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'UNIVERSITY 




THE CHOCOLATE GIRL- BY LIOTARD. 

FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTINC IN THE DRESDEN GALLERY 



COCOA 



CHOCOLATE 



A SHORT HISTORY OF THEIR 
PRODUCTION- AND USE 



WITH A FULL AND PARTICULAR ACCOUNT OF THEIR 

PROPERTIES, AND OF THE VARIOUS METHODS 

OF PREPARING THEM FOR FOOD 




Published by 

WALTER BAKER & COMPANY 

Dorchester, Mass., U.S.A. 

17S0-18S6 



b i 3 



Copyright, 1SS6, 

By WALTER BAKER & CO. 
3 2.o^T~ 



press or 



BOSTON. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Sources of information . . . . vii 

I. 
Introduction — showing the remarka- 
ble INCREASE IN THE CONSUMPTION OF 
COCOA AND CHOCOLATE IN GREAT BRIT- 
AIN AND THE UNITED STATES ... I 

II. 

The cacao-tree — where and how cul- 
tivated — METHOD OF CURING THE 
FRUIT, ETC. .7 

III. 

Early use of cocoa and chocolate in 
mexico, europe, etc. . . . .26 

IV. 

Properties of the different parts of 
the fruit, and of its products . . 45 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



Page 



V. 



Value of cocoa and chocolate as ar- 
ticles OF FOOD, WITH OPINIONS OF THE 
MOST EMINENT PHYSICIANS . . . 52 



VI. 

Cocoa-butter — its purity, 
qualities, etc. 



HEALING 



82 



VII. 

Receipts 

Different methods of preparing drinks 

Plain chocolate 

Frothed chocolate . 

Milled chocolate 

Baker's Premium No. i 

Baker's vanilla chocolate 

Baker's Breakfast cocoa . 

Baker's Cocoa-paste 

Baker's Eagle French chocolate 

German sweet chocolate 

Baker's Racahout des Arabes 

Baker's broma 

Baker's Cocoa-shells 

Baker's prepared cocoa . 

Baker's Premium cracked cocoa 



9> 

9i 
94 
96 

97 

9 3 

98 

99 

99 

99 

100 

100 

100 

101 

IOI 
IOI 



CONTENTS. 






V 


Page 


Receipts, continued. 


Chocolat au lait (French) . . . 102 


Chocolat a Teau 






. 102 


Spanish chocolate . 






. 102 


Egg chocolate 






. 103 


German egg chocolate . 






103 


Parisian egg chocolate . 






. 104 


Wine chocolate 






106 


Chocolate wine 






106 


Chocolate puddings 






. 106 


Chocolate mixture . 






. Ill 


Chocolate cake 






. Ill 


Chocolate cakes 






116 


Chocolate macaroons 






119 


Chocolate tartlets . 






119 


Chocolate filling for cake 






120 


Chocolate wafers . 






121 


Chocolate jumbles . 






. 122 


Chocolate Eclairs . 






123 


Chocolate cream puffs . 






127 


Chocolate blanc-mange . 






128 


Chocolate custards. 






131 


Chocolate Bavarian cream 






133 


Chocolate souffles . 






134 


Chocolate meringue 






136 


Chocolate creams . 






136 


Cream chocolates . 






133 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



Page 



eipts, continued. 




Chocolate fondant .... 


138 


Chocolate Charlotte Russe . 


139 


Chocolate custard pies . 


140 


Chocolate pie (rich) 


140 


Chocolate ice cream 


141 


Chocolate cream drops . 


M3 


Chocolate caramels 


144 


Cream chocolate caramels . 


145 


Chocolate candy .... 


146 


Creme de cacao .... 


147 


Chocolate parfait amour 


147 


Bavaroise au chocolat . 


148 


Chocolate syrup .... 


148 


Chocolate syrup for soda water . 


. 149 


Chocolate icing or coating . 


150 


Chocolate whip 


150 


Chocolate drops, with nonpareils . 


15* 




SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 



" A New Survey of the West Indies," etc., by 
Thomas Gage. 2d edition, London, 1655. 

"The Natural History of Chocolate," by a 
French Officer; translated by Dr. R. Brookes, 
and printed in London, 1730. 

"Foods": (International scientific series), 
by Dr. Edward Smith, London, 1873. 

" The Beverages we Infuse " : Blackwood's 
Magazine, v. 75, 1854. 

" Physiologie du Gout," by J. Anthelme Bril- 
lat-Savarin. New edition, 2 v., Paris. 

" Le Cacao et le Chocolat, considered aux 
points de vue botanique, chimique, physiolo- 
gique, agricole, commercial, industrial et eco- 
nomique." Par Arthur Mangin, Paris, 1862. 

" A Practical Treatise on the Analysis of Tea, 
Coffee, Cocoa, Chocolate, etc.," by J. Alfred 
Wanklyn, Public Analyst, etc., London, 1874. 



Vlll SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 

" McCulloch's Dictionary of Commerce and 
Commercial Navigation," London, 1882. 

" Spon's Encyclopaedia of the Industrial Arts," 
etc., Div. II., London, 1880. 

" Encyclopaedia Britannica," 9th edition, Arti- 
cle " Cocoa." 

Lecture on " Chocolate," before the Sheffield 
Scientific School, New Haven, 1881, by Pro- 
fessor Daniel C. Eaton. 

"A Manual of Hygiene," prepared especially 
for use in the medical service of the army, by 
Edmund A. Parkes, M.D., F.R.S., London, 1864. 

" A Treatise on Hygiene and Public Health," 
edited by Albert H. Buck, M.D., New York, 1879. 

The "Cantor" Lectures on Food, by H. 
Letheby, London, 1872. 

" Cocoa," by John R. Jackson. " Nature," 
v. 2, 1S70. 

"Adulterations of Food," by Rowland J. 
Atcheriy, Ph.D., London, 1874. 

" Lectures on Diet and Regimen," by A. F. 
M. Willick, M.D., 3d edition, London, 1801. 

Paper on "Chocolate," in the " Annales de 
Physique et de Chimie," by M. Boussingault, 
member of the French Institute. 

11 History of American Manufactures," by J. 
L. Bishop. 



SOURCES OF INFORMATION. IX 

Reports on Commerce and Navigation, and 
Consular Reports, United States and Great 
Britain. 

Works on Cookery, by Maria Parloa, Pierre 
Caron, Pierre Blot, Mrs. M. F. Henderson, 
Marion Harland, Flora Neely, Matilda Lees 
Dods, Mrs. Blair, Sara T. Paul; also, the 
" Confectioner's Journal," " The Dessert Book," 
" Choice Receipts," etc. 




COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 



m 









CONSUMPTION, 

DURING the last half-century the con- 
sumption of cocoa in various forms 
has increased to an extraordinary extent, 
both in this country and Great Britain. 
This is due to several causes, among the 
most prominent of which are, (i) a reduc- 
tion in the retail price, which brings it 
within the means of the poorer classes 5(2) 
a more general recognition of the value of 
cocoa as an article of diet, and (3) im- 
provements in methods of preparation, by 
which it is adapted to the wants of differ- 
ent classes of consumers. 




Z COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

There is no doubt that, if it had not 
been for the monopoly of the production 
which Spain long possessed, and which 
kept the price, on its first introduction 
into England, at a point where only the 
rich could afford to buy it, cocoa would 
have come into as general use there as it 
did in Spain, and would, perhaps, have 
been received with more favor than tea cr 
coffee, which were introduced about the 
same time. 

It appears that, in the time of Charles 
II., the price of the best chocolate (very 
crude, undoubtedly, as compared with 
the present manufactures), was 6s. 8d. a 
pound, which, if we take into account the 
greater purchasing power of money at that 
time, would be equal to at least $5 a pound 
at this time for a coarse compound. 

Humboldt estimated the consumption of 
cocoa in Europe, in 1806, at 23,000,000 
pounds per annum, of which from 6,000,000 
to 9,000,000 were supposed to be consumed 



CONSUMPTION. 3 

in Spain. From the latest official returns of 
imports and consumption in the principal 
countries it appears that over 70,000,000 
pounds are now used. France heads the 
list with 26,750,250 pounds ; Spain comes 
next, with 16,450,000; England consumes 
13,966,512; the Netherlands, 5,475,000; 
Germany, about 3,250,000, and Belgium, 
1,245.000. The United States stands next 
to Great Britain in the list of consumers, 
the amount of crude cocoa entered for con- 
sumption last year being about 8,500,000 
pounds. The returns of exportations from 
the countries in which the article is pro- 
duced are so incomplete that it is im- 
possible to state definitely the total amount 
exported ; but it is probably not far 
from 80,000,000 pounds per annum. 
Reckoning the consumption in the coun- 
tries where it is raised at not less than 
20,000,000 pounds, it may safely be as- 
sumed that the total annual product does 
not fall short of 100,000,000 pounds. 



4 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

While the average price of the raw prod- 
uct has steadily increased during the last 
thirty years (from 47s. per cwt., between 
1854-60, to 74s. between 1881-84 1 ), the 
retail price of the prepared cocoa has 
fallen. This is due to improvements in 
machinery and methods of handling, and 
to the sharp competition between the lead- 
ing manufacturers. 

In 1820 the quantity of cocoa entered for 
home consumption in the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland was only 
267,321 pounds; in 1884 it amounted to 
13,966,512 pounds of crude cocoa, and 
1,033,173 pounds of chocolate, — in all 
about 15,000,000 pounds, an increase of 
5,500 per cent, in sixty-four years. The 
population, in the meantime, had increased 
only 73^ per cent. ; the use of tea had in- 
creased only 457 per cent., and of coffee 
only 356 per cent. During the last twenty- 

1 Mulhall's (English) Price Lists. 



CONSUMPTION. 

five years the consumption of cocoa and its 
products in the United Kingdom has in- 
creased about 230 per cent. The con- 
sumption per inhabitant is about 6 3 /s oz. 

In the United States the increased con- 
sumption in recent years has been no less 
striking. The amount of cocoa retained 
for home consumption in i860 was only 
1,181,054 pounds ; in 1885 it was 8,426,787 
pounds (that is, cocoa, crude cocoa and 
shells, not including chocolate, which is 
classed, in the official returns of imports, 
under the general head of u farinaceous 
articles"), — an increase of 614 per cent, 
in twenty-five years. The population in- 
creased during that period less than 60 per 
cent. The consumption of tea increased 
153 per cent., and of coffee 196 per cent. 

In view, therefore, of the great and 
constantly increasing use of this product, 
its properties and supply become questions 
of the highest economic and hygienic im- 
portance. For the purpose of satisfying 



6 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

the desire for information upon a subject 
which is of such general interest we have 
collected, from the most authentic sources, 
such facts in relation to the growth of 
the cacao-tree, the preparation of its fruit for 
the market, and the value of the different 
preparations for dietary purposes, as may 
serve to increase the common stock of 
knowledge in regard to one of the staple 
articles of food. 



THE CACAO-TREE. 



II. 

THE CACAO-TREE. 

THE term " Cocoa" is a corruption of 
" Cacao," but is almost universally 
used in English-speaking countries. The 
cacao-tree belongs to the natural order of 
Sterculiaceae, — a family of about 41 gen- 
era and 521 species, inhabiting the warmer 
regions of the world. None of them grow 
naturally in our climate, or in Europe, 
and, excepting the little yellow-flowered 
Mahernie, they are very seldom seen in our 
conservatories. 

The cacao-tree can be cultivated in suit- 
able situations within the 25th parallels of 
latitude. It flourishes best, however, with- 
in the 15th parallels, at elevations varying 
from near the sea-level up to about 2,000 
feet in height. The following table con- 



8 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 



tains the principal species, the places where 
grown, and the commercial name : — 



Botanical Name. 

Theobroma 
angustifolia , 

T. bicolor . . 



T. Cacao (sati- 
va) . . . . 



Where Grown. Commercial Name. 



Mexico. 
Brazil . . . 
New Granada, 



Australia, 

Bourbon, 

Ceylon, 

Cuba, 

Dominico, 

Guadaloupe, 

Guatemala . 

Guinea . . 

Hayti, 

India, 

Jamaica, 

Java, 

Madagascar, 

Martinique, 

Mauritius, 

Philippines, 

St. Croix, 

St. Lucia, 

St. Vincent, 

Trinidad, 



Maranhan. 

Bahia. 

Magdalena. 



The name of 
each country. 



Central Amer- 
ican. 
African. 



The name of 
each country. 



THE CACAO-TREE. 



Botanical Name. 

T. Cacao (sati- 

va.) 
T. glauca. 
T. Guyanensis, 

T. microcarpa, 

T. ovalifolia 
T. speciosa . . 
T. sylvestris . 



Where Grown. 

> Venezuela . 

Cayenne 

Surinam. 
J Ecuador 
} Peru . . 

Mexico . 

Brazil . 

Brazil . 

Jamaica . 



Commercial Name. 

^ Maracaibo. 
' l Caracas. 

. Berbice. 

Surinam. 
. Esmeralda. 
. Guayaquil. 

Soconusco. 

Para. 



Besides the above-mentioned species, 
distinguished by botanists, T. Cacao, 
which is the most widely and largely cul- 
tivated, is divided by cocoa-planters into 
several varieties, the differences observed 
being due to the long-continued influences 
of varied climates, soils and modes of cult- 
ure. The best of these is the Creole (or 
Criollo of the Spanish inhabitants of South 
America). The pods are small; but the 
nuts are thick, short, and almost globular, 
pale crimson in color, and of slightly bitter 
but agreeable flavor. This variety is 



10 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

becoming scarce, chiefly through the bad 
policy of replacing decayed trees by in- 
ferior specimens. The next variety is the 
For aster o, the best kinds of which are the 
Cundeamar, of two descriptions, one with 
yellow, the other with red pods. The 
former is the better, containing large seeds 
which, in color and the ease with which 
they are fermented, resemble the Criollo. 
The third variety is the Amelonado ; and 
the fourth and lowest is the Calabacillo, 
whose seeds are small, bitter, and of a dark 
crimson color. 

All the varieties except the Criollo, 
which is probably confined to Venezuela, 
are known collectively as Trinitario, or 
" Trinidad," — the best being but little in- 
ferior to Criollo in the matter of quality, 
and superior on the score of fruitfulness. 
Hence Trinidad forms the principal nursery 
from which plants or seeds are procured 
for new plantations. 

The various kinds of cocoa may be 



THE CACAO-TREE. 11 

placed in about the following order of 
merit: Soconusco (Mexico) and Esmeralda, 
(Ecuador), mostly, it is said, consumed at 
home ; Caracas and Puerto Cabello (Vene- 
zuela) ; Trinitario ; Magdalena and Car- 
thagena, New Granada ; Para ; Bahia. 1 

The British West Indies appear to take 
the lead among the producers for exporta- 
tion ; Ecuador stands second, Venezuela 
third, and Brazil fourth. The larger part 
of the Brazilian crop goes to France ; and 
the larger part of the Ecuadorian to 
Spain. 

A French officer who served in the West 
Indies for a period of fifteen years, during 
the early part of the last century, wrote, as 
the result of his personal observations, a 
treatise on "The Natural History of Choco- 
late, being a distinct and particular Account 
of the Cacao-Tree, its Growth and Culture, 

1 Spon's Encyclopaedia, etc., Div. II. 



12 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

and the Preparation, Excellent Properties, 
and Medicinal Virtues of its Fruit," which 
received the approbation of the Regent of 
the Faculty of Medicine at Paris, and 
which was translated and published in 
London in 1730* 

From this rare and valuable little work 
the following extracts are made : — 

" The cacao-tree almost all the year 
bears fruit of all ages, which ripens suc- 
cessively, but never grows on the end of 
little branches, as our fruits in Europe do, 
but along the trunk and chief boughs, 
which is not rare in these countries, where 
several trees do the like. Such an unusual 
appearance would seem strange in the eyes 
of Europeans, who have never seen any- 
thing of that kind ; but, if one examines 
the matter a little, the philosophical reason 
of this disposition is very obvious. One 
may easily apprehend that if nature had 
placed such bulky fruit at the ends of the 
branches their great weight must necessa- 



THE CACAO-TREE. 13 

rily break them, and the fruit would fall 
before it came to maturity. 

u The fruit is contained in a husk, or shell, 
which, from an exceedingly small begin- 
ning, attains in the space of four months to 
the bigness and shape of a cucumber. The 
lower end is sharp, and furrowed length- 
wise like a melon. This shell in the first 
months is either red or -white, or a mixture 
of red and yellow. This variety of colors 
makes three sorts of cacao-trees, which 
have nothing else to distinguish them but 
this. ... If one cleaves one of these shells 
lengthways it will appear almost half an 
inch thick, and its capacity full of choco- 
late kernels^ the intervals of which, before 
they are ripe, are filled with a hard white 
substance, which at length turns into a 
mucilage of a very grateful acidity. For 
this reason it is common for people to take 
some of the kernels with their covers and 
hold them in their mouths, which is mighty 
refreshing, and proper to quench thirst. 



14 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

But they take heed of biting them, because 
the films of the kernels are extremely bitter. 
" When one nicely examines the inward 
structure of these shells, and anatomizes, 
as it were, all their parts, one shall find 
that the fibres of the stalk of the fruit pass- 
ing through the shell are divided into 
five branches ; that each of these branches 
is subdivided into several filaments, every 
one of which terminates at the larger end 
of these kernels, and altogether resembles 
a bunch of grapes, containing from twenty 
to thirty-five single ones, or more, ranged 
and placed in an admirable order. When 
one takes off the film that covers one of the 
kernels the substance of it appears, which 
is tender, smooth, and inclining to violet 
color, and is seemingly divided into several 
lobes, though in reality they are but two ; 
but very irregular and difficult to be disen- 
gaged from each other." 

