Skip to main content

Full text of "Count Cavour and Madame de Circourt: Some Unpublished Correspondence"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



















much merit and a good wit, immensely learned, and 
modest beyond common.' 

Until her death, which took place in 1S63, I saw 
the Countess continually, except during the ten months 
- — October, 1S60, to August, 1861 — which I spent in 
Italy, owing to the temporary break in my mission.^ 
During these years I saw a stream of those who might 
be called the picked men of contemporary society pass 
through the Circourts' drawing-room in Paris, or their 
country house at Les Bmjferes, near Bougival. She 
herself determined to honour his recommendation in my 
favour, and passed on to me a portion of the friendship 
which she had long felfc for Count Cavour. Toung 
and almost inexperienced as I was when suddenly 

'^ Ho appeared for a, short time in a public capacity wlien M. de 
Laoiartine sent Jiim, in 1848, on a mission to Froderick William IT., 
King of PrnHsia, a task which he fulfilled, amid serious difScultica, with 
much tact and with hia uative 8tTaightfo^wa^dneBB. But to the mea of 
Ilia generatiou Le was known less hj this brief tenure of ofB.ce than by 
hia rare erudition, and by the kind courtesy with which lie placed it at 
the disposal of every applicant. His published works, uuinerous as they 
are, are far from giving a measnre of hia talents and his knowled|i;e. 
His worth, both as a man and as a savant, will be judged by his cor- 
reapoudence, if it ever ba published, and by the recollections of hia 
contemporaries. One of these, Colonel Hnber-Saladin, has dedicated to 
his memory a cleverly— perhaps too cleverly^ written book, interesting, 
however, for the historical, biographical, and bibliographical material 
which it containa. It appeared at Paris in 1881, under the title, Le Comte 
de Girctmrt, son temps, see icrite ,■ Mme de Circourt, son salon, ses corre- 
spoTidanees. But the book never had any circulation. Like him who 
was its principal subject, it remained almost unknown beyond the narrow 
circle of friends for whom it waa delusively deatined, 

^ On the breaking off of diplomatiG relations betweeu France and 
Sardinia, owing to the invasion of the Papal territories by the latt«r power. 


1 at the head of what theu was the most important 
and most difficult of Italian diplomatic missions, called 
upon, moreover, to move amid a society in great part 
hostile to the cause which I represented, I was not 
without some apprehension as to the success of my 
efforts. The assistance which I had been fortunate 
enough to afford to Cavour, and the intimacy with 
which he honoured me, had, it is true, been the best train- 
ing I could have for all that related to the political part 
of my task. But in the social relations which are so 
important in diplomatic life, I was, so to say, without 
bearings ; not to mention that, at the time of which I 
speak, these relations had in France become extremely 
difficult, owing to the great di\'ision and hostility 
between parties. The chateau,^ as the phrase theu 
was, and official society were, of course, open to me ; 
bat there were many people in Opposition circles whom 
■ it was useful and agreeable to me to know, and my 
only chance of meeting them was in those salons which 
brought together the best men and women of both 
I parties in the bond of wit and intelligence. That in 
[ the Rue des Saussaies was perhaps the last survivor of 
I these. When Mme de Circourt admitted me to it, 
Fshe used all her courtesy and all the inducement of 
Iter wit to make me welcome to the distinguished 
company which surrounded her. 

' Of tlie Tnilories ; tJi&t ia, tlie court. 

a 2 


At her death she bequeathed to me the letters which 
Count Cavour had written to her during a period of 
twenty-five years. Unfortunately, they are not many. 
Reckoning the six addressed to Count Adolphe de 
Circourt, which formed part of the legacy, and in- 
cluding a note two lines long, the little collection 
contains only thirty-seven items. They are all auto- 
graph, written in Cavour's delicate little round char- 
acters — extremely neat and free from erasures ; but 
curiously enough only six have a complete date, while 
seventeen are undated.^ They are written in French, 
for though Mme de Circourt knew something of 
Italian, she was not accustomed to read or write it. 
Such are the letters which I now publish, thirty years 
after the death of her to whom they were addressed. 
Mme de Circourt was wont to call this little collection 
her "treasure"; and indeed its publication will add 
fresh wealth to that unequalled treasury formed hy the * 
works of the greatest statesmen of modern Italy. 

Count Cavour's letters can well dispense with any 
commentary ; they speak clearly and plainly for them- 
selves. What, indeed, could one add to these pages ? 
If the author's renown, or his claim to the gratitude 

' "Connt Carour's Correspondence," edited by Signor Chiala, contains a 
letter to Mme de CircoAirt ot April 26. 18i9 [vol. i, p. 413), wliich is 
not in mj collectiou. In voL i. p. 287, of tlie same work, the letter wliicli 
appears as No. xii., under the date of May, 1835, is irroiig'ly put down 
as addreaaed to Mme de Gircoiu-t ; and several extracts from letters to 
her axe inaccurately dated. The curcect dates will be found in this book. 


of Italians and the admlratioa of the world, could be 
increased b\' anything, it would be b}- these letters. 
All his characteristics, his prodigious activity, his clear- 
headedness, his "go," the keenness of his intellect, at 
ODce plaj'ful aud decided, touching with equal ease the 
most divei"se subjects ; the precision of his thought, his 
unalterable faith in freedom, his ardent yet well-con- 
sidered patriotism, his independent yet safe judgment, 
find in these letters fresh and genuine corroboration. | 

Nor is there any need for me to take the oppor- 
tunity of this publication in order to write another 
biography of our great statesman. Every circumstance 
of his life, every political act of his, has been the 
subject of careful studies and of numerous writings, 
Bome of which met with a success which time has 
only confirmed.^ Although an important part of the 
present correspondence, that, for instance, which refers 
to the preparation for the war of 1S59, could not be 
included in the great collection compiled and anno- i 
tated with such unwearied devotion by Signor Chiala, | 

' I may mention two, tendered specially worthy of attention by the 
position of their nnthors and tlif authentic sources to which they liad 
■ceesB. One is the fine lutrodnction wkieli Signor L Artom, who ahared 
with mo the honour of acting oa Bepreta.ry to the great Minister, prefixed 
to his (Euvre parlemeniaire dii Cointe de Cavour, brought out by him and 
It Albert Blauc at Paris iii 1862. The other is M. Williaiu de la Rive's 
Xe Oomte de Cavour, rScih et souvenirs (also Paris, 1862). M. de la 
Bjve, whose family was related to Coaut Cavoor, had seen him freqnontly. 
and at all periods of his life, in the close intimacy of liia oivu father's 
honse. He has drawn with n master iiand the moat lively and most | 
futhfnl portrut that eiiiats of his illustrioaB cousin. 


Count Cavour's work lias by this time been known 
and judged io its entirety. His migbty figure lives in 
tbe consciousness of the Italian people, and has taken 
its place for ever in history. That of his unpretentious 
correspondent, on the otlier hand, has never, even at 
the time of her most brilliant social success, been con- 
spicuous beyond the circle with which she came into 
personal contact. The new generation knows her not. 
It is her figure, possessing more than one claim to our 
interest, that I propose to sketch out in the following 
lines. But the amiable lady who was Cavour's friend 
will be better known irom the letters which she wrote 
to me in her later years, and which I give in an 
Appendix, than by any words of mine. 

I would not have the reader think that T am urged 
to publish tliis latter correspondence by any feeling of 
vanity. Mme de Cireourt does, indeed, address to me 
in some of the letters enlogies which I never believed 
myself to deserve. I know well, however, that these 
must in some measure be set down partly to ber friend- 
ship for Cavour, whose pupil I was, and partly to the 
excessive kindness wbicli. her desire to attract and 
retain those whom she liked to have around her, made 
habitual to her. Also, I have kept these letters in 
their portfolio for more than thirty years — long enough, 
I think, to prove that I tave not been in too great a 
huiTy to use them for the furthering of my vanity. 


But now, after making all needful concession to my 
scruples, I thought myself no longer justified in sup- 
pressing this correspondence, closely connected as it is 
with Cavour's own, and rich in memories of him. 

Anastasie Klustine was born at Moscow in 1308. | 
She was the daughter of Simon Klustine, an ofBcer of 
high rant in the Enssian army, and the Countess Vera 
Tolstoi. Her early years were passed, sometimes at 
Moscow, sometimes on the estate of Troitzkoie, in the 
district of Kalouga. According to the most praise- 
worthy custom of the Russian noble families, Anastasie 
learned in her childhood, first from governesses, then 
from masters, the principal modern languages. Though 
her health was very delicate, she made such rapid pro- 
gress in her studies that at sixteen she knew Russian, 
German, French, and English, Besides these, she had 
learned the ancient Church-Sltivonic, and was studying 
religion and ethics, metaphysics, and even botany; not 
to mention music. At eighteen, in company with lier 
mother, she commenced the travels which occupied a 
great portion of her life. To improve her health, she 
went first to Montpellier, to be under .the care of Dr. 
Chretien; then to the Pyrenees and to Paris. Two 
years were passed in these three sojourns. It was in 
Paris during the winter of 1820-27 that she made the 
acquaintance of Count Adolphe de Circourt. She met 
him at the house of his cousin, the Marquise de la Tour 


du Pin Montaaban, who was at that time living witkl 
her father, the old Marshal du Houx de Viomesnil 
(who died in 1S27, aged ninety-fonr). Mile Klustine 
was not pretty ; but she had a pleasant face, with fine 
eyes, large and expressive. She was naturally elegant, 
and decidedly taking. Being no less remarkable for 
intelligence and education than for nobility of mind 
and a soul full of goodness, she attracted the attention 
of distinguished men wherever she appeared. Count 
Adolphe came under the charm of the young Russian, 
and soon a mutual liking decided their fate. Their 
marriage, however, did not take place for three years, 
being celebrated at Berne towards the end of 1830. 
These three years were passed by Mile Klustine with 1 
her mother at Nice, at Geneva, and in Itah' ; going-J 
from Pisa to Rome, and from Naples to Venice. At! 
Pisa she learned Italian from Professor Rosini, whol 
dedicated to her his novel Zuisa Sfroszi. During thiM 
journey she made friends with Carmignani, Niccolii 
Cicognara, Justine Renier Michiel, and many otha 
eminent Itahans. At Rome, Signor P. E. Viscont^ 
dedicated to her his collection of popular songs, ^far^t^M 
tima e Canipagna, and the Accademia degli Arcs 
admitted her to membership under the name of 
" Corinna Boristenide."^ Later on she added to the 

' In 1829, Mile Klnstiue had written a remarkable article o 
state of Rnssiau literature, which waa printed witboiit author's 


list of her Italian friends the names of General Filangieri, 
o£ Gino Capponi, of Pellegrino Rossi, and of Camillo di 
Cavour. She passed the year following her marriage in 
Switzerland, and chiefly at Geneva, whither she was 
drawn by the connexion which she had formed with 
the literary society of that place ; especially with 
Sismondi, the aged Bonstetten/ and Pyramus de Can- 
doUe. Then, wishing to revisit Italy with her bushand, 
she passed three winters there, staying by turns at 
Pisa, Eome, Genoa, Milan, Plorenee, Naples, and 
Venice. Italy, by her past greatness, by her present 
misfortunes, by her indomitable faith in a better future, 
by the merit of the men who then were nursing the 
first germs of revival, was in 1S30 well fitted to arouse 
in the generous and enthusiastic soul of the young 
woman those feelings of admiration and sorrowful 
tenderness which she retained for the country till her 
death. -She was appreciated and loved there ; and left 
behind her memories which the disappearance of all 
her contemporaries has not wholly effaced. 

After Italy, the young couple visited Russia and 
Germany. In the last-named country, Mme de Cir- 

the BihliothbquB JJnkeraeUe of Geneva. Later on tlie snme pnblicBtion 
irae fortunate eiiaiigli to bnre three more articles frimi lier : Oeorges 
Uaoelawgky, ou let Itusses en 181 2 (by '* Zagoskiue ") in 1831 ; Eelaiion 
d'une course a Senevent et Aiualfi; and Belation de giidquea exeuraions I 
dam le Boyaume de Napleej both in 1832. I 

' The friend of Gray. He lived to the age of 87. 


court added yet others to her illustrious friendships. 
Prince — afterwards King — John of Saxony, the Dante 
commentator and translator,^ and two Kings of Prussia, 
WilHara III. and Frederick William IV., successively 
showed her marked regard ; and soon she could reckon 
among her friends Cornelius, KaiUbach, Rauch, Lepsius, 
Humboldt, Rauke, Bettina von Amim, Schelling, 
Tieck, every person, indeed, then eminent in letters, 
art, and science throughout Germany. In Eussia she 
was held in esteem by the small literary circle of which 
Pouschkin was the recognised head ; and in later days 
she acquired, out of Eussia, the faithful friendship of 
her most famous compatriot, Mme Swetcbiue. 

But I must come without further delay to the first 
meeting between Mme de Circourt and Count Cavour. 
At Geneva the Countess had known the future 
Minister's mother and aunt, the Marquise de Cavour 
(born de Sellon), and her sister, the Duchess of Cler- 
mont-Tonnerre ; and at Plombi^res, in 1834, she had 
met his elder brother. Marquis Gustave de Cavour. 
Her first meeting with Count Camillo was at Paris in 
1835. He had just resigned his commission in the 
Sardinian Engineers, and was travelling to improve his 
mind. In after times she often said to me, "At the 
very first sight of him I recognised in Cavour the most 
high-minded man of his time." Prom that moment i 

' Known to Danto students as Philaletlie.s. 


she dedicated to him a frieodship which was ever con- 
sistent, and later on grew to be an unbounded devotion. 
Count Cavour, on his side, felt for her an affection 
mingled with respect and gratitude, which only ceased 
with his life. Even at the most critical moments of 
his political career, amid his most severe trials, the 
great statesman found time to write to her. He knew 
that wherever in Paris society there was most hostility 
to the Italian cause, he could reckon on the courageous 
and audible voice of bis friend. The reader, as he 
peruses the letters which Cavour addressed to her, will 
be able to judge for himself how great was the con- 
fidence, intimacy, and esteem which united these 
generous souls. 

After 1836, Mme de Circonrt was definitely settled 
at Paris during the winter. In 1841, following the 
example of her compatriot, Mme Swetchiue, after 
matm-e reflection, she left the Orthodox Church and 
became a Catholic. In 1848, she accompanied Count 
Adolphe on his mission to King Frederick William IV.; 
and on this occasion, as at all times, she aflbrded M. de 
Circourt at the Court and in ihe society of Berlin the 
support of her grace, of her judgment, and of her 
advice, and even that of her pen, for daring the whole 
time that the mission lasted she was her husband's 
only secretary. In 1830, she furnished a country 
'_^ house at Les Bruyferes, near the village of La Celle 


Saint-Cloud, not far from Paris. She called this hecj 
hermitage, and henceforth in summer and autumn the 
house received, as we know, many illustrious visitors. 
It was in this cottage that, on the evening of August 
18, 1S55, happening to put her head near a candle, she 
set fire to her cap and her hair. The poor Countess 
was so badly burnt about the neck and shoulders that 
for the rest of her life she remained an invalid and 
partly paralysed. Her sufferings, which were literally 
indescribable, were supported by her with heroic 
fortitude and serenity; she concealed them from her 
friends, and continued to receive both at Paris and at 
Les Bruyeres, whither she had herself moved every 

Mme de Circourt's sa/on at Paris, of which the 
cottage at Les Bruyferes had become since 1852 a 
summer dependency, was, from the very first, one of the 
few places where eminent people of all countries could J 
have the pleasure of meeting each other. Count Adolphe, \ 
both by family tradition and by personal conviction, wa* 
a Legitimist. He has been wrongly accused of beinj 
sceptical or indifferent in politics, whereas he really wai 
only tolerant ai^ enlightened. As for the politico 
opinions of Mme de Circourt, we must suppose that shel 
had preferences, or one would rather say, an ideal ; hut she J 
never made any display of it. She tolerated all sincere 
convictions, and judged men by their deserts independ- 


ently of the political sets to whicli they might belong. 
Aa M. de Circourt wrote to me after her death, " Her 
intelligence leapt out to meet greataess and goodness 
wherever she recognised it, piercing all barriers and 
disdaining commonplace obj ect ions. " Essentially kind 
and amiable towards all, loyal and devoted towards her 
friends, always inclined to preach concord to the most 
divergent and most obstinate spirits, putting into this 
work of conciliation all her heart, all her feminine 
persistency, and all the charm of her wit, she succeeded 
in bringing side by side and keeping near her men and 
women whom whole gulfs separated, and who had no 
bond between them save her friendship, Monseigneur 
de Bonnechose and Vitet, De Falloux and M^rimee, 
Banke and Toequeville, Cobden and Thiers, Prevost- 
Paradol and Drouyn de Lhuys, Mme Swetchine and 
Mrs Austin, Countess de Piraodan, and Duchess 
Colonna, Lady Holland and Mme de Goyon, Cavour 
and the great ladies of the Faubourg St. -Germain, 
Eckstein, Cousin, Ticknor, Stanley, Prescott, Senior, 
De la Eive, Dolgoroukoff, Oliphant, Geffcken, Scherer, 
Parieu, Filangieri, Scialoja, a whole list of illustrious 
persons wide apart from each other in politics, religion, 
or prejudices, coming from all countries, professing the 
most different beliefs and opinions, found beside Mme 
de Circourt's sofa an opportunity of meeting which they 
would have sought in vain elsewhere. 


The Countess de Circourt died March 9, 1863, after 
a short illness, at her rooms in the Rue des Saussaies in 
Paris. Eer death was a great grief to her numerous 
friends of all countries. It was specially felt in Italy, 
where people were well aware both of her intimacy with 
Cavour and of the sympathy which she boldly avowed 
for his cause. I made myself the interpreter of tbe 
feelings of my countrymen by inserting in the Official 
Gazette of the kingdom^ an obituary article containing 
some biographical notes which I had obtained from 
Count Adolphe de Circourt a few days after bis wife's 
death, and of which I have here been giving a summary. 
A French critic, whose leanings were not to the side of 
indulgence, Sainte-Beuve, dedicated to her memory in the 
Gonstifutioiinel a page, which is worth tbe longest 
biography. I cannot refrain from quoting some lines 
from it : — 

"The special characteristic of Mrae de Cii'coui't's sahn was 
that intellect gave, as one may aay, rights of citizenship there. No 
preconceived opinion, no prejudice efcood in the way of this lady, 
pious as ahe was and firm ia her beliefs, so soon as she perceived 
that she had to do with a sterling intellect aod a man of talent, 
JFrom whatever political shore one laiglit come, on whatever philo- 
aophical dogma one might take one's stand, one met with friendship 
and sympathy beside that sofa on which she had for years been 
imprisoned by cruel sufferings diaaemhled under a kindly and 
gracious charm with a social art that nothing conid alter." 

' Gaztntta V^aiale del regno d'ltalia, April 10, 18G3. 


It is with a sentiment of pious gratitude that I dedicate 
these pages to the memory of the clever and good woman 
who was the friend of Count Cavoiir, and remained 
loyal to him until death. 

In publishing this work, which will receive, I hope, 
a favourable greeting, not only from my feUow-citizens, 
but from the lofty minds of all countries, I am fulfilling 
a duty which was imposed on me by Mme de Circourt's 
last wishes, and by regard for the name o£ him who 
was at once my master and my friend, I was the last 
person with whom Cavour held any connected talk 
upon State affairs ; may I be allowed to eud this intro- 
duction with a personal reminiscence? 

On Friday, May 31, 1861, the thu-d day of his 
illness. Count Cavour summoned me to his bedside 
about three in the afternoon, and gave me with great 
clearness instructions for drawing up a note, of which 
I need not here state the purport. Our conversation 
had lasted half an hour when I thought I perceived a 
little difficulty in his speech. I told liim that he must 
not tire himself more, that I quite understood him, and 
that I would lay the minute before him on the following 
day. He answered, " Yes, I feel very weary ; I need a long 
rest ; but I have yet two things to do, Venice and Rome. 
It will be you others who will do the remainder." ^ 

' I giTB tlia PiedmonteHe words literally, " I 
tk, Teneeaia e Bunu. 'L rest ti 1 lo fanui peoi lor 


I could not refrain from smiling, and I answered, 
" Count, if the comparison so far as we are concerned 
did not savour of vainglory, we might complain of you 
as Alexander did of his father, by reproaching you for 
having left us nothing more to do." He smiled in his 
turn and put his hand out to me. As I pressed it I 
felt that he had fever. I went out just as the Marchesa 
Alfieri was entering. She watched for six days and six 
nights beside his noble delirium, and on June 6, at 
6.45 a.m., she closed his eyes. She contributed to M. 
de la Eive's book a striking account of the illness and 
death of her beloved uncle. Having myself witnessed 
the last moments of the great Italian, I am unable, 
after more than thirty-two years have elapsed, to read 
these pages again without keen emotion. 

C. Nigra. 

October, 1893. 


Note.— The bequest of Count Cavour's letters was 
made known to me, and the legacy forwarded, by Count 
Adolphe de Circourt in the following letters : — 



To M. Nigra, Paris, 

Paris, Marches, 1863. 
> that no one understands better than you. 

o well, the extent ajid the nature of my lorn. I 
hasten to comply with your request.' It does iiot renew my grief 
to occupy myself with matters relating to the object of it. I cannot 
for a moment turn my thoughts from it ; and when I find no means 
of occupying my thoughts they prey upon me. 

Farfi come colni che piange e dice.' 

I will send you a little later my wife's precious h 
letters of Cavour's were so dear to her that she neve 
anything but " my treasure." Count Cieognara's ha' 
from a literary point of view ; and had much for us 
of one of the noblest men of past days. 

Q,ufindo mi ricordo, 
Del tempo andato, e 'ndietro mi rivolgo.^ 

^acy. Those 
' called them 

I speak of all this 
my own funeral. 

a the past, for I feel as if I had been following 
Beliere me, devotedly yours, 

A. DE Circourt. 

' This letter was enclosed with some notes ( 
life, for which I had asked tlia Count. They v 
obituary article in the Gazzetta already referred ta. 

' Dante. Hell. v. 13G. 

= Petrarch, Ode, "Spirto gcntil," U. 30, 31. 

Mnie de Cireourt's 
re reproduced in the 


Paris, May 4, 1863. 

Sir, — I have found, collected and put in order. Count Cavour's 
letters to my wife and to myself ; as I had the honour to write to 
you, this precious little legacy is bequeathed to you. I am dis- 
charging this sad duty before leaving Paris for a few weeks' 
holiday, which the state of my health renders necessary, I will 
forward you the correspondence of Count Cicognara from Les 
Bruy^res, where it is kept. 

In parting with these letters, to which my wife attached so much 
value, I have no feeling but one of gratitude for the truly worthy 
hospitality which they will find in your portfolio. That great man's 
memory has no heir more affectionate, more zealous, or more capable 
of realising the ideas of which the execution has by his premature 
death been relegated to the future. 

Again I will beg you to believe that I am sincerely yours 
with all respect and devotion, 



c 2 

• J 

DE CmCOUET, 1836— 18G0. 


[Turin, 1836.J 
Mauam, — I am sorry that an excess of delicacy 
sbould have caused you some raoments' embarrassment. 
If you had reflected upon the reason o£ your scruples 
you would be convinced that you owe no gratitude to 
anyone, but that, on the contrary, you rendered a real 
service both to M. de Casanova^ and to me when you 
gave us a more special opportunity of attending to your 
wishes in London. In that foreign land it was very 
pleasant to us to have something to do vrhich might 
carry us back to those spots which we had just quitted 
with so much regret. We could have wished to have 
a fresh commissiou to do for you every day ; we should 

' Oonut Alessaadro Avogatlro di Casanoya, of Vercelli in Piedmont, 
VBH one of the most brilliant offiuerB, first uf the Sardinian, tlieu of the 
Italian army. He served in tlie Crimea, and in nil the Italian campaigiis, 
became lieutenant- general in commaud of (ui armj corps, was deputy 
Bud aeuator, and died in 1B86. 


have the less felt our separation from the Rue des 
Saiissaies, which has nothing in London to match it. 

During my stay in England I often wished to write 
to you, but was always withheld by the fear of boring 
you. I knew that you were unwell and not strong, and 
if I had thought that I could cheer or distract you I 
would have written you volumes. But how can one be 
lively or amusing when one is living in the middle of 
fogs and smoke, crushed under the weight of a heavy 
and ponderous intellectual atmosphere ? In England 
one may discuss, but never chat ; bow could I have 
gone into discussions or dissertations with an invalid ? 
I preferred to deprive myself of the pleasure of any 
intercourse with you rather than run the chance of 
boring you. People who are in pain are more sensi- 
tive to boredom, and I was afraid of adding to your 

I do not mean to say that England is not a country 
of immense intellectual resources. You can find there 
quite as many specialists and men of deep thought as 
anywhere else — perhaps more. Nowhere are certain 
branches of the moral sciences better cultivated, but 
there is one thing which you will seek there in vain; 
I mean that admirable union of science and wit, of 
depth and of kindliness, of solidity and polish whicli 
forms the charm of certain Parisian salons, a charm 
which one regrets all one's life when one has once 


made trial of them, and which can never be found 
again when one has left that intellectual oasis of which 
you are one of the principal adornments. 

In London one makes acquaintances, tlie intellect 
ripens, the ideas become less vague and more avail- 
able; one gains, perhaps, a practical spirit, highly 
valuable in the conduct of the affairs of life, but 
one loses that flexibility of intellect, that pleasant 
sharpening of the wits which make a Parisian salon 
the only place in the world where the intelligence 
can exert itself without fatigue. It is impossible in 
London to keep up a correspondence with Paris, it is 
like trying to run in leaden shoes. 

If I had been able to go back by way of Paris 
and to stay there a month, just long enough to tend 
you in your convalescence, I should have asked your 
leave to recount my impressions of England ; thanks 
to the atmosphere which one breathes in your society 
my story would, perhaps, not have been too much 
flavoured with the fogs of the Thames. I do not 
venture to write it, for in certain respects the air of 
Piedmont is heavier than that of London. The sky 
is clear there, but the moral horizon is so darkened 
by the clouds which are there developed under an 
eminently repressive system that one's wits have even 
less elasticity than in England. So, instead of think- 
ing how I may occupy myself with all that interests 


the brilliant circle of which you are the centre, I have 
decided to resume my rustic career, which certainly 
will not do anything to make me regain what I have 
lost since my departure from Paris. 

I make this confession to you in order that you may 
have no illusions with regard to the new correspondent 
whom you have acquired. I have too much conscience 
not to warn j^ou that in pledging yourself to an epis- 
tolary correspondence with me you are making a 
wretchedly bad bargain. You must have felt that 
you had a strong element of generosity and devotion 
in order to agree to exchange the thoughts which with 
you develop under the highest intellectual tempera- 
ture in Europe against those of a person who is about 
to make oxen and sheep his principal occupation. If 
after this humble confession you persist in your kind 
intentions with regard to me, I can only promise to 
make up for the deficiency of interests which my 
correspondence will have by gratitude and a devotion, 
of rural vigour. 

I arrived here two days ago. Yesterday I suc- 
ceeded in seeing Rora^and his wife. You will know of 
their troubles, the illness of their daughter,^ and her 
sad convalescence. Mme di Rora could not bear the 

^ Marquis Maurice Luserna di Rork, senator and syndic of Turin, 
who died in 1854 ; and Adele Oreglia di Farigliano. 

2 Constance Luserna di Rora, Countess Costa di Carru. 


sad sight, and fell ill herself; though not actually 
in danger, she suffered terribly. Thank God, she is 
better, and her daughter is in the country. She will 
join her there. Pray Heaven that the distractions of 
country life and tlie qaiet which she will enjoy at 
Campiglione may re-establish the order of her thoughts. 
It would be too cruel to see a most reasonable, most 
sweet, and most virtuous person fall into a complete 
state of derangement. 

My brother begs to be remembered to you. Al- 
though we have only passed a few moments together 
we have already spoken much of you, and of the 
recollections which we have brought away from your 
bouse. He was wishing to publish a work upon which 
he has been engaged for three years, but the censorship 
does not find it sufficiently Catholic ! ! ! This shows 
you how sincere is the neo-enthusiasm of the Catholic 
party for liberty of speech and the progress of education. 

I am addressing this letter to you at Paris, but I 
tope that it will not find you still there, for that would 
prove that you are by this time well enough to go in 
search of strength to the sea-side, where you will get 
thoroughly set up. 

Please give my compliments to M. de Circourt, and 
accept the assurance of my most respectful devotion. 

C. DE Cavour. 


[Turin\ 1838. 

I HAVE been very happy, madam, to learn from my ' 
cousin Eorti that you were kiad enough to preserve 
some kindly recollection of me. I had hardly dared 
to flatter myself that it would be so, for if it is impos- 
sible to leave Paris without bearing away many recol- 
lections, nothing is more rare than to leave any behind. 
That city, so full of new occurrences and of interests 
constantly renewed, is the classic land o£ oblivion. 
But your drawing-room is a happy oasis which in this 
as in many other respects bears no resemblance to 
its surroundings. You know there how to maintain 
bygone feelings in view, and those persons who have 
been happy enongh to gain a benevolent reception 
there run no risk of being forgotten. Yet, again, it 
is that drawing-room, and she who forms all the charm 
of it, that one most regrets in leaving Paris. You 
must be accustomed to inspire regrets of this kind, but 
I venture to assure you, madam, that there has never 
been any truer or more sincere than mine. 

I hear that this winter has been far less brilliant 
than the last. Society has undergone cruel losses, 
which must have diminished the number of parties 
and the eagerness with which people attended them. 
Your visitors will have been the gainers, for you will 


have had more time to bestow on them. Have you no 
thought of once again exchanging the noisy pleasures 
of Paris for the more tranquil enjoyments of a winter 
in Italy ? It would be a very great happiness for Eora 
and for myself; for Turin would be on your road, and 
there would no longer be any Alps between you and 
us. You are too fond of the arts and of ideal beauty to 
be able to refrain over long from visiting their father- 
land. I trust that this feeling will soon bring you back, 
and that one of these winters — next winter, perhaps 
— we shall find once more, at Rome or at Naples, that 
salon which makes us so envious of Paris. Tou must 
bring with you, when the time comes, your graceful 
cousin, Mme de Menthon,' who knows only a corner of 
Italy. She, too, is made to appreciate the land of art 
and gi-and memories, and I feel sure that she would 
find as much pleasure and as much admiration in the 
studios of artists as in the drawing-rooms of Paris. 
What is she doing this winter ? Is she hiding in the 
depths of the country the wit and grace which made 
her shine in the midst of Paris society ? 

May I venture to remind you, madam, that you 
obtained General Eogniat's^ promise to send me the 
continuation of the "Engineer Officer's Note-book"? 

' Caroline Panline de Klinglin, C-oniitesa de Menthon; bom 1822, 
died 1871. 

^ A General of Engineers, and monilier of the Cliambor of Peera ; 
friend of Sonlt ; died 1840. 


Would you be kind enough to recall it to his memory, 
and at the same time to ask, if it can be done with- 
out indiscretion, for the memoranda which have been 
drawn up in order to form an estimate of the works 
undertaken by the engineer service ? 

