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University of North Carolin; 

This l)ook was presented by 

"t^r-ooG^ mr^ tl).f^ J)et^ 

:37oj • 3 I9cl 




This book must not 
be taken from the 
Library building. 

Form No. 471 

A Distant View of the Pamunkey Reservation 

The Conquest of Virginia 
The Forest Primeval 

An Account, Based on Original Documents, of the 

Indians in that Portion of the Continent 

in which was Established the First 

English Colony in America 

Conway Whittle Sams, B.L. 

Author of "Sams on Attachment," "Shall Women Vote?" etc. 
Member of the Virginia Bar 

With Illustrations 

G. P. Putnam's Sons 

New York and London 

Cbe Iktiicherbocher ipcess 


Copyright, 19 i6 



"Cbe finfclierboclier press, Hew ISorft 




HENRY WRIOTHESLEY, Earl of Southampton, 







" To teach them moral and physical good, which is 
the end of our planting amongst them ; to let them know 
what virtue and goodness is, and the reward of both; 
to teach them religion, and the crown of the righteous; 
to acquaint them with grace, that they may participate 
with glory; which God grant in mercy unto them." 

William Strachey 


THE present volume is the first of a series 
on which the author has been engaged for 
several years. As the work grew, it be- 
came apparent that it would be better to issue 
its parts, written originally merely as chapters, 
in the form of separate volumes. 

Before beginning the narrative of the events 
which occurred on this continent when the 
English proceeded to take possession of it, it has 
seemed proper to view the country itself, the 
stage upon which so important a drama was to 
be presented, and the race which then occupied 

We are enabled to do this with the aid of the 
writings of those who lived at that period, and 
who participated in these scenes. 

The earliest of these writers, and a very im- 
portant one, is Thomas Hariot. This man was 
well known to Sir Walter Raleigh, who allowed 
him a pension for instructing him in mathe- 
matics. He was sent over by Sir Walter with the 
expedition to Virginia in 1585. He was employed 
in connection with the Roanoke Island settle- 
ment, under the command of Sir Ralph Lane, 
from June, 1585, to June, 1586. He was a man 

viii Preface 

distinguished for his great talents, excelling as 
he did in many departments of learning. He 
was a noted astronomer, and withal a gentleman 
of an affable disposition. ' His work is of endur- 
ing value and interest. 

Captain George Percy, also cited, was a son 
of the Earl of Northumberland. He sailed for 
Virginia in the first expedition, 1606. He was 
twice Governor of Virginia, first from September, 
1609, until the arrival of Gates in May, 1610; 
and again, when appointed by Lord De la Warr 
at the time of the latter's departure, in March, 
161 1, pending the arrival of Dale in May, 1612. 
Percy was a man of great importance. His 
writings are preserved in part in the valuable 
compilation made by the Rev. Samuel Purchas. 

Captain John Smith's first work, the True 
Relation, was followed some years later by his 
General History of Virginia, New-England, and 
the Summer Isles, which, unless otherwise indi- 
cated, is the work herein referred to under his 
name. He was a voluminous writer. 

High in authority among these early writers 
stands William Strachey, of SafiPron Walden, in 
England, who sailed from Falmouth on June 18, 
1609, on one of the ships of the fleet of nine 
vessels then sent out by the Company. 

In this fleet were persons of the first impor- 
tance: Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, 
Captain Christopher Newport, Ralph Hamor, 
and others equally well known. The vessel he 
was in was wrecked on the Bermudas, and there 

Preface ix 

he stayed from July, 1609, until May, 1610, 
when he set sail in one of the two vessels built 
on the Bermudas by the shipwrecked mariners. 
He reached Virginia on the 23d of that month. 
Here for three years he was employed as Secre- 
tary of State and one of the Council with Lord De 
la Warr, the Lord Governor and Captain General 
of the Colony. A good scholar and of an observant 
mind, Strachey gathered during this time the 
material for his Historie of Travaile into Virginia. 
This was composed, as he expresses it, of what 
had been *' gathered and observed as well by those 
who went first thither, as collected" by himself. 

Two manuscript copies of this work, with but 
little variation between them, are in existence. 
One is in the British Museum, Sloane Collection. 
In 1618, it was presented to Lord Bacon. This 
copy was published by the Hakluyt Society in 
1849. From it our extracts are taken. The 
other, in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, has 
not been published. 

Strachey returned to England in 161 1, and 
Alexander Brown fixes the time when this treatise 
was written between the date of his return and 
July 23, 1612, when Captain Argall sailed for 

Strachey must have returned to Virginia, as 
he states that he was "three years thither 
employed." He was still living in 1618, then 
presumably in England. 

He wrote other works, among them an account 

^Genesis of the United States, vol. ii., p. 562. 

X Preface 

of the wreck on the Bermudas. Alexander 
Brown says of him: "We know but httle of 
Strachey; his command of language seems to 
me very striking, and his initials, W. S., are the 
most interesting of the period." This tribute 
was well deserved, for Strachey is one of the 
clearest, most direct, and satisfactory writers of 
that period. It is a pity that his fine work 
should have lain unpublished so long. 

H.nry Spelman, who is quoted so often, 
writes from a close personal knowledge of the 
Indians, having lived among them for some 
time. He was the third son of Sir Henry Spel- 
man, of Congham, Norfolk, and came over to 
Virginia in the same fleet in which Strachey 
shipped in 1609. Spelman's ship was the Unity. 
It was not wrecked, but reached Virginia safely. 
Shortly after his arrival he was carried by Cap- 
tain Smith on an expedition to the Falls of the 
James. Here, unknown to Spelman, he was 
sold to Taux- Powhatan, or, the Little Powhatan, 
a son of the great Powhatan. This son was king 
of the Indian town of Powhatan. Smith sold 
Spelman in exchange for the town, and left 
him with the Indians. Smith wanted Captain 
William West, a nephew of Lord De la Warr, 
to build a town here. But Captain West had 
selected another site and a serious dispute arose 
in consequence. 

After seven or eight days, however, Spelman 
managed to return to the ship and sailed to 
Jamestown. Hither came, soon after, Thomas 

Preface xi 

Savage, who was then hving with Powhatan, 
bringing venison from Powhatan to Captain 
Percy, then President. Savage desired one of 
his fellow-countrymen to go back with him, and 
Spelman was selected. Spelman went willingly, 
food being scarce at Jamestown. Powhatan 
received him kindly, he and Savage sitting 
regularly at his table. He was sent back to 
Jamestown by Powhatan, to tell the English 
that if they would bring to him a ship containing 
some copper, he would give corn in exchange. 
When in response they came, Powhatan killed 
twenty-six or seven of their number. 

While these proceedings were taking place, 
Powhatan sent Spelman, and a Dutchman 
named Samuel, to a town about sixteen miles off, 
called Yaw-ta-noo-ne, where they were to wait 
for him. Here Spelman seems to have stayed 
for some six months. At the expiration of that 
period, the King of Potomac came to visit 
Powhatan, and showed such kindness to Spel- 
man, Savage, and the Dutchman that upon his 
departure they decided to go away with him. 
They had not traveled far when Savage deserted 
them, and going back to Powhatan informed 
him of the departure of his companions. Pow- 
hatan sent after them, demanding their return. 
They refused to comply and proceeded with the 
King of Potomac. One of Powhatan's messen- 
gers with his tomahawk killed the Dutchman. 
Spelman ran off, his pursuers after him, and the 
King of Potomac and his men following in turn. 



The last mentioned overtook and subdued 
Powhatan's men. Spelman, escaping, made his 
way to the Potomac country. 

Here he lived a year or more, making his 
domicile at a town called Pas-ptan-zie. At the 
expiration of that period, Captain Argall, sailing 
up the Potomac River, heard that there was an 
English boy in the region, and sought for him. 
The King of Potomac, hearing of Argall's en- 
deavor, sent Spelman to him. Spelman re- 
turned from the interview, and conducted the 
king to the ship. Then a bargain was struck, 
Captain Argall purchasing Spelman from the 
king for a stipulated amount of copper. 

"Thus," says Spelman, "was I set at liberty 
and brought into England." 

He returned to England in 1611 with Lord De 
la Warr. Later he went back to Virginia, and 
was employed by the Colony as an interpreter. 
In 1618, he was again in England, but returned 
presently to Virginia. In 1619, he was in trouble 
with the authorities for speaking disrespectfully 
of Governor Yeardley to 0-pe-chan-ca-nough, 
and was removed from his office as interpreter. 

At the time of the massacre in 1622, he was 
trading with the Potomac Indians, and on March 
23, 1623, he was killed by the Anacostan Indians, 
on the Potomac, at some point near the present 
site of Washington. His head was cut off, 
and thrown down the bank of the river to his 

His work, a short treatise, was not published 

Preface xiii 

until 1872, and then only in an edition of one 
hundred copies. It is, therefore, very rare. 
There is a good deal of difficulty in the style of 
its composition, but it has strength and is a 
valuable addition to the records of the time in 
which he lived. 

Ralph Hamor, whose Relation is frequently 
mentioned, came to Virginia, like Strachey and 
Spelman, in 1609. He remained in Virginia until 
June 18, 1614, when he returned to England. 
During this period he published his book, which 
appeared in London in 1615. 

During this stay, the Company presented him 
with eight shares, which carried title to eight 
hundred acres. This was no doubt in recognition 
of his valuable service to the Colony. He was 
also a subscriber to the stock of the Company, 
and on that account, and by reason of the trans- 
portation of other persons to Virginia at his 
expense, he must have become entitled to a 
large amount of land. 

His brother Thomas decided to return to 
Virginia with him, and in the spring of 1617 they 
jointly set sail. 

Ralph Hamor became a person of considerable 
importance in the Colony. He was a member 
of the Council both under the Company and 
under the King — that is, from 1621 to 1628, and 
probably later. 

His brother Thomas is believed to have died 
early in 1624. We do not know the time of the 
death of the author. 

xiv Preface 

Thomas Glover, described as "an ingenious 
chirurgion," who had hved some years in Vir- 
ginia, communicated his account, a tract of only 
thirty-one pages, to the Royal Society in 1676. 
A very limited edition of it was reprinted from 
the philosophical transactions of that society, 
in 1904. 

The Beverley referred to so often is Rob- 
ert Beverley, whose entertaining work. The 
History and Present State of Virginia^ belongs 
to a much later period than the above-men- 
tioned works, and, unlike the other narratives, 
is written "by a Native and Inhabitant of 
the Place." It was published in London in 

This gentleman belonged to a well-known 
family of Middlesex County. He married Ursula, 
daughter of the first William Byrd. His father, 
Major Robert Beverley, was Clerk of the House 
of Burgesses, "noted in the early history of 
Virginia as a martyr in the cause of liberty,'* 
says Bishop Meade. During Bacon's Rebellion 
the elder Beverley sided with the King, and 
helped to re-establish the authority of Governor 
Berkeley. But later he fell under the dire dis- 
pleasure of the Governor and others in authority 
by refusing to deliver to them copies of the 
journal of the House of Burgesses without that 
body's consent. All of which arose out of popu- 
lar disapproval of the enforcement of the law in 
regard to establishing towns in each county, and 
other disorders. 

Preface xv 

The historian himself Hved in King and Queen 
County, and there he died. 

Though belonging to a much later period than 
the writers we have mentioned above, there 
were still Indians in Virginia when Beverley 
wrote, — few indeed in the eastern part of the 
Colony, but the Indian power in the west and 
south was as yet unbroken. 

In his writing he seems to have followed in 
many respects the earlier narrators. His work 
is of considerable value. It is well known, and 
much of it is evidently original information. 

These are the principal writers we rely upon 
in the following account. We prefer to repro- 
duce their own words, changed, for the conven- 
ience and pleasure of the reader, only to the 
extent of bringing much of what they wrote 
into conformity with the present spelling. No 
modern writer can equal in authority, nor sur- 
pass in interest, the statements found in the 
original records made by the very men who saw 
these Virginia Indians, and whose feet trod the 
forest primeval in which they dwelt. 

C. W. S. 

Norfolk, Virginia, 
June 28, 1915. 



Beverley's History and Present State of Virginia, Lon- 
don, 1705. 

Burk's History of Virginia. 

Campbell, Charles, History of Virginia, Philadelphia, 
Pa., i860. 

Glover, An Account of Virginia, 1676, Oxford Reprint, 

Hakluyt, Early English Voyages to America, Edin- 
burgh, 1 89 1. 

Hamor's Relation, Reproduction of the London Edi- 
tion of 1615. 

Hariot's Narrative, London Reprint, 1893. 

Hening's Statutes at Large. 

Howe's Virginia, its History and Antiquities, Charleston, 
■ 1845. 

Jones's Present State of Virginia, Sabin's Reprints, No. 5, 
New York, 1865. 

Keith's History of Virginia. 

Kercheval's History of the Valley, Edition of 1850. 

Meade's Old Churches and Families of Virginia, Original 
Edition, Pliiladelphia, 1857. 

Newport's "Discoveries in Virginia," Printed in the 
ArchcBologta Americana, Transactions and Collections 
of the American Antiquarian Society, vol. iv., Boston, 

PuRCHAS, His Pilgrims, London Edition of 1625. 

Records of the Virgi?iia Company, Publication by the Li- 
brary of Congress, 1906. 

xviii Bibliography 

Smith's True Relation, Annotated by Charles Deane, 
Boston, 1866. 

Smith's History of Virginia (General History), Rich- 
mond Reprint, 18 19. 

Spelman, Henry, Relation of Virginia, Printed by James 
F. Hunnerwell, London, 1872. 

Stith's History of Virginia, Sabin's Reprint, New York, 

Strachey, Historie of Travaile into Virginia, Printed for 
the Hakluyt Society, London, 1849. 

Wingfield's Discourse of Virginia, Privately Printed 
by Charles Deane, Boston, i860. 



I. — Introductory ..... i 

II. — The Indian Character ... 25 

III. — The Fashion and Domestic Construc- 
tion OF Indian Society ... 53 

IV. — Marriage 77 

V. — Seasons and Festivals ... 84 

VI. — Fishing, Hunting, and Agriculture 91 

VII. — Canoe-, Arrow-, and Pottery-Making 109 

VIII. — Houses and Towns . . . .128 

IX. — The Towns Located . . .141 

X. — The Falls OF the James . . .161 

XI. — Political Laws and the Art of War 165 

XII. — The Priestly Medicine Man . . 183 

XIII. — HUS-KA-NAW-ING . . . . I9I 

XIV. — The Embalmed Kings and Funeral 

Rites .... . 198 

XV. — Burial Mounds .... 204 

XVI. — Priests and Conjurers . . . 223 




XVII.— Religion 
XVIII. — Powhatan and Wingina 
XIX. — Some Indian Words . 
XX. — The Tribes and Nations 
XXI. — Conclusion 





A Distant View of the Pamunkey Reser- 
vation ..... Frontispiece 

A Wer-6-ance or Great Lord of Virginia 

A Chief Lord of Roanoke 

Aged Men of Pom-e-i-ock 

An Aged Man in his Winter Garment 

The Women Carrying their Children 

One of the Chief Ladies of Se-co-ta 

A Chief Lady of Pom-e-i-ock 

A Couple of Young Women . 

Cooking Fish .... 

Seething of Meat in Earthen Pots 

A Man and his Wife at Dinner . 

Dancing at the Great Feast 

Manner of Praying 

Fishing in the Canoe . 

Canoe Making and Felling Trees 




xxii Illustrations 

Plate i. — Paleolithic Implements from the 

District of Columbia . . .112 

From the American Anthropologist. 

Plate 2. — Paleolithic Implements from the 

District of Columbia . , -114 

From the American Anthropologist. 

Plate 3. — Rude Chipped Implements from the 

District of Columbia . . .116 

From the American Anthropologist. 

Plate 4. — Rude Chipped Implements from the 

District of Columbia . . .118 

From the American Anthropologist. 

Plate 5. — Examples of Fabrics Impressed 
upon Pottery of the Potomac 
Valley 120 

From the American Anthropologist. 

An Indian Town with Cornfield . . .132 

The Town of Pom-e-i-ock . . . .135 

The Unenclosed Town of Se-co-ta . . 137 

Map Showing Principal Portion of the Ter- 
ritory Ruled by Powhatan . . .142 

Map Showing Indian Localities near Roanoke 

Island . . . . . . .160 

The Burial of the Kings .... 201 

The Marietta Mound . . . . .210 

The Great Mound, Showing the Observatory 

Built on it in 1837 .... 212 

Illustrations xxiii 


Carved Stone Found in the Mound . .216 
The Great Mound in 1909 .... 220 

A Priest and a Conjurer in their Proper 

Habits 232 

Their Idol in his Tabernacle , . . 240 

The Idol Called Okee, Qui-6c-cos, or Ki-wa-sa 248 

The Home of a Pamunkey Indian , . 334 

The Conquest of Virginia 



MANY excellent histories of Virginia have 
been written, but the whole story 
has never been told, and probably 
never will be. It has been the method of the 
other writers on this subject to regard the 
acquisition of the territory we occupy as a 
"Settlement" by the English, a peaceful kind of 
settlement, one might infer, and the Indians, 
and the troubles with the Indians, have been 
made to occupy a comparatively inconspicuous 
place in the narrative. Our relations with 
England is the theme these writers have pre- 
ferred to dwell upon, and but little is said of our 
relations with the Indians. 

On the other hand, in the series of historical 
studies of which this is the initial volume, the 
purpose has been to bring out the long and 
difficult struggle which our forefathers had in 
acquiring this goodly heritage. We have, there- 
fore, called the work as a whole The Conquest of 

2 The Forest Primeval 

Virginia, for conquest it was as truly as that of 
Granada by Ferdinand and Isabella, Mexico by 
Cortes, or Peru by Pizarro. 

The conquest on the part of England was com- 
plicated by European rivalry. Spain, the great 
World-Power of that day, claimed this territory 
as her own, and France was equally ambitious to 
acquire it. These three great Powers, therefore, 
were rival claimants, and England had to deal 
with them as well as with the Indians who were 
in actual possession. Spain had led the way in 
the conquest of the New World, and claimed it 
under the discovery of Columbus, and a grant 
from the Pope. She had established herself in 
the southern part of North America, and called 
it Florida. France came behind Spain, but 
claimed title to the country on account of the 
voyage of Verazzano and by virtue of the tradi- 
tions of earlier expeditions. She entered upon 
and attempted permanently to appropriate a 
portion of this southern land, but she was 
forcibly driven out by Spain, and, selecting a 
new location for her Colony, went where Euro- 
pean opposition was less effective. She founded 
her new settlement in the colder regions of the 
north, on the great River St. Lawrence, and 
called the country Canada. From this beginning 
she expanded west and south, and came later 
into a long and dreadful conflict with England 
and the English Colonies. 

With the Spaniards then to the south, and the 
French to the north, England, also claiming the 

Introductory 3 

whole continent on account of the discovery of 
Cabot, decided to proceed to take actual posses- 
sion of the central part of the continent, and 
called it Virginia. 

At the time when our history begins, 1584, 
Elizabeth was Queen of England, having as- 
cended the throne twenty-five years before. She 
was a staunch Protestant. Henry III., the son 
of Catharine de' Medici, — she who had instigated 
the leaders in the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, — 
was King of France, having reigned already ten 
years. Philip II., the most bigoted and perse- 
cuting of monarchs, who had dedicated him- 
self and the resources of his kingdom to the 
extermination of Protestantism, sat absolute 
monarch upon the throne of Spain. He had 
then reigned for twenty-eight years. 

The condition of Europe at this period, and 
far into the seventeenth century, was that of one 
vast battle-field. From every quarter ascended 
to heaven the smoke of burning homes or villages 
or cities. On all sides was heard the heavy 
tramp of marching troops. The news of each 
day was a battle, a conspiracy, or an assassina- 
tion. The world was divided against itself on an 
issue which seemed to threaten one side or the 
other with extermination, as no ground of com- 
promise or adjustment seemed possible. This 
war involved many countries and took various 
names, but one and the same principle was at 
issue — freedom of religion. In Germany it was 
the Thirty Years* War. In France it was the 

4 The Forest Primeval 

religious wars between the Catholics and the 
Huguenots. In Holland it was the war for in- 
dependence from Spain, which lasted eighty 
years. In England it involved endless intrigue 
and a revolution, and had as its most dramatic 
incident and culminating point the defeat and 
destruction of the Spanish Armada, which was 
sent by Philip II. to overthrow and subjugate 
that heretical kingdom, which was, next to 
Holland, the great champion of Protestantism. 

These long and bloody wars were most dis- 
astrous, and are responsible in part for the 
prejudice entertained by some to religion itself. 
But they were fought by the Protestants for 
self-preservation. To have surrendered the 
principle of freedom of religion would have 
changed the whole course of the world's history. 
It was not to be thought of. Self-preservation 
in the cause of freedom of religion was, therefore, 
the principle for which the Protestant hosts were 
contending. The destruction of this freedom, 
and the extirpation of all dissent from the doc- 
trines of the Church of Rome, was the principle 
for which the Catholic Powers were contending. 

Many of the incidents characteristic of this 
long and terrible struggle are familiar to us all, 
but some of them at least should be here briefly 
reviewed, in order to understand the political 
conditions under which Virginia was founded, 
and so properly to appreciate and comprehend 
its deep significance and importance. The 
founding of Virginia was a movement under- 

Introductory 5 

taken by England for the extension of Protes- 
tantism at the time when the following occur- 
rences were taking place. Beginning our list of 
events some thirty years before the first move in 
that direction was made, we therefore mention: — 

The burning alive of Bishops Ridley and 
Latimer and other Protestants by Mary, the 
Catholic Queen of England, in 1555. 

The persecution of the Protestants, which had 
gone on under Queen Isabella and Charles V., 
actively undertaken upon a formidable scale by 
Philip II., 1 56 1, with a view to their complete 

The petition of the Four Hundred nobles 
against the Inquisition in the Netherlands, 1565. 

The revolt of the Protestants in Scotland, 1565. 

The revolt of the Netherlands from Philip II., 

The war which followed this revolt lasted, as 
we have said, eighty years, and covered, there- 
fore, the entire period here reviewed. This war, 
in which England took part, is one of the most 
remarkable struggles recorded in history. It 
resulted in the establishment of freedom of 
religion and the independence of Holland, but 
only after the most appalling losses and heroic 
sacrifices. At the head of the Hollanders stood 
the majestic figure of the great William the 
Silent of Nassau, Prince of Orange, who earned 
his sobriquet of "The Silent" by reason of his 
course on one occasion when, walking with 
Henry II. of France, this monarch, who had 

6 The Forest Primeval 

on'y recently ascended the throne, unfolded 
to him his plans and purposes respecting the 
Protestants, whom he had determined utterly to 
destroy. Philip 11. was to aid him in this plot. 
William listened in silence to what Henry had to 
say, letting the French King disclose all that was 
in his heart, while he dedicated himself to defeat 
those plans. 

The dispatch of the Duke of Alva of Spain, for 
the purpose of subduing the Netherlands, 1567. 

The beheading of the Counts Egmont and 
Horn, by the Duke of Alva, 1568. 

The defeat of Mary, Queen of Scots, in her at- 
tempt to conquer Protestant Scotland, 1568. 

The defeat of the Huguenots in St. Denis by 
the French Catholics, 1568. 

The establishment of the Duke of Alva's 
"bloody tribunal" at Brussels, 1568. 

The rout of the Huguenots at Jarnac; Conde 
killed, 1569. 

The elevation to the leadership of the Hugue- 
nots in 1 571 of Henry of Beam, afterwards 
Henry IV. of France. 

The Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 1572, in 
the course of which 70,000 Protestants were 

The recognition, in 1572, on the part of the 
Northern States of the Netherlands, of William 
the Silent as Stadtholder. 

The siege of Leyden, 1574, by the armies of 

The peace of Chastenoy, 1576, granting the 

Introductory 7 

Protestants free exercise of their religion in all 
parts of France, except Paris. 

The formation in France, 1576, of the Catholic 
League, supported by Philip II., whose object it 
was utterly to destroy the French Protestants. 

The superseding of Don Juan by Alexander 
Farnese as leader of the Spanish forces in the 
Netherlands, in 1578. 

The formation of the Union of Utrecht in 1579 
by the Seven Provinces under William the Silent 
against Philip II. 

The declaration on the part of the United 
Provinces of Holland of their independence from 
Spain, 1581. 

Sir Walter Raleigh's first expedition for Vir- 
ginia, to establish a Protestant Colony in the 
New World, April 27, 1584. 

This event took place at the very height of the 
long and dreadful struggle. Sir Walter Raleigh, 
one of the most interesting figures that has 
moved across the stage of history, hated Spain 
and what Spain stood for, as Hannibal hated 
Rome, and Raleigh's work was in large part 
directed toward establishing in the New World a 
Protestant Power, as a rival to Catholic Spain and 
Catholic France. In the attempt he perished. 
Spain regarded him with the deepest hatred as an 
intruder on the domains which she claimed as her 
own, and because he was an avowed and auda- 
cious opponent of her religion, her policies, and 
her power. At the hands of James I., whose 
influence Sir Walter had sought to extend across 

8 The Forest Primeval 

the ocean, but who now wished to make a family 
alliance with the Spanish King, who was James's 
natural enemy, and at the Spanish King's 
instigation, and in deference to the desire of 
pleasing that monarch, Raleigh, generally re- 
garded as one of the finest types England has 
produced, met his death, and the Colony on 
which he had lavished his care and wealth came 
to naught. But the work which he had been bold 
enough to attempt was taken up by others and 
carried, with labor and difficulty, and again with 
overwhelming loss to those engaged in the enter- 
prise, to a finally successful issue. 

Many of the most stirring incidents of the 
titanic struggle between Catholicism and Pro- 
testantism were still hidden in the future when 
Sir Walter undertook to plant his Colony. 

Virginia was England's bold and determined 
effort, participated in and encouraged by Eliza- 
beth and, at first, likewise by James I., and by 
cities, peers, nobles, members of Parliament, 
men of affairs, and representatives of all classes 
of English citizens, to claim and hold for England 
and for Protestantism a part of the New World 
which was in danger of falling entirely into 
Catholic hands. Had Catholicism acquired this 
domain, such a preponderating influence in the 
affairs of the world at large would have been hers 
that the aim and dream of Philip II., which were 
utterly to exterminate Protestantism from the 
face of the earth, might conceivably have been 
realized. This was the object dearest to the 

Introductory 9 

heart of Philip, and it was the intention of 
Raleigh, as it had been that of the great 
William the Silent, that this object should be 

Catholicism tolerated no dissent from its be- 
liefs. The Moors were conquered and driven 
out of Spain, on the ground that they were 
heretics. The Jews came in for equal condemna- 
tion, and the Protestant Christians were most 
hated of all. Holding the doctrine that no faith 
was to be kept with heretics, the wars which were 
waged against them were of the bloodiest and 
most cruel character. Around the struggle which 
began with Holland, when Spain, under Charles 
V. and his son Philip H., undertook to suppress 
all religious dissent from the doctrines of the 
Church of Rome, by means of the cruelties and 
terrors of the Spanish Inquisition, all the policies 
and armed forces of the nations of Europe gradu- 
ally revolved, as one after the other was drawn 
into the vortex of that mortal struggle. 

After Raleigh's ships had sailed for Virginia, 
then, in the year 1584, these events were still to 
happen: — 

The assassination, July 10, 1584, of William 
the Silent, Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of 
Holland, by a tool of Philip H. 

This event, one of Earth's great tragedies, 
occurred only seventy-four days after the ships 
of Raleigh left England on their voyage for 

Babington's conspiracy in the cause of Mary 

lo The Forest Primeval 

Queen of Scots to assassinate Elizabeth and 
seize her throne, 1586. 

The death of Sir Philip Sidney at the battle of 
Ziitphen, 1586. 

The beheading by direction of Elizabeth at 
Fotheringay Castle, 1587, of Mary Queen of 
Scots, the Catholic pretender to the throne of 
England, for complicity in Babington's con- 

The appearance in the English Channel on 
July 19, 1588, of the Spanish fleet, called the 
Invincible Armada, built by Philip IE, and dis- 
patched, under the command of the Duke of 
Medina Sidonia, to conquer Protestant England 
and subjugate it to Catholicism. Its defeat and 
destruction by Lord Charles Howard, Sir Francis 
Drake, and other English commanders. Sir 
Walter Raleigh himself took an active part in this 

The breaking out in 1588 of a rebellion in Paris, 
at the instigation of Henry, Duke of Guise, the 
head of the Catholic party of France. 

The assassination of Henry HL of France, and 
the ascension to the throne in 1589 of Henry IV. 
of France and Navarre, a Protestant, the first of 
the House of Bourbon. 

The besieging, 1590, by Henry IV., of Paris, 
which refuses him admittance because he is a 

Henry IV.'s conversion to Catholicism, 1593. 

The destruction by Howard, Essex, and 
Raleigh of a Spanish fleet at Cadiz, 1596. 

Introductory ii 

The overthrow of the Roman Catholic League 
by Henry IV. of France, 1596. 

The demise of Phihp IL, September 13, 1598, 
and his succession by his son Philip III., who was 
the persistent enemy of the Virginia Colony at 
Jamestown, as his father had been of the one 
attempted by Sir Walter Raleigh at Roanoke 

The establishment through Henry IV. of 
liberty of conscience and religion for the Protes- 
tants by the issuance of the celebrated Edict of 
Nantes, 1599. 

The expulsion of the Jesuits from England by 
proclamation of James L, 1604. 

The concocting by Catholics of the Gunpowder 
Plot designed to throw the English Government 
into confusion. It was to have been accom- 
plished by springing a mine under the House of 
Parliament and destroying at the same time the 
three estates of the realm, — the King, the House 
of Lords, and the Commons. Guy Fawkes was 
detected on November 5, 1605, in the vaults 
under the House of Lords, preparing the train for 
exploding the mine the next day. 

The foundation of Quebec by the French 
Catholics, 1605. 

The requirement in England of oaths of alle- 
giance recognizing only the Protestant succession 
to the Crown, 1606. 

The departure from London, December 19, 
1606, for the purpose of founding a Colony in 
Virginia, of the Sarah Constant, the Goodspeed, and 

12 The Forest Primeval 

the Discovery, owned by the Virginia Company, 
which had succeeded to the claims of Sir Walter 
Raleigh. These ships landed at Cape Henry 
on the 26th of April, 1607, and on May 13th, 
founded Jamestown, or James City, as it was at 
first called, the first permanent English settle- 
ment in the New World. 

The assassination. May 14, 1610, of Henry 
IV. of France, the great supporter of the Protes- 

The succession to the throne of Sweden In 
161 1 of Gustavus Adolphus, destined to become 
the great champion of Protestantism. 

War in Germany between the two parties, the 
Evangelic Union under Frederick, Elector Pala- 
tine, and the Catholic League, under the Duke 
of Bavaria, 1618. 

The execution, on October 29, 161 8, of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, then in the sixty-fifth year of his 
^g^> by James I. of England, to please Philip 
in. of Spain. 

The beginning in 161 8 of the Thirty Years* 
War between the Protestants and Catholics, 
involving the States of Central Europe. 

The battle of Prague, 1620, resulting in the 
total defeat and ruin of the cause of the Protes- 
tants in Bohemia, and the loss of his crown by 
Frederick V., the son-in-law of King James I. 
of England. 

The driving from Bohemia into exile in 1620 
of the Protestants at the instigation of Ferdi- 
nand 11. 

Introductory 13 

The settlement of New England, at Plymouth, 
December 21, 1620. 

The death in March, 1621, of Philip III. of 
Spain, and his succession by his son Philip IV., 
who continued the religious war with Holland 

The overthrow by King James I., June 26, 
1624, of the Virginia Company which had estab- 
lished the Colony. 

The death on March 27, 1625, of King James 
I., and his succession by his son Charles I., who 
married Henrietta Maria, daughter of the great 
Henry IV. of France. 

The defeat by Tilly, who had been commander 
of the Catholic League, of Christian IV., King 
of Denmark and Norway, and leader of the 
Protestants, at the battle of Lutter, August 27, 

The choosing in 1629 of Christian IV. as head 
of the Protestant League. 

The inauguration of the career of Gustavus 
Adolphus, the great champion of Protestantism, 
by the conquest of Pomerania, 1630. 

The capture and sack of Magdeburg by Tilly, 
May 16, 163 1. 

The defeat of Tilly by Gustavus Adolphus at 
the battle of Leipsic, September 17, 1631. 

The mortal wounding of Tilly, in contest with 
Gustavus Adolphus, near the Lech, April 15, 

The defeat by Gustavus Adolphus, in alliance 
with Charles I. of England, of Wallenstein at 
the battle of Liitzen, and the death of Gustavus 

14 The Forest Primeval 

Adolphus In the moment of victory, November 
i6, 1632. 

The founding of Maryland by Lord Baltimore, 
a Catholic, 1632. 

The assassination of Wallenstein by his officers, 
February 25, 1634. 

The Peace of Prague between the Protestant 
German Princes and the Catholic Emperor, 1634. 

The formation, 1635, under the leadership of 
Richelieu, of an alliance between France and 
Sweden against the two great Catholic states, 
Spain and Austria. 

The death on February 15, 1637, of the 
Emperor Ferdinand II. of Germany, the great 
persecutor of the Protestants, and his succession 
by his son, Ferdinand III. 

The hatching of a conspiracy by the Irish 
Catholics to expel the English and massacre the 
Protestant settlers in Ulster to the number of 
forty thousand, commenced on St. Ignatius' day, 
October 23, 1641. 

The defeat by the Swedes of the Austrians at 
Leipsic, 1642. 

The death of Louis XIII., May 14, 1643, and 
his succession by his son Louis XIV., then an 
infant, Cardinal Mazarin controlling the affairs 
of France. 

The soliciting by the Protestant Princes of 
Germany, oppressed by the House of Austria, 
of the aid of Sweden, 1648, resulting in the 
Treaty of Westphalia, signed on October 24, 1648. 

This famous treaty, which included all the 

Introductory 15 

great and nearly all the minor Powers of Europe, 
established the general condition of Europe for 
one hundred and fifty years, and concludes this 
list of the leading events which marked the 
period just before and during the time of the 
settlement of the Colony of Virginia by England. 

By this treaty the Protestants in Germany 
were protected in their freedom of religion nearly 
to the same extent to which they had enjoyed 
religious toleration under Maximilian 11. The 
Pope protested against this toleration, but his 
protest was disregarded. 

In France the Protestants were still protected 
by the Edict of Nantes, established by Henry 
IV., but which was to be revoked by Louis XIV. 
in 1685, as a result of which fifty thousand fami- 
lies were driven from his kingdom, many of 
whom came to Virginia. 

Religious persecution and strife was, therefore, 
by no means ended even with the establishment 
of the Treaty of Westphalia. 

The condensed summary of events above re- 
produced shows the state of Europe when 
Raleigh, and after him, the Virginia Company, 
undertook to plant an English Protestant Colony 
on the western shore of the Atlantic. 

This Colony was, therefore, the outpost of 
Protestantism, braving not only the ocean and 
the savage inhabitants of a vast and unknown 
continent, but braving the two great rival 
Catholic Powers of Europe, Spain and France. 

A wide and deep distinction exists in this re- 


i6 The Forest Primeval 

spect between the Virginia Settlement and the 
Massachusetts Settlement. The Jamestown 
Settlement was in harmony with, and an exten- 
sion of, the national aims and aspirations and 
with the Orthodox Church of England, having no 
grievance against the mother country, but loving 
her, and seeking to extend her Ideas and her power 
to another continent, which was to be held by 
and for Old England. 

The Plymouth Settlement represented only a 
fraction of the English nation. Puritanism was 
obnoxious to the English Government. King 
James I. hated the Puritans as much as Philip 
IL and Ferdinand IL abhorred the Protestants, 
and determined to suppress them. The founders 
of the Plymouth Colony, having with difficulty 
left England, on account of persecution, had gone 
to Amsterdam In Holland a year before the 
twelve years' truce of the war between Holland 
and Spain was signed. Here they hoped to find 
refuge and a toleration not granted them in 
England, with whose Established Church they 
were at variance on account of Its adherence to 
certain features of the worship which they 
thought partook of the Roman ceremonial. 
After one year's stay at Amsterdam, they re- 
moved to Leyden. Here they lived ten years 
in peace and security. 

For various reasons they decided to go else- 
where. They first thought of lands beneath the 
equator. New Amsterdam (New York) next 
loomed as a possible home. Then they applied 

Introductory 17 

to the Virginia Company for a patent, which they 
could have obtained. On applying to King 
James I. for a guarantee of rehgious Hberty in 
Virginia, to be given under his seal, the King 
refused. They understood, however, that the 
King would not molest them if they conducted 
themselves peaceably. On the strength of this 
understanding, they decided to go. 

From Delftshaven In Holland, these people, 
known in later years as the Pilgrim Fathers of 
New England, sailed in the Speedwell for England. 
They joined others at Southampton, and in the 
Mayflower sailed to Plymouth, Massachusetts. 

These Pilgrim Fathers did not found the 
United States of America. South of them, at 
Jamestown, Virginia, another Colony, more 
truly representative of the ideas of England, their 
common mother country, had been established 
for thirteen years before the Mayflower began her 
journey. In this older Colony representative 
government had already been established and 
Protestantism planted in the New World. 

But for the existence in that part of the world 
of this older Colony, America might not have 
been selected by these people for their settle- 
ment. They did not have to leave Holland. 
They were protected there. That they could not 
accommodate themselves to the form of Protes- 
tantism approved by England made them desire 
to separate themselves from England. This was 
no more heroic than the action of the other men 
of their kindred, who, having no grievance at 

i8 The Forest Primeval 

home, carried the banner of their beloved country 
and its religion and laws voluntarily into the 
wilderness, to extend its power and influence in 
the world at large, and, by resisting Catholicism 
successfully in another continent, prevent the 
total destruction of all the forms of Protestantism, 
Puritanism among them. 

The Virginia Settlement was, therefore, a 
larger, more significant, and nobler movement 
than that of the Plymouth Settlemicnt. It was 
the great national struggle of the whole of 
England, while the Plymouth Settlement was 
that of a part which was out of harmony with 
the whole. 

Real religious freedom was nowhere. The 
Catholics did not tolerate the Protestants, which 
fact was the beginning and cause of all the sub- 
sequent trouble. Virginia did not tolerate the 
Catholics, and was founded with the intention of 
prohibiting any of them from coming to this 
country. New England had no idea of tolera- 
tion, and persecuted those who dissented from 

Maryland, encroaching upon Virginia, and led 
by members of the weaker party in England 
did declare for toleration, but this toleration was 
obligatory under the terms of the charter granted 
to Lord Baltimore, a Catholic. This was no 
doubt prompted by the desire to prevent that 
Colony from oppressing the Protestants — the 
leaders and founders of the Colony being 

Introductory 19 

The founding of Virginia was not the work of 
a single man, nor of a group of men, nor was 
it indeed in any sense a private undertaking. 
Virginia was founded by England, and the man 
at the head of the movement was no less a 
personage than the King of England. James, 
by the grace of God, King of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, Defender of the faith, etc., 
was the director and the guiding hand of the 
movement, though not its immediate originator. 
The actual work was undertaken by others, but 
they were acting under his immediate instruc- 
tions both on sea and land. The form of the 
charter under which they were acting was that of 
a permission to locate and establish a colony in 
Virginia, the transaction thus having a private 
character to the extent of enabling the King to 
disclaim it at any time if he so saw fit, in order 
to avoid international complications if they 
should arise, especially with Spain, the national 
enemy, but with whom England was then at 

The fleet which was to carry over the settlers 
was placed under the sole command of Captain 
Christopher Newport. The King made elabo- 
rate provisions for conducting the affairs of 
the Colony. He put his instructions in writing, 
delivered them, duly signed and sealed, and 
fastened up in a box, to Captain Newport, 
Bartholomew Gosnold, and John Ratcllff. This 
box, kept tightly closed during the voyage, was 
not to be opened until within twenty-four hours 

20 The Forest Primeval 

after they had reached Virginia. These instruc- 
tions contained a large amount of practical 
advice, the combined experience of other coloni- 
zation enterprises, and worked out a general 
scheme of colonial government. It is believed 
that the King did not allow the box to be opened 
until the destined land was reached, in order to 
prevent any conflict of authority arising between 
the commander at sea and the commander who 
would be chosen for the land. Thus the settlers 
did not know who their rulers in the New World 
were to be until the night following the day of 
their arrival. Then they opened this mysterious 
box and learned for the first time that by the 
King's appointment they were to be ruled by 
*'His Majesties Council for the first Colony in 
Virginia," and that this Council was to be 
composed of Captain Edward-Maria Wingfield, 
Captain Bartholomew Gosnold, Captain John 
Smith, Captain Christopher Newport, Captain 
John Ratcliff, Captain John Martin, and Captain 
George Kendall. Captain John Smith was at 
the time under arrest, on account of a mutiny 
which had occurred during the voyage, and was 
not allowed at first to serve. He was kept in 
confinement in all for thirteen weeks, apd was 
not released until June, after the settlement at 
Jamestown had been begun. The other men de- 
signated selected Captain Wingfield as president. 
The movements of the colonists after their 
landing were largely regulated by instructions 
given to them by the Council in England, which, 

Introductory 21 

having been also appointed by the King, of 
course, represented his authority. 

The beginning of this movement under the 
first Charter, that granted on April 10, 1606, 
was, therefore, under the royal authority, and 
this period of the settlement has now come to 
be understood as the period of the King's 
Government. It was not eminently successful, 
and a revolution took place when, in 1609, a 
new Charter was granted, the Company reorgan- 
ized, and power vested more fully in the hands 
of the London Company, as we call it, with a 
vast accession of territory covered by its new 
grant. For fifteen years this Company carried 
on patriotically the movement under that and 
still a third Charter, further enlarging its scope. 
At the close of this decade and a half, the Com- 
pany was finally overthrown by the same King 
James L, who, by a Quo Warranto proceeding, 
revoked these charters on June 26, 1624, and 
resumed the government of the Colony, which 
then continued under the jurisdiction of the 
Crown until the Revolution. 

The undertaking was too great for any in- 
dividual, or set of individuals. The King's first 
Government or Company did not succeed. The 
London Company depleted its treasury in the 
attempt, and met with even greater losses than 
Raleigh himself had suffered. This work was 
governmental in its conception, continental in 
scope, and hazardous in execution. It required 
the resources of an established government to 

22 The Forest Primeval 

bear such burdens, and to carry to a successful 
issue so gigantic an undertaking, and it was the 
estabhshed government of England which began, 
and which finally accomplished, the colonization 
of Virginia. 

The founders of the Colony have suffered a 
slight injury due to the change in the meaning 
of a word. Two classes of persons who aided in 
this great enterprise were called "adventurers." 
This word has in the course of three hundred 
years acquired a meaning different from what it 
bore at the time of the founding of Virginia. A 
more or less bad signification now attaches to 
the word adventurer, and a still worse to the 
feminine form — adventuress. No such meaning 
applied in 1607. The two kinds of adventurers, 
then spoken of were: those who adventured their 
money in the enterprise, whom we would now 
call investors; and those who went further, and 
adventured their persons, these we would now 
call colonists or immigrants. The idea under- 
lying its use in both cases was that in the first 
instance one risked his means in furtherance of 
the enterprise, and the latter that he risked his 
life. The men of that day would have been 
amazed if they had been told that by the use 
of the well-known and deeply significant word 
adventurer, any deduction would in the future 
be drawn that they were of such a class as we now 
think of when we call persons "adventurers.'* 
The patriotic gentlemen, men of affairs, members 
of Parliament, nobles, peers, and great municipal 

Introductory 23 

corporations who subscribed to the stock of this 
company would surely have laughed at being 
called "adventurers" in the modern meaning of 
the word. 

The religious principles which characterized 
the movement at its inception were steadily 
adhered to for many years thereafter. The 
colonists came over with fixed convictions 
and a settled policy as to the government of both 
State and Church. 

As civil government extended, pari passu 
ecclesiastical government extended. Over every 
square mile under the jurisdiction of the county 
court, the jurisdiction of som.e parish, equally 
as vigorous and well defined, also extended. 
Scattered all over Virginia were parish churches, 
chapels of ease, and glebes of ministers. Roman 
Catholics for a long time were not allowed in the 
Colony. Lord Baltimore himself was driven out 
on this ground. 

This ecclesiastical polity of Virginia, as to its 
adherence to the Church of England and its 
parish system, continued in full vigor down 
to the Revolution. 

What made Virginia so much respected by the 
other colonies, by the mother-country, and by 
her own sons was the character of her leading 
people, her orderly governmental construction, 
and the principles for which she stood. Aristo- 
cratic in all social matters, well governed by the 
members of its aristocracy, who filled all public 
offices, and sincerely attached to the Church of 

24 The Forest Primeval 

England, Virginia, during the Colonial period, 
presented to an admiring world a well governed, 
vigorous Colony, loyal to the Crown and loyal 
to the Church. 




ANTHROPOLOGISTS, in studying the 
early races of mankind, and characteriz- 
ing the ages in which they hved by the 
implements they used, have called one the Stone 
Age. This they divide into two principal periods ; 
the first, the rudest and least developed, when 
their stone implements were only chipped and 
rough, they call the paleolithic or ancient Stone 
Age. Then came an advance upon this stage, 
when the men using the stone implements were 
able to make them smooth. This age they call 
the neolithic, or new — that is, the more recent 
Stone Age. To this latter period belonged the 
Indians living in Virginia at the time of the 

Viewed from the standpoint of their develop- 
ment, being cultivators of the soil, they are 
classed as barbarous. West of the Rocky 
Mountains, stretching north into Canada and 
covering Alaska, were Indians who lived only 
by hunting and fishing, and so are classed as 
savage. To the south, in Mexico and Central 
America, were other Indians who, possessing 

26 The Forest Primeval 

some of the arts and sciences, are classed as 

Viewed generically, the Virginia Indians were 
a part of the great Algonquin stock, whose 
branches covered a large portion of the continent 
east of the Mississippi, and reached up into the 
eastern part of Canada. Of this race were 
the Powhatans, the Shawnees, the Delawares, the 
Illinois, the Miamis, the Kickapoos, the Potta- 
watomies, the Ottawas, the Sacs and Foxes, the 
Chippewas, the Objibwas, the Mohegans, the 
Pequots, the Narragansetts, the Wampanoags, 
the Tarratines, the Abenakis, and a host of 

As a little island in this sea of Algonquinism 
were the Winnebagos, on the western shore of 
Lake Michigan, and, as a very large island, 
the Iroquois, stretching from Lake Huron to the 
Hudson, and comprehending the Hurons, the 
Eries, the Six Nations — that is, the Senecas, 
the Cayugas, the Onondagas, the Oneidas, the 
Mohawks, and the Susquehannocks. 

To the south of the Algonquins, whose line 
roughly corresponded to that dividing Virginia 
from North Carolina, lay a branch of the Iroquois 
comprised of the Cherokees and the Tuscaroras. 
They occupied, however, only a part of this 
southern boundary. 

South, southeast, and southwest of these, 
stretching down to the end of Florida, were the 
Maskoki, or Mobilians, comprising the Catawbas 
and the Yemassees; in North Carolina and South 

The Indian Character 27 

Carolina, the Chickasaws and Choctaws; on the 
Mississippi, with a small territory of the Natchez 
Indians between them, the Creeks in Georgia, 
and the Seminoles in Florida. 

All of these nations were subject to many- 
subdivisions of tribes. 

It was with some of the tribes of the Catawbas 
that the Roanoke Island settlers had to deal, as 
it was with the Powhatans that the Jamestown 
settlers were brought into conflict. 

Although grouped under one general name the 
various nations or tribes included under it were 
by no means therefore friends or allies. They 
were often bitter enemies. Examples of this 
abound in all the records of those times. To 
such an extent was this true, that if the Indians 
had not been conquered by the white man, they 
were still in danger of being exterminated by 
each other. 

Of all the things in the forest in which the 
Virginia Indians lived, that which seems to have 
first attracted the attention of the early writers 
was the grapevines. Captain Barlow, in his 
account of the first voyage made on behalf 
of Sir Walter Raleigh, mentions them. They 
climbed to the tops of high cedars, they abounded 
on the sand and on the green soil, on the hills, 
in the plains, on every little shrub. They spread 
their leafy, Briarean arms into the very sea itself. 
Glover tells of this same profusion, and says that 
they twined about the oaks and poplars, and 

28 The Forest Primeval 

ran to the tops of these stately monarchs of the 

Other trees which were important and 
characteristic were the pine, walnut, cypress, 
juniper, ash, elm, gum, locust, maple, willow, 
magnolia, mimosa, honeypod, horse-chestnut, 
chestnut, beech, holly, hickory, sycamore, and 
the live oak; with the dogwood, sassafras, and 
chinkapin of the size of large bushes. The pines 
rose often to a majestic height, and many of the 
others were equally imposing with their centuries 
of growth behind them. 

This forest was inhabited not only by Indians, 
but by wolves, in such numbers that it took many 
years to exterminate them, deer, bears, wild 
cats, raccoons, possums, flying-squirrels, rabbits, 
squirrels, beavers, otters, rattlesnakes, moccasins, 
long black snakes, and short and thick black 
snakes, which also abounded there, and in the 
fields were the corn-snakes. 

There were also eagles, hawks, cormorants, 
fish-hawks, turkey-buzzards, owls, crows, wild 
turkeys, pheasants, partridges, turtle-doves, 
pigeons, mocking-birds, redbirds, blackbirds, 
blue-birds, blue-jays, robins, cedar-birds, cat- 
birds, and humming-birds. 

On the marshes were marsh-hens, snipe, yellow 
shanks, and cranes. 

On the water, in season, were wild ducks, 
brant, geese, and swan, in flocks which were 

In the water were sharks, porpoises, turtles, 

The Indian Character 29 

stingrays, toad-fishes, sheepsheads, drums, stur- 
geons, perches, croakers, tailors, trout, spots, 
eels, crabs, and great shoals of mussels and 

Gnats, flies, and mosquitoes were also there. 

Such, in the rudest outline merely, were the 
flora and fauna of the country inhabited by such 
of the Virginia Indians as were first seen by the 
white man. It was a flat country, only a few feet 
above the level of the sea. It abounded in 
watercourses. The great Atlantic itself washed 
its low-lying, sandy shore; in part it was inter- 
sected by the great Chesapeake Bay, and further 
cut to pieces by broad sounds, majestic rivers, 
and vast arms of the sea. Its prairie-like 
stretches of marsh often formed a characteristic 
feature of the landscape. 

The race of people which lived here was 
strongly marked, and possessed a perfectly well 
defined government. They were of a warlike 
character, blood-thirsty and cruel. They had 
been stationary, so far as progress in the arts is 
concerned, from aboriginal times, apparently, 
and have left us no works by which we can 
remember them; not a ruin, except some scat- 
tered burial-mounds, not a road, scarcely a visible 
vestige of them remains in this part of the world 
to tell the present generation that another, a 
vanished, rather than a conquered, race once 
dwelt upon the soil we occupy. They have, 
however, one set of monuments still left, which 

30 The Forest Primeval 

will probably defy the erosion of time — a few of 
their words still live in the names of streams, 
lakes, places, and counties. These have been 
accepted, and so perpetuated, by the destroyers 
of the race which gave them. 

Still, we know these people fairly well, and 
some of their leading characters, existing at the 
time of the invasion, stand out boldly upon the 
pages of history. The three principal invaders 
of America — the Spaniards, the French, and the 
En'glish, — each pursued, as to the natives, a 
different and a characteristic policy. The Span- 
iards proceeded at once to crush, exterminate, 
annihilate them. The French, with adroitness, 
and a deeply laid policy, courted them, studied 
them, entered into alliances with them, plunged 
into their politics, and fought side by side with 
them in their battles. The English, without 
carrying their diplomacy so far as did the French, 
yet entered into many treaties with them, which 
extended in importance as the Colony stretched 
farther and farther into the west, and came into 
contact with larger nations, and involved also 
other colonies. While a great deal of the for- 
ward movement was by force of arms, an equal 
amount at least was due to these negotiations 
and treaties. Like the French, Virginia, in the 
course of its history, had many treaties of 
friendship and alliance with Indian tribes and 

The Indians were in possession of the country 
when the white man came, and they had not 

The Indian Character 31 

invited him to come over and take their country 
from them. The natural relation of the two 
races was, therefore, one of enmity, which must 
have been accentuated, on the part of the savage, 
by the visible superiority and the irresistible 
encroachments of the invader, and on the part 
of the English, by the barbarous habits and 
savage surroundings of the Indian. 

War with these people was therefore inevitable, 
although we would gladly have avoided it. 
Indeed the conversion of the Indians to Chris- 
tianity was one of the reasons for making the 
settlement, although a subordinate one. That 
settlement had to be made, peaceably, if possible, 
but still it had to be made. There were the 
Indians. With no desire to make war upon them 
nor to exterminate them, but rather with a sin- 
cere intention of improving them, the English 
came. But they came prepared to defend them- 
selves. They brought cannon with them. 

Let us now see what kind of a race of bar- 
barians it was which our English ancestors, men 
who in many cases were fresh from fighting the 
well trained Spaniards in the great war then 
still going on in the highly cultivated Nether- 
lands, were now called upon to confront in the 
tangled forests of the New World. 

Strachey thus describes their color and features : 

"They are generally of a color brown or rather 

tawny, which they cast themselves into with a 

kind of arsenick stone, like red patise or orpi- 

32 The Forest Primeval 

ment/ or rather red tempered ointments of earth 
and the juice of certains crused"" roots, when they 
come unto certain years, and this they do (keep- 
ing themselves still so smudged and besmeered) 
either for the custom of the countr}^, or the 
better to defend them (since they go most what 
naked) from the stinging of musquitoes, kinds of 
flies or biting gnats, such as the Greeks called 
scynipes, as yet in great swarms within the 
Arches,^ and which here breed abundantly 
amongst the marish-whorts"^ and fen-berries,^ and 
of the same hue are their women; howbeit, it is 
supposed neither of them naturally born so 
discolored; for Captain Smith (living sometimes 
amongst them) affirmeth how they are from the 
womb indifferent white, but as the men, so do 
the women, dye and disguise themselves into 
this tawny color, esteeming it the best beauty 
to be nearest such a kind of murrey^ as a sodden^ 
quince is of (to liken it to the nearest color I can) 
for which they daily anoint both face and bodies 
all over with such a kind of fucus^ or unguent as 
can cast them into that stain; after their 
anointing (which is daily) they dry in the sun, 
and thereby make their skins (besides the color) 
more black and spotted, which the sun kissing 
oft and hard, adds to their painting the more 
rough and rugged. 

"Their heads and shoulders they paint often- 

*The trisulphide of arsenic. 'Crushed. 

3 The sailors' term for the Archipelago. ^ The cranberry. 

5 Another name or kind of cranberry. * Mulberry. 7 Boiled. 
* Latin, a red dye, generally understood for alkanet, or rouge. 

The Indian Character 33 

est, and those red, with the root pochone,' brayed^ 
to powder, mixed with oil of the walnut or bear's 
grease; this they hold in summer doth check the 
heat, and in winter arms them in some measure 
against the cold. Many other forms of paintings 
they use; but he is the most gallant who is the 
most monstrous and ugly to behold. 

"Their hair is black, grosse, long, and thick ; the 
men have no beards; their noses are broad, flat, 
and full at the end, great big lips, and wide mouths, 
yet nothing so unsightly as the Moors; they are 
generally tall of stature, and straight, of comely 
proportion, and the women have handsome limbs, 
slender arms, and pretty hands, and when they 
sing they have a pleasant tange^ in their voices. ""^ 

"The men are very strong, of able bodies, and 
full of agility, accustoming themselves to endure 
hardness, to lie in the woods, under a tree, by a 
small fire, in the worst of winter, in frost and 
snow, or in the weeds and grass, as in ambuscado, 
to accomplish their purposes in the summer.' ^ 

"The people differ very much in stature, 
especially in language. Some being very great 
as the Sus-que-han-nocks; others very little, as 
the Wigh-co-com-o-coes ; but generally tall and 
straight, of a comely proportion, and of a color 
brown, when they are of an age, but they are 
born white. Their hair is generally black, but 
few have any beards. The men wear half their 
beards shaven, the other half long; for barbers 

'Puccoon; the blood root. 'Beaten. ^Tone. 

-f Hislorie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 63 s Ibid., p. 68. 


34 The Forest Primeval 

they use their women, who with two shells 
will grate away the hair, of any fashion they 
please. The women's are cut in many fashions, 
agreeable to their years, but ever some part 
remaineth long." 

''They are inconstant in everything, but what 
fear constraineth them to keep. Crafty, tim- 
orous, quick of apprehension and very ingenious. 
Some are of disposition fearful, some bold, most 
cautious, all savage. Generally covetous of 
copper, beads, and such like trash. They are 
soon moved to anger, and so malicious, that they 
seldom forget an injury; they seldom steal one 
from another, lest their conjurers should reveal 
it, and so they be pursued and punished. 

"Their women are careful not to be sus- 
pected of dishonesty without the leave of their 

"They are treacherous, suspicious and jealous, 
difficult to be persuaded or imposed upon, and 
very sharp, hard in dealing, and ingenious In 
their way, and in things that they naturally 
know, or have been taught; though at first they 
are very obstinate, and unwilling to apprehend 
or learn novelties, and seem stupid and silly 
to strangers. 

"An instance of their resolute stupidity and 
obstinacy In receiving a new custom, I have 
seen In the prodigious trouble of bringing them to 
sell their skins, and buy gunpowder by weight; 
for they could not apprehend the power and jus- 

' Smith's General History of Virginia, vol. i, p. 129 et seg. 

The Indian Character 35 

tice of the stihiard' ; but with the scales at length 
they apprehended it tolerably well; though at 
first they insisted upon as much gunpowder as 
the skin weighed, which was much more than 
their demand in measure. 

"They have tolerably good notions of natural 
justice, equity, honor and honesty, to the rules 
whereof the great men strictly adhere; but their 
common people will lie, cheat and steal. 

"An instance of their resolutions for satisfac- 
tion, we have in the death of Major Wynne, who 
was shot by an Indian, because one of our ser- 
vants had killed one of their great men ; and upon 
the trial of the Indian, they pleaded that we were 
the aggressors, and that they never rest without 
revenge and reprisals; and that now they said 
we and they were equal, having each lost a great 
man: wherefore, to avoid more bloodshed, there 
was a necessity to pardon the Indian."^ 

Beverley says: "The Indians are of the mid- 
dling and largest stature of the English. They 
are straight and well proportioned, having the 
cleanest and most exact limbs in the world. 
They are so perfect in their outward frame, that 
I never heard of one single Indian, that was either 
dwarfish, crooked, bandy-legged, or otherwise 
misshapen. But if they have any such practice 
among them, as the Romans had, of exposing 
such children till they died, as were weak and 
misshapen, at their birth, they are very shy of 

' Steelyard — an instrument for ascertaining weight. 
' Jones's Present State of Virginia, pp. 1 1, 13, 17. 

36 The Forest Primeval 

confessing it, and I could never yet learn that 
they had. 

"Their color, when they are grown up, is a 
chestnut brown and tawny; but much clearer in 
their infancy. Their skin comes afterwards to 
harden and grow blacker, by greasing and 
sunning themselves. They have generally coal 
black hair, and very black eyes, which are most 
commonly graced with that sort of squint which 
many of the Jews are observed to have. Their 
women are generally beautiful, possessing an 
uncommon delicacy of shape and features, and 
wanting nd charm but that of a fair complexion. 

''The men wear their hair cut after several 
fanciful fashions, sometimes greased and some- 
times painted. The great men, or better sort, 
preserve a long lock behind for distinction. 
They pull their beards up by the roots with a 
mussel-shell; and both men and women do the 
same by the other parts of their body for cleanli- 
ness sake. The women wear the hair of the head 
very long, either hanging at their backs, or 
brought before in a single lock, bound up with a 
fillet of peak' or beads; sometimes also they wear 
it neatly tied up in a knot behind. It is com- 
monly greased, and shining black, but never 

"The people of condition of both sexes, wear 
a sort of coronet on their heads, from four to six 
inches broad, open at the top, and composed of 
peak or beads, or else of both interwoven to- 

' Beads made from shells. 

The Indian Character 37 

gether, and worked into figures, made by a nice 
mixture of the colors. Sometimes they wear a 
wreath of dyed furs; as Hkewise bracelets on 
their necks and arms. The common people go 
bare-headed only sticking large shining feathers 
about their heads, as their fancies lead them. 

"Their clothes are a large mantle, carelessly 
wrapped about their bodies, and sometimes girt 
close in the middle with a girdle. The upper 
part of this mantle is drawn close upon the 
shoulders, and the other hangs below their knees. 
When that's thrown off they have only for 
modesty sake a piece of cloth, or a small skin, 
tied round their waist, which reaches down to 
the middle of the thigh. The common sort tie 
only a string round their middle, and pass a piece 
of cloath or skin round between their thighs, 
which they turn at each end over the string. 

"Their shoes, when they wear any, are made of 
an entire piece of buck-skin; except when they 
sew a piece to the bottom, to thicken the sole. 
They are fastened on with running strings, the 
skin being drawn together like a purse on the top 
of the foot, and tied round the ankle. The 
Indian name of this kind of shoe is moccasin. 

"But because a draft of these things will 
inform the reader more at first view, than a 
description in many words, I shall present 
him with the following prints' ; wherein he is to 
take notice, that the air of the face, as well as 

' This refers to all the pictures illustrating Indian life which are 
distributed through this volume. 

38 The Forest Primeval 

the ornaments of the body, are exactly repre- 
sented, being all drawn by the life."' 

With reference to the pictures above referred 
to illustrating the Indian habits, customs, and 
houses, we will say that they are those drawn in 
Virginia, in 1585, by John White, one of the 
party which founded the celebrated settlement of 
Sir Walter Raleigh, at Roanoke. The drawings 
of White were carried to Europe the next year, 
and engraved by the famous artist Theodorus de 
Bry, of Frankfort. The original leaves of these 
drawings are now preserved in the British 

These pictures are so well drawn and engraved, 
that they have been reproduced more than once 
before. Fourteen of them are found in Beverley. 
They are also seen in enlarged form in various 
places, and are the most authentic presentation 
we have of this vanished people. 

In this same settlement, was Thomas Hariot, 
from whose narrative of the first plantation in 
Virginia in 1585 we liberally borrow. His work 
was first printed in London in 1588, and after- 
wards, with White and De Bry's illustrations, in 
Frankfort in 1590. A commentator, speaking of 
these, says: "The illustrations are of distinct 
anthropological importance and exactness, and 
convey a clearer notion of the ways and manners 
of the Red Indians at the time of the English 
plantation than any narrative could express." 

It adds an additional interest to these pictures, 

' Beverley's History of Virginia, book 3, pp. 1-3. 


The Indian Character 39 

to know that Sir Walter Raleigh sent White over 
to draw for him pictures of the natives, so as to 
illustrate their habits and customs. They relate 
particularly to the towns of Roanoke, Pom-e-i-ock, 
and Se-co-ta, which were near the Roanoke set- 
tlement, but they are characteristic of the 
whole section, and strictly accord with what 
is written directly relating to the inhabitants 
of Virginia. 

The engraver, De Bry, himself thus speaks of 
these pictures in his dedication to Raleigh of the 
work of Hariot, which was illustrated by them. 
After stating that he thought every one should 
strive to express to Raleigh his appreciation of his 
labors at colonization, he says: "I have thought 
that I could find no better occasion to declare 
it, than taking the pains to cut in copper, the 
most diligently and well that were in my possible 
to do, the figures which do lively represent the 
form and manner of the Inhabitants of the same 
country with their ceremonies, solemn feasts, 
and the manner and situation of their towns or 

"The princes of Virginia are attired in such 
manner as is expressed in this figure.' They 
wear the hair of their heads long and bind up the 
end of the same in a knot under their ears. Yet 
they cut the top of their heads from the forehead 
to the nape of the neck in manner of a coxcomb, 
sticking a fair long feather of some bird at the 
beginning of the crest upon their foreheads, and 

' This refers to the first picture. 

40 The Forest Primeval 

another short one on both sides about their ears. 
They hang at their ears either thick pearls, or 
somewhat else, as the claw of some great bird, 
as Cometh in to their fancy. Moreover they 
either pounce' or paint their forehead, cheeks, 
chin, body, arms, and legs, yet in another sort 
than the inhabitants of Florida. They wear a 
chain about their necks of pearls or beads of 
copper, which they much esteem, and thereof 
wear they also bracelets on their arms. Under 
their breasts about their bellies appear certain 
spots, where they use to let themselves bleed, 
when they are sick. They hang before them the 
skin of some beast very finely dressed in such 
sort, that the tail hangeth down behind. They 
carry a quiver made of small rushes holding their 
bow ready bent in one hand, and an arrow in 
the other, ready to defend themselves. In this 
manner they go to war, or to their solemn feasts 
and banquets. They take much pleasure in 
hunting of deer whereof there is great store in the 
country, for it is fruitful, pleasant, and full of 
goodly woods. It hath also store of rivers full 
of divers sorts of fish. When they go to battle 
they paint their bodies in the most terrible 
manner that they can devise. 

"The inhabitants of all the country for the 
most part have marks rased ^ on their backs, 
whereby it may be known what prince's subjects 
they be, or of what place they have their original. 
For which cause we have set down those marks in 

' Tattoo. * Scratched. 

The Indian Character 41 

this figure, and have annexed the names of the 
places, that they might more easily be discerned. 
Which industry hath God indued them withal 
although they be very simple, and rude. And 
to confess a truth, I cannot remember that ever 
I saw a better or quieter people than they.' 

"The marks which I observed among them, are 
here put down in order following: 

"The mark which is expressed by A.^ belong- 
eth to Win-gi-na, the chief lord of Roanoac. 

"That which hath B. is the mark of Win-gi-na 
his sister's husband.^ 

"Those which be noted with the letters of 
C. and D. belong unto divers chief lords in 

"Those which have the letters of E. F. are cer- 
tain chief men of Pom-e-i-ock, and A-quas-cog-oc."^ 

"The upper part of his hair is cut short, to 
make a ridge, \a hich stands up like the comb of a 
cock, the rest is either shorn off, or knotted 
behind his ear. On his head are stuck three 
feathers of the wild turkey, pheasant, hawk, 
or such like. At his ear is hung a fine shell, with 
pearl drops. At his breast is a tablet or fine shell, 
smooth as polished marble, which sometimes 

' It is to be remembered, in considering this statement, that Hariot 
had no desire to frighten off possible settlers. This would prejudice 
the interests of his patron, Raleigh, to whom this report was made. 

^ See plate, p. 38. Roanoac was the town of Roanoke, on Roanoke 

3 That is, Wingina's brother-in-law. 

^ The places here referred to were in the neighborhood of Roanoke 
Island, where Sir Walter Raleigh's settlement was attempted. 
Hariot's Narrative, iii. and xxiii. 

42 The Forest Primeval 

also has etched on it, a star, half moon, or other 
figure, according to the maker's fancy. Upon 
his neck, and wrists, hang strings of beads, peak 
and roanoke. ' His apron is made of a deer skin, 
gashed round the edges, which hang like tassels 
or fringe; at the upper end of the fringe is an 
edging of peak, to make it finer. His quiver is 
of a thin bark; but sometimes they make it of 
the skin of a fox or young wolf, with the head 
hanging to it, which has a wild sort of terror 
in it; and to make it yet more warlike, they tie 
it on with the tail of a panther, buffalo or such 
like, letting the end hang down between their 
legs. The pricked line: on his shoulders, breast 
and legs, represent the figures painted thereon. 
In his left hand he holds a bow, and in his right 
an arrow. The mark upon his shoulder blade, 
is a distinction used by the Indians in travelhng, 
to show the nation they are of. And perhaps is 
the same with that which Baron Lahontan calls 
the arms and heraldry of the Indians. Thus 
several lettered marks are used by several other 
nations about Virginia, when they make a 
journey to their friends and allies. 

"The Landscape is a natural representation of 
an Indian field. "^ 

" For fishing, hunting and wars, they use much 
their bow and arrows. Their arrows are made 
of some straight young sprigs, which they head 

' A kind of shell money, made of the cockle shell, of less value than 

' Beverley, book 3, p. 3-4. 

The Indian Character 43 

with bone, some two or three inches long. These 
they use to shoot at squirrels on trees. Another 
sort of arrow they use made of reeds. These are 
pieced with wood, headed with splinters of crys- 
tal, or some sharp stone, the spurs of a turkey, or 
the bill of some bird. 

" For his knife he hath the splinter of a reed to 
cut his feathers in form. With this knife also, 
he will joint a deer, or any beast, shape his shoes, 
buskins, mantles, etc. 

"To make the notch of his arrow he hath the 
tooth of a beaver, set in a stick, wherewith he 
grateth it by degrees. 

''His arrow head he quickly maketh with a 
little bone, which he ever weareth at his bracert,' 
of any splint of a stone, or glass in the form of a 
heart, and these they glew to the end of their 
arro\^•s. With the sinews of deer, and the tops 
of deer's horns boiled to a jelly, they make a 
glew that will not dissolve in cold water. ""^ 

"If any great commander arrive at the habita- 
tion of a wer-6-ance,^ they spread a mat as the 
Turks do a carpet for him to sit upon. Upon 
another right opposite they sit themselves. 
Then do all with a tunable^ voice of shouting bid 
him welcome. After this do two or more of 
their chiefest men make an oration, testifying 
their love. Which they do with such vehemency, 
and so great passions, that they sweat till they 

' Bracer, the wrist -guard worn on the left arm as a protection from 
the stroke of the bow-string. 

' Smith, vol. i., p. 132. ^ War captain. ^ Musical. 

44 The Forest Primeval 

drop, and are so out of breath they can scarce 
speak. So that a man would take them to be 
exceeding angry, or stark mad. Such victual 
as they have, they spread freely. 

** Their manner of trading is for copper, beads, 
and such like, for which they give such commod- 
ities as they have, as skins, fowl, fish, flesh, and 
their country corn. But their victuals are their 
chiefest riches."' 

*'The savages bear their years well, for when 
we were at Pa-mon-kies^ we saw a savage who by 
their report was above eight score years of age. 
His eyes were sunk into his head, having never a 
tooth in his mouth, his hair all gray with a 
reasonable big beard, which was as white as any 
snow. It is a miracle to see a savage have any 
hair on their faces, I never saw, read, nor heard, 
any have the like before. This savage was as 
lustie and went as fast as any of us, which was 
strange to behold."^ 

"They walk one after another in a line."'* 

"They are frequently at war with all their 
neighbors, or most of them, and treat their 
captive prisoners very barbarously; either by 
scalping them (which I have seen) by ripping 
off the crown of the head, which they wear on a 
thong, by their side as a signal trophey and token 
of victory and bravery. Sometimes they tie 

^ Smith, vol. i., pp. 136-7. 

2 The territory of the Pa-mun-key Indians, between the Pa- 
mun-key and Mat-ta-po-ny rivers, in Virginia. 

3 Purchas, vol. iv., p. 16S9. 

4 Jones's Present State of Virginia, pp. 8, 12. 

The Indian Character 45 

their prisoners, and lead them bound to their 
town, where with the most joyful solemnity 
they kill them, often by thrusting in several 
parts of their bodies skew ers of light-wood which 
burn like torches. The poor victim all the while 
(which is sometimes two or three days) not shew- 
ing the least symptom of grief, nor sign of pain, 
but bearing it with a scornful sullenness. 

"In their rejoicings and war dances they with 
the most antic gestures, in the most frightful 
dress, with a hideous noise, enumerate the 
enemies, that they have murdered, and such 
like exploits. 

"They attack always by surprise, and will 
never stand their ground when discovered; but 
fly to ambush whither the enemy may pursue 
with peril of his life. 

"They bred no sort of cattle, nor had anything 
that could be called riches. They valued skins 
and furs for use, and peak and re-o-noke' for 

"The Indians never forget nor forgive an 
injury, till satisfaction be given, be it national 
or personal: but it becomes the business of their 
whole lives, and even after that, the revenge is 
entailed upon their posterity, till full reparation 
be made.""" 

This statement is corroborated, and partly 
explained, by Glover, who says: "They are very 
revengeful ; for if any one chance to be slain, some 

' Roanoke, a form of shell money already described. 
» Beverley, book 3, pp. 56-7. 

46 The Forest Primeval 

of the relations of the slain person will kill the 
murderer or some of his family, though it be two 
or three generations after, having no justice done 
amongst them in this respect but what particular 
persons do themselves; if that may be termed 

The use of the conch shell with these people 
was diversified and important. Besides the 
wampum peak, and white peak which as money 
and ornament was made of it, we are told: 

"The Indians also make pipes of this, two or 
three inches long, and thicker than ordinary, 
which are much more valuable. They also make 
runtees of the same shell, and grind them as 
smooth as peak. These are either large like an 
oval bead, and drilled the length of the oval, or 
else they are circular and flat, almost an inch 
over, and one-third of an inch thick, and drilled 
edgeways. Of this shell they also make round 
tablets of about four inches diameter, which 
they polish as smooth as the other, and some- 
times they etch or grave thereon, circles, stars, 
a half-moon, or any other figure suitable to their 
fancy. These they wear instead of medals before 
or behind their neck, and use the peak, runtees 
and pipes for coronets, bracelets, belts or long 
strings hanging down before the breast, or else 
they lace their garments with them, and adorn 
their tomahawks, and every other thing that 
they value. 

"They have also another sort which is as 

' Account of Virginia, p. 26. 

The Indian Character 47 

current among them, but of far less value; and 
this is made of the cockle shell, broke into small 
bits with rough edges, drilled through in the same 
manner as beads, and this they call ro-e-noke, 
and use it as the peak. 

*' These sorts of money have their rates set 
upon them as unalterable and current as the 
values of our money are. 

"The Indians have likewise some pearl 
amongst them, and formerly had many more, 
but where they got them is uncertain, except 
they found them in the oyster banks, which are 
frequent in this country."' 

"Their travels they perform altogether on 
foot, the fatigue of which they endure to admira- 
tion. They make no other provision for their 
journey, but their gun or bow, to supply them 
with food for many hundred miles together. 
If they carry any flesh in their marches, they 
barbicue^ it, or rather dry it by degrees, at some 
distance, over the clear coals of a wood fire; just 
as the Charibees are said to preserve the bodies 
of their kings and great men from corruption. 
Their sauce to this dry meat (if they have any 
besides a good stomach), is only a little bear's oil, 
or oil of acorns; which last they force out, by 
boiling the acorns in a strong lye. Sometimes 
also in their travels, each man takes with him a 
pint or quart of rock-a-hom-o-nie, that Is, the 
finest Indian corn parched, and beaten to powder. 

' Beverley, book 3, pp. 58-9. 

' Roast whole after their manner. 

48 The Forest Primeval 

When they find their stomach empty, (and 
cannot stay for the tedious cookery of other 
things,) they put about a spoonful of this into 
their mouths, and drink a draught of water upon 
it, which stays their stomachs, and enables them 
to pursue their journey without delay. But 
their main dependence is upon the game they kill 
by the way, and the natural fruits of the earth. 
They take no care about lodging in these jour- 
neys; but content themselves with the shade of a 
tree, or a little high grass. 

"When they fear being discovered, or followed 
by an enemy in their marches, they, every 
morning having first agreed where they shall 
rendezvous at night, disperse themselves into the 
woods, and each takes a several way, that so, 
the grass or leaves being but singly prest, may 
rise again, and not betray them. For the 
Indians are very artful in following a track, even 
where the impressions are not visible to other 
people, especially if they have any advantage 
from the loosness of the earth, from the stifi^ness 
of the grass, or the stirring of the leaves, which 
in the winter season lie very thick upon the 
ground ; and likewise afterwards, if they do not 
happen to be burned. 

"When in their travels, they meet with any 
waters, which are not fordable, they make canoes 
of birch bark, by flipping it whole off the tree, in 
this manner. First, they gash the bark quite 
round the tree, at the length they would have the 
canoe of, then slit down the length from end to 

The Indian Character 49 

end; when that is done, they with their toma- 
hawks easily open the bark, and strip it whole off. 
Then they force it open with sticks in the middle, 
slope the underside of the ends, and sew them 
up, which helps to keep the belly open, or if the 
birch trees happen to be small, they sew the 
bark of t\\'0 together; the seams they dawb with 
clay or mud, and then pass over in these canoes 
by two, three, or more at a time, according as 
they are in bigness. By reason of the lightness 
of these boats, they can easily carry them over 
land, if they foresee that they are like to meet 
with any more waters, that may impede their 
march; or else they leave them at the water-side, 
making no further account of them; except it 
be to repass the same waters in their return. 

"They have a peculiar way of receiving 
strangers, and distinguishing whether they come 
as friends or enemies; tho' they do not under- 
stand each other's language: and that is by a 
singular method of smoking tobacco; in which 
these things are always observed. 

" I. They take a pipe much larger and bigger 
than the common tobacco pipe, expressly made 
for that purpose, with which all towns are plen- 
tifully provided; they call them the Pipes of 

"2. This pipe they always fill with tobacco 
before the face of the strangers, and light it. 