An interesting supplement to this de- 



THE CACAO-TREE. 15 

scription of the product in the West Indies, 
written more than a century and a half ago, 
will be found in the following report, made 
last year to the State Department at Wash- 
ington, by the U.S. Consul at La Guayra, 
in relation to the cultivation of cocoa in 
Venezuela, where the choicest variety of 
the exported product, the Caracas, is 
raised : — 

44 The tree grows to the average height of 
thirteen feet, and from five to eight inches 
in diameter, is of spreading habit and 
healthy growth, and, although requiring 
much more care and attention than the 
coffee-tree, yet its equally reliable crops 
require comparatively little labor in prop- 
erly preparing for the market. 

44 . . . There are two varieties of the 
cocoa-tree cultivated in Venezuela, known 
as El Criollo and El Trinitario, respec- 
tively, the former of which, though not so 
prolific nor as early fruiting as the latter, 
is yet superior to it in size, color, sweet- 



16 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

ness, and oleaginous properties of the fruit, 
and in the fact that it always finds ready 
sale, while the latter is often dull or neg- 
lected. The difference in price of the two 
varieties is also marked, the former being 
quoted at $28 to $30 per fanega (no 
pounds), while the latter commands ap- 
proximately half that price. 

u While coffee can be successfully culti- 
vated under a temperature of 60 degrees 
F., the cocoa-tree, for proper development 
and remunerative crops, requires a tem- 
perature of 80 degrees F. ; hence the area 
of the cocoa belt is comparatively re- 
stricted, and the cocoa-planter presumably 
has not to fear the fierce competition that 
he has encountered in the cultivation of 
cotton and coffee. Besides the condition 
of temperature above stated, this crop 
needs a moist soil and humid atmosphere, 
and so the lands along the coast of the 
Caribbean sea, sloping from the mountain- 
tops to the shore, bedewed* by the exha- 



THE CACAO-TREE. 17 

lations of the sea and irrigated by the 
numerous rivulets that course down the 
valleys, are found to be, in all respects, 
well adapted to the profitable cultivation 
of cocoa. And while the lands in the 
interior possessing facilities for irrigation 
may be said to be equally as good for 
the purpose, yet the absence of roads, and 
the consequently difficult transportation of 
produce on the backs of donkeys over 
rugged mountain paths, materially reduce 
the profits on the crop before it reaches 
the market. 

" A cocoa plantation is set in quite the 
same manner as an apple-orchard, except 
that the young stalks may be transplanted 
from the nursery after two months' growth. 
No preparation of the soil is deemed neces- 
sary, and no manures are applied. The 
young trees are planted about fifteen feet 
equidistant, which will accommodate two 
hundred trees to the acre. Between rows, 
and at like spaces, are planted rows of the 



18 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

Bucare, a tree of rapid growth, that serves 
to shade the soil as well as to shield the 
young trees from the torrid sun. Small 
permanent trenches must be maintained 
from tree to tree throughout the entire 
length of the rows, so that, at least once 
in the week, the stream, descending from 
the mountains, may be turned into these 
little channels and bear needful moisture 
to trees and soil. At the age of five years 
the plantation begins to bear fruit, and 
annually yields two crops, that ripening in 
June being termed the crop of San Juan, 
and that maturing at Christmas being 
known as the crop of La Navidad. The 
average age to which the trees attain, 
under proper care, may be estimated at 
forty years, during which period it will 
give fair to full crops of fruit ; but of 
course it must be understood that, as in 
our fruit-orchards, a new tree must be set 
from time to time to replace one that may 
be decayed or blighted. After careful 



THE CACAO-TREE. 19 

inquiry it may be safely stated that the 
average crop of the cocoa plantation at 
ten years of age, and under a proper state 
of cultivation, will amount to five hundred 
or six hundred pounds per acre. 

" The fruit or seed of the cocoa, in form, 
size, and color, is quite similar to the 
almond. These seeds, to the number of 
sixty or eighty, 1 are encased in a pod, 

1 This statement is incorrect. The average number is 
about twenty-five ; the maximum number would not exceed 
forty. It is curious to note the different statements of those 
who are regarded as authorities on the subject. Dampier 
("A New Voyage round the World") says there are com- 
monly near a hundred; Thomas Gage ("New Survey 
of the West Indies") says there are from thirty to forty; 
Colmenero (" A Curious Discourse upon Chocolate ") says 
ten or twelve; Oexmelin ("The History of Adventures ") 
says ten to fourteen. The French officer, in his "Natural 
History of Chocolate," says (and says truly), " I can affirm, 
after a thousand trials, that I never found more nor less than 
twenty-five. Perhaps, if one were to seek out the largest 
shells in the most fruitful soil and growing on the most 
flourishing trees, one might find forty kernels; but as it is 
not likely one would ever meet with more, so, on the other 
hand, it is not probable one would ever find less than fifteen 
except they are abortive, or the fruit of a tree worn out with 
age in a barren soil, or without culture." 



20 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

which, except in color, is the counterpart 
of a young muskmelon, being elongated 
and ribbed in the same manner. Its color, 
when green, is like that of the egg-plant, 
but, on ripening, it assumes a reddish 
hue. A peculiarity of the cocoa is that 
it bears fruit " from the ground up," the 
trunk yielding fruit as well as the 
branches. Upon ripening, the pods are 
gathered from the trees and heaped in 
piles on the ground, where they are left 
for some days to ferment, after which they 
burst open, when the seed must be shelled 
out. After a light exposure to the sun, 
during which time great care must be 
taken to protect them from the rain, they 
are sacked and ready for market. 

u The cocoa-trees, when very young, 
require to be carefully watched, to protect 
them from the ravages of the borers, which, 
instead of entering the trees near the ground 
or in the roots, as is the case with the 
borers in our peach-orchards, burrow under 



THE CACAO-TREE. 21 

the bark of the trunk and girdle the trees. 
After a few years of care all danger from 
this source is removed. The only disease 
to which the tree is subject is la ?nancha, 
which is an affection similar to the pear 
blight in the United States, though not so 
obstinate and fatal, and which, by promptly 
cutting away the diseased bark, may be 
usually arrested. The squirrels and wood- 
peckers also must be guarded against, as 
they are very fond of the young fruit. It 
happens too, though rarely, that a period 
of ten or twelve days of continuous rainy 
and cloudy weather ensues, in which event 
much of the fruit is blighted and falls from 
the trees. These, it is believed, comprise 
all the casualties to which the tree and the 
green crop are exposed ; but which, when 
compared with the usual contingencies that 
affect our own orchards and fruit crops, 
may not be considered more damaging or 
discouraging. 

44 In the tillage of the soil and the econo- 



22 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

mies of agriculture the people of Vene- 
zuela are probably not in advance of those 
who scratched and scraped the earth before 
the deluge. A people that will plough 
with a forked stick, and plant corn with an 
iron crow-bar, as is practised here, have 
much to learn in respect to the laws of 
nature and the appliances of art. And 
the resultant idea, on a practical review of 
the subject, is that, if a fair amount of 
intelligent industry and care could be in- 
vested in the cultivation of this crop, it 
would undoubtedly yield a surprisingly 
satisfactory percentage of remunerative 
returns." 

The method of preparing the fruit for 
shipment is thus described in the recent edi- 
tion of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica " : — 

" In gathering, the workman is careful 
to cut down only fully ripened pods, which 
he adroitly accomplishes with a long pole 
armed with two prongs, or a knife at its 



THE CACAO-TREE. 23 

extremity. The pods are left in a heap on 
the ground for about twenty-four hours ; 
they are then cut open and the seeds are 
taken out and carried in baskets to the 
place where they undergo the operation of 
sweating or curing. There the acid juice 
which accompanies the seeds is first drained 
off, after which they are placed in a sweat- 
ing-box, in which they are enclosed and 
allowed to ferment for some time, great 
care being taken to keep the temperature 
from rising too high. The fermenting 
process is, in some cases, affected by throw- 
ing the seeds into holes or trenches in the 
ground and covering them with earth or 
clay. The seeds in this process, which is 
called claying, are occasionally stirred to 
keep the fermentation from proceeding too 
violently. The sweating is a process which 
requires the very greatest attention and 
experience, as on it, to a great extent, de- 
pends the flavor of the seeds and their fit- 
ness for preservation. The operation varies 






24 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

according to the state of the weather, but a 
period of about two days yields the best 
results. Thereafter the seeds are exposed 
to the sun for drying, and those of a fine 
quality should then assume a warm, red- 
dish tint, which characterizes beans of a 
superior quality." 

The shell of the nut is prolonged in the 
form of thin septa into the inner part of 
the seed. The relative proportions of 
shell and nib are approximately as I : 8, 
the nib being much the more abundant. 
They vary considerably in size. Single 
seeds may be picked out which weigh 
as much as 2.7 grammes ;' but the average 
weight is much less, viz., 1.2 grammes. 

The following determinations of the 
weights of the different kinds of seeds were 
made by J. Alfred Wanklyn, the well- 
known analyst : — 

1 A gramme is equal to 15.432 English grains. 



THE CACAO-TREE. 25 

Name of Cocoa. Weight of ioo Nuts. 

Grammes. 

Common Trinidad 98. 

Fair, good Trinidad . . . . 123.2 

Very fine Trinidad 178.7 

Medium Granada io 4-5 

Fine Granada 131. 

Caracas I 3°«3 

Dominican no. 

Fine Surinam 122. 

Fine Surinam (small) .... 7 I *5 

Bahia (Brazil) 118. 

Mexican 1 3^-5 

African 128. 

The nut, in its unprepared condition, 
is not an article of retail trade. Before 
it reaches the consumer it requires much 
preparation, and without such preparation 
it is in as impracticable a condition as 
unground grain before the miller has con- 
verted it into flour. 



26 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE, 



III. 
EARLY USE. 

THE name chocolate is nearly the same 
in most European languages, and is 
taken from the Mexican name of the 
drink, chocolatl, or cacahuatl. All is 
common enough in Mexican words, and 
is known to signify water. What the first 
part of the word means is not so clear. A 
French writer says it signifies noise ; and 
that the drink was so named because it was 
beaten to a froth before being drunk. 

The Spaniards found chocolate in com- 
mon use among the Mexicans at the time 
of the invasion under Cortez, in 1519, and 
it was introduced into Spain immediately 
after. The Mexicans not only used choco- 
late as a staple article of food, but they used 
the seeds of the cacao-tree as a medium 



EARLY USE. 27 

of exchange. An early writer says, " In 
certain provinces called Guatimala and 
Soconusco there is growing a great store 
of cacao, which is a berry like unto an 
almond. It is the best merchandise that is 
in all the Indies. The Indians make drink 
of it, and in like manner meat to eat. It 
goeth currently for money in any market, 
or fair, and may buy flesh, fish, bread 
or cheese, or other things." 

In the "True History of the Conquest 
of Mexico," by Bernal Diaz, an officer 
under Cortez, it is related that " from time 
to time a liquor prepared from cocoa and 
of a stimulating or corroborative quality, 
as we are told, was presented to Mon- 
tezuma in a golden cup. We could not at 
the time see if he drank it or not, but I 
observed a number of jars — above fifty — 
brought in and filled with foaming choco- 
late." 

Thomas Gage, in his "New Survey of 



28 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

the West Indies," first published in 1648, 
gives the following interesting account of 
the Spanish and Indian way of making and 
drinking chocolate some two hundred and 
fifty years ago : — 

"Now, for the making or compounding 
of this drink, I shall set down here the 
method. The cacao and the other ingre- 
dients must be beaten in a mortar of stone, 
or (as the Indians use) ground upon a 
broad stone, which they call Met ate, and 
is only made for that use. But first the 
ingredients are all to be dried, except the 
Achiotte (annotto), with care that they be 
beaten to powder, keeping them still in 
stirring that they be not burnt, or become 
black ; for if they be overdried they will be 
bitter and lose their virtue. The cinnamon 
and the long red pepper are to be first 
beaten with the anniseed, and then the 
cacao, which must be beaten by little and 
little till it be all powdered, and in the 
beating it must be turned round that it may 



EARLY USE. 29 

mix the better. Every one of these ingredi- 
ents must be beaten by itself, and then all be 
put into the vessel where the cacao is, 
which you must stir together with a spoon, 
and then take out that paste, and put it 
into the mortar, under which there must 
be a little fire, after the confection is made ; 
but if more fire be put under than will only 
warm it, then the unctuous part will dry 
away. The Achiotte also must be put in 
in the beating, that it may the better take 
the colour. All the ingredients must be 
searced, save only the cacao, and if from 
the cacao the dry shell be taken, it will be 
the better. When it is well beaten and in- 
corporated (which will be known by the 
shortnesse of it) then with a spoon (so in 
the Indias is used) is taken up some of the 
paste, which will be almost liquid, and 
made into tablets, or else without a spoon 
put into boxes, and when it is cold it will 
be hard. 

"Those that make it into tablets put a 



30 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

spoonful of the paste upon a piece of 
paper (the Indians put it upon the leaf of 
a plaintain tree), where, being put into 
the shade (for in the sun it melts and dis- 
solves) , it grows hard ; and then bowing 
the paper or leaf, the tablet fals off by 
reason of the fatnesse of the paste. But if 
it be put into anything of earth or wood, it 
stickes fast, and will not come off but with 
scraping or breaking. The manner of 
drinking it is divers ; the one (being the 
way most used in Mexico) is to take it 
hot with Atolle, dissolving a tablet in hot 
water, and stirring and beating it in the 
cup, when it is to be drunk, with a Moli- 
net, and when it is well stirred to a scum me 
or froth, then to fill the cup with kot 
Atolle, and so drink it sup by sup. An- 
other way is that the chocolate, being dis- 
solved with cold water and stirred with the 
Molinet, and the scurame being taken off 
and put into another vessel, the remainder 
be set upon the fire, with as much sugar 



EARLY USE. 31 

as will sweeten it, and when it is warme, 
then to powre it upon the scumme which 
was taken off before, and so to drink it. 
But the most ordinary way is to warme the 
water very hot, and then to powre out 
half the cup full that you mean to drink ; 
and to put into it a tablet or two, or as 
much as will thicken reasonably the water, 
and then grinde it well with the Molinet, 
and when it is well ground and risen to a 
scumme, to fill the cup with hot water, and 
so drink it by sups (having sweetened it 
with sugar) , and to eat it with a little con- 
serve or maple bred, steeped into the 
chocolatte. 

" Besides these ways there is another way 
(which is much used in the Island of Santo 
Domingo), which is to put the chocolatte 
into a pipkin with a little water, and to let 
it boyle well till it be dissolved, and then 
to put in sufficient water and sugar accord- 
ing to the quantity of the chocolatte, and 
then to boyle it again untill there comes 



32 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

an oily scumme upon it, and then to drink 
it. 

M There is another way yet to drink choco- 
latte, which is cold, which the Indians use 
at feasts to refresh themselves, and it is 
made after this manner: The chocolatte 
(which is made with none, or very few, 
ingredients) being dissolved in cold water 
with the Molinet, they take off the scumme 
or crassy part, which riseth in great quan- 
tity, especially when the cacao is older and 
more putrefied. The scumme they lay aside 
in a little dish by itself, and then put sugar 
into that part from whence was taken the 
scumme, and then powre it from on high 
into the scumme, and so drink it cold. 
And this drink is so cold that it agreeth 
not with all men's stomachs ; for by ex- 
perience it hath been found that it doth 
hurt by causing pains in the stomach, es- 
pecially to women. 

" The third way of taking it is the most 
used, and thus certainly it doth no hurt, 



EARLY USE. 33 

neither know I why it may not be used as 
well in England as in other parts, both 
hot and cold ; for where it is so much used, 
the most, if not all, as well in the Indias 
as in Spain, Italy, Flanders (which is a 
cold countrey) , find that it agreeth well with 
them. True it is, it is used more in the 
Indias than in the European parts, because 
there the stomachs are more apt to faint 
than here, and a cup of chocolatte well 
confectioned comforts and strengthens the 
stomach. For myself I must say, I used 
it twelve years constantly, drinking one 
cup in the morning, another yet before 
dinner between nine or ten of the clock ; 
another within an hour or two after dinner, 
and another between four and five in the 
afternoon ; and when I was purposed to 
sit up late to study, I would take another 
cup about seven or eight at night, which 
would keep me waking till about midnight. 
And if by chance I did neglect any of 
these accustomed houres, I presently found 



34 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

my stomach fainty. And with this custome 
I lived twelve years in those parts healthy, 
without any obstructions, or oppilations, 
not knowing what either ague or feaver 
was." 

M. Ferdinand Denis, in u La Legende 
du Cacahuatl," makes the following inter- 
esting statement in regard to the prepara- 
tion of chocolate in ancient Mexico : — 

" Torquemada, the learned historian, 
and Thomas Gage, the conscientious trav- 
eller, agree in telling us that hot chocolate 
was an invention of the Castilians. The 
first of these writers, who lived at the end 
of the sixteenth century, says so positively ; 
in his time it had been used for only a few 
years. 

" Would you know now what chocolate 
was when the learned Antonio Colmenero 
de Ledesma gave his receipt ? I copy it for 
you here : — 

" 'Take a hundred cacao kernels, two 



EARLY USE. 35 

heads of Chili or long peppers, a handful 
of anise or orjevala, and two of mesachusil 
or vanilla, — or, instead, six Alexandria 
roses, powdered, — two drachms of cinna- 
mon, a dozen almonds and as many hazel- 
nuts, a half pound of white sugar, and 
annotto enough to color it, and you have the 
king of chocolates.' 