You see how bold one single recollection makes me, 
since I take leave to require from you the performance 
of a troublesome service. Perhaps I am wrong in being 
so outspoken. But if it be so, be kind enough not to 
punish me by depriving me in future of such proof of 
your interest as you have given me through Eora, to 
which, as you know, I attach an incalculable value! 

Kindly give my best regards to M. de Circourt, 
and accept the assurance of my respect and devotion. 

C. DE Cavour. 


[Turinl May 27, ]841. 

Madam, — I take the liberty of recalling myself to 
your recollection through the medium of a book of 
high metaphysics, presenting you in my brother's name 
with a work which he has just published on this serious 

If the intimacy into which I have had the happi- 

^ Fragments Philosophiques par le Marquis Gustave de Cavour, 
Turin, 1841, 


ness of being admitted had not disclosed to me all the 
depth and solidity of intellect which in you is overlaid 
by a varnish of the utmost good nature, I should not 
have ventured to forward to you a book iu which the 
stifEest philosophical questions are treated in a purely 
scientific manner. The exalted opinion of your under- 
standing which you have made me conceive causes me 
to hope that my brother's work, which is destined to 
find its readers almost exclusively in the dusty studies 
of philosophers, will receive a kindly greeting in your 
pretty drawing-room. 

I had spoken many times to my brother of the 
indulgent kindness with whifih I was treated by your 
learned friend, M. le Baron d'Eckstein.^ He has bidden 
me present him with a copy of his work. Would 
you be kind enough to give me your assistance in 
fulfilling this commission, which is very delightful to 
me, since it gives me an opportunity of recalling myself 
to the valued recollection of a person no less distin- 
guished by the loftiness of his intellect tliau by the 
' kindliness of his disposition ? 

In the course of his work, my brother has been led 
to examine the doctrines of the eclectic school, and, 

' Baron Ferdiiiand Frederick d'Eekstein was bom m 1790, aiid died 
in 1861. He was horn a Protflstaut. but became a Catholic, and settled 
at Paris. Lamartine, in liia Coars de LiUirature, i. 14^ speaks of liim 
aa folloivs: — "Philosopher, poet, pnbliciat, Orientalist, a Brahmin of 
the west, misimderstood by his eon temporaries, living iu one century, 
bat actually present iu nuother." 


consequently, to epeak of one of its roost distinguished 
professors, your friend, M. Jouffroy, for whose know- 
ledge he expresses the highest regard. Starting, how- 
ever, from a principle, if not superior, at least different 
from that which forms the basis of Jouffroj's philo- 
sophy, he has heen obliged to combat some of the 
consequences of his teaching. If he had dared, he 
would have sent him his work, begging him frankly 
to state his opinion as to the validity of the objections 
which he brings against his theories. But it would 
have been audacious, and perhaps indelicate, for a 
novice in the art of writing to challenge a direct 
controversy with so formidable an athlete. Neverthe- 
less, as he desires much to know the judgment which 
M. Jouffroy will pass oa his book, at the risk o£ com- 
mitting an indiscretion, I will ask you to lend him the 
copy which I have the honour to send you, requesting 
him to give a detailed opinion. If this opinion were 
of a nature to he made public, my brother will be 
proud to see his work judged before the tribunal of 
public opinion by such a man as M. Jouffroy. But 
this would be asking too much of your kindness, so 
that I am rather forming a wish than addressing a 
request to you. 

Tour friend, M. de Eora, is well; his stay at Nice 
has been repaid to him "by several months of health 
untroubled for an instant by the gout. Hia daughter, 


whom you saw at Paris, has left Turin to settle at 
Bologna, where, I hear, she is very happy. 

Are you likely to go this summer to Franche 
Comte? If it were so I should have the hope of 
seeing you when I go to Epinal, whither I am sum- 
moned by business, for I quite hope you would allow 
me to ask your hospitality on my way. 

Kindly remember me to M. de Circourt, and believe 
in ray respectful attachment. 



December 24, [18-il]. 

Madam, — Shall I be presuming too much on the 
rights which your kindness gives me, and on the pri- 
vilege of the approaching New Year, if I offer you one 
of these newly invented pens which still hold the rank 
of a novelty, and which, I understand, never wear out. 
If this pen has really the merits which are assigned to 
it, pray think now and again when you are making 
use of it, that it is not destined to last so long as the 
feelings of respect, devotion, and I venture to say, 
friendship in him who begs you to accept the gift of it. 



[Turin, 1843]. 

Madam, — I have taken the liberty of sending you" 
by my cousin, M. de la Rive, an article, which I have 
contributed to the Bibliofhcque TJnwendle of Geneva, 
upon the posthumous work of M. de Chateau vieux.^ 
The subject of which I have treated is not likely to 
be of any interest to you. Nevertheless, I hope that 
you will receive kindly the tribute of my little paper 
for the sake of the amiable and clever author whose 
eminent qualities I have tried to recall, no less as a 
man of the world than as a didactic writer. 

Prom the nature of what I am writing you may 
imagine that since my return to Piedmont ray atten- 
tion has been chiefly devoted to the study and the 
work of agriculture. This is, indeed, the only one to 
which one can with perfect safety devote oneself in this 
country, where we are enjoying in all its fulness that 
liberty of the intellect with which the clergy would 
endow France. If one would live peaceably in Pied- 
mont, one must occupy oneself with the fields aud 
the meadows ; and one has need to love peace when 
one is living in the bosom of a numerous family. 

' Tlie book by F. LnUin de Oliiiteaiivieiix, published after liis deatli, 
is entitled Voyaget Agronoiitiijiiea en France. Count Cavonr's article 
appeared in tlie BiblioWque Universelh, datf^d Saiiteim, Sejit. 11, 18i3. 


who decidedly object to conflicts of opinions and ideas. 
This necessity, of which I am continually under the 
influence, makes me often regret the movement and 
the freedom which up till now you still enjoy on the 
hanks of the Seine in spite of the evangelising efforts 
of my Lord of Chartres' and of Cai-dinal de Bonald. 
My regret becomes keener in proportion as I see the 
time of year approach when everybody in Paris resumes 
his old habits, and the privileged visitors at the Rue 
des Saussaies are sure of finding again in the intimacy 
of four o'clock all that can satisfy the heart and charm 
the mind. In spite of the deprivation of which I feel 
the full bitterness, I cannot think of Paris for this 
year. The health of ray mother and that of my aunt, 
Mme de Tonnerre, which, though not endangered, is 
growing feeble, keeps me near them. I must, there- 
fore, madam, bid you a new farewell, sadder than that 
which I addressed to you last spring, for the hope of 
seeing you again is now more remote than it was then. 
It is a farewell for at least a year, and it may he more. 
During this long estrangement from the focus of light, 
it is probable that my mind will become entirely rusted, 
especially if I continue to make agriculture my exclusive 
occupation; but I venture to assure you that, far 
from weakening, my feelings will acquire fresh vigour. 
I entreat you, therefore, whatever may befall me 

' Mpr Clause! de Motitela. 


from an intellectual point of view, to reserve for me a 
small share of your regard. Be kind enough, among 
the ever renewed interests of Paris life, sometimes to 
remember one of your most devoted friends. 

If last year's circle has formed itself again around 
you, I beg you will rememher me to all who have not 
wholly forgotten rae ; and especiall}' to M. de Bellevfeze/ 
In spite of the divergence of our opinions on more than 
one essential point, I venture to reckon on a little of 
his good will ; since, for my part, I confess that he is 
one of the men whose conversation has most charm for 
me ; and I should he glad to be able to enjoy it 
occasionally, even if I had to listen to him, in his 
anti-university zeal, setting the prose of the AbbS 
Desgenettes above that of M. Cousin, and the intellect 
of the Bishop of Chalons^ above that of M. Villemain. 

Can you tell me what has become of Princess 
Belgiojoso since the Pope launched his anathema 
against her ecclesiastical labours?^ Does she make 
submission? If so, it would he a iine triumph for 
the Eoman power. I douht, however, if she will bend 
completely. The future will probably show us a fresh 
transformation of her mind. I suppose that the 

' Rigphtly "Bektze," Leptiniist Deputy for the iudo, 
* ' M)(r de PrisBj. 

' Cristiua Trirukici, Princess BelgiojoBO, was bora 1808, died 1871. 
She published (Paris, 1843) faur TolumeB, nnder a title which the 
work hardly justified, Essai fur la formation du Bogme Catholique, 


Duchesse de Eosan [sic\ will have resumed liei' winter 
quarters. If it were not for the fear of being indis- 
creet, I would ask you to give lier my respects.^ 

Can you give me any news of poor Prince Dolgo- 
rouki?^ Since lie has fallen again into the claws of the 
terrible autocrat, I can only recollect his wit, without 
thinking any more of the touch of spite in his character. 
The Czar is not likely to be in an indulgent mood 
toward foreigners who write about Russia, or Russians 
"who publish abroad their opinions on their country. 
M. de Custine's work' must have wounded his self- 
esteem deeply ; and it will take many tears and many 
sufferings to allay his irritation against men of letters. 

I am come to the end of my paper without saying 
anything about your own tiealth ; and yet that is the 
subject which interests me most. Of all the news that 
you could give me, the pleasantest to me would be to 
learn that the mild climate of the Isle of Wight, and 
the rest which you enjoyed there, have already restored 
your nerves, which, when I left you, were so over- 
wrought. Pray husband the strength which you will 
have gained. Deprive your friends now and then of 

' Ckire de Diirfort do Dnrna, daughter o£ the Jnst Duke, married 
1819 to HeDri de Ohaatellmt, Due de E.aii/au. 

' Prince Peter VladimiroTitch Dolgorouki (1816 — 18681, antlior of Home 
fmoiVeg on Russia (Geneva, 1869). See Mme de Circonrt's letter of 
September 8. 1859, to Cnvonr (Ohi&ltt, Lettere diCavour, il. 43S). 
" La Buesie eii 1839 (Paria, 184Li). 
D 2 


the pleasure of seeing you in society, in order that you 
may not lose the means of sparing those who chiefly 
seek you in the intimacy of home from a hard privation . 
Please remember me most kindly to M. de Circourt, 
and believe me, with much respect, your devoted friend, 

C. DE Cavour. 

[Paris, 1843.] 

Madam, — I am glad that the Due de Broglie has 
anticipated the request I was intending to make to 
him on your account, and has enabled me to present 
you with a copy of his report^ on the state of the 
French colonies and the abolition of slavery, I venture 
to recommend strongly to you the perusal of this 
voluminous report, not only because I believe that 
. your superior intelligence will be interested by the 
immense quantity of facts and profound thoughts 
which it contains, but more especially because I hope 
that your generous heart will feel, as you read, a true 

1 A German translation of this letter has been published by Mr. J. 
H. Geffcken in his Politische Federzeichnungen, p. 365 (Berlin, 1888). 

2 This report on the colonies and slavery had been made in the name 
of a commission, of which the Due de Broglie was chairman. It occupies 
360 pp. of a volume, called Ministere de la Marine et des Colonies 
Commission institueepar Decision Roy ale, du 26 Mai, 1840, jpoitr Vexamen 
des questions relatives d, Vesclavage et d, la constitution politique des 
Colonies, etc, (Paris, March, 184S). 


sympatliy for the illustrious statesman who has risen 
above the miserable interests of popularity and political 
ambition and without allowing himself to be discouraged 
by the delays and frequent miscalculations which civil- 
isation experiences in its forward march, continues to 
wort with no less steadiness than prudence in spread- 
ing throughout the whole universe, without regard to 
latitude or race, the great principles of equality and 

I wish I could make you share my opinion of the 
Due de Broglie in order that, whenever a fresh example 
•of the disgraceful shiftiness of our politicians chances 
to distress you, you may be able, by the thought of his 
unconquerable consistency, to oblit-erate from your mind 
the mischievous traces of their melancholy fickleness. 

Pray forgive ray declamatory and provincial tone, 
and do not deride me too much when you reflect upon 
the disagreement between my letter and my precepts. 
It is true that it has not yet struck twelve, and that 
for me you are something more than the kindest of 
fashionable ladies. „ ^ 



[Turin, Jan. 1. 1844,] 

Madam, — I would begin this new year by drawing 
near to you in thought, not that I think I need inflict 


upon j'OU tlie coinmonphice phrases which in that case 
are employed by people of fashion with a view to the 
exchange of false sentiments and most insincere wishes. 
Such phrases are a paper coinage, more depreciated than 
any of those of which M. Michel Chevalier has, [ 
presume, been treating in his lessons on exchange ; 
they can have no real currency among persons who 
still believe in true attachment and lasting friendship. 
If I choose this day for writing to you, it is because, 
in order to make a good beginning of the new period 
which we are about to face, I cannot do better than 
call up the most agreeable recollections of the past and 
make them the basis of dreams and hopes for the future. 
"When will these hopes be realised ? When shall I be 
permitted to resume those habits of intimacy which 
you are able to make so binding and so precious ? I 
have no idea. I cannot at this moment form any 
plans nor make projects extending into the distant 
future. So many ties keep me in Piedmont, so many 
reasons prevent me from leaving home that, in trutli, 
I cannot foresee the moment when I shall be able to 
return to Paris. I much fear that I shall for a long 
time have to invoke your indulgent recollection before 
I am able to go in person and beg for the continuance 
of the good-will which you have accorded to me. It is 
a sad thought, and would be still more so if I did 
not know that one may reckon upon the memory of 


your heart as well as upon tlie charm of your friend- 

You will have this winter, I think, a visit from my 
friend Casanova. After having passed six months in 
the country, deep in the theory and practice of 
agriculture, he is going to recover his tone in the 
drawing-rooms of Paris. I suspect that he has a secret 
desire to find there a help meet for himself; you will 
he able to give him powerful assistance in his search. 
He has no exaggerated aims in regard to fortune, an 
ordinary dowry, 200,000 or 300,000 francs, would be 
quite enough for him. What he is most particular 
ahout is tKe character, that is to say, the intellect of 
her with whom he will have to pass his life. My 
friend has one of those exceptional hearts whicli err 
through excess of delicacy, which ask much because 
they can give without limit. Like all generous-minded 
Italians he is sincerely liberal ; a wife with too much of 
the /audoiir^ would not suit him. Equally I think that 
a frivolous young person, crazy for pleasure and fashion, 
would be little suited to him, for his tastes are serious 
and his habits lead him to prefer the sweets of private 
life to the enjoyments of fashionable society. He can 
ofEer the lady to whom he may pay his addresses an 
income of 40,000 francs from, a fine and fertile estate; 
the certainty of inheriting ahout as much again from 
two uncles who are indeed not advanced in years, one 


of the great names of Italy, good looks, and above all, 
and better than all, an elevated, noble, and generous 
character, and a spirit in which the good qualities of 
the old nobility are reconciled with tlie enlightenment 
o£ modem times. If a man like that cannot make a 
woman, who is worthy of him, happy, one must con- 
clude that marriage is as detestable an institution as 
Georges Sand asserts.^ 

Speaking of Georges Sand, what do yon say about 
the shameful association which M. de Lamartine has 
fonned with her? How could the singer of Elvira 
attune his lyre to the voice of the bacchanal L^lia? I 
was only too right last year when a secret presenti- 
ment kept me at a distance from the man who was 
formerly as great by character as by talent. 

I do not know i£ I am deluded by ray own im- 
pressions, but I cannot help thinking that the comedy 
which has lately been played in Belgrave Square will 
have distressed you.^ I do not know what the partisans 
of the elder branch expected from these empty demon- 
strations, nor do I know what effect they have produced 
in France. "What is certain is that in foreign countries 
there is not a single man of good sense, whatever may 
be the shade of his opinions, who has not vigorously 

' Goimt Aleasaudro di Casimova died unmarried. 

" In November, 1843, the Comte de Chamboni went from Prohadorf 
to London to meet his partisans. More tfaan 300 French Legitimista 
wore present at tlie gathering in Belgrave Sc[uare. 


blamed them. I regret tlie consequences which they 
may have in Parisian society, but I doubt not that 
your privileged circle is sheltered from dissensions and 
from petty social hatreds transfigured into political 
passions. I saw with pleasure that hardly any of your 
liegemen went on pilgrimage to London. Happy are 
they who, living near you, feel the influence of yom* 
lofty good sense and of your beneficent enlightenment. 
My brother joins with me in expressing the same 
feelings of respect and devotion. Accept them kindly, 
and believe me, with unchangeable attachment, 

C. DE C. 


Turin, Feb. 15, 1844. 
Madam, — I would not answer your last letter till 
I had read Father Eavignan's pamphlet.^ You were 
quite right in calling my attention to its appearance 
as a great event. Like you, I admired its eloquent 
;ading, its courageous justification of a body which 
I reckons so many powerful and determined foes. The 
I reading of it has convinced me that the Order of 
Jesuits may boast the possession of great talents and 
great virtues ; that its iron rule, if it is stifling to 

• Be I'Existence et de I'lneiitiit dea Jis. 

Par le R. P, RavigTinii 


average natures, redoubles the energy o£ vigorous 
minds. But granting this, M. de Ravignan's book 
has only confirmed the opinion which, in Italy, all 
enlightened men, aJl true lovers of their country, hold 
with regard to the Jesuits. I find set forth in it, 
more powerfully than anywhere else, the immense 
resources which the Company of Jesus has at its 
disposal in religious conflicts. These resources, says 
Father Eavignan, are placed at the sole service of 
religion. That may be true, if one only considers the 
ultimate aim, the final cause of the efforts of the Order. 
But it is beyond doubt — our country is a sad example 
of it — that in order to aiTive at spiritual and religious 
ascendency, the Jesuits seek, in the first place, temporal 
and political ascendency. I do not doubt the good 
faith of the eminent preacher. But when he speaks 
of the disinterestedness of his Order, of its love of 
progress, civilisation, science, even liberty, I have only 
to look around me to recognise the hoUowness of his 
words. I wish I could take you for a moment into 
one of the colleges managed by the Jesuits in this 
country; give you a glimpse into their methods and 
the results of them. This simple inspection would 
certainly suffice to destroy in your mind the magical 
efiect of the sometime Solicitor-General's ^ 

' The £niaoiiB Jesuit preacher begtiu his career as a, burister, and was 
riaiug rapidly in that professioii. In 1821 he acted as cuoneel for the 


They are less mischievous m. France and Switzerland 
than with us. But why ? Because in those countries, 
which are not under their yoke, they have to take 
precautions, to employ care in handling Government 
and people. Being with us all-powerful, they can give 
free scope to their tendency, and let the spirit of the 
Order develop itself. If you wish to know the inner- 
most nature of the Order, you must not study them 
where they have to fight their way, and where 
their position is precarious. Tou will never form a 
complete estimate of them save where, with no 
obstacles to encounter, they apply their rules in a 
consistent and logical manner. They have learnt 
nothing, forgotten nothing ; their spirit and their 
methods are the same as ever. Woe to the country, 
woe to the class which shall entrust them exclusively 
with the education of its youth. In default of such 
fortunate conditions as may obliterate in the man the 
lessons received in childhood, they will, in the course 
of a century, produce a bastard and degenerate race : 
Spanish grandees, Neapolitan signori ; that is, some- 
thing midway between men a.nd brutes. The opinion 
that I express here is shared by the most distingTiished 
among our clergy, and by the immense majority of 

Crown ill Bii important trial, and was subsequently appointed deputy to 
the jfrocurewr du roi, aji office wliioh was regarded aa u certain road to 
that o( avocat-ghieral, the nearest Freueii analogne to our Solicitor- 


sincere Catholics. Therefore, before admitting M. de 
Ravignan's conclusions, before yielding to the impetus 
of his burning eloquence, deign to reflect on the actual 
facts, on the positive and incontestable result of their 
revival in the countries which they rule; and oppose 
to the splendour of rhetoric the stern logic of events. 
But in truth it is a case of much cry and little 
wool. The Jesuits are not dangerous in France. In 
a land of freedom, in a land of science and enlighten- 
ment, they will always be compelled to modify and 
transform themselves ; they will never obtain a real 
or lasting empire, either in the political or in the 
intellectual world. In the interests of mankind, I 
should like to come to terms with the Jesuits, and 
concede to them in the countries whence they are at 
present excluded three, four, ten times more liberty 
than they would allow to the people whom they rule. 

Forgive me for having dealt at such length with a 
disagreeable subject. If you were to stay among us 
for six months, you would no longer be surprised at 
the degree of warmth, at the excited tone, which I 
bring to the discussion of this question. 

I ought to express my condolence for the ill-success 
of your protege's candidature.^ In truth, I cannot 
conceive how anyone could put M. Vatout before him. 

^ Alfred de Yigny. He was elected to the Academy in the following 


What has M. Vatout done as good as St.-Mars [s«'c]? 
It is true though that M. de Vigny's last poems were 
not of a kind to increase his fame, or to smooth his 
path to the Academy. If you have any influence over 
him, try to send him hack into the field of journalism ; 
he will surely obtain successes there which will earn 
him the laurels of a fame worth all that of the Academic 

I will ask you to let rae know from time to time 
what works are producing most effect in the world of 
Paris ; in thought one is always in the midst of it, 
even when tyrannous circumstances keep at a distance 
from it those who have shared its inner life. 

Rora has had a had attack of gout ; he is better, 
hnt still in pain. Casanova is in mourning for his 
sister, and has a lawsuit on with his cousins ; he hardly 
knows which way to turn, and is out of heart and 
unsettled. The letter which you were good enough 
to write him has shed balm into his heart. It was an 
act of charity, for which I, too, on my own account, 
am deeply grateful. My brother, who has read M. de 
Eavignan's work with more profit than I, thanks you 
for your kind remembrance of him, and desires his 
respects. Please accept once more those of your sincere 

C. DE Cavour. 



Turin, Feb. 23, 1844. 

Madam, — I am not going to resume my dissertation 
upon the Jesuits, though I am far from having ex- 
hausted the subject. For our sins, they every day 
supply good Italians with fresh reasons for looking 
upon them as one of the most deadly among the 
scourges which ravage their fair land. You are quite 
right to admire M. de Ravignan. I share your feeling ; 
but it only increases my antipathy for an institution 
which renders such fine talent, such grand devotion, 
fruitless, if not dangerous. 

Many thanks for the witty and interesting biblio- 
graphical chronicle which you send me. I shall profit 
greatly by it, if I avoid what displeases you, and if, 
according to your advice, I read M. Saint-Marc Grirardin 
and Miss Prescott. I was already acquainted with the 
Edivhurgli Review article on Ireland^ which you notice. 
It is by a friend of mine, Mr. Senior; the most en- 
lightened thinker in Great Britain. He is the econo- 
mist par excellence on that side of the Channel. M. 
Chevalier will, no doubt, know him, but is not likely 
to love him much; for Mr. Senior treats political 
economy like a man of learning, M. Chevalier like a 
romantic man of letters. I had for my sins put 

^ By Nassau Senior. Edinburgh Review for April, 1844. 


together in my corner here an article on Ireland, with 
no suspicion that so much better a man as Mr. Senior 
was preparing a paper on the same subject from a point 
of view absolutely similar to my own. When I read 
it, it was too late to stop the pubUcation of my work, 
■which was already being printed in my too indulgent 
cousin's review.^ It comes at a bad moment, for I 
may be accused of having copied Senior, which would 
.distress me vastly. I know none more worthy of 
.contempt than commonplace men who try to deck 
themselves in the thoughts of superior intellects. 
"Whatever merit, real or occasional, my article may 
have, I shall take the liberty of offering you a copy 
of it. Do you think I may lay one at the feet of the 
Duchess?- Her opinions are not mine ; might she 
iiot be displeased at my serving her a dish flavoured 
Tvith dangerous views? If I do it, it will only be 
on jouT authority, and after you have obtained her 
promise to consider not the work itself, but the homage 
'paid to her by the author. 

My aunt, Mme de Toniierre, has had news from 

*aris of M. Scipion de BriSze's^ health, which make 

her very anxious. They tell her that the doctors are 

sending him to Italy alone, without wife, relations, or 

Tie BiblioiUqve de Genhie. Edited by M. de la Rive. 
De Bauzan. 

The Marqais Seipion de Dreni-Br^isf. one of the lieaJs of the 
Legitimist party in Paris. He died Novemher, 18-t5. 


i valet. I 
al to a I 

friends ; that he is even forhiddea to take his 
Is his brain affected, and is it thought essential 
cure that he be kept away from whatever may call up 
memories of his past life? It would be very sad to 
see so lofty aa intellect perish so young, and so fine a 
character fall into a condition which is not beyond 
the reach of the corroding action of ridicule. The 
Legitimist party must be deeply distressed at M. de 
Br^ze's condition, for he was indubitably the finest 
thing it had produced, the only man who could manage 
to combine in a dignified and noble fashion a reverence 
for the antiquated recollections and sentiments of 
a nobleman with the progressive ideas oE the new 

I have not said anything about M. de Salvaudy's 

t resignation,^ because I should have been obliged to 
confess that at Turin he was not very much regretted. 
Wrongly, no doubt, a severe estimate was formed of 
him. Our society, which is essentially aristocratic, 
found a want of distinction in his manners. Excep- 
tional efforts failed to improve them, and only trans- 
formed them to affectation. I did not share this 
opinion, at least, if at the bottom of my heart I 
recognised a certain blend of vulgarity and self- 

' Count Narcisso do Salvandy, meiulier of the Preiicli AcHilemy, 
Miniater for Education in the Oiubinet of whicli Coimt Mold was the head 
(lB37),'"'d Ambftsaador first iu Spain, tlmn iu Piedmont. He resigned 
u Embassy in Febrnary, 1844, 


importance in the late ambassador, I took no heed of 
it, preferring to occupy myself solely with the charm 
of one of the most conspicuous intellects of our day. 
The great thing for success among us is simplicity, 
and a certain external elegance. Both one and the other 
were lacking in the academic diplomatist. Time would 
iave been needed, enough to let his really remarkable 
■wit display its most brilliant side, if our ladies were 
to forget his theatrical fashion of entering a drawing- 
-room, and a certain sweep of the arm which is peculiar 
to him. I am very much afraid that we shall lose 
little by the change. While waiting for the arrival 
of M, de Mortier^ to let us know if our fears are well 
funded, we are enjoying a young lion of the Jockey 
Club, who is a perfect representative of France among 
Our fair ladies and our whist players. With all M. de 
jSalvandy's abilities I much doT)bt if he would have 
obtained in our drawing-rooms half the success which 
M. de MareuiP owes to his good looks, his elegant 
jmanners, and his position as tame lion. 

I trust most sincerely that your health is improving, 
and that it allows you to emerge from the retreat in 

i Count Mortier sueceeded Ootmt Salvandy as Preneli Ambassadoi' 
It Turin in Pebniary, 18i4. 

^ Joseph Dnraud, Vicomte de Mareuil, first secretary of embassy 
d interim ckarg^ d'affaires of France at Turin, lu February, 1844, was 
*on of Comt« de Mareuil, a member of tlie Cliamber of Peers iu the 
Uonarchf of July. 


which you are living. I ardently desire to hear that 
you are again launched into the world ; in the first 
place, because your sufferings distress me as much as 
if I felt them myself, and, then, from a little jealousy 
of the lucky liegemen who can surround you more 
completely and enjoy the pleasure of your intimacy 
more fully than it was permitted me to do when I 
was within sight of yon. Please keep a small indis- 
position for me, and in the meantime, until I can join 
with your elect in tending you, try to be extremely 
well, if it be only in order not to add the torments 
of anxiety to the regrets of absence, which of them- 
selves are quite sufficiently cruel to endure. Believe 
me, madam, yours with unchanged and respectful 

C. DE Cavour. 


[Turinl March 15, [1844]. 

Madam, — I hope that this letter will find you 
completely recovered from the fever and its effects. 
I wish to persuade myself that I have to offer you 
nothing but congratulations on your return to health, 
and on your reappearance in the midst of the select 
circle to whom your presence is a daily need. 

While you were laid up I was engaged on my side 
in tending some very dear invalids, whose state of 


health was causing us much anxiety. I had my 
mother and my grandmother seriously ill at t1ie same 
time. My mother has got pretty well again ; my 
grandmother is much better, but her great age gives 
US some anxiety as to the result of an illness which 
lias lasted nearly forty days. 

I have begged my cousin, De la Eive,^ to send you 
three copies of my article. One of them you will 
lindly accept, and lay the second at the feet of the fair 
Duchess.^ The third is intended for M. Chevalier, if 
lie will deign to accept it. It is a tribute of my esteem 
for many of his works, and a mark of sympathy with 
■many of his opinions. As it is possible that I may 
hereafter take leave to combat some of the latter, I 
wish to show that this partial disagreement is combined 
in me with a keen sense of the far-reaching quality of 
his mind and the extent of his talents. Besides, since 
you told me that he was very intimate with my friend 
Mr. Senior, I have no longer had the same feeling of 
estrangement from him which certain ill-sounding ex- 
pressions in his speeches and his lectures had aroused. 

When next you meet our ex-ambassador^ you can 
tell him that his stay at Turin has not been barren, 
but that he may claim to have influenced in the most 

Augnste de In Rive and Camilla di Cutodf were seeoail cousiiis, 

maternal grandmothers, Mme T. Eoissier and Mme de Sellou, 
liaving been sisters. 

De Eauzsa. ^ Count de Salvaudj. 


fortunate manner the fate of a young and brilliant 
singer. The Cross which he sent her, the advice which 
he gave her, while he was still under the spell of her 
divine voice, have acted upon her as an irresistible 
charm, and made Iier prefer a young and handsome 
husband to the fabulous terms offered by the directors 
of the principal theatres in Europe. Do not tell him 
that the young and handsome husband has two thou- 
sand a year, for that would destroy all the poetry of 
the story, and do away with the virtue o£ the senti- 
mental diplomat's charm. If M. de Salvandy desires 
to continue inspiring the married woman as he inspired 
the yoimg beginner, there is a good opportunity, for at 
this moment she is in Paris, changed from Mile Branca, 
as she was, to Mme Juva.^ 

It distresses me to be unable to share any of your 
opinions on M. de Lamartine ; but I must admit to you 
that his speech on the fortifications seemed to me to be 
beneath his abilities.^ It consists of a mass of declama- 
tion and a string of commonplaces, such as a man of 
the deputy for Macon's gras^j should not employ. 

The zeal of the Bishops for freedom of instruction 
is curious to one who knows the true instincts of the 

' Mile Brnncn married M, Juva, of Tariu, in 1844. 

^ Lamartine delivered two speeches in the Oiamber of Deputies oil 
the subject of the fortifications of Paris ; one at the sitting of January 
2], 1842, when the Bill was introduced, the accoud at tlic sitting of May 
and 7, 1845, when the nrniament irna under disciiasion. 