"3. The chief man of the Indians, to whom 
the strangers come, takes two or three whiffs, 
and then hands it to the chief of the strangers. 

50 The Forest Primeval 

"4. If the stranger refuses to smoke in it, 'tis 
a sign of war. 

"5. If it be peace, the chief of the strangers 
takes a whiff or two in the pipe, and presents it 
to the next great man of the town, they come to 
visit: he, after taking two or three whiffs, gives 
it back to the next of the strangers, and so on 
alternately, until they have past all the persons 
of note on each side, and then the ceremony is 

"After a little discourse, they march together 
in a friendly manner into the town, and then 
proceed to explain the business upon which they 
came. This method is as general a rule among 
all the Indians of those parts of America, as the 
flag of truce is among the Europeans. And tho* 
the fashion of the pipe differ, as well as the orna- 
ments of it, according to the humor of the sev- 
eral nations, yet 'tis a general rule, to make these 
pipes remarkably bigger, than those for common 
use, and to adorn them with beautiful wings, and 
feathers of birds, as likewise with peak, beads, 
or other such foppery. Father Lewis Henepin 
gives a particular description of one, that he 
took notice of, among the Indians, upon the 
lakes wherein he travelled. He describes it by 
the name of Calumet of Peace, and his words are 
these. Book i, chap. 24: 

"'This calumet is the most mysterious thing 
in the world, among the savages of the continent 
of Northern America; for it is used in all their 
important transactions: however, it is nothing 

The Indian Character 51 

else but a large tobacco pipe, made of red, black 
or white marble: the head is finel}/- polished, and 
the quill, which is commonly two feet and a-half 
long, is made of a pretty strong reed, or cane, 
adorned with feathers of all colors, interlaced 
with locks of women's hair. They tie to it two 
wings of the most curious birds they can find, 
w^hich makes their calumet not much unlike 
Mercury's wand, or that staff ambassadors did 
formerly carry, when they went to treat of peace. 
They sheath that reed into the neck of birds they 
call huars, which are as big as geese, and spotted 
with black and white: or else of a sort of ducks, 
which make their nests upon trees, tho' the water 
be their ordinary element: and whose feathers be 
of many different colors. However, every na- 
tion adorns their calumet as they think fit, 
according to their own genius, and the birds 
they have in their country. 

"*Such a pipe is a pass and safe-conduct among 
all the allies of the nation who has given it. And 
in all embassies, the ambassador carries that 
calumet, as the symbol of peace, which is always 
respected. For the savages are generally per- 
suaded, that a great misfortune would befall 
them, if they violated the public faith of the 

"'All their enterprises, declarations of war, 
or conclusions of peace, as well as all the rest of 
their ceremonies, are sealed (if I may be per- 
mitted to say so), with this calumet. They fill 
that pipe with the best tobacco they have, and 

52 The Forest Primeval 

then present it to those, with whom they have 
concluded any great affair; and smoke out of the 
same after them. ' 

"In Table 6/ is seen the calumet of peace, 
drawn by Lahontan, and one of the sort which I 
have seen. 

"They have a remarkable way of entertaining 
all strangers of condition, which is performed 
after the following manner. First, the king or 
queen with a guard, and a great retinue march 
out of the town, a quarter or half a mile, and 
carry mats for their accommodation: when they 
meet the strangers, they invite them to sit down 
upon those mats. Then they pass the ceremony 
of the pipe, and afterwards, having spent about 
half an hour in grave discourse, they get up 
all together and march into the town. Here 
the first compliment, is to wash the courteous 
traveller's feet; then he is treated at a sumptuous 
entertainment served up by a great number of 
attendants. After which he is diverted with 
antique Indian dances, performed both by men 
and women, and accompanied with great variety 
of wild music. "^ 

' See picture, page 60. 

' Beverley, book 3, pp. 18-22. 



SMITH gives us an account of the fashions 
prevailing among the native Inhabitants 
of Virginia, in the year 1607, which 
presents somewhat of a contrast to those of the 
present day. He says: *'For their apparel, they 
are sometimes covered with the skins of wild 
beasts, which in winter are dressed with the hair, 
but in summer without. The better sort use 
large mantles of deer-skins, not much differing 
in fashion from the Irish mantles. Some em- 
broidered with white beads, some with copper, 
others painted after their manner. But the 
common sort have scarce to cover their naked- 
ness, but with grass, the leaves of trees, or such 
like. We have seen some use mantles made of 
turkey-feathers, so prettily wrought and woven 
with threads that nothing could be discerned 
but the feathers. That was exceedingly warm 
and very handsome. They adorn themselves 
most with copper beads and paintings. Their 
women, some have their legs, hands, breasts, and 

54 The Forest Primeval 

face cunningly embroidered' with divers works, 
as beasts, serpents, artificially wrought into their 
flesh with black spots. In each ear commonly 
they have three great holes, whereat they hang 
chains, bracelets, or copper. Some of their 
men wear in those holes, a small green and yel- 
low colored snake, near half a yard in length, 
which crawling and lapping herself about his 
neck, oftentimes familiarly would kiss his lips. 
Others wear a dead rat tied by the tail. Some 
on their heads wear the wing of a bird, or some 
large feather with a rattle. Many have the 
whole skin of a hawk or some strange fowl, 
stuffed with the wings abroad. Others a broad 
piece of copper, and some the hand of their 
enemy dried. Their heads and shoulders are 
painted red with the root po-cone, brayed^ to 
powder mixed with oil, this they hold^ in sum- 
mer to preserve them from the heat, and in 
winter from the cold. Many other forms of 
paintings they use, but he is the most gallant, 
that is the most monstrous to behold. "'^ 

Spelman assigns a reason for the style of wear- 
ing their hair: 

"The common people have no beards at all for 
they pull away their hair as fast as it grows. 
And they also cut the hair on the right side of 
their head that it might not hinder them by 
flapping about their bow-string, when they draw 
it to shoot. But on the other side they let it 

' Tattooed. » Beaten. » Believe. 

4 Smith, vol. i., pp. 129-30. 

Construction of Indian Society 55 

grow and have a long lock hanging down their 

These long locks were what we have heard of' 
as the scalp-locks, which were cut around and 
torn dripping with blood from their heads by 
their victorious enemies, who kept and prized 
them as trophies of their valor. 

"The chief men of the island and town of 
Roanoac ^ wear the hair of the crown of their 
heads cut like a coxcomb, as the others do. The 
rest they wear long as women and truss them up 
in a knot in the nape of their necks. They hang 
pearls strung upon a thread at their ears, and 
wear bracelets on their arms of pearls, or small 
beads of copper or of smooth bone called minsal, 
neither painting nor pouncing^ themselves; but 
in token of authority and honor, they wear a 
chain of great pearls, or copper beads, or smooth 
bones about their necks and a plate of copper 
hanging upon a string. From the navel unto 
the middle of their thighes they cover themselves 
before and behind as the women do, with a deer 
skin handsomely dressed and fringed. More- 
over they fold their arms together as they walk, or 
as they talk one with another in sign of wisdom. 
The Isle of Roanoac is very pleasant, and hath 
plenty of fish by reason of the water that environ- 
eth the same.""^ 

"In their opinion, they are finest when dressed 

' Spelman's Relation of Virginia, p. 52. 

^ The island near the seacoast of North Carolina, between Albe- 
marle and Pamlico Sounds. 

3 Tattooing. ■» Hariot's Narrative, vii. 

56 The Forest Primeval 

most ridiculously or terribly. Thus some have 
their skins ail over curiously wrought with bluish 
lines and figures, as if done with gun-powder and 
needles, and all of them delight in being painted; 
so that when they are very fine, you may see 
some of them with their hair cut off on one side, 
and a long lock on the other. The crown being 
crested and bedaubed with red lead and oil; 
their forehead being painted white, and it may be 
their nose black, and a circle of blue round one 
eye, with the cheek red, and all the other side of 
the face yellow, or in some such fantastical 
manner. These colors they buy of us, being 
persuaded to despise their own, which are com- 
mon and finer."' 

"The people of condition of both sexes, wear 
a sort of coronet on their heads, from 4 to 6 Inches 
broad, open at the top, and composed of peak, 
or beads, or else of both interwoven together, 
and worked into figures, made by a nice mixture 
of the colors. Sometimes they wear a wreath of 
dyed furs ; as likewise bracelets on their necks and 
arms. The common people go bare-headed, only 
sticking large shining feathers about their heads, 
as their fancies lead them. 

"Their shoes, when they wear any, are made of 
an entire piece of buck-skin; except when they 
sew a piece to the bottom to thicken the sole. 
They are fastened on with running strings, the 
skin being drawn together like a purse on the 
top of the foot, and tied around the ankle. 

* Jones's Present State of Virginia, p. 1 1. 

Construction of Indian Society 57 

The Indian name of this kind of shoe is 

"The aged men of Pom-e-i-ock are covered 
with a large skin which Is tied upon their shoul- 
ders on one side and hangeth down beneath their 
knees wearing their other arm naked out of the 
skin, that they may be at more liberty. Those 
skins are dressed with the hair on, and lined 
with other furred skins. The young men suffer 
no hair at all to grow upon their faces but as 
soon as they grow they put them away, but 
when they are come to years they suffer them 
to grow, although, to say truth, they come up 
very thin. They also wear their hair bound up 
behind, and have a crest on their heads like the 

"Seldom any but the elder people wore the 
winter cloaks (which they call match-coats), till 
they got a supp'y of European goods, and now 
most have them of one sort or other in the cold 
winter weather. Figure i wears the proper 
Indian match-coat, which is made of skins, 
dressed with the fur on, sewed together, and worn 
with the fur Inwards, having the edges also 
gashed for beauty's sake. On his feet are moc- 
casins. By him stand some Indian cabins on the 
banks of the river. Figure 2 wears the Dufheld 
match-coat, bought of the English, on his head 
is a coronet of peak, on his legs are stockings 
made of Duffields. That is, they take a length 

» Beverley, book 3, pp. 2-3. 
* Hariot's Narrative, ix. 

58 The Forest Primeval 

to reach from the ankle to the knee, so broad as 
to wrap round the leg; this they sew together, 
letting the edges stand out an inch beyond the 
seam. When this is on, they garter below the 
knee, and fasten the lower end in the moccasin. " ' 

We presume that the word "match-coat" is 
derived from the Indian word match-cores, \^ hich 
meant skins or garments.'' 

The next picture, which is the original of 
Figure i, already given, is particularly interest- 
ing in presenting, in the background, the appear- 
ance, at a distance, of one of the Indian towns, 
showing the enclosing palisade, and the regular- 
ity of the corn fields surrounding it. In the first 
of the upper fields, on the right, is the little cabin, 
in which the man sat, to protect the corn from 
the birds and beasts which would otherwise 
devour it. 

"The women of Se-co-tam are of reasonably 
good proportion. In their going they carry their 
hands dangling down, and are dadiP in a deer 
skin very excellently well dressed, hanging down 
from their navel unto the midst of their thighs, 
which also covereth their hinder parts. The 
rest of their bodies are all bare. The fore part of 
their hair is cut short, the rest is not over long, 
thin and soft, and falling down about their shoul- 
ders: They wear a wreath about their heads. 
Their foreheads, cheeks, chin, arms and legs are 

' Beverley, book 3, pp. 4-5. 
' Smith, vol. i., p. 147. 
3 Clothed with an apron. 

Construction of Indian Society 59 

pounced.' About their necks they wear a chain, 
either pricked or painted. 

"They have small eyes, plain and flat noses, 
narrow foreheads, and broad mouths. For the 
most part they hang at their ears chains of long 
pearls, and of some smooth bones. Yet their 
nails are not long, as the women of Florida. 
They are also delighted with walking into the 
fields, and beside the rivers, to see the hunting 
of deer and catching of fish. "^ 

Strachey tells us more particularly about this 
pouncing. He says: 

"The women have their arms, breasts, thighs, 
shoulders, and faces, cunningly embroidered with 
divers works, for pouncing or searing their skins 
with a kind of instrument heated in the fire. 
They figure therein flowers and fruits of sundry 
lively kinds, as also snakes, serpents, eftes,^ &c., 
and this they do by dropping upon the seared 
flesh sundry colors, which, rubbed into the 
stamp, will never be taken away again, because 
it will not only be dried into the flesh, but grow 
therein. "4 

"The method the women have of carrying their 
children after they are sufi^ered to crawl about, is 
very particular; they carry them at their backs 
in summer, taking one leg of the child In their 
hand over their shoulder; the other leg hanging 
down, and the child ah the while holding fast 

' Tattooed. ^ Hariot's Narrative, iv. 

3 Small lizards. 

4 Historic of Travaile into Virginia, p. 66. 

6o The Forest Primeval 

with its other hand; but in winter they carry 
them in the hollow of their match-coat at their 
back, leaving nothing but the child's head out, as 
appears by the figure."' 

"Men, women, and children have their several 
names according to the several humor of their 
parents. Their women (they say) are easily 
delivered of child, yet do they love children very 
dearly. To make them hardy, in the coldest 
mornings they wash them in the rivers, and by 
painting and ointments so tan their skins, that 
after a year or two, no weather will hurt 

"The manner of the Indians treating their 
young children is very strange, for instead of 
keeping them warm, at their first entry into the 
world, and wrapping them up, with I don't know 
how man)^ clothes, according to our fond custom; 
the first thing they do, is to dip the child over 
head and ears In cold water,^ and then to bind 
it naked to a convenient board ; but they always 
put cotton, wool, fur, or other soft thing, for the 
body to rest easy on, between the child and the 
board. In this posture they keep it several 
months, till the bones begin to harden, the 
joints to knit, and the limbs to grow strong; 
and they then let It loose from the board, suffer- 
ing it to crawl about except when they are feeding 
or playing with it. 

' Beverley, book 3, p. 10. 
' Smith, vol. i., p. 131. 

3 Aristotle states that this custom was In favor with many bar- 
barians. Politics, book vii 

Construction of Indian Society 6i 

"While the child is thus at the board, they 
either lay it flat on its back, or set it lean- 
ing on one end, or else hang it up by a string 
fastened to the upper end of the board for 
that purpose. The child and board being all 
this while carried about together. As our 
women undress their children to clean them and 
shift their linen, so they do theirs to wash and 
grease them."' 

Spelman adds the following: 

"After the mother is delivered of her child 
within some few days after the kinsfolk and 
neighbors being entreated thereunto, come unto 
the house: where being assembled the father 
takes the child in his arms: and declares that his 
name shall be, as he then calls him, so his name is; 
which done the rest of the day is spent in feasting 
and dancing."'' 

"About 20 miles from that Island,^ near the 
lake of Pa-quip-pe,"^ there is another town called 
Pom-e-i-ock, hard by the sea.^ The apparel of 
the chief ladies of that town difl'ereth but little 
from the attire of those which live in Roanoac.^ 
For they wear their hair trussed up in a knot, as 
the maidens do which we spoke of before, and 
have their skins pounced*^ in the same manner, 
yet they wear a chain of great pearls, or beads of 
copper, or smooth bones, five or six fold about 

' Beverley, book 3, pp. 9-10. 
^ Spelman 's Relation of Virgmia, p. 38. 
3 Roanoke. 4 Mattamuskeet, 

s Pamlico Sound. ' Tattooed. 

62 The Forest Primeval 

their necks, bearing one arm in the same, in the 
other hand they carry a gourd full of some kind 
of pleasant liquor. They tie deer's skin doubled 
about them crossing higher about their breasts, 
which hangs down before almost to their knees, 
and are almost altogether naked behind. Com- 
monly their young daughters of seven or eight 
years of age do wait upon them, wearing about 
them a girdle of skin."' 

"The boy wears a necklace of runtees,^ in his 
right hand is an Indian rattle, and in his left, a 
roasting-ear of corn. Round his waist is a small 
string, and another brought cross through his 
crotch, and for decency a soft skin is fastened 

"Their elder women are cooks, barbers, and 
for service; the younger for dalliance. The 
women hang their children at their backs in 
summer naked, in winter under a deer skin. 
They are of modest behaviour. They seldom 
or never brawl. In entertaining a stranger, they 
spread a mat for him to sit down, and dance 
before him. They wear their nails long to flay"^ 
their deer: they put bow and arrows into 
their children's hands before they are six years 

"Virgins of good parentage are appareled alto- 
gether like the women of Secota above mentioned, 
saving that they wear hanging about their necks 

' Hariot's Narrative, viii. ' Disks of shells used as ornaments. 
3 Beverley, book 3, p. 7. '• Strip off the skin of. 

* Purchas, vol. v., p. 844. 

Construction of Indian Society 63 

instead of a chain certain thick and round pearls, 
with Httle beads of copper, or polished bones be- 
tween them. Their hair is cut with two ridges 
above their foreheads, the rest is trussed up on a 
knot behind, they have broad mouths, reasonable 
fair black eyes: they lay their hands often upon 
their shoulders, and cover their breasts in token of 
maidenlike modesty. The rest of their bodies 
are naked, as in the picture is to be seen. 

They delight also in seeing fish taken in the 


"There is notice to be taken to know married 
women from maids, the maids you shall always 
see the fore part of their head and sides shaven 
close, the hinder part very long, which they tie 
in a plait hanging down to their hips. The 
married women wear their hair all of a length, 
and it is tied of that fashion that the maids are. 
The women kind in this country doth pounce 
and rase^ their bodies, thighs, arms and faces 
with a sharp iron, which makes a stamp in cu- 
rious knots, and draws the proportion of fowls, 
fish, or beasts, then with paintings of sundry 
lively colors, they rub it into the stamp which 
will never be taken away, because it is dried into 
the flesh where it is sered. "^ 

"The Indian damsels are full of spirit, and 
from thence are always inspired with mirth and 
good humor. They are extremely given to laugh, 
which they do with a grace not to be resisted. 

' Hariot's Narrative, vi. * Tattoo and mark. 

3 Secured. Purchas, vol. iv., p. 1689. 

64 The Forest Primeval 

The excess of Hfe and fire, which they never fail 
to have, makes them froHcsome, but without any 
real imputation to their innocence. However, 
this is ground enough for the Enghsh, who are not 
very nice in distinguishing betwixt guilt, and 
harmless freedom, to think them incontinent. 

*'The dress of the women is httle different from 
that of the men, except in the tying of their hair. 
The ladies of distinction wear deep necklaces, 
pendants and bracelets, made of small cylinders 
of the conque shell, which they call peak. They 
likewise keep their skin clean, and shining with 
oil, while the men are commonly bedaubed all 
over with paint. 

"They are remarkable for having small round 
breasts and so firm, that they are hardly ever 
observed to hang down, even in old women. 
They commonly go naked as far as the navel 
downward, and upward to the middle of the 
thigh, by which means they have the advantage 
of discovering their fine limbs, and complete 

A sample of the way these girls sometimes did 
is given us in the following, which describes a 
dance gotten up by Pocahontas, to entertain 
Captain Smith, while waiting for her father to 
make his appearance: 

"In a fair plain field they made a fire, before 
which he sat down upon a mat, when suddenly 
amongst the woods was heard such a hideous 
noise and shrieking, that the English betook 

» Beverley, book 3, pp. 9, 6, 7. 

Construction of Indian Society 65 

themselves to their arms, and seized on two or 
three old men by them, supposing Powhatan, 
with all his power, was coming to surprise them. 
But presently Pocahontas came, willing him to 
kill her, if any hurt were intended ; and the be- 
holders, which were men, women and children, 
satisfied the Captain that there was no such 
matter. Then presently they were presented 
with this antic; thirty young women came naked 
out of the woods, only covered behind and before 
with a few green leaves, their bodies all painted, 
some of one color, some of another, but all differ- 
ing; their leader had a fair pair of buck's horns 
on her head, and an otter's skin at her girdle, and 
another at her arm, a quiver of arrows at her 
back, a bow and arrows in her hand: the next 
had in her hand a sword, another a club, another 
a potstick; all of them being horned alike: the 
rest were all set out with their several devices. 
These fiends, with most hellish shouts and cries, 
rushing from among the trees, cast themselves 
in a ring about the fire, singing and dancing with 
most excellent ill variety, oft falling into their 
infernal passions, and then solemnly betaking 
themselves aga n to sing and dance; having 
spent near an hour in this mascarado,' as they 
entered, in like manner they departed."^ 

*' Their women know how to make earthen 
vessels with special cunning, and that so large 
and fine that our potters with their v.heels can 
make no better: and then remove them from 

' Masquerade. * Beverley, book 3, p. 55. 

66 The Forest Primeval 

place to place as easily as we can do our brassen 
kettles. After they have set them upon an 
heap of earth to stay them from falling, they put 
wood under, which being kindled one of them 
taketh great care that the fire burn equally 
round about. They or their women fill the vessel 
with water, and then put they in fruit, flesh, 
and fish, and let all boil together like a gallie- 
maufrye,' which the Spaniards call, olla pod rid a. 
Then they put it out into dishes, and set before 
the company, and then they make good cheer 
together. Yet are they moderate in their eat- 
ing, whereby they avoid sickness."^ 

"The women have a great care to maintain and 
keep firelight still within their houses, and if at 
any time it go out, they take it for an evil sign, 
but if it be out they kindle it again presently, by 
chaffing a dry pointed stick in a hole of a little 
square piece of wood; that firing Itself will so 
fire moss, leaves, or any such like thing that is 
apt quickly to burn."^ 

''After they have taken store of fish, they get 
them unto a place fit to dress it. There they 
stick up in the ground four stakes In a square 
room,^ and lay four potes^ upon them, and others 
over thwart the same like unto an hurdle,^ they 
make a fire underneath to broil the same, not 
after the manner of the people in Florida, which 
do but schorte,^ and harden their meat in the 

' Hash. ^ Harlot's Narrative, xv. 

3 Strachey, Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 112. 

4 In the form of a square. s Sticks. ^ Gridiron. "> Cut. 

Construction of Indian Society 67 

smoke only to reserve the same during all the 
winter. I'or this people reserving nothing for 
store, they do broil, and spend away all at once, 
and when they have further need, they roast or 
seethe' fresh, as we shall see hereafter. And 
when as the hurdle cannot hold all the fish, they 
hang the rest by the fires on sticks set up in the 
ground against the fire, and then they finish the 
rest of their cookery. They take good heed 
that they be not burnt. When the first are 
broiled they lay others on, that were newly 
brought, continuing the dressing of their meat 
in this sort, until they think they have suffi- 

"Their cookery has nothing commendable in 
it, but that it is performed with little trouble. 
They have no other sauce but a good stomach, 
which they seldom want. They boil, broil or 
rost all the meat they eat, and it is very common 
with them to boil fish as well as flesh with their 
homony; this is Indian corn soaked, broken in 
a mortar, husked, and then boiled in water 
over a gentle fire, for ten or twelve hours, to the 
consistence of furmity.^ The thin of this is, what 
my Lord Bacon calls cream of maize, and highly 
commends for an excellent sort of nutriment. 

"They have two ways of broiling, viz. : one by 
laying the meat itself upon the coals, the other 
by laying it upon sticks raised upon forks at 
some distance above the live coals, which heats 

' Boil. » Harlot's Narrative, xiv. 

3 Hulled wheat boiled in milk and seasoned. 

68 The Forest Primeval 

more gently, and drys up the gravy; this they, 
and we also from them, call barbecuing. 

"They skin and paunch' all sorts of quad- 
rupeds; they draw and pluck their fowl; but 
their fish they dress with their scales on, without 
gutting; but in eating they leave the scales, 
entrails and bones to be thrown away. 

"They never serve up different sorts of victuals 
in one dish; as roast and boiled fish and flesh, 
but always serve them up in several vessels. 

"They bake their bread either in cakes before 
the fire, or in loaves on a warm hearth, covering 
the loaf first with leaves, then with warm ashes, 
and afterwards with coals over all. Their food 
is fish and flesh of all sorts, and that which 
participates of both, as the beaver, a small kind 
of turtle or terrapin, (as we call them) and several 
species of snakes. They likewise eat grubs, the 
nymphe ^ of wasps, some kinds of scarabaei,^ 
cicadae,^ etc. 

"They eat all sorts of peas, beans, and other 
pulse,^ both parched and boiled. They make 
their bread of the Indian corn, wild oats, or the 
seed of the sunflower. But when they eat their 
bread, they eat it alone, not with their meat. 
They have no salt among them, but for seasoning 
use the ashes of hickory, stickweed,® or some other 
wood or plant affording a salt ash. 

"They delight much to feed on roasting-ears; 

' Eviscerate. * Chrysalis. ^ Beetles. 4 Locusts, 

s Plants cultivated as field or garden crops which can be gathered 
by hand without cutting. 
* Stickseed. 

Construction of Indian Society 69 

that is, the Indian corn, gathered green and 
milky, before it is grown to its full bigness, and 
roasted before the fire, in the ear. For the sake 
of this diet, which they love exceedingly, they 
are very careful to procure all the several sorts 
of Indian corn before mentioned, by which 
means they contrive to prolong their season. 
And indeed this is a very sweet and pleasing 

"They have growing near their towns, peaches, 
strawberries, cushaws, ' melons, pompions, ^ 
matcocksj^ &c. The cushaws and pompions 
they lay by, which vsill keep several months good 
after they are gathered; the peaches they save, 
by drying them in the sun; they have likewise 
several sorts of the phaseoli.'' 

"In the woods they gather chlncapins, chest- 
nuts, hiccories, and walnuts. The kernels of the 
hiccories they beat in a mortar with water, and 
make a white liquor like milk, from whence they 
call our milk hickory. Hazlenuts they will not 
meddle with, though they make a shift with 
acorns sometimes, and eat all the other fruits 
mentioned before, but they never eat any sort of 
herbs or leaves. 

"Out of the ground they dig trubbs,^ earth- 
nuts, wild onions and a tuberous root they call 

^ A kind of pumpkin; a variety of crooknecked squash. 
^ ^ Pumpkins. 

3 Tlie same as maracock, the Indian name for the fruit of the 
passion flower, which they ate. 

^ Phaseoleffi, a tribe of leguminous plants. 

s Truffles, earth nuts. 

70 The Forest Primeval 

tuck-a-hoe, ' which while crude is of a very hot 
and virulent quality: but they can manage it so 
as in case of necessity, to make bread of it, just 
as the East Indians and those of Egypt are said 
to do of colocasha. It grows like a flag in the 
miry marshes, having roots of the magnitude 
and taste of Irish potatoes, which are easy to be 
dug up. 

''They accustom themselves to no set meals, 
but eat night and day, when they have plenty 
of provisions, or if they have got anything that 
is a rarity. They are very patient of hunger, 
when by any accident they happen to have noth- 
ing to eat; which they make more easy to them 
by girding up their bellies, just as the wild Arabs 
are said to do, in their long marches, by which 
means they are less sensible of the impressions of 

"Among all this variety of food, nature hath 
not taught them the use of any other drink than 
water: which though they have in cool and 
pleasant springs every where, yet they will not 
drink that, if they can get pond water, or such 
as has been warmed by the sun and weather. 
Baron Lahontan tells of a sweet juice of maple, 
which the Indians to the northward gave him, 
mingled with water, but our Indians use no such 
drink. For their strong drink, they are alto- 
gether beholding to us, and are so greedy of it, 
that most of them will be drunk as often as they 

' Both the Virginia wake-robin and the golden-club, both aquatics 
with deep fleshy and starchy rootstocks. 

Construction of Indian Society 71 

find an opportunity; notwithstanding which, it 
is a prevaihng humor among them, not to taste 
any strong drink ' at all, unless they can get 
enough to make them quite drunk and then 
they go as solemnly about it, as if it were part 
of their religion. " ^ 

In discussing the food supplies of this people, 
Strachey says: 

"They neither impale for deer, nor breed cattle 
nor bring up tame poultry, albeit they have great 
store of turkies, nor keep birds, squirrels, nor 
tame partridges, swan, duck, nor goose. "^ 

"Their corn and, indeed, their copper, hatchets, 
houses, beads, pearl, and most things with them 
of value, according to their own estimation, they 
hide, one from the knowledge of another, in the 
ground within the woods, and so keep them all 
the year, or until they have fit use for them, as 
the Romans did their moneys and treasure in 
certain cellars, and when they take them forth 
they scarse make their women privy to the store- 
house. "^ 

"In March and April they live much upon 
their fishing-weirs ; and feed on fish, turkeys and 
squirrels. In May and June they plant their 
fields, and live most off acorns, walnuts, and 
fish. But to amend ^ their diet, some disperse 
themselves in small companies and live upon fish, 

' The Indians gave to alcoholic liquor the name of Fire Water, 
because it would burn when thrown in the fire. 
» Beverley, bk 3, pp. 14-16. 

3 Strachey, Historic of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 72-3. 
* Ibid, p. 1 13. s Improve. 

72 The Forest Primeval 

beasts, crabs, oysters, land tortoises, straw- 
berries, mulberries, and such like. In June and 
July, and August, they feed upon the roots of 
Tock-nough berries, fish and green wheat. It is 
strange to see how their bodies alter with their 
diet, even as the deer and wild beasts they 
seem fat and lean, strong and weak. Powhatan, 
their great king, and some others that are provi- 
dent, roast their fish and flesh upon hurdles, as 
before expressed, and keep it till scarce' times." ^ 

"Oysters there be in whole banks and beds, 
and those of the best: I have seen some thirteen 
inches long. The savages use to boil oysters and 
mussels together, and with the broth they make 
a good spoon-meat, thickened with the flour of 
their wheat; and it is a great thrift and husban- 
dry with them to hang the oysters upon strings 
(being shelled and dried) in the smoke, thereby 
to preserve them all the year. "-^ 

"The manner of baking of bread is thus: 
after they pound their wheat into flour with hot 
water, they make it into paste, and work it into 
round balls and cakes, then they put it into a pot 
of seething water, when it is sod'* thoroughly, 
the}^ lay it on a smooth stone, there they harden 
it as well as in an oven."^ 

"Several kinds of the creeping vines bearing 
fruit, the Indians planted in their gardens or 
fields, because they would have plenty of them 

' Times of dearth. ^ Smith, vol. i., p. 129. 

3 Strachey, Historic of Travaile into Virginia, p. 127. 

4 Boiled. 5 Purchas, vol. iv., p. 1689. 

Construction of Indian Society 73 

always at hand; such as muskmelons, water- 
melons, pompions, cushaws, macocks and 
gourds.'" They also cultivated Indian corn, 
peas, beans, potatoes, tobacco, peaches, nectar- 
ines, apricots, plums, cherries, and grapes. 

"Cushaws are a kind of pumpkin of a bluish 
green color, streaked with white, when fit for 
use. They are larger than the pumpkins, and 
have a long narrow neck. 

"The macocks are a lesser sort of pumpkin, 
of these there are a great variety, but the Indian 
name macock serves for all. " ^ 

Simlins would be included under this term. 

Maracock was the fruit of the passion flower. 
It was an article of food which grew wild. 

Spelman gives us this account of their country, 
and food supplies: 

"The country is full of wood and in some parts 
water they have plentiful, they have marsh 
ground and small fields, for corn, and other 
grounds whereon their deer, goats and stags 
feedeth. There be in this country lions, bears, 
wolves, foxes, musk-cats, hares, flying-squir- 
rels, and other squirrels being all gray like 
conies, great store of fowl, only peacocks and 
common hens wanting: fish in abundance where- 
on they live most part of the summer time. They 
have a kind of wheat called loc-a-taunce and peas 
and beans. Great store of walnuts growing in 
every place. They have no orchard fruits, only 

'Beverley, bk. 2, pp. 26-8 ; bk. 4, p. 78. 
« Ibid., pp. 27-8. 

74 The Forest Primeval 

two kinds of plums, the one a sweet and luscious 
plum long and thick, in form and likeness of a 
nut-palm, the other resembling a medler,' but 
somewhat sweeter, yet not eatable till they be 
rotten as ours are." ^ 

Strachey says that they were great eaters, and 
that when any of them were in the employment 
of the English, it was necessary to allow them 
twice as much provisions as a white man needed. 

This is in harmony with Jones's statement: 

**They have no notion of providing for fu- 
turity for they eat night and day whilst their 
provisions last, falling to as soon as they awake, 
and falling asleep again as soon as they are well 
crammed." ^ 

"Before their dinners and suppers, the better 
sort will do a kind of sacrifice, taking the first 
bit and casting it into the fire, and to it repeat 
certain words. I have heard Ma-chumps, at 
Sir Thos. Dale's table, once or twice (upon our 
request) repeat the said grace as it were, how- 
beit I forgot to take it from him in writing. " ^ 

"Referring now to the picture here: 
No. I. Is their pot boiling with hominy and 

fish in it. 
No. 2. Is a bowl of corn, which they gather up 
with their fingers to feed themselves. 

* Medlar, a small bushy tree, having a fruit like a little brown- 
skinned apple. 

' Spelman's Relation of Virginia, pp. 28-9. 

3 Jones's Present State of Virginia, p. 10. 

1 Strachey, Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 94; Smith, vol. i., 
p. 140. 

Construction of Indian Society 75 

No. 3. The tomahawk, which he lays by at 

No. 4. His pocket, which is Hkewise stript off, 

that he may be at full liberty. 
No. 5. A fish. I Both ready 

No. 6. A heap of roasting ears. ) for dressing. 
No. 7. The gourd of water. 
No. 8. A cockle shell, which they sometimes 

use instead of a spoon. 
No. 9. The mat they sit on. All other matters 

in this figure, are understood by the 

foregoing, and following descriptions. 

"Their fashion of sitting at meals, is on a 
mat spread on the ground, with their legs out at 
length before them, and the dish between their 
legs, for which reason, they seldom or never sit 
more than two together, at a dish, who may with 
convenience mix their legs together, and have 
the dish stand commodiously to them both. As 
appears by the figure. 

"The spoons which they eat with, do generally 
hold half a pint; and they laugh at the English 
for using small ones, which they must be forced 
to carry so often to their mouths, that their arms 
are in danger of being tired, before their belly."' 

"The men bestow their times in fishing, hunt- 
ing, wars, and such man-like exercises, scorning 
to be seen in any woman-like exercise, which is 
the cause that the women be very painful,^ 
and the men often idle. The women and chil- 

' Beverley, book 3, pp. 16-17. 
* Oppressed with cares and duties. 

76 The Forest Primeval 

dren do the rest of the work. They make mats, 
baskets, pots, morters, pound their corn, make 
their bread, prepare their victuals, plant their 
corn, gather their corn, bear all kind of burdens, 
and such like." ' 

"Their manner of feeding is in this wise. 
They lay a mat made of bents ^ on the ground, and 
set their meat on the midst ^ thereof, and then 
sit down round, the men upon one side, and the 
women on the other. Their meat is maize sod- 
den,'^ in such sort as I described it in the former 
treatise, of very good taste, deer-flesh, or of some 
other beast, and fish. They are very sober in 
their eating, and drinking, and consequently very 
long lived because they do not oppress nature. "^ 

Spelman's account of the manner the Indians 
sat at meat is not like the picture given above, 
which represents the man and his wife sitting 
opposite to each other. He says: 

"They sit on mats round about the house the 
men by themselves and the women by themselves, 
the women bring to every one a dish of meat, for 
the better sort never eat together in one dish, 
when he hath eaten what he will or that which 
was given him, for he looks for no second course, 
he sets down his dish by him and mum.bleth cer- 
tain words to himself in manner of giving thanks. 
If any be left the women gather it up, and either 
keep it till the next meal, or give it to the poorer 
sort, if any be there. "^ 

' Smith, vol. i., p. 131. ^ Made of bent or plaited grass, etc. 

3 Center. 4 Boiled. ' Harlot's Narrative, xvi. 

* Spelman's Relation of Virginia, p. 51. 



SPELMAN gives us this account of their 
manner of marrying: 

"The custom is to have many wives 
and to buy them, so it is he which has most copper 
and beads may have most wives, for if he taketh 
Hking of any woman he makes love to her, and 
seeketh to her father or kinfolks to set what price 
he must pay for her, which being once agreed on 
the kindred meet and make good cheer, and when 
the sum agreed on be paid she shall be delivered 
to him for his wife. The ceremony is thus. 
The parents bring their daughter between them, 
if her parents be dead, then some of her kin- 
folks, or whom it pleaseth the king' to appoint 
(for the man goes not unto any place to be 
married, but the woman is brought to him where 
he dwelleth). At her coming to him, her father 
or chief friend joins the hands together, and then 
the father or chief friend of the man bringeth a 
long string of beads and measuring his arm's 
length thereof doth break it over the hands of 

' It was by this title that the English designated the Wer-6-ances, 
or Chiefs, of the various tribes of Indians. 

78 The Forest Primeval 

those that are to be married while their hands be 
joined together, and gives it unto the woman's 
father or him that brings her, and so with much 
mirth and feasting they go together. 

" When the king of the country will have any 
wives he acquaints his chief men with his purpose, 
who sends into all parts of the country for the 
fairest and comliest maids out of which the king 
taketh his choice, giving their parents what he 
pleaseth. If any of the king's wives have once 
a child by him, he keeps her no longer, but puts 
her from him giving her sufficient copper and 
beads to maintain her and the child while it is 
young, and then is taken from her and main- 
tained by the king, it now being lawful for her 
being thus put away to marry with any other. 
The king, Powhatan, having many wives, when 
he goeth a hunting or to visit another king 
under him (for he goeth not out of his own 
country), he leaveth them with two old men who 
have the charge of them till his return." ' 

"They express their love to such women as 
they would make choice to live withall, by pre- 
senting them with the fruits of their labors, as 
by fowl, fish, or wild beasts, which by their 
huntings, their bows and arrows, by weirs, or 
otherwise, they obtain, which they bring unto 
the young women, as also of such summer fruits 
and berries which their travels abroad hath made 
them known readily where to gather, and those 
of the best kind in their season. If the young 

' Spelman's Relation of Virginia, p. 32. 

Marriage 79 

maiden become once to be sororians virgo,^ and 
live under parents, the parents must allow of the 
suitor; and for their good will, the wooer prom- 
iseth that the daughter shall not want of such 
provisions, nor of deer-skins fitly dressed for to 
wear; besides, he promiseth to do his endeavor 
to procure her beads, pearl, and copper, and, for 
handsell,' gives her before them something as 
a kind of arrasponsalitia,^ token of betrothing or 
contract of a further amity and acquaintance to 
be continued between them, and so after as the 
liking grows ; and as soon as he hath provided her 
a house (if he hath none before) and some plat- 
ters, morters, and mats, he takes her home; and 
the wer-6-ances after this manner may have as 
many as they can obtain, howbeit all the rest 
whom they take after their first choice are (as it 
were) mercenary, hired but by covenant and 
condition, for a time, a year or so, after which 
they may put them away; but if they keep them 
longer than the time appointed, they must ever 
keep them, how deformed, diseased, or unaccom- 
paniable soever they may prove. " "^ 

Courtship and marriage among the Indians 
is thus described by Jones: 

"Courtship was short, and like their mar- 
riage unembarrassed by ceremony. If the pre- 
sents of a young warrior are accepted by his 

A girl growing up with a man as his sister. 

The first present sent to a young woman on her wedding day. 
"Earnest money in ratification of the espousals." 
! Strachey, Historic of Travaile into Virginia, p. 109. 

8o The Forest Primeval 

mistress, she is considered as having agreed to 
become his wife, and without any farther explan- 
ations to her family, she goes home to his hut. 
The principles that are to regulate their future 
conduct are well understood. He agrees to per- 
form the more laborious duties of hunting and 
fishing; of felling the trees, erecting the hut, con- 
structing the canoe, and of fighting the enemies 
of the tribe. To her custom had assigned almost 
all the domestic duties; to prepare the food; to 
watch over the infancy of the children. The 
nature of their lives and circumstances added 
another, which with more propriety, taken in a 
general view, should have been exercised by the 
male. It belonged to the women to plant the 
corn, and attend all the other productions of an 
Indian garden or plantation. But the labour 
required for raising these articles was trifling, 
and the warriors being engaged in hunting and 
war, had neither leisure nor inclination to attend 
to objects of such inferior consideration. 

"Marriage, or the union of husband and wife, 
stood precisely on the same footing as amongst 
the other American tribes. A man might keep 
as many wives as he could support. But in 
general they had but one, whom, without being 
obliged to assign any reason, they might at any 
time abandon, and immediately form a new 
engagement. The rights of the woman are the 
same with this difi^erence, that she cannot marry 
again until the next annual festival. 

"Nothing appears to them more repugnant to 

Marriagfe 8i 


nature and reason than the contrary system 
which prevails among Christians. The Great 
Spirit, say they, hath created us all to be happy; 
and we should offend him were we to live in a 
perpetual state of constraint and uneasiness. 

"This system agrees with what one of the 
Mi-am-is said to one of our missionaries. My 
wife and I were continually at variance; my 
neighbour disagreed equally with his; we have 
changed wives, and are all satisfied." ' 

" They punish adultery in a woman by cutting 
off her hair, which they fix upon a long pole 
without the town; which is such a disgrace 
that the party is obliged to fly, and becomes a 
victim of some enemy, a slave to some rover, or 
perishes in the woods. " ^ 

*'The Indians have their solemnities of mar- 
riage, and esteem the vows made at that time, as 
most sacred and inviolable. Notwithstanding 
they allow both the man and the wife to part 
upon disagreement; yet so great is the disreputa- 
tion of a divorce, that married people, to avoid 
the character of inconstant and ungenerous, very 
rarely let their quarrels proceed to a separation. 
However, when it does so happen, they reckon 
all the ties of matrimony dissolved, and each 
hath the liberty of marrying another. But 
infidelity is accounted the most unpardonable of 
all crimes in either of the parties, as long as the 
contract continues. 

' Burk, vol. iii., pp. 6o-l. 
' Jones's Present Stale of Virginia, p. i6. 

82 The Forest Primeval 

"In these separations, the children go, accord- 
ing to the affection of the parent, with the one 
or the other; for children are not reckoned a 
charge among them, but rather riches, according 
to the blessing of the Old Testament; and if they 
happen to differ about dividing their children, 
their method is then, to part them equally, 
allowing the man the first choice."^ 

"The reason which each chief patron of a 
family, especially wer-6-ances, are desirous, and 
indeed strive for many wives, is, because they 
would have many children, who may, if chance 
be, fight for them when they are old, as also then 
feed and maintain them; yet sure, for the num- 
ber of people inhabiting these parts, this country 
hath not appeared so populous here to us as 
elsewhere in the West Indies; and perhaps their 
ignorance in not finding out yet the use of many 
things necessary and beneficial to nature, which 
their country yet plentifully and naturally af- 
fords, their often wars for women (in which 
many hundred perish) and their immoderate use 
and multiplicity of women (and those often full 
of foul diseases) leave this country not so well 
stocked as other parts of the main, and as the 
islands have been found to be by the Spaniards; 
besides (under correction) it yet may be a prob- 
lem in philosophy whether variety of women 
be a furtherance or hinderer of many births, it 
being clear in these countries where (as I said) 
so many penuries for want of knowledge yet be 

' Beverley, book 3, p. 8. 

Marriage 83 

amongst the people, that the tired body cannot 
have those sensual helps (as the Turks) to hold 
up the immoderate desires, many women divid- 
ing the body, and the strength thereof, make it 
general unfit to the office of increase rather than 
otherwise: and so may the common people 
especially, for the most part, for this reason like- 
wise be not so long lived here as elsewhere, even 
amongst savages where greater moderation is 
used, and where they keep a stricter ceremony 
in their kind of marriages, and have not as many 
women as they can buy or Vvin by force and 
violence from the enemies. 

"We observe that those Indians which have 
one, two or more women, take much [tobacco] 
— but such as yet have no appropriate woman 
take little or none at all. "' 

' Strachey, Historic of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 114, 122. 



"They make their account by units, tens, 
hundreds, &:c, as we do, but they reckon 
the years by the winters, or co-honks, as they call 
them; which is a name taken from the note of the 
wild geese, intimating so many times of the wild 
geese coming to them, which Is every winter. 
They distinguish the several parts of the year, 
by five seasons, viz: The budding or blossoming 
of the spring; the earing of the corn, or roasting 
ear time; the summer, or highest sun; the corn 
gathering, or fall of the leaf; and the winter 
co-honks. They count the months likewise by 
the moons, though not with any relation to so 
many in a year, as we do: but they make them 
return again by the same name, as the Moon of 
Stags, the Corn Moon, the first and second 
Moon of Co-honks, &c. They have no distinc- 
tion of the hours of the day, but divide it only 
into three parts, the rise, power and lowering of 
the sun. And they keep their account by knots 
on a string, or notches on a stick, not unlike the 
Peruvian quippoes.'" 

' Beverley, book 3, pp. 43-4. A quipu was a cord about two feet 
long, tightly spun from variously colored threads, and having a 

The Seasons and Festivals 85 

"At a certain time of the year they make a 
great, and solemn feast, whereunto their neigh- 
bors of the towns adjoining repair from all 
parts, every man attired in the most strange 
fashion they can devise, having certain marks on 
the backs to declare of what place they be. The 
place where they meet is a broad plain, about the 
which are planted in the ground, certain posts 
carved with heads like to the faces of nuns 
covered with their veils. Then being set in 
order they dance, sing, and use the strangest 
gestures that they can possibly devise. Three 
of the fairest virgins of the company, are in the 
midst which embracing one another do as it 
were turn about in their dancing. All this is 
done after the sun is set, for avoiding of heat. 
When they are weary of dancing they go out of 
the circle, and come in until their dances be 
ended, and they go to make merry as is expressed 
in the figure.' 

"Those Vk'hich on each side are hopping upon 
their hams,^ take that way of coming up to the 
ring, and, when they find an opportunity, strike 
in among the rest."^ 

"For their music they use a thick cane, on 
which they pipe as on a recorder.^ For their 

number of smaller threads attached to it in the form of a fringe, 
used among the ancient Peruvians for recording events, &c. 

' Hariot's Narrative, xviii. Figure means the picture opposite the 
preceding page. » Thighs. ^ Beverley, book 3, p. 54. 

4 A musical instrument of the flageolet family having a long tube 
with seven holes and a mouthpiece. The compass of the instrument 
was about two octaves. 

86 The Forest Primeval 

wars they have a great deep platter of wood. 
They cover the mouth thereof with a skin, at each 
corner they tie a walnut, which meeting on the 
back side near the bottom, with a small rope they 
twitch them together till it be taut and stiff, 
that they may beat upon it as upon a drum. 
But their chief instruments are rattles made of 
small gourds, or pumpeon shells. Of these they^ 
have base, tenor, countertenor,' mean,^ and 
treble. These mingled with their voices, some- 
times twenty or thirty together, make such a 
terrible noise as would rather affright than de- 
light any man. "-^ 

"Their sports and pastimes are singing, danc- 
ing, instrumental music, and some boisterous 
plays, which are performed by running, catching 
and leaping upon one another; they have also 
one great diversion, to the practising of which 
are requisite whole handfuls of sticks or hard 
straws, which they know how to count as fast as 
they can cast their eyes upon them, and can 
handle with a surprising dexterity. 

"Their singing is not the most charming that 
I have heard, it consists much in exalting the 
voice, and is full of slow melancholy accents. 
However, I must allow even this music to contain 
some wild notes that are agreeable. 

"Their dancing is performed either by few or 
a great company, but without much regard either 
to time or figure. The first of these is by one or 

' High tenor, or alto. 

» A middle voice or voice-part. » Smith, vol. i., p. 136. 

The Seasons and Festivals 87 

two persons, or at most by three. In the mean- 
time, the company sit about them in a ring upon 
the ground, singing outrageously and shaking 
their rattles. The dancers sometimes sing, and 
sometimes look menacing and terrible, beat- 
ing their feet furiously against the ground, and 
showing ten thousand grimaces and distortions. 
The other is performed by a great number of 
people, the dancers themselves forming a ring, 
and moving round a circle of carved posts, 
that are set up for that purpose; or else round a 
fire, made in a convenient part of the town; and 
then each has his rattle in his hand, or what 
other thing he fancies most, as his bow and 
arrows, or his tomahawk. They also dress 
themselves up with branches of trees, or some 
other strange accoutrement. Thus they proceed, 
dancing and singing, with all the antic postures 
they can invent; and he is the bravest fellow 
that has the most prodigious gestures. Som.e- 
times they place three young women in the 
middle of the circle, as you see in the figure.' 

"They have a fire made constantly every night, 
at a convenient place in the town, whither all 
that have a mind to be merry, at the public dance 
or music, resort in the evening. 

"Their musical instruments are chiefly drums 
and rattles. Their drums are made of a skin, 
stretched over an earthen pot half full of water. 
Their rattles are the shell of a small gourd or 
macock of the creeping kind. "^ 

' Picture. * Beverley, book 3, pp 53-5. 

88 The Forest Primeval 

Spelman gives this account of their pastimes: 

"When they meet at feasts or otherwise they 
use sports much hke to ours here in England as 
their dancing which is like our Derbysher^ 
Hornpipe, a man first and then a woman, and so 
through them all, hanging all in a round ^ there 
is one which stands in the midst with a pipe^ and 
a rattle with which when he begins to make a 
noise all the rest gigett"^ about wringing their 
necks and stamping on the ground. 

"They use beside football play, which women 
and young boys do much play at. The men 
never. They make their goals as ours, only they 
never fight nor pull one another down. 

"The men play with a little ball letting it fall 
out of their hand and striketh it with the top of 
his foot, and he that can strike the ball furthest 
wins that they play for. "^ 

"When they have escaped any great danger 
by sea or land, or be returned from the war, in 
token of joy they make a great fire about which 
the men and women sit together, holding a cer- 
tain fruit in their hands like unto a round pom- 
pion^ or a gourd, which after they have taken out 
the fruits, and the seeds, then fill with small 
stones or certain big kernels to make the more 
noise and fasten that upon a stick, and singing 
after their manner, they make merry: as myself 
observed and noted down at my being among 

' Derbyshire, a midland county of England. ' Circle. 

3 Flageolet or whistle. ^ Move rapidly. 

s Spelman 's Relation of Virginia, p. 57. * Pumpkin. 

'Their Manner of Praying with Rattles about the Fire" 

The Seasons and Festivals 89 

them. For it is a strange custom, and worth the 

Kercheval gives us this explanation of the term 
''Indian Summer." 

"This expression, like many others, has con- 
tinued in general use, notwithstanding its 
original import has been forgotten. A back- 
woodsman seldom hears this expression without 
feeling a chill of horror, because it brings to his 
mind the painful recollection of its original appli- 
cation. Such is the force of the faculty of asso- 
ciation in human nature. 

"The reader must here be reminded, that, 
during the long continued Indian wars sustained 
by the first settlers of the west, they enjoyed no 
peace excepting in the winter season, when, 
owing to the severity of the weather, the Indians 
were unable to make their excursions into the 
settlements. The onset of winter was therefore 
hailed as a jubilee by the early inhabitants of 
the country, who throughout the spring and early 
part of the fall had been cooped up in their little 
uncomfortable forts, and subjected to all the 
distresses of the Indian war. 

"At the approach of winter, therefore, all the 
farmers, excepting the owner of the fort, removed 
to their cabins on their farms, \\ith the joyful 
feeling of a tenant of a prison, recovering his 
release from confinement. All was bustle and 
hilarity in preparing for winter, by gathering 
in the corn, digging potatoes, fattening hogs, and 

' Harlot's Narrative, xvii. 

90 The Forest Primeval 

repairing the cabins. To our forefathers the 
gloomy months of winter were more pleasant 
than the zephyrs and the flowers of May. 

*'It however sometimes happened, after the 
apparent onset of winter, the weather became 
warm; the smoky time commenced, and lasted 
for a considerable number of days. This was 
the Indian summer, because it afforded the In- 
dians another opportunity of visiting the settle- 
ments v^ith their destructive warfare. The 
melting of the snow saddened every countenance, 
and the genial warmth of the sun chilled every 
heart with horror. The apprehension of another 
visit from the Indians, and of being driven back 
to the detested fort, was painful in the highest 
degree, and the distressing apprehension was 
frequently realized. 

"Toward the latter part of February we com- 
monly had a fine spell of open warm weather, 
during which the snow melted away. This was 
denominated the ' paw-waw^-ing days,' from the 
supposition that the Indians were then holding 
their war councils, for planning off their spring 
campaigns into the settlements. Sad experience 
taught us that in this conjecture we were not 
often mistaken."' 

' Kercheval's History of the Valley, p. 189. 



THE Indian mode of fishing, is thus described 
by Beverley: 

"Before the arrival of the Enghsh there, 
the Indians had fish in such vast plenty, that the 
boys and girls would take a pointed stick, and 
strike the lesser sort, as they swam upon the 
flats. The larger fish, that kept in deeper water, 
they were put to a little more dif^culty to take; 
but for these they made weirs, that is, a hedge 
of small rived' sticks, or reeds, of the thickness 
of a man's finger, these they wove together in a 
row, with straps of green oak, or other tough 
wood, so close that the small fish could not pass 
through. Upon high water mark,' they pitched^ 
one end of this hedge, and the other they ex- 
tended into the river, to the depth of eight or 
ten feet, fastening it with stakes, making cods"^ 
out from the hedge on one side, almost at the end, 
and leaving a gap for the fish to go into them, 

' Split. 

" That is when the tide was at its highest point, just before the 
ebb set in. 3 Fastened into the ground. 

4 Enclosures Hke a pouch or bag. 

92 The Forest Primeval 

which were contrived so that the fish could 
easily find their passage into those cods, when 
they were at the gap, but not see their way out 
again, when they were in: thus if they offered 
to pass through, they were taken. 

"Sometimes they made such a hedge as this, 
quite across a creek at high-water, and at low 
would go into the run, so contracted into a 
narrow compass, and take out what fish they 

"At the falls of the rivers, where the water 
is shallow, and the current strong, the Indians 
use another kind of weir, thus made: They 
make a dam of loose stone, whereof there is 
plenty at hand, quite across the river, leaving 
one, two, or more spaces or trunnels, for the 
water to pass through; at the mouth of which 
they set a pot of reeds, wove in form of a cone, 
whose base is about three feet, and perpendicular 
ten, into which the swiftness of the current car- 
ries the fish, and wedges them so fast, that they 
cannot possibly return. 

"The Indian way of catching sturgeon when 
they came into the narrow part of the rivers, was 
by a man's clapping' a noose over their tail, and 
by keeping fast his hold. Thus a fish finding it- 
self intangled, would flounce, and often pull them 
under water, and then that man was counted 
a cock-a-rouse, or brave fellow that would not 
let go, till with swimming, wading and diving 
he had tired the sturgeon, and brought it ashore. 

» Put by a sudden movement. 

Fishing, Hunting, and Agriculture 93 

These sturgeon would also often leap into their 
canoes, in crossing the river, as many of them do 
still every year, into the boats of the English. 

"They have also another way of fishing like 
those on the Euxine sea, by the help of a blazing 
fire at night. They make a hearth in the middle 
of their canoe, raising it within two inches of 
the edge: upon this they lay their burning light- 
wood, split into small shivers, each splinter 
whereof will blaze and burn, end for end, like a 
candle. 'Tis one man's work to tend this fire 
and keep it flaming. At each end of the canoe 
stands an Indian, with a gig, or pointed spear, 
setting the canoe forward with the butt-end of 
the spear, as gently as he can, by that means 
stealing upon the fish, without any noise, or dis- 
turbing of the water. Then they, with great 
dexterity, dart these spears into the fish, and so 
take them. Now there is a double convenience 
in the blaze of this fire: for it not only dazzles the 
eyes of the fish, which will lie still, glaring upon 
it, but likewise discovers the bottom of the river 
clearly to the fisherman, which the daylight does 

Glover, in describing this fire-fishing, says 
that the hearth was fixed at the head of the canoe, 
and in it, on a dark night, would be made a fire 
with sticks of pine. They would then paddle 
along the shore in shallow water. The fish, 
seeing the light, ^^'ould come as thick as they 
could swim by each other to the head of the canoe. 

' Beverley, book 2, pp. 32-4. 

94 The Forest Primeval 

With sharpened sticks the Indians would strike 
through them, and lift them into the canoe.' 

Strachey, speaking of the ingenuity of the 
Indians, describes their weirs as: 

"Certain enclosures made of reeds, and framed 
in the fashion of a labyrinth or maze set a fathom 
deep in the water, with divers chambers or beds, 
out of which the entangled fish cannot return 
or get out, being once in. Well may a great one, 
by chance, break the reeds and so escape, other- 
wise he remains a prey to the fishermen the next 
low water, which they fish with a net at the end 
of a pole."'' 

The picture on the next page represents the 
Indians in a canoe, with a fire in the middle, 
tended by a boy and a girl. In one end is a 
net made of silk grass, which they use in fishing 
their weirs. Above is the shape of their weirs, 
and the manner of setting a weir-wedge across 
the mouth of a creek. 

"Note, that in fishing their weirs, they lay 
the side of the canoe to the cods^ of the weir, 
for the more convenient coming at them, and 
not with the end going into the cods, as is set 
down in the print. But we could not otherwise 
represent it here, lest we should have confounded 
the shape of the weir, with the canoe. 

"In the air you see a fishing-hawk flying away 

^Account of Virginia, pp. 23-4. 
' Historic of Travaile into Virginia, p. 68. 

3 The cods of the weir are the parts forming the pouch, or bag in 
which the fish were entrapped. 

Fishino;-, Hunting-, and Agriculture 95 


with a fish, and a bald-eagle pursuing, to take it 
from him; the bald-eagle has always his head and 
tail white, and they carry such a lustre with them 
that the white thereof may be discerned as far 
as you can see the shape of the bird. '" 

"Their fishing is much in boats. These they 
make of one tree by burning and scratching away 
the coals with stones and shells, till they have 
made it in form of a trough. Some of them 
are an elne' deep, and forty or fifty feet in length, 
and some will bear 40 men, but the most 
ordinary are smaller, and will bear 10, 20, 
or 30, according to their bigness. Instead of 
oars, they use paddles and sticks, with which 
they will row faster than our barges. Betwixt 
their hands and thighs, their women use to 
spin the barks of trees, deer sinews or a kind of 
grass they call pem-me-naw, of these they make 
a thread very even and readily. This thread 
serveth for many uses. As about their housing, 
apparel, as also they make nets for fishing, for 
the quantity as formally braided^ as ours. They 
also make with it lines for angles. * Their hooks 
are either a bone grated as they notch their 
arrows in the form of a crooked pin or fish-hook, 
or of the splinter of a bone tied to the clift^ of 
a little stick, and with the end of the line, they 
tie on the bait. They use also long arrows tied 
in a line, wherewith they shoot at fish in the 
rivers. But they of Ac-caw-mack^ use staves like 

' Beverley, book 2, pp. 34-5. ' The English ell, 45 inches. 

3 Interwoven. * Fish-hooks. 

s Crotch or fork. ' The Eastern Shore of Virginia. 

96 The Forest Primeval 

unto javelins headed with bone. With these 
they dart' fish swimming in the water. They 
have also many artificial^ weirs, in which they 
get abundance of fish. 

"In their hunting and fishing, they take ex- 
treme pains; yet it being their ordinary exercise 
from their infancy, they esteem it a pleasure and 
are very proud to be expert therein. And by 
their continual ranging^ and travel, they know all 
the advantages and places most frequented with 
deer, beasts, fish, fowl, roots and berries. At 
their huntings they leave their habitations, and 
reduce themselves into companies as the Tartars 
do, and go to the most desert places with their 
families, where they spend their time in hunting 
and fowling up towards the mountains, by the 
heads of their rivers, where there is plenty of 
game. For betwixt the rivers'* the grounds are so 
narrow that little cometh here which they devour 
not. It is a marvel they can so directly pass 
these deserts,^ some three or four days' journey 
without habitation. 

"Their hunting-houses are like unto arbors 
covered with mats. These their women bear 
after them, with corn, acorns, mortars, and all 
bag and baggage they use. When they come to 
the place of exercise, every man doth his best to 
show his dexterity, for by their excelling in those 
qualities, they get their wives. Forty yards 

I Transfix with a dart. ' Made by art or science. ' Hunting. 

4 Smith here refers to the peninsula between the James and the 

5 Forests uninhabited by man. 

Fishing, Hunting, and Agriculture 97 

will they shoot level, or very near the mark, and 
120 is their best at random. 

"At their huntings in the deserts they are com- 
monly two or three hundred together. Having 
found the deer, they environ them with many 
fires, and betwixt the fires they place themselves. 
And some take their stands in the midst. The 
deer being thus feared by the fires, and their 
voices, they chase them so long within that circle, 
that many times they kill 6, 8, 10 or 15, at a 
hunting. They used also to drive them into some 
narrow point of land, when they find that advan- 
tage; and so force them into the river, where with 
their boats they have ambuscadoes to kill them. 
When they have shot a deer by land, they follow 
him like bloodhounds by the blood, and strain,^ 
and often-times so take them. Hares, par- 
tridges, turkeys or eggs, fat or lean, young or old, 
they devour all they can catch in their power. 
In one of these huntings they found me in the dis- 
covery of the head of the river of Chick-a-ham- 
a-ni-a,^ where they slew my men, and took me 
prisoner in a bogmlre,^ where I saw those ex- 
ercises, and gathered these observations. 

"One savage hunting alone, useth the skin of a 
deer slit on the one side, and so put on his arm, 
through the neck, so that his hand comes to the 
head which is stuffed, and the horns, head, eyes, 
ears, and every part as artificially* counterfeited 
as they can devise. Thus shrowding his bod}^ in 

' A hunting term meaning the view or track of the game. 

» The Chickahominy. ■^ Swamp or marsh. * Artfully. 

98 The Forest Primeval 

the skin by stalking/ he approacheth the deer, 
creeping on the ground from one tree to another. 
If the deer chance to find fault/ or stand at gaze, 
he turneth the head with his hand to his best 
advantage to seem like a deer, also gazing and 
licking himself. So watching his best advantage 
to approach, having shot him, he chaseth him by 
his blood and strain till he get him."^ 

"They have likewise a notable way to catch 
fish in their rivers, for whereas they lack both 
iron, and steel, they fasten unto their reeds or 
long rods, the hollow tail of a certain fish like to 
a sea-crab instead of a point, wherewith by night 
or day they strike^ fish, and take them up into 
their boats. They also know how to use the 
prickles, and pricks of other fishes. They also 
make weirs, with setting up reeds or twigs in the 
water, which they so plant one with another, 
that they grow narrower, and narrower as 
appeareth by this figure.^ There was never seen 
among us so cunning a way to take fish withal, 
whereof sundry sorts as they found in their 
rivers, unlike unto ours, which are also a very 
good taste. Doubtless it is a pleasant sight to 
see the people sometimes wading, and going 
sometimes sailing in those rivers, which are 
shallow and not deep, free from all care of heap- 
ing up riches for their posterity, content with 
their state, and living friendly together of those 

' Approaching quietly and warily. ' Catch scent of the hunter. 
3 Smith, vol. i., pp. 132-4. ^ Strike with a spear. 

s The picture already given showing the Indian modes of fishing. 

Fishing, Hunting, and Agriculture 99 

things which God of his bounty hath given unto 
them, yet without giving him any thanks accord- 
ing to his deserts. " ' 

Spelman gives this account of their hunting: 

"Their manner of their hunting is this, they 
meet some 200 or 300 together and having 
their bo\\s and arrows and every one with a 
fire-stick in their hand they beset a great 
thicket round about, which done, every one sets 
fire on the rank grass, which the dear feigne^ 
fleeth from the fire, and the men coming in by 
a httle and httle encloseth their game in a 
narrow room,^ so as with their bows and arrows 
they kill them at their pleasure, taking their skins 
which is the greatest thing they desire, and some 
flesh for their provision.""^ 

The Indian hunting is thus more fully de- 
scribed by Beverley: 

"The Indians had no other way of taking their 
water or land fowl, but by the help of bows and 
arrows: yet, so great was their plenty that with 
this weapon only, they killed what numbers 
they pleased. And when the water-fowl kept 
far from shore (as in warmer weather they 
sometimes did), they took their canoes, and 
paddled after them. 

" But they had a better way of killing the elks, 
buffaloes, deer, and greater game, by a method 
which we call fire-hunting: That is, a company of 
them would go together back into the woods, 

' Hariot's Narrative, xiii. » Desiring to flee from. 

J Area. 4 Spelman 's Relation oj Virginia, p. 31. 

100 The Forest Primeval 

any time in the winter, when the leaves were 
fallen, and so dry, that they would burn; and 
being come to the place designed, they would fire 
the woods, in a circle of five or six miles compass; 
and when they had completed the first round, 
they retreated inward, each at his due distance, 
and put fire to the leaves and grass afresh, to 
accelerate the work, which ought to be finished 
with the day. This they repeat, till the circle 
be so contracted, that they can see their game 
herded all together in the middle, panting and 
almost stifled with heat and smoke; for the poor 
creatures being frightened at the flame, keep 
running continually round, thinking to run from 
it, and dare not pass through the fire, by which 
means they are brought at last into a very narrow 
compass. Then the Indians let fly their arrows 
at them, and (which is very strange) though 
they stand all round quite clouded in smoke, 
yet they rarely shoot each other. By this means 
they destroy all the beasts, collected within that 
circle. They make all this slaughter only for the 
sake of the skins, leaving the carcasses to perish 
in the woods. 

"The Indians have many pretty inventions, 
to discover and come up to the deer, turkeys and 
other game undiscerned; but that being an art, 
known to very few English there, I will not be so 
accessory' to the destruction of their game, as to 
make it public. I shall therefore only tell you, 
that when they go a-hunting into the outlands,"* 

' Aiding and abetting. ' Remote places. 

Fishing, Hunting, and Agriculture loi 

they commonly go out for the whole season, with 
their wives and family. At the place where they 
find the most game, they build up a convenient 
number of small cabins, wherein they live during 
that season. These cabins are both begun, and 
finished in two or three days, and after the season 
is over, they make no further account of them. 

**This and a great deal more was the natural 
production of that country, which the native 
Indians enjoyed, without the curse of industry, 
their diversion alone, and not their labor, supply- 
ing ^heir necessities. The women and children 
indeed, were so far provident, as to lay up some 
of the nuts, and fruits of the earth, in their season 
for their further occasions : but none of the toils of 
husbandry were exercised by this happy people. 
Except the bare planting a little corn and melons, 
which took up only a few days in the summer, the 
rest being wholly spent in the pursuit of their 
pleasures. And indeed all that the English have 
done, since their going thither, has been only to 
make some of these native pleasures more scarce, 
by an inordinate and unseasonable use of them: 
hardly making improvements equivalent to that 

The cultivation of the soil was the character- 
istic which distinguished the Indians of this part 
of the world from those living in the northwestern 
portion of the continent, and which is the reason 
that they are classed as barbarous, instead of 

' Beverley, book 2, pp. 38-40. 

102 The Forest Primeval 

savage, the latter living only by fishing and 

The early records abound with Incidents which 
show what an important part this cultivation of 
the land played In the life of the Indians and of 
the first settlers. The Indians had corn. The 
settlers needed food. There was trading with 
the Indians for their corn In exchange for 
European commodities. They appear to have 
generally had enough corn for themselves and a 
surplus which they could sell. 

The White and De Bry pictures represent large 
cornfields in close proximity to the towns, and 
also tobacco, pumpkins, melons, and a variety of 
other products. 

The cultivation of these articles of food was 
a part of the work which custom assigned to the 
women. The women were aided in the work by 
the children.' 

The men fished, hunted, felled trees, made 
canoes, bows and arrows, and fought the battles 
of their nation. Such work as attending to a 
cornfield they deemed beneath their dignity. 

These cultivated tracts were called by the 
English, in later times, at least, "Indian Old 
Fields." They were very numerous, as the 
villages themselves were, and were regarded 
generally as very fertile. They were sometimes 
very extensive, Strachey stating that at Ke- 
cough-tan (Hampton) there were two or three 
thousand acres cleared. 

' Strachey, Historie of Travaile into Virginia, pp. iii, 1 16-17. 

Fishing, Hunting, and Agriculture 103 

So important was this cultivation that the 
English found one of the most effective ways of 
fighting the Indians was to destroy their corn 
crops. This was conspicuously the case in the 
war with the Pa-mun-keys, in 1624, when, after 
a battle lasting two days against eight hundred 
Indian warriors, enough corn was destroyed to 
have sustained four thousand men for a twelve- 

Their system of planting is thus presented to 
us by Spelman: 

"They make most commonly a place about 
their houses to set their corn, which if there be 
much wood, in that place they cut down the great 
trees some half a yard above the ground, and the 
smaller they burn at the root, pulling a good part 
of bark from them, to make them die, and in this 
place they dig many holes which before the 
English brought them shovels and spades they 
used to make with a crooked piece of wood being 
scraped on both sides in fashion of a gardener's 
paring-iron. They put into these holes ordina- 
rily four or five kernels of their wheat and two 
beans like French beans, which, when the wheat 
doth grow up, having a straw as big as a cane- 
reed, the beans run up therein like our hops on 
poles. The ears of the wheat' are of great bigness 
in length and compass and yet for all the great- 
ness of it every stalk hath most commonly some 
four or five ears on it. Their corn is set and 
gathered about the time we use," but their man- 

' Indian corn. » Do these things. 

104 The Forest Primeval 

ner of their gathering is as we do our apples, first 
in a hand-basket, emptying them as they are 
filled into other bigger baskets, whereof some are 
made of the barks of trees, some of hemp, which 
naturally groweth there, and some of the straw 
whereon the wheat groweth. Now after the 
gathering, they lay it upon mats a good thickness 
in the sun to dry and every night they make a 
great pile of it, covering it over with mats to 
defend it from the dew, and when it is sufficiently 
weathered, they pile it up in their houses daily 
as occasion serveth, wringing the ears in pieces' 
between their hands, and so rubbing out their 
corn do put it into a great basket which taketh 
up the best part of some of their houses, and all 
this is chiefly the womens' work, for the men do 
hunt to get skins in winter and do tew^ or dress 
them in summer. 

"But, though now out of order, yet let me not 
altogether forget the setting of the King's corn, 
for which a day is appointed wherein great part 
of the country people meet, who, with such dili- 
gence worketh, as, for the most part, all the King's 
corn is set on a day; after which setting the King 
takes the crown which the King of England sent 
him,^ being brought him by two men, and sets it 
on his head, which done the people goeth about 
the corn in manner backwards, for they going 
before, and the King following, their faces are 

' Shelling the com. 

» To make hides into leather by soaking them after cleaning, etc. 

3 The copper crown sent over to Powhatan by King James I. 

Fishing, Hunting, and Agriculture 105 

always toward the King, expecting when he 
should fling some beads among them, which his 
custom is at that time to do, making those which 
had wrought, to scramble for them. But to 
some he favors, he bids those that carry his 
beads to call such and such unto him, unto whom 
he giveth beads into their hands, and this is the 
greatest courtesy he doth his people. When his 
corn is ripe, the country people come to him 
again and gather, dry and rub out all his corn 
for him, which is laid in houses appointed for 
that purpose."' 

Tobacco, "the Indians' revenge upon the 
White Man," as it has been well called, is thus 
described by Hariot. It is interesting to read 
the estimation in which this weed was held, and 
the various virtues attributed to it, virtues, 
which three hundred years of use, have abund- 
antly proved never existed. 

"There is an herb which is sowed apart by 
itself, and is called by the inhabitants up-po-woc: 
in the West Indies it hath divers names, accord- 
ing to the several places and countries where it 
groweth and is used: the Spaniards general!}^ call 
it tobacco. The leaves thereof being dried and 
brought into powder, they used to take the fume 
or smoke thereof, by sucking it through pipes 
made of clay. Into their stomach and head: from 
whence It purgeth superflous phlegm and other 
gross humors, and openeth all the pores and 

' Spelman's Relation of Virginia, pp. 47-50. 

io6 The Forest Primeval 

passages of the body; by which means the use 
thereof not only preserveth the body from ob- 
structions, but also (if any be, so that they have 
not been of too long continuance) in short time 
breaketh them: whereby their bodies are notably 
preserved in health, and know not many grievous 
diseases, wherewithal we in England are often 
times afflicted. 

"We ourselves, during the time we were there, 
used to suck it after their manner, as also since 
our return, and have found many rare and 
wonderful experiments of the virtues thereof: 
of which the relation would require a volume 
by itself: the use of it by so many of late, men 
and women of great calling, as else,' and 
some learned physicians also, is sufficient 

The Indians' method of cultivating this 
plant so highly valued, is thus described by 

"In the Twelve days^ they begin to sow their 
seed in beds of fine mould, and when the plants 
be grown to the breadth of a shilling, they are fit 
to replant into the hills; for In their plantations 
they make small hills about four feet distant from 
each other, som.ewhat after the manner of our 
hop-yards. These hills being prepared against 
the plants be grown to the forementioned bigness 

' Else, meaning besides these great personages, persons of lesser 

^ Hakluyt, vol. ii., p. 339. 

3 The Epiphany season, the twelfth day after Christmas, January, 

Fishing, Hunting, and Agriculture 107 

(which is about the beginning of May) they then 
in moist weather draw the plants out of their 
beds, and replant them in the hills, which after- 
wards they keep with diligent weedings. When 
the plant hath put out so many leaves as the 
ground will nourish to a substance and largeness 
that will render them merchantable, then they 
take off the top of the .plant; if the ground be very 
rich, they let a plant put out a dozen or sixteen 
leaves before they top it; if mean,' then not above 
nine or ten, and so according to the strength of 
their soil, the top being taken if the plant grows 
no higher; but afterwards it will put out suckers 
between their leaves, which they pluck away 
once a week, till the plant comes to perfection, 
which it doth in August. Then in dry weather, 
when there is a little breeze of wind, they cut 
down what is ripe, letting it lie about four hours 
on the ground, till such time as the leaves, that 
stood strutting out, fall down to the stalk, then 
they carry it on their shoulders into their to- 
bacco-houses, where other servants taking of it, 
drive into the stalk of each plant a peg, and as 
fast as they are pegged, they hang them up by the 
pegs on tobacco-sticks, so nigh each other that 
they just touch, much after the manner they 
hang herrings in Yarmouth. Thus they let them 
hang five or six weeks, till such time as the stem 
in the middle of the leaf will snap in the bending 
of It. Then, when the air hath so moistened the 
leaf as that it may be handled without breaking, 

• Average. 

io8 The Forest Primeval 

they strike it down, strip it off the stalk, bind it 
up in bundles, and pack it into hogsheads for use. 
"Sometimes they are forced to plant their 
hills twice or thrice over, by reason of an earth- 
worm which eats the root, and when the plant is 
well grown they suffer damage by a worm that 
devours the leaf, called a horn-worm (an Eruca 
or Caterpillar) which is bred upon the leaf; if 
these worms be not carefully taken off, they will 
spoil the whole crop."' 

' Account of Virginia, pp. 28-30. 



IN describing the handicrafts of the Indians, 
Beverley says : 
"They rubbed fire out of particular sorts of 
wood (as the ancients did out of the ivy and bays) 
by turning the end of a hard piece upon the side 
of a piece that is soft and dry, like a spindle on its 
inke,' by which it heats, and at length burns, to 
this they put sometimes also rotten wood, and 
dry leaves to hasten the work. 

"Under the disadvantage of such tools, they 
made a shift to fell vast, great trees, and clear the 
land of wood, in places where they had occasion. 

"They bring down a great tree by making a 
small fire round the root, and keeping the flame 
from running upward, until they burn away so 
much of the base, that the least puff of wind 
throws it down. When it is prostrate, they burn 
it off to what length they would have it, and 
with their stone tomahawks break off all the bark, 
which when the sap runs, will easily strip, and 
at other times also, if it be well warmed with 
fire. When it is brought to a due length, they 
raise it upon a bed to a convenient height for 

' The socket of a mill-spindle. 


no The Forest Primeval 

their working, and they begin by gentle fires 
to hollow it, and with scrapers rake the trunk, 
and turn away the fire from one place to another, 
till they have deepened the belly of it to their 
desire. Thus also they shape the ends, till they 
have made it a fit vessel for crossing the water, 
and this they call a canoe, one of which I have 
seen thirty feet long. 

"When they wanted any land to be cleared of 
the woods, they chopped a notch round the trees 
quite through the bark with their stone hatchets, 
or tomahawks, and that deadened the trees, so 
that they sprouted no more, but in a few years 
fell down. However, the ground was plantable, 
and would produce immediately upon the wither- 
ing of the trees: but now for all these uses they 
employ axes, and little hatchets, which they buy 
of the English. The occasions aforementioned, 
and the building of their cabins, are still the 
greatest use they have for these utensils, because 
they trouble not themselves with any other sort 
of handicraft, to which such tools are necessary. 

"Their household utensils are baskets, made 
of silk-grass; gourds, which grow to the shapes 
they desire them; and earthen pots, to boil 
victuals in, which they make of clay."' 

In the account of Master Barlow of the first 
voyage to Virginia, made for Sir Walter Raleigh, 
in 1584, he tells us how they made their canoes. 
He says: 

"Their boats were made of one tree, either of 

» Beverley, book 3, pp. 60-2. 

