Skip to main content

Full text of "Confederate Veteran [serial] (1922)"

See other formats




mm, 






flSVvF 



, ^ $$$ Z&?« JIBiB 



WSwm 








^^SiP 



North Carolina State Library 





j^amw^fm^ 













if 







Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 



http://www.archive.org/details/confederateveter301922 



INDEX 



Confederate Veteran 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY IN THE INTEREST OF 
CONFEDERATE VETERANS AND KINDRED TOPICS 



VOLUME XXX 



S. A. CUNNINGHAM, FOUNDER 



Nas:-V:Lle, Tenn. 
1922 



INDEX— VOLUME XXX. 



ARTICLES. 

, !amp Episode g ~> 

~ aithful Servant 84 

| aithful Soldier 473 

j ighting Chaplain 391 

! kx>d Showing in Age 358 

[appy Meeting 157 

lir at Dandridge, Tenn 294 

listoric Horn 15 

, bama Soldier's Grave in Virginia 1 96 

ittle Girl in the War 374 

laryland Princess 11 

erican History and Government 118 

' id Their Works Do Follow Them" 355 

Unfortunate Shot 171 

I ilgrimage 207 

| ,:ona in the Confederacy 145 

; ngton 208 

; Between Friends 85 

outhern Nightingale 116 

1 o African Slavery 127 

.he War Ended 367 

tampede . . . . 170 

Greensboro, N. C. in April. 1865 101 

hanksgiving Turkey 423 

rue Confederate 478 

ford in Season 284 

k to Dixie, A Hard Trip 56 

tie Abbey of the South. The 7-205 

tie Fields Around Fredericksburg, Va., 406 

tie. General, and the Stolen Colt. 168 

tie of Blue Springs, Tenn 46 

tie of Chancellorsville 138 

tie of Jonesville. Tenn. 102 

tie of New Hope Church. Ga 338-477 

tie of Richmond. Ky 297 

tie of Rogersville, or Big Creek. Tenn 386 

tie of Seven Pines 25 

tie of Secessionville, The 368-410 

11, John Yates. Last Days of 426 

uvoir Confederate Home 238 

'ast City Grays. The 164 

nie Blue Flag and Others, The 394 

ks that Southern Children Read 357 

Soldiers of the Confederacy 135 

iking Up a Political Meeting 36 

rows, Col. Frank M 404 

Right of Heritage 50 



et Company of Alabama 

ets at New Market, One of the 

tured a General 

tured at Missionary Ridge . . . . 

tured a Yank. 

ture of Winchester, Va., And Milroy's Army. . 

ncellorsville 

tham Artillery, The 

rkamauga, 

istian. Judge Geo. L . . .... 

ditions in the South During the War Between the States. . . 

federate Memorial at Bristol, Ya.-Tenn 

federate Monument at Marianna, Fla., The 

federate Veterans, Surviving 

federate Monument in the Northwest 

federates Fighting in Mexico 

federates Over Eighty. 

federate Veterans of One County. 

k. Col. V. Y— In Memoriam .123 

itton as a World Power". . 

3sing at Columbia. Tenn., The. . . 

ssing the Potomac. . . . 

iming, Col. Jos. B. — A Tribute 

ningham Monument Fund. 4-44-1 18 



129 
117 
344 
434 

103 
330 



125 



291 
204 
1X1 
128 
5 
363 

194 
473 
164 
237 
163 
126 
358 
370 
391 
■204 



is Jefferson 58-252 

is, Jefferson, Memorial 405-316 



Davis, Jefferson. On Conscripcion . 253 

Diplomatic History of the Southern Confederacy 453 

Distinguished Soldier and Citizen 125 

Dodd. David Owen ; . . . 477 

Dreux, Col. CD 20 

Dreux. Monument to Col 84 

Early Efforts to Suppress the Slave Trade and Abolish Slavery in the 

South 88 

Edmund — A Servant . 396 

Eighty-six and Still Young 443 

Famous Rifles 247 

Father and Four Sons in Ranks. . 237 

Fighting at Brandy Station 451 

Fighting in South Carolina 415 

Fighting in the West \ . 255 

Fighting Their Own 318 

Fighting with Sabers 290 

First Action Under Confederate Rule 358 

First Texas Regiment at Gettysburg 185 

Flag of Truce, A Pathetic 286 

Fourth Alabama Regiment, The 197 

Forrest's Raid into Memphis 398 

From Gettysburg to the Potomac 428 

From Gloom to Glory 248 

From the Pelican Pines 256 

Gaines's Milland Malvern Hill, At 252 

Georgia Brigade at Fredericksburg, The ig 

Gettysburg. July 3. At 225 

Gibson's Brigade at New Hope Church 398 

Glad to be Called a Liar 302 

Good Samaritan at Franklin. The 448 

Great Anniversaries 3 

Great Old-time School-Master 221 

Green, Curtis, Tribute to 357 

Hale. Col Henry Stephenson 349 

Hall. Miss Mary 315 

Hampton, Wade 460 

Harrison. Gen. George P 28 3 

Hill's Light Division. A. P 246 

Historic Beauvoir 78 

Historic Gavel Used at Richmond 364 

Historic Old Ashland. Va 165 

History as it Should be Written 13 

History That Should be Written and Rewritten 124 

Hood's Campaign into Tennessee, On 408 

How it Started. 65 

How the Confederacy Armed its Soldiers 10 

How the Orphans Learned to Dig 210 

Imboden, Col. George W. ....... 125 

Immortal Six-hundred. The 216 

In and Around Vicksburg 333 

In By-gone Days — Richmond, Va.. 100 Years Ago . 409 

Incidents of Army Life 45 

Increase in Virginia Pensions , 124 

In Deadly Peril Ill 

Indorsement of Committee 437 

Infantry and Cavalry Service 172 

In the Battle of Chancellorsville 138 

In the Midst of War 124 

In the Years of War. . . 469 

Inzer. Col. John W 85 

Jack Jouett's Ride. , 177 

Jackson's Religious Views ,^-3tl6 

Jackson Monument at Charlottesville, Va 44-358 

Jackson, Stonewall, Strategy of 93-123 

Jackson, Recollections of Mrs. Stonewall 412 

Johnson. Gen. Adam R . 446 

Johnson's Island, An Echo of . 406 

Johnston. BUI 286 

Kenesaw Mountain, An Incident of : 48 

Ku KIux. Reconstruction and the 96 



C t«b; 






Confederate l/eterai). 



Law. Gen. E M., at Gettysburg 49 

Lee. Col. Robert E 363 

Lee, General Just After the War 207 

Lee. General, on Traveler 117 

Lee on State Rights 206 

Lee. Tablet to the Memory of General 163 

Lee, The Sword of 43 

Lee's Greatness 323 

Lee's Engineers, With Gen 298 

Life in Richmond, 1863-65 100 

Little Billy Fort 345 

Little Oirish 303-336-377 

Lost Dispatch — A War Mystery. The 317 

Love's Labor Lost 404 

Maffitt, John Newland 218 

Manassas Battle Field Park 276 

Maney's Brigade at the Battle of Perryville 467 

Mary Lauck, One of a Type 236 

Masonic Power, Incident of . 396 

McNeilly, Rev. James H 364-403 

Memorial Day at Camp Chase 164 

Memorial Day in Baltimore 315 

Mississippi Soldier of the Confederacy 262-287 

Missourians Killed in Mississippi 5 

Mouton. Gen. Jean Jacques Alfred, of Louisiana 316 

Mumford. A Son of the Martyr 196 

"Nancy Harts" of the Confederacy, The 465 

National Cemeteries 387 

Never Fired a Gun .* 458 

No Prisoners 172 

Mot Yet Reconstructed 353 

Nutmeg and the Cracker, The 260 

Oldest Veterans, C. S. A 3 

Old-time Political Life 328 

One of Stuart's Couriers 343 

On Hazardous Duty 14 

Only Chicken that Escaped Sherman, The 165 

On the Advance into Maryland 141 

Paid in Full at New Orleans 315 

Parker's Boy Battery 250 

Passing On 52 

Pelham. John, of Alabama 329 

Peninsular Campaign. Incidents of the 53 

Pensions for Faithful Negroes 77 

Pensions, Virginia. Increase in 124 

Personal Responsibility for the War 366 

Prichard, Mrs. Margaret Johnston -. ." 84 

Ramseur, Miss Mary Dodson „ 323 

Ratliff, Capt. William 196 

Real Americanism 85 

Recollections of Malvern Hill : 332 

Reconstruction and the Ku Klux 96 

Refugees and Refugeeing 422 

Reunited at Gettysburg 445 

Richmond, Va.. 100 Years Ago 409 

Right of Secession, The 416 

Roll of Honor. C. S. A.. The ; 136 

Rousseau's Raid 208 

Saffarrans, Col. Isaac 276 

Schuyler, Mrs. Livingston Rowe 4 

Secession 16 

Second Manassas — Fifty-eight Years Afterward 60 

Sees Dixie in a New Light 364 

Seizure of North Carolina Forts 83 

Semmes. Raphael 1 78 

Seven Days' Battles Around Richmond 91 

Shall We Stand for Truth in History? 449 

Siege of Knoxville, The 340 

Smith. Gen. E. Kirby. Statue of 166 

Social Conditions in the South During the War Between the States 142 

Soldiers At Barboursville, Va 436 

Some Kin 158 

Sponsor for the South 323 

Spiller, Captain 6 

Spirit and Ability The 4 

State Rights Renaissance, The 325 

Stephens, Alex H. , Institute 76 

Stevens, Brig. Gen. Walter H 249 



Strategy of Stonewall Jackson, The 93-123 

Surviving Confederate Veterans 363 

Sword of Lee, The , 43 

Tennessee Soldiers of the Confederacy 84 

That Lincoln Resolution — And Some Other Things 285-32-1 

That Lost Dispatch 345 

There is no Failure 20j 

The Record that He Made 223 

The Blind Man's Town 44^ 

"The Boys" 167 

Thd First Secessionists 184 

The Lee Highway 23a 

The Lookout Bettary, The ' 385 

The Southern Proteus 8-62-1 04- 13( 

The South's Advance 44-5 

The Young Colonel's Ruse ■. ■ 9i 

Thomson, Col. Tom D : 25 1 

Tompkins, A Monument to Capt. Sally 43< 

"Uncle Allen," A Character Sketch 19i 

Virginia and Montitor, The , 38( 

Virginia First 21 J 

War Manufactories at Columbus, Ga 12- 

Washington. Col. John A., C. S. A 24! 

Was Lincoln a Friend of the South? 36! 

Wheeler, Joe, A Raid With 16< 

Wheeler's Last Raid in Middle Tennessee . . . . 33- 

When But Six Are Left 

When Sherman Marched Through Georgia 33^ 

Whitworth Rifle With a History 4; 

Who Saved Lynchburg from Hunter's Raid? 37. 

Williams, Mrs. — A True Confederate 47; 

With Ewell and Rodes in Pennsylvania 46. 

With Jackson in the Valley 383-42. 

Women of the Confederacy 22- 

Yancey, Benjamin Cud worth 41 

U. C. V. Notes 20^ 

Invitation to Richmond 20. 

The Reunion in Richmond 24. 

Annual Reunion Grand Camp of Virginia Veterans 39" 

Sucessful Reunion. A 28- 

Rutherford History Report. The 28; 

U. D. C 32, 72, 86, 112. 152, 192. 232. 272. 312. 350, 392. 433. 47- 

C. S. M.A 35, 75, 115, 155, 195, 235, 275, 314, 354, 395, 435, 47< 

S. C. V 37, 7; 

POEMS. 

A Benediction 16 

Alexander H. Stephens 43< 

An Early Riser 39* 

A Tennessee Sunset 47 

At Perryville 

A Tribute I81 

A Tribute 24. 

Camp Douglas 32. 

Dixie Land 2- 

Dreaming 19 

Evenin' In Texas 19? 

Florence Nightingale Sims 43- 

For My Darling ' 23- 

For Southern Liberty 23^ 

Fraternity 31< 

Henry W. Allen, In Memoriam 28* 

Heroes 

Heroes of Long Ago 20. 

In An Old Street 46 

In Virginia - 20 

Jamestown on the James 21 

Lee and the Unknown Soldier 

Lee, Gen. Robert E 32. 

Mildred Rutherford 47 

My Friend Bill 19 ( 

Our Anglo-Saxon Tongue 

Planting the Tree 31 c 

Sam Davis 36 

September Days 43^ 

Tennessee 37fl 

The Gallant Gray. 41 -il 



^opfederat^ l/eterai>. 



:he Laurel 372 

i he Old Score 265 

-lie Old Songs 402 

he People's Song of Peace 251 

'here is But One Who Cares for Me 106 

■riere is No Failure 205 

'he Remnant In Gray 346 

:' le Sentinel 443 

he Soldier's Farewell 278 

ae Three Crosses 362 

D My Collie 158 

irginia's Historical Light 434 

'ar and Peace ■ 317 

Try Is It? 209 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



dirist Church, Raleigh. N. C 165 

I olonel Imboden On a Favorite Mount 125 

onfederate Memorial Institute 201 

f ty-five Years Together 367 

Dur Survivors of the Cadet Company of Alabama 129 

ame of Checkers 81 

reat Confederate Seal. The 241 

:£ferson Davis Memorial as it is Now 405 

berty Hall 325 

Monument at Marianna, Fla 5 

,ld Church Tower at Jamestown 213 

resentation of Gavel to Gen. Julians Carr, by Mrs. C. F. Taylor 364 

. im Davis 361 



LAST ROLL. 



damson, A. P 187 

'lien, Dr. William George 431 

-llensworth, Jesse F 309 

Anderson, Dr. Andrew Lewis.. . . 268 

rmstrong M. W 389 

■rrington, R. R 230-270 



allard, Capt. John N 

arbour, Francis Snowden. 

ayly, Richard B 

erryman, Henry Walters. . 

enson, Capt. S. W.. 

oggs. David C 

onham. Samuel 

owie, Capt. Robert T. 

owman, Joseph H 

oyd, Robert 

ozeman, William E 

radford, Capt. John J 

rantley, John H 

rooks. Capt. John M 

yrd, B. H 

ullard, W. W 

urton. William V 



able, Wallace D 

arter. Rev. W. A 

artwright. Leonidas, Sr. . . 

astleberry, John W 

happell. Henry Clay 

hew, Col. R. P 

hinn. Franklin 

isco. Jay G 

lack. John H 

larke. John Archer 

ocke. Capt. Edmund R. 

orfin, Hector 

oley. Col. William H 

oilier, David C 

alston, Frederick M.. . . . 

ook. Judge H. H 

onstable, William . 

raighead. W. A 

umming, Maj. Joseph B. 
unningham, Daniel 



arlington. William Rountree. 

augherty, J. W 

avenport, Z. T 

avidson, Dr. E. A 



470 

267 

111 

149 

346 

107 

310 

71 

68 

26 

270 

109 

472 

111 

71 

431 

473 

109 
269 
308 
388 

67 
149 
270 
311 
266 
229 
226 

66 

29 
106 
267 

68 
431 
107 
270 
269 

267 
269 
109 



Davidson, William H 473 

Davis, Dr. J. A 226 

Dixon, George F 187 

Donahue, William J 26 

Duke, Charlton G 30 

Duncan, Hale S 189 

Dutton, Capt. W. C 110 

Ellis. Benjamin Franklin. . .. 226 

Ewan, Robert B 271 

Faulkner, Rev. E. C 151 

Fish, Calvin 269 

Fitzpatrick, Louis Alexander. . . . 472 

Forsythe, William H 70 

Foster, Maj. Wilbur F 266 

Frazier, S. J. A 188 

Fry, S. W 309 

Fuqua, Marcellus B 307 

Gay, Caroline Ware 231 

Getzen. Capt. T. W 266 

Glover, Newton 191 

Goldman, Jacob D 148 

Grabill. Capt. John H 227 

Gray. Orlando Jackson 472 

Green, Curtis 307-346 

Greer.Capt.C.S 151 

Gulley, Hon. Ransom 27 

Hale, Maj. Edward J 150 

Hale, Col. H.S 349 

Hale, William B 348 

Hamilton, David D 307 

Hanks, Calvin J. 228 

Hannah. Samuel 151 

Harding. John E 146 

Harshbarger. John 190 

Holmes. Henry 28 

Holtzclaw, C. Taylor 390 

Hood. S. W 228 

Hord, Maj. B. M 311 

Hughen, James H 110-191 

Hughes. Capt. William J 71 

Hurley, J. C 389 

Hutcheson, James Alex 229 

Jennings. Thomas M 270 

Jones, E. D 472 

Jones, J. Ira, Sr 228 



Jones, Col. Iverson A 150 

Jones, Dr. Robert E 148 

Jordan. Capt. Charles F 471 

Kerr, Capt. W. J 390 

Kirby, Joshua 106 

Lake, Ludwell 308 

Lamar, George A 147 

Lamb, Hon. Wilson G.. 268 

Leath. George W 108 

Lee. Jared Jackson , . 70 

Loggins, Dr. J. C 31 

Lorick, Preston C 230 

Loughborough, James H 68 

Lucky, Maj. C. E 347 

Mackey, Mrs. Sarah 191 

Macklin, Alexander W 471 

Manley, Capt. Mat 191 

Martin, T. L 348 

McChesney, James Z 107-186 

McCrary, Rufus E 348 

McDaniel, James A. 111-190 

McDonald, D. D 432 

McDowell, Col. E. C 110 

McGimpsey, Junius L 146 

McKinney, Eli H 230 

McWilliams. Richard E 28 

Metts. Maj. Gen. James 1 69 

Miller. Edward Hall 472 

Miller, Capt. George F. 430 

Milner. Dr. T. J 106 

Milner, Maj. W. J 31 

Mitchell, John D 432 

Mockbee. Robert T 390 

Montgomery, Judge Walter A... 108 

Morgan, Job M., Sr 309 

Morris. E. G 70 

Morris, Nathan E . . 146 

Murat, Hon. Antoine Jean 471 

Murray, Maj. J. 268 

Nance, George C 187 

Neal, Maj. A. N 388 

Neff, Mortimer W 430 

Neilson, Capt. J. A 186 

Nicholas. George H 269 

Norvell. Lieut. George P Ill 

Page, Rev. C. R 186 

Palmer, Philip G 227 

Park, Ephriam P 306 

Parker, John H 430 

Parkman, E. B 271 

Parks, Charles M 189 

Paschall, B. F 266 

Phillips, C. H 151 

Pleasants, Dr. Jos. B 147 

Pope, Simon T 309 

Pope. Capt. William Elzy 110 

Porter, G. W. D 431 

Powell, J. G 388 

Price. Maj. John W 271 

Putch, William. 271 

Rader. Capt. C. G 471 

Ragland, J. W 187 

Rauton, Henry P 67 

Reeves, James Turner 389 

Reid, George H 347 

Renfrew. Gov. William C... . . 147 

Richardson, A. D 110 

Riser, John W 470 

Roberts, Capt. N. T 227 

Roller, A. H 229 



Sewell, Judge Marion 247 

Shannon, Col.'S. E 147 

Shapard. Evander 29 

Shearon, W. T 27 

Shipman. John White 432 

Short, Jesse A 311 

Shumate, R. Y. H . . 389 

Sims, James Monroe 430 

Sloan, Dr. F. B 190 

Smith. Albert C Ill 

Smith, A. L . 66 

Smith. Capt. N. A 470 

Steadman, Lon 308 

Stevens, John Gwinn 271 

Stone, C. C 190 

Street, Capt. S. R 308 

Sykes, Maj. E. T 150 

Tanner, George R 150 

Tarrant, Rev. E. W 108 

Teague. B. H 30 

Townes, Samuel A 309 

Turner, Charles C 432 

Turner, Capt. Daniel H 27 

Vinson, James Stokly. . 268 

Walker, Eugene O. . . . : 26 

Walker, Robert Scott 148 

Westmoreland, Dr. W. W 310 

Westray, Thomas 346 

Whitehead. E. M., Sr 388 

Whitfield, Thomas 348 

Wilcox, Capt. J. W 66 

Willingham, W. J 29 

Wilson, Maj. J. B 307 

Wilson. William Henry 432 

Womack, James H 67 

Womack. John K 229 

Womack, J. K 231 

Woods, Joseph W 347 

Wright, Gen. Luke E 470 

Young, Capt. Louis G 306 

Ze.ll, James A 340-470 

Ben Embree Camp 432 

Camp Lomax, Montgomery, Ala. 107 

Comrades at Augusta. Ga 227 

Comrades at Beaumont. Tex.. . . 108 

Comrades at Charlotte, N. C. . . 471 

Comrades at Granbury, Tex. . . . 267 

Comrades at Holly Springs. N. C. 69 

Comrades at Luray, Va 267 

Comrades at Monroe, Ga 390 

Comrades at Parkersburg W. Va. 310 

Comrades at Sardis. Miss 71 

Comrades at Summerville, Ga. 187 

Comrades of Arizona 148 

Comrades of Arkansas 231 

Comrades of Camp Jones, Selma, 

Ala 306 

Comrades of Camp Walker, At- 
lanta, Ga 187 

Comrades of Sherman, Tex 186 

Comrades of Tennessee and 

Kentucky 43 1 

Confederate Veteran Associa- 
tion of Savannah 146-190 

Healy-CIaybrook Camp 110 

Members of N. B. Forrest Camp. 431 

Mosby's Rangers 390 

Tennessee Comrades 109 

Veterans of Knoxville. Tenn 893 



PORTRAITS. 



Allen. Dr. W. G 431 

Benson. Capt. S. W 346 

Bowman, Joseph H 68 

Carney, Mrs. E. L 9 



Clarke. John Archer 229 

Coley. Col. William H 29 

Cook, Judge H. H 68 

Cook, Col. V.Y 121 

Craighead. W. A 107 



\ , 



Qopfederat^ Vetera 9, 



Darlington, William Rountree... 267 



Dubois, Ethel Almond. 

Duke, Charlton G 

Dutton, Capt. W. C. . 



350 

30 
110 



Ellis. Benjamin F 226 



Fitzpatrick. L. A 

Forsythe. William H. 
Frazier, Capt. S. J. A. 
Fuqua, Marcellus B.. . 



472 

70 

188 

307 



Goldman. Jacob D 148 

Hails, George W 12° 

Hale. Mai. H. S . . 349 

Hale, William B 348 

Hamilton. D. D 307 

Harrison. Gen. George P 281 

Holmes. Henry 28 

Hood, S. W .228 

Howell. F. A 210 

Hughen. James H 191 



Morris, Nathan E 146 

Park, E. P 306 

Parks. Charles M 189 

Powell, J. G 388 

Ramseur. Miss Mary Dodson. . 321 

Ratliff, Capt. William 196 

Rauton. H. P 67 

Reeyes, James Turner 389 

Reid. George H 347 

Richardson, A. D 110 

Roberts. Capt. N. T 227 



Schuyler. Mrs- L. R. 

Shannon, Col. S. E 

Shapard. Gen. E 

Shipp. Capt. J. F.. . . 

Sloan, Dr. F. B 

Smith, Lon A 

Steadman, Lon 



Jordan. Capt. C. F.. 

Loggins. Dr. J. C. . 
Lorick, Preston C. . 



471 

31 
230 



Mackey, Mrs. Sarah. . 191 

Macklin, A. W 471 

McDaniel, James A 190 

McKinney, Eli H 230 

McNeilly, Rev. James H 401 

Metcalf, John B 129 

Metts, James 1 69 

Mimms. Mrs. Buena W 445 



.1-441 
147 
29 
367 
190 
. 79 
. . 308 
Stevens. John Gwinn 271 



Teague. B. H 30 

Thomson. Col. Tom D 251 

Turner, Capt. Daniel H 27 

Townes. Samuel A 309 

Tyson, A. P 129 

Vinson, James Stokly 268 



Whitfield. Thomas 348 

Whitney, William B 129 

Yancey, Benjamin Cudworth. . . 411 



AUTHORS. 



Anthony. James L 237 

Arnold, Mrs. Eugenia H 412 

Arnold, Thomas Jackson 317 

Barclay. Hugh G 208 

Barker, Col. J. M .128 

Barnes. W. T 48 

Barry. Capt. R. L 385 

Beale. J. Edward 353 

Boisseau, Sterling 213 

Bolton, Channing M 298 

Bradford. J. O .225 

Bradwell. I. G. 

18. 65, 170. 257, 330, 370, 428 

Brooks, Tarn 56 

Brown. B. F 246 

Buxton. J. A 343 

Caldwell. J. F.J 77 

Campbell. Mrs. A. A 16-86 

Campbell, Mrs. A. A.135-177-216-250 

Carr, Gen. Julian S 7-83 

Carter. M. D 325 

Chandler, Walter 453 

Chapman, J. A 197 



Christian, Judge Geo. L 205 

Church, Will Camp 475 

Clark, W. A 324 

Colston, F. M... 206 

Cooke. Rev. Giles B 437 

Copeland, J. E 451 

Costello. Vincent 186 

Coxe, John 25 

Coxe, John 25-91-138-291-340-460 
Crowdus, Millard. 414-443 



Dabney. T. G 

Daniel, Josephus . . 
Doak. Mrs. W. B.. 
Doyle. W: E 

Easley, D. B 

Elltrbe, Mrs. J. E. 
Everman, W. A. . . 



408 
218 
196 

83 

223 



Ewing. George D 46-386 

Faucette. C. J 36 

Fennell. Charles 8-62 

104. 130.210, 260. 303, 336. 377 

Ford, C. Y 290 

Ford. Thomas B 6 



Gallaher. D. C 286-406 

Gentry. Miss Sussie 376 

Goodwin, Dr. S. A 252 

Gray, Addie 198 

Gregory, Cleburne E 253 

Hale. Geo. W. 129 

Hale. Maj. G. W. B 252-332 

Hamilton, Posey 103-286-338-477 

Harper, Margaret Frampton. . . . 202 

Harris. G. B 324 

Harrold. Mrs. Frank 32 

Hart, W. 208 

Hartman, Theo 45 

Harwell. J. D 333 

Hendrix. Lanse 197 

Herndon, John G 172 

Herriot, Robert .... 101-415 

Hollyday. Lamar 380 

Hope. James Barron 41 

Howard, James McH 249 

Hunt. Miss Emmie Martin 329 

Hussey, Mrs. E. M 234 

Hyde, Anne Bachman 88 

Jeffries, Clarence 473 

Jennings, Arthur H 285-404 

Jennings, Miss M. M 374 

Johnstone, Col. H. W 366 

Kelly, Mrs. J. M 50 

Kilgore, J. M 278 

Lacey. Dr. E. P 449 

Lamar. Just M 20 

Larimore. T. B 6 

Lattin. Charles A 344 

Lawrence. R. deT 410 

Lauck, T. H 236 

Linkinwater. Tim 289 

Longan, Mrs. M. M 145 

Lovett. H. M 126 

Lutz. Miss L. H 242 

Maltby, Frances Goggin 161 

Markens, Isaac 426 

Mastin. Grace Murray 277 

M'Farland. Judge L. B 467 

M'Gehee. Rev. Harney M, . . . . , 416 

McGuire. Mrs. W. P 396 

McLaurine, Mrs. G. T 361 

McNeilly. James H 

13. 58. 96. 127, 158, 167. 221, 248,317 
328 

Mickleson, Alfred 323 

Miller. Joaquin 251 

Miller, Miss Valette 436 

Minnich. J. VV 53-247-294-357 

Minor, Berkeley 367 

Moffett. Mrs. E. E 76 

Moore. Mrs. Clem G 76 

Morgan. Mrs. Forest T 465 



Morris, Dr. N. E 448, 

Morton. David 462 

Morton, G. Nash 355 

Murphy, Elizabeth Lee 24 

Newman. Mrs. S. H 198 

Palmer. Miss Esther S 36 

Parker, H. B 364 

Patterson, W. H 255 

Payne. D. C 124 

Pelham, Peter 171 

Plecker. A. H 117-372 

Posey, Mrs. Mary Johnson . .98-446 

Powell. Julia 3 

Prather. Susan Verdery 339-422 

Pritchard. Calvin 106 

Purifoy, John 85-383-421-462 

Ray. S. M 398 

Rea. Capt. R. N 262-287 

Redwood, Allen C 423 

Robertson. Gen. Felix H 334 

Roberts. Dr. Deering J 116 

Roberts. Frank Stovall 15-406 

Seabury. Emma Playter. 439 

Seaman. John C. . 458 

Selvage, Edwin 445 

Smith, Byron. 297 

Smith. Channing M 222-318 

Smith. J. F 434 

Smith. Robert 14 

Steele, S. A 256 

Stiles, John C 136-469 

Stillman, Margaret Price 477 

Sydnor, Walter 165 

Tabor, Capt. R. J 397 

Taylor. Miss Blanche 11 

Temple. Mrs. W. 156 

Thomas. Edwin J 163 

Thompson. Col. Magnus H.... 93-139 

Tillett, John 444 

Tomlinson. A. R 141 

Tyler, Dr. Lyon G 213-365 

Veazey, C. L 436 

Wailes, L. A 97-184 

Watts. M. S 168 

Ware, John N 60 

Watson. John... 85 

Wear. W. 164 

Webster. Louise 265 

Weeden, Mrs. John D 396 

West. Decca Lamar 224 

White, Joseph F 142-181 

White, W. T 185 

Williams. Charles 357 

Williams. W. D 478 

Wyatt. J. A. G 102 

Youree. Mrs. Peter 316 





etera 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY IN THE INTEREST OF CONFEDERATE ASSOCIATIONS AND KINDRED TOPICS. 



Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn., 
under act of March 3, 1S79. 

Acceptance of mailing at special rate of postage provided for In Sec- 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 191S. 

Published by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash- 
ville, Tenrk 




OFFICIALLT REPRE, :ENTS 1 
United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters ok the Confederacy, 

Sons of Veterans and Other Organizations, 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association. 



Thoug-h men deserve, they may not win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the les 



Price. (1.69 pas Ybab. I 
Sinoi-h Copt, 16 Cents. J 



Vol. XXX. 



NASHVILLE, TENN., JANUARY, 1922. 



No. 1. 



S. A. CUNNINGHAM, 

FOUNDffiR. 



HEROES. 

The old heroic days are gone, 

Their grandeur rust; their shrines a dream. 
But Hector and Leonidas — 

Through dusks of time, how bright they gleam! 

Ours is the glory they have known, 

The pride that lifts a star-crowned head. 

And ours, who fell as they have fallen 
Are one with such immortal dead. 

Still ring their deeds adown the years! 

Still glows the dust where they have bled. 

— Julia Powell. 



GREAT ANNIVERSARIES. 

The month of January is noted as the natal month of three 
great Confederates, two of them revered for their military 
achievements, the other for what he accomplished in science. 
And not alone in the South or the whole country are the 
names of Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, and Matthew 
Fontaine Maury honored and revered, for the world honors 
their transcendent genius, and the observance of these days 
that gave them to the world keeps their lives as examples to 
the generations coming after. 

In the great work of the United Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy are many things undertaken in tribute to the leaders 
and soldiers of the Confederate armies. Especially appro- 
priate to mention here is some of the new work recently in- 
augurated to honor General Lee, which will be a part of their 
efforts beginning in 1922 and which is doubtless the greatest 
undertaking of the organization so far. This is to make up 
a fund of §100,000 to be used for enlarging and making fire- 
proof the Lee Memorial Chapel at Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity, Lexington, Va. The growth of the university has 
brought the need of a larger chapel, and the many valuable 
pictures and other treasured mementoes of General Lee's 
association with the university demand a fireproof building. 
In this chapel is the wonderful recumbent statue of General 
Lee, and the work of the Daughters of the Confederacy will 
insure its preservation through the ages to come. 

Another beautiful tribute to General Lee would be the res- 



toration of the mansion at Arlington as it was in those days 
when it was the home of his happy family. A movement has 
been started in this direction, and when the permission of the 
government has been secured the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy will be ready to take charge of the work and 
carry it through to that successful completion which ever 
marks the efforts of that patriotic organization. 



THE OLDEST VETERANS, C. S. A. 

Virginia evidently leads in having the very oldest veterans 
of the Confederate Army, of which there are a good number, 
judging by the following list taken from the News Leader 
of Richmond, Va., of date December 6, 1921: "There is one 
veteran of the Confederacy on the pension rolls of Virginia 
who is 103 years old, another 101, while a third has celebrated 
his 100 birthday anniversaries, according to a list prepared by 
Pension Clerk Johnson, in the office of the State auditor. 

"The Nestor of those drawing pensions from the State for 
services during the Confederacy is Henry Hoover, of Keokee, 
Lee County, who has turned the round old age of 103. 

"Next, from a standpoint of longevity, stands Samuel 
Morris, of Profit, Albemarle County, aged 101. 

"The perfect centenarian, however, by which is meant one 
who is exactly 100 years of age, is Alexander Ingram, of Fer- 
rum, Franklin County, but he is being pushed closely, by 
Charles Drummond, of Barbours Creek, who is 98. 

"Thomas Umbarger, of Ceres, and J. B. Rolfe of Boydton, 
are each 97, while Abram Sink, of Sydnorsville, William 
Munsey, of Jonesville, Peter J. Hite, of Wilkie, and W. A. 
Murray, of Boones Mill, each is listed as 96 years old. 

"Hamilton Marshall, of the Meadows of Dan, in Carroll, 
and Andrew Cole, of Cole, Washington County, each is 
95 years of age. 

"There are eight veterans listed as 94 years of age, as fol- 
lows: G. W. White, of Mount Sidney, Hobson Hodges, of 
Rocky Mount, Joseph .Skeen, of Glen Lyn, Dr. George E. 
Plaster, of Bluemont, John Crawford, of Somerset, Manly 
Triplett, of Overall, D. E. Brewer, of Toms Creek, and Henry 
Gibson, of Big Stone Gap." 



Qorjfederat^ l/eterai). 



Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 

S. A. CUNNINGHAM, Founder. 
Office: Methodist Publishing House Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

All who approve the principles of this publication and realize its benefits as 
an organ for Associations throughout the South are requested to commend 
its patronage and to cooperate in extending its circulation. Let each one be 
constantly diligent. 



THE SPIRIT AND ABILITY. 

The feet at Beauvoir, which tremble now as they go out 
over the water on the fine new pier, are those under which 
the ground trembled at Malvern Hill and supported the grief 
of Appomattox. It is a moving picture, if one has imagina- 
tion to give it a setting of memory. The old commune with 
the sea and delight in its infinite variety. Day by day the 
old men walk the pier, back and forth. One can see their bent 
forms against the bending sky. None has greater respect and 
loving consideration for them than one whose name is cou- 
pled with every generosity shown them. They never have a 
want but that he claims the privilege of helping to satisfy it. 
He contributed enough to pay half the cost of the pier, and 
gold never paid for sweeter pleasure. The writer has never 
met the donor, but has heard the latter's brother say that the 
three brothers had decided that a part of all they made should 
go to some good purpose. Some people have the talent for 
making money — and it Is a talent — but few have the heart- 
genius to give it wisely and generously. Probably the gift of 
the pier and the many things which the gentle old warriors at 
Beauvoir have received the offer of ten thousand dollars 
toward building a hospital; the offer to lend money to carry 
the expenses of the home until "incoming" time; the delight- 
ful outing given to Magnolia's Boy Scouts when they come to 
the coast; the spending of a large sum of money in building a 
beautiful home on the coast near Beauvoir in response to the 
call to all men with means to spend it now so as to give work 
to men who need it and to stimulate business — probably these 
are outward manifestations of the Lampton spirit which said 
that something of their prosperity must go back in good. 
We envy no man save the ability to carry out noble resolu- 
tions, and we are sure that this envy will never belittle the 
unspoken admiration we silently entertain for W. M. Lamp- 
ton, of Magnolia and Beauvoir, Miss. — Biloxi Herald. 

This is a deserved tribute to one of the big-hearted men of the 
South, who seems to regard his fortune as a trust and to be 
shared with the less fortunate of his fellow men. The veterans 
of the Beauvoir Confederate Home are made happier by this 
thought and care, and his own life is brightened by the happi- 
ness he has given to them. Are there not others of our pros- 
perous people who will add something of brightness to the 
lives which are closing within the confines of these Confederate 
Homes in every State of the South? Far better to use your 
money while you can see the good it can accomplish than to 
risk its being put to a good use after you are gone. It would 
be interesting to know how many of our Confederate Homes 
have benefited in this way. Mr. Lampton also subscribes for 
twenty-five copies of the Veteran for the Home. 



The Cunningham Monument: — Some recent contributions 
to the Cunningham Memorial come from Mrs. J. Clay Wal- 
ker, Austin, Texas, S5. 00; Alex Allison, Memphis, Tenn., S5.00; 
P. H. Boisseau, Danville, Va., $5.00; J. E. Laverty, Howard 
Prater, E. P. Bujac, T. C. Home, Carlsbad, New Mexico, 
SI. 00 each; Egbert Jones Camp U. C. V., Huntsville, Ala., 
$2.50. 



MRS. LIVINGSTON ROWE SCHUYLER, PRESIDENT 
GENERAL U. D. C. 

Mrs. Leonora Rogers Schuyler has the distinction of being 
the first President General, United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, residing outside of the Southern States, but she is 
of Southern birth and ancestry. She was born in Ocala, 
Fla., the daughter of Col. St. George Rogers and Josephine 
Baynard, of South Carolina. Her father had a distinguished 
career, first in command of the troops which successfully ended 
the last Seminole War and later as colonel of the Second 
Florida Regiment, C. S. A. Having been severely wounded, 
he then served in the Confederate Congress, and after the war 
he practiced law in Florida. 

As a child Mrs. Schuyler lived in Savannah, Ga., returning 
later to Ocala. After her marriage to Rev. Dr. Livingston 
Rowe Schuyler, of New York, she lived for several years in 
England and France, and since returning to America her 
home has been in New York. There she became a member of 
the New York Chapter, V. D. C, later organizing the Mary 
Mildred Sullivan Chapter, and from this action soon resulted 
the formation of a Division in that State. Her first important 
work for the U. D. C. was the establishment at Columbia 
University of a prize for the best essay on "The South's Part 
in the War between the States," following which she secured 
from that university a scholarship open to the descendants of 
Confederate veterans. It is interesting to note that this was 
the beginning of the educational work of the U. D. C, a work 
which has to-day developed into one of the most important 
branches of its activities. 

Through Mrs. Schuyler's efforts the only portrait extant of 
Mrs. Jefferson Davis was secured for the Confederate Mu- 
seum, Richmond, Va. She was also largely instrumental in 
placing in Christ Church, Biloxi, Miss. — often called the 
Westminster Abbey of the Confederacy — a beautiful altar 
and reredos as a memorial to Mrs. Margaret Davis Hayes, the 
daughter of President Davis. She aided in raising the funds 
for the Arlington Monument, collecting in six weeks $2,500 
for that purpose; and lately she made possible the publication 
of the book on "The Women of the South in War Times," 
compiled by Matthew Page Andrews. Her interest in the 
L T . D. C, has been continuous; since 1903 she has never 
failed to attend the annual convention, and she has been 
prominent in many fields of endeavor, having served as a 
member of many committees and taken an active part in 
their deliberations. 

But Mrs. Schuyler's work has not been confined to the 
U. D. C. She was one of the founders of the New York 
Auxiliary of the Southern Industrial Educational Association 
— an organization which has raised large sums for education 
in the South — and she has been until the present time its 
secretary. As regent of Manhattan Chapter, D. A. R., vice 
president of the Washington Headquarters Association, vice 
president of the Hospital Musical Association, one of the 
Board of Managers of the Peabody Home, and member of 
the Colonial Dames of the State of New York, she has oc- 
cupied a prominent position in New York; and her devoted 
care for the interests of the New York Camp of Confederate 
veterans has been untiring. A clear and forceful speaker, 
her voice has been raised in behalf of every worthy cause 
which has appealed to her for assistance; while her tact and 
charming personality have made her a host of friends. 



Reunion Date. — The Reunion will be held in Richmond 
Va., June 20-22, 1922. 



Qopfederat^ l/eterag. 



THE CONFEDERATE MONUMENT AT MARIANNA, 
FLA. 

That there is still a Dixie was emphasized in real Southern 
style at the unveiling of the Confederate monument at Mari- 
anna, Fla., on November 2 — the same Dixie that an eloquent 
Southern editor and orator discribed as "Love's shadowland, 
peopled with the unfettered spirits of the noble and great, 
redolent of memories that do not die because they cluster 
about things immortal." Preparations of a State-wide scope 
forecast this occasion as a memorable one in Florida, as it 
commemorates one of the three battles fought on Florida soil 
in the War between the States, and which ranks in fierceness 
and self-sacrifice with the battle which saved the State 
capital itself. 

Immediately after her election as president of the Florida 
Division U. D. C, Mrs. Frank D. Tracy, of Pensacola, made 
the erection of this monument one of the activities of her term 
of office, and with the enthusiastic cooperation of the William 
Henry Milton Chapter, of Marianna, and the U. D. C. State 
Committee, -with Mrs. John H. Carter as chairman, interest 
was aroused in every Chapter of the State, and their efforts 
secured an appropriation of S5,000 by the State legislature 
to aid in the erection of the monument. 

In the unveiling ceremonies State dignitaries participated, 
the dedicatory address being made by Governor Hardee, 
Mrs. Tracy presenting the monument to the city, with ac- 
ceptance by the mayor. Misses Mary Bruce Milton and 
Floie Crigler, two of Marianna's lovely little maidens, drew 
the cords which unveiled the handsome shaft of Georgia 
granite, standing thirty-six feet high. Miss Milton is a 
granddaughter of Maj. William Henry Milton, for whom the 




THE MONUMENT AT MARIANNA. 



Chapter is named, and a great-granddaughter of Governor 
John Milton, war Governor of Florida, 1861-65. Miss Crigler 
is a granddaughter of J. O. Russ, who fought in the battle of 
Marianna, and a grandniece of Gen. William Miller, C. S. A., 
whose military science and unconquerable bravery saved the 
State capital by winning the battle of Natural Bridge. 

The unveiling ceremonies were preceded by a grand parade, 
composed of militia from the National Guard, Confederate 
Veterans, Sons of Veterans, Daughters of the Confederacy, 
the Children's Chapter, and loyal citizens generally, with 
Hon. J. D. Smith as Grand Marshal of the day. One of the 
interesting occurrences of the parade was the salute fired by 
the National Home Guards as the Episcopal Church was 
reached, the point where the culminating fierceness of the 
battle took place, and where so many of the old men and boys 
met their death, some of them being burned in the church, 
which was set on fire by the Northern troops. 

The Battle of Marianna, fought on September 27, 1864, 
stands out conspiciously as one where a home guard of old men 
and boys, numbering less than a hundred, met the enemy of 
nearly a thousand, comprised of a cavalry corps from Maine 
and a negro regiment from Louisiana, and sacrificed their 
lives — radiant hearts of youth and weary ones of age — side by 
side, to bullet and sword and flame, to save home and honor. 
Well does this inscription, chiseled in the enduring granite, 
perpetuate their bravery: "The heroism of those who died for 
home and honor is the priceless heritage of a loyal people." 

Marianna Day is observed by all the U. D. C. Chapters of 
Florida. 

MISSOURIANS KILLED IN MISSISSIPPI. 

W. A. Everman writes from Greenville, Miss.: 

"A few days ago I got to thinking about my old Confed- 
erate Missouri brigades and batteries and the deaths of mem- 
bers both by disease and in battles in the State of Missis- 
sippi. All at once it occurred to me that our losses were proba- 
bly greater in this State than of troops from any other State. 
Then I decided to write to the Missouri Historical Society of 
St. Louis for data. I got from there a list of officers who were 
killed and died in Mississippi, which is as follows: 

" Major Generals. — Henry Little, John S. Bowen. 

"Brigadier Generals. — Martin Green. 

"Colonels. — Lucius L. Rich, Martin Burke, F. L. Hubble, 
James A. Pritchard, Eugene Irwin, Pembroke Sentiney, Wil- 
liam Wade. 

"Majors. — Archibald Macfarlane, Charles L. Edmondson. 

" Captains. — W. C. P. Carrington. 

"Lieutenants. — Samuel Farrington, Thomas T. Tunstall, 
Samuel Howarth. 

"All of these were killed or died from wounds except Gen- 
eral Bowen, who died at Raymond after the surrender at 
Vicksburg. In all there were sixteen commissioned officers. 
I am absolutely sure there were others killed, but I cannot 
recall their names. Just think what a fearful loss from two 
little brigades with five batteries! 

"I have written Captain Boyce, who furnished the list of 
deaths as above, to try to aid me in counting the deaths 
among the private soldiers, but I fear I have begun the work 
too late. Had I started twenty years ago, I might have had 
better success. 

''Please ask in the next number of the Veteran that all sur- 
vivors of the Missouri commands or their descendants to send 
me a list of their comrades or kinfolk who died or were killed in 
Mississippi. My purpose is, if I can approximate the number, 
to put up a memorial here in Greenville to their memory." 



(^opfederat? t/eterai^ 



AT PERRYVILLE. 

[Written by Thomas B. Ford in commemoration of the bat- 
tle of Perryville, Ky., fought October 8, 1862. The recent anni- 
versary of the battle was celebrated with a joint reunion of 
veterans of both sides on that battle field.] 

Comrades, let us lift the veil 

Once more from that stormy day 
When we in the morning pale 

Heard the warning bugles play; 
When the startling reveille 

Echoed far o'er vale and hill, 
And awakening you and me 

Death to face at Perryville; 

When the dim October skies 

Wanly smiled upon the fight, 
Till we watched the sad moon rise 

O'er the slain, when fell the night; 
And the mourning heavens wept, 

And the winds blew drear and chill, 
O'er the blue and gray who slept 

Their last sleep at Perryville. 

O, it was a stormy fray, 

Rife with steel and lead and flame, 
From the early morning gray 

Till the twilight shadows came; 
For our foes were truly brave — 

Fellows whom we owe no ill — 
Who such proof of courage gave 

On the field at Perryville. 

Comrades, it is truly meet 

We recall that time once more, 
When we braved the leaden sleet 

And the cannon's fearful roar; 
While the drum and screaming fife 

Filled our hearts with strength and will. 
As we offered each a life. 

On that day at Perryville. 

All our flags are folded now, 

Swords once bright, now thick with rust, 
Laurels faded on the brow, 

Wreathes of glory in the dust; 
But the few who yet remain, 

From the broken columns still, 
Often we recall again 

That dread day at Perryville. 

Comrades, when the last tattoo 

Calls the tired band to rest, 
And the scattered gray and blue 

Their last pillows will have pressed — 
Surely never braver throng, 

Soldiers' graves will ever fill, 
Than the veterans who belong 

To the roll at Perryville. 

— Thomas B. Ford. 

[The battle of Perryville has never occupied the conspicuous 
position in history which it so richly deserves. General 
Bragg, in his official report, in speaking of it says it was the 
hottest and fiercest fight with which he was ever connected, 
considering the length of time employed in the contest. The 



preceding lines will recall vividly to the surviving veterans 
that memorable struggle, in which so many Kentuckians were 
engaged. — Exchange.] 

CAPTAIN SPILLER. 

BY T. B. LARIMORE, NASHVILLE, TENN. 

Capt. C. C. Spiller was my captain when I wore the Con- 
federate gray in the sanguinary sixties. He was a man of 
deeds, not of words; but I remember some of the things I 
heard him say sixty years ago. He took me to Confederate 
headquarters at Chattanooga, in 1863 I think it was, and 
said: "This boy has been, to my certain knowledge, where a 
crow could not have escaped." 

At the beginning of the war he was captain of a steamboat, 
his home being six miles below Bridgeport, Ala., near the 
right bank of the Tennessee River. 

Commissioned by the Confederacy to raise a company of 
cavalry, he sent officers and a competent horse trader into 
Sequatchie Valley to enlist men to recruit his company and 
to buy horses to mount his men, the nucleus of his company 
consisting of officers and men subject to his command as 
river or steamboat captain. 

That was early in sixty-one, but even then the spirit of 
war filled the valley as waters fill the sea. An infantry com- 
pany had been formed in Dunlap, the county seat of Se- 
quatchie County, and I was its hopeful, happy color bearer. 
That company had not been mustered into service, however; 
and, fearing the war would be over before I got there, I has- 
tened away to Chattanooga and joined Captain Spiller's 
company. 

As one of Spiller's scouts I made my military record — a 
record of which I have never been disposed to boast or be 
ashamed. This gave me a rare opportunity to know the man 
of whom I write. It is not meet that I should laud him over- 
much; but, suffice it to say, he was no ordinary man. 

He was brave, but cautious and prudent, and always took 
the best possible care of his men. It was not possible, how- 
ever, for him to keep them constantly out of danger, as every 
sensible soldier knows; but when it was necessary for him to 
send one or more of his men into a perilous place from which 
escape seemed almost impossible, he did it with fatherly re- 
luctance and regret. 

I remember well a time when the salvation and safety of 
his command depended on his knowing whether the enemy 
occupied a certain place which, though little more than a 
mile distant, could not be seen from where we were. The 
desired, the essential information could not be obtained 
except by his drawing the enemy's fire or at least endeavor- 
ing to do so. That made it necessary for him to send one or 
more of his soldiers into such peril that to select one for that 
service seemed like sentencing him to be shot. He was un- 
willing to do that; hence he called for volunteers to thus run 
the risk of giving their lives to save the rest. Two boys vol- 
unteered to go. They went. They drew the fire of the enemy. 
Minie balls filled the air around them with music such as only 
soldiers can understand. 

Having fulfilled their mission, they beat a hasty retreat, 
rejoined their command, all were saved and were safe for the 
time; and our brave captain was perfectly satisfied. Bill 
Whittle was one of those two boys, and the other would be 
glad to hear from him and delighted to meet him again. He 
would likewise be delighted to meet or hear from any other 
member or members of Captain Spiller's Confederate com- 
pany. 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai>. 



7 



I visited Captain Spiller's old home and his grave near by 
a few weeks ago. He and his wife lived and died childless, 
and their graves, side by side, are still unmarked — not even a 
stone, a slab, or a board to tell whose dust is sleeping there. 
So shall it be, it may be, with the dust of you and of me. " O, 
why should the spirit of mortal be proud?" 

It is doubtful whether any man in the Confederate army 
did more for the Confederate cause during the first year of 
the war than Captain Spiller. 

When Zollicoffer was killed and his army defeated at Fish- 
ing Creek, Logan's Crossroads, Ky., January 19, 1862, Cap- 
tain Spiller had the steamer, the Noble Ellis, at the proper 
place to save the wreck by transporting men and munitions 
across the Cumberland from Beech Grove, Zollicoffer's last 
camp, to Mill Springs, on the left bank of the river, where our 
retreat ended and our march to Shiloh began. Thus he saved 
all that was saved of Zollicoffer's army. Let us never forget 
that. 

Our Captain detailed Bill Whittle and me to go as members 
of General Carroll's escort, under a flag of truce, after the 
body of our fallen chieftain, and Bill carried the flag — a flag 
that was finally destroyed in a disastrous fire. 

Captain Spiller's company picketed the right flank of Gen. 
Albert Sydney Johnston's army at and previous to the battle 
of Shiloh and furnished him with his first information of the 
approach of Federal gunboats at Pittsburg Landing prepara- 
tory to that terrible Sunday slaughter. I know that, for I 
wrote the dispatch and remember well how those two gun- 
boats and three transports looked as they silently slipped up 
the river. 

I went with Captain Spiller into the war, was with him in 
the war, and with him as friend with friend after his return 
from the war. I knew him as citizen, as soldier, as friend; and 
I know neither his name nor his record should be consigned 
to oblivion. 

THE BATTLE ABBEY OF THE SOUTH. 

REPORT OF GEN. JULIAN S. CARR, AT REUNION (u. C. V.), AT 
CHATTANOOGA, OCTOBER, 1921. 

As president of the Board of Trustees of the Confederate 
Memorial Institute, it is my pleasure and privilege to an- 
nounce to you and our comrades assembled in convention at 
Chattanooga, Tenn., the completion in all respects of the 
Confederate Memorial Institute, commonly known as the 
"Battle Abbey," located at Richmond, Va. 

Whilst there have been many delays in this great work 
since it was first projected twenty-five years ago by our gen- 
erous and patriotic comrade, the late Charles Broadway 
Rouss, of Winchester, Va., a gallant private of the Army of 
Northern Virginia, yet these causes of delay have been un- 
avoidable, and the reasons for them have been fully set forth 
in a sketch entitled "The Origin and Erection of the Confed- 
erate Memorial Institute," prepared by Hon. George L. 
Christian, vice president, and for nearly twenty years, the 
treasurer and a trustee of the Confederate Memorial Institute 
Corporation. This pamphlet, which I refer to and desire 
shall be read as a part of this report, is a complete history of 
the origin and erection of this noble memorial, and can be 
obtained from the custodian of the Institute at Richmond, 
Va., at the small cost of twenty-five cents per copy. I 
suggest that all who are interested in the history of this 
building and of its contents will be fully repaid by a perusal 
of this pamphlet. 

This memorial building was finally completed and opened 
to the public on October 5, 1921. The ceremonies incident to 



this opening were simple, but appropriate in all respects. 
These ceremonies took place in the hall of the annex, in which 
hang at least one hundred and fifty portraits of noted Con- 
federate soldiers and civilians, and consisted of introductory 
remarks made by the Hon. John Lamb, superintendent, 
followed by addresses made by Rev. H. M. Wharton, a native 
of Virginia, but now a resident of Baltimore, Md., and a 
member of your Board of Trustees, and your president. 
Two rooms of the memorial building had been previously 
thrown open to the public; one of these rooms containing the 
Hoffbaur paintings and the other what are known as the 
Payne paintings. These rooms were opened to the public 
May 3, 1921, when a very fine and appropriate address was 
delivered by Hon. H. Snowden Marshall, formerly of Balti- 
more, but now a member of the New York bar, and a son of 
the late Col. Charles Marshall of General Lee's staff. 

During the short period since the first opening of the build- 
ing to the public, it may be safely asserted that between six 
and seven thousand people have visited these grounds and 
buildings, and the universal verdict of each and all of these, 
as far as we have heard, is that this memorial is beautiful in 
all respects and a lasting and fitting tribute to the Confederate 
cause and its gallant and glorious defenders. Miss Hilde- 
garde Hawthorne, a daughter of the author of "The Scarlet 
Letter," has within the last few years visited most if not all 
of the principal cities of this country and Europe. She has 
quite recently published a book entitled "Rambles in Old 
College Towns," and she says that of all the cities she has 
visited only two have the real charm to make them attractive — 
namely: Paris, France, and Richmond, Va. This is a Northern 
lady, and it may be, therefore, safely asserted that her ad- 
miration was not engendered by feelings of local or patriotic 
sentiments. Richmond is the Mecca of the South, and whilst 
it has produced many noted men and women and has in it 
numerous historic and noted places, yet I think it can be 
said that our Confederate Memorial Institute, known as the 
"Battle Abbey," and the Confederate Memorial Literary 
Society, located in the White House of the Confederacy, are 
universally deemed the most charming and in all respects the 
most noted and attractive places in Richmond. The "Battle 
Abbey," as stated in Judge Christian's pamphlet, is located on 
the principal and most popular drive in the city and in the 
very center of its growth and progress. It consists of six and 
one-third acres of ground, beautifully laid out and adorned 
with trees, plants, and shrubbery, and has in it "a court of 
honor" designed to have statues of the distinguished soldiers 
and sailors of the several Southern States. These statues, to 
quote from Judge Christian's pamphlet, will be "in sight of 
beautiful Monument Avenue, on which has already been 
erected monuments to President Davis, Generals Lee, 
Stonewall Jackson, and J. E. B. Stuart, and in easy reach of 
the monuments to the private soldiers and sailors of the 
Confederacy, Generals A. P. Hill, Wickham, and William 
Smith; those of Joseph Bryan, Dr. Hunter McGuire, and the 
Howitzer monument, and the splendid group with Washing- 
ton at their head, surrounded by Henry, Jefferson, Marshall, 
Nelson, and Lewis, the heroes and statesmen of the Revolu- 
tion; and another statue of Stonewall Jackson, contributed by 
Englishmen in testimony of their admiration for his genius, 
character, and achievements. All of these monuments adorn 
the streets and parks of the late capital of the Confederacy, 
and it is our earnest desire that statues of the heroes and 
statesmen of the States of the Confederacy shall also adorn 
the park in which is located our finest and best memorial, 
situated in the city which was the capital and citadel of our 
storm-cradled and beloved Confederacy." In Judge Chris- 



8 



Qotyfederat^ l/eterap. 



tian's pamphlet he also makes this appeal, in which I most 
cordially unite. He says: "Our appeal is then to each and 
every one of the States comprising the Confederacy, that they 
will appropriate at least the sum of S10, 000 to secure statues of 
their most distinguished sons, and to create an endowment 
fund for this memorial, and in doing this render lasting, 
although tardy, justice to the men and women of the South 
who did and dared so much in defense of the cause which 
President Davis defines to be the 'rights of our sires won in the 
War of the Revolution, the State sovereignty, freedom and 
independence bequeathed by them to us, their and our 
children forever'; and of whose deeds a distinguished son of 
Massachusetts has already written: 'Such splendid character 
and achievements were not all in vain, for although the Con- 
federacy fell as an actual, physical power, it still lives eternal- 
ly in its just cause, the cause of constitutional liberty.'" 

It is not improper to add that the Virginia Division of the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy has recently met in 
Richmond, and, of course, the members were invited to visit 
this memorial, and each and every one of them was perfectly- 
charmed with the building and its contents. 

I also wish to add that the members of the Executive Com- 
mittee residing in Richmond — namely, Hon. George L. 
Christian, John Lamb, and Mr. Alvin H. Smith — and the 
members of the Board of Lady Managers, all of whom reside 
in Richmond, have, without exception, been most earnest 
and efficient in carrying on and completing the work of this 
memorial, and all of these have contributed their time and 
labors without any compensation or hope of reward except 
that which comes to t+iose engaged in real labors of love. 

Judge John Barton Payne has been most generous in contrib- 
uting to the adornment and furnishing of the room in which the 
paintings given by him to the State of Virginia are located, 
and two members of the Board of Lady Managers, whose 
names are withheld at their request, have also, at their own 
expense, furnished the beautiful benches which adorn the 
room in which are the Hoffbaur paintings. Lee Camp has 
contributed the furnishings and the artistic arrangement on 
the walls of the annex of its splendid collection of portraits of 
some of the heroes and statesmen of the Confederacy. I think 
it can be asserted, without any fear of contradiction, that this 
contribution from Lee Camp will make the room in which 
these portraits are hung the most attractive of all places, not 
only to Confederate sympathizers and their descendants, but 
one that is unique in all respects, and probably the only 
portrait gallery of Confederates in the world. I cannot 
exaggerate the debt of gratitude we owe to Lee Camp for its 
contributions to this memorial building. 

The report of the treasurer will show the expenditures 
incurred in building and furnishing the annex and the present 
financial condition of the Association. 



THE SOUTHERN PROTEUS. 

BY CHARLES FENNELL, LEXINGTON, KY. 

Part II. 

A few minutes past six o'clock in the afternoon a tall black- 
haired man entered the lobby of the Newell House in Wash- 
ington and sauntered up to the desk. "Is there any mail for 
me, Dick? " he asked genially of the clerk. 

" No, sir, Mr. Rogers. There is not a thing for you to- 
night. Are you looking out for any mail just now?" 

Rogers looked at the clerk understandingly. The words 
"are you looking out?" though spoken in an indifferent tone, 
meant to him: "Be careful, you are being watched." He 



realized that it would mean sure death to himself and maybe 
to another for him to be caught at that time, as he had in an 
inner pocket a map of the defenses of the Army of the Po- 
tomac, together with a statement of the strength of that 
force, and a copy of the President's dispatch to McCIellan 
advising certain movements of his forces and those of General 
Banks, all of which Rogers had just received from Porter, 
who owned the other endangered neck. Porter was in the 
confidence of the government, and these papers were in his 
handwriting. It was intended that Rogers should give them 
to Omahundry, who in turn would give them to an agent who 
had come from Richmond for them and would carry them 
direct to General Lee. 

"Take the chair at your back, Mr. Rogers," invited the 
clerk cordially. 

Rogers turned and looked at the chair indicated by the 
clerk and also gave a searching look at an unknown man who 
sat near, apparently engrossed in his paper. This man was 
the only person in the lobby whom Rogers did not know, and 
he of course instantly inferred that he was the person watch- 
ing him. After noting this, he turned coolly to the clerk. " I 
don't think I care to sit down at present, thank you, " he said. 
" When can I have supper? " 

"Whenever you like. The dining room is open now." 

Rogers strolled into the dining room and took a seat at a 
remote table near the kitchen entrance. Presently a waiter 
came and bent over him with a bill of fare. 

"Who is the man watching me to-night?" he asked in a | 
low tone, glancing meantime at the bill of fare as though giv- 
ing his order. 

"A new man from the West," answered the waiter in the 
same tone. "Ormonde is his name. They are watching the 
hotel like hawks. We haven't had a chance to warn you. " 

" I expect it will be a pretty tight squeeze. I wish to God 
that Omanhundry was here. Isn't there any way I can slip 
out, McCarty?" 

" None at all. They have the place completely sealed in 
by secret service men and guards. They are at every pos- 
sible exit. There is one over there now looking at us. I will 
be back in a moment." 

Rogers felt very uncomfortable over what McCarty had 
told him. It was the duty of his associates to have learned 
that he was suspected and give him warning. But some cog 
had slipped in the intricate system, and he had walked into a 
deadly trap unaware of his danger. 

"This Ormonde must be a shrewd fellow to lay such a trap 
for me and then prevent any one from warning me," he re- 
flected. 

He glanced casually around the room and noticed the secret 
service man to whom McCarty had referred. "I have noth- 
ing to fear from him, " he surmised shrewdly. " He's too busy 
posing to do anything. Ormonde is the brain I must outwit. " 

In about ten minutes McCarty brought Rogers his supper. 
He wiped each dish deliberately with a long towel before set- 
ting it down upon the snowy linen. 

"There is something very mysterious going on out there 
in the lobby," he confided in a low tone. "After you came 
in here a gentleman wearing the uniform of a Yankee colonel 
entered the lobby and, going over to Ormonde, engaged in an 
earnest conversation with him. We couldn't hear anything 
they said, but from the way in which they shook hands and cer- 
tain covert signs they made to each other we at once di- 
vined that he was not a colonel at all, but was himself a mem- 
ber of the secret service and probably superior in rank to 
Ormonde. " 



Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 



"If they know so much about me," muttered Rogers, 
"they must have Porter in their clutches too. " 

"Here they come now," said McCarty hurriedly. 

Rogers observed Ormonde and the colonel closely as they 
entered the room and took their seats. They commanded a 
good view from where they sat of the entire room, and espe- 
cially of the table at which Rogers was sitting. 

As McCarty came by again on his way to the kitchen he 
stopped and took the bread plate from Rogers's table. 
"Don't try to leave the dining room. It will merely precipi- 
tate your arrest. We have word from Porter. He is safe and 
suspected. He is unable to find Omahundry and fears that 
he has been arrested. If we can only get rid of those papers 
you have before they arrest you, everything will be all right. " 

Rack his brain as he might, Rogers could think of no way 
by which he might rid himself of the papers without detection 
by some of the eager eyes that he felt to be watching his every 
move. Any attempt he might make to transfer them would 
only implicate the faithful McCarty and be the cause of his 
death. 

"No," thought Rogers grimly, "there's been a fatal slip 
somewhere, and I am in for a mess of it. Omahundry must 
have been misled somehow. I wish he were here to help me. 
He might think of some way out." His hand fondled a dag- 
ger under his coat. "Anyway, I'll try to give that Ormonde 
what's coming to him before I cash in. " 




MRS. E. L. CARNEY, OCALA, FLA. 

Matron of Honor, Florida Division U. C. V. and Chaperon on Sponsoria 
Staff of the Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia Department, U. 
C. V. Mrs. Carney is a daughter of Dr. A. J. Wilson, of Virginia and Ken- 
tucky, a Brigade Surgeon during the War between the States. 



He ate along in leisurely silence, hoping against hope that 
something would turn up to relieve the awful strain upon 
him. One by one the guests finished their suppers and left 
the dining room until at length Rogers, the colonel, and the 
two secret service men were the sole occupants of the room. 

" It'll have to happen soon, " thought Rogers grimly. 

McCarty came over and replenished his glass with water. 
"They are ready now," he informed Rogers. "Their men 
are in the kitchen. They allow no one to come in from the 
lobby. We'll try to take you away from them after they 
leave the hotel. They've got too many soldiers for us to try 
it here." 

" I'm not going to leave the hotel alive, " declared Rogers. 

"They are coming," whispered McCarty with a nervous 
glance toward the door of the kitchen. 

Two men stood in the doorway facing Rogers. Each of 
them carried a revolver. As they advanced toward him, 
Rogers leaped to his feet and reached hastily for his dirk, 
determined to fight it out to a finish. It afforded him more 
chance than a court-martial, anyway. 

Before he could draw the weapon, however, his arms were 
seized from behind and pinned to his back by Ormonde, 
who had rushed up from behind unobserved when he had 
leaped to his feet to face the men in the door. 

" Put the handcuffs on him, " curtly commanded Ormonde. 

This was done, and Ormonde then led Rogers to the colonel, 
who had remained seated during the scuffle, an unperturbed 
spectator of the entire scene. 

"What shall we do with him now, sir?" Ormonde asked 
deferentially of the colonel. 

"You are sure that no one has left the hotel to pass the 
word to his confederates on the outside to try to take him 
from us when we leave? " asked the colonel. 

"Of course, sir," replied Ormonde haughtily, "I took par- 
ticular care of that from the first. I have handled such situa- 
tions before. " 

" I can see from your shrewd way of handling this case that 
you have had experience," complimented the colonel. "But 
we must now get this man out of here without exciting any 
comment. " 

" What do you suggest? " asked Ormonde. 

The colonel thought gravely a few minutes. "I have it," 
he explained. "I am in uniform. We will pretend that I 
recognized the man as a deserter from my regiment and put 
him under arrest. I will then lead him out through the lobby 
and put him in a cab I have waiting outside and drive him 
over to headquarters. This will excite no notice or comment 
on the streets. In the meantime you will continue to guard 
all the exits and see that no one leaves the hotel in time to 
gather a gang and intercept me. " 

Ormonde was plainly put out at this proposal. "He is my 
captive, sir. I planned the entire affair from start to finish, 
and, with all due respect to you, I think I should be the one 
to take him to headquarters and get the credit for it. " 

The colonel smiled conciliatingly. "You needn't be afraid 
of my taking any of the credit from you, Ormonde," he re- 
plied. "I will be the first to acknowledge that you deserve 
all of the credit for this important capture. The Chief al- 
ready has his eye on you, and any promotion that may come 
to any one from this little coup you will be sure to receive. 
You can depend on that. But under the circumstances I 
think it will be the most feasible thing for me to take him to 
the Chief as I suggested. You can come a few minutes later. 
That will be practically the same as if you brought him your- 
self, and it will eliminate all risk." 



10 



^oijfederat^ l/eterai). 



"I am inclined to think that you are right about that, 
sir," admitted Ormonde, whose opposition vanished on the 
assurance that he would receive his full share of the credit for 
the capture. "Anyway, you are in charge, and there is noth- 
ing for me to do but to acquiesce. I will meet you, then, at 
the Chief's office. " 

" Very well, " said the colonel as he led Rogers away. They 
passed through the lobby and out into the street. A soldier 
assisted them into their cab, and they drove leisurely up the 
street. When about six blocks from the hotel the colonel 
leaned over and unlocked the handcuffs on Rogers's wrists. 

"Thank God, this job is finished!" he said fervently. "I 
had to sweat blood and lie in seven different dialects to save 
your neck this time." 

As the colonel spoke Rogers started in violent surprise. 
Then a big, satisfied grin spread over his face. "Well, I'll be 
doggoned, Omahundry!" he exclaimed affectionately. 



HOW THE CONFEDERACY ARMED ITS SOLDIERS. 

[How the Southern Confederacy developed a great in- 
dustry in the manufacture of firearms and munitions while 
handicapped by the demands of active warfare is brought 
out in this article from the Springfield (Mass.) Republican, 
published while the World War was raging. The wonderful 
accomplishment of establishing a government, organizing, 
and equipping an army with weapons of its own manufacture 
— all this o'n practically nothing — has never been equalled to 
this day. It was the spirit of self-determination that put it 
through — and that was the spirit which fought the World 
War.] 

Deprived of 90 per cent of her iron ore, 80 per cent of her 
iron and steel manufacturing plants, and 50 per cent of her 
coal resources, France, besides keeping her own army of 
millions fully equipped, has, nevertheless, sent 600,000 rifles, 
300,000,000 cartridges, hundreds of field pieces, and millions 
of projectiles to Russia, and contributed in general to her 
allies nearly 25 per cent of the total amount of munitions 
used. Such an achievement of industrial organization has 
never been duplicated. The industrial organization of the 
Great War has never been duplicated. Yet the Southern 
Confederacy, which was never " deprived" of its iron and 
steel industries because it had never had any, without 
twentieth century industrial organziation, shut off from the 
commerce of the world by a hostile blackade, armed itself 
largely by its own labor for a four-years' struggle with what 
was in 1864 and 1865 the greatest military power in the world. 

"We began in April, 1861," wrote Gen. Josiah Gorgas, chief 
of ordnance of the Confederate army, in a monograph to 
President Jefferson Davis, "without arsenal or laboratory, 
or powder mill of any capacity, and with no foundry or rolling 
mill except in Richmond; and before the close of 1S63, or 
within a little over two years we supplied them. During the 
harassments of the war, while holding our own in the field 
defiantly and successfully against a powerful enemy, crippled 
by a depreciated currency; throttled by a blockade that 
deprived us of nearly all the means of getting material or 
workmen; obliged to send every able-bodied man to the field; 
unable to use slave labor, with which we were abundantly 
supplied, except in the most unskilled departments of pro- 
duction; hampered by want of transportation of even the 
commonest supplies of food; with no stock on hand even of 
such articles as copper, leather, iron, which we must have to 
build up our establishments — against all these obstacles, in 
spite of all these deficiencies, we persevered at home as deter- 



minedly as our troops did in the field against a more tangibl 
opposition; and in that short period created almost literally 
out of the ground foundries and rolling mills at Selma, 
Richmond, Atlanta, and Macon; smelting works at Peters- 
burg; chemical works at Charlotte, N. C; a powder mill far 
superior to any in the United States and unsurpassed by any 
across the ocean; and a chain of arsenals, armories, and labo- 
ratories equal in their capacity and improved appointments 
to the best of those in the United States, and stretching link 
by link from Virginia to Alabama"' 

In spite of the proof-supported charge that Gen. John 
Floyd of Virginia had utilized his position as war secretary in 
Buchanan's cabinet to secure the removal of arms and am 
munition to the Southern arsenals against the day of rebellion, 
the outbreak of hostilities found the South woefully unprepar- 
ed. There were six arsenals within the limits of the seceding 
States, not counting Harper's Ferry, Va., destroyed by the 
regular army soldiers before evacuation, namely — a State ar- 
senal at Richmond and government institutions at Fayette- 
ville, N. C, Charleston, Augusta, Ga., Mount Vernon, Ala., 
and Baton Rouge, La. None of these was a manufacturing 
plant. They were storehouses, that was all, and despite 
Floyd's services to his unborn government not any too 
heavily stocked. Altogether, according to Jefferson Davis's 
"The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government," these 
half a dozen contained just 15,000 rifles and 120,000 muskets, 
the latter mostly of out-of-date pattern. 

Confronted by this situation, the new government began 
with an impressive innocence, by attempting to supply 
deficiencies by purchase in the North. Capt. Raphael 
Semmes, of Alabama, afterwards to command the famous 
commerce raider of that name, went into the Union States 
with a commission to buy all that the munition makers could 
supply. There was no trouble about signing the contracts. 
According to President Davis, Semmes "would have been 
quite successful if it had not been for the intervention of 
civil authorities preventing delivery." Major Huse, of Ala- 
bama, at the same time went to England, but found the supply 
of arms on hand low and the difficulties of blockade running 
great. His contributions to the Southern cause, while con- 
siderable, did not equal what was accomplished through home 
production. 

"The appalling contemplation of the inauguration of a 
great war," wrote President Davis, "without powder or a 
navy to secure its importation from abroad, was soon re- 
lieved by the extraordinary efforts of the ordnance depart- 
ment and the directing skill of Gen. G. W. Rains." This 
Gen. George Washington Rains, a North Carolinian, who had 
been professor of chemistry at West Point, left a prosperous 
engineering business in New York in 1861 to enter the service 
of his native State. He was almost at once put in charge of 
the proposed powder factory at Augusta, Ga. That meant he 
had to build the factory, and he did. Meanwhile, he set 
parties at work exploring the caves of the Tennessee and 
Virginia mountains for saltpeter. Others too weak to fight 
searched old cellars and old tobacco barns for niter, and still 
others started immense niter beds in Columbia and Charles- 
ton, S. C, Savannah, Augusta, and Mobile. By 1862 a salt- 
peter refinery was running at Nashville. All the material 
obtained in this way was sent to Augusta, where, under Gen. 
Rains's direction, the powder mill became the most famous 
example of Southern industrial efficiency. 

Meanwhile the weapon industry had suddenly leaped into 
life. The Southerners were a "gun-toting" race, so that there 
were enough firearms for the first round of the struggle at 
Bull Run. But the time of need was coming, and preparation 






Qogfederat^ l/eterap. 



11 



was made in advance. When the Union soldiers evacuated 
Harper's Ferry, leaving the flames still burning, civilians, 
under the lead of Chief Armorer Armistead Ball, rushed into 
the ruins and saved a large part of the machinery. The rest 
of the Southern arsenals had hardly a machine above the 
complexity of the foot lathe. But before the end of 1861, the 
Harper's Ferry machines, set up in Richmond and in Fay- 
etteville, were turning out thousands of rifles, rifle-muskets, 
rifles with sword bayonets, and firearms of every description. 

Steam was put in at the Charleston arsenal. The Mount 
Vernon institution was moved to Selma, nearer the district 
where the hardest cast iron in America was being turned into 
gun bores. Ancient field pieces of 1812 were replaced by new 
cannon from the Tredegar iron works in Richmond. By 
January, 1862, 1,500 seacoast pieces of various caliber fronted 
the ocean between the mouth of the Potomac and the Rio 
Grande. The South had no skilled laborers to speak of, but 
a handful of men like Ball, who followed the "cause," worked 
themselves half to death — Ball did die of overwork — training 
the hundreds who were willing. 

Lead at the rate of nearly 80,000 pounds a month came in 
from the mines near Wytheville, Va., to be smelted in the 
new government plant at Petersburg. Battle fields were 
combed for gunstocks, bores, and bullets, with excellent 
results. Buildings were erected for a general government 
armory at Macon, Ga., and machinery, run in through the 
blockade from Bermuda, was actually installed before the 
collapse came. The Confederacy fell not so much because it 
had not been able to make arms, as because all the places 
where the arms were made fell before the Union armies. 



A MARYLAND PRINCESS. 

BY MISS BLANXHE TAYLOR, WESTMINSTER, MD. 

Every man loves adventure, every woman romance, every 
child a fairy tale. My story is a combination of the three — 
an adventure, a romance, a fairy'tale. It begins with a very 
bad boy, named Jerome Bonaparte, who lived in France, and 
whose brother was then First Consul. 

Presented in the Dumas style, Jerome was a spoiled, noisy, 
troublesome boy whose escapades are told in the delicate 
paraphrases to which the French language lends itself so 
blandly that a foreigner might imagine the chief end for which 
it was created was to color and soften ugly facts with its 
delicately tinted epithets. Endowed with an agreeable, 
elegant, and admirable appearance, full of impetuosity, 
Jerome, at fifteen, was the spoiled brother of the First Consul, 
whose paternal watchfulness was defeated more than once by 
the inconsiderate acts of this ardent and decided nature. 

The "ardent and decided nature" exhibited itself in the 
ways by which prodigal sons have distinguished themselves 
from time immemorial, an unlimited faculty for spending 
money, getting into debt and disgrace, varied in Jerome's 
case by an occasional duel, the folly of which was only to be 
equalled by its ferocity. 

As a result Jerome was sent to join the French fleet, ready 
at that time to sail under Admiral Gatleaume. Jerome was 
on board the Indivisible. For sometime the fleet sailed up and 
down the Mediterranean without doing anything particular, 
except allowing some of their vessels to be captured. Finally, 
however, Jerome saw his first battle and was rewarded by 
being sent home on board the prize Swiftsure, an English 
vessel captured and brought home in pomp; and on his arrival 
he received commendation and the commission of an aspirant 
of the first class. 

Once again his "ardent and decided" nature got him in 



trouble, and he went to sea again. This^ime it was an expedi- 
tion to St. Domingo. Allowed to go back to Paris with dis- 
patches, he got into all the mischief possible during the month 
he remained at Paris. Napoleon sent him to sea again at the 
end of a month, but Jerome contrived to remain at Nantes 
for some time, and when he did embark a storm drove him 
back to port. The difficulty of getting Jerome afloat was like 
that of launching the Great Eastern. 

At length he sailed, and arrived at Martinique, where he 
became the torment of his admiral's life. He was recalled to 
France, and when eventually he did sail, he had scarcely 
left the shore when he seriously insulted an English man-of- 
war out of pure insolence and heedlessness. Alarmed, Jerome 
returned to Martinique, where his admiral, at his wits' end and 
anxious to be quit of him at any rate, yet fearful of his being 
made a prisoner, gave him permission to go to America. 
Jerome asked nothing better, and to America he came. 

The point at which Jerome landed in the "Etats Unis" 
was Norfolk, in Virginia, and he was accompanied by three 
companions whom he called "his suite." It is needless to say 
that Jerome had hardly set foot in the American territory 
than he began to give himself the privileges, manners, and 
airs of a prince, tempered only by the incognito which he at 
first assumed. As to his opi-nions and his conduct, he set them 
resolutely above all remonstrances and censure from any 
quarter whatever. 

He repaired to Washington and told the French consul that 
he must find the means to convey him and suite to France 
immediately. The poor French consul, Pichon by name, with 
a vivid prevision of all the difficulties about to encompass 
him, made a great effort to get Jerome off before his presence 
became known. 

But Cupid and fate together, by aid of British ships, con- 
trived to keep him in America. 

"Les Etats Unis" were enchanted to find that such a 
celebrity had come to visit them, and hastened to offer the 
homage that was dear to Jerome's heart. When it was 
discovered that he was in Baltimore, all Baltimore was in a 
state of excitement; all the pomps and vanities that money and 
enthusiasm could procure were lavished on Jerome, and he 
enjoyed his position. He was, for the first time in his life, 
his own master, and he was in no haste to return to France. 
He gave himself up to all the gayeties of the season. His 
only necessity being money, but as all Baltimore only asked 
for the honor of giving him unlimited credit, it may be con- 
ceived "how happily the days of Thalaba went by." 

Among the belles of Baltimore a certain Miss Patterson 
reigned supreme. She was extremely beautiful, as all con- 
temporary testimony declared; she was agreeable, witty, 
clever, and ambitious; in short "Miss Betsy Patterson," as 
the biographers call her, was fully aware of her own charms, 
and determined to draw a good result from them. She loved 
admiration, and she desired to obtain a position of distinction. 
Her character was not unlike Jerome's in her love for all the 
vanities of life; but she was beyond measure his superior in 
energy, sense, and spirit. To go to Paris, to have apartments 
in a palace, to set French fashions, and enjoy the delights of 
unlimited milliners' bills was a prospect well calculated to 
dazzle a young girl. Miss Betsy was "beautiful exceedingly " 
— her worst enemies never accused her of being otherwise — 
but with all her vanity, "she was a woman of the strictest 
principle." Her father was a rich merchant, well known and 
well respected; all her family belonged to that quasi-American 
aristocracy, "the upper ten thousand," though it had not then 
received that compendious name. Now, Jerome at Baltimore 
was in the zenith of vulgar success; all the distinction that 



12 



^opfederat^ l/eterai). 



Baltimore could offer was given to him; he was young, lively, 
tolerably good looking, and well endowed with the quality for 
which the Puritan divine once innocently prayed as a crown- 
ing grace, "a good conceit of himself." If Miss Betsy had 
any female susceptibility she might be excused if she fell in 
love with the hero of so much homage from those who made up 
the whole of her world. 

Miss Patterson met Jerome at a ball in Baltimore. Tra- 
dition is that she went with the purpose of meeting him (and 
marrying him), and that, since her father did not want her 
to go, she climbed out of a window and went anyway. During 
the course of the dancing a chain of pearls she wore got 
accidentally caught in Jerome's uniform, and the facts are that 
Jerome fell violently in love with Miss Betsy and proposed 
marriage. She accepted the offer, which made her the envy of 
all the women in Baltimore. Her father objected at first, 
whereupon Miss Patterson declared she would marry Jerome 
anyway, so he finally consented. 

Jerome, paying a visit to President Jefferson, where he 
charmed all the guests, as well as his host, made known to 
Pichon on leaving, his intentions to marry Miss Patterson 
on November 7. Pichon, driven to despair, wrote to Mr. 
Patterson and the consul in Baltimore, telling them how im- 
possible it was for Miss Patterson to become the bride of 
Jerome. Papa Patterson was dignified; he broke off the 
match, and sent his daughter away from home. Jerome tried 
to forget by going on a tour, while Pichon arranged for his 
return to France. But one morning Pichon received a brief 
official announcement that Jerome had been married to Miss 
Patterson on the previous evening. 

What a true romance — even the elopement. Anyway, they 
were married; they were man and wife by all that was sacred 
and indissoluble, Bishop Carroll, the Roman Catholic Bishop 
of Baltimore, having sealed the bond as fast as the Church and 
the paternal benediction could make them. Miss Patterson 
was now Madame Bonaparte, and as such she entered into all 
the gayeties of the season. 

Life would no doubt have continued to be happy had not 
the news reached America on the 18th of May that Napoleon 
had been created Emperor. Madame Jerome was possibly a 
princess. But Jerome did not think of this. From the moment 
he heard of his brother's elevation he grew restless and 
wished to go to France. Reasons very numerous indeed held 
him in America. He awaited his brother's approval of his 
marriage. Napoleon would not grant it. The marriage was 
declared null, and all French ships were ordered not to bring 
Madame Bonaparte to France. The French ports were closed 
to her, and orders were given to arrest her should she attempt 
to land in France. A pension of sixty thousand francs were 
offered to "Miss Patterson" on condition that she never 
assume the name of Bonaparte or molest Jerome. 

Jerome was perfectly willing to this arrangement, since 
he had had his whim pretty well out in regard to Miss 
Patterson; but when he found that he would not be allowed 
to leave America without his wife, he, at last, with the consent 
of his father-in-law, took passage on an American ship bound 
for Portugal and embarked with his wife and secretary. He 
landed at Lisbon, where, Madame Bonaparte being refused a 
passport by consul, he left her and went on to Paris under 
pretence of getting pardon. When in Paris he threw himself 
at his brother's feet, admitting his wrong and asking pardon. 
Napoleon forced him to sign papers declaring his marriage 
null, and as a reward, Jerome was made king of Westphalia 
and later married the Princess Caroline, of Wurtemburg. But 
Jerome was through life a fool and a poltroon. Later, when 



again sent to sea, he showed his inability either to command 
or obey. He was the torment of his admiral, as he had been of 
Consul Pichon. 

France was not all the world, and, though they had deprived 
Madame Jerome of all the advantages she had hoped for in 
connection with the Bonaparte family, they neither reduced 
her to obscurity nor tarnished her name. Europe recognized 
in Madame Jerome the victim of arbitrary power. 

Miss Patterson went to Holland from Portugal, but was 
not allowed to land (as Napoleon controlled Holland), then 
she went to England and remained for some time before com- 
ing home. She and her husband met once in Italy after sev- 
eral years. Jerome was with his wife and called her attention 
to Miss Patterson. The latter merely looked through them 
both without any sign of recognition. 

In England she was received with much kindness and 
sympathy, and in England her son was born, whom she bap- 
tized Jerome Bonaparte. Soon afterwards she returned to 
America, and Madame Jerome was equal to the situation. 
She accepted the handsome pension allotted to her by the 
Emperor and the beautiful estate which was also given her. 

This estate is called Montrose and is situated near Asbestos, 
in Carroll County, Maryland. The estate, which formerly 
covered several thousand, but which has shrunk to six hundred 
acres of ground, has good roads from one extremity to the 
other. On this estate is a beautiful old homestead, just the 
style of 1804. This house in itself was almost a palace; there 
are thirty-eight rooms, each of which reveals some new in- 
terest or curiosity to the modern day visitor; and if one climbs 
to the top, one will find the tower which overlooks the estate 
just like a tower where a lost princess, alone and waiting, 
would love to go. The house is surrounded by land covered 
by wonderful old pines and hemlocks, the garden even to- 
day full of all the old-fashioned flowers. The hedges surround 
ing the walks, the most famous of which is called the Josephine 
walk, are beautiful. The fountain, the rustic benches, the 
tree seats all have the spirit of romance, yet sadness, about 
them. Even the little church has an air of a forsaken shrine. 
The estate is owned by a Mrs. Kilback, who spends her 
summers there, but in winter, when closed up, it looks more 
like a prison than a palace, though the land is kept in a state 
of cultivation by a farmer who has a house on the estate. 
We can easily roam among the grounds and almost see 
"Miss Betsy" as she moved around in her stately way; for 
here it was that she came to stay when she returned from 
England. Here she brought her son to manhood; it is said 
that she even educated him herself. Having never recognized 
the sentence of her divorce as valid, who knows but that she 
spent hours in the tower watching for the face of the one she 
loved, or walked those beautiful hedgerow paths longing, 
yea yearning, for him to come to fold her close in his arms 
and tell her he had come to stay. But, unlike the princess of 
a fairy tale, her prince did not come; she lived on alone. In 
1819 she visited Europe and was recognized and affectionately 
received by all the Bonapartes; but France was not her home, 
and she returned to her estate. A descendant of this marriage, 
Charles Joseph Bonaparte, was Secretary of the Navy under 
President Roosevelt, and later was Attorney General. 

Finally, whether lonesomeness or the call of her native 
city was too great, Madame Bonaparte went to Baltimore to 
spend her last days in a quiet boarding house. She died 
April 4, 1879, at the age of ninety-four, and her body was 
laid to rest in Green Mount Cemetery, Baltimore, where she 
had purchased a triangular lot just big enough for one. 



Qogfederat^ l/eterai). 



13 



HISTORY AS IT SHOULD BE WRITTEN. 

BY JAMES H. M'NEILLY, D.D., NASHVILLE, TENN. 

History is man's wisest and best teacher. He learns from 
experience, his own and that of others. History is the record 
of man's experience on earth, of the ongoings of human life. 
It tells of a people's ideals and principles of action, their in- 
spiring purposes, and the efforts to realize them. It is the 
story of men and achievements, of institutions and indus- 
tries, of arts and arms, of governments and laws, of science 
and invention, of settled order and of revolutions. In a 
word, it records the social, political, economic, and moral and 
religious activities of a people, their growth and development 
or their decline and failure. 

From the history of the past we can judge what things are 
possible and desirable; we can measure progress and forecast 
the future. It has been well said that history is philosophy 
teaching by example, and again that the history of the world 
is the judgment of the world — that is, the history of the mo- 
tive and outcome of men's acts justifies or condemns them at 
the bar of conscience and of God. And thus a people's his- 
tory may become an inspiration to larger life and nobler deeds 
or a warning against evils that assail or dangers that threaten. 

It behooves every people, every organized society to see 
that the record as taught in the schools and as it goes out to 
the world be true both in fact and in spirit. The facts should 
be correctly reported, the principles and motives of the actors 
fairly stated, the conditions of time and place and circum- 
stance clearly set forth that coming generations may rightly 
estimate any great movement and those who have carried it 
on, and so learn the lesson it is fitted to teach. 

Now, no people nor section ever stood in greater need than 
the South of a true, faithful, impartial history of the place it 
has filled and the work it has done in the formation and the 
growth of this republic. There should be an intelligent and 
sympathetic record of the principles, the policies, and the 
achievements of the South and her statesmen and soldiers 
in the great crises of the country's history from the original 
settlement of the land, through the struggles and sacrifices 
of the pioneer days, through the conflict for independence and 
the establishment of a new form of government for a con- 
tinent, through the sharp clash of varied interests in Con- 
gress, through the fearful war between the sections and the 
nightmare of Reconstruction, even down to the present day, 
all this, and withal an unprejudiced account of her social and 
domestic life. 

It is unfortunate for the South that the histories taught in 
our schools and current with the public have been mostly 
by Northern men, generally New Englanders, who have 
loudly proclaimed the glory of the Puritan while ignoring or 
belittling the achievements of the Cavalier and the Cove- 
nanter in the founding and development of our great repub- 
lic. These writers, generally men of brilliant intellect and 
culture, but entirely ignorant of or prejudiced against the 
South and her institutions, her principles, and her real char- 
acter, have too often with deliberate malice suppressed or 
distorted the facts that would have been to our credit. Their 
great object seems to be to glorify New England and the 
Puritans as entitled to the credit for all that is good in our 
government and civilization and suggesting or asserting that 
other sections, especially the South, have been obstructionists 
to the progress of our country in liberty, culture, and mor- 
ality. Too often the South has been represented as semi- 
barbarious by writers who profess to be fair and unprejudiced. 

And it is not merely in the formal histories that this in- 
justice is patent, but in the speeches and writings of public 
1** 



and literary men and women there is exaggerated praise for 
New England character and achievements, with frequent 
open or covert sneers at the narrowness and backwardness ol 
the Southern people, whose faults are magnified, while the 
shortcomings of New England are ignored or explained away. 
As examples, Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill are justly 
praised, but Cowpens and King's Mountain are scarcely men- 
tioned. The Boston Massacre, with its eight slaughtered 
patriots, and the Boston Tea Party, with its disguised 
patriots, are magnified as the beginning of the Revolution, 
and no notice is taken of similar "tea parties" in Baltimore 
and Charleston nor of the battle of Alamance, with its scores 
of killed and wounded patriots; while the Mecklenburg Decla- 
ration of Independence is discredited or denied. The piety 
of the Pilgrims is contrasted with the lack of it in the first 
Virginia colonists, while scant mention is made of the slave 
trade in which the New Englanders engaged. In the war with 
Great Britain in 1812-15 the exploits of Yankee sailors are 
justly and properly praised, but little reference is made to the 
treasonable Hartford Convention. In the nullification contro- 
versy of 1830-32 Daniel Webster's speeches are lauded as the 
triumphant vindication of the supremacy of the Federal gov- 
ernment, while these writers ignore the threats of secession 
by New England in 1803, 1812, and 1845. They denounce 
South Carolina for her course in that controversy, and never 
mention the fact that the personal liberty bills of the North- 
ern States were really nullification of the Constitution. They 
are bitter against Hayne and Calhoun, advocates of State 
sovereignty, and ignore the fact that Mr. Webster, a really 
very great man, conceded their view. Our war with Mexico 
in 1846-47 is held up as an unjust and outragious invasion of 
a weak sister country by the "slave power" to extend the 
area of slavery. 

But when it comes to the War between the States — 1861-65 
— these writers and speakers become most unfair and unjust 
to the South. The ministers of the gospel characterize it as a 
"wicked and and causeless rebellion" and proclaim Mr. Lin- 
coln as the model Christian of the ages. In most Northern 
writings there are misstatements as to the causes of the war 
and misrepresentations of the purpose of the Southern people 
in withdrawing from the Union and falsehoods innumerable 
in their statements as to the treatment of the slaves, and false 
accounts are given of the conduct of the war, magnifying 
Northern successes and also Southern reverses, charging cruel- 
ties to Southern leaders and armies and ignoring the looting, 
burning, and devastation of the South by order of Northern 
commanders. 

Now, if the real nature of the conflict between the States, 
the real causes of the war, are to be rightly understood and 
the South vindicated, we need an impartial history of the 
whole country from its original settlement, giving due ac- 
count of the Southern ideals of government and of her efforts 
to embody them in the Constitution, and also a true estimate 
of Southern character and an unprejudiced account of South- 
ern life and institutions. It is to perpetuate the memory of 
the struggles and sacrifices of a heroic race contending for 
liberty and right that every Confederate organization should 
labor. It is to that end that the Confederate Veteran is 
published, that it may gather from the actors in the conflict 
materials for such a history. 

Surely there are in the South, which has never lacked for 
writers of literary skill, some who understand the South, who 
are "to the manner born," who can write such a history, es- 
pecially for the schools, which shall teach our children the 
truth as to our past. 

Twenty-five years ago I presented some resolutions in the 



14 



^oijfederat^ l/eterai). 



Tennessee State Association and in the general association 
of the United Confederate Veterans looking to the prepara- 
tion of such a history. The Association authorized me to 
find the man for the work. At the suggestion of Rev. Dr. 
Joseph R. Wilson, one of my closest friends, I wrote to his 
son, Woodrow Wilson, then President of Princeton Univer- 
sity, and this is his reply in part, dated February, 1898: "The 
subject of your letter has been on my mind for a year or two. 
I have long desired to prepare an impartial school history of the 
United States, especially for the use of Southern schools. * * * 
I know how dissatisfied the Southern schools are with his- 
tories written with a decided Northern bias, and principally 
by New England men, and I do not wonder at their dissatis- 
faction in many cases. * * * If, in the opinion of others as 
well as your own, I am at all likely to succeed, I feel sure that 
it is nothing less than a public duty to attempt the service. 
I shall begin the work within a month or two. " 

Mr. Wilson started on the work, but it grew upon him until 
it became the splendid five-volume "History of the Ameri- 
can People," which is for schools only a book of reference. 
I wrote to several other men whose work in Southern his- 
tory I had read with great pleasure and profit; but they 
seemed to feel that the Southern people were themselves 
indifferent on the subject and would not respond with their 
patronage. So I let the matter drop, and amid the pressure 
of a city pastorate I was unable to give further effort to it. 

Now, let me say as a matter of personal opinion that there 
are two Southern writers who are especially fitted for the 
work. Miss Mildred Lewis Rutherford, of Athens, Ga., has 
made a most extensive and the best-arranged collection of facts 
as to the course of the South in our great war, which is en- 
titled "Truths of History"; and Matthew Page Andrews, of 
Baltimore, Md., has published what I consider the fairest 
school history of the United States that I have seen. I would 
suggest that it be enlarged somewhat and give more dis- 
tinctive credit to the Scotch-Irish, or Covenanter, along with 
the Cavalier and the Puritan, in the making of our country. 

In future numbers of the Veteran I may have something 
more to say on the various subjects suggested in this article. 



ON HAZARDOUS DUTY. 

BY ROBERT SMITH, COVINGTON, TENN. 

Twenty-four hours after that murderously bloody horror 
at Franklin on November 30, 1864, my regiment, the 7th 
Tennessee Cavalry, C. S. A., was camped on the extreme left 
of Hood's army on the Cumberland, perhaps two miles be- 
low Nashville. After a few days of very strenuous service in 
front of Thomas's Federals, occupying Nashville, there was 
a call one morning at dress parade for twenty volunteers for 
extra hazardous work. W. L. Peeler, R. J. Cotten, R. A. 
Rose, and I, of Company I, from Tipton County, stepped out, 
and the rest of the twenty came from the other companies of 
the regiment. 

Dress parade was dismissed, and we were marched to regi- 
mental headquarters by the adjutant; and there Sam Odell, 
of Comapny L, from Lauderdale County, was made captain 
of the detachment. We were ordered back to camp to get our 
bridles and sidearms, meaning pistols — we carried no sabers 
in those days — then to cross the Cumberland and mount 
ourselves as opportunity permitted, go up between Nashville 
and Bowling Green, and do ail the damage we could to the 
Louisville and Nashville Railroad, and to cut the wires to in- 
terrupt communication between Nashville and the North as 
much as possible. 

We crossed the river and struck out, going north. Our first 



adventure was of a most satisfactory nature to the half-fed 
Confederates. We came upon a farmer some distance out 
from the river slaughtering his fattened hogs. In a short 
time the farmer's wife, with some help, had a twenty-gallon 
kettle boiling, loaded with hog giblets, and several large ovens 
baking corn bread, which, with the addition of coffee in abun- 
dance, made a feast, in the judgment of Confederates, fit for 
a king. 

The second day out we were all fairly mounted, making 
good progress north, shunning towns entirely and the high- 
ways as much as we could. On the second night R. J. Cot- 
ten was taken with a vicious toothache. Next morning, in 
passing houses, we inquired for pullikens to extract Cotten's 
tooth and were directed to a blacksmith shop just off the 
pike, with a lane leading to it. I was directed by Captain 
Odell to go with Cotten to the shop, while he stayed with his 
men at the mouth of the lane on the pike. Just as Cotten and 
I rode up to the front of the shop, some six or eight men rode 
from the rear. At a glance there was mutual recognition, as 
both parties wore the ragged Confederate gray and with mu- 
tual exclamations of "Hello, boys! What are you doing up 
here?" I answered for our side, explaining things just as 
they were. The spokesman of the other side said: " I am Capt. 
Ellis Harper, of Harper's Company of Independent Scouts, 
and I am very anxious to see your captain." Having ex- 
plained Cotten's toothache, I told him that as soon as the 
tooth could be extracted we would go back to Captain Odell 
and his company. 

Just to show the crudeness of things in those days of horror, 
I will tell about the extracting of that tooth. The blacksmith 
had no pullikens — that is what we then called them — but 
thought he could get it out. Taking a spike about six inches 
long, he flattened one end of it carefully and then placed Cot- 
ten on a bench, I standing at Cotten's back and holding his 
head. The blacksmith placed the flattened end of the spike 
against the tooth near the gum, and with one quick tap of the 
hammer our flew the tooth. With a few grunts and some ex- 
pletives Cotten expressed his great relief. 

I led Captain Harper back to Odell and the scouts. AH of 
us soon realized how wonderfully fortunate this meeting with 
Captain Harper was for us. I doubt if we could have escaped 
capture for a week without him. His intimate knowledge, 
both of the country and sentiment of the people was our sal- 
vation, for he remained with us all the more than three weeks 
we were north of Nashville. 

After quite a talk Captain Odell wisely placed himself and 
command almost entirely in the charge of Captain Harper, 
who marched us across the border into Kentucky and dis- 
tributed us in some half dozen neighboring houses near the 
railroad. 

Our damage to the railroad was immaterial, as train after 
train loaded with troops rushed to Nashville, while the pikes 
seemed full of cavalry marching south, all for the destruction 
of Hood's army. Perhaps every member of the detachment 
had his personal adventures or contact with the enemy, but 
I shall tell only of mine. 

Every morning Captain Odell sent two men up the pike 
as lookout scouts. On this occasion Bob Rose and I were sent. 
I remember it was a very cold day, and we rode up the pike 
seven or eight miles. After a short while, satisfied that Odell 
and his men would remain indoors for the day on account of 
the cold, Rose and I concluded to return to our warm quar- 
ters. In coming down the pike we decided to stop and warm 
at the first house we came to, which we did. An elderly lady, 
sitting by a most comfortable fire, kindly invited us to be 



Qoi)federat^ l/eterai). 



15 



seated and earnestly said: "You boys get out of here as soon 
as you are warm, for Federal cavalry are nearly always pass- 
ing along the pike, and they have no sort of use for guerrillas. 
They would kill you on sight." I assured the good woman 
that we were not guerrillas, but regular soldiers belonging to 
General Chalmer's division of Forrest's command, and that 
our division was less than two miles distant, and that we were 
scouting. We had been sitting there half an hour or more, 
thoroughly warmed, and Rose suggested that we had better 
move on. Just then we heard "hello" from the front. Rose 
and I stepped to the door, and there at the front gate, not 
more than a hundred feet away, were four Federal cavalry- 
men. Knowing they were half frozen and calling to mind a 
statement I had heard General Forrest make more than once, 
"Take the enemy by surprise, and you have them more than 
half whipped," I yelled out, "Here they are; come on boys," 
and "Halt, halt, halt," to the four cavalrymen, as they had 
whirled their horses back in the pike by this time and were 
moving rapidly up the road. In a few seconds I was mounted, 
but Rose was not so fortunate ; as he placed his foot on the stir- 
rup the saddle turned under the horse's belly, and he was holler- 
ing: " Don't leave me." I turned in the pike, and a most 
startling sight was before me. Less than a hundred yards 
away was the head of a cavalry column which extended 
back up the pike as far as I could see and which could not 
have been less than a regiment. I emptied my army Colts 41 
at them, and they returned the compliment with a volley 
from their high-powered carbines, whose missiles sang like a 
swarm of bees over and 'around my head, clipping a piece out 
of my dilapidated hat. By this time Rose had righted his 
saddle and mounted, and he hollered "All right!" I whirled 
my horse, and for about two hundred yards we raced down 
the pike till we came to a skirt of timber, into which we darted 
and, holding our course for our snug retreat, some two miles 
distant in the hills, safely reached it. 

As those days passed we became impatiently anxious to 
rejoin the general command, as we were playing a continual 
game of hide and seek day after day with the Federals. Ru- 
mors in abundance reached us, first that Hood had captured 
Nashville, which we did not believe, and then that Thomas 
had defeated Hood, capturing half of his army. So Odell and 
Harper couldn't determine what to do; but after a general 
council of war one night Odell issued orders for us all to meet 
next morning and that we would make one more raid and then 
march south. 

Next morning, according to orders, we were in line early 
for our next march northward. W. L. Peeler and I as scouts 
moved about three hundred yards in front. We had marched 
several miles and were just passing the brow of a slight elevation 
in the pike when we noticed a mounted man in a blue overcoat 
slowly approaching us. As he was alone, we backed up in 
the timber which skirted the pike. When he had approached 
close enough for us to observe his features, we both exclaimed: 
"That is Colonel Newsome." He was lieutenant colonel of 
Col. Tyree Bell's regiment. I think he was the most aston- 
ished man that I ever saw, as we two in Yankee overcoats 
rode out in front of him, calling his rank and name. When we 
explained everything to him he was so relieved from his in- 
tense anxiety over his precarious situation that tears actually 
trickled down his cheeks. As we rode back to the company 
our third man created no excitement until Colonel Newsome 
rode up to Odell, who, on recognizing him, yelled out: "My 
God! It is Colonel Newsome." Then a small-sized riot 
broke out as the boys all crowded to the front. Colonel New- 
some told us he was captured at Columbia on Hood's retreat, 
confined in the penitentiary at Nashville for more than two 



weeks, and then started north. On the way he cultivated one 
of the guards, who, for the consideration of one twenty-dollar 
gold piece, gave him his blue overcoat and cap and, as the train 
slowed up at Bowling Green station, gently ushered him off 
the car; and he had safely made his way south until he ran on 
Peeler and me. 

Odell then transferred his command to the Colonel, who 
said: "Boys, as to joining the general command, that is ut- 
terly impossible, for Hood by this time is either captured with 
his army or is in Georgia; as for us, we will strike out for West 
Tennessee." On New Year's Day, 1865, the twenty, with- 
out the loss of a man, crossed to the south side of the Cumber- 
land. 

Without dwelling on the many hairbreadth escapes from 
death or capture as we marched through Middle and West 
Tennessee, we all safely arrived at our homes, and there I 
found that my brother, Peyton J. Smith, half dead with 
chronic diarrhea, had arrived two days previously; and he told 
me that our regiment had been furloughed at Corinth for 
twenty days. 

A HISTORIC HORN. 

BY FRANK STOVALL ROBERTS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

To while away the tedium of prison days our boys resorted 
to many ways of "killing time" and forgetting (?) the mis- 
eries of prison life. This story of a horn may recall the ex- 
periences of others who were prisoners of war. One such evi- 
dence of their skill came under my notice recently. 

While on a visit to Morganton, N. C, last summer I saw 
a hunter's horn, a work of art, carved by a Confederate 
prisoner in 1865. It is ornately carved, the large end being 
encircled by a grape vine with clusters of grapes and leaves 
and a braid pattern underneath, while the small end has an 
oak branch with leaves and acorns. Forming a circle on the 
horn is carved: "Idle hours of a prisoner of war, Fort Pu- 
laski, Ga., 1865." In the center of this circle is carved a rab- 
bit and on the other side of the horn is a dove holding an olive 
branch in its mouth. 

It was the work of N. G. Bradford, of Caldwell County, N. 
C, while a prisoner at Fort Pulaski, Ga., in 1865. The only 
tools used in making this work of art were a penknife and a 
needle, a piece of cedar charcoal being used to polish it. 
After the war Mr. Rufus Patterson, of Caldwell County, N. 
C, acquired it and later gave it to his friend, Dr. John Cal- 
houn McDowell, of Morganton, N. C, and this historic relic 
of prison days is now in possession of his daughter, Miss Mar- 
garet Erwin McDowell, of Morganton, N. C. 

This family of McDowells is one of the historic families of 
North Carolina, descendants of "Hunting John" McDowell, 
of the "Pleasant Gardens," who came to America about 1730 
from the North of Ireland (a Scotchman), settling about 1736- 
37 in Burke (now McDowell) County, N. C, whose son, Maj. 
Joseph McDowell, of the "Pleasant Gardens," was a dis- 
tinguished soldier of the Revolution, taking a glorious part in 
the victory over Ferguson at King's Mountain in October, 
1780. 

The McDowells were not conspicuous alone in the War of 
the Revolution, their descendants, many of them, being gal- 
lant officers and soldiers of the Confederate army. The three 
sons of James McDowell, son of Maj. Joseph McDowell, of 
"Pleasant Gardens," gave a good account of themselves in 
the sixties; James A., the eldest, being colonel of the 60th 
North Carolina, his brother, William Wallace McDowell, be- 
ing major of the regiment. William W. McDowell went first 
in 1861 as captain of the Buncombe Rifles, of Asheville, N. C, 



16 



^opfederat^ l/eterai). 



participating in the battle of Big Bethel Church, Va., June 10, 
1S61, the first battle of the war. He later joined the 60th 
North Carolina and with it participated in the battle of Mur- 
freesboro, Tenn., December 31, 1862, January 1, 2, and 3, 
1S63. Dr. John C. McDowell, being a very large man, was 
unfitted for active field service, but he gave a good account of 
himself as a member of the home guard, participating in sev- 
eral severe engagements. Wherever duty called, the Mc- 
Dowells were always to be found in the front rank. 



SECESSION. 

Address by Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Historian General, 
U. D. C, at the St. Louis Convention. 

Madam President, Veterans, Daughters of the Confederacy, 
Friends: We are in Missouri, the synonym for demonstrated 
fact. On this historical evening there will be no excursions 
into the realms of fancy where annually we keep tryst with 
memory. 

I promise to tell you nothing which you do not already 
know or which I cannot prove. My allusions will have the 
cobwebs, if not the bouquet, which in unregenerate days ac 
crued to rare vintages in the cellars of the connoisseur. This 
reference to departed spirits is a little touch of realism de- 
signed to anchor us more securely in the arid present when 
the mint is relegated to the lamb sauce and the julep joins 
the raven in the nevermore. 

First, I would congratulate our hostesses upon the name 
of their great metropolis, St. Louis. What nobler inspiration 
could you have than the king and crusader who was the high- 
est symbol of service to God and man? A descendant of St. 
Louis, taken prisoner by the Spanish foe, viewed at Pavia the 
wreck of his army, and exclaimed: "All is lost save honor." 
Fifth-six years ago on this continent a gray-clad host laid down 
their arms with that same solitary consolation. Weary, hungry, 
sinking under the weight of laurels gathered on many a field 
of glory, the soldiers of the Bonnie Blue Flag bade farewell 
to the plumed troop, the neighing steed, and spirit-stirring 
drum. Their leader, one of the greatest captains of any age, 
had sheathed forever the lion-hilted sword, stainless as Ar- 
thur's Excalibur. 

In happier days Robert E. Lee, of the United States Engi- 
neers, was stationed in your city to compel the Mississippi 
to keep its channel. He did this work skillfully and well. 
Mirrored in your river two other faces appear with his, the 
first a year younger, like him a graduate of West Point, and 
a brilliant officer of the Mexican War. But he was more than 
a soldier. Caleb Cushing called him eloquent among the most 
eloquent, wise among the wisest in council, brave among the 
bravest upon the battle field — Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, 
statesman, orator, secretary of war, senator, and President 
of the Confederate States of America. 

That other face reflected in the water came from a lowly 
Kentucky cabin, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 
States of America. He was a man ruled by the supreme 
vision of an undivided country. To achieve that end during 
four bitter years he subordinated every power of mind and 
body. The price in blood and anguish did not daunt him. 
The Constitution did not hamper him. By the use of implied 
powers never before claimed and of war powers never before 
invoked, victorious armies made good his declaration that 
the Union could not be dissolved. Drawn by the invisible 
threads of fate, these three lives became strangely inter- 
woven in a tremendous crisis, and no effacing touch of time 
or tide shall obliterate their traces. 



Their fortunes centered around what is now the deadest 
issue in all American politics, secession. It is so dead that 
this generation marvels that it was ever alive; wherefore let 
us consider how a thing whose decease is so frankly acknowl- 
edged ever came into existence and arrayed in hostile camps 
friends, relatives, and commonwealths. 

The autopsy begins far back when the thirteen colonies 
united in a perpetual union to achieve their independence 
from Great Britain, because, as Benjamin Franklin said, if 
they did not hang together they would certainly hang sepa- 
rately. Their object attained, the structural defects in the 
perpetual union became so apparent that a group of patriots 
called a convention of all the States, and the Federal Con- 
stitution was framed. It was no small feat to clothe Congress, 
the judiciary, and the President with power enough to please 
the Federalists and yet^Ieave to the States rights enough to 
placate Patrick Henry. Eleven States ratified by narrow 
majorities with many misgivings. New York and Virginia 
were so dubious that they accompanied their ratification 
with the declaration that the rights granted by the Con- 
stitution being derived from the people might be resumed by 
them whenever they were perverted to their injury or op- 
pression. North Carolina and Rhode. Island said in effect 
that they were "from Missouri" and would have to be shown 
the advantage of the new compact. For one year these two 
States remained as the surviving partners of the perpetual 
union which had proved so temporary, and then, being con- 
vinced that amendments would be adopted, they also rati- 
fied and completed the more perfect union, which did not 
claim to be perpetual. Ten amendments were promptly 
added. Let me quote the two concerning secession: 

"Article IX. The enumeration in the Constitution of cer- 
tain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others 
retained by the States. 

"Article X. The powers not delegated to the United 
States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, 
are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." 

The first authoritative interpretation of the Constitution 
was by William Rawle, of Philadelphia, and was entitled, "A 
View of the Constitution." It was universally accepted, and 
from 1825 to 1840 was the textbook on constitutional law at 
the Military Academy at West Point. Let me quote a few 
paragraphs from Rawle, and remember these exact words 
were studied by Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Joseph E. 
Johnston, Albert Sydney Johnston, Beauregard, Dabney H. 
Maury, and many others. This is the exact language of 
William Rawle: "It depends upon the State itself whether 
it will continue a member of the Union. To deny this right 
would be inconsistent with the principles on which all polit- 
ical systems are founded, which is that the people have in 
all cases the right to determine how the}' shall be governed." 
"The States may then wholly withdraw from the Union." 
"This right [of secession] must be considered an ingredient 
in the original composition of the general government, and 
the doctrine heretofore presented in regard to the indefeasible 
nature of personal allegiance is so far qualified in respect to 
allegiance to the United States." You may note that seces- 
sion is unequivocally taught, and paramount allegiance is ac- 
corded to the State. 

