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Full text of "Crabb's Handy cyclopaedia, or, An explanation of words and things connected with all the arts and sciences"

UCSB LIBRARY 



C/l'fct t cr/^ '"^ Y /^/ 



CRABB'S 

Handy Cyclopaedia 

OR, 

AN EXPLANATION OF WORDS AND THINGS 

CONSECTED WITH 

ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 

llluttrattd taith over 500 Engravings. 

By GEORGE CRABB. A.M.. 

AUTHOR OF " BNGUSH SYNONYMS," " TECHNOLOGICAL OtCTIONAKV," AHS 
"HISlORICAt DICnOVARY " 




Mercury giuded by Minerva, bearing Science round the World. 



NEW EDITION, WITH THE LATEST IMPROVEMENT» 



NEW YORK; 
HURST & CO., PUBLISHBRB, 

122 Nassau Street. 



Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive 

in 2007 witli funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



littp://www.arcliive.org/details/crabbsliandyoycloOOcrabiala' 



h R E F A C E . 



This volume contains definitions of all terms of art 
and science, with such additional explanations in some 
cases as serve to illustrate something more than the 
bare meaning of the word. A work of this kind ca» 
not fail to be acceptable, particularly as it has been so 
liberally supplied with illustrations by means of en- 
gravings. Although small in bulk, it will be found 
to contain a vast number of words which are not to 
be met with in any other works whatever, the ex- 
planation of which is nevertheless highly necessary 
for those who are not in the constant habit of hear- 
ing them used in ordinary discourse. Of this descrip- 
tion are the Latin phrases now adopted into our lau- 
guage, as Sine qua non, Ne plus ultra, and the like. 
The historical essays on each science, which have 
been expnessly composed for the work, serve to show 



IT PEKFACE. 

the progress of the arts and sciences from tlie earliest 
periods to the present time. 

The present edition has undergone a careful revision, 
and such alterations and additions have been made as 
seemed necessary to render it complete. In the depart- 
ment of Natural History, many errors have been cor- 
rected, and many articles, particularly relating to the 
Zoology of the Western Hemisphere, have been added. 
The Zoological arrangement of Cuvier, which has 
nearly superseded that of Linnaeus, is here introduced. 
It having been omitted in the oriijiQal edition. 



CRABB'S 

Handy Cyclopaedia 



ABA 

A, the first letter of the alphabet of all 
the kuowu lauguages, except the Ethio- 
pic, in which it is the thirteenth aud 
the Kunic iu which itis the tenth. It 
stands for the indefinite article as, a 
man ; for the sixth note iu the gamut, 
for the first of the dominical letters in 
the calender, as a numeral for one among 
the Greeks aud 500 among the liomaus, 
or with a stroke over it A, 5,000, for an 
abreviation, as A. M Artiuui, Magister, 
Master of Arts, A. D. Ante Meriduui.etc. 

A. A. A. In Cliemistry etaads for Al- 
magam or Amalgamation. 

A. 1. A mark to denote a ship of the 
first-class, as to newness aud being sear 
worthy. 

AiVM. A Dutch measure of liquids, 
varying from 35 to 41 English gallons. 

AARD-VARK. An edentate animal, a 
native of Southern Africa. 

AARD-WOLF. A carniferous animal 
intermediate between the Civit and the 
Hyena. 

AAVORA. The fruit of a species of 
West Indian palm tree. 

AB. The Hebrew name of father. In 
the Jewish calendar, the 11th month of 
the civil year, aud the filth of the ec- 
clesiastical yefir, answering to a part of 
July and of August. In the Syriac cal- 
endar, Ab is the last summer month. 

ABABILO. A fabulous animal which 
has the feet of a dog and the beak of a 
bird, mentioned in the Koran. 
^^ABACA. A kind ot flax, which grows 
in the Philippine Islands. 

ABAOAY. The calangay, a species of 
parrot. 

ABACISCTTS. In archseology, any flat 
member, the square compartment of a 
Mosaic pavement. 

ABAC0S. An instrument for calcula- 
tion, consisting of a board of an oblong 
figure, divided by several lines or wires, 
and mounted with an equal number of 
balls arranged so as to express units, 
tens, hundreds, thousands, &c. The 
ball on the lowest line expresses 1; each 
of those on the second line, 10, &c. ; 



« » • • 
#-• 

• • • 

• • • 



those in the middle spaces, halfaa mucli 
as those on the lines above theiu. 



10000 
1000 
100 
10 

1 



ABADA. A species of large African 
Deer, which has two horns on its fore- 
head aud a third on the nape of its 
neck. 

ABBEVILLE FLINTS. Kude flint im- 
plements iu the form of spear-heads, 
&c., found in great abundance in the 
post-tertiary sands and gravels of the 
river Somnie near Abbeville, iu France. 

ABDALAVI. The Egyptian melon. 

ABDALS. Certain religious fanatics 
in Persia and other Mohammedan coun- 
tries, who occasionally rush into the 
streets, and attempt to kill all they 
meet who are of a different religion to 
themselves. 

ABDERITE. An inhabitant of Abaera, 
in Thrace. Democritus is called from 
being a native of this town, and as he 
was much prone to laughter, foolish or 
incessant laughter has been termed 
abderian. 

ABELLANS, ABELONIANS, or ABEl^ 
ITES. In church history, a sect which 
arose in Africa during the reign of Ar- 
cadius ; they married, but lived in con- 
tinence, after the manner, as they pre- 
tended, of Abel, and attempted to main- 
tain the sect by adopting the children 
of others. 

ABERRATION. A small apparent mo- 
tion in the fixed stars, discovered by 
Mr. Molynenx and Dr. Bradley in the 
year na,"); also a deviation of therays of 
light, when inflected by » speeiUam by 



2 ABS 

which they are preventi-d meeting in the 
lanie [hiimi. 

A B E'lTOR. One who instigates another 
to commit a crime. 

ABEYANCE. The expertancy of an 
estate, honour, or title. 

ABJURATION. A declaration on oath, 
cilJit the son of Jaiiieii II. aail his issue 
have no riglit to the .hron« of Great Brit- 
ain ; also a voluntary banishment, or leav- 
ing the realm on oalli never to return. 

ABLACTATION. A sort of engrafting 
trees, hy leaving the gnift <m its proper 
suicli, until it be fully incorporated with 
the new stock. 

ABLATIVE. The sixth case of noiin« in 
graMiinar. 

ABLUTION. A religions ceremony of 
washing the body, still used by tlie 'J'nrks 
and Mahonierians ; also the washing away 
the 8n(>ertluoi:8 salts out of any body in 
rhrmiatry. 

AUOLLA. A kind of military garnvent 
«vnrn by the Greek and Roman scildiers. 

ABOAJASUS (in Comparative Ana- 
tomy). The fourtli stomach uf ruminating 
animals. 

ABOBIGI.NES. The ancient and origi- 
nal inhabitants of Italy, supiiosed to h.-.ie 
b«en conducted into I^atiuin by Saturn ; 
also the original inhabitants of any country. 
In America we call tlie native Indiar.j, 
Aborigines. 

ABOUT. A sea term, signifying the sit- 
uation of a ship Immediately after she hii." 
tacked. 

ABRAUM. A kind of red clay used by 
cabinet' makers to deepen the colour of 
new niohugany. 

ABREAST. Side by side; a sea term, ap- 
plied to two or more ships ranged together. 

ABRinGI.NG (in Algebra). The re- 
ducing a compound equation to a more 
•iinple form. 

ABRIDGMENT. The bringing the con- 
tents of a book within a short compass ; in 
l<nw, the shortening a count or declaration. 

ABSCESS. An intlammatory tumour 
containing punilen matter. 

ABSCISSE. The part of any diameter 
or BXi.^ of a curved line, cut off by a per- 
pendicular line, called the ordinate. 

ABSOLUTION. The forgiveness of 
■ins, which the Romish Church claims to 
•self the power of granting;in Civil Law, 
a sentence whereby the party accused Is 
declared Innocent of the crime laid to 
hti charge. 

ABSORBENTS. Medicines that have 
the power of drylngup redundant humours; 
•l<io what causes acids to elfenreKe, as 
quirk line, soda, Slc. 



ACC 

ABSORBENT VESSELS. Ve^ssls 
which ciirry any fluid into the blood, aa 
the inhalent arteries. 

ABSORPTIO.N (in Chemistry). Th« 
conversion of a gaseous tluid into a liquid 
or solid, on being united with some other 
solid. 

A IISTERGE.NTS. Medicines for cleans- 
ing the body from impurities. 

AB^TINE.N'CE. An abstaining from 
meat diet, as practised in tlie Uiiml&h 
Clinrcli. 

ABSTRACTION (in Logic). The Intel 
Icctual act of seiiarating accidents or <iua- 
lities from the subjects in which they re 
site, as whiteness from stow or a wall, 
&,c. ; animal from man or the brutes ; in 
Chemistry, the process of drawing otT by 
distillation any part of a compound, and 
returning it again any number of times tc 
be redistilled. 

ABUTMENTS. The extremities of any 
body adjoining another, as the extremities 
of a bridge resting on the banks or sidM 
of a river. 

ABVSS. Any deep place that is bottom- 
less, or supposed to be so, as the deepest 
or unfathomable parts of the sea. 

ACACIA. A beautiful shnib, a species 
of which bears ro.se-coloured llnwers. A 
tborny shrub of this name is common in 
tb» deserts of Asia and Africa, and pro- 
duces gum Arabic. 

ACADEMICS. A sect of ancient philo- 
sophers ; Uie term is stnnetimes applied to 
the followers of Socrates and Plato. 

ACADE.MV. A scluxil or college for the 
improvement of arts and science, so called 
from the grove of Acndemus in Athens, 
where Plato kept his school of philosophy. 
The first modern school of this name is 
said to have been established by Charle- 
magne at the instance of AUuin, an Eng- 
lish monk. This was followed by the 
AcademiaSecretorum Natura!,esiahllsl/ed 
at Naples by Baptista Porta in l.i69, and 
the Academla Lyncei at Rome, Sec. 

ACA.NTIIUS (in Botany). Bearsbreech, 
or Brank Ursine, a plant, the leaves of 
which resemble those of the thistle ; in 
Architecture, an ornament repre.senting 
the leaves of the ancient acanthus, and 
.used in the capitals of the Corinliiian and 
Composite orders. 

ACCELERATION. Increased velocity 
of motion, particularly applied to falling 
bodies tending towa.> i- the centre of the 
earth by the force of gravity. 

ACCENT. The raising or lowering of 
the voice in pronounrliig certain woras of 
syllables; also the marks on tae woram at 
syllables, oa tlie acute accent marked tniM 



ACE 

('), the grave accent thus ('}, the clreum- 
llex thus ('). 

ACCEPTANCE. The signing or sub- 
•crihing a hill uf exchange with the word 
'acce|>te(i,' and one's name, by which the 
acceptor obliges liimself to pay the con- 
tents of the bill. 

ACCESSARY, or ACCESSORY (in 
I.aw). One guilty of an otTence, not prin- 
cipally, kilt by participation. 

ACCIDE.'.'i'E. The niles of the inflex- 
ions of nouns and conjugations of verbs 
arranged in grammatical order. 

AC<:inE.\T. That which belongsacci- 
dentally. not essentially, to a thing, as 
jweetncss, softness. &c.; 'n Grammar, the 
.ermination of wonls. 

ACC I PITR ES. 'J'he first order of birds, 
tiaving an angular •oothlike process on the 
apper mandilile. as the vulture, falcor; 
3wl, tec. 




ACCr,AMATrO\. A shouting in con- 
cert, which was practi-^ed among the Ro- 
mans as a token of applause, particularly in 
the theatres. 

ACEPHALOCT3T. A genus of Euto- 
soa or intestinal animal which has the 
appearance of a simple bladder, ■without 
any visable organs. 

.\CELDAMA. In Hebrew, the field of 
blood ; a field said to have lain south of 
Jerusalem, and thus called, because i>ur- 
chased with tho bribe which Judas took 
for betraying his Miister. 

ACEPH.\l.A.X, or.\OEPHAlA. A class of 
mollnsoa having no head, as the oyster, 
scallop, mussel, kc. .\lso, an order of 
insects. 

ACEPHALI, or ACEPH.U.ITES. In 
ecclesiastical history, a name given to 
several sects who rcjfused to follow 
some noted leader : al«o, to churchmen 
who were under no bishop. In Eng- 
lish history, certain levellers in the 
reign of Henry I. who acknowledged no 
head or superior. In old law, men who 
held lands of no particular lords, that 
is, not i n fee. 
ACETATES. A kind of salts fonn«d 



ACT S 

hy the cnmbinalinn of acetic acid with a 
salitiable base, as the M'-etate of piitasb. 
**^CETIC ACID. KadicAl vinegar, oi 
the strongeit acid of vinegar. 

ACHRO.MATIC. Colnuriess, a ti-rm 
applied to telescopes which w«-re first con- 
trived by Dr. Bevis, to remedy the aberra- 
tions of colour. 

ACIDIKIAKLE. An epithet signifyms 
capable of being con\'erted into an acid by 
an acidifying principle ; an acidifiablebase 
or radical is any siihstnnce lliat is capable 
of uniting with smli a iinantity of oxygen 
as to iKjcoine possrsseil of acid properties. 

ACIDS. Substances which are in tastfc 
sour, chaiigi- blue vegetable colours to red, 
and combine with all (lie alkalis, and most 
of the metallic oxiiies and earths, so as to 
form the compounds called suits. .Acids are 
dislingiiislied accord ins to the proportion of 
oxygen which they contain, "iv the termina- 
tions I'e and cnu, as nitric acid, and nitrons 
acid, sulphuric acid, and sulphurous .ncid, 
the former of which denotes the larger dose 
or (tortion of oxygen, and the latter the 
smaller ; when the syllable hypo is added 
to either of these, it denotes a degree below 
it in |Hiin> <if <'vidi/ement,as hy|MisiiIphuric 
acid, an intTnitdiate between the sulphur- 
ic and the sulphurous acid. 

ACONITE, WoLf^BAfTE, or Monks- 
hood. A plant, the flower of which resem- 
bles the hood of a monk j it is a violent 
poison, 

ACOUSTICS. That branch of science 
which treats of the nature and modifica- 
tions of sou ml. 

ACQUITTAL. A deliverance or setting 
free from the suspicion of guilt, as where 
a person, on the verdict of a jury, is found 
not gniliy. 

ACaUITTANCE. A written dischargi 
for a sum of money that lias been paid. 

.ACRE. A measure of land containing 
four sipiare roods, or IfK) square pole? of 
,1 yards and a half, or 4840 square yards. 
The French acre is equal to one an4 a 
quarter of an English acre. 

ACROSTIC. A set of verses, the firnt 
letters of which compose some name, title, 
or motto. 

.ACTION (in Physics). The pressure i 
percussion of one body against another 
By a law of nature, action and reaction 
are equal ; that is, the resistance of the 
body moved is always equal to the forc« 
communicated to it. 

ACTION (in Rhetoric). Tho carriafe 
and motion of the body, and the modiila 
tion of the speaker's voice in deltverini 
an nddreae 



ACTINIA. A genns of Acalephans or 
polvpes, whicli have a soft fleshy body, 
frequently ornamented with bright 
colors, and numerous tentacles or rays 
extending from their mouth, or centre, 
hke th^, petalsof a double flower; and 
h.!noe tliny have the popular names of 
Hji-anemones and animil-flowers. 

ACriNOLITE. In mineralogy, ray- 
stone ; a bright green variety of horn- 
bleade, otrcurring usually in glasi^y, 
prismatic crystals, an I also fibrous.— 
.Ictiuoliteschist, a metamorphic rock, 
c insisting chiefly of a-tinolite, with a 
mixturo of mica, quartz, or felspar. 

ACTTINOMETER. An instrument for 
mrisuring the intensity of the sun's 
rays. 

iVDANSONIA. The Ethiopian sour 
gourd, monkey's bread, or African cala- 
bash-tree. It is considered to be the 
largest of trees. It seldom exceeds 18 
feet in height, but its circumference is 
often upwards of 75 feet. 

ADAl'I.S. An extinct pachydermatous 
animal, resembling a hedge-hog. 

ACUPl NC'rURATKnV. A iiiethodof 
bleedine, in use among the C'liineiie and 
Ja|iane«w, l>y iimkiriK piinrtiires or pricks 
with a pold or silver needlf in any part of 
Uif iKidy. It is chiefly einployeii in head- 
aches, convulsions, lelhar|!ii-s, &.c. 

A. D. Anno Domini, In the Year of our 
L<ird. 

ADAGIO. Softly, leisurely ; a term in 
music books, denotinf! the lowest time ex- 
c*-]A the grave, a.f adagio, adagio.' 

ADAMANT. The hardest sort of dia- 
mond. 

ADAMANTINE SPAR. A sortof earth 
brought from India and China, that is of 
the hardness of adamant. 

ADDRR. A small |)oigonoiis serpent 
with plaits on the belly, and scales under 
the tail ; it is not rare in Britain. 

ADDITION. The first i.f the four fun- 
damental rules in arithmetic, whereby sev- 
eral small sums are added or collected into 
one that is larger. 

ADHEHIO.N. The property of certain 
bodies to atlact other bodies to themselves, 
»r the force by which they adhere to each 
other. Adhesion denotes a nnidii to a cer- 
tain point between two distinct bodies ; 
cohesion, the union nfthe parts of the same 
body so as to form one mass. 

AD INFINITUM. Indefinitely, or to 
infinity. 

ADIPOCERR. A sultstance resembling 
•permaceti, which is formed from an ani- 
mal in its progress towards decomposition. 

ADIT. The shaft or entrance into a 
mine. 

ADJECTIVE. Apwrtofspeechlngram- 
msr, which It added to a noun to qualify 
tM itgnificatlon, as bitter, iweet, b.c. 



AOV 

ADJI'TANT. One wlioassisls a sup» 
rior ofticer li. .i regiment; the adjutant-gen- 
eral assists the general with his coiinsn. 
and personal service. Also a very large 
bird of the heron species, toininon in India 
and New Holland. 

AD LIBITUM. Atplea-xure 

ADMEAs^URKMENTun Law.) A writ 
against those who us.irp more than llieJf 
own share, as the Admeasure^'ein of l'a»- 
ture, or the Admeasi-en'ent o; Dower. 

ADMIM.STRAI'OR i.n Law). T.'x 
person to whom tHe estate and effects of 
an intestate are otiinmilied, lor which he 
Is to be accountable when required. 

ADMINICUIiUM. In natural history, a 
term applied to the abdominal semi- 
circular row of teeth, which enables 
certain subterranean insects to force 
their way to the surface. 

ADMETUS. In Mythology, a King of 
Pherae, in Thessaly, and one of the Ar- 
gonauts who was at the hunt of the 
Calydonian boar. 

ADNA. In malacology, a term applied 
to those cut-shaped shells found at- 
tached to stones on the sea-coast ; a 
genus of Balani or Barnacles. 

ADNASCENT. In botany, growing to 
or on. 

ADNATE. Growing close to a stem. 

ADMONITIO FUSTIUM. A puniih- 
ment among the Romans, which consisted 
in tieating the ofleiider with vine branchM. 

ADONAI. 7'he name of Jehovah 
among the Jews. 

ADONIS. A beautiftil youth, the fa- 
vourite of Venus, who was killed by a 
wild boar. 

ADOPTION. A practice among the 
Greeks and Romans, of making a [XTSon 
one's heir, and investing liini with all the 
rights and privileges of a son. 

AOOKATIO.V. A mode of reverence or 
worship anciently shown to the gods by 
raising the right hand to the mouth, and 
gently applying it to the lips ; also, in gen- 
eral, any oiitwanl sign of worship, by 
kissing the hand or feet, walking barefoot, 
and the like. 

AD VALOREM. According to ^he 
value. 

ADVANCE (in Commerce). Monr» 
|iaid before good.t are delivered, worl^ 
done, or any consideration given. 

ADVANCKD-GUARD, or Vak-ooard 
(in the Military Art). The first linn o# 
division (>f an army ranged or marchin| 
in order of battle. 

ADVENT. The coming of our Sjiviour; 
also the festival cnmmeinorative of the 
Advent, which falls ab<mt a month befors 
Christmas. 

Ai)V£RB. A port of ipeech in f/nm 



AER 

■w, added to a verh to complete its sig- 
nification, an largely, neatly, &.c. 

ADVEKSAKIA. A leriiiHiiiniig literary 
men for a coiunion-place Uxik, » Herein 
iliey enter whatever ticciirs to llieiii in 
reading or conversation tliat is worthy of 
utiliee. 

AnVKRTISEMENT. Any printed pub- 
.icalion «if circiiiiistanres, either of public 
or private interest, particularly that inser- 
ted ill (he iiews|>a|ieiM. 

ADULT (in Civil |j»w). Any person be- 
tween the ages of fourteen and twenty- 
live. 

ADULTERATION. The debasing of 
the coin by the mixture of impure metals ; 
also the dehiising and curriipling any arti- 
cle of trade by puttin<; imprnjwr ingredients 
in it, as is done verj' frequently . 

.\DYTUM. The inner and most sacred 
part of the auoieut heathen temples. 
None but the priests were permitted to 
enter it, and irom thenoe the oracles 
were delivered. The Jewish Holy of 
Holies was a similar part of the Temple 
of Jerusalem. 

ADVOWSON (in Law). A right of pre- 
sentation to a vacant church or beiielice. 
He who possesses this right is called the 
patron of the living. 

i£DILE. A Roman magistrate who had 
the charge of all public buildings, partic- 
ularly temples and theatres, also of all 
(t'eets, bigtiways, ice. 

/EGIS. A shield, particularly Jupiter's 
•bield. 

jEN'EID. The title of Virgil's poem, in 
which be celebrates the adventures of 
JEneas. 

.«:OLlAN HARP. A number of strings 

so disposed as to produce a set of musical 

times by the action of the wind ii|)on them. 

iEOLIC DIALECT. One of the five 

dialects of the Greek tongue. 

jEOLIPILE. a hollow metal ball with 
a slender pipe, used to show the converti- 
bility of water into steam 

iERA, or ERA. Any date, period, or 
e» *nt from which a calculation of years is 
made to roniinence. The principal a-ras 
are the vulgar, or Christian am, dated 
from the birth of our Saviour; the «era of 
the rreation, dated by Usher and most 
cbronologists 4(104 years before the vulgar 
Km ; the lera of the Olympiads, d.ited altout 
776 years before the vulgar lera ; the lera 
of the building of Rome, according to Var- 
n, is 7M yeari before Christ ; tlie ffra of 
Nabonassar, so dated from Nalionassiir 
Ihe first king of Babylon, 747 years before 
Christ ; the tera of the Hegira, or the .Ma- 
hometan Kra, dated from the hegira or 
tifjai of Alaboniel from Mecca, dated 
I* 



AER ft 

about 623 years alter Christ, or the vulgar 
lura. 

AEROLITES. Air stones, or meteoric 
stones I'Uliiig from the atiiinsphere. These 
areseniiinetallic siilisiaiii'«s, tlin descent of 
which, though nieiitionrd sevenil times in 
history, has not been authenticated until 
these few years. The fail is, however, by 
recent and frequent observations now put 
beyiuid all doubt. Two showers of stone, 
are recorded by Li\'y and Julius Oltsequtina 
to have hapiiened at R<iuie in the reign of 
Tiilliw llosliliiis, and iliiringlhe consulate 
of C. Martiusand .M. Ton|iiaius ; a shower 
of iron, ill L'.icaiiia, iiientioned by Pliny, 
and a shower of mercury by Dion. Among 
the moderns, Cardeii speaks of about 1-2,000 
stones, one of l'20 ll>s. another of tiultts. that 
fell at Padua in Italy, in I.'ilOi Gassendi, 
of a stone of 59 lbs. on .Mount Vaiser in 
Provence ; Muschenbrock of two large 
stones in Ireland ; St. Ainand de Baiidin 
and others of a great shower of stones in 
the environs of Agen, in 1790 ; the earl of 
Bristol of twelve stones at Sienna in Tus- 
cany, in 1794 ; captain Tophaiii of a stone 
of .Vi lbs. at Wold Cottage in Vorkshu-e, 
in 179.5; Dr. Southey of a slmie of 10 lbs. 
in Portugal, in I79(>; Pliilosopliical Maga- 
zine, of a mass of iron 70 culnc feel, in 
America, in lt<00 ; and M. Fourcroy of 
several stones from 10 lbs to 17 lbs. that fell 
near L'Aigle in .\ormaiidy, besides other 
instances equally well attested. The largei 
sort of these stones have l,eeii seen as lumi- 
nous bodies to move with gre.it vehicily, 
descending in an oblique direction, aod 
fretpieiitly with a loud hissing noise, re- 
semhliiig that of a nionar shell when (.."►- 
jected from a piece or ordnance. AIhki! 
the year 1807, a liiinliioiis iHidy of this 
kind passed over Coiiiirrticut, and explo- 
ded with a loud noise like thunder, and 
large masses of stones fell in Weston in 
that state, specimens of which are in thf 
Cabinet of Vale Collet:e. Though ditTer- 
ent fnun every other known terrestrial sub- 
stance, yet these stones perfertly resemble 
each other, having the same apftearance 
of semimetallic matter, coated on the out- 
side with a thin black iiirriistatiun, and 
being in their chymical composition very 
similar. The stone which fell at L'.Aigle 
ill France, in 180U, was found to ctmtain 
of silica 54 parts, oxyde of iron 36, mag- 
nesia 9, oxyde of nickel 3. sulphur 2, lim« 
I i their specific gravity is also nearly th« 
same, being alniut 3 and a half that of coin- 
mon water. 

AERONAUT. One who sails or floala 
in the air in a balloon. 
AEROSTATION. The nK>dem ut •< 



AEROSTATION 



laiclns i>nil'>*-f into and nr.vipating the air, 
kj tiiearia <if rarf lifil air collected within 
ail envelope, cmiiiMorily calleJ a balloon 
(see liiLLOiiN). 

AEROSTATION, Histort of. This 
irt is founded on the principle that any 
body which is 8|iecifically liyliter than tlie 
lUaospheric air will lie hwoyed up by it 
and ascend ; a principle which had donbt- 
tess long been known, althoiigh the appli- 
cation of it to any practical purpose is 
altogetliera modern invention. It is true 
that we read of the attempt which was 
made by Daidaliis and his son Icarus to 
pass through the air by means of artificial 
wings, in which the Ibrnier is said to have 
■ucceeded, but tliis is commonly reckoned 
among t.'ie fables of the ancients. Ur.Black, 
in his lectures in 17tJ7 and \~('iS, was the 
first who, al\er Mr. Cavendish's discovery 
of the specilic gravity of intlanimable air, 
threw out the siiggestiiKi that if a bladder, 
nufHcteutly light and thui, were tilled with 
air, it would form a mass lighter than the 
lanie bulk of atmospheric air, and rise in 
h. But want of leisure prevented him from 
trying the experiment, the honour of which 
jelonged to Air. Cavallo, who communi- 
cated the res\ilt to the Kuyal Society, on 
the23tli of June in that year. After having 
oiade several unsuccessful experiments 
witli bladders and skins, he succeeded at 
length in making soap bulls, which being 
inflated with inflammable air, by dipping 
the end of a small glass tube, connected 
with a bladder containing the air, into a 
thick solution of soap, and gently compres- 
sing the bladder, ascended rapidly. These 
were the first sort of inflammable air bal- 
loons that were made. But while philoso- 
phers in Britain were thus engaged in ex- 
periments on this subject, two brothers, in 
France, Stephen and John Montgolfier, pa- 
per manufacturers of Annonay, had made 
rapid advances towards carrying the pro- 
ject inioexeciition. Theiridca wastofumi 
an artificial cloud by enclosing smoke in a 
floe Milk bag ; and having applied burning 
paper to an a)>«rture at the bottom, the 
air thus became rarefied, and the bag as- 
cended to the height of 70 feet. This ex- 
periment was made at Avignon, about the 
middle of the year 1782, and was followed 
by other experiments, all tending to prove 
the practicability (X th« scheme. An im- 
mense bag of linen, lined with paper, and 
containing upwards nf23,()00 cubic ft., was 
faund to have a power of lifting about ."iOO 
pounds, Including its own weight. Burning 
chopped straw and wool under the aperture 
ofthe machinecaused it to swell and a.<cend 
ki tbe apace of ten minutes to the height of 



6000 feet : when exiiausted, it fell to the 
ground at the distance of some thousand 
feel from the place where it ascended. In 
an ex|)eriment tried before the Academy 
of Sciences, a large balloon was made to 
lift eight persons from the ground, who 
would have been carried away had tha 
machine not been kept down with force 
On the repetition ofthe ex(x^rimeni befi>ra 
the king at Versailles, with a balloon near 
00 feet high and 43 iti diameter, a sheep, 
a cock, and a duck, the first animals that 
ever ascended in a balloon, were carried 
up aliout 1440 feet, and after remaining in 
the air about eight minutes, came to the 
ground in perfect safety, atthedistiinceof 
10,200 feel from the place of ascent. Em- 
boldened by this experiment, M. Pilatre 
de Rozier offered himself to be the first 
aerial adventurer. A new machine was 
accordingly prepared, with a gallery and 
grate, &.c. to enable the person ascending 
to supply the fire with fuel, anil thus keep 
up the machine as long as he pleased. On 
the l.'ilh of October, I7S3, M. Pilatre took 
his seat in the gallery, and, the machine 
being inilated, he rose to the height of 84 
feet, and, after keeping it afloat about four 
minutes and a half, he gently descended : 
he tl'H rose again to the height of 210 feet, 
anr .ne third time 2u2. In llie descent, a 
gust of wind having blown the machine 
over some large trees, M. Pilatre extricated 
himself by throwing straw and wool on the 
fire, which raised him at once to a sufli- 
cient height, and in this manner he found 
himself able to ascend or descend to a cer- 
tain height at pleasure. Some time alter, 
he ascended with M. Girond de Vilf Ite to 
the height of 330 feet, hovering over Paris 
at least nine minutes, in sight of a I the 
inhabitants, and the machine keeping all 
the while a steady |K>sltiou. In 1783, he 
undertook a third aerial voyage with the 
Marquis d'Arlandes, and in the space of 
twenty-five minutes went about five miles 
In this voyage tliey met with several diflTer- 
ent currents of air, the effect of which wan 
to give a very sensible shock to the machine 
They were also in danger of having the 
machine burnt altogether, if the fire liad 
not been quickly extinguished by means of 
a spimge. After this period aerostatic ma- 
chines were elevated by inflammable air en- 
closed, instead of lire, with which Messrs 
Roberts and Charles made the first exjieri- 
ment. In this case the bag was com|iosed 
of lutestring, varnished over with a solu- 
tion of elastic gum, called caoutchouc, nnj 
was about 13 English feet in diameter 
After being filled with considerable difli- 
culty, it .vai found to be 35 pounds ligbfei 



AEROSTATION. 



Jiaii an equal bulk ofnonimoii air. \\'itli 
this tliey asceiiilcil, and in three i|itnrters 
ol'aii lioiir tnivrrsfil lifteeii miles. Tlieir 
midiien descent was occa^jiuned l)y a rup- 
ture which hiipiteneil tu tiie macliine when 
it was at its greatest liei;;lil. On a subse- 
quent day tlie same genllenien made an 
accent In a bailnDU tilled with iutlummable 
air. This machine was formed of gores of 
silk, covered with a varnish of caoutchouc, 
ot a spherical figure, and measuring 27 feet 
b iiichet in diaineier. A net was spread 
ftver the upper hemisphere, and fajttened 
to a hoop wliich passed round the middle 
of the balloon. To this a sort of car was 
suspended, a few feet below the lower part 
of the balloon : and in order to prevent the 
burstingof the 'lachine, a valve was placed 
in It, by opening of which some of the in- 
tiaininable air might be allowed to escape. 
In the car, which was of basket-work, and 
covered witli linen, the two adventurers 
took their seats in the aflernixin of the 1st 
of December, 1763. At the time the bal- 
liKin rose the barometer was at 3U''. 18'. 
and it continued rising until the barometer 
fell to 27°, from which they calculated that 
tJiey had ascended GOO yards. By throw- 
ing out ballast occasionally they found it 
practicable to keep nearly the same dis- 
tance from the earth during the rest of their 
voyage, the mercury fluctuating between 
27" and 27* 65', and the thermometer be- 
tween 53° and 57° the whole time. They 
continued in the air an hour and three 
quarters, and alighted at the distance of 
27 miles from Paris, having sutfered no 
inconvenience, nor experienced any of the 
contrary currents described by the marquis 
d'Arlandes. M. Roberts having alighted, 
and much of the inflammable gas still re- 
maining, M. Charles determined on taking 
another voyage. No sooner therefore was 
thtt balloon thus lightened of 130 pounds of 
its weight, than it arose with immense ve- 
locity, and in 20 minutes was 9000 feet 
above the earth, and out of sight of all ter- 
restrial objects. The globe, which had be- 
come flaccid, now began to swell, and 
when M. Charles drew the valve, to prevent 
the balloon from bursting, the inflammable 
eas, whicli was much warmer than the 
external air, for a time diffused a warmth 
around, but afterwards, a considerable 
change was observable in the temperature. 
His fingers were benumbed with cold, 
which also occasioned a pain in his right 
ear and jaw, but the beauty of the prospect 
compensated for these nconveniences. 
The sun, which had been set on his ascent, 
became again visible for a short time, in 
eoniequence of the height which he had 



reached. He saw fora few fecon'Js vapot;n 
rising from the valleys and rivers. The 
clouds scerned to rise ft oin the earth, and 
collect one upon the otiier ; only their col- 
our was gray and obscure from the dimness 
of the light. By the light of the uuwn ho 
perceived tliat the machine was turning 
round with him, and that there were con- 
trar]' currents which brought him back 
again : he also observed with sur|)rise, that 
the wind caused his banners to point up- 
wards, although he was neither rising nor 
descending, but moving horizontally. On 
alightingin afield about three miles distant 
from the place where i)e set out, he calcu- 
lated that he had ascended, at this time 
not less than 10,500 feet. Hitherto all ex- 
(lerimeiits of this kind had been unattended 
with any evil consequences, but an attempt 
which was made to put a small aerostatic 
machine with nirefied air under an inflam- 
mable air balloon, proved fatal to the ad ven- 
turers, M. Pilatre de llozier and M. R<>- 
inaiiie. Their inflammable air balloon was 
about 37 feet in diameter, and the power of 
the rarefied air one was equivalent to about 
60 pounds They were not long in the aii 
when the inflammable air balloon was seen 
to swell considerably, and the aeronaut* 
were observed, by means of telescopes, tu 
be very anxious to descend, and busied iu 
pulling the valve and giving every possible 
facility of escape to the inflammable air, 
but, in spite of all their endeavours, th<> 
balloon took fire without any explosion 
and the unfortunate gentlemen were pre- 
cipitated to the earth at the height of almiit 
three quarters of a mile. M. Pilatre seem- 
ed to have been dead before he came to the 
ground ; but M. Komaine was found to be 
alive, allhougli he expired iminediately 
after. The ill success of this experiment, 
which had been made for the i>iirfM>se ol 
diminishing the expense of inflating tbs 
machine with gas, did not interrupt the 
progress of aerostation. Aerial voyages 
continued to be made on the old scheme 
The first trial in England was made by 
Vincent Lunardi, an Italian, on the 15tli 
of September, 1784. His balloon, the di- 
ameter of which was 33 feet, was made of 
oiled silk, painted in alternate stripes of 
blue and red. From a net, which Avent 
over about two thirds of the balloon, de- 
scended 45 cords to a hoop hanging below 
it, and to which the gallery was attached. 
Instead cf a valve, the aperture at the neck 
of the balloon, which was in the shape of 
a pear, served for admitting or lettmg out 
the inflammable air. The air for filling 
the balloon was produced from zinc, by 
means of diluted vitriollcar.W M ».—,«-• 



• AFF 

■Mtetided rnini the Artillery Ground, at two 
o'< liick, liitvjiig witji him a dot;, a cat, and 

• pigfdii. Me was obli;:ed to throw out 
•oiiie of hifi ballast, in order to clear the 
houNes, when he rnsm to a coiisiderahle 
beielit, proceeding firisl N. \V. by VV. and 
then nearly N. Ahonl lialf after three he 
descended very near the earlh, and landed 
Uie cat, which was l-all'deud with the cold; 
he then reascended by throwing out some 
more of his ballast, and ten minutes past 
four he alighted in a meadow near Ware, 
in Hertfordshire. His thermometer stood 
:n the course of his voyage as low as 21)". 
and he observed that the drops of water 
collected round the balloon were frozen. 
The second aerial voyage in England was 
performed by Mr. Blanchard, on the IGtIi 
of October in the same year, in which he 
was Rccom|ianied by Mr. Shelden, profess- 
or t>f anatomy at the Royal Academy, the 
first Kngli-shman that adventured in such 
an excursion. They ascended a few minutes 
past 12 o'clock, and after proceeding about 
14 miles beyond Chels^ea, Mr. Ulanchard 
landed Mr. Sheldon, reascended alone, and 
finally landed near Rum.sey, in Hampshire, 
about 75 miles from London, which was at 
the rate of about 2i> miles an hour. Mr. 
Blanchard ascended so high, that he felt a 
difficulty inbreathing; and a pigeon, which 
flew from the boat, laboured for some time 
to sustain itself, but was at length compel- 
led to return and rest on the btKit. 

Aerial voyages now became frequent in 
England and elsewhere, and afforded no- 
thing worthy of notice before the ascent of 
M. (inrnerin, in 1802, who undertook the 
singular and desperate ex|)eriment of de- 
scending by means of a panicliute. (See 
Parachute.) In this descent it was ob- 
aerved that the parachute, with the appen- 
dage of cords and the basket in which M. 
Garnerin had seated himself, vibrated like 
tbe pendulum of a clock, and at times the 
vibrations were so violent, that more than 
once the imracliute and the basket seemed 
to be on the same level, or quite horizon- 
tal, which presented a teirtftc spectacle of 
danger to the spectator. They diminish- 
ed, however, as M. Garnerin approached 
tlie earth, and he was landed in safety, 
though strongly affected with the violent 
•hocks that his frame had experienced. 
Various excursions have since been made 
by Mr. SaiJIer, Mr Green, and others. 

AETITES, or RAOi.E-tToNE. A stone ao 
called, becaure it was originally found in 
eagles' nntu. It is a sort of ore of a kid- 
■ey ihaiie, imbedded in iron-«hot clay. 

AFFEUTUOSU. In an aflecting style : 



AGE 

a term In music books at the he,(inninE <<( 
a movemeiii. 

AGALLOCH, or AGALLOCHUM. Aloes- 
wood, ttie product of a tree growing in 
China, and some of the Indian Isles. 
There are three varieties, the calambac, 
the commou lignum aloes, and the cal- 
ambour. The first of these is light and 
porous, and so flllod with a fragrant 
resin, that it may be moulded by the 
fingers ; the second is denser and less 
resinous ; and the third is the aloes- 
wood used by cabinet-makers, &c. 

AGALMATOLITK. A solt stone, a Bub- 
Bpecies of mica of various colors, which 
different mineralogists severally term 
Boap-stone, lard-stone, steatite, talc 
graphique, &c. It contains no magnesia, 
but otherwi.se has all the characters of 
talc. The best specimens are brought 
from China. It is used in that country 
in the manufacture of images. 

AGAMI. A remarkable bird, inhabit- 
ing the woods of Central America. It ia 
of the size of a large fowl, has a short 
tail, and long legs, and runs with great 
speed. It is sometimes otherwise cal- 
led the gold-breasted trumpeter. 

AGA'l K. A precious stone, nrsl found in 
Sicily ; it is a mineral composed of various 
f.ibstances, as cluilcedoiiy, cornelian, jas- 
per, &.C.; also a stone of the agate kind 
engraven by art, which constitutes among 
antiquarians a S|>ecies of gems. 

AGE. A certain (leriod or limit of time, 
marked for the convenience of chronology 
and histtiry by some remarkable evetits 
Clironologers comiii<mly reckon seven such 
ages, namely, 1. Prom the creation to the 
deluge. 2. From the deluge to the birtn of 
Abraham. 3. From the birth of Abraham 
to ttie de|iarture of the Israelites out of 
Eg.vpt. 4. From the departure of the Is- 
raelites to the building of the temple by 
Solomon. 5. From the laying the founda- 
tion of the temple to the reign of Cyrus in 
Babylon. 6. From the reign of Cyrus to 
tile coming of Christ. 7. Since the birth 
of our Savitmr. Clironologers are g«iuerally 
agreed its to the divii'.ing the time from the 
creation into seven ages, but they differ 
materially as to the time contained in these 
periods. The (xiets distinguished the period 
of the world into four ages ; namely, into 
the golden age, or the age of simplicity 
and happiness ; the silver age, which was 
inferior to the golden age in enjoyments; in 
this age man began to till the giound for 
their sustenance. In the brazen age strifes 
and contentions heg-.in, which, in the iron, 
were carried to the utmost extent, and 
accompanied with every evil that afntcta 
mankind. It is most prohahle that this no- 
tion of the four ages was taken from th« 
hiatuiy of the golden image, -aeen by NA- 



AGR 

•chadnpxznr In a dream, mpntioned in 
Daniel, hy wliicl) tlie first nionarcliy was 
lenottrd llie golden ime, the gecunU silver, 
the ihird brazen, and the fourth inm. The 
Greeks, who derived their nijtholoR)' from 
the Egj'ptians, doubtless gathered this idea 
from the same source, and wrought it into 
a fable by the ingenuity of llieir poeu. 

AGE. A term in law for those special 
Smes which enable men and women to do 
ihat which tuey could not do before ; thus, 
In England, a man may take the oath of 
allegiance at twelve years of age, is at the 
age of discretion at fourteen to choose his 
guardian and contract a marriage, and is 
at full age at twenty-one. A woman at 
the age of nine is dowable, at twelve may 
confirm her consent to ma'riage, at four- 
teen may receive her land into her own 
hands, and at twenty-one may alieitale 
her lands and tenemejits. The laws in 
the United States, are similar. 

AGENT (in Law). A person empow- 
ered to act for another. 

AGENT (in Physics). Any thing having 
the power to act on another object, as cold 
or heat. 

AGGREGATE. An order of plants in 
the Kinneean system, having compound 
flowers with separate anthers. 

AGGREGATION (inChemistrj')- The 
adhesion of parts of the same kind ; as 
pieces of sulphur united by fusion form an 
aggregate. 

AGIO. A term used chiefly in Holland 
and Venice, to denote the difference be- 
tween the bank money and the current 
money, or cash; as when a merchant stipu- 
lates to receive for his goo('s 100 livres 
bank money or 105 cash, or current money, 
the agio is said to be 5 per cent. 

AGRICULTURE. The art of tilling tlie 
land according to certain ru)es of experi- 
ence and science. 

AGRICULTURE, Histort of. As the 
ground was, hy divine appointment, to fur- 
nish subsistence for man, and after his fall 
he was doomed to procure it by labour, 
husbandry, or the practical part of agricul- 
ture, was of necessity the first and most 
important occupation of the descendants of 
Adam; wherefore we learn from Scripture, 
that his two sons, Abel and Cain, were 
both employed in this manner, the former 
being a keeper of sheep, and the latter a til- 
ler of the ground. With what implements 
this work of tillage was earned (m, and 
what degree of art was employed In produ- 
cing the fruits of the earth. Is left to con- 
jecture ; but writers on those early periods 
•re generally agreed that the antediluvians 
wtrt !■ poMSMioii of inajy arti and inveiH 



AGR t 

tions which were in process of time lost, 
or at leant but ini|>erfrclly retaiTked anionf 
the differenl nations that were scattered 
abroad after the confusion of tongues 
Agricullurewasoneof Ihea ts which Noah 
and his |Misterity retained; for we tind that 
he cultivated the vine. Those of the line 
of Shem appear to have followed the breed- 
ing and feeding of cattle : but those of the 
line of Ham, who look iH>sse8sion of Egj |)t, 
applied themselves to the tilling of the 
ground, and with so much ingenuity, in- 
dustry, and success, that, owing to the in- 
undations of the Nile, and the consequent 
fertility of the soil, Egypt was enabled in 
the tiuMt of Abraham, and still uMire so in 
the time of Joseph, to supply its neighbours 
with corn during a period of famine. Nor 
were the inhabitants backward in assisting 
the liberality of nature: they busied them- 
selves in embanking, irrigation, and drain- 
ing, in order to derive all the benefits which 
the t>enigiianl river was cajKible of afford- 
ing them. These works are saiil to have 
l>een carried on with |)articular spirit under 
the auspices of Sesostris, 1800 years before 
the Christiar »ra. So sensible were the 
Egyptians nf the blessings wliich agricul- 
ture atforrted, that, in the bliudness of their 
7.eal, tliey ascritwd the invention of the .irt 
to their god Osiris, and the culture of bar- 
ley and wheat to their goddess Isis. 

The Pehvsgi, or atioriginal inhabitants of 
Greece, were among the number of tho.«e 
who lost all the primeval arts, and fed upon 
acorns and wild fruits, until they were led 
by the Egyptians, with whom they had an 
early communication, to the cultivation of 
the ground. Like them, l(«>, tliey placed 
their lienefactress Ceres, to whom they 
ascribed the introduction of corn, among 
the nuiiil>eroftheirdeities;a goddess whom 
authors agree was no othrt' than the Egyp- 
tian Isis. In the time of Homer, agricul- 
ture was in such esteem that King Laertes 
laid aside his royal dignity, that he miglit 
cultivate a few fields. Hesiod. the contem- 
porary of this author, has devoted a whole 
poem to the labours of the field in the dif- 
ferent seasons of the year. Of otlier writ- 
ings, among the Greeks, on agrit-ulture lit- 
tle remains except a Iretrtise hy .Xenophon 
on rural afhiirs, and scattered notices on 
the subject in the works of Aristotle and 
Theophrastiis ; but we learn from Varro, 
that there were In his time not less than 
fifty Greek authors to be consulted od 
agricultural maf">r. 

The Jews, a» i«cripttire informs us, ap- 
plied themselvM when they came into the 
land of Canaan, to the cultivation of ifce 
soil, havitii; each their territory allrtted I* 



«0 



AGKICULTURE. 



•ticm. We may also Infer, from the fre- 
quent allusion« to lliis subject in different 
parts iiftlir Old Testament, that liuHbHoilry 
formed tlieir prmci)ial occupation. The 
law* of iMosea have, many uf them, fur 
Uieir object the regulation ol their tiocki), 
their herds, and their lields. David culti- 
vated his own land, having officers to take 
charge of his Hocks, his herds, his camels, 
his asses, and his warehouses of wine and 
oil, Si.c. Elislia was in the field with 
twelve yoke of oxen when Elijah found 
bini. Besides the freiiuent mention of 
husbandry business in different jmrls of 
the sacred writings, as tl>« digging of 
wells, the planting of vineyards, tiie leas- 
ing, gathering in, threshing, siding, and 
winnowing of corn, with a number of 
other things of the like kind. 

That the Carthaginians did not neulect 
agriculture is evident from this, that they 
had writers on the subject, of whom a fa- 
mous general, Mugo, was one, who isi|Uo- 
ted by Varro. He wrote no less than twen- 
ty-eight books. It is probable that, under 
the auspices of these [leople, agriculture 
flourished in Sicily, wnich wasaUerwards 
the granary of Koine. 

. No subject engaged the uttenlion of the 
Romans more than agriculture, theoretical- 
ly as well as practically. They divided their 
time between war and husbandry; their 
greatest men in the early ages of tlie re- 
public, lieing einployeil alleriiutely in the 
one and the other. Cinciniiatus was taken 
from the pliMigh to fill the orhce of dictator; 
and Kegnlus besought the senate that he 
might return to his little farm for a short 
lime, to prevent it from being ruined. I'liiiy 
abserves, that the Romans ploughed their 
lields with the same diligence that they 
pitched their tents, and sowed their corn 
with a« much i^re as they raised their 
•nnies. When riches had introduced lux- 
ury, and artificial manners and habits, the 
labours of the field were performed by their 
•laves; but there remained many among 
Ihein of the higher orders who directed 
their personal atteiitinn to the subject. The 
writings of Cato the Censor, "irro, Pliny, 
Columella, and Palladins, aa well as those 
of the poet Virgil, abound with practical 
and useful observations on the whole round 
of farming business. Al the same time they 
ill agree in ln;iienting that agriculture was 
not p'.irKiied wUh the same zeal as formerly. 
I'lie great among the Romans had town 
housefi as well as villas, and living more in 
the for iier than in the laiter, the maiiase- 
Jwit of tneir farms was left to (heir haillffs 
m wrvanta. The oi, which was the prin- 
iJpai bcoit uf burden ^ntoiig the Egyptians, 



the Jews, and Grecians, was aljo hi{^} 
esteemed among the Koniani. Many diretr 
tions for the breeding, breaking, feeding, 
and working this animal are to be found 
in the writers al)ovemenlioned ; as also in 
regard to the iiiaiiageiiient of bees, which 
were highly prized. As to the implements 
of husbandry used among the Romans, the 
description of them not being illustrated by 
any representation, it is not ea-iy to speak 
precisely of them; but it is clear that they 
used the plough with and without wheels, 
with and wittiout boards, with and without 
coulters, also with shares of different coD- 
strurtions. A reaping machine is likewise 
spoken of both by Pliny and Palladius. 
which was driven by an ox ; but for the 
most part they cut their corn with the hand, 
either with the hook close to the ground, 
or only the ears with a curved stick and a 
saw attached to it, or otherwise they cut 
the stalks in the middle, leaving the stubble 
to be afterwards mowed. They threshed 
either with a machine composed ufrollerSi, 
or with rods or flails, or they trod it out 
with their feet. Haymaking was performed 
among the Romans much in the same man- 
ner as at present. Harrowing the corn woa 
particularly recommended by the Roman 
writers; who also sfieak of 'loeing, weed- 
ing, watering, draining, and following the 
ground, which was universal aniiuig them 
Agriculture shared the fate ot'all the other 
arts on the decline of the empire: from the 
time of Pliny to the tifleentli century, there 
is no work extant on the subject, except 
the UeoiMMiics, which was published by 
Constantine Pogoiiatus, and probably col- 
lected by the emperor himself. Crescenzio, 
a writer of Kologna, was the first who called 
the attention of his countrymen to this sub 
ject after this long iittervjil. His little work, 
which was collected from the Roman wri- 
ters, was followed by siuiie other Italian 
productiims: but probably nothing contri- 
buted more to give an im|iortance to agri- 
cultural pursuits than the introduction of 
the feudal system, which gave to every 
man a rank and distinction accordiiigtothe 
quantity of land he either (Missessed or oc- 
cupied; for not only the great lord, who waa 
the owner <if the >,.. 1, or reaped the fruita 
of it, but also his tenants, who cultivated 
it, were invested with political privileges 
that were enjoyed by no other memliers of 
the community ; and alUiough the feudal 
burdens and restraints have ceased, yet tba 
privileges and advantiigen attached to the 
possemion of landed pro[>erty still give It 
a (Kiraniount advaiitaite. Hence it Is, thai 
allies tne revival of the arts, the science of 
agrtcultura haa been sealoualj culUvatad 



AIR 

•» III* liigher orders. The writers likewise 
-.•n lliio siihjecl have within the last centu- 
ry been more numerous than at any former 
perittd ; ai>d every etfort has Iteen made 
oy evperiments, inventions, and improve- 
ment to rentier tlie land productive. Nor 
have tliese efforts been without elFect, for, 
notwithstanding the immense increase in 
the |x>piilatioii, tliere has l>een no such 
■carcity as we read of in former times. 

AGUE. An intermitting fever, witli hot 
and cold fits alternately. 

A(;<)L'TI. A South American animal, 
resenilihng a gtiineapig, havina the charac- 
ters of the rat kind, and the hair and voice 
ofthehi'!:. When provoked, it raises all 
the hair of its l>ack upright, and strikes the 
cartii Willi Its hinder feeu 




AGUAPECACA. The Jacana. a Brazil- 
ian bird about the size of a pigeon. 

AGRYPN0C05L\. The three-toed 
sloth ; BO named from its peculiar cry. 

AI.\. Brazilian bird of the Spoon- 
bUl kind. 

AlCUKUS. A large and beautiful 
species of parrot, found in Brazil. 

AILURUS. The panda, a carnivorous 
quadruped inhabiting the north of In- 
dia ; it is atUed to the racoon, about the 
size of a largo cat. and has a soft, thick 
fur, of a briUiant lulvoua red, on the 
upper parts. 

.\IR. An invisible, transparent fluid, 
which we constantly breathe, and which 
is essential to the support of animal 
and vegetable existence. It envelops 
the entire globe, and constitutes the 
atmosptiere tnat FniTouuds it. Air is 
81(3 times lighter than its bulk of water; 
1,003 cubic inches at the ordinary tem- 
perature and pressure weighing 305 
grains. It consists of about &0 parts, in 
bulk, of nitrogen, and 20 parts of oxy- 
gen, and about i»ne-thousandth part of 
carbonic acid. Air, when inhaled into 
the lungs, unites with the carbon of 
the blood, and forms carbonic acid, a 
process which produces the heat neces- 
sary to sustain the proper temperature 
of the animal system. — In zoology. Air- 
cells are membraneous receptacles com- 
municating with the lungs, and in 
birds extending through the different 
parts of the body, by which their spe- 
cific gravity is dimiaished. and they are 



ALA IJ 

rendered fitter for sustenation in the 
air. — In botany, air-cells are cavities ia 
the leaves and stems of certain alg», 
which render thom buoyant in water. — 
Air-plauts are orchideous plants which 
live for many months suspended in the 
air. — Air-vessels are spiral vessels or 
ducts in plants containing air, and sup- 
posed to answer the same purpose in 
the vegetable system as lungs do in th« 
animal. 

AlK-I'LT.MP. A iiiachine for exhausting 
the air cmt cf vessels, in the s.tme manner 
as water is drawn up by a pump. This 
celeUnited machine was invented by Otto 
de <;iirrJrke, consul of .Mapdeliurgh, who 
exhibited his lirsl piilitic experiiiients with 
tills instriiiMent before the Emperor and 
i^tates of (ieriiiany, at the breaking up of 
the Imperial Diet at KatislK>n, in the year 
Hi.'>4 : but his 4lescrlplion of the machliM 
was first published m lli72, at Amsterdaiu 
umler the title of Kxperinkenta nova Mag 
debiirjica de Vacuo Spatio. Before this 
imblicatinn, it ap|iearslhnt iMr. Boyle, who 
had piirticul.arly directed his attention to 
the study of pneumatics, a'so conceived a 
similar idea, which led .^l■. Hu«ike to as- 
crilie the invention to hiiii ; but .Mr. Boyle 
himself, ill a letter to his nephew. Lord 
Uiiiigarvon, expresses his acknowledgment 
for the discover; of this useful machine 
from what he had heard re|Hirted of it, al- 
though, as he adds, he had not, at that time, 
|)erused the account of it. <Jii hisliecoming 
acquainted with the m.icliiiie, he made 
many improvements ii|Hin it ; as did alXei>- 
wards Mr. Huuke and many ulbeni. 




AIR SHAFTS (in Mining). T?o»«» c* 
shads let down froiii the o|ien air to dis- 
charge the fiiul va|M>urs. 

AIK-VICSSKI.S. .^laral ducts or CAnal* 
in the leaves and other parts of plants, 
which are siip|M>sci| to supply them with 
air, after tlie niaiiiierof lungs in aniuials. 

AI.AI»A.<TKI<. A «oll kind of marbl* 
which is i>f a eranular texture, and of a 
white riibHir, ami hus a certain degree of 
traai<|>ureiicy. It is limuJ in Gemiaay 



It 



ALG 



Prance, and Italy, and la ua«d by sculptor* 
for ttatiir*. 

ALBATUOSri, or Man or W»h Rird. 
A lar|;e WHter fowl, vvhicli iiiliahita uiorft 
■ea^ hflwff .. ttit' tri<|iic8. 

ALIilN'iS Tin- Willie Mimre, so called 
by the I'orliiuiie!* , llit-y have ii;»xeii hair, 
blue r(>lliii|2 eyes, and a |Mle livid while- 
netis 

ALBUMEN. The whitenf an eeg, and 
any viscous tliiid withimt taste or smell that 
b like It, as llie serous |iarl ot' llie tilixid. 

ALKI'KM'M. 'I'hestirt while sulwlance 
n trees next t » (ht liber, or wilier hark. 

AM'IIF:M\ r^at obsolete branch of 
chyinistry which yi' for its object the 
:ransinutation of nietais into gold ; the 
findine the panacea, or universal remedy ; 
an,d some other Ihines e(|iially ridiculous. 

AIA'i >I|i )L. C'(uiiiiH>nly called spirit of 
wine, but oblniiied by distillation in a state 
more anient and |>uritied than that li(|uor. 
It is cliierty einjiloyed in (ireparing var- 
nishes, and dtssiilviii|> cuins, resins, &c. 
It« antiseptic power makes it useful in pre- 
serving anatomical prrpanttions. 

AIjCOK. a small siar, ailjoining the 
bright one in the middle of the tail of l/rsa 
Major. 

AU:ORA.\. SeeKoBAN. 

AI-DEBAKAN, or Thb Bull's Ete. 
A star of the first magnitude in the con- 
ctellatioM Taurus. 

ALDEK. A tree which thrives partic- 
Dlarly in moist places. The principal sorts 
of alder are the round leaved, or common 
alder, the liuiiileaved, and the dwarf alder. 

Al.ltKRiMA.V. A 8ii|><>rior jinlae, who 
In England sat with the liisliop in the coun- 
ty courts In (he time of the Saxons. The 
alderinaii is now a niajistrale next to tlie 
mayor in a city or iHirougli. 

A-LEE. A sea term, siunifying to the 
leeside, or side which the wind blows 
upon. 

Al.EMBK;. A vessel formerly used for 
distilling ; in the place ot which retorts are 
now mostly in use. 

ALEX A.N DRIVE. A verse in modem 
poetry consisting of ten, twelve, or thirteen 
syllables. 

ALGjK. a natural oriler of plants in the 
Llnnean system, coniaiinne flags, sea- 
weeds, and other marine plants, whose 
root, leaf, and stem are one. 

ALGEBRA. The science of computing 
abstract quantities by means of symlHils or 
signs. Il Is called S|iecious Arithmetic by 
Viela, and l/niversal Arithinelir by New- 
tor.. Tlie first letters of the alpJialwt, a, b, 
•, i. Sic. are mad»- to represent known 
juaninitw ; and tlie lant luOers x, j, i, to I 



ALG 

represent those that are unknown. The 
o|>erationi with these letters are |>erfi.rmed 
by means ol the chamciers (-+-) lor addi- 
tiiui, ( — ) for siihtraciion, (X) •"■■ "'"'t'l'" 
cation, (_!-) for division, (=j for eipialily 
ALGEBKA, I1i«torv ir. The terra 
alcebra is of Arabic original, and is deri- 
ved by some rriiiii algeatiar almocabaleh, 
sigirn'ying reslitiition and comikirison, ol 
resolution, which pro|ierly expresses llie 
nature of the thing: others have derived 
il fromCieber, a celebrated malliemaliciaii. 
This science is not of very ancient dale, 
although it is not (Hissible to tix the exact 
period oritscommencenient. The earliest 
treatise on tliis subject now extant is tiiat 
of Uiophantiis, a Greek author of Alexan 
dria. who flourished about the year 3.50, 
and wrote thirteen books of ArithmeticO' 
ruin, of which six mily are preserved. 
These b(M)ks do not contain the elementary 
parts of algebra, only some diflicult pro- 
Itlenis respect! n !: sipiare and cube numbers, 
and the properties of numliers in general, 
to which the writings of the more ancient 
authors, as Euclid, Archimedes, and A|hiI- 
loiiius might naturally besupiHised to have 
given birth. Whether the Arabians tisik 
their hints from tins and similar works 
among the (Jreeks, and drew out the sci- 
ence of algebra for themselves, or whether 
they more imniediately derived it, as'they 
dill their notation, from tho llondiHis, is a 
matter of doubt. It is certain, however, 
that the science was first transmitted by 
the yirabiaiis or Saracens to Eiiro|ie. about 
t*ie year 1 100; and that alter its introduc- 
tion the Italians took the lead in its culti- 
vation. Lucas Paclolus, or Lucas de Kiirgo, 
was one of the first who wruleiui llie sub- 
ject, and has left several treal ises, published 
between the years 1470 and l:'>09. In his 
principal work, entitled Suiiima Ariilinie- 
ticiB et GeruiietriiP l'ro|Mirlii>nuinipie Pro- 
portion.'ilitatiim, piiblished'tirsi in I4!M, lie 
mentions several writers, and particularly 
LeiMianlus l'is.tnus, otherwise called Bo- 
■lac.ri, an Italian merchant, who, i.i ih(> 
thirteenth century, used to Iniile to the sea- 
ports, and thence introiliired llie science of 
algebra into Italy. Aller Lucas de Riirgo, 
many other Italian writers took up th« 
subject, and treated it nM>re al large, nt 
Scipio Perreus, who found out a rule foi 
resolving one case of a coni|Hiiind ciiluc 
equation ; but more es|)ecially llieronyniiis 
Cardan, who, in ten bisiks pubiisheJ in 
1.5:J9-4.'>, has given the whole doctrine of 
cubic e<piations ; for part of which, h-<w«v- 
er, he w.is indeliied to .Nicholas Tartalea, 
or Tartaglea. nl Brescia, a c(>iitem|Mtrarr 
of Cardan's wh«i piiblishe 1 b b«ik uncuAV 



ALGEBRA. 



It 



•qiiat!on<i, entitled Q.iiesiu> Invenzioni di- 
verse, which apiieiired in 15U6. Cardan 
often uwd the literal notation ofa,b, e, U, 
tc, but Tartalea niaile no alteration in the 
fomis of expression used by Lucas de Bur- 
fo, calling the first |K>werof the unknown 
qitiiutity in his lanpuage cosa, llie second 
censii, the third cuho, &.C. writing the 
n-unes of all the o|)eration8 In words lit 
)en<nli, without using any contractions, 
Mc<-pl tlie initial R, for root, or rtvlical- 
hy. About this time the science of alge- 
bra also attracted the attention of the Ger- 
niaaa, among whom we find the writers 
Stil'elius and Scheubelius. Stifelius, in 
his Arilhmetica Integra, published at Nu- 
remberg in 1544, introduced the charicters 
-U, — , and /y/,for plus, minus, and radix, 
or root, as he called it ; also the initials 3|., 
3i Ksj '""'■ '''* power 1, 2, 3, &.C., and Uie 
numeral exponents 0, 1, 2, 3, tc. which 
he called by the name of exponens exiK>- 
nent. He likewise uses tlie literal no- 
tation, A, B, C, D, &c for the unknown 
or general quantities. John Scheubelius, 
who wrote aluuit the same lime as Car- 
dan and Stifelius, treats largely on surds, 
and gives a general rule for extracting 
the root of any binomial or resid-ial, 
a-hb, where one or both parts are surds. 
These writers were succeeded by Robert 
Recorde, a malhen»itician and physician 
of Wales, who in his works, in 1552 and 
1557, on Arithmetic, showed that the sci- 
ence of aljiebra had not been overiooked 
in England. He first gave niles for the 
extracting of the root-* of compound alge- 
braic quantities, and made use of the terms 
binomial and residual, and introduced the 
8ignofequ.\lity,or:r:. Peletarius, a French 
alsebniist, in his work, which appeared at 
Paris in 1558, made many improvemenu 
on tho«« parts of alitebra wliich had already 
been treated of. He was followed by Peter 
Ramus, who published his Arithmetic and 
Aluelirain 1560; Raphael Bombelli, whose 
Algebra ap[ieared at Bologna in 1.579 ; and 
Simon Steven, of Bruges, who published 
ttis .\rilhnietic in 15S5, and his Algebra a 
little after. This latter invented a new cha- 
racter fortlie unknown quantity, namely, a 
•ni.ill circle ( o )i within which he placed 
numeral exponent of the power; and 
^.*o denoted roots, as well as powers, by 
numeral exponents. The algebraical works 
of Vieta, the next mnrt distinguished alge- 
braist, appeared alwiut the year 1600, and 
e<>ntain many unprovements In the methods 
of \» orking algebraical questions. He uses 
the vowels A, E, [, O, Y, for the un- 
known qu.'tntitles, and the roTn-miants, B, 
■ 0, Itc for "he unowa « uaoiiues ; and 
3 



introduced nii«ny terms which are In pr»- 
senl use, as ctwtficienl, affirmative and 
negjitive, pure and adfecled, ice: also the 
line, or vinculum, over ctmipound quanti- 
ties (AOJ). All)ert Uirard, an ii.genusi* 
Flemish mathematician, wan the first |ier- 
»<in who, in his Invention Nouvelle en 
I'Algebre, tc. printed in ltM9, explained 
the general doctrine of the forniation of 
the coefficienU of the p<nvers from the 
sums of their rooU, and their products. 
He also finrt understootl the use of negative 
roots, in the solution of geometricjil pro- 
blems, and first spoke of imaginary roots, 
tc. The celebrated Thomas Harriot, whose 
work on this subject apjieared in 1631, in 
troduced the uniform use of the letters •, 
i, e, tc. ; that is tlie vowels a, e, and « 
for tlte unknown quantities, and the con- 
sonants, b, c, d, tc. for the known quan- 
tities ; these he joins together like the 
letters of a word, to represent th« multipli- 
cation or product of any niiiiiher of these 
literal quantities, and prefixing the numeral 
coefficient, as is usual at present, exce|>t 
being separated by a point, thus .S.bbc 
For a root he sets the index of the root 
after the mark /^ , as ^3 for the cube root, 
and introduces the characters'^ and <^, 
for greater and less ; and in the reiluction 
of equations he arranged the ofierations in 
separate steps or lines, setting the eipht- 
nations in the hiargin, on the left hand, 
for each line. In this manner he brought 
algebra nearly to the fonn which it now 
bears, and added also much information 
on the subject of equations. Ouahtred, in 
his Clavis, which was first published m 
1631, set down the decimals without their 
denominator, separating them thus aUiit) 
In algebraic multiplications he either joins 
the letters which represent the factors, or 
connects them with the sign of multiplica- 
tion -\-, which is the first iiitr<Mliiction of 
this character. He also seems to have first 
used points to denote proportion, as 7 . 9 :: 
28 . 36 ; and for continued proimrtion has 
the mark ^. In his work we likewise 
meet with' "the first instance of applyine 
al^bra to geometry, so as to investigate 
new ge«imetrical properties: which latter 
subject is treated at large by Descartes, to 
his work on Geometry, published in 1637, 
and also by several other subsequent wri- 
ters. Wailis, in his Arithmetic* Infiniio- 
nim, first led the way to infinite series, 
particularly to the expressiin of the qii»- 
dratiire of the circle by an infinite series. 
He also substituted the fractional exponents 
in the place of radical signs, which in many 
instances facilitate the sprrations. Hiiy 
(ens, Barrow, and other n»Ml»ematlcia»»- 



14 



ALL 



^ 



•mployert the (ilcehniical calcu1ii« Jn resoV 
vtns riiiiiir (irotileiiiH which hail hitherto 
bntflctd Mi;ilhriiiaiiciitn8. Sir Isaac N>w- 
lon, in ki« Ariihmelica Universalis, made 
many improvriiienla in aiialylicii, which 
■uhject, as wril aslhe theory (if infinile iSe- 
ries, was further ilevelo[)«!(l hy llalley, Ber- 
n<Hilli, Taylor, Maclaiiriii, Nicole, Stirling, 
D« Moivre, Ulairaiit, Laiiil>ert, Waringi 
Euler, &c. 

AUGt)L. A fixed star of the seaiiid 
ma^nittule in the coiisiellatioii of Perseus, 
or Medusa's Mead. 

ALGORITHM. An Arabic word, fre- 
quenily used to denote the practical rules 
of al|;ehra. 

AM AS (in Law). A word algnifylnp, 
Hieraily, otherwise ; and employed in de- 
■crihing the defendant, who has a^uined 
other names besides his real one. 

AI^IBI (in I«iw). A term signifying, 
literally, elsewhere; and used by the de- 
fendant in a criminal prosecution, when 
he wishes to prove Ins iiiiiitcenre, by show- 
ing that he was in another place, or else- 
where, when the act was comiiiilted. 

ALICONDA. Ar. Kthiopiaii tree, from 
the bark of which flax is spun. 

ALIKN (in Ijaw). One born in a foreign 
country. An alien is incajiable of inheriting 
lands until lie is naturali/.ed hy an act of 
the legislature. He has likewise no right 
to vote at elections, or to enjoy any office, 
nor to be returned on any jury, unless where 
an alien is to be tried. 

ALIMONY (in the Civil Law). The 
allowance made to a married woman upon 
her sepanition fnun her husband. 

ALiaUANT PARTS. Such numbers In 
arithmetic as will not divide or measure a 
whole number exactly, as 7, which is the 
aliquant part of 16. 

ALIULTOT PARTS. Such part of a 
number as will divide or measure a whole 
number exactly, as 2 the aliquot part of 4, 
3of9, aiid4of 16. 

ALKALI or AliCALF. A perfectly pure 
•alt, which combines with acids so as to 
neutralize or impair their activity, and 
produces salts. Besides, alkalies change 
the purple colour of many vegetables to a 
green, the reds to a purple, and the yellows 
toabrown. Some alkalies are called fixed, 
because they remain fixed in the fJre, as 
potash and soda; others are volatile, as 
ammonia. 
ALLAH. The Arabian name of God. 
ALLEGIANCE (in Ijiw). Tlmfaithful 
obedience which every subject owes to his 
prince ; the oath of allegiance Is that which 
every penon is required to take before he 
wtors on imy office. 



ALL 

ATJ-EGORY. A series or chain cf me 
taphors rontinned through a whole die 
course ; thus the prophets represent the 
Jews under the allegory of a vine, planted, 
cul(ivaled,Hiid wateredby the handof God. 

ALLEGRO. An Italiafi word used in 
music, to denote that the part is to t»e play* 
ed in a brisk and sprightly manner. 

ALLIGATION. A rule in arithmetic, 
teaching how to compound several ingre- 
dients for any design pro|>osed. It is either 
medial or alternate. Alligation medial is 
the method of finding the rate or quality of 
the composition from having the rates or 
qualities of the several ingredients, as to 
find the value of bnindy per gallon, which 
is composed of 10 giillons at 24s. per gal- 
lon, 12 at 30». per galhm, &.C. Alligation 
alternate is the method of finding the quan- 
tities of ingredients necessary to form a 
compound of a given nite, as to find how 
gold of various degrees of fineness, that is 
of 19, 21, and 23 carats fine, &.c. may be 
mixed together so that the mixture may 
be 20 carats fine. Uiiestions of this kind 
are better solved by algebra. 

ALLIGATOR. An amphibious animal, 
abounding in both Nc 'h and South Amer- 
ica in the torrid zone, and sometimes 
grows to the length of 18 or 20 feet. The 
Alligator is found in the lower parts of 

the Mississippi, but it is more coi m 

in the large rivers of South America. 
It is called Caym.\n by the Indians. 
It resembles the Crocodile of Africa and 
Asia, but it never grows as large, and is 
beside, different in formation, and in Its 
habits. 




ALLITRRATION. A repeating or play 
ing up«ui the same letter in a succession of 
words. 

ALLODIAL. An epithet for lands held 
without any acknowledgment to a lord or 
superior, in opposition to feudal lands. 
Allodial lands are exempt from rent tm 
services. 

ALLOY, or ALLAY. A proport^n of 
any baser metal mixed with one that is 
finer, thus the gold coin has an alloy of 
silver and copper, as silver bos of eapiMt 



ALM 

tfnn#? th«i proitortlon in the ft>Tmer case 
fiir Mandard pold 18 2 carats of alloy in 
apiiiinil wfli^lit, or 23 carau (ine; in the 
latter <■».•»*, for tlie silver, lliere aielSdwla. 
of alloy in II oz. 2 dwts. fine. 

ALL SAINTS. A festival observed by 
soHie Christians on the first day of Novein- 
h«-r, in cotnniemoration of all the saints. 

ALI.SPICE, or the Pihe^vio Tree. A 
beautiful irre of Mexico and the West In- 
dies, the fruit of which Is hfshly aromatic. 
The trttf is glH>ul 30 feet in height, and 3 
la ctrcuniftreHC« 



ALT 



18 




ALLUVION. A gradual increase ofland 
washed to the shore by iiiuiidations. .Al- 
luvial fonnations are also to be found in 
valleys and plains, by the deposit of gravel, 
loam, clay, or other earths washed down 
from the mountains. 

Al,.M.\GEt?T. The name of a celebrated 
book on astronomy, composed by Ptolemy. 

AL.M.\ M.\TER. The name given to the 
universities of Oxford and Cambridge, En- 
gland, by tlieir several members who have 
pa.4.<:ed their degrees in each of these uni- 
versities. The same is done by the Am- 
erican Colleges. 

AL.MAN.\C. A calendar or table con- 
taining a list of the months and days, with 
an account of the rising and setting of the 
Bun and motm, and other Incidental mat- 
ters. The English Nautical Almanac, or 
ABtrononiical Ephemeris, is a kind of na- 
tional almanac, begun in 1767, under the 
direction and by the advice of the astron<i- 
mer royal, the late Rev. Dr. Maskelyne. 
Besides most things essential to general 
use, which are found In other almanacs, it 
conlaina many new and lm|M»rtant matters, 
pwtieilarly the distance uf the nioo<i fnxii 
bo mxa and &xod Mara, oomputed \» tiie 



meridian of Greenwich, fbr every thr»e 
hours of time, for the pur|><>seof coinpnting 
the longitude at sea. This almanac i« 
generally computed a few yean forward, 
for the conveiiLeiice of ships going out U|>on 
hmg voyages. A similar work Is published 
in the United Stales. The American Al- 
manac, first published at Rriston in 1830, 
embraces a great mass of statistical know- 
ledge, lieside that usually given in an alma- 
nac. 

ALMOND. The fruit of the almond tree, 
which is a nut, and is either sw4^t or bit- 
ter. 

ALMOND TREEL A tall tree, resem- 
bling the peach tree, whicn flourishes in 
Asia and the southern parts of Eu- ^pe. It 
is one of the first trees that blcwtm in :?pring. 

ALMONER. Ir. Englanc an ecclesiasti- 
cal officer ot ti.« king, appointed to '(■strih. 
utp the King's alms to rhe p<«>r every day 

ALOE. A tree v/lilch originally came 
from India, is remarkable for a bitter juice, 
called aloe?, which is extracted from Its 
leaves, and is very useful in medicine. 
I'lie <il(<e soccotrina is a European species 
much cult'.t'ated in Spain. 

.ALfHA. The first letter in the Greek 
alpliaN-t, which with 'he second letter,t>e- 
ta, foiiMS >.ne word alpharn. 

ALPHABET. A se.i ^ of the several 
letters in a language, '^-h ct. vary in num 
ber in different Ianj".<ige8 The Hebrew 
contains 22 lette.-s, as aiso the Chaldee, 
Samaritan, Syriac, Persian, ./Ethiopic, Sa- 
racen, &.c. ;buttlie Irish, which is I he same 
as the Pelasgian, or Scythian, still retains 
only 17; the Grttek alphabet, which was 
brought by Cadmus into Ureece from PhOR- 
nicia, and w:ts also PelH.sgiaii in its origiK- 
al, consisted of IG or 17, to which were af- 
terwards added 7 orCJ more, to make up 24. 
The ancient Arabic al(ihabet c«iiisisted of 
24, to which 4 more letters have since been 
added ; the C<i(»tic alphabet ronsists of 32, 
the Turkish of .S:}, the Georgian of 3U, the 
Russian of 39, the Spanish of 27, the Ital- 
ian of 20, the Latin of 22, the French of 2:i, 
and the English of 26. See more on this 
subject under the head of VVritiko The 
Chinese have no proper alphabet, unless 
we reckon a.i such their keys to clast^s of 
words, distingiiisiied by the number of 
strokes combined in each, of which they 
have 214 in number. As to the written 
ctiaracters of these alpbabets,iee WaiTina 

ALT. That part of tlie great scale of 
sounds lying between F above tite tr«bt« 
clififnote, and G in altissinio. 

ALTAR. A table or raised place on which 
any offering was made to the Aliiilgbty 
Tti« driit aliw mentioued is that biuli bf 



-^ 



If 



AL,T 



AMA 



Knak after the flood. Tlie two principal 
■tun of Ute Jew* were Ums altai of burnt 







ALTERNATION A nile in arithmetic 
ihowing ihr ilifferent ways in wliirli any 
niiiiiiNT of quantities ina,. he cliaiiged or 
C(>rnl)ine(1. 

ALTIMETRY. Tlie art of measuring 
altitudes or lieights, 

ALTITUDE. The heipht of an object, 
or its elevation alHive tlial plane to which 
the b:u^ is referred ; tliiis In iiiathenialics 
llie altitude of a figure i« the perpendicular 
or nearest diMtance of iti vertex rn)in the 
base. The altitude of an object is the ele- 
vation of an object almve the plane of tlie 
hon/on, or a t>er|iendicnlar let fall to that 
plane, aa a per|iendicular let fall from a 
tower. 

Altitude* are either acressibin or Inaccea- 
rihle. An accessible altitude of an object 
Is that whose base we can have access to, 
•o a.« to measure the distance between it 
and tlie station from which the measure ia 
to be taken. 

Inaccaisibte altitude Is when the base of 
the object cannot be approached , I naccMi- 
M)tt altitude* may be nieaaured eitliei- by 



peometry, trigonometry, optical refleevloa 
or by the barometer. The altitudes of 
nioiiiiinins may" be determined best by tha 
b.'ironieter, for as the weight of the almos- 
pherr diiniriislies as we rise, the fall of the 
biiroiiieler determines the elevation of any 
phice. The altitude of the pyramids in 
E(;> pt was mea.-iured in the time of Tlialea, 
by means of their shadow and a pole set 
iipri):lit beside them, making the altilini''* 
of the pole and pyramid to be proportional 
to the length ot tneir snadows. The in- 
striimenls now commonly used in measur- 
ing altitudes are the geumetricai square, 
the quadrant, and theodolite. 

ALTITUDE (in Optics). Theheightof 
an object alK>ve a line drawn parallel to 
the hiirivu>n from the eye of the observer. 

ALTITUDE OF THE EYE (in Per. 
spective). The perpendicular height of tli« 
eye above the geometrical plane. 

ALTITUDE OF A ST.\R, &c. ( In As- 
troiiiiiiiy). The height of any star, &c 
above the horizon, or an arc of a verticia 
circle, intercepted between the star and the 
horizon. This altitude is either true or ap. 
parent, according as it is reckoned from the 
nitional or sensible horizon, and the differ- 
ence between these two is termed by as- 
tronomers the parallax of altitude. 

ALTO( in Music books). Italian for the 
upi>er or counter tenor, and is common in 
music of several parts. 

ALUM. A mineral salt, composed of 
sulphuric acid, potash, aliimina.and water. 
It Is of a white colour, and of an astrinueiit 
add taste ; natural alum, which was well 
known to the ancients, is a kind of whitish 
Oiable .atone, formerly found in the islauii 
of .Melos, Macedonia, Egypt, itc. Facti- 
tious alum is comimmly made of a stoim, 
of seaweed, and of urine. It is known by 
the names of rock or English alum, which 
is colourless ; and Roman alum, which ii 
of a reddish colour. 

ALUM EARTH. The earth from which 
alum is extracted. 

'ALUMINA, or ALUMFNE. The earth 
of alum, an argillaceous, soft, and insipid 
sort of earth, which is the base of alum, 
being the princijial part of clay. 

ALUM WATER. A preparation used 
by painters in water colour, prepared by 
dissolving alum in water. 

A. .M. An abbreviation for Anno Miindi, 
the yearofthe world, and Magister Artium, 
master of arts. 

AMALr.AM, or AMALOAMA. Th« 
mixture of mercury with some other metal 
AmalzTimsare used either to render a metlll 
fit lobe spread Mil •onie works, aa in gilding. 



AME 

»T else to reduce the metnl to » oiihtle 
•owder. An aiiialiiain of tin aiul mercury 
.S lined for liHikiiic slaxsea. 

AMAh«AiMATION. 'J'he operation of 
mixiiig (|uicfciiilver with Home otlier metal, 
by fusiiif! llie metal, and in tliat state add- 
ing a iKirtioii uf mercury to it. Uold of 
all ineU'iU uiiiiea heiit wicli nierciiry, next 
to tlial Milver, then lead, tin, and every 
other iiietai, except iron and co|i|ier, (lie 
last of which admits scarcely any uf Kucii 
kiii'ilgaiiiuiioii. 

AMANL'B.NiSlS. A slave among the 
Romans, who used to be eiii|il(iyed in 
writiiii; for his muster ; also any one among 
(he moderns who is employed to iraiiscrilie 
for another. 

AMARANTH. A plant which flourishes 
in the Indies and South America, rf.uinrk- 
tble for the lasting beauty of its flowers 

AMATEUR. One who follows a (larti- 
ciilar art or profession not for gain but for 
pleasure. 

AMBASSADOR. One appointed by a 
•uvereign power to represent him, and su- 
perintend his affairs at a foreign court. 

.\MBKR. A liard, brittle, tasteless sub- 
stance, mostly semitransparent, or o|KU|iie, 
and of a glossy surface. It is highly ele<;- 
tric, and if a piece be kindled it burns to 
the end with pungent white vapours, with- 
out melting. 

AMBERGRIS. A solid sebaceous or fat 
substance, found floating in the sea, near 
the coasts of vari^ius tropical countries. It 
is supposed to he the excrement of the 
■permatic whale, having freiiueiilly been 
met witli in the intestines of that lish. 

AMBER TREE. A shrub, tt • beauty 
uf which lies in its small evergreen leaves; 
these grow as close as heath, and when 
rubbed emit a fragrant odour. 

AMBIDEXTER. A person who can use 
both hands with ei|iial facility. 

AMBUSCADE. A place wliere soldiers 
lieconceaJed, in order to suriirise an enemy. 

AMENDE. A peciuiiary punishment im- 
posed, according to the customs of France, 
by a judge, for any false prosecution or 
groundless appe.iL 

AMENDE HONORABLE. An infa- 
mous liind of punishment formerly inflicted 
in France on traitors, parricides, or sacri- 
legious persons, who were to go naked to 
the shirt, with 4 torch in their hand, and 
a rope about their neck, into a church or 
a couit, to beg pardon of God , the court, 
and the injured party. 

AMENTACE^. A natural order of 
Itlants, iKtariiig catkins, as Uie po{i!ar, ha- 
sel, beech, &c. 

AMERCEMENT. A pecuniary punish- 



AMP 



17 



ment imposed on olTenders at the mercy 
of the court ; il is contracted from the Lntiu 
words a misericordia, winch signify lile- 
niily/ront or at tke m»rcy. Aiiierceinenta 
difler from flnes, in as much as the latter 
are defined, and the fora><:rare pro|)ortici>> 
ed to the fault, or more piuperly at the di«- 
cretion of the court. 

AMERICAN ELK. A noble af.lniaJ o( 
the deer kinu. 

AMETHYST. A gem of great hardness 
and britliHiicy, and of various colours, his: 
mostly purple or violet. It comes froDi 
India, and is use-l in medicine as an as- 
tringent. 

AMIANTHUS. An incombustible mine- 
ral flax, which may be drawn into threads 
and wove into cloth. It is iiiiisily found 
among r<K:ks. 

AMMON. The title under which Jupiter 
was worship|>ed in Libya, where a temple 
was erected to him, from which oracles 
were delivered for many ages. 

A.\l.MOMA. A voliitile allfili, which, 
when in its purest stale, exists only in (h« 
form of a gas. It forms a liquid when 
ciMiled, and is known by the name of harlM- 
horii, because It is obtained from distilling 
the liorn of the hart. It may also be ob- 
tained from urine and camel's dung by 
distillation. 

AMMONIAC, or GUM AMMONIAC. 
A resinous substance hroiiglit from th» 
East Indies in drops or granules. Thci 
best kind is of a yellowish colour withi'Ul 
and white within 

AMM<»NIT^ SNAKE STONE. A 
sort of fiissil shells, made up of sinaii cir- 
cles, like those of a snake rolled up. 




AMMITNTTION, A general term for 
all warlike stores, but more espeeia'lv 
powder. Iiiills, guns, &c. 

A3IOBPH0ZOA. The lowest clas.s of 
the animal kingtlom, as sijonges that 
have no regular symmetrical structure. 

AMPETrrE. Alum elate, earth used 
fcy the Auciente to kill in?eets on vines. 

AMI'llllilA. A class of animals which 
live eipially well in air or water, such as 
the phtH^ae, or seal tribe, frogs, lizards, 
crocodiles, eels, water "eriients, snakes 
They are remarkable Ibi U ait tenacity ol 



M 



ANA 



fife; •nroe will continue to move even 
when Uie head is ciil off. 

AMPUISCII. A name applied by geogra- 
phers uuhe inhabitants of Uie torrid zone. 

A.MHIIITIIEATKE. A circular building 
among the ancienW, having seat.'i entirely 
anwrnrt, and an area in liie middle, where 
BIH-ciacle* were exhibited. Some of these, 
a* ilie ColisflBum in Rome, could contain 
from 5(),IK)0 to 80,000 persons. 

A.MPLIFICAT10N( with Rhetoricians). 
An aiiiplifyingor enlarging upon an argu- 
ment. eitl)er by aggravating or extenuating 
a crime, heightening an eulogium, or en- 
liirginj a narration, by an enumeration of 
circumstances, so as to excite proper emo- 
tions in the audience. 

AMJ'MTUDE. An arch of the horizon, 
intercepted between the east or west points 
and the centre of the sun or stars at their 
riJiing and setting. It is called ortive, or 
eai<lern amplitude, when the sUtr is rising; 
and ocriduous, or western, when the star 
is setting. 

A.MPIJTUDE MAGNETICAL. Is an 
arc of the lK>rizon, contained Urtweeu the 
8iin or a star at its rising and setting, and 
the magnetlcal east or west point of the hori- 
lon, indicated by the magnetical compass, 
or the amplitude or azimuth. 

AMrLTTATION (in Surgery). The cut- 
ting off a limb or other part of the body 
with an instrument. 

AMULET. A supposed charm or pre- 
servative against witchcraft, mischief, or 
diseases. Amulets consist of stone, metal, 
sirnples, or whatever else the fancy sug- 
gfsied ; aonielimes words or sentences 
might be employed in this manner. 

A.M7.EL. A bird of the blackbird kind, 
belonging to tlie same genus, inerula, in 
the l.iniia^an system. The ring-amzel is 
reiimrkal>le for having a fine broad white 
ring at the lower part of its throat. 

ANA. A name given to amusing mis- 
celhinies, consisting of anecdotes, traits of 
clianicter, and incidents relating to any 
person or subject. 

A.VABASIS. The title of Xenophon's 
dexcription of the younger Cyrus's ex|)edi- 
lion against his brother, in which the wri- 
ter bore a principal part. 

ANACHRONISM. An error in chrono- 
logy, as when an event is relatetl to have 
bapfiened in the reign of a certain prince, 
which hnpiiened either before or after. 

ANACI^As^TIC*. Another name for 
iJopirics, or that branch of optic« which 
relales to refmrled light. 

A.\A«;RR<>.\TIC verse, a eoit of 
feme so called from the Creek poet Anac- 
■soit by w'jom it was tirsi used. It con- 



ANA 

sists of three feet, generally apaidee* Bn4 
iambic. It is adapted to soft and tender 
subjects. 

ANAGRAM. The transposition of tha 
letters of one word so as to form another, 
as amor changed into Rrnia. 

AN Al^EM.M A. A projection ofthe sphera 
on the plane of the meridian. orth<igrapht 
cally made by straight lines and ellipse!, 
the eye being supposed at an intinite dis- 
tance, in an equinoctial jMiint. 

ANALK.MMA. Is also an instrument, A 
kind of astrolabe, made eillier of brass or 
wood, with an horizon fitted tu it ; it i» 
used for finding the time ofthe sun's rising 
or setting, the length of the longest day, 
&.C. The most ancient treatise on this in- 
strument was written by I'loleiity, and 
published in 156^, with a (,'oiiiinentary 
by Commandine. Other authors, us Aqiii- 
lonius, Jactpiet, Deschales, &c. have sine* 
written on ll>e same instrument. 

ANALOGY. The relation which thing* 
bear, or are supposed to Imar, to eacli otiier, 
from their resemblance or pri>|>ortion to one 
another ; as tlie analog)- between animals 
and plants, from which asimilarXreatiDeni 
of them in many cases may l>e inferred. 
Analogy is one of tike principal grounds of 
reasoning in matters of experience. 

ANALYSIS (in l>ogic). Ttie reeolutiim 
or unfolding of any thing, so as to discover 
its component parts as opposed to sy ntiiesis 
Analysis is the method of finding out truth, 
and synthesis is the method of explaining 
that truth to others. Among mathematicians 
it is tlie art of discovering the truth or falst- 
hood of a proposition, by supposing the 
question to be solved, and then examining 
the consequences, till some truth is disci>- 
vered, or the absurdity and impossibility of 
the pro|>osition is discovered. The analysis 
of finite quantities is properly called sjie- 
cious arithmetic, or algebra ; the analysis of 
infinite quantities is the method of tiuxions 
or differential calculus. 

ANALYSIS (in Chemistry). Is the d». 
com{>osition of bodies, as vegetables an^ 
minerals, to discover tlieircoiii(H>i)eiit|Kiris 
ANALY'J'ICS. A name given to algebra 
being nothing else but a general analysis 
of ptire mathematics ; or else because 'i 
teaches how to so>ve questions, and demon- 
strate theorems, by searching into the fun- 
damental nature an<l frame of the t)iiit)>, 
which is, as it were, restilved into |>aria. 
or taken to pieces, and then put together 
again. 

ANAMORMIGSIS (In PerKpectlve nni 
Painting). A monstrous projection, or r»'- 
presentation of an image on a (Jane r» 
curve surface, which beheld at a certain 



ANA 

AManM ■bail appear regular and in pro- 
yortioB. 



ANA 



It 




i 
i 


m 


1 

t 


\ii// 


1 


i 




.1 



ANAPiBST. A mrtrlca! foot, having the 

two first short and the last long ( ), as 

pietas. 

ANARCHY. A society without a Rovem- 
ment, or where tliere ia no supreme gov- 
ernor. 

AiNATrrEMA. In the ceneral sense, a 
relitfious curse; in the |>:irticular sense, 
ecclesi:ii<tic.il exconitniiniratirm. 

ANATOMY. Tlie act ol idssecting ho- 
rties for the purpose of examiiiiiis their 
structure, and the nnturtf, uses, .ind func- 
tions of their several pnrts ; aiso ilie know- 
ledfieoftlie human body derived frmn such 
dissections and exainiiialioiis ; when ap- 
plied to nniuials it is termed ('oinparutive 
Anatomy. In the science of anatomy, the 
boily is divided into the head, trunk, and 
extremities, and is composed of solids and 
fluids. The stdids are the inlesuinents, 
bones, cartilages, lipiinents, membranes, 
vessels, muscles, nerves, and elands. The 
principal (liiids are the blood, the chyle, the 
lymph, and the bile. Anatomy, from the 
Bamesoftlie |>arts treated of, is divided into 
'<si« >|;eny,or the doctrine of tha gr..w(h uf 



the bonee ; nstetilogy, the doctrine of iIm 
b«ne.s in the adult siibjert ; ch(Uidri>lo<;y, 
the doctrine of the cartihuies; syndeiim»- 
logy, tlie doctrine of tlie ligaments ; my- 
ology, the iloctrine of the muscles ; bursa- 
touy, the doctrine of the iMirsir niucona; ; 
splunchnolo|:y, the doctrine of (he viscera ; 
aii);elology, the doctrine of the vessels; 
adeiiiilomr, the doctrine of tlie glaints; 
neurtdogj-, the doctrine of the nerves, &,c. 
Anatomy, Uiken absolutely, applies only to 
the dIssectliMi of human subjects ; the di»- 
srciion and exaininalioiiuf brutes Mcatted 
Coniik'iralive ,\nHtoiiiy. 

ANA'I'O.MY, lluTOHT or. The science 
of aiialimiy was dniibtless coe\°ul with that 
of nieilicine, for the connexion between 
the two studies w<Mild naturally sug<;est to 
tlip inipiirer Into the dise.tses of the human 
body the necessity of becoming acquainted 
Willi its c<>m|>oneiit |>arts. In Bg>'pt, the 
practice of embalming rendering it neces- 
sary to oprii the bfsly, led theiii first to 
make observations on the structure uf the 
liunian frame, which was at\erwards en- 
C4iuraged by their kings, who ordered dead 
bodies to be regularly dissected for like 
(lerfection of the art ; but, judging fmni 
somes|)ectnien8 which have been preserved 
of their anatomical observatiiuis, the sci- 
ence dnt not iiiakeanycimsiderable progress 
uinong tlieui. I'here is, however, no donlit, 
but they laid the foundation.and llie Greeks, 
who derl veil tlieir earliest information fnun 
them, enlarged the IsMindaries of the sci- 
ence by their researches. llip|>ocrates, who 
liveil alxuit -IIMI years t>efore Christ, is the 
tirsl who expressly wrote on this subject; 
and the first anatomical dissection recorded 
was made by his friend Deniocritiis, of 
Abdera. In Aristotle's works Uiere are 
many minute particulars on this subject, 
which show that he had made the animal 
iMidy Ills (larticiilar study. From the (jrffks 
this science, after an interval of several 
centuries, pasaeil ag;iin into Kgypt, where, 
by the fostering care of the noleinies, it 
was revived and made gre.it advances. 
EnistniUis, the pupil and f-i«-iid of Theo- 
phrastiis and llerojdilliis, laid the foiinda- 
tl<ui of the famous scIhkiI of anatomy at 
Alexandria, which was for many centuries 
in such bi!:li repute th.tt no one was sup- 
posed iiualified for the medical art, who 
had not studied at Alexandria. Ilerophi- 
liis IS said to liave dlsst-cted not less th.in 
Too bodies, and among the rest some living 
sulijecls, but prolialily, as such a monstrous 
piece ofcriirlty must have defe.iled its own 
pur|M>se, this latter part of the etor>- is only 
an exaaseration. The Romans learned from 
t'j* Greeks the science ul auauMuy , aa tbey 



ANATOMY. 



did moBt other «rU and •ctences ; for the 
init nidiiiieiiU weri: Uiimlit lo tliriii by 
ArtJiaiP»lliii.'>. n Greek iiliymiian, who tirttt 
wlaWlinlicdhiuwell at Koiiie,aiiil anerwarils 
by AiJcleiiiadea. who tloiirinhed in the lime 
of roiii(»ey, mid (Piiiied nuch repme llial 
oe »a« Uioked U|miii as a second Hij>tH)- 
cnite*. He was Biicceeded by Ciuwini, who 
wiui nii|>|MK«*d lo he tlie disciple of Aacle- 
piadeii, Celmis, llufus, I'liiiy, Ctelius Aiire- 
liami«, and Araueus, who.xe works ab«iund 
Willi auatoiiilcal observalioiis, and prove 
llial, allhouijh their researclies were not 
deep, their attention was dniwn towards 
tlie subject. This is also still inure evident 
froiii the works of Galen, who, in [wiiit 
of accuracy and niiiiuleness <if det;iil, sur- 
|iassed all that went before him, and also 
all that followed him until within the la?! 
tJiree centuries. The Anibiaiis and Aira- 
ceiis, iMi the decline of the empire, tiHik 
Ihe plac« of the Greeks and Kiuiians in Ihe 
cultivation of the sciences, but as by the 
tenets of their relisjioii they were prohil'ited 
from touchiii)! dead bodies, and conse. 
quriitly Qiiild not practice dissection, they 
were obliced to ciuitent themselves with 
cnninienlini! u|n>ii (iaien. To effect this 
object, we find that Abdollatiph, a teacher 
of analomy in llie Ihirleenth century, ex- 
amiiird and deiiionslnited the structure of 
Uie iHiiies by punt; to the burying grounds ; 
and by that nieiins he detected some errors 
III Galen. Although the Eurojieans were not 
nnder the same restrictions, yet during the 
midille ages it is certain that the science of 
Biiaioiiiy made no advances. The best trea- 
tise then extant, whicli gained the author 
preni repute, and was the standard book 
inllieschools, was that of. Muiidliius, which 
ap|ieared in i:il.5, yet this was nothing but 
■ n abstract of Galen, On the expiilsiiui 
of tlie MiNirs. the prejudice against dissec- 
tion Hhsiied.and copies oftheGreekaiilhors 
havini: found their way into Eurn|)e after 
the siickiiig of Coustanlinople, the study of 
anatomy reviveit considerably in the tif- 
trenth century. Among the Italians. Achil- 
linus Belied ictus, BerengarlUs, and Massa 
added to Ihe stock of analnmicat knowledge 
by ''iscoveriesof theirown from dissections. 
Bui the most distinguished names among 
the analoiniiits of that period are those who 
flourished in tlie followingcentury, namely, 
Vesaluis, a native of Briissets, Sylvius in 
France, Ctdunibus, Fallop'.iis, and Eusta- 
chius in Italy, who, contrary u> the prac- 
tice of Galen, drew their observatinns from 
the human h<idy. rai!i<'r than from that of 
the brutes. V>s:>liiis gave 'he names to the 
muiclea, most of which .ire reuined to this 
ia^. Gabriel Falioptua, lu hia irvatise en- 



titled Observationea Anatomicie, published 
ill I5«il, mil>r«>ved U(«ui the descriptions ^ 
Ve.-ialms 'I'he t ipuscula Analoiuica of bar- 
tholoiiiiPus Eustachius, published in IMS, 
have ever been admired for the correctnesJ 
and exactness of their descriptions. Ilia 
plates, which were intended for a targe 
and complete work on the subject, were 
not published until l.W years atler, wheii^ 
being found in an old cabinet, they were 
eilited by Lancisi, the iKiiie'.-" physician. whc 
added a short explanattiry text, tM-caus« 
lh.1t of Eiistachius could not be found. The 
ne.\t in the list of distinguished aiiato- 
iiiists must be reckoned Harvey, who, after 
having studied in Italy under Kabricius ub 
Aqua|>endeiite, wiis led by the writings <.f 
his master toctuisider the manner in which 
the bliHid was circulated over the whole 
iMidy, and the ottices of the several vessels. 
Fabricius published an account of theval vea 
whicli he disc«ivered in the veins. 'J'hia 
discovery ali'ected the esUkblished doctrine 
of all ages, that the veiiis carried the bUKid 
from the liver to all parts of the iMMly fur 
nourishment ; and Harvey was led by this 
to consider more narrowly the fuiicti<uia 
of the heart and the vascular system. The 
result of liis investigation was, that the 
heart is the grand reservoir of the hhMid, 
that the arteries, which had hitherto lieen 
considered as air vessels, were the channels 
by which it was conveyed to all parts of 
the body, and the veins were the channels 
by which it was carried back to the heart 
His d(M:triiie at hrsl met with considenible 
opposition, but farther researches put it at 
length lieyond all ipiestion, and led to other 
discoveriesof considerable ini|Hirtance. Tlie 
lacteals, or vessels which carry the clijle 
to the Intestines, were discovered by As- 
celiiis, an Italian ; the thoracic duct by 
Pecijuet, in lti5l ; the lymphatics by Tho- 
mas Bartheline, a Hanish anatomist; lie- 
sides niimeniiis other discoveries which 
were made by the helpof magnifying glas- 
ses. These were first brought into use by 
Malpiglii, alter by Laureiitiiis Belliniis, a 
distinguished an.-itomi.U <if Italy, Swain- 
merdam, Vafi Horn, De Grajif, and other 
Hutch nnatimiists, particularly Antoniiia 
Iiiewenhoeck, of Helft, who improved on 
Malpighi's use of inicro8co|)es, and Slier e4>d- 
ed in disc<ivering globules in the hliMid, 
aniinalcnlo! in the s<-iiien, and many otiier 
particulars which had hiihertoescn|ied no- 
tice. From this time the science of anato- 
my m.ide prtHligious advances towards ac- 
curacy, so that each particular part has fur* 
nished matter for the lalHiiirs of celebrated 
anatomists. The figures of the bones have 
been ff veu in four large felio vui uues^ bj 



AND 

Albiiiiii, Cheselden, Trews, See. ; those of 
Clir iiiii«cIk3 iirf iiiveri in two large fcilinii, 
by Cow per and Alliiniis, the latterof which 
are particularly admired for their correct- 
neM. llaller has pulilished a folio on the 
blcMtd vessels, Dr. Miinro, junior, on the 
nerves, Albiniis, Roederer, and Hunter on 
me gravid litems, Weibrecht and others 
on the joints and fresh bones, Soemmering 
on the brain, /inn on the eye, Cotnnnius 
Mickei, junior, and otheni on tlie ear, 
Walter on tlie nerves of the thorax and 
abdomen, Munro on the biirsie inucosx, 
k<sides the several systems of anatomy 
from the jiens of Albinus, Keil,Cheselden, 
llun'er. .Mnnro, Douulas, Fife, Winslow, 
Biscboff, Gia\-, Bowman, Viichow, &.c. 

AiNCESTR V. Tlie line of ancestors or 
forefathers from which any person is de- 
scended. 

ANCHOR. An instrument for holding 
• i^ip in tlie place where she should ride. 



ANG 



21 




■.:^'-AiE^_--;^^.: 



ANCHORAGE. The proimd that is fit 
for holding the anchor ; also the iliily taken 
ef ships for the use of tlie haven where 
they cast anchor. 

AN'CHORET. A hermit, or one who 
retired from the world, and lived in per 
feet solitude. 

ANCHOVY. A small senfish much used 
In sauce ; it is so like the coiiiinon spral, 
iial the latter is ollen pickled and sold 
iiider its name. 




ANDAXTE (in Music). Itilian for ex- 
act and just time in playinc, so :w« to keep 
Uie notes distinct from each other. 

ANDROinES (in Mechanics). A term 
nsed to denote an aiitomnton in the figure 
of n man, which, by means of certain 
springs and other inech.inical contrivances, 
is enabled to walk, and perfonn other 
actions of a man. The most celebrated of 
these automatons which have been exhib- 
hed in modern liiues are the tiule-player of 



M.Vaneansc n, exhibited at P.iris, the chess- 
player of M. de Kempliii of I'resbiira, and 
the chess-player who lalely iierformed won 
ders in that game In Uiiidoii. The con- 
struction of these automatons is at present 
a secret. 

A.\l)ROMED.\. A small northern coa- 
stell.iliiiii cmisisting of sixty-three stars. 