" I must say a word concerning another 
substance allied to the chocolate, beloved 
of the Americans. I speak of atola, which 
has been handed down to us. There was 
the atola of dry and of green maize ; the 
latter was served on elegant tables. Com- 
posed of maize in the milky stage, sweet- 
ened with the vegetable honey of the agave, 
sometimes, also, flavored with excellent 
vanilla, it had the appearance of blanc- 
mange. On this mixture was poured choco- 
late prepared cold. It can be understood 
how the most delicate palates could relish 
it. I say nothing here of the coarse 
mixtures of dry flour, or frisoles, which 



36 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

were mixed -with the cacao ; it was a 
vulgar food, endurable only by the com- 
mon people. 

u Not to leave too incomplete this sketch 
of various antiquities, often examined, but 
still obscure, I must touch upon the still 
less familiar subject of American ceramics, 
which will not be the least curious para- 
graph. The Mexicans had vases specially 
set apart for beverages of the most varied 
description, which were served at their fes- 
tivals, from the ordinary pulque to the most 
delicate octli. There were among them, 
without doubt, chocolate pots of great 
value. The historian of King Tezozomoc 
leaver us no doubt on this subject. He 
names, it is true, a series of ornamented 
vases without making us acquainted with 
their special use ; but he is much more ex- 
plicit when he speaks of a cup, ready made 
by nature, but which the goldsmith's art 
had covered with the most elegant orna- 
ments. Thanks to him, we know that 



EARLY USE. 37 

cocoa was offered to distinguished person- 
ages in a tortoise shell, highly polished and 
ornamented with gold arabesques. And it 
was very probably in this manner that Fer- 
nando Cortez drank his first chocolate." 

The Spaniards thus early acquired a 
knowledge of the fruit and of the manner 
of preparing it, which they kept secret for 
many years, selling it very profitably as 
chocollat to the wealthy and luxurious 
classes of Europe. But it was, as already 
stated, an expensive preparation, and did 
not come into use until long after the public 
coffee-houses of London were established. 

Says Brillat-Savarin, in his famous " Phys- 
iologic du Gout," " Chocolate came over 
the mountains [from Spain to France] with 
Anne of Austria, daughter of Philip III., 
and Queen of Louis XIII. The Spanish 
monks also spread the knowledge of it by 
the presents they made to their brothers in 
France. The various ambassadors of Spain 



38 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

also contributed to bring it into fashion ; 
and at the beginning of the Regency it 
was more universally in use than coffee, 
inasmuch as it was taken as an agreeable 
article of food, while coffee still passed 
only for a beverage of luxury and a curios- 
ity. It is well known that Linnaeus called 
the fruit of the cocoa-tree theobroma ' food 
for the gods.' The cause of this emphatic 
qualification has been sought, and attributed 
by some to the fact that he was extrava- 
gantly fond of chocolate ; by others to his 
desire to please his confessor ; and by 
others to his gallantry, a queen having first 
introduced it into France." 

The Spanish ladies of the New World, it 
is said, carry their love for chocolate to such 
a degree that, not content with partaking of it 
several times a day, they have it sometimes 
carried after them to church. This favor- 
ing of the senses often drew upon them the 
censures of the bishop ; but the Reverend 
Father Escobar, whose metaphysics were as 



EARLY USE. 39 

subtle as his morality was accommodating, 
declared, formally, that a fast was not bro- 
ken by chocolate prepared with water; 
thus wire-drawing, in favor of his peni- 
tents, the ancient adage: i(, Liquidujn non 
frangit je junium" 

The earliest intimation of the introduc- 
tion of cocoa into England is found in an 
announcement in the Public Advertiser of 
Tuesday, 16th June, 1657 (more than a 
hundred and thirty years after its introduc- 
tion into Spain), stating that "in Bishops- 
gate street, in Queen's Head alley, at a 
Frenchman's house, is an excellent West 
India drink, called chocolate, to be sold, 
where you may have it ready at any time ; 
and also unmade, at reasonable rates." 

Two years later, in the Mercurius Po- 
liticus for June, 1659, it is stated that 
" Chocolate, an excellent West India drink, 
is sold in Queen's Head alley, in Bishops- 
gate street, by a Frenchman who did for- 



40 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

merly sell it in Grace Church street, and 
Clement's Churchyard, being the first man 
who did sell it in England ; and its virtues 
are highly extolled." 

A book written in the time of Charles 
II., entitled " The Indian Nectar, or a 
Discourse concerning Chocolate, etc.," 
says the best kind can be purchased of one 
Mortimer, " an honest though poor man, 
living in East Smithfield," for 6s. 8d. per 
pound, and commoner sorts for about half 
that price. 

About the beginning of the eighteenth 
century chocolate had become an exceed- 
ingly fashionable beverage, and the cocoa- 
tree was a favorite sign and name for places 
of public refreshment. Cocoa and choco- 
late are frequently mentioned in contem- 
porary literature ; and among others Pope, 
in his u Rape of the Lock," alludes to it ; 
the negligent spirit, fixed like Ixion, — 

" In fumes of burning chocolate shall glow, 
And tremble at the sea that froths below." 



EARLY USE. 41 

Down to a late period (1832) the con- 
sumption of cocoa in England was confined 
within very narrow limits, owing to the 
oppressiveness of the duties with which it 
was loaded. The ruin of the cocoa plan- 
tations which once flourished in Jamaica 
was caused, says Mr. Bryan Edwards, the 
historian, by the heavy hand of ministerial 
exaction. In 1832 the duty on cocoa from 
a British possession was reduced from 6d. 
to 2d. per pound. The result was that the 
consumption which, during the three years 
ending in 1831, averaged only 440,578 
pounds a year, shortly increased to an 
average of 2,072,335 pounds. The duty of 
6d. per pound on rofei&n cocoa was con- 
tinued some $meuonger; but in 1853 the 
duties were finally equalized and fixed at 
id. per pound, and on paste or chocolate 
at 2d. The duties on husks and shells 
were reduced to 2s. per cwt. in 1855. 

It is stated, on what appears to be good 



42 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

authority, 1 that the chocolate-mill erected 
on Neponset river, in the town of Dor- 
chester, Mass, in 1765* was the first mill 
of that kind established in the British prov- 
inces of North America. It was connected 
with a saw-mill, operated by water-power, 
and was regarded as a somewhat doubtful 
experiment. Its establishment was due to 
the representations made by John Hannan, 
an Irish immigrant, who had learned the 
business of chocolate-making in England. 
The new industry prospered in a small 
way, and on the death of Hannan, in 1780, 
Dr. James Baker established the house 
which has continued the business without 
interruption from that day to this. 

In the early days the crude cocoa was 
brought to the American market by the 
Massachusetts traders, who received it in 
exchange for the fish and other articles 
which they shipped to the West Indies and 

1 History of the town of Dorchester, Mass., 1857. 



EARLY USE. 43 

Central and South America ; and the direct 
connection with the producers, thus early 
established, has ever since been maintained. 

In giving an account of the manufact- 
ures in Boston, in 1794, J. L. Bishop, in 
his " History of American Manufactures," 
says: "Chocolate had been long made 
from the large'quantities of cocoa obtained 
in the West India trade, and had been 
greatly expedited by recent inventions. 
The chocolate-mill of Mr. Welsh, at the 
North End, could turn out 2,500 cwt. 
daily." 

It is a curious fact that on the spot where 
the industry was first started, nearly a 
century and a quarter ago, the business has 
continued and attained the highest develop- 
ment. From the small beginning 1 by Dr. 
Baker there has grown up one of the 
greatest establishments in the world, — the 
house of Walter Baker & Co., — an estab- 
lishment which competes successfully for 
prizes in all the great industrial exhibitions 



44 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

of the world, whose influence is felt in the 
great commercial centres, and whose pros- 
perity promotes the welfare of men who 
labor under a tropical sun in the cultiva- 
tion of one of the choicest fruits of the 
earth. 



PROPERTIES, ETC. 45 



IV. 



PROPERTIES, ETC, 



THE most thorough and comprehensive 
analysis of the properties of cocoa is 
given by J. Alfred Wanklyn, in " A Prac- 
tical Treatise on the Analysis of Tea, Cof- 
fee, Cocoa, Chocolate, etc.," published in 
London, in 1874. The following table gives 
the results obtained by the leading authori- 
ties : — 



46 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 





8 § 

6 o6 

U-» (-1 


O O O O O O O 

q q vq q io *q co 
d co c4 vd ^ co d 


o 
q 

d 
o 


u 

II 

Si 


o o 
q q 


O O CO iovO N to ^t 

^9 9 9999 9 *"! 

d-^- vo co^m co cK 


o 
q 

d 
o 


k 

O S) 

n 


o o 
o o 

9 8 


o o o o o 
q q 9 9 9 

VO CO M N rj- 


o 
q 

d 
o 


■3 . 

S3 

>>2 


o o 
q q 

6 6 


o o o o o o o 
oq o oqoq 


8 

d 
o 


a 

8 

a 

1 


o 
q 

vo 


o o o o 
9 9 9 9 

d n ion 


o 
q 

d 
o 


a 
1 


O O 

q q 
ci 6 


O O 09 O O O 

q q <uqqq 
d n rt d ci ■<*• 


o 
q 

d 
o 


3 

1 

1 


o o 

COCO 


h i^O -i O CO 
ONN ON O N rj- 

6 NO «ifl •-< 


o 
q 

d 

o 




C/3 










i 


»-l 




I 5 • 
4:2 

go • 
o.S.S 
US £ e 

^££^ 

CO ■— J •— J • — 


" jd ^ .5 IS w 

— i CJ 9 »^ r^ s_i 


3 

o 



PROPERTIES, ETC. 



47 



" The most abundant constituent of the 
seed," says Wanklyn, " is the fat, or cocoa- 
butter, which constitutes about one-half of 
the entire seed. Owing, no doubt, to this 
circumstance, the specific gravity of the 
seeds is less than unity, and they float on 
water. After being kept for some days 
in contact with the water some of the fat 
makes its escape, and the seeds sink to the 
bottom. 

" I attach great importance to the deter- 
mination of the ash. The following deter- 
minations of ash have been recently made 
in my laboratory : — 



Common Trinidad . 


Percentage of 
Ash. 

• 3-37 


Very fine Trinidad . . . 
Fair, good, fine Trinidad . 
Fine Granada 


. 3.62 
. 3.64 
. 3.12 


Medium Granada .... 


. 3.06 


Caracas 

Eahia (Brazil) .... 


. 4.58 
• 3-3i 



48 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 











Percentage of 

Ash. 


Fine Surinam 


. 




. 


3.06 


Fine Surinam 


(small) 






. 


3-i5 


Mexican 


. . . 






. 


4.27 


Dominican . 










2.82 


African . . 










2.68 


The mean of the twelve be] 


ng 


. 


3-39 



" Separate determinations of the ash of 
the nib and the shell have also been made. 
In the nib of the Caracas the ash amounted 
to 3.95 per cent., whereof 2 .00 was soluble 
in water, and 1 .95 insoluble in water. 

" In the nib of the Mexican seeds the ash 
was found to be 2.59 per cent., whereof 
0.89 was soluble, and 1.70 insoluble, in 
water. The shell (which, as mentioned 
above, formed only a very small portion of 
the entire seed) is much richer in mineral 
matter or ash. I have found as much as 
7.81 per cent, of ash in the shell. The 
composition of the ash of the shell is very 
different from that of the nib ; whilst the 



PROPERTIES, ETC. 



49 



ash of the shell is rich in carbonates that 
of the nib is almost devoid of carbon- 
ates. 

u A very careful analysis of the ash of the 
entire seed has been recently made by my 
friend, Mr. Wm. Bettel, in my laboratory. 
The results are as follows : — 

" Composition of ash of the entire seeds 
(Caracas), — 



Potash K 2 






29.81 


Chloride of Sodium Na CI 




6.10 


Peroxide of Iron Fi 2 3 . . 




1.60 


Alumina Al 2 3 . . . . 






2.40 


Lime Ca . . . . 






• 7-72 


Magnesia Mg O . . . 






7.90 


Phosphoric Acid P 2 O s 






. 24.28 


Sulphuric Acid S 3 . 






1.92 


Carbonic Acid C 2 . 






. 0.98 


Silica Si 2 . . . . 






. 5.00 


Sand 






I2.IC 








■"••"• x j 



99.86 



50 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

" From this analysis it is apparent that 
the main constituent of the ash is phos- 
phate of potash, and that there is almost 
total absence of carbonates. The ash of 
the shell being, as has been said, highly 
charged with carbonates, it follows that, 
in obtaining the ash of the entire seed, we 
cause the phosphates of the nib to decom- 
pose the carbonates of the shell, and so ob- 
tain an ash devoid of carbonates. 

" The large proportion of phosphate of 
potash in cocoa (certainly not far from one 
per cent, in the seed of good quality) 
is worthy the attention of the physician, 
and no doubt gives an especial value to a 
dietary consisting largely of cocoa. It will 
further be observed that the fine kinds of 
cocoa-seeds are rich in phosphate of pot- 
ash 

"Mixtures of cocoa with starch and 
sugar have long been perfectly legitimate, 
provided no deception as to the strength in 
cocoa be practised." 



PROPERTIES, ETC. 51 

In conclusion he says : " The prepara- 
tions of cocoa constitute food rather than 
drink, being highly nutritious in every 
sense of the term. The fat present in 
cocoa — viz. , the cocoa-butter — appears to 
be of a particularly available description. 
It is said never to become rancid, and 
merits an elaborate examination. Whether 
it be owing to peculiarities in the fat of 
cocoa, or whether it be the theobromine 
that is particularly efficient, certain it is 
that cocoa will sometimes nourish when 
nothing else will, and cocoa is occasionally 
invaluable to the physician." 



52 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 



VALUE AS FOOD. 

DR. EDWARD SMITH, LL.B., 
F.R.S., in his valuable work on 
" Foods," for the International Scientific 
Series, says : — 

" These well-known substances (cocoa 
and chocolate) are valuable foods, since 
they are not only allied to tea and coffee 
as respiratory excitants, but possess a 
large quantity of fat and other food mate- 
rials. . . . 

" The following is the analysis of the 
cocoa-bean, from various localities, by 
Tuchen : — 

Surinam. Caracas. Para. Trinidad. 

Theobromine, per. ct. 0.56 0.55 0.66 0.48 
Cocoa, red . . . 6.61 6.18 6.18 6.22 
Cocoa-butter . . . 36.97 35.08 34.48 36.42 



VALUE AS FOOD. 53 

Surinam. Caracas. Para. Trinidad. 

Gluten 3.20 3.21 2.99 3.15 

Starch 0.55 0.62 0.28 0.51 

Gum 0.69 1. 19 0.78 0.61 

Extractive matter . 4.14 6.22 6.02 5.48 

Humic acid . . . 7.25 9.28 8.63 9.25 

Cellulose .... 30.00 28.66 30.21 29.86 

Salts 3.00 2.91 3.00 2.98 

Water 6.01 5.58 5.55 4.88 

" This substance," he goes on to say, 
" in its action is less exciting to the ner- 
vous system than tea or coffee, and at the 
same time it contains a much larger pro- 
portion of nutritive material. Moreover, 
its flavor is not lessened by the addition of 
milk, so that it can be boiled in milk only, 
and thus produce a most agreeable and 
nutritious food. There are, therefore, 
many persons, states of system and cir- 
cumstances, in which its use is to be pre- 
ferred to either tea or coffee." 



54 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

A writer in Blackwood's Magazine 
(1854, V. 75) says: " Of all the varieties 
of ordinary human food cocoa has the 
closest resemblance to milk ; " and he 
gives the following analyses of dried milk 
and the dried kernel of the cocoa-bean : — 

Cocoa-Beans. Dried Milk. 

Gluten or Caseine . . 18 . . 35 

Starch or Sugar ... 23 .. 37 

Fat 55 .. 24 

Mineral matter ... 4 . . 4 

" These numbers show," he says, " that 
the bean is rich in all the important nutri- 
tious principles which are found to coexist 
in our most valued forms of ordinary food. 
It differs from milk chiefly in the larger 
proportion of fat it contains, and hence it 
cannot be used so largely without admixt- 
ure as the more familiar milk. When 
mixed with water, however, it is more 
properly compared with milk than with 



VALUE AS FOOD. 55 

the infusions of little direct nutritive 
value, like those of tea and coffee ; and, on 
the other hand, it has the great advantage 
over milk, over beef-tea, and other similar 
beverages, that it contains the substance 
theobromine and the volatile empyrematic 
oil, — both possessed of very valuable 
properties. Thus it unites in itself the 
exhilarating and other special qualities 
which distinguish tea, with the strengthen- 
ing and ordinary body- supporting qualities 
of milk." 

Brillat-Savarin, from whose work we 
have already quoted, says : — 

" Chocolate has given rise to profound 
dissertations, whose object has been to de- 
termine its nature and properties, and to 
place it in the category of hot, cold, or 
temperate foods ; and it must be confessed 
that these learned writings have contributed 
but very slightly to the demonstration of 
the truth. 



56 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

" But it was left for those two great mas- 
ters, time and experience, to decide that 
chocolate, carefully prepared, is an article 
of food as wholesome as it is agreeable ; 
that it is nourishing, easy of digestion, and 
does not possess those qualities injurious to 
beauty with which coffee has been re- 
proached ; that it is excellently adapted to 
persons who are obliged to a great concen- 
tration of intellect in the toils of the pulpit 
or the bar, and especially to travellers ; 
that it suits the most feeble stomach ; that 
excellent effects have been produced by it 
in chronic complaints, and that it is a last 
resource in affections of the pylorus. 

" The various properties are due to the 
fact that, chocolate being, strictly speak- 
ing, only an elasosaccharum (oil of sugar) , 
there are few substances which contain 
in an equal volume more nourishing par- 
ticles, — the consequence being that it is 
almost entirely assimilated. 

" During the war (of the Spanish Sue- 



VALUE AS FOOD. 



tfSl 

&XJ 67 



cession) cocoa was scarce, and very dear. 
It was attempted to find a substitute, but 
all efforts were in vain ; and one of the 
greatest benefits of the peace was the re- 
lieving us of the various brews, which it 
was necessary to taste out of politeness, 
but which were no more like chocolate 
than the infusion of chiccory was like 
Mocha coffee. 