Confirming these facts, in "The Constitutional Ethics of 
Secession" Charles Francis Adams declares: "Much has been 
written and said, and still more declaimed, as to the peculiar 
and exceptional allegiance due in case of attempted secession 
to the national government on the part of the graduates of the 
Military Academy at West Point. It is, however, a notice- 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 



17 



able fact that anterior to 1840 the doctrine of secession seems 
to have been inculcated at West Point as an admitted prin- 
ciple of constitutional law." Such was the attitude of the 
government and such the general opinion. Let us turn now 
to the States. 

The Louisiana Purchase was made in 1803. It produced 
the first threat of secession, and the threat came from Massa- 
chusetts. 

Ever since last November I have been so glad that Senator 
Lodge was not a contemporary of Thomas Jefferson. He 
would have kept us out of the Louisiana Purchase just as he 
kept us out of the League of Nations; for if that innocent Ar- 
Article X seemed bristling with wars and rumors of wars to 
the senatorial imagination, what would he have thought of 
the Indians infesting the Western plains, with their notorious 
carelessness in the use of firearms and their reprehensible 
habit of collecting human scalps? 

Happily we secured the Louisiana Purchase in spite of the 
opposition of the good Bay State, and it seems to me poetic 
justice that from the soil of the Louisiana Purchase should 
come the chieftain of our armies in the land of Lafayette, 
your general, John Pershing, "the happy warrior that every 
man in arms would wish to be, 

"Whose high endeavors are an inward light 
That ma,kes the path before him always bright." 

There was a coterie of statesmen in New England whose 
letters illumine this first phase of secession. Pickering, Tracy, 
Quincy, Fisher, Ames wrote freely to one another, and here 
are some of the sentiments they expressed. Writing to George 
Cabot in 1804, describing his disapproval of Jefferson's ad- 
ministration, Pickering adds: "The principles of our revolu- 
tion point to the remedy — a separation. That it can be ac- 
complished without spilling one drop of blood I have little 
doubt. . . . I do not believe in the possibility of a long- 
continued union. A Northern confederacy, uniting con- 
genial characters, would present a fairer prospect of public 
happiness, while the Southern States, having a similarity of 
habits, might be left to manage their own affairs in their own 
way." 

Pickering was a colonel in the Revolution, Postmaster Gen- 
eral, Secretary of War, and Secretary of State in the cabinet 
of Washington, and was an ardent Federalist and secessionist. 

In 1811 a bill was introduced in Congress for the admission 
of Louisiana to statehood, and here are some of the remarks 
of Hon. Josiah Quincy, of Massachusetts, during the debate: 
"If this bill passes, it is my deliberate opinion that it is virtu- 
ally a dissolution of this Union; that it will free the States 
from their moral obligations; and as it will be the right of all, 
so it will be the duty of some, definitely to prepare for a 
separation — amicably if they can, violently if they must." 

Louisiana was admitted, and the discontent deepened 
during the War of 1812. That war, which christened our 
Star-Spangled Banner in the battle smoke of Fort McHenry 
and made it as sacred and inviolate as the Union Jack, was 
so unpopular in New England that all its States met in con- 
vention at Hartford, discussed a separate peace with Great 
Britain, the formation of a Northern Confederacy, and as- 
serted the right of secession. An honorable peace with Great 
Britain put an end to the convention, and the Federalist 
party went down into oblivion, unwept, unhonored, and un- 
sung. For well-nigh thirty years there is scarcely a mention 
of secession, and then our great sister republic of Texas asked 
to be admitted to the Union. What might be termed the 
antiwelcome movement was led by ex-President John Quincy 



Adams, and the Massachusetts Legislature passed a resolu- 
tion declaring that "the project of the annexation of Texas, 
unless arrested on the threshold, may tend to drive these 
States into a dissolution of the Union." 

That was the final gesture of secession from New England. 
Like the others, the words were not reenforced by deeds. 
You will observe that the facts which I have related seem 
entirely unknown to the Northern writers of American his- 
tory. You have doubtless contrasted the emphasis they place 
upon the nullification of the tariff law by South Carolina 
in 1832 and their friendly reticence concerning the similar 
nullification of the Embargo Act by Massachusetts in 1809. 
These embarrassing indiscretions in the land of the Pilgrims 
have been so consistently ignored that the casual reader would 
never suspect that New England was the original home of 
secession and a Northern Confederacy the dream of its fore- 
most patriots. 

With this highly respectable ancestry secession reappears 
in 1860, not a debutante by any means, but a well-recognized 
and admitted principle. Only seven States withdrew from the 
Union and organized a Southern Confederacy at Montgom- 
ery. The general opinion was that they acted within their 
rights and should be allowed to depart in peace. We have 
no reason to suppose that other States would have followed 
had no new issue arisen. But the call for troops by President 
Lincoln raised a vital question. There were many in the 
South who opposed secession, but there were none who 
favored coercion; and because war was coercion, Virginia, 
North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas aligned themselves 
with their Southern sisters. Secession secured these valued 
allies because the Constitution was at stake. Men might 
quibble if they chose concerning the reserved rights, but there 
were none who could find a warrant for the invasion of a 
sovereign State in the compact which created the more per- 
fect Union. Alas! the sword is mightier than the pen as an 
interpreter of constitutions. Its logic, though not convincing, 
is irresistible. By its arbitrament what Josiah Quincy had 
urbanely described as the right of all and the duty of some 
was officially designated as insurrection and rebellion. But 
the day is dawning when impartial eyes shall see the truth, 
and the subjugation of the South by more numerous sections 
will rank as one of the most flagrant violations of a solemn 
compact recorded in the annals of nations; and our dead, who 
died in vain, shall be numbered in the immortal army of the 
martyrs of liberty, defenders of the sacred rights bequeathed 
them by the founders of this republic. 

The American Revolution succeeded, and the statue of 
George Washington stands in Trafalgar Square. Had it 
failed, your English history would devote a few pages to the 
rebellion of the American colonies and the execution of the 
leaders for treason. The Confederacy failed, but think not 
that it shall be forgotten as a tale that is told. Every battle- 
ship that sweeps the seas is a reminder of the first fight of the 
iron clads at Hampton Roads; the campaigns of Stonewall 
Jackson are the delight of military strategists; and I fancy 
that whenever duty conquers ambition in the human heart 
the shadow of Robert E. Lee falls in benediction upon the 
victor. The South awaits the incomparable hero who shall 
plead her cause in the forum of the future and win the ver- 
dict. She awaits him as the sword waited for the hand of 
Seigfried, as the maiden waited in enchanted slumber for the 
prince, as the world ever waits for its most royal souls. The 
swan may not bring him nor the birds carol his mission, but 
borne upon the wind blowing from ocean to ocean will sound 
the faint and distant bugle which proclaims his coming and 
declares the champion will appear to battle in her defense. 



18 



^opfederat^ Veterai), 



THE GEORGIA BRIGADE AT FREDERICKSBURG. 

BY I. G. BRADWELL, BRANTLEY, ALA. 

After the battle of Sharpsburg General Lee rested his army 
a short time in the Valley and then took Longstreet's corps 
across the Blue Ridge Mountains to cooperate with Stuart's 
Cavalry, who were at all times in touch with the enemy. 
Jackson was left in the Valley with his corps to guard against 
any move the enemy might make from that direction, as it 
was not yet quite clear what plan of campaign the enemy 
would adopt. When it became known that McClellan had 
been removed and Burnsides had been put in his place, and 
it was seen that it was his intention to inaugurate a winter 
campaign by moving direct on Richmond by way of Freder- 
icksburg, orders came to move across the mountains in sup- 
port of Longstreet and Stuart. 

That General Lee chose to divide his army at a distance so 
great between the different units and with a great mountain 
range intervening seems bad generalship; but he knew what 
his plans were and was ready to meet Burnsides in any at- 
tempt he should make. To make the situation appear worse 
for us our army was farther from Richmond than that of 
the enemy, and by good generalship Burnsides could cut our 
communication with our base. But he appeared to be in no 
great haste in his new offensive, and Jackson crossed the 
mountains, marching leisurely to unite with Longstreet, who 
had now moved south and occupied a range of hills overlook- 
ing the town of Fredericksburg and fortified them. The 
emeny had had time to seize these heights and did it with one 
advance division; but Burnsides withdrew them to the north 
side before Longstreet came. Here he lost his opportunity. 
If he had taken possession of this position with his whole army, 
it seems to me that General Lee would have been in a very 
critical situation. But perhaps he wanted Burnsides to do 
this very thing. If he had done so, he would have had a 
very dangerous and resourceful enemy on his flank and rear, 
while his objective was still far away. 

But I must return to our trip across the mountains and tell 
of incidents in connection therewith. Jackson's corps con- 
sisted of three divisions, Johnson's (the old Stonewall Divi- 
sion), Hill's, and ours, now commanded by Gen. Jubal A. 
Early. Hill's Division was in advance of ours and had or- 
ders to stop after a long march at the foot of the mountains 
and go into camp, as it was too great a distance to undertake 
the crossing until the next day. Our division was to go into 
camp when our advance brigade should come to General 
Hill's camps. But sometime that day our general got pos- 
session of that which maketh the heart of men glad and 
causeth him to forget the weariness of his neighbor; so when 
we reached General Hill's encampments he pushed on, de- 
claring he would show General Hill how to march. The 
sun was now just dipping down to rest and we were very tired, 
but our general pushed on. The long spiral lines of our brig- 
ade as we moved up the mountain looked like an immense 
serpent making its way to the gap, as it was called. Above 
us we could see those regiments which were ahead, apparently 
marching in an opposite direction, and below us we could see 
those behind toiling along. It was dark when we reached the 
summit of the mountain, and we were in no condition to be- 
gin the descent; but there was no place to make camp and 
rest where the precipitous mountain on one side of the road 
rose hundreds of feet in height, and on the other was an im- 
mense chasm. There was nothing now to do but proceed, 
tired as we were, on our way, which proved to be more trying 
on our strength than the ascent. Some of our men, rather 
than undertake to go farther that night, found some place 



where they could spread a blanket and sleep; these did not 
return to us for many days. The rest of us pushed on, but 
there was nothing to be seen in the darkness but rocks, rocks 
everywhere. Finally, just before day, we came to a place 
which nature seemed to have selected to pile the surplus 
rocks left over in building these great mountains. Com- 
pletely exhausted and unable to proceed, we fell down on 
these and rested a short while as well as we could in such a 
place. 

All kinds of talk about the condition of our general could 
be heard among the men for some time. How true these were 
I have no means of knowing; but after this, even to the end of 
his career as commander of our division and corps, he never 
regained the respect due one occupying so important a posi- 
tion. Why General Lee, a man so opposed so such vicious 
habits, continued him in command I could never understand, 
unless it was on account of his wonderful personality. Among 
all the men I have ever seen in a long life I have never known 
another of such commanding presence. His eagle eyes and 
shrill, piping voice, together with his general appearance, de- 
manded obedience and compliance on the part of his officers 
and men even when they held him in contempt. But no 
truer man ever drew a sword in defense of his country or ever 
was more ready to sacrifice himself in its cause. 

This narrative would be incomplete if I did not mention 
the heroic conduct of Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, commander of the 
cavalry, and his men. He was a man born "to lead, and his 
conduct inspired every man under him with the same daring 
spirit. In winter the weather was never too severe to hinder 
his activities, and in summer the heat was never too great to 
check his operations. The nights were never too dark, but 
rather seemed to favor his movements. No force brought 
against him was equal to his stratagem and courage. His 
resourcefulness served him in every emergency. His confi- 
dence in his men was only equal to theirs in him. His love 
for his country and its cause was dearer to him than his life, 
which he gave up freely in its defense. His regard for his 
commander in chief was like that of an obedient and loving 
son to a father. While the infantry was held in camp snow- 
bound, he and his men were watching the enemy's outposts 
or operating within their lines. Without him General Lee 
could never have maneuvered his infantry so successfully, 
for he screened his movements from the eyes of the enemy and 
kept him informed of their every movement. If he accom- 
plished so much with a force so small, we naturally ask our- 
selves what he would have done with an army equal to the 
task assigned him. While Longstreet and Jackson were leisure- 
ly moving their infantry from the Valley to take position at 
Fredericksburg, Stuart and his men were fighting daily battles 
with the enemy, and nothing they did escaped his observa- 
tion, for he was always on their flank and rear. 

From the foot of the mountain the next morning we left 
our inhospitable stopping place and proceeded eastward 
through Madison County. As we marched through this 
peaceful section, removed from the scene of war, no sound of 
strife fell on our ears, and I felt like I could remain here the 
rest of my life, and indeed until now my mind often reverts 
to it as a type of that rest to which all of us old Confederates 
are hastening from the confusion incident to our existence 
here. On the right and left were smiling fields and wood- 
lands, beautiful country homes, and grazing herds of sheep 
and cattle. 

But we were to enjoy this only temporarily, for we were 
approaching the place where we were to join our comrades 
again in the deadly strife. 

When we reached Longstreet we passed to the south of his 



Qopfederat^ Ueterap. 



19 



position and made our camp ten or twelve miles to the right, 
near Port Royal, a small village on the Rappahannock River 
below Fredericksburg, where we remained several days be- 
fore we were called on to participate in the great battle of 
Fredericksburg. 

We were now under command of Col. E. N. Atkinson, of 
the 26th Georgia, and our ranks were once more recruited by 
those who had been sick or wounded until we had three thou- 
sand or more men ready for duty. I was on guard the night 
of December 11, and before morning the boom of Burnside's 
cannon in the direction of Fredericksburg could be heard. 
Burnsides, with a splendid army and numerous artillery, had 
decided to cross the river, drive the Confederates off of the 
heights overlooking Fredericksburg, and go on to Richmond 
direct from the north. If McClellan at Sharpsburg had failed 
in the open country to defeat a handful of worn-out Confed- 
erates, Burnsides could have no hope of success against Gen- 
eral Lee, now with an army at least twice as large and in 
strong position. The town was held by Confederate pickets 
for some time against all efforts to drive them out; but Gen- 
eral Lee ordered them to retire, as he wanted the enemy to 
come across. They then put in their pontoon without hin- 
drance. Before the Confederates were withdrawn, Burn- 
sides placed his artillery on the heights on the north side and 
at short range opened a fearful bombardment of the town, 
at the time full of defenseless women and children. The city 
was set on fire, and the inhabitants hastily snatched up a few 
bundles and made their way out into the freezing night to 
seek shelter from the merciless shelling wherever they might. 
No punishment by his government, not even censure, was 
ever imposed on Burnsides for this inhuman barbarity. The 
kind-hearted Lincoln, secure in Washington, took no notice 
of it, considering it only a slight incident of the war too small 
to receive attention. But Burnsides paid dearly for this in 
the engagement that followed. 

When day broke on the morning of the twelfth I was on 
guard near Colonel Atkinson's tent when a courier arrived 
with dispatches. When he handed them to the Colonel 
the staff officers asked him what was the news. He replied 
that forty thousand Yankees had crossed over up to the time 
he had left and the town was in flames. Orders were issued 
immediately to march, and we were soon on the road to the 
scene of hostilities 

From above Fredericksburg to Hamilton's crossing, a dis- 
tance of some six miles, there extends a range of hills, some 
parts of them, open but near Hamilton's crossing they were 
covered with timber. At the foot of the range of hills was a 
railroad track, and between the railroad and the river, some 
three quarters of a mile, the country was open and compara- 
tively level. A road, bordered on each side by cedars, ex- 
tended fron the city about halfway from the railroad to the 
river. Another road branched off from this and crossed the 
railroad at Hamilton's Crossing. Along this elevated ridge 
was the Confederate position. Burnsides put in a pontoon 
bridge opposite Hamilton's Crossing and brought over a 
large part of his army at that place. Longstreet held the left 
of the line at Fredericksburg, and Jackson held the right as 
far as Hamilton's Crossing. Beyond his right was Stuart 
with his cavalry and horse artillery. 

We bivouacked in a grove near Hamilton's Crossing about 
dark the evening of the 12th, and the next morning early we 
were marched across the railroad and deployed in line ex- 
tending, I suppose, three-fourths of a mile long, as a reserve. 
In front of us was Gen. A. P. Hill's Division, next to the enemy 
now getting ready out in the open field to make their grand 
assault on our lines concealed in the woods. But our men, 



in forming this front line, made a great mistake which came 
near being fatal. Between two brigades was a marshy piece 
of ground supposed to be too boggy for the enemy to advance 
through, and it was left undefended. The battle opened with 
great fury, and the enemy poured through this gap, killing 
one of our prominent generals and routed the brigades on the 
right and left by attacking them on the flank and in the rear. 
It was now our time to advance and drive them back. How 
well we did this reflects no honor on our brigade or the colonel 
who was supposed to be in command. When the order was 
given to advance, if given at all, some of the regiments moved 
forward while others did not seem to hear it or understand 
what was required of them, and the whole thing was so badly 
mismanaged that some of our regimental commanders came 
near fighting a duel over it afterwards. One of them resigned 
and went back to Georgia. I suppose he was a fine political 
speaker and writer, but he was not the man to command a 
regiment in battle. It was said subsequently that our or- 
ders were to drive the enemy out of the woods to the line of 
the railroad and there stop; but if there was an order of any 
kind issued, we never heard it, and everybody went forward 
just as he pleased. 

When we reached the railroad and saw that Federal bat- 
tery out there in the open, surrounded by white horses, every 
man under the leadership of Captain Lawton, brother of Gen. 
A. R. Lawton, rushed forward to take it, without any sup- 
port on the right or left. This we did, but the gallant Cap- 
tain and the beautiful bay horse he was riding both fell dead 
at the very mouths of the enemy's guns. We did not have a 
minute to rejoice over our victory, for the enemy's second 
grand advance, with a line that overlapped ours and threat- 
ened to envelope us, took place at this very time, and our 
men had to choose between a surrender or retreat under fire 
of the battery they had just taken, or flee for their lives back 
to the protection of the woods. Some were killed, others were 
wounded and captured, including Colonel Atkinson. Fifty- 
four splendid dappled artillery horses lay dead on the knoll 
where this battery stood and many of the enemy. Stuart's 
horse artillery, under the gallant Pelham, did wonders that 
day and aided us no little, for we were on the extreme right 
of the infantry and next to the cavalry. 

When we got back to the woods we were completely de- 
moralized and without the semblance of organization. Pres- 
ently General Early came riding about among us in the 
midst of bursting shells and whizzing grapeshot. The old 
fellow was furious and hailed every man he saw, asking if he 
belonged to that "blankety-blankety Georgia brigade." 

I have always considered this the most disgraceful affair 
we ever took part in during our service in the war, but the 
blame should rest on our commander rather than on us. All 
this was known at our War Department, and a man was sent 
to us who had the capacity to lead, the noble John B. Gordon. 
The very day he came to us he rode around in the camp among 
the men to see how they fared. When he came to the head- 
quarters of a certain colonel he found a log, hewn to a sharp 
edge, fastened at both ends to trees so as to stand about four 
feet above the ground, on which the colonel was in the habit 
of placing his men in punishment for slight offenses. The 
general called him out of his tent and asked him what it was 
for. He replied that it was his "horse." The General told 
him he did not know his regiment was a cavalry regiment 
and ordered him to take it down. The ground was covered 
with a heavy coat of snow, and the weather was intensely 
cold; but we had been required by the colonel commanding to 
stand on camp guard all night, although we were poorly 
clothed. This our general put a stop to and by these acts of 



20 



^ogfederat^ l/eteraij. 



humane consideration won immediately our regard, which he 
enjoyed to the last. 

If the advance of our brigade had been made under good 
leadership and supported on the right and left, there is no 
doubt that we would have destroyed the entire left wing of 
Burnside's army. The regiments of our right had beaten 
the enemy back to the public road and were very near the 
river, where his pontoon bridge was located. If this had 
fallen into our hands, the entire left wing of Burnside's army 
would have been cut off from any means of escape. The ad- 
vance of their reserves at the proper moment alone saved them 
from being driven into the river or destroyed. 

That night the brigade was reorganized, and before day we 
moved forward to occupy the front line. As we advanced 
through the woods, the men in the field, standing at the guns 
from which we had driven them the day before, I saw the top 
of our regimental (31st) standard in the gray dawn and fired 
a shell at it. Their aim was pretty accurate, but it passed 
between me and the color bearer, killing several men and 
lifting me and a comrade in the rear rank behind me clear out 
of the line and laying us both out ten feet in the rear, without 
doing either of us the slightest injury. We were enveloped 
in the smoke, and my comrades thought I was killed, but I 
grabbed up my gun and ran back to my place in the ranks 
again, while my little friend scampered off, and I never saw 
him any more that day. The distance from the battery was 
so little that the sound of the gun and the explosion of the 
shell in our ranks were almost simultaneous. 

I now felt relieved, for I had had a dream the night before 
that frightened me, and I w r ent to my duty with a heavy 
heart, thinking I would be killed. I was told that the shell 
killed several men in a line of Confederates lying on their 
faces just back of us, but I had no time to investigate and 
cannot vouch for the truth of this. 

The weather was cold, and many of the wounded died dur- 
ing the night for lack of attention. The enemy carried 
away all of their dead and wounded inside of their line under 
cover of the darkness of the night, but those left between the 
lines were very numerous. A Confederate battery in the 
woods was almost destroyed by a shell from the Yankee bat- 
tery mentioned above. A shell from it struck a case of am- 
munition and exploded it, killing nearly all the men and 
horses belonging to it. As we passed the place the men were 
lying around scorched and blackened so that they looked 
like negroes, the hair on their heads being crisped and singed. 
The day was spent in skirmishing, in which there was little 
damage inflicted on either side. The enemy's line remained 
behind the protecting banks of the public road mentioned, 
while we rested quietly in excellent breastworks in the woods 
overlooking the open field, awaiting any movement on their 
part. Official reports say that Burnsides gave orders to re- 
new the fighting the next day, but his division commanders 
refused to act, and he withdrew his army on the night of the 
14th and took up his pontoons. It was well they took that 
view of it; for if they had fought again, we were in position 
to inflict on them a worse defeat than that w'hich they had 
already sustained. To our left, where they charged Long- 
street in mass formation, they were slaughtered by the thou- 
sands. A Confederate soldier, my brother, told me he saw a 
deep well filled with the dead bodies of their soldiers, thrown 
into it to save the trouble of burying them. 

The Federal army had received a bloody defeat and had 
accomplished nothing under their new commander. Lincoln 
now began to look around for some one else to take his place 
and found one in the person of General Hooker, "Fighting 
Joe," as he was called, who was even a greater failure than 



Burnsides. Whoever travels on the Richmond, Fredericks- 
burg and Potomac Railroad from Richmond to Washington 
will see at Hamilton's Crossing a great stone pyramid, stand- 
ing on the north side of the railroad track and only a few feet 
away. It is constructed of blocks of stone and will last to the 
end of time unless it is pulled down by man. It marks the 
point where our regiment (the 31st Georgia) crossed the road 
in the big drive of that memorable day, December 13, 1862. 



COL. C. D. DREUX. 

COMPILED BY JUST. M. LAMARE. 

This gallant soldier, the first Confederate officer killed in 
the War between the States, was a descendant of one of the 
original French settlers in the colony of Louisiana. 

His great-grandfather, Mathurin de Dreux, founder of the 
Dreux family of New Orleans, accompanied Bienville in his 
expedition to this country, and he was among the eight wit- 
nesses to the governor's landing at Bayou St. John in 1718, 
and, with Bienville, was one of the founders of New Orleans. 
Being a great friend of the governor, he obtained from him a 
concession of land in the rear of the city, which he named 
Gentilly, by which it is known at the present day. Mathurin 
Dreux was the son of Louis de Dreux-Breze, of Angers, 
France. He married in New Orleans in 1733 Claudine Fran- 
chise Hugo and had seven children. 

The Dreux family descends from the fifth son of Louis VI, 
king of France, Robert de France, made Count de Dreux in 
1132. 

Colonel Dreux's great-grandmother was a Miss Hugo, of 
St. Malo, France, presumably an ancestral relative of the 
great French writer, Victor Hugo. 

His grandfather was Guy Dreux. He married Miss Tou- 
tant Beauregard, a grand aunt of General Beauregard, by whom 
he had two children. His second wife was Miss Felicite 
Trudeau, who bore him five children, one of whom, Guy 
Dreux, was in the battle of New Orleans; another, Didier 
Dreux, married Miss Marie Josephine Nathalie Livaudais, a 
daughter of Jacques Francois Enoult de Livaudias and Marie 
Celeste Mandeville de Marigny. By this union there was a 
large family, the fifth child, Charles Didier Dreux, being the 
subject of this sketch 

Through marriage the Dreuxs became connected with 
many of the best families in Louisiana — the Frazende, Des- 
chapelles, Le Breton, d'Estrehan, Villere, Lacoste, Dugue, 
Villars, Bernoudy, Soniat (or Sunhac), Bermudez, Jumon- 
ville, Arnoult, and Charbonnet. 

Charley Dreux, as he was familiarly called by his friends 
and acquaintances, was born in New Orleans, May 11, 1832. 
Shortly after his birth his parents moved to Paris, France, 
and, remaining several years, he received his primary educa- 
tion in that city. When they returned to the United States, 
young Dreux was sent to Amherst College, Massachusetts, 
and then became a cadet of the Western Military Institute, 
at Blue Lick Springs, in Kentucky, and subsequently of the 
Frankfort Military Institute in that State. Carrying off all 
the honors in these institutions, he was employed as a tutor 
in the latter for a short period, and then entered the Tran- 
sylvania Law University, of Kentucky, where he graduated 
in 1852, at the age of nineteen. 

Having displayed a taste for politics and the possession 
of remarkable oratorical capacity, he was invited to accom- 
pany the Kentucky delegation to the great Whig convention 
held at Niagara in August, 1852, that nominated Gen. Win- 
field Scott for the Presidency of the LTnited States. On that 



Confederate l/eterap. 



21 



occasion he delivered an address in advocacy of the General's 

i candidacy which attracted the attention of the entire country. 

Endowed with varied talents of a very high order, young 

Dreux exhibited the same capacity at the bar that he had so 

: strikingly displayed in the political field and the camp of 

s military instruction. 

Having passed a brilliant examination before the Supreme 
Court of Louisiana, he was admitted to practice and shortly 
afterwards was elected district attorney. At the close of his 
term of office as a prosecuting lawyer he was sent to the State 
Legislature, where he discharged his representative duties, 
as he had those of his prior position, to the entire satisfaction 
of his constituency. 

Before the war he had organized the Orleans Cadets, which 
was a company of volunteers composed of young men be- 
longing to the best families of New Orleans, who elected him 
as their captain. When hostilities began between the North 
and the South, this was the first volunteer organization in 
the city that offered its services to the Confederacy, and after 
participating in the capture of the military post at Baton 
Rouge from the Federal troops stationed there, they were 
sent to Pensacola, where General Bragg assigned Captain 
Dreux to the important post at Grand Bayou. The efficient 
manner in which he discharged the responsible duties of the 
position gained him great credit. 

A few weeks afterwards his company constituted one of 
six volunteer companies that were formed into a battalion, of 
which Captain Dreux, as the senior officer, became the com- 
mander, with the rank of lieutenant colonel. This promotion 
was subsequently confirmed by the votes of the members of 
this new command. 

The battalion was known as Dreux's Battalion and com- 
prised the following companies: Orleans Cadets, Company A, 
Capt. C. D. Dreux; Crescent Rifles, Company A, Capt. S. W. 
Fisk; Louisiana Guards, Company A, Capt. Samuel M. Todd; 
Louisiana Guards, Company C, Capt. Francis Rawle; Grivot 
Guards (of Terrebonne), Capt. N. H. Rightor; and the Shreve- 
port Grays, Capt. J. H. Beard. 

Immediately after its organization was completed the bat- 
talion was ordered to Yorktown, Va., where the fine military 
bearing of Lieutenant Colonel Dreux at once attracted the 
attention of General Magruder, who placed him in command 
of a brigade of twenty-five hundred men, destined to attack 
one of the flanks of an advanced position of the enemy in 
front of Newport News, where they were throwing up in- 
trenchments, while the General at the head of another body 
of troops would simultaneously attack the other. A dark 
and stormy night had been selected for the expedition. The 
entire Confederate force had reached the point unnoticed 
from where they were to make the double assault, and every- 
thing that far had promised success, when the discharge of a 
gun accidentally dropped by one of the guides, aroused the 
Federal camp and frustrated General Magruder's plan, com- 
pelling him to withdraw, as he did not consider his force suf- 
ficently large to justify an attack when the enemy was pre- 
pared to receive him. 

Shortly after this General Magruder, having learned that 
small bodies of Federal troops were committing nightly depre- 
dations on the farmers living in that section, determined to 
stop such proceedings; and for that purpose he directed 
Colonel Dreux to call for one hundred volunteers from the 
companies of his battalion, to which were added twenty 
cavalrymen and a mountain howitzer. The Colonel took 
command and, marching during the night, reached his des- 
dination at an early hour in the morning, forming his men so 
as to take the marauders by surprise and destroy or capture 



the whole party. About daylight they were seen advancing, 
and as they approached, apparently unconscious of the trap 
that was set for them, one of the Confederate soldiers dis- 
charged his firearm, which brought a volley from the Federal 
Zouaves in return, followed by a charge, in which one or two 
of their officers, who had snatched rifles from their men and 
rushed in front of them, took deliberate aim at Colonel Dreux 
and, sending a Minie ball through his body, killed him almost 
instantly. He fell into the arms of Private Columbus H. 
Allen, of Company A, Crescent Rifles, and his last words 
words were: "Boys, steady!" 

Thus fell, at the commencement of the fearful struggle be- 
tween the two sections, one of the bravest and most gallant 
soldiers that had espoused the cause and linked his future 
with the fortunes of the Confederacy. Young, enthusiastic, 
chivalrous, and determined, his military ardor carried him in 
the early dawn of manhood to his grave, leaving an infant 
nationality to deplore his irreparable loss; seeking in vain for 
one who, like him, could command such universal esteem and 
respect, for one upon whom a nation's hopes could repose 
with confidence that his sword would never be tarnished by 
treachery or cowardice; upon whom his comrades in arms 
could always rely with assurance in his unfaltering courage, 
his extraordinary ability, and his devout determination to 
succeed or perish in the attempt. 

The companies composing Dreux's battalion, which had 
enlisted for one year, were mustered out at Young's Mill, 
near Yorktown, at the expiration of their enlistments, April 
15, 1862. The men afterwards organized Fenner's Battery, at 
Jackson, Miss., some reenlisting in other commands, and 
served throughout the war. 

Colonel Dreux's body was recovered by his men and sent 
under military escort to New Orleans, where he was buried 
with the most imposing ceremonies, in the presence of an im- 
mense concourse of people, all the civil officers of the State, 
the military on duty in and around the city, the municipal 
officers, the fire companies, and all other organizations par- 
ticipating. Beautiful funeral orations were also delivered by 
Lieut. Col. Adolphus Olivier and the Hon. Randall Hunt, 
highly eulogizing the many virtues of the deceased. 

In the funeral pageant the Confederate army was repre- 
sented by Major General Twiggs and staff; the navy, by Com- 
modore Rousseau and officers; the Polish Brigade, by Colonel 
Sulakowski and officers. 

Colonel Dreux was married in 1859 to Miss Amanda 
Haynes, of Clinton, La. A daughter was born who, after her 
parents' death, was adopted by the State Legislature, but she 
died at an early age. 

Capt. Guy Dreux, who commanded the cavalry that served 
as body guard for the commander of the army of Tennessee 
and died since the war, was an older brother of Colonel Dreux. 
A younger brother, Edgar, was killed at the battle of Franklin 
while leading a charge, having in his hand the flag, which he 
had seized from the dead color bearer. Still another brother, 
Jules G. Dreux, was captain of the Jefferson Guards and 
served throughout the war. 

Several years ago, by special permission, the remains of 
Colonel Dreux were exhumed and now rest in the tomb of the 
Association of the Army of Tennessee in Metaire Cemetery. 

Among the m»ny Creoles who attained prominence, Charles 
Didier Dreux rose to the highest position. It is now proposed 
to erect a monument in commemoration of his honorable life. 
May this laudable proposal meet with quick success.. 

[The cornerstone of this monument was laid in November, 
and t-he I'lchu.mont itself will be;u.nv,eiled April 1 ),, 1922 — Ed.] 



22 



•> 



^oi>federat{ tfeteraij. 



rff£ CHA THA M AR TILLER Y. 



[The following article, signed " R. D. S." appeared in the 
Baltimore Sun, some years ago as one of a series of articles 
on the citizen soldiers of the South. The Chatham Artillery 
of Savannah, Ga., is the oldest of these organizations and is 
probably the oldest of American militia companies, being 
now one hundred and thirty-five years old; and its record 
holds high place in the annals of Dixie fighting men.] 

"The men of the South are born soldiers," wrote an Eng- 
lish army officer who had seen the gray-clad followers of Lee 
and Jackson on the march, in camp, and under the pall of the 
battle smoke. 

Fired by the deeds of Washington, Greene, Morgan, 
Smallwood, and a host of lesser lights in the Revolution, the 
South has kept the spark of martial ardor aglow by organiza- 
tions of citizen soldiery which for age and honor have no 
superiors in any section of the Union. Ready at all times to 
fan the spark into flame at the call of duty, these commands of 
the National Guard have proved to be as useful in time of war 
as they are ornamental in the piping days of peace. Their 
story is the story of the nation; their glory the glory of the 
people. 

One of the oldest, if not the oldest, militia organizations 
in continuous service in the United States is the Chatham 
Artillery, of Savannah, Ga. This famous battery is to the 
South what the Ancient and Honorable Artillery of Boston is 
to New England, but the whole country, regardless of geo- 
graphical or political division, may well be proud of its glorious 
record. 

The close of the Revolutionary War found the new-born 
nation in a precarious condition. Far-seeing men of the States 
saw that eternal vigilance was to be the price of their liberty. 
England had cried "Hold! Enough!" only for a breathing 
spell, and a chance to gather strength for another effort to 
regain the prize she had lost. To the southward was the 
Spaniard, watching with envious eyes the infant nation, while 
the French in the West and the Indian almost everywhere 
presented just causes for apprehension. These were the times 
and conditions that gave birth to the Chatham Artillery. 

The father of the battery was Capt. Edwin Lloyd, a one- 
armed veteran of the Revolutionary War. On May 1, 1786, 
at a meeting of residents of Savannah called by Captain 
Lloyd, the Chatham Artillery was formed, and Lloyd was 
chosen its first captain. Many of its original members had 
served in the Continental Army. Such a crisis as that through 
which the States had just passed always separates the human 
wheat from the chaff, and only patriots of the highest type 
could have enrolled under the following pledge: 

"We do hereby pledge our honor, of which our signature is 
witness, that we will, to the best of our ability and under- 
standing, devote ourselves to the advancement of the corps, 
to which we have voluntarily attached ourselves, by all 
honorable means, and ardently cooperate in the increase of its 
strength, respectability, and discipline, and that we will foster 
and maintain sentiments of respect and affection toward each 
other as soldiers and citizens, and, united as a band of brothers, 
devote ourselves, when the occasion requires it, to the service 
of our country." 

And nearly a century and a quarter of peace and war has 
seen the pledge of the Chatham Artillery u/ibroken and its 
luster undimmed, even by the bitterness of defeat. 

Just six days after its organization the command was called 
upon for its first public duty, and this is a striking illustration 
of the confidence inspired by the high standing of its member- 
ship. A band of runaway uegioespnd renegades, prcfsssir.g j:o 



be soldiers of the king of England, had established a camp in 
Effingham County, from which they made forays, defying the 
authorities and plundering the inhabitants. With other 
Georgia and South Carolina militia, the Chathams attacked 
the camp and literally wiped it off the map, killing and 
capturing the bandits. 

The next public appearance of the battery was June 20, 
of the same year, when the corps was called upon to pay 
funeral honors to the great soldier of the Revolution who was 
next to Washington in the love of the South — -Gen. Nathaniel 
Greene. What member of the company, however, would have 
thought then that one hundred and fifteen years later the 
battery was to act as escort to the body of General Greene 
when it was transferred from his long-neglected grave to the 
monument erected in his honor. 

On the Fourth of July, 1786, the battery fired its first salute 
to the United States of America. Thirteen guns were fired — 
one for each State — and it is recorded that each report was 
accompanied by a toast. The practice of saluting in honor of 
the nation's birthday is continued, but for obvious reasons 
the number of toasts has not kept pace with the growth of 
the Union. 

Four years after the formation of the Battery Captain 
Lloyd was succeeded by Capt. Thomas Elfe, who was in com- 
mand when General Washington visited Savannah in 1791. 
During his stay in the city General Washington was constantly 
attended by the Chatham Artillery, and so impressed was he 
with the drill and discipline of the battery that upon his 
departure he presented to the corps two of the brass guns 
surrendered by Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown. These his- 
toric cannon are still the cherished possession of the battery. 
When the Confederate troops evacuated Savannah, near the 
close of the War between the States, the two guns were 
buried beneath the old armory of the battery to prevent 
them falling into the hands of the Federal soldiers. Several 
years after the war they were tenderly disinterred by the 
veterans of the corps and again used to salute distinguished 
visitors. 

The third commander of the Chathams was Capt. Josiah 
Tattnall, father of Commodore Tattnall, of the United States 
and Confederate navies. 

When the disturbances caused by the Creek Indians in 
Southern Georgia broke out in 1794, the battery was com- 
manded by its fourth captain, James Robinson. The Chat- 
hams were among the first of the State troops to offer their 
services to the Governor. The offer was accepted, and the 
command distinguished itself in the successful campaign 
which followed. Captain Robinson was succeeded by 
Benjamin Wall, and he, in turn, by Richard Montgomery 
Stites. 

The outbreak of the war of 1812 found the battery under 
the command of its seventh captain, Robert McKay. Vol- 
unteering for the war, the Chatham Artillery was mustered 
into the service of the United States. A detachment garrisoned 
Fort Jackson, on the Savannah River, and the remainder of 
the command assisted in the construction of earthworks for 
the protection of the city. The battery was mustered out of 
the Government service in January, 1815. 

William T. Williams, the eighth captain, was succeeded in 
182-1 by Peter Blois, who was in command when General 
Lafayette visited the city the following year. In the reception 
to the French marquis, the Chathams played a prominent 
part. 

The next commander was a Northern man, Capt. Charles 
M. King, of New Jersey, who had gone South and made 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 



23 



'himself a power in the commercial and civil life of the city. 
He held the rank six years, and was succeeded by Capt. 
Charles Stephens, an old officer of the regular army, who had 
served under Gen. Andrew Jackson. He was in command 
when the war with Mexico began, and, as usual, the Chathams 
were among the first to offer their services to the government. 
Their services were not required, however, and the war 
closed without them smelling powder, much to their chagrin. 
Fifteen years later they were to get their fill of fighting. 

John B. Gallie, the twelfth captain (killed while command- 
ing Fort McAllister, during the Federal bombardment), was 
succeeded by John E. Ward, distinguished lawyer, statesman, 
and diplomat. July 20, 1858, Capt. Joseph S. Claghorn 
assumed the command of the organization and was at its 
head when the War between the States plunged the country 
into four years of bloodshed. 

One of the first to realize that peaceful secession was a 
dream, Governor Joseph E. Brown acted promptly and 
ordered the occupation of Fort Pulaski by the State troops. 
In his order of January 2, 1861, to Gen. A. R. Lawton, of the 
First Georgia Volunteers, for the seizure of the Fort, the 
Governor directed that the captured ordnance be turned over 
to the Chatham Artillery, so that the corps was enlisted in 
the Confederate war by the first order issued for the impend- 
ing conflict. Upon the seizure of the fort, the Chatham 
Artillery took possession. 

On May 1, soon after the call to arms, the Chatham Artil- 
lery celebrated its seventy-fifth anniversary. Assembling at 
the armory in full uniform, the battery, with its six six- 
pounders and two twelve-pound howitzers, marched to the 
home of Captain Claghorn, where a beautiful flag of the 
Confederacy, the gift of the wives and daughters of the non- 
commissioned officers, was presented to the corps. An 
eloquent address was delivered by Hon. Charles C. Jones, 
Jr., than Senior First Lieutenant of the company, afterwards 
Chief of Artillery of the District of Georgia, and distinguished 
as a historian. 

On July 31, the corps was mustered into the service of the 
Confederate States under the following officers: Captain, 
Joseph S. Claghorn; First Lieutenant, Charles C. Jones, Jr.; 
Junior First Lieutenant, Julian Hartridge; Second Lieutenant, 
William M. Davidson; Junior Second Lieutenant, Bernardino 
Sanchez. 

It was while stationed at Fort Pulaski, in the first year of 
the war that the battery was inspected by Gen. Robert E. 
Lee, who delcared it had no superior in the Confederate 
service. 

The last of September the corps was ordered into camp at 
the Isle of Hope, where it remained several months. 

In December, the battery received a valuable acquisition 
in the shape of an English Blakely gun, which was run through 
the blockade and assigned to the company by General Lawton, 
as a special mark of his esteem. This cannon was used by the 
battery at the engagement at Secessionville, but later, when 
the armament of the corps was changed, the gun was turned 
over to another command. 

After the battle of Seven Pines, Va., when General Lawton 
was ordered with 5,000 Georgia troops to march to the de- 
fense of Richmond, the Chathams begged for permission to 
accompany them, but the request was refused, with the 
explanation that they were needed at home. 

In June, 1862, a section of the battery under Second Lieut. 
Thomas Askew, who had succeeded Lieutenant Davidson, 
was ordered to Charleston, S. C. and took part in the fight 
at Secessionville, returning two weeks later to the rest of the 



command. In December, of the same year, Captain Claghorn 
resigned to accept the position of ordnance officer on the staff 
of Maj. Gen. Gustavus W. Smith, and John F. Wheaton 
succeeded to the command of the battery. Strange to say, 
Captain Wheaton was a native of Connecticut, who had 
emigrated to Georgia in early life. One of the most active 
members of the battery for years, he had contributed much 
to its high state of efficiency, and his selection to command 
the corps was a fitting tribute to the esteem and respect in 
which he was held by his adopted brothers. 

Shortly after Captain Wheaton assumed the command the 
battery was ordered to James Island, in Charleston Harbor, 
where for two long years it endured the hardships of the siege. 
Under the fire of the big guns of the Union fleet and the siege 
pieces, the men of the battery served the guns, burrowed in 
the earth like rabbits for their habitation, and did yeoman 
service so cheerfully and manfully that they won a reputation 
for efficiency and devotion to duty second to none in the army. 
They were living the pledge of their fathers under the veteran 
Lloyd: "United as a band of brothers," and devoting them- 
selves "to the service of their country." 

From the earthworks of Charleston Harbor the battery, 
in February, 1864, was ordered to the everglades of Florida, 
where it arrived just in time to win fresh laurels by its conduct 
in the battle of Olustee. Stationed near the center of the 
Confederate line, the battery held its position under a heavy 
fire of artillery and infantry, and much of the time without 
infantry support and with ammunition chests nearly empty. 

Fearing the enemy would capture the guns, General Col- 
quitt, in command of the Confederate forces, ordered the 
battery to retire until the arrival of the infantry ordered to 
its support. To this Captain Wheaton demurred, saying that 
his men were Georgians, and could be relied on to hold their 
ground. Soon afterwards the infantry supports reached the 
battery and the battle continued with renewed fury. 

The battle of Olustee was one of the minor engagements 
of the war, almost forgotten and overshadowed by the glories 
and carnage of Gettysburg, Chancellorsville, Chickamauga, 
and Atlanta, but it was a fair, stand-up fight, with desperate 
courage displayed on both sides, and any patriotic American 
can well be proud of that field. For five hours the issue was 
in doubt, but about twilight the Federal line gave way and 
the Confederates swept the field, capturing five cannon and 
hundreds of prisoners. 

' After taking part in several other engagements in Florida, 
the battery, in April, was ordered back to Georgia, arriving 
at Savannah, April 25. Immediately the command was 
ordered to its old post on James Island, Charleston. Here 
again it was subjected to constant duty day and night, ex- 
posed at all times to a heavy fire from the Union fleet and 
land forces, and subsisting mainly on corn bread and molasses, 
with meat once a week. But scant rations had no more effect 
upon the discharge of their duty than the other hardships of 
war, and the men of the Chatham Artillery suffered no loss of 
prestige. 

In February, 1865, the battery was ordered to Columbia, 
where it was attached to Butler's division of Hampton's 
cavalry. With the cavalry the battery took part in the con- 
stant fighting around the capital of South Carolina. On the 
retreat of the Confederate troops the battery became sepa- 
rated from the command and cut off by a force of the enemy. 
Determined not to surrender, the men discarded their tents, 
supplies, and everything except the cannon and caissons, and 
struck out to join their comrades. After a continuous march 
of sixty hours without rest, the battery rejoined the Confed- 
erate forces and continued to Charlotte, N. C, where it 



24 



^opfederat^ l/eteraij. 



remained till March 6. Ordered to report to Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnston, the battery was assigned to Loring's division of 
Stewart's Corps. But the end was near. Lee had already 
surrendered and a few days later General Johnston accepted 
the terms offered to Lee. 

Paroles for one hundred and three officers and men were 
issued to the Chatham Artillery, and the battery, without the 
guns it had handled so gallantly, started on its long march 
home. During the march the men of the battery kept to- 
gether and the regular discipline of the organization was 
maintained until Augusta was reached, when the command 
was disbanded, the men returning to their homes — those that 
had escaped Sherman's torch — to take up anew the battle of 
life. For their "four years of arduous service, marked by 
unsurpassed courage and fortitude," the men of the battery 
had nothing but the satisfaction of a duty well done and an 
esprit de corps which even the surrender could not shake. 

Then came the dark days of Reconstruction, times more 
trying even than the arduous campaigns through which the 
corps had passed. The armory of the company had been 
seized by the Union troops and converted into a freedman's 
bureau, but the members from out their scanty store kept the 
interest on the armory scrip paid. Of course, they were not 
permitted to bear arms, and even the wearing of Confederate 
uniforms was forbidden, but the men kept up their organiza- 
tion, meeting at regular times in a social way and helping to 
take care of destitute comrades. On Washington's Birthday, 
1866, the company held a picnic, which festival has been 
repeated annually ever since. 

Slowly, however, better times came. Possession of the 
armory was regained and the old Washington guns were dug 
up and remounted. On January 19, 1872, the birthday of 
Gen. Robert E. Lee, the Chatham Artillery made its first 
public appearance in uniform since the war, with Captain 
Wheaton, its fifteenth commander and war-time leader, at the 
head. 

May 1, 18S6, the corps celebrated its centenary with elabo- 
rate ceremonies. On this occasion the principal address was 
delivered by John E. Ward, former captain of the company. 

On October 7, 1895, after twenty-three years of faithful 
service for the battery and his country, Captain Wheaton was 
forced by failing health to retire, and was succeeded by Capt. 
George P. Walker, who was in command when the war with 
Spain was declared. As in the past, the Chathams were 
among the first to offer their services to a reunited country, 
and the battery was mustered into the United States volunteer 
army, retaining its old officers. Its services at the front were 
not needed, however, and it remained in camp until the end 
of the war. 

Captain Walker, after forty-two years of uninterrupted 
service with the company, resigned his commission October 3, 
1898, and was succeeded by Capt. William T. Dixon, who, in 
turn, was succeeded by the eighteenth commander, Capt. 
Richard J. Davant. 

Under Captain Davant, the company was brought to a 
high state of efficiency acccording to the latest military ideas. 
It was equipped with a battery of modern three-inch rifles, 
and its entire equipment made equal to that of any battery 
of the regular army. 

The old spirit — the spirit that moved the one-armed 
veteran Lloyd and his comrades of '76 to prepare for war in 
time of peace; that inspired Wheaton and his graybacks to 
respond to the call of duty when success seemed hopeless, 
and that kept the men together even as paroled prisoners of 
war — the spirit of the true South still lives in the rank and 
file of the Chatham Artillery of Savannah. 



(Some additional notes were received too late to give mon 
than an outline of the late service of this famous command 
Under Captain Davant the battery was expanded into twc 
batteries and associated with the Atlanta Battalion as the Is' 
Battalion Georgia Field Artillery, of which he was madi 
major. His successor was Maj. E. E. Wells, under whom thi 
Batallion trained for service on the Mexican Border, and was 
there from Ootober, 1916, to June, 1917. Major Wells re- 
signing, Capt. Geooge Butler was elected its twentieth com 
mander, and the battalion was then used in training officers a 
the first training camp, later taking intensive training itself foi 
over-seas service, and was in France ready to go on the firing 
line when the armistice was signed. The present commandei 
is Maj. Alex R. MacDonell.) 



DIXIE LAND. 



An old Italian came into our yard last night 

And humbly begged permission that his wandering band 
Might play for us some old, forgotten airs. 

I bowed assent, and straightway "Dixie Land" 
Fell on my ears. Forgotten? No. My pulses throbbed and 
thrilled. 

And was it weakness that mine wyes were filled with tears? 
Ah, well, perhaps it was, but that old song 

Is but the gravestone o'er the buried hopes of other years. 

And as the notes swelled out, now high, now low, 

I saw between the chords, in letters bright and red, 
The birth, the life, the age of that dear cause 

That ne'er will be forgotten, e'en though dead; 
The stricken South, with unstrung bow in hand, 

I saw again amid her mournful scenes, 
Her arrow sped too high and lying lost 

Among a myriad host of sweet, dead dreams. 

Could you, my friend, stand by the grave of one you loved 

And think on any faults that he in life possessed? 
Would you like to dwell on nobler traits 

That put to shame and darkness all the rest? 
So dreaming o'er that past brought back to me — 

No errors saw I, but before my sight 
A vision only came of noble, loyal men 

Fighting — yea, dying — for a cause to them both just and 
right. 

As listening to the music die away, one scene arose 

Whose pathos ne'er on canvas can be given: 
A troop of ragged soldiers weeping o'er a flag, 

All riddled, battle-stained, but dear as hopes of heaven, 
And one, the gentlest memory of our world, 

Stood in their midst, his figure sadly grand, 
Saying good-by to them and to the day 

When life no longer could be given for "Dixie Land." 

And that old song our fathers loved so well, 

Whose words were ofttimes breathed with their last breath, 
Should be to those of Southern birth as dear, 

As loved, "remembered kisses after death." 
A fitting "in memoriam," it seems to me, 

Grief softens anger, and from it a ray 
Makes warm our hearts for those who wore the blue, 

While strengthening love and pride for those who wore the i 
gray. — Elizabeth Lee Murphy. 



Qopfederat^ l/efcerai). 



25 



IN THE BATTLE OF SEVEN PINES. 

BY JOHN COXE, LILLIAS LAKELET, CAL. 

i The Hampton Legion enjoyed a few days of fine weather at 
ilechanicsville, but late in the afternoon of May 30, 1862, 
: here was a great rain storm which so raised the Chickahominy. 
! ohnston figured that communication between the Federal 
orps on the south side of the river and the main Federal 
Dree on the north side was impossible. This view was con- 
..rmed by the report early in the night of his engineers as to 
he great flood in the river. Therefore he decided to attack 
he Federal corps under Keyes on our side of the river at 
raylight the next morning, and very plain and strict orders 
;/ere sent to the commanders chosen to make the attack. 

The Legion got its orders some time after midnight, and 

/hen the rain was slacking up, we immediately got under 

rms, but for some reason didn't start till after daylight, 

nd we had to march about ten miles. Everything was wet 

nd the roads boggy, but we went along at a lively clip. Yet 

re thought it very strange that there was as yet no noise of 

'attle. We reached the Nine Mile Road and were within a 

ouple of miles of the designated rendezvous when we heard 

he first gun of battle, and it was then about 9 A.M. 

Torn the first the firing of both artillery and musketry was 

( .erce. Hood, with his regiments, was in front of us on the 

■fine Mile Road, and pretty soon we heard the roll of his splen- 

:id Enfield rifles in close grip with Casey's Federal division on 

hat road. Then we heard the "rebel yell," by which we 

new Hood's force was driving the Federals. We were put 

lto double quick and very soon came to the ground of Hood's 

rst assault. It had been a complete surprise. Casey's 

ntire camp was captured with all its tents standing and 

reat quantities of all the usual army stores, including hun- 

reds of small arms. Just then a Federal balloon of observa- 

ion rose up from behind a hill on the left and beyond the 

j iver, whereupon a very young recruit of our company 

xcitedly inquired: "Will we get that, too?" Poor boy! He 

or any of us realized then that much bloody fighting was 

ust ahead of us. 

We rushed along in line of battle till we reached the edge of 

long, narrow wheat field. The grain was in head, but still 

Teen. We halted and, while dressing the line, I saw a 

icavy body of Federal infantry cross the lower end of the 

/heat field and enter a large swamp on the left. Here the 

■Tine Mile Road curved to the right, and about a mile ahead 

itersected the Williamsburg Road at a point just nine miles 

rom Richmond, and this was why the road we were on was 

ailed the " Nine Mile Road." We were in sight of Fair Oaks 

tation on the right, and in the neighborhood of which Hood 

/as still pursuing the remnants of Casey's division. We 

ould hear heavy fighting on the Williamsburg Road. 

While resting there in the line of battle, Colonel Hampton 
nade a brief patriotic speech, and then announced that 
nother Confederate line of battle was just about to advance 
ito the big swamp, out of our sight, on the left, and that 
/hen we heard its guns we would advance across the edge of 
he wheat field and into the swamp also. At that time it was 
ot thought many Federals were in that swamp. But see 
ow we were fooled! Meanwhile it was getting late in the 
fternoon. How time seems to fly under the excitement and 
tress of battle. 

Everything was ready, and Hampton on his fine horse had 
ust planted himself in front of the Legion when we heard the 
ifles on our left. This force was said to be a full brigade, 
nder General Hatton, with Gen. G. W. Smith in close touch 
'ith it. Hampton, in his sharp, fine voice, ordered us forward, 



and away we went in quick time with fixed bayonets. It was 
only about two hundred yards across the wheat field to the 
swamp, which contained many trees and a very heavy under- 
growth. We entered the swamp with a great shout and had 
no doubt that we would either drive the Federals into the river 
or capture them. We could hear the fierce fighting on the left, 
but found no enemy in our front till we had penetrated the 
swamp quite a distance. But then all of a sudden the 
Federals seemed to rise up out of the ground in great force, and 
then begun a struggle at close quarters that severely tried the 
mettle of both sides. Men fell in all directions and the smoke 
of battle became so dense that it was difficult to see anything 
at all. Soon after this it was reported to Hampton that the 
troops on our left had fallen back, and then he ordered the 
Legion to withdraw slowly while still keeping up our fire on the 
enemy. When the Federals found this out they pursued us to 
the edge of the swamp, but didn't venture to try to cross the 
wheat field. 

We quickly reformed on the ground of our first position. 
It was twilight then, but Hampton's blood was up and, 
planting himself at our head, he started to lead us in another 
assault on that swamp. But staff officers then present dis- 
suaded him and soon after everything became quiet over the 
whole battle field. We stood there in line of battle till about 
9 p.m., when it developed that Hampton had been painfully 
wounded in one foot, but he insisted on keeping in the saddle 
till our surgeons almost forced him to ride slowly from the field. 
And that ended Col. Wade Hampton's command of Hampton 
Legion, because his wound incapacitated him for quite awhile, 
and when he got well he was appointed brigadier general and 
assigned to the command of cavalry. 

We put out pickets, feasted on Casey's good things, and 
slept well on Federal blankets the remainder of the night. 
Things were quiet next morning, and during the day we learned 
many interesting intelligences. General Hatton, who cam- 
manded the fight on our left the day before, had been killed 
early in the fight, and that explained (?) the withdrawal of 
his brigade at the critical moment of the fight. Gen. Joseph 
E. Johnston himself had been badly wounded in the groin and 
removed from the field, and Gen. G. W. Smith put in tem- 
porary command of that part of our army. Later in the day 
Gen. R. E. Lee was assigned to the command of the whole 
army, which from about that time became the Army of 
Northern Virginia. 

There was no fighting on our front that day, though about 
8 A.M., a lively fight began over on our right, but it died out 
completely by 10 a.m., on that first of June, 1862. 

This ended the bloody battle of Seven Pines, called by the 
Federals, the battle of Fair Oaks, The losses were heavy on 
both sides. The Federals admitted a loss of 5,000 on their 
side, and it was probably more than that on ours. The result as 
to both armies was practically nil. Had the battle been fought 
according to Johnston's plan of attacking at daylight, it is 
likely the issue would have been very favorable to the Con' 
federates. As it was, however, the lateness of the beginning 
of the attack completely neutralized all our advantages from 
the flood in the river. 

McClellan was a great engineer and alert. Becoming 
aware of our delayed preparations for attack long before it 
came to pass, he promptly strengthened his crossings on the 
river and constructed new ones with such rapid success that 
he was able to throw over the river all the reinforcements 
he needed to meet our assaults. Evidently there was much 
fatal blundering on the part of those officers immediately 
in charge of launching the attack. This was noticed at the 
time, but passed over with little or no condemnation. 



26 



^oijfederat^ tfeterai}. 



.wiwisriwiwiwi.'wisr.lw.iw.iwiwisriwisr.isr.iwiwi.wi* 




i 



■ 



i*l*|AIAi*l*l*IAlAlAtA|AI*|At«l*tAIAI*l« 



Sketches in this department are given a half column of 
space without charge; extra space will be charged for at 20 
cents per line. Engravings, $3.00 each. 



"When dim the lights are burning for the soul, 
And from the veteran's vision the shadows roll, 
He sees the cross he followed all those years; 
Lay over him the flag — the flag of tears." 

Robert Boyd. 

Robert Boyd, eighty-three years of age, died in Richmond, 
Va., after a long illness, on October 4, 1921. He was buried 
near his old home in Charlotte County, Va., wrapped in the 
Stars and Bars and wearing his Confederate uniform. 

This good soldier, who never faltered in his devotion, was 
born at Boydton, Mecklenburg County, Va., August 31, 
1838, and was reared amid the surroundings and environ- 
ment most typical of the best traditions of the Old South. 
He was educated at Hampden-Sidney College. 

In 1859 he settled on a cotton plantation in Mississippi; 
but when, in 1861, his native State called to her sons, he left 
his new interests and returned to Virginia to join the Mecklen- 
burg Troop of Cavalry, which became Company A of the 3d 
Virginia Cavalry. He was in a number of the major en- 
gagements, and was with General Stuart when he was killed 
at Yellow Tavern. Just before the surrender he served on 
scout duty under Captain Henly between the armies of Lee 
and Johnston. 

A few years after the war Mr. Boyd married Mrs. Mary E. 
Carrington and removed to Charlotte County, Va., where 
they lived until his wife's death, seven years ago. Here they 
reared their four children, who survive them: Dr. Andrew H. 
Boyd, of Charleston, W. Va.; Mrs. James G. Penn, of Dan- 
ville, Va.; Mrs. Beverly R. Tucker, of Richmond; and Mrs. 
William Cabell Flournoy, of Bay View, Va., who is an ex- 
president of the Virginia Division, U. D. C. 

Our comrade has passed into the Valhalla of the great, 
where awaiting him "under the shade of the trees" he has 
found not only his dear ones, "loved long since and lost 
awhile," but those peerless leaders of the Old South, whose 
memory he treasured with deathless devotion. 

William J. Donahue. 

Comrade William J. Donahue enlisted in the first year of 
the War between the States as a member of Company B, 4th 
Florida Infantry, at Apalachicola, Fla., and served with 
valor and honor throughout the war. 

Some months ago this comrade became very feeble, being 
in his seventy-second year, and became an inmate of the 
Catholic Home for the infirm and helpless at Mobile, Ala., 
where he recently passed away. His sister, also an inmate of 
the Home, was with him to the end. 

Comrade Donahue was past commander of Camp Tom 
Moore, No. 556, U. C. V., at Apalachicola, and while with us 
here was custodian of Messina Hall, our headquarters. He 
was a loyal and dutiful Confederate veteran and a compan- 
ionable member of our camp, whose presence at our social 



meetings will be sadly missed. He was an old subscriber to 
the Confederate Veteran, and the height of his ambition 
and pleasure seemed to be in receiving and reading its con- 
tents. 

Farewell, " Dunnie." May you rest in peace! 
[Fred G. Wilhelm, Adjutant.] 

Eugene O. Walker. 

Rich in length of days and filled with honors, the golden 
harvest of the good deeds done, was the life that ended Octo- 
ber 24, 1921, when Eugene Oscar Walker passed on after 
having completed almost fourscore years. He was born in 
Washington County, Ky., January 13, 1842, a son of David 
Caldwell and Martha Grundy Walker, who emigrated from 
Virginia before his birth. The Walkers were quite prominent 
in Virginia in the early days of the mother commonwealth. 
The great-grandfather of Comrade Walker was a major in 
the Revolutionary War, and was present at Yorktown when 
Lord Cornwallis surrendered to General Washington. The 
most prized among the Walker relics was an old sword 
which this officer wore on that memorable October day 
which marked the end of British dominion in the United 
States. 

Filled with devotion to the South, its institutions and its 
cause, when the call of that beloved Southland went out to 
her manhood Eugene Walker answered that call by enlisting 
in her defense on July 12, 1862, in Company K, 8th Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, under Colonel Cluke, in the command of 
that famous chieftain of the South, Col. John H. Morgan. 
He was one of four brothers who cast their fortunes and their 
honor with the standards of the South. 

In Morgan's celebrated raid into Ohio Comrade Walker 
was taken prisoner and spent the remaining eighteen months 
of the war in Camp Douglas Prison, undergoing hardships the 
like of which is known only to those who have passed through 
that ordeal. 

Although devoted to his beloved South to the end of his 
days and ever loyal to her traditions, yet when the inevitable 
came he accepted the result with that courage and haroism 
born of Southern manhood, and with Father Ryan, the poet 
laureate of the South, sang: 

"Furl that banner, for 'tis weary, 
Round its staff 'tis drooping, dreary; 
Furl it, fold it, let it rest." 

Returning to his native county, he was, on February 27, I 
1866, united in marriage to Miss Mattie Mcllvoy, and took 
up his residence at Walker Heights, the old family home- 
stead, where he continued to reside until a few years ago, 
when, because of failing health, he moved to Springfield to 
make his home. 

Although childless, Mr. and Mrs. Walker early in their 
married life adopted Miss Mattie Mcllvoy, now Mrs. R. L. 
Boldrick, and immediately there sprang up that affection 
between them and this niece which continued to grow through- 
out the years and in the practical sense amounted to the rela- 
tion of parent and child. 

Doubtless the predominating trait of his character was his 
generosity; and a few years ago when good health blessed him 
and his devoted wife, their colonial mansion was the scene of 
many festive and social gatherings at which he presided with 
the ease characteristic of the fine Kentucky gentleman. It 
was a favorite place for the entertainment of both clergymen 
and laymen. The sunshine of this hospitality not only was 



• 



Qoijfederat^ tfeterap. 



27 



to be found on the hilltops among those in high station, 

'but it likewise descended into shadows of the valleys beneath, 
to brighten the hearthstones of the poor and needy. His 
guests included not only those prominent in worldly affairs, 
but "the long-remembered beggar was his guest." 

It afforded him a real pleasure to know that he was help- 
ing some friend or some person in need of assistance. Withal 
he was a man of modest and retiring disposition and rather 
preferred that little be said about his acts of generosity. At 

'all times standing foursquare to every wind that blew, he 
hated all sham or hypocrisy and abhorred him whose outward 

:acts conceal his inmost thoughts. 

Comrade Walker was a prominent farmer and stock raiser 
and took great interest in promoting the live stock industry 

sof the county. For years he was prominently connected with 

1 the Washington County Fair Association. In all matters of 
public interest he was ever to be found on that side which 

"could best promote the general welfare. The work of a life 

: like his does not end with it, but remains as a light for the 

'edification of future generations. 

Funeral services were conducted at St. Dominic's with 
solemn requiem mass, and he was buried in the St. Dominic 

: Cemetery. 

By his special request the uniform which he had honored 

■ and defended in life served as his burial shroud. 

j Capt. Daniel H. Turner. 

Capt. Daniel H. Turner, commander of Egbert J. Jones 
Camp No. 357, U. C. V., died at his home near Huntsville, 

:Ala., on July 25, 1921, in 

: his eightieth year. He 
was born and reared in 
this county, and enlisted 

! for the Confederacy as a 

'private under Capt. E. D. 

' Tracy (afterwards Gen- 
eral Tracy), in April, 1861 . 
On May 2, at Dalton, Ga., 

'with this and nine other 

Companies of the State 
was organized the 4th Ala- 
bama Infantry, command- 
ed by Col. Egbert Jones, 
and Captain Tracy's 
company was afterwards 
known as Company I. 
Daniel Turner was after- 
wards promoted to first 
lieutenant, and was com- 
mander of his comapny capt. daniel h. turner. 

'later in the service. He 

was in the first battle of Manassas and heard General Bee, in 
order to encourage his men, call to the attention of the com- 
mand that Jackson's troops were "standing like a stone wall," 
from which expression the name of "Stonewall" was after- 
wards applied to Gen. Thomas J. Jackson 

Captain Turner was wounded at the battle of Gettysburg, 
and the records show that he was as faithful and gallant a sol- 
dier as he after the war proved a faithful and law-abiding 
citizen. He was for several years commander of his camp, 
was a member of the Masonic order, and was also a devout 
member of the Methodist Church, which he served as an of- 
ficial for several years, and of which his father was a faithful 
minister. There were few things that Captain Turner en- 
joyed more than attending the reunions of his former com- 
rades in arms and talking over the trying times of 1861-65. 




After many weeks of illness taps were sounded for him. 
Funeral services were held at the Methodist church, and then 
his body was borne in the flower-covered' casket, which was 
draped in his beloved Confederate colors, to Maple Hill 
Cemetery, at Huntsville, where the last sad rites were per- 
formed by his Masonic brethren and comrades of Egbert J. 
Jones Camp of Confederate Veterans. 

Captain Turner is survived by his second wife, two sons, a 
daughter, and many grandchildren. 

Hon. R^ansom Gulley. 

Hon. Ransom Gulley, North Carolina bred, Arkansas 
adopted, was one of Arkansas's prominent men — statesman, 
legislator, and State treasurer. He was a member of that 
great body of men who formulated the 1874 Arkansas Con- 
stitution. He was a learned man, gifted as an orator, and 
never failed to charm his auditors with his eloquence. 

He was known throughout Arkansas as a Christian gentle- 
man of the highest and purest type. 

He entered the Confederate army at Batesville, Ark., early 
in May, 1861, in Desha's 7th Arkansas Battalion of Infantry, 
and was, at the organization of that battalion, appointed 
adjutant thereof, with the rank of first lieutenant, by the 
lieutenant colonel commanding, Franklin W. Desha, which 
position he held until May 7, 1862, when that battalion, 
Kelley's Battalion, and the 8th Arkansas Infantry, were con- 
solidated with the latter designation. After this service he 
entered the 36th North Carolina Regiment, which was the 
2d North Carolina Heavy Artillery. 

He was called "Colonel," an appellation given him in later 
years by his many warm and loyal friends in recognition of 
his high standing, a designation most fittingly bestowed. 

He exceeded the proverbial allotment of threescore years 
and ten by twelve years, and all the years of his life were 
filled with benevolence and urbanity. At the time of his 
death he was assistant adjutant general on the staff of the 
commander of the Army of the Trans- Mississippi Depart- 
ment, United Confederate Veterans. 

He died July 31, 1921, at the residence of his daughter, in 
Salina, Kans., in perfect resignation to the will of God. 

[V. Y. Cook, Batesville, Ark.j * 

W. T. Shearon. 

It is with sorrow we chronicle the death of our beloved 
comrade and friend, W. T. Shearon, which occurred October 
13, 1921. He leaves two sons, one daughter, one sister, and 
one brother to mourn the loss of a kind father and brother. 
He was my brother in all the word could mean except in blood, 
my companion in war. He was a Confederate soldier with 
patriotic devotion who espoused his country's cause. He was 
one of the men who stood in the ranks four long years. Only 
God's recording angel has preserved their muster roll, and it 
will be called in a better and purer world than this. 

For never since the morning stars, 

Together sang with joyful song, 
Was purer, braver, nobler men 

Than Southern private soldier known. 

And though on earth there's no reward 

For all his suff'ring, toil, and strife, 
His name, thank God, in realms on high 
Is written in the Book of Life. 
[A Comrade and friend, G. H. Turner, Chapel Hill, Tenn. 



28 



Qoi)federat^ tfefcerai). 



Dr. E. A. Davidson. 

Dr. Elijah A. Davidson was born seventy-six years ago in 
Bedford County, Tenn. At ten years of age he entered the 
home of his uncle, Dr. I. S. Davidson, at Richmond, Tenn., 
where he was reared and treated as one of the family. He 
was sixteen years old when the War between the States 
broke out. 

He enlisted in October, 1861, in Captain Brown's company 
from Richmond, which became a part of the 41st Tennessee 
Regiment Volunteer Infantry, C. S. A. His first fight was 
at Fort Donelson, February, 1862, where he was captured 
and sent to prison at Indianapolis. After eight months' con- 
finement he was exchanged at Vicksburg, Miss., in October, 
1862, served with the 41st Tennessee Regiment in the cam- 
paign around Vicksburg. 

At Port Hudson he was discharged as under military age 
and returned home. 

In 1863 he reenlisted, this time with Company D, 4th 
Tennessee Cavalry (Starnes' Regiment), then under General 
Forrest. 

After the battle of Chickamauga his command was trans- 
ferred to General Wheeler and served with him to the end, 
fighting Sherman through Georgia and surrendering at Wash- 
ington, Ga., with his command in May, 1865. He was a 
brave, chivalrous, and faithful soldier. 

After the war he studied medicine and practiced his profes- 
sion at Richmond, loved, respected, and honored by all. 
Soon after the war he united with the Christian Church and 
had been a faithful member of it. For many years he had 
been an active elder, delighted in Sunday school work, being 
a fine teacher of the Bible class. 

Dr. Davidson was married on February 18, 1885, to Miss 
Lizzie Marks, daughter of Rev. Y. B. Marks. Their home 
was a happy one and ever open to the preacher. Two chil- 
dren, Marks Davidson, of Petersburg, and Mrs. Nellie Shoff- 
ner, of Flat Creek, survive him. 

He died October 19 at his home at Richmond, Tenn., la- 
mented by his loved ones and friends. He was laid to rest in 
the Old Orchard Cemetery, at Petersburg, Tenn. The grave 
must receive its own. Christ is our only Shield. 

[T. C. Little.] ^ 

Richard Erwin McWilliams. 

Richard E. McWilliams was born in Wilcox County, 
Ala., December 3, 1845, and died at Camden, Ala., August 
25, 1921. 

In 1862, when a lad of sixteen years, he volunteered in 
Company B, First Alabama Infantry, C. S. A. He was taken 
prisoner at Island No. 10 and when released in the first gen- 
eral exchange at Vicksburg, Miss., he rejoined his regiment. 
He was with Johnston and Hood in Middle Tennessee and 
Georgia, and was captured at Franklin, Tenn. He was then 
confined at Fort Douglas until the end of the war. 

Returning to Wilcox County, he settled in Camden and 
entered into the mercantile business. In November, 1869, 
he was married to Miss Amelia L. Coats, of Dallas County, 
Ala., and this union was blessed with ten children, all of 
whom are now living and there are twenty-three grand- 
children, two great-grandchildren. 

For thirty-five years he served his Church and his God as 
elder and clerk of the session. 

No soldier bore the trials and the hardships with greater 
fortitude or with more zeal and unremitting love for the South 
and her cause than R. E. McWilliams. In his death the South 
has lost one of her most loved sons, while heaven has one more 
to join the fast growing camp of the boys in gray. 




HENRY HOLMES. 



With Masonic rites he was laid to rest by the side of his 
wife, who had preceded him twenty years, wearing the Con- 
federate gray, with the gray haired veterans as honorary 
pall bearers, and the flag of Dixie upon his casket. 

Henry Holmes. 

On October 6 there passed into the great beyond the ex- 
emplary citizen, the devoted Christian, and veteran soldier 

of the Confederacy, Henry 
Holmes, at his home, near 
Carthage, Tex. His re- 
mains were interred in the 
beautiful cemetery near 
Antioch Church, in which 
he worshiped and which he 
loved so well. A large 
crowd of relatives and 
sympathizing friends were 
present to do honor to his 
memory. 

Henry Holmes was born 
in Twiggs County, Ga., in 
the year 1839. He moved 
to Barber County, Ala., 
with his parents when a 
small boy, where he grew 
to manhood, pretty much 
as other boys on the farm. 
In 1861, when the storm 
of war was gathering over 
our fair Southland, he was among the first to volunteer. He 
enlisted in Company A, 5th Alabama Infantry, with which he 
served throughout the war. With that dauntless courage 
which characterized the Southern soldier, he laid down the 
trappings of war at Appomattox and, weary and tattered and 
hungry, turned his steps homeward to take up the imple- 
ments of farm life and restore a blighted and desolate land. 

Sometime in the early seventies he was married to Miss 
Frances Hunt and came to Texas, settling on the home where 
he lived and died. To this union were born five children. He 
was subsequently married three times, surviving all but the 
last wife, who was Mrs. Carry Baker and by whom he had 
two children. Nine children in all blessed his married life, all 
of whom survive him. 

As a citizen he was held in high esteem, law-abiding and 
faithful in performance of all duties devolving upon him. 

As a Christian he was loyal and devoted to his Church, hold- 
ing fast to the faith once delivered to the saints, and died in 
the triumph of the Christian hope and faith. 

As a veteran of the Southern cause his service and devotion 
compel admiration. No truer, no braver soldier marched 
under the Stars and Bars of the Confederacy. Entering the 
army in 1861, he served continuously to the close — from the 
battle of Seven Pines before Richmond to Appomattox. He 
participated in nearly every great battle of the Army of 
Northern Virginia, and all through that inferno of blood and 
carnage and by a miraculous fortune never received a serious 
wound. To this old soldier of the Cross and Southern cause 
we freely yield our love and admiration. He lived to noble 
purpose — to serve his God and country with rare courage and 
loyalty. He has crossed over the river to join his comrades on 
"fame's eternal camping ground." Peace to his ashes and in 
rest to his loyal and weary soul! May his stalwart sons follow 
his footsteps and emulate his life! 
[A Comrade.] 



Qogfederat^ tfeterai?. 



29 




GEN. E. SHAPHARD. 



Gen. Evander Shapard, U. C. V. 

On August 15, 1921, Gen. Evander Shapard, Past Command- 
I ;r of the Tennessee Division, U. C. V., died at his home in 
5helbyville, Tenn. He 
ivas born in Fayetteville, 
Tenn., November 2, 1843. 
After mature thought 
ind study he became con- 
vinced that the States 
forming the compact of 
the United States were 
sovereign under the Con- 
stitution, and, therefore, 
ithat the Southern States 
had the right to secede 
:from that compact, so in 
October, 1861, he answered 
'the call of the South by 
joining Company F of the 
41st Tennessee Tnfantry. 
His first battle was at 
Fort Donelson, in Feb- 
ruary, 1862, where, with 
his regiment, he was cap- 
tured and remained in a 
Northern prison for seven 

months, being exchanged at Vicksburg, Miss., in September, 
.1862. After being exchanged the regiment was reorganized 
>and assigned to the Army of Tennessee, and Evander Shapard 
■was made sergeant major of the regiment. From that time 
rhe participated in every engagement of the Army of Tennessee 
: until the surrender, and he was honorably paroled at Greens- 
boro, N. C, on May 1, 1865 — having obeyed every order and 
done his full duty as a Confederate soldier. After the war he 
J was very active in rebuilding his State, devasted by the four 
years of war. 

In June, 1888, Comrade Shapard organized the William 
,-Frierson Bivouac of Confederate soldiers at Shelby ville, 
Tenn., and was elected its president. In October, 1889, the 
Tennessee Division of Confederate soldiers elected him as one 
of the Trustees of the Confederate Home, which position he 
held until January, 1917, when the Home was placed under the 
management of a State Board of Control. In October, 1916, 
the Tennessee Division U. C. V., elected him as its commander, 
with the rank of major general, and this he held until October, 
1918, when he voluntarily refused reelection, though it was 
tendered him unanimously. 

He was obliging, gentle, and true in every relation of life, 
and Confederate veterans suffered an irreparable loss in his 
death. Of him it may be justly said: 

"He was a man, take him for all in all, 
I shall not look upon his like again." 
All honor to him as a true gentleman and a gallant Con- 
federate soldier. 
[John P.Hickman.] 

W. J. Willingham. 

Lieut. W. J. Willingham, a member of Jim Pirtle Camp, 
U. C. V., of Fulton, Ky., the last of four brothers who served 
the Confederacy in the sixties, fell on sleep the night of July 
31, 1921, after a few days' illness. He had reached the age of 
eighty-six years; was born and lived nearly all of his time in 
Graves County, Ky., with the exception of the last seventeen 
months. 

When war was declared in 1861, Comrade Willingham 



volunteered his services to his country; but as Kentucky had 
not then gone into the fray, he joined the 12th Tennessee as 
a member of Company E, and fought with them twelve 
months in the rearguard; he was then transferred to the 3rd 
Kentucky for the rest of the war, and was paroled on June 22, 
1865. 

Lieutenant Willingham was married to Miss Sarah Wil- 
lingham (a cousin) just before the close of the great struggle, 
and afterwards settled down on a farm close to his childhood 
home. A few years later, his wife having died, leaving two 
children, he moved to Water Valley, Ky., in the same county, 
and went to merchandising, in which he continued for many 
years, during which he married Miss Maggie Roach, and to 
them'were given seven children. This wife died some thirty 
years ago. Eight of his children survive him. 

He loved to recount his thrilling experiences in the sixties 
and had been an enthusiastic reader of the Veteran since the 
first; he seldom missed a reunion of his comrades. At the age 
of fifty-five he professed faith in Jesus Christ and tenaciously 
clung to the old John Wesley paths until death. 

In sadness is this humble tribute paid to his memory, trust- 
ing all is well with his soul. 

[One who loved him — M. II. \\\] 

Col. William H. Coley. 

Taps has sounded for another immortal, and Col. William 
H. Coley has answered to the last roll call. 

Colonel Coley was born 
in Milan, Gibson County, 
Tenn., on June 8, 1847, 
and in January 1862, when 
not fifteen years, of age, he 
enlisted in the Confederate 
army, joining Company A, 
10th Tennessee Cavalry, 
and served honorably with 
the regiment throughout 
the war, taking part in all 
of its engagements in the 
campaigns of Gen. N. B. 
Forrest, and surrendering at 
Gainesville, Ala., on May 
10, 1865. 

Colonel Coley was ex- 
mayor of Milan, and had 
held a number of other 
civic positions by the votes 
col. WM. h. coley. f his fellow citizens. For 

his devotion to duty as a 
soldier and his upright living as a citizen, the Confederate 
veterans of West Tennessee elected him as one of the members 
of the Board of Pension Examiners in July, 1906, and he had 
been unanimously reelected every two years since. In Octo- 
ber, 1911, he was made President of the Board, and so con- 
tinued to the end. While Commander of the United Con- 
federate Veterans, Gen. Bennett H. Young appointed him as a 
member of his staff with the rank of colonel, and it was an 
honor worthily bestowed. He was a life-long member of the 
Baptist Church and a consistent Christian. 

Colonel Coley was the owner of the largest drug store in 
Milan, and was engaged in a number of other lucrative 
enterprises. His wife died some years ago, but a son and 
daughter survive him, the son, Robert L. Coley, being as- 
sociated in the drug business with his father. 

On Sunday afternoon, July 31, 1921, Colonel Coley died 




30 



Qopfederat^ l/eteraij. 




at the Baptist Memorial Hospital in the City of Memphis, 
and in his death the South lost one of her noble defenders, his 
State an honorable citizen, and his Church a devout Christian 
and faithful member. 

Gen. Benjamine Hammet Teague. U. C. V. 

Benjamine Hammet Teague, a prominent member of the 
United Confederate Veterans' Association, was born in Aiken, 
S. C, October 20, 1846. His 
youth was spent in the city of 
Charleston, and his education 
was directed by such well- 
known teachers as B. R. 
Carroll and Dr. Henry Bruns. 

When the guns at the en- 
trance of Charleston harbor 
opened upon the Star of the 
West and Fort Sumter, thus 
commencing the drama of the 
Confederate War, he burned to 
volunteer, but parental au- 
thority consented only to his 
becoming a member of the 
then only boy company of 
volunteers in the State, the 
Pickens Rifles, made up of the 
older pupils of his school. 
These did valuable camp and 
guard duty about the city of gen. b. h. teague. 

Charleston. When seventeen 

years of age, he promptly obeyed the call of his country 
and joined Company B, Hampton's Legion, South Carolina 
Volunteers, Gary's Cavalry Brigade, Army of Northern 
Virginia, and served the Confederacy gallantly until the sur- 
render at Appomattox. During ths last few months of the 
war his health broke down from improper food, but he refused 
to go to a hospital and did his duty to the end. He prided 
himself that during his time of service he never missed an 
engagement with the enemy and was never wounded nor cap- 
tured. 

At the inception of the organization of the United Confeder- 
ate Veterans, he organized Camp Barnard E. Bull, No. 84, 
at Aiken, S. C, the first camp of continuous existence in the 
State. He represented his State on the two standing Com- 
mittees of the U. C. V. Association, the Jefferson Davis 
Monumental Committee, and the Board of Trustees of the 
Confederate Memorial Association. He was elected Brigadier 
General, Commander of the 2nd Brigade of the South Caro- 
lina Division, U. C. V., and later Major General Commanding 
the Division. 

General Teague was a member of the dental profession and 
resided and practiced in Aiken, S. C, for forty-eight years. 

In 1874 he married Miss Julia Parker, of Edgefield, S. C, 
who survives him with two daughters. 

He was a faithful member of St. Thaddeus Episcopal 
Church and served for many years as a warden. It was while 
attending service at his beloved church on February 27, that 
he received his call to go up higher, and he went from God's 
earthly tabernacle to a heavenly one. The funeral services 
were conducted from St. Thaddens Church, and his body 
rested for the last night on earth within its sacred walls 
under guard of the American Legion, and early the next 
morning was taken to Charleston, where he was laid to rest in 
his family lot in historic old Magnolia Cemetery. His body 
was conducted to the grave by an escort of cadets from the 
Citadel, and while the bugler sounded the solemn requiem of 



"Taps," the color bearer held the Confederate flag over th 
grave as his body was lowered to its last resting place. 

" Now the laborer's task is ended. 

Now the battle day is past, 
Now upon the farther shore, 

Lands the voyager at last. 
Father, in thy gracious keeping 
Leave me now thy servant sleeping." 

Charlton G. Duke. 

After a year or more of failing health, Charlton G. Dukt 
until the last three years a resident of Christian County, Ky 
died at the home of 
his daughter, in Hunt- 
ington Park, Los An- 
geles, Cal., at the 
age of seventy-six 
years. Formanyyears 
he owned and oper- 
ated a farm near 
Hopkinsville, and he 
was also an expert 
road builder, many 
of the pikes of the 
county having been 
laid out by him; and 
he was the first manu- 
facturer of concrete 
blocks in Hopkins- 
ville. 

Comrade Duke 
was a veteran of the 
Confederacy, hav- 
ing served with dis- 
tinction as a first lieut- 
enant of Company A, 
22nd Kentucky Infantry. Enlisting in April, 1864, as a lacl 
of seventeen, he first served under Col. Lee A. Sypert, in Gen 
Adam R. Johnson's command, taking part in several hoi 
engagements. After Johnson received the wound whicl 
caused his blindness, at Grubb's Crossroads, Ky., youny 
Duke was a follower of Colonel Chenowith, under Gen. H. B 
Lyon, then commanding the forces in Weatern Kentucky 
He and his brother, John C. Duke, and a cousin, Capt 
Lindsey Buckner, were sent from Paris, Tenn., back intc 
Kentucky to gather up some of the men who had become 
separated from the command, when they were captured an< 
sent to Louisville as prisoners. These three and Capt. C. B 
Wallace were selected by General Burbridge to be shot ir 
retaliation for the killing of a mail carrier by guerrillas, but 
the intercession of influential friends and the payment of a 
large sum of money, saved the Duke boys and Captair 
Wallace, but Captain Buckner and others were sacrificed b> 
the inhuman Federal. Lieutenant Duke was then sent tc 
Johnson's Island and his brother to Camp Chase until thi 
close of the war. 

Returning to Kentucky in June, 1865, he located in Chris- 
tian County and engaged in farming. He was a man of high 
ideals, strict integrity, generous and sympathetic in disposi- 
tion, and a devoted member of the Methodist Church. Hi; 
wife survives him with two daughters and two sons — C. R. 
Duke, of Portville, Cal., and Lionel Duke, of Hopkinsville, 
Ky. The daughters are Mrs. P. E. West and Mrs. I. N. 
Shrader, of Huntington Park, Cal. 




CHARLTON G. DUKE AND GRANDSON. 



Qpofederat^ l/efcerag. 



31 




DR. J. C. LOC-GINS. 



Dr. J. C. Loggins. 

James Campbell Loggins was born near Tuscaloosa, Ala., 
on December 7, 1845, but some five years later his parents 
removed to Grimes County, 
Tex., and there, when only- 
fifteen years old, he entered 
the Confederate Army as a 
private in Hood's Texas 
Brigade. And he served with 
this famous command in all 
its hard fought battles and 
glorious victories until he 
was captured at Gettysburg. 
He was held as a prisoner of 
war for over a year, mainly 
at Fort Deleware, from which 
he escaped on the night of 
July 1, 1864, by swimming 
Daleware Bay, with five 
other Texas boys — William 
Givens, Charley Settle, Ed 
Welch, John Haggerty, and 
J. E. Deupree, of whom the 
latter only failed to make 
good his escape 

After the war Jim Loggins graduated at the great medical 
college in New Orleans, and was later one of the most 
prominent and successful physicians in Texas. I never 
knew a braver or a better man. He stood high in the army, 
and in civil life, he was ever active and prominent in the 
affairs of both Church and State. 

Though we had kept in close touch ever since the war, our 
first meeting in that time was at the Dallas Fair about ten 
years ago. We met there by agreement, and the first night 
we actually sat up and talked all night. Since then I have 
often enjoyed the hospitality of his elegant home in Ennis, 
Tex. Now that he is gone and his place can never be filled in 
this life, I can only look forward to an eternal reunion with 
him in the blessed "Haven of Rest." I fondly hope that my 
last days may be as calm and happy as his, for he gently 
passed away in his sleep. A son and daughter survive him. 

My dear old comrade and I had planned to meet at our 
next State reunion and then to spend the remainder of the 
summer together, but alas for human hopes! 

[J. E. Deupree.] 

Mat. W. J. Milner. 

On February 17, 1921, there passed away at his winter home 
in Tampa, Fla., Maj. Willis J. Milner, a distinguished Con- 
federate veteran and one of nature's noblemen. 

Major Milner enlisted in the Confederate Army as a private 
when only seventeen years old, and emerged at the end of the 
war a major at the age of twenty-one. 

Enlisting as a private in Company A (Clinch Rifles), 
5th Georgia Regiment, at Pensacola, early in August, 1861, 
he was in the battle on Santa Rosa Island, fought by volunteers 
on the night of October 8, 1861. He served in East Tennessee 
and in Bragg's North Mississippi campaign, also in his 
march through Kentucky in 1862; was wounded in the battle 
of Murfreesboro, December 31, 1862. In January, 1863, he 
was transferred to Company D, 33rd Alabama Regiment, 
Wood's Brigade, Cleburne's Division, Army of Tennessee. 
In February or March he was promoted to first lieutenant 
and placed in command of Company K. Served in Bragg's 
Chickamauga campaign, and was wounded in that battle. In 



October, 1863, was appointed adjutant, 33rd Alabama 
Regiment. Was in Johnston's Dalton-Atlanta camppaign, 
almost a continuous battle for seventy-three days; was 
appointed aid de camp, rank of captain, staff of Brigadier 
General Lowrey, July 1, 1864. In September, assigned to 
duty as acting assistant inspector general of brigade. He 
was in Hood's Georgia and Alabama campaign and on his 
march to Nashville. Wounded at Spring Hill, Tenn., Novem- 
ber 29, 1864, but not seriously. Was in battle of Franklin 
next day. There Captain O. S. Palmer, A. A. G., of Brigade, 
was mortally wounded and Captain Milner was assigned to 
his duties. 

In reorganization of the Army of Tennessee by Gen. Joseph 
E. Johnston, in North Carolina, in 1865, the 17th and 33rd 
Alabama Regiments were consolidated, and Captain Milner 
was selected as major of the consolidated regiment. Was 
paroled as major when the Army of Tennessee surrendered at 
Greensboro, N. C, April 26, 1865. Reached home, Greenville, 
Ala., May 25, 1865. 

Battles engaged in: Santa Rosa Island, October 8, 1861; 
Farmington, Miss., May, 1862; Murfreesboro, Tenn., Decem- 
ber 31, 1862; McLemore's Cove, Ga., September, 1863; 
Chickamauga, September, 1863; Missionary Ridge, November, 
1863; Ringgold Gap, Ga., November 27, 1863;. Rocky Face, 
Ga., May, 1864; Resaca, Ga., May, 1864; New Hope Church, 
May, 1864; Pickett's Mill, May, 1864; Lost Mountain, June, 
1864; Pine Mountain, June, 1864; Kenesaw Mountain, July, 
1864; Atlanta, July 21 and 22, 1864; Peachtree Creek; 
Jonesboro, Ga., August and September, 1864; Lovejoy, Ga., 
September, 1864; Spring Hill, Tenn., November 29, 1864; 
Franklin, Tenn., November 30, 1864; Nashville, Tenn., 
December 15, 1864; Nashville, Tenn., December 16, 1864. 

Major Milner was twice cited for gallantry under fire, and 
on one occasion when he was carrying a dispatch he had to 
ride between the lines of the Confederate and Federal forces, 
exposed to the fire of both sides. The enemy were so im- 
pressed with his intrepid bravery that they suspended their fire 
until he had passed the danger zone. 

He was one of the pioneers of Birmingham, Ala., and one of 
the builders of that great city. A well-known man of Bir- 
mingham, in writing of Major Milner said; " He did more for 
Birmingham and its people than any man, living or dead." 

He was a consistent and devoted member of the Episcopal 
Church and a Mason. 

Major Milner never aspired to political office, but was a 
keen observer of political events, a great student of history, 
and a writer of talent. 

As an engineer he stood very high, having designed and 
superintended the construction of the Birmingham water 
works plant, the Belt Railroad, the development of all that 
part of the South Highlands which belonged to the Elyton 
Land Company, and especially Highland Avenue, which is 
admired as one of the most beautiful streets in America. 

Major Milner's vision of the future was prophetic. Some 
of his plans made forty years ago were to meet present con- 
ditions, which they have done with remarkable accuracy. 

While as tender hearted and gentle as a woman, his firmness 
could not be shaken where any question of right or wrong was 
involved. 

Major Milner reached the ripe age of seventy-nine years, 
and has been mourned and missed by hundreds, if not thous- 
ands, of our people who knew and loved him. 



Judge H. H. Cook, one of the "Immortal Six Hundred," died 
in Franklin, Tenn., recently. Sketch will appear in February 
Veteran. 



32 



Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 



XUniteb IDaugbters of tbe Gonfefceraq? 

Mrs. Livingston Rowe Schuyler, President General 
New Vork City 



Mrs. Frank Harrold, Americus, Ga First Vice President General 

Mrs. Bennett D. Bell, Nashville, Tenn Second Vice President General 

Mrs. W. E. Massey, Hot Springs, Ark Third Vice President General 

Mrs. R. D. "Wright, Newberry, S. C Recording Secretary General 

Miss Ai-LIE Gardner, Ozark, Ala Corresponding Secretary General 



Mrs. Amos Norris, Tampa, Fla Treasurer General 

Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Wytheville, Va Historian General 

Mrs. F.annie R. Williams, Newton, N. C Registrar General 

Mrs. William D. Mason, Philadelphia, Pa Custodian of Crosses 

Mrs. J. H. Crenshaw, Montgomery, Ala. . . Custodian of Flags and Pennants 



[All communications for this department should be sent direct to Mrs. A. B. White, Official Editor, Paris, Tenn.] 



FROM THE PRESIDENT GENERAL. 

To the United Daughters of the Confederacy: In the letter 
which I sent last month by mail to each of the Chapters I 
expressed my deep appreciation of the great honor you had 
done me in electing me to the highest office within your gift 
and also outlined the work for the coming year to which we 
have pledged ourselves. May I ask you to see that that letter is 
read to the Chapter members for their information? 

The many letters which I have received sound but one note, 
and that note is a willingness to serve. This fills me with 
gratitude and hope — gratitude that you have offered this 
service and hope that with this spirit of cooperation animat- 
ing our membership we shall be able to carry forward suc- 
cessfully all that we have undertaken. 

The Lee Memorial Chapel. — The Convention, at the time 
when it pledged itself to build this chapel, also recommended 
that we observe January by memorial collections, asking the 
cooperation of all organizations and Churches. The import- 
ance of this work as presenting to the world the spirit of our 
organization cannot be overestimated, since the present 
resting place of our great leader is annually visited by thou- 
sands of pilgrims from our own land and from across the seas. 
There are, besides our pledges, two things which I would 
urge you to do. The first is to increase our membership, 
the second is to complete our registration. To increase our 
membership two plans suggest themselves. The first of 
these plans is the formation of Chapters composed of women 
between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five. There are 
many reasons why this would be of advantage; the most 
obvious is the difficulty which younger women find in working 
with those of a more mature age. They hesitate to take any 
initiative, and consequently lose interest, because no one can 
keep a sustained interest in any work in which she does not 
play an active part. No one of our present Chapters needs to 
fear that this will diminish its own membership, for there are 
thousands of women eligible to the great privileges which this 
organization offers who have not as yet become members. 
These same women are active in many and varied interests 
which supply no permanent benefit, and thus they dissipate 
the energies which properly belong to us. 

The second of these plans is a membership drive. In order 
that this may receive the benefit that comes from concerted 
action, I would suggest that we select a date in February on 
which to carry out this idea. Three of our great generals 
were born in this month — Albert Sidney Johnston, on the 
second, Joseph Eggleston Johnston, on the thrid, and J. E. 
B. Stuart, on the sixth. Let each Chapter strive to imitate 
in this month their fighting spirit, and I am sure we shall carry 
all before us and bring into our ranks many willing volunteers. 
We must reach out and gather in these younger women to-day, 
o r we shall lose them forever. We stand at the dividing 
line between the generation which knew the past by personal 



experience and those who will learn of it from books. These 
are they who must carry on the work so splendidly begun by 
our mothers. 

To complete our registration it is necessary that each 
Division Registrar should send to our Registrar General 
three application blanks filled out for every member registered 
in the division. Many have felt that this legislation of the 
general organization was an unnecessary hardship and in 
some way a reflection upon their right of membership. But 
this is not so, for it must be remembered that our organiza- 
tion is widely extended now and will be more widely extended 
in future years, and that it is only fair to future generations 
that they should be able to ovtain from a central repository 
in authoritative forms the facts concerning their ancestors' 
services. It would be a shame were these glorious deeds 
suffered to fall into oblivion. 

It has just been my privilege to be the guest of the Mary- 
land Division at its annual convention, and the house 
guest of the Division President, Miss Bright, whose delight- 
ful hospitality brought me into touch with a household which 
I shall long remember. Maryland has done fine work under 
this popular woman's leadership, and with the spirit of har- 
mony and cooperation evidenced at the convention, Maryland 
will, I am sure, accopmlish a great work during this coming 
year. 

Our organization within the last month has lost two most 
valued members. Mrs. John P. Poe, of Maryland, Honorary 
President of the general organization, was a woman whose 
life and work were conspicious in the formative days of this 
organization. Her sweet character and gentle manner en- 
deared her to all with whom she came in contact. The death 
of Mrs. Simon Baruch, Honorary President of the New York 
Division, means to me a very personal grief. Born in South 
Carolina, and married to one who gave conspicious service 
as a surgeon in the Confederate Army, her home in New York 
was a center of gracious hospitality. Her generous nature 
gave freely without thought of return, and she saw in every 
one the reflection of her own goodness. 

Faithfully yours, Leonora Rogers Schuyler. 



THE CONVENTION AT ST. LOUIS. 

REPORTED BY MRS. FRANK HARROLD, AMERICUS, GA. 

The twenty-fourth annual convention of the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy was held in St. Louis, Mo., 
November 8 to 12, 1921, official headquarters of the gathering 
being in the Statler Hotel. 

Standing out with supreme interest in a program replete 
with important and gratifying reports, was the report of Mrs. 
Roy Weeks McKinney, President-General. This had been 
awaited with intense expectation, particularly in view of the 
fact that it marked the culmination of Mrs. McKinney's 
remarkable administration as head of the organization. 



Qopfederat^ Ueterap. 



33 



In the course of her report Mrs. McKinney gave an item- 
ized and detailed account of the final settlement with the 
courts of theHector W. Church bequest to the U. D. C. This 
bequest was made by a former soldier on the Union side 
during the War between the States and is symbolic of the 
ever-growing significance of the adjective "United" in the 
proud name of our beloved country. 

The money is to be used to perpetuate the fame of Jefferson 
Davis, of Gen. Robert E. Lee, of Gen. John B. Gordon, and 
of Gen. Jubal Early. After giving a list of the general assets 
of the estate, Mrs. McKinney recommended to the convention 
that the securities be held as a permanent fund and the in- 
terest invested in United States bonds until the total amount 
. reaches $12,000, when it shall be divided into four scholarships 
to be named respectively for the four great Southerners in 
whose memory it was given. This recommendation was unani- 
. mously adopted by the convention. 

Mrs. McKinney also recommended that we accept the 
splendid gift presented by Mr. Frederick C. Hibbard and that, 
.we proceed at once to have this tablet placed in St. Johns 
Church, Fort Hamilton. 

She also urged that the U. D. C, assume responsibility for 
the completion of the Jefferson Davis monument now in 
course of construction at his birthplace in Kentucky. 
All these recommendations were unanimously adopted. 
In briefly summarizing the .outstanding achievements sig- 
nalized at the 1921 convention, the following stand out in 
.memory with utmost clarity: 

1. Completion of the Hero Scholarship Fund of §50,000, in 
honor of veterans of the World War. 

2. The determination to complete the erection of the 
Jefferson Davis Monument, officially turned over to the 
U. D. C, by General Haldeman, president of the Jefferson 

.Davis Monument Association. 

3. Fireproofing and renovating of the Lee Memorial 
, Chapel at Lexington, Va. 

4. The installation of an elevator in the American Hospital 
at Neuilly, France, as a memorial to the American boys who 
cheerfully gave up their lives on the soil of France that the 
world might be freed from the menace of militaristic autoc- 
racy. 

5. The decision to contribute to the fund now being raised 
for a monument to be erected in Louisiana as a memorial to 
General Mouton. 

6. The completion of the necessary fund to assist in placing 
a boulder at Harper's Ferry in commemoration of the loyalty 
of the slave who was slain by John Brown. 

And in conclusion, the reading by Miss Poppenheim, of 
the first report from the Major General de Polignac Chapter 
in Paris, France, the Marquise de Courtivron, president. 
This incident carried with it a delightful charm and sentiment 
which was quick in its reaction upon the hearts of the dele- 
gates who heard it. 

The convention sent a message to former President 
Woodrow Wilson, congratulating him upon his successful 
efforts in bringing the war to a close. 

Our Historian General, Mrs. A. A. Campbell, of Wytheville, 
Va., cannot be given too much praise for the brilliant evening 
she contributed to the success of the convention. Her address 
was a masterly effort, replete with historical data. 

Miss Armida Moses's report on Education was most excel- 
lent, and was received with enthusiasm. 

The work of the Committee on Southern Literature and the 
indorsement of books for schools and books for foreign 
libraries was commended. 

The report of the chairman of the committee in charge of 



the effort now being put forth to erect a suitable memorial 
monument to Matthew Fontaine Maury, "The Pathfinder of 
the Seas." renewed interest in this important work. 

In her report as President of the Confederate Memorial 
Literary Society, Miss Sallie Archer Anderson, of Richmond, 
Va., told of many thousands who have visited the Confederate 
Museum in that city during the past year. Mrs. Norman 
Randolph's report on Confederate Woman's Relief was also 
highly gratifying and of intense interest. 

An outstanding event of the convention was the wonderful 
report of growth, in numbers, in spirit, and in enthu- 
siasm, given by the Director General of the Children of the 
Confederacy, Mrs. R. P. Holt, of North Carolina. She was 
unreservedly congratulated, both by the convention as a whole 
and by all individuals, on the success of her administration in 
this vitally important junior organization. 

The Jefferson Davis National Highway Asosciation pre- 
sented maps of the proposed route of this highway to every 
delegate present. The importance of rapid work on this pro- 
ject was stressed, particularly in view of the fact that the 
naming of highways in all sections of the country is going 
forward at a rapid rate. 

Impressive memorial services were held during the conven- 
tion under the direction of Mrs. Charles R. Hyde. 

The Armistice Day program was most impressive. Two 
minutes of silent prayer left every woman in the house in 
tears. 

The presence of two ex-Presidents General, Miss Mary 
B. Poppenheim, of Charleston, S. C, Mrs. Cornelia Branch 
Stone, of Galveston, Tex., and two Honorary Presidents, 
Miss Mildred Rutherford, of Athens, Ga., and Mrs. Algernon 
Sidney Sullivan, of New York, added immeasurably to the 
success of the convention. Mrs. Norman V. Randolph, of 
Richmond, was absent on account of illness, and a telegram 
expressing regret for her absence was sent to her by the con- 
vention. 

Dr. Henry Lewis Smith, President of Washington and Lee 
University, contributed an interesting address to the program, 
and asked the Daughters to aid in the raising of the Lee 
Memorial Fund. 

Miss Rutherford made a stirring appeal for Stone Mountain 
Memorial Fund. 

Mr. Matthew Page Andrews gave a detailed report and 
review of the book, "Women of the South in War Times." 

Members of the Missouri Division presented a wrist watch 
to Mrs. J. P. Higgins, of St. Louis, chairman of the convention 
committee, for her work in arranging for the convention; 
and Mrs. McKinney, theretiring President General, was given 
a silver tea service by the Kentucky delegates. 

The following prizes for special work during the year were 
awarded: 

The Raines Banner for greatest historical work done during 
the year went to Georgia. 

The Rose Loving Cup, for the best essay written by a 
Daughter of the Confederacy on "Raphael Semmes," was 
awarded to Mrs. Nellie C. Ellerbee, Marion, S. C. 

The Anna Robinson Andrews Medal, for the best essay 
written by a Daughter of the Confederacy on "The Women of 
the Confederacy," went to Miss Decca Lamar West, Waco, 
Tex. 

Youree prize for Division sending the largest number 
of World War Records was awarded to Mrs. Lee Trammell, 
Director for Georgia. 

Youree prize for largest per capita list of descendants of 
Confederate veterans in the service of our country in the 
World War was given to Mrs. A. L. Dowdell. 



34 



Qoijfederat^ l/eterap. 



A Soldier's Prize, $20 for the best essay written by a Daugh- 
ter of the Confederacy on "Southern-Born Division Com- 
manders in the World War," went to Mrs. James M. Kelly, 
Wytheville, Va. 

The Roberts Medal, for the second best essay submitted 
in the entire contest was won by Mrs. Sarah Ramsey Robin- 
son, Springfield, Mo. 

The Hyde Medal for best essay written by a Daughter of 
the Confederacy on the subject, "The Confederate Navy," 
went to Mrs. R. Philip Holt, of Rocky Mount, N. C. 

The Orrin Randolph Smith Medal, given by Miss Jessica 
R. Smith for best essay on Jefferson Da\is, was awarded to 
Mrs. Frank Morrison, Washington, D. C. 

The Robert H. Ricks Banner was won by the Thomas 
Jethro Brown Chapter of Winston-Salem, N. C. 

The Tempie Battle Marriott Prize was won by the Annie 
K. Kyle Chapter of Fayetteville, N. C, with one hundred and 
fifty new members this year. 

The Bettie Marriott Whitehead Prize, a silver bar with large 
C. of C. emblem, was won by Mrs. H. C. Strayhorn, of Thom- 
asville, N. C, who registered last year nearly one thousand 
new members in C. of C. Chapters. 

The Mildred Rutherford Historical Medal was awarded 
to the Denver, Colo., Chapter for the fifth time. 

The Florence Coalder Faris Medal went to Gate wood Jones 
of Denton, Tex. 

On Thursday morning, November 10, the election of of- 
ficers for the ensuing year was held, with the following re- 
sult: President General, Mrs. Livingston Rowe Schuyler, 
New York; First Vice President General, Mrs. Frank Har- 
rold, Americus, Ga.; Second Vice President General, Mrs. 
Bennett D. Bell, Nashville, Tenn.; Third Vice President 
General, Mrs. W. E. Massey, Hot Springs, Ark.; Recording 
Secretary General, Mrs. R. D. Wright, Newbery, S. C. ; Corres- 
ponding Secretary General, Miss Allie Garner, Ozark, Ala.; 
Treasurer General, Mrs. Amos Norris, Tampa, Fla.; Historian 
General Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Wytheville, Va. ; Registrar Gener- 
al, Mrs. F. M. Williams, Newton, N. C. ; Custodian of Crosses of 
Honor, Mrs. W. D. Mason, Chestnut Hill, Pa.; Custodian of 
Flags and Pennants, Mrs. J. H. Crenshaw, Montgomery, 
Ala. 

The installation of new officers is always impressive. On 
Saturday evening the entire body of incoming officers was 
presented to the convention by Mrs. McKinney, retiring 
President General and the duties and obligations of the various 
offices delivered to them. 

Mrs. Schuyler, the new President General, announced the 
Convention adjourned to meet in Birmingham, Ala., in No- 
vember, 1922. 

Social Features. 

Social functions, which marked the convention, were delight- 
ful and charming in every way, beginning with a luncheon for 
the general officers and chairmen of standing committees on 
Monday. 

On Tuesday an elaborate luncheon was given by the busi- 
ness men of St. Louis, five hundred delegates being present 
on this occasion. 

The opening exercises on Tuesday evening, held in the 
beautifully decorated ballroom of the Statler Hotel, were 
brilliant. After prayer by Bishop Tuttle, welcomes to the 
convention were voiced by Mr. Frank Curlee, of St. 
Louis; Mrs. Sanford C. Hunt, president of the Missouri 
Division, U. D. C; Mrs. C. H. Lyle, president of the St. 
Louis Chapter, U. D. C. ; Mrs. Houston Force, president of the 
St. Louis Chapter of the Confederate Dames, and Mrs. 



Thomas E. Rowe, president of the Captain Robert Mc- 
Cullough Chapter, U. D. C. Mrs. Frank Harrold, of Georgia, 
responded to the addresses of welcome. 

On Wednesday evening a brilliant reception in honor of the 
general officers and delegates was given by the Missouri 
Division in the Statler ballroom. Mrs. J. P. Higgins, general 
chairman of the convention committee, headed the receiving 
line, followed by the general officers and State presidents. 

Mrs. Jackson Johnson entertained the five hundred dele- 
gates with a tea at her residence, 25 Portland Place, on Thurs- 
day afternoon, following an automobile trip over the city. 

On Thursday night a large ball was given for the ninety 
pages who were in attendance. 

Many teas and luncheons and other smaller affairs without 
number were given throughout the entire convention period, 
and it was the universal expression of opinion at the close 
that not only for constructive achievements, but for hospi- 
tality, supreme and charming, the 1921 convention would long 
linger in memory, lending a rare fragrance to that ever- 
growing volume in which the record of our progress slowly, and 
haltingly draws toward our distant goal of perfection. 



f tfitortral iepartttumt 1. 1. 01. 

Motto: "Loyalty to the truth of Confederate History." 
Key word: "Preparedness." Flower: The rose. 

MRS. A. A. CAMPBELL, HISTORIAN GENERAL. 



U. D. C. PROGRAM FOR JANUARY, 1922. 
Lee Memorial Year. 
Light Horse Harry Lee and Anne Carter Lee, parents of 
Robert E. Lee. The environment and influences which 
molded their lives, and the traditions which their son in- 
herited. 

C. OF C. PROGRAM FOR JANUARY, 1922. 
The Boy Battalion at Newmarket. 



U. D. C. PROGRAM FOR FEBRUARY, 1922. 

Lee Memorial Year. 

Stratford, the birthplace of two signers of the Declaration 

of Independence and of Robert E. Lee. Describe this old 

colonial home and mention other distinguished men born in 

Westmoreland County, Virginia. 

C. OF C. PROGRAM FOR FEBRUARY, 1922. 

Boy soldiers of the Confederacy. Sir Moses Ezekiel and 
the monuments he designed. 

My Dear Daughters of the Confederacy: 

The programs for both January and February are published 
in order that hereafter they may appear one month ahead, 
thus enabling you to arrange your chapter programs in ad- 
vance. 

All State Historians were mailed copies of the program for 
the entire year on November 21, and should you desire to use 
this U. D. C. program apply to your State Historian. Thank- 
ing each one of you for the interest shown in our historical 
work, and hoping that it will continnually increase. 

Faithfully yours, Susie S. Campbell. 



(^opfederat^ l/eterai), 



35 



Xonfefcerateb Southern 

I rs. A. McD. Wilson President General 

436 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Ga. 

rs. C. B. Bryan First Vice President General 

Memphis, Tenn. 

ISS Sue H. Walker Second Vice President General 

Fayetteville, Ark. IS^§ 

. rs. E. L. Merry Treasurer General O'-'lHlVv 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 4&KTW 

ISS Daisy M. L. Kodgso Recording Secretary General -i^&H?^ 

7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. SwK&^ 

tss Mildred Rutherford Historian General 

Athens, Ga. "^SUTt 

\ [rs. Bryan W. Collier.. Corresponding Secretary General ~^W 

College Park, Ga. 

1 4 'rs. Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate General 

1045 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 

.'rs. Belle Allen Ross Auditor General 

Montgomery, Ala. 

1 ev. Giles B. Cooke , Chaplain General 

Mathews, Va. 

r 

■i 

i A MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT GENERAL. 

. To each and every Memorial Woman let me extend most 
jrdial and loving New Year greetings, with the wish that a 
indly providence may send each one of you just the blessings 
lost desired. 

The New Year looms up before us freighted with opportu- 
ities which are ours for the taking. If we accept them, we 
iscribe upon the pages of history records that will tell of 
lany forward steps in our beloved work. May we grasp each 
dvancing opportunity and build higher and higher the 
ame of patriotic fire until its light reaches the darkest cor- 
ers of our Southland, enabling all to read anew our pledge 
onsecrating afresh our purpose to "carry on" in our Memo- 
ial work until every hill and valley shall glow with the warmth 
f the fires of our devotion in this land — our fathers' heritage! 

The Bar of Honor. — With the New Year may I not appeal 
you again in behalf of the living Confederate mothers — 
hat you diligently seek them out and give them the great 
; appiness of having presented to them the Gold Bar of Honor? 
■ "he days are gliding swiftly by, and soon your opportunity 
nil be lost to render this loving service. Let me beg that you 
ake this work as a sacred duty. Send names to Mrs. Frank 
). Tracy, chairman of this work, at Pensacola, Fla. 

Before our next convention, Memorial Day will have passed, 
nd acting upon the motion unanimously carried at the 
.'hattanooga convention, "That the Confederated Southern 
Memorial Association go on record again as standing for our 
outhern Memorial Day," which is the outgrowth of condi- 
rions unlike that of any other people, and as originators of the 
Memorial Day thought, we hold sacred our own. Begin and 
■Ian early that the day may surpass any previous observance 
i the outpouring of loyal devotion to our heroes. Let no 
eteran's grave be unmarked, but let every one bear the silent 
ymbol of devotion to their sacrifice — the Confederate flag, 
.'ith its added sprig of green, if no more. 