Ihiglier clergy thoroughly, "While in France they are 
F keeping up such an ardent controversy in the name of 

tlie most liberal principles, their brethren here are, in 
' circulars and speeches, attacking all liberties, from that 
( of speech to that of thought, with redoubled virulence. 
God grant that France be not the dupe of these 

recent converts to the great principles of the free 
I development of the intelligence of which they are at 
[ "bottom the irreconcilable foes. 

i believe me as ever your most devoted friend, 



Santma, Oct. 14, 1844. 
Madam, — If I had not ever present in my remem- 

' brance a thousand irrefragable proofs of your indulgent 
friendship towards me I should not, in truth, venture 
to resume a correspondence which has been so long 
interrupted through my fault. I shall not seek to 

t excuse my silence by commonplace reasons ; I prefer, 

I after the English fashion, to admit that I am to blame, 
(" to plead guilty "), and to owe my pardon only to your 

' affection and kindness. The inhabitants of my country 
are subject to attacks of moodiness, phases of taciturnity. 
It is the sole extenuating circumstance which I allow 

I myself to put forward, and I avow, moreover, that I 


recognise that before a severe ju^ge it will have no 

While you were enjoying the sweets of country- 
house life, first with a brilliant duchess, and then with 
the quondam singer of Elvira,^ I was travelling about 
Switzerland with one of my friends to get rid of the 
remains of a touch of fever which I caught in the rice- 
fields. I revisited with interest and pleasure that 
beautiful Swiss scenery, so picturesque and attractive 
in its grandeur. I did not occupy myself much with 
deep researches into the politics of the country. From 
the tourist's point of view at which I was placed, I 
could not have formed a good estimate of it. Tables 
d'hote and hotel salons, in. Switzerland particularly, are 
not very faithful mirrors of the national spirit ; more- 
over, the moral spectacle which that fair country 
presented at the time was too melancholy for one not 
to wish to look away from it during a journey of 

On the road I met M. and Mme de Barante, who 
were staying at the dull Chtlteau de Villar. Their 
conversation brought me back to the drawing-rooms 
of Paris and the intellectual activity which is only 
found there. Mme de Barante seems to me to have 
definitively exchanged the part of fashionable beauty 
for that of pious woman. The cavernous sighs drawn 

' Lamartine. 


from her by the witty account which her amiable 
husband gave us of the compulsory withdrawal of 
the sons of Loyola prove to me that she is fallen for 
good and all into the Jesuit mysticism, that melan- 
choly fanaticism which nothing- redeems and nothing 
beautifies, which is beggared of poetry and of love, 
and sacrifices the reason without raising the feelings 
towards the regions of the sublime. 

M. Michel Chevalier married ! I confess that I 
lilted him better as a bachelor ; that suited better his 
present state and still more his past career. I hope 
that conjugal love will not do any harm to the science 
of which he is one of the principal experts, and that he 
will not altogether forget political economy in order to 
surrender himself exclusively to the charms of its 
domestic branch. 

I have no plans for this winter. To be away for 
long is impossible to me, and 1 should hate to go to 
Paris for a short time only. I am meditating a journey 
to England for next spring, but that is a very vague 
plan, the reaUsation of which is subject to sundry 
[eventualities, which I cannot foresee. In any case, 
if it be not Paris, at any rate the Pue des Saussaies 
will turn out to be on my way ; it will be the most 
agreeable halting place of my journey. 

Signer *di Castellengo' takes charge of this letter. 
' Count Adolfo FriehignoiLO di Castellengo. 


I am delighted that you should have appreciated his 
intelligence and enlightenment. He is a good speci- 
men of what the upper class in Piedmont can become 
when it is transplanted to an intellectual soil, and when 
it issues from the narrow circle in which on its own 
soil it is forced to vegetate. I assure you that for you 
he has a feeling very diSerent from indulgence; he is 
quite clever enough, I assure you, to be able to judge 
you at your true worth. All that he has said to me 
proves that he has been able to discover the treasures, 
both of intellect and of feeling, contained in that 
drawing-room of the Rue des Saussaies, of which I 
so feel the loss. Kindly thank M. de Circourt and 
the Dtdte and Duchess of Eauzan for their friendly 
remembrance of me, and offer them my kindest regards, 
I hope that in .spite of my sins you will believe in my 
sincere friendship, and will allow me always to call 
myself yours most devotedly, 

C. nE Cavoue. 


[Turin,] Feb. 4, []845.] 

Madam, — Tou will not think it amiss, I venture 
to hope, that I have given one of my friends, who is 
abont to pass some months at Paris, a letter of intro- 
duction to you. Full as I am of confidence in the 


indulgence of your friendship, I thought I might 
appeal to your kindness on behalf of a young man of 
distinction. The person whom I introduce belongs to 
the family of Berton, well-known in Prance, since it 
is the stock from which the Crillons sprang.^ He has 
served for some time in the cavalry, and now he has 
retired into private life to give free play to his tiu'n 
for serious and independent thinking. He is going to 
Paris filled with desire to see and to learn. If you 
receive him with kindness, his desire will be satisfied, 
for your salon will initiate him into all the charms of 
the French mind, and in your society he will attain to 
a knowledge of the pitch to which the atmosphere of 
Paris can develop the graces of the intellect without 
injuring a lofty heart and strong feelings. 

I will not ask you for news of the political world. 
The Parliamentary drama which at this moment is 
being played in Paris seems to me to be stripped of 
all grandeur, and offers only a moderate interest. In 
all that passes I see but one living and real feeling, 
the envy and hatred which the oratorical eminence of 
M. Guizot inspires in all the politicians. I could have 
wished that that illustrious statesman bad withdrawn, 
for while I believe his policy to be better than that of 
his rivals, I think that his sacrifice is necessary to allay 
the irritation which 1 840 produced in France, and 
I This was Cotmt An^nste Balbis Bertone di Sambny. 


which you are liviug. I ardently desire to hear that 
you are again launched into the world; in the first 
place, hecause your sufferings distress me as much as 
if I felt them myself, and, then, from a little jealousy 
of the lucky liegemen who can surround you more 
completely and enjoy the pleasure of your intimacy 
more fully than it was permitted me to do when I 
was within sight of you. Please teep a small indis- 
position for me, and in the meantime, until I can join 
with your elect in tending you, try to he extremely 
well, if it be only in order not to add the torments 
of anxiety to the regrets of absence, which of them- 
selves are quite sufficiently cruel to endure. Believe 
me, madam, youi-s with unchanged and respectful 

C. DE Cavodr. 


[Turin], Jfaich 15. [iSiii. 

Madam, — I hope that this letter will find you 
completely recovered from the fever and its effects. 
I wish to persuade myself that I have to offer you 
nothing but congratulations on your return to health, 
and on your reappearance in the midst of the select 
circle to whom your presence is a daily need. 

While you were laid up I was engaged on ray side 
in tending some very dear invalids, whose state of 


health was causing us much anxiety. I had my 
mother and my grandmother seriously ill at the same 
time. My mother has got pretty well again ; my 
.grandmother is much better, but her great age gives 
;iis some anxiety as to the result of an illness which 
lias lasted nearly forty days. 

I have begged my cousin, De la Eive/ to send you 
three copies of my article. One of them you will 
kindly accept, and lay the second at the feet of the fair 
Duchess.^ The third is intended for M. Chevalier, if 
he will deign to accept it. It is a tribute of my esteem 
for many of his works, and a mark of sympathy with 
many of his opinions. As it is possible that I may 
hereafter take leave to combat; some of the latter, I 
wish to show that this partial disagreement is combined 
in me with a keen sense of the far-reaching quality of 
his mind and the extent of his talents. Besides, since 
you told me that he was very intimate with my friend 
Mr. Senior, I have no longer had the same feeling of 
estrangement from him which certain ill-sounding ex- 
pressions in his speeches and his lectures had aroused. 

When next you meet our ex-ambassador^ you can 
tell him that his stay at Turin has not been barren, 
but that he may claim to have influenced in the most 

Augnste de la Rive and Camillo di Ci 
their maternal grandmothers, Mme T. Sois 
lUTing bean sisters. 

De Ranzan. ' Oouut de Salvaudy. 

' were second cousins, 
and Muiu de Sellou, 


they should not appreciate all the sublimity that there 
is in Taglioni. It is just as when one first enters the 
basilica of St. Peter. Works of genius at the first 
view appear simple and natural." Tlie Russian prince 
was right ; at her second appearance Taglioni was 
loudly applauded, and on the third she kindled the 
same enthusiasm that one feels at St. Peter's on 
Good Friday when the church is lighted up. 

My brother bids me remember him to you. If you 
did forget him you would commit a great injustice, 
for in him you have a most devoted friend. He has 
recently been writing some philosophic and religious 
works, and although they are strictly orthodox, the 
censorship has not allowed him to publish tliem; a 
happy result of absolute government, an encouraging 
example of the way in which the party that in France 
is claiming freedom of education with such frenzied 
ardour makes use of its power. 

I hope that the next newspapers will bring us the 
news of M. Michel Chevalier's election. If he is 
successful, kindly give him my congratulations. Pray 
believe me your respectful and devoted friend. 

Camille de Cavour. 



[Turin], Ajyril 11, [1845.] 

Madam,- — -If I bave been so slow in thanking you 
for the kindly interest whicK you have been good 
enough to take in the poor still-born article which 
could find no hospitality with the scornful Parisian 
press, it was neither owing to ingratitude nor forgetful- 
ness. I have been for the last two months, and I still 
am, exclusively occupied with the sad state of health 
of some of the people who are most dear to me. First, 
Madame de Tonnerre^ has been at death's door. She 
is now nearly well, but still suffering from the remains 
of an inflammatory disorder which the doctors cannot 
succeed in wholly eradicating. While my aunt was 
slowly advancing towards recovery, my mother was 
suffering more and more from a heart affection, the 
germs of which she has had about her for two years.^ 
It is now a month since the doctors declared her to be 
in danger, and more than once she has become so much 
■worse that we had no hope left. Nevertheless, after a 
painful crisis she has each time recovered sufficiently 
to allow us to take a cheerful view in regard to the 
dangers which threaten her. Last Sunday she was so 
ill that she asked for the last Sacrament. Since then 

The Dttcliess of Clermont Tonnerre, bom de Sellon of Geneva, was 
.■ister to Carour'a iiiolher. 

Adhle de Sellou, Mspqnise de Cavour, died iu 1846. 


she has gained a little, the doctors even declare that 
she is better. She is, however, still in such a state 
thai at any moment she may drop hack to a lower 
point than ever. To increase our troubles my honoured 
grandmother is in bed with a severe catarrhal fever.' 
In spite of her eighty-four years she hears her illness 
with wonderful vigour, and on her sick bed she thinks 
only of my mother, whom she has always cherished as 
a beloved daughter. The sad picture which I have 
been giving you will explain my silence. Even if my 
mind had been calm enough to write to you I should 
not have bad the time, for for some time past I have 
been the only individual of my family on his legs. 
My brother and my father have had the gout, and my 
nephew has twice been let blood. Happily they are 
all three cured, and they are sharing with me the care 
of our beloved invalids. 

Your good friends lioru are not in any better con- 
dition. Eora is suffering from a most violent attack of 
gout. The young Marchioness^ is expecting shortly to 

' Fran^oise Philippine, daughter of the Mnrquia de Sales de Dnicgt, 
sprang: from that famous family ia the Chablais which reefcona St. 
Francis de Sales among its memhera. At the date ivheii this letter 
was written she was widow of the Marqnia Pilippo Eenao di Cavonr, 
p-audfather of Cnmillo. She died Angnst 5, 1S49. Count Cavour was 
Bometimes loud of recalling witli a smile that he was the saint's great- 

^ Giolia Yisconti d'Aragona, wife of Emauaele Luseroa, Count of 
Campiglione, afterwards Marquis of Rorb, deputy- prefect of Romagua, 
mid syndic of Turiu> 


be confined, wliicli exhausts all her strength ; and, lastly, 
the whole family is enduring the most cruel anxiety 
about the condition of My,danie de Carru, who seems on 
the point of relapsing into the malady of which she was 
with such difficulty cured three years ago. The doctors 
here say that their Pisan colleagues are kUling her by 
the treatment which they have prescribed. Her parents 
would Hke to make her come to Turin, but the journey 
offers all kinds of difficulties, which have not yet been 
overcome by the presence of her brother Emmanuel. 

I am talking to you of nothing but sad things, 
dear madam, for I could not entertain you with other 
matters. So I leave you that I may not distress you 
farther, though I am quite sure that you sympathise 
with our troubles and sorrows. Believe me yours with 
respect and sincere devotion, 



{Turin. 18i6]. 

Madam, — I am about to require a conspicuous 
favour from your indulgent friendship. This concerns 
no less a matter than the obtaining from the manager 
of the Reuue des Beiix Mondes the insertion of an article 
composed by me. You see that it is no easy task. 

This article which, taking its text from the rail- 


ways, discusses the question of Italian politics, aims 
principally at acting upon the opinion o£ a highly 
placed personage,' who is very sensitive to what the 
Parisian press says of him. Owing to certain special 
circumstances, I have reason to believe that a manifesto 
of the kind which I should wish to make would not be 
without its value for my country. That is why my 
heart is so much set on seeing my article published in 
the Revue des Deux Mondea. 

I sent it to M. Cousin, who has from time to time 
shown me much kindness, but I should be very glad if 
M. Michel Chevalier would use his influence to over- 
come M. Buloz's objections. I do not disguise from 
myself the importance of the favour which I am asking 
from M. Chevalier, for my article, besides its other 
sins, has that of having been written with a special 
view to my own conntry, a point which will have only 
a moderate interest for French readers. 

The chief plea which I beg you to urge with M. 
Chevalier are the liberal and moderate opinions which 
I am making an effort to propagate in a country where 
hitherto extreme views have always had the upper 
hand. Many of my friends, Count Balbo among 
others,'^ are making every effort to organise a party of 

' King Charles Albert. 
' Connt Ceaare Balbcj niithoi 

e (Tltalia iiuJ Lt, VHa di 


peaceful reforms and measured progress. Enlightened 
and philanthropic men like M, Chevalier owe him their 
support. M. Cousin will, I think, speak to M. Buloz, 
I ask, therefore, of M. Chevalier only a word in support 
of what M. CousJQ may say. 

There, madam, is a very indiscreet request, and I 
offer my apologies for it. Only I beg you not to 
attribute my indiscretion to excessive literary vanity, 
an error into which I do not think I ever fell. I may 
'■exaggerate the political range of ray article, but I am 
■under no delusion as to its literary merit.^ 

Since I learnt from the newspapers the illness and 
death of Mme Delaroche,^ I have thought much of 
you, although you never made me aware oE the ties of 
affection which bound you to that charming person. I 
only knew that Mme Delaroche possessed an irresistible 
charm ; though I am Httle poetical by nature I was 
conscious of its effect. Seeing her and hearing her talk, 
I felt that I was in presence of one of those choice 
latures which subjugate all who surround them ; she 
'was too perfect for this world. Her death must have 
■left a great void in her surroundings. I grieve bitterly 
for her unhappy husband whose inspiring genius she 

We have had at Turin for some days a person of 

The article, on tiie '' Railways in Italy," was published not in the 
Setme dea Dmx Mondes, hut in the Bevue NouwAle, of M»y 1, 1846. 

Madame Loaise Delaroche, danj^hter of Horace Yeniet. died in 1815. 


your acquaintance, M. de Nieuwevkerke,^ the sculptor 
of William the Silent. He came to return thanks 
for a bit of riband the king had granted liim, and also, 
it is said, to beg an order for a statue of the famous 
Prince Eugene. The king was disposed to receive 
him very kindly, but as he did not wish to be intro- 
duced by the French charge d'affaires, he has not been 
received at Court, which has annoyed him a good deal. 

I will not say anything about Lucca. Rork is sure 
to give you the news of it in detail, for he has been 
several times at the new court. Although I am little 
inclined to Carlism, I wish most sincerely that marriage 
may have changed the character of the young prince. 

The session so far seems to me to be turning out 
to the advantage of M. Guizot, and even to that of 
Salvandy. Bitter enemy as I am of the Jesuits, I cannot 
help approving his reform of the Eoyal Council. I 
admire Cousin's talent, but I do not see the necessity 
of making him a Father of the Faith in philosophy. 
M. de Salvandy has shown great courage, and that is 
an enormous merit in this age of compromise. 

My brother begs yon to accept his warmest regards. 
He will send you a little article on Communism in a few 
days. If I am not blinded by fraternal affection, I 
think you vrill find in this paper some profound and 
original ideas. 

' Superinteudent of Fiue Arts under llie Second Empire ; died 1892. 


Farewell, madam, and believe me with sincere 

•espect your devoted 

C. DE Cavour. 


Madam, — I caunot let my niece ^ start for Paris 
without expressing to you liow much I regret my 
inability to present her to you myself, introducing her 
the person whom my brother and I hold dearest in 
the world. My niece, I venture to say, is, although 
fitill very young, qualified to appreciate all the bril- 
liance and solidity possessed by your salo/i. In ad- 
mitting her into that select circle you will enable her 
to taste whatever the French spirit has preserved of 
the kindliness and the charm of old times, united to 
the more solid acquirements which it has gained in 
the present age. You already know her husband, the 
Marquis Alfieri, and you will be, I hope, as good to 
his wife as yon were to him last year. 

Spoilt as we have been by your indulgent friendship, 
my brother and I count above all upon you to make 

Giiiseppinn Benao di Cavour, dang'liter of the Marquis Gnstavo, 
muried March 27, 1851, Marquis Carlo Alfieri of Sostegno, the last 
mheritor of the name of that famous Piedmontese family. After having 
been deputy in aovoral Parliaments, ha was nominated senator in IsrO. 

to him that Floreute owes the foundation of lier great institute of 
socutl science. 


my niece's stay in Paris at once profitable and agreeable 
to her. It is a piece of audacity on our part, I feel, 
but you will pardon it in consideration of the lively 
feeling which drives us to commit it. 

The Marquis Alfieri being destined for political 
life, I shall be infinitely obliged if you will bring him 
into contact with some of the politicians in Paris. If 
M. Chevalier has not by chance forgotten the former 
relations which I had the honour of having with him, 
I should be very glad if he would allow my nephew to 
be introduced to him. 

I say nothing about our country and about our 
politics. As Minister I am paid to speak well of them, 
and you might suspect my opinions. I will confine 
myself to assuring you, at the risk of passing for a 
dunce or a Utopian, that in spite of all the sorrow and 
misfortune which have befallen France and Italy, I 
preserve an unshaken faith in the future of Liberal 

Believe me, madam, most sincerely your respectful 

and devoted 

C. DE Cavour. 


IParis, August, 1852], Saturday. 

Madam and dear Friend, — I was very happy to 
receive your kind note bidding me come to see you at 


Les Bruyeres. I do not know by what chance this 
note travelled over Germany in pui'suit of M. de 
CoUegno before being delivered to me. I hasten in 
the first place to thank you for your kind remembrance 
and for the friendship which has survived so many 
phases and so many revolutions, and then to inform 
you that on Monday I will be at Les Bruyeres with 
my nephew, in the desire of passing as much time as 
possible with you, and putting off to the last extremity 
my visit to M. Pescatore's greenhouses. 

Permit me to shake your hand in virtue of our old 
friendship, which I value so much. 

C. DE Cavour. 


[Parig, 1852], Monday. 

It seems clear that you will not receive me at your 
house. You bid me farewell in writing, and you force 
me to do the same. I bow to your good pleasure, 
although I find it very severe of you to have kept 
me at a distance from the circle of intimates that 
you have formed around you. 

I hope that on my return, more or less remote, you 
will treat me with more indulgence, and that if at that 
time you are not in the dear little drawing-room of the 
Rue des Saussaies, you will extend your hospitality at 


Les Bruyferes to me just as mucli as to my friend 

I have not, like him, a story to read to you, I have 
not even one to tell, for, as you know, I am too prosaic 
to make them. But I assure you that the matter-of-fact 
of life has not invaded my heart so far as to render me 
insensible to the charms of a mind so amiable as yours, 
or to leave me incapable of appreciating the value of 

I go the day after to-morrow, taking away from 
Paris sad enough impressions. I do not see the future 
in rose-colour, and it is not without grave apprehen- 
sions that I am about to plunge afresh into the whirl- 
pool of politics. It is pleasant to think that your 
thoughts will follow rae in that rough career where 
one meets with more reverses than successes, I thank 
you for it beforehand, awaiting the time when I may 
return and lay at your feet the expression of my keenest 
and deepest f 


[Parts, March, 1856]. 

I AM happy to know that you are in Paris, and 
shall be still more so when I am able to see you. 
To-day, being free, I shall present myself at your door 
' Colonel Hubcr Salad in. 



between four and five Kindly let me be told %vhen I 
may come upstairs without fatiguing you. 

C. TIE Cavour. 


[Turin, April 7, 1857]. 

Madam and dear Friend, — I have never bad any 
doubt as to your taking an interest in our strife with 
Austria. Noble and generous bearts like'^ours must 
sympathise with the weak who are offering a brave 
resistance to the unjust claims of the strong and 
powerful. I do not think that the actual quarrel will 
for the present pass out of the pacific sphere of diplomacy. 
We are fully decided to be energetic and firm, but in 
no way imprudent. Europe desires peace; we shall 
not be the first to disturb it, ready as we are for all 
sacrifices if the honour and dignity of the nation 
require it. 

I venture to hope that you have succeeded in 
making the select circle which surrounds you share 
your feeling in our favour. Composed though it is of 
diverse elements, it numbers none but persons of feeling 
and inteUigence who would not be able to sympathise 
with those who wish to accomplish the ruin of poor 
Italy. In any case, I depend upon you to start a 
propaganda in our favour, for we have a great need of 
the moral support of Prance, and, consequently, of 


finding in the salons of Paris defenders of such influ- 

i ence as ;ire your friends of all shades. 

In spite of the threats of Austria, we are seriously 

' considering the plan of piercing Mont Cenis, and I hope 
that within a few months we shall undertake this 
gigantic work with the help of entirely new methods. 
Tou see that we are no less bold in industrial than in 
political matters. While awaiting the accomplishment 
of this work, which will bring us iufinitely nearer to 
our friends in Paris, we are about to enter, on May 1, 
upon the enjoyment of the railway which goes up to 
our frontier. Thanks to it, the distance which separates 
our two cities will be covered in thirty hours. Will 
not this near approach tempt you? Cannot yon steal 
a few days from your lieges of the Eue des Saussaiea 
and Les Bmyferes in f avou r of your Piedmontese friends ? 
Our country will not be without attraction for you. 
The sight of a people which has known how to reconcile 
a great mass of franchises with perfect order seems to 
me sufficiently interesting at the current time. 

My brother thanks you for your kind remembrance. 
He is ill in health, his nerve has been shaken ; he 
will need to live in the peaceable regions of Catholic 
philosophy into which you have brought him. Please 
remember me to M. de Circourt, and believe mCj with 
unchanging devotion, yours, 

C. Cavocr. 



Jnne 21, [1857]. 

Tour kind and friendly letter of the 8th inst. 
reached me very late, after many days' delay. In reply, 
I hasten to assure you that business and the cares of 
Ministerial life have not effaced or even weakened the 
recollections which I bore away from Paris of your 
miich valued friendship. On the contrary, I feel each 
day the worth of it. The political tempests amid which 
I have for nine years past been struggling have made 
me feel more than I ever did the charm of intimacy with 
you, of that fireside where one can forget one's most 
weighty preoccupations, and surrender oneself to the 
delights of friendly and no less intelligent conversation. 

Many thanks for the interest with which you have 
followed the Parliamentary contests which I have had 
to maintain since my return to Piedmont. They have 
not been either laborious or dangerous. In presence of 
Austria's declared enmity, honest men of aU parties 
have united around the Government; and I have only 
had individuals to fight, parties having vanished from 
the Parliament. 

Events have led Piedmont to take a clearly marked 
and decided position in Italy. That position is, I feel, 
not free from danger, and I am conscious of the full 
weight of the responsibility which it lays on me. But 
it was imposed upon us both by honour and by duty. 


y Since Providence has ordained that Piedmont alone in 
Italy should be free and independent. Piedmont must 
use her freedom and independence to plead before 
Europe the cause of the unhappy peninsula. We shall 
not shrink back from this perilous task. The King 
and the country are determined to carry it out to 
the end. 

Our friends the doctrinaires, those Liberals who 
weep the loss of liberty in France after having assisted 
to stifle her in Italy, will, perhaps, think our policy 
absurd and romantic. T am resigned to their hard 
■words and censures, being certain that generous hearts 
like yours, whatever judgment they may pass on my 
political principles, will sympathise with my efforts to 
recall to life a nation which for ages has been shut 
np in a hideous tomb. If I go down, you, I feel sure, 
will not cast me out ; but wiU grant me an asylum 
amid the defeated men of distinction who cluster round 
you. Do not interpret this outburst as a sign that war 
is imminent. Nothing is further from my thoughts. 
Take it solely as a declaration that all my strength, aU 
my life, are consecrated to one task only — the emanci- 
pation of my country. 

My brother thanks you for your remembrance. 
Like me, he is sincerely devoted to you. Believe me, 
with unchanging friendship, yours, 

C. Cavodr. 



[Turin], July 7, 1858. 

Ir I were free to guide my steps as my feelings 
and wishes prompt, I would surely profit by my holi- 
day to claim your hospitality at Bougival. But yoked 
as I am to the ear of European politics, I cannot 
wander from certain paths traced out by the position 
which I bold. If I were to go to France at this 
moment, when the diplomatists are struggling to find 
a fitting solution for a problem which they have 
beforehand rendered insoluble, my journey would give 
rise to all kinds of comments; which, though devoid of 
any basis, would be none the less fertile of vexatious 
annoyances to my country. 

I must, therefore, my dear friend, make once more 
the sacrifice of my wishes to the melancholy goddess to 
whose service I have made the mistake of devoting 
myself, namely, politics. But if, as I hope, I regain 
my liberty, the first use I shall make of it will be to 
go and grasp the hands of tbe faithful friends who are 
willing to take an interest in me, even though, in tbe 
whirlwind of affairs, I cannot take tbe notice of them 
which I should, and would. 

As soon as tbe session is over, which will be in a 
few days, I shall go to Switzerland to breathe the fresh 
air of the mountains, far away from men who think 
only of polities. I think of staying a few days at 


Presinge, being certain tbat no one will suppose tliat I ' 
am conspiring with our good De la Eive friends against 
the peace of the world. We shall often talk of jou, 
and shall transport ourselves more than once in spirit 
to the delightful hermitage which you know how to 
turn into a little earthly paradise for your friends. 

I will send you the book for which you ask. Al- 
though written in very bad French, it offers some 
interest to persons who know something of Piedmont 
and of the persons who have played a part on the 
Parliamentary stage. Only, as the author has chosen 
to handle all parties, and all those of whom he speaks, 
tenderly, it is necessary, in order to approximate to the 
truth, to strike off three-quarters of the eulogies which 
he distributes right and left with lavish hand. 

Thanks once more for your kind remembrance. 
The disillusions of pubUe life render genuine feelings 
ever more precious ; most of all, those friendships which 
time and absence strengthen aud develop. 

C. Cavodr. 


IParU, March, 1869], Satvrday. 
My dear Lady and Friend, — ^Although I am at 
Paris only for a very short time, I should like to come 
and shake hands with you. But I dread finding in 


your drawing-room some frantic partisans of peace, to 
whom my presence would be supremely displeasing. 
Seeing, therefore, that in spite of my bellicose humour, 
I do not at all care to make war on your friends, I 
will not call upon you unless you can promise to 
receive me alone, or in presence of such persons as will 
not tear out my eyes for love of peace. 
Tour devoted 

C. Cavodr. 


[Parii, March. 18o9.] 

My dear Lady and Friexd, — If you have no objec- 
tion, I will be at your door this evening at a quarter 

before eight. 

C. Cavour. 


[Tvrinl July 22, [1959.] 

If Bougival, instead of being at the gates of Paris, 
were to be found in some obscure corner of France, I 
would eagerly and gratefully accept the hospitality 
which 3'ou 80 cordially offer me. In my present frame 
of mind no abode would appear to me comparable to 
the hermitage where I should be certain of finding 
true friendship and sympatliy, at once lively and sincere, 
for the fate of my country. You, my dear Countess, 


would, I am certain, help me not to despair of its 
future, and I should leave you after a while in better 
condition than I was in to recommence the strugg;!e 
for her independence and freedom. But what am I to 
do ? I could not go to the gates of Paris and not 
enter. That would look like sulking, and there is 
nothing in the world so ridiculous as a fallen Minister 
who sulks ; especially if he thinks fit to be sulky with 
that city of all the world which cares least for mis- 
fortune and is most given to raillery. My position 
makes it my duty to keep as quiet as possible ; it is 
the only service which I am for the moment able to 
render my country. To this end I was on my way to 
Switzerland, that hospital for the wounded of politics; 
but as the announcement of the Congress of Zurich 
might have given a suspicious air to my innocent plan, 
I shall beat a retreat upon Savoy, and go and settle 
myself at the foot of Mont Blanc, there to forget, amid 
the wonders of Nature, the pettiness of the affairs 
managed by men. 

As soon as the hot weather is over, I shall go 
back to Leri to wait till an opportunity offers of 
working at the task of regeneration, which my friends 
and I are far from having abandoned. I have under- 
gone a stunning defeat, and it will be long before I 
can retui-n to the field as commander-in-chief; but I 
am quite decided to fight as a private under new 



commanders, who will, I hope, be more fortunate than 
I was. 

What you tell me as to the return o£ my old 
friends entirely consoles me. I ought to regard my 
fall as a lucky event, if it has made me regain the 
esteem of that select circle -which surrounds you, and 
from which my policy, not rightly understood, had in 
some sort excluded me. My bitterest enemy, the Times, 
said the other day, " Poor Cavour ! he was honest and 
zealous." I ask no other testimony or panegyric. The 
two qualities which the journal that has so violently 
opposed me ends by allowing me, are enough to 
assure me of a good welcome from all those whose 
welcome I value, 

At Turin I saw Huber-Sa,ladin for au instant. He 
seemed very well pleased with the military mission 
which he had discharged. I think he was right, for 
he is the only Federal officer who could, without 
neglecting his duty, have handled delicately the sus- 
ceptibilities and sympathies of the Ticinese. 

Believe me, dear Countess, your sincere friend, 

C. Cavour. 


Leri, Nov. 23, 18Sa. 

I WISHED, before answering the friendly letter which 
you wrote me on your return to Paris, to wait until I 


was in a position to let you know my plans for next 
winter. Certain as I am of the interest which you are 
good enough to take in me, I had no doubt as to your 
learning with pleasure what I proposed doing. I 
thought that the Treaty of Zurich, by allowing me 
to emerge from my solitude, would leave me free to 
make up my mind. Unluckily, it does nothing of 
the sort. I am more undecided now than I was A 
week ago. Accordingly, I will delay not a moment 
longer, thanking you for all the kind messages you 
send me. 