Canoe-, Arrow-, and Pottery-Making iii 

pine, or of pitch-trees, a wood not commonly 
known to our people, nor found growing in Eng- 
land. They have no edge-tools to make them 
withal, if they have any they are very few, and 
those it seems they had twenty years since, 
which, as those two men' declared, was out of a 
wreck, which happened upon their coast of some 
Christian ship, being beaten that wa}^ by some 
storm and outrageous weather, whereof none of 
the people were saved; but only one ship, or 
some part of her being cast upon the land, out of 
whose sides they drew the nails and the spikes, 
and with those they made their best instruments. 
The manner of making their boats is thus; they 
burn down some great tree, or take such as are 
wind-fallen, and putting gum and rosin upon one 
side thereof, they set fire into it, and when it has 
burnt it hollow, they cut out the coal with their 
shells, and ever where they would burn it deeper 
or wider they lay on gums, which burn away the 
timber, and by this means they fashion very fine 
boats, and such as will transport twenty men. 
Their oars are like scoops, and many times they 
set^ with long poles as the depth serves."^ 

"Their fire they kindle presently by chafing 
a dry pointed stick in a hole of a little square 
piece of wood, that firing Itself, will so fire the 
moss, leaves, or any such like dry thing, that will 
quickly burn."^ 

'Two Indians, Man-te-o and Wan-che-se, whom Barlow took 
back with him to England. 

^ Propel the canoe by pushing against the bottom of the stream. 
3 Hakluyt's Voyages, vol. ii., pp. 282 et seq. ■» Smith, vol. i., p. 131. 

112 The Forest Primeval 

"Before I finish my account of the Indians, 
It will not be amiss to Inform you, that when the 
English went first among them, they had no sort 
of Iron or steel Instruments: but their knives 
were either sharpened reeds, or shells, and their 
axes sharp stones bound to the end of a stick, and 
glued In with turpentine. By the help of these, 
they made their bows of the locust tree, an exces- 
sive hard wood when It Is dry, but much more 
easily cut when It Is green, of which they always 
took the advantage.' They made their arrows 
of reeds or small wands, which needed no other 
cutting, but In the length, being otherwise ready 
for notching, feathering and heading. They 
fledged. their arrows with turkey-feathers, which 
they fastened with glue made of the velvet 
horns of a deer, but It has not that quality it's 
said to have, of holding against all weathers. 
They armed the heads with a white transparent 
stone, like that of Mexico mentioned by Peter 
Martyr, of which they have many rocks; they 
also headed them with the spurs of the wild 
turkey cock."^ 

Strachey says that they also made their bows 
out of "weech, " that Is, the witch-hazel; and 
their shields were made of the bark of trees, 
thick enough to keep out an arrow. Their use 
was not universal.^ 

The following excellently expressed remarks 

' That is, cut it when it was green. 

2 Beverley, book 3, p. 60. 

3 Historic oj Travaile into Virginia, pp. 105-6. 

Paleolithic Implements from the District of Columbia 

From the American Anthropologisl, Vol. 2, p. 238 

Canoe-, Arrow-, and Pottery-Making 113 

on the stone implements which have been found 
in Denmark apply equally to those found in 
Virginia, and well deserve to be reproduced: 

"It must excite our astonishment that any 
uncivilized people should be capable of producing 
such well-finished instruments of stone. The 
arrow-heads" frequently found "are so admir- 
ably formed, that at the present day, with all 
the advantage of our modern tools of metal, we 
could scarcely equal, certainly could not surpass 
them; and yet it is supposed the use of metals 
was not understood. We can easily see and 
understand how the arrow-head or axe was first 
formed and afterwards polished; for indeed in 
several instances the very whetstones have been 
found near such stone implements; we are also 
able to prove that the greater part of the arrow- 
heads are formed of flints, which the makers knew 
how to split out of large masses of that stone. 
But the manner in which they contrived by means 
of a stone, so to split the flint, and that too, into 
such long and slender pieces, is still a mystery 
to us; for from those uncivilized nations which 
still make use of stone implements no satis- 
factory information has yet been obtained as 
to the mode in which they manufacture them. 
Some have been of opinion that the aborigines 
endeavored to prevent the splitting of the stone 
by boiling It, or by keeping it under water while 
they fashioned it into the desired form. Others, 
on the contrary, have maintained, that such 
stone Implements could not possibly have been 

114 The Forest Primeval 

so well formed by means of a stone, but must 
have been the work of those who were possessed 
of the necessary metal. Probably the truth lies 
between these two opinions, namely, in the sup- 
position, that in the earliest times, when the 
use of metals was unknown, the stone imple- 
ments were of the very simplest make, but that 
at a later period, when some had attained to the 
use of metals, they assumed a more perfect and 
handsome form. For it must be borne in mind 
that the use of instruments of stone unquestion- 
ably extended over a very long period. 

"Lastly, we must not lose sight of this fact, 
that the weapons and instruments of stone which 
are found in the north, in Japan, in America, 
the South Sea Islands and elsewhere, have for the 
most part such an extraordinary resemblance 
to one another in point of form, that one might 
almost suppose the whole of them to have been 
the production of the same maker. The reason 
of this is very obvious, namely, that their form 
is that which first and most naturally suggests 
itself to the human mind."' 

The location of some of the aboriginal work- 
shops of the men of the Stone Age have been 
definitely fixed. One of these is in the District 
of Columbia, on the north bank of Piney Branch, 
near its confluence with Rock Creek, just below 
the Fourteenth Street bridge. An account of 
this is given by Mr. S. V. Proudfit: 

" From the bed of the creek to the brow of the 

' The Primeval Antiquities of Denmark by Worsaae, pp. 22-3. 

Plate II 
Paleolithic Implements from the District of Columbia 

From the American Anlhropologisl, Vol. 2, p. 238 

Canoe-, Arrow-, and Pottery-Making 115 

hill, and for some distance back, the ground is 
littered, and in many places covered to the depth 
of several inches, with chipped stones, chips, and 
flakes. Man}' of the stones show but slight 
marks of chipping, a few pieces having been 
struck off without materially modifying the 
original form. Others, however, and they may 
be numbered by the thousand, have been worked 
into definite form. The material used was the 
quartzite pebble, which composes to a large 
extent the gravel beds of the hill. The forms 
vary from that of the split pebble, with the outer 
face worked at the edges, leaving the center with 
its original surface untouched (see c, Plate III, 
and a, Plate IV), to that of the almond shape, 
chipped on both sides (see b, Plate IV). While 
these ruder forms constitute for the greater part 
the mass of the remains, thin knife-shaped imple- 
ments of the same material are also found (see 
c, Plate IV). Most of these are broken, but 
perfect specimens occur frequently. While an 
occasional arrow-head has been found, not a 
scrap of potter}^ or other indication of residence 
marks the place. 

"On the level ground at the top of the hill, 
the earth in places is covered with small chips and 
flakes, and mingled with them the butts and tips 
of broken knives. The comparative absence 
of rough material, large chips, and rude forms, 
noted on the hillside below, and the presence of 
small chips and finished forms, are at once ap- 
parent, and are not without suggestion as to the 

ii6 The Forest Primeval 

relative character of the work prosecuted in each 

"The area covered by this workshop, embrac- 
ing several acres in extent, is not confined to the 
north side of the branch, but includes both sides, 
as well as the very bed of the stream. The 
greater part of the work, however, was done on 
the north side, and any attempt to state its 
amount would hardly be received with credence 
by one who has not visited the place and made it 
a study. 

"Similar workshops, though less in extent, are 
found in several places on Rock Creek below 
Piney Branch. In some instances these places 
cover but a few square yards; in others the work 
is scattered over the hillsides in profusion. 

"My own conclusion as to the relics found at 
these points is that they are the resultant debris 
of Indian workshops, where material was roughly 
blocked out, to be afterward fashioned into 
knives, spearheads, etc. ; and that no good reason 
is yet apparent for attributing their origin to 
paleolithic man.' 

"Among the remains found on the village sites 
fragments of soapstone vessels and other forms 
of the same material frequently occur, and in 
sufficient quantity to establish the fact that the 
value of soapstone for vessels and other articles 
of domestic use had received substantial recogni- 
tion.. The material is found in many places in 

' That is, to a race antedating the Indians of the period of the 

Plate III 
Rude Chipped Implements from the District of Columbia 

From the American Anthropologist, Vol. 2, p. 242 

Canoe-, Arrow-, and Pottery-Making 117 

the Potomac valley, and several aboriginal 
quarries have been located within the limits of 
the District. The most notable of these is the 
Rose Hill quarry, about three miles north of the 
city and near Tenleytown, a full account of 
which was furnished by Doctor Reynolds, in the 
13th Annual Report of the Peabody Museum. 
An examination of the place shows extensive 
workings, prosecuted intelligently and with 
considerable success. Pits and trenches, now 
filled with trees and underbrush, mark the hill- 
side on every hand, and rough fragments of 
broken and unfinished vessels are scattered about 
half buried in the forest soil that has accumulated 
since the abandonment of the quarry. The 
comparative absence of fragments would seem to 
indicate that the process of manufacture at this 
place was not carried farther than to reduce the 
original block to a vessel convenient In size and 
weight for transportation. 

"At a point one mile below Falls Church, 
Virginia, on the old Febrey estate, I found a 
small but interesting soapstone workshop. It 
is located on a hillside overlooking Four-Mile 
Run and about one-fourth of a mile below a 
recently worked soapstone quarry. Large pieces 
of the unworked stone and fragments of 
unfinished vessels covered the ground, which 
occupies an area of not more than half an acre in 
extent. No perfect vessels were found, and the 
best specimen obtained was a small core worked 
out from the interior of a vessel in the process 

ii8 The F^orest Primeval 

of its construction. Several quartz implements 
suited for working the stone were found mingled 
with the debris. The amount of material on the 
ground was comparatively small, when compared 
with that at the Rose Hill quarry, and probably 
it had been carried from the quarry above, 
where the recent operations have obliterated 
all traces of ancient mining, if any existed. 
Careful and repeated research in the neigh- 
borhood of this quarry only resulted in the 
discovery of a few pieces of unfinished vessels 
— enough, perhaps, to justify the conclusion 
that this quarry furnished the material used 
at the workshop. 

"Taking the evidence of the fields of to-day, 
we are enabled to supplement, in some degree, 
the brief historic account of the early people of 
the Potomac. Where recorded observation has 
fallen short the archaeologist may thus take up 
the study of this primitive period in the less 
imperishable, though unwritten, record left by 
this vanished people. 

"Having identified a camp site by means of 
historical evidence, it is eas}^, by a study of its 
character, to determine the location of others of 
equal importance, though not mentioned by the 
historian, especially where the remains are so 
abundant and distinctive in character as they 
are in this region. By adding the deductions 
to be drawn from the comparative study of the 
archaeologic material to the historic facts we 
may determine the status and rank of this 

Plate IV 
Rude Chipped Implements from the District of Columbia 

From the American Anthropologist, Vol. 2, p. 244 

Canoe-, Arrow-, and Pottery-Making 119 

people among the aboriginal tribes of North 

The following interesting account of the pot- 
tery of the Potomac, tide-water region, is given 
by Mr. W. H. Holmes: 

"The manufacture of earthenware was one of 
the few simple arts practiced by the primitive 
inhabitants of the Potomac, tide-water region. 
Clay was employed chiefly in the construction of 
vessels for domestic purposes, and fragments of 
the fragile utensils were left upon camp sites 
or built into the gradually accumulating masses 
of kitchen refuse. These sherds constitute the 
chief record upon which we rely for our knowl- 
edge of the art. 

"Meagre references to the use of earthen ves- 
sels by the natives are found in the vv'ritings of 
the first colonists, and it is known that feeble 
remnants of the Virginia Indians have con- 
tinued to practice the art even down to our own 

"It is difficult to say whether or not pottery 
was universally employed by the tribes who dwelt 
upon or who from time to time visited our shores, 
for its durability varies greatly, and the village 
sites that now furnish us no specimens whatever 
may in former times have been well supplied. 

"It may further be noted that the duration of 
the practice of art cannot be definitely deter- 
mined; for, although fragments may be found 
from base to summit of shell-heaps and mounds 

' The American Anthropologist, vol. xi., pp. 244-6. 

I20 The F^orest Primeval 

that must have been hundreds of years building 
or accumulating, we cannot as yet say that a 
long paleolithic epoch of occupation did not 
pass entirely without pottery. 

"Whole vessels are rarely found, and such as 
we have are recovered from graves where they 
were deposited with especial care and at consider- 
able depth. From camp or village sites and 
from all artificial deposits and accumulations 
where they are mere refuse they are recovered in 
a fragmentary state and in pieces so small and so 
entirely disassociated that full restorations are 
exceedingly difficult. 

"There is enough, however, to give a pretty 
clear idea of the scope of the art and of the 
character of its products — enough, it may be 
added, to enable us to form a definite notion of 
the culture status of the pre-Columbian peoples 
as VncII as to throw considerable light upon their 
ethnic affinities. 

"The localities represented are quite numer- 
ous and very generally distributed along the 
shores of rivers and bays. 

"The clay employed is of varying degrees of 
purity and is tempered with divers ingredients. 
These ingredients have varied with tribes and 
with localities; they comprise all grades and 
varieties of sand and artificially pulverized rock, 
such as quartz, schist, steatite, etc. Pounded 
shell was extensively employed, but the frag- 
ments of this substance have in many cases 
decayed and dropped out, and are represented 

Types of foim, pottery of tlie Potomac Valley. 


Plate V 
Examples of Fabrics Impressed upon Pottery of the Potomac Valley 

From the American Antliropolot;isl, Vol. 2, p. 250 

Canoe-, Arrow-, and Pottery-Making 121 

by the Irregular pits which now characterize 
many of the sherds. 

"The percentage of these Ingredients Is often 
surprisingly great, as they constitute one-half 
or even, In cases, three-fourths of the mass. 

"Upon what theory these tempering substances 
were added to the clay we are unable positively 
to determine. We conjecture that strength, 
porosity, resistance to heat, etc., were qualities 
especially sought, but we cannot say that super- 
stition did not have something to do with It. 
The potter may have believed that the clay at 
hand, unmixed with Ingredients from particular 
localities or of certain kinds, would subject the 
utensils made from It to the Influence of malig- 
nant spirits, or from a vision or dream he may 
have learned that a vessel not containing a 
proper amount of shell material would never be 
well filled with chowder or with terrapin. 

"Of the preparation of the clay we can say 
nothing, save through our knowledge of modern 
practices, but the relics give us many clues as 
to the methods of building and finishing the 
ware. Systematic colling was not practiced, 
but the walls were In cases built up by means of 
more or less narrow bands of clay, which were 
pressed together and smoothed down by the 
fingers or a suitable tool. In many cases the 
vases break along the junction lines of the orig- 
inal bands. 

"To what extent molds such as baskets, 
gourds, and the like were used we cannot clearly 

122 The Forest Primeval 

determine, but that they were used is pretty- 
certain. Exterior impressions of basket-Uke 
textures are not uncommon. The surfaces were, 
to a Hmited extent, shaped and finished by the 
use of improvised paddles. 

"The shapes of this pottery do not show a 
very wide range of variation, for the stamp of the 
preceramic' originals are still upon them, and 
the differentiation of use and office had not yet 
gone so far in modification and multiplication of 
forms as it had with the wares of the more 
advanced races of the West and South. The 
pot, with all that the name implies, was still the 
leading idea, and now furnishes the type of form. 
Its outline varies from a deep bowl, through 
many degrees of rim and neck constriction and 
expansion, to a rather wide-mouthed, sub-bottle 
shape. There is, however, no end of variation 
in detail within this narrow range of general 
conformation. Rims are scalloped, thickened, 
incurved, recurved, and otherwise modified. 
Necks are straight and upright, swelled out or 
gently or sharply constricted. Bodies are globu- 
lar or oblong, and are rounded or pointed below. 
Illustrations of typical forms are given a, b, c, 
and d, Plate V. Handles, legs, knobs, and 
projecting ornaments are rarely met with. 

"A few pipes and some round, perforated 
pellets — perhaps beads — are the only additional 
forms that I have seen. 

"The size is generally medium, the capacity 

' Prior to the development of the art of pottery. 

Canoe-, Arrow-, and Pottery-Making 123 

being a gallon, more or less; but minute forms, 
as well as very large ones, are not uncommon. 

"Use was chiefly domestic and generally cul- 
inary, as the sooty surfaces and blackened paste 
clearly indicate; but the vessels were not in- 
frequently diverted to sacred and ceremonial 
uses, as we know from historic evidence. It 
is instructive to note, however, that such 
special functions had apparently not yet, as 
in the West and South, given rise to especial 

"Surface finish was necessarily not of a very 
refined kind. The fingers or a polishing tool 
sparingly used gave all necessary evenness of 
surface. In many cases fabric impressions, ac- 
quired in construction or afterwards applied 
for effect, cover the entire exterior surface. 
Often these markings were afterwards smoothed 
down and nearly or quite obliterated, indicating 
that they had no important aesthetic office. 
Other similar impressions from fabrics or fabric- 
covered paddles were afterwards applied, very 
certainly on account of some aesthetic or super- 
stitious oflice. 

"Much of the ware is decorated in simple but 
effective ways. We cannot draw a very definite 
line between those features that exist through 
accidents of manufacture and those having 
aesthetic or mixed aesthetic and ideographic"^ 
office; but it is suflficient for our purpose to 

' Representing ideas directly, and not through the medium of their 
names, as in hieroglyphic writing, etc. 

124 The Forest Primeval 

classify all patterns that show evidence of 
design as ornament. The decorations are con- 
fined to the neck and rim of the vessel. They 
were impressed by means of numerous impro- 
vised stamps or were executed with the fin- 
gers or a pointed implement. The most usual 
method was by the employment of bits of hard- 
twisted or neatly-wrapped cords or thongs. 
If a series of short indentations was desired the 
cord was doubled between the thumb and finger 
or laid across the end of the finger and pressed 
sharply into the clay. Longer lines were made 
by laying the cord singly upon the clay and run- 
ning the finger along it for the length of the 
desired impression. This was repeated until 
the pattern was finished. 

'*As a rule, the figures were undoubtedly sug- 
gested by textile combinations, and in many 
cases served simply to emphasize or carry out 
more fully the markings received from the basket 
or net-mold employed in construction. Similar 
efi^ects were secured by incising, trailing, or 
puncturing with a pointed tool. 

"It is interesting to note that the tattoo 
marks upon the * foreheads, cheeks, chynne, 
armes, and leggs' of the 'chief ladyes* of the 
Chesapeake,' as shown in John White's illustra- 
tions of the Roanoke expedition, are identical 
with the figures upon the pottery now exhumed 
from our shell-heaps. 

"It happens that a study of the textile art of 

' Should be the town of Se-co-ta. 

Canoe-, Arrow-, and Pottery-Making 125 

the Chesapeake tribes becomes a natural appen- 
dix to that of the fictile art. 

"From historic sources we know that the 
Virginia Indians produced a variety of textile 
articles, wattled' structures for shelter and for 
trapping fish, mats for coverings, hangings, and 
carpetings, nets for fishing, besides baskets, 
nets, and pouches for various ordinary uses. 

"From impressions upon pottery we get 
additional evidence upon the subject — much 
more indeed upon the technique of the art than 
can ever be known from any other source. 
Casts in clay from the potsherds give us numer- 
ous restorations of the construction of such 
cloths, nets, and baskets as happened to be as- 
sociated with the potter's art. Four examples 
are presented in Plate V.^ 

"That all are aboriginal in origin cannot be 
proved, but there is nothing in them that seems 
out of harmony Vv ith the known art-status of the 
Indian tribes. The presence of nets identical 
with the fish nets of the European affords the 
only reason for making the query. 

"The condition of the aesthetic idea among our 
predecessors must receive a moment's attention. 

"The shapes of the earthen vessels are in a 
great measure inherited from basketry, but they 
are conditioned to a considerable degree by 
characters imposed by material, construction, 
use, and the rather weak promptings of the aes- 

' Formed of interwoven rods or twigs. 
' See page 1 20. 

126 The Forest Primeval 

thetic Idea. As a rule they are not crude, but 
rather shapely and graceful. 

''In decoration textile ideas inherited from 
basketry still held almost undisputed sway, and 
the timorous essays of taste did not extend 
beyond the shadow of the mother art. 

"The impressions of nets, baskets, and other 
textiles employed in manipulating the clay are 
in many cases ornamental in effect and were 
probably so regarded by the archaic potter. 

"We are reasonably safe in assuming that the 
elaboration of textile suggestions by means of 
stamps and pointed tools was the result to a 
certain extent of aesthetic promptings; but there 
is another element to be considered — that of the 
inheritance of forms and ideas from antecedent 
stages of art and of the conservatism of habit and 
superstition that tends so decidedly to retain and 
perpetuate them even when meaningless. 

"The amount of decorative elaboration is, 
therefore, not a correct measure of the condition 
of aesthetic development, although it is a measure 
of the condition of that body of features in the 
art that become the exclusive possession of the 
aesthetic idea after habit and superstition loosen 
their hold. 

"I have myself gathered potsherds of the 
above class all along the coast from the Chowan 
River, in Carolina, to the eastern shore of Nan- 
tucket, and have seen specimens from all parts 
of the Atlantic coastal belt. Among them all 
there is no hint of other ethnic conditions than 

Canoe-, Arrow-, and Pottery-Making 127 

those known through historic channels. All 
indicate an even plane of barbaric simplicity. 
There is fair homogeneity of character as well as 
correspondence in stage, indicating ethnic unity. 

"Every relic of art has an ethnic value, and 
even these stray fragments of earthenware, 
when all the evidence attainable has been gath- 
ered about them, may be found useful in the 
determination of ethnic questions. 

"In glancing at the linguistic map of the 
United States prepared by Major Powell and his 
assistants I find a general correspondence be- 
tween the distribution of this family of earthen- 
ware and the area assigned to the Algonklan 

' The American Anthropologist, vol. xi., pp. 246-52. 

The plates and articles from The Americati Anthropologist pre- 
sented in this volume are reproduced with the permission of The 
Bureau of American Ethnology, and The Anthropological Society of 
Washington, D. C. 



PROBABLY no feature of Indian life has 
been more generally misunderstood than 
that relating to their habitations. Most 
persons, if asked, would say that they supposed 
the Indians of Virginia were roving bands, oc- 
cupying tents, when they could have been said 
to occupy anything at all of that nature. 

To be told that they lived in houses, and that 
all their houses were located in towns, in most 
instances carefully palisadoed, that around these 
fortified towns were cultivated fields, and that 
each town was ruled by a king, would strike most 
with surprise. But such was the fact, as shown 
by all the early writers. 

Beverley, whom we quote from so freely and 
frequently, tells us that: 

"The method of the Indian settlements is 
altogether by cohabitation, in townships, from 
fifty to five hundred families in a town, and each 
of these towns is commonly a kingdom. Some- 
times one king has the command of several of 
these towns, when they happen to be united in 
his hands, by descent or conquest; but in such 

Houses and Towns 129 

cases there is always a viceregent appointed in 
the dependent town, who is at once governor, 
judge, chancellor, and has the same power and 
authority which the king himself has in the town 
where he resides. This viceroy is obliged to 
pay to his principal some small tribute, as an 
acknowledgment of his submission, as like- 
wise to follow him to his wars, whenever he is 

This was essentially the feudal system as it 
existed in so many other countries. 

Glover, writing in 1676, says of the size of 
these towns: 

"At the first coming of the English divers 
towns had two or three thousand bowmen in 
them; but now, in the southern parts of Virginia, 
the biggest Indian town hath not above five 
hundred inhabitants; many towns have scarce 
sixty bowmen in them, and in one town there 
are not above twenty, and they are so universally 
thinned in the forementioned southern part, that 
I verily believe there are not above three thou- 
sand left under the whole government of Sir Will 
Bartlet; but in my Lord of Baltimore's territories 
at the head of the bay, where the English were 
later seated, they are more numerous, there be- 
ing still in some towns about three thousand 
Indians. But these being in continual wars with 
each other, are like shortly to be reduced to as 
small numbers as the former."^ 

» Beverley, book 3, p. 10. 
'Account of Virginia, p. 22. 

130 The Forest Primeval 

From this it would seem that earlier accounts 
misrepresented the size of these towns, making 
them appear smaller than they really were. 
Possibly this was done in order not to deter 
settlers from coming over. The Indian popu- 
lation was no doubt much larger than we are 
accustomed to think of it. 

Inside the enclosing palisade, irregularly 
placed, stood the houses, nine or ten feet high. 
Around the inside of them were banks of earth 
cast up to serve instead of stools and beds. 
The furnishings were of the simplest nature — 
earthen pots, wooden bowls, and mats to lie on — 
all made by themselves.^ 

Beverley thus described these houses: 

"The manner the Indians have of building 
their houses, is very slight and cheap; when 
they would erect a wig-wam, which is the Indian 
name for a house, they stick saplings Into the 
ground by one end, and bend the other at the 
top, fastening them together with strings made 
of fibrous roots, the rind of trees, or of the green 
wood of the white oak, which will rlve^ Into 
thongs. The smallest sort of these cabins are 
conical, like a bee-hive; but the larger are built 
in an oblong form, and both are covered with 
the bark of trees, which will rive off Into great 
flakes. Their windows are little holes left open 
for the passage of the light, which In bad weather 
they stop with shutters of the same bark, open- 

' Glover's Account of Virginia, p. 23. 
^ Split. 

Houses and Towns 131 

ing the leeward windows for air and light. Their 
chimney, as among the true-born Irish, is a little 
hole in the top of the house, to let out the smoke, 
having no sort of funnel, or anything within, to 
confine the smoke from ranging through the 
whole roof of the cabins, if the vent will not let 
it out fast enough. The fire is always made in 
the middle of the cabin. Their door is a pendent 
mat, when they are near home ; but when they 
go abroad, they barricado' it with great logs 
of wood set against the mat, which are sufficient 
to keep out wild beasts. There is never more 
than one room in a house, except in some houses 
of state or religion, where the partition is made 
only by mats and loose poles. " 

"Their houses or cabins, as we call them, are 
by this ill method of building, continually 
smoky, when they have fire in them; but to 
ease that inconvenience, and to make the 
smoke less troublesome to their eyes, they gen- 
erally burn pine or lightwood (that is, the fat 
knots of dead pine) the smoke of which does not 
offend the eyes, but smuts the skin exceedingly, 
and is perhaps another occasion of the darkness 
of their complexion. 

"Their seats, like those In the eastern part 
of the world, are the ground Itself; and as the 
people of distinction amongst them used carpets, 
so cleanliness has taught the better sort of these, 
to spread match-coats^ and mats to sit on. 

' Shut in and defend. 

* Clothes in shape like shawls. 

132 The Forest Primeval 

"They take up their lodgings' in the sides of 
their cabins, upon a couch, made of board, sticks 
or reeds, which are raised from the ground upon 
forks, "" and covered with mats or skins. Some- 
times they lie upon a bearskin, or other thick 
pelt, dressed with the hair on, and laid upon the 
ground near a fire, covering themselves with 
their match-coats. In warm weather a single 
mat is their only bed, and another rolled up their 
pillow. In their travels a grass plat under the 
covert of a shady tree, is all the lodgings they 
require, and is as pleasant and refreshing to 
them, as a down-bed and fine Holland sheets are 
to us. 

"Their fortifications consist only of a palisado,^ 
of about ten or twelve feet high ; and when they 
would make themselves very safe, they treble 
the pale."^ They often encompass their whole 
town. But for the most part only their king's 
houses, and as many others as they judge suf- 
ficient to harbor all their people, when an enemy 
comes against them. They never fail to secure 
within their palisado, all their religious relics, 
and the remains^ of their princes. Within this 
enclosure, they likewise take care to have a 
supply of water, and to make a place for a fire, 
which they frequently dance round with great 

' Sleeping or resting places. 

' Bifurcated branches of trees. 

3 Palisade. 4 Encircle the town with three lines of palisades. 

s Embalmed bodies. 

* Beverley, book 3, pp. 11-13. 

Houses and Towns 133 

"Each household knoweth their own lands, 
and gardens, and most live of their own labors. " 

Hariot has this to say of their towns, and the 
construction of their houses: 

"Their towns are but small, and near the 
seacoast but few, some containing but ten or 
twelve houses: some 20, the greatest that we have 
seen hath been but of 30 houses : if they be walled, 
it is only done with barks of trees made fast to 
stakes, or else with poles only fixed upright, 
and close one by another. 

"Their houses are made of small poles, made 
fast at the tops in round form after the manner 
as is used in many arbors in our gardens of 
England, in most towns covered with barks, and 
in some with artificial mats made of long rushes, 
from the tops of the houses down to the ground. 
The length of them is commonly double to the 
breadth, in some places they are but 12 and 16 
yards long, and in other some we have seen of 
four and twenty."' 

"By the dwellings of the savages," says 
Strachey, "are bay trees, wild roses, and a kind 
of low tree, which bears a cod like to the peas, 
but nothing so big; we take it to be locust."^ 
This is identified as a tree very much like the 
European crab. 

"Every small town is a petty kingdom gov- 
erned by an absolute monarch, assisted and 
advised by his great men, selected out of the 

' Twenty-four yards long. Hakluyt, vol. ii., p. 348. 
* Historic of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 72, 130. 

134 The Forest Primeval 

gravest, oldest, bravest and richest;' if I may 
allow their deerskins, peak and roanoke (black 
and white shells with holes, which they wear on 
strings about their arms and necks) to be wealth. 

''They dwell in towns some twenty, some a 
hundred miles, and some farther from one an- 
other, each town having a particular jargon 
and peculiar customs; though for the most part 
they agree in certain signs, expressions and 

"They cohabit in some hundreds of families,^ 
and fix upon the richest ground to build their 
wooden houses, which they place in a circular 
form, meanly defended with pales,^ and covered 
with bark; the middle area (or forum) being for 
common use and public occasions. The women 
in order to plant their Indian corn and tobacco 
(to clear the ground of trees) cut the bark round; 
so that they die and don't shade the ground, and 
decay in time. 

"Wherever we meet with an old Indian field, 
or place where they have lived, we are sure of the 
best ground. They all remove their habitation'^ 
for fear of their enemies, or for the sake of game 
and provision."^ 

"The towns in this country are in a manner 
like unto those which are in Florida, yet are 

' A thoroughly aristocratic form of government. 

2 Live in the same town together to the number of some hun- 
dreds of famihes. 

3 PaUsadcs which constituted but a weak defence. 

■» The inhabitants of the town remove together as one body, 
s Jones's Presetti State of Virginia, pp. 8-9. 

The Town of Pom-e-i-ock 

Houses and Towns 135 

they not so strong nor yet preserved with so 
great care. They are compassed about with 
poles stuck fast in the ground, but they are not 
very strong. The entrance is very narrow as 
may be seen by this picture, which is made 
according to the form of the town of Pom-e-i-ock. 
There are but few houses therein, save those 
which belong to the king and his nobles. On the 
one side is their temple separated from the other 
houses and marked with the letter A., it is 
builded round, and covered with skin-mats, and 
as it were compassed about with cortynes^ with- 
out windows, and hath no light but the door.- 

On the other side is the king's lodging marked 
with the letter B. Their dwellings are builded 
with certain potes^ fastened, and covered with 
mats which they turn up as high as they think 
good, and so receive in the light and other. "^ 
Some are also covered with boughs of trees, as 
every man lusteth or liketh best. They keep 
their feasts and make good cheer together in the 
midst of the town. When the town standeth 
far from the water they dig a great pond noted 
with the letter C. where hence they fetch as much 
water as they need."^ 

"They eat, sleep, and dress their meat all 
under one roof, and in one chamber as it were. "^ 

"Their towns that are not enclosed with poles 

' Curtains. 

' No opening for the light but the door. 

3 Sticks. 4 Things, understood. 

s Hariot's Narrative, xix. 

'Strachey, Historic of Travails into Virginia, p. 71. 

136 The Forest Primeval 

are commonly fairer' than such as are enclosed, 
as appeareth in this figure which lively- ex- 
presseth the town of Se-co-tam.^ For the houses 
are scattered here and there, and they have 
garden expressed by the letter E. wherein 
groweth tobacco which the inhabitants call up- 
po-woc. They have also groves wherein they 
take deer, and fields wherein they sow their corn. 
In their cornfields they build as it were a scaffold, 
whereon they set a cottage like to a round chair, 
signified by F., wherein they place one to watch, 
for there are such number of fowls, and beasts,"* 
that unless they keep the better watch, they 
would soon devour all their corn. For which 
cause the watchmen maketh continual cries and 

"They sow their corn with a certain dis- 
tance noted by H. otherwise one stalk would 
choke the growth of another and the corn would 
not come unto its ripeness, G.^ For the leaves 
thereof are large, like unto the leaves of great 
reeds. They have also a several broad plot,^ C. 
where they meet with their neighbors, to cele- 
brate their chief solemn feasts; and a place D. 
where, after they have ended their feast, they 
make merry together. Over against this place 

' Larger and handsomer. 
' In a life-like manner. 

3 Generally written Se-co-ta. Se-co-tam was the name of a region 
of which Se-co-ta may have been the capital. 
''Game, not domestic, 
s G. in the picture represents the ripe corn. 
* Separate and apart. 
7 Small piece of ground of well-defined shape. 

T B *X0 ^ 

The Unenclosed Town of Se-co-ta 

Houses and Towns 137 

they have a round plot B. where they assemble 
themselves to make their solemn prayers. Not 
far from which place there is a large building 
A. wherein are the tombs ^ of their kings and 
princes, likewise they have garden noted by the 
letter I, wherein they use to sow pompions.^ 
Also a place marked with K. wherein they make a 
fire at their solemn feasts, and hard without the 
town a river L. from whence they fetch their 

"This people therefore void of all covetous- 
ness live cheerfully and at their hearts' ease. 
But they solemnize their feasts in the night, and 
therefore they keep very great fires, to avoid^ 
darkness, and to testify their joy."'* 

Smith's account, agreeing in the main with 
what has been said, and adding additional 
details, is as follows: 

"Their buildings and habitations are, for the 
most part, by the rivers, or not far distant from 
some fresh spring. Their houses are built like 
our arbors, of small young sprigs^ bowed and 
tied, and so close covered with mats, or the 
barks of trees very handsomely, that not- 
withstanding either wind, rain or weather, they 
are as warm as stoves, but very smoky, yet at 
the top of the house there is a hole made for the 
smoke to go into right over the fire. 

"Against the fire they lie on little hurdles^ of 

' Receptacles for the embalmed kings. 

' Pumpkins. 3 Dispel. ^ Hariot's Narrative, xx. 

s Saplings. « A movable frame made of interlaced sticks. 

138 The Forest Primeval 

reeds covered with a mat, borne' from the ground 
a foot and more by a bundle of wood. On those 
round about the house they He heads and points ^ 
one by the other against the fire, some covered 
with mats, some with skins, and some stark 
naked. He on the ground, from 6 to 20 in a 

"Their houses are in the midst of their fields 
or gardens, which are small plots of ground. 
Some 20 acres, some 40, some 100, some 200, 
some more, some less. In some places from 2 
to 50 of these houses together, are but little 
separated by groves of trees. Near their habita- 
tions is little^ small wood or old trees on the 
ground by reason of their burning of them for fire, 
so that a man may gallop a horse amongst these 
woods any way, but where the creeks or rivers 
shall hinder. "^ 

It is to be observed, that the habitations of the 
Virginia Indians, were houses, and not tents. 
The popular idea on this subject is clearly er- 
roneous. It is derived from the habits of the 
existing Indian tribes, inhabiting the far west, 
a roving collection of clans, often living in treeless 
regions. They have less permanency of location 
and their protection from the weather, is of a 
portable nature, made of skins and such things. 

Strachey tells us that the towns of the Virginia 
Indians were commonly upon the rise of a hill, 

' Supported. 

^ With the head of one opposite the feet of another lying by his 
side. 3 But little. " Smith, vol. i., pp. 129-31. 

Houses and Towns 139 

near some river, so that they could see whatever 
happened upon it. That there were not many- 
houses in any of the towns, and that such houses 
as there were, were located without any regard 
to a street, scattered about, far and wide, and 
that all the houses, even the king's were alike. 
Every house usually had two doors, one before 
and a postern. The doors were hung with mats, 
never locked nor bolted. The houses were gener- 
ally placed under the cover of large trees, for 
protection from bad weather, snow and rain, and 
from the heat of the sun in summer. 

Whittaker tells us that: "they observe the 
limits of their own possessions.'" That is, 
that the boundary lines of their several tracts of 
land were clearly marked out, each man owning 
his own piece of land. The same rule, on a 
larger scale, would apply to communities. 
Spelman gives this account of their houses: 
" Places of habitation they have but few, for 
the greatest towns have not above 20 or 30 houses 
in them. Their buildings are made like an oven 
with a little hole to come in at but more spacious 
within, having a hole in the midst of the house 
for smoke to go out at. The king's houses are 
both broader and longer than the rest, having 
many dark windings and turnings before any 
come where the king is. But in that time when 
they go a-hunting the women go to a place 
appointed before, to build houses for their hus- 
bands to lie in at night, carrying mats with 

' Purchas, vol. iv., p. 1771. 

140 The Forest Primeval 

them to cover their houses with all/ and as the 
men go further a-hunting, the women follow to 
make houses, always carrying their mats with 

"By their houses they have sometimes a 
scaena,^ or high stage, raised like a scaffold, of 
small spelts,^ reeds, or dried osiers,^ covered 
with mats, which both gives a shadow and is a 
shelter, and serves for such a covered place where 
men used in old times to sit and talk for recrea- 
tion or pleasure, which they called prcsstega,^ 
and where, on a loft of hurdles,^ they lay forth 
their corn and fish to dry. 

"Round about the house on both sides are 
their bedsteads, which are thick, short posts 
stuck into the ground, a foot high and somewhat 
more, and for the sides small poles laid along, 
with a hurdle of reeds cast over, wherein they 
roll down a fine white mat or two (as for a bed) 
when they go to sleep, and the which they roll 
up again in the morning when they rise, as we 
do our pallets. 

"They make a fire before them in the midst of 
the house, usually every night, and some one of 
them by agreement maintains the fire for all the 
night long. "^ 

' Withal, that is, in addition. 

* Spelman's Relation of Virginia, pp. 30-1. 

3 The word signified an arbor^ bower or tent, and later, a stage. 

4 Split pieces of wood. 

5 Branches of the willow tree. 

* Literally, the fore part of the deck of a ship. 

^ The floor of an attic, made in this case of a framework of sticks. 

* Strachey, Historic of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 72, 130. 



WITH reference to the map here presented, 
we will say that it is founded, so far as 
the names and position of the Indian 
towns are concerned, on the map known as 
Smith's. This map of Virginia is thus inscribed: 
** Discovered and Described by Captain John 
Smith, 1606." As the colonists never saw 
Virginia until 1607, the date 1606 refers to the 
year the expedition sailed. The map was the 
result no doubt of all the information gathered 
by the early explorers, and compiled at a later 
date. This map is a good one, considering the 
time it was made, and the inaccurate surveys it 
must have been based upon, but it was, of course, 
not perfect. The courses and distances of the 
rivers, while in the main correct, will be seen on 
comparison with any modern map of the State, 
to be far from accurate. In attempting there- 
fore to project the information contained in 
that map upon a properly drawn chart, one is 
met with the impossibility of doing so, and still 
retaining the same relative positions of objects 

as presented on the old map. We have at- 

142 The Forest Primeval 

tempted to make the two as nearly harmonious 
as possible, measuring by the scales of the two 
maps, and having regard to the more important 
curves of the rivers. We can only claim for 
this map such an approximation to correctness 
as could be reasonably expected under these 

It gives a greater feeling of reahty as to these 
vanished Indian towns, to meet with them by 
name, in the history of those times. The names 
of the towns are so frequently the names of the 
tribes which inhabited them, that when we read 
that one went to such a tribe, it is often equiva- 
lent to saying, that he went to the village named 
for that tribe. But it brings out the existence 
of the villages more sharply, when we see refer- 
ences to them purely as places. We have col- 
lected a few of the references to certain of these 
villages, which serve as a partial verification 
of the map, as the map itself helps to illuminate 
and verify the history. 

Wer-o-w6-co-m6-co, on the north side of the 
York, formerly called the Paniunkey, in Glou- 
cester County, is mentioned repeatedly in all 
the works on this subject. It was the favorite 
royal residence, and the place at which Powhatan 
was residing at the time of the invasion, and 
where Captain Smith was brought before him. 
It was fourteen miles from Jamestown.' 

The exact site of this village was on the east 
bank of what is now known as Timberneck Bay, 

' Smith, vol. i., p. 142. 

Smith, vol. i., p. 142, 

The Towns Located 143 

according to Campbell/ But it is claimed to 
have been on Putin, called also Poetan, that is, 
Powhatan Bay, and also on the estate of Rose- 
well, and still again at Shelly. Its exact location 
is therefore now in doubt. But these places are 
all close to each other, so its general situation is 
well ascertained. Incidents given in connection 
with Smith's arrival there which may help to 
locate it are given in his history.^ 

From Wer-o-w6-co-m6-co the local tradition 
is that there ran an Indian trail, or road, which 
passed near what is now Gloucester Court 
House; thence, it ran north, crossing the Pianka- 
tank, where it narrows, above Freeport, into 
Middlesex. A part of this road about ten 
miles long, from Wan, near the head of Ware 
River, to New Upton, near the Piankatank, is 
still known as the Indian Road, which is believed 
to follow exactly this Indian trail. It extended 
on north, through Virginia and the other States 
into Canada; and also, crossing the York and the 
James, continued to the south, into the land of 
the southern Indians. The tradition is that this 
path was only used for trade and peaceful com- 
munication, and never used for war parties. 

Along the north shore of the York, and parallel 
to it, passing Wer-o-w6-co-m6-co, ran another trail 
to West Point, the land of Pamunkey. This trail is 
believed to be nearly coincident with the present 
thoroughfare known as the York River road. 

' Campbell's History of Virginia, pp. 1 29-30. 
' Smith, vol. i., p. 207. 

144 The Forest Primeval 

Powhatan was another royal town, situated on 
the north side of the James, about the site of 
Richmond, and gave its name to the ruler of all 
the tribes/ 

Powhatan sold this place, which was one of 
his inheritances, in September, 1609, to Captain 
Francis West, brother of Lord Delaware. He 
promptly erected a fort there, calling it West's 
fort, and settled there with 120 English/ 

At Qui-yough-co-han-ock, on the south side of 
the James, in Surry County, some ten miles 
from Jamestown, they had a yearly sacrifice of 
children, in connection with the rite of hus-ka- 
naw-ing, described by Beverley/ 

Chaw-o-po-we-an-ock, which we take to be 
the same as the Chaw-o-po of the map, near the 
above, is mentioned as a place where all the 
Indians ran away from the English, being so 
afraid of them, or so "jealous of our intents," 
as Smith quaintly expresses it/ 

Pas-pa-hegh is mentioned in connection with 
one of Smith's early voyages in seeking to buy 
corn of the Indians. He says: "In my return 
to Pas-pa-hegh, I traded with that churlish and 
treacherous nation: having loaded 10 or 12 
bushels of corn, they offered to take our pieces,^ 
and swords, yet by stealth, but seeming to dislike 
it, they were ready to assault us, yet standing 
upon our guard in coasting the shore, divers^ 

' Smith, vol. i., p. 142. 

* Historic of Travaile into Virginia, p. 48. 

3 Beverley, book 3, pp. 37-41. ■» Smith, vol. i., p. 204. 

s Guns. ^ Several. 

The Towns Located 145 

out of the woods would meet with us with corn 
and trade," etc/ 

Pas-pa-hegh was the nearest village to 

Ar-ro-ha-teck, in Henrico County, is men- 
tioned as being near the location chosen by Sir 
Thomas Dale for the site of his town of Henrico.'' 
The name is here spelt Ar-sa-hat-tock, but it must 
be meant to be the same place as Ar-ro-ha-teck. 

Moy-so-nec is described as a peninsula of four 
miles circuit, between two rivers joined to the 
main land by a neck of forty or fifty yards, and 
being about the same distance from high water 

Near it were fertile corn fields, and the site 
of the town was described as all that could be 
desired. The result of these attractions, was a 
large population.^ 

Ap-po-cant is mentioned as the town farthest 
up the Chickahominy. It was in connection with 
making the acquaintance of this town and neigh- 
borhood, that Smith was captured by 0-pe- 
chan-ca-nough, and dragged around the country 
for several weeks."* 

Mo-hom-in-ge was a village near the Falls of 
the James, or near the site of Richmond. Here 
King James was proclaimed King by the first 
settlers. 5 

Cap-a-ho-wa-sick, a town on the north side of 

* Smith's True Relation, p. i8. ^ Smith, vol. ii., p. lo. 

3 Smith's True Relation, p. 22. ^ Ibid., p. 23. 

s Hisiorie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 25. 

146 The Forest Primeval 

the York, In Gloucester County, about midway 
between Wer-o-w6-co-m6-co and Chesapeake 
Bay, was the place which Powhatan offered to 
give to Captain Smith, after his rescue by Poca- 
hontas, and his adoption Into the tribe. This 
was to be given him In exchange for two cannon 
and a grindstone.' 

KIs-kl-ack Is mentioned In connection with the 
journey Captain Smith took to see Powhatan, 
in January, 1609: "At KIs-kl-ack the frost and 
contrary winds forced us three or four days also 
(to suppress the Insolency of those proud savages) 
to quarter In their houses, yet guard our barge, 
and cause them give us what we wanted."^ 

0-zI-nIes, which v/e take to be the same as the 
0-ze-nIck, located on the map, In James City 
County, Is mentioned as having Inhabitants who 
resisted the payment of the tribute of corn, and 
for their refusal, they were attacked by Sir 
George Yeardley. Their wer-6-ance was KIs- 

Ma-ma-na-hunt, on the south side of the 
Chlckahomlny, In Charles City County, Is men- 
tioned as a place whose Inhabitants, also, after 
the departure of Sir Thomas Dale, refused to 
pay the tribute of corn Imposed by the English. 
They defied Sir George Yeardley, his successor, 
who attacked the place, to enforce his demands. 
Under the wer-6-ance, Kis-sa-na-co-men, they 
resisted, and a slaughter followed. During this 

* Smith, vol. i., p. 163. 

^ Ibid., p. 206. 3 Ihid., vol. ii., p. 27, 

The Towns Located 147 

fight, prisoners were taken by the Enghsh, and 
ransomed on the payment of one hundred 
barrels of corn by the Indians. 

Up to this time, this people had never been 
a part of the Powhatan Confederacy, having 
been able to withstand the power of Powhatan 
and 0-pe-chan-ca-nough. After this fight with 
the English, however, they acknowledged 0-pe- 
chan-ca-nough as their King, he having made 
them believe that it was due to his influence 
with the English, that these terrible invaders 
made peace with them.' 

Ches-a-ka-won, in Lancaster County, is men- 
tioned as the place at which Captain Spelman, 
on board the bark Elizabeth, was first told by an 
Indian, of 0-pe-chan-ca-nough's first plot to 
massacre the English.^ 

We-an-oack, on the north side of the James, 
in Charles City County, is mentioned in con- 
nection with the revenge the English took for 
the massacre of 1622, thus: " Shortly after. Sir 
George Yeardley and Captain William Powel 
took each of them a company of well disposed 
gentlemen and others to seek their enemies. 
Yeardley ranging the shore of We-an-ock, could 
see nothing but their old houses which he burnt, 
and went home. Powel searching another part, 
found them all fled but three he met by chance, 
whose heads he cut oflf, burnt their houses and so 

' Smith, vol. ii., pp. 27-8. 

= Ibid., p. 78. J Ibid., p. 84. 

148 The Forest Primeval 

Ke-cough-tan, in Elizabeth City County, near, 
or at, Hampton, is spoken of as being forty miles 
from Jamestown. The place was well known, 
and is often mentioned. This town is thus 
described by Smith. "The town containeth 
eighteen houses, pleasantly seated upon three 
acres of ground, upon a plain, half environed 
with a great Bay' of the great River,^ the other 
part with a Bay of the other River^ falling into 
the great Bay, with a little Isle fit for a Castle 
in the mouth thereof, the Town adjoining to the 
main'^ by a neck of land of sixty yards. "^ 

The destruction of this village by Sir Thomas 
Gates, the Lieutenant General, in revenge for 
the Indians capturing, leading up into the woods, 
and "sacrificing" one of his men, Humfre}^ Blunt, 
is thus told us: 

"The ninth of July, he prepared his forces, and 
early in the morning set upon a town of theirs, 
some four miles from Algernoone Fort,^ called 
Ke-cough-tan, and had soon taken it, without 
loss or hurt of any of his men. The Governor and 
his women fled (the young king Powhatan's son 
not being there) but left his poor baggage and 
treasure to the spoil of our soldiers, which was 
only a few baskets of old wheat, and some other 
of peas and beans, a little tobacco, and some few 
women's girdles of silk, of the grass-silk, not 

' The body of water between the mouth of Hampton Creek and 
Old Point. = The James. 

^ Hampton Creek. 4 Main land. 

s Smith's True Relation, p. 16, ' Built by the English. 

The Towns Located 149 

without art, and much neatness finely wrought; 
of which I have sent divers into England, (being 
at the taking of the town) and would have sent 
your Ladyship some of them, had they been a 
present so worthy. " ' 

Ap-po-cant, on the Chickahominy, in Han- 
over County, is mentioned as the place at which 
George Cawson was, with the most cruel tortures, 
put to death by the Indians/ 

Ac-quack, in Richmond County, on the North 
side of the Rappahannock, is mentioned in dis- 
cussing plans for subjugating the Indians, as is 
also 0-ze-nick, in James City County, on the 

Pis-sac-o-ack, Mat-o-ho-pick and Me-cup-pom, 
towns next to each other on the north side of the 
Rappahannock, in Richmond or Westmoreland 
Counties, are stated to have been situated upon 
high, white clay cliffs."* 

War-ras-koy-ack, in Isle of Wight County, is 
often mentioned. An English settlement there 
was attacked, but successfully defended, in the 
great massacre of 1622 J 

Nan-se-mond, in the County of that name, is 
frequently mentioned. One of the earliest refer- 
ences to it is this: "Seven or eight miles we 
sailed up this narrow river (the Nansemond), 
at last on the western shore we saw large corn- 

' Purchas, vol. iv., p. 1755. 

' Ilistorie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 52. 

3 Smith, vol. ii., p. 91. 4 Ihid., vol i., p. 185. 

^Ihid., vol. ii., p. 68. 

150 The Forest Primeval 

fields, in the midst a little Isle; and in it was 
abundance of corn, the people he (an Indian of 
that tribe) told us were all a-hunting, but in the 
Isle was his house, to which he invited us with 
much kindness."' 

Houses of the Chesapeake tribe are thus men- 
tioned: "So setting sail for the southern shore 
(that is, from Point Comfort) we sailed up a nar- 
row river,^ up the country of Chisapeack; it hath 
a good channel, but many shoals, about the en- 
trance. By that^ we had sailed six or seven 
miles,^ we saw two or three little garden plots 
with their houses, the shores overgrown with 
the greatest pine and fir trees we ever saw in 
the country. But not seeing nor hearing any 
people, and the river very narrow, we returned 
to the great river, ^ to see if we could find any of 

Nom-i-ny, on the south side of the Potomac, 
in Westmoreland County, where cliffs and a creek 
still bear this name, was visited by Smith and a 
party he commanded. They were conducted by 
two Indians "up a little bayed creek, towards 
Nom-i-ny, where they discovered the woods laid 
with ambuscadoes,^ to the number of three or 
four thousand Indians, strangely grimed,^ dis- 
guised and making a horrible shouting and 
yelling. " ^ 

' Smith, vol. i., p. 190. ' The Elizabeth. 3 When. 

4 This would have brought them to the neighborhood of Norfolk. 
s The James. ^ Smith, vol. i., p. 190. 

7 Ambuscades. « Painted with soot. 

9 Stith's History of Virginia, p. 65. 

The Towns Located. 151 

Pa-taw-o-mek, in Staflford County, is men- 
tioned frequently, once in connection with a 
fight with the Indians, which was termi- 
nated by Spelman's head being cut off by the 
Indians, and thrown down the river bank to his 
friends. ' 

On the other side of the Chesapeake, Tock- 
wogh, in Kent County, Maryland, was located 
seven miles up the river of that name, now known 
as the Chester, This town was a fort, well pali- 
sadoed, and mantled with the bark of trees, 
an armor which would be very effective against 
arrows. ^ 

Ala-chot, on the north side of the Mattapony, 
in King and Queen County, was a village belong- 
ing to 0-pe-chan-ca-nough. This was his princi- 
pal residence after the massacre of 1622, and, 
no doubt, the center of the Indian opposition 
until his death, soon after the second massacre 
brought about by him, in 1644. 

"Ma-chot is supposed to be identical with 
Eltham, the old seat of the Bassets, in King and 
Queen County, and which borrows its name from 
an old English seat in the County of Kent." 
It was here that Powhatan's two sons went on 
board the vessel, to see their sister, Pocahontas, 
then in captivity. Finding her well, they ad- 
vised their father to make peace, and be friends 
with the English.^ 

Hamor, in telling of the negotiations relating 

' Smith, vol. ii., p. 95. ^ Ihid., vol. i., pp. 120, 182. 

i Campbell's History of Virginia, p. 108. 

152 The Forest Primeval 

to the return of Pocahontas, after her capture, 
says that they were "anchored near unto the 
chiefest residence Powhatan had, at a town called 
Ma-chot, " etc/ 

This would make Ma-chot equal Wer-o-wo-co- 
mo-co in dignity and importance. 

Powhatan was here, when Hamor and Savage 
and their Indian guides came to him, to try and 
obtain another of his daughters for marriage 
to some Englishman. This embassy was un- 

A-quo-han-ock, in the northern part of North- 
ampton County; 0-nan-coke, in Accomack 
County; Paw-tux-unt, in Calvert County, 
Maryland, and Mat-ta-pan-i-ent, which we take 
to be the same as Matt-pa-ment, located on the 
map, in Prince George County, Maryland, are 
mentioned as places visited by John Pory, Sec- 
retary of Virginia, some time about 1619.^ May- 
ta-pan-i-ent is also mentioned in connection 
with a sham battle, which was fought on one 
occasion between the Indians, for the entertain- 
ment of their European guests."^ 

Or-a-pax was a hunting town and seat, lying on 
the upper part of Chickahominy swamp, on the 
north side, belonging to, and much frequented 
by, Powhatan, and the imperial family, on ac- 
count of the abundance of game it afforded.^ 

It is described as situated "in the desert be- 

' Hamor's Discourse, p. 9. * Ibid., p. 38. 

3 Smith, vol. ii., p. 61. ■» Ibid., vol. i., p. 135. 

s Burk History of Virginia, vol. i., p. 107. 

The Towns Located 153 

twixt Chick-a-ham-a-nie and Yough-ta-mund, " 
that is, somewhere in Hanover County, very 
probably. It was the town to which the old 
Emperor Powhatan retired in order to be beyond 
the power of the English. Near this town he had 
his treasures, which were kept in reserve for his 
death, and for his use on his journey to the spirit 
land, and here he finally died, in the month of 
April, 1618.^ 

This town was about twelve miles northeast 
of Richmond, and consisted of about thirty or 
forty houses.^ 

The Na-cotch-ta-nok of our map, was situated 
on the eastern side of the Anacostia River, now 
in the District of Columbia. Its site is thus 
described by Mr. S. V. Proudfit: , 

"The principal part of Na-cotch-tanke seems 
to have been about due east of the Capitol, for 
the fields at this point give greater evidence of 
occupation than at most others, though indica- 
tions of Indian occupation are to be found at 
nearly all points of the valley. It should be 
noted that the dwellings were in most cases close 
to the bank of the stream. A line drawn parallel 
with the shore and three hundred feet distant 
would include the greater part of the houses. 
Within the area thus indicated may be found 
to-day every variety of stone implement com- 
mon to the North American Indian. Arrow- 
heads, spear-heads, knives, drills, perforators, 

' Smith, vol. i., pp. 142-3; vol. ii., p. 36. 
' Campbell's History of Virginia, p. 46. 

154 The Forest Primeval 

scrapers, sinkers, polished axes (both grooved 
and ungrooved), sharpening-stones, pipes, slate 
tablets, pestles, mortars, cup-stones, hammer- 
stones, as well as that rude axe-shaped implement 
of chipped quartzite which has yet to receive a 
name. Associated with these, and forming no 
inconsiderable part of the remains, are found 
partly worked implements — some broken, others 
worked into the first rude forms of the arrow- 
head or knife and then abandoned, and abound- 
ing everywhere flakes, chips, and pebbles of 
quartz and quartzite having but a chip or two 
struck from the original surface. 

"These fields have been under cultivation for 
many years, and are regularly visited by local 
collectors, yet they are to-day In places, fairly 
strewn with the wreck of the old village 

Beverley, writing in 1705, gives this list of the 
then existing towns, and their conditions: 

"The Indians of Virginia are almost wasted, 
but such towns, or people as retain their names, 
and live In bodies, are hereunder set down; all 
which together can't raise five hundred fighting 
men. They live poorly, and much In fear of 
the neighboring Indians. Each town, by the 
Articles of Peace in 1677,^ pays 3 Indian arrows 
for their land, and 20 beaver skins for protection 
every year. 

' The American Anthropologist, vol. xi., p. 242. 
= The settlement of the disturbances with the Indians which 
brought on Bacon's Rebellion the year before. 

The Towns Located 155 

"In Accomack are eight towns/ viz: 

" Ma-tom-kin is much decreased of late by the 
smallpox, that was carried thither. 

"Gin-go-teque. The few remains of this 
town are joined with a nation of the Maryland 

*'Kie-quo-tank is reduced to very few men. 

"Match-o-pun-go has a small number yet 

'*Oc-ca-han-ock has a small number yet living. 

" Pun-go-teque. Governed by a queen, but 
a small nation. 

"0-a-nan-cock has but four or five families. 

"Chi-con-es-sex has very few, who just keep 
the name. 

"Nan-du-ye. A seat of the Empress. Not 
above twenty families, but she hath all the na- 
tions of this shore under tribute. 

"In Northampton. Gan-gas-coe which Is 
almost as numerous as all the foregoing nations 
put together. 

"In Prince George. Wy-a-noke is almost 
wasted, and now gone to live among other 

"In Charles City. Ap-pa-mat-tox. These 
live in Colonel Byrd's pasture, not being above 
seven families. 

"In Surry. Not-ta-ways, which are about a 
hundred bowmen, of late a thriving and Increas- 
ing people. 

' Most of these names are still to be found on the map of this 

156 The Forest Primeval 

"By Nan-sa-mond. Men-heer-ing, has about 
thirty bowmen, who keep at a stand. 

*' Nan-sa-mond. About thirty bowmen: They 
have increased much of late. 

"In King Wilham County, 2.' Pa-mun-kie 
has about forty bowmen, who decrease. 

" Chick- a-hom-o-nie, which had about sixteen 
bowmen, but lately increased. 

*Tn Essex. Rap-pa-han-nock is reduced to a few 
families, and live scattered upon the English seats. 

"In Richmond. Port-Ta-ba-go has about five 
bowmen, but wasting. 

"In Northumberland. Wic-co-com-o-co has 
but three men living, which yet keep up their 
kingdom and retain their fashion; they live by 
themselves, separate from all other Indians, and 
from the English."^ 

In 1705, when Beverley wrote this, only some 
twenty-odd of about one hundred and sixty 
counties which were formed in what was once 
Virginia's territory were in existence. He is 
therefore speaking only of those in the eastern 
portion of the Colony. The names he mentions 
are, as a rule, those of the tribes, as well as the 
names of the towns which they inhabited. 

The Indian villages were situated at points 
of advantage which in many instances seem to 
have been recognized and adopted by the Vir- 
ginians as the sites of their towns; thus, there 
was on the site of 

* Two towns of the Pa-mun-key tribe. 
■Beverley, book 3, pp. 62-3. 

The Towns Located 157 

Richmond, Powhatan; 

Norfolk, Ski-co-ak; 
Petersburg, Ap-pa-ma-tuck; 
Alexandria, As-sa-o-meck; 
Fredericksburg, Sock-o-beck; 
Hampton, Ke-cough-tan; 
Suffolk, Man-tough-que-me-o; 
Cape Charles, Ac-cow-mack, and 
Smithfield, War-ros-quy-oake. 

At least, if these cities be not on the very sites 
of these Indian villages, they are very near them. 

Many of the fine estates in Virginia also occupy 
such village sites. These presented the advan- 
tage of being always fertile ground from which 
the forest had, to some extent, been cleared 
away, and fields ready for further cultivation. 

The first settlers on Roanoke Island mention 
the following Indian towns: 

Ski-co-ak, mentioned as a great city. Its 
location on the early maps would indicate that 
it occupied the site of the present city of Nor- 
folk. It will be mentioned again more fully 
later on in connection with the Chesapeake tribe. 

Ro-a-noke, at the north end of the island of 
that name, a village of nine houses, built of cedar 
and fortified with a palisade. 

Pom-e-i-ock, on Pamlico Sound, in Hyde 
County, east of Lake Mattamuskeet. 

We know this town well, a picture of the same 
being given to us by John White. 

158 The Forest Primeval 

Pas-que-noke, located probably at the south- 
east end of Camden County, on Albemarle 

Chep-a-now, or Chep-a-nock, in Perquimans 
County, on the north shore of Albemarle Sound. 

Mas-com-ing in Chowan County. The name 
is also written Mus-ca-mun-ge. It was prob- 
ably on the site of Edenton. 

War-a-tan, in the same county, a little farther 
up the Chowan on the east side. 

Cat-o-kin-ge, farther up the same river, at 
the southern extremity of Gates County, at the 
fork of the streams. 

0-hau-nook, farther up the same stream, on its 
west side, in Hertford County, or lower down in 

Ram-us-how-og, still farther up the Chowan, 
probably just north of its confluence with Kirby's 

Met-pow-em, in Bertie County, lower down on 
the west side of the Chowan facing Albemarle 
Sound, and near the mouth of Roanoke River. 
It is also called Me-tack-wem. 

Chaw-a-nook, whose lord was Po-o-nens, in 
Chowan County, on the east side of Chowan 
River, probably on the site of the present 

Tan-da-quo-muc in the same county and 
neighborhood, a little up the Roanoke River, on 
its north side. 

Mor-a-tuc in the same county, a little farther 
up the Roanoke River. 

The Towns Located 159 

Me-quo-pen in Washington County, possibly 
on Mackay's Creek. 

Tram-as-que-coock in Tyrrell, on the west 
side of Alligator River. 

Das-a-mon-que-pe-uc in Dare County, on 
Croatan Sound, opposite the northern end of 
Roanoke Island. 

A-gus-cog-oc in Hyde County, west of Pom- 
e-i-ock, on Rose Bay. 

Co-tan in Hyde County on the east side of 
Pungo River. 

Se-co-ta in Beaufort County, on the point of 
land between the Pamlico and Pungo rivers. 

This is said to have been the southernmost 
town ruled by Win-gi-na.^ We are fortunate in 
having also a picture of this place. 

Sec-tu-o-oc in Pamlico County somewhere 
between the mouths of the Pamlico and Neuse 
rivers, on Pamlico Sound. 

Pan-a-wa-i-oc in Beaufort County, on the 
south side of Pamlico River. 

New-si-oc in Carteret County, on the south 
side near the mouth of the Neuse. 

Gwa-rew-oc also in Carteret County, on Bogue 

Hat-or-ask on the sea-coast near Loggerhead 

Pa-qui-woc on the coast, near Cape Hat- 

Cro-a-to-an on the coast between Hatteras 
and 0-cra-coke Inlet. 

' Hakluyt, vol. ii., p. 283 et seq. 

i6o The Forest Primeval 

Wo-ko-kon on the coast, south of 0-cra-coke 

Two names of regions are given in John 
White's map, by which chart the above towns 
have been thus attempted to be localized to some 
degree, Se-co-tan, which would appear to be the 
territory between the Pamlico River and Albe- 
marle Sound, and We-a-pe-me-oc, which would 
include all from Albemarle Sound to Chesa- 
peake Bay. 

This map, which was drawn by John White, 
was engraved by de Bry, and is often spoken of 
as de Bry's map of Lane's Expedition. The 
map here given is based upon it. 




THE "Fallsof the James'' are so often men- 
tioned by the early writers, that it will 
not be out of place to say a word about 
their origin. In an interesting paper Mr. W. J. 
McGee, after tracing the successive changes 
through which the eastern coast of the United 
States has passed, the lowering and rising of the 
land, sometimes below the level of the ocean, 
and then again above it, the advance and retreat 
of the ice-sheet which once covered the north- 
ern part of Virginia, he says: 

"With the retreat of the great ice-sheet the 
land rose slowly and the waters gradually re- 
treated until the previous configuration of the 
land and sea was in part restored; but the face 
of the emerging land was changed. Not only 
was the surface mantled and the valleys clogged 
with sediments, but the country was cleft for 
300 miles by a profound break or displacement 
by which the lowlands were lowered and the 
uplands lifted. This displacement of the surface 
and the strata extends from the Potomac to the 
Hudson, and every river crosses it in a cascade; 
II 161 

i62 The Forest Primeval 

and the displacing is yet in progress — so slowly, 
it is true, that man has scarcely measured its 
rate, but so rapidly that the ever-busy rivers 
are unable to keep pace with it, and either cut 
down their upland gorges to tide level or silt^ 
up their lowland estuaries."^ 

And again: 

"Through the Potomac valley passes one of 
the most strongly marked geologic and cultural^ 
boundaries on the face of the earth. It was the 
shore-line during the later part of the Potomac 
period,"^ and again during the eons of Cretaceous ^ 
and early Tertiary^ deposition; it was again a 
shore-line during the first ice-invasion, the 
deposition of the Columbia gravels' and brick 
clays, and the fashioning of the Columbia* 
terraces; and it Vv^as the line of earth-fracture by 
which the coastal lowlands are dropped below 
the Piedmont uplands. It is known to students 
of modern manufactures as the fall-line because 
along it the rivers descend as abruptly as the 
land; and it is even more notable as a line of 
deflection than as one of declivity in rivers. 

* Fill up with sediment. 

» An arm or inlet of the sea, particularly one which is covered with 
water only at high tide. 

3 Relating to mental culture. 

■* The geological period during which the Potomac River was being 

5 This geologic term relates to the chalk which was a character- 
istic of the period. 

6 The word signified third in order of formation. 

7 A soil characteristic of the District of Columbia. 

8 This relates to the District of Columbia. 

The Falls of the James 163 

"The great waterways of the Middle Atlantic 
slope maintain their courses through Appala- 
chian ranges and Piedmont hills alike; but on 
reaching the coastal lowlands they are turned 
aside literally by a sand bank little higher than 
their depth, and thence hug the upland margin 
for scores of miles before finally finding their way 
into the ocean. So the coastal lowlands are 
nearly isolated by the tidal bays and river- 
elbows along their inner margin. Measured 
along the fall-line the Hudson is barred from the 
Rappahannock, 300 miles southward, by only 60 
miles of land and unnavigable water. This re- 
markable physiography^ is now and ever has 
been reflected in the culture of the region. 

"The pioneer settlers of the country ascended 
the tidal canals to the falls of the rivers, where 
they found, sometimes within a mile, clear, fresh 
water, the game of the hills and woodlands, and 
the fish and fowl of the estuaries, and, as the 
population increased, abundant water-power and 
excellent mill-sites, easy ferriage, and practic- 
able bridge-sites; here the pioneer settlements 
and villages were located; and across the necks 
of the inter-estuarine peninsulas the pioneer 
routes of travel were extended from settlement 
to settlement until the entire Atlantic slope was 
traversed by a grand social and commercial 
artery stretching from New England to the Gulf 

"As the population grew and spread, the set- 

* Physical geography. 

164 The Forest Primeval 

tlements, villages, and towns along the line of 
Nature's selection waxed, and many of them 
yet retain their early prestige; and the early 
stage-route has become a great metropolitan 
railway and telegraph route connecting North 
and South as they were connected of old in more 
primitive fashion. And just as these natural 
conditions influenced the white invader, so, and 
even more strongly, must they have influenced 
the migrations, settlements, industries, and 
character of the aboriginal monarchs of the 
Potomac waters and woodlands."' 

^ The American Anthropologist, July, 1889, vol. xi., pp. 231, 233-4, 



STRACHEY gives us the best account of 
the poHtical construction of Indian so- 
ciety. That construction appears at 
once upon investigation to have been thoroughly 
organized and essentially aristocratic. Over all 
was Powhatan. The English called him an Em- 
peror because he ruled over so many kings, 
for each town had its king, as the English 
called them. The Indians called them wer-6- 
ances. They exercised despotic power over their 

Then there was a power behind the kings — 
the priests and conjurers, who In many respects 
ruled the kings. 

There was thus no lack of government In the 
forest, but It was of the arbitrary and tyrannical 

Turning to the Historie of Travaile into Vir^ 
ginia, we are told: 

"The great king Powhatan hath divided his 
country Into many provinces or shires (as It 
were), and over every one placed a several abso- 
lute wer-6-ance or commander, to him contrlbu- 

1 66 The Forest Primeval 

tary to govern the people, there to Inhabit; and 
his petty wer-6-ances, in all, may be in number 
about three or four and thirty, all which have 
their precincts and bounds, proper and commo- 
diously appointed out, that no one intrude upon 
the other of several forces; and for the ground 
wherein each one soweth his corn, plant his 
ap-oke' and garden fruits, he tithes^ to the great 
king of all the commodities growing in the same, 
or of what else his shire brings forth, appertaining 
to the lands or rivers, corn, beasts, pearl, foul, 
fish, hides, furs, copper, beads, by what means 
soever obtained, a peremptory rate. " ^ 

The despotic rule of Powhatan and of the 
lesser Indian kings, as the early settlers always 
called them, is thus stated by Strachey: 

"Nor have they positive laws, only the law 
whereby he ruleth is custom; yet when he pleas- 
eth, his will is a law, and must be obeyed, not 
only as a king, but as half a god, his people 
esteem him so; his inferior kings are tied likewise 
to rule by like customs, and have permitted them 
power of life and death over their people, as their 
command in that nature.""* 

"There is a civil government among them 
which they strictly observe, and show thereby 
that the law of nature dwelleth in them; for they 
have a rude kind of commonwealth and rough 

' Tobacco. ^ Pays part as taxes. 

3 Strachey, Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 55. 

"I This probably means that their jurisdiction derived from Pow- 
hatan extended even to life and death. Historie of Travaile into 
Virginia, p. 70. 

Political Laws and the Art of War 167 

government, wherein they both honor and obey 
their king, parents, and governors, both greater 
and lesser." So wrote the Rev. Alexander 
Whittaker, from Henrico, in 1613.^ 

The taxes levied by the autocratic ruler of 
the forest were very oppressive. Describing the 
governmental system Strachey says: 

"Every wer-6-ance knoweth his own meeres 
and limits" to fish, foul, or hunt in (as before 
said), but they hold all of their great wer-6-ance 
Powhatan, unto whom they pay eight parts of 
ten tribute of all the commodities which their 
country yieldeth, as of wheat, peas, beans, eight 
measures of ten (and these measured out in 
little cades or backets, which the great king 
appoints), of the dying-roots, eight measures of 
ten of all sorts of skins, and furs eight of ten; 
and so he robs the people, in effect, of all they 
have, even to the deer's skin wherewith they 
cover them from cold, in so much as they dare not 
dress it and put it on until he has seen it and 
refused it, for what he commandeth they dare 
not disobey in the least thing. "^ 

"The Indians having no sort of letters among 
them, as has been before observed, they can 
have no written laws ; nor did the constitution 
in which we found them, seem to need many. 
Nature and their own convenience having taught 
them to obey one chief, who is arbiter of all 

' Purchas, vol. iv., p. 1771. 

^ "Meeres and limits" mean seas or waters in which to fish, and 
the boundaries allowed them on land for hunting. 
i Historic of Travaile into Virginia, p. 81. 

i68 The Forest Primeval 

things among them. They claim no property 
in lands, but they are in common to a whole 
nation. Every one hunts and fishes and gathers 
fruits in all places. Their labor in tending corn, 
pompions,' melons, etc, is not so great, that they 
need quarrel for room, where the land is so fertile 
and where so much lies uncultivated. 

"They are very severe in punishing ill-breed- 
ing, of which every wer-6-ance is undisputed 
judge, who never fails to lay a rigorous penalty 
upon it. An example whereof I had from a gen- 
tleman who was an eye-witness; which was this: 

"In the time of Bacon's Rebellion, one of 
these wer-6-ances, attended by several others of 
his nation, was treating with the English in New 
Kent County, about a peace; and during the 
time of his speech, one of his attendants pre- 
sumed to interrupt him, which he resented as 
the most unpardonable affront that could be 
offered him; and therefore he instantly took his 
tomahawk from his girdle, and split the fellow's 
head, for his presumption. The poor fellow 
dying immediately upon the spot, he commanded 
some of his men to carry him out, and went on 
again with his speech where he left off, as un- 
concerned as if nothing had happened. 

"The titles of honor that I have observed 
among them peculiar to themselves, are only 
cock-a-rouse, and wer-6-ance, besides that of 
the king and queen; but of late they have 
borrowed some titles from us, which they bestow 

» Pumpkins. 

Political Laws and the Art of War 169 

among themselves. A cock-a-rouse is one that 
has the honor to be of the king or queen's council 
with relation to the affairs of the government, 
and has a great share in the administration. 
A wer-6-ance is a military officer, who of course 
takes upon him the command of all parties, 
either of hunting, traveling, waring, or the like, 
and the word signified a war captain. 

"They also have people of a rank inferior to 
the commons, a sort of servant among them. 
These are called black boys, and are attendant 
upon the gentry, to do their servile offices, which, 
in their state of nature, are not many. For 
they live barely up to the present relief of their 
necessities, and make all things easy and comfort- 
able to themselves, by the indulgence of a kind 
climate, without toiling and perplexing their 
mind for riches, which other people often trouble 
themselves to provide for uncertain and un- 
grateful heirs. In short, they seem, as possessing 
nothing, and yet enjoying all things."' 

The wer-6-ances exercised all the highest rights 
of the various tribes, even extending to the aliena- 
tion of the soil itself upon which they lived. In 
the various conveyances of territory made by 
the Indians as the result of treaties with the 
English, it is the chiefs alone who execute the 
deed; the subordinate members of the tribe were 
not recognized by them as having any say in the 
matter. The deed made by the chief or chiefs 
passed an indefeasible title to the whole. 

^ Beverley, book 3, pp. 56-9. 

170 The Forest Primeval 

Strachey said: "Upon Yough-ta-mund' is the 
seat of Powhatan's three brethren whom we 
learn are successively to govern after Powhatan, 
in the same dominions which Powhatan by right 
of birth, as the elder brother, now holds. The 
rest of the countries under his command are (as 
they report) his conquests. " ^ 

"I can't think it anything but their jealousy 
that makes them exclude the lineal issue from 
succeeding immediately to the crown. Thus if 
a king have several legitimate children, the crown 
does not descend in a direct line to his children, 
but to his brother by the same mother, if he 
have any, and for want of such, to the children 
of his eldest sister, always respecting the descent 
by the female, as the surer side. But the crown 
goes to the male heir (if any be) in equal degree, 
and for want of such, to the female, preferably 
to any male that is more distant. 

"As in the beginning of a war, they have as- 
semblies for consultation, so upon any victory, 
or other great success, they have public meetings 
again, for processions and triumphs. I never 
saw one of these, but have heard that they are 
accompanied with all the marks of a wild and 
extravagant joy. "^ 

With reference to the political construction of 
the tribes, and the offices of wer-6-ance and 
sachem, we are told: 

' The Pamunkey River. 

' Strachey, Ilistorie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 36. 

s Beverley, book 3, pp. 25-6. 

Political Laws and the Art of War 171 

"The sachem amongst all the tribes was a 
magistrate either hereditary or elective, accord- 
ing to their various customs, but in all cases 
without tribute, revenue or authority. His 
duty was invariably to stay at home, whilst the 
war-chief, who was elected for his merit, was 
fighting at the head of his warriors ; to preside in 
the great council, where he had but a single voice, 
and in the absence of the warriors to watch over 
the safety of the aged, the women and children, 
an office of so little estimation that amongst 
several of the tribes it was frequently filled by 

"A fact in confirmation of this is related by 
Charlevoix. A female chief of one of the tribes 
of the Hurons made repeated attempts in council 
to procure the admission of a Christian mission- 
ary, but without success. 

"Nor is it the sachem only that is without 
power in those singular communities. There is 
nothing like what we conceive of authority any- 
where among them. Even the great council of 
the nation can do nothing but by advice or 
persuasion, and every individual is at liberty to 
refuse obedience to its decisions. 

"Even in war there is no such thing as an 
imperative direction from a general to his 
soldiers: Yet notwithstanding this uncontrolled 
license, the advice of the chiefs is scarcely ever 

This statement of a later writer, with reference 

' Burk's History of Virginia, vol. iii., pp. 64-5. 