Convention at Richmond. — Each Association President is 
arnestly urged to begin to plan immediately to have deb- 
ates at the next convention in Richmond, notice of which 
las been given by commander in chief General Carr. The date 
las been set for the Reunion, June 22, 23, and 24, and it is my 
;reat desire to have the largest and most inspirational con- 
tention ever held. Richmond, so full of scenes and memories 
if the valor of our boys of the sixties, is planning great things, 
ind the thought of "On to Richmond" sends a thrill to every 
iouthern heart. 

You are also urged to remember the change in the office of 
Treasurer General, and to send to Mrs. E. L. Merry, the new 
Treasurer General, at 4317 Butler Place, Oklahoma City, 




/Iftemorial association 

STATE PRESIDENTS 

Alabama — Montgomery Mrs. R. P. Dexter 

Arkansas — Fayetteville Mrs. J. Garside Welch 

Florida — Pensacola Mrs. Horace L. Simpson 

A,, Georgia— Atlanta Mrs. William A. Wright 

gjfe Kentucky— Bowling Green Missjeannie Blackburn 

|> Louisiana — New Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

jag Mississippi— Vicksburg Mrs. E. C. Carroll 

Missouri— St. Louis Mrs. G. K.Warner 

NorthCarolina — Ashville Mrs. J.J. Vates 

Oklahoma— Tulsa Mrs. W. II. Crowder 

South Carolina— Charleston Mrs. S. Cary Beckwith 

Tennessee— Memphis Mrs. Charles W. Frazer 

Texas— Houston Mrs. Mary E. Bryan 

Virginia— Front Royal Mrs. S. M. Davis-Roy 

West Virginia— Huntington Mrs. Thos. H. Harvey 



Okla., contributions and dues. Any association that has not 
paid its dues for 1921 is urged to do so, and to see to it that 
dues are paid up to date, so that your delegate may be en- 
titled to all the privileges of the convention. 

Historian General. — A wonderful opportunity is offered 
by our new Historian General, Miss Mildred Rutherford, in 
the open letter to associations which she is sending out to do 
a lasting good to the South and to your Confederate sons in 
filling out the blanks which she has prepared, thus saving to 
the future generations invaluable historical facts. It will 
take a little time and patience, but is it not worth while 
when we realize the far-reaching good that will result? 
Secure the data required and send it to Miss Rutherford, at 
Athens, Ga., as soon as possible. 

Let each association make this year a special year for 
historical work. No more vital subject can claim our at- 
tention. Send in your reports as soon as possible to Miss 
Rutherford and make these reports such as will encourage 
and bring joy to the heart of your Historian General. Appoint 
a historian — if you have not elected one — 'in your association, 
as it is important that every association should have one. 
Do not delay this matter. 

Again let me urge the Junior Memorial Associations. Ar- 
ticle II in our constitution says; "To bring them into associa- 
tion with our organizations that they may aid us in accom- 
plishing our objects and purposes, and finally succeed us, 
and to take up our work when we may leave it." Let us live 
up to our constitution by bringing in the children and train- 
ing their young minds for patriotic work. 

Finally, my coworkers, let me assure you that I stand ready 
at all times to be of service to you and hope you will feel free 
to write me whenever I can serve you. Again, with every 
good wish for you personally, and for the splendid success in 
your year's work, and praying God's choicest blessings on 
each of you. 

Faithfully yours, Mrs. A. McD. Wilson. 

President General C. S. M. A. 



ASSOCIATION NOTES. 

A happier choice could not have been made for the place 
of the Reunion than was made when General Carr announced 
that the Confederates Veterans, the Sons of Veterans, and the 
Memorial Women of the C. S. M. A., would meet at Rich- 
mond. Historic Richmond! What a revelation it will be 
to those who have not been there! What an opening of pages 
of the Book of the Past long closed, but not forgotten, by the 
faithful. It is a long way off, you say, until June, but, after 
all, a few months is not long, especially to those who take an 



36 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 



interest in the Reunion and memorial work. Already as- 
sociations are talking of delegates for the Convention, and 
women of going themselves. This will perhaps be the most 
interesting from a historical point of view of any of the 
Conventions in many years. 

It is with sadness that the announcement has been made of 
the death of another Confederate mother, Mrs. Matilda 
Harden Holmes, of Barnesville, who passed away at her home, 
lacking just two years of being one hundred years old. Mrs. 
Holmes died with the Gold Bar of Honor placed where her 
fading eyes could look upon it, and when one realizes how 
greatly these little treasure troves are valued, not a Confed- 
erate mother in all the world should be permitted to pass 
into the unknown without receiving her precious tribute 
from the C. S. M. A., Mrs Holmes was the inspiration of a 
beautiful poem called "Going Home," which was written by 
her granddaughter. 

The Memorial Association of Atlanta gave one of the most 
brilliant entertainments of the month at the home of Mrs. 
Charles Lincoln Gately, a loyal Memorial woman, for the 
benefit of the Jefferson Davis Monument Fund, which is one 
of the works toward which the Memorial women are directing 
their energy and interest. The entertainment was a silver 
tea, with a promenade musical feature, and a sale of Christmas 
articles for household uses. Mrs. Wright had the cooperation 
of the women of the Memorial Association, and the affair 
was a success. 

Mrs. Nathan Bedford Forrest has been appointed by Mrs. 
A. McD. Wilson, President General C. S. M. A., as Chairman 
of the Stationery Committee. 

Mrs. Wilson has also appointed Mrs. Armstrong, of Okla- 
homa City, Okla., as Chairman of the Textbooks Committee. 

Both of these committees have been created to carry on 
the lines of work named in chairmanships. 



BREAKING UP A POLITICAL MEETING. 

Miss Esther Simons Palmer, of Summerville, S. C, gives 
this incident as related to her by a lady at a summer resort in 
North Carolina during the past year. The subject under 
discussion was the War between the States, which brought 
out the following: 

"My father, Dr. William H. Philpot, of Talbotton, Ga., 
was a veteran of the Mexican War, and when the War between 
the North and South came on he offered his services to his 
beloved South and served throughout the war. After the 
surrender he returned home and resumed his practice of medi- 
cine. During the struggles of reconstruction times he was 
largely instrumental in organizing a band of the Ku Klux 
Klan in Talbotton to preserve order among the negroes. 
Hearing that there was to be a political meeting held by some 
'carpetbaggers' in order to incite the negroes against the 
whites, and being a man wholly without fear, he resolved 
to prevent its taking place. So he concocted a chemical 
mixture that would explode in a given time with stifling fumes, 
and placed this mixture in a jug behind a door of the room in 
which the meeting was to be held. In due time it exploded, 
the fumes driving everybody from the room. Knowing that 
his life would be in danger when his part in the affair became 
known, he had left his horse in waiting, held by a trusted old 
family servant, but on his way to the horse he was met by 
some men in search of him. Not knowing him by sight, they 
asked if he knew where Dr. Philpot was, when he replied that 
he had just left him at a certain drug store — at the furthest 
point from his home. They then left him and he got to his 
horse and went home to take leave of my mother. I was only 



a child, but I distinctly remember seeing him wave his har, 
to her as he left. He went to Atlanta, and was there conceali 
by his friend, Dr. John Westmoreland, in the dissectii 
room of the medical college. For several days he lay hi< 
den in a pit where the arms and legs of dead bodies were casi 
while search was made for him everywhere. He final 
made his escape to a place of safety and remained until 
was safe to return home." 



WANTS TO GO LABELED. 

"Dear old Confederate Veteran," writes C. J. Faucett 
of Memphis, Tenn., " I wish to make a request through t 
Veteran that at our Reunions every old veteran have on 
hat band, in conspicious letters, the name of his State, 
results in inquiries that lead to much appreciated informatio 
By being labeled, I come in contact with old comrades whoij 
I have not met in fifty years. Atone Reunion 1 found an ol 
North Carolinian who was acquainted with the man for who! 
I was named, and I also found several old Mississippi bo; 
whom I had not seen since the war. They had grown so o 
that I would never have known them, but as I was labeled as 1 
Mississippian, we soon got acquainted again and had a fii 
old time. 

Let us continue our Reunions 
While on earth we stay, 

Until we meet up yonder 
On that great reunion day. 

The most of us old fellows are bent with age and living c 
borrowed time, but let us have our annual meetings and a goc 
time once a year. 

O, the boys who wore the gray 
Who are sleeping in their graves 

They will rise to meet us up yonder 
On that great reunion day. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY CONTEST. 

The Georgia Division, U. D. C, with the desire of stimu 
ating among the young people of the State an interest in t 
study of history, especially of the history of the War betwee 
the States, again offers a gold medal to the student writir 
the best essay on the subject assigned. 

The subject for the 1922 contest is "Truth — The W 
Conspiracy of 1861," by H. W. Johnstone, Curryville, G 
This pamphlet can be procured from the author at fifty cent 
or through Miss Mildred Rutherford, Athens, Ga., who w 
also furnish all necessary information on the essay contest. 

The contest is open to all the white children of Georgia ui 
der eighteen years of age, and all teachers of the State ai 
earnestly requested to encourge their pupils to enter the coi 
test. 

B. F. Brimberry, of Albany, Ga., who served in Compar 
C, 2nd Georgia Cavalry, renews his subscription and write 
"I cannot understand why any veteran of the sixties fails 
subscribe for and read the Veteran. I am now eighty-twi 
and as long as I have the dollar I shall pay and read this mo: 
excellent and valuable record. No other publication ca 
furnish so much valuable and interesting matter concernin 
the War between the States. I have attended all the Reunioi 
but the one at Dallas, Tex., and shall go as long as able 
walk, for I learn and see something new and interesting a 
every Reunion. Hope to live to go to Richmond in 1922." 



Qogfederat^ 1/eteraQ. 



37 



ONS OF CONFEDERSTE VETERANS. 

Organized in July, 1S96, at Richmond, Va. 

OFFICERS, iQiq-20. 

immander in Chief Judge Edgar Scurry 

ljutant in Chief Carl Hinton 

litor, J. R. Price 1205 ISth St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Address all communications to this departmenc to the Editor.] 



, 



CONFEDERATION NEWS AND NOTES. 



During the Chattanooga Reunion, Congressman W. D. 

pshaw, from Georgia, raised $250 at one of the business 

r eetings. The amount was needed to fill a promise made by 

, ie Sons to pay half the expense of a monument to be erected 

,". Harper's Ferry in memory of Heywood Shepherd, a negro, 

ho was killed at the time of John Brown's raid into Virginia, 

id in perpetuation of the memory of other slaves who re- 

ised to join their Northern liberator. Its total cost will be 

.1,000, half of which the Sons contributed, the other half being 

.irnished by the Daughters of the Confederacy. Representa- 

ve U pshaw roused the audience to a high state of enthusiasm 

y some of his old fashioned Southern oratory. 

Judge Edgar Scurry, Wichita Falls, Tex., by acclamation, 

as elected commander in chief of the Sons of Confederate 

eterans at the final business session. Judge Scurry has 

Iways been an active and enthusiastic worker of the organi- 

ition. He has served as commander of his camp, commander 

f his division, commander of his department, and on the 

xecutive council. Judge Scurry was nominated by John 

.shley Jones, of Atlanta, as a Son who has given untiringly 

f his time for the development of the organization and gen- 

rously of his money for its upbuilding. 

F. R. Fravel, Ballston, Va., nominated Dr. W. C. Galloway, 

f Wilmington, N. C, for commander of the Army of Northern 

'irginia Department. Dr. Galloway is past surgeon general 

f the Sons, and was unanimously elected by acclamation. 

(1). N. Galloway thanked the members for the honor they had 

lestowed upon him and declared that he would do everytihng 

possible to develop the organization into the power it should 

lie. 

D. S. Etheridge, of Chattanooga, was elected commander 
it the Army of Tennessee Department. Mr. Etheridge has 
irved as commander of the Jonathan W. Bachman Camp, and 
.uring the last year was State Commander of the Sons. 
' J. S. Davenport, United States representative from Okla- 
oma, was elected commander of the Trans-Mississippi 
department. 

I Arthur H. Jennings, of Lynchburg, Va. was reelected 
' istorian in chief. 

The election of an executive council to represent the differ- 
nt departments resulted as follows: J. Roy Price, Washington, 
). C. Army of Northern Virginia; John Ashley Jones, at- 
^nta, Ga., Army of Tennessee; S. Y. Ferguson, Wichita Falls, 
Tex., Army of Trans-Mississippi; J. W. McWilliams, Monroe, 
-a., delegate at large. 

Carl Hinton was reappointed adjutant in chief. The Ad- 
utant in chief stated in his annual report that over a thou- 
and new members have been added to the roster roll during 
he past year. He declared that in his opinion the develop- 
nent of the old camps was more to be desired than the or- 
;anization of new ones. 

Garland Peed, of Bell, W. Va., submitted a resolution to come 
ip at the next reunion amending the constitution so that: 



1. The headquarters of the organization shall not follow 
the adjutant, but shall be permanent. 

2. The adjutant shall be paid a salary and shall devote his 
entire time to the development of the organization. 

3. Life membership certificates to be sold at a figure to be 
determined at a later date. 

4. The organization employ State organizers, who shall be 
paid for their services. 

5. The dues to be increased to $5, which shall be divided 
among the national organizations, the local camps, and the 
organizers. 

6. A committee to be appointed to work up a system where- 
by the organization may be built up on a firm business basis. 

The Virginia Sons of Confederate Veterans are warming up 
happily to the Manassas Battle Field Confederate Park. Dr. 
Benton Davis, of Holdcroft, Va., Division Commander, 
promises that the Sons of the Old Dominion will more than 
meet their share of the needed funds for this splendid en- 
terprise — one of the greatest in its line the South has ever 
undertaken. The interest on the part of the Sons, which 
began at the Charlottesville reunion, when past Com- 
mander Leslie offered a resolution pledging the support of the 
Sons and asking for a committee to gather funds, has steadily 
grown since the very hour of the adoption of that resolution. 
Commander Davis has announced as part of this committee, 
with which he will be actively associated, Hon. R. Lee 
Trinkle, Governor elect of Virginia; Hon. McDonald Lee, 
of Richmond; Commander Saul L.Adams, of South Boston, 
Va.; and Hon. H. L. Opie, Staunton, Va. 

Readers of the Veteran will recall that a letter from 
Governor-elect Trinkle was published in these columns last 
summer, in which he warmly indorsed this movement and 
pledged his hearty support, Commander Davis has shown 
much wisdom in the selection of these members of this com- 
mittee. Others will from time to time be announced in these 
columns. The committee will meet at an early date for the 
purpose of outlining the procedure to follow in order to raise 
the necessary funds. 

THE NEW COMMANDER IN CHIEF. 

Judge Edgar Scurry, the newly elected Commander of the 
Sons of Confederate Veterans, is a native of Texas, a son of 
Gen. William Read Scurry, who commanded a brigade in the 
Trans-Mississippi Department, C. S. A., and was killed at 
Jenkins's Ferry, Ark., while leading his brigade in a charge. 
General Scurry was a native of Sumner County, Tenn., and 
served as a colonel in the War with Mexico. Scurry County, 
Tex., was named in his honor. 

The mother of Judge Scurry was Miss Janette Sutton, of 
Mobile, Ala. He was born in Mission Valley, Victoria Coun- 
ty, Tex., in 1857, but has been a resident of Wichita Falls for 
the past thirty years and actively engaged in the practice of 
law. He served as district attorney of the Thirtieth Judicial 
District and was also twice honored with the office of district 
judge. He has always taken an active part in political and 
civic matters and is fearless and aggressive in his convictions. 
Under his leadership the Sons of Veterans may be expected 
to carry through some important undertakings. 

The inscription under the picture of the old Henry House, 
as shown in the Veteran for November-December, page 
441, states that the elder Mrs. Henry was wounded during 
the progress of the battle as she lay in bed. This is evidently 
an error, as the inscription on the old tombstone states that 
she was killed. 



38 



Qoi?federat^ l/eterap, 



" THE WOMEN OF THE SOUTH IN WAR TIMES." 

Since the combined report for November and December, the 
managing editor has made the first annual report on "The 
Women of the South in War Times" to the delegates from all 
the States at the general convention at St. Louis. 

On that occasion he announced that among the various 
States contributing to the publicity fund, Maryland was first, 
South Carolina second, and NewYork third. 

In the matter of subscriptions to the book itself, North 
Carolina came out first, with 527 copies; South Carolina was 
second, and Kentucky third. Whereupon, the special prize 
of the S100 copy of "The Women of the South in War Times" 
was duly presented to Mrs. R. P. Holt, of Rocky Mount, N. 
C. 

Other details in regard to the action of the convention in 
receiving the report and acting upon it will doubtless be given 
by the newly-elected President General, who will also an- 
nounce, no doubt, that a similar prize will be offered the Divi- 
sion distributor doing the best work in 1921-22. In addition 
prizes will be offered to those Chapters in the respective States 
in the South which do the best work. These prizes will be 
specially bound copies of "The Women of the South in War 
Times," and will be presented at the national convention, 
or, at least, announced there, and possibly presented at the 
respective State conventions. One additional prize will be giv- 
en to the Chapter in the Northern States which does the best 
work in the same period. In other words, fourteen special 
State prizes will be offered and one grand prize to the Division 
distributor doing the best work for the year. 

It was reported also, that a number of Northern States had 
not been supplied with their specially marked first copies, and 
the convention has made provision for absorbing these. In- 
cidentally, however, one of these copies has already been taken 
for Michigan, through Mrs. Emma A. Fox, official Parliamen- 
tarian of the convention, who has presented the copy to the 
State Library at Lansing; while Mrs. Herbert Scheck, of 
California, has offered to subscribe for the Utah State copy. 

It is interesting to note that two copies of "The Women of 
the South in War Times" will be sent to China through Miss 
Frances Pemberton, of Greenwood, S. C; and the managing 
editor wishes to report two SI contributions to the publicity 
fund from the Father Ryan Chapter at Greenville, Ala., and 
the Troy Chapter, at Troy, Ala., both being sent in through 
Mrs. Webb Stanley. 

HISTORY IN A NUTSHELL. 

Much historical information has been published in pam- 
phlet form, thus giving within a brief space the result of pains- 
taking research through ponderous volumes of official records. 
These pamphlets are highly convenient for reference to those 
seeking information on certain lines, and many disputed 
points in this way are brought before those who would not 
otherwise search them out. 

Living Confederate Principles. 

In these three pamphlets Mr , Lloyd T. Everette, of Balls- 
ton, Va., one of the younger historical writers and promi- 
nent in the Sons of Confederate Veterans, will be found much 
material for the historian and student, the result of his own 
deep study and culling of naterial. The titles of these pam- 
phlets are distinctive of t reir contents, and, taken altogether, 
furnish many interesting facts and comments on our history. 
(See advertisement Yex : d Publishing Company in this num- 
ber.) 



The Truth of the War Conspiracy, 1861. 

Another pamphlet recently published is that on "The Tru 
of the War Conspiracy in 1861," gotten out by Col. H. ' 
Johnstone, Curryville, Ga. In this booklet are revelations; 
secret scheming in those early days of Lincoln's administi 
tion not before brought to light and by which it is she 
that the United States Government under Lincoln committ 
at least four flagrant acts of war several weeks before Fc 
Sumter was fired upon. All this is set forth in a novel a: 
interesting style which holds attention to the last exposui 
(See Adv.) 

The South in History, Etc. 

A list of pamphlets gotten out by Miss Mildred Ruthc 
ford is also offered in this number of the Veteran, all of the 
presenting valuable points in our history. Miss Rutherforc 
historical work is too well known to need any commendati 
here, but the suggestion is made that what she writes abo 
cannot become too widely known by our own people as wj 
as those of other sections. 



TRUTH OF THE WAR CONSPIRACY OF 1861. 

Mr. H. W. Johnstone. U. C. V., has written a remarkal: 
vindication of the South in "Truth of the War Conspiracy 
1861," which is published in a pamphlet of forty-one page 

The facts are proven beyond question from the army ai 
navy records at Washington City. All desiring to know tl 
truth will find it here with proofs which cannot be denied. 

Everyone should read this pamphlet, whether of the Nor 
or South. 

Send for copies to H. W. Johnstone, Curryville, Ga. Pric 
fifty cents. 

All entering Essay Contest send for rules governing Co 
test and prizes offered, and special rates given on pamphl 
for teachers and pupils directing or entering the contest 
Miss M. Rutherford, Athens, Ga. 



PAPER SHELL PECANS. 

Pecan growing has become a great industry of the Sout 
and in some of our States the large paper shell varieties a 
grown in their perfection. A sample box of these "b 
fellows" came recently to the Veteran office from tl 
" Kennoquhair Groves," of Girard, Ga., with the complimen 
of Howard Meriwether Lovett, manager" — a name wa 
known to Veteran readers by some interesting and valuab 
articles and also as the author of the "Grandmother Stori' 
from the Land-of-Used-to-Be." Mrs. Lovett wrhV 

that these nuts are "tree ripened and hand selected," an 
orders will be filled at sixty-five cents per pound for the hon 
market in the South, and at eighty-five cents per poun< 
postpaid, to any other section of these United States. Senl 
her an order and get acquainted with this delicious product i 
Southern industry. 

The Veteran wishes to correct an error as to the address ( 
Capt. D. C. Grayson, now commander of the "Immort; 
Six Hundred," who lives in' Washington, D, C, and nc 
Chattanooga, Tenn. Captain Grayson writes that "tl' 
Veteran is a valuable publication for the Confederate causi 
and no comrade who has ever had it can now dispense wit 
it; those who fail to subscribe do not realize the pleasure the 
are missing." 



Confederate l/eterai?. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY IN THE INTEREST OF CONFEDERATE ASSOCIATIONS AND KINDRED TOPICS. 



Entered as second-class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn., 
under act of March 3, 1S79. 
i Acceptance of mailing at special rate of postage provided for In Sec- 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 191s. 

Published by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash- 
ville, Tenn, 




OFFICIALLT REPRE. lENTSs 

United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Sons of Veterans and Other Organizations, 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association, 



Though men deserve, they mav not win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less* 



PRICB, $1.60 PBS YSAJL 1 

•liNOi-fl Copt, 15 Cbwts. / 



Vol. XXX. 



NASHVILLE, TENN., FEBRUARY, 1922. 



No. 2. 



i S. A. CUNNINGHAM, 

I FOUNDBR. 



THE SWORD OF LEE. 

In this year of 1922 occurs the centenary of Gen. U. S. 
Grant, and preparations are being made to have it widely 
observed in the North. Very fitting will be this tribute to 
:he memory of the man who is credited with having won vic- 
tory for the Federal forces, a man who showed no ill-feeling 
toward the men surrendering to him, but was ready for 
peace and good will to all. 

There will be much said and written of General Grant 
which would doubtless surprise him could he hear it — many 
tributes paid to his prowess in arms, his magnanimity to a 
Vanquished foe. In particular will this time be a grand op- 
portunity to laud Grant's magnanimity in refusing to accept 
General Lee's sword as the victor at Appomattox. In his 
letter of greeting to the Confederate veterans in reunion at 
Chattanooga, Commander Lewis S. Pilcher, of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, wrote: "From the moment that 
'Robert E. Lee tendered his sword to his magnanimous con- 
queror, Ulysses S. Grant, and Grant refused to receive it" — 

And General Lee never even thought of offering his sword, 
"ind if Grant had a thought of getting it, he certainly did not 
express it. 

' This matter is brought out here for the benefit of our own 
people, for many have the idea that General Lee really did 
tender his sword as a part of the surrender at Appomattox 
and that Grant magnanimously refused to visit that humilia- 
tion upon him. As a matter of fact, the terms of surrender 
Expressly stated that the Confederate officers were to retain 
their side arms, and it would hardly have been fitting to ex- 
pect of their commander what was not required of them. 

This is but one of many historical myths which peren- 
nially come forth on occasions these fifty years and more 



despite the many exposures of their untruth. Some years ago 
Mrs. Jefferson Davis fell into the same error in an article she 
furnished to a Northern newspaper, thus giving a new lease 
of life to this story by her indorsement — and this brought out 
a statement from the late Col. Charles Marshall, of Baltimore, 
who had been a member of General Lee's staff and was pres- 
ent at the interview with General Grant. In responding to a 
request from Mr. Spottswood Bird, of Baltimore, for a state- 
ment on the subject, he wrote: "The circumstances attending 
the meeting between General Grant and General Lee on 
April 9, 1865, did not call for any demand on the part of 
General Grant for the surrender of General Lee's sword on 
that occasion, and any statement, however made and by 
whomsoever made, to the effect that General Lee made the 
tender of his sword to General Grant must be entirely in con- 
flict with the view of either. Neither of them, I am quite 
sure, was influenced by any theatrical ideas of the surrender. 
You will observe that by the very terms of the surrender 
demanded by General Grant, it was expressly provided that the 
officers of the Confederate army should retain their side arms. 
To have offered to surrender his sword would have been an 
offer on General Lee's part to do more than had been demand- 
ed of him. " 

And General Grant says specifically in his "Memoirs" (Vol. 
II, Chapter XXV, pages 344-346): "No conversation — not 
one word — passed between General Lee and myself either 
about private property, side arms, or kindred subjects. The 
much talked of surrendering of General Lee's sword and my 
handing it back, this and much more that has been said about 
it, is the purest romance. The word 'sword' or 'side arms' was 
not mentioned by either of us until I wrote it in the terms. 
There was no premeditation, and it did not occur to me until 



^2 s *-i_-t--«_ 



j^^ ^L. ~z^/„ 






44 



^ogfederat^ tfeterar?, 



the moment I wrote it down. If I had happened to omit it 
and General Lee had called my attention to it, I should have 
put it in the terms precisely as I acceded to the provision 
about the soldiers retaining their horses." 

So now, with all this testimony to the contrary, anyone 
repeating the mythical story that General Lee offered his 
sword to General Grant at Appomattox and that the latter 
refused it, will be guilty of deliberate misrepresentation. 

The magnificent uniform and splendid sword which General 
Lee wore on the occasion of his interview with General Grant 
at Appomattox were the gifts of Baltimore sympathizers 
and admirers. 

THE JACKSON MONUMENT AT CHARLOTTES- 
VILLE, VA. 

The magnificent equestrian statue of Stonewall Jackson 
unveiled in Charlottesville on October 25, 1921, was a gift to 
that city by one of its patriotic citizens, who has in other ways 
as well contributed to the beautifying of his native city. The 
park in which the monument stands was also his gift to Char- 
lottesville, some old tenement buildings being torn away to 
make this beauty spot for the enjoyment of its citizens. 

The Virginia Grand Camp of Confederate Veterans held 
its annual meeting at Charlottesville, and the dedication of 
this Jackson statue was the feature of the last day of that 
meeting. Doubtless the largest crowd in the history of the 
city assembled there on that day, the estimate being some 
25,000 people, and the parade in advance of the unveiling 
was a great spectacle. Several hundred cadets from the Virginia 
Military Institute formed a guard of honor for the veterans 
of the Confederacy, five hundred strong, who led the parade. 
These veterans were members of John Bowie Strange Camp, 
of Charlottesville, and other camps of the State; Daughters of 
the Confederacy, Sons of the Confederate Veterans, Spanish 
War veterans, members of the American Legion Posts, stu- 
dents of the LJniversity of Virginia, fire companies, civic 
orders, school children, and many citizens were in the line of 
march, 5,000 strong — a moving spectacle of great interest to 
the thousands of on-Iookers. 

Judge R. T. W. Duke, son of Col. R. T. W. Duke, for whom 
the Camp at Charlottesville was named, presided over the 
exercises of the unveiling, the address of the occasion being 
made by Senator Pat Harrison, of Mississippi. The veil was 
drawn by two great-grandchildren of theimmortal Jachson, 
little Anna Jackson Preston, of Charlotte, N. C, and T. J. 
Jackson Christian, Jr., of Ithaca, N. Y., his father being an 
instructor in Cornell University. 

Dr. Edwin A. Alderman, president of the University of 
Virginia, representing the donor, Paul Goodloe Mclntire, 
presented the gift to the city of Charlottesville. "Two gen- 
erations ago," said Dr. Alderman, "a great war fell out in this 
land. No war in human history was a sincerer conflict than 
this war. It was a war between brothers, fate driven to the 
defense of two majestic ideas — the idea of local self-govern- 
ment and the idea of Federal union. To call it rebellion is to 
speak ignorantly; to call it treason is to add viciousness to 
stupidity. It was a war of ideas, principles, political concep- 
tions, and of loyalty to ancient ideals of English freedom. I 
am not in the mood, nor is the world in the mood, merely to 
praise war or to exalt force as an agent of human discipline; 
but I may justly claim that out of the flame and fire of this 
brothers' war issued some of the noblest sanctities of human 
life and a few undying names which the world will forever 
cherish for the enrichment of the spirit of mankind. 

"We are gathered here in this central spot of a historic 



city, within the State which gave him birth, to set in place 
an equestrian statue of Thomas Jonathan Jackson, one of the 
greatest of these high statured men. It is the work of Charles 
Kock, a true artist, who has here endeavored to catch and fix 
in imperishable metal the passion and devotion of a victorious 
soldier dowered with genius and unacquainted with defeat. 
It is the gift of Paul Goodloe Mclntire, a great home loving, 
unselfish citizen, bred of this air and born of this soil, who 
thus seeks, through the majestic medium of art and beauty, 
to teach to other ages how moving and eternal are the quali- 
ties of courage and character of action and principle, of loyalty 
and honor, when embodied in one strong, appealing, fascinating 
personality. It is the presentment in bronze of a great 
Christian warrior whose life is fraught with lessons of splendid 
import. There was something of so great force in the min- 
gling of his fiery energy, his iron will, and stern silence, his 
childlike simplicity, his fearless self-control and self-depend- 
ence, his utter self-sacrifice that somehow his fame in the short 
space allotted to him for great deeds, rose like a star in the 
heavens, and he passed in the glory of unconquerable youth 
into the inner circle of the soldier saints and heroes of the 
English race. " 

The monument shows Jackson in full Confederate uniform 
on "Little Sorrel," leaning forward, with stern purpose and 
energetic action pictured in face and figure. This bronze 
figure surmounts a pedestal of old rose Westerly granite from 
Rhode Island, while the base is of the pink granite of Milford, 
Mass. The monument is simply inscribed with the names 
and dates of birth and death, also some of the battles in which 
Jackson won fame — Manassas and Chancellorsville and the 
Valley Campaign. The work was by the sculptor, Charles 
Kock, of New York, who also designed the Lewis and Clark 
group which stands in Midway Park, another gift of Mr. 
Mclntire to Charlottesville. 

The monument stands in the center of Jackson Park, which 
is the square adjoining that in which the courthouse stands, 
the courthouse being the center of old historic Charlottes- 
ville. The older part of the building dates back to the gift ol 
the land on which it was built, and in early days it served in 
a measure as a church. It is told that Thomas Jefferson was 
an attendant there and that he brought his seat with him. Or] 
one side of the courthouse stood the old Swan Tavern, once I 
the property and home of Jack Jouett, whose ride was more 
heroic than that of Paul Revere; it is now the home of the Rec 
Land Club. There is scarcely a new structure in any o'j 
the surroundings of the courthouse. 

A statue of General Lee will be made by the samesculptoi 
and will be another gift to Charlottesville by the same public 
spirited citizen in the near future. 



From Miss Lulu Duncan, Springfield, Mo.: "My fathei 
died April 6, 1920. He was very fond of the Veteran anc 
had been a subscriber since the beginning of the publication 
I have the complete file, with the exception of one or twc 
copies. Father often referred to back numbers and always 
found the desired information, besides deriving a lot of pleas- 
ure out of the hunt. I always helped in these hunts, conse 
quently it became dear to me, and I want to be a subscribe! 
for the rest of my life, in memory of my dear father and alsc 
because I love it. " 






Additional Contributions to the Cunningham Memoria 
Fund.— Charles. H. Hardwick, Richmond, Va., $5.00 ; J. R. All 
len, Horace Hutcheson, Carlsbad, N. Mex., $1.00 each; Mrs. R 
O. Hanby, Mt. Vernon, Ind., $1.00. 



Qoijfederat^ i/eterai}. 



45 



WHITWORTH RIFLE WITH A HISTORY. 



■ 



Reposing within the room of the Tennessee Historical 
Society set apart for those relics preserved for remembrance 
is a Whitworth rifle used by a sharpshooter in the War 
between the States. This make of rifle had an effective range 
of one mile. It was manufactured in England, and a consider- 
able number of them reached the Confederacy through the 
medium of the blockade runner. The Whitworth rifle was 
provided with a telescope and was used only by sharpshooters. 
The rifle now in the possession of the Historical Society has 
a unique history, and during the battle of Chickamauga gave 
the Federal army no end of trouble. 

The supplies for Rosecrans's army were hauled in wagons 
from Bridgeport to Chattanooga, and at a certain place the 
road narrowed to barely the width of a wagon on account of 
a steep bluff on one side and the Tennessee River on the other. 
Capt. W. E. McElwee, a Tennessee soldier and staff officer, 
was charged with the duty of making it less easy, if not im- 
possible for this wagon train to reach its destination, and 
for this purpose was given a detail of sharpshooters. Among 
these crack shots was a man by the name of Henry Green, an 
East Tennessee Confederate. Green was ordered to kill the 
mules when they reached this narrow part of the road. Armed 
with a Whitworth, he shot the four mules pulling the leading 
wagon, and then the others as fast as they came up. In this 
way he soon had the road blocked, and it became necessary 
for the rest of the train to back out the best way they could 

! and follow a long and circuitous route through the Sequatchie 
Valley. 

"There were a thousand wagons in that train," said Cap- 

' tain McElwee, speaking of this incident of the great battle, 
"and the only reason the whole train was not destroyed was 

' that only a few of the wagons came within the view of Green 
and the other sharpshooters at the point where the road nar- 
rowed." 

Captain McElwee was in Nashville for the purpose of securing 
a pension for Green, who is still living near Rockwood, Tenn. F 
in the eightieth year of his age. Green's record is without a 
flaw, he having served throughout the entire period of the 
war from Fort Donelson to the Wattle of Bentonville, N. C, 
the last battle fought by the army under Gen. Joseph E. 
Johnston. — Nashville Banner. 



SOME INCIDENTS OF ARMY LIFE. 

BY THEO. HARTMAN, LITTLE ROCK, ARK. 

Several years ago I made notes of some war incidents, 
accidents and jokes, weich I intended to dress up and inflict 
upon your readers, but the mice interfered and started a 
confetti factory; so the plans of this scribe went "agley, " 
wherever that may be, until this good hour. I have just 
finished reading the November number of the Veteran for 
1921, and I find so many good things in it that I don't want 
to die; just want to live on until the sure enough "last re- 
union" is held and I one of the "four" that may lawfully 
constitute that never-to-be-forgotten epoch. 

"Heroes and Hero Worship" and "The Southern Proteus" 
are worth the subscription price. I thank you, gentlemen. 
Come again. 

I have often contended that a man who had served three or 
four years in the army should have something to tell and ought 
to tell it while he was able to do so, lest it be forever untold. 
But, listen, comrades, beware of "Uncle Bob's" fate. Stick 
to what you know, or some old comrade may rise up and call 
you down. That has pretty nearly made a Christian out of 
1* 



me. Right now I want to put the readers on notice that there 
are many witnessess still living to challenge any one who has 
the temerity to question this loving, if tardy, testimonial to 
our dear, sainted Gen. R. E. Lee. 

General Lee's Consideration for His Soldiers. 

I was a private of Company A, 14th Tennessee Volunteer 
Infantry, Archer's brigade, from May, 1861, to April, 1865. 
We were marching to Maryland, and as we neared the 
Potomac River below Winchester, our division — as we under- 
stood the entire army was close by — was resting in the shade of 
a fine body of open timber, through which there was a dim, 
unused old road. Many of our "boys" were prone upon this 
road, with knapsacks under our heads, resting, when we 
noticed the approach of four or five officers on horses. As they 
drew near we recognized General A. P. Hill, General Lee, and 
two or three staff officers. General Hill was a few feet in ad- 
vance, and, as he drew near to me and others, he said: " Move 
out of the road, men. " Immediately General Lee said: " Never 
mind, General; we will rideround them. Lie still, men. " Ashe 
spoke he turned his horse to the left, and General Hill was equal- 
ly as quick to pull out of the road. They passed within twenty 
feet of me. Did I see General Hill's face flush, or did I 
imagine it? I do not think General Lee thought of rebuking 
General Hill, then or ever. It was just his way, his consider- 
ation for others, especially his soldiers. 

A small gem, but its luster will remain undimmed by the 
constellation of brilliants that adorn his character. 

Flintlock Arms. 

In the fall of 1861 " Marse Robert," tried to slip up on the 
Yankee garrison at Charlestown, W. Va., but his guides 
got lost and flushed the game before the "dogs of war" got 
in shooting distance. 

One cool, drizzly, cloudy morning our regiment was stand- 
ing "at rest" on a mountain road waiting and listening for 
something to turn up. The captain of one of the companies 
claimed to have been a corporal in the Mexican war, and was 
elected to lead his men to "victory or death." In a short 
time the men became a little restless and our Mexican war 
veteran said: "Steady, company. I think I heard 'em cock 
a cannon over thar. " This caused a little snickering among 
those who heard the order, when the old captain said: "You 
needn't laugh, boys; I have seen 'em in Mexico with flints as 
big as a spelling book. " 

We Missed the Battle, But — 

We were en route to Virginia, via the then E. T. & Va. R. R., 
and, for some reason unknown to this writer, were detrained 
at or near a little town close to the line between Tennessee 
and Virginia a few days before the first battle of Manassas. 
When we heard of the great victory our army had won many 
of us got mad and thought our officers had tricked us, and we 
were very indignant and talked ugly about our officers. We 
were fresh and did not know much about discipline. We 
thought the war would be over and we would have no part in 
the glory of victory. We were very serious about it then, it 
seems funny now. 

This simply leads up to the scene of a sure enough funny 
story. We were camped at this place for a week or two. One 
evening we (Company A) were ordered to "fall in," and 
when the sergeant finished calling the roll and presented the 
company to our dear old Captain Harrell (he was a good lawyer 
and a good man), he proceeded to read an indictment to us, 
charging that his company, or some member thereof, had 
disturbed the peace and rest of Mrs. Ward's ducks, and had 



46 



Qoi?federat^ l/eterap. 



boldly captured and carried off one or more. The good 
captain was deeply grieved to hear such evil reports about 
such a fine body of young gentlemen, and lectured us at 
some length upon the evils of "sportive mischief," etc. 
Then, beginning at the head of the company, he asked each 
man to "plead" as to his guilt or innocence. It so happened 
that some of the boys had on their haversacks, and the 
"pleading" was proceeding to the great satisfaction of the 
captain and to the credit of the company, when " Pleas " M — 
was called. " Pleas" had just returned from town in time to fall 
in and was feeling fine and denied indignantly that he would 
or could be guilty, and was apparently much grieved, when to 
our amazement a duck stuck its head out of his haversack 
and said "quack! quack!" The captain turned his back and 
said: "Sergeant, take charge of the company. " 



THE BATTLE OF BLUE SPRINGS, TENXESSEE. 

BY GEORGE D. EWING, PATTOXSBURG, MO. 

Gen. A. E. Bumsides, fresh from the Army of the Poto- 
mac, where he held chief command in the great battle of 
Fredericksburg, took possession of Knoxville, Tenn., 
early in the autumn of 1863. Gen. John S. Williams, 
known as " Cerro Gordo" Williams by reason of his achieve- 
ments in the war with Mexico, was in command of two small 
brigades on the Confederate side. One of these brigades was 
commanded by Col. H. L. Giltner, of the Fourth Kentucky 
Cavalry, and his brigade consisted of the Fourth Kentucky 
Cavalry, Seventh Kentucky Cavalry Battalion, and the Tenth 
Kentucky Mounted Rifles, this being at the time composed of 
Kentucky troops, perhaps about nine hundred strong. The 
other brigade was under Col. Jas. E. Carter, First Tennessee 
Cavalry, and was composed of the First Tennessee Cavalry, 
Sixteenth Georgia Battalion, and Peter's Regiment, number- 
ing about eight hundred and fifty. To all this strength were 
added a section of the Burrows's Battery and the little battery 
of rapid firing guns known as the Williams Battery. This 
artillery was admirably served, being composed of high grade 
officers and men. By command of Maj. General Ransom, 
General Williams had made a forced march toward Knoxville 
until he arrived at Blue Springs, in Greene County, Tenn., 
which was nearly eight miles from Greeneville and about 
the same distance from Bull's Gap. At. this point we halted 
and seemed to be quietly waiting for something to turn up. 
About a week afterwards the Federals were fronting us. Our 
position was a precarious one. We were nearly one hundred 
miles from our base of supplies, with no intervening supply 
posts. We never knew why this movement was made under 
the then existing circumstances, and we to quietly remain 
there, when it was known that General Burnsides had the full 
Ninth Army Corps and a part of the Twenty-Second Corps in 
such close proximity. His force was probably as much as 
thirty thousand men of all arms. To oppose this formidable 
force we had less than eighteen hundred men. The cavalry 
required one-fourth of their men to be used as horse holders, 
so we could not have much more than twelve hundred men in 
battle. It did seem the height of folly for this small number 
to seek battle with such a force as Burnsides had. But 
"Cerro Gordo" Williams was a born fighter, if not an admir- 
able tactician. 

On the ninth of October a strong Federal force was sent 
out to ascertain as much as possible our strength in men and 
position. This force was easily driven in. On the next day 
the real battle began, which was destined to last two days, the 
later phases of it at different places. The Confederates had 
chosen an admirable position, being on the apex of a long, 



sharp ridge. Directly before us was a large open space, which 
that year was not in cultivation, on the farther side of which 
was a dense woods. 

Our boys had made considerable preparations in getting 
ready to receive their expected company. We had carried 
logs and filled in with large stones, so that our position was 
favorable for defense, but it was exposed to flanking move- 
ments. Deception is not admittedly of a high quality, but at 
this time we were trying to make the enemy believe we had 
a much larger force than we really had. Soon we realized 
that the enemy was forming his columns in the woods beyond 
the clearing, and quickly a formidable column appeared at the 
edge of the timber. With waving flags and braying horns and 
beating drums they came out in the open, two solid lines, 
standing close together. As the first line advanced, the sec- 
ond came out much like the first. These two lines took 
position about seventy -five yards apart. The third line 
soon came out as strong as the first and second and formed 
about one hundred yards behind the second line. It was an 
imposing martial scene. This great host, all panoplied and in 
the pomp of proud circumstance of war, going to combat 
with less than twelve hundred ragged but very determined 
Confederates. Our boys were lying as flat as pancakes on the 
ground. Near me lay one of my messmates, a humorous 
fellow. In that spirit he called out: " Boys, remember General 
Jackson and his men at New Orleans! On that day each of 
them was half hoss and half alligatoi. Can we not do as 
well?" This was taken up and went along the line, creating 
some merriment and greater determination. The great blue 
waves were rapidly advancing. Our artillery was doing 
effective work with solid shot and shell, but upon the nearer 
approach of the enemy grape and canister shot were used. 
The approach of these solid lines, all placed with military 
precision, was a sublime sight to us, so many soldiers in line, 
their bright armor glistening in the morning sun. Then, to 
see so many men so nicely dressed, at such close range, was 
a novel experience to our men. 

We of the small arms had been instructed to withhold fire 
until they were near us. Soon our boys opened with deadly 
precision on the advancing columns. Under this rapid and 
withering fire many of them weie falling. Our men lay flat 
on the ground, resting their guns on the temporary works 
before us. and taking deadly aim. As soon as a gun was dis- 
charged, the men would turn quickly on back, placing the 
breech of the gun against one foot, ram home the charge, place 
the percussion cap, then fire, and repeat without exposing to 
enemy fire the users of the guns. Some of the humorous Fed- 
erals called out as they advanced: "Lie down, Johnnies, your 
daddies are coming home drunk." But this thin Confederate 
line w~as duly sober and quite watchful. It was but a short 
time until the first and second line of Yanks were on the 
ground crawling like serpents to safety. The third line had 
sniffed the battle a little farther away and it required no special 
order for them to go back to the woods. As they retired from 
the first onset, many were left dead and wounded. While 
we had a breathing spell before the second advance, we looked 
our trusty rifles over to be in readiness for it. The Federals 
must have had as many as forty pieces of artillery in action, 
many of them heavy field pieces; but their shots went over us, 
falling miles in our rear, and so far had accomplished no more 
than scaring some of the horses far in the rear. 

In the big woodland the bands began playing. The deep 
roll of the drum, with the shrill blast of the fife, seemed to be 
all over this woodland. It was not long before the first blue 
line emerged from the timber, and the columns advanced 
much as they did at the first. But this time the Johnnie boys 



Qoijfederat^ Veterap. 



47 



vere not warned to lie down to avoid the approaching drunken 

-laddies. No, they had become quite sober and as serious as 

hough they were making an attack on the infernal regions. 

This attack failed as did the first, the number of killed and 

vounded being much increased. The same tactics were used 

,>y them in seeking shelter. Still their artillery was not doing 

? my real execution. We looked over rifles again and sent 

, unners to the ordnance wagons for more ammunition. Our 

jrotection was standing as firmly as ever. 

It must have been two hours before the third attack was 
nade. The music in the woods began again to inspire their 
,nen to the third effort to break our thin line. Some of the 
>fiicers came out with much bravery, which was grand; but 
lltogether it looked as if they had thoughts of a funeral. They 
were brave men. All honor to their courage and persistence! 
.But they went back from the third attack much as at the first 
and second. 

[ I am led to believe that during the whole War between the 
-States there were few, if any, more successful defenses made 
,-igainst such overwhelming numbers, and that, too, with the 
j oss of only one man killed and two wounded upon the Con- 
federate side. Afterwards, in passing over the battle field, the 
ritizens said that the Federals had buried four hundred men in 
,:he long trenches that we went to see, and the length and 
oreadth of the trenches indicated as much. But now it 
jieemed that our greatest danger was near — that of being cap- 
tured. Gen. " Cerro Gordo " Williams, great fighter as he was, 
(had a weakness that was lamentable. As Senator Vest, of 
.Missouri, once said when he was asked to join in a general 
drink: "No, I've quit! John Barleycorn and I were partners 
■ : or quite a while, but John B. was a poor partner. When 
dividends were declared, I got the headache and other bad 
feelings; but John always got the cash." At this critical 
juncture, General Williams was unable to sensibly command, 
but, in much rage, swore that we would remain as we were 
; until Burnsides army was defeated and routed. Colonels 
Giltner and Carter knew that a large command was flanking 
us, but Williams was not to be moved from his fighting mood. 
Colonel Giltner had a conference with Colonel Carter, and 
they readily agreed that to remain until morning in the present 
position meant certain capture, with a probable large loss of 
life. Then Colonel Giltner, being the senior, said he would 
arbitrarily assume command and, if possible, save the com- 
mand, even if he was cashiered for it, Colonel Carter fully 
agreeing with him in the seriousness of the situation. 

It was thought that no further attempt would be made on 
us that afternoon, but that Burnsides would await the flanking 
developments. The horse holders were ordered to tie their 
horses, leaving only a few men with them as guards, and re- 
port for duty. There were three locomotives on the railroad 
track, with perhaps twenty old cars, with the crews for each 
locomotive. These were ordered to take all the cars a few 
miles up the road as quietly as possible, running slowly to 
prevent noise, then, when ordered, to run them back rapidly, 
making as much noise as possible. The released horse holders 
ind others were to cheer the incoming trains as loudly as pos- 
sible. When the order was given to return, the three trains, 
is they came roaring back, what a cheer went up in honor of 
aur mythical reinforcements! The boys on the firing line also 
gave a great cheer. Night was coming on, much to our relief. 
Great numbers of fires were kindled, as for our reinforcements, 
which did not exist. The axmen were ordered to chop down 
trees. All this time the wagons were preparing to quietly 
move out, but it was necessary to protect them from front 
ind rear. 

During the last charge on our lines, some unique reinforce- 



ments came to our assistance. These were the Thirty-fourth 
Virginia Battalion Cavalry, commanded by the noted Colonel 
Witcher about one hundred and twenty-five men. They were 
born fighters; some of them barefooted, but all wearing large 
spurs, those with no shoes fastening the spurs on the naked 
feet. They came by the ordnance wagon, each man receiving 
cartridges, which they usually carried in their pockets, and as 
fast as supplied with ammunition, galloping away to the 
battle line with no semblance of military formation. Colonel 
Witcher called them his " Nighthawks. " In moving out, the 
"Nighthawks" led the column. Then followed the five hun- 
dred infantry from General Jackson's brigade; next came 
Colonel Carter's men; the wagon train next, with Colonel 
Giltner's men to protect the rear. We had had nothing to eat 
since early morning, but our horses had fared better, as the 
men in charge had fed them. 

It was eleven o'clock by the time the whole column was 
moving. The enemy must have been deceived, as we marched 
until about 3 a.m. before firing began in our rear. This 
was met and checked by the rear guard. About 5 a.m. 
heavy artillery fire commenced in our front, and quite soon 
fighting began in our rear. The Witcher "Nighthawks" 
charged the enemy in front, followed quickly by the Jackson 
Infantry and Carter's Brigade; while the Fourth Kentucky 
which was the rear guard, was fighting the battle in the rear. 
There was a full brigade of the enemy in the front, but the 
rapid charge and wild yells from the "Nighthawks," Jack- 
son's men, and Carter's brigade drove them quickly from our 
front. We followed them for two miles, until they debouched 
on a road leading to Cumberland Gap. Meanwhile the rear 
guard was holding off the enemy and inflicting considerable 
loss. Hungry and tired, our men fought with almost un- 
equaled valor. 

By this time General Williams, feeling some better, insisted 
on again taking command, but he was in no sense qualified 
under the circumstances. We had now passed Henderson's 
Mill, on our way to Rheatown, where was to be the supreme 
struggle of all. As we approached Rheatown a large force of 
the enemy, with considerable artillery, was on our right, and 
they opened on us with numerous guns. General Williams 
ordered the men to camp and feed their horses. Under heavy 
fire, the enemy charged our camp. There was much confusion, 
and Giltner again assumed command. Not heedingthe maud- 
lin orders from Williams, he ordered us back about two miles, 
where we had a better position. In this new position, we were 
ready again to receive the enemy, who, coming out of a dense 
wood, assailed with much force the right wing, which was 
guarded by a squadron of the Fourth Kentucky. The first 
squadron, to which I belonged, was ordered to double-quick 
to the relief of our struggling comrades. When we reached 
them pandemonium prevailed. Our boys were fighting like 
Trojans. The little Williams guns were doing splendid work. 
Here was performed feats of heroism never exceeded by the 
men who fought under Marshal Ney or Stonewall Jackson, 
but they were overwhelmed by the masses of the enemy. It 
seemed that all would be killed or captured, but no spirit of 
surrender was shown. We succeeded in getting the little 
Williams guns out before they were captured. 

One instance I will give of the heroism displayed by a boy 
about seventeen years old; he was a capper for one of the 
Williams guns. As our first squadron reached our stricken 
comrades of the same regiment on our right, this boy was 
standing by his gun dexterously placing the percussion caps 
with one hand, holding his cap in the other, and cheering at 
the top of his voice, where death seemed certain. Brave 
Capt. Sam Duncan, who commanded the Fourth Squadron of 



48 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 



the Fourth Kentucky, had fallen, being severely wounded. 
Many incidents of persona! bravery might be given, which 
would appear as wild romance, yet were, in fact, acted in this 
war drama. 

A wedge was driven between these four struggling com- 
panies and other parts of our forces. Many had been killed or 
wounded, but no prisoners taken, except the helpless wounded. 
Here we stood defiantly fighting, with our dead and wounded 
lving close by. It looked bad for us, but still the beginning 
call was sounded, " Half hoss and half alligator! " Two of the 
four captains had been severely wounded, and the senior 
captain was missing. About one hundred and fifty men were 
still on foot and fighting, but many of them had used all their 
ammunition, I being one. There was thick timber near by. 
In little squads we made for it. We had slipped away, like 
eels. This quick vanishment seemed to confuse our foes. 
While they were thinking, we were running. Our main 
command had been driven back more than two miles; we still 
kept apart. Whenever visible we were fired at. Another of 
my company was with me. Seeing a cornfield near, we were 
soon in it. The enemy was slow in following us into these 
covert places. We were almost exhausted and famishing for 
water. Soon we found an apple tree full of ripe, sweet apples, 
which somewhat stayed our hunger and relieved our thirst. 
But pleasant as this rest was, we must hurry on. On leaving 
this field, we crossed an open space, and as soon as visible we 
were fired on. My comrade had a double-barreled shot gun 
and returned the fire. I admonished him to save his ammuni- 
tion, as the targets were beyond range, to save it for closer 
quarters. I had a long range rifle, but no ammunition. I 
would then have given a good horse for twenty rounds of ball 
and powder. We could hear the guns as our men were fighting 
and falling back. Several times we ran on what seemed to be 
the ever-present enemy, but a shot by my conrade and the 
display of my long range gun was quite helpful. 

The real fighting was now about over, but rear guard 
skirmishing was still going on. We had walked, after leaving 
Rheatown, about ten miles, and weie now nearing the railroad 
bridge over the rapid Watauga River, and it was still standing 
Xo pilgiims ever hailed "the shadow of a great rock in a 
weary land" more thankfully than did we the clear waters 
under this bridge. 

Our loss at Henderson's Mill, Rheatown, and the running 
fight afterwards was near one hundred men in killed and 
wounded and captured. The captured were almost all wounded. 
Now, at the age of eighty years, I sometimes feel that if it 
were possible I would like to go back and on each grave of 
those immortal dead place the most lovely floweis, as an humble 
token that their lives and brave deeds are not forgotten by 
their comrades or their descendants. 

At Watauga River we met some help which Gen. Robert 
E. Lee had sent to our relief. So exhausted we were that after 
drinking all the pure water we desired, and getting something 
to eat, we retired to the timber near by and were soon asleep. 
Although the enemy that night shelled the woods where we 
were sleeping, I and many others were not awakened; to me 
it seemed but a war dream. Our enemies were courageous 
and competent men. No doubt they were greatly deceived 
as to our number; but as for General Burnsides and his men, on 
this invasion of our Southland they manifested true soldier- 
ship. Xo dwellings or barns were burned, or were their 
wagon trains loaded with the richest spoils taken from private 
homes. Women were treated with due courtesy, and the 
helplessness of little ones was observed with honor. Xot that 
way later on, when the order was given to make the South so 
barren that "a crow flying over would have to carry his rations 



with him. " I have always had profound respect foi General 
Burnsides and his men, and was glad that he lived on after the 
war, in which his flowing whiskers had waved in the breeze 
like the mane of a great lion. 



AN INCIDENT OF KENESA W MOUNTAIN. 

[This article was written by W. T. Barnes, a private of 
Company G, 1st Arkansas Infantry, Govan's Brigade, Cle- 
burne's Division, Hardee's Corps, Army of Tennessee, who 
died several years ago. In sending it to the Veteran, W. E. 
Bevens, of Newport, Ark., writes: "There was no better soldier 
in the army than W. T. Barnes; he was from my town, Jack- 
sonport, and we went out together in the 1st Arkansas Regi- 
ment, Company G, one hundred and fifty strong, and after 
four years we got back with twenty-seven men. We have a 
fine monument in our courthouse yard to the memory of 
the Confederate dead of Jackson County, and the name of 
every man belonging to our Camp, Tom Hindman, No31S, 
U. C. V., is cut in the marble. We are very proud of our 
monument. "] 

It has often been a matter of speculation with me why (in 
the various episodes and sketches of the "late unpleasantness") 
some truthful account has not been given by the "Northern 
side of the fence" of the Federal charge on the Confederate 
line of works at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, June 27, 
1864. It appears to me as a climax to that dreadful and fear- 
ful onslaught the Yankees owe the Rebels a debt of gratitude 
that for over fifty years has lain dormant without the least 
attempt at acknowledgment. I refer to the fearful confla- 
gration in the immediate front of Cleburne's division in this 
battle, when Cleburne's men stopped firing and rendered such 
vital assistance to the Yankees who were penned up in this 
holocaust of dead, wounded, and living Federal soldiers. 

I will endeavor, barring personal feeling and prejudices 
liable to crop out, to give as accurate a synopsis as is pos- 
sible, and there are, no doubt, Federal soldiers now living who 
can verify this statement. 

You must know we had no double lines with reserves to 
back us, and the first impulse of Confederates, as well as 
Yankees, was to entrench as soon as a line of battle was 
established, which usually occurred at night; and, allow me 
to add. at such times the ground never got too hard for us to 
burrow into, and we didn't have time to lean back against the 
root of some stately pine and sweetly dream the happy hours 
away. 

On the evening previous to the Kenesaw fight a battery of 
some eight or ten pieces of lfght artillery came up, halting 
near our command — a North Carolina battery, whose previous 
service was in coast duty and had never been mixed up in 
any of our inland scrimmages. We soon learned this battery 
was f or " we wis. " It was surely a slick looking outfit. Men, 
guns, uniform, harness and horses, all looked fresh from the 
mold. On account of this newness, and not having any coast 
work near at hand, we would have preferred Sweat's battery 
or some other of those familiars that we could chin out of a 
chew of tobacco or — well, those fellows were not ashamed to 
mix with us on the front. You see, we were just a trifle 
juberous of new cannon, new uniforms, new horses, and so 
forth, but as the preferred ones had business elsewhere, we 
resolved to take what the Lord, and General Cleburne, gave 
us and do our level best. 

I should mention that our line was on the brow of a slight 
eminence, and the Yankee line also on a slight rise, there 
being a depression and gully between the two lines, our line 
and the Federal being in clear view of each other and but 



Qopfederat^ Vetera^. 



49 



ibout one hundred yards apart. We were assured there would 
]e a red-hot mix up, and not knowing as to how this fresh 
Dattery would "cut the mustard" in one of our inland song 
ind dance mUees, we were just a trifle apprehensive of results 
n a hand-to-hand "rucus," where one did not take time to 
exchange the compliments of the season and make felicitous 
nquiries as to how they left the folks at home. However, at 
■nightfall we were ordered to help the battery men to dig 
.embrasures and put their guns in position, which assuredly 

i jwedid not hesitate in doing and doing quickly. 

In placing this battery in position, we decided that in all 
I probability these men knew their business. 

Meantime, the battery men looked down our line, whose 
,men, like hen's teeth, were few and far between, and appeared 
somewhat doubtful of our being able to support them in the 
fight so imminent. 

In fact, our line did look rather lonesome, but we had 
thought of all this. We had cut down and placed in our front 
hundreds of black jack saplings as abattis, cutting off the 
tips of the limbs with our jackknives and whittling them so 
sharp and close it would have been an uphill business for a 
rabbit to creep through. At any rate, enough to cause the 
Yanks to bide a wee. 

I, I should also mention that in the valley or depression be- 
tween the lines was a grove of pine and black jack, the 

. ground being thickly strewn with leaves and pine cones, which 

I were like tinder. 

About 10 a.m. we could see quite a commotion across on 
the Yankee side, line after line apparently marching and 
countermarching. They seemed to be assembling mainly 

. from their rear, massing just behind their breastworks. This 
meant for us every man to his place and fix for business. Line 
after line of Yanks mounted their works, and simultaneously 

. their ordnance opened on us. Cannon — big, little, old, and 

. young — made such a din that their muskets sounded like 
squibs. 

If any command was ever given for us to commence firing, 
I never heard it, but I distinctly call to mind we commenced 

l firing and our North Carolina battery — gracious Peter! I 

i could have hugged every man in that battery. It sounded as 

, though we had a hundred cannon instead of eight or ten, and 
such regularity one would think they were on parade drill — 
scattering canister, grape, shrapnel, and short-fire bombs, 
and, like our infantry, shot for execution. 

Well, the Yanks got as far as the gully in the ravine, which 

. seemed at that time the healthiest place. One would imagine 
Vesuvius had moved over to the Confederate States of 

j America and opened up business on Kenesaw. 

As mentioned, our cannon were placed for execution. Their 

. redoubts so low, the cannon's mouth nearly on the ground, 
and at every discharge a blaze of fire sprang out among the dry 

, leaves, which were soon ablaze and eating their way toward 
the gully, which was full of a mass of human beings, squirming 
around and still piling on each other. Ah, but little can a 
peaceful citizen imagine the horror of war. Just one glimpse 
of that seething mass of weltering human beings, the flying, 
burning sticks with every discharge, flames leaping from 
limb to limb, the everlasting roar of cannon and small arms, 
not counting our usual Rebel yell. 

At this stage our colonel, Will H. Martin, sang out, " Boys, 
this is butchery," and mounting our head logs, with a white 
handkerchief, he sang out to the Yanks as well as to our own 
men: "Cease firing and help get out those men." It is need- 
less to add that the Feds never once refused to comply with 
this request. Our men, scaling the head logs as though for a 
counter charge, were soon mixed with Yankees, carrying out 



dead and wounded Feds with those who, a few minutes pre- 
vious, were trying to ' down our shanties." Together, the 
Rebs and Yanks soon had the fire beat out and the dead and 
wounded removed to the Federal side of the fence. 

Now I will say this: The Yankees who were really engaged 
in this little matter were fully appreciative of our action, and 
I can't begin to mention the nice things they said to us. A 
Federal officer presented to Colonel Martin a brace of fine 
pearl-handled pistols, making quite a feeling little speech, not 
lengthy but to the point. 

But still, after the war was over, and at a time when the 
bloody shirt was flaunted far and near, at every crossroad 
public speaking, barbecue, and Sunday school picnic, never 
once was this little episode of the battle of Kenesaw Mountain 
mentioned, or any mitigating circumstances that it might be 
possible for any Confederate to be imbued with human feeling. 

How nice it would have been for some Federal soldier, who 
participated in the grand charge at Kenesaw Mountain, to 
have mentioned the foregoing facts, not wait for half a cen- 
tury when nearly every one familiar with the episode is dead 
and gone. 

GEN. E. M. LAW AT GETTYSBURG. 

[The following tribute appeared in the Charleston (S. C.) 
News and Courier soon after the death of General Law.] 

Maj. Gen. Evander Mclver Law will always be remembered 
as a South Carolinian, one of the most gallant of the many 
gallant officers contributed by South Carolina to the Con- 
federate army. He was born in Darlington, educated at the 
Citadel, from which he graduated in 1856, and was one of the 
first teachers at the King's Mountain Military School at 
Yorkville when Colonel Coward and Gen. Micah Jenkins es- 
tablished that famous institution. In 1860 he left Yorkville 
to start a military school of his own at Tuskegee, Ala., but a 
few months later, in January, 1861, he headed a company of 
Alabama volunteers and took part in the capture of Pensa- 
cola and the fort at that place shortly thereafter being made 
lieutenant colonel of the 4th Alabama regiment. His service 
thenceforward in the armies of the Confederacy was continu- 
ous, and he fought in most of the great battles of Virginia and 
distinguished himself again and again at the First and Second 
battles of Manassas, at Gaines's Mill, and Malvern Hill, at 
Boonesboro and Antietam, at Fredericksburg and Gettys- 
burg, at Chickamauga, and in all the hard campaigns from 
the Wilderness to Cold Harbor. 

In the dispatches which told of General Law's death men- 
tion was made of the fact that at the battle of Gettysburg, 
where he commanded Hood's division after General Hood 
was wounded, "he was signally successful, having been bre- 
vetted on the field at Gettysburg by General Longstreet for 
maneuvering his division on the Round Top in such a man- 
ner as to effect the disastrous repulse of Kilpatrick's division 
of mounted Federal troops." In the Century Magazine for 
December, 1886, General Law himself told the story of how 
Hood's division, which occupied the Confederate right at 
Gettysburg, held the front line throughout July 3, 1863, that 
long day which followed the disastrous but immortal charge 
of Pickett. The most spectacular event of that day was the 
repulse of Kilpatrick's division when General Farnsworth, 
emerging suddenly from the woods at the base of the Round 
Tops, led the charge upon the Confederates in which he and 
all but a handful of his men met their deaths. 

When the charge began General Law was talking with the 
officers of Bachman's Battery, a Charleston organization, 
commanded by Capt. James Simons and Gen. Rudolph 



50 



^oi>federat^ l/efceraij. 



Siegling. He hurried off one of the members of his staff with 
orders to detach the first regiment he should come to on the 
main line, and send it on a run to head off the advancing 
cavalry. This happened to be the 4th Alabama regiment, 
and as Farnsworth and his men came galloping up the valley 
the Confederates ran out in the open ground on the farther 
side, opening fire as they ran, the course of the cavalry being 
abruptly checked and saddles rapidly emptied. 

"Recoiling from this fire," General Law wrote, "they 
turned to their left and rear and directed their course up the 
hill toward the position occupied by our batteries. Bach- 
man's Battery promptly changed front to its left, so as to 
face the approaching cavalry, and, together with the infantry 
supports, opened a withering fire at close range. Turning 
again to their left, Farnsworth and the few of his men who 
remained in their saddles directed their course toward the 
point where they had originally broken in, having described 
by this time almost a complete circle. But the gap where they 
had entered was now closed, and, receiving another fire from 
that point, they again turned to the left and took refuge in 
the woods near the base of Round Top. There they came 
in conflict with the skirmish line of the 15th Alabama regi- 
ment, and General Farnsworth, refusing to surrender, killed 
himself with his pistol, In the charge on Bachman's battery 
some of Farnsworth's men were shot within thirty-five or 
forty yards of the battery's guns." 

General Law in his prime was one of the handsomest of men, 
as straight as an arrow, with jet black beard, and of dashing 
appearance. The grace of his manner was flawless. He had 
not lived in South Carolina since the early 90's, when, for a 
time, he edited the Vorkville Yeoman. He was held in the 
highest esteem by his surviving comrades throughout South 
Carolina and only a few weeks ago, at a meeting of Camp 
Sumter in this city, warm tributes were paid him by Colonel 
Armstrong and others, and he was elected to honorary mem- 
bership in the Camp. 

B 7 RIGHT OF HERITAGE. 

Southern Born Division Commanders in the World War. 
Who They Were and What They Did. 

d. d. c prize essay by mrs. j. m. kelly, wytheville, va. 

This title to a modern article was selected because the one 
point that impressed me most in sorting out the facts nec- 
essary to a chronicle of this kind was the date of birth of these 
soldiers of our Southland, now veterans of a World War, no 
longer merely Southerners, but great Americans all. 

The figures '60, '61, '63, '65, on up to the seventies, with a 
very few in the fifties, were before my eyes; and I pictured the 
babies born just before or during the struggle between the 
States growing into boys who listened to the battles of history 
being fought over by men, strong, valiant, and unconquered 
in their pride — men w-ho fought for a cause they thought right 
and returned home to live over again for the children ''the 
glory that was theirs. " 

Held ever before them as models and examples were that 
gentleman, scholar, and soldier, Robert E. Lee, whose greatest 
monument to-day is that empty niche in the Hall of Fame; 
the wonderful strategist and leader, Jackson; the brilliant 
young Stuart; the romantic Mosby, and on through the list 
that never grows old to the Southern born. Was it any 
wonder, then, that boys who grew to young manhood in that 
twenty years after the war claimed their heritage? 

No disloyalty to the Southern cause theirs when they 
decided to follow the flag of a united country. They have 



brought added honor to the flag of their fathers, for th< 
meager history of these men that I have been able to pieo 
together is one of which Southerners and united American 
can well be proud. 

Justly we are proud of the men who commanded our armie 
in 1861 to 1865, and justly are we proud of the men wh( 
helped to command our armies in 1917 to 1918, those armie 
whose marching feet obliterated forever the Mason and Dixoi 
Line. 

The South furnished to the World War the commander ir 
chief of our army and navy, Woodrow Wilson; at least, 
half interest in the general in active command of the whoh 
army, John J. Pershing; and the greatest soldier of the war 
Alvin York, of the Tennessee mountains, one of the seventy- 
eight Medal of Honor men of the World War. He but 
carried on his heritage of bravery. 

Just for a minute go back to those tense days in April, 1917 
oncoming, victorious Germans with only war-weary Allied 
veterans and untried Americans to stop them. It is such a 
few short years. Have we forgotten? Foch called upon 
Pershing for the First Division to go into action on the ridge 
north of Montdidier, to cover the Paris-Calais Railroad. 

Here was a post of honor, a position that must be held at 
all costs. Do you remember who commanded that Division? 
Robert Lee Bullard, who was born in Alabama in 1861, a child 
of the Civil War. He was told to hold, but four weeks later 
left the trenches to take Cantigny, a swift and splendid 
achievement. Here was America's real baptism of fire and the 
first milestone of Pershing's army. (Frank Simonds's History.) 

Lieutenant General Bullard commanded in turn the first 
division to take its place in the front line in France, the Third 
Army Corps, and the second Army. He took part in the 
operations in the reduction of the Marne salient, the Meuse- 
Argonne offensive, and was in command of the Second Army 
when the German resistance west of the Meuse was shattered. 
He received the Distinguished Service Medal for his services 
as commander of the Second Army. 

Frank Simonds says, in his account of the Meuse-Argonne 
achievement, that four of General Pershing's subordinates de- 
serve mention in any study, however summary. Of these 
four two are Southern born. One is Lieutenant General Bul- 
lard, already mentioned; the other, Maj. Gen. Charles P. 
Summerall, of Florida. 

In the World War Summerall commanded in turn a brigade 
of the First Division in the operations near Montdidier, the 
First Division during the Soissons and St. Mihiel offensives, 
and in the early battles of the - Meuse-Argonne advance, and 
the Fifth Army Corps in the later battles of this advance. 

"In all of these his calm courage, clear judgment, and 
soldierly character had a marked influence in the attainment 
of the success of his commands." (Citation for D. S. M.) 

A Southern born man is now commander in chief of the 
army of occupation. It is a long step for the little Kentucky 
boy who grew up in those dark days of Southern history to 
commander in chief of the American army on the Rhine. 
Children of a future generation will read with pride of that 
army in a foreign land, of their high moral standard, their 
standard of excellence in every particular, and back of that 
standard is the man, Henry T. Allen. As commander of the 
19th Division, he had the important position of conducting 
the right flank at the St. Mihiel salient; later he repeated his 
success in the Meuse-Argonne offensive. Received the D. S. 
M. for these services and for his skill and judgment in com- 
mand of the Sth Army Corps. 

According to Gen. Pershing, the selection of the body of the 
"Unknown Soldier" to be brought over and interred in 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 



51 



Arlington will be in his hands. The body of the unknown 
soldier goes to the home of Lee to be buried, the greatest 
lonor that can be paid one who laid down his life for his coun- 
try. We of the South say "Aye," for national cemetery 
though it is, Arlington was, is, and always will be the "home 
of Lee." 

Everyone knows the wonderful strides made in chemical 
'.varfare during the World War, but few of us remember the 
lame of the man who commanded the Chemical Warfare 
Service during that time. It was Maj. Gen. William L. 
Sibert, from Alabama, whose father fought in the battles of 
Manassas, the Wilderness, and Petersburg. The D. S. M. was 
' i warded him for his services in the organization of the Chemical 
Warfare Service, contributory to the successful prosecution 
of the war. 

Maj. Gen. George Bell, Jr.'s division fought with the 
British in the offensive operations that resulted in the capture 
if Hamel and Hamel Woods and in the fighting on the Meuse 
:hat gained the villages of Marcheville, St. Hilaire, and a 
Dortion of Bois d'Harville. He displayed a high order of 
eadership in the Meuse-Argonne offensive when his division 
attacked and captured the strongly fortified Bois de Forges. 
Maj. Gen. Bell was born in Maryland and was awarded 
:he D. S. M. for his services as division commander. 

Florida has given the South another general of especial 
'distinction, Maj. Gen. Francis J. Kernan. His was the 
' mportant duty of organizing the Service of Supply of the 
A. E. F. in France. As a member of the War Prisoner's 
r Commision to Berne, Switzerland, and of the American 
section of the Supreme War Council, he rendered conspicuous 
Services to the government, and for such received the D. S. M. 
Maj. Gen. David C. Shank, of the Old Dominion, son of a first 
'.ieutenant in the Salem Flying Artillery, afterwards called 
Hupp's Battery, was born at Salem, Va., of Confederate 
incestry on both sides. In addition to his services as com- 
mander of a division he was detailed as commander of the 
'a;reat port of embarkation at Hoboken, where he served 
during the war. He received the D. S. M. for his administra- 
tion of that port in connection with the shipment of troops 
overseas. His was indeed a post of responsibility when one 
'-ecalls the secrecy maintained and the great strain consequent 
upon shipping safely so many thousands of men through 
:hose submarine infested waters. 

Maj. Gen. John L. Hines, of West Virginia, commanded a 
'brigade of the 1st Division in the operations near Montdidier 
md Soissons, and the 4th Division in the Argonne-Meuse 
jffensives. 

In addition to the D. S. M., Major General Hines received 
'ihe Distingusihed Service Cross for extraordinary heroism in 
action near Berzy-le-Sec, France. At a critical time during the 
battle southwest of Soissons, when liaison had been broken 
between the 16th and 26th Infantry, he went through terrif- 
'ic artillery fire to the front lines of the 16th, located its left 
-flank, then succeeded in finding the forward elements of the 
26th and directed the linking up of the two regiments, thus 
enabling the operations to be pushed forward successfully. 

Maj. Gen. Robert L. Howze, of Texas, commanded the 33rd 
Division from its organization throughout the war. How 
many of us read with the thrill of victory still in our hearts 
of those divisions of the American army that marched so 
quietly into the enemy's country to take up their "Watch on 
:he Rhine. " Major General Howze commanded one of them. 
Beside the D. S. M., Gen. Howze, whose middle name is Lee, 
due to a distant kinship to and family admiration that was al- 
most worship of Gen. Lee, wears that most coveted of all 
American decorations, the Medal of Honor. 



In 1891 his small troop of fifty-two men was attacked by 
eight hundred Sioux Indians, who had broken through the 
troops that were holding them in their Agency. Armed only 
with rifles, they fought the Indians all day, even till dark, 
and succeeded in driving them back to the Agency. For 
personal bravery in this fight Congress awarded him the 
Medal of Honor. 

Virginia and West Virginia together give us another ma- 
jor general, Mason M. Patrick, of Lewisburg. It was Virginia 
when he was born there, but it is now West Virginia. He be- 
longed to the engineering branch of the service, and during the 
war was Director of Construction and Forestry, and later 
Chief of the Air Service of the A. E. F. Received the D. S. M. 
for his able administration of these departments. An Associ- 
ated Press notice of a late date tells us that he has been ap- 
pointed Chief of the Air Service to succeed General Menoher. 
The Secretary of War laid stress on the fact that he is an 
officer of mature years and seasoned by experience at home 
and abroad in positions requiring executive ability. 

From the South to Siberia reads like a book of adventure, 
and such it is, for between those words lies the hardships and 
adventure of the American Expeditionary Forces in Siberia, 
commanded by Maj. Gen. William S. Graves, of Texas. He 
was also executive assistant to the chief of staff and received 
the D. S. M. for his services. 

Maj. Gen. Robert Alexander, of Maryland, was commander 
of the 77th Division. During the advance in the Argonne 
Forest, Major General Alexander, when his men were worn out 
by a long period of front line service, visited the units in the 
front line, encouraging them to greater efforts. He continued 
in spite of the severe fire to which he was subjected until he had 
inspected each group. His personal disregard of danger 
resulted in the crossing of the Aire and the capture of Grand 
Pre and St. Juvin. (Citation for D. S. C.) 

Maj. Gen. Hugh L. Scott, of Kentucky, as chief of staff in 
1917 persistently advocated the adoption of the selective 
service law. He was commanding general at Camp Dix, 
N. J., and received the D. S. M. for the organizing and train- 
ing of the divisions under his care. He is now retired from 
active service. 

Maj. Gen. Guy Carleton, of Texas, also received the D. S. M. 
for organizing and training corps and army troops during the 
war. He was commander at Camp Wadsworth, South 
Carolina. 

Maj. Gen. Beaumont B. Buck, of Mississippi, when com- 
manding the 2nd Brigade of the 2nd Division, at the attack 
of Berzy-le-Sec, France, traversed the front line of his advanc- 
ing forces, directing his organization, and led the first wave 
of the attack that finally captured the town. He accomplished 
this under heavy machine gun fire when most of the officers 
of his brigade had fallen, for which he received the Distin- 
guished Service Cross. 

Maj. Gen. Walter II. Gordon, of Florida, first commanded 
the 184th Brigade, and was promoted to Major General in 
1918, when he took command of the 28th Division. His 
citation for the D. S. M. says that he contributed greatly to 
the success attained by that division during the time he was in 
command. 

The men who went across with the first contingent of 
American troops thought they were in luck. One of these was 
Maj. Gen. George B. Duncan, of Kentucky, who commanded 
in turn a regiment,- brigade and division. As commander of 
the 77'h Di\i*ion in'the Baccarst'-secto'", his military judg- 
ment and energy were important factors in the successes 
gained. Later' he" Commanded' the-82nd Division in the 



52 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 



Meuse-Argonne offensive. He received the D. S. M. for these 
services. 

Maj. Gen. James McRae, of Georgia, according to the 
citation for the D. S. M., showed a high quality of leadership. 
He commanded the 78th Division in the Meuse-Argonne 
offensive and took part in the operations that forced the 
enemy to abandon Grand Pre. 

Kentucky certainly is a fighting State, for while a Virginian 
hates to admit it, she holds the honors in this article. Another 
of her sons, Maj. Gen. Frank L. Winn, commanded the 177th 
Infantry Brigade and later the 89th Division. He received the 
D. S. M. for his tactical skill and ability as a leader. In the 
St. Mihiel and Argonne offensives he accompanied the as- 
saulting battalions and placed them on their objectives. 

The spirit of the Louisiana Tigers still lives in Maj. Gen. 
John A. LeJeune, of that State, for when he commanded the 
2nd Division in the operations of Thieucourt, Masif Blanc 
Mont, St. Mihiel, and on the west bank of the Meuse, in the 
Meuse Argonne offensive, his division was directed with such 
military judgment and ability that it broke and held enemy 
lines hitherto considered impregnable. Received the D. S. M. 

Maj. Gen. Henry Jertey, Virginia, rendered conspicious 
service as Director of Operations, General Staff, and as Assis- 
tant to the Chief of Staff in preparing and executing the plans 
for the mobilization of personnel during the war. Received 
the D. S. M. 

The following major generals are credited to divisions by 
the War Department, but I have been unable to find anything 
more personal about their services: 

Maj. Gen. Eben Swift, of Texas, National Army, now 
retired. 

Maj. Gen. Edward H. Plummer, Maryland, retired after 
forty years' service. 

Maj. Gen. LeRoy S. Lyons, Virginia. 

Maj. Gen. William R. Smith, Tennessee, awarded D. S. M. 

Maj. Gen. Edwin F. Glenn North Carolina, retired after 
forty years service. 

Besides these the South furnished Major Generals Peter 
C. Harris, of Georgia, and Henry P. McCain, of Mississippi. 
Both of these men received the Distinguished Service Medal 
for their work of practical benefit to the government in the 
adjutant's department. 

Maj. Gen. Clarence C. Williams, Georgia, was Chief of 
Ordnance; received the D. S. M. 

Maj. Gen. Frank Mclntyre, Alabama, was Chief of Bureau 
of Insular Affairs, received D. S. M. 

The War Department furnishes the following list of brig- 
adier generals, credited to Southern States, who commanded 
divisions during the World War. Where I have failed to give 
an account of their services shows no lack on their part as 
commanders, only my inability to find their records: 

Brig. Gen. James B. Erwin, born in Georgia in 1852, is the 
oldest of the Southern commanders in the World War on my 
list. He is now retired after forty-five years of service. He 
commanded the 92nd Division, Brig. Gen. Frank Parker, 
South Carolina, commanded the 1st Division, in the autumn 
of 191S, in the Meuse-Argonne offensive. Received D. S. M. 

Brig. Gen. Preston Brown, Kentucky, was chief of staff of 
2nd Division and directed the details of the battles near 
Chateau-Thierry, Soissons and the St. Mihiel salient. Later 
he commanded the 3rd Division in the Meuse-Argonne 
offensive at a critical time, and was able to carry to a suc- 
cessful conclusion the operations at Clair Cherjes and Hill 
294. ReceK-gdD.-S'. M. ' ' « * : ' ' ' 

Brig.'GeK. Frank B. Watsdn,' Viigihia, ' niade brigadier 
general August 1918,' ' "' -"• ' ; '' 



Brig. Gen. Benjamin T. Simmons, North Carolina, made 
brigadier general October, 1918. 

Brig. Gen. William S. Scott, Texas, was retired by operation 
of law in 1920. 

Brig. Gen. Nathaniel F. McClure, Kentucky, was brigadier 
general in National army. 

Brig. Gen. Ira A. Haynes, Kentucky, served in artillery; 
brigadier general National army. 

Brig. Gen. Benjamin A. Poore, Alabama, commanded the I 
7th Infantry Brigade in the numerous engagements of the 
Meuse-Argonne campaign. His brigade drove the enemy 
from Ruisseau des Forges and the Bois du Fays. The troops 
under his command captured many prisoners and much 
material. Received D. S. M. 

Brig. Gen. Samson L. Faison, North Carolina, commanded 
the 60th Infantry Brigade during the breaking of the enemy? 
Hindenburg Line at Bellecourt, France; D. S. M. 

Brig. Gen. John S. Mallory, Virginia, now retired. 

Brig. Gen. Matthew C. Smith, Alabama, made brigadier 
general October, 191S, U. S. army. 

Brig. Gen Roger D. Williams, Kentucky. 

Brig. Gen. Robert E. L. Michie, Virginia. 

Brig. Gen. Roy Hoff, Oklahoma. 

Such is the list as I have been able to compile it, not com- 
plete, but as accurate as a verification, name by name, in the 
Army Register of 1920 can make it. All of the names given 
here can be found in the Register with the rank except the 
last three, and I have a list from the War Department as 
authority for them. 

Worthy followers of the great commanders of the War 
between the States, they have proven themselves in every 
branch of the service men of ability and bravery. The South 
can well echo Marshal Foch's words in "America's Contribu- 
tion to Victory": " I salute my American comrades in arms- 
generals, officers, and soldiers — all equally glorious, thanks to 
whom a decisive victory has been won for freedom." 

[I owe thanks to Maj. Sidney Moore, of Wytheville, and 
Col. R. Kent Spiller. of Roanoke, for their help in this 
work; also the Army and Navy Journal and many friends whc 
so kindly and promptly answered my letters asking for infor- 
mation. 

My authorities are Frank Simonds's History, the Army 
Register for 1920, and "Heroes, All" by Harry R. Stringer 
" Heroes All" gives the list of men who received the D. S. M. 
and the D. S. C. In many' instances I have given the cita- 
tions just as they are worded-there.] 



PASSING ON. 



Captain John H. Burch, commanding the Camp at Roxborc 
N. C, writes that Camp Jones No. 1206 U. C. V. was organ- 
ized in 1885 with about three hundred members, of whom 
there are now about fifty left. He also says: " I left Roxboro, 
in Persons County, X. C, on June 6, 1861, with one hundred 
and three men, all dead now except three. The first year ot 
the war we served as volunteers under General Floyd, of West 
Virginia; in 1862 we belonged to Company H, 24th North Car- 
olina Regiment, of General Matt W. Random's brigade. We 
were in all the leading battles of Virginia and Maryland. 
My father had eight sons in the Confederate Army at the 
same time, all being wounded, and one was killed at Chick- 
amauga. All are dead now but myself. Person County fur- 
nished about a thousand men for the great cause of the sixties 
of whom onlv about seventv-five are left." 



Qopfederat^ V/eteraij. 



53 



INCIDENTS OF THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

BY J. W. MINNICH, GRETNA, LA. 

John Coxe related some interesting experiences in "With 
.the Hampton Legion in the Peninsular Campaign," and as 
I also served in that campaign and previous thereto was un- 
der Colonel Magruder prior to Johnston's advent upon the 
scene, I am in a position to confirm about all that he has 
written about it, with the exception of the part taken by his 
command, even in fuller detail than he could possibly give, 
j since I was in the Yorktown works from about June 20, 
- 1861, until 1:30 o'clock Sunday morning, May 4, 1862; and 
I was a member of the last squad to leave the works. This 
was Lieut. William Schirmer's gun crew in Fort Magruder, 
, a three-gun battery (one eight-inch Columbiad manned by a 
section of Peyton's battalion, Virginia Heavy Artillery, one 
eight-inch Howitzer, and one forty-two pounder sea coast 
gun) manned by a section of 1st Company DeGournay's 
battalion, Heavy Artillery, of which section I was one 
(No. 3), and, as before stated, we were the very last to 
leave Yorktown and fired the last shot from our forty-two 
at 1:30 a.m. 

Comrade Coxe says: "Soon after our arrival a severe 
fight took place at a dam across one of these streams about 
two miles below Yorktown." That was at Dam No. 1 
across the Warwick River, and occurred late in the afternoon 
of April 16 or 17. How well I remember it! From Yorktown 
we could see the smoke rise above the trees and could hear 
the cheers of the Union troops as they assaulted and the 
answering "Rebel yells" mingled with rattling of musketry 
and rifles and the booming of artillery and the bursting of 
shells. To us it was a din infernal while it lasted. An hour 
at most, and before the sun set, the din ceased with a long yell 
of triumph from Rebel throats. Only desultory firing until 
night put an end to the carnage, for carnage it was, from 
all accounts we had of the decimation of the Vermont bri- 
gade making an ill-advised attack. 

But I think Comrade Coxe is mistaken when he states that 
"at one point they broke our line." Like himself, I went 
down there the next day to see what I could, and I chatted 
with the men behind the works in the ditch, and none of 
those I conversed with spoke of or even intimated that the 
Federals had crossed the river at any point. Below the darn 
at that point the river was very narrow, but a deep gash, 
with perpendicular banks and only a few yards wide. In 
fact, it was unfordable above Dam No. 2. I was told by 
those men that some of the attackers had attempted to ford 
below the dam and had not been seen again. While those 
coming behind, realizing the attempt to ford the river be- 
low the dam was futile, stood up on the farther bank and 
"fought like men." But the Confederates' fire was more 
than they could stand, with no prospects of being able to 
advance farther. And those who attempted to cross on the 
crown of the dam never had a chance of reaching the 
hither bank. No doubt it was the bodies of those Comrade 
Coxe saw in the water and lying on the dam, as I saw 
them. 

In front of the dam and back of the field several hundred 

yards distant, the Federals had thrown up a strong covered 

battery of eight or ten guns, semicircular, along and across 

the road to Big Bethel and Fortress Monroe; and in the field 

rifle pits, and these were well manned by sharpshooters, as 

I found reason to know. And the man who showed even his 

head for an instant above our works was sure to attract a 

bullet, or perhaps two or three, and sometimes with fatal 

results. One of the bovs in the ditch, in order to prove to 
j*, 



me that they had not been regaling me with a fairy tale of 
the abilities of those fellows as marksmen, put his hat on a 
short stick (didn't want to risk his ramrod) and pushed the 
hat up slowly in imitation of one who wanted to steal a sly 
glance. Barely had it appeared aboVe the parapet before a 
bullet tore through it. I was convinced they could shoot 
straight. They were well named "Berdan's Sharpshooters," 
a semi-independent corps, went when and where they pleased, 
usually toward the front, however. I had occasion to view 
their activities later before Yorktown, but, as Kipling said, 
"That is another story," and quite interesting too, with a 
strong element of hazard. 

Comrade Coxe is mistaken also when he says: "And so in 
the latter days of April the whole of our heavy artillery on 
our outer line opened a slow but unceasing fire on the Fed- 
eral lines." His memory must surely have played him a trick 
about that. We did not receive the order to open up a "slow, 
steady fire" until near sunset of the evening before the evac- 
uation; and then the whole line, from Peyton's nine-inch 
Dahlgrens on the river bluff to Magruder, opened up a slow, 
continuous fire, ours being the last heavy gun on the line. 
And, as before stated, we fired the last shot after midnight. 
Before that hour we in our battery realized that we were to 
move out before day, whatever the rest of the army may 
have thought. Whether we did any damage or not we never 
knew, but it was a grand sight to see the shells, flaming 
fuses, flying through the clear, starlit night and the flashings 
of bursting shells in the direction of the enemy's lines. 
Whether any one else knew it or not, we knew we were 
throwing away ammunition. 

Gradually, toward midnight, the firing slackened, and then 
finally ceased, and we marched out and took our way to and 
through Yorktown, under the guidance of a lieutenant of 
General Rains's staff, to enable us to avoid the torpedoes 
which General Rains had caused to be planted in the road 
inside the works in Yorktown. After leading us to the upper 
part of the town, the lieutenant, telling us we were out of 
any danger from torpedoes, disappeared. 

There has been in the past more or less controversy about 
those torpedoes. Rains has been accused, and bitterly, of 
having caused the planting of them, and it has been as 
strenuously denied. All I know, or did know, is the fact that 
the officer sent to conduct us past them caused us to follow 
him in single file by the side of the road, and told us that 
Rains had caused torpedoes of his "own invention" to be 
planted in the road. I did not at the time, nor have I since, 
approved of his action in so doing; and one of the squad 
vented his opinion on the matter in very plain terms as we 
emerged from the danger zone: "This is barbarism." 

Again is Comrade Coxe in error when he says: "By some 
blunder of some one at the magazine the explosion began at 
an early hour in the night and before all the army had got 
past." This certainly cannot apply to Yorktown, nor our 
magazine. As before said, our bombardment was kept up in 
a dwindling measure until after midnight, and it was no doubt 
the sound of our heavy guns. I recall that between ten an 
eleven o'clock, and probably after eleven to twelve o'clock, 
there was a concerted belching of heavy guns for probably 
twenty minutes. The earth trembled with the violence, 
and then it gradually died away after twelve o'clock. This 
must have been the uproar alluded to and mistaken for 
magazine explosions. Neither have I ever heard such a 
racket. It was, as Byron put it, "A din infernal" ("hell 
broke loose"). 

After we had fired the last shot, Lieutenant Schirmer con- 



54 



Qor?federat<? l/eterap. 



suited his watch and announced: "One-thirty!" And all was 
as quiet along the line as the grave itself. That the prema- 
ure explosion was the "work of a spy," as mentioned by 
Comrade Coxe, has grounds for plausibility. There had been 
no explosion, save those of the firing of our big guns, till 
after midnight, when my battalion began to file out of the 
works after the last furious bombardment and doing all the 
damage to the guns they possibly could in various ways; and 
when they did leave they left one man behind — a deserter, 
our ordnance sergeant, James Grover, of malodorous memo- 
ry. He was a New Yorker who happened to be in New 
Orleans when the war broke out and enlisted in our com- 
pany and was looked upon as a loyal soldier. He was a man 
of education, quiet in his ways, and enjoyed the confidence 
of all. He it was, undoubtedly, who informed the Federals 
that we were evacuating, and thus started McClellan at so 
early an hour on Johnston's heels, overtaking his rear guard 
at Williamsburg. Not a premature explosion, but knowledge 
imparted by a vile deserter from my command. 

From information obtained years afterwards, and from what 
I consider a reliable source (Federal), our central magazine 
was never exploded. It was located in the rear of our main 
batteries in a ravine that leads down from the lower end of 
the town to what is known as " Cornwallis's Cave," in front 
of which my battalion had a battery of thirty-twos, at the 
end of which stood our company's winter quarters. It was 
built of brick and considered thoroughly bombproof. About 
a mile from Yorktown we found a troop of cavalry drawn up 
beside the road, and when asked, "What command is this?" 
they promptly answered: "The Jeff Davis Legion." Proba- 
bly the same mentioned as the " Davis Guards" by Comrade 
Coxe, page 442. It was about this time, when light was ap- 
pearing in the east, that we heard explosions at short inter- 
vals in Yorktown and were convinced they were the torpe- 
does planted in the road, according to our guide. But from 
some cause they soon ceased. We thought, of course, the 
Federals caused the explosions in their early pursuit of the 
Confederates; and we damned Grover most heartily for hav- 
ing given the information which led to so early a pursuit, 
when we were congratulating ourselves that "Little Mac" 
would not discover our departure until after sunrise. But 
we did not hurry our steps because of that; we felt assured 
that they would not overtake us with the advance we had 
and the bad roads. Besides, we had the "Jeff Davis Legion" 
behind us, and we had our trusty steel-pointed pikes to repel 
them with. 

A word about those pikes may not be out of place here. 
When the Zouave battalion was organized, we were sent to 
Pensacola and were armed with the converted Springfield 
muskets and drilled with them, Zouave drill and tactics, which 
differed somewhat from the "Upton" and "Hardee Tactics 
and Manual." The latter had been adopted by the Con- 
federate government and was more strenuous than either and 
more complicated maneuverings. When my Company (De 
Gournay's) was detached at Yorktown and merged into the 
heavy artillery, we still retained our muskets. But there was 
a shortage of small arms in the Confederacy with which to 
arm the new regiments being formed, and in their place were 
issued pikes to the heavy artillerists designed to "repel board- 
ers," as a couple of old tars in our company expressed it, 
and in which theory we as a whole put little faith. But we 
were most thoroughly drilled in their use as "Lancers afoot," 
of foot lancers. Fortunately, or otherwise, we were never 
called upon to use them, either offensively or defensively, 
though they would have proved quite an effective barrier in 



a narrow road against a cavalry charge. The pikes wen 
eight feet long and stout, with most villainous two by twelve 
inch long double-edged knife blades fixed to the business end 
General Rains was the genuis who evolved the idea, unles: 
I err. 

At any rate, we continued our route across country, anal 
about 4 p.m. passed through Williamsburg, marching heads] 
up and pikes at a right "carry arms," and were reviewed b> 
"Grand Old Jo," who stood on the stoop of the main oil 
principal hostelry of the town and watched us with an ap-J 
proving smile, wondering, no doubt, if we had not leaped fuli 
armed from the shades of the Middle Ages, and sought to find 
in our ranks some as yet unidentified "Winkelried" among 
us. If so, he was very disappointed. We did not have a 
single "Arnold" among us. Marching to the lower end of the 
town and beyond a few hundred yards, we went into bivouac 
in an orchard, on the edge of which stood a tolerably large 
storage house or barn. After rations had been disposed of, 
no fires allowed, we stretched out on the bare, wet ground to 
get what sleep we could, having had none the night previous. 
Most of the boys were soon deep in slumber, but I, more 
sensitive, from my previous experience on turbulent waters, 
to sudden meteorological and atmospheric changes, proposed 
to my "bunkie," Ed Kelly, that we try to get into tht- 
barn, as I felt sure we would have rain in the night and it would 
prove mighty unpleasant with the ground already soaked. 
He was only too glad of the prospects of a dry floor with a 
roof over it. Gathering up our blankets and with our spears 
in our hands, we sneaked over to the barn some fifty yards 
away. We had no camp guards out, at least, not on our side 
of the camp, and reached the barn unchallenged, where we I 
found the main door unlocked. Feeling around we found the 
barn half full of corn in the husk, on which we stretched out 
our tired out bodies and were soon dead to the world. That 
we were tired out one may judge from the fact that we had 
been cooped up inside the works of Yorktown for eleven 
months without any marching exercises, only the necessary 
drilling with our heavy guns, and for the last month or two 
not even that; and as our rations were ample, plus what 
extras we procured from the outside, we had grown fat'and 
lazy — speaking for myself — utterly unprepared for a sudden 
call to march some fifteen miles over the muddiest of roads 
encumbered with our camp paraphernalia, so we were com- 
pletely worn out by the time we marched past "Old Jo," 
and he never sensed the weariness of us as we trudged past 
him through the sticky mud — some five hundred men and 
officers in the battalion ready to drop in their tracks at the 
command to halt. 

Kelly and I were awakened from our heavy slumber early 
in the morning by the booming of guns. Springing to our 
feet, we rushed to the door and looked out on the cheerless 
prospect. The rain was coming down in torrents. How long 
it had been falling we could not guess even, but it must have 
begun early in the night, as the whole plain appeared to be 
under water. We found that the battalion had left at day- 
break and was well on its way to Richmond. Then we waited 
for some little time, hoping the rain would cease after the 
sun had had time to warm up to his day's work. Finally, the 
rain slackened, but a thick mist rose from the ground, almost 
rivaling a Mississippi River fog in density, while the battle in 
front at the forts (now in our rear) continued with violence. 
I proposed to Kelly that we go out and take a hand, but he 
promptly vetoed the proposal on the ground that, first, we fj 
had no business out there, and, second, we had much better 
try to catch up with the battalion. Sound logic, for had we 



J 



Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 



55 



followed my inclination we might have shared the fate of our 
Lieutenant Schirmer. He, it transpired, feeling unwell, ob- 
tained lodgings for the night with a private family, none 
others being available. Like ourselves, the sound of the 
guns out front woke him and, being of a venturesome dispo- 
sition, finding that the battalion had moved on, and knowing 
' it could find the way to Richmond without his aid, he con- 
cluded that he might as well go back and help check the en- 
emy's advance. Acting on the impulse, he started for the 
Jj rear, and just in time to be caught in a retrograde movement 
1 of the Confederates when Hancocks' brigade made its 
, famous charge, and was captured. They took him to Gen- 
r eral Hancock, according to the report from him when, after 
having been exchanged, he rejoined us in Battery No. 6, 
r Richmond, some ten days later. Exchanges were prompt in 
! those days, if not later. We were glad to have him back 
j with us, and unharmed, and I will always recall the welcome 
we gave him when he came walking leisurely into the battery 
: and marched up to battalion headquarters to report to 
Colonel DeGournay, by whom he was held in high es- 
teem, as well as by the officers and men of his own old com- 
pany. 

William Schirmer was a Dane in nationality. As a boy of 
■ sixteen years, he had seen service on water and on land during 
the siege of Sevastopol, in the Crimean War. Later, coming 
to New Orleans, he joined our company in March, 1861. Six 
feet tall, straight as an Indian, as fine a specimen of manhood 
1 and soldierly bearing as one could wish to see, and with a 
sunny disposition, which made him a favorite with all. We 
left New Orleans as privates together. I became corporal, 
and, after our first sergeant died in 1861 and the second ser- 
geant was discharged for disability, two vacancies were created. 
I was urged by the captain and comrades to stand examina- 
tion for the post of second sergeant, but refused in favor of 
Schirmer, and, besides, signified my intention of returning to 
the ranks, which I did despite Captain DeGournay's protests. 
Office did not appeal to me, then nor since. Schirmer was 
appointed second sergeant, and when the battalion was 
formed the captain became major (later lieutenant colonel), 
the first lieutenant was elected captain and as such became one 
of the "Immortal Six Hundred," and later died on John- 
son's Island. Schirmer was unanimously elected first lieu- 
tenant. He went with the battalion as such to Port Hudson 
and was never surrendered when that important post fell. 
Making the rounds of sentries, the night before the final sur- 
render, a sharpshooter's bullet in the -head put an end to his 
life, the last Confederate, so far as is known, killed in Port 
Hudson. His great fault was his indifference to danger to 
himself, but he would not allow us to expose ourselves need- 
lessly. 

Turning our backs to the firing, Kelly and I started up the 
road on the sixty-mile tramp to Richmond through mud and 
water. There had been a lull in the rainfall, but scarcely had we 
left the town when it began again and in volume appeared de- 
sirous of making up for lost time. A mile or so out from the 
town the water came down in torrents for a while. It was 
then that we came upon Rodes's brigade, waiting by the 
roadside in the woods, while Kelly and I plodded along 
through mud and water almost knee deep in the old sunken 
road. Under other circumstances we probably would have 
been subject to some chaffing by the infantry, but they were 
too miserable themselves to indulge in any verba! gymnastics. 
Besides, General Rodes himself was not beyond earshot. 
Standing by the roadside with his arms folded under the cape 
of his great coat, he was listening to the sounds of battle in 
our rear. I never have forgotten the picture he made. I 



had gotten acquainted with him the year previous when our 
two commands had made the trip from Pensacola to Rich- 
mond on the same train ("side-door Pullmans" to-day), with 
one passenger car to each train for the officers. He was 
colonel of the 4th Alabama then and had since moved up one 
rung of fame's ladder. I had also met him several times in 
Yorktown before the evacuation and found him always the 
same genial and courtly gentleman. We stopped and sa- 
luted, and I ventured to ask him how long since our battalion 
had passed. "A good while ago," he answered. "They 
should be at least four miles ahead of you. But how do you 
happen to be so far behind your command?" I told him about 
the barn and of having been wakened by the cannon, as well 
as of the temptation to get into the fray. At that he smiled 
his slow, genial smile, and asked: "And what did you expect 
to do with your pikes?" That was a poser; I had never 
thought about what a ridiculous figure we would have pre- 
sented among infantry on the firing line. I told him frankly 
that I had never thought about that. Saluting again, we 
trudged on, the water getting deeper until it came almost to 
our knees. That was the last time I saw General Rodes, 
though I often heard of him and "Rodes's brigade," 
which made a reputation that will live as long as the history 
of the Army of Northern Virginia endures, and'it is imperish- 
able. 

Emerging from the woods onto higher ground, the going 
became better, and then the weather cleared, and it blew up 
quite cold for the season and dried things out nicely, so that 
when night came we were pretty comfortable, both in mind and 
body. Trudging on, we passed through the little hamlet of 
Barhamsville to a point beyond where the West Point road 
branched off from the road to Richmond. Up to that point 
we had encountered no troops after passing Rodes's brigade, 
but we learned by some means, not now recalled, that Hood's 
brigade had passed up the road ahead of us on the way to 
meet the Federals at West Point; and by the same means we 
learned that while the fight was being staged at Williamsburg 
McClellan had sent a fleet with a division to West Point to 
"cut Johnston's line of retreat," and that Hood's brigade, 
under General Whiting, was sent to oppose them. We 
scented a battle that night or in the morning early, and here 
again I proposed to Kelly that we take the same road, and we 
might have a hand in the scrimmage. To this he readily as- 
sented, and we started up the road cheered by the prospect 
of seeing something next morning — a fight if nothing more. 
We had seen only long range artillery action so far, and 
though some of it had been too close for comfort, no casual- 
ties had resulted to our side. We wanted something else 
" more personal," such as could only be had or seen in a fight 
between infantry at more or less easy range and close quarters. 
You will note we were quite young yet (under twenty years) r 
with more enthusiasm than sense, which latter grew within 
us as time progressed. Two boys and, for the time being, 
foot loose, I can only faintly recall having heard a few shots 
just before sunset, and would not be willing to testify on 
oath that I heard any. We moved leisurely and cautiously, 
and at nightfall stopped at a small house on the left side of 
the road from which the occupants had fled, leaving nothing 
whatever behind. We proceeded to make ourselves as cozy 
as possible for a good night's rest. Yes, but we did not know 
that there were others not so far away that the light from a 
roaring fire we had built in the wide-mouthed chimney would 
not attract them. It could have been seen for miles. We 
had spread our blankets on the floor in front of it and were 
just on the point of dropping off into the land of dreams 
when we were aroused by the clatter of horses' hoofs coming 



56 



Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 



to a sudden halt in front of the house and a hail from some 
one without: "Hello, there! Who is in that house?" I was 
at the door in an instant, and there with his horse's head 
within ten feet of the door sat General Whiting. The light 
from the window fell full on him, and I knew him instantly. 
He began by asking how we happened to be there, what com- 
mand we belonged to, and a lot of rapid-fire questions, to all 
all of which I answered, telling him why we were so far behind 
our command and having heard of the imp:nding battle we 
wanted to get into it. " Well, we don't want you here, nor in 
the battle. We can do without you. You get back to Bar- 
hamsville, and in the morning take the road to Richmond." 
"Then you want us to change our position?" I innocently 
asked. "Yes, and damned quick, too, " he retorted. "And 
put out that fire before you go. Hurry, now, and get out of 
this. If I catch you around here to-morrow morning, I'll 
have you shot. " 

We took the threat lightly, but in the meantime threw the 
half-burned wood out of theback door, scattering it so that it 
would not ignite, and, picking up our blankets, we went out 
the front door and started down the road toward Barhams- 
ville. Whiting waited until we were well started and then 
turned back toward West Point. Dunno' for sure, but I 
thought I heard a snicker from one of them, as there were at 
least four or five looking on. 

Reaching the forks of the road, we decided to camp for the 
night, and proceeded to make us a bed on the point where 
the leaves lay thick under the trees; and there we slept 
soundly. We were up at sunrise and started up the left-hand 
road at a leisurely pas de route, and when about opposite the 
point from which we had been routed the previous evening 
by "superior and overwhelming forces," we began to hear 
sounds of battle at from two to three miles distant. We 
stopped and listened, and the more we listened the more 
excited I became, until at last I blurted out to Kelly: "Say, 
Ed, let's go over! We can get into the fight in twenty min- 
utes." This time he promptly and decidedly vetoed the 
proposition with a positive: "No! And what if we run 
across General Whiting again?" That, of course, was a 
contingency I did not care to meet, but had I been alone I 
would have ventured anyhow. We continued up the road 
and late in the afternoon passed through a village, or some 
county courthouse, I do not recall which, nor do I recall dis- 
tinctly whether we arrived at Bottoms Bridge over the 
Chickahominy that same evening or only the next. Suffice 
to say that we crossed the bridge and, being in no hurry, we 
passed the night on a bluff below the road on a soft bed of 
pine needles and found next day that we had acquired quite 
a contingent of wood ticks in addition to a battalion of 
other vermin we brought from Yorktown and of which we had 
been unable to rid ourselves completely despite frequent 
boiling of our clothes and a liberal use of mercurial ointment. 
In those days we named them "graybacks. " They have been 
rechristened "cooties" by our successors in the gentle art of 
making war. Between them and the ticks, they formed a 
combination hard to beat and sti 1 more difficult to get rid 
of. The next day we arrived in Richmond and found our 
battalion in Battery No. 6. on the York River Road. 

Our Peninsular Campaign ended with less loss of life than 
if Little Mac had been aware of the odds in his favor when he 
sat down in front of Yorktown and inaugurated a month's 
siege. I have always been of the opinion that he was over- 
rated. Time has not changed that opinion. He could have 
passed Yorktown before Johnston's army arrived on the 
scene. But that is another story altogether. I know, and 
Magruder also knew it. 



BACK TO DIXIE, A HARD TRIP. 

BY TAM BROOKS, HILLSBORO, TEX. 
(Continued from December number.) 
Now, being on the outside of the prison, with no recognized; 
commander, the spirit of "escape" came over them all as a 
rushing, mighty wind, and they ran, every man for himself, to 
the nearby swamp of Fall Creek and rushed into it breast 
deep, landing in a dense jungle on the other side. As they ap- 
proached the water, J. Rickets, of North Carolina, a small 
fellow, jumped on the back of Clint Brooks and stated that he 
couldn't swim and not to leave him, so they made the landing 
without having to swim. 

The next thing was "something else." They were in a 
swamp of heavy timber, and almost Egyptian darkness pre- 
vailed, and they were wet and cold. So they broke up into 
small groups and began to aimlessly wander about, having no 
fixed plan of procedure. The group I shall speak of consisted 
of G. T. Willis, Cy Means, McAlister, Clint and Tam Brooks, 
who tramped through the swamp all night, supposing they 
were getting away from the prison. But morning found them 
still in hearing of the bugle call at the prison. The next best 
thing to do was to conceal themselves in the brush of a fallen 
tree top, where they remained all day. The following night 
ended with about the same results, and when morning came 
they hid themselves in the trunk of an immense fallen tree, and 
there spent the day. 

During the day, McAlister, from Texas (whose first name 
is forgotten), who was very thinly clad and ragged as well, be- 
came very cold, and the other boys advised him to go back to 
the prison and surrender, to which he replied: "I am now at 
liberty and had rather die than to give it up." 

As night approached, having eaten nothing for three days, 
the boys thought it best to separate into still smaller groups, 
so G. T. Willis and Cy Means went to themselves, and the 
Brooks boys to themselves, leaving their gallant comrade, 
McAlister, alone in the trunk of that old tree, where his bones 
may have been found later on or may still rest awaiting the 
resurrection. The Brooks boys then decided to travel wild 
gooselike, with the wind to their backs, and go south or south- 
east. 

Thus we came to an old fashioned farm house, occupied by 
a kind old man and his wife and daughter, who were engaged 
in slicing pumpkins to dry. When we asked for something to 
eat, the good old woman (Lord bless her soul) loaded the 
table with all sorts of eats from the corner cupboard. While 
we were engaged in filling up, the old man asked which way 
we were traveling, to which we replied that we had been to 
the city with a drove of hogs, which seemed to satisfy him. 
Supper being ended, we went out on the gallery, thence across 
the road into a thicket of woods and proceeded on our way. 
The second night after leaving the " dried pumpkin house, " 
and being five days out of prison, we began to realize that it 
was again about "hash time." Crossing a road near a farm 
house, and seeing the front door open, we walked in where 
there were standing before the fire a man and two boys about 
twelve and fourteen years of age, and asked for a lunch. To 
this the man replied, "How is it that so many men of your 
appearance are traveling at night and all seem to be starved? 
How about it?" To which we replied, "We know nothing 
about that. Can we get a lunch?" He said, "Yes," point- 
ing to an open door of the dining room, where we found the 
fossil remains of what seemed to have been a bountiful supply 
of good eats. While we were devouring the scraps, the man 
and boys held a whispered council, and the boys ran off up the 
road. We completed the lunch, and the man in the front 



Qoijfederat^ l/eterai), 



57 



•oom invited us to seats, but we declined with thanks and 
;rossed the road into a timbered range of hills. On reaching 
;he summit we heard the running of horses and excited ex- 
patriations of men, which were followed immediately by the 
yelping of dogs running at full cry, with the horsemen urging 
: :hem on. Instead of coming toward us, however they went 
down the road at full speed. 

Very soon we heard the dogs bay at the object of their 
pursuit. Then followed several gunshots fired in quick suc- 
cession, also loud, boisterous exultation, which was not dis- 
tinguishable in words. Then it was revealed to us that the 
dogs had followed the trail of some of our comrades, who had 
preceded us at the house where we had the lunch. In the 
meantime, the most horrible of all horrors was going on in 
our imaginations. We had heard bombshells, seemingly as 
large as a wash pot, burst over our heads, and the intimate 
whisperings of Minie balls about our ears, and had become 
somewhat used to such entertainment in former days, but 
I'now, in our defenseless condition, to be torn to pieces by 
bloodhounds was more than could be endured. This was all 
imagination on our part, but our comrades down the road 
had received, perhaps, what we thought was coming to us. 
Being toned up by such fear and the scraps we had gotten at 
the house, we roamed on as before through fields and mead- 
ows, concealing ourselves in some secluded spot during the 
day; thus days and dates were forever lost to us. 

One night, after leaving our place of concealment, as the 

weather had grown exceedingly cold, suffering was intense 

and progress very slow. Coming up to a country schoolhouse, 

we walked in and lay down on the floor. The cold became 

unbearable, so Tam Brooks, moved by some hidden force, rose 

up in the impenetrable darkness, walked directly to a desk in 

the room, pulled a drawer out, and placed his hand directly 

1 on a box of matches. Soon the big stove, which was already 

: prepared, was roaring hot, and the big brother was placed 

1 beside it and thawed out. As morning drew nigh, we bade 

: adieu to the little brown schoolhouse and went on the way to 

: another hiding place for the day. 