Yon will, perhaps, be surprised to see me in a state 
of utter uncertainty, for as a rule I do not hesitate at 
all. But your surprise will cease if you reflect on the 
position in which I find myself. My presence at Turin 
is of no use to any one, and it is troublesome to many 
people. Although I am much inclined to support the 
Ministry, composed as it is of loyal men, animated with 
the best intentions, I cannot make a movement without 
shaking it. On the other hand, I shall do it harm if I 
persist in remaining hidden in my rice-fields. People 
might say that I was sulking ; and that would render 
me ridiculous. My only remaining resource is to travel. 
But where am I to go? Italy is barred by politics, 
Prance and England by decency. I have not the 
courage to face the chill and heavy atmosphere of the 
German capitals ; and T suffer too much trom sea- 


sickness to be tempted by a Transatlantic voyage. I 
am, therefore, reduced to looking about for what I 
can do, witboat being able to find a suitable solution. 
It is probable that in default of some good course 
to take I shall not take any, and shall let myself be 
guided by chance. IE the Congress gets to business 
quickly, I shall, before the end of the winter, make an 
excursion to Paris, whither I feel drawn by the desire 
of seeing you, and of peaceal)ly enjoying the delights 
of the social oasis which is to be found in your house 
amid the deserts of luxury and vanity. 

For some months I have been leading a perfectly 
rustic life. I am diligently occupied with my fields 
and my cows. Thank heaven, politics have not made 
me too rusty. I am still a very tolerable agriculturist ; 
one who does not ruin himself in improving his pro- 
perty. I find my old occupation so agreeable that if 
the Italian question had received a solution which 
would permit me honourably to drop politics, I should 
consecrate the remainder of my days to it. 

The Marquis of Villamarina has been recalled. In 
his place they are sending M. Desamhrois, a former 
Minister of Charles Albert ; one of those who, by dis- 
creetly liberal administration, prepared our country 
for constitutional government. He is a most deserving 
man, and I hops that he will succeed; especially if he 
contrives to overcome his shyness and taciturnity. 


I have sent M. Beul^ two letters for Sardinia. He 
must have received them long ago. 

Believe me, dear Countess, yours with unchanging 

C. Cavour. 


Turin, Jawtary 9, [I860]. 

Dear Coostess, — I had hoped to come and thank 
you in person for your kind letter of the 1st inst., but 
the adjournment of the Congress compels me to take 
up my pen in order to tell you how sensible I am of all 
the interest which you do not cease to take in tlie 
affairs to which I hare been, am, and am called to be a 
more or less important party. 

The only fault with which I have to charge the 
famous pamphlet,^ is that it has prevented me from 
coming to shake hands with you; in other respects, I 
think it has rendered a great service, not only to Italy, 
but to the whole world, by bringing out a fact which 
every one knows here, although they seem to be 
ignorant of it elsewhere, namely, that the Temporal 
Power, whatever be its advantages or its merits, has 
the immense drawback of being no longer alive — of 
being in very truth a corpse. There is no longer any 
question of knowing whether the Pope is to be sovereign 

' Le Pape et le Congrie. Parie, 1359. 


of Ilomagna, the Marches, and Umbria ; but whether 
those provinces are to be independent or governed in 
the name of the Pope bj Austrian, French, or Spanish 
generals. Put thus, the question can admit of no doubt 
even for an ardent Catholic, if he be honest. The 
singular expedient to which AntoneUi has resorted, of 
hiring the biggest scamps in Europe at the dirtiest 
street corners of Switzerland and Germany,^ in order to 
prop the throne of St. Peter's successor, even if it 
might have succeeded in the fourteenth century after 
the Popes had left Avignon, is no longer presentable at 
this date. Even if, thanks to these new Landsknechts, 
the Cardinal were to succeed in looting ten Pemgias, 
he would not add any solidity to the edifice, which is 
crumbling on all sides. 

Besides, if we wish to convince honourable and 
religious men of the effect which the ImUhtff of the 
Temporal Power will produce on religion, there is a 
very simple method. It needs only to ascertain the 
actual state of the Legations, and it will be recognised 
that, strange to say, since the overthrow of clerical 
government, priests are infinitely more respected, 
churches better filled, the precepts of the Church 
better kept. If by chance any of your friends wishes 

' Pope Pins IX. 'a army, of which General LsmoriciSre took the 
pommand in tlii^ year IStiO, waa composeii ia great p«rt of man recruitBd 
abroad— Swiss, Gurmdus, Frenchmen, Spaniards, Irish. 



to establish the truth of this fact, I will furnish him 
with the means of doing so, by giving him a letter to 
ray cousin Eork, who is now Exarch of Eavenna ; and 
who fasts on Fridays, goes publicly to Mass, and in 
spite of that is the most popular governor in Europe. 
If the most Catholic of your friends does not return 
from a journey to Eavenna converted to the cause of 
the abolition of the Temporal Power, I will vote in 
Congress for its maintenance. 

Au revoir, dear Countess. Keep me a little place 
at your chimney-corner where I may tell you once more 
how lively and sincere is my affection iot you. 

C. Cavour. 

P.S. — I may inform you that the Town Council, the 
officers of the National Gruard, without exception all 
the authorities of Faenza, came in a body to show 
kindness to Eora. The reverend Prelate^ was so much 
moved that he fell into my cousin's arms. I doubt if 
the like will happen to Mgr Dupanloup. 


[Turin, February 7, I860]. 

My dear Countess, — M. Desambrois having failed 
to recover on the banks of the Seine the use of his 

1 Mgr Folicaldi of BaguacaTallo, Bishop of Faenza. 


tongue which he had for some time lost, I have had to 
recall him to the Presidency of the Council of State, a 
post which he fills with the utmost distinction. I have 
placed provisionally at the head of the Legation Signer 
Nigra, a young man of much talent, in whom I have 
unbounded confidence. I commend him to you in the 
most emphatic way. When you know him, he will 
commend himself; meanwhile, please welcome him as 
one of my best friends. 

The turn which political events have taken makes 
a journey to Paris very unlikely on my part. In Italy 
matters will for the moment arrange themselves without 
a Congress. Sooner or later, the supreme tribunal of 
Europe will give a definite sanction to what is going 
to happen ; but from that moment we are still very far. 
The blindness of Austria and the obstinacy of the 
Holy Father make me dread many a crisis before 
diplomatists round a green table-cloth will be able to 
regulate the destinies of Italy in a stable fashion. 

You have not answered my last letter, in which I 
begged you to send to Eoraagna some honest Catholic 
from among your friends. Rora is still awaiting him 
at Ravenna. I should be tempted to call in the im- 
partial judgment of the new Academician, Father 
Lacordaire. See how accommodating I am. 

Believe me, my dear Countess, your sincere friend, 
C. Cavour. 



[TiirxnlJidylG, [I860]. 

My dear Couktess, — I send you the first number 
of a series of biographies which is being puhllshed at 
Tuiin. Among others, you will find one of me. The 
author of it is one of my political friends, so he has not 
done badly with the flattery. At any rate, if he has 
beautified some features in my physiognomy, he has 
not distorted them; so that what he relates is correct 
enough, I think that these little hooks may have a 
momentary interest for you. 

I say nothing to you of politics. It would take a 
volume to sum up the perplexities among which I am 
placed. Nigra might be able to do it, if he has time 
to seek you in your hermitage ; which I doubt, con- 
sidering the innumerable quantity of letters and dis- 
patches which I fire off at him every day. If I puU 
through this time, I shall try to manage it so as not 
to be caught again. I am like a sailor who, in the 
midst of the sea which the storms have raised, swears 
and vows never again to expose himself to the perils of 
the deep. 

One of my friends, newly arrived from Paris, assures 
me that Legitimist and Orleanist opinion is not much 
improved iu regard to us. He told me that he had 
heard some pretty little mouths exclaim, " "Why does 
not some one hang that blackguard) M. de Cavour ? " 


It is terrible to have aroused so much hatred. I hope 
that it will not make its way into your salo/i, or that, 
at any rate, your friendship will neutralise it. Even if 
I am wrong, I declare that I would rather brave all 
the hatred than renounce the pleasure* of seeing you. 
If ever I can get away to Ptiris, I shall descend in the 
middle of your drawing-room, even though I have 
to run the risk of getting my eyes scratched out by the 
old Marchioness with whom I quarrelled so in 1856, 

My brother and my niece started this raoi-ning for 
Ostend. They will, perhapSj return by Paris. I envy 
them ! 

I hope that the fine weather, and the quiet of youi- 
beloved hermitage, have done you good. I fervently 
desire it may be so. 

Pray believe me, my dear Countess, though a bad 
correspondent, none the less your sincere and devoted 

C. Cavour. 


[Turin, Septemier 23, 1860], 
I AM very sony that I was unable to carry out your 
request by seeing that Mme de Pimodan met with 
nothing but attention and care upon her arrival in 
Italy. Unhappily, as the newspapers will have told 
you, her husband's wound was mortal ; and he only 


siu'vived the action in which he fought so bravely a 
few hours.^ Our army paid its homage to his valour. 
The regiments which had suffered most in the bloody 
conflict of the previous day, those, namely, which 
compose the Queen's Brigade, rendered the same 
funeral honours to him as we do to our own generals. 
Cialdini, knowing that he expressed a wish to be 
buried at Eome in the Church of St. Louis, ordered 
his body to be placed in a leaden coffin, and put into 
the charge of his aides-de-camp who were taken 
prisoners with him, MM. de Ligne and de EenneviUe, 
bidding them accompany it to its last resting-place. 
All the French prisoners are treated as we treat our 
own soldiers. They are sent to Leghorn and Genoa, 
and thence back to France. Whatever be the cause 
which has led them to take up arms against ub, we 
cannot forget that they "belong to the nation which 
came to fight for our deliverance. 

Italy is in a very critical position. On the one side 
diplomacy, on the other. Garibaldi — that is not exactly 
comfortable. I still hope that we shall puU through, 
and succeed in establishing our country on solid prin- 
ciples of order and liberty, in spite of the suspicions of 

' AugTiat* Marie Elie Georges de RariJconrt de la Valleo, Marquis de 
Piniodau, was bora in 1S22. He had been a colonel in the Austrian army, 
and served under General Lamoricifere at the battle of Castelfidardo, 
September IS, 1860, where he was mortally wounded. In 1855 he 
inai'ried Emma Charlotte G^cile, daughter of the Marquis Raonl de 
Conronnel, who is here referred to. 


the Absolutists and the insanities of the Eepublicans. 
I doubt not that you follow with keen interest the 
various phases of the struggle which is about to open. 
Your wishes will help us to issue from it with honour. 
Believe me, my dear Countess, yciur devoted 

C, Cavouh. 


[Turin]. October U. [18S0]. 

Mv DEAR Countess, — Thanks for your kind letter. 
I understand from what you say that you have had to 
undergo many conflicts on behalf of Italy and the 
fi-iends whom you number in this country. I fear 
that the opponents whom we have at Paris are harder 
to convince than Garibaldi's partisans, who have been 
so easily reduced to silence. 

In any case, if I am not much mistaken, the French 
people is for us. The surface of society has been 
crystallised by passions good and had, and rendered 
ill-adapted to feel generous emotions ; but the masses 
are generous as in the past, and they sympathise with 
us. If it were otherwise, how could it happen that aU 
the newspapers which are addressed to the masses are 
IfaUanissinii ? The divergence between the upper and 
lower classes is distressing, especially when it is the 
lower tliat is noble and disinterested, and the upper 


that is selfish and ill-natured. But I do not want to 
speak evil of French society. I owe too much to it. 
I resign myself to seeing Italy regenerated in spite of 
the Paris drawing-rooms. We are, perhaps, about to 
he put to a rough trial. Austria, it would appear, 
thinks of profiting by the absence of the King and of 
our best divisions to attack us. We are getting ready 
to ofier her a desperate resistance. If Cialdini and 
Fanti are at Naples, we have here La Marmora and 
Sennas, who are not going to be frightened by Benedek 
and the Archduke Albert. We are ready to stake all 
for all. The country is as calm as if the sky was cloud- 
less. It knows the danger which threatens it; but it is 
in no way frightened, for it knows that the cause at 
issue is great enough to justify the greatest sacrifices. 

I have expressed to you my regret at having been 
unable to do anything of what you asked me to do for 
Mme de Pimodan. Now au opportunity ofi'ers for 
showing that her misfortune kindles deep sympathy in 
us, and that we respect valour even ia our enemies. 
General Brignone has captured General Pimodau's 
sword and decorations on a fugitive from Castelfidardo. 
He has sent them to me as a sort of trophy. I have 
taken the King's instructions, and his Majesty has 
decided that instead of being placed in his magnificent 
armoury, I am to transmit them in his name to Mme 
de Pimodan, as his tribute to her grief and to her 


husband's bravery. As I do not know where Mine de 
Piraodan is, I take the liberty of sending them to you, 
with a letter for her ; begging you to see that they 
reach their destination. 

Believe me, my dear Countess, your sincere friend, 
C, Cavouk. 

[Tiirin\ December 29, [IBSO]. 

I RECEIVED this morning in bed the kind note which 
you wrote me, imparting the interesting letter which 
General Filangieri addressed to you from Marseilles. 
Many thanks for it, dear Countess; the pleasant 
reminder of you came to charm away the tedium of 
my convalescence from a little ailment of which, 
thanks to two bleedings, I got rid in forty-eight hours. 
I am much flattered by the opinion which your 
illustrious friend expresses in regard to me ; but I 
canuot share it. He is too distrustful of liberty, and 
he counts far too much upon the influence which I 

/ JPor my own part I have no confidence in dictator- 
ships, and least of all in civil dictatorships. I believe 
that with a Parliament one can do many things which 
would be impossible to absolute power. Thirteen years' 


experience bus convinced nie that an upright and ener- 
getic Ministry which has nothing to fear from revela^ 
tions in the tribune, and which has no disposition to 
let itself be intimidated by party violence, has every- 
thing to gain by Parliamentary contests. I have never 
felt weak except when the Chambers were not sitting. 
Besides, I cannot be a traitor to my bringing-up, nor 
renounce the principles o£ my whole life. I am a son 
of Liberty, and to her I owe all that I am. /l£ it were 
necessary to throw a veil over her statue, it would be 
no business of mine to do it. If anyone were to 
succeed in persuading the Italians that they wanted a 
dictator, they would choose (JJ-aribaldi, not me; and 
they would be right. 

The Parliamentary road is longer, but surer. The 
elections at Naples and in Sicily do not alann me. 
People assure us that they will be the wrong way ; let 
them be. The Mazzinians are less to be dreaded in the 
Chamber than in the clubs. The experience of Lom- 
bardy reassures me. Last year it was in a laad temper 
at the time of the elections, and the results were 
detestable. Cattaneo, Ferrari, and Bertani were elected 
by enormous majorities. These gentlemen came to the 
Chamber ivith a menacing demeanour, with insults in 
their mouths, almost with their iists up. Well, what 
did they do ? Beaten hollow on two or three points, 
they ended by becoming so harmless that in the last 


big debate they voted with the majority. Do not be 
afraid, the same thing vfiR happen with regard to the 
men from the South. The calm, I may say heavy, 
atmosphere of Turin will soothe them, and they will 
go back tamed. 

Great mistakes have been made at Naples. Farini 
had not enough authority at the outset. Then he fell 
ill ; lastly, a horrible drama took place under his eyes.' 
Farini, a large-hearted man, could not bear up against 
this succession of shocks ; he broke down, and is in no 
state to continue the rough task which he accepted 
with the devotion that he bears into all matters. He 
is begging with all the strength of his voice to be super- 
seded. The' day that an energetic man, not exhausted, 
resumes power at Naples, everything will return to a 
state of order. 

The bulk of the nation is monarchical, the army is 
free from any Garibaldian taint, the capital is ultra- 
Conservative. If with these elements we cannot pull 
through, we should be a very poor lot. 

I am very sorry to learn that M. de Circourt is 
unwell. Some time ago he wrote me a most interesting 
letter ; please thank him on my account. 

This letter will reach you on New Year's Eve, It 

' Sipior Farini had just tlie 
joung man, wlio liail beeu cut off 

lost his son-in-law, a very promising 
n a. few days by au attack of typhoid 


brings very sincere wishes for the relief of your 
sufferings and for the return of that health of which 
you make so good use on your friends' behalf. Among 
them I beg you to place me in the front rank. 

C. Cavour. 




To Count de Circotiii, Paris. 


\Turin, October, 1850]. 

Mr DEAR Sir, — I have read with extreme interest 
the letter which you did me the honour to write to 
me on the 18th instant. Your reflections on the state 
of Piedmont, and especially on the possible consequences 
oE its disagreement with Rome, are certainly worthy to 
be taken most seriously into consideration by the states- 
men of our country. I do not deceive myself as to the 
gravity of our position, and I feel deeply how much it 
is complicated by our relations with Rome. My most 
ardent desire, therefore, is to be able to conclude, If not 
a peace, at least a truce with the Holy See. 

In spite of this admission on my part, I ought to 
tell you frankly that in my judgment you seem to 
exaggerate the dangers which threaten us. You think 
that we are reduced to a choice between the example of 
Heniy VIII. and that of Louis XIV. after he fell 


under the yoke of Mme de Mainteiion. The judg- 
ment which you express is founded on an assumption 
that Cathohcism in Piedmont is in an analogous 
position to that which it occupies in France, It 
is, however, by no means so. "With us the court of 
Home has lost every sort of moral authority ; it 
might launch against us all the thunderbolts which it 
keeps in reserve in the cellars of the Vatican and 
would fail to produce any great agitation in these 
parts. I have lived much in the country and know our 
peasantry to the very bottom, better, indeed, than the 
inhabitants of our towns. Well, I can assure you that, 
even if, which is by no means probable, the Po^ie were 
to immediately excommunicate us, not the slightest 
disturbance would follow. The masses are religious, I 
may say, very religious, but they no longer place any 
trust in the Pope. The majority of the inferior 
clergy partake these feelings, and the bishops are so 
thoroughly aware of it that the greater part of them 
are doing all they can io induce the Court of Rome to 
yield. The conduct of Pius IX. has wounded national 
sentiment so deeply that his wrath is no longer to 
be feared. Besides this, the Siccardi laws are a bad 
ground for the Court of Rome to fight upon. The 
meanest of our peasants understands amazingly well that 
those laws in no way touch dogma and discipline, and 
that their only object ia to suppress civil privileges 


■wMch the clergy have strangely abused. I am certain 
that if the people were put in a position to choose 
between the preservation of the constitution and the 
re-establishment of clerical priyileges, they would re- 
nounce their political liberties sooner than see the 
ecclesiastical tribunals revive. 

The behaviour of the people of Turin proves the' 
truth of what I have said. Never have the churches 
been fuller, never have there been more communicants, 
and, nevertheless, upon no question has there been 
more perfect agreement than upon the dismissal of the 
Archbishop.^ My parish is served by Franciscan friars ; 
it numbers nearly 16,000 souls. Well, my parson, who 
has just left me, assures me that he has never been 
more surrounded with respect and sympathy, but that 
religion would be lost if a hand was laid upon the laws 
carried by Siccardi, whom he regards as the greatest 
man in Italy. We know very well that our conduct 
does not meet with approval in France, and that your 
Kepublican statesmen sympatMse much more with 
Eome than with us. But I confess to you that, up till 
now, we have not come to the point of believing that 
they are disposed to lend the Church the support of 
the secular arm. The idea of seeing Frenchmen put 
into execution a Papal decree of excommunication, inter- 
fering in Piedmont to re-establish the privileges of 

' Mgr fransoni, Archbishop of Turin, 


wHich the clergy have been stripped in all European 
countries, is one that has never come into my head. 
I do not know if Austria will be more Roman than 
France, and I doubt it very much, for in spite of 
the apparent, and, in fact, very reasonable concessions 
which she has made to the Holy See, she continues to 
keep her clergy in a regular condition of servitude to 
which they will never be reduced in Piedmont. 

It is impossible to foresee the future of Europe. 
Almost everywhere the extreme men are face to face, 
and the moderate party has almost disappeared from 
the theatre of events, which is by no means of good 
omen for the destiny of nations. In Piedmont, on the 
contrary, that poor party still holds the balance Ije- 
tween the extremists of all shades. Will it succe'ell 
for long in maintaining equilibrium while causing the 
country to advance in the regular paths of progress? 
This is, I confess, very doubtful ; but even if it suc- 
cumb in consequence of the movement which is sweep- 
ing Euroi^e along, it will succumb with honour, and 
will carry with it in its fall the sympathy of all 
feeling and good men. For this reason I venture to look 
for such a feeling on your part, whatever be the issue 
of the thorny career to which I have committed myself. 

Please give ray respects to Mrae de Circourt, and 

believe me sincerely yours, 

C. i)E CavourJ 



[TiH-m], \9.lh January, [1851]. 

My dear Cocnt, — Many tlianks for the interesting 
information about the Due de Gruiche ^ contained in your 
letter of the 12th. Considering all things, the French 
Government could not have made a choice more agree- 
able to us. The Duo de Guiche will find himself at 
home here. A cousin of his is married to one of my 
oldest friends at Turin, M. de Salmour,^ and many of 
the club friends of his youth are settled there. I 
hope that we shall have none but good relations with 
him, and this will certainly be the case so long as he 
does not get mixed up with the religious question, 
upon which we can have no compromise. 

Our internal position is much improved. The ex- 
treme parties are keeping quiet for the moment, while 
the great mass of the country frankly supports the 
Government. Even the clerical party is not agitating 
openly, having been compelled to recognise its weak- 
ness. If difficulties do not come upon us from abroad, 
we have nothing to fear from within. There is in our 
country a great reserve of upright feeling which makes 

1 Agenor, Duke de Guiclie, fiftervrarils de Gramont, was French 
Envoy at Turiu iu 1853, AmbasBsdnr to the Holy See iu 1857, to Vieima 
in 1861, Mintstor of Foreign Affairs, from May 15 to Angnat 10, 1870 (in 
^111011 capaeity his share in briogiug about the war of that year will be 
remembered), and died in 1880. 

Coant Bnggiero Gabaleone di Salmonr, Senator, died in 1878. 


government easy. In the Chambers there is hardly any 
opposition. The Eight does not love the Ministry, but 
its real head, Count Revel, having declared that as he 
is not in a position to form a Ministry be deemed him- 
self bound to- support the one which is in power, the 
Eight votes with us. As for the Left, it is divided ; 
two-thii'ds of it have declared frankly for the Govern- 
ment, the remainder opposes, but without violence. 

The only real difficulty with which we have to eon- 
tend is the Roman questioo. Thank Heaven, the vio- 
lence and the bad faith of our adversaries make our 
game a pretty good one. If the Pope regales us with 
an encyclical of the same sort as that which he has 
launched at the head of the Republic of New Grenada, 
he will do us an immense service. I should very 
much like you to come and study our country on 
the spot. You would see that I am under no delusion, 
and that in spite of all the stories retailed against 
our poor parliamentary system, it does not work 
dly so long as those who are called upon to set it 
going, instead of intriguing and finessing, employ no 
means of government I)ut firmness, good faith, and 
perfect honesty. 

I shall be much obliged to you whenever you will 
kindly keep me informed of what is going on at 

Please remember me to Madame de Circourt, and 


entreat her pardon if I have not yet had time to answer 
I the letter which she was good enough to write me. 
Believe me most sincerely yours, 

C. DE Cavour. 


IFaris, February, 1856 
(HiJUl de Londres, Bv.e Gastiglione).'] 

Mr DEAR Count, — If you had not informed me of 
Mme de Circourt's speedy arrival in Paris I should 
have taken advantage of my first free day to go and 
see her at Bougival. Please express to her, in antici- 
pation of the time when I can do it myself, all my 
sympathy with her in regard to the accident which has 
detained her so long out of Paris. 

I greatly desire to have a talk with you ; and I 
shall be better able to do so at your house than at 
mine, where someone disturbs me every moment. 
tell rae, therefore, up to what o'clock one is 
safe to find you in. 

Believe me yours most sincerely, 

C. Cavour. 


[Received frmn Tarin, on May 5, 1859.] 
Jy dear Count, — In view of the great number of 


oflScers from other parts of Italy who have been attached 
to the staffs of our army, the King has decided not to 
accept any offers of service from foreign officers. I am 
sorry that this decision forbids me to comply with the 
recommendation which you address to me in your letter 
of the 24th inst. It has heen a long time on the 
road, for it only reached me yesterday evening. 

I doubt not that you give me your good wishes. 
The final issue of the struggle does not seem to me 
doubtful ; but we shall have some rough times to go 
through, for the Austrians are better prepared than we. 

My affectionate regards to Mme de Circourt, 

C. Cavoub,. 


ITurin, February 12, 1861.] 

My dear Cocnt, — In reply to yours of the 7th 
' inst., I hasten to inform you that the Viscount de 
No6^ and his two accoviplices were on board the 
steamer which takes the Sicilian deputies and senators 
to Grenoa. Their entire punishment will consist in 
being condemned to travel with members of the Parlia- 

' The Viseonnt dc Noe, M"M" . de la Piprre, de St. Martin, and a 
Colonel de Laffrange, weru taken in fiagraitte delicto cuuspiriug on 
belialf of the Bourbons at Meseina. They were Eureated tmd sent on 
board the PlehiscUo to Genoa, where they were set at liberty and sent 
home. At Messina the National Guard had to defend them vigorouBlj 
Bgsiuat a threatening moh. 



ment wliich they had sworn to overtlirow. " What an 
infamy ! What an abominable man is M. de Cavour ! " 
the dowagers of the noble fauhourg will exclaim. I 
e to you the task of justifying me. 
Yours devotedly, 

C. Cavour. 


^Received April 4, 1861,/j-om Turin.'] 
Mt dear Count, — I send you my speeches on the 
Boman Question. I have spoken without reticence and 
keeping nothing back. The Temporal Power is dead; 
no one can revive it. The Pope needs other guarantees 
than foreign bayonets. Liberty alone can give him 
these ; and that liberty we are ready to grant him. 
Sincere Catholics must recognise that he will be the 
gainer by the change. Please make the disciples of 
Father Lacordaire and M. de Montalembert read my 
speeches ; adding that in Italy we wish for nothing 
better than to throw all Concordats into the fire, to 
repeal Leopoldine, Tannuccian, and aU similar laws, to 
condemn the Fabbronian doctrines ; in one word, to 
put in practice the separation of Church and State. 

This plan will raise immense difficulties for us ; 
but we accept them beforehand, convinced as we are 
that, once the antagonism which has existed for 


centuries between the Temporal Power and the national 
spirit is at an end, the Pope and the Cardinals will 
gradually come under the influence of the liberal prin- 
ciples which prevail in Italy. 

Please remember me to Mme de Circourt, and 
believe me yours most sincerely, 

C. Cavour. 




TO COUNT NIGEA, 1860 to 1863. 


[Paris], 11, Rue des Saitssayps, 

March 7, [I860]. 
Sir, — I venture to entrust this letter to you. When you 
have read — if you have time to do so — Le Steele, containing 
the article by Daniel Stem on M. de Cavour, kindly return it 
to me; I have to send it to LondoDj where it will be trans- 
lated. Certain of our friends' features are caught with a 
truly feminine cleverness.' But you must be overwhelmed with 
businessj and we should so much like to have the honour of 
> you. If you take in the Kord, do not omit to read the 
I first article in the number of March 4 ; I am assured on good 
authority that it comes from the chiineery of the Emperor 
Alexander II. Pray accept my warmest thanks. 

K. C««^ DB ClltCOURT. 

11, Eue des Sanasayes, March 2Srd, 1860. 
SiE, — You must be well satisfied and very busy withal, 
ow much I should like to have a little talk with you for 

' Maria de Flavipiy, Coratesae d'AgonIt, who wrote under tlie name 
' of Daniel Stem, was bom at Fiaiddort la 1805, and died 18T6. 



a few minntee about it. As I do not suppose that you are 
dining to-morrow with the deputation from Savoy, I venture 
to ask if you will give us, if possihle, a few minutes at the 
beginning' of your evening : I should like to introduce to you 
Mr, Oliphant, an Englishman of very great mark;' he is only 
staying one day here. He has heen with Lord Elgin on all bis 
expeditions, and has compiled the account of that remarkable 
journey. He is going to Italy — we must no longer, it appears, 
say "to Piedmont"; he will halt at Turin and Milan, 

My husband has been confined to the house by a horrible 
grippe ; that is why he has not even tried to find you at home, 
if, indeed, such a thing is ever possible. 

I have just been reading the last Parliamentary publication 
upon Italian affairs. The manner in which M. de Cavour's 
return to office was announced is a tribute seldom seen. I 
might say a thousand things to him ujion all that I learn, 
but during such important events the most devoted friendships 
must keep themselves in reserve for less serious moments. 

To-morrow, then, if you can. You can guess that I under- 
stand all the difficulties in your way, 



11, Rue des Sanseayes, April 2, [I860]. 

Sir, — You have no idea of the pleasure which your new title 

' Mr, Lanrenee Oliphant, the weU-tnown Scotch visiouary, the disciple 
of Harris and the uorreapoudeat of the Times, who died in 1888, had 
served bs secretary uiider Lord Elgin iu his miaBions to the tJuited States, 
1854, to Canada, and afterwards to China and Japan, 1857-59. Mma 
de Circourt liere alludes to the book which Mr. Oliphant had published 
some mouths before the date of this letter under the title of A Narrative 
of the Earl of Elgin's Mission to China in 1857-59. {Edinburgh and 
London, 1860). 


has caused me, for it lias made no change in tlie importance o£ 
your post and in the high confidence which is reposed in you.' 
During this week you will perhaps have more leisure, not for 
the important affairs with which you deal, but for yoar social 
duties. You will find me at the chimney comer as usual, 
except on Good Friday and Easter Eve. 

I venture to entrust the enclosed letter to your kindness. 
JThe first time that I have the great pleasure of seeing you 
fain I will (ell you of the request which the most select part 
of the Faubourg St. Germain bids me make of our friend. He 
is generous and will grant this favour to a young lieutenant 
connected with all those among us who are most worthy of con- 
sideration. My dread of importuning him has had a regular 
struggle to undergo. But yoii must know the fashionable 
iociety of Paris well enough to have learnt that nothing in the 
rorld is so intrepid, so audacious, as a fair lady. You can judg^ 
Ihen what it is when all my family takes a hand. An revoir, 
then. The fever has left me, and I have resumed my regular 
habits. I venture to repeat my desire of telling you the same 
tivd voce. 

Kldstine C^^ de Circourt. 

If my letter can go this evening I shall be grateful to you. 


11, Rue des Saussayeg, May 3, [1860], 

Sir, — I am going to the country in a week's time ; I should 
I much like to see you before those long months of farewell. I 
I want to commend myself to your friendly recollection, and to tell 
TOH with what sympathy I shall follow your important conflicts 
' I had just been appointed Miuistei Besident, March 25, 1860. 



in my retirement, and offer my vows tiiat you may not be too 
much invaded. 

Please grant me a few moments before the lOtli of this 
month, and beliere that I shall be very grateful for it. 

K. C^^*^ DE ClItCOUET. 

Rue dee Saussnires, Jlfa^ 12, 1860. 

SiK, — At the moment of my departure for the country I 
must tell you what a grateful remembrance I take with me 
for all the moments which you have been good enough to grant 
me, and I am very grateful to our common friend for having 
prepared you to be charitable and indulgent towards my se- 
cluded state. 