ANE.MOMETER. An instrument used 
for measuring the force and velocity of tlie 
w.nd 

ANEMONE. A beautiful flower origi- 
nally brought from llieeast, but now much 
cultivated in our gardens. The word sig- 
nifies properly wind-Hower, because it was 
supposed that it opened only when tlie 
winil blew. 

ANE.MO.^CnPE. A machine showing 
from what point of the com|>ass ttie wind 
blows. 

ANDESITE. A mineral found in tha 
Andes containing tlie fel-spar called 
Andesine. 

AXEMOirETEU. An instrument for 
determiuing the course, the force and 
velocity ot winds. 

ANGELINA. A planet first observel 
bv Tempel, in 1861. 

ANGLES. A German tribe on the Elbe, 
of the raoe of the Suevi, who after- 
wards passed over with tha Saxons into 
Britain, and gave their name to that 
country. 

ANGIOSPERMIA. A term In the Lin- 
mean system for such plants of the class 
nidynainia as hnve their seeds enclosed in 
a capsule or seed-vessel. 

ANGLE. The inclination of two lines 
meeting one anollier in a iMiint, which 
lines are called the legs : when the lines 
meet iieriiendlciilarly it is a right an^le, as 
A, B, j when they meet so as lu mak* 




the angle less than a right angle, it is called 
.tciite, .ts A, R, I) ; and when they make 
the angle gnMter, it is called an obtus* an- 
gle, as A, n, E. 

ANCI^ER. A singular fish, also knnwa 
at present l>y the name of the fishing fru|, 
from the resemblance which it bears to 
that animal in the st.ile of a tadpole. 

ANGLICAN CIIL'KCII. That form oT 
dorjrineand discipline which isesUihlislie^ 
in England, aud serves fur tlis novui uieot 



a ANN 

of the vhole Cliristian church in that coun- 
try. 1> sdoctrJtiesarecoiiiprelieiiiled wiiliin 
tliirtyniiie articles, and its fdvernnienl, 
whict. is e|ii.sc(i|iHl, consists of two arch- 
bishop!* and twenty-four liishops, ti>cether 
witli llie diirerenl orders of inferior clerK>'. 
Tlie same Churcli is estalilisiied in Ameri- 
ca, but is independent u( that uf England. 
The meinhers of Uiis church are called 
Episcopalians. 

A.\(;MCISM. An idiom or manner of 
ipeech |ier.uliar to Uie English, and tlieir 
4escendants. 

ASCUISG. The art of fishing with a 
rod, to which are attached a line, hnok, 
and bait. Anglers liHik for breams in the 
deepest water, for eels under banks, for 
chuh in deep shaded holes, for perch and 
roach in ponds, and for trout in quick 
streams. The best months for angling are 
from April to October ; the time of the day 
early in the morning, or in tlie evening of 
hot days, h'lsli bile freely in cloudy warm 
weather, but not nt all when it is cold and 
stormy. Kisli ought to be fed on corn boil- 
ed soft, garliage, worms chopped to pieces, 
or grains stee|ied in blood. If you fish in 
a stream, it is best to cast in the grains 
above the hook. 

AM.MAJj. A living body endued witii 
sensation and spontaneous motion ; in its 
limited sense, any irrational creature, as 
distinguished from man. 

A.MMAIX'l,'L/E. Animals so minute 
as not to be tlie iminedhite object of our 
senses. They are seen only by the help of 
the microscope. 

ANIMAL KINGDOM. One of the three 
principal divisions into which all organized 
bodies are divided by I^iunuius. It com- 
prehends six classes of animals; namely, 
Mammalia, or such as suckle their young, 
mostly ipiadrupeds ; Aves, birds, which are 
oviparous ; Amphibia, amphibious ani- 
mals ; Pisces, lishes, sucli as live only in 
water, and are covered with scales ; Insec- 
ta, insects, which have few or no organs 
of sense, and a lumy coat of mail ; Vermes, 
worms, which have mostly no feet. 

ANLME, orGUM AM.ME. A resinous 
suhstanrx- imported from New Spain and 
the nra/.ils. 

A.NN A LS. A species of history, in which 
events are related in tlie exact order <if 
chronology. 

A \N EALING. The process of heating 
steel and other met.-il iNidies, and then 
suffering them to c<m>I again gradually 

ANNOTI'O. A kind of red dye broiiBht 
from the West Indies. It is procured from 
Ihe pulp of the seed capsules 
ANNUAL. An epithet for whatever 



ANT 

happens every year, or lasts a year. Aa 
aiiiiiial, in Botany, is a plant which dies 
within the year. 

ANNUITY. The periodical payment of 
money, either yearly, half yearly, or quar- 
terly ; for a determinate peruid, as ten, 
filly, or a hunilred years ; or for an inde- 
terminate period, de)>endant (Ui a certain 
contingency, as the death of a [lerson ; or 
for an imlefinite term, in which latter case 
they are called |ierpetiial annuities 

ANNL'LET A small square member in 
the Doric capital. 

ANNUNCIATION. The delivery of a 
message, particularly the angel's message 
to the Virgin Mary, concerning the birth 
of our Savi<iur. The festival in cominem- 
onition of that event is called Lady Day 

ANODYNES. Medicines so called b«»- 
cause they ease pain and procure sleep, 
siicli as the medicinal prei)aration8 uf the - 
poppy. 

ANOMALISTICAL YEAR (in Astrtv 
nomy). 1'he time that tlie earth taken t« 
pass through her orbit. 

ANOMALOUS VERBS (in Grammar). 
Verbs which are not conjugated regularly. 
ANOMALY. In ageneral sense, irregu- 
larity ; in Astron(uny, the irregularity in 
the motion of a planet. 

ANSER. A star of the fifth magnitude 
in the milky way. 

ANSERES. The third order of birds in 
the Linnxan system, including such as 
have the bill somewhat obtuse, covered 
with a skin, and gibbous at the base, aa 
the goose, duck, swan, &c 




ANT. A gregarious and ptoverhiall/ 
industrious tribe of insects, which are di- 
vided into males, females, and neutrals 
Their houses are curiously constructed, 
and divided into chambers, magazines, A.C. 

ANTARCTIC (in Astnuiomy). The 
name of a circJe cf the sphere, which is 
opposite to the ardic or northern pole. It 
is nearly 23 and a halt degreea distant tnm 



ANT 

fie south pole, wliicli is also nuieo the m- 
tarctic pole. 

;* NT-EATER. An animal of Soiilli 
AiuKrica, that has a large sleniler toiisiiie, 
ivM.cli italliiws lo gel covered with aiils, 
anil ihen ipncklv dmws it in. 

ANTECEDENT. Tlw word in grammar 
to wliich the relative refers ; as GimI, whom 
we adore, the word God is llie aiite- 
usdent. 

AN'l'ED.^TE. A date that precedes the 
re.-il one ; as the anled.tte of a bill, that 
which is earlier tlian the time wlien it is 
dniwn. 

ANTEDILUVIANS. Pers<ms living be- 
fore the deliise. 

AXTELOI'E. A beautifnl qnadruped, 
of uliicli tlirre are many varieties. Ante- 
lopeti are singularly swift in their motion, 
ami in general natives of hot climates. 
p,-iiticul.\rl_\r in Afric.i and Asia. Eiir(>|>e 
has hut two six-cies, and America hut one ; 
U is called the I'rong-hurued /Vntclopa. 




AN'TENN.'E. The horns or feelers of 
Injects which project from their heads, 
and serve them in the sense of feeling and 
see in 2. 

.A.VTHE.M A sacred composition used 
as a part of Christian worship. 

A.N'TIIER A part of the stamen of a 
flower which is at the top of the filament. 
It contains the pollen or farina, which it 
emits or explodes when ripe. 

.OCTHOLOGY. A collection of choice 
poems, particularly a collection of Greek 
epigrams so called. 

ANTHROPOPHAGI. Another name 
for cannibals, or men eaters. 

.\NTIDOTE. Acounterpoison, orany 
medicine generally that counteracts the 
eflects of what has been swallowed. 

ANTIMONY. .\TOotallic. solid, heavy, 
brittle substance, which is very seldom 
lonnd pure, but mostly mixed with other 
ruetals. In its pure slate it is called tlie 
re^iiliis of antimony. Crude antimony, in 
eommerce, is a metallic ore, consisting uf 



AOR a 

the metal called antimony "ombineh tb 

sulphur. 

ANTI.\().MI.\.VS. An ancient sect, wh« 
maintained >liai faith, witliout sihmI works, 
Wiis siiihcieiit for s,ilvalion. Tliissect haa 
been revived since the KeforiiKUinn. 

A.VTIPUDES. Persons 8«i named in 
geography, who live diametrically opposito 
to one another, as it were feet to feet. 
They have equal l.ititudes, the one north 
and the other south ; hut opposite longi- 
tudes, coiiseipiently when it is day to ih* 
one it is ni^'ht to the other, and when 
summer to the one winter lo the other. 

ANTIUUAKY. One who .searches aftei 
the remains of antiquity. 1'he miuiks who 
were entployeit in ni.'iking new copies ot 
old IxKiks were formerly called antiquarii. 
ANTIS(;il (inGeo°mphy). People who 
'ive on ilitiereiil sides of the e<)iialor, and 
have their sli:tdows at ao<iM fall directly 
cppo»ile ways. 

ANTISEPTICS. Substancea which r« 
gist putrefariiun. 

ANTITIIE.<IS. A figure of sjieech, in 
which contraries are put in c<uitrast with 
earli other, as, lie gained by lusing, and l>y 
falling ro;*e. 

ANToECI (in Geography). People who 
live under the same menilian, ea.sliir west, 
but under opiHjsite panillels of latitude ; 
they have their niM>n or midnight .at the 
same lii>ur, hut their sen.soiis cuiilrary. 

.\NTONO^L\SIA. A form of speech, in 
which the name of some dignity, office, 
profession, science, or trade, is used in- 
stead of the true name of a person ; or, 
in wliich a proper name is put in place 
of an appellative : thus, we say the 
President, the Englishman, the Printer, 
a Cafo, a Solomon. 

ANTOSL\NDKI.\N. One of a sect of 
rigid Lutherans, so denominated Irom 
their opinsing the doctrines of Osian- 
der, the German reformer. 

ANTRUSTION. In history, the An- 
fnistious were a class of people among 
ihe Franks, who were the personal vas- 
sals of the kings and counts. 

ANCBIS. An Egyptian deity, repre- 
sented by a human figure, with the 
head of a dog or a lox. He was the son 
ot Osiris, and was regarded as the con- 
ductor and guardian of departed souls. 
AONIAN. Pertaining to the Muses, or 
to Aonia, their residence, in Bceotia. 
AORIST. The name of certain tenses 
in the Greek language, which express 
time indeterminate, that is, either past, 
present, or future. 

AOUTA. A tre-! of Otaheite. from the 
bark of wliich the natives make cloth. 
AORTA. In anatomy, the great 
artery, or main trunk of the arte- 
rial "system, proceeding immediately 
from the left ventricle of the 
heart. It i« distingu^siied into 



24 



ATI 



Ibe descending or ascending, according lo 
Uie manner in wliicli it runiJ. 

APATITE. PlKisjiliale of lime ; a mine- 
ral which occiini in tin vein«, and ia found 
in Curnwall and Germany. 

Al'E. The name of a trilie of animals 
ol tlie monkey kind whicli are willioul 
UilR, Imiutive, chatterinn, full cif geslicu- 
Uiioiia, tUievisli, and mwcliievuu*. 




APERIENTS. Opening niedlcine«. 

AI'ETAU >US ( In Bt.umy ). A rerni for 
planu \vlii«»e Ho went have nci llower leaves 
t>r corolla ; an the Uippuns, or fox tail 
graiw. 

APEX. A little woollen tntt on the cap 
pf the flamen, or high priest, among the 
anciriits. 

APEX (In Maiheuiatic*). The angular 
point of a c<ine or conic section. 

A. P. G. An ablireviatiiin lor Professor 
of AKtrononiy in Gresham Collei;e, Eng- 
land. 

APII/F.RESIS (In Grammar) The 
taking away a letter or sylLible from a 
word. 

APHELION. Tliat point at which the 
earth, or any planet, ia at the gRiate«t di»- 
tance from the mm. 

APHIS. The plant loii$e ; an extensive 
geiiUf of the heinlptera order. 

APHORISM. A brief sentence In 
■cienr^, c<mi|>rehendiM2 some experliiien 
tal truth, an the Apliorldius of Hippocrates, 
Slc. 

APIARY. A place where bees are kept, 
M'hich shonhl be selected with great care, 
•bserving thai it face the south, be defen- 
ded from high winds, and not within the 
•tdiere of otfensive smells, or liable to the 
attack* of taornetM or any other hostile 
trerrnln. 

APIS. The bee ; a genus of insects of 
Ibe order hymen* ptera. 

APIS. An Ri;>'|>iian deity, worshiped 
■nder the f#rm of an ox. 



APO 

APOCOPE ( in Grammar). The cutting 
off the last letter or syllable of a word. 

AI'ODAL. The first order of fishes in 
the Linniean system, having no ventral 
fins, as the eel, the wolf lish, tlie awont 
fish, the lance, &.C. 




APOGEE That point of the orbit al 
which the sun, iikmiu, or any planet la 
iimst disiaiil from the earth. This term, 
as well as the (lerigee, was most in use 
among the ancients ; modern astmnomers 
making (he sun the centre of the universe 
iiiiisLly use the terms aphelion and (lerihe 
lion. 

APOLLO. The god of medicine, music 
poetry, and the fine arts. He was the son 
•■■"Jupiter and Latoiia, b<ini in the island 
of lielos, and is commonly represented 
naked, with his lyre or bow. 




APOLOGtTE. An Inntnictive ftibte, cr 
a feigned relation, intendc-u «• leach aoiiM 
moral truth j as the Fatilea .if Esop. 

APUI'HTHEG.M. A brief and pilhy 
sayin;:, particularly of some distinguished 
person. 

APOPLEXY. A disorder which sud- 
denly surprises the brain, and takes away 
all sense and inotluD. 

APot^TATE. One who has forsakea 
Ins relii;ioii ; particularly one who has de- 
serted the Christian profession. 

A PUdTElUURi. A torui employed la 



ATP 

<«unnstraMnz n triilh ) a.o tvhen n caiixe is 
provril from an ffrtrt. 

APOSTLKS l'ro|>«"r'y niessenEem or 
•nibassad'irs, t. tpriii npiilipil iiinv paitini- 
iHrly to the twelve disiiples cmiiniiit- 
■loiieil hy iiiir Savimir to preach tlie gus^iel 
to nil iiHtinns, 

APlfSTlKJPHK. A fiLHire of pp«fech. 
by which the nrntor tiinis ("r 'iii liis .iiilijcct 
to ;iii(lreKi< a person either absent or dead, 
as if lie were present. 

ArosTROIMIE (in Oninimar). A mark 
of contraclicn in a word ; thus, lov'd for 
loved. 

APOTHECARY. Properly the keeper 
of a inedicinr shop; bnl more generally 
one who practises the art of pharmacy, or 
of coinpoiimlJng medicines- in London, 
ajMiiliecaries are <me of the city companies, 
anil are exempted, by stat. 9 Geo. I. from 
serving uiwin juries or in parish offices. 
They are oblijred to nmke up tlieir medi- 
cines according to the formulas prescribed 
ill the college dispensatory, and are liable 
to have their shops visited by the censors 
of the college, who are emjiowered to des- 
trov such medicines as they do nat tliink 

pood. 

A P" )Tn EOPIS. Deification, or the cei- 
emiiiiy of placing among the giHts, which 
was frequent among the ancients. This 
hoiionr wiis conferred cm several of the 
Konian eni|)erors at their decease. 

APP A.N.N At; E, or APPE.N'NAGE. 
Lands set apart as a portion for the king's 
youncer children in France. 

APPAK,\TL'S. A set of instruments or 
titeiisils necessary for prartisinu any art, 
as a surgeon's apparatus, a choniist's appa- 
ratus. 

Al'PAREXT (among .Mathematiriansl. 
A term applied lo things as they appear to 
us, in distinction from what they are in 
reality ; as the apparent distance, niacni- 
tiine, place, figure. Ate. of any heavenly 
body, .-us distinguished from the real or tnie 
dJsiance, ice. 

APPARITION (in Astronomy). The 
becoming visible. Tlie cinrle of apparition 
is an imasinarj- line, within which the 
■tars are always visible in any given 
latitude. 

APPEAL (in Law) The removal of a 
cause from an inferior to a superior court. 

APPEARA.NCEOn Law). The defend- 
ants appearing i>efiire the court to plead in 
any prosecutiim ; th» re are four ways for 
defendants toap|iear to actions ; in (tersoii, 
or by attorney, for persj.ns of full ase ; by 
guardians, or next friends, for infants. 

APPEAR.A.Nl'E (in PersiM-ctiveV The 
irojectiun oT a figure or body on the per- 



APP ■ 

spective plane ; in Astronomy, the same aa 
pha-niiiiiennn, or phasis. 

APPELLANT, or APPELLOR. On« 
who makes or brings an apjienl ; it wn« 
formerly nnich used for one wno brought 
an ap|ieal in a criminal proseci:! on. 

APPELLATIVE (in Grammar). A 
noun or name nppliciilile to a wliole spe- 
cies or kiiiil, as, a man, a horse. 

APPE.NDA.NT (in Law). Any thing 
inheritable that belongs to a more worthy 
inheritance, aa an advowson, or common, 
which may be appenilant lo a manors or 
land to an office: but land cannot be ap- 
pendant Ui land, lK>th being cor|Hireal, and 
one thing corporeal may not be apjiendanl 
to another. 

APPLE. A well known fruit, from 
which Ciller is made. 

APPLICATION. The bringing one 
thing nearer to another for the purpose of 
measuring it ; thus a longer space is meas- 
ured hy the application of a less, as a yard 
by a foot or an inch. 

APPOSITION (in Grammar). The 
placing two or more substantives together, 
without any cjipulalive between them, as 
Cicero the orator. 

APPR.AISI.NG. The valuing or setting 
a price on cikmIs An pppraiser is one 
sworn to value goods fairly. 

APPREHENSION. The first power of 
the mind, by which it simply ctuitemplates 
thintis, without pronouncing any thing up 
on them. 

APPRE.NTICE. A youne person bound 
by indentures or articles of aareenient to a 
tridesman, or artificer, to learn his trade 
or mystery. By the stat. 5 Eliz. no per- 
S(m can exercise any trade in any part of 
England, without havinu served a regular 
apprenticeship of at leiust seven year^. No 
trades, however, are held to be within the 
statute hut such as were in being at the 
making of the same in the reiun of Eliza- 
beth. No such law exists in the United 
SUates. 

APPROACHES (In Fortification). TE'e 
works thrown up by the Itesiesjers, in order 
to get nearer a fortress without being ex- 
posed to the enemy's cannon. 

APPB0PRI.\T10N. The annexing a 
benefice to the proper and perpetual use of 
a religious house, bishopric, college, &e 
so that the hinly or house are both (lalroa 
and (lersun, and some one of the number 
was apixiinted looffinate. At the disM>lu- 
tiim of the monasteries, theappropnationa, 
heinc more than one third of all the giarisUM 
in England, were eiTen to l.aynien. wheni* 
sprii.il! most of tne lay inipruprmimn* •«- 
isiinj; at present ; tor wnai Is caUeu aa a|>> 



» 



AQU 



protirlMloii In the hands of religious per- 
wniD, m usiiiilly called an impropriation in 
the hand!) of laity. It is coinpiiled that 
mere are in Bngland three thou!<and ciglit 
hundred and ftirty-five iiiiprnprialions. 

AITllOVKR (in l«iw). One who, being 
Indicted of tre.w<in or felony, confesses him- 
•elf guilty, and accii!*es others to save hiiii- 
■elf: this in vulg-.irly called turiiiitg liiiig's 
eviileiice. 

AIM-KOXIMATION. In general a get- 
ting near tr anoliject; in iiiatheinntica, a 
conliiiiial approach t4i a rout or quantity 
■oiieht, but not ex|iec(ed to be found. 

AJ'PI.LSB (in Astronomy). The ap- 
proach of a planet towards a conjunction 
witli the sun or any of the lixed stars. 

AI'rUK'IK.NA.NCES (in Ljiw). Things 
Cor|M>real and incorporeal that appertain to 
another thing as priinipal , as tiaiiilets to 
a chief manor, (.tiitlioiises, yards, orcb- 
arils, gardens, &.C. are appurtenant to a 
Diestfuage. 
- — AFKICOT. A fine sort of wall fruit, 
which rrtjuires much sun to ripen it. 

APRIL. The second inimth of Romulus' 
jreai', and the fourth of Niiina'syeai, which 
began as it does now, in January. 

A PRIORI. A nioale of reasoning by 
proving the effect from the cause. 

APROPOS. Ju!<tintime. 

APSIDES. The two (HiinUi in the orbit 
of a planet, at the greatest and least dis- 
tance from the sun. 

AITfciRA. Tlie seventh order of insects, 
having no wings, including spiders, Heas, 
earwigs, Slc. ; also lobsters, craba, prawns, 
and alirimps. 




AQUArORTIS. A wiKik and Impure 
Ditnc acid, commonly used in the arts. It 
li made of a mixture of purified nitre, or 
Mitpetre, vitriol, and potter's earth, in 
equal parts, and is distinguislied into sin- 
fle and double, the former of which is on- 
ly half the strength of the latter. 

AaUA RRGIA. Nitro-murlatic acid; 
eomposed of a mixture of the nitric and 
muriatic acids, which dissolves gold. 

AUU A R 1 t;s. The water-bearer, a con- 
■tellatlon, and the eleventh sign In the ro- 
4iK commonlj marked thus (irr). 



ARC 

AGUATICS. Trees or plants whl«« 
grow on the banks of rivers and marshes 
and waiery places. 

AQUA-TI.\TK. A method of etchin«, 
which is made to resemble a line drawing 
in water colours 

AUL'EDUCT. A conduit for water by 
pi[ies. In the time of the eiii(>ei(.r .\erv» 
there were nine, which emptied tlieni«elv« 
through i:),5!M pipes of an inch diamelei 
That constructed by L<iuis XIV. fi>r carry- 
ing the Bucq to Versailles, is 7(100 fatlioiiia 
long, with '3500 fathoms of elevation, and 
contains '242 arcades. 

AaUEOUS HUMOUR. The watery 
humour of the eye, the first and outennost, 
which IS less dense than the crystalline. 

ARABIC, or OUM ARABIC. A trans- 
parent kind of gum broni:ht from Arabia, 
which distils from a plant of the acacia 
species. It is used for painting in water 
cohuirs, and also by calico printers and 
other manufacturers, but it is ditlirult to 
procure it genuine. That which Is in small 
pieces, and of a perfectly white c<ilour, is 
reckoned the best. 

ARABIC FIGURES, or CHARAC- 
TERS. The numeral characters now used 
in our arithmetic, which were introdured 
into EfiL'land about the eleventh century 

ARBITER (in Civil Law). A judie 
appointed by the magislnite, or chosen liy 
the parties to decide any point of diiiVr- 
ence. An arbiter must judge according to 
the usages of law ; but an arbitrator, who 
is a private extraordinarj' judge, chosen liy 
the mutual consent of parties, is allowed a 
certain di»creti<uiary power. 

arbitration! a mode of deciding 
ctmtroversies by means of arbiters or arbi- 
trators. (See Arbiter). 

ARBOR VIT.E. An evergreen shrub 

ARBUTUS. The strawberry-tree. A 
beautiful shrub, bearing a red ruuiidis!i 
berry. 

ARC. Any part of a curve line, as cf a 
circle, ellipse, &c. 

ARC, or ARCH WURXAL (in Astrt^ 
nomy). That part of a circle described liy 
a heavenly body, between its rising r.iid 
setting. The nocturnal arch is thatw liich 
Is described between its setting and fusing. 

ARCH (in Architecture). Thatp.irtofa 
building which derives its name from ita 
ci'Tved form. Some arches are semicircu- 
lar, which are called Saxon arches ; oLben 
pointed, which are called Gothic 

ARCH OF EUUILIBRIUM (In Bridge 
building). That which is in equilibrium in 
all its parts, and therefore equally strong 
throughout, having no tendency to break 
ill one part more than anoUier. 



ARC 

ARCnnrSHOP. The chief prelnte, 
ai. iiic aiilliiirity over other bishops. There 
tre two archhi-thops in Kiuiiainl ; namely, 
ihnt of Canterbury, who has iwenty-tme 
bishops unde^ him ; and tliat of York, who 
has I'oiir. 

ARCIinEAOON. An officer in the 
ehiirch of England, who acts for the hisliop, 
having a siiperiiitenilant (Hiwer over the 
elercy within his district. 

AKCIIIM'KR. One having a preemi 
neme over other dukes. 

AUCHERV. The art of shwling wHh a 
bow ; formerly a favourite diversion aninng 
the English, who were also much skilled 
In it as a military exercise. The practice 
of archery was much encouraged liy the 
kingx. It was followed both as a recreation 
and a service, and Edward III. prohibited 
all useless games ihnt interfered with the 
practice of it on holydays and other inter- 
vals <if leisure. By an act of Edward IV. 
every man was to have a bow of his own 
height, to lie made of yew, ha/.el, or ash, 
ic; and mounds of earth were to be made 
in every township, for the use of the in- 
habitants. There were two kinds of bows 
in use amone the English ; namely, the 
long bow and the crosslKiw, those who used 
the long bow were called archers in dis- 
tinction from the criissbownien. 

ARCHIL, a sort of lichen ; the name 
of a violet-re J paste, used as a dve stuff. 

AKCHIlIia)E.A.N SCREW. A spiral ma- 
chine tor raising water, consisting of a 
tube roUeil in a spiral form ronnil a 
cylinder, a modification of which has 
been introduced for propelling steam- 
vessels. 

AltCIIITECT. One who is skilled in 
architecture. The architect forms plans and 
designs for edifices, coniluctsthe work, and 
directs the artificers employed in it. 

A RClllTKCTITRE. The art of building, 
*r the science which teaches the niethiHl 
of consij-iicting any editice for utK or orna- 
ment. It is divided into civil, military, and 
naval architecture, according .as the erec- 
tions are for civil, military, or naval pur- 
poses. The two last kinds are otherwise 
called Fortification,andNaval Architecture 
or Shipbuilding. (i?ee Furtificatiun and 
NtTAL Architecture.) 

ARCHITECTURE, Histort or. The 
origin of civil architecture, or architecture 
properly so called, is commonly derived 
from the building of huts in a conical form, 
■preadiiig wide at the bottom, and Joining 
in a point at the top, the whole being 
Covered with reeds, leaves, &c. But what- 
ever may have been the form of the first 
luildiiius, there is no doubt that the making 
•f reguhu habitation* was one of the first 



ARC n 

thinga which necessity suggested to the 
re.ison of man ; for we find (hat Cain, the 
son of Adam, built a city, 'i'ents, or tein- 
|H)rar>' residences, which were only suited 
to such as lead a wandering life, were not 
invented before the time of Jubal, the son 
of Tubal Cain ; since that time the 1'arturs 
have followed the practice, and theoriiiinal 
inhabitants of Aniericadid the same. Every 
nation, in pro|Kirtion to the degree of civili- 
K:ition which it has attained, has shown a 
dis|Kisilion to exercise tlieir ingenuity in 
the construction oftheir residences. Among 
the Egyptians this art w.is carried to an 
extraordinarj- degree of perfection. Their 
pyramids, labyrinths, and .some ruins of 
their palaces and other edifices are still to 
be seen and admired as stii|iendous monu- 
ments oftheir industry, perseverance, and 
skill. Near Amlera, in L'pjier Eg>pt, are 
the ruins of a palace of gray granite, the 
ceilincs of which are supported by columni 
of sucii thickness, that four men can scarce- 
ly span Iheni. The gniiid hall is 112 feet 
long, f)0 high, and 56 broad. The roof of the 
whole edifice is a terrace, on which once 
sti^d an Arabian village. The Babylonians 
and Persians vied with the Es>'ptians, both 
in the grandeur and splendour of tlieir 
biiildinzs, as may t>e Judged from the ruiim 
still remaining. A st.'urcase was to be seen 
some lime ago, having 95 steps ot white 
marble still standing, so broad and flat, ihnl 
12 horses might conveniently go abreast. 

As these vast structures were not fitted 
for the general convenience of mankind 
we must Uxik to the Greeks for the art of 
architecture as it has since been exercised. 
From the simple constniction of wcxMlen 
huts, V'itniviiis supposes the orders of archi- 
tecture took their rise. When biiildinin^nf 
wood were sii|ierseded by solid and stately 
edifices of stone, they imitated the |iart4 
which necessity had intrwiiiced into the 
primitive huts; so that the upright trees, 
with the stones at each extremity of them, 
were the origin of columns, bases, and 
capitals ; and the beams. Joists, rafters, and 
the materials which formed the covering, 
gave birth to architraves, frizes, triglyphs, 
cornices, with the corona, miitiiles, mo- 
dilions, and dentiles. To bring all these 
several parts to the slate of perfection at 
which they arrived was the work of long 
experience and much rea-jonine, aided by 
the invention of many tools. The Greeks 
improved upon the works of the Eg>'ptiaiis, 
so as to render them, if not so durable, a.' 
least mure ornamental, and (lerhaps mora 
really serviceable. The construction of 
arches was unknown to the anciet.t Asiiy* 
rians and P^^vluniniia. The ruuCi of tftai 



ARCHITECTURE. 



luUln wi»f» flxt^nd rovpreil wltti itroiligloiic- 
ly lariir i<t<iiir«, Hniiie of'tlirin larjie eiiuii|;li 
tnrnvrrlli« wlitilf riioiii. 'I'liey IkiiI toluiniis, 
wn ilit-y Wfmll pr<i(«irti<iiiect, anil till- i-!i|>- 
iUiN wfri* bailly exrculed. Tlie artof |iro- 
pfirtKiniiij! llif various parts of a tiuililing 
bfUiiiEs,!!! « iH'Ciiliar iiiaiiiier, totlietlrt'f k», 
from whniii we ilt-riv«t the three principal 
onler!" : atthi-same time it iinis't nut he 
(l«nieit, that llie Jewinh natiiiii had earlier 
exniiiples ii|'5ii('li pr<>|Hirtiiiri ; and that, in 
all pri)liahilily, the (;reek.-' took their idea 
•fa repilar order in artliiiecture from tlie 
<«niple of Solomon. 

Ill the Doric tirder, which is so called 
froiii nonix, (he son ofMelenils, and graiid- 
■OM of Deucalion, llie column approache.s 
Very nearly to the proixirtioiis of those to 
be Uiund in Solomon's Icinple. This order 
\v«i< firs*, employed hy Dorns in the biiild- 
ini! of a temple at Ar^os, in honour of Juno, 
and wan formed acrordiii!; to tlie propor- 
tloiiH between the fool of n man and the 
rt!Mt of his iKidy, reckoning the foot to be 
tbe sixth (Kirtof a man's height: they gave 
Ui a Doric column, taking in its cliapiter, 
■ix of its diameters ; that is to say, they 
made it six tunes as high as it was tliick, 
but they aflerwRrds added a seventh di- 
ameter. 

Tbe Ionic Order, which takes its name 
Irom the lonians, in (Jpper Asia, was 
fonned according to the proportions of a 
woman ; making lite height of the column 
U> lie eight limes greater than the diameter, 
riiey almi ni.ide cliaiineling in (lie trunk, 
•o imitate the folds in the dress of a wnman, 
and by the volutes in the chapiter they re- 
preseiiied that part of the hair which hung 
III curls on each side of the face ; besides 
the lonians adiled a base to their column, 
Which the Dorians originally had not. 

The Cnrinlbian t>rder, which was |)oste- 
rlor to llir other iwu, icsik its rise from an 
arridenl related by Vitruviiis. A basket, 
with u tile over it, had been placed on the 
toDib of a young Corinthian maid, near 
which grew the herb acanthus, or bear's 
breech. The leaves of ihis plant rising up 
U) the lile.tben curled themselves down into 
a sort of volute, which Iteiiig observed by 
CHlliniarhiis, the sculptor, hetisik the Idea 
of represenling such a circle of leaves in 
the capital of uc«>lninn, that hus since been 
characteristic oftlie Corinthian Order. Sca- 
mozzi calls this the virginal order, because 
It bears all the delicacy in iu dress peculiar 
to young virgins. 

'I'he Tuscan, or F.tniscan Order, derives 
t» name fr<iin the Etruscans, or Pelasgiaus, 
who first inhabited Ktniria, in Italy : this 
tiUier«fun) looked Uiwu aa a Roman Order. 



It has the proportions of the Doric Ordwr, 
but as it is one idllie plainest and simpleid 
orders, it is in all probiiliilliy »iie of lh« 
most ancient. Cilruvins s|ieaks ofthe pro- 
(Kirtions of this order, but there are no 
certain remains of it, unless we except Uie 
Tnijan and .'Vntoniiie pillars at Koine. 

The Composite or Uoinan ' )rder, is so 
called because it combines the pro(Mirtiona 
and decorations of the Coriiitliiau Order 
with tlie angular volute and dentils of the 
Ionian, thus forming a new order, which 
Wiis adopted by the Romans. 

Both the Greeks and Romans were in 
the practice of using the figures of men and 
wonieii instead of regular culiiinns, whence 
arose the Persian or I'ersic Order, in whitll 
the statues of men, ami the Caryatic Order, 
111 which the statues of w<uuen, served to 
support the entablatures, in the place of 
rolunins. The Kiniiaiisliad also tlieir Ter- 
mini for the giip|iort of entablatures, the 
itpiter part of which represented the head 
and breast of a human body, and the lower 
the inverted frustrnm of a s<iuare pyramid. 
Persian figures are generally charged with 
a Doric entablature ; the Caryatides with 
ail Ionic or ('orinthian architntve and cor- 
nice ; and the Termini with an entablature 
of any of the three (irecian orders. 

In their private buildings tlie Romait 
architects followed the Greeks ; but in their 
public edifices they far surpassed- them in 
grandeur. Architecture was carried to its 
highest pitch of perfection in the reign of 
Augustus. The Pantheon, one ofthe finest 
monuments of aiitiipiity, was built by 
Agrippa,theson in law of Augustus. Some 
of his successors, particularly 'I'rijan and 
Antoninus, were no less favourable to the 
exercise of this art ; but on the decline of 
the empire, architecture sliiireil the fate of 
other arts, and declined also, but did not 
altogether drop. New modes of building 
were introduced, which acipiired Ihe name 
of styles ; as the Gothic, t^a.xoii, and Nor- 
man styles. 

The Gothic style was so called becanse 
It was first used by the Visigoths. The 
Saxon and Norman styles were so called 
because they were res[>ectively used by the 
Saxons before the Conquest, and by tlie 
Normans aOer, in the building of church- 
es. The Saxon style was distingiiislied 
by the semicircular arch, which they (eein 
to have taken partly from the Romans, and 
partly from their ancestors on Uie conti- 
nent. 

The Nonnan style was distinguished by 
the following particulars : the walls were 
very thick, generally witbout hultrriwea; 
the arches, both within and witJi 't leiiii 



ARO 

eircniar, and »uppnrte<1 by veiy plain and 
•olid ciiIiiiiiiia; of wliich examples are to 
be »een in the cliancel at Ortord. in Suf- 
folk, and at Christ Church, Canterlmry. 
Poinetinies, however, tlie columns were 
decorited with curN-ings of foliaee or ani- 
mal!!, and sometimes with spirals, loxenge, 
or network. 

These two »:yles continued to be the pre- 
TBilini; modes of huilHliia in Knsland until 
the n it;n of Henry II., when a new mode 
Wits introduced, which was called modern 
Gothic. Whether this was purely a devia- 
tion from the oilier two modes, or whether 
It was derived from any foreign source, is 
not known. It is, however, siip|K>sed to 
be of Saracenic extraction, and to have 
been intniduced by the crusaders. This 
8iip|tosition is strengthened by the fact, that 
the nXKupies and (Kilaces of Fez, and also 
some of the cathedrals in Spain built by 
the Moors, are in this style ; which ouuht 
therefore to be called Anihic, Saricenic, 
or Moresque. This stylo is distinguished 
by its numerous buttresses, lofty spires, and 
pinnacles, large and ramified windows, 
with n profusion of ornaments throughout. 
It came into general use in the reign of 
Ueno' III.; when the circular gave way to 
the (Hiiiited arch, and the ma:isive column 
to the slender pillar, of which the. present 
cathedral church of Salisbury, liegun .it that 
I>eri>Hl, affords the best S|iecimen. From 
tJiat time to the reign of Henry VIII. the 
pillars in churches were of I'urbeck marble, 
very slender and round, encompa-ssed with 
marble shaflsa little detached, having each 
k capital adorned with foliage, which join- 
in g formed one elegant capiuil for the whole 
pillar. The windows were long and nar- 
row, with (lointed arches and (Kiiiiled gliiss; 
and the lofty steeples were lurnished with 
spires and pinnacles. In the reign of Hen- 
ry VI 1 1, a new kind of low |M>intedarch was 
introduced, which wasdescriliedironi four 
centres, was very rmiin) at the haunches, 
and the angle at the top was very obtuse, 
as may be seen in Cardinal Wolsey's build- 
ings. In the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies the taste fur tUeek and Koniitii archi- 
tecture revived, and brought the live orders 
•"nin into use, although for sacred edifices 
i^axon and (juthic styles still maintain 
liie preeminence. The Italians were fora 
hing time reckoned the greatest architects, 
but England may also boast of an Inigo 
Jones anil a Sir Christopher Wren, who 
hold a very high rank in the art. Inigo 
Jones has left the banqueting house at 
Whitehall, Queen Catherine's Cha|>el at 
fl. James's, the Piazr.a at Covent Garden, 
I* 1 oUier buildinip, as proofs of his skill 



ARI 2S 

and taste. The works of Sir Christopher 
Wren even siirpiuss those of hi ■< predece8S4«r, 
both in number and magnitude. Ainon| 
these stand foremost the Catheilral of SU 
Paul's, Greenwich Hospital, the Mimu- 
nient, Chelsea Hospital, the Theatre at 
Oxford, Trinity College Library, and Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge ; besides uj>- 
vvarils of tirty-two churrhes and innunter 
able other public buildings. 

ARCIIITECTUKE (in rersjiective). A 
Wirt of building, the members of whicli 
are of different measures and imwlules, au<i 
diminish in pro|)ortion to their distance, to 
make the building api>ear longer and larger 
to tlie view than it really is. 

ARCHITRAVE. 'l"h;a part ofactjuinn 
or series of columns that is aUive or lies 
immediately np«u the capital. U is the 
lowest member of the frieze, and is sufi- 
piwed to represent the principal beam in 
timber buildings. It id souu-tinies calleii 
the reason piece, as in |M>rticoes, chusters 
to. ; and the masterpiece in chimneys. 

ARCHI VAl?bT. The inner amtour of 
an arch, or a frame set ntf with mouUtiiigs, 
running over the faces of the arch stone* 
and bearing u|H)n the imposts. 

ARCHIVES. The place wliero there- 
cords, &.C. belonging to the crown umI 
kingdom are kept. 

A RCTIC. An epithet for what lies to th<! 
north, as the Arctic Circle, the Arctic I'ole 

AREA. The site or space of ground on 
which any building is erected. 

AREA (in Geometry). 'I'he 8U|>erficial 
contents of any figure, as a triangle, qua- 
drangle, &c. 

ARE.VA. That part of an aniphitiieatr* 
where the gladiators c<mtended, so called 
from tlie sand with wliich it w:is strewed 

ARGE.NT (in Heraldry). The while co- 
lour in tlie coals of arms of baruneta 
knights, and gentlemen. 

ARGO NAVIS. A coiislellation called 
after the ship of Jason and his coinpai^ 
ions. 

ARGUMENT. Whatever la offered or 
offers itself to Ihe mind, s<i as tu create be- 
lief iii regard to any subject or matter laid 
down. 

ARGUMENT (in Astronomy). An arc, 
whereby another arc is to be sought bear- 
ing a certain prn|Mirti<m to tlie first arc. 

ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM (la 
Logic). A mode of reawming, in which an 
argument is drawn from the pnifessed prin- 
ciples or practice of the adversary. 

ARIES. I'he Rnin, a ctuistellation or 
fixed stars, and the first of the twelve tigM 
of the ziMliac, marked C^i"). 

ARISTOCRACY. A form of | 



30 



ART 



TOfnt m wlucb the pi>wor b Tevted hi the 

notiihty. 

ARITHMETIC. The art of niimbertng 
•V C4iinputlat! bjr ctfitaln rules, of » liicli Ihtt 
four &n)t and gtni|)le8t are aililitlnii, «iili- 
trarliiiii, uiiilti|>liaili(in, and division. 
Viilptr AnUiiiielic is the C(iiii|iiil;itiuii of 
nuiii!>rre ill the ordinary concerns of life. 
Iiilejonl ArillinK'tic treats of whole niiiii- 
brrs ; i-'raclional Arilhiiietic, of fmilioiial 
R':aihers j Decimal Arithmetic, of deciinal 
niimliers. UniveiHal Arithmetic is the 
name given to Algehra by ssir Isaac Mew- 
k>a. 

ARITHMETIC, Hi.tort or. Of Arith- 
luetic as a science, we know hut very lit- 
tle as to its slate and prop'ess anion;; the 
ancients. It is evident, fruiii the bare coii- 
■iderati<>n of our whiiIs, and earliest Im- 
pressions, that some knowledge of iiiinibers 
or some mode of computation, however im- 
perfect, was coeval with society ; and as the 
transactions of men tiecaiiie more coinpli- 
oued, tt la rea.4otiuhle to infer that they 
would hit on devices for facilitating and 
suiiplifyini; their calculations. Josephus 
■tfserts that Ahmliam, having; retired from 
Chnldea into ICi:y|>l, diirlns the time of a 
famine, was the first who l:Might the inha- 
bitants of that OMiiitry a knowledge both 
of arithmetic and astronomy, of which they 
Were iMiih before lenonint ; a circumstance 
tJie more prfihahle.as it is well known that 
tiie Kieiice of astronomy was first cultiva- 
ted among the Chaldeans, and such ad van- 
cm made in that science as could not have 
been effected withotit the aid of aiilhmetl- 
cal ciilciilations. 

'I'lie (ireeks imagined that the science of 
arithmetic, as well as that of geometry, 
ohKliialed with the Egyptians; but this 
notion, as far a* res|iei-|s priority of dis- 
e«>very, was eviilently ernuieoiis, and no 
diiohl arose from the circumstance of their 
►av^Bj .rinved all their first ideas of the 
k'V« » ./ "6.eiice*, as well as iiKiny of their 
^4hm !» ,in the Egyptians. Thus, as the 
^jyA-^aa believed that they were taught 
• t-»«ni by their god Tlieul or Tliol, wlio 
V^J*^<' over ciHiimerce, the Ureeks as- 
a^iCned a similar office to their god Mer- 
cury. As the Hhipiiicinna were the first 
trading pniple, they iiatiinilly addicted 
themselves to the science and (iractice of 
•nthmetic, which led Stralio to observe 
th.it the invention of the art belonged to 
Ibeni ; but, as the Chaldeans were a more 
■neient |)e<iple, this »up|io»ition is no less 
•noiieous than the former. What advan- 
ces were made by these people in the sci- 
•nc« we have nomeans of ascertaining, for 
*<jUtiiig remaias of the early writings on 



this subject except what may lie gathered 
from the coiiiiiieiit.iry of rrocviis <ni lJic 
First BiMifc of Euclid's Elements It ap- 
|H-an< tlitit almost all nations were led to dx 
upon the same numeral scale, or the coiii- 
iiioii method of iii>tation, by dividing num- 
bers into tens, hundreds, and thousands; 
a practice doubtless derived from the cus- 
tom, so universally adopted in childhtMxi, 
of counting by the fingers ; which, being 
first reckoned singly from one to ten, and 
then successively over again, would natu- 
rally lead to the decimal scale or the de- 
cuple division of nuiiitiers. But they rep- 
rexented their nuinlwrs by means of the 
letters of the alphabet in the place of the 
miHlern iiuiiierals. Thus the Jews divided 
their alphal>et into nine units, nine tens, 
and nine hundreds, including the final let- 
ters, as H .\leph, I, 3 ISelh.Q, &.c. to « Vod, 
10 ; then 9 Caph, 'JO, *) Lamed, 30, &.C. to 
p Koph, lUO, T Resh, ioO, &.c. to f Tsmii 
final, 900. Thousands were sometimes 
expressed by the units annexed to hund- 
red, as 1>TU, 14:14 ; sometimes by the \v«>rd 
n'yit, loon, o'C^St, 2000, and with the 
oilier numerals prefixed, to signify the niim- 
lier of Ihousniids To avoid using the di- 
vine name of rP. Jehovah, in notation, 
they substituted p for filYeen. Totlieal- 
phaliet.of the Greeks were assigned two 
niiinerical powers, namely, a power to each 
letter in order, as u. Alpha, 1, ice. to 
ui < imeisi, 24, and a power siiiitlar to lh.it 
adopted by the Jews, as u Alpha, 1, &c. 
to X Kappa, 10, &.c. ; to cm Omega, COO , 
then 900 was ex pressed by ihe character 77) 
and the thousands were denoted by a (Munt 
under the letters after tliis manner, u, lOOU, 

,4 <2000, &.C. ; the number of 10,000 was 

sometimes expressed by a small d.ish over 
the lotii I bus 1, but malheinafiriansemploy- 
eil Ihe letter .M, which, by placingiinder the 
siiiall letters, indicated the number of tlicu- 
sands, as a fur 10,000, ^ for 20,000, &.c 

If M 

Diophantiis and Pappus made Mv to re- 
present 10,000, and then by the addition 
of the letters, as (»iHv, for 20,(X)0, &c. 
A|Hill<iiiiits divided numbers into periods 
of four chanicters, to which he gave a IikeI 
value very similar to the modern mode of 
notation. The Greeks, however, were en- 
abled, by means of their letters, to perform 
the common rulesof addition, subtraction, 
iniiltiplicitlon, and division, from which 
no doubt, the idea was taken of working 
with letters in our Algebra ; for It is worthy 
of observation that In their inullipllcatlo* 
they proceeded fironi left to rigkt u !■ tkt 



ART 

Binlrfptlrittlnn nf alcfbn at present. The 
i»ret-KK liHil likewise aiuillier kiiiil of iiola- 
tioM hy inc^Hiis of capitals, more properly 
initials of ilie names of numlxfrs, and were 
UHnl 111 iiiscriptKiiis, a!< I for ia,or ^ta, I, 
77 for iin-Ti,i,£^ lor 5ixa, 10, &«• The 
Riim.tii niitntiiiii, which is still used in 
■ marking ilaiea, and niiinbering chapters, 
&.C consists of live of their capiti.l letters, 
namely, 1 <iiie, V five, X ten, L fifty, 
C one hiuiilred, which are increased in 
thU manner: the re(ietilion of the I's in- 
creases numbers by units, as 11 for two. 
Hi for three, ice; that of X's increases 
numbers by tens, as XX for twenty, XXX 
fcr thirty, &c.; and that of (;'s increases 
■umbers by Ininilreds, as CC for two hun- 
dred, ecu for three hundred, &.C.; also a 
If ss character before a greater diminishes 
the value of the number, as I before V, 
thus, IV, makes it four, I before X, thus, 
iX, makes it nine : on the other hand, a 
less character after a greater increases the 
value of the number, as 1 after V, thus, VI, 
makes it six, and I after X, thus, XI, makes 
it eleven. In what manner the Komans 
performed their arithmeticiil o(<eration8 is 
not known -, but it is most probable that, 
as il»ey were nut a commercial nation, they 
followed the simplest forms of calculation : 
we must therefore look for further informa- 
tion on this subject to the period when the 
Arabs or Saracens introduced into Europe 
their mode of notation, which is not only 
distinguished from the others by the pecu- 
liarity of the characters, but also by their 
value and dis|K>sition. Althoush this nota- 
tion consists of only nine digits, with the 
cipher 0, yet, by giving a local power to 
these fi{;iires, namely, that of units, tens, 
hundre<ls,thousands, &.c. they may be made 
to express numbers to an indefinite extent. 
Besides, this mode also presents many ad- 
vantages by the additional facility with 
which all arithmetical operations are thus 
performed. 15y what nation this improve- 
ment was first made is not known. The 
Greeks, as tiefore observed, were making 
a>!vances towards it by giving a local value 
to certain periods of four numbers each, 
but it dues not appear that they proceeded 
any further. Tlie Arabs introduced it into 
Europe aUmt eight hundred years back, 
whence it soon circulated among the dif- 
ferent Euro|iean nations ; but although the 
first use of this scale is commonly ascribed 
to them, yet they acknowledge themselves 
indebted t4i the Indians for it ; and as this 
latter people w ire in many respects very 
Ingenious, it is not at all improbable that 
tliey were the authors of the invention. 
TIh9 cultivation of arithmetic ia Europe 



ARM 



9\ 



may be dated from the thirteenth century 
when Jordanus of \aniur, the first wrila» 
on the subject that we know of, flourished 
His arithmetic was published with illustra- 
tions, by Joannes Fal>er Stapiilensis, in the 
fifteenth century, but was less perfect than 
the treatises of Lucas de Burgo and Nicholas 
de Tartagl ia in that and the subse<pient cen- 
turies. In France, the subject of arithmetic 
was handled about the same time by C'la- 
vius and Ramus; in Germany, oy Sturmiiis, 
Stifelius, and Ilenischius; and in England 
by Recorde, Diggs, and Buckley. After 
that period the writers on arithmetic be- 
came t(Ki numerous to be particularly spe- 
cified, but the names of Brings, Emerson, 
Napier, Maclaurin, Hutton, and Bonny- 
castle, are entitled to notice for liaviug 
systematized, enlarged, and in many |iar- 
ticulars simplified the science. 

ARK. The floating vessel in which Noa^ 
and his family were g.-ived from the flood 
It was 5O0 feet long, 90 broad, and 50 high 

ARK OF THE COVENANI', or .Mo- 
ses' Ark. The chest in which the stone 
tables of the ten commandments, wrilteii 
by the hand of God, were laid up. 

AR.MAUII^EA. A quadru|*ed, a native 
of Brazil and the West lii'Mes, with (ho 
snout of a pig, the tail of a .izard, and the 
feet of a hedgehog. lie is armed with a 
coat of impenetrable scales, under whicil 
he retire* >ike a tortoise. 




ARMILLARY SPHERE (in Astro 
noniy). An artificial sphere, comimsed of 
a number of circles, of metal, w<ki(1, ot 
paper, representing the several circles of 
the sphere of the world p«n together in 
their natural order. Tlie annillary spliei« 
revolves upon an axis within a silvered 
horizon, which is divided into degrees, aiu 
moveableevery way upon a brass supporter- 
In Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, there is an 
armillary sphere constructed by Dr. Long, 
which is eighteen feet in diameter, and will 
contain more than thirty persons sitting 
within it, to view, as from a centre, the 
representation of the celestial spheres. That 
part of the sphere which is not visible 1m 
England is cut off; and the whole ia ao 
contrived, that, by being turned rouiKi, tt 



S2 



ARR 



9ihibtuall the phenomena of the heavenly 

lOdlM. 




ARMORY. A branch of the ncience of 
henlilry, congistins in the knowlediie of 
Rrnioniil hearinjis or coats of arms, which 
«ier\'e to distinguish the quality of the 
bearer. 

ARMOUR. All siicli habiliments as oerve 
to defend the body from wounds inflicted 
by darts, swords", lances, &c. 

ARMY. A bjdy of soldiers consisting of 
horse and foot, under the command of a 
general and sulmrdinate olticers, and aim- 
pletelyequip|>ed and disciplined for sen-ice. 
An army is generally divided into a certain 
number of coriM,eaeh consisting ofliripades, 
regiments, batliil ions, and squadrims; when 
Ml the field, it is formed into lines ; the first 
line is called the vaniniard, the second the 
main body, the third the rear<;uard,orbody 
of reserve. 'I'he middle of e.acli line is oc- 
cupied hy the fool, the cavalry forms the 
right and left wins: of each line, and some- 
times squadrons of horse are placed in the 
Intervals l>etween the battalions. 

AttOMA. A general name for all sweet 
Rpices, but (larticularly myrrh ; also the 
odoriferous principle which produces the 
fragrance peculiar to some plants. 

ARRAC. A spirituous liquor distilled In 
India from the cocoa tree, rice, or sugar 
it is very strong, and intoxicates more than 
mm or brandy. 

ARRAIGNMEXT (in l^w). The brlng- 
tng a prisoner forth, reading the indictment 
to him, and putting tlie question of guiUy 
or not guilty. 

ARRAY. The drawing up of soldiera in 
•rder of battle. 

ARRRARS. Money unpaid at the du« 
Ume, as rent, moneys in hand. Ice. 

ARRKKT {in Law). The apprehending 
•nd restraining a man's person in order to 



ART 

cniT pel him to be obedient to the law 
Thij, in all c.Tses except treason, felony 
or breach of the peace, must be dtme by 
the lawful warrant of some court of record 
or officer of justice. Arrest of judgment is 
the staying of judgment, or not proceeding 
to judgment. 

ARRCJW. A missile weapon, which is 
commonly discharged from a Ih vr When 
this weapon is borne in coiits of arms, it 
is said to he bartted and feathered. 

ARROW-ROOT. An Indian root, n^ 
which starch is made It is also used 
medicinally. 

ARSENAL. A public storehouse for 
anns and all sorts of anmiunition. 

ARSENIATE. A sort of salts formed 
by the combination of arsenic acid with 
different bases, as the arseniate of ammo- 
nia, &c 

ARSENIC. A ponderous mineral body 
It is yellow, white, and red. Yellow arsenic 
is the native arsenic dug out of the mines, 
otherwise called Arsenic Ore. White 
arsenic is drawn from the yellow by sub- 
limating ; and is reduced to powder by the 
mixture of oxygen, or exposure to the air 
This is sometimes used in medicine in 
small quantities, but is otherwise a deadly 
(Hiison. Red arsenic is the yellow arsenic 
rubified by fire, when it is called realgal. 

ARSENITE. A sort of salts formed by 
the combination of arscnious acid with 
different bases. 

ARSIS (in Grammar). The elevation of 
the voice, in distinction from thesis or the 
depression of the voice. Arsis and thesis 
in Ancient Music, is applied to the raising 
and falling of the hand in beating of time. 

ARTERY. A hollow, fistulous, conica 
canal, which serves to receive the blood 
from the ventricles of the heart, and t« 
distribute it to all parts of tha body. 




ART. The cnntnvance and dm oTthtnp 
by the help of thuugiit and ezpenencs. 



ART 

a»i uiot>nrd\nfi to prescrttied niles, so as to 
make them serve the |i(ir(Mise8 t'ur which 
they were designed. Liberal or fine arts 
\re those which are nohle and worthy to 
be cultivated without regard to lucre, as 
pnintiii<;, poetry, music, &.C. Mechanic arts 
are those wherein the hand and btnly are 
more concerned tlian the mind. Terms 
of art are sucli words as are used in re- 
gard to any particular art, profession, or 
science. 

AKTICHOKE A plant very like the 
thistle, with scaly heads similar to tiiecune 
of llie pine tree. At the bottom of each 
scale, as also at the bottom of each floret, 
is the well known tieshy edible suhsutno«. 
The Jenisalem Artich.Ke is a plant, the 
ttKit of which resembles a potatoe, having 
the taste of the artichoke 

ARTICLE (in Law). The clause or con- 
dition in a covenant. 

AKTICLE (in Grammar) A particle, 
which in most langiia<:es serves to denote 
the gender and case of nouns ; and in lan- 
guages which have not diiTcrent termina- 
ticms it serves to particularize the object 
referred to. 

ARTICULATION (In Anatomy). The 
junction of two bones intended for motion. 
There are two kinds ; the diarthrosis, 
which has a manifest motion, and synar- 
tlirosis, which lias only an obscure motion. 

ARTICULATION. The articulate or 
<iistinct utterance of everj' letter, syllable, 
or word, r<i as to make oneself intelligible. 

ARTIFICERS. Persons employed in 
4ie performance of mechanical arts. 

ARTILLERY. A collective name de- 
noting all engines of war, but particularly 
cannon, mortars, and other large pieces, 
for the discharge of shot and Bhelis. It is 
aJso employed to denote the science which 
teaches all things relating to the artillery, 
as the cotislniction of all engines of war, 
the arrangement, movement, and manage- 
ment of cannon and all sorts of ordn<ince, 
used either in the field, or the camp, or at 
■ieges, &.C. 

ARTIODACTTL.V. A division of the 
hoofed quarrupeda, in which ea<;h foot 
has an even number of toes, as two or 
four. 

ARTOCAEPTJS. The bread fruit tree 
of the South-Sea Islands. 

ARTISTE. A term of extensive nse 
among the French, to denote one who 
is particularly dextrous in the art which 
he practises, of whatever nature it may 
be, as an opera-dancer, a hair-dresser, 
cook, ete^ 

AETOTYEITE. One of a sect of her- 
etics, in the primitive church, who cele- 
brated the eucharist with bread ana 
cheese. 



ASP 



ARTIST. A proficient m th fine arts, 

ARUNDELIAN MARBLES. Ancient 
marbles illustrative of the history and niy- 
tholcigy of the ancients, so called Irom the 
Earl of Arundel, by whom they were trans- 
ported from the island of Paros into Eng- 
land. They contain a chronicle ol the city 
ol Athens, supposed to have been inscribed 
thereon 2()4 years before Christ. 

ASA-FCETI UA. A gum resin of a very 
fetid smelt, obtained from the leruia asu 
fxtida, a perennial plant, which is a native 
of Persia. It comes into this country in 
small grains of ditferent colours, hard and 
brittle. 

ASBESTOS. A mineral substance, of 
which Amiiinthus is one of its principal 
species. Tins consists of elastic fibres, 
somewhat unctuous to the touch, and 
slightly translucent. The ancients manu- 
factured cloth from the fibres of the asbes- 
tos for the purpose, as is said, of wrapping 
up the bodies of the dead when ex|Kised on 
the funeral pile ; it being incombustible in 
its nature. It is found in many places in 
Asia and Europe. 

ASCARIUES. Worms that infest th«> 
intestiniim rectum, and cause a violent 
itching ; also a kind ot worms which inlVsi 
the intestines of all animals. 

ASCENSION (in Astronomy). That de- 
gree of the equator reckoned from the first 
of Aries eastward, which rises with the sun 
or a star. This is either right or oblique, 
according as it rises in a right or an iil»- 
liqiie sphere. 

ASCENSIONAL DIFFERENCE The 
difierence between the right and the ob- 
lique ascension lu any point ot the heav- 
ens. 

ASCENT. The rising of fluids in a glass 
tube or any vessel above the surface of llielr 
own level. 

ASH. A well known tree, the timber of 
which is next to the oak in value, being 
used in every sort of handicraft. 

ASHES. The earthy subst-iiices remaii»- 
ing after combustion, which contain an 
alkaline salt ; also the skimmings of uitlaj 
among the letter-founders. 

ASH-VVEDNESUAY. The first day m 
Lent, so called from the custom of fasting 
in sackcloth and aslies 

ASP. A very small kind of serj'ent, pe- 
culiarto Eg} pt and Libya, the bite uf which 
is deadly. Us poison is so quick in its op 
emtions, that it kills without a possibility 
of applying any remedy. Those that ar« 
bitten by it are said to die within thre« 
hours, by means of sleep and letha gy 



M 



ASS 



without aaj pain; wherefore Cleopatra 
eboHe it as the easiest way of dispatching 
herself. 

ASPARAGUS. A valuable esculent 
plant, which requires three years at least lo 
bring it to maturity from tlie time of sow- 
ing llie seed, and will not yield vigorously 
witliout a continual supply of manure. 

ASI'EN-TREE. A kind of while poplar, 
Die leaves uf which are small, and always 
tremliliug. 

ASPHALTUM, or Jews' Pitch A solid, 
brittle, ponderous substance, which breaks 
with a polish, aud melts easily, ft is found 
in a soft or liquid state on the surface of 
Ilia Dead ?ea, a lake in Judea, and by 
time grows dry and hard. The Egyptians 
used asphaltum in embalming, wliich Ihey 
called numia mineralis 

ASS. A well known useful qnadniped, 
remarkable for its patience, hardiness, and 
long life. The milk of the female is highly 
esteemed for its light and nutritious quality, 
and for that reason recomnMnded for coo- 
SNinptive persons. 

ASPERGIIX.US. Tho brush Bsed In 
the Roman Catholic chnrch to sprinSle 
holy water on the people. In Botaity 
a genus of fungi. 

ASPHODEL. A name of the day-lily, 
kind's spear, and other elegant plants 
of the (?enus asphodelus. 

ASPHURELATA, or ASPHURELATE3. 
A series of eemi-metalUc fossils, includ- 
ing bismnth, antimony, cobalt, zinc. 
and quicksilver ; thus called because in 
their purest state they are not malle- 
able. 

ASS. A well-known quadruped of the 
equine genus ; figuratively, a dull, 
btupid fellow ; a dolt. 

Assagay. A tall tree of South Africa, 
of wliich tho natives make javelins or 
spears ; a spear made of this wood. 

ASSASSINS. A tribe or clan caUed Is- 
raaelians, who settled on the moun- 
tains of Lebanon, about 1090, and be- 
came remarkable for their assassina- 
tions. 

ASSETS. The stock in trade and en- 
tire property of a merchant or of a trad- 
ing association ; goods or estate of a 
deceased person subject to the pay- 
ment of his debts ; the property of an 
insolvent debtor. 

ASSIDEANS. A name given in the first 
book of Maccabees, ii. 42, to a sect of 
Jews, who armed themselves under 
Mattathias to resist the introduction of 
the Grecian manners and idolatries in- 
to Judea. 

ASSIENTO. A contract formerly en- 
tered into between the kings of Spain 
and foreign merchants, relative to tho 
Importation of negro slaves into the 
Spanish dominions in South America. 
ASSAM TEA. In botany, a valuabla 
kind of tea, raised and manufarctured in 
Ihe upper district of India. ' 



.ftSS 

I ASPHYXIA, or ASPHYXY. In pst)ioI»> 
Igy, the state of the body in which tho 
pulse is so low as not to be felt: but 
Inow applied by the faculty to th» 
symptoms of suffocation produced by 
an aocumnlation of carbonic acid in tho 
blood; the vital phenomena being sus- 
pended, but life not extinct. 

ASSAYINO. The p.irticular mo<le of 
trying ores or nii.xed metals by means of 
proper tluxes, in order to discover the pro- 
portion of metnl, as also of the otlier ingre- 
dients, as alum, sulphur, vitriol, and the 
like, which are contained in them. Gold 
is obtained pure by dissolving it in nitro- 
muriatic acid, when the metal may be pr»- 
cipitated by dropping in a diluted solution 
of sulphate of iron ; the precipit.ite which 
is in the form of a powder is pure gold. 
Silver is obtained pure by dissolving it iu 
nitric acid, and preci|iitating it with a di- 
luted solution of sulphate of iron. 

ASSIDENT. In pathology, an epithet 
applied to symptoms that acoornpauy 
disease. Assident signs aro those par>- 
ticular indications Avliieh attend disease. 

ASSIGNATS. Paper money issued by 
the Frenfh Govermaent during tba 
first BeyoIutiOQ. 

ASSIGN (in Law). One to whom any 
thing is assigned or made over, as an exe- 
cutor, &c. ; also an assignee or assign to a 
bankrupt's estate. 

ASSIGNMENT. A transfer or making 
over lo another the right one has in any 
estate, usually a|>plied to an estate for lite 
or years. It ditlers from a lease in this, 
that by an assignment one parts with tli* 
whole interest one has in the thing, bnt by 
a lease he reserves himself a reversion. 

ASSIMILATID.N (in Physics). The pro- 
cess in the animal economy by which the 
food is converted into nourishment for the 
bo<ly. 

ASSIZE (In Law). An assembly of 
knights and other substantial men, who^ 
with the justices, met at a certain time 
and in a certain place for the due admi- 
nistration of justice. In the modern appli- 
cation it signities a sitting of Die judges by 
virtue of a coinntission, to hear and de 
termine causes. The assixes are genrnif 
when the justices go their circuits, willi 
commission to take all assizes, that is, 
hear all causes j titey are s)iecial when 
special commissions are granted to nea' 
particular causes. 

ASSOCIATION. The connexion ofideaa 
in the human mind which forthemoct pan 
immediately ftillow one anolhtr, witelher 
there is any natural lelauon bet ween them 
or not. 



AST 

ASSUMrSIT (ill I«iw). A voluntary 
promise by which a innii biiiil'' liunsilt' to 
pay any thing tu another, or to <to luiy 
Work. 

ASSURANCE, or INSURANCE. An 
enc.iB^iii'T.t by which ii (•Krsiin lircoines 
btiiiixl for a «|iecili«d8ui!i, k'mI I'ura iiiuited 
perliHt, to indemnify another for any losses 
wliicli his pro^M-rty may susuiii from fire 
or shipwreck, &c. 

ASTliHISK. A star (♦) used in printing 
as n mark of reference. 

ASTEROID. A name given to four plan 
ets betwc'ja the orbits of Miirs and Jupi- 
ter, viz., Ceres, Pallas, Juno, and Vesta, 

A:5TII.MA. A painful, (limnili, and lu- 
borioUK respiration, with a sense nf stricture 
acrorv:^ the t>reasl,that suiiietniies approacties 
'.u sulf'ociition. 

ASTKAGAL (in Anatomy). The ankle 
bone; In Architecture, a small round monld- 
iMi: serviiij; as an ornaiueul to the tups and 
bullunis of columns. 



AST 



85, 



(L 



ASTRAGAL (in Gunnerj). A small 
nonlitinc encoinp.i8s!ng a cannon. 

ASTROLABE. An instrument fortaking 
the allitnde of the sun or stars at sea. 

A!*'I'1U)L()GY. An art formerly much 
cnltiv.-ited, but now exploded, of judging 
or predicting human event* from the sitii- 
ttion and ditfereiil as|iecl8 of the heavenly 
bodies. 

\STRONOMV. The science which treats 
e the sun, moon, earth, planets, and other 
heavenly bodies ^howin;: their niagnitiides, 
onter. and distances from each other, mea- 
BurinE and marking tlieir risings, settings, 
motions, appearances, the timesand (|uan- 
tities of (heir eclipses, &c. It comprehends 
what was anciently called the doctrine of 
the sphere, and is a mixed mathematical 
Bcienc«. 

ASTRONOMY, Hutort of. Of all the 
sciences which have encaged the attention 
(tf mankind, nime apiiears to have been 
cultivated so early as that of a.stn>noiiiy, 
which treats of tite noblest and most inter- 
estini; objects of contemplation. Josephus 
tnfonns iis that Se:h, the son of Adam, is 
said In have laid the l<>unitatlons of this 
science, and th-it his posterity, understand- 
ing fiom a prediction of Adam that there 
WorUd he a general destruction cfallthlncs, 
once liy the r.ige of fire and once by the 
▼iolence » -'d multitude of waters, made two 
pillars, on^ of brick and the other of stone, 
aiitt eiisravrd their inventions on each, that 
If the pillar of brick bat|i|iened t<i be over- 
thrown by the flood, that of stone might 



remaui ; wh.ch latter pillar, Josepbuvadds, 
was lo l>e seen in his day. lleiilM>iii>crit)ea 
to the antediluvians a knowledge of ths 
astronomical cycle of 600 years, but upon 
what authority we are not informed. 

The account is, however, not improbable; 
for historians generally agree in assi<:iiing 
the origin of astronomy to the (.'haUleans 
siHinalYer the deluge, when, for the puriHise 
of making their astrological predictions, to 
tvhich they were mnch addicted, as also 
for that of Rdvanciii!! the science of astnw 
iioniy , they devoted themselves to the study 
of the heavenly iKidies. The Chaldeans 
were in fact a trilie of Babylonians, who 
constituted the jinests, philosophers, a.stro- 
nomers, astrologers, and soothsayers of this 
people, whence a Chaldean and a stHtth- 
sayer became synonymous terms. Tlies« 
Chaldeans discovered the motions of the 
heavenly bodies ; and, from their supposed 
intliiences on human affairs, pretended to 
predict what was to come. The planets 
they called their interpreters, ascribing to 
Salurn the highest rank ; the next in emi- 
nence was Sol, the sun; then Mars, Venus, 
Mercury, and Jupiter. By the motions and 
as|>ects of all these they foretold storms of 
wind and of rain, or excessive droughts, as 
also the appearance of comets, eclipses of 
the sun and moon, and other phenomena. 
They also marked out thirty-six constella- 
tions, twelve of which they placed in the 
zodiac, assigning to each a month in the 
year, and thus dividing the zodiac into 
twelve signs, through which they taught 
that the several planets performed their 
revolutions. They ap|iear not to have had 
much idea of the immense distance of some 
of the planets from the sun, but accounled 
for the time they took in performing their 
re volutions by the slow nessof tlieir motions. 
They, however, held that the mcK)n com- 
pleted her course the soonest of any, not 
because of her extraordinary velocity, hut 
because her orbit, as it would now be called, 
was '.ess than that nf any of the heavenly 
bodies. They taught that she shone with » 
light not her own, and that when eclipsed 
she was immersed in the shadow of the 
earth. Of the eclipses of the sun they ap- 
pear to have had no just idea, nor could 
tliey fix the time when they should ha(ipen. 
Their ideas of the earth as a celestial body 
were also crude and im|ierfect. 

Astroiu.niy was cultivated in Egj'pt nearly 
about the same time as among the Chal- 
deans ; and, accordine to the opinions of 
some, the honour of the invention is due 
to them : but the most probable coinliisioB 
is, that as these two nations were coeval, 
anu *"<h addicted to the arts and science* 



ASTUONOMY. 



they cultivnu><) aftrnnnmv at the same time. 
The Kg> piiiin* Uail sii a very early |>erii>il 
their colleue <>1 (iriesw, \vlu> were all nccu- 
rate observt-rx ol' Hie siara, ami kept, as 
DiixtxriiM obverves, res;)»lers ul'llieir i>l>ser- 
valioiitf for an iiicreitilile niiiiil>er uf years. 
It l» ».-il(l, tliiit ill Hie iiKiiiiiiiieiit of Usy- 
maiiiiyiM tliere wii!# a ^itlijen circle uf 3ti5 
ciiltllii III circuiiilereiii'e and one ciihit thick, 
divided into 3lo parts, aiiNWeriii)! to Die 
dayx of the year, &.c. TJie Ksypliaiis dis- 
covered that the stars liail an annual nuitiiin 
of .*)<•" ,y"' ,45"" ill tlie ) ear; and Macrohitis 
OKxerts tliat they made llie planet.-) revolve 
al>out the Klin in tlie same <irder as we do. 
From t'haldea and Kgypt astronomy (Kissed 
int» riicKnicia. where it was applied by that 
trndin<!|>eoplelothepiir|Misesof navij^ation. 
Tlie Arabians als4i, one of tlie most ancient 
nations in the world, ciiltivaied astronomy 
as far as was needful to answer Ibe ends of 
their (Kisloral life, by ol»servins! the stars, 
their iNisition.aiiitiiiHuence on the weather. 
In tnivetiing tliroii;:li ihe desert, we are 
informed that, at a very early period, they 
used to direct tlieir course by the Great 
and Little Hear, as is done at sea to this 
day. They also pive names to the stiurs, 
mostly in allusmn to their Docks and herds ; 
and they were so nice in tills matter that 
no lanpiase aliounds with so many names 
of stars and nstensms as the Arabic. 

As to the Indians and Cliine.se there is 
no doubt but that they cultivated astronomy 
at a very early [leriod, and that the Brah- 
mins of the fo-mer I'eople, being altogetlier 
devoted to S[)eciila»ive sciences, made ad- 
vances in th.it of .tsirimomy enual to any 
of the nations of antiipiity. Al. Bailly in- 
forms us, in his history, that he examined 
and coni|)ared four different sets of astro- 
nomical tables of the Indian philosophers, 
namely, that of the Siamese explained by 
M. Cassnii in l(Wy ; that broiiglii from India 
by .M.IeUentil.ofthe Academy of Sciences, 
and two other mami.script tables, found 
Hiiioni! the paiiers of the late M. de Lisle ; 
all of which he found to accord with one 
another, referring to the meridian of Be- 
Oares. Itap|)earsthatlhe Indians date tlieir 
astronomy from a remarkable cunjunctlon 
of the sun and moon which taok place at 
Ihe distance of :W)a yeare before Christ ; 
and M. Itouilly concludes that, from our 
nMwt accurate a.stroiiomical tables, such a 
c<mjunctlon did take place. The Indians 
calculate ecli|»»e» by the mean motions of 
Ihe sun and moon,c(mimencing at a period 
five ihoiisand years distant ; but, without 
giving them credit for an antiipiity which 
taatvnriance wthall historical documents, 
•acred and pru:\uie, it •uffices here to ob- 1 



serve tliat tliey have ai'oirted the cycle of 
nineteen years, and Hal Iherr astronomy 
agrees with modern discoveries in many 
particulars,;»siotlieoUliipiUy of the ecliptic, 
and an acceleration of the motion of llM 
equinoctial |Kiinls. 'I'liey also assign iii» 
ijualities to the motions ol tlie planets, aa 
sweriiig very well to the annual parallar, 
and the eijuation of the centre. 

'J'he Greeks, without doubt. derived theur 
astronomical knowledgefromthe Egy |>tians 
and riiu-iiiciunsby means of several ofiliei* 
Countrymen, particularly Tliales the Mile 
sian, wliu, about 64(1 years before Christ 
travelled into Cg>'pt, and brought from 
thence the chief principles of the science 
lie was the tirst among the Greeks who 
I tbserved the stars, the sidstices, the eel : paes 
of the sun and motm, and proceeded tuifai 
as to piedict an eclipse of the sun. It 
apiiears, however, that, before his time, 
many of the constellations were known, 
for we tliid mention of them in llesiodand 
Homer, two of their earliest writers. Allei 
1'hales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Amu 
agoras, but above all, I'ythagor.-is, disiii> 
guished themselves among the number oi* 
those wiiocultivated astronomy. 'I'he latter, 
after having resided a hmg time in Egypt 
and other foreign (Kirts, established a sect 
of philosophers in his own country, known 
by the name of I'ythagoreans. lie taught, 
among other things, that the sun was ia 
the centre of the universe and immovable; 
that the earth was round, and the inhabit- 
ants were anti|Mides to each other; that the 
moon rellected the rays of the sun, and waa 
inhabited like the earth ; that comets were 
wandering stars ; that the milky way was 
an assemblage of stars, which derived its 
white colour from the brightness of Mieir 
light; besides a number of other inrticiilars, 
some of which are admitted in the present 
day. Phibilaus, a Tythagorean, maintain- 
ed the doctrine of the earth's motion roumi 
the sun, 4.'>ll years before Christ, and llice- 
tiis, a Syracusan, taught, a hundred year* 
after, the diurnal motion of the earth on its 
own axis ; also Melon, the inventor of the 
Melonic cycle, and Ciictemon, oliserved the 
summer solstice -t^lS years before Christ, lie- 
sides tne risings and settings of the slaro, 
and what seasons they answered to The 
same subject was treated of at large by 
Aratiis in his poem entitled rtiienoniena. 
Eratosthenes, a Cyrenian, who was Wvm 
in 271 B. c. measured the circumference of 
the earth ;and, being invited to the court of 
IMolemy Evergeles at Alexandria, he waa 
made keeper of the royal library, and set 
up there the armillary spheres which iliiv 
parchus and Ptuleuiy aAerwurda uaei n 



ASTRONOMY 



•7 



•flee aally. ITe also determined tlie dis- 
Udc« between the tropics to l>e 11-83 of llie 
whole meridian circle, which makes the 
obliquity ofUie ecliptic in his time to be 33 
degrees, 51 miniite:) and one-third. Ar- 
ehiuiedes is said to have constructed a 
planetarium to represent the phenomena 
and motions of tiie lieavenly bodies ; and 
many others added to the stock of astro- 
nomical knowle(l(;e, hut none so much as 
Hipparchus, who flourished about 140 years 
B. c. and surpassed all that had gone be- 
fore him in the i!Xtent of his researches- 
He showed that the orbits of the planets 
were eccentric, and that the iiimm moved 
•lower in her apofiee than in her perigee. 
He constructed tables of the motions of 
the sun and moun ; collected accounts of 
eclipses that had been computed by the 
Chaldeans and Ecyptians ; and calculated 
such as would hap|ien for six hundred 
years to come; liesides correcting the er- 
rors of Eratosthenes in his nie;isurement 
of the earth's circumference, and compu- 
ting the sun's distance more acrunilely. 
lie is, however, most distinguished by his 
catalogue of the ti.xed stars to the number 
of a thousand and twenty-two, with their 
latitudes and longitudes, and ap|>arent 
niagiiiludes. These and most other of liis 
o)iser>'ations are preserved by his illustri- 
ous successor I'tolemy. 

From the lime of Hipparchus to that of 
Ptol«-my, an interval of upwards of two 
centuries, few or no advances were made 
in a.'<Ironiimy. Claudius Ptolkiny, who 
was born at i'eliisium in Eg}'pt, in the first 
century of the Christian era, is well known 
as the author of a great work on astronomy, 
entitled his Almasest, which contains a 
complete system of ;istr<inoiny drawn from 
the olwervations of all preceding astrono- 
mers in union with his own. lie iiiaiiitaln- 
ed the generally received opinion of the 
sun's motion, wiicli continued to be uni- 
versally held iinlil the lime of Co|iernicus. 
The work of I'lulymy being preserved from 
the grievous coiiH.'igration that consumed 
the .\lexanilriaii library duringthe ravages j 
of the Saracens, was translated out of the 
Greek into the Arabic, a. d. 827 ; and, by 
*he help of this tninslation, the Arabians, 
who now addicted themselves to the study 
of astronomy, cultivated it with great ad- 
vantace under the patronage <if the caliphs, 
particularly Al .Mamon, who was himself 
a.i astronomer, and made many accurate 
obsert'ations by the help of instruments, 
whi:h he himself constructed. He deter- 
mined the oliliqi ity of the ecliptic in his 
lime to be 93 degrees, Xt minuies. Among 
Ute Arabian aothnrs of this period wan Al- 



fnigan, who wrote his Elements of Astro- 
nomy, and Allieleeiiius, who nourished 
about BtiU. This latter com^Kired his own 
observations with those of I'tolemy, and 
computed the motion of the sun's apogea 
from Ptolemy's time to bis own. He also 
compo.ied tables lor the meridian of Arabia, 
which were much esteemed by Ins coiiiitry- 
iiien. Aller this, Ebn Vounis, astronomer 
to the caliph of Eg>'pt, observed some 
eclipses, by means of which the quantity 
of the moon's acceleration since that time 
has been determined ; also Arzechel, a 
MiHir of Spain, oliserved theobliipilty ofthe 
ecliptic ; and Alhazen his contemporary, 
wrote on the twilight, the height of the 
clouds, and the phenomena of the horizon- 
tal moon. He likewise lirst employed the 
optical science in astronomical observb- 
tions, and showed the importance of the 
theory of refraction in astronomy. 

In the thirteenth century, astrogomy, as 
well as other arts and sciences, began to 
revive in Eurojie, particularly under the 
auspices of the emperor Frederick II.; 
who, besides restoring some decayed uni- 
versities, founded a new one, and in 12^(0 
caused the works of Aristotle, and the Al- 
magest of Ptolemy to be translated into 
Latin. Two years after this, John de Sacro 
Bosco, or John of Halifax, published his 
work Ue Sphtera, a compendium of astro- 
nomy drawn from the works of Ptolemy, 
Alfrdgan, Albetegnius, and others. This 
was held in high estimalioii for some cen- 
turies, and was honoured with acommen- 
tarj' from the pen of Clavius and other 
learned men. In I24U, Alplionsus kingof 
Castile, a gre.it astroiuuiier himself, and an 
encoiirager of astronomers, corrected with 
their assistance the tables of Ptolemy, 
which, from him, were called the Alplum- 
sine tables. About the same time Roger 
Bacon published his tracts on aatrimomy 
and shortly after Vitellio, a Polander, in 
his treatise on optics, showed, in accora- 
anee with Alliazen, the use of refrar'ion 
in astronomy. Nearly two centuries elap- 
sed from this period before any farther 
progress was maile in the science, when 
Purbach com|K>8ed new tables of sines for 
ever>' ten minutes, coiisinicled spheres 
and globes, wrote commentaries on Ptole- 
my's .'Mmagest, corrected the tables of tne 
planets and the Alphonsine tables, deter- 
mined the obliquity of the ecliptic al 23 
degrees, 33 minuies and a half, ami liegiin, 
al his death, a new series of tables for com- 
puting ecli|>se3. He was siirreeiled by 
John Muller, commonly called Regio- 
montanus, Bernard Waliher, John Werner, 
and others John Weruershowvd that tiM 



ASTRONOMY" 



mntlonofthr flTed Jtam, «1nre calli-u llie 
prrCMMiixi of 111* eiiiiiiioxes, was n)«>ut 1 
d«(;re«, 10 minutes, iii a liiiiulreil yeiirs. 
The celfliraCtfd Uoiii-riiicus came next in 
orilT, Willi ilistinunished liiniseil' by calling 
tn qiiestiiin tlie I'tdleniaic system of Hie 
nnlverse, siiid reviving that «f Pytliagoras. 
Alter making a series ofcvservalKms, and 
roniiing new tallies, lie coiii|ileled in 15;i0 
lii» wiirk, rirst piiblislied niider tlie title ut' 
De lleviilutiunilius Cieicstiuiii Orliiuin, and 
afterwards under tliat of Astnimimia In- 
Btaiirata, in which he set forth the system 
•iiice known by the name of the solar sys- 
tem, in which all the planets are c<m3ider- 
ed as revolving round the suii as their 
immovable centre. 

The science of astronomy henceforth 
cotiliniied to receive regular accessions and 
improvements by a series of writers, iis 
Schoner, Noiinlus, Appian, Cfeiiiina Frisi- 
us, Byrgiiis, &c. Besides, VVilliam IV., 
landcrave of Hesse Cassel, applying him- 
self to the study, formed, hy the help of the 
best instruments then to be procured, a 
CRtalogiie of four hundred stars, with their 
latitudes and longitudes adapted to ths be- 
ginning of the year I5U3. About this time 
the Copernican system found a strenxious 
though unsuccessful opponent in Tycho 
Brahe, a Danish nobleman, who, toobvints 
the objections against the I'toleniaic 8ji- 
teiii, nilvanced an hypothesis of his own, 
which added less to Ins reputation thnn 
tlie accurate observations which he made 
by the help of iiiiprovod instruments in \ 
new observatory built for him by order o.' 
the king of Oenmark. His friend Keplei, 
who enjoyed the title of mathematician t > 
the eni|ieior, finished his tables after hi i 
death, and published them under the tit) < 
of Rhodolpliine tables. This latter astror - 
onier discovered that all the planets revolv i 
round the sun, not in circular but in ellip- 
tical orbits ; that their motions are not eqii: - 
ble, but tpiicker and slower as they ai* 
nearer to the sun or farther from hini ; b» 
•Ides a niiiiiher of other observations on the 
motions and distances of the planets. He 
also concluded, from his observations on 
the comets, that they are freely carried 
about among the orbits of the pl&nets in 
paths that are nearly rectilinear. To the 
ajtronomers of this age may tt ddued Hay- 
er, who. III his l-'ran-imetria, has given a 
representation of all the u)ru^»'ialii,ni, 
with the stars marked on ih«r», and acci m- 
pnnied with the (Jreisk leUtn for ihe ccn. 
»enicnce of reference 

The M!ve<it»«r.ir, <e-wry eJf'e'l rn-.n/ 
freal nam*-* •.« ht« -.w. ol usinrirmer., nk 
SaJileo V-yferM, 0»j«.p», Iie/eitUfl, Se't- 



toii, and Flamstead, tc. As the Cop«ra - 
can system hud met with an op|H>iient IB 
one that ranked high in the science, It 
found a defender in (Galileo, an Italian no- 
bleman, who III his IJialogi, iu Ili^U, drew 
a comparison between the I'toleniaic and 
Copernican system, much to the advan- 
tage of the latter, for which he incurred the 
censures of the church, as the doctrine of 
the sun's iniiiiobility was Uutked U|Hm as 
directly opjKised to the express language ol 
Scripture. Although Galileo professed to 
recant In order to obtain his libei\.i(<n fr(uii 
prison, yet the system daily gained ground, 
and became at length estiiblished. Ualileo 
besides made many accurate observations 
in astronomy, and was one of Ihe first who, 
hy improving the new invention o( the 
lelesco|ie, was enabled to employ them in 
advancing his favourite scu-nce. Hy this 
means he is said to have discovered inequa- 
lities in the moon's surface, Jupiter's satel- 
lites, and the ring of :;atiirn ; so likewise 
s|Kits in the surface of the sun, by which 
he found out the revoliiticm of tliat luininary 
on its own axis. He also ascertained whet 
Pythagoras had conjectured, that the milky 
way and the nebulx consisted of innunier- 
able small stars. Harriot made siinilardis- 
coveries in England atthe same time, if iiui 
earlier. Heveliiis, by means of his obse - 
vations, formed a catalogue of fixed sf rs 
much more complete than that of Tychj's. 
Huygens and Cassini discovered the satel- 
lites of Saturn, and Sir Isaac Newton de- 
monstrated, from physical considerations, 
the laws which regulated the motions of 
the heavenly bodies, and set bounds to tlie 
planetaryorb8,determining their excursions 
from the sun, and their nearest approaches 
to him ; he also explained the jirinciple 
which occasioned that ciuistaiit and regular 
proportion, observed both by the primary 
and sectiiidary planets in their revolutions 
round their central bodies, and llieir dis- 
tances compared with their pi-ri(HN. 1 1 is 
theory of the moon, grounded on the la»s 
of gravity and mechanics, has also been 
found to account for all her irregularities. 
Mr Flamstead tilled the ottice of Astrono- 
mer R<iyal at Greenwich from 1(175 until 
his death in 1729, during which time he 
was constantly employed in making obset 
vations on the phenomena of the heavens 
As the result of his labours he published a 
catalogue of three thousand stars, w ith their 
places to the year Hi**!); also new solar 
tables, and a theory of the moon according 
to llorrox. fill his tables was constructed 
Newton's theory of the iniMin, as also the 
tables of '^. llalley, w ho succeeded hiin 
VI bis . In 172'J Besides composiiL| 



ASTRONOM » 



imble* *f the bud, moon, and planeu, Dr. 
Halley Htlued to the list o( astrotioiiiical 
dNcoveries, being the tirst wlioiliHcovemt 
Dm* acreleri:icii ofthe iikmiii's mean motion. 
tie also contrived a uirlliod fur liuding her 
puxullax by llirre observed places of a solar 
erlipMi, and .sliowed the iisr that nii^lit l>« 
maile of the appro-'ichtii" transit of V'enii!) 
Ill ITiil, in determining tlir distance of the 
gun I'runi the earth, and recommended tlie 
Dietiutd of determining the longitude by the 
"lodii's distance from the s.in and certain 
fixed stars, which wan aflei wards success- 
fully adopted by Dr. Maskel"'ie, Astrono- 
mer Royal. 

It was about this period that the qupstior. 
respecting the figure of the earth appears 
to have been satisfactorily decided, and in 
favour of .Newton's theor>'. M. Cassini 
concluded, from the measurement of M. 
Picard, tliat it was an oblong spheroid, 
but Sir Isaac Newton, from a considera- 
tion of tlie laws of gravity, and the diurnal 
motion of the earth, had determined its 
fipiire to be that of an oblate spheroid flat- 
tened at the |>oles, and protuberant at the 
e<)uator. To determine this point Louis XV. 
ordered two degrees ofthe meridian to be 
niea.sured, one under or near the equator, 
the other as near as possible to the poles ; 
the eX|>edition to the north being intrusted 
t4> .Messni. .Maii|H-rtuis and Clairaiit, thai to 
tlie south to .Messrs. Condamine, Bouguer, 
and Don L'IUki. .\nioiig the many obser- 
vations made by those who went on this 
exjiedition, it was found by those who 
Went to Itie south that the attraction ofthe 
niouiiiain of IVru had a sensible effect on 
the plumb lines of their large instruments, 
which issu|i|Mised to afford an experimental 
priMif uf the Newtonian doctrine of gravita- 
tion. A similar observation has since been 
nia<le by Dc Maskelyne on the mountain 
Schehallien in Scotland. 

The eigliteenth century was marked by 
thediscoverlesof Dr. Br;\dley,thesuccess<ir 
to Dr. Halley as .\stronoiiier Koyal, and 
Dr. Herschel, who also filled the same jiost 
so honourably to himself. Dr. Bradley dis- 
covered the ahernition of light, and the 
mutation ofthe earth's axis, besides having 
formed new and accurate tables ofthe miv 
tions of Jupiter's satellites, and the most 
correct table of refractions that is extant : 
also with a large transit instrument, and a 
new mural quadrant of eight feet radius, 
he made obser\-ations for determining the 
places of all the stars in the British cauv 
loirue, and likewise nearly a hundred and 
fifty places ofthe mixm. Dr. Herschel, by 
Bfignieiiling the iK>wen" of the telescope 
b«vc:.^ .<'iy ihinji Hxistlng bofore or ewa 



thought r, succeeded in discoverir.g a new 
plaiiel,whicli lieimnied thetieorgiuiicsidug; 
he also discovered two additional satellites 
to Saturn, besides those of his uwn planet 
Among those who cultivated the lii^lier 
branches ofthe science, ami distiugiiisliej 
themselves by their researches, Di. .Mask«- 
lyne,tlie predecessor of Dr. Herschel, nuiks 
the foremost, having been the originator of 
the .Nautical Almanac, and brought into iis* 
the lunar method of determining the longi- 
' de, &,c. besides making the requisite ta- 
iles. The theoreticiU part of the science 
was indebted to I'lairaiit, Euler, Simpson, 
de la Caille, Kiel, Gregory, Leadbetler, for 
many oirrect observ.ttions and elucida- 
tions. 'J'he practical part actpiired a system- 
atic form and many iniprovenients from the 
pens of Liilande, Ferguson. Emerson, Bon- 
nycaslle, V'ince, &.c. The historians ofthe 
science are Weilder, in his History of 
Astronomy ; Uaillie, in his History of An- 
cient and .Modern Astronomy ; .Monluccla, 
in his Hisloire des .Mathematiques ; and 
Lalaiide, in the tirst volume of his Astri>- 
nomy. 

The Ninteenth Century has been char, 
acterised by great advances in the 
science. Early in the Century, Cerea, 
Pallas, Juno and Vesta were discovered, 
revolving in the space between Mars 
and Jupiter, and numbers of others 
have been added since. During tha 
year 1878, eleven were discovered, ma- 
king altogether 191 Asteroids or minor 
planets. The discovery or practical ap- 
phcation of spectrum aualy.sig by 
Bunsen and Kirchhoffin Issy.'has pro- 
duced marvelous results. The inner- 
most secrets of the solar composition 
have been laid bare, whilst the great 
scientists Lockyer, Crova, Crooke*. 
Huggins, Draper and Young are etUl 
busily at work in investigating and ex- 
pounding solar phenomenon. 

ASTROSCOPE. An a.strouomic»l in- 
strumeut for making observationa of 
the stars, and ascertaining their po- 
sition in the heavens. — Astroscopy is 
the art of examining the stars by the 
agency of telescopes. 

ASXROTHEMATIC. The places of the 
stars in an astrological scheme of the 
heavens. 

ASTIiOTHEOLOGY. Theology found- 
ed on observation of the heavenly 
bodies, presenting proofs of the exist- 
ence and omniscience of a Deitv. 

ASYMPTOTE. In mathematics, a right 
line which continually approaches 
nearer and nearer to a curve, without 
cor meeting it. 

ATAC.VIMITE. A native ore of copper, 
called also co^iiicr-.sand, found in the 
desert of Atacama between Chiii and 
Peru. 



10 ATO 

ATOMIC THEORY. In chemistry, the 
doctriuo which teaches that the atoms 
of olomeutary substauces become com- 
bined iu certain definite propurtiuun ; 
and that all budieti ai-e composed of 
ultimate atomti, their weight differing 
In different bodies. The relation iu 
weight among the molecules of bodies 
constitutes the basin of the atomic 
theory, which establishes the important 
fact tliat bodies do not combine at ran- 
dom, but in detiuite proportions by 
weight. Thus, admitting the principle 
that all atomic weights are multiples by 
whole numbers of the atomic weight 
of hydrogen, it follows that all atomic 
weights whatever will be expressed 
in whole numbers ; the number for 
hydrogeu biiing 1. Professor Graham, 
iu his " Elements of Chemistry," pre- 
sents a tabular view of the different 
elementary bodies, with the symbols 
by which they are indicated. In this 
table the Ouemical Symbols and Equiva- 
lents are modes of expressing by letters 
ftud figures the definite jiroportions in 
which the substances chemically com- 
bine with one another, as elucidati^diu 
the annexed table. Thus hydrogen is 
represented by H 1 ; Oxygen by O 8 ; 
and water by U O. Iodine being denoted 
by I, and Fluorine by F, the symbob- H 
I and U F denote hydriodic and hydro- 
fluoric acid respectively. It happens, 
however, that many of the elementary 
bodies have names beginning with the 
same letter. In such cases the single 
letter is usually appropriated to one of 
them, and the others are denoted by 
that letter joined with some other letter 
of their names. Thus c:irbon is denoted 
by C. calcium by Ca, cobalt by Co, and 
chlorine by CI. The names of the ele- 
ments in the different languages of 
Europe not always beginning with the 
same letter, it hiis been agreed to form 
them from the Lutiu names of the ele- 
ments ; thus copper (cuprum) is repre- 
sented by Cu, iron (ferrum) by Fe, tin 
(stannum) by 8n, &c. The great advan- 
tage of these symbols is, that they en- 
able us to represent chemical decompo- 
sitions in the form of equations. Thus, 
for the action of zinc on hydrochloric 
acid, we have — 

H CI + Zn = Zn CI + H, 
■which means that hydrochloric acid 
and zinc, when placed in contact, pro- 
duce chloride of ziucandfree hydrogen. 
The left-hand side ot the equation re- 
presents the state of things before the 
action, and the right-hand side shows 
the change produced. The annexed 
table contains an alphabetical list of the 
elementary bodies at present known, 
together with their symbols and their 
equivalents: hydrogen being taken as 
unity. The words in parentheses are 
the Latin names of certain elements, as 
previously explained : — 

ELEMENTS. 6TMBOL8. EQCIV. 

Aluminium Al 13 70 



ATfl 

Antimony (Stibium) Sb 64-60 

Arsenic As 37.70 

Barium Ba 6870 

Bismuth Bi 7100 

Buron B 10-90 

Bromine Br 78-40 

Cadmium Cd 55-80 

Calci u m Ca 20-50 

Carbon C 6-12 

Cerium Ce 40-00 

Chlorine CI 3642 

Chromium Cr 28-00 

Cobal t Co 29 50 

Columbium [Tantalum). .Ta 185-00 

Copper (Cuprum) Cu 31-60 

Fl uorine F 18-68 

Glucinium Q 26-50 

Gold (Aurum) Au 19920 

Hydrogen H 100 

Iodine 1 126-30 

Iridium Ir 98-80 

Iron (Ferrum) I-'e 28-00 

Lead (Plumbum) Pb 103-60 

Lithi um L 600 

Magnesium Mg 12-70 

Manganese Mn 27-70 

Mercury (Hydrargyrum). Hg 202-00 

Molybdenum Mo 47-70 

Nickel Ni 29-60 

Ni trogen N 14-15 

Osmium Os 9970 

Oxygen O 800 

Palladium Pd 53-30 

Phosphorus P 15-70 

Platinum PI 98-80 

Potassium (Kalium) K 39-15 

Khodinm U 62-20 

Selenium 8e 39-60 

Silici u m Si 22- 60 

Silver (Argentuni) Ag 10800 

Sodium (Natrium) Na 23-30 

Strontium Sr 43-80 

Sulphur 8 16- 10 

Tellnrium Te 64-20 

1 h ori u m Th 59-60 

Tin (Staunum) Sn 57-00 

Titanium Tl 24-31/ 

Tungsten (Wolfram) W 99-70 

Vanadium V 08-50 

Uranium tJ 21700 

Yttrium -Y ..32-20 

Zinc Zn 32-30 

Zirconium Zr 33-70 

Any of the symbols iu the table exprcKS 
one atom ; when two or more are ex- 
pressed, it is 2B or B2, that is, two 
atoms of boron. Fe + O, or FeO, is 
one equivalent of iron united to one of 
oxygen ; and 2Fe + 30, or Fe203, the 
combinations of two atoms of iron and 
three of oxygen. 

ATONIC. In pathology, wanting en- 
ergy. 

ATRABILARLVN. In pathology, a 
term applied to hypochondriasis, or 
melancholy, aiising Itom superabund- 
ance of bile. 

ATROPHY. A wasting away. 

ATROPI.\. A poisonous vegetable 
alkali obtained from the Atropa bella- 
donna, or deadly nightshade. ,.- 



AT T 



A*rT 



41 



ATHENiEtnVI or ATHENEUM. In an- 
tiquity, a public building erected lor 
rehearsals and lectures, the chief of 
•which was at Athens ; a gymnasium. 
In iiroseut use, a public establishment 
for the encouragement of literature and 
the sciences ; in London, a famous-club 
house, the members of which arc all 
more or less literary or scientific men. 
ATHLKTiE. The wrestlers, boxers, 
&e., who contended for the prizes at 1 he 
Olympic, Pythian, and other games of 
ancient Greece andKome. 

ATLAS. A collection of maps in a vol- 
ume ; a kind of large-sized paper ; a 
rich kind of silk, satin, or stuff, manu- 
factured in the East. In anatomy, the 
first vertebra of the neck. In mythol- 
ogy, one of the Titans, king of Maurit- 
ania, and father of the Hesperides or 
Atlantides. Having assisted the giants 
in their war against tho gods, ho was 
condemned by Jupiter to bear the vault 
of heaven. In geography, a high moun- 
tain of Africa. In archreology, a column, 
or halt figure of a man, supporting an 
entablature. 

ATMOLOGY. The doctrine of tho 
relations of heat and moisture. 

ATMOMETER. An instrument to 

measure the quantity of exhalation 

from a humid surface in a given time. 

ATMOSPllERE. Tho sphere or mass 

of air surrounding tho earth, from 40 

to 50 miles high. 

ATMOSPHEKIO PRESSITRE. The 
weight of tho atmosphere on a surface ; 
the mean being U'7 lbs. to the square 
inch. 

ATMOSPHERIC TIDES. Certain 
changes which take place in the atmos- 
phere, caused by the attraction of the 
sua or moon, when in opposition or 
conjunction. 

ATOM. In natural philosophy, a par- 
ticle of matter which can no longer. ba 
diminished in aize ; the smallest par- 
ticle of which W9 can conceive any nat- 
ural substance composed. 

AUGEAN STABLE. In Grecian myth- 
ology, a stable belonging to Augeus, 
king of Ellis, in which he kept a great 
number of oxen; having never been 
cleaned, it was regarded as almost an 
impossibility to clean it, till it was as- 
signed to Hercules as one of his labors: 
hence what is impracticable or what 
would be very difficult to clean. 

AUGITE. A niiueral of a brown or 
dark-green color, a constituent of 
volcanic rocks. It consists of silica, 
protoxide of iron and manganese, lime, 
magnesia, and alumina. 

ATTBACTIO.N. In a peneral sense, the 
power or principle hy which Ixxlies mutu- 
ally tend liiwar<lK Mch other, which varies 
according to the naiiire of the bodies at- 
tracted, ami the ctrcmiisUuiceH under which 
this attraction taltes place ; whence attrac- 
tion 19 distiiigiiMlifd into the Atlruclion of 
Cobeaion, AUractUm of Gravttaliuii. Attrac- 



tion ofRlectricity, Attraction of Magnettain, 
and Chymic.-\1 Attraction. 

The ArTRACTioN okCohkbion is that by 
which tlie niiaute particle* of bodies are 
held together. 

Attbactio:»of liHAViTtTioNiillie prin 
ciple by which bodies at a distance lend 
to each other; on this principle it is that 
two leaden balls, having each a snioolli 
surface, if coiiipresned stronnly lov'fllier 
will cohere almost as stron;;ly as if unilt'd 
by fusion ; and even two plates of glass if 
the siirl'aces are dry ami even, will cohere 
so as to reipiire a certain force to separate 
Ihein ; which is 8»p|«ised to be a universal 
principle in nature. Uy (travitation n stone 
and all heavy bodies, if let fall I roiii a lieisht, 
are supiiosed to drop to the earth. All ce- 
lestial bodies are suppnsed to have not only 
an attraction or gravitalmn towards tlieit 
proper centres, but that tliey iniilu.rtlly at- 
tract each other within their splierj. Tho 
planets tend towards the sun and towards 
each other, as the sun does Uiwards ihein. 
The satellites of Jupiter lend towards Jiipi 
ter, as Jupiter di*s towards his satellites, 
and the same with ihe salelliles of Saturn 
and of L) ranus. The earth and inwin tend 
likewise reciprocally towards each. By 
this same principle of gravity heavenly 
bodies are kepi in tlieir orbits, and terres- 
trial bodies teml.as is supis wed, towards the 
centre of the earlh. From this attraction 
all the motion, and conseipienlly all the 
changes in the universe, are supiiosed to 
arise, the rains fall, rivers glide, ocean 
swells, projectiles are directed, and the air 
presses upon di tie rent bodies. 

Attraction of Maomktum is the parti- 
cular tendency of certain iMwlies to each 
other,a9tlial of the magnet, which attracts 
iron to itself. This is only a sort of attrac- 
tion of grevitation, acting on particular 
subi 'ance«. 

Attraction of Euectricitt is the prin- 
ciple by which bodies, when excited by 
friction, tend towards each other. This 
8|>ecies of attraction agrees with that of 
gravitation in the proi>erty of acting upon 
iMHlies at a distance ; but it differs from it 
inasmuch as these bodies require to be in a 
particular state in order U> be acted upon. 
Chemical Attraction isthat disposition 
which some bodies in solution indicate to 
nnite with some diibstances in preferenc* 
to others. This is otherwise called affinity, 
and is considered as a sort of aitraction of 
cohesion, acting in an unresisting medium, 
as it applies peculiariy to such bodies as. In 
solution, indicateadisposition tounite with 
some substances in preference to others 
ATTRIBUTE.'S. Those propertiesor per 



It AVE 

Vtfon* which are attributed to the Divine 
Being only, a8 bin is«lf-«sisleiice, iiniiiula- 
bUity, eternity, &c. 

AnKlBU'l»(ln Logic). The predi- 
eatei of any subject, or that which may be 
affirmed or denied of a thing, as ' man is 
ao animal.' ■ man is nut a brute.' 