" Some persons complain of being unable 
to digest chocolate ; others, on the con- 
trary, pretend that it has not sufficient 
nourishment, and that the effect disappears 
too soon. It is probable that the former 
have only themselves to blame, and that 
the chocolate which they use is of bad 
quality or badly made ; for good and well- 
made chocolate must suit every stomach 
which retains the slightest digestive power. 

" In regard to the others the remedy is 
an easy one ; they should reenforce their 
breakfast with a pate, a cutlet, or a kid- 
ney ; moisten the whole with a good 



58 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

draught of soconusco chocolate, and thank 
God for a stomach of such superior ac- 
tivity. 

" This gives me an opportunity to make 
an observation whose accuracy may be 
depended upon. 

" After a good, complete and copious 
breakfast, if we take in addition a cup of 
well-made chocolate, digestion will be 
perfectly accomplished in three hours, and 
we may dine whenever we like. Out of 
zeal for science, and by dint of eloquence, 
I have induced many ladies to try this 
experiment. They all declared, in the be- 
ginning, that it would kill them ; but they 
have all thriven on it, and have not failed 
to glorify their teacher. 

M The people who make constant use of 
chocolate are the ones who enjoy the 
most steady health, and are the least sub- 
ject to a multitude of little ailments which 
destroy the comfort of life ; their plump- 
ness is also more equal. These are two 



VALUE AS FOOD. 59 

advantages -which every one may verify 
among his own friends, and wherever the 
practice is in use. 

" This is the place to speak of the prop- 
erties of chocolate with amber, — properties 
which I have proved with many experi- 
ments, and the results of which I am 
proud to offer to my readers. 

" Let every man, then, who has drunk 
too deep of the cup of pleasure ; every man 
who has spent in work the time which 
should be devoted to sleep ; every man of 
wit who feels himself temporarily growing 
stupid ; every man who finds the air 
damp, the time long, and the atmosphere 
difficult to endure ; every man who is tor- 
mented with a fixed idea which takes 
away from him the liberty of thought, — let 
all these, I say, administer to themselves 
a good half-litre of amber chocolate, in the 
proportion of sixty or seventy grains of 
amber to the pound, and they will see 
wonders. 



60 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

"In my particular way of specifying 
things I call amber chocolate chocolate 
for the afflicted, because each one of 
these various conditions which I have 
designated has something in common 
which resembles affliction." 

M. Boussingault, 1 a member of the 
French Institute, in an interesting paper 
printed in the " Annates de Physique et 
du Chimic" says : — 

u Chocolate contains a very large pro- 
portion of nutritive matter in a small vol- 
ume. In an expedition to a great distance, 
where it is imperatively necessary to re- 
duce the weight of the rations, chocolate 
offers undeniable advantages, as I have 
had frequent occasions to notice. Hum- 
boldt recalls what has been said with 
reason, that in Africa rice, gum, and 

1 Jean Baptiste Joseph Dieudonne" Boussingault, French 
chemist, served in his youth on the staff of Bolivar, the 
liberator of South America. 



VALUE AS FOOD. 61 

butter enable men to cross the desert ; and 
he adds that, in the New World, chocolate 
and corn-meal render the plateaus of the 
Andes, and the vast, uninhabited forests, 
accessible to man. 

"In Central America, when they organ- 
ize a river expedition, or traverse the for- 
ests, they prepare chocolate for provision 
with eighty parts of cocoa to twenty of 
coarse sugar, the composition being as fol- 
lows : — 

Sugar 200 

Butter 410 

Albumen 100 

Phosphates and salts 30 

Other matter 260 



1,000 



" Each man receives 60 grammes (about 2 
ounces) of this chocolate per day, in which 
there are 1 2 grammes of sugar, 26 of butter, 



62 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

and 6 of albumen. It is a useful addition 
to the ration formed of beef slightly salted 
and dried in the air, of rice, of corn bis- 
cuit, or of cassava muffins. 

" The infusion of tea, mate (Paraguay 
tea) , and coffee are not, of course, to be con- 
sidered as food. The amount of solid 
matter in them is very slight, and their 
effects are due only to their alkaloids. 

" This is not true of chocolate, which is 
at the same time complete food and an 
active excitant, since it approaches in com- 
position that model food, milk. In fact 
we have seen that in cocoa there is legu- 
mine and albumen, associated with fat, 
sugar to sustain respiratory combustion, 
phosphates, which are the basis of the 
bones, and — what milk does not have 
— theobromine and a delicate aroma. 
Roasted, ground and mixed with sugar, 
cocoa becomes chocolate, the nutritive 
properties of which astonished the Spanish 
soldiers that invaded Mexico." 



VALUE AS FOOD. 63 

A competent writer, in the last edition of 
the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," says: — 

u The constitution upon which the pecul- 
iar value of cocoa depends is the theobro- 
mine, an alkaloid substance, which till re- 
cently was supposed to be distinct from, 
though closely allied to, the theine of tea and 
coffee. It is now, however, known that the 
alkaloid in these, and in two or three other 
substances similarly used, is identical, and 
their physiological value is consequently 
the same. The fat, or cocoa-butter, is a 
firm, solid white substance, at ordinary 
temperature, having an agreeable taste and 
odor, and very remarkable for its freedom 
from any tendency to become rancid. It 
consists essentially of stearin, with a little 
olein, and is used in surgical practice, and 
in France as a material for soap and 
pomade manufacture. 

44 The starch grains present in raw cocoa 
are small in size, and of a character so 
peculiar that there is no difficulty in dis- 



64 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

tinguishing them under the microscope 
from any other starch granules. As an 
article of food cocoa differs essentially from 
both tea and coffee. While only an in- 
fusion of these substances is used, leaving 
a large proportion of their total weight 
unconsumed, the entire substance of the 
cocoa-seeds is prepared as an emulsion for 
drinking, and the whole is thus utilized 
within the system. While the contents of 
a cup of tea or coffee can thus only be re- 
garded as stimulant in its effect, and almost 
entirely destitute of essential nutritive prop- 
erties, a cup of prepared cocoa is really a 
most nourishing article of diet, as, in addi- 
tion to the value of the theobromine it con- 
tains, it introduces into the system no incon- 
siderable portion of valuable nitrogenous 
and oleaginous elements." 

M. Arthur Mangin, in his valuable 
work, " Le Cacao et le Chocolat" pub- 
lished in 1862, gives some very good 



VALUE AS FOOD. 65 

reasons for promoting the use of cocoa. 
He says : — 

" Cocoa cannot be considered in any re- 
spect an article of luxury. It is not a 
dainty ; its hygienic and nutritive prop- 
erties are unquestionable and unquestioned, 
and its being endowed with an aroma and 
flavor which please the sense of smell and 
the palate is no reason at all for its not 
being reckoned among articles of food, 
properly so called. Its cultivation, trans- 
port and preparation furnish occupation 
and support to a multitude of laborers, and 
its consumption should be respected and 
encouraged by all wise governments, not 
only because it is physically beneficial, but, 
and we do not hesitate to say it, because 
it is mora/fy salutary. 

" Coffee, of which much good can hon- 
estly be said, is, however, open to much 
criticism, as well on account of its physio- 
logical effects as its influence on public 
morals. It can be abused and misused. 



66 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

Its infusion is an exciting beverage, which 
does not agree with every one, and which 
may, when used to excess, cause serious 
consequences, decidedly affect the health, 
and even disturb the intellectual faculties. 
Coffee, moreover, easily becomes a pretext 
for debauch. It is consumed in the most 
respectable houses ; but also in cafes, liquor 
saloons and disreputable places, with the 
accompaniments of alcoholic liquors, to- 
bacco-smoke, coarse words, and unlawful 
games. 

" It is impossible to impute the like effects 
to chocolate. Its use can never degenerate 
into abuse, and it can never, like coffee, 
become a poison, even a slow poison. And 
then, whatever certain casuists may say, 
chocolate is decidedly a food, not a bever- 
age. More, it is, above all, the food of 
sober, orderly, and peaceable folk. It is 
found only on the family table, at parties 
of good society, or in public establishments 
frequented either by well-bred people or 



VALUE AS FOOD. 67 

hard-working mechanics. We do not play- 
cards or smoke while we drink chocolate, 
and after it we take no brandy ; we drink, 
perhaps, a glass of cold water, and go 
peaceably back to our work or to look after 
our affairs. 

" The well-known proverb, ' People are 
known by the company they keep/ would 
lose none of its force if altered to read : 
4 Tell me what you eat and drink, and I 
will tell you who you are.' Breakfast, 
especially, is the characteristic repast, 
which gives the surest indications as to the 
morality of civilized men. The man who 
eats a substantial meat breakfast, and fol- 
lows it up with coffee and liquors, may 
certainly be a very honest man, but he is 
not a temperate man, and one might wager 
that after such a repast he will do very- 
little. Be assured, on the contrary, that 
he who breakfasts on milk, coffee, or choco- 
late has few physical wants ; that his sen- 
suality, if he be sensual, is mild and 



68 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

moderate, and that the man in him has the 
mastery over he animal. Let govern- 
ments load with high duties all spirituous 
liquors, — luxurious beverages for the rich, 
but utter poison for the people, — agents of 
depravity, demoralization, and degenera- 
tion, equally fatal to public morals and 
public health ; let them impose an arbi- 
trary tax on tobacco, and even monopolize 
the sale at fictitious prices ; let them do 
likewise with playing-cards and other 
articles which supply merely imaginary 
wants, — these are measures whose political 
legitimacy or economic utility may be at- 
tacked, but which cannot be contested as 
contrary to the popular interest, or to the 
increase of its comfort or its moral im- 
provement. 

u Cocoa is, on the contrary, among the 
few articles — it is perhaps the only one 
— whose sale should be not only released 
from all constraint, but encouraged and 
extended, because it is the only article of 



VALUE AS FOOD. 69 

food to which may be applied the appar- 
ently strange and paradoxical qualification 
— morally improving food. We have just 
shown that this qualification suits it in all 
respects. It is proved, beside, that cocoa 
enters too largely into popular consump- 
tion, that it forms too great an addition to 
the sum of the food substances already ex- 
isting, for it to be reckoned henceforth 
among luxuries subject to sumptuary 
laws." 

Dr. Edmund A. Parkes, F.R.S., in his 
u Manual of Practical Hygiene, prepared 
especially for use in the Medical Service 
of the Army" (London, 1864), says: — 

" Although the theobromine of cocoa is 
now known to be identical with theineand 
caffeine, the composition of cocoa removes 
it widely from tea and coffee. The quan- 
tity of fat varies even in the same sort of 
cocoa. The ash contains a large quantity of 
phosphate of potash. The larger quantity 



70 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

of fat makes it a very nourishing article of 
diet, and it is therefore useful in weak 
states of the system, and for healthy men 
under circumstances of great exertion. It 
has even been compared to milk. In 
South America cocoa and maize cakes are 
used by travellers, and the large amount 
of agreeable nourishment in small bulk 
enables several days' supplies to be easily 
carried. By roasting, the starch is changed 
into dextrin, the amount of margaric acid 
increases, and an empyrematic aromatic 
substance is formed." 

Baron von Liebig, the famous chemist, 
says : — 

" It is a perfect food, as wholesome as 
delicious, a beneficent restorer of exhausted 
power ; but its quality must be good, and 
it must be carefully prepared. It is highly 
nourishing and easily digested, and is fitted 
to repair wasted strength, preserve health, 
and prolong life. It agrees with dry tern- 



VALUE AS FOOD. 71 

peraments and convalescents ; with moth- 
ers who nurse their children ; with those 
whose occupations oblige them to undergo 
severe mental strains ; with public speak- 
ers, and with all those who give to work a 
portion of the time needed for sleep. It 
soothes both stomach and brain, and for 
this reason, as well as for others, it is the 
best friend of those engaged in literary 
pursuits. " 

Francois Joseph Victor Broussais, a 
celebrated physician and member of the 
French Institute, says : — 

" Chocolate of good quality, well made, 
properly cooked, is one of the best aliments 
that I have yet found for my patients and 
for myself. This delicious food calms the 
fever, nourishes adequately the patient, 
and tends to restore him to health. I 
would even add that I attribute many cures 
of chronic dyspepsia to the regular use of 
chocolate." 



72 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, the dis- 
tinguished German physician, says : — 

" I recommend good chocolate to ner- 
vous, excitable persons ; also to the weak, 
debilitated, and infirm ; to children and 
women. I have obtained excellent results 
from it in many cases of chronic diseases 
of the digestive organs." 

Dr. Karl Ernest Bock, of Leipsic, 
author of a" Traite de Pathologie et de 
Diagnostic" says : — 

" The nervousness and peevishness of 
our times are chiefly attributable to tea 
and coffee ; the digestive organs of con- 
firmed coffee-drinkers are in a state of 
chronic derangement, which reacts upon 
the brain, producing fretful and lachry- 
mose moods. Cocoa and chocolate are 
neutral in their physical effects, and are 
really the most harmless of our fashionable 
drinks." 



VALUE AS FOOD. 73 

Jean Baptiste Alphonse Chevalier, in 
his treatise on chocolate, says : — 

" Cocoa and chocolate are a complete 
food ; coffee and tea are not food. Cocoa 
gives one- third its weight in starch and one- 
half in cocoa-butter ; and, converted into 
chocolate by the addition of sugar, it real- 
izes the idea of a complete aliment, whole- 
some and eminently hygienic. The shells 
of the bean contain the same principles as 
the kernels, and the extract, obtained by 
an infusion of the shells in sweetened milk, 
forms a mixture at once agreeable to the 
taste, and an advantageous substitute for 
tea and coffee.'' 

Mme. de Sevigne, in one of her letters to 
her daughter, says : — 

" I took chocolate night before last to 
digest my dinner, in order to have a good 
supper. I took some yesterday for nour- 
ishment, so as to be able to fast until night. 
What I consider amusing about chocolate 



74 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

is that it acts according to the wishes 
of the one who takes it." 

It will be observed that Brillat-Savarin 
corroborates this statement as to the value 
of chocolate as an aid to digestion. 

" The cocoa-#»t," says M. Payen, in 
u Des Substances Alhnentaires" " has in 
its composition more azote than wheat 
flour, about twenty times as much fatty 
matter, a considerable proportion of starch, 
and an agreeable aroma which excites the 
appetite. We are entirely disposed to admit 
that this substance contains a remarkable 
nutritive power. Besides, direct experience 
has proved this to be the case. In fact, 
cocoa, closely combined with an equal or 
two-thirds weight of sugar, forming the 
article well-known under the name of 
chocolate, constitutes a food, substantial 
in all respects, and capable of sustaining 
the strength in travelling." 

And, a little farther on, he adds : — 



VALUE AS FOOD. 75 

" Cocoa and chocolate, in consequence 
of their elementary composition, and of the 
direct or indirect addition of sugar before 
their consumption, constitute a food, res- 
piratory, or capable of maintaining animal 
heat, by means of the starch, sugar, gum, 
and fatty matter which the,y contain ; they 
are also articles of food favorable to the 
maintenance or development of the adipose 
secretions, by reason of the fatty matter 
(cocoa-butter) belonging to them ; and, 
finally, they assist in the maintenance and 
increase of the tissues by means of their 
congeneric azote substances, which assimi- 
late therewith." 

Etienne Francois Geoffroy, the distin- 
guished French physician and professor of 
medicine and pharmacy in the College of 
France, says, in his " Traite de Matiere 
Medicale " : — 

"The drinking of chocolate, especially 
of that made with milk, is recommended 



76 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

to persons affected with phthisis or con- 
sumption ; and, in fact, it supplies a juice 
which is nourishing, substantial, and 
smooth, which deadens the acrimony of the 
humors; provided, as we have said, that the 
cocoa is properly roasted, and mixed with 
a very small quantity of spices." 

The French officer, from whose work on 
the" Natural History of Chocolate" we have 
already quoted, after describing the differ- 
ent methods of raising and curing the fruit 
and preparing it for food (which it is not 
worth while to reproduce here, as the 
methods have essentially changed during 
the last fifty years) , goes on to demonstrate, 
as the result of actual experiment, that 
chocolate is a substance " very temperate, 
very nourishing, and of easy digestion ; 
very proper to repair the exhausted spirits 
and decayed strength ; and very suitable to 
preserve the health and prolong the lives 
of old men." 



VALUE AS FOOD. 77 

" 1 could produce several instances," he 
says, " in favor of this excellent nourish- 
ment ; but I shall content myself with two 
only, equally certain and decisive, in proof 
of its goodness. The first is an experiment 
of chocolate's being taken for the only 
nourishment, — made by a surgeon's wife 
of Martinico : she had lost, by a very 
deplorable accident, her lower jaw, which 
reduced her to such a condition that she 
did not know how to subsist. She was 
not capable of taking anything solid, and 
not rich enough to live upon jellies and 
nourishing broths. In this strait she de- 
termined to take three dishes of chocolate, 
prepared after the manner of the countiy, 
one in the morning, one at noon, and one 
at night. There chocolate is nothing else 
but cocoa kernels dissolved in hot water, 
with sugar, and seasoned with a bit of cin- 
namon. This new way of life succeeded so 
well that she has lived a long while since, 
more lively and robust than before this 
accident. 



78 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

" I had the second relation from a gen- 
tleman of Martinico, and one of my 
friends not capable of a falsity. 

" He assured me that in his neighborhood 
an infant of four months old unfortunately 
lost his nurse, and its parents, not being 
able to put it to another, resolved, through 
necessity to feed it with chocolate. The 
success was very happy, for the infant 
came on to a miracle, and was neither less 
healthy nor less vigorous than those who 
are brought up by the best nurses. 

" Before chocolate was known in Europe 
good old wine was called the milk of old 
men ; but this title is now applied with 
greater reason to chocolate ; since its use 
has become so common that it has been 
perceived that chocolate is, with respect to 
them, what milk is to infants. In reality, 
if one examines the nature of chocolate a 
little, with respect to the constitution of 
aged persons, it seems as though the one 
was made on purpose to remedy the de- 



VALUE AS FOOD. 7V 

fects of the other, and that it is truly the 
panacea of old age. 