Thus time wore on, until, a crisis arrived which we could 
endure no longer. One night we crawled out of our place of 
concealment in a straw stack with out feet so frost bitten, our 
shoes so worn, and ourselves so physically exhausted that 
further progress seemed impossible. We saw a dim light in a 
house across the farm and decided to go to it and be submissive 
to our fate, whether back to prison or even death. So we walked 
in unannounced and found the inmates to be two German 
women, neither of whom could speak English. We seated our- 
selves and awaited results. The next and most important 
thing was something to eat, which was bountifully supplied, 
and then we quietly took our seats with no indication of 
leaving the premises. Very soon the women took a light and 
went upstairs and gestured us a big fat feather bed, with a 
down bed for cover. We turned in with full dress and were 
soon in the arms of Morpheus, all our troubles and hardships 
forgotten. 

Sometime later in the night we were awakened by a bois- 
terous jabbering of German in the room below by a man and 
the two women, followed by the footsteps of the man coming 
up the ladder with his lantern. He spoke faily good English 
and began cursing the United States and saying they had tried 
to draft him into service when he had served his three years 
in the army before leaving Germany. Thus relieving himself, 
he bade us good night and left. So we were again at ease. 

Before good daylight the old German was out at his barn 
looking after his stock, so we arose and followed him there 
and told him of our escape from prison. Then the big hearted 



old German locked arms with us and said, "I'm your friend," 
ad marched us to the house and presented us to his wife and 
mother, and told them we had escaped from Camp Morton 
at Indianapolis. Then the matinee was pulled off. The old 
woman patted us on the back, rubbed their heads, and madly 
jabbered Dutch thinking that if she would only speak loud 
enough we would understand. Soon breakfast was announced, 
and we sat down to a sure enough, hot, smoking meal, with 
none to molest or make us afraid. Then our feet were washed 
(not ceremoniously, but literally) and otherwise doctored. 
They gave us new socks and doctored our old shoes. Also, 
best of all, the old German was a bureau of information to us. 
We were told that it was only twelve miles to Aurora, a town 
on the Ohio river, thirty miles below Cincinnati, and that the 
river was the dead line, and that we were in safety north of 
the river. Thus equipped and refreshed, we marched as 
boldly as two sheep down to Aurora, where there was a con- 
siderable garrison and a battery planted on the river. We 
inspected this and then went down to the river, looking for 
some means to cross. Some miles below town we came to a 
ferry across a bayou which emptied into the river. Just ahead 
of us a wagon drove on the ferryboat, and we also stepped on. 
About midway of the stream the ferryman demanded toll. 
Having no money or persuasive powers to induce him to set 
us across, he reversed the boat and set us back. 

Back at the place of beginning, we noticed a large skiff tied 
to a stake, so we went back in the direction of Aurora and hid 
on the road near by to await darkness, which soon came. Then 
followed an experience of being saved by water. Loosing the 
skiff from its moorings, we floated down the bayou to its mouth, 
thence across the Ohio, landing under a high bluff on the old 
Kentucky shore. Then our desire for vengeance was kindled, 
and we shoved the boat as far as possible, threw the oars in 
after it, during a heavy gale from the north, and it is presumed 
that it was as far down as Paducah or Memphis by morning. 
At least, the old ferryman was paid the penalty of not allowing 
us to cross the bayou in his ferryboat. 

"Now being landed safely on the Old Kentucky shore, 
The land of the free and the home of the brave, 
The morale of the Brooks boys was elevated from that of 

A wild boar 
To that of the freeborn American soldier." 

Notwithstanding we were still far in the enemy's country, 
we had a fighting chance for our lives. About ten or eleven 
o'clock the next day we stopped at a farm house and called for 
dinner as though we had plenty of money. The lady eyed us 
suspiciously with a smile and said it was too late for "break- 
fast and too early for dinner, but if we would wait at the barn — 
emphasis on the barn — she would be glad to give us dinner. 
So we accepted, and to the barn we went. 

Some time later the man came, who also viewed us with a 
critic's eye and said: " These people here are divided and at 
daggers drawn and must know the truth? Who are you?" 
When we told him we were excaped prisoners from Indianap- 
olis, he said: "Boys you have struck it rich." So we were 
provided for and kept under cover and Southern sympathizers 
came and ministered to us. 

One night, Ad Hughie,of Boon County, Ky.,sent a messen- 
ger with a good mount for us to come to his house at once. We 
found him to be a stalwart, big-hearted, blue grass farmer and 
stockman, and he was in consultation with a Captain Southall, 
who was a recruiting officer for John H. Morgan's command, 
so we enlisted with him. After spending a pleasant hour with 
this splendid family, and all details being arranged between 



58 



^ogfederat^ l/eterai). 



the old gentleman and Captain Southall, the captain an- 
nounced, " We are ready, follow me. " At the front gate were 
splendid mounts for us, and Mr Hughie said: "No charges; 
goto them, boys." So we headed for Owen County, where the 
captain had a lot of recruits mobilized and in camp. On ar- 
rival at the camp, to our great joy and surprise, we met H. G 
Doman, who had so gallantly played his part in scaling the 
wall at Camp Morton prison with us. We remained there 
for several days before starting on our journey to Morgan's 
command, then located near Wytheville, Va. 

The first part of our route lay through the famous clover 
and blue grass region of Kentucky, while the latter part was 
through the mountainous and sparsely settled part of Ken- 
tucky and West Virginia, where family feuds had prevailed 
ever since the days of Daniel Boone or Cassius M. Clay, and 
at this time had developed into the worst form of guerrilla 
warfare. 

One evening, as we were assending the west side of Cumber- 
land Mountain in Pawn Gap, the road winding its way up a 
deep canyon on one side and steep bluffs on the other, fifty 
yards ahead of us an old mountaineer stepped from behind 
an immense bowlder, drew a gun on us and commanded: "Halt 
and show your colors." The captain then demanded his 
authority. The old man, still looking down the barrel of his 
old prize rifle, demanded: "Tell who you are or I'll kill you." 
Then the game little captain announced; "We are recruits 
for Morgan's command." To which the old man replied: 
"One of you advance and the others stand still." Supposing 
him to be an out picket for some daring scout, we dared not 
advance up a steep grade to take them by storm. Neither 
could we get in position for fight where we were, nor was there 
a line of retreat available. So to stand still, as the old man 
had commanded, was the only thing to do. In the meantime 
the captain had advanced to the muzzle of that old gun and 
soon satisfied the old bushwhacker that we were recruits for 
the Southern army. 

We were delighted to see that old bushwhacker ground 
arms with that old rifle and shake hands with the captain, so 
we, in the most friendly manner, marched down to them. 
The old "Grizzly" took charge and marched us down the 
canyon to an out of the way place where we were sumptuously 
provided for with everything for both man and beast; and we 
learned from him the story of his adventures since the begin- 
ning of the war, which, briefly told, was this: At the beginning 
the blue coats had raided his home and burned it and held 
him as a hostage, from which he miraculously escaped and 
immediately went on the warpath, solitary and alone. Up to 
this time he had killed seventeen, which he had marked down 
on his old gunstock; and to see him was evidence sufficient 
that it was all true. 

Then followed many days of hard marching, until we 
reached well-defined Confederate lines near Wytheville, Va. 
There we reported to John H. Morgan's command, to which 
our daring young comrade, H. G. Damon, belonged. The 
Brooks boys gave them their mounts and reported to Gen. 
John C. Breckinridge, commander of that department, who 
gave them passes and transportation, such as it was, to Augusta 
Ga. Reaching there in destitution, we learned that our 
commander, Joe Wheeler, was eighty miles away and no means 
to cover such distance. Here we chanced to meet Judge 
Spencer Marsh, who knew us in boyhood, and who himself 
was a refugee in that city. He took us to a good hotel and 
lodged us there at sixty dollars per day. Do you believe that? 
If so, we can prove that you are seventy-five years old, as no 
younger person would dare to believe such stuff, notwith- 
standing it was all true. There we met Captain Carder, who 



commanded a scouting company near Ducktown, Tenn., and 
were transferred to his company. 

When we reached our destination we found those big 
mountain boomers, who chanced to be on the other side, were 
a much harder proposition than the soft-handed fellows from 
Boston. Soon the news came that Lee had surrendered, so the 
Brooks boys pulled out for Texas. 

On reaching Alabama we were in company with John 
Gatewood and his Texas squad, commanded by Dick Brough- 
ton, who had been petitioned by some planters near Center 
to turn a certain boy out of jail at Center who, they thought, 
had been wrongfully put in. So Captain Broughton took his 
squadron of seventeen, including the Brooks boys, who of 
course wanted the boy to be out, and formed a half circle in 
front of the jail. When the sheriff came out, gun in hand, 
Captain Broughton, also gun in hand, told him their errand. 
Then the sheriff, Cy Daniel, who was as brave a man as was 
ever commissioned, said: "You will have to kill me first." 
Then Broughton said: "We didn't come to kill you, but we 
will if we have to. " Then Clint Brooks, who had gotten in the 
rear of the sheriff, grabbed him, threw him to the ground, and 
disarmed him. Then Charlie Hassell took the jail key from 
him and unlocked the jail and took the boy out, leaving the 
other prisoners in; and they all marched out of town in good 
order. 

In the meantime there were perhaps more than a hundred 
citizens and discharged soldiers who came from all parts of 
town who witnessed the proceedings, but didn't know which 
side they were in favor of. 

Thus ended the war record of the Brooks boys, Clint 
Brooks going on to Texas leaving Tam in Scott County, Miss. 

All the Confederate forces having been surrendered, the 
Confederate soldiers were turned loose to return to their 
Southern homes, just anyway they might contrive to get 
there, without money or credit, clothing or supplies of any 
kind; and they found their kinsfolk and friends and everybody 
and everything in like condition, the country left in desti- 
tution by a relentless foe. This was true of all the Southland, 
perhaps Georgia and Mississippi the worst. Every public 
place was garrisoned by the worst element of soldiery — camp 
followers, robbers, and murderers, and to add insult to injury, 
the poor, defenseless negroes were turned loose like animals 
from a zoo or menagerie, to tramp idly over the country, pro- 
ducing nothing, and the most vicious of them to be used by 
the Freedman's Bureau in its devilish work of oppression. 

We were transferred from the horrors of war to the most 
horrible reconstruction period the world ever saw. Hence the 
present reconstruction period looks easy to me. I bade adieu 
to old Mississippi and landed in Hill County, April 12, 1867. 



JEFFERSON DA VIS. 

BY JAMES H. ll'NEILLY, D.D., NASHVILLE, TENN. 

In view of the criticisms, generally harsh and malignant, 
of Northern writers and speakers condemning Jefferson 
Davis, President of the Confederate States, as an arch 
traitor and conspirator, who brought on the War between the 
States and conducted it with cruelty ; and in view of the ten- 
dency of his own people to forget his services, I write now to 
present him to our people as the genuine patriot, the wise 
leader, the able statesman, who understood the principles of 
civil and religious liberty, and who was willing to make every 
sacrifice save honor, in defense of the constitutional rights of 
the South. 

Making all due allowance for human prejudices and for his 
own military theories, Mr. Davis's history of the " Rise and 



Qopfederat^ l/eteraij. 



59 



Fall of the Confederate Government" is the best history of 
the war and sets forth most clearly his character, his achieve- 
ments, the principles for which he stood, and the difficulties 
'he encountered. 

As to his personal character, no man stood higher than 
' Mr. Davis for honor, integrity, and truthfulness in all the rela- 
tions of life kind, gentle, and considerate; a sincere Christian 
in word and deed. As a patriot he had served with distinc- 
tion in the army and had proved himself the most efficient 
'Secretary of War. He was a gentleman of wide and varied 
culture, especially versed in political history and philosophy. 
But it is mainly as to his public and political activities as 
leader of the Confederate movement for independence that 
he has been denounced by enemies and weakly defended by 
friends. Yet the true story of his administration will 
vindicate him as a wise and brave ruler, charged with 
heaviest responsibilities, which he discharged in the fear of 
God and for the highest interest of his people. 

In every great movement — religious, social, or political — 
there comes to the front some one to whom the people look 

" for guidance and success. His course is marked by critical 
eyes, and his actions are judged often with relentless severity. 
If he should succeed in realizing his ideals, then criticism is 
silenced, and he is crowned as the creator of a new order and 
glorified in history. Such was the experience of George 
Washington, the Father of his country. But if he should 

_ fail, however heroic his struggle, then criticism crystallizes and 
hardens into condemnation, not only of the man, but of his 

, principles, his ideals, his cause. This fact is illustrated in the 
contrasted lives of Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis. 

, Mr. Lincoln, with unlimited resources of a world to draw 
from, in spite of bitter and unjust criticism, succeeded in his 

, effort to subjugate eleven sovereign States to a government 
organized to deny their rights, and he is held up as the 
model of all that is great in Christian character, wise in 
statesmanship, and beneficent in achievement. Mr. Davis, 
against overwhelming odds of men and resources, and ham- 
pered by the opposition and obstinacy of his own followers, 

c failed to establish the independence of soveregin States, eager 
to be free; and they became the subjects of a centralized im- 

. perialism, and he, after suffering cruel indignities at the 
hands of his enemies, who failed to establish any charge 

. against him, is proclaimed as the arch fiend of rebellion, the 
Benedict Arnold of modern days. 

j It is only in recent years, as men have learned of his pa- 

j tient endurance of cruelties and his dignity in defeat, that 

; his character and actions have been vindicated by the love 
and loyalty of those for whose cause he suffered. 

I. Mr. Davis did not bring on the war. That was the sure 
result of differing constructions of the constitution by the 
two sections, North and South, of the country; and when a 
party, pledged to the violation of Southern rights won the 
Presidency, the large body of the Southern people, fired with 
just indignation, determined to withdraw from so unfair a 
union, which would treat the constitution as "a scrap of 
paper," "a covenant with death and hell." And the South- 
ern people never doubted their right to withdraw. 
Now, as to Mr. Davis's attitude to this sentiment: 

1. He shared it most heartily, and believed that secession 
was the only remedy. 

2. He faithfully warned the people of his State that seces- 
sion would probably result in war, and he pointed out to 
them the difficulties and sacrifices in the way of success. 

3. He tried in every honorable way, both as United States 
Senator and as President of the Confederacy, to maintain 



peaceful relations with the Federal government and avert 
war. 

4. He believed that the war, involving great issues, should 
be carried to the bitter end, at the cost if need be, of ruin to 
the South's material interests. 

5. He did not desire the office of President, but accepted 
the place only in deference to the wishes of his colleagues. 

II. But it is objected that Mr. Davis should have known 
from the start, or after certain defeats, that the cause was 
hopeless and should have surrendered. But the cause was not 
hopeless. History is charged with the fact that righteous 
weakness often triumphs over brutal might. 

1. The story of little Holland against the mighty power 
of Spain, and the memory of the success of the American colo- 
nies against the vast world-power of the British Empire was 
an inspiration to our people to make the necessary sacrifice 
for liberty. 

2. A living faith in the ultimate triumph of justice under 
the rule of a just God sustained the people. 

3. The frequent and great success of our armies gave 
confidence that in the end we would win. 

4. There was a strong sentiment in the North opposed 
to the war and held in check largely by military force and 
lawless methods. 

III. The difficulties with which Mr. Davis had to contend: 

1. We confess that he was a man of positive convictions 
and of strong prejudices against individuals and policies. He 
had his own theory of how the war was to be conducted. 

2. He lacked the support of congress. Often, when condi- 
tions demanded immediate action, congress refused to accept 
his policy, and had no policy of its own. So that he had to 
act without legal sanction to meet an exigency. Even the 
Vice President, a civilian only, was not in sympathy with the 
President. 

3. The States of the Confederacy insisted that their "sa- 
cred soil" must not be invaded; and as they had sovereign 
rights, often an army was hampered by the demand to hold a 
position or defend a territory. So that the President had to 
consider political as well as military questions. 

4. There was the difficulty of organizing effective armies 
out of material all unused to war and without necessary 
equipment. How splendidly this was done the glorious his- 
tory of our armies attests. 

5. The conflict was with an enemy abundantly equipped; 
but who also disregarded the laws of civilized warfare in his 
treatment of noncombatants and their property; but who 
made medicines contraband of war, and refused exchange of 
prisoners. Mr. Davis maintained the laws of civilized war- 
fare. 

IV. This is the record of Mr. Davis's administration: 
While there were mistakes of judgment and of policy, yet it 

is generally felt in the South that no other man could have 
done better, if so well; and under his leadership the South 
made a record of high ideals, of devotion to duty, of courage 
and sacrifice for right; and she so bore herself in defeat that 
she has won the respect and admiration of the world. And 
the charges against Mr. Davis, as our representative citizen, 
have been shown to be outrageous falsehoods, invented by 
malignity and continued by hatred of the South and her old 
civilization. 

The surest answer to all charges is that the Federal gov- 
ernment was afraid to try him on those charges; and so- 
against his own wishes, he was set free without trial. The 
South is not ashamed of Jefferson Davis, but is proud of him 
and his cause and the record that was made. 



60 



Qogfederat^ l/eterap. 



SECOND MANASSAS— FIFTY-EIGHT YEARS AFTER- 
WARDS. 

by john n. ware, sewanee, tenn. 

''Maybe You Never Heard of the Railroad." 

The sur%-ivors of those men that followed "Mars Bob" 
from Seven Pines to Appomattox are few indeed, and they 
all tell you that their memory is poor; that so much has hap- 
pened since those epic days when they marched and fought 
and starved the while that they cannot remember even the 
large moments, and the little details are gone entirely. But 
you speak to them of familiar places and men, and of leaders 
well-known and well-loved, and you soon find that the old 
memories are not dead, but only sleeping. 

They talk of things in triads, it seems; of Beaver Dam and 
Malvern Hill and Gettysburg, where they dashed themselves 
helplessly and profitlessly to pieces against miniature Gibral- 
tars; of Chancellorsville and the Seven Days and Second 
Manassas, where they made many well-laid plans gang far 
agley; of Fredericksburg and Cold Harbor and the Crater, 
where in perfect safety they waited for their victims, sent to 
certain death by thousands by a stupid old blunderer and a 
man coldly callous in war, warmly generous in victory; of 
Second Manassas and Sharpsburg and Spottsylvania, where 
for seemingly endless hours they fought desperately for 
existence against a grimly tenacious enemy that came again 
and again, until it seemed that human nature could stand no 
more. 

The men who followed Stonewall from First Manassas to 
Chancellorsville are fewer still, and the passing years have 
confused war memories a great deal; but after you have talked 
to them of many things, the old memories come trooping back. 
Always they save for the last their most dreadful experiences, 
Second Manasssas and Sharpsburg. They talk of the "un- 
finished railroad" and the "Deep Cut," and the "Dump" 
and "that embankment," as of well-known geographical 
landmarks, like the Sahara and Mont Blanc and the Rockies. 
And, not knowing the "unfinished railroad," you feel that 
your knowledge is imcomplete indeed, so you get your texts, 
three of them, and your maps, dozens of them, and one bicycle, 
and off you go. 

In August it is hot, surpassing hot, in Manassas, and the 
roads north and northwest look distressingly uninviting. 
But those who follow the "old man" and his immortal foot 
cavalry must be above such little things as heat and cold, so 
you resolutely push on down the Sudley Springs Road one 
blistering August morning in 1920, and fare forth to adventure 
and to history ancient these nearly sixty years. 

Down this road a little after nightfall some fifty-eight years 
ago marched the men of Taliaferro's division, in beatitude of 
soul and plenitude of stomachs. It had been a glorius day 
indeed, that twenty-seventh of August, 1862. After a march 
of fifty-six miles the two preceding days, they had fallen on a 
land flowing with milk and honey and things edible beyond 
all power of description. They had amazed their inner beings 
with things undreamed of in their simple scheme of things as 
Confederate soldiers. They had clothed themselves in what 
was to their ragged standards purple and fine linen; they had 
provided themselves with that superlative luxury, shoes. 
Tied on somewhere to nearly every man was a small sugar- 
cured ham, a novelty and a promise of at least one more good 
meal in this life. And so, with a happy past of one day, and. 
an assured future of one meal, they stepped out gayly in the 
gathering darkness. Carpe diem was the motto of the foot 



cavalry. A day at a time was enough; the morrow was on the 
knees of the gods. 

You follow these happy, stuffed-to-repletion souls and 
watch them disappear into a heavy woods. And then you 
dismount at a crossroads where there is a little group of three 
houses and, going to the nearest one, you knock on the door. A 
young lady appears, and you ask how far it is to Groveton. 
You are not sorry to hear that it is not far at all; that, in fact, 
you have arrived. And when you ask also where Mrs. Dogan 
lives, you are equally glad to know that you have no farther 
to go. This is Mrs. Dogan's daughter, Mrs Terrell, and she 
will call mother. And presently Mrs Dogan appears, with 
signs of a hasty and sketchy fixing up. You feel that you are 
particularly fortunate, for Mrs Dogan has been recommended 
to you as the "best qualified person in these parts to tell you 
all about Manassas. " And she is a discerning lady too, for in 
spite of the fact that you have a small library with you and 
are evil looking indeed (covered, as you are, with the red dust 
of Prince William and dripping with perspiration), she knows 
that you are neither a book agent nor a tramp, and in no time 
you are the recipient of that unobtrusively graceful thing, 
Virginia hospitality. 

You make use, internally and externally, of some urgently 
needed water, and while your cookless hostess is back in the 
kitchen putting that third name in the pot, you ride on toward 
Gainesville to see what might be happening in that direction. 
Disconcertingly little, it seems. A dusty Virginia road, fairly 
throbbing with heat waves; open fields to the north, rising 
easily to a heavy woods, some half mile away. Half hidden 
in the edge of the woods, and apparently a little backward 
about obtruding its incompleteness, an unfinished railroad, 
innocent looking, in all conscience. Surely as peaceful and as 
innocuous a landscape as you could imagine. 

And then the years roll away as a scroll, and it is 1862, and 
there is a cloud of dust down that road. It is King's division, 
on the way to Centerville, and not worrying about the van- 
ished Confederates. There is no flank protection at all, and only 
a small advance guard sauntering casually and perfunctorily 
along, a sort of concession to military conventions, also a 
piece of monumental carelessness, to call it by no harsher 
name, when Stonewall was known to be somewhere in the 
neighborhood, unless he and his men had taken wings. A 
regimental band has just struck up something jazzy, and the 
marching feet are beginning to shuffle an 1862 shimmy, when 
from the edge of those sleeping woods blaze out three batteries, 
and here come the men you have been trailing from Manassas. 
The brigade by you is Gibbons', Western men, and mean fel- 
lows with whom to pick a fuss, It has met the Stonewall 
Brigade before, and will meet it many times after, and the 
two bear each other, if not exactly mutual affection, at least 
mutual respect — respect born of recognition of similar fighting 
qualities. They are all woodsmen and hunters, and though 
there is abundant shelter about, and it is certainly no dis- 
grace to seek it, they stand in the open for three long twilight 
hours and kill and kill and kill, neither able to advance and 
both too proud to retreat. There is high rank, too, mixed 
up in this affair, even to division commanders, for when an 
officer is allowed the distinction of fighting under the Old 
Man," he is expected and anxious to lead, not send, his men. 
That is why the foot cavalry idolize their officers. And so 
you see Taliaferro go down, and Dick Ewell, and the latter 
is taken to a little farm house, and becomes One-Legged Dick. 
And when it is too dark to see to kill any more, the two 
forces fall apart, and you go back to Groveton and dinner, 
feeling that you have witnessed a prologue, which has proper- 
ly introduced you to the great tragedy to be unfolded soon. 



^oijfederat^ l/eterap. 



61 



Your hostess is gracious, and has much to tell you of those 
three tense, breathless days of concentrated slaughter, of 
blue and gray waves that surged savagely back and forth 
over the peaceful fields around you; and when on that third 
day, Mars Bob gives the long awaited signal, and when from 
the woods seen through the window just in front of you sweeps 
Jackson, and from the one you can see from the door right by 
- you sweeps Longstreet, it is hard, indeed, to concentrate on 
\ eating. 

And when the Old Man and the Old War Horse join hands 

and come raging and yelling down the Warrenton Pike, not 

' i thirty feet away, you want to drop everything, and go out and 

; i cheer that army of ragged gray ghosts, dead and gone these 

|: many, many years. Mrs. Dogan still sees them, and loves 

i them too, and her voice trembles a little. It is glorious to 

i have been even a "small part of those things. " 

You would like to stay longer, but there is still much to be 

I seen, and you thank your hostesses and ride along toward 

> Sudley. The road crosses what seems to be a wide little ditch, 

r and your map goes back on you for some reason, and you 

, look for a house and information. On the edge of the woods 

you see a little farm house, and you knock on the door, and 

v there comes somebody, sent by your ever smiling God of Good 

is Luck. It is Mr. E. B. Cross, and as a badly scared ten-year 

: old boy he saw the whole battle, and "saw, Ole Jack, too, lots of 

I j times, sir. Once he had his headquarters in my father's yard, 

; and I can see him now. Wasn't much to look at, but you 

i ought to have seen how his men would look at him. Just like 

r he was God himself. " 

Not only did Mr. Cross see it all, but he would be glad to 
show you along the railroad cut. "Most of the fighting was 
>l there. Maybe you never heard of the railroad." You think 
of the times you have heard of it from those who had immor- 
1 talized it, and how every blood-soaked foot of it is fixed in your 
. mind's eye, but you say nothing of that, and accept, with the 
• joy you feel, such a Godsend, and you two set out. 

Right behind the house runs the railroad, and you turn 

■ dov/n it. At this point it is a twelve-foot fill, which continues 

i some fifty yards into a little wood, and with no preamble 

-. changes into a deep, wide cut. This is no majestic wood, but 

s just a Virginia scrub pine thicket, with a fairly close under- 

i growth and pine needles thick everywhere — just as it was 

; fifty-eight years ago; and as you stand there in this common- 

i place little thicket the years again roll away and the curtain 

, rises on the first act of one of the world's great tragedies. 

,i You are on historic — yes, and holy — ground, stained with the 

blood of patroits, blue and gray. What was a moment ago the 

I drowsy sound of the crickets and katydids is now a distant, 

j scattered rattle of musketry, and on the other side of the cut, 

where there was nothing, you see now an unbroken line of 

■< recumbent men. You can see only their faces, and they are 

j not the faces of the soldiers of novels. They are sunburned 

and dirty and pinched, their eyes do not blaze with the lust 

of battle, as the novelist makes them do. On the whole, they 

are rather calm eyes, but there is a tensity in this calm that 

rather chills you, and you feel uncomfortable. And now the 

rattle comes closer and closer, as that thin picket line of gray, 

on August 29, 1862, falls back before Sigel and Reynolds and 

Milroy. You stand there with bated breath and see these 

men back into the woods and slowly give ground from bush to 

bush, from sapling to sapling. After them come the blue men, 

feeling their way cautiously into this sinister looking place. 

Your gray friends pass you, secure in your immunity as 

spectator, and suddenly they vanish as though the earth has 

swallowed them up. Which indeed it has, as they drop into 

the security of the deep cut. After them rush their pursuers, 



and then those figures on the other side come to life, and there 
comes such a hurricane of flame and of lead that it seems as if 
a volcano has burst forth. The blue masses stagger and reel 
and fall back in confusion, and are joined by others and come 
back and are blown back again, and hour after hour of this 
blazing August day this sultry little thicket resounds with 
yells and groans and a devil's diapason of musketry. And the 
ground is thick with what a few hours before were sentient 
beings made in God's own image, now mere carrion, to be 
shoveled callously and lovelessly into a shallow ditch. 

Three separate times the persistent assailants breast the 
fiery torrents, and as many times do Gregg, Thomas, Branch, 
and Pender send them reeling back. A fourth time they come, 
and pushing aside the pitiful remnant of the railroad's defend- 
ers, they win at last across the deep cut- It is a moment of tri- 
umph that is brief, for like a whirlwind in front come Forno and 
Lawton, and on the flank sweep down Johnson and Stark. 
Caught in this fiery maelstrom, the attackers are driven 
finally from your woods, and it is left to death and you. 

For nine hours this murder has gone on and here in this 
little woods, on one side of the cut, lie four thousand men in 
blue, and on the other, two thousand in all sorts of uniforms, 
from sunbleached gray rags to those fine Federal uniforms 
acquired the day before by the simple process of the laying on 
of hands. A grim irony that they serve at once as shrouds. 
Once more all is quiet, and Mr. Cross is speaking: "My 
father's house was right over yonder, behind A. P. Hill's lines, 
and I stood in the front yard all day long and listened to them 
fighting. Mister, they never quit one second, and such a 
stream of wounded men you never saw. Wasn't all wounded, 
either. Lots of em'd come with their arms all tied up. Officer 
would stop em, 'What's the matter with you?' 'Shot in the 
arm. ' ' Let me see. ' He'd take a knife and cut off the bandage. 
'Nothing the matter at all. Get on back in that line, where you 
belong. Next time I catch you sneaking, I'll shoot you.'" 

Down the railroad Mr. Cross leads you, across a flat place 
and the Sudley road, then along a shallow cut, then along a 
high embankment in which there is a gap some one hundred feet 
wide. "Right here," says your guide, "they buried three 
hundred Yankees after the fight. This ground around here 
was all littered with bodies and trappings and bullets, and for 
years you could pick up things where those Yankees had been 
buried and then dug up." He scratches with his cane seem- 
ingly aimlessly in the sand at his feet, and, stooping over, picks 
up the rusty — O so rusty — buckle from a cartridge box. " 
"Maybe you would like to have this as a relic." It would 
seem that you would, for you take it very reverently and put it 
in your pocketbook. 

And then you are at last at the place you have dreamed of 
seeing ever since as a child of ten your very soul thrilled at the 
recital of one of the foot cavalry who had been in this special 
episode. The road has run again into a cut — no, The Cut — the 
most famous spot of the whole field. It is still full of nigger- 
head rocks, and here on August 30, stood the Forty-Second 
Virginia, with ammunition all gone, and fought with no 
weapons but these rocks in their desperate determination to 
make good the Old Man's boast: "The Stonewall Brigade 
sometimes fails to take a position, but it is never driven from 
one. " And the Forty-Second kept the record clear. 

Mr. Cross is speaking again: "There were dead men all 
over the field, but nowhere like they were in front of this cut. 
They were lying two or three deep in places. Of course, there 
weren't many killed with rocks, but right here next morning 
I saw a young lieutenant, a fine looking follow, with his face 
all smashed in something dreadful and right by him a big rock 
with blood and brains all over it. Of course, it's been so 



62 



Qoi>federat^ tfeterar). 



many years since then, and that particular rock might have 
been moved, so I can't swear to it. But there has hardly been 
a week since that day that I haven't passed this spot, and that 
is exactly where the man was lying. His head was right by 
that rock, and I expect that it is the very one that killed 
him." You look curiously and you shudder at this horrible 
thing that has not even gathered moss since that bitter day 
when it took a man's life, and you feel that perhaps it is under 
a curse. It is a grim looking sight. 

"Right here," and he points out a place not ten yards from 
the cut, "was a Yankee flag that stayed there over thirty 
minutes, and lost ten color bearers; and next day I saw over 
one hundred dead men within ten feet of the cut, and lots 
of them hanging over the embankment." It sickens you to 
think of Americans slaughtering each other in this awful 
fashion, but you reflect that since it had to be, you are glad 
that they were Americans. For the men who have the blood 
of such ancestors in their veins need fear neither principalities 
nor powers. We may be careless at times and slow to anger, 
but the descendants of the heroic souls who fought with stones 
in the Deep Cut, and of those other heroic men who clung to 
their flag and died in hundreds'around it need fear neither man 
nor nation. 

"Curious thing 'bout that fight," says Mr. Cross: "Next 
day I was all over the field, and the ground was just covered 
with little old sugar-cured hams. They were lying everywhere, 
there must have been thousands of them. Never did find out 
where they came from, nor why they were there." You 
satisfy his unanswered question of fifty-eight years, and then 
you think of those provident souls who had provided them- 
selves with at least one full future meal and then had not had 
occasion to eat it, and of the countless dead who needed no 
more earthly food. Perhaps the ambrosia and nectar that 
abound in the halls of Valhalla for those that died worthily, 
but surely no lesser food. "Take no thought for the morrow, " 
you soliloquize, and pass on to the final act of the drama. 

It is now about midday of August 30, and the long vigil is 
nearly over. Just one time more, and then Mars Bob's men 
will go forth to reap the reward they have so gloriously merited. 
You are standing in front of the Deep Cut, in the very center 
of the field, and from there you see the final storm gather, 
mount, and then burst, in one immense blue wave, three miles 
long, line behind line, sixty thousand men against that eighteen 
thousand survivors of two days' hell. It seems that there is no 
hope for this handful of dauntless men, but you take heart, 
for you know, though Pope does not, that in the woods to the 
Federal left is Longstreet with thirty thousand men, strain- 
ing on their leashes, waiting for the welcome word. 

In front, to right and left of you, the first blue wave beats, 
falters, and breaks under the consuming flames. And the 
second rushes up and merges with it, and it, too, breaks. And 
a third adds its weight, and then another and another, and 
little by little the blue wave begins to make progress. There 
are now no gray men in reserve. Every man that can stand, 
and many that cannot, but fire from where they lie, already 
in the furnace, and if there is to be any help for them, it must 
come from somewhere else — and come quickly. For forty- 
eight hours these men have borne the whole weight, and now 
they must have relief or perish. 

And then, and then — Off to the east you hear the roar of 
cannon, and down the blue lines, a shining target, fly the shells 
of Longstreet's batteries. The blue attack loses momentum, 
slows down, stops completely, and from those woods to the 
east come thirty thousand raging, yelling demons in gray rags, 
right on the Federal flank. And from the front come the 
foot cavalry, rewarded at last. It has been a bitter two days, 



but revenge is sweet, and they squeeze out the last drop of 
sweetness. You see the men in blue striking out savagely, but 
as men beating the air, and suddenly they go all to pieces, and 
across the meadows and hills streams the pursuit. Every Con- 
federate that can move one foot before the other is in it, and 
you feel that you, though fifty-eight years late, belong there 
too. So you bid your guide an appreciative good-by, and fall 
in behind an anachronism, but none the less a Confederate 
and a participant. 

It is now nearly night, and the show is over. And as the 
broken Federal army streams dejectedly over the Stone Bridge 
to the welcome protection of Washington, you, the last Con- 
federate, turn your face eastward, mount your wheel, and 
pedal wearily back to Manassas and a cold bath and fresh 
clothes. 

Vale, ever blessed, ever glorious Army of Northern Virginia. 

[Author's Note. — One more spectator of great events and 
a devoted Confederate has passed away in the person of Mrs. 
Dogan, who died December 31, 1920, only a few months after 
the events just described.] 



THE SOUTHERN PROTEUS. 

BY CHARLES FENNELL, LEXINGTON, KY. 

Part III. 

They sat behind locked doors in Clarkson's room, as the 
matters they were discussing were of such importance as to 
render the interference of any interloper extremely unwelcome. 
And, moreover, they felt that in so strongly a pro-Southern 
establishment as the Newell House no precaution could be 
too great on their part. 

" We have the most ridiculous Secret Service that ever was 
heard of, Clarkson," growled Raymond, regarding his com- 
panion with a thoughtful frown. 

" What do you mean, Tom?" inquired Clarkson. 

"Why, we have no system whatever. Instead of one serv- 
ice directed by one controlling intelligence, we have as many 
services as we have men. Each individual finds out what he 
can and acts upon such information to suit himself. The re- 
sult is that frequently two of our men will work crosswise on 
a case and prevent anything being done at all, because nei- 
ther knows anything of what the other is doing." 

"How do you think it should be?" 

"Every man in the service should be a mere unit to furnish 
information to the chief, who would collate all his data in any 
particular case, received maybe from a hundred sources, and 
he would then detail as many men as would be needed to act 
on such information according to the plan he would map out 
for them. That is the way the army does. The men would 
then become mere machines" — 

"You can't get mere machines to do this kind of work, 
Tom," interrupted Clarkson, with quiet emphasis. "Just 
take yourself for instance. How much information would 
you ever have been able to discover here in this hotel without 
using your own judgment, following up your own clues, and 
operating without the knowledge of the chief. He doesn't 
know enough of what is going on to even hint what he wants 
you to find out. You are here to break the ice and begin the 
acquisition of information. And when anything is about to 
happen you have to attend to it without consulting the 
chief. " 

"I hadn't thought of it that way," admitted Raymond. 

" As a proof of what I have just said, " continued Clarkson, 
"I have just obtained some information that you and I must 



Qoofederat^ l/eterag. 



63 



act on immediately, without consulting anyone, or the entire 
army of McClellan may be wiped off the map." 

"What is that?" asked Raymond eagerly. 

"Yesterday the President sent instructions to General 
McClellan to make certain aggressive movements involving 
the participation of the entire Army of the Potomac, and by 
which Lincoln confidently hopes to draw Lee into a trap that 
has been laid for him and compel his surrender within a week 
at most. These plans provide for an active campaign by 
General Banks against Stonewall Jackson in the Shenandoah. 
If Banks captures Jackson, he will relieve Washington from 
all fear and will be free to help crush Lee. If Lee and Jack- 
son knew of these plans, however, they might turn the tables 
on us, smash Banks to pieces, join forces against McClellan, 
and beat him before he knows what has happened. Unknown 
to the authorities, a copy of these instructions has been made 
and has found its way into the hands of Confederate agents, 
or such of our men as are betraying the government to them. " 

"That shows our service," snorted Raymond in disgust. 
"Valuable papers stolen, their loss is unnoticed. No one is 
suspected. But what has that to do with us?" 

"These papers would have found their way easily into the 
hands of General Lee except for some confidential information 
I have just received from a negro porter whom I have bribed 
to serve me here in the hotel. He informs me that the man 
who has possession of these papers will come to the hotel to- 
night about seven o'clock to meet the messenger who is to 
convey the papers to General Lee. This messenger will be 
sitting in the lobby, facing the street entrance, and apparently 
engrossed in his paper. The man with the plans will recognize 
him because of his position and also by the way he is dressed, 
and will approach him familiarly, ask him about his family, 
and then invite him into the bar to take a drink. In the bar- 
room they will seat themselves at a table where they will not 
be likely to be observed, and the messages will change hands 
without exciting the least suspicion. A part of the program 
that they have not arranged you and I will supply when we 
place them both under arrest in the barroom." 

"Do you realize, Clarkson," reminded Raymond, "that 
this hotel is manned by the most fearless and desperate men 
to be found in the world? They will not stand idly by and see 
us capture these men. There are too many necks in danger 
for that. What chance would we have against two men, 
backed up by the whole hotel force? They could easily kill 
us, hide the papers, or burn them to destroy the evidence, and 
take their chances in a mere trial for murder, with perjured 
witnesses by the score to swear to any defense they chose to 
make. I tell you we would need a small army to capture these 
two men in this hotel." 

Clarkson's jaws snapped like those of a bulldog. "I know 
the risk," he conceded, "but we cannot surround the place 
without scaring them both away. We must take the risk or 
let them go. I, for one, am not coward enough to place my 
own safety above the salvation of my country. If you don't 
help, I'll try it alone." 

"Of course, I'll help you. You know that, " said Raymond, 
rather nettled at the manner in which his warning had been 
received. "I'll stick to it as long as you will, but neverthe- 
less the risk will be terrific." 

"I knew you would stick, old man," answered Clarkson 
enthusiastically, for he had indeed counted on Raymond im- 
plicitly. " We will remain in the lobby after supper, as usual, 
until they go into the barroom. We will then follow them 
there and arrest them." 

Raymond looked at his watch. "It is a few minutes to six 



now," he remarked. "We had better go down to supper at 
once. " 

"They ate a leisurely supper and repaired to the lobby, 
where they purchased papers and, seating themselves in com- 
fortable chairs, became apparently absorbed in the news of 
the day. In reality, they kept a close watch over all who en- 
tered or left the lobby and of all that took place therein. 

For some reason the lobby was almost deserted that night, 
and Clarkson soon noted with satisfaction that aside, from the 
clerk, Raymond, and himself, the only occupant of the room 
was a short, stocky-built man who sat with his back to them 
facing the street entrance. Like themselves, he was reading a 
paper. "That is my man," reflected Clarkson, as he studied 
his prospective victim attentively. 

At 7:30 almost to the minute a well dressed man of medium 
height entered the lobby and stared around with the frank 
curiosity of the typical hotel loafer. As he came in the door, 
the short, stocky man looked over the rim of his paper and 
then slowly closed both of his eyes as though the strain of 
reading the fine print had caused them to hurt. He paid no 
attention whatever to the well dressed man. This rather dis- 
appointed Clarkson, who had felt all along that the well- 
dressed man was the other conspirator. 

"I must have been mistaken in my man," he reflected. 

He was even more surprised when the well dressed man, 
after another casual glance around the room, came over to 
where Raymond and himself were sitting and addressed them. 

"Pardon me for interrupting you," he said pleasantly, 
"but, if you gentlemen have no objections, I will consider it 
a great favor for you to come and have a drink with me. It 
is always so lonesome to drink by oneself, isn't it?" 

For an instant the joyous thought leaped into Clarkson's 
mind that the well dressed man was the conspirator after 
all and had mistaken him for the accomplice. Then he 
thought it might be some one trying to lure him away from 
the man in the lobby. Still, who knew he was an agent of 
the secret service? And, besides, he could observe all that 
went on in the lobby from the barroom. 

"Thank you, sir, " he replied, smiling up at the well dressed 
man. "I believe I would like a toddy, now that you mention 
it." 

As the barkeeper mixed the drinks the well dressed man 
contrived to seize Clarkson's hand and give it a squeeze that 
caused Clarkson more surprise than anything else that had 
taken place that night. The grip informed him that the well 
dressed man was a member of the United States Secret Serv- 
ice. Clarkson hastily returned it to show that he, too, was a 
member. 

"Suppose we sit down at the table over yonder?" sug- 
gested the well dressed man. 

"There is a small room back of that screen, where we can 
have more privacy," said Clarkson, "let us go in there. 
Bring our order to the side room, Jim," he added to the bar- 
keeper. 

When their order had been placed on the table before them 
the well dressed man looked at Clarkson, then glanced fur- 
tively toward Raymond. Clarkson caught the significance 
of the glance. 

"O, Raymond is all right," he assured the well dressed 
man. "He also belongs to the service. Raymond, this is 
our fellow worker, Mr. — " 

"Ormonde, John Ormonde," added the well dressed man 
as Clarkson paused. 

They both started in surprise. 

"You have just arrived in Washington from the West, 
have you not, Mr. Ormonde?" inquired Raymond. 



64 



Qoi?federat^ l/efeerap. 



"I have been here only a week," replied Ormonde, "and 
have worked under cover all the time." 

"We have both heard of your splendid work in the West," 
complimented Clarkson, "and we are very glad to have you 
with us. " 

"I am glad to be with you here to-night, too," replied 
Ormonde. "And I am especially glad to have you here to- 
night to back me up in a case of an emergency. Your pres- 
ence, though, came very near causing all of our plans to be 
upset." 

" How was that?" 

"A copy of a very important document has been" — 

"I know," interrupted Clarkson. "The President's dis- 
patch to McClellan? The man is waiting for it in the lobby 
now. " 

Ormonde elevated his eyebrows in surprise. "I don't 
know how you discovered that," he declared. "The depart- 
ment learned of it only a few hours ago. It is a fact, however, 
that he is waiting for it in the lobby now, and, what is more, 
he will receive it — but not from the hands he expected to 
receive it from. " 

"What are you driving at?" asked Raymond. 

"You see," Ormonde smiled, "we captured his fellow con- 
spirator with the goods on him. He was a gritty fellow and 
refused to implicate any one else until we tried some Indian 
methods of persuasion. Then he broke down and confessed 
that he would meet the messenger here to-night who would 
convey the papers to Lee, and he described the appearance 
of this man so we could make no mistake." 

"Why didn't you arrest him when you came in?" 

"That would have been of no use. We had no evidence 
against him, except what we had wrung from his accomplice 
by torture. That wouldn't go far, even with a court-martial. 
Besides, there is only one man the rebels would trust with 
such a message, and he is the one we desire to catch more 
than all others. " 

"You mean he" — 

"Is Omahundry himself." 

"How will you take him with the goods on him?" 

"That is what I came for to-night. Our prisoner does not 
know Omahundry by sight, as indeed no one does. In order 
to identify each other it was agreed they should both wear 
light trousers, blue coats, and red neckties. As I am the same 
build as the prisoner and would readily answer the same gen- 
eral description, the chief ordered me to exchange clothes 
with the prisoner and bring some false copies of the instruc- 
tions to Omahundry as though I were his accomplice. After 
he received them and revealed his guilt, I was to keep him 
under the closest surveillance and arrest him at the earliest 
possible moment after leaving this infernal hotel." 

"Why didn't you go on with your plans?" 

"Because you gentlemen interfered. Everybody in this 
hotel knows you are agents of the United States government, 
despite any impression you may have to the contrary, and 
Omahundry was made aware of your identity as soon as you 
seated yourselves in the lobby. He remained to save his 
comrade. When I came he closed both his eyes over the rim 
of his paper" — 

"I observed that in the mirror over the clerk's desk," said 
Clarkson. 

" It was a signal he agreed upon to warn his accomplice not 
to recognize him," continued Ormonde. "As you two were 
the only other persons in the lobby, and the chief had in- 
formed me of your location here, I drew my own conclusions 
as to your identity, as you were the only ones I would be sup- 
posed to fear. " 



"Gee, Ormonde, but you are a slick duck! What are you 
going to do now? Carry out the original program?" 

"O, no," laughed Ormonde. "That would be impossible 
now, thanks to your unintentional interference. Omahundry 
looked interested when I brought you in here. He will wait 
to see if I can give you the slip and come back to him. This 
will give me an opportunity to get him away from the hotel 
and make the arrest. It would require a regiment to capture 
him here. " 

"That's what I told Clarkson," crowed Raymond. 

"I will leave you gentlemen here," continued Ormonde, 
"while I go out and meet him. I will intimate to him that 
you are getting drunk back here and suggest that he go with 
me to the theater. I believe he will readily agree to this, as 
he is afraid to come back here while you remain. If he goes 
I will take him easily, as our men are always on duty at the 
theater. If he refuses to go, I will take my chances and arrest 
him here, as he is too dangerous a man to allow to go free, 
even if we have no evidence against him. Keep yourselves in 
readiness to assist me and rush into the lobby at the first 
sound of a scuffle. This is a desperate undertaking." 

"Count on us, Ormonde," they chorused. As he stalked 
from the room on his way to the lobby, they added fervently, 
"Good luck, old man." 

When Ormande entered the lobby he observed, with satis- 
faction, that the short, stocky man was still there, his paper 
folded upon his lap. 

"Good evening," greeted Ormonde. 

" Good evening. " 

"I have just left two friends in the bar who seem deter- 
mined to drink more than is good for them. As I don't care 
to get drunk, I have left them. Have you anything particu- 
lar to do to-night?" 

"Nothing at all." 

"What do you say to attending the theater then? There 
is a good play to-night." 

"That suits me. It's very lonesome sitting around here by 
myself anyhow. " 

They left the hotel and walked down the street toward 
the theater. Suddenly, when no one was near, the short, 
stocky man grasped his companion by the arm. 

"How on earth did you ever get rid of those two birds?" 
he asked. "They had us spotted as sure as you are born. I 
learned that from the clerk. A nigger porter learned the 
scheme and gave it away. He'll have his throat cut for his 
pains. Where are the papers?" 

Ormonde drew out the papers from his pocket and handed 
them to his companion. "Here they are," he said. 

The short, stocky man put them in his pocket. "Lee and 
Stonewall will have them in twelve hours. But you haven't 
told me how you eluded those two men." 

The well-dressed man seized him by the arm with a grasp 
of iron. "The game is up, Omahundry; I've got you with the 
goods on," he said sternly. 

"Omahundry?" faltered the stocky man. " Why, what do 
you mean? " 

"I mean," said the well-dressed man, chuckling, "that I 
fooled them by pretending that you were Omahundry." 

"Well, I'll be durned," laughed the stocky man, as he 
heard the tale. "You have your nerve, trying to palm off 
that outlandish name of yours on an unassuming fellow like 
me. " 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai), 



65 



HOW IT STARTED. 

BY I. G. BRADWELL, BRANTLEY, ALA. 

Perhaps General Lee never knew how hostilities between 
his forces and those of Meade began in the late fall of 1863, 
culminating in a campaign which lasted until cold weather 
put an end to it and resulted in much fighting and the driving 
of the enemy back to their defenses at Washington. A little 
incident which I will relate grew to such a state that General 
Lee decided that " Mr. Meade" and his people were bad neigh- 
bors, and since he would not come out and show his hand, 
Lee decided to make him do so by assuming the offensive 
himself. No doubt General Lee thought the intense picket 
fighting along his whole front was only to cover some move 
on the part of Meade, who was always ready to do what was 
unexpected and then withdraw without a general engage- 
ment. This picket fighting along the front was a favorite 
ruse with General Lee himself when he wanted to cover some 
important move and hit the enemy a hard blow, and he be- 
came suspicious. Accordingly he swung our corps, now com- 
manded by General Ewell, around by a wide detour which 
took us through the country by the way of Madison Court- 
house and Warrington, where we overtook the rear of Meade's 
army. The skirmishers of our brigade (Gordon's) were 
thrown forward and pressed the enemy, killing and captur- 
ing a great many raw recruits. Some of these fellows, when 
ordered to throw down their guns, were afraid to do so lest 
they would have to pay for them or be punished by their 
officers. 

After we came back from Gettysburg we made our camp 
along the south side of the Rapidan and did picket duty along 
that stream while the enemy was perfectly peaceable and 
for a long time made no demonstration whatever. New 
clothes and shoes were issued to us, and many of those who 
were left sick in the hospitals when we started to Pennsyl- 
vania had come back, so our ranks were very much strength- 
ened. The old enterprising spirit of our men returned, and 
they became impatient for something of an exciting nature 
which offered them a chance to share in the rich plunder of 
the enemy. 

As already stated, our pickets were posted at wide intervals 
along the river, while the enemy posted his men some dis- 
tance from us in squads of six or eight at each place. They 
were too far from us to carry on any conversation and were 
perfectly peaceable and might have remained so if it had not 
been for the desire of certain men in my company (I, 31st 
Georgia) to raid one of their posts which stood in full view 
on the other side of the river, though at a distance from us. 
The whole regiment was stretched out in a thin line and ex- 
tended perhaps a mile or more. A part of the line held by the 
company was elevated, and we had a good view of the open 
field opposite us, in which there was a grave inclosed with a 
picket fence. At this place the Yanks had one of their posts, 
and after stacking their guns, they took off their blankets, 
well-filled haversacks, and other equipment and hung them 
up where we could see them. A public road crossed the river 
at this place, and to the right of this on the other side of the 
ford our view was obscured by a thick woodland. 

The sight of this plunder exposed to us was more than some 
~>l our hungry soldiers could stand. Ever ready for any en- 
terprise, however dangerous, so it afforded a chance to raid 
the enemy, they begged our captain to let them cross the 
river in broad daylight, enter the woods, and surround and 
:ake the whole thing. They explained to the captain how 
easily they could do this by entering the woods below the 
ord, where their movements would not be seen, and so 



maneuver as to get into the enemy's rear. But the captain 
was unwilling to asume the responsibility for this offensive 
without the consent of the colonel at a time when there was 
perfect peace along the whole front of the two armies. They 
begged and teased him no little to let them go, but he still re- 
fused. Finally he told Lieut. Charles M. Compton, a man 
equally as reckless as the others, to take a squad of men from 
the company and cross the river and reconnoiter; if he should 
find it feasible he would report the matter to the colonel, and 
with his consent he could make the raid that night. 

Among those who volunteered was a fifteen-year-old boy, 
one of the most reckless of the company. This boy spoiled 
the whole game by his precipitate haste. Compton and his 
squad forded the river unobserved by the enemy and entered 
the woods. They had not gone far when they observed a 
house, which we could not see from the other side of the 
river. This house faced the public road and field in front of 
which was the picket post. As soon as they saw the house, 
all with one accord decided to approach it from the back way 
and get a good dinner, apparently unmindful of their mission. 
The family occupying the house went to work immediately 
to set before them such a dinner as they had not seen for a 
long time, for they were true Southern people. Without 
posting a guard to keep watch outside while they enjoyed the 
feast, all sat down and were helping themselves when a little 
girl came running into the dining room and said: "La, ma, 
just look up the road at the Yankees coming! The road is 
full of men and horses." Compton and his men hastily 
grabbed up their guns and rushed out of the back door unob- 
served by the enemy. He hid his men behind the front yard 
fence and in the shrubbery, hastily telling them to hold their 
fire until the cavalry should come up quite near, and not to 
fire until he gave the order to do so. The Yankees were riding 
in fours leisurely along the road, not expecting any trouble, 
when they rode into this ambush. Meade had decided to 
relieve the infantry pickets with cavalry, and these men were 
coming to take their places. When the Yankees were about 
one hundred yards away, little Rube could wait no longer and 
pulled down on them. It was now too late to mend the mat- 
ter, for the cavalry broke in the greatest confusion and scat- 
tered in a stampede over the field, firing back as they ran. 
Compton and his men fired at them as they galloped away, 
and Sergeant Ricks brought down a big German trooper, 
who fell in a ditch. Ricks ran out into the field and managed 
to get him on his horse. The man was shot through the thigh 
and seemed to be suffering very much when Ricks brought 
him to us. 

And now began a picket fight at long range in which much 
ammunition was spent by the Yankees and little or no damage 
was done to us. This fighting spread from us to the right and 
left until it extended along the whole front for many miles and 
lasted several days. 

General Lee was at a loss to know what Meade meant. 
Finally he decided to assume the offensive. This resulted in 
Meade's hasty retreat to the defenses around Washington 
and many small engagements until cold weather put a stop to 
all activities and both armies went into winter quarters in 
December, 1863. 

Lieutenant Compton was wounded at the second day's 
Battle of the Wilderness, when our company captured Gen- 
eral Seymour and General Shaler. After this he was cap- 
tured by the enemy at the battle of Winchester, Va., Sep- 
tember 19, 1864. Sergeant Ricks was totally disabled for 
further military service at the battle of Spottsylvania Court- 
(Convinued on page 78.) 



66 



Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 




Sketches in this department are given a half column of 
space without charge; extra space will be charged for at 20 
cents per line. Engravings, $3.00 each. 



" One more to that immortal band, that long, illustrious line, 
That counts no nobler name, old friend, or purer soul than 

thine; 
Yea, with the mighty in their death, their rest, and their re- 
ward, 
Sleep, in thy cloudless fame and faith, true soldier of the 
Lord." 

Capt. John W, Wilcox. 

Among the Confederate soldiers who have passed in recent 
years into the Great Beyond was Captain John W. Wilcox, 
and surely none was more loyal to the South, its traditions, 
and its people. Often I have heard him say that if he was not 
permitted to go into heaven, he hoped he would be allowed 
to enter into whatever place the Army of Northern Virginia 
now occupied. 

Captain Wilcox, although intensely Southern, was ail- 
American also, for in 1650 one of his forbears, John Wilcox, 
with others, settled Middletown, Conn. Lemuel Wilcox, 
grandfather of Captain Wilcox, served in the war of the Revo- 
lution. 

John W. Wilcox, son of Columbus and Marie Andrews 
Wilcox, of New Orleans, La., enlisted on May 26, 1861, as a 
private in the 4th Company battalion, Washington Artillery. 
He served as private, corporal, and sergeant in the Army of 
Northern Virginia until February, 1865, when he was pro- 
moted to captain on Gen. James Dearing's staff, with whom 
he served until the surrender. 

Henry H. Bolser gives the following in his book on "Per- 
sonal Experiences in the Civil War": "At Marye's Heights, 
Fredericksburg, Va., finding all ammunition chests empty, 
we were ordered to the rear. Ramming my sponge staff into 
a bag of hard-tack which I slung over my shoulder, I followed 
gallant John Wilcox down the Telegraph Road. Wilcox's 
horse had been wounded, and he was leading the poor animal 
along, for he was fond of him and refused to leave him. Sud- 
denly Wilcox threw his arms into the air, exclaiming, 'They 
got me. I am shot.' Running to him, I found a large piece 
of shell on the back of his packet, as though it had been 
stamped there by a red-hot iron. " All his life he suffered from 
this terrific blow on the spine. 

Another tribute to him I quote from the Times-Democrat 
of New Orleans: "Wilcox was a born leader, chivalrous and 
independent and as honest as he was brave" is the tribute paid 
to the late Captain Wilcox, of Macon, Ga., by Sumter Tur- 
ner, secretary of the Washington Artillery Veteran Associa- 
tion. 'It was my good fortune to be intimately associated 
with Wilcox for the four years of the war, during which he 
won honorable and well merited distinction. His death is felt 
with keen regret by his many friends here.'" 

The last earthly music he heard here was " Dixie." Stand- 
ing at attention, hat in hand, he drank in its soul-stirring 
strains. Half an hour later he had gone, I fully believe, to 






rest in "The shade of the trees," with his beloved com- 
mander gone ahead, and I also believe that the song he loved 
so well greeted him "over the river." 

Capt. John W. Wilcox died January 1, 1920. He rests in 
Milledgeville, Ga., where old friends of three generations 
gathered to do him honor. The chancel furniture of the 
Episcopal church, from which the services were conducted, 
was the work of his loving hands, a tribute of faith and love 
to the great "I am." 

[H. M. Robertson, Augusta, Ga.] 

A. L. Smith. 

A. L. Smith was born in York County, S. C, September 
20, 1845. He entered the Confederate States Army as a vol- 
unteer in 1863, and served until paroled at Greensboro, N. C, 
under Joseph E. Johnston, April 26, 1865. His branch of the 
service was the light artillery, and he served principally on the 
coast of South Carolina. His command followed that of ; 
Johnston to North Carolina when pressed by Sherman, who 
entered South Carolina in 1865. 

A. L. Smith was elected Commander of Omar R. Weaver 
Camp, U. V. C, No. 354, January, 1920, and was reelected 
Commander January, 1921, and while serving his second I 
term was called by death on October 30, 1921. 

He was elected Brigadier General to command the First 
Brigade in the Arkansas Division, U. C. V., November 4, 1919, j 
and served one term. 

He was the father of eight children, four boys and four j 
girls. Of these, Dr. H. B. Smith, E. V. Smith, Mrs. E. L. 
Farmer, and Mrs. E. R. Russell survive him. 

He was a man of sterling worth, conscientious and honest 
in his dealings, and stood for law and order in the community; 
was a positive and decided character, patriotic, and devoted 
to his country and to duty. He was a member of long stand- 
ing in the Methodist Episcopal Church, charitable, kind, and i 
gentle, and very liberal in his opinion of others. In a word,' 
A. L. Smith was a Christian gentleman, and no higher en- 
comium can be passed upon any one's character. Peace tol 
his ashes! 

And now that life's tasks are o'er, 
Dream, comrade, of battle fields no more, 
Safe upon the distant farther shore, 
Greeted by many comrades gone before. 
Father, to thy gracious love and keeping, 
Leave we now our comrade, brother, sleeping. 

[B. W. Green, A. J. Snodgrass, Committee.] 

Hector Coffin. 

After an illness of several weeks, Hector Coffin died at his 
home in Knoxville, Tenn., on December 16, 1921, in his sev- 
enty-eighth year. He was born at Rogersville, Tenn., April 
15, 1844, the son of Charles C. and Ann Eliza Park Coffin. 
His father was a native of New England, and early in the) 
nineteenth century came to East Tennessee, making the trip 
overland. Settling at Greenville, he established a school, 
then later going to Knoxville, and was president of the East 
Tennessee University, now the University of Tennessee. For 
many years he was one of the well known teachers and 
preachers of East Tennessee. 

Hector Coffin was also teacher and preacher, and his earlv 
life was spent in religious and educational work. He wasj 
educated in the common schools of East Tennessee and later 
entered the East Tennessee University. When the War be- 
tween the States began he left school to join the Confederate 



Qogfederat^ l/eterap. 



67 



- army, in which he served with distinction as a member of 
f Colonel Ashby's famous regiment of Wheeler's brigade. 

Mr. Coffin went to Memphis after the war and there en- 
tered business. In 1875 he was married to Miss Alice Jones 
and soon thereafter moved to Knoxville and entered the 
wholesale grocery business. He retired in 1900, when he 
moved to a farm on the Clinton pike. 

A member of the First Presbyterian Church since he was 
fourteen years of age, for many years Mr. Coffin served as 
organist and choir leader and always had an active part in 
religious activities. For thirty-five years he was a member 

- of the board of elders. He had always taken a keen interest 
i in Sunday school work, for many years teaching a large class. 

His death takes from Knoxville one of its best and most 
' highly respected citizens. Surviving him are his wife, five 
1 daughters, and a son, also one brother, James P. Coffin, of 
5 Batesville, Ark. 

James H. Womack. 

In the death of James Henry Womack, which occurred 
1 on the evening of October 23, 1921, another honored veteran 
! has fallen from the ranks of the living heroes of the War be- 
tween the States. 

Comrade Womack was born in what was then a part of 

De Soto County, Miss., on February 9, 1843; hence he was in 

his seventy-seventh year. He enlisted for the Confederacy 

1 from Tunica County, Miss., in Company B, under Capt. 

' R. H. Humphreys, and served for fourteen months in A. K. 

Blythe's Battalion, afterward known as the 44th Mississippi. 

The day of his enlistment was May 11, 1861. On July 15, 

' 1862, he was transferred to the 9th Mississippi Battalion of 

f Sharpshooters, under Captain Brownrigg, of Company B, 

with which he served to the end. 
1 Comrade Womack was in the battle of Shiloh, and was 
severely wounded in the battle of Missionary Ridge, being 
shot through the left hand and right wrist, from which he 
1 was partially disabled in both hands for the remainder of his 
life. 

After the war he married Miss Tempia Merideth, of Tate 
County, Miss., who died some years ago. Surviving him are 
a son and six daughters. 

Comrade Womack was active as a leader in the Democratic 
party of his county, and at one time he served as circuit 
clerk for a period of four years. For a number of years he 
had been chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee 
of his county. He was laid to rest in the cemetery of Thyatira 
Church. He leaves a record for integrity of character, for 
steadfastness in the faithful service for the good of his com- 
munity, and for constancy in attachment for those he loved. 
Peace to his memory! 
(Rev. Lee Jackson, Oakland, Miss.] 

i 

Henry Clay Chappell. 

On April 26, 1921, H. C. Chappell answered the last roll 
call at Paineville, Amelia County, Va., in the seventy-sixth 
year of his age. 

He enlisted in the Confederate army as a member of Com- 
pany E, 25th Virginia Battalion, at the age of eighteen, and 
served at Fort Harrison, Drewry's Bluff, was captured at 
Sailor's Creek and sent to Point Lookout, Md. Three chil- 
dren survive him: Mrs. H. T. Pearson, of Danville, Va.; W. 
B. Chappell, of Inglewood, Cal.; and E. R. Chappell, of 
Portland — all of whom were with him when the end came. 




H. p. RAUTON. 



Henry P. Rauton. 

Henry P. Rauton was born July 24, 1843, near Rocky 
Creek in Edgefield County, S. C. His father, W. S. Rauton, 

served in the Seminole, 
or Florida, War and died 
in 1855. No wonder his 
son Henry made such a 
loyal and true Confed- 
federate soldier, born 
with a patriotic spirit 
that was manifested on 
every occasion. In June, 
1920, he fell from a rail- 
road trestle and frac- 
tured his hip, from which 
he lingered in great pain 
until January 31, 1921, 
when he answered the 
roll call up yonder in his 
home in Sumter, sur- 
rounded by his . wife, 
daughter Gertrude, and 
three sons, Henry, of 
Sumter, Edward, of Beaufort, and George, of Camden, N. J. 
A few months longer of life would have brought him to his 
seventy-eighth year. His body was clad in the Confederate 
gray uniform that he loved so much to wear, and on his 
breast was pinned the little bronze cross, so dear to his heart, 
given him by the Mary Ann Buie Chapter, South Carolina 
Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, at 
Johnston, S. C, his former home town, for service he ren- 
dered the Confederate States in Company A, 22nd S. C. V., 
of Evan's brigade. 

He was not only a good soldier of the army, but a faithful 
soldier of the cross, having been baptized when a young man 
by that much beloved Baptist preacher of ye olden times, 
Uncle Jimmie Peterson. 

On June 17, 1864, he was wounded in a moonlight charge 
and was carried from the battle field by two Northern sol- 
diers. He was captured at Appomattox six days before the 
surrender and kept at Point Lookout until June, 1865. 

His body was brought to Johnston, accompanied by his 
family and laid to rest in Mount of Olives Cemetery, beside 
his little son, Mackey, who died several years ago. From his 
bier floated the red and white streamers on the laurel wreath 
placed by the local Chapter, U. D. C. He rests serene among 
forty of his comrades who lie buried in God's sacred acre, and 
above his grave is seen the Maltese iron cross in red and white 
with C. S. A., showing that 

" He was a rebel in the fight 
Because he thought it just and right. 
The South he loved, her flag was his, 
Her fields, and hills, and skies divine. 
He loved her as best he could; 
Was not her cause born in his blood? 
Against a storm of shot and shell 
He fought for the South he loved so well." 

"So sleep, soldier! still in honor rest, 
Your truth and valor wearing; 
The bravest are the tenderest, 
The loving are the daring." 

[Mrs. James H. White, Registrar, M. A. B. Chapter, 
U. D. C.1 



68 



Qogfederat^ l/eterai). 




JUDGE H. H. COOK. 



Judge H. H. Cook. 

In the death of Judge Henry H. Cook, of Franklin, Tenn., 
the State has lost one of its most prominent, able, and worthy 
citizens, and the 
association of Con- 
federate soldiers 
one of its bravest 
and most loyal 
members. 

Henry Cook en- 
listed in Company 
D, Maury's 1st 
Tennessee, in May, 
1861. After the 
winter campaign 
in northwest Vir- 
ginia, he was dis- 
charged on ac- 
count of ill health. 
He recovered suf- 
ficiently to go to 
Fort Donelson to 
enlist again. He 
made his escape 
after the surrender 
and was in the 
battle of Shiloh. 
Upon the reorgani- 
zation of the army 
the 44th and 55th Tennessee Regiments were consolidated, 
and he was made a lieutenant. He was with the regiment at 
Perry ville, and at Murfreesboro he was badly wounded in the 
shoulder and also in the head, a large piece of the skull being 
carried away by the shot. He recovered sufficiently to be 
with his regiment at Chickamauga, Dandridge, Knoxville, 
Petersburg, Fort Walthall, and Drury's Bluff. At Petersburg 
Captain Cook was given two field guns to combat a gunboat 
ascending the river, and he pushed the guns to the brink of 
the river and captured the gunboat by firing at close range. 
He was captured at Drury's Bluff and was one of the six hun- 
dred officers put under the fire of Confederate guns in Charles- 
ton Harbor. 

He returned home in June, 1865, and began the study of 
law. In 1870 he was elected county judge and served as such 
for sixteen years. In 1896 he was elected chancellor for Da- 
vidson and Williamson Counties, serving as such for six years. 

In 1882 Judge Cook married Miss Fannie Marshall, a 
daughter of John Marshall, a distinguished lawyer of Frank- 
lin. Judge Cook was a member of the Christian Church, a 
life member of Hiram Lodge No. 7, F. & A. M., and a member 
of De Molay Commandery. 

James Henry Loughborough. 

On November 7, 1921, at the advanced age of eighty-five 
years, James Henry Loughborough passed through the gates 
of darkness into the light beyond and joined his comrades of 
the cause he so passionately loved. His father, Hamilton 
Loughborough, and his mother, Mary Ridaud, of French 
Hueguenot descent, were of prominent families in Maryland 
and ardent sympathizers with the South during those fateful 
years, and their young son made one of the many from that 
noble State whose bravery, enthusiasm, and devotion won for 
it the high honor of being included in the roll of the Confed- 
erate States. He had completed his education at the George- 
town University and was at Fort Wayne, Ind., when war was 



declared. Hastening to Virginia, he enlisted in Caskie's 
Rangers, Capt. Robert Caskie commanding; they were ordered 
to Charleston, W. Va., where he had his first fight against 
a marauding party; was with Col. Clarkson on Coal River, 
where he overtook and captured a number of prisoners; was 
in the cavalry under Wise when he retreated to Sewell Moun- 
tain from there he was transferred to Yorktown, where he was 
made vidette and stayed to watch the enemy. His command 
was in a cavalry charge on the second U. S. Dragoons at 
Williamsburg, capturing a number of prisoners; fought on the 
right of General Lee in the Seven Days' fight, and in the raid 
around McClellan's army before being reorganized as com- 
pany A, 10th Virginia Cavalry. After a severe attack of typhoid 
fever, young Loughborough served in the Signal Corps until 
after Chancellorsville, was in all of the battles of Fredericks- 
burg, and had the honor to be signal officer to Stonewall 
Jackson during the fighting at the request of the general; 
later he served with the 10th Virginia Cavalry until the surren- 
der when he made his escape with six others, all that were left 
to Col. Caskie, finally reaching Richmond and being paroled. 
James Loughborough was born May 2, 1836, and was mar- 
ried December 24, 1862, at the cathedral in Richmond, 
Bishop John McGill officiating, to Margaret Cabell Brown, 
daughter of Ludwell H. Brown, of Richmond, and Margaret 
McClelland of Nelson. He returned to his estate, Milton, Md., 
where, at a ripe old age, crowned with honor and affection, h e 
quietly and peacefully entered into eternal rest. He is sur- 
vived by his wife and six of his eleven children. 

Joseph H. Bowman. 

Joseph H. Bowman enlisted in Company D, 32d Tennessee 
Infantry, at Tullahoma, in March, 1863, before he was sixteen 

years old. He was 
an ideal soldier 
from that date to 
June 22, when he 
was badly wound- 
ed in the right 
hand and arm in 
the battle of Pow- 
der Springs Road 
on the left of the 
Kenesaw line; and 
he had not recover- 
ed from the wound 
when he was pa- 
roled on May 17, 
1865. 

He was married 
to Miss Jennie 
Brown, a daughter 
of one of the 
prominent families 
of Williamson 

County. She and 
five sons and two 
daughters survive him, all of whom are honored and re- 
spected citizens. 

Joe Bowman was honored and loved by all who knew him; 
he was a high-toned Christian gentleman, and he will be 
greatly missed by his Church, by his neighbors, and especial- 
ly by the McEwen Bivouac and Camp at Franklin, of which 
he had been a member since the organization. He had ac- 
ceptably filled every office, and at the time of his death was 
treasurer, which position he had held for many years. 

May we remember his many virtues and try to emulate them. 




JOSEPH H. BOWMAN. 



Qogfederat^ Ueterai). 



69 



Maj. General James I. Metts, U. C. V. 
The old North State lost a beloved son in the death of Gen. 
lames I. Metts, which occurred at Wilmington on October 18, 
1921. As Com- 
•nander of the 
tforth Carolina 
Division U. C. V., 
"ind also Com- 

l.mander of the 
Camp at Wilming- 
ton, he held a 
place as the be- 
loved leader of the 

t 'veterans of his 
State, who mourn 
.his passing. He 
was a native of 
Kinston, N. C, 
born March 6 , 

L1842, and had 
lived more than 
seventy years of 
his life in Wil- 
mington. 

In April, 1861, 
at the age of nine- 
teen, James I . 
Metts joined the 
Wilmington Rifle 
Guards as a pri- 

_ vate, and he was 

" with the company 
when it seized 

' Fort Caswell at 

] the mouth of the 
Cape Fear River. 
This company was 

assigned to the 18th Regiment N. C. Troops. At the expira- 
tion of his enlistment he reenlisted in Company G, 3rd N. C. 
Troops (infantry) and soon became fifth sergeant. He partic- 
ipated in the battles around Richmond, including the Seven 
Days' battles, where he fought with gallantry, winning many 
compliments for his coolness and bravery under fire. After 
the battle of Malvern Hill he was made orderly sergeant and 
was assigned to the main work of drilling the recruits of his 
company; and after the battle of Sharpsburg, he was promoted 

. to senior second lieutenant. He took part in the campaigns 
around Winchester, Bunker Hill, Fort Royal, and Gordon 
Springs. Probably where he did his best fighting and dis- 

. played unusual bravery was in the Confederate assault at 
Culp's Hi!! on the afternoon of the second day at Gettysburg. 
A little later he was wounded in the right breast by a rifle ball, 
and was hauled three miles over a rough road to a field hospi- 
tal. From there he was taken to a hospital in Baltimore, 
where he slowly recovered. He was then sent to Johnson's 
Island and for thirteen months was a prisoner of war. In 
August, 1864, he was selected for exchange and was soon back 
in Richmond. He took command of his company as captain, 
also of Company E, and served in Cox's brigade, Grimes's 
division, until detailed on the staff of General Grimes as 
special inspector of the divisions, surrendering at Appomat- 
tox. 

Returning to Wilmington, Captain Metts engaged in 
business, continuing actively at work until his death, enjoying 
through these years the high esteem and respect of his fellow 
citizens. In November, 1869, he wedded Miss Cornelia F. 




JAMES I. METTS. 



Cowan, daughter of Col. Robert H. Cowan, his old command- 
er, and their married life was blessed with six children, three 
of whom survive him — John B. Metts, late colonel of the 
119th Infantry, 30th Division, now Adjutant General of North 
Carolina; Edwin A. Metts and Miss Eliza Metts, of Wilming- 
ton. A brother, Charles G. Metts, of Norfolk, Va., also sur- 
vives him. 

Three full companies went out from Wilmington, N. C, in 
1861: The Wilmington Light Infantry, the Rifle Guards, 
and the German Volunteers. There were also some light 
artillery, some cavalry, and volunteers in heavy artillery. 
Wilmington may be proud of them: their record was above 
praise; many of them were faithful unto death, and all were 
loyal to the end. 

Among these men James I. Metts stood conspicuous; and 
when peace came he willingly buried all hatred and malice 
toward our late enemies, but he never put out of his life his 
love for the men in gray, or did he ever neglect the oppor- 
tunity to say and do anything for their benefit. He did not 
seek favor by apologizing for them. He was proud of them, 
and those who survive are proud of him, and lovingly lay this 
humble tribute on his grave. 

Comrades At Holly Springs, N. C. 

Col. G. B. Alford, President of the Oscar R. Rand Me- 
morial Association, reports, the following deaths in the mem- 
bership of that Camp during the past year: 

J. M. Utley died at his home in Holly Springs on January 
13, 1921, in his seventy-seventh year. He was born and reared 
in this county, and in 1861, at the age of nineteen, he volun- 
teered in Oscar R. Rand's company, but was transferred to 
Company I, 3rd N. C. Cavalry, and served four years for the 
Confederacy, taking part in some big raids. In the passing of 
this good man the Holly Springs Baptist Church lost a faith- 
ful member, and the Oscar R. Rand Camp of Veterans a true 
comrade, his family a devoted father. Surviving him are his 
wife and seven children. 

William Hardy Burt, a true soldier of the old South, a 
kind and noble friend, a just and loyal citizen, died on August 
7, 1921, at the age of ninety-three. He was an officer of the 
Oscar R. Rand Camp No. 1278 U. C. V., of Holly Springs, and 
his comrades lost a good friend in his death, and the entire 
community is the poorer in the loss of this honored and re- 
spected citizen. Comrade Burt was born May 4, 1828, in 
this county, Holly Springs Township. In 1852 he married Miss 
Mary Winfield Adams, and to them were born six children. 
In 1862, at the age of thirty-four, he volunteered and enlisted 
in Company E, 36th Regiment, 5th Cavalry, commanded by 
Thomas A. Harris. His service was something over three 
years; he returned home wounded in the leg, from which he 
never entirely recovered, though he lived a long and useful 
life. For forty-four years he served as magistrate and was 
very prominent in political affairs. At the age of thirteen he 
became a member of the Baptist Church, and was a faithful 
Christian to the end. He was the oldest member of the Church 
there, which he had served for eighty years and was also 
Sunday school superintendent for thirty years. Six children 
survive him, also twenty-three grandchildren and twenty-two 
great-grandchildren. * 

On the 8th day of November, 1921, there passed into the 
great beyond the sou of Capt. Calvin Pritchard, who died 
as he had lived, a true soldier of Christ. He was in his ninety- 
first year. Captain Pritchard was born in Bertie County, 
N. C. February 25, 1831. He followed Lee and Johnston 
through the War between the States, giving four years of his 
life to the service of his country as a soldier of the Confed- 



70 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai?. 



eracy. He commanded Company G, 32nd Regiment of N. C. 
Troops. After the war he returned home and assumed the 
heroic task of rebuilding a ruined and desolate country. In 
all relations of life Captain Pritchard was to be relied on, giv- 
ing his time and strength in any good work. In 1874 he was 
married to Miss Maria Ward, of Franklinton, N. C, a young 
woman noted for her beauty and intellect. To them five 
children were born, and of them two sons and a daughter sur- 
vive him; his wife died some years ago. In late years he 
made his home with his daughter, Mrs. W. A. Segraves, at 
Holly Springs, N. C, where he was tenderly cared for. He 
joined the Baptist Church about seventy-five years ago and 
had served as deacon for over fifty years. He was a member 
of the Oscar R. Rand Camp No. 1278 U. C. V., of Holly 
Springs, and his death takes from that membership a comrade 
tried and true. 

Jared Jackson Lee. 

Jared Jackson Lee, born at Newberry Courthouse, S. C, 
on November 23, 1829, died at the home of his daughters in 
Birmingham, Ala., on November 7, 1921. 

Orphaned in early youth, he made his home with relatives 
in the western part of Dallas County, near Selma, Ala., 
where he grew to manhood, and where he married Miss 
Louisiana Morgan, daughter of George Morgan, one of the 
prominent pioneer citizens of that farming district. After his 
return from the War between the States he moved into Selma 
that his children might have better school advantages, but he 
still engaged in farming. 

J. J. Lee was mustered into the Confederate service at 
Cahaba, Ala., as a member of Company A, Alabama Regi- 
ment, but in July of 1862, he became a member of Capt. 
Thomas H. Lewis's Company, called the "Partisan Rangers," 
which company was later a part of Lewis's Battalion of Ala- 
bama Cavalry. When Major Lewis was killed in battle at 
LaFayette, Ga., his battalion, under Maj. W. V. Harrell, 
reported directly to General Maury, and remained with him 
until the close of the war. Comrade Lee rendered efficient 
service as quartermaster and also served on scout duty, and 
was a trusted courier on important missions. 

He became a Christian early in life, and was a member of 
the Baptist Church. His unfaltering faith and confidence in 
the promises of God were an inspiration to others throughout 
his long life. He was a Mason, and was proud of the organiza- 
tion. 

Comrade Lee is buried by the side of his wife in Oak Hill 
Cemetery at Selma. Surviving him are two sons, five daugh- 
ters, and nine grandchildren. 

E. G. Morris. 

E. G. Morris, seventy-eight years of age, died after a long 
illness, at his home near Chapel Hill, Tenn., on July 22, 1921. 
He was buried in a suit of gray and in a gray casket. 

Shortly after the War between the States Comrade Morris 
was married to Miss Chloe Hawkins, of Bedford County, and 
to them were born ten children, all living to mourn the loss of 
this devoted father. He was a faithful soldier of the Confeder- 
acy, and was never without the Confederate Veteran, which 
he read to the last. He served faithfully through the four 
years of war as a member of the 44th Tennessee Infantry; 
was twice wounded in battle, at Shiloh and at Corinth. 

He was a loyal member of the Methodist Church for many 
years, and was ready to join his comrades and friends when the 
call came. After services at the Methodist church at Mt. 
Pleasant, his body was borne in the flower-covered casket to 
the family graveyard to rest until the last bugle call. 




William H. Forsythe. 

William Henry Forsythe, of Sykesville, Md., died October 
24, 1921. He was born in Howard County, Md., on June 

26, 1842. ' In 1868 
he was married to 
Arabella Crawford 
Welling, a noble and 
devoted wife, who 
died in 1913. He is 
surv'ved by one son, 
William Henry For- 
sythe, Jr., associate 
judge of the fifth 
judicial circuit of 
Maryland. 

Mr. Forsythe took 
an active interest in 
the affairs of his coun- 
ty and State. He 
served three terms 
as county commis- 
sioner of his county 
and was a director 
for nearly thirty years 
in the leading nation- 
al bank of Howard 
County. H e also 
served for twenty- 
william h. forsythe. seven years as a mem- 

ber of the board of 
managers of Springfield State Hospital, the largest institution 
of its kind in the State. 

Gen. Clement A. Evans, Atlanta, Ga., said of him in his 
Confederate Military History, Vol. II, page 271: "William 
H. Forsythe, of Sykesville, Md., was one of the devoted young 
sons of Maryland who made up that brilliant battalion, the 
1st Maryland Cavalry. He enlisted in 1862 in Company A, 
under Capt. Frank A. Bond, and followed that Bayard of the 
Maryland troops, the chivalrous Ridgley Brown, into many 
a dashing charge and through many a weary march. From 
the time of his enlistment his record is that of the Maryland 
Line. Particularly does he recall the engagements of Brandy 
Station, Antietam, or Sharpsburg, the campaign of Gettys- 
burg, and the raids and hot encounters of cavalry that pre- 
ceded and followed the battle, and the gallant bout with 
Sheridan at Trevillian's. As was the case with the cavalry 
generally, he did not surrender at Appomattox, and he did not 
formally lay down his arms until May 10, 1865, after he had 
crossed the Potomac into Maryland. In the unfortunate 
affair of Moorefield, W. Va.,on the return from the Chambers- 
burg raid of 1864, he escaped the fate of capture which befell 
so many of the command. After all was over he returned to 
his home in Maryland and became as good a citizen as he was 
a soldier, giving his attention to farming, which has ever since 
been his occupation and in which it is gratifying to know that 
he has been eminently successful." 

At the last meeting of the Board of Managers of the Spring- 
field State Hospital on the 23rd inst., resolutions were unani- 
mously adopted that it place on record its earnest apprecia- 
tion of the sterling qualities of its deceased member, Mr. 
William Henry Forsythe. For twenty-seven years he served 
so faithfully and well the interests of its inmates that the State 
of Maryland has cause for pride in the personal character, 
honorable career, and faithful performance of every duty and 
responsibility confided to him; that these resolutions be en- 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 



71 



rossed for presentation to his only son, Judge William Henry 
'■"orsythe, and be spread upon the minutes of the hospital, 

hat all coming after him may know of the esteem in which 
.ie was held by every member of this Board. 

- [Albert C. Ritchie, president; Frank H. Gunther, vice 
president; E. Brooks Lee; C. Wilbur Miller; Wade H. D. 
r /Varfield; Humphrey D. Wolfe; Mrs. Frank R. Kent; John 
jjll. Dennis.] 

- The Patapsco National Bank, of Ellicott City, of which he 
.vas a director for more than thirty years, also passed reso- 
lutions expressing high appreciation in the following: 

"A man of unimpeachable integrity, of rugged honesty, of 
natured experience, of rare ability, he had proved himself a 
liscriminating, wise counselor, a safe and' trustworthy ad- 
i 'iser. His sterling traits of character, his high sense of j ustice, 
i lis cordial geniality, endeared him to all enjoying close con- 
tact and association with him. He was in every sense a most 
.ovable character, and in his death this bank has sustained an 
immeasurable loss. 

i "He was an original subscriber to the stock of this bank 
(|in June 24, 1886, was elected a director on January 6, 1891, 
>:nd served continually until his death." 

' [John L. Clark, Samuel S. Owings, James Clark, Joshua 
ls f. Warfield, Jr., Committee.] 
) 

Capt. William J. Hughes. 

Capt. William J. Hughes, who died at his home in Shreve- 
x>rt, La., on April 13, 1921, was born in Chester County, 
i. C, August 29, 1837. The family removed to Alabama in 

3 iis early childhood, and thence to Louisiana just before the 
jeginning of the War between the States. He enlisted in 

Company D, of the 9th Louisiana Regiment, and served gal- 
antly as a soldier of the Confederacy. After the war he was 

-narried to Miss Mary Clark, of Bossier Parish. He was a 
nerchant and planter at Rocky Mount for a number of years, 
mt removed to Shreveport in 1910 and made his home there 
>ermanently. He was laid to rest in the Rocky Mount ceme- 

'ery. He was a fine type of citizen, and his passing was wide- 

1 v mourned. 

[John T. Pearce, Commander General, Louisiana Division 

y. c.v.] 

B. H. Byrd. 

i After an illness of several weeks, B. H. Byrd died at his 
lome in Lady Lake, Fla., at the age of seventy-seven years. 
He was born in Tennessee and spent the early years of his 
life in that State and Mississippi. He located in Florida some 
:hirty-six years ago, making his home at Lady Lake most of 
■hat time, and was one of the most loved and respected 
,'itizens of the community. He had been postmaster there 
i or about twenty years, and was appreciated for his courtesy 
.md patience in that position. 

Comrade Byrd was a brave soldier of the Confederacy, en- 
ering the Confederate Army as a boy and serving the whole 
our years of war. He was a loyal member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, of which he was a steward and Sunday 
chool superintendent for a number of years. 

His wife survives him with a son and daughter. His 
irother Masons and comrades of the Confederacy laid him to 
est in the cemetery at Lady Lake and covered the grave 
vith beautiful flowers. The Chapter of Daughters of the 
Confederacy passed resolutions expressing the sense of loss 
ustained in the passing of this veteran friend, whose memory 
vill be loved and cherished. Love of home and country were 
:mong his high ideals of this life. 

I 



Capt. Robert T. Bowie. 
In the death of Capt. Robert Theodore Bowie, Camp 
W. H. T. Walker, No. 925, U. C. V., of Hapeville, Ga., loses 
one ot it's oldest and most valued members. Captain Bowie 
passed quietly and peacefully away at his home in Atlanta, 
on the morning of October 24, 1921. He was born in Abbe- 
ville County, S. C, July 25, 1836, and was quite a large boy 
when the family moved from South Carolina to Cobb County, 
Ga., near Smyrna. 

At the outbreak of the war, Captain Bowie was practicing 
law in Blakely, Early County, and was lieutenant of a military 
company there known as the "Early County Guards." 
This company went at once to Griffin, Ga., to the mobiliza- 
tion camp, and became Company G, of the Thirteenth 
Georgia Regiment. They were rushed at once to Virginia, 
but were one day late for the first battle of Manassas. 

After a year's service in Virginia under Lee, Col. Marcellus 
Douglas brought the regiment to Savannah, and here it 
became a part of a brigade under General Lawton. It was 
here at the battle of Whitemarsh Island that Captain Bowie 
received his first wound from the enemy. After a two months 
furlough, he was went back to Virginia to rejoin his regiment, 
and was in Jackson's Corps until the battle of Sharpsburg, in 
which battle the greater part of his company were among the 
killed and wounded. He was himself so badly wounded that he 
was left on the field among the dead and dying, the ambulance 
surgeon thinking there was no chance of his living to get to 
the hospital. Several hours later his own Col. J. M. Smith 
(later governor of Georgia), was riding over the field looking 
for his men and came to where he was lying. Colonel Smith 
told him if he was willing to take the chance he would lift him 
to his horse and swim the river to the nearest hospital. This 
exertion came near being too much for him, but they made the 
trip successfully and his life was saved. He was granted 
a two month's furlough after leaving the hospital and came 
home to Georgia. 

While here the citizens of Blakely presented him with a 
gold-headed cane in token of their appreciation of his bravery, 
and this cane is now the prized possession of one of his 
daughters. 

As his wound failed to heal entirely, he joined the State 
troops under Col. George Lester, and patrolled the northern 
part of the State for six months. When mustered out from 
this service, he organized a company in Atlanta, of which he 
was made captain, and joined the 4th Georgia Regiment, 
Company D, and did guard duty at Andersonville prison until 
the close of the war. He was cited for bravery three times. 

Captain Bowie never entirely recovered from his severe 
wound at Sharpsburg, and during his last years he was an in- 
valid, being tenderly and lovingly cared for by his devoted 
daughters. He was a faithful member of St. John's Methodist 
Church for more than twenty-five years. 

A brave soldier, a tender, loving father, and a true and up- 
right man has gone to his reward. 

Comrades at Sardis, Miss. 
The following members of John R. Dickens Camp, U. C. V., 
of Sardis, Miss., L. F. Rainwater, Commander, passed over the 
river during 1921, as reported by J. H. Brahan: J. H. Rice, 
eighty-three years of age, Wirt Adams's Regiment Cavalry; 
J. B. Mitchell, seventy-four years, 18th Mississippi Cavalry, 
Company H; R. B. McKey, eighty-five years, 34th Mississippi 
Infantry; B. C. Johnson, seventy-five years, 21st Georgia 
Regiment; C. W. Duval, seventy-four years, 5th Mississippi 
Cavalry; J. O. Askur, eighty-two years, 12th Mississippi Regi- 
ment; J. H. Branch, eighty-six years, Hudson Battery. 



72 



Qoijfederat^ l/eterap. 

TUniteb ^Daughters of tbe Confederacy 

Mrs. Livingston Rowe Schuyler, President General 
New York City 



Mrs. Frank Harrold, Americus, Ga First Vice President General 

Mrs. Bennett D. Bell. Nashville, Tenn Second Vice President General 

Mrs. W. E. Massev, Hot Springs, Ark Third Vice President General 

Mrs. R. D. "Wright, "Newberry, S. C Recording Secretary General 

Miss Ai-LIE Garner, Ozark, Ala Corresponding Secretary General 



Mrs. Amos NorRIS, Tampa, Fla Treasurer Genera, 

Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Wytheville, Va Historian Genera, 

Mrs. Fannie R. Williams, Newton, N. C Registrar Genera, 

Mrs. "William D. Mason, Philadelphia, Pa Custodian of Crosses 

Mrs. J. H. Crenshaw, Montgomery, Ala. ..Custodian of Flags and Pennants 



[All communications for this department should be sent direct to Mrs. A. B. White, Official Editor, Paris, Tenn.] 



FROM THE PRESIDENT GENERAL. 

To the Daughters of the Confederacy: The Christmas and 
New Year's greetings which have come have filled me with 
very real gratitude, and I am taking this opportunity to ex- 
press my sincere appreciation of the kind thoughts and good 
wishes for the coming year. To one and all I extend the hope 
that the year may be filled with richest blessing. 

I have been surprised as well as pleased at the great interest 
expressed in the many letters which have come in response to 
my circular letter sent out to the presidents of Chapters in 
December. And this brings to me a new thought — if the 
President General's letter in the Veteran is to be of service 
to the organization it must be read to the Chapters. For 
this reason I make a personal request — that the president of 
every Chapter to which this letter is read will send me just a 
post card with the name of the Chapter. This personal touch 
will bring us together as nothing else can, and we shall gain 
strength for our work in this closer relationship. 

The Lee Memorial Chapel. 

When I wrote last month of this new work I little thought 
that the first gift — entirely voluntary and unsolicited — would 
come from one who, like his father, rendered distinguished 
service for many years in the army of the United States. I 
give his letter in full because it expressesa tribute to the Con- 
federate soldier which I believe is felt to-day by all loyal 
Americans: 

"New York, January 2, 1922. 

"Mrs. Livingston Rowe Schulyer, President General United Daughters of Con- 
federacy. 

"My Dear Mrs. Schuyler: I have heard with much interest 
of the proposed chapel to be erected at the Washington and 
Lee University as a memorial to the immortal Gen. Robert 
E. Lee. 

"Would you permit the son of a Union officer, who died in 
the service of his country, whose forebears belonged to the 
North by birthright and sentiment, to tender a modest con- 
tribution to the purpose of the United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy? 

"The grim determination, patience, and profound courage 
of General Lee and his wonderful fighting men will for all time 
offer a graphic example for future generations of Americans; 
and it is particularly to be noted that the Confederate armies 
were Americans by birth, instinct, and bearing, and furnish a 
stimulating example at a time in our history when our popu- 
lation is being largely diluted by aliens, that these new people 
and the world may know the meaning of the American spirit and 
ideals so typically emphasized in the heroic personality of 
Gen. Robert E. Lee. 

"Cordially yours. N. S. Jarvis, 

" Captain United States Army (retired)." 



The Per Capita Tax. — As March approaches, let me re 
mind you of the necessity of meeting this obligation prompt 
ly, not only for the purpose of aiding the Treasurer General ir 
her work, but also in order that we may meet our many obli- 
gations. At the convention many pledges were made by th< 
Chapters and Divisions, and it is only right that these shoulc 
be fulfilled at the earliest possible time. 

Registration Blanks. — The Registrar General requests m< 
to remind all Division Registrars that the convention at 
Tampa changed the form of application blanks and ordered 
that all blanks printed in future should conform to the stand- 
ard blanks issued by the general organization. 

If this rule is followed it will greatly aid your Registrai 
General, and I know how anxious you are to help in this diffi- 
cult task of registration. I feel sure that when it is generall} 
understood there will be a willing and ready response from al 
the divisions. 

Committees. — In order to facilitate business, I give the 
names of those chairmen of committees with whom you are 
most likely to have correspondence: 

Education, Mrs. W. E. Merchant, Chatham, Va. 

Confederate Women's Relief Work, Mrs. Norman V. Ran- 
dolph, 218 Sheefer Street, Richmond, Va. 

Official Stationery, Mrs. W. S. Coleman, Juniper Terrace 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Southern Literature and Indorsement of Books, Mise 
Elizabeth Hanna, St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Cunningham Memorial, Mrs. Birdie A. Owen, Jackson 
Tenn. 

Jefferson Davis Highway, Miss Decca Lamar West, Waco 
Tex. 

Mrs. John C. Brown Memorial Peace Essay, Miss Mollii 
Kavanaugh, 712 Cedar Street, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Jefferson Davis Monument at Fairview, Ky., Mrs. Jacksii 
Daniel Thrash, Tarboro, N. C. 

World War Records, Mrs. J. A. Rountree, 3210 Cliff Road 
Birmingham, Ala. 

Maury Monument, Mrs. Frank Anthony Walke, 73 
Weston Avenue, Norfolk, Va. 

Lee Memorial Chapel, Mrs. Roy Weeks McKinney, Pa 
ducah, Ky. 

In Memoriam. — California has sustained a great loss in thi 
death of Mrs. Matthew Robertson, for many years Divisiot 
Parliamentarian and representative for the State on the Jef 
ferson Davis Highway Committee. Her work in aiding t< 
make the Division what it is to-day is known to most of us 
and we sympathize with the Division in its loss. 

I have just received the news from California of the death o 
our Honorary President, Mrs. William B. Prichard, the daugh 
ter of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, one of the pioneers of th 
U. D. C. work in California. She was a woman of grea 



Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 



73 



Dility and rare personality, and a devoted wife, mother, and 
iend. Her death removes one of the most distinguished 
embers of our organization. She was a devoted friend of 
line and I feel a personal sorrow and loss. 
Faithfully yours, Leonora Rogers Schuyler. 



U. D. D. NOTES. 

Division Correspondents for 1922. 

Alabama. — Mrs. B. T. Roberts, Clayton. 

Maryland. — Mrs. Preston Power, 2008 Maryland Ave., 

altimore. 
Missouri. — Miss Virginia Wilkinson, 8200 Troost Ave., 

iansas City. 

i New York. — Hattie H. Tupman (reappointed), Historian 
; ew York Division. 

Ohio. — Mrs. Albert S. Porter (reappointed), 1204 St. 
i hailes St., Lakewood, Cleveland. 

Children Chapters. — Mrs. W. E. Massey, Hot Springs, Ark., 
l very appreciative of her election to the office of Third Vice 

resident General and thereby Director General of Children 
Ljf the Confederacy and bespeaks the cooperation of the 

itire organization in this important department. She is 

suing a folder of information and suggestions for the year, 
.lease place it in the hands of your Chapter Director or some 

le interested. The aim of the year will be: "A Director in 
/ery State, a leader in every Chapter." Mrs. Massey an- 
. Dunces the following prizes and rules governing same: 

Five prizes will be given this year, with rules as follows: 

The Ricks Banner will be given for the Chapter of C. of C. 
mding in the best report at the general convention at Bir- 
uingham, Ala., November, 1922. 

The Bettie Marriot Whitehead Prize will be given to the 
'tate Directoi registering the greatest number of members 
uring this year. 

The Florence Goalder Faris Medal will be given the mem- 
' ! er of C. of C. writing the best essay on the subject: "The 
'rphan Brigade of Kentucky. " 

: The Eliza Jane Guinn Medal will be given the boy member 
f the C. of C. who writes the best essay on the subject: " Rob- 
i t E. Lee, the Boy. " 

The Arkansas Division Medal will be given the Chapter 
.irector who writes the best catechism of not more than one 
undred questions and answers on the origin and reason for 
:ie existence of the C. of C. 

Rules. — Each essay must be written on one side of the 
;aper. Typed if possible. 

The length of the essay shall be 1,500 words. 
, Two essays may be submitted from each State through the 
tate Director on each subject. Where there is no State 
director then Chapter may have this privilege. 

Each essay for the contest must reach me not later than 
eptember 1, 1922. 

Essays will be judged upon subject-matter, style, and 
eatness. 

Each essay must be signed with a fictitious name, and ac- 
ompanied by a sealed envelope on the outside of which is the 
ctitious name of the author and on the inside of which is 
he real name, the address and Chapter of the writer. 

No winner of an award can compete for it again till all the 
ther Chapters have had an opportunity of winning it. 

The material for the first ten programs will be found in the 
allowing books: "Boy Soldiers of the Confederacy," by 
usan Hull; "The Women of the Confederacy;" "The Im- 
lortal Six Hundred," by Murrey; and through the Confed- 
RATE Veteran itself. Order books from the Veteran. 



An Honor to the U. D. C. Educational Work. 

Mrs. W. C. N. Merchant, Chairman, reports that Fitzgerald 
Flournoy of Bay View, Va., who won in 1916 in competitive 
examination the U. D. C. scholarship in Washington and Lee 
University, was awarded on December 3, 1921, the Rhodes 
Scholarship for Virginia at Oxford, England, over sixteen candi- 
dates. TheU. D. C. is proudof thisandof Mr. Elournoy's rec- 
ords while holding their scholarship at Washington and Lee, 
where he at once ranked as an Al student and held that record 
until graduation. While there he won the State Intercollegiate 
Orator's Medal, two scholarships, the orator's medal offered 
by the Society of the Cincinnati in Virginia; and was elected 
to the leading fraternities; he was founder and editor of the 
humorous monthly at Washington and Lee, and served last 
summer as assistant sporting editor of the News Leader, 
Richmond, Va. Mr. Flournoy is now teaching English at 
Washington and Lee and is studying for an A.M. degree. He 
will take up his residence at Oxford October, 1922, for three 
years' study. 

Confederates at American Legion Convention. 

When the American Legion met in convention, in Kansas 
City last autumn the convention hall was filled to capacity, 
with twenty-five thousand legionaires and friends. John G. 
Emery, National Commander, presided, the invocation was 
by National Chaplain, John W. Inzer, of Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Vice President Coolidge made an address, then an address of 
welcome was made by Archibald A. Pearson, Adjutant Gen- 
eral Missiouri Division U. C. V., who had been a member of 
Forrest's Cavalry in 1861-1865. 

There was an interesting incident of the parade on Nov- 
ember 1, when thousands were in the line seven miles long. 
Both G. A. R. and U. C. V. had been invited to join in the 
parade, and there were seven Federal and three Confederate 
veterans in the line, in uniform. The three Confederates 
were Fielding Kenley, Captain Kennedy, and Archibald A. 
Pearson, and they were marching just behind the Washington, 
D. C, Division and in front of the Florida Division. The 
three beautiful Confederate uniforms and all that they repre- 
sented brought out such vociferous cheering along the line 
from the thousands of onlookers that at the first halt of their 
line, the of officers of the Washington Division rushed back, 
grabbed the arms of the three Confederates, saying: " Come 
on up to the front of our line." The Florida commanders 
grabbed them on the other side, saying: "O, no, we must 
have them to head our Division." Florida finally won and 
kept them at their head. These Confederate veterans had 
just returned from the Confederate reunion at Chattanooga. 

Mrs John P. Poe. 

It is with much regret we chronicle the death on November 
16, of Mrs. John P. Poe, in her eighty-second year. It will 
sadden the U. D. C. organization to know this ardent and 
pioneer worker of the U. D. C. has crossed the bar. For 
many years Mrs. Poe was a leading spirit in all Confederate 
affairs, for many years President of the Maryland Division, 
and for two years Vice President General. After she became 
too infirm for active service, she was made an "honorary" 
officer in every society — Honorary President of the Maryland 
Division; Honorary President of the Baltimore Chapter; 
Honorary President of the Children of the Confederacy of 
Maryland; and Regent of the Maryland Room of the Con- 
federate Museum at Richmond. In all these years her 
interest in Confederate work did not abate. 



74 



^opfederat^ l/eterai). 



DIVISION NOTES. 

Alabama. — The General Convention, United Daughters 
of the Confederacy, will be held in Birmingham, in 1922, this 
being the first general convention to be held in the State. 
Alabama has been unusually recognized by having three of 
its members honored at the last general convention with 
positions in the general organization: Mrs. J. A. Rountree 
reappointed General Chairman World War Records; Mrs. 
J. H. Crenshaw, of Montgomery, elected Custodian of Flags 
and Pennants; Miss Allie Garner, of Ozark, elected Corres- 
ponding Secretary General. Therefore it seems most fitting 
that Alabama should be chosen as the next place of meeting. 
The work of repainting the buildings of the Confederate 
Home at Mountain Creek, which have recently been repaired 
and improved, will soon be completed. The veterans in the 
Home, in a letter to the Montgomery Advertiser, thank the 
Alabama Division and others in the State who so generously 
contributed to their happy Christmas. The dining room 
was artistically decorated, presents bestowed on each inmate, 
and there was a wonderful Christmas turkey with all acces- 
sories, all of which brought up memories of the happy past. 
Louisiana. — The Louisiana Division is making great prog- 
ress toward the completion of the Gen. Alfred Mouton monu- 
ment, which is being erected in Lafayette, La., the home of 
the brave Southern general, and is looking forward to the 
unveiling of this monument with appropriate ceremonies on 
the birthday of General Mouton, February 18, 1922. Gen- 
eral Mouton was killed at the battle of Mansfield, La., in 
April, 1864, when but thirty-five years of age. It was at this 
time that Prince de Polignac achieved fame by assuming 
command of the forces and leading them to victory. The 
design committee composed of members of the Louisiana Divi- 
sion, met on November 30 and approved the inscription for 
the monument. 

Maryland. — At the State convention held on December 
7, the Maryland Division was honored by the pres- 
ence of Mrs. Livingston Rowe Schuyler, President Gen- 
eral U. D. C. This was her first official appearance since 
the general meeting at St. Louis. She made a favorable 
impression on the Daughters, who feel that a charming and 
capable woman will be in charge of our. beloved society for the 
coming year. Mrs. Schuyler made a brief address, installing 
the State President, Miss Georgia Bright, after which the 
reports from various committees were read. The invitation 
of Hagerstown, a small city in the Maryland mountains, to 
hold the annual convention there in 1922 was cordially 
accepted. 

Missouri. — During the general convention in St. Louis, the 
women of the Missouri Division presented Mrs. J. P. Higgins 
with a beautiful wrist watch in appreciation of her un- 
tiring efforts and splendid achievements during the two 
years she served as President of the Missouri Division. The 
Stonewall Jackson Chapter entertained December 5 with an 
informal tea and parcel post sale at the home of Mrs. D. L. 
Shumate. The affair was a great success both socially and 
financially. The John Marmaduke Chapter gave a breakfast 
at twelve o'clock at the Country Club for Mrs. S. C. Hunt, the 
newly elected President of the Missouri Division. A number 
of the State officeis and several former officers were present 
and responded to toasts. The dining room was decorated 
with Confederate flags, and the color scheme was red and 
white. There were sixty guests. The Independence Chap- 
ter helped to celebrate the one hundredth birthday anni- 
versary of Missouri by entering four cars in the Centennial 



parade in Kansas City, October 3. The cars, decorated in 
Confederate colors, added greatly to the beauty of the paracfe 



Ijtatartral §*parime ttt, 1. 1. <B. 

Motto: "Loyalty to the truth of Confederate History." 
Key word: "Preparedness." Flower: The rose. 

MRS. A. A. CAMPBELL, HISTORIAN GENERAL. 



U. D. C. PROGRAM FOR MARCH, 1922. 

The Boyhood of Robert E. Lee in Alexandria. 

Describe this historic town and its interesting associations. 



C. OF C. PROGRAM FOR MARCH, 1922. 
A Boy Soldier of the Confederacy, John Thompson 
Mason, of the "Shenandoah." 
Describe the cruise of the last ship that sailed under the 
Bonnie Blue Flag. 

UNITED DAUGHTERS OF THE CONFEDERACY. 
Prizes and Rules Governing Contests. 

1. The Mildred Rutherford Medal. For the best historical 
work done by small Divisions numbering less than ten Chap- 
ters. 

2. The Raines Banner. To the Division making the largest' 
collection of papers and historical records. 

3. Rose Loving Cup. For the best essay w r ritten by a Daugh- 
ter of the Confederacy on Sidney Lanier, his life and his poems. 

4. Anna Robinson Andrews Medal. For the best essay writ- 
ten by a Daughter of the Confederacy on the book, "The 
Women of the South in War Times." 

5. A Soldier' s Prize, $20. For the best essay written by a 
Daughter of the Confederacy on "Southern-Born Staff 
Officers in the World War," who they were and what they 
were able to accomplish. 

6. Roberts Medal. For the second best essay submitted in 
any contest. 

7. Youree Prize, $100. Awarded by the War Records Com- 
mittee to Division Directors on per cent and per capita basis. 

8. Hyde Medal. For the best essay written by a Daughter 
of the Confederacy on the subject "The Alabama." 

9. Orren Randolph Smith Medal. For the best essay written 
by a Daughter of the Confederacy on the subject "Causes 
of Secession. " 

10. Leonora St. George Rogers Schuyler Prize, $50. For the 
best essay written by a Daughter of the Confederacy on the 
subject "Lee at Lexington." 

11. The Carter Prize. A hundred dollar liberty bond to the 
Division purchasing the largest number of copies of "Truths 
of History" from Miss Mildred Rutherford, Athens, Ga. 
Price, 50 cents. 

Rules Governing Contest. 

1. Essays must not contain over 2,000 words. Number of 
words must be stated in top left-hand corner of first page. 

2. Essays must be typewritten, with fictitious signatures. 
Real name, Chapter, and address must be in sealed envelope, 
on outside of which is fictitious name only. 

3. Essays must be sent to State Historian, who will forward 
to Historian General by September 1, 1922. 

4. Essays on all subjects given may be submitted, but only 
two on each subject can be forwarded by State Historians. 



Qogfederat^ l/eterai?. 



75 



Confeberateb Southern /Iftemorial association 



A. McD. Wilson President General 

436 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Ga. 

is. C. B. Bryan First Vice President General 

Memphis, Tenn. 

Sue H. Walker Second Vice President General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

E. L. Merry Treasurer Genera I 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Daisy' M. L. Hodgson .... /?cfpn/:>?^ Secretary General 
7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

Mildred Rutherford Historian General 

Athens, Ga. 
Bryan W. Collier.. Corresponding Secretary General 
College Park, Ga. 

Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate General 

1045 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 

Belle Allen Ross Auditor General 

Montgomery, Ala. 

Giles B. Cooke Chaplain General 

Mathews, Va. 




STATE PRESIDENTS 

Alabama — Montgomery Mrs. R. P. Dexter 

Arkansas — Fayetteville Mrs. J. Garside Welch 

Florida — Pensacola Mrs. Horace L. Simpson 

Georgia— Atlanta Mrs. William A. Wright 

Kentucky" — Bowling Green Missjeannie Blackburn 

Louisiana — Xew Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Mississippi — Vicksburg Mrs. E. C. Carroll 

Missouri— St. Louis Mrs. G. K. Warner 

NoktiiCarolina — Ashville Mrs. J.J. Yates 

Oklahoma— Tulsa Mrs. W. H. Cro\vd»r 

South Carolina — Charleston Mrs. S. Cary Beck with 

Tennessee— Memphis Mrs. Charles W. Frazer 

Texas— Houston Mrs. Mary E. Bryan 

Virginia— Front Royal Mrs. S. M. Pavis-Roy 

West Virginia— Huntington Mrs. Thos. H. Harvey 



SUGGESTIONS FOR STATE CONFERENCES. 

My Dear Co-Workers: In planning our work for the new 

ir there are suggestions to which we again call your atten- 

n and beg your consideration and cooperation. No work 

1 be greater than our plan for "big things" and better 

vice. That we shall be in our own work an example that 

til so inspire others as to renew afresh and to reconsecrate 

( : : best effort in stabilizing and maintaining every moment 

litt has for its object the advancement of Southern history 

i traditions is the goal toward which every heart loyal to 

1 cause is striving. We are pressing forward, be it ever so 

i wly, but making gradual improvement and advancement, 

plich must be, for lethargy means death to any cause. 

Then let us be up and doing, that we may not fail in our 
1 ponsibility, and, in falling, crush the spirit of others who 
Ttch our footsteps for guidance. 

I \ work too long delayed has been the calling of State con- 
i ences. Last year Oklahoma, with Mrs. W. H. Crowder as 
t ': efficient State President, held the first State conference 
i'Dur memorial work, and, while but a beginning, it marked 
; lecided step forward, for nothing so inspires as getting to- 
If.her for comparison of work and suggestive planning. 

^et us begin the new year with plans for State conferences 
:si directors in every State where six or more associations 
.jfcst, and plan this getting together, and we shall, if this be 
fine, have reports for our general convention that tell to the 
^ 'Id we have held sacred the work committed to our hands. 

Again Our Historical Work. 

)ur most efficient and inspiring Historian General, Miss 

■ 1 Idred Rutherford, has prepared an open letter which she 
1 >es to send to every association, and the first request that 
13 ir President General makes in the new year is that every 
E.ociation elect, or have the President of the association ap- 

:'mt, a Historian. 

,1 iVe have long been too negligent of this branch of our 
y 'k, and if you will again refer to your constitution and by- 
1 s you will find that Article II, Section 1, puts historical 
1 'k second only to memorial work. So let me urge with all 
1 power to impress you that you make Miss Rutherford's 
c >eal your earnest consideration at your very first meeting 
1 I send to her by May 1 the slip to be detached and filled out, 
' ause, unless you do this, your Historian General will neces- 
s ly go to the convention embarrassed by our failure to co- 

"t rate and help her in every way. 

, ( 'he Allan Seegar Library has already placed upon its 
s Ives more than a hundred volumes of Southern history and 

' 1 'ature through the unselfish, earnest effort of Mrs. Oswell 



Eve, of Augusta, Ga., and we are not yet willing to stop in 
this good work. Send any other suitable volumes to Mrs. 
Eve, so that you may have it to report at the convention. 

The Gold Bar of Honor. 

Will not each association appoint a chairman to search out 
the dear Confederate mothers and let the few remaining ones 
have the joy of knowing that they and their sacrifices have 
not been forgotten? Make just one more splendid campaign 
in search of them. Just four or five years longer and scarcely 
one will be left. Do this now ere it is too late, and send the 
names to Mrs. Frank D. Tracy, Chairman, Pensacola, Fla. 

Again let me urge you to take up the work and organize 
Junior Memorial Associations. Do you realize that only 
through the younger generations can any cause be perpetu- 
ated? They are our hope! 

Offical Stationery. 