ATTKIBl.'TIiS (in I'auiting and Sculp- 
ttre) Symbols added to certain figures, to 
denote their othce or cliaracier, as tlie ea^Ie 
added to the figure of Jupiter, to denote 
bis power; a club to Hercules, to deiiute 
his prowess, ice. 

A VA UANL'lins. A name given in Savoy 
and Switzerland to the manges of snow, 
which break off from the mountains with 
a noise like thunder, and sometimes over- 
whelm whole villages. 

AVAST. A term vf command at sea, 
■ignifying, bold, stop, stay. 

AUCTION. A public sale of goods by 
persons called auctione«r8,wlio are licensed 
to dispotw of fuMtda to the highest bidder 
on certain conditions, called the conditions 
of sale. A mock auction is that which is 
conducted by unlicensed persons for fraud- 
ulent purposes. 

AUDIKNCE. The ceremony of admit- 
ting ambassadors and public ministers to 
a hearing at court. 

AUDIENCE CDURT (in Iaw) An ec- 
clesiastical court appertaining to tlie arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. 

AUDIT. A regular examination of ac- 
counts by persons duly apfiointed. 

AURA. A vapor of exhalation, defined 
by the early cUeiiiists as a pure 
esseuca exuJing from animals and 
plants, aud perceptible ouly by its 
odor, — Aura electrica is a term used 
In electricity, and applied to the 
sensation experieuced, us if a cold wind 
vere blowing on the part exposed to 
electricity when received from a sharp 
point. In pathology, aura epileptica is 
the peculiar sensation felt immediate- 
ly before an attack ofepilepov. 

AVERAGB(in Commerce). 'J'hedamage 
which a vessel, with the goods or loading, 
sustains from the time of its departure to 
its return ; also the charges or contribution 
towards defraying such diuiiages, and the 
quota or proportion which each merchant 
or proprietor is adjudged, upon a re;ison- 
ahle estimate, to contribute to a common 
average. 

AVES. Birds ; the second class of ani- 
mals in the Linniean system. This class of 
animals is distinguished from all otiiers by 
several peculiarities in their form, having 
fealh. ITS for their covering, two feet, and 
two wings formed for flight. They have, 
for the most part, the mandible protracted 
and nakvd, but are without eiiemal ears. 



AUR 

' lips, teeth, strotum, womb, urinary vessel 
or hl.-idder, epighitis. corpus callnsiim, OI 
its fornix and diaphragm. They are djviiied 
in the Linnxan system into six orders: 
namely, Accipitres, or the falcon and eagle 
kind ; Pic:e, the pies ; Aiiseres, the got so 
and duck kind ; Grallx, tlie criiie kind ; 
Gallinie, the poultry' or dmiit-stic fow , ard 
Pusseres, the sparrow a.nd Ihich kind, .vi'Jl 
all the smaller birds. 

AUG Ell. A wimble, or tool for boring. 

AUGaiENT(in Grammar). A letler or 
syllable added or changed in Greek verbs. 

AUGME.NTATION (in Heraldry). A 
particular mark of honour borne in a I 
escutcheon, as the hand in the arms ot 
baronets. 

AtJGURY. The practice of divining by 
the flight of birds or from iiis[iecting their 
entrails. The augurs were a principal 
order of priests among the Komans. 

AUGUST. The eighth month oftlie ye.-ir, 
called alter the emperor Aiicustus Cn'sjir, 
who entered his second consulship in that 
month, after the Actian victory. 

AUGUSTAN CONFESSION. A con 
fession or declaration of Christian faith 
made by the Protestants at Augusta tr 
Augsburg in Germany, a. d. l.'ioO. 

AUGUSTINES, or Ar»Tir« Friars. A 
religious order, so called from St. Aiigustin 
their founder. They were very numerous 
in England before the Reformation. 

AVIARY. A place set apart for feeding 
and propagating birds. 

AUK. A bird, otherwise called Penguin 
or Razorbill, an inhabitant of the arctic oi 
northern seas. 




AT7RELIA. In entomology, the first 
nietamorpho.«!is of the maggot of an in- 
sect, or that state in which it is trans- 
formed from the caterpillar to the per- 
fect winged fly; a chrysalis. 

AURICLE. That part of the ear whicli 
Is prominent from the head. The auricles 
of the heart are appendages at the base of 
tlie heart, which are distinguished into 
nght and left, the funuer of which ia pla 



AUT 

eed li thp antprior, lli*- latter In the hinder 
part. Tlir!«e are mnsrular hags, which 
move repilarly with Uie heart, but in an 
Inverted nrrter. 

Al.'Rirt'LAR CONFESSION. A mode 
of coiifpssiiiii aiming Roman Catholics, by 
whispering in the ears of their fathers, 
confessors, or priests. 

AURORA ItOREALIS, 1. e. the North- 
t»n Twilight. An extraordinar>' meteor 
or luminous ap|>earance visible in the night 
time in the northern parts of the heavens. 
The aurora boreaiis apjiears frequently in 
the form of an arch, chiefly in the spring 
and autumn, after a dr>' year. Tliis kind 
of meteor is more rarely to be seen, the 
nearer we approacli the equator, hut in 
the polar regions it is very constant and 
brilliant. In the Shetland Isles these lights 
are called 'the merrj- dancers.' 

AURUM MUSICU.M,or Mosaicum. A 
combination of tin and sulphur, used by 
statuaries and painters, for giving a gold 
colour to their figures. 

AUSI'tCES. A kind of soothsaying 
among the Romans, by the flight or sing- 
ing of birds. 

AUTO D.\ FE, or Aw Act or Faith. 
The solemn act of punishing heretics, for- 
merly in use among the Spaniards. Upon 
a Sunday or festival, the offender hemj 
brought from prison to church, dressed in 
afl-ightful manner,attended divine service, 
•fler which he was delivered over to the 
civil [Niwer to be burnt. 

AUTOGRAPH. An epithet applied to 
whatever is written in a |>erson'sown hand 
writing, as an.autograph letter, a letter of 
one's own writing. 

AUTO.MATON. A self-moving engine, 
more particularly the figure of any animal 
havingthe principle of motion witnin itself 
by means of wheels, springs, and wei-ilits; 
those in the figure of a man are called 
androides, as the mechanical chess-player, 
ic. (See A>uii<iiOEii); those of animals are 
properly called automata. It is said that 
Arcliytas of Tarentum, 400 years ijefore 
Christ, made a wooden pigeon that could 
fly ; and that Archimedes made similar 
automata. Regiomontanus made a wooden 
eagle, that flew forth from the city, met the 
emperor, saluted him, and returned ; also 
an iron fiy, which fiew out of his hand at 
afeast,and returned again,after flying about 
the room. Dr. Hooke made the model of 
a flying chariot, capable of supporting itself 
!n the air. M. Vaucanson made a figure 
ll a' played on the flute ; also a duck capable 
sfeitiiig, drinking, and imitating exactly 
the voice of a natural one j and, what ia | 



A XI 



4S 



still more surprising, the food it swallowed 
was evacuated in a digested .«tate ; also the 
wings, viscera, and bones were formed so 
as strongly to resemble those of a living 
duck. M. le I)ro7., of la Chaux de Ponds, 
presented a clock to the king of Spain, 
which had, ainongothercuriosities.asheep 
that made a bleating noise, and a dog 
watching a basket', that snarled and harked 
when any one offered to take it away. 

One of the most celebrated automata 
ever in vented, was that of the Chess Player, 
constructed in Germany by Baron Keiiip- 
lin, and since exhibited in various parts of 
Europe and ,\merica, by Mr. Maelzel. 
It represented the flgure of a Turk, who 
made the moves on tlie ches8-b<«rd with 
its hand, and played the game with so 
much skill that it was long thiMight never 
to have been beaten. It was Iiowever fre- 
quently beaten in .America, and is now gen- 
erally supposed to have cimcealed a person 
of small size within the engine, which 
directed the moves. The ingenuity of 
this contrivance, therefore, lay rather in 
the mode of concealing the real player, than 
in the mechanism. 

AUTU.MN. The third season In the year 
which begins, in the northern hemisphere 
on the day when the sun enters Libra, that 
IS, on the 22d of September. It termi 
nates about the same day in December 
when the winter commences. 

AUTUMNAL SIGNS. The three signs 
Libra, Scorpio, and Sagittarius, thr<iugh 
which the sun passes during the autumn 
season. 

AUXILIARY VERBS (In Grammar). 
Such verbs as help to form or conjug;ite 
others, as, in English, the verbs ' to have 
and ' to be.' 

.\WL. A shoemaker's tool, with whick 
holes are bored in the leather, for the ad- 
mission of the thread in stitchingand sew 
ing. The blaiteof the awlis mostly a litlla 
flattened and bent 



AWNING. A piece of tarpaulin or sal!, 
&.C. hung about the decks or any other part 
of a vessel, to screen persons from the sun 
and rain. 

AUR.\NTIACE.E. A natural order of 
thalamiflorous exogens, consisting of 
trees aud 8hrul)s of great utility and 
beauty. The flowers are fragrint, and 
the fruit juicy. The order compre- 
hends the orange, lemon, shaddock, and 
lime, which have been divided into four* 
teen genera. 



44 



AXA 



aXAYACATL. a Mexican fly whose 
eggs are used as a sort ot Cin-iare. 

AXESTONE. A light green mineral, 
also calleJ jade, or nephrite, found 
chiefly in New Zealand and the South 
Sea Islands, where it is nsedliy the rude 
natives lor making axes and other in- 
Btrnments. 

AXINITE. A mineral of a brown, grey, 
black, or blue color, with axe-shaped 
crystals, and consisting of silica, alum- 
ina, lime, oxide of iron, and oxide of 
manganese. 

AXIS. A straight line, either real or 
imaginary, passing through the centre 
of a bodyon which it may be supposed 
to revolve ; a pivot on which anything 
turns. -In the sciences and the me- 
chanical arts, the term is of very gen- 
eral application.— In astronomy, axis is 
an imaginary line supposed to pass 
through the centre of theearth and the 
heavenly bodies, about which they per- 
form their diurnal revolutions. In ge- 
ometry, it is the straight line in a plane 
figure, about which it revolves to pro- 
duce orgeneratea solid. In mechanics, 
the axis of a balance is the line about 
which it moves, or rather turns about ; 
the axis of osi'illation is a right line, 
parallel to the horizon, passing through 
the centre, about which a pendulum 
•vibrates ; the wheel and axis is one of 
the mechanical powers, consisting of a 
wheel concentric with the base of a 
cylinder, and movable together with it 
about its axis. In architecture spiral 
axis is the axis of a twisted column 
di-awn spirally, in order to trace the cir- 
cumvolutions without ; the axis of the 
Ionic capitdl is a line passing perpen- 
dicularly through the middle of the eye 
of the volute In optics, an axis is that 
particular r.iy of light, comingfrom any 
object, which falls perpendicularly on 
the eye. In anatomy, the axis is the 
second vertebra of the neck; it has a 
pro<;ess, or tooth, which goes into the 
first vertebra, and this by some is cal- 
led the axis. .Tn botany, the axis is a 
taper column, placed in the centre of 
some flowers or catkins, round which 
the other parts are disposed ; or it sig- 
nifies the stem round which the leaves, 
or modified leaves, are produced. Axal 
is au epithet relating to the axis ; thus 
axal section is a section through any 
body, whatever shape it may be. 

AXTNOMANCY. In antiquity, a species 
of divination performed by means of an 
axe or hatchet which was fixed on a 
round stake, so as to be poised, and 
then the names of those susi>ected 
being repeated, he at whose name the 
axe fell was pronounced guilty, 

AXLE, or AXLE-TKEE. A piece of 
timber, or bar of iron, which passes 
through the centre of a wheel, and on 
which it revolves. 



AZY 

AXOLOTL. A water lizard found in 
Mexico. 

AXOTOMOTJS. In mineralogy, having 
a cleavage with a single face, perpen- 
dicular to the axis. 

AXMrXSTKK CARPET. In the arts, 
a term applied to carpets manul'actured 
in imitation of Turkey carpets, and 
noted for their thick and solt pile ; 
they are woven in one piece. 

AYAH. The name given in India to a 
native nurse or waiting maid. 

AYE-AYE, A nocturnal quadruped of 
Ma lagascar, about the size of a hare, 
and thus named from its peculiar cry. 
It is the Cheiromys of naturalists. 

ATMESTRT LIMESTONE. In geol- 
ogy, one of the calcareous beds ol the 
Upper Silurian series, which has been 
produced by coral and shell a<-cumula- 
tions amidst the masses of argillaceous 
sediments. It occurs near Ludlow, 
Malvern, and some localities in Wales. 

AZALEA. A genus of beautiful shrub- 
by plants, having richly-colored trum- 
pet or bell-shaped flowers, and, in some 
species, highly fragrant. 

AZETEO. One of the Azetecs, an early 
race of Mexico, inhabiting its great 
plateaux at the time of the Spanish in- 
vasion, and far advanced in arts and 
civilization. 

AZIMUTH. In astronomy, an arch of 
the horizon intercepted between the 
meridian of the place and the azimuth, 
AZOIC. In natural philosophy, a term 
applied to objects entirely destitute of 
organic life. 

AZOTE. In chemistry, a kind of gaa 
which is fatal to animal li!o ; a name 
for nitrogen gas. Though destructive 
to animal life it is one of the constitu- 
ents of the atmosphere, of bloo<l, mus- 
cular fibre, and many minerals. The 
name, nitrogen, is given to it Irom its 
being the base of nitre. The following 
are some of its compounds : Azoben- 
zide, consisting of 12 equivalents of 
carbon, 5 of hydrogen, and 1 of nitro- 
gen ; Azobenzoide, 42 of carbon, 16 3< of 
hydrogen, and 2.»i of nitrogen; Azoben- 
zule, 42 of carbon, 15 of hydrogen, and 
2 of nitrogen. Azotite is asaltformed 
of nitrous oxide, &c. 

AZURITE, or AZURE STOXE. In 
mineralogy, a fine azure blue, the lazu- 
lite or lapis lazuli of the lapidaries ; 
structure, finely granulated; sp. j^rl 
3-0; hardness, 5 — <i. its constituent 
parts are phosphoric acid, alumina, 
magnesia, lime, oxide of iron, silica, and 
water. 

AZYGOS. In anatomy, a term ap- 
plied to various muscles, bones, and 
veins, which occur singly, and not ia 
pairs. 

AZY5IOUS. A term applied to tm- 
leavened or uafermeuted dough. 



DAC 



BAl 



40 



B 



B, the Mcond letter of the atpliahet. Is often 
■ised as an ahhrevialinn for Bachelor, as 
B. A. Bachelor of Arts, B. D. Bachelor of 
Divinity iic, B as a numeral among the 
Konians stood for 300, and with a dash over 
H thus, g. fof 3000. B, in clironoiopy, 
■ta.ids foroneof the Dnminical letters, and 
in iiiusie for the seventh note in the gamut. 

BAAL. A pod of the Phtpnicians and 
Canaanites, which is supposed to represent 
(he sun, and to he the same as the Bel or 
Belus of the Greeks. 

BABOON. A large kind of ape with a 
short tail, which forms one division of the 
genus Simia in the LinoKan system. 




BACCHANALIANS. Those who per- 
forined the rites at the Bacchanals in hon- 
our of Bacchus. 

BACCHANALS. A festival at Rome in 
honour of Bacchus, wliich, for their licen- 
tiousness, were suppressed by a solemn 
decree of the senate. 

BACCHLTS. The gnd of wine in the 
heathen mythology, was the epn of Jupiter 
and Seiiiete. He was the Osiris of the 
Egyptians, from whom the fables respecting 
him were takri by the GreeKS. 

BACCIFER^. Berry-hearing nianu. 

BACHELOR. One of the nrsl degrees 
.n the liberal arts conferred at the univer- 
sities of Oxford and Cambridge. 

BACKGAMMON. A particular game 
played by two persons with tlie help of 
dice, on a board or table divided into parts, 

■>ereon are twenty-four black and white 

.»ces called points. 
' BACKPAINTING. The method of 
painting mezzotinto prints pasted on glass, 
with oil colours. 

BACKSTAFF. An instrument formerly 
ised in taking the sun's altitude. It was I 
•o called because the back of the observer 
Is turned towards the sun when he makes | 



the observation. This quadrant is now 
su[>errieded liy more accurate instruments. 

BADGE. An exterior oriiaii<eiilof acoat 
of arms, originally worn by tlie retainers or 
attendants of the nobility. It fell intodi*- 
use ill tlie reign of Queen Eli/iabeth. 

BADGER. An animal ranked by Liit- 
nsus under the Bear tribe, which lives in 
holes by tlie sides of rivers, or in the delta 
of rocks. It feeds on insects or berries 
burrows during winter, hunts by night. and 
lies conceaied by day 




BAG (in Commerce). A determinate 
quantity of goods contained in a bag, vary- 
ing in size, according to the article or the 
place, from three to four hundred weii:lit. 

BAGNIO. Italian for a bathing liouse, 
with conveniences for bathing, sweating, 
and otherwise cleansing the body. 

BAGPIPE. A favourite wind instrument 
among the Highlanders. It consists of two 
parts ; namely, a leathern bag, and pipes 
for admitting and ejecting the air. One of 
the pipes called the drone, witli which the 
base part is played, never varies its tone. 
The third pipe w played on by compressing 
the bag under the arm. 

BAIL (in Law). Sureties given for tlie 
appearance, when required, of a person in 
custody. Common Bail is in common con- 
cernment, where any sureties jiay be ta- 
ken; but Special Bail is in matters of greater 
importance, where special surety of two or 
more persons must be taken according to 
the value of the cause. 

B.\ILEE (in Law). The person to whom 
the goods of the one that is bailed are de- 
livered. 

BAILIFF. A subordinate magistrate or 
officer appointed within a particular ph>- 
vince or district, as bailifTs of hundreds, 
liberties, courts baron, &.C. Sheriffs' bailiffn 
are officers appointed by the sheriff to ex- 
ecute writs. These, being hound in boad 
to tlie sheriff for the due execution of tiieic 



46 



RAl. 



o«ce, are called buuiid bailiffs, vulgarly 
bum ImililTM. 

B A I M \V ICK. The hundred or any other 

dwlrict wli«rein a bailiff has a jurisdiction. 

OAILMENT. The delivery of goods in 

(nml upon a contract expressed or implied 

BAI.AINA. The whale ; a geinis of the 

cliiss iMaiiiinalia, and of the order Ceti. 

BALANCE. One of the sini|>le powers 
hi mechanics wliich serves to find out the 
e<|uality or difference of \\-eight in heavy 
Ixidies. it is a peculiar application of the 
lever to this particular purpose. Tlie com- 
mon baliince consists of a lever with equal 
arms, at tlie extremity of each of which is 
attacliud a scale. Before loading it with 
any weights, the whole ought to preserve 
a perfect equilibrium ; and tliis eqailibrhim 
must arise from an exact distribution of the 
weight of each arm and scale of llie balance, 
as well as from the equal length of the 
former ; for on this depends the correctness 
of its action. The Assay-Ualarice is a very 
delicate kind of iialance, used fur determine 
ing the exact tsv^ight of minute bodies. It 
is so called because it Is particularly used 
in the different pntcesses of assaying ; it is 
also frequently used in chymical analysis. 
Balances also vary in their furm,as the Re iit- 
Ixiver Balance, the Compound Balance, 
consisting of a combination of balances 
used in weighing very heavy bodies ; also 
the Danish Balance, a kind of steel-yard. 
BALANCE OF TKADE. A term in 
commerce, denoting the e<iuallty between 
the value of the commodities bought of 
tiireigners, and the value of the native pro- 
ductions transported into other countries. 
Balaucc in a merchant's account is when 
the debtor and creditor account are made 
even. 

BALE (In Commerce). A quantity of 
merchandise packed up in cloth. A bale 
of cotton yaiin is from three to four hun- 
dred weight ; of raw silk, from one to four 
hundred. 

BA LISTER, or File-Fi»h. A fish bo 
called from the resemblance of its back- 
b(uie to a (He. It is remarkable for the 
brilliancy of its colours. 

BALL AND SOCKET. An instrument 
of brass with a [lerpetual screw, construc- 
ted to move in any direction. It is used in 
the management of surveying, and astro- 
nomical nislrumerrts. 

BALLAST. Gravel, aand,orany weighty 

matter, put into a ship's hold, to poise her 

•nJ brills hersufKciently tow in the water. 

BALLET. A theatrical representation, 

eoni^istiiie of music and dancing. 

BALLET-MAHTER. The artist whore- 



BAL 

giilates the performance and represent* 
tioii of the ballet. 

BALLISTA. A warlike engine used bv 
the ancients in besieging cities, to Uirow 
large stones, darts, and javelin*. 




BALLOON. A glolje commonly made 
of lutestring, and covered with an ehistic 
varnish, to render the substance impervioua 
by the gas When filled with hydrogen gas, 
from ten to thirteen times lighter than at- 
mospheric air, tlie balloon will ascend, and 
convey heavy bodies suspended to it. The 
weight which the balloon is capable of 
raising will be in proportion to the (iiamelet 
of tiie sphere. From experiments it has been 
found that a cubic foot of hydrogen gag 
will raise about one ounce avoirdu;>ois. 




BALLOT. A little ball ; alnothe mannei 
of giving votes at an election by putting 
little balls, black or white, into a box. 

BALLUSTRADE. A series or row of 
ballusters or small pillars, serving as ■ 
gimrd or fence to balconies or staircases. 

BALM, or BALSA.M. A liquid resin of 
a whitish or yellow colour, a fragrant smeu 
and a |ienetrating aromatic taste. It flowi 
from the balsam tree, and is much utett k» 
the femalai io Turkey ai a cosmeiie. 



BAN 

BAt.M, or HALM MINT. A perennial, 
•o allied from the fragrunce of iu smell, 
ivhicli reseiiililes that of ItuUam. 

BALSAM TREE. A tree growing in 
AntbiaaiiJ Egypt, the bark of which yields 
til** balm or baUaiii altiiveiiieiilioiied. 

BAl>tiAMiCS. SdfUtning, healing, and 
c(ea using, medicines. 

llA.\lBUO, or BAMBU. An Indian reed 
with larger knots than the common reed. 
The poorer inhabitants of India make their 
dwellings of this reed : paper is aSsu made 
ot tlie same ntaterial, by bruising it and 
tteeping it in water until it be reduced to 
a paste. 

BA.\A.\A. See Plantain Tree. 

BAND (in Architecture). -Any flat, low 
member or moulding, which is broad but 
not deep. 

BA.VDAXA HA.NDKERCHIEFS. A 
kind of silk handkerchiefs niaiiufnclured, 
in India, of silk and cotton 

BA.\UEROLL A sea term for a little 
flag in form of a gridiron, that used to be 
hung on the masts of vessels. 

BAND OF PENSIONERS. A parti- 
cular company of gentlemen bearing hal- 
berds, and nttendiiig upon the person of 
the king upon S4.>lentii occasions. . 

BANDITTI. A band of outlawed rob- 
bers, most frequent in Italy 

BANDOLEER, or BANDOLIER. A 
large leathern belt, formerly worn over the 
nght shoulder, and hanging under the le(X 
ana, to carry some warlike weapon. 

BANDROL. A little flag or streamer. 

BANDS. Two pieces of iron nailed upon 
liie bows of the saddle, to hold them tight. 

BANERET. A knight made in the held, 
whose standard was converted into a ban- 
Ber which he could display in the king's 
army as the barons did. 

BANIAN TREE See Isdian Fig 

BANISII.MENT. A quitting the realm, 
either voluntarily, as by abjuration ; or 
compulsorily, as by transportation. 

BANK (in Commerce). An establishment 
for the receiving of moneys and letting 
them out on interest. Banks are general- 
ly fomied by a number of moneyed per- 
sons, who, for carrying on the business of 
negotiating bills of exchange, and dealing 
in bullion, &.C. advance a considerable sum 
as ajoint capital. The first bank was es- 
tablished iM Venice about 1157, and the 
name of Banco was given tn it in Italian, 
from the bench which the money-changers 
or bankers used toiiit upon in their courses 
or exchanges. The bank of Genoa was 
Mtablished in 13-45; that of Amsterdam, in 
t09 ; that of Hambrug, in 1619 ; that of 
Rotterdam, in 16X The Bank uf £n(- 



BAN 



47 



land, one of the hist, but at present tha 
greatest of its kind, was eslablished by 
charter in the reign of William and .Mary^ 
into a corporate bi<dy, by the title of Um 
Governor and Company of the Bank nt 
England. Its notes form the currency of 
the kingdom to a certain extent, and 
amount to between twenty and thirty mil- 
lions. The Bank of England is also the 
Government Bank, and pays the interest 
of the national debt. 

BANKER. A person who traffics in 
money, by receiving the current cash of 
individuals free of interest, and negoti.il- 
ing with it, either in tlie discount of bills 
or the advance of money on sufficient s«- 
curities. 

BANKING-HOUSE. Any mercantile 
house which carries on tlie business c^T a 
private banker, as distinguished from we 
Bank, by which is understood the Bank 
of England. 

BANKRUPT. A trader who fails ox 
breaks, so as to be unable to carry on his 
business or pay his debts. In Law, a bank- 
rupt is one who has committed an act of 
bankruptcy, so as to bring him under tlie 
protection of the bankrupt laws, wliich is 
allowed to none but actual traders, or hiicIi 
as buy and sell, and gain a livelihood by 
so doing. It is derived from bancuni, a 
bench, and rumpere, to break, because ihe 
bench of the Italian banker or money- 
changer is said to have been broken by 
way of infamy when he failed. 

BANNER. A flag or standard at the 
end of a lance. 

BA.WIANS. A religions sect among 
the HindcKis, who believe in the transmi- 
gration of souls, and therefore absta.'n from 
eating the flesh of animals, which they 
carefully preserve. They are socaulioua 
of having coininuiiicalion with any but 
their own caste, that if any of another na- 
tion or tribe has drunk out of or touclted 
their cup, they break it. 

BA.N'NOCK. A sort of oaten cake in 
the nortli of England, baked in the einliers 
or on a hot stone. 

BANNS OF MATRIMONV. The piib- 
lishing of marriage contracts in the church 
before the performance of the marrii^ge 
ceremony. By the ordinances of the 
church, when persons are to be married, 
the banns of matrimony shall be puhli^hed 
in the church where they dwell three 
several Sundays or holydays in the tim« 
of Divine Service ; and if, at the day ap- 
pointed for their marriage, any man do 
allege any impediment or precontract, 
consanguinity or affinity, want of pirent't 
consent, infancy, ^c why ibey liMmM 



48 BAR 

not be married (and become bound with 
nirelies to prove Una alleaiilion), then llie 
•oleiniiizalion must be deferred until the 
inith is tried. 

BANTAM The name of a domestic 
fowl of the hen tribe, having short legs, 
and the shanks well leathered 




BAPTISM. A gacramenlof the Christian 

church, adiniiiistered either by immersion, 
that is, dipping in water, or by sprinkling 
with water. 

BAPTISTS. A denomination of profess- 
ing Christians, who practice adult baptism 
instead of that of children, and by immer- 
■ion rather than by sprinkling. 

BAR (in Courts of Law). The place 
parted off by a bar or railing, within which 
counsellnrs stand to piead ; also the pro- 
fesxion of a barrister or pleader. 

BAR. A sea term for a rock lying before 
the harliour in such a mariner that ships 
cannot sail over except upon the flood. 

BAR (in Music). A line which divides 
the notes into equal portions in re8|>ect to 
iheir duration. 

BAR (in Heraldry). Oneof the honour- 
able ordinaries, consisting of two horizon- 
ai lines drawn across the escutclieon. 




RARALtPTOX. An arbitrary name 
among logicians for an indirect mode of 
the first Agure of syllogisms. 

BARATRY (in Commerce). A term 
med when the master of a vessel or the 
Hianners cheat the owners by embezzling 
(keit goods, or runnins away with theship. 

BARB. The ptnnta that sUnd back in 



BAR 

the head of an arrow or fishing-hook, to 
prevent them from being drawn outeasilfj 
also the name of a horse of the Barbary 
breed, remarkable for its swiftness. 

BARBARA. An arbitrary name among 
logicians for the first mode of the first fig- 
ure of syllogisms, consisting of three uni- 
versal propositions: as, 'all animals are 
endued with sense ; all men are aniniaU ; 
ergo, all men are endued with sense.' 

BARBARISM. A rude kind of language 
used only by the savage or unleiteibd per- 
son. 

BARBEL A fish of the carp kind, which 
lies in holes near the banks, and feeds on 
testaceous animals, worms, &c. It has its 
name from the beards or wattles under iU 
nose. 




BARBER One who follows the traue 
of shaving and dressing hair, and anciently 
also that of bleeding, whence barbers were 
called Barber-Chiiuigeons, and used a pole 
as a sign to represent the staff which per- 
sons used to hold when they were bled. 
The barbers were separated from the sur- 
geons by a statute in the reign of George 
the Second. 

BARBERRY. A tart berry, the fruit of 
the barberry tree ; a prickly shrub. 

BARBICAN. An outer defence or forti- 
fication to a city or castle, used as a fence, 
and also as a watchtower, to descry the 
approach of an enemy 

BARD. A sort of poets among the Cauls, 
who used to set forth the deeds of heroea 
and great men. 

BARGAIN AND SALE (in Law). An 
instniment whereby the property of lands 
and tenements is, for valuable considera- 
tion, transferred from one person to anoth- 
er. It is called a real contract upon a val- 
uable consideration for (htssing of lands, 
tenements, and hereditaments, by deed 
indented and enrolled. 

BARGE. A very large boat used on riven 
either for pleasure and st.ite, as the royal 
barge ; or for trade, as the coal barge, &.e. 

BARILLA. A kind of Spanish alkalina 
salt used in the glass trade. 



BAR 

«ARITO» 0. A low pilch of ue voice 
IM;lwe<>ii bass and lennr. 

BARII'M. A rii«-i;il gn c.ill<^ by Sir H. 
Davy tiled i!«ov«;rer, which Is (>(>lained by 
llie chymical drcnm|insiti(>ii of baryles. 

BARK. 'I'lie. likiM or covering of a ligne- 
ous pUnl. Uark-biiiiling is a disease in 
trees cured by slitciiii; the bark. 

BARK (in Coimiierce). A sltifT inanu- 
factiired iii India of the bark of trees ; al^o 
the Perttvian or Jesuit's bark, which is 
procured fnittt tlie Ciiicbolia tree growing 
ill Quirii. 

BARK. A sea term for a sniall vessel, 
oarticultirly one currjing three iuat<ts. 

BARKl.MJ. 'I'lie process of |»eellng tlie 
bark oflf the trees, wliicii must l>e done in 
tlie moiiiii af May. 

B.VRLBY. Asortof corn or grain which 
is sown in March, .April, or May, and suc- 
ceeds best in light dry 8<iii«. From barley, 
wlieii converted into malt, beer is made. 

BARljIiY, or Peahl-Bablbv. Barley 
•tripped of its iirst coal, and usedinmak- 
ine a diet drink. 

BARLEYCORN. The least of otir long 
laeitsures. Iteing the third of ao inch. 

BARLF.Y-MoW. Tlie place where 
reaped barley is laid up. 

BARl-EY WATER. A decoction of 
^arl-ltariey. 

B.ARM, or Veait. The head or working 
out of beer, which is used as a ferment to 
lighten bread. 

BAR.V. A storehouse for grain, in which 
it is deposited and threshed. 

B.AR.V.ACLE. A species of shell-fiiih 
which sticks to the bottom of ships, 
rocks, &c. 

BARM.ACLE-GOOSn. A large water- 
Ciwl, with a broad flat bill. 



BAR 



45 




BAROUTE. A store of the pondemus 
order, called also the carbonite of barytes. 

BAR(IMKTi:i!. An instrument for mea- 
suring the weight of the atmosphere, in- 
vented by Torricelli. The common h.a- 
ronieter is a glass tulie hermetically sealed 
At •^iie eud, and tilled with mercury so as 



to have no air over. Then tli» maker, put- 
ting his linger on the open end, immersea 
it in a b^soii of quicksilver or water ; auif 
on his removing his (iiiger, the miicksilver 
in the tiitie endeavours, by its own weight, 
to descend into the t>ason, but by the preK- 
siire of the external air on tlie surface of 
the fluid in the bason, and no air lieing io 
the tulte at the top, the quicksilver will 
rise from 26 to 31 inches in mercury, and 
from 3n to 33 inches in water. In dry 
weather, the air, being free from vapours, 
is consequently heavy, and presses up the 
quicksilver-, but in moist rtiiiy weallier, 
tlie atmosphere being charged with clouds 
and fogs, the air is lighter, and presses 
with less force on the quicksilver. In 
high winds the alniospliere is licht, and 
tiie quicksilver low ; it also rises binltei 
in cold weather than in warm. 



BAROX. In England, a degree of nouiti- 
ty next to a viscount. All barons are 
lords of parliament and peers of the realm. 
Barims were originally so by tenure, that 
is, by virtue of the baruuy annexed Ic 
their lands or office. 

BARO.N AND FEME. A term in Law 
for husband and wife, who ar« de<'med tnil 
one person. 

BARON'S CORONET On a gold circle 




six pearls, which were assi^ed to baroaf 

by Kins I'liarles II. alter the Restoration 

BARONET. The Iom est degree of here 



60 



V^ 



BAS 



lltary hnniiKr erentert l»y letters patent. 
Ft was fiiuiided by .lames I. in l(>U>. 

HAK(i.\«? UF Tilt; KXftlE(lI)f;R. 
In Kngl.iiiil the four judges whu officiiilc in 
the Court vt exchequer at VAeslnnn.ster. 

R\lti).VY. In England, the hmioiir and 
Urritury which gave title tn a Utrun, in 
dinting the fees and lands uf Inrds, both 
triiipiiral and spiritual. 

I! VURACK."^. I'liices erected for the 
arcoinmodation of both men and horses in 
the army. 

n ARP AS. A substance consisting of re- 
f>r> ar.'l oil, which exudes from the wounds 
III Hr trees in winter. 

UARRATOR (in Law). A common 
mover of suits and quarrels,either in courts 
or elsewhere. 

HARREL. A cask or veesel for holding 
liquor, that is, thiriy-op.e and a h;itf gallons 
«f»viie,&c. and thirty -two gallons of beer. 

IIAHREL. The cylinder of a watch, 
•bou' which the spiring is wrupped. 

BARRIER. A kin« of fpnce, composed 
of great stakes, and serving to defsnd the 
eiilrtiice cf i passitge. 

RARRISTER. In Eng,«nd a counsellor 
ailniiiii-d to plead at ib« ^ar. An inner 
l!;irris!er is one who ii^merJMtnt, or king's 
ciiiiMsel, and is admitted to plead within 
(lie liiir ; but an outer hamster is one who 
pteuils without the bar. 

HARROW ^ln Ilusbjindry). An iinple- 
liieiit of conveyance with a single wheel, 
anil driven with the two hands. It is 
made of different forms, according to the 
purpose for which it i;: intended ; the com- 
mon liarrow, called the wheelbarrow, is 
rrpre.-*eiited uiiderne:Ah. 




BARROW. A large hillock or mound, 
•f which many are to be met with In rtif 
frrenf parts of England, and are supfxised 
•nf>e the tumuli or toinhs of the Romans. 

BARTER. The exchiincins oiifcommo- 
dily tor another ; also the rule in Arithnie- 
•jc by which the proportionate value of 
coiiimodilies is found. 

^B«AR YTES. A sort of ponderous earth, 
very biitlle, ami jierfeclty «oliilile in boil- 
ing siilpliiiric and. It is cnm|Miunded of 
nxygen and barium. 

BASAI/r A >"ri of arnilla-eous earth. 
CiMiaisting cf sihi'u, with n rcrtain portion 
•( alumina and oxyd<; of iron, lime, anil 



BAS 

nmcnesla. It is always found neat ?« 

canoes. 

BASE (In Architecture) The fool cf • 
pillar, b> which it is sustained ; in Geome- 
try, the base of a ligiire is the lowest plaia 
side, or that on which it stands. 

U.VSE (ill L'hyniistry). The ineit sub- 
stance which coinliines with, and is acted 
upon, by the more volatile and active men- 
strua, a.s the alkalies, earths, and metallic 
OTydes, which are the principal ingredi- 
ents in the formation of salts. 

BASE LINE (in I'ersjtective). The 
Ciiminon section of a picture, and the geo- 
metrical plane. 

BASEME.NT. A coiitiniini base ex- 
tended atinig any building, as the base- 
ment or lower story of a house. 

B.ASE TE.M'RE, or B.*»e Estatb (IB 
Law). A holding by villaiiage, or other 
customary service. 

BASHAW, or Pacha. The title given 
to the grand officers of the court at Con- 
stantinople -, as the capudan bashaw, the 
adiniral or commander at .«ea ; bostangi 
bashaw, the chief oBicer of the garden,&c 
Their decrees of dignity were marked by 
their bearing one, two, or three horses tails. 
The ruler ofTri|M)li is called Bashaw. 

BASIL. The sloping edge of a chisel 
or of the iron of a plane. 

B.ASI L. A plant which has an aromatic 
smell. 

BASILICON. An ointment, consistins 
of resin, pilch, oil, wax, &c. 

BASILISK. A serpent of the lizard 
tribe, with remarkably piercing eyes, and 
a white spot on its head, resembling a 
diamond. It was formerly called acock^ 
trice, and fabled to be produced from the 
eggs of a cock. 

B.ASIN. Any hollow place capable of 
holding liipiids. Basin of a dock, a place 
where the water is confined by double 
tlooduates. 'I'tie basin of a haven is thai 
part which oi>ens from a narrow passage 
into a sp.irions rece|Uatle. The basin of a 
river, inrlndes the whole valley whicil 
empties its waters into the river or ita 
brtinches. 

BASKET. A vessel made either of ruslK 
es, splinters, willows, osiers, or any othei 
flexible material th.-»t can be inlerwov»H. 
To render osiers fit for use, they must be 
stKikeil for some time. I'hcse Ihnt are in- 
tended forthe finer kindof work, as wasb- 
iiig bsiskets or niurkel baskets, and the 
like, must be pet-led while they are green, 
and then siee|u-d. Ilnmjiers, and the 
courser kind of work, iti> not require that 
preparaliim : basket makine was one of 
the arts that was earned to a c«iii8iderabU 



BAT 

degree of perfection aznong the ancient 
Britons. 

BASKING SHARK. A species of the 
■hark, winch lies much on ihe .■<iirl';ice of 
the water, ba-<king in the sun. It grows to 
a prodigiiMis size, bnt is imt very lierce. 

BAS-KKLIEF. S^ee IJa«<o Kelikvo. 

B.\^^S. A sort of ciisliioii niaile of rush 
or straw. 

BASS (in Music). The low<'st or ileepest 
part of any composition. 'I'liis note is play- 
ed on the largest pipes or >lrings of instru- 
ments of the common size, as the organ, 
;me, ice, or on the largest kind of instru- 
ments. The hxss is tile principal part of a 
musical composition, and the foniidatiim 
of harmony, whence it is called the fun- 
damental lnLss. Thorongli liass is that 
which includes the funilaniental rules of 
composition. Ground hxss is that which 
c<miniences with some suhject of its own, 
that is continually repe.ated throughout 
the niovenient, whilst the upiter parts 
pursue a separate air. 

BASS CLl 1"K, or F Cli kf The charac- 
ter marked thus, 



•nd placed at the beginning of a stave In 
which the bass or lower notes are placed. 

BASSO RELIF.VO. In English, baas- 
relief, a sort of sculpture in which the 
figures are represented, as projecting not 
far above the plane on which they are 
formed. Figures cut, are said to be done 
in relief, and when the work is low or flat 
it is called bass-relief, »ir basso relievo, in 
distinction from alto re'ievo. and mezzo 
relievo. 

BASSOON. A musical wind ins'~-'inr>»nt 
blown with a reed, and has eleven hoies. 
It serves to play tiie bass part in concerts. 

BASS VIOL. A stringed musical in- 
itrninent of the same shape as a violin, but 
much larger. 

BASS VOICE. The gravest and deepest 
of the male voices. 

BASTARD (in I,aw). One bom out of 
wedlock, who cannot inherit. 

BASTILE. A fortress in Paris, which 
was used as a prison, and destroyed during 
the French revolution. 

BASTINADO. A mode of punishment 
usual among the Turks, of beating the 
offender on the soles of the feet. 

BASTION. A large nnuss of earth, stand- 
ing out frem a riinpart, of which it forms 
tile prin:ipal part. 

BAT. An animal resemhling both abird 



B.\T 



81 



and a mouse. It has wing4 ^ -t of feather*, 
bnt of a skin distended, and flies only at 
niglil. It lays no eggs, liut brings forth 
its y lung alive, and suckles them. 




RATABLE GROUND. Land formerly 
so called, vvhi-h lay between England and 
Scotland, and was the subject of debate to 
whom it belonged. 

BA TE.MENT (inP-r^ntry). The wast- 
ing of stutf, in cutting it for the purpose 
designed. 

BAT-FOWLING. A mode of catching 
birds at night, when they are at roost. 

BATH. Any receptacle for water whiih 
is convenient for bathing ; also any artifi- 
cial contrivance which is to supply the 
place of a bath, as a shower bath, or iin 
apparatus for applying water to the body 
In the form of a shower ; a vapour bath, 
or a mode of conveying moisture to the 
body by means of steam ; a medicinal 
bath is that in which certain chemical 
preparations are mingled. 

BATH (in Chemistry). A contrivance bj 
which heat Is conveyed to any substance ; 
also in the refining of metals, the fusion of 
the metallic matter is called a hath. 

BATH, KNIGHTS OF TIIE. In Eng- 
land, a military order of knighthood, re- 
-itored, if not instiliiled, by Henry IV 
These knights wear a red ribbon, and their 
motto is, Triajuncta in uno,alludiiigtolhe 
three cardinal virtues, faith, ho[»e, and 
charity, which every knight ought to 
possess. 

B.ATON. The stafl^or truncheon, given 
as a symbol of authority, to generals in the 
French anny. 

BATTA. Allowances made to tro. ps in 
India. Dry batta is money given in lieu of 
rations ; wet batta, what is given in kind 

BATTALION. A body of foot soldiers 
of from fiOn to 800 men. 

BATRACHIA. An order of animal.", 
including frogs, toads, salamauder«, ami 
other reptiles having a naked body wi h 
two or four feet. 

UATTE-N'. A scantling or piece of wood- 
en stuff, from two to four inches broad, and 
one inch thick. 

BATTERING. A cannonade of heavy 
ordriiuice against any fortress or winks. 

HATTr.RING-RA.M A military n^ 
chine, with whicb the ancient* efTecte^ 



52 



BAT 



breaches in fortifications. These engines 
were variously c«.nstriicte(l,and (if different 
■izes. Plutarch iitfnrins us that Marc An- 
tony, in tlie i'arthiaii war, used a ram of 
B(> feet long ; and, according to Vitruvius, 
they were sometimes lOti, and even 120 
feet long, and weighed 100,00(J His. Tills 
engine was frequently used in tlie four- 
teenth century, and occasionally for other 
purposes besides that of war in later \ten- 
mis. Sir Christopher Wren is said to have 
employed ii in demolishing the walls of 
Ute old church of St. i'aul, previously to 
tiia rebuilding it. 




BATTERY (in L.aw).The8triking,beat- 
Ing, or offering any violence to the person 
of another, as hy spitting in his face, or 
any way touching him in anger, or vio- 
lently jostling against him. It is distin- 
guislied from an assault, inasmuch as the 
latter does not necessarily imply a hitting, 
or blow. There may be an assault with- 
out battery, but there cannot be a battery 
without an assault. 

BATTERY (in Military Affairs). Any 
raised place on which cannon are placed. 
Batteries are of different kinds, as open 
batlerios, which are exposed to view •, 
masked batteries, which are hidden by a 
breastwork ; cross batteries, two batteriM 
firing alhwart each other on the same ob- 
ject, &.C. A floating battery is a battery 
erected on simple rafts, or the hulls ofships 

BA'I'TERY (in Electricity). A comblna. 
tien of coated surfaces of glass jars, so 
cobnerted, that they may be charged at 
once, and discharged by a common con- 
ductor. A battery or pile, is also an ap|ia- 
ratUK employed for accumulating the elec- 
tricity <if galvanism. 

BATTLEDORE. An instrument used 
«lther with a shuttlecock, or a tennis ball. 

BATTLEME.N'TS. Notches or inden- 
ture! in the top ol a wall or building like 
•mtiraaunM, to V>ok liiruugh. 



BE A 

BATl'LE AXE. An «inclent sort of 
weapon, having an axe and a pol4t at lh» 
end, for cutting or thiusting 




BATTON. A staff or truncheon, us«<l 
hy the English in coaU of arma, tn denote 
illegitiiaacy 




BAWLING The noiM of dofs in sport- 
ing, who are too busy before they find ih« 
scent. 

BAY. Any inlet of the sea between two 
capes, or promontories, where ships may 
ride ; it is defined in geography, an arm 
of tlie sea stretching inland. 

BAY, or Ba V Tree. 'I'he female laurel 
tree, an evergreen, which grows wild in 
Italy and France. 

BAY. A colour in hoiaea resembling the 
dried bay leaf. 

BAYONET. A short triangular daeijer, 
made to fix on tiie muzzle of a firelock or 
musket. 

BAY-SALT. A salt which is made from 
seawater in France, by letting the water 
into pits or basins, where, hy the heat of 
the sun, it is evaporated, and the residue 
is converted into crystals of salt. 

BA/AAR. A place mostly covered, and 
fitted up with shops in Eastern countries . 

BAZA, or BAZAT. Jerusalem cotton, a 
flnc-Kimu cotton, grown iu Palestine. 

BDELLIUM. The gum of an Arabian 
tree abo\it the size of an olive tree. The 
gum resembles wax, and consists of resin, 
gum, cerasin, and volatile oil. 

BEACH. The seashore, or margin ot the 
sea, which is wa.*lied by the tides. 

BEACON. A signal by fire, placed on 
some eminence, to prevent shipwrecks, or 
give some alarm. 

BEAD (in Architecture). A rt und mould- 
ing, carved in short embossments, like the 
bead of a necklace. 

BEADLE, or BEDEL. In England an 
officer of a court, of the university, or of 



BEA 

any corporate body, who acts as a mes- 
senger and atleiidd to keep order. 

BEAU PROOF. A iiieiliod of deter- 
mining the slrentrih of spirituuud liigiiurs, 
from the continuance of Uie bubliles or 
beadri on the surface. 

BEAU TKEE. A shrub, the fruit of 
which IS a nut, that is iHired through, and 
strung a.s beads by the Koiiiaii Catholics 
in Spain and Tortugal. 
BE.^GEE. A sort of hjniing dog. 
BEAK, or Beak-head or a Ship. That 
part of it, which is without before the fore- 
castle, and serves by way of ornament. 
Among the ancients it w:is a piece of 
brass, like a bird's beak. 

BEAM. The largest piece of wood in a 
building, which is its main supiHirt ; in 
Naval Architecture, beams are tiie large 
main timbers tliat stretch across a ship to 
tupport a deck. 

BEA.M COMP.VSS. An instrument con- 
•isting of a square wooden or brass beam, 
having sliding sockets, used for describing 
large circli». 

BEAM-TREE. A tree which prows to 
the height of thirty or forty feet, so called, 
because it is particutrirly fitted for making 
axletreesand the like. 

BEAN. An edible pulse, of which there 
are several sorts, as the kidney or French 
bean, the broad Windsor bean, the horse 
bean, &c. 

BE.AR. A wild beast, covered with 
slia&gy hair, and liavinc booked claws for 
climbing trees. It feeds on honey, insects, 
and carcasses, and lies torpid during the 
winter. The black bear is a native of the 
north of Europe, Asia and America ; but 
the polar Iwar, which is wli'le, iives with- 
in tlie arctic circle. Tne brown bear is 
found in Europe, but not in America. 
Asia has several varie'-es ol the bfar. 
The gtisly bear figured bsiow, is found 
only near the Rocky mountains in the 
United Slates. 



BEA 



U 




BEAR'SBREECn An herb, from the 
irnooth leaved sort of which, is extracted 
% mucilaee. 

BEARU (with Botanists'!. Theiinderlip 
•t a labiated Aower, and in corn and grass, 
5* 



that hair nr bristle which serve* to defend 
the ear, as in barley, Tye, wTieat, and oat» 

BEAKUOF A COMET (in Astronomy). 
Tlie rays which a comet emits towards 
that part of the heavens, to which its 
course seems to direct it. 

BEARD OF A lloRSE (in Farriery). 
The chuck, or that part under tlie lower 
jaw, on the outside, and alHwe the chin, 
whicli lieurs ,.,»■ curb of the bridle. 

BEAR-GARUE.\. A place formerly set 
apart in England for the baiting of bears 

BEARER OF A BILI. (in Commerce). 
The person in whose hands the bill is, and 
in favour of whom the last indorsement 
was made. 

BEARERS. Posts or brick walls, which 
are trimmed up between two ends of a 
piece of tinilier, to shorleii itsl>eariiig,or to 
prevent its l>earing Willi the whole weight 
at the ends only. 

BEARING (in Architecture). The dis- 
tance between the bearer, or support, aiid 
each end of tlie timber. 

BEARING. A sea term, to denote the 
situation of any distant object with regard 
to the ship's position, whether alie.-id, 
astern, or abreast, &c. 

BEARING (in Heraldry). Whatever is 
borne in, or fills the escutcheon. 

BEAT. The walk or round, which a 
watchman has to take at stated intervals, 

BEATING TI.ME (in Music). That mo- 
tion of t)ie hand or foot, by which some 
|>erson marks and regulates the movements 
of the performers. 

BEATS (in a Clock or Watch). The 
strokes made by the pallets or fangs of the 
spindle. 

BEAVER. An amphibious four footed 
animal, that lives on the hanks of rivers 
and unfrequeuted lakes, and is remarkable 




for its insennity in building its habitation. 
It walks slowly, swims dexterously, eats 
sitting on its hniinches, and conveys ita 
food to its mouth with its fore paws. This 
animal is valued Inith for its fur and for 
the oil which it yields, called castor oil. 



54 



BEE 



BEAVER. That part ofllielielmct which 
ietetuU Ihe siiiht, and (ipetis in front. 

BEAU AlUAUE. 'Ihe g.iy fashionable 
world. 

BKUdnOunnery). Alhick plank which 
Uea under a piece uf urdiiance, on the car- 
riage. 

BED (in Maaonry). A range or course 
of at(>ne8. 

BED (in Mineralogy). A stratum or 
layer of any earth or stone 

BEUOKA RIVEU. 'Ihe bottom of a 
channel, in which the slreiini or current 
uaually Aows. 

BEE. An insect which carries on the 
operation of ni:il<in|! honey and wax. Beeg 
begin to swarm, tliut is to furni new colo- 
nies, in May or June, according to llie state 
of the weatlier. The swarm consists of a 
female, calleil the queen, who is distin- 
guished by her size ; the drones, who are 
supposed to be males, that do not work *, 
and the mules, or common bees, who are 
of iieiilier msx, aud do the work uf the hive. 




BEEHIVE. A particular kind of box 
or basket In which been are kepi. 




^^F.ER. A drink made of malt and hops 
ky the process of brewing ; it is of three 
kin.ls, namely, stnmg beer, ale, and table 
beer, or small beer. 

REESTINOS. A tenn in tlushandry 
for the first milk taken from a cow after 
•he calvKS. 

BEET. A carden herb and root, which 
b thick and fleshy. The leaves are used 
as potherbs, and the root is boiled for the 
table. 



BEL 

BEETLE. The scarabieusof Linnaua 
well ktiown insect, produced from the lar 
va: or grubs tliat live under ground. It 
h:is six feet, is hairy at one end, and Uvea 
In dry decayed wood, Sec, 




BEETLE. A large wooden hammer (vt 

driving palisadoes. 

BELFRY. ■] hat part ofa church steepie 
in which the bells are hung. 

BELL. The well known metallic ma- 
chine, which is ranked among mufical 
instniments ; it consists of three parts, the 
body, or barrel, the clai>per, and the ear, 
or cannon. 'I'lie use of bells in churr'ies 
was introduced into England, in«l'« "^'•^th 
century. They were cimimonly tt^t**!"**! 
before they were hung 




BEl,LE55 LETTRES. A French tern 

for polite literature. 

BELI.ICEIiKNT. An epithet appliei 
to states that are at war. 

BELL METAL. A metal employed ii 
the manut'acture of bells, which usnall) 
consists of tliree parts of copper and one ol 
tin. 

BELLO.NA. The goddess of war, an« 
sister of Mars. 

BELLOWtS. A machine fur blowing th« 
fire. This machine is so contrived as u, 
expire and respire the air alternately, by 
enlarging and contracting its capacity 
The air which enters the bellows is com 
pressed when they are closed, and flowa 
out of the pipe with a velocity proportion 
ed to the force by which it is compressed. 
Tlie bellows of smith i aud founders are 
worked by a rocker. 



BEN 

BELLOWS OF AN OR(J.\.\. The 
pneumatic pari nf the iniichiiie, by which 
It is supplied wuh wiinl. The belldwsuf 
I lari;e urg.tii are worked by a man called 
the blower ; those ul' smaller or^aiid by the 
ftw' -.if the player. 

HKLI..Uili. The sixth order nf aiiiinaU 
in the Lliwiifaii system, liav !;■>; tlieu I'eet 
hoofed, as the eipius, or horse i sus, the 
swine ; the hi|>p<vp<itamiis, and the tapir. 

BCLT. A girdle for hanging a swurd or 
any other weapon in. 

BKLT (in Heraldry). A badge of the 
knightly order, given to a person wtiea be 
was raised to the knighthood. 

BELT tin Surgery). A bandage applied 
rniind the body. 

BELT (ill .Ma-sonry). A range or course 
of bricks projecting from the rest. 

BELTEIN. An ancient festival in Ire- 
land, celebrated on the '21st of June, the 
gununer solstice, when lires were madeon 
•he hips of the hills. 

BELTS, or Faicijc. Two zones or 
girdles round the planet Jupiter, more 
lucid than the other parts of his body, and 
terminated by parallel straiiilit lines, some- 
times broader and sometimes nairower, 
varying both in magnitude and position. 
These belts were tirst observed at Na- 
ples, by Zuppi and Bartidi, two Jesuits. 

BE.N'CH. A seat of justices, or judges, 
as the King's Bench, at Westminster, Eng. 

BENCHER. In England, a lawyer of 
the oldest standiiis in the inns of court 

BEND (III Heraldry). One of the ten 
honounible ordinaries, drawn from the 
dexter, or right corner, at the top of the 
escutcheon, to the sinister base, or left 
corner, at the bottom. It is supposed to 
represent a shoulder belt, or scarf, and to 
ihow the wearer to be valiant in war. It 
is sometimes called a bend dexter, to dis- 
tinguish it from the bend sinister, which is 
irawn from the left side of the sliield to 
be right. 



BER 



Si 




BEND. A sea term for the knot, hy 
which one rope is fastened to another or 
to an ancnnr. 

BE.\I)I.\(;. A sea term, for the tying 
wo ci.bles or ropes together, >r to anything 
•Ise 



BENDING (in Physiology,. The reduc- 
ing a body to a curved or crooked form 
The bendin>; of boards, planks, &c. is 
effected by means of heal, whellier by boil- 
ing or otherwise, by which the fibres be- 
come relaxed and flexible. 

BENUS IN A ^JI1I^. The outermost 
timbers of the side, to set the foot on iu 
climbing up the side. They are reckoned 
from the water, tirst, second, and third 
bend, and are of great service in strength- 
ening the ship, as into them the beams, 
knees, and foothooks are bolted. 

BE.NEFICE. In England, any ecclesias- 
tical living, but piirticularly rectories and 
vicarages. 

BEN EFIT OF CLERGY. In England, 
a privilege in law, at first peculiar to the 
clergy, but in after times made common to 
the laity. When any one was convicted 
ofcert<-tiii crimes, he had a book given him 
to read, and if the ordinary or his deputy 
pronounced these words, ' l^egit ut cleri- 
cus, he reads like a clergyman, or scho- 
lar,' he was oiilv burnt in the hand, and 
set free for the tirst offence, otherwise he 
wa.<< to suffer death. 

BEN/ol.\ A dry solid resin, of a 
fragrant sme'.l, produced by incision from 
the styrax, an Indian tree. It is brought 
to us from the East Indies, particularly 
Siamand the islands of Java anil .'Sumatra, 
in masses of various si/.es, composed of 
small granules of a whitish or yellowish 
colour, with a purple cast on the surface. 
It Is very intlammahle, and ditrnses a Ira- 
grant smell while biiriiiii!!, and so in like 
manner when rubbed in llieli:ilid. \\ hen 
the lieiizoiii tree is six years old, the na- 
tives cut it in several places, in an ob- 
lique direction, and the lirii/.oin tlowa 
from the woumls. Ben/.oin is used by 
perrniners in inakiiig sweet Unas, 6lc. and 
was formerly very much esteemed «s ar 
expectorant. 1'he tree was introduced 
from Virginia into England. 

BEHI'EST. A legacy ; whtit is be- 
qiie.-ithed or left by will. 

BEKENICE't; ilAlR. A constellation 
in the northern hemisphere. 

BERGAMOT. A line sort of pear 
which is of two sorts, namely, the sum- 
mer berganiot and the Hutnmii liergamot. 

BERGAMOT (in Chemistry). A fragrant 
essence, extracted from a I'niit which is 
produced by ingraftinca linini li ofalrmon 
tree, upon the stork of a tieruann.t pear. 
This essence is got by cutting the external 
rind of the fruit Into small pieces, and 
sipiee/.ing ilieiii into a elass vessel, in tn« 
same <naiiiier as ilie juice of a lemun la 



r» 



BIB 



•queezed out, Ity which means nn a't'ierial 
oil is procured of a very fragrant smell. 

BERRY. A round fruit, for the most 
part soft, and covered will) a thin skin, 
containing seeds in a |iul|iy substance. 

RERYL.. A precious stone, which, in 
tU purity, is of a perfectly seagreen colour, 
and on that account called aqua marina. 
Beryl is also (in Painting) the seagreen 
colour, in imitation of this stone. 

BETA. The sexond letter in the Greek 
alphabet. 

BETEIj. a «ort of pepper plant, the 
leaf of which is universally chewed by the 
Couthern Asiatics, to sweeten the breath 
and strengthen the stomach. It is a slen- 
d^r-siemined climbing plant. 

BEVEl^. An instrument with a mov- 
able tongue, to itrike angles of a greater 
or Itsea inagailude. 




BEVELLING (in Carpentry). Hewing 
timner with a proper or regular curve. 

BEY. An olficer of high rank among 
the TurKs, inferior to none but the pacha. 
The ruler of Tunis, liai; this title. 

BE/ANTS. Round flat pieces of bul- 
lion wiinout any impression, which are 
supiMtsed to have been the current coin of 
Byzantium. This coin was probably in- 
troduced into coat armour by those who 
went to tne wars. 



rr 



r i- f 



BEZOAX. A medicinal stone, hrouglit 
from the East and West Indies, which was 
formerly reckoned a sovereign antidote 
against poisons. It is found to be a morbid 
concretion in the intestines of some ani- 
mals. 

BIBLE, The collection of the l>ook8 of 
the Old and New Testament. The Old 
Testament was first translated by the 72 
Interpreters, and thence called theSeptiia- 
flnt: of the Latin versions, that of .''t. Je- 
rome ws« confirmed by the nmnril of 
I'MBt (<H vulg.ir use, and tlience gut the 



BIL 

name of the Vulgate 1 lie Bible wat 
trunslaled into the i?axun tongue about tba 
year 940 •, and into the English, by Wil- 
liam 'I'indal, in tlie twtnty-first year of 
the reign of Henry the Eighth, when it 
was printed. 'I'lie present authorized 
English version of the Holy Scriplunis 
was completed in the reign of James tlie 
First, about the year 1611. 

BIBLIOGRAl'IIER. A person conver- 
sant with books. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The knowledge of 
books as totheir several editions, time, and 
form of being printed, type, and other par- 
ticulars connected with their publication. 
BIBLIO.V1ANIA. A rage for scarce and 
old editions of books. 

BICE (in Painting). A blue colour pre- 
pared from the lapis armenus ; it bears the 
best body of all bright blues used in com- 
mon work. 

BIENNIALS. Plants that flourish for 
two years, and seldom more. 

BIGAMY. Double niarriiige, or the mar- 
rying of two wives or two husbands while 
the first is alive, which is felony hy statute. 
Bigamy, in the Civil Law, is the marrying 
a plurality of wives or husbands. 

BIGHT. The double part of a rope 
where it is folded, in distinction from the 
end. 

BILBOES. A term at sea, for the long 
bars of iron with which the feet of offen- 
ders are confined, the irons being more or 
less heavy, according to tlie nature of the 
offence. 

' BILE. A bitter fluid secreted in the 
glaiidular substance of the liver, and pass- 
ing through the gall bladder and the porus 
biliariiis, is discharged into the duodenum, 
where it converts the chyme into chyle 
and excrement. The constituent parts of 
bile are water, soda in a caustic state, 
phosphate of lime, and a resinous albu- 
minous principle. 

BILGE. A sea term, for the bottom of 
the flfMir of a ship, the compass or breadth 
of its bottom. A veilsel is said to bilge 
when she has strne^ off some of her tim- 
ber against a rock. 

BILL. An edged tool, or hatchet, with 
a hooked point, for lopping of trees and 
making hedges : if it have a short handle 
it is a handbill ; if a long handle, a liedg 
ingbill. 

BILL fin Lawl. A declaration In writ- 
ing expressing any grievance or wnmg 
which one person has suffered from an 
other; also an msliumeiit drawn up bj 
any memtwri»nd preseiiied to a Icgislatiwa 
fur Its approbation ur rejection. 



IMP 

Bll.r, f«P EXCHA.Nf^K (in ^nmmerceV 
A iioce Oiiii'diiiiig an unler for the |>ay- 
ineiit of .-I sum iif iiiiiiiey, li> :i persiin cull- 
ed tlie ilrawer, win. wlit-ii he luus signed it 
with his name, itiiil writleii the word ac- 
cepted, he IS culled the acceptor. Tlje 
persiiii In whuse lavnitr it is drawn, or to 
wlidiu it is ordered to be paiil, is called the 
drawee, or payej;, who, when he has in- 
dorsed it, is allied the Indorser. lie, who 
is ill iKissession of the hill, is the holder. 

HILL OF KARK. An account of such 
provisions aj are in season, or are to be 
supplied for the table. 

lUl.L OF LAIH.NfJ, or Ihtoice. A 
deed signed by the master of a ship, by 
which he acknowledges the receipt of the 
nicrrhaiit's giHids, and obliges himself to 
Jeliver them at the place to which they 
are consigned. 

HILL OF PARCF.I.S. A tradenman's 
account of goods sold and delivered. 

BILLET. A ticket for i|uarteniig 80«- 
diers : also a small paper, or note, folded 
up as a billet doux, or love-letter. 

KILLET. A small log of wood ; also in 
Heraldry, a bearing in the forniof as»piare, 
supposed to represent cloth of gold and 
•ilver. 

BILLETI^*} (in Miliury Affairs). 
Ordering . -ts to be quartered in par- 
ticular hoi ^ by a billet or small ticket. 

BILLIARDS. A game played on an 
"liliiiig table, exactly level, and covered 
with cloth, by the means of ivory bails, 
which are struck or driven with sticks, 
made bending, so as to drive the aiit.ago- 
nitit's ball into holes, called hazards or 
puckets, at the corners or by the sides of 
the table. 'I'he art of the game lies in 
(Xicketing your antagonist's ball without 
putting in your own. 

BILLION The sum of a million mil- 
lions. 

BILLS OF MORTALITY, Annual re- 

isters of the deaths and burials, which 

ake place in the different parishes in and 

uear London. The term is also applied to 

a register of deaths, in any town. 

BINDING OF BOOKS. The art of 
doing up hooks in leather or vellum, as 
distinguished from those done up in boards 
or only sewed. 

BINNACLE. A wooden case, contain- 
ing the compasses, log glasses, watch glas- 
ses, &c. 

BINOiMI,\L. A term in algebra for any 
quantity consisting nftwo names, or terms, 
connected together by the sign -J-, or — , 
as a -(- 6 

BIPED. An animal with only two legs, 
M men and birds 



BIS 



57 



Biai'ADRATlC. The square squared, 
or the fourth power of any quantity. 

BIKL'H IREE. A tree with leaves like 
the poplar, the fruit of which isasquamos* 
Cone. The timber is used for hop-|>oles. 

BIRD-BOLT. A small arrow with thiea 
heads, which was discharged at birds from 
a cross-bow. The bird-txilt is still used 
in England as a bearing in coat armour. 

BIKDC.-VLL. A whistle or pipe to decoy 
birds. 

BIRDCATCHING. The art of taking 
birds or (vild fowl, by birdlime, nets, and 
decoys, which, as resjiects the more artful 
modes of catching birds, is called fowling. 
In the western islands of Scotland, where 
the birds live in rocks, a dangerous mode 
of bird catching is in use. 

BIRDLIME. A glutinous siilistance, 
madeof tn« bark of holly, which is spread 
»H the twi^s of trees in catch birds. 

BIRD OF PARADISE. See Pabadise, 
Bird of. 

BIRTH. A sea term for the station in 
which a ship rides at anchoring ground, as 
a good hirth, for a good anchoring ground. 

BIRTHRIGHT (in Law). Honour or 
estate belonging to a person by right of 
his birth. 

BIRTIIWORT. A herb having a peien 
nial root. 

BISCUIT (from hiscoctus, twice baked). 
A sort of bread much dried in baking; sea 
biscuit is dried harder than any other, that 
it may be better preserved. 

BISECTION. The cutting any quantity, 
as a line or angle, into two equal parts. 

BISO.N'. A variety of the ox, which has 
its horns bent forwards, back gibbous, and 
mane long. It is very co:iimon in the 
western prairies. Herds of ten thousand 
are sometimes seen together. It is im- 
pro|>erly called Buffalo, in the United 
Sute«. 




BISHOP. A dignitary in tbe Creek 
Romish and English churches. Inthelal- 
ter he presides over the clergy within A 
certain district, called his diocesa Bl 



S8 



BIT 



■ho|M In Er.glaiid are suffragans, or assist- 
BMls, 1(1 llie arclibiahop, wlio is the chief 
of tlie clergy iii his prtiviiice. The bishop 
issaiil to he iiisUlletl, the urchhishop to he 
riilhroiied. In America tliere is no arch- 
bishop. 

BIs^llOPRlC The dincess, or dislricl, 
over which h bishop presides. 

BISMUTH. A iiieliil of a yellowish or 
rwddish white colour. It is rather harder 
than lead, and scarcely if at all malleable, 
being very brittle ; il melts eiusily, and is 
■oluble in acids. 

BISSliXTI LK, or Leap Vb»r. A year 
consisting of 306 days, liy the addition of 
a day in the month of February, when 
that year consists of 21) instead u{-2S days. 
This happens every fourtli year. The day 
thus added is also called Bissextile, and 
3di this account, that Cxsar appointed it 
to be introduced by reckoiniisj; llie twenty- 
fourth of February twice, and iis tliat day 
was the same as the sixth of the calends 
of .March, a day celebrated among the 
Romans on account of the expulsion of the 
Tarquiiis, it was called bis sextuscalenda- 
rum Martii, and afterwards Bissextile. By 
the Stat. 21 Hen. 111. I)e Anno Bissextile, 
to prevent misiiiiderstaiidin:;s, the inter- 
calary day and that next before it, are to 
be accounted as one day. 

BISTER. A Colour made of chimney 
soot lioiled and diluted. 

BISTOURV. A small surgical knife of 
various forms, according to the purpose 
for wnich it is inieiided. 

BIT (in Carpentry). A btiring instrument 
so constructed as to be taken out of the 
handle. 

BIT, orBiTT or a bridle. The Iron 
attached to the bridle, which is put into 
the horse's mouth. 

BITT. A sea term for the two pieces of 
timber to which the anchor cables are 
attached. 

Bl TTER. A sea term for the turn of the 
cable round the bitts. 

BITTER AL.MOM). A sort of almond 
tree, the fruit of which is bitter. 

It;l TER-APPLK. See CoLoquiNTiDA. 

BITTER PRI.NCIPLE. The bitter parts 
of vegetable siilistances, which maybe ex- 
tracted by a chemical process. Artificial 
bitter is any bitter formed by the actum 
of nitric acid on vegetable and other sub- 
stances. 

BITTER-SWEET. A so.-i of sotanum, 
a perennial. 

BnTCRN,or BITTOl'R. A bird of the 
heron kind, of retired habits, that conceals 
Itself in the reedH and marshes. It sends 
totXA a croaking note when it is disturbed. 



BLA 

The .American Bittern differs from that el 
Europe which is here figured 




BITUMEN. A sort of mineral substance 
easily combustible with flame, greasy to 
the touch, and when ignited emits a strong 
odour. Naphtha is a fluid bitumen, asphal 
a hard species, and petrolium a viscia 
species of the bitumen. 

BIV.-MA'ES. One of tlie three gent-ra. 
classes of shellfish, the shells of wliicli ure 
composed of two pieces, joined togetlier by 
a hinge. 

BLACK. A colour which is supposed tc 
be produced by the peculiar texture ol 
bodies, which deaden as it were the liplu 
falling upon them, and reflect n(me,or very 
little of it, outwards towards the eye. 

BLACK. A Colour or dye, as lamp black, 
the smoke of resin, prepared by nieltine :t 
in iron vessels ; ivory black, made of burnt 
ivory, and used in miniatures ; f^paiiisb 
black, made of burnt cork, and first used 
by the Spaniards. 

BLACKBIRD. A well known bird of 
a beautiful black colour and an exipiisite 
note. It sings in the spring, and makes 
its nest of moss and grass. We have no 
bird in .Vnierica precisely similar to the 
European bird which ia here described. 




Our crow blackbird resemble* it, bit it 
larger. 



BLA 

BLACKnERRV. The fiait of the bram- 
ble, or lilacklierry bush. 

BLACK ll(K)K {in England). A book 
kept in the Exchequer, which contains tlie 
orders of that court. 

BLACKCAP. A little bird with a fine 
black crown on it^ head. 

BLACK IIUI.E. .\ place of confinement 
for soldiers. 

BLACK LRAn. A mineral, the plum- 
bago or graohilea oT Liiinsiis. It is found 
in lead mines, and is fusilile only by a 
violent heal. Lead pencils and crucibles 
are made of it. 

BLACK LETTER. A sort of old English 
elphalHit. 

BLADDER. A thin membranous sub- 
■tance, which serves as the receptacle of 
some fiuid, as the urinary bladder, and 
the gall bladder. 

BLADDER-\UT. A tree, the fruit of 
which is contained in a membrane inflat- 
ed like a bladder. 

BLADDER SE.NNA. A shnib which 
yields a papilionaceous flower, that is suc- 
ceeded by pods resembling the inflated 
bladder of fishes. 

BL.\DE. The flat part of a sword or 
knife, resembling the blade or leaf of 
grass in shape. 

BI^ADEi;O.VE. The shoulder bone. 

BLAIN (in Farriery). A distemper in- 
cident to animals, being a bladder at 
the root of the tongue, which stops the 
breath. 

BLA.VCH FAR.M (in English Law). A 
term for a farm where the rent is paid in 
■ilver, not in black cattle. 

BLANCHl.NG. The art of making any 
thing white, as (in horticultu.'e; the me- 
thod of whitening sal.uls. Islanching mo- 
ney is the annealing, boiling, and cleans- 
ing it when it is coined. Blanching cop- 
per is done in various ways, so as to make 
it resemble silver. Blanching is also the 
operation of covering iron plates with a 
thin coat or crust of tin. Blanching al- 
monds is the skinning them by means of 
'Slot water. 

BLA.N'K. A void space in any writing 
or printing 

BLA.NK VERSE. That which has no 
rhymes. 

BLANKETS (in Printing). Woollen 
cloths to lay between the tympans of a 
printing press, in order to produce a fair 
Impression. 

BLA.NK ETS. A sea term, for combus- 
tibles made of coarse limwii paper steeped 
in nitre, dried, and then steeped again in 
tallow, resin, and sulphur j tbey are used 
tB futsaaipt 



BLO M 

BT^AST. A disease in grain and trees 
Killed also a bliglit. 

BL.\STI.N'G (among Miners). The 
teariiit; up rocks by the force of gun 
powder. 

BLASTLNG- BELLOWS. Bellows 
which are used to proiliice a more than or 
dinary degree of heat in furnaces. 

IlLAZUNRY, or ilLA/oXING. That 
branch of the art of lieraldry which con- 
sists in expressing in proper terms all that 
behuigs to coats of arms. The word comes 
from the German blasen, to blow ; be- 
cause a trumpet used to be blown at justs, 
&-C. previously to the her;iM's recording 
the achievements of (he kniglits. 

BLE.ACHING. 'l"he process of white- 
ning linen by exposure to the sun and 
airj or, as is now more commonly in u.^e, 
by the application of chemical prepara 
tions. 

BLEMISH (in Farriery). Any imper- 
fection in a horse which impedes a sound 
warrant, as broken knees, cracked heels, 
&.e. 

BLENDE. The ore of zinc. 

BLIGHT. A disease incident to plants, 
which consists in a sort of fungus, that 
converts the affected part into a sooty 
mass. 

BLINDS. A contrivance to prevent any 
one seeing through a window ; in Military 
Affairs, bundles of osiers used at the heads 
of trenches, to protect the men. 

BLINDWOR.M, or Slowworm. A 
worm so called from the sinallness of its 
eyes and the slowness of its motitm. 

BLISTER. A pustule in the skin, filled 
with serum ; in general, any swelling 
caused by the separation of the outer in- 
tegument of any sul)stance from that 
which is underneath. 

BLISTER (in Medicine). The plas- 
ter or application that raises a blister, 
mostly made of the canlharides, or Span- 
ish flies. 

BLOCK. A sea term for a pulley, or 
series of jiulleys, mounted in a frame, ci 
shell, which serves to facilitate the pai- 
sage of the ropes. Blocks are single, dou 
ble, treble, &.c. according to the nunibe 
of shivers in them through which the run 
ning ropes run. 

SINGLE BLOCK. 




BLO 

DOUBLE BLOCK. 




TMERLS aiiOCC. 




BLOCKADE. The blocking up J*e 
roa<l8 and avenues to a |il;u:e, hy iiieniif of 
•ulitiers, so as lo preveiil uiiy iiigres:: ur 
egresis. 

l!I<UOD. A warm red fluid, of a salt- 
iah taste and urinous siiit-ll, circulating 
tV rough every part of tlie lio(iy by means 
of arteries and veins. Tlie tilood is found 
to contain an insipid water, whicli soon 
becomes putrid, an euipyreuuiutic oil, an 
ammontacal spirit, and the remainder car- 
bon. 

BLOOD (in Law). Is regarded in de- 
icent of lands, for a person must lie next 
and most worthy of blood in order to in- 
herit his ancestor's estate. 

BLOOD-HORHE. A breed of horses 
originally from the Arabian stock, the ei- 
cellence of which consist." in the compact- 
ness of his fibre, that adds to his strength 
without increasing his bulk. 

BL<MJI)Hl)UM). A hunting dog, of 
such exquisite scent, that he will tbilow 
the track of men .-is well as of animals. 

BLOOn-RED-HOT. Tlie last degree of 
heat given by smiths to their iron in tlie 
forge. 

BLOODSHOT. A distemper in the eyes, 
when the vessels are so distended as to 
make them appear red. 

BLOOD-STONE A stone which serves 
to stop bleeding. 

BLOODSUCKER. A leach which sncks 
the blood of aoy animal tu winch it is ap- 
plied. 

BLOWtNG GLASS. The process in 
glass houses of forming glass into various 
■hapes, by means of blowing through a 
btow-pipe dipped into the mehed glass. 

BLOW-IMI'E. A wind instrument, 
which consist* of a hollow lube, ending in 
a cavity as flee as a wire, through which 
air may be dir tcted with ccmsiderable force 
«gainst a flame, so as to heat substances 



no A 

with great rapidity. It is us^d by f-by 
mists, enametlers, glassmakers, &,c 



BLUBBER. Tlie fat of th*- whale be- 
fore it is iKiiled. Sea bitilmer, the viilfaf 
name of a shellfish. 

BLUE. One of tb» seven primiti»« 
colours into which tlioyare divided when 
refracted tliroiich a ginss prism. Blue, !«• 
a colour in painting, is distinguished into 
ullramarine, from the a/.ure stone ; hliio 
ashes, used in limiiiiig, fresco, aiid minia- 
ture ; blue verditer, a blue someivhat in 
cliniiig to a green ; Prussian blue, a colour 
next to ultramarine for beauty. 

BLUE BIRD. A beautiful North Ante 
rican bird, with a soH warblini! note, 
which is one of the first harbinge:s of 
spring. 

BLUEBOTTLE. An animal, having a 
bellshapeil flower. The flower is borne in 
coats of arms. 

BLI'EBOTTLE. A large Icind of fly 
with a blue body. 

BLU EL\(!. Tlie process of heating iron 
and other metals in the tire, until they 
assume a blue coli.iir, which is the practice 
of gilders liefore they apply the gold and 
silver leaf to thi^m 

BLUFF. A se? term for a high land 
projecting alincit per|>endicularly into tlie 
sea. 

BLUNDERBUSS. A short brass gun 
with a large bore. 

BOA CONSTRICTOR. A serpent of 
immense sixe and strength, a native of 
Al'rica and India, measuring sometimes 
ten yards in length. Il will twist itself 
round the bodies of oxen ami other ani- 
mals, and, breaking their bones, swallow 
them whole. 




BOAR. The male of the swine. Tim 

boar's liend is often borne in coats ofariika- 

BOARD. A sea term, fur tlie space ■ 



BuD 

htp nins ovrr bt-lweeii tach anl tack, as 
to m;ike stmrl lioarns, tiat la, to tack fre- 
qiieiilly ; also the ship itself, as to go 
abo-'int, tliat is, into ttie stiip ; so board and 
board i.s said of two siiip^ coming so near 
to eacJi other ;i> to touch by the board over 
tile Suifj's side. 

BDAKU (in Tarpeiitry). Any piece of 
timber sawed to a less thickness than 
about an inch ; all above this thickness 
are planks. 

nuARI), or Pastbboabd Layers of 
pa|>er so pasted together as to make a sub- 
■tance as hard as a board. 

BOARDI.N'G. The fixing of boards for 
any purpose, as a floor ; liii Navjil Tactics) 
the entering a ship in a forcible manner. 

KO.-\RliS, or by way of contraction. 
Boa. The manner of doing hooks up in 
pasteboard covers, without leather. 

BOARD WAGKS. Money given to ser- 
vants in lieu of diet. 

BOAT. A small open vpjwel worked on 
rivers or email waters by rowing or sailing. 




BOATBILL. A bird of South America, 
having a bill that resembles a boat in 
iha|ie. It lives upon fish, and darts down 
up(m them as they are swimming. 

BOATFLY. An insect with an inflected 
snout, tliat lis'es in stagnant waters. 

BOATt^U'AI.V. A sea term, for the offi- 
e«r who has the boats, anchors, ic. in his 
(harge. 

BOB. The metallic weigh*, attached to 
a pendulum. 

BOBBIN. A sort of tape. 

B0BH:NS. Little pins of wood with a 
notch, on K^iiich thread, &c. is wound. 

BODKIN. A long sort of pin, on which 
women used to roll their hair. 

BOnV (inGeoiiu'lry;. Any solid bavins 
three dimensions, length, breailth, and 
thickness. Regular bodies, which have 
L. their angles and sides similar and 
i^ial, are of five kinds, namely, tetrae- 
iron, a body con>r.ined under four equi- 
latenit triangles ; iiejcaedruii, a body con- 
taining six s(|aare«;octaedron.a body hav- 
ing eight triniiules ; dodecaedron, a body 
•oiitaining twelve penuigons ; icosaedron, 
a body ojnt.-i:ning twenty triangles. Ir- 
regular jiidies are soliil:< wlm h are not 
t>nuiiJed by e iual, and like surtacei. 



BOM 6- 

BODY (in Physics) An extended solid 
substance, consisting of hard, iiii|>enetra- 
ble. moveable particles. It is a hard body 
when its parts do luH easily yield to any 
stroke or percussion ; a soft body when it 
yields to every stroke, and thereby under- 
goes a change -, an elastic body, thai 
changes its form with every stroke, hut re- 
covers it again wlien the imj>el.^{ fotise is 
removed. 

BODY. In the phrase ' to bear a body,' 
a term applied by painters to any colour 
which is of a nature to be ground so free- 
ly, and to mix with oil so entirely, as to 
seem one thick oil of the same colour. 

BODY. (Jf a chpiiiical vessel, thai 
which holds the matter in distillation. 
Body of a pump, the thickest part of tiie 
barrel or pi|ie. Body, in an army, any 
number of forces dnited under one com 
maiider. 

BOIIEA TEA One of the superior 
kinds of tea that comes from (v'hina. 

BOILING POINT. The fixed point or 
degree of heat required to produce the 
ebullition or boiling of a fluid. Every li- 
quid h:is a fixed point at which lM<iling 
commences, and this is called the boiling; 
point. Thus water begins to boil at the 
temperature of 2li°. .After a liquid haa 
begun to boil, it will not become hotter, 
for although a stronger heat makes all li- 
quids boil more nipidly, yet it does not in- 
crease theirteni|»emture. 

BOLE. .\ friable earth of the argillace- 
ous kind, which unil«s with water so as to 
form a paste. The .Armenian t«>le, orliole 
armeniac, is a bright red coloured earth, 
so called from Armenia, the country from 
which it is procured. 

BOLL. A measure of two bushels. 

BOLOGNA STONE. A phosphoric 
stone, first found at Bologna in Italy. It 
is a gray so(\ sulphureous stone, about tlw; 
si/.e of a large walnut, which shines in 
the dark after calcination. This stone is 
the native sulphate of carytes. 

BOLSTER. A soft pillow for a brokei. 
limb ; in Farriery, it is the name of those 
parts of a saddle which .-ire rai.sed iijinn 
the bows to receive the rider's thighs. 

BOLSTER. A sea term, for a piece of 
timber rut and placed for the easement of 
the cable. 

BOLT. An iron pin used for strength 
ening timber. 

BOLUS An internal medicine, of >! 
consistency thicker than honey. 

BO.MB A hollow ball of cast iron 
filled with combiistililes, and dischargm 
from a mortar into towns, when, by aurtt- 
ing, it cau.ses much mtscbinf 



92 



BON 



BOMBAROMENT. The discharging of 
bomb!) into <( Itesieged place. 

BOMUIC A<:i(). An acid liquor con- 
tained in a reservoir near the anus of the 
•illtworni. 

BO.MIiKr.TCH. A small vessel built 
and Ktr«nj!lliened witli large beams, for 
b« uae of mortars at sea. 




BOMPERNICKEL. A name given in 
Jerision to the German rye-bread, signify- 
ing, good for nothing. 

BO.N'A FIUE. With good faith ; with- 
out fraud or subterfuge. 

BOND (iu Law). An obligation or 
covenant in writing to pay any sum, or 
perform any contract. 

BOND (in Carpentry). The binding of 
any two pieces together by tenanting,' mor- 
ticing, &.C. In Masonry, it is the disposi- 
tion of stones or bricl(s in a building, so 
that they most aptly fit together ; stones 
naviiig their lengtli placed in the tllick- 
ness of the wall are called headers, and 
those whose length extends along the face 
or exterior of the wall are called stretchers. 

BONO-TIMBEKS. The horizontal tim- 
bers bedded in stone or brick walls, for 
itrengthening the masonry. 

BONDSMAN. One bound or giving se- 
curity for another. 

BONE. A hard, dry, insensible part of 
the body, composed of a spongy reticular 
substance, and an oily matter called mar- 
niw. There is also a considerable portion 
of phosphate of lime that enters into their 
oonipositiun. The bones of the human 
9ody are in numlier about 250. 

BONE. A sea term, in the phrase « To 
tarry a bone in her mouth,' applied to a 
chip whea she makes the water foam be- 
fore her in sailing. 

BONE-1.ACE. Lace made of bobbins 
that are farmed from bones. 

BONES. A sort of bobbins made of 
lrotler4iones, for weaving bone lace. 

BONES. A name in Mathemntics given 
to Lord Napier's rods for facilitating arith- 
■Mtical calculations. 

BONING A term among surveyors, to 



BOO 

denote the laying poles up n the grouna 
in such a manner thai all may lie in a 
straight line. 

BONNET (in Heraldry,. A cap of vel 
vet Worn without a coronet. 

BONNET. A sea term, for the additioq 
of a small sail made to fasten wila latch- 
ings to the foot of the other sails. 

BONNET (in Fortification). A small 
Work composed of two faces, usually raised 
before the saliant angle of the counter- 
scarp. 

BONZE. A priest in China, Japan, and 
Farther India who wears a chaplet of 
beads about his neck, and carries a staff, 
having a wooden bird at one end. 

BoOBy. A South American bird of the 
pelican tribe. 

BOOK. Any folded leaves which are 
or may be written up<m ; also a general 
name for any literary composition, but 
more particularly any composition large 
enough to be formed into a volume. Before 
the use of books or volumes things were 
committed to writing on stone, wood, bark, 
&.C. The Decalogue was written on tables 
of stone ; so likewise, as we learn from 
Josejihus, the children of Seth wrote their 
inventions and astronomical observations 
on two columns, one of brick and the other 
of stone, the latter of which was standing 
in his day. Ilesiod's works were originally 
written upon tables of lead ; Solon's laws 
upon wooden planks, &c. and the Parian 
Chronicle, or a chronicle of the affairs of 
Athens, on marbles, which are now known 
by the name of the Arundel lan. The 
•Scythians, Celts, and their several de- 
scendants, the Goths, Teiitones, &.c. also 
used to write on trees whatever they 
thought worthy to preserve in writing. 
Tables of wood, box, and ivory were also 
common among the ancients ; but we find 
that the Romans were accustomed to write 
upon tables of wax, by means of a style 
or bodkin, so contrived that they could 
also erase what they pleased. The finest 
and thinnest p.arts of the bark of trees, as 
of the lime, the ash, the maple, and the 
elm, were also employed, whence the Lat- 
in name liber signifies both book and bark 
The I'nglish word book is derived iinme 
diately from the Saxon boec. Low Ger 
man bok. High German buch ; and is 
either fi-om buch, which signifies a beech, 
because the bark of this kind of tree was 
used ; or from biegen, to bend, because 
the leaves were folded or bent into the 
form of a book. When books were rolled 
up, they were on that account called 
volumen, a volume, a name afterward* 
given to paper and parcliment folded toga- 



BOO 

Iker. Sometimes the roll consisted of seve- 
ral sliepls of biirk tastetied Kigcllier and 
rolled u|Miii a :<lick, called zn umbilicus. 
Refure llie liilrixliictiou of printing, biwiks 
were become so scarce in the middle ages, 
tlial, in ^={l:tlll, one and llie same copy of 
the Bitrfe, r^t. Jerome's Eplnties, and soiiw 
few volumes of ecclesiasticaJ oliices served 
several dilferent Hiona-slenes, ^ince that 
period tJi« increase of btniks has been pro- 
digious ; and in coiisetjuence of the ditfer- 
eiit editions, modes of printing, size, type, 
and otlier pxrticiilar;) connected either 
M'ilh the external form or internal con- 
tents, the knowledge of b<Hiks has become 
a p.irticular study and pursuit, under liie 
naiMe of bibliography. 

IttKlKBINUINCi. The process ofbind- 
jii^ b(Kiks, or putting the sheets together 
Into the form of books. The bookbinder 
receives the sheets which C(mipose a hiKik 
immediately from the printer, and ader 
having folded tliem in the order of the sig- 
natures, or letters at the bottom of the page, 
tliey are hrst beaten with a hammer on a 
stone, to make them lie close and snuN-ith , 
after whicli they are put into a press, and 
sewed with bands, or strips of leather fas- 
tened at certain distances, which, being all 
glued together very firinly, form the Imck 
of the biKik, to which the pasteboards are 
attaclied by means of tiie hands, so as to 
form the sides. In all this process of fix- 
ing on the sides, much art and nicety is 
required in rounding the back, and keeping 
the whole Armly li.Ked in the press. After 
tills the book is put into the cutting-press 
between two boards, one lying even with 
the press for the knife to run upon, the 
other atKive, for the knife to run against. 
In this manner the leaves and boards are 
cut to form an even edge. 'I'he next ope- 
ration is tliesprinkling of the leaves, which 
is done by means of a brush dipped in 
vermilion and sap green. The covers of 
leather, tec. being first moistened, are cut 
to the size of the bfMik, smeared with paste, 
and then stretched successively over the 
back and the two sides, alter having taken 
off the four angles, and indented and plat- 
ted the cover at the head band. When 
ihus far finished, the b(H>k is covered and 
bound tietween two hands and set to dry. 
It is afterwards wa.'^hed with paste and 
water, and then sprinkled with a brush, 
unless it is to he marbled, which is done 
by making spots with vitriol. The b<>ok 
>8 then glazed with the white of an egg, 
end, lastly, polished with a hort iron. 
The letters and orniineuts are made with 
gilding tools, or brass cylinders, rolled 
tlong by a handle : to apply the gold, the 



BOO 



6S 



leather is gla/.ed with a li<|iior mads of 
the white ul' eggs, diluted wilt water, 
and when nearly dry ihe gold is laid on 
Such is the process when a book is fully 
bound \ but bmiks may soiiietiines be only 
sewed and tiave a paper cover, when they 
are said to be sewed : sumetimes the 
boards aj-e covered with paper only, when 
tliey are said to be in boards ; and soiuti- 
tiines they have a leather covering on the 
back, extending a siiiali way over each 
side, when they are said to be hall bound. 
B0C)K-KI:EI'I.N'G. The arl of keeping 
arcniiiit«,or recording the inercantiie wum 
aclioiisof aman,so that he may thoriMtt;lily 
know the whole state of his alli»frs, or any 
part of them, with ease and despatch 
Accounts may oe kept either by single or 
double entry ; the former of which may 
answer the purpose where the dealings are 
on a small scale, but merchants, whose con- 
cerns are extensive, keep their books accor- 
ding tothe double entry, or Italian method 
In single entry two books only are wanted, 
namely, a Journal, or day book, in which 
the transactions of the day, am they occur 
in the course of business, are entered ;and 
the ledger, or post book, in which all the 
accounts drawn out of the journal are 
placed under the proper name, either on 
the debtor or creditor side. Those who 
keep their accounts by double entr>> have 
occasion for several books, the three prin- 
cipal of which are, the waste book, the 
journal, and the ledger. Tlie waste booK 
is a book containing an inventory of a 
merchant's effects and debts, with a dis- 
tinct record of all his dealings. The act of 
placing any transaction under a given ac- 
count is called the entry ; if placed on the 
[)r. or debtor's side, it is debiting the 
account : if placed on the Cr. or creditor's 
side, it is crediting. The waste book opens 
witli the inventory, which consists of two 
parts ; namely, in the first place, of a man's 
effects, and what is due to him ; and in 
the next place, what is due by him. .After 
the inventory follow the daily transactions 
as they occur in business. The accounts of 
persons are debited under their respective 
names when they become indebted to the 
merchant, and credited when the merchant 
becomes indebted to them. Accounts of 
property are debited when they come into 
his possession, and credited when they go 
out of it. In the same manner the accounts 
of profit and loss are kept, which are de- 
bited on account of a loss, and credited on 
account of a gain. Those marked Dr. are 
placed on the left side, and those marked 
(^r. on the ii|iposite side, marked OmtraCr 
7*his hook should conuun tlie names of per 



54 



BOO 



•one irith whom the merchant deals, the 
euudiliuns of bargains, the terms of pay- 
Dieiit, the quantity, quality, and prices of 
g(H>dj, with every other particuhir neeiiriil 
t<) be recorded. 'J"he journal, or day IxMik, 
ia intermediate between the wiinte hook 
and the ledger, wherein the tran^^.ictionit 
recorded in the waste book are prepared 
to be carried to the ledger, by having the 
prsper debtors and creditors ascertained 
aiid placed in order. In tlie journal, per- 
son.s end thingsare debtors to other persons 
and things as creditors, and in this it agrees 
with the ledger, hut in other re9|»ects it 
agrees witli the wiiste book. Every case 
or transaction entered into the journal is 
called a journal post, or entrance. The 
ledger is the principal book, in which all 
the several articles of each particular ac- 
count that lie scattered in other books, 
according to their several dates, are col- 
lected and placed together in such manner 
that the opposite parts of every account 
are directly set fronting one dnother, on 
opposite sides of the same folio ; that is to 
say, the debtor, or d-btor part, is entered 
on the left or debtor side of its own account, 
where it is charged debtor to the creditor 
part ; and the creditor, o» creditor part, is 
posted to the right or creditor side of its 
account, and made creditor hy the debtor 
part. Hence it is that the Italian method 
of book-keeping is said to he by doulile 
entry, because every single case of the 
>v:i.ste hook requires to l)e entered twice in 
the ledzer, that is, once for llie debtor and 
mice for the creditor. In addition to the 
above three books, most merchants have 
several other books, as the cash book, 
which Contains in debtor and creditor all 
the ca.sh that comes in and goes out ; the 
debt book, in which are entered all sums 
tha« become due, either to lie received or 
paid, by bills of exchaiiL'e, notes of hand, 
tc. ; besides this, some merchants require 
• book of invoices, a book of coiiiniissions, 
a bi«)k of orders or advices, &c. according 
to the nature of their tran.s:ictions. 

BOOKSELI.F.R. One who deals or 
trades in bonks, particularly one who sells 
the bonks printed liy olliers. as ili.stin- 
Buished from the publisher, who sells the 
bo ks, that are printed on his tiwii account. 
7'iie bookselling business ha^ iitw-iysheld a 
liieherrank than any other rominon trade ; 
sndon the continent, as at '•'uhineen,!*alls- 
bnrs;, and Paris, booksellers class with the 
members of the learned professions, and 
have the privileges of ititdenis .it the iinl- 
versily. f)i (he Inrr.Kluclioii of prinrins, 
the hook«ell.-r. pniiier. and scholar were 
oiif iiid tlic >aiiir iifiMiji. 



BOR 

HOOKWORM A little ifiject whiell 

breeds and eats holes in books, esiieciall) 
when damp. 

KOOiM. A sea term, for a long (lole to 
extend the bottoms of particular sails as 
tlie jih Immuii, studding sail boom. 'J'he 
hooin of a harlxmi a strong iron chain 
thrown across a haroour, to prevent tli« 
entrance of an enemy. 

BOOH. Properly, a peasant , particu 
larly applied to the rude peasantry of 
Russia. 

BOOT OF A COACH The space un 
derneath between the coachman and the 
body of the coach. 

BOOTES. A northern constellation, con- 
sisting of fifty -four stars, according to Mr 
F'lamstead. 

BORACIC ACID. An acid drawn from 
lionix by combustion. 

BOR.AX. A substance dug out of wells 
in Thibet, and imported from India. It 
is sometimes in the form of solid grains, 
sometimes in large crystals, enclosed in a 
fatty matter. 

BORDER, or BORDURE. An ordinary 
in Heraldry, so called because it borders 
round, and as it were hems in the held 
Borders are charged with things natural 
and artificial, in the same manner as the 
field 







BORDERERS. Those who lived on the 
borders of England and Scotland, and were 
formerly engaged in perpetual host ilhie^. 
. BORE. The hollow of a piece of ord 
nance. 

BORE-COLE, or CunLED Colewort 
A hardy sort of kale, which Is improved 
by the frost. 

BORER. A piercer, or instrument to 
born holes with. 

BORI.NG. The method of piercing the 
earth in search of minerals. 

BOROUr.H. From the Oerman burg, 
it formerly signified a fenced town, hut in 
England is now taken for any corporate 
town that is not a city, and that sends 
memliers to parliament: in Scotland there 
are still royal burghs, or boroughs, that are 
held of the king. Rotten Boroughs, are 
ancient towns, with the privilege of send- 
ina members to I'nrliainent, whnh are 
nt.w r>-.'ii.ed, and have but a few prr»,.M 
liviii>: III thuin 



BOT 

BOKOU<Hr-EN<;i.lSH. A customary 
Ascent of land in suint pl:ict:a U> the 
younger boms. 

HUS. Tlie generic nunie in tlie Linn.-ean 
■VMtem for iill ;inini:ils or llie ox tribe, as 
ttie bisun, butUiloe, coniinun ox, musk ox, 

ii.C. 

liOTANY. The science which teaches 
the knii\vleili;e nf plants, as to their dis- 
ci'iniinating i liara tt-rs, structure, growth, 
cuT.ure, diseii>«;s,aii<f llieiike. I'lanlsare 
disliiigiiislied inio n.>(ural orders, an trees, 
file stems of which send I'ortll brunciies 
I'nim the iniddl'' and top : shrubs, the stems 
of whicli send fortli branches from tlie 
bottom : iiiidershrubs, when the stems of 
tiie shrubs perlsli: herbs, which bear dowers 
and seeds, and tlieii die ; if tliey die at the 
end of one year they are called annuals, if 
at the end of two years biennials, if they 
last three or more years they are perennials: 
fungi are lleshy, coriiiceous, or woody: 
alg.c, or seaweeds, have neither stems nor 
leaves: mosses, which have only leaves 
and fruit: ferns, that never send forth more 
tliaii one leaf on a footstalk : grasses, 
which are distinguished by their stem, 
which is a ciilni or straw : lilies, whicJi 
have a tuberous or bulbous root : palius, 
which have an arboreous stem, from which 
the leaves grow, anil not the branches. 

The parts of plants are distinsuished 
generally into the root, the stem, the bud, 
the leaf, the inflorescence, and the frucliti- 
cation. The root is the part throU{;h which 
the plant derives nourisliiuent from the 
earth ; a plant is either annual, biennial, or 
Iterennial, according to tiie time that the 
root hists. Roots are sometimes c:Uled 
jtesky, when they consist of a tleshy pro- 
longation ; fihroiui, when they consist of 
tn my fibrtms prolongations ; tuherou.^, 
when they consist of a thick tteshy sub- 
stance, as the potatoe ; bulboii.-i, when they 
consist of a bulb or fleshy body, provided 
with several coats, as the imum or the lily ; 
grnnitioferf, when they have a cluster of 
little bitths, as in the saxifrage ; creeping, 
when they have a horizontal prolongation 
of the root growing under the earth, and 
MMiding forth new plants of its kind, as 
cone ligrass. 

The stem is the pridongatum of the plant 
aiiiive the soil, proceeding from the root. 
The woody stem of trees is the trunk ; that 
which is herbaceous is the slalk, and be- 
hitigs only to herbai'eiiiis iilants ; but the 
■t:Uk of cnisses, rushes, and similar plants, 
ia called the culm ; and when the slalk 
l»ears flowers and friits immediately from 
Jhe riiil, and not leaves, it is a sra|ie. as 
In ti.9 primrose nn<l cowslip ; the sialic 
C* 



BOT 



fie 



which springs from tlie stem or branche*. 
bearing the (lower and fruit, is ilie (wdim 
cle or tlower slalk ; thai which bears the 
leaf only i.-^ the |>euole, or focitsiiilk. 

The bud is that part of the plant which 
C(Uitains the embryo of the leaves, flowers, 
.^c, and serves .us their liyt>ernaculum, or 
winter receptacle. The bud is guarded by 
scales, and furiiislied with ^nm, or wo. I, 
as an additi(mal defence. The moss bud 
Is a rouinlish longish body , proceeding from 
the m.itlier plant, and becoming itself a 
new one ; the gongyliis is a knob t»elong 
ing to the seaweed, which falls oti on the 
death of the inotlier plant, and becomes a 
new one. 

I'he leaf is the herbaceous production 
from the ii^cendjiig stenij when the stalk 
and leaf are so intimately connected I hat 
they cannot be distinguished, tins is culled 
a frond, as in the p:ilins and the alga;. To 
the leaf belong several ap))endages, which 
serve either for ornament or some specific 
use, as the bractea, or floral leaf, that 
stands near or between the flowers, form- 
ing a tuft, as in the pineapple; the stipiila, 
a small leaf that appears on the stem, in 
the place of a fooLstalk; the sheath, a pro- 
longation of the leaf that rolls itself round 
the stem, its in gr^tsses; the ascidinm, or 
bottle, a fuliaceoHscylindrical h(dlovv body, 
which is generally furnished witliacnver, 
andcontains water; the ampulla, or bla<ldfr, 
a roitnd hollow body at the roots uf water 
idaiits; the gland, a round body situated 
ou the leaves, which serves as an organ or 
respiraticm; Uie spine, or thorn, that rises 
in the interior of the plant, ns in the sloe-, 
the aculeus, or prickle, that issues from the 
hark; the cirous clasper, or tendril, a fili- 
form body which serves to support weak 
plants, as in tlie vine. Sec; the arista, oi 
awn, a pointed l>eard in grasses; the piti, 
hairs, finesleniler bodies, which include all 
kinds of pubescence, as bristles, wool, io. 
some of which discharge a poison, as in the 
nettle. 

The inflorescence is the mode of flower- 
ing, which differs very much in diflTerenl 
plants, and is distinguished intoverticilliis, 
the whorl, whichconsists of several flowers, 
slandiiuiat intervals, surrnundingthpstein, 
as in the mint; the racemns, the raceme, 
a (tedniicle with short lateral branches, as 
inthecurranland the vine,&c.; tliecorym- 
hus, or corymb, an erect raceme, the lower 
peduncles of which are so lengthened as to 
be of eiiual height with the upper; when 
the peduncles take llieir rise from the same 
centre, but the subdivisions are irregular, 
it is a cyme; when the (tediiiicles ris« 
from the same centre, but llie whole it 



66 



BOTANY. 



dlsfHiseii In regular order, It is an umbel-, 
the capilulum has many flowers, standing 
'hick, so as to form a head, as in the globe- 
amaranth; the fasciculus, fascicle or bundle, 
a number of simide peduncles rising at the 
frot of the stem from several points, as in 
tJie sweelwilliam; the spica, or ear, as in 
wheat and barley; the panicula, or pani- 
cle, in which the flowers or fruits are 
scattered on branches unequally divided, 
as in the oat grass; the spadix, so called 
from the apadix vagina, or sheath, which 
contains the flower siftlks; the unienlum, 
or catkin, a long stem thickly covered 
with scales, under which are the flowers 
or essential parts, as in the willow and 
hazel; the sorus, or m<x«s, an inflorescence 
peculiar to the ferns, which have niiisses 
of seed capsules in their fronds. 

