, 
I was inclined to imagine fome ancient naviga. 
tor of that laborious nation had difcoyered a bight, 
whofc entrance might be in this part of the coaft ; 
and that this faél alone h;id formed the bafis pf the 
ridiculous romance of Fuentçs apd Bernarda, I had 
no intention however of entering this chanpel, ihould 
I flill in with it. The feafon was too far advanced, 
and I could not have liicrificed to this refcçirch the 
whole plan of my voyage, but in the hopes of arriv- 
ing in the caftern ocean, by travelling the continent 
of An. erica ; and being certain fince the voyage of 
Hearn that this paHage is a mere chimera*, 1 was 

•La Peroufe, too acurate himfelf to fufpcA the narrative of 
Hearn to be a political impofition, here adopts an opinion, of which 
bereafter I ftiall maintain direftly the reverie. §ee notes on pages i 
and 107. " F reijeb EJitsr^ 



■Â: 



1786.] ROUND THE WORLD," 173 

fully rcfolved only to determine the breadth of the 
channel, and its depth as far as 25 or 30 leagues, 
flccording to the leifure I might hnve, leaving it to 
nations who, like the Spaniards, the Englifh and the 
Americans, have pofîèmons on that continent, to ex- 
plore it more accurately, and which could be of no 
ufe to navigation in general, the fole obje<it of our 
voyage. 

The fog, the rain, and the calms did not ceafé 
till the 4th at noon, when we obferved in 57° 45' 
N. lat. at three leagues from land, which wc only 
perceived indiltinélly, on account of the fog. It 
difperfed at four, and we clearly diftinguifhed th$ 
entrance of Croft Sound, appearing to form two 
very deep bays, where it is probable fhips might find 
very good anchorage. 

It is at this found the high mountains covered 
with fnow terminate. Their fummits are from 13 to 
1400 toifcs high. The lands that form the coaft 
to the S. E. of Crofs Sound, though 8 or 900 toiles 
high, are covered with trees to the top, and th« 
chain of primary mountains feemed to go very far 
into the interior of that continent. At fun-fct I had 
the weflernmoll point of Crofs Sound bearing N. 25* 
W., diftant about five leagues : Cape Fair Weather 
then bore N. 50° W. and Mount Crillon N. 45° W. 
This mountain, which is almoll as high as Mount 
Fair Weather, is to the northward of Crofs Sound, 
as Mount Fair Weather is to the northward of the 
bay des Français. Thcfe points ferve as land-marks to 
the harbour they furround, and it would be very eafy 
to miflake the one for the other in coming from the 
fouthward, as their latitude did not ditîcr 15 mi- 
nutes. Mount Fair Weather is alfo accompanied 
with two left elevated mountains, and Mount Crillon, 
which is more ifolated, inclines its point to the fouth- 
ward* I continued to range along the coaft at a dif- 
tance of three leagues, the mountains being con- 

ftantly 



>:. ■,•! 






: 1! 



9 

174 tA PKKOUBE*» VOYAOK [iJ^SÔ. 

ilantly covered with fog. We only perceived the 
low lands at intervals, and endeavoured to diftinguifh 
the Aimmits, IcfLwe (hould break, the conneiSlion of 
our bearings. 

Our progrcfs was very flow, advancing only lo 
leagues in 24 hours. At day-break I faw a cape to 
the fouthward of Crofs Sound, which I called Cape 
Crqfs*, bearing north 29** weft. We were then abreaft 
of an infinity of fmall low iflands very thickly wood- 
ed. The high hills appeared in the fécond range, 
and we no longer perceived the mountains that were 
covered with fnow. I approached thefe iflands near 
enough to fee the breakers on their coafts from the 
deck, and I diftinguifhcd fevcral channels between 
them, that muft have formed good roads. It is this 
part of the coaft, Capt. Cook has called the Bay of 
JJlands, At funfet we had the mouth of port de Los 
Remedios bearing Ë. 2^ S., that of Guadaloupe Bay 
E. 1\^ S., and Cape Enganno E, 33° S. : but all 
thefe points and capes were very indiilinél, owing to 
the fog which envclloped their fummits. 

From Crofs Sound to Cape Enganno, an extent of 
coaft of 25 leagues, I am perfuaded there are twenty 
different harbours, and that three months Would 
fcarcely fuffice to explore this labyrinth of navigation. 
I confined myfelf to the plan I had formed at my 
departure from Port des Français, to afcertain with 
precifion the beginning and the end of this clufter of 
lilaiids, with their direélion along the coaft, and the 
entrance of the principal bays. 

On the 6th the Iky being clearer, we were able 
to take the fun's altitude, and compare the true 
time with that of our time-keepers. Our latitude 



* Capt. Cook alfo called it Cape Crofs, but fixes its latitude in 
57deg. 57inin. This difference remit arife from the outline of 
the coaft> which here prefents feveral capes : and Cook has doubt- 
lefs determined the pofition of that, which on the chart appear» 
moil to the {outhward.-^F7gm& Editor. 

was 



1786.] HOUN» THE WORLD. 17.'» 

was 57** 18^40", and our longitude, according to the 
laft rate of our tinic-kccpcrs, us obfcrvcclupon the IJlî 
du Cénotaphe^ 138" 49' 30". I have already men- 
tioned the great pcrfcj'ilion of M. Bcrthoud s tinîc- 
kcepers : their lofa upon the mean daily motion of 
the fun is fo trifling and fo uniform, that we have 
reafon to believe, that artift has attained the greatcft 
degree of perfcélion of which they arc fufccptible. 

The fit h was a tolerably clear day, and our bear- 
ings were taken with as much facility as we could 
délire. At feven in the evening we ilill perceived 
Mount Crillon bearing N. Q(P W. Moimt St. Hya- 
cinth N. 78" E. and Cape Enganno ♦ E. 10« S. which 
laft is a low land covered with trees, and ftretching 
far out to fea. Mount St. Hyacinth reds upon it, 
and forms the fruftum of a cone, but rounded off at 
top, and is at leaft two toifes high. 

On the morning of the fcventh we faw the oppofite 
fide of Cape Enganno to that we had coalled the pre- 
ceding evening. Mount St. Hyacinth waspcrfe^ly 
diftinguifhable, and we difcovercd to the eaûward of it 
an cxtenfive bay, whofc depth was concealed by the 
fog. But it is fo open to the S. and S. E. winds, which 
are the moft dangerous, that navigators ought to dread 
anchoring theref . Its fhores are covered with trees, and 
of an equal height with tbofc to thcfouthwardofCrof» 
Sound. A little fnow covers the fumraits of the hills, 
which are fo pointed and fo numerous, that the fmall- 
eft change of fituation entirely alters their appearance. 
Thefe hills are (bme leagues within the land, and feem 
to be a third range of mountains. Smaller hills lie 

* Mount St. Hyacinth and Cape Enganno are the Spanifti names 
for Mount and Cape Edgecombe of Capt. Cook. — French Editor. 

' t Dixon anchored there to trade for furs; and gave it the name of 
Norfolk Sound. Its lat. was 53» 3' N. and its long. 138" 16 W. 
from the meridian of Paris. He anchored in 8 fathoms water over 
a fandy bottom, at three quarters of a mile from the fliore Cook 
perceived the mouth of this creek on ihi fécond of May 1778, but 
did not anchor there. — French Edlt.r. 

againft 



; 






Hil 

Ir ' 
II. ' 


1 


k 


■111 . 


1 i 


Ji \ 




1 




li 


I- ' 



I 



\ 



176 tA PEROÙSE*S VOYAG* [1780, 

againfl their fides, and are connected with a low and 
undulating bafe, extending as far as the fea. Iflands, 
refembling thofe already défcribed, lie before this 
undulating ihore ; but in the chart we have only 
laid down with precifion the moll remarkable : the 
others are fcattered about, merely to fhew they are 
extremely numerous ; for to the northward and 
fouthward of CapeEnganno the coaft is bordered with 
iflands for the fpacc of 10 leagues. We had palîèd 
all thefe by ten in the morning, when the fmall hills 
appeared clear of them, fo that we could di(lingui(h 
the windings of the (hore. At fix in the evening 
we faw to the N. E., a cape that ftretched far out to 
the weftward, forming with Cape Enganno the S. E* 
point of the great bight, a third of which I have al- 
ready defcribed to be crowded with, fmall iflands* 
From the extremity of thefe iflands to the new cape 
we faw two large bays f, which appeared to ftretch 
very far in land. To this cape I gave the name of Cape 
Tfchirikow^ in honour of the celebrated Ruffian na- 
vigator, who landed on this part of America in 
1741. Behind it we found to the eaft ward a large 
bay which I alfo named Tfchirikow bay. At feven in 
tlie evening I faw a clufter of five iflands f , feparated 
from the continent by a channel four or five leagues 
wide, which neither Capt. Cook nor the pilot Mau- 

♦ Thefe two bays, which La Péroufe named Ar. Necier^ and Port 
Guiierft «re fo near together, that it is impoflible to afcertain in 
which of them Dixon anchored. But that navigator having failed 
along the (hore, to the rieht and left of his anchoring place, which 
he called Port Banks, onfy found bays much fmaller than that he 
entered, and thofe totally uninhabited. 

The latitude of Port Banks is 56° 35', its W. long, from Paris 
137020'. — frencit Editor. 

■\ Dixon has diilinguifiied thefe five iflands by the name of Fo^gy 
JJlands. La Péroufe has placed them in 55° 50' N. lat. and 1 37° 1 1' 
W. long. Dixon in 55° 50' N. lat. and 137* o' 45", reduced to the 
meridian of Paris. 1 deem it unneceflary to detail the r'^afons, why 
the place afligned them by La Péroufe ought on every account to be 
prerrned,— F/rwiJ» Editor, 

. ' ' rcllo 



1786.] ROimD THE WORLD. 177 

Tcllo have noticed. T named thçm IJles de la Croyhey 
from the celebrated French Geographer, Delifle de la 
Croyère, who accompanied Capt.Tfchirikowj and who 
died during thac voyage. As night,was coming on I 
fhaped a courfe to pafs outfide of them. The wefter-^ 
ly breeze continued in our favour throughout the 
eighth, when, by obfervation, we were in 55" 39'' 31'' 
N. lat. and 137** 5' 23" W. long, according to our 
time-keepers. We perceived feveral great openings 
between conliderable iflands, which prefentcd them- 
felves to us in various points of view, the continent 
being fo far from us, that we no longer perceived it. 
This new Archipelago, which is very different from 
the preceding, commences four leagues to the S. É. 
of Cape Tfchirikow, and apparently extends as far as 
Cape He6lor. The currents in tne vicinity of thefe 
iflands were very ftrong, and we felt their influence, 
though at a diftance of three leagues. Port Bucarelli 
of the Spanifh pilot Maurello is in this part. I could 
not underftand either his chart or the difcourfe in^ 
tended to elucidate it : but his volcanos, and his Pott 
Bucarelli are (ituated in iflands 40 leagues perhaps 
from the continent. I confefs I fliould not be much 
furprifed, if from Crofs Sound we had only coafted 
along iflands * : for the appearance ï)f the coaft was 
very different from that further to the northward, and 
I faw the high chain of Mount Crillon extending tO' 
the eaflward as far as I could diftinguifli. 

On the morning of the ninth, continuing to fail a- 
Jong the coaft at a diftance of three leagues, I faw the 
ifles of San Carlos, the principal of which lies S. Ë. 



m 



;■;;• Jifl 






itii 



4t 



* Dfxon is of the fame opinion, which appears to be confirmed 
by every probability,—" fo that we were near the middle of the 
* ifliind towardi the northward and eaftward. In this fituation we 

faw high land to the N. W. near 30 leagues diftant, and which 
" evidently was the fame we had feen on the firft of July. This cir- 
^ cumftance clearly pioved the land we had been coafting along 
•• for near a month, to bei» group of iflands." Dixon's Foyage, p. 
at;. — French EdUor. 

Vol.. L N ' and 



178 LA pérouse's voyage [1786. 

and N. W., and may be two leagues in circumfer- 
ence. A long chain connects it with other little 
illands, which are very low, and ftretch far out into the 
channel. I am perfuaded however, there is a channel 
of confiderable width *, though I was not fufRciently 
certain to attempt it, particularly, as 1 muft have en- 
tered it before the wind, and in cafe my conje6lure 
was ill founded, it would have been extremely diffi, 
cult to have weathered the iflands of San Carlos, 
while I (hould lofe that time which was extremely 
precious. I therefore ranged along that fartheft 
from the continerit, at the diftance of half a league, 
and as I had , its S. E. point bearing E. and W. at 
the fame diftance at noon, we afcertained its place 
with the greatefl; precifion, being 54° 48' N. lat. 
and 136° ig^W.Iong. 

Having now a flrong breeze from the W. N. W. 
with foggy weather, I ftood in under a crowd of fail 
for the land, which became covered with fog as we 
approached. At half pafl: feven in the evening we 
were fcarcely a league dift:ant, and yet I could with 
difficulty diftinguifh it, though I perceived the breakers 
from the deck. I had then a large cape bearing E. N. 
E. by the compafs ; but feeing nothing beyond it, 
we could not poffibly determine the direélion of this 
land. I therefore refolved to put about, and wait 
for clearer weather. The fog, however, never dif- 
perfed but for a fingle moment. 

On the 10th of Auguft towards noon, we were in 
54° 20' N, lat. by obfervation, and 135° 20' 45" W. 
long, by our time-keepers. I had ftretched in for the 
land at four in the morning, and perceived it during 
this clear interval at a league and half diftance to the 
S. E. ; when it refembled an ifland. But the glean] 
was fo tranfient, and fo limited in extent, that it was 

f This channel fcems to be real. Dixon alfo faw it, and made 
ufe of it to delineate^ though partly by guefs, the lirait to which he 
}ia? given hi» own name,— /)fWi^ Editor. 
', t , ^ ijupofliblc 



1786.J ROUND THE world/ 179 

impoffible to diftinguifh any thing. We had not 
even fufpedled land in that point of the compafs ; 
which increafed our uncertainty concerning the di- 
rection of the coail. We had in the night crofîèd 
the moft rapid currents I had ever experienced in the 
open fea ; butas we found no difference between our 
obfervaiions and reckoning, it is probable they were 
occafioned by the tide, and therefore counteraéted 
each other. 

In the night between the 10th and 1 1th, the wea- 
ther became very bad : the fog thickened, it was 
very frefli, and I tacked to the offing. At day- 
break we flood in again for the land, and got fo 
clofe in (hore as to recognize, at one o'clock, the 
fame point we had feen the preceding evening, ex- 
tending from N. N. E. to S. E. by S. ; and thereby 
connected almoft all our bearings, except an inter- 
val of 8 or 9 leagues, where we did not fee land, 
whether owing to the fog, or fome deep bay or other 
opening : br; ^ ^ould rather fuppofe the latter, from 
the violenc: he currents. Had the atmofphere 

been clearer, no doubt would have been left on this 
fubjecSt, for we got within a league of the Ihore, and 
diftinélly perceived the breakers. The coafl trends 
much more to the S. E. than I (hould have imagined 
frorn the chart of the Spanifti pilot, which cannot be at 
all relied on. We obferved at noon in 54° g^ 20" N. 
bt. and I continued to range the coaft, at a league 
diftance, till four in the afternoon, when the fog was 
fo thick, that we could not diftinguifh the Aftrolabe, 
though within hail. I therefore flood out to the fea. 
We had no clear interval on the 12th, and I got 
ten leagues from the land in confequence of my 
uncertainty refpeéling its dire6lion. On the 13th 
and 14th the weather was foggy and almofl: calm; 
but I took advantage of fome light breezes, to near 
the coaft, from which wc were ftill Ave leagues dif- 
tant at fix in the evening. • •. ..w 

N2 Since 






m 



if il 



ISO L> PB»OU9B*8 V0YA9E [l789. 

*j Since we pafîèd the iflands of San Carlos we could 
not llrikc ground, even at a league from the land, 
with a line of 120 fathoms. 

On the morning of the 15th we got within two 
leagues of the coaft, which in fome parts was fkirted 
by breakers, extending a conlidcrable diflance towards 
the offing. The wind was eafterly, and we faw a 
fpacious bay. Our horizon was very exteniive, the* 
the fky was overcaft, and we diftingui(hed 18 or 20 
leagues of coaft on each fide, extending from N. N. 
E. to S. S. W. and feeming to run S. S. E. and N. 
K. W. much more to the fouthward than I had ima- 
gined. 

At eight in the morning I was obliged to fland out 
to fea, on account of a thick fog that enveloped us, 
and which continued till the l6th at ten o'clock, 
when we had a very confafed view to the N. E. but 
the fog foon obliged us to regain the offing. The 
whole of the 17 th was calm, the mift at length dif- 
perfed, and I faw the coaft at eight leagues diftance. 
Though there was not wind enough to near it, we 
took excellent lunar obfervations, for the fiïû time 
iince our departure from Port des Fra?tçais. Our 
latitude was 53^ 1 2' 40" north, and longitude, by our 
time-keepers 136° 52' 57'^, and the mean refult of 
the diftances of the fun and moon gave 137° 27^ 58" 
or as'' 1^^ more to the weftward : and that of the 
Aftrolabe 1 5 minutes lefs. The breeze having frelh- 
ened from the W. N. W„ and the weather continu- 
ing clear, I approached the knd> and on the 18th at 
noon was only a league and a half diflant. Preferving 
that diftance, I ranged along the coaft, and faw a 
bay ftretching fo far in Iqnd, that I could not per- 
ceive its (bores. I called it £a Touche Bay. Its 
N. lat. is 52° 3g^, and its long. 134° 4^ weft, and I 
doubt not it affords very good anchorage. 

A league and a half further to the eallward, we faw 

a bight, where fhips might poiiibly find ^ fhchcr 

ti^--c ■ -■ • equally 



••♦ 



1786.] îlôUtîtt tHÊ WORLD» 181 

equally fecure ; but it appeared much inferior to La 
Touche Bay. From 55 to 53° the fea was covered 
with the fpecies of diver, called by Buffbn macareux 
de Kamtjchatha. Its body is black, its beak and feet 
red, and two white ftreaks rife like a tuft upon its 
head, (imilar to thofe of the catakoua. We faw fome 
of thefe birds to the fouth ward, but more rarely, and 
thole appeared mere birds of pafliige. Thefe birds 
never go above five or fix leagues out to fea, and 
therefore, when navigators meet with them in foggy 
weather, they may almoft certainly infer the vicinity 
of land. We killed two, which were fi:uffcd. This 
bird was unknown previous to the voyage of Behring.* 
On the IQth at night we faw a cape, apparently 
terminating the coafl: of America. The horizon was 
very clear, and we only perceived four or five fmall 
iflands near it, which I named IJlots Kerouart, and 
the point Cape Heélor.f Wc were becalmed during 
the whole night at three or four leagues from the land, 
which a light breeze enabled me to approach at day- 
break. I was then convinced the coaft we had fol- 
lowed for 200 leagues terminated here, forming in all 
probability the entrance of a very extenfive gulf, or 
channel, for I perceived no land to the caftward, 
though the weather was very clear. I therefore di- 
reded my courfe to the northward to dilcover the 
oppofite fide of the land I had coafi^ed to the eafi;ward. 
I ranged along the Kerouart Iflands and Cape He6lor, 
at a league dillance, and crofled fome very ftrong cur- 
rents, which even obliged me to bear away and fi^and 
off from the coaft. The pofition of Cape He61or, 
which forms the entrance of this new channel, ap- 



'ki P 






* Capt. Cook alfo met with this fpecies on the coaft of Alalka. 
French Editer. 

t This is the Cape St. James of Dixon, of which the north la- 
titude is according to La Péroufe Çideg. 57 min. 20 fee. W. long. 
i33deg. 37 min.; according to Dixon N.iat. 51 deg. 46 min. W. 
long, reduced to the meridian of Paris 1 3 2 deg. 20 min.— /> . Editor* 

' N 3 peared 



182 LA perouse's voyage [I78(>. 

peared to me very important to determine. Its N. 
lat. is 5 1" 57' 20" and its W. long, by our time-keep- 
ers 133° 37^. Night coming on, prevented my get- 
ting further to the northward, and I therefore fpent it 
in making fhort boards. At day-break I fleered the 
fame courfe as the preceding evening, and the weather 
being clear, faw the oppofite coaft of La Touche Bay, 
which I named C//^ Buache ; and above 20 leagues of 
the eaft coaft, along which I had ranged on the pre- 
ceding days. Recolle6ling the outline of the land from 
Crofs Sound, I was much inclined to think this bight 
refembled the fea of California, and extended to the 
57th degree of N. lat. : but neither the feafon, nor my 
other objeéls admitted of my determining this point. 
I refolved, however, to afccrtain the breadth eaft and 
weft of this channel, or gulph, whichever it be called, 
iliaping my courfe to the N. E. On the 2lft at noon, 
Ï was by obfervation in 52° V N. lat. and 133° f 3l" 
W. long, Cape Hcdlor bearing S. E. diftant 10 or 12 
leagues ; but we could not ftrike ground without our 
longeft line. The wind foon (hifted to the S, E. and a 
thick fog fucceeded the clear flcy, which had that morn- 
ing permitted us to difcover land 18 or 20 leagues dif- 
tant. It now blew very ftrong, and it became impru- 
dent longer to continue my courfe to the N. N. E. I 
therefore hauled clofe to the wincj, and ftood off and 
On during the night, under clofe-reefed topfails. At 
day-break the wind having moderated, though the ho- 
rizon was equally hazy, I ftood in again for the land, 
which appeared at noon through the fog, our latitude 
by account being then 52° 22': the coaft extended 
from N. by E. to E. by N. our depth of water being 
100 fathoms over a rocky bottom. After a clear inter- 
val of fhort duration the fog returned, and bad weather 
appeared to be coming on. I therefore ftood out to the 
ofiing, after having fortunately taken very good bear- 
ings, and afcertained the width of the channel, or 
gulph, from eaft to weft ; which was about 30 leagues 
, , , , . between 



î786.] kOUND THE WORLD. ' 183 

between Cape He(^or and Cape Fleurieu *, giving it- 
the fame name as to the ifland lying moft to the S. E* 
of the new clufter i had difcovered on the eaflern coaft 
of this channel. It was behind this clufter of iflands I 
perceived the continent, where the primary mountains, 
deftitute of trees, and covered with fnovv, appeared 
at various diftances, and having peaks which appear- 
ed to be above 30 leagues inland. Yet we had only 
feen little hills fince we palïèd Crofs Sound, and my 
conjcdlures concerning a bight of fix or feven de- 
grees to the northward became ftill more probable. 
The feafon precluded my further lucidating this 
opinion, it being already the end of Auguft, the fogs 
almoft uninterrupted, and the days (liortened. But 
a much more important confideration, the danger of 
milîing the monfoon of China, induced me to aban- 
don this refearch, to which we muft have facrificed at 
leaft fix weeks, on account of the precautions necef- 
fary in this kind of navigation, which ought only to be 
undertaken in the longcft and fineft days of the year, 
A whole feafon would fcarcely fuffice for fuch an ex- 
pedition, which ought to be the obje6l of a feparatc 
voyage. Ours was infinitely more comprehenfivci 
and therefore its defign was accompliflied by an exa6l 
determination of the width of the channel, which w6 
ran up about 30 leagues to thù northward. We alfo 
ttfcertained the latitudes and longitudes of the Capes, 
which form its entrance, with a precifion entitled to 
equal confidence with thofe of the moft remarkable 
capes of the coafts of Europe. I perceived with cha- 
grin, that during 23 days fince we departed from Bate 
des Français, we had made very little way ; and we 
had not a moment to lofe before our arrival at Mon- 
terey. The reader will eafily perceive, that during 

* Dixon calls it Cape Cos. Its N. lat. according to La Péroufe, 
is 51 deg. 45 rain. W. long. 131 deg. 15 min. according to Dixon, 
N. lat. 51. deg. 30 roin. VV. long, from Paris 130 deg. 32 min. — 
French Et/i.'cr. 



'm 



N4 



the 



I 

184 LA PÉROUSE*^S VOYAGE [\7S6. 

the whole courfe of this expedition, my imagination 
and ideas wore extended 2 or 300Q leagues from my 
Ihip, becaufe my courfe lay through the region of the 
inonfoons, or was fubjeift to the influence of feafons, 
in all the parts of either hcmifphere we were deftin- 
ed to explore : being obliged to navigate in high la- 
titudes, and to traverfe between, New Holland and 
New Guinea, ftraits apparently fubjedl to the fame 
monfoons, as thofe of the Moluccas or the iflands of 
that fea. 

The fog was very thick during the night, and I 
fteered S. S. W, At day-break we had an interval 
of very clear weather, which, however, was of fhort 
duration. At 11 o'clock the atmofphere became 
quite clear. We then had Cape Fleurieu bearing 
N. E. by N., and took excellent obfervations. Our 
N. lat. was 51° 47' 54", and our W. long. 132" 
Q'' 50" by our time -keepers. We were becalmed 
the whole day, but the wind changed to the N. W. 
after fun-fet, with a very hazy horizon, before which 
I had fet Cape Fleurieu bearing N. by E., its latitude 
and longitude as determined by M. Dagelet being 
51** 45', and 131° O' 15". 

I have already faid this Cape forms the point of a 
very high ifland, behind which I then no longer per- 
ceived the continent. It was concealed by the fog,, 
which became Hill thicker during the night : and I 
often loft light even of the Aftrolabe, though within, 
hearing of her bell.. 

At day-break the fky was clear, and Cape Fleurieu 
bore N. W. 18° W. diftant 1,8 leagues. The con- 
tinent -extended to the caftward^ and the horizon, 
though rather hazy, admitted of my perceiving it at 
adiftance of 20 leagues. I flood' to the eaftvvard in. 
order to approach it, but the coaft wiis prefently ob- 
fcured again, though a clear fpace to the S. S. E. allow- 
ed me to difcover a cape in that point of the compafs. 

I now changed my courfe, to avoid being embayed, 

■:, - by 






1786. 1 ROUND THR WORLD. 185 

by running to the eaftward, before the wind, to a 
gulph from which I (hould find it difficult to get out^ 
But I foon perceived this land to the S. S. E., toward» 
which I was ftcering, confided of feveral cluftcrs of 
iflands, extending from the continent to the illands 
in the offing, and on which I did not perceive a fingle 
{hrub. I pafled within a mile of them, and favv gra(» 
and drift wood upon the fliore. The latitude and lon- 
gitude of the wefternmoft of them was 50° 56', and 
131° 38^ I named thefe various clufters, IJles Sar- 
tine* Probably a paflage might be found between 
them ; but it would be imprudent to attempt it with- 
out much precaution. After weathering them, I 
flood in for the continent, Iteering E. S. E. It ex- 
tended from N. N. E. to S. E. by E., and the horizon 
was fomewhat hazy, though confiderably extcnfivc j 
and if we could not perceive the fummits of the 
mountains, we perfe<i\Iy diftinguiflied the low lands. 
I flood off and on all night, to avoid paffing the 
woody point of Captain Cook, which that navigator 
laid down, forming a continuation of the coaft from. 
Mount St. Elias to Nootka, and whicli, by affijrding 
me an opportunity of comparing our longitudes with 
his, baniihed every doubt that might have remained 
concerning the accuracy of our obfci-vations. At day- 
break I flood in for the land^ and pafled at the dif- 
tance of a league and half of the woody point, which, 
at noon, bore N. by W., diftant about three leagues. 
Its lat. is precifely 50° 4^ N.,and its long. 1 30° 2b\ W. 
Captain Cook, who did- not approach lb near this 
point, and only determined its place by bearings,; 
lays it down in his chart ift 50°, and 130° 1& (me- 
ridian of Paris) that is four miles more to the fouth- 
ward, and five miles more to the eaflward. But 
our obfervations deferve more confidence, becaufe 

* The iflands of Beresford of Captain Dixon, who lays them 
down in 50 deg.cs min. N. lat., and 13a deg. 3 min. VV. long, from 
the meridian of rai ii. — French Editor. - ■ 

we 



i' 



mm in 






rm , 



185 LA pIrouse's voyage | 178^. 

wc were much nearer to the land, and our reckoning 
was lefs fubjcél to error with regard to the diftanccw 
I may here be allowed to remark the aftonifliing pre- 
cifion of the new method, which will, in lels than a 
century, aicertain the true place of every fpot of the 
earth, and contribute more to the advancement of 
geography, than the united labours of every preced- 
ing age. 

On the 25th I continued to run to the eaflward to- 
wards the entrance of Nootka, which I was defirous 
to make before night, although it could not be very 
important, after having precifcly determined the pofi- 
tion of the woody point. A very thick fog, which 
arofc at iive in the evening, entirely concealed the 
land, and I direded my courfe towards Breaker's 
Point, 15 leagues to the fouthward of Nootka, in 
order to furvey the coaft between Cape P'lattery and 
that point, a fpace of about 30 leagues, which Capt. 
Cook had no opportunity to explore. 

On the 26th the weather was very foggy, and the 
wind ihifted between N. E. and S. E. by fudden 
fqualls : the barometer fell, but there was no wind. 
Thus we were becalmed, and had not age-way till 
the 28th. I had taken advantage, however, of 
feme, light breezes to get off the coall, which I 
imagined to trend to the S. E. We were now fur- 
rounded by fmall land birds, that rcfted on our rig- 
ging, and fevcral of which we took ; but their fpecics 
are fo commorTin Europe, as not to merit defcrip- 
tion. At length on the 28th, at five in the evening, 
we had a clear interval, when we recognized and 
fet Cook*s Breaker's Point, which bore north, the 
Lnd ftretching from thence to the N. E., and, 
although the clear interval was of lliort duration, it 
afforded us an opportunity of taking good bearings. 

The atmofphore was equally obfcure on the 29th 
of Auguft ; but the barometer rofe, and I flood in 
for the land, hoping for clear weather before night. 



1786.] ROUND THE WOULD. ' itf 

and founding every half hour. We pafîcd from 70 
fathoms water, with a fandy bottom, to one of round 
Hints and 4o fathoms ; and (landing on, after a league 
fell again into 75 fathoms water, with a bottom of 
muddy fand. It wîls evident we had palled over a 
bank, though it is not very caly to explain, how a 
mountain of round flints lôO feet high, and a league 
in extent, fhould be placed on a flat bed of fand eight 
leagues in the offing. We know thefe flints become 
round only by continual friction, and this accumula- 
tion at the bottom of the fca, fuppofes a current fimi- 
lar to that of a river. 