The discussions of your Parliament are going to be of the 
most interesting kind, and you know what an inaccurate and 
curtailed account our newspapers give of them, I venture 
therefore to beg you whenever the Italian papers publish any 
remarkable speech to be so extremely kind as to put them in 
the post, addressed Lcs Sriii/erea, near Boiigival, Seine-et-Oite. 

M. de Cavour and his brother also came several times to 
visit our rustic cottage, and I should be proud to receive you 
there whenever your numerous occupations allow you a few 
hours of leisure. Up till June 13 I am, by the doctor's orders, 
going to try silence and complete repose. After that you will 
find us in our quarters every day except Friday and Saturday. 
Our hermit-like repasts at eleven and six are a necessary part 
of this long excursion. 

Please keep a little place for me in your friendly recollection. 

K. C^^^ DE ClKCOUltT. 

I have several times seen Mr. Cobden, who interests me 
keenly. He understands liberty in all its forms. 


Les BruyhrBS, 

ir Bougival, May 3 

Sir, — The Monitenr gives very incompletely M. de Cavour's 
speech o£ May 26.' I can divine, nevertheless, that strong 
internal conviction, that logic hased upon the sentiment of 
patriotism and honour, I shall be very grateful to you if 
you can forward to me the Opinions o£ May 27. Please send 
it to the Rue des Saussa^e-i ; my hushand is still there, and he 
will see that it reaches me. 

It seems to me that you must he much worried, and indeed 
overdone, with the questions which all Paris will be addressing 
to you about Garibaldi, It needs your perfect tact, your ex- 
quisite circumspection to prevent this subject of conversation 
&om being unendurable. It seems to me now that in regard 
to the great question of the Treaty the triumph of our friend 
is complete, and his place in history marked yet once more. 
Messrs. Guerrazzi and Fantoni may comfort themselves therewith. 

Here I am, in an abode encumbered with workmen, in the 

;t noisy solitude. My husband is staying at Paris so long 
as our hermitage, usually so peaceful, remains inaccessible. In 
fortnight I venture to Hatter myself that it will not 
show, and that our friends will resume their habits of mauy 
years. Fever is added to my miseries, and I scarcely leave my 
bed, which does not prevent me from following the outside 
movements with an intent ness which continual suffering renders 
lore lively and more penetrating. Please do not foi^t a poor 
invalid who has every sympathy for you and with you. 


If the report of the debate on the Treaty in the Italian 
Parliament is separately printed, I venture to ask you to think 

' The speBch delivered by Connt Cavoiir ou tlie treaty cediiig Savoy 
B and Niee to France, at the sitting of tie Chamber of Deputies at Turiu 


of me. M. de Cavour gave me one such of tte Congrees at 
Paris. It is already bound, and this sequel would be of im- 
mense value to me ; my name is written on tbe first page. At 
this moment my old standing and deep friendebip dares not 
write directly to him, and you, I feel certain, will approve. 


Les Brayirei, near Bovgivai, June 15, ] 
My husband dined yesterday with Mme Pescatore, and ii 
Count PoUone.' He has often the honour of seeing you, and 
has almost promised to come and visit the poor invalid here. 
If you could undertake with him bo long an excursion, and 
allow yourself a few hours' rest, hoiv kind it would be of you not 
to shrink from our hermit's dinner at six o'clock. One word 
posted the day before would make it easy for us to postpone it 
to seven. 

Very many thanks for the speeches in the original ; it is 
quite a different thing from the French translation ; that in the 
Times, indeed, is a good deal better. I have been asked for 
Count Cavour's speech by Mine de Goyon,^ she has lent it to 
her brother-in-law, Flavigny, and it has not yet come back to 
me. I can see it passing from hand to hand at the Corps 
Legislatif. Doubtless that was what M. de Cavour intended; 
but I am in a hurry to get back what belongs to me and comes 
from you. However, I await a separately printed report of that 

' Count Antonio Nomia di PoUonc, an Italinu. aenator, had been sent 
1o Paris eliar^d with the duty of settliug certain questions reserved by 
the Treaty of March 24, 1860, ceding Savoy and Nice. He died 1866, 

' Orldne Henriette de Montesquiou-Penensac, Countess de Gajoa, 
■wife of the general who waa aide-de-canip to the Emperor Napoleon III., 
and commanded the French garrison at Rome in 1860, was, liie the 
Countess de Flavigny, danghter of the Dae de Fezensac. Couut de 
rlftTigny had been colleatjue of Count Adolplie de Circourt iu the Foreign 
Office when Prince PolignHC was Minister in 1829. 



remarkable diBCUBBion. M. de Cavour is master of the eituiition 
there by virtue of all the authority which forms the statesman for 
the present and the future of Italy. His eloquence is business- 
like, quite different from the elegant oratorical phrases of his 
opponents. If I am not raistaben, Rattazzi is a very dangerous 
enemy. My hermitage has beheld M. de Cavour more than 
once, and I have been near to hoping to have him here many 
other times ; even in the heart of winter, during the Congress, 
he would come here from Paris. He found here installed after 
years of absence several friends whom he had left at ray chimney 

ajmer in Paris, This poor little abode has become a common 

btherland for my friends of all times and of all countries, 
Yesterday I saw the Archbishop of Rouen,' one of our most 
distinguished prelates. He seemed to me mnch less bitter than 
formerly against Italy. M, de Eutenval announces himself to 
inner here on Monday with MM. de Boislecomte and Vieil- 
qastel.^ He makes a great merit of leaving the Council of 
State for me, I am grateful for every token of remembrance, 
K I could hope for you one day I will let the charming Mar- 
e Saint Vallier — the sister of "the Marquise Biscaretti ^ — 

mow beforehand. She will be delighted to see you again. 

Forgive me if I venture to recall all tJie delightful charm in 
the recollection of the moments which you kindly granted to 
my seclusion. 

K. C^^^ DG ClllCOURT. 

I Mgr (la Bonnecliose, Oanliual Archbishop of Rouen, had beeu with 
de Circourt at the School of Law in Paris, and remained ou friendly 

with him throughout Lis life. 
' These gentlemen were also former colleagues of M. do Circourt at 
le Foreign Office. 

^ Eliaibeth Le Touneliier do Bretenil, daughter of Count Emile de 

retenil, a former peer of France and aenator, had married as lier second 

inabajid, in 18i9, Paul GabriLl de la Croix-C ho vri feres, Marquis de Saint 

Vallier. Her sister Lauro married in Piedmont Count Charles Biscaretti, 

afterwards lieutenant-general in the Italian army, who died in 1839. 

I 2 



Les Bruyeres, July 9, 1860. 
Sir, — Michel Chevalier has just been spending a Sunday 
with us ; he told me that he would dine here on Tuesday week, 
17th. I venture to let you know in order that if you can give 
us a few moments you may come to us at six o'clock. You 
will be perfectly free to leave us directly after our friendly 
dinner. If M. Albert Blanc were good enough to accompany 
you he would show you the way to our rustic hermitage. We 
have never seen him again in spite of this fine weather, which 
makes our wooded horizon so fresh and green. For you rest is 
a chimsera, but you will forgive me for telling you once 
more how charmed we shall be to see you again, and to chat 
about the thousand subjects of sympathy of which I think 
every day afresh in regard to you. 



Les Bruyeres, July 14, 1860. 

Sir, — A violent fever has seized me, and here I am obeying 
the doctor, who requires a whole week of absolute quiet in bed in 
order to calm the renewal of acute pain. Judge of my profound 
regret at not seeing my friends, which has become my sole 
enjoyment. I hope that my obedience will bring me a little 
relief, and that in spite of all your engagements my hermitage 
will have the great pleasure of seeing you later. 



Les Bruyeres, July 26, 1860. 
Sir, — I venture to ask you to transmit my reply to the 
precious missive which you have been good enough to send me. 

Surrounded by tlie weight o£ business M. de Cavour remains a 
jDost faithful and devoted friend. His biogi-aphers, perhaps, do 
not know this most rare quaHty. He tells me that he keeps 
you loaded with business, and that you alone can give me 
information o£ what I should wish to know fully about him. 
He quite divines my regret at not fcaving the great pleasure 
;ing you. The Marquis de Cavour is just now going with 
jhis daughter to Ostend, and assuredly if Paris is on his route 
% shall see him here ; then, perhaps, as a great exception he will 
draw you as far as our wild retreat. I thank you very much 
for thinking of my wretchedness. The fever has left me, and 
here I am restored to my regular habits and happy to see my 
indulgent friends again. M. de Pourtales and Mme de Seebach' 
came the other day when I was at my worst, and I was very 
much put out. M. de Pourtales' leave will, perhaps, not be for 
■two months as he flattered himself. Ju revotr, I follow you in 
thought and wish you all suecess. Great firmness of soul amid 
*ach complicated circumstances is the sole stay. The rain has 
prematurely spoiled the beautiful rose called Le Comte de 
.Cavour ; I wanted to have sent it you and made you admire it. 


Michel Chevalier, whom I have seen twice this week, 
bids me tell you that it is through discretion that he does not 
go to call on you. He comes back to us on Sunday to dinner. 


Les B>-uyhres, Auijust 5, 1860. 
Sir, — Nothing but my consciousness of all the importance 
of your occupation at the present moment could have prevented 

Oouiit Albert de Ponrtales, boru 1812, died at Paris 1S61, was 
Pmssian Envoy to Ihe Emperor Napoleon III, Marie de Nesselrode, 
wife of Baron, afterwards Count, Secbacli, Sason Envoy, was danghter 
of the former BuBHiou Cbaucellor, Count Nosaelrodo. 

118 AFPEXmX. 

me from asking you to lie of our party at dinner to-day 
Miche! Chevalier and Mr. Cobden will be here, and they would 
have been so glad to Bee you. M. Augusts de la Rive, the 
couiiiii and friend of M. de Cavour, writes from London that be 
will be in Paris at the HGtel Mirabeau on Monday evening, 
to-morrow that is. He will only stay Tuesday and Wednesday, 
and is extremely desirous to have the honour of speaking to you 
on ijiiportant matters as soon as possible. He eotnes to dinner 
with us the day after to-morrow, which I tell you without any 
hope of bringing you. Kindly leave word for him, therefore, 
at the Hotel Mirabeau at what hour on Tuesday or Wednesday 
you can see him. He has a very short leave of absence, and 
lias just had a long interview with Lord Palmerston. 

I have had a real piece of bad luck with M. de Cavour. 
A young friend of mine, Herr Geffcken,' Minister for Hambnr|* 
at Berlin, a person full of talents and wit and intelligence, and 
perfectly familiar with German politics, is travelling, and asked 
me to send him to Poste Restante, Genoa, a letter of introduc- 
tion to M. de Cavour. I did so with all possible willingness, 
and the letter was lost. Herr Geffcken presented himself to 
M. de Cavour in my name, and was most kindly received. 
To-morrow evening he arrives here to stay a fortnight. Every 
year he asks leave of absence in order to rest under our roof. 
He is bringing bis young wife, married only a fortnight ago. 
All the enchantment of the honeymoon will be necessary to 
make them tolerate me in my present state of infirmity. 

Ah revoir ; I dare not say till Tuesday at six o'clock. 
Please be grateful to me, therefore, and imagine in your turn 
how much I regret it. 

Kltjstinb C^^ de Cikcourt. 

It was on August 2 that M, de Cavour was good enough 

' Dr. Heinricli GofEcken, tlio well-known publicist, represented the 
Hanae Towns nt Berlin in 1860. 

to receive my diplomat, so to 
oE him. 

shall have very recent 


Les Bruyh-es, AvguMt 9, 1860. 
SiH, — You have quite captivated M. de la Kive, which 
US to me quite uatiiral. He dined with us yesterday and 
interested us keenly by what he said o£ opinion in England. 
What storms there are in every quarter of the political horizon ! 
Our friend, M, de Cavour, has need of all his energy to 
make head against the tempest in which Europe looks upon 
him as the sole pilot. I understand how busy you are, and I 
tegret bo much that you cannot come here to take a little rest. 
H'evertheless, I venture to ask a favour of you. Our young 
friend, Herr Geffcken, has the greatest desire for the honour of 
seeing you. He remains here another fortnight, and does not 
go at all to Paris. He asks what are the days and the hours 
■when he could hope to find you and be able to have some talk 
with you. He would go to Paris e^presdij for that. He saw 
M. de Cavour a week ago. From here he will return to Berlin, 
and he gives us all his leave of absence. He will interest you, 
I am sure, and therefore I shall be Tery grateful to yon if you 
will allow him, when you can, to come and call upon you. 

Alt revoir. I hope to see the Marquis de Cavour when he 
passing through Paris, and I am delighting in the prospect. 
Pray do not forget the poor invalid, 

K. DE CllLCOirUT. 


Lea Bniyhres, August 22, 1860. 
SiE, — Let me ventui-e to entrust to your kindness this little 
word for the Marquis de Cavour. M. de la Rive is expecting 


him at Presinge on the 26tli o£ this monthj and I hope, from 
the messa^ which our common friend has sent me, that Parie 
is on the way from Ostend to Geneva. I feel certain of the 
old friendship of the Marquis de Cavour, and I much wish to 
see him again. I am sure that he will come here, and that you 
will do the like if you can leave your business, which becomes 
every day more entangled. Last Sunday Michel Chevalier 
came to tell me about a long conversation which he had had 
with Signor Manna.' The wish of Naples to be allied with Pied- 
mont is a great gain for the Italian cause, but I understand all 
the obstacles, and I wait with anxiety the issue o£ this new 
crisis. Believe that my thoughts go with you. Our young' 
German couple leave us on September 1, aud if between now 
and then the political sky has a gleam of serenity, we shall be 
happy to see you. Herr Geffcken wishes to do so, and M. de la 
Rive has increased bis wish. 

A thousand apologies made from my heart. 

K. C^^''' BE ClBCOURT. 


Lee Brvy'ures, September 1, [1860]. 
SiB, — Allow me to introduce to you, although from a 
distance, our young friend, Herr GefEcken, He has just spent 
several weeks with us, and is returning to his post at Berlin. 
He is thoroughly acquainted with politics, and intimate with 
the most eminent men in Germany. He will be most happy- 
to make your acquaintance, and I venture to ask you to grant 
him a few moments. I shall be for my part very grateful 
to you. Very many thanks to you for having forwarded my 
little note to the Marquis de Cavour. He gave us a good day's 
visit, which passed too quickly after five years' separation. He 

' Signor Giovanni Manna, of Naples, Italian deputy minister, aud 
senator. He died iu ISSii. 

will tell tis brother how many old friendships know Dothing of 
absence. Please believe nie most sincerely yours, 

K. DE CmcocRT. 


Lei Sruy'sres, September 20, I860. 
Sir,— Allow me to beg you to forward this letter as quickly 
as you possibly can. It relates to a very important matter, of 
which I will tell you when these serious events permit you to 
spare us a few momeuts. 

Every day brings news always of such important events. 
May Italy come out of them triumphantly ! Please accept my 
best thanks in advance. 

Klustine C^^^ de Circourt. 
Mr. Cobden said to me yesterday, speaking of M. de 
Cavour : " When I saw him in 1847 1 thought him the ablest 
man I ever knew, and he proved it" 
Mr. Senior was also of our party. 


Lss Bruybres, September 29, [1860]. 
Sm, — We are very grateful for a token of your friendly 
remembrance at a moment when the preparations for your de- 
parture must be taking up all your time. Believe me, that we 
hope for your speedy return, and fully reckon on it. You 
alone can worthily represent the policy of the new Italy, you 
will bring back to us news of M. de Cavour more recent and 
more detailed than his brother had. I hope that it may be as 
soon as possible. How much I thank you for having so 
faithfully forwarded my letter. Alas I it contained an urgent 
recommendation of M. and still moi-e of Mme de Pimodan, 


whom I believed to be in Italy. Will you believe that in the 
midst of such a serious state o£ things M. de Cavour answered 
me immediately ? If anything in the world could increase my 
admiration for his grand charactefj it would be this new proof 
of friendship. Mme de Pimodan is full of determination and 
of remarkable beauty; she is twenty-six years old. It was she 
and those about her who urged that young' and brilliant soldier 
to go upon this absurd expedition, 

I have a right to concern myself specially with the wounded ; 
I have passed all my summeT in awaiting a very painful and 
very long operation which my shoulder was to undergo next 
month. Only yesterday, the eelebi-ated surgeon who attends me. 
Doctor Maisonneuve, declared that it was better to put it oS 
yet longer, for the mischief has not yet reached its height. In 
November we shall return to Paris, and it will be seen what the 
final verdict of the faculty will be. No effort, no torture will 
be too dear if I have at the end of it the hope of even a partial 
relief. May I venture to aek you to allow me to send my 
letters for M. de Cavour to your charge d'affaires? A recom- 
mendation on your part will spare me the uncertainties of the 
post. You know that I shall not make an improper use of such 
a valuable permission. 

A most painful thing in the middle of the very serious 
events which are developing is the having to, experience cruel 
deceptions. M. de la Rive, the friend and cousin of M. de 
Cavour, has been quite carried away by his ultra- Gene vese 
patriotism, and lie writes to reie, his friend of thirty years, that 
he cannot in the least understand any longer my persistent 
fanaticism for M. de Cavour, and that his own ardent 
sympathies are for Garibaldi.' Michel Chevalier was saying 

' Everybody knows with what veliemence Garibaldi opposed the 
ireaty of cession of the 24th of March, 1860. On tlie other side the 
amiexation of Savoy to France called forth a protest from Switnerland, of 



here the other day tiiat M. de Cavour would have been the 
greatest man of his time if he had had Garibaldi shot before 
the Sicilian expedition. Mr. Cobdeu replied to him with an 
amount oE good sense and authority which delighted me, 
That mind, so determined, so lofty, is a solid and true ally to 
M. de Cavour. 

Alt revoir. I will heg you to send me a photograph of 
M. de Cavour which is like liim, selected by yourself, to have 
bound in his biography. A second part to that will be required, 
and it will not be the least remarkable. 

Herr Geffcken was very grateful for your reception of him, 
and he deserved it in all respects. May God guide you and 
bring you bock to us. 

K. C^' 

fi CiRCOUllT. 

Please take the last to the Marquis c 
Cavour ; he will see there a piece by M. de Falloux which 
very likely to be seized. 


Lcs Bmyhres, July 24, 1861. 
Sir, — How much I thank you for this precious portrait. 
It is an excellent likeness, but I can look at it only through 
Eoy tears. It will be on the same page with yours — for ever 
united in my thoughts. I am glad to have from your hand 
the report for which I ventured to ask.' We have read it 
with the greatest interest in consideration of yourself no less 

which M. He la Rive wan the couviuced interpreter to the St. James's 
Cabiuet. Ou this question, but on this only, tlio opinioua of M. de la 
Rive n-ete found to be inoraeutaiilj' iu accordance with the feelings of 

' The report of May 20, 1861, in whicli 1 gare Oavour an account of 
the ndmiuist ration of tlic Neapolitan proviucea during the goTornmeut of 
H.R.HL tlie Prince of CarignAU. 



than of Iiim who then was at the head o£ Kiug Victor 
Emmanuel's Government, and who will be the abiding and 
eternal honour of Italy. I doubt not that this piece of work 
earned for you the approbation which was most flattering to 
your deserts and dearest to your heart; a reward which for 
you no other can replace, not even the brilliant meed of justice 
which has been rendered to you, even outside of ItaJy, by people 
o£ an upright spirit and generous intention. The report gives 
a complete idea of the prodigious efforts which the reorganisa- 
tion of Southern Italy must cost, of the difficulties which 
you had to overcome, and of the wholesome precedents which 
you have bequeathed to your successors. 

Our congratulations on your return to Paris are mingled 
with so much bitterness that it has cost me both time and 
trouble to find the courage I needed to write to you to-day- 
Still, I cannot deny myself tbe consolation of recurring with 
you to this irreparable loss, and of assuring you of the profound 
sympathy with which those who have been worthy to share 
M. de Cavonr's friendship, not limiting themselves to participa- 
tion in your regret, will continue to stand by you with their good 
wishes in the great task which has been laid upon you. Amid 
the licence of party spirit and the blindness of prejudices, yon ' 
will find out at Paris some minds in unison with your own; they 
will remind you every instant how sacred a duty is yours, with- 
out flinching under so rude a trial, to continue the work with 
which, at so early a stage, when its realisation seemed more a 
dazzling dream than an historical possibdity, you so persever- 
ingly and so energetically associated yourself. I hope that you 
noticed the appropriateness and precision of the terms employed 
quite recently by one of my London friends on an important 
occasion respecting the recognition of Italy. 

Before you are wholly swept away in the whirlwind of 
business, I should really very much enjoy seeing you at our 



modest hermitage, near as it is to Paris. For me, and I hope 

^m for you, it would be a solace of our common sorrow, rather 

^B than an aggravation of it, to express it to each other, and to 

^H repeat that Count Cavouv is not entirely lost to Italy since 

^H his spirit survives him, and tried friends are devoting their 

^B existence to the completion of his work. Up to the present 

^H Signor RicasoU's actions and words are such as to make one 

^1 think that he will worthily take up, so far as it can he taken 

^1 up, an inheritance of such magnanimity. 

^H My husband unites with me in saying that our little dinner- 

^H table will be happy to claim you at six o'clock precisely. 
^Br Believe me yours most sincerely, 


^^^^^^H (Two sprigs of henlh sUk^ at (lie Lead of llie page.) 

Far Bongival, AuguH 28, 1861. 
SiK, — Your loyal remembrance in the midst of your business 
has made me very grateful. I understand how you are invaded 
every hour, and my regret at not seeing you increases everyday. 
My husband never goes to Paris without trying to snatch a few 
moments of yoa ; but he seldom goes there, for our friends 
succeed each other here even when our Paris is deserted. We 
enjoy them as they pass on their way back from watering-places, 
and these interesting appeamnces charm my seclusion. We 
have a neighbour who ia an implacable enemy of Italy, although 
he was a friend of M. de Cavour, I mean M. Thiei-s. All the 
inexhaustible raciness of his charming wit becomes mere twaddle 
when he talks about that great resurrection and disputes the 
scope of it. 

You will permit me in two words to introduce to you 



M. Tchihatclieff, who has been recently elected to tlie Academy 
o£ Sciences, He is a man full of talent, a publicist, an intrepid 
traveller, a diligent explorer of Asia Minor. He has ^^Titten 
some remarkable political trac ts, " The Peace o£ Zurich " among 
others. He is going to pass the winter in Italy in order to 
observe her in her regenerate state, and ranch desires to have the 
honour o£ seeing you in the short time before his departure. 
He is truly on the side of that which we admire, 

Jii revoir, sir. Do not forget us, and doubt not of the value 
which we shall attaeh to those deep-seated memories which bind 
us in one with youre. 


P.S.^You will have read Michel Chevalier's speech at 
Dublin. When he pronounced the name of Cavour frantic 
applause filled the hall. He bid me tell you this. 


Ze« Srwjires, August 31, 1861, 
Sm, — From my heart a thousand thanks for these preci( 
lines, which increase still further, if possible, my desire 
you again. I have so much to tell you about M. Thiers. He is 
not to be reconciled to the noble cause which you serve, and on 
this point only I fail to find in him the moderation which to 
me appears the special charm oE that vast and comprehensive 
intelligence, actively enlightened as it is. He recognises in our 
friend all that for which Europe has done him honour, but he 
talks nonsense about the possibility of an Italy such as you 
understand her, and such as we, I firmly hope, shall see her. I 
understand your excess of reserve towards friends and enemies, 
and it is only with the utmost discretion that I shall venture 
to introduce an unknown person to you, you may be quite 
assured. Nevertheless, there is a manner of serving Italy 



41'PENDIX. 127 

in action which is to aDimat« and enlighten the zeal of thoee 
who can by various means co-operate in .that grand work, and 
the least are not to be disdained. If you coiildj if it were 
possible, yon would make me really grateful if you could come 
and dine with us at six o'clock precisely on Jlonday, the day 
after to-morrow. You will find here M. Poujade, who is going 
to start shortly for Florence, quite radiant with that post which 
suits him to perfection. You can guess that tbe title of consul, 
general does not prevent it from being a diplomatic position, and 
M. Poujade will be highly flattered by being introduced to you. 
He is very intelligent, very hard working, courageous, capable of 
understanding everything, and of making himself useful. We 
shall not venture to wait for you, but you know how much 
easier it is to carry on a conversation here in the shade than 
through all the interruptions of Paris. 
l[ The Marquis Ineoutri will be of our party. I shall never 

forget the kindnesses which his grandfather' heaped upon 
Count Cavour had a high appreciation for M. de Poujade, 
whom he often saw at Lady Holland's.'' What houds all these 
recollections become ! 

Till Monday then. A few hours of peaceful chat would do 
you so much good. After certain trials, tbe lieart does not 
recover its full strength. The loss which we mourn is one of 
those which each day seems to increase and render more irrepar- 
able. M. Thiers was relating to me the other day a conversation 
which he had had with M. Cousin. It is a revelation. 

' The Marquis Gino CappODi. 

* Lady Mary Angnsta, daughter of the eighth Earl of Coventrj-, had 
married, iu 18^3, the lant Lord Holltuid. Ladj Hollaud became a wido^ 
in 1959, and thenceforward was aci'ustumedto distribute her time between 
HoUftnd Hmiaa, in Kensington, St. Ann's Hill, in Snrrey, and Naples. 
She was an old friend of Count Gavour's, Her resideuco, Holland House, 
where I laat saw her iu 1885, was for a long time the meeting place of the 
eniiueot men of the time both of England and of the Continent. She 
died at St. Ann's Hill, September 21, 1883. 


Many thanks £or your remembrance of me, you know how m 
valne it from my heart, 


Les Bmyh-es, Seplemher 22, 1861. 

Sib, — May T hope that you have been bind enough to keep 
Kie oue of those photographs, of which tbe Illustration offers 
me a doubtless imperfect reproduction ? In exchange, I venture 
to offer you a book-marker; it is thoroughly rustic, and will 
make you think of a place which desires and hopes to see you. 
All these days your name has been mentioned. M. Thiers, 
in bidding me farewell, regretted much that be had not met 
you, and I fancy that his chances of doing so are not easy, 
considering the irreconcilable hostility of his present opinions. 
M. Cousin was staying with him, whom I have seen every 
day. His admiration for our illustrious friend is profound, but 
his obstinacy on other points relating to that great memory has 
always been no less fanatical. Herr Banke asked me for news 
of you. He was here lately with his translator, Mrs, Austin,' 
She has just given us a week on her way to M. Guizot. Under 
myhumble roof she was able to enjoy the neighbourhood of two 
of her most intimate friends — M. Cousin and M. Barthelemy St. 
Hilaire. I strongly advised the famous historian to go and see 
you, but so long as Prussia does not recognise the kingdom of 
Italy, German susceptibilities will not allow him to take so bold 
a step in spite of all the desire that he has for talk with you. 

This morning I got a letter from the Marquis de Cavour. 
He haa been vainly awaiting Mgr de Bonnechose, the Arch- 

1 Mrs. Sarah Austin, horn Taylor, of Norwich, pnbhshed anions other 
things Eaplish trauslatious of E-anke's History of the Reformation in, 
QefTtiany, aud HUlory of the Popes. 


biahop of Rouen, When the Archbishop came to bid me fare- 
well on going to Rome, I urged and persuaded him to go by 
way of Turin. At his request I informed the Marquis de 
Cavour, but it is clear that the prelate changed his mind on 
the way, I am very sorry for it, for he would thus have found 
a unique opportunity of enlightening himself. He is by nature 
conciliatory and highly politic, and therefore moderate and 
prudent. Have you read Layard's very interesting article in 
the Quar/er/f Review ? ' The portrait to be found in it is much 
more life-lite than usual, and the letters and conversations have 
an immense interest. 

Am reiioir. Forgive me for breaking in upon your thousand 
occupations, and believe me yours very sincerely, 


isbaud has just lost his cousin, Admiral de Suin.^ 

My ! 
It is a real grief for u 

loble nature the less. 


Jisi Brv,feres, October 12, 1861. 
Sir, — Although I have only a small portion of my corre- 
spondence here, I confide to you certain precious letters of our 
friend's. They will make you acquainted with him at a time 
when you were still a child, and did not foresee that your name 
and your affection would be so intimately hound up with that 
great memory. How grateful I shall ever be to him for having 
given me the advantage of knowing you, and of estimating for 
myself the charm and the remarkable talents of which he so 
often spoke to me I Without that direct intervention, a poor 

' Sir Hoary Layard's article appeared in the Qaarlerly Review for 
October, 1861, uudsr thy title of " Count de Cavour," 

' VioB-Admiral Marie Alfred de Suin, bora 1796, died 18G1. He was 
a member of tlic Board of Admiralty, 


invalid shut up for so many years would never have been able 
to meet so brilliant a young diplomatist with so crowded a 
future unfolding itself before his eyes. As you read these 
pages, written so long ago, you will be struck with that mature 
reflection which was but awaiting the hour for action. I send 
you some lines from Count A. de Pourtalfes, to whom I had lent 
ten letters belonging to the most divers epochs, but no one in 
the world will understand like you the value which I attach to 
them. It seems to me that you will take more pleasure in them 
at the present season than when the whirl of the winter has 
multiplied your engagements. 

How much I thank you for having been able to grant me a 
few moments ! You sat in the very same place where, in 1852 
I had some long conversations with the friend whom we are 
mourning. Alas ! my little abode, which was then full to its 
smallest comer, was not able to offer him the hospitality of 
which I should to-day have been so proud. 

May I hope that you will preserve a little sympathy for 
me in return for my sincere friendship ? 

Klustine C^^^ de Circourt. 


ILes Bruyeres], October 25, 1861. 

Sir, — It was only yesterday that the precious packet, with 
which I could not have parted save to feel that it was in your 
hands, reached me. A thousand thanks for having let me see that 
admirable letter.^ It is the living portrait of the friend whom we 
shall always regret. It seems to me that it makes it your duty 
some day to write that noble life which no one knew better than 

* The letter addressed to me at Zurich from Count Cavour at Geneva, 
August 21, 1859. See Chiala, *' Lettere del Conte di Cavour,^' iii., 123. 



you, aud into which yoa entered with quite particular intimacy. 
His nephew must require it of yoa with the most urgent insist- 
ance. How many letters I still possess at Paris extending over 
whole years I My husband, too, preserved several that are very 
remarkable, hut as they are all poUtical I thought that you would 
care less for them than for those which came from the fneitd. 
Do you not think that a collection of Count Cavour's letters 
would have a great success, and would throw light upon that 
mighty intellect which only revealed itself to the world amid 
strife and fierce conflict ? The success of M, de Tocqueville'e 
con-espondence has often made me think of it. It was at my 
fireside that those two friends of my life met, and they never 
saw each other but that one and only time. A thousand 
thanks again for those two photographs, which we shall keep 
as precious things, and once more do not forget that I shall 
hope for youi-s. 

You will have read M. Guizofs book.' It will do no wrong 
to the noble cause which you serve and defend. It is addressed 
to a public which has formed its opinions and does not wish to 
be enlightened, having taken its side beforehand. A Protestant 
asserting in the name of liberty the necessity for the temporal 
power of the Papacy does not seem to me very dangerous. 
Mgr de Bonnechose has returned from Kome convinced that the 
troops will stay there all the winter. It seems that Cardinal 
Ant[onelli] has a formal promise to that effect. We shall see 
General de Goyon soon. I am very intimate with his wife, but 
not at all with him. He expects to go back shortly. 