The friictitication consists of the flower 
mut the fruit. The principal parts of the 
flower are, 1. The calyx, or tlowercap, or 
eMvelo|>e of green leaves, which, when it 
immediately encloses the flower, is a peri- 
anth; when it contains many flowers in 
one is an anthodium; when it consists of 
many leaves surrounding the flower, as in 
iimltelliferous plants, is an involucre. The 
calyx of grasses is called the glume; when 
it rolls itself round the stem, as in some 
grasses, it is called the vagina, or sheath; 
and in some aquatic plants the spatlia, or 
spathe. 2. The coiolla, or blossom, the 
envelope of small leaves of various colours 
which constitute the flower properly so 
called; the divisions of the corolla are 
called the [>etals; the parts of the corolla 
are the tubus, the tube, the hollow under- 
part of a corolla that has but one petal; 
liinbus, the border or opening of the co- 
rolla; labia, the lips; barba, the beard; 
rictus, tl|e gape between the extremities of 
the lipe;,,faux, the throat or the opening of 
the tube; nectarium, the nectary, which 
commonly serves to secrete a sweet juice; 
this is sometimes in the sha|>e of a hood, 
and is called the cucullus, or hood, as in 
the aconite or monkshood; sometimes in 
the shape of a spur, called calcar, as in the 
violet; also in that of an arch, a crown, 
fcc. 3. The stamen is an essential part of 
the flower, which consists of the flinment 
itrthiead that supports theaullier; anthen, 
the anther, a hollow cetlular body; and 
pollen. Die tM>wder or fine dust contained 
in I be anilirr. 4. The pistil, the second 
e»,*pnii:il |>aU of a flowrr, stands in the 
centre of the circle formed by the stamen, 
and niMsists ifihe geriiien, the rtidiiueiits 
of the future fniil orsfed; the •'tylus, -ityle 
«rsliitfl, asni.ill s(.-\lkse:itednii Ihecerineii; 
•nd Itae stlguia, the top i>l' ihr slytK. 



The fruit proceeds fVom the cermen. and 
consists of, 1, the pericarpium. }>ericarp 
or seed ve».sel, a hard hollow body, that it 
of Uiflerent kinds, as cajKOila, a cajwule, or 
thin coat, divided into cells; a sillqua, ot 
pnd, a dry elongated i)ericarp, consirting 
of halves or valves, as in the mustard; tke 
legumen, the legume, as in the pea kind; 
nux, the nut, a pericarp covered with t 
hard shell; drupa, or drupe, a nut covereJ 
with a fleshy coat, as in the plum; bacca, 
the berry , a succulent fi uit (Hjiilain ing miiiiy 
seeds, as the goosel>erry, the curntnt, &-C 
2. 'J'he semen, or seed, that fKiilof the plant 
destined for propagati(m, cmisists of dif- 
ferent parts, as tlie cotyledones, colyledons 
orseed leaves; corciiluni, thecirdeorlittle 
heart, the germ of the new plant; hylum, 
the eye, the deep scar in the seed which 
has been occupied by the circle; plumula, 
the plumule, or that part of the circle 
which ascends to form the leaves; rostel- 
lum, the o'.'ier part of the circle, which 
descends to form the root. Besides the 
seed is furnished with Uilfereniapi>endage*, 
as ar'llus, the aril, a soft membrane ex- 
tended over the seed; pw]tpus, the down; 
Cauda, the tail; rostrum, the beak; and 
various spines, or hooks, &,c. which serve 
to attach the seeds to diflerent bodies, and 
pron)ote their dispersicm. 3. The basis, oj 
b:ise. is the receptacle or body on which 
the flower stands, the princii>al part of 
which is the thalamus, or fruit bed; when 
this is round or oblong it is called peltii, 
a target; when plateshaped, stutelta, a 
shield'; when convex, tiiberculum, &.C. 

Besides the science of botany conipre- 
hendsalsoa knowledge of plants as to their 
vegetation, anatomy, cheoiical composi- 
tion, and diseases, which uje all iiiclude< 
under the physiology of plants. 'I'he veg 
etation of plants may be distinguished into 
germination, when the seed begins to burst, 
vernation, when the buds begin to burst; 
virginity, when the flowers or buds are not 
yet unfolded; defoliation, when the leaves 
in autumn begin to fall ofl'; sleec, when 
during the night the leaves hang down; 
Eestivation, when the flower is in iierfi-e- 
tion; fructilication, when the anthers 
communicate the fructifying dust in the 
neighbouring parts. 

'I he anatomical structure of plants com 
prehends the cuticle, the cortex or outer 
hark; the liber, or inner bark; the libur- 
iiuin, or .soft wood; lignum, the wood; 
medulla, the pith; the air vessels, which 
arelhe cimdiirtcirs of the air; the nddiicent 
or spiral vessels, which pn ceed with of 
are entwined rmind the air vessels; tlie 
rediicent veoMsls, which are suppised to 



BOTANY 



61 



«rve the purpose of trnnspiratic n , tlie 
vnipliutiCK, wliicli are ri'tinilarly united; 
tie cellular texture, :i ilclicMle nieiuhnuie 
irriiiniding i>.\\ the v«-ssel*, uinl ■'(int:i>iiliig 
resiniius juice, iu> tu ilic tir iribe, and a 
guiiiuiy juice in rniii iree!<; the (jl^iiUd, 
which serve hs sum rfti^ry vessels. 

The principal diyiinciil w-.ii«titiients of 
ol.ants are carhnn. hyilrnneii, iind oxygen, 
but chiefly the former, lie.-.iile.-i which azote, 
(ulpliur, an<l oilier simii>I<' >ubstance.s, may 
be found in small qu.iiiiilie3. The princi- 
pal compound sul)!«taiices which form the 
seusibleingiedientsof plant.sare,theacid:<, 
Xiucilnge, sugar, starch, albunieu, gluten, 
fixed and volatile oil, wax, resin, ca>nphur, 

The priuci|>al diseases to which plants 
are incident are, fissures, or a separation 
of the solids into long clefts, arising from 
an extreme fulness of juice; premature 
defoliation, when the leaves fall olT before 
tlie usual period; alblgo mildew, a whitish 
mucilaginous coating of the leaves of 
plants, which causes (heir decay, rubigo, 
rust which appears on tlie leaves and stems 
of many plants; lepni, leprosy, which af- 
fects the trunk ; galbe, galls, occasioned 
by tlying insects; verruc;e, warts; besides 
heinorrage, canker, e.vulceration, &.C. 

IKiTANV, IIistoky of. As the practice 
of cultivating plants both for pleasure and 
utility was coeval with the rtrsl fonaation 
of m?ii, it is iiatunil to suppose that the 
science of botany wiut (nie of the earliest 
studies which engaged the attention of in- 
quirers. Aristotle, in his history of ani- 
mals, has many remarks on plants, draw- 
.ng a coinp,irison between their mode of 
growth and that nf animals, and pointing 
out in what animal and vegetable life agree 
and in what they differ. His disciple, 
Theophrastus, has devoted a whole work 
b his favourite subject, and has not only 
narked the distinctions between trees, 
«hrubs, herbs, and flowers, but treated of 
.he diflerent parts of plants, as the root, 
stem, leaf, and fruit; showing their diver- 
sity in form, habit, colour, mode of growth, 
and other interesting particulars, which 
he has illustrated by giving the names of 
not less than live hundred different planto, 
by way of example. Kxcejit the descrip- 
tions or allusions of the poets lo t':ivoiirite 
plants, tl:ere is nothing further to be fiuind 
on the subject of botany until the time of 
the Romans. Virsil,iii liisfJeornics.speaks 
of the uses and culture of several pants 
connected withlmsbandry. Pliny, In his 
Natural llisfory,descritie.s nottessilianone 
thousand s|>'cies of plants, Dul without any 
other order than in connexion with the 



I places where they were iiMigeiiuus. \a 
I tonius Musa desciibes the virtues of Ui* 
I plant betoiiy. Columella treats of plantwis 
an agricultural pointofview. Dioscorides, 
(jaleii, Dinbivsiris, I'aulus ^geneta, and 
Arliiis iiave described the lucdiciiial vir- 
tues of plants niurli at large. After tlies* 
writers the snlijeit of botany appeaiii to 
have been almost, torgotten, otherwise 
than it Wits pursued by the .Arabians in 
conjunction with the scieme of medicine 
In Kiirope, at least, we fiud that it w.as 
altogether neglected until the sixteeii'ti 
ceiitiiiy,wheii a number ofbolanislssjiriKig 
up ill Germany, Kngland, Holland, Italy, 
and Krance, who, as their works testily 
prosecuted the subject with great zeiil 
I'rosper Alpiims wrote several b(K>ks on 
the plants of t^gypt and other exotica. 
Clusius, a French botanist, wrote on the 
rarer kind of plants. Many other botanlits 
in this and the following centuries wr(>te 
general histories of the plants whirli ciinie 
within their observation, particular.y Ctt- 
saipinusin his work L)e Plantis, libri xvi.; 
Delechamp, in his Historia Generalis I'laii- 
tarum; J. Bauhin, in his Historia I'lan- 
tarum; C. Bauhin, in his I'hytopiiiax; 
Gerarde, in his Herbal; Parkinson, in his 
1'heatrum llotanicum; Ray, in his Historiii 
Plantarum; Comnielinus, in his Hortus 
Malabariciis; 1'ournefort, in liis Inctitu 
ticmes Kei Herbaria; Boerliaave, in his 
Index alter Plaptariim Horti Academiei 
Lugduni; Vaillant, in his Botanicon Par- 
isiense; besides Fiichsius, IMatthiolus, l)od-> 
ona.Mis, Cainerarius, Bregnius, lUieedius, 
Briinfels, Plukenet, Plumier, ice. 

Caisalpinus, in the sixteenth centiirv, 
was the first who prn|>erly systeniati/.ed 
botany He formed fifteen cliusses from 
the fruit and the situation of the corciiliim 
Since his time many systems have been 
formed from different parts of I lie plai<ts 
Ray chose Ihe flower, fruit, aiul external 
appearance of the plants fur the fuuiiila 
tion of his system. Camellus framed i 
system from the valves (>•" the cajisiile 
calling his classet uericarpia fora, uiii- 
fora, bifora, &.c. Riviniis selected flia 
corolla, dividins the plants into Mores regu- 
lares, compositiB, and irregular>*s, and 
these again into monopetali, dipetali. &c 
llaller formed a natural system from the 
cotyledons, the calyx, the corolla, the 
stamina, ami the sexes of the plants ; but 
Ihe system most generally adopted before 
the time of Linii.i;U8 was that of Tourne- 
fort. He divided plants into lierba' et 
sufrrntices, arbores et frulices, and tlie»» 
again into herbs floribns uionopetalu, 
canipaniformibus,infundebili>iirniilius Alt 



18 



BOT 



BOTANY. In the classification of the 
botanical nomenclature there are two 
princiijal systems — the sexual or artifli- 
cial one ot Linuajus, aud that of Jussieu, 
which is according to the natural order 
of plants. The lannsean system is 
founded on the number, situation, and 
proportion of the essential organs of 
fru-^tiflcation, denominated stamens aud 
pistils. The names of the classes and 
orders are of Ureek derivation, aud al- 
lude to the functions of the respective 
orders. Thus the vegetable kiugdom is 
divided by that great naturalist into 24 
classes, of which 2:i belong to flowering, 
and 1 to flowerless plants. The first 
eleven classes are distinguished entirely 
by the number of stamens, which are 
OAlled Mouandria, Diandria, Triandria, 
&c., as far as Dodecandria, from the 
Greek words one, two, three, &c. com- 
bined with male (andria), because the 
stamens of flowers are compared to 
males, and the pistils to females. Hence 
the orders, as far as Polygynia, are de- 
nominated Mouogynia, Digyuia, Trigy- 
nia, &c., according as the flower has one 
or more pistiLs; so called from the 
Greek wane (one), and gune (a female). 
Thus the jasmine, having two stamens, 
and one pistil, is placed in the second 
class of the first order of that class, or 
Diandria Mouogynia. The following is 
a summary of the 24 classes, which owe 
their distinctions chiefly to the stamens 
and pistels: 1. Monandria, one stamen. 
— 2. Diandria, 2 stamens. — 3. Triandria, 
three. — 1. Totraiidia, four. — 5. Pentan- 
dria, five. — 6. Hexandria, six. — 7. Hep- 
tandria, seven. — 8. Octandria, eight. — 9. 
Euueandria, nine. — 10. Decandria, ten. — 
11. Dodecandria. twelve. — 12. Icosan- 
dria, twenty or more stamens, inserted 
into the calyx. — 13. Poly andria, all above 
twenty inserted into the receptacle. — 14. 
Didynamia, four stamens, two long and 
two short, — 15. Tetradynamia, six stam- 
ens, four li ng and two short. — 16. Mon- 
adelphia, the stamens united into the 
bodies by the filaments. — 17. Diadelphia, 
the stamens united into the bodies by 
the filaments.— 18. Polyadelphia, the 
stamens united into three or more bodies 
by the filaments. — 19. Syugenesia, an 
thers united into a tube". — 20. Gj'uan- 
dria, stamens inserted either upon the 
style or germen. 21. Moncecia, stamens 
and pistils in separate flowers, but on 
the same plant.— 22. Dioecia, stamens 
and pistils, like the former, in separate 
flowers, but on two separate plants. — 
23. Polygamia, stamens aud pistils sep- 
arate in some flowers, united in other.*", 
either on one, two, or three distinct 
plants.— 24. Oyptogamia, stamens and 
piBtils either not well ascertained, or 
not to be numbered with certainty. 

The Natural System of Plants, as de- 
vised by Jussieu and De Candolle dif- 
fers most materially from the Linuasan 
System ; it takes into consideration the 
•aUre ori;aiuzation of the plant, witli 



BOW 

its prox)ertie8 and peculiar habits. The 
most striking genus of a tribe of i)lanta 
gives name to the order; as, lor in- 
stance, the Rose ( Latin rosa), forms the 
type of the natural order llo.sacese; and 
the Violet, that of the order Violacese. 
In this manner Jussieu divided the 
whole vegetable kingdom into 1.5 cla.sses, 
and the genera into 100 orders, but 
which number has been gradually in- 
creasing with the progress of discovery. 

In the Natural System the vegetable 
world has been classified under two 
grand divisions — theVasculares and the 
t'lllulares; and these again divided into 
classes and sub-clasFCS, 

Vasculares. Class 1. Dycotyledons or 
Exogens. The plants of this class have 
siems consisting of concentric layers, 
formed by external annual additions, 
and are composed of vascular and cellu- 
lar tissue; the flowers are furnished 
with male and female organs of repro- 
duction, called stamens and pistils. 
Class II. Monocotyledons or Endogens. 
The stems of this class are formed by 
the addition of new fibres to the in tenor 
of the stem already formed; flowers 
sexual, the seed consisting of one coty- 
ledon. 

Cellulares. Class 1. Semi-vasculares. 
Plants having vessels as well as cellular 
tissue; the stems are increased by 
simple elongation; the leaves veined 
and forked; the sexual organs distinct 
and visible nnder the microscope only. 
Class II. The Agamas are plants which 
increase by elongation or irregular ex- 
pansion of their parts, and are wholly 
composed of cellular tissue, showing, 
under the microscope, no sexual organs 
whatever. These consist of the Fungi, 
Mosses, Lichens, Hepaticas or Liver- 
worts, and Algae. The Dicotyledons are 
divided into four sub classes — the Thal- 
amiflorie, Calyciflorse, CorolUfloroe, and 
Mouochlamydeje. 

BOULDERS. In geology, fragments of 
rock embedded in diluvial deposits; 
sometimes found lying on the surfice 
of the ground, and bearing marks of 
abrasion and transport. Boulder for- 
mations are deposits of clay, gravel,A;c., 
containing fragments of triturated rock. 

BOW. A sea term, for an instrument 
fixed on a staflT, with vanes, for taking the 
sun's altitude at sea ; also llie rounding 
parts of the ship's side, distuiguished l»y 
the st<irboard and leeboard iiitotlie weatliei 
and lee bow. 

BOW. The name of several things 8a 
called from their curved figure, as tlie l»<)» 
of a key, the arclied part to receive the 
finger ; the liow of a saddle, the piece ol 
wood on each side, laid archwise to receive 
the upi»er pan of a horse's back , bow 
of a violin, the ri>iinii stick t'nrnishfcd with 
hair, with wImcIi tli»- (lerfurnier plays. 

BOW An instrument for bJtootiQ| 



BRA 

ArioXTS. The long bow, the favourite of 
the Kiigli.sh army in former times, is 
simply a bow with a string fixed at each 
end, to wliicU the arrow w.is apfilied. It 
i&used with great dexterity by tlie Tartars 
«f Aaia, and the savages of America 



BRE 



69 




BOWSPRIT. A mast projecting over 
the stem or head to carry the sail forward. 

BOW'YEIt. A bowmaker ; the bowyers 
are one of the city companies in Ix>ndon. 

BOX. Any ca^Je of wood, iion, or leather, 
which serves for conveying or keeping 
things. 

BO.X. A plant, which is of two kinds ; 
namely, the dwarf box that is used fur 
iMiiderx in gardens, and the box tree, which 
is a shrub or tree. The wood of this is 
velliiw and hard. 

B. II. In England, an abbreviation for 
Bancus Itegis, the Court of King's Bench. 

BRACK. Wliat holds a thing tight, iis 
the braces of a drum ; in Carpentry, n 
pier*" of timber which serves to keep the 
frame work tight ; in Printing, a cr(H>ked 

line marked thus ! which serves to enclose 

words that are to be together. 

BRACELET. An ornament for the arm 
ar wrist ; also a piece of defensive armour 
for the arm. 

BRACIIMAXP, or BRAMINS. The 
prie<ts or philosophers among the IlindiKts; 
S" called from their god Braliniu, to whose 
worship they devote themselves. 

BRACK r.T. A kind of stay in the form 
ofa knee,or shoulderson which shelves are 
made to rest ; also in Shipbuilding, a kind 
of knee for the siip|)ort of the gratings. 

BRADS (amonc Artificers). A kind of 
nails used in building, which have no heads 
like other nails, as Joiners' brads, flooring 
brads, batten brads. 

BllAlN The 8o(\ contents of he cra- 



nium or skull, consisting of the cerebium 
cerebellum, and medulla oblongata, whict 
are surrounded by three membranes, called 
meninges, or mats, as the duni mater, pia 
mater, and arachnoides. The substance of 
the bruin is distinguished into outer and 
inner; the fnrnier is called corticalis, cene- 
rea, or glandulusa -, the latter, medullaris, 
alba, or nervea. It is gener.ally supposed 
to be the seat of the soul, or that part 
where all the senses terminate. 

BRAN, 'i'he husk of ground wheat. 

BRANCH. A shoot from the main bough 
of a tree ; also several things similar in 
figure, as the antlers or shoots of a stag's 
horn ; the branches of veins, branches of a 
river, branches of a bridle, that is, the two 
pieces of bended iron that bear the bit- 
mouth, the chains, and the curb. 

BR.\NCHI^. Gills in the anatomy of 
fishes, organs of respiration answering to 
the lungs in other animals, with which all 
fishes are provided, except the cetaceous 
trit)e and the lamprey. They are eight in 
number, and serve the fish to lake in, and 
throw out water with the air. 

BRANCHIOSTEOIOIJS. An order of 
fishes in the Linniean system, including 
such as have gills without lM>ny rays, as 
the pipe fish, sucker, frog fish, &.c. 

BRANDV. A spirituous and inflamma- 
ble liquor, made from the lees of wiiu^ by 
disfill!iti(m. Its constituent parts are wa- 
ter, alcohol, and a little nil or resin. Bran- 
dy is said to have been first ntanufactured 
in l.ananedoc 

BRANT-FOX, A sort of black and red 
fox. 

BRASIL WOOn. A .sort of wood so 
(lenominated becatise, as js supposed, it 
was first lirought from Brasil. It is red and 
heavy, so as to sink in water, takes a 
goo<l polish, and yields beautiful orange 
and red colours, which are used by dyers. 
When chewed it has a sweetish taste. 

BRASS. A factitious con)(>ound inetal, 
of a vHlow colour, consisting of copfter 
and about one third of iis weight of y.Inc 

BRAWN. The muscular or fleshy part 
of the body, particularly th.it of the boar. 

BREACH. A gap made in the works 
of a town by the besiegers. 

BREACH (in Law). The violation of a 
contract ; breach of pound, is the break- 
ing any place where cattle are distrained , 
breach of prison, an escajw by breaking 
out of prison. 

BREAD. A light, porous, spongy sub- 
stance, prepared by fermentation and 
baking, from the flour of wheat, rye, or 
barley. Wheaten bread is distinguished 
into while bread, which is made of the 



70 



BRG 



finest flour, and lirowii bread, of flour liiiv- 
ing some of the bran m il. 

BllKAJ) FRIHT-I KliE Tlie autocar- 
pus of LiniiiEUs, a tree gr .wing in some 
of the Oceanic islands, so ciilled because 
the fruit, which is milky and pulpy, sup- 
plies the place of bread to the inliubilants. 
Tbu tree grows lo tlie tieiglit of forty feet. 




BREAK. A sea tenn, for that part of 
a deck where tne desctnt to the next deck 
below it, commeuceii-, in Printing, the short 
line which ends a paiagraph. 

nilEAKERS. BilU.ws that break vio- 
ently over rocks tlisi lie under the surface 
of the sea. 

BREAKING GROUND. A military 
term, for o|)ening the trenches and be- 
ginning th<! works for a siege. 

BREAKING IN 'Jlie discipline of flrst 
training a rolt to ) i useful. 

BREAKVVATi"..l. The hull of a vessel 
or any erection of wood or stone, placed 
at the entrance o>. a harhnur to break the 
force of the wa.te', such as the I reak wa- 
ter lately erecti d in Plyinouth r^ound, 
England, and ih .t in Delaware Bay. 

ilREA.M. A ( «h of the carp kind, that 
grows f;ist f.m' lias a broad body, 'riic 
Bea Bream, ot'^/ rwise called tbe lied iJili 
Head, is a Silt, of a red colour, with tlie 
iris s\*very 




BRSaBT. The anterior part of the 
::oTax. 

BRLXSTFAPT. A sea term, for the 
4rge rope employed to confine a ship 
jideways to a wharf or rpiay. 

URi:\STI'l,\ I'E. A piece i.f defensive 
artnniir worn on Hie bre:isl ; in Ihirseiiian- 
■hip, a tcitherii xlmp niiiiiini! frxiii one 



BRl 

side of the saddle, across the horse's breast 
to the other, to keep il in lis place. 

BREAST I'LOUUIl. A sort of plough 
which is driven forward by the bre.ist, 
and is used in England in pjuingolf turf 
from the land. 

BREA.STU'ORK. A military term, foi 
works thrown uji as high as the breast of 
the beslegeil ; a sea term, for the balus 
trade of the quarter deck. 

BRECCIA, or l'uooi»o-«Toi«i:. A sort 
of aggregate earth, consisting of frapmenls 
of stones conglutiiialed. The beautiful 
pillars in the Representatives Hall in the 
Capitid at Washington are of this st'.iie. 

BKEECil. The hinder part tif t gun, 
from the cascabel to the b<"-e ; also a sea 
term, for the angle ol Knee timber iii a 
ship. 

BREEDING. That part of husbandry 
which consist!^ in the rearing of cattle of 
live stock of ditferent kinds, particularly 
by crossing or mingling one species oi 
variety with another, so as lo improve the 
breed. 

BRES.SUMMER A binding interstice 
or girder lo different parts of a house. 

BREVET. A military term, for pro- 
motion in the army without addliiiuial 
pay. 

BREVIARY. A bot)k containing »!■<, 
daily service of the Romish cliiirch. 

BREWING. The art of making ma 
liquor, such as ale, beer, porter, &.r,. which 
much resembles the process nf making tea 
The proper ingredients used in brewing are 
malt, hops, and water, in cerlain prcpnr- 
tions, according to the required strenclh nf 
the liquor. Eicliteeii gallons <ifg<iiid air and 
nine gallons of table beer iii^iy be drawn 
from a bushel and a half of malt -, but lo 
make strong beer only six sriillims are 
reckoned lo one bushel of malt. Among 
the pernicious and unlawful iiisredimts 
used by brewers are an exir:irl i>f the 
cociilus liidiciis, hartshorn sImv lugs, iiin 
ger, .'-'p:inish juice, orange |«iW(lcr liquit 
rice, caraway seeds, and siilphiirir iiiid. 

ItRlliKRV. The receiving of any re- 
ward or gill for corrupt purposes. 

BRICK, .'^n artificial kind of stniic, 
eomposed of clay,' coal ashes, and sand, 
lily mincled together, dried by the sun 
and hardened by llie lire. Bricks are 
distinguished, arcording to their quality, 
into marls and stocks, which latter are 
either gray or red, according to the co oui 
of the earth. 

BRICKLAYER. One whose trade is to 
build with brinks. 

BRIDGE. AiUriicture raised overrivt-rs, 
&.C. and consisi iiig of one or more ari'l>/-« 



DRI 

**he prlnripal |v<rt.s of a liriiiRe are .lie 
pii-rs, or walls, limit for tlie .sii|i|iiirt i>l tlie 
arches; llie |Kir.i|)el, or breaslutill, iii;iile 
III protect the piissienaers, the li:iiii|iiet, 
piiveiiietit, or niised fmUpath, and the ulxit- 
meiiM or extremities of the hrld^e, which 
rest on the banks. The |irinci|ial arches 
employed in bndgt building are Ihose of 
tlieseniicircularorellipiira. form, the cate- 
na -ian arch, and the arch of ei|ndibnuin, 
wj ich last is ei^I.-eined to be tlie best, be- 
cause it IS e<|ually strong in every part. 



Z-^'. 




BRIDGE. A military term, for any 
contrivance by which soldiers can cross a 
river, as a bridge of boats, formed by 
boats joined sidewav s, and covered with 
planks; or a bridge of rushes, formed of 
bundles of rushes bound fast togellier and 
covered with planks, r'uch temporary 
bridges are called tlyiiig bridges. 

I!K11m;e:. The name of several thiiii's 
similar in figure to a bridge, as the bridge 
of the nose, the gristle which part.s the 
nostrils; the bridge in a violin, &c. the 
perpendicular arch which siippiirts the 
strings; the bridge, ninong Cuiiiieis, is the 
name for the two pieces of limber whii:h 
go between the transiims of a gun carriage 
on wliicli the bed rests. 

HRIDLK. A pan of the furniture of a 
horse's head, which serves to guide Ihe 
aiiim.-tl. The principal parts are the bitt, 
or sii:«lfle, wliich goes into the hoixe's 
mouth; the curb, or chain of iron, that 
runs over the beard of Ihe horse; the head- 
stall, or leather that goes rminil Ihe lieail; 
the fillet, that lies over the forehead; the 
throatband, that goes iindei thelliront; and 
the reins, which serve foi the rider. 

HRIF.P (in Law) An abridgment of a 
client's case, made out for the insiriiction 
of cnunifc'i on a trial at law; also a license 
in England to make collections for repair- 
ing cilurches, losses by (ire, &c. 'I'his last 
sort of brief is now abolished by statute. 

BRIEF (in .Music). .A measure of ipian- 
tily, which contains two slnikes down in 
beating time, and as many up. 

HISK; a siiiuII merchant's vessel with 
two masts. 

HRKJADE. A militnry lerm, for a 
oartv or div isiuh ^fai'liliers, whether horse 



BRO 71 

or fool, uiidet the command iif a briga- 
dier. 

BRIGA.NTIXK. A small light vessel, 
which can both row and sail well, being 
ad:iptcu either for hghting or for chaM 




BRLMSTONE. The vulgar name for 
sulphur. 

BRINE. Water impregnated with salt 

BRISKET. That jKirt of the breast of 
an animal that lies nearest the ribs. 

BRISTLE. The hair of swine, which ia 
much used by briishmakers, particularly 
that imported from Russia 

BRISTOL HOT WATER. Mineral 
waters of the lowest temperature of any in 
England, the constituent parts of which are 
carbonic acid, gas, lime, and ina^iiiesia, 
besides the muriatic and vitriolic acids 

BRITA.N.MA. The name given by the 
Romans to the island of Hrilain, which is 
represented on their medals under the 
tiaiire of a female resting her let\ arm tm 
a shield. Also a species of ware made of 
block tin. 

liROADSinE. A sea term, for a dis- 
charge of all the cunson one side of a ship 

BROADSWORD. A sword with a 
broad blade, chiefly designed for cutting. 

BROCADE. A kind of stuff or cloth of 
gold. 

BROCOLI. An Italian plant of the 
cauliflower kind. 

BR<V;UE. A defective pronunciation 
of a language, parlicularly applied to the 
Irish manner of speaking English. 

BROKE.V LETTER. A term in Print- 
ing for the breakins Hit- orderly -piccesyjun 
ill which the biier- siinul in a line or |>age, 
and minding them injiellier. 

BR< IK ER. ' >iie who cniicliides bargain* 
or roniracis for MUTrliaiils, as excliunge 
brokers, shiji brokers, ,tc. 

RRi iK El! ACE. V\'hat is paid to a brok.«r 
for his iruiible. 



72 



BUD 



BROMB GRASS. A sort of grass much 
resembling ttie oHt; whence it has also 
teen called oat grass. 

BRO.NZE. A mixed metal, composed 
principally of copper, with a small portion 
Bftin and other metals. 

BRONZING 'I'lie art of varnishing 
Wood, plaster, and ivory, so as to give them 
the colour of bronze. 

BROOCH. A collar of gold formerly 
worn abciut the necks of ladies. 

BROO.M. A rli.weri;'i; sliruh, having a 
papilionaceous Hower, (Vhich becomes a 
short roundisli swelling pod, containing a 
kidney shaped seed in each. 

BROO.M. A besonmvhich in England is 
frequently made of the hrooni shrub and 
•erves for sweeping a house 

BR LIT A. The second order of animals 
oflhe class mammalia in the L.nniean 
system, comprehending those animals 
which have tio fore teeth in either jaw, as 
bradypus, the sloth; mynycopliaga, the 
ant-eater; rhinoceros, the rhiuocerus; eie- 
yhas, the elephant, &c. 

BRUTE-WKIOHT. A term employed 
when merchandises are weighed with the 
cases, &.C. in distinction from the net 
weight. 

BUBBLE. A bladder in water, ora vesi- 
cle filled with air; also a cheating pmject, 
iuch as the South Sea bubble in 1720, and 
nnmerouB projects of a similar character 
which have been set afloat within the last 
few years, to the ruin of many. 

BUCCANEERS. A general name for 
the pirates, who used to make war on the 
Spaniards in their West India posses- 
f'ons. 

BUCK. A male deer of the fallow kind; 
also a male rabbit. 

BUCKET. A kind of pail made of 
leather. 

BUCKLE. A fastening for « shoe, or 
the harness of ahorse, by means of an iron 
tongue within a hoop. 

BUCKLER. An ancient piece of defen- 
sive armour, made of wicker work, and 
worn on the arm. 
BUCKRA.M. A sort of stiffened cloth. 
BUCKWHEAT, otherwise called 
Bi<A<iK. A sort of grain that is used in 
England as food for swine. It is much 
used III America for making a very palata- 
ble kind of cakes. It is also preferred for 
fattening fowls. The Mowers grow in a 
ipike, or branched from the wings of the 
leaves 

BUCOLrCS. Pastoral poems, so called 
from the niiccilica of Virgil. 

BUD. That part of a plant which con- 
tains the embryo of the leaven.Ilowers, Jfcc. 



BUL 

BtrDDH A. The name of a deity amon| 
the people of India. 

BUDDLE. .\ frame to receive the mine- 
ral ore aller It is separated from tlie coarsei 
parts. 

BUIW ET. Properly, a bag or knap|ack 
that may be easily carried; also, in Wig- 
land, the aiiinial statement of the riiiaiires 
made by the Chancellor of the Excheiiuei 
ill the House of CoiiimuiiK. 

BUFF. A sort of thick leather prepared 
from the skin of the biiftalo. 

BUKFA I.O. A wild ox a native of Af 
rica. It is domesticated in Italy and some 
other countries and used for draught. It 
has horns resupinated and tlat on the fors 
side, a tough skin, black hair, small head 
and no dewlap. 




BUFFET. A sort of cupboard for plate, 
glasses, &c. 

BUGLEHORN. A horn formerly used 
much in hunting, and now in tiie araiv 




BUILni.NG. The art of raising build- 
ings according to given designs, which ii 
properly practical architecture-, also the 
structure so raised. 

BULBOUS 
P L A N T S. The 
name of such plants 
as have a fleshy, 
scaly root, called a 
bulb, as the leek, 
onion, &.C 



BULGED. A sea term for a ship when 
she has struck off some of her limbers 
upon a rock or anchor. 

BULK. The whole contents of a ship in 
her h<dd. 

BULL The male of cattle, th« feioaU 




BUL 

o which is ca led cow ; wlien the male 

is cut be is callt'it an ox. 




BULI* A brief or mandate issued liy 
Uie I'ope, and sealed with tlie hiilla, a 
leaden or gold seal. 

nCLL-DOG. A dog of true EMfjIish 
breed, so called from his property of attack- 
ing the bull, whence he was formerly used 
ill tiie%'uel sport of bullb liting. 

BULLET. A name for the leaden halls 
with which small tire arms are loaded. 

liULLK'I'lX. In Kiirope an ofliciai ac- 
S4iunt of public iransactiiuis, or matters of 
general interest, as the state of the king's 
health, &.C. 

BULLFIXCH. A small European bird 
of a cinereous colour, havinj; its head and 
wings black, and coverts of the tail white. 
It is easily tamed, and may be taught to 
spouk. 




nULL-FROG. A remarkable species of 
Um frog in North .America, so called be- 




OMMC it.« voice: esembles the dmtant low- 
Inc .if an njr. 

BLl.l.r.tJMT A cruel .porl in ^^pain 



prrr t| 

and Portugal, where wild hulls are ea 
countered liy men on horseback. 

m'l.L-IIEAD. A sort offish, havlnf iu 
head much broader than its body. 

BULLION. Gold or silver in the maM, 
before it is wrought intu coin. 

BULL'S EVE. A mark in the shape nf 
a bull's eye, at which archers shoot by way 
of exercise. 

BULL TKOUT. A sort of salmon about 
two feet in length. 

BUM-BOAT. A sort of wherry ssegl 
about harbours, to carry provisions, &,c 
for sale, to ships lying at a distance. 

liU.N'T (a Sea Term). The middle part 
of a sail formed into a sort of bag, or hol- 
low, that the sail may gather more wir.d. 

BUNTLLNi:.-*. Small lines which serre 
to force up the bunt of the sail, for the 
better furling it up. 

BI'OV. A short piece of wood or clone 
hooped barrel fastened by a rope to the 
anchor, to point out itssituation. It is also 
a piece of wofid or cork fastened by a chain, 
serving to point out dangerous places in ui 
near a harbour 




BUPHAGA, or Bkefeaikr. A sort of 
bird of the order pica;, found in Africa. 
It is so called because it alights on the 
hacks of ca'tle, and picks holes in theinto 
get at the larva: of the gad-tly, on which 
it lives. 

BUPKESTIS. An insect of the coleop- 
terous order, remarkable for the brilliancy 
of its colours, which emulate the polish of 
the finest metals. 

BURDEN (a Sea Term). Whatever an 
be stowed in a hold, or the number of tims 
which it can carry. Beasts of burden, in 
Husbandry, are those which are fitted for 
bearing burdens, or drawing weights. 

BUIIGA(;E (in Law). In England a 
kind of tenure by which the inhabitanta 
of cities or boroughs held their lands or 
tenements of the king. 

BUllGEi*S. In England an inhabitant 
of a borough, or one who possesses a tene- 
ment therein ; it is now more commonly 
taken for the representat ve of a borougb 
town. 

BURGLAR Y (in Law,. The breaking 
and enlerliia the ilwrllins nf aiiiither in 
the niulii, with the intent to rominit .'(ome 
teloiiy, whether the felonious intent be 
put in execution or not. 

Ill liCUNUV PITCH. The juice of tto 



74 



BUT 



nr tree boiled In water, and stmined 
thrniicti ■'• linen cloil.. 

Bl'P.M.N«i-(;l..\SS. A concave or con- 
vex |fl:tss, n. nly spheri<::il, vvhiclicol- 

lectmhe rays, .lilie sun to\v:irdi' :i coniinnn 
point, calleil Uie focns. 'I'lie liurnin); !;lass 
of M. (If Villrlte was three iVel eleven 
inrlii's in diameter, and it liuriit at tlie 
distance of three feet two inches ; by it 
were melted a silver sixpence in seven 
niiniites and a half; a King (Jeorce's half- 
penny in sixteen minutes, which ran in 
tliiriy-four iiiiniiles ; a diamond weigh- 
in» fmir craiiis hwt seven-eighths of its 
weiclit. 'I'hat of Hiitfo^ was a polyhedron, 
8IX feet hniad, and sls nin'iy high, consist- 
ins of one hiiiidred a'-l sixty eight small 
mirrors, or tiat piecf.~ of liHikinp class, 
each six inches square, by means of winch, 
with the faint r.i> s of the sun in the iiKHitli 
of March, he set mi fire Ixiards of beech 
wood at one hundred and fifty feet dis- 
tance. 

BURNrXn OF WOMEN. A supersti- 
tions pniclice in lliiid<istaii, for the widrnvs 
ID burn themselves cui the funeral piles of 
their husbands. 

IMJK.MrJHKR. A round polished piece 
of steel, serving tosniiMilh<iid give a lustre 
o inelals. 

Ur.<lir.I,. Dry ineiuiiire, containing four 
Jiecks, or eight gallons. 

Brt=IIMAI{i:ii\V. An implement of 
husbandry for harriiwina grass lands, and 
eoveriiic grass nr clover seeds. It consists 
of a frame Willi three or more bars, in 
which bushes are interwoven. 

Ill SKI.N. A kinil of liish shoe, anciently 
worn li,v tra<>ediaiis : also a sort of leather 
(tockiii!! serving the purpose nf a boot. 

BI'STAKIi. A species of Kuro|>eaii bird 
9f which there are several varieties. The 
SrealKustaril isilir laraest laud lurd known 
in Lnuland. It seems to bear a remole 
llinity to the '>strtc!i. 
Bl •icHEIl lilUD. A sort of shrike 
tcmarkable for its ferocity tow&;,js tne 




Ittleblrdi, which It kills, and tearingthcm 
Ic pieces, sticks iliem i-i thorns. 



BUZ 

BUST. The figure or portiait of a per 
Bon in relievo, showing only I he upper paru 
of the body. 

BIJT'I'. A measure o( wine, containinf 
126 callous. 

Bd'ITUXD. The nrcesi eii.l of a piece 
of timber nearest to iiie root. 

BUTTEIl. A fat unctuous substanre, 
procured from the cream oi im.K by cliiirn- 
ing ; a term in Cheui/stry for substances 
of similar consistency, as nutter of anti- 
iiKuiy, butter of bismuth, butter of wax, 

&.C. 

BUTTERBUR. A plant with a floscular 
flower, consisting of many florets. 

BUTTERFLOV\'EK. A yellow flower, 
which abounds in the meadows in May. 

BUTTERFLY. A oeautiful insect, so 
called because it first appears atllie be- 
ginning of the season for butter. I'hat 
which seems to be powder upon the wings 
of this insect is an innumerable quantity, 
of feathers, which are only to be discerned 
through a microscope. The butterfly first 
appears in the slate of the caterpillar, which 
is called the larva, and afterwards in that 
of the pupa, or chrysalis, from which it 
comes forth in its perfect state. 




The larva. 



The chrvsali* 



BUTTOCK. The breech ornaunch of an 
animal, next to the tail : also a sea term, 
for that part of a ship which forms her 
breadth, right astern from the tuck up- 
wards. 

BUTTON. Any thing in a round form 
which serves to fasten, particiiiirly what 
is used ill. garments ; also a part of the cas- 
caliel in a gun or howitzer, which is in 
the form of u button. 

BUTTRESS. A kind of butinent, built 
archwise, serving to support a building oj 
wall. 

BUZZARD. A very sluggish bird of 
the hawk kind. The Turkey Bu/zard 
known in tlie southern parts of the United 
States is a species of Vulture 

BY-LAW. A jirivate law made withi* 
■oine particular place or jurisUictioa. 



CAD 



CAL 



n 



c. 



C, the fliir<l letKrand second consonant of 
the nl|>li:il>et ; as a niiiiieral, C stniuls for 
1(K), and CC fi>r Shi, &;r. ; in ]Mii;»ic, it is 
tlie hiu'liect (Kirt In Ilie tliorousli bass ; a.s 
an Ablireviation it stands lor Christ, as 
A (-". AiinoClinsii.or aiileChristnui ; also 
ftif ('uMi(iaiiion, a:i C K. Coiii|KiiiKin uflhe 
Bath. 

CAAKA. An Arahir term fur the house 
of (tod, a (Kirtiil'the tciii|ilc v( Mahuiiiet in 
Mecca. 

C.MIALA. A traditional or mysterious 
doctrine ainnn!* the ancient Jews, winch 
they say was delivered hy word of mouth 
to .Moseji, and by him to the fathers. 
Ainon;! Christians, the cahala is an abu.se 
of certain passages of Scripture formaj;ical 
piir|Hises. 

CAHHAC.K TRFE. A tree of the Cape 
of (iiMid llo|>e, so called tVoiii the resem- 
blance which its leaves bear, to those of 
the cabbat:e plant. 

CABIN. The apartment In a vessel for 
the otficers anil superior p;isseiigers. 

CAUI.NET In England, the closet or 
private riKiiii in the kiiis's palace, where 
councils are held : also the ministers of the 
Kini!, who are siiinnidned to attend such 
coiiiiiMls. In the I'liiled States, the term is 
applieil lo the four set' reuiries and the at- 
torney cenenil at Washington, considered 
as counsellors of the President. 

CAItl.K. A sea term lor a strong rojie, 
which serves to keep a ship at anrlior. 

CAIil. !•:'.•< l,r..\(;TII. The men-sure of 
lyi fathiuns. 

CACf»KTIIK.<. An ill habit or pro()en- 
tlty; as (he r.icnethes scribendi, au itch 
for antlmrsliip. 

('A<"< H'lloNY A bail toneof the voice, 
proceedin<: from the ill disposition of the 
orpins. 

, CADK.VCR (in Grammar). The fall of 
the voice : also the rtow of verses or i>erl- 
ods ; in Music, it is a pause or suspension 
at the enil of an air, resembling p<iiiils or 
Tirirules in prose ; in Dancing, cadence is 
used when the steps fidlow the notes and 
measures of the music ; in the .Manege the 
cadence is the measure or proportion obser- 
ved by a horse In all his motions, when he 
!■ thorou'.'hly niana»eil. 

CADKT. f>ne who i« trained up for the 
army by a course of milit;try discipline ; 
■uch as the cadeti at the military ccUege 
at West Point. 

CAPETSIUP The eooimission given 



to a cadet, to enter the iUtal India Coinpa 
ny's si-rvite in Riiiil.'ind. 

CADI. ,\ magislr.ile. or sort ofjuslic« 
of the |ieace, anion)! Hie Arihs .and Turk* 

C.\I).M1,\. A sort ol'iiiiiieralainong tiie 
ancients, now called roliall. 

CALtl'CEL'H. A name for .Merciir>''l 
rod oi sceptre, which on medals is an em 
blem of pe.tce. It was carried hy the Ro- 
inaii herulda when tliey went lo proclaiiit 
peace. 




CiES.^R. A title or name given to the 
twelve emperors of Koine, who succeeded 
Julius Cip.sar. 

CAti.M.-V(!. Old geese are so called, 
which are sent up to the Lomlon market 
for sale. 

CAIKNS. Heaps of stones in a conical 
form, which are freipieiilly to be met with 
in .'Scotland and Wales. 

C-\lSS(.i.\'. A wtMiden rhest filled with 
IhuiiIis or powder, and buried under some 
Work to blow it up ; also the frame used in 
layiii!: the foundations ofa bridge. 

C A I, A .M A.\CO. A kind of wwdlen stuff 
manufactured in England and Brabant. It 
has a fine gloss, and is chetjiiered in the 
warp. 

CALAMARIiC. The third natural order 
of plants in the Liniiipaii system, contain- 
ing the reeds resembling cra.«ses. 

CAI.A.MI.NARIS, or !,api» Calamika- 
RU. The calamine stone, *. jxydeof zinc 
among the chyniisis ; p kind oriiituiiiinoui 
lossile earth, which, when ini.Ked with 
copper, produces brass. 

CA I.CA R EOr:S. The third orderofthe 
class earths in tlie systenr. of Gmelin, ccn- 
sistingof chalk, limestone, spar, gypsum, 
marble, marl. 

CAL(M.\ATIO\ The solution of a 
mixed body by the means of heat or any 
corroding substance, as mercury, aquafor- 
tis, &.C., whereby it is reduced to powder 
The body so reduced was named a calx, ia 
common language a cinder, and :iichymi» 
try an oxide. 

CALCULATION. The act ot coioDUtiat 



76 



CAL 



■evemi sums by means of addition, sub 
traction, multiplication, divisioti, &.c. 

CAh(.'L/'LUS,or Stoke. A name gene- 
ral(y given to all hard concretions, not 
bony, wliicll are formed in the biKlies of 
annuals. 

CALENDAR. A distribution of time 
Into months, week*, and days tliroiiKlioiil 
the year, together with an account of the 
festivals, and other -iuch matters as serve 
for the daily |>ur[K)ses of life. Calendars 
vary according to tne diflerent forms of 
the year, and the divisions of time Indifter- 
ent countries, as the Roman and Julian 
Calendars used by the Romans, the (ire- 
gorian ana Reformed Calendars among the 
moderns. 

CALENDAR MONTH. The name 
given to the months as they stand in the 
Blnianac. 

CALIBER. The thickness or diameter 
of any thing, particularly of the bore of a 
cannon. 

CALIRER COMPASSES. A particular 
instruuietit used by pjnnersfor mea.-'uring 
the diameters of shot, shells, (fee. They 
resemble o'.her conipiisses, except in their 
legs, wliich are arched, in order that the 
points may touch the extremities of tlie 
krch. 




CALICO. A kind of cloth made of cot- 
ton, nrixinally made in the East Indies. 
It is so called from Callicut, atown on the 
coast of Malabar, where it was tirst manu- 
factured. The manufacture of calicoes 
has lieen successfully introduced into the 
United States. 

CALICO PRINTING. The art of dy ins 
cotton, linen, and other cloths topu'Hlly ; 
that is by printing fi2uiie!» liert- and tlu-ri- 
in dltferent coloiirs, and leaviii:; .-uiiiie parts 
of the rliith without any ti'jnre*. 

CALIPH, in the Anibir Khalika, whiili 
■lenities successor. A title assumed by the 
successors of Mahomet, who reigned in 
Bagdad. 

CAI.KERS. Pemon^ employed in calk- 
Ins vessels; that is, ilrivin:; o.ikimi and 
other thin!n< tnio the seams of vessels, to 
keep out the water. 

CALL. Ap nr»ifirial pipe made to raich 
fiMils; also « sea tenn for a whistle or 



CAM 

pipe, used in calling the sailors to thell 
duty. 

CALL OF THE HOUSE. In England, 
a parliamentary term for an im|>erative 
tall or summons sent to every member to 
attend on a particular occasion. 

CALOMEL. Mercury well pounded witn 
sulphur ; it is also culled a muriate of mer- 
cury. 

CALORIC. A modern term for fire, or 
that principle which produces the sen.sation 
of heat, which is siip|K)sed to be somethinj 
indejiendent uf the body in which it is 
found. 

C.\LVARY. The name of a cross ic 
Heraldry, as it is borne in coats of arms 
It is so called because it resembles the truss 
on which our Saviour siitTered. 

CALVliMSM. 'Jhe doctrines of Cal- 
vin, the Geneva reformer, and his adhe- 
rents, on predestination, reprobati(m, &.c. 

CALUMET. An Indian pi|)e, which 
was otherwise called the Pipe of Peace, 
because it served the bearer as a pass oi 
safe conduct among the neighbouring tribes 
of Indian.". It was very similar to the ca- 
diiceus, or Mercury's wand, of Uie an- 
cients, 

t;ALX. A fine powder remaining a/*«l 
the calcination of niet-ils and other 111101- 
rul substances ; also another name for li'.ne. 

CALYCIFLORili. The sixteenth nat- 
ural order of plants in the Linnu-an system, 
comprehending those plants which live 
only a calyx, in which the stamiiu ar / in- 
serted. 

C.\LV'PTRA. Thetenderskin in rouses 
that loosely covers the lop of lh'< t'.ieca, 
like a cup. 

CAL\X. A general name fo* "Jie cup 
of a flower, or that part of a pbr.'. which 
surrounds and supports tlie ulhe.' parts ul 
a flower. 

CAMBERED. A sea term, applied to a 
deck, the flooring of which is highest in the 
middle. 

CAMBRIC. A sort of very fine white 
linen, made of flax. Fabrics of cotton 
made in imitation of tliis are also called 
cambric. 

C.A.MEL. A well known quadru|)ed, 
remarkable for its swiltness aiK* itf power 
of siibsistinc for many days wit lout water 
It is mild and gentle, unless pa/ticularly 
provoked, patient of hunger, and .capable 
of carrying great burdens. The f ,sh and 
milk of this animal cimstitute tj ' ( Wiripal 
food of the Inhabitniitsof Aia" a and the 
countries ofwhich it is a nali'i;. The Ara- 
bian camel, which is other ivise called a 
dromedary, h.os but one hu' ch, the B»r.»ri- 
an camel has two. This U'.ler «;<•».<« « 



CAM 

iani in the more nortliern parts of central 
A-sia. The Ariiliian speciea is generally 
•ised in the warmer parts of Asia and Af- 
rica. This animal is burne in coats of 
mrmi. 




C'AMELOPARD or Giraffe. A re- 

innrkahle animal found only in the middle 
and southern regions of Africa. It is the 
tallest of a!! animals, being about 17 feet 
lii<!h. It feeds un llie tups uf trees. It is 
very timid but defendsitself, when attack- 
ed, liy kicking. It is capable of putting out 
its tongue to the length of 17 inches, and 
tliis is so flexible that it may be reduced at 
tlie point so as to pass through a lady's 
ring. 




CAMBIUM. The mucilaginous fluid 
which, lies between the youny wood and 
the bark of a tree. 

CAMBRIAN. In geology, a term to 
designate the lowest fossililerous rocks 
ta developed in Wales and their equiva- 
lents in other countries. 

CAMEU. A lort of onyx stone, having 
various flgiiresupon it ; in Natural Histofy> 
a sort ot |)ellucid gem. 

CA.MERA LUCIDA. An optical instru- 
ment invented by Dr. Hook, jor the pur- 
pose uf making the image of any object 
7* 



CAN T> 

appear on the wall in a light room, eithei 
by day or night. This name has since b«en 
applied to an instrument invented by Dr 
Woll.nston, for drawing objects intrun per 
spective. 

CAMERA OBSCURA. An optica! ma- 
chine or apparatus, representing an artificial 
eye, by whicli the images of external ob- 
jects, received through a double convex 
glass, are shown distinctly, and in tliei/ 
native colours 




CAMLET A sort of stnrTorieinally made 
of camel's hair and silk mixed, but now of 
wool and silk. 

CAMP. The spot of ground where an 
army rests and intrenches itself. 

CAMPAIGN. The space of time during 
which an army is kept in the field. 

CAMPA.NACEiE. One of Linna-us's 
natural order of flowers, including tliose 
that are bell-shaped , as tlie campaii ula, con- 
volvulus, &c. 

CAMPANULA, or Bell Flower A 
sort of plants, mostly perennials, and hear- 
ing a bell-8lKii)ed flower. 

CAMPHOR. A vvhite concrete crystal- 
line substance, of an acrid bitter taste, and 
a penetrating smell. It was formerly sup- 
posed to be a resin which was procured 
from a tree, much like a walnut tree 
growing in Borneo, and thence called the 
camphor tree ; but modern chyinists con. 
sider it to be a peculiar substance not to 
be classed either with the oils or the resins. 
It is procured from the volatile oil of seve- 
ral plants, as rosemary, sage, lavender. 
Sec. 

CAN. A drinking vessel ; particularly 
that used by saflors. 

CANAL. An artificial river, provided 
with locks and sluices, and sustained by 
banks and mounds. 

CANARY BIRD. A singing bird of a 
greenish colour, formerly bred in the Cana- 
ries, and nowhere else. These birds ar 
now bred in all parts of Europe and Anie^ 



78 



CAN 



ea. and their toluurs are various ahade* of 
yeUuw aud green. 




CANCELLATION (In Law). Expung- 
ing the contents of a deed or instrument, 
by gtrikini! twii line;) througli it. 

CANCER, the Crab (in Astronomy). A 
constellation, and the fourth sign in the 
zodiac, murhcd thus qz, wliich the sun en- 
ters on the twenty-first of June, tlience 
called the siiiiiiner solstice. 

CANCER, Tropic of. A small circle 
of the sphere, [wrallel to the equator, and 
passins throu<!h the beginning; of Cancer. 

CANCER (in Medicine). A hard ulcer- 
ous and exceedingly painful swelling, and 
generally seated in the glandulous part of 
the body. 

CANDLE. A long roll or cylinder made 
of tallow, wax, or spermaceti, in which is 
included a wick of cotton or rush, for the 
pur|>ose of burning. Good tallow is made 
of the fat of sheep and bullocks in eipiiil 
portions. The wirk, wliich is made of 
■everal threads of cotton twisted together, 
must t>e fine, sulficiently dry, and pro|>erly 
twisted, or otherwise the canitle will yield 
an unsteady light. The tallow is prepared 
by chopping the fat and boiling it in a 
copper, the scum which is taken from it in 
the boiling is called greaves, whicli is made 
into cakes that are sold fur fatting poultry. 
Candies are made either by dipping or in 
moulds, the fonner of which are the com- 
mon candles. When candles are to l>e 
dipped, the workman holds three of the 
hr<>!ir>ies, with the cottons pro|>erly spread, 
between bis I)i>gers, and dips them into the 
lallow vat, tlien hangs them to cool, and 
when cooled dips them aeain and again 
until they are of the reijuired size. The 
mould in which mould-candles are made 
18 mostly of pewter, made to the diameter 
and length of tlie candle wanted ; at the 
extremity of it is the neck, which is pierced 
to receive the cotton, one end of which 
tomes out at the neck, and the remainder 
• olace^ in (be mould in such manner in 



CAN 

a perpendicular direction, as that it thonU 
be in tlie middle of the candle ; after this 
the mould is tilled with boilingtallow,and 
left to cool. Wax candles are made by 
pouring with a ladle melted wax on the 
tops of a number of wicks, tied by the 
neck at eipial distances round an iron 
circle suspended directly over a large basin 
of copper tinned. 

CANDLI;MAS DAY. The festivTiI ob- 
served on the second of February, by Cath- 
olics and Episcopalians, in commemoration 
of the punticatioii of the Virgin Mary. 

C.WDY. A (ireparation of sugar made 
by melting and crystalli/.ing it several 
times. 

CANDYTUFT. An annual that is culti- 
vated in gardens, bearing a wliite or purple 
flower. 

CANE. A kind of strong Indian reed, 
used for walking sticks j also the plant 
wliich yields the sugar, and grows free.y 
in the East and West Indies and parts of 
North and South America The skin of 
the sugar cane is soft, and tiie spongy mat- 
ter or pith it contains, very juicy. It is now 
extensively cultivated in Louisiana, and 
Alabama. 




CANE (In Commerce). A lonf meamii* 
of different dimensions in different coun- 
tries, from two to five yards. 

C.\NIS (in Astronomy). The nam» of 
two constellations in the southern nemi- 
sphere; namely, Canis Major and Canii 
Minor 

CANKER A cancerous affection wh!ch 
occurs frequently in fruit trees ; also a fun- 
gous excrescence in the feet of horse* 

CANNIBAL. A man eater. 

CANNON. A piece of ordnance, or ■ 
great gun for a battery, which is moa'it»« 



CAN 

m a carriage : the principal |nrts <if a 
eaiiiuiii are ilie inui.z{e, ur moulli, llie en- 
trance (it'Uie boreur tlie liullovvpart wliicti 
receives lliecliarge ; lliecliu»e, ur tlie wtiule 
•pace fruiii the iu(i/.'/.le to the truniiiuiis ; 
Uie trunnions, or two solid cylindrical 
pieces of metal, wliicli project t'runi the 
piece, ami liy which it is supported on the 
carriage , tlie vent, wliich in small firearms 
is culled the loiicliliole, a small hole pierced 
at the end of the tiore or chanitier, for the 
pur|K>se of priming the piece with powder, 
or to introduce the tube in order, when 
lighted, to set lire to the charge jtheciiu'n- 
ber, that part of the bore or hollow of the 
piece where the powder is lodged which 
forms the churge ; the breech, tiie solid 
piece behind, the hinderniost part of which 
is called the cascabel. That part next to 
the breech is called the reinforce, whicii 
IS made stronger to resist the force of the 
powder. The ornaments of a cannon are 
the muzzle, astragal, and lillets, the chase 
astragal and fillets, the reinforce ring, and 
the breech mouldings The first cannon 
was used in 1304, on tli« coaot of Den- 
mark 




JANOE. A little vessel or boat used 
kiy the Indians, which is made all of one 
piece, of the trunk of a tree iiollowed. 

CANON. A law, or ordnance of the 
church. The Canon Law consists of rules 
trawn from ^!cripture, from the writings 
tf the ancient farhers, from the ordinances 
tf councils, and the decrees of the p.ipe. 

CA.XON. A dignity in a catliedml 
Ihurcli. 

CANON OF SCRIPTURE. That body 
•T hooks of tile Holy Scripture which serves 
for a rule of faith and practice. 

CANONIZATION. The act of enrolling 
any one among the number of the saints, 
«»'liich is the practice of the Romish church, 
and perfoniieil by the pope. 

CANOrUS (in Astronomy). A bright 
(tar of the first magnitude, in the rudder 
.if the ship Argo. 

CANTATA. A pieceof music for one, 
•wo, or more voices, chiefly intended for a 
•iag'e voire with a thorough bao*. 

CA.VTEEN. .\».iltling house for both 
vScera ^nv d:2si ■ iJfo ft rniAi: rtttnl of tJs 



CAP If 

plate or wood, in which soldiers on tli«i- 
march carry their liquor. 

CANTEKBUltY-liELL. A fine flower 
much cultivated in gardens. The plant i« 
biennial, and the flower l3 white or blue, 
and of an oblong figure. 

CANTHARIDES, or Sj>amsh Fliei 
A 8f)ecies of shining beetle, powdered and 
used for raising blisters. 

CANTON. A division or small par<«l 
of a country, such as the coiitoiui of iSwii 
zerland. 

C.\NTON (in Heraldry). An ordinary, 
so called because it occupies out a cailtel 
or corner of the escutcheon. 

CAiNVAS, or CANVASS. The cloth 
on whicli painters usually draw their pic- 
tures; and also that of which the sails of 
vessels are made. 

CAP. In general, any covering for the 
head ; sometimes of a particular make, as 
a cardinal's cap. 

CAP. The name of several things simi- 
lar in figure or use, as the cap of a grtal 
gun, a piece of lead laid over the touchliole ; 
the cap in a ship, the square piece of tim- 
ber placed over the head of a mast. 

CAP (in Architecture). The up|«rmnst 
part of any member, as the capital of a 
column, the cornice of a door, slc 

CAP OF .MAINTENANCE lin Her.al- 
dry). One of the regalia or ornaments of 
state, carried before the king of (ireal 
Britain at the corouatiuii and other great 
solemnities. 

CAPE (in Geography). A promontory 
or headland projecting into the st;i I'arlliei 
than the rest of the coast, as the Ca|>e of 
Good Ho|ie, Cajte St. Vincent, &,r.. 

CAI'ELLA. A star of the first magni- 
tude in Auriga. 

CAPER BUSH. A shrub or tree, the 
bud or flower of which is converted into 
a pickle called caper. 

CAPILLARY. An epithet for what i» 
as fine as a hair. Capillary tubes iire pi|i«9 
of the Aneness of a hair, by wnlch various 
phenomena in physics and hydrostatics are 
displayed. Capillary vessels, in Anatomy, 
the smallest and extreme parts of (he mi- 
nutest ramifications of the veins and ari«»- 
ries. 

CAPIT.\L. The chief or head of a thing. 

CAPITAL (in Geography). The chief 
town. 

CAPITAL (in Architecture). The ui>. 
permost part of a column, serving as ma 
head. 

CAPITAL (In Printing). The laree let- 
ters, which serve as initials, or in titles 

CAPITAL (ii) Coi"merce). The sto'li 
or furd of a traaittg cOb<>j»&i 



^ 



«0 CAP 

CAPITOL. The building Jit Wiisliingfon 
m which Confiress meets It is heautit'iilly 
jiliiated on a hill ami is by tar llie most 
uplendid editice in America. 

CAPITULATION. A treaty between 
Uie besieged and the besiegers of any 
place, whereby tlie former surrender it, 
and themselves, on cert;iin conditions. 

CAI'IVI. A tree of Brazil, the tlower of 
whicli resembles a rose. It grows to the 
>ieight of sixty feet. 

(^APRICOUN. A southern constellation, 
and one of the twelve signs (d" the zodiac, 
which the sun eiilers on the 21st of De- 
eeinher. It is inaiked thus, Vp. 

(Ml'RICORN, Tuopic OF. A small cir- 
cle of the sphere, parallel to the eipiitmctial, 
pAssinmliroiiL'h the beginning of Capricorn 
or the winter solstice, which is the sun's 
greatest southern (Uelinaiion, namely, 23 
decrees and a half. 

CAPRIOLE. A caper or leap in danc- 
ine, like a goat's leap. 

CAPSICUM. A plant, native of South 
America, the fruit of which is a pod, and 
the strongest kind of pepper, known by 
the name of Cayenne I'epiier. 

CAPSTAN. A large piece of timber 
resembling a windlass, placed behind the 
mainm.'tst. It is a cylinder with levers, 
used lo weiuh anchors, to hoist up or strike 
<•'■*« topmasts, &c. 




CAPTATN. A commander of a company 
of foot or a troop of horse ; and in the 
nr ral or merchant service, the commander 
of a vessel: also in grammar schools in 
EliEland the head boy of his class. 

CAPTIO.N (in Law). The act of taking 
any i>er»on by any judicial process. 

CAPUCHIN. An order of Franciscan 
moiiks in the Romish church, so called from 
Ulfir capuch or h<«id sewed to their habits. 

CAPUT MORTUU.M. The inert resi- 
tfutim of liny body, remaining after all the 



CAR 

volatile and humid parts have been ei 

tracted 

CAR. A small carriage of burden, drawn 
by one or two horses. 

CARAHINE, or CARBINE. A Bort of 
short gun, between a musket and a pistol, 
having its barrel two feet and a half long. 

CARACAL. An animal resembling the 
Lynx, found in the hot climates of Asia. 

CAR.^CT, or CAR.Vr. The weit'hl of 
24 grains; or one scruple 24 carats make 
one ounce. This is the standard weight by 
whiili the fineness of gold is distinguished. 
If the gold be so line that, in purifying, it 
loses nothing, or but very little, it is said 
to be gold of 24 carats ; if it lose one carat, 
it is s.aid to be gold of -JIJ carats. 

C.AR.Vr (in weigiiingof L)ianionds,&c.) 
A weight of four grains. 

CARAVAN. A company of merchants 
or pilgrims in Asia or Africa, who go in 
an organized body through the deserts. 

CARAVANSERA. A large building in 
the East, or an inn for the reception of 
travellers and the caravans. The building 
commonly forms a sipiare, in the middle 
of which is a spacious court, and under 
the arches or piazzas that surround it, 
there runs a bank, raised some feet above 
the ground, where the merchants and tra- 
vellers take up their lodgings, tlie beasts 
of burden being tied to the foot of the 
bank. 

■••^ARBON. The pure inflammable part 
of ciiarcoal, free from all the hydroaen 
and earthy or metallic particles which 
charcoal usually contains. By Us union 
with oxygen. It produces two g.as»-ous sub- 
stances, the first of which was formerly 
called fixed air, now carbonic acid ; and 
the second, containing less oxygen, the 
oxide of carbon. 

CARBONATES. Salts formed by the 
combination of carbonic acid with difi'ereiit 
bases, as carbonate of copper, tec. 

CARBUNCLE. A precious st(me, of the 
colour of a burning coal. 

CARBURET. A substance formeil by 
thf combination of carl»on with uieials. 

CARCASS (in Building). The slnll oi 
timber work of a house before it is lathed 
and plastered, nr the floors laid ; in iliin- 
nery, an iron case, filled with combustible 
materials, and discharged from a uiortar 
after the manner of a bomb 

CARD. An instrument like a comb, 
which is used in combing or disentanglini 
wool 

CARD OF A COMPASH. The cireuiw 
paper on which the points of a compoai 
are marked. 

CARD. See CiRoi. 



CAR 

CARDIACS Medicines that tend to 
ctreii;!tlieii llie heart. 

CAKDl.N'AL. A ilipnilary in the Romish 
Church, .-ind uiie of its chief goveruurs, of 
winch there are seventy in number. They 
constitute a college, by a^<l fruiu wtiuui 
tlj« pope is cliusen. 

CARDINAL POINTS. The four points 
or divisions of the horizon, namely, tlie 
north, south, eat^t, and west. 

CARDINAL'S CAP, or Cardinal 
Fluweh. a pinnt so called because its 
flower, by the intense redtiess of its colour, 
seems t4i emulate the scarlet cap of a car- 
dinal. 

CARniXAI/S CAP, or HAT. A cap 
or lint of a peculiar form, which is worn 
by cardinals. 



CAR 



81 




CARDINAL VIRTUES. The four vir- 
tues of prudence, (eiuperance, justice, and 
fortitude. 

CARDS. Pieces of pasteboard of an 
oblong figure, and different si^ies, made 
into pacKs of 52 in number, and used by 
way of amusement in different games. 
They are painted with various figures, 
naniely, hearts, spades, diamonds, clubs, 
and kings and queens. They are said to 
have been introduced in the fourteenth 
century, to divert Charles VI. king of 
France, who had fallen into a state of 
melancholy. By the hearts, cccurs, were 
meant the gens de choeur, choirmen or 
ccclesiasticSjinsteadofwhichthe Spaniards 
use chalices. The spades, in Spanish espa- 
da?, swords, were intended to represent the 
nobility, who wore swords or pikes. The 
diamonds, orcarreaux,designated the order 
ol citizens or merchants. The trefle, tre- 
foil leaf or clover grass, was an emblem of 
the husband man ; this is called clubs with 
us,2^cause the Spaniards have bastos,clubs, 
on their cards. The knaves represent the 
servants of the knishts. The four kings 
were intended for David, Alexander, Coe- 
•ar, and Charlemagne, who established the 
four great monarchies nf the Jews, Greeks, 
Romans, and Franks. The four queens 
were supposed to represent Argine, i. e. 
reeina, thetjueen by descent, Esther, Jm- 
ditk. and Pallas. The moulds orblocks used 



for making cards were exactly Hke those 
which Were sliortly allerwards used in lite 
making of books 

CAREli.NlNG. The heaving a ship on 
one siile, for the |>urpobe of clearing or 
calking the other side. 

CAKUU (in Commerce). The merchandise 
and effects that arc laden on boaril a ship 

CARICATURE (From the Italian Cari- 
catura). A distoiteii way of representing 
objects, so as to inuke litem appear ridicu- 
lous. 

CARIES. A disease of tlie bones ; a kind 
of rottenness. 

CARl.NA. A keel ; the name given by 
Linna;us to the lower concave jieial of a 
papilionaceous or butterfly-shaped flower, 
as the pea, which resembles the keel of a 
ship in its shape. 

CARLINE THISTLE. A plant of tlie 
thistle kind, which is sometimes used me 
diciiially. 

CURLINGS. Short pieces of timlier 
which serve to support and sttengthen the 
larger beams in a ship. 

CARMAN. One who is employed in 
carrying gtKids from the wharfs to llic 
merchant's warehouses. 

CAR.MELITES. An order of monks 
who were first founded on Mount Car- 
mel. 

CARMINATIVES. Medicines which 
expel wind. 

CARMI.NE. A dross or powdir of a 
deep red colour, procured from cochinea., 
and used lor painting in ininiHture. 

CARN ATION. A beautiful sort t.fi love 
pink, having its bright mlours e(,ually 
marked all os-er the flowers. 

CARNAT10x\ (in Painting) The flesh 
colour. 

CARNIVAL, or CARNAVAL. A sea- 
son of mirth and festivity, particularly olt- 
served by the Italians and generally by 
Catholics from Twelfth Day until l<eiit. 

CARNIVOROUS. An epithet applied 
to animals that feed on flesh. 

CAROTIDS. Twoarteries in the nec«, 
which convey the blood from the aorta to 
the brain. 

C.\RP. A fresh-water fish fitted for 
stocking ponds, as it spawns three times a 
ye<ir. 

CARPE.VTER'S RULE. .A tool gen«- 
nilly used in taking dimensions, an<l cast- 
ing up the contents of timber and the artili- 
cer's work. 

CARPE.VTRY. The art of cutting 
framing, and joining large pieces of wtnid 
for the uses of building : it is suhservieni 
to architecture, and Is divided into House 
Carpentry and Siiip Carpentry. Carpea 



82 



CAR 



iry differs frnin joining only inismuch as 
tliv uoik U cuarder, larger, aiid not so 
curu)u«. 

C'AKPET. A sort of stuff wrought either 
wU'i tlie nredle or the loom, and used as a 
C'n'f niig lur tlie floor. Persian and Turlt- 
wh c(ir|>eis are must in esteem. 

C.'XkKIAGE. In general, a vehicle for 
carrying gotids and persons ; in Gunnery, 
tl.e iiiuchine upon which (lie gun is mount- 
ed ; in Carpentry, the frame of limber-work 
wliich sup|M>rts the steps of wooden stairs. 

CARRIERS. All jwrsons carry ing goods 
for hire ; also a sort of pigeons thai are used 
in conveying letters to a distance. 

CARROT. A fleshy root, cultivated as 
a garden vegetable. 

CART. A small carriage with two 
wlieeU, used in husbandry. 

CART-HORSE. An inferior kind of 
horse, used in husbandry. 

CARTE BLAiNCIlE. A blank paper, 
delivered to a (>erson to be filled up as he 
p eases ; applied generally in the sense of 
unlimited terms gr.iiited to a person. 

CARTEL. An agreement between two 
states at war for liie exchange of prison- 
ers. 

CARTILAGE. A part of the animal 
body, harder and drier than a ligament, 
and softer than a bone ; its use is to render 
the articulation of the bones more easy. 

CARTILAGLNOUS FISHES. Those 
having cartilaginous instead of tmny skele- 

tohX. 

CARTOON. A design made on strong 
pnjier, to be afterwards calked through, 
ami transferred to the fresh plaster of a 
Willi to !>» [Kiinted in fresco, such as the 
famous cartoons of Raphael now in the 
palace of Hampton Court, England. 

CARTOI'CH. A case of wood holding 
about four hundred musket balls, besides 
iron balls, from six to ten, to be fired outof 
a howitzer. 

CARTOUCHES. BU>cks or niodillions 
used in the cornices of wainscoted apart- 
ments ; alMoornnuients representing a scroll 
of pa|ier. 

CARTRIDGE. A case ofpaperor parch- 
ment filled with gun|>owder, and used in 
lli<^ charging of guns 

CARVEL. A smal ship or fly-b«^nt. 

CARVLN'G The art of cutting wood 
iiiio various foinis and figures. 

CABYATIUES (in Architecture). A 
s'lrt of columns or pill.irs sha|>ed like the 
b<Hlies of women, and in the dress of the 
Onan |>eople. They were intended to 
riw*a«nt the Cariaii women who were ta- 
ll^'' captr.ey ny '.hr Athenians 

<'*<>VOyaTU-r.«: a nr.tural order 



CAS 

of plants, consisting of such as hare plak 
like flowers. 

CASE. Any outside covering whicta 
serves to enclose a thing entirely, as pack- 
ing cases or knife cases ; in Carpentry, the 
case of a dmir is tlie wiHiden frame, in 
which it is hung ; in Printing, it is a frame 
of wood, with numerous small partitions 
for the letters. 

CASE (in Grammar). An accident of 
nouns which have different inflexions or 
terminations. 

CASE-HARDENING. A method of 
preparing iron, so as to render its outer 
surface hard, and cajiable of resisting any 
edged tcMil. 

CASE-K.MFE. A large kitchen-knite. 

CASEMENT. A window that opens on 
hinges. 

CASE-SHOT. Musket balls, stones, old 
iron, &.C put into cases and shot out ot 
great guns. 

CASH. Ready money, dietinguisticd 
front bills. 

CAS H EVV r Ur: ASSO VV. A bird abo it 
the size of a her. turkey found in Jamaica 
and the northern parts of South America. 
(See CvKA»»ovt.) 

CASHEW-NUT. The fruit of the ca». 
hew, that ab<4unds in Jamaica and Uarba- 
does. Prom this nut is expressed a juic« 
that is made into a pleasant wine 




CASTri'5R. The keeper of the cssh o« 
money, which it is his business to receive 
and pay. 

CASHIERS OF THE RANK Offieere 
of the Rank who sign the notes that ar« 
issued out. 

CASHIERLNG. *A rtishnnourable it* 
missal of an officer or midier from tb* 
service 

CASHMERE. A cotimrjr in ha« 



CAS 

n'hirh pives nnme to a valvinble kind of 
cliitli, and costly shawls niunnrai-lured 
there from the wool of a species of ijout 
peculiar to Thibet. 

CASSA VI. Ati AinericKM tree, hearing 
A bell-sli:iped (lower Its nn?!, wlien dried 
and proiind to tlou/. was icm veiled into 
oread hy the original inli.-thiiitnis. 

CASSIA FISTL'LA, ..r I'l i.uixo Pipe 
Tree. A very large tree, u native of Al- 
exandria ajid the West Indiex, wlin!? hears 
a long cylindrical taper or flat pod, divided 
mio many cells, in each of which Is a hard 
■eeil i(>d;:eil in a claniniy Mack substance, 
which is purgative, and i^ known in medi- 
cine by the name of the Purging Oissia, 
<*t, simply, Cassta. 

CASSIOPEI.A. A northern constella- 
tion. 

CASSIQUE, or CACUafR. A sove- 
reign lord among the ancient Americans. 

<'A!*f^)C'K. A vestment worn by cler- 
gymen lunler their gowns. 

CASSOWARY. A large bird oftlie os- 
trich kind, found only in Java, and the 
Asiatic Islands. It is second in size oity 
to the Ostrich 

CAST. The name of figures or small 
siJitnes in bnmze. 

CASTK. The name of different tribes 
ill Hiiidostaii, of which the Brahmins is 
the most iinliie. The second is that oftlie 
soldiers, tlie third, that of merchants and 
husbandmen, the fmirlh that of laborers in 
various employments. 

CASTI.NG (among .'Sculptors). The 
taking of casts or impressions of figures, 
busts, &c. ; in a foundery, the running of 
metals into any mould prepared for this 
purpose. 

CASTLE. A fortress or place rendered 
defensible by nature and art. Castles, be- 
ing an emblem of graiuleur, are frequently 
kome in coals of arms. 




CAST IRO.V. The iron as it is extract- 
ed from the ores by means of casting. 

• CASTOR. A soa, grayish yellow sub- 
itance found in '.lie bags of 'he beaver. 



CAT a 

near its groin. In a warm air, tfie cisto 
grows by degrees bard, brittle, and of 
dark colour. 

CAT. A well known animal nearly ai 
lied tu the tiger, is either domestic nr wild. 
The wild or mountain cat, is borne in coat* 
of arms as an emblem of liberty, vigilance, 
and forecast. 

The animals of the cat family known in 
North America, are the Congar, vulgarlj 
called Panther ; the wild cat, or catamount 
an animal three times the size of the do 
mestic cat, and having a short tail ; and the 
Lytix. The domestic cat isa tame variety 
oftlie European cat. It is not a native of 
this country. 




CAT. A sea term for a ship usually 
employed in the coal trade ; also a sort 
of strong tackle for drawing up the an- 
chor ; also a military term for a kind of 
shed under which soldiers conceal tlieio 
selves while tilling up a ditch or mining a 
wall. 

CATACOMBS. Grottoes or subterrane- 
ous places for the burial of the dead, fre- 
quently found in Egj'pt and In Italy. 

CATALOGUE. A list of books or any 
other matters, arranged in order, for pur- 
poses of sale or reference. 

CATAMAUA.N. A sort of floating 
raft originally used in China as a fishing 
boat. 

CATARACT. A high, steep place or 
precipice in the channel of a river, caused 
by rocks or other obstacles stopping the 
course oftlie stream. Niagara is the most 
stupendous cataract in the world. Also a 
disease in the eye, arising from a little film 
or speck, which swimming in the aqueous 
humour, and getting before tiie pupil, caus- 
es a dimness of sight or blindness. 

CATARRH. A defluxion from the head 
occasioned by cold. 

CAT BIRD. A bird common in the Vn 
ted States of a bluish gray colour whic* 
makes a noise very similar to the mewing 
of a cat. It is a pretty good singer; iu 
song consists of imitations of the notes cf 
other birds. 

CAT CALL. A harsh sort of pipe, Imi 
tating the noise of a cat 



84 



CAT 



I'ATOH (in Music). A uhort and humo- 
AMis song ; alBo a sea term for a awifl- 
■ailiiig vessel. 

CATCH-FLY. A plant much cultivated 
in gardens, having grass-like leaves, .uid 
a long stiilk terminated by a cluster of 
crimg<m flowers. 

CATKCHf.SM. A short system of in- 
struction in religion, conveyed in ((iiestiim 
4nd answers. It is frequently appFied to 
Othe.r subjects. 

C.ATKCHU. A juice of a very astringent 
quality, pressed from out of several Indian 
fniita. 

CATECHUMENS. A name formerly 
^ven in the Christian church, to such :is 
were prepared to receive the ordinance of 
bniitisni. 

CATEGOKY (in Logic). A name for the 
pre<Iicates or attributes contained under 
any genus, of which Aristotle reckons ten, 
namely, substance, quantity, quality, rela- 
tion, acting, sullering, time, place, situa- 
tion, and habit. 

CATENARY. A curve on a crooked 
line formed by a rope when hanging. 

CATERER. A provider of victuals and 
ether necessaries in the king's household, 
or elsewhere. 

CATERPILL.AJl. The larva produced 
from the egg, which is transformed tirst 
into the chrysalis or nymph, and after- 
wards into the butterfly. 

CATGUT. A name for the strings made 
nf the intestines of sheep or lambs, and 
used in musical instruments, &c. 

CATHEADS. 'J'wo strong beams of tim- 
ber in a vessel which serve to suspend the 
.Uichor clear of the bow. 

CATHEDRAL. The episcopal church, 
or a church where is a bishop's seat or 
see. 

CATHERINE-WHEEL. A sort of fire- 
works constructed in the form of a wheel, 
which is made to turn round when it is 
let off. 



,\\\' 




CATHERINE-WHEEL (in Architec- 
ture). A large circular ornament in Gothic 
windows. 



CAV 

fymg univers.ll ; which the Romish cburek 
aiisumes to Itself as its title; whence tlM 
iiume of Roman Catholics has been applied, 
since tlie Ret'ormatioii, to the followers of 
the Romish doctrine and discipline. 

CATHOLIC KING. The title of th» 
king of Spain. 

CATHOLIC PRIEST. A clergyman i>r 
priest orilaiiied to say mass and administer 
the sacraments, &c, according to the rite* 
of the Romish Church. 

CATKf.V, or Ament (in Uotiin^). A lonfc 
stem thickly covered witli scales, under 
which are the flowers and the essential 
parts of the fruit, which is so called from 
its resemblance to a cat's tail. Catkins 
are to be found on the hazel, willow, &c. 

CAT'S EYE (in Mineralogy). A stone 
of a glistening gray, with a tinge of green, 
yellow, or white. 

CAT'S HEAD. A very large kind of 
apple. 

CAT'S-TAIL r.RASS. A kind of reed, 
bearing a spike, like the tail of a cat. 

CATTLE. Horned beasts, th.it feed in 
I>asture, or generally all four-footed beasts 
that serve for domestic purposes, including 
horses, horned cattle and sheep. In Eng- 
land horses and cows are called black 
cattle. 

CAVALCADE. A pompous procession 
of horses and carriages, &c. 

CAVALIER. A horseman ; a person 
mounted on a horse, or expert in horse- 
manship ; in Fortification, a work raised 
within the body of a place, above th» 
other works. 

CAVEAR, or CAVIAR. The spawn or 
hard roes of sturgeon, made into cakes, 
salted and dried in the sun, much used ix 
Russia and other parts of the continent. 

CAVERN. A natural cave or hollow 
place, in a rock or mountain. 

CAVETTO (in Architecture^ A con- 
cave moulding, the curvature of whuss 



J 



CATHOLIC. An ipithet properly signi- I circle 



section does not exceed the quadrant of a 



/ 



CEN 



CEB 



85 



CAUL. ^ meiubratie in the abdomen 
which ^i«rves to cover the interlines. 

CAI;LI{"1.UVVEU 'Jhe finest 3ort of 
cabhage, with a seeded liead. 

CAUSEVrAV, or CAL'SEV. A path 
raised above the level of the ground, and 
paved with atones or gravel. 

\;AUST10 curve, a curve Conned 
by the concourse or coincidence of the 
ray« of light, rert&;ted or refracted from 
acy oliier curve. 

CAUS'l'lCS. Medicines which, when 
applied to any part of the body, burn it 
to a bard crust. 

CAUTERY. Any burning application. 

CAYENNE PEPPER. A powder pre- 
pared from the pods of several species of 
the capsicum, whicli originally came from 
Cayenne, but is now brought from botii 
the Indies. 

CAY.M.\N. The American alligator. 

C.B. In England, Companion of theBath. 

C. C. Caius College : C. C. C. Corpus 
Christi College. 

CEDAR. A well known evergreen, very 
like the juniiHjr in api>earaiice, which de- 
lights in cold mountainous places. The 
leaves are much narrower than those of 
the pine tree, and the seeds are produced 
in l.irge cones. The most celebrated spe- 
cies is that of Lebanon, which is also found 
in Russia and which is introduced by trans- 
planting into various parts of Europe and 
America. 

CEILING. The inside of the roof or 
top of an apartment, in distinction from 
tlie iiirface of a floor. 

CELERY. A sort of parsley much used 
in winter salads. 

CELESTI.\L GLOBE. An artificial 
representation of the heavens. 

CELL. The apartment or chamber of a 
monk or nun ; also a small close apartment 
in a prison. 

CELLAR. A place, commonly under 
ground, w!<lch serves as a store-room. 

CELLS (in Anat(miy). Bags or bladders 
where riuids are lodged ; in Botany, the 
partitions in the husks or pods of plants 
where the seeds are lodged. 

CELLITI \R ME.MBRA.NE. One of 
the largest membranes in the human body, 
of a vascular texture, fitted for holding the 
fat. 

CEMENT. A compound of pitch, brick- 
dust, plaster of Paris, &c. used by chasers 
and other artificers ftr making their work 
firm. 

CEMETERY. A ri pository for the dead. 

CLNSOR. A magistrate among the Ro- 
mans, who valued and taxed men's estate*, 
and also punished anv acts of immorality ' 
8 



CESSU8. In ancient Bome, an antben- 
tic declaration niadd by the citizen* 
every five years before the censors, of 
the names of themselves and family, 
their place of abode, iheir condition in 
life, and the amount iind nature of their 
estate. In modem f.se, an enumeration 
of the inhabitants of country. That of 
the U. S. is made every ten years. 

CENT. A coin of tile United States, 
wliuae value is the hundredth part ol a 
dollar. In trade, per cent, denotes a 
certain rate by the hundi-ed. 

CENTAUR. In mythology, a fabuloua 
monster, half man and lialf horse. In 
astronomy a constellation ot the south- 
ern heiuisphere, .\rcher in the zodiac. 

CENTRE-BIT. .\car|ieiiler'»lf)ol, which 
makes a cylindrical excavation by turniH| 
on an axis or centre. 




CENTRE OF GRAVITY. That point 
about which all the parts of a body in any 
situation l>alance each other. 

CENTRIFUGAL. An epithet for that 
force whicli causes a body revolving about 
a centre, or about another body, to recede 
from it. 

CENTRIPETAL. An epithet for that 
force which causes all bodies to tend Ut- 
wards some |Hiint as a centre. 

CE.\TURK).N'. A military officer among 
the Rtnnaiis, who had the command of a 
hundred men. 

CERES (ill the Heathen -Mythclogr) 
The daughter of Saturn and Vesta, and 




goddess of corn and fniita She first tau^ 
men me tux uf cultivating tlMt gr>»tiid 



88 



OHA 



CEREOLITE. A mineral substance, 
■which in appearance and softness re- 
sembles wax. 

CERES. In astronomy, the name of 
one of the a.steroid planets, discovered 
in ISOl by Piazzi; its mean distance 
from the suu being 263,740,000 mUe.s, 
and its periodical revolution 4 years, 220 
days. 

CERINE. In chemistry, a substance 
which forms from 70 to 80 per cent, of 
becs'wax, it is Sdluble in boiling alcohol. 

CERIXE. A siliceous oxide of cerium; 
ep. gr.4-7. 

CERITHIN.^. A sub-family of Mollus- 
ca, the Club-.ihelLs, of which the Ceri- 
thium, a geuxis of pectinibrauchiate 
Gasteropods, is the type. 

CERIUM. (Latiu), a greyish mineral 
found ia cerite. 

Cerography. Painting or writing in 
wax. 

CETE. All order uf animals in theLin- 
nieen sy.steni, iiiclu(tin<; siicli as have 
hreatliing apertures uii tlie head, tail liori- 
Ztintal, and pectoral tins instead uf feet; 
RB the dolphin, (wriKiisc, and grampus, &.c. 
C>^taceous tish suckle their yuung like land 
animals. 

'CHAFF. The husks of corn when 
threshed and separated from the train. 

CHAPFI.VCII. A bird so calleil liecniise 
U deli.'his in eating chatf. Il sings very 
prettily. 

CHAFI.N'GDlSH A utensil for wami- 
Ina meat. 

CHA(;REE.\. A roueh kind of leather. 

CHAIN (in ^'urveyin<^). A measure nf 
leni^h, made of a certain nunil>er of links 
afiriiii wire, serving to measure a certain' 
quantity of sroiind. (Jiiiiler's Chain con- 
sists of a hundred such links, each measu- 
ring 7.9^ inches, and conseiiuently r-cpial 
to 66 feet or 4 poles. I sqiiarp clialn= 
10,000 liiiks=Ui poles. 10 sipiarc chains 
= IOO,0(X) links=l(;o poles=l acre. 

("HAIN. A series of rings or links lu- 
ted into one another. Chains are made of 
virions inetala, sizes, and forms, suiteil in 
diflerent purpoHes. The gold chain is mm 
of llu; tKtdj^* of dignity worn liy the Lord 
Mayor of London 




CHAIN-ROAT. A fea. term for a large 
boat fitted for ([elting up mooring chains, 
»nrliors. &,c. 

CllAIX-SIIOT. Two ballets with a 



CH A 

chain hetweeii tliein. 'I'liey are uati Is 
sea warfare tiir cutting the shruuda kOil 
rigging utii slup. 



CH.\LCEU()NY. A eoit of agate or 
onyx stone. 

CHALUK<JN. A «lr>' measure, consist- 
ing of 3ti hnshels. 

CHALICE. I'he communion cup used 
at the sacrament of the eucharist. 

CHALK. A kind of white fossil, of 
which lime is made. It contains a little 
siliceous earth, and sometimes a small |)or- 
tion of iron. Black chalk, or drawing slate, 
is a gray or bluish-hlack mineral, that is 
massive j the fracture glinuneriiigand slaty. 

CHALLENGE. In general, a summons 
to light, whether in a duel, or in a pugilistic 
contest ; in Law, an exception against ju- 
rors made hy the party put on his trial. 

CH ALVBE-ATi:. An cpitliet lorwaters 
in which iron forms the principal ingredi- 
ent, as the waters of Tuiiliridge Wells, 
England. Ballsloii in the United States. 

CH.A.M. The title of the emperor or 
.oovereian of Tarlary. 

CH.'V.M.ELFO.N, or CMAMFLEOV. 
A quadru{>ed of the lizard tribe, that wad 




originally supposed to live on air, bu! it 
now known to live on llies, which it catches 
with its tiiiigiie. Its most reiiiarkalile cha- 
racteristic IS. that it Hssiimes the colour (tf 
the thiii!i to u Inch it is applied, lint its nat- 
ural coliinr in 'lie shade, aiidat rest, is said 
to be a liliiisli gray. 

CHAMBKK (in Guniieryl. That part 
of a mortar or great gtin, as far as the jmjw- 
der and shot reacJi when it is loaded. 

CHA.MBER (in England). A court, a« 
the Star Chamber ; in Commerce, a room 
set apart for mercantile business- also for 
keepui2 treasures and stores, as ine Ctaan 
tjer of Irfindi.n, &c 



CM A 

CHAMBER OF A MINE. The pince 
where the pnwder is cdiitiiied, thai islo be 
nseil fur hloiving up tlie works. 

CIIAMItKRLAI.N (in Eiml.Mirt). An 
officer who lias the care of any particular 
rhanilker orpines, aa the Lnnl (ireal Cliani- 
herlain ot' EntiJaml, a great -itricer (if state, 
to whom belongs the covernnien! of the 
[lalaL-e at Westminster ; tlie Chaniherlain 
of Loniloii, who receives the rents of the 
city, and ileposit.s tliem in the chamber or 
trPiwury of Liuidon. 

CHAMBERt!(iu England). Rooms or 
apartments hehnipn'i to the inns of court ; 
in .■\natomy, two s^kux-s between the crys- 
talline lens am) the cornea of the eye, di- 
vided ofT by the ins. 

CHAMELEON. See Cham-ixeow. 

CIIAMDIJ?, or, The Wild Goat, which 
Inhalnts the .\l|iine mountains, having 
Horns erect, round, and smooth. 



CUA 



87 




CHAMOMILE. An odoriferous plant, 
which has a very bitter taste, but many 
medicinal virtuen. 

CHAMPAGNE. A fine French wine, 
so called from Chainpacne, a former pro- 
vince of France. 

CHAMPION (in Law). The combatant 
who undertook to ti'jht in the trial by iKit- 
tet, formerly in use in Enulaiid. 

CIIANCEMEDLEY (in I«\w). The 
arcideiiuil killin<! of a iiiaii. not without 
the fault of the killer, but witlioiit any evil 
intent. 

CHA.VCEt,. That part of a church be- 
tween the altar and communion table, and 
the rails or balustrade by which it is en- 
closed. This applies particularly to Cath- 
olic, and Episcopal Cliurrlies. 

CIIANCr.l.l.Ol! (in Englanill. Anoffi- 
eer of state, known by the title of the Lord 
Hiirli Chancellor of England, and the chief 
person next to the sovereicn in the admin- 
istration of jiuiice; the Chancellor of the 
Exche<iuer is an officer who has the prin 
Cipal nianngeiiirni of the kin;:'s revHinie. 
The term is applieil to the first jiiilseof the 
Chancery Court in the slate of New York 



CHA.\CERY, The Counx or (in Eng 
land). The highest court of judicature in 
the realm next to the Parliaineiil. The 
l^ird Chancellor presides in lliis court ;and 
is assisted by tlie Vice-chaiic«llor, the 
.Master of tlie Rolls, the Masters iu Chan- 
cery, i.c. 

CHANCES, DocTRixE or. A branch 
of modern matlieniHlics, which treats of 
the probabilities of certain events taking 
place. 

CHANNEL. The middle or deepest 
part of any sea ; also a strait or narrcuv aaa 
between two lands, as St. (Jeorge's Chan 
nel, between Great liritnin and Ireland, 
and the Itrilish or English Channel, pro|>- 
erly called the Channel, l>etwee« England 
and Krince. 

CIIA.NTRY. A chapel anciently joined 
to some cathedral or parish, where mass 
used to be said daily for the souls uf tne 
founders, 

CHAOS. A dark and rude mass of 
matter, out of which the heathen philoso- 
phers sup|Hised the world was formed 

CHAPEL. In England, a smaller kind 
of church, i\ hich, being built for the ixin- 
veiiienre ofihe parish church, is denomi- 
nated a chapel of ease. 

CIIAI*ERt)N. A hood or cap, particii- 
larly that worn by the knights of the 
garter. 

CHAPLAIN. In England, originally 
signilieit one who performed divine service 
in a clia|>el, but now more commonly one 
whoallejids U|K>n the king, or other person 
(d'qiiallty, for the |)erlbrniance of his cleri- 
cal iluties ill the family The term is also 
applied to the clergj'man attached to the 
navy or army. 

CHAPLET. A wreath or garland worn 
alioiit the head. Chaplets are borne in 
mats of arms, as tropnies or ensigns of 
military prowess. 

CHAPTER. A body of the clergy he- 
lunging to a cathedral, collegiate, or con- 
ventual rhuri'ti : also the place uf their 
meetiii!:, in England. 

CHARA(;TER. Any mark whirhseives 
as a sign to denote some parlici:lar object, 
as the astroniunical chanicters, mailiemati- 
cal characters, &.c. 

CHARADE. A sort of riddle, the mil- 
jert of which is a word of one or two 
syllables. 

CHARCOAL. ThesnlHi .HI.- iVun w.«.d 
half burnt, which is iiim ii .i-M-d in He 
inaniifactiire of ciiniM'wdi-r 

CHARDS OF AKT:» MIXES. The 
leaves of artichoke plauis iMiuiid in stiaw 
till they lose |>art of their jitleriiess, ai.d 
become white 



S8 



CHE 



CHAREWOMAN, or CHARWOMAN. 

Ill England, a wuuian wbo goes out by tiie 
day to job 

CHARGE (in Law). The instructions 
given by the juilge to the j\liy ; In Ecclesj- 
aHtical Law, tlie instructiuns (jiven by a 
bisliop to the clergy of his diocess. 

CHARGE (in Gunnery). Tlie qua-ility 
of powder and ball, or shot, with which a 
gun 18 loaded ; in Electricity, the accuniii- 
lation of electric matter on one surface of 
an electric machine; in Heraldry, whatever 
is liorne on coats of arms, 

CHARGE D'AFFAIRES. A person in- 
trusted with the public interest in a 
foreign nation. 'J"he Charges cl'Aflfaires 
constitute the third or lowest class of 
foreign ministers. 

CHARIOT. An ancient car, in wliich 
armed men used to ride to battle. They 
were furnished with scy'bes, hooka, and 
otJier offensive weapons. 




CHARMS. Incantations or verses used 
by magicians and sorcerers. 

CM.AKK. A small fish of the salmon kind. 

CHARTER. In England, a writing or 
letter pateitt, whereby the king grants pri- 
vileges to towns, corporations, &c. whence 
tlie name of Magna Cliarta, or the Great 
Charter of Li.Serties granted to the people 
o*"tlie whole realm. In the United PtAles, 
Cnnrters are granted by the State legisla- 
tures, or by Congress. 

CHARTS. Draughts or descriptions of 
coasts ; or, in general, projectiims of some 
parts of the sea in plans for the use of 
sailors. 

CHARYRniS A vortex or gulf at the 
entrance of the Sicilian straits, which is 
much celebrated by the ancient writers ; 
but its exaci situation is not known in the 
present day. 

CHASSECRS. A select body of light 
infantry in the French army 

CHASTE-TREE. A tree growing to 
the height of eight or ten feet, having the 
leaves fingered like th;?-*i of hemp. 

CH ATE A n.Formrrlynca^l!i* or baronial 
•eat fn France, now simply a couniry seat. 

CHATTEL.-^ 'in I„iw). Persoiml eoods. 

CHECKV 'In Heraldry). A term fori 



CUE 

the shit^ld, or aity part of \t, when it u<di 
videii Into cheques or sipiares 

CHKEKS. A general name among 
mechuiilcs for pieces of limber in any ma- 
cliiiie, wliicli are two of u kind. 

CHEESE, 'i'lie curd of milk separated 
from the whey, then pressed and hardened, 
and arterwarils left to dry. 

CHEESECAKES. A sort of cakes made 
of curds, sugar, butter. Sec. 

CHEESE-PRESS. A press in which 
the curds are pressed for iinikiiig cliei-se. 

CHEESE-VAT. The case in which i iirds 
are pressed info tlie form of a cliet-se. 

CHEF-D'OEUVRE. A masterpiece or 
superior performance of any artist. 

CHEMISTRY. In natural philosophy, 
the study ot the effects of heut and mix- 
ture, with a view of discovering their 
general and subordinate laws; that 
branch of natural science, as defied by 
Dr. Brande, which inves.igates the 
nature and properties otthe elements of 
matter, and their mutual aclionsand 
combinations. Chemistry determines 
the proportions in which they unite, 
and ascertains the modes of separating 
them when united. It also inquires 
into the laws and powers whicii pre- 
side over and aflect the agencies by 
which material combination or decom- 
position takes place. Organic chem- 
istry is the chemistry of vegetable and 
animal compounds; and Inorganic 
chemistry is that which investigates 
inorganic compounds. In the Atomic 
Theory of chemistry there are certain 
Chemical Symbols and Equivalents 
which have been adoi^ted for the pur- 
pose of expressing by letters and figures 
the definite jiroijortions in which sub- 
stances chemically combine; and these 
are presented in a tabular form under 
the article Atomic Theory, to which the 
reader is referred. 

CHEIIISTRY, History of. Chemistry 
as a i^racticalart connected with metal- 
lurgy, or the extraction of metals from 
their ores, was of high antiquity, for wa 
learn from Scripture that Tubal Cain, 
the eighth from Adam, was an expert 
artificer in brass and iron. Various 
branches of the chemical art, such as 
the preservation of vinous liquors, dye- 
ing, tanning, making glass, and various 
preparations in pharmacy and cooking 
were in use at a very early period: be- 
sides the famous Egyptian philosopher, 
called by the Greeks Hermes, and tho 
Romans Mercury, is reputed to have 
been versed in many chemical arts, and 
to have been the founder of tlie chemi- 
cal science, at least in that nation. From 
the Egyptians, Democritus, a Greek, 
learned the art of softening ivory, of 
vitrifying plants, andimitating precious 
stones, which ho communicated to his 
countrymen. After his time we read of 
many metallic preparations, as cerus«. 



CHE 

rerdi^s, letharge, &c. Dioscorides de- 
scribes the distillatiou of mercury from 
cinnabar; but their process of distilla- 
tion cousistei in the separation of the 
air, or the more subtle parts of water, 
from the rest of the matter, which was 
done by putting the matter to be distil- 
led into a vessel, the mouth oi which 
wa3 covereJ with a wet cloth, and by 
this mcaus the steams of the ascending 
vajjor were condensed, which were af- 
terwards procure.l by wrinfjiug out the 
cloth. Such is tho distillation spoken 
of by Galen, Oribasius, and Paulus 
jigiiieta. Alter the couquesfs of the 
Saracens in the seventh auvl eighth cen 
turies, chemical rese:irohes began to be 
more enlarged. Ueber, Avicenua, and 
other .\rabian physicians ntroduced 
into the materia medica many prepara- , 
tious both vegetable and mineral; but 
the knowledge of those chemical agents, 
the acids and tho alkalis, was at that 
time exceedingly imperfect, for, except 
tho acetous acid and soda, there is no 
mention of these matters until many 
years alter. Roger Bacon does not ap- 
pear to have been acquainted with them 
in the twelfth century, and Kaymond 
LuUy only hints at the existence of the 
marine acid. 

There was one circumstance at this 
period which contributed more than 
any other to the improvement of chem- 
istry, that was the then growing at- 
tachment to the study of alchemy, and 
the search after the philosopher s stone, 
which, though false in principle, yet led 
in its results to a more extensive ac 
quaintauce with tho composition of 
mineral bodies. After tho introduction 
of this art, which, as its name denotes, 
was of Arabian origin, we read of alcohol 
and the newly discovered menstrua, 
wjich were powerfiilly applied to the 
transmutation of metals into gold. Al- 
though the futility of such pursuits 
served to bring the science oi chemistry 
for some time into dispute, yet the 
ku nvledge which was acquired of metala 
an I minerals by such repeated opera- 
tions upon them, was turned to the 
useiul purposes of medicine. To the 
alchemists we ai"e indebted for the 
methods of preparing spirits of wine, 
aquafortis, volatile alkali, vitriolic a<-id, 
gunpowder, &c. In the improvement 
of medicine by means of chemistry, 
Basil Valentine stood foremost. In his 
Currus Triumphalis ,\ntimonii. he com- 
municated to the public a number of 
valuable antimonial medicines. Parac- 
elsus, another chemical proie-ssor, was 
so sanguine in the application of his fa- 
vorite science, that he opposed himself 
to the ijractice ot Oalen, and endeavored 
to cure all disorders by chemical prep- 
arations. He was followed by Van Hel- 
mont, Glauber, and Lemery, who all 
applied their knowledge of chemistry to 
the service of medicine. The science of 
metallurgy at the same time made cor- 
responding advances. .-Vyricola, who 



CM' 



89 



waa a coutemporary with Paracelsus, 
laid the foundation for a correct knowl- 
edge of metals. Lazarus Ecker, Schul- 
ten, and many other Germans, described 
the processes of a-ssaying metals. An- 
thony Neri Tr. Merret, and Kunkel, th* 
discoverer of the phosphate of urine, 
have explained the processes of making 
glass, oiamels, &c. but their writings 
were not entirely tree from the alchem- 
ical illusions ot the day. Kirchcr and 
Conryngius, who followed them, suc- 
ceeded in purifying the science of chem- 
istry from thes9 errors. Since that time 
chemistry has assumed a new and sys- 
tematic form, to which the writings and 
discoveries of many distinguished men 
in the course of the last two centuries 
have materially contributed, as Bacon, 
Boyle, Newton, Boerhaave, Geoffroy, 
Reaumur. Lavoisier. Stahl, and Berg- 
man. To this list might be added tho 
works of Brande. Ure, Faraday, Laurent, 
Hoffman, and others in our own time, 
who have digested the improvements 
and corrected or enlarged them by 
farther experiments. 

CHERVI!^. An uniJ>elliferoiis plant 
whose leaves are dividcil into many seg- 
Bients. 

CHESS. A very difficult frame, pertbnn- 
ed with little nmiid pieces nf wcmuI, on a 
board divided Into sixty-four squares. 
Each side has eight men, consisting of a 
kinp, queen, two knights, two bishops, and 
two riMiks or castles, l>esides eight pawns 
or foot soldiers; which are all moved ac- 
cording to certain rides. 