At length my hopes of the fog difperfingat fun-fet 
were realized, and \vc took a furvey of the land from 
E. N. E. to N. \V. by N., a furvey which exactly- 
united with that of the preceding evening. We wrrr. 
at noon in 48° 37^ by oblervation, and our longi- 
tude 128° 21' 4'l" by our time-keepers. The laft 
point we had fecu ben ring S. E. could not be above 
fix or feven leagues tVom Cape Flattery, which I was 
very delirous to uiake, had not the fog been too thick. 

On the 30th the fca became very heavy, and the 
wind variable between S. and S. W., when 1 Hood 
out to fea. Having an horizon of Icfs than half , a 
league, I fl^eered a courfe parallel to the coafr, in 
order fpeedily to arrive in 47°, and explore it as far 
as 45°, that interval forming a hiatus in Ciiptain 
Cook's chart. 

On the 111: September, I got fight, at noon, of a 
point or ea{)e, bearing N. N. E. diflant about 10 
leagues, and precifely in 47° by our bearings. The 
eoaft trended to the eafuvard, and I approached within 
three or four leagues of it : but its outline was indif- 
tinét, and all its windings obleured in fog. Our Int. 
obferved at noon, was 46° 36^ 2 1" N., our long. 127° 
2' 5" W. by our time-keepers, and 12(3° 33^ by lunar 
obfervations. The currents on this eoaft are uncom- 
monly violent. We were in a vortex that did not. 
- -, . , . ' permit 



188 LA pinOUSE's VOYAGE [l7Ô(J. 

permit the fhip to fleer, tliough with a wiiul thut 
would have carried us three miles, an hour, and ut 
a diilance of five leagues from land. 

I ranged along the coaft during the night under 
enfy fail, and fleering to the fouthward. At d.jy- 
break I flood to the caflward, to near the land ; but 
we were becalmed at four leagues from the fhore, and 
ioiTcd about by the currents, which made us put 
about every moment, and kept us in continual fear of 
running foul of the Aftrolabe, who was in no better 
iituation. Fortunately we had a good muddy bot- 
tom to anchor upon, had the currents fet us in fhorc ; 
but the fea was very heavy, and our cables would, 
with difficulty, have relifted the pitching of the fliip. 
Cape Rcdondo of the Spaniards bore E. 5° S , and 
the land ftrctchcd from thence to the S. Our lati- 
tude at noon was 45° 55' N., and our longitude 126*^ 
47' 35" W. by our time-keepers, and 120*^ 22' by 
lunar obfcrvations. The weather had at laft admitted 
of thcfc obfcrvations the preceding evening, which 
was but the fécond opportunity finee our departure 
from Fori des Français. They differed from our 
tim'fc-kecjjers only 25' 35". This calm day was one 
of the moft uncafy we had pafled finee our departure 
from France. We had not a breath of wind during 
the night, but founded every half hour, in order to 
drop anchor, notvvithftanding the heavy fea, in cafe 
we were drifted towards the 'land; but we always 
found 80 fathoms water over a muddy bottom. 

At day-break we were at the fame diftance from the 
fliore as the preceding evening, and we obferved, ar« 
on the day before, in 45° 55' ; our bearings were 
nearly the fame, and being driven to and fro by cur- 
rents, which counteraéled each other, we feemed to 
■ have been turning, as it were, upon a pivot, during 
24 hours. 

At length, at three o'clock, a light breeze fprung 
up from the N. N. W. by tlie aid of which we were 
\:- "- : • . -. , • able 



1780] ROUND THF. WORLD. I89 

able to gain an offing, and get out of the cuircnts, in 
which we had been engaged during two days. This 
breeze carried before it a body of rnirt, in which wc 
were enveloped, and which made us lofe fight of {he 
laud. We had now fcarcely more than five or fix 
leagues of coaft to plow as far as lat. 45*^, where Cap- 
tain Cook's obfervations recommenced. The wc^i- 
iher was too favourable, and I was too much prcficd 
for time, not to take advantage of this fair wind. 
We therefore crouded fail, and (leered S. by E.*almoft 
parallel to the coaft, which lay N. and 3.' The night 
was fine, and at day break we faw land bearing N. by 
E. the Iky being clear in that quarter, though very 
foggy to the eaftward. We faw the coall, how- 
ever, to the E. N. E. and as far as E. S. E. i\t timrs, 
though only for a moment. At noon, our latitude, 
by obfervation, was 44" 41'' N., and our longitude 
126° 5(y \7" W. by our time-keepers, at about ( ighi. 
Icîigues from the coail, which we approached by ilc?r- 
ing a little more to the eallward. At fix in the evening 
our diftance off (bore was four leagues, and the land 
extended from N. E. to E. S. E. and was very micli 
covered by fog. The night was fine, and 1 ranged 
along the coaft, which we diftinguifhed by moon- 
light. The fog obfcured it at fun-rife, but it emerg- 
ed at noon, during a clear interval, extending fruni 
N. E. to S. by E. the depth of water being 75 fathoms. 
Our latitude was 42° 58^ 56", and our lovigitude, 
by the time-keepers, 127*' 5^ 20". At two o'clock 
we were a-breafl: of nine fmal! iflands, or rocks, ly- 
ing about a league off Cape Blanco, which bor. N. 
E. by E. : I named them Necker IJÎands. I continued 
to range along the land, fleering S. S. E. At three 
or four leogues diftance we only perceived the fum- 
mits of mountains above the clouds, covered v/ith 
trees, and without fnow. At night the land ftret'^hed 
as far as the S. E. but our people 'ooking out at the 
maft-hcad declared they fiu^ it iis far as the S. by E. 
Uncertain of the dircdtion of this coalt, which had 

never 



S.''!| 






wMM\ 



- N/ 



19© . I.A PÉRpUSE*S VOYAGE [l789. 

never been explored, I made eafy fail, fleering S. 
S. E. At day-break we ftill perceived the land, extend- 
ing from the N. to N. by E. I fleered S. E. by E. to 
approach it, but at fevcn in the morning a thick fog 
e"<^irely concealed it. Wc found the atmofphcre Icfs 
purt in this part of America than in high latitudcvS, 
where navigators enjoy, at leall by intervals, a view 
of every thing that is above their horizon, whereas 
here the windings of the land did not become once 
diflinélly vifible. On the 7th the fog became ftill 
thicker than the preceding day ; yet it cleared away 
towards noon, when we f-iw funimits of mountains 
to the eaftward, at a confiderable diftance. As we 
had made good a fouth courfc, it is evident that from 
4QP the coaft begins to fly otF to the eaflward. Our 
lat. was at noon, by obfcrvation, 40^ [48'' 30" N. 
and our long. \Q.QP 59' 45" W. by the time-keep- 
ers ; and I continued to ftand in for the land, from 
which I vi'as only four leagues diftant at the clofe of 
day. We then perceived a volcano, at the top of a 
mountain bearing E. the flame of which was very 
bright ; but a thick fog foon entirely concealed this 
objeél, and we were again obliged to ftretch oft^ from 
the land. As I feared, that by fleering parallel to the 
Goaft, wc might fall in with fome ifland or rock, lying 
at a diftance from the continent, I flood out to fea, for 
the fog was very thick. On the 8th, towards 10 o'clock 
in the morning, wc had a clear interval, when we 
perceive3 the fummit of the mountains, but an 
impenetrable barrier of fog concealed the low-lands 
from our view. The weather had now become very 
bad, it blew very frefh, and the barometer fell con- 
flderauly. I therefore continued running to the S, E. 
till the clofe of the day ; a courfe which, by keeping 
along the coafl, would bring us nearer to it, but we 
had loft fight of it fince noon, and the horizon was 
fo thick at dufk, that I might have been very near the 
fhore without being able to diftinguifli it. As there' 
was an appearance of a gale of wind, and fliould it 

come 



1786.1 nOUND THIÎ WORLD. IQl 

come from the W. I {hould be embayed, I refolved to 
ftand off under the fore-Hiil and main-top-fail. It foon 
blew hard, but not equal to what I cxpcéted. At day- 
break the fky was clouded, but the wind moderated, 
and I flood in to the eaftward for the land. The fog 
foon obliged me to change my eourfc, and ftccr nearly 
parallel to the eoaft, which I fuppofed to iie S. by E. 
The atmofphere was no clearer on the 10th and 1 1th, 
and the rofult of our courfes thefe two days was 
alfo S. by E. ; our horizon never extending to two 
leagues, and being very often Icfs than a mulket- 
ihot. Our latitude however was 36^ 58'' 43'' by ob- 
fervation, and our longitude, by the time-keepers, 
120^ 32'' 5". Either the currents or a bad reckon- 
ing had carried us 30 miles to the fouthv/ard, but 
we were ftill l6 miles to the northward of Monte- 
rey. T fleered E. Handing rig-ht in for the l.ind ; for 
though the atmofphere was ù)'j:gy, we had im horizon 
of two leagues. I flood oft"' and on throughout the 
night, and the fl^y was equally cloudy the next day, 
but I continued flanding in for the (hore. At noon cur 
longitude was 124*^ 52^, but I did not fee land. The 
fog returned at four in the afternoon, and I deter- 
mined to make diort boards, "'.'11 the weather be- 
came clearer. We mufl then have been very near 
the coafl, as feveral land-birds hovered around our 
(hips, and we took a gyrfalcon. The fog continued 
throughout the night, and at 10 the next morning we 
perceived the l.'md very much covered with fog, and 
very near us. It was impoffible however to diftin- 
guifh it, though I approached within a league, and 
faw the breakers very di^inétly, being in 25 fathoms 
water ; but though I was certain we were then in 
the bay of Monterey, it was impoffible to difcover the 
Spanifh fettlement in fuch foggy weather. At duflc 
I again flood out to fea, and the next day fleered 
in for the land with a thick fog, wliich did not dif- 
appear till noon. I then kept the coall clofe aboard, 
-'. and 



^■..ii 



ig2 LA PÉROUSE's VOYAGE [J7â0. 

and at three in the afternoon we got fight of tlie fort 
-of Monterey, and two three mailed (hips in the road. 
The contrary winds obliged us to anchor two leagues 
from the land, in 45 fathoms, over a muddy bottom ; 
and the next <lay we dropj)ed anchor two cables 
•length off fhore, in 12 fathoms water. The com- 
mandant of thefe two fhips, Don Eftevan Martinez, 
fent us pilots on board during the night, having been 
apprized of our cxpeéled arrival in this bay by the 
Viceroy of Mexico and the Governor of the Prefidio. 
' It is remarkable, that during this long run, though 
conftantly enveloped in the thickeft fogs, the AUro- 
lable was always within hail, till I gave her orders 
to reconnoitre the entrance of Monterey. 
i Before I conclude this chapter, which will only be 
Interefting to geographers and navigators, I think it 
neccflàry to declare my opinion on Admiral Fucntes's 
channel of St. Lazarus. I am convinced no fuch Ad- 
miral ever exifted *, and that a navigation in pie in- 
terior of Ameiica, acrofs lakes and rivers, performed in 
ib (hort a fpace of time, is io abfurd, that nothing but 
that love of fyftem, fo prejudicial to every fcience, 
would have prevented geograpers of a certain re- 
putation from rejeéling this hillory : a hiftory, total- 
ly deftitute of probability, and fabricated in Eng- 
land, at a time when the partizans and oppofers of 
the N. W. pafliige fupported this opinion, with as 
much entbuiiafm, as could at that time have fired 
the public mind in France, on queflions of theology 
ftill more ridiculous and futile. The legend of 
Admiral Fuentes refembles thofe pious frauds, which 
found reafon has fmce rejeded with contempt, and 
which cannot bear the light of inveftigatioii. But 
it may be confidered almoil certain that from Crofs 
Sound, or at leall from Poit dc Los Remcdios to 
Cape Heéior, all the navigators have only coaft- 



j^ * See note on page 107. 






cd 



i786.J ROUND THE WOftLD. 1^3 

ed the iflands fituated in 52°, and that bctweeti 
thefe and the continent is a channelj whofe breadth 
eaft and weft may be confidcrable, though I do not 
think it can exceed 50 leagues, as it is reduced to 30 
at its mouth, between Cape Fleurieu, and Cape Hen- 
tor. This channel is probably full of ifla^ ids, which 
render its navigation difficult ; and I am verfua.ded, 
that between thefe iflands are many paliages com- 
municating with the great ocean. Port de los Re- 
medios, and Port Bucarelli of the Spaniards, are at a 
grfcat diftance from the continent, and were not the 
form of taking pofleflion without eftablifliinga fettle- 
ment too ridiculous to found a title, that of Spain to 
this part of the continent might be juftly contefted. 
For it is demonft rated, that Maurello did not even fee 
that continent from 50° to 57** 20^ : and I am abfo- 
lutely certain, that to the northward of Crofs Sound, 
at Port des Français, vi^& were in America itfelf; becaufc 
the river of Behring in 59° 9'' is too confiderable to be 
met with in any land th'Jt is not of an immenfe depth. 
I was delirous to reconnoitre it by our boats, but the 
current was fo rapid at its mouth, they could not 
ftem it. Our fhips anchored at its entrance, and 
ibe water was white and frefh three or four leagues 
out at fea. Thus it is probable, that the channel be- 
tween the iflands and the continent does not run fur- 
ther to the porthward than 5^^ 30^. I know, geo- 
graphers may, with a ftroke of their pen, draw a line 
to the N. E., leaving Port des Français and Behring 
river in America, and extend their channel to the 
north and to the eaft, to the utmoft boundary of their 
imagination : but fiich a proceeding, unfupported by 
fi.Jls, is a mere abfurdity, and it is very probable, that 
on the coaft of America, which forms the eaftern fliorc 
of this channel, the mouth of fome other river, per- 
haps navigable, may be found, as it is hardly poflible 
the declivity of the land fliould {lii'e<^ them all to 
the eaftward. Behring river would itfelf form an ex- 
VoL. I. Q ception 



L- IE 



^m 






I 

I 

m 



194 LA pérouse's voyage [l786. 

ception to that rule. Nor is it probable, there (hould 
even be a bar at the mouth of thefe fuppofed rivers, 
becaufe this channel, which is not very wide, is fhel- 
tered by the iilands oppofite to it to the weftward : 
whereas bars are known to be formed by the reaélion 
of the fea on the currents of rivers *. 



* This chapter, fo iiiterefting, to navigation on the great fcale, 
fiill leaves fomething to be done for the fatisfaétion of feamen, and 
geographers, particularly the partizans of a northern paflage. 
Though myfelf of that opinion, I cannot but obferve, that had 
La Péroufe determined to reconnoitre all the bays, and all the great 
openings, which that immenfe extent of coaft, interfperfed with 
iilands, prefents, he mud have abandoned all the ulterior objeéls of 
his voyage, and have direélly difobeyed his inflruétions. 

The honour of completing the defcription of the habitable parti 
of the globe, will belong to the 19th century. The important 
queftion of a communication of the two feas to the northward of 
America, will then be decided. Let us referve a place then in the 
tablet of fame, for the immortal name of» the enterprifing naviga» 
•tor, who ftiall difcover that communication. , 

To accelerate this period, let us remove every diflieartening in- 
certitude, and let us add a few words to what we have already faid, 
in the notes of page i, 107, and 172. 

The fliip Padre Eterno, commanded by the Portuguefe Capt, 
David Meiguer, departed from Jr pan in 1660, and ran to the 
northward, nearly to the 84th degree of lat. ; from whence he fleer- 
ed between Spitzbergen and Greenland, and palling to the weft- 
ward of Scotland atid Ireland, returned to Oporto. 

The Dutch Capt. Vannout, even pretends to hive actually got 
into the South Sea by Hudfon's Straits. 

I would alfo requeft thofe, who attend to this queftion, to read 
the colleélion of obfervations on the probability of a N. W. paf- 
fage, inferied in Capt. J. Meares's Yoyagcs.-^Frmcl!/ Editor, , .,. 



UM, 



Si. 



% 



"'**« if."- 



i^^'J'itT.ln: 



iii>-ftf!j:iâ 






it tnki::y hi 



.„• ,ii>t.J 30 Ï' ^■ï .'J'lC 



'.►'^ iL} f;r;'Vi Wi^l ll^^-^y -ii^vh mixdifi . .,hit_ CHAP. 



iiCJ 



.KJ 



*? 



w 



1786.] 



ROUND THE WORLD. 



CHAP. Xi. 



1Q5 



DESCRIPTION OP MONTEREY BAY-=— HISTORICAL AC- 
COUNT OP THE TWO CALIPORNIAS, AND THE MIS- 

- SIONS THERE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OP THB 

CONVERTED, AND OP THE INDEPËNIJENT INDIANS 

GRAIN, FRUIT, AND LEGUMINOUS PLANTS OP 

EVERY KIND QUADRUPEDS, BIRDS, PISH, SHELLS, 

ETC. MILITARY CONSTITUTION OP THESE TWO 

PROVINCES PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO COM- 
MERCE, ETC. 

THE bay of Monterey, formed by New Year's Day 
Point to the northward, and Cyprefs Point to 
the fouthward, is eight leagues acrofs at its entrance 
in that dire6tion, and nearly fix in depth to the eaft- 
ward, where the lands are low and fandy. The fea 
rolls in to the very foot of the downs of fand, with 
which the coaft is ikirted, with a noife which we 
heard at above a league diftance. The lands to the 
liorthward and fouthward of this bay are elevated, 
and covered with trees. Ships intenjding to put in here, 
niufl keep the fouth (hore aboard, and after doubling 
Fir Point, which ftretches out to the northward, they 
will fee the Prefictio, and may drop anchor in ten 
fathoms watef within, and behind this point, which 
fiielters them from the fea breezes. The Spanifh 
fliips that intend making a long (lay at Monterey, 
are accu domed to approach within one or two cable's 
length of the fhore, in fix fathoips water, where they 
moor to an anchor which they bury in the fand of 
'the beach. They are then (heltered from thé fouth 
winds, which are fometimes very ftrong, though not 
dangerous, as they blow off (bore. We got foundings 
all over the bay, and anchored four leagues from 
the land in 69 fathoms water, over a bottom of foft 

O a ' mud. 



\W:^ 



IQÔ LA pinOUSE's VOYAGE [1780. 

mud. But the fea is very heavy there, and {hips can 
only remain a few hours at fuch an anchorage, while 
waiting for day light, or the clearing of a fog. At the 
full and change of the moon it is high water at half 
pall one, and the tide rifes feven feet ; as the bay is 
yery open^ its drift is almoll imperceptible : I never 
knew it more than half a knot an hour. I cannot de- 
fcribe the number or familiarity of the whales that 
furrounded us. They were continually blowing at 
the diflance of half a piftol (hot, and occalioned a very 
difagreeable fmcll in the air. This was an efFe6i un- 
known to us, but the inhabitants informed us the water 
blown by whales always had that quality, which fpread 
to a confidcrable diflance. But it would doubtlefs 
have been no new phenomenon to the lifhermcn of 
Greenland, or Nantucket. 

The coafl;s of Monterey Bay are covered by almofl 
eternal fogs, which render it difficult of approach, 
though in other refpeéls there fcarcely exifts a bay 
more cafily entered ; for there is no funken rock a 
cable's length from the beach, and if the fog is too 
thick, there is anchorage every where, till a clear in- 
terval expofc diftinélly to view the Spaniih fettle- 
ment, lituatcd in the angles formed by the fouthern 
and eaflern ihores. 

The fea is covered with pelicans, but it appears thefe 
birds never go above five or fix leagues from land ; 
fo that navigators who perceive them during a fog, 
will be certain they are within that diflance. We 
faw them for the firft time in this bay, and I have fince 
learned, that they are very common on all the coaft 
of California. They are called by the Spaniards Al- 
'catras. 

/•'^ A lieutenant colonel, who rcfides at Monterey, is 
governor of both the Californias. Though his go- 
vernment is 800 leagues in circumference, his real 
command extends but to 282 foldiers of cavalry, who 
garrifon five finall forts, afKl furnifll detachments of 

four 



. •«■'M^rtA 



»\ ^^ 



•4 



w 



1786.J BOUND THE WORLD. 107 

four or five men to each of the 25 miffions, or pa- 
rifhes, into which Old and New California are divided. 
Thefe little guards fuffice to keep in fubjeélioi^ 
about 50,000 wandering Indians *, fprcad over this 
\ai\ extent of the American continent, and of whom, 
near 10,000 have embraced Chriftianity. Thefe Indi- 
ans arc generally fmall and feeble, and afford no 
proofs of that love of independence and liberty, which 
chara6lerifes the northern nations, to whofe arts and 
induftry they are (Irangers. Their complexion very 
nearly refembles thofe negroes whofe hair is not woolly : 
that of this nation is long, and very ftrong, and they 
cut it four or five inches from the roots. Several of 
them have beards, while others, according to the Mif- 
fionaries, never had any ; though it is an undecided 
point in the country itfelf ^f-. The governor, whp 
had travelled much in the interior, and had lived with 
the favages during 1 5 years, aflured us, thofe who 
had no beard, had extracted it with bivalve (hells, 
ufed as pincers. But the prefident of the miilions,, 
who had refided in California an equal length of tifltic, 
maintained the contrary. Thus travellers are v/hplly 
unable to form a decifion, and as we cannot aflèrt 
what we have not witnefied, we muii acknowledge 
we only faw beards on one half .of the number of 
adults : fome of them having it fo thick, as to have 
made a refpeélable figure, even in Turjiey, or the 
.environs of Mofcow J. 

Thefe Indians are very adroit in the ufe of the bow, 
And killed .the fmalleft birds in our prefence. It is true, 

* They qhange their refidence very often, according to thefiihiog 
and hunting jCcafon. f'^ir i? 

+ We .have given our opinion ;«garding the beards of the Ame- 
ricajis in the preceding chapter. But writing as we proceed on our 
voyage, and as we adopt no (v'tiem, when we learn a new fa£l we re- 
Jate it without hefitation. .' V/. ' 

t The governor had travelled much more than the miffionarv, 
and his opinion would have carried mod weight, were I to decide 
the queflion. 

; O 3 ' their 



t/ , 



m 



îgd LA PÉnOtySE*S VOYAGB [l786. 

their patience in getting near their prey is incon- 
ceivable. They conceal themfelves while creeping 
up to it, and rarely pull the bow, till within fifteen 
paces. 

Their induflry in hunting is ftill more furprifing. 
We faw one of them crawling on all fours, with a 
flag's head fixed on his own, as if he were broufing 
the grafs ; and performing his part fo well, that all our 
hunters would have fired at him at a difiance of 30 
paces, had they not been apprifed of that manoeuvre. 
Thus they approach a herd of flags within reach, 
and kill them with their arrows. 

Loretto is the only prefidio of old California on the 
caflern coafl of that peninfula. Its garrifon confifts of 
54 cavalry men, and furnifhes detachments to the 15 
following miffions, of which the functions are per- 
formed by the Dominican monks, who have fucceed- 
ed the Jefuits and Francifcans. Thefe laft, however, 
remain in undifturbed pofleflSon of the ten miflions 
of New California. The 15 mifllions of the depart- 
ment of Loretto, are San Vicente, S. Domingo, El 
Rofario, S. Fernandez, S. Francefco de Borgia, S. 
Gertrude, S. Ignacio, La Guadalupe, Santa Rofalia, 
La Conception, S. Jofef, S. Francefco Xavier, Lo- 
retto, S. Jofef de Cabo Lucar, and Todos los San- 
tos. About 400 Indian converts, colle6led round 
thefe 1 5 parifhes, are the only fruit of the long apof- 
tlefhip of the various religious orders, who have fuc- 
cefiiively undertaken this painful duty. In the hiftory 
of California by father Venegas, we may read an ac- 
count of the ellablifhment of the fortrcfs of Loretto, 
and the various miffions it protects, whereby, com- 
paring their pad condition with that of the prefent 
year, it is evident their progrefsis very flow. As yet 
there is only one Spanifh village. It is true, the cli- 
mate is unhealthy, and the province of Sonora, which 
forms tîie boundary of the Mar-Vermejo, or Red-Sea, 
to the eaflward, and California to the weflward, is 
n - , >' . much 



1786.] ROUND THE WORLD. 1Q9 

much more attra^live to the Spaniards, who find there 
a fertile foil and abundant mines ; objeéls far more 
important in their eyes, than the pearl fifhery of the 
peninfula, which requires a conliderable number of 
flaves, who can dive, and thefe often very difficult to 
procure. Yet North California, notwithftanding its 
great diilance from Mexico, appears to combine in- 
finitely greater advantages. Its firft fettlement, which 
is San Diego, commenced only on the 26th July 
1769, and is the prefidio mod to the fouthward, as 
that of Francefco is the mod northerly. This laft was 
conilitutedon the QthOélober 1776, that of Santa Bar- 
bara's Channel in September 1786, andlaftly, Mon- 
terey, now the capital, and feat of government of both 
Californias, on the 3d of June 1770. The road- 
ftead of this prefidio, was difcovered in l602, by 
Sebaflian Vizcayno, commodore of a fmall fqua- 
dron equipped at Acapulco, by order of the Vifcount 
of Monterey, who was Viceroy of Mexico. Since, 
that epocha the galleons, on their return from Ma- 
nilla, have fometimes put into this bay, to pro- 
cure refrefhment after their long runs ; but it was 
not till the year 1770, that the Francifcans eftabiifh- 
ed their fir ft miflion there. They have now ten, com- 
prehending 5143 converted Indians. The following 
table will {how their names, dates, niMnber of bap- 
tized Indians, and the prefidios on which they de- 
pend. I will here obferve, that with the Spaniards, 
Prefidio is a general name for all forts, whether in- 
Africa or America, placed in the middle of a country 
of infidels, and implying, that there are no other in- 
habitants, than the garrilbn which rcfides within thp 
citadel. 






Xm-r 



04 



r- y;!'-: 



'JW 



Pnriihes5. 



200 



LA PÉ rouse's voyage 



[1786 



Parlflies. 



San Carlos 
San Antonio 
San Luis 
Santa Clara 
San Francefco 
San Buena Ventura 
Santa Barbara 
San Gabriel 
Sanjuan-Capiflran 
San Diego 



Prefidioi on 

which they 

depend. 



Monterey 

idem 

idem 
San Francefco 

idem 
Santa Barbara 

idem 

idem 
San Diego. . 

idem 



Dace of their 
foundation. 






3d June 1770 

1 4th July mi 

iftSept. 1772 

1 8th Jan. 1777 

9th Oa. 1776 

3d May 1782 

3d Sept. 1786 

8th Sept. 1771 

1 ft Nov. 1776 

26th July 1769 



Number of 

Indians 
convcited. 

711 
850 
492 
475 
250 
120 

843 
544 
858 



5143 



The piety of the Spaniards has, at a heavy expence, 
kept up thefe miffions and prefidios to the prcfcnt 
time, from no other motive, than to convert and ci- 
vilize the Indians of thefe countries ; a fyflem far 
more praife- worthy than that of avaricious individuals, 
who feem inveftcd with national authority, merely to 
commit with impunity the crucllcft atrocities. The 
reader will foon perceive, that a new branch of com- 
merce may procure to Spain more folid advantages, 
than the richeft mines of Mexico ; and that the falu- 
brity of the air, the fertility of the foil, the abundance 
of furs, for which they have a certain market in Chi- 
na, give this part of America the moft important ad- 
vantages over Old California, whofeunwholefomenefs, 
and fterility, cannot be compenfated by a few pearls, 
colle<5led from the bottom of the fea. 

Before the Spaniards fettled here, the Indians of 
California- only cultivated a little maize, and almoft 
entirely fubiifted on fiftiing and hunting. No coun- 
try abounds more in all forts of fi(h and game. Hares, 
rabbits and ftags are very common ; otters, and fea- 
wolves as abundant as to the northward ; and they kill 
in winter a very large number of bears, foxes, wolves, 

and 



/,ff 






^* 






Vi. 



JM.yll -h.,/,. 



\ 



.MEROPS pf NORTH C A I^ T f-ORNT/ 



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» 




1786.] ROUND THE WOULD. 201 

aiid wild eats. The coppices and plains are full of 
iiidd; igrey, crefted partridges, which, like thofe of 
£u(ope, flock together but in covies of three or 
éO0.. Theyl arc fat, and very well flavored. The 
(roes Bfe the habitation of the moft charming birds, 
rv«i<4;Ou« dmithologifts fluffed many varieties, of the 
' iparrciwSj 1?1m€ jays, tom-tits, fpotted magpies, and 
trtauÊi^ii^f birds of prey were the white- 

|]irfiw^âNt««|$^^^ falcon, gofs-hawk, 

Jl|»n:^4£ii^ ll^ great horn-owl, and the 

'^mm-^i lPhe«iWlf3àj|«^^ on pools, and on the 

fcii^fti wére(^iiî9Éâ|j|j^,^ grey and white yel- 



]&f various kinds, cor- 

er, fmall gulls, 

pt^lted a promerops, 

to belong to 



^bl4b^ni1 

The feitUity of^ié^ 
forts of kguminoûs plaî 
ma we «iriched the 

miffions, with various feeds we Blpught from Paris. 
They were perfe6tly well prefervéé, and will ipcreafe 
the âock of ^heif^^jçï^oyments. ^, 

"I ThchiBn;:ûfkoi'lB^^fh&r\€y^ wheat, and pcis, can^' 
^^he-com^m^^S^ a fertility, of 

|ll^irtbe^i<tiropiiy|^^ form no ade- 

«Juste ideakH Itâjii^^^ pco(lM0e of corn is from 70 
to 80 fbldy and^^,;«||^^ 6(^mé lOO. Fruit 
lieei artt #yet ^^^0it^ lut ^e dirnate is pericét- 

}^ adapt^sJltè thepi^lng nearty that of our Ibuthern- 
iWîft pièvirices in feance. At leaft the cold is never 
mère Icvere, though the heats of fummer are much 
more modetate, in confequence of the perpetual 
pifls, which fecundate the earth with confiant 
moiilure. 

The forefts contain the pine-npple fir, cyprefs, 

;jpver-green oak, and wefl;ern plane-tree, all thinly 

l^wn. A green-Award, very plealant for walking, 

covers 




ion. All 

t perfedion, 

govemer and 



I'M'- 1 



»\>v 



•> •■ -. 