During the first days of next month the surgeon's orders 
condemn me to return to Paris. I shall regret our clear sky 
and these horizons, admirable at all seasons ; but it will be 
easier for my friends to reach me, and I shall be glad to spare 
them a long journey. 

' L'Eglise et la Soditi Chri'tieime, published at Pftris in ISGl. 



I hope that you will be atle to grant me a few moments, 
and that you know how profoundly I sympathise with you. 

Klustine C*^^ de Ciecotjbt. 

Could you give me a copy of the official letter announcing 
the death of Count Cavour ? I am keeping every announcement 
of it in all countries which I can collect. 

What prince is that whose letter the Count mentions at the 
end of his own ? ' 


(A sprig of hoath stuck at the top.) 

November I, 1861. 
Yesterday an Englishman called upon me ; he told me that 
his name was J. Davey, that he was a graduate of Cambridge 
and a member of the English bar. He added that he had had 
the honour of seeing you and of handing you a letter from Sir 
J, Hudson.^ He said further that he had been directed to me 
by M. Le Play, Councillor of State. He said that, being 
engaged upon a work on the career and political history of 
Count Cavour, he is collecting authentic documents from all 
quarters, that Lord Clarendon had allowed him to see some very 
valuable letters, and had even accepted the dedication of the 
forthcoming work. He further asked if he might glance at the 
letters which I have from Count Cavour. ■ . The first volume 
of this work is to appear early in next month, and it is about 
the years which preceded the political life of our friend that 
the biographer asked me for precise information. Forgive me 
for putting you to the trouble of writing me a couple of lines ; 
you will understand my scruples, Mr. Devey stayed to dinner 
herej and seemed quite a gentleman.^ 

' Prince Napoleon. 

- Sir James Hudaon, British Envoy at Turin. 

' Mr. J. Devej's work was never pnblished. 


I am returning to Paris in a few days, and hope to have yonr 
answer here. I am afraid that this damp weather will have 
brought back your throat trouble. 

Yours most sincerely, 

Klostine C"^- de Circourt, 


11, Rue dee Sauaeayes, November, 1861. 

SiE, — You have imagined the emotions with which I i-e- 
turned to this abode, where I first knew our friendj where he 
came so often, where his thoughts met the return of cordial 
intimacy. Who could have told me last spring the grief with 
which this year would be filled for me ? A thousand thanks 
for that portrait ; it is not at all Battered. On that noble 
brow there is a look of care and preoccupation which I never 
knew in him. The majestic serenity of the features struck me 
in March, 1859, and I find no trace of it. I am very grateful 
to you. All the portraits are put together, aud will be placed 
at the head of the publication which you know, RaccoUa dei 
migliori icrttd e docnme/tti, etJi., but all that past, alas) so 
living, BO cruelly cut short, is veiled to me by tears. In ex- 
change I venture, without fear of wearying you, to let you see 
the pages which my husband has written for me. I am certain 
that you will read them with interest, and will divine that you 
are the only person to whom I entrust them. To publish them 
would be impossible. Bead them at your leisure, and be assured 
that I like to feel they are near you. 

Your portrait, which 1 shall carefully preserve, lacks the 
essential chai-acteristie of likcDcss ; it does not give your age. 
What is remarkable in you is the complete harmony of youth 
with the eye of maturer age. Mr. Devey said to us that you had 


a profile which recalled the Greek marbles; it is perfectly true. 
He is persecuting me with requests on behalf of hid book, which 
he is carrying on passionately. - 

I sent lately to M. de Falloux a copy from a letter to M. de 
Cavourin 1838, asking me to introduce him to Mrae Swetchine, 
making all due reserves. M. de Falloux was delighted with these 
lines, and will publish them, I believe, in the two volumes of 
correspondence which are about to appear, and which will' still 
further increase the admiration which Mme Swetchine inspires. 

The journey has tried me cruelly ; I cannot stir from my 
bed. I am going to begin a new treatment which will last all 
this month, and will make me invisible. As soon as I am able 
to see my friends again you will allow me to let you know, so 
certain am I that, in spite of your engagements and your duties, 
you keep a few moments for me. 

Yours most sincerely, 


This little seal was given me by M. de Cavour in 1841, 
engraved as you see. 


[Paris'], Nov. 27, 1861. 

Sir, — You cannot doubt the readiness with which I shall 
attend to the person whom Prince Carignan so cordially com- 
mends to you ; but Paris is the worst possible centre for such 
inquiries. External luxury has broken in upon all traditions* 
Can you believe that in the most ancient mansions which sur- 
round you they have daily governesses and ladies to read by the 
hour ? Many t'imes have I attempted similar inquiries, and it 
is in Italy that I have got places for people who could not find 
any place here. 

Next Sunday I hopie to resume my usual habits, and to 



receive oil Thursday and Sunday from three to five, all the other 
days in the early evening from half-past eight to ten. If you 
come to see me towards five o'cloekj whenever your numerous 
engagements allow you, you will be almost sure to find me free 
from visitors, and we shall he able to talk. I should he so glad 
if my fireside could be to you a place of repose, for you must 
feel the need of one, and in so important a situation the relaxa^ 
tions natural to your age are not possible. I feel all that, and I 
should be glad if a deep and inexhaustible sympathy could be 
something of a resource to yon. 

Since yon occupied yourself with popular ballads before you 
took to the higher politics, I venture to offer you the only copy 
of those which I still have,' and a sonnet by my friend. 
Professor Rossini.^ You will thus see that when I was still 
quite young I had some friendships in Italy. In return I ask 
for your ont-of-print volume whenever you can have it reprinted. 

I have jnst been scolding M. de Palloux. I cannot allow 
that a certain absurd note upon Italy should again strike my 
eye in the second edition of Mme Swetchine's correspondence, 
which is again being printed, and I shall have full satisfaction 
Otherwise the book has an interest which will reach beyond the 
circle of intimate friends.^ 

Jii revoii: I shall be glad when the time comes. 
Yours most sincerely, 


' A coUecticin of Roman popular songa (Saggio di Canti popolari 
delta provincia di Marittiin,a e Ca-mjiagna) pnblialied at 'Kome, 1830, by 
F. E. Viscunti, and dedicated to Mile Klnstiae. 

' A piece of Italiau verae of three ataii/as composfld by Profoaaor 
Boasiui for the wedUiug of MJle Klustiuo to Coimt de Cireoort 
in 1830. 

^ The corrcapondenco bore referred to of Mme Swetchine, bom 
SoymonofE, Mme de Oircourt'a compatriot and friend, was brought oat by 
M. de Fallons iu 18152. 




IParUJ, November 28, 1861. 

Sm, — M. de Falloux haa this moment sent me these two 
volumes for M. Albert Blanc, and I venture to beg you to be 
so extremely kind as to forward them to him. According to 
what you tell me, it will be an exchange, and thanks to these 
two editors we shall be able to continue feeding our thoughts 
with that which cannot die. It is with the keenest impatience 
that I await the publication of these speeches.' They will, I 
believe, be the most useful monument that has been raised to 
that memory, which will grow ever greater. I shall try to 
obtain them as soon as possible. I have had each of our 
friend's speeches separately bound, and these copies will remain 
the most valuable to me. 

I am charmed to learn that you are reading Mme Swetchine's 
letters with interest. She was for twenty-six yeare my most 
intimate friend, and I never noticed the difference of age. The 
youth of her heart, the keenness of her tastes, the exquisite 
sincerity of her impressions made intercourse with her an in- 
exhaustible mine of enjoyments. The finest pages in her 
treatise on resignation are taken from her letters to me. They 
were too intimate to be published, and those you know are the 
most precious. She came to Les Eruyeres, and had a great 
fondness for our distant viaws, and every week I sent her 
flowers. The first time that I introduceil M. de Cavour to her 
he made a remarkable impression on her, and a most lively dis- 
cussion arose between them about Count de Maistre, both 
maintaining their points of view with a mastery which charmed 
me. That was in 1838. For a year and a half before her 
death we were not able to meet again, but our intimacy did not 

' The publication here mentioned took place in 1862 under the title, 
ffiiiore Parhmentaire dv. Cotnte de Cavour tradiiite et awtwtde riax 
MM. I. Artom et Albert Blanc. Pans, 1862. 



suffer. She bequeathed me a vase which always stood near 
her. M. de Falloux brought it to me at my hermitage the (lay 
after her death. Her correspond eDce with Father Laeordaire 
may perhaps appear, and it will he most interesting, for we 
shall have the letters of both correspondents. She lent nie, 
as she received them, the letters of the Dominican father, 
to whom she was devoted. 

Ju revoir. Ton know how glad I shall he to see you again. 



[Pons], December 28, 1861. t 
Sir, — M. Solvyns' comes to-morrow (Sunday) at three 
o'clock to bid me farewell, and i£ you were by chance in my 
part o£ the town at that hour you can guess how happy I 
should be to see you again. He starts for Turin on Monday. 

Mind you read in the last Correspoadanl Montalemherfa 
article on Father Laeordaire. I have sent M. de Falloux a very 
remarkable letter from A. Blanc. If the party spirit of his set 
allowed him to be free, M. de Fallous would he on our side, just 
as Mme Swet^hine would have heen, I am certain — she who 
was superior to all prejudices. You will have noticed her 
beautiful letters to Mme Craven,- and the touching fragment 
of that lady's journal. 

Hoping to see you soon, and fco-morrow, if possible, 


Allow me to devote to you a seal which M. de Cavour 
gave me in 1S40/ at the end of a ruby pen which is worn out. 

' Baron Solvyns, Belgian Envoy at Turin. 

' Mme Panline Craven, bom de la Fcrronays, author of the Rscit 
d' «ne Strtir, and of many otlier works in literatnre, morals, and hiBtoij. 
^ It should he 1641. See Connt Cavour's letter of December 24 in 
tLat year. 


He saw everything, and had noticed this letter on the handker- 
chiefs which I generally use. 


11, Bue dee SaussayeSy January 11, 1862. 

Sir, — M. Thiers is coming to see me to-morrow (Sunday) 
at four o^clock. I tell you of it thinking that if you were free 
at that hour you would like to meet him. Without sharing any 
of his ideas, I find myself under the spell of that incomparable 

Mr. Devey is here more absorbed than ever in his work, but 
it grows so much under his hand that the first volume cannot 
possibly appear till Februarj'-. I have just lent him the two 
very remarkable articles by Daniel Stern; you probably know 

Farewell for a short time. I hope that you have not, like 
me, an abominable cold. 

Yours most sincerely, 



11, Biie des Saussayes, Jan, 25, 1862. 

Sir, — It has been many days since I have had the pleasure 
of seeing you. I know that you have been unwell, and I have 
keenly shared the disappointment of Michel Chevalier, and the 
regret of my friend, M. de Kergorlay, who would have been so 
happy to have had the honour of receiving you next Monday. 
My faithful friends are kind enough to keep my place for me, 
even when it is impossible for me to occupy it. 

You do not guess that I want to importune you, and that I 


am really ([uite confused at the tliouglit o£ it. Ovur whelmed as 
you are with importaut business, I must be under strong com- 
pulsion to give you one minute of annoyance ; but I used to 
behave in the same way to Count Cavour, so forgive me as he 
used to do, knowing as he did the horror I felt for all indiscreet 

M. Barrot, French Ambassador at Madrid, has received the 
Grand Cross of St, Maurice over the question of the Neapolitan 
archives. Very proud as he is of this great riband, his dis- 
cretion does not allow him to ask for anything on behalf of his 
staff ; but he has let it be known semi-officiatly that those who 
made overtures at Turin would have a good chance of obtaining 
the Knight's Cross. Now there is on his staff a, young aifachc 
of considerable ability, who entered the diplomatic career upon a 
brilliant examination. His name is the Viscount de Grouchy, 
and he is the son of my intimate friend.' She has lost her 
husband, who was French ekargi A'affairen at Turin during the 
Coalition. M. de Ckvour showed him the greatest attention, 
and he always remained his devoted friend. You see then the 
cause of my solicitation. If you can and will support young de 
Gionchy's request, you will probably be doing what M. de 
Cavour would have done in the like case. He took a real 
interest in the young man, and dissuaded his mother from 
sending him to St. Cyr, saying that he ought to be a diplo- 
matist. That charming mother bas every ambition for her son, 
and that will be my excuse with you. 

Pity me for having to trouble you, and believe that whatever 
you may do I shall be a thousand times grateful. Hoping for 
an early meeting, I am yours, 

KlDSTINB C*^^ de ClfiCOtlRT. 

' Augusta Tirginie Serrd, ViBOO-unteaa de Grouchy, died ia 1889. 
Her sou Enimannol was Freuoh Secreterj of Legation lit Madrid during 
tLe l&st three monthH of 1861, and naa then traueferred to the legaiion at 
Turin in Janoaiy, 1662. 

P.S. — Do not forget that I am very desirous of knowing 
Signer Scialoja.' You know tliat I cannot meet him anywhere. _ 


f U.Bnedeg Sammyee, Feb. 7, 1862. 
SiKj — You will have received directly from Geneva W. de la 
Rive's remarkable article on M. de Cavour,^ so I did not 
send you a copy immediately. It is going the round o£ Paris, 
and gains unanimous approval. Your opinionj however, is that 
to which I attach most value. The author stayed here two days, 
and I should have liked to introduce him to you. 
(,TIiisiguo(l, on a visiting card.) 


[Paris], FebmaiTi 22, 1862. 
Deae Sir, — It seems to me that these lines about Count 
Cavour's correspondence will interest you. They reach me from 
London, and have been much read ; but I maintain that it was 
unpardonable of Rattazzi to print those letters which were really 
confidential. a William de la Rive's work has had no success at 

' Signor Antonio Scialoja, of Naples, economist and stAtcsinan, who 
waa Profesaor of Political Economy at the University of Turin, deputy, 
miuiatci and aenator, had lieen attached to me as aecoud plenipotentiary 
to negotiate the navigation convention and the treaty of commerce hetween 
ItAly and France, which were signed at Paris, the first June 16, 1882, the 
second Jaunary 17, 1863. He died in 1877. 

' The first part of M. William de la Rive's work, Le Comte de Cavour, 
r^ciis et gtiuvenirs (Paris, 1862). 

^ Mme de Ciccourt here alludes to some letters of Count Cavour to 
Sig:ior llattazzi, published by Sip;nor Berti in January, 18S2, in the 
Mviata ContemporanBa of Tnrin. These letters, being rcprodaced by the 
English press, gave rise to certain declarations on the part of Lord 
Clarendon at the sitting of the Honse of Lords on February 17, 1862, 


Geneva; hardly anyone will read it outside of the circle of our 
friend's closest intimates. The young author writos to me in 
great discouragement, and I answer him that its success here is 
such as to oblige him to continue it, and without delay. He 
alone can give us the minute portrait formed of the recollections 
o£ family and friends. I have already been askinjj permission 
to translate into German and English those pages which I 
should like to make generally known. 

When you learnt the recognition by Fmasia of the kingdom 
of Italy, you will have thought Hke me of Count Pourtalfes, who 
so strongly advised it. But is not that a tribute worthy of his 
memory ? 

Michel Chevalier was telling me yesterday, after dining 
with Prince Napoleon, that your treaty progresses. You know 
how impatient I am to see its negotiator once more. Signor 
Seialoja perhaps has not the patience to bear with a poor 
invalid. Please tell him so from me with my compliments. 

Hoping for an early meeting, I am, yours most sincerely, 


[Parial March 21, 1862. 
Dear Sir, — It seems very melancholy to me to pass bo 
many days and weeks without having the consolation of seeing 
you again. I cannot meet you anywhere, and it will need a 
direct act of friendly recollection on your part to enable me to 
shake your hand. Accordingly, the account of the popular songs 
which you have published has been delightful to my heart. I 
admire that truly poetical disposition which attracted you to 

which were afterwarde replied to by Signor Berti at the sitting of the 
Italian Chamber of Deputies on the following July 8, by the MarqniB 
Ayuard de Cavour in a letter to the Journal deg Debate of October 20, 
&ad liy M. William de la Rive in liia book ou Cavour. 


these expressions of simple feeling before the serious duties of so 
noble a political career had filled your life and inspired your 
intelligence with the desire of carrying on to a triumphant issue 
the grand cause which cost our friend his life. 

I am expecting from Turin a little work disclosing the nego- 
tiations with Cardinal Antonelli/ and I am, above all, awaiting 
the volume upon which M. Artom is at work.^ I much regret that 
he has left the ministry. If ever he comes to Paris I beg you 
to make me acquainted with him, for Count Cavour often spoke 
to me of him in the days when he used to speak of you, and 
promise that I should understand you some day. 

At the end of next month I hope to be able to return to Les 
Bruyeres. A horribly painful treatment has so far done nothing 
but cause fever and redouble my pain. I shall want much 
repose to recover from it, and I ask you for a few moments 
whenever your numerous interruptions will let you grant them 
to my solitude. I lately defended Italian unity for two hours 
long against M. Thiers so warmly that he came and said to me 
some days afterwards, '^Nobody deserves the Grand Cross of 
St. Maurice so much as you.^' However, he seems to me to 
be a little shaken in his prejudices. I hope we shall meet soon. 



[Paris, March, 1862], Sunday, 

Dear Sir, — You may perhaps be interested to hear, from a 
witness who is worthy of all confidence, what is going on in 
Greece at the present moment. A young friend of ours has just 

1 The work in question was published at Turin in 1862 with the title 
Negoziato tra il Conte di Cavour e it Cardinale Antonelli conchiuso per 
la cessione del potere temporale del Papa : di D, Antonino Isaia. 

2 This is the work already mentioned by MM. Artom and Blane 
(Euvre jyarlementaire du Comte de Cavour. 


come thence, and, with your permission, I should be glad to hear 
from you if yon would he kind enough to have a talk with hira. 
M. Baltazzi, whom we have kno\vn for some years, is able, young 
a& he is, to observe, understand, hope. He has a nice fortune, and 
relations of the most honourable kind in his own country. The . 
national awakening brings Greece naturally near to Italy. 
M. Baltazzi thinks that he cannot protract his stay here very 
long, and therefore I venture to let you know of the very great 
wish which he attaches to the honour of seeing you. 

Many thanks for the pleasant moment, which I was nnable 
to enjoy as I should have Hked. You can believe that it is 
not every evening that I am favoured by the marquises from 
your part of the town. Yesterday you would have found me 
with everything young and sympathetic. The little book' has 
been devoured, and this morning my husband is going to read 
it to the chancellor.^ Yon will have read in the Times of the 
18th Lord John Russell's reply to Lord Normanby. Jn revotr, 
as I hope. 



[Pariii], March 28, 1862. 
Sir, — Several copies of newspapers which I do not take in 
have reached me through my friends, for there is talk of your 
entry into the ministry, and you can guess how much we are 
concerned with it. And yet it seems to me that no post in 
Italy can be so influential as that which you occupy here, or so 
important for the future of Italy. Those who are most opposed 
to the triumph of your cause agree in saying that you represent 

' The first part, already menticmcd, of M, W. (k In Rivo'a bdok. 
^ Cbancellor Piistfuler. 


it with all tlie best qualities of a negotiatoFj and with that 
personal cliarm which is au addition to everything. Your 
ambition is too high not to be enlightened, but you must allow 
me a certain uneasiness. You must stay here; later on you will 
not fail to be the guiding minister of your country. 

Forgive me this anxiety, due to a sympathy which is well 
known to you, and which you give me leave to believe not 
indiscreet. Yours most sincerely, 


Jlr. Ffreuch ' has come back from Baden with keen 
regret at not having seen you again. What a charming nature 
is his I He has had some battles in my house which he will not 
forget. His ferocious adversaries are the ladies who live nearest 
to you.^ M. de la Prade^ threatens to address an epistle to him. 
I hope he will do nothing of the sort. Everything has been 
said ou thut sad subject. 


iParis]. April 3, 

Sir, — It seems to me that this third article,'' after you have 
read it, will particularly interest Signor Scialoja, If so, please 
lend it to him, at all events, if he can read any other matter 
than tariffs. How I find all my own advice in these living 
pages. Observe that the author is discouraged, for he has no 
succeBB at Genevaj and I count on your approval to reanin 

(Unaigned, on a. viaitiiig card.) 

' Robert Percy Ffreuch, from the county of Gnlway, iu Irolu 
H.B.M. Secrt'lury of Legation. 

'^ Tliftt is, tlie dowagers of tlie Faubourg Saint- Gerniaiu. 
' Poet, and Member of tlie French Academy. 
' Tho contiunatiou of M. de la Rive's work. 


11, Hue dei Savasayea, April U, lfl62. 
Dear Sir, — I think you will read with interest this pamphlet 
of Herr von Tliielau,' a young publicist whom Count A. de 
Pourtales had about him towards the end of his life. This little 
piece is written with very remarkable talent, but with a meta- 
physical obscurity which makes the reading of it laborious. 
This diiSculty must be got over, for few recent publications 
give so just an idea of the present state of enlightened and even 
moderate minds in Germany on questions of external and even 
internal policy. The latter pages contain some attacks upon 
Count Cavour and upon the political morality of certain actions 
which have distressed more than they have surprised me. A 
good deal of allowance must be made for the rooted prejudices 
of the Germans. 

I made a point of imparting your opinion to William de la 
Bive; it will flatter and encourage him. He is preparing two 
more articles, and will publish them in a single volume. 

I hope by the end o£ this month to get back to Les Bruyeres, 
and to see you many times before the long months which will 
separate me from my busy friends. The idle ones know the 
road which leads to our wild retreat. 

Yours most sincerely, 


[Paris], April ai, 1862. 
Dear Sir, — Do not forget me during my last week here. 
Till Sunday next inclusive, I retain the hope of seeing my 

' Essay (la Count Albert de PonrtalSa, pntliahed at Berlin bj Herr 
von Tbielau in 1862 under the title Graf Albert Fourtalea. PoUHseher 


friende. Signer Scialoja and his wife left me yesterday a 
raoment before M. Thiers came in; he was more amusing and 
more brilliant than I have ever seen him. Mr. Stanley has 
given me his book of Moldavian and Wallaehian popnlar songs ; 
would you like to have it ? 
I hope we may meet soon. 

(UnsignBd, ou ft risitingf card.) 


[Paris], Maij 5, ] 

Sir, — You have procured me a great enjoymentj inseparably 
linked with deep emotion. I have twice read over these pages, 
which seem to contain a living and vibi-ating echo.' It is 
seldom that one finds so many of the touches which depict a 
character brought together without an imprudence or indis- 
cretion being committed. The page about Rome is very remark- 
able ; it seems to me that revelations of this kind become a 
light to the most prejudiced minds. I could not finish the 
reading without tears. M, de Kergorlay, fiuding these pages 
by me yesterday, took possession of them, and left M. Thiers, 
M. Beule, M. Vitet, M. Merimee, Pr^vost-Paradoi, and- — ^the 
Duchess Colonna, to go and read them in a corner. He was 
charmed with them. I did not venture to impart them to 
M. Thiers without your permission, although I should much like 
to do so. I shall send him the volume when it lias appeared, 

. William de la Rive is passing through Paris, and I have 
promised that you will see him i£ he calls on you. He will 
publish in a volume the articles which he has juat completed, 
and will add many letters which have been forwarded to him 
since his work came out. 

' Signor I, Artoni's iutroduetion to Lis (Etwre parloaentaire du Conite 
de Covour. 




Ranke has bidden me toll you that he had the greatest wish 
to talk to you abont the Papacy. He is so taken up with the 
despatches of the reign of Louis XIV, , which he is copying, 
and which reveal mysteries to hinij that he does not even go to 
the meetings of the Institute. He is only free in the evening, 
and he does not venture to go and look for you in the gloaming. 
Yesterday he was at the breakfast party which Madame Mohl' 
gave for the Queen of Holland j and I have heard from him 
several amusing stories of it. 

This heat torments me cruelly. I shall start for the country 
nest week ; please tell Signer Artom that I am venturing to 
hope he will come and rest there when rest is possible for him. 
How curious I shall be to ransack his recollections. Duchess 
Colonna has been bringing me a Venetian, Signer Pasini,° who 
is enthusiastic about our friend. Do not you th ink that his 
memory grows greater every day ? 

Let us meet soon; and from my heart a thousand thanks, 

(Note to the Inst Utter.) 
Donna AdMe Colouua, Duclieas of Castiglioiie. bom Connttes d'Affry, 
was snaklied awsy from the affection of her mother aud her friends, and 
from the art which she loved, by an nutimelj death in 1879, Count 
Adolphe de Cireonrt, wlio with her motlier had tended her np to the Inat, 
conunnnicated this sad news to tne in the following letter: — 

Freiburg in SwUzerland, Aug. 4, 1878. 

I have to diapharge the saddest of commissions in announcing t« yon 

the death of oor illnHtrious and still more escetleut friend, the Duchess of 

Oastjglione- Colonna. On July 16 she sank, at Castellamare, niider the 

attaek of an old-standing cheat ailment, which neither skill, nor the 

> Mme Mohl, horn Clark, of Scotfiah family, was wife of Jnlins Mohl, 
the translator of the Shah-Nanieh, who waa Professor of Persian at the 
College de France, and member of the luatitate. The memoir of her by 
Mrs. Simpson, daughter of Nassau Senior, is well known in England. 

* Signer Lndovico Paaiui, of Schio, Italian deputy, and afterwards 
senator, died in ia70. 

K 2 

climftte, nor the assidaoas care of the best of mothers, conlil < 
By her Bimple courage, her frauk resigaation, the persiateuny of her 
affection, her death was rendered worthy of so beautiful and so short a. 
life. I WHS present at her last momouta, the pictare of which will not 
leave me for an instant so long aa I remain on this earth, the chief charm. 
of which, for her mother and for more than one friend, haa vaniahed with 
her. lu Italy the Countess d'Affry received from her dauf^hter's relations 
and friends atl the help whioh slie could have hoped for, besides the most 
touching evidences of sympathy. God is supporting this devoted mother 
in a trial as unexpected as it is cruel, and you would admire the valiant 
manner in which she is setting herself to the duties whtcli slie Iiab yet to 
fulfil. I hope her health will soon be restored. 

We returned slowly from Cafltellamare to Freiburg, gathering np at 
each atage the scattered relics of the Duchesa ; and it was but yesterday 
the Conntess re-entered the desolate house. Her remaining danghter, her 
Bscellent son-in-law, Ottenfels, and tlieir little children alleviate her grief, 
and give ber new inducements to begin Ufe again. Slie bids me tell you 
of her sorrow, and to assure yon that the Duchoss retained till the last 
moment the moat delightful remembrance of your friendahip, aud counted 
on yonr remembrance, aa t<)-day her mother asks yonr faithful remem- 
brance of her daughter. Ton know how slie always loved Italy. "In 
fine dilexit earn " ; her last looks were fixed on the incomparable beauty of 
the Inuil and sea of Campania, and cme of her last prayers was for the 
prosperity of your country. 



Lee Sruyiret, June 5, 1862. 
DciB Silt, — I venture to think that in spite of your many 
engi^emeots you will find a few moments for me to-morrow, 
and that our deep regrets may be mingleJ. So a year has 
almost passed einee the world lost him, the reeolleetion of whom 
is for ever an imperishable bond between us. As one returns 
in thought to the time which followed that cruel blow, as one 
compares the condition into which that catastrophe brought 
Italy and France with the present state of affairSj one discovers 
that the most extraordinary, the most decisive successes which 
M. de Cavoiir gained axe the work of his genius surviving hia 
life on earth. It is by this sole standard that one can realise the 



dimensions of that grand historic figare. The work of common- 
place men does not last so long as they do ; a clever combina- 
tion gives them a momentary triumph, while unfavourable 
circumetances leave them in mins. Count Cavour continues to 
guide the destinies of the country which he recalled almost 
miraculously into political esistence. The impulse to political 
movement given and maintained so vigorously and so appositely 
etill retains all its force. The nation draws inspiration from his 
thought, and whenever its resolution falters, has recourse, as to an 
oracle, to that lofty and steadfast mind which made itself 
obeyed by all kinds of selfishness because disinterested; by all 
prejudicea, because it was enlightened; by all violence, because 
it was just. The latest gains which that imperturbable and 
patient policy has carried in Italy are at this moment solemnly 
recognised, and what is more, are solidly united. The com- 
promise which, after honestly weighing all rights and comparing 
all duties, M. de Cavour suggested in order to put an 
end to the antagonism which is rending Italy and alarming 
the world, remains in all its essential features the only well- 
grounded hope of permanency without abasement for one party, 
"of victory without remorse for the other. One year more, 
probably, and the coping-stone of the building will be laid. 
Cavour's work will take rank in the world as one of the con- 
trolling powers of Europe, one of the highest organs of 
civilisation. For our friend's memory it is the worthiest and 
most enduring glory. For those who have seen him disappear 
80 prematurely it will be a high consolation ; the only one we 
can hope for when, after having shared the confidence and the 
affection of such a man, we are condemned to a regret which 
will only end with our lives. I find a certain comfort in 
exchanging these thoughts with you. I can impart them to 
but few people; the time for justice and reparation has not yet 
arrived. Even for minds of high distinction it will probably be 


long ill coming'; but it is, I venture to say, a bond that I like 
to think indissoluble to have met in so rare an intimacy, and to 
have forestalled the verdict o£ j>osterity by associating ourselves, 
each according to his ability, vnih so lofty and so misunder- 
stood a work. No one is more worthy than you to recall 
bygone days with emotion, and to face with confidence those 
which Providence has in store £or your land. 

My husband is all the better for his treatment in Germany, 
I am in a very poor way, but I hope next month to be better, 
and to have the great joy of seeing you again. Do not forget 
me, and speak of me to Signer Artom, whom I sliall be happy 
to meet once more. 

K. BE Ciucouht. 

I venture to ask Signer Artom to send me bis book 
by post as soon as it appears. I shall read it again 
complete solitude. 

in m^^J 


I,e» Bruj/l-res, June 11, H 
DEin. Sib, — I have this morning received my young frieni 
last bit ; ' and I lose no time in sending it to you. I am sorry 
that he has recurred to the letter which gave rise to Lord 
Clarendon's contradiction, for this detail, unimportant for the 
entire work, will damage the volume which is about to appear. 
It seems to me that if those touching pages of Countess Alfieri's 
had been read by the Archbishop of Paris, the authorisation for 
prayers on June 6 would not have been withheld. I know, and 
like well, the parson of the Madeleine, and I am sure that he 
would have used all the persuasion of his speech to hinder so 
strange a prohibition. 

Make Signer Artom read these pages, and send them back 

' The last portion of M. d-e la, Hire's work on Connt Cavour. 


to me. I do not want to lend them again to the charming 
Mme Coloona, for she would keep them, too long, and I wish 
to read them once more. Do not you think that a literary 
censorship would have forbidden them? M. Scherer corrects 
the proofs ; and as he has received the author's permission to 
curtail] he makes no use o£ the right. 