172 The Forest Primeval 

to the powers of the Indian rulers, is not borne 
out by the earlier writers, who represent them 
as despotic. 

Spelman says: "The king is not known by any 
difference from others of the (better) chief sort 
in the country, but only when he comes to any 
of their houses they present him with copper 
beads or victual, and show much reverence to 

He further says: "Concerning their laws my 
years and understanding made me the less to 
look after because I thought that infidels^ were 
lawless,^ yet when I saw some put to death I 
asked the cause of their offence, for in the time 
I was with the Patomecks I saw 5 executed, 4 
for murder of a child {id est) the mother and two 
others that did the fact with her, and a fourth 
for concealing it as he passed by, being bribed 
to hold his peace; and one for robbing a traveller 
of copper and beads, for to steal their neighbor's 
corn or copper is death, or to lie one with 
another's wife is death if he be taken in the 

"Those that be convicted of capital offences 
are brought into a plain place before the king's 
house where then he lay, which was at Pamunkey, 
the chiefest house he hath, where one or two 

* Spelman's Relation of Virginia, p. 52. 

2 A favorite way of regarding the savages. This lack of belief 
in Christianity was often viewed as of itself justifying any course 
with regard to them which the English deemed proper — the infidels 
having practically no rights the believers were bound to respect. 

3 Had no laws. 

Political Laws and the Art of War 173 

appointed by the king did bind them hand and 
foot, which being done a great fire was made. 
Then came the ofhcer to those that should die, 
and with a shell cut off their long lock, which 
they wear on the left side of their head, and hang- 
eth that on a bow before the king's house. 
Then those for murder were beaten with staves 
till their bones were broken and being alive w^re 
flung into the fire; the other for robbing was 
knocked on the head and being dead his body 
was burned."' 

This account is in harmony with the statement 
of the Rev. Alexander Whittaker, who says: 
"Murder is scarcely heard of; adultery and other 
offences severely punished."^ 

"When they intend any wars, the wer-6-ances 
usually have the advice of their priests and con- 
jurers, and their allies, and ancient friends, but 
chiefly the priests determine their resolution. 
Every wer-6-ance, or some lusty fellow, they 
appoint captain over every nation. They sel- 
dom make war for lands or goods, but for women 
and children, and principally for revenge. They 
have many enemies, namely all their westernly 
countries beyond the mountains, and the heads 
of the rivers."^ 

"For their wars also they use targets that are 

^ Spelman's Relation of Virginia, pp. 43-6. 

^ Purchas, vol. iv., p. 1771. 

3 Smith, vol. i., p. 134. The enemies beyond the mountains were 
the Shaw-a-nees, Cher-o-kees, and others; those at the heads of the 
rivers were the Mon-a-cans, the Man-na-ho-acks, the Mas-sa-wo- 
mecks, and others. 

174 The Forest Primeval 

round and made of barks of trees, and a sword 
of wood at their backs, but oftentimes they use 
for swords the horn of a deer put through a 
piece of wood in form of a pickaxe. Some a 
long stone sharpened at both ends, used in the 
same manner."' 

"These men are not so simple as some have 
supposed them: for they are of body lusty, strong 
and very nimble: they are a very understanding 
generation, quick of apprehension, sudden in 
their dispatches, subtile in their deahngs, ex- 
quisite in their inventions, and industrious in 
their labor. I suppose the world hath no better 
marksmen with their bows and arrows than they 
be; they will kill birds flying, fish swimming, and 
beasts running: they shoot also with marvelous 
strength, they shot one of our men being un- 
armed quite through the body, and nailed both 
his arms to his body with one arrow."" 

By being unarmed, the writer means that the 
man did not have on armor. 

Their method of summoning the warriors was 
very original. Strachey says: "When they 
would press ^ a number of soldiers to be ready by 
a day, an officer is dispatched away, who coming 
into the towns, or otherwise meeting such whom 
he hath order to warn,'^ to strike them over the 
back a sound blow with a bastinado, and bids 
them be ready to serve the great king, and tells 

' Smith, vol. i., p. 132. 

' Alexander Whittaker in Purchas, vol. iv., p. 1771. 

3 Impress. ■• Summon. 

Political Laws and the Art of War 175 

them the rendezvous, from whence they dare not 
at any time appointed be absent."' 

"When they are about to undertake any war 
or other solemn enterprise, the king summons 
a convention of his great men, to assist at a grand 
council, which in their language is called a match- 
a-com-o-co. At these assemblies 'tis the custom, 
especially when a war is expected, for the young 
men to paint themselves irregularly with black, 
red, white, and several other motley colors, mak- 
ing one-half of their face red, (for instance) 
and the other half black or white, with great 
circles of a different hue, round their eyes; with 
monstrous mustaches, and a thousand fantas- 
tical figures, all over the rest of their body; 
and to make themselves appear yet more ugly 
and frightful, they strow feathers, down, or the 
hair of beasts, upon the paint while it is still 
moist, and capable of making those light sub- 
stances stick fast on. When they are thus 
formidably equipped, they rush into the match- 
a-com-o-co, and instantly begin some very gro- 
tesque dance, holding their arrows, or tomahawks 
in their hands, and all the while singing the 
ancient glories of their nation, and especially of 
their own families; threatening and making signs 
with their tomahawk, what a dreadful havoc they 
intend to make amongst their enemies. 

"Notwithstanding these terrible airs they give 
themselves, they are very timorous when they 
come to action, and rarely perform any open or 

' Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. lOO. 

176 The Forest Primeval 

bold feats; but the execution they do, is chiefly 
by surprise and ambuscade. 

"The fearfulness of their nature makes them 
very jealous and implacable. Hence it is, that 
when they get a victory, they destroy man, 
woman and child, to prevent all future resent- 
ments. "' 

Spelman, an eye-witness to a battle between 
two of the native tribes, says : 

"As for armor or discipline in war they have 
not any. The weapons they use for offence are 
bows and arrows with a weapon like a hammer 
and their tomahawks, for defence which are 
shields made of the bark of a tree and hanged 
on their left shoulder to cover that side as they 
stand forth to shoot. 

"They never fight in open fields, but always 
either among reeds or behind trees taking their 
opportunity to shoot at their enemies and till 
they can nocke^ another arrow they make the 
trees their defence. 

"In the time that I was there I saw a battle 
fought between the Pa-to-meck and the Ma-so- 
meck; their place where they fought was a marsh 
ground full of reeds. Being in the country of 
the Pa-to-meck the people of Ma-so-meck were 
brought thither in canoes which is a kind of 
boat they have made in the form of a hog's 
trough, but somewhat more hollowed in. On 
both sides they scatter themselves some little 

' Beverley, book 3, pp. 24-5. 

2 Fit the arrow to the string of their bow. 

Political Laws and the Art of War 177 

distance one from the other; then take they their 
bows and arrows and having made ready to 
shoot, they softly steal toward their enemies, 
sometimes squatting down and prying if they 
can spy any to shoot at, whom, if at any time 
he so hurteth that he cannot flee, they make 
haste to him to knock him on the head. And 
they that kill most of their enemies are held the 
chiefest men among them. 

"Drums and trumpets they have none, but 
w hen they will gather themselves together they 
have a kind of howling or howbabub so differing 
in sound one from the other as both parts may 
very easily be distinguished. 

"There was no great slaughter of either side, 
but the Ma-so-mecks having shot away most of 
their arrows, and wanting victual, were glad to 
retire." ' 

"The order and deportment of an Indian 
assembly would not have disgraced the gravity 
and dignity of a Roman senate; and the effect 
produced upon a spectator, who is unacquainted 
with their language and even prejudiced against 
them, is in the highest degree impressive. Nor 
is this effect produced by the grandeur of archi- 
tecture or the splendor of dress. The council is 
a large square space covered with rough boards; 
and the councilors dirty savages wrapped in 
skins and coarse blankets. It arises from the 
patience, the temper, the animation, the regular- 

' Spelman's Relation oj Virginia, pp. 54-6. 

178 The Forest Primeval 

Ity, and even the eloquence of their action and 
deportment. There we witness no impatience 
nor contradiction; no ebuUitions of passions; 
no bursts of rage and invective; no factious 
intrigues. The whole subject is fairly and hon- 
estly before them, and it is discussed with the 
patient judgment of sages and the animated 
integrity of patriots. An interruption would 
be considered as an unpardonable insult: per- 
haps it would not be too much to say that there 
never was any such thing known as an interrup- 
tion in an Indian assembly."' 

"They use formal embassies for treating, and 
very ceremonious ways in concluding of peace, 
or else some other memorable action, such as 
burying a tomahawk, and raising an heap of 
stones thereon, as the Hebrews did over Absalom, 
or of planting a tree, in token that all enmity is 
buried with the tomahawk, that all the desola- 
tions of war are at an end, and that friendship 
shall flourish among them like a tree."^ 

In the many negotiations which Virginia had 
with various Indian tribes and nations, our 
people soon learned the necessity of adopting 
the forms and ceremonies of the Indians, and 
accustomed themselves to use the highly 
figurative language of this people. 

As far as in them lay they therefore adopted 
their metaphors. In the negotiations prelimin- 
ary to the concluding a formal treaty, they 

' Burk's History of Virginia, vol. iii., p. 66. 
= Beverley, book 3, p. 27. 

Political Laws and the Art of War 179 

smoked cal-u-mets; they called the Indians 
brothers; they brightened the chain of friend- 
ship with them ; they hoped it would be no more 
stained with blood, nor rusted with contention, 
nor broken asunder with discord, but that it 
would last as long as the sun, the moon, and the 
stars gave light. 

In the progress of these treaties, strings of 
wam-pum, in order to emphasize the less, and 
belts of wam-pum to emphasize the more, impor- 
tant matters, were freely given by the Indians. 
It was customary, and so the Virginians made 
similar presents to emphasize and act as re- 
minders of the propositions advanced by them. 
Indeed, it was absolutely necessary to make these 
presents, and so, at a treaty held at Shen-a-pin 
Town in May, 1752, it is recorded that: "The 
Commissioners not having any wam-pum strung, 
without which answers could not be returned, 
acquainted the Indians that they would answer 
their speeches in the afternoon, on which the 
council broke up." Having provided themselves 
by that time with this requisite, the negotiations 
were then continued. 

A string of wampum was given to the Virgin- 
ians to enable them to see the sun clearly, and 
to look upon the Indians as brothers; another 
to clear their voices so that they could speak 
clearly to the Indians; another by Queen Al-li- 
guip-pe to clear their way to Loggs Town; 
another to clear their hearts from any impression 
that might have been made on them by flying 

i8o The Forest Primeval 

report, or 111 news; and that they might speak 
their minds freely. The way being long and the 
day hot, a string was given them to wipe ofif 
their perspiration. 

Aside from these courtesies, and expressions 
of wishes and hopes, all the salient features of 
the debate were thus marked. 

The Virginians gave the Indians a string of 
wam-pum to receive their brethren of Virginia 
kindly, and so on through the various phases of 
the negotiation, all of which were very deliberate. 
No hasty rephes were made by the Indians. At 
any time, on an important matter coming up 
which they had not foreseen and about which 
they were not agreed, the meeting would be 
adjourned, and time taken by the Indians for 
private consultation before giving their answers. 

One object of such a treaty, as stated by them, 
was to make the road between us and the In- 
dians clearer and wider. 

Approbation to propositions of importance, 
emphasized thus by the gift of a string or a belt 
of wam-pum, was expressed on the part of the 
Indians by a shout, or cry, the Jo-hah, as It was 

An Illustration of the Indian love of metaphor 
is given In the speech of Can-as-a-tee-go, de- 
livered on June 26, 1744, at Lancaster, Pennsyl- 
vania, during the debate on the treaty pending 
between Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 
the Six Nations. Speaking of the affection- 
ate regard the Indians had for the Dutch, 

Political Laws and the Art of War i8i 

the Indian chieftain said: "We were so well 
pleased with them, that we tied their ship to the 
bushes on the shore, and afterwards, liking them 
still better, the longer they stayed with us, and 
thinking the bushes too slender, we removed the 
rope, and tied it to the trees, and as the trees 
were liable to be blown down by high winds, or 
to decay of themselves, from the affection we 
bore them, again removed the rope, and tied it 
to a strong and big rock (here the interpreter 
said they meant the 0-nei-do country) ; and not 
content with this, for its further security we 
removed the rope to the big mountain (here the 
interpreter said they meant the 0-non-da-go 
country), and there we tied it very fast, and 
rolled wam-pum about it; and to make it still 
more secure, we stood upon it, to defend it, and 
to prevent any hurt coming to it, and did our 
best endeavors, that it might remain uninjured 
forever. " 

While endowed thus by nature with poetic 
forms of expression, and with traits of character 
admirable in many respects, the Indians of Vir- 
ginia were as blood-thirsty savages as ever 
existed. They reflected and presented all the 
phases of barbarism. They scalped their ene- 
mies, when dead, and practiced upon them, 
when alive, such tortures as make the blood run 
cold when we read of them. It is noticeable, 
however, how little the Indians were criticized 
in this regard by the early writers. The ex- 
planation is found in the fact that in 1607, and 

1 82 The Forest Primeval 

for many years thereafter, torture just as bad 
was practiced by the highly civilized nations of 
Europe. The abolition of "cruel and unusual" 
punishments is a blessing of a comparatively 
recent date. 

These Indians, while terrible fighters in their 
own way, were not capable of making long sus- 
tained sieges. If their first sudden attack on a 
fortified place did not carry it by assault and 
the defense proved vigorous, in a compara- 
tively short time they became discouraged, and 
abandoned the enterprise for a more favorable 

Their method of warfare was suited to the 
forest in which they lived, and many of their 
manoeuvres were adopted by our men. As 
they fought from behind trees and such other 
shields, so did the Virginians. We met them 
on their own ground and fought them in their 
own manner. In this way we won the battle 
of Point Pleasant, while a contrary course, and 
the adherence to tactics unsuited to the nature 
of the enemy and the battle-field, led to the dread- 
ful slaughter and rout of Braddock's defeat. 

So well did the Virginians learn the warfare of 
the forest, that they won from their opponents 
the fear and admiration involved in the name 
which the Indians gave them, for they called 
the Virginians "The Big Knives.'* 



SPELMAN gives us this account of Indian 
medical views and practices: 

"When any be sick among them their 
priest comes unto the party whom he layeth on the 
ground upon a mat and having a bowl of water, 
set between him and the sick party, and a rattle 
by it, the priest kneeling by the sick man's side 
dips his hand into the bowl, which taking up full 
of water, he sips into his mouth, spouting it out 
again, upon his own arms and breast, then takes 
he the rattle and with one hand shakes that, and 
with the other, he beats his breast, making a 
great noise, which having done he easily riseth, as 
loath to wake the sick body, first with one leg, 
then with the other, and being now got up, he 
lesiurely goeth about the sick man shaking his 
rattle very softly over all his body: and with his 
hand he stroketh the grieved parts of the sick, 
then doth he besprinkle him with water, mumb- 
ling certain words over him, and so for that time 
leaves him. 

"But if he be wounded, after these ceremonies 
done unto him, he with a little flint stone gasheth 

184 The Forest Primeval 

the wound making it to run and bleed, which he, 
setting his mouth unto it, sucks out, and then 
appHes a certain root beaten to powder unto the 

"Concerning a green wound caused either by 
the stroke of an axe, or sword, or such sharp 
thing, they have present remedy for, of the juice 
of certain herbs; howbeit a compound wound (as 
the surgeons call it) where, beside the opening 
and cutting of the flesh, any rupture is, or bone 
broken, such as our small shot make upon them, 
they know not easily how to cure, and therefore 
languish in the misery of the pain thereof. 

"Old ulcers likewise, and putrified hurts are 
seldom seen cured amongst them: howbeit, to 
scarify^ a swelling, or make incision, they have 
a kind of instrument of some splinted stone. 

"Every spring they make themselves sick 
with drinking the juice of a root which they call 
wigh-sac-an and water, whereof they take so 
great a quantity, that it purgeth them in a very 
violent manner, so that in three or four days after 
they scarce recover their former health. 

" Sometimes they are sore troubled with 
dropsy, swellings, aches, and such like diseases, 
by reason of their uncleanness and foul feeding; 
for cure whereof they build a stove in the form 
of a dove house, with mats so close, that a few 
coals therein covered with a pot will make the 
patient sweat extremely. 

' Spelman's Relation of Virginia, p. 40. 

' To scratch, or make superficial incisions. 

The Priestly Medicine Man 185 

"For swelling, also, they use small pieces of 
touchwood in the form of cloves, which, pricking 
on the grief, they burn close to the flesh, and 
from thence draw the corruption with their 

"They have many professed physicians, who, 
with their charms and rattles, with an infernal 
rout of words and actions, will seem to suck their 
inward grief from their navels, or their affected 
places; but concerning our chirugians' they are 
generally so conceited of them, that they believe 
that their plasters will heal any hurt. "^ 

*'The Indians are not subject to many diseases, 
and such as they have, generally come from 
excessive heats, and sudden colds, which they 
as suddenly get away^ by sweating. But if the 
humour"^ happen to fix,^ and make a pain in any 
particular joint, or limb, their general cure then 
is by burning, if it be in any part that will bear 
it; their method of doing this is by little sticks 
of lightwood, the coal of which will burn like a 
hot iron; the sharp point of this they run into 
the flesh, and having made a sore, keep it running 
till the humour be drawn off; or else they take 
punck (which is a sort of a soft touchwood,^ 
cut out of the knots of oak or hickory trees, but 
the hickory affords the best), this they shape like 

' Surgeons. 

^ Strachey, Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. lo8. 
3 Cure. 4 Bodily fluid. 

s Settle in one place. 

^The soft white or yellowish substance into which wood is con- 
verted by the action of certain fungi. 

1 86 The Forest Primeval 

a cone (as the Japanese do their moxa' for the 
gout), and apply the basis of it to the place 
affected. They set fire to it, letting it burn 
out upon the part, which makes a running sore 

"They use smoking frequently and scarifying ^ 
which, like the Mexicans, they perform with a 
rattle-snake's tooth. They seldom cut deeper 
than the epidermis, by which means they give 
passage to those sharp waterish humours, that 
lie between the two skins, and cause inflamma- 
tions. Sometimes they make use of reeds for 
cauterizing, which they heat over the fire, till 
they are ready to flame, and then apply them, 
upon a piece of thin wet leather, to the place 
aggrieved, which makes the heat more piercing. 

"Their priests are always physicians, and by 
the method of their education in the priesthood, 
are made very knowing in the hidden qualities 
of plants, and other natural things, which they 
count a part of their religion to conceal from 
everybody, but from those that are to succeed 
them in their holy function. 

"They tell us, their God will be angry with 
them if they should discover that part of their 
knowledge; so they suffer only the rattlesnake 
root^ to be known, and such other antidotes, as 
must be immediately applied; because their doc- 

' A soft downy substance prepared from the young leaves of a plant 
of this name. It is used as a cautery. 
* Scratching. 
3 A plant believed at one time to be a cure for snake-bites. 

The Priestly Medicine Man 187 

tors can't always be at hand to remedy those 
sudden misfortunes, which generally happen in 
their hunting or travelling. 

"The physic of the Indians consists for the 
most part in the roots and barks of trees, they 
very rarely using the leaves either of herbs or 
trees; what they give inwardly they infuse in 
water, and what they apply outwardly they 
stamp or bruise, adding water to it, if it has not 
moisture enough of itself; with the thin of this 
they bathe the part affected, then lay on the 
thick, after the manner of a pultis, ' and common- 
ly dress round, leaving the sore place bare. 

"They take great delight in sweating, and 
therefore in every town they have a sweating- 
house, and a doctor is paid by the public to at- 
tend it. They commonly use this to refresh 
themselves, after they have been fatigued with 
hunting, travel, or the like, or else when they 
are troubled with agues, aches, or pains in 
their limbs. 

"Their method is thus: the doctor takes three 
or four large stones, which after having heated 
red hot, he places them in the middle of the 
stove, laying on them some of the inner bark of 
oak, beaten in a mortar, to keep them from 
burning. This being done, they creep in six or 
eight at a time, or as many as the place will hold, 
and then close up the mouth of the stove, which 
is usually made like an oven, in some bank near 
the water side. 

» Poultice. 

1 88 The Forest Primeval 

"In the meanwhile, the doctor, to raise a 
steam, after they have been stewing a little 
while, pours cold water on the stones, and 
now and then sprinkles the men to keep them 
from fainting. 

"After they have sweat as long as they can well 
endure it, they sally out, and (tho' it be in the 
depth of winter) forthwith plunge themselves 
over head and ears in cold water, which instantly 
closes up the pores, and preserves them from 
taking cold. 

" The heat being thus suddenly driven from the 
extreme parts of the heart, makes them a little 
feeble for the present, but their spirits rally 
again, and they instantly recover their strength, 
and find their joints as supple and vigorous as 
if they never had travelled, or been indisposed. 
So that I may say as Bellonius does in his obser- 
vations on the Turkish bagnios,' all the crudities 
contracted in their bodies are by this means 
evaporated and carried off. 

"The Muscovites^ and Finlanders are said to 
use this way of sweating also. *It is almost a 
miracle,' says Olearius, 'to see how their bodies, 
accustomed to, and hardened by, cold, can en- 
dure so intense a heat, and how that, when they 
are not able to endure it longer, they come out of 
the stoves as naked as they were born, both men 
and women, and plunge into cold water, or cause 
it to be poured on them.' 

" The Indians also pulverize the roots of a 

' Bath-houses. » Russians. 

The Priestly Medicine Man 189 

kind of anchuse' or yellow alkanet/ which they 
call puc-coon, and of a sort of wild angelica, ^ 
and mixing them together with bear's oil, make 
a yellow ointment, with which, after they have 
bathed, they anoint themselves capapee"^; this 
supplies the skin, renders them nimble and 
active, and withal so closes up the pores, that 
they lose but few of their spirits by perspiration. 
Piso relates the same of the Brazilians, and my 
Lord Bacon asserts, that oil and fat things do 
no less conserve the substance of the body, than 
oil colors and varnish do that of the wood. 

"They have also a further advantage of this 
ointment, for it keeps all lice, fleas, and other 
troublesome vermin from coming near them, 
which otherwise, by reason of the nastiness of 
their cabins, they would be very much infested 

"Smith talks of this puc-coon, as if it only 
grew on the mountains, whereas it is common to 
all the plantations of the English, except only to 
those situated in very low grounds. " ^ 

"The Indians being a rude sort of people use 
no curiosity in preparing their physic; yet are 
they not ignorant of the nature and uses of their 
plants, but they use no correctives to take away 
the flatuous, nauseous, and other bad qualities 
of them. They either powder, juice, infuse, or 
boil them, till the decoction be very strong. 

^ A rough, hairy plant. 

' An European plant which yields a red dye. 

3 A medicinal plant. •» From head to foot. 

5 Beverley, book 3, pp. 49-52. 

190 The Forest Primeval 

"Their usual way of cure for most inward 
distempers is by decoction, which they make 
partly pectoral, partly sudorific ; these they cause 
the sick to drink, the quantity of half a pint at a 
time, two or three times a day; but they give 
nothing to procure vomiting in any distempers, 
as a bad omen that the diseased will die; neither 
did I ever know them to use any ways of bleed- 
ing or cupping. 

"If they have any wounds, ulcers, or fractures, 
they have the knowledge of curing them. I did 
once see an Indian whose arm had been broken, 
and viewing the place, I found the bones to be as 
smoothly consolidated, and as well reduced, as 
any English chirurgeon could have done it. 

"All Indians carry a powder about them to 
cure the bites of snakes, and in almost every 
town this powder hath a different composition, 
and every composition is certainly effectual 
to the correcting the malignity of the venom.^ 
Neither was it ever known to us, that any Indian 
suffered much harm by these bites, but in a day's 
time he would be as well as if he had never been 
bitten, whereas some of the English for want of 
a speedy remedy have lost their lives. 

"The Indians are frequently troubled with 
violent colics, which oftentimes terminate in 

' Glover's Account of Virginia, p. 27. 




WE are not told by the early writers as 
much as we would like to know about 
the religious rites of these people. We 
are told somewhat of their conjurations, their 
incantations, their attempt to control the 
weather, their rites to heal the sick, and so on, 
but we are told little of their worship, or of their 
innermost beliefs and traditions. 

The rite of Hus-ka-naw-ing, however, is fully 
described to us, and seems to have made quite 
an impression on the early writers. It was 
certainly very peculiar. 

We owe our best account of it to Strachey. 
His statement is as follows: 

"In some part of the country they have yearly 
a sacrifice of children; such a one was at Qui- 
yough-co-han-ock, some ten miles from James- 
town, as also at Ke-cough-tan, which Capt. 
George Percy was at, and observed. The man- 
ner of it was, fifteen of the properest young boys, 
between ten and fifteen years of age, they 
painted white; having brought them forth, the 
people spent the forenoon in dancing and singing 
about them with rattles. 

192 The Forest Primeval 

"In the afternoon they solemnly led those 
children to a certain tree appointed for the same 
purpose; at the root whereof, round about, they 
made the children to sit down, and by them stood 
the most and the ablest of the men, and some of 
them the fathers of the children, as a watchful 
guard, every one having a bastinado in his hand 
of reeds, and these opened a lane between all 
along, through which were appointed five young 
men to fetch those children. 

"And accordingly every one of the five took his 
turn and passed through the guard to fetch a 
child, the guard fiercely beating them the while 
with their bastinadoes, and showing much anger 
and displeasure to have the children so ravished 
from them; all which the young men patiently 
endured, receiving the blows and defending the 
children, with their naked bodies, from the un- 
merciful strokes, that paid them soundly, though 
the children escaped. 

"All the while sat the mothers and kinswomen 
afar off, looking on, weeping and crying out very 
passionately, and some, in pretty, waymenting^ 
tunes, singing (as it were) their dirge or funeral 
song, provided with mats, skins, moss, and dry 
wood by them, as things fitting their children's 

"After the children were thus forcibly taken 
from the guard, the guard possessed (as it were) 
with a violent fury, entered upon the tree and 
tore it down, bows and branches, with such a 

' "Probably plaintive," 

Hus-ka-navv-incr 193 


terrible fierceness and strength, that they rent 
the very body of it, and shivered it in a hundred 
pieces, whereof some of them made them gar- 
lands for their heads, and some stuck of the 
branches and leaves in their hair, wreathing 
them in the same, and so went up and down 
as mourners, with heavy and sad downcast 

"What else was done with the children might 
not be seen by our people, further than that 
they were all cast on a heap in a valley, where was 
made a great and solemn feast for all the com- 
pany; at the going whereunto, the night now 
approaching, the Indians desired our people 
that they would withdraw themselves and leave 
them to their further proceedings, the which they 

"Only some of the wer-6-ances being de- 
manded the meaning of this sacrifice, made an- 
swer, that the children did not all of them suffer 
death, but that the 0-ke-us did suck the blood 
from the left breast of the child whose chance it 
was to be his by lot, till he were dead, and the 
remainder were kept in the wilderness by the 
said young men till nine moons were expired, 
during which time they must not converse with 
any; and of these were made the priests and 
conjurers to be instructed by tradition from the 
elder priests. 

"These sacrifices, or catharmata, they hold to 
be so necessary, that if they should omit them 
they suppose this Okeus, and all the other Qui- 

194 The Forest Primeval 

ough-co-sughes, which are their other gods, 
would let them no deer, turkeys, corn, nor fish, 
and yet besides he would make a great slaughter 
amongst them; insomuch as if ever the ancient 
superstitious times feared the devil's postularia 
fulgura, lightnings that signified religion of 
sacrifices and vows to be neglected, ' these people 
are dreadfully afflicted with the terror of the 
like, insomuch as, I may truly say therefore, the 
like thunder and lightning is seldom again 
either seen or heard in Europe as is here. " ^ 

Smith gave an abbreviated account of this 
rite, which Beverley reproduced. ^ 

Commenting upon this proceeding, Beverley 

"How far Captain Smith might be misin- 
formed in this account, I can't say, or whether 
their 0-kee's sucking the breast be only a delusion 
or pretence of the physician (or priest, who is 
always a physician), to prevent all reflection on 
his skill, when any happened to die under his 

"This I choose rather to believe, than those re- 
ligious romances concerning their 0-kee. For I 
take this story of Smith's to be only an exam- 

' "The rendering here given by Strachey of postularia fulgura is 
evidently from Festus, though his quaint diction would mislead the 
reader as to the intention of the words. Festus gives the following 
definition of the term. 'Fulgura quae votorum aut sacrificiorum 
spretam religionem designant. ' " Lightnings which indicate religion 
to be treated with contempt by reason of the neglect of vows or 

' Historic of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 94-6. 

i Smith, vol. i., p. 140. 

Hus-ka-navv-ing 195 

pie of hus-ka-naw-Ing, which being a ceremony 
then altogether unknown to him, he might easily 
mistake some of the circumstances of it. 

"The solemnity of hus-ka-naw-ing is com- 
monly practiced once every fourteen or sixteen 
years, or oftener, as their young men happen to 
grow up. It is an institution or discipline which 
all young men must pass, before they can be ad- 
mitted to be of the number of the great men, or 
cock-a-rouses of the nation; whereas by Captain 
Smith's relation, they were only set apart to 
supply the priesthood. The whole ceremony 
is performed after the following manner: 

"The choicest and briskest young men of the 
town, and such only as have acquired some treas- 
ure by their travels and hunting, are chosen out 
of the rulers to be hus-ka-naw-ed ; and whoever 
refuses to undergo this process, dare not remain 
among them. 

"Several of those odd preparatory fopperies are 
premised in the beginning, which have been be- 
fore related ; but the principal part of the business 
is to carry them into the woods, and there keep 
them under confinement, and destitute of all 
society, for several months ; giving them no other 
sustenance but the infusion or decoction of some 
poisonous, intoxicating roots. 

" By virtue of which physic, and by the se- 
verity of the discipline which they undergo, they 
become stark, staring mad, in which raving con- 
dition they are kept eighteen or twenty days. 
During these extremities they are shut up night 

196 The Forest Primeval 

and day, In a strong enclosure, made on purpose; 
one of which I saw belonging to the Pa-mun-key 
Indians, in the year 1694. It was in shape like 
a sugar-loaf, and every way open like a lattice 
for the air to pass through/ 

"In this cage thirteen young men had been 
hus-ka-naw-ed, and had not been a month set 
at liberty when I saw it. 

"Upon this occasion it is pretended that these 
poor creatures drink so much of that water of 
Lethe, that they perfectly lose the remembrance 
of all former things, even of their parents, their 
treasure,^ and their language. 

"When the doctors find that they have drunk 
sufficiently of the wy-soc-can (so they call this 
mad potion), they gradually restore them to 
their senses again, by lessening the intoxication 
of their diet; but before they are perfectly well, 
they bring them back into their towns, while 
they are still wild and crazy, through the vio- 
lence of the medicine. 

"After this they are very fearful of discovering 
any thing of their former remembrance; for if 
such a thing should happen to any of them, they 
must immediately be hus-ka-naw-ed again; and 
the second time the usage is so severe, that sel- 
dom any one escapes with life. 

"Thus they must pretend to have forgot the 
very use of their tongues, so as not to be able to 

' See page 231. 

'Their hidden treasures, held in reserve both for use in life and 
after death. 

Hus-ka-naw-ing 197 

speak nor understand any thing that is spoken, 
till they learn it again. 

"Now whether this be real or counterfeit, I 
don't know; but certain it is, that they will not 
for some time take notice of any body nor any 
thing, with which they were before acquainted, 
being still under the guard of their keepers, who 
constantly wait upon them every where, till they 
have learned all things perfectly over again. 
Thus they unlive their former lives, and com- 
mence men, by forgetting that they ever have 
been boys. 

"If under this exercise any one should die, I 
suppose the story of 0-kee, mentioned by Smith, 
is the salvo' for it: For (says he) 0-kee was to 
have such as were his by lot; and such were 
said to be sacrificed. 

"Now this conjecture is the more probable 
because we know that 0-kee has not a share in 
every hus-ka-naw-ing; for tho' two young men 
happened to come short home^ in that of the 
Pa-mun-key Indians, which was performed in the 
year 1694, Y^^ the Ap-pa-mat-tucks, formerly a 
great nation, though now an inconsiderable 
people, made an hus-ka-naw in the year 1690, 
and brought home the same number they carried 
out. "3 

' Excuse. 

' That is, two never returned home. 

3 Beverley, book 3, pp. 37-41. 



STRACHEY gives us this account of the 
embalming of the bodies of the kings: 
"Within the chancel of the temple, by 
the 0-ke-us, are the cenotaphies or the monu- 
ments of their kings, whose bodies, so soon as 
they be dead, they embowel, and, scraping the 
flesh from off the bones, they dry the same upon 
hurdles' into ashes, which they put into little 
pots (like ancient urns). 

''The anatomy of the bones they bind to- 
gether, or case up in leather, hanging bracelets, 
or chains of copper, beads, pearls or such like, 
as they used to wear, about most of their joints 
and neck, and so repose the body upon a little 
scaffold (as upon a tomb), laying by the dead 
body's feet, all his riches in several baskets, his 
a-pook,^ and pipe, and any one toy, which in 
his life he held most dear in his fancy. 

"Their inwards they stuff with pearl, copper, 
beads, and such trash, sewed in a skin, which 
they overlap again very carefully in white skins 
one or two, and the bodies thus dressed lastly 

' Frames of wood. » Tobacco. 


Embalmed Kings and Funeral Rites 199 

they roll in mats, as for winding sheets, and 
so lay them orderly one by one, as they die in 
their turns, upon an arch standing (as aforesaid) 
for the tomb, and these are all the ceremonies 
we yet can learn that they give unto their dead.' 

"We hear of no sweet oils or ointments that 
they use to dress or chest ^ their dead bodies with ; 
albeit they want not of the precious resin running 
out of the great cedar, wherewith in the old times 
they used to embalm dead bodies, washing them 
in the oil and liquor thereof. 

"Only to the priests the care of these temples 
and holy interments are committed, and these 
temples are to them as solitary asseteria^ col- 
leges or ministers to exercise themselves in con- 
templation, for they are seldom out of them, 
and therefore often lie in them and maintain 
continual fire in the same, upon a hearth some- 
what near the east end. "'^ 

Beverley's description of this same proceeding, 
but with interesting variations as to details, is as 
follows : 

"The Indians are religious^ in preserving the 
corpses of their kings and rulers after death, 
which they order in the following manner. First, 
they neatly flay*^ off the skin as entire as they can, 
slitting it only in the back; then they pick all the 

' More ceremonies were used, as we will see later on. 
' Place in a coffin. 

3 "Possibly misspelt from Aa-a-^repos quasi 'ETroo-o-i/repos, i. e., follow- 
ing in a row one after another." 

4 Historic of Travaile into Virginia, p. 89 

sThat is, observe as a religious duty. " Strip. 

200 The Forest Primeval 

flesh off from the bones as clean as possible, leav- 
ing the sinews fastened to the bones, that they 
may preserve the joints together. 

"Then they dry the bones a little in the sun, 
and put them into the skin again, which in the 
meantime has been kept from drying or shrink- 
ing; when the bones are placed right in the skin, 
they nicely fill up the vacuities, with a very find 
white sand. 

"After this they sew up the skin again, and 
the body looks as if the flesh had not been re- 
moved. They take care to keep the skin from 
shrinking, by the help of a little oil or grease, 
which saves it also from corruption. 

"The skin being thus prepared they lay it in 
an apartment for that purpose, upon a large 
shelf raised above the floor. This shelf is spread 
with mats, for the corpses to rest easy on, and 
screened with the same, to keep it from the 

"The flesh they lay upon hurdles' in the sun 
to dry; and when it is thoroughly dried, it is 
sewed up in a basket, and set at the feet of the 
corpse to which it belongs. 

"In this place also they set up a Qui-oc-cos, 
or Idol, which they believe will be a guard to 
the corpses. Here night and day one or other 
of the priests must give his attendance, to take 
care of the dead bodies. So great an honor and 
veneration have these ignorant and unpolished 
people for their princes, even after they are dead. 

' A movable frame made of rods crossing each other. 

"The Burial of the Kings" 

Embalmed Kings and Funeral Rites 201 

"The mat is supposed to be turned up in the 
figure/ that the inside may be viewed.'"' 

Hariot tells us that the bodies lay on a scaffold 
nine or ten feet high, and that under this scaffold 
some one of the priests had his lodging, "which 
mumbleth his prayers night and day, and hath 
charge of the corpses. For his bed, he hath two 
deers' skins spread on the ground, if the weather 
be cold, he maketh a fire to warm by withal."^ 

Spelman gives us an account of the ordinary 
funeral customs: 

"If he dies his burial is this, there is a scaffold 
built about three or four yards high from the 
ground and the dead body wrapped in a mat is 
brought to the place, where when he is laid there- 
on, the kinsfolk fall a-weeping and make great 
sorrow, and instead of dole"^ for him, the poorer 
people being got together, some of his kinsfolk 
fling beads ^ among them making them to scram- 
ble for them, so it happens many times divers 
do break their arms and legs being pressed by 
the company; this finished they go to the party's 
house ^ where they have meat given them which 
being eaten all the rest of the day they spend in 
singing and dancing, using then as much mirth 
as before sorrow, moreover, if any of the kin- 
dreds' bodies which have been laid on the scaffold 
be so consumed as nothing is left but bones they 

' Picture, p. 202. 2 Beverley, book 3, p. 47. 

3 Hariot 's Narrative, xxii. 

< A portion of money, food, or other things distributed in charity. 
s Wam-pum or peak. « The deceased man's home. 

202 The Forest Primeval 

take those bones from the scaffold and putting 
them into a new mat, ^ hang them in their houses 
where they continue while their house falleth, 
and then they are buried in the ruins of the 
house. "- 

Strachey gives an account of another kind of 

"For their ordinary burials they dig a deep 
hole in the earth with sharp stakes, and the 
corpse being lapped in skins and mats with their 
jewels, they lay upon sticks in the ground, and 
so cover them with earth: the burial ended, the 
women, being painted all their faces with black 
coal and oil, do sit twenty-four hours in their 
houses, mourning and lamenting by turns, with 
such yelling and howling as may express their 
great passions."^ 

Still a third mode of disposing of the bodies of 
the dead is recorded by Glover. He says: 
"They burn the bodies of the dead, and sew up 
the ashes in mats, which they place near the 
cabins of their relations."'* 

With every wer-6-ance or king was buried all 
his wealth, for they believed that he that died 
the richest, lived in another world the happiest. 

In consequence of this idea, there was found 
by the English a great quantity of pearls 
stored in the "house of their sepultures," that 

' Covering made of cloths or mats. 

* Spelman's Relation of Virginia, pp. 40-1. 

3 Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 90. 

4 A ccount of Virginia, p. 24. 

Embalmed Kiners and Funeral Rites 20; 


is, the place where the embalmed bodies were 

Discolored and softened by heat as they had 
been, having been found most probably in oysters 
when they were cooked, their value was not so 
great as it otherwise would have been. ^ 

We have reason to believe that when, in pur- 
suance of treaties or cession of land to the Vir- 
ginians, the Indians withdrew from the eastern 
part of the State, they took all the embalmed 
kings with them.- 

The honors paid to the departed, when they 
were personages of distinction, did not end with 
merely embalming their bodies. Lane tells us 
that it was the custom to observe a general, 
public mourning for a month. Such a mourning 
on account of the death of En-se-no-re, the 
father of Pem-is-a-pan, the King of the country 
around Roanoke Island, was made the excuse 
for collecting there eight hundred warriors, who 
were to take part in the conspiracy to exter- 
minate the English. 

I Brown's Genesis of the United States, vol. i., p. 349; A True and 
Sincere Declaration of the Governors and Councilors, 1609. 
' Beverley, book 2, pp. lo-il. 



MR. JEFFERSON, in his Notes on Vir- 
ginia, has an interesting account of 
an examination made by him of one 
of the Indian burial-places near his home. He 
says : 

"I know of no such thing existing as an Indian 
monument: for I would not honour with that 
name arrow points, stone hatchets, stone pipes, 
and half shapen images. Of labour on the large 
scale, I think there is no remain as respectable 
as would be a common ditch for the draining of 
lands: unless indeed it would be the barrows, of 
which many are to be found all over this country. 

"These are of different sizes, some of them 
constructed of earth, and some of loose stones. 
That they were repositories of the dead, has 
been obvious to all; but on what particular 
occasion constructed, was a matter of doubt. 

" Some have thought they covered the bones of 
those who have fallen in battles fought on the 
spot of interment. Some ascribed them to the 
custom, said to prevail among the Indians, of 
collecting, at certain periods the bones of all 

Burial Mounds 205 

their dead, wheresoever deposited at the time of 
death. Others again supposed them the general 
sepulchres for towns, conjectured to have been 
on or near these grounds; and this opinion was 
supported by the quality of the lands in which 
they are found (those constructed of earth be- 
ing generally in the softest and most fertile 
meadow grounds on river sides), and by a tradi- 
tion, said to be handed down from the aboriginal 
Indians, that, when they settled in a town, the 
first person who died was placed erect, and earth 
put about him, so as to cover and support him; 
and when another died, a narrow passage was dug 
to the first, the second reclined against him, and 
the cover of earth replaced, and so on. 

" There being one of those in my neighborhood, 
I wished to satisfy myself whether any, and which 
of these opinions were just. For this purpose I 
determined to open and examine it thoroughly. 

'' It was situated on the low grounds of the 
Rivanna, about two miles above its principal 
fork,^ and opposite to some hills, on which had 
been an Indian town. It was of a spheroidical 
form, of about forty feet diameter at the base, 
and had been of about twelve feet altitude, 
though now reduced by the plough to seven and 
a half, having been under cultivation about a 
dozen years. Before this it was covered with 
trees of twelve inches diameter, and round the 

' Mechum's River. The location thus described would be a point 
about two miles southeast of the station known as Proffit, on the 
Southern Railway, in Albemarle County. 

2o6 The Forest Primeval 

base was an excavation of five feet depth and 
width, from whence the earth had been taken 
of which the hillock was formed. 

" I first dug superficially in several parts of 
it, and came to collections of human bones, at 
different depths, from six inches to three feet 
below the surface. These were lying in the 
utmost confusion, some vertical, some oblique, 
some horizontal, and directed to every point of 
the compass, entangled and held together in 
clusters by the earth. Bones of the most distant 
parts were found together, as for instance, the 
small bones of the foot in the hollow of the skull; 
many skulls would sometimes be in contact, 
lying on the face, on the side, on the back, top 
or bottom, so as, on the whole, to give the idea 
of bones emptied promiscuously from a bag or 
basket, and covered over with earth, without any 
attention to their order. 

"The bones of Vv^hich the greatest numbers 
remained, were skulls, jaw-bones, teeth, the 
bones of the arms, thighs, legs, feet, and hands. 
A few ribs remained, some vertebrae of the neck 
and spine, without their processes, ' and one 
instance only of the bone which serves as a 
base to the vertebral column. 

"The skulls were so tender, that they generally 
fell to pieces on being touched. The other bones 
were stronger. There were some teeth which 
were judged to be smaller than those of an adult; 
a skull, which on a slight view, appeared to be 

' Outgrowing parts or protuberances. 

Burial Mounds 207 

that of an infant, but it fell to pieces on being 
taken out, so as to prevent satisfactory examina- 
tion; a rib, and a fragment of the under jaw of a 
person about half grown; another rib of an in- 
fant ; and part of the jaw of a child, which had not 
cut its teeth. 

"This last furnishing the most decisive proof 
of the burial of children here, I was particu- 
lar in my attention to it. It was part of the 
right half of the under jaw. The processes, 
by which It was attenuated ' to the tempo- 
ral bones,^ were entire, and the bone itself firm 
to where it had been broken off, which, as 
nearly as I could judge, was about the place of 
the eye-tooth. Its upper edge, wherein would 
have been the sockets of the teeth, was perfectly 
smooth. Measuring it with that of an adult, 
by placing their hinder processes together, its 
broken end extended to the penultimate grinder 
of the adult. This bone was white, all the others 
of a sand colour. The bones of infants being 
soft, they probably decay sooner, which might 
be the cause so few were found here. 

" I proceeded then to make a perpendicular cut 
through the body of the barrow, that I might ex- 
amine its internal structure. This passed about 
three feet from its centre, was opened to the 
former surface of the earth, and was wide enough 
for a man to walk through and examine its sides. 

' Become thinner or smaller toward the point of connection. 

' The complex bone situated at the side and base of the skull, 
in the region of the ear, whose internal organs it contains within its 

2o8 The Forest Primeval 

"At the bottom, that is, on the level of the 
circumjacent plain, I found bones; above these a 
few stones, brought from a cliff a quarter of a 
mile off, and from the river one-eighth of a mile 
off; then a large interval of earth, then a stratum 
of bones, and so on. 

" At one end of the section were four strata 
of bones plainly distinguishable; at the other, 
three; the strata in one part not ranging with 
those in another: The bones nearest the sur- 
face were least decayed. No holes were dis- 
covered in any of them, as if made with bullets, 
arrows, or other weapons. I conjectured that 
in this barrow might have been a thousand 

" Every one will readily seize the circum- 
stances above related, which militate against 
the opinion, that it covered the bones only of 
persons fallen in battle; and against the tradi- 
tion also, which would make it the common 
sepulchre of a town, in which the bodies were 
placed upright, and touching each other. 

"Appearances certainly indicate that it has de- 
rived both origin and growth from the accustom- 
ary collection of bones, and deposition of them 
together; that the first collection had been de- 
posited on the common surface of the earth, a 
few stones put over it, and then a covering of 
earth, that the second had been laid on this, had 
covered more or less of it in proportion to the 
number of bones, and was then also covered with 
earth; and so on. 

Burial Mounds 209 

"The following are the particular circum- 
stances which give it this aspect: i. The 
number of bones. 2. Their confused position. 
3. Their being in different strata. 4. The strata 
in one part having no correspondence with 
those in another. 5. The different states of 
decay in these strata, which seem to indicate 
a difference in the time of inhumation. 6. The 
existence of infant bones among them. 

"But on whatever occasion they may have 
been made, they are of considerable notoriety 
among the Indians; for a party passing, about 
thirty years ago, through the part of the country 
where this barrow is, went through the woods di- 
rectly to it, without any instructions or enquiry, 
and having staid about it some time, with expres- 
sions which were construed to be those of sorrow, 
they returned to the high road, which they had 
left about half a dozen miles to pay this visit, 
and pursued their journey. 

"There is another barrow much resembling 
this, in the low grounds of the south branch 
of Shenandoah where it is crossed by the road 
leading from the Rockfish Gap to Staunton.' 
Both of these have within those dozen years, 
been cleared of their trees, and put under 
cultivation, are much reduced in their heighth, 
and spread in width, by the plough, and will 
probably disappear in time. 

" There is another on a hill in the Blue Ridge 

' This description would indicate the neighborhood of Waynes- 
boro, in Augusta County. 

2IO The Forest Primeval 

of mountains, a few miles north of Wood's gap, 
which is made up of small stones thrown to- 
gether. This has been opened and found to 
contain human bones, as the others do. There 
are also many others in other parts of the 

On the western bank of the Ohio River, at 
Marietta, Ohio, is a nearly perfect specimen of 
the barrow or mound. It was visited by the 
writer In the fall of 1909. The mound Is appro- 
priately surrounded by a cemetery, named 
Mound Cemetery. It is conical In shape, the 
top being reached by forty-five stone steps, and 
having a circumference at the base, of about 
three hundred and seventy-eight feet. 

Surrounding the mound, for about forty feet, 
the earth gently slopes away from It, and 
then descends into a shallow moat. Around 
this little moat there circles a correspondingly 
low rampart, at a distance of sixty feet from the 
base of the mound. This formed the outer circle 
of the structure, and is about seven hundred 
and seventy-one feet in circumference. All of 
this mound, space, moat, and rampart, is cov- 
ered with a well-kept lawn, and presents a 
beautiful and symmetrical whole. 

The care with which this mound has been kept 
does credit to the authorities of the city where it 
is, although It would be still better, If certain 
objects now there were removed from the top 
as well as the stone steps which ascend it, so 

' Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, p. 99 e< seq. % 

Burial Mounds 211 

that the mound could he seen in its original 

The writer could not learn, during his short 
stay, whether this mound had ever been thor- 
oughly examined, or whether the encircling moat 
and rampart were of recent, or of ancient con- 
struction. He was told that its excavation had 
been once begun, but that it was abruptly 

Further up the Ohio, on its eastern bank, in 
Marshall County, West Virginia, at Mounds- 
ville, stands the greatest mound in the country. 
This was discovered in 1772, by Joseph Tomlin- 
son, who settled at what was then known as 
Grave Creek. A description of the mound given 
by one of its subsequent owners, Mr. A. B. 
Tomlinson, taken from the American Pioneer, 
is thus preserved by Howe: 

"The Mammoth Mound Is sixty-nine feet 
high, and about nine hundred feet in circumfer- 
ence at its base. It is a frustum of a cone, and 
has a flat top of about fifty feet in diameter. 
This flat, until lately, was slightly depressed — 
occasioned, it is supposed, by the falling in of 
two vaults below. A few years since a white 
oak, of about seventy feet in height, stood on 
the summit of the mound, which appeared to 
die of age. On carefully cutting the trunk 
transversely, the number of concentric circles 
showed that it was about five hundred years 

"In 1838, Mr. Tomlinson commenced at the 

212 The Forest Primeval 

level of the surrounding ground, and ran in an 
excavation horizontally one hundred and eleven 
feet, when he came to a vault that had been 
excavated in the earth before the mound was 
commenced. This vault was twelve feet long, 
eight wide and seven in height. It was dry as 
any tight room. Along each side and the two 
ends, stood upright timbers, which had sup- 
ported transverse timbers forming the ceiling. 
Over the timbers had been placed unhewn stone; 
but the decay of the timbers occasioned the fall 
of the stones and the superincumbent earth, so 
as to nearly fill the vault. " 

A note here inserted by Mr. Howe states: 
***At the top and bottom, where the timbers had 
been placed, were particles of charcoal — an evi- 
dence that fire, instead of iron had been used in 
severing the wood. This goes to show that the 
constructors of the mound were not acquainted 
with the use of iron ; and the fact that none of 
that metal was found in the vault, strongly cor- 
roborates the opinion. Some of the stones were 
water-worn, probably from the river; others were 
identical with a whet-stone quarry on the Ohio 
side of the river, two miles north. ' 

"In this vault were found two skeletons, one 
of which was devoid of ornament — the other 
was surrounded by six hundred and fifty ivory 
beads, resembling button-moles, and an ivory 
ornament of about six inches in length, which 
is one inch and five-eighths wide in the centre, 
half an inch wide at the ends, and on one side 

Burial Mounds 213 

flat and on the other oval-shaped. A singular 
white exudation of animal matter overhangs the 
roof of this vault. 

"Another excavation was commenced at the 
top of the mound downwards. Midway between 
the top and bottom, and over the vault above 
described, a second and similar vault was dis- 
covered, and, like that, caved in by the falHng 
of the ceiling, timbers, stones, etc. In the upper 
vault was found the singular hieroglyphical 
stone hereafter described, one thousand seven 
hundred ivory beads, five hundred sea-shells of 
the involute species, that were worn as beads, 
and five copper bracelets about the wrists of 
the skeleton. The shells and beads were about 
the neck and breast of the skeleton, and there 
were also about one hundred and fifty pieces of 
isinglass strewed over the body. 

"The mound is composed of the same kind of 
earth as that around it, being a fine loamy sand, 
but differs very much in color from that of the 
natural ground. After penetrating about eight 
feet with the first or horizontal excavation, blue 
spots began to appear in the earth of which 
the mound is composed. On close examination, 
these spots were found to contain ashes and bits 
of burnt bones. These spots increased as they 
approached the centre: at the distance of one 
hundred and twenty feet within, the spots were 
so numerous and condensed as to give the earth 
a clouded appearance, and excited the admira- 
tion of all who saw it. Every part of the mound 

214 The Forest Primeval 

presents the same appearance, except near the 
surface. The blue spots were probably occa- 
sioned by depositing the remains of bodies con- 
sumed by fire." 

The following additional interesting informa- 
tion is given by Howe: 

"Mr. Henry R. Colcraft (Schoolcraft), whose 
researches upon the Indian antiquities of the 
West have placed him at the head of the list of 
scientific inquirers upon this subject, visited 
Grave Creek in August, 1843, and devoted 
several days to the examination of the antique 
works of art at that place. The result of his 
investigations is partially given in a communica- 
tion to the New York Commercial Advertiser, 
copied below. We were subsequently at Grave 
Creek, and obtained an impression in wax of the 
hieroglyphical stone to which he alludes. An 
accurate engraving from this impression we 
insert in its proper place in his article: 

"*I have devoted several days to the examina- 
tion of the antiquities of this place and its 
vicinity, and find them to be of even more inter- 
est than was anticipated. The most prominent 
object of curiosity is the great tumulus, of which 
notices have appeared in western papers; but 
this heavy structure of earth is not isolated. It 
is but one of a series of mounds and other evi- 
dences of ancient occupation at this point, of 
more than ordinary interest. I have visited 
and examined seven mounds situated within a 
short distance of each other. They occupy the 

Burial Mounds 215 

summit level of a rich alluvial plain, stretching on 
the left or Virginia bank of the Ohio, between the 
junctions of Big and Little Grave creeks with 
that stream. They appear to have been connected 
by low earthen intrenchments, of which plain 
traces are still visible on some parts of the com- 
mons. They included a well, stoned up in the 
usual manner, which is now filled with rubbish. 

"'The summit of this plain is probably seventy- 
five feet above the present summit-level of the 

"It constitutes the second bench or rise of land 
above the water. It is on this summit, and one 
of the most elevated parts of it, that the great 
tumulus stands. It is in the shape of a broad 
cone, cut off at the apex, where it is some fifty 
feet across. This area is quite level, and com- 
mands a view of the entire plain, and of the river 
above and below, and the west shores of the 
Ohio in front. Any public transaction on this 
area would be visible to multitudes around it, 
and it has, in this respect, all the advantages 
of the Mexican and Yucatanese teocalli.' The 
circumference of the base has been stated at a 
little under 900 feet; the height is 69 feet. 

"'The most interesting object of antiquarian 
inquiry is a small flat stone, inscribed with 
antique, alphabetic characters, which was dis- 
closed on the opening of the mound. These 
characters are in the ancient rock alphabet of 

' A solid, four-sided, truncated pyramid built terrace-wise, with a 
temple on the platform at the summit. 

2i6 The Forest Primeval 

sixteen right and acute-angled single strokes, used 
by the Pelasgi' and other early Mediterranean 
nations, and which is the parent of the modern 
Runic^ as well as the Bardic.^ It is now some 
four or five years since the completion of the 
excavations, so far as they have been made, and 
the discovery of this relic. Several copies of it 
soon got abroad which differed from each other, 
and, it was supposed, from the original. This 
conjecture is true. Neither the print published 

in the Cincinnati Ga- 
zette, m 1839, nor that 
in the American Pio- 
neer, in 1843, is 
correct. I have 
terminated this un- 
certainty by taking 
copies by a scientific 
process, which does 
not leave the lines and figures to the uncer- 
tainty of man's pencil."'* 

This great mound was therefore the burial- 
place of three distinguished persons, one alone, 
in the upper chamber, and two, probably a 
mighty warrior and his favourite wife, in the 

' An ancient race, widely spread over Greece and the coasts and 
islands of the ^gean Sea and the Mediterranean generally, in pre- 
historic times. 

^ The letters used by the peoples of Northern Europe from an early 
period to the eleventh century. 

3 The language of the bards among the ancient Celts. 

* Howe's Virginia, its History and Antiquities, pp. 369-71. 


Burial Mounds 217 

It is to be observed that the bodies of the 
three great personages in whose special honor 
the mound was raised, were deposited in their 
chambers unburnt, while the central part of the 
mound is full of the remains of a large number 
of other corpses which had been burnt. 

It was characteristic of the Stone Age in 
Northern Europe, to deposit bodies in such 
chambers as these unburnt. The chambers 
were then filled with earth, and the whole covered 
with earth. Together with the body were de- 
posited arrow-heads, lances, chisels, and axes 
of flint, implements of bone, ornaments of amber 
or bone, and earthen vessels filled with loose 
earth. Around these mounds were circles of 
stone, often of considerable circumference. 

It was characteristic of the Bronze-period to 
burn the bodies. 

Worsaae tells us that: "At the summit and 
on the sides of a barrow are often found vessels 
of clay with burnt bones and articles of bronze, 
while at the base of the hill we meet with the 
ancient cromlechs or giants' chambers, with 
unburnt bodies and objects of stone. From this 
it is obvious that at a later time, possibly centu- 
ries after, poorer persons who had not the means 
to construct barrows, used the ancient tombs of 
the Stone-period, which they could do with the 
more security, since a barrow which is piled 
above a giant's chamber had exactly the same 
appearance as a barrow of the Bronze-period."' 

' Primeval Antiquities, p. 94. 

2i8 The Forest Primeval 

Viewing the great mound with these ideas in 
our mind, the facts related in connection with 
its opening, become more interesting and signi- 
ficant than ever. 

It appeared that the lower vault had been 
excavated in the earth before the mound was 
commenced. This chamber was nearly filled 
with earth when opened. Had it been entirely 
filled it would have been in the same condition in 
which those in Europe were purposely arranged 
during the Stone-period. It is stated though, 
that in this instance this was due to the decay 
of the timbers, which held up the stones which 
formed the roof. All had fallen in. Here were 
two skeletons, surrounded with ivory beads and 
other articles. 

This chamber covered with earth was probably 
all of the original structure. 

It may have been centuries after this that 
another chamber was built on top of this mound. 
Another great man was buried. His arms were 
adorned with copper bracelets, and his name and 
his deeds were probably recorded on the hiero- 
glyphical stone placed by his body, to give to 
another age a message which we are all too 
ignorant to decipher. 

The age of Bronze now comes, and one by one, 
or possibly, many at a time, the bodies of the 
dead are burnt, and their charred remains are 
deposited on the sides of the tumulus, carefully 
covered with earth. The mound thus grows 
greater and greater, and becomes the cemetery of 

Burial Mounds 219 

a tribe, as well as the tomb of its most illustrious 
chieftains, until that tribe, like its individual 
members have done, itself vanishes from the face 
of the earth. 

When seen by the writer in 1909, the condition 
of this mound afforded a sad contrast to that 
at Marietta. One was perfectly kept, the other 
was perfectly neglected. Around the West Vir- 
ginia Mound, was no encircling space, moat, nor 
rampart. It uncomfortably occupied the larger 
part of a small city square. It was surrounded 
by streets which had been graded and paved, 
and all of the interesting outworks, such as exist 
at Marietta, if they ever existed here, have been 
utterly obliterated by a desecrating race-track, 
which once ran around it, and later by the grad- 
ing of the streets. But there seems to be no 
tradition here of these circles having existed. 

In fact, this great mound, after centuries of 
honor, had the misfortune to go through a 
dreary period of humiliation. The "observa- 
tory" built by Tomlinson, or some other 
building which succeeded it, was once used 
as a restaurant and dancing pavilion. Level- 
ing the top of the mound for this house took off 
eleven feet of its height, which was originally 
ninety, reducing It to seventy-nine, according 
to the present local measurement. About the 
mound was established the Fair Grounds, and 
around this noble monument of antiquity, 
erected to the dead, was constructed the race- 
track over which horses ran at every county 

220 The Forest Primeval 

fair. The curiosity of the white man caused the 
two openings to be made in it, which, together 
with the giving away of the timbers of the two 
vaults, has caused the falling in of the earth 
through the center of the mound, although the 
shaft and tunnel were walled up, taking for this 
purpose eighty-five thousand bricks. 

The top is now about 150 feet in circumference 
and presents the appearance of a rim of earth 
surrounding a cup-shaped depression, in about 
the center of which is a black hole. The 
opening on the north side, mentioned by Howe, 
is said to have been about seven feet wide, ten 
high, and ran back, gradually decreasing in size, 
to the center of the mound. Then the shaft was 
sunk through the top, met the second vault about 
thirty-four feet above the lower vault, and went 
down through the mound to the other vault. 
The mound being composed of loose earth, caved 

No care having apparently been taken to 
prevent it, the sides are deeply marked by rains, 
and worn away by many foot-paths, difficult 
enough to ascend, and the whole lies unenclosed, 
liable to depredation and injury of every kind. 
About forty large trees, and many smaller ones, 
are now growing upon it, which give it the 
appearance of a well-wooded hill. 

So great is this mound, the circumference at 
its base being considerably greater than the 
outside ring around the Marietta mound, that 
had it been similarly enclosed, its outlying en- 

Burial Mounds 221 

circling rampart would have taken in an area 
equal to several squares of the town. It may 
have been that these very circles suggested the 

The local belief is that the earth which was 
used to build this giant tumulus, was taken from 
a spot between a quarter and a half of a mile 
away from it, known as "The Basin," which 
lies on the north side of one of the principal 
streets, between the mound and the railroad 
station. This basin, enormous in area, has every 
appearance of having been artificially created. 
It breaks into the general slope of the land, its 
sides have not the curves of a natural hollow; 
and its soil is of the same character as that com- 
posing the mound. Those who dug that basin 
and built that mound, succeeded in accomplish- 
ing a herculean undertaking. 

We are glad to say that better days are ahead. 
After years of work, the legislators of the State 
of West Virginia have been brought to partially 
appreciate the monument they have within their 
borders, and when it was in actual danger of being 
destroyed, or falling into utter ruin, they bought 
the property for the State, which will preserve 
it. Some work has already been done in clearing 
oflF its sides, and before long it may be put and 
kept in good condition, and so be properly handed 
down to posterity. 

As this work is historical only, the interesting 
question of who built these mounds, whether 
the Indians who lived here at the time of the 

222 The Forest Primeval 

English invasion, or some older race, we leave 
to anthropology and archaeology, to which we 
^ also leave the question of whence the Indians 
themselves came. 

Parkman gives an absorbingly interesting 
account of a funeral rite which existed, and 
was practised by the Hurons up to the time 
of the French occupation of Canada.' Every 
ten or twelve years, says he, the bodies of 
all who had died during that period were 
lowered from their scaffolds or lifted from their 
graves, and deposited in one common sepulchre. 
Such was no doubt the origin of the barrows 
which were found in Virginia, but we know of no 
statement by any of our early writers which 
would indicate that any of them were constructed 
during the period of the English occupation of 

But these mounds, simple in construction, do 
not compare in interest to this great mound at 
Moundsville, which, with its chambers one above 
the other, carries us back to the barrows of the 
Stone-period, the giants' chambers and crom- 
lechs of the Stone Age of Europe. 

' T]ie Jesuits in North America, pp. 71-8. 




OF all the opponents to the English, the 
priests and conjurers were the most 
bitter. Not only did the coming of the 
White Man threaten political, social, and eco- 
nomic revolution, but one of its objects was the 
conversion of the heathen to Christianity. This 
the priests held to be an immediate attack upon 
them, and the whole system of which they were 
the exponents. 

This opposition Strachey thus describes: 
"Indeed their priests, being the ministers of 
Satan (who is very likely or visibly conversant 
amongst them), fear and tremble lest the knowl- 
edge of God, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, 
should be taught in those parts, do now with the 
more vehemency persuade the people to hold 
on their wonted ceremonies, and every year to 
sacrifice still their own children to the ancient 
God of their fathers, and it is supposed gain 
double oblations this way, by reason they do 
at all times so absolutely govern and direct the 
wer-6-ances, or lords of countries, in all their 
actions, and this custom he hath politically main- 

224 The Forest Primeval 

talned, and doth yet universally, a few places 
excepted, over all the Indies. 

"To have suffered still, therefore, me thinks, 
these priests of Baal or Beelzebub, were greatly 
offensive to the majesty of God, and most peril- 
ous for the English to inhabit within those 
parts; for these their qui-yough-qui-socks or 
prophets be they that persuade their wer-6-ances 
to resist our settlement, and tell them how much 
their 0-ke-us will be offended with them, and 
that he will not be appeased with a sacrifice 
of a thousand, nay a hecatomb of their chil- 
dren, if they permit a nation, despising the 
ancient religion of their forefathers, to inhabit 
among them, since their own gods have hitherto 
preserved them, and given them victory over 
their enemies, from age to age."^ 

Strachey also gives us the following account of 
the priests and their principal stronghold: 

"Their principal temple, or place of supersti- 
tion, is at Ut-ta-mus-sack,at Pa-mun-key.^ Near 
unto the town, within the woods, is a chief holy 
house, proper to^ Powhatan, upon the top of 
certain red sandy hills, and it is accompanied 
with two others sixty feet in length, filled with 
images of their kings and devils, and tombs of 
the predecessors. This place they count so 
holy as that none but the priests and kings dare 
come therein. 

' Historie of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 83-4. 
^ The name of the region lying between the Pa-mun-key and the 
Mat-ta-po-ny Rivers. 

3 The private property of, or especially appropriat°d to. 

Priests and Conjurers 225 

"In this, as the Grecian nlgromancers' psycho 
mantie' did use to call up spirits, either the 
priests have conference, or consult, indeed, 
with the devil, and receive verbal answers, 
and so saith Acosta^; he spake to the /Soinj 
or chaplains of the West Indies, in their 
guacas or oratories, or at least these conjurers 
make the simple laity so to believe, who, there- 
fore, so much are the people at the priests' 
devotion, are ready to execute any thing, how 
desperate soever, which they shall command. 
The savages dare not go up the river in boats by 
it, but that the}' solemnly cast some piece of cop- 
per, white beads, or po-chones^ into the river, for 
fear that 0-ke-us should be offended and revenged 
of them. In this place commonly are resident 
seven priests, the chief differing from the rest 
in his ornament, whilst the inferior priests can 
hardly be known from the common people, save 
that they had not (it may be, may be not have) 
so many holes in their ears to hang their jewels 

"The ornaments of the chief priest were, upon 
his shoulders a middle-sized cloak of feathers 
much like the old sacrificing garment which 
Isodorus'^ calls casslola, and the burlett or attire 
of his head was thus made: some twelve or six- 
teen or more snakes' sloughs or skins were 

' Magicians' power over the souls of others. 
' A Spanish Jesuit historian and archaeologist. 
3 Pieces of the root puccoon, from which a red dye was made. 
^ Isodorus, a native of Charax, near the mouth of the Tigris. He 
was a writer of the time of Caligula. 

226 The Forest Primeval 

stuffed with moss, and of weasels or other vermin 
were skins perhaps as many: all these were tied 
by the tails, so as their tails meet In the top of 
the head like a great tassel, and round about the 
tassel was circled a coronet, as it were, of feathers, 
the skins hanging round about his head, neck, 
and shoulders, and in a manner covering his 

"The faces of all their priests are painted 
so ugly as they can devise; in their hands they 
carry every one his rattle, for the most part as a 
symbol of his place and profession, some base,^ 
some smaller. Their devotion^ is most in songs, 
which the chief priest begins and the rest fol- 
low him; sometimes he makes invocation with 
broken sentences, by starts and strange passions, 
and at every pause the rest of the priests give a 
short groan. "^ 

The exact location of this sacred town of 
Ut-ta-mus-sack we can probably determine. 
The old maps show it to be situated on the east 
side of the Pamunkey River, just before it makes 
its sharp curves before it flows into the York. 
The Pamunkey Indian reservation is on the east 
bank of the Pamunkey just at this same point. 
These two locations are one and the same. 

Ut-ta-mus-sack was therefore situated upon the 
land which has never yet been out of the pos- 
session of the Pamunkey tribe. The more we 

' The large rattles would give the base notes, the smaller ones the 
treble. ^ Religious service. 

3 Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 90. 

Priests and Conjurers 227 

think of It, the more natural this conclusion ap- 
pears to be. This town was the headquarters of 
the priests, it was their special stronghold. The 
priests directed the affairs of the tribe. The 
tribe made peace with the Virginians, became 
tributary to Virginia, and had a tract of land, 
assigned for Its own special possession. In 
selecting the land to be allotted to them, the 
priests of this tribe would naturally ask for that 
to which they attached the most importance, 
and that spot would be the one which had been 
held in such reverence for generations, where 
their temples were, and where the dead bodies of 
their kings had so long reposed — this St. Denis 
of the forest. 

The conjuration of these priests Is thus de- 
scribed by Strachey: 

"They have also divers conjurations: one 
they made at what time they had taken Captain 
Smith prisoner, to know, as they reported, if 
any more of his countrymen would arrive there, 
and what they Intended: the manner of It Cap- 
tain Smith observed to be as followeth: first 
so soon as day was shut In, they kindled a fair 
great fire In a lone house, about which assembled 
seven priests, taking Captain Smith by the hand, 
and appointing him his seat. About the fire they 
made a kind of enchanted circle of meal; that 
done, the chlefest priest, attired as Is expressed, 
gravely began to sing and shake his rattle, 
solemnly rounding and marching about the fire, 
the rest followed him silently until his song was 

228 The Forest Primeval 

done, which they all shut up with a groan. At 
the end of the first song the chief priest laid down 
certain grains of wheat, and so continued howl- 
ing and invoking their 0-ke-us to stand firm and 
powerful to them in divers varieties of songs, still 
counting the songs by the grains, until they had 
circled the fire three times, then they divided 
the grains by certain number with little sticks, 
all the while muttering some impious thing 
unto themselves, oftentimes looking upon Capt. 

''In this manner they continued ten or 
twelve hours without any other ceremonies or 
intermission, with such violent stretching of their 
arms, and various passions, jestures, and symp- 
toms, as might well seem strange to him before 
whom they so conjured, and who every hour ex- 
pected to be the hoast' and one of their sacrifice. 
Not any meat did they eat until it was very late, 
and the night far spent. About the rising of the 
morning star they seemed to have finished their 
work of darkness, and then drew forth such pro- 
vision as was in the said house, and feasted them- 
selves and him with much mirth. Three or four 
days they continued these elvish^ ceremonies. 

"Now besides this manner of conjurations 
thus within doors (as we read the augurers in 
the old times of the like superstition, did as- 
cend or go up into the certain towers or high 
places, called therefore auguracula, to divine 
of matters), so do they go forth, and either upon 

» Host, victim oflFered in sacrifice. * Witch-like. 

Priests and Conjurers 229 

some rock standing alone, or upon some desolate 
promontory top, or else into the midst of thick 
and solitary woods they call upon their o-ke-us 
and importune their other qui-ough-co-sughes 
with most impetuous and interminate clamors 
and howling, and with such pains and strained 
actions, as the neighbor places echo again of the 
same, and themselves are all in a sweat and over 

"They have also another kind of sorcery which 
they use in storms, a kind of botanomantia ^ 
with herbs; when the waters are rough in the 
rivers and sea-coasts, their conjurers run to the 
water sides, or, passing in their quin-tans, after 
many hellish outcries and invocations, they cast 
whe-si-can,^ tobacco, copper, po-cones, or such 
trash into the water, to pacify that god whom 
they think to be very angry in those storms."^ 

" Po-cones is a small root that groweth in the 
mountains, which, being dried and beat into 
powder, turneth red, and this they use for swell- 
ings, aches, anointing their joints, painting their 
heads and garments with it, for which they 
account it very precious and of much worth. ""* 

"It could not be perceived that they keep any 
day as more holy than other: but only in some 
great distress of want, fear of enemies, times of 
triumph and gathering together their fruits, the 
whole country of men, women, and children come 

' "Soothsaying from herbs. " ^ A bone. 

3 Historic of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 92-3. 
* Ibid., p. 121. 

230 The Forest Primeval 

together to solemnities. The manner of their 
devotion Is, sometimes to make a great fire, 
in the house or fields, and all to sing and 
dance about It with rattles and shouts to- 
gether, four or five hours. Sometimes they set 
a man In the midst, and about him they dance 
and sing, he all the while clapping his hands, as 
if he would keep time, and after their songs and 
dancings ended, they go to their feasts. 

"They have also certain altar-stones they call 
Paw-co-ran-ces, but these stand from their 
temples, some by their houses, others in the 
woods and wildernesses, where they have had 
any extraordinary accident or encounter. And 
as you travel, at those stones they will tell you 
the cause why they were there erected, which 
from age to age they instruct their children, as 
their best records of antiquities. Upon these 
they offer blood, deer-suet, and tobacco. This 
they do when they return from the wars, from 
hunting, and upon many other occasions."' 

"The priests of the aforesaid town of Se-co-ta^ 
are well stricken in years, and as it seemeth of 
more experience than the common sort. They 
wear their hair cut like a crest, on the top of their 
heads as others do, but the rest are cut short 
saving^ those which grow above their foreheads 
in manner of a perriwigge.^ They also have 
somewhat hanging in their ears. They wear a 

' Smith, vol. i., p. 140. 

» An Indian town in what is now Beaufort County, N. C. 

3 Excepting. " Wig. 

Priests and Conjurers 231 

short clocke ' made of fine hares' skins quilted 
with the hair outwards. The rest of their body 
is naked. They are notable enchanters, and 
for their pleasure they frequent the rivers to 
kill with their bows, and catch wild ducks, swans, 
and other fowls. " 

"They have commonly conjurers or jugglers 
which use strange gestures, and often contrary 
to nature in their enchantments: For they be 
very familiar with devils, of whom they inquire 
what their enemies do, or other such things. 
They shave all their heads saving their crest, 
which they wear as others do, and fasten a small 
black bird above one of their ears^ as a badge of 
their office. They wear a bag by their side as is 
expressed In the figure. The inhabitants give 
great credit unto their speech, which oftentimes 
they find to be true. "^ 

"I don't find that the Indians have any other 
distinction In their dress, or the fashion of their 
hair, than only what a greater degree of riches 
enables them to make: except it be their religious 
persons, who are known by the particular cut of 
the hair, and the unusual figure of their garments; 
as our clergy are distinguished by their canonical 
habit. ^ 

"The habit of the Indian priest, is a cloak 

' Cloak — a garment shaped like a bell. The word clock means bell, 
the sounding of the hour by a bell being its characteristic. The 
garment took its name from its similarity in shape to a bell. 

' May not this be the origin of the expression — a little bird told 
such and such a thing? 

^ Harlot's Narrative, v., xi. * Coat. 

232 The Forest Primeval 

made in the form of a woman's petticoat, but 
instead of tying it about their middle, they fasten 
the gatherings about their neck, and tie it upon 
the right shoulder, always keeping one arm out 
to use upon occasion. This cloak hangs even 
at the bottom but reaches no lower than the 
middle of the thigh; but what is most particular 
in it, is, that it is constantly^ made of a skin 
dressed soft, with the pelt or fur on the outside, 
and reversed; insomuch, that when the cloak 
has been a little worn, the hair falls down in 
flakes, and looks very shagged, and frightful. 

" The cut of their hair is likewise peculiar to 
their function^; for 'tis all shaven close except a 
thin crest, like a cock's-comb which stands 
bristling up, and runs in a semicircle from the 
forehead up along the crown to the nape of the 
neck. They likewise have a border of hair over 
the forehead, which by its own natural strength, 
and by the stiffening it receives from grease and 
paint, will stand out like the peak^ of a bonnet. " 

" He (the conjurer) as well as the priest, is 
commonly grimed with soot or the like; to save 
his modesty he hangs an otter-skin at his girdle, 
fastening the tail between his legs: upon his 
thigh hangs his pocket, which is fastened by 
tucking it under his girdle, the bottom of this 
Hkewise is fringed with tassels for ornament sake. 
In the middle between them is the hus-ka-naw- 
ing pen. "^ 

' Invariably. ^ Office. ^ Projecting part. 

4 Beverley, book 3, pp. 5-6. 

Priests and Conjurers 233 

Spelman agrees with the above, in his account 
of the style of dressing the hair adopted by the 
priests, but adds the fact that some had beards. "^ 

That these conjurers exercised a powerful 
control over the minds of the savages we are 
fully prepared to believe, when we read T. M.'s 
account of Bacon's rebellion, reciting events 
which occurred as late as the year 1676. A 
drought existed throughout the plantations that 
summer, while rain poured down every day upon 
Bacon and his troops in the forest. This rain 
was believed by the English to be due to the 
**pau-waw-ings," that is, the sorceries, of the 
Indians, who in this way obstructed the move- 
ments of Bacon's troops in his war upon them. 

Beverley has this to say of them: "The priests 
and conjurers are also of great authority, the 
people having recourse to them for counsel and 
direction, upon all occasions; by which means, 
and by help of the first fruits and frequent 
offerings, they riot in the fat of the land, and 
grow rich upon the spoils of their ignorant 
countrymen." "" 

The Indian priests are thus described by the 
Rev. Mr. Whittaker, writing from Henrico in 
1613: "Their priests (whom they call quick-o- 
soughs) are no other but such as our English 
witches are. They live naked in body, as if 
their shame of their sin deserved no covering. 
Their names are as naked as their body; they 

' Spelman's Relation of Virginia, p. 52. 
' Beverley, book 3, p. 57. 