CHESS- BOARD, 'i'lie board on .vnich 
♦Jje game of chess is played. 




CHEf S-ROOK. Another name for th» 
castles which stand at the outer corners »t 
the chess hoard. 

CHEST (in Anatomy). The breast, tMi»- 
nx, or tha! part of the human IxKly whici 
contains tlie lieart and lungs. 

CHKST.N'UT. A tree bearing a ver>- 

ronuhcoated fruit of the same name. Th 

wkkI was formerly nnich valued as timhel 

in England, and is now used in the line 

' kinds cf joinery work In Uie United 



90 



CHI 



Msttes it is leldom employed )xce\ as tim- 
ber <w fuel. 

CHEVALIER Literally a kniglit or 
horseiiinn, answering to the English cava- 
li«r. 

criEVAUX DE FRTSE (in Fortifica- 
tion). A sort of tiirn|>ikes or tcuriieiiiiots, 
consisting of spars of wmid set into a piece 
of timber, and armed with a short spike, 
•o »s to point all ways They serve to 
•top up breaches 




CHEVRON (in Heraldry). One of the 
nonourable ordmaries. representing two 
rafters of a honse joined tugether in chief, 
such as carpenters i<et on the highest part 
of a liouse to support tlie roof 




cm\RO OBSCURO. See Claro 

!>B4CfllO. 

CIIICKWEED. An annual. 

CHIEF (in Heraldry). One ..f the hon 
curable ordinaries, which occupies the neaa 
or upper p.irt of the escutcheon. As the 
head is the chief part of a man, so is the 
chief the principal part of the escutcheon, 
and contains a third part of the tield. 







CHIEF The head man of a tribe of 
Indians. 

CHILTERN HITNDREDS. A hilly dis- 
trict of Bucking laiushire, England, which 
lias b^lon^ed to the crown from tin e im- 
8* 



CHI 

menuirial, having the office of Steward of 
tlie Cliilterii [lundr'-ils .ittached to it. By 
tbe accepljince of lliis ortire, any iiiemher 
of parliament Is riial)led In varair Ins seat; 
for as no menilicr can retain his seal 
after accrpting an oltiif , su likewise every 
member wishing to varaie Ins seal is obli 
ged to do it in this manner ; llial is, in the 
usual phnise, 'accept the Chiliern Hun 
dreds.' 

CHI.Mi*:RA (in the Heathen Mytholc 
gy). A moiisier feigned to he like a lion 
in the forepart, a dragon behind, and s 
goat in the iiiiddle. 

CHIMES OF A CLOCK. A particular 
apparatus, by which the clock at certain 
times is enabled to play certain tunes. 

CHl.M.NEV. That part of a house which, 
Int'clie means of a funnel, serves to carr 
off the smoke. Various devices have bee. > 
trieil to prevent the smoking of chinineya, 
as the carrying them upzig/.ag, or narrower 
at the top than at the bottom, and tlie like, 
which have all been found Inetfectiial. It 
is now supposed tliat chimneys should \>e 
built a.s nearly |)eri)endicular as |M)ss!lile, 
should be free fnvn all rongliiiess in the 
inside, and be a little wider at the topthar 
at the base. 

CHINTZ. A fine Imlian painted caller 
Also cotton giK)ds made elsewhere in imi- 
tation of it. 

CHIP saUIRREL. A beautiful little 
striped animal common In the wiods of 
North America. 

CHINCHILLA. A beautiful littleanlma 
of Peru, probably of the rat kind, wljicb 
produces a fur much in use. 




CHFROMANCY. The pretended art of 
foretelling a person's fortune by the lines 
in his hands. 

CHIVALRY. The name anciently given 
to kni<.'litli<M>d, a military digiiily ; also the 
martial e.xplolts and qnallfiiations of i 
knight. Chlvr.lr>', as a military dignity, 
is »up|Hised by some tti have l.-iken its rise 
from the crusades, because these expedi- 
tions gave rise to many chivalrous exploita 



CHR 

and Tenia nf arms ; but it Is evident that 
its oricin may lie (raced iniich liigher, to 
tbe nttrtlifrii iiatiiiris who settled in biirnpe 
on the decline of the Roman en\|iire, 
whose martial halilt:* and temper led them 
to make valour and prowess, the only 
sources of honour and distinction. 

cm Vies. A sort of small onions. 

CHLORINE. A gaseous body of a green 
yellow CO our. 

CHI.ORri'Kf. A kind of gr^en jasper, 
ali>ii>st as pellucid as the coarse eme- 
rald. 

CHOCOLATE (in Commercel. A kind 
•f paste, prepared cliietiy from the cocoa 
nut, with a mixture of other in!?»)dieiits 

CHOCOLATi: TRt;i;. A species of the 
cocoa tree, from the friHt of which the 
chocolate is prepared. 

CHOIR. That part of a cathedral where 
the service is performed. 

CHOKEDAMI' (in Mining). The noxi- 
ous air occasionally found at the bottom 
of mines. 

CHOKEPEAR. A very rough tasted 
pear. 

CHOLERA MORBUS. A disease con- 
sisting of a violent perturbation in the 
helly, arcompanied with a discharge of 
bile upwards and downwards. 

CHORD (ill Geometry). A right line, 
drawn from one part of an arc of a circle 
to another. 

CHORDS fin Music) Strings, by the 
vibration of which the sensation of sound 
is excited. 

CH(JROGRAPHY. A part of geogra- 
phy, which treats of the description of 
particular countries. 

CHORUS. A company of persons all 
singing in concert. 

CHRISM. An unclioii or anointing of 
children, which wa.s formerly practised as 
soon as they were born. 

CHRIST. Which properly signifies 
anointed, is the name of the ever blessed 
Redeemer of the world. 

CHISTENDOM. The whole Christian 
world. 

CHRfSTEJINO. Tlie ceremony of 
admitting a person into the communion 
of the Christian church, by means of bap- 
tism, or sprinkling with water. It is a 
term particularly applied to infant bap- 
tism. 

CIIR[STl,\N. One who professes the 
Christian religion. 

CHRIST.MAS. A festival observed in 
Die ('hri.'iti ui church, on the tvveiity-liflh 
•f neceml)er, in commemoration of our 
Saviour's nativity. 

CHROMA. A soft kind of music. 



CHR 



91 



CHROMATrCS. That part of optics, 
which explains the several properties of 
light and colour. 

CHRONICAL. An epithet for diseases 
of loll* duration. 

CHRONOLOGY. The science which 
teaches the measures and divisions of lime 
The divisions of time are either natural or 
nrtiticial ; the natural divisions of time ar» 
the year, month, week, day, and hour, 
deduced from the motions of the heavenly 
bodies, and suited to the purposes of civil 
life ; the artiticial divisions of time are the 
cycle or jieriod, the epoch, and the a;ra 
or ejKH'lia, which have lieen framed for 
the piirfMises of history. 

CHRONOLOGY, History of. Chro- 
nology, as regards the nntiirni divisions of 
time, wasdoubtl ess coeval with thecreation, 
for we learn from the sacred historian that 
the work of creation was performed within 
the period of a week,or8even days, whence 
this division was observed by the Hebrews, 
and from them transmitted to the Egyp- 
tians and other nations. But the Persians 
are said to have been ignorant of such a 
division. The Greeks had weeks of ten 
days, and tlie Romans weeks of eight days. 
It is evident from the names of the days of 
the week among most European nations, 
that we derive this division from the an- 
cient Celts or Scythians, who, in all pro- 
bability, at the dispersion of mankind after 
the deluge, borrowed this patriarchal mode 
of measuring time. The year is that divi- 
sion of time which was regulated by the 
motions of the sun, being that period of 
time in which the sun passes through the 
signs of the zodiac. This division was 
doubtless formed at the time that astro- 
nomical observations were fi/st made ; but 
the Eg)'ptians are the first people on record 
who formed this division, winch they mads 
to consist of D'iO days, and subdivided into 
12 months of 30 days each ; to these Tris- 
megistus is said to have added five mov 
days. The ancient Jewish year was th » 
same as the Egyptian ; but on their de - 
partiire from Egypt they adopted the luna 
year, consisting of 30 days and 29 dayi 
alternately, and in order to make it agree 
with the solar year, they sometimes added 
11 or 12 days at the end of the year, and 
sometimes a whole month after a certain 
number of years. The Greeks also reck- 
oned by the same kind of year. The 
ancient Roman year was also lunar, and 
at first consisted of 10 months of 30 and 
31 days ; two months were afterwardt 
added by Nunia Pompilius, which con- 
sisted of 29 and 31 days, making in tlM 
whole '.V>b days. Julius Cesar first r« 



92 



CHRONOLOGY. 



/orineJ Uie calendar, Hiifl addpled llie solar 
yeiir of atij days in the cuiiirium year, 
Willi lli«* addiliiin cil' u day in every fourth 
jreiir, called lilsseMile, or Leap Year ; in 
order ii' adjust the toin|iulation to tlie true 
solar year, ll was then retkoned ytiS days 
B hours, hut as the true solar year was 
found to he yii5 days, '> hours, 4H iniiiutes, 
4« seconds, a fartlier relbriuatioii of lliis 
calendar lias heeii made on the assumption 
that the solar year consisla of 3t>.") days, 
5 hours, and 4!1 minutes. Accordiiigto this 
coniputatiiui, which was made liy i'ope 
Gregory Xlll. in 158-2, and thence called 
:lie (Jregorian style, an intercalation id"oiie 
day in Fehriiary should lie made every 
fourth year, and that the sixteen hundredth 
year of t]ie Oirislian u;ra, and every Iburth 
century hereat^er, should be a hissextile or 
leap ) ear. One day consequently is to he 
intercalated in the years aiKli). -2400, 'XIO, 
tLC; hut in the iiitervenin<; centuries 17U0, 
16«i), IIWO, -2100, &c. it is to he suppressed, 
tind they are to he reckmied comnion. 
fttoreover ai!< the e(|uino\es had fallen back 
teu days and ttie full moons four days, 
aiiice the Nicene council, a. d. 3125, he 
ardained that ten days should he cut otf 
ktXer the fourth of October, so that the tifth 
ilniii Id be the fifteenth. Thisinodeofreckoti- 
iiig, which is now introduced in most coun- 
tries of Kurofie, is called the New Style, 
to distinguish it from tho Old Style, or the 
former reckoning. This is liowever still 
not (lerfectly correct, fur as the excess of 
the Julian year, within the space four 
centuries, is three days, one hour, and 
twenty minutes, tliat of the Grejiorian is 
one liimr and twenty minutes within the 
»anie period, or aliout a day in 7200 years. 
Resides these alterations in the form and 
length of the year, attempts had been made 
by the Greeks at an early period to adjust 
ill their reckonings the lunar year to the 
«>lar year, for vvliich purpose they hit on 
the device of framing cycles or series of 
year*, which being iiumlwred in an orderly 
luanner from tirst to last, should return to 
,lie same point of reckoning from which 
they commenced. The first of these cycles 
was framed by Cleostraliis, alniul 5.'J2 years 
l>efore Christ. It cmisisted of eight years, 
or 2'>22 days, during the course of which 
16 lunations would elapse of 29 and 30 
ttys alternately, together with three inter- 
calary inontli*. By this cycle he proposed 
to adjust the lunar to the solar year, so 
that at the conclusiiui of each cycle the 
innon should be renewed, but lie failed in 
hi* nbject, for at the end of I(i years 
Cherw was found to he nil error of three 
i*"*, winch III the space of l(M years would 



amount to more than ti whole month The 
iMetoiiic Cycle, lurined by Melon at th« 
commencenient of the I'elopiuinesian war, 
for the purpose of correcting the former, 
consisted of 19 years, at the end of wliicti 
the sun and moon would be in the same 
quarter. This cycle, winch was so much 
esteemed by the Greeks as to be called 
the Golden Miimber, nevertheless failed to 
the amount of eight or ten hours at the 
end of one period, and of three days in 133 
years 'i'lie cycle of Eliidoxiis w^ au im- 
lirovement on that of Cleostraliis, by siih- 
tracting a month of 30 days from a )ierio<i 
of 16D years, which was supposed lo l>« 
equal to the ditierence that would subsist 
at the expiration of that |)erio<l between tho 
solar and the lunar motions. I'lie Calippic 
I'eriod, contrived by Calippiis at the new 
iiKHri of the summer a. c. 3:11, was in- 
teniled as an improvement upon that uf 
Melin, which It multiplied by four, so as 
lo make a period of 7Gyears,or27,7.'i9day8, 
As 940 Innalions are equal lo 97,758 days, 
9 hours, 5 minutes, and 9 seconds, which 
is only 40' 29" 57'" less than 7B 9<dar 
tropical years, it follows thai the lunar 
motion, according to this calculation, did 
not vary more than 14 hours, 13 minutesi 
and 22 seconds, wherefore this |ieriod has 
been chosen to form tlie basis to the modern 
cycle of the moon, which is said to liave 
commenced one year before the Christian 
lera. There is also a solar cycle, consist- 
ing of a series of 2b years, at the completion 
of wliich the same order of bissextile and 
dominical letters return, a cycle which 
came into use in the early ages of Chri.«- 
tianity ; besides the cycle of indiction, or 
a series of 15 years, introduced in tlie 
reign of Constant iiie; the Kpacts, or ex- 
cesses of any solar revoliitimis above the 
lunar, which were introduced for the piir- 
jiose of ascertaining the time when liaster 
ought to be celebrated ; the Dionysian 
Period, or series of 532 years, formed by 
Dioiiysiiis Exiguus, a Kmnan abbot, by 
multiplying the solar cycle 2ti into the lunar 
19, for the purpose of restoring the new 
and full moons to the same day ; and 
lastly, the Julian Period, invented by 
Scaliger, and so called because it is adapted 
to the Julian year ; this is a series of yeiVs 
formed by the niiiltiplication of the solai 
and lunar cycles and the cycle of indiction 
Into one another, making the sum of 7980 
Julian years. 

The application of chronology to history 
is of companitively modern dale In 
Homer and other ancient writers there 
appears to have been no idea of recording 
Kvenls in any exact order uf time. Th» 



CM Y 

puccj-ssinn of Jiino'n (iriestessrs nt ArgdS 
B«Tv«-(l llellaiiiriis lor tlit- regulation of 
liix liisiory, hill tli« pri(i(-i|iiil (ireek liiii- 
torlani' lollovveil no oilier o'nlT tlisiii what 
wan ruriii!i|ied by tlif s^rifs ol events wliicli 
they narrated. Tlie Koniaii liistoriaii Livy 
detines tlie |ieriods of the events described 
n his history liy the a|iiHilnlnieiit uf con- 
suls, and afterwards the succession of eiii- 
peroni ami kings served a similar |iiir|»ose 
in forming llie histories of other l^iiro|>ean 
n.iiioiis until a more exact c«iin|iutation uf 
v.'iie be^an to be observed. 

CHRO.NOMKTKIl. An instrument for 
the exact measiireiiieiil nt time. 

CHRVS.AMS. Tlie second state of an 
insect, which it passes into from the cater- 
pillar or reptile form, previous to its be- 
coming a butterliy or a moth, Slc. 



CH V 



93 




CffUn. A river fish of the carp kind, 
•«> railed on account of its creat head. 

CHRONOGRAM. An inscription in 
whicn numeral letters occurring in 
tile words are made to express the date 
or epoch of the action mentioned, as in 
tae motto of a medal struck by Gusta 
VU3 AJolphus in 1632. 

ChrlstVs DVX: etgo'trlVMph vs. 
CHRYSANTHEMDM. a genus of com- 
posite plants, of which the Ox-eye Daisy 
and Corn Mangold are familiar exam- 
ples. 

CHRTSOBALAN. A gonus of tropical 
trees. 

CHRYSOBERYL. A precious stone, of 
a yellowish-green color. 

CHRYSOCHLOKE. A genus of small 
insectivorous mauimals, representing 
in .Africa the mole of Europe. Its fur 
reflects most brilliant metallic hues of 
green and gold, a circumstance which 
though common to the outer covering 
of birds, fishes, and insects, has not yet 
been observed in any other quadruped 
than this. 

CHRYSOGRAPHY, The art of writing 
in letters of gold. 

CHRYSOLITE. A precious stone, a va- 
riety of apatite, ot a yellowisli or green- 
ish color. 

CHRYSOLOGY. That branch of politi- 
eal economy which relates to the pro- 
duction of wealth. 

CHRYSOMELA. A genus of beantifol 
beetles. 

CHRYSOPR.ASE. A precious stone, a 
pale green variety of quartz. 

CHRYSOITPE. A photographic pro- 
cess, in which a solution of gold is us«d. 



CHURCH. A pl:vce or building conse- 
crated to tho pubUc worship of God. In 
a restricted sense, a building conse- 
crated to Christian worship and ordin- 
ances; the collective body of Christians. 
Bometiir.ss called the Catholic or uni- 
versal chun-h; a particular body of 
Christians, united under one form of 
eccle-siastical government, in one creed, 
and usiug the .same ritual and ceremon- 
ies, the followers of Christ in a particu- 
lar city or province: the body of clergy, 
or ecclesiastics, in distinction from the 
laity; divine service: ecclesiastical au- 
thority. Invisible Church, the collec- 
tive body of saints in heaven and on 
earth. 

CHYLE. In animal physiology, a milky 
fluid ^.euerated in the stomach during 
the process ot digestion, by the action 
of the pancreatic juice and the bile ou 
the chyme, and which being absorbe<l 
by the lacteal ve.ssels is gradually a.?- 
similated into blood. 

CHYME. That particular modificatioi , 
which food first assumes after it has uc 
dergone the action ot the stomach, aui 
which, after the chyle has been separ- 
ated from it, becomes excrementitiou« 
matter. 

CIBORIITM. An in.inlated arched vault 
on four columns: any insulated taber- 
nacle; the tomb of a martyr, sculptured 
and used as aii altar: the coffer contain 
ing the host . in Roman Catholic cere- 
monies; a large drinking cup; the 
Egyptian bean. 

CICADA. A genus of hemrpteroua in- 
sects of many species, living on trees or 
, shrubs, popularly called tree-hoppers. 
I frog-hoppers.. &c., and in some places. 
I erroneously, locusts. 

CICATRICE. A scar: a little seam cr 
elevation of flesh remaining after 

! wound or ulcer is healed; a cicatrix- a 
mark; an impression. 
CICATRICLE. The germinating or 
foetal point in the embryo of a seed or 
I the yolk. of an egg. 

! CICELY. A plant, a species of Chsero- 
phyllum. The Sweet Cicely is the 
Myrrhis odorata. 
) CICERONE. A guide; one who shows 
i and explains to strangers the curiosities 
! of a place. 

I CICINDELA. A genus of coleopterous 
carnivorous insects, popolarly called 
the Sparklers, in allusion to their rich 
metallic colors. 

CHEF-DCEUVRE. A masterpiece 
or superior performance of ,iny artist. 
CHERRY. The well known fruit 
of a tree which was introduced iuta 
Britain at the time of its invasion by 
the Romans. 

CHERUBIM. An order of angels 
composed of various animals, as a mai^ 
an ox, an eagle, and a lioa 



94 



CIC 



cm 



CICONT A. A genus of wading birds 
(the stoika), the largest of the herou 
family. 

CILIA. In anatomy, the haira which 
grow from the margin of the eyelids. 
—In botany, long haira on plants or 
leaves. 

CILIARY. Belonging to the eye- 
lashes. 

CILIOBRACHIATE. In physiology, 
having the arms provided with cilia, 
more especially applied to a class of 
Poly pods. 

CILIOGRADES. A tribe of the 
Acaleplians, or Sea-nettles, which swim 
by means of cilia. 

CIMBIA . In architecture, a fillet or 
band round the shaft of a column. 

Ci.MICIDES. An extensive tribe of 
hemipterous insects, of which Cimex 
lectuarius, or common bedbug, ia the 
type. 

CIMMERIAN. Pertaining to the 
Cimnierii, or their country; extremely 
and perpetually dark. The Cimmerii 
were an ancient people of the land now 
called the Crimea, and their country 
being subject to heavy fogs, was fabled 
to be involved in deep and continual 
ob.scurity. Ancient poets also men- 
tion a people of this name who dwelt 
ill a valley near Lake Averiius, in 
Italy, which the sun was said never to 
Tisit. 

CIMOLITE. In mineralogy, a light 
grey silicate of alumina, from the island 
of Cimolo. 

CINCHONA. A celebrated tree in 
Peru, which produces Peruvian bark, 
and also its extract, quiniue, both ex- 
tensivelv used in medicine. 

CI^fCHONACE^. A native order 
of plants, the Rubiaceas of Jussieu and 
other botanists, of which cinchona is 
the type. 

CI>ICHONINE. A -vegetable alkali 
fonnd in cinchona. 

CINCHONATE. A salt formed of 
oinchnnic acid and a base. 

C INERITIOUS. Resembling ash«8 ; 
grey. 

CINGULUM. In zoology, a term 
applied to the neck of a tooth, or that 
coustriction which separates the crown 
from the fang. 

CINNAB.^R. In mineralogy, a beau- 
tiful red pigment, the sulphnret of mer- 
cury. Vermilion is pure cinnabar, being 
a compound of mercury and sulphur in 
ne.ii'ly the same proportion, viz. : mer- 
cury, 84'50; sulphur, 14'75: sp. gr. 
6-7— 8-2. 

CINN AMIC ACID. An acid formed 
in translucent prisms from oil of cin- 
Uj^mon. 

CINNAMON STONE. A mineral 
of a red color found in Ceylon and 
3raEil. It is composed of silica, alu- 
mina, lime, and oxide of iron. 

CINNYIUD.£. In omilbology, a 



family of birds, the Snn-birds, which 
are distinguished by their brilliant 
plumage: Ciunyria is the type and 
genus. 

CINQUEEOIL. In botany, a five- 
leaved clover; the common name of 
plants of the genua Potentilla. — In 
architecture, a five-leaved ornament, in 
circular and other divi.sions of the 
windows of ancient churches. 

CINQCE-PORTS. Originally, five 
English i)Ortson the eastern coast, viz., 
Dover, Sandwich, Hasting.s, Romney, 
and Hythe, but to these AYinchelsea, 
Rye, and Seaford, were afterwards 
added. 

CINQUE-SPOTTED. Having five 
spots. 

CINTER. In architecture, the fram- 
ing erected between piers to support 
the materials of an arch during erec- 
tion, till it ia keyed. 

CIPHER. The arithmetical char- 
acter 0, or zero, which signifies nothing 
by itself, but when placed at the right 
hand of any common number, increases 
it tenfold, or on the left of a decimal, 
decrea.ses it in like proportion; any 
arithmetical figure; a number; a char- 
acter in general; an intertextnre of 
letters, as the initials of a name; a de- 
vice ; an enigmatical cliaractf r, a secret 
or disguised manner of writing ; cer- 
tain characters agreed on by two or 
more persons to stand for letters or 
words, and understood only by them. 
In figurative language, a thing of no 
consequence or importance; a nonen- 
tity. 

CIPHER-KET. A key for decipher- 
ing writings. 

CIPHERING. The act or art of 
computing by numbers; arithmetic. 

CIPOLIN. In mineralogy, a green 
Italian marble, with white zones. That 
from Rome contains cai'bonate of lime, 
quartz, schist, anil a little iron. 

CIPPUS. In antiqnity, a small monu- 
mental column, bearing an inscription 
or epitaph ; a sign-post. 

CIRCAR. In Hindostan, a district 
or province. 

CIRCASSIAN. Pertaining to Cir- 
cassia; a native of Circassia- a kind of 
woollen cloth. 

CIRCEAN. Pertaining to Circe, a 
fabled goddess of antiquity, celebrated 
for her knowledge of magic and venom- 
ous herbs, by which she was able to 
fascinate and work her incantations; 
hence, magical, venomous. 

CIRCINAL, OR CIRCINATE. In 
botany, applied to a leaf when spirally 
rolled up from the apex towards the 
base, as in ferns. 

CIRCINITS. The Compasses,— a con- 
stellation of four stars near the South 
Pole. 

CIRCITJM. In botany, a name of 
the fenus Carduos. 



CIR 

CIRCLE. A plain fipire bounded by 
coe line onl •, called the circiiinference, 
a^'B C II, tu which all the lines drawn to 
it from a point in the niiddie, called the 
centre, aa A B, A C, and A D are eqnal 
to each other. Th« line which divides it 
into two equal parts is called the diameter, 
as B D. Kvery circle is supposed to be 
divided into 3S0 parts or degrees, where- 
fore ancles are mea-sured by the arc of a 
circle, thus R A C, which is a right angle, 
ic txjual tu the arc B C, or 90 degrees. 



CIV 



•6 




CIRCUITS, fn England, certain divi- 
•ions ot the kingdiiin, lliroii^h which the 
jutlges iBiss mice a y«-ar, or ofXeiier, to hold 
courts and aduiinii^ter justice. A similar 
division exists in the United States in re- 
spect to the natiiinal court. 

CIRCULATION (in Anatomy). The 
natural motion of the blood in a living an- 
imal, whereby it proceeds from the heart 
to all parts of the body by the arteries, and 
returns to the heart by the veins. 

CIRCUMFERE.N'CE. The curve line 
which bourn's a circle. 

CIRCUMKERENTOR. An instrument 
■aed by lurveyom for talcing angles. 




CIRCUMFT.EX. An accent in Gram- 
mar, marked in Greek thus ( •), in I^tin 
thus ("), to regulate the pronunciation. 

CIRCUMLOCUTIO.V. Theiiescribing 
a thing by many words, which might be 
explained by a few. 

CIRCUM!»TA.\TIAL. An ephhet in 
taw, for evidence drawn indirectly from 
Circumstaices, as distinguislied from posi- 
tive proofs. 

CIRCUMVALLATION, or A LINE 
OP CIRCUMVALLATION. A trench 
Buown up qui.« round a besieger's camp. 



CIRCUS. A circular building at Rome 
where games were exhibited ; It is now 
used to designate a place where featx of 
horsemanship are exhibited. In Archi- 
tecture, an assemblage of bouses liuill m 
as to fonn a circle. 

CITRIC ACID. The acid of limes. 

CITRON. A species of the lemon, whieli 
is much cultivated in Persim and the warm 
climates of Europe. 




CITY In England, « corporate town 
having a bishop's see, and a cathedril 
town. Tliis distinction is not always olt- 
served in common discourse, for they saV 
the town of Ely, which is a bishop's se*, 
and the city of Westminster, which at 
present has no see. In the United .«ia!e« 
the lemi is applied to any inc<iriMirat«Mt 
town, which has a m.iyor and aldermen. 
By geographical writers it is loosely appli- 
ed to any large town. 

CIVET CAT. An animal of the weasel 
kind, about two feet in length exclusive o( 
the tail. It is a native of warm climate*, 
but many of them are kept in Euroiie, par-- 
ticuiarly in Holland, for the civet This is 
taken from a bag under its tail, and is • ■ 
fat substance, having the smell of nnisk, 
and used as a perfume. 




CIVILIAN Adoctororprofeworofthe 
civil law. 

CIVILLAW, otherwise callet ^MPcaiAt 
Law The law of the Roman impire, 
digested from the lawa of the republic wi 



tt6 



CLE 



Ib'Xie nf thflptn pen irs. anil n Inpted hy most 
of III* niUionsof Kiiri>|>e. Tlii" law i« iisetl 
nr.Art Cfriaiii restrictions in the ecclesias- 
tical co'irts, Kiiplnnil, as also in the univer- 
sity courts and conn of the admiralty. 

CIVIC CROWN. A garland composed 
of oak leaves, which was si ven to a Koman 
■oilier who had saved the life of a citizen. 




CIVIL YKAR. That form of the year 
^^■hiclI each nation has adopted for com- 
puting their time hy. The civil year in 
Europe, and America, consists ot SfW days 
tor the common year, and lUitidays for leap 
ye.v, which happens every fourth year. 

CLARIFICATION. The making any 
ii<]iii'l, hy a chymical process, clear from 
im{>iirities. 

, Cl.ARINKT A wind instniment of 
'be reed kind. 

CLARO, or Chiaro Omci'Ro (In Paint- 
ing). The irrt of di.strihiiting to advantage 
the tights and shadows of a piece. 

CLASS. A term applied to the general 
divisions of any subject, as \n the Linnn^an 
.system, animaU, plants, and minerals are 
divided into classes. 

CLASSICAL. A term applied toauthors 
of standard authority, particularly the 
w-riters among the (Jreeks and the Romans, 
whoxe works are comprehended under the 
name of the Classics. 

CLAVICLES. Tlie two channel hones 
wliich fasten the shoulder btmes and the 
t-reast hitne. 

CLAY. A sort offat clammy earth, stiff", 
viscid, and ductile to a gre<it <Iegree. The 
clays are opaipie and noncr>stallized bo- 
dies, andof dull fnicture. They form with 
water a plastic paste, possessing consider- 
nb e tenacity, which may be hardened with 
heal. BO as to strike fire with steel. The 
(-.-iiwipal clays are |M)rcelain clay, consist- 
ing ^if si ica and alumina; marl clay, cnn- 
taintnz some carbonate of lime ; pipe clay, 
reqmrinj a high lemperalnre for fusion ; 
and poller's clay, which is used for coarse 
jKillecy. 

CLE.MATIS. A climbing shmb, other- 
Wise called the Virgin's Bower, or Wild 



CLO 

Climbers. The common sort, bearing a 
bluisli Mower, is a native of the south of 
Eiir(>i>e 

CL1>R(;V. A general name for all p«r- 
sons in holy orders. 

CI.KRK (in l^aw). A clergyman; In 
Commerce, one who keeps a merchant's 
accounts. 

CLI ENT. One who retains a lawyer to 
manage or pleail iiis cause. 

CLlFforlM.EK (in Music). A mark 
set at the l>egiiining of a soim, to show the 
key in which the 4iiece i» to be (lerfornied. 

CLIMATES. Spaces upon the surface 
of the terrestrial globe, contained between 
two parallels of latitudes, so far distant 
from each other, tlial the longest day on 
one parallel, differs half an hour, rroiii the 
longest day on the other. It is also used 
to denote the general character of the wea- 
ther and temperature, in any given place. 

CLOAK. An upper loose garment, worn 
over the clothes in cold or rainy weather. 

CLOCK. A machine for ineasuriugtinie, 
which tells the hour by a stroke upon a 
bell. In order that the clock may be an 
equable measure of the solar day, which is 
unequal, it is usual for clocks and watches 
to go a few minutes faster or slower than 
the sun. 

CLOISTERS. Covered passages, such 
as were formerly attached to cloisters or 
other religious houses. 

CLOTH. Any kind of stuff that is w(>- 
ven or manufactured in the loom, whether 
it be made of wool, hemp, or Hax. 

CLOTHIKR, or CLOTHWDRKER 
A manufacturer of cloth. In the I'niteu 
States, It is applied exclusively to those 
who dress and colour cloths. 

CLOVE. An Indian spice, the fniit c 




the clove tree, which grovrs in *e spiee 
islands in tlie Pacific Ocean. 



COA 

CI<OlTD A mass of vapour, more or 
ess o|n({ii«, drawn or sent out of the earth 
into the alilio8|>!irre. VV'hfu coudeiiMsd 
Into water, they fall in rain. 

CLOVE aiLLIFLOWER, or CLOVE 
PINK. A riaer kind ofpiuk cultivated in 
gardens. 

CLOVER. A kind of threeleaved grass 
•r trefoil ; it is much used as a food for cat- 
tle. 

CLyPTF.tl. An instrument for the in- 
jection of any fluid into the hody. 

CO. An alilireviatioR of coniiiany. 

COAX. In mineralogy, an inflammable 
fosail Kuusiauce, oi vegetable origin, 
found emueJuea iu strata of different 
tiiicUaess. It appears to have been pro- 
duceJ, iu primeval ages, by tbe long- 
continued decomposition of wood, by 
wuicu 9 atoms of carbonic ai\id, 3 of 
carburetted hydrogen, and 3 of water 
have been separaMjd. The coal ol the 
ternary strata of the earth's crnst is 
generally lignite-wood or brown coal, 
ill geology, the coal formationi coal- 
helos, or coal measures are a series of 
deposits c^n-iisting ot coal, limestone, 
ironstone, tjaudstone, and shales of va- 
rious kinds and thicknesses. 

In America, it was first discovered by 
Father Hennepin, in llWS, on the Illinois 
Uiver where Ottawa now stands. It 
was first used from Virginia, near liich- 
mond, which for many years supplied 
the whole Atlantic market. The first 
Antharcite wassentto Philadelphia, in 
ls03, but was considered of so little 
value that it was used for making side- 
walks. In 1877, we produced over 
21,OUO,000, tons of this now esteemed 
coaL In 182Q, there was produced in 
the United States, of Bituminous and 
Antharcite about 81,600 tons, but iu 1877, 
there was produced 50,000,000 tons. This 
tonnage places our Country as the 
second coal producer iu the world, 
GreaL Britain being first, with an out- 
put of 130,000,000 tons in 1877. With 
regard to extent and accessability the 
United States stand foremost among 
nations, and is destined to become at no 
distant day the great fuel producer of 
the world. We give below the Area of 
the coal fields in various countries. 

COUMSIES. ^ SQtJABB MILES. 

UnitedStatea lifi.OOO 

Nova Scotia 18,000 

Great Britain 11,000 

Spain 3,000 

France 1,800 

Prussia 1,800 

Aus t ria 1 ,800 

Belgium 900 

CUih, Australia^ India, China, &c.. 28.880 

CO.\S'i'EK. A ves.sel employed in jioing 
Irom one port to another along the coast. 

COAT. A jiarment worn commonly 

•pp«rin4Vt ; a thin coverini^ laid or done 

•Tor any iiing, u • coat of paint, Itc. ; in 

9 



coc r. 

Analoiny, the ciembraneoua cover of titif 
pan of ilie bod\', as Uie Cuat^ of ibe eya, 
the stoRKicli. &.C. 

COAT AU.MOUR, or Coat» or Aunt. 
Armorial ensigns or hearings, which «vera 
origiiKtIly |>aii;ted on ilie cuata of arms. 

COATIMOUDI. An animal shafted 
Bomewliat like a race on with a Urns suuul 
flexible like tlie irtiiik of an Eleph:uit 
When asleep it rolls itself iiit<i a lump. 

COAT OF .M.ML. A piece of ariuoui 
made in the form of a shirt, and w;}U{;lil 
over with many iron rliijfs. 

COBALT. A mineral of a gray colour, 
consisting of silver and arsenic, which lat- 
ter is obtained from it in great iiiiautitiesl 
It has never been found pure in nature, but 
mostly in tiie state of an oxide, or alloyed 
with other metals. 

COCAO. See Cocoa. 

COCCULUS IXUICUS, An Indian 
tree producing a poisonous herry, which is 
one ot the deleterious ingreKlients unlaw- 
fully u?ed in the making of beer 

COCHINEAL. An insect which mfJests 
different plants, but particularly the opiiu- 
tia. This insect, when dried, is ii^ecl in 
dyeing a rich scarlet. There is a red lp*r- 
ry whicii grows on an .American tree,cMli«it 
tlie Coccus .Americaniis or Ficiis IndiHiiuK, 
which also yields a beaullful scarlet d\e 

COCHLEA (in .Anatomy). The inieriiaj 
cavity of the ear, so cailed troni its le^ept- 
blaiice to tlie spiral shape of the cochler, 
or snail's shell. 

COCHLE.A (in .Mechanics). One of tlie 
five mechaairal powers, otherwise called'a 
screw. 

COCK. The male of most birds, parti.; 
ularly of the well known domestic Uiwl in 
a farmyard. 

COCK. The name of a part of sevemi 
instruments, as that part of the Uick of a 
musket whiih sustains the jaws, or pietes 
of iron that rereive the Hint ; als<i (he 
wrouglit piece that covers the balance in 
a clock or watrh ; and the s|M>iit whict( is 
put into beer or water barrels, &.c. 

COCKCHAFFER, orTRKE Ueetue. A 
mischievous insect, which devours the 




leaves of trees, &c. The grub, which m 
soft and gray, wttii rMtaceous hea<l ai>4 



99 



coc 



lefi, remains in the earth thre« or more 
years before it is transtbrmeU into the per- 
fect hii^ct. 

CO(JKATOO. A species of parrot, hav- 
ing a svirt tail and a tuft of long feathers 
AH the ■itad. it is a native of the Moluc- 
cas. 

COCKBOAT. A '■mall boat belonging 
i«a shi.i, that is used in rivers. 
. COCKET (in England). The office at 
the Customhouse where the good« to be 
ex]>orted are entered ; also the Custom- 
bouse seal, or the parchment sealed and 
delivered by officers of the customs to mer- 
chants, as a warrant that their goods are 
customed. 

COCK FIGHTING. A cruel sport 
common in England, which consists in 
pitting two cocks against each other, of the 
game breed, and armed with spurs tliat 
inflict deadly wounds. 

COCKING (in Carpentry). A method 
ef securing beams to wallplates. 

COCKLE. A sort of shell fish. 

COCKNEY. A nick name given toone 
who is born and bred in the city of London, 
within the sound of Bow bells. 

COCKPIT. A place where cocks fight ; 
also an apartment in the treasury in Lon- 
don, where the king's speech is read before 
the meeting of parliament. 

COCKPIT. The place in a ship of war 
where the wounded are dressed by the 
surgeon. 

COCK'S COMB. A fine plant cultivated 
in gardens and hot houses. Some sorts are 
annuals and some perennials, 

COCOA NUT TREE. A tree common 
In Asia and South America, which yields 
the fruit called the cocoa nut. The atiell 



C O F 

called by the natives, toddy. The hush A 
Uiesliell is used for making chocolate, aafl 
from the kernel is extriicted an oil. 

COCKSWAIN, vulgarly called Coc«- 
soN. An officer wliu has charge of the 
cockboat. 

COCTION. The reducing the aliment* 
to chyle ; in Surgery, the reducing morbific 
matter to a healtiiy state. 

COD. A large fish which inhabits the 
northern seas, and is much est-->-iued fur 
its flesh. The cod fisheries ou the banks 
of Newfoundland employ three hundred 
vessels and several thousand men. 

COD FISHER. A vessel employeO 
in the cod fisliery ; also the person em- 
ployed. 

CODEX. A name particularly applied 
to the volume, containing the ancient Ro- 
man or lm|>erial law. 

CODICIL. A supplen>ei)t to a will. 

CODLIN. An apple, so called, because 
it is fittest to be cuddled or boiled in 
milk. 

COFFEE. The fruit of the coffee tree, 
and the drink which is made trom it. 

COFFEE ROASTER. An iron utensil, 
in which the cotfee is roasted gradually 
over a fire, until it is iu a fit state for 
grinding. 

COFFEE TREE. A treeofthejasamine 
kind, which bears a berry Known by the 
same name. The berries grow in clusters 
like cherries. The tree w'cch i« a native 
of Arabia bears me best .^offise, and passe* 
under the name of Mccha CoflTee '"t nriv 
duced in the West Indies, tsoutli America 
and the Asiatic Islands. 




of the frtilt leof a bony snbotance, eontaln- 
hig a kernel and a sweet refreshing litjuor. 




COFFER. A ehesl or trunk j in Mintw- 
alogy, a trou;h in whir.li tin ore is >-r(ikPM 
to pieces ; in Fortificiiiiini, a trench cut la 
the bottom of a dry ditch 



col 

rUFfEHDAM. A ease of piling fixeil 
IB the bed of a river, tur llie piir|Huie uf 
kuilding a pier dry. 

COFFIN. A case or box for the recep- 
tion of a deed body, that in to he huned ; 
in the veterinary art, the whole liouf uf a 
liorse'f foot above the cnnmel. 

COG. The tmith of a wheel. 

COGNIZANCE (in Law). The heiiring 
of a thing Judicially ; also the bckiiovv- 
ledgnient of a fine. 

COGNIZANCE OF PLIiA^. InEngland 
I privilege granted by the king to a city 
>r town to hold pleaa of all contracts, &.C. 
(vitliin the liberty of the fraiiciiise ; in Her- 
aldry, the same as the crest. 

COHESION, or Attkaction ok Cohe- 
•io:«. That power by which the jiarticles 
of bodies are held together: the absolute 
cohesion of bodies, is measured by tlie force 
necessary to pull thetn Hsiiiuler. 

COHORT. A military iHidy among the 
Honians, consisting of the tenth of a legion, 
or about t>(IU men. 

COIF. A sort of hood or eap for the 
liead, formerly worn in England, by Ser- 
jeants at law. 

(;olL. The ring or circle formed by a 
cable in coiling or winding it. 

COGNOMEN. The last ot tne three 
names (the other two being the prae- 
noinen aud the uomen) by which it was 
conimou lor the Komaiis of good family 
to be designated; a 8uruanie; the family 
name. 

COGNOVIT. In law, an acknowledg- 
ment by a defendant that the plaintifl's 
claim is just, and consent thatjudgment 
be entered accordingly. 

COIK. A material for cordage, consist- 
ing of the fibres of the cocoa-nut; cord- 
age made of this material. 

COIX. A gentis of tropical East Indian 
grasses, popularly called Job's tears. 

COIN. A corner or cvternal angle; a 
wedge; a quoin; money stamped; a 
piece of metal converted into money, by 
impressing on it marks, figures, or char- 
acters; that which serves for payment. 
In archffiology, a kind of die cut diagon- 
ally, after the manner of a flight of a 
staircase. Current coin is money legal- 
ly stamped, and circulating in tr^e. 
Ancient coins are chiefly those of the 
Jews, Greeks, and Romans, which are 
kept in cabinets as curiosities. 

COKE. Fossil coal deprived of its bit- 
umen, sulphur, or other extraneous or 
volatile matter, by fire. 

COLCOTHAR. The brown-red oxide of 
iron which remains after the distillation 
of the acid from sulphate of iron; it is 
sometimes called crocus martis, and ia 
used in polishing. 

COLIN. A bird of the partridge kind, 
found in America, especially in Vir- 



COL 



99 



COLLlQUAMENTtTM. In pliy.Hi- 
ology. the first riidimeiit.s (f aiiiniiit 
generation ; au extremely traiisjiareut 
fluid in an e^g, observable after two or 
three dava' iiicubatioii, contiiiuing tlio 
fiist rudiments of the iinimnl. 

COLLODION. A solution of gun- 
cottou in a mixture of alcohol and 
ether, used for taking portraits by the 
photographic process. 

COLLUM. In Ixdany, that part.of a 
plant from whicli the Htein and root 
proceed. — Among jewellers, the liori- 
zontal face or plane at the bottom of a 
brilliant. 



COLD.- Not only the sensation of cold 
but the slate of the body which causes the 
sen.-<ation. By some, cold is S4ippused to ba 
a distinct substance, and that when we 
call a body cold, we may be understood ta 
signify, that it absorbs caloric or heat fMm 
other bodies. 

COLEOPTERA. The first order of in- 
sects in the Liuna;an system, comprehend- 
ing all those with four wings, as the beetle, 
glowworm, ladybird, leather eater, &c. 

COLEWORT, or Kale. A variety of 
the cabbage, which thrives in the winier, 
and improves from the action of the frost 
upon it. 

COLIC. A violent pain in the abdomen, 
so called from the colon, the intestine for- 
merly supposed to be atfected. 

COLL.AR. (in Heraldty). An ornament 
for the neck, worn by knights, such as the 
collar of the order of the Gaiter iu the sub- 
joined figure 




COLLATERAL (in Law). A lerni for 
what is sideways, or not direct, as collateral 
kinsmen, those who are not descended from 
oneeummon stock, as the issue of two sous, 
who are collateral kinsmen to one another. 

COLLATIN(J. (among Book-binders) 
The examining the whole number of sheets 
belonging to a book, in order to see if they 
are all gathered pro|ierly. 

COLL.ATION OF A BENEFICE, fn 
England, the bestowing of a liein-fire h» 
Ihe bisito^, w^n be has th« right of em» 



IM 



COL 



ronage ; II difTers from iiiKtitiition in this, 
that iiiHtitiitioii into a bentttice is perform- 
ed by the bishop at ilie preseutuliuii of 
tiiutlier who is i>alroii. 

COl.LAT»)K One who compares eopies 
or niaiiuscripts. 

COLLKAli LIE. An associate in the same 
itffice or magistracy. 

CHtLl.KOT. A short prayer, particularly 
iuth pia>ers as are appointed witli tlie 
epistles and gospels, in the public service 
of thi' Kiii.s«-<)pal Clmrcli. 

COI.LKCTION. The act of collecting 
-»r bringing Ihings together from ditt'erent 
quarters, as a collection of money for charit- 
able purposes, either at the church door or 
from house to house ; also that which is 
fjillerted or brought together into an assem- 
blage, as a collection of coins, paintings, &c. 

<?()!, LKGB. A corporation or socii'ty of 
l«*rsons, having certain privileges, and 
founded in England by the king's license, 
as the College of Thysicians, or the Colleges 
ill the Universities. In this country. Col- 
leges are incorporated by the legislatures. 
The term is here only applied to literary 
instirntions. 

(;OLLE(;iATE. In England, an epithet 
for a church that is endowed, for a soci- 
ety, &.C. 

COLLI ER. A vessel employed in carry- 
ing coals fnun one port to another: also 
one who works in the coal mines. 

COLLUSilON (in !^w). A compact 
between two persons to bring an action one 
against the other, for some fraudulent or 
Hnlawful puriMise. 

COLOCY.NTIIIS. See Cot,oquiriTiDA. 

C»»I,0(;NE earth, a substance used 
by painters, much approaching to amber 
In its strurtnre, and of a deep brown. 

COLON (in An.-itomy). The second of 
the three large inlestiiirs ; in Grammar, a 
poiiil marked thus (:) to divide a sentence. 

COLONEL. The first in command of a 
regiiiient. 

Ct)LONNADE. A range of pillars run- 
ning (|uite round a building. 

COLONY. A company of i>eople re- 
moved fnun one country to another, where 
they form a settlement under the sanction 
nf the government ; also the place where 
Bill h a setllemeiil is fxrnied, as the colonies 
belonging ><• Great Rrimin in llie East and 
West Indies aird in North America, &c. 

COLOat'lNTIDA. The fruit of the wild 
gunrd.liroiighl from the lx;vant. The pulp, 
Which is light, spongy, and white, is re- 
markable fur its iiiiense bitterness, whence 
it has the name of the bitter. 

COLOSSUS. A statue of a prixligions 
•I7«, HucU u tluu ul Uie luii anciently in 



COM 

the harbour nf the island of Rhodes I 
was placed at the entrance of the harbour 
with the right foot sumding on one sid 
the land, and the lert on the other. 

COLOURS. Were anciently supposed 
to be an inherent property of the coloured 
substance, but they are now considered to 
be the property of iglit, the elemeiit.-»ry 
rays of which, being propagJiled to the 
sensoriuin, atlect the mind with the difler- 
ent sensalioiis of colour, accordiii<( to their 
degrees of refrangiliility. 

COLOLRS (in Painting). The various 
tints wh'Cli are produced by the dilferenf 
mixture and application of certain drugs 

COLOURS (in Heraldry). The tinctuns 
with which the tield or any part of the 
escutcheon is distinguished, namely, or, 
yellow ; argent, white ; gules, red ; azure, 
blue ; sable, black ; and vert, green. 

COLOURS. A military term, for the 
banners, t1ags,and ensigns used in the army 

COLU.MN. A cylindrical pillar, which 
serves either for the support or ornament 
of a building, tt consists of a capl.al, 
which is the top or heartl ; the shaft, which 
is the cylindrical part ; and the base, or 
that on which it rests. Columns are dis- 
tinguished as to their form into the Doric, 
Ionic, Corinthian, Composite, and Tuscan 

COLUMN (in the .Military Art). A 
long deep file of trtxips or baggage. 

COLUMNIFER^ (in Botany). One of 
Liiiinens's natural orders, including the 
luallow-like plants 

COLURES (III Astronomy). Two grejii 
imaginary circles, whicli intersect one ano 
ther al right angles. 

COMB (In Coiumerce) An instrument 
to clean, untangle, and dress tlax, wool, 
hair, &. •..; also a sea term, for a little piece 
of timber set under the lower part of the 
lieakhead. 

COMBINATION (in Chemistry). The 
intimate union of tin particles of diTerent 
substances, so as to form a new compound; 
in Mathematics, the alterations or varia- 
tions in nil possible ways of quantities, 
letters, sounds, and the like Tjiiis, two 
square pieces, each divided diagonally into 
two colours, may be arranged and com- 
bined sixty-four ways. 

COMBUSTIBLES (in Chemistry). All 
substances which have the proiierty of 
uniting with the supporters of coinbiisticm 
8u:h as sulphur, phosphorus, carbon, fee 

COMBUSTIBLES (in the Military Art. 
Combustible materials used in ofTensive e. 
defensive operalitins. 

COMBfSTIoN. The dfr«,Ti|>o»ition ot 
iMidiew arronipanieit with light and heat 

COMEUV A dramatic repres<Aitati«a 



COM 

ol the licht. liiiiiKimiis, niiH pleasant kind, 
particularly inteiideil to ridicule llie fullies 
of men. 

CO.MKT. An opaque. s|ili«rical, and solid 
b«Mly, like a planet, iterforinin^ revolutions 
ahout the sMii in elliptical urliils, wliicli 
tiav* the sun in one of the foci. It is 
divided into the nucleus or dense part ; the 
head ; the coma, a faint lipht surrounding 
the head ; and the tail, which is the lout! 
train of light by which these biMlies are 
ilisliiiguished. The comet is sonietiines 
borne in coats of oxiiis, when it is said tu 
be streaming. 

COMMA (in Grammar). A point marked 
thus (,) and put between words and sen- 
tences. 

COM.\.. In astronomy, the hairy ap- 
peai-auce tu;it vurrouuus a comet wheu 
the eanh is between the comet and the 
sun. Comma Berenices is a coustella- 
tiou of the northern hemisphere, which 
contains forty-three stars, lu patholo- 
gy, a morbid coudition of the brain, at- 
tended with the lose of seusatiou and 
voluntary action. 

COilBKETACE^. In botany, a natural 
order of exogenous plants, cliietly tropi- 
cal, consisting of trees and shrubs, of 
which Combretum is the type. 

COM.MENTARY. An e.\planation of 
the obscure passages in an author. 

COMMKKCE. A trafficking or dealing 
with foreiCT countries, by means ofe.xp<irl- 
int! and iui|KirtLng different coinniodiliec 

CtiMMKKCE, History of. The inter- 
coiir.'<e t)etween different nations for pur- 
p<ises of coiiimerce, doubtless took place 
sotm iirter the dispersion of mankind, for 
we find it recorded in holy writ that the 
Ishiiiaelites, who were settled in higher 
parts of .\rabia, carried on a trade with 
Egypt in spices, balm, and myrrh, and 
that ill one of their journeys Joseph was 
■old to them by his brethren. As the 
coinmoilities in which they dealt, as gums 
and sweet sceiiled wckwIs, which were to 
be procured only from the East Indieaf 
there is no doubt that these people and the 
Eryptians were among the first who made 
iisiaiit vuvaees and travels i"n the way of 
Irnile. They were succeeded by the Phoe- 
nicians, an advenhirou* [leople who were 
Uie first that raised any naval power that 
Ciakes any figure in history. By their 
enterprise and Industry they became a 
wealthy aiul luxurious people, and their 
two cities. Tyre and Sidon, became the 
eiiiporhims of the uirl/en>e. In the time 
of David ai d Solomon we find the Jewish 
•ationavai.ed themselves of the assistance 
of this people in equipping their fleets. 
4/Ut the ieolruction of old Tyre, a new 
»• 



COM 



101 



city arose out of the ruins, which rivalled 
the other in weallli, industry, and com- 
merce ; anil while in h<>r glory she planted 
the colony of I'arthare, on the coast of 
.Africa, which from the convenience of her 
situation and the industry of her inhabit- 
ants, rose to an extraordinary pitch of 
pri>s|ierity. The Carthaginians made them- 
selves ina.sters of ^^paiii, and of the islaiidf 
of spicily and Sardinia, discovered the 
greatest part of the coast of Africa and th« 
Canary Islands, traded with Britain by 
the route of the Scilly Islands, and are 
9 ip|iosed to have made their way even to 
America. In the mean lime E^pl, iiiidef 
the Pt(.4eniies, also attained a high degree 
ofgraudeuraiid attluence. Ptolemy Phila- 
deiplius in particular, by encouraging trade, 
made his people rich and himself power- 
ful. Such was the greatness of Alexandria 
alone, that the produce of the customs fell 
little short of two millions annually. Under 
the Romans commerce <v:is encouraged in 
every part of the world where they had 
any influence, as may lie learned not only 
from historians but also from various medals 
and inscriptions, showing that every con- 
siderable city had several colleges or trading 
companies. 

Un the decline of the empire, conimerca 
was, owing to the unsettled state of all 
Euro]>e, and the constant irruption of the 
barbarous tribes, almost at a stand. About 
this period it happened that some ilraggling 
people, either forced f-y necessity or led 
by inclination, tixik their aUVde in a few 
scattered islands that lay near the coast of 
Italy, and as these islands were separated 
from each other by narrow channcJs, full 
of shallows, that pre%'eiited strangers from 
navigating, the inhabitants found them- 
selves protected from all hostile inroadk, 
and in the midst of this seciirily they fol- 
lowed their pursuits with so much industry 
and success, that these once insignificant 
islands rose in the space of two centuries, 
(hat is from the sixth to the eighth century, 
into a great city and a powerful republic 
Such was the humble origin of the once 
(Hitent state of Venice, which by degrees 
acquired an extent of commerce aiMl a naval 
power that had not for a lengi-li of time any 
rival. She drew to herself the profits of 
the Indian trade, and by availing herself of 
every favourable conjiincUirs, she not only 
monopoliz.ed the trade of all Italy, but of 
all the coiintri s in subjection to the Maho- 
metans ; but aa other coiiiilrries in Europe 
began to enlarge their commerce, Venice 
lost the nuino|Nily, and this combining with 
her own immoderate ambition, caused the 
decay of her trade aud the decline of bat 



IM 



COMMCRCE. 



^wer. From tho leajjiie ofCainlirny. '.vliii:h 
was fonueil a-jaiiist lier by tile (iiiwers of 
Europe, Vtsiiice may lie said lo have ceasffll 
to hold Die tiriil rank an n cniiiiiiercial state. 

The origin of llie iiroiid ciiy of (JeinKi, 
U It was called, was very similar lo llmt 
of Venice Uike Venice, she rose from an 
asaeniblagr of fiii^tivea and adventurers on 
the rocky, barren, and inlnwiiilable shores 
of Liguria; and like her slie gained, by the 
industry and (lerseveraiice of her inliablt- 
antt, a prodigious extent of commerce. 
Her merchants traded with all countries, 
and throve hy becoming tlie carriers from 
one country to another. Her fleets were 
formidable and her conquests nuiiierous, 
but alter perpetual wars with her rival, 
Venice, she was at leiislh C(ini|>elled to 
yield the dominion of the sea, and tinally 
lost all her consei|iience. 

In the meantime, the trade of Germany 
was rising in conse(|Mence. Some commer- 
cial cities, confederating tog<nher. formed 
B cumniercial league, known by the name 
of the Haii'ieatic League, the object of 
which was, bv ciunbining their resources, 
to form a fleet for the protection of their 
trade with other countries. These cities 
not only associated among themselves, but 
also formed alliances with oilier states, as 
England and France, and had a code of 
laws which were respected and observed, 
under the name of the Lex Mercatoria, 
for a long time thoughout all Curo|>e. In 
this manner the Manse Towns aci)uired a 
considerable share of inrtuence, and were 
respected by all the sovereigns 'n Eiiro|)e. 
The kings of Fmiice and England granted 
tliein considerable privileges, exempting 
their vessels in case of shipwreck from all 
demands whatsoever, either on the part of 
the admirilty or of private persons, and 
respecting their flag in tunes of war. This 
good understanding between them and 
tlie stales of Europe was considerably in- 
creased by the freedom with which they 
lent their money lo different princes in 
time of need, particularly during the cru- 
sades, when they g:ive (Hiwerful succours 
both In ships as well as in money. This 
confederacy did not, however, always re- 
tain Its moderation ; for, as they increased 
In wealth and power, so they grew ambi- 
tious and domineering, and more than once 
they ventured to set themselves up against 
the states of Germany ; in consequence of 
this, the German princes gradually with- 
drew the oities that were 8iili>ect to them- 
selves from the confederacy, and thus 
effected lis dissolution. T-ie only cities 
whirli now retain the name of llaiu^ 
t'owtis, and some other vestiges of the 



llanseatic league, are Hamburg. Bremca 
and Lubeck. 

The next important change in the state 
of European commerce was brought about 
ill Portugal and Spain, hy means of the 
discoveries which took place in the tifleenth 
and subsequent centuries. 'J'o the spirit 
and enterprise of Emanuel, King of Ptr- 
tugal, we are indebted for the discovery ct 
the Ca|ie of Good Hope, which waselt'ected 
by Vasco de Gania, in 1498, and by o|)en- 
ing a new way to the Indies alforded to 
the Portuguese an opportunity' of making 
conquests and settlements which secured 
to them the commerce of India, which the 
Venetians had hithertoenjoyed through the 
medium of the Arabians. The discovery 
of America by Columbus, which followed 
quickly after, paved the way for a shil 
greater extension of mercantile enterprise, 
which, though at first enjoyed only by the 
Portuguese and Spaniards, was at length 
shared by other states. The Dutch, an 
enterprisir.g people, were the first who 
wrested from the Spaniards a portion of 
their conquered possessions, ^iid made so 
good a use of the advantages they gained 
as to become one of the greatest trading 
people in Europe. By the lit-lp of increas 
ing wealth, they converted their little 
fishing villages into large and |Nipiiliuis 
cities and towns. Although their country 
was far from being fertile, and .heir ativ:- 
commodities few or none, yet by commerce 
they succeeded in filling their storehouses 
with all the productions and manufactures 
of the world. 

Having given this general sketch of com- 
merce from its earliest beginnings, we must 
not close this account without making men- 
tion of the commerce of England, which, 
though among the last to avail itself of this 
source of wealth and aggrandi/.emeiit, lia< 
by slow and gradual steps raised its coiu- 
nierce to a pitch which has never hei-ii 
surpassed by any nation. It apfiears that 
a commercial intercourse with Britain was 
begun at a very early perioil, and thai the 
I'hfKniciansand C'arthasinians tntded with 
this island for the tin of C<irnwall, but it is 
probable that the native Kritons did not lor 
many ages take any active part in this 
traffic, or make any atleiu|il to share in the 
advantages of commerce beyond the giving 
theircommodities to siichas wished lotrade 
with them. They had nothing letter than 
leather or wicker boats, which were loo 
slight to enable them to leave-their shores, 
even so as to ernes the Channel. 

The Saxons made considerable endea- 
vours to extend their Intercourse w.tJl 
foreign nations, [larticularly tii ttietinteof 



COM 

Alfred the Great, n'h> sent people ai fiir 
M tile Eciiit for cciiiiiiirrcial |iiir|Muiea, an 
also for the sake nt' pri>curiiig iiifoniiation. 
Alter the Conquest, ilie b:n;:li!'ii princes 
were for a long time ttm iiiiicli eiisafieil in 
political and iiiilitnry concerns to liirii their 
atieiitiiin to ttiis»ilijt-ct,an(l liille wasiloiie 
beyond that of e^iving enconragKinent to 
foreiiiners to seitle in tlnglaml, or to have 
dealings with the [leople. One provision 
of Magna Charta held forth indemnity and 
protection to foreign inercliants in the pas- 
sage to and fru, as also during their stay 
hi the country. 

Safe coniliicts were afterwards given to 
the English going abroad, which atforded 
them ihp opponimlty of carrying on a traf- 
fic for their commodities with foreign na- 
tions. In conseipience we lind that staples 
or markets we:e established IhiiIi in Kiig- 
land and on the contiiienl, where English 
wool, lead, and other prodiictiiins were 
bought and sold; and as encourageiiieiil 
was given to the Hanseatic League, a tra- 
ding com|iany was in consequence formed 
in the reign of Edward I. hrst called the 
Company of Merchants tniding to Calais, 
ice, afterwards the Merchant Adventurers 
of England, or the Company of .Merchant 
Adventurers trading to Haiiibiirg, 'I'liis 
company, which is the lirst of the kinil in 
England, was incor|Hirated by Edward I. 
in I29t). In the reign of Edward III. com- 
merce and iiianufactiires both met wi'h 
considerable encouragement, but the inter- 
course of foreiu'iiers with England was now 
more encoiimged than that of Englishmen 
with foreign nations. In consequence the 
Maple or mart was conriiied to certain 
towns, where, by the slalule of the staple 
as it was called, it was ordained tliat for- 
eigners inigM resort for the purchase of 
English commodities, but Englishmen were 
prohibited under great (lenalties from ex- 
porting any themselves. A number of 
other laws were made for the establishment 
and governmentof the stapU', which form- 
ed that branch of the English law since 
known by the name of the Law-Merchant. 
For the encourageineiit of manufactures, 
protection was given to clothmakers to 
come from foreign parts and reside here, 
in the reign of Edward V'l. the principle 
cf ronrining commerce within the limit of 
the country was, in consequence of the 
recent discoveries, somewhat altered. An 
Intercourse with Russia was commenced 
by means of some English adventurers, 
who, poing on a voyage of discovery in or- 
ier to rind out a north east passaee to Chi- 
na, came to the |Kirt «f Archangel, where 
\Miy were well receivud by the Muscovites, 



COM 



Itk 



whence they sfterwarda formed a compiuiy 
and received a charier to secure to them- 
selves the trade to liiissia. This company 
was incor|Mirated in the rcign of Philip and 
Mary, under the name of llie Russia Coin 
piiny The reign of Elizalielh was ttil' 
more favourable to commercial adveoturea 
of every kind. Urake. Sir Walter lialeigh 
and tlenry deClitfonl, Earl of Cumberland, 
distinguished themselves by their voyagsa 
and discoveries ; besides which several 
fresh companies were formed under tha 
auspices of this queen. The Eastland 
Company was incorporated under the title 
of the Company of Merchants to the East 
the Turkey or Levant CoiuiKxiiy was alsi 
incorporated in 1581 ; but the most impor 
tant of all the companies which had hith 
erto lieen formed was the E.ist India Com- 
pany, which was hrst established by cliar- 
ter in 1600. In the reign of William III 
a new East India Company was formed, 
which was for a time a rival to the old one, 
but in I70S the two companies were con- 
solidated into one i since which they have 
ex|>erienced considerable vicissitudes, and 
in consequence of the numerous wars in 
which Ihey have l>een engaged their affairs 
were atone time so reduced that they were 
obliged to apply to the governiiieiit for as- 
sistance, in consequence of which they 
have lost niiicli of their independence, and 
are iiecess;irily subject to more control 
than they were formerly. Engliah com- 
merce Continued to increase from the reign 
of Elizabeth till the present, absorbing 
nearly tue whole of tlie carrying irauo 
of the world. The United States, com- 
peted successlully with tbeui lor a con- 
siderable period, but the closa of the 
war in lo(i4, lound nearly the whole 
transatlantic trade in the hands of 
British shipowners. But the immense 
resources of the country and its ready 
Recuperative power must ultimately 
assert itseli, and eventually command 
the markets of the world. 

COM.MFSSION (in Law). The warnnw, 
or letters patent by which one is authorized 
to exercise jurisdiction ; in Military Affairs, 
the warrant or authority by which one 
holds any post in the army ; in Commerce, 
the order by which any one trafficks or ne- 
gotiates for another ; also the per centag* 
given to factors and agents for transacting 
the business of others. 

COMMITTEE (in a I legislature). A 
certain number of memliers ap)ioiiited by 
the house, for tl *; examination of any mat- 
ter; in general, he or Ihey to whom any 
matter is referred by lome body for lUthm 
examination. 



IM COM 

COMMODITY. Any merchandise or 
ware wliicli a persou ileals or trades in. 

COMMOUOKIi. An oliicer m ihe 
British or American nary, invested uitli 
Uie coniniaiid of a detachment of ships of 
war destined for a particular purpose, 
riie Commodore of a convoy is the lead- 
ing ship in a fleet of merchantmen. 

CO.MMON (in Law). A right or privi- 
lege claimed by more persons in another 
man's lands, waters, woods, &.c. 

COMMONALTY. The common people, 
all classes and couditions of people who 
are below the rank of nobility; tbe bulk 
of mankind. 

COMMON-CARRIER. One who un- 
dertakes for hire to transport goods 
from place to i)lace. 

COMMON-COUNCIL. Tlie council of a 
city or corporate town, empowered to 
make by-laws for tUet'ovemmeni of the 
citizens. 

COMMON LAW, The law of the realm 
(grounded on general customs or immemo- 
rial usage. In general the common law 
of England is common in this country. 

COMMON PLACE BOOK. A sort of 
register, or orderly collection of things 
worthy to he noted in a bonk 

COM.MON PLEAS. One of the King's 
courts at Westminster Hall, where pleas 
orcaiiees are heard between subject and 
(iihject Similar courts exist in most of 
the United Stales 

COMiMON PHAVER. The litiirijy, or 
public form of prayer prescribed by the 
church of England to be used in all church- 
es and chapels at stated periods. The 
book of common prayer used by episcopa- 
lians in the United States is so altered 
from the English ropy as to .idapt it to the 
local circumstances of the church. 

COMMONS (in England). In a gene-, 
ral sense, the whole peop'-i, as distinguish- 
ed Irom the nobility ; in a particular sense, 
the knights and burgesses who represent 
the Commons in parliament, whence the 
house in which they sit is called the House 
of Commons 

COM.MONS (in Law). See Doctom 
Commons. 

COM.MONW EALTIL That form oi 
government in "vhich the administration 
of public affairs is common or open to all 
with few or no exceptions. It is distin- 
guished from monarchy or aristocracy 

COMMU.MO.N. A name given to the 
Hcntnwnt of thr-^Ixird's supper, 

COMMlMO.\ SERVICE. The office 
lor the administration of the holy sacra- 
tienl in llif rbiirrli nf England. 

COllMUMo.V TAIU.R The table 



COM 

erected at the ea«t end of the church, rouit4 
which the communicants kneei to partake 
of tlie Lord's supfier. 

COiMMUTATlON (in Law). The sub- 
stitution of one punishment for another. 

COMP.\.\Y (in Law). A society of 
persons forming a corporate body; in Com- 
merce, a trading association, in which 
several merchants furni a joint stock, with 
which they trade for the common interest 
of the sluckholders, such as the East India 
and other companies. 'See Commerce.) 

CO.MP.WV (ill Sea Affairs). The whole 
crew of a ship, including the otticers. 

COMi ARATIVE ANATOMY. Th» 
sciencn wi'.ch te.ithes the structure of ll»# 
tmdy In aniiiials. 

COMPARATIVE DECREE (in Gram- 
mar). The second degree, as, better. 

COMPASS, or the M.vrimer's Cdmpass 
An inslrninent used by mariners to iKiint 
out the course at sea. It consists of a card 
or fly, on wliich are drawn the several 
points of the compass ; the needle, or m.ig- 
netic needle, a small bar of steel, which 
has the property of turning one of its ends 
to the north pole ; and the box, which co.n- 
taius tiie card and needle 




C0MP.\SSES, or Pair or Compasse.. 
A mathematical instrument, consisting of 
two sharp pointed branches or legs of iron, 
brass, or steel. 




COMPLEMENT (in Astronomy). Tlw 

di.stance of a star from the zenith. 

COMPLE.MENT (in Military Alfaire) 
The full establishment of a regiment. 



COM 

COMPKEMKNTOK A.N ARC (in r.e 
onietry). What an arc waiitx of Wh' or 
the qiiadranl of a circle ; thus the comple- 
ment of 50^ a 40°, and tlie conipleiiieiit of 
Vf is 50". 

COMPOStNG. That branch of the art 
of printiiis! which consists inarruncini: the 
types or letters in such an order, as to fit 
tliem for the press. Tliis the compositor 
performs, by gathering a letter at a time 
into his composing stick, which when full 
he empties into a frame called a galley. 
Of the several lines arranged in order in 
the galley he makes a page, and of several 
pages he makes a form 



CON 



Ml6 




COMPOSING-STICK. A compositor's 
tool made of iron plate, and consisting of 
the head, the bottom, the back, the two 
slides, and the two screws. While the 
compositor is in the act of composing he 
holds the composing-stick in his let^ hand, 
placing the second joint of his thumb over 
the slides of the stick, so as to keep the 
letter tight and square together, as he pla- 
ces them in the stick. When tlie compo- 
sing stick is full, he proceeds to empty it 
tato the galley. 




COMPOSTTjE. OneofLinnieiis'natu- 
lal orders, comprehending the plants with 
compound flowers, as the dandelion, sun- 
flower, &.C. 

COMPOSITION (in Music). A piece 
of music composed according to the rules 
of art. 

COMPOSITION (\n Painting). The 
putting together the several parts of a 
picture, so as to set ofTihe whole to the 
best advantage. 

COMPOSITION (in Commercel. An 
•graeuient entered into between an insol- 



vent tiflitor and \t\n crcililor, by which lli» 
latter acceplx a |>arl of the debt, in com- 
|)ensatinn for the whole. 

COMI't)SI'i"t; NUMRKRS. Such num- 
bers as some other numbers besides unita 
will measure, as 13, which is measured by 
2, 3, 4, and 6. 

Ct)MPOSITE OKDER (in Architec- 
ture) One of the five orders of architect 
tiire, so called because it is compo«>'d of 
the Ionic and Corinthian orders. 




• COMPOSITOR (among Printers). H* 
who composes the matter for th»" press. 

COMPOST, pronounced COMl'O (in 
Husbandry). Several sorts of soils or 
earths and other matters mixed together, 
in order to make a particularly tine kind 
of mould. 

COMPOUND. A term in botany appli- 
ed to a flower consisting of several distinct 
lesser flowers. 

COMPOUND INTEREST. Is that in- 
terest which arises from principal and in- 
terest put together. 

COMPOUNDING FELONY, or Theft 
Bote (in Law). Where the party robl>ed 
takes his gmids again of the thief, upon an 
agreement not to prosecute. 

COMI'()l'.M»IN{; WITH ONE'S 
CREDITORS. Where the debtor, notbe- 
i'lig able to pily all his debts, agrees with 
his creditors to pay a part. 

CONCAVE LE.N'S. An epithet for 
glasses ground hollow ot. the inside, so W 
to reflect on the hr low sidb 



IM 



CON 



CONCENTRATION (in Chemistry). 
The act uf iiicreasini; the streiiptli ul'tiuids 
by vol.itili/.inK part ut' their water. 

C<lNrKNTRIC. All epitliet for figures 
liavin:! one oiinnion centre 

CONCERT. A iiiii8ical |>erforniaiice in 
which any number of practic.il iiiiisiciaiii) 
unite in llie exercise nftlieir talent. 

CONCERTO. A piece of iimsic consist- 
ing of several parts that are all to be per- 
formed together. 

CONCHOLOGY. That branch of na.u- 
ral history which treats of testaceous ani- 
mals, or such animals as have a pern:a- 
nrntly testaceous covering, which are com- 
prehended under the testacea in the Lin- 
niean system. 

CONCLAVE. Theroom in the Vatican 
at Rome where the cardinals assemble to 
clioose a pope ; also the assembly itself. 

CONCORD (in Graiuiiiar). That fv:'. 
of syntax which treatBof the agreement of 
words according to their several iiitlec- 
tions. 

CONCORD (in Law). An agreement 

between parties who intend to levy a fine. 

CONCORD (in Music). The union of 

wo or more sounds in such manner as to 

lender them agreeable. 

CONCORDANCE. A sort of dictionary 
of the Bible, in which every word is given 
with references to the book, chapter, and 
verse in which it is to be found. 

CONCORDAT. A treaty or public act 
of agreement, between the pope and any 
prince. 

CONCRETION. The growing together 
of several substances or parts of substances 
Into one body. 

CONCRETION (in Surgery). Morbid 
concretions are substances formed in the 
animal body, as tlie calculus or stone, &.c. 
CONDENSER. A pneumatic engine or 
syringe, whereby an uncommon quantity | 
of air may be crowded into a given space. 
CONDITION (in Common Law). A 
restraint annexed to a thing, ao that by tlie 
nonperformance, the party to it shall sus- 
tain loss, aid by the performance receive 
advantaee. 

CONDITION (In Civil Law). A clause 
of obligation stipulated, as an article of a 
Ueaty or contract. 

CONDUCTOR. A name given to those 
■ubstances which are capable of receiving 
and transmitting electricity. 

CONDUCTOR OF LIGHTNING. A 
pointed meliillic i.rti, contrived by Dr. 
Vranklin, to be fiied to buildings, to secure 
them from the effects of lightning. 

CONDUIT. A pipe for the conveyance 
•f water to any particular part. 



CON 

CONDOR. A large kind of South Amet- 
ican vulture, measuring with the wingiiex> 
tended, from tip to tip, twelve or sixt««a 
feet. It preys on birds, lanibii, and kids. 
It ia the largest bud of (light. 




CONE (in Geometry). A solid figiwe, 
having a circle for its ba.se, and its top 
terminating in a point or vertex. It is 
produced by the revolution of a riglit 
angled triangle about its [terpendicularleg, 
called ibe axis of tlie cone. 




CONE (in Botany). The fruit ot several 
evergreen trees, as of the fir, cedar, cypress, 
so called from its conical shape. Jt iscnni- 
posed of woody scales, that are usiinll) 
open, each of which has a seed at the end 




CONE (in Conchology). A beautiful 
sort of shell, inhabited by the Umax. Shells 
of this sort mostly bear the highest price of 



CON 

My, one specie* being valued aa high aa 
ftve hiiiiilred dollars. 



CON 



197 




CnXFRSSION (in TheolopyJ. A public 
4eclamliiin urnne'8 failli, nr tlie faith of a 
piihlic h<i<ly; aliio a |i:irt of the Liturgy, in 
which an acl(noui«-<li!iiientof piilt is) made 
by the whole ronjzrreatlon. Auricular 
c<iufes!«ion,a private coufession oracknow- 
led:!nieut of one's gins, made hy each 
individual in the Rojuish church to hif> 
prieiit or father confessor. It is so called 
because it is made by whispering in his 
ear 

CONFERVACE.E. A natural order of 
Algffi, or water plants, of which the con • 
ferva is the ^enus. Conlervites are 
fossil aijise, belonf,'in{; to the order. 
Confervoid is a botanical term applied 
to those plants which have the appear- 
auce cfC'>n:erv?e. 

COXFLUENT. In pathology, a term 
applied to those pustules on the skin 
which are so numerous as to form 
patches, the matter of which runs to- 
gether. 

CONPLIIF.NCE. The meeting of two 
rivers, or the place where they meet. 

ro.VCEI-ATION. A coMden»ation of 
any fluid by means of rolil. 

CO.Vr.ER. or (:().\(;ER EKU An eel 
of an exiraiirdiuary si/.e, and extremely 
voracious, which preys on carcasses, and 
other tish. 

Cti.NyREGATION (in Ecclesiastical 
Affairs^ An assembly of persons who meet 
losetbf: for purposes of divine worship; 
(in Physics) a term for the least degree of 
mixture, in which the parts of the mixed 
body do not touch each other in more 
than one p<iint. 

CON'CRESS. An assembly of envoys, 
onnin »sioners,depnties,&.c. fromditTerent 
Courti who meet to agree on matters of 
general interest ; also an assembly of the 
deputies from the different states in the 
republics of America. The Consress of 
the L'lnled ^^late» consists of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. Each state 
■endolwoseuatori, and one representative I 
for every 40,00.) inhabitants In the slave , 



states five slaves are reckoned as three 
freemen. Senator' are chosen for KM 
years, representatives for two. 

CU.NtJKKVE ROCKET. An invenUoa 
so called from the inventor. Sir WllliaiM 
Congreve, hy wliich b:ills and other Com- 
IfUstibles are discharged to an iuimeKM 
distance. 



CONIC SECTIONS. Curve lines an4 
plane figures produced by the intersection 
of a plane witli a cone. These section* 
are derived from the different direction* 
in which the sidid cone is cut hy a plane 
passing through it ; they are the triangle 
circle, ellipse, parabola, and hy|)erbola 

The doctrine of Conic Sections, which 
is one of the abstrusest branches of geoine- 
try, was particularly cultivated by the an- 
cieifts. Ansteus is said to have composed 
live books relating to this subject, but tiiey 
have not been handed down to us. The 
most ancient treati.se extant is that of 
Apollonius, in eight books, the first four of 
which is said to have been written by 
Euclid, and afterwards perfected by A|i<d- 
limius, with the addition of four other 

tHKlkS. 

CONIFER.E, or CONIFERS. An order 
of platitH, which, like the fir, pine, and 
edar, bear cones or tops in which the 
seeds are contained. 

CONIM.\. A very fragrant gum-resin, 
obtained in Brititih Guiana. 

CONSENSUAL. In physiology, a term 
applied to movements, contrary to, or 
ndependent ol, the will, which arise 
from previous contrary movements, as 
in the contraction of the iris when tho 
eye is voluntarily directed upwards; 
excit«d or caused by sensation. 

CO.N'JI'JATE. .An epithet to denote the 
junction of two lines, as a conjugate axi* 
that whirli crosses another axis 

rttNJL'tiATI.M: (in tlnimniar). The 
act of going through the infleciion* ol a 



N8 



co.y 



««ri> accnrdini; to ildaeveral m >nds. tenses, 
■nd |irr*iin«. 

0«».\JIJ(;aTION (ill Gnmiitsr). The 
■hkmm. tenrie«, and persons of m \cr^ 
eou|tird l-te'Ptht'r in re^ilar order. 

CUXJL'NCTIU.N. A term in Astronony 
Tk the niretine of two (Waiiels in tht; same 
degree of the zodiac, which id marked 
U»ti*(6). 

CUXJUXCTION (in Orammar). A 
part pftpeech which jams wi«tls and seo- 
lences. 

CONNOISSEUR. A persna well versed 
ia anjr art or science. 

CO.Voro (in Geometry). A figure re- 
•embting a cone. 

CONUL't^RUR. In a eeneral sense, one 
who ha:9 gained a battle or any thing by 
means of ligliting ; particularly applied to 
William I. who siiccreded to the thrune of 
Hn eland aAer having gained tlic liattle of 
Haglingi). 

CONSAXGUIMTY. Kindred by blood 
aad birth between pemons de:«ceBded from 
the same common nlock. 

CONSCRIPT FATHERS. An appel- 
latiua for the Roman senators, so called 
because they were enrolled from the eques- 
trian order into the list of senalots. 

CONSCRIPTS. Kecrmica in the French 
vmy. 

CONSEaUENCE. That which follows 
from any principle by way of inference ; 
auKing logicians, the last part or propo- 
sition of an argument, in distinction from 
the antecedents, being something gatlieied 
from a preceding argument. 

CO.VSEUUEXT (in Geometry). The 
•alter of two trrms of pmportiim, in dis- 
tinction (rnm tlie former, or antecedent. 

CO.VSIGNME.NT. The sending or de- 
livering over of eoods to another person. 

CONSISTORY, or CONSISTORY 
COURT. In England, the session or as- 
sembly of ecclesiastical persona held by the 
bishop or his chancellor. 

CONSONANCE (in Music). An agree- 
aentof two sounds. 

CONSONANT (in Grammar). A letter 
which cannot be sounded by itself without 
the help of a vowel ; in Music, an epithet 
for that interval whirii produces consonant 
concords. 

CONSTABLE. A civil officer, anciently 
•r great dignity, as tlie lord liieb constable 
of Ea gland, and al*<ithe constables or keep- 
ers of ras>les, jtc; now an Inferior officer 
•f jiwtice. 

CONSTF.I.I.ATKiN. An aswmblageof 
bfed ■tarn, imagined to rrprewnt the fonn 
if suoie creature or utber object, as a bear. 



CON 

a ship, and the like ; whence rhey ha«« 
derived thuste ap|iellatii>ns which are cnn 
venient in dei^:ribing llir stars. The divi 
sioii of the heavens iiilo coiislrllations ia 
ver)' ancient, pn>liably coeval with astn>- 
noiny itself. Fre<)uent iiieiiiinn is made 
of tiiem by name in the siicred wriiinga 
as in the book of Job, and in thf pm|itiecy 
of .Amos. Some of the consiellttioiis are 
also mentioned by Homer and He?<iod, 
who tliNirished above 9(i:i years before 
Christ; and Aratiis, who lived about 377 
years before Christ, professedly treats of 
all such as were marked out by the ancients, 
and were atterwards ad untied into the 
Almagest i>f l*toleiny. These were forty 
eight in number, called the Old ('onstetla- 
tions, to which have since been added 
others, called .New Constellations. 

CO.VSTITUENT (in Law). In England, 
one who by his vote, constitutes or elect* 
a member of (tarliament. 1'he term is also 
applied to voters in the United States. 

CONSTITUE.\TS (in Physics). The 
elementary parts of any substance. 

CONSTITUTION (in Law). Property, 
any fonn of government regularly consti- 
tuted; in a particular sense, the mixed ana 
popiilnr form of goveminent in England, 
consisting of king, lords, and commons, o^ 
the free cimstitution of the United States. 

CONSTITUTION (in Civil Law). A 
law made by some king or emperor ; suti 
in the canon law, the same as an ecelesi 
astical law or canon. 

CONSTITUTION (In Medicine). Th» 
temperament of the whole body, arising 
from the quality and pnip<irtion of the parts 

CONSUL. A chief uiagistrale atuua( 
the Romans, of which there were two that 
were elected every year. 

CONSUL An officer commissi jned by 
goverument, to reside in f< ni-^. coun- 
tries of any considerable trrw**, to facilitate 
and desfiatch business ail rnitect tlie 
merchants of the nation. 

CONSUMPTION. The /'•.lUngand de- 
cay of the body by disearj 

CONTEMPT (in Law). A disobedience 
to the rules, orders, or ;ifoee8B of a court. 

CONTIN F.NT. Tije ititin land, as dis- 
tingiiished from the •**. 

CO.NTORT^. ijtt of Linnvtts' natur^ 
orders, including ;>lanu with a singie 
twisted petal. 

CONTOUR. The outline of a figure. 

CO.VTRABAND GOODS. (;oc^s pro- 
hibited by law to be exported or im|K>rteC 

CONTRACT A covenant or aereeiiieat 
between two or more persons, with a law- 
ful coasideratioQ or cause. 



CON 

CONTRACTION. In jtfierU, the di- 
■inutuog Uie extea; oc liiJieiuuwiM of a 
koiy. 

CONTRACTION (la Surety). The 
■faritiking up of the musclea or arteriea. 

CONTRACTION U" liraaunar) The 
le-^ucsu; iv/n sylUble* into one. 

CONTRACTION (in Antiunetk}. The 
•.'i.-rteaing u( openuioiu. 

CONTR.\aT iu» Fainting). The due 
placing the ditlereut paiU and objects of a 
6^ire, that they may be luitably opiKwed 
li< e&ch other. 

CO.N'TR A VALUATION, Lisb or. A 
line or trench, cut round a place by the be- 
lie^en, to defend tbeniselvea a^iust the 
tallies of the •arn:ion. 

CONTRAVENTION (in Law). The in- 
fragement of a contract. 

C« >.VTROLLER (in Law). An overseer 
r>> c^cer apyttiiiled to control or oversee 
the accoun;* of other othcer*. 

CON rL'M.\CV (in Law). A refusal to 
App^Jii in court when legally fommoaed. 

CONV.^LESCENCE. That period be- 
tw'xt ctie departure of a disease, and the 
tecuvrry of one':i health. 

CONVENTICLE. A term applied first 
Is the Mtlle private meetings of the follow- 
as of John Wicklitfe, and alterwards to 
tiMc leiigioys meeting!) of the Nonconfonn- 

COWBirriON'rinLaw). Aavaaaem- 
Dly of the states of the realm or their depu- 
ties ; in military atlairs, «■ a gi e ciiiet 
entered into between two botfMS«f tioops, 
opposed to each other. 

CCNVERGLNG LINTS. Line* which 
continually approximate. 

CONVER<;iN<i RAYS (In Optics). 
Those rays that issue from divers points of 
an object, and incline towards one another 
uatil they meet. 

CONVEX. Cnnred, or protuberaat out- 
wards ; a? n convex lens, mirror, &.c. 

CONVEYANCE v'in Law) A deed or 
tastniiurnt by w'a;cb lands, jtc are con- 
veyed or made over to another. 

CONVEYANCER. One who (bUows 
Ike business of conveyauciiig, or dravring 
np conveyances. 

CONVOCATION. Id England, an a»- 
ptiibly of the clergy, consi:<ting of an up- 
yer and lower houae, which meet when the 
parliament meets, to consult on the affairs 
^tbe church. 

C'>NVOLVULUS or Bi!<dwkko. A 
plant so called, bec.iuae it creeps up and 
twista Itself ro<uid w ha 'ever <s near it. 
BcivM ftw aorts are cultrrated in gardena, 
mi bear a beaalif'tl Mae fl'vwer. 



COP 



109 



which accompany merctontmen in tim« 
of war, to protect tbeiu from the alLulia 
of the enemy ; in military alfain, a detach- 
ment of lroi>p8 employed loguard any sup- 
ply of money, ammunition. ±.e. 

COOK. One who practises the art at 
cookery. The company of cooks in Eng- 
land waa incorporated io the fifleeath cen- 
tury. 

COOLER. A Teasel used by brewen, 
for cooling the beer alter il a drawn otf". 

COOMB. A measure of cum, coBtainiaf 
hat bushels. 

COOP. A place where fowls are keyt 
confined ; aUo a vessel made of (wigs, in 
which fish are caugbt, and a barrel or ves- 
sel for keeping liquids. 

COOPER. A maker of tubs, coops, o* 
barrels. The company of coopers in Eng- 
land was incorporated in the reign of Hen- 
ry VII. 

COOPERY. The art of making tnbs Of 
barrels with boards boumi by htiops. 

COOT. A waterfowl, mostly of a black 
colo<ir,called alsoa3Iooa II km. These bird* 
frequent lakes and still rivers, where they 
make their nests among the rushes, fcc. 
floating oa the water, ao aa to rise aad bll 
with it. 




CONVOV. 



A sea term, iur ships of war 



COPAL. .An .'Vmeric.in nave far aB 
odoriferous gums, but partiodailjr apfMed 
to a resinous substance imported ftoD 
Guinea. It ia hard, shining, transpareat, 
and citron coloured. 

COPERXICAN SY'STEM. A particu- 
lar system of the sphere first proposed by 
Pythagoras, and after .ards revived by 
Copemicns, a Polish si iv.iomer. Accont- 
ing to this system lh< sun is supposed to 
be placed in the cenr e. and all the nthet 
bodies to revolve r< 4nd it in a particular 
order ; which noti n is now universa..y 
adopted, under th name of the Solar S^-9- 
tem 

COPING. T* e rtone cowring on the 
top V^ wall. 

COPr£.1. A netal next le iroa we 



no 



COP 



■pM-lfic gravity but lighter than gjld, 
•ilvrr, or Irad. it 18 one ol' the aiz priiiii- 
liv« int^t^tl*. 

COPPERAS. A name given to blue, 
er«rn, ami white vitriol: it is a lactitiuus 
ttiiphate of iron. 

COPPERPLATE. A plate on which 
figures are engraven ; also the impression 
which is taken off the |iate on paper, by 
means of printing. 

COPPERPL.VrE PRINTING. The 
process of taking engravin{;s from copper- 
plates, by means of a rolling press, as in 
the ''uhjoined cut. 




rprPERfMTTTI. An artisan who 
wixKs copper into different utensils. 

COPPICE, or CursE. A small wood. 
Consisting of underwood. 

COPULA (among Logicians). The 
verli that connects any two terms in an 
aftirniative or negjitive proposition, as, God 
inaite the world ; made is the copula. 

COPULATIVE (in Grammar). An 
epithet for such conjunctions as join the 
sense as well as the words ; as and, or, 

&.C 

COPY (in I^w). The transcript ol an 
original writing. 

COPV (among Printers). The original 
MS. or the hook from which the composi- 
tor k-ets his page. 

COPYHOLD (in Law). In England, a 
sort of tenure by which the tenant holds 
his land by copy of court roll of the manor 
at the will of the lord. 

C(»l*YRIGIIT(in Law). Theexclusive 
right of printing and publishing copies of 
&'•>' literary performance, which is now 
con firmed by statute, to authors or their 
publishers, for a certain number of years. 
Hint is to say, in England for twenty «ight 
jrars in all cases, whether the author sur- 
vive that period or not ; and to the end of 
the Hiillior's life if he live beyond that pe- 
riiMl ; besides, aa an action lies to recover 
d.imaTs for piruting the new corrections 
hui a Iditioiis to an oit work, pnblisberB 



COR 

may acquire almost a perpetual Interest i» 
a work by republiihing it with aitditinna 
and annotations. In the United Stales, 
the copyrigiit law gives to the author, the 
eiclusive right to his productions for four 
years, with the privilege of renewing it for 
the same period, if he is living within the 
last six months of the term. 

CORAL. A hard, brittle, calcareona 
substance, which was formerly supposed 
to be of a vegetable nature, but is now 
found to be composed of a congeries of 
animals, endued with the faculty of 
moving sponlaiieuusly. They are distin- 
guished by the form of their branches, 
and are found in the ocean, adhering to 
stones, bones, shells, &.c. The islands in 
the South Sea are mostly coral rocks 
covered with earth. The coral fishery is 
particularly followed in the Mediterranean, 
on the coast of France and Algiers, where 
the red coral most abounds. 

CORBEL. A shoulder piece jutting out 
in walls to bear up a (Kist. 

CORCLE, or CORCULUM (in Botany). 
The essence of the seed, or the rudiment 
of the future plant. 

CORD OF WOOD. A parcel of fire 
wooti, four feet broad, four feet high, »ni 
eight feet long. 

CORINTHIAN ORDER (in Archite--- 
ture). The noblest and richest of the fiv* 




orders, ao calleil because columns wet* 
first made of that proportion at Corinth. 
Its capital ia adorned with two rows ol 



COR 

.enves, hetn-««n winch arise liul« stalks or 
cauliciiles, ronning sixleea volutes. 

CUROGI.IEKS. in Cathdiic countries, 
tn iirrier of luuuks, so railed t>ecaU8e tliey 
wear a cord full of knots about their mid- 
dle. 

CORDOVAN. A sort of leather made 
of^oal skill at Cordova in Spaiii. 

CORK TKGE. A glandiferous tree of 
the itak kina, having a thick, spong>', and 
soft bark, known by tlie name of cork. It 
grows abundantly in Italy, Spain and other 
parts in the South of Europe. 

CORMORANT, or Ct)RVORANT. An 
exceedingly voracious bird of tlie pelican 
tribe. It build.-i on the liigliest cliffs bang- 
ing over the sea. 



COR 



in 







CORN. A g«ner«i term in England for 
wheat. Sonietimea, for all grain of which 
hread is made. In the United States, it 
is a common term for Indian corn. See 
Maike. 

CORNEA. One of the coals of the eye, 
which IS traiisp:ireiit in the fore part, to 
admit the rays of light. 

CORNELIAN. A precious rtone, of a 
flesh colour, of which rings are made. 

CORNET (in Military Affairs). An in- 
rtrument very similar to a trumpet, which 
is used in the army ; also a coiiimii<sioned 
officer in a troop of horse or dragoons. 

CORNFI.AG. A plant having a double 
tuberose rotit, with leaves like the fleur 
de lis, and a flower consisting of one petal, 
shaped like ttie lily. 

CORNFLOWER. A plant that grows 
wild among the com. 

CORNICE. Any moulded projection 
that crowns or finishes the part to which 
it is affixed, ss the cuniice of a room, a 
door, &c. 

CORMSn cnolTOH. In Enjiand, a 
sort of crow, of a fine bine or purple black 
wkMir, with red beak and leg» It was 



reckoned the finest bird of its kiud, and 
therefore borne in coals of anus. 

CORjNUCOPIA, or Thb Horh or 
Plkntt. Fabled to be the horn which 
Hercules broke off from Achelous' head. 
It was tilled by the nymphs with all raannei 
of flowers and fruits, and made the emblem 
of abundance. 

COROLLA. The leafy parts of a flowet 
which IS marked with divers colours. Eacii 
leaf or division of the corolla is called a 
petal. 

COROLLARY. A consequence drawK 
from some proposition already proved ot 
demonstrated. 

CORONARI^. OneoflAiniBus' natu- 
ral orders of plants, containing tiiose of ltic> 
libaceous tribe, which are most fitted for 
making garlands. 

CORONAtlON. The act or solemnity 
of crowning a king ; also tlie ceremony of 
investing the pope with his sacerdotal en- 
signs and dignity. 

CORO.NER. An officer whose particulai 
duty it is to make inquisition into the im- 
timely death of any |>erson. 

CORONET (in Heraldry). A small 
crown worn by the nobility. 

CORONET, or CORNET (in Farriery? 
The upper part of a horse's hoof. 

CORPORAL (in Law). An epithet fci 
any thing that belongs to the body, as cor- 
poral pnnishinent, in distinction from n 
Hue ; a corporal oath, so called because 
the party taking it, is obliged to lay bte 
hand on the Bible. 

CORPOR.\L (in Military Affairs). A 
ra^k and file man, with superior pay to a 
common soldier, and with nominal rank 
under a serjeant. 

CORPORATION. A body politic or 
incorporate, so called iiecause the persons 
composing it, are made into one body. 

CORPOSANTO, or COKPf)S.\NT. 
Small luminous balls supposed to be elec- 
trical which play about the rigging of 
ships in stormy weather and are regarded 
with superstitious awe, by sailors. 

CORPS. A French term for any body 
of forces forming the division of a grand 
army. 

CORRECTION (in Printing). The cor- 
recting of proof sheets as tliey come fn.ni 
the compositor's hands, in order to free 
them from all faults. 

CORRECTIVES. Medicines which 
serve to correct the qualities of other medi- 
cines. 

CORRECTOR. The person appointed 
in a printing offir« to correct the pr(«ft as 
I hey come rough ttom the compositor's 
hands 



112 



COS 



CORRfrion (in Fortification). A covert 
way roiinil a fnriress ; In Architecture, a 
k)M|? tallpry leading; to several chiiiiibers. 

COKROSIVES. Saline menstriimns, 
which liBve the property of dissolving bo- 
<lle8, as burnt alum, white vitriol. 

CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE OF 
MERCURY. An oxynniriate of mercury, 
and an extremely acrid and paisunuus 
preparation. 

CORRUPTION OF RLOOD. An in- 
fection growing to tlie blood, estate, and 
Lssue of a man attainted of treason. 

CORSAIR. A pirate or se.-i robber, par- 
'jculiirly on the coiist of Barbary. 

CORSLET. An ancient piece of armour 
witli which the body was protected. 

CORTES. The states or the assembly of 
tlie stales of Spain and Portugal. 

CORTEX. The outer hark of a plant. 

CORUNDUM. A mineral of the sap- 
phire kind, which is found in the East 
Indies, especially in Pegu and the island 
of Ceylon. 

CORUSCATION. A gleam of light issu- 
ing from anything, particularly that which 
IS |>ru(luced by the electrical fluid. 

CORVUS (in Astronomy)- A constella- 
tion In the southern hemispheie. 

CORYDALF:s. one of Linnmns' natu- 
ral orders of plants, coniaining those which 
li:ive helmet-shaped flowers. 

CORYMB (in Botany). A mode of 
dowering, in whicli the lesjer flower stalks 
are proiluced along the common stalk on 
SkiIIi sides, rising to the same height. 




CO SECANT (In Geometry). The secant 
of an arc, which is the complement of 
knottier arc to ninety degrees. 

COS.\lETiCS. Preparations which 
wtiiten and sulten the skm. 

COSMOr.RAPHV. The science of de- 
■cribiiig the several parts of the visible 
World. 

("OSMOPOFJTE. A citizen of the 
Mirlri. 

(.'•♦SSACKS. Irregular troops attached 
tu the Russian army ; a predatory tribe 
which inhabit the banks of the Nieperand 
Don. 

COSTS OF SUIT. The expenses attend- 
in* a law suit, which are In part recover- 
•kia troin the party wliu loses the cauw 



cov 

COTTON. A sort of wool or flaj , which 
encompasses the seed of a tree th;it is much 
cultivated in Central Africa, in the Indie* 
and particularly in America. It only flour- 
ishes in warui climates. The cloth 
which is man II factored from this wool 
when spun, is also called cotton. 




COTTONGRASS. A perennial of the 
grass tribe, so called, because itsseed-s have 
a downy substance attached to them whicli 
resembles cotton, and has been used in ita 
stead. 

COTTONTHtSTLE. An herbaceous 
plant, with a biennial root, which is sc 
called because it has downy leaves. 

COTYLEDONS (in Botany). 'I'lie lobes 
of the seed, of wliich there are mostly two. 
1'liey are destined to nourish the heart ut 
the .seed. 

COL'ANDO. .A species of small South 
American porcupine. 

COUCH. A seat, or small moveable bed 
to lie on. 

COUCH (In Husbandry). A layer oi 
heap of malt or barley. 

COUCH (in Painting). The ground or 
bcLsis on which the coKuir lies. 

COUCHGRASS. A noxious weed, 
which spreads ver)' fnsi in arable land, and 
chokes every thing else that is sown. 

COUCHING (in Surgery). The remov- 
ing the opaque lens out of the axis of vis- 
ion, so as to restore the sight. 

COVENANT (in Ljiw). An agreement 
or consent of two or more, by deed »ti 
writing. 

COVERT. A thicket or shady place for 
deer or other animals. 

COVERT-WAY (In Fortification). A 
space of ground level with the field on the 
edge of the ditch, ranging quite round the 
works. 

COVERTURE (in Law). The stat*^ of 
a married woman who is under the pvwei 
and protection of her husband, whenM 
she Is called a feme coverte. 



cou 

COL'GAR. Theliirscitanimnlof Amer- 
ica of the cat kinii, anil gniiielinies called 
Jm American Lion. In ^^oiilh America it 
in called Puma, in .NUrih America, I'an- 
Uier. It is of an a.-li onlour, and so (Kiw>r- 
fill, that it will bear the body of a iiian up 
a tree. 

COVING (in Architecture). The pro- 
jection in house.'i (tc^ynad the ground plot. 

COUNCIL, (in Law). An assemhly of 
the different members of any government 
who meet to consult about alfairs. In 
England that is called the I'rivy Council 
wherein the king himself and his privy 
counsellors meet, in the king'ti court or 
palace, to deliberate on affairs of state. 
When the council is composed only of 
cabinet ministers, or tlie king's most con- 
idential servants, it is called a Cabinet 
Council. 

COUNCIL (in Ecclesiastical Affairs). 
The same as the synod. 

COUNCIL OF WAR ^in Military 
Affairs). An assembly of the chief otftcers 
in the army or navy, called by the general 
or admiral in particular emergencies, to 
concert measures (or their conduct. 

COUNTERFEIT. A fraudulent imita- 
tion of any thing, made so as to pasa for 
genuine, as counterfeit coin. 

COUNTERMINE. A mine made by 
the besieged, in order to blow up the mine 
of the besiegers. 

COUNTERSCARP (in Fortification). 
That side of the ditch which is next the 
camp, and faces the body of the place. 

COUNTER-TENOR (in Miu<ic). One 
of the middle parts, so called bccnuieit is, 
fts it were opposed to the tenor. 

COUNTING no USE. An office in 
which a merchant transacts his business. 

COUNTRY DANCE (in Music). A 
lively pointed air calculated for dancing. 

COUNTY. One of the ancient drvi- 
•ions of England, which by the Paxons 
were called shires ; England is divided in- 
to forty counties or shires, Wales into 
twelve, Scotland into thirty. Each of the 
United States is also divided into coun- 
ties. 

COUP DE MAIN. A sudden unpre- 
meditated attack 

COUF D'CEIL. The first glaaceof the 
•ye, with which it surveys any object at 
large. 

COUP DE SOLEIL. Any di«>rder 
■nddeiily produced by the violent scorch- 
uig of the sun. 

COUPLE. A band with which dogs are 
tfed topether. 

COUPLE-CLOSE (in Heraldry). An 
•■iioaiy, s« termed from it« cucloiiiug ilie 
10 • 



CRA 



113 



chevron by conples, being always borne ia 
pairs, one on each side a chevron. 

COUPLES (in Building,. RaOers fra- 
med together in pairs with a tie. 

COUPLET. The division of a hymn, 
ode, or song, vhcein an equul number, o. 
an equal mey | re of verses is found in eMk 
part. 

COURANT. An epithet for any hensl, 
reprettented in an escutcheon in a running 
attitude. 

COURSE. A sea term.forthat i>oiutof 
the horizon or compass for which a ship 
steers, 

COURSE (in Masonry). A continued 
range of bricks or stones of the saina 
height. 

COURSE OF EXCHANGE (in Com 
merce). The current pn'ceorrate at which 
the coin of one country is exchanged foi 
that of another ; which, as it depends upon 
the balance of trade and the political relic- 
tions which subsist between thetwoc<iii». 
tries, is always fluctuating. 

COURSER. A race horse. 

COURSING. The pursuing of any be<i*l 
of chase, as the hare, &c. with greyhounds. 

COURT (in Law). In moiiarchiiml 
countries, the king's palace or maiisioti ; 
in comnion use, the place wlrere justice ts 
judicially administered. 

COURTS OF CONSCIENCE. Courts 
for the recovery of small debts. 

COVY. All assemblage of wild fowl, 
particularly partridges. 

COW. The female of the ox kind, 
which is kept for her milk and her calves. 

COWKEEPER. One who keeps cows 
for the purpose of selling the milk. 

COWPt >.X. A substitute for the small- 
pox. It IS taken from the udder of (he 
cow, and used In that sort of iitociilaiion 
now known by the name of vacrinalioii. 

COWRY. A testaceous animal, which 
is said to have the power of leaving its 
shell and forming a new one. These ani- 
mals live in sand at the bottom of the sea. 
The shell is used as a coin in India. 

COWSLIP. A plJinl which grows wii4 
in the meadows, and bears a pretty yelln-v 
flower. 

C. P. S. (in England). Custos privsm 
sigiili ; i. e. kee|ier of the privy seal. 

CR. .\n abbreviation for creditor. 

CRAB (in Astronomy). Cancer, on««< 
the signs of the r.o«liac. 

CRAB (in Br>tany'. A wild apple trra, 
and also the fruit of hat tree. 

t:RAB (among Shipwrights). An enfin* 
with three claws for launching of ships. 

rK/.irs EYE. A stone found in Um 
craw fish, rusemblinc au eye. 



114 



CRA 



CRAB A Bort of shell fish, which every 
ye^r cast off their olJ shells, with much 
(KIWI and diliiculty. 




CRADLE. A moveable bed for a child. 

CRADLE (with Surgeons). A wnoden 
machine to lay a broken leg in after it has 
heen set. 