202 LA pérouse's voyage [i780. 

covers the earth within them, and they have open- 
ings of many leagues, forming vaft plains amid the 
furrounding forefts, and abounding in every fort of 
game. The foil, though very fertile, is fandy and 
li^ht, owing, I imagine, that excellence to the hu- 
midity of the air, a« it is very ill watered. The near- 
eft ftream to thé prefidio, is at a diftance of two 
leagues : it is^a rivulet, which runs near the million 
of San Carlos, and called by the ancient navigators 
Rio de Carmel. This diftance from our Ihips was 
too great for us to water there : we got it from 
the ponds behind the fort, though the quality was 
indifferent, hardly diflblving foap. The Rio de 
Canhel, which furniihes a falubrious and agreeable 
beverage to the miffionaries and their converts, might 
with little labour be made to water their garden. 

It is with the livelieft plcafure, that I defcribetbe 
wife and pious conduct of thefe monks, who fo fully 
correfpond with the objecfl of their inftitution; though 
I (hall not conceal what I deem reprehcniible in their 
internal adminiftration. But I declare, that good and 
humane in their individual capacity, they temper the 
Kufterity of the rules laid down by the fupcriors of 
their order, with the mildnefs and benevolence of 
their private character. Iconfefs, that more attached 
to the rights of man than theology, I ftiould have 
wifhcd them to combine with the principles of chrif- 
tianity, a legiflation calculated to make citizens of a 
race of men, whofe condition fcarcely differs from 
that of the negroes of our colonies, in thofe planta- 
tions which arc condu61:ed with moft mildnefs and 
humanity. 

' lam perfedly aware of the extreme difficulty of 
this new plan. I know thefe men poHefs few ideas, 
llill Icfs fteadinefs, and, if their condu6lors ceafc to 
cDnficler thcni as children, run away from thofc who 
have had liic labour of inilruéting them. I know too, 
that reiiloniui.^ is almoft loft upon thcni, that an 

appeal 



1786.] ROUND THE WORLD. 203 

appeal to their fenfes is neccfîàry, and that corporal 
punifhments, with a double proportion of rewards, 
have hitherto been the only means adopted by their 
governors. But is it impoffible for men influenced by 
ardent zeal, and poflèflèd of extreme patience, to de^ 
monftrate to a fmall number of families, the advan- 
tages of a fociety founded on the rights of nations, 
to eftablifh among them the iiiftitution of property^ 
fo engaging to the reft of mankind, and by this order 
of things, to induce every one to cultivate his field 
with emulation, or devote himfelf to fome other fpe- 
cies of induftry. 

I allow the progrefs of this new mode of civi- 
lization would be very flow, the neceffary labour 
of it very painful and tediouSj and the fcenes of a6lion 
at very remote diftances ; fo that the applaufes due 
to the chara6ler, who fliould devote his life to deferve 
them, would never reach his ears. Nor am I afraid 
.to confefs, that mere humanity is an inadequate mo- 
tive to undertake the oflice. The enthufiafm to 
which Religion gives birth, and the rewards flie pro- 
mifes, can alone compenfate the facrifices, the tedi- 
oufnefs, the fatigue, and the rifles of this mode of life. 
I have 3nly to wifli the auftere, though charitable and 
pious individuals, I met with on thefe millions, pof- 
feflèd a little more of the true fpirit of philofophy. 

I have already declared with freedom my opinion 
of the monks of Chili, whofe irregularity appeared to 
me a general fcandal * to their order. I fhall with 
equal truth pourtray thofe truly apoftolic individuals, 
who have quitted the lazy life of the cioifler, to en- 
counter every kind of fatigue, of care, and of folici- 
tude. I lliall as ufual give the narrative of our own 
adventures, by relating their hiftory, and placing be- 

* There are, however, among the monks of Chili, individuals of 
great worth, though, in general, they enjoy a licence inconfillent 
with the way of life they have embraced. ,, ,. 

1 . fore 




m^\] 



11:11 





r 






204 LA PÉROUSE-S VOYAGE [l786. 

fore the reader all we faw, or learned, during our Ihort 
ftay at Monterey. 

Wc anchored on the 14th of September in the even- 
ing, two leagues off fhore, within fight of the prefidio, 
and the two iliips that lay in the harbour. They had 
fired a gun every quarter of an hour, to apprife us of 
the anchoring place, which the fog might conceal from 
us. At 10 o'clock at night, the Captain of the corvette 
la Favorccida came on board in his long-boat, and of- 
fered to pilot our (hip into the harbour. The corvette 
h Prince/a alfo fent her long-boat with a pilot on 
board the Aflrolabe. We then learned that thefe two 
iTiips were Spaniih, and commanded by Don Eftevan 
Martinez, lieutenant of marine of the department of 
San Blap, in the province of Guadalaxara. The go- 
vernment keeps up a fmall navy in that port, under the 
orders of the Viceroy of Mexico, confifting of four 
corvettes of 12 guns, and a fch(X>ner, whofe particular 
defli nation is the victualling the prefidios of North 
California. It was tbefc fcixie fhips, that performed 
the lad voyage of the Spaniards on the N. W. coaft of 
America. They are alfo fometimes fent as packet- 
boats to Manilla, to carry with promptitude the dif- 
patchcs of the court. 

We had got under way at ten in the morning, and 
anchored in the road at noon, where we were faluted 
by feven guns, which we returned. I then fent an 
officer to the governor with the letter of the Spanifh 
minilier, delivered to me before my departure from 
France. It was unfealed, and addrefled to the Vice- 
roy of Mexico, whofe jurifdi6lion extends as far as 
Monterey, though fituated 1 100 leagues (by land) 
from his capital. 

Scnor Fagas, commandant of the fort of the two 
Californias, had already received orders to give us the 
fame reception, as to the iliips of his nation ; and he 
executed them with an air of gracioufnefs, and 
warmtli of iutcreft, that deferve our finccreft grati- 
tude. 



1 

I 



1786.] ROUND THE WORLB, ? ' 205* 

tude. He did not confine himfelf to kind expreflions, 
but fent on board oxen, milk, and vegetables in great 
abundance. The defircto lerve us, threatened even to 
difturb the good underftanding that reigned between 
the commandant of the two corvettes and the com- 
mandant of the fort, each being defirous to engrofs 
the right of excluliyely fu'pplying our wants ; and to 
compcnfate thefe attentions, and balance the ac- 
count, we were obliged to infill on paying for them, 
before they would accept our money. The vege- 
tables, the milk, the fowls, all the labour of the gar- 
rifon, in affiflin^^^ us to get wood and water, was fur- 
nifhed gratis, and the oxen, (beep, and grain were 
charged at fo moderate a price, that it was evident 
they only prefented the account becaufe we had been 
urgent in demanding it. 

Senor Fagas added to generous manners the great- 
eft politenefs of behaviour; his houfe was ours, and 
every one under his command was at our difpofal. 'j'^ 

The monks of the miffion of San Carlos, fituated 
two leagues from Monterey, foon arrived at the pre- 
lidio, and with the flime politenefs we had experi- 
enced from the officers of the fort and fhips, invited 
us to dine with them, promifing to make us ac- 
quainted with the minutiae of their inftitution and 
mifîians, the manner of life of the Indians, their artss, 
their newly adopted manners, and in general, every 
thing that could excite the curiofity of travellers. 
We eagerly embraced thefe offers, and lliould not 
have failed to have made an application to that efFe6f, 
had they not anticipated our folicitations. We agreed 
to go two days after. Senor Fagas was defirous to 
accompany us, and undertook to procure us horfes. 
After crofiing a fmall plain, covered with herds of 
cattle, but only furnifhcd with a few trees, that fervc 
as a fhelter to thole animals from the rain, or fultry 
heats, we afcended fome hills, where we heard feve- 
lal bells announcing our arrival, of which the monks 

r . had 



h]t 



if i; 




Mm 

m 



111 



206 LA PÉROUSE's A'OYAGE I 1786. 

had been apprifcd, by a horfeman previoufly fent for- 
ward by the governor. 

They received us like lords of the manor making 
their firft entry on their ellates. The prefident of 
the miflions, in his ceremonial habiliments, and with 
holy water in his hand, received us at the door of the 
church, which was illuminated as on the grandeft fcf- 
tivals ; and conducting us to the (leps of the high 
altar, began to chaunt a Te Deum for the fuccefs of 
our voyage. 

Before we entered the church, we had crofTed a 
fquare, where the Indians of both fexes formed a line ; 
but their countenances {heiX'ed no furprife at our ar- 
rival, and even left it doubtful whether we fhould be- 
come the fubjeél of their converfation during the re- 
mainder of the day. The parifh church is very neat, 
though covered with thatch. It is dedicated to St. 
Charles, and decorated with tolerable good paintings, 
copied from thofc of Italy. Among others, is a pic- 
ture of hell, where the artift fcems to have borrowed 
the imagination of Callot. But as it is indifpenfably 
necefîàry to ftrike the fcnfes of thefe new converts in 
a lively manner, I am convinced fuch a reprefentation 
never was more ufeful in any country, and that it 
would be impoffiblc for the Proteflant religion, which 
profcribes images, and almoftall the ceremonies of the 
Gallican church, to make any progrefs among this 
nation. I doubt whether the pi6lure of Paradife op- 
polite, produces on them fo good an effeél. The 
quictifm it pourtrays, and the foothing fatisfaétion of 
the ele6t, who furround the throne of the Moil High, 
are ideas too fublime^for the minds of uncultivated 
favages. But it was neccfiàry to place the rewards, 
as well as punilhmcnts before them, vvh'lc it w'S an 
indifpenfable duty, not to admit of any do iation nom 
the kind of plealures held out to man b^ the Catho- 
lic religion. 

On coming out of the church, we pafîèd the fame 

ranks 



1786.] ROUND THE WORLD. 207 

ranks of Indians, who had not quitted their poll du- 
ring the Te Deum. The children alone had nrjovcd, 
forming groups near the houfe of the miffionaries, 
which, with their feveral magazines, are oppolite to 
the church. On the right is the Indian village, con- 
fiding of about 50 huts, inhabited by 740perfons of 
both fexes, including children, who altogether com- 
pofethe mifiion of San Carlos, or Monterey. . ^ ,ff 

Thefe huts are the moft miferable that cxift among 
air, nation. Theirformis circular, andfixfcetdiamctcr 
by four high. Some (lakes about the lize of the arm 
being fixed in thé ground, and brought together in an 
arch at top, compofe their frame, and eight or ten 
trufles of ftraw, badly arranged upon thefe flakes, de- 
fend the inhabitants more or lefs from the rain, and 
wind. More than half this hut remains open in fine 
weather, and their only precaution is to keep two or 
three fpare trufl^s of llraw near each of their houfcs. 

This agreilic architcdlure, which is univerfal 
throughout the two Californias, the exhortations of 
the Miffionaries have never fucceeded in changing. 
The Indians reply that they love the open nir, and 
that it is convenient to fet fire to their houfcs, when 
they are too much annoyed by fleas, and then rebuild 
them in an hour or two. The independent Indians, 
who fo frequently change their abode, have, like eve- 
ry nation of hunters, additional motives to this pre- 
ference. 

The colour of thefe Indians, which is that of ne- 
groes, the houfe of the monks, their magazines, which 
are built of brick, and plaiftered, the threlhing-floor 
on which they tread out the corn., the cattle, the 
horfes, in fliort, every thing we obferved, prefented 
the appearance of a plantation in St. Domingo, or any 
other colony. The men and women are alfo ul- 
fembled by the found of a bell, and a monk leads 
them to work, to church, and to all their employ- 
ments. We declare with pain^ that the refemblance 

is 



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'208 LA pérouse's voyage [1786. 

is Co exaél, that we faw both men and women loaded 
with irons, while others had a log * of wood on their 
legs; and even the noife of the la{h might have availed 
our ears, as that mode of punifliment is equally ad- 
mitted, though employed with but little feverity. 
''^ The anfwers of the monks to our various queftions, 
made us perfc6lly acquainted with the regulations of 
this religious community, for fuch the adminiftration 
eftablilhed here muft be called. They are the tem- 
poral, as well as fpiritual fuperiors, and all the pro- 
duce of the earth is confided to their management. 
The day is divided into fevcn hours of work, and two 
of prayer, but four or five on Sundays and feaft days ; 
which are wholly devoted to reft, and religious wor- 
fhip. Corporal punishments arc infliéled on the lu- 
rlians of both fexes, who negleél their pious exercifes, 
:nid many faults, which in Europe are wholly left to 
divine juftice, are here punifhcd with irons, or th^ 
log. In ihort, to complete the parallel with the reli- 
gious communities, from the moment a neophyte is 
baptized, he feems to have taken an eternal vow. If 
he runs away, and returns to his relations among the 
independent villages, he is fummoned three times, 
and fliould he ftill rcfufe to come back, they apply to 
the authority of the governor, who fends a party of 
foldiers to tear him from the bofom of his family -{•, 
and deliver him to the millions ; where he is con- 
demned to a cctajn number of lailics. Yet thefe peo- 
ple are fo deftitute of courage, that they never oppofe 
any refiftance to the three or four foldiers, who fo 
glaringly violate the rights of nations in their per- 

* The log is a folic! block of wood fawed throughout its length, 
with a hole large enough tor a common fizedleg. One end is con- 
neéled by a hinge ; the other, being opened to put in the leg of 
the prifoner, it 19 then fliut, and taftened with a padlock ; thus 
obliging him to lie down, or remain in a very uneafy pofture. 

f As thefe people are at war with their neighbours, they can" ne- 
ver go to a diftancc of above 20 or 30 league*^, 

foilS. 



,t' I 



1786.] * ROtND THB WOkLb. lOQ 

fons. Thus is thip cuftom, againft which reafbn ex- 
claims fo loudly, continued, merely becaufe a num- 
ber of theologians have ch'ofcn to decide, that bap- 
tifm fhall not be ^dminiftered to men of fo much le- 
vity, unlefs the gfjvernment become in fome meafure 
their fponfors, an\^ cngagfc for their pcirfçverance in 
Chriftianity. 

The prcdeccfTor of Senor Fagas, Don Felipe de 
Neve, commandant of the inland provinccis of Mexico, 
who died four years fince, was a.tnah of great humani- 
ty, and a kind of Chriflian philofopher. lliat worthy, 
man protcllcd againfl this cuftom, thinking the jpro- 
grcfs of the Chriflian faith would be more rapid, and 
the prayers of the Indians more agreeable to the Su- 
preme Being, if they were voluntary. He wifhed for 
a Icfs moi\aftic conltitution, more civil liberty for the 
Indians, and lefs defpotifm in the executive power of 
the prcfidios, the adminiftration of which, ttiight 
fomel imes be placed in barbarous or avaricious hahdé. 
He thought it might even be neccfîàry to moderate 
their authority, by creeling a magiftracy, which ïhould 
be as it were the tribunal of the Indians, and might 
have fufficient authority to protedl them from op- 
preffion. Though this juft man had borne arms in 
the defence of his country from his infancy, yet he was 
free from the prejudices of his profeflion, knowing 
that a military government is fubje(?l: to great incon- 
veniences, when it is not tempered by an intermedi- 
ate authority. He ought, however, to have perceived 
the difficulty of maintaining this balance of three 
powers, at fo great a diftance from the Governor 
<Teneral of Mexico, iince the Miffionaries, though fo 
pious, and fo refpedlable, are already at open war with 
the governor, who apjjeared to me to be a meritori- 
ous officer. ": " il '."' ■■':■: 

We were defi/Ous of being prefent at the diflribu- 
tions made after «ach meal ; and, as every day is alike 

Vol. L P with 



iV .. t 



I 



'ilO LA pkrouse's voyagp: [l78() 

with thcfc monaftic kind of men, by delir'^ating the 
hiftory of a day, the reader will know that of the year. 
The Indians, like the miifionaries, rife with the fui), 
and then go to prayers, and to mafs, which hiil an 
hour. During this time, three great cauldrons of bar- 
ley meal are boiled in the middle of the fquare, the 
grain having been roaftcd before it is ground ; this 
. mefs, which the Indians call atoky and which they 
are very fond of» is neither feafoned with butter nor 
fait, and would le to us very infipid food. 

Each family fends for the allowance of all the inha- 
bitants of their cottage, which they receive in a vef- 
|fcl of bark. There is no confufion or diforder in the 
^ diilribution, and when the cauldrons are empty, what 
cakes to the bottom is given to the children who fay 
, their catechifm beft. 

• This repaft continues three quarters of an hour, af- 
.ter which they all go to work ; feme to plough with 
t oxen, others to dig the garde n, each according to the 
; different labours requifite in the colony, and always 
under the fuperintendance of one or two monks. 

The women have little other employment than the 
condudl of houfehold affairs, that of their children, 
and the roafting and grinding their grain. This ope- 
ration is very long and tedious, becaufe they have 
no other method than crulhing it on a ftone wilh a 
cylinder. M. de Langle, obferving this operation, 
prefented his mill to the miffionaries, than which, we 
could fcarcely have rendered them a greater fervice ; 
.for now four women can do the work of 100, and 
even have time to fpin the wool from their flocks, and 
manufacture fome coarfe fluffs. Hitherto the 
j monks, more occupied with their celeftial than tem- 
poral concerns, have neglected to introduce themo.ft 
common arts. They are even fo auflere vvith regard 
to themfelves, as rot to have one chamber with a 
fire-place, though the winter is fometimes fevere; 

nor 



1786.] BOUND THE WORLD. 211 

nor did the flridlefl: anchorites ever lead a more edify- 
ing life •. 

At noon tho bells ring for dinner, when the Indi- 
ans quit their work, and fend for their nieflcs to the 
lame cauldrons as at breakfuft time. This fécond 
broth, however, is thicker than tiie flrfl, forbefides 
the corn and maize, it contains peas and beans. The 
Indians call it tonjjole. They return to work from 
two o'clock, till four or five, after which they go to 
evening prayers, which lad near an hour, and are fol- 
lowed by another meal o( atoîe fimilar to their break- 
faft. Thus thefc diflributions fufficc for the fubfift- 
cnce of the majority of the Indians, and this very 
economical foup, might perhaps be advantageoufly 
adopted in Europe in years of fearcity, with the addi- 
tion of fome kind of feafoning. But all the art of 
cookery pra6tifed here, confifts in roafting the grain 
before it is reduced into flour. As the Indians have 
no earthen, or metal vefîèls for this operation, they 
perform it in bafkets of bark over fmall lighted coals, 
turning them with fo much adroitnefs and rapidity, 
as to make the grain fwell and burl}, without burning 
the balkcts, though compofed of very combuflible 
materials. We may even venture to affirm^ that the 
bed roafted coffee does not approach the equality 
of roafting, produced by the Indians. It is diftri- 
buted to them every morning for this purpofe, and 
the fmalleft infidelity in their return, is puniflicd by 
the lafh, to which, however, they very rarely expole 
themfelves. Thefe puniftiments are ordered by In- 
dian magift rates called Caciques, of whom each mif- 
fion has three, elc6lcd by the people from all thofe 
not difqualificd by the miflionaries. But to give a 
juft idea of this magiftracy, we (hall obfcrve, that 

• Father Firmin de la Suen, prefident of the mtfïïons of New 
California, is one of the moft worthy, and refpeftabte men I ever 
met with. His mildnefs, his charity, his love for the Indians, are 
iiidefcribable. 

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^12 LA péroûse's voyagé [1786. 

their Cacicjues, like ftewards of plantations, are mere 
paflîve beings, and blind executors of the will of their 
îuperiors : their principal functions being thofe of 
beadles, and maintaining good order, and an air of fe- 
' rioufnefs in the church. The women are never flog- 
ged in the public fquare, but in a fccret place, and at 
• a diftance, in order, perhaps, to prevent their cries 
exciting too lively a compaflion, and thereby flimu- 
'lating the men to revolt : whereas the men are ex- 
/ ,'pofed before all their fellow citizens, that their pu- 
' nifhment may ferve as an example. In general, they 

. 'aik fbrgivenefs, upon which the executioner dimi- 
nilhes the force of his ftrokes, but the number is al- 
ways irrevocably fixed. 

Their rewards confift in fmall individual diftribu- 

fions of grain; of which they make fmall cakes, 

, baked under the brazier; and on, feaft days their mefs 

is of beef, which many eat raw, efpecially the fat» 

which they efteem equally delicious With the fineft 

' butter, or the moft excellent cheefe. They ikin 

all animals with the greateft addreft, and when they 

, are fat, they croak with pleafure like a crow, devour- 

• ' ing at the fame time the parts they are moft fond of 

• with their eyes. 

They are often fufFered to hunt and fifh for their 
own benefit, and at their return, prefent the miffion- 
aries with fome fifh or game, proportioning the 
quantity to their precife wants, but encreafing it if 
they know their fupcriors to have any additional 
guefts. The women keep a few fowls round their 
huts, and give the eggs to their children. Thcfe 
- fowls are the property of the Indians, as well as their 
c^>othcs and other utenfils, both domefiic and for 
the chace. There is no example of their robbing 
One another, though they have no other door than a 
trufs of draw laid acrofs the entrance when all the 
family are abfent. 

- Thefe manners will appear to fome readers, to be- 
long; 






L'-i 



\786.J HOUND THE WORLD. 213 

long to patriarchal ages, who may not coniider, that 
in thefe huts they have no objeéls capable of tempt- 
ing the cupidity of their neighbours. For their fub- 
liflence being Ibcurc, they can have no other objedl of 
defire, but to give birth to beings, deftined to be 
equally ftupid vvith themfelves. 

The men have facrificed more to Chriftianity than 
the women ; for to them polygamy was allowed, and it 
was even the cuftoin to marry all the fillers of a family. 
The women, therefore, have gained by it the exclufive 
enjoyment of their hufband. But I confefs, that, 
notwithftanding the unanimous account given ty 
the million aries, of this pretended polygamy, I never 
could conceive it poffible among a nation of favages. 
For the number of men and women being ' nearly 
equal, many of them mull live in involuntary celi- 
bacy, unlefs conjugal fidelity were lefs llriélly obr 
ferved than in the millions, where the monks have 
made themfelves the guardians of the Womens' virtue. 
An hour after fupper, they Ihut up all thofe whofe 
hulbands are abfcnt, as well as all girls above nine 
years old, and place them under the care of matrons 
duringtheday. Even thefe precautions are infufficient ; 
for we faw men wearing the log, and women in irons, , 
for having cfcajped the vigilance of thefe feqijile ar- 
gufes, whofe eyes are inadequate to watch thetp, 

The converted Indians have prefervcd 'all the an- 
cient culloms not forbid by their new religion j the 
fame huts, the fame games? the fame drellès. The 
richcft wear a cloak of ottdf-lkin, which covers theiç 
loins, and reaches below their middle. The leall in- 
dullrious only wear sc piece of cloth furnilhed by the 
million to cover their nakednefs, and a little cloak 
of rabbit- Ikin tied with a pack-thread under tbc chin, 
which covers their Ihoulders, and reaches to thei^ 
loins, he reft of the body being naked as well as the 
head; Ibme, however, wear a ftra>y Jial; extre^nely 
\vell matted. ' 

P 3 The 



/ 



/ 



214 LA PÉROUSB*S VOYAGB [l786. 

The women's drefs confifts of a cloak of ftag's- 
ifkin, badly tanned. Thofe of the miffions generally 
convert them into a little jacket with fleeyes, which 
with a fmall apron of rufhes, and a petticoat of ftag's- 
lk;in that covers their loins, and reaches half down the 
leg, forms their whole attire. Young girls under 
nin^ years old have only a girdle, and the boys are 
totally naked. 

The hair of both men and women is out four or 
five inches from the roots. The Indians of the Ran- 
cherias * having no iron utenfils, peform tliis opera- 
tion with fire-brands, and paint their bodies red, 
changing it to black when in mourning. The mif- 
iionaries have profcribed the former, but have been 
. obliged to tolerate the black, thefe people being, 
fo flrongly a]ttnched to their friends, as to fhed tears 
^yheh reminded even of thofe who have long been 
dead, and feeling offended, if their names are in- 
advertently mentioned in their prefence. But here, 
family conne(5tions have lefs force than thofe of friend- 
fliip; and children fcarcely know their own father, 
deferting his hut as foon as they are able to provide 
for themfelves. They retain, however, a more du- 
rable attachment to their mothers, who bring them 
up with the greatefl tendernefs, and only beat them 
when they (hew cowardice in their little battles with 
children of their own age. 

The old men of the Rancherias, who are no longer 
able to hunt, live at the joint expence of the whole 
village, and arc treated with general refpeét. Though . 
the independent lavages are very frequently at war, 
their fear of the Spaniards, prevents their committing 
any outrages on the miffions, which is, perhaps, not 
the leaft of thecaufesof the augmentation of the Chrif- 
tian villages. Their arms are the bow and arrow, 
pointed with a flint very Ikilfully worked. Thefe 
Dows being made of wood, and ftrung with the nerve 
* Villages of the Ipdepeadent Indians, 



1786.] ROUND THE WORLD^ 21 S?^ 

of an ox, are very far fupcrior to thofe of th"e inhabit- ' 
tantwS of Port des Français. 

' We were afTured, thefe Indians neither eat their 
prifoners, nor their enemies killed in war, although, 
\vhen they have conquered and put to death fome 
chiefs and very brave men in the field of battle, they 
cat fome morfels of their bodies ; not fo much to de- 
monfirate their hatred and vengeance, as to do ho- 
mage to their valour, and from a belief that fuch food 
would increafe their courage. Like the Canadians, 
they take ofFthe fcalp of the conquered, and tear out 
their eyes ; which they have the art of preferving from 
corruption, keeping them as the mod precious tro- 
phies of victory. They are accuftomed to burn their 
dead, and depofit their alhes in a moraï. -» 

Two games employ all their leifure time. One is 
called takerjia, and confifts in throwing, or rolling a 
fmall circle three inches in diameter, on an area ten 
toifes fquare, cleared from grafs, and inclofed with faf- 
cines. Each party has a flick five feet long, 'of the 
fize of an ordinary cane, on which they endeavour 
to catch the ring while in motion. If they fucced 
they gain two points, but if they only catch it at the 
end of its motion, they count one ; and three points 
are the game. This play becomes a violent cxercife, 
as the circle or the Hick are in confl:ant aélion. 

The other game, called toiilp, is lefs fatiguing, and 
is played by four hands, two on a fide. Each party 
in turn, hides a piece of wood in one hand, while his 
partner endeavours by a thoufand geftiires, to engage 
the attention of the adverfaries. It has a fingular ef- 
feét to a fpeélator, to obferve them fquatting oppofite 
each other in perfeiSl fiîence, watching each other's 
countenance, and the minuted circumftance that 
may alfift them in gueffing which hand conceals the 
piece of wood. They gain or lofe a point according 
to their guefs, and thofe who win have the next turn 
to hide. Five points make the game, and the ftakc 

' ufually 



Îl6 L4 rÉ!lOU8E*8 VOYAQE [l786. 

ufually CQtîfiils of fome beads; or, among the indc- 
^ pendent Indians, the favours of their wives. Thcfe 
lad haye no knowledge of a Qod or a futurç ^tate, 
except fomq of thç foutherq nations, who bad a con- 
fufed idea on the fubjeél before the; arrival of the mil- • 
iionaries. They placed their paradife in the middle 
. of the fea, where the good cnjoj'cd a çoolnefs never 
to be felt amongft their burning fands ; while they 
^'' imagined a hell fituated in the hollpws of the moun- 
tains. 

The miffionaries convinced, either by their preju- 
dices or their experience, that the reafon of thefe men 
is never matured, deem this a fufficient rpotive for 
treating them as children, and only admit a very 
fmall number to the communion. Thefc individuals 
are the men of genius of their village, who, like New- 
ton or Defcartes, might hâve enlightened their conn- 
trymen and their age, by teach' ng them that two and 
two make four ; a calculation above the [X)wers of a 
confidcrable number. The regulation of the mif- 
iions is not likely to emancipate them from the reign 
of ignorance, where every thing is merely directed to 
, obtaining the rewards of a future life, apd the moft 
common arts, eVen that of a village furgeon of 
France, wholly unexplored. Children frçqiientlv pe- 
rifh in confequence of hernias, which the fmallcft 
degree of Ikill might cure ; and our furgeons weie 
happy in relieving a few, and teaching them the ufc 
of bandages in that difotder. 

It muft be acknowledged, that if the Jfefuits were 
not more pious or more charitable than thé prefent/ 
miffionaries, they were at leaft more llcilful. The 
immeïife edifice they erected in Paraguay, ihuft ex- 
cite the greateft admiration, though mankind will 
ever have to reproach them, whether frofn their am- 
bition or their prejudices, with that fyftem of com- 
munity fo inimical to theprogrefs of civilization, and 
which is too fcrvilely imitated in all tlie iiiiilions of 
' ../■•■■ Califoniia. 



i' 



/786.J ROUND THE WORLD. ' 217 

California. This government is a trae theocracy 
with regard to the Indians, who believe their Supe- 
riors to hold an immediate and continual jntcrcpurfc 
with God, bringing him dOwn each day upon the 
altar. Under the protection of this opinion, the fa- 
thers live in the midft of the villages In perfeél fecu- 
rity, nor is their door (hut during the night, though 
the hiftory of their miflion already furni{he$ an m- 
ftance of a prieft being maflacred. This aflàffina> 
tion, however, was the confequence of a commotion 
caufed by an aét of imprudence, for murder is very' 
uncommon even among the independent tribes, 
though only punifhed by general contempt. But if 
an individual falls urider the united attack of feveral 
aflailants, he is fuppofed to have deferved his fate, as 
he had drawn upon him fo many enemies. 

North California, of which the moft northern fettle-' 
mentis San Prancefco, in 37° 58^ N. lat. has no other 
bounds, accofci|ng to the opinion of the Governor 
of Monterey, than thofe of America itfelf ; and our 
ihips, penetrating as far as Mount St. Elias, have not 
found its Umits. In addition to the motives of piety, 
that detçrmined Spain to facrifice confiderable fums in 
the maintenjance of her prefidios and miffions, power- 
ful realbns of ftate direct the attention o^ the go-^ 
vernment to this important part of America, where 
bttcr fkins are as common as in the Aleutian illands, 
and other parts ffequented by the Ruflians. 