" Our life, as a famous physician observes, 
is, as it were, a continual growing dry ; 
but yet this kind of natural consumption is 
imperceptible to an advanced age, when 
the radical moisture is consumed more 
sensibly. The more balmy and volatile 
parts of the blood are dissipated by little 
and little ; the salts, disengaging from the 
sulphurs, manifest themselves ; - the acid 
appears, which is the fruitful source of 
chronic diseases. The ligaments, the ten- 
dons, and the cartilages have scarce any of 
the unctuosity left, which rendered them 
so supple and so pliant in youth. The 
skin grows wrinkled as well within as 
without ; in a word, all the solid parts 
grow dry or bony. 

" One may say that nature has formed 
chocolate with every virtue proper to 
remedy these inconveniences. 

M The volatile sulphur with which it 



80 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

abounds is proper to supply the place of 
that which the blood loses every day 
through age ; it blunts and sheathes the 
points of the salts, and restores the usual 
softness to the blood, like as spirit of wine, 
united with spirit of salt, makes a soft 
liquor of a violent corrosive. The same 
sulphurous unctuosity at the same time 
spreads itself in the solid parts, and gives 
them, in some sense, their natural supple- 
ness. It bestows on the membranes, the 
tendons, the ligaments and the cartilages, a 
kind of oil which renders them smooth and 
flexible. Thus the equilibrium between 
the fluids and solids is, in some measure, 
reestablished ; the wheels and springs 
of our machine mended ; health is pre- 
served and life prolonged. These are not 
the consequences of philosophical reflec- 
tions, but of a thousand experiments which 
mutually confirm each other ; among a 
great number of which the following alone 
shall suffice : — 



VALUE AS FOOD. 81 

kt There lately died at Martinico a coun- 
sellor, about a hundred years old, who, for 
thirty years past, lived on nothing but 
chocolate and biscuit. He sometimes, in- 
deed, had a little soup at dinner, but never 
any fish, flesh, or other victuals. He was, 
nevertheless, so vigorous and nimble that 
at fourscore and five he could get on horse- 
back without stirrups. 

" Chocolate is not only proper to pro- 
long the life of aged people, but also of 
those whose constitution is lean and dry, or 
weak and cacochymical, or who use violent 
exercises, or whose employments oblige 
them to an intense application of mind, 
which makes them very faintish. To all 
these it agrees perfectly well, and becomes 
to them an altering diet." 



82 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 



VL 



COCOA-BUTTER. 



" A S the oil (or butter) of cocoa is very 
ii anodyne, or an easer of pain, it is 
excellent, taken inwardly, to cure hoarse- 
ness and to blunt the sharpness of the salts 
that irritate the lungs. In using it must be 
melted and mixed with a sufficient quantity 
of sugar candy and made into lozenges, 
which must be held in the mouth until 
the substance melts quite away, so that it 
can be swallowed gently. Taken season- 
ably the oil is also a wonderful antidote 
against corrosive poisons. 

" It is the best and most natural pomatum 
for ladies to clear and plump the skin 
when it is dry, rough, or shrivelled, with- 
out making it appear either fat or shining. 
The Spanish women at Mexico use it 



COCOA-BUTTER. 83 

very much, and it is highly esteemed by 
them. 

M The leaving off the practice of anoint- 
ing the body with oil can be attributed to 
nothing else but the ill smell and other disa- 
greeable effects that attended it ; but if oil of 
chocolate was used instead of oil of olives 
those inconveniences would be avoided, 
because it has no smell and dries entirely 
into the skin. Nothing certainly would 
be more advantageous, especially for aged 
persons, than to renew this custom, which 
has been authorized by the experience of 
antiquity. 

" Apothecaries ought to make use of this, 
preferably to all others, as the basis of their 
balsams, because all other oils grow ran- 
cid, and this does not. 

"There is nothing so proper as this to 
keep arms from rusting, because it con- 
tains less water than any other oil made 
use of for that purpose. 

" In the West Indies they make use of 



84 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

this oil to cure the piles. Others use it to 
ease gout pains, applying it hot to the 
part, with a compress dipped in it, which 
they cover with a hot napkin. It may be 
used after the same manner for the rheu- 
matism." 

M. Arthur Mangin says : — 

" When pure and freshly extracted 
cocoa-butter is of a pale yellow color ; its 
consistency is about that of tallow. Its 
odor is faint, but sweet, and its taste pleas- 
ant. When thoroughly purified, and pro- 
tected from heat, air, and dampness, it may 
be preserved, without perceptible altera- 
tion, for several years. 

"It is insoluble in water, hardly soluble 
in alcohol, completely soluble in sulphuric 
ether and the essential oil of turpentine. Its 
density is 0.91 . It softens perceptibly at 24 
or 25 {Centigrade ; i.e., 56 or 57 Fah- 
renheit), but melts only at 29 , and be- 
comes entirely liquid only at 35 to 40 . 
It cannot boil without being decomposed. 



COCOA-BUTTER. 85 

It contains, according to M. Boussingault, 
carbon, .766 ; hydrogen, .119 ; oxygen, .115. 
Cocoa-butter formerly played a tolerably 
important part in medicine, by reason of 
the numerous properties attributed to it. 
It was called a pectoral, an expectorant, a 
humective, a demulcent, an emollient, a 
refrigerative, etc., etc. It was prescribed 
for persons suffering from or suspected of 
chest diseases, nervous coughs, bronchitis, 
etc., and it was combined with kermes, 
ipecacuanha, etc., to make pills, emulsions, 
opiates, and other remedies. 

" At present it is no longer prescribed for 
internal use ; but pharmacists, as well as 
perfumers, make it the basis of many po- 
mades and ointments, whose use is, we are 
assured, most beneficial, and, at all events, 
most agreeable. Cocoa-butter, pure or 
simply combined with an oil which renders 
it more or less unctuous, is one of the 
smoothest, most fragrant, and, if we may 
be allowed the expression, most savory, 



86 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

pomades which can be used for the hair or 
skin, and it is astonishing that there should 
be preferred to it so many equivocal com- 
pounds whose exorbitant price is justified 
by not one of the properties claimed for 
them by the puffs of perfumers." 

" This concentrated oil," says M. Del- 
cher, " is the best and most natural of all 
the pomades which ladies, who possess a 
too dry skin can use to make it smooth, 
soft, and polished, without any greasy or 
shining appearance, which is produced by 
most of the pomades advertised for the 
purpose. 

" I agree," continues the same author, 
" with the opinion of M. Plisson, who ad- 
vises the use of cocoa-butter pomade for 
women who suffer from acrid eruptions, 
cracked lips, breast, etc. The Spaniards 
of Mexico understand the value of these 
preparations ; but, as in France, this con- 
centrated oil hardens too much, it is neces- 
sary to mix it with the oil of the ben-nut, 



COCOA-BUTTER. 87 

or of sweet almonds. If the ancient cus- 
tom of the Greeks and Romans should be 
revived, of anointing one's self with oil to 
give suppleness to the limbs and to guard 
against rheumatism, the oil of cocoa should 
be chosen for the purpose. 

M Considered as food, and asa medicinal 
substance, cocoa-butter possesses the same 
fundamental property as other fat. It sup- 
plies to respiration the necessary combus- 
tible elements, and renders it, in conse- 
quence, more easy and active. It ma}', 
therefore, be administered with advantage 
to persons suffering from affections of the 
chest, and possesses the advantage, in com- 
mon w r ith only a very small number of 
substances of the same kind, that the most 
fastidious and obstinate patient may take it 
for the whole of his life without disgust." 



RECEIPTS 




RECEIPTS. 



VII. 

DIFFERENT METHODS OF PREPARING 
DRINKS. 

THERE are many different methods 
of preparing cocoa and chocolate for 
drinking. The Mexicans are in the habit 
of preparing it with atole, a kind of pap 
made of maize, which is their most ancient 
and common beverage, and which they 
mix hot, in equal quantities with the choco- 
late dissolved in hot water, and drink di- 
rectly. 1 They also dissolve the chocolate 

1 " I remember," says Prof. Eaton, " some that was 
brought home from Mexico by the officers of Gen. Zachary 
Taylor's army. The cakes were of half a pound weight, 
or so, and were made of very coarsely pounded cocoa. 



92 RECEIPTS. 

in cold water, stirring it with the chocolate 
stick, and skim off the froth into another 
vessel, then put the remaining chocolate 
over the fire with sugar enough to sweeten 
it, and as soon as it boils pour it over the 
froth, and drink it. 

The inhabitants of St. Domingo put 
chocolate into a vessel with a little water, 
and boil it till it is dissolved ; then add the 
necessary water and sugar, let it boil again 
till an unctuous froth is formed, and drink 
it in this state. 

The Indians of New Spain make use of 

They were well sweetened, and contained a large proportion 
of some starchy material. For a drink the chocolate is 
broken into small pieces and placed with water in a red 
earthen pot, an upright cylindrical pot, and heated. When 
the chocolate is boiled enough it is stirred violently with a 
sort of dasher, much like that of an old-fashioned churn, 
except that the handle is rolled between the hands rather 
than worked up and down. The chocolate is beaten into a 
foam, which the old travellers declared remained so stiff 
after the chocolate was cold that it could be cut up and 
eaten in mouthfuls. This effect must have been due to the 
quantity of starch, or, most likely, fine maize-meal, in the 
drink, rather than to any special skill in milling it.'* 



RECEIPTS. 93 

cold chocolate in their festivals, prepared 
by milling pure chocolate in cold water, 
skimming off the froth into another vessel, 
then adding sugar to the remaining liquid, 
and pouring it from a great height on 
the froth. This chocolate is exceedingly 
cold. 

Iced chocolate is used in many parts of 
Italy, where it is the custom to cool almost 
all beverages upon snow or ice. 

The Spanish method of making choco- 
late is to mix it so thick that a spoon can 
stand upright in the mixture ; then to 
drink iced water after it by way of dilut- 
ing it. 

Chocolate is usually milled in a tin vessel, 
within which a wheel, somewhat smaller 
in circumference than the vessel, is fixed 
to a stem which passes through the lid, 
and, being turned rapidly between the 
palms of the hands, bruises and mixes the 
chocolate with the water. Chocolate should 
be first milled off the fire, then put on and 



94 RECEIPTS. 

left to simmer for some time, after which 
it is milled again till perfectly smooth, and 
free from sediment. Any ladle or stick 
which effectually mixes the chocolate with 
the water may be substituted for the mill- 
ing stick. Chocolate in powder does not 
require milling. Chocolate should never 
be made until wanted, as it is spoiled by 
reheating. Chocolate may be made in an 
iron pot or stewpan, a chocolate-pot, or 
Chocolatiere. — The Dessert Book. 

Plain Chocolate (i). 
The quantity of chocolate for a certain 
quantity of milk is according to taste. Two 
ounces of chocolate make a good cup of it, 
and rather thick. Break the chocolate in 
pieces, put it in a tin saucepan with a tea- 
spoonful of water to an ounce of chocolate, 
and set it on a rather slow fire. Stir now 
and then till thoroughly melted. While 
the chocolate is melting set the quantity 
of milk desired in another tin saucepan on 



RECEIPTS. 95 

the fire, and as soon as it rises, and when 
the chocolate is melted as directed above, 
turn the milk into the chocolate little by 
little, beating well at the same time with an 
egg-beater. Keep beating and boiling after 
being mixed, for three or four minutes ; take 
off and serve. If both chocolate and milk 
are good it will be frothy, and no better or 
more nutritious drink can be had. — Pierre 
Blot. 

Plain Chocolate (2). 

Scrape one ounce (one of the small 
squares) of Baker's or any plain chocolate, 
fine ; add to this two tablespoonfuls of 
sugar, and put into a small saucepan with 
one tablespoonful of hot water ; stir over a 
hot fire for a minute or two, until it is per- 
fectly smooth and glossy ; then stir it all 
into a quart of boiling milk, or half milk 
and half water ; mix thoroughly and serve 
immediately. If the chocolate is desired 
richer take twice as much chocolate, sugar, 
and water. Made in this way chocolate 



96 RECEIPTS. 

is perfectly smooth and free from oily par- 
ticles. If it is allowed to boil after the 
chocolate is added to the milk it becomes 
oily and loses its fine flavor. — Maria Par- 
loa. 

Frothed Chocolate. 
One cup of boiling water ; three pints of 
fresh milk ; three tablespoonfuls of Baker's 
chocolate, grated ; five eggs, the whites 
only beaten light ; two tablespoonfuls of 
sugar, powdered for froth. Sweeten the 
chocolate to taste ; heat the milk to scald- 
ing ; wet up the chocolate with the boiling 
water, and when the milk is hot stir this 
into it ; simmer gently ten minutes, stirring 
frequently ; boil up briskly once ; take from 
the fire, sweeten to taste, taking care not to 
make it too sweet, and stir in the whites of 
two eggs, whipped stiff, without sugar ; 
pour into the chocolate-pot or pitcher, 
which should be well heated. Have ready 
in a cream-pitcher the remaining whites, 
whipped up with the powdered sugar ; cover 



RECEIPTS. 97 

the surface of each cup with sweetened 
meringue before distributing to the guests. 
Chocolate or cocoa is a favorite luncheon 
beverage, and many ladies, especially those 
who have spent much time abroad, have 
adopted the French habit of breakfast- 
ing upon rolls and a cup of chocolate. — 
Marion Harland. 

Milled Chocolate. 

Three heaping tablespoonfuls of grated 
chocolate ; one quart of milk ; wet the 
chocolate with boiling water, scald the 
milk, and stir in the chocolate-paste ; 
simmer ten minutes ; then, if you have no 
regular " muller," put your syllabub-churn 
into the boiling liquid and churn steadily, 
without taking from the fire, until it is a 
yeasty froth ; pour into a chocolate-pitcher 
and serve at once. 

This is esteemed a great delicacy by 
chocolate-lovers, and is easily made. — 
Marion Harland. 



98 RECEIPTS. 

Baker's Premium No. i Chocolate. 

Scrape £ne about one square of a cake, 
which is one ounce ; add to it about an 
equal weight of sugar ; put these into a 
pint of perfectly boiling milk and water, 
of each one-half, and immediately mill or 
stir them well for two or three minutes, 
until the sugar and chocolate are well dis- 
solved. Some think ten or twelve minutes' 
boiling improves it. 

Baker's Vanilla Chocolate. 

This may be prepared with either milk 
or water, according to the taste of the con- 
sumer. For one cup of chocolate scrape 
fine one of the oblong divisions and fully 
dissolve it in a very little boiling water. 
Put one cup of milk or water in a sauce- 
pan, and when it is at the highest boiling- 
point add the chocolate. Then allow it 
to simmer from five to seven minutes, but 
not to boil. 



RECEIPTS. 99 

Baker's Breakfast Cocoa. 
Into a breakfast-cup put a teaspoonful of 
the powder, add a tablespoonful of boiling 
water and mix thoroughly ; then add equal 
parts of boiling water and boiled milk, and 
susrar to the taste. Boiling two or three 
minutes will improve it. 

Baker's Cocoa-Paste. 
Put two teaspoonfuls of paste into a tea- 
cup ; pour upon it a little boiling water, 
and stir it until it is dissolved ; then fill the 
cup with boiling water, and stir again ; 
add cream or milk, if agreeable. Two or 
three minutes' boiling improves it. 

Baker's Eagle French Chocolate. 
Into a pint of boiling milk and water (of 
each one-half, or other proportions if more 
agreeable) throw two oblong divisions of 
the chocolate cake, previously cut fine ; 
then boil it from five to seven minutes 
longer, stirring it frequently. 



100 RECEIPTS. 

German Sweet Chocolate. 
Into one pint of boiling milk and water 
(of each one-half) throw two squares of 
chocolate scraped fine ; then boil it five min- 
utes longer or more, stirring frequently. 

Baker's Racahout des Arabes. 
Dissolve two tablespoonfuls of Racahout 
in a little cold milk. Heat gradually a 
quart of milk to boiling ; add the above 
and let it boil (stirring meanwhile) until it 
begins to thicken. To enrich for dessert, 
add two eggs to the mixture before putting 
it into the boiling milk. Strain the whole 
when cooked. 

Baker's Broma. 
Dissolve a large tablespoonful of broma 
in as much warm water ; then pour upon 
it a pint of boiling milk and water, in 
equal proportions, and boil it two minutes 
longer, stirring it frequently ; add sugar at 
pleasure. 



RECEIPTS. 101 

Baker's Cocoa Shells. 
Take a small quantity of cocoa shells 
(say two ounces), pour upon them three 
pints of boiling water ; boil rapidly thirty 
or forty minutes ; allow it to settle or 
strain, and add cream or boiled milk and 
sugar at pleasure. 

Baker's Prepared Cocoa. 
To one pint of milk and one pint of cold 
water add three tablespoonfuls of cocoa ; 
boil fifteen or twenty minutes. Any other 
proportions of milk and water make a 
pleasant beverage. 

Baker's Premium Cracked Cocoa. 
Use the same quantity as of coffee. 
Cocoa in this form needs thorough and 
continued boiling to extract its full strength. 
By adding a small quantity of cocoa daily 
the consumer will have a highly flavored 
cup of cocoa at a trifling expense. 



102 RECEIPTS. 

French Chocolat au lait (Chocolate with milk). 
Place the chocolate, cut into small 
pieces, in a saucepan over a slow fire, in 
order that the chocolate may dissolve 
gradually and not adhere to the pan. 
When the chocolate is completely melted 
pour boiling milk upon it in small quan- 
tities, and stir rapidly. After adding the 
requisite quantity of milk let the mixture 
come to the boiling-point for an instant, 
and you will have a light and most agree- 
able chocolate. 

Chocolat a l'eau (Chocolate with water). 
Follow the directions given above, using 
water instead of milk. When the full al- 
lowance of water has been added to the 
chocolate the mixture should boil for ten 
minutes, and be stirred continually. 