CrtADLR (with Shipwrights). A frame 
of timber m.^ed on each side of a ship, for 
the irore conv.inient launching of her. 

CRAMP. As^asinodic affection, which 
rjufcs a violent dis.ortion of the muscles, 
ner/es, &.c. ; also a dis«/ase to which hawks 
»re subject in their winga. 

CRA.MP IRONS. Ironj which fasten 
•U'mfs in buildings. 

CR.'V.N'BKRRY. In Englijl,:\ paJe red 
h( rry of a tart taste, the fruit of I'lo cran- 
hBrry tree. The cranberry of Cbt Unitel 
k^tiites grows on low bushes, in »a.•!Jl^y 
plHces. It is of a bright red coK<v!i. \nd 
ii':ike9 excellent tarts. 

CRANE. A sort of heron, with a lotLt; 
nei-V, bill, and leg* 




CRE 

CRANK. A machine, with ropes, pal 
leys, and hoops, for drawing up heavj 
weighu. 




CB.^NBSBILL. The English name for 
Uie genvilum. 

CRA.MOLOGY. The science which 
professes to discover men's faculties ami 
characters, from ttM externa) appearances 
•fUtetkuU 



CRANIUM. The skull, or superiorpaf! 
of tlie head. 

CRANK. A machine resembling an et- 
bow, projecting from an axis or spindle; 
also a piece of brass work of a similar 
shape, on which the bell wire is fixed, so 
as to move the hell. 

CRAPE. A light transparent stuff, re- 
sembling gauze 

CRATE. A large ease made of open 
fcars, in which earthen ware is packed. 

CRATER. The mouth of a volcano 
from which the fire issues. 

CRAY FISH, or CRAW FISH. A 
Binall sort of lobster. 

CRAYON. A small pencil of any sort 
of colouring stuff, made into a paste and 
t}rled. 

CREAM OF TARTAR. The common 
white tartar freed from its impurities; a 
salt prepared from the lees of wine. 

CREDIT (in Comn)erce). A mutual loan 
of merchandises, &.c. Letters of Credit, 
letters given by merchants to persons 
whom they can trust to draw money from 
their correspondents. 

CREEK. A small inlet, bay. or cove; a 
recess in the shore of the sea, or of a 
river. Creek Indiana is the name ai>- 
IJlied to a large triba of the native in- 
habitants of the Uuitel Suites of Amer- 
ica, who formerly ociupiuvl alltliocoun- 
tries lying north of lat. 31 (leg. 

CItSlIATION. The burning of tha 
dead, according to the custom of many 
au iiont nations. 

CIIKOLE. A native of Spanish Ameri- 
ca or the West Indies, descended from 
European ancestors. 

CIiil\aQTK Aa oily liquid obtained - 
from wood-tar^ t-onsistiiig of earbou, 
o.xygen, and hy(in_>gen, and so namei 
from it* property of preserving auiuial 
substanoeft. 

CREATIX. Acrj'stallizablQ substance 
obtainel trom lausciilar tibro. 

CEEilAILLERE. la fortification, an 
IndeatuJ zigzag llaa. 



CRO 

CREPITATION. The cnrkllng nolfie 
made by snine salts during the pmcpK) of 
ealciriHtion. 

CRKSf?. A earden ii,tlad. 

CREW. The company of sailors b«- 
lonciiie tn a vessel. 

CUICKE'J'. A little in:<ect tliut haunts 
fireplaces and ovens. 

CIIIEK. An officer who crien or nialiea 
prnrlantation 

CRIMiCS. Offences against morals, u 
Air as they are prohibited hy law. 

CRI.MPS. Persons who used formerly 
to decoy others into the land or sea ser- 
vice. 

CRISIS. That stage of a disorder from 
Which some judgment may be finned of 
its termination. 

CROCODILE. An amphibious animal, 
and the largest of the Ii7.ard tribe, which 
inhabits the rivers of Africa and Asia. It 
Is covered with hard scales, that cannot 
ea.oily be pierced, except under its belly. 

CROCUS. A bulbous plant, that flowers 
Tery early in spring. 

CROP. The craw of a bird; also the 
pnidiice of what is sown in a field. 

CROtsS. A cil'liet, on which the Romans 
used to nail malefactors by the hands and 
feet 

CROSS (in Heraldry). The most ancient 
and the noblest of all the honourable ordi- 
oaries, formed by the meeting of two per- 
pendicular with two horizontal lines, so 
as to make four right angles in the figure 
of a cross, such as the cross batonne in 
th« subjoined figure. 



CRO 



lis 




CROPS The name riven to the right 
tide of a coin, in distinction from the pile 
or reverse. 

CROSS (in Architecture). Any building 
which is in the figure of a cross. 

CROSS BOW. A kind of bow formerly 




CROSSBILL. A sort of Crosheak, « 
bird so called became the mandibles vt 
ite beak croes each oUmt. 




nueb nsed which was strung and set in 
a shall of wood, with a trigger, .Scc. 



CROSS-EXAMINATION (in Law). A 
close and rigid examinatiim on the (lartof 
the ad versary ,consist i ng of cross questions , 
in order te elicit the truth. 

CROTCHET (in Music). Half aminim, 
marked thus. 



CROTCHET (in Printing). Marked thcs 
[ ], to separate what is not the necessary 
part of a sentence. 

CROUP. The hindmost part of a horse. 

CROUPER. A leathern strap fitted logo 
under the tail of a horse, to keep the sad- 
dle in its place. 

CROW. A sociable noisy bird, Utal feerfs 
partly on cat riun 




CROW (among Mechanics). An iron 
insi rument that is used as a lever for raising 
weights. 

CROWN. In England, a coin, in val- 
ue five shillincs, wi called from the figure 
of the crown which was originally given 
upon it. 

CROWN (in Anatomy). The vertex ot 
highest part of the head. 

CROWN (in Architecture). The upper* 
most member of a curuica. 



1 16 



CRU 



CROWN. A cap of state worn by sove- 
reign princes. The crown of England is 
called S?t. Edward's crown, because it is 
niaile in imitation of the ancient crown 
tup|H>8ed to have been worn by that mo- 
narch. That, now in use, was made at 
Jie Restoration, for the coronation uf 
Cbarie* the Second 




CROWN (among Jewellers). The upper 
work of the rose diamond 

CROWN-GLASS. The finest sort of 
window ghiss. 

CROWN-IMPERIAL. A well known 
beautiful flower, the root of which is 
perennial. 

CROWN-OFFICE. In England, an of- 
fice twhmging to the Court of King's Bench, 
of which the king's coroner or attorney 
there is commonly master. 

CROZIEIt. A shepherd's crook; also a 
bishop's staff, which is of a similar form, 
and an emblem of his pastoral odice. 

CRUCIFIX. A figure either in statuary 
or painting, representing our Saviour on 
tlie cross. 




CRUCIFIXION. The act of nailing or 
ttiing to a eroM; the suifering of bein^ 
crucified. 

CRUCIBLE. A melting pot used by 



CUB 

ehenilxts for the melting of mctala 
iniuerats. 




CRUISE. A voyage or expedltkm i» 
quest of an enemy's vessels 

CRUISER A vessel appointed fo 
cruising. 

CRUOR. Coagulated blood. 

CRUSADES. The expeditions under- 
taken by the princes of Christendom foi 
the conquest of the Holy Land, in the 
twelfth and three following centuries. On 
these occasions, every soldier bore a cruci- 
fix on his breast, as an emblem of spiritual 
warfare. 

CRUSTACEOUS SHELL FISHES. 
Fishes covered with shells which are made 
up of several pieces and joints ; such as 
crabs, lobsters, crayfish, &;c. in distinc- 
tion from the testaceous fish, as oysters. 

CRYPTOGAMI.\. One of the classes of 
plants in the Linnsan system, coinprehen 
ding those whose fructification or lloweris 
too concealed or minute to be observed 
by the naked eye, as tlie mosses, the alga 
or seaweeds, the ferns, and the fungi or 
funguses. 

CRV^PTS. Subterraneous places where 
the martyrs were buried, and the primitive 
Christians performed their devotions; also 
underground chapels, such as the crypt 
under St. Paul's and other churches which 
took their rise from this practice. 

CRYSTAL, or Rock Crystal (in Mine- 
ralogy). A transparent stone as clear as 
glass. It is found in Iceland, Germany, 
and France, and belongs to the quartz or 
siliceous genus; also a factitious body cast 
in the glass-houses, called crystal elas« 
which is very brittle, and burns with little 
or no tiame. 

CRYSTAL (in Chemistry). That pan 
of a salt which assumes a regular ami «ilid 
form, on the gradual coo'ing of its iN)lutii>ii. 

CRYSTALLINE HUMOUR. A pel 
lucid humour of the eye, so called from 
fits transparency like crystal. 

CRYSTALLIZATION. The reducing 
of any salt into a regular form, by dissolv 
ing it in a menstruum, and allowing it to 
cool until it shoots into the bodies called 
crystals. 

CUB. The young of some partlcu^al 
beasts, as of a fox and a bear 



CUL 

CUmE (in Geometry). A repular solid 
•ody, supposed to l>e generated by the 
motion of a sr]ii:ire plane along a line equal 
and perpendicular to one of il8 sides. It 
is enclosed by six e<iual sides or faces, 
wliicli are square, as in the annexed figure. 
A die is a small cube 



CUR 



117 




CURE (in Arithmetic). The third power 
of any number, produced by multiplying 
the number into itself, and then again into 
he product, as 3Xy=9X''==2~> 'l>e cube. 

CUBE ROOT, 'i'he side of a cube num- 
ber; tints 3 is tlie cube root of 27. 

CUBIT. A measure equal to about 
1 foot 9 inches. 

CUCKOO. A bird which is lieard about 
the middle of April, and ceases to sing at 
the end of July. It de|K>>its im eggs in 
the nests of otiier liirils, generally in tliat 
of the hedgesparrow. 'J'lie American Cuc- 
koo differs in it^ note from the Eiirofiean 
bird of that name It is also smaller in 

■tM 




CUCKOO-SPITTLE A whi» froth or 
spume, very common on the lavemlerand 
other plants in the spring, which forms the 
nidus of a sort of ric-ida. 

CUCURIUTACEiC. tine of Linna-iis's 
natural orders of plants, comprehend iiig 
those which resemble the gourd, as tlie 
cucumber, the melon, &.c. 

CULM (in Botany). 'Ihe stalli or stem 
of corn or grasses. 

CULM (among .Miners). A sort of coal 
in Wales. 

CULMLN'EyK. One of the Linnsan na- 
tural orders of planu, consisting of Uie 
grasavs. 

CULPRIT (in Law). A word of form, 
applied in court to one who is indicted 



for a criininal offence. It is as much as 
to say, in FVench, 'culpable prit, found or 
considered guilty.' 

CUiMMIN SEED. A long, slender seed 
of a rough texture, unctuous when bruised, 
of a strong smell and an acrid taste. 

CUPBEARER Jn Englaiidi. An oflicer 
of the king's household, who was for- 
merly an attendant at a feast. 

CUPEL. A chemical vessel made of 
earth, ashes, or burnt tHjne, in wbicitassny- 
masters try metaU 

CUPOLA. A roof or vault rising in a 
circular form, otherwise cilled the 'J'holus 
or Dome, as the cupola of St. Paul's Cii- 
thedral, here represeuted. 




CUPPING (in Purpery). The operation 
of applying the cuppiiig-glaas to the lieehy 
parts of the body, for the purpose of draw- 
ing away blood, or humours. 

CURASSOW. A species of bird of which 
there are several varieties in South Amer- 
ica, and the West Indies, of which the 
Cashew Curassow is the largest. This 
bird was formerly domesticated in some 
parts of Europe. 

CURATE. Properly, one who has fW» 
cure of souls ; now applied in England 
to one who officiates for hire in the place 
of the incuml>ent. 

CURB OF A BRIDLE A chain of 
iron that runs over the horse's beard 

Cl^RFEW. Literally, cover fen or fire ; 
a law introduced fnuii Normandy into 
England by William the ('onqueror, that 
all people should put out their lire and 
lichts, at the ringing of the eight o'clock 
bell. 

CURLEW. An European water fowl 
of a gray colour, with a l.irge beak. 

Cl.'KKANT. The fruit of ashriib having 
no prickles; the leaves of this plant are 
large, and the fruit, which is either bl.-wk, 
red, or white, fc kifhiy esteemed; also a 
dried fruit that coiues from the Levant. 



lis 



CUT 



CURRENCY (in LkIW). Paper money 
issued iiy autlioniy, aiiil [ia.ssiiis currt- nl 
Instead of com; also, in general, any sort 
of money thai passes cnrreni by aiilliorily, 
as the metallic currency, signifying the 
coin of the realm. 

CURRK.N'l'S. Inipetiiniiis streams. 

CURRIHR. A dresser of tanned leather 
to make it pliable and fit for use. 1'he 
Company of Curriers in lingland was in- 
corporated in the reign of Henry VI. 

CURRV-COMH. An iron sort of comb 
Ibr the dressing of horses. 

CURSITOR. In England, an officer in 
chancery, who makes out original writs 
for any particular county. 

CURTAIN (in Kortification). The front 
of a wall or fortified place, lying between 
two ba.«tioii8. 

CURVE. A line whose parts incline 
different ways. 

CUSP. Properly, the point of a spear 

CUSP (in Astronomy). A term for the 
boms of the moon. 

CUSTO.M (in \m\v). A duty on the 
lin|Mirtation or expiirlatjon of g(Hids 

CUSTOS ROTULOKUM, or Keepek 
or THE Rolls. In England, he that lias 
the keeping of the records of the sessions 
of the peace. 

CUT. An ens.'aving on wood. 

CUTLER. A maker antlsellerof knives, 
and all cutting iiislrunieiils. 

CU'IPURSE. A sort of thieves who 
rub by cutting purses. 

CUTTER. A kind of bcKit attached to a 
vessel of war, which is rowed with six 
oars, and is employed in carrying light 
stores, passengers, &.c. In the United 
States, the term revenue cutter, is applied 
to small fast sailing vessels, used In walcli 
k^rboius for the prevention of smuggling. 




CVANf)OEN (in Chemistry). Carbon 
combined with azote 

CUTTLE-Fl.sn. A sea ftsh furnished 
With many sickors and holders (or se- 



CYM 

curing its prey. It emits a black 
used lu making Indian iuk 




CYBELE (in Heathen Rlythnlogy). Th« 
daughter of Ctplus and Terra, wife of 
Saturn, and mother of the gods; she is 
always represented with a tiirreted head 
and accompanied with a lion 




CYCLE. A continual revolution of num- 
bers, as applied to a series of years which 
go on from first to Iilsi, and then return 
to the same order auaiii. 

CVt-'LOII). A curve generated by tn« 
rotation of a curie alons: a Inn*. 

C\C1,<)IM:1>I A. S.-H K-ii vrLor.vniA. 

CVl.lMlElt. A tianre ronrened ii. Its 
geiieraifd. liy tlie rotation nt' a rectangle 
about llie side. 




CYLINDER (in Gunnery). The whole 
hollow length of a great gun; the bore. 

CYME. Properly, a sprout or shootj 
also a sort of flower'.ng, where the floret! 
in not all rise from the same point. 

CYUOSi£ Une of Linneus's natum. 



DAV 

CTJTIC8 In anrient history, snarling 
philosophers, who valued themselves on 
their contempt of richea, of arts 
sciences, and amusements. Diogenes 
was one of this sect. 

CYNOSURE. The constellation of the 
Little Bear, to which, as containing the 
nortb star the eyes of mariners and 
travelers were in former times, contin- 
ually turned. Hence the poets have 
used the term to denote anything to 
whicb attention is strongly directed. 

CYPHONISM. A species of punish- 
ment frequently used by the ancients, 
which consisted in besmearing the 
criminal with honey, and exposing him 
to insects. 

CYPR.^rD.1:. A family of Marine gas- 
tarpods (the Cowries), with involute and 



DAT 



119 



higMy-enamelled shells, of which tha 
Cypresea is the type. 

CYPRESS. A genus of plants or trees 
valued lor the durability of their wood; 
the emblem of mourning for the dead, 
cypress branches having been anciently 
used at funerals. 

CYTOBLAST. In botany, the nucleus 
cellule, or assimilative force from which 
the organic cell is developed. These 
nuclei appear like dark spots, which 
may be seen in thefluids of the growing 
l)arta of all plants. 

CYTOBLASTEMA. In physiology, the 
viscid fluid in which animal and vege- 
table cells are produced, and by which 
they are held together. 

CYTOGENESIS. In physiology, the 
development of cells in animal and veg- 
etable structures. 



D 



As a numeral, D represents 600; and 
when a dash or stroke is placed over it. 
It denotes !)000 

DACTYLIOGRAPHY. The art of en- 
graving on gems 

DACTYLOLOGY The art of commu- 
nicating ideas by spelling words with 
the fingers. 

DACTYLOXO:mY. The art of number- 
ing with the fingers. 

DACTYLOI^'EEUS. In ichthyology, a 
genus of fishes covered with large scales 
and the head long and flattened; fam. 
Loricata. 

DADO. In architecture, the part in 
the middle of the pedestal between the 
base and cornice. 

DAGUERREOTYPE. A process inven- 
ted by Dagucrre, by which images from 
the lens of a camera obscura are fixed 
on metal plates. 

DAGOBA. In India and the East, a 
homi.spherical dome of earth or stone 
with a small square erection on its top 
called a tee. 

DALIAN PROBLEM. In mathematics, 
the duplication of the cube, or the pro- 
cess of finding the side of a cube double 
that of another one. 

DAMASK STEEL. In the arts, a fine 
kind of steel from the Levant, of a 
«treaky mottled appearance, used in the 
manufacture of the best sword and 
scimitar blades. Damaskeening is the 
art of adorning steel or iron with inlaid 
gold or silver, chiefly used for sword- 
blades or locks of pistols. 

DANAE. A planet first observed by 
Gcldsmidtinl8G0. 

DATHOLITE. A vitreous mineral 
composed of silica, lime and boracic 
acid, not transparent, whence its name. 

DATUM. A thing given in logical and 
mathematical premises: a proposition 
01 truth granted or admitted. Datum- 
line, in civil engineering, is the ba.se or 
horizontal line o( a section, from which 
heights and depths are calculated. 

DAVYNE. A yellowish transparent 
mineral ejected from Vesuvius; its con- 
stituents being silica, alumina, lime, 
iron, and water; sp. gr. 2-4. 



DAY. An astronomical peried, which 
depends tipon the interval between two 
transits over the meridian of any point 
in the heavens, real or imaginary. But 
the only days distinguished by that 
name in astronomy are the sidereal day, 
I the real solar day, and the mean solar 
day. The sidereal day is the interval 
between two transits of the same fixed 
star, which is divided info twenty-four 
sidereal hours. The real solar day is 
the interval between two moons or 
transits of the sun over the meridian. 
The mean solar day is the average of all 
the real solar days. The Babylonians 
commenced the day at sun-rising, the 
Jews at sun-setting, and the Egyptians 
at midnight, as do many modern na- 
tions; the British, French, Spanish, 
Americans, &c. In the computation of 
time, the civil or mean solar day is the 
time employed by thecarth in revolving 
on its axis, ^')5'24'25 of such ravolutions 
constituting a mean Gregorifin year :with 
most of the modern nations it com- 
mences at midnight, and consists of 24h. 
3m. 56s., 55 of sidereal time. Solar days 
are not always of equal length: Ist, 
from the unequal velocity of the earth 
inits orbit, that velocity being greater 
in winter than in summer; and 2d, from 
the obliquity of the ecliptic. A side- 
real day, the day universally adopted by 
astronomers in their observations, is the 
time that elapses between two success- 
ive culminations of tU» sMne star. 

DAY FLY. A kind ol insect, so called 
because It lives only a day. 




130 



DEC 



UEAU £VE. A sea term for • iort of 
Oal block. 

UEAU LANGUAGES. Those languages 
which have ceased tu be i>|Hikeii by any 
nation, as Ibe Greek and Liilin. 

UEAU NETTLE. A sort of nettle 
witliuut stings. 

UEAU RECKONING. The account 
kept of a ship's course by the lug, without 
any observation uf the sun, luooii, or 
stars. 

UEAF AND DUMB. Those who have 
the misfortune to be born, witlmul llie fa- 
culties of hearing or speaking. Means 
Iiave lieen successfully employed to supply 
these defects in charitable iiistilutioiis, for 
the beiiefil of these unhappy objucts, where 
the young are taught to coiiiiiiuiiicate their 
thoughU by ttie help of signs, particularly 
by the laugiiHge of the lingers, which, 
Plough before but a cliiMish aniuseuient, 
b) now turned to a useful purpose, 'i'he 
first establishment of tills kind in America 
was that at Hartford, winch was found-'l 
chiefly through the instrumentality of 
Mr. Gallaudet. 

UE.'\ L. The wood of the fir tree cut up 
for building. 

DEAN. In England, a dianified clergy- 
man who is at I be head of a chapter. 

UEATIIVVA'J'CH. A little insect inha- 
biting old woodeu furniture, which makes 
a licking noise in such a maiiiier, by a 
certain number of distinct strokes, as for- 
merly to be considered ominous to ihe 
family where it was heard. This circuin- 
luaiice gave rise to its vulgar name. 




DEBENTURE (Ir Law). A sort of bill 
ilrawn upon the Government. Custom 
House debentures entitle the bearer to re- 
ceive a drawback on the exportation of 
goods, which were before imporled. 

DEBIT. A term used in book-keeping 
to express the left hand page of the ledger, 
to which all articles are carried tiiat are 
charged to an account. 

DEBT 'in Commerce). A sum of money 
due from one person to another. 

DEDI' (in Law). An action which lieth 
where a man oweth another a certain sum 
of money. 

DEC. An abbreviation for December. 

DEC.'VUE 'J'he number or space often 



DEC 

days, which formed the third part of tb* 

Attic month; alsotheiiumberof ten books, 
which was formerly tlie division of some 
volumes, as the Uecades of Livy. 

DECAGON. A plane gecmietrical flgur* 
Consisting often sides and ten angles. 

UECAL(XJUE. 'J'he Ten Command- 
ments delivered by God from Mount Sinai 
to Moses. 

DECAMERON. A volume often books, 
such as the Decameron or novels of Boc- 
cacio. 

DECANDRIA. One of the artificial 
classes of Liiiiixus, comprehending those 
plants which have ten stameus in the 
flower. 




DEfJANTER. A glnss bottle made so 
Its to hold the wine for immediate use. 

DECEMBER. The last moiitb in the 
year, when the sun enters the tropic of 
Capricorn, making the winter solstice. 

DECEMVIRS. Extraordinary niiicis- 
trates among the Romans, chosen for the 
particular purpose of collectiiig tlie laws 
of the twelve tables, which they gathered 
from the writings of Solon. 

DECIDUOUS PLA.NTS. Plants which 
cast their leaves in winter. 

DECIMAL. An epithet for what con- 
sists of the number of ten; as, Decniiai 
Arithmetic, a mode of coinpui;itii>ii ili.ii 
proceeds on the scale of ten figures; De- 
cimal Fracti(ms,suchas have in, IlKl, lO'lO, 
&c. for their denominator, and marked 
with a point thus .5 for five-tenths. 

DECIMATION. A military punishment 
among the Romans, inflicted on every 
tenth man of the company who had be- 
haved themselves ill. 

DECK. The floor of a ship. The derks 
may be either first, second, or third; 
where there are more than one, beginning 
from the lowest upwards. 

DECLARATION (in Law). A state- 
ment of the cause of action by a plaint iff 
against a defendant. 

DECLENSION. The different inflexions 
of nouns throughout their cases. 

DECLINATION. The distance of any 
star or point of the heavens from the 
equator, either north or south. The greul- 



DEF 

Mt declination is -^:< dc<:reei: and a halT. 

UKXOl'TIo.N. A medicinal luiunr. 

DECOMmsiTION (in Chemistry^. 
The rediiclion (>r a body to the parts of 
which It is ciiniiHMed. 

DECORATIuNS. Any nniamenta or 
embellishments, such ;ls pritiLs u> a book. 
or the mouldings, and other Ciirved works 
in buildings. 

DV'COV. A sea term for a stratafiem 
employed by ships of war, to draw any 
vessel of inferior force into an incautious 
pursuit, until she comes within gun-shot. 

DECOV (among !5porti<nien). A place 
for catching wild fowl. 

DECUY-DCCK. A wild duck trained 
to decoy others into tJie decoy, or place 
where they may be caught. 

DEKU ti" I^Jiw). A written contract, 
ail{iied, sealed, and delivered. It is par- 
ticularly applied to instruments for con- 
veying land. 

DEhr-E^E.A-LIXE. A sea term for a 
small line to sound with. 

DEER. An animal which in England is 
kept in parks, either for ornament or for 
the chase; the flesh of which is called ven- 
ison. In North America, we have live 
animals of the deer kind, the Moose or 
Elk of Europe; the American KIk, astiitely 
animal, whose brmcliins horns are some- 
tiniec five feet in length; the common fal- 
low, or Virginia deer; the mule, or black 
taded deer of the Rocky mountains ; and 
the Rein-deer. The male of the fallow 
di-er, is called Buck, the female, Hind. 
'I he stag. Hart, or Red Deer of Europe, the 
fenitile of which is called Hind, is not 
f >iiiid in this country. It is a characteris- 
tic of all these aniinals,that they shed their 
.lorns once a year. 

n. F. Detbnsor Fidei, Defender of the 
Faith. 

l>£ FACTO. In deed or fact. 

Itv.F.ALCATIOX. A falling off or a 
failure in any public accounts. 

DEFAMATION (in Law). Slanderous 
Words spoken or written against any one. 

DEFAULT (in Law). A nonappearance 
in court without sufficient cause. 

DEFACLTER. One who is deficient in 
his accounts. 

DEFECTION. The falling oflT from a 
gi: /eminent or state. 

.")EFEXCH (in Law). The reply which 
the defendant makes after the declaration 
is produced; in .Military .Affairs, any work 
that covers or defends the opposite |H>sts, 
as flanks, paripets. 

DEFENDANT (in Law). One who ii 
■atd in an action. 

DEFENDER OF THE FAITH. A title 
11 



DF.L 



121 



given by Pope Leo X. to Henry VIll. for 
writing against Luther. 

DEFILE. A n.irrow lane or passaea 
through which a company of mddiers cait 
puss only in tile. 

DEFlNnU)N. The determining tht 
nature of things by words, or explaining 
the siiinitication of a word. 

DEFLAORA'llON. The burning in a 
criu'ible of any mineral body. 

UEFLEMO.N'. The turning of any thing 
out of its true course. 

DEFLL'XION (in Surgery). The falling 
of a humour in the Inidy, from a superior 
upon an inferior part. 

DEGRADATION (in Ecclesiastical Af- 
fairs in England). The depriving a person 
of his dignity and degree, as the degrada- 
tion of a clergyman, |>y depriving hiiii of 
holy orders. 

DEGRADATION (in Military Afftirs). 
The depriviiis an otricer of his ciunmis.olcm. 

DEGREE (in .Mathematics;. 'I'lie aiioth 
part of the circumference of a circle, 
marked thiis( °). 

DEGREE (in Law). An interval of 
relationship between persons, mure or less 
nearly allied. 

DEGREES (in a University). Titles of 
honour, conferred on pei-sons for their 
merit in the arts and sciences. 

DEINORNIS, also DINORNIS. A gi- 
gantic bird fimud in a sub-fossil state in 
New Zealand, having been a wingless 
bird of great size and strength — called 
the Moa by the natives. 

DEINOSAUIUANS. An order of fossil 
reptiles found in the Upper Secondary 
Formations, of great size, and fitted for 
terrestrial Ufa. 

DEINOTHERITJM. A gigantic fofwil 
maiuiual lunusued with a short prob- 
oscis, and armed with two euornions 
txisks.turnedtlownwards, and slightly 
curved inwards. 

DEIP>}t)SOPHIST. One of an ancient 
sect of philosophers, who were i'amouii 
for their learned conversation at meals. 

DELFT WARE. A kind of potter'i 
ware, originally made.nt Dell\ in Holland^ 
it is covered with an enamel, or white 
gta/.ing, in iniitalion of |Kircelain. 

DELkll.lI'M.or nELiaUh>*rENCE. 
A spontaneous solution of some salts by 
exposure to the air. 

DELIVERY, or GAOL DELIVERY 
! (in I^aw). A term applied to the sessions 
' at the Did Baily, &r. in London, by which 
' the gaol is delivered or cleared of prisoners 
I DELIVERY (in the .Mint). The qiian 
tity of moneys coined within a given 
I period. 
I DELIVERY (in Oratory). The manner 



122 



DEP 



of pronoiinctng an address, as regards the 
«oic« mid iilteraiice ofllie speaker. 

DG.MKSM; LAM)S. in Kiigliuid, lands, 
whirli tlie lord of a manor has in his own 
hands. 

nt;*!!. A half-fellow at Magdalen Col- 
lege at Oxford Kn^ilaiid-, also a term In 
com|K>sition siiJiiiifMn): half, as, demigod, 
a hero who was enrolird among the gods. 

Ut;.MOCRACV. A form of government 
where the sngireme power is lodged in the 
people at large, ur in persons cliosea by 
ihein. 

DEMONSTRATION. A proof or chain 
of arguments, serving to prove the truth. 

DK.MUKRKR (in Law). A pause or 
stop in a suit u|Hin some difliculty. 

DE.M V. A sort of pa|ier much U8«d in 
printing. 

DE.MER. One of the earliest French 
coins, answering nearly to the English 
penny. 

DE.MZEN. An alien who is naturalized. 

DENO.MINA'roR. 'I'hat part of a frac- 
tion which stands below the line, as l{) in 
the fraction ^ 

DE.NtJlJEM ENT. The developeinent of 
the plot in a play. 

1)E NOVO. Afresh, or from the be- 
ginning. 

OE.NsjiTV. The property of bodies, of 
containing a ceruiin quantity uf matter 
under a certain bulk. 

DEN'I'lr!'!'. One who draws teeth, and 
prescribes for their diseases. 

DKODANI). A thing as it were forfeited 
to 0<id, to alone for the violent death of a 
man by niisadveiilnre. 

DEI'AR'ri'KE. The easting or-westing 
of a ship, in respect to tlie meridian it de- 
parted from. 

DKI'HLKGMATION. The depriving 
any lii|iiid of its siipertlnoiis water. 

l)i-^PO.\ENT. One who gives informa- 
tion on iKith before a magistrate. 

DEPORTATION. The banishment of a 
person, among the Romans, to some dis- 
tant island. 

DEPOSITION. The testimony of a 
witness taken upon oath. 

DEPOT. A place where military stores 
are depjisilfd. 

Dr.PRES.<ION. The distance of a star 
from the bori7.on below. 

DEPRESSION OF THE POUR, ig 
■aid of a person sailing fVum the pole to 
the equator. 

DEPKt>%J|ON OP TOR VISIBLE 
HORI/ON, or, Dir of the nuRizun. 
Ita dipping or sinking below the true lio- 
rixontMl plane, by the oli^erver's eye being 
abuvc Ule surfucr uf the sea. 



DKT 

DRPRIVATION. In England, a taklnff 
away, as when a parson or vicar is de- 
prived of Ins preftriiient. 

DEI'L'TY. a prrsoii appointed by com- 
niisiijoii to act for .iiMillier. 

DERELICT. Forsaken, left; as derelict 
lands, lands.wliK'b tlie sea has left; dere- 
lict ships, vessels left at sea, &,c. 

DEKIVATIVE (in Graiiiii.ar). Any 
Word which is derived from another. 

DKR.MIISTES. An insect, called ia 
vulgar liinjiiiage the Leather eater. 

UEllMER. LiL-si, as a tribunal of der- 
nier resort, the last or highest court of 
appeal. 

DERVISE. An order of religious per- 
sons in .Vlalioinetan countries, who prac- 
tise great aii^terities on themselves. 

DESCENSKJ.N. An arc of Ilie equator 
which descends or sets with any sign or 
point III the zodiac. Descension is either 
right or obli<|iie, according as it takes 
place in a riglu or obli(|ue sphere. 

DESCENSION AL DIFFERENCE. The 
difference between the right and oblique 
descension of a star, &.c. 

DESt'ENT. In general, the tendency 
of heavy bodies towards the earlh. 

DESt;E.\T (in Law). Hereditary suc- 
cession to an estate. 

DESCENT (in Military Affairs). I^nd 
ing in a country fur tlie pur^mse of in 
vasion. 

DESCRIPTION. An imperfect kind 
of definition, that includes many accidents 
and circijinsiaiices peculiar to an object, 
wilhont detining its nature precisely. 

DESERTER. A soldier wln> runs away 
from his colours, or goes over to the 
enemy. 

DESII)ERATir.M (in Literature). What 
is wanted or iiKpiired after. A work is a 
desideratum, which, though wanted, is not 
executed. 

DESIGN. The first draught, or sketch 
of any picltire. 

DESPt/riS.M. A form of governnieiit 
where the monarch rules by Ins sole and 
sovereign aulborily. 

DESIJNT Ci*:TERA. The rest waniing; 
words put at the end <if any ch:L<iii or 
deficiency, in an im(terfect or inulilaUfd 
work. 

DETAtMIMR.VT fin Military Affairs). 
A certain nnmlwr of men Kele'cled lor a 
partixilar expedilli'ii or service. 

DETAINER. A writ for holding any 
one ill cnstixly. 

DETENTS. The stops in clock-work 
which, by being lifted up or let down, 
lock or unlock the clock in striking. 



DlAs 

DKTERGF.NTS. Medicines which re- 
move viacid huiiiiiura. 

ItKTliRMI.NATIi PROBt.KM That 
which had uiie, or a liiiiiied niiiiibcr u( 
kii.^wf ra 

IJKTON.VriON The noise and explo- 
•toii, which siiine mitislaiict-.s make iiptui 
the iipplicatidii uC tire to them, as guii- 
puwder, Sic. 

DirrONATrNG powder, or FuL- 
Mii<iATi;<in I'uwuKR. A preparation of 
nitre, rjiilphurj &.C. 

UE'J'RITL/'S. Tliat which is washed 
down fruiii the inuuntaiii:i, and forms a 
new soil. 

DEUCALION. The son of Prometheus, 
who, with his wife I'yrrlia, were saved 
during a deluge, in a ship on Mount Par- 
nassus 

DEVISE. A girt of lands by last will 
and testament. 

DKUTERONOMV. The fourth book of 
Moses. 

DEW. The moisture, which is first ex- 
baled friim the earth hy llie i^un, and then 
falls again upon the earth in gentle drops 
during the night. 

DEWLAP. The loose skin that hangs 
down under the throat of an ox, cow, 

&.C. 

DEXTER. The right, or on the right 
hand or side, as the dexter point; in He- 
raldry, the right-hand side of the es- 
cutcheon. 

DKV. The supreme governor of Alciers. 

DIABETES (in .Medicine). An exces- 
kive discharge nf crude urine. 

DIACOUt^TICs?. The science of re- 
fracied soiintls. 

DIADELI'HIA (in Botany). One of 
the I.innEPan classes, conipreheiidiiig such 
plan's !is b«?ar hermaphrodite (lowers with 
two sets of united stamens. 



DIA 



128 




DrADCM A headband or fillet, an- 
ciently worn by kings as <an emlileni of 
digiiiPy. 

DI/KRESIS (in nrammar). The divi- 
sion of one sylltble into two, marked 
(bus (.. ;. 



DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS. SIpns by which 
diseitses are distinguished from eachnlher. 

DIAGONAL. A straight line drawn from 
one angle of a figure to another 

DIAGRAM. A scheme drawn by waj 
of ilhistratiiig any thing. 

DI.AL. A plate marked with lines, foi 
showing the hour of the day liy the shadow 
of a gnomon, style, or pin when the sun 
sliint's. The diversity <if sun-dials arises 
from the dirferent situation of the plane, 
and from the dllfrreiit figure of the sur- 
faces upon which they are described. The 
subjoined hgure represents an hori/.onta 
dial. 




DIAI.ECT. A manner of speech peca 
liar to any parts of a country. Thediatrcts 
of Greece were admitted to form a iMirt of 
their langiiace, as the Attic dialect, s|Miken 
by the Atlieiiians; so the lolilC, I'oetic, 
JEiiiir, and Doric dialects. 

DI*ALE(.TICS. The art of logic. 

DIALLI.NC. The art of drawing dials 
on any surlace. 

DIALLIST One who constructs sun- 
dials. 

DLVLOGUE. A written dUcourse be- 
tween two or more persons. 

DIALY.«!iS. A mark or character, con- 
sisting of two points placed over two vow- 
els, as poeiiiata, to show that they must 
l>e soundeit distinctly. 

DIAMEPEK. A right line passing 
through tile centre of a circle, or aiiv 
cnrveil hsiiire. 

DIALLAGE. A mineral of a brilliant 
greeu eolor, with a silky or pearly lustre. 
It consists of Hilica, alumina, lime, mag- 
nesia, oxide ofcUrouie, and oxide ofiroii. 

Ei.v:»I.\GNETIU. A term applieil by 
Farrartay to a class of substances which, 
under the infiueiice of magnetism, take 
a position, when freely suspended, at 
right angles to the lua^iuetic meridian. 



124 



DIA 



DIAMOND. The most valuable and 
the hardest of all precious stones or 
j^ems. Itispurt carbon: and its prim- 
itive crystals are the regular octahed- 
ron, wtich reflects all the light falling 
on its posterior Burt'ace at an angle of 
inciJence greater than 24" 13, whence 
its great brillicncy is derived. The 
diamond has various tints of color; 
sometimes of a yellowish, bluish, or 
rose-red tinge, though sometimes per- 
fectly colarle.ss. The largest diamond 
known is siid to have belonged to the 
Kmperor of Brazil; but the celebrated 
Kohi-noor diamond, which passed from 
the hands of the Mogul princes to tho 
possession of Queen Victoria, is among 
the most valuable in Europe. In geom- 
etry, diamond is tlio name of a quad- 
rangular or rhomboidal figure. 

DI APHONIES. The doctrine of refract- 
ed sound. 

DIANA. The goddess of hunting, the 
daughter of Jupiter and (..itona, and twin 
lister nf Apollo; she is coiiitnonly repre- 
leiited with a bow and arrow. 




DIANDRIA (in Botany). One of the 
clitsses in the Linnsan system, consisting 
of such plants as have hermaphrodite flow- 
ers with two stamens, as the olive, the 
privet, the nightshade, &.c 




DIAPASON (in Ancient Music). The 
biteival of an octave; among Musical In- 
■trument Makers, the diapason is a scale 
ar measure. 

DIAPER. A kind of linen for the table, 
wrought with fluwen 



DIF 

DIAPHANOUS. Transparent like gla-og 

DiAl'HONIA. 'i'he precepts forinerij 
taught fur the use of the organ. 

UIAI'IIOKb:'l'ICS. Medicines which 
promote |)erspiration 

DIAPHRAGM. A muscular membrane 
which divides the thorax from tlie abdo- 
men 

UlARKHCEA A disorder which con- 
sists in llie frequent discharge, by stool, of 
a bilious humour from the intestines. 

DlAllV. An account of what passes in 
the course of a day 

DIATESSICKON (in Music). An inter 
val composed of a greater and less tone. 

DIATi:SSERUN (in Tlieology). The 
four Uospels. 

DIA'i'lllliE. A disputation or contro- 
versial discourse 

DIltBLli:. A pointed tool for making 
holes to plant in. 

DICE. Pieces of bone or ivory, of a 
cubical form, and marked with dots on 
each of their faces from one to six. 

DICTATOR. An extraordinary magis- 
trate among the Romans, cliosen u[Hin par- 
ticular occasions; aiul invested with abso- 
lute power. He laid down his office, as 
soon as the occasion ceased, for which he 
had been appointed. 

DICTIONARY. A collection of the 
words of a language, explained in alpha- 
betical order. 

DIC'I'I'M. The positive opinion pro- 
nounced by an individual. 

DIDACTIVE. An epithet for what 
serves to teach or explain the nature of 
tilings, as didactic pieces. 

DIUYNAMIA (in Bot.iny). One of tlio 
Linn:ean cbisses, includiii!! such plants as 
have rtowers with four stamens in two 
pairs of ditl'erent lengths. 

I) K. The stamp usetl in coining. 

DIE (in Architecture). I'he middle of 
the pedestal. 

DIER One who follows the trade of 
dyeing. 

DIER'S BROOM. A shrub so called 
from its flowers, which yield a colour used 
hy diers in dyeing wool green. 

DIES NON; that is. Dies non juridici. 
Hays on which no pleas are held, ni any 
court of justice. 

DIET. Food regulated by the rules of 
medicine. 

DIETETICS. That branch of the medi- 
cal science, which treats of the diet oi 
food suited to particular cases. 

DIEU ET MON DROIT; that is, God 
and my right. The motto on the arms of 
the Kini! of England. 

DIFFERENCE 'in A'ithmetic). Th« 



DIM 

eniairier, wliec one number has been 
■ubtracted from another. 

DIKKKUENCE (in Heraldry). What 
U added in Uduts of anus, as a mark to dis- 
tinguish younger families from tlie elder. 
UiFFEKKNCK OF LONOl'J'UUE (in 
Astlronomy). An arc of the equator, com- 
prehended between the meridianii of two 
places on the earth. 

IJlI-'FEKE.NTlAh CALCULUS A 
nietliod of finding a diflerential, or that 
Rihniiely small quantity, which taken an 
intinite number of tunes, ise(iualtoagiveii 
quantity. 

DIGESTER. An apparatus for reducing 
Bub.<tance8 to a pulp or jelly. 

UIGESTIO.V. 'J'lie dissolving or con- 
cocting food in the stomach, so that its 
various parts may be applied to their 
proi>er uses. 

DIGESTION (in Chemistry). The C(m- 
tinual soaking of a solid substance in a 
liquid, so that by the application of heat, 
it may be reduced to a soli substance. 

DIGESTIO.N' (in Surgery). The dis- 
posing a wound to suppurate or discharge 
good pus. 

DIGESTIVF.S. Medicines which help 
digestion. 

DiGESTS. The first volume of the civil 
law. 

DIGIT. A niea!*ure equal to three quar- 
ters of an inch; also a character denoting 
a figure, as I, for one; 2, for two, JStc. 

DIGIT (in Astronomy). The twelfth 
part of a diameter of the sun or moon. 

DIGITALIS, or Foxolote. A kind of 
plant which is for the most part herba- 
ceous, with a root that is either biennial 
or perennial. The stalk of this plant rises 
two or three feet high, and bears spikes of 
iron coloured, or purple Uowers. 'J'he pur- 
jile fo.xglove is a native of England, and 
is much used in medicine. 

DiGNITY (in Law). Honour anil au- 
thority. 

DIG YNIA (in Botany). An order in the 
Linnxan system, consisting of plants that 
have two pistils. 

DILAPIDATION (in Law). The ruin 
cr damage which accrues to a hou.sc, in 
ec^sequence of neglect. 

DILEM.MA. An argument which cannot 
be denied in any way, without involving 
the (>arty denyini in contradictions. 

DILETTANTE. A lover of the fine arts. 

DIMENSIO.N'. The measure or compass 
of a thing; a line has one dimension, 
namely, length; a surface two, namely, 
length and kreadth; a solid three, namely, 
length, breadth, and thickne.ss. 

DIMLNUTIVK (in (Jrammar). A word 
II • 



DIP 



12S 



or ending, which lessens the meaning of 
the original word; as, rivulet, a small 
fiver. 

DIOCESAN. A bishop who has charge 
of a particular diocese. 

D.OCKSE. 'I'lie district or circuit of • 
bishop's jurisdiction. 

DiOECl.^ (.in Botany). A class in the 
Liiina?an system, comprehending such 
plants as have iii> licrmaphrndite tlowers, 
but the males and females on distinct in- 
dividuals, as the poplar, aspen, amber tree, 
willow, ozier, itc. 




DIOPTRICS. That branch of optica, 
which considers the dillereiit refractions 
of light in its passing through ditTerenl 
mediums, as air, water, glass, &.c. 

DIP OF THE MAGNETIC NEED1>:. 
The property of the needle, when rubbed 
with the loadstone, of inclining tlie north 
end below tlie level of the horizon. 

DIP OF THE HURI/ON See De- 

rRESSION. 

DIPHTHONG. Two vowels sounded an 
one; as, s. 

DIPLO.M.V. A liw^nse or certificate 
given by colleges, &c. to a clergyman, to 
exercise the ministerial functions, or to a 
lihysician, to practice physic. 

DIPLOMACY. The functions of an 
ambassador residing at a foreign court. 

DIPPING NEEDLE. The magnetical 
needle so duly poised about an liorizontal 
axis, that, besides its direction towards the 
pole, it will always point to a determined 
degree below the horizon. The dipping 
needle was invented by Robert Norman, 
a compiiss maker at Kalrliffe, about the 
year I.t80, and arose, according to his owe 
account of the matter, from the following 
circumstance. It was his ciistoni to finish 
anil hang the needles of his compasses 
before he touched them, and he always 
found, after the touch, the north point 
would dip or decline downward, pointing 
in a direction under the horizon; so that 
to balance the needle again, he was always 
forced to put a piece of wax on the south 
end, as a counterpoise After having ob- 
served this effect frequently, he was al 
length led to mark the quantity of the 
dip, or to measure the greatest angle which 
the dip Would mal' '. with the horizon; he 
found at London it was 71" 50', ►vt by 



12i! 



DIS 



•iibMeHjiieiit eiperiineiits the dip is found 
U- (lt-crtra.se aliiiul 1' 4" every >eur. 

IMPTKRA (ill Entomology;. An order 
III liie LiiiiiKaii system, cumprelieiiding in- 
<*iis that liave two wings, with a poiser, 
«« llie lly, the glial, &E.C. 

UIREC'I'IUN (in Astronomy). The 
motion and other phenomena of a phinet 
when it is direct, or going forward in llie 
'/.udiac according to the iiutunU order of 
the signs. 

UlRCCTION, LINE OF (in Gunnery). 
Tlie direct line in wliich a piece is pointed. 

DIRECTION OF A LET'lER. llie 
•uperscription or address. 

DIRECTION POS'l'. A post set up in 
roads, to direct the traveller to particular 
places. 

DIRECTION WORD (in Printing). 
The Word which begins the next page, 
which used to be set at the bottom of the 
page preceding. 

DIRECTOKV (in England). A form of 
prayer set fortti by the assembly of divines, 
and used by order of the Long Parliaiiient, 
instead of the Coininon Prayer, 'i he 
word is applied in tlie United States to 
thinks in the large cities which point out 
liie names and residences of the inhabi- 
tants. 

DIRGE. A song of lamentation at fune- 
rals. 

DIRK. A kind of dagger. 

DISBANUKU. An epithet used for a 
regiment discharged from service. 

DISC. The body or face of the sun or 
uu>on as it ap|>ear8 to us 

DISC (in Optics). The magnitude of a 
tflescope glass, or the width of its aper- 
ture. 

DISCHARGE (In Law). A release from 
roiifinement. 

DISCHARGE (in Military Affairs). A 
reniissiu?! of service for the time that a 
tMildier has been engaged. 

DISCHARGER, or DISCHARGING 
ROD. An instrument made of glass or 
baked wool, by the help of which an 
electrie jar is discharged 




DISCLAIMER (In Law). A plea con- 
ttiinlng an express denial. 

DISCIPLINE. In general, a rule or 
method of government. 

DISCIPLINE (in Military Affairs). The 
training up soldiers for service. 

DISCORD. An inharmonious combina- 
ion of soanda. 



DIS 

DISCOVERY (in Law). The disclosinf 
or revealing any thing by a defendant, in 
his answer to a bill, tiled against hitu in a 
couit of equity. 

DIKJOL/'iNT (in Commerce;. An allow- 
ance made on a bill, or any other debt not 
yet become due, in consideration of i(Kme- 
diule payment. 

DlSb;ASi:. Tha. state of a living body 
which interrupts any of its ( inclions. 

Dl.-^E.MliOGUINO. A term applied to 
rivers, whicii discharge tliemselves inla 
the sea. 

DISJUNCTIVE. An epithet for con- 
junctions, which separate the sense, as 
but, nor, &c. 

DISLOCATION. The putting a bone 
out of its place. 

DISPATCHES. Letters sent to, or from 
goveriinient, on public business. 

DISPENSARY. A charitable institu 
tion, where medicine and advice are giver 
gratis to the poor. 

DISPENSATK)N (in Law). In Eng- 
land, an exclusive privilege, to do any 
thing that is otherwise prohibited by 
law, granted by the King in council. 

DISPENSATION (in Ecclesiastical 
Affairs). An iiuliilgeiice granted by the 
Pope, to do what is otherwise forbidden 
by the church, us the marriage of first 
cousins, &.C. 

DISPENSATORY, or pHARMACOHoriA. 
A book which directs apothecaries, in the 
cumpouiiding or making U|> medicines. 

DISPERSION (in Optics). The diverg- 
ency of the rays of light. 

DISPOSITION (in Military Affairs). 
'I'he placing an army ready for attack ot 
defence. 

DISPOSITION (in Architecture). The 
jii.st placing all the several patu of a 
building. 

DISSECTION. The cutting asunder 
animal bodies, in order to come at the 
knowledge of tlieir parts. 

DISSEISIN (in Law). The wrongful 
putting out of one, that is seised of his 
freehold. 

DISSt;NTER. One who dissents or 
departs from the forms of the Church, as 
established in England. 

DISSIPATION (in Medicine). An in- 
sensible loss or consumption of the minute 
parts of a body. 

DISSIPA'llON (in Optics). The Circle 
of Dissipation is that circular space upon 
the retina, which is taken up by the rays 
of each pencil in indistinct vision. 

DISSOLVENT. A liquor proper to-x 
reducing a solid body to the etazo of a 
fluid 



DIV 

DI?<=ni,i;TIO.\. The reducing of a 
siilid Ikxly into a fluid stale, by ihe acciuii 
ufauiur iiK^iistruum or dis^solvenl. 

DlSS(».\'Ai\CE (in Music). A disagree- 
able interval between two souiida, which 
bc-iiig cuntinued together, otfends the ear. 

DISTAFF. .\n instrument anciently 
w-fd in spinning. 

DISTEMi'lOR (in Painting]. Colours 
ii.it mixed with oil or water, but with size, 
M'hites of eggs, &.C. 

DISTE.MPER (in Farriery). A disease 
incident to dugs, horses, and other domes- 
tic anim.Us. 

DISTICH. \ couplet or couple of 
verses in poetry, making complete sense. 

DISTILL.ATION. A chemical process 
of drawing out the humid, spirituous, 
oleaginous, or saline parts of mixed bodies, 
by means of heat, these part.s being lirst 
resolved into a gas or vupnur, and then 
recondensed into a lluid, by means of 
cold. 

IIISTILLER. One who follows the trade 
of distilling. The distillers art- one of the 
city CAinpanieK in London, incorporated in 
the reisn of Uueen Klizalietb. 

DIS'I'RESS (ill Law). The distraining 
or sei/.iMg upon a person's goods, for the 
puyiiieiit of rent or taxes, &.c. 

ijliJTKlBL'TlON (in Printing^. The 
c.ikins a form asunder, so as to separate 
the Itttert:. 

DISTRIBITTIO.V (in Medicine). The 
circalalion of the chyle with the blood. 

DlSTRIBUTIO.\iin Logic). The dis- 
tinzuishing a whole, into its several cun- 
■tituent parts. 

UlSTRIIlt'TIVE JUSTICE. Justice 
administered by a Judge, so as to give 
every man his due. 

DI!«TR1BUTIVE NOUNS. Words 
which serve to distribute things into their 
several orders, as each, either, every, &c. 

DSI'RICT (in Law). That circuit or 
territory, within which a man may be 
forced to make his apitearance. 

UITCII. A trench cut in the ground 
about a field. 

KITCUER. A labourer who makes 
ditches. 

DIIHVRAMBIC. A sort of hymn an- 
ciently sung in honour of Bacchus-, any 
poem written with wildness. 

DITTO, abbreviated I>o. The same as 
the aforesaid; a term used in accounts. 

DIVA.N. A council of state«among tlie 
rurks; also a court of justice. 

DIVER. A waterfowl that frequents 
lakes, and goes with difliciiltv on land. 

DIVERGENT, or DIVERGING An 



DIV 



127 



epithet (nr several things which have the 
property of divergency. 

DIVERGl.NG RAVS (in Optics). Those 
which, issuing from a radiant point, cob- 
tinually recede from each other. 

DIVERGLVG SERIES (in Mathema- 
tics). A series, the terms of which always 
become larger, the farther they are con- 
tinued. 

DIVIDEND (in Arithmetic). The num- 
ber to be divided. 

DIVIDEND (in Commerce). The share 
of profit in a joint stock, which is to be 
divided among the shareholders; also that 
part of a debtor's effects, which is to be 
divided among the creditors. 

DIVINATION. A practice among the 
heathens of foretelling future events, by 
the flight of birds or other signs. 

DIVINE. A minister of the gospel; a 
clergyman. 

DIVI.N'ER. One who professes the art 
of divination; a conjuror. 

DIVING. The art of descending under 
water to a considerable depth, and remain- 
ing there for a length of time, as occasion 
may require. The practice of diving is 
resorted to, for the recovery of things Uiaf 
are sunk, &c. 

DIVING-BELL. A contrivance, bj 
which persons may descend below the 
water, and remain for some time without 
inconvenience. It is used for the recovery 
of property, chat is sunk in wiecka. 




DIVISION. One of the four flret nites 
or operations in arithmetic, by which we 
find how often one quantity is contained 
in another. There are three numbers con- 
tained in this o|ieration, namely, the divi- 
dend, or number to be divided; the divisor, 
or that by which one divides; and the 
quotient, or that number w hich shows, bow 
ofteu the secuiid ia euatauied in the fint 



.28 



DOG 



DIVISION (in Military Affairs) A 
ecxly of men conimauded by a particular 
«lticer. 

DIVISION (in Music). That part into 
which an octave is divi<leit, as quavers, &c. 

DIVISION (in Printing). .A mark to 
dividecoinpouiiil word*, as(-) in May-pole. 

Di\OKCE (in Law). A lawful se|»ara- 
tioii of man and wile, pronounced by a 
competent Judge, on cognizance had of the 
cause. 

DILTRETICS. Medicines which promote 
the urinary discharee 

D. M. Doctor .Medicini, Doctor of Me- 
'^icine. 

DOCK (in Shipbuildingl. A trench near 
R harbour, fitted for the building and re- 
pairing of sliips 

DOCK (in Botany). A plant whieli grows 
wild, and infects corn fields; some species 
of it iiave medicinal virliies. 

IXX;K (in Farriery). The stump of a 
horse's tail. 

DOCKET (in Commerce). A bill with 
a direction tied to goods. 

DOCKET (in Law). A small piece of 
paper or parchment, containing the headjs 
of a large writing; also a subscription at 
the foot of letters patent. ' To strike a 
docket,' is the same, as to make a man a 
bankrupt by process of law. 

DOCKING. Cutting off a horse's tail to 
the stump. 

DOCTOR. Literally, a teacher; the 
hishest degree in any faculty in a univer- 
sity, as 1). D. Doctor of Divinity, M. D. 
Doctor of Medicine, I). Mus. Doctor of 
Music, LL. D. Doctor of Laws. 

DOCTOR'S CO.M.MONS. In England, a 
college of civilians 

DODECAHEDRON (in Geometry). A 
■olid bounded by twelve equal and t-qui- 
lateral pentagons. 

DODECANDRIA. One of the Linn.-ean 
claries, comprehending those plants which 
have flowers with twelve stamens and up- 
irnrds, as far as nineteen inclusive, as 
4]r«r'* yreed, purslane, houseleek, Slc, 




DODO: the Monk Swan. A fspecies of 
large birds now extinct. At th? discov- 
ery of thi' iHland of Mauritius, in 1598, 
the Do<li) was very abundant there. 
DOO. A domestic, faithful and valuable. 



DOM 

animal, of which the most remarkable v». 
rieties are the mastiff, bulldog, hound, 
greyhound, spaniel, terrier, pointer, &.c 
The .Monks of St. Bernard on the Alfw, 
have a peculiarly sagacious breed of tha 
spaniel, one of which saved the life of a 
boy, whose mother was frozen to deatli iii 
the snow 



'iM~rt 




DOG-DAYS. Certain days in the month 
of July and August, which are usually vi-ry 
hot, owing, as is supposed, to the inrliieiue 
of the Dogstar, which then rises and arts 
with the sun. 

DOGE. The chief magistrate in the re- 
publics of Venice and Genoa. 

DOGFISH. A fish <,f the shark kind. 

DOGGREL. An irregular kind of vir!«i- 
fi cat ion. 

DOG.MATTC SECT. An ancient serr ..f 
physicians,(if which IlippocKitesandiJalen 
were at the head. They supposed princi- 
ples, and from tliem drew inferences appli- 
cable to particular ca^es; they were opiNi,<ed 
til the einpirici, or theorists, answering tc 
the quarks of modern days. 

DOGSTAR, or Sibius. A star of the 
greatest magnitude in the constellation 
can is. 

DOLLAIi. A silver coin of the United 
Stato.'j, and aUo of several other cjuu- 
tricf, havius an average value of 100 
cents. The U. y. silver dollar coutaina 
371,'4 grains of puro .silver 

DOLrHLV. An annual which, though 
commonly reckoned among the fishrs, i:i 
cla-ssed by Linnasus under the mammalia. 
It has an oblong body, and awiaiK Willi 
great rapidity. 




DOME. A vaulted roof rr tower of a 
church. 

DOME.SDAY BOOK An ancient r» 



DOR 

tM.l.madcinlhereisii i)f WillianiUieCon- 
qiii-riir; ura binik nt'the survey <if England, 
ciiiiiuiiiiiiK :iii accuuiit oCuIl tht; demetinea 
of llie crown. 

1M».\IIM(AL LEITF.R. One of the 
first seven letters in the alphabet, with 
whirh the Sundays throughout the whole 
year are marked in the Aliiiaiiac. After 
tlic isrm of twenty-eight years, the game 
letters return in the suiiie order again. 

D<i.MI.\0. A game played by two oi 
four persons, with twenty -eight pieces of 
ivory, called c-irds. 

iKj.Mi.VO (in Ecclesiastical Affairs). A 
sortuf litHid worn by canons of a cathedral. 

UU.\. A title of honour in Spain, answer- 
ing to Dooi, or Doiiiinus, Lord. 

DONATIVE (in Law). A beneficegiven 
to a clerk by the patron, without presenta- 
tion 1(1 the bishop. 

I)(».\'J().\ (ill Fortification). A t.iweror 
redoubt, where the fortress may retreat in 
case of necessity. 

[XiRlC ORDER (in Architecture). The 
.most ancient of the Grecian orders, made, 
as is said, in imitation of the hovels erected 
hy tJte original iniiabitants of Greece 



DOW 



129 




DORMER, or OORMEKT (tn Ardii- 
Cectura). A window made in the roof of a 
•uildinz. 

DOKSAI^. Anepitl>et ft rwh.it lielonp 
or rrlntes to the back, as ft < dorsul hits of 
the t) sites 



DOR.MOUSE. An animal of the mouse 
kind, wlucb remaiaa torpid diiruig winter 




DOSE. The quantity of any medicir* 
prescribed by the pliysician to be taken bj, 
the patient at one time 

DOUAV BIBLE. An English transla- 
tion of the Scriptures sauciioned by the 
EomanCatholio Church, and bo oallod 
from Douay, a town iu France. 

DOUBLOON. A Spanish and South 
Aiuerican gold coin, which weighsliV-'iO 
grains troy, of which 3Gj-i9 aro pure; 
value, $16.00. There are also halt ajid 
quarter doubloons, of proportionate 
value. 

DOCCHE. The name given to a jet or 
fiiidieu rush of water directed on name 
diseased part of the body, with a view 
to Ktreiigthea it. 

DOUCINE. In architecture, an orua- 
ineutal niouldiii<;, concave above and 
convex below, being the French term 
for the <rvtn."v. 

IHJt'CtUR A gift made to gais the 
favour or interest of a person. 

DOVE. A wild pigeon, of which there 
are three sorts, namely, the ring dove, th«! 
lar^st of tile pigeon tribe, so wild that it 
cannot be domesticated ; tile stock dove, 
that is migratory ; and the turtle dove, a 
shy and retired bird living in the wochIs. 
These descriptions apply to tlie Euroiiean 
varieties. In .America we have several 
kinds of pigeon, of which the passenger 
pigeon is the most remarkable. In the 
n^estern states ihe.se birds assemble in such 
countless numbers, as to darken the air by 
their flocks, and desolate (he whole coun- 
tr>' for miles around their breeding places. 
The turtle dove of America differs in son*e 
measure, fruni the turtle dove of Europe. 

DOVE-TAILIN'G. A method ofjnining 
one iHuird iiiio another, by pins in ttie uu« 
fitted to boles in the otlier. 

DO\VA<iER (in Law). Properly, a 
widow who enjoys a dower, commonly 
applied as a title to the widows of prince* 
and nobility. 

DOWER (in 1.K1W). The portion which 
a widow has of liar husband's lands at hi» 
decease 

D<)V\'LAS. A sort of linen cloth. 

DOWN. The finest and softest partof 
the feathers of a goose or other water (hwl. 

DOWNS. .\ bank of sand formed hy 
the sea along its shores ; also a larce open 
pluiu. 



130 



DRA 



DR. An abbreviation for debtor and 
doctor. 

DRACHM. The eighth part of an 
ounce. 

DRACO. A constellation in the north- 
«>rn neniis|ihere. 

DRACO VOLANS. A meteor in the 
form ofa Hying dragon, sometimes visible 
in marshy countries. 

DRAFT (in Commerce). A bill drawn 
by one person upon another for a sum of 
ninucy. 

DRAG. A sort of hook to catch hold of 
things under water. 

DRAGOMAN. .An interpreter in the 
Ea.stern countries, whose office it is to in- 
terpret for the European ambassadors at 
the Otloinan court. 

DRAGON. See Pi,yifioDRAG0!». 

DRAGON FLY. A particularly raven- 
ous Insect, which hovers over stagnant 
waters. 

DRAGON'S BLOOD. A gum or resin 
of a tree in the Canaries and New Spain, 
formerly called Draco Arbor, now Astra- 
galus ; it is hard, compact, moderately 
I'leavy, and of a dusky red colour, but ofa 
br^i<!lil scarlet when powdered. 

DRAGON'S HEAD. One of the nodes 
of the planets, particularly the moon, as 
distinguished from the dragon's tail. The 
former, marked thus (^X), is the northward 
point, as sha ascends from the south to the 
iiiirUi ; the latter is the southward point, 
marked (5S)- 

DRAGOON. A soldier who fights some- 
times on foot and sometimes on horseback. 

DRAGS. Floating pieces of timber, 
joiiird so that they may earr>- a load down 
!'. river. 

DRAIN. A watercourse sunk in the 
ground for the purpose of carrjing off the 
WHier. 

DRAINING, or LAND DRAINhXG. 
The process of carrying water off fmin the 
l.iiid, sometimes by means of open drains, 
l<ul more coinmonlir by drains made to a 
lerlain depth under the ground, which are 
tilled with bushes so as to admit the water. 

DRAM. See Drachm. 
DRA. MA. A play, or any piece fitted 
for theatrical representation. Dramas are 
either tragedies, comedies, operas, or farces. 
DRAMATIS PERSONiE. The per- 
formers and characters in any particular 
ptpce , 

DRAPER. A sellerof cloth ; as a woollen 

iraper and a linen draper. The Drapers 

M London, are one of the city companies, 

'ncorporated in the reign of He iry VI. 

DRAUGHT, or DRAFT (ii Arcliitee- 



DRE 

ture). The figure of an intended building 
described on pu|)er. 

DRAUGHT (in .Navigation^. Thequan- 
tity of water which asliip draws wlien blia 
is afloat. 

DRAUGHT (in Militao' Affairs). A 
detachment of soldiers drawn off from tit* 
main army. 

DRAUGHT (in Husbandry). What per- 
tains to drawing, as draught horses. 

DRAUGHTS. A game played with 
pieces on a checkered board, like a chess 
board, where by particular nuivemeiits 
they are enabled to take each other, accord- 
ing to certain rules. 

DRAUGHTS.MAN. One who follows 
the profession of taking plans and sketch- 
es, of buildingsand places. 

DRAWBACK (in Commerce). An al 
lowance made to merchants on the e.Ypor- 
tation of goods which i>aid duty inwards. 

DRA W13RIDGE. A bridge made ao aa 
to let up and down at pleasure. 




DRAWER Aboxinaca8e,ftomwhiek 

it may be drawn. 

DRAWfclR OF A BILL. One who 
writes and signs a bill for a sum of money 
to be paid to aimther. 

DRAWING. The art of representing 
objects on paper, eanvas.-*, ice. by mean.i 
ofa pencil or a pen ; al.so the representa- 
tions so made, as drawings in India ink, 
{lencil drawings, &c. 

DR.\WlNGROO.M. The room in which 
compfiny assemble at court ; or to which, 
in common c;ise.<, parties withdraw after 
dinner ; also the company assembled -it 
co>irt, in Europe, to pay their respects to thi 
sovereign. 

DRAW-WELL. A deep well, in which 
water is drawn up by means of a wlieel, a 
rope, and a bucket. 

DRAY. A brewer's cart. 

DRAYMAN. The driver of a dray. 

DREAM. The acting of llie imaginalioa 
in sleep, which represents object:! withoul 
the help of the senses. 

DREDGE. A kind of net for catching 
oysters 

DREDGING. The process o) matching 



DRC 

iyttt!t% by the removing or dragging the 
viuri with dred|!e.s, &.C. 

PItESS. (^othinL' for tlie t...4>. 

f)KESS(in Husbandry). Any sfiifT, siirh 
t.<i loam, sand, kc. which i« put on IhihI to 
im|n-(ivt' the soil. 

OUKSSER. One employed in pntiing 
on the clothes of another, particularly for 
the purposes ofomanif nt. 

DRESSER (in Military- Arfairs). One 
who dresses a line of sitMlcrs, or makes 
them stand with an even front. 

DUESSER (ill Housewifery). A bench 
on which meat is dressed or prepared for 
the cooft. 

DRESSING (in Husbandry). The clean- 
ing of hemp, f1a.t, &.C. so as to prepare it 
for spinning. 

DRESSING (among Letterfounders). 
The scraping, bearding, Slc. of letters, be- 
fore they are used by the printer. 

DRESSING (in the .Manege). Theclean- 
ing and trimming a hur.-e. 

DRIFT. A sea term for any thing that 
floats iipcm the water; alsi> the course 
which a sliip makes when she is driven by 
a storm. 

DRIhI.IN(; (in Military Affairs). The 
teachinu young ri-crui!« the first principles 
uf military movements. 

DRILLI.\(;(in lluslmndry). A modern 
mode of piittiii!! seed into the ground by a 
machine called a drilling machine, which 
makes channels in the ground, and lets the 
seed into them, so that it conies up in rows 
at regular distances from each other. 

DRINK. A liquid medicine given tea 
horse. 

DRIP. The projecting part of a cornice. 

DRO.MEDARY. The Arabian camel 
having one bunch, which is said to oe ver}' 
swift, and able to travel more than She 
hundred miles in a day, though its com- 
mon rate does aot exceed 40 miles. Ssx 
Cambl 



DUG 



in 




DROP. An ornament in pillar* of the 
Doric order 

DRorsY. A collection of watery hu- 
mour either throughout the whole body, oi 



in Mnne part of it, aa the e&vity of tb* 
abdomen. 

DRONE. A large kind of bee or wasp, 
which is without a sting. It is the utato 
of this tribe of insects. 




DROVERS. Men employed to driv* 
cattle to, or from market. 

DRUGGET. A kind of woollen stuff. 

DRUGGIST. A dealer in drugs. 

DRUGS. All kinds of simples, whichare 
for the most part dry, and tit for medicinal 
uses. 

DRUIDS. A sort of priests among the 
ancient Gauls and Britons. 

DRUM. A musical instrument much 
used in the army, consisting of vellum, 
strained over a wooden cylinder on each 
end, and beaten with sticks. 




DRUM (in Anatomy). A membrane of 
the cavity of the ear 

DRUMMER (in Military Afl^airs). A 
soldier who beats the drum. 

DRU-M MAJOR. He who has the com 
maud over the other drummers 

DRUPE (in Botany). A pulpy fruit 
containing a nut or stone, with a kernel 
like the plum. 

DRYADS. Nymphs inhabiting woods. 

dualism:. The doctrine of Manic h- 
teism, or the belief in two eternal prin- 
ciples, the one good and the other ev.i, 
to which all the pheiiomaaa of nature 
are attributed. 



132 



DUM 



DITCAL CORONET. A circle of gold 
with eight strawherry or parsley leaves of 
equal height, about the rim. 




DTJCATOON A silver coin in Holland, 
worth about $1.2.'). 

DUCK. A water fowl, both wild and 
tame. 




DUCK, or RUSSIA DUCK (in Com- 
merce). The best sort of canvass. 

DUCKWEED. A plant growing in 
ditches and stagnant waters; it is an an- 
nual much liked by ducks. 

DUCT. A channel or passage for any 
fluid in the body. 

DUCTILITY. A property possessed 
by certain bodies, particularly metals, of 
yielding to any pressure, by which their 
parts may be expanded by hammering. 

DUEL (in Law). Originally a combat 
between two persons for the trial of the 
truth ; but now an unlawful battle between 
two persons on some private quarrel, in 
the which, in England, if death ensue, both 
the principal, and the seconds are guilty 
of murder. In most of the United States, 
the laws are similar. 

DUES (in Law). Moneys due to the 
clergy, as Easter offerings, &c. 

DUET. A little soiig in two parts. 

DUKE. A sovereign prince in Germany; 
the highest title of honour in England 
next to the Prince of Wales. 

DUMOSjE. One of Llnna;us's natural 
orders of planLj, ( on 'iisting of shrubs and 
MMlies. as laurels, firs. &c 



DYS 

DUNGEON. The darkest, ar.d closer 
part of a prison. 

DUODECIMALS, or Cross Multifu 
CATION. A nile used by workmen and 
artificers, in computing the couteuiK of their 
work. Dimensions are usually taken in 
feet, inche.s, and parts. 

DUODENARY ARITHMETIC. That 
in which the local value of the figures in- 
creiises in a twelvefold proportion. 

DUPLICATE. jVny manuscript copied 
after anotlier. 

DUPLICATE RATIO (in Geometry) 
The product of a ratio multiplied into 
itself. 

DURA MATER. One of the membranea 
which encloses the brain. 

DURANTE (in Law). During, as Du- 
rante \tene placito, during pleasure ; Du- 
rante minore aitate, during minority. 

DURESS. An unlawful imprisonment. 

DUTCHY. In England, a seignory or 
lordship, formerly established by the king, 
with several privileges, honours, &.C. 

DUTY. What is paid or due, by way of 
custom on merchandise in general. 

DWARF. A man much below the ordi- 
nary size. 

DWARF (in Botany). A term for plants 
that grow low, as distinguished from those 
of the same kind which rise to a consider- 
able height. 

DYKE. A bank, mole, or causeway 
raised to stop the floods. 

DYNAMICS. The science of moving 
powers, particularly of the motion of bodies 
nnitually acting on one another. It is a 
branch of the science of mechanics, and ia 
distinguished from statics in this, that the 
former considers bodies only as regards 
their motion, but the latter considers those 
bodies when in a state of rest, as to their 
equilibrium. When fluids, instead of 
solids, are the subjects of investigation, 
that which treats of their equilibrium, 
weight, pressure, iftc. is called hydrostatics, 
and that which treats of their motion, 
hydrodynamics. 

DYNASTY A series of princes who 
have reigned successively in any king- 
dom, particularly applied to the Egyptian 
kings. 

DYSENTERY. A difficulty, or disturb- 
ance in the i itestiiies, which impedes titeu 
func'. \»u» 



EAR 



£AS 



ISS 



E, the fifth tetter of the alphabet, stmxl as 
a numeral fur 350; stands a^i an iililirevi- 
Rtioii for est, as i. e. id est ; also fur eu«t ; 
a-i a si|:n of particular notes in music. 

EACiLE. A bird of prey, said to be the 
Bwitlest, stronwest, and boldest of all birds. 
It lias a long hooked beak, yellow scaly 
legs, thick crooked talons, a short (ail, and 
a very keen sight. The common eagle is 
bere represented. 




The ea^Ie-, as a bearing in coat armour, 
(s reckoned as honorable ataung the birds, 
as the lion is among the twasts. The bald 
eagle is the national emblem of the United 
States. 

EAR. The orgiin of hearing in an animal 
body, which consists of the external ear, 
or all thai lies without the external oriice 
of the meatiis aiidilorius, and the internal 
ear, or that which lies within the cavity of 
the OS tem|ioris. 

KARL. In England, a title of nobility, 
lietweeii a inar<|uis and a viscount, now 
the thiril degree of rank. 

KAlll/S CORO.NET. Has no flowers 
raised above the circle, like that of a duke 




and a marquis, biit Mnly points rising, and 
• pearl on each of litem. 
12 



EARL MARSHALL (in Enjr.^ VVb« 
has the care and direction <if funeral soi 
enmities. Tliisodice belongs by hereditary 
right to the Duke of Norfolk. 

EARNEST (in Commerce). Money ad- 
vanced to bind the parties to tlie perform- 
ance of a verbal bargain. 

E.\R-RL\G. All ornament iiung on the 
ears, particularly of women. 

EARTH (in Mineralogy). A substance 
formerly considered as one < f tiie four 
elements of which the material world ia 
composed. The term is now applied to 
such substances as have neither taste nor 
smell, that are incoinhustible, and nearly 
insoluble in water, the siiecitic gravity be- 
ing under five, as lime, barytes, silica. 
clay, &c. 

EARTH (in Astronomy). One of tlie 
primary planets, marked by the character 
©. According I • 'he Ptolemaic system 
it was supposed to Im immoveuble in the 
centre of the universe, but according to that 
of Copernicus, it moves from west to east, 
so as to occasion the succession of day and 
night, and also annually round the sun, so 
as to cause the ditlerent seasons. 

EARTH NUTS. A kind of plant, th« 
po^a or nuts of which ripen under ground 
The nuts yield a quantity of oil. 

EARTHaUAKE. A violent shock or 
concussion of the earth, or some parts of 
it, caused by an accumulation of electrical 
matter within the bowels of the earth, 
which fores a passage, and cause much 
destnictiof of houses, cities, trees, and 
whole trar»!i of country. In hot countries, 
eartli(|uakes are most frequent. 

EARTHWORM. A worm bred under 
ground, being the common species of the 
worm. 

EARVVIO. An insect with sheath wings, 
which was formerly imanined to creep into 
the ear, but this idea does not appear to 
be borne out by the fact, no case of the 
kind having yet been witnessed or re- 
corded. 

EASEL. A frame on which a painuw 
sets the cloth, &.c. to Ih* painted. 

EAST. One of the four cardinal points, 
where the sun rises. 

E.ASTER. A solemn Festival observed 
among Christians, In commemoration of 
the resurrection of our blessed Lord and 
Saviour Jesus (.'lirist. This feast was fixed 
by the council of Nice, in the vear 325, t« 



134 



ECU 



be held on the Sunday which falU upon, 
or inimeilialely after the full iiuHm, which 
happens next after the twenty-tirst of 
March. 

EASTKR (IFFERINGS. In England, 
money paid at Easter to the parson of the 
parish 

EASTERIJ.NG. \ money coined by 
Eichard H , which is supposed to have 

v«n rise to the mime of sterling, as applied 
jO EnglUh money. 

EAU UE LUCE. A fragrant liquor, 
made chiefly of mastic dissolved lu alcohol. 

EAVES. The edges of the roof of a house, 
which overhang the wall, for tlie purpose 
of throwing off the water. 

EAVESDROI'PER. One who stands 
undertheeavesofhousea.forthe purpose of 
listening to what passes within. Any one 
who listens silly to what is said hy others. 

EBB. The retirement or going away of 
the tide. 

EBONY. A sort of black wood, which 
admits of a fine polish. It is the wood of 
the ebeu tree, which grows in India, Ethi- 
opia, and the Levant. 

EBULLITION'. The effervescence 
which arises from the mixture of an acid 
and alkaline liquor. 

ECCE HO.MU. A painting which repre- 
sents our !?aviour in a purple robe, and 
with a crown of thorn* on his head. 

ECCE.NTIUC CIRCLES Circles not 
havine the same centre. 

ECCE.NTRIC CIRCLE, or ECCEN- 
TRIC (in Modern Astromuny). The circle 
that circumscribes the elliptical orbit of 
the planet. 

ECCENTRICITY (in Modern Astrono- 
my). Is the distance between the sun and 
the centre of the eccentric. 

ECCLESIASTIC. A clerg>'map / one 
dedicated to the ministerial office. 

ECHO. A sound reflected, or reverbe- 
rated from some body, and thence returned 
or repeated to the ear. Eclioing bodies 
may t)e so contrived, as to repeat the echo 
<everal times. At Milan there is said to 
be an echo, which reiterates the report of 
8 pistol lifly-six times, and if the repurl be 
exceedingly loud, the reiter:ttiiiii will ex- 
ceed that number. The celeUrateil echo 
at Woodstock, In Oxfonlslnre, Kngluiid, 
repeats the same sound tit^y times. Hut 
the mo.st singular echo liitlicrlo spoken of, 
is that near Rosneath, a few miles from 
Glasgow,Scotlnnd. If a person placed a: 
a proper distance from lliis.echu, plays 
eight or ten notes of a tune with a trumpet, 
they are correctly refieated by the echo, 
Out a tliiril lower ; after a slmrt pause, 
utotber reiwtition is heard, in a lower 



EDI 

tone; and then, after another interval, 
third repetition lollows in aslill lower tone 

ECHO (III Arcliltecture). Any vault 
arch, coiistrucleil so as to produce an art; 
ticial echo. These are generally of a |iara. 
bolic or elliptic form : of tins kind is the 
whispering gallery in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
Limdoii, and some other large buildings. 
The vault of the Panthen, Paris, is con- 
strutted on similar princiines. 

ECHO (ill Poetry). .^ sort of verse wliicn 
returns the sound of the last syllable. 

ECHOMETEK. A kind of scale or rule 
to measure the duration of pounds. 

ECLECTICS. Ancient philosophers, who 
adhered to no sect, but selected what was 
best and most rational. 

ECLIPSE. An obscuration of the sun, 
moon, or any heavenly body. An eclipse 
may be either partial, when only jxirt of 
the body is darkened, or it may be a total 
eclipse, when the whole is darkened. A 
lunar eclip.se is the depriving the miMm of 
the sun's light, by the interposition of the 
earth between the sun and the iikkui. A 
solar eclipse is the privation of light which 
the sun suffers in regard to us, by the in- 
terposition of the moon between the ann 
and tlie earth. 

ECLIPTIC. A great circle of the sphere, 
in which the sun performs his apparent 
annual motion. It is supposed to be ilrawn 
through the middle of the zodlac,aiid makes 
an angle with the equinoctial of nearly 
ai" 30', which is called the oblnpilty oT 
the ecliptic. 

ECLOGUE. A pastoral poem, wherein 
shepherds are iiitroiliiced discoursing! toge- 
ther. It is so called aller the Eclogues 
of Virgil. 

ECONO.MY. In the general sense, the 
regulation of thinas, or the due distribution 
of means to an end. Political ecoiioiiiy 
is a science which treats of the wealth and 
resources of a nation, and the inanner iij 
which they may be best emplojeil to in 
crea.-<e the pri(sperity <if the people. Adiini 
Smith lias Healed at large on this subject 
in Ills Wealth of .Nations. 

K CO.\"l'K.\. On the contrary. 

ECTIILIPSIS. The cutting off a vowel 
or consonant. 

KDCi;. The sharp cutting part of an 
ilislniment. 

EDGE TOOL. A tool mads sharp for 
cutting. 

EDIBLE ROOTS. Roots that are fit 
for food, as the potato*, carrot, &.c. 

EDICT. A public ordinance or decree 
i.ssued by a prince. 

KDITIO.N. The whole number of bocirt 
of \ kind struck off at one time 



EGG 

EOrLCORATION (is Chyinlslry).Tlie 
wasliingor tiling that liuve l.eeii Ciilciiieil, 
in oriler to |>iirify lliein from llirir suits. 

EOULCUUATION (in I'lmniiacy). The 
•wt-ri^iiiiig any meiliciiial |)rf|ianilinn. 

EKL. A voracious slimy tish, very similar 
to a li/.ar<l, lliat lurks ami feeds in nind. 

EEI. I'OI'T. A younu rel. 

EKL i^I'EAR. A forked uislrunient with 
wliicli eelii are cauglit 



ELE 



ISA 




EFFECTIVE (In Military Affairs). A 
cerm for any body of men tiial are lit for 
acivice. 

EFFECTS. The moveables or goods of 
any nifrrhaut, trailesman, tec. 

EFFERVESCE.N'CE (in t^Semistr)). 
A violent coniniolion in tlie pans of any 
liqnor, accompanied willi some degree of 
neat. 

EFFICIENT CAUSE. Any canse th.it 
ACtnally proiliices an etTert. 

EFFIGY. Any repre.-ientation whatever 
which sive.s or is intended to give, the 
fii^ire of a person : thus, the licnre of h man 
dresse<l lip aiul carried nluint in derision 
of any one, is called his erli:r>' ; when this 
is hiiriit, the person is said to he Imrnt in 
fctfigy. 

EFFLORESCENCE (in Botany) The 
flowering of plants. 

EFFLOKEriCENCE (in Chemistry). 
The conversion of any body into a dry 
powder. 

EFFLUVIA. Small particles, penvtii- 
ally Mowing out of ini.xed bodies in the 
form of va|Kinrs, which are sometimes 
visible, as in the ca.«e of smoke or sleain ; 
and sometimes not perceptible, as insensi- 
ble perspiritioii. 

EFFUSION. The poiirins out a liquor, 
so that the sedimeni may remain. 

EFFUSKt.V (in Surcery). The natural 
Bccretion of rinids frim the vessels. 

EFT A sort of li/. ird, which has a body 
covered with scales. 

E. G. An abbreviation for Exempli 
p^tia. that is, for example, or by way ol 
exam;)le. 

E(Jf!. The ffptns or production of feather- 
ed fowls; that which they hiy, and 'roiii 
which they hatch iheir young: also the 
•pawn or sperm of other crennires. The 
eggs of birds are conii>n.<ed of the shell, or 
sxtemal cu:iling, a thin, while, and strcmi; 



membrane, the albumen or white, and the 
yolk. 

EOLANTINE. The wild rc«e 

EtJKE'l". .A bird of the heron lrib«. 

EIDEK-DUCK. A kind of d.ick remark 
able for the soHness of its down 

EIDOUR.AMON. An exhibition of th« 
heavens and the heavenly bodies. 

FJECTME.N'T. A writ or action which 
lies for the les.«ee for a term of years, who 
is cast out l>efore his term is expired • also 
tlie putting any one out of an estate by a 
legal process. 

ELASTICITY. That property of bodies, 
of restoring themselves to I heir former figure 
after any external pre.-siire. Elasticity is 
increased by auianeiiiiiig the density of 
iMidies; thus metals are remlered more 
elastic by bein2 t>eaien by a hammer: it 
is also sometimes increased by mid ; thus 
the strings of a violin recover their situa- 
tion with less force in hot, than in cold 
weather. 

ELECTION (in I^w). The choice of 
two remedies, either of which, when cIk>- 
sen, the party is comiielled to abide. 

ELIXri'lO.N. The choosing of person* 
to a particular office or sitnatnm by a ma- 
jority of voices, as in England iheelerliun 
fif parish officers, or the election of mem- 
bers of parliament, which lakes phice eve- 
ry seven years. The stale elections here, 
are generally annual. The President, 
and Vice President are elected once in four 
years. 

ELECTIVE ATTRACTION. Another 
name for chemical altiniiies. 

KLF.CTOR (in Political AtTaiin). The 
title of such German princes as formerly 
had a voice in the election of the emperor 
of Germany. 

ELECTOR (in English Ijiw). Any one 
who has the right of giving his voice at an 
election, particularly at an electnui of • 
member of parliament. The term is appli- 
ed in America to voters genenlly. In 
most of the slater, those citizens who pay 
laves are electors. 

EL.\TEKITE. A mineral pitch, a ma-s- 
sive variety of bitumen; also culled el- 
astic bitumen. 

EL.VTERIUM. The Squirting Cucum- 
ber, of the order Cucurbitaceie. E.\tni»:t 
of eliterium is gathered from this plant 
before it ripens, tlie juifo bein^ fieutly 
expressed, when a green sediment ia 
deposited, which is collw^ted and dried; 
one-eighth ol a fer<u.u operates as a draa- 
tic purge. 

EL.\TKOMETER. In physics, an in- 
strument lor measuring the dagree of 
diversity or rareluction of air coutainod 
I iu the receiver ol au air-pump. 



136 



ELE 



ELECTRIC, or ELECTRICAL. Con- 
taining electricity, or capable ot exhibit- 
ing it wiien excited by Iriction; derived 
from or produced by electricity ; com- 
municating a shock like electricity. 
Electric aura is a current ot electrified 
air, employed as a mild stimulant in 
electrifying sensitive parts, as the ear 
or the eye. Electric circuit, or Electric 
current, is the transmission of electric- 
ity from a body overcharged to one that 
is undercharged, through the agency of 
metallic wires or conductors. Electric 
columa is a sort of electi-ic pile invented 
by De Luc, composed of thin plates of 
dififerent metals, with paper interposed 
between them. Electric telegraph is a 
mode of jrausmittiug messages and in- 
telligence by means of electricity over 
■wires, either for long or short distances. 
Electric wire is thep )pular name for the 
■wires of the magueiic telegraph. 

ELECTttlCITi'. The subtile agent cal- 
led the electric fluid, usually excited by 
friction; the science which unfolds the 
phenomena anl laws of the electric; 
fluid. It was so called from the Greek 
■word for amber, because it was in the 
friction of this substance that it was 
first observed. The phenomena of el- 
ectricity are such as attraction and re- 
pulsion, heat and light, shocks of the 
animal system, and mechanical violence. 

ELECTRO. A term e.Ktensively used 
as a prefix in the composition of words 
appertaining to electricity; as Electro- 
biology, the science of electrical foices 
as shown in mesmerism. Electro-chem- 
istry, that portion of electric science 
which treats of the agency of electricity 
and galvanism in effecting chemical 
changes. Electro-chemical, that which 
pertains to electro-chemistry. Electro- 
dyaamics, the phenomena of electricity 
in motion. Electro-gilding, a mode of 
gilding copper or silver by the agency 
of voltaic electricity. Electro-magnetic, 
designating what pertains to magnet- 
ism, as connected with electricity, or 
affected by it. Electro-magnetic Tele- 
graph, an apparatus for conveying in- 
telligence, by means of electricity 
moving between two places on iron 
■wires. Electro-magnetism, that science 
which treats of the agency of electricity 
and galvanism in communicating mag- 
netic properties. Electro-metallurgy, 
the art of depositing metals held in sol- 
ution, as silver, gold, &c., on prepared 
surfaces, through the agency of voltaic 
electricity or galvanism. See EUectro- 
type. Electro-motion, the motion of el- 
Ictricity or galvanism, or the passing of 
it Iroin one metal to another. Electro- 
motive, producing electro-motion. El- 
ectro-negative, a term denoting the 
natural state ot a body, or a particle of 
matter, which makes it tend to the pos- 
itive pole ot a voltaic battery. Electro- 
polar, a term applied to conductors, one 
ena or suriace of whicu is positive and 
tbe otner negative. Elei;tro-po8itive, a 
ttiriu auuoiiug tiie natural state of a 



ELE 

body, or a particle of matter, which 
makes it tend to the negative pole of a 
voltaic battery. Electro-telegraphic, 
belonging to the electro-magnetic tele- 
graph, or by its means. 

ELECTRODE. A name applied to what 
is called the pole of the voltaic circle. 
The electrodes are the surfaces, air, 
water, metal, inc., which serve to convey 
an electric current into and from the 
liquid to be decomposed. 

ELECTROLYSIS. The act of decom- 
posing a compound substance by the 
action of electricity or galvanism.. 

ELECTROLYTE. A compound which 
may be directly decomposed by an elec- 
tric current. 

ELECTROLYZE. To decompose a com- 
pound substance by the direct action of 
electricitv or galvanism. 

ELECTROJIETER. An instrument for 
measuring the quantity or intensity of 
electricity , or tor indicating the presence 
of electricity; an instrument tor dis- 
charging electricitj' from ajar. 

ELECTRON. Amber; also a mixture 
of gold with a fifth part of silver. 

ELECTRO-PLATE. A precipitation of 
silver or gold on a surface of copper, or 
German silver metal. 

ELECTROSCOPE. An instrument for 
rendering electrical excitation apparent 
by its effects. 

ELECTRO-TINT. The art or process by 
which an etching is produced through 
the means of galvanism. The plate 
used for the purpose is of mixed metal, 
presenting a white surface, such as 
German silver. The artist sketches his 
design on the dull white surface by 
means of brushes and composition. All 
the parts which are white in the im- 
X^ression are left uncovered by the paint. 
When the picture is finished, it is coated 
with black-lead, and exposed to the 
electro-coppering process, by which a 
plate is produced for working in the 
copper-plate press, having the lines of 
the device marked in intagUo, or sunken. 

ELECTROTYPE. The art of depositing 
metals held in solution, and of executing 
fac-simile representations by galvanism, 
sometimes called Electro-metallurgy. 
Electro-plating, which is effected on 
this principle, is a process by which a 
pattern, cast in alloy or white metal, 
composed of copper, nickel, and zinc-^ 
hard white, and fusible only at a high 
temperature — after being properly 
chased and prepared, and dipped in a 
vessel containing a solution of phos- 
phorous, is transferred to a tank or 
trough, and subjected to galvanic 
agency. In the tank is a chemical solu- 
tion of silver; and the wires of a galvan- 
ic battery are so arranged that the cur- 
rent, in completing its circuit, must 
necessarily pass through the solution. 
The result is, the solution is decom- 
posed, and a fine film of metaUio sUver 
is deposited on the surfaces of the ar- 
ticles suspended iu the trough. 



ELE 

ELECTRO-BALLISTIC APPARA- 
TUS. Au iustrumciit lor (Ibteimining 
by electricity the velocity of a projec- 
tile at any part of its fli};ht. 

ELECTKO-BIOLOGY. A term np- 
plied to ascertain mental pheitoiueiia, 
8upp<>«e<l by some to bo jiroilncetl by 
the varioua ajjplicatioiis of iiiesiiierism 
to the himiaii boil v. 

ELECTRO CALICO-PRIXTIXG. 
Tlio art of jiroiliicing patteni.s on clotli 
by tlie chemical action of tlie voltaic 
current. The ])rocess may bo thus tle- 
scriheil: if, for instance, a blue pattern 
is to be printed on 0, wliito grouu<l, the 
cloth bas'ing been -netted _>vith a very 
dilute hydro-chloric acid, i.s placed on 
a sheet of tinfoil or other conducting 
surface connected ■with the negative 
electrode of a voltaic battery. A j>lato 
of iron upon which the required pattern 
has been painted in varnish, is now 
connected ■with the positive electrode 
of the apparatus, and applied to the 
cloth. Electro-chemical action is at 
once set up, and the exjiosed iM>rtion8 
of the metallic .surface are dissolved by 
the acid, and the chloride of iron thus 
forme<l becomes fi.Ked in the cloth. To 
develop the pattern, the cloth is now 
passed through a b.-ith of prussiate of 
l)(>ta8h, which produces a beautiful blue 
color wherever the iron has touched, 
but which does not affect the parts 
which the varnish has shielded. 

EI-ECTRICITY, Histort of. It does 
tint appear that the ancients had anything 
more than an imperfect and partial know- 
leilge of the electric fluid. Thales, the 
Milexian, who lived about six hundred 
years before Christ, was aware of the 
rlpctrical property of amber, that when 
ridihed it would attract light bodies to 
itself; and Theophrastus observed that 
ly ncnrlum or tourmalin possessed the same 
property, but beyond this there is no men- 
tion of the subject, either by this or any 
other writer, until the seventeenth century, 
when Dr. W'iHiam Gilbert, a nallre of 
Dolcliester, published his treatise ' De 
Matmete,' in which we find many impor- 
tant and interesting particulars. 'J'hese re- 
ceived farther illustration from the experi- 
ments of Boyle, Otto Guericke, Dr. Wall, 
and «onie others, but more especially from 
Mr. Hawksbee, who, in his work on elec- 
tricity, first noticed the electrical power in 
glass, and the Halit proceeding from it. 
lie also first heard the suappine noise that 
arconipaiiies excuation, ami noticed the 
dilferent phenomena relating to electrical 
Rttraction and repulsion : besides, by intro- 
ducing the |lass glol>e into the electrical 
apparatus, i>e. much facilitated his own 
•xperiments and those of others. After 
an inten'al of abiut twenty years. Mr. 
Stephen Grey addi-d wry materially to the 



ELE 



im 



science of electricity by numemui impor- 
tant experiments. He first showed how 
the power of native electrics might b« 
communicated to other bodies in which it 
cannot be excited, by supporting them on 
silken lines, hair lines, cakes of resin oi 
glass. He also more accurately distinclll^h- 
ed between electrics &ind nonelectrirs, and 
displayed the effect of electricity on watei 
more clearly than Gilbert bad done. 

The experiments of Mr. Grey wjt* 
elucidated and enlarged by M. du Fay, 
member of the Academy of Sciences at 
Paris. He observed that electrical oper.i 
tions were obstructed by great heat, as 
well as by a moist air ; that all bodie*, l>ut|i 
solid and fluid, would receive electricity, 
when placed on warm or dry glass or seal- 
ing wax : that those bodies which are nat- 
urally the least electric have the greatest 
degree of electricity communicated lo them 
by the approach of the excited tube, lie 
first observed the electric spark from a 
living body suspended on silken lines, 
and established a principle first suggested 
by Otto Guericke, that all electric bodies 
attract others that are not so, and repel 
them as soon as they are become electric 
by the vicinity or contact of the electric 
body. He likewise di8tinguii>hed elec- 
tricity into two Rinds, which he called vit- 
reous, as belonging to glass, rock, crystal. 
See, and resinous, as applied to that of am- 
ber, gum, lac, jcc. ; the former of these 
has since been called positive electricity, 
and the latter negative. 

Mr. Grey resumed his experiments in 
1734, the result of which was the discovery 
of conductors. He also concluded from 
several experiments that the electrical 
power was of the same nature as that of 
thunder and lightning. Desaguliers and 
other experimentalists in France, England, 
and Germany, followed up the experiments 
of Mr. Grey with further researches, which 
displayed the power of electricity in new 
forms, particularly by the discovery that 
if electricity be accumulated in a phial, it 
may be discharged again so aa to occasion 
the electric shock. Mr. Van Kleist, of 
Leyden, first observed the property of the 
phial, and Ciina-ns followed it by exhibit- 
ing the experiment. Mr Miischenbrork, 
who also tried the experiment with a very 
thin bowl,, issnred M. Reaumur, in a letter, 
that he fell himself struck in his arms, 
shoulder, and breast, so that he lost hia 
breath, and was two days before he reco- 
vered from the efiects of the blow, and 
the terror which this unexperled result 
produced. He added that he would nut 
receive a second shock for the whole ktn( 



188 



ELF 



dotii of France. M. Allemand made the 
experiment with a coinninn beer glass, 
from which he found himself powerfully 
affected in his breath, and felt so severe a 
pain all along his rlglit arm, that he appre- 
hended serious coiise<iuences Irmn it. These 
inconveniences, however, passed olf after 
a few days, and otiiers bein-; induced to 
repeat the experiment, tlie practice of 
electricity became soon after common, and 
was, after a time, also applied to medical 
purposes. Macliinesofdiflerenl forms were 
now invented, and the electrical apparatus 
was continually enlarged, by some new 
device, to increase the force or direct the 
operations of the electricity ; among other 
things, when it was ascertained that light- 
ning was no other than electrical matter, 
ronducting rods began to be employed on 
the tops of buildings and on the masts of 
vessels, for the purpose of saving them 
friimlheetfectsofslorins. Many important 
treatises on the science of electricity have 
been written within the last century, by 
Adams, Cavallo, Cavendish, Ferguson, 
Galvani, Fiauklin, Farailav, &c. 

ELECTRIFYING. The communication 
of electric matter to any body ; when this 
is etferted by means of a cliarged phial, it 
is called an electric shock. 

ELECTROMETEIl. An instrument for 
measuring the i|uantity and deteriiiining 
the quality of tlie electricity in any electri- 
fied body 




BT.ECTRornORUS. A machine con- 
struing of two plates, one of which is a 
resinous electric and the other metallic. 
When the former is once excited by a 
Heculiiir application of the latter, the in- 
Btmment will furnish elee.ricity for a con- 
siderable time. This is one of the inge- 
nious contrivances devised by Professor 
Volta, about the year 1774, which may 
•erve as a good gubs*itute for tie electrical 
WMbine When p >perly constructed, it 



ELE 

has been known to retain it« electricity ftji 
three weeks. 

ELECTUARY (in Pharmacy). A me- 
diciiiai com{tositi(m, in wliirli honey oi 
sirup fiirins a necessary iiigrcdif-nt. 

ELE(;iAC VERSE. A sort of verse ased 
in elemes 

ELEGY. A plaintive kind of poetry, or 
a funeral song 

ELE.\1EXTS (in Chemistry) Tlie first 
principles of which bodies were supposed 
by the ancients to be composed ; these were 
fire, air, earth, and water. In modern 
chemistry no such elementary principlea 
are admitted, because it is considered that 
all bodies either are or may be decom 
posed 

ELEMENTS (in Geometry). The infi- 
nitely small parts of a right line, curve, or 
solid. 

ELEMENTS (in Science). The first 
principles of any science. 

ELEMENTS (in Divinity). The bread 
and wine prepared for tlie sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper. 

ELEMENTS (in Grammar). The letters 
of the alphabet, which are the elements of 
language 

ELEI'ir.\NT. The largest, strorigest.and 
most sensible of all quadru|>eils. It is not 
carnivorous, but feeds on herbs, and al) 
sorts of pulse. It is naturally very gentle, 
but when enraged is very terrible, it is 
common in the central and soullierii parts 
of Africa, and in India. In tlie tatter 
country it is tamed and rendered useful as 
a beast of burden. There is a while spe 
cies, which in the Rirnian Empire, is re- 
verenced by the people. 1 n central Africa 
Major Oenham saw a herd of ISO 




ELEVATION (in Astmnomy), Tb 
heieht of the equator, pole, or star, Sl* 
above the horizon. 

ELEVATION (in Arrhitectiire). ♦ 
draught or descriptitui of the fice or prin 
cipal side of a hiiiidine, which *ncuiuuia>* 
lati|(ua£e, is called the upright 



ELM 

ELEVAT70N (in Gunnen-). TIip anjrie 
•rhich the chase of a caiindii or inoniir 
kiakes with the place of the horixor*. 

ELEVATION OF THE HOST (in the 
Romish Church). That part lift lie ceremiiiiy 
of tlie niajis which coiisi.-<ii) in the priest's 
raisinp tlie host above his head, for the 
adomtion of the |>*-ople. 

ELF. A wandering spirit supposed to be 
•een in unfrei|iieiiteil places. 

ELGIN MARliLES. Curious marbles 
hroiii^ht by the Karl of Elgin out of Greece, 
ind deposited in the British Museum. 

ELISIO.V (in Grammar). The striking 
out a vowel at the end of a word, as ' Ui' 
arch," for 'the arch.' 

ELIXIR. A very powerful tincture. 
The Grand Elixir is another word for an 
all-powerful medicine. 

ELK. The largest of the deer kind, and 
inhabits the nortliern parts of both conti- 
ueiils. It is called Moose in America^''^ 



EMB 



la 




KT>L. A measure of leneth, different In 
dIflVrentcoiinlnes. The English and Flem- 
ish ells are the most used : the former of 
H hich is three feet nine indies, or one yard 
-nd a nnarter ; the latter only three quar- 
wTS of a yard. 

ELLIPSIS, or ELLIPSE. A curve 
wh ch cuts tlie cone obliquely through both 
aides It is vulgarly called an oval, as in 




Oie Eiihjrtned figure, A H B I, where 
A B is tl ; transverse diameter, H 1 the 
toitjiigate dianiettir 



EI>M. \ sort of tree which grows to a 
very great height, and thrives best in a 
rich black eartli. The tiiiiber of elm in 
England is next to tliat of oak fur value, 
being particularly iiseliil for mills. 

ELOCCTION (in Rhetoric). Thead3p^ 
ing words and sentences, to the Ih'ngs or 
sentimental to be expressed. It consists ID 
apt expressiiiiis, the happy order in dis- 
posing the words, and a certain musical 
cadence which arises from the whole. 

ELONGATION (in Astronomy). The 
removal of a planet to the farthest dist&ic« 
it can be from the sun, as it appears lo an 
observer on t!ie earth. 

ELOPE.MENT (in Law). The volun 
tary departure of a wife from lier husband 
to go and live with an ndullerer ; in com- 
mon acceptation, the secret departure of 
any female with her lover. 

ELVSIAN FIELDS. The paradise of 
the heathens. 

E.MANCIPATION. A deliverance from 
slavery or servitu.'e ; also the release of 
the Roman Cntholics from tlie disabilities 
which prevented iheni Iroiii tilling offices 
of state. 

E.MBAL.MrNO. The filling a dead body 
with spices, gums, ami other antiseptics, Ic 
prevent it from pulrifyiiig. The Eg^ptianf 
practised this art most surcessfiilly, soth.il 
bodies which they eiiihalmed two thousand 
years ago, remain whole to this day. 

EMBARGO (in Commerce). A prohi- 
bition i.ssiied by authority on all shipping, 
not to leave any port. 

EMBER DAYS. Partirnlar da>-s of fast- 
ing and humilialion in the F.nitM-r weeks. 

E.MBER WEKKS. Four seasons In tli« 
year, more particularly set apart for praver 
and fa.sting, namely, the lir^t vvearh in Lent 
the next after Whitsuntide, the fourteenth 
of September, and the thirteenth of De- 
cember. 

E.MBEZZLE.^EXT. The appropriatinf 
a thing to one's own use, which has been 
intrusted to one. 

E.MBLE.M. A kind of painted entpma, 
or certain figures palmed or cut uiel^hor- 
ically, expre.ssiiig some action. 

E.MBOSSING. A sort of sculpture or 
carving, where the figure is protuberant, 
and projects from the plane in which it il 
cut. 

E.MBR.ASrRE (in Architecture). Aa 
enlargement made lu a wall. 