.We found at Monterey,' a Spanifh commiflàrj% 
named Don Vicente Vafladrc y Vega, who had 
brought the Governor orders to Cplleét all the otter 
Ikiiis of his four prefidios and of the ten miffions, 
of which the Goverrior referves the excliifive trade. 
Senojr Fagas affured me he could furnifh 20,000 
every yba^ ; and as he knew the country, he faid, 
that if Chin^ could take oft' 30,000 flcins, two or three 
additional fcttlements to the northward of San Fran- 

Icefco would foon procure them for the national trade. 
(... ... . . i Ij. 



1 



21 a LA p£rousb*8 voyage [i7b6. 

It Is truly aftoniOiing that the Spaniards, having 
fnch frequent and cafy communication witli China 
through Manilla, ihould ftill be ignorant of the va- 
lue, of thefe important furs. 

They owe to Captain Cook and to the publication 
of his work this important information, which will 
confer on them' the greateft advantages. Thus has 
this great man travelled for the beneèt of the whole 
world, while his nation enjoys nothing exclulivcly, 
but the glory of giving birth to the enterprize, and 
of obfervmg its progrels. 

The otter is an amphibious animal, as common on 
the weftern coaft of America, from the 28th to the 
6oth degree, as fea- wolves on the coaft of Labrador 
and Hudfon's-Bay. The Indians, not being fo good 
feamen as the Efquimaux, and their canoes at Mon- 
terey being only made of reeds*, take them on fhore 
with fnares, or knock them down with flicks when 
at a diftance from the land» For this purpofe they 
conceal themfelves behind the rocks, for at the moll 
trifling noifc thefe animals take alarm, and plunge into 
the fea. TiH the prefent year an otter-lkin bore no, 
higher value than two hare-fkins, and the Spaniards 
had no idea they could ever be much in requeft. They 
had never fent any to Europe, and Mexico was too 
hot a country to fuppofe they could be difpofed of 
there. iî^» i 

I am of opinion a great revolution will take place 
in a few years, in the commerce of the Rufîians to 
Kiatcha, in confequence of the difl^culty of fup- 
porting this competition. The comparifon I have 
made of the otter-fkins of Monterey with thofe of 
Porf des Français induces me to think the fkins of 
the South are rather inferior. But the difference is 
fo inconfiderable, that I am not abfolutely certain 

* Thofe in the channel of Santa Barbara and of San Diego 
have canoes built of wood, nearly fimilar to thofe of Mowee, but 
yrithout out-riggers, iijj ^^ , . aiÊj;vv'i.j «^vV VMi»<«' -^..v 

' - of" 



■.'A 



17 86 J HOUND THE WORLD. 21 ^ 

of the fat^, and I doubt much whether this inferio- 
rity can occafion a difference of \0 per cent, on the 
fale. It is almoft certain that the new Company of 
the Manillas will endeavour to become mailers of 
this branch of commerce, and this will be a moil for- 
tunate event for the Ruflians, as it is the nature of 
cxclufive privileges to deftroy, or at lead to para> 
life every fpecics of commerce and indullry ; while it 
is the charaéleriftic of a free trade to communicate to 
both all the activity of which they are fufceptible. 

California, notwithflanding its fertility, cannot be 
faid to have a fingle inhabitant. A few foldiers, 
married to Indian women, wbo live within the forts, 
or are fpread as it were in patroles among the various 
mifliqns, conilitute as yet the whole of the Spanifh 
nation in this part of America. Yet it is in no re- 
fped: inferior to Virginia, to which it is oppofite, 
were it but lefs didant from Europe ; its proximity to 
Afia might, however, counterbalance that difadvan- 
tage ; and I am of opinion, that a good iyilem of le- 
gillatiou, and, above all, the liberty of commerce, 
would procure it fome inhabitants fi'om the Spanifh 
territories, which are fo extenfive, that it will proba- 
ble be a very long time before the population of any 
of their colonies will increafe. The great number 
of celibatifls of both fexes who have devoted them- 
felves to that condition from an idea of moral per- 
feélion, and t.<f confiant policy of the government in 
tolerating only one religion, and employing the 
mofl violent meafures in its fupport, will continually 
oppofe an additional obflacle to every advancement, r/ 
The adminiflration of the villages converted to 
Chriftianity would be more favourable to population, 
if property and a certain degree of liberty formed its 
balls. However, fince the eflablifhment of the ten 
difterept miifions of North California, the holy fa- 
thers have baptized 7701 Indians of both fexes, and 
have buried only 238&t But wc may remark, that this 
iiJilj ilatement 



f 



■•'laT s 






m 



# 

• 



220 LA rAROU9E*8 rOYAGE t)7<*^, 

ftatcment docs not inform us, like that of our towns 
in Kuropc, whether the population encreafes or dimi- 
nifhes, bccaufc they baptize fonic of the inclcpnulcnt 
Indians every day. It only proves that Chriflianity 
ei»crcafes ; and I have already laid that the affairs of 
the future Hate could not be confided to better 
hands. 

Ahnoll all the Francifcan inilîîonaries arc Euro- 
peans. They have a college at Mexico*, whofe 
guardian is, in America, the general of his order. 
This houfe is not dependent on the province of 
the Francifcans at Mexico, but has its fupcriors in 
Europe. 

The Viceroy is fole judge of the difputes and dif- 
ferences of the various miflions, not under the 
authority of the Commandant of Monterey, wlio 
h only obliged to aflift them with the niilithry 
power whenever they demand it. But as he has 
power over all the Indians, and particularly "over thofe 
of the Ranchcrias, and is alfo commanflant of the 
d£tachment of cavalry ftationed in the miflions, thcfc 
various relations very frequently difturb the har- 
mony between the military and religious govern- 
ment, which laft, however, has fuch a powerful in- 
tereft in Spain, as to preferve to them the afccn- 
dancy. Thefe affairs were formerly carried before 
the governors of the interior provinces ; but the new 
Viceroy, Don Bernardp Gqlvcis, has re-united all 
the powers in his own perfon. 

Each miflionary receives from Spain 400 piadres a 
year ; their number being fixed at two for each parilh ; 
and if there i§ a fupernumerary, he receives no falary. 
Yet money is of very little ufe in a country where 
they find nothing to buy. Beads are the only mo- 
ney of the Indians, confcquently the College of 
Mexico do not fend a piaftce in fpeoie, but invell 

ritiJ Jii * sThc name given to their Moriaflry. * l)i>i i.'iCJ ,:• i 
Ï i'A'jiif'jifii . . • , their 



1780.] ROUND THE WORLD. 

their value in cfFeél», fuch as candies for ihe churcli, 
chocolate, fugar, oil, wine, end ibme cloth, which 
the iniflïonaries cut into finall girdles, to furniOi a 
covering for the converted Indians, though deemed by 
their independent countrymen unnccedhry. The Go- 
vernor's (alary is 4000 piaftrcs ; that of his deputy, 
450 ; that of the infpcéling captain of the 283 ca- 
valry-men diftributetl over the two Califbrnias, 2000. 
Each foldier of cavalry has 217, out of which he 
muft fubfift himfclf, and furnifh his horle, cloathing; 
arms, and every thing. The government keep ftud» * 
of horfes and herds of cattle, and fell the former to the 
foldiers, as well as the meat they confume. The 
price of a good horfe is eight piaftrcs, and that of 
an ox five. The Governor has the difpofal of the 
horfes and of cattle, and making the dcduélion to 
each, at the end of the year, from the remainder of 
his pay, liquidates the balance with great exadtnefs. 

As the ibldiers '^ had rendered us an infinity of 
little fcrviccs, I alkcd leave to prefent them a piece 
of blue cloth, and fcnt the miffion fome coverlets, 
fome fticks, beads, uteniiis of iron, and, in general, 
all the little articles they might want, and which 
we had not djftributed to the Indians of Pori des 
Français, The Prefident declared to the whole 
village, that it was a prefent from their ancient and 
faithful allies, who profefled the fame religion as the 
Spaniards: which {o excited their benevolence, that 
every one of them brought us a trufs of hay or ftravv 
the next morning, for the oxen and fliecp we were ta 
take on board. Our gjirdcncr alfo gave the miffio- 
naries fome potatoes of Chili perfeélly well preferved, 
Virhich I by no means conlidcr one of our meanci'l 
prefents, as I am of opinion this root will fuccccd 
peifedlly in the light and highly vegetative foil of 
the environs of Monterey. 

• •. • ■ 

Sill lO fii 

• • There are but eighteen iu the whole prcCdio. : 

From 



§ 



' I 



;îf?S 1 



^1 ■ 



222 



LA ?é]lOC8B*8 VOYAO» 



L1785. 
From the deyof c^rtrrivol we hnd been emolov 



ed in get 

allow 

the 




ich laft we were 

ur boats. In 

a moment 

but the 

ifummcr 

(bed 

, our 

t and 

fou- 

of 

]| or 

crifte 

c Go- 

nity of 

ur ufe, 

ce of vc- 

our bo- 
isful. On the pioun- 



I, in the hollows, and by the fea-fide,^ they 
bnlylbund a light argillaceous ilone, eafiiy detom* 
pofed, and formed oC^ kinfl of marl. They alfo met 




with block», 

buried 

and 




'^ns of which were 

s of porphyry, 

lycr of the mc- 

equidMy few, cx- 

le é^léi de nier, fm^^^ with 

^r«|U)lh|r ol ]p6ar^i abd Wit inches 

" 16^ reft are iDiHMb the 

♦■ ■TO^,(B^JiM-IWt-lbuthern 

fiiîiaeil ncfiei^lli this braneh 

ilmiîOl 0]^rs, who;(ê peurls 

z^ ià'^f^g^ teyioïî or the 

wouM fÉ{i^l^É|^ aHS^ of 



olif es, buccbM, and vmdl iUeUs of the 

great 



I \ 



Ifo met 
h were 
rphyry, 
hemc- 
w, ex- 
d with 
inches 
^b the 
Uthern 
minch 
pearls 
or the 
cle of 

of the 
great 




i<i 



ii 



m 



■11 



'T'f ^r-'w^^ 






tihj 







1786. «OUNI> THE WOHLD. 223 

great value and certain fale in China. But it is im- 
poffible for the Spaniards to cultivate every fpeciesof 
induftry their vaft dominions would encourae^; 

l|1||i,^2d at night evfry thing vr^i^mWimi^ 
^jîm^jÉf^our leave of t|e Governor ^é^MÉlâifîi^ 

^^iSS^l^/:v-1JI^ carried awa^ >vith us ai'^i^ifil^^Skyte 
ot pr|^a$9pft' as from La^ Conception :. 1 m^ tÉlpJile 
âoçI;"^:|è#ry of Senor I^'agas and tht^owWilt* ^'a* 
tiit^i^^^pilfii to our coops, /fiilfl the latter ^<d<IM 4ome 
corn, Jbeans, and pqgs, retailÉ)^ onljpywhat Wal^abfo- 
lutely neceflary for ,^hemfelV««i For^ll thefe articles 
they refufed to accept any j^a^ment, i||nd only yielded 
to ott^ ïÇprefentatipn, that they weije ftewards, not 
pft^pri^^ of the produce of the millions. 

^Mé^i?;^ the wind was contrary, lMife1ifi|^ 
||i^&.^i%p 24th we t^ i^il with a In^cx^lfepii 
|i^ lll^l^^ Don Eftei^tt; Martinee bipÉ^^iHe 
èo^l^iai^;# day4>reak^ Éùâ His long-boat ^kj^i;H(^É[^ 
were conllantly at our diffxjfal, and gave u>:èvëry 
affiftance. Indeed, I can but feebly exprefs thé Sen- 
timents of gratitude we owe him lor his attentions^ 
as well as to Don Vicente Vaflhdre y Vega, a young 
man full of genius and merit, who was on the eve of 
his 4^pai?t|are for China, to conclude , a tr^a^. of 
cpmnfii^çe Illative to the fale of otter-Ik^$* ; 



111 



r„ r 



;; ; hi: ! 



•i;r' ! 



Π



7.\. 



.\f;V"' 






IÎ 



\n^ 



\: ■•*•'■> 







ï-^^-v 



V-» ' I J.. 







^K|^'.onl^i:," 






CHAP. 






224 



LA PÉROUSE*» VOtAÔ* 



iHsô. 




CHAP.XIÏ. .^M' 

ASTRONOMICAL OBRERVATIONS<^i^COÎ\)lPAni8ÔNOP THÈ 
RESULTS OBTAINED BY THE DISTANCES OP THE 
MOON PROJH THE SUN, AND BY OUR TIME- KEEP- 
ERS, WHICH SERVED AS THE GROUND^WORK Op 
OUR CHART OP THE AMERICAN COAST-TREASONS 
POR THINKING OUR LABOURS DESERiE THÉ CONFI- 
DENCE OP NAVIGATORS^— VOCABULARY 0^ THE 
LANGUAGE OP THE DIFFERENT TRIBES IN THE 

i VICINITY OP MONTEREY, WITH REMARKS ON THEIR 

« PRONUNCIATION. 

'HILEour crews were employed in contpjeting 
.ing our wood and water, M. Dagelefe j^ofc 
his quadrant afhorc, in order to determine witlK the 
gréateft precifion the latitude of Monterey. }^6 
J'egretted much, thatcircumftances did not admit of 
my ftaying long enough to rcfunie the comparifon 
of ou"r time-keepers. The robbery of the i^^ajDers con- 
tainin-g our obfcrvations, by the favîiges at Port des 
Français left him in fome uncertainty concerning the 
daily lofs on mean time o{ the time-keeper No. 
19,*by wWch we had determined all thc' points of 
the coaft of America. That aftronomer even thought 
he ought to confidcr the comparifons made in the 
Ifle du Cénotaphe as null, preferring thofc of the bay 
of Talcaguana in Chili, though perhaps too long 
pad, Hill to dcferve full confidence. But it ought 
not to be forgot^ that each day we compared the rç- 
fult of the longitude given by the time-keeper, with 
that deduced fk)m lunar obfcrvations taken on board 
each frigate, and that the conftant and perfect agree- 
ment of thefe refults, cannot leave any doubt, con- 
cerning the accuracy of thofe to which we have ad- 
hered. 
As thofe #bo apply themfelves to the fludy of 

■ feienccs, 



'■#' 



Ï786.] ROUND THE WORLD. 225 

fcicnces» may be defirous to know the limits of the 
errors, of which the determinations of longitude at 
fea, deduced from obfcrvations of the diftance of the 
moon from the fun, are fufceptible, it will not appear 
mal-apropos to give an idea of it in this place. 

l^heory, affifted by a long ferics of obfervations, 
has not yet been jible to furnifti perfedlly accurate 
tables of the moon's motion. Yet, confidcring the 
degree of prccifion thefe tables have already attained, 
this firfl fource of error only leaves an uncertainty 
of 40 or 50 féconds of time at moil, and generally 
not exceeding 30 féconds, making only a quarter of 
a geographical degree of longitude ; becaufe the mo- 
tion of the moon with refpeÀ to the fun is, by a mid- 
dle term, half a minute of a degree for every minute 
of time, and the minute of time anfwers to a quarter 
of a degree of longitude. From whence it follows, 
that the longitudes deduced from a comparilbn of the 
difbinces obferved at fea, with the diftances calculated 
for the fame points of time, and for a fixed meridian, 
cannot be afFeéled by an error in the tables, if there 
is one, above a quarter of a degree in moft cafes, often 
lefs, and very rarely more. 

The fécond fource of errors, ariling from the im- 
perfection of the inftruments and want of accuracy 
or fkill in the obferver, cannot be determined with 
equal precifion to that refulting from the imperfe<5tion 
of the tables. 

As to quadrants and fextants, the limits of the 
error depend, as far as regards the inftrument, ou 
the accuracy of the divifions ; and with regard to the 
obferver, ift, on the difficulty of verifying the point 
; 2d, on that of accurately obferving the contadt 
of the two planets : and this lafl depends on the 
goodnefs of the light, habit, and IkiU of the ob- 
server. 

The refleéling circles have no common caufe of 
error with the feâants and quadrants, but the difficulty 

Vol. I. Q of 



ii t ' 






ma 



fi Ï: 



Q.'IÔ LA pÉROUSE'ô voyage [lîTSG^ 

of observing the contaéls ; whereas they pofîèfs fe- 
veral advantages which render them more certain. 
The principal of thefe are, that the error to be ap- 
prehended rn their Vérification is a nullity ; becaule 
the obfervations being made fuccefîively in oppofite 
direélions, to the right and left, there is no occalion 
for thefe verifications». As to the inaccuracy of the 
divifions, it is reduced at pleafure, according to the 
frequency with which the obfervations are repeated ; 
and it depends on the patience alone of the obfervcr, 
that the error arifi"ng from the divifions may, at laft, 
be confidered as a mere nuUity.* After having thus 
eftablifhed the limits of the errors, we are authorifed 
to conclude, that the medium of our refults,. for the 
determination of the longitude by lunar obfervations, 
could not in any cafe be afFeéled by an error exceed- 
ing a quarter of a degree. For having conflantly 
Mfed the refleéling circle, and having never negleél- 
ed, for each operation, to repeat the obfervatjon as 
often as the circumftances of the weather would per- 
mit, and the obfervers being alfo perfeéMy praélifed. 
We had nothing further to fear, than, the uncertainty 
or limited error that might ariic from the imperfec- 
tion of the lunar tables. 

Thus then we were enabled to employ wkh con- 
fidence the refults of thefe operations, repeated almoft 
daily, to eftablifti the regularity of the time-keeper, 
by the comparifon of its refults with thofe of the for- 
mer. We confide alfo, and doubtlefs not without 
fufficient reafon, in the combination and confiant 
agreement of the feveral refults of obfervations ob- 
tairred in different circumftances, feparately, as 1 have 
already flated, on board each (htp ; which ferving re- 
ciprocally as proofs, have furniflied a jpint and in- 

• The iextants we ufed were made by the Englifti optician 
Ramfden; the reflcAing circles, invented by M. de Borda, wefc 
executed by Lénûif, a French mathematical and agronomical in- 
ilrument maker, <.i. 

'•' conteftible 



178.6.] ROUND THE WORLD. !127 

conteftibîe argument of the undeviating regularity of 
the time-keeper, No. 19, by the aid of which we de- 
termined the longitudes of all the points of the coaft 
of America, we reconnoitred. The precautions pf 
every kind, which we multiplied and accumulated, af- 
ford me an affurancc, that our determinations arrived 
at a degree of precilion which ought to procure them 
the confidence both of learned men and navigators. 

The utility of time-keepers is fo generaWy ac- 
knowledged, and fo clearly explained in the Voyage de 
M. de FÏettr/eUf that we (hall only fpeak of the ad- 
vantages they procured us, in order more fully to 
fhow how much M. Berthoud has furpaflfed the for- 
mer limits of his art, fince, after an interval of 18 
months, No. 18 and No. IQ gave refults eoually fatis- 
faâory as at our departure, and permitted us to de- 
termine, feveral times in a day, our exa6l iituation as 
to longitude, according to which M. Bemizet con- 
ftrudled the chart of the coaft of America.* 

This chart, no doubt, leaves much to be done ih 
regard to minutiae ; but we can anfwer for the prin- 
cipal points of the coaft, which are determined with 
pcrfe6l precifion, as well as for its direiftion. It ap- 
peared to us in general bold; we perceived no 
breakers m the ofting, and though there might be 
fomc fand banks near the coaft, wc had no reafon to 
think there were. 

M. de Lamanon, who is the author of the follow- 
ing obfervations, is of opinion, that it is extremely 
difficult to give accurate vocabularies of the lan- 
guages of the various tribes inhabiting the vicinity of 

* I ought to'obferve, that the labour of the aftronomical ob- 
fervations of (he chart was common to both (hips ; and as M. 
Monge had quitted us at Teneritfe, M. de Langle, who is hirofelf a 
very good auronomer, was charged with the direâion of all this 

?art of the work, in which he was aifilled by Meflrs. Vaujuas» 
.aurifton, and Blondela ; of whom the iaft mentioned drew part of 
the charts, according to the obfervations with which he was fiir- 
niibed, 

Q2 Monterey. 



!;! i;: M 



mi 



22S LA péROUSB*8 VOYAGE [l786. 

Monterey. All he could anfwcr for, is the great 
pains and attention he beilowed to avoid being the 
caufc of the adoption of errors. He could not, per- 
haps, even himfelf place any confidence in his own 
pbfcrvations, had he not, at the millions where he 
ilaid four days, met with two Indians, who, being 
perfectly acquainted with the Spaniih, afforded him 
the greateft alHflance. 

I fhall therefore obfcrve, from the remarks of M. 
Lamanon, that there is, perhaps, no country where 
the various languages of the inhabitants are fo ex- 
tremely multiplied as in North California. The nu- 
merous tribes that divide that country, although 
iituated very near each other, live in an infulated 
manner, and have each a feparate language. It is the 
difficulty of learning them all, that confoles the Mif- 
0onàries for not being acquainted with any of them. 
Thus they Hand in need of an interpreter in their 
fermons, and in their exhortations at the point of 
death. 

Monterey, and the Miffion of San Carlos, which 
is dependent upon it, comprehend the country of the 
Achaillians and the Ecclemachs. The languages of 
thefe people, partly united in the fame miffion, would 
foon form a third, if the converted Indians ceafed to 
hold communication with thofe of the Rancherias. 
The language (>f the Achaftlians is commenfurate 
with the feeble devdopement of their intelle6t. As 
they have few abftra6l ideas, they have very few words 
to exprefs them : they did not even appear to diftin- 
guifh, by different names, all the fpccies of animals ; 
and Galled by the fame name of ouakeche both toads 
and frogs : nor do they diftinguifh better the vege- 
tables they make ufe of. Their epithets, when ap- 
plied to moral fubjecl:s, are almoU all borrowed from 
the fenfe of tailing, which they are fondeft of gra- 
tif}'ing ; thus they ufe the word mi/pch to exprefs a 

good 



J786.J ROUND THE WORLD. fl2g 

good man or favoury food^ and keches for a bad man 
or corrupted meat. 

They diftingui(h the plural from the lingular, and 
conjugate fome tenfes of verbs; but they have no 
declenfions, and their fubilantives are much more 
numerous than their adjeé^ives. They never make 
ufe of the labials p and b, or of the letter x; biit 
they have the chr as at Port des Français , as chrjkon- 
der^ a bird, and chruk, a hut ; though their pronuncia- 
tion is generally (bfter. » 
. The diphthong ou occurs in above half their words, 
as chouroui^ to fing ; touroun, the (kin ; iouours, a finger- 
nail ; apd the moft common initial confonants are t 
and K ; but their terminations are very various. >• 

They make ufe of their fingers in counting as fhf 
as 10, few of them being able to do it by memory, 
or without the affiftancc of fome external fign. If 
they would exprefs the number nine, they begin to 
count with their fingers, one, two, three, and flop 
when they have pronounced the word with which 
they fhould have begun. They fcarcely get as far 
ever) as the number five without this aid. 

' Their numerical terms are 

One tnoukala. 

Two . . ouiis. 

Three capes 

Four • . - outiù. 

Five is. 

Six etejahe. 

Seven kakis. 

Eight ouloujmajakhen. 

Nine ......«..% pak. 

Ten tonta. 

The country of the Ecclemachs extends above 20 
leagues to the eaflward of Monterey. Their lan- 
guage is totally different from all thofe of their neigh- 
bours, and has even more refemblance to the lan- 

Q 3 , guages 




Vi III 



230 LA PÉROUSE^S VOYAGE [1786. 

guages of Europe than to thofc of America. This 
grammatical phenomenon, the moil curious in this 
itefpeet ever obierved on the continent, will, perhaps, 
be interefting to thoie of the learned, who feek, in 
the analogy of languages, the hiftory and genealogy 
of tranfplanted nations. It appears, that the lan- 
guages of America have a charaélcriftic difference, 
which to&lly ieparates them from thofe of the ancient 
hemifphere. In comparing them with thofe of Bra- 
zil, Cnili, ahd a part of California, as well as with 
thb numerous vocabularies given by various travel- 
lers, it appears, that the American languages in ge- 
neral are deficient in labials, and particularly the 
letter p, which the Ecclemachs however employ, pro- 
nouncing it like the Europeans. The dialeél of this 
tribe is, in other refpeéls, more copious than that of 
the other nations of California, though it cannot be 
compared with the languages of civilized nations. 
Should it be inferred from hence, that the Eccle- 
machs are foreigners in this part of. America, it muft 
be at leafl admitted, that they have inhabited it for a 
long time, (ince they differ neither in colour, in 
countenance, nor in their general make and external 
appearance, from the other riatiops of that country. 

Their numerical terms are, 

One fek. 

Two ouhch. 

Three ouUef. 

Four amnahon. 

Five feniaca* 

Six pekouJana. 

Seven houlakoolano. 

Eight , koulefaht. 

Nine kamakoualane. 

Ten tomoila. 

Friend nigefech. 

Bow r . .jpagounaçh, 

* 3eard 



178Ô.] lOUND TH3 WOKLp. 

Beard tfcotre. 

To dance mefpa. 

Teeth . » ^. aour, 

Phoca opopabos. 

No maaL 

Yes ike. 

Father aoi. 

Mother atzia. 

Star aimouJus, 

ISTight toumanes. 



931 



CHAP. XIII. 



DEPARTURE FROM MONTEREY- 



-OUK PROJECTED 



ROUTE FOR CROSSINQ THE WESTERN OCEAN TO 

CHIN*. VAIN SEARCH FOR THE ISLAND OP NUBS,- 

TRA SENORA DE LA ÔORTA DISCOVERY OF THE 

ISLAND OF NECKER WE MEET WITH A S17NKHK 

ROCK IN THE NIGHT, ON WHICH WB WERE NEAR- 
LY CAST AWAY DESCRIPTION OF THIS ROCK- 
DETERMINATION OF ITS LATITUDE AND LONGI- 
TUDE VAIN SEARCH FOR THE ISLAND OP LA 

' MIRA AND^ GARDEN ISLAND WB MAKE THE 

ISLAND OF ASSUMPTION, ONE OF THE MARIANAS 
OR LADBQNBS — DESCRIPTION AND TRUE PLACB OP 
THIS ISLAND^ BOTH IN LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE 
— ERROR IN THE ANCIENT CHART OP THE MARI- 
ANAS — ^WE DETERMINE THE LATITUDE AND LOK- 

-GITUDB OF THE BASHEE ISLANDS WE ANCHOR IN 

THE HAB.BOUR Of MACAO.. 

THE part of the great ocean we had to crols, 
in order to reach Macao, is almofl unknown, 
and afibrded us an expeélation of nieeting with fbme 
undifcovered iflands. The Spaniards, who alone 
frequent it^ have no longer that ardour for difoov^ 

Q4 ries^ 



Î32 LA pârovsë's voyage [1786. 

ric8, which their thirft of gold perhaps firft excited, 
but which induced thein to encounter every danger. 
To that ancient cnthuliarm have fuccccdcd the frigid 
calculations of fecurity ; and their track, during thi:ir 
run from Acapulco to Manilla, is confined within a 
A)ace of twenty leagues, between the thirteenth ami 
iourtccnth degree of latitude. On their return they 
nearly run on the parallel of the fortieth degree, by 
the aflillance of the weflerly winds, which are very 
frequent in thefc parts. Certain, from long ex- 
perience, of not meeting with either funken rocks 
or (l)oals, they can navigate by night with as little 
precaution as in the fcas of Europe ; and their runs 
being more direc^t, become fhorter, and the intercfts 
of the owners lefs expofcd to lofs by (hip wreck. 
..VThe objeét, however, of our voyage being to make 
<ti6wdifcoverie6, and to advance the progrefs of navi-. 
ettion in feas as yet but little known, we avoided the 
moft frequented tracks with as much care as the gal- 
leons employ to keep, as it were, in the very wake 
of the veflei that preceded them. We were, how- 
ever, obliged to navigate within the latitude of the 
•trade winds, as we could not expect, without their 
«id, to arrive at China within fix months, fo as to 
accompliOi the ulterior objeéls of our voyage. 

On leaving Monterey, I intended to direct my 
courfe to the S. W. as t*ar as thebtitude of 28", 
in which parallel fomc geographers have placed 
the iAand of Nueftra Senora de la Gorta. All 
roy refearches to know what ancient navigator firft 
difcovered this iiland, were unfucoeikfu]. I re- 
peatedly turned over my own notes, and all the 
printed voyages on board of both our fhips, but I 
found neither a hiftory nor a legend of this pretend- 
ed ifland, to which I imaginç geographers have con- 
tinued to give a place in thç. great ocpan* iperel)' in 
conformity tpthe chart taken by Adpiiral X^rd An- 
fon on bojird the jgalleon from Mànilt^\^^; j,^,^,^^ , 

^ ■'''*^ • See note on pages 85 and 86. 

At 



178Ô.] ROUND THE WOKLD. 233 

At Monterey I had procured a iiiunurcript SpanKh 
c tnrt ot' this ocean, which however dkti'eri but very 
4 ttle from that engraved under the diredVion of the 
cdiiorot Atifon's voyage. And it may be uiierted, that 
iltii T the capture of the galleon fi-oin Manilla by that 
mhnirai, and even tor the UiA two centunc»,. no ad- 
vances have been made in the knowledge of thii iea, 
except in conf^cjuence of the fortunate difcoveru of 
the Sandwich iflnad» ; the Kcfolutiun and thc^Dif* 
covcry being the only (hips, except the Jioufloleand 
the AArolabc, which, for '200 years, Jiavc qiiitled 
the track pursued by the galleons *. , A.umt>: 

We were detained two days, in fight of iMonten^; 
by contrary winds and calms, but. they ibon. fettled 
at N. W. andlcndhied me to get into the latttudo 
of '28^, on ffwhich ^raiiel I pro|}ofed to run dowa 
500 leagues, as far as the longitude affigued to the 
ifland of Nuefira Senoiii dc la Gorta; iels indeed 
with a hope k)f meeting with that ifland^ ihan to cx> 
punge it from our charts, iJbecaufe it would be dofir- 
abic ibr the intoreils of navigation, that ijQands, whoie 
latitude and longitude (ure eiToneouily laid down, 
fhou Id remain in oblivion or. totally. unknown, till 
accurate obfervations^ at leafl, of latitiutc have given 
the line of their true place, Ihould no obfen'ations 
of longitude havic admitted of detcrpiining the pre- 
cife point they tx.'cupy on the furface of the globe. 
I. intcirded afterwards tpjncline towaixls the S. W. 
and to' trrofe^thd track of Capt. Clcivke, in the 20tli 
degree of latitudcj.and the 179th degree» of E. Ion* 
gitude, frciBntiie meridian of Paria ; whidi is neailijr 
the fpot where thia Englifb captain was obliged to 
quit that tfiiiêki in ofcder to reach Kitmtfchatka f. "'* 

^^^m'>^: «^':l:-r;'»^m' - ::. ' ■. • ,,,,,■■ '-^ 

• Aflil»ir3« /^nfoiii anil, venous buccançei's, having no object. 
hut tp,niàki^ <;jspfm'(;i. hay^..alwavs.foilôW^^(^ tlfe comAioa track. 

f Captain t)!ei-keç|fferipii)ec(, aiurleavirz tUeSandwichlflands, 
40 run along thé parallel of 20 deg. âs far 9S the fneridian of 

M Unn -jiifnv , iori-)!^. * Kamtfcfiatka j 



' ( i 



;i' 



I'l 



■WM 



^34 LA pé0USE*S VOJTAGE [j 786. 