234 The Forest Primeval 

esteem it a virtue to lie, deceive, and steal, as 
their master the Devil teacheth them. . . . They 
(that is, all the other Indians), stand in great 
awe of the quick-o-soughs or priests, which are a 
generation of vipers, even Satan's own brood. 
The manner of their life is much like to the Popish 
hermits of our age; for they live alone in the 
woods, in houses sequestered from the common 
course of men; neither may any man be suffered 
to come into their house, or speak to them, but 
when the priest doth call them. He taketh no 
care of his victuals; for all such kind of things, 
both bread and water, etc., are brought into a 
place near his cottage and there left, which he 
fetcheth for his proper needs. If they would 
have rain, or have lost anything, they have 
recourse to him, who conjureth for them and 
many times prevaileth.' If they be sick, he is 
their physician; if they be wounded, he sucketh^ 
them. At his command they make war and 
peace; neither do they anything of moment 
without him." ^ 

"I can't understand that their women ever 
pretended to intermeddle with any offices that 
relate to the priesthood, or conjuration."-^ 

This belief in the supernatural powers of the 
Indian priests to produce rain at will, was widely 
spread and seems to have been generally enter- 

» The people of this period were firm beUevers in witchcraft, both 
at home and abroad. 

' That is, sucks the blood from around the wound, to cleanse it. 
3 Purchas, vol. iv., p. 1771. " Beverley, book 3, p. 47. 

Priests and Conjurers 235 

tained. Glover also mentions it. He says: 
"When they have great want of rain, one of their 
priests will go into a private cabin, and by his 
invocations will cause abundance to fall im- 
mediately, which they call making of rain. " ^ 

So deeply seated was the animosity against 
the Indian priests, that Strachey was evidently 
in favor of the "surreption" of them, that is 
of getting possession of them all by craft, or by 
stealth, if necessary. This he viewed as indis- 
pensable for the safety of the colonists and the 
enlargement of the plantation. He thus ex- 
presses himself: 

"Yet no Spanish intention shall be entertained 
by us, neither hereby to root out the naturals,^ 
as the Spaniards have done in Hlspanlola^ and 
other parts, but only to take from them these 
seducers, until when they [that Is, until this be 
done the rest of the Indians] will never know God 
nor obey the King's majesty, and by which 
means we shall by degrees change their bar- 
barous natures, make them ashamed the sooner 
of their savage nakedness, inform them of the 
true God and of the way to their salvation, and, 
finally, teach them obedience to the King's 
majesty and to his governors In those parts, de- 
claring (In the attempt thereof) unto the several 
wer-6-ances, and making the common people 
likewise to understand, how that his majesty 
hath been acquainted, that the men, women, and 

^Account of Virginia, p. 24. 

* Natives of the country. 3 Haiti. 

236 The Forest Primeval 

children of the first plantation at Roanoke were 
by practice and commandment of Powhatan 
(he himself persuaded thereunto by his priests) 
miserably slaughtered, without any offence given 
him either by the first planted' (who twenty and 
odd years' had peaceably lived intermixed with 
those savages, and were out of his territory) or 
by those who now are come to inhabit some part 
of his desert lands, and to trade with him for 
some commodities of ours, which he and his 
people stand in want of; notwithstanding, be- 
cause his majesty is, of all the world, the most just 
and the most merciful prince, he hath given or- 
der that Powhatan himself, with the wer-6-ances 
and all the people, shall be spared, and revenge 
only taken upon his qui-yough-qui-socks, by 
whose advice and persuasions was exercised that 
bloody cruelty." 

He then proceeds to argue the benefits which 
would come to the Indians to be taken under the 
milder rule of King James instead of the tyranny 
they suffered under Powhatan, the better price 
they would receive for their commodities, etc., 
and then what ought to be done if all the priests 
could be convened when these things were dis- 
cussed. He then concludes: 

"This being delivered in fit terms, by some 
perfect interpreter, and to men that are capable 
enough of understanding It, may beget a fair 
conceit in them of us and our proceedings, and 

' Those who were first settled or planted. 

= Ago, or before the coming of the English to Jamestown. 

Priests and Conjurers 2^1 

leave them well satisfied; and Indeed be it be- 
lieved, that when so just an occasion shall offer 
these priests of Asmodeus ' or the Devil into the 
hands of the lord general, a better time than 
that will not be found to perform the same 
acceptable service to God that Jehu, king of 
Israel, did, when he assembled all the priests of 
Baal, and slew them, to the last man, in their 
own temple. Of this may every vulgar sense be 
well assured, that seeing these monsters do offer 
up unto the devil their own children, and being 
hardened against all compassion, natural and 
divine, enforce their own mothers to deliver them 
to the executioner with their own hands, they 
will easily condescend unto, and assist the 
destruction and extirpation of all strangers, 
knowing or acknowledging the true God. " ^ 

' In Jewish demonology a destructive devil, lame, and often re- 
ferred to as the destroyer of domestic happiness. 

* Historic of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 85-86; 88-89. 



THE religion of the Indians was polytheistic 
and idolatrous. Like most primitive 
nations they were strongly Imbued with 
superstition. One of the objects of the settle- 
ment of Virginia was to Christianize the natives. 
Their views on religion were looked upon by the 
English with abhorrence, as founded on the 
darkest Ignorance, and their priests and con- 
jurers were regarded as representatives of Satan 
himself. The latter were found to be the most 
determined opponents of the English, who, not 
entirely free from superstition themselves, at- 
tributed supernatural powers to these Indian 
priests nearly as great as was believed to be the 
case by the natives. 

The Indians' ideas on religion were not very 
easy to determine. They were reticent about 
them, and It was with difficulty that the English 
could get them to talk on this subject. 

The first account we have is that given by 

Harlot, and is a part of his narrative written in 

connection with the expedition sent out by Sir 

Walter Raleigh In 1585. Here is what he tells 


Religion 239 

us, speaking of the Indians he saw In connection 
with the Roanoke Island settlement, who were 
typical of all in that part of the world : 

"The people of this country have an idol, 
which they call Ki-was-a: it is carved of wood in 
length four feet, whose head Is like the heads of 
the people of Florida, the face is of a flesh color, 
the breast white, the rest is all black, the thighs 
are also spotted with white. He hath a chain 
about his neck of white beads, between which are 
other round beads of copper which they esteem 
more than gold or silver. This idol is placed 
in the temple of the town of Se-co-tam, as the 
keeper of the kings' dead corpses. Sometimes 
they have two of these Idols In their churches, 
and sometimes three, but never above,' which 
they place in a dark corner where they show 

''They believe that there are many gods which 
they call Mon-to-ac, but of different sorts and 
degrees; one only chief and great God, which 
hath been from all eternity. Who as they affirm 
when he purposed to make the world, made first 
other gods of a principal order to be as means and 
instruments to be used In the creation and govern- 
ment to follow; and after the sun, moon and stars, 
as petty gods and the instruments of the other 
order more principal. First they say were made 
waters, out of which by the gods was made all 
diversity of creatures that are visible or invisible. 

"For mankind they say a woman was made 

' Above that number. » Hariot's Narrative, xxi. 

240 The Forest Primeval 

first, which by the working of one of the gods, 
conceived and brought forth children. And in 
such sort they say they had their beginning. 

"But how many years or ages have passed 
since, they say they can make no relation, hav- 
ing no letters nor other such means as we keep 
records of the particularities of times past, but 
only tradition from father to son. 

"They think that all the gods are of human 
shape, and therefore they represent them by 
images in the forms of men, which they call Ke- 
was-o-wok, one alone is called Ke-was ; them they 
place in houses appropriate or temples which 
they call ma-chi-co-muck; where they worship, 
pray, sing, and make many times offerings unto 
them. In some ma-chi-co-muck we have seen 
but one Ke-was, in some two, and in some others 
three; the common sort think them to be also 

"They believe also the immortality of the soul, 
that after this life as soon as the soul is departed 
from the body, according to the works it hath 
done, it is either carried to heaven the habitacle' 
of gods, there to enjoy perpetual bliss and happi- 
ness, or else to a great pit or hole, which they 
think to be in the furthest parts of their part of 
the world towards the sunset, there to burn 
continually: the place they call Po-po-gus-so. 

"For the confirmation of this opinion, they 
told me two stories of two men that had been 
lately dead and revived again, the one happened 

* Dwelling-place. 

Their Idol in His Tabernacle 

9'dcf caff'd. OKEE. QIUOCCOS. or /C/VC/A5A . 

*' The dark edging shows the sides and roof of the house, which 
consists of saplings and bark. The paler edging shows 
the mats by which they make a partition of about ten feet, 
at the end of the house, for the Idol's abode. The Idol 
is set upon his seat of mats, within his dark recess, 
above the people's heads, and the curtain is drawn up 
before him." 

Religion 241 

but few years before our coming in the country, 
of a wicked man which having been dead and 
buried, the next day the earth of the grave being 
seen to move, was taken up again; who made 
declaration where his soul had been, that is to 
say very near entering into Po-po-gus-so, had 
not one of the gods saved him and gave him leave 
to return again, and teach his friends what they 
should do to avoid that terrible place of torment. 

"The other happened in the same year we were 
there, but in a town that was threescore miles 
from us, and it was told me for strange news that 
one being dead, buried and taken up again as the 
first, showed that although his body had lain 
dead in the grave, yet his soul was alive, and had 
travelled far in a long broad way, on both sides 
whereof grew most delicate and pleasant trees, 
bearing more rare and excellent fruits than ever 
he had seen before or was able to express, and 
at length came to most brave and fair ' houses, 
near which he met his father, that had been dead 
before, who gave him great charge to go back 
again and show his friends what good they were 
to do to enjoy the pleasures of that place, which 
when he had done he should after come again. "^ 

"Concerning the immortality of the soul, they 
suppose that the common people shall not live 
after death; but they think that their wer-6- 
ances and priests, indeed whom they esteem half 
qui-ough-co-sughes, when their bodies are laid in 

' Presenting a fine appearance. 
^Lane's account. Hakluyt's Voyages, vol. ii., p, 

242 The Forest Primeval 

the earth, that that which is within shall go 
beyond the mountains, and travel as far as where 
the sun sets, into most pleasant fields, grounds 
and pastures, where it shall do no labor; but, 
stuck finely with feathers, and painted with oil 
and po-cones, rest in all quiet and peace, and eat 
delicious fruits, and have store of copper, beads, 
and hatchets; sing, dance, and have all variety 
of delights and merriments till that wax old 
there, as the body did on earth, and then it shall 
dissolve and die, and be new born into the 
world." ' 

The belief which the Indians firmly enter- 
tained of the immortality of the soul is strikingly 
brought out in connection with the super- 
stitious awe with which they regarded the white 
men. At first they considered them immortal, 
or, at least, not subject to be put to death by 

Lane tells us that En-se-no-re, the father of 
Pe-mis-a-pan, the King of the country which 
included Roanoke Island, held such views, and, 
in the councils of his tribe, urged them upon the 

At a time when Lane returned safely from an 
expedition on which certain Indians reported 
that he had perished, he says that En-se-no-re 
*' renewed those his former speeches, both to the 
King and the rest, that we were the servants of 
God, and that we were not subject to be de- 
stroyed by them; but contrariwise, that they 

' Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 96. 

Religion 243 

amongst them that sought our destruction 
should find their own, and not be able to work 
ours, and that we being dead men were able to 
do them more hurt, than now we could do being 
alive; an opinion very confidently at this day 
holden by the wisest amongst them, and of their 
old men. 

"As also, that they have been in the night, 
being one hundred miles from any of us, in the 
air shot at and stroken by some men of ours, 
that by sickness had died among them. 

"And many of them hold opinion, that we be 
dead men returned into the world again, and 
that we do not remain dead but for a certain 
time, and that then we return again. "^ 

Smith gives us an account of an 0-kee being 
carried by the Indians into battle. The god, 
made of skins, stuffed with moss, painted and 
hung with chains and copper, was borne before 
the warriors, who followed in a square order. The 
Indians charged the English. At the first volley 
from the muskets the idol fell to the ground, Its 
bearers falling dead or wounded around it. The 
rest fled. Soon a priest came forward to offer 
peace and redeem the 0-kee. Terms being 
offered which were satisfactory, the 0-kee was 
restored. ^ 

Beverley gives us this account of a visit to 
one of the 0-kee's temples: 

"I have been at several of the Indian towns 

* Lane's account in Hakluyt's Voyages. 
' Smith, vol. i., p. 156. 

244 The Forest Primeval 

and conversed with some of the most sensible of 
them in that country; but I could learn little 
from them, it being reckoned sacrilege to divulge 
the principles of their rehgion. However, the 
following adventure discovered something of it. 
As I was ranging the woods, with some other 
friends, we fell upon their qui-oc-co-san (which 
is their house of religious worship) at a time, 
when the whole town was gathered together in 
another place, to consult about the bounds of the 
land given them by the English. ' 

"Thus finding ourselves masters of so fair an 
opportunity (because we knew the Indians were 
engaged) we resolved to make use of it, and to 
examine their qui-oc-co-san, the inside of which 
they never suffer any Englishman to see; and 
having removed about fourteen logs from the 
door, with which it was barricadoed, we went in, 
and at first found nothing but naked walls, and a 
fireplace in the middle. This house was about 
eighteen feet wide, and thirty feet long, built 
after the manner of their other cabins, but larger, 
with a hole in the middle of the roof to vent the 
smoke, the door being at one end. Round about 
the house at some distance from it, were set up 
posts with faces carved on them, and painted. 
We did not observe any window or passage for 
the light, except the door, and the vent of the 

' As a part of the treaties made with the native tribes, tracts of 
land were assigned them, to be held as tribal property, and not 
subject to be patented or otherwise acquired by the white people. 

Religion 245 

"At last, we observed that at the farther 
end, about ten feet of the room was cut off by a 
partition of very close mats; and it was dismal 
dark behind that partition. We were at first 
scrupulous^ to enter this obscure place, but at 
last we ventured, and groping about, we felt 
some posts in the middle; then reaching our 
hands up those posts, we found large shelves, and 
upon these shelves three mats, each of which was 
rolled up, and sewed fast. These we handed 
down to the light, and to save time in unlacing 
the seams, we made use of a knife, and ripped 
them, v^/'ithout doing any damage to the mats. 
In one of these we found some vast bones, which 
we judged to be the bones of men, particularly 
we measured one thigh bone, and found it two 
feet, nine inches long. In another mat, we found 
some Indian tomahawks finely graved, and 
painted. These resembled the wooden faul- 
chion' used by the prize-fighters in England, 
except that they have no guard to save^ the 
fingers. They were made of a rough heavy 
wood, and the shape of them is represented in 
the Tab. 10, No. 3.^ 

"Among these tomahawks was the largest 
that ever I saw: there was fastened to it a wild 
turkey's beard painted red, and two of the longest 
feathers of his wings hung dangling at it, by a 
string of about six inches long, tied to the end 
of the tomahawk. In the third mat there was 

^ Afraid. * A short broad sword curving sharply to the point 

J Protect. * This is the picture on page 74. 

246 The Forest Primeval 

something, which we took to be their idol, 
though of an underhng' sort, and wanted putting 
together. The pieces were these, first a board 
three feet and a half long, with one indenture 
at the upper end, like a fork to fasten the head 
upon, from thence half way down, were half 
hoops nailed to the edges of the board, at about 
four inches distance, which were bowed out, 
to represent the breast and belly; on the lower 
half was another board of half the length of the 
other, fastened to it by joints or pieces of wood, 
which being set on each side, stood out about 
fourteen inches from the body, and half as high ; 
we supposed the use of these to be for the bowing 
out of the knees, when the image was set up. 
There were packed up with these things, red 
and blue pieces of cotton cloath, and rolls made 
up for arms, thighs and legs, bent to at the knees, 
as is represented in the figure of their idol, which 
was taken by an exact drawer^ in the country. 
It would be difficult to see one of these images at 
this day, because the Indians are extreme shy of 
exposing them. 

''We put the cloaths upon the hoops for the 
body, and fastened on the arms and legs, to 
have a view of the representation. But the 
head and rich bracelets, which it is usually 
adorned with, were not there, or at least we did 
not find them. 

' Subordinate, or lesser divinity. 

*John White, who drew the pictures for Sir Walter Raleigh, in 

Religion 247 

"We had not leisure to make a very narrow 
search, for having spent about an hour in this 
enquiry, we feared the business of the Indians 
might be near over and that if we stayed longer, 
we might be caught offering an affront to their 
superstition; for this reason we wrapt up these 
holy materials in their several mats again, and 
laid them on the shelf, where we found them. 

"This Image when dressed up, might look 
very venerable' in that dark place; where 'tis 
not possible to see it, but by the glimmering 
light that is let in by lifting up a piece of the 
matting, which we observed to be conveniently 
hung for that purpose; for when the light of the 
door and chimney glance in several directions, 
upon the image through that little passage, it 
must needs make a strange representation, which 
those poor people are taught to worship with a 
devout ignorance. 

"There are other things that contribute to- 
wards carrying on this imposture; first the chief 
conjurer enters within the partition in the dark, 
and may undiscerned move the image as he 
pleases: secondly, a priest of authority stands in 
the room with the people, to keep them from 
being too inquisitive, under the penalty of the 
Deity's displeasure, and his own censure. 

"Their Idol bears a several name in every 
nation, as 0-kee, Qui-6c-cos, Ki-wa-sa. They do 
not look upon it, as one single being, but reckon 
there are many of them of the same nature; they 

' Worthy of veneration or reverence. 

248 The Forest Primeval 

likewise believe that there are tutelar deities in 
every town. " ' 

Percy tells us that they worshiped the sun. 
He says: 

"It is a general rule of these people when they 
swear by their god which is the sun, no Christian 
will keep their oath better upon this promise. 
Their people have a great reverence to the sun, 
above all other things at the rising and setting 
of the same, they set down lifting up their hands 
and eyes to the sun making a round circle on the 
ground with dried tobacco, then they began 
to pray making many devilish gestures with a 
hellish noise, foaming at the mouth, staring with 
their eyes, wagging their heads and hands in such 
a fashion and deformity as it was monstrous to 

"In the morning by break of day, before they 
eat or drink both men, women and children, 
that be above ten years of age run into the water, 
there wash themselves a good while till the sun 
riseth, then offer sacrifice to it, strewing to- 
bacco on the water or land, honoring the sun 
as their god, likewise they do at the setting 

"We have observed how when they would 
affirm any thing by much earnestness and truth, 
they use to bind it by a kind of oath ; either by the 
life of the great king, or by pointing up to the 
sun and clapping the right hand upon the heart, 

' Beverley, book 3, pp. 28-31. 
* Purchas, vol. iv., p. 1690. 

Religion 249 

and sometimes they have been understood to 
swear by the manes' of their dead father. " "" 

Strachey says that they worshiped everything 
which they conceived able to do them hurt be- 
yond their prevention. Thus, they adored the 
fire, water, lightning, thunder, the cannon of 
the English, and their horses, etc. But he says 
the chief object of their worship was the devil. 

Then he describes the whole religious system 
in one sentence: 

"In every territory of a wer-6-ance is a temple 
and a priest, peradventure two or three: yet 
happy doth that wer-6-ance account himself who 
can detain with him a qui-yough-qui-sock, of the 
best, grave, lucky, well instructed in their 
mysteries, and beloved of their god : and such a 
one is no less honored than was Diana's priest 
at Ephesus, for whom they have their more 
private temples, with oratories and chancels 
therein, according as is the dignity and reverence 
of the qui-yough-qui-sock, which the wer-6-ance 
will be at charge to build upon purpose, some- 
times twenty feet broad and a hundred in length, 
fashioned arbor-wise after their building, having 
commonly the door opening into the east, and at 
the west end a spence or chancel from the body 
of the temple, with hollow windings and pillars, 
whereon stand divers black images, fashioned to 
the shoulders, with their faces looking down the 
church, and where within their wer-6-ances, upon 

*The deified spirit. 

* Strachey, Historic oj Travaile into Virginia, p. 1 13. 

250 The Forest Primeval 

a kind of bier of reeds, lie buried; and under 
them, apart, in a vault low in the ground (as a 
more secret thing) veiled with a mat, sits their 
0-ke-us, an image ill-favoredly carved, all black 
dressed, with chains of pearl, the presentment 
and figure of that god (say the priests unto the 
laity, and who religiously believe what the priests 
say) which doth them all the harm they suffer, 
be it in their bodies or goods, within doors or 
abroad; and true it is many of them are divers 
times (especially offenders) shrewdly scratched 
as they walk alone in the woods, it may well be 
by the subtle spirit, the malicious enemy to man- 
kind, whom, therefore, to pacify, and work to do 
them good (at least no harm) the priests tell 
them they must do these and these sacrifices 
unto (them), of these and these things, and thus 
and thus often, by which means not only their 
own children, but strangers, are sometimes 
sacrificed unto him; whilst the great God (the 
priests tell them) who governs all the world, 
and makes the sun to shine, creating the moon 
and stars his companions, great powers, and 
which dwell with him, and by whose virtues 
and influences the under earth is tempered, and 
brings forth her fruits according to her seasons, 
they call A-ho-ne; the good and peaceable God 
requires no such duties, nor needs be sacrificed 
unto, for he intendeth all good unto them, and 
will do no harm, only the displeased 0-ke-us, 
looking into all men's actions, and examining 
the same according to the severe scale of justice. 

Religion 251 

punisheth them with sicknesses, beats them, 
and strikes their ripe corn with blastings, storms, 
and thunder-claps, stirs up war, and makes their 
women false unto them. " ' 

Henry Spelman, who lived a long time with the 
Potomac and other Indians, gives us this account 
of some of their religious ideas and customs: 

"For the most part they worship the Devil, 
which the conjurers, who are their priests, can 
make appear unto them at their pleasure,^ yet 
nevertheless in every country they have a sev- 
eral image whom they call their god. As with 
the great Powhatan he hath an image called 
Cak-e-res which most commonly standeth at 
Yaugh-taw-noo-ne^ or at Or-o-pikes^ in a house 
for that purpose, and with him are set all the 
king's goods and presents that are sent him, as 
the corn. But the beads or crown and bed which 
the King of England sent him are in the god's 
house at Or-o-pikes, and in their houses are all 
the king's ancestors and kindred commonly 
buried. In the Patomac's country they have 
another god whom they call Qui-o-quas-cacke, 
and unto their images they offer beads and 
copper, if at any time they want rain or have too 
much, and though they observe no day to wor- 

' Historic of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 82-3. 

* Additional evidence of the firm belief in the power of the Indian 

3 This place is difficult to locate, not being on the map of the 
towns; see page 142. 

* A favorite town of Powhatan's, in what is now Hanover County, 
usually spelt Or-a-pax. 

252 The Forest Primeval 

ship their god but upon necessity, yet once in 
the year, their priests, which are their conjurers, 
with the men, women and children do go into the 
woods, where their priests make a great circle 
of fire in the which after many observances in 
other conjurations they make offer of two or 
three children to be given to their god if he will 
appear unto them and show his mind whom he 

" Upon which offering they hear a noise out of 
the circle nominating such as he will have, whom 
presently they take, binding them hand and 
foot, and cast them into the circle of the fire, 
for be it the king's son he must be given if once 
named by their god. After the bodies which are 
offered are consumed in the fire and their cere- 
monies performed the men depart merrily, the 
women weeping." ' 

The Rev. Alexander Whittaker, the minister 
at Henrico, in 1613, has this to say of their re- 
ligion: "They acknowledge that there is a great 
good God, but know him not, having the eyes of 
their understanding as yet blinded; wherefore 
they serve the Devil for fear, after a most base 
manner, sacrificing sometimes, as I have heard, 
their own children to him. I have sent one 
image of their god to the council in England, 
which is painted on one side of a toadstool, 
much like unto a deformed monster. . . . The 
service of their god is answerable to^ their life, be- 

' Spelman's Relation of Virginia, pp. 25-7. 
' In conformity with. 

Religion 253 

ing performed with great fear and attention, and 
many strange, dumb shews used in the same, 
stretching forth their Umbs and straining their 
body, much Uke to the counterfeit women in 
England, who fancy themselves bewitched or 
possessed of some evil spirit."' 

Paw-co-rances in general were mentioned in 
the preceding chapter. It seems, however, that 
there was one of greater prominence and impor- 
tance than all the others. This is thus described 
by Beverley: 

"They had an altar-stone called Paw-co-rance, 
which, according to the account of it given by 
the Indians, was a solid crystal of between three 
or four cubic feet, upon which in their greatest 
solemnities, they used to sacrifice. It was at 
Ut-ta-mus-sack,' the principal temple of the 
country, and the metropolitan seat of the priests. 
They said that this stone was so clear that the 
grain of a man's skin might be seen through it, 
and so heavy that when they removed their gods 
and kings, not being able to carry it away, they 
buried it thereabouts. But the place has never 
yet been discovered."^ 

"They erect altars wherever they have any 
remarkable occasion; and because their principal 
devotion consists in sacrifice, they have a pro- 
found respect for these altars. They have one 
particular altar, to which, for some mystical 

'Purchas, vol. iv., 1771. 

^ The Indian town in Pamunkey, as it was called, that is the lower 
part of the territory between the Pamunkey and Alattapony rivers. 
3 Beverley, bk. 2, pp. lo-ii. 

254 The Forest Primeval 

reason, many of their nations pay an extra- 
ordinary veneration; of this sort was the crystal 
cube mentioned above. The Indians call this 
by the name of Paw-co-rance, from whence 
proceeds the great reverence they have for a 
small bird that uses the woods, and in their 
note continually sound that name. The bird 
flies alone, and is only heard in the twilight. 
They say this is the soul of one of their princes; 
and on that score, they would not hurt it for the 
world. But there was once a profane Indian in 
the upper parts of James River, who, after 
abundance of fears and scruples was at last 
bribed to kill one of them with his gun; but the 
Indians say he paid dear for his presumption, for 
in a few days after he was taken away, and never 
more heard of. 

"When they travel by any of these altars, 
they take great care to instruct their children 
and young people in the particular occasion and 
time of their erection, and recommend the re- 
spect which they ought to have for them; so 
that their careful observance of these traditions, 
proves as good a memorial of such antiquities, 
as any written records; especially for so long as 
the same people continue to inhabit in, or near 
the same place."' 

A presentation of the Indian tradition of 
creation and an outline of their religion was 
obtained from Jop-as-sus, the king of the Potomac 
Indians, and is given to us by Strachey: 

• Beverley, bk. 3, pp. 46-7. 

Religion 255 


"The last year 1610, about Christmas, when 
Captain Argal, was there trading with Jop-as-sus, 
the great king's brother, after many days of ac- 
quaintance with him, as the pinnace' rode before 
the town Match-o-pon-go,"" Jop-as-sus, coming 
aboard and sitting, the weather being very cold, 
by the fire, upon a hearth in the hold, with the 
Captain, one of our men was reading a Bible, 
to which the Indian gave a very attentive care, 
and looked with a very wisht eye upon him, as 
if he desired to understand what he read, where- 
upon the Captain took the book, and turned to 
the picture of the creation of the world, in the 
beginning of the book, and caused a boy, one 
Spelman, who had lived a whole year with this 
Indian king, and spoke his language, to show it 
unto him, and to interpret it in his language, 
which the boy did, and which the king seemed to 
like well of; howbeit, he bade the boy tell the 
Captain if he would hear, he would tell him the 
manner of their beginning, which was a pretty 
fabulous tale indeed. 

"'We have, said he, five gods in all; our chief 
god appears often unto us in the likeness of a 
mighty great Hare: the other four have no visible 
shape, but are indeed the four winds which keep 
the four corners of the earth, and then, with his 
hand, he seemed to quarter out the situations of 

' A small vessel rigged as a schooner, generally with two masts, 
and capable of being propelled by oars. 

' One of the many which are mentioned which cannot be located 
on the map. A town of this name was on the ocean side of North- 
ampton County. But this town must have been on the Potomac. 

256 The Forest Primeval 

the world. Our god, who takes upon him this 
shape of a Hare, conceived with himself how to 
people this great world, and with what kind of 
creatures, and it is true that at length he devised 
and made divers men and women, and made pro- 
vision for them, to be kept up yet a while in a 
great bag. Now there were certain spirits, 
which he described to be like great giants, which 
came to the Hare's dwelling-place, being towards 
the rising of the sun), and had perseverance' of 
the men and women which he had put into that 
great bag, and they would have had them to eat, 
but the Godly Hare reproved those cannibal 
spirits, and drove them away.' 

"Now if the boy had asked him of what he 
made those men and women, and what those 
spirits more particularly had been, and so had 
proceeded in some order, they should have made 
it hang together the better; but the boy was 
unwilling to question him so many things, lest 
he should offend him; only the old man went on, 
and said how that God-like Hare made the water, 
and the fish therein, and the land, and a great 
deer, which should feed upon the land; at which 
assembled the other four gods, envious hereat, 
from the east, the west, from the north and south, 
and with hunting poles killed this great deer, 
dressed him, and, after they had feasted with^ 
him, departed again, east, west, north, and south; 
at which the other god, in despite for this their 
malice to him, took all the hairs of the slain deer, 

' A following, or seeking after, per sequor. * On. 

Religion 257 

and spread them upon the earth, with many 
powerful words and charms, whereby every hair 
became a deer; and then he opened the great bag, 
wherein the men and the women were, and 
placed them upon the earth, a man and a woman 
in one country, and a man and a woman in 
another country, and so the world took his' first 
beginning of mankind. 

"The captain bade the boy ask him what he 
thought became of them after their death, to 
which he answered somewhat like as is expressed 
before of the inhabitants about us, how that 
after they are dead here, they go up to a top of a 
high tree, and there they espy a fair, plain, broad 
pathway, on both sides whereof doth grow all 
manner of pleasant fruits, as mulberries, straw- 
berries, plums, etc. In this pleasant path 
they run toward the rising of the sun, where the 
Godly Hare's house is, and in the midway they 
come to a house where a woman goddess doth 
dwell, who hath always her doors open for hos- 
pitality, and hath at all times ready dressed 
green us-kat-a-ho-men and po-ka-hich-ory, (which 
is green corn bruised and boiled, and walnuts 
beaten small, then washed from the shells with 
a quantity of water, which makes a kind of milk, 
and which they esteem an extraordinary dish), 
together with all manner of pleasant fruits, in 
a readiness to entertain all such as do travel to 
the Great Hare's house: and when they are 
well refreshed, they run in this pleasant path 


258 The Forest Primeval 

to the rising of the sun, where they find their 
forefathers hving in great pleasure, in a goodly 
field, where they do nothing but dance and sing, 
and feed on delicious fruits with that Great 
Hare, who is their great god ; and when they have 
lived there until they be stark' old men, they 
say they die there likewise by turns, and come 
into the world again. 

"Concerning further of the religion we have 
not yet learned, nor indeed shall we ever know all 
the certainty either of these their unhallowed 
mysteries, or of their further orders and policies, 
until we can make surprise of some of their 
qui-yough-qui-socks.^ " ^ 

Beverley gives us this further insight into the 
religious ideas of these people: 

"Once in my travels, in very cold weather, I 
met at an Englishman's house with an Indian 
of whom an extraordinary character had been 
given me, for his ingenuity and understanding. 
When I saw he had no other Indian with him, I 
thought I might be the more free; and therefore 
I made much of him, seating him close by a large 
fire, and giving him plenty of strong cider, which 
I hoped would make him good company, and 

"After I found him well warmed (for unless 
they be surprised some way or other, they will 
not talk freely of their religion) I asked him 
concerning their god, and what their notions of 

• Strong, hale, or hearty. ' Priests. 

J Historic of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 98-1 00. 

Religion 259 

him were? He freely told me, they believed 
God was universally beneficent, that his dwelling 
was In the heavens above, and that the influence 
of his goodness reached to the earth beneath. 
That he was incomprehensible in his excellence, 
and enjoyed all possible felicity. That his du- 
ration was eternal, his perfection boundless, and 
that he possessed everlasting indolence and ease. 

''I told him, I had heard that they worshipped 
the Devil, and asked why they did not rather 
worship God, whom they had so high an opin- 
ion of, and who would give them all good things, 
and protect them from any mischief that the 
Devil could do them? 

"To this his answer was, that, 'tis true, God is 
the giver of all good things, but they flow natur- 
ally and promiscuously from him; that they are 
showered down upon all men indifferently with- 
out distinction; that God does not trouble him- 
self with the impertinent affairs of men, nor is 
concerned at what they do: but leaves them to 
make the most of their free will, and to secure as 
many as they can, of the good things that flow 
from him. That therefore it was to no purpose, 
either to fear or worship him: but, on the con- 
trary, if they did not pacify the evil spirit 
and make him propitious, he would take away, 
or spoil all those good things that God had given, 
and ruin their health, their peace and their 
plenty, by sending war, plague and famine among 
them; for, said he, this Evil Spirit is always 
busying himself with our affairs, and frequently 

26o The Forest Primeval 

visiting us, being present in the air, in the thunder 
and in the storms. He told me farther, that he 
expected adoration and sacrifice from them, on 
pain of his displeasure; and that therefore they 
thought it convenient to make their court to him. 

"I then asked him concerning the image which 
they worship in their qui-oc-ca-san ; and assured 
him that it was a dead, insensible log, equipt 
with a bundle of clouts,' a mere helpless thing 
made by men, that could neither hear, see, nor 
speak; and that such a stupid thing could no 
ways hurt, or help them. 

"To this he answered very unwillingly, and 
with much hesitation; however, he at last de- 
livered himself in these broken and imperfect 
sentences; it is the priests, they make the people 
believe — and — here he paused a little and then 
repeated to me, that it was the priests — and 
then gave me hopes that he would have said 
something more, but a qualm ^ crossed his 
conscience, and hindered him from making any 
farther confession. 

"The priests and conjurers have a great sway 
in every nation. Their words are looked upon 
as oracles, and consequently are of great weight 
among the common people. They perform 
their adorations and conjurations, in the general 
language before spoke of, ^ as the Catholics of 
all nations do their Mass in the Latin. 

' Worthless pieces of cloth. * Scruple. 

^ That of the Oc-ca-nee-ches, mentioned in Chapter XIX. of this 

Religion 261 

"They teach, that the souls of men survive 
their bodies, and that those who have done well 
here, enjoy most transporting pleasures in their 
Elizium hereafter; that this Elizium is stored 
with the highest perfection of all their earthly 
pleasures; namely with plenty of all sorts of 
game, for hunting, fishing and fowling; that it is 
blest with the most charming women, which 
enjoy an eternal bloom, and have an universal 
desire to please. That it is delivered from ex- 
cesses of cold or heat, and flourishes with an 
everlasting spring. But that, on the contrary, 
those who are wicked, and live scandalously 
here, are condemned to a filthy, stinking lake 
after death, that continually burns with flames, 
that never extinguish; where they are persecuted 
and tormented, day and night, with furies in the 
shape of old women."' 

Another view entertained by the Indians on 
this subject is presented to us by Jones. He 

"Upon enquiry, we have from them these 
their notions of the state of the dead. 

"They believe that they go to Ma-hom-ny 
that lives beyond the sun, if they have not been 
wicked, nor like dogs nor wolves, that is, not 
unchaste, then they believe that Ma-hom-ny 
sends them to a plentiful country abounding 
with fish, flesh and fowls, the best of their kind, 
and easy to be caught; but if they have been 
naughty then he sends them to a poor, barren 

' Beverley, book 3, pp. 32-4. 

262 The Forest Primeval 

country, where be many wolves and bears, with 
a few nimble deer, swift fish and fowls, difficult 
to be taken; and when killed, being scarce any- 
thing but skin and bones. " ' 

"They use many divinations and inchant- 
ments, and frequently offer burnt sacrifice to the 
Evil Spirit. The people annually present their 
first fruits of every season and kind, namely, 
of birds, beasts, fish, fruits, plants, roots, and of 
all other things, which they esteem either of 
profit or pleasure to themselves. They repeat 
their offerings as frequently as they have great 
successes in their wars, or their fishing, fowling 
or hunting."^ 

"The first deer they kill after they are in 
season, they lay privately on the head of a tree 
near the place where they killed it, and they say 
no good luck Vv^ill befall them that year if they 
do not offer the first of everything. " ^ 

Another favorite object of sacrifice was to- 
bacco, or up-po-woc. Hariot tells us that: 

"This up-po-woc is of so precious estimation 
amongst them, that they think their gods are 
marvelously delighted therewith: whereupon 
sometime they make hallowed fires, and cast 
some of the powder therein for a sacrifice: 
being in a storm upon the waters, to pacify their 
gods, they cast some up into the air and into the 
water: so a weir for fish being newly set up, they 

' Jones's Present State of Virginia, p. 1 6. 

^ Beverley, bk. 3, p. 34. 

3 Glover's Account of Virginia, p. 24. 

Religion 263 

cast some therein and Into the air; also after an 
escape of danger, they cast some Into the air 
likewise: but all done with strange gestures, 
stamping, and staring up Into the heavens, utter- 
ing therewithal and chattering strange words and 

"The Indians offer sacrifice almost upon every 
new occasion; as when they travel or begin a 
long journey, they burn tobacco Instead of In- 
cense, to the sun, to bribe him to send them fair 
weather, and a prosperous voyage. When they 
cross any great water, or violent fresh or torrent, 
they thfow tobacco, puc-coon,^ peak,^ or some 
other valuable thing, that they happen to have 
about them, to entreat the spirit presiding there 
to grant them a safe passage. It Is called a 
fresh,'* when after very great rains, or (as we 
suppose) after a great thaw of the snow and ice 
lying upon the mountains, to the northwest, the 
water descends. In such abundance Into the 
rivers, that they overflow the banks which bound 
their streams at other times. 

"Likewise when the Indians return from war, 
from hunting, from great journeys, or the like, 
they offer some proportion of their spoils, of 
their chlefest tobacco, furs and paint, as also 
the fat, and choice bits of their game. 

"I never could learn that they had any cer- 

' Hakluyt, vol. ii., p. 339. 

' The root from which a red dye was made, the bloodroot. 

3 Money or ornament made of shells. 

< Freshet. 

264 The Forest Primeval 

tain time or set days for their solemnities: but 
they have appointed feasts that happen accord- 
ing to the several seasons. They solemnize a 
day for the plentiful coming of their wild fowl, 
such as geese, ducks, teal, etc., for the returns of 
their hunting seasons, and for the ripening of 
certain fruits: but the greatest annual feast they 
have Is at the time of their corn-gathering, at 
which they revel several days together. To 
these they universally contribute, as they do to 
the gathering in the corn. On this occasion 
they have their greatest variety of pastimes, and 
more especially of their war-dances, and heroic 
songs; in which they boast, that their corn being 
now gathered, they have store enough for their 
women and children; and have nothing to do but 
to go to war, travel, and to seek out for new 

"The Indians have posts fixed round their 
qui-oc-ca-san, ^ which have men's faces carved 
upon them, and are painted. They are like- 
wise set up round some of their other celebrated 
places, and make a circle for them to dance 
about, on certain solemn occasions. They very 
often set up pyramidical stones and pillars, which 
they color with puc-coon,^ and other sorts of 
paint, and which they adorn with peak, roenoke,"* 
etc. To these they pay all outward signs of 
worship and devotion; not as to God, but as 
they are hieroglyphlcks of the permanency and 

• Beverley, book 3, pp. 42-3. ' House of religious worship. 

3 The bloodroot. ■* A kind of shell money. 

Religion 265 

immutability of the deity; because these, both 
for figure and substance, are, of all sublunary 
bodies, the least subject to decay or change; 
they also for the same reason keep baskets of 
stones in their cabins. Upon this account too, 
they offer sacrifice to running streams, which, 
by the perpetuity of their motion, typify the 
eternity of God."' 

We are told by Beverley that there was near 
the James a flat rock upon which there was a 
depression resembling a gigantic footprint. This 
was an object of the most reverential regard by 
the Indians, who believed it to be an impression 
caused by the footstep of a god, as he passed 
through that country. ^ 

An Indian legend is preserved in connection 
with a little sheet of water on the Eastern Shore 
of Maryland, about a mile from Betterton. It 
is this water from which the town of Still Pond 
gets its name. 

The following is an account we have seen: 

"This pond is so called because there has 
never been seen a ripple upon its surface, no 
matter how hard the wind blows, nor has its 
surface ever been coated with ice. With the 
mercury at six degrees below zero, not a particle 
of ice has been seen. 

"Another interesting fact about this body of 
water is that, although only about twenty feet 
across in any direction it has never been fath- 

' Beverley, bk. 3, p. 46. 'Ibid., p. 44. 

266 The Forest Primeval 

"Still Pond, one of the mysteries of the 
Eastern Shore, was an object of veneration 
among the Indians of the peninsula. So deep 
as never to be sounded, they beheved its waters 
ran down in the earth to supply the happy 
hunting grounds of their dead. Long before 
the first European settler had set foot upon the 
shore of the Chesapeake, the Indians from all 
parts of the peninsula, once a year, during the 
full moon of September, assembled by the side of 
the pond to worship the Man-i-tou and to pray 
for the return of their mighty chief, who had, 
they believed, fallen into the water and sunk 
from their sight. " 

According to the beliefs of the Cher-o-kees, the 
Great Spirit of Evil had his throne among the 
peaks and precipices of Whiteside Mountain, one 
of the loftiest in the Co-wee' range, near its 
southern terminus. "There in a moss-grown 
inclosure, curved by nature to form the seg- 
ment of a circle, and walled in by stupendous 
rocks which rise to a perpendicular height of 
eighteen hundred feet, he held his court; but, 
casting aside his state, he occasionally walked 
abroad upon the earth, and then, as he strode 
in the darkness from peak to peak, leaving upon 
the bald mountain tops the print of his awful 
footsteps, he spoke to the Red Man in the storm 
and in the thunder."'' 

' This range of mountains, a part of the southern extension of the 
Blue Ridge, is in the extreme western part of North CaroHna, and 
forms the boundary between Swain and Macon, and Macon and 
Jackson counties. ^ Kirke's Rear Guard of the Revolution, p. i8. 



AROUND the commanding figure of Pow- 
hatan centers the greatest interest, as 
the head and embodiment of the Indian 
power in Virginia, at the time of the settlement. 
Strachey gives us this account of his personal 

"He is a goodly old man, not yet shrinking, 
though well beaten with many cold and stormy 
winters, in which he hath been patient of many 
necessities and attempts of fortune to make his 
name and family great. He is supposed to be 
little less than eighty years old, I dare not say 
how much more; others say he is of a tall stature 
and clean limbs, of a sad aspect, round fat 
visaged, with gray hair, but plain and thin, 
hanging upon his broad shoulders; some few 
hairs upon his chin, and so on his upper lip: he 
hath been a strong and able savage, sinewy, and 
of a daring spirit, vigilant, ambitious, subtle to 
enlarge his dominions."' 

We are told that he was born on the north 
side of the James River, then known by the name 

' Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 49. 

268 The Forest Primeval 

of the Indian, instead of the EngHsh, king, just 
below the falls, near Richmond, in the country 
inhabited by the Powhatan tribe of Indians. 

It seems that he did not naturally belong to 
the Algonquin race of Indians, over a portion of 
which he ruled. We have this interesting state- 
ment presented about his origin by Hamor, who 
says, ''Powhatan's father was driven from the 
West Indies by the Spaniards."' Beverley 
says, "0-pe-chan-ca-nough was said to have been 
a prince of a foreign nation and came to Virginia 
a great way from the southwest, and by their 
[the Indians'] account we suppose him to have 
come from the Spanish Indians, somewhere 
near Mexico, or the mines of St. Barbe. " Smith 
says, "0-pe-chan-ca-nough was a brother of 
Powhatan," which Beverley doubts.^ 

How his father, if himself a newcomer, be- 
came possessed of the rulership over this 
country, we do not know, but from him Pow- 
hatan inherited the sovereign power over the 
countries of Powhatan, Ar-ro-ha-teck, Appomat- 
tox, Pa-mun-key, Yough-ta-mund, and Mat-ta- 

Under Powhatan were some thirty or forty 
chiefs or kings, appointed by him, who had the 
immediate rule over separate tribes inhabiting 

' Hamor's Discourse, p. 13. 

^ Beverley, History of Virginia, book i, p. 51. This view is held 
by Wertenbaker in his work, Virginia under the Stuarts, p. 89. He 
says that 0-pe-chan-ca-nough having been defeated by the Spaniards 
marched all the way from the far southwest, and united his people 
with the tribes under Powhatan. -^ Stith, 53. 

Powhatan and Wingina 269 

definite areas, in which they had their towns. 
These tribal territories were probably about the 
size of the smallest of our counties. These 
chiefs were called wer-6-ances. 

Strachey says: "The word wer-6-ance, which 
we call and conster' for a king, is a common 
word, whereby they call all commanders for 
they have but few words in their language, 
and but few occasions to use any officers more 
than one commander, which commonly they call 
wer-6-ance. "^ 

The name Powhatan was derived from the 
country Powhatan, wherein he was born, which 
is below the falls. "His own people sometimes 
called him Ot-tan-i-ack, sometimes Mam-a-nat- 
o-wick, which signifies 'great king'; but his 
proper right name, which they salute him with 
(himself in presence) is Wa-hun-sen-a-cawh. "^ 

The extent of Powhatan's dominions is thus 
defined by Strachey: 

"The greatness and bounds of whose empire, 
by reason of his powerfulness and ambition in 
his youth, hath larger limits than ever had any 
of his predecessors in former times, for he seems 
to command south and north from the Man-go- 
a-ges and Chaw-o-noaks bordering upon Ro- 
anoke, and the Old Virginia,"^ to Tock-wogh, a 
town palisadoed, standing at the north end of 
the bay,^ in forty degrees or thereabouts^: 

' Construe. * Historic of Travaile into Virginia, p. 51. 

3 Ihid., p. 48. * The Roanoke Island settlement. 

s The Chesapeake Bay. « Of north latitude. 

270 The Forest Primeval 

southwest to An-o-eg, whose houses are built 
as ours," ten days distant from us, from whence 
those Wer-6-ances sent unto him of their com- 
modities; as We-i-nock a servant, in whom 
Powhatan reposed much trust, would tell our 
elder planters, and could repeat many words of 
their language he had learned among them in his 
employment thither for his king, and whence he 
often returned, full of presents, to Powhatan; 
west to Mon-a-has-sa-nugh, which stands at the 
foot of the mountains^; nor-west to the borders 
of Mas-sa-wo-meck and Boc-oo-taw-won-ough, 
his enemies; nor-east and by east to Ac-co-ha- 
nock, Ac-cow-mack, and some other petty 
nations, lying on the east side of our bay.^ 

"But^ the countries Powhatan, Ar-ro-ha-tock, 
Ap-pa-mat-uck, Pa-mun-key, Yough-ta-mund, 
and Mat-ta-pam-i-ent, which are said to come 
unto him by inheritance, all the rest of the terri- 
tories before named, and which are all adjoining 
to that river whereon we are seated,^ they 
report (as is likewise before remembered) to 
have been either by force subdued unto him, or 
through fear yielded: cruel he hath been, and 
quarrelous as well with his own wer-6-ances for 
trifles, and that to strike a terror and awe into 
them of his power and condition, as also with 

' These Indians were possibly taught to build such houses by- 
survivors of the Roanoke Island settlement. 

> The Blue Ridge. 

3 These boundaries make Powhatan's kingdom surround the 
Chesapeake Bay, and include the land on the west as far as the Blue 
Ridge. ■< Except. « The James. 

Powhatan and Wingina 271 

his neighbors in his younger days, though now 
dehghted in security and pleasure, and therefore 
stands upon reasonable conditions of peace with 
all the great and absolute wer-6-ances about 
him, and is likewise more quietly settled amongst 
his own."' 

As to his place of residence we are told: 
"He hath divers seats or houses; his chief, 
when we came into the country, was upon Pa- 
mun-key River,^ on the north side or Pembrook^ 
side, called Wer-o-w6-co-m6-co, which, by inter- 
pretation, signifies kings' house; howbeit, not 
liking to neighbor so near us, that house being 
within some fifteen or sixteen miles where he saw 
we purposed to hold ourselves, and from whence, 
in six or seven hours, we were able to visit him, 
he removed, and ever since hath most kept at a 
place in the desert called Or-a-paks,'* at the top 
of the river Chick-a-ham-a-ni-a, between Yough- 
ta-mund and Powhatan. " ^ 

We know several members of his family circle. 
Of his own generation, we find that he had four 
brothers, 0-pit-cha-pan, afterwards called Toy- 
a-tan, who succeeded him in the chief power, 
after his retirement, and who was lame and 

' Historic of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 48-50. • The York. 

^ The first settlers took this way of naming the sides of the rivers. 
In this manner the north side of the James was called Popham side, 
in honor of Chief Justice Popham, and the south side, Salisbury side, 
in honor of the Earl of Salisbury. 

^ The site of this town would be in Hanover County. 

s That is, between the Pamunkey and James rivers. Historie of 
Travaile into Virginia, p. 49. 

2^2 The Forest Primeval 

decrepit, ' 0-pe-chan-ca-nough and Ke-ca-tough, 
who had villages upon the Pamunkey River, and 
Jop-as-sus, King of the Potomacs^ ; and two sisters, 
who had two daughters.^ Whether 0-pe-chan- 
ca-nough were really a brother is now in doubt. 
As for wives, we are told that he had a large 
number of them. When first seen by the Eng- 
lish, he had his "girl wives" around him. We 
know the name of one of his wives, 0-ho-lasc, 
who was regent over the Tap-pa-han-nas, during 
the minority of her son, and the names of twelve 
other of his favorite wives preserved for us by 
Strachey, who derived his information from an 
Indian named Kemps. They were: 

Ask-e-tois-ke ; 
Am-a-pot-ois-ke ; 
Ot-to-pom-tacks ; 
At-to-so-mis-ke ; 
Pon-nois-ke ; 
Ap-po-mo-sis-cut ; 
Or-tough-nois-ke ; 
0-wer-ough-wouth ; 
Ot-ter-mis-ke ; 

As for children, we are told that he had, living 
when Strachey wrote, twenty sons and ten 
daughters, "besides a young one by Win-gan-us- 

' Stith's History of Virginia, p. 139. 

' Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 98. 

3 Smith, vol. i., pp. 143, 208; Stith, pp. 154, 155. 

Powhatan and Wingina 273 

ke, Ma-chumps, his sister, and a great darhng of 
the king's, and besides young Pocahontas, a 
daughter of his, using sometime to our fort in 
times past, now married to a private captain, 
called Ko-co-um, some two years since. 

"As he is weary of his women, he bestoweth 
them on those that best deserve them at his 

Among this large number of his children, we 
know individually of these: 

Taux-Powhatan, who has been already men- 
tioned as the ruler over the Powhatan Indians. 
His name and position would indicate that he 
was the eldest son. 

Po~chins, who has been already mentioned, as 
the chief of the Ke-cough-tans. 

Na-mon-tack, a son who was carried over as a 
little boy to England, and presented to James I. 
He had been instructed that when he came into 
the presence of the King, he should not take off 
his hat, remaining covered on account of his 
own royal descent. ^ 

On attempting to return to Virginia, the 
vessel he was in was wrecked on the Bermudas. 
There was another Indian among the passengers. 
Ma-chumps. While the shipwrecked crew were 
in the Bermudas, we are told that "upon some 
difference, Ma-chumps slew Na-mon-tack; and 
having made a hole to bury him, because it was 
too short, he cut off his legs, and laid them by 

' History of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 53-4. 
' Brown's Genesis of the United States, p. 172. 

274 The Forest Primeval 

him. Neither was the murder ever discovered, 
before he got to Virginia. " ' 

Pocahontas, which means "Bright Stream 
between two Hills. " She is described in glowing 
colors by Smith, as the "Nonpareil" of her 
father's country. ^ 

Another daughter, possibly, the one named 
Cle-o-pat-re, whom the English also tried to cap- 
ture at the time Pocahontas was taken, and whom 
they wished to marry to some Englishman. 

Ta-hah-coo-pe, who, as an infant, was ap- 
pointed by his father chief of the Tap-pa-han-nas, 
his mother, 0-ho-lasc, acting as regent during his 

Nan-ta-quaus, a son already mentioned, whom 
Captain Smith described as "the most manliest, 
comeliest, boldest spirit he ever saw in a salvage," 
and, lastly, 

Mat-a-chan-na, a daughter, who was the wife 
of Tom-a-com-a.^ 

One of Powhatan's councilors, this son-in- 
law, named Ul-ta-mat-a-ma-kin, and often called 
also Tom-a-com-o, went over to England with 
Dale, and was a frequent guest at Master Doctor 
Goldstone's in 1616. Here, we are told, that, 
in order no doubt to entertain his host, "he 
sang and danced his diabolical measures and 
discoursed of his country and religion. " ^ He 
is represented as being a hardened sinner. 

' Stith's History of Virginia, p. 115. ' True Relation, p. 73. 

3 Stith's History oj Virginia, p. 143. 
"Purchas, vol. iv., p. 1774. 

Powhatan and Wingina 275 

We also know the name of one of his numerous 
brothers-in-law, 0-pa-chis-co, he who is spoken 
of as the old uncle of Pocahontas, who attended 
her wedding. We infer that he was her mother's 
brother, as his name is not given among the 
brothers of Powhatan. 

The domestic arrangements of the royal house- 
hold are thus described by Captain Smith, and 
give us some idea of the regular arrangements 
which existed for comfort and safety: 

"About his person ordinarily attendeth a 
guard of forty or fifty of the tallest men his 
country doth afford. 

" Every night upon the four quarters of his 
house are four sentinels, each from other a slight 
shoot, and at every half-hour one from the corps 
dii guard doth hollow, shaking his lips with his 
finger between them; unto whom every sentinel 
doth answer round from his stand: if any fail, 
they presently send forth an officer that beateth 
him extremely. 

"A mile from Or-a-paks in a thicket of wood, 
he hath a house in which he keepeth his kind of 
treasure, as skins, copper, pearls, and beads, which 
he storeth up against the time of his death and 
burial. Here also is his store of red paint for 
ointment, bows, and arrows, targets and clubs. 
This house is fifty or sixty yards in length, fre- 
quented only by priests. At the four corners of 
this house stand four images as sentinels, one of 
a dragon, another a bear, the third like a leopard, 
and the fourth like a giant-like man, all made 

276 The Forest Primeval 

evil-favouredly, ' according to their best work- 

"He hath as many women as he will, whereof 
when he lieth on his bed, one sitteth at his head, 
and another at his feet, but when he sitteth, one 
sitteth on his right hand and another on his 
left. When he dineth or suppeth, one of his 
women before and after meat bringeth him water 
in a wooden platter to wash his hands. Another 
waiteth with a bunch of feathers to wipe them 
instead of a towel, and the feathers when he hath 
wiped are dried again. " ^ 

In describing the power he exercised over the 
subordinate chiefs, and their obedience to, and 
fear of him, he says: 

"They all know their several lands, and habi- 
tations, and limits, to fish, foul, or hunt in, but 
they hold all of their great wer-6-ance Powhatan, 
unto whom they pay tribute of skins, beads, 
copper, pearls, deer, turkeys, wild beasts, and 
corn. What he commandeth they dare not dis- 
obey in the least thing. It is strange to see 
with what great fear and adoration all these 
people do obey this Powhatan, for at his feet 
they present whatsoever he commandeth, and 
at the least frown of his brow, their greatest 
spirits will tremble with fear: and no marvel, 
for he is very terrible and tyrannous in punish- 
ing such as offend him. For example, he caused 
certain malefactors to be bound hand and 

' With forbidding countenances. 
* Smith, vol. i., pp. 142-3. 

Powhatan and Wingina 2']^ 

foot, then having of many fires gathered great 
store of burning coals, they rake these coals 
round in the form of a cockpit, and in the 
midst they cast the offenders to broil to death. 
Sometimes he causeth the heads of them that 
offend him to be laid upon the altar or sac- 
rificing stone, and one with clubs beats out their 

"When he would punish any notorious enemy 
or trespasser, he causeth him to be tied to a tree, 
and with mussel-shells or reeds the executioner 
cutteth off his joints one after another, ever 
casting what is cut off into the fire: then doth 
he proceed with shells and reeds to case' the 
skin from his head and face; after which they 
rip up his belly, tear out his bowels, and so burn 
him with the tree and all. Thus themselves 
reported, that they executed an Englishman, one 
George Cawson, whom the women enticed up 
from the barge unto their houses, at a place 
called Ap-po-cant."* Howbeit, his ordinary cor- 
rection is to have an offender, whom he will 
only punish and not put to death, to be beaten 
with cudgels as the Turks do. We have seen a 
man kneeling on his knees, and, at Powhatan's 
command, two men have beaten him on the bare 
skin till the skin has been all bollen^ and blistered 
and all on a goar blood, "^ and till he hath fallen 
senseless in a swoon, and yet never cried, com- 

' Remove the case or skin. 

' A town in what is now Hanover County, on the Chickahominy 

J Swollen. 4 All covered with gore or blood. 

278 The Forest Primeval 

plained, nor seemed to ask pardon, for that they 
seldom do." ' 

Strachey maintained that the proper policy 
for the English was to make friends and allies 
of the enemies of Powhatan. In discussing this 
he says: 

"There Is no man among themselves so savage, 
or not capable of so much sense, but that he 
will approve our cause, when he shall be made to 
understand that Powhatan hath slaughtered so 
many of our nation without offense given, and 
such as were seated far from him, and in the 
territory of those wer-6-ances which did in no sort 
depend on him or acknowledge him; but it hath 
been Powhatan's great care to keep us, by all 
means, from the acquaintance of those nations 
that border and confront him, for besides his 
knowledge how easily and willingly his enemies 
will be drawn upon him by the least counte- 
nance and encouragement from us, he doth, by 
keeping us from trading with them, monopolize 
all the copper brought into Virginia by the Eng- 

"And whereas the English are now content 
to receive in exchange a few measures of corn 
for a great deal of that metal (valuing It accord- 
ing to the extreme price it bears with them, not 
to the estimation it hath with us), Powhatan 
doth again vent some small quantity thereof to 
his neighbor nations for one hundred times the 

' Smith, vol. i., pp. 143-4; Historic of Travaile into Virginia, 
p. 52. 

Powhatan and Wingina 279 

value, reserving, notwithstanding, for himself a 
plentiful quantity to levy men withal when he 
shall find cause to use them against us; for the be- 
fore-remembered wer-6-ance of Pas-pa-hegh did 
once wage fourteen or fifteen wer-6-ances to assist 
him in the attempt upon the fort of Jamestown, 
for one copper plate promised to each wer-6- 
ance." ^ 

Speaking of the country, and the people ruled 
by Powhatan, Smith says: "The land is not 
populous, for the men be few; their far greater 
number Is of women and children. Within 60 
miles of James Town, there are about some 5000 
people, but of able men fit for their wars scarce 
1500. To nourish so many together they have 
yet no means, because they make so small a 
benefit of their land, be It never so fertile. Six 
or seven hundred have been the most that hath 
been seen together when they gathered them- 
selves to have surprised m^e at Pa-mun-key, 
having but fifteen to withstand the worst of 
their fury. "^ 

That this estimate was far below the real state 
of the case, is clear from the account given by 
Glover, who says that at the first coming of the 
English, "divers towns had two or three thou- 
sand bowmen in them. "^ Any one of these larger 
towns, therefore, contained twice as many war- 
riors as Smith allowed for all of them put together. 

' Historie of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 103-4. 

» Smith, vol. i., p. 129. 

3 Account of Virginia, p. 22. 

28o The Forest Primeval 

The map of the country gives the names and 
locations of over one hundred of these Indian 
settlements. One conclusion, therefore, is, that 
the Indian forces, instead of one thousand 
five hundred, numbered many thousands of 

Such were the surroundings of Powhatan. 
His attitude towards the English would naturally 
enough be that of bitter hostility, as strangers 
and intruders, but this feeling was heightened 
by a prophecy which had come to his ears. 
Strachey says: 

"It is not long since that his priests told him 
how that from the Chesapeake Bay a nation 
should arise which should dissolve and give end 
to his empire, for which, not many years since 
(perplexed with this devilish oracle, and divers 
understanding thereof), according to the ancient 
and gentile customs, he destroyed and put to 
sword all such who might lie under any doubtful 
construction of the said prophecy, as all the in- 
habitants, the wer-6-ance and his subjects of that 
province, and so remain all the Ches-si-o-pe-ians 
at this day, and for this cause, extinct. 

"Some of the inhabitants, again, have not 
spared to give us to understand, how they have 
a second prophecy likewise amongst them, that 
twice they should give overthrow and dishearten 
the attempters, and such strangers as should 
invade their territories or labor to settle a plan- 
tation among them, but the third time they 

Powhatan and Wingina 281 

themselves should fall into their subjection, and 
under their conquest; and sure in the observa- 
tion of our settlement, and the manner thereof 
hitherto, we may well suppose that this their 
apprehension may fully touch at us. I leave to 
express the particulars unto another place, 
albeit, let me say here, strange whispers (indeed) 
and secret at this hour run among these people 
and possess them with amazement, what may 
be the issue of these strange preparations landed 
in their coasts, and yearly supplied with fresher 

" Every news and blast of rumor strikes 
them, to which they open their ears wide, and 
keep their eyes waking, with good espial upon 
everything that stirs; the noise of our drums, of 
our shrill trumpets and great ordinance, terrifies 
them, so as they startle at the report of them, 
how far soever from the reach of danger. Sus- 
picions have bred strange fears amongst them, 
and those fears create as strange constructions, 
those constructions, therefore, beget strong 
watch and guard, especially about their great 
King, who thrusts forth trusty scouts and care- 
ful sentinels, as before mentioned, which reach 
even from his own court down almost to our 
palisado gates, which answer one another duly. 
Many things (whilst they observe us) are suffered 
amiss among themselves, who were wont to be 
so servilly fearful to trespass against their cus- 
toms, as it was a chief point of their religion not 
to break in any, and all this, and more than this. 

282 The Forest Primeval 

is thus with them, whilst the great tyrant himself 
nor his priests are now confident in their wonted 
courses." ' 

It Is worthy of observation that this prophecy 
of the Indian priests came true. The first at- 
tempt, under Sir Walter Raleigh, failed. The 
second attempt, under the King, failed. It was 
the third attempt, at the head of which was 
Lord De la Warr, representing the Virginia Com- 
pany, which established the Colony, and over- 
threw the Indian power. 

The country just to the south of Virginia, where 
the great fact of the permanent settlement was 
to be finally worked out, was the scene of the 
first attempts to plant the English Protestant 
Colony in the New World. 

It was in the part of the world now known as 
North Carolina, but then Virginia, where the 
attempt which failed took place. This country 
was presided over by Win-gi-na, who bore the 
same relation to It that Powhatan bore to the 
portion of the continent In which the settlement 
was ultimately established. 

At the time of the arrival of the English under 
Captains Amadas and Barlow, he was sick, hav- 
ing been severely wounded In a fight with the 
king of the next country. 

He was then at the chief town of the country, 
about six miles from Roanoke Island, and the 
first voyagers did not see him at all. 

' Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. loi.. 

Powhatan and Winsfina 283 


At the time of the invasion he was in league 
with two other kings, Po-o-nens and Men-a-to- 
non, against their mortal enemies Pin-ma-cum, 
king of Pom-ou-ik, and the king of New-si-ok. 
Pom-ou-ik seems to have been a part of, if not 
coincident with, the territory of Se-co-tan, that is, 
the land between the Pamlico and Neuse rivers, 
while New-si-ok lay across the Neuse, to the 

One of his brothers was Gran-ge-nim-e-o. It 
was this brother who the day after the first 
contact between the Roanoke Island settlers and 
the natives took place, came with his forty at- 
tendants to visit the English in their shipG. 

Later he visited them again, bringing his wife, 
daughter, and two or three children. His wife 
was always accompanied by forty or fifty other 

His house is mentioned as containing nine 
apartments, and built of cedar. 

Captain Ralph Lane tells us that Win-gi-na, 
upon the death of his brother Gran-ge-nim-e-o, 
took the name of Pem-is-a-pan. Under this 
name he is generally referred to in the account 
of the Roanoke settlement. 

Like 0-pe-chan-ca-nough he planned the utter 
and sudden extermination of the white men, and, 
like him, he met his death at their hands. 0-pe- 
chan-ca-nough's two plots were partly carried 
out; but, Pem-is-a-pan's was nipped in the bud, 
and he and his followers, instead of Lane and 
his associates, were killed. 

284 The Forest Primeval 

Powhatan, having as much as possible kept 
himself aloof from the white man, died a natural 
death. The closing scene In Pem-Is-a-pan's his- 
tory Is that of a white man coming out of the 
woods with the head of the Indian king in his 

Though such was the tragic fate of Pem-is-a- 
pan, his successors succeeded In repelling the in- 
vasion and finally exterminated the first of the 
English; while Powhatan's kingdom passed under 
their dominion. 



ONE of the causes to which is attributed the 
conquest of the country inhabited by 
several thousand Indian warriors by the 
white settlers, weak and divided as they often 
were, was the confusion of tongues which pre- 
vailed in the forest. There was no written 
language. The Indians lacked the stability and 
expansion which that would have afforded to 
any leading dialect. The tribes spoke their own 
languages, which differed widely, so widely, it is 
said, that often those of one village could not 
understand the inhabitants of another living 
only a few miles away. 

This was a serious impediment to concerted 
action to unite and crush the invaders; and to 
it, possibly more than to any other one thing, is 
due the fact that they were not destroyed. The 
Indians were divided by their languages, and 
divided they were conquered. 

Beverley, says, however, that there was not 

entirely wanting a means of communication 

between them, but that there existed a sort of 

general language understood by the chief men of 


286 The Forest Primeval 

many nations, as Latin was formerly. His words 
are as follows: 

"These Indians have no sort of letters to 
express their words by, but when they would 
communicate anything, that cannot be delivered 
by message, they do it by a sort of hieroglyphic, 
or representation of birds, beasts, or other things, 
showing their different meaning, by the various 
forms described, and by the different position of 
the figures. 

"Their language differs very much as anciently 
in the several parts of Britain; so that nations, 
at a moderate distance, do not understand one 
another. However, they have a sort of general 
language, like what Lahontan calls the Algonkine, 
which is understood by the chief men of many 
nations, as Latin is in most parts of Europe and 
Lingua Franca' quite through the Levant. 

"The general language here used is said to be 
that of the Oc-ca-nee-ches, though they have 
been but a small nation, ever since those parts 
were known to the English: but in what this 
language may differ from that of the Algonkines, 
I am not able to determine."^ 

In considering the language of the Indians one 
is apt to be struck by the length of their words 
and the difficulty of pronouncing them. Un- 
broken into syllables many are practically 
unpronounceable. Most of such long words 
as were contained in the authorities from which 
the list herein given is compiled, are omitted. 

' French. * Beverley, book 3, pp. 23-4. 

Some Indian Words 287 

They are often of things or abstractions of less 
importance and interest than the shorter or 
easier words, representing simpler ideas. But 
the Indian words in general are long. Words 
of one syllable, such as our language abounds in, 
are hardly to be met with. As the accent is not 
marked, the correct sounding of these words is 
of course uncertain, at best, but the pronuncia- 
tion of such of them as are familiar to us has 
been the guide to the plan which has been adopted 
of breaking these words up into their syllables, 
so that an attempt at least may be made to 
pronounce them. 

The principal authority relied upon is the dic- 
tionary of the Indian language given in Strachey's 
Historie of Travaile ijito Virginia. '^ We have 
also a short list given by Smith, ^ and other words 
have been gleaned from Beverley. 

Glover also speaks of this diversity of language 
and says: *' Almost every town differs in lan- 
guage, and yet not any of their languages copious ; 
as may be seen by their frequent expressing their 
meaning to each other by signs. "^ That is, 
that even those who spoke the same dialect 
lacked words to express many of their thoughts, 
and had to make themselves understood by 
signs, there being no words in their language to 
express the ideas. 

The great length of the Indian words, belong- 
ing as they do to a rude, primitive tongue, is in 

' Beginning at p. 183. ' Vol. i., p. 147. 

5 Account oj Virginia, p. 25. 

288 The Forest Primeval 

harmony with a general law which obtains in the 
development of languages. Keightley says that : 
*'It is a fact, well known to philologists, that the 
earlier the condition of a language is, the longer 
are its words and the more numerous its forma- 
tive syllables. " ' 

As there is no Indian literature, the knowledge 
of these words cannot be put to any practical 
use in reading any works in that language; and 
as there are no longer Indians or any one else 
who now uses this language, they cannot be 
made use of in speaking to any one. But still 
they have an interest and value of their own, as 
a part of the thought and life of a race of human 
beings who once lived where we now live, and 
who interpreted the scenes around them, and 
the things of life, and communicated the thoughts 
of the heart by the use of the words which are 
here recorded. 

What we have here first to say, let us call 


The Indian was a child of nature. His sur- 
roundings were such as he found them given by 
the Creator unchanged by man. His life was 
spent under the broad blue canopy of Heaven, 
and all his occupations and his pleasures were 
interwoven with the forest, vocal with the song 
of birds, and with the streams reflecting the 
bright rays of the sun, and teeming with all its 

' Mythology of Greece and Italy, p. 15. 

Some Indian Words 289 

varied forms of life. For all these things the 
Indian had their several names. 

Let us imagine an Indian leaving his house 
before daybreak, going out on a fishing 

Looking upon the created universe around 
him, the object upon which he stood, the world 
itself, he called pam-ah-saiv-uh. 

Above his head stretching out into infinity 
was o-sies, the heavens. 

In contrast to it was the earth, as-pam-u. 

As he journeys toward the place he is seeking, 
kes-haw-teuh, the light, increases; pap-a-souh, 
the sunrise, is at hand, and soon above the water, 
sac-qua-han, appears the glorious orb of day, to 
him an object of divine worship, kes-kow-ghe, 
the sun, shines forth in dazzling splendor. 

Across the waves of the sea, a-quas-kaw-wans, 
its rays are reflected; day, raw-co-sough, has 
dispelled the darkness of night, tap-a-coh, and 
the objects of creation stand revealed. 

Before him is the sea, i-a-pam. Around him 
is the air, ra-ras-can. Above him is the blue, 
o-sa-ih, sky, ar-ro-koth, in which float mam-ma- 
um, the clouds, impelled by rowh-sun-much, a 
gentle wind. Behind him is the forest, mus-ses. 

At his feet is the sand of the shore, ra-cauh, 
and seis-cat-u-uh, the ebbing water. In the 
sand is the seaweed, as-cax-as-qu-us. 

Toward the north, ut-cheiks, lies an island, 
mem-nun-nah-qus, standing out clearly in the 
water, suck-a-han-na. 

290 The Forest Primeval 

Toward the west, at-tag-was-san-na, the 
land, chep-sin, is watered by a river, ye-o-kan-ta, 
into which flows a small creek, me-ih-sut-ter- 

On the east, ut-chep-wo-is-sum-a, there rises 
a gentle hill, ro-mut-tun, and beyond it a tall 
mountain, pom-o-tawk. 

Winter, pup-pa-an-noh, with its ice, o-re-ih, 
frost, tac-qua-cat, and snow, co-an, has passed. 
The wild geese, the co-honks, and the swans, 
wo-pus-so-uc, have gone to their distant homes. 
The season of the year, paw-pax-son-ghe, is 
that of the balmy summer, cow-wot-a-i-oh, 
which will soon change into autumn, pun-sa-os, 
the falling of the leaf. It is hot weather, 

Here, mis-ke, is a running brook, wous-sick-it. 
Yonder, yo-ax-u-uh, is a place, we-is-kis, v\here 
the ground, pet-a-win, is covered with trees 
standing in water. It is a dreary looking place. 
It is a po-co-sin. 

Making his way to near the mouth of the small 
creek, he and his companion proceed with the 
work in hand. They are going to put a fishing 
weir, ne-ih-sac-an, across the creek, to catch 
nough-mass, that is, any kind of fish. 

He is supplied with his a-quin-tain taux, that 
is, a little boat or canoe; a tse-ma-o-say, a 
sail; his net, a-us-sab; an oar, tshe-mac-aus ; 
re-kas-que, a knife; pe-munt-naw, a rope; 
mowh-ko-han, a fish-hook; por-a-sap, a bag; 
and ok-tam-o-can, a can to drink in. 

Some Indian Words 291 

While he is waiting the appropriate time for 
the current of the stream and the weir to do their 
work in entrapping the fish, a butterfly, man-a- 
aug-wos, flits by. A moc-ca-sin puts its head 
out of the water, and disappears. A crane, 
US-sac, lights upon the opposite shore, and 
stalks around with its long legs. With discord- 
ant note o-ha-was, a crow, flies across the stream 
frightening a wild duck, pis-co-end which was 
floating upon the surface of the water, on whom 
an eagle, o-pot-e-na-i-ok had fixed his deadly 
eye. A gull, co-i-ah-guns, floats lazily through 
the air, and the black back of a porpoise, pot-a- 
waugh, revolves in the deeper water beyond. 
A fly, mow-ches-on, buzzes in his ear; a gnat, 
po-en-gu-uh, stings him; and a lizard, ut-a-cas- 
kis, glides across his path. 

When the weir is examined, among other 
captures are found a sturgeon, cop-o-to-ne; a 
turtle, com-mo-tins ; a sea-turtle, tuw-cup-pe-uk ; 
a crab, tut-tas-cuc; an eel, as-cam-a-uk ; a gar- 
fish, ta-tam-a-ho ; and a lobster, ah-sha-ham, 
and a number of fish, nam-ma-is, with their 
sharp fins, wi-ih-cats. 

Returning, pey-e-ugh, to the shore, the good, 
win-gan, were taken, the rest thrown away. 

Wet, nep-pe, but not weary, cut-tox-een, the 
Indian now puts his fish in a basket upon his 
back, and carries it home. 

On the way to the town, mus-sa-ran, where 
he lives, he met another friend, ne-tab, and 
the three, nuss, proceed together, one, ne-cut, 

292 The Forest Primeval 

before, ut-cha-rund, the other, according to 
their fashion of walking. 

On their way, they meet a hare, wi-ih-cut-teis, 
which scampers off into the grass, at-tass-kuss. 
A squirrel, mous-som-ko, runs up the rough 
bark of a pine tree, a-noo-sa. A fine deer, ut- 
ta-pa-an-tam, with long, cun-na-i-u-uh, horns, 
wa-wi-rak, and a little, taux, faun, no-nat-te-uh, 
fled upon hearing, aump-su-uk, the Indians 

They passed a village, ka-a-sun, also on their 
way, and noticed a circle, mus-set-a-qua-i-oh, 
of old women, u-tump-seis, around a boy, mar- 
o-wan-ches-so, who lay there dead, tse-pa-ih 
of a snake-bite, u-tag-wo-ong. They were mak- 
ing preparations for his burial, pa-i-am-a-suw. 

Passing on, they saw a great, man-go-i-te, 
owl, quang-at-a-rask, in the top of a walnut 
tree, as-sun-no-in-e-ind-ge. From the next, 
u-tak-i-ik, tree, me-ih-tucs, a hickory of consider- 
able height, man-ge-ker, a flying squirrel, a-i- 
os-sa-pan-i-ik, came out of his hole, wo-or, 
flew down, lit upon the dead leaves, mo-in-cam- 
in-ge, and disappeared in the reeds, nis-sa-kan. 

Arrived at length at home, it was found that 
all, che-isk, were well. These were the old man, 
raw-e-run-nu-uh, his father, now-se ; his mother, 
kick-e-was; his wife, no-un-gas-se ; his elder, 
nus-sa-andg, brother, ke-mot-te; his sister, 
cur-si-ne; his aunt, ar-i-quos-sac, and her hus- 
band, wi-o-wah; his younger, we-saws, daugh- 
ter, am-o-sens; and his other child, nech-a-un, 

Some Indian Words 293 

who was a little boy, us-ca-pess. The baby, 
pap-poose, was fat, wir-a-o-hawk, and was now 
strapped to a board, cut-sot-ah-wooc, hanging 
from the branch of a cedar tree, mo-ro-ke. It 
was not awake, au-mau-mer. It was a girl, 

His father, now-se, a strong, to-wauh, man 
yet, was busily engaged in putting his arms in 
order. By his side was his bow, at-taup; to 
which he had just fitted a new bowstring, au-peis. 
He was now at work on an arrow, at-tonce. 
Its head, rap-ut-tak, and feathers, as-sa-cun- 
sauh were being fastened on with the glue, up- 
pe-in-sa-man, used for this purpose. Leaning 
against a tree were his sword, mon-a-cooke, his 
shield, au-mough-hough, and his hatchet, tom-a- 
hack. In his belt was his knife, dam-i-sac, 
which could give a dangerous stab, wap-in, or 
cut, wap-e-uh. But these weapons were not 
equal to the lead, wind-scup, from the gun, 
po-ko-sack, of the English, Tas-san-tas-ses, 
protected in their coats of mail, a-qua-hus-sun, 
even though their arrows were sharp, ken-e-i- 

His brother, ke-mot-te, who was rather weak, 
kes-she-manc, was engaged in fashioning from 
some leather, ut-to-ca-is, a match-coat for the 
coming winter. 