Thanks for the Opinione, which I shall keep and value, as 
coming from you. 

My husband has been since yesterday at Baden with Countess 
Plemming,' daughter of Bettiua and wife of the Prussian 
Minister. She stayed four months here the year before last. 
I am provisionally established in my dining-room, while the 
workmen are busy everywhere. It is now two years since I 
have been able to sit at table. Last time I dined hei-e, that 
delightful Count Pourtales and his wife remained at our rustic 
board till the last stroke of the bell. M. de Pourtales said: 
" I hope I shall find yon here again some day with Count 
Cavour. But look out for M. de Butenva! : he would make a 
fine face at you." Alas ! those two friends of my youth are 
no more ; and Mme de Pourtales writes to me that she has 
accepted the post of Grand Mistress with the future Queen of 
Pnissia. Your new colleague,'^ in whom you find both talent 
and ambition, is said to be the Queen's man. My husband will 
probably see her; and as soon as he comes back, he will be 
ea^r to go and shake hands with yon. 

William de la Rive ventures to call on you during the only 
day which he will pass at Paris on his way back from London; 
please receive him. It will be a just recompense for him. 

M. Chevalier seems dissatisfied with the position which the 

' Erracngarde, Countess vou Flemniing, who died ia 1880, was the 
ddiighter of Liidwig Aphim von Aniim and Bettina Brentauo, the friend 
.of Goethe. In 1862, Count von Flemnaing wbb Pmasian Envoy to Baden. 
Ho died at Florence 1884. 

^ Count von Gult)!, PnissUn Ambaesador at Fane. 




world assigns in England to the presidents o£ the jury.' In- 
dustry is one of the forces of the eountryj but it does not 
reckon among the elections o£ the aristocracy. My friend 
Cobden is much amused at these little disappointments. 

Ah revoir — but when ? I am in such a poor way that it is 
impossible for me to stir from my bed. Let your memory keep 
faithful to me; it has, I think, a bond of no common kind. 

Yours most sincerely, ^ 



Les Bruy^Teg. Oct. 4, 1862. 

Sm, — Your card is forwarded to me from Paris, and I must 
thank you for this sign of your friendly remembrance. Y^ou know 
how our thoughts have gone with you during these last weeks 
of agitation, which seemed to have brought nearer a definitive 
solution. What strength of soul you must need to remain 
calm and serene amid so many perplexities 1 The friend to 
whom I owe your friendship for me was an example to follow 
and admire. You wiU have been pleased with M. d'Haussonvilte's 
article.^ It is very surprising — and the author in sending me a 
copy speaks of a long illness during which M. de Cavour tended 
him at Turin like a brother. Persons who are well informed 
assure me that this article is a manifesto of the Orleanist party 
in the matter of Italy, and that it was laid before the Duke of 
Auroale previous to its appearance, 

William de la BiVe's book is truly successful. It astonishes 
the enemy, and they are, above all, the people who need to be 
enlightened. I have given it freely to persona who had not 
read it ; and I am sending my young friend a collection of 

' At the International Esiiilntion. 

^ All ftrtide by Count O. d'HausEon villa in the Eevue des Deux Manda, 
of September 15, 18(J2, under the title, ilf. de Cavovr et la Crise italienne. 




opinions which are well -deserved thanks. In this way one 
ought to fix those impressions which still are the hreath of life. 

We shall spend the whole o£ Novetnher here. By this time 
it is gloomy winter in Paris, and a splendid autumn here. The 
sun rises facing my bed, and sets facing the drawing-room : 
I am never tired of watching the horizon which, for seven years 
I have never been able to reach—and my eyes arc better for it 
than for the darkness of the city. 

To-day M. Beule makes his first speech in public. I am 
sorry not to be there to applaud ; he has sent me the proof of 
it. His eulogy of Halevy is not an academic piece ; but it is 
the tale of a life devoted to art and nobly judged. M. Beule 
cherishes with care the letters of introduction in Sardinia given 
him by our friend. 

Att revoir. Do not forget us ; we shall be glad to see you 

Kltjstine C^^'^ de Ciecouet. 


Lea Bruylrea, Oct. 17, 1862. 
Sir, — You will have guessed with what anxiety we thought 
of you and your dear Italy, when we heai-d of these Ministerial 
variations, I am very anxious to learn your impressions of the 
new Minister;' he used often to talk much of you to me. He 
came and spent here the whole of the day after his journey to 
Chalons in the Imperial carriage ; and by some mistake could find 
no place save on the top {jiiqieriah] of the omnibus. This incog- 
nito much amused the President of a Company. We profited by 
the hours which he granted us in such friendly fashion to talk 
to him about all those great questions which had passed into a 

' M. DroDjn de Lhuya had for the fourth time lesunifd the portfolio 
of Foreigu AfEaira on October 16. 

new phase. He seems to us to be possessed by an unconquerable 
antipathy towards England and a decided jwirtiality for Austria. 
You will find in him pleasant manners, ceremonious courtesy, 
the love of detail, and all the prejudices of the old routine. 
His " Excellency " only knows and loves thoroughly one land, 
namely, Spain, You will, therefore, have to conquer and take 
captive his sympathy for your country; and no one can do it 
better than you— for the personal charm is already felt. I 
understand all the addition to your cares which this new state 
of things makes; and I venture to believe that you will not 
think I am expressing it unseasonably. 

Do you know that il. d'Hausoaville'a article has appeared 
in pamphlet form ? You ougtt to send copies of it to Italy ; it 
is unmistakably a party manifesto. The pages on the American 
war seemed to us very solid and coming just at the right 
moment. In this last Revue I was expecting an article by 
Michel Chevaher, but the publication of the jury's report, whioh 
he is carefully looking after, has delayed it. 

Alt revoir. I am delighted to hear that you have been able 
to breathe your native air and see your people again. I had 
feared that new complications were hindering yon. My husband 
greets you. We have the sad occupation of a friend ill under 
our roof, and grave anxiety on his account. 

Yours most sincerely, 



11, Rue dea SattetayeK, Dee. IQ, i 
Deak Sie, — A thousand thanks for these precious paj 
which I am going to relish at leisure.' Do you know 1 

' Mme do Circoort is appaking of a little collection of Fiedmontei 
popular songs wliicli I published at this time, and among which was < 
on Princess Caroline of Saroj, first nifa of King Anthonj of Saxony. 


have twice danced with King Anthony, who married a 
princess of Sardinia? His cold and tremhhng hand was in 
those days a great teiTor o£ my youth. I lived on intimate 
terms with that little Saxon Court, and it was through my own 
fault that a correspondence with the present king' dropped. 
He gave me his Dante, and quite lately sent his portrait for 
Les Bruy^res. "What an evidence these poetical works are of 
your temper of mind in the midst of these successive storms 
which go on about you ! I am very impatient to see you again. 
A bad cold has combined with the inevitable jolting of the 
carriage ; yet I have been up since yesterday, and you will find 
me at the fireside Thursdays and Sundays after three. All 
other days from eight till ten. Our dear Duchess Colonna does 
not come back for two months. I have already seen her most 
afflicted admirers, and I unite with them in keenly desiring her 
return. In her you have a charming advocate of all that you 
hold dear. 

May we soon meet, and often. With whom will you replace 
Signer Artom, who is going to fail us? It seems to me that 
the selection is very important for you. 

Your sincere friend, 



[ParU], Jan. 30, 1863, 

SiE, — Every time that you are so kind as to receive my 
friends, I am certain of two results which cannot fail. You win 
sympathy for yourself, and you earn true gratitude for us. 
M. de la Villemarque ' and M. Jules Bonnet have, like so many 
others, experienced your charm, and I am happy to be able to 

' Kiug John of Saxony. 

* Visconut Hereart de k Villemai'qae, author of "Sarzaa Breiz." 


tliank you for it. To hear your name Bpoken by my fireside is 
a real enjoyment. 

I£ you have any parcel to send to Turin outside of your 
regular despatches, please entrust it to me. Emmanuel de 
Grouchy has been appointed attache at Turin, and starts to- 
moiTow. He will be delighted to undertake anything which 
you may have for the same destination. His father died charge 
d'affaires at Tuiin during the coalitioUj watched and tended by 
our illustrious friend. I am giving him introductions to Signer 
Artom aud Countess Alfieri ; he deserves a good welcome. 

M. Drouyn de Lhuys gave me lately a proof of friendship, I 
which I will relate to you some day at Les Bruyeres. I am ' 
overwhelming- him with requests for invitations to the ball, and 
I admire the way in which he does not refuse me ; still it is a great 
loss to me never to see him now. Do not forget that I make a 
pleasure of every moment that you grant me. Your hours are 
too much filled up to aJlow me much hope; but remembrance 
has not these obstacles which paralyse the best intentions. 
Yours most sincerely, 


Twenty days more and we shall have our fair Duchess . 
Colonna. | 


[Paris], Jan. 27 [26], 1863. 
SiE, — Would you have any curiosity to be present at the 
meeting of the Academy which is arousing more curiosity than 
ever?' Here is a ticket. If you cannot use it, kindly send it 
back to me, for I cannot resist the temptation of sending it to 
youj but it must be banded in before noon, which appears to 
me incompatible with your engagements, 

> Tlie reception uf FTUice Albeit de Broglie. 


I am most impatient to see you again. The events in 
Poland cause me great uneasiness. May we soon meet. 


Written out hy the Countess de Circoitrt. 

Some thoughts of Vinet's which specially apply to Count Cavour. 

'^ Everybody believes in the man who believes in himself ; 
and his hopeful daring is often the best resource in a time 
of general anxiety/^ 

'^ The memory of great men is the treasure of the nation 
which has brought them f orth/^ 

'^ Eminent men do one work, and the memory of them does 
another. Often indeed the remembrance of them is the best 
and most lasting part of their work/' 

" Freedom is perhaps less easy to organise than victory; to 
moralise it is yet more difficult/' 

" Tyranny is the supreme disorder.'' 

*' Judgment without law is persecution." 

" The protection of inoffensive minorities is the noblest 
attribute and the mission of governments." 


Printed bt 
Cassell t Company, Limited, La Belle Sauvaok, 

London, E.G. 




Cassell & Company's 



7 G-3 94- 

Sdfctioni from Cajsill & Company's Piiblkaiiom. 

IIIustrirtEir, Jint 2lrt, anil olbcr H^alumes. 

AbbejB and ChurcheB of Ens 

Pictorial. Series II. ^r:. 
A BlD( of Ink. 'rr^nslaicd bv 

Aaventure. The World OT. VmWj lllustraied. Complete in Tht 
AlrtcaanditB Eiplorera, The atoiT of. By Dr. Robf.rt Brown, M.A., F. 

Walaa, The: DeacrlptlTS, Hlstorioal, 
UL Fhancke. 

Bv Paul de RtiusiKus. lai. 6d. 
Animal Painting lil Water Ootours. With Coloured Hates. 55. 
Antnea. By CiiciLE Ca^savetti (a Russian), A Story of the Greek War o( 

Arabian Nights 
'"""■* 1 Drawing. 

r Borne. EleiD) 

Art, The HaKHZlne ot 

meats [CaBseU'l). Wilh about 400 lUustraiions. i( 
By R. PhenS Spiehs. lllustraied. los. 6d. 
; a Reprint of Letters published in the Tim 
xr, 1691. By H. O. AKioun-FoBBTEB. M.P. .». 
Yearly Volume. With aboui 400 llluatratloua, 

., F.R.S., i 
Atlas, The DniTeraal. A New and Complete General Atlas of Ihe World, with 


ted by Mati 
ted by" 
HothB, and other InBei^E. 

Biographical Dlctlomr?, Caaaell's Not. Containing Memoirs of the Most 

R. Keartoh. illostmted wllh 

Awkward Squads, The ; and other Ulster Btbrlai. By Shan F. Buja-ock. 5s, 
BaebklrtaefF, Harle, The Joniaal of. Translated by Mathilde Bund. 7s. Gd. 
BashMrtaetF, Maria, The Letters of. Translated by MabvJ. SEEKANa 7s. 6d. 

Birds' Heats, Eggs, and Egg-Collecting. 

Breechloader, The, and Bow to TIse It; By W. W. Greener. 

.■S Oiigii 

I Land and Sea. 

y James Grant. 

iijuiii.u.uii:,. iur== .u[s., 4LU. t,i 7». ; Library Editim, £1 lot 
ErltiBh Battles, Recent, illustrated. 9s. Library Edition, 
Browning, An Introduction to the Study oC By Arthiir 
~ "' I MotiB, European. By W. F. KtRBV. 

Cloth, 15s. 
^T. With a 

5. 6d. 

Oanaries andf Cage-Birds, The IlllutniteflMok of. 
Capture of the '-^trella,"'TliB. A 1'ale oftbe Slave ' 
Carnation Manual, The. Edited a 

Y. With 61 Coloured 

B;^ W. A. Blahston, 

ide. iiy Commander 

by The National Carnation and 

With Portrait, is. 

Oaaaell, John By G. Holden Pike. 

Oassell's Family Uacazlne. Yearly Volui 

CatbedralB, Abbeya, and CIinr«hes of England and Wales. Descriptive, 

China Painting. 

culpa hy an Old Chum ; or, Australia in the Flttlea. is. 

Choice DislieB al Small Cost By A. G. Payne. C/uap Edition, is. 

Ghrlatianity and Socialisni, Lectures on By Blsuop Barry. 3s. ( 

Chums. The lllustraied Paper for Boys. Yearly Volume. 7s. 6d. 

ClUes of the World. Four Vols. lllustraied. ys. 6d. each. 

ClTll Berrloe, nulfle to Employment in the. Nem and enlarged EdiiL 

Silttthns from Casscll J; Cemfany't FublUatiotts. 
Clinical M'Tiini" for Practltloiiera and StudentE of Hedldna^ {A /.h, 


(0 th, P, 

r applka 

Cobden Club. Woclu pubUalied for Uie. {A Camplrie 

ColonlBt's Medical Handbook T&b. By £. Alfred Baktoh. M.R.C.S. 

Colour. By Prof. A. H. Church. New and EnUrged EdilioH. 3s. fid. 

Columbus, The Carear of. By Chablks Elton, F.S^A. ios. 6d. 

Combo, George, Tlie Select 'Worlifl or. Issued hy Authoriiy of the Coml 

OonuuBTcial Botuiy of tba Hluetaentb Csutaiy. By J. R. Jackson, A.L.S, 

Cloih gilt, li. 
Oonulng Tower, In a. ByH.O.ARNOLD-FonsTeii,M.P., Author of "TheCiiBeo 

Reader," &c. With Original lUustratLooi by W. H. OVKMWO. .s. 
Coniliteete of the Cidbb. Edited by Edwin Hoddbr. With numecaas OHEiAri 

Cooksiy, A Year's. By Phyllis Browne. Nob and Enlargid Edilioit, 3s, 6d. 

CooksTT, Cassall's Popular. With Four Coloured Plates. Cloth gill, as. 

Cookerj, CasssU'a ShilUng, ii6th Tkomand. is. 

Cookery, Vegetarian. By A. G. Pavne. is. 5d. ^. -' 

Cooking b7 Gas, The Art of, Bv Makie J. Suca.' 'IIHistrated. Clolh. a 

- tage Oarr ' •"- '" 

CotmtrleB of the Wor: 

rltlt in Six Vcit, w 

CrcIopEedia, Casaell'a 

., It.,1 

d III., M. 6d. a 

indae. Brought d 
Doo iiiuiiraiionK. .^ i«- a<id Chtaf Edilni-, 

Cjclopsedla, CasBell's Miniature. Contaii 

^d. Half-yearly Vpi*,, ■., 11., juiu 111., aa. uu. caiai- 

he. By ROBERT BbOwn. M.A., Ph.D.. &c Com- 

OM no Illu.IraliorK. jtn. js. 6d. each. 

Ihe latest date. With about 

000 Subjects. Cloth, as. 64; 

DBlectablB Duchy, The. 
Dick WMtUngton, A Modi 

DICtlonarlaB. (For descr 

5, Studies, and SItetcbes. By Q. 
ByjAUEsPAYM. Cheap " 
see alphabetical letter.) 

Religion I Biographical, 
_jflUh, Englisli rii„o,V, 

Slat and Cookery for Common AUmants. By a. Fellow of the Royal College 

0fPhy5iciai«,fltlllPHH.U.= Bn0WNK. «. 

Dog, niiiBtrated Book ol the. By Veko Shaw, B.A, With 38 Coloured 

Dord'a Dante's Pargntor? and Parbdlae. Ulustraied by Gustavx Ddbk. 

C'^ii'^ EdilioH. 7i 6d. 

Dora's HUton'B Paradise Lost. lUuslraled by GasTAvB DobE. 410, ais. 
Dr. Diunday'fl Wife. A Novel, By Mauhus JdKAI. Cheap Edilioit, 6s. 
Earth, Our, and Its Story. Ediied by Dr. Robert Brown. F.L.S. 'W^tb 

3fiCaloureilPlaic5and)^WoodEnRnivinei. Compkio in Three Vpli. 9a. eaclu 
Edlnburgb, Old and Hew, Caaaell'a With 60a mustratjons. Three Vols. 

OS. each ; MWt hindinE, L' io5. (he Ml. 
Egypt: Descriptive, Blttorical, and Pictoresque. By Prof. G. Fbeks. 

TtanilBiedb5-CLAi.ABaLi.,»'iihNoie5bySAML-eLliiRirii,LL,D.,&c TuroVoU. ,a. 
Electricity, Practical Ry Prnf. W. E. Avrton. Illustrated. Qolh. ys. 5d 
ElectrldtT In the Ssrrlce of Man. A Popular and Pradiical Treatise. With 

iin^ardsofg^o lliuMraliodS. yrtva.-i ffi:',ifJ EMIi^, iU.6d. 

Employment lor Boys on Leaving School, amda to. By W. & Bbaro, 

K.R.O.S. IS, 6d. 
Encydopaidw Dictionary, The. Complete in Fourteen Divisional Vols.. ios.6d. 

Selictims from Caisell i Csmfany's Piiblicaliimi. 
g"C''i'"<, OuHU'a ninitiktsd. Blstoiy ot With a.oc 

Voli. ito. 9.. fach. NnvaHditnUldEdiUs.. VcOfc 1. 10 Vl., o»- «cli. 
Zngliih Dtctlonu;, CimmU'l Coniaining DeRnitioiis of upwards of ioa;Cioo 

WunJs jnJ Ckiaf Bifillm, j>. 6d. : Sufirirr EJiliim. fs. 
IngllBli History, The Dlotloiiazy ot Ckeup Edition. los. &!.: loxburgh, 15s. 
EdkUeIi Lttaratorfl, Ulintr)' ot By Prof. H. Mori^v. In 5 Vols. 7s, 6d. rach. 
Eogmb Llt«Tatnra. Horlcra Pint Blceteb OC Rivbcd EdilioH. 7s. 6d. 
SugUib LtteraCnre, Tba Dlcttonuy oC By W. Davenpobt Adams. CAai^ 
BngllBli Ltteiatotci Hie Btonr Ot By Anna Buckland. 3s. 6d. 
EngllUl Wrltera. By Henbv Mohlev. Vols. I. 10 X. ss- each. 
Xiop's F&tileE. lUusirRted by EkNest Griset. Cheap Edition. Cloth, 31. U. ; 
SUqnette of Good Sadat;^ Nea Edition. Edited and Revised by Ladt 

PUth Doctor, TUB. A Novel. By Dr. Eowakd Egoi.KSTON. Cluap Edilian. 6s. 
Funlly FbJ^ldMI. By ELmtnent PhVstcIAns and SuKcmiNS. .Weia and 

Father Hathev: Hli Life knil Tlmei.' By Frank ]. Mathew. 25. 6d. 
Fatbar Staffom. A By Anthony Hope. Chtap Ediiioa, 3*. 6d. 
Fenn, C UbjitIIIb. Works by. Boards, as. etch ; or cloth, as. 6d. 

Flew KattxrftllBt'a HandbooX TUe. By Revs. J. G. Wood and Theodobb 
Flguier'B Popular aclniUllo Vorka. Willi Several Hundred lllusi 

Flower PalnOllK, Elementary. With Eight Coloured Plnlei 

FloTrBTB, and How to Paint Tham. ByMAuoNAtTKL. With 

Football: tlie Rugby Unioa Game. Edited by Rev. F. M. 

FOBBll BeptllBB, A Hlatory of BrlttBh. By Sir RiCHARD OwEN, F.R.S., &c. 

PraBBF. John Drummona. By Philalethes. A Story of Jesuit Intrigue In 

Garden FloverB, Familiar. Bv Shirley Hibberu. With Coloured Plates by 
p. K. Hi'LME, K.L.S. Complete in FivuSuiu. Cloih gilt, ih. fid. Each. 

Gardening. CasEell'B Popular, lllusiiaied. Complete in P'our Vols. 5s. each. 

Geometrical Drawlttg for Army CandldateB. By H. T. Lillev, M.A. as. 6d, 

Oeometiy, First DsmentB of Experimental. By Paul Bert. is. M. 

Geometry, Practical Bolld, By Major Ross. as. 

George Saxon, The Reputation of. Bv Morley Roberts. 5s. 

Ollhert, Elizabeth, and her Work for the Blind. By Frances Martlv. ss-Sd. 

Gleanings from Popular Authora. Tno Vols, With Original lUustraiiau, 
410, gs e.ich. Two Vols. ii. One. iji. 

GuUlTBF'B Travela. With 68 Engravings. Oath, 33. 5d. ; clolh gill. 5s. 

Gun and Its Development, Tha. By W. W. Greener. Illustrated. loi. 6d. 

Qvms, uodem Shot, By W. W. Gkerner. lllustiated. 5s. 

Health, The Book OL By Eminent Physicians and Surgeons. Goth, aia. 

HeaTBns, Tbe Story of tha. By Sir Robert Stawell Ball, LUD., F.K.S. 

With Loluuicd Pljlts and W™d Engrann^ji. Pofutar EdiliaK. us. 6d. 
Heroes of Britain In Peace and War. With 300 Original Illustrations. CAiaf 
EdilioH. Tv>o VoIl y. 6d. each ; or two vols. Tn one, clodi gilt, 71. 6d. 

IS from Casitll d- Campntiy's Publka 

History, A Footuota to. Eighi Yeats of Trouble Jn Samoa, By Robf.rt Louts 
Horns Ufe of ibe Andent Oreeke, Tbe. Translated by Alice ZudUF.RN. 
By Samuel Sidney. Thoroughly Revised and 

I Book of t 

if Rtchard Uondcton 
u-Vols. £S. each; 

Hygisne ajid Public HeftlOi. By k Arthur Whiteleoge. M.D. llluiirated. 
India, Cassell'B HlEtory of. By James Grant, With 400 Ulusitaiions. Two 

Vols., 9=. CHch, or Oil- Vol.. 155. 

In-door AmnaemeiLtB, Card Qamet, and Flredda Ftui, CaBBell's Book ot 

By Max 

ISON, Illustrated. 65. 

By J. W. Probyn. 3s. 6d. 
3 Popular Works bound In 

HonKbton, Lord : Tbe Ufa, Letters, and FrlondshipB □: 

Mlines, First Lord Hougbton. By'l'. Wehv^s Rsid 
Houiehold, Cassell's Book of the. Illustrated. Complete 


js Illustr 


Island Nlsbts' Entertainments. By R. L, STtL 
Italy &om tHe Fall of Hspoleon I. In IBIS to IG 
"JalMUieae" Library, Caaatdl's. Consisting c 

/?« ", applicaliim. 
Itsj and Healtb. By Martellius. lllustrau 

ololh, 3s. 6d. {Editi 

"La Bella. ' and Othera By Kuerton Castle:. Buckram, 6s. 

Ladles' Phyalclan, Tha By a London Physiciaji. 6s. 

Lady Sld^ Fane, Tbe Admlratla By Frank Barrett. 

Lady's DrBSsing Koom. The. Translated by Ladt Colin CA^ 

Lake DwelllngB of Europe. By Robert Munrd. M.D., M.A. 1.10m, 31s. oa. 

Leona. Ily Mrs. Mot.esworth. 6s. 

Letters, Tbe Highwap of; and tta Ecboes of Famous Footstepi. By Thomas 

Letts'B Diaries and Otlier Ttme-saTlng' Pabllciatlons are now publuihed eiclu- 

'Usbetb. A Novel. By Leslie Keith. Three Vols. 31s. 6d. * 

tJst, ye Landsmen 1 A Romance of Incldem. By W. Clark RusseLi. Cheap 

Little MlnlBter, Tbe. ' By J. M. Barrie. tllaslraltd Edition, 63. 
Little Bqulre. Tbe. A Story of Three. By Mrs. HENRr DE LA PASTURE. 3s. 6d. 
LooomotlTB Engine, The Kograpby of a. By Henry rsiTH. 3a. 6d. 
Loitus, Lord Ausustns, F.C., Q.C.B., The Dlploinatlo Ramiultcences of: First 

London, Greater. By Edward Walford. Two Vols. With about 400 

London, DU and Kew. By Walter Thornbiiry and Edward Walpord. 

<D [llusi 

Cloth, 9 

Lost on Du Corrlg; or, Twtxt Earth a 

Wilh S Full-page lllusliauDU 
Han In Black, Tbe. BySTANLE 
HAdlcal Handbook of Life A 

F R.C. P., and J»MS= ClL^HOLM. tf^llow o. tne in 
Medicine Lady, Tbe. By L. T. Meade. Cheap 
Hedlclne. Uannals for Btndents ot {A Lut/or. 


D Pollock, M.D., 


Stliilioni from Casstll Ji Cofiipatty's Piiblieali, 

KodHS Europe, AHiBtoryot ByC, A, Fyffe. M.A. Complete in Three Voli, 

Mount DesOlaOon. An Austratian Romance By W. Cahltcin Da we. 31. 6d. 
Musical and Dramatic Copyright, Tlie Iaw ot Bj- Edward Cutleh, 

Thomas Eisr.cE Simth. ind Fbkdskic E. WsAiHKaLv. 31 6d. 
MlidC, niUBtrated History of. Bv Emil Naumann, Ediied by ihe Rev. 

Sir F. .V GiiBKOcsfi-BV, Burt, lliu-lralcd. TwoVoLs. 3i..6d. 

Napier. Tbe Ufa and Letten of tbe Bt. Hon. Sir Joupli, Bart, LL.D., D.CX, 

MK.I.A. Br Alex. C, Ewalo, F.S.A. tSrvt a^J Rm..!^ Hjlsts^ -» iw 
Hatlonftl Libraiy, Oauell'i. In Volumes. 

„ E. Perceval ■ 

Hatnral Hlitory, CaMAU'a ConeLae. By E. Pekceval Wright, M.A.. M.D., 

F.L.S, Wilhstvcral Hundred 111 mirarioni. 7.. 6d. : nUo kepi half-bound. 

Katural Hlatory, Cttflsoll'BHew. Edited by P. Ma RxtN Duncan. M.B.-F.R.S., 

F.r,.:S. Cooipl!15 in Sir Vols. Wilh about IDuiWitiont Cloth. 01. »ath. 

Mature'B Wonder Workere. By Kate R. Lovell. llluslTaled. 3s. 6d, 
MelBOn. The Life ot Bv Robert Southev. lllustrQtedv,-iihEightPlales. 3s. 6d. 
New England Boyhood, A. By Edward E, Hale. 3s. 6d. 
HurBlng for the Home and for the Hoipttal, A Handbook ot By Cathe- 

R.^£ J. W,„jo. Chiaf EJilim. 15. 5d. ; dolh, k. 

Nnrslsg of Sick Otlldren, A Handbook for the. By Cathebin'e |.W(x>ii. zs. 6d. 
O'DrtscoU'B Weird, and Other StorlBB. By A. Werner. Cloih, 5%. 
Odyssey, The Modem. By Wyhdham F. Tufnell. Illusttaled. 10s. 6d, 
Ohio, TSe New. .AStoryof EasiandWest. By Edward Everett Hai.k. 6s, 
OWDoraet, Chapter5mtheHiBtoryof iheCounty. By H.J.MoUL£,M.A. los. 6d. 
Our Oim Cotinuy. Six Vols. Wllh 1,200 Illustrations. Cloth, 7s. 6d. each. 
Out ot the Jaws ol Death. By Frank Barbett. Chtap EdiHon. One Vol.. 6a 
Faulting-, TheEaglilbSchOOlOt By Ernest Chesnb Air, Cheap EJilien, ■^.60. 
Paris, Old aad Hew. A Narrative of its History, its People, and its Places. By 
H. Sr^rnakLAKD Edwabds. ProfiuelT Illiulrated. Vol, I., as., or gilt edges, ids. 6L 

Peoples ot the World, Tba, Bv Dr. Robert Brown. Complete in His Vols. 

Uoih, 1: 
Fhrasa and FaUe, Dlcttonary ot By the Rev. Dr. Brewer. CArap Ediium, 

PbyBloltKy for Students, ElementKr;, By Alfred T. Schofield, M.D:, 

M.R.CS. WithTwoColoured Plalesandnume— ■-'" ■ " 

nctnresiiiie America. Complete in Four Vols., with 4S Ejquiate Sieel Platei, 

and about Soa Orij^iiul wood Eagrauinjfs, £t as. each. Vol, I. of the pBfutMr 

Hctureique Canada. Wi th about 600 Oiiginalfflustrations. TwoVols. jffiSs.theset. 
FlotuTOaque Europa Complete in Five vols. Each containing 13 Exquisite Steel 

morocio, iji ios,;niDiiJccoglll,'i5iios. Pofular EJWoh. In Five Vols. iSs! ai±. 

Plcturesqne Uedlterriuiean, Tba. With a. Series of MasTiiRcent lUnstratioos 

from OrJBinal DesiEns by leadinc Alliils of Iho day. TwoVols. Cloth, jSaai.eich. 

FlEcon Keeper, The Practical. By Lewis Wright. Illustrated. 3s. 6d. 
Pigeons, The Book ot By Robert Fulton. Ediied by Lewis Wright, vnii 

JO Coloured VtiXCi and numoous Wood EcEiavings. 311, ed. : hair.morocco, £1 at. 
Pity and ot Doath. The Book ot By Pierre Loti, Member of the PrencA 

.Vidfmy. TranslslcdbyT. p. O'COKNOII, M.P. Antique paoer, cloth giU. jt 
Planet, The Story ot Our, By the Rev. Prot Bonsev, F.R.S., 3c With 
IV.lourcd VU\ri and Uips and about 100 lUustiitinni. i... M. 

Playthings and Parodlee, Sliort Stot" 
Poetry, The Nature and Elemsnts ( 
PoetB. Casaell's Miniature Llbrair o: 
Polytetlhnlc Series, The. Pracucal Illustrated Manuals specially prepared for 

Siudtnls of lh= Polyiechnic Inslitule, and suitable for the Use of Jl SlndeuU. M 

Portrait OftUery, The Cabinet Scries I. lo /^..each containing 36 Cabinet 

PholDgrapbi of Emmcnt Men aiid Women ot the day. With BioBraphlcal Sketches. 