Mjrun WM at firft very fortunate. The wind 
changed from N. W. to N. £. and I doubted not 
we had got into the regioi^ of the periodical winds $ 
but from the 18th of 0<Siober they (hifled to the 
weûward, and continued as obflinâtely in that quar- 
ter as in the high latitudes, only varying from N. W. 
to S. W. I ilruggled againil thefe obflacles eight or 
ten days, taking advantage of every variation in the 
wind to get to the westward, and thus at lad get 
into the longitude I propofed. 

We had, during that time, almoil continual rains 
and ftorms, which caufed an extreme humidity in the 
between-decks, and drenched all the failors clothes : 
I much feared the fcurvy would be the confequence 
of this bad weather ; but we had only a few degrees 
to run to arrive at the meridian I wiOied for ; I reach- 
ed it on the 27th of Oâober. We had then no 
iigns of land, but two birds of the coulon-chaud kind *, 
which were caught on board the AUroIabe, and thefe 
were io lean, that it feen^d extremely probable they 
had loft their way for a long time out at fea, and 
might come from the Sandwich Iflands, from which we 
were but 120 leagues. Theifland of Nueftia Senora 
de la Gorta being laid down on my SpaniOi map 45 
miles more to the foutbward, and five degrees more 
to the eaflward, than upon Admiral Anfon*s chart, I 
ihaped nny courfe to pafs this fécond point, though 
with no better fuccefs. The wefterly winds ftill 
continuing to blow in thefe leas, I endeavoured to 
approach the tropic, in order at length to meet with 
tne trade winds, which wpuld carry us into Alia, and 

Kamtichatka; becaiife that track being uofrequented, he hoped 
' to make difcoveries there. He did not alter nis courfe till the 
50th Marrh, 1779, when he was in 180 deg. 40 min. E. long, or 
<79> deg. 20 min. weft of the meridian of Greenwich; which gives 
178 deg 20 min. E. bng. from that of Paris. — French Editor. 

^ Thefe are a marine bird, better known by the name of 
fea-iarks. 

whofe 



a..:.- 



1786.J ROUND THE WOULD. !i35 

whofe temperature feemed more calculated to main* 
tain the (hips companies in good health. It is true 
we had not as yet one fick man on board, but our 
voyage, though already very long, was fcarcely com- 
menced, if compared with the immenfe fpace we 
had ftill to pafs over. If the vaft plan of our navi-, 
gation difheartened no man, yet our fails and rig^ 
ging reminded us every day, that we had been 1Ô 
months conllantly at fea ; for at every inilant fome of 
our running ropes were breaking, and our fail-makers 
were fcarcely fufficient to repair our fails, which were 
almoft entirely worn out. We had, it is true, otha* 
fuits on board, but the length of our intended voyage 
demanded the ftri(5teft economy, and almoft half our 
cordage was already unferviceable, though we were 
ftill very far from having accompliihed half our pro- 
jeâied navigation. ■ .'*■ 

On the 3d November, in 24** 4' N. lat. and 105® 
0/ W. long, we were furrounded by birds of the 
noddy, man-of-war bird, and tern kinds, which gene^*^- 
rally go but a little way from the land. We there- 
fore flood on with more caution, fhortening fail at 
night ; and in the evening of the 4th November, got 
ftghtof an ifland bearing weft, diftant four or five 
leagues, which, though it appeared inconfiderable, 
we flattered ourfclves was not alone. -^ 

I made the fignal to keep clofe to the wind, and to 
ftand off and on all night, waiting with the greateft 
impatience for day-light to purfue our difcovery. 
At five in the morning of the 5th November, we 
were but three leagues from the ifland, and I bore 
away right before the wind to reconnoitre it. I hailed 
the Aftrolabe to make fail a-head and prepare to 
anchor, in cafe the coafl fliould afford an anchorage 
and a creek where we might land. 

This ifland, which is very fmall, is almoft a mere 

rock, about 500 toifes long, and at moft 6o high ; 

and though totally deftitute of trees, it is furnifti- 

■I'.j . , ed 



.i,;!ii'V 



i;ii 



236 LA PBOUSE*S' VOYAGB [l78^. 

ed with a great deal of herbage towards its fum- 
mit. The naked rock is covered with the dung of 
birds, and appearing white, forms a contrail with 
the various red fpots where grafs has not grown. I 
approached it within a mile, and its fhores were as 
perpendicular as a wall, the fea breaking violently 
againft it in every part, fo that it was impoflible to 
« attempt a landing. As we went almoft round this 
illand, we laid it down with great precifion. Its la- 
j titude and longitude, as determined by M. Dage- 
let, are 23° 34' N. and 166^ 5'y W. from Paris. 1 
• named it IJle Necker. If the fterility of this ifland 
1 renders it of little importance, its precife place is ex- 
^tremely interefting to navigators, to whom it might 
^ otherwife be fatal. I pafled very near its Ibuthern- 
moft ihore without founding, to ^void flopping the 
(hip's way. Breakers appeared on every part of the 
fhore, except the S. E. point, where was a fmall 
ridge of rocks that might extend two cables* length. 
Wifhing to knovir, before we continued our route, 
whether we could ftrike ground, I founded, as did 
the Aftrolabe, who was near a league to leeward, 
when on board each (hip we only found 25 fathoms, 
over a bottom of broken fhells. M. de Langle and my- 
felf were far from fuppofing there was fo fmall a depth 
of water, and I thought it evident that Necker liland 
rs nowbutthe fummit or nucleus of a much more con- 
fiderable ifland, which the fea has, by degrees, waflied 
away, becaufe in all probability conflfling of a tender 
fubftance, or eafily broke away; though the rock which 
now remains is very hard, and will equally defy, for 
fuccceding ages, the filent mouldering of time and 
the boifterous efforts of the fea. As it was impor- 
tant we fliould afcertain the extent of this bank, we 
continued founding on board each ftiip, and fleering 
to the weftward. The depth encreafed gradpally as 
we got further from the land ; and, at about ten 
miles diftance, a line of 150 fathoms did not reach 
h- , , , the 



1786.] ROUND THE WORLD. 237 

the ground. Throughout this fpace of ten miles 
we only found a bottom of coral and broken (hells: 

The whole of that day we had men continually 
looking out at the mad-head. The weather was 
fqually and rainy, though from time to time we had 
very clear intervals, during which we could fee ten 
or twelve leagues. At fun-fet it was as fine- as pof- 
lible in every quarter, and we faw nothing all 
around except birds, whofe number had not dimi- 
nifhed, flights of feveral hundreds croffing each 
other's track, and thus baffling our obfervations, re- 
garding the point of the horizon to which they di- 
reéled their courfc. 

We had fo fine a view at dnlk, and the moon, 
which was almoft at the full, afforded fo flrong a 
light, that I thought we might fafely ftand on. In 
fa6t I had perceived in the evening Necker Ifland at 
four or five leagues diftance. However, I ordered 
all the iludding fails to be taken in, and to reduce 
the way of both (hips to three or four knots an hour. 
The wind was eafterly and we were fteering to the 
weftward ; nor had we had a finer night, or a 
fmoother fea, fince our departure from Monterey : 
but this very fmoothnefs of the weather was nearly 
fatal to us. About half pad one in the morning we 
perceived breakers at two cables' length a-hcad of onr 
fhip, but the fea being fo fmooth they fcarcely made 
the leafl noife, and only broke at long intervals, and 
veryflightly. The Allrolabe perceived them at thefame 
time, being a little farther dillantfrom them. We put 
Our helm harda-flarboard both at the fame moment, and 
dood to the S. S. E. and as w.e made head-way during 
this manœuvre, I think we cannot reckon our diftance 
from thefe breakers above a cable's length. I then 
founded, finding nine fathoms water over a rocky 
bottom, and foon after 10 fathoms, and then 12 fa- 
thoms ; and a quarter of an hour afterwards we did not 
ftrike ground with a line of 6o fathoms. Thus did we 
efcape the moil imminent danger that navigators 
yn'h^i^y.'j ':■' ' ' . could 



338 LA PKOUSE^S VOYAGE [178^. 

could encounter. It is a duty I owe to my crew to 
(declare, that I never faw lefs diforder or confulion in 
fimilar circumftances. The fmalfefl: negleél: in the 
|)errormance of the manœuvres to be made, in order 
to get clear of the breakers, would have been ine- 
vitably fatal. We perceived the contmuation of 
thefe breakers near an hour, when they ran out to 
the wcftward, and at three o'clock we loft fight of 
them. However, I continued ilandtng to the S. E. 
till break of day^ which was very fine and very clear : 
and we then faw no breakers, though we had only 
run five leagues fince we had changed our courfe. I 
am perfuaded, that had we not more particularly re- 
connoitred this rock, we (hould have left many doubts 
concerning its cxiftence ; but it was not fufficient to 
> tc certain of this, or to have efcaped the danger ; I 
I was deiirous no future navigator fhould be expoied 
to it. I therefore made the fignal, at day-break, to 
put about, in order again to find it. We perceived 
it at eight in the momint bearing N. N. W. when 
i crowded fail to near it, and loon perceived an iflet 
or fplit rock, of 50 toifes diameter at moft, and 20 
or 25 high. It was fituated at the N. W. extremi- 
ty of this (hoal, whofe S. E. point, on which we 
were fo near being loft, extended above four leagues 
in that direélion. Between the iflet and the break- 
ers towards the S. E. we faw three fand-banks, not 
more than four feet above the furface of the fea. 
They were feparated from each other by a kind of 
greeniih water, which appeared to be not above a 
^thom deep. Some rocks even with the water's 
edge, on which the fea broke violently, furrounded 
. this fhoal, as a ring of diamonds furrounds a me- 
dallion, and thus defended it from the fury of the 
; fea. We failed along it, at lefs than a league dif- 
■^ tance, to the eaftward, to the fouthward, and to the 
wcftward. The north fide alone remained unexplor- 
ed, as we had only a bird's eye view of it from the 
maft-head. Thus, it is polRble, it may be much more 
^..-. » , extenfive 



T . 



1786.] BOUND THE WOBLD. 23^ 

cxtenlive than we imagined ; but its length from Su 
E. to N. W. or from the extremity of the bredkers^ 
that had been nearly fatal to us, to the iflet, is ioar 
leagues. The geographical poiition of this iflet, which 
is the only apparent c^jeâ, was determined by M. 
Dageletto be 23** 45' N. lat. and 188° !(/ W. long. 
It lies W. by N. from Necker Ifland, diftant 23 
leagues. It mufi not be forgotten that the eaftem- 
moil point is four leagues nearer. I named this fhoal 
Baffe ties Frênaies Françai/es, becaufe it was very 
near being the termination of our voyage. ia% 

Having thus determined, with all the prccifion in 
our power, the geographical po(ition of this (hoal, 
I dire<5led my courfe to the W. S. W. I obfen^- 
ed that all the clouds feemed to coUeél in that quar- 
ter, and I^ flattered myfelfto find at lafi a land of 
fome importance. A great fwell which came from 
the W. N. W. led me to conclude there was no 
ifland to the northward, and I could fcarcely pcrfuade 
myfelf that Necker Ifland, and the Skoal of the French 
frigates did not belong to an archipelago, which 
might cither he inhabited, or at leafl inhabitable. 
My conjecturés, however, were not realized. Thç 
birds foon difappearcd, and we lofî; every hope of 
meeting with any further objeâ. 

I did not alter the plan I had formed, of croiiitig 
the track of Captain Gierke in the 179th degree of É. 
long*, and I reached that point on the l6th Novem- 
ber. But, although above two degrees to the fbutb* 
ward of the tropic, we did not meet with thofe trade 
winds, which in the Atlantic Ocean only fufîèr very 
flight and momentary variations. Fora fpace of 800 
leagues, as far as the Marianas, we followed the paral- 
lel of 20^ with witicls almofl as variable, as thofe met 
with in June and July, upon the coafts of France. 
The N. W. winds, which made the fea rife, veered 
to the northward, and then to the N. E. \ the wea- 
ther becoming clear and very fine. They foon 
' ^ ihifted 



'iiiii 



^P 



li 



\\ 



!' 

3 «I 



./ 



240 LA P^ROUSS'S VOYAGE [l7S6. 

Ihiftéd to the E. and S. E. The- Iky was then watery 
and dull, and it rained very hard. Some hours after, 
when the fame wind had fhifted to the S. E., then to 
the W, and laftly, to the N. W. the horizon cleared 
up. This change continued two or three days, but 
it did not once happen that the wind came about 
from the S. E. to E. and to N. E. 
- I have entered into thefe particulars of the regu- 
larly variable winds at this feafon, and in this lati- 
v/ tudc, becaufe they appear to contradiél the theory 
' of thofe, who explain the conftancy, and the regu- 

, "■ larity of the winds between the tropics, by the rota- 
tory motion of the earth. It is very extraordinary, 
that on the mod immenfe fea of the globe, and in a 
fpace^ where the reaétion of the land can have no in- 
fluence, we (hould find variable winds for near two 
months, and that they (hould be continually eaf- 
terly only in the neighbourhood of the Marianas ■*♦. 
^bi;i. Though 

* If the caiife of the trade winds is uncertain, the knowledge of 
' their exiftcnce, and the period when they blow is not the lefs im- 
portant and tifeful to navigators. But a certain rule cannot be 
laid down, till the South Sea has been repeatedly traverfed iti alt 
icafo.ns. The voyages, however, that have hitherto been made, 
prove -that the eafterly winds reign on the feas defcribed by La Pé- 
' roufe. A reference to the tables of the route in Cook's third voyage, 
will prove their conftançy, during the months of March, April, &o. 
IfQerke changed his courfe fooner, he did not intend to do fo, and 
it was not in confequence of the change of the winds, for as foon 
' as they blew from the fouthward, he took advantage of them to run 

to the oorthward. Captain King thus expreflès himfelf on the con- 
ftancy of the winds. *' During the continuance of the light winds, 
*' which prevailed almoft conftantly ever fince our departuic from 

*' the Sandwich Iflanda."' And in the following page, he fays, 

*> On the 6th of April, at noon, we loft the trade wind." 

On comparing Dixon's journal with his table of the route, it ap- 
pears that he left Atoui the iStli September, and arrived at Macao 
on the i8th November, having in çi days of navigation, between 
the equator, and the 13th degree of N. lat. "un 88 degrees of longi- 
tude, with only one day of fouth wind : all the reft of the time the 
wind continued eafterly. 

" Our C' jit on judged it more prudent to fteerto the fouthward, 
•■' ** till we were in about ij.deg. 30 min., and then bear away to the 

"weft- 



r?^'- 



K 



1786.] HOUND THE WORLD. ,^41 

Though we only purfued one track upon this ocean, 
this is not a fa6l entirely infulated^ for our run cpa- 
tirtued near two months. 

J agree, however, that we ought not hence to con- 
clude, that the zone comprehended between the 
northern tropic, and the 19th degree, is without the 
limits of the trade winds in the month of November 
and December. One lingle voyage is not fufficient 
to change received opinions^ but we may afïèrt, that 
the laws on which they are founded, are not fo uni- 
verlal, as to admit of no exceptions, and confequently, 
that they may be explained by thofe, who think they 
have penetrated into the fecrets of nature. - 

Even the theory of Halley concerning the varia- 
tion of the magnetic needle, would have appeared to- 
tally undeferving of confidence, even in the eyes of 
its inventor, had that aftronomer, fo juftly celebrated 
in fo many various ways, departed firom Monterey ia 
. 1 24° W. long., and crofled the great ocean as far as 
160° E. long. : for he would then have perceived, 
that in a fpace of 76°, or more than 1 500 leagues, there 
is a difference in the variation of only five degrees, and 
that confequently the navigator cannot draw any con- 
cluiion from it to détermine or rectify his longitude. 
The method, however, by lunar obfervations, particu- 
larly when combined with that of the time-keepers, 
leaves fo little to be done in this refpeift, that we made 
Aflump^ion Ifland, one of the Marianas, with the 
greateft precifion, in the fuppofition that the ifland of 
Tinian, of which Captain Wallis has given the place 



I 



:\v ' 



It 



I'i .iU: 



m 



I! 

I 



** weft ward, as that track was tnoft likely fora true trade, and it had 
*' been found in Captain Cook's laft voyage, that in the latitude 20 
" and 21 deg. to leeward of thefe iflands, the winds are at beft buC 
" light, and often variable. — Dixon* t f^oyage, p. 281. '' ^'* 

" From the 2 2d Oftober to the 31ft, we had little variety. Acon- 
" fiant eafterly trade wind caufed a heavy fwell, &c,— xWfrt, p. 285. 

Here then is an additional proof, that the trade winds reign be- 
tween thefe parallels, during the months of September, October, 
and November, -^French Etlttor. ' 

Vol. I, R according 



V» 



'I 

if 



r 



^é 



tX VlfeOVib'g VOVXGE 



3P^- 



t 



é 



tl78(5-. 



kiiiiB^nfe tb >ife a'fti-vàtibHs, lay nearly fouth of Af- 
IftSiililbti ; â flîi'éftiô'h ivhich âll geographers, and na- 
vigators have agreed in ailij^Miù'g to thé Ladroties or 
ItSK^iîà'à. Ve mkàe tKèS'îflanils on thé V4th be- 
"fc^mt^é^r àt't^ô îti 't>ie iltohodn. I had Ihaped my 
^édui'fe't6yafs BiétWcéfi'^he iflà'ftd bf Mira, and that of 
^ÈHlfei^a. ancl Gàrrfen tùitidj ivtiofe empty names oc- 

• "fciif^y 'Wdce^ oh thie chart, Ivhfere ho land ever exifted ; 
^lis'deëèîvîn^ 'navigators. Who ivill, perhaps, hereafter 
Irtj'éét^Wîth them fdveral diegrees to the northward or 
«fô<i^h#aM\ Â'ftîimption Maria itfclf, which forms 
i 'pah '^( this "Well known clufter, of which we 
have a hiftôt*y in 'feveral volumes, is placed in the 
Jeîiiîts* "cliart (firice ôôpied by all other geogra- 
Jphci^^ 30^t66 much to th e north ward . Its true place 

' ?s ï ^^ 4V N. m., artd Ui^ is' E. long, 
' . 'A.'s'i^eYâw^t'rbyi bur anchoring place Mangs beàr- 
fhjET 1^8" Sï^ëft, ^iftaht about five léaffués, we found 
That the three fôcks 6f that haine are alfo placed 30' 

. ^6b miiéh to the ribfth'vvard ; and it is almoft certain 
^he^lSmfe;érrôr 'ëxiils with règahl to Uracas, ihe laft 
'of 'the lllarfeha tïTahcl's, of which the archipelago 
'îïipMil ;biily ^extend as far as ' 20*^ Î20' N. lat. The 
'Je^itsKaVe pretty accurately appreciated iheir dif- 

; 'ï^néès'lfrèm'eaéh other, but they have made very bad 
lâftfbhblhical' ôbtervâtioiis in tliis réfpecSl, Nor have 

. {hëy,beeh liappiér in fixing the fize of Aflump- 
'iVdn IlTând, for which they had probably fio other 
jîieiihôd i;l>ûn 'their reckoning. For though they 

^ 'd'èrcHbb'it as ïîx'leàgues îh circumference, the angles 

*■ j^f pur furvey,r^4uce it to half that extent ; its higheft 



,iij iii , 



,f,,o. 



..*.riîaye'âïready advanced loathe notes on pages 24, 31, and 35, 
t^at "^we are hot àutbpnféd, and that it would even be dangerous 
to, expunge from pur charte, every ancient difcovery, for which 
fôrriê nàYi^ator nwiy fiave fought in vain. An additional proof of 
<his j^rtioi^.. is afforded by Captain Marfliall, who returning 
frioiji'^ot'any Jpaj^ to Macao, in 17Ô8, naet with, (garden tfland, or 
'ïfla"(le los Jarcîînes în'aïf deg. N. lat. and 14,0^ W. long, from the 
meridian of Paris.— /><?»c/i jju^/w, ,_ *■ i -ji 

t*, point 



l!„ 



01780.1 jipy^D Tm y^AftLp» (ïW? 

Îloint being about 200 tQife^ abavp the l^V^ ç£\hp.(l^' 
^ t would ;be dii}îçi|Uifor th^rpoil lively imaeinjation tp 
paint a more horrid .plaçc> though ,the n\qn oirdin^ 
afped after fodong A ri|n would l^iyel^pen deljgl^tf^i 
1Ô us : but ft peifwft çpnp, whQfe)Ôi^açe,..9S f^rjas^ 
totfcis above the level of the fea.w^ ^ bj^qk as.ço^, 
could only eaoite painful ^f^tiQns,,by cl^illiiig.pv^ 
iflattering ihope : for during ifn^ny yfc^ks p^À, ,w^ 
thad anticipated the turtles and , cocoa . puts, in yfh\^ 
.we, hoped to luxuriate on one of the-^ariap^ ifl^nfis. 
In,faél we perceived fon)exocoa7nuttre;çs,,>vyçh,pQ- 
cupy fcarçely /a fifteenth part of the çjrcumfç^pce ,ç£ 
this ifland, for a depth of 40 toifes, and wjiieh jy^ere. jn 
a manner concealed jan^riheltercd from tbe eafl: iwipd. 
3'his was the only part of the ifland .^here it jiv^s 
poffible to anchor^ the depth of watçr being .^pfathpfas 
over.a.bottom of blackjand, whioh ex^çpjcjs Ms ^liafi 
3 quarterof ,a league. The ;iVftroJi*be (b^id gajp^ 
this (anchoring place, I lia4 ^aKo çojçne to ,wit})ifi 
pistol (hot .vf her; but having rdrove ba^,a çaWeJs 
length,, our anchor loft its hçM,i^p4. we. wpçe oblige 
^o.'weigh it again with 100. fathoms, /i^f cable .p^tj^^d 
m5,ke two bcjards tft^t in, with the; lanjd. [J^j^s litj^Je 
accident gave mc: njgtt m.uchi wfleaiin^s, as I pçricîçix^ 
the i^and .<Jid .not .merit, a i JioQg ft?iy . JV^y bp^it ^s 
gfixne aihore under the içiommanid, pf rM-: Pputin, ^V^- 
tetjant.de vaiffe.au, ,as weJl as that of the ^l]t;rQlabe, 
in which M. de X^angle went bimfelf, together with 
JV^eflrs. de. la Martinière, .Ya^ijiuas, Preypft, , and ;Fa- 
Iber Receveur. . I obftrved, by tl)e ,, help of iT^y glafs, 
that tj^eyi had. great difculty in landing,. as the fça 
broke . every where ; but they hfvd taken advajjx^gp 
©f a fmooth interval, by leaping into the >yatçr;^p 
to, their necks, il was fearful thQy ,\yQi|ild,find,i(lill 
greater difficulty in re-embarking, as the fuff imigl^t 
increafe, every mproent. TJiis was the only circum- 
ûftnce . that could . induce . ,me . tp anchor; t^ere, .^ fpr 
we were all .uâïv ^as .&Bi;iQys . to >depaf t, .. aSijye^^lj^d 

R2 ' been 




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244 LA pilRdU8E*ft V0YA6E [l786. 

been ardently dcffirous to arrive. I was therefore 
'vfefy happy to fee our boats return at two o'clock, 
and the Adrolabe got under way. M. Bontm in- 
'formed me the ifland was a thoufand times more 
'horrible than it appeared at a quarter of a league dif- 
•tance. The lava that had flowed from it has formed 
precipices and. hollows, boi-dcred with a few flunted 
tocoa-nut trees, very thinly fcattorcd, and mixed with 
limes, and a fmall number of plants, among which 
it is almoin impoflible to go lOO toifcs in an hour. 
Fifteen or fixteen men were employed from nine in 
the morning till noon in bringing about 100 cocoa- 
nuts to the boats, though they had only to pick them 
under the trees ; for they found the greateft difficulty 
in carrying them to the fea-lide, notwithftanding the 
diftancc was very (hort. The kiva which had iftued 
from the o.fatcr, had covered the whole circumference 
as far ar» e border of -about 40 toifes towards the fea. 
The fummit appeared in a manner vitrified, but re- 
fembling black glafs of the colour of foot. We never 
perceived the termination of the iummit, which was 
capped with clouds. Although \n'e faw no fmoke, 
the fulphureous fmell, which extended half a league 
out to fea, led me to fufpeét itVas not entirely ex- 
tinguifhed, and that its lad eruption was poffibly not 
very ancient ; for there appeared no trace of decom- 
pofition m the lava on the middle of the mountain. 
^^^ Every thing fhowed that no human creature, nor 
even a quadruped, had ever been unfortunate enough 
to have this iiland for its home. We faw no- 
thing but crabs of the largeft kind, very dangerous 
during the night to the weary traveller who fhould 
refign hjmfelf to flecp. One of them was brought 
on board. It is probable this fhcll-fi^fh has driven 
away from the ifland the fea-birds, who always lay 
on ihore, and whofe eggs they would devour. We 
only faw three or four noddies at the anchoring- 
place : but when we approached the Mangs, our iliips 



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1^86.J IIOUND HE WOBLD. »i 

were furroundcti with in umcrn' 'o flights of oitHlk* 
On Afliimption Ifland M. i\e L Je kil J otic i,-^,. 
fembling a Wack-bircl, and oi t lame viour, but 
it was not added to our colleé^i^ i, as it icii down a 
precipice. Our naturalifts f'ouini, in the hollows of 
nocks, fome very fine (hells ; and M. de la Mmtiniôrc 
made an ample harvcft of plants, bringing on board 
three or four Ipeeics of the banana-tree, which I had 
never feen in any country. We did not perceive 
any other fifh than a red ray, fome fmall Iharks, and 
a fca ferpent, which might be three feet long, and 
three inches thick. The ,100 cocoa-nuts, and thft 
fmall quantity of fpecimens of natural hillory we hadi . 
{o rapidly fnatched frou) the volcano, for fuch is the 
true defcription of the ifjand, had cxpofpd our boat» 
and crews to coniiderablc dangers. M. Boutin, 
obliged to throw himfelf into the fea, both to get on 
fhore and to re- embark, received lèverai wounds ir^ 
his hands, having been neceffitated to lean on the 
fharp rocks with which the ifland is Ikirted. M. dc 
Langle alfo ran fome rifks, but thefe are unavoidable 
in landing in fuch fmall iflands, and particularly thofe 
fo circular in their form. The fea, which comes 
from to windw.ard, glides along the fhore, and forms, 
at every point, a furf which renders debarkation ex-: 
tremely dangerouSi 

Fortunately we had a fufficiency of water till our 
arrival in China; for it would have been difficult tq 
take it in at AfTunjption Ifland, even fhould it afford 
any. Our adventiirers perceived none, except in , 
ithe hollows of fome rocks, where it was prcferved 
as in a bowl ; nor did the moil conlidecable of thefç 
contain more than fix bottles. 

At three o'clock, the Aflrplabe having got under 
fail, we continued our courfe W. by N., ranging along 
the Mangs, which bore from us N. E. by N. diftant 
three or four leagues. I was delirous of determining 
the polition of Uracas, the northernmoll of the Maria- 

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i4i^ CA ^éiteùiW's voY)fcE [178^. 

nift^, bUf ^€ itittfl: hrfV« ftteriffccd a night, ntid I wjw 
art^ious to rèàth China, left the European fhips ll^ould 
hë failed befort*. oui* arrival. By them I ardently 
iVifhed to fend hofne to France, an account of our 
fûbônrs on the côaft of America, 08 #ell as of our 
Voyage to Maôao ; and, therefore, that vrc might not 
Ibfe à moment, I (food on under a crowd ( }( fail. 

Both our (hipâ Were furroundcd, during the night, 
>^ith it)numerable flights of birds^ arpparently inhabi- 
tjants of the IVIaln^s dnd Uracas, which arc mere rocks, 
it is evident thefe birds do not go to a diftance 
fi"om them, but to lecvVard ; for we fcdrcely faw any 
l!o the eaftward of the Mariana, and they accom- 
panied tis 50 leagues to the WeftWard. The greatcll 
Auftrtfcer of thefe were a fpecies of man-of-war birds ' 
and noddies, with fome gulls, terns, and tropical 
Mfds. We met with ftrong breezes in the channel 
tbat féparateë thé lylariatias from the Philippine 
Iflàntfe, a very heivy (fed, and currents, that fet us 
èbttftkntly to the fouthward : their drift may be efti- 
Ihiited at hëlf a knot an hour. My (hip now made a 
little viâlét for the firft time fmce our departure from 
Fràticè, which I attributed to fome of the oakum in thd 
feâms near the wàte'i^ line Having rotted. Gur taulkers, 
whb, during this run, eiamined thé (hips (ides, found 
feveral feams almoft open, and they fufpeéled thofc 
îréâr the water to be in the famé ûatt. They had 
fiot bèeh àblèto re^lr them at fèa, but it was their 
jîrli bu(iAë(^ ott ô'tor arVivàl in the i'oad of Macno. 

ÛÛ the 28th we faW the Bàfhec Idandsj* of which 
ifttdiinîrûl Byron has laid dov^'ri the longitude, though 
Wàiicutàtèljr ; that of CAptain Wallis being nearer 
the truth. We paflcd at a league diftance from the 
îiortberhmôft fdckè. They oiVght, however, to be 
'^hïïtd ijlets, Aotivithftandi'ng the authority of Dam- 

• ' . '• • ► - . ■ 

,♦ Thq Bafhee or Baçhi Iflands, were fq named by William Dam- 
^ier from an intOAicatine; liquor drunk therlj in ereat abuudaiice. 