EMBRASIRE (in Fortification). A 
bole in a parapet for the reception of a gun. 

EMBROCATION A kind uf fomei.ta- 
tion. 

E.MRROTDERY. Figured work 
wrought on nilk, cluth, or stuHa 



140 



EN A 



EMnRYO The fittiis, or child in the 
womb. 

EMENDATION. An altenitioii made 
III the text uraiiy book by verbal criticism. 

fc;.MKM»ATl6.N iiri Lawj. The correc- 
tion of abuses. 

E.MEKALL). A precioiia stone of a 
green colour, and next in hardness to the 
ruby. 

K.MERSION (in .Astronomy). The re- 
ap|)earaMce of the sun and miMin after they 
have undergone an ecli(>se ; also of a star 
that emerges from under the rays o[ the 
sun. 

E.MERY. A Bort of iron ore, of a pray- 

ishblack colour, so ver>' hard astoscratch 

to|>H7., and not to be fran):ible. It consists 

f alumina, silica, and iron, and is used In 

' form of a powder for |Hilishing hard 
Yrals and metals. 

TO. A large bird of New Holland, 
fi to the ca.ssowary and ostrich. Its 
^ jgs, which are useless lor flight, serve 
t^ >alance the body wheu ruuuiug. The 
El, I wren is also an Australian bird, 
bev ng a close resemblauce to the emu 

E-trfOLIiESCENCE. In metallurgy, the 
soft jiing of a metal when beginning to 
mel\ ■ the lowest degree of fusibility. 

E^ ?AISTIO. In the arts, a kind of in 
laid v.'ork, which bears some resem 
blanct to the modern buhl, and consists 
of inlai'^ threads or pieces of diflerent 
metals ioipressed into other Oietals. 

EM .ME'^. An ant or pismire. 

EMOLL BNTS. Softening medicines. 

EMPAU ME NT (in Botany). The 
flower cup, rtlie green leaves which cov- 
er tlie Howe 

EMPA.N.N '.1.. The writing the names 
of a jury invi a small pannel or panh- 
nient, or nuik\ <g out a list of such as are 
to be snmmoiH t to serve on a jury. 

EMJ'EROR. \mong the Romans, im- 
peratnr, or com uider, a title of political 
dtsinity assumet f Augustus and his suc- 
cessors : now a s ereigrf prince who bears 
rule ovf>r large countries. 

F.MPIRK'. Ltterally, a trier or experi- 
menter ; particularly, one who, without 
reBard to the rules of science, makes ex- 
periuientB ivith medicines; a iguack. 

E.\IPORII?M. Acommon resortof mer- 
chants for trade. 

EMPVREIIMA Thr peculiar smell of 
Itiirnt substances In distillation. 

E.Mni,.si(».V. A medicinal drink. 

ENAMEI, (in Anatomy). The fineox- 
t^rior rovoring of the leetli. 

ENAMEI, (in Painting). A roinpnsjtinn 
of mineml colours, formed from metallic 
oxide, and used in jmlteries. 

ENAMRI.I.KR. One whoiirofe«se« the 
•ft ii'iKiii'ting with enamel colours. 



ENG 

ENCAMPMENT. The pitching at 
tents or dis|M>sing an army in an opea 
country. 

KNCIIA.NTMENT. Maclcal charm* 
|)ractisi-d for purposes of fraud. 

E.N'CllASl.Xt;. Thf beautifying gold 
silver, and other metal works by fijiures. 
It IS practised only on hollow thin woi ks, 
as watchcases, c:ineheads, and the like, it 
is performed by piincliiiig or drivnig out 
the metal to form the tigure, so as to stana 
out promiuenl from the surface of the 
metal. 

ENCHYRIIUO.V. A manual or small 
volume. 

E.NCLOSl.NH. The inrting otT of com- 
mon grounds, into ilistinct iMissessmns. 

E.\t;uKE. Literally, agani ; to be re- 
peateil, as applied lu any song or perliirm- 
ance in a theatre. 

ENCROACIl.ME.Vr(in Law). An un- 
lawful gaining u|>oii the rights and po.sse»- 
siuns of another. 

ENCVCLOP/EDIA. Adictionarj- which 
professes to explain the whole circle of the 
sciences. 

K.\ D EM rC. An epithet for disorders to 
which the liiliabitants of particular coun- 
tries are subject. 

E.VDIVE. An herbaceous plant, a sort 
of succory, used as a vegetable lor the ta- 
ble. 

ENDOR55ING. Writing on the hack of 
a bill of exrhapge or check. 

ENDOVVME.NT (in England). The 
giviiii; or assuring a dower to a woman 
also the assigning certain rents and reven- 
ues for the maintenance of a vicar, ulius- 
lionses, &c. 

ENFRANCHISEMENT (in Law). The 
making a person a delli^en, or free citi- 
zen. 

E.N'OINE (in .Mechanics). A com[)ouiitf 
machine, consisting of one or more me- 
chanical [uiwers, as of screws, levers, piil- 
lies, &r. in order to raise, cast, or sustain 
any weisihty body. 

E.NGINEER. One whose office is to 
conduct the attack and defence of all for- 
tresses. 

KNOLI.'^n. or the ENGLISH LAV- 
Cl'AtJE. A compound of the original 
British or UVIsh, the Anglo-Saxon, Nor- 
man, French, I^itin, and Creek, which is 
now spoken not only in all parts of Gre.it 
Rritain, but throughout North America and 
all the Knulish colonies in differeiil parts 
of the habitable globe. 

ENGR A VING. The art of repreivnting 
figures in metal, wood, or stone, by meani 
of lines cut thereon. 

ENlJRAVfNG. HisTORT or. Engrav- 



ENGRAVING. 



141 



tng, as far as resards the rpprewntation of 
fiiivires or cliaractfrs on metal, stone, or 
W(hmI, was one of the tirs't arts on which 
hniiian inceniiily was exerciseil. Moses 
sjiealis of the art of engraving as no new 
invention. The tallies which <Jod rieliver- 
eil to Mnites are said to he the irurk oltJod, 
and the wri'inc was the writing of (JimI 
encraved npon the tables. The first en- 
gravings of hnnian workmanship nieni lim- 
ed in the t?rri|itiires, were executed hy Aho- 
liiili and Bezaleel, for the decoration of the 
taliernacle and the ornaments for the dress 
of Aaron. It is also said that the lahles of 
Seth contained the astrimomical discove- 
ries of that patriarch and his sons. In 
process of time we tiiid that tlie clasps, 
buckles, rings, and other ornaiiienlal parts 
of dress, as also the cups and other house- 
hold furniture, together with the arms of 
military chiettains, were probably enriched 
with the first specimens of engraving. The 
shields of the Carians, as de.scribed by 
Herodotus, were ornamented with rude 
portraitures, as were also those of the an- 
cient Celtic nations, but the hieroglypliic 
figures of the Eg>'ptiansaff(>rd the best and 
earliest specimens of engraving properly 
■ocalled. The riiienicians probably learn- 
ed this art from the Egyptinns ; and their 
coins, which are looked upon to be among 
the most ancient extant, prove, as Mr. 
Strutt observes, that they were hy no means 
indifferent artists. It is, however, gener- 
ally siipfMised, that there are no remains in 
aiiti(|iiity, either in sculpture, painting, or 
engraving, prior to those of Etruscan orig- 
inal. Some of those which are preserved 
in the British .Museum are exceedingly 
rude, and evidently executed with the 
graver only upon a flat surface, and if fill- 
ed with ink and run through a printing 
press, provided the plate would endure the 
operation, might pro«luce a fair and perfect 
impression. 

The art of engraving on their shields 
was practised by the Saxons, in common 
with the other northern tribes. Alfred the 
fireat encouraged this among the other 
arts, and the works of the Saxon arti.sts, 
as their shrines and caskets, rose hy his 
encouragement and that of his successors, 
<;onsiderably in estimation, not only in 
England but on the continent. Stnitt men- 
tions a c'irious remnant of antiquity in the 
Museum at Oxford, namely, a very valu- 
»ble jewel, made of gold, and richly 
anoriied with a kind of work resembling 
filagree, in the midst of which Is seen the 
half tignte of a man, supposed to be Saint 
Outhbert. The hai-k of this jewel, which 
was engraved by command nf Alfred, i? 



ornamented with foUsjre very skilfully 
executed. Saint Dniislan, the celebrated 
archbishop of Canterbury, who died a. o. 
988, is also noted for his skill in the arts. 
Osborn, his biographer, enumerates among 
his other eviilowments that he could 'scal- 
pello imprimere ex auro, argeiito, tere, et 
ferro.' 

After the Conquest, it apivears that en- 
graving, which hail hitherto beei: mostly 
followed In conjunction with the sisterarts 
of carving and chasing, was now followed 
as a distinct art, and carried to a higher 
state of perfection, as may be learned from 
the brass plates so frequently to be met 
with in the English churches or on the 
tombstones in the fourteenth and followiiii; 
centuries. These are usually ornamented 
with the efltgies of the person to wlios* 
memory they are dedicated, and are evi 
dently executed by the graver only ; the 
outlines being first made, then the shad- 
ows are expressed by strokes strengthenet? 
in proportion as they required more force, 
and occasionally crossed with other stroke* 
a second or third time, precisely in th» 
same manner as cop[»erplate is at present 
engraved for printing. Thus we see that 
the art of engraving was for a long time 
practised, before it was made to answei 
the noble purpose, of |ierpeliiating the la 
hours of the painter 

That branch of the art of engraving 
which consists in taking impressions on 
paj)«r was, according to Giorgio Vasari, 
first practised by the lUilians, and took its 
rise from an accident. One Maso Fiiii- 
guerra, an ingenious goldsmith and sculfi- 
tor of Florence in the fifteenth century, 
nsed to design and emh<iss figures on gold 
and other metals, and l)efi>re he inlaid them , 
he used to fill the engraving with earth, 
and cast melted sulphur on it, which gave 
it a sort of olive colour, after which, 
pressing a piece of danip paper on it with 
a smiHith w(MHlen roller, the engraving on 
the met.ll remained imprinted on the paper 
just as if it had been designed with a pen 
in consequence of which And ew Man 
tegna set about making regular prints from 
his engravings. 'I'he correctness of thif 
story, however, as far as regards the prior 
ity of the discoverer, is disputed by Stnitf 
and others. 

It should seem that impression! from 
engravings on wood, had been taken in 
Germany prior to this, and that the brief 
malers, or the makers of playing cards, 
practised the art of card making about the 
fifteenth century, and from the making of 
r.irds WHre led to Hip execution of other 
figures of a devnnf nature, so as to form a 



142 



ENN 



Kind iif bfinks »ii>ianiinc H lilslory of the 
Olil iiiid .NfW 'IVitlaiiiriil, wliic.li wad 
priuled only on ..ne mde of tbi* paprr. In 
tills manner ihe engraving both in wood 
■lid ItriW!* lOnlinurd to be followed by Ihe 
game artisis, nnd in tlicir Dundx made great 
advances lo perfection. Martin r>ch»)en. 
of Cjlnibacli, was one of the lirsl who 
diBtiigut-xhed himself in this art. Inrael 
von Meclieln,of -Meclielen, was the rival of 
of Schoen ; the style of wliicli latter artist 
was followed by Allien Diirer. After this 
arose a succession of distinguished en- 
grivers in France, BnglaiM, and Holland. 

Kiigraviiig ill cliiaro-scun- is justly as- 
cribed to the Germans, and was first 
practised by Muir. At w hat tune etching 
was Introduced, is not known. One of the 
most early S|iec.iiiiens of a print, by Albert 
Durer, is known by Uie name of the 
Cannon, dated 15m. 

Engnviiig with dots, called stippling, 
WM of Italian inveiilum, and was lirst 
pmcti.-ml by Agostino Ue Musis. The 
method of engniving in mez/.otinlo was 
commenced about the middle of the sev- 
euteentn century. Engraving in aipiatiiiUi 
IM a recent invention. In modern limes, 
every si>ecies of engraving has made great 
atlvatices Riward perfection. For mezzo- 
tiiiio and line engraving, steel has been 
lately brought into use, which not only 
enables llie engraver to give greater delica- 
cy , and a higher hnisli to his works, but 
alfords ten tiinesjusiiiaiiy giMid impressions. 
Copper is now little used for tine engra- 
vings. 

In wood engraving there has bten still 
greater improvement. A few years since 
it was imagined that the birds and beasts 
of Bewick could never be surpassed. 
Itiit liraiisione Wright, Thompson andotli- 
Br». Ill Kniiland have given a degree of 
K|iiril. delicacy and beauty to tlieir (iroduc- 
lioiis, of which it was supposed that wikiU 
engravings were unsusceptible. They 
have shown that the art is one of great 
■('i>|ie, and is capable of producing ef- 
fe< IS superior, in some departments, to line 
eiiiiravir.g. 

I:.\(;K0SSING. The writing any thing 
fair III a large hand. 

K.M.ISTI.N'G. The entering for a soldier 
Into the military service for a certain stip- 
ulated time, as fir a term of seven years, 
or during a war &.c. 

KNS|i;\ Tlie banner under which 
the Koldiers are ranged, according to the 
dlfTerenl reiriuienls to which they belong ; 
atHo the otticer who carries the ensign or 
tolcMirs. 

KSSiH LutleM rBtli;u«. 



ENT 

. E.\.\EAXl)RIA (in Botany;. One f4 
Liiiiia^us's classes of plants, imludingsucb 
as bear liermaphrodile tlowers, with nine 
siauiens, us the bay, tbe casliaw nut, Um 
dowering rush, lt» 




ENTABLATURE. That part ofa columii 
which is over the capital, coiupreheuding 
the architrave, fri/.e, and cornice. 

ENTAIL. All entailed estate, or an 
estate abridged and limited, by certain 
conditions prescribed by the lirsi donor. 

EN'l'EKTAINMENT. A species of the- 
atrical representation following u tragedy 
or comedy ; it may be either a farce or a 
pantomime, &.C. 

LN'I'O.MOLOfiY. The science which 
treats of insects, a.<» to their structure, 
habits, and varieties. The body of an in- 
sect consists of four princi|r,il parts, namely, 
the head, the trunk, the abdomen, and the 
limbs or extremities. The head is fur- 
nished in most insects with eyes, anteiin* 
or liiiriis, and a mouth. The eyes are 
various, bolli in colour, slin|>e, and number, 
in dillerent kinds, some lieingol a d liferent 
odour from that of the head, and siuiie of 
the same colour, some placed close to- 
geth-fr. or almosi touching encli other, some 
having the pupil glassy and transparent, 
others having It scarcely distinguishable 
Many insects have, besides the large eyea, 
also three small spherical botiies placed 
triangularly on the crown of the head, 
called ocelli, or slemmata. The antennie 
are two articulated moveable processes, 
placed on the head, whicli are also subject 
to great variety in their form and struc- 
ture, lieing setaceous, or bristle sha|ied 
tiliforin,orthread-sha|)ed,&,c. The mouth 
in most insects is situated in the lower 
part of the head, and consist of the lips, 
upper and lower ; the mandibles, or horny 
subst'iiices, one on each side of the month; 
the maxilUe, or jaws, two membranaceous 
substances, differing in figure from the 
mandibles, under which they are situated; 
the tongue, an involuted tubular organ, 
which constitutes the whole month in some 
insects, as the sphinx ; tbe ro«triim, beak, 
or snout, a moveable articulated member 
in the grasshopper, the aphis, &c ; the 
prob<><ri«, or trunk, which serveB as ■ 
mmjth ID the Jouae Ay, bee, and ioib* 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



149 



aCtwr tB»0cti ; tbr ttaleri, suiaU luoi entile 
fihrorm or::ani, plurt* d inoaily ou eacb 8iile 
the jatt, «ii4 reaeuiMlut! tlie aulrnnie, but 
ibucli aiuiiler ; tiiose vary m Duciber fruiii 
tu» lu SIX in ditferelit infecls. 

'i'lie cruuk, M'bicli U Che second general 
division ofwliicti an insecl cuiis^isls, cuiii- 
prvlimdj tiuU. )x>rti<iii siluated between 
Uie head and Ui« alHlnmen. 'I'liis consists 
of llw thorax, ur upiwr part of tlie body, 
to which llic I^rsl pair uf le<;;i is utuched ; 
the breast, or uuiler (>art u( the tiiurax, lo 
which the four p<isteriiir feel are attached; 
tlie breast bone, a rid;:e running uiiiler the 
breast, which is conspicuous in some in 
■ects ; and the sculelluiii, or escutclieun, a 
loheliKe process, situated at the posterior 
part of the thorax. 

The abdunieii, or third principal portion 
of an insect's iH>dy, is composed of annular 
joints, or segments, wliich vary in form 
•lid Biimber in dllTereiil insects ; this is 
distinguished iutii the back, or upper payt, 
and tile belly, or under part. The motion 
of the abdomen is must visilile in the tiy 
and tM:e tribes. To this division belong 
also tiie t.-ill and the stiii». The tail some- 
times spreads like a leaf, as in the cock- 
roach ; and in other insects is bristle- 
sh.'tped. The stin;;, winch i«i peculiar to 
Insects of ttie bee tnbe and s<iiue few 
otliers, ia sometimes simple, having but 
oned.irt,and s»inelimesr(«m)ioiind, having 
two darts, in bees and wasps the sting is 
retractile, that is, ca|>!tb4e of Iwiiig drawn 
in ; but in otiicr insects it is aluiosl always 
hid in the body, or seldom Ihrusl out. In 
Bonie tribes of insects it exists in the males, 
in others in the females only, but seldom 
in both sexes. 

The members or extremities of insects 
are the legs and the wings Insects have 
toiiietiiiies six legs, but never more, excejit 
what are observable in the larvie, which 
are teriiMid spirlous feet. Tlie feet vary in 
their lorm and use, being formed either 
for running, swiiiiining, or leaping, with 
or without claws or spines, jcc. The wings 
are nuistly two, but sometimes four in 
number ; mostly placed on each side the 
insect, so as that each |>air should corres- 
pond in silu^ition, form. Sec. , hut where 
there is more than one pair, the tirst are 
nostly larger than those behind. The 
winp are greatly diversified as to form, 
figure texture, construction, &.c. To the 
winga belong al<o the elytra, or wing 
cases, and the halleres, or poisers. The 
elytra are two coriaceous wings, which 
are expanded in (light, but when a( test 
•erve to rover the abdumen and enclose 
Itleir ineiabranaceous \Mngs, as in insects 



of the beetle Lribe , the p<>is«ra are two 
globular boUuw placed on slender atalk* 
bcuiod the wings lu lae tribe of wingeiS 
iusecls, so called because they are su|>- 
posed to keep the ftsect vleady in ite 
tlighU 

Tile internal part* of insects are leas 
perfect and distinct than tliose of larger 
auiinals, and of couise less known. Tfi« 
brain of insects is altogether diflerent rruiii 
the substance which bears tliiM name in 
oilier animals, being little more than gan- 
glions of ner\'es, two in number, that aie 
obser\'ed in the crab, lobster, &c. The 
muscles consist of fasciculi of -t'lbree, that 
serve apparently the office of producinjc 
two inotioiif, namely, that of exteudiug 
and that of bending. Some insects appear 
to be furnished with some tioating vessels 
which secrete a fluid varying in colour ia 
dilferent tribes, but very similar to saliva 
The cesofihagus, or organ of deglutiliou, is 
a straight short tube, consisting of anniilai 
muscular fi'ires, like the proboscis of ihe 
common Hy. 

The organs of digestion vary very much 
in dirterent tribes of insects. }Iost have a 
single stomach, but some h.ive it dut.ble, 
aud others have a manifold stomach. In 
l>ees the stomach is membranaceous, lilted 
to receive tlie nectar of (lowers : the bug, 
the boat Hy, and such as feed on animal 
substances, have a muscular stomach. The 
beetle, ladybird, eju^vig, and some others 
that feed on other insects, have a dcfiible 
stomach, tlie tint of which is muscular, 
after the manner of a gizzard, and itie 
second is a membranaceous canal. Iiisertii 
such as the cricket and grdsshopi«r, which 
have many stomachs, seem loeiiipjoy them 
much after the manner of the runnnatiug 
animals. 

Instead of organs of respiration, it bus 
been found that they have spiracula run- 
ning on eacb side the body that serve for 
tile reception of the air, and other veasels 
proceeding from these that serve for the 
exspiratiun of air. Insects, among riie 
ancients, were reckoned to be bknidless 
animals ; but it has since been ascertained 
that the process both of Circulation and 
secretion goes forvvard in the bodies of 
insects, although in a different manner. 
The process of secretion is supposed to he 
performed by means of a number of long 
slender vessels, which float in the interiAd 
cavity of the body, serving to »e;rete 
different fluids, according to the naltire of 
the animal ; thus the bee, wasp, sphinx, 
&c. have two vessels situated at the bottom 
of the sting, throush which tliey discharge 
an acrid fluid. From Ihti aul is extncted 



144 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



tn acifJ u-ell knou-n to chymistsjiiid otiier 
inKeru have other tliiiils peculiar to tlieiii- 
BClV''«. As to the process of circiilnlion in 
tiisecrs, little more is known iit i)reseiit 
thnn that a contraction ami itilatatiuii of 
the vessels is oliservalile in some kinds, 
partictilarly in caterpillnrs : bnt the tliinl 
which IS sii|iposeil to suii|il\' the plate of 
blooil is not of llie same colonr. 

TliP sexes in insects are of three kinds, 
namely, tlie males, the females, anil the 
neuters, which have not the nsnal marks 
of sillier sex. The sexes are distinguished 
liy the ilitferenre of size, brightness of 
colours, form of the anteiniie, &c. ; the 
male is always smaller than the female, 
and in some cases the female is sevenil 
hundred limes biager than the male ; on 
the other hand, the males have liri^'hter 
Colours and larcer antenna;. In many 
esses the females have no wiirfPi; and in 
H4>me instances, as that of the bee, the 
female has a slinc, bnt the male none. 

The metamorphoses of insects is one 
chnrarienstic of these animals which dis- 
tinpiishes them from all others. In most 
inserts the efta is Ihe tirsi stale ; hut there 
nre examples of viviparous inserts, as in 
the case of the aphis, the t\y, &c. The 
insect in the second or caterpillar state, is 
now called the larva, l.iil formerly the 
eriica. The larvie differ very much in 
rtlfferelit inserts ; those uf the butterfly and 
niiitli are proi»erlr called caterpillars, those 
of the tiles and l>ees are called iitaccots. 
The larvie of the beetle Iribe riifferfrom Ihe 
complete insect only by being destitute of 
wiitsrs. Butterflies, in their caterpillar 
stale, are very vortciotis, but in their roin- 
|><ete state they are satisfied with the 
liLdiiest and most delicate ntttrtnieiit. The 
Ihtril state into which insects imiisforni 
rhemselves is the pupa, or chrysalis. In 
iiiitsi of the beetle tribe the pupa is fur- 
nished with short le(»s, but the pupa of 
the biillerfly trilie is wtlbout lejrs ; that of 
the Hy tribe is oval, but that of Ihe bee 
tribe is very shapeless. The last and [ler- 
feci state of insects is called hy I.iiinteiis 
Ihe imasc, in which state it continues 
until its extiDction. The life of insects 
varies as to its duration. Sfune, as bees 
and spiders, are supposed to live fhr a 
Considerable time ; but others will not live 
beyond a year, a day, or some hours, tn 
llieir perfect state, illhouirh they will con- 
tinue for some time in their larva state. 
Water insects generally live longer than 
iand insects. 

As to the ciRssifiwtlon of inserts, it 
suffices here to observe, that l.innirus, 
iriiiMe system is nov generally followed, 



has classed them according to iheir winga 
into seven orders, namely, I. Coleoptera, 
or such as have shells that cover the wings, 
as the beetle tribe. 2. Ilemiptera, or half 
wiiiged insects, as the cock-roach, locust, 
grassliop|)er, bug, (fee. 3. Lepidoptera, or 
scaly winged insects, as the butterlly and 
the moth. 4. Netiroptera, or nerve-winged 
or tibre-vvinged Insects, the wings of which 
are furnished with conspliiious nerves, 
fibres, or ramifications, as the dragon tly, 
May fly, trout fly. 5. Ilymenoptera, or 
insects with four wings and a sting, a.sthe 
bee, wasp, hornet, termes, or white ant, 
&c. 6. Diptera, or two-winged insects, 
as the gnat, common fly, nnistpiittu, horse- 
leech, cScc. 7. Aptera, or Insects without 
wings, as the spider, flea, lobster, scorpion, 
&c. 

K.VTO.MOLOGY, History of. There 
are scattered notices resi)ecting insects! at 
an early period, from which we iii.iy inlrr 
that they had not escaped the notice of 
iiuiuirers into the animal kingdom. Amcuig 
the b(Kiks of Solomon now lost to the 
world, it IS recorded that he treated on 
iiisects or creeping things. Hip|K>craies 
wrote a work on insects, from which I'liiiy 
has given some few extracts. The labtnirs 
of Aristotle on this subject are still extant, 
and show that he had made Insects his 
particular study. What he has written on 
this subject has not been surpassed in 
accuracy by any thing that has followed. 
Nicander, I'alliiuachiis, andaboveall The- 
ophrastiis, are mentiiuieil as writers on in- 
sects ; but there is no work extant on that 
subject before the time of the Romans. 
Virgil treats on the subject of bees, which 
were much cultivated In Ins time. Pliny 
has devoted the eleventh book of his 
Natural History to this subject, and men- 
tions several Latin writers who had direct- 
ed their attention to it. yf'li.in, in his work 
on aniinalM, devotes sevenil chapters to 
particular insects, as the spider, scorpion, 
cricket, tec. ; besides that, the subject is 
slightly touched upon by the medical 
writers .fltius, Tatilus ilCgineta, Trallian, 
and Oribasius, and also by the Arabian 
authors Rhazes, Avicenna, .Avenzoar, and 
.Averrhoes. From the tweltlh to the fif- 
teenth century no writer of any note rx-ciirs 
on the subject of entomology. Albertns 
Magnus has devoted some small part of 
his work He Animalibus to this subject. 
Agricola, in his work De Aniinantibiia 
yubteraneis, which appeared in 1549, baa 
given the first sysletiialir arraageloent of 
inseclK, hv dividing theni into creeping 
insects, flying insects, and swimming in- 
sects. This work waj followed In th* 



ENT 

Mme f.enfiiry by Dr. Wotloii'u work, De 
Oirterciiliis Aiiiiiialiiiin, and cursory re- 
marks uii insects i:i Rundeletius Libri de 
Piscibii:< Maniiis, and in Conrad Gesner's 
work De ;>erpttiitiiini Naturli. 

A far more iiiiportiint production on tiie 
«ubjecl of insects appeared in ll>02, from 
Uie pen of that industrinua naturalist Al- 
drovandus, entitled De Aniuialiluis Insec- 
tis, in wliicli he divided them iiitu two 
elksaes, terre!<tri;i and aijuutica, and sub- 
divided tbeni into orders, according to tjie 
■ umber, nature, position, &.c of their 
wings. This work was followed by (he 
Historta Animaliuni Sacra of Wolfanc 
Fnsnzius, and other works from tlie pen of 
Fa!>iusColumna, Hoefuagle,and Archibald 
Simpson. This latter work is entitled to 
notice because it was the first work on en- 
omoloey that had appeared in Britain. 

The graphic art was also called intu aid 
About this |)eriod, to illustrate the subject 
nf entomologN', as appears from the works 
of the celebrated engravers Hoefnagle, 
Robert Aubret, De Bry, Vallet, Rubin, 
Jonston, &c. The invention ul the niicro- 
■cope also afinrded great facilities tu the 
■tudy of entomology, and enlarged the 
■phere of observation very considerably. 
Of these facilities many naturalists amply 
availed themselves, as Hooke, Leuwen- 
buek, Hartsoeker and others. The latter 
writer discovered the circulation of the llu- 
idf in insects. Christopher Manet publish- 
ed, in 1667, a work containing an account 
of British insects ; and a particular des<:rip- 
tiinofthe tarantula was published about 
til ) sanie time by Wolferdus Saiiguerdius ; 
but the must important work on this sub- 
ject was Swammerdam's General History 
of Insects, which displayed an anatomical 
knowledge of these animals that raised 
the reputation of this writer very higli. 
This appeared in 1669, and in ItiTH Lis- 
ter's valuable History of Engiish Spiders ; 
the year following the first part of Madame 
Merian's extensive work on the metanior- 
phoses of lepidopterous insects, which was 
followed by other parts in 10K3, 1718, and 
I7S6, which last is a splended performance 
OH the insects of Surinam, l^uwenhoek 
also, ab- lUt the same time, added materially 
to the stock of eatomntogical knowledge, 
by giving an accuiint of the inatoiny of 
insects, drawn from micrngc^picaj obser- 
vations. Ray published, in 17 lU, bis Hts- 
toria Insectoruin, which was ifae join^ 
labour of liiMiseK and his friend Williuigfa- 
by. Id this history iiwecis are divided 
into the transiiiutabilia and inlransuiuta- 
bilia. The trunsiiiutablliu are divided into 
fuur orden namely, vaginipeunes,. Uuian 



EPH 



14t 



which have wings covered with a sheiUh , 
papilinnes, Che lepidopterous iii»Tts ; (]ua- 
dri|iennes, four winged insects ; and IM- 
penius, two winged insects : which are 
again subdivided into families. In ITtiS, 
the sysieiii i>f Linii.-eus was published, 
which has saice been universally a<liipt<-tl. 
It consisted at first of four orders, which 
he afterwards increased to the number of 
seven. Some writers, as Desrer. «f itzius, 
and Fabrii ins. have attempted to improve 
iip<iii the LiniKPaii .system, but thrir allcr- 
atioiis have not been admitted. 

As to the history of in.secls, nuiny natu- 
ralists since his time have contributed (heir 
share to the stock of information, either 
by the description of the insects in par 
ticular parts, or by the description of in- 
sects generally. In 1753, appe.tied Ih* 
Entomologia Caiaiolica of Scuixili ; in 
176^, Birkinfroiit published Ouil:M«ti of 
Natural Hutor>' of Britain ; in Seward'* 
Natural Hisior>' is given an arrount of 
iiiauy exotic insects. In 1770 were pub- 
lished Illustrations of .Natural Hisiurv', iii 
1775 Pabricius published his Sysiema E<|- 
toinolugiie j and within the last Irw >ean 
we have had Donovan's Natural llistury 
of British Insecti;, in 15 vols. ; ]»k-ii:iick'G 
Systeine des Aiiimaux sans vrrttl>ri-»; 
Marcham's Entomologia Britaniiira, and 
Kirhy's .Moinigrapliia Apiiiiii .Aiiulie 

ENTRY (in Commurce). Tin- a. i of 
setting down in merchant's accoiuit iKioka 
tiie particulars of trade. 

ENTRY lat the Custom House). The 
pa.ssing tile bills through the hands nf Iho 
pro|H-r otfic<rs. 

ENTKV (in I>aw). The taking pnoceit- 
sion of Innd.s. 

ENVELOPE. The cover that encloses 
a letter 'IT note. 

E.\VIBt.)NS. T*e counio" lying rtmnd 
a large low n or city. 

E.WoV. A person in degree lowei 
than an aiiikassador, sent on siMiie par- 
ticular occasion from one gnverument to 
another. 

EPAl,T (in Chronology). A ninnbet 
arising from the excess of the comiiwn 
solar yeaj above the lunar, by u liich ti»e 
age of tbe 'moen may be found e\'ery 
year. 

EP.\Cl.ETTE. The shoulder knot worn 
by a soldier or fotitinan. 

EPAl'I.E.M ENT. A work raised M 
cover ndcwMe, made of earth, gabion*, 

&.C. 

EPHE.MER.'VL. Beginning and ending 
in a day ; an ephemeral insect lives but 
"Air a day, a." the day ily. 

EPHE.M£R1S Ai> sttrouoniical alm» 



14* 



El'l 



•ack or lab!e, showing tbf stale of the 
dravrna lor every rlay at noon. 

ElllOU. A giinnent worn by the priesu 
■if tli« Jews. 

liPIC POEM. A narrative poem formed 
ap4.:i a story, partly real and partly licti- 
li. ms, ilitr subject of wbicb, is aJ way s some 
bero or distinguished person. 

EPICENE iin Grajnoiar . -An epitliet 
ft>r the gender of socb worda as are com- 
.nu!i to both sexes, as in tbe Latin, bic et 
)i<i-c parens. 

I.PICUKEAM PHILOiS^lPHY Tbe 
il<<<:riue tauglit by Epicurus, tbat the urn- 
verse consUted of atoms or corpuscles of 
various fonns, rnasuitude*, and weights, 
which, having beru dispersed at random 
[hrousb the imnieiuie ?pace, fortuitously 
concurred into innnmerable systems. To 
t!i IS scheme of in^delity be added the notion 
that happiness consisted in sensual indul- 
gence, particularly in the pleasures of tbe 
tjUle 

EPICUREANISM, or EPICURISM, 
rhe doctrine of Gpicnrus: the practice of 
an epicurean or epicure, or of one who is 
addicted to bis sensual gratifications. 

EPICVCLE. A little circle tbat is to 
the centre of a greater circJe. 

EPIDEMIC niSEASES. Such as pre- 
vail at particular seasons, and spread among 
tbe inhabitants of a country. 

EPIIiERMlS(in Anatomy). The cuticle 
or scarf skin, that which rises in a blister 

EPIGR.A5I. A short, witty, pointed 
poem. 

EPIGR-APHT:. An inscription on a 
baildin;, stone, &,c. 

Kl'l LJiPSY, or the P»i.li!«o Sicki«es«. 
A ct-nrolgion of the whole body, wilb a 
privation of sense. 

EPILCXJUE fin Dramatic Poetry). A 
speech addressed to tbe audience when 
tbe play is ended. 

EPILOGUE (in Rhetoric). The conclu- 
sion of a speech, a recapitulation of tl>e 
whole. 

EPIPHANY, vulearly called Twelfth 
Div. A festival celebrated on tbe twelfth 
tlay aAer Cbristnia.^ by some Christiaus, 
w commemoration of ilie manifestation 
made to tbe Gentiles of uiir :^avio<lr's iia- 
tivitv. 

KPIfJCOPACY. A form of church go- 
vernment hy bishops. 

EPISTILBITE. A crystallized mii»- 
eral, consistiu}; of soda, siUca, alamiita. 
livai, and water; sp. gr. 2-i. 

EPIZOANS. In zoology, a class of par- 
asitic animals which iufest fi.shee, &c. 

EPISODE, iu poetry, a sf-parate indr 
dant, which tbe poet Introduces. 



EQU 

; iiiio bis narrative as coni>ected with th« 
principal actum. 

EPITAPH. .\n inscription on a tomb- 
stone. 

KPITHAL.\MIUM. a song sung at 
weddings. 

KPITllET. A word expressive of a 
quality. 

EPITOME. An abridgment or abcrt 
draught of a book. 

El OCH, or EPOCH A. A term or fixed 
point €tf time, whence years are num- 
bered, such as the Creation, 40(M s. c. •, 
the Taking of 'I'roy, 11S4 b. c. ; tbe Build- 
ing of Konie, Ti3 b. c. ; the Birth of our 
Saviour, tbe commencement of tl»e Chris- 
tian era, and tbe Hegira, or tbe flight of 
Mahomet Ironi .Mecca, *. d. CSS 

EPODE (in Lyrle Poetry) The third 
or last part of the ude. 

EPOl'tEIA (in Poetry). The IbMe or 
subject of an epic poem. 

EPSOM SALTS. Sulphate of magnesia, 
formerly procured by boiling down the 
mineral water from tbe spring at Epsom, 
but now prepared from sea water. They 
are used as an aperient. 

EULWBLE. Ad epithet fiar mtifom 
motion, &.c. 

EUU.ALITY. A term of relation b». 
tween things thesame in magnitude, quat>- 
tily. or quality. 

EUUATION (in Algebra). An expres- 
sion in which two quantities di^rently 
represented are put equal to each other 
by means of tbe sign of eqoatity, as 

EaUATION, or the EQUATION OF 
TIME (in Astronomy). Tbe difierence be- 
tween mean and apparent time, or tbe 
reduction of tbe apparent unequal lime or 
motion of the sun, &.e. to equable time or 
motion. 

EUU ATIO.V, or EQUATION OF PAY- 
.MENT^ (in Arilhiuetic). A rule for find- 
ing a time when if a sum be paid which 
is equal to tbe sum of several others due 
at different tiiiMK, ito kMs wilt be sustained 
by either party. 

EXlUATOll. A great circle on the let- 
restrial sphere, ei^uidislaut from tbe pole. 

EaUATORI A L,or Portable Obsebt*- 
To»T. An instrument by which miisi oi 
the problems tn astronomy may be |>er 
formed. 

EQUERRY. In Entlaad.anoArerwho 
has the care of tbe king's horses. 

EQUES .\L'RATI'8. A knight, socallei 
because none but knights were allowed ta 
gi'd their arruoiir. 

EQU ES IB 1 AN. One oB horseback 



ERI 

EaUESTRlAN OROER. The lecoad 
tank in Knnie, next to Ibr iien.ttori. 

KUl'l^ililA.N ^TATUt. J be rcpre- 
■enUtiuD of a tK;n«>ii inounlrd un a bunie. 

lXli;iAXUtL.AK. Having njaal an- 

iOlUIOISrA.N'I At :in equal di.ol.tnce. 

K'ili LATERAL, lirtviua '-'tuti *idea. 

Eul. IL.IBKIL II All t-tjii.t. t>iiianc«3 or 
eoualily ol tveigbi ami ,K>itt-.aj> » ben two 
eiid.i of a Irver iiang s<> < vrii, as U> poise 
neitbc-r way 

EdUIMbLI'IPUE^ (in Arithmetic or 
t^oiiieiry i .Nuiiiiirr^ anil guanlilies multi- 
plied by one and ihc same number and 
quuntily, as \:> hikI 6, which are equi- 
luullipien of -t and *J. calletl Uteir suh- 
multipleM. 

EUL'l.NOl.TIAI.. or KUUINOCTIAL 
LIN K. A sreal circle ol' the celestial ^lobe, 
an.'werini! lu ili« eqiialur on the terrestrial 
;lohe. Whenever Ilie sun conies tu this 
circle the dayn and nights are equal all 
over the globe. 

EU.U1.\«jXES. The times when the sun 
enters the fiml poinbi of Arieji and Libra, 
thai is. about ihe twenty tirst of .March and 
the twenly-tirst of September, when the 
days and nights are et|uiU all over Ihe 
world. 

EUU I PAU B (ainvng Travellers). What- 
ever IS necetixury for a voyage or juuniey, 
as horses, aiteiidant?', attire, 6^c. 

Eat'lP.VJEun .Milu.iryAtfiirs). What- 
ever is necessary for an ;uuiy»ii its march, 
as tents, bas&a^e, kitchen furniture, Slc. 

EULMPOLLKNCE. R.pialuy of force 
and power; as eqiiipolleul propositituis, 
such as have the same meaning, though 
differently expressed. 

EaCITV (in Lawl. A correction of the 
common law wherein it is delicienl. 

Eat'lTY, CoLRT OF. A title given by 
way of distinction to the Court of Chan- 
cery, in which the rigour of other courts is 
moderated, and c<mtn>versies are supposed 
lo be determined, according tu the exact 
rules of equity and conscience. 

EaUIVOCAL. .\n epithet for words 
which have a double meaning, and may 
be applied equally well in both. 

EUUI V0C.\T10.\. The use of equivocal 
terms, which may be understood by the 
hearer in a different sense from that in 
which they are taken by the spe\ker. 

EarULK'S. .An old const -nation, 
kavir J from four to six stars. I 

ERA. Se« .Br*. I 

ERIO.\>"L'S. A constellation In the j 
aoathern ht-»ni.<r>hrre. coniaining, accord- 
ing todiffereiil authors, from nin«<tmu tu ' 
tighty-foiir siHni. 



esc 



147 



EH. MINE. A little animal about the size 
of a squirrel, the fur of which, bearing the 
same name, is very valuable. I'his animal 
IS white all over, except the tip of the tail, 
which is black. The common weasel of 
Uie United :States, which in winter is white 
is an eniiine. In some parts of the coua 
try'll is sometimea called StoaU 




ESMINE (in Heraldry). A far used in 
coat armour, and supposed to represent the 
linings and doublings of mantles and robes 
It is represented by a white field pow 
dered or seme with black spots. 




ERRATUM. An error of the preai; il 
the plural. Errata, errors of the preas. 

ERRATIC. Wandering, not fixed. 

ERL'PTIO.N (in Medicine;. A bre.nking 
forth in a morbid manner, as spots on the 
skin. 

ERUPTION (in Mineralosy). The 
breaking forth of fire, ashes, stones, &.C 
from a volcano. 

ERYSIPELAS, Tulearly called Sajst 
.^■tTHosT's Kike. A dhHtrder in the skin, 
which consists in a swelling, with redness 
beat, and pain. 

ESCALADE. An attack of a fortified 
place by scalins 'he walls with ladders, 
without breaking ground or carrying oi< 
a regular siege. 

ESCAUjP SHKLUS. The sbeO* 3l 
esealops, a sort of fisb, which ar^ re^iarly 
indented. 

ESCAPE (in Law). A Tiolent or pntj 
erasitm out of some lawful nrsmiitt. 

E«"APEMENT. See f««-»r««.K»T. 

E.^'JARBL'.NCL.G Km CAsacifCLa. 



148 



EST 



E8CHEAT. In Kneland, lands or profit* 
ihat fall to a lord williiii Iim manor, either 
by forfeiture or the death of the tenant. 

ESCUKATOR. In Kngland, an «tlic«r 
formerly appointed to make inqueaia of 
title* by escheau. 

ESCORT. A company of armed men, 
attending by way of dmtiiiction or pro- 
tection. 

ilSCUAGE. A kind of kniphi'» service. 

ESCULENT A plant that may be 
eaten. 

KdCLfTCHEO.N, orSMiELU. Tlierepre- 
«entation of the ancient ohielcls uted in 
war, on which aiiiiorial beariiit;* are 
jainted. 

I-:SPAL!ER. A low branching fruit 
tree, having the branches trained to a 
frame 

ESPIONAGE. A system i»f employing 
spies either In military or political aiTairs. 

tiSPLANADK ;in Kortiliciition). The 
•loping of the parapet of the covered way 
towards the campaign. 

ESQUIRE. In England, anciently, the 
person that, attended a knight in time uf 
war, and carried his shield; now, a title of 
honour given to the suns of knights, or 
those who serve the king in any worship- 
ful calling, as otTicers of the king's courts, 
counsellors at law,&,c. In the United 
States this title is given to ^wyers, and by 
courtesy to tnany other persons. 

ESSAY. A short discourse or treatise 
on some subject. 

ESSAYIST. A writer of essays, of which 
there have been many in England, as 
Addison, Steele, Swift, Pope, Joliiisoii, 
Hawkesworlh, Goldsmith, Mackenzie, 
JLC. who^e works have been collected un- 
der the n.-uiie of the British iCssayists 

ESSENt;E (in Chemistry) The purest 
and subtlest parts uf a body, drawn by 
nteaiis of lire, icC 

ESSENTIAL OILS. Acrid, volatile 
oils, having a strong aromatic smell, which 
are drawn from plants by distillatidu, in 
distinction from native oils procured by 
coctiun. 

ESSOIN {in Law). An excuse by rea- 
son of sickness or any other just cause, fur 
one that is summoned toappear and answer 
an action, Slc. 

ESTABLISHMENT (in Military Af- 
fiiirs). The quota of officers and men in 
an army. 

ESTABLISHMENT (in Trade). The 
stock, capii il, &.C. which are essential for 
carrying on a business. 

ESTAFETTE. A military courier, sent 
firsaa ouo part of an army to another. 



EU1> 

ESTATE (In Law). Tire tlUeor inteKrt 
a man has lu lands or tenements 

ESTATES OF IHE REAL.M. In Eu 
rope, the distinct parts of any state or 
government, as the King, Lords, and Com- 
mons in England. 

ES'l'I.MATE. A calculation of the ex- 
penses of any undertaking, made according 
to the regular charges of trade, as the 
estimate of builders, engineers, printers, 
publishers, &.C 

ESI'tJPPEL. An impediment or bar to 
an action. 

ESTRAY. A tame beast found without 
any owner known 

ESTREAT (in Law). The copy of an 
original writing, particularly of the penal- 
ties ur tines, to be levied by the bailifTiir 
other utficer, of every man for his ofTenc*. 

FZSTUARY. The mouth of a lake or 
river, or any place where the tide comes. 

ETC. or&,c. i. e. Ex Cjctera. Literally, 
And otiier things not mentioned. 

ETCHING, A method of engraving, in 
which the lines and strokes are eaten in 
with aquafortis 

"**t;THER. A very volatile fluid, produced 
by the distillation of alcohol with an 
acid. 

ETHICS. The science of moral duties, 
showing the rules and measures of huii:an 
conduct which tend to happiness 

ETIQUETTE. Rules and cereiiKinles of 
good manners, observed either at court or 
in genteel life. 

ETYMOLOGY. A branch of grammar, 
which teaches tl"* original and derivation 
of worils. 

ETYMOLOGIST One who traces 
words from their original sources 

EVACUATION (in Medicine). Thedis- 
charge of siijiertluous huinours or excre- 
ments out of the body. 

EVACUATION (in Military Affairs). 
The leaving a town, fortress, or any place 
which ha-s been occupied as a military 
post or |KK>ltion 

EVANGELIST. Literally, the bringer 
of g(H>d tidings; p:irticularly, the writers 
ofoiir Saviour's history, as Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, and John. 

EVAPORATION (in Chemistry). A 
process in which the superfluous moisture 
of any liquid substance is dispersed by 
means of Are. 

EUCHARIST. The sacrament of ihe 
Lord's Sui>per, so called, because Uie deatk 
of our Redeemer Is thereby commemorated 
with tliankt'u) remembrance. 

EUitiOMETER. An instrument foi 
ascArtauuiiig tha purity of air, or the quait- 



EXC 

titjr of oxygen and nitrogen inatmocpberi- 
eal air. 

EVERGREEN (Jr ('.ardenini!) A spe- 
eiei of pfreiinials whicli preserve llieir 
verdure utl llic year round, :>uch ai> hollies, 
laurustiiius, bays, pines, lirs, &c. 

EVEKLAS?i'lNG PEA. A peri-nnial of 
the vetch kind, which grows iinluriilly in 
some places, and may be cultivated with 
advantage ;is fuud fur cattle. 

EVIDE.VCE (ill Law). The testimony 
adduced in a court, which may either be 
written, as by deeds, bonds, and other 
documents, or verbal, by wilnessea ex- 
amined viva voce. 

EULOGV Fiui-se or comniend-ition of 
a person. 

EVOLUTION (in Arithmetic). The ex- 
traction of the roots of any power. 

EVOLUTION (in .Military Tactics). 
The complicated movement of a body of 
men when tliey change tlieir position. 

EVOLUIIO.N (in Geiinietry). 'I'he un 
'biding of a turve. 

EVOLUTIO.V (in Botany). The expan- 
■ion or opening nf the bud 

EUPHO.W (in Graiiiinar). GihmI sound 
in pronouncing a word. It is properly a 
figure, whereby a letter that is Iik> harsh 
is converted into a smoother, coiitniry to 
the ordinary' rules, for ihe purpose of pro- 
moting siiioothiiesi) and elegance in pro- 
nunciation. 

EUKITIl.MY (in Painting, Architec- 
ture, and Sciilpliire). A certain majesty 
and elegance of ap|iearance In tlie compo- 
sition of diverse parts of a body, painting, 
or piece of sciilpiiire. Vitrnvius. who 
ranks eiirithiiiy among the essentials In 
architecture, makes it to consist in the 
beauty of the construction or assemblage 
of the several parts of the work 

EWE. The female of the sheep 

E\ (in t'oiii|>ositioiij. .N'uw signifies 
late, as the e.\-iiiliiister, the late ininisler. 

EXACTIO.V (in Law). Injury done by 
an otficer, or one who, under colour of his 
office, takes more tlian wliat tlie law 
allows. 

E.\AOGF,RATIf)N. The making things 
mp;iear, more than they really are. 

EXALTATION (in Cbomlstry). The 
iBising a thing to .■« higher degree of virtue, 
or increasing the principiU property in a 
body. 

EXAMINATION (in Ijiw). The ex 
aminiiig of witnesses by questions. 

EX.AMINI:R.S (in Law). Two officers 
in the Court of Chancery, in England, ap- 
pointed to examine witnesses. 

EXCLLLENCV In Knijlaiid, the title 
firen to ambassadorx, oimtoandens, and 



EXE 



H9 



others not entitled to that of liighncM la 
.America the title is given U> the Pfe»i- 
dent, to ambassadors, and governors of 
stales 

EXCENTRICITY. See Ecc«»tbicitt 
EXCEPTION (in Law). A stop or sta) 
to any actliiii, which consists either of a 
ilciiiaJ of the matter alleged in bar to th« 
action, or, in the Court of Chancery, it it 
what is alleged against the sufficiency ol 
an answer. 

EXCII.VNGIJ (in Commerce), 'ilia 
trucking or bartering one thing for ano 
ther; also the place where merchants meet 
for the purpose of transacting biisinesis; 
and likeu ise the giving a sum of money 
in one place for a bill, ordering the pay 
iiientof it ill another place. 

EXCH.VNGi; (in Arilhmetic). There 
ducing of moneys of dilfereiit denoiniii»- 
tions from one to another, or the nietiioti 
of Ending what quantity of the money of 
one place is equal to a given sum of ano- 
ther, according to a certain course of 
exchange 

EXCHA.N'GE (in Law). A mutual grant 
of equal interests, the one in consideration 
uf the other. 

EXCHANGE BROKERS. Men who 
give llie merchants information how the 
exchange goes. 

EXCHEUUER (in Law). In England 
the office or place, where the king's cash 
is kept and paid. 

EXCHEaUER COURT. In England, 
a court ill which all causes relating t<i the 
revenue are tried; also the Prerogative 
Court of the .Archbishop of Vork. 

EXCHEai'ERED. t^uminoned before 
the Exchequer, in England, to answer aiiy 
charge of defrauding the revenue, 4.c. 

E.XCISE DiniES. Inland taxes on 
commodities of general consumption. 

EXCU.M.MUNICA riON. An eccl^si 
astical censure, whereby a person is ex- 
cluded from coniniunion with the church, 
and in England deprived of some civif 
riehts. 

EXCORIATION. The rubbing or peel- 
ing away the rnlicle or external skin. 

EXCORTICATION 'Ihe stripping a 
tree of its bark. 

EXCRESCENCE (in Surgery), .^ny 
preternaiiiril foririalion of tiesh on any 
pail of the body, as waru, wens, &.C. 

EXECUTIO.N (in Law). A judicial writ 
granted on the judgment of the coait 
whence It isnues. 

EXECUTKiN (in Military Affaiia). Tha 
pTiTiiilering and wasting a country in time 
of war. 
EXKCUTIVE (in Law). That branch 



IM 



EXP 



of thfi government, which execute* the 
functions of governing Uie slate. 

i^XKCUTUR ^in Law). One iippomted 
by a leetalor to see llial hid will is exe- 
«ulrd. 

KXECU'IRIX. A female executor. 
E.VKMPLIFIUAJloA. A duplicate of 
lellrrK patent. 

KXKRt ISK (in .Military Tactics). The 
practice of all military iiiovenieiils. 

K.MIALATKjN. a fume or vapour 
rising from the earth. 

K.XHiBlTID.V. A public display of 
whatever is inierestiiig, either us a matter 
of art, or a nalural curiosiiv. 

EXERGUE. In numi.smatics. tho place 
en a medal or coin around and without 
the type or figure, which hiis generally 
tho (l;ite or other particular ins,;ription. 
EXIfU.MATKt.V: The act of digging up 
a body that has been interred. 

E.XIGE.\T (in Law). A writ or part of 
the process of outlawry. 

EXILE (in Law). A person sent into 
■oiiie place distant from his native country, 
under a penally not to return within a 
certain period. 

E.XI'i' (in Theatricals). Going off the 
stace. 

E.\ OFFICIO. By virtne of one*s office, 
•8, In England, ex ulficio informations, 
prosecutiuiis commenced by ihe klng*s at- 
torney eeneral by virtue of but olHce, with- 
out applying to Ihe conn lor permuisluu. 
E.XOIICItj'J". line, who by prayers and 
incantations, prufessea to cast out evil 
•pints. 

E.XORDIUM. The cotnmeDCfroent of a 
«I»eech, servin; to prepare the audience. 

EXOTIC PLA.NTS. Hants of foreign 
growth, which id Ihis climate require a 
hothouse and every kind of nurture. 

EXPA.\S1U.\. An iiurease of the bulk 
of any body by a power aciiiis within, 
particularly by the actnni of heat 

EX PARTE (in Law). On one .side, 
as exparle statements, a partial slalemenl, 
or that which is made on one side only. 

EXPECTATIO.N. !• the d.KMrine of 
chances, is a ppiied toany couincenteveirt, 
Dpon the hapiiening of which, some bene- 
fit is expected. 

EXPIX'TORA.NTS Meirichies which 
promote expectoration, or a discharge of 
nucuK from the breiut. 

EXPERIME.NT. A trial of the re.«ults 
*f certain applications and motions of iiatu- 
cal bodies, in order t'> discover something 
<tf their laws, nature, &c. 

KXPERI.MK.VIAL PHILOSOPHY, 
riiat philosophy, wliuh deduce-^ the l;tws 
|f nature, from sen.sible e.\periiiiL-ntA and 
'bsvrvatutns. 



EXT 

EXPSRIMKNTU.M CRUCIS A Ua4< 
ing ur decisive experiment. 

EXPIRATION. A breathing out ail 
from the lungs. 

KXPLOrilO.V. A sudden and violent 
expansion of an aerial or elastic tluld, ac- 
coiiipaiiied with a noise. 

EXPO.NEXT Un Algebra). Theniimbei 
ori|iiaiitlly expressing the degree or eleva- 
tion of a power, as, in l'^, 2 is the exponent 
of the square number. 

EXPORTS (in Commerce). Goods ex 
ported or sent out of one's own country to 
a foreign land. 

EXPOSITOR. One who explains the 
writings of others, particularly one who 
professes to expound tiie K'criptures. 

EX POST FAC'I'O. Literally, from 
something done afterwards, as an ex post 
facto law, a law which operates upon a 
subject not liable to it at the lime the law 
was made. 

EXPRESS. A me.ssenper sent with di- 
rect and specific in.-<trucliuiu. 

EXPRi:s8EU Oll^. OiU obtaiiie4 
from bodies by pressing. 

EXPRKSSiOiN (in Chemistry or Phar- 
macy). The pressing of the oils or juice* 
of vegetables. 

EXPKE.sy|ON (in Painting). The di». 
tinct exhibition of character or of seuli- 
meut, in the characters repre)*ented. 

EXTE.MPORE, or EXTEMPOK AN bl- 
Ol'SLY Without preparation or premed- 
itation. 

EXTENSIO.V. One of th* essential pro- 
perties of a body, to occupy some s^iace 

EXTE.N'T (in Law). .-^ writ of execu- 
tion for valuing lands and leneme.nis. 

EXT E.N' r (in .Music). The compass of a 
voice or instrument. 

EXTE.NT i.\ AiD. In England, a seiz- 
ure made by the crown, when a public 
accountant becomes a dtfaiilier. 

EXTL\GU!SI1.ME.\T (in Law). The 
annihilation of an estate, t<.Q,. by means of 
its being merged ur cuuiolidatud with 
another. 

KXTIKPATIO.N'diiSurf 'sry). Thecom- 
plete removal or desirin lioti of any P'lrt, 
either 1>> excision or by iiiea is of caustics 
EX'I'ORTIO.N I he niila vful act of an 
nfhcer who, by colour of hi! othce, take* 
money ur any other tiling u hen none at 
all is due. 

EXTRACT (in Cneinlstry . The ourer 
parts of any substance extrai .'ed from it* 
gros.^er parts by means of dt 'ocliun, and 
formerly also by distillaiioii uiiiil thrf 
were of the c<iiisisleii<e of p:a . .'r I'oiiey 
EXTRACT ;iii l.iierature). '<( oie select 
matter or sentences taken (rot > x b'Mtk. 



FAG 

EXTRACT (ill Law). A draught or copy 
of a writing. 

RXTKAC riON (in Surgery). Thedraw- 
Ina any forpian matter out of the body. 

EXTRACTION (in Aritlimelic). The 
findiiii; out the irue rout ot'any iiiwnher or 
quantity. 

KXTRACTION (in fienealney). The 
'inc, stem, or hranrh of a family from 
which a person is descended 

EXritACTOIt (in Surgery). An instru- 
ment for drawing the stone from the 
iKjdy. 

l::XTRAORniN'ARY. Out of the com- 
mnn course; as an Kxtraonliiiary Conner, 
one sent on an urgent occa-sion; Kxtraor- 
dliiary (ia/elte,oiie |iul)lislied to announce 
some particular event. 

EX TRAVASATIO.V. The state of the 
fluids when they are out of their proper 
vessels, as wlieii hy tile liri-akiii<; of a lilood 
/ftssel in tile dura mater, the hlood isetfus- 
jd in the ventricles of the brain. 

EXTRK.ME (JNCTIO.V. A solemn 
innintin" of any person in the Romish 
vbiirch, who is at the point of de.-ith. 
EXUD.\TIO.\. The emitting of moisture 



FAC 



151 



thmnch the pores, as the e.xudBtlon of gum* 
thruiigh the bark of trees 

E.\IJVI/K. The slouuh or cist off cover 
ings of animals, particularly those of th» 
snake kind. 

i:yE (III Anatoniy). Theornan of sight, 
whereby visible objecis are represented t* 
the iiiind. 'I'he external parts of the ey* 
are the eyebrows, eyelashes, eyelids, thii 
lachrymal ducts, &c.; the internal parts i>l 
the eye, wliich compose the ball or glolie o# 
the eye, consist of meiiibniiius, cliaml>ers 
and humours. 

EYE. A term applied to different ob 
jects from some suppo.sed resemblance ti 
the iialiirul eye. 

EYE (in .Architecture). Tlie aperture al 
the top uf a dome, and to the centre of a 
volute. 

EYE (in Biitany). That part of a potato« 
and other things where the bud put> 
forth. 

EYE (in Printing). The graving in re- 
lievo, on the top or face of the letter. 

EYEX7L.ASS. A glass put close to the 
eye, for the purpose uf bringing objecta 
nearer. 



P, the sixth letter In the alphabet, stood 
as a numeral for 40, and with a diLsh over 
it, for 40,0i)ll; it now stands for one of the 
Dominical or Sunday letters, and also, in 
Music, for the fourth note in the diatonic 
scale. 

FA (in Music) The fourth note of the 
modern scale, which is either flat or sharp; 
the Hat is marked thus \), and the sliarp 
thus rjif. 

FA BEE. A t.ale or fictKious narration 
intended to instruct or convey a moral, as 
the Fables of /Esop; also the principal 
part of an epic or dramatic piece. 

fabric; (in Comaierce). The sain* as 
manufacture; lace of the fabric of Brus- 
sels, &c. 

FACADE. Thi front or the principal 
side of a building. 

FACE (in Anatorm'). The lower and 
anterior part of the skull; in general, the 
fure part of any thing, as the face of a 
•tone, anvil, &c. 

FACE (in Fortification). The face of a 
bastion, the most advanced p-irt towards 
the field. 

FACE (in Ounnery). Th» iikPtal at the 
extremity i.f the muzzle of a gun. 

FACE fin Military Tartirs). The side I 
»f a battalion formed into a "c|iiaie. 

FA .'ET. The Hinal* kuIk uf a diamond I 



FAC SIMILE. The copy of a pereon't 
writing, .as of a letter in imitation of .hi 
own handwriting. 

FACTITIOUS. Made by art, as facti- 
tious cinnabar; in distinction frein that 
procured naturally 

FACTOR (in Commerce). An agent 
commissioned by merchants to buy or 
si^ll goods on their account. 

FACTORS (in Arithmetic^. The two 
nunil>ers that are multiplied together. 

FAt"rORY. A place in a distant coun- 
try, where fiictors reside for purposes of 
trade; also tlie trades themselves collec- 
tively. 

FACCE^, (in Astronomy). Bright spots 
on the surface of the sun. 

FACIJL'I'IES, Court of. In England, 
a court under the archbishop of Canterbu- 
ry for granting faculties or privileges. 

FACCI/I'IES ,in the Cniversities). The 
divisions under which the arts and sciences 
are classed, and degrees gniiited. These 
are for the most (lart fi>iir. :is I. Arts, iii- 
cliidiiig Humanity and 1'liilos.iphy: 2. 'J'he- 
ology; 3. Physic; and ^. Civil l,aw. 

FACCLTY (in Eawj. A dispensation 
or privilege. 

FACi I/rV (in Physics). Thai ponrer 
by which a livio!: rre;iiirre moves a.id acts. 
This may l>e eitliei an an anal, or corporeal 



1S2 



FAL 



faculty L«longing to the body, or a rational 
(kculty belonging to the mind. 

P^CGS. The drega or gross substaucAs 
which Kettle after fermentation. 

F.*:CUL^. Small dregs or lees 

FAGG. A sea term, for the end of the 
atrands which do not go through the top« 
when a cable or rope is closed. 

FAINTS (in Chemistry). The weakspi- 
ritaou8 liquor that runs nS from (he still 
after the proof spirit is taken away. 

F.'VIR. A larger kind of market, held 
once, twice, or oflerier in the year, ac- 
cording to the charter granted to any par- 
ticular place. 

FAIR MAID OF FRANCE. A plant 
of the ranunculus tribe, bearing an ex- 
ceedingly white flower 

FAIRY. A kind of genii or imaginary 
ipirits of a diminutive size, and fabled to 
haunt house? and revel in meadows du- 
ring night, &.C. 

FAIRY CIRCLE or RING. A pheno- 
menon frequently seen in the fields, con- 
sisting of a round bare path with iirass in 
the middle, formerly aicrilied to the dances 
of the fairies. It is supposed liy some to 
l>e a fungus which eats aw,iy the grass in 
<hig circular form, or by others the eflecl 
of lightning. 

FAIRY TALF.S. Ea.sierii tales of the 
wonderful proceediiii;s wrought by fairies. 

FAKIR. A sort of dervises or Maho- 
metan raoaks. Religious devotees of Hin- 
dustan 

FALCHION. A kind of sword turned 
ap somewhat like a hook. 

FALCON. A bird of the hawk tribe, 
about the size of a raven, and capable of 
neing trained for sport, in which it wa-s 
formerly much employed. It is usually 
"•presented in cqats of arms with bells on 
•ta legs, and also decorated with a hood, 
virola, rings, &.e. TiM fUcon (entil is 
h«re repres«ni«4 




FALCONER. On* who looki after, and 
trains haw k». 



FAR 

F.^LL (In Physics). The descent or ■» 
tural motion of bodies towards the earth 

FALL (in Military Affairs). The sur- 
render of a town-, among Seamen, the 
100.16 end of a tackle. 

F.VLL (in Husbandry). The descent of 
ground which serves to carry off the water. 

F.M.LACY. A logical artifice, or an 
argument framed so as to deceive ^ a so- 
phism 

FALLING SICKNESS. See Epilbpit. 

FALLOW. Land laid up and left with- 
out a crop for a year, in order to give the 
soil time to n-cover itself) the act of so 
doing is called tallowing. 

FALLOW-DEER. The common deer 
seen in the parks of England. The Vir- 
ginia deer of .America. 

FALLOW-FINCH A bird, otherwise 
named \Vbeat Ear. f 

F.ALSE. An epithet used in Law, as 
False Imprisonment, the trespass of im- 
prisoning a man without lawful cau.«e', in 
Mineralogy, as False Diamond, a diamond 
counterfeited with glass. 

FALSE FLOWER (in Botany). A 
flower which does not seem to produce 
any fruit. 

FALSE ROOF (in Carpentry). That 
part of a house which is between the roof 
and the covering. 

FALSIFYING (in Law). Proving a 
thing to be false, as falsifying records 

FA.MILY (in Law). All living in one 
house under one head; also the kindred 
or lineage of a person. 

FA.MILY (in Natural History). Any 
order of animals, or other natural produc- 
tion of the same cla^is. 

F.AN A sort of basket in which the 
corn IS winnowed, to separate the chafT 
from it. 

F.ANDANGO. A dance much used in 
Spam 

FAR. An abbreviation for farthing. 

F.\RCE. A sort of mock romedy, in 
which there is much grimace and buf- 
foonery. 

FARCY. A sort of leprosy in horses. 

FARE. Money paid lor the passage of 
a person in any vehicle, either by land o; 
by water. 

FARINA. Th» pulverulent and giini- 
nons part of wheat and other needs, ob- 
tained by grinding. 

F.ARM. In Efielaiid, part of an estate in 
land employed in husbandry, and let lo a 
tenant on condition of payinu rent to the 
owner thereof. In the I'nitert .^t.ites, the 
term is applied to any e.xtjite in lano 
whether rented or cultivated by the pra 
prietor. 



FAT 

PARMKU. Properly, one who oeciipies 
and cultivates a riirin or liiri^d ground; a 
cultivator of eround generally. In Eng- 
land the farmers are not |iri)|irietor8 of tne 
lands wtiirh <iHii:illy helong to rich pe*- 
■OIis, who let them li> teiiunt.t. 

FA KM INC. The cullivatiii|« of land for 
the piirpiities of prottt. 

I'ARR AOtJ. A iriixtiire of several Rorts 
of wed sown in the same plot of eround. 

FARKIKR. One who shoe- horses, and 
also cures their diseases. In London, the 
farriers are one of the oldest of the city 
companies. .\s farriers worked most in 
iron, ihey were originally called ferrers or 
ferriers, from ferruin, iron 

FARRIERY. The art of shoeing and 
nianaclni! a horse altogether, iiirludin!?''''>o 
the cure of his diseases. Uii the applicattoit 
of science to this art, it rose in importanre 
and estimation; a college wa.« formed some 
years ago in Knglaiid for priic.titioiiers in 
Riiimal meilicine and surgery, which, in 
imitation of the French, was called the 
Veterinary College, and the art itself the 
Veterinary Art 

FARTHI.XG.Thefourth part ofa penny. 

F. A. S. i. e. Fralernitas .\ntii|uarioriiiii 
Sociiis, or Fellow of the Antiquarian t*<i- 
ciety in England. 

F.'VSCES. Bundles of rods bound round 
the helves of hatchets, which were carried 
liefore the Roman coiitiiils as ln.signia of 
their office. 

FASCBTS. Irons used in a %\aiui manu- 
factory. 

FASCINES (in Fortification). Small 
branches of trees bound uo in bundles for 
miiiig ditches, &,c 



F \ST. An abstinence from food on a 
reltglous account. 

I \STI. The Roman ca^ndar, in which 
were set down the fen.st», games, cere- 
Bionies, &c. 

F \T. A concrete oily matter contained 
fn the cellular membrane of animals. 

FATK.S. The liestiiiies: according to 
the poets, the three taiai sisters, Clotho, 
I.ache3is, and Atropos, who determined 
the duration of life. 

FATHER LASHER. A vorarions fish 
inh-thiting the shores of Greenland and 
Newfoundland. 

FATMRR !.ONG.LF,f:a. A harmless 
tnsect, with a small I ody and exceedingly 
one legs. 

f ATflD.M. A long measure of six feet. 



FEL 



ISf 



F.AtTN'S. Rural deities having horns on 
t leir heads, with pointed ears .<iid tails 

F.VWN. A young deer; a buck or do« 
of the first year. 

F. E. An abbreviation for Flemish Ells. 

FEASTS. Anniversary times of feasting 
and thanksgiving, such iis (.'hristmas and 
Ea.-ier, &.c. Some feasts are moveable, 
that is, not confined to any particular day, 
as Plaster and all that are governed by itj 
others, as < hristmas, Hcc. are immoveable, 
that IS, fixed to a day 

FEA'I'HEU. 'I'hat which forms the co- 
i veriiig of birds The ciin.stmieiit parts of 
fenthers are, for the iikwI part, albumen 
wiin a little gelatin 

FEATHER (in the Manege). A row of 
hair turned back and raised un the neck 
I of a horse. 

I FEATHER-EDGED BOARDS. Boards 
I having lUie edge thinner than the other 
I FEATHERS. Thefinesl kind offeathers, 
I as Ostrich Feathers, which are used for 
I ornament. The I'rince's Feathers are those 
which adorn the cognizance of the Princ« 
of Wales. 

F'EU. An abbreviation for February. 

FEBIUFCGE. A s<irt of medicines 
whicli abate the violence of fever 

FEDERAL. Unite.d by a compact, aa 
Federal States. 

FEDERAL CONSTITUTION. The 
constitution of the United States in which 
the several states are united, or federated 
under one generil government. 

FEE. .An estate of inheritance, or the 
interest which a man has in land or some 
other immoveable: this is culled a fee 
simple when it is unconditional, and a 
fee Mil, when limited to certain heirs ac- 
cording to the will of the first donor 

PEED. What is given to a liorse at one 
time, either of hay or corn. 

FEEDER. A sort of drain which carries 
the water into other drains. 

FEELEKS. Organs fixed to the mouth 
of insects, which are vulgarly called horns: 
the feelers are, however, smaller than fhe 
anlennx, or horns, in some insects. 

FEELING. One ofthefiveseiises, which 
acts by means of the nerves, that are di» 
tribiited in all parts of the body. 

FEES. Perijuisites allowed to offiecra 
in the administration of justice. 

FEIG.VEl) ACTIO.N. An action which 
is brought simply to try the roertta of a 
que.stion. 

FLI.NT (in Military Tactics). A mock 
attack, made to conceal the true one. 

FELIvOKS. Tb» pieces of wood wbwk 
form the circiimferenca or circular put ef 
he wheeU 



lU 



FBO 



FELSPAU. K mineral occurring in 
crystals and crystalliue masses, wliicb, 
next to quartz, is the most abundant in 
nature. It is somewliat vitreous in 
lustre, and breaks rather easily in two 
directions with smooth Kurlaces. Its 
celor is usually white or flesh-red, some- 
times bluish or greenish. It consists of 
silica, alumina, and potash, and is a 
constituent part ot granite, gneiss, mica 
Blate.pnrphyry ,and most volcanic rock.". 

FELX..\HS. The peasants or laboring 
classes in Egypt. 

FELiOXy. In common law, any crime 
which incurs tlia I'orieiture of lands or 
goods, and to which capital or other 
punishment is superadded, according 
to the degree of guilt. 

FELT-(aiAIN". Thf grain of rut timber 
that ruiii transversely to the annular rings 
or |>i:i(e8. 

FEl.TlNG. The process of working felt 
into hats. 

FELTI.N'G (in Carpentry). The splitting 
M'tiinlier by the felt-srain. 

FELirC('.\. A li-ilin.pen vessel with six 
wirti, much used in the Mediterranean. Us 
bclin may t>e used either at the head or 
he stern. > 

PEMAl-E FLOWER. A flower having 
istils or stismas without stanieii.4. 

FE.MALE SCREW. A screw, the spiral 
taread of which is cut in the cavity of the 
ylinder. 

FEME COVERT (in Law). A married 
woman. 

fEME SOLE. A sinsle woman. 

FE.MfM.NE GENnKR (in Grammar). 
Nuunn which, by their endin«:, deWSe the 
female sex. 

FEN. A place overflowed with water, 
■nd abounding in bnzs. 

FENCE (in Husbandry). A hedge, wall, 
or ditch, &c. made tu part otf a held or 
garden. 

FENCING. The art of using the sword, 
either in attack or defence. In the exer- 
cise of this art, foils or thin swords are 
used, which, beinj! blunted at the points 
and bending readily, are perfectly harm- 
less. 

FENDER. An iron plate to keep the 
lire and ashes from ,he room. 

FE.N'UERS. A am term for pieces of 
old cable, tee. hurg over the sides of a ship 
to keep o:f other ihips. 

FENNEC. .\ii a limal found in Africa 
RarmhliuE a dog. 

FEOFFEE (in Law). He to whom a 
feoffment is mad* . 

FEOFFMENT (in f^w). The gift or 
grant of any bereditamsnt to another in 
fre simple. 

FEOFFOR. He who makes a laoflrnent. 



FET 

' FER/B. The third order of snlniala la 

I the Linncan system, uicludins such aa 

have from six to ten conic (ore tt-eth and 

{ one tusk, as the se:tl, the do^, the wolf, 

the hvfena, the jacka!, the lynx, the tiger, 

the panther, Slc. 

] FER.MENT. Any subsi.inre which has 

■ the property of causing feruirniMimn in 

another body, as the acid in jeaven. 

FERMENTATION. The intestine <..m 
motion in the small insensible particles of 
a mixed body, usually caused by the o(>e 
ration of acid matter. When animal liquids 
alone, or mixed with vegetable, tM'cumt 
sour, this is called ji^cetous fernientatinn, 
and the product is, generally speaking, 
acetic acid or vinegar. When saccharine 
m;itter, or the sweet juices of fruits, 
undergo this intestine chanse, it is called 
vinous fermentation, and ibe result is au 
intoxicating liquor, as wine or beer, &c. 

FERN. A weed, very common in dry 
and barren places, which is very inJurioiK 
to the land in which it has once taken 
root. 

FERR FT. An animal of the weasel tribe, 
with red eyes and a long snout ; it is much 
used in Europe, in catching rabbits and rata 




FERRUGINOUS. An epithet for any 
thing partaking of iron, or conial^bg any 
particles of that metal. 

FERRY. A vessel employed for con- 
veying persaaii and goods over a narniw 
piece of water. 

FERRYMAN. One who keeps a ferry 

FERI'LA. An in.strument of correction 
in schools, with which boys are benteu on 
the hand. 

FERULA (in Botany). A plant, o'ner- 
wise called Fennel Giant, which is an 
herbaceous perennial 

FESCUE GRAS.s. A aort of grass cul 
tivated as food for cattle. 

FF..*«TO()N. An ornament of carved 
wood, in manner of wreaths or garland* 
hangini: down. 

FETI.^>CK A tuft of hair that growa 



FIE 

Dfblud the pastern join in tbe feet of 
Many liorses. 

FKSSK (ill Heraldry). One of the hon- 
oiimlilc nnliiiarittg, which occupies the 
thitil part auil the middle of tlie held. 



FIG 



!U 




FETTERS (in Law). A sort ot irons 
put on the legs of malefactors. 

FKL'I). In England, the rifiht which the 
vassal or tenant had in lands and other 
immoveable things of his lord's, to use 
the same and take the profits thereof, ren- 
dering unto his lord *uch duties and services 
as belonged to military tenure, the property 
of the soil, tc. always remaining to the 
ord. The laws respecting these feuds, 
which are comprehended under the name 
of the Feudal System, regulated all the 
principles of landed property in tliat king- 
dom until the reign of Charles II. ; and 
vestiges of this system are still to be seen 
in the modern tenures, particularly in 
copyholds. 

FKVKR. A disease characterized by an 
increase of beat, an accelerated pulse, a 
foul toneue, and an impaired stale of se- 
veraJ functions. 

FIAT, i.e. Let it be dome. In Eng. 
A short order or warrant of some judge, 
for making out and allowing certain pro- 
te«se«. 

FIBRE (in Anatomy). Asimplefilament, 
serving to form other parts, as tbe muscles, 
nerves, &.c. 

FIBRF. (in Botany). Threads or hair-like 
■trings in plants, roots, &.c. ; the firsi cmi- 
stituent parts of bodies. 

FIBKIL. A small tihre. 

FIBRI.NA (in Cheini-try). Th.it suh- 
■t.ince which constitutes the tilimus part 
cf muscles. It is of a while culoiir, with- 
out taste or smelj, and not soluble in alco- 
hol or water. 

FIBROLITE. A mineral consisting of 
alum:na, silica, and irou. 

FIBULA un .XiiHloniy). The leaser and 
bUte bone uf the leg. 

FICTION (in Liw). A mipposiiion that 
• th!ngistrue,soth<it it may have the effect 
of truth as far as ik roosistenl with equity. 

FIELD. Anthle land, or any plot uf 
ground parted otf fur cuttivalion. 



FIELD (In Heraldry). The whoU sur 
Rice of the shield or escutcheon. 

F I I'XU I III .M il ilary Tactics). The ground 
cluRieu for any battle. 

FIELD (in Painting). The ground or 
blank space on which any thing may be 
drawn. 

FIELD-BED (in Military Affairs). A 
folding bed lu^ed by officers in their tents 

FIELDFARE. A migratory bird of the 
thrush tribe, that visits England about 
Michaelmas and leaves it in .March. 

FIELD-OFFICERS. Those who com- 
mand a whole regiment. 

FIELDIMEt'E. A sort of cannons, con- 
sisting oreigbleeii-pouiiilers ami less. 

FIELD-WORlvri (in Fortiricati(m). 
Works thrown up by an army in be- 
sieging a fortress. 

FIERI FAt;L\S. A writ commanding 
a sheriff to levy the debt or damages on 
the goods of one, against whom judgment 
hits been had in an action of debt, 

FIFE. A shrill wind instrument of the 
martial kind, consisting of a short narrow 
tube, Willi holes dis|iosed along the side 
for the regulation of its tones. 

FIFER. Uiie who plays on the fife in 
the army. 

FIG. A tree, with an upright stem 
branching titleen or twenty feet high, with 
large palinated or band-shaped leaves. It 
tljiirislie.s in warm climates, and bears s 
fruit as represented underneath, which, 
wlie4 dried, Is remarkable for iti luaciouJ 
swwuiesa. 




FIG (In Farriery). A kind of wart on 
tbe Hesh of a horse, that is oflen filled 
with foul humours. 

FIGHTS. Waste clothes hung round a 
ship in battle, to prevent the men from 
being seen. 

FKiURE (in Painting). The lines and 
colours which form the representation of 
an object. 

FIGURE (in Geometry). A space ter- 
minated on all parts by lilies curved of 
straight. 

FK;URE (in Arithmetic). One of lk»e 
nine digits, as 1, 3, 3, &.c. 

FIGURE (in Grammar and Rhetoric) 
A word or form of expression which d»- 



:bs 



FIN 



Tlates from the common and natural 
mrHiiitie. 

FILAi;KR. In Rneland. an offic>^r of 
thr Oiirl ofOimiiKin Pl^as who tiles the 
writs, whi^rfuii lir iii;tkfs •ml process. 

FILAl.KKK, or KILIUK V.M:. An or- 
ii:iiiittiil;il work ill \\(iii-b riowrr* or other 
litfiires are wroiijjlit wlUi aolJ or silver 
tliresid^. 

KILAMK.VT (in Botany . The thread- 
like part of the stamen, vhir.h supports 
tlie anther. 

KII.BEUT. A sort of nut tree cultivated 
in ■THidcns, the fruit of vvliic.li is larger and 
finer than the coiiiiiioii uild nut. 

FII.Kdn Trade and Law). A wire or 
thread on which louse papers are filed up 
t'-ffiher. 

KII.K (among Mechaiii<-s). A tcxd of 
steel, with which iron or any other metal is 
p<ilished. F^ilesa.. cut in little liirrotvsin 
a certain direction, and of a rerlaiii deptli, 
acxirdiiig to the ^ain or touch rei|iiire(l. 
Files are either cut l>y the hand with a 
clilsel and mullet, or by means of a ma- 
chine ; but the latter mode i> not so iiood. 
FILE (III Military Tactics). A straight 
line or row formed by soldiers. 

FILI»;ES. An <irder of plants of the 
class rr>'|itoeamia in the Liniiieaii system, 
iiicliid Hi: tlie fern, horse-tail, adder's 
tongue, maiden-hair, spleenwort, polypo- 
dy, &c. 

Fl LLGT (in Heraldry). A kind of bor- 
dure. 

FIM.ET (in Architecture). A little 
member that connects the other nieiuhers. 
FIIJ.ET (in I'ainting). A little rinslet 
of Irnf gold. 

FILM (in J^urgery). A tbin skin that 
covers the eye. 

FILM (in Rotany). The thin woody skin 
that separates the seed in the pod. 

FILTER (in Ohomi.stry). A strainer 
throush wHich any tluid is pas.sed so as to 
•iepirat*- ilie grosser particles from it. 

FILTERING PAPER. Paper without 
size, that may be tised in tilterins. 

FILTERI.NG-STONE. A sort of stone 
or basin which is sometimes used for piiri- 
fyine water. It is artificial as well as 
natural, and ho.* been variously conslriirted 
tu answer the purpu!<e. 

FIN. Themenibrine in fishes by which 
they perforin tholr muvvmenls in the wa- 
ter. 

FINAL. The 'aatorconcliidine. Final 
letters are those ivhirh are used only at 
the end of words, as in the Hebrew and 
•Uier oriental lansnaiies. 

FINAL (in Music). Tlie last sound of a 
rerae iu a chant. . 



FIR 

FIN.\ I<F,. The last piece in • concert, k,c 

FIN.ANlES (in Political Economy). 
The treasures or revenue of the country. 

FIN A.VCI ER. .An oihcer who maiiagea 
the tinances uf the country. 

FI.NE(in L.iw). A penalty or aniendii 
made in money for an otfence ; also nioiiny 
paid tor the renewal of a fease, anr* m C4m 
veyance of lands or tenements in order to 
cut otf all controversies. 

FINE-DR.-WVI.Nt;. Sewiiij! iipthorenta 
in woollen cloths so finely that they can- 
not he seen. 

FINERS OF GOLD AND SILVER 
Those who separate llie metals from 
coarser ores. 

FINERY. The furnace in which met- 
als are refined, that is, hammered and 
fashioned into what is called a bloom or 
square liar. 

Fl.N-FISM. A smaller sort of whale. 

FIK, or FIR TREE. A tree valuable 
for the timber, pitch tar, &c. which it 
yields in ab-jiidance. The sorts most 
esteemed in Eiielaiid, are the Scotch fir, 
Norway fir, .Spruce fir, and Canada fir. 
In the United f^tairs, the white and yellow 
pine, are the most valued. 

FIRE (in Chemistry). Was formerly, 
reckoned one of the 'our elements ; but it 
is now a matter of dispute whether it b« 
a distinct substance, or wnetner it arises 
solely t'roni the intestine and violent mo- 
tion of the pans of bodies. 

FIRI-:-E.\GINF:. An engine for the 
extin>:HiKliiii<;of fire, which consists of two 
forciii!! pumps so combiiu-d that their joint 
anion produces a con.>itaiit and powerful 
stream of water, which, by means of a pipe, 
may be directod at pleasure to any point. 




FIREBALL3. Luminous bodies usnally 
appearing at a great height. 

FIREBRA.N'n. A piece of burning 
wood taken out of the fire 

PI RE-DA. MPS. See Damm. 

FIREF'LY. A species of tlies cumtnoB 
in Guiana, having on each side of the head, 
a globular luminous body, that shines like 
a star. They live in rotten trees in tlM 
day, and always apfiear at night. 



FIX 

FinR-MAN One who U employed in 
•xtinguishine Area. 

FIRF.-^HIP. A ship filled witb com- 
bustibles, til set lire to tlie vessels of the 
enfiiiy. 

FIRK-WOKKS. Compiuiitiona of sul- 
phur, saltpetre, and rharciial. wlj'ch exhib- 
it a handsome apiiraram-e when tred off. 

FIRKIN. All Kn-:lisli measure of eapa- 
eity, coulainiug iniif •.'alluns of bet-r. 

FIRMAN. A |iiis:*porl cmnted in Tur- 
key and India for the liberty of trade. 

FIRST-FRUI'I'S (in Kiialand.) The 
profits of every spiritual living for on* 
year, given to the king. 

FIRSTLING. The young of cattle 
which are first broueht forth. 

Fl.>*ll, or FISIIF.S ,in Natural Histo- 
ry). Water annual in wnfral ; one das* 
of the animal k'.ugdoni !n the Linnran 
■ysteui. 

FISH, or RoT/ku Fiih (in I-aw). The 
whale and fCurgeon, so denominated in 
England, because the kiug is entitled to 
them whenever they are thrown on shore, 
or caiiuht near the coasts. 

FISH (among .Manners). A machine 
employed to hoist ami draw up the docks 
of ship:)' anchors towards the tup of the 
bow. 

FISHERY. The place where fish are 
caught for the purposes of trade. 

FISH-GIG. An instrument for striking 
fish al sea. 

FISHING-FLY A bait used for catch- 
ing fish. 

FISIIINO-HOOK An instrument of 
steel wire, fitted for catching and retitining 
fish. 

FISHING-LINE. A line of twisted 
hair tixed to a rod called the fishing-rod, 
tnil having at one end the fishtng-liiH>k. 

FISHM0.V(;F.R. a dealer in fish. 
There were fnrinerly two companies of 
ushmongers in I,<iiid(m, nnniely, the stock- 
fishmongers and sall-fishimmgers, which 
were united in I5.'56. 

FISTULA. A long and sinuous ulcer. 

FITCH ET. An animal of the weasel or 
ferret kind. 

FIXATION. The making any volatile 
spirituous tody endure the fire. 

FIXED .AIR. A name formerly given 
by chemists, to the air which was extri- 
cated from lime, magnesia, and alkalies, 
now commonly called, carbonic acid gas. 

FIXED BODIES. Such as neither fire 
nor any corrcsive menstruum, l-.ave tie 
power of rel ucing to their component 
tiements, as ammonia. 

FIXEIJST.ARS. Such as do not change 
Jieir (Misitiuna in respect to one another. 
14 



F!..\ 



157 



FLAG (in .\avnl or Miltarr Affaira) 
The colours or ensign of a ship, or of \ 
regiment of land forces. The first flag in 
Great Britain is the standard, only to be 
hoisted when the king or queen is on board 




FLAG (In Botany). A aott of rash wHh 
a large leaf. It i.s of different kinds, as the 
common flag, or water iris, that grows in 
rivers and hears a yellow flower; the com 
flag, or gladiole, a bullions plant ; and the 
sweet flag, a perennial ; which two last are 
cultivated in garden*. 

FLAGEOLKT. A little flute 

FLAG-OFFICER. Anofticercommand- 
ing a squadron. 

FL.AGON. A large drinking ve«wel. 

FL.AG-SHIP. a ship commanded hy a 
flag-officer. 

FLAG-STAFF. The staff set on the 
head of the topgallant mast, on which tlie 
fl.ig ii> placed. 

FLAGSTONE. A sort of stone used foi 
smooth pavement. 

FLAIL. An instrument used for thresh 
ing com. 

FLA .ME. The most subtle part of fire 
which is properly the fume or vapour of 
fire, he.-ited red-hot so as to shine. 

FLA.MI.NGO. A sort of bird in Africa 
and .America. 

FL.A.NK. The side of an army, orabat- 
talion encamped on the right and left. 

FL.A.VK (in Fortification). Any part of 
a work that defends another work along 
the outside of its paraiiet. 

FLANNEL. .\ slight, Iook, woollen 
stuff, woven on a loom with two treadles 
after the manner of baize. It serves to 
keep the body warm, because, from its 
light anil spongy texture, it does not ad- 
mit of a passage for the heat. 

FLASK. A measure for holding gun- 
powder. 

FLAT (in M-iaic). A character marked 
thus [-), which lowers a note one semitone. 

FL.\.\. .A plant, from the fibres of which 
lir.en thread is n'ade. Cuniinon flax. •• 



158 



FLO 



Mpntseiittid iindernealh, is an annual , but 
Um) (tiller kinds are perennials. 




FLAX EARTH, or Mooittiiw Flax. 

6e« .\9K£9TOS. 

FI<EA. A little insect of a deep purple 
colour, remarkable for its agility in leap- 
ing, for which it has three pair of legs. 
It -(licks the blood of larger animals. 

FLICAM. An instrument fur lancing tlie 
gnnis or bleeding cattle. 

KI.KICCE. A flock of wool, or what 
Comes from it sheep at (me shearing. 

FUCBT. A number of ships together in 
company or under one commander. 

FI.KET. A prison in London, where 
debtors are confined. 

FhKSH (in Anatomy). The soft and 
fibrous part of an animal body; also' the 
red part of a muscle. 

Fl-ESH (in Botany). The pnlpy sub- 
alaiice of any fruit or root. 

KI.KUR DE LIS, or Flower de 
Lf( E (in Heraldry). A bearing in the 
BrniK of France, and in other coats of arms. 

FLINT. A semitransparent and hard 
st(uiK, which possesses the property of 
einilting li°t when struck. 

FLI.N'T v^mong Gunsmiths). A piece of 
flint, cut so as to go between the jaws of 
the co(rk of a gun. 

FLOAT. A raft or number of pieces 
of timber, fastened together with rafters 
alhwart, to be driven down a river with 
the I de. 

FLOATING BATTERY. Vessels used 
as baiieries to cover troops in landing on 
an enemy's coast. 

FLOCK. A number of sheep in com- 
pany, also a lock of wool. 

FLOKT/. Beds or strata of earth, con- 
tainiiii; the rrmains ol animal nt vegetable 
lUbslances, &.C. 



FLO 

PLOOKAN. The name of a slimy kind 
of earth. lu mining, the deviation or 
shiftiug of a lode or vein by a clelt, &<;. 
FLOilA. A catalogue or account of 
flowers or plauts; the plants of a par- 
ticular country. In mythology, tho 
goddess of flowers, in honor ol whom 
the festival Floralia was celebrated. 

FLOKIN. A British silver coin, the 
tenth of a pound sterling, and worth 
about 4S cents, first minted in 1849, and 
now in general circulation. It was or- 
iginally maie at Florence, and now cir- 
culates in mauy European countries, 
ranging in value from 38 to 5G cents to 
two shillings and four pence. 

FLOWER. In botany, that part of a 
plant which contains the organs of 
iructation. A flower, when complete, 
is furnished wiih a calyx, corolla, sta- 
mens, ind pi.stils; tho stamens carry- 
ing the anthers, or male organs of re- 
production, and the pistils the stigmas, 
or female organs, by which the poUen, 
orimpregnating dust, is conveyed into 
the ovary, or seed-vessel. Flower-stalk 
is the peduncle of a plant, or the stea 
which supports the fructifloation. 
Flower-head is that mode of inflores- 
cence in which all the flowers are ses- 
sile, as in the daisy. In pyrotechnics, a 
particular kind of firework, which, when 
ignited, throws out a fountain of vivid 
florescent-looking sparks. 

FLUA'i Es. A kind of salts formed by 
the combination of fluoric acid with dl3"e- 
rent bases, as the fluate of aiitinoiiia. 

FLL'E. I'lie small \viiidiii); chiiiiiiey in 
a furnace for conveying smoke, air, and 
hehfinto a larger chimney; also the down 
or soft hair of rabbits and feathers. 

FLUELLEN. An annual that grows in 
gardens. 

FLUID (in Physiology). A fluid body, 
or one whose parts yield to the smallest 
force impressed, and are easily moved 
among each other. Fluids are either elaa- 
tic, as the air, or non-elastic, aa water 
mercury, &.C. 

FLUID (in Anatomy). The fluids of the 
animal body are the humours and juices, 
aa the blood, chyle, saliva, &c. 

FLUIDITY. The state of bodies whe» 
their parts are very readily moveable in 
all directions with respect to each other. 
It stands directly opposed to solidity or 
firmness, and is distinguished from liquid- 
ity and humidity, inasmuch as the latter 
imply also wetting and adhering. Melted 
metals, air, ether, smoke, and flame are 
fluid but not licpiid bodies, their parts being 
dry and leaving no sense of moisture 
i^ilids are converted into fluids by meant 
of heat. 

FLUOR PPAR. A species of salt which 
ah<iunds in nature, and consists of a cal- 
careous earth in combination with fluoric 



fteid. U ia called fluor because it melts 
reailily; n is called spar because il lias a 
■parry foiui and fracture; aad il is also 
called vitreouri spar because it bas tlie ap- 
pearance iif glass. 

FLI'ORIC ACID. A gaseous substance 
procured from fluor spar, wtiich is of a 
corroitiiig nature, and will dissolve glass, 
for ivhicli reason it has 'leen used for 
etching on glass. This acid gas readily 
combines witit water; and when dropped 
in, a hissing noise is produced with much 
heat. 

FLUTE. A wind instrument, and the 
■iinplest of its kind, with stops for the 
fingers. 

FLUTES. The hollow channels found 
along the surface of a column. 

FLUX (in Physiology). That motion of 
the water by which it rises. 

FLUX (in Chemistry). Any substance 
or mixture added to assist the fusion of 
minerals and metals. In assaying, alkalies 
are used ;is fluxes, which render the earthy 
miituj-es fusible by connecting them with 
glass. 

FLUXIONS. That branch of algebra 
which treats of the velocities with which 
the fluents or (lowing quantities increase 
orderrease. The variable or flowing quan- 
tities are represented by the letters «, w, 
z, ij, 1 ! the invariable quantities, by the 
.etters a, b, e, d, &,c. 'I'he fluxion is re- 
presented by a dot thus y, t. 

FLY (in Natural History). A small 
winged insect, tliat is always flying about 
in houses. 

FLY (among Mechanics). That part of 
■ jack which puts the rest of the machine 
in motion. 

FLY (among Mariners). That part of a 
compass on which the thirty-two points 
are described. 

FLY (among (,'arpenters). Flies or flyers 
are the series of steps which go straight 
forward without winding. 

FLY-BOAT. A large vessel with a broad 
bow, used in the coasting trade. 

FLY-BLOW. The depoit of the eggs, 
aiaggots, or nymphte of flies In meat. 

FLY-CATCHI'.a. A sort of bird inha- 
titing Asia, Africa, and America, so called 
Mcause it lives upon flies. ThAking bird 
H a well known vr.riety in this country. 

FLYING BRIDGE. See Bridoe. 

FLVING-FISII. A fish inhabiting the 
European and American seas, which, by 
the help of its long pectoral fins, is ena- 
>led to raise itself out of the water and to 
fly a short distance when pursued by other 
Ish. 

FLYING SaUlRREL. A beautiful 



FOL 



I5S 



A merivan Squirrel, which by tlie nse of 
jiieiubianes attached tu its legs sails fruio 
the tups of trees tu a great distance. 

FLYLVt; DUAGO.N. A four-looted rep- 
tile of the lii^ard tribe, inhabiting Africa 
and India, which has a lateral uienibtan* 
i-erving as a wing. 




FLY-ORCHIS. A pIant,so called from the 
resemblance it bears in its tigure to a tly. 

FLY-'IRAP, or VENUi's Flv-Tbap. A 
sensitive plant, the leaves of which consist 
of two lobes, that close when they are 
irritated within, and consequently «ntrap 
any insect that lights upon them. 

FOAL. The young of a horse, or ass. 

FOCUS (in Optics). The point of con- 
vergence or concourse, where all the rays 
meet after passing through a convex leus. 

FCXJUS (in Geometry and Conic See- > 
tions). A certain point in tlie parabola 
and ellipses, Sec. wiiere llie rays reflected 
from all parts of these curves concur. 

FOIJUKR. Dry food for cattle. 

FODDER (in England). The prerogative 
of the king formerly, to be provid;,-d with 
fodder for his horses in any warlike ex 
pedition. 

VOG, or Mist. A meteor consisting of 
condensed vapours ftoatiug near the surface 
of the earth. 

F01L{in Fencing). An instruraen* witfi- 
oiit a point, to fence with by way of exer 
cise. 

FOIL (among Glass-grinders). A sheet 
of tin laid on the back of a looking-gla^i^, 
to make it reflect. 

FOIL (among Jewellers). A thin leaf 
of metal placed under a precii/us stone, to 
increase its brilliancy. 

FOLD. An encloyed place in which 
sheep are confined. 

FOLIAGE. A cluster or assemblagir of 
the leaves of trees. 

FOLl AGE (in Architecture). Omamente 
representing leaves, used in cornices, &.c. 

FOLIATING. Spreading the plates of 
gla'ss over with the foil, in ordei; to make 
them reflect. 

FOLIO. The full size of paper ss It 
comes from the manufacturer; also t>«ok* 
printed oik paper of that size. 



166 



FOR 



FOI.IO l\n Merchaiils' AccountsV The 
pnge, iiir.liuliiig ilie nglii Hiid left haixl 
page, in a nierrliaiil's ledgrr, which are 
nuiiiber«'<t by thr samr tigure, so that they 
limy correspond. 

FOMKNTATIO.N'. The bathinn ar)y part 
of the boily with a (lecorlion >if herbs, icC. 
A ainiiliU' application with bag:< ol' herbs 
and other ingredients, ia called a dry fo- 
mentation. 

POO'i'. A measure of length consisting 
nf twelve Inches. 

P(.»()T (in Poetry). A certain number 
nf syllables which serve for inea«uring the 
verse. 

FOOT (in Military Tactical. Soldiers who 
•erve on foot. 

FORAGE. Provender for horses in an 
army. 

FOllCE (in Pliysiology). Whatever is 
oi may be made, the primary caii?ie of 
UBMlion in bodies. 

FORCE (in Law). Unlawful violence 

FORCE (in .Military Affairs). Any body 
of men that may be employed in actiim. 

FORCEPS. A surgeon's tongs, pin- 
cers, &c. 

FORCER, or FORCING-PIJ.MP. A 
pump with a forcer or piston without a 
valve. 

FORCING (among Gardeners). A me- 
tlio<l I'f obtaining fruits and flowera before 
their wa^on, by the application of heat. 

FORCING (in Commerce). The fininu 
down wines so as t<» render them lit for 
imiiiediale use. 

FORE. A sea term for near the stem; 
as « fore and aft,' that is, from stem tosfern. 

FORECASTLE. A short deck in the 
fore part of the ship. 

FORECLOSED lin Law), Excluded or 
iMirred the equity of redemption on mort- 
gnjes, &,c. 

FOREIGN ATTACHMENT (in Law), 
an attachment of forei';ner8' goods. 

FORENSIC. Belonging to the bar or 
c<Hirts of taw. 

FORESHOUTENING (in Painting). 
The making a head or face in a drawing 
apjHjar shorter before. 

FOREST. In England, a large wood 
privileged to hold the king's game of all 
kinds. 

FORF.STALLrNG. Tlie buying or bar- 
gaining for corn or other merchandise, be- 
fore it comes into the market. 

FORESTER. In England, the keeper 
of a fore.-t. 

FORFEITURE (in Law). The low of 
f>iM>o«, lands, or I niplnyments.&c. for r "g 
Mtrting to do one 's duty , or for some CT.ine 
wmmi ed 



FOR 

FORGE A furnace, in which smitht 
he:it their nietuls red-hot, or in which tb« 
ore taken out of the mine is melted down 

F()liGi:;RY (in Law). The fraudulen- 
making or altering any record, deed, or 
wntiiig, iitc. to the prejudice of anotlier 
man 's rijjht, particularly the cuunterfeitiug 
the signature of another with intent to de- 
fraud. 

FORMAITON. In geology, auy assem- 
blage of rocks, alluvial deposits, or sedi- 
nieutary strata reierred to a coinmoa 
origiu or period. The term properly 
siguifles a series of rocks, iLsuaUy pass- 
ing gradually into each other, and the 
whole being considered as belonging to 
a certain period of geological time. A 
geological formation may consist of 
rjcks entirely dissimilar, as the coal, 
shale, ironstone, and sandstone of the 
coal formation ; or the chalk, flints, and 
sands of the chalk formation. 

FORM (among Printers) The chue or 
frame filled with type or letter the size 
and form of a page, made ready for the 
pre.ss. This form will be quarto if the 
sheet consist of 8 pages, octavo if it c<in- 
sist of It) pages, and duodecimo if it con- 
sist of 24 pages 

FORMA PAUPERIS, 1. e. U th« 
Form of a Paupek. In England, a form 
in which any one may sue who swears 
that he i.s not worth Ave pounds, and brings 
a certificate from some lawyer that he has 
jii.st cause of suit. In that ca.se he has 
counsel as.signed, and is relea.sed from 
cost« of suit, &c. 

FOR.MIC .\Cir>. The acid of ants, which 
is obtained chiefly from the red ant. 

FOR.MULA (in .Mathematics). A general 
theorem or literal e.xpre8sion, for resolving 
any part of a problem. 

FORMULA (in Theology). A profession 
of faith. 

FORMULARY A book of forms an* 
precedents for law matters. 

FORT. A small castle or strong hold, 
a place of small e.Ttent, fortified either by 
art or nature, being encompassed with a 
moat, rampart, and parapet, as represented 
underneath, to secure some high ground, 
or the passage of a river. 




PORTIFTC ATION. The setence of mlW. 
tary arrliitecture, which teaches the heal 
muiie of putting a citv 'Kwn, or a»y othel 



FOR 

^mee, into a state of defence by mLkiog 
works around it. A fortification is either 
regiikir or irregular: a regular furlificatiuii 
is built in a regular polygon, as in ttie 
liibjoined figure; an irregular fortification 
is where the side« and angles are not 
uniform. A temporary fortification is that 
winch is raixed for any particular emer- 
gency, as fieldwnrka, &.c. I'bia is di.stin- 
guisiied from a d irable tortification, which 
«*rves as a permanent defence of a place. 
A defensive fortification is that by which 
a town IS defended in case <if a siege, in 
distinction from an offensive fortification, 
which is raised by besiegers for the attack 
of a place, 'i'be works of a place are those 
about the place, in distinction from the 
outworks, which are constructed before 
the body of (he place. Tlieprincip.il works 
belonging to a fortification are, the ditch 
or trench made round eitcli work; tlie 
rampart, or elevation of earth, raided along 
the faces of any work, to cover the inner 
p:irti the parapet, or tliat part of a rampart 
which serves to cover the tr<>op.-< planted 
there; the bastion, that part of the inner 
encbisureofa fortification making an angle 
towards th;' field; the counterscarp, the 
elope of the ditch facing the body of the 
place; the covert way, the space extending 
round I he counterscarp; the glacis, the part 
beyond the covert way, to which it serves 
a* a parapet; the curtain, the fnmt of a 
wall between two bitstions; the tl.iiik, any 
part of a work which defends another; 
the gorge, that part ne.Kt to the body of 
tiie place where there is no rampart; the 
epaule, thesh.iulder of the bastion; besides 
the barriers, palisades, portcullis, piaca of 
arms, itc 



FOU 



Ml 




rfmrrORT, or a fortiori, a term 
•ed IE reasoning, foi anv con^lasloa or 
14* 



inference that is much stronger Uiaa aa 
otiier. 

FuRCM. A puUic place In Rome, where 

causes were tried and business transacted. 

FOi?SS (in FortiDcutioni. A hi How ditch, 

commonly full of water, lying between liia 

scarp and the counterscarp. 

FOSSA.V. An animal of the weasel kind, 
found 111 the .Asiatic islands, about the 
size of the liErret. 