His aunt's husband, who was lame, nep-a-wir- 
o-nough, was very bright, mus-caus-sum, and 
calm, coh-quiv-uh. He was engaged in making 
a pair of shoes, mock-a-sins. 


294 The Forest Primeval 

His daughter, am-o-sens, was a fine young 
woman, cren-e-po, very much ahve, ke-kewh, 
and greatly admired by the young men of the 
town. Her maw-chick cham-may, that is, her 
best of friends, was a young wer-6-ance, war 
chief, who had lately distinguished himself by 
killing the worst of the enemies, kas-ka-pow, 
of the tribe, one of the man-eaters, mus-sa- 

His wife, no-un-gas-se, was busily occupied 
in preparing the meal, which was to consist of 
bread, op-pones; suc-co-tash, corn and beans; 
hominy; ra-pan-ta, venison; a little salt, saw- 
wo-ne; and milk made of walnuts, po-co-hi- 

Other usual articles of food were pec-cat-o- 
as, beans; chickens, ca-wah-che-ims ; caviare 
or the roe of sturgeon, wo-ock; co-tun, cheese; 
eggs, o-waugh; bread made either of flour, 
rouh-se-uh, or meal, rouh-cat; broth, no-ump- 
qua-am; cau-wa-ih, oysters; hasty pudding, 
as-a-pan; dewberries, ac-coon-dews ; grapes, 
mar-ra-kim-mins ; and strawberries, mus-kef- 

There had formerly lived with them a man 
nem-a-rough, who was a bachelor, ma-taw-i-o- 
wijh, straight, ma-jauh, as an arrow, at-tonce, 
but on one of the war-parties he was lost, now- 

The inside of the house, yo-hac-an, was rather 
dark, pah-cun-na-i-oh, as it seemed, as one 
entered through the low, ma-chess, doorway. 

Some Indian Words 295 

But the light, kes-kaw-teuh, from the hole in 
the roof enables the contents to be seen. Here 
then appear in their proper places, the bed, tus- 
san, which was hard, es-e-pan-nu-uh, enough. 
On the ground lies a mat, a-nan-son. There is 
the frying-pan, amp-ko-ne; a dish, o-ut-a-can; 
the kettle, au-cog-wins; a basket, man-o-te; 
paw-pe-co-ne, a pipe; an-ca-gwins, a pot; ham- 
ko-ne, a ladle; a pot to drink in, ke-quas-son; 
a mat made of reeds, a-nan-se-coon ; linen, ma- 
tas-sa-ih; a stool, tau-o-sin; and oh-tam-o-can, 
a barrel. The mat was torn, tut-tas-cuh. 

In the middle of the chamber, ut-she-com- 
muc, there are some ashes, pun-guy, left from 
the last fire, po-kat-a-wer. Dust, ne-pen-sum, 
is on some of the articles, and above our heads, 
cobwebs, mut-tass-a-pec. In the corner was a 
rat, a-o-tauk. 

Outside the house, by the well, oh-ca-wooc, is 
a rose bush, pus-sa-quem-bun ; some wood, 
mus-keis ; a gate, cup-pe-nauk, opening into the 
vegetable garden, o-ron-o-cah. 

Scup-per-nong grapes were here, but no pear, 
as-sen-ta-men ; nor apple, mar-a-cah; the wal- 
nut, as-sim-nim, was here; and o-pom-mins, the 
chestnut; musk-mu-ims, the mulberry; and per- 
sim-mons, with their numerous seeds, a-men-a- 
ca-cac. This fruit was as yet unripe, us-can-ne- 
uh, and no bird would care to plunge its beak, 
meh-ke-uk, in it. A field of corn, po-ket-a- 
wes, which the English often called wheat, 
and West Indians, maize, was growing here. 

296 The Forest Primeval 

The meal being ended, the aunt's husband, 
who had once been taken over to England in a 
big ship, mus-so-wux-uc, began to teach the 
Indian language to a little white, o-paiv-uh, boy, 
one of the English, who had been exchanged for 
one of the Indian king's sons, who was to learn 
the English language. The first part of the 
lesson was devoted to teaching him to count: 
ne-cut, one; ningh, two; nuss, three; yough, four; 
pa-rans-ke, five; com-o-tinck, six; top-pa-woss, 
seven; nuss-wash, eight; kek-a-towgh, nine; 
kas-ke-ke, ten. 

After this the count was by tens, but the words 
he taught were so long and barbarous sounding 
that we dare not attempt to repeat them. 

He, yoG-wah, learned these, youghs, first ten, 
quickly, hus-que. The Indian then began to 
teach him the meaning of some verbs. By 
means of signs, gestures, action, and expression, 
and such other means as were available, he 
tried to teach the little Pale Face, that pas-sah- 
i-ca-an meant to clap one's hands. 

Catch-cah-mun mu-she meant to chop 

Ah-coh-kin-ne-mun meant to carry upon one's 

Pa-tow was to bring again. 

Taw-a-tut-te-ner meant to yawn or gap. 

Ne-igh-se-un was to cry. 

Mo-undg meant to cut the hair of a man's 

Rick-e-uh, to divide a thing in half. 

Some Indian Words 297 

A-was-sew meant to fly. 
Am-maw-skin was to fall. 

Pa-atch-ah meant to give. 
Quan-ta-mun was to swallow. 

Paw-paw-me-ar meant to walk. 
Pas-pe-ne was to walk about. 

Num-mawh was to weep. 
Zanc-ko-ne meant to sneeze. 

Cut-to-undg meant to bark. 
Am-in meant to bite. 

Toos-ke-an meant to swim. 
Po-kin was to dive under water. 

Tchij-ma-oc meant to row. 
Ke-se-i-quan meant to wash the face. 

Cus-purn was to tie or make fast anything. 
Nep-o-mot-a-men meant to shoot. 

Ke-kut-tun was to say. 
Sak-a-ho-can meant to write. 

No-ha-i-u-uh meant to have. 
Com-mo-to-ouh meant to steal. 

Me-cher was to eat. ' 
U-ne-kish-e-mu meant to cut anything. 

0-nas-can-da-men meant to catch in the 
mouth, as dogs do. 

Ah-cou-she w^as to climb a tree. 

Ket-a-rowk-su-mah meant to break all in n/ 

Pe-rew was to be broken or cracked. 

0-tas-sap-nar meant to call one. 

' This is close to our word munch, a word which is similar to others 
with the same meaning in a number of languages, for example Latin, 
manduco; French, manger; Spanish, mascar; etc. 

298 The Forest Primeval 

Now-wun-ta-men meant to hear. 
Kes-she-kis-sun was to laugh. 

Tse-pa-an-ta-men meant to kiss. 
Cant-e-cant-e was to sing or dance. 

Ne-tus-pus was to leap as men leap in danc- 
ing or otherwise. 

Hus-pis-sa-an meant to leap. 

A-pows-saw meant to roast. 
Niim-me-cax-ut-te-nax wasto fight at fisticuffs. 

Niim-mach-a meant to go home. 
Ma-ent-cha-tem-a-y-o-ac was the word to 
express the idea — gone. 

Mach-e-ne-caw-wun was to lie down to 

Bah-tan-o-mun meant to warm one. 

Nep-a-um was to sleep. 
U-na-mun meant to awaken. 

Na-ha-puc meant to dwell. 
Noun-gat was to do. 

Mus-kem was to run. 
I-reh nieant to go. 

I-reh as-su-min-ge was to go and run 

Pe-in-tik-er meant to come in. 

Cau-mor-o-wath meant to come, being spo- 
ken familiarly or hard by. 

Pi-jah meant to come, being spoken afar off to 

Mas-ki-ha-an was to be melancholy. 
A-ro-um-mos-south meant to be sick. 

U-nan-na-tas-sun meant to stand. 
Ud-a-pung-war-en was to open one's eyes. 

Some Indian Words 299 

Naw-wi-o-wash-im meant to carry a thing 
up and down. 

Ne-cus-sa-guns meant to carry a thing be- 
tween two. 

Ah-gu-ur meant to cover one. 
Waw-a-pun-nah meant to hang one. 

Cut-ta-quo-cum meant to pull one down. 
U-un-a-mum was to see. 

Mon-as-cun-ne-mu meant to cleanse the 
ground and make it fit for seed. 
Nut-tas-pin meant to sow wheat. 

Fair progress having been made in this lesson, 
the man then took the boy through the town to 
see the people and further explain his language. 

Close at hand, near enough to have heard 
them, sitting upon a stone, scha-quo-ho-can, was 
a short, tack-qua-i-sun, bald, pa-atch-kis-caw, 
deaf, cup-po-taw, beggar, cut-tas-sam-a-is. He 
was nearly naked, ne-pow-wer; a stranger, ut- 
tas-san-tas-so-wa-ih ; without friends, ne-top- 
pew; and alone, a-pop-a-quat-e-cus. 

It was decided to give, pa-atch-ah, him, some- 
thing to eat, me-cher, so maize, corn; bread made 
of the hot-tasting root tuck-a-hoe ; a lot of chin- 
ka-pins; and me-tucs-mar-a-kim-mins, a bunch 
of grapes, were given to him. 

The town was surrounded by a palisade. Inside 
of which were about twenty houses, the houses 
being scattered about Irregularly, following 
roughly the circle of the palisade, and leaving 

300 The Forest Primeval 

an open space in the midst. In the center of 
this was now to take place a show, mach-e-que-o. 

One of the enemies, mar-ra-pough, of the 
tribe had been captured, and now all friends, 
chesk-cham-ay, of the tribe had been sum- 
moned to enjoy the pleasure of seeing him 
tortured. A fire, po-kat-a-wer, was burning. 
The captive was stripped naked, ne-paw-wer, 
and ordered to sit down near the fire, and the 
Indians beat him with their fists and sticks. A 
post about fifteen feet high had been set firmly 
in the ground, and piles of hickory poles lay 
a few yards from it. The captive's hands, 
metm-ge, were tied behind his back. 

A rope, pe-munt-naw, was produced, one end 
was tied to the post, and the other to the cord, 
pem-a-nat-a-on, which fastened his wrists to- 
gether. The rope was long enough to permit 
him to walk around the stake several times and 
then return. They then cut off his ears, me-taw- 
ke, and the blood, saw-we-ho-ne, streamed down 
each side of his face, us-ca-en-tur. The warriors 
then shot charges of powder into his naked body, 
commencing with the calves of his leg, mes-kott, 
and continuing to his neck, nus-quo-ik. Three 
or four, by turns, would take up one of the burn- 
ing pieces of wood, and apply the burning end 
to his body. These tormentors presented them- 
selves on every side of him, so that whichever 
way he ran around the post they met him with 
the burning brands. Some of the squaws took 
broad pieces of bark, upon which they could 

Some Indian Words 301 

carry a quantity of coals of fire, mah-ca-to-is, 
and threw them on him, so that in a short time 
his feet, mes-setts, had nothing but coals of fire 
and hot ashes to walk upon. 

This ordeal had now lasted two hours; the 
prisoner was much exhausted, and his nerves had 
lost much of their sensibility. He no longer 
shrank from the firebrands with which his tor- 
mentors incessantly touched him. At length 
he sank, fainting, upon his face. Instantly an 
Indian sprang upon his back, knelt lightly upon 
one knee, made a circular incision with his knife, 
re-kas-que, upon the crown of his head, men- 
da-buc-cah, and clapping his knife between his 
teeth, me-pit, taking hold of the hair, mer-ersc, 
with both hands, tore off the scalp. As soon 
as this was done, an old woman, u-tiunp-seis, 
approached with a piece of bark full of coals of 
fire, mah-cat-o-is, and poured them upon the 
crown of his head, now laid bare to the bone, 

The wretched victim rose once more, and 
slowly walked around the stake. At length 
nature could endure no more. He fell for the 
last time and his soul, net-shet-sunk, escaped 
from his tormentors.' 

Other captives were then produced. The 
nails, me-kon-se, of their fingers and toes were 
pulled out. Their forefingers, num-meis-sut- 

'This account is taken from an actual case, that of Col. Wm. 
Crawford, who was thus put to death. Peyton's History oj Augusta 
County, pp. 1 9 1-2. 

302 The Forest Primeval 

te-ing-wah, were cut off. The tongue, max-at-sno 
cut out. The nose, mes-kew, sht. The Hps, 
nus-sha-ih, cut off. The thigh, ap-o-me, and 
the arm, me-se, stuck full of burning pieces of 
lightwood. The mouth, met-to-ne, filled full 
of hot ashes. The elbows, me-is-quan, broken. 
The forehead, mus-kan, torn off. The beard, 
mes-se-ton-a-ance, plucked out. The veins, 
a-bes-cur, opened. The skin taken off the 
flesh, wegh-shau-ghes. The throat, ve-gwan- 
ta-ak, cut open, and the eyes, mus-kins, gouged 
out with burning sticks. 

The gathering which had witnessed these 
scenes included the sach-em, the magistrate, 
who presided over the great councils of state, 
and who looked after the aged, and the women 
and children; a "woman queen," wir-o-naus- 
qua, from an adjoining tribe; several cock-a- 
rouses, members of the King's Council, or those 
otherwise distinguished for bravery; and all the 
cro-nock-o-es, that is, men of prominence in the 
town. The mam-a-nat-o-wick, the Great King, 
of the tribe was present, and a ver-o-a-nee, King 
or great man, from each neighboring tribe. 

After these proceedings were finished they 
held match-a-com-o-co, that is, a great council of 
state; discussed public affairs, and smoked the 
cal-u-met, the pipe of peace. 

As an appropriate conclusion to the festivities 
of torturing the enemies of the tribe, a dance, 
kan-to-kan, was gotten up, by the young war- 
riors, while the bodies of the victims were thrown 

Some Indian Words 303 

into a common grave, our-car, where they slept 
their last sleep, kaw-win. 

Passing out of the town, to get a better, win- 
gut-sca-ho, view of the country around, they 
pass over, os-keitch, a stream, tsa-quo-moi, that 
is, deep to the middle of a man. A little farther 
down, no-us-o-mon, it was nut-tah-ca-am, that 
is, deep over the head. The water was cold, 
nons-sa-mats, and the stream crooked, o-ho-rin- 
ne. In it were swimming an otter, cut-tack, and 
a beaver, poh-kev-uh. 

Behind, ta-an-go-quaijk, the town, was a body 
of woods, full of leaves, ma-an-qui-pac-us, which 
tempted them to enter it. Here was seen the 
root from which the red dye of the Indians was 
obtained, the puc-coon, called by the English, 
the bloodroot, and the mus-quas-pen, another 
root, ut-chap-poc, from which a dye was derived. 
By the marsh at the edge of the woods was the 
cranberry, raw-co-mens, growing wild. Here 
also was the grass from which they made 
threads, pem-me-now. 

In the wood they picked up the acorns, an-as 
ko-mens, and ate them raw, as-cun-me-uh. A 
large vine, wap-a-pam-mdge, full of ripe, win- 
gat-e-uh, grapes, spread its branches abroad, 
us-cound. Beneath, ut-shem-a-ijn, it, there 
grew a great deal, moow-chick, of weeds, at-tas- 
qu-us. When, ta-noo chinck, they turned from 
it, they saw an adder, ke-ih-tas-co-oc, curled 
up under it, and killed it with a cane, nis-a-ke. 

304 The Forest Primeval 

The bark of a dog, at-to-mois, attracted them. 
To the same tree he had tracked two curious 
looking animals, a rac-coon and an o-pos-sum. 
Other animals which had been hunted in that 
wood were the fox, as-sim-o-est ; the bear, mo- 
mon-sac-que-o, and the wolf, na-an-tam. 

A robin redbreast, che-a-wan-ta, a pretty- 
bird, tshe-hip, left its nest, wap-ches-a-o, when 
they appeared, and, with interrupted motion of 
wing, ut-to-can-nuc, sought safety elsewhere. 
Here, too, were seen a turkey cock, os-pan-no; 
a turkey, mon-y-naugh ; a wood pigeon, qua- 
no-ats; a pigeon, tow-ac-quo-ins ; and a parrot, 

The season being well advanced, the leaves 
of the gum trees have turned red, purple, our- 
cre-uh, and yellow, ous-sa-wack. 

It was now the afternoon, aun-she-cap-a, and 
being sufficiently refreshed with this communion 
with nature, they reenter the town and notice 
a great many things, among others, the clothing, 
match-co-res, worn by those they see. It being 
warm weather, the inhabitants have on but 
little. Here come two fine young women wear- 
ing only aprons, mat-a-heigh ca-tom-mo-ik, 
before and behind. Being ladies of distinction, 
on their heads are coronets of peak; and around 
their necks were necklaces or chains formed of 
long links of copper, which ornament they 
called tap-o-an-tam-nais ; but they had no use 
now of stockings, caw-que-a-wans ; garters, kis- 
pur-ra-caut-a-pus ; shoes, mawh-ca-sins, nor 

Some Indian Words 305 

gloves, o-tein-gas. They were on their way 
to the river, to see the men fish. 

A conjurer comes next on his way to give some 
young men medicine, wis-oc-can, for the husk-a- 
naw-ing pen. He had in his hand, made out of a 
gourd full of small stones, a rattle, chmgaw-won- 
auk, which he was going to use in his conjura- 
tions. Fastened to his girdle, pok-on-tats, is 
his tobacco-bag, re-con-ack. With him was the 
priest, dressed in a cloak of feathers, called put- 
ta-wus. He was on his way to the 0-kee's 
temple, qui-oc-co-san, and allowed the Indian 
and the boy to join him. He was about to begin 
a pau-waw-ing, or conjuration, in order to make 
it rain again to-morrow, ra-i-ab, as he had made 
it do, as he claimed, yesterday, o-sa-i-oh. 

The names and designations which he had 
for the Deity were numerous. Ra-wot-ton-emd 
meant God, but a more general word for gods 
was Mon-to-ac. For the images of gods in the 
form of men, he used the word Ke-was-Q-wok. 
One of such images alone he called Ke-was. 
O-kee was another name for a god, and A-ho-ne 
still another. Petty gods and their affinities 
he called Qui-yough-co-soughs. Qui-oc-cos was 
the idol which dwelt in the temple already called 
qui-oc-co-san, but which had also another 
name, mach-i-co-muck. Ma-hom-ny was the 
name of the deity who lived beyond the sun, 
and who decided the fate of men after death, 
and sent them to a place of happiness or 

3o6 The Forest Primeval 

Ri-o-ko-sick was one of their names for the 
Devil, another form of which was Ri-a-poke. 

Mo-un-sha-quat-u-uh was their name for 
Heaven, while Po-po-gus-so was that for the 
hole in the remotest west where the souls of the 
evil burnt continually. It may have been that 
the red glow of the sunset was the origin of this 

The priest was going to offer a prayer, mau-no- 
mom-ma-on, to the sun, kes-kow-ghe, before 
proceeding to sacrifice, ut-tak-a-er. 

The war chief, wer-6-ance, accompanied by 
several followers, passes by. Three feathers, 
ah-pe-uk, adorn his head. He has just called 
one of his attendants, a married man, now-i-ow- 
i-ih wi-o-wah, a fool, win-tuc, for selling a chain, 
rar-e-naw; a copper kettle, au-cut-ga-quas-san ; 
a coat, mant-choor; a mortar, tac-ca-hooc, and 
pestle, poc-o-ha-ac; a bodkin, po-co-hack; a 
comb, rick-a-ho-ne ; a needle, poc-o-ha-oc; a 
block, tac-ca-hooc, and a spade, aa-ix-ke-hak-e, 
most of which he had gotten from the English, 
for only ten yards of peak. 

This v/ord, sometimes spelled peag, was the 
name given to beads made from the ends of 
shells, rubbed down into a cylindrical shape, 
polished and strung into belts or necklaces. 
These were valued according to their length 
and the perfection of their workmanship, and 
were used as money or ornament. One of the 
pictures shows a man with a coronet of peak 
upon his head. Black or purple peak was 

Some Indian Words 307 

worth twice as much, length for length, as white 

Wam-pum was the special name given to this 
more valuable, dark peak. Its full designation 
was wampum peak. 

Roanoke was another kind of money made of 
the cockle shell. It was of less value than peak. 

Runtees was still another name for the disks 
of shells, used as ornaments, as in the form of 
necklaces, etc. 

The chief could not bear to have this man, 
who was a mariner, or seaman, che-ik-sew, sell 
his goods so cheaply, and he told him how he had 
had to give a whole boat, quin-tan, load of maize, 
corn, for a pickaxe, tock-a-hack; a pair of 
shears, ac-cow-prets ; a ball, a-i-towh, made of 
copper, mat-tas-sin ; a bell, mau-ca-quins, made 
of some white metal, us-sa-was-sin ; a stool, 
tau-o-sin, and some shining brass, os-a-was, 
which a great ship, a-quin-tay-ne mang-goy, 
had just brought in. 

Then he told him of a chest, pac-us, and a 
bottle, po-he-euh, with a dram, ah-quo-hooc, 
in it, which he had gotten from another ship 
mus-so-wux-uc, in exchange for some pearl, 

Young men are seen at various amusements 
or occupations, and, as the day is now well 
advanced, the women come in from gathering 
the corn and other fruits of the soil which they 
have tilled and cared for, to prepare the evening 

3o8 The Forest Primeval 

The day has been not only hot, but sultry, 
and a great wind, mah-qua-ih, now comes up. 
In the west, piles of black clouds tower up in 
the sky, and advance, threatening and terrible. 
The Indians believe that this is a sign that the 
Deity is offended. They have done wrong in 
torturing and killing those prisoners. The Sun 
is obscured by the thick clouds. The priest and 
the conjurer offer sacrifice to it. The tobacco 
thrown into the air is strewn over the land by 
the hurricane, toh-tum-mo-cun-num, which is 
now sweeping over them. The rain, cam-zo-wan, 
falls in torrents. A flash of lightning, ke-cut- 
tan-no-was, shatters a giant oak, po-aw-a-mingd 
which falls to the ground with a crash, pe-nim, 
while the thunder, pet-tack-queth, shakes the 
world. Righ-com-ou-ghe, Death, is in the air. 

At last the wind, ras-so-um, subsides. A 
beautiful, mus-ca-i-u-uh, rainbow, quan-na-cut, 
shines forth against the black, ma-cat-a-wa-i- 
u-uh, clouds. The Deity is propitiated, and 
the storm is over. 

Sunset, qu-un~se-uh, was now at hand. In 
the western horizon hangs the moon, ne-paw- 
wesh-ough, which was now a new moon, suc- 

Smoke, kek-e-pem-quah, rises in the air from 
many open fires, the last meal of the day is 
being prepared, so our observers go back to their 
house, a spark of fire, ac-ce-cow, lights the wood, 
and a fish is baked whole, bar-be-cued. 

They then attended the social gathering 

Some Indian Words 309 

which took place nightly in the centre of the 
town. The company amused itself until a late 
hour with singing and dancing. 

When all was over, the day brought to a close, 
they retired by the light of a pine knot, o-san-in- 
tak, which served as a candle. 

Outside all was dark. Profound quiet reigned, 
except for the wind which sighed as it passed 
through the pine trees, while overhead the 
silent stars, pum-ma-humps, stood sentinel. 

THE lover's quarrel 

He: Ken-cut-te-maum, Good-morning. Ne- 
tap, my dear friend. 

She: Cham-ah wing-gap-o. Welcome, my be- 
loved friend. 

He: Pas-pas-a-at. The morning is fair. 

She: Chin-gis-sum. It is very warm weather. 

He: Tan-a-o-wa-am? Where have you been .? 

She: Yo-ax-u-uh. Far away. 

He : Nu-me-roth-e-qui-er ? Your companion ? 

She: Mah-maindg-no-hai-u-uh. I have none. 

He: Mat-ta-que-nat-o-rath. I understand 
you not. 

She: Mum-mas-cus-hen-e-po. I have been 

He : Kick-e-ten qui-er. Tell me. 

She: Ma-tush. I will not. 

He: Ne-tab. I am your friend. 

She: Ken-ne-hau-tows. I understand well. 

He: Near-now-wan. I have been. 

3IO The Forest Primeval 

She : War-nat. Enough. 

He : Net-a-peuh. I am at your command. 

She : Win-gan-ou-se. Very good. 

(He gives her a necklace of wampum.) 
He: Thaig-wen-um-mer-a-an. I give it you 

She: Ke-nah. I thank you. 
He : Kaw-ko-pen qui-er. I drink to you. 
She: Tang-go. Let me see it. 
He: Jough-que-me wath. Let us go away. 
She: Nec-qu-ris-saw. I dare not. 
He: Me-ish-mi-co-an ches-soy-ouk. Give 
this to the child. 
(Gives her a rattle.) 
She: Nu-wam-at-a-men. I love it. 
He: Cum-meish yoo-wah. Give it him. 
She: Mal-a-com-me-ir. I will not give it. 
He: Hus-que-que-nat-o-ra. Now I under- 
stand you. 

Tah-moc-as-se-uh. He hath none. 
She: Mon-i-naw. The cock crows. 

Up-pou-shun. The ships go home. 
He: Ca-cut-tew-indg ? What is my namcf* 
She: Ca-iv-uh. I cannot tell. 

No-e-wa-nath-soun. I have forgotten. 
He: Ke-ar! You! 
She: Cup-peh. Yes. 
He: Pas-ko-rath. The gold sparkles in the 

She: Num-mas-kat-a-men. I care not for it. 
He: Koup-path-e. Yea, truly.? 
She: Oi-ac-pi-jaun. We will come again. 

Some Indian Words 311 

He: Tan-00 chick? When? 
She: Ra-i-ab. To-morrow. 
He: Kes-so-hi-ke-ar. Shut the door. 
She: Na-hay-hough. I have it. 
He: Noun-ma-is. I love you. ^ 
She: Ne-trap-per kup-per. Sit further. 
He: Hus-que. By and by. 
She: Mut-tack. No. 
He: Nim. Yes. 
She : Ough-rath. Far off. 
He : Com-mo-mais ? Do you love .? 
She: Mat-tan-a-hay-yough. I have it not. 
(Turning to the door.) 

Hat-ac-quo-ear. Hold it aside. 

Num-ma? Will you go home.? 
He: Kan-i-ough. I know not. 

Kutt-chaw-e. I am offended. 
She: No-raugh to-an. Put on your hat.' 
He : Num-ma-cha. I will go home. 
She: Wam-at-tuwh. It is well. 

Un-tough. Take it. 

(Hands him his hat, pat-tih-qua-pis- 
He : Ah-ath. Farewell. 
She: Ke-ij. Get you gone! 

(Throws after him a ring, nek-e-rein- 
skeps, which he had given her.) 

' Of course, the primitive Indians wore no hats. Where this 
man got this hat, we cannot say — possibly from some Englishman 
whom he had tomahawked. 


The Forest Primeval 


Host: Que-quoy-ter-nis qui-re? What is 

your name? 
Traveler: Pi-pis-co. 
Host: Ke-is? How many? 

Traveler: Na-an-tu-cah ne-cut. Only one, I 

myself, ne-ar, 
Host: Ough. It is well. 

Traveler: Ro-o-ke-uh co-an. It snoweth. 
Cur-cie ne-i-re. I am cold. 
0-ram-i-ath south. I am sick. 
How-ghu-eih ta-kon ne-i-re. I 
am hungry. 
Host: (To Attendant.) Noc-mcha-min-o 

bok-e-taw. Mend up the fire. 
(To Traveler.) Me-ih-tus-suc. Eat 
with me. 
Traveler: Ka-pes-se-map-a-an-gum. Give me 

a little piece. 
Host: Min-chin qui-re. Eat thou. 

Traveler: Que-quoy? What is this? 
Host: Nec-o-on-dam-en. It is good meat. 

Traveler: Me-ish-nah-me-cher. Give me some 
Me-cho-cusk. I will eat by and by. 
U-gau-co-pes-sum. I would drink. 
Mam-ma-he suc-qua-hum. Give 
me some water. 
Host: Um-doth. Take it. 

Traveler: Nuts-se-qua-cup. I will drink no 

Some Indian Words 










Pa-atch nah nun-gan. Give me 
some butter to spread on my 
Pas-e-me up-po-oke. Give me 

some tobacco. 
Win-gut-see up-o-oc. The tobacco 

is good. 
Bmser-an ap-o-ok. Fill the pipe 

with tobacco. 
0-pot-e-yough. The pipe is stopped. 
Kesh-e-ma-ic po-oc. The tobacco 

is naught. 
Tawks ne-ge-isp. No more. I am 

Tas-ho-ac. All is out. 
0-wan-ough. Who hath this? 
May-an-se. I have it not. 
Daw-ba-son-qui-re. Warm yourself. 
Ot-a-wi-a-ac bac-a-taw. The fire 

is out. 
Mat-a-ches-a. It is not lighted. 
Pow-tow-ho-ne bok-e-tan. Blow 

the fire with your mouth. 
As-sen-tew-ca-i-ah. It shineth. 
Win-gan outs-sem-et-sum-ne-ic. 

My foot is well. 
U-ne-gap-a-mut-ta men-ne-tat-a- 

ki-i. My legs ache. 
Mat-a-mau-ca-sun-ne-ih. I have 

no shoes. 
Ken-o-rock-o-no-rem qui-re. 

Come look at my head. 

314 The Forest Primeval 

Ah-kij. It hurts me. 
Host: Ne-hap-per. Sit down. 

Num-pe-nam-un. Let me see it. 
Traveler: Ne-pun-che-ne-ir. I am dead. 


" Mow-chick way-a-ugh taugh ne-o-ragh 
ka-que-re me-cher. I am very hungry, what 
shall I eat.? 

" Taw-nor ne-hiegh Powhatan? Where 
dwells Powhatan.? 

" Mach-e, ne-hiegh you-rough Or-a-paks. 
Now he dwells a great way hence at Or-a-paks. 

" Vit-ta-pitch-e-way-ne an-pech-itchs ne- 
haw-per Wer-o-wo-co-mo-co. You lie, he 
staid ever at Wer-o-wo-co-mo-co. 

" Ka-tor ne-hiegh mat-tagh ne-er ut-ta- 
pitch-e-way-ne. Truly he is there, I do not lie. 

" Spaugh-tyn-e-re ke-ragh wer-6-wance 
Maw-mar-i-nough kek-a-te-waugh pey-a- 
qua-ugh. Run you then to the King Maw-mar-i- 
nough and bid him come hither. 

"Ut-te-ke e-pey-a-wey-ack wigh-whip. Get 
you gone, and come again quickly. 

" Kek-a-ten Po-ka-hon-tas pat-i-a-quah ni- 
ugh tanks ma-not-yens neer mow-chick 
raw-re-nock au-dough. Bid Pokahontas bring 
hither two little baskets and I will give her 
white beads to make her a chain." ' 

' Smith, vol. i., pp. 147-8. 

Some Indian Words 315 

The meaning of a few of their names of places 
and persons has been preserved. We can well 
wish that we knew more of them. 

Pocahontas means bright stream between two 

Wer-o-wo-com-o-co means the chief place of 
council, or King's House. 

Pa-mun-key means where we took a sweat. ' 

War-ros-quy-oake means point of land. This 
was the original name of Isle of Wight County. 

Nan-se-mond means fishing-point. 

Ka-naw-ha means the river of the woods. 

Kentucky means dark and bloody ground; or, 
according to other authorities, at the head of 
the river; long river; or long prairies.^ 

Ohio means the beautiful river; or, river of 

Roanoke was the same word they used to 
designate one kind of their shell money, and was 
probably given to the locality where these shells 

Chesapeake means the mother of waters. 

Appomattox means sinuous tidal estuary. ^ 

Potomac means water flowing in cascades. 
The lower part of this river, to which such a 
name would be inappropriate, was, as we have 
seen, the Co-hon-go-roo-ta. 

Patuxent means water flowing over mud. 

Patapsco means water flowing over rocks. 

' Campbell's History of Virginia, p. 193. 
' Townsend's United States, pp. 57, 61, 63. 
J Brown's First Republic, p. 194. 

3i6 The Forest Primeval 

Pocomoke means broken by knobs or small 

Shenandoah means the daughter of the stars. ^ 

Appalachian appears to signify those on the 
other side. 

Tennessee, from one of the Cherokee villages, 
Tenas See, said to mean a curved spoon. 

From Townsend, we learn that: 

Accomac means land on the other side of the 

Aquia Creek means muddy creek. 

Alleghany River means the river of the AUi- 
ge-wi, a tribe which preceded the Delawares. 

Chickahominy means turkey-lick. 

Miami River means stony river. 

Muskingum means elk's face. 

Rappahannock means the river of quick 
rising water. "* 

Some of the Indian names for places and 
streams in this part of the world, which they 
called I-sen-a-com-ma-cah, were: 

Pa-qua-chowng was their name for the region 
known to us as the Falls of the James. 

Accawmack was the name of the whole penin- 
sula of the Eastern Shore. It was often spoken 
of as the Kingdom of Accomack. 

The Powhatan River is now the James River. 

The Appamattuck still retains its name, 
slightly altered in spelling. 

' Irving's Life of Washington, vol. i., p. 39. 
' Townsend's United States, p. 82. 

Some Indian Words 317 

The Qui-yough-co-han-ock was Chipoak 

War-ras-quoy-ack Bay, pronounced War- 
ris-queak, was the name for Burwell's Bay. 

The Nansemond retains its name as a stream. 

The Chesapeake River, or "brooke" as 
Strachey calls it, is now the Elizabeth River. 

The Chesapeake Bay retains its name. 

The Chick-a-ham-a-ni-a retains its name 
slightly altered into Chickahominy. 

Ke-cough-tan, pronounced Kik-o-tan, is now 

The Pamunck, or Pamunkey, is now the York. 

Chin-quo-teck is now West Point. 

The Yough-ta-mund is now the Pamunkey. 

The Mat-ta-pa-ment is now the Mattapony. 

The Pa-yan-ka-tank retains its name. 

The 0-pis-cat-u-meck was later called by the 
Indians the Top-pa-han-ock, then by the English 
the Queen's River, and now is called the Rappa- 

The Pa-taw-o-meck was called by the English 
the Elizabeth, and is now called the Potomac. 
Its ancient Indian name appears to have been 
the Co-hon-go-roo-ta. 

The Qui-yough River is now Bull Run. 

The Paw-tux-ent in Maryland retains its 
name, slightly altered in spelling. 

The Tock-wogh is now the Chester River. 

The Wi-com-i-co River in Northumberland 
County still retains its name. 

Mob-jack Bay retains its name. 

3i8 The Forest Primeval 

On the Eastern Shore some of the Indian 
names which have been preserved, on the ocean 
side, are: 

Chin-co-teague Bay, Inlet and Island. 

As-sa-teague Island. 

Me-tom-kin Inlet. 

Wach-a-preague Inlet. 

Great and Little Mach-i-pon-go Inlets. 

Mock-orn Island. 

And on the Bay side, there are: 

Mat-ta-wo-man Creek. 

Nas-wad-dox Creek. 

Oc-co-han-nock Creek, the dividing line be- 
tween Northampton and Accomac. 

Crad-dock Creek. 

Nan-qua Creek. 

Pun-go-teague Creek and Town. 

0-nan-cock Creek and Town. 

Ches-con-es-sex Creek. 

Mes-son-go Creek. 

Po-co-moke Sound and River. 

Big An-ne-mes-sex River. 

Man-o-kin River. 

Wi-com-o-co River. 

Nan-ti-coke River and Point. 

Chop-tank River, formerly the Kus-car-a-wo- 

Scattered through the eastern part of the 
State, mainly, the following Indian names have 
been retained: 

Pungo, the name of a locality in Princess Anne. 

Some Indian Words 319 

Chuck-a-tuck in Nansemond. 

Wash-i-kee in Greensville. 

Po-quo-son and Mes-sick in York. 

To-a-no in James City. 

Nax-e-ra, Cap-pa-ho-sic, Wi-com-i-co, and 
Za-no-ni in Gloucester. 

Mis-kim-on and Co-an in Northumberland. 

Mach-o-doc in Westmoreland. 

Tap-pa-han-nock and Nan-lak-la in Essex. 

Man-ta-pike and Pow-can in King and Queen. 

Ro-man-coke, Man-quin, Man-go-hick, and 
Co-ho-ke in King William. 

Ma-to-a-ca and Win-ter-pock in Chesterfield. 

Na-moz-ine Creek and Ro-wan-ta in Din- 

The Me-her-rin River and To-ta-no in Bruns- 

Chap-ti-co, O-lo, No-go, Pu-pa, and the 
Nottoway River in Lunenburg. 

The Roanoke River in Mecklenburg. 

Pas-sa-pa-tan-zy, A-qui-a, To-lu-ca, and 
Potomac Creek in Stafford. 

Quan-ti-co, Ne-abs-co, Ca-thar-pin, and Oc- 
co-quan Creek in Prince William. 

Ac-co-tink in Fairfax. 

Kit-to c-ton Creek in Loudoun. 

A-to-ka and So-we-go in Fauquier. 

La-ko-ta in Culpeper. 

Mas-sa-po-nax and Pan-i-en in Spottsylvania. 

Nan-lak-i-a and Pas-sing In Caroline. 

Tabs-cott, Lan-tan-a, Sha-ko, and Man-a- 
kin In Goochland. 

320 The Forest Primeval 

Mat-to-ax in Amelia. 

To-ro in Charlotte. 

Or-rix in Bedford. 

In the Valley of Virginia, the Shen-an-do-ah 

The Big Moc-ca-sin Creek in Scott. 

Ca-taw-ba Creek in Roanoke and Botetourt. 

The 0-pe-quan River, pronounced the 
Opeckon, which forms the boundary between 
Frederick and Clarke. 

Row-an-ty and Sappony Creeks in Dinwiddie 
and Sussex. 

Seneca Creek in Campbell. 

Shaddock's Creek in Southampton. 

Shock-oe Creek in Pittsylvania, and Wa-qua 
Creek in Brunswick. 

Mountains which still bear their Indian 
names are the Cacapon which form the western 
boundary of Frederick, the AUeghanies, and the 
whole Appalachian Range. Qui-ra-uk, the name 
given by the Indians to the first settlers as that 
of the Blue Ridge, has disappeared. 

We have only one sample of Indian poetry, 
and this is how we obtained it. 

A slight advantage which the Indians once 
gained in an encounter was the occasion of much 
rejoicing on their part. They regarded it as a 
great victory, and made it the subject of a scorn- 
ful war-song of triumph. This remarkable pro- 
duction is preserved for us by Strachey. He 
tells us: 

Some Indian Words 321 

"They have contrived a kind of angry song 
against us, in their homely rhymes, which con- 
cludeth with a kind of petition unto their Okeus, 
and to all the host of their idols, to plague the 
Tas-san-tas-ses' (for so they call us) and their 
posterities; as likewise another scornful song 
they made of us last year at the falls, in manner 
of triumph, at what time they killed Captain 
William West, our Lord General's nephew, and 
two or three more, and took one Symon Skove, 
a sailor, and one Cob, a boy, prisoners. That 
song goeth thus: 

" Mat-a-ne-rew sha-sha-she-waw e-ra-wan-go 

Whe Tas-san-tas-sa in-o-shas-haw-ye-hoc-kan 

Whe whe, yah ha-ha ne-he wit-to-wa, wit-to-wa. 

" Mat-a-ne-rew sha-sha-she-waw e-ra-wan-go 

Captain Newport in-o-shas-haw neir in-hoc na- 

ti-an ma-tas-san: 
Whe whe, yah ha-ha ne-he wit-to-wa, wit-to-wa. 

" Mat-a-ne-rew sha-sha-she-waw e-ra-wan-go 

Thomas Newport in-o-shas-haw neir in-hoc na- 

ti-an mon-cock : 
Whe whe, yah ha-ha, ne-he wit-to-wa, wit-to-wa. 

'The word ut-tas-san-tas-so-wa-ih meant stranger. This name 
which the Indians gave the EngHsh probably meant the strange 
people, the foreigners. 

2,22 The Forest Primeval 

" Mat-a-ne-rew sha-sha-she-waw e-ra-wan-go 

Po-chin Simon mo-sha-shaw nin-gon na-ti-an 

Whe whe, yah ha-ha ne-he wit-to-wa, wit-to-wa. 

"Which may signify how they killed us for all 
our poc-ca-sacks, that is our guns, and for all 
that Captain Newport brought them copper, 
and could hurt Thomas Newport (a boy whose 
name indeed was Thomas Savage, who Captain 
Newport leaving with Powhatan to learn the 
language, at what time he presented the said 
Powhatan with a copper crown, and other gifts 
from his Majesty, said he was his son) for all his 
mon-a-chock, that is his bright sword, and how 
they could take Symon (for they seldom said 
our surnames) prisoner for all his tam-a-hanke, 
that is his hatchet, adding, as for a burden unto 
their song, what lamentation our people made 
when they killed him, namely, saying how they 
would cry whe, whe, etc., which they mocked 
us for, and cried again to us yah, ha, ha, Te-wit- 
ta-wa, Te-wit-ta-wa ; for it is true they never 
bemoan themselves nor cry out, giving up so 
much as a groan for any death, how cruel soever 
and full of torment."' 

Among the Indian words which were adopted 
by the English and which are still in use are: 
Pone, a word taken from their Op-pone, which 

' Historic of Travaile, etc., p. 79. 

Some Indian Words 323 

meant bread. It is used now generally in con- 
nection with corn bread — a pone of corn bread. 

Pocosin, land on which water stands in wet 
weather. The word signifies dreary. 

Persimmon, the well-known wild fruit. 

Hickory, the tough wooded tree with which we 
are familiar. 

Chinkapin, the dwarf chestnut. 

Opossum, or possum. 

Raccoon, or coon. 

Scuppernong, a sweet grape. 

Hominy, the familiar article of food. 

Barbecue, a word taken from their mode of 
roasting fish and animals whole. 

Succotash, a dish of corn and beans mixed. 

Paw-waw-ing, a word which meant the con- 
jurations of the priest, has been preserved with 
an altered meaning. 

Moccasin, the name of a deadly snake. 



IT would probably be impossible to name all the 
Indian tribes living in Virginia in 1607. 
The division seems to have been, in some in- 
stances, into very small units. The inhabitants 
of one small village, being often spoken of as 
a tribe. The great divisions were, in the east, 
the Powhatan Confederacy, composed of many 
tribes; in the center of the State, the Man-a-kins 
or Mon-a-cans, and the Man-nah-o-acs; still 
farther to the west, in the mountainous part of 
the State, were the Shaw-a-nese, the Cher-o-kees, 
the Tus-ca-ro-ras, and others. 

The center and heart of the Powhatan Con- 
federacy was composed of the following six tribes, 
whose sovereignty Powhatan had inherited. 
These were his oldest and most faithful subjects. 
They were the Powhatans, the Pa-mun-keys, 
the Ar-ro-ha-tecks, the Ap-pa-mat-tucks, the 
Yough-ta-munds, and the Mat-ta-pam-i-ents, 
which we will now consider in order. 

The Powhatans. This was Powhatan's own 
personal tribe, and numbered forty warriors. 
They lived on the north side of the James, in 

The Tribes and Nations 325 

Henrico County, near Richmond, which county 
is full of their arrow- and spear-heads, their toma- 
hawks, pottery, mortars, and pestles. In all of 
his ancient, inherited, tribal headquarters, he 
had houses built after their manner like arbors, 
some thirty, some forty yards long, and at every 
house provision was made for him according to 
the time of his staying there. The King of this 
tribe was Taux Pow-ha-tan, which means " Little 
Powhatan, " one of the great Powhatan's sons. ^ 

Their chief town was named Powhatan, and 
was situated at Mayo's. ^ 

This tribe is mentioned in the acts in connec- 
tion with the following transaction: 

"Me-tap-pin a Powhatan Indian being sold 
for lifetime to one EHzabeth Short by the King 
of Wainoake Indians who had no power to sell 
him being of another nation, it is ordered that 
the said Indian be free, he speaking perfectly the 
English tongue and desiring baptism." ^ 

Such references as this in the Acts of Assembly 
which are given herein in connection with many 
of the tribes, insignificant apparently in and by 
themselves, yet serve not only to show the indi- 
vidual existence of the tribes thus mentioned, 
but they throw a strong light on the relations 
between these tribes and the Virginians, and the 
methods adopted by the Colonial Government 
of dealing with them and their tribal lands. In 
the case of some of the more obscure tribes these 

' Smith, vol. i., pp. Ii6, 142. 

' Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. » 2 Hening, 155. 

326 The Forest Primeval 

references are practically the only authentic, or 
easily accessible, authority we have to rely upon 
for the recognition by the Colony of these tribes 
as separate or distinct powers, at a time when the 
Indians constituted a political and military force 
which had to be reckoned with. 

The Pa-mun-keys. Smith says, "Where the 
river [the York] is divided, the country Is 
called Pamaunkee, and nourisheth near three 
hundred able men." This description Included 
much of the area bounded by the Pamunkey and 
the Mattapony rivers. Their wer-6-ance was 
0-pe-chan-ca-nough, the most bitter and aggres- 
sive of the enemies of the English. Their name 
was originally borne by the noble York, and the 
stream now called by their name was then 
styled the Yough-i-a-nund. ' Their chief town 
was Ro-mun-cock. ^ 

0-pe-chan-ca-nough's two brothers assisted in 
the government of this large tribe, and the three 
are spoken of by Strachey as the triumviri of 
that country.^ 

To write a history of the Pamunkeys would 
involve much of the colonial history of Virginia. 
They appear again and again upon Its pages, and 
in the acts of the General Assembly. For many 
years they formed the heart and head of the 
opposing power. Originating with Its cunning 
and relentless old king, and carried Into execu- 
tion in large part by their formidable warriors, 

» Smith, vol. i., pp. 117, 142. ' Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

3 Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 62. 

The Tribes and Nations 327 

were the massacres of 1622 and 1644. But they 
finally became our allies, and fought side by side 
with us in our wars with other Indians. 

This tribe, which is much older than the 
Commonwealth or Colony of Virginia, is still in 
existence, and forms an Interesting link which 
connects the present with the long forgotten past. 

On September 5th, 1908, the writer visited 
the reservation of the Pamunkey tribe, in King 
William County, about twenty-four miles east 
of Richmond. He was met at White House 
Station, on the Southern Railroad, by a member 
of the tribe, Mr. S. J. Sweatt, who acted as guide, 
and conducted him at once across the Pamunkey, 
taking the railroad bridge and causeway, as the 
nearest route. The causeway, which is a long 
one, built across the original channel of the river, 
was taken from the soil of the reservation. 
The guide represented this as being an invasion 
of their rights. He even said that they had had 
trouble in preventing two burial grounds being 
cut away for this work. They were saved, how- 
ever, and stand out like little hills, on the green 
sward which now covers the part dug away. 

The railroad runs through the reservation, 
nearly at its northern limit. The area of the 
whole tract is now only some seven hundred or 
eight hundred acres, having been subjected to 
successive reductions. 

Our first visit was to the chief of the tribe, 
George Major Cooke. The chief was not at 
home, he was engaged in one of the proper ways 

328 The Forest Primeval 

an Indian chief would be engaged — he was fishing. 
Promises were held out to us that he would 
return in a short time, and meanwhile we were 
introduced to his squaw, his papooses, and his 

His squaw, in whom we viewed the successor 
to the queens of Pamunkey, is a typical Indian, 
in middle life, thin, and then engaged, for it was 
still early, in the affairs of housekeeping. Her 
name is Theodora Octavia Cooke, which com- 
pound of Greek, Latin, and English could hardly 
be considered as appropriate to her as would have 
been one of her own language. Around her was 
a goodly set of little Indians, but the two oldest 
sons were absent, being off with their father 
fishing, these two were Major Thomas Cooke, 
twenty years old, and Ottigney Pontiac Cooke, 
aged eighteen. With their mother were George 
Theo Cooke, a fine-looking young Pamunkey of 
seventeen, Captola Eulalia Cooke, a pretty girl 
of fifteen, Tecumseh Deerfoot Cooke, a hand- 
some little fellow of eight, Dora Laughingwater 
Cooke, an attractive little girl of five, and 
Pocahontas Tarquinas Cooke, a sweet and pretty 
baby of two. 

The house of the chief was a good-sized frame 
building, with outhouses and garden, and one 
of the first one meets with on entering the 
reservation. In this could be seen somxC pottery 
and bead-work, made by the members of the 
family. The pottery was all pipes, various de- 
vices being presented, such as the terrible war- 

The Tribes and Nations 329 

rior's head, the tomahawk, canoe, and other 
shapes. The bead-work was very pretty, taking 
the shape of women's belts, necklaces, and fobs. 

While these things were being examined, our 
guide had gone to his house, which was not far 
distant, and now returned with a buggy, rather 
the worse for wear, drawn by a small, claybank 
horse. With this locomotive equipment we set 
off at a brisk trot, to view the reservation. 

Our road was alv^ays down some green lawn, 
about thirty feet wide, bordered by cornfields, 
and enclosed by fences. These roadways were 
kept as a common of pasture by the tribe. The 
ruts cut by the carriages did not much disfigure 
them, and the general appearance of the whole 
place was made picturesque by these long 
stretches of green grass. 

The place is called ''Indian Town," and of 
course one would naturally expect to find at 
least one cluster of houses, to which the name 
would more particularly apply. But there is 
none such. The "Town" is a collection of small 
farms, ranging from ten to twelve acres, or 
thereabouts, in area. A large part of the reser- 
vation is still forest. The settlement gives one 
the impression of a well-populated rural neigh- 
borhood, the several houses being so near to each 
other, that from any one, you would be able 
to see probably three or four others. All are 
of frame, and most below the general average of 
size and appointment found among the smaller of 
the white farmers, although all are framed accord- 

330 The Forest Primeval 

ing to our general plans for such structures. 
Two were of two stories, and pretty good houses, 
but most are very small. 

The cultivation of the land is the real support 
of these people. They still do a little hunting 
and fishing, but their territory has been so much 
reduced, and their right to roam, fish, and hunt 
in the neighborhood has been so curtailed, that 
this source of income can only be considered as 
an occasional addition to their more sure support, 
which is derived from tilling the soil, over which 
their warlike ancestors roamed at will. 

The tribe is now reduced to about one hundred 
and ten, and there are some twenty-five of their 
houses on the reservation. Of these, about five 
are now unoccupied. The land belongs to the 
State of Virginia, held in trust by it for the tribe 
as a whole. No one thus owns any part of the 
soil in severalty. The various tracts are assigned 
to the head of a family for his life. The house 
is built at his expense, and is his property. If 
he die leaving a family, it will be allowed to re- 
main in the possession of his widow or son, the 
youngest being preferred, if of suflficient age, and 
if he have the desire to continue to occupy it. 
The theory is, that every one must have a sufli- 
cient piece of land, and If there should be a de- 
mand made by a member, who was unprovided 
with land, if necessary, a part would be taken 
from him who held the largest piece. 

We stopped on the roadside a Mr. Bradby, the 
former chief. He was very affable, his large 

The Tribes and Nations 331 

round face smiling beneath a torn, straw hat. 
He looked the picture of health, but not particu- 
larly Indian. He was impressed with the need 
of education for his tribe, and thought that with 
better facilities, his brethren might distinguish 
themselves at the bar, in medicine, or other such 
liberal calling. 

We visited several families. They received 
us very politely, were thoroughly friendly, and 
seemed to be pleased at the interest which they 
felt the outside world took in them. One of the 
most agreeable and interesting was a tall, and 
very powerful man, Mr. Samson, who, at ten in 
the morning, was sitting on his front porch shav- 
ing before a small round mirror, of a very irregular 
surface, hung up on the front of the house. He 
wore a small black moustache, but for all that, 
was an Indian all over. He was clad in a thick 
gray undershirt, corduroy pants, and rubber 
boots, though the day was dry and warm. 

His house he had built with his own hands. It 
had two rooms which were just about large 
enough for him to move around in. He was 
a merry bachelor, possibly sixty years old, but 
who looked fifteen years younger. He did not 
know how old he was. When asked how he, so 
good looking a mian, had escaped the fascinations 
of the fair sex, he laughed very heartily. His 
general defense for his conduct was that the 
women now were not what they used to be; they 
seemed to be of so much more flippant a nature 
than formerly, and not half so fond of hard work. 

332 The Forest Primeval 

Mr. Samson did not seem to think, that in losing 
one of these modern helpmeets he had lost much, 
but yet, the possibihties of matrimony he still 
considered within his reach. 

One old woman we called upon, the oldest 
member of the settlement, and who lived in one 
of the two best houses, was feeling so unwell that 
we did not stay long. She was about eighty 
years old. We found her sitting by a little wood 
fire, with a sunbonnet on. She had felt very 
cold in the early morning, and was still suffering, 
so we thought it kindness to leave her. 

At every house was to be seen one or more 
guns. One family was cutting up apples to dry. 
Another was getting ready to move to New York 
where the father worked, the family coming 
down to Pamunkey during the school vacation 
season. This family had a very new house, 
which presented quite a contrast to most of the 
others. The mother of this family was a Chicka- 
hominy Indian. One of their daughters, who was 
present, was a buxom young squaw, very fair, 
and still attending school. When looking at 
her, we could not help thinking of the lonely, but 
very happy, Mr. Samson, who lived just a little 
bit down the road. 

The guide thought the chief had probably 
caught enough fish by this time, so we drove 
down the verdant thoroughfares towards his 
home. These thoroughfares were soft enough 
for the horses feet, and pleasant enough to drive 
over, but they were not kept in the best condition. 

The Tribes and Nations 333 

Little labor seems to ever have been bestowed 
upon them. Where a lagoon passes across the 
road, it simply stays there ; no effort is made to 
bridge it, nor fill up the road. At one place, a 
broad and deep pond occupied the road for some 
distance. Our driver calmly drove down into it, 
and kept going until he pulled up out of it, on 
the other side. All this had the charm of being 
just so perfectly natural. 

When we reached the chief's house, we found 
that he had returned, and, having received the 
letters of introduction which we had left for him, 
he was very affable. He was tall, rather thin, a 
typical looking Indian, in appearance not an 
unworthy successor of 0-pe-chan-ca-nough and 
Tot-to-pot-to-moy. Being asked if he minded 
having his photograph taken, he complained a 
little of the way he had to sit for pictures of 
which he never got a copy. But we promised 
to give him a copy of this picture, if he would 
honor us with a sitting. The question of cos- 
tume then came up. The chief had been exhib- 
ited at the Jamestown Exposition, and, in order 
to present a proper appearance, had let his hair 
grow long, and has not cut it since. He prompt- 
ly decided that his separate, individual picture 
he would have taken in costume, so, arranged in 
all the regalia of deerskin and beads, armed with 
spear, bow, arrows, and tomahawk, he stood in 
solitary grandeur while a kodak was snapped in 
front of him. And then, a group-picture, in his 
ordinary costume had to be taken, so the chief 

334 The Forest Primeval 

and his squaw, sitting side by side, surrounded 
by six of their offspring, were similarly tortured. 

The guide, who was the second Pamunkey 
husband of a white woman, now took us to his 
house, one of the best on the reservation, where 
the writer was presented to this fair admirer of 
the Pamunkeys. She was a very nice looking 
young woman, with as dark complexion as many 
of the Indians. The house was surrounded by 
flowers, and presented a very tidy appearance. 

There are only two houses of a public character 
on the reservation, the schoolhouse, a little, 
whitewashed affair, so small that you would 
never think it a public building, and the church. 
This latter is prettily situated in a tall grove of 
trees, and is of a respectable size. The Pamun- 
keys are all Baptists; Okee's reign is ended. 

The authority of the chief, who is elected by 
the tribe, is more persuasive than otherwise. He 
is the titular head of the tribe, decides disputes 
on the reservation, keeps order, and represents 
the tribe in all its public affairs. Associated 
with him is a council of four. 

The tribe pays no taxes to the State of Vir- 
ginia, except the tribute imposed upon it in the 
early days of the settlement, when it became 
tributary to the English, acknowledging the 
superiority of the Crown of Great Britain. This 
tribute consists in game, which the chief delivers 
each year to the Governor of Virginia, at the 
State capitol, on 'New Year's day. According 
to the varying circumstances of the chase, it may 

The Home of a Pamunkey Indian 

The Tribes and Nations 335 

be a deer, a wild turkey, ducks, or fish. The 
local tax imposed upon each man of the tribe is 
the sum of one dollar. The chief receives no 
salary, and this fund goes for other general 

Little of the aboriginal Indian appears to-day 
in the settlement, for the houses, furniture, and 
costume correspond to those of the neighborhood, 
but the Indian physiognomy is presented per- 
fectly in many cases, and these Pamunkeys, if 
dressed in the costume of their ancestors, could 
not be distinguished from those met with in 
1 607. 

Their customs of marriage, and all such im- 
portant matters, are now in conformity with 
Virginia law. The authority of the chief extends 
to the adjustment of small difficulties arising 
in the settlement, but punishment for homicide 
would be meted out by the regular courts of the 
Commonwealth. The chief has no sufficient 
force at his disposal to cope with such serious 

The Pamunkeys consider themselves a poor 
people. Their cultivation of the soil is fairly 
good, corn and peas being their chief products 
but they are not large proprietors, and they have 
to plant the same field over and over again 
allowing the land no time to rest. Many have 
gone outside for employment. The population 
of the tribe is about at a standstill. No mar- 
riages are now contracted with any but other 
Indians, or white people, the Pamunkeys holding 

33^ The Forest Primeval 

themselves, as they do, superior to the colored 
people. The Indian type, presented by all the 
children the writer saw, was very distinct. 

This little settlement represents the largest or- 
ganized body of the formerly large number of 
Virginia Indians. As such, a deep historic 
interest attaches to them, not only for what they 
immediately represent, but also as constituting 
an exception to the general scheme of the con- 
struction of society, as at present organized; 
for here, on the banks of the river Pamunkey, 
there still exists tribal government. 

The Mat-ta-po-nys. These lived on the river 
now named after them, but which was originally 
called the Mat-ta-pa-ment, In what is now King 
William or King and Queen County. Their King 
was Wer-o-waugh. ' They numbered one hundred 
and forty, and could muster thirty warriors.^ 
They are said to have been a branch of the 

This tribe was also called the Mat-ta-pam-i- 
ents or Mat-ta-pa-ments. 

The following measure passed in 1662 shows 
that the Virginians were always ready to do 
justice to these people: 

''It is ordered by the assembly that Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Goodrldge be summoned to appear 
before the honorable governor and council at 
next quarter court to answer the complaint of 
the king of the Mat-ta-po-ny Indians concerning 

' History of Travaile into Virghiia, p. 62. 
» Smith, vol. i., p. 117. 

The Tribes and Nations 337 

the burning of his English house,' and that the 
said Indian king have notice given him to be 
present." ^ 

This tribe is also yet in existence and occupies 
a reservation in King William County. They 
number in all about fifty. 

In 1894, trustees were appointed for the Mat- 
ta-po-ni tribe in King William County: "Said 
trustees shall be governed by the laws now in 
force in regard to Indians and their reservations 
in this State; and, further, shall have the right 
upon the vote of the majority of the trustees, and 
also a majority of the members of the tribe 
above twenty-one years of age, to expel from 
their reservation any person who has no right 
upon said reservation, or any member of the 
tribe who shall be guilty of any unlawful offense : 
provided that any person expelled from said 
reservation shall have the right of appeal to the 
county court of King William from the decision 
of the trustees and the members of the tribe. " ^ 

The Ar-ro-ha-tecks. These lived in Henrico, 
a little below the Powhatans. Their military 
force was thirty warriors. The chief was Ash- 
u-a-quid. "^ 

Their chief town was Ar-ro-ha-teck.^ 

The Ap-po-ma-tucks. This tribe lived on the 
river of that name, in Chesterfield County, and 
counted sixty warriors. Their wer-6-ance was 

" House built after the English method. » 2 Hening, 155. 

3 Acts 1893-4, P- 973; 1895-6, P- 923- 

4 Smith, vol. i., pp. 116, 117, 142. s Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

338 The Forest Primeval 

Co-quo-na-sum. It was the Queen of this tribe 
who was appointed to bring Captain Smith water 
to wash his hands with, when he was carried cap- 
tive before Powhatan. Their chief town was at 
Bermuda Hundred, near Petersburg.' It was 
assauhed by Sir Thomas Dale in December, i6i i, 
in revenge for some injuries done by them, and 
taken without the loss of a man.- They were 
bitter enemies of the English, and were among 
those against whom Bacon conducted his 
campaign in 1676. 

Over one of the small villages of this tribe 
ruled a sister of Co-quo-na-sum. In 1610 she 
lured fourteen of the English into her town, in- 
sisting upon their leaving their guns in the boat. 
The women were afraid of them, she said. The 
English were slaughtered to a man. In revenge, 
the town was burned, and many of the Indians 
slain. ^ 

The Yough-ta-munds, also written Yough-i-a- 
nunds. They lived on the headwaters of the 
Pamunkey, which In that part bore this name, 
probably In Hanover County, or on the south 
side of the York, possibly In both places. The 
word "yough" in Indian meant four. We may 
surmise from this fact, that this tribe was a 
composite one."* 

This tribe once numbered seventy, and Its 
wer-6-ance was Po-mis-ca-tuck.^ 

» Smith, vol. i., pp. ii6, 117, 142, 162; Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

^ Stith, p. 124. 3 Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 56. 

■» Smith, vol. i., pp. 117, 142. 

s Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 62. 

The Tribes and Nations 339 

These six were the inherited tribes, the follow- 
ing were added to them, by the conquests or 
diplomacy of Powhatan. 

We will first take the tribes on the James, or 
its tributaries and connections. They were: 

The We-an-ocks. These lived in Charles 
City, Prince George and Surry counties, and 
claimed one hundred warriors. Their King 
was Ka-quoth-o-cun, ' and their chief town, 

This tribe is mentioned in the acts. It was 
their king who illegally sold the Powhatan 
Indian, already mentioned. 

They are again mentioned in the acts, in 1693, 
when the Surry County Court was ordered **to 
assign a particular mark to each of the towns of 
the Weyonock Indians" by which all their hogs 
were to be marked, and providing penalties for 
purchasing any not properly marked.^ 

The Pas-pa-heghs. This tribe lived in James 
City and Charles City counties, and in their 
territory Jamestown was located. They num- 
bered forty warriors, and their wer-6-ance was 
Wo-chin-cho-punck. Their chief town was at 
Sandy Point, on the James. Wo-chin-cho-punck 
violently resented the intrusion of the English 
into his territories. He was taken prisoner by 
Captain Smith, and carried to Jamestown."^ He 
escaped, and was finally killed by the English, 
on February 9, 1610. 

' Smith, vol. i., p. Il6. * Bu-rk, vol. Hi., p. 89. 

33 Hening, 109. < Smith, vol. i., p. 223. 

340 The Forest Primeval 

Captain Smith tells us that he kept **the king 
of Pas-pa-hegh in shackles, and put his men to 
double tasks in chains, till nine and thirty of 
their kings paid us contribution, and the offend- 
ing savages sent to Jamestown, to punish at our 
own discretion: in the two years I stayed there, 
I had not a man slain." ' 

The king of this tribe had certainly good 
ground for his opposition to the Jamestown set- 
tlement. We are told of those who held Smith 
in captivity: "Much they threatened to assault 
our fort, as they were solicited by the king of 
Pas-pa-hegh, who showed at our fort great signs 
of sorrow for this mischance." "" 

The story of the death of this chief is thus 
told us by Strachey: 

"Wo-chin-cho-punck, wer-6-ance of Pas-pa- 
hegh, on whom on the 9th of February, 1610, whilst 
he, with a company of his people, was attempting 
some practice upon our old blockhouse at James- 
town, and had been for the same sulking about 
there some two or three days and nights. Cap- 
tain George Percy, governor of the town, sent 
forth Ensign Powell and Ensign Waller to make 
surprise of him, if they could possibly, and bring 
him alive into the town ; but they not finding him 
at any such advantage^ yet loath to loose him, 
or let him escape altogether, set upon him (he 
being one of the mightiest and strongest savages 
that Powhatan had under him, and was therefore 
one of his champions, and one who had killed 

» Smith, vol. ii., p. loo. ' Smith's True Relation, p. 28. 

The Tribes and Nations 341 

treacherously many of our men, as he could be- 
guile them, or as he, at any time found them by 
chance single in the woods, strayed beyond the 
command of the blockhouse), and Powell run- 
ning upon him, thrust him twice through the 
body with an arming sword'; howbeit, his people 
came in so fast, and shot their arrows so thick, 
as our men being unarmed "" (in their doublets^ 
and hose* only) and without pieces,^ were fain 
to retire whilst the Indians recovered the wer-6- 
ance's body, and carried it away, with a mighty 
quickness and speed of foot, and with a horrible 
yell and howling; howbeit, the lieutenant of the 
blockhouse, one Puttock, followed hard and 
over-reached one of the cro-nock-o-es, or chief 
men, and, closing with him, overthrew him, and, 
with his dagger, sent him to accompany his 
master in the other world." ^ 

The Or-zi-nies. This tribe dwelt upon the 
north bank of the Chickahominy. The name 
of their village appears on the map as 0-ze-nick, 
in James City County. Their wer-6-ance was 
Kis-san-a-co-men. They were of an independ- 
ent nature, and resented, and resisted, the pay- 
ment of the tribute of corn, when demanded by 
Sir George Yeardley, after the departure of Sir 
Thomas Dale.'' 

The Chick-a-hom-i-nys. This tribe lived on 

' A sword made especially for use in battle. 

' Without their armor. 

3 An outer body-garment worn by men. 

< A man's garment covering the legs and waist. s Firearms. 

* Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 59. i Stith, p. 140. 

342 The Forest Primeval 

the river named after them in New Kent County. 
They occupied a pecuhar position of independ- 
ence. At one time they were under Powhatan's 
authority, but freed themselves from it, and 
made treaties with the EngHsh on their own 
account, containing stipulations for their pro- 
tection against him. They are described as a 
"dogged nation," who were too well acquainted 
with our wants, refusing to trade, with as much 
scorn and insolency as they could express. They 
had over three hundred warriors.' 

Their chief town was Or-a-pax.^ 

Stith gives us this account of this tribe; 
writing of the year 1614, after the marriage 
of Rolfe and Pocahontas: 

"The Chick-a-hom-i-nies were a stout, daring 
and free people. They had no wer-6-ance, or 
single ruler, but were governed, in a republican 
form, by their elders. These were their priests, 
and some of the wisest of their old men, as 
assistants to them. In consequence of these 
principles of government, they took all oppor- 
tunities of shaking off Powhatan's yoke, whom 
they looked upon and hated, as a tyrant. And, 
therefore, they had taken advantage of these late 
times of hostility and danger as well to the In- 
dians as to the English, to assert their liberty. 
But now, seeing Powhatan so closely linked with 
the English, both in affinity and friendship, they 
were In great concern and dread, lest he should 

' Smith, vol. i., pp. Ii6, 193; vol. ii., pp. 16-17. 
* Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

The Tribes and Nations 343 

bring them again to his subjection. To prevent 
which, they sent ambassadors to Sir Thomas 
Dale; excusing all former injuries, and promising 
ever after to be King James's faithful subjects: 
That they would relinquish the name of Chick-a- 
hom-i-nies, and be called Tas-san-tes-sus, or 
Englishmen, and that Sir Thomas Dale should 
be their governor, as the King's deputy. Only 
they desired to be governed by their own laws, 
under their eight elders, as his substitutes. 

" Sir Thomas Dale, hoping for some advantage 
from this, willingly accepted their offer. At the 
day appointed, with Captain Argall and fifty 
men, he went to Chick-a-hom-i-ny ; where he 
found the people assembled, expecting his com- 
ing. They treated him kindly; and the next 
morning, having held a council, the peace was 
concluded on these conditions: 

"That they should forever be called English- 
men, and be true subjects to King James and his 
deputies ; 

"That they should neither kill, nor detain, 
any of the English, or of their cattle, but should 
bring them home; 

"That they should be always ready, to fur- 
nish the English with three hundred men, against 
the Spaniards, or any other enemy; 

"That they should not enter any of the Eng- 
lish towns, before sending in word, that they 
were new Englishmen ; 

"That every fighting man, at gathering their 
corn, should bring two bushels to the store, as 

344 The Forest Primeval 

a tribute; for which he should receive as many 

"That the eight chief men should see all this 
performed, or receive the punishment themselves ; 
and for their diligence, they should have a red 
coat, a copper chain, and King James's picture 
and be accounted his nobleman. " ' 

We have the following references and provi- 
sions in regard to them in the Acts of 1660: 

"Upon the petition of Harquip the Mangoi 
of the Chickahomini Indians to have all the lands 
from Mr. Mallory's bounds to the head of Matta- 
poni River and into the woods to the Pamunkeys, 
it is accordingly ordered that the said land be 
confirmed to the said Indians by patent, and that 
no Englishman shall upon any pretense disturb 
them in their said bounds, nor purchase it of 
them unless the major part of the great men shall 
freely and voluntarily declare their consent in 
the quarter court or assembly. 

"Whereas a certain grant hath been made to 
the Chickahomini Indians of certain lands in 
which tract Major-General Manwaring Hamond 
claimeth a divident ^ of two thousand acres 
granted him by patent, it is ordered, that the 
said Major-General Hamond be desired to pur- 
chase the same of the Indians or to procure their 
consent, for the preservation of the country's 
honor and reputation." ^ 

» Stith, pp. 130, 131, 140, 149. ^Dividend, a share or portion. 

J A case of conflicting patents in which the English claimant is 
virtually ordered to make terms with the Indians in a manner satis- 
factory to them. 

The Tribes and Nations 345 

"Harqulp, mangoi of the Chickahomini In- 
dians, in behalf of himself and the other Indians 
the fourth day of April, 1661, did acknowledge 
before the grand assembly the sale of a parcel of 
land from the cliffs to the little creek to Mr. 
Philip Mallory, being formerly surveyed by 
Lt.-Col. Abrahall, and James Cole, containing 
seven hundred forty-three acres according to 
a survey of the same made for the said Mr. 
Mallory by George Morris the twentieth of June 
last." ' 

We have the following reference to them in 
1662: "Whereas information hath been made 
that one Edward Dennis hath, without title or 
claim, seated himself in the Indian town of 
Chickahomini; it is therefore ordered that the 
said honorable the governor be pleased to send 
his warrant for the said Dennis, and as he finds 
occasion to give order for his continuance or 
removal. " ' 

Members of this tribe still survive. As 
mentioned in the account of the Pamunkeys, one 
of the women met there, who had married into 
that tribe, was herself spoken of, and recognized 
as being originally Chickahomini. 

The Qui-yong-he-o-han-ocks, also called 
the Tap-pa-han-nas. They lived in Surry and 
Prince George counties, and claimed sixty war- 
riors. They are spoken of as "a small nation of 
Indians seated on the south side of the James, 
about ten miles above Jamestown. " Their chief 

' 2 Hening, 34, 35, 39. 2 /^^^^ 161. 

346 The Forest Primeval 

was Pe-pis-cu-mah, also called Pe-pis-co. "This 
good king did ever affect the English above all 
others; and although he was very zealous to his 
false gods, yet he confessed, that the English 
God as much exceeded his, as their guns did his 
bow and arrows; and in time of drought he would 
often send presents to Captain Smith, to pray to 
his god for rain." ' 

The chief town was about Upper Chipoak 
Creek. ^ 

There is a romance about Pe-pis-co. He fell 
in love with, and stole away from the terrible 
0-pe-chan-ca-nough, one of his "chief women." 
For this offense, Powhatan deposed him from 
being wer-6-ance of this tribe, and put in his 
place, one of his sons, Tat-a-co-pe, then an infant, 
with his mother 0-ho-lasc, as regent. 

Pe-pis-co was suffered to remain in the coun- 
try, and retained a little village upon the James, 
with some few people about him. He lost his 
kingdom, but he kept the woman he loved. 
Strachey tells us about this love affair. He says 
he made her "his best beloved," and that "she 
travels with him upon any remove, in hunting 
time, or in his visitation of us, by which means, 
twice or thrice in a summer, she hath come unto 
our town; nor is so handsome a savage woman 
as I have seen amongst them, yet, with a kind of 
pride, can take upon her a show of greatness; 
for we have seen her forbear to come out of her 

' Smith, vol. i., p. Ii6; Stith, p. 99. 
* Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

The Tribes and Nations 347 

quintan or boat through the water, as the others, 
both maids and married women, usually do, 
unless she were carried forth between two of 
her servants. I was once early at her house (it 
being summer time), when she was laid without 
doors, under the shadow of a broad-leaved tree, 
upon a pallet of osiers,' spread over with four or 
five gray mats, herself covered with a fair white 
dressed deer skin or two; and when she rose, she 
had a maid who fetched her a frontal ^ of white 
coral and pendants of great but imperfect colored 
and worst drilled pearls, which she put into her 
ears, and a chain, with long links of copper w hich 
they call Tap-o-an-tam-i-na-is, and which came 
twice or thrice about her neck, and they account 
a jolly ^ ornament; and sure thus attired with 
some variety of feathers and flowers stuck in their 
hair they seem as debonaire, quaint, and well 
pleased as (I wist) a daughter of the house of 
Austria behune"* with all her jewels; likewise her 
maid fetched her a mantel, which they call put- 
ta-wus, which is like a side cloak, made of blue 
feathers, so artificially^ and thick sewed together, 
that it seemed like a deep purple satin, and is 
very smooth and sleek; and after she brought her 
water for her hands, and then a branch or two 
of fresh green asshen^ leaves, as for a towel to 
dry them. '* ^ 

' Dried willow branches. ^ An ornament for the forehead. 

3 Beautiful. 4 Bedecked. 

5 Alade with so much art or skill. * Ash. 

7 Strachey, History of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 57-8. 

348 The Forest Primeval 

The War-as-coy-acks. These hved In Isle of 
Wight County, and could muster sixty fighting 
men. Their chief was Tac-kon-e-kin-ta-co. 
They appear frequently in the early history. 
Living on the same river, and between James- 
town and the sea, the settlers were forever 
passing by their territory. The king of this 
tribe gave Captain Smith kindly warning against 
Powhatan, when Smith was on his way to pay 
him a visit, telling him that Powhatan meant to 
kill him. 

The name is pronounced War-ris-queek. 

The following account of an incident in con- 
nection with this tribe and its wer-6-ance is 
preserved by Strachey: 

"Tac-kon-e-kin-ta-co, an old wer-6-ance of 
Warraskoyack, whom Captain Newport brought 
prisoner with his son Tangoit about 1610, to our 
lord general,' lying then at Point Comfort, and 
whom again his lordship released upon promises 
and a solemn contract, made by the old man, to 
exchange with his lordship, after he should have 
gathered in his harvest. In August following, 
five hundred bushels of wheat, beans, and peas, 
for copper, beads, and hatchets; and for the 
better color (carrying away his son) and left a 
nephew (as he said) of his with his lordship, as a 
pawn or hostage, until the performance; how- 
belt, the imposture nephew, privy beforehand 
to the falsehood of the old man, watching his op- 
portunity, leapt overboard one night (being kept 

' Lord De la War. 

The Tribes and Nations 349 

in the Delawar^); and to be more sure of him 
at that time, fettered both legs together, and put 
a sea gown^ upon him, yet he adventured to get 
clear by swimming, and either to recover the 
south shore, or to sink in the attempt. Which 
of either was his fortune we know not, only (if 
he miscarried) we never found his body nor 
gown, and the Indians of Warraskoyack would 
oftentimes afterward mock us, and call to us 
for him, and at length make a great laughter, and 
tell us he was come home; how true or false is no 
great matter; but indeed the old king, after that 
time, refused to perform the former bargain, 
for which his lordship, to give them to under- 
stand how he would not be so dealt withal, sent 
forth two companies, those of his lordship's 
own company, under the command of Captain 
Brewster, and some seamen, under Captain 
Argall, who fell upon two towns of his, and 
burnt them to the ground, with all their goodly 
furniture of mats and dishes, wooden pots and 
platters, for of this sort is all their goodly epi- 
trapezia^ or vessels belonging to their use for the 
table, or what else."^ 

In 1623, the tribe was attacked for the partici- 
pation it had taken in the massacre of 1622.^ 
And later, a fort, or "castle," was built by the 
English within its borders.^ 

' The ship named after Lord De la War. 

^ A skirted garment or wrapper meant to be worn at sea. 

3 Things put upon the table. 

'• Strachey, History of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 58-9. 

s Smith, vol. i., pp. 116, 180. ^ Stith, pp. 303, 322. 

350 The Forest Primeval 

The tribe gave its name to one of the origi- 
nal eight counties into which the colony was 

The principal village of this tribe was War-as- 
coy-ack/ This was in the neighborhood of 

The Nan-se-monds. This was a large tribe, 
living in the county named for them. They 
had two hundred warriors, and four wer-6-ances, 
Wey-ho-ho-mo, Am-e-pet-ough, Wey-on-gop-o, 
and Tirch-tough.^ 

The following Incident Is told of them. In 
order to keep things quiet at Jamestown, Cap- 
tain Smith sent one Martin off to make a settle- 
ment at Nan-se-mond. "That nation, having 
been reduced to subjection and contribution 
used him kindly; yet such was his unreasonable 
jealousy^ and fear, that he surprised^ the poor 
naked king, and his monuments^ and houses, 
with the island, wherein he lived, and there 
fortified himself. But the Indians soon perceiv- 
ing his fear and distraction, ventured to assault 
him; and they killed several of his men, released 
their king, and gathered and carried off a 
thousand bushels of corn; whilst he. In the mean- 
time, never once offered to Intercept them but 
sent to the President,^ then at the Falls,' for 

' Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

' Smith, vol. i., p. 116; Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 59. 
3 Distrust of the Indians. " Attacked without warning, 

s The houses in which were deposited the embalmed remains of 
the Indian kings. 