Spanish Chocolate. 
For one cup of chocolate scrape fine 
two oblong divisions, and fully dissolve it 




RECEIPTS. 

in a very little boiling water, 
cup of milk or water in a saucepan, and 
when it is at the highest boiling-point add 
the chocolate. Allow it to simmer for 
five or ten minutes, but not to boil, stirring 
all the time. 

The Spanish method of making choco- 
late is to mix it so thick that a spoon can 
stand upright in the mixture. 

Egg Chocolate. 

Dissolve the chocolate in boiling water ; 
beat the yolk of an egg to foam in a bowl, 
and pour the chocolate slowly over it, stir- 
ring constantly all the time. 

Chocolate, one cake ; water, one cup ; 
yolk of one egg. 

German Egg Chocolate. 
Put four ounces of fine chocolate, dis- 
solved in a little hot water, into a perfectly 
clean stewpan with three large cups of 
water and one ounce of powdered sugar, 



104 RECEIPTS. 

and set it over the fire. Beat the yolks of 
two eggs to foam in a cup of water, and 
stir them, with fifteen drops of rose-water 
and the same quantity of orange-flower- 
water, into the chocolate as soon as it 
begins to simmer. Let it stand a few 
moments longer over the fire without boil- 
ing, stirring it all the time ; then take it 
off and serve it with biscuit or marchpau. 
Chocolate, four ounces ; water, three 
cups ; sugar, one ounce ; yolks of five 
eggs ; rose-water, fifteen drops ; orange- 
water, fifteen drops. Boil up once. 

Parisian Egg Chocolate. 
For three cups of chocolate dissolve 
three ounces of the best chocolate in four 
cups of water, and set it over the fire ; beat 
the yolks of two eggs to foam, and stir 
them into the chocolate as soon as it begins 
to froth ; skim off the froth into warm 
chocolate-cups until they are heaped full, 
then hold a shovelful of burning coals to 



RECEIPTS. 105 

each till the froth is converted to a light 
crust, when serve. 

The chocolate froths better when finely 
powdered sugar is mixed with the yolks 
of eggs, and still better when froth-cakes 
are added, prepared in the following man- 
ner : — 

Beat the whites of a dozen eggs to froth, 
and stir in powdered sugar till the mass is 
of the consistency of a stiff paste. Mould 
the paste on a large plate into small cakes, 
about the size and shape of an ordinary- 
sized hazel-nut, and dry them in the sun 
or in a warm room. 

As soon as the egg-yolks have been 
stirred into the chocolate add as many of 
these cakes as there are cups of the liquid, 
and continue to stir it until the whole mass 
becomes froth. Care must be taken to 
keep the chocolate near the boiling-point, 
whether on or ofF the fire, without letting: 
it boil over. 

Chocolate, three ounces ; water, four 



106 RECEIPTS. 

cups ; yolks of eggs, two. Boil, and mill 

to froth. 

Wine Chocolate. 

Set half a bottle of good white wine, 
three ounces of chocolate, and one ounce 
of powdered sugar over the fire ; beat the 
yolks of four eggs to foam, with a little 
wine, and add it to the chocolate as soon 
as it begins to simmer; stir it for a few 
minutes, then take it from the fire and 
serve. This is an excellent winter bever- 
age. — Dessert Book. 

Chocolate Wine. 
Infuse in a bottle of Madeira, Marsala or 
raisin wine four ounces of chocolate, and 
sugar if required. In three or four days 
strain and bottle. — Confectioner's Jour- 
nal. 



PUDDINGS. 

Chocolate Pudding (i). 
Half a cake of chocolate grated (Baker's, 
two cakes in one package) ; vanilla to 



RECEIPTS. 107 

flavor; small half pint of soda-cracker 
crumbs ; butter size of an egg ; one-half 
pint of boiled milk ; whites of six eggs ; 
one-half cup of sugar ; salt ; boil in a mould 
for one hour. To be eaten hot. 

SAUCE. 

Yolks of six eggs ; one tumbler of sherry- 
wine ; one-half large cup of sugar ; beat 
the yolks very light ; put the sugar in the 
sherry, then heat the wine ; when it is very 
hot add the beaten yolks ; stir quickly one 
way until it thickens to a very rich cream. 
To be eaten cold. — Choice Receipts, 

Chocolate Pudding (2). 

For six persons use one quart of milk, 
one pint of stale bread, four eggs, one 
ounce of grated chocolate, half a cupful of 
granulated sugar, three tablespoonfuls of 
powdered sugar, half a teaspoonful of 
vanilla extract, and one teaspoonfu 1 of salt. 

Soak the bread and milk together for 



108 RECEIPTS. 

two hours ; then mash the bread fine by- 
pressing it with a spoon against the side 
of the bowl. Put the chocolate, three 
tablespoonfuls of the granulated sugar and 
one tablespoonful of boiling water in a 
small stewpan, and stir over a hot fire 
until the liquid becomes smooth and glossy ; 
now take from the fire and add a few 
spoonfuls of bread and milk. Stir until 
the mixture is thin and smooth ; then add 
it to the bread and milk. 

Beat the yolks and one white of the egg 
with the remainder of the granulated sugar ; 
add this mixture and the salt to the bread 
and milk ; pour into a pudding-dish and 
bake in a slow oven for forty minutes. 

Now beat the three remaining whites to 
a stiff, dry froth, and, with a spoon, beat 
into them three tablespoonfuls of pow- 
dered sugar and the vanilla. Spread this 
meringue over the pudding and cook for a 
quarter of an hour longer with the oven 
door open. Serve with whipped cream. 



RECEIPTS. 109 

When it is inconvenient to use cream 
the meringue will suffice as a sauce. If a 
strong flavor of chocolate be liked use 
two ounces instead of one. — Maria Par- 
loa. 

Chocolate Pudding (3). 

One pint of rich milk ; two tablespoon- 
fuls of corn-starch ; one scant half cup of 
sugar ; whites of four eggs ; a little salt ; 
flavoring ; beat the eggs to a stiff froth ; 
dissolve the corn-starch in a little of the 
milk ; stir the sugar into the remainder of 
the milk, which place on the fire ; when 
it begins to boil add the dissolved corn- 
starch ; stir constantly for a few minutes, 
when it will become a smootli paste ; now 
stir in the beaten whites of the eggs, and 
let it remain a little longer to cook the 
eggs ; flavor the whole with vanilla ; now 
take out a third of the pudding, flavor the 
remainder in the kettle with a bar of choco- 
late, softened, mashed, and dissolved with 



110 RECEIPTS. 

a little milk ; put half the chocolate pud- 
ding in the bottom of a mould (which has 
been wet with water) ; smooth the top ; 
next make a layer with the white pudding 
(the third taken out) ; smooth it also ; 
next the remainder of the chocolate pud- 
ding. 

Serve with whipped cream, or a boiled 
custard, made with the yolks of the eggs 
and flavored with vanilla. — Mrs. Mary 
F. Henderson. 

Chocolate Pudding (4). 
One quart milk ; three ounces grated 
vanilla chocolate ; three tablespoonfuls of 
corn starch ; two eggs ; half a cup pulver- 
ized sugar : boil the milk ; stir in the 
chocolate, starch, sugar, and beaten yolks 
of the eggs ; bake ; when the pudding is 
cold beat the whites of the two eggs to a 
froth ; stir in half a cup of pulverized 
sugar ; place this frosting on the pudding 
and serve. — Choice Receipts. 



RECEIPTS. Ill 

Chocolate Mixture. 
Five tablespoonfuls of grated chocolate 
with enough cream or milk to wet it, one 
cupful of sugar, and one egg well beaten. 
Stir the ingredients over the fire until 
thoroughly mixed ; then flavor with va- 
nilla. — Mrs. Mary F. Henderson, 



CAKE, ETC. 
Chocolate Cake (i). 
Two cups of sugar ; four tablespoonfuls 
of butter rubbed in with the sugar ; four 
eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately ; 
one cup of sweet milk ; three heaping 
cups of flour ; one teaspoonful of cream 
tartar, sifted into flour; one-half teaspoon- 
ful of soda melted in hot water ; bake in 
jelly-cake tins. 

FILLING. 

Whites of two eggs, beaten to a froth ; 
one cup of powdered sugar ; one-quarter 



112 RECEIPTS. 

pound of grated chocolate, wet in one 
tablespoonful of cream ; one teaspoonful 
vanilla ; beat the sugar into the whipped 
whites, then the chocolate ; whisk all to- 
gether hard for three minutes before add- 
ing the vanilla ; let the cake get quite cold 
before you spread it ; reserve a little of the 
mixture for the top, and beat more sugar 
into this to form a firm icing. — Marion 
Harland. 

Chocolate Cake (2). 

Beat one and a quarter pounds of sugar 
and ten ounces of butter to a cream ; whisk 
the whites and the yolks of ten eggs sepa- 
rately, after which mix and beat them 
together, and add them gradually to the 
sugar and butter ; now add and stir in six 
ounces of cocoa-paste or chocolate grated 
and melted in just sufficient boiling water 
to form a thickish paste ; next add and stir 
in one pint of milk, then add one and three- 
quarter pounds of flour that has been thor- 



RECEIPTS. 113 

oughly sifted together with one and a half 
ounces of Royal baking powder ; beat all 
lightly and quickly to a smooth mass and 
bake in buttered cake-pans in a quick oven ; 
or it may be baked in layers in jelly-cake 
pans, and filled with the following cream : 
Take six ounces of sugar, two whole eggs, 
and the yolks of three more, two or three 
tablespoonfuls of grated chocolate, one 
tablespoonful of corn-starch and one pint 
of milk ; beat the sugar, the two eggs, and 
the grated chocolate to a cream ; beat the 
three yolks and the corn-starch together, 
and then add them to the chocolate mixture 
and work all together till smooth, then 
stir in the milk and cook to a custard ; 
when cold spread a layer of it over a sheet 
of the cake, on top of which lay another 
sheet of the cake, which spread in like 
manner with custard, on top of which place 
a third sheet of the cake, over which sift 
finely powdered sugar. — Confectio?zer*s 
Journal. 



114 RECEIPTS. 

Chocolate Cake (3). 

One very full cup of butter ; two cups of 
sugar ; three and a half cups of flour ; one 
cup, not quite full, of milk ; five eggs ; one 
teaspoonful cream of tartar ; half teaspoon- 
ful soda. — Icing: Whites of two eggs; 
one and a half cups of pulverized sugar ; 
two teaspoonfuls of essence of vanilla ; six 
tablespoonfuls of grated vanilla (Baker's) 
chocolate ; beat the yolks of the five and 
the whites of the three eggs separately, 
until they are as light as they can be made ; 
put the cream of tartar in the flour ; dis- 
solve the soda in a little of the milk ; rub 
the butter and sugar to a cream ; add the 
eggs, milk, flour, and soda ; pour the mixt- 
ure into a large, shallow pan, well but- 
tered, and put it in the oven. While it is 
baking make the icing by beating the 
whites of the two eggs to a stiff froth, and 
stir the sugar in well ; add the grated 
chocolate and the essence of vanilla ; when 



RECEIPTS. 115 

the cake is done turn it out on a sieve ; 
while hot put on the icing. — Choice Re- 
ceipts, 

Chocolate Cake (4). 

One cup of butter ; two cups of sugar ; 
three cups of flour ; half cup sweet milk ; 
half teaspoonful soda ; one teaspoonful of 
cream tartar ; seven eggs. — Chocolate 
Cream: Quarter of a pound of Baker's 
best vanilla chocolate ; one gill of sweet 
milk ; one egg ; sugar to taste. Rub butter 
and sugar together ; beat the seven eggs 
until they are very light ; put the cream of 
tartar in the flour and the soda in the milk ; 
mix all well, and bake in four Washington- 
pie plates. While this is baking scald the 
gill of milk and the chocolate together; 
beat one egg thoroughly and stir it in ; add 
sugar to taste. When the cake is done 
spread the chocolate cream between the 
layers and upon the tops of the cakes. — 
Choice Receipts* 



116 RECEIPTS. 

Chocolate Cake (5). 
One cupful of butter ; two cupfuls of 
sugar ; three cupfuls of flour ; one cupful 
of milk ; four eggs well beaten ; one tea- 
spoonful of soda ; two teaspoonfuls of cream 
of tartar. Bake in Washington-pie plates. 
Put a layer of the chocolate mixture between 
and on the top and sides of the cake. 

Chocolate Cake (6). 
One cup of butter, two of sugar, three of 
flour, four eggs, and a cup three-quarters 
full of grated chocolate. Stir the butter 
and sugar to a cream ; add the beaten yolks 
of the eggs, beat well, then the whites 
beaten to a stifF froth alternately with the 
flour ; beat very hard ; stir in the chocolate 
and bake in one large cake or in square tin 
pans. — Sara T. Paul. 

Chocolate Cakes (1). 
The whites of eight eggs ; half a cake of 
chocolate, grated ; one pound of sugar ; six 



RECEIPTS. 117 

ounces of flour ; beat the eggs to a stiff 
froth, add the sugar, then stir in the choco- 
late and flour. Butter flat tins, and drop 
on the mixture, not too closely, as the cakes 
will spread. Bake a few minutes in a 
quick oven. — Sara T. Paul. 

Chocolate Cakes (2). 
Put the yolks of three eggs in a bowl, 
with four ounces of powdered sugar ; beat 
them well until slightly consistent, and add 
to them an ounce and a half of flour, an 
ounce of corn-starch, a few drops of extract 
of vanilla, and mix all well together. Beat 
up the whites of your eggs very stiff, and 
stir them lightly with your other ingre- 
dients. Put it in a cornucopia made of 
stiff paper, with a hole in the end, through 
which press it on a pan (on which you 
have spread a sheet of white paper), and 
form it into small rounds about the size of 
a fifty-cent piece. Send them to a gentle 
oven until they are quite firm ; then let 



118 RECEIPTS. 

them become cold, and cut them all the 
same size with a small, round cutter. 
Spread a layer of peach or other marma- 
lade on the half of your cakes, which cover 
with the other half. Melt about two ounces 
of chocolate in about two tablespoonfuls 
of water. Put in a saucepan on the fire 
half a pound of sugar, with half a glass 
of water; boil for about eight to ten 
minutes ; lift out some of the sugar with 
a spoon, drop it into cold water ; place it 
between the thumb and third finger, and, 
if you may draw the sugar out into a long 
fine thread, without breaking, you have 
reached the desired result ; then put your 
chocolate in a bowl, add your sugar, stir- 
ring until beginning to thicken. Take as 
many little wooden skewers as you have 
cakes, sharpen them to a fine point, stick 
one into each cake, which dip into your 
chocolate and sugar, covering it entirely. 
Put a colander upside-down on a table, and 
in the holes place the ends of your sticks, 



RECEIPTS. 119 

thereby allowing the cakes on the opposite 
end to dry ; after which remove your cakes 
from the sticks, and serve when needed. — 
Pierre Car on. 

Chocolate Macaroons. 
Melt on a slow fire and in a tin pan three 
ounces of chocolate without sugar (known 
as Baker's chocolate) ; then work it to a 
thick paste with one pound of pulverized 
sugar and three whites of eggs. Roll the 
mixture down to the thickness of about one- 
quarter of an inch ; cut it in small round 
pieces with a paste-cutter, either plain or 
scalloped ; butter a pan slightly and dust 
it with flour and sugar, half of each ; place 
the pieces of paste or mixture in and bake 
in a hot, but not quick oven. Serve cold. 
— Pierre Blot, 

Chocolate Tartlets. 
Four eggs, half cake of Baker's chocolate, 
grated ; one tablespoonful corn-starch, dis- 



120 RECEIPTS. 

solved in' milk; three tablespoonfuls of 
milk ; four tablespoonfuls of white sugar ; 
two tablespoonfuls of vanilla ; one-half tea- 
spoonful of cinnamon and a little salt ; one 
heaping teaspoonful of melted butter. 

Rub the chocolate smooth in the milk ; 
heat over the fire, and add the corn-starch 
wet in more milk. Stir until thickened 
and pour out. When cold beat in the 
yolks and sugar with the flavoring. Bake 
in open shells lining flate-pans. Cover 
with a meringue made of the whites and a 
little powdered sugar, when they are nearly 
done, and let them color slightly. Eat 
cold. — Marion Harland. 

Chocolate Filling for Cake. 
Half a cake of sweet chocolate grated, 
half a cup of sweet milk, the same of 
powdered sugar, the yolk of one egg, and a 
tablespoonful of extract of vanilla. Stir the 
chocolate in the milk, add the eggs, sugar, 
and vanilla ; set it in a vessel of boiling 



RECEIPTS. 121 

water and stir until a stiff jelly. When 
cold spread it between the layers of cake. 
Used also as a frosting for cake. — Sara 
T. Paul. 

Chocolate Wafers. 

Melt two pounds of cocoa-paste in a 
warm iron mortar, and add to it one pound 
of the finest powdered sugar, and a quarter 
of a pound of fine vanilla sugar ; pound 
these together with a warm pestle until 
the cocoa and sugar are perfectly amalga- 
mated ; if it should be too stiff add a little 
melted cocoa-butter or sweet oil to it and 
mix well in. Take a small bit of the paste 
in the hand and roll it into a small ball ; 
place these as formed, out of hand, upon 
small sheets of glazed paper, in rows about 
an inch apart. When you have placed a 
dozen or two on a sheet take it by the ends 
and lift it up and down a few times, letting 
it touch the table each time ; this motion 
will flatten the balls into wafers. When 



122 RECEIPTS. 

cold and concreted they may be easily re- 
moved from the papers. There are various 
tools for dropping these wafers to be ob- 
tained at almost any of the confectionery 
supply-depots. — Confectioner's Journal. 

Chocolate Jumbles. 