*--~FreiichEâté.--'-'^\'-' y-' ;'=^-»*,^-^ "^ i^v.>«^' -^ ■*' ^ 
-.; ^. y »^ 4 . r ^i Ï pier. 



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1767>J RQUl^D TJIR WOSLD. ^7 

pier, for the fmallefl of them is half a league in cir- 
cumference ; and although it is not wooded, we faw 
many herbs on the eail fitlc of it. l^e ead longitude 
of this iflet \vas determined when bearing tbuth of us, 
(HHant three miles ; and according to a mean of above 
t)0 fets of lunar obfervations, taken in the moft favour- 
able cirumf^ances, was fixed at 1 19° 41^ and its la- 
titude at 21" 9^ 13" N. ». M. Bcrnizet alfo deline- 
ated the relative fituation of all thcfe iflands, and 
drew a plan of thenf, which was the refult of above 
200 bearings. I did not propofe to put in there, the 
Bafhec's having been already repeatedly .vilited, and 
there being nothing interefting to invitfc us. 

Having therefore determined their pofition, I con- 
tinued my courfe towards China, and on the firft of 
January, 1787, I ftruck ground in do fathoms water. 
The n^xt day we were furroundcd by a grc^t nufn^ 
bcr of fi(hing-boatç, vvjiich kept t}!^ fea in fpit^ of 
bad weather, but could uot diyert their attcntjop tip7 
vfa,rd^ U9 for a njioment, the nati^re of their ^i)?ery 
not permitting them tq turn alide to come along lidç 
of a (hip, while dragging along the ground pet9 pf 
an extreme length» that could not be raifcd in twq 
hours. , 

On the 2d of January we faw White-rock, find ?w- 
chored at night to the pprthward of Ling^ting,ap,d thç 
ne3^t day in the road of Mac^o ; airier having pa^jbd 
a ch9.iinpj,-fr which, though very faie, I believe to bç 
but little frequented. We took Chine(c pilqt$ ()^ 
boiird >vit,hip t^ iijai)4 9^ J^W^* 

* I thyik it qeceflTâry to apprife qavig^tors, that thefe pretended 
rocks nre fmall iflanuls, becauie that çrroneipus name led nie into an 
error during feveral hours. 

t Navig^ors \vho wi(h to kni99f this «hannpi, ought to prç^virç 
Pahympie's chart, pjjbUflje^ ia t^e Ncp^ui\e of Dapr;^. >Ve left 
the great Lema, the iflafids of Ling-tinig, Chichow, Laf-j^m-mee, 
Long-fhitow, and Chang- chow, to the fouthward; and to the 
northward only the iflaad of Sockpchow, and the great iflaAd of 
iUntaq, 

R4 CHAP, 



* ' 



4» 



248 



hX PEROUSE S VOYAGE 



[1787. 



f ..^ 



CHAP. XIV. 






•V --v 









ARRIVAL AT MACAO STAY IN THE ROAD OP TYPA — 

. POLITE RECEPTION OP THE GOVERNOR DESCRIP- 

«.( TION OP MACaO^ITS GOVERNMENT POPULA- 

? ^ TION AND RELATION WITH CHINA. DEPARTURE 

*f FRspM MACAO OUR LAND-PALL IN THE ISLAND OP 

, *» LUCONIA UNCERTAINTY OP * THE SITUATION OP 

f THE BANKS OP BULINAO, MANSILOQ, AND MARI- 
I VELLE WE ENTER THE BAY OP MANILLA BY 

^ , THE SOUTH CHANNEL, HAVING TRIED THE NORTH 
. IN VAIN MARKS POR WORKING INTO THE BAY 

^ ") OP MANILLA WITHOUT DANGER ANCHORAGE AT 

• CAVITA. 

THE Chinefe, who had piloted us into Macao, 
refused to condu6l us to the anchorage of Ty- 
pa, fhowing the greateft anxiety to get away with 
their boats; and we have lince learned, that had 
^ they been feen, the mandarin of Macao would have 
demanded of each of them half the money they re- 
' ceived ; a fort of contribution vi^hich is generally 
preceded by lèverai found baftinadoes. This nation, 
whofe laws are fo panegyrifed in Europe, is perhaps 
the mod miferable, the moil: oppreiîèd, and the moft 
arbitrarily governed people on the face of the earth ; 
at leaft if we may judge of the Ghinefe government 
by the defpotifm of the mandarin of Macao. 

The weather, being very cloudy, had riot yet per- 
mitted us to diflinguifli the town ; but it cleared 
up at noon, when it bore W. l° S. diftant about 
three leagues. I then fent a boat afhore, under the 
command of M. Boutin, to apprize the govcriior of 
our arrival, and to inform him we propofed making 
fome ftay in the harbour, in order to procure re- 
freihments, and give repofe to our (hips' companies. 
Senhor Bernardo Alexis de Lemos^ governor of Ma- 
.'^ ^ cao, 



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1787.J ROUND THE WORLD. 24^ 

cao, received that officer with the greateft politenefs, 
and offered us every affiftance in his povver, fending 
immediately a Malay pilot on board to carry us to 
the anchorage of Typa. We got under fail the next 
day at day-break, and dropped anchor at eight ia 
the morning, in three and a half fathoms water over 
a muddy bottom, the town of Macao, bearing N. E, 
diftant five miles. 

We anchored alongfide a French (hip armed enflûte^ 
commanded by M. de Richery, enfeigne de vatffeau. 
This (hip came from Manilla, and was ordered by 
Mcflrs. d'Entrecafteaux and Coffigny to cruize oft* 
the eaftern coalls to proteéi our trade. Thus, after 
an interval of 18 months, had we the pleafure of 
meeting, not only with our countrymen, but even 
our friends and acquaintance. M. de Richery had, 
the preceding evening, come on board with the 
Malay pilot, bringing us a confiderable quantity of 
fruits, vegetables, frefh meat, and, in a word, every 
thing he imagined would be agreeable to us, after 
fo long. a voyage. Our healthy appearance feemed 
to furprize him, and he informed us of the political 
tranfa<5lions of Europe, whofe fituation was precifely 
the fame as at our departure from France ; but all my 
enquiries at Macao, for fome one who might have any 
packets for us were in vain. It was more than pro- 
bable, no letters addreflèd to us had arrived in Chi- 
na, and we felt a painful alarm left our families and 
friends had forgotten us. But unhappy circum- 
ilances render men unjuft ; and it was poffible the 
letters, we fo feverely regretted, might have been 
fent on board the Company's (hip that had loft her 
voyage. Her confort had arrived alone, and it ap- 
peared by the captain's information, that the greateft 
part of the funds and all the letters had been put on 
board the other (hip. The misfortunes that had pre- 
vented the arrival of this (hip, did not perhaps give 
fo much pain to the ftockhoiders themfelves as we 
. 4- , experienced 



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25a ' LA PÉROUSB's VOYAQB [l7S7. 

experienced at this difappointment ; fiop dottjd wc 
avoid remarking that of twenty-nine Englifh (hips, 
five Dutchmen, two Danes, a Swede, two Anjeri- 
cans, and two French, the only one that loft her 
voyage was from our own country. As the Engljfli 
never entruft their (hips but with thorough bred fea- 
mcn, fuch an event to them is aUnoft unheard of. 
Even when they arrive in the feas of China fo late 
as to find the N. E. monfoon fet in, they obftinate- 
ly ilruggle with this opponent, and often get to the 
eaftvvard of the Philippines, and then getting up to 
the northward in this Tea, which is infinitely more 
extenfiveand Icfs expofed to currents, they return 
fouth of the Bafhee iflands, ftand in for Piedra 
Blanca, and, like us, pafa to the northward of Great 
Lema. We ourielves witnefted the arrival of an 
Englifh (hip, which, after purfuing that track, anf 
chored ten days after in the harhonr of M^cao, and 
immediately afterwards went up to Canton ♦, 

My firft ftep, after mooring the fhip, was tq go on 
Ihore with M. de Langle, to thank the Governor for 
his polite reception of M. Boutin, and to aik his per- 
miffion to have a dation on (hore for fetting up an 
obfervatory,and to accommodate M. Dagelet, who was 
greatly fatigued with our laft voyage, and M. Kollin 
our furgeon-major, who after prcferving us froni the 
fcurvy, and all other diforders, by his attention and 
advice, would himfelf have funk beneath the fatigues 
of tbis long run, had we arrived a week later. 

Senhor de Lemos received us like countrymen. All 
we had afked was graintcd, with a politenefs no lan- 
guage can defcrihe. He offered us bis houiê, and ps 
he did not fpeak French, his wife, a young Portuguefe 
from Liïbon, aéled as interpreter. She coniinuni- 



* D'Ëotrecaftaux performed a voyage frono the Ifle of France to 
Chiua ^aiaû the moni'oons, croifing the fea# by aimed nQkiiown 
tracks, and difeovered fevet;al rociis net laid down in any chart. — 

, ,, :: -^ ' . ' cated 



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1787.] ROTUND THE WORLD. 251 

catcd her hufband's replies with a gracefiilnefs, and 
sn amiability peculiar to herfelf, and exceeding every 
thirtg a traveller might flatter birafelf with finding in 
tbe principal cities of Europe. 

Dona Maria de Saldanha had married Sfenbor de 
LemosatGoa twelve years before ; and I aiTived at that 
place foon after the nuptials, then commanding La. 
Seine, a fhip armed en flute. She politely reminded me 
of that crrcumlldnce, of which, however, I had a very 
lively impreffion, kindly adding that I was an old 
acquaintance. Then calling her children, fhe faid it 
was thus fhe! always prefented herfelf to her friend^ 
their education being the objeét of all her care : that 
fhe w a« proud of being their mother, and that we muft 
forgive that pride, as fhe vrifhed to introduce herfelf 
with all her faults. 

No part of the world, perhaps, could exhibit a more 
enchanting piélure. The moft beautiful children 
furrounding and embracing the mofl charming of 
ilnothers, wbofe goodnefs and fweetnefs difFufed a ge- * 
neral warmth of colouring over every thing around 
her. 

We foon perceived that, added to her accomplifh- 
ments and domeftic virtues, fhe poiîèlîèd a firmnefs 
of chara6ler, and an elevation of mind, in confequence 
of which Senhor de Lemos had, in many fituations 
of delicacy with regard to the Chinefe, been confirmed 
in his generous refolutions by his lady ; both of them 
coinciding in opinion that they ought not, like their 
prèdecefîbrs, to facrifice the honour of their nation to 
any other obje6l. The adminiftration of Senhor do 
Lemos .would have formed an epoch a in that fet- 
tlcment^ had the government at Goa been fufficient- 
ly enlightened to continue him longer in office than 
three years, and left him time to accultom the Chinele 
to a rcliftance, obliterated even from their memory 
for above a centurv. 

An inhabitant of Macao being as much a ftranger to 

f * China 



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252 LA pérouse's voyage I^TBT. 

China as if in Europe, in confeqiience of the extreme 
difficulty of penetrating into that empire, I (hall not 
imitate thofe travellers who have fpoken of it with^. 
out knowing it, but fhall confine myfelf to a defcrip- 
tion of the commercial relation between the Euro- 
peans and the Chinefe, the extreme humiliation they 
experience, the feeble protection they receive from 
the Portngucfe fettlement on the coaft of China, 
and, in fliort, the importance whith the town of Ma- 
cao might poffcfs, in the hands of a nation that would 
condiié^ itielf with juftice, with firmnefs, and with 
dignity, againft a government, perhaps, the moft un- 
juft, the mod oppreffive, and at the fame time, the 
moft cowardly that exills. 

The Chinefe carry on a trade with the Europeans 
amounting to 50 millions, two fifths of which are 
paid for in filver, and thcrefl in Englifh woollen ma-' 
nufaé^urcs, Batavian or Malaytutenag, Surat and 
Bengal cotton, opium from Seringatam, fandal wood, 
and pepper from the Malabar coaft. Some articles of 
luxury are alfo brought from Europe, as the largcfl 
plates of glafs, Geneva watches, coral, and fine pearls: 
but thefe laft fcarcely dcferve mention, as they can 
only be fold in very fmall quantities, and with little 
advantage. In exchange for all thefe riches, China 
only gives green and black tea, with fome chefls of 
raw filk for European manufaélures : for I do not 
reckon the porcelain, broup;ht home as ballafl, or the 
lilks, which produce fcarcely any profit. Certainly 
no nation carries on fo advantageous a trade with fo- 
reigners, impofes conditions fo hard, or multiplies 
rcftraints and vexations in fo many various ways. 
Not a cup of tea is drunk in Europe, which has not 
occafioned fome humiliation to its purchafers, its 
fliippers, and thofe who traverfe half the globe to 
bring this leaf to our markets. 

I cannot here refrain from relating, that two years 
ago, an Englifli gunner being ordered by his Cap- 
^-\ ■ "* m K- , .^ ;- . " ^ ' tain 






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1787.] BOUND THE WO<lI,I>. " 253 

tain to fire a falute, killed a Chinefe fiflierman in 
a fampane, which lay imprudently in the range of 
. his gun, and which the former could not perceive. 
The Santock, or Governor of Canton demanded 
the gunner to be delivered up, which was not 
complied with, till he promifed no harm ihould 
be done to him, adding, that he was not fo unjud as 
to puni(h an involuntary homicide. On this afliir- 
ance the poor fellow was given up, and two hpurs af- 
ter was hung. The honour of the nation required 
a prompt and exemplary vengeance, but merchant- 
Ihips had no means to enforce it, and the Captains, 
accuftomed to a6t with precifion, good faith, and mot- 
deration, in order not to compromife the property of 
their employers, could not engage in a generous re- 
iiflance, which would have coft the Company a lofs of 
40 millions, by theic (hips returning empty. But they 
ifhavé doubtlefs denounced that injury, and flatter 
themfelves with the profpeél of obtaining (ktisfac- 
tion. I dare affirm, that all the perfons employed 
by the different European companies, would joyfully 
unite in, facrificing a great part of their fortunes, to 
teach thefe bafe mandarins, that there are limits -to 
their injuftice, and that their enormities have exceeded 
the bpunds of humanity to tolerate. j lur??^ 

The Portuguefe have more rcalbn to complain cî 
the Cbinefe than any other nation. Their refpec- 
table title to the poflcffion of Macao is well known. 
The grant of the fite of that city is a monument c^ 
the gratitude of the* Emperor Camhy, granted to 
them as a reward for deftroying the pirates, who from 
the iflands in the vicinity of Canton, infefted the feas 
and ravaged all the coalls of China. It is a vain de- 
.clamation to attribute the lofs of their privileges to 
their abufe of them. Their only crime is the feeble- 
nefs of their government. The Chinçfe every day 
load them with new injuries, and every moment in- 
creafe their pretenfionsj to which the Portuguefe 

govern- 



1^ 



in 



ii 












'# 






V' 



Î54 LA »é»OU9E's VOYAGE {l7^7. 

govcmtnent never ojjpofed the leaft refîftance ; land 
'§>1I8 this liation, tfroih whiSh a nation tl^sfKifl^flkl 
•thé lead onorgy, tisi^ht overaw the£inpe9pr,^jQ|)îii9, 
'is fcaroely inMvellfhan a «mere Chinefe village, >ièhek« 
<the Fortugudfe are 'tolerated, althou^ po^^giétt 
'incohtetlibïe right to • command, ^n4 'the itaéi^iio 
'màkeitbemrelves'râfpc^d, had they^.but a;ganiiba?éf 
.^eOO i^uropeang, with two frigates^, ^a i&w ^ûtmftttà, 
-and a feontb-kctch. 

Macao, which is lîtuated at the «mouth >clf^lh«|il^ 
"gt^^ ha6>a road-tflead fpacious epough ito «coptoinfôp 
•gan^Oiîps at the entrance ^ofiTypa, >and <in ttS(|iaé- 
-bour, which' is 'below the 'town, and «cbminonicataB 
/with the river up to the caftward, '(hijws ^of isven 
tft eight ^hundred tons, -with half their >^i|ig.» ,:àc- 
^ordîng'tcKOur obfervations it+isin lOP il^^ 4i3f* r^, 
iât. and lii*^ i^^ao^tE.ioiïg. , 
iptfThe 'fnouth of this harbour .is defended hf m( 
-ùit^C» of two batteries, whit^h muA be ' kept .withià 
f»^-f{hdt in entering. Three ^frn^i ibrts, two ii[^* 
firliieh .at«e > mounted with twelve «uas^ land tjbb 
third'with -fl'x, pi-otëi6l the • fouth ifioe ^of the itmm 
#om eFCi^'tttempti of' thei (i>hinefe. ' (Shefecfortifiear- 
%ions, '^p^hkh arè^in the wot^ft fàKûie tUB^ivrùuAâ 
fie far from formidable to lEuropeaas, but' tliey< may 
«a^ty 0Mer-awe all the «natitime: forces jof^tftiei Chi- 
nese. Â «lountâân 'àlib commands the coaft, ^Jivher^ 
Ai'detaèhment of troops •would holfd outa ^tery Joi^ 
l^egc. ^hecPortu^uéfe^rMacao, mwe «devout thall 
warlike, 'have built a chr^jireh on* the> ruina. df ^a^ ^ptf^ 
^irliièh crowned this'mouutàin^^ming/vt that tinib^ 
!an*4mpr«gaable pctfl. 

' 'xThe- fide f next - the land ^ is «defended ibyi^tm) Jfiar-r 
trefTcs, one of '«whièhis -inounted -with i4Û «gusns» 
«lid eap&ble of;contaioing>a^garrl(bri'ôf laOQ BQen; 
ft'is provided 'wiïh a^^dftern,' 4wo ifSsiiigs-Gf^nftiiBiag 
M^ter, <^a«id > opfemaies^ toiay lUp ivaaitie ammiun iitian 
Ktié;pro^lk)fis. ^Picctber^ <Mi^biéh>fn«mintSj30~guns, 

cannot 



'^- 



ce; land 

' : - 'J*'.-. ' .1 

fts(|iac- 
lunicataB 
of iMa 



vt.wôthiâ 
^ two .(^* 
«od tjbe 
tiefitii»^ 
fortificii^ 



iciChi- 

try isog 
>iit th^ 

attime^ 

mo £&[". 

10 nien; 

Aoniitiiail 
O-guns» 
cannot 





m. 



« t 



1787.] ■ BOUND THE WoîiLir. ' 255 

cannot receive above 300 men, and has a very 
abundant fpring that iicVer fails. Thefe two cita- 
dels command the whole country. The Portuguefe 
frontiers extend nearly a league from the town, and 
are bounded by a wall guarded by a mandarin and a 
few foldiefs. This mandarin is the true governor 
of IVlfacao, Ivhom all the Chinefe obey, though he 
is not allowed to fleep wit'hin thefe limits. But he 
may examine all the fortifications, infpedl the cUftom- 
houfes, &c. and on thefe occafions the Portuguefe 
are obliged to give him a fdliite of five guns. But no 
European can make a fingle flop on the Ghinefe ter- 
ritory beyond the Wall, andthe leaft imprudence of 
this kind would leave him .at the mercy of the 
'Chinefe, who might either keep him in prifon, or 
exadl from him a'hcavy eontnbution. Some of the 
officers of our flîips, however, expofed themfelves 
to this riik, without this a<?l of levity being followed 
by any unhappy confequences. 

The whole population of Macao may be com- 
iputed at 20,000, of Whom 100 are Portuguefe by 
'birth, 2000 metis, or half Indians and half Pottu- 
•guefe, as many Ctiïïre îlaves, their domeflics. The 
réft are Chinefe, who eniploy themfelves in com- 
merce and dilffererit trades, by whkh they lay the 
Portuguefe themfelves under contribution to their 
in'diiflry. Thefe 1 aft, although almofl all miilat- 
toes, would think themfelves difgraced, if they fup- 
porljied -their iamilies by éxercîfing any mechapic 
art, 'thoiightheir, pride is not above ' continually fb- 
liciting charijy, with importunity, from every one 
thg^pafs. M. , , , > 

The Viceroy of feoa nominates to àîl civil and mili- 
tary offices at- iClàcâo, arid appoints the Governor aiTd 
àirthe "Senators, \^ho participate "in the civil autho- 
l4ty. He has lately fixed. the garrifom àt l'ÔO 'Indian 
feapbySj'and' l'2tO militia men; whofefervice cûhlifts iu 
patrolcs àt night. The" foîdiers are: atmed with'Hicks, 

A- and 



■IPT' 



« 



t 



II 



i : , 



*... 



.#*• 



%; 



250 LA PEROUSE S VOYAGE L*^^/' 

and the officer alone has the privilege of wearing a 
fword ; though he can on no occafion employ it 
.againft a Chinefe. Even fhould a thief of that na- 
tion be found breaking the door of a houfe, and car- 
rying away his goods, he muft arrcft him with the 
. greateft caution ; and fliould the foldier, in defend- 
ing himfelf againft the thief, have the misfortune to 
kill him, he is delivered up to the Chinefe governor, 
imd hung in the market place, in the prefcnce of the 
guard to which he belonged, of a Portugucfe magi- 
flrate, and of two Chinefe mandarines ; who, after the 
execution, are falutcd by the forts as they quit the 
city, in the fame manner as they are on entering it. 
But if, on the other hand, a Chinefe kills a Portii- 
guefe, he is only configned to the judges of his own 
nation, who, after having plundered him, perform the 
other formalities of juftice ; but fufFer him to efcapc, 
and turn a deaf ear to the remonftrances of this in- 
jured nation, which are never followed by any fitis- 

fadion. ,^„ . -^^^ ri,^..u.,,r^, 

. The Portugucfe, however, nave of late made an 
effort of vigour, which will be engraved on tablets of 
brafs in the fafti of the Senate. A feapoy having 
killed a Chinefe, they (hot him in prefence of the 
mandarines, and refufed to fubmit this affair to the 
^(lecifion of the Chinefe tribunal. '''"■ *t'' ' *' ^ 

The Senate of Macao is compofed of the Gover- 
nor, who is prefident, and three vereadores, who are 
the auditors of the city finances. The revenue con- 
fifts of the duties laid on merchandize, which can 
only be imported in Portugucfe veffels. They are fo 
unenlightened, that they would not permit a fhip of 
any other nation to land their cargo, even on paying 
thefe eftabliflied duties, as if they feared to encreafe 
the revenue of their own treafury, or diminifli that of 
the Chinefe at Canton. V ■. „ ,-..:.. ^-* 

It is certain that were Macao made a free port, and 
tad that city a garrifon capable of defending com- 
1 ^ ^ ^ mercial 









17B7.J ftOUNl) THE WORLD. 557 

mercial property, when depofited there, the revenue 
of their cuftom-houfc would be doubled, and would, 
doubtlefs, be adequate to all the expences of the 
government. But a trifling intereft oppofes this re- 
gulation which found policy fo clearly di6lates. The 
Viceroy of Goa fells Portugucfe commiflions to the 
merchants of the various nations who carry on a 
Goading trade in the Eaft Indies ; and thefe fame 
fhip owners make prefents to the Senate 6( Macao, 
according to the importance of their voyage ; a com- 
mercial motive which would be an invincible obdacle 
to the eftablifhmcnt of a free trade, though Macao 
would be thereby rendered one of the moft flourifh- 
ing cities of Afia, and inconceivably fuperiortoGoa, 
whofe utility to its mother country will never be con- 
lidcrablc. 

Next in rank to the three vereadores already men- 
tioned are two Judges of Orphans, whofe department 
includes the adminiftration of the property of minors, 
the execution of wills, the nomination of tutors and 
guardians, and, in general, every thing relative to 
fucceflions. From their decifion lies an appeal to 
that of Goa. 

Other civil or criminal caufes are alfo cogniz- 
able, in the firft inftance, by two fenators, who 
are nonriiriated as judges. A treafurer receives the 
produce of the cuftoms, and pays, under the orders 
of the Senate, the falaries and difburfements, which, 
however, when exceeding 3000 piaftres, mull be 
fan6lioned by an order of the Viceroy of Goa. 

The moft important magiftracy is ihat of the Pro- 
curator of the city, which is an intermediate office 
between the Portugiiefe government and that of 
China. He gives anfwers to all foreigners who may 
wititer at Macao, aiid receives and tranfmits to their 
l'èfpeétive governments th% mutual complaints of the 
two nations, of which a Secretary, who has no deli- 
berative voice, keeps a regifter, as attb ai all the dé- 

VoL. I. i liberation» 



iii 



1 ! 


if 


ii 


; f 


■ 1 




1 
1 ; 


1 




1 




i 
1 "{ 




V f 

. si 


- 1 

1 


1 ! 




! 


-. 


Ji 



258 LÀ péROU8E*8 VOYAGB [l787: 

liberations of the council. This is the only office for 
life, that of the Governor being triennial, and the 
other magiftatcs replaced every yeai;. So frequent a 
change, which is inimical to every regular fyftem, has 
contributed not a little to the annihilation of the 
ancient rights of the Portuguefe, and doubtlefs can 
only be continued, becaufe the Viceroy of Goa finds 
his advantage in having many places to give away or 
fill ; a conjcélurc authorized by the general manners 
and cuiloms of Afia. 

An appeal lies to Goa from all the decifions of the 
fenate, and is rendered extremely necefiary by the 
known incapacity of the Senators. The colleagues 
of the Governor, who is himfelf a man of great merit, 
arc Portuguefe of Macao, and are extremely haughty 
and conceited, though more ignorant than a country 
Ichoolmafter. 

The appearance of this city is extremely pleafant. 
Among the remains of its ancient opulence are feve- 
ral fine houfes occupied by the fupcrcargoes of the 
different companies, who are obliged to pafs the win- 
ter there ; the Chinefe compelling them to quit Can- 
ton as foon as the laft fhip of their nation has failed, 
and not permitting them to return till the arrival of 
ihips from Europe in the following monfoons. 

Macao is rendered a very agreeable winter refi- 
fidence by the différent fupereargoes, who are gene- 
rally men of diflinguifticd merit, extremely well in- 
formed, and have falaries that enable them to keep an 
excellent houfe. The obje<5t of our miffion procured 
us the politeft reception from them, for we (hould 
Tiave been quit forlorn, had we come with no other 
title than that of Frenchmen, our Eaft India com- 
pany as yet having no reprefentative at Macao. 

We owe a public teftimony of gratitude to M. 

Elftockenftrom, the principal agent of the Swedifli 

Eaft India company, whofe behaviour towards us was 

that of an old friend and fellow-countryman, who 

err ^-.c-i • c- warmly 



;r refî- 



1787. J ROUND TflE WORLI>.' 23j) 

Warmly efpourcd the intcrcfts of our nation. He was 
even (Icfirous at our departure to take upon hiinfclf 
the fale of our furs, the jwoduce of which was to bo 
divided among our crews, and he very kindly pro- 
mifed to remit the amount to the li\c of France. 

The value of thefc furs did not now exceed one 
tenth of the price, when Captains Gore and King 
arrived at Canton, bccaufe the Englifh had this year 
fitted out fix expeditions to the N. W. coaft: of Ame- 
rica ; two (hips in that trade having failed from Bom- 
bay, two from Bengal, and two from Madras. The 
two hifl: alone had returned, and brought but a Imall 
quantity of Ikins. But the report of this equi[)ment 
had fpread at China, and they only obtained 12 or 15 
piaftres for the fame quality as in 1780 would hftvô 
produced 100. 

We had 1000 Ikins which a Portuguefe merchant 
had agreed to purchafe for 9500 piaftres ; but at the 
time of oUr departure for Manilla, when he was to 
have paid the money, he hcfitated to receive them un- 
der various frivolous pretexts. As this bargain had 
deprived us of every other buyer, who were all return- 
ed to Canton, he hoped, no doubt, that in this dif- 
ficulty we fhould accede to any price he might chufe 
to give ; and wc had even reafon to fufpeit, that he 
fent fome Chinefe merchants to us, who offered a 
much fmallcr fum. But, though unaccuflomed to 
thefe manoeuvres, they were too clumfily contrived 
hot to be feen through, and therefore we pofitively 
refufed to fell them. 

There now remained no other difficulty than that 
of landing our furs, and depofiting them at Macao 
as an enterpôt. The Senate, to whom our conful M. 
Vaillard applied, refufed the permiffion he folicited : 
but the Governor being informed they were the pro- 
erty of failors employed in r,n expedition, whofe uti- 
ity extended to all the maritime nations of Europe, 
thought it his duty to fulfil the views of the Portu- 
. .... Sa : guefe 



!^ 



'i 



il 



l6o LA pérouse's voyage 1^767* 

guefe government, by departing from the prelcribed 
forms, and adied on this, as on all other occalions, 
with his accuftomed delicacy *. 

It is unneceflary to obferve, that the Mandarin of 
Macao made no* demand for our Hay in the road of 
Typa, which, together with the other iflands, form» 
no part of the Portugucfe territories. His claim^ 
had he made any, would have been rejected with 
contempt ; but wc learned, that he demanded 1000 
piaftres from the comprador, who fupplied us with 
provifions. That fum, however, was but a trifle, 
when compared with the impoiitions of this compra-' 
dor 4-, whofe account, for the five or fix firft days, 

amounted 

• Having feized every opportunity impartially to prove the cre- 
dit due to Dixon, I doubt not the perufal of La Péroufe's voyage 
will occafion tl\at Captain fome concern, for having accufed our 
navigators of impoftare or of mercantile views, Juftice demand» 
that I fhould repel this calumnious imputation. I fliall quote thft 
palTage from Dixon's voyage, page 320. 

" The L'Aftrolabe and Bouflale, two French fliips, commanded 
" by M. Peyroufeand de Lan gle, failed from France in 1785 ; they 
*♦ are faid to have traced the N. W coaft of America, from the 
•' Spanith fettlements of Montrerv to 60 deg of N. lat. ; but this 
•* feems rather improbable ; for though thefe vcflcls were profefled- 
•• ly fitted out on difcovery, yet the commanders did not forget that 
*' Airs were a valuable article, and, accordingly, whilfton the Ame- 
•' rican coaft, they procured about 600 fea-otter flcins, chiefly in 
•' pieces of a very inferior quality, and evidently the fame as thofe 
•' imported by the Spaniards ; whereas, had thefe gentlemen been 
•* well in with the coaft to the northward, they undoubtedly mull 
*' have met with fea-otter (kins of a quality far fuperior to what 
•' they procured." 