« Captain Smith. "^ The falls of the James. 

The Tribes and Nations 351 

thirty soldiers. These were presently sent him 
from Jamestown.'" 

Their chief town was Nan-se-mond, situated 
on the river of that name, about the mouth of 
West Branch/ 

In 18 16, new trustees were appointed for the 
Nansemonds. These were empowered to make 
reasonable rules and regulations for the govern- 
ment of the tribe and the expenditure of the 
money held in trust for them. This was to 
continue so long as the tribe had any members 
still living. Any funds remaining were to be 
paid into the public treasury.^ 

The Ches-a-peaks. This tribe live in Norfolk 
and Princess Anne Counties, and according to 
Smith, in his day, numbered one hundred 

The tribe took its name, which means The 
Mother of Waters, from the bay and river which 
bordered its territories. The bay has kept its 
original name, but the Chesapeake River is now 
called the Elizabeth.^ 

Lane, who visited this tribe In 1585, said that 
"the territory and soil of the Ches-e-pe-ans 
(being distant fifteen miles from the shore), for 
pleasantness of seat, for temperature of climate, 
for fertility of soil, and for the commodity of the 
sea, besides multitudes of bears (being an excel- 
lent good victual), and great woods of sassa- 

' Stith, p. 104. ' Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

3 Acts 1816-17, p. 174. -» Smith, vol. i., p. 116. 

s Stith, pp. 13, 73. 

352 The Poorest Primeval 

fras and walnut trees, are not to be excelled by 
any other whatsoever. " 

The names of three of the towns of this tribe 
are known to us: Ap-a-sus, situated on the west- 
ern side of the mouth of the Lynnhaven River; 
Ches-a-pi-ooc, on the western bank of that 
stream something more than half way to its 
source, and Ski-co-ak, situated on the eastern 
side of the Elizabeth River, on the site of the 
City of Norfolk. All were palisadoed as they 
appear on White and de Bry's map made in 
connection with the Roanoke Island settlement. 

Ski-co-ak is mentioned in the earliest of all 
the accounts. Captain Barlow, in his report to 
Raleigh of the voyage made in 1584, says, meas- 
uring from Pom-e-i-ock: '*Six days' journey 
from the same is situated their [the Indians'] 
greatest city, called Ski-co-ak, which this people 
[those of Roanoke Island] affirm to be very 
great; but the savages were never at it, only 
they speak of it by the report of their fathers and 
other men, whom they have heard affirm it to 
be above one hour's journey about it." 

Lane also in speaking of this region said that 
the place of greatest strength of the king who 
ruled here was "an island, situate in a bay, the 
water round about the island very deep." 
From the geography of this region it would ap- 
pear that this must refer to the same place. 

A great Indian town therefore once existed 
here, but the later writers. Smith stating the 
military strength of this tribe at only one 

The Tribes and Nations 353 

hundred, and Burk/ saying that the principal 
town of this tribe was about Lynnhaven, which 
would make it either Ap-a-sus or Ches-a-pi-ooc 
instead of Ski-co-ak, are explained by a state- 
ment in Strachey."" He tells us of the prophecy, 
already mentioned, made by the Indian priests 
to Powhatan, that from the east, through the 
Chesapeake Bay, a people would arise which 
would destroy his empire. He therefore, among 
others, waged war upon and destroyed the Chesa- 
peaks, fearful of everything and everybody in 
that region. 

Ski-co-ak, no doubt, at this time fell and its 
greatness vanished. In Strachey's time, he 
says, that the Indians who then occupied this 
territory were "new inhabitants," Powhatan 
having peopled the conquered territory with 
those on whom he could rely. 

The Ke-cough-tans. These Indians lived in 
Elizabeth City County, their chief town being 
Ros-cows at, or near, Hampton. They had once 
been a large and powerful tribe, but had been 
reduced by war to twenty.^ 

Strachey gives us this account of the land of 
the Ke-cough-tans, which. Including as it does 
Hampton and Old Point Comfort, is of more than 
ordinary importance: 

"Po-chlns, one of Powhatan's sons at Ke- 
cough-tan, was the young wer-6-ance there at the 

' Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

* Historic of Travaile into Virginia, p. 105. 

3 Smith, vol. i., p. 116; Burk, vol. iii., p. 89., 


354 The Forest Primeval 

same time when Sir Thomas Gates, heutenant- 
general, took possession of it. It is an ample and 
fair country indeed, an admirable portion of 
land, comparatively high, wholesome, and fruit- 
ful; the seat sometimes of a thousand Indians 
and three hundred Indian houses, and those 
Indians, as it may well appear, better husbands' 
than in any part else that we have observed, 
which is the reason that so much ground is there 
cleared and opened, enough, with little labor 
already prepared, to receive corn, or make vine- 
yards of two or three thousand acres: and where, 
beside, we find many fruit-trees, a kind of goose- 
berry, cherries, and other plums, the maricock,"* 
apple, and many pretty copsies or boskes (as 
it were) of mulberry trees, and is (indeed) a 
delicate and necessary seat for a city or chief 
fortification, being so near (within three miles 
by water) the mouth of our bay, and is well 
appointed a fit seat for one of our chief com- 

"Upon the death of an old wer-6-ance of this 
place, some fifteen or sixteen years since (being 
too powerful neighbors to side^ the great Pow- 
hatan), it is said Powhatan, taking the advan- 
tage, subtly stepped in and conquered the 
people, killing the chief and most of them, and 
the reserved he transported over the river, 
craftily changing their seat and quartering them 

' Husbandmen. 

2 The maracock is the passion-flower. The fruit is of the size 
and color of a pomegranate. 3 To be by the side of. 

The Tribes and Nations 3v55 

amongst his own people, until now at length the 
remainder of those living have with much suit 
obtained of him Pa-yan-ka-tanck, which he not 
long since (as you have heard likewise) dispeopled. 
They might have made of able men for the wars, 

On the York, the former "River of Pamun- 
key," were the following: 

The Wer-o-wo-co-mo-cos. Thus were called 
those living at this place, which is the best known 
Indian settlement in Virginia, being "the chief 
place of council," and Powhatan's favorite 
residence. It was in Gloucester County, on the 
north side of the York, and is thus spoken of by 
Smith: "About twenty-five miles lower on the 
north side of this river is Wer-o-wo-co-mo-co, 
where their great king inhabited when I was 
delivered him prisoner; yet there are not past 
forty able men."^ Smith is here not narrating 
his captivity, but the tribes in Virginia. 

The principal town of this tribe was Wer-o- 
wo-co-mo-co, near Rosewell.^ 

The Kis-ki-acks. This tribe lived on the 
south side of the York, nearly opposite Wer-o-wo- 
co-mo-co. They numbered forty or fifty men. 
Their wer-6-ance was Ot-ta-ho-tin. This place 
was one of Powhatan's strongholds."^ The name 
of this tribe was afterwards corrupted by the 

' Historic of Travaile into Virginia, p. 60. 

'Smith, vol. i., p. 117. 

3 Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. ^ Smith, vol. i., pp. 117, 206. 

356 The Forest Primeval 

English into Cheesecake, and so appears in the 
acts of the Grand Assembly/ 

Their principal town was Kis-ki-ack, in York 

We have the following references to them in 
the early acts: 

"Considering the great use and benefit the 
country may enjoy from the Chess-koi-ack 
Indians being kindly used by us, and being 
sensible that with the few guns they have amongst 
them they cannot prejudice us being a small, 
inconsiderable nation, it is ordered by the 
present Grand Assembly to show other Indians 
how kind we are to such who are obedient to our 
laws that the said Chis-koi-ack Indians quietly 
hold and enjoy the land they are now seated upon, 
and have the free use of the guns they now have, 
any act or order of assembly to the contrary 
notwithstanding. " 

"Whereas, by the report of Lieutenant-Colonel 
John Walker, who was appointed by the honor- 
able Governor to enquire thereinto, it appears 
that Mrs. Mary Ludlow, relict and executrix of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Ludlow, deceased, 
entrencheth upon the Ches-qui-ack Indians' land 
at Py-an-ka-tanck. It is ordered by the As- 
sembly that the said Indians enjoy their whole 
tract of land according to the said survey and 
that the said Ludlows' heirs enjoy the remainder 
of their patent, and further order that no other 
person enjoying or being seated on any part of 

' Stith, p. 53. ' Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

The Tribes and Nations 357 

the said Indians' lands possess the same but to be 
with all convenient speed removed, and the com- 
missioners appointed by the right honorable 
Governor to enquire into and settle all differences 
and disputes concerningthe said Indians' lands. "' 

The following eleven tribes are mentioned by 
Strachey as also being upon the Pamunkey, by 
which he meant the York and its branches: 

The Can-taun-kacks, one hundred warriors, 
the chief, 0-hon-na-mo. 

The Mum-map-a-cu-nes, one hundred, their 
wer-6-ance being Ot-ton-de-a-com-moc. 

The Pa-ta-uncks, one hundred; wer-6-ance, 

The Och-a-han-nankes, forty, with the chief 

The Cas-sa-pe-cocks, one hundred, with the 
chief Keig-hang-ton. 

The Ka-pos-e-cocks, four hundred, with the 
wer-6-ance Wey-a-mat. 

The Pam-a-rekes, four hundred; wer-6-ance, 

The Sham-a-pas, one hundred, with the 
wer-6-ance Nan-su-a-punck. 

The Or-a-paks, fifty; Powhatan himself being 
the wer-6-ance. 

The Chep-e-cho, three hundred with their 
wer-6-ance 0-pop-oh-cum-unck. 

The Par-a-co-nos, ten ; having only a Taux- 
wer-6-ance,^ At-tos-so-munck. 

'2 Hening, 39, 153. 

•That is a little, subordinate, or vice-wer-6-ance. 

358 The Forest Primeval 

As being in command of these tribes and three 
others which are hkewise included in our list, 
Strachey names 0-pe-chan-ca-nough, Ke-quo- 
taugh, and Taugh-ha-i-ten, all three Powhatan's 
brethren, who he says are the triumviri, as it 
were, or three kings of a country called 0-pe- 
chan-e-ke-no, upon the headofPamunkey River, 
and these may make three hundred men.' 

It is interesting to learn from this, that 0-pe- 
chan-ca-nough's name was, like his brother 
Powhatan's, derived from that of a place. It 
was a territorial name, similar to that often 
borne by the nobles of other countries. 

On the Pa-yan-ka-tank River lived a tribe of 
that name, which numbered about fifty or sixty 
serviceable men. They lived on the north side 
of the stream, near its mouth in Middlesex 
County.^ Their principal town was at Turk's 
ferry. ^ 

The Pa-yan-ka-tanks, who numbered forty to 
fifty when Strachey, that observant first secre- 
tary of the colony, wrote his account of his 
travels, are said by him to be the remains of the 
conquered Ke-cough-tans, transported there by 
Powhatan. The original Pa-yan-ka-tanks were 
destroyed, or reduced to slavery by Powhatan 
in 1608. They were then his neighbors and sub- 
jects. We have a brief account of this tragedy: 
"The occasion was to us unknown; but the 

» Historic of Travaile into Virginia, p. 62. 

* Smith, vol. i., pp. 117, 160. •J Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

The Tribes and Nations 359 

manner was thus performed. First, he sent 
divers of his men to lodge amongst them one 
night, pretending a general hunt, who were 
to give the allarum' unto an ambuscado^ of a 
greater company within the woods, who, upon 
the sign given at the hour appointed, environed 
all the houses, and fell to the execution. Twenty- 
four men they killed outright (the rest escaping 
by fortune and their swift footmanship) ; and 
the long hair of the one side of their heads, with 
the skin cased off with shells or reeds, they 
brought away to Powhatan. They surprised 
also the women and children and the wer-6-ance, 
all whom they presented to Powhatan. The 
locks of hair, with their skins, they hanged on 
a line between two trees; and of these Powhatan 
made ostentation, as of a great triumph, at 
Wer-o-wo-co-mo-co, not long after, showing 
them to such of the English as came unto him 
at his appointment, to trade with him for corn, 
thinking to have terrified them with this spec- 

On the Rappahannock more Indians lived 
than on any of the other rivers. The north side 
of this fine stream was covered with their 
villages. Among these tribes were: 

The Cut-tat-a-wo-men. These lived on the 
north side of the river, in Lancaster County 
near the Chesapeake Bay. Here they had one 

• Signal. ' Ambuscade. 

J Strachey, Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 36. 

36o The Forest Primeval 

branch of their tribe, with thirty fighting men, 
and another, much farther up the river, in King 
George County, of twenty. Their king was 
kindly disposed towards the English.' 

Their principal town In King George was 
about Lamb Creek, and that in Lancaster, at 

The Rap-a-han-ocks. These were frequently 
called Top-pa-han-ocks. They also lived on the 
north side of the river named from them, and 
could count one hundred men.^ 

They are mentioned in the acts In the year 
1662, and were thus protected in regard to 
holding their tribal lands: 

'*It is ordered by this present assembly upon 
the report of the committee for the Indian affairs, 
that Colonel Moore Ffantleroy enjoy at present 
no more of the land he is now seated upon than 
what Is cleared with the houses built upon and 
marsh lying before it, and that he pay to the 
King of Rappahannock Indians fifteen match- 
coats before he depart the town in part of thirty 
due per a former agreement, and the other fif- 
teen when the differences between him and the 
said Indians shall be ended by the commissioners 
to be appointed by the right honorable Governor, 
provided they allow him five hundred acres of 
high land ground belonging to his said dlvident,'^ 
Provided if the said commissioners shall not 

* Smith, vol. i., pp. 117, 185. " Burk, vol. iii., 

3 Smith, vol. i., pp. 117, 184-5. 

4 Dividend, that is, share of land due him. 

The Tribes and Nations 361 

determine the same then to be referred to the 
next assembly, and all other claims of the said 
Ffantleroy's to any other land of the said Indians 
are hereby declared void."' 

Their principal town was on Rappahannock 
Creek, in Richmond County/ 

The Nan-taugh-ta-cunds. These were also 
called Nand-tangh-ta-cunds. They lived on the 
south side of the river, in Caroline and Essex 
counties, and boasted one hundred and fifty 
men. Their king was friendly to the English.^ 

Their chief town was at Port Tobacco Creek. "^ 

The Mo-raugh-ta-cunds. These were also 
called the Mo-raugh-ta-ow-nas. They lived 
upon the north side of the Rappahannock, in 
Lancaster and Richmond counties, and had a 
fighting force of eighty men.^ Their principal 
town was on Moratico River.^ 

The Pis-sa-secks. This tribe dwelt on the 
north side of the Rappahannock, in King George 
and Richmond counties. It is mentioned as 
having a king kindly disposed towards the 

Their chief town was above Leeds town.^ 

The Do-egs. This tribe dwelt in Stafford 
County, not far from the site of Fredericksburg, 
on the north side of the Rappahannock. They 
are mentioned in connection with stealing the 

' 5 Hening, 152. * Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

3Smith, vol. i., pp. 117, 160, 185. ■* Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

5 Smith, vol. i., pp. 117, 184. * Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

7 Smith, vol. i., p. 185. ^ Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

362 The Forest Primeval 

hogs of the early settlers at Jamestown, and later, 
in the acts of Assembly, as committing many 
murders of the English.' 

On the Potomac lived several tribes, of whom 
we can name: 

The Wigh-co-com-o-cos, who lived on the 
south side of the river, near its entrance into 
Chesapeake Bay. They numbered one hundred 
and thirty men/ 

Their principal town was on Wi-co-com-i-co 
River, in Northumberland County.^ 

They were celebrated for being very small in 

The Cek-a-ca-wons. This tribe lived on the 
same side, as the above, a little farther up the 

Their principal town was on the Coan River/ 

The Nom-i-nies. This tribe lived on the 
south side of the river, in Westmoreland County. 
A creek and cliffs fronting on the Potomac are 
named for them/ 

The 0-naw-man-i-ents. This was a tribe of 
one hundred living on this river/ 

Their principal town was on Nomini River, in 
Westmoreland County/ 

The Pa-taw-o-mekes. These gave their name 
finally to the whole river, which was at first 

' 2 Hening, 193. =" Smith, vol. i., p. 118; i Hening, 515. 

3 Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. ^ Smith, vol. i., p. 129. 

5 Smith, vol. i., p. 118. * Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

7 Stith, p. 53. 8 Smith, vol. i., pp. 118, 160. 

9 Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

The Tribes and Nations 363 

known as the Co-hon-go-roo-ta, at least from 
its junction with the Shenandoah, eastward 
to the Chesapeake Bay. They hved some 
distance up the stream, on the west side, in 
Stafford County. They numbered two hundred. 
Their wer-6-ance was Jap-a-zows, the one who 
helped to kidnap Pocahontas, when Argall cap- 
tured her. He is described as being an old friend 
of Smith, and so a friend of the whole English 
nation, ever since the first discovery of the 

Their principal town was on Potomac Creek, 
in Stafford County.- 

In 1662, the King of the Potomacs was Wa- 
han-gan-o-che. He was tried before the Grand 
Assembly on a charge of high treason and murder 
and acquitted.^ 

The sale of several parts of their tribal lands 
is thus recorded: 

"Whereas Wa-han-gan-o-che, king of the Po- 
tow-meck Indians, acknowledged before the 
committee appointed for the Indian business, 
the sale of that whole tract of land possest by 
Mr. Henry Mees in Potowmeck according to the 
bounds and marked trees which he confest 
were marked in his presence and with his con- 
sent, it is ordered by the assembly that the said 
Mees enjoy the said land to him and his heirs 
for ever. 

"Whereas Wa-han-gan-o-che, king of the 

' Smith, vol. i., pp. Ii8, 177; Stith, p. 127. 

^ Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. * 2 Hening, 149. 

364 The Forest Primeval 

Potowmeck Indians, acknowledged before the 
committee for the Indians' business that he sold 
a parcell of land to Mr. Peter Austin, and hath 
received for the same ten matchcoats, and also 
promised to lay out the said Austin's land with 
marked trees, it is ordered by the assembly 
that the same being accordingly bounded, Mr. 
Austin enjoy the same to him and his heirs 
for ever. 

"Upon the report of the committee appointed 
for settling the Indian business, it is ordered by 
the assembly that all differences of land between 
colonell Gerrard Fowke and Wa-han-gan-o-che, 
king of the Potowmeck Indians, be referred to 
such persons as the governour shall commission- 
ate therein who are fully to end and determine 
the same. 

"It is ordered by the assembly upon the report 
of the committee for the Indian businesses that 
all the differences of land between captain Giles 
Brent and Wa-han-gan-o-che, king of the Potow- 
meck Indians, be referred to the determination 
of such commissioners whom the honourable 
governour shall appoint therein."' 

It would appear that this king had further 
trouble with the English, for we find, in 1665. 
that a part of the money with which a fort was 
to be built, was to be paid for by a levy of eighty 
thousand pounds of tobacco, "besides the sale 
of the king of Potomacks land. " It would seem 
from this that his land was confiscated for the 

' 2 Hening, 154, 205. 

The Tribes and Nations 365 

use of the pubhc. As the trained bands of 
James City and Surry counties were to contri- 
bute six days' work towards the perfecting the 
fort, it is probable that it was to be buih not 
far from the capital.' 

The Taux-en-ents. This tribe lived on the 
western side of the Potomac, in Fairfax County. 
They numbered forty men. Their chief was 

Their principal town was at, or near Mount 
Vernon, General Washington's home.^ 

The Moy-a-ons. This tribe lived on the east- 
ern side of the Potomac, in Prince George's 
County, Maryland. They are represented as 
friendly to the English."^ 

The Sec-o-wo-com-o-cos. This tribe lived on 
the north side of the Potomac, and had forty 

We also hear of the Po-tap-a-cos, with twenty 
men; the Pam-a-ca-e-acks, with sixty; and the 
Moy-o-wance, with one hundred. 

The No-cotch-tanks, with eighty, are also 
mentioned as living on this river.^ 

On the Patuxent River lived the following: 
The Paw-tux-ents. This tribe lived upon the 
east side of the river to which they gave the 
name, in Calvert County, Maryland. Their 
King was Na-men-a-cus.' 

I 2 Hening, 220. ' Smith, vol. i., p. 118; vol. ii., p. 61. 

3 Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. ■< Smith, vol. i., p. 177. 

s Smith, vol. i., p. 118. ^ Smith, vol., i., p. 118. 

"> Smith, vol. i., pp. 118, 148, 183; vol. ii., p. 61. 

366 The Forest Primeval 

The Ac-quin-ta-nack-su-aks. This tribe, with 
the one above, and the next, is merely mentioned 
as living on this river. 

The Mat-ta-pan-i-ents. It is said of these 
three, that they could only muster two hundred 
and that "they inhabit together, and are not so 
dispersed as the rest. These of all others we 
found most civil to give entertainment."' 

On the Eastern Shore, the tribes which were 
possibly under Powhatan's dominion were: 

The 0-zi-nies. This tribe lived in Queen 
Anne County, Maryland.^ 

The Kus-kar-a-wa-ocks. This tribe lived in 
Dorchester County, Maryland, on the river of 
that name, also called the Kus, and now, the 
Nan-ti-coke. They numbered two hundred.^ 

By some, this tribe is given greater importance 
than this statement would imply. One map, 
which the writer has seen, gives their name to all 
the region now known as the Eastern Shore of 
Maryland, and a large part of Delaware, as if 
they were an independent confederacy. 

The Tants Wigh-co-com-i-cos. This tribe 
lived in Worcester County, Maryland, on the 
Po-co-moke, or Wigh-co River. 

Smith says of these two tribes: "The people 
of those rivers are of little stature, of another 
language from the rest, and very rude. " "^ 

The Gin-gas-kins. We know nothing of this 

' Smith, vol. i., p. Il8. * Ihid., p. 120. 

i Ibid., p. 120. ^Ibid., p. 120. 

The Tribes and Nations 367 

tribe except that in 1813, the tribal holding of 
lands by the Gin-gas-kin Indians, in the county of 
Northampton, was done away with, and an 
equitable division of the lands was made to the 
members of t-he tribe, to be held by them sepa- 
rately, in fee simple. These lands were to be 
free from taxes so long as they should be held 
by the members of the tribe or their descendants. 

The Ac-co-han-ocks. This tribe lived just 
about on the boundary line of Accomac and 
Northampton counties, on the Bay side. They 
numbered forty men. Their king was Kep-to- 

Their principal town was on the Ac-co-hon-noc 

The Ac-cow-macks. This tribe lived nearly a t 
the south end of Northampton County. They 
numbered eighty warriors. Captain Smith said 
of the wer-6-ance of this tribe: "This king was 
the comeliest, proper, civil savage we encount- 
ered. " He is elsewhere spoken of as the "laugh- 
ing king." He says, in general, of this tribe, 
that it "doth equalize any of the territories of 
Powhatan, and speak his language." The soil 
is also praised, and the good harbors for small 
vessels. On the whole, we are informed that 
this was one of the very best of the tribes.^ 

Their chief town was about Cherton's, in 
Northampton County."* 

' Smith, vol. i., p. 120; vol. ii., p. 61. 

* Burk,vol.iii.,p.89. This river is now called Occohannock Creek. 
3 Smith, vol. i., pp. 120, 173; vol. ii., p. 63. 

* Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

368 The Forest Primeval 

We have the following reference to them in 
the acts of 1660: 

"Whereas the Indians of Accomack have 
complained that they are very much strait- 
ened for want of land, and that the English seat 
so near them, that they receive very much 
damage in their corn. It is ordered that the 
right honorable the governor give commission 
to two or three gentlemen with a surveyor living 
on this side the bay (that have no relation to 
Accomack), to go over thither, and lay out such 
a proportion of land for the said Indians as shall 
be sufficient for their maintenance with hunting 
and fishing excluded. And that the land so 
laid out to be so secured to the Indians that they 
may have no power to alienate it, or any part of 
it hereafter to the English."' 

We have attempted, not without difficulty, to 
enumerate the many tribes which were under 
Powhatan's rule. We are by no means satisfied 
that there are not mistakes in the above list; we 
may both have inserted tribes which do not belong 
there, and omitted others which do. The sources 
of information on the subject are none too clear. 

It will be observed that some of these tribes 
bore the names now given to the rivers in the 
State. A few of our Indian names of rivers are 
due, no doubt, to the fact that they were so called, 
not because such or such an Indian word would 
\/ be a good name to apply to such or such a 

' 2 Hening, 13. 

The Tribes and Nations 369 

stream, but the Meherrin River was the Meher- 
rin River, because the Meherrin Indians Hved 
upon that river, and so on. Conversely, the 
rivers, which were, of course, much older than 
the tribes, and which had been named by them, 
gave their names to many of the tribes living on 
them, among these clearly are the Potomacs, 
the Rappahanocks, the Chesapeaks, the Patux- 
ents, the Chickahominys, the Appomattox, and 
so on. Captain Smith, himself, writing of this 
fact in his General History says: "The most of 
those rivers are inhabited by several nations, or 
rather families of the name of the rivers. " 

Other tribes evidently took their names from 
the places where they lived. Among these were 
the Pamunkeys, the War-as-coy-acks, the Nan- 
se-monds, the Ac-co-macs. The Cherokees, 
however, derive their name from their descent 
— Sons of Fire they called themselves. 

How much of interest lies locked up in these 
names, most of which will remain untranslatable 

The domain ruled by Powhatan was sur- 
rounded by enemies who were forever at war 
with it. Among these may be most conspicu- 
ously mentioned the Man-a-kins, or Mon-a- 
cans, and the Man-na-ho-acks. Both of these 
powers lay to the west, the first on the headwaters 
of the James, and the latter on the headwaters of 
the Rappahannock. It was from this region that 
the colony had endless trouble, and many of its 

2,70 The Forest Primeval 

defensive measures, after its first struggles with 
those nearer Jamestown, were directed towards 
stopping the incursions of these enemies, who 
were not only enemies of the Enghsh, but of the 
native Indian population, which lived in the 
portion of Virginia first occupied by the English. 

Strachey tells us in speaking of the difi^erent 
nations of Indians in Virginia: "The people 
dififer not much in nature, habit, or condition, 
only they are more daring upon us; and before 
we erected our forts amongst them, there was 
ever enmity, and open wars, between the high 
and low country, going by the names of Mon-o- 
cans and Powhatans."' 

The Man-na-ho-acs, included eight tribes, 
these were: 

The Man-na-ho-acs, who lived in Stafford and 
Spottsylvania counties; the Shack-a-ko-nies, in 
Spottsylvania ; the Whon-ken-ties, and the Taux- 
i-tan-i-ans in Fauquier County; the Teg-ni-na- 
ties, and the Has-si-nun-ga-es, in Culpeper; the 
Ont-ponies, and the Ste-gar-a-kies in Orange 
County.' The last seven paid tribute to the 

The Mon-a-cans included five tribes: 

The Mon-a-cans, who lived on the James, 
above the falls, and numbered thirty warriors, 
their chief town, Ras-sawck, being In the fork of 
James Rlver'^; the Mon-a-sic-cap-a-noes, who 

^ Historie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 27. ^ Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

3 Historie of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 102, 104. 

4 The southeastern extremity of Goochland County. 

The Tribes and Nations 371 

lived in Louisa and Fluvanna counties; the 
Mon-a-has-san-oes, who lived in Bedford and 
Buckingham counties; the Mas-sin-a-cacs, who 
lived in Cumberland; and the Mo-hem-en-choes, 
who lived in Powhatan County.' The four last 
paid tribute to the Mon-a-cans.^ 

The 'Mas-sa-wo-mecks. Strachey thus de- 
scribes this tribe: 

"Beyond the mountains, from whence is the 
head of the river Patomac, do inhabit the Mas- 
sa-wo-mecks (Powhatan's yet mortal enemies) 
upon a great salt water, which by all likelihood 
may either be some part of Canada, some great 
lake, or some inlet of some sea, that may fall into 
the west ocean or Mar del sur.^ These Mas- 
sa-wo-mecks are a great nation, and very popu- 
lous, for the inhabitants of the heads of all those 
rivers, especially the Pa-taw-o-mecks, the Paw- 
tux-unts, the Sas-ques-a-han-oughes, the Tock- 
woghs, are continually harbored^ and frightened 
by them, of whose cruelty the said people gener- 
ally complained, and were very Importunate with 
Captain Smith, and his company, In the time of 
their discovery, to free them from those tormen- 
tors, to which purpose they offered food, conduct, 
assistants, and continual subjection, which were 
motives sufficient for Captain Smith to promise 
to return with sufficient forces to constrain the 

'Burk, vol. iii., p. 89. 

'Historie of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 102, 104. 

J South Sea, the Pacific Ocean. 

4 Forced to keep their harbors. 

372 The Forest Primeval 

said Mas-sa-wo-mecks; but there were in the 
colony at that time such factions and base envies, 
as mahce in some, in some ignorance, and coward- 
ice in others, made that opportunity to be lost. 

"Seven boats full of these Mas-sa-wo-mecks, 
the discoverers before mentioned, encoun- 
tered at the head of the bay, whose targets, 
baskets, swords, tobacco-pipes, platters, bows 
and arrows, and everything, showed they much 
exceeded them of our parts; and their dexterity 
in their several boats, made of the barks of trees 
sewed together, and well luted' with gum and 
resin of the pine tree, argueth that they are 
seated upon some great water. Of these, like- 
wise, it may please the Lord General again to 
inform himself, as circumstances and occasion 
shall serve to turn against Powhatan. "- 

Toward the north, other tribes were the Tock- 
woghes, who lived in a strongly fortified town, 
on a river of that name, now called the Chester,^ 
and the At-quan-a-chuks, who lived in Delaware. 

In this direction we also hear of the Sen-e-dos, 
who occupied the north fork of the Shenandoah 
until 1732, when they were exterminated by hos- 
tile tribes from the south. And the Tus-ca-ro- 
ras, whose villages were near Martinsburg, in 
the present county of Berkeley."^ 

' Having the cracks or openings closed. 

' Strachey's Historic of Travaile into Virginia, pp. 104-5. 

3 Smith, vol. i., p. 182. 

■» Peyton's History of A ugusta County, p. 6. 

The Tribes and Nations 373 

This was presumably a branch of the great 
nation of that name which was well known. 

The Cin-e-las, on the Upper Potomac, are 
mentioned, but not much is known of them. 

And the Pas-cat-a-way tribe, on the head- 
waters of the Chesapeake, is also mentioned. 
They were alive and gave trouble to the Vir- 
ginia and Maryland authorities as late as 1699.^ 

Strachey gives us this account of the Sus-que- 
han-nocks; who lived still farther to the north: 

"Upon the river inhabit a people called the 
Sus-que-sa-han-oughs; they are seated two days 
higher than was passage for the discoverers' 
barge; howbeit, sixty of the Sus-que-sa-han-oughs 
came to the discoverers with skins, bows, arrows, 
targets, swords, beads, and tobacco-pipes for 

"Such great and well-proportioned men are 
seldom seen, for they seemed like giants to 
the English, — yea, and to the neighbors — yet 
seemed of an honest and simple disposition, 
with much ado restrained from adoring the dis- 
coverers as gods. These are the most strange 
people of all those countries, both in language and 
attire; for their language it may well beseem their 
proportions, sounding from them as it were a 
great voice in a vault or cave, as an echo: their 
attire is the skins of bears and wolves; some have 
cassocks made of bears' hides and skins, that a 
man's neck goeth through the skin's neck, and 
the ears of the bear are fastened to his shoulders 

• Sainsbury Abstracts, vol. ii., pp. 1 10-15. 

374 The Forest Primeval 

behind, the nose and teeth hanging down his 
breast, and at the end of the nose hangs a bear's 
paw; the half sleeves coming to the elbow were 
the necks of bears, and the arms through the 
mouth, with paws hanging In a chain for a jewel; 
his tobacco-pipe three-quarters of a yard long, 
prettily carved with a bird, a deer, or with some 
such device, at the great end, sufficient to beat 
out the brains of a horse. Likewise their bows, 
and arrows, and clubs, are suitable to their 
greatness; these are scarce known to Powhatan. 

''They can make well near six hundred able and 
mighty men, and are palisadoed In their towns 
to defend them from the Mas-sa-wo-mecks, their 
mortal enemies. Five of these chief wer-6-ances 
came aboard the discoverers, and crossed the 
bay with them In their barge; the picture of the 
greatest of them Is portrayed, the calf of whose 
leg was three-quarters of a yard about, and all the 
rest of his limbs so answerable to that proportion, 
that he seemed the goodliest man they ever saw; 
his hair the one side was long, the other shorn 
close, with a ridge over his crown like a coxcomb ; 
his arrows were five quarters ' long, headed with 
flints or splinters of stones, in form like a heart, 
an Inch broad, and an Inch and a half or more 
long; these he wore in a wolf's skin on his back 
for his quiver, his bow in the one hand and his 
club in the other. "^ 

They included, or were otherwise known as 

' Of a yard. 

* Stracliey's Ilistorie of Travaile into Virginia, p. 39. 

The Tribes and Nations 375 

the Con-es-to-gas, and occupied a large area to 
the north of the Chesapeake Bay, and appear to 
have been a separate confederacy.' 

It is said that the Sus-que-han-oughs origin- 
ally occupied the headwaters of the Chesapeake 
Bay, but were driven out by the CIn-e-la tribe 
and took up their residence on the upper waters 
of the Potomac, which was supposed to be one of 
their favorite places of residence, as the remains 
of their villages are more numerous in this re- 
gion than elsewhere in the Valley. ^ 

In 1662, the colony took this action in regard 
to them: 

"Upon the report of the committee appointed 
for the Indian affairs it appearing that the Sus- 
que-han-nock and other Northern Indians, in 
considerable numbers, frequently come to the 
heads of our rivers, whereby plain paths will 
soon be made which may prove dangerous conse- 
quence, and also affront the English and destroy 
their stocks and get the whole trade from our 
neighboring and tributary Indians; it is ordered 
by this assembly that for prevention and of other 
injuries to the English from the Marylanders for 
the future, that the honorable governor cause 
by proclamation a prohibition of all Marylanders, 
English and Indians (which they have already 
done to us), and of all other Indians to the north- 
ward of Maryland, from trucking, trading, bar- 
tering, or dealing with any English or Indians to 

' The American Anthropologist, vol. xi., p. 260. 
^ Peyton's History of Augusta County, p. 6. 

376 The Forest Primeval 

the southward of that place, and that, by com- 
mission from the governor. Colonel Wood be 
impowered to manage the said business."' 

The Not-to-ways settled on the river which 
still bears their name, at a late period, some time 
after 1665. Their principal town was in Nanse- 
mond or Southampton County, very near the 
North Carolina line. They are first mentioned 
in the acts in 1693, when the County Court of 
Surry County, which then stretched to the North 
Carolina line, was ordered to designate certain 
marks with which all swine owned by the In- 
dians of the various towns of this tribe should be 
marked.^ In 1728, Colonel Byrd speaks of them 
as "the only Indians of any consequence now re- 
maining within the limits of Virginia." Notto- 
way Town, as their last stronghold was called, 
then numbered about two hundred inhabitants. 

The condition of this tribe, as it existed in 1734, 
is presented to us in an act of Assembly passed 
to enable them to sell a part of their lands, thus: 
"Whereas the Nottoway Indians are possessed 
of a large tract of land, laid off in a circle of six 
miles diameter, lying and being on the north side 
of Nottoway River, in the county of Isle of Wight ; 
and of one other large tract of land, of six miles 
square, lying and being on the south side of the 
said river, in the county aforesaid: And, where- 
as, that nation is of late reduced, by wars, sick- 
ness, and other casualties, to a small number, and 

' 2 Hening, 153. » 3 Hening, 109. 

The Tribes and Nations zil 

among those that remain, many are old and 
unable to labor or hunt, so that one of the said 
tracts will be sufficient for them, and more than 
they are able, in their present circumstances, to 
cultivate, or make any use of. " 

Permission was therefore granted to the chief 
men of the Nottoway nation to sell the circular 
tract of six miles in diameter, with the consent of 
their trustees, John Simmons, of Isle of Wight, 
and Thomas Cocke and Benjamin Edwards, of 
Surry, who were appointed to see the act duly 
executed. No one person was allowed to buy 
more than four hundred acres, and all the formal- 
ities of the transfer, which was to vest a fee 
simple title in the purchaser, were minutely 
prescribed, including the making of livery of 
seisin upon the land. One tract of four hundred 
acres was to be purchased at what \^'as to be 
adjudged a reasonable price, for a glebe for the 
use of the parson of the parish wherein the land 
lay. The trustees themselves were not to pur- 
chase any of the land without the consent of the 
Governor and Council. ' 

About 1800, the Nottoways, residing in the 
County of Southampton, were authorized to sell 
three hundred acres of their land; and in 1803, 
they were allowed, under the direction and with 
the approbation of their trustees, to sell all of 
their lands lying on the north side of Nottoway 
River. The money arising from the sale of the 
lands was to be applied by the trustees in the 

' 4 Hening, 459. 

378 The Forest Primeval 

manner they thought best for the benefit of the 
tribe, so long as any of them were living. Should 
the tribe become extinct, the money or any part 
of it which was left, was to be paid into the public 
treasury. ^ 

In 1816, new trustees were appointed for the 
Nottoways. These trustees were empowered 
to make reasonable rules and regulations for the 
government of the tribe and for the expenditure 
of the money held in trust for them, which was 
to continue so long as any number of the tribe 
were living. Any funds remaining on hand were 
then to be paid in to the public treasury.^ 

In 1 8 19, this tribe was reduced to only twenty- 
six persons. They owned a tract of land con- 
taining 3912 acres. This being more than they 
needed for agricultural purposes, 3000 acres of 
it were authorized to be divided and sold for 
their benefit. The trustees of the tribe and the 
Indians were to unite in making the deeds of 
conveyance. The purchase money was to be 
invested for the benefit of the tribe. ^ 

The Indians objected to this, as being too 
much land to be sold, and it was soon afterwards 
reduced to 11 24 acres which was to be thus 
disposed of. ^ 

In 1838, a plan was adopted whereby the 
members of the tribe could have their parts of the 
land belonging to them set aside so as to be 

' I Shepherd's Statutes at Large, 274; 3 ditto, 36. 

'Acts, 1816-17, p. 174. 

3 Acts, 1818-19, p. 198. * Acts, 1820, p. 92. 

The Tribes and Nations 379 

held separately in fee, but this w as only to apply 
to those who were not likely to become charge- 
able to any part of the Commonwealth. ' 

The Me-her-rins, whose name still lives in 
the designation of one of our rivers, are said 
to have been a branch of the fierce Sus-que- 
han-nas, who were enemies of the Powhatans. 

This tribe settled in Virginia after the arrival 
of the white man, some time after 1665, They 
lived on the Me-her-rin River. In 1753, a parish 
bearing their name was formed in the southern 
part of Brunswick and Greensville counties. 
This was a fierce and warlike tribe. 

The Oc-ca-nee-chees were a small but very im- 
portant nation which dwelt in this same region, 
in what was later Mecklenburg County. Their 
chief town was near Clarksville, close to the 
Carolina border, and situated upon an island in 
the Staunton, or Roanoke, River. It was de- 
fended by three strong forts, and was a cele- 
brated center of trade for the other Indians for 
hundreds of miles. It was no doubt this fact 
that made their language the universal medium 
of communication as stated by Beverley.^ 

In 1676, when this tribe came into special 
prominence on account of events connected with 
Bacon's Rebellion, its king was Per-si-cles. He 
is described as a very brave man and ever true 
to the English, but during the tragic events of 
that year he was finally brought into hostility to 
them, and was killed in the battle which then 

' Acts, 1838, p. 213. * Beverley, book 3, p. 24. 

380 The Forest Primeval 

occurred, Nathaniel Bacon being in command of 
the Virginians. 

The Tu-te-loes also lived upon the Me-her-rin 
River. This tribe was connected with the Caro- 
lina Indians, probably the Cho-wan-ocs. ' 

West of the Mon-a-cans and Man-na-ho-acks 
lay the mountains. These were, in the posses- 
sion of many powerful and terrible tribes. The 
most prominent of these tribes were the follow- 

"The Shaw-a-nese, the most considerable of 
the Algonquin tribes, had their principal villages 
east of the Alleghanies, near the present town of 
Winchester, but their possessions extended west 
to the Mississippi River. Foote asserts^ that 
the Shaw-a-nese owned the whole Valley of Vir- 
ginia, but had abandoned it. He gives no 
authority for the statement, and we have found 
none in our researches. Of all the Indian tribes 
with whom our ancestors came in contact, the 
Shaw-a-nese were the most bloody and terrible, 
holding all other men, as well Indians as whites, 
in contempt as warriors, in comparison with 
themselves. This estimate of themselves made 
them more restless and fierce than any other 
savages, and they boasted that they had killed 
ten times as many white people as any other 
Indians did. They were a well-formed, active, 
and ingenious people, capable of enduring great 

' Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, p. 97. 
' Second Series, p. 159. 

The Tribes and Nations 381 

privations and hardships, were assuming and 
imperious in the presence of others not of their 
own nation, and sometimes very cruel. " ' 

"That portion of the valley now embraced 
within the county of Augusta, is not known 
to have been the home or fixed residence of any 
tribe of Indians at the period of its settlement, 
nor is it known that it was not the home of some 
tribe or branch of a tribe. Such red men as 
Lewis met on entering Augusta, in 1732, were 
friendly, and so continued for over twenty years. 

''That the country had been, previous to 1732, 
permanently occupied, is indicated by the re- 
mains of barrows,- cairns^ and ramparts, com- 
posed of mingled earth and stones, found at 
different points in the county, notably near 
Waynesboro, on Lewis Creek, a few miles below 
Staunton; on Middle River near Dudley's mill, 
and at Jarman's Gap, north of Rockfish. The 
cairn at Jarman's Gap is probably sepulchral, 
and may have been intended and used as a 
place of worship. 

"The Valley of Virginia was, in 17 16, when 
visited by Spotswood, without extensive forests, 
but the margins of streams were fringed with 
trees; there were pretty woodlands in the low 
grounds, and the mountain sides were densely 

■ Peyton's History of Augusta County, p. 5. 

All quotations from Peyton's History of A ugusta County are repro- 
duced by the permission of L. W. H. Peyton, the personal representa- 
tive of Col. John Lewis Peyton. ^ Burial mounds. 

J Heaps of stones, often for sepulchral purposes. 

382 The Forest Primeval 

covered with timber trees. The wood destroyed 
by autumnal fires was replaced by a luxuriant 
growth of blue grass, white clover, and other 
natural grasses and herbage. The spontaneous 
productions of the earth were everywhere numer- 
ous and abundant, and there were many varieties 
of game and wild animals. The luxuriance of 
the vegetation evinced the fertility of a soil which 
required only the hand of art to render it in the 
highest degree subservient to the wants of man. 
But the nomads of the valley were averse to 
improvement; their indolence refused to culti- 
vate the earth, and their restless spirit disdained 
the confinement of sedentary life. To prevent 
the growth of timber and preserve the district 
as pasture, that it might support as much game 
as possible, and that the grass might come for- 
ward in the early spring, the savages, before retir- 
ing into winter quarters, set on fire the dry grass 
and burnt over the country. The absence of 
trees in an extensive quarter of the county north- 
west of Staunton, led our ancestors to style it 
*The Barrens,' a name that it still bears, though 
it is interspersed at this time by handsome 
woodlands, the growth of the last eighty years. 

"The two principal non-resident tribes who 
frequented this fine country in 1716-1745 were 
the Delawares from the north and the Ca-taw- 
bas from the south. At the time Augusta was 
settled, 1732, a bloody war was progressing 
between these tribes, and the valley was the 
theater of action. In this war other tribes now 

The Tribes and Nations 383 

and again participated as the alhes of one or the 
other party, and it was at a battle on the north 
fork of the Shenandoah, in the county now 
bearing that name, that the Sen-e-dos tribe was 
exterminated. There is a burial place there 
eighteen to twenty feet high and sixty feet in 
circumference, filled with human bones, which 
testify to the truth of this tradition. " ' 

We have no map giving us the names and 
location of the Indian villages in this portion of 
the State, as we had from Smith's map, of the 
eastern and central portion, nor have we at 
hand material for the composition of such a 

An account of some of their settlements and 
antiquities is thus given us by Kercheval: 

"On the banks of the Co-hon-go-ru-ton 
[Potomac], there has doubtless been a pretty 
considerable settlement. The late Col. Joseph 
Swearengen's dwelling house stands within a 
circular wall or moat. When first known by the 
white inhabitants, the wall was about eighteen 
inches high, and the ditch about two feet deep. 
This circular wall was made of earth — is now con- 
siderably reduced, but yet plainly to be seen. 
It is not more than half a mile from Shepherds- 

"For what particular purpose this wall was 
thrown up, whether for ornament or defense, 
the author cannot pretend to form an opinion. 
If it was intended for defense, it appears to have 

' Peyton's History oj A ugusta County, pp. 5, 9. 

384 The Forest Primeval - 

been too low to answer any valuable purpose in 
that way. 

"On the Wap-pa-tom-a-ka, a few miles below 
the forks, tradition relates that there was a 
very considerable Indian settlement. On the 
farm of Isaac Vanmeter, Esq., on this water- 
course, in the county of Hardy, when the coun- 
try was first discovered, there were considerable 
openings of the land, or natural prairies, which 
are called 'the Indian old fields,' to this day. 
Numerous Indian graves are to be seen in the 
neighborhood. A little above the forks of this 
river a very large Indian grave is now [1850] to 
be seen. In the bank of the river, a little below 
the forks, numerous human skeletons have been 
discovered, and several articles of curious work- 
manship. A highly finished pipe, representing 
a snake coiled round the bowl, with its head 
projected above the bowl, was among them. 
There was the under jaw bone of a human being 
of great size found at the same place, which 
contained eight jaw teeth in each side of enor- 
mous size; and what is more remarkable, the 
teeth stood transversely in the jaw bone. It 
would pass over any common man's face with 
entire ease. ' 

"There are many other signs of Indian settle- 
ments all along this river, both above and below 
the one just described. Mr. Garret Blue, of the 
county of Hampshire, informed the author, that 

» Peyton thinks this was the bone of some animal. History of 
Augusta County, p. 7. 

The Tribes and Nations 385 

about two miles below the Hanging Rocks, in 
the bank of the river, a stratum of ashes, about 
one rod in length, was some years ago discovered. 
At this place are signs of an Indian village, and 
their old fields. The Rev. John J. Jacobs, of 
Hampshire, informed the author that on Mr. 
Daniel Cresap's land, on the north branch of 
the Potomac, a few miles above Cumberland, a 
human skeleton was discovered, which had been 
covered with a coat of wood ashes, about two 
feet below the surface of the ground. An entire 
decomposition of the skeleton had taken place, 
with the exception of the teeth: they were in a 
perfect state of preservation. 

"On the two great branches of the Shenan- 
doah there are now to be seen numerous sites of 
their ancient villages, several of which are so 
remarkable that they deserve a passing notice. 
It has been noticed, in my preceding chapter, 
that on Mr. Steenbergen's land, on the north 
fork of the Shenandoah, the remains of a large 
Indian mound are plainly to be seen. It is 
also suggested that this was once the residence 
of the Senedo tribe, and that that tribe had been 
exterminated by the southern Indians. Exclu- 
sive of this large mound, there are several other 
Indian graves. About this place many of their 
implements and domestic utensils have been 
found. A short distance below the mouth of 
Stony Creek (a branch of the Shenandoah), 
within four or five miles of Woodstock, are the 
signs of an Indian village. At this place a gun 

386 The Forest Primeval 

barrel and several iron tomahawks were found 
long after the Indians left the country. 

"On Mr. Anthony Kline's farm, within about 
three miles of Stephensburg, in the county of 
Frederick, in a glen near his mill, a rifle was found 
which had laid in the ground forty or fifty years. 
Every part of this gun (even the stock, which 
was made of black walnut) was sound. Mr. 
Kline's father took the barrel from the stock, 
placed the breech on the fire, and it soon dis- 
charged with a loud explosion. 

"In the county of Page, on the south fork of 
Shenandoah River, there are several Indian 
burying grounds, and signs of their villages. 
These signs are also to be seen on the Hawks- 
bill Creek. A few miles above Luray, on the 
west side of the river, there are three large Indian 
graves, ranged nearly side by side, thirty or 
forty feet in length, twelve or fourteen feet wide, 
and five or six feet high. Around them, in cir- 
cular form, are a number of single graves. The 
whole covers an area of little less than a quarter 
of an acre. They present to the eye a very 
ancient appearance, and are covered over with 
pine and other forest growth. The excavation 
of the ground around them is plainly to be seen. 
The three first mentioned graves are in oblong 
form, probably contain many hundreds of human 
bodies, and were doubtless the work of ages. 

"On the land of Mr. Noah Keyser, near the 
mouth of the Hawksbill Creek, stand the remains 
of a large mound. This, like that at Mr. 

The Tribes and Nations 387 

Steenbergen's, is considerably reduced by plow- 
ing, but is yet some twelve or fourteen feet high, 
and is upwards of sixty yards round at the base. 
It is found to be literally filled with human skele- 
tons, and at every fresh plowing a fresh layer of 
bones is brought to the surface. The bones are 
found to be in a calcareous ' state, with the ex- 
ception of the teeth, which are generally sound. 
Several unusually large skeletons have been 
discovered in this grave. On the lands now the 
residence of my venerable friend, John Gatewood 
Esq., the signs of an Indian village are yet 
plainly to be seen. There are numerous frag- 
ments of their pots, cups, arrow points, and other 
implements for domestic use, found from time to 
time. Convenient to this village there are 
several pretty large graves. 

"There is also evidence of an Indian town in 
Powell's Fort, on the lands now^ owned by Mr. 
Daniel Munch. From appearances, this too was 
a pretty considerable village. A little above 
the forks of the Shenandoah, on the east side of 
the South Fork, are the appearances of another 
settlement, exhibiting the remains of two con- 
siderable mounds now entirely reduced by plow- 
ing. About this place many pipes, tomahawks, 
axes, hominy pestles, etc., have been found. 
Some four or five miles below the forks of the 
river, on the southeast side, on the lands now 
owned by Capt. Daniel Oliver, is the site of 
another Indian village. At this place a con- 

" Reduced to a soft chalky condition. ' 1850. 

388 The Forest Primeval 

siderable variety of articles have been plowed up. 
Among the number were several whole pots, cups, 
pipes, axes, tomahawks, hominy pestles, etc. 
A beautiful pipe of high finish, made of white 
flint stone, and several other articles of curious 
workmanship, all of very hard stone, have been 
found. Their cups and pots were made of a 
mixture of clay and shells, of rude workmanship, 
but of firm texture. 

"There are many other places, on all our 
watercourses, to wit. Stony Creek, Cedar Creek, 
and 0-pe-quon, as well as the larger watercourses 
which exhibit evidences of ancient Indian settle- 
ments. The Shaw-nee tribe, it is well known, 
were settled about the neighborhood of Win- 
chester. What are called the 'Shawnee cabins,' 
and 'Shawnee springs,' immediately adjoining 
the town, are well known. It is also equally 
certain, that this tribe had a considerable village 
on the Babb's march, some three or four miles 
northwest of Winchester. 

"The Tus-ca-ro-ra Indians resided in the 
neighborhood of Martinsburg, in the county of 
Berkeley, on the Tus-ca-ro-ra Creek. On the fine 
farm, now owned by, and the residence of, Mat- 
thew Ranson, Esq. (the former residence of Mr. 
Benjamin Beeson), are the remains of several 
Indian graves. These, like several others, are 
now plowed down; but numerous fragments 
of human bones are to be found mixed with the 
clay on the surface. Mr. Ranson informed the 
author, that at this place the under jaw bone of a 

The Tribes and Nations 389 

human being was plowed up, of enormous size ; the 
teeth were found in a perfect state of preservation. 

"Near the Shannondale springs, on the lands 
of Mr. Fairfax, an Indian grave some years since 
was opened, in which a skeleton of unusual size 
was discovered. 

"Mr. E. Paget informed the author that on 
Flint Run, a small rivulet of the South River, in 
the county of Shenandoah, a skeleton was found 
by his father, the thigh bone of which measured 
three feet in length, and the under jaw bone 
of which would pass over any common man's 
face with ease. 

"Near the Indian village described on a pre- 
ceding page, on Capt. Oliver's land, a few years 
ago, some hands in removing the stone covering 
an Indian grave discovered a skeleton, whose 
great size attracted their attention. The stones 
were carefully taken off without disturbing the 
frame, when it was discovered that the body had 
been laid at full length on the ground, and broad 
flat stones set round the corpse in the shape 
of a coffin. Capt. Oliver measured the skeleton 
as it lay, which was nearly seven feet long. " ' 

"Among the most formidable of the Indian 
nations with which the Virginians came into 
contact and collision was the nation of *the 
Cher-o-kees, who occupied the upper valley of 
the Tennessee River and the high lands of Caro- 
lina, Georgia, and Alabama. The Cher-o-kees 

' Kercheval's History of the Valley, pp. 34 et seq. 

390 The Forest Primeval 

were the tallest and most robust of the southern 
tribes, their complexions brighter than usual with 
the red men, and some of their young women 
were nearly as fair and blooming as European 
women. They owed allegiance to the Mus-co- 
gul-ges, who stood at the head of a confederacy 
composed of Cher-o-kees, Sem-i-noles, Chick- 
a-saws, Choc-taws, and Creeks, and it is proba- 
ble that bands from all of these tribes, or at least 
warriors, accompanied the Cher-o-kees, in their 
annual visits to the Valley. Without exception, 
these southern Indians were proud, haughty, and 
arrogant, brave and valiant in war, ambitious 
of conquest, restless and perpetually exercising 
their arms, yet magnanimous and merciful to 
a vanquished enemy when he submitted and 
sought their friendship and protection.' 

"The Cherokees are known to have been 
visited by De Soto as early as 1540; but their 
interior position kept them long from any inter- 
course with the white settlers on the seacoast 
of Carolina. The first white man who is known 
to have resided among them was one Cornelius 
Dougherty, an enterprising, but lax-principled 
Irishman, who established himself as a trader in 
one of the Cherokee towns in 1690." ' 

"The word 'Cheera, ' in the language of this 
tribe, means fire, and the warriors were called 
Cher-ra-kee, meaning sons of fire, that is, of the 
divine element, and their priests were called 
Chee-ra-tag-he, men of divine fire. This word 

' Peyton's History of Augusta County, p. 6. 

The Tribes and Nations 391 

Cher-ra-kee, which applied only properly to the 
braves, came gradually to distinguish the whole 
tribe, although their nation was called by them- 
selves Tsa-rag-hee. 

"According to their own traditions, they came 
originally from the far west, but when first known 
to the Europeans, they occupied a country form- 
ing now the upper portion of Georgia, Alabama, 
and Mississippi, and the part of Tennessee 
south of the Little Tennessee River. 

"The government of the tribe was that of 
an elective monarchy, more absolute in time of 
war than in peace, and subject to deposition at 
any time. It was held at the time of the Revo- 
lution, when this tribe was an ally of Great 
Britain, by 0-con-o-stot-a, one of the greatest 
war chiefs of this nation, who held sway over it 
for half a century. Under him was the half- or 
vice-king, who was second in command, and 
acted in his stead in case of the sudden death of 
the monarch. These two rulers with the chief- 
tains, or princes of the scattered villages, com- 
posed the supreme council of the nation, which 
sat at E-cho-ta, their capital, and decided all 
important questions in peace and war. But 
over the archimagus or king, and even the 
supreme council, was the great and good spirit 
who was the guardian of the Cher-o-kee, and 
who uttered his will through the beloved man 
or woman of the tribe. 

"During and after the Revolution, this office 
was held by a woman, who often thwarted the 

392 The Forest Primeval 

deliberate and deeply concerted plans of the 
great council of the nation, with the great 
0-con-o-stot-a at its head. 

"The Cher-o-kees had no large cities, nor even 
villages, but dwelt in scattered townships in the 
vicinity of some stream where fish and game 
could be found in abundance. A number of 
their towns, bearing the musical names of Tal- 
las-se, Tam-ot-tee, Chil-how-ee, Cit-i-co, Ten- 
nas-see, and E-cho-ta, were, at the opening of the 
Revolutionary War, located upon the rich low- 
lands lying between the Tel-li-co and Little 
Tennessee Rivers.' About one-third of the 
tribe occupied these settlements, and they were 
known as the Ot-ta-ri, or, among the mountains, 
Cher-o-kees. About the same number were 
located near the headwaters of the Savannah, 
in the great highland belt, between the Blue 
Ridge and the Smoky Mountains,^ and they were 
styled E-rat-i, or, in the valley, Cher-o-kees. 
Another body, among whom were many Creeks, 
and which was somewhat more numerous and 
much more lawless than either of the others, 
occupied towns along the Tennessee, in the vicin- 
ity of Lookout Mountain. These, from their 
residence near the creek of that name, were 
known as Chick-a-mau-gas. " 

"These three bodies were one people, governed 
by one archimagus, and at this time they 

' Monroe County, Tennessee, covers all of this area. 
' The Great Smoky Mountains divide North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee, The Blue Ridge runs to the east of them. 

The Tribes and Nations 393 

numbered in all about thirty thousand people, 
between three and four thousand of whom were 
*gun men,' or warriors." 

" E-cho-ta, which was located on the northern 
bank of the Tel-li-co, about five miles from the 
site of Fort London, and thirty southwest from 
the present city of Knoxville,' contained their 
great council-house, and was the home of the 
archimagus, and the beloved woman, or pro- 
phetess of the tribe. It was their sacred town, 
or *city of refuge.'. . . Once within the limits 
of E-cho-ta, an open foe, or even a red-handed 
criminal, could dwell in peace and security. 
The only danger was in going and returning. It 
is related that an Englishman, who in self- 
defense had slain a Cherokee, once fled to this 
sacred city to escape the vengeance of the kin- 
dred of his victim. He was treated here with 
so much kindness that after a time he deemed 
it prudent to leave his asylum. The Indians 
warned him against the danger; but he ventured 
forth, and on the following morning his body 
was found on the outskirts of the town, pierced 
through and through with a score of arrows." 

"E-cho-ta contained a hundred or more cabins 
and wigwams, scattered along the bank of the 
stream, on both sides of a broad avenue, shaded 
with oaks and poplars, and trodden hard with the 
feet of men and horses. A little apart from 
the other wigwams, and more pretentious than 

* A point in Loudon County, Tennessee, would correspond with 
this description. 

394 The Forest Primeval 

the rest, was that of the prophetess. Beside it 
was its * totem' — an otter in the coils of a water- 
snake. . . . Near by was the house of 0-con-o- 
stot-a, and not far off, the grand council-house of 
the tribe, occupying a spacious opening, circular, 
of a tower-shaped construction, twenty feet 
high, and ninety in circumference. It was 
rudely built of stout poles, plastered with clay, 
and had a roof of the same material, which 
sloped down to broad eaves that gave effectual 
protection to the walls from the rain. Its wide 
entrance was covered with a couple of buffalo 
skins hung so as to meet together in the middle; 
but it was without windows, an aperture in the 
roof, protected by a flap, serving to let the smoke 
out, and the light in, just enough to make more 
sensible the gloom that shrouded the interior. 
Low benches, neatly made of cane, were ranged 
around the circumference of the room; and on 
these sat the warriors of the tribe when they 
gathered to the great councils; but they were 
cleared away when the braves met here to per- 
form their green-corn dance. " 

"In the rear of each lodge was a small patch 
of cleared land, where the women and negro 
slaves — stolen from the white settlers over the 
mountains — cultivated beans, corn, and pota- 
toes, and occasionally some such fruits as 
pears, plums, and apples.'*' 

I Kirke's Rear-Guard of the Revolution, pp. 13-25- All quotations 
from this work are reproduced by permission of D. Appleton & 
Company, Publishers. 

The Tribes and Nations 395 

The important part which the Cher-o-kees 
were destined to play in the history of the Colo- 
nies, as aUies of England during the Revolution, 
amply justifies this extended notice of the 

West of the Cherokee settlements, on the 
other side of the mountains, was a vast region 
stretching to the Mississippi, which was entirely 
uninhabited. Until the year 1769, there could 
not be found any permanent habitation of man 
in this region. It was the hunting ground and 
battle-field of the Indians, claimed by hostile 
tribes, but occupied by none.' 

It is interesting to know that a few descend- 
ants of the Cher-o-kees are still living in Vir- 
ginia, in Amherst County, where they and their 
ancestors have been settled for the last one 
hundred and twenty-five years. They are the 
descendants of several old Cherokee warriors, 
who dropped ofi^ from a band of pilgrims on 
their return from a visit to the "Great White 
Father. " There is a mixture of white blood in 
the clan, which now numbers from two hundred 
and fifty to three hundred persons. They are 
known locally as "Issues." 

The name "Issue" was derived from an il- 
logical association of words and ideas which 
arose before the civil war, when free negroes 
were called "free issue." These people were 
dark, but not slaves nor negroes, but were 
classed by the whites somewhat with them, and 

» Kirke's Rear-Guard ef the Revolution, p. 13. 

39^ The Forest Primeval 

given part of the designation of free negroes — 

The name "Issues" is disUked by them, and 
they proudly call themselves Indian men and 
Indian women, and keep much aloof from both 
the whites and the negroes. The family names 
recognized by them are Johns, Branham, Adcox, 
and Willis, names taken from the whites, and 
one Indian name, Redcross. They live the 
obscure life of agricultural tenants, or small 

In the course of the history of the country at 
large, the relation of the State of Virginia to 
some of the Indian tribes presented many curi- 
ous phases. In 1861, when the War between the 
States broke out, the Secretary of the Interior 
of the United States Government held in trust for 
the Choctaw tribe of Indians registered bonds of 
the State of Virginia amounting to ^450,000. 
This tribe of Indians, living in the southwest, 
had been taken under the protectorate of the 
Confederate Government, as that tribe had 
"united themselves with the Confederate Gov- 
ernment. " This made them allies of Virginia. 
Interest was due, and the Indians wanted their 
money, but Virginia would not pay it to the 
Federal authorities for them. The State there- 
fore declared cancelled the bonds as then held 
by the Secretary of the Interior of the United 
States, and issued others in their place, to the 
Secretary of the Treasury of the Confederate 

' The Southern Churchman, vol. Ixxii., No. 53. 

The Tribes and Nations 397 

States. And, in 1864, a similar arrangement 
was made with regard to ^90,000 of bonds, so 
held for the Cherokee Indians.' 

The Cherokee nation continued as a poHtical 
body until midnight of June 30, 1914. It was 
then dissolved. The tribal funds amounting 
to ^600,000 was divided among its forty-one 
thousand members. Commissioner Sells of the 
Indian Office called on that day for the resigna- 
tion of all Cherokee officials. 

At the time of its dissolution the Cherokees 
were the largest of the five civilized tribes. 
Under the laws of Congress it was intended that 
all of these civilized tribes should dissolve as 
nations in 1906. Congress, however, extended 
the time in the discretion of the Indian Office. 

At the time of its dissolution one of its mem- 
bers was a Senator of the United States from 
Oklahoma, and received about ^15 as his portion 
of the tribal funds. 

The other four nations which made up the 
"Five Civilized Tribes" were the Choctaws, 
Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles. 

Another powerful nation was the Ca-taw-bas, 
whose headquarters were on the Ca-taw-ba 
River, in South Carolina. 

The Catawba River rises in the Blue Ridge 
Mountains, North Carolina, near Morgantown. 
It runs east and then south into South Carolina, 
where it is known for some distance as the 

' Acts 1 86 1 -2, p. 34; Acts 1863-4, P- 9' 

398 The Forest Primeval 

Wateree, but after the confluence of the Broad 
River, it takes the name of Santee and under 
this name empties into the Atlantic Ocean. It 
crosses the boundary line of North and South 
Carolina about at its center. 

The Catawba territory stretched toward the 
east from this river to the Yadkin, and on the 
west, by reason of a treaty made with the Chero- 
kees, to the Broad River. It lay on both sides 
of the boundary between North and South 

The largest village of this tribe was in York 
County, South Carolina, on the Catawba River. 
This was probably the place called Catawba 
Town by the Virginians. 

The Catawbas were probably the bravest and 
most enterprising of all the southern tribes. 
They are known to have gone as far north as 
Pennsylvania, to wage war with the Five Nations, 
and they repeatedly engaged in battle with the 
Northern Indians in the Valley of Virginia. The 
battle of Hanging Rocks was fought between this 
nation and either the Mohawks or the Delawares. ' 

In 1682, this tribe could put 1500 warriors 
in the field. By the year 1756, from the com- 
bined efi^ects of small-pox, and other deadly dis- 
eases, and from constant and bitter warfare with 
the Iroquois, Cherokees, Shawanese, Delawares, 
and other nations, they were reduced to about 
four hundred fighting men, the remnants of 
over twenty different tribes. 

' Peyton's History of Augusta County, p. 6. 

The Tribes and Nations 399 

Before this date, however, peace had been 
made between them and the Cherokees. The 
Broad River, which still bounds Cherokee 
County, South Carohna, on the east, was made 
the boundary between them. And in 175 1, 
their wars with the Iroquois were terminated by 
a conference at Albany. But they were still at 
war with western Indians. 

The Catawbas became firm allies of Virginia. 
They fought on the side of the colonies in the 
war against the Tus-ca-ro-ras, during the years 
171 1, 1712, and 1713; and again with them 
against the French and Indians. They failed 
to keep their promise to send a force to assist 
Braddock, but fought on the side of Virginia 
and the Carolinas against England in the 
Revolutionary War. 

In 1756, the king of the Catawbas was Heig- 
ler. After having been a firm friend of Virginia, 
he was killed near his own village by a small 
party of his ancient enemies, the Shaw-a-nese, in 

Other tribes to the south were the Man-go- 
ags, the Chaw-ons, and the We-op-e-medgs, 
the last two on the Virginia-Carolina State line. 
The We-op-e-medgs lived nearest the seacoast, 
the Chaw-ons to the west of them. 

The colony also came into contact with the 

^ The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. xiii. 
notes pp. 227, 238, 260. 

400 The Forest Primeval 

Delawares, who frequented the Susquehanna 
River in Pennsylvania.' 

They were a powerful body of Indians, in 
possession of the eastern part of Pennsylvania, 
and the whole of New Jersey. They do not seem 
to have occupied the State of Delaware, which 
took its name not from them, but from Lord 
De la War. 

Other tribes with which Virginia came into 
contact and sometimes in conflict were the 
Wyandots, and the Mingoes, the latter a branch 
of the Iroquois which had settled on the Ohio 
and its branches. The Delawares and Shawanese 
were also Iroquois tribes which migrated to this 
section about 1728, coming from the French 
settlements in Canada. The Miamis formed 
another tribe which settled in what is now Ohio. 
They were also called Twigh-twees. They were 
the most powerful confederacy of the west, 
combined four tribes, and extended their influ- 
ence even beyond the Mississippi. Their princi- 
pal town was Pi-qua. The Chick-a-maw-gas, 
in Tennessee, and the Six Nations of New York, 
also come before us, and play their part in 
Virginia's history. 

Among the Indian settlements which came 
into historical prominence as the colony extended 
farther and farther west may be mentioned Shan- 
no-pins town, a Delaware village, on the south- 
east side of the Alleghany River, two or three 

' Peyton's History of Augusta County, p. 6. 

The Tribes and Nations 401 

miles above Pittsburg, and Logstown, on the 
north bank of the Ohio. This was later named 
Fort Mackintosh, and now the town of Beaver, 
in the county of that name, in the State of 
Pennsylvania, about twenty-five miles down the 
river from Pittsburg. This was the stronghold 
of Tan-a-cha-ris-son, the Seneca chief of the 
mixed tribes which had migrated to the Ohio. 
He was surnamed the "half-king," as not wholly 
an independent sovereign, being still subordinate 
to the Iroquois Confederacy. We meet with 
him at the period of Washington's journey to 
Fort Duquesne. 

Charters Old Town and Sewickley Old Town 
from ten to fifteen miles up the Alleghany on its 
western shore. Queen Al-li-guip-pe's town, on the 
site of the present McKeesport, were also well- 
known Indian towns in Pennsylvania, in that 
portion of it once claimed by Virginia. 

In the old Virginia territory west of the Ohio 
Indian towns abounded. Its tributary streams, 
the Muskingum, the Hockhocking and the Scioto 
all had their waters guarded by Indian towns 
and villages. 

Virginia's power and influence having been 
felt, and government established by her as far 
west as the Mississippi, and northwest to the 
Great Lakes, she came in contact with all these 
tribes and nations and many others. 

In common with the Indians in the rest of 
North America, these tribes and nations, as 

402 The Forest Primeval 

already stated, were engaged in endless warfare 
among themselves, in the prosecution of which, 
when they captured their enemies, they prac- 
ticed all the cruelties which a savage imagination 
could suggest. Among other enormities, they 
sometimes practiced cannibahsm. We are told 
in particular of the Po-cough-tro-nacks, a tribe 
which lived beyond the Falls, who ate men.' 

"These vagrant tribes camped or resided at 
great distances from each other, were widely 
dispersed over a vast country, and any connec- 
tion between them and particular localities was 
of so frail a texture that it was broken by the 
slightest accident. 

"The different tribes or nations were small in 
number as compared with civilized societies in 
which industry, arts, agriculture, and commerce 
have united a vast number of individuals whom 
a complicated luxury renders valuable to each 

"No accurate information exists as to the 
numbers composing these tribes, but it is most 
probable they did not exceed a few hundred 
warriors each. At the landing of the Pilgrims 
in 1620, the number of Indians in New England 
did not exceed 123,000, and a few years later the 
number was greatly reduced by a plague. It is 
probable that the Indian population of Virginia 
was larger at this time, as the climate of our 
Valley and State is generally better adapted to 
the wants of man than that of New England. 

' Smith's True Relation, p. 36. 

The Tribes and Nations 403 

Bancroft, however, ventures the opinion that the 
whole Indian population east of the Mississippi 
and south of New England did not, in 1620, 
exceed 180,000. 

"Detached parties of armed barbarians from 
the Northern and Western tribes occasionally 
came to the Valley, and the Mas-sa-wom-ees 
penetrated to Eastern Virginia and were a terror 
to the low-land tribes. Armed parties also 
visited the Valley from the five nations situated 
on the rivers and lakes of New York — the Mo- 
hawks, 0-nei-das, 0-non-da-gas, Cay-u-gas, 
and Sen-e-cas."' 

In the course of its laborious, and often tragic, 
westward progress, Virginia came into contact 
or conflict with these many, and often powerful, 
tribes. War and campaigns followed, diplomacy 
and treaties, conflicting interests adjusted, and 
compromises agreed upon, boundary lines es- 
tablished between the white man and the red 
man, grants of land, and conquests of territory. 

It also involved treaties of alliance and co- 
operation with some of these Indian tribes, and 
with the other English settlements, sometimes 
hampered by local jealousies and self-interest. 
Some of these hostile Indians, too, were not 
unsupported by powerful European influence. 
France was their ally, and Virginia had to con- 
tend with her trained soldiers as well as with the 
savage foe. 

' Peyton's History of Augusta County, pp. 6-7. 

404 The Forest Primeval 

The varying circumstances of this ever on- 
ward and ever widening movement found Vir- 
ginia now waging war in the western forests, 
to stop the slaughter of her people on the fron- 
tier; building forts without number and palisades 
of enormous length; now sending troops to the 
aid of Carolina, threatened with destruction 
by the Indians of the south; or debating with 
Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York the 
terms of a treaty between the Indians and the 
English Colonies at Lancaster or Albany. 

Picturesque figures move across the stage, and 
incidents as strange, and often as horrible, as 
war only can produce, marked the struggle. 

From movements of armed forces covering 
the distance from Cape Henry to the heart 
of the Northwest Territory, and from Carolina 
to Fort Duquesne, down to hand-to-hand en- 
counters in the log cabins of the pioneers, as the 
Indians in small bodies roamed through the 
settlements, the soil was too often drenched 
with the blood of the contending races. It was 
a life-and-death struggle between them for the 
possession of the very soil on which they Hved. 

The Indians were no mean antagonists. 
Born to war, and bearing pain and torture v\ ith 
stoical indifference and Spartan-like fortitude, 
the Indians of Virginia defended their possession 
of the land they had inherited as any other war- 
like nation would have done. 

Awed at first by the new foe they had to deal 
with, whom they regarded with superstitious 

The Tribes and Nations 405 

dread, protected as he was, also, by coats of mail 
and master of those terrific fire-arms and thunder- 
ing cannon, the Indians, during the period of the 
colony's greatest weakness, were at a disadvan- 
tage. This became less as time went on, for 
he became familiar with the white man, and no 
longer feared him as he had. They gradually 
became supplied, too, with similar arms, and the 
old inequality between them disappeared. 

Thus the Indian power long continued formid- 
able, and threatened the settlements with total 



SUCH was the people which sparsely occu- 
pied a nearly unbroken wilderness among 
whom was now to be attempted the plant- 
ing of European civilization and the Protestant 
form of the Christian religion. 

It was no small task which was undertaken. 
These brave pioneers faced death in many forms. 
They faced the dangers of the sea, the dangers 
of an unknown land; they faced sickness, pri- 
vation, and enemies civilized and uncivilized. 
They left behind them the familiar scenes of 
childhood, their homes and their kindred, and 
all that men hold dear on earth. When they 
turned their ships toward the setting sun, and 
began to plow the deep waters of the broad 
Atlantic, how little could they tell what was in 
store for them in the great unknown whither they 
were sailing, and whether they would accomplish 
their purpose and again behold the beloved 
scenes of Old England, or leave their bones to 
bleach upon the sands of a distant continent! 