Take one pound of pulverized sugar, 
half a pound of butter, half a pound of 
chocolate, finely grated, eight eggs, a 
tablespoonful of vanilla extract, and flour 
sufficient. Beat the eggs and butter to a 
cream ; add and beat in the eggs, then the 
grated chocolate and vanilla ; then work 
in flour till you have a dough stiff enough 
to roll out. Dust the table with powdered 
sugar, roll the dough half an inch thick, 
and cut it into pieces about four inches 
long, and form them into rings by joining 
the ends. Lay them at a little distance 
apart on buttered baking sheets and bake 
in a moderate oven. — Confectioner's Jour- 
nal. 



RECEIPTS. 123 

Chocolate Eclairs (i). 
Put an ounce of butter in a saucepan on 
the fire, with about six tablespoonfuls of 
water. When beginning to boil add about 
two and a half ounces of flour, stirring with 
a wooden spoon about five minutes ; then 
remove from the fire and add, one by one, 
four eggs, stirring rapidly until each is 
well mixed ; then put your mixture in a 
cornucopia of stiff paper, with a hole in 
the point, through which press it on a pan, 
forming little shapes similar to lady-fin- 
gers. Send them to a gentle oven for about 
twenty minutes, or until firm ; let them be- 
come cold ; then make an incision in them 
the length of each through the middle. Put 
in a saucepan two eggs, two tablespoonfuls 
of corn-starch, two ounces of sugar, a glass 
of milk, a teaspoonful of vanilla, and stir all 
together on the fire. Just before beginning 
to boil remove from the fire and let it become 
cold ; then fill the inside of your eclairs with 
your cream. Melt an ounce of chocolate 



124 RECEIPTS. 

in a tablespoonful of water, boil half a 
pound of sugar as the foregoing, mix thor- 
oughly with your chocolate, with which 
cover your eclairs, — Pierre Caron. 

Chocolate Eclairs (2). 
Prepare a batter as for Boston cream 
puffs, as follows : Take one pound of flour, 
one ounce of sugar, one quart of cold 
water, half a pound of butter, and sixteen 
eggs ; put the water and butter into a 
bright and clean round-bottomed sauce- 
pan ; place on the fire, and as soon as the 
water commences to boil remove it from 
the fire, and immediately add and rapidly 
stir in the flour and sugar. As soon as 
these are well mixed and smooth add and 
stir in the eggs, two or three at a time, till 
all are thoroughly incorporated ; fill a 
biscuit forcer or a meringue bag with the 
batter, and press it out upon buttered bak- 
ing-tins, in the same manner that you would 
lady-fingers, making cakes of it about five 



RECEIPTS. 125 

inches long and about an inch in diameter. 
Lay out these cakes at about two inches 
apart on the tins, as they swell considera- 
bly in baking ; bake in a hot oven. When 
baked and cold make an opening on one 
side of each cake and fill them with a soft- 
ish custard, made as follows: Take a 
quarter of a pound of powdered sugar, 
two ounces of flour, the yolks of four or five 
eggs, and one and a quarter pints of milk, 
and a dessertspoonful of vanilla extract; 
put the sugar, flour, and yolks into a 
saucepan, stir them well together, then 
slowly add and stir in the milk and flavor ; 
set it upon the fire and stir constantly till 
it thickens to a smooth custard. Before 
filling the cakes the tops should be dipped 
and covered with chocolate icing, made as 
follows : Melt one or more ounces of choc- 
olate with half a pint of water in a sauce- 
pan, and add to it, when melted, three 
ounces of fine sugar ; stir and boil for three 
or four minutes, then remove it from the 



126 RECEIPTS. 

fire, and dip and cover the top of each 
cake with this chocolate icing, or they may 
be dipped in melted chocolate fondant. 
— Confectioner's yournaL 

Chocolate Eclairs (3). 
Prepare some batter as for cream puffs, 
fill a mering-uehzg with it, and press it 
out upon a well-buttered baking-tin in 
cakes about an inch wide and five inches 
long. Let there be two inches between 
each cake ; bake in a quick oven fifteen 
to twenty minutes. When cold slit one 
side, open carefully and fill with the cream 
given above, and ice the top of each cake 
with chocolate prepared as follows : Melt 
two ounces of chocolate with a tablespoon- 
ful of water ; add four ounces of powdered 
sugar ; stir to a paste thick enough to 
spread without running, and coat the top 
of each cake with it, or dip the tops of the 
cakes into it ; either way will do. — Con- 
fectioner's Journal. 



RECEIPTS. 127 



CREAM, PIES, ETC. 

Chocolate Cream Puffs. 

Take half a pound of flour and one tea- 
spoonful of sugar ; mix these together. 
Put a pint of cold water and a quarter of a 
pound of butter into a very clean sauce- 
pan, set it on the fire, and as soon as it 
boils remove it from the fire and throw in 
the flour ; stir it very rapidly until well 
mixed and smooth ; continue to beat and 
stir for a minute or two longer. Now let 
it rest for two or three minutes, and then 
stir and beat in with a wooden spatula 
eight eggs, two at a time, till all are used ; 
the first require some little time to mix, on 
account of the stiffness of the paste. When 
all are thoroughly incorporated lay out 
the paste by tablespoonfuls on buttered 
tins, and about two inches apart each 
way, and bake in a quick oven for fifteen 
or twenty minutes. When cold cut open 



128 RECEIPTS. 

one side of the puff and fill it with the fol- 
lowing cream or custard : — 

Rub four ounces of sugar and four eggs 
to a cream ; mix two ounces of flour in 
gradually while stirring well. Mix and 
stir one ounce of grated chocolate into one 
quart of boiling-hot milk and a dessert- 
spoonful of pure extract of vanilla. Pour 
this into the egg mixture, set it on the fire 
and stir constantly till it thickens, then 
take it off and let it cool. — Confectioner' 's 
Journal. 

Chocolate Blanc-Mange (i). 
One quart of milk ; one-half package of 
gelatine, dissolved in one cup of cold water ; 
one cup of sugar ; three great spoonfuls 
grated chocolate ; vanilla to taste. Heat 
the milk, stir in the sugar and soaked gela- 
tine ; strain ; add chocolate, boil ten min- 
utes, stirring all the time. When nearly 
cold beat for five minutes or until it begins 
to stiffen. Flavor, whip up once, and put 



RECEIPTS. 129 

into a wet mould. It will be firm in six 
or eight hours. — Marion Harland, 

Chocolate Blanc-mange and Cream (2). 

Make the blanc-rriange as directed in last 
receipt. Set it to form in a mould with a 
cylinder in the centre. You can improvise 
one by stitching together a roll of stiff paper 
just the height of the pail or bowl in which 
you propose to mould your blanc-mange, 
and holding it firmly in the middle of this 
while you pour the mixture around it. 
The paper should be well buttered. Lay 
a book or other light weight on the 
cylinder to keep it erect. When the blanc- 
mange is turned out slip out the paper, 
and fill the cavity with whipped cream, 
heaping some about the base. Specks of 
bright jelly enliven this dish if disposed 
tastefully upon the cream. — Marion Har- 
land, 

Chocolate Blanc-mange (3). 

Grate a teacupful of chocolate ; add to it 



130 RECEIPTS. 

a pint of water and a teacup or more of 
sugar ; let it simmer until the chocolate is 
all dissolved ; add a quart of milk and one- 
third of a paper of corn-starch mixed in 
cold water. When the milk begins to boil 
stir in the corn-starch ; boil it five minutes, 
flavor with vanilla extract, and pour into 
moulds. — Sara T. Paul, 

Blanc-mange (4). 
Half box gelatine ; one quart milk ; yolk 
of two eggs ; one small teacupful of sugar ; 
one large tablespoonful of vanilla ; seven 
squares of Baker's chocolate. Dissolve 
the gelatine in about a gill of cold water ; 
let it stand for two hours. Grate the choco- 
late fine, then dissolve it in a little of the 
milk, slightly warmed ; scald the remainder 
of the milk ; beat the yolks of the eggs and 
sugar together until very light. When the 
milk is well scalded, add the gelatine, 
chocolate, eggs, and sugar. Let this sim- 
mer gently for fifteen minutes. Strain the 



RECEIPTS. 131 

mixture into a mould. Set on ice. This 
blanc-mange should be thoroughly cooked. 
— Choice Receipts, 

Chocolate Custards (baked). 
One quart of good milk ; six eggs, yolks 
and whites separated ; one cup sugar ; four 
great spoonfuls grated chocolate ; vanilla 
flavoring. Scald the milk ; stir in the 
chocolate and simmer two minutes, to dis- 
solve and incorporate well with the milk. 
Beat up the yolks with the sugar and put 
into the hot mixture. Stir for one minute 
before seasoning and pouring into the cups, 
which should be set ready in a pan of boil- 
ing water. They should be half sub- 
merged, that the water may not bubble 
over the tops. Cook slowly about twenty 
minutes, or until the custards are firm. 
When cold whip the whites of the eggs to 
a meringue with a very little powdered 
sugar (most meringues are too sweet) and 
pile some upon the top of each cup. Put 



132 RECEIPTS. 

a piece of red jelly on the mSringue. — 
Marion Harland. 

Chocolate Custards (boiled). 

One quart of milk ; six eggs, whites and 
yolks separately beaten ; one cup of sugar ; 
four large spoonfuls grated chocolate ; va- 
nilla to taste, a teaspoonful to the pint is a 
good rule. Scald the milk, stir in sugar 
and chocolate. Boil gently five minutes, 
and add the yolks. Cook five minutes 
more, or until it begins to thicken up well, 
stirring all the time. When nearly cold 
beat in the flavoring, and whisk all briskly 
for a minute before pouring into the cus- 
tard-cups. Whip up the whites with a 
little powdered sugar, or, what is better, 
half a cup of currant or cranberry jelly, and 
heap upon the custards. — Marion Har- 
land. 

Chocolate Custards. 

One quart of milk ; one ounce of Baker's 
best French chocolate ; eight eggs ; two 



RECEIPTS. 133 

teaspoonfuls of vanilla ; eight teaspoonfuls 
of white sugar. Beat the eight yolks and 
the two whites of the eggs until they are 
light. Boil the milk ; when boiling stir 
the chocolate and the sugar into it, and 
then put it into a clean pitcher. Place this 
in a pot of boiling water ; stir one way 
gently all the time until it becomes a thick 
cream ; when cold strain it and add the 
vanilla ; place it in cups ; beat the whites of 
the eggs to a stiff froth, and add the sugar 
to them ; beat well, and place some of this 
frosting on the top of each custard. — 
Choice Receipts. 

Chocolate Bavarian Cream. 
Whip one pint of cream to a stiff froth, 
laying it on a sieve ; boil a pint of rich 
milk with a vanilla bean and two table- 
spoonfuls* of sugar until it is well flavored ; 
then take it off the fire and add half a box 
of Nelson's or Coxe's gelatine, soaked for 
an hour in half a cupful of water in a 



134 RECEIPTS. 

warm place near the range ; when slight- 
ly cooled add two tablets of chocolate, 
soaked and smoothed. Stir in the eggs 
well beaten. When it has become quite 
cold, and begins to thicken, stir it without 
ceasing a few minutes, until it is very- 
smooth ; then stir in the whipped cream 
lightly until it is well mixed. Put it into 
a mould or moulds, and set it on ice or in 
some cool place. — Mrs. Blair. 

Chocolate Souffles. 

Three ounces of grated chocolate, one 
ounce of sugar, one ounce of butter, one 
ounce of flour, one gill of milk, yolks of 
three eggs, whites of four eggs. Butter 
and bind around a pint and a half souffle- 
tin a band of paper to form a wall above 
the tin, and confine the souffle as it rises. 
Butter also the interior of the tin. 

Melt the butter in a small saucepan, stir 
into it the flour, and, adding the milk, stir 
all until boiling. When boiling take the 



RECEIPTS. 135 

saucepan from the fire, throw into it the 
chocolate and the sugar, and drop in the 
yolks of the eggs, one by one, stirring all 
meantime. 

Whip the whites of the eggs to a stiff 
froth and stir this in also very lightly. 

Pour the mixture into the souffle-tin, 
which should make it about two thirds 
full, and place the tin into a deep saucepan 
containing sufficient water to reach half- 
way up the sides of the form. Cover the 
saucepan, and drawing it aside from the 
fire allow the water to simmer therein for 
thirty minutes, keeping it all the time 
covered. 

When steamed take the souffle from the 
saucepan, transfer it quickly to a silver 
soziffle-dish, or fold round the tin in which 
it is prepared a napkin, and serve at once, 
carrying the dish upon a hot shovel if the 
dining-room be distant from the kitchen. 
— Matilda Lees Dods, of the South Ken- 
sing-ton School of Cookery. 



136 RECEIPTS. 

Chocolate Meringue. 

To one quart of boiling milk add half an 
ounce of isinglass dissolved in hot water ; 
add half a pound of Baker's chocolate, 
grated ; sweeten ; simmer until it becomes 
a rich jelly ; stir while boiling. Line but- 
tered pans with rich paste ; pour in the 
mixture ; bake until the pastry is cooked ; 
then let it cool. Beat the whites of four 
eggs to a stiff froth ; sweeten ; spread it 
over the pies with a knife ; bake a light 
brown. — Flora Neely, 

Chocolate Creams (i). 

Soak one box of gelatine in cold water 
enough to cover it one hour. 

Put one quart of rich milk into a tin 
pail, and set it in a kettle with hot water 
to boil. Scrape two ounces of French 
chocolate, and mix with eight spoonfuls 
of sugar ; wet this with two spoonfuls of 
the boiling milk, and rub with the bowl 



RECEIPTS. 137 

of the spoon until a smooth paste, then 
stir into the boiling milk ; now stir in the 
gelatine, and then stir in the yolks of ten 
•well-beaten eggs ; stir three minutes, take 
off and strain ; set in a pan of ice-water ; 
stir for ten minutes, then add two spoon- 
fuls of vanilla, and put into blanc-mange 
moulds ; set away on the ice for three 
hours. Serve with sugar and cream. — M. 
Parloa. 

Chocolate Creams (2). 

Inside: Two cups of sugar; one cup 
of water ; one and a half tablespoonfuls 
of arrow-root ; one teaspoonful of vanilla. 
Outside : Half a pound of Baker's choco- 
late. — Directions. For inside: Mix the 
ingredients, except the vanilla ; let them 
boil from five to eight minutes ; stir all the 
time. After this is taken from the fire 
stir until it comes to a cream. When it 
is nearly smooth add the vanilla and make 
the cream into balls. For outside: Melt 



138 RECEIPTS. 

the chocolate, but do not add water to it. 
Roll the cream balls into the chocolate 
while it is warm. — Choice Receipts, 

Cream Chocolates. 
Factitious foitdant, or cream, is made by 
mixing the finest powdered sugar with 
glucose and a little extract of vanilla in a 
bowl, and working them together in the 
same manner as you would mix the whites 
of eggs and sugar for making icing, only 
there must be worked in sufficient to form 
a softish paste or dough that can be rolled 
into small balls with the hands ; these are 
to be afterwards dipped in melted choco- 
late and laid on paper until the chocolate 
concretes. — Confectioner'' s Journal. 

Chocolate Fondant, or Cream. 
Take, say, four pounds of sugar, one 
quart of water, half a pound of cocoa- 
paste grated, and sufficient vanilla extract 
to flavor highly. Boil these to the feather, 



RECEIPTS. 139 

36° by the saccharometer, 240 by thermom- 
eter ; then pour it upon a scrupulously 
clean marble slab. When it has become 
nearly cold turn or scrape in the edges, 
and with a long-handled spatula work it 
vigorously and steadily to and fro ; it 
granulates into a smooth mass ; then with 
a knife scrape it all together, and break 
it — that is, work or knead it — with 
the hands, until it forms a softish, dough- 
like mass ; then keep it in an earthen or 
stone- ware jar or tureen, covered from the 
air. It is now ready for any future oper- 
ation to which you may wish to apply it. — 
Confectioner 's Journal. 

Chocolate Charlotte Russe. 
Having soaked in cold water an ounce 
of gelatine, shave down three ounces of 
Baker's chocolate, and mix it gradually 
into a pint of cream, adding the dissolved 
and strained gelatine. Set the cream, 
chocolate, and gelatine over the fire, in a 



140 RECEIPTS. 

porcelain kettle, and boil it slowly for 
three or four minutes. 

Take off the fire, and let it cool. Have 
ready eight yolks of eggs and four 
whites beaten all together until very light, 
and stir them gradually into the mixture, 
in turn with half a pound of powdered 
sugar. Simmer the whole over the fire 
for a few minutes, but do not let it quite 
boil ; then take it off, and whip it to a 
strong froth. Line your moulds with 
sponge cake, and set them on ice. 

Chocolate Custard Pies. 
Simmer one quart of milk ; add a quar- 
ter of a pound of Baker's chocolate, grated ; 
sweeten to taste ; beat in four well-beaten 
eggs. Line deep pie-pans with rich paste ; 
pour in the mixture. Bake in moderately 
quick oven. 

Chocolate Pie (rich). 
To one pint of boiling milk add one 



RECEIPTS. 141 

tablespoonful of rice-flour ; the yolks of five 
eggs, well beaten ; a little salt ; one pint 
of cream ; sweeten to taste ; quarter of a 
pound grated chocolate (Baker's) well 
dried ; let them boil, stirring ; let it cool. 
Line deep buttered tins, pour in the mixt- 
ure and bake. — Flora Neely. 

Ice Cream (i). 

Mix the yolks of four eggs with one pint 
of boiling milk ; one quart of cream ; four 
ounces of chocolate dissolved in one pint 
of hot water ; sweeten to taste ; flavor with 
extract of vanilla. Whisk thoroughly over 
the fire until thick and smooth ; when cool 
freeze. 

Ice Cream (2). 