After obferving that La Péroufe trafficked for otter (kins, merely 
in conformity to his orders tn Art. ix. of the fécond part of his 
inftruftions, and in order to be furnifiied with fafts in this branch 
of commerce, on which to found his report, and that he only dif- 
pofed of them for the benefit of the (ailors, I Ihali remark, in 
contradiéVion to Dixon's aflertion, that this purchafe took place at 
Port des Français^ in ç8 deg. 37 min. N. lat. and therefore La Pé- 
loufc was right in a(rerting that there could not be ten per cent. 
difFe.ence between the (kins procured at Port des Français and thofe 
of yionttvty .~- French Editor. 

f 'Î Every vefTcl was fupplied with whatever provifions they 

«« wanted. 



J 787.] ROUND THE WORLD. 26 1 

amounted to more than 300 piaftres ; after which, 
being convinced of his knavery, we difchargcd him. 
Our commifïàry's clerk afterwards went daily to the 
market, as in any town of Europe, to make the ne- 
ceflary purchafes, and then the expence of a whole 
month did not equal that of the firft week. 

Probably our œconomy difpleafcd the Mandarin : 
but this was mere conjecîlure, for we had no commu- 
nication with him. The Chinefe cuftom-houfes have 
no tranfa6^ions with Europeans, except concerning 
the articles of traffic, which come from the interior 
of China in boats of that country, or are embarked 
in the lame boats to be fold in the interior of the 
empire. But what wc purchafed at Macao to be 
brought on board in our own boats, was not liable to 
any (earch. 

The climate of the road of Typa is at this feafon 
very changeable, the thermometer varying eight de* 
grees from one day to another, and almoft all of us 
had fevere colds attended with fever. Thefe, how- 
ever, yielded to the fine temperature of the ifland 
of Luconia, which we made on the 1 5th of February. 
We left Macao on the 5th, at eight in the morning, 
with a north wind, that would have enabled us to 
pafs between the iflands, had I had a pilot. But 
wifhing to avoid that expence, which is confiderable, 
Ï followed the ufual track, and went to the lbuthwar4 
of the great Ijadrone, having taken on board each 

** wanted, by an officer called a compradvr^ who always demanded 
*• a cumjhanu or gratuity of 300 dollars, exclufive of the profit 
** which would accrue to him from ferving us with proviGons. 

" A demand of this nature appeared fo very exorbitant, that we 
** determined, if poflible, to avoid it ; and a Captain Taflcer, 
** from Bombay, whofe veflel lay near ours, kindly offered to fur- 
** nifh us with beef for the prefent. This, however, could not be 
*' done without caution ; for we had a hoppoy or cuflom-houfe 
*' boat on each fide of the vefTel, with officers on board, who 
♦* made it a point to prevent any beef coming on board, 'jnlefs 
•• furnifbed by a comprador." Dixon's Voyage^ p. z^z,-— French 

S3 fhip 



i 



fi62 LA PÉROUSPi's VOYAGE [l787, 

(liip fix Chinefc failors, to replace thofe wc had un-: 
fortunately loft when our boats were wrecked. 

This nation is fo wretched, that, notwithftanding 
the laws of the empire prohibit quitting the country, 
we could eafily have engaged 200 men in a week, had 
wc been in need of them. 

At Macao our obfcrvatory had been fet up in thç 
convent of Auguftins, where we determined the 
longitude of that cily to be 111° 1 9' 30" E. by the 
mean of feveial fets of lunar obfervations. We had 
alfo verified the rate of our time-keepers, and found 
that the daily lofs on mean time of No. IQjWas 12^36", 
which exceeded any deviation we had experienced 
previous to that period. It muft, however, be ob- 
fervcd, that iluving '24 hours the winding up this 
tinie-kecpcr hadbcei) forgotten, and that having thus 
been ftoppcd, the want of continuity in its motion 
had probiibiy ciufed its derangement. But on the 
fiippufit'on, that till our arrival à Macao, and pre- 
\i()us fO the i.v'gle(9;, of which cknowledge we 

were guiity, the lois of time by ^io. IQ was the fame 
ar that «ietcrmincd at la Conception, this time-keepei* 
would have given 1 lb° 33' 33" as the longitude of 
îvl;:cao, that, is 2*^ 14'' 3" more than it really is, ac- 
cording to v>ur lunar obfervations. Thus the error 
of the L 'me- keeper, after ten months navigation, 
would only have been 45 leagues. 

T >e iiortnerly wiiu'.p now permitted me to get 
to the ealtwaid, and Ï fhould have got fight of Piedra 
31anca, had they not prefcntly fliifted to the E. S. E. 
The infonnuion I had procured at Macao, concern- 
ing the bell track to purfuc a«s far as Manilla, had not 
determined my opinion, whether it was better to go 
to the norihwii.u or fouthward of Banco de Pratas, 
and I concIiKled, from the diverfity of opinions on 
that point, ih î one route was as good as the other. 
Tiie e;.ficrlv \'. . ds blowincr (trôner, determined me to 
ftand clofc-hauicd upon the itarboard tack, and to 
' ' ^ direél 



1787.] ROUND THE WORLD. 263 

diretft my courfe to leeward of that bank, which is 
crroneoully laid down on all the charts previous to the 
third voyage of Captain Cook. Captain King, hav- 
ing determined its latitude with precifion. has render- 
ed an important fcrvice to the navigators who go 
coafting voyages from Macao to Manilla. Formerly 
they followed, with confidence, the chart of Dalrym- 
ple, which M. Daprès has alfo copied. Thefc two 
authors, who are fo eftimable and accurate when they 
conftruéled plans from their own materials, were not 
always able to procure the bed accounts of indivi- 
dual places, and the (Ituation of the Prata fhoal, that 
of the weftem coaft of the iflnnd of Luconia, and of 
the bay of Manilla, are totally undcferving of con- 
fidence. As I was defirous to make the illand of 
Luconia, in lat. 17**, in order to pafs to the noilh- 
ward of the bank of Bulinao, I ranged along the 
Pratas as near as poflible, and even, at midnight, 
pafled over the point it occupies on the chart of M. 
Daprès, who has extended this dans:erous fhoal 25 
miles too far to the fouthward. The pofition he 
has afîigned to the banks of Bulinao, Manfiloq, and 
Mirabella, are not more exa^l. An ancient cuflom 
has taught feamen they have nothing to fear in mak- 
ing their land fall to the northward of 17°, and this 
obfervation has appeared fufFicient to the governors 
of Manilla, who have not, during two centuries, 
found a fingle moment's leifure to fend out a few 
fmall fhips to reconnoitre thefe dangers, or even to 
determine their latitude, together with their diflancc 
from Luconia, which we made on the 15th February, 
in 18° 14^ We flattered ourfelves we fhould then 
only have to run down the coaft with north eaflerly 
winds as far as the entrance of the bay of Manilla ; 
but the monfoons did not extend along the land» 
where the wind was variable between N. W. and S.W. 
for many days. The currents alfo fet to the north- 
ward at the rate of a mile an hour, and till the 19th 

S 4 . February^ 



ib. 



iu; .,; 



f ti 



î^64 LA pékouse's voyage [1787, 

February, we did not advance one league a day. 
At length the north wind freihening, we failed along 
tl>e Illoco coall, at the diftance of two leagues, and 
faw a fmall two mafted veflel in the port of Santa 
Cruz, probably taking in a cargo of rice for China. 
It was impoflible for us to make any of our beaiings; 
coincide with the chart of M. Dapres, but our own 
charts enable us to give the direélion of this coafl, 
which is very little known, though much frequented^ 
We doubled cape Bulinao on the 20th, and on the 
2 111 made point Capones, bearing eail, djreélly in 
the wind's eye. We made feveral boards to approach 
it, and gain the anchoring place, which extends but 
a league from the fhore. We faw two Spanilh (hips 
which feemed afraid to open the entrance of the bay 
of Manilla, from whence the eailerly winds blovy 
with violence, and therefore kept under the lee of 
the land We ftretched to the fouthward of the 
ifland of Mirabella, and thé wind having chopped 
about in the afternoon to the E^ S. E., we directed 
oi^r courfe between this ifland and that of la Monhaji 
entertaiping hopes of entering the north channel, 
J^ut after having made feveral boards in the entrance 
of it, which fcarcely exceeds half a league in width, 
\ve perceived that the currents fet to the weftward 
with confiderable ftrength, and irrefiftibly oppofed 
our intention. We then determined to put jnto the 
port of Mirabella, which lay a league to leeward, ixk 
order there to wait either for a fairer wind, or a more 
favourable current. We anchored there in J 8 fa- 
thoms water over a muddy bottom, the village bear-» 
ing N. W. by W., and the Hogs (los Puercos) S. by 
E. 33^ S. This port is only open to the S. W. winds, 
and there is fuch good holding ground, that I a.n of 
opinion, flaps might ride there without the leaft dan-r 
ger, duringthe monfoons whenever they prevail. 

As we wanted wood, which I knew to be extreme- 
ly dear at Manilla;, I determined to pafs 24 hours at 

Mirabella^i 



Iremc- 
iurs at 
ibella^ 



1787 .J HOUND THE WORLD, " 205 

Mirabella, to take in a quantity. The next morningf 
at day-break, we fent our long boats afhorc, with all 
the carpenters of both (hips, and at the fame time, I 
employed our jolly-boats in founding the bay, and 
referved the reft of the crew with the barge, for a 
fiftiing party in the creek near the village, which ap» 
pcared fandy and commodious for hauling the feinc, 
Put this was a mere illufion, and we found rocks there 
and fuch a fiat bottom two cables' length from the 
fliore, that it was impoflible to fifh there. We de- 
rived no advantage from our labour, except fome 
thorny fea-pies in good prefervation, which we added 
to our collection of (hells. Towards noon I went 
afhore at the village, which conlifts of about 40 houfe? 
built of bamboo, covered with leaves, and raifed 
about four feet above the ground. Thefe houfos are 
floored with fmall bamboos, laid at a diftance from 
each other, fo as to give thefe huts the appearance of 
bird cages. They are afcended by a ladder, and I 
do not believe all the materials of a houfe, including 
the roof, weigh 200 pounds. 

Oppofite to the principal ftreet is a large edifice of 
hewn ftone, but now almoft entirely ruined, whercj 
however, we faw two brafs guns at the windows, 
which ferve as embrafures. We learned that this ruin 
was the curate's houfe, thechurCh,and the fort, though 
thefe n^mes had not intimidated the Moors of the 
fouthernmoft Philippine Iflands, who in 1760 had 
fcized it, burned the village, fet fire to the fort, which 
they deftroyed, as well as the church and the parli^n- 
age houfe, made (laves of all the Indians who had 
not time to fly, and went off with their captives 
without the icaft moleftation. This event fo terrified 
the colony, that they dare not novy apply to any fpe- 
cies of induftry. Almoft all the land is uncultivated, 
and this pariih is fo poor, that we could only purchafe 
a dozen fowls and a fmall pig. The curate Ibid us a 
yovmg ox_,, at the famq time aliuring us, it was an 

eighth 



*iA 



1 i! 



i- ' 



265 LA PEROÛSfE's voyÀGfe [l787, 

eighth part of the only herd in the parifh, the lands 
of which are ploughed by buffaloes. 

This pried was a young Indian mulatto, who care- 
lefs of its condition, inhabited the ruin I have de- 
scribed, a few earthen pots and a truckle bed com- 
pofing the whole of his furniture. He informed us, 
that his parifli contained 200 perfons, of both fcxes 
and of all ages, who on the leaft alarm, take refuge in 
the woo^ls to efcape the Moors, who continue to 
make defcents on the ifland, and are fo audacious, 
and their enemies fo little on their guard, that they 
often penetrate to the head of the bay of Manilla. 
During the fhort ftay we afterwards made at Cavita, 
fcven or eight Indians were carried ofFin their canoes, 
within a league of the entrance of the harbour. We 
were aflured that paflage boats from Cavita to Ma- 
tiilla were often taken by thcfe fame Moors, though 
the paflage is nearly the fame, in all rcfpeéts, as that 
from Breft to Landerneau by fea. They perform 
thefe expeditions in very light row-boats, and the 
Spaniards oppofe to them a flotilla of galleys, which 
arc very bad failcrs, and have never taken any of 
•^bcm. 

The next officer to the curate is an Indian, who 
bears the pompous title of Alcalde, and enjoys the 
fupreme diftin<£lion of carrying a filver headed cane. 
He appears to cxercife a high authority over the 
Indians, none of whom could fell us a fowl, till he 
granted hispcrmiflion, and fixed the price. He alfo 
poflèflèd the fatal privilege of felling for account of 
the government, tobacco for fmoaking, of which the 
Indians make :i very great and almofl: continual con- 
fumption. This monopoly has only been eftabliflied 
within a few years, and the poorcft of the people can 
fcarcely bear its opprefl[ion. It has already given 
birth to fevcral revolts, and I fliould not be furprifed, 
if it fliould one day produce efteéls fimilar to thofe of 
the tax^s on tea and ftamps in North Amepica. Wç 
• ... faw 



*4 



1787.] ROUND THE WORLD.' ^6f 

faw at the prieft's three fmall antelopes, which he in4 
tended for the Governor of Manilla, and which hé 
refufed to fell us. Nor, had we made the purchafb^ 
could we have hoped to preferve them, as thefe little 
animals are very delicate, and do not here exceed the 
fize of a large rabbit. Both the male and female are 
precifely the flag and hind in miniature. 

In the woods our fportfmen obferved the moft 
charming birds, variegated with the moft brilliant 
colours: but thefe forefts are impenetrable, on ac- 
count of the Iifi?ieSf which climb and interweave 
among the trees. Their excurfion, therefore, was 
not very produ6live, as they could only (hoot uport 
the fkirts of the wood. We purchafed in the village 
{omç, Jtahhed turtle-doves ; a name originating from a 
red mark upon their breaft, exaélly refembling a 
wound made by a knife. 

At length we re-embarked at dulk, and made every 
preparation fpr getting under way the next day. Onfe 
of the two Spanifh fhips we had feen on thé 23d, at 
Point Capones, had like ourfelves put into Mirabella, 
to wait for more moderate weather. I fent to the 
Captain to aik for a pilot, when he fent me his boat- 
fwain, an old Indian, who did not infpire me witU 
much confidence. I agreed, however, to give him 
15 piaftrcs to carry us to Cavita, and on the 25th at 
day-break we got under fail, and flood through the 
fouth channel, the old Indian afliiring us it would be 
in vain to attempt that to the northward, where the 
currents always fet to the wellward. Though the 
diftance from the harbour of Mirabella to that of Ca- 
vita is only feven leagues, we were three days making 
this little run, and came to an anchor every night in 
the bay, in a good bottom of mud. We had here an 
opportunity to obferve that M. Daprès's plan is very 
inaccurate, the ifland of Fraïle, and that of Cavallo, 
which form the entrance of the fouth channel, being 
Jjadly laid down there, and in a word the whole is ^ 

mer§ 



4 



• i- 



9/l9 LA VJ&R0Utt*8 VOTAOE [}7^7» 

OMr^tiiTuiPiQr errors. But we (hould have done better, 
4)fe||. td follow that guides than our Indian pilot, who 
pfiaHy run us aground, on the bank of St.- Nicholas, 
1^ perliVlcid in. (landing on to the fouthward, not- 
Vtth(b|;iding-,aiy reprefeuiations, and we (hoaled our 
ntfttc^ in 1^^ than a minute from. 17 to foup fathoms. 
I immediately, talked, and I am convinced, we fhould 
^m^ toufched» had weiibaod on a piilol (hot farther. 
Tbfii vi$tCK iSrfo fmoQtK inthia bay, that there is not 
th<) leaft appearance oC the ihoals ; a iing^e obferva.T 
tH»», hQWQveir, wilt render it perfedbly eaAr to work 
V^t» it Is you fi^uft alwayakeep the ifknd of )a Monha 
9if(Mi win): the, north channel of the iiland of Mirâ> 
\Mtkt aiMtipuit about aa foon as thiaiHand begins to be 
tfmtJn* At, length on the 28th we anchored in the 
baci^puf qf Cavita^ in three ^thorns water oyer 9 
muddy bottom, two cables' lengifc from the town. \ 
^^ rOur,'i;^f) flpmMacaoto Cayita was 23 days, and 
lKti|ld h^ife beerv much longer, had we. conformed to 
^eiQuftoiT^ ^f) ^^6 old Portuguefe and Spaniûi navi- 
g^tQ»ç», widr perfifted ioi paiSng to the northward of 
HwPrata-^^al. 






.^ 
»< 



/ I 



CHAK 



S.!\- -,,,:. 



[1787. 
5 better, 
lot, who 
Nicholas, 
•d, not- 
ilcd our 
athoms. 
sihould 
farther, 
e is not 
sbferva^ 

work 
Monha 
fMirâ. 
ns to be 

1 in the 
oyer a 

tawn. , \ 
lys, and 
rmed to 
ÙI navir 
ward of 



i ■■■' r^ 



<;. 



WlT. 



h, 



\ \ s. 



I »-' 



>(, 



''H" 






/*■-?% 



',^Ki\,^ 



.^' 



- iifh^ifcilWlilll' ' ■ 



1787.] 



HOVKD THE WOKLO. 



000 



CHAP. XV. 



ARRIVAL AT CAVITA — MANNER OF OUR lLECBl>TlOïr 

BY THE COMMANDANT ^M. BOUTIN, LIEUTENJINT 

D£ VAISSEAU, IS DISPATCHED TO THE OOVBRlfOB 
GENERAL AT MANILLA — RECEPTION OP. THIS OFFI* 
CER— "DETAILS RELATIVE TO CAPITA AND ITS AR* 
SENAL DESCRIPTION OF MANILLA AND ITS ENVI- 
RONS— ITS POPULATION^-— DISADVANTAGES RB- 
SULTIN6 FROM THE GOVERNMENT THBRE ESTA- 
BLISHED — PENANCES, AT WHICH WE WERE PRE- 
SENT, DURING PASSION WEEK IMPOSTS ON TO- 
BACCO — INSTITUTION OP THE NEW PHILIPPINS 

COMPANY REFLECTIONS ON THAT ESTABLISH» 

MENT DETAILS RELATIVE TO THE SOUTHERN- 
MOST PHILLIPPINE ISLANDS — CONTINUAL WAR» 
WITH THE MOORS, OR MAHOMETANS, .^P THBSB 

ISLANDS STAT AT MANILLA MILITARY STATU 

OF THE ISLAND OP LUCONIA. 

WE bad fcarcely caft anchor at the entrance o^ 
the harbour of Cavita, when an officer came on 
board from the commandant of that place, to requeft 
us not to attempt any communication with the (hore, 
till orders arrived from the governor-general, to whom 
he intended to difpatch a courier, as foon as he was 
informed of our objeét in putting in there. We an- 
fwered, that we wifhed to procure provifions, and 
permiflion to refit our (hips, in order, as fpeedily 
as poffible, to continue our voyage ; but before the 
officer left us, the commandant of the bay* arrived 
at Manilla, whence they had defcried our (hips. Ho 
informed us notice had been received there of our ar* 

* The commandant of the bay is, in Spain, the chief of thé 
cuftom- houle officer», and hat a military racut. At Mliaiiia be hal 
tbat of captain. 

rival 




'SiàxTan/irstma 



y 



13 



^ync«iis 



Chabt 

//r/» P if c o V I? ri es />? 
Ibe Sca.v of 

CïilNAundTARTARY 

from 
Manilla to AvatschaH.iv 



rra< 



vLenoitiiiif East o( l'a ris 



140 



li 



rw 



\10 



- X/ 



f 

SJ^O LA^PÉROUSE's VOYAGE [itSfi 

rival in the Chinefe feas, and that letters from the 
Spanifti minifter had announced us to the governor- 
general feveral months before. This officer addedj 
that the feafon admitted of our anchoring before 
Manilla, where we fhould meet with every accom-» 
modation, united with every relbiirce, that could 
poffibly be procured in the Philippine Iflands : but 
we were lying at anchor before an arfenal, within a 
mulket-fhot of the (hore, and we were fo impolite 
as to acquaint this officer, that nothing could com- 
penfate tbefe advantages. He readily permitted M. 
Boutin, one of my lieutenantSj to go in his boat, to 
give an account of our arrival to the governor-ge- 
neral, and requeft him to give orders that our va- 
rio.us wants might be fupplied before the 5th of 
April, the ultimate plan of our voyage requiring 
that our two fliips (hould fail the 10th of the fame 
month. Senor Bafco, brigadier de la armada^ and go-« 
ver nor -general of Manilla, gave the officer I fent to 
him a handfome reception, and iffiied the moft pofi- 
tive orders that nothing (hould retard our depar-» 
lure. 

He alfo wrote to the commandant of Cavita, to 
permit us to have free communication with that 
place, and procure us every affiftance and accom- 
modation in his power. The return of M. BoutiUj 
charged with difpatches from Senor Bafco, rendered 
us all citizens of Cavita, and our veflels were fo near 
the (hore that we could land and return on board every 
minute. We found various houfes wherein to re- 
pair our fails, fait our provifions, build two boats< 
and accommodate our naturalifts and geographical 
engineers; and the commandant very kindly lent us 
his own to fet up our obfervatory. We felt as per^ 
feélly at our cafe as if we had been in the coun- 
try, and found in the market and the arfenal the 
fame refources, as in the beft ports of Europe. 

Cavita, which lies three leagues to the S. W. of 

Manilla^ 



ii»., 



. of 
ilia. 





V. >m 



^'m- 



.■'- 0% 



*^-v 



■>)\ 









■M 



%.. 












Iji^yNI^THB WORLSi^t Ofl^ 

'im'^^m^^». W^j^jCçxqCidcfaiiûe place ^ 
s PhU|p|!|||is mand^, as in Europe, the great 
iU$» 9s1t W^e, the fmall- ones, and there 
ûp('^fijllm ^itmmandant of the arfcnal, a 
"" pt, two port lieutenants, the 
lytn, ] 50 ibldiers in garrifony. 
1^1^ b#Piing to that corps. 
^0lhf iiiçabitauts are metis*, (a fpecies oC 
or It^diaus, belonging to the arfenals;! 
together, with their families, which are 
fjSfy nui?i9rous, a population of about 4000 
divided between the town and the fuburb 
There are two pariihes, and three mo- 
r men,' «jach; occupied by two eccleliaftics, 
Irty might eafily be accommodated. The 
had formerly a very fine houfe, of which 
^^e trading company, eflablifhed by the govern- 
p|||^ obtiained^ pofleiîîon. In general, no- 
<ng j^àt be feen but rujns ; the ancient edifices of 
iJiÉ^pitielerted or ©copied by Indians, who never 
fipir:i|f«|^ Î and Cayfl^ the fécond town in the 
]^n^pP^é lÂands, and j^pital of a province of the 
iinié'iliutié, is now only % paltry village, uninhabited 

Sl^ibià]^, j^ept the military officers, and thofb 
the civ^a«||iiniftratioii; But if the town prcfents 
'l^j^fîjl^ieifli^; of ruins,; i^^ not lb with the port, 
"SlIiÉill'^enor Ber brigadier de la armada , who 

ia-^iÉ^ittî^ there, has eûablifhcd an order and dif- 
çip^\% which excite regret that his talents are en: 
çd ^n fo confined a theatre. All his workmen ;i<\" 
In^^ns^ and he has precifely the fame kind of wori. - 
0)0^ as thofe of our arfenals in Europe. This ofii 
<a[§j^^tvho ifi of the fame military rank as the gover- 
canliders nothing too trifling for his 



.-• "ï^^j^niard» aad Portugiiefe have different names for the 
^^ô|^li#|rses of confanguinity with blacks. The firft of thefe 
ittw^âlNéèif'VwhM^^^i^ the half- black, or immediate offupring 

lÀ %«r|^tt nk^ .«ri^ • bUck woman. — Tranjlàtor's note. 

' mh^- ■' '■ ■"• ■ attention ;. 



•,'t 






m 



-272 tA >éROt9È*k VbtA6» fl/êf. 

attentîdti; ahâ 'his cdnTériàti&ti ûohvifiiféi ilft^ lliit 
nothing Was aboVé thé fpherë ôf his khowleaj^-Mb 
granted every thttt^ We afkéd ôf him with Ihe ^itM»^ 

las ky 




la 



^ tan^e âtrf m0f ém^Héè^ 
ôvei'haul all ôarri|gîfig;àM #^ ouflôWèft»^^ 
This precaution involved lit» 1^ of tittte, fiS We 
ivere obliged to^t'lft léaltiÉ «ndfifth fb^ mprèVi- 
Ûotis, a lift ôrwhfe» W^ h«d fMfdïttèJd t<i the in- 
tendattt of MsiMi^.- ^ 

The letîcrtid d^ after obt- airival at€aV|^ I «ih- 
barked, t^g^thét Vith M. âe Lang^ fbr 41^ ^kï^ 
accomjjanied by feveral ofllcers. We wiif twô^ 
hours and a half in making this trip in dl|é boatd/i 
which were armed v^ith foldiers, on accdulvi ôf th^ 
Moors, who frequently înfeft the bay of MâitlMllw 
Our firft vint was to the governor, Wito lisèpt ttô W 
ditincr, atid fent the cajptaih of his guat^s fo côiiv 
duel us to the archbifhop, the intôndàfe[it> i|^d tl^ 
different otdors. This was not one of Ûit liatl* ft* 
tiding days ôf our voyage. The heat Wa* «lire^i^ 
âfld we were on foot, in a town where th6 ôitiiSiJSfit 
never go out but in a carriage. lïere th^e we*^ 
none to be hired as at Batavia ; and had not M. 
Sebir, a French merchant, who had by accident 
heard of our arrival at JVlanilia^ fent us his chia^ 
riot, we Ihould have been obliged to decline iMff^ 
of the vifits we intended to make. 

The town of Manilla, including the fUbuibé, i» 
Tcry confiderabie. Its population is computed at 
38^000, in whi«jh are included foàroëly 1000 or^ 

1200 



\^ 



af- 




iW'l"- 






ffl 



m 



l|l"v , !l''- ,'!il:,. 



ill ili'i 



III!! 



Ill il 



1^ Il 1 1' 



,.M|S III 



«I 



i f<l 



if 



PI 






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■Uk'fHiUUt 



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i iiiêi 



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*:'r 



'^ii'iii 



■! ,:f':'%k. 



m 




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I 

;|li| 



i.« 



III 



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i** '■ ■. ;■•''. 



d.. 




1787'] ROUND THE WORLD. 2/3 

1200 Spaniards; the reft are Metis^ Indians, or.. 
Chinefe, who cultivate all the arts, and puribe every 
ipecies of induftry. The leaft opulent ot the Spanim 
families keep one or two carriages, or more, and a 
pair of very fine horfes, which cofl thirty piaflres, 
and their keep and coachman^s wages fix piaflres a 
month.. Thus in no country is the expence of a 
carriage more trifling or more necefîàry. The envi- 
rons of Manilla arc enchanting. The mofl beautiful 
river meanders through them, branching into various 
channels, of which the two principal end in that ce- 
lebrated lagune or lake of Bahia, which lies fevcn 
leagues up the country, and is bordered by above 
a hundred Indian villages, fituated in the midfl of 
the mofl fertile country. 

Manilla is built on the fhore of the bay of the 
fame name, which is more than twenty-five leagues 
in circumference. It lies at the mouth of a river 
navigable as far as the lake from which it rifes, and 
is perhaps the mofl delightfully fituated city in the 
world. Provifions of all kinds are in the greatefl 
abundance there, and extremely cheap ; but cloath- 
ing, European hardware and furniture bear an ex- 
ccfïively high price. The want of competition, to- 
gether with prohibitions and refl;raints of every kind 
laid on commerce, render the produ<5lions and mer- 
chandize of India and China, at leafl, as dear as in 
Europe ; and this colony, although the various 
impofts bring near 800,000 piaflres annually into 
the treafury, cofls Spain 1,500,000 livres befides, ^ 
which are fent there every year from Mexico. The 
immenfe pofîefîîons of the Spaniards in America have 
not admitted of the government efîentially direi^ing 
its attention to the Philippines, which refemble the 
eflates of thofe great lords, whofe. lands lie unculti- '. 
vated, though capable of making the fortunes o( ] 
many families. . -^ , 

I fhould.not hefitate to afïèrt, that a very great 
Vol. I. T ' nation. 



27-* l'A pâiiousi'i voYAor [1787* 

natioiij poflifcflèd of no other colony than the Phi- 
Hppme Iflands, and who ihould eilablifh the beH^ 
TOveminent of which they are capable, mieht behold 
all the European fettleraents in Africa and Americ» 
without envy. 

Three millions of inhabitants people thefe various 
iflands, of whom that of Luconia contains near one: 
third. Thefe people appear in no refpe<51: inferior to 
thofe of Europe. They cultivate the earth like men 
of underdanding, are carpenters, joiners, fmiths, 
gdd^iths, weavers, malbns, &c. I have walked 
through their vilfTages, and found tliem kind, hofpi^ 
table, and communicative ; and though the Spauiards 
fpeak of and treat them with contempt, I perceived 
tW the vices they attributed to the Indians, ought 
rather to be imputed to the government they have 
themfclves cftabKfhed. It is well known, that the 
avidity for gold, and the fpirit of conquell, with 
which both the Spaniards and Portuguefe were ani- 
mated two centuries ago, induced adventurers of 
thofe nations to traverfe the different feas and i (lands 
of both hemifpheres, with no otlier view than to 
fbarch for that precious metal. 

Some gold fanded rivers, and the vicinity of the 

fpice iflands, were no doubt the motives of the firfl 

{fettlcments in the Philippines ; but their produce did 

not corre^ond with the hopes that were entertained. 