It may be that they fully realized the grandeur 
of their work, and were inspired by the thought 

Conclusion 407 

that they, as well as the great leaders who di- 
rected them, were actors in a drama of world- 
wide significance, and that their names and 
their deeds would deserve to be remembered 
by the generations of their race which were to 
follow them — and we do so honor and record 


Accomac, special mode of fish- 
ing, 95-96; towns in, 152, 155; 
Empress of, 155; kingdom of, 
155, 316; town of, on site of 
Cape Charles, 157; word, 316; 
tribe, 367-368 
Accounts, how kept, 84 
Acquia Creek, word, 316 
Adultery, women careful not to 
be suspected of, 34; how 
women punished for, 81, 173; 
unpardonable offence, 81 ; how 
men punished for, 172, 173 
Adventurers, meaning of the 

word, 22-23 
Agriculture, conducted by the 
women and children, 80, 102, 
104; basis of classification as 
between barbarous and savage, 
IOI-102; importance of, 102; 
system of corn-planting and 
gathering, 103-104, 136; cul- 
tivation of tobacco, 106-108; 
how land cleared of trees, 109, 
no, 134; of the Cherokees, 


Ahone, name of the benign 

deity, 250 
Alexandria, site of Indian town, 

Algonquin Indians, 26; pottery 

of, 1 19-127 
Alleghany, the word, 316 
Allies, Indian, of Virginia, 326- 
327, 396, 397, 399; of the 
Indians against Virginia, 403 
Altar-stones, see Pawcorances 
Amherst County, some Chero- 
kees still in, 395 
Animals in the forest, 28 
Appalachian, the word, 316 

Appamattox, the town, 155 1 
on site of Petersburg, 157; 
huskanawing at, 197; name, 
315, 316; the tribe, 324, 

Aprons, women clothed with, 

Arbors, houses like, 96 

Archery, skill in, 96-97 

Aristocratic, Indian government, 
133-134, 165, 169 

Arrows, how made, 42-43, 112; 
uses, 42-43; fishing with, 42, 
95, 98; heads, 112; stone, dis- 
cussed, I13-I14; where made, 

Assaomeck, town on site of Alex- 
andria, 157 

Assemblies, see Public meetings 

Augusta County, tribes in, 380- 

Authorities, this book based on, 

Axes, uses of, no; how made, 

112; stone, discussed, 113- 

114; where made, 114-119 


Bacon, Nathaniel, in command 

against the Occaneechees, 

Bald-eagle described, 94-95 
Barbecue, style of cooking meat, 

47, 67-68 
Barbers, women as, 33-34, 62 
Bark, shields made of, 112, 173, 

Barlow quoted, 1 10, 352 
Barrens,The, in Augusta County, 

Barrow, see Mound 
Barter, trading by, 44 




Baskets, 76; how made, no; 
use in pottery-making, 121- 
122, 125 

Bassets, seat of Eltham at 
Alachot, 151 

Bathing to harden, 60 

Battle, between the Patomecks 
and Massomecks, 176-177; of 
Point Pleasant, won by the 
Virginians, 182; Okee carried 
into, 243; of Hanging Rocks, 

Beads, for coronets, 36, 42, 63; 
use of, in marriage ceremony, 

Beans, general article of food, 
68, 73; widely cultivated, 73; 
planted with the corn for a 
support, 103. See Food 

Beards, Indians generally wore 
none, 33; pulled out by roots, 
36; some priests wore, 233 

Beaufort County, North Caro- 
lina, Indian town in, 159 

Beaver, uses of, 43; eaten, 69; 
Pennsylvania, site of Indian 
town, 401 

Bedford County, tribes in 371 

Beds, of earth, 130; of sticks, 
etc., 132, 137-138, 140; 
covered with mats, 132; how 
slept on, 138, 140 

Belts made of peak, etc., 46 

Berkeley County, West Virginia, 
tribes in, 372-373. 388-389 

Bertie County, North Carolina, 
Indian tribe in, 158 

Beverley, Robert, writings, xiv.- 
XV.; quoted, 35, 41, 44, 46, 47, 
56, 57. 59. 60, 62, 63, 64, 67, 
72, 73, 74, 81, 84, 85, 86, 91. 
99, 109, 112, 128, 130, 185, 
194, 231, 233, 234, 243, 253, 
258, 265, 286, 287 

Big Knives, the Indians' name 
for the Virginians, 182 

Black boys, a servant class, 169 

Board, children put on, 61 

Bodyguard, Powhatan's, 275; 
Grangenimeo's, 283; his wife's 
attendants, 283 

Bonds of Virginia held by Choc- 
taws and Cherokees, 396-397 

Bones, chains of, 61, 63 

Bows, made of locust wood, 112; 
of witch-hazel, II2 

Bracelets, 55 ; worn by men and 
women of condition, 37; made 
of pearls or beads of copper, 
40, 55; or of peak or runtees, 
Branches of trees as clothes, 

64-65, 87 
Bronze Age, bodies burnt, 217 
Brown, Alexander, quoted, ix. 
Brunswick County, tribes in, 379 
Buckingham County, tribes in, 

Bull Run, Indian name for, 317 
Burial, customs: body put on 
scaffold, 201-202 ; body buried, 
202; body burnt, 202; riches 
buried with body, 202-203; 
mourning for a king, 203; 
mounds, chapter on, 204-222 ; 
see Mounds 
Burk quoted, 80-81, 171-172 
Burnt, bodies, 217; offerings 

to the Evil Spirit, 262 
Byrd, Colonel \Vm., Indians 
lived in his pasture, 155 

Cabins, picture of, 57; for man 
to protect corn, 68; unclean, 

Cabot, discovery of, foundation 
of claims of England, 2 

Calumet, or pipe of peace, 49-52 

Calvert County, Maryland, 
town in, 152; tribes in, 365 

Camden County, North Caro- 
lina, town in, 158 

Cannibalism, 402 

Canoes, of birch, 48-49; fishing 
in. 93-96; of trunks of trees, 
95, 109, 176; making of, log- 

Cape Charles, site of Indian 
town, 157 

Capital punishment, how in- 
flicted, 172-173 

Caroline County, tribes in, 361 

Carteret County, North Caro- 
lina, Indian town in, 159 

Catawba, tribe, 26, 382-383, 
397-399; Roanoke Island 
settlers came in contact with, 
27; became allies of Virginia, 
399; town, 398 

Cattle, Indians had none, 45, 71 



Ceremony of marriage, break- 
ing string of beads over joined 
hands, 77; none when presents 
accepted, 79-80 

Chains, of pearl, worn by the 
princes, 40; and by women, 59 

Charles City County, towns in, 
146, 147, 155; tribes in, 339 

Cherokees, a branch of the 
Iroquois, 26; where located in 
Virginia, 324; the tribe, 389- 
397; meaning of the name, 

Chesapeake, houses of a, town, 
150; name, 315; river, 317; 
bay, 317; tribe, 351-353 

Chester River, Indian name for, 

Chesterfield County, tribes in, 

Chickahominy, Smith captured 
on, 97; town of, 156, 345; 
word, 316; river, 317; tribe, 
341-345; form of govern- 
ment, 342-343; treaty with 
Dale, 342-344; troubles over 
lands sold by King of, 344-345 

Chiefs, see Weroances 

Childbirth, women easily de- 
livered, 60; how child treated, 
60, 61 

Children, Indian, bom white, 
32, 36, 131; how carried, 59- 
60, 62; how hardened, 60; 
how treated when born, 60; 
named by father, 61; on 
boards, 61; greased, 61; wait 
on parent, 62; how dressed, 
62; use of bow and arrow, 62; 
work of, 75-76; part played 
by, in agriculture, 80, 102; 
disposition of in divorce, 82; 
large number desired, 82 ; care 
of sachem, 171; yearly sacri- 
fice of, 191, 223-224, 252; 
altar-stones used to instruct, 
230; sacrifice of, due to the 
priests, 237 

Chinkapin, the word, 323 

Chipoak Creek, Indian name 
for, 317 

Chowan, County, North Caro- 
lina, towns in, 158; tribe, 380 

Church government vigorous 
in Virginia, 23-24 

City of Refuge, 393 

Civilized tribes, 397 

Cleopatre, daughter of Powha- 
tan, 274 

Clock, meaning of the word, 
note, 231 

Cloth, Indians made, 125 

Clothes, mantle, 37; skins, 40, 
41-42; fashions, 53-59; match- 
coats, 57; deerskins, 62; of 
women, 64; thread for, 95 

Cockarouse, title of honor for 
bravery, 92; must have been 
huskanawed, 195 

Cockle shell, used as money, 47; 
as a spoon, 75 

Cohongoroota, river, 315, 363, 

Cohonks, winters called, 84; 
years reckoned by, 84; moon 
of, 84 

Colcraft, Henry R., quoted, 214 

Color, of Indians, 32, 36; partly 
due to smoke, 131 

Columbus, discovery by, foun- 
dation of claims of Spain, 2 

Common people, given to steal- 
ing, 35; headgear, -^-j; clothes, 
37; bareheaded, 56; their souls 
not believed to be immortal, 

Conch shell, 46, 64 

Confederate Government, Choc- 
taws and Cherokees allies of, 

Conjuration, particular case of, 
227-229; performed in the 
Occaneeche language, 260 

Conjurer, see Priests and Con- 

Cooking, boiling, 66; fish, 66; 
meat, 66-67; done with little 
care, 67-68 ; seasoning 68. Fee 

Cooks, 62 

Copper, chains and bracelets of, 
40, 53, 54, 55, 61, 63 

Corn, Indian, 47, 73, 74, 76, 80, 
84; fields, 58, 102; bread, 68; 
gathering, 84; moon, 84; im- 
portance of, 103; how planted 
and gathered, 103-104; the 
King's, how planted and 
gathered, 104-105, 136; how 
protected, 136; annual feast 
at corn gathering, 263-264 

Coronet, 36, 46, 56 



Council, great, of nation, power 
of, 171 

Counting, system of, 84; pastime 
involving, 86 

Courtship, 78, 80 

Cowee range, 266 

Crawford, Colonel Wm., his 
death, 300-301 

Creation, Indians' belief as to, 
239-240, 254-258 

Crown, sent by James I. to Pow- 
hatan, use of, at time of corn 
planting, 104; descent of, 
through female line, 170; kept 
in the god's house at Orapax, 

Cruelty of the Indians, 44-45, 

Crystal altar-stone for sacrifice, 

Culpeper County, tribes in, 370 

Cumberland County, tribes in, 

Cushaws, preserved, 69; de- 
scribed, 73; cultivated, 73 

Customs, welcome to chief, 43; 
walking, 44 ; dances, 45 ; travel- 
ing, 47; receiving strangers, 
49-52; entertaining strangers 
of condition, 52 

Dances, war, 45; one arranged 
by Pocahontas, 64-65; fea- 
ture of yearly festival, 85; two 
kinds described, 86-87; every 
night, 87; one like the Horn- 

' pipe,88;atthematchacomoco, 
175; one form of devotion, 230 

Dare County, North Carolina, 
Indian town in, 159 

Day, how divided, 84; none 
more holy than another, 229, 
251-252; "A, in an Indian 
Village," 288-309 

Dead, bodies of the kings, see 
Mummies; fate of the, de- 
cided by Mahomny, 261-262 

De Bry, pictures engraved by, 

Deer, plentiful, 40; skins used 
as dress, 62; how flayed, 
62; feeding-grounds, 73; how 
hunted, 97, 99-100; stalking, 
97-98; use of, when killed, 

99, 100; the Great Deer, 256- 

Descent of the Crown, 170 
Despotism, Powhatan's rule a, 

165-166, 167-168, 174-175; 

Burk's statement as to au- 
thority, 171 
Devil worship, 249, 250, 251, 

252, 259-260; names for, 306. 

See Religion 
District of Columbia, tribe in, 

xii.; quarries and workshops 

in, 114-119 
Divination and enchantment, 

frequency of, 262 
Divisions, political, of land, 165, 

Divorce, husband could at will, 

78, 79, 80, 81; right of wife to, 

80, 81; children how disposed 

of in case of, 82 
Domestic animals, lack of, 71 
Dorchester County, Maryland, 

tribes in, 366 
Drink, water, principal, 70; 

appetite for strong, 70-71 
Drums, how made, 85-86, 87; 

none used in war, 177 
Duffield match-coat, 57 
Dutch, love of the Indians for 

the. 1 80-1 8 1 

Ear-rings, 40, 41, 54, 55, 59 

Eastern Shore, towns on, 155; 

kingdom of Accomack, 155, 

316; Still Pond, 265-266; 

tribes on, 366-368 

Echota, capital city of the 

Cherokees, 391-394 
Edenton, site of Indian town, 158 
Edict of Nantes, 11, 15 
Eltham, seat of the Bassetts, 151 
Embalming, 47, 198, 199-200. 

See Mummies 
Empress of Accomac, 155 
Enchantment, frequency of, 262 
England, claim of, to Virginia, 
2; King of, at the head of 
movement to found Virginia, 
19-21; policy of, in regard to 
the Indians, 30, 236 
English, Indian name for the, 
321, 343; Indian words 
adopted into the, 322-323 



Ensenore, mourning for, 203; 
views in regard to immor- 
tality of the white men, 242- 


Essex County, towns in, 156; 
tribes in, 361 

Estates, private, on sites of 
Indian villages, 157 

Europe, condition of, in six- 
teenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies, I-15; powers of, which 
laid claim to Virginia, 2-3 

Faces carved on posts, 85, 244, 

249, 264 
Fairfax County, tribes in, 365 
Falls Church, Indian workshop 

near, 117-118 
Falls of the James, 1 61-164; 

Indian name for, 316 
Father, children named by, 61; 

daughters bought of, in 

marriage, 77-78; oaths on 

manes of dead, 248-249 
Fauna of the Virginia forest, 

Fauquier County, tribes in, 370 
Feasts, how attended, 40; one 

described, 85; held at night, 


Feathers as ornaments, 37, 39, 


Female, title to the Crown by 
descent through, 170 

Feudal system, the Ind ans' 
virtually a, 129 

Field, picture of Indian, 42 

Fire, always kept burning in 
cabins, 66, 131; how lighted, 
66, 109, III; water, 70-71; 
every night for amusement, 
87; fishing, 93-94; hunting, 
97. 99-100; always kept with 
the mummies of the kings, 

First fruits, 262 

Fiscal system of Powhatan, 
165-166, 167 

Fish, see Food 

Fishing, women enjoy seeing, 
63; spring diet, 71; chapter 
on, 91-96; weirs, 91-92, 94, 
95-96, 98; catching sturgeon, 
92-93; by fire, 93-94; in 

canoes, 93-96; hawk, pic- 
ture of, 94; nets, 95; hooks, 
95; lines, 95; bait tied on, 95; 
shooting fish with arrows, 95, 
98; in Accomac, 95-96; care 
taken in, 96 
Flora of the Virginia forest, 28 
Fluvanna County, tribes in, 371 
Flying-squirrels, 73 
Food, constituted the Indians' 
principal riches, 44, 71; 
amount consumed, 66, 74, 
76; grace before, 74; but 
little stored up, loi; waste 
of, 67, 70, 100; for various 
seasons, 71-72; no cattle nor 
domestic fowls, 70-71, 73; 
herbs not used as, 69; had no 
salt, 68; used ash of hickory, 
etc., for seasoning, 68; cooks, 
62; how cooked and served, 
47, 66, 67, 68, 70, 74-75, 76; 
ail sorts of flesh used as, 68, 
76; feasts, 40, 85, 139; some 
acorns, 71 
apricots, 73 
beans, 68, 73, 103 
bear's oil, sauce for dried 

meat, 47 
beaver, 68 

bread, made of corn, wild 
oats, sunflower seed, 68 ; or 
tuckahoe, 70; how baked, 
68, "Ji; eaten alone, 68 
cherries, 73 
chinkapins, 69 
corn, see Com 
crabs, ^1-72 
cushaws, 69, 73 
dried fish, flesh, and oysters, 

earthnuts, 69 

fish, quantity of, 40, 73; 
how dressed, 66, 68; how 
cooked, 66, 67, 74; season 
for, 71-72 
goats, 73 
gourds, 73 
grapes, 73 
grubs, 68 
hominy, 67, 74 
macocks, 73 
maracocks, 73 
matcocks, 69 
melons, 69, 72-73, 102 



Food — Continued 

mulberries, 71-72 

muskmelons, 73 

nectarines, 72-73 

nuts, 69, 71 

oil of acorns, sauce for 
dried meats, 47, 69, 71 

onions, wild, 69 

oysters, 71-72 

peaches, 69, 73 

peas, 68, 73 

plums, 73-74 

potatoes, 73 

pulse, 68 

pumpkins, 69, 73, 102 

roasting ears, 68-69 

rockahomonie, for travel- 
ing, 47-48 

roots, 69-70 

simlins, y^ 

snakes, 68 

squirrels, 71, 73 

strawberries, 69, 71-72 

terrapin, 68, 71-72 

tocknough berries, 72 

tortoise, land, 72 

truffles, 69 

tuckahoe, 69-70 

turkeys, 71 

turtles, 68 

venison, 76 

walnuts, 69, 71, 73 

wasps, 68 

water, pond, preferred, 70 

watermelons, 73 

wheat, a kind of, 73 
Football, 88 
Forest, covered with grapevines, 

27; principal trees, 28; flora 

and fauna of, 28-29; often 

uninhabited, 96; clear of un- 
derbrush around the towns, 

Fort, West's, 144; Algemoone, 
148; at Warascoyack, 349; 
Mackintosh, 401 
Forum, one in each town, 87, 

134. 135. 136-137 ^ 
Fowls, abundance of, 73; no 
chickens nor peacocks, 73; 
how hunted, 99; how dressed, 
68. See Food 
France, claim of, to Virginia, 2; 
poHcy of, in regard to the 
Indians, 30; an ally of the 
Indians, 403 

Frederick County, tribes in, 
380-381; towns in, 386 

Fredericksburg, site of Indian 
town, 157 

Freedom of religion, involved in 
wars of sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, and in the 
colonization of Virginia, 4-15; 
existed nowhere at that time, 

Fruits, see Food 

Funeral, rites, chapter on, 198- 

Furs, wreath of, 37; for use, 45 

Game, seasons for, 71-72; kinds 
of. 73, 97; where found, 96; 
part of most valued, 99, 100; 
fowls abundant, 99; large, how 
hunted, 99-100. See Hunting 

Gates County, North Carolina, 
Indian town in, 158 

Gloucester Count}', towns in, 
142, 145-146; tribes in, 355 

Glover, Thomas, writings, xiv.; 
quoted, 45, 93, 106, 129, 189, 
202, 235 

Glue, of deer sinews and horns, 
43, 112; of turpentine, 112 

God, see Religion 

Gourds, 62, 73, 75; for rattles, 
86, 87; use in pottery -making, 

Government, feudal in its na- 
ture, 129; of the Indians, aris- 
tocratic, 133-134; essentially 
a hierarchy, 165, 173; Powha- 
tan's, despotic, 166; taxes of, 
under Powhatan, oppressive, 
167; descent of the Crown, 170; 
of the Chickahominies, 342- 
343; of the Cherokees, 391- 
392; poHtical connection be- 
tween the tribes weak, 402 

Grangenimeo, brother of Pemisa- 
pan, 283 

Grapevines, profusion of, 27-28 

Graves, pottery found in, 120; 
Indian in northwestern part 
of State, 381-389 

Greasing, of the hair, 36; 
children, 61 

Great, Hare, leg nd of the, 255- 
258; Deer, legend of, 256-257 



Greensville County, tribes in, 

Gustavus Adolphus, 13 


Hair, of Indians, black, 33; men's, 
half shaven, 33-34, 54-55; 
worn long, 39; cut fancifully 
and painted, 36; tied in knot 
under ears, 39; cut like a 
cock's comb, 39-40, 41, 57; 
few beards, 54, 57; front part 
of women's cut short, 58; 
women's put up in knot, 61 ; 
of maids cut short in front 
and sides, 63; of married 
women all long, 63 

Hammer, weapon like a, 176 

Hamor, Ralph, writings, xiii.; 
quoted, 151 

Hampshire County, West Vir- 
ginia, Indian relics in, 384- 

Hampton, Indian fields at, 102; 
site of Indian town, 157 

Hanover County, towns in, 149, 
153; tribes in, 338 

Happy hunting grounds, 261- 

Hare, native animal, 73; the 
Great, legend of, 255-258 

Hariot, Thomas, writings, vii.; 
sent over by Raleigh, vii.; 
pictures, 37-39; quoted, 39, 40, 
55, 57, 61, 62, 65, 66, 76, 
85, 105, 134, 135, 201, 230, 

Heaven, the Indians* belief in 
regard to, 240, 241-242, 257- 
258, 261-262; Indian word for, 
306. See Religion 

Hell, the Indians' belief in regard 
to, 240, 241, 261-262; words 
for, 240, 306. See Religion 

Henrico County, towns in, 145, 
325; tribes in, 324-325, 337 

Henry III. on throne of France 
when this history begins, 3 

Henry IV. assassinated, 12 

Heraldry, marks on the body in 
the nature of coats of arms, 

Hertford County, North Caro- 
lina, Indian town in, 158 

Hickory, ash of, for seasoning 

food, 68; nuts, 69; liquor 
made from, 69; Indian name 
for milk, 69; the word, adopted 
into the English, 323 

Holmes, W. H., quoted, 119 

Holy days, none specially ob- 
served, 229, 251-252 

Hours, no distinction of, 84 

Houses, and towns, chapter on, 
128-140; string used in con- 
struction of, 95; for hunting, 
96, loi, 139-140; corn stored 
in dwelling, 104; axes and 
hatchets used in building, 1 10; 
Indians lived in, 128; not 
tents, 138; set about the 
towns irregularly, 130, 134, 
139; how built, 130-132, 133, 
139; fire in, 131, 137, 140; 
only one room, 131, 135; 
flowers near, 133; built by 
the rivers, 137; all of one 
pattern, 139; built under 
trees, 139; king's larger, 139; 
scsna by, 140; not kept clean, 
189; grand council, of the 
Cherokees, 394 

Howe quoted, 212-216 

Hunger, Indians patient of, 70; 
effect of, reduced by tightening 
their girdles, 70 

Hunting, chapter on, 96-101; of 
deer, favorite sport, 40, 97- 
98, 99-100; care taken in, 96; 
how conducted, 96, 97, 99, 
loo-ioi; houses built for, 96, 
loi, 139-140; use of fire in, 97, 
99-100; deer-stalking, 97-98; 
of fowls, 99 

Husband, duties of, 80; effect 
of plurality of wives on, 82- 

Huskanawing, chapter on, 191- 
197; where done, 144,191, 196, 
197; how often practiced, 191, 
195; only the choicest youths 
selected for, 195; essence of 
the rite, 195-196; cockarouses 
and priests must have been 
through, 195; wysoccan,a mad 
potion given in, 196; those 
treated must forget the past, 
196-197; Okee's part in, 193- 
194, 197 

Hyde County, North Carolina, 
towns in, 157, 159 



Idols, see Religion 

Ill-breeding punished by the 
weroances, i68 

Immortality of the soul, see 

Indian, file, 44; fashion and 
domestic construction of, so- 
ciety, 53-76; summer, 89-90; 
old fields, 102, 134; chiefs, see 
Weroances; towns, see Towns; 
names of places in Virginia, 
318-320; words adopted into 
the English, 322-323; relics in 
northwestern part of the 
State, 383-388; allies of Vir- 
ginia: Pamunkeys, 326-327; 
Choctaws, 396; Cherokees, 
397; Catawbas, 399. See 

Indians, character of, chapter 
on, 25-52; in Virginia belonged 
to the neolithic Stone Age, 25; 
classed as barbarous, 25; of 
the Algonquin stock, 26; dis- 
tribution of, in eastern part of 
the United States, 26-27; at 
war among themselves, 27, 
129, 173. 382-383, 401-402; 
character and attainments, 
29-30, 34. 174. 1757176, 181- 
182; policies of Spain, France, 
and England in relation to the, 
30; color and features, 31-32, 
36, 59. 63, 131 ; hair, 33, 36, 39, 
41; paints used by, 32-33; 
clothes, 37, 41-42; shoes, 37; 
marked on the back, 40-41; 
all lived in towns, 128-129; 
able-bodied, 33, 35-36; long- 
lived, 44, 76; most frequent 
diseases of, 185-190; patient 
of hunger, 70; moderate in 
eating, 66, 76; excessive in 
eating, 74; bodies alter with 
their diet, 72; wasteful, 67, 70, 
100; prone to drunkenness, 
70-71; cruel, 44-45, 181-182, 
300-301; care-free original 
condition, 98-99, 100; eco- 
nomic effect produced by the 
coming of the English, loi; 
marriage among, 77-83 ; occu- 
pations of men and women, 
75~76, 102, 104, no; quar- 

ries and workshops, 114-119; 
manufactures, 125; as traders, 
34-35; standard of honesty, 
35; differences in language, 
see Language; in council, 170, 
177-178, 179-181; the Vir- 
ginians adopted forms of 
speech of, 178-179; called the 
English by their first names, 
322; all except the priests 
protected by the orders of 
King James, 236; love of the, 
for the Dutch, 180-181; re- 
servations for, 327, 336; 
trustees appointed for, 351; 
troubles caused by northern, 
375-376; characteristics of 
the southern, 390 
Injury, never forgotten, 34; 

revenge for, 35 
Interpreter, Spelman, an, xii. 
Interruption, punished, 168; 
none in public meetings, 177- 
Iron, Indians lacked, 112 
Isle of Wight County, town in, 

149; tribes in, 348 
"Issues, " some Cherokees called, 


James I., the head of the move- 
ment to found Virginia, 19- 
21; sent crown, etc., to Pow- 
hatan, 104, 251; Powhatan 
protected by orders of, 236 

James City County, towns in, 
144-145, 146, 149; tribes in, 
339. 341 

James River, falls of, 161-164; 
Indian name f or, 3 1 6 ; tribes on, 

339-355, 369-371 

Jamestown, in the territory of 
the Paspaheghs, 339 

Jefferson quoted, 204-210 

Johah, shout of approbation, 

Jones quoted, 35, 44, 55, 74, 
79, 81, 134, 261 

Jopassus, Spelman lived with, 
xi.; sold Spelman to Argall, 
xii.; account of creation, 254- 
258; brother of Powhatan, 
272; King of the Potoniacs, 




Kanawha, name, 315 

Kecoughtan, Indian fields at, 
102, 354; described and de- 
stroyed, 148; site of Hampton, 
I57i 317; sacrifice of children 
at, 191; tribe, 353-355; town, 
354-355; conquest of, 354- 
355; tribe transported to 
Pavankatank, 358-359 

Keightley quoted, 288 

Kent County, Maryland, town 
in, 151 

Kentucky, name, 315 

Kercheval quoted, 89, 383 

Kewas, an idol, see Religion 

Kewasowok, plural of Kewas, 

King, title of, 168; the embalmed 
kings, and funeral rites, 
chapter on, 198-203; the 
Laughing, 274, 367; the Half 
King, 391, 401; Indian Kings, 
see Weroances 

King George County, tribes in, 
360, 361 

King William County, Pamun- 
keys Hve in, 327; Mattaponys 
live in, 336-337 

King and Queen County, 
Beverley^lived in, xv. ; town in, 

King William County, towns in, 

Kingdom, of Accomack, 155, 
316; term may apply to small 
number, 156 

Kiskiack, town, 146, 356; tribe, 
355; allowed to have guns, 
356; their land secured to 
them, 356; owned land at 
Payankatank, 356 

Kiwasa, or Kewasa, an idol, 
see Religion 

Lancaster County, town in, 
147; tribes in, 359-36o, 361 

Land, separate use of, 133, 139, 
168; size of tracts of, 138; 
separate tracts for tribes, 
I39f 165, 167; conveyed by 
the weroances, 169; tribal, 
325; sales of, by King of the 

Chickahominy tribe, 344- 
345; secured to the Kis- 
kiacks, 356; disputes in rela- 
tion to, adjusted, 356, 360- 
361, 363-364; secured to the 
Rappahannocks, 360-361; 
controversy with the King of 
the Potomacs, 363-365; of the 
Gingaskins, 366-367; secured 
to the Accomacks, 368; of the 
Nottoways, 376-379; un- 
occupied, between the moun- 
tains and the Mississippi, 395 

Lane, map of expedition of, 160; 
quoted, 239, 242, 351,352 

Language, diflferences in, very 
great, 33; each town had sepa- 
rate, 134, 285-286, 287; no 
written, 285; that of the 
Occaneeches a general, 286; 
long words, 286-288; paucity 
of the Indian, 287; "A Day 
in an Indian Village," 288- 
309; "The Lovers' Quarrel," 
309-311; "The Troublesome 
Traveler," 312-314; "The 
Quarrelsome Chiefs," 314; 
names of places, meaning of, 
315-316; other Indian names 
of places, etc., 316-320; In- 
dian verses, 320-322; words 
adopted into the English, 

Laughmg Kmg, 274, 367 

Laws, political, and art of war, 
chapter on, 165-182; no 
written, 167-168; will of the 
chief is law, 167-168; title to 
the crown, 170; enforcement 
of criminal, 172-173; Indians 
not without, 172; how sum- 
moned for war, 174-175 

Leaves, not used as food, 69; 
as covering, 64-65, 87 

Letters, Indians had none, 167 

Liquor, made from hickory nuts, 
69; no other drinks, 70; 
Indians' fondness for, 70-71 

Loggs Town, seat of Queen AUi- 
guippe, 179 

London Company, established 
Virginia, 21; overthrown by 
the King, 21 

Longevity, Indian over 160 
years old, 44; general among 
the Indians, 76 



Louisa County, tribes in, 370- 


"Lovers', The, Quarrel," 309- 



Machicomuck, the temple, 240 
Matchacomoco, a grand council, 

Machot, town, 1 51-152 
Machumps says grace at Dale's, 

Macocks, a kind of pumpkin, 73 ; 

for rattles, 87 
Mahomny, the god who decides 

the fate of the dead, 261- 

262, 305 
Mamanahunt, site of, 146; not 

at first under Powhatan's 

rule, 147 
Manakins, where settled, 324, 

369-370; tribes ruled by, 370- 


Mannahoacks, tribes ruled by 
the, 369-370 

Mantles of turkey-feathers, 53 

Map, Smith's, 141; of towns in 
Virginia, 142; of towns in 
North Carolina, 160; de Brys, 

Maracock, fruit of the passion 
flower, 73 

Marietta, mound at, 210-21 1 

Marks, on the backs of Indians, 
40-41, 42 

Marriage, chapter on, 77-83; 
wives bought, 77, 78; cere- 
mony of, 77, 79-80; of the 
kings, 78; courtship, 77-80; 
polygamy, 77, 78, 79, 80; 
duties of the consorts, 80; di- 
vorce, 78, 79, 80, 81 

Married women, how distin- 
guished from maids, 63; see 

Maryland founded, 14; freedom 
of religion compulsory in, 
under its charter, 18; trade 
with, prohibited, 375-376 

Massachusetts, difference be- 
tween, and Virginia, 15-18 

Massomeck, battle between, and 
Potomac, 176-177 

Matachanna, daughter of Powha- 
tan, 274 

Match-coats, large mantles, 37; 
formerly worn only by the 
old, 57; meaning of, 58; chil- 
dren carried in, 59-60; used as 
mats, 131 

Matcocks, fruit of the passion 
flower, 69 

Materia medica, knowledge of 
the priests, 186; roots and 
barks of trees, 187, 188-189; 
Indian medicine very strong, 
189; given in large doses, 190; 
antidote for snake-bites, 186, 
190; mad potion for huska- 
nawing, 195-196; wighsacan 
a purgative, 184; puccoon used 
as a medicine, 188-189, 229 

Mats, used to sit on, 62, 75, 131; 
picture of, 75; made by 
women, 76; made of bents, 
76; used for doors and parti- 
tions in houses, 131; covering 
for beds, 132; carried about 
for hunting-houses, 139-140; 
interior of temples divided by, 

McGee, W. J., quoted, 161-164 

McKeesport, Pennsylvania, site 
of Indian town, 401 

Mattapament, town, 152 river, 
317; tribe, 324, 336; see 

Mattapamients, the tribe, 324, 
336, 366; see Mattapony 

Mattapony, river, 317; the 
tribe, 336-337; still existent, 


Meat, see Food 

Mecklenburg County, tribes in, 

Medicine, Indian practices in 
regard to, 183-190; knowledge 
of, monopolized by the priests, 
183, 186-187, 194; use of 
rattles, 183, 185; treatment of 
wounds, 183-184, 190; treat- 
ment of ulcers, hurts, and 
swellings, 184, 185, 190; pur- 
gation, 184; dropsy, 184; 
sweating, 184, 185, 187; 
sweating - house, 187-188; 
swellings how treated, 185; 
use of sucking, 185; use of 
charms, 185; use of burning 
wood, 185-186; use of smoking 
and scratching, 186; snake- 



Medicine — Continued 

bites, 186-187, 190; vomiting 
a bad omen, 190; bleeding or 
cupping not used, 190; frac- 
tures cured, 190; see Materia 

Meherrin, tribe, 379; river, 
tribes on, 379, 380 

Metaphor, Indian fondness for, 

Miami, tribe, 26; word, 316 

Middlesex County, tribes in, 

Milk called hickory, 69 

Mob jack Bay, 317 

Moccasins, shoes, how made, 37, 

Monacans, see Manakins 
Money, made of conch shell, 46; 

fixed in value, 47; wives 

bought with, 77 
Montoac, name of many gods, 

239. See Religion 
Months counted by moons, 84 
Moons, months counted by, 84; 

names of, 84 
Morters made by women and 

children, 76 
Mounds, one opened by Mr. 

Jefferson, 204-210; theories in 

regard to origin of, 204-205; 

well known to the Indians, 

209; some located, 209-210; 

one at Marietta, 210-21 1; 

one at Moundsville, 211-222; 

stone found in 215-216; origin 

of those in Virginia, 222; in 

the Valley of Virginia, 381- 

Moundsville, mound at, 211- 

Mount Vernon, town near, 365 
Mourning for the dead Kings, 

Mummies, bodies preserved by 

barbecuing, 47; of the kings, 

how protected, 132, 198, 200, 

201, 251; another mode of 

E reservation, 198-200; where 
ept, 199, 249-250; guarded 
by the priests, who stayed 
with them, 199, 200; removed 
by the Indians, 203, 253 
Murder, how punished, 172; 

rare, 173 
Music, pastime, 86; singing, 86; 

every night, 87; instruments 

of, 85-86, 87 
Musical instruments, pipes, 85; 

drums, 85-86, 87; rattles, 86, 

87; no trumpets, 177 
Muskingum, word, 316 


Nails, length of Indian women's, 
59; kept long to skin deer, 62 

Names, given by parents, 60; 
soon given to child, 61 ; given 
by father, 61; meaning of, of 
places, 315-316; Indian, for 
places, etc., 316-320; origin 
of Powhatan, 269, 358; origin 
of Opechancanough, 358; ori- 
gin of names of the tribes, 142, 
368-369; Indians used only 
first names of the English, 322 

Nansemond, town, 149; towns 
in, 149, 156; the name, 315; 
river, 317; tribe, 350-351; 
tribes in, 350, 376-379 

Nation, term may apply to 
small number, 1 56. See Tribes 

Necklaces, worn by ladies of 
distinction, 64 

Nets, fish, and other kinds made, 

New England settled, 13 

New Kent County, tribes in, 

Newport, Capt. Christopher, 
commander of second expe- 
dition to Virginia, 19 

Norfolk, site of Indian town, 157 

Norfolk County, Indian tribe 
in, 351-353 

Northampton County, towns 
in, 152, 1 55; tribes in, 366-367 

Northumberland, County, towns 
in, 156 

Nuns, faces like, on posts, 85, 
244, 249, 264 

Oaths, the keeping of, 248-249; 
on manes of dead father, 248- 

Occaneeches, adoration and con- 
juration performed in lan- 
guage of, 260; theirs a general 
language, 286; tribe, 379 



Ohio, name, 315; Indian towns 
on, 401 

Oil, of acorns, sauce to dry meat, 
47; bear's, same use, 47; 
women keep skin clean with, 
64; no sweet oils, etc., used 
in embalming, 199; used to 
keep the skin of the mummies 
from shrinking, 200 

Okee, see Religion 

Old Fields, Indian, English 
name for their tracts, 102; 
always fertile, 102, 134 

Opechancanough, whether a 
brother of Powhatan, 268, 
271-272; Pepisco steals one 
of his women, 346-347 ; origin 
of his name, 358; see also xii., 

Opitchapan succeeded his 
brother Powhatan, 271-272 

Orange, the Prince of, life-work 
and death, 5-9 

Orange County, tribes in, 370 

Orapax, town, 152; Cakeres an 
idol at, 251; crown and other 
articles kept at, 251; tribe, 
357; Powhatan weroance of, 

Origin of the world and mankind, 

239-240, 254-258 
Oysters, pearl gotten from, 47; 

as food, 71-72; abundance 

and size, 72 ; dried, 72 

Page County, Indian towns in, 

^ 386 , 

Paint, Indians decorated with, 
36, 40, 56, 64, 175 

Palisade, ^picture of, 58; sur- 
rounded most towns, 130, 132, 
134; what kept within, 132 

Pamlico County, North Caro- 
lina, Indian town in, 159 

Pamunkey, place, 44; corn de- 
stroyed at, in 1624, 103; river 
now the York, 142, 317, 326; 
present, river, formerly the 
Youghtamund, 170, 326; 
towns of, in 1705, 156; husk- 
ana wing at, 196, 197; still in 
possession of principal seat of 
thepriests, 226-227; the name, 
315; the tribe, 324, 326-336; 

visit to the Reservation, 327- 

Paquippe lake, 61 

Parkman referred to in connec- 
tion with Indian burials, 222 

Pastimes, watching fishing, etc., 
59, 63; yearly feast, 85; sing- 
ing, music, and games, 86; 
nightly music and dancing, 87; 
one form of dance, 88, foot- 
ball, 88; kicking small ball, 88 

Patapsco, name, 315 

Patuxent, town, 152; name, 315; 
river, 317; tribes on the, 365- 
366; tribe, 365 

Pawcorances, sacrifices made on 
them, 230; the crystal altar- 
stone, 253-254; commemo- 
rated events by, 230, 254; used 
to instruct children, 254; the 
bird called, 254 

Pawwawing days, 90; sorceries of 
the Indians so called, 233 

Payankatank, river, 317; coun- 
try peopled by the Kecough- 
tans, 354-355; the Kiskiacks 
owned land at, 356; tribes on, 
358-359; tribe, 358-3591 de- 
stroyed by Powhatan, 358- 
359 . . ^ 

Peace, pipe of, 49-52 ; making of 
treaties of, 178; how marked, 

Peak, for coronets, 36-37, 56; 
for necklaces and bracelets, 42, 
64; valued for ornament, 45; 
various uses of, 46; passed as 
money, 46, 306; made from 
the conch shell, 64 

Pearls, chains and bracelets of, 
worn by princes, 40, 55; 
supply of, 47; worn by virgins 
of good parentage, 62-63; 
buried with the dead, 202- 

Pepisco, romance of, 346-347 

Percy, Capt. Geo., writings, viii.; 
at a huskanawing, 191 ; quoted, 

Perquimans County, North 
Carolina, town in, 158 

Petersburg, site of Indian town, 

Philip II. on throne of Spain 
when this history begins, 3; 
the enemy of Virginia, 1 1 



Philip III., the enemy of Vir- 
ginia, 1 1 

Pictures, White's, 37-39, 124 

Pilgrim Fathers, 15-18 

Piney Branch, workshop on, 

Pipes, of conch shell, 46; of 
peace, 49-52; for music, 85; 
of clay, 122 

Places, Indian names for, 315- 

Pocahontas, dance arranged by, 
64-65; daughter of Powhatan, 
273, 274; name, 274, 315; 
Opachisco her uncle, 275 

Pochone, see Puccoon 

Pocomoke, name, 316 

Pocones, see Puccoon 

Poetry, specimen of Indian, 320- 

Point Pleasant, battle of, won 
by the Virginians, 182 

Political laws, and the art of 
war, chapter on, 165-182; 
title to the crown, 170; wero- 
ance and sachem, 170-171; 
connection between the tribes 
was weak, 402 

Polygamy, custom, 77, 80; on 
the part of the kings, 78; 
status of wives, 79 ; reason for, 
82; effect on the husbands, 

Pomeiock, pictures relating to, 
36-39, 135; Indians of, how 
marked, 41 ; aged men of, how 
dressed, 57; chief women of, 
how dressed, 61 ; described, 
134-135; mentioned, 157 

Pompions, cultivated, 69, 73; 
shells for rattles, 86 

Pond, water preferred, 70; arti- 
ficial for water supply, 135 

Popogusso, Hell, 240, 241, 261- 

Population, not so great here as 
in West Indies, 82; greater 
than supposed, 130; estimates 
of, 279-280, 402-403 

Posts, faces carved on, 85, 244, 
249, 264 

Potomac, town, 151; battle with 
Massomeck, 176-177; Quio- 
quascacke a god of the, coun- 
try, 251 ; the name, 315; river, 
317; tribe, 362; tribes on the. 

xii., 362-366, 371-372, 373. 

Pots, how set for cooking, 66; 
made of clay, no, 1 19-127; 
general form of, 122; uses of, 
123. See Pottery 

Pottery, made by women, 65- 
66, 76; manufacture of, 119- 
127; decoration of, 123-127; 
relation to basketry, 125 

Pouncing, general custom, 40, 
53-54, 56, 58-59. 61; nation- 
ality shown by, 42; described 
by Strachey, 59; how done, 
63; designs of, on body, same 
as that on pottery, 124 

Powhatan, origin of the name, 
144, 269, 358; other names 
given him, 269; origin of his 
family, 268; where born, 267- 
268; belonged to the Powha- 
tan tribe, 324; eighty years 
old when the English came, 
267; personal appearance, 267; 
temperament, 270-271; four 
brothers and two sisters, 170, 
271-272; three brothers lived 
at Pamunkey, 170; his wives, 
272, 273, 276 ; care of his wives 
78; his children, 272-274, 346; 
one of his councilors, 274; 
inherited rule over six tribes, 
268, 270; his bodyguard, 275; 
the night-watch, 275; his 
treasure-house, 275-276; his 
chief holy house, 224-225; 
regarded as a demigod, 166; 
his power, 276; territory con- 
quered by him, 270; bounds 
of his empire, 269-270; popu- 
lation of his empire, 279-280; 
number of kings under him, 
268-269, 276; tribes subject 
to him, 324-368; despotic 
rule of 166, 342; his priests 
responsible for destruction of 
the Roanoke Island settle- 
ment, 235-236; destroyed the 
Chesapeaks, 353 ; destroyed 
the Payankatanks, 358-359; 
Mamanahunt long indepen- 
dent of him, 146-147; fiscal 
system, 165-166, 167; op- 
pressive taxes, 167; punish- 
ments ordered by, 277-278; 
had many enemies, 173; was 



Po whatan — Continued 

weroance of the Orapax tribe, 
357; Werowocomoco favorite 
residence, 142 ; resided at Mac- 
hot, 152; owned Orapax, 152; 
offered to sell Capahowasick, 
145-146; disturbed by proph- 
ecies, 280-281, 282; pro- 
tected by order of King 
James, 236; policy of, in deal- 
ing with the English 278-279; 
demoralization of his court 
due to the coming of the Eng- 
lish, 281; died at Orapax, 
153; the rule as to the suc- 
cession to his crown, 170; suc- 
ceeded by his brother Opitch- 
apan, 271; fate of, as com- 
pared with Pemisapan, 283- 
284; tribe, 268,270, 271, 273, 
324-326; town, 144; town, on 
site of Richmond, 156-157 
Powhatan County, tribes in, 371 
Priests, and conjurers, chapter 
on, 223-237; their attire, 225- 
226, 230-231, 231-232; con- 
jurer's dress, 232; black bird 
above ear as badge of office, 
231 ; deemed semi-divine, 193- 
194; their souls deemed im- 
mortal, 241-242; lived well, 
233-234; their power, 165, 
252; constituted an hier- 
archy, 165, 173, 223, 342; 
ruled the Chickahominies, 
342 ; decided questions of war, 
173; were specially trained in 
medicine, 186, 183-190, 194; 
must have been huskanawed, 
195; keepers of the mummies 
of the kings, 199; stayed with 
the mummies, 199, 201; op- 
position of, to the white man, 
223-224, 235-237, 238; princi- 
pal seat of, 224-227; sacred 
house near Uttamussack, 224- 
225; devotions of, 226, 229, 
230; no special holy days, 229, 
251-252; conjuration of, 227- 
229, 231; of Secota described, 
230-231; some wore beards, 
233; belief in their super- 
natural powers, 233; pro- 
ducing rain, 233, 234-235; 
office of, never held by women, 
234; made the people believe, 

260; control over worshipers 
in Okee's temple, 247, 260; 
redeem an Okee fallen in 
battle, 243; good, highly 
valued by the weroances, 249; 
prophecies of, in relation to 
Powhatan's empire, 280-282; 
destruction of the Roanoke 
Island settlement due to, 236; 
denounced by Whittaker, 233- 
234; Strachey thought they 
should be destroyed, 235- 

Prince George County, town in, 
155; tribes in, 339, 345-346; 
Maryland, town in, 152; 
tribe in, 365 

Princess Anne County, tribe in, 

Prophecies, 280-281, 282,353 

Protestantism, extension of, in- 
volved in the colonization of 
Virginia, 4-15; contest be- 
tween, and Roman Catholi- 
cism, 5-15 

Proudfit, S. v., quoted, 114, 153 

Public meetings, for war, etc., 
170; decorum of, 177-178; 
how treaties conducted, 178- 

Puccoon, a root, 229; paint 
made from, 32-33, 54, 264; 
used as medicine, 188-189, 

Punishment, for adultery, 81, 
172; for murder, 172; for 
robbery, 172; capital, how 
inflicted, 172-173; "cruel and 
unusual," 181-182 

Puritanism, contrast between 
reasons of, for colonization, 
and those which caused the 
settlement of Virginia, 15-18 

Putin Bay, Werowocomoco on 
or near, 143 

"Quarrelsome, the. Chiefs," 314 
Quarries, Indian, 114-119 
Quebec founded, 1 1 
Queen, title of, 168; Aliguippe, 

179, 401 
Queen Anne County, Maryland, 

tribes in, 366 
Quioccos, see Religion 
Quioccosan, see Religion 



Quiver, of rushes, 40; bark, 42; 
skin, 42 


Rain, power of priests to pro- 
duce, 233, 234-235; offerings 
for, 251 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, opposes the 
poHcies of Spain, 7-12 

Rappahannock, town, 156; 
word, 316; river, names for, 
317; tribes on the, 359-362, 
369-370; tribe, 360 

Rattle, picture of child with, 62 ; 
musical instrument, 86, 87; 
use in medicine, 183 

Rattlesnake root, cure for 
snake-bite, 186-187 

Reeds, knives made of, 43 

Refuge, city of, 393 

Regions, Pamunkey, 44; Seco- 
tan, 160; Weapemeoc, 160; 
Newsioc, 283; Pomuik, 283; 
Isenacommacah, 316 

Reincarnation, 242, 258 

Relics, Indian, in northwestern 
part of the State, 383-388 

Religion, freedom of, involved 
in the wars of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, 4- 
15 ; nature of the Indians', 238 ; 
the Indians', described by 
Whittaker, 252-253; the In- 
dian governmental system of, 
249; Occaneeche the language 
of, 260; tutelar deities of 
towns, 247-248, 251; the 
priests made the people be- 
lieve, 260; Indian priests re- 
sented attack on their, 223- 
224; Indians reticent about, 
238, 244, 258; medicine a part 
of, and not to be disclosed, 186- 
187; Quioccosan or Machi- 
comuck words for temple, 
305; temples surrounded by 
posts with faces on them, 244, 
264; the temple at Pomeiock, 
135; idols placed in the 
temples to protect the mum- 
mies of the kings, 198, 240, 
250, 305; Beverley's visit to 
the Indian temple, 243-248; 
part played by conjurers and 
priests in Okee's temple, 247; 

altar-stones, 230, 253-254 ; 
see Pawcorances; frequency of 
sacrifice, 263; religious rehcs 
carefully kept by Indians, 132; 
no special holy days, 229, 251- 
252; seasons observed in, 
263-264; devotions, 226, 229- 
230, 254; frequency of di- 
vinations and enchantments, 
262; various objects of wor- 
ship, 249; the Devil chief ob- 
ject of worship, 249, 251, 259- 
260, 262; necessity for wor- 
shiping him, 259-260; Rio- 
kosick and Riapoke names for 
the Devil, 306; Okee the 
malignant deity, 250-25 1,259- 
260, 305; his part in huska- 
nawing, 193-194, 197; pro- 
tected the mummies of the 
kings, 198, 240, 250, 305; 
carried into battle, 243; the 
name Okee a generic term, 
247-248, 305 ; the idol Okee de- 
scribed, 246, 247, 250, 252; 
burnt offerings and first fruits 
given to, 262 ; Ahone the great 
and good god, 250, 259, 305; 
names of the gods Okee, 
Quioccos, Kiwasa, 239, 247- 
248, 305; Cakeres and Quio- 
quascacke, 251; Montoac a 
general word for gods, 239, 
305; one great god, 239; 
Rawottonemd their word for 
god, 305; Kewas, an image of 
god in the form of a man; 
plural Kewasowok, 305; Qui- 
youghcosoughs, the name for 
petty gods and their affinities, 
305; Quioccos the idol which 
dwelt in the temple, 305; 
Mahomny the god who de- 
cides the fate of the dead, 
261-262, 305; gods have 
human forms, 240; sun 
worship, 248; the good spirit 
of the Cherokees, 391; the 
evil spirit of the Cherokees, 
266; his habitation, 266; 
sanctity of oaths, 248-249; 
rite of huskanawing, 191- 197; 
grace before meals, 74; first 
fruits, 262 ; tobacco subject of 
sacrifice, 262-263; sacrifice to 
running streams, 265; pyra- 



Religion — Continued 

midical stones and running 
streams types of the immu- 
tability of the deity, 264, 
265; the giant's footprint, 
265; Still Pond, 265-266; 
Jopassus' account of creation 
and the, of the Indians, 254- 
258; the Great Hare, 255- 
258; belief in the immortality 
of the soul, 240-243, 257- 
258, 261, 262; applied to 
weroances and priests, 241- 
242; did not include the 
common people, 241-242; 
journey of the soul after 
death, 257-258; the Happy 
Hunting Grounds, 261 ; the 
Barren Hunting Grounds, 
261-262; the doctrine of re- 
incarnation, 242, 257-258; 
belief that the white men were 
dead men returned to life, 
242-243 ; Popogusso their word 
for Hell, 306; Mounshaqua- 
tuuh, their word for Heaven, 
306; Pepisco's appreciation of 
the God of the English, 346 

Reservations, Pamunkey, 327- 
336; Mattapony, 336-337 

Revenge, never forget injury, 
34; case of, 35 ; form of private 
justice, 45-46, 393; tobacco, 
the Indians', on the White 
Man, 105 

Riches, food principal, 44; In- 
dians had little, 45. See 

Richmond, site of Indian town, 
144, 145, 157 

Richmond County, towns in, 
149, 156, 361 ; tribes in, 361 

Rivers and streams, names of, 

Roads, Indian runnmg north 
from Werowocomoco, 143; 
along the north shore of the 
York, 143 

Roanoke, ornament, 42, 45; 
money, 47, 307; town of, 157; 
name, 315 

Roanoke Island, settlement 
came in contact with the 
Catawbas, 27; town, pictures 
relate to, 39; Indians, how 
marked, 41; costumes, etc., 

55; climate, 55; king of the 
country around, 203; settle- 
ment's destruction due to 
Powhatan's priests, 235-236 
Roasting-ear, picture of boy 
with, 62; a favorite food, 
68-69; ^^ picture of man and 
wife at dinner, 75; time, a 
division of the year, 84 
Robbery, how punished, 172 
Rock Creek, workshops on, 116 
Roman Catholicism, its efforts to 
suppress Protestantism, 4-15 
Rose Hill, quarry, 117, 118 
Rosewell, Werowocomoco, at or 
near, 143, 355; Indian roads 
near, 143 
Running streams, worshiped, 

Runtees, made of the conch 
shell, 46; use of, as ornaments, 
46, 307; picture of boy with 
necklace of, 62 

Sachem, office of, 1 70-1 71 

Sacrifice, yearly, of children, 
191, 223-224, 252; altar- 
stones for, 230, 253 ; the crystal 
altar-stone, 253; principal 
devotion consisted in, 253- 
254; tobacco, object of, 262- 
263; frequency of, 263; to 
running streams, 265 

Scalp-lock, long lock preserved 
for distinction, 36; half of the 
hair allowed to grow, 54-55 

Scarecrow, picture of cabin 
used by, 58; regular feature 
of agriculture, 136 

Seasons, and festivals, chapter 
on, 84-90; how divided, 84; 
those observed religiously, 

Secota, pictures relating to, 37- 
39. 135-136; described, 135- 
136; mentioned 159; priests 
of, 230-231 

Secotam, Indians of, how 
marked, 41; region, 160, 283 

Servants, black boys, 169 

Shawanese, tribe, 26, 380-381; 
where located, 324 

Shelly, Werowocomoco at or 
near, 143 



Shenandoah, name, 316; Indian 
towns on, 385-389 

Shenapin town, incidents of 
treaty held at, 179-180 

Shields, of bark, 112, 173-174, 

Shoes, how made, 37, 56 

Sickness, see Medicine 

Sieges, Indians not capable of 
making, 182 

Singing, calculated to affright 
rather than delight, 86; further 
described, 86 

Six Nations, location of, among 
the Algonquin Indians, 26; 
incident of a treaty w4th, 180- 
181; came in contact with 
Virginia, 400 

Skicoak, town on site of Nor- 
folk, 157 

Skins, 53; of birds, 54; how 
dressed, 57, 104; of persons, 
how hardened, 60; how kept, 
64; part of game most valued, 
99. 100 

Slaves, how married women 
punished for adultery might 
become, 81; stolen from the 
white men by the Indians, 394 

Smith, Capt. John, writings, 
viii. ; taken captive by hunting- 
party, 97; map, 141; quoted, 
34, 42, 53, 58. 60, 71, 75, 85, 
96, III, 137, 229, 243, 287, 

Smithfield, site of Indian town, 
157, 350 

Smoke, houses full of, 131 

Snake, as earring, 54; eaten as 
food, 68; bite of, how cured, 
186-187, 190 

Socobec, town, on site of Freder- 
icksburg, 157 

Soul, belief in immortality of, 
240-243; journey of, after 
death, 257-258. See Religion 

Southampton County, tribes in, 

Spain, claim of, to Virginia, 2; 
policy of, in regard to the 
Indians, 30; the Chicka- 
hominies engage to fight 
against, 343 

Spelman, Henry, writings, x.- 
xiii. ; head cut off, 151 ; quoted, 
54, 61, 73, 76, 77, 88, 99, 103, 

139, 172-173, 175. 183, 201, 
233, 251; 

Spinning, how done, 95 

Spoon, 75; picture of cockle- 
shell used for, 75; those used 
by the Indians very large, 75 

Spots, on body, from bleeding, 

Spottsylvania County, tribes in, 

Spring, the budding of, one of 
the Indians' divisions of the 
year, 84 

Stafford County, tribes in, 361, 
362-363, 370; town in, 363 

Stags, moon of, 84 

Stealing, common people given 
to, 35 

Still Pond, 265-266 

Stockings worn more generally 
by old people, 57-58 

Stoicism, pain borne with, 44- 

Stone Age, Virginia Indians be- 
longed to neolithic, 25; work- 
shops of, 1 12-1 19; implements 
of, discussed, 113-114; bodies 
unburnt during, 217 

vStoncs, heap of, raised to com- 
memorate treaties of peace, 
178; used to typify qualities 
of the deity, 264-265 

Stools of earth, 130, 131 

Strachey, Wm., writings, viii.- 
X.; quoted, 31, 59, 65, 71, 72, 
74, 78, 82, 94, 102, 112, 133, 
135, 140, 165, 166, 170, 191, 
198, 202, 223, 224, 227, 235, 
241, 249, 255, 287, 321, 370 

Strangers, how received, 49-52; 
of condition, how entertained, 

Sturgeon, how caught, 92-93 

Suffolk, site of Indian town, 157 

Summer, highest sun, Indian 
division of the year, 84; 
Indian, meaning of, 89-90 

Summons, to war, how served 
on warriors, 174-175 

Sun, highest, one of the divisions 
of the year, 84; worshiped as 
a god, 248 

Superstitions, continual fire in 
the home, 66; suggested in 
connection with pottery, 121; 
as to vomiting, 190; in regard 



Superstitions — Continued 

to huskanawing, 193-194; in 
regard to lightning and 
thunder, 194, 229, 259-260; 
passing sacred house at Utta- 
mussack, 224-225 ; conjuration 
and sorcery, 227-229; in re- 
gard to the white men, 242- 
243, 404-405; various objects 
of worship, 249; the bird 
pawcorance, 254; baskets of 
stones, 265; running streams, 
265; giant footprint, 265; 
Still Pond, 265-266; prophe- 
cies as to the destruction of 
the realm, 280-282. See ReH- 

Surry County, Indian towns in, 
144, 155; tribes in, 339, 345- 

Susquehannocks, one of the Six 
Nations, 26; large in stature, 
33, 373-374; described, 373- 
376; tribe, 373-376, 379 

Sweating-house, medical treat- 
ment with, 187-188 

Sword, of wood, 174 

Tablet, breast ornament, 41, 46 
Tahahcoope, son of Powhatan, 

Tappahannas, Oholasc regent 

over, 272; tribe, 345, 360 
Targets of bark, 112, 173-174, 

Tattooing, see Pouncing 

Taxes, paid in tithes, 165-166, 
167; oppressive, 167 

Temple, at Pomeioc described, 
135; mummies of the kings 
kept in, 199; Beverley's visit 
to the, of Okee, 243-248; and 
priest in the territory of each 
weroance, 249; built at the 
cost of the weroances, 249; 
how constructed, 249; sur- 
rounded by posts with faces 
carved on them, 264; called 
quioccosan or machicomuck, 
305. See Religion 

Tennessee, word, 316 

Textile art, 125-127 

Thanksgiving, how expressed, 88 

Thread, how made, 95 ; uses of, 95 

Timbemeck Bay, Werowoco- 
moco, on or near, 142 

Time, how divided, 84 

Tithes exacted by Powhatan, 

Titles of honor, sachem, 171, 302 ; 
cockarouse, 92, 168-169, 302; 
weroance, 168, 169, 302; 
borrowed from the English, 
168-169; woman queen, 302; 
cronockoes, 302 ; mamana- 
towick, 269, 302; veroanee, 
302; mangoi, 344, 345; be- 
loved man, 391 

Tobacco, pipes of peace, 49-52, 
73; used most by men with 
many wives, 83; shown in pic- 
tures, 102; Indians' revenge, 
105; described by Hariot, 105- 
106; how used, 105-106; cul- 
tivation of, 106-108; worm, 
108; object of sacrifice, 262- 

Tockwogh, town, 151; river, 
317; tribe, 372 

Tomahawk, adorned with peak 
and runtees, 46; picture of, 
75; buried as sign of peace, 178 

Tombs of the kings of Secota, 

Tomlinson, A. B., quoted, 211 

Tools, files of beaver teeth, 43; 
knives of split reeds, 43; 
shells for razors, 33-34; bones 
for fish-hooks, 95; cockle 
shells for spoons, 75; thread 
made of grass, 95; axes made 
of stone, 112; weapon like a 
pickaxe, 174 

Toppahanock, river, 317; tribe, 

Torture, of prisoners, 44-45; 
general among the Indians, 
181-182; particular case of, 

Towns, and houses, chapter on, 
128-140; located, chapter on, 
141-160; picture of, 58; In- 
dians lived in, 128-129; 134; 
each, ruled by a king, 128- 

129, 133-134; size of, 129- 

130, 138, 139, 352-353; pali- 
sadoed, 130; generally small, 
133; distance apart, 134; 
forums in, 134, 136-137; when 
removed, 134; usually by 



Towns — Continued 

rivers, 137, 138-139; woods 
clear around, 138; generally 
on a hill, 138-139; map of, in 
Virginia, 142; John Pory 
visits, 152; map of, in North 
Carolina, 160; often had same 
name as tribes, 142; all had 
tutelar deities, 247-248; at 
Turk's Ferry, 358; on the 
Wappatomaka, 384; in Hamp- 
shire County, W. Va., 384- 
385; on the Shenandoah, 385- 
386; in Frederick County, 386; 
in Page County, 386; in 
Pennsylvania, 400-401; west 
of the Ohio, 401; some men- 
tioned in this volume: 

Accohanock, 367 

Accomack, 157, 367 

Acquack, 149 

Anoeg, 270 

Apasus, 352 

Appamattox, 155, 157, 338 

Appocant, 145, 149, 277 

Aquascogoc, 41, 159 

Aquohanock, 152 

Arrohateck, 145, 337 

Assaomeck, 157 

Capahowasick, 145-146 

Catawba town, 398 

Catokinge, 158 

Cekacawon, 362 

Charters Old Town, 401 

Chawanook, 158 

Chawopoweanock, 144 

Chepanow, 158 

Chesakawon, 147 

Chesapeake, 150, 352 

Chickahomonie, 156, 345 

Chiconessex, 155 

Chilhowee, 392 

Citico, 392 

Corotoman, 360 

Cotan, 159 

Croatoan, 159 

Cuttatawomen, 360 

Dasamonquepeuc, 159 

Echota, 391, 392, 393-394 

Gangascoe, 155 

Gingoteque, 155 

Gwarewoc, 159 

Hatorask, 159 

Kecoughtan, 102, 148, 157, 
191. 354-355 

Kiequotank, 155 

Kiskiack, 146 
Loggstown, 401 
Machopongo, 255 
Machot, 151, 152 
Mamanahunt, 146 
Mantoughquemeo, 157 
Mascoming, 158 
Matchopungo, 155, 255 
Matomkin, 155 
Mattapanient, 152 
Mattpament, 152 
Menheering, 156 
Mequopen, 159 
Metpowem, 158 
Mohominge, 145 
Monahassanugh, 270 
Moratuc, 158 
Moraughtacund, 361 
Moysonec, 145 
Muscamunge, 158 
Nacotchtanke, 153-154 
Nanduye, 155 
Nansemond, 149, 156, 351 
Nantaughtacund, 361 
Newsioc, 159 
Nominy, 150 
Nottoway, 155 
Occahanock, 155 
Occaneeche, 379 
Ohaunook, 158 
Onancoke, 152, 155 
Onawmanient, 362 
Orapax, 152-153. 251, 271, 

275, 342. 357 
Ozenick, 146, 149, 341 
Ozinies, 146 

Pamunkey, 44, 156, 224 
Panawaioc, 159 
Paquiwoc, 159 
Paspahegh, 144-145. 339 
Pasptanzie, xii. 
Pasquenoke, 158 
Patawomek, 151, 251 
Pawtuxunt, 152 
Payankatank, 358 
Piqua, 400 
Pissacoack, 149 
Pissaseck, 361 
Pomeiock, 36-39, 41, 57, 

61, 134-135. 157, 352 
Port Tabago, 156 
Potomac, 363, 383 
Powhatan, 144, 157, 325 
Pungoteque, 155 
Quiyoughcohanock, 144, 

191, 346 



Towns — Continued 

Ramushowog, 158 

Rappahannock, 156, 361 

Rassawck, 370 

Roanoke, 157 

Romuncock, 326 

Secota, 58, 62, 135-136, 159 

Sectuoc, 159 

Sewickley Old Town, 401 

Shenapin Town, 179-180, 

Skicoak, 157, 352-353 

Sockobeck, 157 

Tallassee, 392 

Tamottee, 392 

Tandaquomuc, 158 

Tauxenent, 365 

Tennassee, 392 

Tockwogh, 151, 372 

Tramasquecoock, 159 

Uttamussack, 224-227, 253 

Waratan, 158 

Warraskoyack, 149, 157, 350 

Werowocomoco, 142-143, 
271, 315, 355 

Wicocomoco, 156, 362 

Wokokon, 160 

Wyanoke, 147, 155, 339 

Yawtanoone, xi., 251 
See Maps, 142, 160 
Toyatan succeeded his brother 

Powhatan, 271-272 
Trading, by barter, 44; with 

Maryland prohibited, 375 
Traveling, food during, 47-48; 

skill shown in, 96 
Treasure, hidden, 71; buried 
with the dead, 202-203; Pow- 
hatan's guarded by an idol, 
Treaties, see Public meetings; 
with the Chickahominies, 
Trees, principal, 28; how felled, 
109, no, 134; around towns, 
138; houses under, 139; 
planted to commemorate 
treaties of peace, 178 
Tribes, and nations, chapter 
on, 324-405; of Indians in 
eastern part of the United 
States, 26-27; origin of names 
of, often same as rivers, etc., 
142, 368-369; the weroances 
alone sold the lands of, 169; 
how located in Virginia, 324; 

under Powhatan, 324-368; the 
five civilized, 397; some of the, 
mentioned in this volume: 
Accohanocks, 270, 367 
Accowmacks, 270, 367 
Acquintanacksuaks, 366 
Anacostans, xii. 
Anoeg, 270 
Appomattucks, 268, 270, 

Arrohatecks, 268, 270, 324, 

Atquandachuks, 372 
Bocootawwonough, 270 
Cantaunkacks, 357 
Cassapecocks, 357 
Catawbas, 26, 382-383, 397- 

Cayugas, 26, 403 
Cekacawons, 362 
Chawons, 269, 399 
Chawonoaks, 269 
Cheescake, see Kiskiack 
Chepechos, 357 
Cherokees, 26, 324, 389- 

Chesapeaks, 280, 351 
Chickahominies, 341-345 
Chickamawgas, 392, 400 
Chickasaws, 27, 390, 397 
Chippewas, 26 
Choctaws, 27, 390, 396, 397 
Cinelas, 373, 375 
Conestogas, 375 
Creeks, 27, 390, 392, 397 
Cuttatawomen. 359 
Delawares, 26, 382, 398- 

Doegs, 361 
Erati, 392 
Eries, 26 ^ 
Foxes, 26, 73 
Gingaskins, 366 
Hassinungoes, 370 
Hurons, 26 
Illinois, 26 
Iroquois, 26, 398-399, 400, 

Kaposecocks, 357 
Kecoughtans, 273, 353 
Kickapoos, 26 
Kiskiacks, 355-357 
Kuskarawaocks, 366 
Manakins, 324, 369-370 
Mangoags, 369, 399 
Mannahoacks, 324, 369-370 



Tribes — Continued 
Maskoki, 26 
Massawomecks, 270, 371- 

372, 374 
Massawomees, 403 
Massinacocs, 371 
Alattapaments, 336-337 
Mattapamients, 268-270, 

Mattaponys, 336-337 
Meherrins, 379 
Miamis, 26, 400 
Mingoes, 400 
Mobilians, 26 
Mohawks, 26, 403 
Mohegans, 26 
Mohemenchoes, 371 
Monacans, 324, 367-370 
Monahassanoes, 371 
Monasiccapanocs, 370 
Moraughtacunds, 361 
Moraughtaownas, 361 
Moyaons, 365 
Mummapacunes, 357 
Muscogulges, 390 
Nandtaughtacunds, 361 
Nansemonds, 350 
Narragansetts, 26 
Natchez, 27 
Nocotchtanks, 365 
Nominies, 362 
Nottoways, 376-379 
Occaneeches, 379 
Ochahannankes, 357 
Ojibwas, 26 
Onawmanients, 362 
Oneidas, 26, 181, 403 
Onondagas, 26, 181, 403 
Ontponies, 370 
Orapaks, 357 
Orzinies, 341, 366 
Ottari, 392 
Ottawas, 26 
Pamacaeacks, 365 
Pamarekes, 357 
Pamunkeys, 44, 103, 156, 

196, 197, 226-227, 268, 

Paraconas, 357 
Pascataway, 373 
Paspahegs, 339-341 
Patauncks, 357 
Patawomecks, 362-365 
Patawuxents, 365 
Payankatanks, 358 
Pequots, 26 

Pissasecks, 361 
Pocoughtronacks, 402 
Potapacos, 365 
Pottawatomies, 26 
Powhatans, 268, 270, 271, 

273, 324-326 
Quiyongheohanocks, or Tap- 

pahannas, 272, 345 
Rappahannocks, 360 
Secowocomacos, 365 
Seminoles, 27, 390, 397 
Senecas, 26, 401, 403 
Senedos, 372, 383, 385 
Shackakonies, 370 
Shamapas, 357 
Shawanese, 26, 324, 380, 

Six Nations, 26, 398, 400 
Stegarakies, 370 
Susquehannocks, 26, 33, 

373-376, 379 
Tants Wighcocomicos, 366 
Tappahannas, or Quiy- 
ongheohanocks, 272, 345, 

Tarratines, 26 
Tauxenents, 365 
Tauxitanians, 370 
Tegninaties, 370 
Tockwoghes, 269, 372 
Toppahanocks, 360 
Tsaraghee, 391 
Tuscaroras, 26, 324, 372, 

388, 399 
Tuteloes, 380 
Twightwees, 400 
Wampanoags, 26 
Warascoyacks, 149, 157, 

Weanocks, see Wyanoke 
Weopemedgs, 399 
Werowocomocos, 142-143, 

Whonkenties, 370 
Wighcocomocos, 33, 156, 

Winnebagos, 26 
Wyandots, 400 
Wyanoke, 147, 155, 339 
Youghianunds, 338 
Youghtamunds, 268, 270, 

271, 324, 338 
Tribute Indians reduced to, 

146, 154 
Triumvdri of Opechanekeno, 
326, 358 



Trustees appointed for Indian 

tribes, 351, 378 
Tuckahoe, an edible root, 69- 

Turkey-feather, mantles, 53 ; 

arrows fledged with, 112 
Turpentine, glue of, 112 
Tuscaroras, a branch of the 

Iroquois, 26, 372; where 

located, 324, 372; the Cataw- 

bas fought with Virginia 

against, 399 
Tutelar deities, all towns had, 

247-248, 251 
Tyrrell County, North Carolina, 

Indian town in, 159 

Unoccupied region between the 
mountains and the Missis- 
sippi, 395 

Uppowoc, see Tobacco 

Uttamussack, principal seat of 
the priests, 224-227; its loca- 
tion, 226; crystal cube at, 253 


Valley of Virginia, tribes of the, 
380-390; "The Barrens," 381- 
382; scene of Indian battles, 
398, 403 

Vegetables, see Pood 

Verazzano, voyage of, founda- 
tion for claims of France, 2 

Virginia, a leading motive for 
the colonization of, was the 
extension of Protestantism, 
4-15; difference between, and 
Massachusetts, 15-18; would 
not tolerate Roman Catholics, 
18, 23-24; founding of, by the 
King of England, 19-22; 
scope of the undertaking, 21- 
22; religious principles of the 
founders long adhered to, 23- 
24; why so respected, 23-24; 
Indians of, how classed, 25-26; 
flora and fauna of the, forest, 
27-29; kind of country first 
occupied, 29; policy of, in re- 
gard to the Indians, 30-31; 
bonds of, held by Choctaws 
and Cherokees, 396-397; 

westward progress of, 403-405; 
Company, the colony estab- 
lished by, 21 ; Indian name for, 
Virginians, adopted figurative 
language of Indians, 178; 
adopted Indian method of 
fighting, 182; called by the 
Indians the Big Knives, 182 


Wahanganoche, disputes with 
over sales of land, 363-365 

Walking, Indian mode of, 44 

Walnut, 69, 71, 73 

Wampum peak, made of conch 
shell, 46; use of, in treaties, 
179-180; used as money, 306- 

War, art of, and political laws, 
chapter on, 165-182; method 
of, 45, 175-177, 182; for 
women, 82, 173; with the 
Pamunkeys in, 1624, 103; 
continual among the Indians, 
129, 173. 382-383, 401-402; 
begun after due consultations, 
170, 173, 175; authority of the 
commander, 171-172; the 
priests generally decide ques- 
tion of, 173; how warriors 
summoned for, 174-175; In- 
dians timorous in action, 175- 
176; and cruel, 176; dance, 45; 
whoop, 117; Virginians adopt- 
ed Indian method of, 182; 
idol carried into battle, 243; 
Virginia's westward progress, 

Warraskoyack, town, 149; on 
site of Smithfield, 157; tribe, 
348-350; name, 315; bay, 

Washington County, North 
Carolina, town in, 159 

Water, Indians' principal drink, 
70; pond, preferred, 70; arti- 
ficial, supply by town, 135 

Weanoack, town burned, 147; 
tribe, 339 

Weapons, kinds used, 174, 176 

Weighing, difficulty in Indians 
understanding, 34-35 

Weirs, fishing, how made, 91- 
92, 94. 95-96, 98 



Weroances, meaning of the 
word, 269; how dressed, 39, 
172; how wives selected, 78; 
had many wives, 77, 79; 
planting and gathering their 
corn, 104-105; their houses, 
139; power of, 165-166, 168, 
171; taxes due by, 166; num- 
ber of, 166; ill-breeding pun- 
ished by, 168; lands sold by 
them, not by the tribe, 169; 
office of, 170-171; how dis- 
tinguished, 172; ruled by the 
priests, 165, 173; how their 
bodies preserved after death, 
47, 198, 199, 200; how their 
mummies guarded, 199-200; 
protected by the orders of 
King James, 236; their souls 
believed immortal, 241-242; 
each had a temple and priest 
in his jurisdiction, 249; were 
builders of the temples, 249; 
some mentioned in this vol- 

Amepetough, 350 

Ashuaquid, 337 

Attasquintan, 357 

Attossomunck, 357 

Canasateego, 1 80-1 81 

Coquonasum, 337-338 

Ensenore, 203, 242-243 

Essenataugh, 357 

Grangenimeo, 283 

Harquip, 344 

Heigler, 399 

Jopassus, xi., xii., 254-258, 
272, 363 

Kaquothacun, 339 

Kecatough, 272, 358 

Keighangton, 357 

Keptopeke, 367 

Kequotaugh, see Kecatough 

Kissanacomen, 146, 341 

Menatonon, 283 

Namenacus, 365 

Namontack, 273 

Nansuapunck, 357 

Nantaquaus, called the 
Laughing King, 274, 367 

Oconostota, 391-392, 394 

Ohonnamo, 357 

Opechancanough, xii., 145, 
147, 151, 268, 271, 272, 
283, 326, 346-347, 358 

Opitchapan, 271-272 

Opopohcumunck, 357 
Ottahotin, 355 
Ottondeacommoc, 357 
Pemisapan, 203, 242-243, 

283, 284 
Pepisco, 346-347 
Pepiscumah, see Pepisco 
Persicles, 379-380 
Pinmacum, 283 
Pochins, 273, 353 
Pomiscatuck, 338 
Poonens, 158, 283 
Powhatan, see Powhatan 
Tackonekintaco, 348 
Tahahcoope, 346 
Tanacharison, 391, 401 
Tatacope, see Tahahcoope 
Taughhaiten, 358 
Taux-Powhatan, x., 273, 

Tirchtough, 350 
Tottopottomoy, 333 
Toyatan, see Opitchapan 
Uropaack, 357 
Wahanganoche, 363 
Werowaugh, 336 
Weyamat, 357 
Weyhohomo, 350 
Weyongopo, 350 
Wingina, see Pemisapan and 

Wochinchopunck, 339-34 1 
Werowocomoco, location, 142- 
143; roads from, 143; rivaled 
by Machot, 152; tribe, 355 
Westmoreland County, towns in, 

149, 150; tribes in, 362 
Westphalia, treaty of, 14-15 
West's fort, 144 
West Point, Indian name for, 

White, John, pictures, 37-39, 
124; sent over by Raleigh, 
39; map, 160 
White peak, uses of, 46 
Whiteside Mountain, the home 

of the Spirit of Evil, 266 
Whittaker quoted, 139, 166, 

^73, 233, 252 
Wiccocomoco, see Wighcocomo- 

Wicomico River, 317 
Wife, see Wives 

Wighcocomocoes, tribe small in 
stature, 33; town, 156; tribe, 



Wigwam, 130; see Houses 

William the Silent, 5-9 

Wingina, marks on his subjects, 
41; on his brother-in-law's 
subjects, 41; southern limit 
of kingdom, 159; sick when 
English first appeared, 282; 
his allies and enemies, 283; 
took the name of Pemisapan, 
283; planned extermination of 
the English, 283; death of, 284 

Winters, years reckoned by, 84; 
called cohonks, 84 

Wives, bought with money, 77; 
plurality of, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82; 
of the kings, 78 ; care of Pow- 
hatan's, 78; status of, 79; 
duties of, 80; right of divorce, 
80, 81; gotten by skill in 
hunting, 96 

Wolves, quantity of, 28; native 
animal, 73 

Women, of Secotam, 58; pas- 
times of, 59; carrying children, 
59-60; love of children, 60; 
waited on by children, 62; 
how employed, 62, 75-76; 
behavior of, 62-64; kept skin 
clean with oil, 64; dress of 
young, 62-63, 64, 65; how to 
tell married, 63; breasts, 63, 
64; young, gay, 63-64; makers 
of pottery, etc., 65-66, 75-76; 
served meals, 76; wars for, 
82; threads made by, 95; on 

hunting-parties, 96; agricul- 
ture conducted by, and chil- 
dren, 80, 102; under care of 
of sachem, 171; sometimes 
sachems, 171; never priests 
nor conjurers, 234; constituted 
part of the delights of heaven, 
261; dress of one described, 

Worcester County, Maryland, 
tribes in, 366 

Words, some Indian, 285-323; 
see Language 

Workshops, Indian, 114-119 

Worsaae quoted, 112, 217 

Wounds, see Medicine 

Wreath worn by women about 
the head, 58 

Wreck of Christian ship about 
1564, III 

Wysoccan, a mad potion given 
in huskanawing, 196 

Year, how divided, 84 

Yeardley forces payment of tri- 
bute, 146 

York, river, formerly Pamun- 
key, 142, 326; town on the, 
145-146; tribes on the, 355- 

Youghtamund, river now the 
Pamunkey, 170, 317, 326; the 
tribe, 324, 338 

•^ Selection from the 
Catalogue of 


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The Winning of the 
Far West 

A History of the Regaining of Texas, of the Mexican War, of 

the Oregon Question ; and of the Successive Additions 

to the Territory in the United States within 

the Continent of America, 1829-1867 


Robert McNutt McElroy, Ph.D. 

Edweurds Professor of American History, Princeton University 
Author of " Kentucky in the Nation's History," etc. 

8°. With Illustrations and Maps. $2.50 

This volume is designed as a continuation of Theodore Roosevelt's 
well-known work, The Winning of (lie West It begins with the history of 
the Texas Revolution under General Sam Houston, tracing the origin of 
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his letters of that period, to " regain Texas, peaceably if we can, forcibly 
if we must." 

The author has had access to large collections of Jackson's letters, 
most of which have never been published, and his treatment of the subject 
is distinctly new. 

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ing from official documents that the declaration of war was not due to the 
encounter between the forces of General Taylor and those of General 
Arista on the banks of the Rio Grande, but had been positively decided 
upon by President Polk and his Cabinet before the news of that engage- 
ment reached Washington. 

The Mexican War is treated in detail, the accounts of the battles being 
based upon official documents and military reports. 

The events leading up to the conquest of New Mexico and California, 
and the settlement of the old controversy over the ownership of the Oregon 
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full discussion of the Compromise of 1850, and the volume closes with the 
Purchase of Alaska. 

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Fremont and '49 

The Story of a Remarkable Career and its Relation to 

the Exploration and Development of our Western 

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By Frederick S. Dellenbaugh 

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One ot ir»e most interesting and 
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loomed large in politics, and, in 
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