To each quart of cream one tablespoon- 
ful of sweet chocolate, to be dissolved in a 
small quantity of cream (or water) and 
added when the cream is partly frozen. — 
Flora Neely, 



142 RECEIPTS. 

Chocolate Ice Cream (3). 
Prepare a mixture as for vanilla ice 
cream. Melt four ounces of chocolate in 
half a glass of water, on the fire ; add it 
to your mixture, strain it through a sieve, 
and freeze. — Pierre Caron. 

Chocolate Ice Cream (4). 
Boil one quart of milk ; grate half a 
pound of vanilla chocolate, and stir into 
the milk ; let it boil until thick ; add a 
quarter of a pound of sugar. When cool 
add one quart of cream ; stir well and pour 
into the freezer. — The Dessert Book. 

Chocolate Ice Cream (5). 
To three pints of cream take one of new 
milk, two eggs, a teacupful of grated choc- 
olate, two coffee-cups of powdered sugar, 
a teaspoonful of corn-starch and one of ex- 
tract of vanilla. Beat the eggs, stir them 
in the milk ; add the corn-starch and sugar. 
Let them come to aboil, take them quickly 



RECEIPTS. 143 

from the fire ; dissolve the chocolate in a 
little milk over the fire, stir it all the time. 
When perfectly smooth mix it with the 
milk and eggs, then add the cream and 
vanilla ; if not sweet enough, more sugar. 
When cold put it in the freezer. 

Chocolate Cream Drops. 
One cake of vanilla chocolate ; three cups 
of powdered sugar ; one cup of soft water ; 
two tablespoonfuls corn-starch or arrow- 
root ; one tablespoonful butter ; two tea- 
spoonfuls vanilla. Wash from the butter 
every grain of salt ; stir the sugar and water 
together ; mix in the corn-starch and bring to 
a boil, stirring constantly to induce granula- 
tion. Boil about ten minutes, when add the 
butter. Take from the fire and beat as you 
would eggs until it begins to look like gran- 
ulated cream. Put in the vanilla; butter 
your hands well, make the cream into balls 
about the size of a large marble, and lay 
upon a greased dish. 



144 RECEIPTS. 

Meanwhile the chocolate should have 
been melted by putting it (grated fine) into 
a tin pail or saucepan and plunging it into 
another of boiling water. When it is a 
black syrup add about two tablespoonfuls 
of sugar to it, beat smooth, turn out upon 
a hot dish, and roll the cream balls in it 
until sufficiently coated. Lay upon a cold 
dish to dry, taking care that they do not 
touch one another. — Marion Harland. 

Chocolate Caramels (i). 
One cup rich, sweet cream ; one cup 
brown sugar ; one cup white sugar ; seven 
tablespoonfuls vanilla chocolate ; one table- 
spoonful corn-starch stirred into the cream ; 
one tablespoonful butter ; vanilla flavoring ; 
soda the size of a pea stirred into cream. 
Boil all the ingredients except the chocolate 
and vanilla extract half an hour, stirring to 
prevent burning. Reserve half of the cream 
and wet up the chocolate in it, adding a very 
little water if necessary. Draw the sauce- 



RECEIPTS. 145 

pan to the side of the range, and stir this 
in well ; put back on the fire, and boil ten 
minutes longer, quite fast, stirring constant- 
ly. When it makes a hard, glossy coat on 
the spoon it is done. Add the vanilla after 
taking it from the range. Turn into shallow- 
dishes well buttered. When cold enough 
to retain the impression of the knife cut into 
squares. — Marion Harland. 

Chocolate Caramels (2). 
One cupful of best syrup ; one cupful of 
brown sugar ; one cupful of white sugar ; 
two cupfuls of grated chocolate ; two cup- 
fuls of cream vanilla ; one teaspoonful of 
flour mixed with cream. Rub the choco- 
late to a smooth paste with a little of the 
cream ; boil all together half an hour, and 
pour it into flat dishes to cool. Mark it 
with a knife into little squares when it is 
cool enough. — Mrs. Mary F. Henderson, 

Cream Chocolate Caramel (3.) 
Make a six-pound batch of chocolate car- 



146 RECEIPTS. 

am el ; pour it out in as square a form as 
possible upon a greased marble slab (with- 
out iron bars) ; let it spread out as thin as 
it will, and when it becomes cold run the 
candy sword under it in order to loosen it 
from the slab ; then mark it crosswise 
through the centre of the batch, and pour 
thickly melted fondant over one-half the 
surface ; then take the uncovered half by 
the end, using both hands, and quickly 
throw it over the creamed portion. Press 
this top sheet down upon the other all 
around the edges, then, with a caramel 
cutter, cut the batch into small square 
tablets. In this manner the cream is en- 
closed in the centre of each tablet. — Con- 
fectioner's Journal. 

Chocolate Candy. 

One cup of molasses, two of sugar, one 
of milk, one-half of chocolate, a piece of 
butter half the size of an egg. 

Boil the milk and molasses together, 



RECEIPTS. 147 

scrape the chocolate fine, and mix with 
just enough of the boiling milk and mo- 
lasses to moisten ; rub it perfectly smooth, 
then, with the sugar, stir into the boiling 
liquid ; add the butter, and boil twenty 
minutes. Try as molasses candy, and if 
it hardens pour into a buttered dish. Cut 
the same as nut-candy. — M. Parloa. 

Creme de Cacao. 
Infuse five ounces of Caracas cocoa- 
nibs, crushed ; one bean of Vera Cruz 
vanilla, split and cut into small pieces ; 
quarter ounce of cinnamon, and one drop of 
essence of almond, in one quart of brandy, 
or deodorized alcohol, for ten days. Strain, 
press ; then filter clear, and add one quart 
of clarified syrup. Bottle and cork well. 
— Confectioner } s Journal, 

Chocolate Parfait Amour. 
Dissolve half a pound of chocolate highly 
flavored with vanilla in sufficient water. 
In a bottle of brandy digest one ounce of 



148 RECEIPTS. 

bruised cinnamon, half an ounce of cloves, 
and a pinch of salt. In three days add the 
dissolved chocolate ; macerate one week, 
closely corked ; then strain clear. — Con- 
fectioner's Journal, 

Bavaroise au Chocolate. 

Mix one egg and two ounces of pow- 
dered sugar with one pint of milk or cream ; 
place it on the fire and stir until it is about 
to boil ; then instantly remove and add a 
gill of well-made, rich chocolate and a tea- 
spoonful of extract of vanilla. Pour it into 
pint tumblers and serve. Zwieback, nice 
and fresh, is generally served with the 
chocolate bavaroise, — Confectioner' 's 
Journal, 

Chocolate Syrup. 

Mix eight ounces of chocolate in one 
quart of water, and stir, and melt thor- 
oughly over a slow fire. Strain and add 
four pounds of white sugar. — Confec- 
tioner's Journal, 



RECEIPTS. 149 

Chocolate Syrup for Soda Water. 

Baker's chocolate (plain) , four ounces ; 
boiling water, four ounces ; water, twenty- 
eight ounces ; sugar, thirty ounces ; extract 
of vanilla, one-half ounce. Cut the choco- 
late into small pieces, then add the boiling 
water, and stir briskly until the mixture 
forms into a thick paste, and assumes a 
smooth and uniform appearance ; then 
slowly add the remainder of the water, 
stirring at the same time, and set aside until 
cold. After cooling thoroughly, a layer of 
solid grease forms over the surface, which 
is to be carefully removed by skimming. 
After this is completed add the sugar, dis- 
solved by the aid of a gentle heat, and allow 
the whole to come to a boil. Then strain 
and add the extract of vanilla. This forms 
a syrup which is perfect. It possesses the 
pure, rich flavor of the chocolate without 
the unpleasant taste which is obtained if the 
solid fat is not removed. — M. Michaelis. 



150 RECEIPTS. 

Chocolate Icing or Coating. 

Put one pound of the best sugar in a 
copper pan and boil to the blow, or thirty- 
four degrees ; place the bottom of the pan in 
cold water (contained in a saucepan) to cool, 
until the sugar begins to set at the bottom 
and sides of the pan. Put a quarter of a 
pound of fine chocolate or cocoa paste with 
half a gill of water in a pan ; place it in the 
mouth of the oven, or on a very slow fire, 
until it is thoroughly melted, stirring con- 
stantly ; add half a gill of simple syrup, and 
work until it is entirely smooth, then add it 
to the boiled sugar. Mix well and ice or 
cover your cakes. In a few minutes they 
will become dry. — Confectioner's Journal, 

Chocolate Whip (i). 

One ounce of cocoa-paste, scraped fine, 
added to one quart of rich cream and half 
a pound of pulverized sugar ; place on the 
pan and bring it to the boiling-point, stir- 



RECEIPTS. 151 

ring constantly with a whisk ; then remove 
it, and when cold add the whites of four 
eggs and whisk briskly ; remove the froth 
with a perforated skimmer, and lay it upon 
a hair sieve to drain. When you have 
sufficient froth, or whip, fill your glasses 
or cups three-fourths full of the cream and 
pile the whip on the top of them ; sprinkle 
a little vanilla sugar, or powdered cinna- 
mon, on the whip, and serve. 

Chocolate Whip (2). 
Dissolve two ounces of cocoa-paste, on a 
moderate fire, in half a tumbler of boiling 
water, and when cold add it to the cream 
together with six ounces of fine sugar. 
Whip and finish as above. 

Chocolate Drops, with Nonpareils. 
Warm some sweet chocolate by pound- 
ing it in a hot iron mortar ; when it is 
reduced to a malleable paste make it into 
balls, about the size of a small marble, by 
rolling a little in the hand. Place them 



152 RECEIPTS. 

on sheets of white paper about an inch 
apart. When the sheet is covered, take it 
by the corners and lift it up and down, 
letting it touch the table each time, which 
will flatten them. Cover the surface en- 
tirely with white nonpareils, and shake off 
the surplus one. The bottom of the drops 
should be about as broad as a five-cent piece. 
— Confectioner* s Journal, 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



Established in the Year 1780. 



WALTER BAKER & CO., 

DORCHESTER, MASS., 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



CHOCOLATE, BROMA, AND OTHER 
PREPARATIONS FROM COCOA. 



SEVENTEEN MEDALS AND DIPLOMAS 

RECEIVED FROM THE GREAT IN- 

TERNATIONAL AND OTHER 

EXHIBITIONS. 



156 ADVERTISEMENT. 

Frequent analyses have been made, under the 
direction of Boards of Health and sanitary asso- 
ciations in our large cities, to determine the 
purity of chocolate and cocoa preparations sold 
in this country, and in every such analysis the 
articles manufactured by 

WALTER BAKER & CO., 

are reported to be entirely pure and free from 
the admixture of deleterious substances. 



BAKER'S PREMIUM No. 1 
CHOCOLATE, 

In i-lb. packages, blue wrapper, yellow label, 

Is the fresh roasted cocoa-beans carefully selected 
and prepared, then moulded into cakes. It is 
the very best preparation of plain chocolate in 
the market for family use. Celebrated for more 
than a century as a nutritive, salutary, and de- 
licious beverage. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 157 

BAKER'S VANILLA CHOCOLATE, 

In 1-2 lb. packages, 
Is guaranteed to consist solely of choice cocoa 
and sugar, flavored with pure vanilla beans. 
Particular care is taken in its preparation, and a 
trial will convince one that it is really a delicious 
article for eating or drinking. It is equal to any 
of the imported chocolates. For tourists and 
those who wish a very pleasant article for eating 
dry, and without any preparation, it is the best. 

GERMAN SWEET CHOCOLATE, 

In 1-4 lb. packages, 
Is one of the most popular sweet chocolates 
sold anywhere. It is palatable, nutritious, and 
healthful. It is a great favorite with children, 
and an excellent substitute for much of the con- 
fectionery now offered to the public. 

Beware of Imitations, The Genuine is 
Stamped S, German, Dorchester, Mass, 



158 ADVERTISEMENT. 

BAKER'S PREPARED COCOA, 

In 1-2 pound packages, yellow label, 

Is a perfectly pure and refreshing beverage, pre- 
pared exclusively from selected cocoa. It is safely 
recommended to those who wish a wholesome 
preparation, combining all the properties of the 
cocoa-beans. It has for nearly a century been a 
standard article of consumption. 

BAKER'S CRACKED COCOA, OR 
COCOA NIBS, 

In 1-2 and i lb. packages and 6 and io lb. bags, 

Is the fresh roasted bean cracked into small pieces. 
It contains no admixture, and presents the full 
flavor of the cocoa-bean in all its natural fragrance 
and purity. When properly prepared it is one 
of the most economical drinks. Dr. Lankester 
says cocoa contains as much flesh-forming matter 
as beef. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 159 

BAKER'S BROMA, 

In 1-2 lb. packages (tin), 

Is a preparation of pure cocoa and other highly 
nutritious substances, pleasantly flavored and 
sweetened. It contains a large proportion of 
theobromine, and possesses powerful restorative 
qualities. Its delicacy of flavor and perfect solu- 
bility have made it a favorite drink among 
thousands. 

The Medical Gazette says: " Broma, an ad- 
mirable preparation, alike agreeable to the well 
and the sick, has acquired a reputation which we 
think it certainly deserves. Hospitals, infirma- 
ries, and households generally, should always 
be provided with it. When gruel, arrow-root, and 
many other things ordinarily resorted to for 
patients are of no utility, broma is sometimes 
relished and assimilates well. Medical men of 
all shades of opinion recommend it to their 
patients instead of tea or coffee. 



160 ADVERTISEMENT. 

BAKER'S BREAKFAST COCOA, 

In 1-2 lb. packages (tin), 

Is made from selected cocoa, with the excess of 
butter of cacao removed, and guaranteed to be 
absolutely pure. It is more than three times the 
strength of other cocoas, making an economical, 
excellent, and delicious beverage for breakfast 
or supper, 

Costing less than One Cent a Cup. 

A general favorite with all who have tried it. 
When purchasing be sure that your grocer sup- 
plies you with BAKER'S BREAKFAST 
COCOA, as there are imitations offered at a 
lower price. 

A prominent and experienced New York phy- 
sician says : " Experience from many years' 
practice in the treatment of lung diseases has 
convinced me that, as an article of diet for those 



ADVERTISEMENT. 161 

suffering ivith any form of consumption, chocolate 
is far preferable to tea or coffee ; in fact, the two 
last-mentioned articles are injurious in manj 
cases, while chocolate, being an aliment and 
analeptic, is particularly serviceable where diges- 
tion has been impaired by disease. Having 
examined several specimens of chocolate I find 
that Baker's may be conscientiously recom- 
mended to invalids." 

COCOA-BUTTER, 

In 1-4 lb. cakes. 

One-half the weight of the cocoa-beans consists 
of a fat called Cocoa-Butter, from its resemblance 
to ordinary butter. It is considered a great value 
as a nutritious, strengthening tonic, being pre- 
ferred to cod-liver oil and other nauseous fats so 
often used in pulmonary complaints. As a 
soothing application to chapped hands and lips 
and all irritated surfaces Cocoa-Butter has no 
equal, making the skin remarkably soft and 



162 ADVERTISEMENT. 

smooth. Many who have used it say they would 
not be without it, it is such a useful article to 
have in every household. 

COCOA-SHELLS, 

In i -lb. packages. 

Cocoa-Shells are the thin outer covering of 
the beans. They have a flavor similar to but 
milder than cocoa. Their very low price places 
them within the reach of all, and as a pleasant 
and healthy drink they are considered superior 
to tea and coffee. 

Packed only in one-pound papers, with our 
label and name on them. 

RACAHOUT DES ARABES, 

In boxes, 6 lbs. each, — 1-2 lb. bottles. 

This celebrated preparation is a most nutri- 
tious substance, and has become indispensable 



ADVERTISEMENT. 163 

as an article of diet for children, convalescents, 
ladies, and delicate or aged persons; is com- 
posed of the best nutritive and restoring sub- 
stances, suitable for the most delicate system. 
It is now a favorite breakfast beverage for 
ladies and young -persons, to whom it gives fresh- 
ness and embonpoint. It has solved the prob- 
lem of medicine, by imparting something which 
is easily digestible, and at the same time free 
from the exciting qualities of coffee and tea, — 
thus making it especially desirable for nervous 
persons, or those afflicted with weak stomachs. 
Racahout has a very agreeable flavor, is easily 
prepared, and has received the commendation of 
eminent Physicians, as being the best article 
known for convalescents, and all persons desir- 
ing a light, digestible, nourishing, and strength- 
ening food. 



164 ADVERTISEMENT. 



GOODS FOR CONFECTIONERS' USE. 

W. BAKER & CO.'S CARACAS LIQUOR, 
in cases, 100 lbs. each. 

W. BAKER & CO.'S MARACAE30 
LIQUOR, in cases, 100 lbs. each. 

EAGLE PURE CHOCOLATE LIQUOR, 
in cases, 100 lbs. each. 

ALSO 

W. BAKER & CO.'S COCOA and SHELLS, 
in bags, 12 and 25 lbs. each. 

W. BAKER & CO.'S COCOA-PASTE, in 
boxes, 12 lbs. each. 

VANILLA CHOCOLATE TABLETS 
(for eating), in boxes, 7 lbs. each. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 165 

MEDALS AND DIPLOMAS 



AWARDED TO 



WALTER BAKER & CO. 



The World's Industrial Exposition, New Or- 
leans, 1S84. 
Southern Exposition, Louisville, 1883. 
Mechanics' Institute, Boston, 1878. 
Paris Exposition, 1878. 
Mechanics' Institute, San Francisco, 1877. 
U.S. Centennial Exhibition, 1876. 
Vienna Exposition, 1873. 
Mechanics' Institute, New Orleans, 1871. 
Paris Exposition, 1867. 
Mechanics' Institute, Cincinnati, 1855. 
Maryland Institute, 1853. 
Crystal Palace Exhibition, N.Y., 1853. 
American Institute, N.Y., 1853. 
Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, 1853. 
Mechanics' Institute, Boston, 1853. 
Maryland Institute, Baltimore, 1852. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 



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