Stlidimi from Caistll & Compai. 

J Puili^a 

Fonltry, TLe IllaBtrated Book ot By Lewis Wkight. 

t By Lewis wkiGHT. With t\\\y Kx[|insiie 

_ _ _ WoodEneravrngs. Raiilid Fdilim. Oolh. ivt ii. 

PriBonPrliiceBS.A. A Romance of MillbaiSt Penilentiaty. By Major ARTHUR 

ffa WorkBVuidVorin Eflltion of. ss- each. t ■^vT wn 

tSb IfilrPaviUona'"; I BDut"» ■"■? Cmmm."" "' "" 

Qaeen. Bummer ' or Tha Tonmej' of tlie Lily and the Soeb. Penned and 

Purtnvfd by Walter Crane. Wiih 4opas" in Colouis. 6t 
Qneeu Victoria, The Life anil Tlmea ot By Robket Wilson. Compleie in 

a Vols. nuiiieious llluslraliont 9^ "^^1- 
Quloltenlne; of OaUSan, The. A Modem Story of Evoluiion. By J. COMPTON 

Kabblt-Keeper, The PracHoal By Cumculus. Illustrated, 3s. 6d. 
KaOLeB Ha-w, The Boli^fl of. By A. Conan EWvle. Nsw Edilian. e^s. 
BaUwars, Brltlah. Their Passenger Seryices, Rolling Slock, Loooniotivta, 
Gtadienis, .-ynd Eiptca Spftds, By J. Pbahson Pattinsok, With numrroBi 

Rall-wayfl, Katlonai. An -Argument for Stale Purchase. ByjAHKS Holh. 4s. nel. 
Bailwara, Our. Their Dei'dopment, Enlerprise, Incident, and Romance. By 

JQHH Pkbdlhtok. Illu'lralcd. iVqIb., dcmySvD. J4S. 
BAllwar Oulde*. Official IllUBtrated. Wilh Illustrations on nearly every pi«e. Papcrcovcr*,!!.; cloth.JS. tondonand Notin WMlsm HbIIwm 

), boards, as. each. 

if tha ihoTtii. Br ^i 
■ of Bnntwstec.^fly Mi 

BlTsra of Great Britain : Descriptive, HistoricaJ, Pictorial. 

BobtnBon CruBOe. CaisiUs New Fine-Art £diHon. Wilh upwards of 100 

Original Ulu^.raiiotij. 71 6d. 
Eomance, The World of. Blusiraied. One Vol, cloth, 55. 
Bonner, Eenrlette, The Paintar of Cat Ufa and Cat Character. By M. M. Coiiuiniug a Series of beautiful PholDtype IJlusiradans. PofulaT 

Ballatniry Parliament. A Diary of the. By H. W. I.u< 

Sdence for All. Edited 

Eilhim. Wilh ,,5«. u. . . - 

Shadow of a Bong-. The. A Nove' 

;3 3.S— AIM published in Tl, 
; Thr, Historical Plavs, i9 

Sdecliens from CaisM & Company^ s Pi^lications. 

Complele ijK 

by Prol 

_._. _._ __i, ai. ; hulf-nioi™ , ,_ 

SluABpen, Th* IntemaOoiua. Edition dt luie. 

KingHwryVIlL ByS^r James Li»ton,P.R.1. {.Prist «, of Mimtin. 

Olhtllo. lUuHlBWd by FnANlt DiCKBEB *" ' ' 

Kins Henry tV. lUuslraicd by Heit E 

A> You Like It. Illu-untrd by lh« Isle mom. cmii.e nAumu. aj ich. 
BlUL]up«re, Tbe Leopold. With 400 Illusiratians, and an Iniroiluctiaa by F. J. 

Ti^KNivALL. Chtaf EiliriBii, 3.S. 6d. Cloth gill, gill edges, jl ; roihurEK, fs. M. 
SLaksperg, Ths BoyaL Witli Exquisite Sleel Plates and Wood EngraviiiK£. 

Skeb^es, TheArt of HaJdne uid Udus. From the French of G. F'kaipont. 

By Ci.KHK Hbll. With Fifly Illmlrations. il. 6d. 

SmuzgllDg Days and EmuggllnK Tays ; or, Tba Stoty of a Lost Art. By 

Commander the Hon. Hbkkv N. Shore. K.N. lUii»rUed. Clotb, ;s. 6d. 
Snare of tbe Fowler, Tbe. G/Mts. Al.eXAND£K. Cheap Edition in oni Vol., fa. 
HoclaJ Ensland .-i Record of the PrggrEss of the People. Bv various wtileis. 

Ediitd by H. ri, TiiAiuL, D.C.L. Voli. I. .nd II., .«. «ch: 
Sodal Waltare, Subjeets of. By Lord Plavfaib, K.C.B., Sc. ys. 6d. 
Sports and Pastlmaa. GaBieU'a Complete Book of. Cheap Rdilion, 3$. 6d. 
Squire, The. Bv Mrs. Pahk. Cheap Ediliott in one Vol..b%. 
atandlaba of High Acre, The. A Novel By Gilbert Sheluon. Two Vols. ais. 
Star-Land. By Mr Robert Stawell Ball, LL.D., &c, Ulustraied. 6s. 
Stateamen, Fait and Future. 6s. 

Storehouse of General Information, Caiiell'E. Illustrated. In Vols. 5s; each. 
Story of FranclB Cludde, The. A Novel. By Stanley J. Wkvman. 6b. 
Successful Life, The. By A.s Elder Bhother. 3s, 6d. 
Sun, The Story Of the, BySirRoBERTSTAWELLBALL, LL.D.iF.R.S..F.R.A .S. 

With EighL Colouied Flutes and other llluiti 
Suiuhlna Berlaa, Castcdl'a. Monlhly Vols. 

Sybil &10X ; or. Home Again. A S 

y of To-day. By EdWar 
. Cheap Edilim, 6. 
Tenting ontbePlalna. By E. B. CtiSTSR. Illusiraled. 5s. 
Thackeray la America, With. By Eyre Crowe, A. R.A. lUustra 
The "Belle Sauvage" Library. Cloth, as. eacb. 

Surley. . AdvMIutiu oC Ur. I^dbuiy.' Old UoiUhty. 

U^T^SKian. I Oiivac Twllt. 1 WuUiwtim 


The Short Story Library. List of Vols, on application. 
TblngB I have Seen and People t have Known. By G. 
Tiny Luttrea By E. W. HoB.-iuSG. Cloth. Papular 


'I Casiell J: €amflan/s Publica 

" TrBOaura Island " BertW, ThB. Ckia» lUuslmtii F.dilion. Clolh, 35. 6d. each. 

TrMtmsnl. TbS Teor-Book tit, tot ISM A (Jriiical Review for Practilioners ot 
Medicine and SurireiT. TmlB ¥™r pf -ra. M. 

Tree Palntlus In Water Colonn. By W. H. I. Boot, wnth Eichieea 

Culou.ed Plales, and valuable inilruqtians by the Anisl. 5s. 
Traea, ramlllar. By Prof. G. S. Boulgeh, F. L.S.. F.G.S. Two Series. With 

ForLV full-paee Coloured Plaits bv W. H. J, Boot. las. M. each. 
"VuXcoie" : The Unlvarsal TelegrapMc Fbraw Book. Pocket or Desk 

E.liuon. 5s.6d. «ch. 
United St&tes, CasseU'e Hlator; ot the. By Edmund Oi.lisr. With 6oo lUus- 

n Hlilorv, 

Vaccination VlndlMited. By John C. McVaiL. M.D., D.P.H, Camb. 5s. 
Versoa Orava and Oay. Bv Ellen Thosnevcropt Fuwler. 35. 6d. 
Vicar or Wakeflsld and btbar Worka, by Oliver Gold.^hith. Illustrated. 

Vision of '^Inti', A. By Lewis MoBRLS. Adilion de luxe. With 20 Full-page 
llluHraliona. Crown ,to, fslra dolh. gilt edgei. 31J. 

Wat«r-Colour FainUng, A Comae oL With Twenty-four Colotired Plales by 

R. P, Leitch, ^nd full InslnJCiouB .0 the Pupil, js. 

Wedlock, Lairfol : or, How Shall I Uaks Sure of a LeEal HarrUxa? By 

Two B»SBT5TBB*. IS. 

Wild Birda, Familiar. By W. Swaysland. Four Series. Wiih 40 Coloured 

Wild riowsra. Familiar. ' By F. E. Hulme, F.L.S., F.S.A. Five Series. With 

■ ID Coloured Plait! in «ch, iH.6d.tach. 
WonattheLaatHole. A Golfinfr Romance. By M. A.STOBART. Illustraled. is.6d. 
Wood, Tlie Life Of the B07. J. a. By his Son. [he Rev. Theouoke Wood. 

Wilh Portrail. Eitra crown Svo, eIoUi. Chtafi Edlliixi. 3s. ti. 
Work. The illustrated Joiiraal for Mechanics. New and Enlarged Serits. 

World of Wit and anmoor, The. With 400 illustrations. Cloth, 7s. Sd. 
World of Wondeiil, The. With 400 Illuslrations. Two Vols. 75. 6d. each. 
Wrecker, The, By R. L. Stevenson and Lloyd Osbourne. IllusLraied. Ss, 


The Quitter, for «»»'<»» mirf QentnU U'tfiliig, UoDthly, id. 

CasHelVa Family Slagazitie. Monthly, 7d. 
'^Little Folkn" Magazine. Monthly, 6d. 

The Magazine of Art, Wuh Three Plates. Monfhly, 11. 4d. 
Chums. ThelHiistnUed PapetforBoys. Weekly, .d.; Monihly, 6d. 
CasaelPn Satiirflnjt Journal. Weekly, id, ; .Monthly, 6d. 
Work. Illustrated Journal for Mechanics. Weekly, Id.; Monihly, &I. 
Cottage Oardeuing, Illustrated. Weekly, Jd. ; Monihly, 4d. 
ir^ij *._.7,„/.™ ^/ r-insRi.i. ft COMPANY'S Monthlp Serial Publication* 

CattlOEnei o! Casseli. & Company's Publications, w 


' wQl be tent pou fn 

a price, Irom TkrafitHa In Fiftr Gai, 

:oHMNV's Educational Worki and Siu 

Sikclions from Cassill <t Company's Publicationi 

%tbles anil Keligtaua ^arka. 

Kble BtograpIileB, lUu^iraied. 


irJ. B 

UUe, CmmU'b niustratBd Pamlly. With 900 lUiisi 

sdlffs, 1-, los. ; full mutotcn, li 10s. 

Bible, Tlis, and tbe B11I7 Liiid, Mew Llg-lit on. By 

Leather, g 
1. EVETTS, M.A. 

mwe Educator, Tho.' Edited by E. H. Plumptrh, D.D. With I llusiralions, 
BlWe Btudent la tho Briaaii MnsBUm, TJie. By the Rev. J. G. KiTCHiM, 
nbleTomeu and Nnnes. 

Bnnyaji's FllKrUn'B Progreaa (CaBBBll's Ulnstrated). 410. Cheap E 
CnUd'B Bible, Tbe. With zoo lUui,tratloa3. Demy 4tD, 630 pp. 15 

Clilld'E LUe Of Gbrlit, The. Complete in Oae 

'.3s. 6d. 

h ThoMs 

with 6 Caloured Plalei. 

cloth, pll ffclgri, 10s. fid. Demy 4to, gilt lidges, 

"Come, ye ChUdren." BytheRev. Benjamin Waugh. Ilhisiraied. s^' 
Oommeutaiy, The New Teatunenti for ^^e"'** BoaderB. Edited by the 

r, D.D., Lord Dish 
Vol l..-The Four QoBpola. 

Commeatary, The Old Teetament, for EnKliab Beadan. 1 

.loL Comp 

Conunantary, The New Teatament Edited by Bishop Ellicott. Haady 
Volume Ediiion. Suitahli; for School aod General U>e. 

Id TSBtameiit. Edited by E 

ihop ELLicoTT. Handy Voliune 

Dictionary 1 

I and other 

1 and GcDci 

Kellgion, The. An EncyclapEedia of Cliristi 
KciigiDus DociritiH, DcnomitiatiDn's, Secu, HerciES, Eccloianic^ 'lenni, niiury, 

Dor* Bible. With 230 Illuslralions ly Gustavk Dor£. Original Ediiton. 

Iiattcns. '1d Odc Vol, I'ss. Also in lu'lher bladEnij. IPric'l on afpUe^liat^ 

Early Da3r8 of Obrlatlaiilty, ThO; By tlie Von. Archdeacon Farrai<,D.D.,F.R.S. 

Popl-IhAR Edi-tioh. Complete io One Vol., cloth, 61. : clolh, gilt adgci, 

Family Prayor-Book, The. Edited by tlie Rev. Caoon Gabbett, M.A., and 


ngB after Harreat. Studtti 

IBS. By the Rev. JdHN R. VerHON, 
1 theRook;" or, the Historical Accuracy of the Bible eonfimied by 
Bv^he Rev^Srl'sAriirEL'KiifNS, r^^.A^S., &c. Sic Tllutir"wd"' ™i. Vl' 

Sclalions from Casall J: CoiufaMy'i PiM 
"Heart CbaTds." A Series of Worlis by Emioent Divines 

Heipa to Bellet A Series of Melpful Manuals on the Religious Difficulties 
Dmy. Edited by Ihc Re». Tkiowkouth Smobk, M.A.. Canon of WorceH. 
Chaplllin-in-Ordlnary to the Queen. Clalh, a. each. 

CWATIO:^. Bf EholinljardBlatlopDfCrUajB. ■ THK Moralitv qf thf nui TESrAhIL 

' [ BUtbop of Pony- 

ir MacH, D J}.. I.itB ATCbbli 

^ Book of Scripture lUustiat 

pture niustratiOQs 8''*=™'' 
I., LUD. (Edfn.)- WlhMap. 

ly the Ven. Arclidtacoa Fareak, D.D., F.R.S.,Chaplain- 

I-arge 4'o, cloih. i 

, full EiLir £iU 

HUrlftffe RlilK, The. By William Landlls, D.U. Bound in white 
lutherelle. t-aaaidChiaflT EdiHoH. js. 6d. 

HomliiK (uid Evealner Prayera for WorklionMS and other InatltntlDiu. 

MoBes and Geoloey ; or, ttis Harmony of the Bible wltli Science. By 

By Comfort in Sorrow. Dv Huch Macmillan. D.D., LLD., Sc. is. 
Mew Light on the Bible and tbe Holy Land. By Basil T. A. Kvetts, M.A. 

Old and NOV Teatamenta, Plain Introdnctloas to tbe Boolu of the. Con- 

naluIntroductlonB to theBooksoftlLeOld Testament, ssbpages. Cditedby 

lh= E-gh. Rt.. C, J. Ellicott, D.D,. Lord BJshop of GIoucHler anH B.iliol. 31. 6d. 

Plain IntroanctlcinB to tbe Booka of tbe Mew Taatanient. 304 pages. Edited by 

.u- »:.t. c... f- I !■ Tin ■"JnialtopofGloucMBrandBriHol. i..6d. 

1. A. WvLiE, LL.D. Conlaining 
'ols., S76- : Library Edilim, joi. 
lui 600 Original llluslrations and 
,-, 6d. 
ns preached 10 Children. Fiflh 

a. M.A., CanonofWoiMKtr, ji. 

y the Veo. Archdeacon Fabrae, D.D., 

;tv. C. J. Enik-OTT, D.D.. Lord 

ProteCtUitlBm. TIte Hiitory ot By the R.ev 

upwardsofeooOriEinnl tUuiiniHons. Three 

"QnlTer" Yearly VolnnjB, Tha With ab 

Coloured Frontispiece. 71. 6d. A]» Manlh! 

St. OeoTEe for England; and other Sermi 

Edilicu. By the Rev. T. TElCKMOrTTH Smii 

St Paul, Tba Lite and Work of. 

Drdiury To ihe Queen. 

, TwoVo\s..doih,34S.;ca 

..... -,_.„_,_^,,^.___ 

Ee-cal^. ij 


Ugna CbrUtl : Evidences of Christianity set fonh il 

Chrisi. BvihcRev. jAMEsAiTCHiMN. 5s. 
Snnday-Seliool Teacber'a Bible MoTmnij xhe. By the Rev. Roi 

" its Origin. HiaCory, and Present Obligation. By 

n Hessev, D.C.L. Fiflh EdUiD.,, ^%. 61I. 

TwUlglit Dl Lite, The: Words of Counsel and Comiort for ■■ 

JORH Ett-UITON, M.A. I.. 6d. 

the Person and Work 

^rfff//ffMi frem Caswell J- Comfan 

(giutational Morks anil .^tu&ents' Manuals. 

Agricultural Text-Books, CusqU'b. (The " Downtoi 

I. M. H.'Munro, D,s'c"(Li>ndofl™ fTlc!, F.C.I^ 'm 

Tcuar WH(Ii<iOD, 1^ 6d. LiTS StOCk. By ProTeiH 
Alplubet, Cainll'B Flctorial Mourned an Linen, witta rt 
Arithmetic :— Honrd't Art of Beokoning. By C. F. Hi 

-Series.) FullvIllusU-atBl. 
Soilt and IfaanrM. By 
i. Fann Cropa. By Pn>- 

ArltbmetlcE, The Hodem 8i 



ly Ceorgr Ricks, B.S 
ig i\ Coloured Maps. : 

; or doth, 3S. For 


ChemlBtr;, The FabUo BchooL Bv J. H. Anderson, M.A. as. 6d. 
Cookeiy for School!. By 'Lxvi.vr Heritage. 6d. 

DulCB DomiUD. Rhymes and Songs for Children. Edited by Jdi^in Faeher, 
Editor of "Gaudeamu*,- &i:. Old Notation and Woidi. ji, N.a.-The Words ot 
tSt Son^i in ■■ DnlccDomum'- («n,h the Alis both in Tonic Sol-Fa anj Old NoBiioa) 

EOKllBli Uteratiu^. A Flnt Bk«tOtl tit, from the Elarliest Period 1o the Presetit 

TirT.C, By Prof. Henkv MOKLEV. 7a. 6d. 
EacUd, Casaell'a Edited by Prof. Wallace, M.A. is. 

Franch-Engllsh and Engllsh'Freiich Dietlonajy. Entinly Nim and Bnlan^ 

Edilisft. i,i;cpjRti. £vo, cloth, 3S. 6d. 

French Reader. Caaiell's Pulillc School. By Gi'illauhe S. Conrad, as. Gd. 
Oalbralth and Hanghtoa'a Sdentlflc Uanoala. 

PUne Trlionilffletrj, ». M. BuoUd. Boot! I.. [I., fll. d. M. BsdIu 1V„ V., VL n 61I. 
KalliemaUosl Tablu. ]>. to. Heoli^Di. ^ U. Hstural ptiOmopIly. ii. V. Opttm. 
a. ul. ^dmuUoi. jk 61]. Ste*m Endue. 11. M. Aliabn. Poti T, daOi. ts. sd. Cam- 

QandMiniu. Songs for CoHeges and Schools. Edited by John Farmer, ci. 
Woldsonly, paper, «d. ; 

Geometry, Flnt Elements Of ZxperlmeiLtal, By Paul Bert. lUustraied. is.6d. 

Geometry, FracUcal Solid. Ry Major Ross, R.E. si. 

German Dictionary, Castell'B Hew. German- English, English. German. C/uaf 

German Reading;, Flret LeilonB In. ByA. JXCST. llluslratetl. ts. 
Hand-and Eye Training. By G. Rfcks, B.Sc. Two Vols., with 16 Coloured 

Pbit' ill eacli Vol. CrD»n tiv. frl. Mch. 

B WoA. nve sets in case. is. each, 
le 4s in. X 35 iti. as. each. Mounted 

aiEtorlcol ConrBB for Schools, Caesell'a Illustrated throughout. !.— Sioria 

from EnelLih Hl&tory, ts. 11.— The Sintple Outline of Engliab HittDry, il jd. 

IlI.-ThtClass HiHory of England, «. 6d. "^ 

Italian LBBtons, vitb Exerdsee, CaBseU'e. In One Vol. 3s. Gd. 
Latin Dictionary, CaBaell's Kow. (Latin- English and EnElish-Laiin.) Revised 

by J, R. V. Mablhant, M,.*., andj. F. CHABt.E3,B.A. 31. 6d, 
Latin Primer, The New. By Prof. J. P. Postoate. as. 6d. 
Latin Primer, The Flrat By Prof. PostgAte. is. 
lAtin ProBB for Lower Forms. By M. A. Bayfield, M.A. zs. 6d. 
bWi of Erery-Day Life. For ihe Use of Sehools. By H. O. Arnold-Forsteh, 

M.F. u. 6i. S/tcM Ediliiiit on green paper for lliue with wak e7«ifih^ 11. 

SiUclisru from Casstll <£■ Company's Publica 

y H. F. Lester, B.A. 
FHB La«. Pari II. : L»w CfUBTS 

:;-Knox. llluslrated. 13. 6d. 

Leisoni tu Onr Laws ; 
Par. I. ^ The M^ke 

Utile Folks' HUtorr ot Enslaod. By IsA Cx 
Kalciiig or the Home, The. By Mrs. Samuel A. BARNtTT. is. 6d. 
UaTlbOTOUgb Books ; — Arlttuneno ElBinplei. yi, frBDDh BxsroUg^ ^ U. Fmuill 
Hechanics for Yoni^ BBglnners, A First Book □£ B/ Ibe Rev. J. G. Easton, 

» In Practlcs 

' „nd £nl^-^id. Wiih 75 lllusi 
ClQth. li 6d. 

Kfttnr&I Hittory CcAaaxaA Wall Sheets, CnsBeU's tTew. Consisiing o( i3 



Oqect Lesioiu trom Hatuia. By Prof. L. C. Mtall, F.L.S., F.G.S. Fully 

lllusiraif d. AVif ««■ Eniargid Siiiliim. Two "VoU. 11. 6d. each. 
Phyilology lor Schools. By Alfred T. Schofield, M.D., M.R.C.S., &o. 

PaetT7 Readers, Caisell's Her. lllusinited. 13 Books, id. each. Cloih. la. 6d. 

Popular SdUMtOT, Caaiell'l New. With Revised Texl, New Maps, New Coloured 

Platc5, New Type, (tc CoBipkie in Eight Vols., ss. each ; or Eight Vols, in 

Xeailer, The ci 

By H. O. A 

D-FORSTEB, M.P. Cloth, 1 

. Gd ; also a 

Reader, liie Temperance. By Rev. J. DenMIs KiRD. is. 6d. 
Readers, Caaaell'a " Higher Clft«." (Liil nn apflicathi.) 
Readers, Caesell'a Readable. Illu'straied. (Lut oa applicatiaK.) 
Beaders for jnfanC Schools, Colmired. Three Bonks, fd. eaci 
Beaders, The modern Geographical. lUuslrated ihrougbout. (LiUan 
Beaders. The Hodem Bchool Illustiated. (List en applicalian.) 
' Beading and SpelllOK BoOk, Cassell's IIluatrat«d. is. 

, Sixain.. Id. i five Colours, 

Fully lltiui 
School Certiflcatea, Casaell'a Three Colou 

t.i . <ji.n..3d.:S=vcnColDur>=i,dGold.9i _ , ...,_. 

Bdenoe Applied to Work. Ey J. a. Bower, lllusirated. is. 
Science of Every-Day LUe. By J. A. Boweh. Illusiraied. 15. 
Bculptnre, A Fiimer ot. By ti. Koscoe MuLLtNS. Illusiraied, 2s, 6d. 
Shade Irom Models, Common Objects, and Coats or Onuuneat, How to. 

Btiakspere's Playa for School Use, Elluslraled. g Ekioks. 6d. each. 
SpelllnE, A Complete Manual ot By). D, Morell, LL,D. is. 
Technical Educator, Cassell's New. An erlirely New Cyelopjedia ofTechni 

Education, »ith Colourtd PljtM and EngravinB'- 'n Vols , ss. cich. 
Technical Hanuals, Caosell'a. iUustraied througboui 

Vols., from as. to 4s. 6d 
F.R.S.. and Richard 

TechnoIOKT. Manual! oL Edited by Prof. A 

'WitDh ind Clock KiUiic. B. n. Clasipjir, I *'"g'^^ J^'"ii' p" "i. ™'0["W1- By W. 

lMuiu™'''«."6d?' '"° ^^'"^ HureloLHEal PrSoDoal MeoWnloi. bV P.o/. Feriy, M.E 

Bt«#l nnd ffoo. bv Praf. W. U. arRDwood, ! GitlTJDi ToolB Workei^ by H&nd vid Ma. 

Tfalnss Maw and Old ; or, Btories from Sn^lsh History. By H. O. Aknold- 
FoRfiTiB, M.P. Fully llluitraied. Slionaly bound in Cloth. Standanit I. and ![.. 
9d, tach ; Standard 111,, it ; Standard IV., is. 3d. ; Standards V., VI., and VII., 

Torld of Ours, This. By H. O. Ahsold-Fohstek, M.P. Fully 11 lusaateiL 3s. M. 

II from CassiU A Compan 

%0ok5 for ^auitg people. 

little Folia" Balt-Yesrl; VDlnme. Containing 43a pages of Leltetpfsss, with 

Piciurts on nearly every page. tOBOIher wiih Two Fnll-poE- "" --•-' -- ''-' 

id Four Tinlcd PLues. CoUmred bnardt, 31 " 

Bo-P«ep. A Book for tbe Little Ones. 


cbS gill. Kill edges. 51, 
L Original Stories and Vcn 

and CDloun 

Yearly Vol. Eligaal picIUR boArdt, n. 6d. ; doih. 
Beyond ths Bloe Hoontaina. B; L. T. Me^de 
The Peep Ol Day, Cassdl's Illustraied Edition, as. 6d. 
Hagele Bteele'a Diary. By E. A. Dellwyn. a^ 6d. 
A Sunday Story-Boolc By Maggie Browne. Sah Bkowne, and Ai;nt 

A Bimdle of Tales. By Maggie Browne. SauBbowne,&Aunt Ethel. 3s.6d. 
Story Foema for Toudk and 014. By E. Davenport. 3E. 6d. 
Fleaaant Worli for Bney Fingers. By Maggie Browne. Illusirated. 5s. 
Bom a King, By Frances and Mahv Abnold-Forster. IllusttBied. is. 
HaglD at Home. By Prof. HOFFMAN. Fully lUnstratrd. A Series of easy 
and >linlinE Conjuring Tricks Tar Beginnen. Cloth glil, js. 6d. 

Bohoolroom and Home Theatriiaila. By Arthur Wai/gh. With Illustra- 

ilon.i by H. A. J. Miles, aoll-. ji. 6d. 
Little mothar Bunch. By Mrs. Molesworth. Illustrated. Cloth, 35. 6d. 
Heroee of Bvery-Day Lit*. By Laura Lane, With about 20 Full-page 

. i.56pj 

Sbipa, Sailors, and the Sea. By R. J. Corn e wall-Jones. Illustrated 

ihiDUelioul.iind containing BColauitd Plate DrNavalFlagi. Clicafi EditiBX, ». fd. 
Gift Books for Yonag People, By Popular Authors. With Four Original 

Bj Junie H«b« 

" CioBB and Crown" Beriea, The. With Four Illustrattona in 

Albums for Children. Price 33. 6d. each, 

"Wanted— a SIhe" Seriea. Ciieap EdUion. Illustrated 

BoMn-sHidB, Eymiino.DavoBponAda;!!!. | WMted-m King ; dt 
r«r^T£SlilOt£rLMiar"^luii^'G?i- B.™V 

SiUciumi from CaiuU i- Company-! Publkalions. ^^^| 

Crowa 8vo Library. Cheaf Edithns. 

Animid end About Old BmIbuL B, C, 

ThTBe-ana-Elzpeniir Boom lor YonnB Peopla. With Original lUustratioM. ^^M 

• Beehfol riTlMC. By U T. MEADE. Ted ; or - Qattlng Xven - wlUl Hiin. t^ ^^^| 

• Tbe WlUle HDoae et Inoh Oow. By Sinh Toe Fonone end aiory. ^^^H 

Books marked thus + can also be had in extra cloth gilt, gilt edges, 5s. eai^ ^^^^H 

Books by Edward 8. Ellis. lUusirated. Clotb, 2s. 

TUe Huntsr. ol me fyoLn.. > Tho Leet W»r TcmlL 

s.'S'a'sia""-- ^H 

Slzpaimy Story Boolu. 

By well-known Wrilers. A 

lUusIrated. ^^H 

■ OasieU-E Piotnie Story 

■ Linle Telk.. 

1 i^ 


« pages. 6d. each. ^^H 
Itewdrop HCnrloi. 

1 niQBtrated Boolu for t] 

1 lllusmtcd. 15. c^ch; 
atoil>i end f lOCoro for 

ae Little Ones. Coniaini 
xclDihsiU, IS. frd. 

S inieresling Stories. All 

Our PrMtj Pete. 

Our Solio older Hoiin. 

CTBamroB T.mB. 

Our Sundav StottM. 
Our Holiday Horn.. 

Interesting Storia. 

mming 8U>iTBoOk& A 

CuSnSd et LMt. and Hoy-e 
TboM Sm Tmalee. 

Jl Illustrated, and containing 

Blgbtaenpaiuiy Story Bo< 


kl. AU lUuBlralcdlhrough 
HuSln. B.CS1... ud the 

Selections from Casstll i Company's PublUations. 
"UttlS Folk<" Painting Books. With Text, and Outline IllustTBtians (or 

PmJU "Jid BlDuonw for -' LiHlB folk*" I Tlio "LlBIo S'olk*" Proimb EiintiaE 
to Pftint. I " — ■- .^i-'^— I" — 

Ubnrr □[ Wondarft. Illustrated Gifi-books for Bo 

Wonden of Bodllr BtHntrtli u 
The "World la Flcturei" SuriM. lUustmled ihn 

Tll« Iiuid of tbe PyT&mldM rffsjrptl. T^e Lqod oT Ten»)lei llndlHl. 

Olmp Editions Of Fopnlir Tolumss for Totmg People. lUustrated. 21. 6d, 
Two-HUUlns Btory Books. All Illustrated. 

I The TnuniKail In Ibe Bittle at LlfS. ■r 

nell'i PlctoTlal Sciap Book. In Six ^cii 

aks for the LitOe Dnas. Fully lllusirRted. 

1 Volumes. Paper boards. 

: Thg Old PUry Tile 

I Its micy. With Tin 

OlukHlI'B SwlH Fmmily 

ih. ?^ ed. I ^ edges. ^ 

The World's Workers. A Series of 

ClmFlBB Hoddou BpurffeOEi. By C HoTden 
l>r, Arnold of E"?''?; °' """ ^ ^'''°- 
Bmh Babliuaii. AsruirWeitan. uid Kn. 

Itn. SomarvUle «nQ M«ry OarpeiUBr. 
(^tamrlefl Dickana. 
noronoe mffhtLn^ala, C&tliarllia lOkrab, 

and Original Volumes by Popular 

CjMorn KuQbt Hid' Afl 
SinluTd Cobdeo.