We feel that we are indeed fortunate in having added to our 
official family Mrs. Nathan Bedford Forrest as chairman of 
stationery, and under her splendid ability is being prepared 
some beautiful stationery with the C. S. M. A. insignia in 
gold and colors, also some in plain black lettering. Those de- 
siring this official stationery should write to Mrs. Nathan 
Bedford Forrest, 25 Avery Drive, Atlanta, Ga., for prices, 
stating amount desired. 

Reunion and Convention. 

Gen. Julien S. Carr, Commander in Chief U. C. V., 
has announced the reunion date as set for June 20, so that 
our convention, which comes on the day preceding the re- 
union, will begin June 19, at four o'clock in the afternoon, 
with welcome meeting. Details as to place of headquarters 
have not been officially announced, but due notice will be 
given, and as the time is not long you are urged to begin the 
new year with plans for a large attendance at Richmond. 

Let every association prove itself alive and abreast of the 
times. God helps those who help themselves, so let us prove 
to the world that we are not unmindful of duty, and that in 
God we trust and press forward, doing our whole duty and 
bearing in mind ever our matchless motto, "Lord God of 
Hosts, be with us yet — Lest we forget"; and in the early 
hours of the new year 1922, with ineffaceable letters write 
"Success," for our beloved cause, because we love it and are 
willing to work for it! 

With loving appreciation of all your splendid effort in the 
past and every good wish for you in the future, I am, 

Faithfully yours, Mrs. A. McD. Wilson, 

President General, C. S. M. A. 



■■B 



MB 



76 



^opfederat^ l/eterai) 



ASSOCIATION NOTES. 



BY LOLLIE BELLE WYLIE. 



The memorial women will be interested in the announce- 
ment that a new volume of "Representative Women of the 
South" is nearly ready for press. This book will be edited, as 
was the first, by Mrs. Bryan Wells Collier, of College Park, 
Ga., who has in hand splendid material to make this, the sec- 
ond of the series of volumes, a success. The first volume was 
received with gratitude by the public, who recognized in the 
work one of great value and permanent interest. Mrs. Col- 
lier hopes to have her book in the hands of the publisher early 
in the spring. Any one interested in the preservation of his- 
torical records of the women of their family will receive in- 
formation if they will write to Mrs. Collier at College Park. 
This volume, like its predecessor, will contain sketches and 
pictures of distinguished women of the South at various pe- 
riods of its history. 

A letter of acknowledgment to Mrs. Oswell Eve, of Augusta, 
Ga., has been received by her from the acting librarian 
of the American Library in Paris, concerning the books sent 
for the Allan Seegar Library by Mrs. Eve as a gift from the 
C. S. M. A. The letter follows: 

"On behalf of the Board of Trustees of the American 
Library in Paris, Inc., I wish to thank your Association for the 
most generous gift of books on the Southern States. These 
books are a very welcome addition to our library, and the 
Trustees are very appreciative of your interest and generosity. 

"The books arrived in very good condition, and I have 
checked them up with the list that you sent. With renewed 
thanks, I beg to remain, sincerely yours, Alida M. Stephens, 
Acting Librarian." 

The Board of Trustees of this library are Prof. J. Mark 
Baldwin, James R. Barbour, Walter V. R. Berry, the Rev. 
S.4V. Blunt, Prof. Charles Cestre, Comtesse de Chambrun, 
Dr. Edmund L. Gros, H. G. Mackie, Salomon Reinach, 
Charles L. Seegar, Alexander M. Thackara, Evelyn Toulmin, 
Col. Cabot Ward, and Mrs. Edith Wharton. The secretary 
and librarian is W. N. C. Carlton, L.H.D. 

It is very important that the best Southern literature 
should be sent to this library, for its educational value can 
scarcely be estimated. 

Nothing stimulates interest in any activity as much as an 
intimate knowledge of what some one in the same activity is 
doing, and I would like to suggest that the president of every 
Memorial Association sees to it that frequent reports of the 
work of the association is sent to the President General, informa- 
tion as to work accomplished, planned, and under way, 
names of new members and their work. This would encourage 
other organizations to keep up, and do similar work. 



THE MATTHEW FONTAINE MAURY MEMORIAL. 

BY MRS. E. E. MOFFETT, PRESIDENT OF THE MAURY ASSOCIATION, 
RICHMOND, VA. 

After several years of consideration by the United Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy, it was decided at the last annual 
convention to contribute five thousand dollars toward a 
monument to Matthew Fontaine Maury, the great American 
scientist and native of the South. The Maury Association 
appreciates greatly this very kind act, believing that it is the 
beginning of the amount desired from the U. D. C. toward the 
sixty-thousand-dollar goal set as cost of a suitable monument. 

It was in Richmond, the once capital of the Southern 
Confederacy, where Maury gave his best offering, his inven- 
tive brain. 



May the Association hope that the amount of twenty-fiv< 
cents each, or approximately that sum, be contributed by th< 
sixty-five thousand members of this great organizatior 
throughout its boundaries? The Association has now in banl 
fifteen thousand dollars toward the monument, which is bear 
!ng six percent interest, secured by first mortgage on rea - 
estate, this amount contributed by the legislative and b' 
citizens of Virginia. This monument is to stand in evideno 
of the South's loyalty to one of its greatest citizens a monu 
ment in keeping with those of other great heroes that nov 
grace Monument Avenue in Richmond. 



THE ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS INSTITUTE. 

BY MRS. CLEM G. MOORE, PRESIDENT ALEX STEPHENS CHAPTE 
U. D. C, CRAWFORDVILLE. GA. 

This Memorial Institute was first advocated by the Ste 
phens Monumental Association, which was organized soon afte 
the death of Governor Stephens, in 1883. The Associatio 
had three objects in view: First, to purchase Liberty Hal 
the home of Mr. Stephens; second, the erection of a suitabl 
monument to Mr. Stephens; third, the establishment c 
Stephens Memorial College. 

Liberty Hall was purchased and paid for, also a handsom 
granite monument surmounted by a splendid Italian marbl 
statue of Mr. Stephens, which is a true likeness of the Vic 
President of the Confederacy. The village school was merge 
into the Stephens High School, and has borne a signal reput; 
tion as such. 

The Daughters of the Confederacy felt that a permaner 
and larger memorial to Mr. Stephens should be establishec 
and at the State Convention at Griffin, in October 1910, it yw 
suggested that the Georgia Division, U. D. C. establish 
memorial endowment fund for the Alexander H. Stepher 
Institute to aid in educating poor boys and girls. 

At the convention in Athens in October, 1912, this memori, 
school fund was again urged, but while the plan was approve 
and indorsed by the convention, it was not formally adopte' 
Then at the convention in Moultrie, Ga. October, 1913, Judj 
Horace M. Holden, of Athens, a charter member of tl 
Stephens Monumental Association, by request presented tl 
purpose and plan of the Alexander Stephens Memorial Inst 
tute to the convention, making a strong appeal for such 
useful, benevolent memorial. The convention unanimous 1 
voted to take up this memorial endowment work, and appoitul 
ed a committee to aid in the work. 

This committee has worked faithfully to establish tnl 
memorial to the Great Commoner and Vice President of til 
Confederacy, who did so much in educating poor boys. Til 
work was much retarded by the World War and subseque * 
conditions, but it is steadily progressing, and a neat sum is I 
bank at interest on the Memorial Fund. 

In 1915, the Georgia legislature passed an act, known M 
the Beazley bill, authorizing the Stephens High School \i 
become a branch of the University of Georgia. The passali 
of this bill caused great rejoicing in the U. D. C. ranks. J ■ 
more fitting memorial could be built to a man more wort! | 
to be honored by the people whom he loved and served so we J 

By aiding in this work patriotic Southerners will aid in I 
benevolent and perpetual memorial to one of the noblest ai I 
most unselfish men America has ever known. Many visitc 
from many States visit Liberty Hall annually to pay tribu 
to the life and memory of Alexander H. Stephens, whose nar 
and fame will never die. 

Let Southern people make possible and permanent the e 
dowment fund of the Alexander H. Stephens Institute. 



f 



Confederate Ueteran. 



77 



ONS OF CONFEDERATE VETERANS. 

Organized in July, 1S96, at Richmond, Va. 



] 



OFFICERS, iQiq-so. 



mmander in Chief Judge Edgar Scurry 

jutant in Chief Carl Hinton 

itor. J. R. Price 1205 ISth St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

\ddress all communications to this department to the Editor.] 
J 

JMMANDER LON A. SMITH, TEXAS DIVISION, 

Lon Smith is a splendid example of the younger South, 
e loves the history and traditions of his people. His father 
ught under Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston to the fatal but 
; arious field of Shiloh, then followed the fortunes of the Stars 
id Bars under Gen. Lawrence Sullivan Ross to the close of 
e war. His maternal grandmother was a cousin to Gen. 
ihn B. Gordon, one of the biggest, bravest, and best men 
1 the South. 

■ Lon Smith is State Commander of the Sons of Confederate 

eterans for Texas and is serving his second term in this 

pacity. He was first appointed to this position of honor 

'id trust by Nathan Bedford Forrest, then Commander in 

hief, Sons of Confederate Veterans. He was reappointed by 

ldge Edward Scurry, wh6 is now Commander in Chief. 

" Commander Smith is a true friend to the Veterans of the 

onfederacy. As Comptroller of Public Accounts, he has 

'iany opportunities to prove his loyalty to the "heroes in 

J 'ay. " His kindness and tenderness in handling the pension 

uestion for these battle-scarred heroes is a daily demonstration 

E his gentle devotion and filial love for them. They all know 

f his untiring efforts for them, and they are for him to a man. 




COMMANDER LON A. SMITH. 



Commander Smith is putting forth heroic efforts to perfect 
an organization of Sons of Confederate Veterans in every 
county in Texas. He has appointed a Brigade Commander 
for each of the sixteen brigades in Texas, and hopes to carry 
the largest delegation of Sons of Confederate Veterans of any 
Southern State to the reunion of Veterans and Sons to be held 
in Richmond, Va., June 20-22, this year. He asks the sup- 
port of all Veterans, Sons, and Daughters in his efforts to 
attain this most laudable ambition. 

He is ever ready to respond to any call from his people for 
any service he can render and does not defer to any man in 
his loyalty and devotion to the principles for which the 
Southern soldier contended and which will ever abide in the 
true Southern heart, because these principles are eternal 
truths. 

PENSIONS FOR FAITHFUL NEGROES. 

BY COMMANDER J. F. J. CALDWELL, CAMP JAMES D. NANCE, 
U. C. V., NEWBERRY, S. C. 

In providing for pensions to negroes who served faithfully 
during the war of secession, the States of Tennessee and 
Mississippi have discharged a duty incumbent on every State 
embraced in the Confederate States of America. The other 
States are blameworthy for their neglect to do likewise. 
I reproach myself for my inactivity; for I had personal 
knowledge of negroes serving with the Army of Northern 
Virginia who not only performed their menial tasks with 
fidelity, but also risked their lives for their masters or em- 
ployers. One of these, a hired free negro, insisted on ac- 
companying me in the battle of Gettysburg; and I had, 
literally, to drive him back. And after I was shot down, he 
was the first man to come to me, and that while rifle balls were 
still humming around. He, however, needs no pension, for 
he died several years ago. 

Col. M. M. Buford, of South Carolina, who served under 
Hampton, Stuart, and Lee, was one of the first persons I 
know of to urge this provision for negroes by articles in the 
newspapers. I am sorry to say that we still have it not in 
South Carolina. A bill providing for it was passed by our 
State Senate, last winter, but did not reach a vote in the House 
of Representatives. We are confident of the passage of the 
measure at the next term, which begins in January. 

Such pensions will cost little; for very few of those faithful 
servants survive. And it is a duty which we should dis- 
charge without further delay. 

In renewing his subscription, Hon. Pat Henry, of Brandon, 
Miss., wrote: "I feel very much gratified that the Veteran 
is sustaining itself and its reputation, and trust that it may 
increase in circulation until it reaches every Southern home, 
carrying the true story of our cause as written by participants 
of those glorious days of chivalry and suffering unequaled by 
any other soldiers of any age, ancient or modern. It should 
stimulate the youth of the country while it gratifies the old 
'vet,' coming to him monthly like a benison. Long live the 
Veteran, the mouthpiece and defender of our cause, which 
was not lost, but whose principles are accepted by the world 
and acknowledged even by those who were then our ene- 
mies. " 

J. H. Bloodworth, of Mclntyre, Ga., now in his eighty-first 
year, served with Company F, 3rd Georgia Regiment, Wright's 
Brigade, and went through the war, surrendering at Appomat- 
tox. He says he has a piece of that famous apple tree. 



78 



Qoqfederat^ l/eteraij. 



HOW IT STARTED. 

(Continued from page 65.) 

house. Little Rube was killed by my side at the battle of 
Kernstown, Va., where our men killed the Federal General 
Mulligan and routed his army. He lost his life by exposing 
himself unnecessarily and contrary to orders. He was a 
brave boy and loved the excitement of battle, but was heed- 
less. He had run away from his widowed mother and come 
to us when only fourteen years old. 



"THE WOMEN OF THE SOUTH IN WAR TIMES." 

The Managing Editor reports that but few U. D. C. Chap- 
ter meetings have been held since the general letter sent out by 
the President General inclosing the new propostion secured 
through Mr. Norman by the Managing Editor. Conse- 
quently few orders have been received, a condition which, no 
doubt, will be very markedly remedied in the next few weeks. 

Mrs. R. Philip Holt, Chairman of the Publicity Commit- 
tee, will soon be taking charge of the general campaign. 

A part of the publicity fund voted by the general conven- 
tion at St. Louis has been already used in sending out copies 
of the books to all the State libraries which have not yet re- 
ceived copies. In addition to this some fifty review copies 
were sent to Southern and Western newspapers. It would be 
a fine thing to have all editorial offices supplied with a copy 
of this book, and it would tend to prevent the repetition of 
many common errors in regard to the history of our country. 

A contribution of SI was received from the Fitzhugh Lee 
Chapter, Evansville, Ind., for publicity work, a contribution 
that was for some weeks delayed in transmission through the 
former chairman. The largest orders for the competition for 
the new year have come in from West Virginia and Alabama. 

Particularly would the Managing Editor call the attention 
of all Chapters to the extremely interesting and attractively 
printed Yearbook of the Sidney Lanier Chapter at Alexander 
City, Ala., of which Mrs. A. L. Harlan is President. Begin- 
ning October 11, the program calls for one or more selections 
from "The Women of the South in War Times" for every 
month. For example, on October 13, three members under- 
take respective^' the Foreword, "The Genius of the Southern 
Women," and "The War Time Experiences of Elizabeth War- 
ing Duckett," to which are added special personal sidelights 
on Mrs. Duckett's narrative contributed by a fourth member. 

It is interesting to give a single program from the Year- 
Book, namely — that for February 14 — which is as follows: 

"Back of every noble life there are principles which have 
fashioned it. " 

Roll call, Noted Alabama Women of the Confederacy. 

Last Song in a Burning Home. Mrs. S. P. Adams. 

A Woman's Rebuke and an American Classic. Mrs. N. S. 
Walker. 

Glen Welby Saved. Mrs. C. C. Adams. 

"Gott Iss Blayed Oudt." Mrs. Howell. 

Capture of a Virginia Lady. Mrs. Henderson. 

Reading: "My Suit of Confederate Gray." Miss Sadie 
Gross. 

J. R. Balbridge, of Nelsonville, Mo., writes that he belonged 
to the 3d Missouri Battery, and he would like to hear from 
any other survivors of that command. He was in the serv- 
ice four years, never surrendered, was never paroled, and nev- 
er took the oath. He says he will take the Veteran as long 
as he lives. 



NEW BOOK. 
For Maryland's Honor. By Lloyd Tilghman Everett. 

While this book deals with Maryland's history in the Wai 
between the States, it will be of interest generally in that i i 
brings in characters from other sections in some attractiv< 
personalities introduced. It is a story of love and war, o 
daring deeds and "impetuous wooing" between fights and 
across the lines; and while some blunt truths of history are pre- 
sented, the story is written in a strain of good humor — and it 
has the unusual feature of having no villain of either raceJ 
sex, or section to show up. 

Mr. Everett is one of the young writers of the present, buii 
is widely known through his extensive magazine and news 
paper articles and also as a lecturer in his chosen field of his 
torical research, political and institutional. Some of his.ar 
tides have appeared in the Veteran, so he is well known tc 
its readers. He is the son of a veteran of the sixties and him- 
self a veteran of the war with Spain. A Marylander by birth 
he writes as one familiar alike with the facts of Maryland's his 
tory during the stirring period in question and with the tern-, 
perament and habits of thought of the people of his State 
and as one personally acquainted with the various scenes o 
action presented in the story — Baltimore, the "Eastern 
Shore," the upland country about Frederick and Harper'; 
Ferry, the Shenandoah Valley, and Northern Virginia. Wha 
more beautiful section of country or one more abounding ir 
interest could form the scene of action for a story? There v. 
careful regard to accuracy in the facts of history brought out 
but the purely historical purpose is not allowed to interfen 
with the course of the narrative as a story of life and love 
and action. 

The book is sold at $2 net. Published by the Christophei 
Publishing House, Boston, Mass. 



HISTORIC BEAUVOIR. 

A beautiful booklet giving the history of Beauvoir, "thi 
last earthly home of Jefferson Davis," now the home of Mis 
sissippi veterans of the Confederacy, has been gotten out b? 
the Daughters of the Confederacy of Mississippi, "designee 
and edited" by Mrs. Wilbur Moore Jones, State Historian o 
the Mississippi Division. It is dedicated to Mrs. A. McC 
Kimbrough, "whose strength of mind, greatness of heart, ant 
nobility of purpose have made her life a benediction tt 
Beauvoir," and a picture of Mrs. Kimbrough is one of thi 
illustrations. There are many views of the historic old placi 
and of things connected with it, pictures of the Davis family 
of the furnishings of Beauvoir, prized relics of the departet 
chieftain, thirty-two illustrations in all, printed on handsorm 
paper. And with all this is given a history of the old place a; 
it came into the possession of Mr. Davis and down to tht 
present as the home of men who fought to uphold the Confed 
erate government. Much of interest concerning the Davii 
family and Beauvoir is given in this volume of 114 pages, it; 
handsome paper cover showing the Confederate flag embosset 
in colors. It is a volume to be prized for the beautiful work 
manship as well as for its historic value. It is sold at §2, ant 
the proceeds will make up a fund for the benefit of Beauvoir 
Orders should be sent to Mrs. W. M. Jones, Hattiesburg 
Miss., who says, "if not pleased, money back;" but you wil 
be pleased to have it and to contribute in this way towart I 
the upkeep of the old home of "Jefferson Davis, only Presi 
dent of the Confederacy." 



Qopfederat^ l/eterar?. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY IN THE INTEREST OF CONFEDERATE ASSOCIATIONS AND KINDRED TOPICS. 



ntered as second -class matter at the post office at Nashville, Tenn. 
under act of March 3, 1S79. 

cceptance of mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec 
tion 1 103, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 19*8. 
ablished by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash 
ville. Tenn. 




OFFICTALLT REPRE. -ENTS ; 
United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Sons of Veterans and Other Organizations, 

Confederated Southern Memorial Association^ 



Though men deserve, thev may not win, success; 

The brave will honor the brave, vanquished none the less. 



*Sk copy™ Sra. } Vol. XXX. NASHVILLE, TENN., MARCH 1922. 



No. 3. 



8. A. CUNNINGHAM, 

FOUNDBR. 



WHEN BUT SIX ARE LEFT. 

BY W. E. DOYLE, TEAGUE, TEX. 

In "Some Incidents of Army Life," published in the 
iTERAN for February, comrade Theodore Hartman, refer- 
ig to the Veteran, says: "I find so many good things in it 

do not want to die." By this I am reminded of a statement 

.ide by George W. Abbott, of Company F, Orr's South 
irolina Rifles, who said: 

"During the war I was not sick, not wounded, did not miss 
"oil call, and was in all the battles in Virginia and Maryland 
>m Gaines's Mill to the last night in the trenches at Peters- 
rg — save one — and yet I never saw but one battle — the 
ttle of Gettysburg. There our regiment was detailed to 
ard prisoners, and, therefore, I saw that battle. In all the 
her battles I saw nothing but what was immediately in front 
me. 

"I want to live to be one of six of the last surviving soldiers 
the Confederate armies, and then I want to make a fortune 

,■ exhibiting them throughout America and Europe as the 
mnant of the best soldiers of which the world's annals give 

| account." 

Think of it. When but six soldisrs of the Confederate 
mies are left, and they should be exhibited as suggested, 
)uld not the lovers of truthful history and of real soldier 
e pay liberally to see them? 
The night that Petersburg was evacuated a few soldiers 

' d to be left in the trenches to keep up an occasional firing 
at the enemy might not be apprised of the evacuation, 
imrade Abbott was one of those, and he was captured next 
orning. It was sad that fate decreed that such a soldier as 
should not end his service at Appomattox. 
George W. Abbott was reared in the same neighborhood as 
/self in South Carolina. He came to Texas in the fall of 
65, and made as good a citizen as he was a soldier, but did 
t live to realize his fond wish. He died in Parker 
mnty, Tex., about two years ago. 

It is said that a Virginia soldier was wounded in the head 

Second Manassas, a piece of bone pressing on his brain, and 

remembered nothing till about twenty years later, when 

operation was performed, the bone raised from the brain, 



and he immediately exclaimed: "The army was at Manassas 
yesterday; where is it to-day?" How appropriate is that 
question now. Where is the army to-day? Soon but six 
will be left, but the story of the Confederate armies will make 
the brightest pages of history as long as history is read. 

Of all who write for the Veteran, Dr. McNeilly's articles 
are more interesting to me. May the Lord spare him to 
write for many years. 



SEIZURE OF NORTH CAROLINA FORTS. 

Gen. Julian S. Carr, Commander in Chief, U. C. V., calls 
attention to the following: 

"In the Confederate Veteran for October, 1921, in an 
article by Clara Dargan MacLean, of Tampa, Fla., this state- 
ment is made: 

'"After Governor Ellis of North Carolina had taken the 
forts on the coast, he gave them up again and apologized. 
Afterwards he came to his senses and sent word to Governor 
Pickens to assist him with guns and ammunition to retake 
them. By daybreak of the following morning 3,000 pounds of 
powder were there and the forts were seized and occupied.' 

"The facts are these: Governor Ellis took charge of the 
forts around Wilmington, January 10, 1861, whereas North 
Carolina did not secede from the Union until May 20, four 
months and ten days after the seizure of the forts by Governor 
Ellis. By reason of the fact that North Carolina had not 
seceded, Governor Ellis had to return the fortifications, but 
he did not at any time call upon the Governor of South Caro- 
lina for any help. He had plenty of men and ammunition 
when the forts were retaken on April 16." 



R. T. C. Robinson, of Range, Ala., writes: "As I know that 
the object of the Veteran is to record true history of the War 
between the States, I want to correct a mistake in the sketch 
of Major Milner in the January number where it is stated that 
the 17th and 33rd Alabama Regiments were consolidated, 
when it should have been the 16th and 33rd. At the consoli- 
dation of Johnston's Army at Greensboro, N. C, a few days 
before the surrender, the 1st, 16th, 33rd, and 45th Alabama 
Regiments were consolidated and surrendered as the 1st Ala- 
bama Regiment .... I was a private of Company D, 
45th Alabama." 



84 



Qonfederat:^ 1/eteran. 



Qopfederat^ l/eteran. 

S. A. CUNNINGHAM, Founder. 
Office; Methodist Publishing House Building, Nashville, Tenn. 

All who approve the principles of this publication and realize its benefits as 
an organ for Associations throughout the South are requested to commend 
its patronage and to cooperate in extending its circulation. Let each one be 
constantly diligent. 



TENNESSEE SOLDIERS OF THE CONFEDERACY. 

The State of Tennessee has at last undertaken the im- 
portant work of collecting and compiling the records of her 
sons who have fought in the wars of this country, this work to 
be carried on by the State Historical Commission, with the 
State Librarian, John Trot wood Moore, as chairman. In 
this number of the Veteran there is an advertisement calling 
attention to this work in connection with veterans of the War 
between the States, and all survivors are asked to communi- 
cate with the chairman at -once — that is, those who have not 
already done so. The effort is to secure first hand information 
of their service, and, with our veterans passing on so rapidly, 
it is imperative that this be done at once. So don't fail to 
write to Mr. Moore of your service as a Confederate soldier of 
Tennessee, and also furnish muster roll of your company if 
possible. 

The chairman also asks that Confederate veterans of any 
State will write to him of any Tennesseeans they may have 
known or been associated with during the War between the 
States, or of any event or circumstance that might prove of 
interest in this record. 



A FAITHFUL SERVANT. 

In reporting the death of Capt. John J. Bradford, his niece 
wrote of an incident connected with his army life which 
illustrates the fidelity of the old-time slave. Like all the young 
men of his time, Captain Bradford had a body servant, Berry, 
who had followed him all during the war. Realizing that 
Port Gibson was soon to fall, and that Berry would be im- 
pressed into the Yankee service, Captain Bradford told Berry 
to escape and make his way back home, intrusting him with a 
handsome gold watch to be given to Captain Bradford's 
mother. For three weeks faithful Berry dodged and hid, 
swimming creeks and crossing swamps by night. At last he 
reached home, worn out and emaciated. Seeing Mrs. 
Bradford sitting on the gallery, he staggered up the steps and 
laid the watch in her lap, saying: "Here, Mistis, is Mars 
John's watch, an' Ise come home to die." Mrs. Bradford at 
once had faithful Berry placed in one of her rooms in the "big 
house" and nursed and cared for him until the end — only a 
few days later. This incident also illustrates the attachment 
of the owner for the slave. 

After the war Captain Bradford continued the practice of 
law in Biloxi and Bay St. Louis, Miss., becoming clerk of the 
court of Hancock County, then embracing Harrison County. 
It was then that he began to realize the value of Mississippi 
timbered lands, buying much of it at ten cents an acre, and 
at one time owning thirty thousand acres. He told a friend 
whom he tried to interest in this idea that "these Yankee 
soldiers have tramped over Mississippi land, they know how 
good it is, and they will go home and tell their friends; and it 
won't be any time before they will be flocking down here to 
buy." The value of his foresight was realized when Michigan 
lumber men, having exhausted their own forests, began to 
cast longing eyes upon Mississippipine. 



IN TRIBUTE. 

The death of Mrs. Margaret Johnston Prichard, Honorary 
President U. D. C, on the morning of January 5, 1922, at her 
home in San Francisco, occasioned widespread sorrow. She 
was the daughter of General Albert Sidney Johnston and the 
widow of a gallant Confederate soldier, Capt. William B. 
Prichard, who took part in Pickett's charge at Gettysburg. 

In reporting her death, Mrs. J. P. Massie, President of the 
Albert Sidney Johnston Chapter U. D. C, of San Francisco, 
writes: "Though her lineage was the best of the old South, it 
was for her own rare qualities that she was so dearly beloved. 
Her going is a great loss to the Daughters of the Confederacy 
out here, for her whole heart was in the work and her zeal 
never flagged. Her place can never be filled, and O, how we 
shall miss her! She is survived by an only child, Miss Elsie 
Johnston Prichard. The great reaper is rapidly gathering in 
this generation, taking with them the ideals and traditions 
of a great and beautiful past." 

Another beloved Daughter of the Confederacy passed into 
her reward when Mrs. Clementine Watson Boles, of Fayette- 
ville, Ark., died in October, 1921. She was born in Virginia, 
of a long line of patriots, and was a representative woman of 
the South in culture, spirit, and charm. As a member of the 
Southern Memorial Association in Arkansas, she was a mov- 
ing spirit in the work of gathering the scattered Southern 
dead and giving them proper interment, and a monument now 
stands in tribute to their memory. She was a charter member 
of the Mildred Lee Chapter U. D. C, of Fayetteville, a di- 
rector in the Jefferson Davis Monument Association of Arkan- 
sas, and also served as a director on the Arlington Monument 
Association. Though she is now lost to earth, her work lives 
after her. 



DADEVILLE CHAPTER YEARBOOK. 

The Dadeville, Ala., Chapter U. D. C, has sent out a 
splendid "Yearbook" for 1921-1922, the year beginning in 
September. This is a young Chapter, only eight years old, 
and Mrs. W. W. Hicks, President, writes: "With one excep- 
tion, we have gotten out a yearbook every year. We take 
much pride in this, striving to make each one better than the 
one preceding. This year we chose as the subject of the year's 
work 'The Women of the Confederacy,' selecting the book, 
' Women of the South in War Times, ' as the basis of our work. 
Other selections were taken from the Confederate Veteran 
and the Historian's scrapbook, with here and there an original 
paper. The idea was original with us; so far as we knew, no 
Chapter of any Division has devoted an entire year to the 
'Women of the Confederacy.' Much time and thought were 
devoted to making each program interesting and instructive. 
So well did we succeed in this that the attention of other 
Chapters was drawn to our 'Yearbook,' and some even paid 
us the flattering compliment of drawing largely from ours in 
formulating their own." 

MONUMENT TO COLONEL DREUX. 

From W. 0. Hart, of New Orleans, it is learned that the 
cornerstone of the monument to Colonel Dreux was laid on 
Sunday, November 20, 1921, in Ross Hill Park, New Orleans, 
and the monument, which will be a shaft about twelve feet 
high and surmounted by a bust of Colonel Dreux, will be 
unveiled on April 11, 1922, the sixty-first anniversary of his 
departure from New Orleans for the front. Camp Beauregard 
No. 130, Sons of Confederate Veterans, of New Orleans, 
has arranged to fly the Confederate flag, the Stars and Bars, 
every day on the site of the monument until the monument 
is unveiled. 






Qoijfederac^ tfeterai). 



85 



REAL AMERICANISM. 

Princeton Honors Blue and Gray Heroes. 

A memorial to sixty-two Princeton men who were killed 
uring the Civil War has been completed by the university 
jthorities, with no distinction between the men who served 
li the Confederate and those who served in the Union armies. 
3 far as is known, this is the first time that the names of the 
.ildier dead have been set down alphabetically without re- 
ird for the uniform the men wore. Strangely enough, there 
•e thirty-one from each side. 

It is probable that more sons of Old Nassau were killed 
uring the struggle, but the destruction of records has made 
almost impossible to obtain a strictly accurate list. 
The names have been inscribed in the war memorial room 
. Nassau Hall on the west marble panel. On the south side 
f the room, which is done completely in white marble, are the 
imes of the 144 Princeton men who were killed in the World 
;/ar, and on the east side is a panel for the names of those who 
ied in the Revolution. Owing to the difficulty in collecting 
tata on the heroes of this war, the work is progressing slowly 
ad will not be finished for some time. 

Forty-six of the men whose names appear on the Civil War 
its were officers, fifteen were privates, and one was a surgeon, 
ivided as follows: Two Confederate brigadier generals, one 
nion adjutant general, five Union and two Confederate 
Lionels, three Union lieutenant colonels, ten Confederate and 
i ght Union captains, seven Confederate and four Union 
'eutenants, one Union adjutant, one Union surgeon, two Con- 
federate and one Union sergeants, and seven Union and eight 
' onfederate privates. — The Packet. 

In sending this account of the memorial tablet, John Wat- 
Dn writes from Princeton, N. J., as follows: 
, "The memorial tablet is placed in Nassau Hall, the oldest 
f the university buildings, and where the Continental Con- 
ress met in the summer of 1783. The tablet is in memory of 
.ie Princeton alumni who were killed in the War between the 
tates, and their names appear in alphabetical order without 
nything to indicate whether they served the Union or the 
Confederacy. It would be a handsome thing to have it that 
,'ay anywhere. But it is altogether unusual to find such a 
.lemorial tablet in a Northern State. It might be said that 
, 'me and circumstance warrant it; but I prefer to regard this 
ne and graceful act as typical of Princeton University. It 
.i not only an American university in the best and broadest 
i^nse, but it is our outstanding and foremost American uni- 
versity. In the early days many young men came here from 
he South, especially from Virginia; and even to this day more 
outhern boys come to Princeton than to any other college in 
he North. 

"The spirit of the university is also the spirit of the town. 
Vhen I first came here, a few years ago, I was invited by a 
entleman to whom I had a letter of introduction to dine with 
im at the Nassau Club. In the reading room I was sur- 
rised to see handsome steel engravings of Gens. R. E. Lee, 
i. S. Johnston, and Joseph E. Johnston along with similar por- 
'aits of General Grant and other Northern generals. I ex- 
ressed my surprise, and my host (who did not know that I 
ame orginally from the South) conveyed a polite reproof in 
is reply when he said: 'That is because Princeton is an 
. imerican town.' I have found it so since then, and so I wish 
3 bring to your attention this action of Princeton University 
i honoring equally its alumni who fell in the War between 
he States. Princeton University has an added claim upon the 
Sections of the Southern people." 
3* 



.45 BETWEEN FRIENDS. 

[These letters were read at the banquet given by the A. P. 
Hill Camp, of Petersburg, Va., on January 19.] 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
Channing H. Cox, Governor. 

Boston, January 18, 1922. 
Capt. Carter H. Bishop, Adjutant A. P. Hill Camp, Confederate 
Veterans, Petersburg, Va. 

My Dear Captain Bishop: It is with a great deal of pleasure 
that I send the cordial greetings of Massachusetts to the A. P. 
Hill Camp, Confederate Veterans, at the annual celebration of 
the birthday of that great soldier, Gen. Robert E. Lee. 

May the years to come bring to the veterans of the A. P. 
Hill Camp all happiness and prosperity! 

Sincerely yours, Channing H. Cox. 

Headquarters A. P. Hill Camp, Confederate Veterans. 
Col. W. E. Quarles, Commander. 
Capt. Carter H. Bishop, Adjutant. 

Petersburg, Va., January 19, 1922. 

My Dear Governor Cox: It requires a superior order of 
mental ability to see anything commendable in men who have 
championed a failure. It requires the most exalted sentiment 
and the highest character to indicate this commendation even 
by implication. 

A combination of these qualities marks the hero — not such 
as is made on the bloody field, where in a crisis he bluffs 
death and wins; but the hero of a vastly higher type, who, with 
a full knowledge of facts and motives, calmly and deliberately 
ennobles himself by paying homage at the shrine of dead 
valor and undying virtue. 

But when these qualities are exhibited by the high executive 
of the sovereign Commonwealth of Massachusetts, conveying 
to Virginia a tribute to hei best-loved son from her ancient and 
most esteemed ally, with whom and for whom she has "drunk 
delight of battle with her peers," every veteran of A. P. Hill 
Camp, assembled around the festive board in celebration of 
his natal day, rises in his place and, with cheers and a glad 
heart, acclaims your Excellency as worthy to stand in the 
front rank of the line of the immortals. 

Very sincerely yours, Carter R. Bishop, Adjutant. 

To His Excellency, Channing H. Cox, Governor of Massachu- 
setts, Boston. 

COL. JOHN W. INZER. 

John Purifoy writes from Montgomery, Ala.: 
"In the February Veteran, page 79, there is a reference to 
A. H. Carrigan, Sr., of Hope, Ark., as "doubtless the last 
survivor of the secession conventions of the sixties," and 
request is made for information if there are others living. 
"Col. John Washington Inzer, residing at Ashville, Ala., 
was a member of Alabama's secession convention, and has 
just completed his eighty-eighth year, having been born 
near Lawrenceville, Ga., January 9, 1814. Col. Inzer is 
the only surviving member of the Alabama secession conven- 
tion. He enlisted as a private in the Confederate army 
and passed through the several official grades to lieutenant 
colonel and rendered efficient and gallant service in every 
capacity in which he served. He was captured at Missionary 
Ridge November 25, 1864, and carried to Johnson's Island, 
where he was held as a prisoner of war until June, 1865. 
He has held many civil positions of honor with great credit 
to himself and his county and State. His physical condi- 
tion indicates many years' lease of life yet." 



86 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai?. 



THE V SITED DA UGHTERSOF THE COXFEDERA CI- 
SC) ME OF THEIR AIMS A XD A CCOM- 
PLISHMEXTS. 

BY MRS. A. A. CAMPBELL, HISTORIAN GENERAL U. D. C. 

In response to many inquires as to when and where the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy came into existence, the 
following facts have been collated for the information of the 
thousands of young members to whom its pioneers are un- 
known and its early struggles a fading tradition. 

Almost twenty-eight years have passed since the date of or- 
ganization at Nashville, Tenn., September 10, 1S94. There are 
few survivors of those who were present at the meeting when 
the Ladies Auxiliary of the Confederate Home and Camp 
became the nucleus for the Daughters of the Confederacy. 
Over a quarter of a century had elapsed since "Finis" was 
written to the epic of the Confederacy, and the waters of 
oblivion seemed silently engulfing its glory and its grief when 
this band of women adopted the motto: "Love makes mem- 
ory eternal." Their purpose is denned as follows: 

"The business and objects of the Society are historical, 
benevolent, educational, and social — to honor the memory of 
those who served and those who fell in the service of the 
Confederate States; to protect, preserve, and mark places made 
historic by Confederate* valor; to collect and preserve the 
material for a truthful history of the War betw-een the States; 
to record the part taken by Southern women in patient en- 
durance of hardship and patriotic devotion during the struggle 
as in untiring efforts after the war during the reconstruction 
of the South to fulfill those sacred duty of benevolence tow-ard 
the survivors and toward those dependent upon them; to 
assist descendants of worthy Confederates in securing proper 
education; and to cherish the ties of friendship among the 
members of the organization." 

The founder and first president was Mrs. Caroline Meri- 
wether Goodlett, of Nashville, and when her active work had 
ceased she was designated as Honorary President and Found- 
er. Closely associated with her, and almost simultaneously 
grasping the idea of a union of all the Ladies Aid Societies of 
the South into one organization, was Mrs. Lucien Hamilton 
Raines, of Savannah, Ga., who was elected First Vice Pres- 
ident. Mrs. Katie Cabel Currie (now Mrs. Muse"), of Dallas, 
Tex., was Second Vice President; Miss White May was Third 
Vice President; Mrs. John P. Hickman, Recording Secretary; 
Mrs. J. B. Lindsley was Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. W. B. 
Maney, Treasurer. These were all from Nashville, as Georgia, 
Texas, and Tennessee were the only States represented, and the 
advantage of having the officers in close touch with each other 
was apparent. Mrs. Hickman served twelve years as Re- 
cording Secretary in the arduous days when there was much 
work and a very small allowance for office expenses. 

The first convention was held in Nashville, March 30, 

1595, Mrs. Goodlett presiding, and it will be noted that in 
the list of general officers this convention is omitted, for the 
probable reason that the officers elected in 1894 continued to 
serve. Another point to be remembered is that the list is of 
of officers elected at each convention. Therefore, while Mrs. 
Goodlett presided for the second time as President at the 
Atlanta convention in 1895, one has to turn to the list of 
conventions to ascertain this fact. She lived to be eighty-one 
years of age, and a most beautiful memorial of her passing 
into the beyond was read at the Savannah convention in 
1914. 

The third convention, held in Nashville in November, 

1596, showed development along every line. The President, 
Mrs. John C. Brown, had resigned, but Mrs. Raines, First 



Vice President, ably presided. The next year, at the Balti- 
more convention, the First Vice President, Mrs. D. Giraud 
Wright, of Maryland, presided in the absence of Mrs. Fitzhugh 
Lee, President. After that, until the nineteenth convention, 
in Washington, in 1912, w-hen the First Vice President,' Mrs. F. 
G. Odenheimer, presided in the absence of Mrs. A. B. White, 
the President was in her place. 

During the first decade the official head was designated as 
President. In 1905, at the San Francisco convention, all 
officers were accorded the affix of "general," to distinguish 
them from State officers of the same style. 

With the fifth convention, held at Hot Springs, Ark., in 189S, 
the work of the Association seemed definitely and securely 
established. The name of National Daughters had been 
dropped in 1895, and the name United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy adopted. The badge, designed by Mrs. Raines, bore 
only the letters D. C, subsequently changed to U. D. C. 

What might be termed the era of local monuments began. 
State reports teem with the inception of the plan, later re- 
ports discreetly edit the preliminary skirmish over the location 
and a slight divergence of opinion over the design. The South 
had been mindful of her dead long before this time, however. 
. Mrs. John Logan, in 1868, w r as impressed with the care of 
graves upon the battle fields, and from the flower-covered 
mounds at Hollywood and Petersburg, with a tiny Confeder- 
ate flag for each soldier, she derived the idea, which General 
Logan carried out, of national Decoration Day. 

The Daughters of the Confederacy continued to scatter the 
returning blossoms of spring upon these graves, and they 
added to this pious observance the happy thought of making 
it a day of cheer for the surviving comrades. Memorial Day 
dinners appear sporadically in print with the twentieth cen- 
tury, and soon became an institution, affording an opporuntity 
to honor the men who wore the gray which no daughter who 
had had the pleasure of assisting on these occasions would 
willingly forego. 

The Richmond convention of 1S99 accepted the design for 
the Cross of Honor submitted by Mrs. Mary E. Gabbett, of 
Georgia. The idea of this decoration originated with Mrs. 
Mary Ann Cobb Erwin, also of Georgia. The bestowal of this 
Cross of Honor upon veterans has been one of the great 
privileges of the Association. The office of Custodian was 
created to preserve the records of the recipients and to secure 
crosses for State Recorders. Mrs. Gabbett was first Custo- 
dian. She was succeeded by Mrs. Raines in 1906, whose 
faithful service was terminated by failing health in 1913. 
Prior to the revision of the constitution in 1913, there was no 
time limit upon terms of service except the unwritten law 
that two years of one President General was sufficient. 

At the Richmond convention of 1S99 the U. D. C. assumed 
its first great enterprise, the completion of the Jefferson Davis 
Monument, in Richmond, The Jefferson Davis Monument 
Association was formed, with Mrs. McCullough (now Mrs. 
Holmes) of Staunton, as Chairman, Mrs. Edgar Taylor, of 
Richmond, Treasurer. In 1907 the monument was unveiled 
with impressive ceremonies at a great reunion. The cost 
was S70.000 of which S50.000 was raised by the U. D. C. 

The next large undertaking of the U. D. C. was the Shiloh 
monument. It is one to which we point with exceptional 
satisfaction. The project was presented to the San Francisco 
convention in 1905 by Mrs. Alexander B. White of Tennessee. 
The Shiloh Committee, with directors in each State, was 
appointed in 1906. Eleven years later, on May 17, 1917, a 
beautiful monument, designed by Frederick Hibbard, was 
unveiled, the entire cost of S50,000 paid, and a small balance 
left, which was used to place a bowlder to mark the long 






^oijfederat^ l/eteraij, 



87 



nches of the Confederate dead upon the battle field. Shiloh, 
wever, would have been completed much sooner had not 
other monument of equal magnitude competed for our 

(torts. At the Norfolk convention in 1907, Col. Hilary 
-irbert asked the Daughters to assume the completion of the 
lington Monument, and a small sum on hand was turned 
er to the U. D. C. Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone, of Texas, 
s elected President General, and was made Chairman, with 
ectors in every Division. The cost of Arlington con- 

'lerably exceeded the estimate of S50.000, but no one who 
?s it can feel that its value can be computed in money. The 
jlptor, Sir Moses Ezekiel, one of the New Market cadets, 
nsidered it his masterpiece, and, in accordance with his 
quest, he was buried near it. One of its beautiful inscriptions 

' ght be a fitting epitaph for the Confederacy: " Vixtrix causa 

'!s placuit, sed victa Catoni." There will continually be 
w Catos who will find in its story much to reverence and 

■ mire. 

' Coeval with these great monuments came the expansion 

•i other lines. Three new general officers were added in 

08. The office of Third Vice President (revived), and the 

'See of Registrar General and Historian General were 
eated. Registration with the Registrar General as a basis 
r voting strength, as well as payment of the per capita tax, is 
)w incorporated in the by-laws. 

11 The first Historian General was Mrs. J. Endors Robinson, 

Richmond. She chose the motto, "Loyalty to the truth of 

onfederate History," inaugurated the Historical Evening at 

inventions, and gave to it the charm and dignity of her rare 

! :rsonality. Her successor was Miss Mildred Rutherford, of 
eorgia, one of the most distinguished scholars, writers, and 
oeakers of the South, whose historical addresses were re- 
lete with facts and were gems of eloquence. 

' The Committee on Education, Miss Mary B. Poppenheim, 

'-hairman, made its first report at Houston in 1909. Under 
er able management it has become one of the great causes for 

'iture effort. 
Mrs. Livingston Rowe Schuyler, our gifted President 

General, was a pioneer in advocating scholarships, and sug- 
ested our first literary prize, the S100 annually offered in 

' 'eachers' College, Columbia, for an essay on Confederate 

' istory. 

In 1911 the Committee on Relief is listed for the first time, 

[pith Mrs. Norman V. Randolph, of Richmond, Honorary 
'resident U. D. C, as its beloved Chairman. Some who see 

' ur monuments may not realize that our benevolent work, 

','hile less spectacular, is our paramount object. Every Divi- 
ion has its own cherished methods of extending aid, and to 
nany men and women of the sixties the small stipend of the 
daughters is the sole light at the close of a somber day. An- 
■ther Committee listed in 1911 is that of "The War between 
he States," Mrs. L. E. Williams, of Kentucky, Chairman, 
ts object is to secure the adoption of this name for our frat- 

' icidal strife, as it defines accurately the fact that it was a war 

■letween States, certain of whom withdrew from the Union, 
.nd others of whom objected to their departure and compelled 
hem to return. 

1 A memorial window to the women of the South in the Red 

' Zross building at Washington to the heroic women of the 
var, the publication of the "Women of the South in War 

Times," compiled by Matthew Page Andrews, which we 
iroudly term "Our Book," the Jefferson Davis Highway 
-ommittee, of which Miss Decca Lamar West is Chairman, 
he presentation of a fine collection of Southern literature 
o the Bodleian Library, Oxford, through the efforts of Miss 
danna, of Florida, and our donation to the Cunningham 



monument are among our achievements. These represent our 
united effort, and are supplemented by the varied individual 
projects in which each Division is active. 

When the United States entered the World War, the Pres- 
ident General, Mrs. Odenhcimer, tendered to President 
Wilson the active support of the Daughters of the Con- 
federacy. The following statistics, reported by the Chairman 
of War Relief, Mrs. J. A. Rountree, of Birmingham, attest 
how that pledge was fulfilled: 

Seventy beds endowed in the American Military Hospital 
No. 1, at Neuilly, France, at a cost of $41,600. Hospital 
garments, 3,683,212. Surgical dressings, 4,563,192, knitted 
articles, 100,301. Amount contributed by Chapters and 
Divisions to Red Cross, 882,889.68; French and Belgian or- 
phans, contributed by Chapters, §19,843.10; other war re- 
lief, 829,461.30. 

The specific U. D. C. War Memorial is the Hero Fund of 
$50,000 in honor of the Southern boys in khaki, to be used 
in educational work. The amount is now complete and 
available. The Confederate Museum of Richmond, the 
unique treasure house of the South, contains the Solid South 
Room and a number of rooms to which Divisions have con- 
tributed endowments, not all of them, however, fully paid. 
This noble work of Richmond women and State Regents from 
each Division is of the highest importance, as the Museum 
contains priceless relics, rare manuscripts, and letters. 

At the St. Louis convention (1921) two great tasks were 
assumed, the completion of fche Jefferson Davis Monument, at 
Fairview, Ky., and the fireproofing and enlargement of the 
Lee Chapel at Lexington, Va. About two years ago we re- 
ceived our first legacy, the gift of Hector W. Church, of Ox- 
ford, N. Y. He bequeathed to the Daughters of the Con- 
federacy practically his entire estate, approximately $10,000, 
the income from it to be used in promoting the fame of Jef- 
ferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, and Jubal Early. 

Sixteen Presidents General have directed the destinies of 
the Association, women of varied gifts, united by their love 
for the great patriotic body of women, now numbering over 
fifty thousand, who looked to them for inspiration and 
leadership. 

The Honorary Presidents, headed by Mrs. Jefferson Davis, 
Honorary President General, include Mrs. Stonewall Jackson, 
Mrs. J. E. B. Stuart, Miss Mary Custis Lee, Mrs. William 
Pritchard (daughter of Albert Sidney Johnston), Mrs. Electra 
Semmes Colston, Mrs. Daisy Hampton Tucker, and many 
others, chosen to commemorate immortal names or in grate- 
ful appreciation of services rendered the Association. 

Besides our practical objectives, thus briefly indicated, it 
is our aim to carry with us some of the fragrance of the flowers 
of the Old South, its ideals of simplicity, courage, and chivalry, 
and thus most effectively obey the commands of the five- 
pointed cotton boll which is our emblem — Think, live, love, 
dare, pray. 



L. B. Stephens, of Center, Ala., now in his seventy-seventh 
year, says he wants the Veteran to keep coming as long as he 
lives. He writes: "I belonged to Wheeler's Cavalry, Martin's 
Division, Morgan's Brigade, 12th Alabama Cavalry, Com- 
pany F; was in the siege at Knoxville, Tenn., and went on the 
raid from Atlanta, Ga., on August 10, 1864, through East and 
Middle Tennessee, crossed the Tennessee River at Mussel 
Shoals, Ala., behind the Yankee lines for eight weeks, tearing 
up railroad tracks and all other government property. I 
would like for some one to write the full details of our raid 
behind the enemy's lines." 



88 



Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 



EARL Y EFFORTS TO SUPPRESS THE SLA VE TRADE 
AND ABOLISH SLA VERY IN THE SOUTH. 

BY ANNE BACHMAN HYDE, FORMER HISTORIAN GENERAL, U. D. C. 
(Reprinted from Veteran of March, 1919.) 

That the colonies, particularly the Southern ones, made 
early efforts to free themselves from the burden of negro 
slavery forced upon them by England, the history of that 
institution gives abundant proof, and almost the first legis- 
lation was directed against the evil. 

Negro slavery existed in and was recognized in all the colo- 
nies before being planted in South Carolina in 1671, but the 
slave trade of this colony soon became more widely developed 
than any of the others. As early as 1698 there began to 
be a fear for the safety of the colony on account of the great 
numbers of negroes, and an act was passed to encourage 
importation of white servants. By 1703 South Carolina 
had begun a series of duty acts, at first levying ten shillings 
on each Afiican imported, which levy increased continuously 
up to 1740, when one hundred pounds was imposed upon each 
African and one hundred and fifty pounds on each colonial 
negro. By this act they were taxed also according to height — 
the taller the man, the more the tax. 

Although there was opposition to slavery, the historian 
Hewatt, who was no friend to the system, wrote: "It must be 
acknowledged that the planters of South Carolina treat their 
slaves with as much and more tenderness than those of any 
British colony where slavery exists." 

So many and varied were the protests of South Carolina 
that when Governor Littleton came out in 1756 he brought 
with him instructions to put a stop to this colonial interference 
with the legitimate business of English merchants and skip- 
pers. In 1760 South Carolina, in a formal protest, totally 
prohibited the slave trade, but the act was disallowed by the 
Privy Council of England and the governor reprimanded. 
The governors of all the colonies were warned not to in- 
dulge in similar legislation. 

Although rebuffed, the colony again passed a prohibitive 
duty of one hundred pounds in 1764, which duty continued 
until the Revolution. Finally, in 1787, South Carolina passed 
an act and ordinance prohibiting importation. 

Next to South Carolina, the largest slave trade was in Vir- 
ginia, but the system there was patriarchal in character. 
Though slavery was introduced in 1619, it was not recog- 
nized by any Virginia statutory law till 1661. (Munford's 
"Virginia's Attitude toward Slavery.") Twenty years prior 
f o this, in 1641, the "Fundamentals, " adopted by Massachu- 
setts, recognized the lawfulness of negro slavery and approved 
of the African slave trade. (Cobb on "Slavery.") 

Again and again Virginia uttered protests against the sys- 
tem and passed laws restraining the importation of negroes 
from Africa, but these laws were disallowed. The merchants 
of London took alarm at the conduct of the Southern col- 
onies, and in 1745 a pamphlet was published in England en- 
titled "The African Slave Trade, the Great Pillar and Sup- 
port of the British Plantations in America. " (McCrady on 
"Slavery in the Province of South Carolina.") 

In 1723 Virginia began a series of acts lasting till the Rev- 
olution, all designed to check the slave trade. The efforts of 
the Old Dominion to free herself from the evil were debated 
by the king himself in council, and on December 10, 1770, he 
issued an instruction under his own hand to the governor 
commanding him to assent to no law passed by Virginia to 
prohibit the traffic. (Bancroft.) 

In 1772 the House of Burgesses addressed the throne in a 
pathetic appeal for "paternal assistance" in their d stress 



over the "horrid traffick" forced upon them by some "who 
reap emoluments from this sort of traffic," Edmund Pendleton, 
Richard Henry Lee, and Benjamin Harrison signing the pe- 
tition. But a paternal veto instead of blessing was the an- 
swer to this appeal. 

A most important paragraph, written by Jefferson, that was 
stricken out of the Declaration of Independence, contained the 
fiercest arraignment of George III for his veto of Virginia's 
laws endeavoring to suppress the slave trade, which he had 
forced upon his defenseless subjects. (Munford, "Virginia's 
Attitude.") 

As early as 1774 mass meetings were held in the various 
counties, adopting resolutions of protest against the evil, and 
Fairfax County recorded in plain tones that she "wishes to 
see an entire stop forever put to such a wicked, cruel, and 
unnatural trade." 

Although her col'onial protests were all unheeded, Virginia 
gave abundant proof of her consistent action regarding the 
slave trade by her celebrated statute preventing it, one of the 
earliest law-s passed by her General Assembly, when, in Octo- 
ber, 1778, she declared: "That from and after the passing of 
this act no slave or slaves shall hereafter be imported into this 
commonwealth by sea or land." And thus the legal slave 
trade into Virginia was definitely stopped before it was an 
indictable offense in any New England State and thirty years 
before like action was taken by Great Britain. 

Mr.' Ballogh, in his "History of Slavery," says: " Virginia 
thus had the honor of being the first political community in 
the civilized modern world to prohibit the pernicious traffic." 
Maryland did not have to face the same problems as Vir- 
ginia or South Carolina, and consequently viewed the situ- 
ation with more equanimity, as her trade never reached alarm- 
ing proportions. By 1717 she imposed a duty of forty shillings 
upon each negro slave imported, and by 1771 a duty of nine 
pounds was laid. In 1783 Maryland passed "an act to pro- 
hibit the bringing of slaves into this State." 

North Carolina was not burdened with many slaves in the 
early days and did not feel the necessity of positive action. 
However, she gave evidence of her displeasure concerning the 
matter, for Governor Dobbs had his instructions from Eng- 
land, as early as 1700, "not to give assent to or pass any 
law imposing duties upon negroes imported into our province 
of North Carolina." In August, 1774, North Carolina re- 
solved in convention, "That we will not import any slave or 
slaves or purchase any slave or slaves after the first day of 
November next," which resolution Du Bois says was modeled 
upon the resolve of Virginia on May 11, 1769. 

There were no special restrictions before 1786, when she 
declared that the importation of slaves within her borders 
was "productive of evil consequences and highly impolitic,'' 
and proceded to lay a prohibitive duty on them. By 1797 
some Quakers in North Carolina manumitted slaves with- 
out regard for legal restraints. (Phillips, "American Ne- 
gro Slavery.") 

Georgia laid her foundation stone upon a prohibition of 
slavery; and her historian, Stevens, says that at one time the 
law was so rigidly enforced that any negro slave found within 
her limits, unless speedily claimed, was sold back into Caro- 
lina. An increasing number of colonists began to clamor for 
repeal of the restriction, and by 1749 the trade was thrown 
open, but a duty was laid and restrictions enforced which re- 
quired a registry and quarantine of all negroes brought in. In 
December, 1793, Georgia forbade the importation of slave 
from the West Indies, the Bahamas, and Florida, but the Afri- 
can trade was not closed until 1798. 






Qoijfederat^ l/eterai). 



89 



Thus it will be seen that a faithful effort was made by 
hese colonies to prevent the traffic forced upon them by the 
supreme power of the mother country. Why each one changed 
ier mind and later upheld a system she formerly tried to 
suppress is another story. 

Early Abolition in the South. 

The world conscience did not begin to be much disturbed 
ibout the right or wrong of slavery until after the close of 
:he American Revolution. After that event many of the 
States exercised the powers denied them as colonies. England 
abolished the slave trade in 1807, and the United States fol- 
lowed in 1808. Slavery still existed, however, and by this 
time was so firmly entrenched as to present the problem which 
50 long vexed the South. 

From the very beginning a high moral sense was evinced to- 
ward slavery in Virginia. There were free negroes in that 
:olony as early as 1668; and in 1691 emancipation was legal, 
provided the emancipated slave was sent out of Virginia with- 
in six months, but the slaveholder had to seek the permission 
of the Council for this privilege. In 1782 the General As- 
sembly of Virginia made a law whereby slaves could be set 
free by deed or will, and so common were manumissions after 
the Revolutionary War that by 1790 there were more than 
thirty-five thousand free persons of color in the South. 

In 1790 an Abolition Society was formed in Virginia by the 
Quakers; and by 1791 it had eighty members, many of them 
other than Quakers, who in this year sent a petition to the 
General Assembly against slavery, and at the same time pe- 
titioned Congress on the subject. In 1794 both Virginia and 
t Maryland sent representatives to the Convention of Abolition 
Societies held in Philadelphia, the first to meet in the United 
States. 

North Carolina began to discuss slavery as early as 1758. 
The Quakers, or Friends, evincing a very tender conscience 
on the subject, and by 1768 they interpreted a section of 
their discipline as opposed to the buying and selling of slaves; 
and in 1776 some Friends, in the yearly meeting, stated their 
resolution to set their negroes free and also "earnestly and 
affectionately advised all who held slaves to cleanse their 
hands of them as soon as they possibly could." 

The marked tendency in Virginia toward emancipation 
encouraged like action among the Quakers in North Carolina, 
and in 1779 they appointed a committee of visitation, whose 
duty it was to "visit and labor with those members who de- 
clined to emancipate." The law of North Carolina in 1782 
gave all slave owners power to emancipate slaves by will 
after death, or by acknowledging will while still alive, in 
open court, provided they agreed to support all the aged, in- 
firm, and young persons set free. (See Week's "Southern 
Quakers and Slavery.") In 1801 the yearly meeting decided 
to call the negroes "black people," and they are referred to 
in this manner in their reports. 

But these Friends were never forcible abolitionists. They 
depended more upon moral suasion and always believed that 
the power over slavery lay in the States and not in the govern- 
ment. However, with their avowed belief in States' rights, 
these North Carolina Quakers made a marked breach of 
etiquette when in 1786 they sent a committee to the Assembly 
of Georgia with a petition "respecting some enlargements 
to the enslaved negroes." The fact that the petition was ig- 
nored gave proof of the extreme sensitiveness of Southern 
States regarding their own right of action even at this early 
date. 

The law of South Carolina in 1722 compelled the manu- 
mitted slave to leave the province in twelve months or lose 



his freedom. In 1800, before a slave could be emancipated in 
this State, proof had to be given of his good character and 
of his ability to earn his own living, which certainly was a 
wise provision, and after emancipation the deed of gift must 
be registered. So the State knew exactly to whom she had 
given freedom. 

In 1799 Thomas Wadsworth, of Charleston, S. C, liberated 
his slaves, gave them fifty acres of land each, and put them 
under care of the Bush River meeting. This old Quaker 
may have been the originator of the " forty-acres-and-a-mule " 
theory, which he certainly carried into practice. 

The Georgia law of 1801 provided that a slave could be 
emancipated in case a special application was made to the 
legislature for that purpose. The antislavery feeling in this 
State was fostered in early times by the Methodists, who 
were considering a Church law requiring members to free 
their slaves. In April, 1817, Howell Cobb, of Georgia, 
made his will and in it emancipated his servant, William Hill, 
and adds: "It would afford me the greatest pleasure to lib- 
erate all my slaves, but such is the present existing state of 
society that by doing so I might act improperly, and I pre- 
sume that their present condition under the care and protec- 
tion of generous and humane masters will be much better 
for them than a state of freedom." 

Before Tennessee had been a State one year an appeal 
for the abolition of slavery was published in the Knoxville 
Gazette, and a meeting called in Washington County to form 
a Manumission Society. Many of the pioneers of Tennessee 
were of Covenanter descent, and the eaily county records 
show they were endeavoring to emancipate their slaves before 
the eighteenth century closed. 

One of the early acts of the State was touching emanci- 
pation. In October, 1797, the records show that she "con- 
firmed the emancipation of a black man named Jack," and 
not only gave him his freedom, but bestowed upon him the 
good American name of John Saunders. 

About this time Tennessee was so embarrassed by the num- 
ber of her citizens of Scotch descent seeking to emancipate 
their slaves that in 1801 the General Assembly passed an 
act giving the county courts authority to emancipate slaves 
upon petitions of their owners, and directing the county 
court clerks to record such proceedings and to give to each 
emancipated slave a certificate of his freedom. (Allison, 
"Dropped Stitches.") 

Emancipation societies were now becoming frequent in 
the South, and one-half of the delegates to the American Ab- 
olition Conventions came from this section between 1794 and 
1809; after that date none came from beyond Tennessee or 
North Carolina, but local conventions were held in those 
States. The earliest American journals advocating emanci- 
pation and abolition were published, one by a Southern man 
and one on Tennessee soil. 

The Quaker, Charles Osborn, born in North Carolina, 
spent his young manhood in Tennessee and in December, 
1814, organized the Manumission Society in that State, which 
was in close touch and communication with one organized 
in North Carolina in 1816. In 1816 Charles Osborn re- 
moved to Ohio, where in August, 1817, he published the 
first number of the Philanthropist, a journal devoted to the 
interests of temperance and also to immediate and uncondi- 
tional emancipation. The publication of this paper began 
August 29, 1817, and continued till October 8, 1818. 

Judge John Allison, of Tennessee, states (in which opinion 
the biographer of Garrison concurs) that the honor of pub- 
lishing the first periodical in America of which the one avowed 
object was opposition to slavery must be accorded to Elihu 



// 



•90 



Qoofederat^ tfeterai). 



Embree, who in 1820 was publishing in Jonesboro, Tenn., the 
Emancipator, a small octavo monthly. Before one year's issue 
was completed, the young editor died. Benjamin Lundy had 
assisted Charles Osborn with the Philanthropist in Ohio and 
later had begun the publication of his own paper, the Genius 
■of Universal Emancipation. When he learned of the death of 
Elihu Embree, early in 1S22, Lundy brought his paper to 
Tennessee, and for more than two years he issued it from 
Greeneville, on the press which had printed Embree's Eman- 
cipator. 

Thus nearly a decade before Elizabeth Heyrick, the Quaker, 
in England, issued the pamphlet on immediate emancipation 
the Quakers of North Carolina and East Tennessee were 
preaching, practicing, and publishing that doctrine, and Gar- 
rison was yet but a little lad in New England. 

By 1824 the Tennessee Manumission Society had twenty 
branches, with seven hundred members, and had held nine 
conventions; and in January of that year, through Mr. Blair, 
it presented a memorial to the House of Representatives pray- 
ing Congress to adopt measures for the prevention of slavery 
in future in any State where it was not then allowed by 
law and to forbid it in the future in any State yet to be 
formed. 

In 1825 William Swaim was publishing in Greensboro, N. C, 
the Patriot, which contained much antislavery matter. 

All of these movements and publications were undertaken 
in a frank, law-abiding manner, and in 1820 the Rev. John 
Rankin, a native Tennesseean, of Covenanter descent, said it 
was safer to make abolition speeches in Kentucky or Tennessee 
than in the North. Mr. Munford, in his book, "Virginia's 
Attitude toward Slavery," quotes Lunt as saying: "After the 
years 1820-21, during which time that great struggle which re- 
sulted in what is called the Missouri Compromise was most 
active and came to its conclusion, the States of Virginia, 
Kentucky, and Tennessee were earnestly engaged in prac- 
tical movements for the gradual emancipation of their slaves. 
This movement continued until it was arrested by the aggres- 
sions of the abolitionists upon their voluntary action." 

According to the statistics given by Lundy, in 1827 there 
were 130 Abolition Societies in the United States, of which 
106 were in the slave States. Virginia had eight of these 
societies, Tennessee had twenty-five with a membership of 
one thousand, and North Carolina had fifty with a member- 
ship of three thousand; and this membership was not con- 
fined to nonslaveholders, as many have asserted, but among 
them were many earnest Christian masters seeking to solve 
as best they could an inherited problem and burden. 

The Hon. Samuel Rhea, grandson of the first Presbyterian 
minister to preach in Tennessee (an old Scotch chaplain), 
liberated his people and sent them to Liberia, but at a later 
date again became a slaveholder. That eminent divine, Rev. 
Frederick A. Ross, owner of " Rotherwood," a most beautiful 
estate, made a similar provision and lived to write the book, 
"Slavery Ordained of God." 

Mr. Whitelaw Reid, speaking in 1911 on "The Scot in 
America," said: "The antislavery movement which led to 
our Civil War began among the Scottish and Ulster Scotch 
immigrants, but not in New England. That is a prevalent 
delusion which the brilliant writers of that region have not 
always discouraged. But the real antislavery movement be- 
gan in the South and West, largely among the Scottish Cov- 
enanters of South Carolina and East Tennessee, twenty to 
thirty years before there was any organized opposition to slav- 
ery elsewhere, even in Massachusetts. The Covenanters, the 
Methodists, and the Quakers of East Tennessee had eighteen 
emancipation societies by 1815. A few years later there were 



five or six in Kentucky. When there were 103 in the South, 
as yet, so far as known, there was not one in Massachu- 
setts." 

Prior to 1831 emancipation was freely discussed in the 
South, and there was much sentiment in favor of it, but it 
was not yet strong enough to force laws, and those earnestly 
endeavoring to free their slaves were hampered by State laws, 
which, in all but three or four, required that emancipated 
slaves should leave the State. But even with all the difficul- 
ties which beset them, the Southern people were becoming 
more hostile to the institution and making many efforts 
to free themselves from a burden which grew heavier each 
year, and nearly ten per cent of the Southern negroes were 
free in 1830, which even Mr. Hart concedes was a "tribute 
to the humanity of Southern people." 

That Virginia made great effort to free herself from the 
burden is shown by the many and sincere discussions in her 
General Assembly on the subject of gradual emancipation, the 
problems of which were too great to be lightly undertaken. 
Anyone not even a statesman could see that there was more 
practical philanthropy involved when Virginia excluded the 
slave trade by her great statute of 1778 than when like meas- 
ure was taken by Vermont, the census of 1790 showing 293,- 
42 7 slaves in Virginia and but seventeen in Vermont (Cobb 
on "Slavery"), scarcely more than the domestic force of a 
plantation household. And now the problems were greater 
and the burden heavier; and in these discussions, while 
"many denied advisability of action, none defended the prin- 
ciples of slavery." 

In August, 1831, there occurred the awful uprising at 
Southampton among the negroes known as the "Nat Turner 
Rebellion." 

At this period also arose the abolitionists of the Garrisonian 
type, who differed from the emancipationists or antislavery 
men who existed North and South in that they demanded 
immediate and unconditional abolition of slavery and attacked 
not only the system but the character of every slaveholder 
and questioned the morality and denounced the civilization of 
every section where it existed. 

From this period, and on account of this reactionary 
agitation, dates the rise of proslavery sentiment in the South, 
which was in a sense self-defense, the human mind being so 
constituted that it naturally resents interference with its vol- 
untary action in endeavoring to solve a problem upon which 
it is expending its best ability. 

References. 

Munford: "Virginia's Attitude toward Slavery and Se- 
cession." 

Du Bois: "Suppression of the Slave Trade." 

Phillips: "American Negro Slavery." 

Stevens: " History of Georgia." 

Pendleton: "Life of Alexander Stephens." 

McCrady: "Slavery in the Province of South Carolina, 
1670-1770." 

Weeks: "Southern Quakers and Slavery." 

Phillips: "American Negro Slavery." 

Herbert: "The Abolition Crusade and Its Consequences." 

Hart: "Slavery and Abolition." 

Allison: "Dropped Stitches in Tennessee History." 

Garrison: "William Lloyd Garrison." 

Cobb: "A Historical Sketch of Slavery." 

Reid: "The Scot in America and the Ulster Scot." 



Qoofederat^ l/etera^. 



91 



i SEVEN DAYS' BATTLES AROUND RICHMOND. 

BY JOHN COXE, LILLIAS LAKELET, CAL. 

On June 2, 1862, General Lee's engineers rapidly established 
and began the construction of a fortified line of battle prac- 
tically on the battle field of Seven Pines and our forces were 
at once adjusted to this new line. The work was done by 
details from the ranks and went on day and night till finished, 
which was in two days. Late in the afternoon of the 2nd, and 
while our company was at work with ax, pick, and shovel, 
General Lee and his numerous staff rode slowly along the line, 
inspecting everything in sight. As this was the first time many 
of us had seen the General, naturally we looked at him with 
much interest. He impressed me as being a very fine looking 
man, with a pleasant smile. I was especially attracted by the 
largeness of his head and his apparent quiet and simple 
manners. We didn't know then that many of us were destined 
' to follow him to the "bitter end." 

That night a part of my company, including myself, went 
on picket duty. The picket arrangement at the time took 
on a sort of inter-army character. For instance, the officers 
' on our immediate line belonged to different commands and the 
duty was to continue all night without the usual two-hour 
changes. The picket line was established about two hundred 
yards to the front of our earthworks, then in course of con- 
struction. It happened that my post was located about the 
middle of a small swamp, then so boggy that it was imprac- 
' ticable for a soldier to stand there. So the officer on that 
part of the line, a Virginia captain, took me about another 
one hundred yards forward and to the end of the swamp and 
placed me on higher ground among large trees. It was then 
' getting dusk, and I could see that this fine-looking, smiling 
officer was regarding me with what I thought some anxiety 
i perhaps because I was so young and boylike. Then he said: 
' "Young soldier, you will occupy the post of honor on this 
part of our line to-night, and your responsibility will be greater 
: than any other soldier on this part of our line, because you 
: will be some distance in front of the main picket line. Be 
brave and watchful, my dear boy, and if the enemy should 
approach, fire at them as straight as you can and then fall 
back to the post on the edge of the swamp we just passed." 
! I saluted and politely raised my cap and then this fine looking 
officer whom I never saw again, passed to the rear. 

As I had had considerable experience with this sort of duty 
i on the Potomac and Occoquan during the last winter, I 
was not so much perturbed in feeling as might have been 
supposed under first circumstances. Yet the duty was 
trying, both physically and mentally, I fully realized the 
■ great weight of my responsibility and fully determined to 
hold that post at all hazards, or die on the spot. But, in a 
measure, I was happy all the night. My thoughts took on a 
wide range. They went back to my childhood and to loved 
ones so far away, and then to our brave comrades who had 
fallen in the recent battle and whose bodies lay so near by me! 
And then the continual noise of work going on back at the 
fortifications was company for me. And, too, there was the 
blessed signal gun that fired a solid shot toward the enemy 
every half hour during the night and thus told our head- 
quarters that all was well along our lines. I was not disturbed. 
After daylight a few shots were fired through the woods in 
my direction, but evidently they were from a great distance, 
and I paid no attention. I was relieved at 8 o'clock, and when 
I got into camp some of my messmates rather facetiously 
congratulated me on my having occupied the advance post 
•during the night. 

On June 5, the earthworks being finished, the Legion 



broke camp and returned to our former rendezvous on the 
high hills near Mechanicsville. While there in that camp we 
had a sort of "tug of war" among ourselves. When Hampton 
left us on the battle field of Seven Pines, Lieutenant Colonel 
Griffin became our commander for the time being. Soon after 
getting settled down at Mechanicsville again, an agitation, 
headed by Captain Gary, began for a reorganization. Our 
year's service was more than up, and, as it was known that 
Hampton would not return to us, it was argued by Gary and 
his partisans that it was high time to reorganize by electing 
new officers. The truth was that Gary wanted and expected 
to be elected colonel. On the other hand, Lieutenant 
Colonel Griffin and Major Conner resisted and took the posi- 
tion that the time was highly inopportune; that having just 
emerged from one bloody battle and while other and perhaps 
bloodier battles were closely impending, it would be quite 
inexpedient to reorganize at that time. The Legion was as- 
sembled several times and finally speeches made by both 
parties. Finally the matter came to a vote and Gary carried 
for reorganization by a small majority, and immediately after 
this he, Martin W. Gary, was elected colonel of the Hampton 
Legion, that fine and manly body of men that Hampton had 
always been prouder of than any other of his subsequent 
commands in the Confederate army. But alas! the result 
nearly broke up the Legion. Griffin and Conner and Adjutant 
Barker and Lowndes and Surgeons Darby and Taylor and 
many other officers, immediately resigned and left. I took 
advantage of the age exemption and left, but not till the 
following September. And many other privates and some 
noncommissioned officers got transfers to other commands. 
It was felt by many that this forced reorganization was an in- 
sult to Hampton's fame. 

Meanwhile, Stonewall Jackson was still gaining victories 
in the Valley. McClellan was busy bringing up additional 
forces and war materials and extending his right to the north. 
Sometime before this he had reached Hanover Courthouse 
and the Virginia Central Railroad and was preparing to take 
Richmond by regular siege. It was known that another 
Federal army was organizing near Washington to form a 
junction with McClellan's right, and altogether the times 
began to look rather blue to us private soldiers. But Lee 
was not sleeping, on the contrary he was quietly forming 
great plans of campaign. The Legion was still attached to 
Hood's Brigade of Whiting's Division. About the middle of 
June it was given out that Whiting's Division was to be sent 
to reenforce Jackson in the Valley, and we were jubilant. 
We were ordered to cook rations and the next day broke camp 
and started to march to Hanover Junction on the Virginia 
Central Railroad, where, it was said, we would take a train 
for Staunton in the Valley. But we of the Legion were stopped 
on the way and went into bivouac. Then it was said that we 
would not go with Whiting, and, in fact, we didn't. We simply 
loafed back and forth for several days, never going more than 
two or three miles in any direction, but nearly all the time 
being in touch with a staff officer of Gen. A. P. Hill, who held 
the left of our line at Mechanicsville. We thought it likely 
that we were not sent along with Whiting because of our then 
small numbers and insignificant appearance. At length, one 
morning, Hill's officer made a hasty visit to Gary, and soon 
after we took up a line of march which ended at Ashland, 
where we were much surprised to find Whiting's Division 
then arriving there from the Valley. We went into camp and 
remained there several days. Meanwhile we were more 
surprised to see Jackson's whole army from the Valley arrive 
and soon after march away south on the Old Church Road. 
Everybody was looking for Jackson. We wanted to see him. 






92 



^oi>federat^ l/eterap 



Upon inquiry of some of his passing men as to where Jackson 
was, they said: "0, he went ahead to Richmond several days 
ago." Then we knew some great thing "was up in the air." 

Ashland was on low land and surrounded by swamps. 
It was small, old, and somewhat famous for having been the 
birthplace and boyhood home of Henry Clay, the "mill 
boy of the Slashes of Ashland." As Jackson's rear passed on, 
Whiting fell in and followed. June apples were ripe, and we 
found a big crop of them along the road and greatly enjoyed 
them. At first our march was rapid and well sustained, but 
late in the day we got into a gait of spurts and jumps. Then 
it was said that the road was blocked with fallen trees, and 
this proved true. Then the infantry and cavalry went on 
through the woods as best they could, while the artillery and 
wagons were left behind to struggle with the obstructions in 
the road. A little before night we heard that a big battle had 
been fought at Mechanicsville, but no particulars. We 
bivouacked comfortably and had plenty to eat. During the 
night the report of the battle was confirmed. It took place 
at the Junction of Beaver Dam Creek and the Chickahominy, 
near Mechanicsville, between A. P. Hill's Division and Mc- 
Clellan's right flank, under General Porter. The Federals were 
driven back to their second position at Gaines's Mills, or 
Cold Harbor. But the losses on both sides had been heavy, 
the Federals losing some artillery. 

The next morning the reveille brought us out of bed a 
little before daylight, and everybody expected to find a 
rough day ahead of us, and indeed we did. We marched 
along, sometimes rapidly and sometimes slowly, in roads and 
lanes, but mostly through the woods. The popping of rifles 
and booming of cannon to the front told us that hot work was 
in preparation there. We saw many other troops marching 
and countermarching. I think we got in contact with the 
enemy about 2 p.m. The Federals held the opposite bank of 
the deep ravine of Gaines's Creek, which they had fortified 
in some measure. We could hear great crashes of musketry 
and cannon to the right and to the left. It took four charges 
to dislodge the enemy from his strong position on the other 
side of the creek. 

During this heavy fighting many units of other and strange 
commands got mixed up and fought with us. I particularly 
recall some Alabamians. Probably they were sent to re- 
enforce us. It was nearly dusk when our line finally carried 
the Federal works on the other side of the creek and drove the 
Federals pell-mell from the field and south of the Chicka- 
hominy. The losses on both sides were simply frightful. 
But we had crushed and driven from the field " Little Mack's" 
right flank, captured his great camp, and great quantities of 
rich booty. We spent the night on the field in an exhausted 
condition. I myself went into a very fine and in every way 
pleasant arboreal pavilion, which had been used by the 
French officers as a dining saloon. These French officers 
belonged to the old nobility of France and had come to the 
United States as observers of the conduct of war during the 
McClellan campaigns, and, as usual in such cases, acted as 
honorary staff officers on McClellan'sand Porter's staffs. We 
didn't lack for good things to eat, and we did all we could to 
relieve the sufferings of our wounded. One of our stretcher 
bearers named Burkhalter was killed in the battle. We got 
much needed rest, and the next day picked up our wound- 
ed and buried our own dead. I recollect one young 
Alabamian who had been killed and was buried with the 
Legion and Texan dead. He was orderly sergeant of his 
company, named Oakley, and only eighteen years old. 
Poor young fellow! He was somebody's boy! I picked up a 
letter on the field which had been written and posted at Hud- 



son, N. Y. It was written by the sister of a private in the 
14th X. V. Volunteer Infantry named Lathrop. Years 
afterwards I found that sister and to her great delight 
restored that letter to her. She wrote me that her brother 
had been killed later on in the war. 

Orr's South Carolina Rifles, a fine battalion and as brave 
as one could find on that field of Gaines's Mills, occupied more 
level land on our left and fiercely fought the Federals in a 
woods near a field. They lost heavily, but, after the first 
bloody assault, drove them handsomely. Col. James L. Orr 
was not present during the battle. This was late in June, I 
think, about the 27th. Our army pursued McClellan south 
of the Chickahominy and found he was retreating toward the 
James, in which his war vessels were anchored for his protec- 
tion. More or less fighting went on day and night. "Little 
Mack" fought us as bravely as he could all the way to the 
James. The Legion was near, but not in the battle of Savage 
Station, on the York River Railroad, where Kershaw's 
Brigade punished the Federals so severely. 

The next day the fierce battle of Frazier's Farm was fought. 
The Federals called this battlefield "Glendale." McClellan 
lost heavily in this fight, which was said to have been due to 
Longstreet's strategy, and about that time the Federal 
Major General McCall fell into our hands as a prisoner of 
war. From this field McClellan retreated across White Oak 
Swamp and to the foot of the famous Malvern Hill. And 
right there even many of us private soldiers thought Lee 
should have stopped chasing McClellan. But Lee had dif- 
ferent plans. He seems to have thought that he could carry 
Malvern Hill by assault and thus force McClellan to sur- 
render or into the James River. But alas! he was not able 
to do either. We lost a number of men in forcing White Oak 
Swamp, which was a very bad place to cross, particularly 
in the face of such a stanch defender as McClellan was. 
Malvern Hill was naturally an ideal place to hold against an 
enemy. It rose up from the James into a sort of potato hill 
shape, and then gently sloped off inland, or, at that time, one 
might say "leeward," to the borders of White Oak Swamp. 
McClellan formed his lines of infantry and artillery on the 
outward slopes of the hill fronting Lee, who was below in a 
semicircle, and, as his flanks and rear were well protected 
by the river and his navy, he thus was able to use his whole 
army in this splendid position against Lee. 

It was July 1 when this sanguinary battle came off, and it 
was the last of the series of that campaign. There was more 
or less desultory fighting during the early hours of the day, 
while Lee was casting lines and selecting his positions, but the 
bloodiest contest didn't take place till rather late in the after- 
noon, and it didn't cease till about 10 P.M. But most of the 
night fighting was done by McClellan's artillery, and he 
certainly had a plentiful supply of it, and used it with much 
judgment and accuracy. To our great sorrow General 
Lee was repulsed in all his efforts to take that formidable 
Malvern Hill, and his losses were great, as history tells us. 
Most of the loss in our brigade was from the Federal artillery 
fire, which was incessant during the heavy fighting. We 
slept on the field and the next morning picked up our badly 
wounded and buried the dead. 

During the day there was a readjustment of our lines, 
Jackson's command, to which Hood still clung, being shifted 
to our extreme left, but there was no more fighting. About 
half way of this movement we were halted to rest awhile. 
While we were scattered along on both sides of the road we 
heard a great and continuous cheering on our right. At first 
we couldn't imagine the cause of it, but we soon found that 
(Continued on page 117J 



Qopfederat^ i/eterai). 



93 



THE STRATEGY OF STONEWALL JACKSON. 

BY COL. MAGNUS H. THOMPSON, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

[It may seem unnecessary to review the achievements of the 
illustrious subject of this article when they have been so 
masterfully and clearly recorded by historians and writers, 
yet there are many of us who have no conception of what he 
accomplished or the remarkable means employed to that end. 
Hence, upon urgent request of the Chapter that bears the 
name of this "god of war," I am encouraged to present an 
outline, at least, of his achievements as briefly as a fair under- 
standing will permit. Jackson's record startled the military 
critics of this age and excited our admiration beyond expres- 
sion.] 

On April 27, 1861, Maj. T. J. Jackson, of the Virginia 
Military Institute, was appointed colonel of Virginia vol- 
unteers and ordered to Harper's Ferry to take command of the 
forces there assembled, all under Major General Harper as 
division commander. Colonel Jackson arrived at Harper's 
Ferry on April 29 and at once began organizing and muster- 
ing the troops. Jackson's command at Harper's Ferry was 
marked by few notable events. In the simple uniform of a 
major of the Virginia Military Institute, quietly, but firmly 
and unceasingly, he worked to change citizens who had 
patriotically rushed to arms — most of them young men, 
many mere boys — into disciplined soldiers. General Johnston, 
being tendered a command as brigadier general in the Con- 
federate army, promptly accepted it and was ordered to take 
command at Harper's Ferry, reporting there on May 23. 
Jackson, learning that the Virginia forces had been turned 
over to the Confederacy, promptly recognized General 
Johnston's authority. At that time the troops under his 
command were the 2nd, 4th, Sth, 10th, 13th, and 27th Vir- 
ginia regiments of infantry, the 22nd and 11th Mississippi, 
the 4th Alabama, a Maryland, and a Kentucky battalion, 
four companies of Virginia artillery of four guns each, and the 
1st regiment of Virginia cavalry; totaling about 5,200 effec- 
tive men. 

At this time three Federal armies were threatening inva- 
sion: McClellan from the northwest; Patterson from the 
northeast; and McDowell's advance toward Manassas. 
Being convinced that Harper's Ferry was not tenable, the 
Confederates evacuated it on June 15, moving out on the 
Berryville Pike; and, learning that Patterson's advance was 
marching on Martinsburg, Johnston moved to Bunker Hill 
on the road between Winchester and Martinsburg; thus op- 
posing Patterson and preventing his junction with McClellan, 
he having advanced part of his command to Romney. They 
were soon driven out by a detachment under Col. A. P. Hill. 
Patterson having temporarily withdrawn from Martinsburg, 
General Johnston withdrew his force to Winchester. Within 
a short time the Army of the Shenandoah was strengthened by 
the arrival of more regular army officers and of regiments from 
different States, and early in July, General Johnston proceeded 
to organize four brigades of infantry. The first, a Virginia 
brigade, under Col. T. J. Jackson, composed of the 2nd, 4th, 
5th, and 27th Virginia regiments, and Pendleton's Rockbridge 
Artillery. The second, under Col. F. S. Bartow, composed of 
the 7th, 8th and 9th Georgia Regiments, Duncan's and Pope's 
Kentucky Battalions, and Albert's Virginia Battery. The 
third, under Brigadier General Bee, composed of the 4th 
Alabama, 2nd and 11th Mississippi, 1st Tennessee, and 
Imboden's Virginia Battery. The fourth, under Col. Arnold 
Elzey, composed of 1st Maryland Battalion, 3rd Tennessee, 
10th and 13th Virginia, and Grave's Battery, leaving the First 
1" 



Virginia Cavalry and the 33d Virginia Infantry unbrigaded. 
These commands on June 30, 1861, numbered 10, 654, present 
for duty, of which 10,010 were infantry, 334 cavalry, and 278 
artillery. 

General Patterson, on June 30, recrossed the Potomac, 
and Jackson was sent with his command to Martinsburg to 
support cavalry outposts and protect our agents while remov- 
ing locomotives and heavy stores to within our lines. 

He was also instructed to destroy all railroad stock, which 
was done thoroughly. July 2, Patterson, whose force crossed 
the Potomac at Williamsport and advanced on Martinsburg, 
dispatched a brigade by way of Hedgesville to guard his right. 
The Confederates, posted in a clump of trees, soon became 
engaged with his force, and on July 3, Jackson made his 
first report of his engagement, and on the fourth General 
Johnston recommended his promotion to brigadier general, 
which was soon done. Patterson's army retired to Martins- 
burg, where it remained until July 15, when it advanced to 
Bunker Hill, and on the 17th it moved to Smithfield, a few 
miles from Charlestown. After the Confederates retired from 
Darkesville to Winchester, the 33d Virginia Infantry was 
added to Jackson's brigade; the 6th North Carolina to Bee's; 
the 11th Georgia to Bartow's, the 9th Georgia having joined 
that brigade soon after they left Winchester. A fifth brigade 
was formed by Brig. Gen. E. Kirby Smith of the Sth, 9th, 
10th, and 11th Alabama and the 19th Mississippi regiments 
and Standard's Virginia battery. The regiments at that 
stage of the war did not exceed 500 men each, so many were 
sick with measles, mumps, and other diseases to which un- 
seasoned troops were subject. At 1 a.m., July 18, Johnston 
was informed that Beauregard at Manassas was attacked and 
needed assistance. In order to elude Patterson, he ordered 
the cavalry to make a demonstration in his front, that he 
might withdraw without his knowledge and pass through the 
mountains at Paris, en route to Manassas. Jackson's brigade, 
leading, reached Paris, seventeen miles from Winchester, about 
two hours after dark; and it was then and there that Jackson 
stood guard over his exhausted men that night, his adjutant 
general asking him what strength of guard should be made 
for the night, when Jackson replied: "Make no detail, the 
poor fellows are exhausted. I will stand guard." And, sure 
enough, through the entire night Jackson could be seen walk- 
ing his beat while his troops slept. 

The Shenandoah Valley campaign, three months long to 
a day, though marked by no brilliant achievements, was full 
of advantage to the Confederacy. The capture at Harper's 
Ferry of arms and machinery worth millions of dollars, our 
defiant holding of Harper's Ferry until the 15th of June, kept 
General Scott in a constant state of alarm for the safety of 
Washington and deprived the enemy of the use of its best 
line of communication with the west; and the conduct of 
Jackson at Falling Waters gave satisfying promise of heroic 
leadership that made men eager to follow him into mortal 
combat. Returning to Jackson's march from Paris, he pro- 
ceeded hurriedly to the Manassas Gap railroad and began alter- 
nating by riding a few miles and walking a few and reaching 
Manassas battle field in the nick of time to save the day. 
And it was upon that field that he was given the world re- 
nowned name of "Stonewall." The result of the battle 
is too well known to go into details here. It is appropriate, 
however, as evidence of Jackson's tenacity, to refer to his 
order to the heroic Bee. When exhausted in his effort to rally 
his men, Bee rode up to Jackson, who was steadily holding his 
brigade, although the enemy's artillery was thinning his ranks, 
and cried out in a tone of despair: "General, they are beating 



94 



Qorjfederat^ l/eteraij. 



us back!" The reply came promptly, curt but calm: "Then 
we will give them the bayonet." The defiant look of Jackson, 
his bold determination, and the steady line of brave men that 
supported him gave new life to Bee, and, galloping back to his 
disorganized command, he shouted, waving his hand to the 
left: "Look! Thereis Jackson standing like a stone wall. Rally 
behind the Virginians! Let us determine to die here. Follow 
me." His troops responded, but in a few moments this heroic 
leader fell dead. From that time forward Jackson became and 
will continue to be "Stonewall Jackson" and his brigade the 
"Stonewall Brigade." 

The troops from the Shenandoah numbered 8,340 of all 
arms; those of the Potomac 9,713; total, 18,053 actually en- 
gaged. The returns of killed,, wounded, and missing of the 
entire Confederate army within the field of action show that 
most of the fighting was done by the Army of the Shenandoah, 
as indicated by the table of losses — i. e., 282 killed, 1,063 
wounded, 1 missing, total 1,346. Army of the Potomac, 
105 killed, 519 wounded, and 12 missing; total, 636. 

On October 7, 1861, while encamped near Manassas, Jack- 
son was commissioned major general in recognition of his 
distinguished services at that battle. On November 4 he 
left to take command of the Valley district, to which General 
Johnston (in command of the Department of Northern Vir- 
ginia) had assigned him. Upon reaching Winchester and 
studying the field intrusted to him, he asked that his old 
brigade be sent him from Manassas and all the troops holding 
the passes of the Alleghany Mountain to the southwest, 
numbering some 16,000. On December 6, Jackson sent a 
small force to destroy Dam No. 5 above Williamsport, and 
thus break communication between Cumberland and Wash- 
ington. A brisk skirmish ensued, but little was accomplished. 
The work was renewed with a large force on December 16, 
which proved, successful, a long stretch of the canal being 
rendered useless. On December 25, General Loring and his 
two brigades joined Jackson, making a force of about 11,000 
men. 

Burning with a desire to recover Western Virginia, he deter- 
mined to move on the enemy, notwithstanding the lateness 
of the season and the difficulties to be encountered in the 
mountains. On January 1, 1862, his army left Winchester 
under a clear sky and a moderate temperature, to be enjoyed 
only for a day. From then on a most severe winter was en- 
countered, much suffering experienced, and very little ac- 
complished. The enemy was driven out of Bath and valuable 
stores captured, and then the Federals sought shelter behind 
the houses in Hancock, Md. Not wishing to destroy homes of 
helpless citizens, Jackson withdrew and moved on Romney, 
the enemy evacuating upon his approach. Subsequently he 
returned to Winchester, leaving Loring's command there. 

The only thing accomplished by this move was that in two 
weeks he had, with little loss, though with much suffering, 
discomfited the enemy, disconcerted their offensive plans, and 
expelled them from his district, thus liberating three fertile 
counties from their domination and thereby securing sources 
of supply for the subsistance of his own army. The result of 
this expedition, and the complaint made by officers to the 
Secretary of War regarding Jackson's retention of Loring's 
command at Romney resulted in the Secretary ordering 
Jackson to have Loring's command returned to Winchester. 
Without a protest, Jackson (as a soldier) obeyed his superior 
and ordered Loring back, at the same time tendering his 
resignation, concluding: "With such interference in my com- 
mand, 1 cannot expect to be of much service in the field." 

Amends were soon made, and Jackson was prevailed upon 
to withdraw his resignation, with the understanding that his 



authority would be fully recognized. In the spring of 1862 the 
contending armies practically held nearly the same positions 
as in the autumn of 1861. The Confederate Army of Northern 
Virginia still held the center at Manassas, under General 
Holmes, and Jackson the left in the lower Shenandoah Valley. 
McClellan, with an army of 222,000, collected and organized 
during the winter in front of and near Washington, was ordered 
to move and attack the Confederates and press on to capture 
Richmond. 

General Banks, at Frederick, Md., moved to Harper's 
Ferry to attack and drive back Jackson. Preferring fighting to 
retreating, Jackson offered Banks battle in front of Winchester, 
but when that was not accepted, he withdrew to Strasburg. 
Sixteen thousand men under Fremont in the western moun- 
tain and the south branch of the Potomac were combined and 
moved to menace Jackson's left flank and rear, while 8,000, 
under Cox on the Kanawha line, were ordered to Manassas. 
At this very time our forces at Manassas, Leesburg, and Fred- 
ericksburg were withdrawn to the south bank of the Rappa- 
hannock. This left Jackson exposed to both front and flank at- 
tacks, but Johnston had confidence in his ability to take care 
of himself. By field returns of Feburary 28, he had 4,207 in- 
fantry, 369 artillery, and 601 cavalry, a total of 5,267 officers 
and men present for duty. By McClellan's field returns of 
March 2, Banks had present for duty of all arms, 38,484 
men. Sedgwick's Brigade was recalled to guard the Potomac, 
leaving Banks with 30,000 men when he followed Jackson, 
with scarcely one-sixth as many. The first and last council of 
war that Jackson ever called was on March 6, consisting 
of General Garnett and his regimental commanders at Win- 
chester. 

Jackson moved up the Valley to Mt. Jackson. Under 
McClellan's orders, Shields was recalled from Strasburg and, 
on the 20th, Williams's Division took up its line of march to 
Manassas. General Ashby, ever in touch with the enemy, 
reported to Jackson the evacuation of Strasburg, and that he 
was following them. 

Jackson, having been instructed by Johnston to hold in the 
Valley the enemy already there, moved on Winchester. The 
last of Banks's command had marched for Manassas on the 
22nd, but Shields's Division of 9,000 men remained at Win- 
chester. Jackson mustered on the Kernstown field 3,087 men, 
of which only 2,742 became engaged. With this disparity in 
numbers the battle of Kernstown was fought, and by some 
recognized as a draw. To this I cannot agree. The line im- 
mediately under Jackson's eye was not only holding but 
doing fearful execution, but General Garnett, who was on 
his right, gave way and ordered his line to fall back, which 
necessitated Jackson's line to do likewise or risk capture. In 
order to teach subordinates a lesson and what he expected 
should be done under similar circumstances, he placed Gen- 
eral Garnett under arrest and relieved him of his command. 

On the 24th Jackson retired to Mt. Jackson. Shields, con- 
fident that Jackson would not have brought on such an en- 
gagement without expecting reinforcements, hastened, the 
night after the battle, to recall all the troops within reach. 
Williams was recalled from his march to Manassas, with the 
request that the command march all night; and General 
Banks, on his way to Washington, was recalled. Thus Jack- 
son's prompt action and bold attack completely changed 
McClellan's plans, and instead of establishing Banks with 
20,000 men at Manassas, he ordered him to remain in the 
Valley and sent him 10,000 more from his own army — to aid 
in driving Jackson back or meet another anticipated attack. 
On April 4 McDowell was put in command of the forces 
between the Blue Ridge and Fredericksburg; Banks in com- 



Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 



95 



:mand of the Department of the Shenandoah, and Fremont 
nn command of the mountain department. 
f Jackson retired down the Valley, followed by Banks's 
' large army, passed Harrisonburg, and moved to Swift Run Gap, 

■ where he could easily hold the road leading to E well's Division. 
I Here Jackson completed the reorganization of his army, re- 
' ceived additions by enlistments and the 10th Virginia Regi- 

- ment, increasing his forces to nearly 6,000. On April 28, 
Jackson appealed to Lee (now acting commander in chief of 

-the Confederate forces) to let Ewell's command join him. 

• Jackson's command crossed the mountain and reached Staun- 
ton on the 5th of May. Ed Johnston's army of about 3,000 

■ was fifteen miles northwest from Staunton. 

Milroy, hearing of the junction of Jackson and Johnston, 
concentrated his forces with Schenck near McDowell and en- 
gaged our forces. The battle raged for some four or five hours, 
when, seeing defeat was his lot, he, with Shenck, retreated 

- through McDowell to Franklin, pursued by Jackson's troops. 
Lincoln telegraphed Fremont to move by the Dry River Gap 
of the Shenandoah mountain and join Banks. Jackson had 

' taken precaution, and the gap was blockaded. Fremont, with 
large reenfrcements, was near at hand and in a position hard 

I to dislodge without a heavy sacrifice of men, hence Jackson 
withdrew his force to the Valley to look after Banks, and also 

■ to be at hand to respond to a call from General Lee, leaving 
Fremont's army of 15,000 or 20,000 men enveloped in the 

■ smoke of the burning forests, which had now become Jackson's 
' ally instead of his foe. Learning that Jackson had returned to 

the Valley and was reenforced by Ewell, Banks evacuated 

1 Harrisonburg and withdrew to New Market, whence, after 

detaching Shields's Division to march toward Luray on the 

* way to join McDowell's "On to Richmond," he continued 
down the Valley to Strasburg. Shields marched by way of 

f Luray and Front Royal toward Fredericksburg, taking 
about 11,000 men and leaving with Banks about 8,000, 
placing 1,000 at Front Royal to protect the railroad bridge 
and the turnpike bridges leading to Winchester. McDowell 
was ordered by the authorities to move on Richmond as soon 
as Shields's Division reached him and become the right wing 
of McClellan's army. On the 21st of May, Jackson moved to 
the Luray Valley and, joining part of Ewell's command, 
moved on Front Royal, and on May 23 the force of the 
enemy was routed and retreated across the river toward 
Winchester, our cavalry pressing them steadily. Banks, 
being at Strasburg, began to retreat down the Valley, then 
realizing his perilous situation and alarmed by the rapid and 
incomprehensible movement of Jackson, and seeing that his 
only safety was in flight, being pressed in rear and flank, 
continued his retreat as rapidly as possible toward Win- 
chester, our men pressing them at every step. A short stand 
was made near Winchester, but they were soon put to flight 
and continued until the Potomac was reached and crossed. 
Our captures were simply immense and of every conceivable 
character, including over 3,000 prisoners taken. 

The day Jackson struck Banks's left at Front Royal, Pres- 
ident Lincoln visited McDowell at Fredericksburg, and wired 
McClellan on the 24th that Shields, with his 10,000, had joined 
McDowell's men, and that on Monday, the 26th, 40,000 of 
McDowell's men would march to reenforce his right in front of 
Richmond. Hearing of the Banks disaster, Lincoln wired 
Fremont to move to Harrisonburg in the Valley and intercept 
and destroy Jackson and so relieve Banks. McDowell's 
march on Richmond was cancelled, and 20,000 men were put 
in motion for the Shenandoah Valley to capture or destroy 
Jackson, either with or without the cooperation of Fremont. 
Informing McClellan of these orders at 4 p.m. of the 24th, 



he added: "The enemy are making a desperate push on Har- 
per's Ferry." The alarm was intensified when Banks was 
driven across the Potomac, when Lincoln again telegraphed 
McClellan: "I think the time is near when you must either 
attack Richmond or give up the job and come to the defense 
of Washington." Later on, the same day, Lincoln again tele- 
graphed McClellan: "Banks ran a race with the rebels yes- 
terday morning, beating them to Winchester. Banks's force 
is broken up into a total rout." The news of Banks's defeat 
caused the Federal government to call upon all the loyal 
States for all their militia and other troops and send them im- 
mediately to Washington. The alarm at Washington pro- 
duced an almost indescribable panic throughout the North. 
When McDowell's march to the Valley began, McClellan stood 
hesitating on the banks of the Chickahominy, as all the plans 
of the Army of the Potomac in every branch had been demor- 
alized by the boldness and result of Jackson's grand strategic 
movement. 

It was at the close of the battle of Winchester that the im- 
mediate parole of captured surgeons was adopted; never 
before was such a course pursued in any war. Upon the sug- 
gestion of Dr. Hunter McGuire, Jackson's chief .surgeon, the 
numerous Yankee surgeons were paroled, and the plan has 
prevailed ever since. 

On May 27, the army had another day of rest while Jackson 
was providing for the safety of the vast military stores he had 
captured at Front Royal, Winchester, and Martinsburg. On 
the 28th, he dispatched Winder with four regiments and two 
batteries toward Charlestown, and, finding the enemy there, 
Ewell was dispatched to him and he soon drove them to 
Harper's Ferry, where some 7,000 troops had been assembled 
upon Banks's defeat. Jackson, with his command, arrived the 
next day and made a demonstration against Bolivar Heights. 
Having accomplished his object in removing stores, etc., from 
Winchester, he was now ready to extricate his army from the 
perilous position into which he had brought it, a position 
which induced the Federal commanders who were seeking to 
intercept him to say to their men, to stimulate their marching 
ability, that they now had Jackson in a bottle and all they had 
to do was to close the stopper at Strasburg and so end the war. 
They had not yet learned that no combination they could 
devise could trap Jackson, although he had but 15,000 men 
to their 60,000 that were concentrating in his rear; he knew 
the strategic advantages of the mountains; that great flank- 
protecting bulwark was at his disposal, and which he was 
satisfied he could reach. 

On May 30, Jackson was informed that Fremont, with 
15,000 men, was approaching Strasburg from the west and 
was in some twenty miles of that place, and that McDowell's 
advance was crossing the Blue Ridge and nearing Front Royal. 
Realizing the situation, he ordered his troops back to Win- 
chester, leaving Winder to continue threatening Harper's 
Ferry. The main body of Jackson's army marched twenty- 
five miles back to Winchester, still twenty miles from Stras- 
burg, while McDowell was within twelve miles, and Fremont, 
at Wardenville, but twenty miles west of Strasburg; at this 
time Winder was still in front of Harper's Ferry, forty-three 
miles from Strasburg. Winder's force was recalled with dis- 
patch, taking up the march at once. His main force reached 
Newton by dark, having marched twenty-eight miles, while 
that portion recalled from Loudoun Heights marched thirty- 
five miles. On the 31st Jackson put everything in motion, the 
2,300 Federal prisoners in front, guarded by the 21st Virginia 
regiment, then seven miles of wagons in double column loaded 
with captured stores, etc., and the main army following these. 
Thus they passed through Strasburg late in the afternoon and 



), 



96 



^oijfederat^ l/eterai). 



bivouacked just beyond in line of battle, his flanks guarded 
on the right by the Massanutten and the North Mountain 
on the left, ready to meet either and at the same time prevent 
a junction of the enemy forces. On June 1, Winder's foot sore 
command soon arrived, passed through Jackson's line of battle, 
and rested. Fremont's advance arrived in front of Strasburg 
late in the afternoon, Ashby having contested his advance in 
a series of remarkable engagements, in which hundreds con- 
tended with thousands, and holding them at bay until Jack- 
son, with his immense train of stores and prisoners, had safely 
passed through Strasburg. 

It is worth while to review the movements of the past three 
days; Friday morning, Jackson was fifty miles from Strasburg 
in front of Harper's Ferry; Fremont was at Moorefield, thirty- 
eight miles from Strasburg, with the head of his army ten 
miles in advance; Shields's Division of McDowell's army was 
but twenty miles from Strasburg, with his advance in Front 
Roval, but twelve miles from Strasburg; and McDowell with 
two divisions close up with him; and yet, with this disparity 
in miles from Strasburg, Jackson, with his long line of captured 
stores, encumbered with prisoners, had marched between 
fifty and sixty miles, reached Strasburg before either of his 
adversaries, and passed safely between their conquering 
armies, holding Fremont at bay on the left by an offer of 
battle, and blinding and bewildering McDowell on the right 
by the celerity and secrecy of his movements. Jackson 
retired up the Valley, cautiously followed by Fremont. Mc- 
Dowell sent Shields up the Page Valley in pursuit of Jackson 
to cut him off about New Market, and with Fremont in his 
rear they could crush him. McDowell retained two divisions 
at Front Royal. Seeing the object of this move, Jackson 
decided he would not get caught in that trap, nor would he 
permit a junction of such a large force, so he sent scouts to 
Luray and Conrad's Store to burn all bridges and destroy 
all culverts that might impede Shields's advance, as he felt 
satisfied he could handle either one singly. Shields moved to 
Luray and found the passage to the Valley from there was 
destroyed, so he rested his command. Jackson fell back 
through Harrisonburg, skirmishing with Fremont's advance 
all the way and punishing it each time. At this juncture a 
column of Fremont's cavalry, in command of an English 
officer by the name of Sir Percy Wyndham, followed Ashby's 
rear guard beyond Harrisonburg, Wyndham saying that he 
would capture Ashby or not return. A fight was soon had, 
and in the midst of it Major Holmes Conrad, of Ashby's 
command, captured Sir Percy, and his sword is still in the 
possession of the Conrad family. Closely following this, Gen- 
eral Ashby was killed, the beloved cavalier of the South and 
General Jackson's main dependence. 

The battle of June 6 and 7, including Cross Keys and 
Port Republic, was fought, resulting in Fremont's withdrawal 
to Harrisonburg, and the advance of Shields's command, upon 
reaching Port Republic from the east side, was treated in 
similar manner and retired. McDowell still remained with 
his force at Conrad Store and Luray. General Shields con- 
cluded his message to Fremont by saying: "I think Jackson is 
caught this time." The fight was a desperate one, the scales 
varying as the conflict raged. Finally, the Federal forces 
were driven from the field, and again the Stars and Bars floated 
to the breeze in victory. Jackson withdrew his forces from 
Lewiston to Brown's Gap; his losses in this conflict were S16 
killed, wounded, and missing. His opponent, General Tyler, 
of Shields's Division, lost 6/ killed, 361 wounded and 574 miss- 
ing, a total of 1,002. 

(Concluded in April Number) 



RECONSTRUCTION AND THE KU-KLUX. 

BY JAMES H. ll'NEILLY, D.D. NASHVILLE, TENN. 

The darkest period of American history was that from 
1866 to 1876, devoted by the Congress of the United States to 
restoring the conquered Confederate States to their place as 
members of the United States and removing the desolations 
of war. 

It is not the purpose of this article to arouse again the bitter- 
ness and strife between the sections that prevailed im- 
mediately after the War between the States. It is our privilage 
and our duty to accept results in the providence of God and to 
cultivate the spirit of peace and harmony. 

Neither is it the purpose to condemn Mr. Lincoln for in- 
justice and oppression in the conduct of the war; not to recall 
those violations of the laws of civilized warfare such as the 
making of medicines contraband of war, the refusal to ex- 
change prisoners, when such exchange was dictated by every 
principle of humanity, and by the harsh and cruel treatment 
of noncombatants and the destruction of their property. We 
can give Mr. Lincoln credit for kindly personal feeling in his 
relations with his fellow men, his tender and sympathetic con- 
consideration of suffering everywhere, and for theoretical 
acceptance of the principles of morality and justice. But when 
we recall the outrages of Sheridan and Sherman in Virginia, 
Georgia, and North and South Carolina, and that Mr. Lin- 
coln approved of those outrages, it is hardly fair to expect 
the South to accept him as the highest type of Christian, as 
the national hero to be admired, and as the Christlike man 
to be imitated by all true patriots. 

It is true that the general sentiment of our country has come 
to condemn those outrages and the whole Congressional policy 
of reconstruction, yet within the last few years the tendency 
of the writers of the North has been to ignore or to condone 
the wrongs done or to justify them by false statements as to 
the attitude of the South after the war. 

My object is to set forth the truths of history as to the 
conduct of the war., to vindicate the principles for which the 
Confederate States went to war, and our readiness at all times 
for peace and harmony with the Union. 

It seems to me from a reading of history that when civilized 
governments are to be established two principles are in con- 
flict, each laboring for supremacy, the great object being that 
each shall have its proper place in the life of the people. The 
first is the principle of authority or autocracy, which asserts 
the supremacy of a central authority dependent upon physi- 
cal force. The second great principle upon which the people 
are to depend for protection against oppression is the principle 
of justice or righteousness, a spiritual principle, which, in the 
long run, will resist to the utmost all injustice and wrong- 
doing. These two principles and their antagonisms were 
manifest in the negotiations for the establishment of the 
Constitution of the United States. It was a question between 
a centralized government and the rights of sovereign States, 
and the Constitution was a compromise or compact between 
these two great forces which must be dependent for success on 
the faithfullness of each party in observing it. But from the 
very beginning there was a tendency on the part of autocracy 
to emphasize its rights, and this tendency was especially 
cultivated in the Northern section, while the South empha- 
sized State Rights. In 1854 the Republican party was organ- 
ized, the declared purpose of which was to deprive the South of 
certain constitutional rights, setting aside the decisions of 
the Supreme Court. In 1860 Mr. Lincoln was elected as the 
avowed candidate of that policy. Under these circumstances 
there was only one thing for the South to do, which was to 



Qogfederat^ l/eterai}. 



97 



withdraw from the compact. This certain States attempted to 

do and to form a separate Confederacy. Their commissioners 

were sent to negotiate with the United States government 

: for a settlement of all questions arising between the two 

- governments. It all finally turned upon reenforcing Fort 
'■ Sumter, in Charleston Harbor, and after various promises 

plainly made and unscrupulously broken, the United States 
government determined to reenforce the fort, and so the war 

- was brought on. 

In 1848 Mr. Lincoln was an able advocate in Congress of 

the doctrine of State Rights; by 1860 he declared that the 

attitude of a State to the general government was that of a 

• county to a State, and upon this latter idea Congress acted, 

I and its policy of reconstruction was but a carrying out of 

; the wrongs and oppressions perpetrated during the war. 

1. The Constitution was changed to give all the rights of 
citizenship to the negro. 

2. White Southerners and their sympathizers were dis- 
: franchized and restrained from interfering with any of the 

negro's rights. 

3. The country was divided into military sections, over 
each of which a general was placed in command, with troops 

l at his disposal to enforce the decisions of the civil tribunals. 

In a word, it was the legalizing of injustice and corruption 
■ before the courts of the country. 

The result was that the South was overrun with an army of 
'< bummers and carpetbaggers from the North, coming osten- 
' sibly to see that the negro had his rights and to install him as 

ruler over the States. The result was a rule of corruption, 

- of graft, of loot, and of lust that to-day is recognized as the 
disgrace of all who took part in it. 

In a single word, it was the malignant effort of the con- 
quering section of the country, in obedience to a false and 
r fanatical ideal, to destroy an ancient civilization with its 
claims, its rights, its privileges, its ideals, and its principles. 
To change an order of nature and bring the highest elements — 
> intellectual, social, religious, and political — into subjection to 
the very lowest elements that could be used for purposes of 
corruption and mere material profit. The negroes were or- 
ganized into secret societies to put themselves in office and 
carry out the behests of their carpetbag advisers. 

Under these circumstances, every principle of self-respect, 
of honor, and of self-preservation demanded that the South 
should resist by all means in its power the destruction of its 
original ideals. It has been charged that the Ku-Klux Klan 
made the reconstruction policy necessary. 

The actual fact is that the Southern people were resorting 
to various plans to break up the influence of the carpetbaggers 
over the negroes, especially to break up the secret organizations. 
When suddenly it was found, by apparent accident, that an 
organization of young men, for their own amusement, could 
be used to appeal to the superstition of the negroes and to 
bring their dread of unseen world powers to protect the white 
people against their nightly machinations. 

Against those unseen powers the carpetbagger was held 
to be helpless. So the Ku-Klux Klan was regularly organ- 
ized with a head, the great General Forrest, its various 
officers and orders, it signs and watchwords to frighten the 
negroes into submission to the better elements of the com- 
munity. It is probable that comparatively few suffered 
violence at its hands. There were two classes that were never 
spared — a negro assaulting a white woman or a white man stir- 
ring up negroes to outrages. 

At the end of four years it was seen that the organization 
had accomplished its purpose, law and order were gradually 
restored, the better elements of the Northern people coming 



into the South became helpers in the work of restoration. 
The negroes gradually took their natural place, and so the 
organization, in 1870, was officially and formally dissolved by 
order of the president, General Forrest. 