To thefe avaricious motives fucceeded the enthufiafm 

of religion. A great number of milîionaries, of every 

order of Monks, were font there to preach Chrifli- 

anity, and the harvcft was fo abundant, that thefe: 

iflands foon contained eight or nine hundred Chrif- 

tians. Had this zeal been tempered by a little phi- 

lofophy, that fyftem was doubtlefs beft adapted to 

fecure the conquefVs of the Spaniards, and render 

this fcttlement ufeful to the mother country. But 

their only object: was to make Chriftians, not citir- 

aens. The colony was then divided into parifhes. 

and 



1787 J ROUND THE WORLD. 275 

end fubjedled to the moil frivolous and extravagant 
ceremonies. Every fault, every pretended fin, was pu- 
ni(hed by a whipping, the abfence from prayej and 
from mafs were taxed, and the puniihment infliétcd 
both on mon and women at the church door, by order 
of the curate. Their holidays, their religious ooa- 
fraternities, their private devotions, confumc a very 
confiderable portion of time ; and as in hot climates 
the imagination takes a itill loftier flight than in 
more temperate regions, I have, in paflion week, 
beheld penitents in niafks, dragging chains through 
the ftreets, with their legs and loins furrounded with 
a girdle of thorns ; and in this condition, receive at 
tveiy Jiation, before the church door, or before the 
oratories, feveral flrokes of the whip, in the way of 
difcipline, and in a word, fubmit to equally rigorous 
penances with the faquirs of India. Thefe pradticeSi 
more calculated to form enthufiafts than to infpire 
true devotion, are now prohibited by the Archbifhop 
of Manilla j but it '- highly probable, fome confef» 
fors flill recommend, if not enjoin them. 

This monaftic difcipline not only enervates thô 
mind of thefc people, naturally inadlive through the 
influence of the climate, and the fmaJl number of 
their wants, but perfuading them that life is but a 
journey, and the good things of it unprofitable, 
combines with the impoiïibility of felling the fruits 
of the earth for a price that would compenfate their 
labour, to paralyfe their induftry. Thus, as fboft 
as the inhabitants have the quantity of rice, of fugar^ 
and of vegetables, necefîàry for their fubfiftance^ 
the fuperflux is of no value whatever. In fuch cir- 
cumftances fugar has been fold for lefs than a half- 
penny the pound, and rice remained upon the 
ground without being reaped. It would be difHcult 
for the mofl unenlightened fociety to form a {yûem 
of government more abfurd, than tliat which has 
regulated thefe colonies for the two laft centuries^, 

T 2 The 



276 tA PÉROUSK^S VOYAGE [l787. 

The port of Manilla, which ought to be free and 
open to all nations, has been, till very lately, (hut 
again (I Europeans, and open only to a few Moors, 
Americana, and the Portnguefe of Goa. The go- 
vernor is inverted with the mod dcfpotic authority : 
and the uludiencîa, which ought to moderate his 
power, is totally impotent before the reprefentative 
of the SpaniOi government. In point offaél, though 
not by law, it lies irt his bi'caft to admit or to con- 
fifcatc the merchandize of foreigners, whom the hope 
of advantage may have brought to Manilla, and who 
would not expole themfelves to this rifk, but on the 
probability of a very great profit, ultimately ruinous 
to the confumcrs. No liberty whatever is enjoyed 
there. Inquifitors and Monks dirc6l the confcienccs 
of the people, the didors overlook all the affairs of 
individuals, and the governor regulates the moil 
innocent amufements : even an cxcurfion up the 
country, or a converfazione, are within his jurifdic- 
tion. In a word, the fincft and mod charfning 
country in the world, is certainly the laft a lover of 
liberty would chufe for his reudence. I faw at 
Manilla, that worthy, that virtuous governor of the 
Marianas, Senor Tobias, rendered too famous for his 
own repofe by the Abbé Raynal. I have feen him 
perfecuted by the Monks, who, by reprefenting him 
as impious, even alienated the affections of his wife, 
and induced her to demand a reparation from him, 
that (he might not live with this pretended reprobate; 
while every fanatic applauded her conduct. Senor 
Tobias is lieutenant-colonel of the regiment that 
forms the garrifon of Manilla ; and is acknowledged 
to be the beft officer in the country. Yet the go- 
vernor has decreed that his falary, which is very con- 
iiderable, fhoul ) be paid to his pious wife, leaving 
him only 26 piaftres per month, for the fubfiftencc 
of himfelf and his fbn. This brave officer, thus re- 
duced to defpair, was waiting for a proper oppor- 
tunity 



•it, 



1787 .J ROUND THE WORLD. TJ^ 

)t,unity to eïcnpc from this colony, in order to demand 
juftice. There is a very wife, but unfortunately an 
incffedlual law, vrhich ought to have moderated this 
inordinate power, and by which every citizen is per- 
mitted to profccute the ex-governor before hin fuc- 
ceflbr. The latter is, however, interefted in juflifyine 
fîvcry thipg his prcdccefTor is reproached with ; and 
the citizen who is imprudent enough to complain, ia 
expo fed to new and cncreafed injufticc. 

The mod galling diftinéilons are eftablilhcd, and 
fupported with the ilriiSlcft fevcrity. The number 
jof horfes ufed in carriages is fixed for every rank, 
and coachmen are bound to give precedence to the 
fuperior number ; fo that the mere caprice of an oidor 
may detain behind him a whole line of carriages, 
that have the misfortune of travelling the fame road. 
So many abufes in this government, fo many vex- 
Mions that refult from it, have not however totally 
deftroycd the advantages of the climate, and the 
peafantry difplay an air of happincfs not to be found 
m the villages of Europe. I'heir houfes are ad- 
mirably neat, and (haded by fruit trees, which grow 
fpontaneoufly. The tax paid by each mafter of a 
fmall houfe, is very moderate, being limited to 5{ 
reals^ including the churph dues, which is received 
))y the nation ^ all the bifhops, canons, and curates, 
jbeing paid by the government. But they have efta- 
jjliflied fome perquifites, which compenfate the Imall- 
nefs of their (lipends. 

A dreadful oppreffion has, however, of late year$ 
taken place, and threatens to deftroy the little en- 
joyment allowed them. I mean the tax upon to- 
bacco. Their paflion for fmoking this narcotic 
is fo immoderate, that there is not a moment in 
the day when either men or women have not a 
fegar* in their mouth, and children fcarcely out of 

* A feear (or cigarro) is a leaf of tobacco, rolled upj and fmoke4 
in lieu of a pipe.'— /^V-wfifr £<///<ir. 

T 3 their 



ii 

li! 



à7S LA péouse's voyage * [1787. 

their cradle contract the fame habit. The tobacco 
of the Ifland of Luconia is the beft in Afia. Eyery 
inhabitant cultivated it round his houfe for his own 
confumption, and the fmall number of foreign fhips 
that had permiflion to land at Manilla carried it to 
every part of India. 

A prohibitory law however has lately been promul- 
gated, and the tobacco of each individual has been, 
pulled up, and the cultivation of it limited to grounds 
where it is grown for the benefit of the government. 
The price has been fixed at half a piaftre per pound, , 
and though the confumption is diminifhed, the daily 
pay of a workman is inadequate to procure tobacca 
for himfelf and his family. All the inhabitants agree, 
that a tax of two piaftres, added to the capitation 
tax of thofe who are liable to it, would have produc- 
ed to the revenue a fum equal to that of the fale of 
tobacco, without giving birth to the diforders the 
latter has produced. Infurrccftions have threatened 
every corner of the ifland, troops have been employ- 
ed to fupprefs them, and an army of cuftom-houfe 
clerks and officers employed to prevent finuggling, 
and to compel the confumers to apply to the nation- 
al warehoufes. Several of thefe have been maflàcred, 
though fpeedy vengeance was infiidled by the tribu- 
nals, who pafs judgment on the Indians with much 
fewer formalities than on the other citizens. There 
flill remains however a leaven of revolt, in which the 
leafl: fermentation might produce a formidable acti- 
vity, and it is not to be doubted that an enemy who 
might entertain projeéls of conquell: would find an 
army of Indians ready to join their ftandard the mo- 
ment they fet foot on the ifland, and furnifli them 
with arms*. The picture that might be drawn of 

the 

♦ The Philippines, from their extent, their climate, and the qua- 
lity of their foil, polTefs every means of producing al! the colonial 
comnfiodities. I'hey are fiunilhed with the precious metals, and 

iKpxi'^ ■ ■ '--• - their 



1787.] ROUND TmS WORLD. ^ 279 

the ftate of Manilla a few years hence would be very 
clifFeront from its prefent condition, were the govem- 
jnent of Spain to adopt a better conftitution for the 
Philippine Illands. The foil is adequate to the mod 
valuable produé\ion, 000,000 individuals of both 
fexcs, who inhabit the ifland of Luconia, might be 
encouraged to cultivate it, and the clinlate admits of 
ten crops of filk, within the year, while that of China 
fcarcely affords a profpeél of two. 

their fituation is moft advantageous for trading with India and 
China. An European nation, if cftabliflied there on a folid foun- 
<lation, and poflefiing a port for an entrepot and refrefiiment on the 
coafts of Africa, of Madagafcar, or in the neighbouring feas, might 
abandon their pofTelfions in America without the fnnalleft rehic- 
♦ance. This important property appears however not to be jurfil)r 
appreciated by the Spanifli government. Their apparent inditfe- 
lence arifes from the difficulty of fupporting the immenfe weight 
of their pofleffions in the two hfimil'pheres, and the impofllbility of 
their giving to ail of them the fpecies of activity calculated to draw 
from them all the aid th. mother country would have a right to 
expe{\. 

The Philippines therefore are not only extremely likely to be co- 
veted by the other maritime powers of Europe, but if the enemies 
of Spain do not take advantage of the weak ftatL ia which they lan- 
guifii, they will one dav become a prey to the Moors. 

VVhen the metallic nches and vegetable produiflions of the South 
Sea Iflands are better known, when new tracks, opened to com- 
njerce and navigation fliall admit of a C.xft and fpeedy communica- 
tion to the very centre of thiî Tea, the importance of the Philip- 
pines will be perceived. The Spaniards, who already have a fet- 
tkment in the Bafliee Iflands, will foon have another on the Sand- 
wich Iflands, although Hying fomewhfit to the northward of the 
track of the galleons ; and their poflelfions, if fuflfeted to encreafe, 
will form a kind of chain embracing the whole earth. The Ruf- 
fians will then difcover all the advantages they may derive from 
the commerce of the South Sea, and ail their maritime views will 
be direded to the ports of Kamtfchatka. 

This ftate of things however will only continue till the energy 
of the nations who people that part of the globe Ihall fet bounds to 
this impolitic extenfion of territory; till the moment when they 
Ihall relume their natural rights, by driVing out all the Europeans, 
in order to carry on a free trade with every nation. But that period 
15 ftill very diftant, and before it arrives the Spaniards, as Kaynai 
has predicted, weakened by polTeffions, too numerous to be effeftu- 
ally protefted, will be fuccelTively driven from their multiplied fet- 
tlcments by fome more powerful uatipn.— /V^rrri Editor. 

T 4 Cotton, 



f 



280 LA pérouse's voyage [1787 

Cotton, indigo, the fugar-cahe, p.nd cofîee, grow 
without cultivation around the footfleps of the inha- 
bitants, who defpife them, and every thing indicates 
that even fpiccs would not be inferior to thofe of the 
Moluccas. A perfe6lly free trade for all nations 
would enfure a market that would encourage every 
fpecies of cultivation, and a moderate duty on all the 
exports would in a very few years be adequate to all 
the expenccs of the government. Religious tolera- 
tion granted lo the Chincfe, together with fome 
other privileges, would prefently draw 100,000 in- 
habitants from the eaftern provinces of that empire, 
driven away by the tyranny of their mandarines. If 
to thefe advantages the Spaniards added the conqueil 
of Macao, their fettlements in Alia, and the advan- 
tages they would derive from them, would undoubt- 
edly exceed thofe of the Dutch in the Moluccas and 
at Java. The eflablifhment of the new Philippine 
company feems to indicate, that the attention of the 
government is at length dire6led towards this part 
of the world, and they have adopted, though only in 
part, the fyflem of Cardinal Alberoni. That minify 
ter perceived that Spain, hav'i.g no manufactures, it 
would be more politic to enrich the nations of Afia 
with her metals than thofe of Europe, who were her 
rivals, and whofe commerce (he nourifhed while ffie 
augmented their ftrength, by confuming the obje6ls 
of their induftry. He was therefore of opinion, that 
Manilla ought to be an open mart for all nations, 
and was defirous to invite the fhip-ovvncrs of the va- 
rious provinces of Spain to go and load at this mar- 
ket with the cotton or other manufactures of China 
and the Indies, that were necefîhry for the confump- 
tion of the colonics and of the metropolis. 

Cardinal Alberoni however is well known to have 
pofTefled more genius than fcience ; and though he 
was pretty thoroughly acquainted with Europe, he 
had not the fmallefl idea of the affairs of Afia. The 



o 



fump- 

have 
igh he 
', he 
The 

)bjeéls 



17 87. J ROUND THE WORLD. 261 

objeéts of the greateft confumption, both for Spain 
and her colonies, arc thofe of the Coromandcl coaii 
and of Bengal ; which it is certainly as eafy to carry 
to Cadiz as to Manilla, the latter being (ituated at a 
great diftance from that coaft, and its feas fubje(5t to 
monfoons, which expolc navigators to lofles and 
conliderable delays. Thus the difference in price 
. between Manilla and India rauft be at leaft 50 per 
<;ent : and if to this price are added the immenfe ex- 
pences of outfits in Spain for fo long a voyage, it 
will be evident that the produce of India, which 
comes by the way of Manilla, muft be fold at very 
high prices in the part of Europe under the Spanifh 
dominion, flill dearer in their American colonies, and 
that the nations, who, like England, Holland and 
France carry on this trade direélly, will always be able 
to fmuggle them in there with the greateft advantage. 
It is however on this defedive fyftem that the foun- 
dation of the new company has been laid, and, which 
is ftill worfe, accompanied by reftriélions and impofts 
rendering it far inferior to the projeél of the Ita- 
lian minifter — fuch in fhort, that it appears impofii- 
blc for this company to fublift four years more, al- 
though its privileges have in a manner fvvallowed up 
the whole commerce of the nation with her Ameri- 
can colonies. The pretended fair of Manilla, where 
the new Gsmpany is obliged to provide itfelf with 
cargoes, is only open to the Indian nations, as if they 
were afraid to augment the competition of fellers, or 
to obtain the cotton manuft>6lurcs of Bengal at too 
low a price. 

It may alfo be remarked, that thefe pretended 
Moorifli, or American (hips from Goa. only bring 
Englifh goods ; and as thefe modes of difguifing them 
are attended with additional expences, this falls ulti- 
mately on the confumer. I'hus ihe difference be- 
tween the price in India, and that of Manilla, no 
longer continues at 50 per cent;, but has rifen to 6o 
* and 



282 LA PÉROUSE*S VOYAGE [1787. 

âhd even to 80. With this error is combined, that of 
the exchifive right of the Company, to purchaie the 
produ6lions of the illand of Luconia, whofeinduftry 
not being excited by a competition of buyers, will 
ever- continue in the inert (late, to which it owes its 
infignificance for the two lail centuries. Many other 
authors have fpoken of the civil and military govern^ 
ment of Manilla, I therefore thought it my bufinefs, 
to make the reader acquainted with that city, under 
the new point of view, which the eflablilhrxient of this 
new Company has perhaps rendered interelling, par- 
ticularly in an age, when all men who are lO hold an 
elevated rank in the ftate, ought to undcrlland the 
theory of commerce. 

The Spaniards have fome fettlements in the various 
iflands to the fouthward of Luconia ; but they feem 
onlv to be on fufferance there, and their iituation in 
Luconia does not induce the inhabitants of the other 
iflands to acknowledge tlieir fovereignty. On the 
contrary, they arc always at war with them. Thefc 
pretended Moors, of whom I have already fpoken, 
and who infeft their coafts, making very frequent 
defcents, and carrying into captivity the Indians of 
both fexes, who are under the Spanifh yoke, are the 
inhabit'ants of Mindanao, Mindoro, and Panay. They 
acknowledge no authority but that of their rcfpeétive 
princes v*?ho are called Sultans, with as little pro- 
priety, at> thefe people arc called Moors. In faél 
they are Malays, and have embraced Mahomctifm, 
nearly at the fame period that Chriftianity began to 
be preached at Manilla. The Spaniards have deno- 
minated them Moor», and their fovercigns Sultans, in 
confequcnce of the identity of their religion, with that 
of the nations of the fame name in Africa, who have 
for fo many centuries been at enmity with Spain. 
The only military eftablifhment of the Spaniards, in 
the fouthcrn Philippines, is that of Saraboangan in 
the ifland of Mindanao, where they keep a garrifon 

of 



j.> 



lave 
I)ain. 
in 
Bi in 
ifon 
of 



17 87 .J BQUND THE WORLD. 283 

pf 150 men, under the command of a mlltary Go« 
vernor, who is appointed by the Governor General 
of Manilla, In the other iflands are only a few vil^ 
lages, defended by bad batteries, ferved by militia, 
and commanded by.Alcaydes, nominated by the Go- 
vernor General, but eligible from all clafies of citi- 
zens, who are not foldiers. The real mafters of the 
various iflands, where thefe Spanifh villages are fili- 
ated, would foon deftroy them, had they not a very 
important intereft in their prefervation. Thefe 
Moors, though at peace when at home in their own 
iflands, fit out veflfels to commit piracies on the coaft 
of Luconia, and the Alcaydes purchafe a very great 
ni*mber of the Haves made by thefe pirates, which 
faves them the trouble of carrying their prifonera 
to Batavia, where they would obtain a much lower 
price. Thefe particulars pourtray the weaknefs of 
the government of the Philippines, better than all the 
reafonings of the various navigators, who have vifited 
them. The reader will perceive, that the Spaniards 
are not fi:rong enough to prote6l the commerce of 
their vaft polîèflSons, and all the benefits conferred 
by them on the natives, have hitherto had no "bther 
obje6!, than their happinefs in a future life. 

We ftaid but a few hours at Manilla. The Go-^ 
vernor having taken leave of us immediately after 
dinner, to take his fiefta or afternoon nap, we were 
at liberty to vifit M. Sebir, who rendered us the mofi:' 
efîèntial fervices during our ftay in the bay of Ma- 
nilla. This French merchant, the moft enlightened 
of cur countrymen, whom I have met with in the feas 
of China, had imagined, the new Philippine Com- 
pany, and the intimacy of the cabinets of Madrid and 
Verlaillcs, would procure him the means of extend- 
ing his fpeculations, which were cramped by the re- 
eftablifiiment of the French Eaft India Company. 
He had confequently fettled all his affairs at Canton, 
and at Macao, where he had been many years eftab- 

lilhed. 



284 LA P£ROUSB*S VOYAGE [l^S^/ 

liflicd, and had formed a houfe of trade at Manilla, 
where he alfo folicited the decifion of a very important 
law-fuit, in which one of his friends was concerned f 
but he already perceived, that the prejudices againft 
foreigners, and the defpotifm of the adminidration, 
would be infuperable obftacles to the accomplilh- 
ment of his vvilhes, and at the time of our arrival, he 
propofed rather tp wind up aU his affairs, than to en- 
ereafe their ramifications, 

We returned tp our boats at fix in the evening, 
and got on board our (hips at eight ; but being appre- 
henfive, that while employed in repairing our fhipç 
at Cavita, the bifcuit and flour contraàors, &c. 
would make us the yi<5lims of the ina6iivity, fo gene- 
ral among merchants of that nation, L thought it ne- 
ceilary, to order an officer to refide at Manilla, and 
every day to vifit the various agents, to whom the 
Intendant bad introduced us. I made choice of 
M. de Vaujuas, one of the lieutenants of the Aftro- 
labe. That officer, however, foon wrote me, that his 
Hay at Manilla was ufelcfs, as Don Gonzalp Car- 
yagnal, Intendant of the Philippines, was (o careful 
of our intereft, that he went round every day himiclf, 
to watch the progrefs of the workmen employed for 
our (hips, and that his vigilance was equally aélive, 
as if he had been h imfelf engaged in the expedition. 
His obliging and ready attention, demand a public 
teftimony of our gratitude: liis cabinet of natural 
hiftory was thrown open to our naturalifi:s, to whom 
he prefented a part of his colleclHiion, in the animal, 
getable, and mineral kingdoms, and at the moment of 
our departure^ I received from him a complete double 
colle'Slion of (hells found in the Philippine feas. 
Thus his dciire to ferve us, extended to every thing 
that Kould be interefling to us. 

A week after our arrfval at Manilla, we received a 
letter from M. Elfl:ockenftrom, the principal fuper- 
eargo of t^e Swedifh Ea(l India Company, apprifing 
,.... ,. us. 



us, 



17870 itOUND THE WOnLDi ISS 

US, he had fold our otter Ikiris for 10,000 piaftres, and 
giving us permilïïon to draw for that fum. I was 
very dcfirous to procure this money at Manilla, in 
order to diftribute among the failors, Who having left 
Macao without receiving it, were apprehcnfive their 
hopes would never be realized. M. Sebir had at that 
time no remittance to make to MaCao, and we had 
recourfe to Don Gonzalo, to whom every thing of 
this nature was entirely foreign, but who made ufe of 
the influence his amiable chara<51er procured him, 
over the various merchants of Manilla, to induce them 
to difcount our bills : and the produce was divided 
among the failoi's previous to our departure. 

The great heats of Manilla now began to produce 
fome bad effets upon our crews,andfome of the failors 
were attacked with colics, which were not, however, 
attended with ferious confeqnertces. But Mefîi^. de 
Lamanon and Daigremont, who had brought fome 
iymptoms of dyfentery from Macao, caufed probably 
by a checked perfpiration, in lieu of finding relief on 
fhore,grew worfc there, infomuch that M. Daigremont 
was given over the 2J^d day after our arrival, and dieA 
on the 25th. This was the fécond perfon who died on 
board the Aftrolabe. We had not experienced any 
limilar misfortune on board the Boulîble,, although, 
perhapjs, in general, our crew had enjoyed an inferior 
flate of health to that of the Aflrolabe. It mufl, 
however, be obferved, that the fervant who died dur- 
ing our run from Chili to Eafter Ifland, was con- 
fûmptive when he came on board, and M. de Langie 
only yielded to the requeft of his mafler, who flat- 
tered himfelf that the fea air and warm climates would 
cfFe<5l his cure. As to M. Daigremont, in fpite of 
his phyficians, and unknown to his friends and com- 
panions, he tried to cure himfelf with burnt brandy, 
pimento, and other medicines, which the moft robuft 
could not have withftood ; and he fell a victim to 
his own imprudence, and the dupe of the too high 

opinion. 



* ,. 



286 LA péaOUSB's VlotAGÉ [l^&f» 

Opinion he entertained of the firength of his con- 
Ûitution. 

On the 28th of March all our labours at CavitA 
were iinifhed ; our boats built, our faiia repaired, the 
rigging overhauled, our Ihips completely caulkedj 
and our fait provifions barrelled up. This laft ope- 
ration we were unwilling to entruft with the agents 
at Manilla, as we knew the fait provilions of the gal- 
leons never kept fweet three months ; and our con- 
fidence in the method pradlifed by Captain Cook was 
very great. A copy of the procefs, ufed by Captain 
Cook, was therefore given to each falter, and we fu- 
perintended this new fpeciesof labour ourfelves. We 
had on board both fait and vinegar from Europe, and 
we only purchafed pigs of the Spaniards, and thele 
at a very moderate price. 

The opportunities of communication between Ma- 
nilla and China were fo frequent, that we received 
news from Macao every week. By thcfe we learned, 
with the greateft aftonifhment, the arrival of la Ré-» 
folution under the command of M. d'Entrecafteaux, 
and la Subtile frigate, under that of M. la Croix . 
de Caftrics, in the river of Canton. Thefe fhips had 
left Batavia when the N. E. monfoon was in full 
force, had run to the eaftward of the Philippines, 
coafted New Guinea, traverfed feas that are full of 
fhoals, without even having a chart of them on board, 
and after a navigation of 70 days, were at length ar- 
rived at the mouth of the river of Canton, where they 
anchored the day after our departure. The aftro- 
nomical obfervations they made during this voyage 
will be extremely important towards the knowledge 
of thefe feas, always open to fhips that have miflèd 
the monfoon ; and it is very aftonifhing, that our 
Eaft India Company (hould make choice, for the com- . 
mand of the ihip which loft its voyage this year, of a ' 
Captain who was totally ignorant of this track. 
, At Manilla I received a letter from M. d'Entrecaf- 
' < teaux. 



1787.] ROUND THE WÔRt». ^^7 

teaux, informing me of the motives of his voyage ; 
and prefently after la Subtile frigate brought mc fur- 
ther difpatches. 

M. la Croix de Caftries, who had doubled the Cape 
of Good Hope in company with the Calypfo, brought 
us the news of Europe. But thefc news were dated 

She 24tb of April, and we had an interval of a whole 
ear to regret in unfatisfied curiofity. Nor had our 
families and friends taken this opportunity to write 
to us ; and in the ftate of tranquillity which Europe 
enjoyed, our intereft in its political events was com- 
paratively feeble, to that which agitated our individual 
hopes and feai-s. It afforded us, however, an addi- 
tional opportunity to convey letters to France. La 
Subtile was fo well manned, as to permit M. la Croix 
de Caftries partly to repair the lofs of foldiers and 
officers we had fufFered in America. He transferred 
to each of our (hips an officer and four men. M. 
Guyet, enfeigne de vai/feauy came on board the Bouf- 
fole, and M. de Gbbien, garde de la marine, on booi'd 
the Aftrolabe. This recruit was very neccfîàry, as 
we had eight officers lefs than at our departure from 
France, including M. de Saint-Ceran, whofe impaired 
ftate of health obliged me to fend him to the Ifle of 
France, on board la Subtile, as all the furgeons de- 
clared it impoffilale for him to continue the voyage. - 
In the mean while our provilions were put on board 
at the time we had previoufly fixed ; but Paffioa- 
week, which fufpeods all bufinefs at Manilla, occa- 
fioned fome delay in our individual wants, and I was 
obliged to fix my departure for Eafter Monday : for 
the N. E. monfoon being fliil very ftrong, a facrifice 
of three or four days could not be injurious to our 
expedition. On the 3d of April we got all our agro- 
nomical inftruments on board. M. Dagelet had not, 
fince our departure from France, met with a more 
commodious fpot for afcertaining, with prccifion, the 
rate of the time-keeper, No. 19, having ercded our 
., obfervatory 



288 LA pérouse's voyagé [1787", 

ièrvatOfy in the Governor's garden, about 120 toifc* 
from our (hips. The longitude of Cavjta, deduced 
from a great number of lunar obfervations, was 118^ 
so' AQI' eaft*, and its latitude, taken with a quadrant 
of three feet radius, lA^li/ g" north. Had we de- 
termined its longitude, according to the daily lofs, 
attributed at Macao to our time-keeper, No. 1§, it 
would have been 1 18° 40' 8", that is 4' 32" lefs than 
the refult of our lunar obfervations. 

Before we fet fail, I thought it my duty to go 
with M. de Langle, to make our acknowledgments 
to the governor-general, for the difpatch with which 
his orders had been executed ; and dill more parti- 
cularly to the intendant, from whom we had eî<pc- 
ricnced fo many marks of politenefs and friendfhip. 
Having dilcharged thefe duties, we both took ad- 
vantage of a refidence of forty-eight hours at M, 
Sebir's, to vifit, either in a boat or a carriage, the 
environs of Manilla. Though we faw no fuperb 
houfes, parks, or gardevis, yet Nature unadorned is 
here fo beautiful, that a fimple Indian village on 
the bank of the river, or a houfe in the European 
ftyle, furrounded by a few trees, afford a view far 
more piduref^ue than that of our moft magnificent 
manfions ; and the coldeft imagination cannot avoid 
pourtraying to itfelf undifturbed happinefs fmiling 
amidft this delightful (implicity. Almoft all the 
Spaniards are accuilomed to quit their town refi- 
dence immediately after Eafter, and to pafs the fea- 
fon of the fcorching heats in the country. They 
have not attempted to embellifh a country, which 
has no need of the aids of art. A neat and fpacious 
houfe, built on the edge of the water, and furnifhed 
with the moft commodious baths, though deftitute 

* See the explanation of the method of taking longitudes, in the 
tables of the routes of our fliips, fi om Manilla to Kamtfchatka, 
given by M. Dagelet, and inferted at the end of the fécond volume. 
^^French Editor» 

...^ ^ "i • •. -of 



\l 



\l 



of 



1787.*] ROUND THE WORLD. . ÎBgT 

of viftas, avenues, or gardens, and only (haded by 
fruit trees, forms the dwellings of the riehefl; citi- 
zens ; and this country would be one of the moft 
charming fpots in the world to live in, if a milder 
government and fewer prejudices rendered the civil 
liberty of the inhabitants more fecure. The fortifi- 
cations of Manilla have been augmented by the go- 
vernor-general, under the dirc6lion of Senor Sauz, 
a fkilful engineer ; but the garrifon is far from nu- 
merous, and confifts, in time of peace, of a finglc 
regiment of infantry, compofcd of two battalions, 
each comprehending a company of grenadiers, and 
eight of fufileers: the two battalions forming to- 
gether a body of 1 300 cfFeélive men. In this regi- 
ment, which is compofcd of Mexicans, all the fol- 
diers are of the colour of mulattoes, and it is aflerted 
they are not inferior, either in valour or intelligence, 
to European troops. There are alfo two companies 
of artillery, commanded by a lieutenant colonel, each 
compofcd of 80 men, whofe officers are a captain, a 
lieutenant, an enfign, and a fupernumerary ; three 
companies of dragoons who form a fquadron of 150 
horfe, commanded by the oidcil of the three Cap- 
tains, and laftly, a battalion of 1*200 militia, formerly 
raifed and paid by a very rich Chinefe Meti, named 
Tuaflbn, who was ennobled. All the foldiers of this 
corps arc Chinefe Metis, do the fame duty in the 
town as the regulars, and now receive the fame 
pay, but they would be of little ufe in war. In cafe 
of need 8000 militia might be raifed in a very (hort 
time, divided into provincial battalion?, and com- 
manded by Eropean officers. Each battalion has a 
company of grenadiers. One of thefe companies 
has been difciplined by a ferjeant, taken from the re- 
giment at Manilla ; and the Spaniards, although 
more prone to decry than pancgyrife the valour and 
merit of the Indians, afîcrt that this company is in 
no refpedl inferior to the regiment of Europe, 
Vol. I. U The 



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Hiotographic 

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990 lA rkRov§is,*B TOYAftB [1787. 

The Httle garrifon of Samboangan, in the iiland 
of Mindaneo, is not taken fixxn that of the ifland of 
Luoonia. Two corps, of 1 50 men each, have been 
Ibrmed for the Mariana Iflands, and for that of Min« 
éaaeo^ and theic corps are invariably appropriated to 
thote colonies. 



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