It is true that for several years afterwards there were organ- 
izations calling themselves Ku-Klux and committing various 
outrages, but they were easily subdued. 

In 1876 the Southern States that had entered the Confed- 
eracy were restored to their original position, and from that 
day, as a body, they have been thoroughly faithful to the new 
obligations assumed by them, and in two great wars have 
shown their loyalty to the Union. In the rape of Panama 
from Columbia, in the rescue of Cuba from Spain, and in the 
entrance of the United States in the great World War, the 
great principle for which the Confederate States contended 
is recognized as supreme. That is to say, the right of every 
people to determine their own form of government. So it is 
that God fulfills his purposes in various ways, and makes the 
"wrath of man to praise him, while the remainder of wrath 
he doth restrain." 

A CAMP EPISODE. 

BY L. A. WAILES, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Do many of our veterans, in their retrospective moods, 
indulge in memories of our camp life, with its many scenes, 
events, and episodes — some sad and depressing, though it was 
seldom that a soldier ever gave way to despondency, but was 
ever joyous and hopeful — must I add, even frivolous? Our 
camp life, with all its privation and hardships, to say nothing 
of the ever present reminder of the danger of battle, accident, 
pestilence, or that crowning misfortune, capture and a prison 
— to my memory those seem a prolonged picnic. With such 
an assembly of diverse, contradictory characters, one might 
expect many disputes, serious, even violent, quarrels and 
fights. And yet I ask all old veterans how many quarrels or 
serious dissension they can recall. For myself, I am happy 
to record that not one single one recurs to my memory. I 
am glad to think of those many days of camp life as an 
assembly of a closely affiliated brotherhood, each member 
knowing every other so intimately that quarrels were impos- 
sible. 

And who can but remember the numberless fads — they were 
nothing but fads — that frequently took possession of a camp, 
giving employment to idle hands, making from bone or horn 
rude memorials to send home, or canes cut from different 
battle fields. We even had amateur jewellers, with only a 
piece of charcoal for a crucible and a joint of cane for a blow- 
pipe. I will say, in passing, that the ring with which I was 
married was made in camp from a five dollar gold piece which 
my father put into my hand when I took the train for the 
camp of instruction on leaving for the front, and it was a 
work that could not have been excelled in any professional 
jeweller's shop. 

And this long digression — my dream ran away with my pen 
— brings me to my purpose, a camp fad. To make this clear 
it is necessary to introduce two characters, individuals of the 

regiment. George -was a small man, much under size for 

enlistment under army regulations, He had tried to enlist 
in a regiment organized in his own town and county, but was 
turned down on account of his size, or, rather, undersize. He 
was of a fine, prominent family, very popular and, moreover, 
a fine musician, the cornet being his specialty. At the de- 
parture of the regiment for the front, he volunteered as bugler, 
a very essential adjunct to a cavalry organization. He had 
served as bugler for two years, when it came to pass that the 



98 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 



regiment required a secretary in the quartermaster's depart- 
ment. George wrote a fine business hand, and he offered for 
the position; but a bugler was indispensible. In the regiment 
was a Jew, by name of Rose, a good natured fellow and not a 
bad soldier, rather popular, though somewhat of a butt. 
George hit upon Rose as his substitute, to which Rose was not 
averse, as it would relieve him of picket and guard duty. 
George, with the consent of the colonel, undertook to educate 
him for the place; so his musical education began. Every day, 
or several times a day, a lesson, the intervals filled with Rose's 
everlasting practicing — toot, toot, toot — without ceasing, to 
the no small annoyance of sensitive ears but without a 
sense of humor. The situation had been announced in 
''morning orders," Rose relieved of all his duties, when all 
at once an inconceivable fad took possession of the camp. 
Go where you would, at any time, and you would find all in 
sight engaged in scraping a horn — no explanation by com- 
mon consent. 

Time passed, Rose became more of a butt than ever. 
Finally "morning orders" announced the new order: George 
quartermaster's secretary; Rose regimental bugler. 

Now the denoument — the fad had come to an end. Next 
morning, at the first toot of Rose's bugle, every horn came 
from under its owner's blanket, and such a "reveille," I 
venture to say, never waked an army, or, at least, not since 
Joshua with ram's horn blew down the walls of Jericho. 



'I'll stand by the 
the young 



THE YOUNG COLONEL'S RUSE. 

[The story which won for Mrs. Samuel Posey, daughter of 
Gen. Adam R. Johnson, of Texas, the gold medal offered by 
the Texas Division U. D. C] 

It is well for the present generation to turn back the pages 
of history at least once a year to the days of the "Old South, 
the Land of Dixie," and become familiar with those gallant 
men and beautiful, courageous women who gave to this sunny 
Southland of ours an enviable name which is still heralded in 
song and story. Just now the time is opportune for the re- 
lating of an incident of the War between the States which, 
though more than fifty years have flown since that great 
conflict, still holds savor enough of romance and adventure 
to prove of interest. 

It was a Sabbath day in the year 1861. The good people of 
the quaint little city of Henderson, Ky., were upon their way 
to church. The young colonel strolled along the fragrant, 
sunny street with his mother upon his arm. He was a splen- 
did specimen of young manhood, and many a coquettish 
glance was cast his way. His tall lithe figure showed to ad- 
vantage in the dress of the period, the long black broadcloth 
coat, the light gray trousers, the finely ruffled linen of stock 
and shirt, above which rose his handsome face with its bril- 
liant gray eyes, acquiline nose, and firm, masterful, mouth. 
A tall beaver hat added the last note to the correct costume 
of a Southern gentleman. 

The dainty little woman hanging so affectionately to his 
arm resembled one of the late roses blooming along the walk, 
and no hint of the alarm that was fast possessing her son had 
as yet marred her pleasure in having him home again after 
six years upon the Texas plains. As they walked along the 
young colonel noticed with anxiety men who now wore the 
blue of the Union looking upon him with suspicion and whis- 
pering among themselves as they gathered in groups here 
and there. He recalled with a start of apprehension a laugh- 
ing wager he had made with Dick Burbridge when war was 
discussed as a probability. 



"If war is declared," Dick had said, 
Union. " 

"And I'll wear the gray of the Confederacy, 
colonel had replied. 

"If you do," Dick laughed, "I'll never rest until I make 
you prisoner. " 

"I'll bet you my Kentucky thoroughbred that I capture 
you first," he had jested," his arm around his friend's shoul- 
ders, for war had not cooled their warm love for each other. 

"Done!" Burbridge declared heartily, "I'll call your 
hand. Remember, when you enter the rebel army a Federal 
fox will be upon your trail." 

It looked now as if the Federal fox had left his lair, and, 
this Sabbath morning, was close upon his heels. The fact of 
his long absence in Texas and that he had not intimated his 
connection with Nathan Bedford Forrest, he had hoped 
would protect him until he obtained the information he 
sought in regard to the Federal strength at this place. Some 
hint evidently had reached them, and the valuable papers 
which he carried from General Breckinridge caused him great 
uneasiness. 

The young colonel did not intend, however, to fail in the 
first important commission assigned him, if there was any 
way out of the net his enemies were fast drawing around him. 
His long years of training upon the Texas plains fighting 
Indians had taught him to meet cunning with cunning. So 
he entered the church, walked boldly up the aisle, knowing 
that he was entering the trap laid for his undoing 

He heard nothing of what the preacher said, his brain busy 
with plans for escape, his eyes investigating each possible 
loophole through which he might slip from the church. His 
eyes dwelt for a moment lovingly upon his mother's sweet 
profile, as she sat listening to the words of the gospel. He 
had no means of knowing when he would see that dear face 
again. He drew her hand into his, holding it tenderly in 
farewell. 

He saw Dick Burbridge sitting near the main entrance, re- 
splendent in the new uniform of a Federal officer. Here and 
there were other blue uniforms placed at advantageous inter- 
vals to prevent his eluding them. 

Then the young colonel's gaze alighted upon a face that 
made him forget all danger, all thought of anything but the 
thrill that her beauty awoke within him. Sitting with her 
hands clasped loosely in her lap, the soft light from the 
stained-glass window falling upon her, sat the girl of his 
dreams. 

"Let us sing hymn number forty. Congregation please 
stand," the preacher said. 

"The Federals are laying for me, mother," the young 
colonel whispered, drawing his mother close to his side. "I 
am going to try to make my get-away. Don't make a fuss. 
Good-by. " 

"Good-by, my son. God bless and keep you," his mother 
said, her face pale, but deep within her eyes burned a patri- 
otic fire which was reflected in the strong countenance of her 
soldier boy. 

The young colonel walked boldly across the church as the 
congregation rose to sing, and, pausing beside Miss Eastland, 
whispered: "I am on my way to rejoin General Forrest. Will 
you not wish me Godspeed?" 

"O, Add, don't you know the danger you are in?" Jose- 
phine whispered excitedly. " Dick Burbridge means to cap- 
ture you. He has every road guarded." 

"As they say in Texas, 'they ain't got me yit,'" he laughed 
softly. "Don't be alarmed. I shall outwit the Federal fox 



^oijfederat^ Ueterai). 



99 



yet. Can't you send me into battle wearing your colors? 
That would be reward enough to risk capture for." 

Pulling a red rose from the corsage at her waist, Josephine 
thrust it into his hand, saying: " I send my knight to fight for 
. my country decorated with my colors, the red of the Confed- 
eracy. Now go, and God bless you." 

The hymn was fast drawing to a close, and, as yet, with all 

his bold talk, the young colonel had not found a feasible way 

; out of his predicament. Glancing out of the open window, 

. he saw a magnificent black thoroughbred hitched to a post 

I near the sidewalk. Instantly his decision was made. With 

one bound he was at the window. He made one leap to the 

ground, snatched the bridle reins from the post, caught the 

! saddle horn, and swung himself to the horse's back without 

the use of the stirrups, and as the spirited horse whirled to 

• run, Dick Burbridge yelled from the window, as he levelled 
i a brace of revolvers: "Surrender, in the name of the Union!" 

"The Confederacy forever," the young colonel laughed 

defiantly, his gray eyes blazing with excitement, as he kissed 

his fingers to Josephine and, hanging Indian fashion from the 

saddle on the opposite side from his foe, dashed away, as the 

, shot from Dick's pistol went wild. 

"A close shave, old boy," he told the horse as he raced 
along. "No roads for me, but the open country, and may 
. Lady Luck ride with me." 

, Knowing just where the Federal pickets were placed, the 
- young colonel chose his way with care. In half an hour he 
was well beyond the Federal lines. All day he rode, ever on 
. the alert. As the evening shadows began to lengthen he 
, realized he was hungry and began to look around for some 
. friendly farmhouse where he might obtain supper. He saw 
. smoke rising from some trees a short distance away, and in 
his usual bold way rode up to the door. A woman opened at 
. his "Hello!" 

"Could you spare a tired traveler some supper?" he asked 
with his most winning smile. 

"It all depends on whether ye be blue or gray. From the 
looks uf ye, ye be neither one. You'd look a sight better in 
a uniform and totin' a gun." 

"What you say is true, madam. I'll tell you a secret: I 
wear a uniform, but I dare not tell its color till I know your 
sentiments. What color is your flag?" he asked, his eyes 
twinkling. 

"Red. I don't feed nobody but those as wear gray," the 
woman replied briefly. 

"Then I reckon I get supper." With agile grace he dis- 
mounted, then with one quick movement he unbuttoned the 
fine linen shirt, disclosing the gray of his Confederate uniform. 

• "For many reasons I wear it so," he said, as she opened 
wide the door. 

As the young colonel entered the room he noticed a sick 
man lying upon a cot. He drew near to offer comfort or as- 
sistance while his hostess prepared his meal. 

"Good Lord! if it ain't Add! What are you doing here?" 
the sick man exclaimed to the astonished colonel. 

"Bob Martin! Well, if this doesn't beat the deuce! But 
what's the matter with your face? It's so red and swollen" — 

Before Martin could reply the sound of many hoof beats 
chilled the blood in the young colonel's veins. He realized 
that the Federal fox had him trapped this time, and the pa- 
pers in his boot would mean his death as a spy. Glancing 
around the little room desperately, he saw Martin's swollen 
face covered with white pistules, and then he strode to the 
door, flinging it open. 

"Have you a surgeon with you?" he asked the amazed 



Federal who stood without with hand raised to knock for 
admittance. 

"Yes. Why do you ask?" 

"There's a sick Confederate soldier in here, and I think he 
has smallpox. " 

"Smallpox! The hell you say! Major Burbridge, there's 
a man in here with smallpox," the soldier shouted. 

"What! You are not fooling, Add?" Major Burbridge 
asked, forgetting in his alarm all army ethics. 

"See for yourself, " the young colonel replied coolly, leading 
the way to the cot, where Martin, quick to catch his cue, lay 
moaning and tossing in apparent agony. 

"Confluent smallpox," the army doctor said. "I advise 
immediate retreat, Major Burbridge, and leaving all exposed 
people behind. " 

"I agree with you, doctor," Burbridge said hastily, as he 
and the doctor almost ran out of the house. 

The sound of horses' feet had hardly ceased before the 
young colonel and Martin were shouting with laughter. Their 
hostess came to see what it was all about. 

"Martin has smallpox, madam," the young colonel told 
her gravely. 

"Smallpox, my foot! Pizen oak, you mean.' This bread 
poultice will fix him up by mornin'," she said confidently as 
she arranged it to the swollen face. 

Without further incident the young colonel, accompanied 
by Martin, reached the proper persons, delivered his papers, 
and once more started upon his way to rejoin General Forrest. 

"You know, Bob, I have a plan," the young colonel said 
suddenly, as they rode along the turnpike. 

" Let's hear it. " 

" Dick Burbridge has five hundred stands of arms and sup- 
plies of all kinds at Newberg, across the river over there," 
pointing across the Ohio to a small town upon its shore. "I 
have twenty-seven men at the Bend, a mile ahead. You 
go there and with those men make the Federal gunboat that's 
about due think Forrest's whole command is in those woods. 
Send Owen and one other to me. I must have those supplies. " 

"You are as crazy as a bat, Add! You can never carry 
that scheme through. I'll do my derndest to put it over 
though, if you say. Adios." 

Martin vanished up the road. The young colonel rode up 
and down in deep study. Near by were the ruins of a cabin, 
a broken-down wagon, some joints of stove pipe. The town 
was only a stone's throw across the river. Dismounting, the 
resourceful colonel dragged the wheels to the edge of the 
trees, mounted the stove pipes upon them, and two very for- 
midable cannon turned forbidding noses Newbergward. 

Owen and his companion arrived, and the ferryman was 
forced fo row them across the river. There they found the 
arsenal unguarded. Leaving Owen and his friend to load the 
guns upon the boat, the young colonel now proceeded toward 
the hotel where were the Federal headquarters. The full 
uniform of a Confederate officer now covered his fine form, 
the gold stars upon his collar made from twenty-dollar gold 
pieces given him by his admirers. He had not told Martin 
that while supposedly upon a visit to his mother he had 
raised his own command and that at this moment, along with 
a certain red rose, a brigadier general's commission lay but- 
toned over his heart. His command, the Partisan Rangers, 
was ready. He must equip it. He meant to get that equip- 
ment here at Newberg. 

He reached the hotel without incident. The guard rose 
with an astonished oath, which was quickly silenced as the 
young colonel's fist took him under the jaw. It was the 



// 



100 



^otyfederaf:^ l/eterai). 



dinner hour, and as he threw the door to the dining room 
open eighty Federals sprang to their feet. 

"Surrender, in the name of the Confederacy!" he shouted. 

Tables were overturned, dishes crashed to the floor. A 
woman screamed as she let fall a tray of steaming food. Men 
cursed the negligence that had caused them in fancied se- 
curity to stack their guns in the corner where the young colo- 
nel now stood triumphant, covering them with his gun. 

"If you don't surrender, I'll shell your town to the ground, " 
he shouted, pointing dramatically to his stove pipe cannon 
across the river. 

"Who said surrender?" Burbridge cried, entering a side 
door. 

"I did, Major Burbridge, and my guns are read}- awaiting 
my signal to destroy this town," was the cool reply. "Your 
sword and pistol, please." 

"Take them and be damned to you," Burbridge said 
angrily, thrusting his weapons to his captor. 

All the time he had been making such bold demands, the 
young colonel's ears had been strained for the sound of Martin 
and his boys, hoping that they had turned the gunboat back 
and could join him. He was very much relieved to hear them 
in the street. 

Working quickly, the guns and supplies were loaded into 
wagons "pressed" into service, and as the gunboat made its 
reappearance in the river, the Johnny Rebs were well upon 
their way to Dixie. The young colonel had won for himself 
a complete equipment for his command and the soubriquet 
of "Stove-pipe Johnson.' 

Finale. 

When the crimson battle flag was furled after four years of 
strife and that thin gray line returned to the devastated 
Southland, the young colonel found his sweetheart waiting, 
and together they did what they could to rebuild what war 
had destroyed and watched with pride the "birth of a nation " 
from the wreck and ruin, a new South with all the ideals of 
the old to carry on till the end of time in this fair land of 
Dixie. 

LIFE IX RICHMOND, 1863-1865. 

[The following account of private and of official life in 
Richmond during the period preceding the fall of the Con- 
federate government is an extract from an unpublished 
memoir of himself, written in 1870, by the late Lieut. Col. 
Thomas Livingston Bayne, for the information of his descend- 
ants. At the outbreak of the war Colonel Bayne was a 
distinguished member of the Xew Orleans bar. He enlisted 
in the Fifth Company of the Washington Artillery, Army of 
Tennessee. After his recovery from a severe wound, received 
in the battle of Shiloh, he was appointed captain of artillery 
and assigned to duty as assistant to Colonel Gorgas, Chief of 
Ordance, War Department, Richmond. — John Donnell Smith, 
Captain Battery A, Alexander's Battalion Artillery, A. F. V., 
Baltimore, Md.] 

Early in 1863, General Gorgas felt the need of certain ord- 
nance supplies which could not be secured within the country, 
and, with the permission of the Secretary of War, he arranged 
to procure two fine steamers to run the blockade. These 
steamers were very successful, and shortly afterwards the 
other chiefs of Bureaus — the Quartermaster General, Surgeon 
General, Chief of Engineers, and Commissary General — desired 
permission to procure and use steamers to carry out cotton 
and purchase foreign supplies. The Secretary' of War felt that 
there would be conflict between his different officers, and to 



avoid this he created a separate " Bureau of Foreign Supplies,' 
and promoted me from the rank of major, which I had at- 
tained, to that of lieutenant colonel and ordered me to report 
directly to him as Chief of the "Bureau of Foreign Supplies." 
In the discharge of my duties I had charge of all of the pur- 
chases of cotton for the War Department, its transportation 
and shipment, of the shipment of all foreign supplies, and of 
all of the ships employed by the government. The proceeds 
of cotton shipped went to the credit of the Treasury De- 
partment. 

I applied for and obtained the assignment of I. M. Seixas 
to Wilmington, N. C, of J. D. Aiken to Charleston, and of 
X. Harleston Brown to Mobile; and I asked for the appoint- 
ment of Joseph Denegre as captain and his assignment to me 
as my assistant. All of these orders were granted, and soon 
our bureau was organized. 

Meanwhile I had removed my family to Richmond. Cap- 
tain Denegre, Maj. Stephen Chalaron, and I kept house to- 
gether. We rented a very comfortable furnished home for 
$600 per month. I paid three-fifths, Denegre and Chalaron 
each one-fifth, for rent and other expenses. Our house was 
situated on Cary near Fifth Street. It was commodious and 
well furnished. We were able several times to provide rooms 
for sick and wounded soldiers. Poor Dick Hewitt died in our 
house. We were enabled to live very well by thus combining 
our pay and allowances. My pay and allowance as lieutenant 
colonel amounted to about §325 per month, Chalaron and 
Denegre had from from $200 to $250 a month. 

Denegre's father was in Europe, and he received from him 
full supplies of clothing and divided them liberally with his 
friends. Hon. George Trenholm, the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, assisted us in securing from abroad sugar, coffee, canned 
meats, etc., and I sent to Alabama for some bacon, which was 
forwarded to us. Very often John (our dining-room boy) went 
to market with me, carrying on his shoulder a side of bacon, 
which I exchanged for fresh meat, selling the bacon at $6 to SS 
per pound, and receiving the fresh beef or mutton at $2 to $3 
per pound. As the Confederate money continued to depre- 
ciate, it became more and more difficult to buy provisions with 
it. I desired to avoid the accumulation of any debts during 
the war, and therefore sold or bartered anything we had for 
provisions. My wife sold a Xew Orleans bonnet for $600, 
taking payment in five turkeys estimated at S120 each. 
Finally, when we had exhausted all that we could sell, in- 
cluding a diamond ring, I borrowed fifty pounds sterling from 
Denegre, and when the war closed I borrowed twenty-five 
pounds more to leave with my wife until I could reach Xew 
Orleans. 

Our residence in Richmond was as pleasant as it could be 
during the war. As chief of one of the bureaus, and reporting 
to the Secretary of War, I had access to the War and Adjutant 
General's Departments, where I would learn the earliest news, 
and where I could be of service to my friends. Judge John 
A. Campbell, Assistant Secretary of War (formerly one of the 
Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States), was my 
intimate friend. Burton A. Harrison, the private secretary 
of the President, was also an intimate friend. My relations 
with the chiefs of the bureaus of the War Department, with 
the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of War were 
very pleasant. My duties made me to some extent an inter- 
mediary between the Secretaries of War and Treasury. I saw 
the President often on business, and met him and his family 
socially at his house. I recollect that at one time I was sent 
for to come to the President's office to meet General Lee. The 
yellow fever prevailed at Bermuda and Xopan, the places 
from which, or through which, our foreign supplies were 



Qoi?federat^ Veterai). 



101 



generally drawn. The governors of both the Carolinas and 
-:he local authorities at Wilmington, N. C, established a 
quarantine and kept vessels loaded with government 
■ upplies out in the bay for fifteen or twenty days. General 
^ee complained of this, and the object of the conference was to 
-\ee whether or not vessels could be sent in from other ports, 
ind thus avoid the necessity for quarantine. Mr. Davis was 
7ery reluctant to overrule the local authorities or to come into 
:onflict with the governor of a State. He was disposed to 
idhere to his views of State Rights, even in such a case as 
his; but General Lee was indisposed to allow the municipal 
mthorities of Wilmington to stand in the way of supplying 
lis army. Finally the question was put by General Lee, 
vhether or not provisions could not be sent in from Halifax. 
The answer was that the departure of all steamers from Hal- 
fax was at once telegraphed to Boston and New York, and 
'essels were dispatched to intercept them; besides, the dis- 
ance was so great that the steamers would be loaded with 
oal and could not carry much cargo. In answer to some sug- 
;estion about avoiding vessels sent out and captured, the 
-"resident said: "General, I have great confidence in your 
.bility to whip Yankees, but I do not think we can deceive 
hem." The discussions between the President and General 
.ee were most easy and kind, and the tone was that of men 
laving entire confidence in each other. 

I have referred to Judge Campbell as Assistant Secretary 
if War. The circumstances of his appointment were as fol- 
ows: He had come out from New Orleans with us and was in 
Richmond without anything to do. He had no inclination to 
iractice law there while the war was raging. One evening in 
863 (or possibly 1862), I was sitting upon the doorsteps of 
he residence of General Randolph, the Secretary of War, with 
Vlrs. Randolph and other persons visiting the house. Gen- 
ral Randolph was within doors. Mrs. Randolph called my 
ittention to this, and said: "My poor husband is so tired and 
o much afraid of being called out, that he must keep within 
loors. Can you not suggest some person from New Orleans 
>r elsewhere who will relieve him?" I did not think of any 
lerson at the moment, but the next morning, through Gen- 
ral Gorgas, I suggested Judge Campbell. The Secretary of 
iVar sent for me and asked me if I had assurance that Judge 
lampbell would accept the appointment. I told him that I 
lad never mentioned the subject and had never heard Judge 
Campbell express himself, but I was satisfied that he was 
villing to do anything he could. I ascertained afterwards 
hat several members of Congress from Alabama opposed the 
.ppointment, but after a few days General Randolph re- 
luested me to speak to Judge Campbell, stating that if it was 
igreeable he would call upon him. He called, and the appoint- 
nent was made. Judge Campbell intimated that he would 
irefer a modest military position and assignment to duty with 
he Secretary of War rather than the appointment of Assist- 
:nt Secretary of War. 



AT GREENSBORO, N. C, IN APRIL, 1865. 

BY ROBERT HERRIOT, LITTLE ROCK, ARK. 

It is remarkable that after the lapse of more than a half 
entury so many interesting reminiscences of the War be- 
ween the States still continue to appear in the Veteran, 
nost of them, too, being published for the first time. While 
11 could not be participants in decisive battles, many can tell 
if things of general interest that happened under their ob- 
ervation. 

When Gen. Joseph E. Johnston marched north into North 
-arolina, he came to a stop between Raleigh and Greensboro 



preparatory to an armistice with Sherman, and found the 
battery of which I was a member — Bachman's, of Charleston, 
S. C. — encamped at Hillsboro. We were armed with four 
twelve-pound Napoleons, which were captured from the 
Federals at Second Manassas. The company originally con- 
sisted of Germans, who were fine soldiers and expert artillery- 
men. About half of the company were killed off in Virginia, 
and they were recruited with Americans in South Carolina in 
1864, when I joined them. On the march through North 
Carolina we were mounted and attached to the Wade Hamp- 
ton Cavalry, but failed to get fully equipped as horse artil- 
lery owing to the ending of the war. 

The commissioned officers of the company were favorable 
to law as a profession. The captain and first and second 
lieutenants were lawyers, and for all I know the third lieu- 
tenant may have been one also; he was killed in Virginia be- 
fore I joined the company. 

We lay encamped at Hillsboro for a week or ten days in the 
latter part of March and the first of April, and thoroughly 
enjoyed the rest after the long hike from the South Carolina 
coast. Also we were fortunate in drawing liberal rations while 
at Hillsboro. 

While resting gently a hurry-up order came to load the 
company and equipment on the cars and proceed toward 
Salisbury to meet Sherman, who, in a raid, had come out of 
East Tennessee and would attempt to burn the railroad 
bridge at the Yadkin River and release the Federal prisoners 
confined in the stockade at Salisbury. But when we reached 
Greensboro there were orders to disembark and await further 
orders. 

What attracted our attention mostly on our arrival at 
Greensboro was the great number of general officers, mounted 
and riding around, and the quantity of whisky and tobacco 
in sight The main street was lined with empty whisky bar- 
rels with the heads knocked in and near-by vacant lots were 
covered with tobacco hogsheads. Any one who wished could 
help himself to the tobacco, the latter being the property of 
the Confederacy. Quite a lot of it was appropriated by the 
writer, who, with the assistance of one of his mess, who was in 
the tobacco-growing region of South Carolina, manufactured 
a lot of it into twists and on the march home used it as cur- 
rency. It would have done the heart of our present-day 
prohibition enforcement officers good to have been present on 
the second day of our arrival and seen the wholesale destruc- 
tion of a whole trainload of liquor said to have belonged to 
the "Medicinal Department" of the Confederate Govern- 
ment. As the heads of the barrels were knocked in the whisky 
ran down, making a lake a foot deep in a low place near the 
track. The boys were dipping so much of the stuff that the 
army officer in charge of the operation ordered the conductor 
of the train to run forward and then back up, and continue 
to keep the cars moving, so the liquor could not be secured by 
the soldiers. I dipped up a camp kettle full and took it to 
camp, where my mess and others of the boys drank hot tod- 
dies all night, having plenty of hot water and Confederate 
brown sugar. Being a kid at that time, this was the first 
liquor I had ever tasted, except some medicated stuff that we 
were forced to drink while doing picket duty on the South 
Carolina coast to prevent getting malaria. 

Greensboro at this time was quite a depot of military sup- 
plies. The quartermaster's was packed with uniforms, blan- 
kets, and shoes. The depot was guarded by a portion of the 
North Carolina Regiment. Some of Wheeler's Cavalry, be- 
longing to Dibrell's brigade, took a notion to rush the depot 
of supplies, but the garrison fired on them, repulsing, killing, 
and wounding several. It was a tragic and unfortunate af- 



;/ 



102 



Qopfederat^ l/eterag. 



fair, as the war had just about drawn to a close. As I saw 
one of the cavalrymen lying on the side of a hill with his head 
downward, just as he was shot from his horse, I thought of the 
good work done by the Wheeler and Hampton cavalry in pro- 
tecting the marching columns of infantry and artillery and 
in keeping Kilpatrick off of them while they slept at night on 
that march of Johnston to join Lee. 

Greensboro, about the middle of April, 1865, pending the 
armistice between Johnston and Sherman, was practically 
the capital of the Confederacy, and for one to see the large 
number of general officers in fine uniforms, together with 
many orderlies riding hurriedly to and fro, was an inspiring 
sight. Of all the distinguished generals present none appealed 
to my boyish admiration more than John C. Breckinridge. 
I thought he was the handsomest officer on horseback that I 
had ever seen. He certainly was a graceful rider and had a 
genial and pleasant countenance. 

While we were awaiting orders before the surrender, Presi- 
dent Jefferson Davis and his cabinet came through from Rich- 
mond. He did not remain long. It was reported at the time 
that he had two cars of silver with his party and that it would 
be divided among the men. I don't know whether this was 
done or not, as I did not get any of it. 

About this time Lee's veterans came by in squads, making 
quick time, having been paroled at Appomattox. We also 
heard a rumor that Lincoln had been assassinated in Wash- 
ington, but we did not believe the report. 

Finally we received orders to proceed to South Carolina for 
the purpose of doing police duty there. In proceeding South 
we crossed the Yadkin River on the railroad bridge, which 
was planked. The river is deep and narrow, with high banks 
at the bridge, and here was done most of the fighting when 
Stoneman was repulsed. There was much debris lying 
around — broken caissons and limbers, dismounted field pieces 
I noticed one piece that had been struck on the edge of the 
mouth and dismounted. Most of the Confederate soldiers in 
this fight were Federal soldiers who had taken the oath of 
allegiance to the Confederacy; at least, so I was informed at 
the time. They were alluded to as "galvanized Yankees." 
Further on the way we passed the prison stockades at Salis- 
bury. They were deserted, the prisoners having been re- 
moved. President Davis and his cabinet and escort were just 
about twenty-four hours in advance of us, we used some of 
their camp fires. We were each on the road to Charlotte. At 
Charlotte the presidential party turned off toward Abbeville 
where, as history tells us, the last cabinet meeting was held. 
We continued on to Columbia. On arrival there our force had 
been reduced to about twenty men and a lieutenant and 
sergeant. Having heard of the surrender of Johnston, every 
one realized that the war was over, and those of us present 
held an informal council of war, and it was suggested that 
the lieutenant give each man a thirty-day furlough, which 
would be evidence that we were not absent without leave, 
and at the end of the thirty days the war would be over. This 
was done. The other commissioned officers and some of the 
men had been sent on detached service before leaving Greens- 
boro. 

I left Columbia for my home at Aiken, eighty miles distant, 
and arrived without mishap. After getting home and hear- 
ing that many were being paroled at Augusta, I went there 
and received a parole, which read, in part: "I hereby agree 
not to take up arms against the United States until duly ex- 
changed, and to obey the laws in force wherever I may reside. " 



THE BATTLE OF JONESVILLE. 

BY J. A. G. WYATT. 

(Written for the Light Horse Harry Lee Chapter U. D. C, 
of Jonesville, Va.) 

The remnant of our 64th Virginia Regiment, that part 
of it which escaped from the surrender at Cumberland 
Gap, Tenn., in September, 1863, with a few recruits, number- 
ing in all about 100 as brave men as ever donned the gray 
uniform, had a camp near what is now known as Dryden, Lee 
County, Va. On the night of December 30, 1863, we received 
a dispatch from Gen. W. E. Jones, who was at Rogersville, 
Tenn., to move our troops toward Jonesville, that he would 
have use for us down that way. It was known to us that a 
battalion of about 300 Yankees, under the command of Major 
Beers, had been operating out from Cumberland Gap and had 
been ravaging and foraging on our good people up Powell 
Valley. We readily understood that General Jones had con- 
cluded to try to stop Major Beers in his wild career. 

On New Year's Day, 1864, very early in the morning, when 
the weather was the coldest ever known in this country, 
Col. A. L. Pridemore, who was in command of our little band, 
had us ready to move at the dawn of day. We moved out 
toward Jonesville. 

In the meantime, General Jones moved with a small force 
from Rogersville via Blackwater, Hunter's Gap, and the Hurri- 
cane Ford in Powells River, about forty miles south of Jones- 
ville. In making this march across the mountains three or 
four of his men froze to death, but the brave and gallant W. E. 
Jones pressed on and fell west of Major Beer's command near 
the camp ground, where he engaged him in battle. That was 
from eight to nine o'clock, on the morning of January 1, 1864. 

About this time our force had arrived at the forks of the 
road just east of Jonesville, near M. D. Richmond's residence. 
We moved up the road to Crockett's Springs, where we dis- 
mounted and marched across by what is now known as the 
fair grounds and to a road leading from Jonesville across the 
mountains to Harlan, Ky., thus preventing Beers's escape in 
that direction. We learned that hot fighting had been going 
on between General Jones's and Major Beers's commands, and 
soon observed that Beers had taken a position on a hill in sight 
of Jonesville. General Jones's forces drove Beers's men on up 
to the Milbourne residence, where they offered stubborn resist- 
ance. The Federal forces were pressed farther back upon the 
hill a half mile west of Jonesville. In this fighting the Yankees 
''shot up" the Colonel Martin residence with cannon. The 
holes are in the house to this day. Lieutenant Samuel, of Gen- 
eral Jones's forces, charged and captured one of the enemy's 
cannon, which was soon retaken by a much heavier Yankee 
force, Lieutenant Samuel being killed in this charge. 

By the time Major Beers's men had gained the top of the 
high hill, Col. A. L. Pridemore's men had possession of the 
Harlan Road immediately in Beers's rear, thus practically 
surrounding him. General Jones would have been at great 
disadvantage in advancing on the Yankee forces, since he 
would have had to come through an open field. Colonel 
Pridemore quickly perceived our particular advantage, ordered 
a deploy, and advanced up through the skirts of woods. By 
this order our front was considerably extended, and in this 
position we advanced under a rain of bullets. We had pro- 
tection by the trees, which received the deadly missiles to our 
great advantage. We advanced to within one hundred yards 
of the Yankees when we saw a white flag go up, to our satis- 
faction. Then began the rush by our men, who wanted to 
capture completely this band of Yankees, and also wanted to 
get better firearms and equipment. General Jones, observing 



^opfederat^ l/eteraij. 



103 



that his particular command lost the prize, retired, leaving us 
to wind up the job, which we found to be no small matter. We 
went to our task with vim, surrounded and moved Beers and 
his men down to level ground, where we found rails to make 
Sres to warm our frozen limbs. We then put out a guard and 
-detached a squad to hunt up the dead and wounded. We 
"ronverted the large brick residence of Andy Milbourne into 
i hospital and placed twenty-three wounded Yanks therein 
under the charge of Mr. Milbourne, who was willing to take 
":are of them, since he was a strong Union man and seemed to 
want to do something for the Union forces. The wounded 
Yankees were well taken care of, and as they became able 
':hey were piloted across into Kentucky by a colored man by 
:he name of George Martin. The prisoners were sent to 
'Bristol, Va., the nearest railroad point at that time, and from 
':here were taken on to prison, Camp Anderson, S. C. 

I want to relate a personal experience in this engagement. 

: fohn W. Carnes and I were the first soldiers to gain the top of 

:he hill where Major Beers's men were. We rushed up to 

Major Beers, who was sitting on his mount, and I demanded 

lis surrender. He, as I learned afterwards, was an old West 

Pointer. Straightening up in his saddle, he asked who I was. 

-[ informed him that I was adjutant of the 64th Virginia Regi- 

nent. He asked if I was in command of the forces, and on 

earning that I was not, he then said; "By the Eternal, I will 

lever surrender to anyone inferior in office, especially when he 

s not commander of the forces about me." John Carnes and 

iome of the men called out that we would make him snrrender, 

"vhen some of Beers's men went for their guns, which had been 

-itacked. It seemed that a clash was imminent, when I called 

't off and hastened to where I saw Colonel Pridemore, and 

wrought him up to Major Beers, who surrendered to him his 

lorse, sword, pistols, etc. Colonel Pridemore used the horse 

ind equipment until the war closed. He called the horse 

Vlajor Bears. I arrested Lieutenant McElroy and got his horse 

ind equipment, and used them till the close of hostilities in 

: \pril, 1865. 

' I am eighty-one years of age and sometimes have a tingling 
r n my bones which seems to tell me that I could do war service 
'igain. I have one son in the Navy with the rank of com- 
mander, and one in the army who ranks as a major. He 
'erved in the World War in France. 



CAPTURED A YANK. 

BY POSEY HAMILTON, PLEASANT HILL, ALA. 

During the campaign through North Carolina, an order 

: ame to our regiment, the 10th Confederate Cavalry, for a 
•olunteer scout of twenty men to go with Lieutanent Parker 
o gain some important information for General Wheeler. 

'•Tow, as there were three or four Lieutenant Parkers in the 
egiment, I think it right to say that this one was a dark- 
kinned man, with very coarse black hair and whiskers, a 
low talker and slow mover, but a good officer; and he was 

veil acquainted with the country. There were only eighteen 
len who volunteered; James C. Wood and I, from our Corn- 
any D; the rest being from other companies of the regiment. 

1 Late in the afternoon, Lieutenant Parker started with his 
lghteen men. It was necessary for us to ride some distance 
ut in order to avoid meeting large forces of the enemy. 

: ibout midnight we came to a farm house where there was 
ddling and dancing. Thinking, of course, that they were 
'ankees, we dismounted and surrounded the house, taking 
he precaution to have a few of our men to remain mounted 
i order to catch any that got by us. We moved up cautiously, 



but determined on getting the whole business. Two men 
went to the front door and rapped. The door flew open and 
we rushed in to find that we had trapped about a dozen of our 
Confederate boys away out there in the enemy's lines, having 
a big time dancing with those Southern girls. They were 
scared half to death when we went in on them, and we were 
terribly disappointed in not finding Yankees, but after having 
a good laugh on our captured comrades, which all enjoyed, 
we left and rode all night very slowly and cautiously close up 
to General Sherman's infantry command. We got near their 
camp fires and could hear them talking and laughing; and we 
were roving about their camp until almost day. Then we 
moved away at a safer distance, through plantations and by- 
ways, to avoid coming in contact with any large force of theirs. 
Later in the afternoon we could see unmistakable signs of 
cavalry and heard of them by inquiring at houses. As it got 
later the more evidence we had that we were near their cavalry 
forces. Along about four o'clock we were going up a red hill. 
I was riding by the side of Lieutenant Parker, who was telling 
me something, and we were not thinking of Yanks, when one 
of our men in the rear called out, "There they are!" and at. 
the same time two Yankees fired on us. The lieutenant 
yelled out, "Charge!" and we dashed at them with so much 
boldness that they wheeled to run. Our horses had to run 
about twenty-five yards to the top of the hill before we could 
see what was before us. While we were getting to the top, the 
Yanks had turned about and were facing the other way and 
were about forty yards in front of us. Lieutenant Parker was 
riding a splendid big iron gray horse, and I was right by his 
side, our horses running neck and neck until we reached the 
top of the hill, when my horse, being the faster runner, got 
ahead. 

The road was straight for four hundred yards and all down 
hill, and we could see everything before us, and we certainly 
had those Yanks on the run. We were close behind them and 
gaining on them every jump. I have seen some splendid 
charges by our 8th Confederate Regiment, led by the gallant 
Colonel Prather, but I never saw a bolder charge than that 
by Lieutenant Parker and his eighteen men that day. The 
Yankees had seventy-five men, four to our one, but we did 
not know the force we were running up against, as we could 
not see them nor they us until we got to the top of the hill, 
for while we were going up on one side, they were coming up 
on the other. The first two men must have been their advance 
guard; and when they wheeled to run, the others did likewise, 
and the whole business was panic stricken and led a magnifi- 
cent stampede. 

After a straight run of four hundred yards, the road made 
an abrupt turn to the left, and there was timber on both sides, 
and a little flat branch with tall weeds on the right. One 
fellow's horse was going at such a rapid rate that he could not 
make the turn, and he ran under some limbs, which dragged 
the rider off. The horse went on with an empty saddle, 
which I saw, so I rushed into the big weeds and found my 
man down washing blood off of his face, and he very promptly 
sang out: "I surrender." While I was capturing my man, my 
comrade, J. C. Wood, captured another, who had evidently 
been plundering a house. 

It was then very late, and we mounted our prisoners on 
two horses we had captured and moved out about a mile 
into a pine thicket in a field, built up a little fire, and ate a 
lunch, then lay down to get some sleep and rest, which we 
very much needed after having been in the saddle for more 
than twenty-four hours. Yankees and all lay down and got 
a good night's sleep. About sunrise next morning we started 



104 



^oi?federat^ l/eterai). 



to look for our command, and finally came up with it 
about 4 p.m. Our men were glad to see us coming in 
and bringing two Yanks, for they thought we would never 
get back, knowing it was a hazardous undertaking. We turned 
our prisoners over to the guard, who already had twenty-five. 
The next day, as the prisoners were being sent away, my man 
hunted me up to tell me good-by in token of his appreciation 
of my kindness. I have always been proud of my captured 
Yank. His name was Carmichael. If he is living, I would be 
glad to hear from him. I am also proud of the fact that our 
company had the credit of furnishing the two who made the 
captures on this perilous trip. Lieutenant Parker and his 
men deserve much credit for the cool courage displayed on 
this dangerous undertaking. 



THE SOUTHERN PROTEUS. 

BY CHARLES FEXNELL, LEXINGTON', KY. 

Part IV. 

Stonewall Jackson opened the neat little leather-bound 
book which he had been thumbing during the entire half hour 
of the interview. "Mr. Omahundry," he observed with a 
pleasant smile, after that gentleman had stated the object of 
his visit and explained his plan in detail, "this little book 
which I hold in my hand contains certain military maxims 
which I wrote therein as notes of reference for the benefit of 
my pupils when I was an instructor in the Virginia Military 
Institute. " 

He glanced over the open pages of the book while Oma- 
hundry looked on with silent interest. "The first maxim," 
continued Stonewall, "is that the greatest quality of a mili- 
tary leader is the knack of doing the unexpected at the critical 
moment — of surprising his enemy, in short." 

"I see." 

"From this proposition, and in order to accomplish such 
surprises, it necessarily follows that the general who seeks to 
surprise his enemy must have thorough and accurate knowl- 
edge of that enemy's location, strength, movements, and 
intentions." 

"Certainly." 

"Also, at the same time, he must prevent that enemy from 
having any information as to his strength and intentions. 
This is obvious" — 

"Yes. " 

"In our ability to put these simple maxims into actual 
practice lies the secret of our succeses over the enemy here- 
tofore in this war. They have no scout service worthy of the 
name as yet, though they are improving in this respect rapid- 
ly. It would seem from your proposal, however, that you 
now feel that the time is ripe to add another proposition to 
those I have just mentioned and lay down another maxim to 
the effect that after a general has derived accurate information 
of the enemy, and has prevented the enemy from obtaining 
accurate information of him, he can further his strategies by 
furnishing his enemy with information more plausible than 
authentic that will cause him to be a party, as it were, to his 
own undoing. " 

"That's the idea exactly, General," exclaimed Omahundry. 

"Your plan is very shrewd," conceded the General, 
"though it has not been very popular heretofore, owing to 
the extreme difficulty of its efficient execution. Napoleon 
used it very effectively with disciplined agents and attaches. 
We can execute it fairly well from this end, as we have an 
unusually efficient and active sj'stem. But can we depend 
upon the performance of your part of the game?" 



"Our part of the work will not be very difficult, General. 
We have done more difficult work than this, time and again. 
Besides, there will be no evidence against any of our men, 
excepting Porter and myself, even if they are arrested. They 
will merely be countrymen who have come through the 
country and have seen nothing of any Confederate soldiers 
this side the Massanuttens. They can hardly avoid being 
picked up by Federal scouts and quizzed for information. 
No suspicion will be directed toward them in case the informa- 
tion proves to be false, as it will be thought they merely gave 
heed to idle rumors which are constantly floating around. 
They will be completely in the dark as to your movements, 
unless information is brought them through persons passing 
through your own lines or fleeing before your troops as they 
advance." 

"It will be impossible for either of these things to be done. 
Ashby is patrolling all the roads and byways along our line 
of march, and every one is being turned back, regardless of 
passports. Not a man, friend or foe, will come down into the 
Valley ahead of our army with news of our approach." 

"In the event that I learn anything necessitating a com- 
plete change of your plans I will notify you through Porter, 
whom I will keep constantly near me for that purpose. From 
what direction do you intend to strike, General?" 

Stonewall laid a finger on the map which Omahundry fur- 
nished him. "You see where this wooded hillside is indicated 
here on the map?" he asked. 

" Yes, sir. " 

" My men will be sleeping there on their arms not later than 
twelve o'clock to-night." 

"How will you inform me when you are in position, Gen- 
eral? We do not wish to tarry any longer than is absolutely 
necessary, as we are badly needed in Washington at present." 

Stonewall informed him' how he would be notified that all 
was well. 

Omahundry smiled. "That is a good way, simple and ef- 
fective. With their lack of discipline it will be easy to do." 

They shook hands and parted with mutual good wishes. 
As Omahundry' untethered his horse from a tree near the 
headquarters a few moments later, he heard the bugles sound- 
ing far and near around him and realized with pleasure that 
the entire army was already astir. 

"My God, what discipline!" he thought admiringly. 
"They'll be well on the march before an ordinary army would 
have begun to fall into line. No wonder they call them 'foot 
cavalry.' " 

And Omahundry, who admired discipline and celerity 
above all things, feasted his eyes on the long lines of Stone- 
wall's men forming their line of march on the slope of the 
Massanuttens as he rode away to take his part in the events 
that were to occur in the Valley of the Shenandoah. 



General Banks, U. S. A., greeted his confidential secretary 
very cordially when he reported for service at 6 P.M. " Where 
have you been all day, Carson?" he asked genially. 

"I have been over in the guardroom taking a nap, sir," 
replied Carson. 

" Are you sure you haven't been gambling with the soldiers 
a bit, too?" asked the General slyly. 

"I may have ventured a wee bit on the game, sir." 

"Where is your new dispatcher?" 

"Here he comes now. Hello, Weatherby! Where have 
you been? You look tired." 

Weatherby entered and saluted the General. "I took 
Prince and went for a long ride on horseback, " he replied. "I 






Qopfederat^ l/efcerai). 



105 



ave never before seen such a beautiful country as this 
round here. " 
: "Which road did you take?" inquired the General. 

- "The main road toward the Massanuttens for about 
'fteen miles," answered Weatherby. 

- " Did you hear any news of the enemy?" 

: "No, sir, none whatever. They must have decided to keep 
'ut of our way after that last brush with them." 
: "I firmly believe that Jackson is in full retreat," declared 
'he General. " None of our scouts have been able to get any 

^formation of his movements for the last two days, though 
'hey have ridden the country far and wide for thirty miles. 
: hields and Milroy are now making an expedition to the far 
'ide of the Massanuttens in the hope of locating him. In a 
:, eek or so it will be my pleasure to inform the world either 

lat I have captured Stonewall Jackson or have driven him 
brever from the Valley of the Shenandoah." 
f "We have great confidence in you, General," Carson re- 
lied deferentially to the boast of the politician soldier. 
F The General waved his hand in assumed deprecation of the 

jmpliment, but it was plain to be seen that he was much 
'leased nevertheless. "I am glad you are here, Carson," he 
'lid, changing the subject. "I generally hold my dispatches 
'ack until you and Weatherby arrive. These other men seem 

) have difficulty with the code, and I receive complaints from 
Vashington of the illegibility of their messages frequently. 
: here never is any complaint of yours. You can scarcely 

■alize how pleasant it is in a responsible position like mine, to 

ave efficient men like you two for clerical and telegraphic 
iork. It's a positive relief to me when you report.' 

"Thank you, sir," acknowledged Carson gratefully. "I 
:m glad our service is satisfactory to you. We are always 
lying to do our best for you." 

• That night Weatherby's busy fingers scarcely left the key 
9l his instrument as he transmitted pile after pile of messages 

le general had held back for him. Some of them made him 
:nile as he wearily transmitted them, for he appreciated the 

umor of the egotism that lay revealed in the dispatches of 
; ie doughty warrior, who could write much better than he 
ould fight. Carson was bringing him the dispatches for 
' ansmission by the handful. 
> "The old boy must think the government is hungry for in- 

■rmation. He's feeding it by the bushel," he whispered 
I cularly as he laid a new batch on the transmission table. 
I smile wreathed Weatherby's face as he read the first of 
>iese. It was worded like this: " Milroy and Shields have 

)t been heard from since noon. Our scouts have captured 
I veral countrymen who have come from the far side of the 
Massanuttens, and these, when closely questioned, gave us 
I formation that reliably establishes the fact that Jackson's 
''my is in full retreat. His capture, or dispersal, is now only 

matter of hours. " 

"That is good news, old man," Carson remarked joyfully, 
;■ he read the dispatch to Weatherby. 

- The authorities at Washington, however, seemed only par- 
ally satisfied with this and other dispatches of a like opti- 

! istic tenor transmitted them during the evening. At 10:30 
K. they wired and asked point-blank if the General had any 

^finite and positive information as to the location of Stone- 
all Jackson. 

"It seems rather strange that an army of such size could 
mpletely disappear from the knowledge of the entire world 

I so short a space of time," added the dispatch, with the 
live humor that characterized the official communications 
the time. 



Weatherby handed the dispatch to Carson. "Give him 
this one, Carson. It will make him feel goo.d to learn how the 
government at Washington appreciates him." 

Carson took it and presented it, as per instructions, to the 
General. He returned in a quarter of an hour wearing a huge 
grin and presented the General's answer to Weatherby. This 
dispatch was dated 11:45 P.M. One paragraph of it read: 
" Milroy and Shields have reported after turning over every 
foot of the country to the Massanuttens. We have positive 
information that Jackson is not within a radius of sixty miles 
of this place. " 

"That seems to be pretty good news," observed Carson 
thoughtfully. "Milroy and Shields have just reported." 

"Yes," agreed Weatherby, "it seems good. But Milroy 
and Shields only followed two of the roads leading to the 
Massanuttens. I would have mentioned it at the time their 
expeditions set out, but the General is pretty harsh on offi- 
cious subordinates, and I hardly felt it was my place to en- 
lighten him. But I could have told him that Kenly is patrol- 
ling the main road only to a point a mile this side the cross- 
road by New Church. Stonewall can march his men down 
the main road, turn off at the crossroad, strike across country, 
and hit Kenly's division before he dreams they are anywhere 
near. " 

"That's a fact," sighed Carson. "Anyhow, I imagine that 
everything is all right." 

"I hope so," agreed Weatherby. 

"The General says you may retire for the night when you 
finish these dispatches," added Carson. 

"Good for him; I'm tired anyhow." 

When the last message had been forwarded he straightened 
up in his chair. A soldier was standing in the door of the tent 
regarding him with a friendly smile. 

"Hello, Weatherby," he called. "I saw a light in your 
tent and came by to see if you and Carson were ready to turn 
in." 

"I have just finished, Jenkins," answered Weatherby. 
"Have you any news of the enemy?" 

"Only rumors, but everything is all right, I suppose." 

A look of comprehension flashed between them. 

"Come on, Weatherby," called out Carson. "Let's be 
turning in. I'm dog tired." 

As the three of them passed out of the tent they gazed a 
moment toward the dark slope of the wooded hill across the 
Valley. Mournful and gloomy, it loomed a darker patch 
against the blackness of the night. Not a fire burned along its 
forbidding front. No sound came wafted from its cloistral 
shades across the silent Valley. Yet over there the heroic 
legions of Stonewall were gaining a few precious hours of 
needed sleep, after a march unparalleled for its celerity in 
modern warfare. Weatherby folded his arms and gazed at 
the slope as though fascinated by something that was hidden 
there. 

"They are practical," he mused, "those maxims of Stone- 
wall. " Then tossing a quick glance at the tent of the sleeping 
General Banks, he added grimly: "Somebody will receive a 
merry surprise about four o'clock in the morning or my name 
is not Omahundry. " 



Not ours but His the glory ever be, 

While yet the ages run, 
Who, that His favored people might be free, 

Gave earth a Washington! 

- ■ — * - --Jchn R Thompson. 



106 



^oijfederat^ l/eterai). 




Sketches in this department are given a half column of 
epace without charge; extra space will be charged for at 20 
cents per line. Engravings. $3.00 each. 



THERE IS BUT ONE WHO CARES FOR ME. 

I used to think when friends were near 

That they were firm and true, 
But in these days of grief and fear 

My faithful friends are few. 

For now I'm far away, I find 

That those in Old Bertie 
Who used to be so good and kind 

Now never think of me. 

I had kind friends in days gone by 

In whom I could confide; 
They watched me with a careful eye, 

And all my wants supplied. 

Alas! those happy days are gone, 

Those days of youthful glee, 
And now I have no friend, save One, 

That ever cares for me. 

But I am glad there still is One, 

Who is a friend indeed, 
Who has not left me all alone 

In these dark hours of need. 

That one is He who rules the skies, 

And calms the raging sea, . 
Who all my greatest wants supplies, 

And ever cares for me. 

'Tis He who reigns in heaven alone 

Who still remains my friend, 
And he will ever faithful prove 

Till transient life shall end. 

And when the storms of life are past, 

From want I'll then be free, 
For He will take me home at last, 

And always care for me. 

— Calvin Pritchard. 

Johnson's Island, Ohio, October 17, 1864. 

[The author of this poem, Capt. Calvin Pritchard, died 
November 8, 1921, at his home in Holly Springs, N. C, in his 
ninety-first year. He commanded Company G, 32nd Regi- 
ment, North Carolina troops, in the War between the States, 
and this poem was written while he was a prisoner of war.] 



David C. Collier. 

David Crockett Collier died at his home in Liberty Hill, 
Tex., on Rabairary '1, '1 y 2:2 . "He v,-as 'a native of Viir-ginia, but 
came to Texas'at an early age. He was born August 6, 1845, 



and enlisted in 1S61 in the 16th Texas Infantry, Company 
G, and seived faithfully to the close of the war, partici- 
pating in the battles of Mansfield, Pleasant Hill, Millikens 
Bend, and Jenkins's Ferry. He had been a member of Bedford 
Forrest Camp No. 1609, U. C. V. since its organization. 

Comrade Collier was married to Miss Anne Branch in 1869. 
His wife and an only daughter preceded him to the grave a 
number of years. For more than a half century he had been 
a consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South. A good man, a brave soldier has gone "over the river 
to rest under the shade of trees," to be with the great host of 
those who wore the gray. 

[J. H. Faubion, Commander Camp Bedfoid Forrest No. 
1609, U. C. V., Leander, Tex.] 

Dr. T. J. Milner. 

T. J. Milner was born December 7, 1S44, in Fulton County, 
Ky., enlisted in the Confederate army in 1863, joining Com- 
pany I, 12th Kentucky, Regiment, Lyon's Brigade, Buford's 
Division, Foirest's Cavalry; and was in all the engagements 
under Geneial Forrest until the surrender. 

After the war he returned to school to complete his educa- 
tion, attending the A. and M. College of Kentucky at Lex- 
ington. Concluding to take the study of medicine as his life 
work, he attended the Medical College of Kentucky in 1870. 
He came to Texas in 1871, practicing his profession until the 
winter of 1874, then attended the Louisville Medical College, 
from which institution he was graduated that winter, and from 
the Kentucky School of Medicine in 1875.- He returned to 
Texas and practiced his profession successfully the rest of his 
life. 

Dr. Milner was health officer of Hunt County for twenty- 
two years. For four years he had been adjutant of Joseph E. 
Johnston Camp U. C. V., and was lieutenant colonel on 
the staff of Gen. V. Y. Cook, former Commander of the 
Trans-Mississippi Department, U. C. V. 

He attended the reunion at Chattanooga, anticipating 
great pleasure in meeting with old comrades, but was brought 
home in a failing condition and passed away on November 
23, 1921, a truly good and great man. 

Following is a short notice of his funeral, held on Thanks- 
giving Day, an excerpt from the published statement. 

During the funeral service, Capt. J. P. Holmes, of the 
Joseph E. Johnston Camp of Confederate Veterans, a long- 
time friend and comrade of Dr. Milner, gave a brief sketch of 
his life as he knew him, dwelling on his chivalry, and gentle- 
manly character in every day of his life. 

He closed his eulogy, and truthfully so, as he pointed to the 
casket, and said: "Ah! his life was gentle and the elements 
so mingled in him, that Nature could stand up and say to all 
the world, here was a MAN." 

Members of Joseph E. Johnston Camp attended in a body 
and concluded the services with the ritual of the Ordei. 

[J. P. Holmes, Greenville, Tex.] 

Joshua Kirby. 

Joshua Kirby, born in Spartanburg County, S. C, on the 
28th day of December, 1846; enlisted in the Confederate 
army October 1, 1864, becoming a member of Company I. 
4th South Carolinia Regiment, commanded by Colonel Fer- 
guson and Major Towns, of Smith County. He was a true! 
and noble man through life and will be missed by the few I 
remaining Confederate comrades of Benton, Mo., where h<l 
died. Only six, are left in that county, as now known. 

[James D. Rogers, Benton, Mo.] 



Qopfederat^ Ueterai). 



107 




W. A. Craighead. 

William Alexander Craighead, born near Knoxville, Tenn., 

;bruary 22, 1837, died at the Craighead home place on 
: mdy Creek, near Breck- 

ridge, Stephens County, 

;x., on February 9, 1921, 

ter a long illness. He 
as the son of Thomas T. 
I d Rutelia Armstrong 
'•aighead. He attended 

e college at Knoxville 

len it was in charge of 

e father of William G. 

cAdoo. As a young 

an he was a civil engi- 

er, 'having surveyed the 
. ilroad from Jasper, 
. ;nn., to Bridgeport, Ala. 
;s also supervised the 

lilding of the highway 

>m Chattanooga to 

keville, or near there. 

At the beginning of the 

ar between the States, 
-ung Craighead enlisted 
j the 36th East Tennes- 
.? Regiment, C. S. A., as 

lieutenant under Cap- 
-in Alley, was later trans- W. A Craighead. 

'ed to the Quarter- 
aster's Department and made captain, and served under 
.jlonel Morgan, principally in East Tennessee, around 
,rattanooga. Captain Craighead was doubtless in the last 
[.ttle of the war east of the Mississippi, in North Alabama, 
, ing with the forces under Col. Ben Hill, fighting a rear guard 

tion and harassing the Federals until Colonel Wilson sent 

>rd to them under flag of truce that General Lee had sur- 
Tadered and the war was over. 

After the war Captain Craighead settled at Chattanooga 

d went into business. He married Elizabeth Cox Doss in 

:bruary, 1868. In 1879 he went to Texas, locating at 
'eckinridge in 1880, and was postmaster there to 1884. He 
oved to Sandy Creek in 1885. In 1887 he helped to survey 

d establish the boundary lines of Stephens County. 

Captain Craighead was of the old school Presbyterian 

, th. His ancestors were originally from Scotland, but at 

early age they went to North Ireland on account of reli- 

)us freedom and came to New England about 1715, taking 

rt in the War of Independence. 

Surviving him are his wife, three sons, and two daughters. 

Memorial by Camp Lomax, Montgomery, Ala. 
At the last annual meeting of Camp Lomax, No. 53, U. C. V., 
Montgomery, Ala., a memorial was read in tribute to the 
le members who had passed over the river during 1921. 
ese comrades had all passed the threescore and ten years 
otted to man; several had passed the fourscore; while one of 
!m, the Rev. A. F. Dix, had passed his fourscore and ten 

:irs. The list follows: J. M. Boyd, private in Dawson 
ibama Rangers, died January 25; W. S. Stokes, lieutenant 

1 mpany K, 2nd Alabama Cavalry, died April 24; A. E. Strat- 

1 1, sergeant major 13th Texas Cavalry, died April 27; W. J. 

>' lers, private Company K, 53d Alabama Cavalry, died July 7; 

. G. Jones, private 5th Alabama Cavalry Battalion, died 
gust 25; C. S. Johnston, lieutenant 21st Georgia Infan- 
, died September 21; W. W. Leak, private Company I, 3d 



Alabama Infantry, died October 9; Rev. A.. F. Dix, sergeant 
major 23rd Alabama Battalion, died October 25; W. H. Speig- 
ner, private Company C, 34th Alabama Infantry, died Dec- 
ember 25. 

(Committee: John Purifoy, W. B. Whiting, W. A. McBryde, 
George P. North, George W. Hailes.) 

James Z. McChesney. 

James Z. McChesney died at his home in Charleston, W. Va., 
in Januaiy, in his seventy-ninth yeai. He was born in Rock- 
bridge County, March 7, 1843, and was educated at Washing- 
ton College (now Washington and Lee University) from which 
he was graduated in 1861. Shortly afterwards he enlisted in 
the Confederate service as a private in Company F, the fa- 
mous Bath Squadron, 17th Battalion Virginia Calvary, and 
later the 11th Virginia Regiment, Robinson's Brigade. He 
was transferred August 9, 1863, to Company C, Jenkins' Bri- 
gade; invalided, by reason of a severe saber wound, he retired 
from the service March 31, 1865. 

He had been Commander of Camp Robeit E. Lee, U. C. V. 
from its organization some years ago. His loyalty to the 
Confederate cause was marked by the unswerving interest he 
took in all its organizations, attending and taking a prominent 
part in every Confederate reunion, except one, since the 
United Confederate Veterans was first brought into existence. 
He had many important positions in that body, and recently 
was appointed a brigadier general on the staff of the Com- 
mander in Chief. 

He was married in 1865 to Miss Lucy Johnson, and in 1S71 
he located in Charleston and engaged in the mercantile 
business for some years. He then engaged in life insurance 
and continued in that till his death. 

His wife survives him with two daughters and a son. 

He was from early manhood a member of the Presbyterian 
Church. 

He was also a Mason, a member of Kanawha Lodge No. 20, 
A. F. and A. M.; Tyrean Royal Arch Chapter No. 13; 
Kanawha Commandery No. 4, and a member of Beni-Kedem 
Temple Shrine. 

In his death Charleston lost one of its oldest, best known, 
and highly esteemed citizens. 

He was elected and ordained an elder of his Church in 1877 
and has served the Church efficiently and faithfully ever since. 

His disposition was sunny and amiable, always greeting his 
friends and acquaintances with a smile. He was truly a godly 
man. He dealt justly, loved kindness and lived it, walking 
humbly with his God and his Saviour. He fought a good 
fight, he kept the faith, and we feel sure he is now wearing a 
crown of righteousness. 

David C. Boggs. 

David C. Boggs was born March 15, 1834, and died Jan- 
uary 10, 1922, at the Confederate Home of Missouri, of which 
institution he had been an inmate for a number of years, 
having long been deprived of his sight. He was a true and 
tried soldier of the South, having served through the entire 
four years of bloody war. He was a member of the 2nd Missouri 
Corps under Geneial Forrest; was in the battles of Elk Horn, 
Iuka, Co.inth, Hanisburg, Fort Pillow, and many others. 
May his long sleep be the slumber of a faithful soldier is the 
wish of his old comrades. 

|C. Y. Ford, Odessa, Mo.] 



108 



Qopfederat^ tfeterap. 



Rev. Edward William Tarrant. 

The death of Rev. E. W. Tarrant, best known as an edu- 
cator, occurred at Bryan, Tex., November 19, 1921. 

He was a son of the late Capt. Edward C. Tarrant, and was 
born in Jefferson County, Ala., September 14, 1842. His early 
education was at his father's training school at Taylorsville, 
Ala., near Tuscaloosa, from which he entered the University 
of Alabama in 1859. In April, 1861, he enlisted with the 
Warrior Guards (afterwards the 5th Alabama Infantry) ; was 
wounded in July, and, after a brief furlough, he reenlisted for 
service with Lumsden's battery; later he was transferred to 
his father's (Tarrant's) battery, with which he served as 
second lieutenant until the close of the war. 

Through life he clung steadfastly to his patriotic ideals, 
took much interest in the U. C. V. organization, attending re- 
unions and sometimes serving in an official capacity. A loyal 
member of the Methodist Church from early youth, his long 
life was spent in service for the betterment of humanity. As 
minister of the gospel, as soldier, as educator his works will 
live as enduring monuments to his memory. 

In December, 1869, he was married to Miss Annie E. Spen- 
cer, at Tuscaloosa, Ala. She died at Brenham, Tex., in 1896;- 
of their eight children, six survive, two sons and four daugh- 
ters. 

There are eighteen grandchildren, also a sister and brother 
surviving him. His second wife, who was Miss Emma Fisher, 
died in 1912. 

Having retired from active work, he had lived with his 
children, for the past three years his home being with his 
youngest daughter, Mrs. Bradley, at Bryan, Tex. She accom- 
panied him to the reunion in Chattanooga last October, and 
on the return trip they visited at the old Tarrant home near 
Tuscaloosa, Ala., and while there he became alarmingly ill, so 
they hurried back to the Texas home, where, two weeks later, 
he quietly passed away. 

After services in the church at Bryan, his body was escorted 
by Knights Templar to Brenham, and he was laid beside his 
wife and son "to rest under the shade." 

A man of sterling character, of deeply religious convictions, 
courageous, calm, and undismayed, his end was peace as he 
answered the roll call "up yonder." . 

George W. Leath. 

Departed this life on January 29, at St. Luke's Hospital 
in Richmond, Va., George W. Leath, in the seventy-ninth 
year of his age. 

He was born in Amelia County, near Dennisville. After the 
death of his father, his mother moved to her home, "Bacon's 
Hall," overlooking what is now the town of Crewe. This 
property was devised to Mrs. Leath by her father, Col. T. G. 
Bacon, a colonel in the Revolutionary War. 

G. W. Leath lived at this place with his mother until the 
wai of 1S61-65. He had four brothers in all, five sons were 
members of Company C, 18th Virginia Regiment, Hunton's 
Brigade, Pickett's Division, Longstreets Corps, and T. G. 
Leath, was a lieutenant in this company. 

G. VV. Leath was wounded twice in battle, the last wound 
being received at Hatcher's Run on the 31st day of March, 
1865, just nine days before Lee s surrender. 

He returned to Nottoway County and lived there all of 
his life. He was married to Miss Laura H. Vaughan, a 
daughter of Jesse Nelson Vaughan, and took his bride to 
" Myrtlewood," about three miles north of Nottoway Court- 
house, where he resided until his death. Mrs. Leath died 
about twenty-five years ago. Surviving him are the following 



children: T. Glenn Leath, of Crewe; Mrs. H. B. Phenix, Mrs. 
G. E. Lester, and Mrs. P. Jenkins, besides many grandchildren. 

Mr. Leath loved his county and his neighbors, and always 
had a kind word of greeting for his many friends. 

He served as deputy treasurer of Nottoway County for a 
number of years and filled other positions of public trust. 

He was one of the oldest members of the Crewe Baptist 
Church and a regular attendant upon its services. 

The interment took place in the Crewe Cemetery, witnessed 
by a large concourse of sorrowing friends, among them being 
several faithful old negro servants of the family. 

[Henry E. Lee.] 

Judge Walter A. Montgomery. 

Judge Walter Alexander Montgomery died at his home in 
Raleigh, N. C, on November 26, in the seventy-seventh year 
of his age. He was born February 17, 1845, in Warrenton, 
N. C, the son of Thomas A. Montgomery, for many years a 
merchant of that town, and his first wife Darien Cheek, a 
member of one of the largest family connections of that sec- 
tion of the State. 

While in preparation for his university course, at the age of 
sixteen, young Montgomery volunteered for cavalry service 
in the Confederate army; being rejected because of physical 
disability, he reenlisted as a private in Company F, of the 
Second North Carolina Infantry, known, after May, 1862, as 
the Twelfth North Carolina. As private, sergeant, and lieu- 
tenant, he participated in all the great battles of the Army ol 
Northern Virginia in which his command was engaged, froir 
Hanover Courthouse, in May, 1862, to the surrender al 
Appomattox, where he was paroled. He was twice wounded, al 
Chancellorsville and the first day's fight at Gettysburg. 

Returning to Warrenton, he resumed his studies, devoting 
himself especially to the classics, English literature, and his- 
tory, as preparation for his legal studies. After securing hi: 
license in 1867, he practiced that profession until his ap 
pointment, in 1895. as Associate Justice of the Supreme Cour 
of North Carolina. He retired from the bench in 1905 an< 
was appointed Standing Master for the Eastern District of th 
United States Court; and he also devoted himself to literar 
study and historical research. He was especially versed in thj 
causes leading up to its civil and military policies, the forma 
tion of the Southern Confederacy, and the pait taken thereii 
by his native State. As an active member of the Stat: 
Literary and Historical Association, his contributions wei 
marked by strict accuracy, clear reasoning, and scholarl 
style. He was noted as an orator, and especially in deman 
on Confederate memorial occasions, while his memory of me 
and events of more than sixty years of the State's history wa| 
remarkable and rendered him one of the most interestin 
of his day. 

Judge Montgomery held the honorary degree of Doctor ( 
Laws from the University of North Carolina. 

Comrades at Beaumont, Tex. 

The following report was made by A. P. Guynes, Adjutar 
Albert Sidney Johnston Camp, No 75, U. C. V., of Beaumon 
Tex., of members who had died during the past year: 

Dr. B. F. Calhoun, died January 15, 1922, aged 73. H 
was reared in South Carolina, but had been a resident of Tex: 
for forty years. He joined the Confederate army at the ag 
of fifteen and went through the war. 

L. A. Patillo, died January 17, aged 77 years. He was bor 
in Orange County, Tex., and served through the war with tl 
Texas troops. Had been sexton of Magnolia Cemetery, j 
Beaumont for twenty-four years. 






! 



Qopfederat^ l/eterar?. 



109 



Capt. John J. Bradford. 

. At Meridian. Miss., on October 11, 1921, there passed into 

le great beyond Capt. John James Bradford, Company G, 

'd Mississippi Regiment, the last surviving captain of those 

ho made up the gallant 3rd Mississippi. Born March 12, 

538, Captain Bradford came of the lineage of the Old South, 

s great-grandfather having taken part in the French and 

. idian war, while his grandfather, John Bradford, a wealthy 

)uth Carolina cotton planter, fought for American independ- 

ice under Gen. Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox." His 

ther, Gabriel Bradford, moved to Alabama and took part 

the Florida, or Seminole War, which terminated the career 

Osceola, the famous Indian chief. On the maternal side was 

(ually heroic ancestry. 

i John J. Bradford was born in Conecuh County, Ala., the 
i n of Gabriel and Mary Wingate Bradford, and while he was 
■,:t an infant his parents moved to Gainesville, Miss., locating 
,'i Pear River in Hancock County, where many of the family 
. nnections had found homes. There he grew up in peace and 
enty, and while attending school at Salem, Miss., he met 
: iss Kate Carter, a daughter of the Old South, whom he 
limed as a war bride in 1864, at Augusta, Miss. 
After leaving Salem, John Bradford studied law and had 
gun its practice when the war came on. He recruited a 
mpany from the boys of his community while an intimate 
end, Captain Seal, made up a company along the Gulf 
bast, and these two companies were known as the "Butter- 
'ilk" and "Mullet" brigades. Captain Bradford's "Butter- 
ilk Brigade" afterwards became Company G, 3rd Missis- 
opi Regiment, Loring's Division, and gave a good account of 
self, taking part in the siege of Port Gibson. 
In the late seventies Captain Bradford moved to Augusta, 
iss., and settled on a tract of land inherited by his wife, 
tere they made their home, rearing eight children and living 
ppily. After the death of his wife, he made his home with 
'; children, but a life of inactivity did not please him, and 
'me two years ago, although over eighty years of age, he 
:nt into the real estate business in Meridian, Miss. It was 
ere that he died most suddenly, his illness being of but a 
y or two after most excellent health. Surviving him are 
F'e daughters and three sons: Mrs. S. J. Ferguson, New 
igusta, Miss.; Mrs. George Dennis, New Augusta, Miss.; 
! rs. W. D. Griffin, Cedartown, Ga.; Mrs. R. P. Fikes, Sa- 
'Ja, N. C; Miss Genevieve Bradford, Washington, D. C; 
iner G. Bradford, Philadelphia, Miss.; J. Roy Bradford, 
pulpa, Okla.; Robert Bradford, La Grande, Oregon. Cap- 
' in Bradford also leaves a sister-in-law, Mrs. Rachel Fulli- 
' re. New Augusta, Miss.; eleven grandchildren also survive 
r\ and a brother-in-law, Ex-Lieutenant Governor Prentiss 
irter, of Hattiesburg, Miss. 

Captain Bradford took great interest in all Confederate af- 
rs, attending all reunions, and he was a life-long subscriber 
the Confederate Veteran. 
[His niece, Mrs. H. F. Lewis, New Orleans, La.] 

Tennessee Comrades. 

The following list is of fifteen Confederate soldiers buried 
Williamson County in 1921: 

J. C. Smith, John A. Miller, A. F. Farmer, John W. Lee, 
h Tennessee Cavalry; E. M. Hearn, Tennessee Heavy 
tillery; Nick P. Holt, 17th Tennessee Infantry; Col. S. E. 
annon, Newton Anglin, Joe D. Wilson, 24th Tennessee 
fantry; John W. Alexander, Joseph H. Bowman, J. B. 
arlin, 32d Tennessee Infantry; H. H. Cook, John Wilson, 
th Tennessee Infantry; Lewis Deadman, 5th Kentucky 



Cavalry; also in 1922, Nathan E. Morris, 20th Tennessee 
Infantry. 

Some of these had not connected themselves with Bivouac 
or Camp, but they were all good soldiers, loyal to the end. 

[W. W. Courtney, Secretary and Adjutant McEwen 
Bivouac and Starnes Camp U. C. V., Franklin, Tenn.] 

Z. T. Davenport. 

Z. T. Davenport was born near Valley Head, Ala., No- 
vember 17, 1845, and died January 6, 1922. Early in 1863 
he enlisted in the service of his country and was a member of 
Company A, 1st Alabama Battalion Cavalry, in which he 
served faithfully to the end of the struggle. He was in the 
battle of Selma, Ala., under General Forrest, which was fought 
after the surrender at Appomattox. 

He was married to Miss Amanda Alman, December 14, 
1871. To this union were born two children, a son and 
daughter. The daughter, Mrs. Jesse Barnard, is still living. 

In 1883 Comrade Davenport joined the M. E. Church, 
South. He and the writer became attached to each other 
when small boys and had been lifelong friends. He was a 
man of veracity, industry, economy — true to his family, true 
to his Church, and true to his country. He was always cheerful 
and spread sunshine wherever he went. He was a member 
of Camp Estes No. 1659, U. C. V., was regular in his attend- 
ance, and was always the life of the occasion. For several 
months prior to his death he was a great sufferer, but he bore 
it all patiently and died peacefully and triumphantly. 

He leaves a daughter, two grandsons, several brothers, and 
a host of friends to mourn his loss. 

Clothed in his Confederate uniform, he was laid to rest 
in the Valley Head Cemetery, there to await the resurrec- 
tion morn. 

[J. M. Price, Adjutant Camp Estes No. 1659, Fort Payne, 
Ala.] 

Wallace D. Cable. 

Wallace Daniel Cable was born June 3, 1844, in Jefferson 
County, Ky., and departed this life January 26, 1922, aged 
seventy-eight years, while visiting in Knoxville, Tenn., at the 
home of his niece, Mrs. Keenan. 

Mr. Cable was united in marriage to Miss Nannie J. 
Williams, of Carter County, Tenn., and to them were born 
three sons and two daughters, of whom the following survive: 
L. H. Cable, of Cincinnatti, Ohio; Robert B. Cable, Tellico 
Plains, Tenn.; Mrs. Ben F. Wood, Jackson, Tenn.; and Mrs. 
J. L. Griffitts, Glade Springs, Va. 

Mr. Cable, his brothers, father, and grandfather had excel- 
lent military records. He enlisted in Company E, 14th Ten- 
nessee Infantry, in the spring of 1861 and served under Gens. 
Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson from start to finish of 
the war 

Two brothers, Charley and Henry Cable, also fought 
throughout the four years of war. His father, Albany Cable, 
enlisted with the three sons, but the father fell at the battle of 
Shiloh. His grandfather, Andrew Cable, was among the first 
white settlers where the city of Louisville, Ky., is now located 
and belonged to St. Clair's army and participated in the 
battle of Tippecanoe. 

Mr. Cable spent most of his life in Knoxville, Tenn., but in 
recent years he had divided his time between his children and 
the Confederate Soldiers' Home, near Nashville. 

The funeral was under the auspices of the U. D. C, and in- 
terment was in the Confederate Cemetery at Knoxville, Tenn. 

[Mrs. J. L. Griffitts, Glade Spring, Va.] 



110 



Confederate Ueterai). 



Capt. William Elzy Pope. 

A loved, familiar figure was missed from the streets of 
Columbus, Miss., when Capt. William Elzy Pope passed into 
the better land. He had a long and useful life, and his 
activity and interest in affairs about him continued to the end. 
He was born in Florence, Ala., October 26, 1834, hence had 
passed into his eighty-eighth year. 

Captain Pope located in Columbus in his early boyhood, 
and there spent the rest of his life except the four years when 
fighting for Southern rights. He volunteered for service and 
served with the 6th Mississippi Cavalry, under Col. Isham 
Harrison, and was a steadfast and courageous soldier of the 
South. 

In April, 1860, Captain Pope was married to Miss Fannie 
Patterson, who died in 1901. The three children of this union 
survive him: W. P. Pope, of Columbus; Mrs. C. G. Barney, of 
New York; Mrs. Annie Tutwiler, of Rock Hill, N. C. 

For seventy years Captain Pope had been a consecrated and 
loyal member of the Presbyterian Church, and in his Church 
relations, as in his devotion to his country, his family, and his 
friends, he was noted for strict fidelity. He was quiet, modest, 
and unobtrusive, pursuing the even tenor of his way without 
selfishness, but with hands outstretched in helpfulness to the 
needy and fallen. In all the relations of life — as husband and 
father, as a citizen, a neighbor and friend — he measured up 
fully to the highest. A Confederate comrade said of him: 
"He was a man you could always count on." He was one 
whose nature was perennially pleasant, whose voice carried 
kindly greetings and words of wise counsel. 

To a friend who said to him, shortly before his death, that 
he was now on the shady side of eighty- five, he replied: " No, 
I am on the sunny side — the side next to the glory world." 

He died on January 13, 1922, after a short illness. 

A. D. Richardson. 

After an illness of sev- 
eral years, Alexander D. 
Richardson, seventy-sev- 
en years old, died at his 
home in Seattle, Wash., 
on October 9, 1921. 
He was a retired shoe 
manufacturer, going to 
Seattle thirty years ago 
from Waco, Tex. 

Mr. Richardson was 
a veteran of the Con- 
federate army and a 
member of the Con- 
federate Veterans' Camp 
of Seattle. He was 
also active in Ionic 
Lodge of the Masons 
and the Myrtle Chap- 
ter of the Eastern Star. 

He was born in Sumter, S. C. He is survived by his wife, 
and a daughter, Mrs. L. E.Wheeler, of Seattle. 

Col. E. C. McDowell. 

Col. Edward C. McDowell, a veteran of the War between 
the States, is another loss in the membership of the Camp of 
Confederate Veterans at Seattle, Wash. 

He was born in Frankfort, Ky., eighty-five years ago, and 
went to Seattle in 1904. He served in the Confederate army 
as a lieutenant colonel, and as a captain in the quartermaster 




A. D. RICHARDSON. 




CAPT. W. C. DUTTON. 



corps of the United States army in the Spanish-American 
War. 

Colonel McDowell is survived by two sons and three 
daughters. 

Capt. W. C. Dutton. 

Capt. W. C. Dutton, a Confederate veteran, and for the 
past fifty years a leader in the temperance movement, died 

on December 19, at Seattle 
Wash., in his eightieth year. 
Captain Dutton came to 
Seattle in 1908, continuing 
a work as lecturer for the 
Good Templars, which oc- 
cupied the mature years of 
his life. It is probable that 
ne led the Good Templar lec- 
tures in this country in his 
years of continuous service, 
the number of States in 
which he labored, and the 
oratorical and persuasive 
talent that he commanded. 
Born in Gloucester County, 
Va., August 27, 1842, he 
served as a Confederate sol- 
dier from 1861 to the sur- 
render at Appomattox. In Seattle he was affiliated with 
Lodge No. 6, Good Templars, and John B. Gordon Camp of 
Confederate Veterans. 

Captain Dutton married Mrs. Elizabeth Fitch, who, 
with her son and daughter, survives him. 

James H. Hughen. 

James H. Hughen died at the home of his daughter, Mrs. 
C. B. Gentry, in Saline County, Ark. on January 18, 1922. 
He was born in South Carolina, July 21, 1826, but his parents 
moved to Georgia while he was young. He united with the 
Methodist Church at the age of eighteen, and was teacher 
and superintendent of a Methodist Sunday school sixty-one 
years. He was living in Jackson County, Aia., when the War 
between the States came on. He loved the Southland, and 
bared his breast against the invading foe. Joining the 4th 
Alabama Regiment under Captain Smyth, he followed General 
Forrest in many of his campaigns. When the war ended he re- 
turned to his home to find it almost completely destroyed. In 
1S71 he took his family to Arkansas and there made his home 
until the summons came calling him away from the trials of 
life. Slowly and peacefully he sank to rest. He was nearly 
blind for two years, but, during the last year his eye sight 
returned. He read the Veteran, and read the Testament 
through six times. 

[Mrs. C. B. Gentry. Slocomb, Ark.] 

Healy-Claybrook Camp, Saluda, Va. 

The following members of this Camp have crossed over the 
river since our last report: W. G. New, W. H. Stewart, John 
W. Norris, 55th Virginia Regiment; John H. Fleet, captain 
Company H, 55th Virginia Regiment; J. W. Bennett, 24th 
Virginia Cavalry; R. T. Humphrey, Company H, 55th Vir- 
ginia Regiment; James W. Mayo, 26th Virginia Regiment 
James A. Wood, George F. Blackburn, 19th Virginia Battalion 
John Hardy, Kirkpatrick's Battery; L. O. B. Major, John- 
son's Battery. 

These men were good citizens and beloved by their neigh 
bors. 

[Dr. B. B. Dutton, Commander.] 



Qoi)federat$ l/eterai). 



in 



Capt. John M. Brooks. 

Capt. John McMillan Brooks, Confederate veteran, found- 
:r of the military department of the University of Tennessee 
ind former mayor of Knoxville, Tenn., died at his home in 
hat city on December 12, 1921, after an illness of about a 

'/ear, aged eighty-one years. In his death Knoxville lost one 
)f the city's most prominent and beloved citizens, a man who 
las served the city with untiring energy, not only when a 
jublic official, but also in his private life. 

John McMillan Brooks was born in Knox County, Tenn., 
Dctober 28, 1840, son of Joseph A. and Margaret McMillan 
Brooks, of Scotch-Irish descent. In 1S59 he entered the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, and he had the distinction of establish- 

. ng the military department of the University. He organized 

'he first two military companies of that institution and was 
ts first commandant and instructor of military tactics. At 
he opening of the war in 1861 members of these companies 

entered both armies, some enrolling for the Union, others the 
Confederate. Captain Brooks cast his fortunes with the 

liouth and was assigned to duty in Company I, 2d Tennessee 

Cavalry, under Colonel Henry M. Ashby. The greater part 
>f the time he was with the Army of Tennessee, but he also 
-aw service in Kentucky, Virginia, North and South Carolina, 
Georgia, Mississippi, and Alabama. 
Captain Brooks was in the battles of Chickamauga, Fishing 

Creek, Murfreesboro, Shiloh, Perryville, and Richmond, Ky. 
^t Chickamauga he was dangerously wounded and nearly 
lied; but after twelve months in the hospital he recovered 
md rejoined his company. He then served for some time on 

Colonel Scott's staff and did scout duty for Gen. Joe Wheeler. 
-Ie surrendered near Charlotte, N. C, in the spring of 1865. 

Returning to Knoxville after the war, Captain Brooks was 
n business there and in Bristol for many years. In 1889 he 

' ook charge of the Middlesboro (Ky.) Town Company, a real 
:state organization promoted with English capital, and he 
vas for six years president of the company. He founded the 
ity of Middlesboro, and was its first mayor. 

Captain Brooks took an active part in Tennessee politics. 
ie was one of the leading reorganizers of the Democratic 

. >arty in East Tennessee after the war. 

He was twice married, his first wife being Miss Sophia Park, 
laughter of Dr. James Park, forty years pastor of the First 
'resbyterian Church of Knoxville. The second marriage was 
o Miss Amelia Irvine McDowell, daughter of Joseph McDow- 
.11. Three sons survive him. Captain Brooks was a member 
f the Presbyterian Church, a thirty-second degree Mason, 
Shriner, member of the Royal Arcanum, Confederate Vet- 
rans, and Sons of the American Revolution. 

James A. McDaniel. 

Private James Alexander McDaniel, born 1845, died Jan- 

ary 16, 1922, at his home in the city of Greenville, S. C, 

eventy-six years old. 

Seven months before he was sixteen years of age he ran off 

om home and walked ten miles to join Hampton's Legion. 

- Ie was badly wounded at Seven Pines, and when recovered was 

'ansferred to Butler's Cavalry, participating in all the battles 

i nd hardships of that famous command until the remnants of 

ohnston's army "wound up" at Greensboro, N. C. 

He was a great grandson of General McDaniel of Revolu- 
i onary fame, and as a mere boy was always as cool and delib- 
'ate under fire as any soldier who ever bit the end of a paper 
irtridge or pulled the trigger of an old muzzle-loader. 

Private McDaniel was successful in business, and was clerk, 
F the court for several terms. He leaves a brother and 



sister, a faithful wife and dutiful son to mourn his death, 
also a multitude of friends in all classes to speak his praises. 
He was long a member of the Methodist Church, a Royal Arch 
Mason, and all who knew him feel assured that his soul rests 
in peace. 

[Henry Briggs.] 

Richard B. Bayly. 

Richard B. Bayly, born in Front Royal, Va., October 23, 
1844, died at that place on August 15, 1921, aged seventy- 
seven years. 

When war broke out in 1861 he joined Company E, 7th 
Virginia Cavalry, commanded by Col. Horace Buck, Laurel 
Brigade, Rosser's Division C. S. A., and he served in all the 
Valley campaigns throughout the war; was wounded at Cedar 
Creek in Early's fight with Sheridan. 

After the close of the war young Bayly went to Washington 
and Lee College, graduated in law, and was elected common- 
wealth's attorney for Warren County, Va. When his term 
expired, he resumed his law practice. In 1870 he went to 
Philadelphia, Pa., and practiced there, but after the death of 
his partner he returned to Front Royal and continued in 
practice until his death. In 1876 he married Miss Mary 
Garrett, of Bryn Mawr, Pa., who died some years ago. He 
leaves one daughter, now in Washington, D. C, and a son in 
Philadelphia. 

[R. M. Blakemore, Adjutant Morton's Battalion Artillery, 
Forrest's Cavalry.] 

Albert C. Smith. 

Albert Church Smith, Confederate veteran, former editor 
of the Bristol (Va.-Tenn.) News, died at his home in Bristol 
on December 16, 1921, aged seventy-seven years. 

His active career was marked by many years as a news- 
paper reporter, editor, and foreman, as a government official, 
court attache, and soldier. His connection with the Masonic 
Lodge has been notable in the series of distinguished offices 
and honors bestowed upon him. He became a thirty-second 
degree Mason in Washington in 1895, was a past master of 
Shelby Lodge, No. 162, a past high priest of E. H. Gill, R. A. 
C. No. 50, and a past eminent commander of Johnson Com- 
mandery No. 14, a past district deputy grand master, district 
No. 40, under the j urisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Virginia, 
1887, and a past commander of St. Andrew Consistory, Scot- 
tish Rite. He was also a member of Kerbela Temple Shriners 
of Knoxville. 

Mr. Smith entered the Confederate service in 1861, at 
Athens, Ga., and served throughout the war, surrendering 
with General Lee at Appomatox. He was a member of Com- 
pany K, 3rd Georgia Regiment, Wright's Brigade. 

He is survived by his wife, who was Mrs. Emma Jane 
Merrifield, of Elmira, N. Y. He was widely known in East 
Tennessee, and his passing was mourned by many friends. 

Lieut. George P. Norvell. 

Lieut. George P. Norvell, was born in Nicholasville, Ky., May 
19, 1832, and died January 14, 1922, at Waverly, Mo. When 
two years old his parents moved to Lynchburg, Va., and he 
settled at Waverly, Mo., in the spring of 1869. 

Comrade Norvell entered the Confederate army as a 
private in Company E, 11th Virginia Regiment of Infantry, 
Kemper's, Brigade, Pickett's Division, Longstreets Corps, and 
at the reorganization in 1862 he was elected lieutenant. 
He was in the battle of Gettysburg, was taken prisoner, and 
kept in Fort Deleware for twelve months. 



112 Qopfederat^ l/eteraij. 

XDlnitet) ©augbters of tbe Confeberac^ 

Mrs. Livingston Roive Schuyler, President General 
520 W. 114th St., New York City 



Mrs. Frank Harrold, Americns, Ga First Vice President General 

Mrs. Bennett D. Bell, Nashville, Tenn Second Vice President General 

Mrs. W. E. Massey, Hot Springs, Ark Third Vice President General 

Mrs. R. D. Wright, Newberry, S. C Recording- Secretary General 

Mrss Allie Garner, Ozark, Ala Corresponding Secretary General 



Mrs. Amos Norris, Tampa, Fla Treasurer General 

Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Wytheville, Va Historian General 

Mrs. Fannie R. Williams, Newton, N. C Registrar General 

Mrs. William D. Mason, Philadelphia, Pa Custodian of Crosses 

Mrs. J. H. Crenshaw, Montgomery, Ala. . . Custodian of Flags and Pennants 



[All communications for this department should be sent direct to Mrs. A. B. White, Official Editor, Paris. Tenn.] 



FROM THE PRESIDENT GENERAL. 

To the United Daughters of the Confederacy: Just after 
sending my last letter I learned of the serious illness of our 
Ex-President-General, Mrs. McKinney, and, as I am sure 
that this news has reached many, it will be a gratification to 
you to know that her recovery is now very nearly complete. 
Confederate Women Relief Fund. — It has been my privilege 
during the last few months to send out regularly the checks 
for our pensioners. This work has made such a deep impression 
upon me I am not surprised that our Chairman of Relief, 
Mrs. Randolph, stated in a letter to me recently that her 
list of these dear women stood next to the Bible on her table. 
I feel that if you only realized the greatness of the benefit, 
the dollar that each Chapter is asked to contribute to this 
fund would be the first that each Chapter would pay to the 
Treasurer-General. It is a great thing to know that we are 
bringing some little relief to these women who have suffered 
so much. 

Cunningham Memorial Scholarship. — There is just now a 
nation-wide drive being made on behalf of a great educational 
work. Can we not realize that the Cunningham Memorial 
Scholarship at the George Peabody College represents the 
same idea and is also a memorial to a man who did more to 
preserve to the South the truth of history than any other 
individual? Although the amount asked for was but S3, 000, 
I do hope and trust that we shall have at least S5,000 in 
order to make the scholarship worthy of the man whose name 
it bears. Be as generous to this fund as Mr. Cunningham 
always was to our Cause! 

The Jefferson Davis National Highway. — The work of 
the Jefferson Davis Highway is being pushed by our 
committee and the S. C. V. Committee, with Hon.N. B. 
Forrest, Director General. In accordance with plans 
agreed upon at the Ashville convention, six Daughters of the 
Confederacy will also assist actively on the Sons of Veterans 
General Committee. The distribution of maps, which are 
being sent by Mr. Forrest to chambers of commerce, high- 
way associations, and other organizations of men, is giving the 
desired publicity, and each State Director has a supply of 
maps, which may be obtained by any Chapter. Chapters in 
States through which the highway does not pass may obtain 
some maps from the General Director, U. D. C, Miss Decca 
Lamar West, 624 Dutton Street, Waco, Tex. 

You will recall that the convention voted unanimously to 
establish a permanent fund for the Jefferson Davis Highway, 
which shall be held in trust by the Treasurer General. At St. 
Louis this action was ratified after being amended to read 
that each State through which the highway passed should 
hold it's own permanent fund, and other Divisions and Chap- 
ters where no division exists might contribute either to a State 
or general fund as they pleased. This means that it is the 



obligation of every Chapter and individual to contribute to 
this fund if we are to honor Jefferson Davis in the most 
practical way. The committee did not appeal to Chapters 
last year on account of the Monument and Hero Fund, but 
feel that they should now have the full cooperation of the entire 
organization. They request that every Division President 
will urge her State to have a special Jefferson Davis Highway 
drive whenever it suits their convenience. All contributions 
should be sent to Mrs. Amos Norris, Treasurer General, and 
amount reported to State Director of Highway, or General 
Director, Miss West. Futher plans will be submitted by the 
committee. 

The Lee Memorial Chapel. — Last month I told you of the gift 
by the Northern officer to this work. To-day I received from 
Mrs. R. C. Chesley, the founder of our Chapter in Boston, a 
letter which enclosed the following: 

"77 Bay State Road, Boston, Mass., 
"January 30, 1922. 

" My dear Mrs. Sayer: I see in the paper that you are to 
have an entertainment on Thursday for the benefit of the new 
memorial chapel to be built at Lexington, Va., in memory of 
Gen. Robert E. Lee; and as I am an enthusiastic and de- 
voted admirer and adherent of General Lee (though inciden- 
tally without a drop of Southern blood in my veins, nor hav- 
ing ever been farther South than Washington), I am venturing 
to inclose a check for one hundred dollars, if I may be privi- 
leged to swell the fund by even such a modest sum. 

"Believe me, sincerely yours, E. R. Thayer." 

Surely these letters show a spirit of fraternal cooperation 
and of admiration for the deeds of a Southerner which ought 
to spur us on and fill us with the spirit of emulation! 

A later letter from Mrs. Chesley reports the receipt of two 
more checks for the Lee Memorial Chapel from Northern men 
— one from Robert L. O'Brien, editor of the Boston Herald, and 
that a Harvard Professor had called up and asked the privi- 
lege of contributing to this fund. 

Increase of Membership. — Have you forgotten my plea for a 
membership drive in February? Do not let the work lag, 
but start new Chapters for the young women where, among 
folk of their own age, they may have a chance for self- 
expression and self-determination. I am proud to announce 
that here in New York we have just organized the Matthew 
Fontaine Maury Chapter, made up entirely of young mem- 
bers, whose special work it •will be to aid the Maury Monument 
Committee. 

Faithfully yours, Lenora Rogers Schuyler. 



Membership Trophy. — In the list of special prizes awarded 
at the St. Louis convention U. D. C, the Alexander Allen 
Faris Membership Trophy went to North Carolina Division. 
This is given by Mrs. Roy W. McKinney, former President 
General, in memory of her father. 



Qogfederat^ i/eterai}. 



113 



U. D. C. NOTES. 

New Division correspondents are: 

Illinois. — Mrs. J. S. Dudley, 5447 Indiana Avenue, 
hicago. 

South Carolina. — Mrs. J. Frost Walker, 71 Church Street, 
nion. 

Mrs. Frank Harrold, President Georgia Division, has issued 

complete and interesting calendar for 1922. It gives 
eorgia Daughters a lot of work to do. 

Texas. — Mrs. J. W. Wilkerson, State Historian, issued 
st fall for 1921-22 a most interesting program of study in 
jservance of the Silver Jubilee of the Texas Division. 

is commended to other Divisions. 

U. D. C. SCHOLARSH IP AT VASSAR. 

1 The Dean at Vassar writes that Miss Katherine Slinghiff, 
Baltimore, Md., who won the scholarship at Vassar in 
e competitive examination last June, is doing satisfactory 
Drk, is interested and appreciative both of the college and her 
>portunity. Tidings have reached us of another U. D. C. 
holarship girl from Vassar, Class 1916, Miss Ruth Walker, 
artersville, Ga. Miss Walker made Phi Beta Kappa at 

' issar and was offered a position in the chemical department, 
tt declined in order to serve her country by doing work in 
e chemical department during the World War. She is now 

;;tructor in chemistry at Carleton College, Northfield, 
inn. 

DIVISION NOTES 

Louisiana. — A delightful social affair of the Division was 
e "get-together" luncheon on Wednesday, January 25, 
the beauriful new Oriental Restaurant, at which more than 
e hundred and fifty Daughters of the Division were present. 
Several interesting addresses were made on the work of the 
■_ vision forthe membership drive in Februarysuggested bythe 
esident General. Mrs. Kolman asked that Louisiana select 

- bruary 18, the birthday of General Mouton, for the Division 
.celebrate. A toast to the U. D. C, written by Mrs. Ida 
wdwill, eighty-six years of age, President of Minden 
lapter, and the Division's oldest active member, was read. 

- stinguished guests present and who made splendid ad- 
2sses were: Mrs. C. E. Jenne, National President of the 
tughters of 1812; Mrs. Davis, of Little Rock, representing 
■ughters of 1812; Mrs. C. M. Murray and Mrs. R. Bona, 

presenting the Americal Legion. 

The Louisiana Division will hold its twenty-third annual 

ivention in New Orleans in Mav, and the local Chapters 
■■,'. planning extensive entertainment for the visitors and are 

rking to make this one of the most successful and delightful 
; airs of the season. 

Dwing to the fact that the Gen. Alfred Mouton monu- 

nt, which is being erected by the Louisiana Division in 
-fayette, La., was not ready for unveiling on February 18, 
i ■ birthday of General Mouton, the unveiling has been 
] ;tponed until April 8, the anniversary of the death of 
1 neral Mouton, he having been killed at the battle of Mans- 
i T d April 8, 1864. 

Jen. Robert E. Lee's birthday was fittingly celebrated on 
. mary 19 by the New Orleans Chapter with the other 
1 al Chapters as guests. Miss Doriska Gautreaux, Chair- 
i^n of the Cross of Honor Committee, presided, and Hon. 
lj nry M. Gill delivered the oration. A splendid literary 
i, 1 musical program was rendered, with short impromptu 
I cs by officers and members present. 

Vew York. — This Division is highly gratified over the 



election of Mrs. Livingston Rowe Schuyler, of the Mary 
Mildred Sullivan Chapter to the high office of Presi- 
dent General, United Daughters of the Confederacy, espe- 
cially as this is the first time that office has been filled by 
a member of a Chapter north of the Mason and Dixon line, 
though several other offices have been filled by Confederate 
women living in the North. Mrs. Schuyler resigned as Pres- 
ident of New York Division on December 10. In this work 
her successor is Mrs. George E. Draper, another woman full 
of intense energy and zeal for the advancement of U. D. C. 
work. New York Chapter held its annual meeting on De- 
cember 13. Reports of the year's work were most encouraging. 
There was, however, a note of sadness when memorials were 
read for Mrs. Augustus Jones, mother of the President, Mrs. 
James Henry Parker. On the afternoon of December 5, Mrs. 
Algernon Sydney Sullivan tendered a reception to many 
prominent guests that they might meet the new President 
General and the members of Mary Mildred Sullivan Chapter. 
A most distinguished company of Southerners was present. 
The Mary Mildred Sullivan Chapter has sent out a small 
pamphlet containing beautiful expressions of appreciation of 
Mrs. Algernon Sydney Sullivan (Mary Mildred Sullivan), "The 
Virginians" of New York City, to Mrs. Sullivan at the recep- 
tion given in her honor by that society at the Hotel Plaza on 
January 13, 1921, in the eighty-fifth year of her age. A beauti- 
ful tribute to a noble woman and her fine work in worth-while 
matters. James Henry Parker Chapter gave a card party 
recently to reenforce their educational fund. The receipts 
exceeded all expectations and will enable the Chapter to extend 
its work. 

Ohio. — Officers for 1922 were elected at the State conven- 
tion, held in Cincinnati October 13, 14, 1921, as the guests of 
the Albert Sidney Johnston Chapter, as follows: Mrs. W. H. 
Estabrook, Dayton, President; Mrs. John J. Parker, Cleve- 
land, Fiist Vice President; Mrs. John B. Preston, Columbus, 
Second Vice President; Mrs. A. B. Davis, Covington, Ky., 
Third Vice President; Mrs. John Longwell, Cincinnati, Re- 
cording Secretary; Mrs. H. V. Dutrow, Dayton, Correspond- 
ing Secretary; Mrs. Leroy Rose, Columbus, Treasurer; Mrs. 
John L. Shearer, Lexington, Ky., Historian-Custodian; Mrs. 
A. R. Shaw, Columbus, Registrar; Airs. Eli Pigman, Colum- 
bus, Custodian of Crosses. 

South Carolina. — This Division held its annual convention 
at Batesburg, S. C, December 6-8, Mrs. St. John A. Lawton, 
President, presiding. The marked achievements of Mrs. 
Lawton's administration have been the completion of the 
following funds: Hero fund; Davis Monument fund; Gen. 
Wade Hampton Portrait fund; Publicity fund for Jefferson 
Davis Highway; and remodeling the Confederate Infirmary 
throughout at Columbia, S. C. Mrs. Lawton enjoys the 
distinction of having been President of two U. D. C. Divis- 
ions, Virginia and South Carolina. Because this adopted 
Daughter had given such splendid service, the South Carolina 
Division presented her with a beautiful silver vase. 

The Rose Loving Cup was won for South Carolina by 
Mrs. J. E. Ellerbe, of Marion, S. C, the second time this 
prize has been brought to South Carolina. 

The Batesburg Chapter was hostess to the convention 
at a beautiful luncheon. The following officers were elected 
to serve two years: Mrs. Chapman J. Milling, President; 
Mrs. W. R. Darlington, Jr., First Vice President; Mrs. R. C. 
Sarrett, Second Vice President; Mrs. Monford Scott, Third 
Vice President; Mrs. W. F. Marshall, Fourth Vice President; 
Mrs. Janie B. Flowers, Recording Secretary; Miss Edythe 
Loryea, Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. T. J. Mauldin, Treas- 
urer; Mrs. J. H. West, Historian; Mrs. O. D. Black, Registrar; 



114 



^oijfederat^ l/eteraij. 



Mrs. A. J. Sproles, Recorder of Crosses; Mrs. L. M. Mitchell, 
Auditor. 

Texas. — The recent convention at Paris, the twenty-fifth, 
was a celebration of Texas's "silver jubilee," and although 
Paris had just passed through another disastrous fire, there 
was no lack of hospitality and social entertainments, and this 
convention was a notable one, with a large attendance of 
delegates. Mary West Chapter, of Waco, went "over the 
top" in all her obligations. Texas is the first Division to 
raise her quota for the Jefferson Davis Monument. Miss 
Decca Lamar West, of Waco, was elected President of the 
Texas Division. 

Washington. — The State Convention of the Washington 
Division was held in Spokane on October 12, with Mildred Lee 
Chapter as hostess. Reports showed that the Division had 
made substantial gains during the past year, for both Dixie 
and Robert E. Lee Chapters have gained new members and, 
while Mildred Lee Chapter has not added new members to 
her list, a number of old members have been reinstated and 
the Chapter has gained much in strength during the past 
year — a fact which was demonstrated by the efficient and 
hospitable manner in which the convention was entertained. 
The President reported twenty membership certificates signed 
during the past two years, fourteen of these being from 
Robert E. Lee Chapter and six from Dixie Chapter. Nine of 
these were registered in 1920 and eleven in 1921. Five Crosses 
of Honor had been bestowed by Robert E. Lee Chapter in 
January, 1921. Dixie Chapter still has first place in the Di- 
vision for subscriptions to the VETERAN — twenty-one of the 
thirty-two members being subscribers. Miss Julia Fletcher, 
War Record Director for Washington, presented the Division 
with a handsome leather binder for copies of records to be 
placed in the State Historical Building in Tacoma. As new 
records are collected, one copy of each will be added to the 
file. The Division has responded generously to the President 
General's repeated appeals for the Hero Fund, the Jefferson 
Davis Monument Fund, and sale of "Southern Women in War 
Times." To the Hero Fund the Division was asked to give 
§101.20 and had paid at last report S276.09. The twenty-five 
cents per capita tax for the Davis Monument Fund was paid 
in full by the Chapters and later, in a special effort to dispose 
of two hundred lithographed Souvenir ^Receipts for one 
dollar, the Chapters responded again with characteristic 
enthusiasm and sent Sill. 25 through the State Director, 
Mrs. J. B. Maclin, to the Treasurer General — Robert E. Lee 
Chapter sending $45.00 and Dixie Chapter $66.25. Each 
Chapter paid SI to the Publicity Fund for "Southern Women 
in War Times," and the Division contributed $5. The Di- 
vision was asked to sell nine copies of the book, but at last re- 
port had sold twenty-seven copies. Our Director, Mrs. A. W. 
Ollar, has learned from Mr. Andrews that Washington Di- 
vision is the first to sell three times its quota. During the year 
S23 was contributed to the Cunningham Memorial Scholar- 
ship Fund — S13 from Dixie Chapter and $10 from Robert E. 
Lee. In addition to these generous contributions during the 
year to all of the work being undertaken by the general 
organization, Dixie Chapter gave S3 7 for European Relief and 
Robert E. Lee Chapter gave S32 to the Salvation Army. 
Robert E. Lee Chapter entered a historical float in the 
Fourth of July parade at a cost of $176, and expended $30 for 
a new flag pole at the lot owned by the Chapter in Lakeview 



Cemetery, the only Confederate burial plot in the North- 
west. It is the plan of the Chapter to place a suitable monu- 
ment on this lot at some time in the very near future, and $50 
has already been set aside as a nucleus for this fund. The 
following resolution was adopted by the convention and 
ordered sent to the representatives of our State in Washing- 
ton, D. C: "We, the Daughters of the Confederacy in 
convention assembled, do most heartily indorse the Con- 
ference for Disarmament about to assemble in Washington, 
D. C. We pray that the deliberations and conclusions of its 
members may be so guided that the safety, honor, and welfare 
of all governments may be secured, and that peace and happi- 
ness, truth and justice may be established for all generations." 
The following officers were elected to serve the Division for the 
next two years: President, Mrs. F. G. Sutherlin, Spokane; 
First Vice President, Mrs. Kurt Schluss, Tacoma; Second Vice 
President, Mrs. M. A. Wilkins, Seattle; Recording Secretary, 
Mrs. Mary McBride, Spokane; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. 
W. L. Turner, Spokane; Treasurer, Mrs. R. G. Kirk, Tacoma; 
Registrar, Mrs. H. D. Ferguson, Seattle; Historian, Mrs. H. A. 
Calohan, Seattle; Recorder of Crosses, Miss E. Florence 
Fletcher, Tacoma. The convention will meet next October, 
with Dixie Chapter, in Tacoma. 

West Virginia. — October meetings in almost all of the 
Chapters in this Division were devoted to reports of delegates 
to the delightful State convention, held in Keyser, September 
7, 8. The delegates brought home glowing accounts of the 
social features of the convention, during which Romney 
Chapter also entertained the delegates at a delightfully ap- 
pointed dinner. A great deal of important business was 
attended to, and Mrs. W. E. R. Byrne was reelected State 
President, this being her fifth, and (we very much regret to 
say) her last year in this capacity. Our gracious former 
President General, Mrs. McKinney, was with us at this con- 
vention, and on the way back to Kentucky was delightfully 
entertained by the Huntington Chapter. 



^iatonral Separtmimt, 1. 1. (£. 

Motto: "Loyalty to the truth of Confederate History." 
Key word: "Preparedness." Flower: The rose. 

MRS. A. A. CAMPBELL, HISTORIAN GENERAL. 



U. D. C. PROGRAM FOR APRIL, 1922. 

Lee Memorial Year. 

Robert E. Lee at West Point. His marriage to Mary Custis. 
Describe the happy home at Arlington and mention the price- 
less relics which Mary Custis inherted from Martha Washing- 
ton. 



C. OF C. PROGRAM FOR APRIL, 1922. 
Boy Soldiers of the Confederacy. 
Robert E. Lee, Jr., the son of the commanding general, 
who was a private in the ranks. Describe his home at Arling- 
ton and mention the battles in which he fought. 



^orpfederat^ l/eterai) t 



115 



Confeberateb Southern /Iftemotial association 



: us. A. McD. Wilson President General 

436 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Ga. 

\s. C. B. Bryan First Vice President General 

Memphis, Tenn. 

SS Sue II. Walker Second Vice President General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

-is. E. L. Merry Treasurer General 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 
I :ss Daisy M. L. Hodgson.... Recording- Secretary General 
7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

:ss Mildred Rutherford Historian General 

Athens, Ga. 
ts. Bryan W, Collier.. Corresponding Secretary General 
College Park, Ga. 

as. Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate General 

1045 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 

ts. Belle Allen Ross Auditor General 

Montgomery, Ala. 

] ,v. Giles B. Cooke Chaplain General 

Mathews, Va. 




OUR MEMORIAL DA Y. 

My Dear Coworkers: To you, my dear Memorial women, 
s come again the message from the North, to your President 
■neral, an official communcication asking that we merge 
for Memorial Day with the movement to create an Inter- 
tional Memorial Day, participated in by all the peoples of 

■ 3 war, May 30, being the day designated. The letter fol- 
-vs, with the reply, which, as your respresentative, has been 
; swered in a spirit, which I trust meets your approval. 

St. Paul, Minn., January 31, 1922. 
147 Kent Street. 
:, s. A. McD. Wilson, President General C. S. M. A., Atlanta, 
-3a. 

\Dear Mrs. Wilson: Through the kindness of Mr. Nathan 
:dford Forrest, of your city, I have your address, and ask 
; u to very thoughtfully read my leaflet advocating an 

:ernational Memorial Day, on May 30. 

[n taking this matter up wih a view to having support in 
1 : South, a Southern lady wrote me saying that she did not 
. how I could expect much consistent support for May 30, 
. :ause the South did not observe that day. I understand 
1-it you have in the South two or three different days. 

In view of the World War and the thought-compelling 
' ion of the entire world observing one Memorial Day, May 

• I was moved to lay the matter before you in the hope that 
1 ies of the South would seriously undertake this question 

< :hanging their day so as to have May 30 for this country, 
.t just seems to me that if the Southern lady who started 

. imorial Day were consulted she would say "yes." Surely 
i vould be a wonderful thing that her idea should spread all 

< :r the world. 

. await your reply with deep interest, and would be glad to 

■ d you a supply of these leaflets upon your request. 

/ery sincerely yours, J. W. Hamilton. 

: '. J. W. Hamilton, St. Paul, Minn. 

Oear Mr. Hamilton: I have the honor to acknowledge your 
I: :er of January 31, relative to Memorial Day in the South 
1 ng merged with a movement to create an International 
. -modal Day on May 30, and in reply beg to say that the 
1 tter was taken up by our Confederated Southern Me- 
1 rial Association Convention in Chattanooga last October, 

• 1 the unanimous decision was that, having originated 
■morial Day in the South, and having observed the day 

1 nterruptedly for more than half a century, we maintain 
i 1 perpetuate our Southern Memorial Day. You are 
I haps aware that Decoration Day of the North, May 30, 
' ; the outgrowth of our Southern Memorial Day, and was 



STATE PRESIDENTS 

Alabama — Montgomery Airs. R. P. Dexter 

Arkansas — Fayetteville Mrs. J. Garside "Welch 

Florida — Pensacola Mrs. Horace L. Simpson 

Georgia— Atlanta Mrs. William A. Wright 

Kentucky — Bowling Green Miss Jeannie Blackburn 

Louisiana — New Orleans Mrs. James Dinkins 

Mississippi — Vicksburg Mrs. E. C. Carroll 

Missouri — St. Louis Mrs. G. K. Warner 

North Carolina — Ashville Mrs. J. J. Yates 

Oklahoma — Tulsa Mrs. W. H. Crowd.r 

South Carolina — Charleston Mrs. S. Cary Beckwith. 

Tennessee— Memphis Mrs. Charles W. Frazer* 

Texas — Houston Mrs. Mary E. Bryan 

Virginia— Front Royal Mrs. S. M. Davis-Roy 

West Virginia — Huntington Mrs. Thos. H. Harvey 



the result of a visit of Mrs. John A. Logan to Virginia on the 
occasion of a Memorial Day celebration. So inspired was Mrs. 
Logan with the beautiful tribute to the South's dead, that she 
returned to Washington filled with admiration, and recounted 
to General Logan the beauty and impressiveness of the scene, 
and General Logan, then Chief of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, replied: "We must have a day for our boys and call 
it Decoration Day." 

We Southerners are a people largely swayed by sentiment 
and patriotism, and could you but see the wonderful out- 
pouring of the masses and the mile long procession in Atlanta 
that wends its way to the resting place of our Confederate dead, 
you could readily realize that commemorating, as we do, no 
victory in war, but bending in eternal and sacred reverence 
above green mounds of our heroes, we could share with no 
others in the loving tribute which we pay them. There 
having been more Southern boys in the World War than from 
any other section, we shall naturally join you in any movement 
to pay tribute to them on another occasion, but for the heroes 
of the gray, the sacred privilege must remain ours to keep their 
graves green and our eternal shrine. 

With appreciation of the courtesy extended our organization 
through the President General, I am very truly yours, 

Mrs. A. McD. Wilson. 



ASSOCIATION NOTES. 

BY LOLLIE IiELLE WYLIE. 

The letter by Mr. Hamilton, and the reply to it by Mrs. 
A. McD. Wilson, President General of the C. S. M. A., have 
awakened many thoughts in the minds of the Memorial 
women. It is a matter that every Memorial Association should 
bring before its members and discuss freely. Then, when 
it has been discussed, each president of a Memorial Association 
should, without delay, report to Mrs. Wilson the outcome of 
the discussion. And remember, Memorial women, you who 
have tenderly nurtured this association, who have with the 
love of a mother for a child kept its purposes sacred on the 
altar of your hearts, remember that Memorial Day in the 
South is a day to be strengthened and kept with love and faith 
as your mothers and grandmothers kept it from the first day 
of its birth back in the sixties through all the years to come. 

Would the coming generations keep the graves of the Con- 
federate heroes green through an International Memorial Day. 
Would they lay, each year, flowers upon the mounds where 
our treasures rest. Perhaps, but with the swing of the great 
pendulum of change, it is more likely that the grass would run 
riot over the sacred mounds and the flowers die and be blown 
upon the winds of earth, dry as the dust of the sleepers in 



116 



Qopfederat^ Ueterai). 



their narrow beds. It would be a pleasure for each of you, I 
know, to plant a tree for the dead of the World War along 
some memorial highway, and to place flowers on their graves, 
as we all do whenever we pass them; but let us keep our Memo- 
rial Day sacred to the promise we made to the Southern women 
who left us the charge of caring for our Southern heroes. 

Plans are materializing which will place the Richmond re- 
union and convention foremost among the many splendid 
patriotic gatherings to honor our immortal heroes of the 
sixties. The Hotel Jefferson has been selected as head- 
quarters, and plans are being made to hold the convention in 
the ballroom of that handsome hotel. Experience in having 
the convention meetings in the ballroom of the hotels in 
Houston and Chattanooga have proved most helpful to the 
delegates and has made this plan desirable. A new departure 
that carries with it a fascinating allurement is "An Evening with 
the Old South." Theie will be a reception and ball on this 
occasion, probably on Tuesday evening, in the ballroom. 
Each guest will be asked to wear an ante-bellum costume. 
This will give opportunity for bringing out many old family 
heirlooms in jewels and dress and will lend to the convention 
the dignity and beauty of the Old South. Appropriate to the 
hostess city will be the dancing of the Virginia Reel, following 
the Grand March around the ballroom, led by the officers 
and distinguished guests. Every one who plans to attend 
this notable convention is requested to prepare for the " Even- 
ing in the Old South, " which is expected to be one of brilliancy. 
Cards of admission will be sent out with credential blanks to 
delegates, and will be issued to visiting friends when properly 
indorsed. 

Through the earnest efforts of the State President of North 
Carolina, Mrs. J. J. Yates, January saw the beginning of 
new work, a newly born Memorial Association in Asheville. A 
splendid charter membership of nearly fifty members started 
off the Association, which is already active and wide awake. 
The officers are: Mrs. J. J. Yates, President; Mrs. R. M. 
Wells, First Vice President; Mrs. C. G. Lee, Second Vice Pres- 
ident; Mrs. L. W. Davis, Third Vice President; Mrs. P. H. 
Abernathy, Corresponding Secretary; Miss Thelma Smathers, 
Recording Secretary; and Mrs. A. Mathews, Historian. 



A SOUTHERN NIGHTINGALE. 

BY DR. DEERING J. ROBERTS, NASHVILLE, TENN. 

"When pain and anguish wring the brow, 
A ministering angel thou." 

A hundred years ago there was born in the beautiful city 
of Florence, Italy, of English parentage and rearing, one of the 
gentler sex who was given the name of the city of her birth, 
and who, thirty-five years later, indelibly placed her name and 
fame high on the pages of history by her earnest and sincere 
efforts in behalf of suffering mankind in the lethal wards of the 
hospitals of Scutari, adjacent to Balaklava's fatal field. 

In 1S06 there was born in this country, in the Old North 
State, another girl whose name deserves as well to be on 
fame's roll for a similar service to her countrymen in time of 
war. This girl, Ann L. Ferguson, came to Tennessee as a 
small child, when the family settled at Chapel Hill, in Marshall 
County. At maturity she married a man named Kenley, and 
their home was at Columbia, Tenn., where a son was born to 
them. The father died when this child was an infant, and the 
widow married Mr. Christopher Brooks, of Nashville, and to 
them were born seven children, four of them being boys. At 
the beginning of the War between the States she encouraged 
all of her sons of sufficient age to enlist in the Southern army, 
and all did so with the exception of the youngest, who was 



then but eleven years old. The eldest son, T. J. Kenley, was 
commissioned brevet second lieutenant of Company G 
(Perry Guards), of the 20th Tennessee, Battle's Regiment, 
was later promoted captain of the company, and was killed 
near Rome, Ga., in 1864. 

The second son, E. Foster Brooks, enlisted in a cavalry 
regiment in Mississippi. M. O. Brooks was commissioned sec- 
ond lieutenant in the Beauregard Grays, or "Bull Pups," as 
they were called by their comrades, and went with his 
regiment, the 11th Tennessee, to East Tennessee. H. Clay 
Brooks went to Virginia and served on Gen. H. A. Wise's staff. 
After giving these four sons to the Confederate armies, Mrs. 
Brooks was actively engaged in the work of that noble as- 
sociation of the women of Nashville who did such efficient 
service in the hospitals there in the first year of the war, as 
well as later, in gathering supplies, medicines, etc., and she 
served faithfully and well in other Southern hospitals after 
the capture of Fort Donelson and the occupation of Nashville 
by the Federal army. She visited Camp Trousdale while 
her eldest son's command was encamped there for instruction 
in the science and art of war. Finding a large number of the 
boys with measles and other diseases incident to camp life, 
she and a neighbor, Mrs. Susan Alford, deemed it their duty 
to look after the welfare and comfort of these boys where there 
was such a need of woman's care. Colonel Battle placed a 
tent at their disposal, and until General Zollicoffer led his 
command away to East Tenneesse, these two women were 
untiring in their care of the sick. 

When the 20th Tennessee left Camp Trousdale, Mrs. 
Brooks devoted her services most assiduously to the hospitals 
in Nashville, which were filled with the sick from Bowling 
Green and Camps Trousdale and Cheatham. With some of 
her negro slaves she stayed on duty day and night at the old 
building previously used as the State Hospital for the Insane 
until and some time after the Federal occupation of Nashville. 
Until the Army of Tennessee returned to the vicinity of 
Nashville in the autumn of 1862, Mrs. Brooks made her 
headquarters with a married daughter in Williamson County. 
By means of acquaintance with some of the leading Federal 
authorities in Nashville, she was enabled to go anywhere at 
any time she wished, and thus she was able to give most 
valuable and important service in smuggling through the 
lines quantities of morphine, quinine, and other medical and 
hospital supplies made contraband of war by the Federal 
government. Mrs. Brooks called on Gov. Andrew Johnson 
at one time to ask that her home in Nashville be given back 
to her, and he asked if she did not have four sons in the Con- 
federate army. "Yes," she replied, "and," pointing to the 
young son with her, a boy of thirteen, "I shall send this one 
as soon as he is old enough." 

During Bragg's occupation of Tennessee this patriotic 
woman again entered upon her self-assumed duties with the 
sick and wounded, and while the battle of Murfreesboro was 
raging, she was arduously engaged at the base hospitals from 
Wednesday morning until Saturday night, assisting at opera- 
tions and bandaging and dressing wounds; and during the 
remaining three years of war she was just as actively and 
faithfully engaged in the hospitals of Chattanooga, Atlanta, 
Griffin, and other Southern towns. Distance was never too 
great, transportation methods never too difficult or unpleas- 
ant, the weather never too hot or too cold for her to go 
wherever she could be of service to a Confederate soldier. 
A true daughter of the South, it could well have been said 
of her, as was said by England's poet laureate of her proto- 
type: "Flit on, cheering angel!" 



Qoi?federat^ 1/eterarj. 



117 



SEVEN DA YS' BA TTLES AROUND RICHMOND. 

(Continued from page 92) 
ras moving toward us and then men began to stand up and 
ut, "That is Stonewall Jackson!" And so it was, because 
1 very short time here he came at the head of his staff in a 
Ay gallop. His gray cap was in his hand, while he smilingly 
ved to our vociferously cheering officers and men on both 
;s of the road. And this was the first time I saw the great 
newall Jackson. He was simply uniformed, but fine 
king. His hair and full beard were rather dark, but his 
iplexion fair. 

.ate in the day we reached our position in a body of large 
ber not far from Malvern Hill, and here we rested in 
etness and peace during the night. From 8 to 10 P.M., 
Clellan serenaded us with a fine brass band from the top 
Malvern Hill. They played many pieces, including, of 
rse, "Yankee Doodle" and "Dixie," and closed the very 
Dyable concert with "Home, Sweet Home," which was 
utifully rendered and, for the time being, captured our 
rts. 

'hus ended the awful seven days' battles in front of Rich- 
id. About eleven o'clock next day we saw Stonewall 
kson, accompanied by a single officer, ride off on a road 
ling toward Richmond, and that was the last time I ever 
• him, although I "just missed" him several times after 
t and before he was finally removed from us by death, 
the defeat of McClellan at Richmond, the stock of 
Southern Confederacy went up to a point above "par" 
I, therefore, the people of the South were much encouraged 
the future success of their country. 



GENERAL LEE ON TRA VELER. 

n response to request for some of his recollections of Gen- 
. Lee, A. H. Plecker, of Lynchburg, Va., writes of the time 
made the noted picture of General Lee on his faithful 
veler: 

Photography has been my profession since 1857 to the 

sent time, except the four years I was in the Confederate 

ly. I was what could be called a traveling photographer; 

a car built for the purpose, and moved from town to town 

he Valley of Virginia. In 1866 I was at Rockbridge Baths, 

:re General Lee and his family were spending the summer. 

jproached the General as to giving me a sitting. 'Yes,' 

;aid; 'I will. But how would you like to take me on my 

5e?' I said, 'Any way you like,' and in a few days the 

leral reported, mounted. Traveler was then looking his 

:, about eight years old, a dapple gray, in good condition, 

groomed — a very picture himself. It was midsummer, 

m, and the flies very bad, so we had trouble in holding 

still long enough, as there were no instantaneous pictures 

le at that time. After several trials I succeeded in getting 

tisfactory picture, one of the General mounted and another 

l him standing by his horse. He then came into the car 

I made some small bust photos, one of which Mrs. Lee 

i was the best picture she had of him to that time. I also 

, le some sittings of his daughters, and later on, in the early 

- of Mrs. Lee at her residence in Lexington, Va. As she was 

nvalid, the picture had to be made at the home. 

The first thing I noticed on entering Mrs. Lee's room was a 

sized photo of the General, twenty-two by twenty-four, 

: 1 as a screen to hide the fireplace. I remarked, 'Why, 

. Lee, why do you use that nice photo of the General in 

way?' She laughed very heartily and said, 'It is the 

use I can make of it, and it fitted very snugly in that 

II 



place.' This picture was in profile, a very fine photograph 
made by a Washington City photographer, and they are very 
rare, the negative having gotten broken before many prints 
were struck off. 

I found Mrs. Lee a very pleasant lady indeed. The Gen- 
eral asked many questions about the photographic art, how 
it had improved since first discovered, and that it would con- 
tinue to advance, as it was a chemical process. 

In the ' Recollections and Letters of Gen. R. E. Lee, ' by his 
son, on page 255, there is a letter to his daughter in Baltimore 
in which General Lee refers to the picture I made of her, say- 
ing: 'Markie has sent me a likeness of you on porcelain, from 
the negative taken by the celebrated Plecker, which she 
carried with her to Philadelphia. It is very good, but I prefer 
the original.' 

"This picture of General Lee on Traveler I have enlarged to 
twenty-six by thirty-six, in water colors; the one standing by 
his horse to ten by twelve, done in oil. They hang in my 
studio, and I prize them very highly. I have post cards of 
that of the General mounted which I will send to any one 
writing me, inclosing two cents for postage; have also large 
sizes. My recollections of the short acquaintance with General 
at the Baths, with his daughters in the ballroom, and of Mrs. 
Lee at her home in Lexington, Va., are very pleasant mem- 
ories." 



ONE OF THE CADETS A T NEW MARKET. 

Porter Johnson, who died in Richmond, Va., in 1917, was 
one of the few remaining of those heroic boys who played 
such a gallant part in the battle of New Market. He was 
born October 19, 1845, and was a volunteer in the Confed- 
erate army in 1861-62, serving then in West Virginia, where 
he was born, and taking part in the battles of King's Moun- 
tain, Cheat Mountain, and Philippi. He entered the Vir- 
ginia Military Institute in 1863 and fought with his corps in 
the historic battle of New Market. In the latter part of 
March, 1865, he joined Company A of the 8th Virginia In- 
fantry, Col. Garnett Andrews, with which he served as 
lieutenant. He was captured at Salisbury, N. C, and sent 
to Camp Chase, where his uncle had died shortly before. 
Porter Johnson was released June 13, 1865, and returned to 
his home in Rockbridge, Va. In 1867 he was married to Miss 
Rose M. Brown, daughter of Ludwell H. Brown, of Rich- 
mond, and Margaret Cabell McClelland, of Nelson, and seven 
of their ten children survive him. 



"WOMEN OF THE SOUTH IN WAR TIMES." 

The Managing Editor is writing this report far away from 
headquarters in Baltimore; hence he cannot give many de- 
tails of returns. 

Apparently, the Divisions which have been most active 
since November 1 are Alabama (chiefly the Sidney Lanier 
Chapter at Alexander City), Maryland, North Carolina, and 
West Virginia. 

Mrs. R. Philip Holt, of Rocky Mount, N. C, Chairman of 
the Publicity Committee, urgently requests all the Division 
Directors to write to her about their work or plans to reach 
the sales goal set for 1922. 

All Chapters in each Division have a chance to win the 
Chapter prize for their respective Divisions; and each Divi- 
sion has a similar opportunity to win the Division award, all 
of which will be announced at the general convention in 
Birmingham next November. 



118 



Qopfederat^ l/eterar? 



"AMERICA N HISTOR Y AND GOVERNMENT. " 

"American History and Government," recently issued by 
the J. B. Lippincott Company, is a volume of some five hun- 
dred pages by Matthew Page Andrews. It is attractively 
bound in red, with a jacket giving an unusual airplane picture 
of the United States Capitol. It contains many illustrations, 
and retails at $2 the copy. 

Beginning at the attempted settlements by Sir Walter 
Raleigh at Roanoke Island and the successful settlement 
founded by Sir Edwin Sandj'S at Jamestown, the author 
presents a number of interesting facts which, as far as we 
know, have never been brought forth in popular form in any 
other such narrative. We are informed, for example, that Thom- 
as Nelson Page referred to the author's work as the beginning of 
the popularization of records which have never been fully 
utilized by our historians. Further than this, from the stand- 
point of another scholar of international distinction, we are 
also informed that Lord Bryce recently declared that Mr. 
Andrews was throwing an entirely new light on American 
colonial foundations. 

"American History and Government" depicts the real 
romance of the origin and earliest development of American 
institutions. Mr. Andrews tells in the first chapter of the 
deliberate planning of our earliest forms of government by a 
great group of Elizabethan statesmen, who, in defiance of an 
autocratic sovereign, foresaw on the virgin soil of America 
"a free popular State," whose inhabitants should have "no 
government put upon them save by their own consente. " 

We can learn from this volume the name and story of the 
great founder who used the expression just quoted, and who 
was chiefly responsible for the beginnings of America and the 
formation and final establishment of not only the colony at 
Jamestown, but that at Plymouth Rock, on the twin bases 
of political liberty and freedom of conscience. 

This chapter also tells of the interest taken in the first 
colony by William Shakespeare and of his knowledge of its 
progress, which at present is furnishing the theme for an 
animated discussion on the part of the greatest Shakespearean 
scholars of the world. Mr. Andrews briefly tells of the way 
Shakespeare knew of the wreck of the Sea Venture carrying 
to Jamestown, in 1609, the first charter of American liberties. 
He tells of the saving from the wreck of the crew of the Sea 
Venture, including Governor Gates and Admiral Somers, and 
the construction in the "still-vex't Bermoothes" of two 
vessels, the Patience and the Deliverance, by which all the sur- 
vivors ultimately reached Jamestown. 

This history of the United States depicts the true characters 
of the first settlers and gives something about them and their 
work as individuals. In this Mr. Andrews has taken an even 
more advanced stand than in his previous books, a stand 
which has met with the approval of critics and reviewers, 
apparently without a dissenting opinion. 

We have not the space to go into the original treatment of 
other points; such as, for example, that the Pilgrim Fathers 
owe their beginnings in America to the same group of men who 
founded Jamestown, and that they were warmed, fed, and 
saved from possible annihilation by succor from Virginia. The 
author makes a marked and proper distinction between the 
Pilgrims and their small settlement at Plymouth and the over- 
whelming immigration of Puritans which followed thereafter. 

In regard to all matters of sectional import, the author 
apparently aims to interpret all parts of this country in terms 
of the whole. It is a national history which is fair to the 
South. It is not a mass of unrelated or semirelated facts, 



figures, dates, and data, but a story of the development of 
this country in which proportionate and proper credit is given 
to the South, North, East, and West for their respective 
shares in this development. 

Of particular interest, perhaps, to those who are interested 
in preparing a national memorial to our greatest scientist, 
Matthew Fontaine Maury, it may be noted that Mr. Andrews 
does justice to the memory and achievements of this great 
American, whose name is not even mentioned in many of the 
textbooks taught throughout the length and breadth of this 
great country. 



An interesting program was rendered by the pupils of 
Stephens University, at Crawfordsville, Ga., in commem- 
oration of the one hundred ind tenth anniversary of the birth 
of Alexander H. Stephens, February 11, 1812. 

At the conclusion of the program, pupils and visitors 
marched to Mr. Stephens's grave, which, together with his 
monument, was beautifully decorated with Confederate flags 
and bunting, the children decorating the grave with violets, 
buttercups, and narcissus. It was a sweet and impressive 
scene that meant much in the future history of the State 
and South. 



Officers of Fort Worth Camp. — At its regular meeting on 
January 1, the R. E. Lee Camp of Fort Worth, Tex., elected 
the following officers for 1922: Commander, W. L. Armstrong; 
First Lieutenant, William Barr; Second Lieutenant, J. W. 
West; Adjutant, George E. Estes; Historian, George R. Allen; 
Quartermaster, W. T. Shaw; Surgeon, J. T. Fields; Chaplain, 
W. R. Matthews; Librarian, John Stewart; Sergeant at Arms, 
J. M. Ferguson; Color Sergeant, J. B. Castleberry. 



Mrs. M. E. Davis, of Houston, Texas, writes of the novel way 
the Oran M. Roberts Chapter, U. D.C.has of giving the veterans 
a little pleasure. " Once a month, " she says, "we give a birth- 
day party at the Dick Dowling Camp Room, and in this way 
we celebrate the birthdays of all the veterans there who were 
born in that month, and invite all the rest. We have a twelve 
o'clock dinner, old Southern style, get some one to deliver a 
little talk, and have a good time generally. The Cheek-Neal 
Coffee Company makes the coffee for us, as they do for all our 
other meetings. The old boys get a great deal of enjoyment 
out of these birthday parties. " 



A Correction Corrected. — J. T. Eason, Adjutant of 
Dick Dowling Camp, 197, U. C. V., of Houston, Tex., and 
Adjutant and Chief of Staff, 1st Texas Brigade, U. C. V., 
writes that G. W. Carmical is mistaken in saying (page 364, 
October Veteran) that the 7th Georgia Regiment was the 
only command of Georgia troops fighting in the neighbor- 
hood of the Henry House at First Manassas, "as the 8th 
Georgia Regiment was there and Col. F. S. Bartow was killed 
there, and his Company B erected a marker where he fell, 
but this was afterwards destroyed." Comrade Eason was in 
the fight as a member of Company E, 8th Georgia, in the first 
and second Manassas and other engagements of the regiment. 



Additional Contributions to the Cunningham Memo- 
rial. — I. E. Trotter, Brodnax, Va. $2.00; Mrs. J. R. Gibbons, 
Bauxite, Ark., $4.00; W. A. Everman, Greenville, Miss., 
$1.00; R. E. Cole, Portland, Tex., $1.00. 



J 



Qopfederat^ ueterap. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY IN THE INTEREST OF CONFEDERATE ASSOCIATIONS AND KINDRED TOPICS. 



ntered as second -class matter at the post office at Nashville, Term., 
under act of March 3, 1S79. 

cceptance of mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec- 
tion 1 [03, act of October 3, 1917, and authorized on July 5, 191S. 
jhlished by the Trustees of the Confederate Veteran, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 




OFFICIALLY REP RE, :ENTS: 
United Confederate Veterans, 

United Daughters of" the Confederacy, 

Sons of Veterans and Other Organizations, 

Confederated Southern Memorial Associatiom, 



Though men deserve, they may not win, success; 

The brave will hoHor the brave, vanquished none the less. 



[ICT, 11.56 PEK YBAB. 1 

N8LB Copt. 1 6 Cmmt*. / 



Vol. XXX. 



NASHVILLE, TENN., APRIL, 1922. 



No. 4. 



S. A. CUNNINGHAM, 

! Founder. 



COL. V. Y. COOK— IN MEMORIAM, 

"God's finger touched him and he slept." 

At Batesville, Ark., on Sunday, March 12, Col. V. Y. Cook 
'swered to the last roll call and joined his comrades on the 

;rnal camping ground. 

In the death of Colonel Cook, the Veteran has lost a 
,. voted friend and wise counselor, the Confederate organiza- 

in has lost one of its most active and loyal members, while 
"5 family and countless friends are bereft of that ready sym- 
" thy and spirit of helpfulness which ever animated his being. 

nong the youngest of our veterans, he answered the sudden 

mmons in possession of that vigor and force which had made 
.; life one of purpose and usefulness. A close friend of the 
.steran's late editor, he was chairman of the board of trust 

pointed to carry on the publication, and had given a cheer- 
and helpful service, ever ready to respond to any demands 
, it affected its interest. 

Virgil Young Cook was born at Boydsville, Graves County, 

.'., and as a very young boy he entered the Confederate 

Tiy. His home was within the Federal lines, and early in 

53 he ran away and tried to join a company of Kentucky 
t iops. But his father went after the would-be soldier and 

)k him back home. However, in July of that year he 

•lded to the boy's persistency and consented to his joining 
' i army, so Virgil Cook was mustered into the ranks of 

mpany E, 12th Kentucky Cavalry, later being transferred 
1 Company H, 7th Kentucky Mounted Infantry, with which 
. served to the close of the war. Both these commands were 

>der Gen. N. B. Forrest, and he was paroled with other 
::diers of the famous leader at Gainesville, Ala., in May, 

55, when not more than sixteen and a half years of age. 

ilate in 1866 young Cook left his native Kentucky and 

!nt to Arkansas, where he engaged in merchandising, in 
. :kson County, until 1874, when he removed to Olyphant and 
; 're conducted a large and lucrative business. During that 
1 le he began his accumulation of real estate in Oil Trough 

I ttom, on the Upper White River, in Independence County, 
•' i by 1884 his holdings had become so large that he moved 
1 :o these lands, taking his merchantile business with him to 

no. Near there was his residence, "Midland Holm," a 
•'. intry site of 5,000 acres. In 1908 he removed to Batesville 
•• i built the handsome residence where he lived to the end. 



He was twice married, his first wife being Miss Ophelia 
Lamb, of Jacksonport, Ark., to whom he was married in 
1871, and who died in 1916. Two sons and four daughters 
were born to them, of whom three daughters survive. His 
second marriage was to Mrs. Sarah Wyse, of Forrest City, in 
April, 1920, and she also survives him. 

His service for the Confederacy was not the only experience 
of Colonel Cook as a soldier, At the beginning of our war 
with Spain, he was a major general of the Arkansas National 
Guard and reserve militia, and when that State was called 
upon for its quota of troops, he was appointed by Governor 
Jones as colonel of the 2nd Arkansas Regiment, the highest 
office within his gift; and though this regiment did not have an 
opportunity to show its mettle in that war, its colonel won 
distinction for bringing it to such a high state of efficiency 
while held in camp at Chickamauga. 

Ever loyal to the cause for which he had fought in the days 
of his youth, Colonel Cook was doubtless the most liberal 
man of his State in giving his time and thought and means 
to keep up interest in Confederate history and memories. He 
was a student and writer of that history, and contributed 
many articles on his experiences and the service of his own 
and other commands. While adjutant general on the staff of 
Gen. Robert G. Shaver, commanding the Arkansas Division 
U. C. V., he vigorously pushed the organization of Camps all 
over the State, and continued those efforts after he became 
commander of that division, later still extending those efforts 
throughout the Trans-Mississippi Department, which he 
commanded three years, retiring voluntarily at the Chatta- 
nooga reunion in 1921. He had also commanded the Trans- 
Mississippi Department of the Forrest Cavalry Association. 

Always a liberal supporter of the Churches, in late years 
he experienced deep religious conviction and united with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, at Batesville, of which 
he was a consistent member and a regular attendant on its 
services to the end. 

Confederate comrades were the honorary pall bearers at 
his funeral, and, with many relatives and friends, laid him 
to rest in Oaklawn Cemetery at Batesville, there to await 
the reveille which shall awake him to the glories of the 
kingdom. 



. 



124 



Qopfederat^ l/eterarj. 



HISTORY THAT SHOULD BE WRITTEN AND 
REWRITTEN. 

BY D. C. PAYNE, LITTLE FALLS, N. J. 

I wonder that those who are interested in the story of the 
South, those who have the time and means for serious, valua- 
ble work, do not present to the readers of the Veteran the 
work of Alexander Brown on "The Genesis of the United 
States." Brown says our Statue of Liberty Enlightening the 
World should be one to Sir Edwin Sandys, at Jamestown. 
He wonders why liberty-loving Americans make no pilgrim- 
age to the tomb of Sir Edwin Sandys, why there is no spirit 
impelling them to ferret out the haunts of the old London 
Companies. Sir Edwin Sandys, like a general without an 
army, could do nothing alone, but he was the foremost and 
the most influential man in the movement to plant republican 
liberty in the New World, despite Stuart bigotry and tyranny. 
The Spanish minister admonished James that there wassome- 
thing brewing in Virginia besides tobacco raising. 

"The Genesis of the United States" is not only a history, 
but a genealogy of colonial people, particularly of Virginia; 
so is " Hening's Statutes." I think those engaged in editing 
historical magazines would certainly do valuable service by 
making notes from such books in a way to incite curiosity for 
further acquaintance with the authors. Brown's "First 
Republic in America" is worthy of notice; so is "Significant 
Colonial Personages," by Rev. Dr. George Hodges. 

It is interesting to note that Sir George Sandys, in 1624, 
was translating Ovid at Jamestown, the first contribution to 
English literature in the New World. 

Brown tells us that the Virginia Company, 1605, planted 
the first English speaking race in the New World, and with it 
the germs of political liberty. There were three charters, 
1605, 1609, 1611. He gives the three in full. 

Another author who should be cultivated throughout the 
country is John Fiske. He is conscientious, painstaking, and 
impartial. 

[The historical contributions of Matthew Page Andrews 
should be included in this communication. Mr. Andrews has 
written much of the part taken by Sir Edwin Sandys in 
founding this republic of liberty. — Ed.] 



IN THE MIDST OF WAR. 

B. F. Brown writes from Augusta, Ga.: "I served in Com- 
pany L, 1st Regiment S. C. Volunteers, A. N. V., from 1S61 
to 1865, surrendering at Appomattox. In May, 1895, I 
wrote to Gen. G. W. C. Lee, then President of Washington 
and Lee University, Lexington, Va., for an autograph of his 
father, and he sent me the original letter, of which a copy is 
given here. With this letter was one from his private secre- 
tary, who wrote for General Lee, saying: 

"' Dear Sir: The president of this institution (G. W. C.Lee), 
who writes with difficulty owing to a disabled hand, desires 
me to answer your letter of the 6th, as follows: He sends you 
herewith an autographed letter of the late Gen. R. E. Lee, and 
an autograph of his own. As he has been steadily giving away 
his father's autographs for nearly twenty-four years, you can 
understand that he has but little of his father's writing to 
part with. '"Respectfully, 

Thomas E. Marshall, Jr., Private Secretary. 

"The letter from General Lee was to his son during the 
war, and is here given: 

'"Camp, 30 April, '64.' 

"' My Dear Custis: Nothing of much interest has occurred 
during the past week. The reports of scouts all indicate 



large preparations on the part of the enemy and a state of 
readiness for action. The 9th Corps is reported to be en- 
camped (or rather was on the 27th) on the O. & A. R. R., 
between Fairfax Courthouse and Alexandria. This is corrobo. 
rative of information sent the President yesterday, but there 
may be some mistake as to the fact or number of corps. All 
their troops north of Rappahannock have been moved south, 
their guards called in, etc. The garrisons, provost guards, etc., 
in Northern cities have been brought forward and replaced 
by State troops. A battalion of heavy artillery is said to have 
recently arrived in Culpeper, numbering 3,000. I presume 
these are the men stated in their papers to have been drawn 
from the Forts in New York Harbor. I wish we could make 
corresponding preparations. If I could get back Pickett, 
Hoke, and R. Johnston, I would feel strong enough to operate. 
I have been endeavoring for the last eight or ten days tc 
move Imboden against the B. & O. R. R., in its unprotected' 
state, but have not been able. I presume he has his difficul- 
ties as well as myself. I am afraid it is too late now. I can 
not yet get the troops together for want of forage and am 
hoping for grass. Endeavor to get accurate information froir 
Peninsula, James river, etc. My scouts have not returnee 
from Annapolis and may get back too late. 

'"Very aff'y, your father, R. E. Lee.'" 

Note: Five days after the above letter was written — Maj 
5, 1864 — General Lee became engaged in that death grappli 
with General Grant which commenced in The Wilderness anc 
ended at Appomattox, April 9, 1865 — eleven months after 
The letter is vastly interesting as showing the straitenei 
circumstances under which General Lee entered upon his 
final Campaign — a campaign in which his great militarj 
genius was demonstrated as at no other period of his marvel 
ous career. 

WA R MA N UFA CTORIES A T COL UMB US, GA . 

George J. Burris writes that a very important city wa 
omitted from the list given in the story of how the Confederat 
States armed their soldiers, January Veteran, and that wa 
his native city of Columbus, Ga., which was largely engage* 
in that occupation. He says: "Here Louis Haiman & Brc 
were engaged in making swords for the cavalry, also revolvers 
harness for teams and artillery horses, besides accounterment 
for the infantry. Greenwood & Gray manufactured rifles an 
swords. The Naval Iron Works, as well as the Arsena 
made brass cannon and many other useful articles needed b 
the army. Our mills turned our thousands of yards of jean 
for uniforms, which were cut out and made here. A larg 
shoe factory was also maintained here, besides various othe 
smaller industries making army supplies." 



INCREASE IN VIRGINIA PENSIONS. 

The following comes from Mrs. H. F. Lewis, of Bristo 
Tenn.-Va.: "The article in the Veteran for October as t 
the amount of pensions paid to the Confederate veterans < 
each State showed that Virginia was not doing as well as sh 
should. This aroused my interest, so I began to work to i 
move this blot from the fair escutcheon of the Old Dominion 
When I appealed to the legislature, I found warmest synl 
pathy and hearty cooperation, and by a decisive vote therjl 
was an increase of over fifty per cent. While the pension 
are still not so large as some States are giving, Virginia havini 
so many more pensioners, the amount appropriated rant 
favorably now. I am writing of this so that those who sa | 
the article mentioned may know that we have seen the err< 
of our ways and will do better in 1922." 



^opfederat^ l/eterap, 



125 



DISTINGUISHED SOLDIER AND CITIZEN. 

. 'ol. George W. Imboden, noted lawyer, soldier, and public 
:isen, departed this life from his home at Ansted, Fayette 
I inty, W. Va., on January 8, 1922, in the eighty-seventh 
r.r of his life. 

[e was borrt in Augusta County, Va., and practiced law at 
j unton till the breaking out of the War between the States, 
»'.:n in April, 1861, heenlisted and was elected first sergeant of 
:.. Staunton Artillery, and second lieutenant in November. On 
I reorganization, he was chosen major of the 62nd Virginia 
: intry, and in December, 1S62, was elected colonel of the 
Li Virginia Cavalry, with which he served till the close of the 

Je and his four brothers — Gen. John D. Imboden, Capt. F. 
I Imboden Capt. J. P. Imboden, and Maj. James A. Imboden 
- 11 gained distinction for bravery in the Confederate service, 
i, all continued in service till the surrender of General Lee. 

,'olonel Imboden was a gallant soldier, leading in many 
5-tles in a quiet way and with sound judgment. He kept his 
) i counsels and often sprung surprises on the enemy. At 
)j time he captured a wagon train of fifty-four mule teams, 
).'ly equipped and loaded with provisions and corn. When 
:. front wagon was upset and caused a stampede, he ordered 
i"to turn, and at Summersville they ran an old grist mill all 
I, it and had a royal feast in the morning. In June, 1863, 
b. surprised and entered Cumberland, Md. Through his 
i 1 le example of faithfulness, courage, and self-sacrifice he won 
:'." respect and confidence of his followers, and with honor and 
i lanity he was always kind to his captured prisoners. He 
» wounded at Gordonsville in December, 1864, had his jaw 
b ken and was shot in the shoulder. He ever had the con- 
i'nce of Generals Lee and Stonewall Jackson, who could 
>i ly rely on him to carry out the plans intrusted to him. 
i December, 1869, Colonel Imboden married Miss Marv 




Frances Tyree, of Fayette County, Va., and removed to 
Crittenden, Ky., but in 1870 he came to Fayette County, 
W. Va., and engaged with the Ganley Coal Company till 1878 
as their attorney, also practicing law at the Fayette County 
bar. He was elected to the legislature when the capital was at 
Wheeling, was president of the county court for four years, 
mayor of Ansted, recorder, and was also connected with the 
Ansted National Bank as president or director from its be- 
ginning in 1907. 

Several years after the death of his first wife, in December, 
1889, he married Miss Angia Mildred, daughter of Col. Hudson 
M. Dickinson, one of the pioneers of the county and a promi- 
nent citizen, with whom he lived in happy companionship for 
thirty-two years in their home, " Contentment, " at Ansted, and 
who is left to mourn her loss. Politically, Colonel Imboden 
was a stanch Democrat and a great admirer of Woodrow Wilson 
and his administration. He was always interested in the 
development of his State, his county, and especially his own 
home town, Ansted, where he lived fifty-one years. He was a 
student, well posted in ancient and modern history, a sub- 
scriber to the Confederate Veteran, which he always read 
with great interest. He was a member of the Jeb Stuart Camp, 
U. C. V. and Commander of the Camp from 1913 until failing 
health caused him resignation. In faith he was a Presbyterian, 
and in early life gave his heart to God and became occupied in 
Church work. He was elected a ruling elder in 1867 and served 
faithfully in his duties in Kentucky and in Virginia. He was a 
Sunday school superintendent for forty-seven years. He was 
not a sectarian, loved all of God's children and joined heartily 
with them in advancing the kingdom. 

At his funeral ministers of the Presbyterian, Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, and Baptist lovingly joined in paying 
tribute to his memory, after which he was laid to rest, dressed 
in his Confederate gray, in a gray casket, at the Ansted Ceme- 
tery, near the tomb where lie the remains of the sainted mother 
of Stonewall Jackson. 

Soldier of God, well done, 
Rest from thy loved employ, 
The battle fought, thy victory won, 
Enter thy Master's joy. 



COLONEL IMBODEN ON A FAVORITE MOUNT. 



CONFEDERATES OVER EIGHTY. 

J. E. F. Matthews of Thomaston, Ga., gives the names of 
Confederate veterans of Upson County, Ga., who are now 
more then eighty years of age, as follows: 

T. C. Pearce, 87 years, March 31, 1922, served in 
Company A, 46 Georgia Regiment Infantry. 

K. D. Rurfin, 86 years, April, 1922. 

J. M. McFarlin, 82 years, January 31, 1922. 

Nat Self, 81 years, May 2, 1922. 

G. T. Morgan, 84 years, July 29, 1922; was in Company I, 
32nd Georgia Regiment Infantry. 

E. B. Thompson, 85 years, February 22, 1922; Company D, 
13th Georgia Regiment Infantry. 

A. C. C. Howard, 81 years November, 3, 1922. 

J. F. Lewis, 83 years, June 16, 1922; Company B, 2nd 
Georgia Regiment Infantry. 

J. L. Smith, 83 years September 9, 1922; Company H, 
53d Georgia Regiment Infantry. 

W. P. Pasley, 81 years, June 14, 1922; Company I, 11th 
Georgia Regiment Infantry. 

P. C. King, 80 years, January 9, 1922; Company K, 5th 
Georgia Regiment Infantry. 

"The benediction of the o'ercovering heavens fall on their 
heads like dew, for they were worthy to inlay heaven with stars." 



126 



^oi?federat<^ l/eterap, 



" COTTON AS A WORLD POWER."* 

BY HOWARD MERIWETHER LOVETT, GIRARD, GA. 

The most important books of recent publication are those 
interpretive of the economic factors in social and political 
history and more particularly of the economic causes of wars. 
One touching upon all these phases of the subject and of 
vital interest at the present time is "Cotton as a World 
Power," a scholarly work giving illuminative treatment to 
matters too long obscured by writers of political or military 
bias. For the future there is no approach to world peace 
except through honest recognition of economic rights of 
peoples, and in the past the underlying motive for making war 
has been dishonest violation of such rights by intriguing 
powers against the people of different nationality or section of 

country: " 

Xo war of the world's history was more truly illustrative 
of this principle than was the sectional war between the 
Northern and Southern States of the American Union. The 
causes that led to this war were economic, and the war 
conspiracy, enshrouded as it was in false propaganda to serve 
political purpose, was based on the proposition of "Where 
shall we get our revenue if the Southern States are allowed to 
gain independence?" The broad and sane understanding of 
the real forces that were at work to bring about the sub- 
jugation of the South has awaited the study of the true 
historian, and it is a matter of profound satisfaction that 
"now it can be told." We of Southern birth and breeding 
have waited long for a calm and just interpretation of history, 
and there is all reason for pride in the work of Dr. Scherer, 
informative, fair, and of indisputable authority. 

The author tells us in a prefatory note that the core of this 
book was used as a lecture at Oxford and Cambridge Uni- 
versities in the spring of 1914, with the caption," Economic 
Causes of the American War." The opening chapter relates 
that while in the Bodleian Library rummaging among the 
quaint and musty index papers of the Upper Reading Room, 
one capped and gowned librarian muttering to another, as 
with an air of offended dignity: "Writing on Cotton! Why 
on earth should he want to write on such a subject as that?" 
The question is well answered in the published volume, the 
result of wide and painstaking research. Academic limitation 
is often astonishing, and it was indeed a happy genius that 
this Southern educator brought to the task of writing the 
history of one of the most important products of the earth 
and showing the influence our staple commodity has had in 
shaping civilization and industrial life of nations. It is 
amazing that this should be a new task, that we should have 
had in the past no intelligent collection of data and no such 
interpretation of the events of history. Generations have 
lived and passed away in the cotton belt with no conception 
of the important contribution of this section to world affairs; 
and ignorance is perpetuated by a public school system which 
neglects the teaching of the history of our own people in any 
comprehensive way. This book on cotton is no doubt studied 
by bankers and financiers; it should be taught in every high 
school in the United States. 

The table of contents shows the range given the subject of 
cotton in this study, beginning with "New Golden Fleece" 
and the "Vegetable Lamb," the story has all the fascination 
of ancient lore and romance. From India to England came 
this marvellous fleece, working transformation; then " Cotton 
in American History," with the " Sectional Evolution and the 

•••Cotton as a World Power: A Study in the Economic Interpretation of His- 
tory." by James A. B. Schexer, Ph.D.. LL.D-, President of Throop College of 
Technology, author of -The Japanese Crisis." etc. Frederick A. Stokes Co- 
Publishers. 



Great Controversies," political and industrial. We are pleasei 
to find a clear account of Whitney and the cotton gin, in whicl 
the facts covering this invention are for once given prope 
setting; we should be grateful for the chapter entitled "El 
Whitney vs. Hodgen Holmes." Any one who has read E. E 
Hale's " Memories of a Hundred Years," published serial!; 
in the Outlook some years ago, about " Poor Whitney " and th. 
villians in Georgia, should face the facts in this chapter witl 
keen relish. Briefly stated, Whitney's model, patented ii 
1794, was a spiked gin that "tore open the seed and manglec 
the fiber;" Holmes's invention, patented in 1796, was thr 
practical saw gin. Whitney tried to claim and appropriati 
the improved model and to form a manufacturing trust forth, 
monopoly of the cotton industry. The Southern planter 
would not allow this, and set an example their descendant: 
would do well to follow in destroying attempted monopoly 
Neither Whitney's invention of a gin nor his schemes woult 
work. Hogden Holmes deserves credit for the saw gin in us. 
to this day, though all reference books erroneously give th. 
invention to Whitney. 

Passing on to the power of cotton as economic cause to 
political propaganda and the stirring of war forces, we com 
to "Cotton Is King," the "Impending Crisis," "Senato 
Hammond on the Power of Cotton," "Secession and th. 
Constitution," and "Cotton Localizes Secession"— topic 
which bring us to the formation of the Southern Confederacy 
How delightful to find in the pages of economic history Senato 
Hammond's historic speech of March 4, 1S5S, well called th 
South's valedictory. Every young Southerner should kno^ 
the truth of this impassioned summing up of our great pas 
as the shadow-s of coercion fell darkly over that republi 
founded by Washington and glorified by Lee. 

Thus we come to " Cotton and the Sinews of War,'' withou 
space to touch upon the thrilling narrative of the industria 
development following the uses of cotton in English factone 
and the various inventions, beginning with Watt's stear 
engine. The cotton famine in England and its connectio 
with the rise and fall of the Southern Confederacy is a subjec 
worthy careful consideration in the study of war. Our states 
men were wise and brave to stand for the economic independ 
ence of the South. No people more deserved an honorabl 
place among nations; that the republic of our forefather 
should be destroved by a sectional war was no fault of South 
ern statesmanship or valor at arms. Knavish politicians o 
both sides of the Atlantic plotted and schemed to put ou 
section into economic servitude, for revenue on one side an 
a cheap raw commoditv to manufacturers on the othei 
Cotton was the power behind all diplomacy. The inhumanit 
of the Lancashire famine, when the English government a 
lowed thousands of mill operatives to starve rather tha 
accord recognition to the Confederacy, gives insight to th 
tragedy of economic war. The cruel policy of starvatior 
used as a means to conquer the South, was carried out a 
Andersonville prison in Georgia, when the Federal go vert 
ment starved its own soldiers and made medicine contraban 
of war and well matched in atrocity the sacrifice of the workin 
class in England. 

We have lived to learn that the Confederate cause was nc 
lost at Gettysburg, nor by any failure in strategy. Becaus 
of economic' conditions growing out of the manipulation c 
cotton as a world power, the manufacturing class won I 
was not the surrender at Appomattox that made dele, 
calamitous to the South, but the signing away of her birtl 
right to industrial independence and entering upon servituc 
to money powers and speculators in the staple product of oi 
land. 



Qopfederat^ Ueterai). 



127 



,[ can but wdnde'r, in studying cotton as an economic power, 
,';he South could not have saved her rights in another way. 

such statesmen as Jefferson Davis, Robert Toombs, Alex- 
. der Stephens, with the Yanceys, Rhetts, and Hammonds of 
.uth Carolina, had formed an agricultural bloc in the United 

ites Congress against the exploitation of the industrial 
,uth, what might have been the result? 

!The author of this book writes with poetic appreciation of 
Ee beauty of the cotton fields, and quotes Timrod on the 

Cotton Boll." The work has the charm of fancy as well as 
5)e weight of fact. Let us seek practical understanding of our 

ulent land and resources and apply brain power to the 
: lving of agricultural problems; this way education lies. 
."Let history enlighten economics with the torch of the past, 
that history may hereafter yield an interpretation of in- 
Jigence." 

AS TO A FKICA N SLA VER Y. 

BY |AMES H. M'NEILLY, D.D., NASHVILLE, TENN. 

■Oftentimes it is complained that we of the South are un- 
' lling to accept the results of the War between the States and 

e discussing still the great questions involved in that war. 
]' It was around African slavery as a domestic institution that 
E e antagonism between the North and the South gradually 
-ystallized until it ended in war. There were some strange 

mtradictions in this antagonism. It was the Northern 
-immercial interests, protected and defended by the mother 
: iuntry, that had introduced and defended that system which 
-<re the negro from his home in Africa, separated him from 

s dear ones, and brought him to this country to be sold into 
'avery, while the Southern colonies protested against the 

ade and sought by legislation to bring it to an end. In the 
'■ llowing years, as public sentiment was more and more aroused 
-1 the question of the moral quality of slavery, it was in the 

BDUth that the strongest efforts were made for the correction of 
s abuses and the final overthrow of the institution In the 
"orth, on the other hand, opposition to slavery was very 
5 .rgely confined to the abstract discussions of the rights of 
nan and the demand for immediate abolition, irrespective of 
'mditions. 

j As a result of these conditions, the South was led more and 
fiore to justify the institution and excuse or ignore the wrongs 
"one to a race, and by making it a domestic institution, m- 
'.ead of a mere chattel slavery, not only were its abuses 
'lodified, but it became largely a benefit to both master and 
' ave. Still, in and through all, there was a tendency to forget 
•le essential rights of man as a human being, and so there 
'ere instances, comparatively rare it is true, of cruelty and 
ppression; but we are to bear in mind the inherent dirriculties 
i training an alien and savage race into the habits of thrift 
nd industry. 

However, throughout the North opposition to the institu- 
ion degenerated into a fanatical demand to free the African 
-om bondage and confer upon him the rights of citizenship, 
tterly regardless of the rights of the Southern States, guaran- 
eed by written Constitution, and also regardless of the negro's 
ick of preparation for freedom. A great deal of this bitterness 
^as founded on ignorance, for the exaggerated statements of 
very runaway negro as to the cruelties inflicted on slaves was 
ccepted as the truth of the Gospel. 
And so on both sides there was misjudgment, bitter criticism, 
nd harsh condemnation where there should have been 
latience and effort to do justice to all parties. Let it be under- 
took that we of the South are not called upon to uphold 
lavery as an ideal social institution, but only to make the 



■«■ 



most, morally and spiritually, of conditions forced upon us. 
Critics of the institution are called upon to give due credit to 
men and women seeking to make the best of a difficult situa- 
tion. 

Now that the purpose of the abolitionist is accomplished 
and that the negro has been free for fifty years, it is still a 
serious question, with all thoughtful minds, whether freedom 
has been a real benefit, morally and spiritually, to the race, 
although most Southerners are glad that they are freed from 
the responsibilities of the old days. Still, we recognize that 
there are elements of danger along social lines that threaten 
serious conflicts and ultimately a war of races. To some of us, 
at least, it seems that a restoration of the sovereignty of the 
States according to the old idea is the only safeguard against 
the tragedies of social strife. 

In books on moral philosophy, prepared and published in 
the North, the question of Southern slavery is presented as a 
violation of human rights, and the South is condemned un- 
sparingly. One of the few authoritative works on moral 
philosophy prepared by Southern authors was issued by the 
Rev. R. L. Dabney, D.D., Professor of Theology in Union 
Theological Seminary. It presents in brief one of the most 
complete answers to these criticisms of Northern writers, and 
I have, therefore, deemed it wise to present in the columns 
of the Veteran this answer, taken from Dr. Dabney's 
"Practical Philosophy:" 

"Among the questions of civic rights and duties, that of the 
recent domestic slavery in the United States holds a very 
interesting place. It is not debated with any view to restoring 
that form of labor; no intelligent man among us expects or 
desires this under existing circumstances. But we should 
understand it for three reasons. The first is, that the disputes 
concerning the relation of bondage, whether it is righteous 
or intrinsically unjust, involve and illusrate the most vital- 
principles of civic morals and legislation. The second is, that 
the assertion of its intrinsic injustice, now so commonly made,, 
involves the credit of the Christian Scriptures; and the dis- 
crepancy disclosed has become the occasion of widespread and' 
perilous skepticism. Unless we are willing to give up the 
authority of the Bible as God's word, it is unspeakably im- 
portant that this supposed discrepancy shall have a better 
adjustment than it has yet received. Nothing is more certain 
than that in its essence human bondage, which is the invol- 
untary subjection of an inferior part of the human race to the 
will of superiors, has not been abolished and never will be until 
the millennium; but the relation will reappear in civilized 
society under many new names and forms, often less benefi- 
cent than the one lately overthrown. But African bondage, 
under that name, belongs to the past. Notwithstanding our 
educated young men can but feel a living interest in the 
question, whether their honored fathers lived and died in a 
criminal relation. And this is the third reason which demands 
his discussion. 

" It having been shown that the essential immorality of the- 
relation of master and bondsman does not inhere, then the 
question as to the propriety or humanity, as one of con- 
necting labor and capital and of protecting civil society 
against the abused license of its own vicious classes, is simply 
a question of fact and testimony. And when these facts were 
justly arrayed, they constituted a splendid vindication for the 
Southern master. 

"In 1861 agricultural Africans of the South were unquestion- 
ably the best fed, best clothed, healthiest, most increasing, most 
contented and cheerful, most religious, most courteous, most 
reading, most churchgoing, most well bred peasantry in the 
world; and, low as their moral. tone was,. especially as to chas- 



128 



Qoi>federat^ Ueterai), 



tity, probably the most moral peasantry in the world. This 
is stubborn fact. 

"Especially in regard to religious privileges, the evangeliza- 
tion of the African in slavery brought about larger results than 
all the foreign mission agencies of the American Churches. 
From the middle of the eighteenth century the Churches 
recognized their religious obligations to the slaves. At the 
close of the War between the States there were more than 
one-half million slave communicants in the white Churches, 
and in thirty-five years, the era of plantation missions in the 
Methodist Church, it is estimated that one million of negroes 
were received into the Methodist Churches." 



CONFEDERATE MEMORIAL AT BRISTOL, TENN.- 

VA. 

The addresses made at the unveiling of the Confederate 
monument at Bristol, Tenn.-Va., on May 27, 1920, are here 
published by special request. The monument was the gift 
of Col. J. M. Barker to his home city, and in presenting it, 
Colonel Barker said: 

"Daughters of the Confederacy, Comrades, Ladies, and Gentle- 
men: For a great many years I have been intensely interested 
in a memorial for our city to commemorate and perpetuate 
the glorious achievements and suffering of the Confederate 
soldiers and of those noble, sacrificing women of the South 
from 1S61 to 1865. It has been the desire of our splendid 
U. D. C. Chapter here to secure sufficient funds to erect a 
monument to their fallen and aged heroes, but their efforts 
have not yielded results from the people of our city. More ' 
than four years ago that splendid Christian and Confederate 
soldier, Dr. Lynn Bachman, now deceased, made a ringing 
appeal asking for and urging the importance of such a memo- 
rial, but his eloquence and sincerity of purpose failed to arouse 
the people of Bristol to action. A few years ago I decided to 
erect this monument myself and present it to you Daughters 
of the Confederacy. I wrote numerous letters to all parts of 
the South making inquiry for a statue of a Confederate 
soldier of Italian workmanship. I finally located one at 
Marietta, Ga., made a trip to that city, purchased the statue, 
and contracted for this monument. 

" We needed this monument for the sake of our children and 
grandchildren as well as ourselves, that it may be a reminder 
to them of the devotion to duty, the struggles, and the sac- 
rifices that our people cheerfully underwent for that cause of 
righteousness and justice. The Confederate soldier fought 
and suffered in defense of his home without hope of reward, 
but with a burning patriotism and devotion to country. The 
Federal army was able to enlist forces five times as large as 
■ours, and, besides, had hired Hessians from Germany and 
other foreign countries totalling the strength of the Confeder- 
ate army. Our army was never whipped, but overpowered 
by brute force of numbers. Especially the last two years of 
the war, our soldiers were poorly clad, even having to resort 
to wearing Yankee uniforms, and their shoeless feet left 
their blood-stained imprints as they forged on, hungry, sick, 
and ragged, but with a loyalty and devotion that could not 
be extinguished. 

"In presenting this monument to you noble women, I 
realize that it is one of the greatest pleasures of my life. I 
give it with reverence and humility, and feel that in so doing 
I need no special encomiums from you women of the Chapter 
for that which I consider a happy privilege. I give it because 
I, too, was a Confederate soldier and because I know the 
<;ause I fought for and loved was a just one. I give it to keep 



alive that spirit and love of the cause for which the Con- 
federate soldier fought and died. 

"May the Daughters of the Confederacy keep the faith 
and continue in their noble work and transmit to future 
generations the knowledge of the sacrifices of the Confederate 
soldier and of the glorious womanhood of the South, who gave 
freely their husbands and sons to protect their firesides and 
the sanctity of their homes and country. Daughters, let us 
all be true, kind, and loving, and so live that in the end we may 
pass away as sweetly as a sleeping child from a world of strife 
and suffering to a blissful home where Jesus is welcoming us 
home." 

In accepting the monument, Mayor W. H. Rouse, of 
Bristol, Va., said: 

"Colonel Barker, Daughters of the Confederacy, Confederate 
Veterans, Citizens: I am speaking for Mayor King and his 
people of the Tennessee side, as well as for Bristol Virginians, 
in accepting this monument for our people. 

"Out of the depths of a great emotion, out of the warmth 
of a keen appreciation, out of a sense of spontaneous gratitude, 
do we recognize the generosity of Colonel Barker in donating 
this marbled emblem to the people of his city. 

"It was not intended to be his own monument; neverthe- 
less, there is no power on this earth that can prevent these and 
succeeding generations from enshrining him in grateful 
remembrance as they look upon its shining surface, read its 
inscriptions, and feel its inspirations. The thought and spirit 
that conceived and gave this costly memorial are as beautiful 
as the charming daughter of the donor and her assistants, 
who are about to unveil it. 

" Fitting is it that the memory of the great deeds and heroic 
sacrifices of the marvelous men and women of the Confederacy 
should be quickened on this May day, when grass and grain 
and leaf and flower are attesting the resurrection and the life. 

"It is fitting that here, amid the perfumes and breezes and 
stimulations of the springtime, this occasion should be 
directed and sponsored and hallowed by the Daughters of the 
Confederacy. 

"Impressive is the stillness resting upon your souls as this 
monument is unveiled here in the very presence of a remnant 
of those veterans to whom it is dedicated, who passed through 
those dread days of war, all of whom are now wearing a coat 
of gray bestowed by friendly years and will soon be telling the 
story of this day's event to that host of their comrades who 
have laid aside knapsack and sword and musket and hardship 
and are bivouacked on the fields of a lasting peace and glory. 

"Monuments are never needed by those for whom they are 
erected. It was regarded as necessary to inscribe on the 
Bunker Hill Monument only the word 'Here,' indicating the 
place. No word of praise or recital of deed was needed to 
perpetuate knowledge or memory of the great event. Can 
any luster be added to the name of Washington, Lee, Jackson, 
John Howard Payne, to Confederate armies, or to the mothers 
of the Confederacy by monumental shaft? O no; their lives 
and deeds and sacrifices and services are recorded in history 
and country and character and memory more lasting than if 
in marble and carved word. Yet monuments are erected as 
a visible, tangible mark of our recognition and veneration of 
high emprise and in the hope that little children will stop and 
ask and learn the story and emulate and grow in mental 
and moral stature. A monument, after all, is history and 
love and admiration and inspiration. 

"That figure of the lonely rebel up there at the top is 
tongueless and voiceless and silent, yet so eloquent that across 
the stretch of almost sixty years we hear the tramp of serried 
(Continued on page 157.) 






Qopfederat^ l/eterap. 



129 



CADET COMPANY OF ALABAMA. 

One of the romantic stories of the War between the States 
'the history of the cadet companies, boys who rendered the 
•vice of men on many hard-fought fields; and their deeds 
11 not be forgotten. On the campus of the University of 
abama stands a memorial in bronze and stone giving the 
:ord of a company of cadets going from that institution in 
fense of the Southland. And this was but one of a number 
• such companies of boys who gave their youthful enthusiasm 
d faith for a beloved cause. 

It was in May, 1863, that a group of students at the Univer- 

y of Alabama, ranging in age from sixteen to eighteen, 

cided that the War between the States might be over be- 

■e they could finish their college course, and that the Con- 

Jeracy needed men anyway, so, constituting themselves a 

jdet company for service, which was afterwards enlarged, 

ey left the university and entered the army of the South. 

j ter two years of arduous service and hard fighting, in which 

iey suffered many casualties, they returned home, the war 

! ing over, some of them veterans of many bloody fields at the 

e of eighteen. 

,The company as it left the university numbered fifty-two, 
t it it was afterwards recruited, mainly at Montgomery, from 
e sons of wealthy families until it numbered one hundred and 
i'enty-five. Many counties in the State were represented 
- the original enlistment, but Montgomery County con- 
buted more members than any other. 

•When these young fellows left Montgomery after their 
lining service, they were followed by eighty negro servants, 



each of whom had been designated by his owner to wait on 
"Young Marster." When General Forrest, under whom the 
company served, saw this group of servants, he said: "Well, 
this is the first time I ever knew I had any nigger troops in my 
command." Later on, when times got harder and the pressure 
for food greater, these negroes were sent home. 

The officers of this company were: captain, C. P. Storrs; 
first lieutenant, Drayton Neighbors; second lieutenant, Clay 
Vaughan; third lieutenant, Ben Fitzpatrick (killed at the 
battle of Nashville); orderly sergeant, William Whiting. 

After its training period in Montgomery, the company went 
to Pollard, Ala., and from there marched to Mobile, where it 
became Company F, of the 7th Alabama Regiment. For 
several months they did picket duty on Mobile Bay. Sur- 
vivors admit that this was a lively crowd of boys, and that 
discipline sat lightly upon the young soldiers who had come to 
fight and not to walk posts. But at last they were sent to 
join Forrest in West Tennessee, and attached to the fighting 
brigade of General Rucker, with which they made a record 
as men of valor. In his history of Forrest's command, Colonel 
Jordan says of the cadet company at Nashville: " It stood the 
shock of a heavy attack, fought until it was cut to pieces, and 
won honorable praise in Forrest's cavalry." 

The above was taken from the Montgomery Advertiser, and 
the picture of the four survivors living in Montgomery is used 
by courtesy of that paper. The following was contributed by 
George W. Hails, one of the survivors, as some of their expe- 
riences: 

" In January, 1861, immediately after the State of Alabama 
seceded from the Union, Governor Moore ordered Colonel 



r 




FOUR SURVIVORS OF THE CADET COMPANY LIVING IN MONTGOMERY, ALA., 
Left to right: John B. Mctcalf, William B. Whiting, Geor;e W. Hails, A. P. Tyson. 



// 



130 



^opfederat^ l/eteraij. 



Lomax to take the 2nd Alabama Regiment to Pensacola, Fla., 
to take possession of the navy yards and forts. This took 
away the four Montgomery companies, leaving but a few 
companies in the State to honor Mr. Davis upon his inaugura- 
tion on February 18. A company of boys from the military 
school in Montgomery was selected to take part in the parade, 
and among these boys were A. P. Tyson, aged sixteen years; 
W. B. Whiting, aged fifteen; John Metcalfe, fourteen years 
and nine months; and George W. Hails, fourteen years and one 
month. Their arms were flint-and-steel muskets, the same 
that their fathers fought with in the Seminole War. While 
Mr. Davis was making his address a dog fight occurred on the 
Captitol grounds between a large Newfoudnland dog and a 
bull terrier. The boys threw down their guns and went to the 
fight. To the small dog was the victory, and we thought it 
prophetic as to the coming battles, and 'twas then the first 
" Rebel Yell' was heard at the birth of a nation. 

"The 2nd Regiment had come back for the inauguration 
and went soon after to Virginia; Colonel Lomax was killed the 
next year. The citizens asked the boys to continue their 
organization, as all the troops were gone, and by request of the 
Ladies' Aid Association they helped to bury the first soldier 
dead in Oakwood Cemetery, firing a salute over the grave. 

"In the spring of 1863 a company of university cadets was 
organized at Tuscaloosa and rendezvoused in Montgomery for 
a couple of months, then went to Pollard, Ala., and from there 
to Mobile, but saw little service until 1864, when the company 
was sent to Corinth, Miss., and placed in Rucker's Brigade, 
Chalmer's Division, of Forrest's Cavalry; soon they were 
taken as an escort by General Rosser. These boys were on the 
raid with Forrest to destroy the gunboats on the Tennessee 
River, helping to capture two gunboats and two steamers, 
which were tied up at Paris landing. A little later another 
g unboat came down the river and opened fire on the captured 
boats. It wasinthe middleofthe river, just where a big creek 
emptied. General Chalmers ordered Lieutenant Fitzpatrick 
to take a sqnad of boys and go down the creek and shoot 
into the port holes of the steamer. The lieutenant divided us, 
eight to each port, waited until the iron apron rose, when he 
■ordered: 'Fire!' We heard our bullets ricochet and the 
enemy scream, showing that we had done some damage. We 
reloaded, and soon up came the apron, then another volley, 
and other screams. Six times they tried to shoot, but our 
volley would make them drop the apron. At last they turned 
and went up the river, followed by us for a quarter of a mile, 
shouting and yelling, so proud that we had whipped a gunboat. 

"We then went to Johnsonville, and saw it burn, then to 
Perryville and crossed the river at midnight in a cold, sleeting 
rain. We led four horses by the side of each boat, and almost 
froze. As the horses reached shoal water, we jumped into the 
river to get warm, as it was so much warmer than the sleet. 
Going on to Florence, Ala., we joined Hood's army with one 
regiment and the escort. When we joined the infantry at 
Florence they gave us a cheer, and exclaimed: 'We thought 
Forrest had men, but these boys look like school children.' 
We did picket duty on Shoal Creek until Hood's advance on 
Nashville. Then it was that we found the enemy at Henry- 
ville. Forrest asked for a company to charge the Federal 
pickets; the cadet company was sent by General Rucker, and 
captured all the outposts and opened up the fight. Captain 
Storrs was shot in the hand, Lieutenant Neighbors had his 
leg broken, and several of the boys were wounded. 

"We were up early and had a running fight to Columbia; 
two days later were at Spring Hill; the next day at Franklin, 
where the company was used as sharpshooters; then on to 



Nashville. There we waited two weeks for the enemy to 
collect an army and defeat us. We were driven back from the 
Franklin Pike the first day and again on the second day, 
crossing the Granny White Pike just before sundown. An 
officer rode up and told General Rucker to go back and attack 
the enemy to save the wagon train. He put his men to fight- 
ing, and then ran us back to the crossing of the road to 
Brentwood. We tried to make a barricade of rails, but be- 
fore we could do so our men came running back, and Rucker 
told us to stand and rally the men. The enemy was about 
five to one of us, but we stood the shock, fighting hand to 
hand, and were badly cut up. Lieutenant Fitzpatrick was 
mortally wounded and had to be left, but the enemy carried 
him into Mrs. Sligh's home, where he died. Joel Barnett was 
also wounded, and one of the cadets helped him to Mrs. 
Johnson's home; he was shot in the stomach and was bleeding 
at the mouth and ears. 

"About fifteen of us got together down the pike after the 
fight and ran into our brigade, which had rallied; it was veryi 
dark. We were halted and asked, 'What troops?' 'The 
remnant of the escort.' Colonel White, then in command, 
said to us: 'God bless you, boys. You have fought enough 
to-night. Go to the Franklin Pike and wait for me. ' 

"Joel Barnett had been taken off the rolls as dead, but he 
was nursed back to health by Mrs. Johnson, and came back 
from Camp Chase in July after the surrender. He was a 
great joker and mimic, and became a great friend of Gov. Bob 
Taylor. 

"Our company was sent to South Alabama in March, 1865, 
and was ahead of Wilson's raid, and fought its last battle at 
Columbus, Ga. We were then ordered to go to Gainesville, 
Ala., to surrender with General Forrest." 



THE SOUTHERN PROTEUS. 

BT CHARLES FENNELL, LEXINGTON, XT. 

Part V. 

The Chief finished the memorandum he had been writing 
and turned to his visitor, who had ensconced himself in a 
comfortable armchair and was gazing unconcernedly around 
the room. 

"So you have a plan, Weston, whereby you think that 
we can lay our hands on this infernal fellow, Omahundry?" 

Weston smiled tolerantly. "I don't ihinh anything about 
it, Chief. If my plan is adopted, I know we can capture him." 

The Chief had heard this sort of talk before, but Weston 
was one of his best men, and he was impressed in spite of 
the failure of his former efforts to rid himself of his dangerous 
enemy. 

"He is the shrewdest man in the Confederate secret service 
to-day, Ed. He gave Stonewall Jackson the information that 
enabled him to drive Banks from the Valley. I would give 
anything in reason to be rid of him. What is your plan?" 

"As you will recall," explained Weston, "our men yester- 
day apprehended a rebel agent by the name of Hardin, who 
for some reason, was leaving the service in the West and going 
to Richmond. We believe he sought the transfer because he 
is a Kentuckian and feared the risk of detection in spying on 
our Western army, where Kentuckians from his own neigh- 
borhood are numerous, whereas, in the East he would be 
among strangers and the risk would be much less. Be that 
as it may, however, he bore letters from his superior in the 
West recommending his transfer and praising him in the 
highest terms to the chief at Richmond. The Confederates 
know nothing of Hardin's fate. It would be comparatively 



. 



Qoijfederat^ l/eterai). 



131 



;y for me to take the credentials we have found on him and 
lm myself off on the Confederate service as Hardin. I 
;uld thus insinuate myself into the good graces of the de- 
rtment and learn how and where their emissaries meet 
nahundry here in Washington." 

:" Your plan is open to one serious objection," said the Chief, 

oughtfully. "If you seek to pass through their lines, 

im this side, after having passed through ours, your story 

11 be bound to arouse suspicion, as Hardin's natural course 

>uld have taken him to Richmond from the south. Such a 

'spicion would be fatal to you, as any investigation would 

<:arly reveal that you were not Hardin. Two of our men 

I've been shot in similar attemps during the last two weeks." 

■ '"Your view of the impracticability of my entering Rich- 

ind from this side, as Hardin, is correct," agreed Weston. 

This difficulty would, at any other time, render the plan 

probable of success. As luck would have it, however, I 

\ve just stumbled by accident upon means of entering 

| chmond from the south." 

"Explain yourself," directed the Chief. 

■"About two weeks ago," resumed Weston evenly, "I met 

-country fellow by the name of James Brown. He is one of 

I iur simple, credulous, and easily deceived farmers, who, 

:verthe!ess, knows every foot of land for seventy miles 

: ound Richmond. In a casual, roundabout way, I succeeded 

'■ learning from him that he frequently wiggled through our 

ies and those of the Confederates and entered Richmond 

om the south, which he found to be the easiest way. He 

'ies there to see a girl who is an ardent Union sympathizer, 

f ce himself. She wishes to leave Richmond, but he is afraid 

fc try to run the lines with her, as the hardships to be endured 

e too great. So, instead, he visits her regularly, taking her 

oney, and, sometimes, provisions to enable her to be as 

tmfortable as circumstances will permit." 

"Have you. informed him of your scheme?" shrewdly in- 

jired the Chief. 

"Lord no," laughed Weston, "he is much too ignorant 
• id countrified a clown to be intrusted with a secret like that, 
le doesn't dream that I am interested in the war, and, while 
[: is an ardent Unionist, I have given him no intimation 
hatever of the real object of my visit to Richmond." 
|: "How did you go at him?" 

i "After learning that he could run the lines and enter from 
^le south, I interested him in a proposition to smuggle 
to Richmond such merchandise as we could carry on our 
.icks and of a kind for which we could realize a high price in 
lat city. He became quite willing, after I had offered buy to 
Lie merchandise and to divide the profits." 

"When can you leave here?" 
. "To-night." 

j "And when, and how, may I expect to hear from you? 
.nee you enter their service, you will not be able to leave 
ichmond whenever you choose, you know." 
- "I realize that fact and have provided accordingly. When 
, discover how they communicate with Omahundry here in 
j/ashington, I will write the name by which he is known and 
le address where he may be found on a slip of paper and 
•crete it under the works of my watch, where it will not be 
?en and where it will not interfere with the running qualities 
the watch. I will then learn from Brown when he is return- 
. ig to Washington and ask him in a casual way to take the 
atch with him and deliver it to you at your hotel, which he 
ill be glad to do, I am sure." 
"You know in what name to leave it?" 
; "Sure." 

I'll see you are not molested in passing through our lines, 



I wouldn't want to arouse Brown's suspicions by giving you 
a passport, though." 

"Another thing," added Weston, "that I wish you would 
attend to. I had almost forgotten. There is a fellow who 
seems to be around every time I meet Brown. He apparently 
pays us no mind, but I feel that he is keeping one or both 
of us under surveillance all the time. If he is one of the 
enemy's agents, he might follow us and make it warm for me. 
. wish you would detail Blake and Elliott to follow us past 
our lines without seeming to notice us. If this man follows 
us, I will pass the signal to Blake and Elliott, and they can 
arrest and hold him on some pretext while we go on." 

"I will do that, as you suggest." 

"Good-by, old man; luck to you." 

They shook hands gravely, in parting, and Weston hurried 
out to make arrangements to leave Washington that night. 

As he had surmised, when he boarded the train that 
night on his way to the Union lines, he discovered among his 
fellow passengers the suspicious person of whom he had spoken 
to the Chief. He was a neatly dressed man of medium height 
and wore a light felt hat. He occupied a seat with another 
man, who was evidently a stranger, as they did not converse 
with each other. He did not, in fact, appear to notice anyone 
in the car, but was so seated that he could constantly observe 
Weston and Brown. 

"It's a good thing I had the Chief to detail Blake and 
Elliott to take care of that fellow,", thought Weston; "I 
believe he is watching us for a purpose." 

Very quietly and unostentatiously he passed Blake and 
Elliott the prearranged signal to take care of the well-dressed 
man. When the train stopped at the station where he had ar- 
ranged to get off, and he arose with Brown to leave the car, 
he noticed with satisfaction that Blake and Elliott had 
jammed themselves in the aisle of the car in such a manner as 
to compel both the well-dressed man and his seat mate to be 
the last to leave the car. This would enable them to arrest 
him without exciting any notice whatever. 

Thus relieved of the unwelcome company of the well- 
dressed man, he put himself in the hands of his simple compan- 
ion and melted through the lines of the two armies in a fash- 
ion it bewildered him to think of afterwards. He had the 
satisfaction of entering from the south without any mishaps. 
After entering the lines, he left Brown and retraced his steps 
until he found himself again outside the lines. He then 
advanced again and made himself known to the sentry and, 
in due course, was sent under escort to headquarters, where he 
presented his credentials and, to his great delight, was 
assigned almost immediately to service in the office of the 
chief of the secret service. 

"The work is not very exciting," explained that dignitary, 
"but it will enable you to get an insight into our methods 
and may be of incalcuable benefit to you when I place you 
in active service, as I hope to do soon. We always like to 
have our men work under our eyes for a time before sending 
them out. The experience they gain in this manner helps them 
greatly to avoid the traps the enemy sets for them." 

"It is a good system, then," complimented Weston. 

" I have been needing a man of your caliber for some time," 
confided the chief. "It is becoming necessary for me to use 
more secrecy in my personal movements than I have done 
heretofore. This prevents me from giving the same attention 
as formerly to certain details of the service. While we are 
very careful in such matters, it is not impossible that one of 
the enemy should work into my presence as one of our own 
spies. There are times when such a man could cause irrepara- 
ble harm to the South by shooting me, as I often have infor- 



// 



132 



C^opfederact Ueterai), 



mation of extreme importance that would perish with me. 
There are men daring enough to do this and die for it without 
a whimper. To avoid such an occurrance, and for the good of 
the service, I have decided to use you as a buffer between 
myself and some of our agents here and in the North. I 
will have them report to you and you will report to me. 
You will have charge of those in Baltimore and Washington." 

Weston's heart leaped as he realized that the enemy was 
playing into his hands. He controlled himself with an 
effort, however, and answered dubiously: "Don't you think 
you should have a man with more experience along this line, 
Chief? Of course, I'm willing to do my best, but I'd hate to 
have an)' of your plans upset by a blunder of mine." 

The Chief beamed upon him graciously. "Your answer 
makes me more determined than ever," he declared; "it 
shows your devotion to the cause. You have plenty of ex- 
perience for the place. Anyway, I'll give you a trial." 

"Very well," agreed Weston, laughing in his sleeve at the 
ease of his success. "What will be the nature of my duties?" 

The Chief tapped with his fingers upon the desk. "You 
will take a room at the Southern Hotel, where you will 
receive reports from our agents in Washington and Baltimore. 
You will also deliver to the proper parties such messages 
as we care to forward to our agents in those cities. Report 
to me in person at two o'clock each afternoon. " 

"Yes, sir," and, restraining his elation with difficulty, 
Weston left the room, sure of the success of his plans. 

This feeling of joy received rather a shock, however, as he 
strolled carelessly along toward the Southern Hotel. For, 
looking casually ahead, he observed, a hundred feet away, the 
figure of the well-dressed man whom he thought he had left 
behind him in Washington. 

"Blake and Elliott must have arrested the man who was 
sitting by him, and let this one go," he thought irritably. 

To escape detection as best he could, he turned his back 
to the approaching foe and looked over the wares in a mer- 
chant's window. He could note the approach of the man by 
his reflection in the glass of the window. Much to his relief 
and joy, the unwelcome stranger passed without an apparent 
sign of recognition or notice. 

" I'll have to be more careful how I go about the streets as 
long as that fellow is here. I don't like his ways at all," 
thought Weston, as he made his way to the hotel. 

Entering actively upon his duties, he worked with a zest, 
receiving information and transmitting messages to various 
agents. On the fourth day he discovered that which he 
sought. In the privacy of his room that night he wrote upon 
a tiny slip of paper the following words: "Thomas Parker, 
431 Colonial Avenue." The meaning of this address was: 
"Omahundry is known as Thomas Parker and resides at 431 
Colonial Avenue, Washington, D. C." He carefully inserted 
this slip of paper under the works of his watch, as he had 
prearranged with the Chief at Washington, and replaced 
the timepiece in his pocket. 

"Thank God, that part is over," he muttered. "All I'll 
have to do now is to start Brown back to Washington. The 
watch will be safe by to-morrow night." 

He took dinner with Brown the next day and managed to 
have a private talk with him afterwards. 

"When will you return to Washington?" he asked, puffing 
at his cigar. 

"Whenever you want to go," answered Brown. 

"I will be detained here a month," explained Weston. 

"Gee whiz," moaned Brown. " I can go to Washington and 
back again in that time." 



"I wont mind your doing that if you want to make the 
trip, although it will be lonesome here without you." 

"I expect I'll have to go," answered Brown reluctantly. 
"I have some important matters to attend to there. I'm I 
sorry to leave you, but I'll be back soon." 

Weston drew the watch from his pocket with an air of 
carelessness that completely deceived the countryman. 

"Brown," he remarked nonchalantly, "here is a watch 
I borrowed from a friend before leaving Washington. In the 
haste of our departure I forgot to return it. His name is 
James Carr, and he lives at the Willard Hotel. I wish you 
would accommodate me by delivering it to him at that place 
when you return to Washington." 

" I'll be glad to do it," agreed Brown, stowing the timepiece 
away in a pocket. "But you'd better write down the name 
so I'll not forget it." 

This Weston did. 

"Give Carr my regards and thank him for the loan of the 
watch," he again admonished as he parted from Brown. 

"Another day or so and my work will be done," he reflected 
happily as the door closed upon the countryman. 

That night he slept soundly and also the two following 
nights, slept, indeed, as he had not done before in Richmond. 

Several days later when he reported to the Chief, that per- 
sonage seemed preoccupied. 

"Take a chair, sir," he commanded. 

Weston sat down. 

"I have some important matters I wish to talk over with 
you and two of your subordinates," explained the Chief, as he 
rang a bell on the desk. The door opened and two men of 
powerful stature entered the room. Instinctively Weston felt 
what was coming. 

"Arrest this man," directed the Chief, pointing to Weston. 

The men seized him securely and pinned him to his chair. 

"There's no use resisting, Weston,", advised the Chief. 
"We are on to your spying game. The jig is up with you 
now." 

Weston simulated intense amazement. "You must be 
dreaming, Chief," he laughed. "I wonder who put such a 
notion into your head. 

"Do you mean to deny that you are Ed Weston, of the 
United States Secret Service?" 

Weston laughed heartily. "It's almost too rich a joke for 
me to deny it, Chief. But I would like to know where you 
ever got such a notion." 

"That wish shall be gratified," said the Chief coldly, as he 
again rang the bell. Weston's eyes lighted in surprise as the 
door opened and a man entered leading Brown by the arm. 
His heart grew cold at the sight of the latter. He had thought 
the countryman was in Washington by this time. 

"They captured him," he thought. "Well, I'll bluff it 
out anyway." 

The Chief pointed toward Weston, who was still held by 
the two men who had first come into the room. "Who is 
this man, Joe?" he asked familiarly of Brown. 

"His name is Mr. Ed Weston," replied Brown, simply. 
"He came to Richmond with me." 

Weston's iron nerve stood the ordeal magnificently. "I 
never saw you before," he declared coldly. "Who the devil 
are you, anyway?" 

Brown laughed softly. 

"Ordinarily," he replied, " I do not care for one of the enemy 
to know both my name and my person. But, being as you 
are to be shot in a couple of hours, I'll make an exception to 
the rule in your favor. I'm Omahundry." 






Qoi^federat^ l/eterag. 



133 



THE STRATEGY OF STONEWALL JACKSON. 

BY COL. MAGNUS H. THOMPSON, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

(Continued from March number.) 

It is interesting and highly instructive to review this cam- 
paign, which closed with the battle of Cross Keys and Port 
Republic. It occupied just three months from the evacuation 
pf Winchester, March 11, when Jackson fell back with about 
.500 badly armed and equipped men before Banks with 30,- 
100, to the 11th of June, when Fremont and Shields were in 
ull retreat for the lower Valley and Jackson was resting in the 
riple forks of the Shenandoah, the acknowledged hero of one 
if, if not the most, famous campaigns in history. Attacking 
ihields's Division at Kernstown with but 2,700 men forced 
he recall of Banks's main force, then moving to reenforce the 
irmy moving toward Richmond, and thus delaying its opera- 
ion. During these operations Jackson had marched more 
.ihan 500 miles and fought five pitched battles, besides nu- 
nerous engagements. On June 1 1, General Lee wrote to Jack- 
ion: "Your recent successes have been the cause of the liveli- 
est joy in this army as well as in the country; the admiration 
;xcited by your skill and boldness has mingled with solicitude 
or your situation." So impressed were Fremont and Banks 
with the idea that Jackson, with 50,000 men, was preparing to 
ittack them again, that they wired to the authorities at 
Washington on the 12th: "Jackson is heavily reenforced and 
advancing." On the 19th, "No doubt a movement down the 
Valley with 30,000 or more is intended; " and on the 22d, "We 
'are still on the lookout for Jackson and Ewell," and on the 28th, 
'when Jackson had joined Lee in front of Richmond and was 
actually fighting McClellan, Banks still believed Jackson 
meditated an attack in the Valley. McDowell remained in the 
Valley, owing to the defeat at Cross Keys and Port Republic, 
.not knowing what Jackson might again do. 

The object of his delay in the Valley being accomplished, 
Jackson left on June 17, leaving his cavalry there and 
ordering it to continue its demonstration down the Valley. 
He reached Richmond on the 26th, and on the 27th was in line 
of battle ready to fall on McClellan's right and participate 
in the great battle of Gaines's Mill and become a potent factor 
in winning the victory of the seven days of battle around 
Richmond. 

As evidence of the estimate our foes put upon Jackson, it 
is worth quoting Swinton, the Federal historian, on Jackson 
in this campaign: "Jackson made great captures of stores and 
prisoners, but this was not its chief result. Without gaining 
a single tactical victory, he had yet achieved a great strategic 
victory, for by skillfully maneuvering 15,000 men he suc- 
ceeded in neutralizing a force of 60,000. It is not too much to 
* say that he saved Richmond, for when McClellan was ex- 
pecting McDowell's aid with 40,000 men, Jackson's victories 
in the Valley necessitated McDowell's return to the Valley." 
On July 1, the last day of the seven days' battles around 
Richmond was fought at Malvern Hill. On the 2nd Mc- 
Clellan began his retreat to Harrison Landing, wheie he 
•'ould rest under the protection of the gunboats. Passing to 
1 >he next stage of operations, on July 13, 1862, Lee ordered 
Jackson to Gordonville, the same day that Maj. Gen. 
John Pope took command of the armies of Fremont, Banks, 
and McDowell and organized it as the "Army of Virginia." 
These forces had left the Valley of the Shenandoah and were 
encamped near Sperryville, located in the lovely cove of 
Piedmont, Va. 

Ewell's and Winder's Divisions joined Jackson, and on the 
27th 12,000 of A. P. Hill's were added. Pope's strategic force 

on August 7 was 36,500 men, but his tactic force was but a 
4 »* 



part of that, and Jackson knew it; this partial force was 
8,000 men of Banks, (an old Valley acquaintance of Jackson's 
men), in an advance camp across the Rapidan by a concealed 
road. The following morning Jackson opened battle, and one 
of the most hotly contested fights ensued, the advantage 
oscillating from one side to the other until, late in the day, 
the enemy gave way with fearful loss, and Jackson, as usual, 
became the victor. Thus ended the battle of Slaughter 
Mountain. On August 9, Jackson telegraphed Lee: "God 
blessed our arms with another victory." Jackson's loss was 
1,314, and that of the Federals, 2,393, Pope's progress having 
been effectually checked by Jackson. The pressure from 
Washington was so great that Pope had to respond, and on 
August 14, General Reno having reenforced him, giving him 
a total of 50,000 men, he disposed his army from the crossing 
of the Robertson River to Raccoon Ford on the Rapidan. 
Lee, expecting this, on the 13th of August ordered Longstreet 
to Gordonville and R. H. Henderson to follow, McClellan 
having moved from Harrison Landing toward Fort Monroe. 
On August 16, Jackson, moving secretly, put his command 
behind the outlying Clarks Mountain Range, covering 
Raccoon and Somerville Fords of the Rapidan. 

On the 19th, Lee determined to strike Pope and defeat him 
before the great force of McClellan could join him. It was 
decided by Lee and Jackson that we should turn Pope's right 
and put our army between him and Washington, cutting his 
line of communication, supplies, and retreat. On the 25th, 
Jackson's command, with the addition of Walker, McLaws, 
and D. H. Hill's divisions, began his march, taking only 
ambulances and ordnance wagons, the troops carrying scant 
three-day rations, and they covered twenty-five miles the 
first day, reaching Salem. On the 26th they reached Bristoe 
Station after a march of twenty-four miles. Jackson, with his 
2,000 enthusiastic men, was then in Pope's rear and within 
four miles of Manassas Junction, which was soon reached and 
a harvest of good things and train loads of supplies were 
captured; those they could not remove were destroyed. 
Pope's communication with Washington was cut off, and he 
was in a box. Longstreet, on the 28th, was slow in getting 
under way, as usual, so did not reach Thoroughfare Gap, but 
seven miles from his camp, until three in the afternoon, to find 
that important way, the gate he must pass though to reach 
Jackson's right, held by Ricket and a Federal division. After 
quite a contest, the way was cleared and Longstreet passed 
through, encamping east of Bull Run Mountain and in eight 
miles of the battle field of Groveton Heights, where Jackson 
was hotly engaged with King's Division of Pope's army, and 
anxiously awaiting the coming of Lee and Longstreet. Fitz- 
John Porter could not find his way through the darkness of the 
night to Manassas to bag Jackson, even with lighted candles, 
but Jackson and his men somehow found the way to their 
destination. Following this expedition came the severe battle 
fought almost entirely by Jackson's army, Longstreet on three 
occasions during the battle positively refusing to obey Lee's 
order for him to relieve the pressure on Jackson. The losses 
from the Rappahannock to the Potomac were reported by 
Jackson as 805 killed, 3,574 wounded; and 35 missing, total 
4,387. The battle of Groveton was a great victory for the 
Confederates, the Federals in the same campaign reporting 
their losses as 1,747 killed, 8,452 wounded, and 4,263 captured; 
total 14,462. 

The Federals, defeated at the next move by Jackson at 
Chantilly, retired from the field and sought safety with the 
rest of their army within the fortifications of Washington. 
In four short months the Army of Northern Virginia had, with 
its 80,000 men, met and driven Banks, Fremont, McDowell, 



// 



134 



Qoijfederat^ l/eteraij. 



McClellan, and Pope, with their 200,000 veteran troops, from 
far within the bounds of Virginia in disastrous defeat and 
retreat beyond its borders. 

Resting on their laurels until September 3, the invasion of 
Maryland was decided upon, and the army, with Jackson 
in advance, moved to Leesburg and thence to Frederick, Md., 
to the martial strains of " Maryland, my Maryland," the men 
cheering and shouting with delight. In the meantime McClel- 
lan was reinstated in command of the Federal army and had 
collected some 90,000 men and began his march to attack Lee. 
Banks, with 75,000 men, was retained at Washington, not 
knowing what Lee and Jackson might do. Desiring to draw 
McClellan farther from his base, Lee crossed the South 
Mountain and moved toward Hagerstown, sending Jackson 
by Williamsport and Martinsburg to fall upon and capture a 
force of 11,000 men holding Harper's Ferry, which was done in 
schedule time. In the meantime the much talked of "lost 
dispatch" gave McClellan a clue to the situation, and he 
moved to attack and destroy Lee's army in detail, attacking 
D. H. Hill, Lee's rear guard, and forcing the gap. Thus Lee 
was compelled to recall Longstreet as well as Jackson, who, 
upon the surrender of Harper's Ferry, left A. P. Hill to parole 
the 11,000 prisoners and send the captured stores and ninety 
pieces of artillery up the Valley, while he, but a few hours at 
the ferry, rushed to Lee's relief, who was preparing to give 
battle at Sharpsburg, reaching the field the evening of the 
16th and taking position on Lee's extreme left near the 
Dunkard Church. The battle opened with the light of day 
on the 17th, and for fierceness and sanguinary results equalled 
if not surpassed, for the time of its duration (being but one 
day), any in the annals of war. 

The following day, September 18, was spent quietly, the 
armies facing each other, with Lee anxious to renew the fight, 
but McClellan declined a further contest, and, when night 
closed, Lee's army quietly retired to the Virginia side of the 
river. Longstreet left the Valley November 6 to confront 
McClellan, who was undertaking a new "On to Richmond," 
McClellan then being at Warrenton. Jackson was left in the 
Valley as a menace to McClellan's right, as he would hesitate 
to push far into Virginia so long as that ever-ready fighter and 
unconquerable leader remained in the lower Valley, to him the 
land of victory, to McClellan that of defeat and disaster. 

At this date the Federal force behind the Rappahannock 
numbered 125,000 men, SO, 000 held the defense of Washington, 
and 22,000 watched the portals of the Shenandoah Valley at 
Harper's Ferry. Lee at this time had less than 72,000 in the 
two corps, including his cavalry. Not satisfied with Mc- 
Clellan's tardiness, Lincoln supplanted him in command at 
Warrenton by Burnside, who at once hastened to execute an 
"On to Richmond'' by way of Fredericksburg. Lee at once 
moved Longstreet to Fredericksburg. Jackson was ordered to 
follow Longstreet and, deceiving his enemy in the Valley, he 
crossed the mountain at New Market, thence to Orange 
Courthouse, and thence to Fredericksburg, where they began 
to fortify and prepare for battle. On the 12th the enemy ad- 
vanced, the engagement began, and a fearful battle was waged, 
but victory perched upon our banners, and Burnside retired 
to the north bank of the Rappahannock. " They went as they 
came, in the night.'' This ended the campaign of 1862. 

On January 26, 1863, Major General Joseph Hooker took 
command of the Federal army, displacing Burnside, and 
speadily restored the army's efficiency and brought its 
strength up to nearly 134,000. 

On April 13, the Federal general began to open up the 
campaign. Jackson's forces moved within four miles of 
Chancellorsville on Mav 1, and drove back Hooker's skirmish- 



ers, who were in the act of opening the way to Fredericksburg. 
When Jackson reached Tabernacle Church, he found Anderson 
and ordered an advance to meet the one he shrewdly supposed 
Hooker was already making, and the issue of battle wasj 
joined in the field between Chancellorsville and Tabernacle 
Church. 

Sykes's Division was flanked by Jackson and repulsed by 
McLaws, while Anderson turned back Slocum's Twelfth 
Corps with loss, compelling Hooker to seek protection behind 
Sickles's line in front of Chancellorsville, and that night Lee 
and Jackson bivouacked together. The following mornim; 
Jackson, with his entire corps, started his flank movement i 
first southward, then southwestward, to the Brock load, thence 
northwestward to the plank road, thus traveling nearly the 
entire front of Hooker's position, and, turning to the right, 
formed his command in three lines of battle. The audacity 
of Jackson's flank movement, by which Lee was entirely 
detached from the larger part of his army, was only equaled 
by the audacity of Lee himself in his willingness to confront 
and attempt to hold in place the great mass of Hooker's army 
with only the two divisions of Anderson and McLaws. The 
dense forest in Hooker's front prevented his seeing the small 
force that was opposed to him. 

Thus he was held by this small force all day while Jackson 
was eagerly and swiftly marching around his right flank. Atl 
sunrise on May 2, Jackson began his march with Rodcs 
commanding D. H. Hills old division in front, followed by 
Colston and A. P. Hill's 26,000 war-hardened veterans, led by 
Jackson in person, with four regiments of cavalry led l>\ I 
Stuart and Fitz Lee protecting his flanks. Reaching the 
flank and surveying the ground at 5 P.M. Saturday, May 2, 
two hours before the setting sun, just as a magnificent rain- 
bow sprang its prismatic arch across the western sky in rear 
of his line of battle, Jackson ordered an advance. With a 
wild "rebel yell" that startled the silence that reigned in the 
wilderness, his veterans rushed forward and fell upon Howard's 
Corps holding Hooker's right, at that time engaged in cooking 
supper. A panic ensued, and Howard's men rushed along the 
turnpike toward Chancellorsville, sweeping all organization 
along with them. 

Nothing could stand against Jackson's assault, and they 
fled en route to Chancellorsville, two miles away. Our line 
advanced to the crossroad within one mile of Chancellorsville, 
and rested to reorganize the command and form a new line 
with A. P. Hill's men. Jackson, with his staff and escort, rode 
forward along the turnpike through the twilight, intensifiec 
by the heavy forest on each side, and up to his skirmish line to 
reconnoiter. The accompanying engineers even rode up to 
a Federal battery, which had halted in the road and where one 
of them was captured, so Jackson and staff turned back and 
rode in a trot toward his lines, newly formed by A. P. Hill's 
men, when some one called out, "A Yankee cavalry charge!" 
Without orders, the ISth North Carolina fired a volley which 
desperately wounded Jackson and killed Captain Boswell 
and one of his escorts. General Jackson was removed at 
once to the field hospital near "Old Wilderness Tavern," 
where his arm was amputated. When General Lee was in- 
formed of Jackson's wound, he sadly remarked: "Any victory 
is dearly bought which deprives us of the services of General 
Jackson, even for a short time." 

After the close of the fighting on May 3, at Chancellor'! 
burning house, Colonel Marshall handed Lee a message ol 
congratulation from General Jackson. With a trembling voice 
General Lee said: "Say to General Jackson the victory is his 
and congratulations are due to him. I forget the genius that 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 



135 



von the day in my reverence for generosity that refused the 
;lory." 

Lee's losses during the Fredericksburg-Chancellorsville 
. ampaign were 13,000, among whom were the flower of his 
./eteran army officers. The brave Paxton fell leading the 
itonewall Brigade, and, above all, the matchless Jackson, 
^ee's "right arm," as he called him, and the main reliance of 
he Confederacy for the success of its cause. While the great 
lero lingered in life near Guineys, Lee sent him many messages 
ind, when informed that his wound would probably prove 
atal, he said: "Surely General Jackson must recover, God 
will not take him from us now that we need him so much." 
Jackson died on Sunday, May 10, 1863. 

The zenith of his achievements that bespoke the dawn of 
j success was closed by his untimely death. The flank attack 
;made by Jackson on Hooker's army at Chancellorsville, the 
last of his remarkable achievements, is recognized by military 
experts as the greatest tactical masterpiece of the nineteenth 
;entury. When he passed away the hope of success vanished. 
Had he lived, the independence of that "new-born nation" 
would have been realized and to-day our beloved Southland 
would be revelling in the enjoyment of unalloyed peace and 
happiness. He is dead, but his marvelous achievements will 
never die. 

There was but one Stonewall. 



BOY SOLDIERS OF THE CONFEDERACY. 

MRS. A. A. CAMPBELL, HISTORIAN GENERAL U. D. C. 

Some of the unique and distinctive incidents of our Con- 
federate history are slipping into oblivion. Shall we let them 

'go and allow the gallant names which are associated with 
them to be forgotten, or shall we realize that all the South 
gained by four years of bitter war is the record of its heroes? 
Some of these stories, which the boys and girls cannot find 
this year for their programs because the books in which they 

' are written have become rare, would fit so perfectly into the 
tales of chivalry, that Cceur de Lion would have enjoyed 

'telling them on some starry night in Palestine; and if we 
found them in the pages of Sir Thomas Mallory we would all 

' prize them and tell them to our children. No one knows the 

-exact date when King Arthur ruled in Britain, but it was 
certainly before the Roman Conquest, which places it in the 

1 vicinity of two thousand years ago. If I had chosen for the 
Children of the Confederacy program twelve subjects from 

■'i the lives and adventures of the Knights of the Round Table, 
all the data would have been perfectly accessible. If I had 

'•chosen that great classic of antiquity, the Trojan War, any 

'good enclyclopedia would have supplied sufficient details for 

'those who did not care to consult the many translations of Ho- 
mer and Vergil; but when I chose a few names of boy soldiers of 
the Confederacy, heroes of a conflict which closed just fifty- 

1 seven years ago, a great and mighty wail comes to me per 

1 post, and I have a presentiment that the wailers are probably 
the only people who are conscientiously willing to attempt 
that difficult, and, it would seem, impossible, thing of finding 
out a few facts about events which are familiar to veterans 

1 now living. 

First comes the question; Is the Historian General aware of 
the fact that "Boy Soldiers of the Confederacy," by Mrs. 
Susan R. Hull, is out of print? Anyone who knows anything 
about books of that kind will hazard two guesses: they are 
either out of print or going out of print, and they are never, 

I never going back into print. This is pretty nearly an axiom in 
Southern literature. But the fact that a book cannot be 



bought except by the patient booklover does not mean that 
it has disappeared. Somewhere those books can be located, 
sometimes in private libraries, often in State libraries, and 
frequently in the lists sent out by those who specialize, like 
the Ruebush-Elkins Co., of Dayton, Va., in certain lines of 
historical work. The real object of the Historian General was 
to call attention to the fact that we are permitting the young 
people of our country to seek their inspirations in alien lands. 
Their spiritual homes will be across the sea in New England. 
There is not now, and there has never been, in the entire South 
any periodical which ranks with The Y'ouih's Companion or 
5/. Nicholas for juveniles. Even the little Sunday school 
papers we use are apt to carry the Chicago postmark. The 
inevitable result is that stories of the boys in gray are con- 
spicuously absent from current literature. If we can call them 
back from this mental exile and teach them that honor and 
courage have always been the high virtues of the South, we 
establish for them a standard by which they can estimate the 
true values of life, and we implant in their hearts the com- 
pelling tradition of a hereditary knighthood whose accolade 
is won by character, and by character alone. 

With this preamble, explaining the wherefore of the C. of C. 
program, I shall briefly relate the stories which compose the 
May and June subjects, and in succeeding numbers of the 
Veteran I shall take up "Jack Jouet's Ride" and the "Im- 
mortal Six Hundred." 

When Arkansas seceded, as a result of the call for troops by 
President Lincoln to coerce the seven Confederate States to 
return to the Union, the boys of St. John's College, at Little 
Rock, in age from fourteen to nineteen years, enlisted in the 
1st Arkansas Regiment, and their teachers became officers in 
the regiment. Virginia seceded for the same reason, and the 
capital of the Confederacy was moved from Montgomery to 
Richmond. Very soon it was apparent that Virginia would 
be invaded, for the cry, "On to Richmond," was the slogan of 
the Federal armies which were rapidly assembling. The 1st 
Arkansas entrained for the Virginia camps and became a part 
of the command which Stonewall Jackson made immortal — 
perhaps he would say which made him immortal — for Jackson 
always insisted that the name Stonewall belonged to the 
brigade. The first real battle of the war in which they took 
part was on July 20 and 21, 1S61, at Manassas, sometimes 
called Bull Run. The best account of Jackson's campaigns is 
found in "Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War," 
by Col. G. F. R. Henderson, of the British army. 

Jackson was the most truthful of men, but when it came to 
military tactics he could deceive in a way to make a confirmed 
liar feel paltry. F'or instance, on July 18, he marched out of 
Winchester in exactly the opposite direction from his real 
destination. After advancing a few miles, the men were 
halted, and the following order was read to them: "Our 
gallant army, under General Beauregard, is now attacked by 
overwhelming numbers. The commanding general hopes that 
his troops will step out like men and make a forced march to 
save the country." It was on that night, when the men sank 
to sleep exhausted, that Jackson's attention was called to the 
fact that no pickets had been placed around the bivouac. 
"Let the poor fellows sleep; I will guard the camp myself," 
was the reply, and through the long night watches he was the 
sole sentinel on duty. 

The celerity with which the 1st Arkansas marched earned 
for them from President Davis and General Beauregard the 
proud title of "Jackson's Foot Cavalry," and they were 
allowed to inscribe it upon their banner. While the brigade 
lay awaiting attack, in the hot July sun which shone upon 



136 



^oofederat^ i/eterap. 



Manassas, the boys from Arkansas noticed a spring not far 
from the lines, right under fire of the Federal batteries. Three 
of them, under sixteen, names unknown, volunteered to fill 
some canteens with water. Cautiously they advanced, but 
not so cautiously as to escape the eye of the Federal gunneis, 
and there was a flash and a roar from the cannon. The spring 
was safely reached, the canteens filled, and there remained the 
simple little matter of returning through a barrage aimed at 
them. But the firing had ceased, and from the battery a 
blue rider advanced, waved his hat at the boys, and, accom- 
panied by the cheers of friend and foe, the boys regained their 
lines and the thirsty Confederates drank the water, which 
must have reminded them of another soldier, centuries ago, 
who wished for the water from the well in Bethlehem, and 
poured it out as an oblation because his three valiant men had 
put their lives in jeopardy to obtain it. 

After three years the 1st Arkansas Regiment had their 
revenge, the kind which is sweetest. At the battle of Kenesaw, 
on June 27, 1864, their colonel, W. H. Martin, observed that 
the woods in front of his position were on fire and the wounded 
Federal soldiers lying in them would be burned. He tied 
a handkerchief around his ramrod, and, mounting the parapet, 
he waved this miniature flag of truce and shouted to the 
enemy: "Come and remove your wounded; they are burning 
to death. We will not fire a gun until you get them away. 
Be quick." Confederates and Federals mingled in the work 
of rescue, and a Federal major was so impressed that he drew 
from his belt a brace of pistols and presented them to Colonel 
Martin, saying: "Accept them with my appreciation of the 
nobility of this deed. It deserves to be perpetuated to the 
deathless honor of every one of you concerned in it; and 
should you fight a thousand other battles, and win a thousand 
other victories, you will never win another so noble as this." 

There was a battery known as Parker's Boy Battery, com- 
posed of boys from Maryland and Georgia, which advanced 
into Pennsylvania with Lee, and, when the retreat began after 
the battle of Gettysburg, they remained in position, holding 
back the enemy because it never occurred to them that an 
unsupported battery had been left. A Confederate officer 
rode up and asked Captain Parker why he had not retired. 
He replied that he had no orders to do so. Immediately giving 
the order, the Boy Battery slowly obeyed and followed the 
long gray lines, the officers still facing the foe until distance 
hid them from view. This was not any burning deck and has 
not inspired poetry, but it was just as fine a proof of fidelity 
and discipline. 

John Krenson, of Savannah, was the boy who could not 
leave before the battle. In this day of evasion and side- 
stepping, it is good to remember this Georgia boy, who was a 
true bondsman of duty. John Krenson fought in the battle 
of Manassas, was wounded, and returned home on furlough. 
Learning that McClellan was in sight of Richmond with a 
great army, he went back, but was given an honorable dis- 
charge, because he was not strong enough for active service. 
He reported to his regiment just the same, for he wished to 
help in the battle, and died on the skirmish line at Mechan- 
icsville among the first who fell. 

Henry Albert Roby, of Baltimore, like many another 
Maryland boy, slipped across the Potomac and joined the 
Confederate army. He was just eighteen. He was assigned 
to the 1st Maryland Regiment, and at Gettysburg he distin- 
guished himself by conspicuous gallantry. The caisson to the 
gun had been lost, and Roby got ammunition for it under fire. 
He fought to the end of the war, and when the Spanish- 
American war came he wrote a poem calling o^blue and gray 



to fight together. One does not worry about the meter of 
that kind of a war poet. 

Thomas Jackson Waters, also of Maryland, joined the 
Virginia cavalry when he was eighteen years old. He was 
captured and sent first to the old Capitol Prison and then 
transferred to Point Lookout. How to escape is the perennial 
thought of all prisoners. Two of his companions were dis- 
cussing plans to get away by swimming the Potomac. Waters 
said he could not swim. They offered to help him, and so the 
trio eluded the guard, concealed themselves on the bank of 
the river, and when night came each secured a plank and 
started across the darkling waters. About halfway over the 
two men said: "Well, good-by, Waters; every man for him- 
self." There he was, with a plank between him and eternity. 
He held on, however, in a prayerful frame of mind, no doubt, 
and was washed ashore about dawn on the secession side of the 
river. The two companions landed almost simultaneously, 
and all rejoined their commands. Waters fought through the 
war and lived many years afterwards, always loyal to the 
cause he had chosen. 

These are just a few flowers gathered in the asphodel fields 
of Memory and should not be allowed to fade. There are 
hundreds more which establish an unsurpassed roll of valor. 

A boy soldier lay ready for a dangerous operation in a 
hospital where Miss Emily V. Mason was nursing. She was 
a Christian and spoke to him of his condition, adding, " Don't 
you think you had better make your peace with God?" He 
answered: "When a boy dies in defense of his country, he has 
made his peace with God already." 

So we would fain believe, and as these warrior saints, 
crowned with eternal youth, pass beyond our ken, we picture 
them as faring forth with Percival and Galahad upon some 
nobler quest beyond the walls of paradise. 



THE ROLL OF HONOR, C. S. A. 

BY JOHN C. STILES, BRUNSWICK, GA. 

The Confederate soldier up to 1864 was magnificent, and 
from then to the finish he was sublime, and, in my opinion, 
not only those mentioned but every "ragged rebel" who was 
killed, disabled, or stayed to the bitter finish should have his 
name written on a "Roll of Honor," to be carried down to 
futurity to prove that in those days there were men. 

Realizing that there should be some award for special acts 
of gallantry on the part of officers and enlisted men of the 
Confederate army, the following order was issued: 

Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, 
Richmond, Va., November 22, 1862. 
General Orders No. 93. 

"The Congress of the Confederate States do enact that the 
President be and hereby is authorized to bestow medals 
upon such officers as shall be conspicuous for good conduct 
and courage on the field of battle, and also a badge of dis- 
tinction upon one enlisted man of each company after every 
signal victory it shall have assisted to achieve. The enlisted 
men of the company who may be present on the first dress 
parade thereafter may choose, by a majority of their votes, 
the man best entitled to receive such distinction and whose 
name shall be communicated to the President by the com- 
manding officer of the company. If the awardshall fall on a de- 
ceased soldier, the badge then awarded him shall be delivered 
to his widow; and if there is no widow, to any relative the 
President may adjudge entitled to receive it. 

"Approved October 13, 1862. S. Cooper, 

"Adjutant and Inspector General." 



Qotyfederat^ l/eterai). 



137 



For various reasons, principally the lack of funds I presume, 
the above order had not been carried out, and as it was causing 
some dissatisfacion in the army, the following order was 
issued: 

Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, 

Richmond, Va., October 3, 1862. 

""General Orders No. 131. 

"Difficulties in procuring the medals and badges having 
delayed their presentation, and to avoid postponing the grateful 
recognition of their valor until it can be made in enduring 
form, it is ordered: 

" 1. That the names of all those who have been, or may here- 
after be, reported as worthy of this distinction be inscribed 
on a Roll of Honor, to be preserved in this office for reference 
in all future times, for those who have deserved well of their 
country, as having best displayed their courage and devotion 
on the field of battle. 

"2. That the Roll of Honor, so far as now made up, be 
appended to this order and read at the head of every regiment 
in the service at the first dress parade after its receipt and be 
published in at least one newspaper in each State. 

"S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector General." 

Finding that there was some misunderstanding in regard 
to making the selection for the roll, the following order was 
I published: 

Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, 

Richmond, Va., August 10, 1864. 

"General Orders No. 64. 
1 "Should more than one soldier be hereafter selected by a 

company as equal in merit, the name to be announced upon 

the Roll will be determined by lot. Commissioned officers 
■ are not to be selected by vote, but a statement of their special 

good conduct should be made by their immediate commanders 

and forwarded to this office. 
1 "S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector General." 

The commissioned officers, according to the last order, were 
chosen by the same method as the British use in awarding 
their Victoria Cross, and, as there are several noncommis- 
sioned officers on the Roll, such as sergeant majors and color 
bearers, not belonging to any company, they must have been 
chosen by the same method. Gen. Johnson Hagood recom- 
mended his orderly, Private J. D. Stoney, 27th South Caro- 
lina Infantry, for gallantry at Petersburg, Va., and General 
Ripley recommended five enlisted men of the South Carolina 
troops — Sergeant Edgerton, Privates Martin, DuBarry, 
Grimball, and F. K. Higer, acting as signalmen — for bravery 
li in carrying out their duties under a severe fire at Fort Gregg, 
ii S. C. 

: The law in regard to the enlisted men, shared in under 
certain conditions by the British army with their Cross, is, I 
- think, open to some criticism, as it might have given rise, at 
: times, to some politics, and no doubt there are the names of 
i some of this class on the Roll. There are a large number of 
sergeants mentioned while the corporals are fewer, which 
• might lead us to think that the rest of the company not only 
i recognized the sergeant as a hero, but also as one who at- 
i tended to guard details. One company elected their sutler, 
who was, no doubt, a very gallant man and well deserved the 
honor; but as Confederate pay days were few and far between, 
some might think that a good line of credit might be estab- 
lished on this basis. But in any event, the man elected was a 
good enough fellow to have his name perpetuated. 



The first name on the first roll published is that of Sergt. 
VV. D. Sumner, Company A, 22nd Alabama Infantry, for the 
battle of Murfreesboro, Tenn., Roll, published October 3, 
1863; although Private William H. Duke, Company A, 8th 
Alabama Infantry, has the honor of being the first man on the 
list for the first battle in which the Roll figures, that of 
Williamsburg, Va., but the Roll was not published until 
August 10, 1864. The last man on the list is First Lieut. John 
M. Galbraith, 1st Company, Washington, La., Artillery, for 
Drewry's Bluff, Va., Roll, published December 10, 1864. 

The most prominent feature of the Roll is that from the 
first name, Abbott, to the last, Young, ninety-five per cent 
are true American. Smith, with thirty-four names, heads the 
list; with Jones, Moore, Williams, Brown, Johnson, and Wilson 
in the order named. No less than forty have the given name of 
George Washington. 

The total number of names on the Roll is two thousand 
and sixty-six, but as forty-three persons are mentioned twice, 
one three times and S. L. Neely, corporal of Company A, 
2nd Mississippi Infantry, five times, there are only two thous- 
and and seventeen individuals honored. 

There are three hundred and twenty-nine names of those 
killed in the battle they were mentioned for, which shows that 
the Confederate soldier chose rather to honor the dead than 
the living, in that many instances at least. Of nineteen 
Joneses on the Roll, none were killed; while of two Copelands, 
two Fielders, two Littles, two Shufords, two Harmons, two 
McCartys, and three Looneys, all were killed; Deathrage and 
Killian also were killed. 

It is not generally known that the Confederacy had its 
regulars, and this roll contains the names of forty-two of these 
men. About fifty per cent of these are clearly of Irish origin, 
which shows that "Pat" took both sides of the argument in 
our war, as well as in all others he could reach. 

The infantry, which always bears the hardest knocks, comes 
first, of course; and, as it was said that no one ever saw a dead 
man with spurs on, the cavalry did well to come second. The 
fancy branches, such as mounted riflemen, rifles, and sharp- 
shooters, are represented in the order named. Every branch 
of the service is on the Roll, with the following exceptions: 
Chaplains, who were a superfluity, as the Confederate soldier 
was good enough (?) without them; paymasters, whom they 
had no use for; commissaries, who had nothing to issue; and 
the legal department, which no one would recommend for 
anything but dismissal; but the one man who never failed 
under any circumstances to stay with his wounded to the last 
ditch, the man who above all deserved the highest honors, the 
surgeon, is also not mentioned. The 2nd Mississippi Infantry 
heads the list with sixty-seven names, and the 8th Alabama 
Infantry comes second. 

This is the order in which they come and the number 
credited to each: Infantry, 1,894; cavalry, 69; mounted rifles, 
39; artillery, 27; sharpshooters, 18; A. A. G., 6; Signal Corps 
(acting), 5; A. D. C, 3; rifles, 2; engineer, 1; ordnance, 1; 
quartermaster, 1. Total, 2,066. 

As a commissioned officer, to get on the Roll, had to be 
recommended by a superior, the higher ranks are few, as will 
be shown by the following list: Colonel, 10; lieutenant 
colonel, 14; major, 10; captain, 77; adutant, 11; lieutenant, 
107; sergeant major, 3; color bearers, 26; sergeant, 370; 
corporal 204; private, 1,233; sutler, 1. Total, 2,066. 

Every State in the Confederacy is represented, Alabama 
heading and Texas bringing up the rear: Alabama, 352; 
Arkansas, 192; Florida, 56; Georgia, 127; Kentucky, 75; 
Louisianna, 83; Mississippi, 350; Missouri, 80; North Caro- 



// 



138 



^oi)federat^ Ueteraij 



lina, 210; South Carolina, 78; Tennessee, 306; Texas, SO; 
Virginia, 103. Total, 2,066. 

The law states that, as far as enlisted men were concerned, 
the Rolls were to be published for a signal victory only, and 
Chickamauga, certainly a signal victory, and the bloodiest 
battle of the war, heads the list. I note that fifty-two names 
were turned in for Gettysburg also, which has never been 
called a signal victory for the South, but I presume that they 
were turned in for the first day's fight. The Roll was pub- 
lished three times only — October 3, 1863, August 10, and 
December 10, 1864. After that time the Confederate soldier 
was too busy holding the invader back to bother with any- 
thing but stark fighting, and, as every man was a hero, it 
would have been impossible to make any distinction. The 
following list gives the number issued for each battle and the 
date the Roll was published in Richmond: 

Bethesda Church, Va., December 10, 1864, 24 names. 

Boonsboro, Md., December 10, 1864, 11 names. 

Brandy Station, Va., August 10, 1864, 3 names. 

Bristoe Station, Va., December 10, 1864, 4 names. 

Chancellorsville, Va., October 3, 1863, 290 names; August 
10, 1864, 7 names. 

Chickamauga, Ga., August 10, 1864, 703 names. 

Darbytown Road, Va., December 10, 1864, 13 names. 

Falling Waters, Md., December 10, 1864, 4 names. 

Frazer's Farm, Va., August 10, 1864, 7 names. 

Frederick City, Md., December 10, 1864, 4 names. 

Gaines's Mill, Va., August 10, 1864, 9 names; December 
10, 1864, 11 names. 

Gettysburg, Pa., October 3, 1863, 10 names; August 10, 
1864, 21 names; December 10, 1864, 21 names. 

Gregg, Fort, S. C, August 10, 1864, 5 names. 

Hanover, Junction, Va., December 10, 1S64, 4 names. 

Harrison, Fort, Va., December 10, 1864, 9 names. 

Jenkins's Ferry, Ark., August 10, 1864, 38 names. 

Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., August 10, 1864, 4 names. 

Locust Hill, Va., August 10, 1864, 4 names. 

Malvern Hill, Va., December 10, 1864, 9 names. 

Murfresboro, Tenn., October 3, 1863, 501 names. 

Paynes's Farm, Va., August 10, 1864, 13 names. 

Petersburg, Va., December 10, 1864, 20 names. 

Pillow, Fort, Tenn., December 10, 1864, 3 names. 

Pleasant Hill, Mo., August 10, 1864, 42 names. 

Reams's Station, Va., December 10, 1864, 11 names. 

Second Manassas, Va., August 10, 1S64, 2 names; December 
10, 1864, 11 names. 

Seven Pines, Va., August 10, 1864, 9 names; December 10, 
1864, 10 names. 

Sharpsburg, Md., August 10, 1864, 10 names; December 
10, 1864, 10 names. 

Spottsylvania, Va., December 10, 1864, 10 names. 

Talley's Mills, Va., December 10, 1864, 18 names. 

Upperville, Va., December 10, 1864, 10 names. 

Wagner, Fort, S. C, August 10, 1864, 5 names. 

Weldon Railway, Va., December 10, 1S64, 58 names. 

Wilderness, Va., December 10, 1864, 55 names. 

Williamsburg, Va., August 10, 1864, 4 names. 

Various battles, December 10, 1864, 49 names. 



"For the laurels of triumph are lost like the wave, 

Like the foam of the billows that break on the shore; 
But the laurels of love men cherish and save 

Whils truth shall endure. 
They will garland the home, though the fallen and brave 
Have passed through the door " 



IN THE BA TTLE OF CHA NCELLORSVILLE. 

BY JOHN CO^E, LILLIAS LAKELET, CAL. 

A few days after the battles before Richmond, Hood's 
Brigade retired to higher ground near the city and went into 
permanent camp in a fine woodland on both sides of the 
Virginia Central Railroad. Here we had good water and 
plenty to eat, including fruits and vegetables, but these two 
items we bought with our own money. Hood, well known as 
a military martinet, soon inaugurated a campaign of his own 
in severely drilling the brigade The weather was very hot, 
and many of us felt that this twice-a-day drilling was a little 
too much for us, who had just ended a campaign of hard 
marching and fighting, extending from March to July, and, 
therefore, some of our hearts got a little rebellious. This was 
the first and only time during the war that I agreed to and 
joined in disobediance to orders and violation of discipline 
But I was encouraged to do so by one of my messmates named 
Hunter, who was older than I and should have known better. 
One hot afternoon Hunter and I decided not to "fall in" 
when the drum sounded for the regular drill. After the drill 
was over we were promptly arrested and put into a tent under 
guard. 

Our officers admonished us that we were on the rim of 
serious trouble, but we continued to be pacifically obdurate. 
The next morning, however, our officers visited the guard 
tent at an early hour and read to us written charges covering 
our offense, and then informed us that unless we "changed 
our minds" within the next hour they would present their 
charges to Colonel Gary. And then we "changed our minds" 
very quickly and went back to our duty. 

About the middle of July I fell sick of a troublesome dysen- 
tery. I lay about camp and in the tent hospital, refusing to go 
to a city hospital. Meanwhile Gen. John Pope was organizing 
a Federal army south of Washington to attack Richmond 
from the north, and, about the middle of July, Stonewall 
Jackson had been sent to Gordonsville to be in position to 
meet him. In August we got news of the bloody battle of 
Cedar Mountain, in Culpeper County, north of the Rapidan, 
where, on the 9th, Jackson so severely smashed Pope's 
advance. In a few days word came that "Little Mack" 
was leaving his position on the James to reenforce Pope, and 
then Lee began to march north to join Jackson. Though sick, 
I fell in and went along. Most of the army was transported 
on the railroad, but Hood's Brigade marched on the dirt road. 
Surgeon Mosely advised me not to try to go, but I persisted 
and went on. But at Gordonsville a peremptory order was 
issued to send back to Richmand all sick and ailing men, and 
I decided to take advantage of the exemption law and get a 
discharge. This was easily done, because I wouldn't be 
eighteen till April 2 7, 1863. Armed with my discharge, I 
made my way to Richmond, where I got my transportation 
and went to one of my grandfathers in North Georgia. But 
the farther south I went the sicker I got, and on the way 
narrowly escaped death in an accident at Lynchburg. In a 
weak and worn condition, I reached grandfather's in Septem- 
ber, found the two old people entirely alone except for ser- 
vants. AH my uncles — Stephen, James, and George — were 
in the army. But, dear me! how glad the old people were, 
O so glad to see me! They at once took me to their hearts, 
for, since my orphanage, I had always been as one of their 
sons. They were blessed with great plenty, and the good 
food, water, and salubrious mountain climate soon brought 
me to victory over my distressing ailment, so that by the 
middle of October I was nearly my tough old self again. 

I remained in Georgia until March, 1863, and was then 



Qpofederat^ l/eterai). 



139 



rong and well. 1 didn't wait for the expiration of my 

cemption on April 27, but at once returned to Virginia and 

lined the Butler Guards, of Greenville, S. C, nearly every 

lember of which I knew, as they were from Greenville 

ourthouse. This was Company B of the 2nd South Carolina 

olunteer Infantry, of Kershaw's Brigade. I found the 

jmpany in winter quarters in the snow near Fredericksburg, 

id immediately joined a mess of my old friends — Henry 

owe, Earl Bowen, Girard and Wash Dyer, and John Pickett. 

'/e remained in that camp and had a good time till the last 

: ays of April, when we moved to a new camp nearer Fred- 

icksburg and not far from Stonewall Jackson's head- 

uarters. But, early on the morning of April 30, we were 

'died up by a furious cannonade down at the city, and during 

'ie day the whole army took positions on the same lines 

':cupied during the battle of the previous December. We 

iund that during the previous night the Federals, in some 

'>rce, had crossed the river on a pontoon bridge about a mile 

elow the city. We lay about Marye's Heights all day. 

!enry Rowe showed me over the battle ground of the 

onewall and where the Federal dead were buried in trenches. 

Meantime, we could see lines of the Federals on the heights 

eyond the river, marching back over the Stafford Hills. Late 

i the afternoon there was a sharp artillery duel between 

ickson, on the right, and the Federal corps on our side of 

ie river. After dark we made bonfires by orders, and we 

oticed that Jackson did the same on the right, so we privates 

. lought this meant something. And we soon found that it 

id, for shortly afterwards we took up the line of march 

orthward. We passed through our camp ground, but there 

'as no halt there. Getting on the Plank Road, we headed up 

ie river toward Culpeper. The road was good, and we went 

long till some time after midnight, and then halted at Zoar 

'hurch, on the Plank Road, and bivouacked. The next 

lorning we heard skirmishing ahead, and some said it was at 

hancellorsville, a few miles in front on the Plank Road, 
i 
While lying here, several bodies of our troops, with cavalry 

; nd artillery, passed us, going to the front. Shortly after - 
'ards we followed them. While passing some infantry lying 

• n the side of the road, some of our fellows sang out, " Where is 
tonewall Jackson?" And the reply to this was; "He has 

.ust passed up the road." Until late in the afternoon we did 
ttle more than march and countermarch. About 4 p.m. 

I heavy infantry fire opened not far in front, and we were 

, rdered forward. This noise of battle was soon over, and 
irectly we came to Semmes's Brigade, of our division, in the 

..■oods on both sides of the road. It had driven a Federal 
orce out of the woods and across a field, reaching nearly to 
'hancellorsville, which was a large country tavern. There 
.-ere some Federal dead in the field, and a few of our dead on 
he side of the road in the woods. Semmes formed his brigade 
i column of regiments and went forward across the field. 
Is it went along, the brigade, under the eye of Semmes, exe- 

', uted some fine evolutions, as if on dress parade. Our 
brigade followed and halted in plain view of some of the 

.'uildings at the tavern. Some of our artillery was in front 
nd exchanged a few shots with some Federal guns in earth- 
works round about the tavern. One of the Federal shots hit 

. ne of our caissons, blowing it up, a very exciting spectacle. 

Night coming on, things quieted down, and we bivouacked 

n the spot, enjoying a hearty supper on Federal crackers and 

, am. The next morning was quiet. We lay in bivouac and 
rom vantage points could see much of the Federal army at 
nd near the tavern. They seemed to be well fortified by 
reastworks and some redoubts. The general quietness 



prevailed till rather late in the afternoon, which seemed 
strange to us who didn't know what was going on at head- 
quarters. But about 4:30 p.m. the order was given for battle 
formation, and we advanced through the woods against the 
enemy at Chancellorsville. The Federals were ready for us, 
and the fighting was fierce and bloody. When our line got 
well under the Federal fire, we were halted and told to simply 
hold our ground, protect ourselves as much as possible behind 
trees and by lying down, but to keep up a steady fire. Doubt- 
less the Federals thought our object was to carry their lines 
by assault, and we private soldiers believed so too. Con- 
sequently, their fire of all arms was fierce and well sustained. 
But near sunset the Federal fire suddenly stopped, and soon 
after we were ordered to cease firing. Then immediately we 
heard a great commotion in the Federal lines, such as giving 
hasty orders and changing positions. And we could just hear 
cheering directly on the opposite side of the Federal position at 
Chancellorsville. We were all attention and listened with bated 
breath. The great cheering got louder and nearer, and at last we 
recognized the "rebel yell.' Then we knew and began to say 
with great enthusiasm: "That is Stonewall Jackson in the rear 
of the Yankee army." But we were not allowed to make any 
noisy demonstration. The "rebel yell" came nearer and nearer 
till quite after dark, when it gradually quieted down. But the 
confusion in the Federal lines continued some time longer and 
until they let loose a great artillery fire all in the direction of 
where we supposed Jackson's position then was. This lasted 
about half an hour, but the confusion in the Federal positions 
continued sometime longer. After the noise ceased, we 
established our picket posts for the night, and our entire 
regiment was on duty all that night. 

There were many men among us who expressed the opinion 
that the next day would witness the capture of Hooker's 
entire Federal army, but they were too optimistic and didn't 
take into consideration that Lee was really weak at Chan- 
cellorsville, because two of the finest divisions of the army. 
Hood's and Pickett's, were absent in North Carolina and 
Longstreet himself with them. 

Our regiment had a good time on the picket line that night. 
The posts were numerous and near together, and we had all 
the ham and crackers we needed. Only one exciting incident 
occurred during the remainder of the night. About 11 p.m. we 
heard a noise in our near front like the cracking of dry brush. 
Several voices called out, "Who goes there?" There was no 
answer, and then quickly followed a fusilade from our line, 
during which a man, thought to be a Federal soldier, rushed into 
our lines. He was seized by one of our officers, but he was un- 
armed, and it was found that he wore civilian clothes. We at 
once concluded that he was a spy, and some thought we ought 
to kill him on the spot. However, on being questioned, it was 
found that he was a foreigner, evidently German, and couldn't 
speak much English, but we were able to understand that he 
was a small merchant of New York City, and had a brother, an 
officer, in one of the Federal regiments then before us. He 
said he had come on a visit to his brother a few days before, 
and when the battle opened that afternoon, he was in his 
brother's tent. His brother had to join his command at once, 
but enjoined our prisoner to remain in the tent till he returned. 
He did so till some time after dark, but as his brother did not 
return, he had started out in the dark to hunt him and thus got 
into our lines. We thought his story rather "fishy," and im- 
mediately sent him back to General Kershaw for his further 
disposition. 

At an early hour the next morning we were relieved by 
another regiment of our brigade, and then we retired to the 



140 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 



rear through thick woods. But we hadn't gotten far when the 
battle opened all along the line. We could plainly hear 
Jackson's guns pounding away beyond the tavern. In a short 
time the din of musketry and artillery was so loud and well 
sustained that we couldn't hear anything beyond our own 
immediate section. We entered a ravine and were told to cook 
and eat as fast as we could. Just then several of our batteries 
galloped forward, quickly took position a few hundred yards in 
front, and opened a heavy fire on the Federal lines and build- 
ings at and about Chancellorsville. Soon the great hotel and 
other buildings were in flames. Some of us climbed trees to see 
the lurid and confused scenes about the tavern and all along 
the front as far as we could see. While hastily cooking and 
eating breakfast, it was announced that the Federals were 
giving way about the burning tavern, and, shortly after this, 
our brigade was thrown into line of battle and marched forward 
in quick time. 

As we reached the vicinity of the burning buildings, we 
saw the Federals falling back into the woods on the right of the 
Plank Road, but still firing back at our pursuing troops. At 
the same time our artillery was firing into the woods. This 
was sharply replied to by the Federals, our brigade getting a 
taste of some of their shells. It was understood that the 
Federals were retreating to a nearby crossing of the Rappahan- 
nock River. Evidently they were whipped and trying to get 
away. Many prisoners came out of the woods. Our whole di- 
vision under General McLaws seemed to be present as we 
started into the woods, and we could hear heavy firing of all 
arms over on the left of the Plank Road. This we figured was 
Jackson's fight. We had already heard that Jackson had 
turned and smashed Hooker's right flank and was doubling up 
the Federals in that quarter and driving them back on Chan- 
cellorsville. After entering the woods our whole line was halted 
and, almost at once, about faced and went back into the open 
space in front of the burning buildings. Then the whole divi- 
sion was put into column and started back down the Plank 
Road toward Fredericksburg at a lively step. We privates 
were puzzled at this movement, but our puzzle didn't re- 
main long unexplained. Soon after passing Zoar Church we 
heard picket firing to our front, then shortly we hove in sight of 
another brick church building, called Salem. And now our 
riddle was solved. On heights beyond Salem Church, on the 
Plank Road, we saw a Federal bivouac, line of battle, and 
many connon unlimbered and pointed in our direction. This 
was Sedgwick's Federal corps, which had defeated our weak 
right flank at Fredericksburg and essayed to cooperate with 
Hooker at Chancellorsville, thus between the two putting Lee 
in a sort of trap and so crush him. But it was too late. Hooker 
was already defeated at Chancellorsville, and we of McLaw's 
Division, and our troops driven back from Fredericksburg, 
were holding Sedgwick in check. Our division quickly deployed 
and took position in line of battle in front of Sedgwick, our line 
beginning at Salem Church, on the Plank Road, and extending 
to the right along a country road mostly in thick woods. The 
Federal batteries on the heights opposite shelled us severely, 
but did little damage except about the church, where the 
ground was more open. 

Night coming on, we bivouacked in line. The forenoon of 
next day we skirmished some with the Federals. The position 
of our regiment was not far from the church, an Alabama regi- 
ment occupying the space between. About noon we became 
aware that the Federals were organizing an assault on us. 
Presently their skirmishers crossed the little ravine between us 
and started up the timbered slope that led to our position. It 
was soon observed that following closely their skirmish line was 



a very large regiment of infantry in line of battle. It was 
futher observed that if this line of battle kept on advancing, it 
would fully and a little more than cover the front of the Ala- 
bama regiment on our left. Then orders were given to lie down 
and not fire a shot till the Federals got to the country road, a 
little in rear of which our line was formed. The Federals came 
up the slope with a rush and a great shout. But, dear me 
When they got to the road a solid volley from the Alabamian- 
and an oblique front fire from our regiment, only a few steps 
from them, so wiped them out that few got away. Only one 
of the Alabamians was killed and none of our regiment hurt 
For the forces engaged and the time employed, I didn't witness 
during the whole war such slaughter. In that little old road the 
Federal dead and wounded lay side by side and across each 
other; but the most of them were dead or died very soon after- 
wards. Brains and blood stood in pools all over the smal 
battle ground. We found we had been engaged with a ful 
Pennsylvania regiment, and that it had been sent forward ai 
preliminary to a greater and more general assault; but as tha: 
more general assault did not come, we concluded that Johr 
Sedgwick thought we were a little too numerous on our side o 
the ravine. 

About an hour after this bloody fight, we got hurried order: 
to march back to Chancellorsville. I know our brigade startee 
back, but don't know that the whole division went. It was 
extremely hot and sultry, and, after passing Zoar Church, ; 
furious thunderstorm struck us. The thunder and lightninj 
were tremendous and the rain shot down in great torrents 
In a short time great pools and streams formed on both sides o 
the road, but the planks on the road kept us from floating awa> 
While this storm lasted our progress was slow, and it didn' 
fully hold up till a little after dark. We kept on the Planl 
Road to a point about a mile beyond ruined Chancellorsville 
and then turned off to the right in the woods, and in the din c 
tion of the Rappahannock, which now we could plainly hea 
booming as the result of the great storm. And we could hea 
something else, too — namely, the Federals retreating acros 
the river by two pontoon bridges as fast as they could. 

We got into the debris of an old camp and halted in line c 
battle. The storm was over, but it had brought cold weathei 
and we stood there the rest of the night soaked to the skin am 
shivering with cold, as we had been cautioned to build n 
fires nor make any noise, We were near the Federals and th 
river, and heard very plainly the commands of the Federj 
officers and the general noise of artillery and so forth of crossin 
the river. We heard that Lee had planned to attack Hooke 
while the latter was bunched up at and crossing the river. 1 
so, he probably changed his mind after the coming on of th 
big storm and the darkness of the night. Besides, being sti 
weak, Lee had to be cautious. Though Longstreet, with tw 
strong divisions, was marching to us from North Carolm; 
nevertheless he was not yet in supporting distance. And the 
Lee had, for the time being, lost his right arm, when Stonewa 
Jackson was badly wounded and taken from the field of oper; 
tions. We private soldiers heard the sad news that very day 
but hope was held out that Jackson would be in the sadd 
again soon. 

By daylight the last of the Federals under Hooker, wh 
himself had been wounded, had passed the river, and nothin 
else was left General Lee but to deal with and dispose ( 
Sedgwick, who was still on the heights near Salem Churcl 
We cooked rations, ate, and dried our wet clothing till ne; 
noon when we took up the line of march back to Sale 
Church, where we arrived about the middle of the afternoo 
The plan seemed to be to either surround and capture Sedi 



, 



I 



Qoi)federat{ l/eterai). 



141 



wick's forces on the heights or drive them into the swollen 
river, and General McLaws was put in charge of the job. Many 
movements had to be made in order to surround the heights. 
Fortunately that part of our army was in and covered by dense 
woods. Sedgwick was not sleeping and soon discovered our 
designs. Consequently, he opened all his batteries upon us. 
Shells burst all about us, but little damage was done, because 
we were on lower ground and well protected by the timber. 
But it was nearly dusk when McLaws got ready and launched 
his great charge or "swing," as we privates called it. But at the 
end of our "swing," it was found that Sedgwick had escaped 
through a " hole " on that side of the heights next to the river, 
not far away, and by the time our brigade and Wofford's 
sent after him, got down to the river, we found only some 
prisoners and a small rear guard crossing on a pontoon, which 
evidently had been thrown across the river at that point by 

- Hooker precisely to succor Sedgwick. Our enemy was very 
resourceful and had plenty of backing of money, materials, 

j and men. But many of us always thought that Lee, on account 
of his weakness at Chancellorsville, felt a little more interested 
in driving the Federals back north of than he did in detaining 
them south of the Rappahannock. 

History tells us all about the casualties of this great battle. 

KBoth armies marched back and resumed their former camps, 
respectively. In a few days the whole army and whole South 
received the sad and depressing news that Stonewall Jackson 
was dead. It was hoped that some other giant of the South 
would be found to replace him, but, alas! that was not to be. 
After returning to camp, we suffered a few days for supplies. 
During the days of the battle the Federal cavalry, under 
Stoneman, raided our rear and destroyed some bridges, and 
thus temporarily separated us from our base of supplies at 
Richmond. We then settled down and began preparations for 
the Pennsylvania campaign, which opened early in June, 1863. 






1 



ON THE ADVANCE INTO MARYLAND. 

BY A. R. TOMLINSON, BENTON, ARK. 

With Company H, of the 4th North Carolina Regiment, 
Ramseur's Brigade, D. H. Hill's Division, A. N. V., I was in 
most of the battles from Yorktown to Spottsylvania Court- 
house, Va. When Lee's army marched into Maryland and 
Pennsylvania, we had orders not to molest anything. Gen- 
eral Lee impressed provisions and hauled them into Virginia 
with the fine teams of citizens, after which the teams were re- 
turned to their owners. My regiment went on provost duty at 
Hagerstown the first day we arrived there. The town, I think 
was about fifty-fifty in Northern and Southern sympathy. 
We cut the Union flag down, and many of the citizens split the 
flag pole into pieces for souvenirs. When we left Hagerstown 
the old town hall was full of rations that our regiment had 
drawn, but our Southern friends there had us do most of our 
eating at their tables. The hospitality of the people of Hagers- 
town was equal to that of Virginia, and the ladies of Virginia 
were the most hospitable on earth, so we did not have to beg 
them for bread; if they had anything to eat, they gave it freely. 

Leaving Hagerstown, we marched up the Cumberland 
Valley to Carlisle and Gettysburg, Pa., and the Valley was full 
of Dutch ovens, apple butter, cherries, and vegetables. Every 
fence corner for miles had its cherry tree. The command, 
"Halt, stack arms, cherry trees, charge!" would be given, and 
it was interesting to see hundreds of soldiers climbing the trees 
at the same time. 

My brigade was the first to enter the streets of Gettysburg. 
That night the watchword was: "North Carolina to the 
Rescue." Here every man got a crock of apple butter, but I 



did not find any when I was at the reunion there in 1913. If I 
am not mistaken, it was on this march that our raiment was 
very limited — only one suit of underwear to a man. We came 
to a creek and the officers told us it was wash day, so we 
washed our rags — no soap — and hung them on the underbrush 
to dry out. Now the washing only made the lice bite worse; 
it takes hot water, fire, and brimstone to exterminate them. 
We made fires and held our shirts over the embers and, when 
inflated with steam and smoke, the lice would fall into the 
fire; and we could hear them thump equal to a corn popper, but 
not so loud. This is no lie; many old soldiers now living could 
tell you the same. 

I was wounded on May 12, 1864, at Spotsylvania Courthouse, 
Va., and was in Winder Hospital, Richmond, when the city 
was surrendered. I was sergeant of the Winder Guards. 
General Ewell was commander of the post at Richmond and 
issued orders for the soldiers in the hospitals not able for field 
duty to organize to defend the city against the Yankee cavalry. 
Winder and Jackson Hospitals each organized a white and a 
negro company, making a battalion. The negroes were helpers 
in the hospital — and Dr. Chambliss, of Winder, was com- 
mander of the battalion. The Winder Guards elected me 
captain of the white company. The negro helpers of the two 
hospitals made two companies. We had dress parade several 
times on the Capitol grounds, and the city papers praised our 
manual of arms and drill. These were the only negroes to take 
arms in defense of the South, so far as I know, and, if living, 
I believe they should be pensioned. 

The day that President Davis and his cabinet left Richmond 
our battalion was on the line at Seven Pines, and we were 
ordered back to the city that afternoon. General Ewell 
told us the President and cabinet had gone, and ordered us to 
take all papers and documents out of the Capitol and burn and 
destroy all government, supplies and liquor. "The Yankees," 
he said, "will occupy the city to-morrow morning." We 
obeyed the order. The Yankees had planted their flag on the 
Capitol before I left next morning. I made my escape by 
going up the James River Canal and crossed the river at 
Manicans Ferry, seventeen miles above Richmond. I found 
an old raft, two logs nailed together, on which I crossed. I 
was near Appomattox Courthouse when General Lee surren- 
dered. 

The morning I left Richmond the magazines and arsenal 
were blown up — thousands of shells exploding in the air. The 
Spottswood Hotel and the fine mills on Cary Street were 
burned. I know there are old citizens living in Richmond 
to-day who remember all this. 

If there are any now living who remember anything I have 
written, I would like to hear from them. I was in General 
Hospital No. 24 before being transferred to Winder. 

The General Hospital and Libby Prison were in the same 
block. I was there when the prisoners escaped and saw the 
tunnel the morning following the escape. There were sixty, I 
believe, who got out, but the most of them were recaptured. 
The surgeons and matrons of Winder Hospital ate rats and said 
they were as good as squirrels, but, having seen the rats in 
the morgue running over the bodies of the dead soldiers, I 
had no relish for them. 



"Ah! the world has its praise for the men who prevail, 
For the victors who triumph by wrong and by might; 

But the heart has its love for the vanquished who fail, 
Yet battled for right. 

And their names they will shine, when the conquerors pale, 
Like stars in the night." 



142 



Qo^federat^ l/eterap. 



SOCIAL CONDITIONS IN THE SOUTH DURING THE 
WAR BETWEEN THE STATES. 

BY JOSEPH F. WHITE, NEW YORK CITY. 

(Essay which won the $100 prize offered by the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy to a student of Columbia 
College, New York, in 1921.] 

On the sixth day of May, 1861, the tocsin of war was sound- 
ed in every Southern community, for on that day the Con- 
gress of the Confederate States of America recognized a state 
of war as being in existence. While the stalwart soldiers of 
the South marched forth from their homes for the battle fields, 
measuring their steady tramp by the beat of the drum and the 
clash of the cymbals, in every Southern heart there was en- 
kindled an emotion of high enthusiasm and patriotism. The 
martial music, the newly unfurled banner of the Southland, 
fitfully moving to and fro in the balmy breezes of springtime, 
the solid ranks of youth in gray, filled every one with hope and 
confidence. But alas! within four years the high enthu- 
siasm of 1861 was changed to utter despair, the hopes cher- 
ished by every patriot of the Confederacy were dashed to the 
ground without mercy. What wrought these changes is not 
difficult to discover. The Southern army was of unexcelled 
valor, the Southern citizenry of undaunted courage, but the 
nation was unprepared for war and could not hold intact its 
social fabric. A study of the social conditions prevailing 
throughout the Confederacy reveals to us its outstanding 
weakness and one of the causes of its ultimate defeat. 

The South, according to the census of 1860, had a popu- 
lation of 9,000,000, of whom 3,500,000 were slaves; while the 
North had 22,000,000. Agriculture being the predominant 
industry of the South, manufactured articles and many of the 
necessities of life had to be imported, either from the North 
or from Europe. The problems before the government of the 
Confederacy were (1) to put an army in the field for defense 
and (2) to provide for the sustenance of life throughout its 
domain. The formation of the army was easily accomplished. 
Volunteers were called at first, and later conscription of all 
males between the ages of eighteen and forty-five was put 
into effect. The enrollment of men for the army depleted 
the population to a serious extent, leaving in some localities 
only women, children, old men, and slaves, together with such 
exempted persons as public officials, clergymen, editors, and 
workmen in essential industries. The securing of supplies 
and the maintenance of the ordinary activities of life per- 
plexed the Confederate officials to a greater extent. 

Lack of Supplies. 

The Confederacy, hemmed in on every side, had little 
means to produce the necessary supplies to support the army, 
maintain standards of living, and to sustain the morale of the 
people. A strenuous effort to thwart the Northern blockade 
was continually made from such ports as Wilmington, Charles- 
ton, and Mobile, where one could espy many steamers, 
painted the color of water, riding quietly in the harbor and 
waiting patiently for a cloudy night on which to depart for 
some foreign port. Encouraged by the profits and the attitude 
of the government, many enterprising merchants undertook 
this venturesome business of blockade running, and, as a 
result, munitions, machinery for industries, such as munition 
making and textile manufacturing, medicine, and dry goods 
were imported and some of the huge stock of cotton in 
Southern warehouses was exported. 

The supplies obtained through the blockade were supple- 
mented by those made in factories established with govern- 
ment aid after the outbreak of the war. Munition plants 
were built at Augusta, Atlanta, Salisbury, N. C, Columbus, 



Ga., Macon, Richmond, and various other cities. A Niter and 
Mining Bureau was organized for the purpose of promoting 
the production of iron, copper, lead, and coal. In all this 
work the South encountered a serious obstacle in the lack of 
competent mechanics, for most of the inhabitants had always 
been engaged in farming. Cotton, shoe, and clothing facto- 
ries began operation as a result of government encouragement 
and some of the factories operated day and night. Great as 
was the effort to secure supplies, the measures taken by the 
government were entirely inadequate, with consequent 
hardship to many of the people. 

To stimulate the production of food, President Davis, 
in a proclamation dated April 10, 1863, urged planters not to 
sow cotton in anticipation of an early peace, but to hasten 
victory by devoting their fields "exclusively to the production 
of corn, oats, beans, peas, potatoes, and other food for man 
and beast." In some districts the cultivation of cereals had 
never been undertaken before the war. The government's 
policy of impressing food supplies for the army at less than 
market prices was a deterrent to increasing the food supplv, 
for the injustice of the policy discouraged production. Sev- 
eral States, in order to conserve their grain, forbade the dis- 
tillation of grain into whisky. 

Great salt works were established at Saltville, Va., and at 
various other places. Five thousand dollars was offered at 
one time to any person who would discover a salt spring or 
well, ten miles inland, yielding three hundred bushels daily. 
Salt was so scarce early in the war that the salty soil under 
old smokehouses was dug up and placed in hoppers. 

The railroad system of the South interferred with the 
proper distribution of supplies and with communication. The 
system, comprising fifteen thousand miles of lines, rapidly 
deteriorated under the stress of war. The govermnent en- 
couraged the production of iron, for formerly all railroad 
equipment came from the North, and in 1863 there were 
eighteen furnaces in operation in Virginia and many elsewhere. 
As the supply furnished by the furnaces was not sufficient, 
iron was removed from the less important railroads and street 
car lines and was used in repairing and extending the more 
widely used roads. Colonel Wadley, in charge of railroads, 
reported to James A. Seddon, Secretary of War, that the 
roads had deteriorated twenty-five per cent, and that thirty- 
one engines, nine hundred and thirty cars, and other equip- 
ment were needed. This report was made in the spring of 
1S63. The railroads were inadequate; the wagon roads were 
worse. The state of the transportation facilities interferred 
with the distribution of supplies. Delays were frequent. 
The agent of Alabama at Saltville wrote to his governor that 
he could not obtain cars in which to send salt to Alabama. 
Governor Vance complained that his salt trains were inter- 
fered with. Supplies badly needed in Richmond could not be 
transported from Georgia on account of the condition of the 
railroads. It seemed that while at times certain food supplies 
abounded in Georgia, in Virginia there was want. 

The efforts of the government to sustain the army and the 
civil population were unsuccessful. The supplies that leaked 
through the blockade were few, and the articles manufactured 
in the new factories were insufficient. The food supply, as 
the war advanced, became a matter of grave concern. Gen- 
eral Lee complained to President Davis of the dearth and 
poor quality of the supplies. The army was poorly fed. 
The rations had to be reduced. Lee, in speaking of his army, 
said: "Thousands are barefooted, the greater part partially 
shod, and nearly all are without overcoats, blankets, or warm 
clothing." 



Qogfederat? Ueterar). 



143 



: The civil population was hard pressed. "We see men and 

'omen in the streets in dingy and dilapidated clothes," 

;ads Jones's Diary. "We had long before been reduced to the 

oarse stuffs made in the Confederacy," writes LeConte, "and 

ie ladies wore nothing but homespuns." According to Mrs. 

TcGuire, women occupied themselves during the week mak- 

ig old clothing look like new. Many expedients were resorted 

> in order to obtain needed articles. Ingenuity was not 

i. eking. The old loom house, common to many Virginia 

dantations, was again opened, and the weaver was installed 

pon her high bench. 

■ Shoes and leather were very scarce. Planters had to tan 
•ather for their own use in making shoes and harness. Hides 
■ere taken even from pigs. Shoes for women and children 

■•ere often made of cloth. "Attics were explored," we learn 

om Miss Hague, "and contents of old trunks overhauled in 
'?arch of cassimere, merino, or broadcloth to make Sunday 

does." Writing ink was made of soot mixed with vinegar. 

lankets were made of carpets, and the floors were left bare. 

iuttons, pottery, baskets, and hats were other products of 

ie new home industry. 
- Food became scarcer as the war progressed. The Richmond 

'.xaminer, February 5, 1864, stated that "the quantity of 

■ leats in the markets, for several days past, has not been 
'jfiicient to supply one-tenth of the demand." Jones, the 

iarist, confessed that his family dined four or five times a 

-eek on liver and rice. Grain, salt, and bacon were difficult 
5o obtain. The Daily Avalanche, of Memphis, as early as 

862, said that "sugar and molasses are already out of the 
uach of the poor man." Tea and coffee were luxuries. 
1 ieutenant Colonel Kremantle, in his account of his travels, 

rated that he called on Mrs. Jefferson Davis and "had tea 
.here, and uncommonly good tea, too, the first I had tasted 
■1 the Confederacy." LeConte, describing his return to 
"olumbia, S. C, in 1865, mentioned that he stopped at the 
fome of a friend and had "coffee, real, genuine coffee, the 
irst I had tasted for two years." 
" Coffee substitute was made of peanuts or potatoes; black 

3a was made of blackberry leaves; and green tea of holly 
Staves. Coffee was also made of parched sweet potatoes, 

arched corn, and in other ways. For sugar, sorghum syrup 

'as used. The ingenuity of the people was developed to a 
Teat extent. Means to supply deficiencies in various foods 
"ere devised. 
' Fuel was also lacking. Jones stated that on a very cold 

ight his "wood house was broken into . . . and two 
of the nine) sticks of wood taken." Officials were at times 
"ithout fuel. The gas works of Richmond were unable to 
'jpply the demands made upon it, and at various times the 

:reets of the city were not lighted at night. 
' The scarcity of supplies upset society, with the result that 
'iere was much want and suffering throughout the land. The 

ick of supplies, coupled with the high prices prevailing, 

lade the lot of the Southerner a hard one. Social conditions 
■•ere affected adversely. The standard of living was lowered. 

, High Prices. 

The financial system of the government was another cause 

'f disturbance in society. To finance the war, loans were 

oated, gifts from various States and individuals were ac- 

epted, and taxes were imposed by the central government as 

"ell as by the several States. Farmers were required to pay 

tax in kind to the amount of one-tenth of their crops not 

eeded for their own use. The main reliance for war funds, 

owever, was placed upon the issuance of treasury notes. 



There was no specie basis for the issues ol notes, which made 
them depreciate rapidly, causing an upward trend in prices of 
commodities. Notes of States, cities, banks, and even 
private firms, also circulated. The following figures point 
out the depreciation of Confederate currency: 

One dollar in gold would obtain SI. 10 to SI. 15 in Confed- 
erate currency in October, 1861; SI. 75 to $2 in Confederate 
currency in October, 1862; $13 to $ 14 in Confederate currency 
in October, 1863; $26 in Confederate currency in October, 
1864; $60 in Confederate currency in March, 1865. 

The chaotic state of the currency, together with the exist- 
ing lack of many supplies, sent prices up very high, with 
resulting misery. Corn meal advanced from 75 cents per 
bushel in 1861 to $45 per bushel in 1864; flour from $5 to 
$225 per barrel; Irish potatoes from $1 to $18 per bushel. 
In 1864, pork was sold for $5 per pound, fresh beef and veal 
for $3 to $4 per pound, cheese for $4 to $6 per pound, tea for 
S20 to $35 per pound, molasses for $42 to $45 per pound, and 
milk for $4 per quart. Flour is said to have advanced to 
$1,250 per barrel before the end of the war. A comparison of 
the prices prevailing in 1861 with those asked in 1864 is given 
below as taken from the market report of the Richmond Dis- 
patch of April 26, 1861, and that of the Richmond Examiner of 
March 31, 1864: Bacon, 11 cents per pound to $6.50 and $7 
per pound; beeswax, 27 cents per pound to $5 and $5.50 per 
pound; butter, 20 cents and 25 cents per pound to $10 per 
pound; tallow candles, 13 % and 14 cents per pound to $6 per 
pound; coffee, \\]/i and 20 cents per pound to $12 per pound; 
corn, 80 cents per bushel to $40 per bushel; dried apples, 
40 and 50 cents per bushel to $2 per bushel; hay, $1.20 and 
$1.25 per hundred pounds to $25 per hundred pounds; lard, 
12 cents per pound to $80 per pound; oats, 45 cents per 
bushel to $20 and $25 per bushel; onions, $2 per barrel 
(3 bushels) to $30 and $40 per barrel; rice, 5 cents and 5*4 
cents per pound to $1 per pound; sugar, 7 and 11 cents per 
pound to $8.50 and $11 per pound. 

To combat high prices, many States and cities and individ- 
ual societies undertook to buy goods cooperatively. By tak- 
ing hold of the salt question, the price of salt dropped from 
$7 in 1861 to 40 cents per pound in 1864. 

Clothing was almost unobtainable. In reference to the 
prices charged for clothing, the Richmond Whig of October 29, 
1863, said that the "tailors . . . and clothiers. . . of 
all the extortioners, harpies, and bloodsuckers are the most 
heartless and unscrupulous." The following prices are of 
interest: Boots, $50 per pair; shoes, $18 per pair; cotton 
thread, 50 cents a spool; soap, $1 a pound; box of blacking, 
$4; one pair of shoe strings, $1.50 

F'uel was also high. Coal and wood being scarce, the 
prices soared. In the winter of 1863 coal was $20.50 per ton 
and wood was $30 to $35 per cord. Under date of January 
27, 1865, Jones stated in his diary that "wood is selling at 
$5 a stick this cold morning; mercury at zero." A facsimile 
of a gas bill, printed in Jefferson Davis's "Memoirs," shows 
that gas was sold at $6 per 1,000 cubic feet. 

The currency was so uncertain that barter was often 
resorted to. An advertisement in the Savannah Republican, 
July 9, 1864, reads: "I will barter salt from my own manu- 
factory for produce on the following terms: Salt, 50 pounds 
per bushel: 4 bushels of salt for 5 bushels of corn and peas; 
1 bushel of salt for 5 pounds of lard or bacon; 2 bushels 
of salt for 7 pounds of sugar; 10 bushels of salt for a barrel of 
'super' flour; 2 bushels of salt for 1 pair of shoes." 

The Richmond Iron and Steel Works offered to give 
horseshoes, nails, etc., in exchange for farm products. The 



// 



144 



Qoijfederat^ Ueterai). 



New London Academy, Bedford County, Va., a boarding 
school for boys, stated that board and tuition for twenty 
weeks, $65, was payable in advance in wheat, corn, flour, 
meat, butter, wool, cotton, etc., at prices of 1860. The 
Hampden-Sydney College of Virginia also stipulated that 
tuition be paid in food products. 

Stephens wrote from Richmond on December 5, 1864, that 
he was paying $30 per day for room rent and board. House 
rents were also high, and in some cases they were doubled 
within a period of one year. The Richmond Examiner, in its 
issue of January 23, 1864, asked how was it possible for a 
soldier earning $11 per month to pay $1,800 to a greedy 
landlord who raised his rent while he was serving in the army. 

Wages advanced during the war, but not in proportion 
to the increase in prices, The advances made were not 
adequate to meet the increased cost of living. This was 
especially so in the case of salaried workers. Shoemakers 
in 1862 received $5 per day; soldiers received $11 per month, 
but later on their pay was raised to $18 per month; in the 
days of high prices for foodstuffs, mechanics received $16 
per day. On January 30, 1864, it was provided that govern- 
ment clerks on a salary of less than $2,000 per year receive a 
one hundred per cent increase in wages on condition that no 
one in this category be paid more than $3,000 per year under 
the new schedule of pay. Those who were formerly paid 
between $2,000 and $3,000 per year received an advance of 
fifty per cent in wages under the new schedule. A clerk 
getting $125 would, as a result of the new schedule, be in- 
creased to $250 per month. But flour was at $300 per barrel! 
State governments also raised salaries, but not sufficiently. 

The absence of many soldiers at the front, the economic 
situation, the pressing need of supplies and necessities of 
life, the disordered currency, the high prices demanded for 
food, clothing, and shelter, and the inadequate wages paid to 
workers were factors in the disturbance of social conditions 
throughout the Confederacy. Under the circumstances that 
existed, standards of living could not possibly be maintained. 
The normal activities of life were interrupted. Suffering 
and want, and even destitution, stalked about unconcealed in 
many communities. 

The Zone of War. 

The zone wherein actual hostilities took place presented a 
desolate picture. Charred remains of homes, ravaged fields, 
and poverty-stricken families cast a lugubrious shadow over 
the land. Extensive tracts of land devastated and large 
cities leveled to the ground, in ashes, uprooted the established 
ways of life. Travel-stained and wayworn refugees, herded 
together in a common woe, hurrying before approaching 
armies, plodded their way along the roads in search of security. 
Everywhere it w-as desolate, gloomy, and forlorn. 

Few sections of the Confederacy escaped the wTath of 
war. Fire and sword swept the interior of Mississippi, wreck- 
ing towns and destroying crops and materials needed by the 
Confederacy. The long siege at Yicksburg, lasting forty- 
seven days, caused many disquieting experiences, hardships, 
and trials among the civilian population which remained there, 
having no place else to go. For shelter, caves were dug in the 
high clay hills and were propped up with timbers. Many 
people lived underground in darkness, while the shells were 
whistling in the air above. In their dark caves, by the dim 
and flickering light of lamps, the noncombatant women 
mended, patched, and darned for the soldiers and nursed the 
sick and wounded. The besieged ate horse meat and mule 
steaks, which, according to a Yicksburg editor, were sweet, 



savory, and tender. Bread was made of spoiled flour, and 
parched corn was boiled for coffee. 

Foraging parties and scouts of the Union army were alwasv! 
feared, for they would seize fowls, stock, and crops. Ir 
some instances, looting would occur. Miss Gay described hei 
experiences upon the approach of Sherman's army thus: 

"Garrard's cavalry selected our lot . . . for head- 
quarters, and soon ... an immense train of wagons 
commenced rolling onto it. In less than two hours our barr j 
was demolished and converted into tents . . . for private: j 
and noncommissioned officers; and to the balusters of ouil 
portico and other portions of the house were tied a numbe: | 
of large ropes, which, the other ends being secured to trees 1 
answered as a railing to which ... a number of smalie 
ropes were tied, and to these were attached horses and mules a 
which were eating corn out of troughs improvised for th>l 
occasion out of bureau, washstand, and wardrobe drawers. ' j 

Upon the capture of Atlanta, Sherman, for military reasor.; 1 
ordered the inhabitants to leave. The mayor, in a ver;' 
courteous and respectful petition of protest, set forth forcibl- 
the status of the refugees. He related that many women wer 
in-valids, numbers were burdened with little children, man' 
persons were sick in bed, too ill to move, while others wer 
old and infirm. Very politely he asked, "Where are thes 
people to go?" The country south of Atlanta to which th 
inhabitants were to go, according to the mayor, was alread 
crowed with refugees, and people were living in barns an 
churches. He further inquired, "And how can they liv 
through the winter in the woods, no shelter or subsistence 
in the midst of strangers?" Sherman was adamant, foi 
while he realized the deplorable conditions, he felt that hi 
military position required the execution of his original order: 

After having stayed in Atlanta for a time, Sherman pre 
ceeded to Savannah. Before doing so, his engineers set th 
great railroad depot on fire, which later spread and destroye 
the heart of the city. Sherman, describing his departure froi 
Atlanta, said: "Behind us lay Atlanta, smoldering and 
ruins, the black smoke rising high in air and hanging like 
pall over the ruined city." The story of his march to tb 
sea is well known. In his account to General Grant, 
said: "We have consumed the corn and fodder in the region < 
country thirty miles on either side of a line from Atlanta 
Savannah, as also the sweet potatoes, cattle, hogs, sheep, an 
poultry, and have carried away more than ten thousan 
horses and mules, as well as a countless number of the 
slaves." The inhabitants of this area, facing starvation, h: 
to make every effort to subsist. Grains of corn were eve 
picked out from cracks and crevices in bureau drawers a 
other improvised troughs used for Federal horses. What w 
left on the ground at the army camps was gathered up. She 
man's march northward from Savannah produced "conste 
nation and panic flight of women and children in front" ar 
left "a blackened ruin behind." Columbia, S. C, was giv 
to the flames. 

Havoc was wrought in Virginia by the warring fore 
The Conscription Act was not enforced in certain cases, 
that the men might be able to prepare their war-ruin 
families for the winter. Richmond was full of refugee 
Fremantle observed that all fences were destroyed and nui 
berless farms burned, the chimneys alone left standing. Tl 
Valley of the Shenandoah was a mass of ruins. Sherid; 
credited himself with having destroyed two thousand bar 
filled with wheat, hay, and farming implements, seven 
mills filled with flour and wheat, and with having driver. . 



Qo^federat^ l/eherai). 



145 



mt of his army over four herd of stock. He killed and issued 
the army not less than three thousand sheep. 
Such desolation as occurred throughout the South in 
nnection with foraging and military operations caused un- 
Id misery. Without homes, the people sought whatever 
elter was obtainable, Their food was scanty and the di- 
rsions of life unknown. Stephens, returning from a North- 

"n prison in October, 1S65, to Atlanta, said that the war 

'eft a terrible impression on the whole country to Atlanta. 

'ie desolation is heart-sickening. Fences gone, fields all 

iwaste, houses burned." 

(Concluded in May number.) 



ARIZONA IN THE CONFEDERACY. 

BY MRS. M. M. LONGAN, TEMPE, ARIZ. 

.To many Southerners it is a matter of considerable surprise 

find that after traveling as far west as Arizona they are still 

i Confederate soil. Arizona, then a part of the vast territory 

New Mexico, was made a Confederate territory by a special 

abling act of the Congress in Richmond, which act took 

Ject upon proclamation of President Davis, February 14, 

162. Just half a century later, February 14, 1912, Arizona 

is admitted to statehood in the American Union, thus ac- 

liring the title of "Valentine State." 

In the sixties settlers were few and widely scattered in 
rizona, and all the men the Territory could muster at that 
'me would have made but a small showing. Southern senti- 
ent was strong among the citizens, but treacherous and 
iceedingly hostile Indians roamed the country, venturing 
•■en to the outskirts of Tucson itself, then the only important 
ihite settlement in Arizona; so it behooved all Arizonians, 
)wevcr diverse their sentiment, to hold together for mutual 
'otection. In order to accomplish their conquest of Arizona, 
;ie Confederates would have been obliged to capture and hold 
ie various forts. A successful campaign against the Union 
■rces in New Mexico was waged under the command of Lieut, 
"ol. John R. Baylor, 2nd Mounted Rifles, C. S. A., and by 
December 1861, Baylor's forces numbered eight hundred 
'exans and two or three hundred Mexican volunteers. 
In 1861 a convention was held in Tucson which formally 
eclared the territory of Arizona a part of the Confederacy, 
id in August of that year, Granville H. Oury was elected 
'elegate to the Confederate Congress. For some reason not 
'ow on record, however, he was replaced on March 11, 1S62, 
y Marcus H. McWillie, who held the position until the close 
rf the war. By one historian it is stated that Mr. Oury re- 
gned, at least he at once attached himself to the military arm 
f the Confederacy. He made his way back to Mesilla, Con- 
aerate headquarters in the Territory, in May, and organized 
id equipped a battalion of Arizona and California men, 
hich was known as the 1st Arizona and attached to General 
"ibley's command. The 2nd Arizona is said to have escorted 
.en. Joseph E. Johnston to Louisiana, and, after the sur- 
:nder of General Lee, Colonel Oury and others accompanied 
General Shelby and Judge Terry into Mexico, in June, 1865. 

Colonel Baylor issued a proclamation on August 1, defining 

!ie boundaries of Arizona and declaring all offices under the 

; iws of the "late United States, or the Territory, vacant, with 

■ he exception of some not inconsistent with those of the Con- 

^derate States." He then organized a military government 

ith himself as governor. 

1 In 1862, Captain Hunter, with two or three hundred Texans, 

larched westward and, with the- loss of only one man, (Ben- 

imin Mayo, who died of natural causes), reached Tucson and 

dsed the Confederate flag, February 28. He was enthusias- 



tically received by practically the entire population, many 
of whom were preparing to return to the South, due to the 
approach of the "California Column," one thousand eight 
hundred strong, of Union troops. 

Captain Hunter restored order in Tucson, which, in the un- 
settled state of the entire country, was sadly needed, and the 
property rights of both Northern and Southern sympathizers 
were as fully protected as could have been done by General Lee 
himself. When we consider that Arizona was then a part of our 
most western frontier, and any acts could have been committed 
therein with little fear of detection or punishment, we may well 
feel proud of the conduct of our Confederate force which 
marched farthest west. 

Hunter's next objective was Fort Yuma, but the invasion 
of Arizona by the "California Column," under Lieutenant 
Colonel West, prevented its capture, though the Confederates 
reached a point only fifty miles from the Colorado River. In 
February, 1862, one Jones, of the California troops, was sent 
out with dispatches. He fell into the hands of the Con- 
federates, who released him that he might carry the news of the 
capture of Tucson. „Captain McCleave was ordered to search 
for Jones, but was also captured, with three others, at a point 
known as the Pima Villages, where the Confederates con- 
fiscated some United States government wheat, which an agent 
had purchased from the Indians, and which the Confederates 
returned to its former owners. Captain Calloway then marched 
up the Gila River, with a heavy force, to McCIeave's rescue. 
He heard of a Confederate detachment under Lieut. Jack 
Swilling and sent a skirmishing party to capture them. The 
Confederates were encountered in a thicket of chaparral, where 
the Union lieutenant and two of his men were killed. One or 
two Confederates lost their lives and three were taken prisoners. 
This, the only fight between Confederate and Union troops on 
Arizona soil, occurred April 5, 1862, at Picacho Pass, through 
which the Southern Pacific Railroad now runs. It is an inter- 
esting fact that Lieutenant Swilling became one of Arizona's 
pioneers, leading the first white settlers into the Salt River 
Valley, where he superintended the building of the first canal, 
the foundation of that great irrigation system which has made 
Maricopa County rank twelfth in agricultural wealth among 
all the counties of the United States. 

The advance of the "California Column" in force necessi- 
tated the evacuation of Tucson by Captain Hunter, as his 
little band of two or three hundred could not hope to success- 
fully oppose the one thousand eight hundred Union troops. 

As the war drew to its close, Colonel Baylor became more or 
less prominent by insistently demanding that troops be re- 
cruited in New Mexico and Arizona, and even in Southern 
California, where Southerners were in the majority, to assist 
the fast failing Confederacy. Little heed was paid him, how- 
ever. No doubt President Davis and his advisers thoroughly 
realized that the government must fall and that all attempts 
then to save it were futile. 

Note. — The facts stated in this article were taken from 
Farish's "History of Arizona," a book compiled by him while 
Arizona's State Historian, and from J. H. McClintock's 
"Arizona, Our Youngest State." Colonel McClintock is now 
our State Historian, having succeeded Mr. Farish, who died 
two years ago. The two historians do not entirely agree; they 
evidently derive their information from different sources. 
This article contains only a few incidents connected with the 
Confederate invasion of Arizona, as given in these histories. 
Colonel McClintock is still searching for Arizona Confederate 
history, however, which some of our Confederate veterans 
m ay be able to supply. 



// 



146 



^opfederat^ l/eterai). 



il*l»l*IWI*l*l*».».l*l»tWlWI«l*l»l»t*IWI*l» 







>AV*S*)AlAI»r«)A|»IAIAWi«rA!*WIAIA:iWI« 



Sketches in this department are given a half column of 
space without charge; extra space will be charged for at 20 
cents per line. Engravings. S3.00 each. 



Heaven! shed thy most propitious dews around! 

Ye holy stars! look down with tender eyes. 
And gild and guard and consecrate the ground 

Where we may rest, and whence we pray to rise. 



John E. Harding. 



In the death of John Emory Harding, of Northumberland 
County, Va., another of our veterans of that incomparable body 
of men, the glorious cavalry of Northern Virginia, has gone to 
join the great majority "over there." 

John E. Harding was the son of James Harding, Sr., and was 
reared at their beautiful home, La Grange, in Northumberland 
County. He joined the Confederate army in 1861 and followed 
Lee and Jackson through the entire war, surrendering at 
Appomattox. Returning home, he married Miss Laura 
Hughlett, an elegant Southern woman. He died at his home 
on January 21, 1922, after a long illness, and is survived by his 
devoted wife, four sons, and four daughters. 

John Emory Harding and his brother James O. Harding 
belonged to the 9th Virginia Cavalry, Company D. No 
truer, better, or braver soldiers ever took up arms in defense of 
their beloved Southland; no sacrifice was too great for them to 
make. 

[Committee: Mrs. Bettie Harding, Mrs. Edgar Blackwell, 
Mrs. R. B. Brown, Wiconico Church, Va.] 

Deaths in Confederate Veterans' Association of Savan- 
nah, Ga. 

John David Leigh, a member of our camp, departed this 
life on February 1, 1922, after some months of failing health. 
He is survived by two sons. Our comrade entered the service 
of his country when a lad of sixteen, enlisting on March 4, 1863, 
as a member of the Savannah City Light Guards (Company D), 
Regiment Georgia Infantry. He was assigned to duty at Hill 
Hospital, Cuthbert, Ga., by the Medical Board, as a clerk, in 
December, 1864, after having been wounded on July 3, of the 
same year. He was paroled at Macon, Ga., in May, 1865. 

William G. Vaughn, who died on February 17, 1922, entered 
the Confederate service in January, 1862, as a private in the 
Republican Blues (Company C), 1st Volunteer Regiment of 
Georgia Infantry. At Fort Jackson, near Savannah, Ga., 
during September of the same year, by order of the Secretary of 
War, he was detailed to serve in the ordnance department at 
Macon, Ga., under Colonel Cooper, as a machinist. In April, 
1865, he was surrendered with the other men of that depart- 
ment when Gen. Howell Cobb turned the city over to General 
Wilson, representing the United States army. Returning to 
Savannah, comrade Vaughn went to work at the Central 
Railroad Shops in the machine department, remaining there 
many years, as faithful an employee of the company as he had 
been a good soldier. Four daughters survive him. 

[Reported by D. B. Morgan, Secretary.] 



Junius L. McGimpsey. 

J. L. McGimpsey, who died November 14, 1921, at his home 
in Morristown, Tenn., was born June 17, 1849, in Burke 
County, N. C. He enlisted when he was only a lad (barely- 
past fourteen years old), in the Home Guard Reserves of North 
Carolina, serving faithfully in his soldierly duties until the 
surrender at Morganton, N. C. 

An ardent young soldier in defense of the homeland, when 
civil life was resumed he returned with his father, who, with 
an older soldier son, was also in the Confederate army, to their 
farm, remaining there until he went into the mercantile business, 
some time in the 70 's. Then later he engaged in railroa<l 
construction work. 

A gentleman in every way, he was well known and esteemed 
as a business man for uprightness and integrity. While en- 
gaged in this railroad work he was stricken by paralysis, from 
which he suffered for number of years until death. 

In 1880 he and Miss Maldonia Russell, daughter of Mr. 
John Russell, were married; and to this union were born four 
sons, two of whom, with the devoted wife, survive him. 

Of kindly soul, cheerful, tender-hearted, witty, charitable 
minded, and just in his estimates of those about him, he has 
left a gap which cannot be filled. " He did justice, loved mercy, 
and walked humbly with his God." 

He was a member of the Southern Methodist Church; of the 
men's Bible class of the Sunday school, which he attended con- 
stantly until the progress of his disease prevented; a member of 
the local Masonic Lodge and of W. B. Tate Camp, U. C. V., 
which attended his funeral in a body. He was laid to rest in 
Liberty Hill Cemetery by his comrades, to await the resur- 
rection. A consistent Christian, truly, and 

"Like the watch-worn, weary sentinel, 
He laid his armor by to rest in heaven." 

[Mrs. J. S. Felknor.] 

Nathan E. Morris. 

Nathan Ewing Morris, born August 17, 1839, died January 

25, 1922. He enlisted on May 
28, 1861, in Company H, 20tf 
Tennessee Infantry, and wa! 
in every engagement of th( 
regiment from Fishing Creek 
in January, 1862, to Nash 
ville, in December, 1864 
At Chickamauga he wa 
made a litter bearer for thi 
regiment, and from thei 
to the last no firing was toi 
heavy or the enemy toi 
near to keep him from res 
cuing the wounded. Ther 
was not in the army a coolei 
braver, or more loyal soldier 
At Nashville he was presen 
when Col. W. H. Shy wa 
killed and the cowardly as 
sault made on Gen. Thonia 
Benton Smith, and ever; 
member of his company wa 
He made his escape durin 




NATHAN E. MORRIS 



or captured. 



killed, wounded 
the confusion. 

After the war comrade Morris married Miss Milly Ann Ivy 
.who, with one daughter and four sons, survives him. He wa 
a life-long member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Churcr 
a true Christian, a perfect gentleman, and a model citizen. 



Qopfederat^ l/eteraij. 



147 





By 








[Wl 








B. /J 






tB* * 


jy-'/jSMHH 




J 


ft ■ 






fr ■ Wf 


I ,'._*' 


'.. 






ak. 


jHv Jy 


r 





Col. S. E. Shannon. 

Col. S. E. Shannon, born March 12, 1838, died September 7, 

921, at his home in Williamson County, Tenn. 
In his early manhood he 
_;as a beloved and success- 

ul teacher. When the 

ocsin of war sounded, 

ailing for the best and 
. ravest, S. E. Shannon 

nswered the call and en- 
: sted in Company B, 24th 
Tennessee Infantry. When 

'. H. Peebles, captain of 

he company, was elected 
jOlonel of the regiment, S. 
i. Shannon was made cap- 

ain. At the battle of 
,hiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862, 
. e handled his company 

4th such dauntlesscourage 

nd distinguished skill as to 
j^ceive the praise of his 

uperior officers and the col. s. e. shannon. 

>ve and devotion of his 
. len. At the reorganization at Corinth, he was made major of 

he regiment, and was with it at the battle of Perryville, Ky. 
,it the battle of Stones River, January 3, 1863, Colonel Bretton 

'as killed and Shannon was made lieutenant colonel. 

He was in the battle of Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and 
j11 the engagements from Dalton to Atlanta. On July 22, on 

le right of Atlanta, Colonel Wilson was severely wounded and 

Colonel Shannon took command of the regiment. At Jones- 

oro, in making a charge, the color bearer was shot down. 

'olonel Shannon seized the flag and led the regiment through 

he fight. When Hood came into Tennessee, Colonel Shannon 

:d his regiment in that fearful charge at Franklin and was 

hot down within ten feet of the enemy's works. He was 
• upposed to be mortally wounded, but survived to the good 

Id age of eighty-three. As a cool, gallant, and fearless soldier, 

e may have had equals, but no superior. 

After the war he married Miss Elizabeth II. Roberts, a 
.aughter of one of the most prominent and respected farmers 

f Williamson County. He would never allow his name to be 

.ffered for any political office, but did accept the office of 
magistrate for his district, which he held for many years, and 

as always one of the honored leaders of the county court. 
i As a citizen, he was honored and respected, not only by his 
, tends and neighbors, but by everybody who knew him. As a 

lan, he was generous and charitable, never allowing white or 

lack to suffer when their needs were called to his attention. 
We deplore his loss, for his place can never be filled. 



f 



Dr. Joseph B. Pleasants. 



On November 12, 1921, the Confederate Home of Missouri 

•st one of its most worthy and distinguished inmates. 
Dr. Joseph Benson Pleasants, born at Bowling Green, Ky., 
, ctober 16, 1S30, was a son of Daniel B. Pleasants, of Virginia, 
. ho married Miss Harriett Hopkins, of Baltimore, Md. He 

as educated at Bowling Green, Ky., and began teaching at the 
. je of sixteen years. At the age of nineteen he was practicing 

:ntistry in St. Louis, Mo., but when the gold faver swept the 
• >untry, he went to California, and from the gold fields he 

irried a competence to Old Mexico, and practiced his pro- 
. ssion as a dentist in the City of Mexico with great success. 
A few years later he returned to the States and practiced his 



profession in Lebanon, Mo., and also edited the Laclede 
County Journal, a red-hot advocate of the things for which the 
Confederacy afterwards stood. 

At the very beginning of hostilities in 1861, he organized a 
company of cavalry and was chosen its captain, and later 
Gen. Sterling A. Price requested him to merge his company 
into his battalion, and our hero, for such he was, was advanced 
to the rank of major on General Price's staff. 

He was wounded and sent to Jackson, Miss., where he met 
Miss Mollie Hedger, the only person who ever captured the 
Major, although he had many narrow escapes. After the war 
Major Pleasants practiced dentistry in Missouri, and during 
the last fourteen years prior to his entry into the Confederate 
Home at Higginsville, he lived in St. Louis. His health failed 
him, and he went to the Home in January, 1913, together with 
his faithful wife, who tenderly ministered to him until the end. 
He is survived by his wife and three sons. 

Gov. William C. Renfrow. 

William Cary Renfrow was born March IS, 1845, at Smith- 
field, Johnson County, N. C. He enlisted March 7, 1862, in 
Company C, 50th North Carolina Infantry, later becoming 
first sergeant of that company, serving under Cols. Mar- 
shall D. Craton and George Wortham, respectively, Army 
of Northern Virginia, and later under Joseph E. Johnston 
in part t of the Atlanta campaign, summer of 1864, participat- 
ing in many of the big battles incident to that service 
and surrendered with his regiment at Greensboro, N. C, 
April 26, 1865. 

He came to Arkansas with his father, Perry Renfrow, in 
the fall of 1S66, settling near Grand Glaize on White River 
in Jackson Count}'. 

He was associated with the writer hereof in the years 1868-9 
in the mercantile business. Later, he went to Norman, Okla., 
engaging in the banking and real estate business, where he 
was living when President Cleveland appointed him governor 
of Oklahoma Territory, and he thereby became the first 
governor of that territory, which position he held from May 
7, 1893, until May 27, 1897. 

Since then he has been engaged in several large enter- 
prises, in the majority of which he was the president and 
general manager. In all these enterprises he was successful 
and accumulated a large competency, as would be ex- 
pected of a man of such business acumen. His investments 
were extensive in Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. 

He was an agreeable business associate_, trustworthy, 
painstaking, sober, enterprising. He was a consistent believer 
in the Presbyterian faith and an appreciated member of that 
Church. His wife died several years ago, leaving him a mar- 
ried daughter, Mrs. Nellie Robertson, now living at Houston, 
Tex. 

He died January 31, 1922, at Bentonville, Ark., while on a 
trip in the interest of investments in that vicinity, and was 
buried at Russellville, Ark., where his only brother, A. B. 
Renfrow, now lives. 

[V. Y. Cook, Batesville, Ark.| 



George A. Lamar. 

George A. Lamar, who died at the home of his brother, 
J. C. Lamar, in Adamstown, Frederick County, Md., aged 
seventy-six years, was a member of Col. E. V. White's Battal- 
ion, Company B, which was composed of all Marylanders. 
He was wounded in a cavalry charge in Lovettsville, Va. 
After the war he returned to Maryland and became one of our 
best citizens, always working for honest}' and truth. He will 



, 



148 



Qogfederat^ tfeterai). 



be greatly missed by a large circle of friends. He was always 
fond of the Confederate Veteran and looked forward to its 
coming each month. 
[C. J. Lamar.] 

Dr. Robert E. Jones. 

Dr. Robert E. Jones, born October 5, 1843, died at his home 
in Crystal Springs, Miss., on October 24, 1921. He entered 
the Confederate army when quite a boy and was a loyal 
soldier of the Southern cause, but had no bitterness in his 
heart for those who fought on the other side. He was a mem- 
ber of the famous 36th Mississippi and was actively engaged 
with this regiment at Vicksburg, Dalton, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Atlanta, Franklin, Nashville, and numerous other places , sur- 
rendering at Blakely, Ala. Only two of his company who en- 
tered the war with him are known to be living: \V. B. Cook and 
Dr. Robert Rea, both of this county (Copiah). Dr. Jones 
possessed in an unusual degree an ardent love of country, 
and during the Spanish-American War and the great World 
War he manifested his patriotism in many ways. 

Dr. Jones graduated in medicine at the Tulane University 
in 1869, and for more than fifty years practiced his profession. 
He was an earnest student and kept posted in the advances of 
the science of medicine. He had been President of the Mis- 
sissippi Medical Association and took an active interest in its 
affairs. He was a public spirited citizen and took an active 
interest in the affairs of the town, county, and State. Of 
striking personality, he was a man among men, and could 
always be counted on the moral side of every question. Great 
as were his qualities as a citizen, useful as was his life in his 
Church, it was, perhaps, among those whom he ardently 
loved and into those homes he so often went in a professional 
way that the real qualities of the man showed to the best 
advantage. 

He was an earnest Christian and bravely faced the great 
beyond because his record was clean here. A prince among 
men, his influence for good will always abide among those 
who knew and loved him. 

[J. M. Dampeer, M.D.] 

Robert Scott Walker. 

Robert Scott Walker died at his country home near Lewis- 
burg, Marshall County, Tenn., February 28, 1922, the same 
community in which he had spent his entire life except the time 
he served in the Confederate army. He was born January 10, 
1839, and enlisted June 18, 1861, in Company A, 4th Ten- 
nessee Cavalry, under Col. Baxter Smith, and was a brave and 
true soldier. Comrade Walker was a member of one of Ten- 
nessee's most sturdy and highly connected families, and he 
himself was a fair representative of the worth and personnel 
of the citizenship which always reflected honor upon the 
family. He was active in the affairs of Church and State, 
and could always be depended upon to get on the right side, 
if he knew it. He was for two terms sheriff of Marshall 
County, his incumbency being from 1882 to 18S6. He was 
also chairman of the county court for two years. 

He was a member of the Southern Presbyterian Church, 
and was buried near his home at the historic old church, 
Bethbirei, the one hundredth anniversary of this Church 
being celebrated in 1910. Mr. Walker's mother and father 
were charter members of this Church. 

The Confederate flag he loved so well was placed upon the 
casket among the many floral offerings. He leaves a wife, 
four sons, and two daughters. 



Comrades of Arizona. 

Three members of the R. E. Lee Camp, No. 1831 U. C. V., 
of Phcenix, Ariz., have died during the past year. 

W. R. Love, born in Charleston, S. C, April 10, 1839, moved 
to Mississippi at an early age. Enlisting in Company I, 15th 
Mississippi Infantry, he was wounded four times, and was 
captured at the battle of Franklin and held as prisoner to the 
end of the war. In September, 1872, he was married, and to 
this union were born six daughters and seven sons. Ten 
children survive him, three sons living in Phcenix, Ariz. He 
died at the ripe age of eighty-two years. 

J. P. Bates was a native of Kentucky, a veteran of the Con- 
federate service; aged seventy-two years. 

Judge A. C. Baker, a native of Alabama and at the time of 
his death Commander of R. E. Lee Camp of Phcenix, died at 
the age of seventy-four. 

[C. C. Chambers, Adjutant.] 

Jacob D. Goldman. 
Jacob D. Goldman, a member of Tom Hindman Camp No. 
318, Newport, Ark., passed away at his home in St. Louis, 

Mo., on January 6, 1922, 
at the age of seventy-six 
years. He belonged tol 
the 54th Georgia Regiment 
and settled in Jackson 
County, Ark., at the close 
of the war. He was presi- 
dent of the American Bank 
of Commerce and Trust 
Company, of Little Rock: 
president of the Lesser- 
Goldman Cotton Compa- 
ny, of St. Louis; presi- 
dent of the Adler-Goldmar 
Commission Company, o j 
St. Louis; and a leadin; 
stockholder in many of th< 
foremost business enter 
prises of the country. A j 
one of the leading banker 
and cotton men of th> I 
South he was well knowi 
in all parts of Arkansa 
and was keenly alive 6 
the State's welfare an> I 
devoted to its people 
Aside from his extensiv 
business interests, he was unusually public spirited an I 
sponsored many gifts and donations to worthy causes. H 
was born April 26, 1845, in Germany, and, at the age of fiftee 
years, left home determined to seek his fortune in the Ne' ' 
World. He landed in New York City and made his way t 
Georgia and, at the outbreak of the War between the State 
joined the Confederate army, where he served until peace wsl 
declared. His connection with Arkansas dated from h i) 
army service, for while his regiment was stationed at Pel 
sacola, he met two men from Arkansas, Dick Davis an I 
Jesse Grider, whose enthusiasm for Arkansas made a dee 
impression upon him, and later led him to seek a home amor 
his old army friends at Jacksonport, where he was in bus 
ness for many years. He was among the first Jacksonpo 
business men to get a vision of a future for the nearby villa; 
of Newport, to which place he moved, where his busine 
prospered and grew to be the largest in the county. Fro ; 
Newport he moved to St. Louis, where he began thecotti 




JACOB D. GOLDMAN. 






Qogfederat^ tfeterai). 



149 



>usiness, organizing the Lesser-Goldman Cotton Company 
ind the Adler-Goldman Commission Company, two of the 
nost extensive and active agencies of the kind in this country. 
Though Mr. Goldman's late home was in St. Louis, he held 
,reat interest and love for his old home town and was a large 
' ubscriber to the fund for the erection of our splendid monu- 
.nent to the memory of the Confederate soldiers of Jackson 
bounty. 

Mr. Goldman died at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Rice, 
n St. Louis, after a long illness. He is survived by his wife, 
hree daughters, one son, and a host of friends, who mourn 
is death and will miss him greatly in the days to come. 
[W. E. Bevens, Adjutant Tom Hindman Camp.] 

Col. R. P. Chew. 

On Tuesday night, March 14, 1921, peacefully passed 
way the gallant and heroic spirit of Col. Roger Preston 
"hew, the brilliant Confederate artillery officer, whose record 
f service in the army began at the early age of eighteen, 
/hen his diploma of graduation was handed him at the Vir- 
inia Military Institute, Lexington, Va., in the spring of 1861. 
" Colonel Chew, the son of Roger and Sara West (Aldridge) 
"hew, was born in Loudoun County, Va., April 9, 1843; he 
ame with his father and family to Jefferson County, Va. 
now West Virginia), in 1848, and attended the Charlestown 
icademy and, later, the Military Institute in Lexington. 

In September, 1861, in company with Milton Rouss, a 
choolmate at Lexington, he raised a company of artillery 
or active service, of which he was made captain. The com- 
pany was attached to Ashby's Brigade until General Ashby's 
' eath, when it became a unit in Stuart's Horse Artillery, 
'n 1864 Captain Chew was promoted to the command of the 
Torse Artillery, with the rank of major, under Gen. J. E. B. 
.' tuart. A reorganization later in the year gave him command 
f forty pieces of artillery, with the rank of lieutenant colonel, 
. nd from that time until the end of the war he served as 
hief of the Horse Artillery. 

Colenel Chew had in his command twelve hundred men 

onspicuous for efficiency and courage, considered one of the 

est disciplined regiments in the service; for himself the 

ighest praise and commendation were bestowed at various 

imes by many of the most prominent commanders in the Con- 

:derate army. In 1862, at Middletown, General Ashby 

rdered him to charge his guns with the cavalry, the first 

istance, certainly in our war, that this audacious attack with 

, flying artillery" was made. In 1863, Stonewall Jackson 

. imself wrote General Lee that Captain Chew was a "re mar k- 

. bly fine artillery officer," and Gen. Wade Hampton con- 

dered him the best commander of horse artillery. 

i As the war approached the last stages at Appomattox, 

, olonel Chew with a small squad of daring men from his 

r attery, eluded the forces with which General Grant sought 

") crush the remnant of General Lee's army. They retreated 

>uth to join Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, then in North Caro- 

na. A flood on the Roanoke River impeded the retreat with 

leir guns; to prevent the Federals from capturing these, the 

un carriages were burned and the cannon themselves were 

uried along the bank of the river. The men succeeded in 

| 'ossing the river and in joining General Johnston, with whom 

ley reluctantly surrendered a few days later. The colonel 

, fterwards made several visits to the Roanoke River in an 

Tort to recover the buried guns, but never succeded in 

. 'Catingthem. Thespot wassurrounded by immense stretches 

! f pine woods, far from human habitation, making it impos- 

( , ble to identify the location. 



After the war Colonel Chew went back to the farm, fol- 
lowing the calling of his father and grandfather, but his 
prominence as a man soon brought him before the people, 
and, in 1882, he was elected to the State legislature, was 
reelected in 1884, again in 1886 and in 1888, when he was 
chosen chairman of the finance committee. 

Colonel Chew married at Blakeley, this county, Miss 
Louise Fontaine Washington, daughter of Col. John Augustine 
Washington, a descendant of a brother of the first President, 
and the last owner of Mount Vernon. 

"Colonel Chew belongs to us in this valorous Valley of the 
Shenandoah; it was here that he received the distinguished 
service medal of a permanent place in the hearts of his own 
people. The war made him; in defeat he saw the end of an 
era, but he had the courage to pass from the old to the new 
and to win success both in business life and public life." 

He was the last of the trio of Confederate advisers to the 
Lawson Botts Chapter, U. D. C. We miss his wise counsel 
earnest words, and sympathetic interest. He served his 
country with courage and loyalty and rests with his comrades 
on "fame's eternal camping ground." 

[Lawson Botts Chapter U. D. C, Charles Town, W. Va.] 

The Lee Memorial Association passed the following reso- 
lutions at a meeting in memory of Colonel Chew: 

"We, the members of the Lee Memorial Association of 
of Charlestown, W. Va., in meeting assembled on Memorial 
Day, May 28, 1921, desiring to express our high appreciation 
of Col. R. P. Chew, deceased, so long President of this As- 
sociation and of the Jefferson County Camp of Confederate 
Veterans, and to place in enduring forms a testimonial to his 
work, character, and career; therefore be it 

"Resolved. 1. That the ending of his fruitful life is not only 
a public loss, but to all of us, and each of us who knew him 
so well, it is a personal sorrow. 

"2. When just approaching manhood he enlisted as a 
soldier in defense of his native State and rapidly rose as an 
officer in the artillery service of the Confederacy. He was 
cool and brave in battle, wise in counsel, and enjoyed the 
respect and confidence of both his superiors and inferiors in 
military service. It is our fixed conviction that no braver 
soldier rode with General Jackson or with General Stuart, with 
Ashby or Hampton, than our deceased comrade, and he came 
out of the service after Appomattox with the love and 
affection of not only those whom he commanded, but with 
the respect and confidence of all who knew him. 

"3. In civil life he was conspicuous for his love of country, 
and he became a leader among men in all pertaining to civil 
good and in the upbuilding of the community in which he 
lived. Always alert to the interests of the people with whom 
he had cast his lot, he served them with fidelity and ability 
in many representative positions, and held throughout his 
life their respect, friendship, and esteem. 

"We wish this testimonial given due publicity, and a copy 
sent to his family with the hope that it will be some solace in 
their affliction, and that they may know our appreciation and 
esteem of this distinguished citizen." 

[S. C. Young, Adjutant Jefferson County Camp, U. C. V.] 

Henry Walters Berryman. 

Henry Walters Berryman died at his home near Alto, in 
Cherokee County, Tex., on February 14, 1922, at the ripe 
age of seventy-seven years. He entered the Confederate 
service from Cherokee County and was a member of Company 
I, 1st Texas Infantry, General Hood's famous brigade. He 
was twice wounded during his service, at the battle of the 



// 



150 



Qoijfederat^ Ueterai) 



Wilderness and at Darby Town. He took part in the battle 
of Gettysburg. He leaves a wife and five children, four sons 
and one daughter. He was a true Confederate — a fast friend 
of the Confederate soldier and the cause he had espoused — 
a good citizen, and a member of the Baptist Church. 

The Confederate veterans officiated at his burial and a large 
concourse of friends attended the funeral service. 

[P. A. Blakey, Alto, Tex.] 

Maj. E. T. Sykes. 

Maj. Edward Turner Sykes, born in Morgan County, Ala., 
March 15, 1838, died at his home in Columbus, Miss., on 
February 18, 1922, having nearly completed eighty-four years. 
He was a son of Richard and Martha Sykes, who went from 
Virginia to Alabama at an early day, and, when their son 
was a baby, moved to Columbus. There he grew to manhood, 
and there on November 16, 1863, he was married to Miss 
Caroline Harrison, who survives him. Nine years ago this 
splendid old couple celebrated their golden wedding. To 
this union there were born four children, two sons and two 
daughters, the daughters surviving him, with their mother. 
There are also a number of grandchildren, and four great-grand- 
children. 

Edward Turner Sykes was a brave, chivalric Confederate 
soldier. He went into the army a captain and was paroled as a 
major. The title of "General" was honorary as a staff ap- 
pointee U. C. V. He left Columbus at the outbreak of 
hostilities to join the 10th Mississippi Regiment, under the 
command of Gen. Edward Carey Walthall. He was after- 
wards in the command of Gen. W. H. Jackson. He fought for 
his convictions in the sixties, and remained true to his con- 
victions to the last. 

In April, 1843, Edward Turner Sykes united with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and remained a faithful and 
consecrated member. He was also an active Sunday school 
worker, having a class of Bible students (men and women) 
in the Methodist Sunday school. He was a Mason, an Odd 
Fellow, and Past Grand Chancellor of the Knights of Pythias 
of Mississippi. With ability and energy he discharged every 
duty laid upon him, and his place will be hard to fill. 

Col. Iverson A. Jones. 

One of the most interesting of lives was closed with the 
death of Col. Iverson A. Jones, former newspaper man, one- 
time candidate for Congress, and a Confederate veteran, 
member of John G. Fletcher Camp U. C. V., of Carroll County, 
Ark. He died at Grass Leaf Farm, near Enon, Ark., which 
had been his home since 1888. 

He was born in Covington, Ga., January 24, 1S46, and, 
in the spring of 1862, at the age of 16, volunteered in the Con- 
federate army, becoming a member of Company B, 53rd 
Georgia Regiment, of the Paul J. Semms Brigade, McLaws' 
Division, Longstreet's Corps, A. N. V. He was in all the 
great battles in which McLaws' Division engaged, until 
November 29, 1S63, on the crest of Fort Sanders, where he 
was seriously wounded in both arms, was captured and carried 
to Fort Delaware, where he remained until exchanged at 
Richmond, Ya., 1S64. He was placed on the retired list as 
permanently disabled and returned to his home in Covington 
Ga., October 31, 1864. With one arm utterly disabled and the 
other partly useless, he took up his life anew, determined to 
secure an education. He worked his way through Emory 
College, and in 1871 received a degree from Oxford Uni- 
versity. 

He moved to Little Rock, Ark., and in 1876 was married to 
Miss Josephine Hyer, a talented young lady of Cartersville, 



Ga., and a graduate of the Southern Masonic Female College 
at Covington, Ga. To this union two daughters were born, 
but both wife and daughters died. 

In 1893 Mr. Jones was married to Mrs. Elizabeth Cooper 
Ferrell, of Tullahoma, Tenn, who died in 1904; and in 1915, 
Mr. Jones was united in marriage to Mrs. Minnie A. Foster, 
who survives him. He had but one other living relative, a 
grandniece, Mrs. H. A. Thompson. 

His funeral at the Methodist Church was a service of song 
and prayer, and his war record was read by his request. He 
was laid to rest in the gray uniform he loved so well. 

George R. Tanner. 

The death of "Deacon" George R. Tanner, aged eighty 
years, at his home in Canon City on February 26, 1922, re- 
moves one of the pioneer business men of that city, one of its 
most highly respected citizens, a former mayor, Confederate 
■veteran, and one of the pillars and patriarchs of the Baptist 
Church in Colorado. 

George R. Tanner was born in Culpeper County, Va., 
September 25, 1841. In 1SS8 he came to Canon City from 
Camden, Mo., and resided there until his death. He served 
as mayor of the city and held many other positions of honor 
and responsibility. Comrade Tanner served in the Con- 
federate army during the War between the States as a mem- 
ber of General Forrest's famous cavalry brigade. After the 
war he was a loyal supporter of the Stars and Stripes and 
always participated in the Memorial Day services here with 
the Union veterans. 

He was perhaps the most widely known layman of the 
Baptist Church in Colorado, and at the time of his death was 
president emeritus of the State Baptist Convention, an honor 
conferred upon him in Denver last year. For thirty-four 
years he had been a member of the Southern Colorado 
Baptist Association, missing few, if any, of its sessions during 
that time, and he had held every office in the Association tc 
which a layman was eligible. 

Besides his wife, to whom he was married fifty-five year; 
ago, he leaves one son and five daughters. 

Maj. Edward J. Hale. 

Edward J. Hale, soldier, journalist, diplomat, and states 
man, died at his home in Fayetteville, N. C, on Februan 
15, 1922. He was Fayetteville's first citizen, having laborer 
faithfully and untiringly during the long years of his publ 
service for the advancement of his home city. 

Major Hale was born in Fayetteville on December 25, 1839 
the youngest son of Edward J. and Margaret Walker Half 
His father was editor and publisher of the Fayetteville Obscnt 
for many years prior to the War between the States, durinj 
which time it reached a high degree of influence throughou 
the South, and during the last days of the war the Observe 
was the only paper published within the Confederate lines 
The newspaper plant was burned by General Sherman, an 
after the war Major Hale went with his father to New York 
where they entered the business of book publishers. Majo 
Hale later returned to Fayetteville and reestablished th 
Observer, of which he was the publisher until three years ago 

During the War between the States he served with dis 
tinction in the 5th North Carolina Infantry until appointei 
to the staff of General Lane, with the rank of major, and short 
ly before the close he was designated for promotion to brigadie 
general. 

During the Cleveland administration, Major Hale was ap 
pointed United States consul to Manchester, England, and i 
was while serving in that post that he became interested in th 



Qopfederat^ l/eterai), 



151 



ystem of lock canals used in England and on the continent. 
)n his return to this country he instituted the movement for 
he canalization of the Cape Fear River, and it was almost 
ntirely due to him that the project was indorsed by the 

' National Waterways Association and adopted by Congress. 

- In 1913 he was appointed by President Wilson as minister 

; o Costa Rica, but the overthrow of the existing government 

• aused his recall. 

Possessing pleasing personality, a scholarship that was 

Voad and deep, a big heart, and the spirit of old-fashioned 
lospitality, Major Hale was widely known and numbered 
lis friends among the great and humble. 

Capt. Charnar S. Greer. 

Capt. Charner S. Greer, well known Confederate veteran 

.lied at his home near Union, S. C, on February 22, 1922, 

■iter a long illness. 

. Captain Greer was a most remarkable man from many 
tandpoints. During the War between the States Captain 
}reer made a record as a brave and fearless soldier. At the 
lattle of Sharpsburg, September 18, 1863, he was severely 
rounded in his right shoulder, being pierced with a piece of 
hell and, though wounded, he stuck to his company and 
ought with blood flowing from his wounded shoulder. At 
he blow-up at Petersburg, twenty-four of his comrades were 

.ailed, Captain Greer being the only survivor. This occurred 
in July 30, 1864, when nearly all of Company A, 18th South 

■ Carolina Volunteers, were killed, and Captain Greer at the 
ime was buried alive, but dug himself out with his sword. 
Captain Greer started in under Captain Malone, of Com- 
lany C, Cross Keys, and was later transferred to Company A, 
8th South Carolina Volunteers, later being made first 
ieutenant. When his captain was killed at Petersburg, he 

>as made captain of the company, which honor he continued 

.0 hold until the surrender at Appomattox. 

Captain Greer was born in Union County November 20, 
836, a son of Jason M. and Sallie Sanders Greer. On No- 
'ember 8, 1865, he was married to Miss Mary A. Malone, and 
o them six children were born, all surviving him. One brother 
.nd one sister of his family also survive him. 
Captain Greer was court crier for Union County for forty- 

.hree consecutive years, and in all of these years of faithful 
ervice he never missed attending a single court. 

. Captain Greer had served most faithfully as Commander of 
Zamp Giles, No. 708, and attended many of the State and 
lational reunions, where he will be greatly missed. 

Samuel Baldwin Hannah. 

-, Samuel Baldwin Hannah was born in Charlotte County, 
/a., October 19, 1843, and at the age of sixteen he entered 
lampden-Sidney College. When the War between the 

• States came on he entered the Confederate army, but later on 
le entered the Virginia Military Institute, and was graduated 

; n 1863, when he reentered the army. After the war he taught 
chool at Frankford, W. Va. On November 4, 1874, he was 

, narried to Miss Lizzie A. Hevener, of Green Bank, W. Va. 

I On January 19, 1921, he entered quietly into his rest, at 
he home of his son, at Cass, W. Va. At his own request 
he services were held in Liberty Church. 

Mr. Hannah was survived by his step-mother, a brother, 
wo sisters, six sons, and three daughters, one son died some 
ears ago. 

Comrade Hannah leaves also an enviable record as citizen 
'Oldier, scholar, gentleman, and Christian. As a citizen, he 
lad the honor of being a member of the first county court of 
'ocahontas. As a soldier, he served with distinction and 



honor. As a scholar, he had the honor of serving as the first 
superintendent of public schools in his adopted county. As 
a gentleman, he always was true, a model of the "old 
Virginia" type. As a Christian, he began early by uniting 
with the Presbyterian Church. Soon after marriage, he was 
elected an elder in Liberty Church, and served faithfully for 
more than forty-five years. For many years he was super- 
intendent of the Sunday school in his home Church and at 
Boyer. He often represented his session in Presbytery and 
Synod. 

"He being dead yet speaketh,." speaketh in the lives of his 
children and the many who came under his teaching and that 
saw his noble character in public and private life. 

C. H. Phillips. 

C. H. Phillips, who served in Company B, 3rd Virginia 
Cavalry, died at his home on Hampton Creek, Elizabeth City- 
County, Va., on April 13, 1921, in the seventy-eighth year of 
his age. 

He joined the Old Dominion Dragoons (Company B), May 
14, 1861, and served in the field from the battle of Big Bethel, 
June 10, 1861, until the close of the war. 

He took part in most of the severe fights in which his brigade 
was engaged and was slightly wounded at Cannon's Wharf, on 
James River, in 1864. The Old Dominion Dragoons was made 
up of men from Elizabeth City County, who were among the 
first to volunteer. The company was with Magruder on the 
Peninsula until the arrival of Johnston's army in 1862, when 
they were joined to Stuart's Cavalry, Wickham's Brigade, A. N. 
V. 

This company had on its roll, all told, one hundred and five 
men. Charlie Phillips's death reduces the number of survivors 
to three — Capt. Jesse S. Jones, their last captain, R. S. 
Hudgins, and G. K. Sinclair, Jr. — and reduces the roll of R. E. 
Lee Camp No. 485, U. C. V. to fourteen. He was buried 
in St. John's Cemetery at Hampton, Va. 

Comade Phillips is survived by a son and a daughter, and 
three grandchildren, also by a sister, Mrs. Rosser Smith, of 
Yorktown, Va. 

In civic life he had been a successful farmer, a good neigh- 
bor, and a loyal citizen. 

[Joseph R. Haw, Adjutant R. E. Lee Carap.J 

Rev. E. C. Faulkner. 

Rev. Edward Curtis Faulkner, venerable servant of God, has 
been called to his reward, after some years of failing health. 

He was a native of Trigg County, Ky., being born near 
Wallonia on November 18, 1842. He entered the Confederate 
service in September, 1861, and was a brave and gallant soldier 
throughout the war. He was graduated from Bethel College 
at Russellville in June, 1875, and was ordained as a ministar 
of the gospel January 16, 1876. Throughout his long career he 
was an able, loyal, and earnest worker in the Master's vineyard, 
and hundreds were led to Christ by his ministry. He had held 
pastorates at Jackson and Ripley, Tena., and at Searcy, EI 
Dorado, Monticello, and Dardanelle, Ark. He retired from 
the active ministry in 1915 and went to Hopkinsville, Ky. 
to spend his declining years. 

Mr. Faulkner was married to Miss Lulie Carney in February 
1877. She was a daughter of the Rev. M. G. Carney, of 
Montgomery County, Tenn. His wife survives him with two 
sons, Curtis G Faulkner, of Clarksville, Tenn., and Edward 
T. Faulkner, with the Army of Occupation, Audernach, 
Germany. There are also two brothers and two sisters sur- 
viving. 

He was laid to rest in the cemetery at Trenton, Ky. 



152 Qopfederat^ l/eterai). 

Clniteb ©augbters of tbe Confederacy 

Mrs. Livingston Rowe Schuyler, President General 
520 W. 1 14th St., New York City 



Mrs. Frank HARROLTt, Americus, Ga First Vice President General 

Mrs. Bennett D. Bell, Nashville, Tenn Second Vice President General 

Mrs. \V. E. Massey, Hot Springs, Ark Third Vice President General 

Mrs. R. D. Wright, Newberry, S. C Recording Secretary General 

Miss Allie Garner , Ozark, Ala Corresponding Secretary General 



Mrs. Amos Norris, Tampa, Fla Treasurer General 

Mrs. A. A. Campbell, Wytheville, Va Historian General 

Mrs. Fannie R. Williams, Newton, N. C Registrar General 

Mrs. William D. Mason, Philadelphia, Pa Custodian of Crosses 

Mrs. J. H. Crenshaw, Montgomery, Ala. . . Custodian 0/ Flags and Pennants 



[All communications for this department should be sent direct to Mrs. A. B. White, Official Editor, Paris. Tenn.] 



FROM THE PRESIDENT GENERAL. 

To the United. Daughters of the Confederacy: I must begin by 
expressing my sincere appreciation of the many letters which 
have come to me in response to my request in my February 
letter. It may interest you to know that Missouri and Vir- 
ginia have sent the greatest number of replies, with California, 
Mississippi, and West Virginia close behind. From Bristol, 
Va., conies the news that a special prize is offered by the 
Chapter to the member bringing in the largest number of new 
members. 

Education — The annual circular of the Educational Com- 
mittee, Mrs. Merchant, Chairman, has by this time been re- 
ceived by all Division Chairmen. Study of this circular can- 
not fail to bring realization of the great opportunity it offers 
to the young men and women of Confederate lineage. That 
there are applicants ready and willing to take advantage of 
every scholarship, I feel assured. In order, therefore, to 
prevent our young men and women from missing these oppor- 
tunities, I request that each Division Chairman secure 
publicity in as many papers in her State as possible. It 
would be a matter of deep regret if some worthy student 
should lose an opportunity to secure a scholarship through 
lack of information. The work of your General Chairman is 
very heavy, and I beg you to help her in every way possible, 
especially in the work of filling these scholarships. 

" The Women of the South in War Times" — The Director 
General, Mrs. Holt, of Rocky Mount, N. C, is anxious that 
we shall reach our goal of ten thousand copies to which we 
pledged ourselves at the last convention. This can only be 
accomplished if each Chapter will make a serious effort to sell 
a few more copies. Surely with more than eleven hundred 
Chapters, Mrs. Holt's wish should soon be fact. 

The Lee Memorial Chapel — Mrs. McKinney, Chairman of 
this Committee, reports that they are working on plans and 
hope to send them out very soon to the Division Directors. 
In the meantime she urges the Directors to get in touch with 
graduates of Washington and Lee University in their respec- 
tive States and interest them and their families. 

In Memoriam — The world of science is poorer by the death 
of a distinguished Southerner, Charles Baskerville, Professor 
of Chemistry in the College of the City of New York, to which 
institution he had been called some ten years ago after he had 
earned fame by his researches at the University of North 
Carolina. A brilliant speaker, a deep and earnest thinker, 
with a forceful personality, he has led and inspired hundreds 
of young men in a field the possibilities of which are only even 
now becoming partially understood. 

News has come from Texas of the death of Mrs. M. D 
Farris, lifelong President of the J. B. Gordon Chapter, of 
Huntsville, and mother of Mrs. Charles G. Barrett, former 
Division Historian. There charming women of an earlier 



time are passing rapidly from us, and the death of each one is 
a loss to us all. &| 

In closing, I must say just a word about the reunion of the 
Confederate veterans to be held in Richmond, Va., in the 
month of June. What a splendid thing it would be to have 
each State represented by a large delegation of enthusiastic 
Daughters, eager to prove their loyalty and devotion to the 
cause for which these heroes hazarded their lives! *H I-, 



Faithfully yours, 



Leonora Rogers Schuyler. Q 



U. D. C. NOTES. 

Division Correspondents. 

Arkansas. — Mrs. D. Gann, Sr., Benton (reappointed). 
California. — Mrs. Chester A. Garfield, 796 Pine Street, 
San Francisco. 

North Carolina. — Mrs. J. T. Hollister, Newbern. 

Education. 

Circular No. XIV has been issued by the Committee on 
Education, and copies sent, the latter part of February, to all 
Division Presidents and Chairmen of Education. 

Attention is called to the following scholarships: 

Of the twenty-two scholarslips given by the Universtiy of 
Virginia, twenty-one are to be awarded for the session 1922-23; 
these scholarships cover tuition in the academic course, and 
are open to women, as well as men, who satisfy the entrance 
requirements of the University. 

College of Charleston, Charleston, S. C, tuition scholarship. — 
This scholarship was secured by the former Chairman of 
Education, Miss Moses, too late to be reported at the St. 
Louis Convention. 

The Hector W. Church Memorial Scholarslip was estab- 
lished by action of the St. Louis Convention and will increase 
in value each year for three years. '"% 

The goal set for the endowment of the S. A. Cunningham 
Memorial Scholarship at George Peabody College for Teachers, 
Nashville, Tenn., has not been reached, but the accrued interest 
renders the scholarship as valuable now as will the interest for 
one year on the amount specified as the endowment, therefore, 
with the authority of the President General and the approval 
of the Chairman of the Cunningham Memorial Committee, this 
scholarship is announced as "To be awarded in 1922-1923." 

Children of the Confederacy. 

The book needed for the C. of C. programs this year, "The 
Boy Soldiers of the Confederacy," is out of print. If it is in* 
any library, public or private, I would appreciate knowing 
where, as it might then be borrowed. I hope this request will 
bring out many copies. 

"Golden Deeds on the Field of Honor," by Annah R. Watson 
contains nearly all the items in the "Boy Soldiers of the Con- 



\ 



Qopfederat^ l/eteraij. 



153 



leracy." This can be gotten through the Confederate 
jteran. Price SI. 

"The Women of the Confederacy" can still be had, though 
e stock is short. Order from the Confederate Veteran. 
ice, S3. Information concerning the Orphan Brigade of 
mtucky, for those who wish to enter the essay contest, can 
had in "The Orphan Brigade," by E. Polk Johnson. It 
'n be found in most public libraries. — Annie G. Massey. 



DIVISION NOTES. 

Alabama. — This division has lost one of its most valuable 
d beloved members in the death of Mrs. J. A. Kirkpatrick, 
Montgomery. She was a member of Sophie Bibb Chapter 
that city, ex- President of the State, and a member of the 
lldiers' Home Committee for many years. 
On invitation of the Troy Chapter, the State convention 
11 meet in Troy at the regular date in May. 
In organizing new Chapters, it saves time and labor to 
;face the letter concerning this matter with the rules of 
I janization of Chapters as laid down in State laws. 
Arkansas. — The State convention at Fort Smith closed the 
ar 1921 and will go down in our memories as one of the 
5t ever held. The hostesses and the city did everything to 
ike it a delightful occasion. 

On January 2, the regular meeting of the Executive Board 
the Arkansas Division was held in the parlors of the 
arion Hotel, Little Rock, with twenty members present, the 
ate President, Mrs. W. E. Massey, presiding. A wonderful 
)gram for the year's work was outlined and the budget 
litem adopted. 

Arkansas. — The aim of the Division this year will be to give 
)0 to the Arkansas State Scholarship Loan Fund. 
Mrs. George Gill, 612 East Capitol Avenue, Little Rock, 
3 been appointed Chairman of the Lee Memorial Chapel 
nd. 

■California. — The California Division will meet for annual 
■-lvention on May 10, in Fresno, Cal; Hotel Fresno head- 
arters. 

. During the last months the Division has suffered the loss 
■two great souls, Mrs. William Bond Pritchard, the daughter 
• Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston and Honorary President U. D. 
and the Division Parliamentarian, Mrs. Matthew Robert- 
L|l, both of whom were a great inspiration to the California 

D. C. and to the cause everywhere. 
(Much relief work has been done by individual Chapters, and 
'.ids have been raised in various ways. Albert Sidney 
. inston Chapter gave a large card party, Jefferson Davis 
' apter a ball, the Le Conte and other Alameda County 
apters had a general meeting, while the Chapters adjacent 
'.Los Angeles had a reunion for veterans and Daughters that 
.3 a great success. 

-Chapters generally have observed memorial days with 
■ ing exercises, and our President, Mrs. Charles L. Trabert, 
i orts added interest and a proper vision of the work for the 
ure. 

)ne new Chapter was organized in Los Angeles recently. 

'llinois. — The Illinois Division commemorated the birth- 

'\'s of Lee, Jackson, and Maury with a reception at the 

ditorium Hotel on Friday evening, January 20. Many of 

leading citizens of Chicago were present. A Northern 

n, Hon. Frank Commerford, delivered the address. The 

sical program was unusually fine, and a dramatic reading 

: .m the "Littlest Rebel" was received with much applause. 

The keynote of the evening was struck in the greeting 



delivered by the President of the Illinois Division, Miss Ida 
F. Powell. 

Kentucky. — On January 19, 1922, the Joseph H. Lewis 
Chapter at Frankfort, gave a Lee Memorial luncheon at the 
Frankfort Hotel. The guests, thirty-five in number, were 
Daughters, Veterans, and Sons. Judge W. T. Fowler, son of a 
Federal veteran, paid a beautiful tribute to General Lee, while 
General W. J. Stone made a splendid talk on General Lee's 
character and the principles for which he stood. Captain 
Terry, a veteran from Cadiz, gave some war experiences. Mrs. 
W. T. Fowler read an original memorial poem, and Mrs. W. J. 
Stone, President of the Chapter, installed Mrs. Fowler as 
official poet of the Joseph H. Lewis Chapter and also of the 
Kentucky Division U. C. V. She presented Mrs. Fowler with 
a silk Confederate flag. A delicious three course luncheon was 
served. 

Louisiana. — The Fitzhugh Lee Chapter, of New Or- 
leans, has elected the following officers for 1922: Mrs. 
Arthur Weber, President; Mrs. I. E. Kiefe, First Vice 
President; Miss Emma Boucier, Second Vice President; 
Mrs. A. W. Barker, Third Vice President; Mrs. D. Eugene 
Strain, Recording Secretary; Mrs. W. S. McDiarmid, Treasur- 
er; Mrs. S. D. McEnery, Register; Mrs. Arthur Seaver, Histo- 
rian; Mrs. J. D. Bailey, Director Children of Confederacy; 
Mrs. L. A. Jung, Chaplain. The members of this Chapter 
have a wonderful undertaking in view of trying to place a 
reference book, "Truths of History," by Miss Rutherford, in 
the libraries of the public schools, as well as in the parochial 
Schools, of New Orleans, to give the children the right and 
true thought about the South. They will endeavor to do 
this as soon as sufficient funds are raised to purchase enough 
books. 

Maryland. — Much interest is being shown in our "World 
War Relief" work, which is a memorial U. D. C. fund to help 
Southern boys to take a course at the Hopkins. The money is 
lent to them and is returned by them when they have com- 
pleted their education, or are able to pay. This is entirely 
separate from our Charity Fund, which is exclusively used for 
the relief of Southern gentlewomen, and who are given im- 
mediate help. 

A series of afternoon receptions is being held this winter 
by the Division at the Y. W. C. A. The first one was on 
January 3 and proved to be a great success. On the 
nineteenth was celebrated the birthdays of Generals Lee and 
Jackson. The entertainment consisted of historic pictures of 
General Lee and his environment at various epochs in his life, 
while the same were interpreted by Mr. James McTrippe. 
An informal social followed. Each member of the Baltimore 
Chapter has been requested to give an additional dollar for 
the benefit of the Charity Room, which is in connection with 
the Hero Fund. Crosses were bestowed on several veterans, 
after which refreshments were served by the younger Daugh- 
ters who have come into the Chapter from the C. of C. 

Dedication of Memorial Chapel at Monocacy Cemetery. 
History repeats itself in many ways. About the year 1747 
a chapel was built by the Episcopalians on almost the same 
spot as the one we have just dedicated. It was a Chapel of 
Ease of All Saints Church, Eden Parish (so named in honor of 
the then Governor of the State). An act was passed by the 
Maryland Assembly empowering the vestry to finish building 
the chapel already begun between the Monocacy and the 
Seneca Rivers, and a tax was levied to raise £50 to complete 
the work. In 1761 another petition was sent to the Maryland 
Assembly, asking for a parish assessment to rebuild the chapel. 
The State was then under the control of the Church of England. 



/, 



154 



Qoi?federat^ l/eterai), 



During the War between the States, the Northern soldiers 
so damaged the chapel that it remained only a memory. 

Through the earnest efforts of the members of the E. V. 
White Chapter, again a very attractive chapel stands in 
Monocacy Cemetery, formerly the old Church burying ground, 
as a memorial to the Confederate soldiers who offered their 
lives to maintain State Rights in the dear old Southland and 
who now "rest from their labors" in this sacred God's acre. 

At the dedication the invocation was read by the Rev. 
Pinkney Wroth, of the Episcopal Church, who conducted the 
service, assisted by the Rev. Mr. Aaron, of the Methodist 
Church. Appropriate hymns were sung by a selected choir. 
Mrs. Cordelia Powell Odenheimer was our most honored guest. 
While president of the Maryland Division, she organized the 
E. V. White Chapter. An address was made by Judge William 
Chambers, formerly of Alabama, and he then introduced the 
Hon. Whitehead Kluttz, of North Carolina, whose brilliant 
and eloquent address was listened to with rapt attention. A 
large audience from Maryland and Virginia was present. 

Officers elected by the Maryland Division for the year of 
1922 are: Mrs. Charles Parr, Honorary President; Miss Geor- 
gia Bright, President; Mrs. Edward Bash, First Vice Presi- 
dent; Mrs. James Loughborough, Second Vice President; Mrs. 
William de Lashmutt, Third Vice president; Mrs. Jones Hoyle, 
Fourth Vice President; Mrs. Addison Cooke, Recording Secre- 
tary; Mrs. Jackson Brandt, Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. G. 
Arnold Flick, Treasurer; Mrs. Corbin Maupin, Historian; Mrs. 
Charles Boulden, Registrar; Mrs. Preston Power, State Edi- 
tor; Miss S. W. Maupin, Custodian of Crosses. 

Missouri. — Members of Camp No. 80, U. C. V., and State 
officers of the Missouri Division U. D. C, were guests of honor 
at the annual breakfast given by the six Chapters of Kansas 
City, at the Hotel Muchlebach, January 21, in commemoration 
of the birthdays of Generals Lee and Jackson. Crosses of 
Honor were bestowed by the Dixie Chapter, and toasts were 
responded to by the Presidents of the Chapters of Kansas City. 
Eighty guests were entertained at the annual Robert E. Lee 
dinner by the John S. Marmaduke Chapter, of Columbia, 
complimentary to the Confederate veterans of Boone County 
and their wives. An interesting program was given. 

The Independence Chapter entertained members, friends, 
and Confederate veterans at a tea commemorating the anni- 
versaries of Generals Lee and Stonewall Jackson and Com- 
mander Matthew Fontaine Maury. Interesting talks were 
made on these eminent men. 

The Springfield Chapter held its annual guest day meeting 
on Gen. Robert E. Lee's birthday at the home of Mrs. M. E 
Barretts. The house was attractively decorated with red and 
white roses and Confederate flags. 

A short business session was conducted by the President, 
Mrs. George H. Baxter, after which she gave a cordial and 
instructive welcoming address explaining the object of the or- 
ganization and the great work it is accomplishing. 

Mrs. C. E. Robinson read the essay on which she won the 
Roberts Medal at the General Convention ia St. Louis last 
fall, her subject being "The Women of the Confederacy." 
During the social hour refreshments, carrying out the club 
colors, were served to seventy-five members and guests. 

South Carolina. — About three hundred guests enjoyed a 
beautiful reception at the South Carolina Confederate Home 
given by the three Chapters at Columbia and the "Girls of 
the 60 's" in compliment to the members of the General 
Assembly. The affair was an expression of appreciation to the 
legislators for the appropriation made last year for improving 
the Home and as an opportunity of allowing them to see the 



result of the expenditures. The "whole institution was thrown 
open to the visitors, who inspected all the departments, in- 
cluding the model infirmary. Confederate flags and pine tops, 
jars of red poinsettias, and white narcissi were decorations used 
to give Southern colors. In the dining room there was a 
frieze of flags entirely around the wall, in addition to red and 
white flowers. 

The veterans of the Home, some of them wearing their gray 
uniforms, were cordial and gracious hosts of the occasion. In 
the receiving line were Gov. R. A. Cooper, with Mrs. Cooper; 
Mrs. C. J. Milling, President South Carolina Division U. D. C.;l 
Mrs. Clark Waring, President of the "Girls of the 60's"; and] 
three Confederate veterans, who are members of the General 
Assembly — Senator Jeremiah Smith, and Representative; 
J. T. Bramlett and J. G. Greer. 

Tennessee. — At Cleveland the Lee anniversary was celebrated 
by the U. D. C. Chapter in the Chapel of Centenary College 
A pleasing feature was the presentation to the College by the 
Chapter of a flag of Tennessee. 

At Bell House School, Lee Day was celebrated in every room 
The U. D. C. Chapter held its observance at night. 

General Lee's memory was honored in Knoxville by both thi 
Knoxville and Abner Baker Chapters. Personal reminiscence:] 
of the great leader by Prof. W. W. Carson, of the University o 
Tennessee, who was an instructor at Washington and Lee wheij 
General Lee was its President, were unusually interesting. 

Sam Davis Chapter, Morristown, gave a three course lunch 
eon to the veterans. The dining room was elaborately dec 
orated with flags, bunting, and pictures of General Lee adorne. 
the wall. There were covers for fifty guests. As the Confed 
erate veterans, nineteen in number, filed into the dining roorr 
a miniature R. E. Lee bronze hat, with an ivy leaf, embler 
of the Division, was pinned to each coat. 

On February 8, the Knoxville Chapter had a musical tea i I 
honor of the State President, Mrs. William M. Goodmar 

Virginia. — The anniversary of General Lee's birthday wa I 
celebrated on January 19 by the Loudoun Chapter. Th 
Daughters and Sons united in making the occasion one cl 
delight to the dear old veterans, who, with the ex-service mer I 
made a goodly company. During the entertainment oul 
Confederate choir sang Southern songs, and Miss Lowenbac 
gave as a beautiful solo, "The Sword of Robert Lee." Reprt 
sentative Otis Wingow, from Arkansas, made the addres: 
and the last poem written by Lamar Fontaine, entitle 
"Farewell to Confederate Soldiers," was read. 

f tatnriral l?partm*ttt 1. 1. 01. 

Motto: "Loyalty to the truth of Confederate History." 
Key word: "Preparedness." Flower: The rose. 

MRS. A. A. CAMPBELL, HISTORIAN GENERAL. 



V. D. C. PROGRAM FOR MA Y, 1922. 

A Soldier's Life, St. Louis, the Mexican War. Mentio 
some of the officers in the army of Winfield Scott who serve 
on opposing sides in the War between the States. 

C. OF C. PROGRAM FOR MA Y, 102?. 

The boys of the 1st Arkansas Regiment, who earned tl 
name of "Jackson's Foot Cavalry." Give an incident coi 
cerning them at First Manassas. 

(In this number of the Veteran will be found data for th 
program and also for the June program.) 



. 



^oijfederat^ l/eteraij. 



155 



lonfefcerateb Southern /Iftemorial association 



rs. A. McD. Wilson President General 

436 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Ga. 

Irs. C. B. Bryan First Vice President General 

Memphis, Tenn. 
ISS SUE H. Walker Second Vice President General 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

rs. E. L. Merry Treasurer General 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 
!iss Daisy M. L. Hodgson.... Recording Secretary General 
7909 Sycamore Street, New Orleans, La. 

[iss Mildred Rutherford Historian General 

Athens, Ga. 
iRS. Bryan W. Collier.. Corresponding Secretary General 
College Park, Ga. 

Trs. Virginia Frazer Boyle Poet Laureate General 

1045 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tenn. 

~>rs. Belle Allen Ross Auditor General 

Montgomery, Ala. 

I ev. Giles B. Cooke Chaplain General 

Mathews, Va. 




MEMORIAL DA Y. 

Dear Coworkers: Our sacred Memorial Day draws near. 
Tature, with her bountiful hand, is spreading her flowery 
athway with the choicest blossoms of spring for your taking, 
.'he faint cloud long discerned on the horizon of our border- 
ind has spread into ominous proportions that threaten to 
kst its dark shadows and obscure the glory of our Southern 
Memorial Day. It is a call to arms! Arise, ye daughters of 
le South, and show to the world that your loyalty has not 
,een diminished with the years. 

■- Let the coming Memorial Day stand out, as never before 
,ie grandest tribute a people can pay to vanquished heroes, 
■et the splendid outpouring of your people on that day speak. 
1 no uncertain terms to the world,