F0St>ILt5. All manner of things dug 
out of the earth, whether they Ikj nativ»> 
fossils growing in and of the earth, as 
metals, stones, salts, earths, and other min- 
erals; or whether they be foreign sutxitait- 
cea, as the exuviteof sea and landaiiimals, 
namely, shells, bones, teeth, &.C.; or whe- 
ther they be vegetaiiles, as leaves, wood, 
&.C. which have lain long buried in the 
earth. 

FOUL. A sea term for the runn.ng of 
one ship against another. 

FUU.NUA TIO.N ^in .Architecture). That 
part of a building which is under ground. 
FOUNDATION (in Law). A donation 
in money or lands for the niHintenance 
and support of some community, as an 
hospital, a school, &c. 

FOUNUES (in Law). One who founds 
-jind endows a church, school, college, &«. 
FOUNDER (in Trade). One who casts 
metals in various forms, as gun-founders, 
bell-founders, &.c. I'he company of foun- 
ders was incorporated in l^oiidon, in 1614 
FOUNDRV. The art of casting metals 
In various forms; also the place where 
this business is done. Bmall works are 
cast in sand, which, being duly prepared, 
is put into a wooden frame; then wcHMJen 
or metal models of what is intended to l>e 
cast are put into the sand so as to leave 
their inipre.x8ion, ;ind along the iciddte of 
the mould is laid a small brxss cylinder lo 
form a chief canal for the metal to run 
throueh, from which canal run others ex- 
tending to each model or (Kiltern pl.iced 
in the iranie. When the moulds are fully 
prepared, the fu.<ed metal is poured out of 
thecrucible inli the chief c-inal, and tht-iice 
conveyed to each patiern. Alter the whot*i 
b»s been set to cool, Ibe cast work is taken 
out of the sand. The mould for very large 
articles is made of wet tempered loam, 
built up by degrees in a pit, into which 
the melted metal is made to run along a 
channel on the ground to the mould. The 
composition used in casting bells is termed 
bell metal. 

FOUNT, or FONT A set or certala 
quantity of letters cast at one time by a 
letter-founder for luu iise of a printM 



IS!! 



FOU 



FOUGABE, or FOUGASS. In the mili- 
tary art, a little mine, dug to defend or 
destroy a fortiflcatiou by its explosion. 

l^OULAKD. A kind of silk mateiiallor 
ladies' dresses; a silk kerchief. 

FOURCHK'rXE. In ornithology, the 
bono formed by the junction of the 
clavicles; commonly called the merry- 
thought. 

FOUKNEAU. In military engineering, 
the chamber of a mine iu wliicu tlie 
p jwder is lodged. 

FOURTH. In music, an interval enu- 
merated among the discords. The minor 
or lesser fourth consists of five semi- 
tones; but the fourth .«harp, or greater, 
consists of six semitones. In anatomy, 
fourth pair ot nerves is a term applied 
to the nervi pathetici. 

FOUNTAIN. A natural spring of water 
rising out of the groumi , also a stream of 
water ejected through a pipe by means of 
a macliiiie contrived for this purpose. Arti- 
ficial fountains are various in their forms, 
but they all act on the principle of a pres- 
sure, eitlier from a head of water, or arising 
from the .spring and elasticity of the air. 
Wlien fountains are formed by the pressure 
of a head of water, or any other fluid of 
the same kind, with the fountain or jet, 
then will this spout up nearly to the sjime 
height as that head, allowing a little for 
the resistance of the air, with that of the 
adjutage, &,c. In the fluid rushing through; 
but when the fountain is produced by any 
other force than the pressure of a column 
of the same fluid as itself, it will rise nearly 
to the altitude of the fluid, whose pressure 
i.-) equal to the given force that produces 
the fountain. The subjoined figure repre- 
sents the circulating fountain, o- the foun- 
tain of Hero of Alexandria, so called be- 
okusa it was invested by h m, in wbich 



FRA 

It .'nu a ])erpetual motion, and that to* 
san.e water which fell from the jet ro9« 
ag^iin ; but, ni realuy, thai water does not 
come up again, for, runnnig down through 
a pi|>e inui the bottom box, it drives out 
the air ihriwigh an asceml-ng pipe into th« 
box at the ti>p containing water which, 
being pressed upon, is forced through tbe 
spout as loiij! as there is any iu it 

FOWL. The largest sort of birds,whethef 
domestic or wild, as geese, phe;isants, par- 
tridges, &.C. ; also a full grown chicken, or 
yoiin-g hen. 

FOWLING. The art of taking or killing 
birds, either by iiieiwis of snares or nets, or 
by various devices, as imitating theirvoices 
or using decoy birds and the like. 

FOWLINGPIECE. A light gun for 
shooting birds. 

FOX. A crafty, lively animal, nearly 
allied to the dog, which seeks its food by 
nisht among the poultry , rabbits, and hares. 
1'he fox is Ixirne in coats of arms, and aa 
a charge, is supposed to denote a subtle wit 
by wbich a man baa served hia countijr. 




tfee air, being compressed by n fonc«a><-(f 
%ll ol water tonus a jet that appears as it 



FOXGLOVE. Pee Dioitalij. 

FOX-TAIL-GRASS. An berbaceoua 
plant. 

F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal Society ia 
London. 

FRACTURE(in Mineralogy). The break- 
ing of minerals, or the manner In which 
they break, which is one of their specific 
characters. 

FKACTI'RR (in Surgery). The break- 
ing of any bone by an external act ot 
violence. 

FR.tNU.M LINCJU.-E (iu Anatomy) 
The ligament under llie tongue. 

FRA.ME (with Painters). A kind of 
square, c<im|Kk<ed of fmir long pletes or 
slips of \viii>d joined togpiher. the inlCT- 
iiiediate spare of wliirli is divided by little 
strings or threads into a great number at 
little squares, like the meshes of a net, 
used in reducing figures from great to 
■mall or from small to i-reat. 

FRANCHISE. The privilege or righl 
of voting iu au electloa. 



FRE 

rnANK FREE. A lenn rimch Jised in 
the old English law, an Krank pifilee free- 
men, Willi used to he pleil:;fs <ir suretiea, 
for the gcMid hehavidur of ihixi- ivliu were 
of their c«n>mnnity; in miuli-rn \;\w, nn 
ezeniptlon finni payinu |h<kI:iui- for letters, 
which isenjo' -«d by nieniiit-r^'of (larliainent 
in England, and memlierstif Congress tea 
certain exteot. 

FRANK. A French coin, worth twenty 
lol», or about elghlef n cents miil AA. 

FRANKINCENSE. An odoriferous, 
^ry, resinous substance, procured from the 
juniper u^e in Turkty and the East In- 
'•ie*. 

FREEBOOTER. A soldifr that serves 
for plunder, without pay. 

FREEHOLD. That land or tenement 
which a man holds in fee sin.^ltj, fee tail, 
or for terni of (ife. 

FREEHOLDERS. Possessoru ^ a free- 
hold estate. 

FREEMA.\(in Ancient Law,, In Eng. 
one free from servitude, as distij.^iiiihed 
from a villain or bondsman ; also .nv \fho 
enjoys the freedom ol a city or hovi \^U. 
A freeman in the United Slates, ii iiiv? 
who has a right to vote 

FREE SCHOOL. An endowed schtol, 
where cliildren are taught free of expens*. 

FREESTONE. A sort of stone u.sed M 
building, that ni»y be cut freely in any 
manner. 

FREIGHT (in Commerce). The sum of 
noney agreed to he paid for the burden 
of a ship ; also the burden itself, or the 
cargo of a ship. 

FRENCH HORN. A musical instru- 
ment, bent into a circle, and going two or 
three times round. It grows grailually 
larger and wider towards the end, and in 
■ome horns is nine or ten inches over. 



FRI 



iM 




freezing mixtures, or compositions of such 
ingredients as when mixed with other 
bodies, cause them to congeal ; such aa 
snow and coiiiiiiim salt, or muriate of am- 
iiionla, nitre and water. Sec. 

FRESCO. A method of painting in 
relievo on walls, so as to endure the 
weather ; it is performed with water cflourt 
nn fresh plaster, so that the colours incor- 
porate with the mortar. 

FRESHES. A sea term for an Impew- 
ous ebb tide increased by heavy rains. 

F'RET (in .Architecture). An ornain<>nl 
consisting of small rilleis interlaced, thai 
were used by the ancients on tial main 
bers. 




FtEEZING (it. Physiology). The fixing 



FRET (in Music). A Itind of stop on 
some instruments, particularly bass viols 
and lutes. 

FRICTION (in Mechanics). The rui>- 
bing of the parts of engines and machines 
igainst each other, by which means a gr«at 
|tirt of their effect is destroyed. 

FRIENDLY SOCIETIES. In England, 
AsvvKjiations chiefly among the lower clas- 
ses, for afforiling relief to each other in 
tin.>e of sickness, or to the widows and 
chU'li?o at their death. 

Fl 1 .'ATE. A light built ship of wa#^, 
from t» »nty to fifty guo^, fitted for fast 
sailing. 




FRIGTI) ZONEa. The two wrnes « 

divisions of the eaiih, comprehended be- 



« fluid iKHly into a firm and solid mass by ! tween the poles aud the polar circles 
the anion of cold. The process of freezing Thry are the north frijiid zone, .ii the imrth 
vnny be artificially produced by means of pole, and the south fritid tone, at the *>ul I 
be air pump, ;uiil sometimes by certain pole. 



I«4 



FRU 



FRIT, or FRITT (in the (JIass Msinii- 
Aicture). The inatteror inpreilienuof which 
pl:iss 13 to be made, alter they have been 
calcined or baked in a furnace, ti is of 
different kinds, according to the quality of 
the glass. Crystal frit, for the best kind, 
is made with salt of pulveriiie and sand. 
The ordinary or comrnmi gUuss i.x made of 
tlie bare ashes of piilverine, or barilla, 
without extracting the salt from them j this 
in the second kind of frit. The third kind 
o( frit, for green glass, is made of coninion 
ashes, without any preparation. 

FRITH (in Geography). An arm of the 
sea, as the Fritli of Forth, or of Kdinburgh, 
the Frith of Clyde, &c, 

PRIZING CLOTH. A process in the 
woollen manufacture, of forming tlie nap 
of cloth or stuD' into a number of little 
bard burrs or prominences, so as to cover 
almost the whole ground. Thi:s process is 
now performed by machinery. 

FROG. An amphibious animal, having 
m imooth body, and longer legs than the 
load. 







PROG (In Farriery). The hard project- 
ing substance in the hollow of a horse's 
foot. 

FROG-FISH, or FisHiMo Froo. A kind 
of fish resembling a frog in the tadixile 
mate, that puts forth its slender horns and 
entices the little fish to itself, in order to 
8ei7.e them. 

FRO.VT. The principal face or side of 
a buildine. 

FRONTIER. The boundary of a king- 
dom, which separates it from another king- 
dom on the land side. 

FRO.VTISFIECE. The ornament or 
picture which faces the title page in a 
book. 

FRONTLET. A band worn on the 
forehead. 

FRUCTIFICATION (in Botany). The 
temporary part of veceL-ihles, appropriated 
toUeir prop;u;ation, consisting of the Dow- 
er luid tlie fniit. 

FRUIT (in Rotany). That which suc- 
eoeds the ilower; it may either b« seed 



V UL 

only, or it may be an esculent pulpy an 
stance, as the apple or the pear ; or it may 
be hard, like the nut, pea, &.c. 

FRCITERER. One wlm deals in fruit 
The company of fruiterers in London, waa 
incorporated in 11504. 

FRUSll, The tender part of a horse'i 
heel, next the hoof. 

FRUSTUM (in Mathematics). A part 
of some solid body separated from the rest. 

FRUSTUM OF A CONE. The pan.if 
a cone that remains when the top is cut 
otr by a plane parallel to the base; It \% 
otherwise called a truncated cone. 

FRUSTUM of aGLOHK or SPHERE. 
Any part of it cut off by a plane. 

F. S. A. Anabbreviatiou for Fellow of 
the Society of Arts. 

FUCl. A genusof plants in the Linns- 
an system, comprehending most of those 
which are commonly called seaweeds, 
from which, when liiirnt, an impure alkali 
Is procured called kelp. 




FUCUS. The name given by th» an 
cients to a sea plant, from which a dye 
was procured, for dyeing woollen and lin- 
en cloths of that colour. 

FUGITIVE PIECES Little pieces o( 
composition of temporary interest. 

FUGITIVE'S GOODS (in I^vv). The 
goods of one who flies upon felony. 

FUGUE (in Music). A species of com- 
position, in which the different parts follow 
each other, each repeating in order what 
the first had performed. 

FULCRUM (in Mechanics). The prop 
or support by which a lever is sustained. 

FULLER. One who cleans and scours 
cloth. 

FULLER'S EARTH. A species of clay 
remarkable for tlia property of absortdnk 



FUN 

•H, wherefore tt ia used by fullers to take 
pease out of cloth. 

FL'LLI NG. The art of eleanxins, scour- 
Inn, and presslni; cloths, to make them 
Btronjjer, closer, and firmer, which is done 
hy means of a water nnill, called a fulling 
er scoiiritin mill. These mills are nearly 
the same as corn mills, exc«|it in the mill- 
stones and the hopper. In Prance, drn 
is {Eroiind and cloth is fulled hy the motion 
of the same wheel : cloths and woollen 
•tuffs are soinetinies fulled hy means of 
aoap. III the fullowiiij: manner : the cloth is 
laid in the iroiizh of the fiillins mill, and 
then the soap dissolved in (lails of river 
or spring water is to be poured ii[ion it 
by little and little. The cloth, afler lying 
two hours in tliesiwip, is taken out. stretcJl- 
ed, and then returned to the trou<!h. Up- 
on being taken out a second time, the 
grease and tilth is then wrung out. This 
process is uflerwards repealed, and when 
the cloth has thus been brought to the 
quality and thickness rei|iiired, it is scour- 
ed in hot water until it is ipiiie clean. 

FUL.\Il.\ATIO.\. The ijoise which 
■ome minerals or metals make when heat- 
ed in a crucible : as ruliniiialing )»•» der, 
which is made of nitre, |H>t:isli, and the 
flowers of sulphur, triturated in n warm 
mortar. If this (Kiwder l>e fiK-^ed in a ladle, 
and then set vi fire, it will explode with a 
noise like thunder. If a solution of gold 
be precipitated by amnion. a, the product 
will be fiilniinatins Cold, a grain of wliiili, 
if held over a (tame, will exphute w.M a 
■liarp loud iii>i;«. 

FU.MKJATIO.N. A process by means of 
Which the nitrous and other iiiineral acids, 
ill a state of vapour, are dis(iersed tliri>ii|rh 
any phice. 

FUKCTION The performance of any 
duty. 

FUNCTION ^in Physiology). The ex- 
ercise of any faculty or power, as the vital 
functions, or those which are necessary to 
life. 

FUNCTIO.\'(in Algebrai An algebra- 
ical expression ol a ceruiiu letter or quan- 
tity. 

FUND (in Commerce). The capital w 
•tuck of a piililic C(nii|Kiny. 

FUNllA.ME.VTAL .NOTE (in Music). 
The lowest note of the chord, to which all 
the re»l are in some measure adapted, and 
by which they are reculated ; it is other- 
wise called the key to the scmg. 

FUNDS, IMIBLIC FUNDS, or 
STOCKS. 1 he national debt formed into 
different capitals, U|H>n winch interest is 
payable. 

FUNGI. The (iiurUi order of tlie class 



FUS 



166 



Cryptogamia In the Liniipan system, con 
sisting of funguses, mushrooms, tniffle*, 
tee. A fungus of this order is represented 
underneath. 




FURI.O.NG. A measure of length, con- 
sistiiig of forty poles. 

FIRI.tirt;il. I,eave of absence given 
to asoldier, or noncommissioned othcer. 

FURNACE. A fire place for melting, 
distilling, and other chemical processes, h« 
built as to cause the fire to burn vehe- 
mently. 




FUR. The eont or covering of soma 
animals, as sables, heavers, martens, 
s<)uirrels, &.C. which is used in various ar- 
ticles of dress, either for uniament or 
warmth. 

Fl'RS. Tinctures in coats of arms, 
which are supposed to represent the furs 
of animals. 

FURRIER. One who deals in furs, and 
prepares them for the manufacturer. 

FUKRI.\a(in far[>entry). The fixlag 
thin scantlings or laths on the edges of 
timbers, to bring them to the even surface 
they were intended to form 

FURRINGSfin Car|)entry) The pie- 
ces of timber enirluye<l iu making an erea 
surface. 

FURROW. A <ri]all trench east np by 
the |i)(>u;:li between Ibr l:ll;^ls. 

Fl SEE I 111 Cb--k w<r(.r », «v»-«— meal 
c«iiiinviuir« fur e<iualiuns the vo^mt of 



166 



GAG 



the main spring nf a wairh. Thr fnspe on 
whicli tlie rliiiin or cal»iit la wniniit, is 
miide sonipwbai cnniciil, xn thai Ui4 radiiiH 
at every [wiint may cnrresimnd with tlie 
strength of the Hpriiig, heiiii! (irealer ami 
greater as the actum of the npriiis heconies 
aiore and more weakened by iinliemliii&. 

FUSKE (in Gunnery). 'J'he tulie fixed 
in^o J bontb or prenade shell, which is 
fillea with combustible materials, and fur- 
ni!«)ied with a quick match on the top of 
it. When it is used it is driven into the 
bomb, being cut to a len<:lh |pro(K)rlioued 
to '•he distance that the bomb is to be 
thrown, that it may be spent and the bomb 
break when it faila 



GAl 

,FUSIL. A »mall lifl t mujOiet 

PCSIL (in Heraldry). An artiflcial 
charge, representinc a spindle. It ig of 
the same shape as the loz«nge, but it la 
lonL'er. 

FUSION. The art ofredurinc! bodies to 
a fluid state by the arlifirial application nf 
heat ; as in the case of metals, gla.ss, and 
sniillar bodies. Those substances which 
adiini of being fused are termed fusible, 
but those which resist the action of fire or 
heat are termed refractory. 

FUST. The shaft of a column. 

FUSTfAN. A sort of nappy cotton. 

FUSTIC. A dyeing wood bruuglil Ttoia 
the West Indies 



Q, the seventh lel^M to the alphabet, as a 
numeral, fori.^erly si^d for 4(10 ; as a sign, 
it stands for rhr treble zl')T, or the highest 
of the three cli.Ts ; as an abbreviation, for 
grand, as G. C. C. ^ntgh: (iijnd Cross of 
the Bath. 

GABKL. Formeriy en excise in France 
on salt ; in old Englieh records, a rou, cus- 
tom, or duty due to the lord. 

GABIONS. Basketsof willow S»:»^ \'th 
earth to make a parapet or cover. 




in the barometer, or for meaauring the 
force of the winds, tc. 

(iAL. An abbreviation for gallon or 
Oalatians. 

(JALAXY, or Milky Wat. A long 
white luminous tr.tct which seems to en- 
compass the heavens like a girdle, formed 
by innumerable stars. 

(iAI.BA.NUM A resinous substance 
like frankincense. 

GAKH (among Mariners). A storm ni 
violent wind. 

GAl.l. Another name for the bile 

GALL BI.ADDKR. An oblong mem- 
j Lraneous receptacle for the bile. 
. GAl.l.F.RV A passage leading to sev- 
J fciK) apartments. 



GABLE END. Ths triangular end of a 
house, from the cornice or eaves tn ihe 
top. 

GADFLY. An insect which has a face 
re.senibling that of an a|)e. It defh-sits its 
eggs on tlie backs of horses and ui.^er 
cattle. 




OAGE. or GAUGE. An instniment for 
•seertainmg measures of diflTerent kinds, as 
lor measuring the stale of rarefaction in 
\ar a>r pvinp, or deteriiiinin)! toe vnrinlions 




GALLP.RY (amtm; .Minen). A long 
na.'row passage iiiiiler ground. 

GALLKRV(iii Korlificvilion). Acjivered 
walk .icro.ss a ditch in a besieged town, 
made of stnmg planks and covered with 
earth. It was formerly used for carrying 
a mine to the foot of the ramparts. Ft 
ought to he eigDt feet high and ten or 
twelve feel wide. The beams ought tob« 
half a foot thick. and planks nailed on«aci> 



GAL 

GALl^EY (ill Priming). A fraiiie into 
whicli llie compositor eiiiptiea liia Diick u» 
otleii as It H fillnd. 

GALL.HY (in iSbipbuiliiioc). A liuv 
built vessel, much Ui»eii id Ui« Mediterra- 
nean 



GAL 



167 




GALLEY-SLAVE. One coiuiemned 
oy way of pMnishment to work at the oar, 
to which he is chained, on board of a tpil- 
ley. 

GALL-FLY. An insect wliich produces 
the galls or excrescences on the branches 
and leaves of trees. 

GALLICISiM. A form of expression 
peculiar to the French. 

GALL NUTS, or (J ALLS. Excrescen- 
ces on trees, which are itcrasioiied by the 
gall-tlies. Tliose which coiiie on the oak, 
vulgarly called oak apples, are used ii> 
inakin<; ink, dyeiNg, and dressing leather. 
They are reprei^ented underneath. 




GALLOWAY. A kind of Scotch horse 
not more than fourteen hands high. 

GALVA.NIC BATTERY. An appara- 
tus which is employed in accumulating the 
electricity of galvanism by the mutual 
agencies of certain metallic and carbona- 
ceous substances and peculiar fluids. See 
Galvanism. Tliis battery, as represented 




andemeath, consists of pieces of ztnc, sil- 
•er, and wet cloth, dis{Hiscd m threes al- 



temntely, tn the number of twenty or thir- 
ty triplicates, as may be tliolialil projit^r. 

GALVA.N'1.-<.\I. A hranibut'tliir science 
of eleclricuy, lirst diM:iivi:ri-d accidentally 
by (ialvaui, a prulessor ol' iiologna, from 
whom It derives Us naiiiK. 'I'hls science 
treats uf the etrecl:< of applying metals to 
the nerves ami musi-lus of dead animals, 
whicli has been IuiiimI tu produce strong 
cuntraciioiis and cmivulsions. 'i'lie first 
observation on tins extraordinary eti'ect pf 
electricity was made in the lalmratory of 
M. (>alvaiii, when one of his assistants 
happened to bring tlit- point of his scalpel 
to the crural nerves <if a skiiine I frog lying 
near the conductor, upon which the mus- 
cles of the limb were agitated with strong 
convulsions. iMadunie Galvaiii, wlio was 
present at the lime, w;is struck with the 
circumstance, and communicated it in- 
stantly to M. Galvani, who rejiealed tbe 
exjieriinent, and found that the convulsion 
only took place when a spark was drawn 
from the conductor at the time the scalpel 
was III Contact with the nerve. Alter this, 
Galvani continued Ins experiments in vari- 
ous ways, and ascertained that the mere 
agency of metallic substances, provided 
they weredissimilar metals, would priMluce 
such coiiviilsiims. This subject engaged 
the altentiim of experimentalists both be- 
fore and after the death of M. Galvani, 
which happened in 1798 ; but none added 
any thing materially to his discovery ex- 
cept SI. Volla, who reiicated the e\perl- 
ineiits of the former, and found that when 
two pieces of metal of diflereiit kinds were 
placed ill ditlerent parts of an animal, and 
were either Ih-ouplu into contact or into 
connexion by means of a metallic arc, con- 
vulsions ensued everj- tin «, and thai this 
effecl w;is strongest wb'^n the metals were 
y.inc and silver, partlcul.'riy when several 
pairs of metals were eii'i>lo\ed, having 
pieces of moist cloth betweru them. This 
led him to the idea of constructing a Ixitte- 
ry, for the purpose of accumi/'ating elec- 
tricity, which lias since l>eeii called the 
galvanic battery, or Voltaic pile 

The apparatus first made b) Villa, in 
180(1, consisted of a certain number of pairs 
of zinc and silver plates, separateit from 
each other by pieces of wet cloth, in tbfl 
order of zinc, silver, wel cloth, ziiic, sil- 
ver, wet elotli, in regular succession. The 
silver plates were ri'i>-tly pieces of coins, 
the plates of zinc ami llie pieces of wet 
cloth boiiig of ">e s:ooc si/.r. He found 
This much more powt-rfo' "hen ihr piHcea 
fclotli wt-ri- iiiol>teiit-rt wiMl a si.iilliou o. 
omiiion still iMstfail xl pure watrr. and 
an appa>'atus ttius pre|iarca waa found la 



168 



CAN 



possess the power of giving a ver)' smart 
Bliuck, ■imilai' tu thai uf a 8iiiall electric 
jar ; and this ed'ect took place as often as 
a conimiinicatioii was iniide lietween each 
end of tlie pile, and as loiii! as the pieces 
of cloth remained moist: an iiiiproveiiieiii 
was made on this apiiaratiis liy Mr. Cruick- 
shank, of Woolwich, which was denomi- 
nated a galvanic trough, ami consists of a 
box of baked wood, in which plates of 
coQiNsr, or of silver and I'.iiu', soldered to- 
getlier at their edges, arr iriiieiiled in such 
a manner as to leave a iiiimber of water- 
tight cells, corresponding to the number of 
the series ; this serves to remedy (he defect 
of the Voltaic pile, wliiih. on account of 
the loss of moislnre, loses its electrical 
action in a few days ; hut by Mr. Cruick- 
shank's contrivance its activity may be 
renewed by filling the Cells with the proper 
saline iuid. 

GAMf^OOR. A yellow resinous sub- 
stance used by painters. It is the produce 
of a tree native of Ciuubogia or Cambaja, 
in I he East Indies. 

GAME. All sorts of birds and beasts 
that are objects of Ihe chase. The laws 
which in England particularly protect this 
sort of pro|ierty , are known by the name 
of the Game Laws By these laws certain 
qiialitirations of projierty are reipiired, to 
give a person the privilegeof being allowed 
to kill game : and [lenalties are iin|Mised on 
all pers4>ns who kill game, either without 
such qualihcalion or at inipro)ier seiisoiis ; 
likewise the sale of game is prohibited un- 
der every circumstance. Attempts have 
been repeatedly made in p;trliaineii( to 
procure a repeal, either wholly or in i>art, 
of these laws, which are thimght to be 
oppressive in their operation. 

GAME. Any sport or amusement which 
affords a subject of contest, and a display 
of skill or superiority. 

GAMECOCK. A cock bred to fight. 

GAMESTER. One who is viciously 
addicted to playing at games. 

GAMING. The wanton and extravagant 
playing at games for purposes of gain. 

GAMUT (in Music). The table or scale 
of notes laid down liy Guido, and marked 
by the monosyllables ui, re, mi, fa, sol, la ; 
also the first note in Ihe scale. 

GANG (among MannerH). A select num- 
ber of a ship's crew, appointed on any 
particular service. 

GANG A number of (lersons who go or 
ll*rd together for wicked piiriioxes. 

GAN(U.IO\t4. Hniall, hard, knotty tu- 
mours, formed uu the nervous and lendi- 
■uus parts 



GAR 

GANGRENE. A niortificatioa to iU 
first beginning. 

GAiNUWAY (among Mariners). The 
name of several wavs or tiassaces from one 
part of a ship to anoiner. 

G.\NNET. A large water bird, common 
on the coasts of iscolland. 

GANTLOPE, or GA.NTLET (in MUi- 
tary Affairs). An old punishment In whirh 
the criminal, running lietween the ranks, 
receives a lash from every man. 

GANNET. The solan goose, a northern 
sea-towl, allied to the pclii-au, and be- 
longing to tha same genua with tue 
booby. 

GANOIDI.\NS. An ortler of fishes 
having angular scales, covered witli 
bright enamel, as the sturgeon. 

G.\NGUE. The mineral substance 
■which encloses any metallic ore in the 
vein; protogene granite. 

GAU.\GAY. A rapacious bird of Mexico. 

GARANCINE. An extract of madder 
by means of sulphuric acid. 

GARDEN. A plot of ground enclosed 
and cultivated with extraordinary care, 
and furnished with the fine kinds of 
plants and rtowers, for pleasure and use. 

GARDEiN'ING. The process ol tilling 
a garden and keeping it in order. 

GARDENING, History of. Gardening 
IS one of those domestic arts so essentially 
connected with the refined enjoyments of 
mankind, that with a garden has ever been 
a.sKociated every idea of cultivation and 
pure pleasure. From Holy Writ we learn 
that our first parents, before their fall, 
passed their lives in a garden, and their 
posterity, allhough, according tu the denun- 
ciatimi of their Maker, doomed to till the 
ground with the sweat of their brow, never- 
theless have at all times endeavoured to 
sweeten their labour by bringing home to 
themselves the enjoyments of cultivation 
within the narrow circle of their own 
hahitatKm. The accounts of gardens among 
the ancients are confined to those of princes 
or great men, as the garden of Solomon 
and the garden of Alcinous the Pha;acian 
king, which is minutely described by 
Homer in his Odyssey. The hanging gar- 
dens of Babylon, particularly spoken of 
by Diodorus and StraUo, may be reckoned 
among the wonders of art. Each side ex- 
tended four hundred feet, so that the area 
of the ba.se was nearly an acre. They rose 
with terraces, constructed one above ano- 
ther, and 8U|i|M>rted with pillars to the 
hetcht of four hundred feet. These ter- 
races were formed of stone, covered with 
reeds, and ceiiirnled with bitumen, over 
which was laid a double row of briclta, 



GAR 

•nd then a luynr of eanh of iiiffirlent 
•".eiitli fur |il:iiit:» lo spiw in 11. Tli« I'er- 
•.iaii kiiij!!t also ili.-i|ilaye<l tlipir iii:i;;nili- 
cence in tlieir Kardt-na, winch they took 
cart- should coiiiaiii all that U':u< imRfiil as 
vtll ;is beautiful. Tlirir irt-t- s wrrf ninged 
in Mtraijihl liiics and rt-uiilar hsinriw. and 
the Miarglns of the walks were iiMcd with 
•..fts of roses, viofets, and other iHlKrileroiis 
J.iwers. Firs and planes were their fa- 
vourite trees. 

The (Jreeks apjiear to have derived their 
ideas of jpirdeiiing from the Persians, if 
we inayjndj'e troni the alliisuiiis of writers 
to this subject. Xeno|ilioii particularly 
ndiiiires the garden of Cyrus at Pardis. 
The narcissus, the violet, the rose, the ivy, 
the pines, ami other plants chosen by the 
Persians, either for their beauty or their 
fragrance, were the theme of praise among 
the (Grecian poets anil philnsnphers. They 
also ronsiilled shade, fresh liree/.es, and the 
beauties of verdant .scenery, iis we learn 
from the vale of Teiiijie described by 
/l-^lian, and the shady proves of .Alliens 
described by rintarcli. With the l>eiiulies 
j( iiaiure they also a.s.siicialed those of art, 
particularly ouch as derived an interest 
from their reli!:ioiis or social attachiueiit>i. 
Hence we find that their gikrdeiis were 
deiMiratcd with temples or altars dedicated 
to ilieir gods, or the tombs of their ances- 
tors i>r of great men whnse iiieinory they 
held ilear. Their favourite fruits were the 
vine, the fig, the tuinieiiranale, and tlie 
melon. 

The first jpirden nieiitnmed anions the 
Komans is that of Tiir<piiiiins Sii|K-rbiis, 
\»'.ich alHiiinded with dowers.cliutly ro-ses 
and (Hippies. As the Koinaii people exten- 
ded their conquests, and their intercourve 
with other nations became nnire frequent, 
tliey increased in luxurious and ex|ieiisive 
indulgences, which Ihey displayed in the 
decorations of their pardens. I^iiciilliis, the 
conqiieriK of .Mithridates, who introduced 
frmii Asia the cherry, the pe.-ich. and the 
apricot, first pave the Komans a sjiecimen 
of .Asiatic "randeur, in his garden near 
Biiia;, ih Aaples, whicli was remarkable 
fiir pDidisiuus works of art, as artificial 
nioiintains, imnien.se pieces of water, and 
numerous costly eiiibellishiiients. 'I'his 
gave that lone of artificiality to the Roman 
gardens which was for so many centuries 
aOer retained in Eiirii|ie. Slii|ie8, terraces, 
a wilderness, shrubs methodically trimmed 
or cut into certain shafies, a marble basin, 
artificial fountains, or a cascade falling into 
tlie 'lasin, bay trees alternately planted 
•v.tb planes, a strai<:hi walk, from which 
tsitiied others, parted >>trby hedges of box, 
15 



GAS 



169 



and apple trees, wiih olielisks placed be- 
tween every two; these were the incrcdi- 
enls of a ilnman garden, as described by 
Pliny the yoniiuer. In which was wanted 
nothing hill the decoriition of a parterre to 
make a garden in the reign of 'I'mjan to 
serve for a description of one in the seven- 
teenth Century A more correct taste in 
the art ol ifardening has obtained within 
the la.sl century. Nature now derives 
every (HLSsible a.<si8tani e from art, without 
lo.sing any Ihingof her simplicity 

U.ARLAiNli. An ornanieiit of flowen 
made for the head ur other piirpises. 

(iARL.ANl) (aiiioii!! .Manners). A collar 
of ro|>e wound up -Uioiii tlie head of a 
main mast, to k- ri> the shrouds from 
galling. 

UAIILIC. A bulbous root, consisting <if 
many small tubercles included in :is coitls 
It has a strong smell and ait acrid taste, 
but is much used for food. 

(J.ARN lO'J". A .sort of carbuncle, so called 
from Its red colour, resembling tlie seed of 
a iHimegr.inate. 

GAKMSH.MK.NT (in Uiw). A warning 
given to any one for his ap|iearaiice in 
court. 

UARRET. The uppermost floor in a 
lioiise. 

UARRISDN. A place of defence occu- 
pied by triMips ; also the troops themselves. 

OARTliR. A haiidage for the leg. 

OAR'I'KK (in Mrraldo). The principal 
badge of the highest order of knlghlhood 
in England called the most Noble 
Orriei of the (Jarter. 

UARTKR KIM; at ARMS. The chief 
of the three kings at arms. 

G.ARTEK, Orokr of the. In England, 
an order of knights instituted by Edward 
III. which consists of twenty-six knights 
companions. The habit and ensigns of 
this order are the garter, mantle, cap, and 
collar. The badge of the order is the im- 
age of Saint George, called the George. 

(<AS. A chuniical term derived from 
the German geist, spirit, denoting an elas- 
tic aerial fiiiid, of which there are difterent 
kinds, some lieing acid, as carbimic acid ; 
some alkalies, as ammonia, &.c. 

(i.A.S LIGHT. Light produced by gas 
burning in lamps, &e. This gas, which is 
a combination of oxygen and hydrogen, is 
carried away by pipes and burnt at the 
orifice of escape. It is produced either 
from pit coal or whale oil. 1'he process 
for producing coal gas is as follows. Tha 
coal, being broken to a convenient sice, is 
placed in oblong cast iron retorts, ranged 
in furnaces to keep them at a red heat, 
' and all the volatile products are convejre4 



170 



GAT 



by a common tube into a condensinR 
vexHel, which is kept cool by lieln;; iiii- 
nl«^r^i«(1 in V Iter. In the coiidt^iiser ire 
reiaiiifd ihe wat«*r, tar, and other con- 
dt^iisible vaiMiiirs, wliile Ihe giist^oiis pro- 
ducts, iiiiiiicly, the carhiiretted hydrogen, 
theKiiijihiireUed hydro{ieii,aii(l thecarhoiiic 
oiyde anil acid are passed ttiroiijjii strata 
or slaked lime, hy which the sulphuretted 
liydrojieii and carlMniic gases are ahsorbed, 
and the carhuretled hydro(,'en and hydro- 
gen gases In their purified slate are Inins- 
niitted into the i!a.soiiieters, troin which the 
several pipes are supplied tlial convey the 
gas to the lamps. The best kind of coal 
for distillation is that which contains most 
bitumen and least sulphur. 

Aflerthe discovery orotitairiinc gasfroni 
coal, attempts were made to extract it 
from oilier sulistanies. The method of pro- 
cu/iii>; it from oil is said to have originated 
in an attempt made in 1814 to convert coal 
tar Into eas. Since tlial period, numerous 
works have been constnn led for the max- 
nfacture of oil gas, whii h, in Ihe opinion 
Iff many, is preferable to the coal gas. 

G.ASOiMKTKR, or GA/(i.VIEI"EK. A 
reservoir f'-' holding a c<insiderable ipian- 
tity of gas. It Is made of thin liniied iron 
plate, and mostly provided with some 
contrivance for measuring the quantity of 
gas it contains. 




GASTRIC JUICE. A fluid separated 
Oy the capillary vessels of the stomach, 
and serving as the principal solvent of the 
food. This juice in a healthy subject is 
inodorous, of a saltish taste, and limpid 
like water. 

GA'l'E. A moveable part of a fence, 
made of wood or iron. Gates with five 
•r six bars, large enough to admit of cartji 




parsing through, are most commonly em- 
ployed in fences for parting offtielda. 



GEM 

GAVELKI.N'D. A tenure or cn.nom li 
Kent in England, whereby the lands of 
the father were divi led eipially at Ilia 
dealti among his sons. 

GAUGIN'ti. The art of measuring the 
capacities of all kinds of vessels. 

(;ArN'l'LKT, An iron glove for ih« 
hand, which was formerly u.-rd in single 
combat. It is borne in coat armour, as It 
the annexed figure. 




GAUZE. A very thin sort of silk 

GAZELLE. A beautiful species of th« 
Antelope frequently alluded to, in Persian 
poetry. 

G.^ZETTE. A newspaper; particularly 
that published by authority. The firs 
Gazette in England was published in 1663 
at Oxford, where the court then was 

GAZETTEER. A writer or publishe 
of a Gazette; also the title of a geographi 
cal dictionary. 

GELATINE, or Jellt. An animal sub 
stance, soluble in water, and capable of 
assuming an ela.stic or tremulous consist- 
ence when cooled, and liquifying again 
by the application of heat. 

GEM. A precious stone; or a sort of 
siliceous earth, consisting of silica uiid 
alumina, with a small portion of lime and 
oxydr of iron. The gem is remarkable 
for its hardness and internal lustre. l,'n<ler 
this name is comprehended the dianioml, 
ruby, sajiphire, hyacinth, beryl, garnet, 
chrysolite, &.c. To these have been added 
rock crystals, the finer fiiiitsof|>ebbles, Ihe 
cat's eye, the ociilns niundi, the chalcedo- 
ny, the moon stones, the onyx, the corne- 
lian, the sardonyx, agate, &c. 

The imitation of antique gems, by taking 
the impressions and figures upon Ihem, in 
gla.ss of the colour of the original gem, or 
on sealing wax or brimstone, has been 
pracMsedat ditferent times by persons who, 
in respect to the first method of taking 
them on gliuts, have kept Ihe art to them- 
selves, and suffered It to die with them 
Rut the process adopted by Mr. Ilomberg 
which has also been commiinicaled by hir., 
to the world, is highly esteemed for tha 
perfection to which he has brought the art 
From the engraved gems of the king'f 
cabinet, he took such exact resemblance! 
of tiu originals as sumeliiuea to decciv* 



fiEN 

the nicest judges, who mistm)k them fnrtha 
tru'' antii|iie stones. His iiiethod consists 
in takin<! tlie rmpression of tiie t;em in a 
very (ine earth, and then conveying the 
ini|ire«8ioii from tlie earth t.> a piece of 
half inelleii glu.ss. 

GEMINI, the Twins. A coiiiflellKtion. 
Uld !>ign in the Z'xlctr, innrkeil lliui LI- 

UEN. An abbreviation for (ieneral and 
Genesis. 

GENDARMES, or GENS D'AR.ME.S. 
A select body of soldiers in the French 
irmy, who are now much employed by 
the (Hilice. 

GENDER (in Grammar). A distinction 
in nouns to ir.ark the sexes; Keiideis are 
either masculine, for the male sex; femi- 
nine, for the female sex; or neuter, for 
those which are of neither sex. 

GE.N'EALOGY. A series or succession 
of ance.-'tors; also an account of the rela- 
tions and alliances of any person or family. 

GENERAL (in .Milaary Affairs). An 
jfficer in chief, to whom tlie roiniimnd of 
troops is iu'.riisted; also a particular beat 
of drum in the morning, tw give notice to 
the foot to march. 

GENERALISSIMO. The supreme gene- 
ral or commander in chief of an army. 

GE.NERAL ISSUE (In Law). That plea 
which traverses or denies at once the whole 
declaration or indictment. 

GENERAL OPKIOERS. All officers 
above the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the 
line. 

GENERATING (Jn Geometry). A tenn 
for a tine or fiirure, which by ila motion 
produces any other figure. 

GENERIC t:HARACTER (in Natural 
History). The character which dlstiii- 
gnishes the genera or general kinds of 
plants, animals,. Slc. from each other. 
This character belongs to all the species 
of the same genus or kind. 

GENERIC NA.ME (in Natural History). 
The name of any genus or kind of animal, 
plant, or mineral. I'his name can be de- 
Bcrihert only by describing the generic 
character. 

GEJVET. An animal of the weasel kind, 
resembling the civet cat in its musk smell. 

GENEVA. See Giw. 

GE.NITIVE CASE. The second ca.se in 
I^atin and Greek nouns, which denote pos- 
lession. It <« marked in English by a with 
»n apnstro.me, thus ('s). 

G E.N II. Good or evil spirits, much 
tboiighl of in the ea.stern nalions. The 
Tales of the Genii profess to give an ac- 
count of their proceedings and dealings 
nixh Jiankind. 

GGN'TILES. A name given by the Jews 



GEO 



171 



ui an who were not of the twelve tribes of 
Israel: anxHig Christians, it' is the name of 
all heathens who did not embrace Iha 
Christian faith. 

GE.NTLE.MAN. Anciently, one above 
the state of a yeoman. 

GE.NTRV (in Law). Theorderand rank 
ofi:eiitleinen,descended from ancient faiiii- 
lies, that had always borne coat armour. 

GEN'l'UO. A native of lliiidostan. 

GENUS 'in Natural History). A sub 
division of a class or order of natural ob 
jecls, animal, vegetable, or mineral, an4 
having under ildirterenlspeciesor variety 

GENUS (among Logicians;. That whirll 
is conimon to a number of individuals; tho 
sunimum genua, or highest genus, is that 
which apfiertains to the greatest number 
ofindividiials, as substance, which belongs 
to all material. 

GEiXJKNTRIC. Reing concentric with 
the earth, wr having the earth for its centre; 
a term applied to a planet in its <irbil. 

GEOGRAI'lllCAL MILE. The 60th 
part of a degree. 

GEtKJRAI'llY. The science which 
treats of the earth as an habitable world, 
compreheiHlini! a description of the whole 
globe, lugelher with an account of all its 
parts, limits, inhabitunts, &.c. Geography 
is either general or particular. General 
geography comprehends the knowledge of 
the earth in general, and the affections 
romiiKiii to the whole globe, as its figure, 
magnitude, niotioiis, circles, winds, tides, 
meteors, divisions into land and water, 
&c. Particular geognipliy has respect tu 
particular countries, showing their boun- 
daries, figure, climate ,sea.s<ms, inhabitants, 
arts, customs, language, history , &.c. When 
it respects regions, distrnts, or parts of 
countries, it is called < horography, and 
when particular cities, towns, or villages, 
&c. it is called topograpliy. Particiilai 
geography isal.->odistiiiguislie(l into ancient 
geography, when it treiits of the coutrtrits 
and places existing among the ancients, 
modern geography, when it treats of mo 
dern places; the geography of the middle 
ages, which treatsof places that flourished 
in the middle ages ; and la-^tly, sacred 
geography, which treats of places men- 
tioned in the Bible. 

The earth, considered as a planet, U 
supposed to be marked by circles corres- 
ponding to those wUicb the sun apparently 
describes in the heavens, as the borixon, 
which divid 'S the sphere into two pnrtl 
or hemispheres, the one upper and visittie 
the other lower and invisible, the cqnalor 
which Is equidistant fmm both the pules, 
and divides the globe into nurlheni and 



172 



CEOGRArHY. 



•oiilliem hcmiaph^rps: thevriiniilh, or ver- 
tK.Hl circlr!s, wliii'.lj iiilerKecl «ui:li titlieriit 
tliH /.eiiilli aiiil iiiiJir; Ihr iiirri.liiiii, which 
crosses ihe fijiiulor al riifht atiglc^K, and 
from wliich Uie distniice i<( pact-s ejist and 
west is reckoned ; tht^ (lanillfU of latitude, 
small circles sn|iposed ti> lie parallel to 
liie equatiir, whidi slmw the laiitiide of 
places, or their distance iinrlli and south 
fnin the equator •, the arctic and antarctic 
e:rs!e«, two i irclen at the diiitance of twen- 
ty three degrees and a half from the north 
ktid south |iole8; the two tropics, namely, 
Ifio tropic of Cancer and the tropic of 
I'apricorn, the first north and the second 
south, twenty-three degrees and a half dis- 
tant from the equator; to these mi^ht be 
added the hour circles, or the twenty-four 
circles passing throimh the equator, and 
corres[K>Mdiiig to ihe twenty-four liours uf 
the day 

Krom the diversity in the lenirth of the 
days and iilgliLs, aeogmphers divide the 
globe into certain districLs, called climates, 
inexsiired either hy hours or half hours ; 
and from the effects of light and heat upon 
the earth in different ptrts, it is distin- 
guished into five zones, namely, one torrid 
or liurniiig /one, between the tropics; two 
feniperale, between Ihe polir circles and 
I lie tropics; two frigid or frozen 7.(mea, 
between the polar circles and the poles. 
The inhabitants of the earth, as to their 
rel itive situation in regard to each other, 
are distinguished into the antipodes, who 
live directly opp<isite to each other; the 
antoeci. who live under the same meridian, 
but opposite parallels of latitude; the pe- 
rioecl, who live under the same parallels 
of latitude, but opposite meridians. 

'I'he earth is uaturally divided into land 
and water, and according to some omipu- 
iatiuns about three-fourths of it is occupied 
by water, and the remaining fourth by 
land. Ihe land is distinguished intocon- 
ti'.ents, or large portions not separated by 
any sea, a.« the four great continents, Ku- 
njftf., Asia, Africa, and America, which 
an: the fuurquartersof the world; islands, 
■mailer [Hirtions, entirely surrounded by 
water, a.« Great EJritain, Ireland, &c.; 
peninsulas, or tracts of land almost sur> 
rounded by water, as the Morea, in Greece; 
nllimuses, or necks of land joining two 
tontiiienl4, as the isthinusof Suez, joining 
Africa to Asia; promontories, or capes, 
ligli portions of land stretching out into 
Ule sea, as flie Cape of GiHid llo|ie; moiin- 
lains, or elevations of the earth's surface, 
•ocb as the .Mjis and Pyrenees iii r.uro|)e, 
Jm CaiiciiMtt* and L'raliaii. Mountains in 



.Asia, and the Ai.des in .America. 'rh« 
water is disliiignished iiitr> oceans, which 
are vjist collections which separate the 
continents from each other, ;u« the I'acific 
and Atlantic Oceans; se:is, or sinaller col- 
lections of water, as the Indian Sea, HIack 
Sea, &.C.; gulf's, parts of any sea surrounded 
nearly with land, as the Gulf of Venice, 
if they have a wide entnmce they are hays, 
as the liay of Biscay; straits, narrow pas- 
sages joining two ^eas, as the btrait of 
Gibraltar; lakes, lu |e collections entirely 
surnmndcdby laMU,aslhe Lake of Geneva; 
rivers, streams of w.iter which have their 
source in some spring, and empty them- 
selves into some other river or piece of 
water. 'I'he principal rivers, as to their 
m.'icnitiides, ar" the .Aiiia/.i>n ir^negal, 
iNile,!?t. I^awieiire, La I'lata, Mississippi, 
Volga, Oronooko, (langes, Kiiplirates, iJa- 
nube, Don, Indus, Dnieper, and llwina, 
but if estimated according to the length of 
course which they run, their order will be 
nitlier ditferent, hut the Amazon is the 
largest in every respect. 

The earth is politically divided into 
coun tries, w Inch, accord lug to their govern- 
ment, are distinguished into empires, if 
they are of great e.vtent, as the Itnssian 
and .Austrian empires; or kingdoms, as 
the kingiloms of Great Britain, Spain, 
A:e., or Republic's as tUo Uuitei States, 
Mexi(;o, F^au(^e, *:<■., or States aa 
Holland, Netherlands, &c., under 

this head geography treats of the subdi- 
visions of each country into provinces, 
cities, towns, Ace; also of the number of 
inhabitants, the nature and produce of the 
soil, the animals peculiar to each place, 
the state of the arts, niaiiiifactures, com- 
merce, &c. which constitute the wealth of 
each country, and is comprehended under 
the name of statistics. 'I ualt this may be 
added an acco>iiit of curiosities, natural 
andartilicial, as V(ilcanoes,cavern3, canals, 
springs, fountains, and the like. liesides 
geogniphy treats not only of the earth'i 
surface, but also of the affections which it 
is exposed to from the waters of the ocean 
which produce the flux and reflux of the 
tide, and the currents belonging tu par- 
ticular seas, as in the Mediterranean and 
Euxinesea^; likewise of the winds which 
blow in iKirticiilar manners and directions, 
such as the moiisiions.or trade winds, which 
blow for some months in the yeiir one 
way and the rest another; and, Lastly, the 
meteorological peculiarities of each coun- 
try, such as regards the degree of beat and 
cold, the quantity nf rain which falls \r 
particular places, ir within a given peril J 



(JEocRAPinr 



ITS 



the duratlnn of frrwtg, and oth^r pnrtjciilars 
r<>«|M*ctiiig ilir cliiiiiiip, anil iueirecb<upnn 
the siirniiiiiiliiii; olijecta. 

<leogrM|iliiriil <li-.srri)itiiiii!i are moreover 
.llii!<traied liy eiierHved^lflitieiilion:^, which 
when they re(ire.seiil an iiceiin, sea.r.f aay 
piere <if waler, is called a chart, but when 
they represent any parts of the earth gene- 
rally are termed maps. In all map.'' the 
nxrth iH a( the lop and the gotilh at the 
botlcim, the east on the right and the west 
on tlie left. Maps are always laid down 
acc<>rdin<! to a certain scale, taken from 
the degrees of latitude which are marked 
on tlie eiisi and west side of the map, 
those of longitude being marked on the 
Borth and south side. As the earth is a 
glolie, a map of the whole earth must 
necessarily consist of I wo parts, both sides 
of the globe not being visible ,it once; 
accordingly in a universal map the right 
hand circle shows the old world, that is, 
Europe, Asia, and Africa, and the left 
hand circle the new world, or America. 
Upon the e'nsra' "''il' ire marked the 
circles correspondent to those of the sphere, 
as the equator, &.c. Particular maps, be- 
ing parts of this globe, retain the meridians 
and parallels belonging to the particular 
part, which are made smaller or larger 
according to the si/.e of the map, and the 
distance of the places mentioned are pro- 
portioned to the breadth of the parallels as 
nearly as they can be. 

In maps ihe sea is denoted by an open 
space, the thick shadowing denotes the sea- 
coast, rivers are marked by shadowed ser- 
pentine lines, if large by double and treble 
lines made stronr and black, roads by 
double lines,divi$ionsofcouiiiries by dotted 
Hues, and sometimes distinct colours, those 
for kingdoms and provinces being larger 
than the rest; forests are represented by 
trees, mountains by rising shadows, sands 
by dotted beds, lakes by shadowed coasts, 
rocks by (Hiinled things sticking up sharp 
in the sea, the course of the winds by 
arrows. The namesot villagesare written 
in a running hand, those ol towns in a 
Roman character, those of cities in small 
eapiuals, and those of provinces in large 
i:apitals. Cities ot jreat towns are made 
like small houses, with a little circle in the 
middle of them, but smaller towns or 
Tll!a{esare marked only with little circles; 
briCjes by a double line acruss the river. 
In •OHIO maps, particularly old maps, cities, 
as the sees of bishops, were marked with 
a cross or initre, and those of archbisho|is 
with a double cross, universities with a 
(tar or a caduceus, abbeys wilh a crook or 
pastoral stulf ''vtresses with an angle, as 
'#• 



of a bastion . castles with a little flag, jentl»- 
men'x seats with a sincle house only, &.c 
The upparalusciilled tlie terrestrial globa, 
has a complete niapof tlieearlli ilrawn on 
its surface, with the seieral im;igiiiar)r 
circles, and is mori-over lilted to illurttrute 
the movements of tiie earth as a planet, 
the latitudes, longitudes, and distances of 
places, the hours of day and night in 
different part, with a nuuilwr uf utlier in- 
teresting problems. 

GEOGRAPHY, llnToRT or. The study 
of geography, as far as it was connected 
with or depended upon asiroiiomy, in all 
probability began and kept |>ace with it. 
Thales, the Grecian astrcuionier, construct- 
ed a globe, representing the land and sea 
upon a table, which art he derived from 
the Egyptians, among whom ma|is weie 
ill use even as early as the days of Sesostris. 
Thisconi|ueror is said to have represented 
in this manner the coni|uesis he made and 
thecountrieshemarched through. 'I'ballhe 
Israelites practised the art of geography at 
an early period is clear I'nun the accouiil 
we have in ;^ripliire of Joshua having 
sent men to walk through the land of 
Canaan, which they described in seven 
parts, in a book. The first map amotig 
the Greeks on record is that of Anaxi- 
mander, which is probably referred to bv 
liipparchus, under the designation of '.oe 
anrienl map. Geographical descri' liona 
were, however, prior to this, for th. works 
of Homer abound with the names of places 
and an account of several particulars re- 
specting them. The first professed writer 
on the subject of geography wa.s Scylai, if 
the author of the Perlpliis now extant h« 
the same as the philosopher of that name 
mentioned by Herodotus. Herodotus the 
historian has interspersed his work with a 
minute geographical description of the 
places which occur In the course of his 
narrative; and geographical notices are also 
to be found scattered in the writings of 
Thucydidesand Xenophon. The coni|uests 
of Alexander doubtless increased the de- 
sire to know more of the ba>iitable world, 
which that prince encouraged by sending 
Nearchiis on a voyage of discovery in the 
Red Sea, a description of which is still 
extant. About the same time flourished 
the geographer Dicearchus, of whose 
works some frtigments remain. 

Eratosthenes is said to have been tb» flrsi 
who attempted to reduce the science of geo- 
graphy to a system, by the application of 
astronomical principles. He introduced a 
regular parallel of latitude, which began 
at the ?traits of Gibraltar, and proceeded 
I through the isle of Khodes lu tha mouB 



174 



GEOGRAPHY. 



uiiif»< fif Tnrtia, noting all the places it 
p:iyM-il ihriiiigh. He (lr«-w lliis piirHllel not 
by ilir sitiiiRiiess uf the liititiide, but by 
oliHt^rviiig wliere Ihe longest day was fonr- 
tt^rii hours and a half, whjcli Mipparchus 
•llervvurds found to be tliirty-six. Erutos- 
tliene'i also drew maps of the countries 
tben known, with as much accuracy as 
his scanty information would eaalHe him, 
but Iliey contanifd little Hiore than an 
imperfect representation of the states of 
(ireece and the dominions of Alexander's 
successors, lie was ignorant, as Strabo 
informs us, of (Jaiil, Spain, Germany, 
Kritain, Italy, and the coast uTt he Adriatic, 
and had only a faint idea of the western 
parts of Knrope. Hipparclius improved 
ii|nin the labours of Eratosthenes, and de- 
teriiilned bmli the latitudes and longitudes 
fniiii celestial observations. 

Unilerthe Uonian emperors geography 
acquired au iuireasing interest, from the 
perpetual accessions which were made by 
oiriipipst to the empire. Accordingly, we 
find the number of geographical writers 
to lie ;,Teatly increiised, and their writings 
to lie mure correct and particular. Besides 
r'(im|KiMiu» .Mela, who, in his Cosmogra- 
pliia, has given a neat and comprehensive 
arcoiiiit of the known world, and Diony- 
sJiis Periiieles, who has written a system 
01 i;eo!;r;iphy in verse, Stnibo has left a 
Work on this subject which, in |)oiiit ot 
mctliodii'wl arraiigenient and extent of in- 
fonuatKin, exceeded any thing that had 
b»-(-n hitherto published. This was fol- 
lowed, after the interval of more than a 
C4-iitiiry, by the great work of Ptolemy on 
tlii-i niibjert, in the execution of xvhlch he 
took nsiroiioiny to his aid for determining 
the ditiiatlon of places. Me ftxed the lati- 
tuiles and longitudes of all the principal 
placet* III the known world, and expressed 
litem in degrees, after the manner of Hip- 
parclius, making his calciilatimis from the 
[.••.jdvrtions of the gnomon to its shadow, 
as olnterved by ditferent astronomers at the 
time of the eipiinoxes and solstices, and 
dediireit fniiii these the length of the loiig- 
esi days. He also measured and computed 
the distances of the principal roads men- 
tioned in the ditferent surveys and itine- 
raries which had been made at different 
times by order of the emperors, ami com- 
pared Ihein with such reports as he could 
gather from travellers. In this manner did 
Plnleniy execute his system of geography. 
Which, as a work of science, has deserved- 
ly held the first rank among the works of 
tlie ancients, and, considered as the labour 
of one man, wa.« nerer surpassed, and 
•caicely « -er pi]iialled 



With the exception of the Geographic* 
Dictionary of Stephanus Byzaiitinini, Id 
the hfth and sixth ceiitiiries, and the scat 
tered geographical notices interspersed in 
the works of the Byzantine Instorians, the 
subject of geography was neglected until 
the thirteenth century, when John Sucro 
de Boeco published his treatise on the 
sphere, which contained an account of the 
earth as far as it was connected with the 
doctrine of the sphere. Nothing farther 
was dune towards the advancement ol'this 
science until the discovery of the .N'ew 
World, when geographical knowledge re- 
ceived continual accessions by new dis- 
coveries, and the spirit of investigation and 
research which they awakened. 

During the last twenty-five years, 
many discoveries have beeu made and 
knowledge accumulated. D'Urville.Ross, 
Kane, Hayes, and others have made 
etreuuous eftorts to penetrate the polar 
continent, and added largely to our 
knowledge of the arctic regions. The 
travels and explorations of Burton, 
Speke, Livingston and Stanley, in Africa, 
have left little to be known regarding 
this vast Continent. 

GEOCOKIS.E. A family of Hymenop- 
terous insects with very loug antenuaa 
inserted between the eye.i. 

GEOCEONITE. A lead-grey ore of an- 
timony and lead. 

OEOGYCLIC. EncircUug the earth 
periothcally. 

GEOLE. In mineraiogy, a rounded 
nodule ot stone coutaiuing a small cav- 
ity, Uned tisually with crystals. 

GEODESY. That part of pra<tical ge- 
ometry which has for its object tlie 
determination of the magnitude and 
figure either of ihe whole carta or of 
any given portion ofits sur.ace. 

GEOGNOSY. That part of natural 
history which treats of the structure of 
the earth. The same with geology. 

GEOGONY. The doctrine of the for- 
mation of the earth. 

GEOMAIJCY. A kind of pretended div- 
ination by means of figures or lines. 

GEOLOGY. That part of natural phil- 
osophy which treats of the formation i 
and structure of the earth beneath it« 
surface, and the changes it has under- 
gone. Geology is the history of the 
primeval conditions of our planet, as 
illustrated in the monuments of change 
which exhibit themselves on and be- 
neath the surface of the earth. It is, in 
fact, the great history of Nature, which 
classifies, by means of existing monu- 
ments, tlio various rocks and strata of 
the earth's crust, according to their 
comparative ages, and treats of the dif- 
ferent racesoi animals and i)lant8 which 
characterise the mundane formations 
or systems deposited by water during 
the lapse of countless ages. The 
study of seology having been vxoai 



nEOi.ouv. 



KS 



eflin-tiially piirsuprt by inquiring into llie 
stritt'liirr ut' niiiuiituiiiii, ii lioa been un tliat 
acomia likrwiKR dt»i|:rialed by Itle iiaaie 
of urytiilhiolufcy. .Munnuiiiis have been 
found U\ grolugtsts to consist, at a consid- 
eroble dtipih, uf 8tnt;< teuiilarly disp<ised, 
whicti have tiecu classed under llie heads 
ol' t!raiiile, gneiss, mica slate, clay slate, 
pniiiitive liiiiesume, primitive trap, ser|ien- 
tiiie porphyry, syenite to(Kiz, quartic rock, 
primitive Hiiity slate, primitive g>psum. 
These are allocetlier deiiumiiiated primi- 
tive rucks, which have iiu organic remains, 
and ap|>ear t4i have been uiiilisturhed. But 
in ttie >".rala above these there are evident 
■igiis of violent fractures caused by the 
action of waters. In this manner valleys 
nave been excavateil, and a separation 
thus occasiimed in stnila that unce evi- 
dently foriueil one contiiniuus range. Such 
water-worn fragments have, I'runi Ihe cause 
of their existence, been denomiuated dilu- 
vium, to distinguish tliem from other de- 
bris produced by causes still in operation, 
each as the alluvium or the accession to 
lands by inundatiuns,torrent8, and the like, 
as also the vulcanic rocks formed by the 
eru|itioiisof mounlains. Besides the rocky 
fragments and insulated hills above meii- 
lioncd, the strata above these primitive 
rocks contain also organic remains. In 
those immediately above, called transition 
rocks, fossil remains of comls and shells 
are found in small ((tiantities, as also iti 
the carboniferous limestone that lies next 
to these rocks. The coal strata, which 
folluw, abound with vegetable remains uf 
ferns, flags, reedsof unknown species, and 
large trunks of succulent plants, which are 
altogether unknown either in description 
or ill nature. Above the coals are beds 
containing corals and shells, which, like 
those in thesiratalielnvv, are characterized 
by this peculiarity, that in some places 
llley are to be found in families, and that 
iu other places there will be found beds of 
marine shells in one layer, and thuc^e pe- 
culiar to fresh water in another layer, 
resting one over the other in alternate 
succession. In the highest of the regular 
•trata, railed the crag, will be found the 
ibells at present existing in the same coast, 
Unl, lastly, over aJI these strata Is a cover- 
ing of gravel, which is remarkable for 
eontaining the remains of numerous quad- 
rupeds, as the iKJiies, horns, teeth, shells, 
•cale8,&c. These animals are forthe most 
jwrt either foreign to the climates where 
their remains an found, or they are of a 
larger size than any now kimwii. or they 
•re altogether ditfrrwiil fr nil any species 
M animal hillierto kuuwa rr meutiuiied. 



Among those anlmaltn whose remains have 
l>eeii found in countries far disuint fron 
the places which Ihey inhabit are the ele- 
phant and the rhinoceros, nuiueroiis lu- 
mains of which have been fmiud in Eng- 
land, France, Germany, lial>, and otiier 
paria of Europe, but still more in Siberia, 
where, throughout the wholeextent uf that 
country, there is scarcely a river or a silore 
in which have not been found the bones of 
elephants and otlier annuals. Near the 
river VVillioni, in the eastern p;trl of t-ilie- 
na, has lieen dug up i. rhinoceros still |n« 
dessing (he skin, I'at, and muscles ; and 
fossil ivory has been procured in immense 
quantities in the countries nearest to the 
arctic circle. So niiinerousare the remains 
that have already been dug up, as to form 
immense collections in the cabinets of iIk. 
great, particularly in that of the Prince of 
Hesse Uarmsuidt and the Elector of .Maii- 
heim. Naturalists have also been enabled, 
in part, to ascertain tlie species of these 
animals, at least as far ;is regards the rhi- 
noceros, which is of the double horned 
kind J but in regard to the elephantine re- 
mains, although very numerous, it is not 
so certain whether they are of any known 
species or otherwise. As to the animals 
diflferiiig in size from those of their own 
Species at present, Ireland furnishes s|)eci- 
inens of deer that have been dug up of an 
extraordinary magnitude ; and in Scotland. 
a kind of oxen h:is been found bigger than 
the largest species existing at present. Of 
animals altogether unknown, bulli )>nrth 
and South America, and other parts, fur- 
nish several examples, as the mammoth, 
the mastodon, and othernameless aniinaU 
of a prodigious size. 

This remarkable fact, of Uia fossil re- 
mains of animals, did not esca|>e the notice 
of the ancients, for Xeiiophanes, above four 
hundred years before the Christian era, 
is said to have discovered the remains of 
■ome marine animals imbedded in rtK'ks, 
from which he absurdly inferred the 
eternity of the world. Herodotus also 
ascertained the existence of fossil shells, 
from which, with much greater reason, he 
was led to conclude that the sea had oiice 
occupied those parts. Also in the pyra- 
mids, the stones were found to contain ibe 
remains uf animals, of which there existed 
in his time no corresponding s|iecies. 
Slralm, who saw these frag/nents of stone 
lying about the pyramids, bHik them to lia 
petrified lentils, that hail l«^n used by the 
workmen ; at the lanie time this writer, ai 
well as Hiny and others, attest the exist- 
ence of such animal reiiiaih<, and in a hiek 
state of perfec'iou. 1b Um Natural Hiat«>- 



176 



GEOMETRY 



ry of Pliny many fcvM} remains are spoken 
r>r, as tbe liiiL'iinliii, reijeiiibliiii! an ox's 
heart ; the ({l<M«sii|iftra, liaviiii; the fnrni of 
a toniiue ; tlie liorns of amiiicm, rHaeiiil)liH!; 
a rani's horn ; the lepidotes, like the scales 
of fi«hes, &c. 

GEOMETRY. That branch of mathe- 
matics which treats of the properties of 
evtension and figure. Geometry is itistin- 
gulshe<i into the theoretical and the practl- 
m1. Theoretical or speculative geometry 
ireats of the varioiis properties and rela- 
tions in magnitudes, &c. Practical geom- 
etry comprehends the construction of fig- 
ures, the drawing of lines in certain posi- 
tions, as panillel or perpendicular to eacli 
other, &;c. Speculative geometry is again 
distinguished into elementary geometry, 
tlial treats of the properties and proporticms 
of riglit lines and riglit lined figures, as also 
ofthe circle and its jieveral parts ; and the 
sublime or transcendental geometry, that 
IreaU ofthe higher order of curves, &.C. 

The simple principles of ge(Uiietry are 
explained in defiiiitious and a.xioiiis. 'I'he 
r<illiiwing are the mi>st important defi- 
nitions. A ptiint IS that which has neither 
length, breadth, nor thickness ; a line has 
length without breadth or thickness ; a 
sii|»erlicies, or surface, has length and 
breiidih only, the boundaries of which are 
lilies; a solid has length, breadth, and 
tliii kness, the ho.indiiries of a sol^id are 
aiirfaces. A straight line lies evenby be- 
tween the parts, parallel lines keep at the 
same distance from each other when ex- 
loiidt'd indefinitely. A perpendicular line 
is perpendii ular to another line. An angle 
is firmed by the meeting of two lines in a 
point; it is a right angle when formed by 
one line falling perjiendicularly on another 
line; an obtuse angle, when it is greater 
than a right angle ; and an acute angle 
when it is less. A figure is a space in- 
cluded within one or more boundaries, 
called sides; it is rectilinear when contain- 
ed by right lines, and curvilinear when 
contained by curved lines ; a rectilinear 
figure contained by three right lines is a 
triangle; if by four, quadrilateral; if by 
five, a pentagon ; if hy six, a hexagon, &c. ; 
if by more than twelve, a polygon. 

Triangles are distinguished according to 
(he length of their sides, into equilateral, 
having all the sides equal ; isoceles, having 
two sides equal ; and scalene, having all 
llie sides unequal ; or according to their 
angles, into right angled, if they have one 
riglit angle; obtii.se angled, if they have one 
»titu«e angle ; and acute angled, if they 
have all acute angles. Every quadrilateral 
Mr four-sided figure is called a parallelogram 



when it has its sides panillel, ai dnrcrtang!* 
when all its angles are right angles. Four- 
sided figures are moreover distinguished 
according to their sides and angles, into a 
square, which has all its sides equal and it* 
angles nulitones ; an oblong square, which 
has its opposite sides equal and its angles 
right ones ; a rhombus, having all the sidea 
equal, but the angles not right ones: and a 
rhomboid, having the op)>osite sides equal 
and the angles not right ones. When a 
qiiailrilateral has none of its sides parallel 
it is a trapezium, and when only twoof iu 
sides parallel a tnqiezoid. The diagonal 
is the right line which divides a parallelo- 
gram into two equal parts. The base of a 
figure is the side on which it is supposed 
to stand. The vertex is the extreme point 
opposite to the base; the altitude is the 
perpendicular distance from the vertex to 
the base. The area of a figure is the qiinj- 
tity of space contained within its bounda- 
ries. 

Of curvilinear figures in common geo- 
metry is the circle, which is a plane figure 
hounded by a curve line called the circum- 
ference, which is equally distant from a 
[Kiint called the centre. The diameter of 
a circle is a straight line drawn from one 
side of the circumference to the other, 
through the centre, so aa to divide it into 
two eipial parts. The radius of a circle ii 
a straisht line drawn from tbe centre to 
the circumference: the segment of a circle 
is a (Ktrt cut off by a line called the chord. 
The circumference of every circle is sup- 
posed to be divided into 380 equal parts, 
called degrees, ever>' degree into 60 parts 
called in'nutes, and every minute into 6C 
parts called seconds. 

Solids are distinguished into a prism, 
the sides of which are parallelograms, and 
the two ends or ba.ses are Bimilur ; poly- 
gons, parallel to each other ; the rube, con- 
sisting of six ecpial sqiiaresidesor faces; the 
pyramid, having any plane figure for ila 
base and triangles for its sides, all termi- 
nating in one common point or vertex , 
the cylinder, which is generated by tbe 
rotation of a rectangle about one of its sides 
supposed to be at rest ; the cone, a s(did 
having a circular base, and its other ex- 
tremity terminated in a single point or 
vertex. Those curves which are formed 
by the intersection of a plane with a cone 
form the subject ot miiic sections, wbicll 
is a branch of sublime geometry. 

Ratio is the mutual relation of two mag 
nitudes of the same kind to one another, 
in respect to quantity, as 2 to ], which i* 
double ; the former of Ihene is chilled the 
antecedent and the latter the coHi<«que.y' • 



GEOMETRY. 



1T» 



^■fxirtlott Is llie Himiiituile of nitunj, ns 
S w tu 2 as 3 is to I, that U a triple ratio 
In butli cii-ses. 

An axiom is a filain truth that wants no 
deniuiistratiuit, as th»i tlie wliole 16 greater 
than a part. A pustulate is tliat which 
requires tu be granted as true Itefore ano- 
ther thing can be (teuioiMtrated. A propo- 
sitiiiii is that which proposes something to 
be dune or deinonstnited ; it is a prubleni 
when it proposes* any thing to be done, iis 
to divide a given line into twoei|nal parts, 
or to raise a perfiendicular, &.C. ; and a 
theorem when it prop<ises something to be 
shown, as tlial trianiiJes of the same base 
and altitude are equal to each other, or 
that all the angles in the same segment of 
an arch are equal, &c. 

GKOMETaV, HisToRToF. Theorigin 
of geometry is ascribed by Herodotus lo 
the F^gyiitians, who, in consequence of the 
inundations of the Nile, which carried 
away all their landmarks, were under the 
necessity of distinguishing and laying out 
their lands by the consideration of their 
figure and quantity, whence the word geo- 
metry in tiie Greek signifies literally laiid- 
uieasuring. The Greeks, who cultivated 
IhLi science more than any other |*eople, 
doubtless learned the rudiments from the 
Egyptians ; for Thales, who travelled into 
Egypt and acquired a sufficient knowledge 
of astronomy to calculate, must also have 
first become acquainted with the principles 
of geometry to assist him in his astro- 
nomical inquiries. Pythagoras, the pupil 
and friend of Thales, distinguished himself 
by bis discoveries mi arithmetic, as well 
as geometry. He invented the multiplica- 
tion table, called after him the Abacus 
Pytliagoricus, and in geometry he disco- 
vered the thirty-second and forty-seventh 
propositions in tlie lirst book of Euclid's 
Elements. Sckui after this flourished Anax- 
imander, Anaxiiuenes, Anaxagoras, Cle- 
•stratus, A^iiopides, and Zenodotus, all 
celebrated geometricians, of whose works 
nothing remains except of itie liist. They 
were succeeded ■by Hipparcbus, who ren- 
dered himself cetebrated by the quadrature 
of the lines called after him, as also by his 
attempt at the quadrature of the cube, 
which was a matter of great interest among 
the ancient uatheniaticians, and is said tu 
have taken its rise in an answer of the oracle 
•t Delphi, which, when consulted on the 
occasion of some public ralaiiiity, answered 
• Double the altar,' which was an exact 
cuh*. Notwithslauding the failure of Hip- 
parthns, others rfnewed tlieattenipt,which 
jillliiiui.'li It prov«-d uifiiK lessful as to iJial 
|»articular ottject, n«vertlK:lesa is said tu 



have led to the discoveries of other geo^ 
metrical prupeilies, as the Limchoid of 
Nicomeiles, ttie cissoid of Diodes, and the 
quadnitrix of DiiUL-itratus. 1'his latter ge- 
ometrician was Itie follower and friend o( 
Plato, whose devotion to tlie science of 
geometry was such that he caused it to be 
inscri^d over the door of his schi>ol, 
> Let no one enter here who is ignonint of 
geometry.' To Plato we are indebted for 
that branch of geometry known by the 
name of con icst^ctions, of which his schobu 
Aristeus is said to have com|Kisetl live 
books that are highly 8|mken of by the 
ancients, but are not now extant. Eudoxus 
and Menecheiiius were also disciplts of 
I'lato, and distintuished themselves, the 
former in geometry as well as astronomy, 
the tatter by his application of conic 
sections to many problems. Alter an in- 
terval of ninety years from their time, 
that is, about three hundred years before 
Christ, flourished Kiiclid,wlio, by collecting 
and inethodiy.ing all the principles of geo- 
metry then known into a regular system, 
called his Elements of Geometry, secured 
to himself a celebrity which, in point of 
extent, has never been siirpa.ssed,and per- 
haps scarcely ever equalled. Ins worK 
having ever since been considered as the 
standard of all geometrical knowledge. 
Euclid was quickly followed by Anht- 
^edes, a mathematicnl genius, who added 
many discoveries to the sciences of geome- 
try, mechanics, o(>tic8, and hydrod>iiaiuic8. 
In geometry he discovered the ratio be- 
tween the sphere and the circumscribing 
cylinder, found the quadrature of the para- 
bola, and the sulidity of its cononl -, he 
invented the spiral which bears his name, 
and discovered its rectification, besides a 
variety of other important geometrical 
propositi<ms, many of which are extant, 
and attest the skill and ingenuity of tite 
author. 

Apollouius of Perga, who, from his 
writings, acquired the name of the Great 
Geometrician, flourished about thirty yean 
at^er Archimedes. His work on the Conic 
Sections, which is the principal piece of 
his extant, was Im all probability the best 
of its kind in that day, and has since been 
Mie groundwork of all works )>ulilished oii 
that subject. Of those who after A|K)IIo- 
niiisdisti'iguished themselves in their tiiiMi 
in the cultivaJon of the geometrical science, 
there are but few who added any thing 
worthy of particular notice. Eratosthenes 
attempted to measure the circumferenca 
of the earth ; Ctesibius invented walei 
pumps ; Hero of Alexandria, clepsydrae , 
' Tlieodusius, wliu lived in the first ceiitur| 



GEO 

»r the Chrttiaii fpra, wrote a t^eat^s« on 
till* s|iliere, winch was oii«s of ihe first on 
tpherical trigonornetrj'. 

After an interval of three or four cen- 
MiriKs from the time of Theodosius, we 
niP**! with the names of Pappus the coiii- 
iiieiitaliir uf Apollonius, Tlieon, the cotn- 
nieiitatur of Ptolemy, and of Proclii« ano- 
ther commentator on the ancient mathe- 
luaticians. The destruction of the library 
;if Alexandria by the Saracens was very 
fatal to the cultivation of geometry, which 
huil t)oiiri»hed there more than any where 
else : all the geoinetriciaus from every 
purl had assembled tliere, and when driven 
hway they were deprived both of their 
bnoks and instruments. It is not surprising, 
therefore, that the study of geometry was 
for many centuries almost entirely for- 
gotten amidst the troubles which desolated 
all r^iirope on the irruption of the northern 
ribes. The Arabs, who by the ravages 
ney committed at Alexandria had done 
lie most injury to the science of geometry, 
were, after the lapse of two centuries, the 
cultivators of that which they had nearly 
nnlhilated. They studied the works of the 
Gr»5feks, and showed their proficiency in 
lie correctness of their comments on these 
writings. 

\V'hilst the Arabs were thus promoting 
he cikiise of science generally, Europe 
emained in a state of comparative barba- 
rism, nor was the study of geometry re- 
vived among the Europeans before the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when by 
the translations of the ancient writings, the 
taste for geometry became very general 
among the thinkingpart of the community. 
Ill the following century there arose niatlie- 
iiiaticiang who added very materially to 
I lie stock of geometrical knowledge. Car- 
dan applied algebra to the resolutior of 
geometrical problems; and Descartes, who 
followed at the distance of nearly a cen- 
tury, pursued this application of algebra to 
geometry still farther. At the .«ame period 
with Descartes flourished Caveleriiis who, 
In his work on 'Indivisibles,' struck out 
a new path to himself, in which he was 
followed by many writers of great celebrity, 
as VVallis, Pasca., Fermat, Roberval, Leib- 
nitz, Xewton, and many others, who set 
jirth geometry in a new light, and formed 
s new system of the science. Among the 
treatises in which are embodied the geo- 
metrical principles of the moderns nnd 
ir.cionts may be reckoned the Elements 
.if Euclid by Simson and Playfair, the 
treatises of ( ''/.amni. Cli viiis, Roiinycaslle, 
rnrce, Davies, Mitlcahy, Ac. 

(iEORUE St. Tlie patron saint of 



GIN 

England, is said to have been t great 
warrior of Cappaducia, and a martyr i* 
the Christian cause. 

GEORGICS, Books treating of husban 
dry, after the manner of Virgil's poems on 
rural subjects, which are so called. 

GERA.MUM. A genus of plants, tb« 
numerous species of which are remarkable 
for the tH;aaty either of their leaves or 
their flowers, or both. The seeds of the 
flower are contained iw a husk, which 
resembles a stork's beak, whence it has 
acquired the English name of crane's bill. 

GERMAN (in Law). Whole or entire 
as respects genealogy oi descent, as bro- 
thers german, those who are so on both 
father and mother's side. 

GERMEN (in Botany). The germ, 
ovary, or seed bud, which is the lower 
part or base of the pistil. 

GERMINATION. The act of sprouting 
forth, as applied to the seeds of vegeta- 
bles; also the time when they vegetate. 

GIANTS (;AU.SEVVAY. Avast collec- 
tion of a black kind of marie, called ba 
saltes, in the county of Antrim in Irela.id 
The masses of rock are there disimsed in 
stich regular order, and to such an extent, 
as to make this causeway one of the great- 
est curiosities in nature. 

GIBBOUS (in .\strfmoiny). A term ap- 
plied to the enlightened part of the moon, 
during her cuiirse from full to new, when 
the dark part appears falealed or horned, 
and the light part convex or giblious. 

GIFT (in l^aw). A conveyance which 
passeth either lands or goods; a transfer 
of any thing without a valuable conside- 
ration. 

GIG. A very light kind of two-wheeled 
chaise. 

GILD. See Guild. 

GILDI.NG. The art of covering the sur- 
face of bodies with gold. 

GILLIFLOWER, or JuLT Flower. A 
smaller kind of cirnation that flowers in 
July. 

GIMLET. A carpenter's tool for boring 
boles. 

~~GIN, or Ge!»kta. a hot fiery spirit, for- 
merly drawn from the berries of the 
genevre or jiinijier tree, but now made 
by the distillers of the oil wf tur|)entine 
and malt spirits. The Hollunds Geiie\-a 
is manufactured chiefly at a village near 
Rotterdam, and is drawn from wheat 
and the juniper lierrirs The English gi* 
is a destructive drink among the lower 
orders. 

GIN (among Sportsmen). A machiM 
which serves as a tiap or snare for catda 
iiig beasts 



GLA 

Oiy (ainoii;; Mechanics) A michine 
for driving piles. 

(JI.NUEK. All Indian root of a I'lting 
f.ol taste; Iff rtuvver consists uf live |>rcala, 
■li:i(ied Sdiiielliliij; like thiise of the irH. 

(iirsiBS. A wanderiiit; irihfc, \vlii> are 
to be found in dllfereiit (.iiiiiiiries of Eu- 
rope, and are supposed to lie ot E;!\ pliun 
oriKHi- They are alto-^iether a >li-<lincl 
das* nf people, both in their haliits. tvhich 
are predatory and uncivili/.ed ; aiid in their 
complexion, which is sallow uiid tirowni.^h. 
But lliey are now beginning to follow the 
ocrupa'ioiiii of civilized life, and in winter 
to reside in towns, where they occasion- 
ally :jeiid their children to school 

CIKAFFE. ^ee CiMkiLoKARD. 

tlRDEKS (in Architecture). Some of 
the larjiest pieces of timber in a tlmir. 

GIKT. The circumlereiice of a tree. 

GLACIERS. A name In riwitzerland 
for the extensive tracts of ic« and siiuw 
which occur in the Alps. 

GLACMS (in Fortiticationi. .\ iun.*a of 
earth serving as a parapet to the covered 
way. 

(;L,.M)IAT0RS. Person!" who foucht in 
the urriia at Rome for the amusement of 
tlie ptniple. Tliese were usually slaves, 
who fought until <uie was killed. 'I'his 
cruet cii^tuin was abolished by Coiistantiiie 
the Great. 

GL.-V.NDS. A sort of kernels in the ani- 
mal body, which serve to secrete the Huids. 
They are composed of blood vesitels, nerves, 
and absorbents. 

GL.\i\UERS. A virulent disea.«e in 
horses, which shows itself by a discharge 
of mucus from the nostrils. 

GLASIER. See Glazier. 

GLASS. .An artificial substance formed 
by the action of fire on sand, or siliceous 
earth with salts and metallic oxides. U is 
remarkable for its brittleiiess and transpa- 
rency, which latterquality renders it avail- 
able for many purposes of domestic use- 
There are five kinds of jilass, namely, flint 
glass, or glass of lead; plate glass, or glass 
of pure so<la; crown glass, the best window 
glass; broad glass, a coarse window glass; 
and bottle glass, a coarse green glass. 

GIjASS (among Mrsriuers). Soiiiptimes 
the telescope, and someliiiies the hourglass 
• or sand glass. 

GLASSBLOU'ER. One who blo%vs 
glass in a glasshouse. 

GLASSIIDUSE. A house where glass 
la manufactured. 

GLAUBERS SALTS. The sulphate of 
■oda; a purgative. 

GLAZIER. One who works with glass 
■r makes glass windowa Tlie company 



GLU 



ITS 



of glaziers in London, were incorporated 
ill the reign of Elizalieth. 

t;LA'/.l.\G. The crusting over earther 
ware with a vitreous substance; also the 
putting glass into windows, or making 
glass lights for windows. 

GLEANI.N'G. Picking up the scattered 
ears of wheat after ihe wheat Is cut and 
carried. It was once thought in England, 
that, by the commoii law, the |HH>r might 
claim this liberty as their rigiit; hut it has 
been adjudged by a solemn judgment uf the 
Court of Comuion Pleas, that no such 
right exists by the cummiui law of the laud. 

GLERELA.Mt. In England, a portion of 
land belonging to a parsonage or vicarage. 

GLEE (ill Music). A coinfMisition of 
three or more parts; originally used lor 
convivial purposes. 

G LI RES. The fourth order ot the class 
inaiiimalia in the Liiinxan system, Includ- 
ing such animals as have two fore teeth, a 
cutting one in each jaw, no tusks, and feet 
with rlaws formed for running, as the 
beavei, the hare, ice. 

GLOBE (in Ge«mietry). A round spheri- 
cal body, more commonly called a sphere; 
as the arinillary sphere 

GLOBE (in Astronomy). An artificial 
sphere, or a round solid ho<ty, on which 
is drawn a representation of the earth, as 
on the terrestrial globe; or of the heavens, 
as on the celestial globe. 

GLOBULES. Little globes or round 
bodies observable in fiiiids. 

GLOSSARY. A vocabulary or imall 
dictiimary, 

GLUCIC ACID. An acid obtained from 
the solution of grape-sugar, saturated 
with baryta or lime. 

GLUCINA, or GLUCINE. The oxide of 
glucinium, a white powder, so named 
from the sweetness of its salts. 

GLUCINIUM. A metal in the form of 
a greyish-black powder, which acquires 
a dark metallic lustre by burnishing. 

GLUCOSE. A sugar obtained Irom 
grapes, honey, and most acid fruits; a 
potato-starch, used instead of gum-ara- 
bic, for dressing, in the process ol 
weaving and printing woolleus, silks, 
or cottons; also used tor the glazing o> 
ptvper. stiffening gauzes, &c. 

GLUE. An inspissated jelly, made frimi 
the parings of hides and other otfals, hy 
lioiriiiL' them in water, then straining off 
the iiiipuritips. and boiling them again. 

(;i.i;.ME (in Botany). The calys or 
corolla of grasses. 

GLUTEN. An adhesive, tenacious, and 
elastic substance, similar to glue, which is 
procured by the (lecomposilion of wtMat 
flour, or other vegetable substances, of 
which It forms a part 



180 



GOL 



GUTTTON. A ciinnine voniciotis ani- 
mal, larger Ih'tn a liailscr, uliicli iiiliatiiix 
E»r<)|>e. Ania, ami America, and preys uii 
the car'-asnes i>riiare!s, mice, &.c 

GNAT. An active liiile insecl, uiiicli 
lives by sucking the blmxl nf (illier ani- 
niala 

(;NEISS. a sort of rock that lies imme- 
diately over granite. 

ONO.MOM (in Dialling). The stile or 
pinof a dial, the shadow of which points 
out the hours. 

GNO.MON (in Astronomy). An instru- 
ment or anuaraius tor measuring altitudes. 

GNO.MO.N (in Geometry). A figure 
formed by the two complements with 
either of the parallelograms about the 
diameter, 

GNU. A particular kind of antelope, 
having horns bent forward at the base and 
backward in the middle. 

GOAD. A staff oointed with a sharp 
iron for driving cattle. 

G(JAT. A quadruped fond of dry, rocky 
■ituations, and feeding on anmiatic vege- 
tables. The varieties of t.le goat are distia- 
guished principally by their horns. 

GOAT-SUCKER. An American bird, 
so called because it was supposed to suck 
the teats of the goats. 

GODFATIir.K. One who stands sponsor 
for a child in liapiisui. 

(;oli\Vn' A bird resemliling the PI»- 
ver, lliat feeds <ui worms km the seashore. 

(JOj.l). Tlie richest and heaviest metal 
eM'epi plaliiia, being the most solid and 
the least porous. The daclllity and malle- 
ability of gold is such, that one grain of it 
will cover upwards of filly sijuare inches, 
and an ounce is capable of being extended 
in the form of wire many hundred miles. 
Gold is found in beds of quartz, sand 
stone, itec. and also in many rivers, par- 
ticularly in Pern, in minute and irregular 
grains, which are known by the name of 
gold dust. 

GOLDBEATERS SKIN. The skin or 
membrane of any animal, which is used 
by the goldbeaters in preparing gold leaf. 

GOLDEN NUMBER. A number be- 
ginning with one and increasing one every 
year till it comes to nineteen, when it 
begins with one again, and is used to show 
what year in the lunar cycle any given 
year is. 

GOLDEN ROD. A plant which is for 
the most part a nat ve of North America. 
Two species only are found in Europe. 

GOLDEN RULE. A name given to the 
ftule of Three. 

GOLDFINCH. A beautiful Euro(>ean 
lurd with a fine yellwvv iiturk in its black 



GOT 

(liiill feathers. It sings very iharmingly 
and is very docile. See Yeulow Bird. 

(;OLD FISH. An elegant fish of a gold 
colour, originally brought from China, and 
uow kept by way of ornament. 

(JOLD LEAF, or I-kak Gold Gold 
that is hammered by the beaters, until it 
l>ecniiies as thin and extended as a leaf. 

GtM.DSMITH. A worker or s.ller of 
gold or silver vessels. The company of 
giildsiniths in London, were incorixiraled 
in the reiuM of Richard II. 

GOMiOLA. A sort of Venetian plea 
sure barge. 

(ioNG (in Music). A Chinese instni 
nient, I lie form of which is a shallow circu- 
lar concave. 

GOODS (in Law). The valuables of 
which a man is possessed. 

GOOSANDER. A water bird, the si2« 
of a goose. 




GOOSE. A well known domestic fowl, 
which exists in a wild as well as a tame 
state. The gray lay goose, or coiiimoii 
wild goose, is easily tamed : from this sort 
has sprung the domestic breed. 

GOOSEBERRV (id Botany). A plan 
that is set with prickles, and yields a fruit 
of an oval and globular figure, containing 
many small seeds in a pulpy substance 
It is a bush much cultivated in gardens. 

GORGE (in Fortification). Theentniiice 
of a bastion, ravelin, or other outwork. 

GORGET. A piece of armour round 
the neck ; souiething similar is jiow" worn 
by officers on duty by way of ornament. 

(JOSHAWK. That species of hawk 
which was formerly much used in falconry. 

GOSPEL. The four books in the New 
Testament written by the Evangelists, 
St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, and St 
John. 

GOSSA.MRR. A fine filmy substance 
like a cobweb, which is seen in clear dayi 
in autumn in stubble fields, and is prutia- 
bly worked by spiders for catching files. 

GOTHIC i^TYLE. A style of architec 
ture in which (Mi'iited arches of greatei 
lieiubt Mian breadlli, an>l a profusion of 
ornaments, in imitation uf leaves aot 



GRA 

Coi\erg, nre the prin<-!jial cliararterisiics. 
GOTHIC AKCII. All arcli called by the 
talinii^ arclie tie ler/.o et ili r|iiar<i aciilii, 
.. t. (ifllie third and fniirili |M>int, coiisisliiig 
el tivii arcs ofa cir:le iiieeliug id an angle 
•t tbc tup. 



C.liA 



18i 




GOVERNMENT. The power in n state 
6y wlik-li the whole is governed; if this 
p<iwer be in llie li»iids of one it is a Mo- 
narchy ; if III (lie hands of the nobility, an 
Ari.<tiH'nicy ; and if in the hands of the 
|>eo|ile, or those chosen liy tliein, a I>e- 
iiKiciacy. The executive Knverninenl is 
tin- (Kivver of i'lliiiinii^terinL' puhlic atl'airs, 
the l.e;:islutive Ciuverniiient that ut making 
tlie laws. 

aOUL.\ED. In pnannacy, an extract 
of sugar oflead, used for iuflanimatious 

GOVERNOR. In mechanical science, 
a contrivance for maintaining uuitortu 
velocity with varjiug resistance. 

GOWAN. In geology.decomposed gra- 
nite. 

GOWT, or GOOUT. In engineering, a 
sluice used in embankments lor letting 
out water. 

GRACE NOTE. In music, any note 
added a.s an ornamental flourish. 

GR.-VDDO. In music, a word applied 
to the notes moving by conjoint inter- 
vals. 

GRADIENT. The proportionate ascent 
or descent of the several planes on a 
railroad; thus, an inclined piano 2 mil< 8 
in length, with a total fall of 18 leet, is 
de-cribed as having a gradient of 9 feet 
per mile. 

GRADUATE. In literature and the 
arts, one who has received a degree iu 
a college or university, or from some 
prolessional incorporated society. 

GR.^DU.A^TION. Regular progression; 
a<'t of graduating. 

GRADU.AlTOR. In physics, a contri- 
vance for accelerating spontaneous 
evaporation; also an instrument for di- 
viding any right line or curve into equal 
portions. 

GRAB. A ve.escl used on the Malabar 
coast, having two or three masts. 

GRACES. In mythology, three beau- 
tiful goddesses, .\glaia. Thalia, and 
Euphrosyne, who attended upon Venu.s 
In music, ornamental notes attached to 
principal ones. 



CRAIlirATION. Dividing any thine 
into eijii.tl (Kirts iir ilrurreii. 

(JUAb'TI.N'G (in llurliruliiirr). The pro- 
cess of Inserting a bnimh ol une tiej*. Into 
the slock of another, so that it may nceive 
notirishnirn! from it, u'liilc al llie same 
lime ll produces a new tree, like the o d 
one whence the graft w!i« taken. 

GRAFTI.NU-TOOL. A kind of curved 
spade hi for cutting trenches. 

GKAI.N. A general name for all kinds 
of seen corn. 

(H{AI.N (inCoiiiiiierce). A small weight, 
the twentieth |i.irt <if a scruple in A|Hitlie- 
caries weight, and twenty-fourth in Troy 
weight. 

GRAIN (In Mineralogy). The veins of 
wood, or the ci>iii|Hiiieiii |>articles of stone 
and metals as they are disposed in the 
mass, &.C. 

GRAI.NS OF PARADISE. The seeds 
of the aminoiiiuni, whicli have a pungent 
taste like pepper. 

GRAIN TREE. The ciMihine.al tree. 

GRAKLK. A bird nut inliahitlns Eil 
nipe, having a thick hill and sharp hooked 
claws. 

GRALL^. An order of birds in the 
I.innu!an system, with olituse blllsaiid long 
legs, as the crane, sni|»e, stork, and ostrich. 

GRA.MINA. Grassrs; the fifth family 
in the J^iniixan system, comprehending 
among the species the nty gniss, clovei, 
lref<iil,san(Jnin,lucern,i.c. which are called 
artihcial gni.sses, as distinguished from the 
meadow grass. 

(;i!A.M.MAR. The art of s(«aking and 
wriling truly, according to the rules estab- 
lished by ciistiun Riid the nulhorily of 
good writers. I'niversal tlranimiir Is that 
which treats of the first principles or ele- 
ments of language, which are ftiiiniied on 
lo<rc ; Particular Grammar is the eranimar 
of each language, containing not only the 
general priiicipleu of :;r:iiiiniar, but also 
the (leciiliarlties in the structure of each 
laiignaiie. 

Grammar is divided into four partf, 
namely, I. Orthography, or the right uinde 
of writing and spelling, which treats of 
tellers, their |«iwers, different offices, and 
divisions into vowels, consonants, dipli- 
llionus, mutes, liquids, syllables, wordi,&.c. 
touethrr with punctuation, or the right 
inodeofdistiiigiiishiiigwords,&c. by poinU 
or accents, &.C. 2. EtynmloL'y, which treats 
of the formal loll or derivation of word* 
from one another, and their distriliulion 
iniL .ne several (uirts of s|>eech, acC4irdin| 
to their .••everal offices, into nouns, adjec 
lives, pronoMii*. verbs, adverbs. piF|Hi4l 
lions, ('i>fijiiiiciions, and iiilrrjectlons Ety 



i82 



GRA 



mology also treats of the severil inflections 
to express niiiiilier, gender, cose, nioiiil, 
tense, |>ers<in, &.c. Sdnielimea etyrnulo^y 
treats of the derivation of words of one 
lnn<:iiHge fmrn rlmse of another, which is 
called remote el) inolojiy. 3. Syntax treats 
of worils as they are conneiled with or 
dependant on eacli other, giving rnles for 
tbe rijjJit construction and disposition of 
words ill a seiileiice. 4. I'rosody treats of 
the quantities and accents of syllaldes as 
parts of a verse, and tlie riglit rules of 
Tersificatioii. 

GRAAI.MAR, Histort of. Grammar, 
as a practical art, must have existed Ioiik 
before it was considereil as a science, and 
the rules of grammar must have been 
formed after lauguaj^e had assumed a settled 
shape by the practice of good writers. 
The works of Homer contained a practical 
illustration of all the rules of the Greek 
graininar long before the subject of pram- 
mar e.vciled any attention. It is likewise 
clear that as there is a close connexion 
between correctne-ss of thinking and cor- 
rectness of speaking, the study of logic 
preceded Ihat of grainniar; hence we tiiid 
that Aristotle makes a logiial distinction 
Between Words denoting time and words 
not denoting time, the (<iriiier of which 
he denominates by a word answering to 
the verb in grammar, and the latter by a 
word answering lothenoiin. Rut although 
the Greeks, particularly the Athenians, cul- 
tivated their language tor purposes of ora- 
tory, yet there ap|>ear-< to have been no 
particular advances made towards bring- 
ing It uniler grainiiiaiical rules. They 
leem to have studied their language by 
the ear, which was so universally nice 
that a herb wtimaii at Athens is said to 
have distinguished Theophrastiis to be a 
straniter from the atTectation of a single 
word in expressing himself; and for the 
•aine reason the orators were careful not 
to Jet a single injudicious expre.ssion e.-^rape 
them which might olTend the audience. 
We are likewise informed that it was a 
common thing for the young people to get 
the trageilies of their favourite authors by 
heart, which they would recite on various 
occasions. When the .Athenians, at^ertheir 
defeat at ^Syracuse, were made slaves, they 
softened their slavery by reciting the 
works of Fiiripides to their masters, who 
treated them the better on that account. 
In this manner the (Jrecian youth were 
taught their laiiL'uage at school, where a 
Homer was looked upon as inilisiwiisalile. 
I'o a light minded people, like the Atlie- 
a*.ins, this mode of learning a language 



liUA 

would be far more agreeable than tne di) 
method of studying gntmiiiar; but as th» 
former course was iu>t so practicalile is 
the ac<|uiriiig a foreign language, tliis it 
probably the rea.son wliy graiiiiiiar seeinp 
first to have been cultivated among tha 
Komaiis. who, being studious of the (ireek 
were iiaiiirally led to a comparison of lai> 
guages, and to a logical and abstract con 
sideratniii of language in general. Certai* 
it IS, lliat the .•■iiidy of grammar cum 
inenced with the Komans, and that tli« 
names of all the parts of speech are Latin, 
and to be found In the writings of authors 
subseipieiit to the ageot Varro and Cicero, 
as /Klius Dionysius, Julius Colliix, Vale- 
rius I'robiis, llerodlan, Suetonius, Cliari- 
sius, Macrobins, Diomedes, Augustin, I'ria- 
cian, ^-l^liiis l)(matus, &.c 

GKA.M.MAKIAiN. One who is skilled 
in graminar learning. 

(illA.M.MAR SLIIOOh. A schiKJl in 
which the learned languages are gram- 
matically taught. 

(JKA.MMK. A small FreHCh weight 
GRA.NAKV. A storehouse for threshed 
corn 

CKAND JURY (in Law). The jury 
which find bills of indictment against 
often lers, who are afterwards tried before 
a (M'lty jury, in case the former find a true 
bill against the party accused. 

GUAM) SEl(;.\IOR. The title of the 
Turkish sultan. 

GRANITE. A compound rock, consist- 
ing of (piartz, felspar, and mica, crystal- 
li/.ed and cohering without cement. (Granite 
is hard, and admits of an elegant polish. 

(JRAN'I' (in Law). A gift in writing, 
of such ihinss as cannot conveniently be 
passed, or conveyed by word of moiitli. 

GRA.M;LAI'I(»N (in chemistry). Pour- 
ing melted metals Into Cold water, that 
they ma\ divide lliemselves into grains. 

<;KAPE. The triiit of the vine, growing 
lu clusters, from which wine is expre».«ed. 
Grapes are found by a chemiral aiialvsis 
to contain sii|)enartrale of pouish, tartaric 
arid. Citric and malic aci<ls, abundance of 
siiLMr. a porlioii id' mucilage jelly, some 
albumen, and also, as is said, some 
(;'uten. 

GRAPESHOT (in Artillery). A combi- 
nation of small shot, put Inloathick canvass 
bag, and corded so aa to form a kind of 
cylinder. 
OR. ASSES. See GBAMtKA. 
^RASSIH>PPER. An insect that hnpg 
in the summer grass: it is allied to the 
IcM'iist in its make, but is very liarmleM. 
GRAVEL. A kind of loamy Ktnd mixed 



GRE 

t/ilh fwbhies, ivliich arlhere »o a« to form 
■ solid hitndsdiiir paili. 

GRAVER. A UhiI ust'd in encmving. 



riRO 



18& 




GAAVR SOUND A low d^^p note. 

GriAVIAlETER. An instruiiieiil for 
nit*asijrin<! the specific gravities of bodies. 

GRAVITATION. The prMsiire that a 
btidy, hy the force of iu gravity, exerts on 
another body under it. 

GRAVITY. The force by whii h Iwidies 
are carried or tend towards the centre of 
the farlh. 

GRKEK FIRE. An artificial tire in- 
vented liy the <;reeks in Iho middle agrs, 
during their wars with the Arabs and 
Turks. It consists of naphtha, bitiinieii, 
sniplinr. sum, &c. 

GREEICBACK. The popular natno 
piven to the notes issued by the U. S. 
Govemmeut, first i.«swed in 180'i. They 
derived their name Ironi the green color 
predominating in them. 

GREEN8.-VM). In geology, arenaceous 
lieds of the tertiary formation of th 
cretaceotis system, so termed Irom its 
abeundintr with email grains of chlorite. 

GREENSTONE. In mineralogy, a va 
rietyoftrap; an igneous rock in 'which 
felspar is combined with atigite or horn- 
blende. It sometimes occurs of great 
extent and thickness. 

GREENSHA.N'K. A sort of snipe. 

GREGORIAN STYLE, or llie New 
STTLK(in Chronolocy). Anewaccoiini of 
time, accordinsto the improrved Calendar 
made by onler of Pope Grejrory XIII. 

GRE.N'ADE. A hollow globe of iron, 
filled with combustibles, and thrown out 
of a mortar. 

GRENADIERS. Foot soldiers, selected 
for their stature, being the tallest and 
•mutest men in the army. 

GREYHOL'.VD. A slenler dog, fitted 




Ibr nintlln* wtlh grent »wtft(ie»«. who IS 
ein|)loyed luuiilly in coursiu;: hares. 



GREVSaUTRREl.. A beautiful squirrrf 
commoa in America. 




GREYWACKE. A mountain foriHa- 
tion, consisting mostly of a sort of slate. 

GRIDIRON. A utensil for broiling 
meat. 

GRINDERS. The large teeth which 
serve l>e.st lor grinding the food. 

(JKIST. Corn ground 

GRIT. The smaile.st particles of sand; 
al.so the coarser parts of meal. 

GROAT. In England, a silver Coin, first 
struck ill the reign of Edward I. It has 
since been used as a money of account 
ec|iial lo four pence or 8 ceiist. 

GROCER. One who sells tea, sugir, 
plums, spices, &.c. The company of gnt- 
cers in I.ondon, were incorporated in IH+l. 

<:R<)0M. a servant who looks after 
horses. 

(;K<»(».m of the stole, in Eng- 
land an officer of the court, who has the 
charge nf the king's wardrobe. 

GROOVE. A hollow channel cut with 
n tiHil 

(;R0SS-REAK. a bird with a stout 
bill, anil of a fiery red colour, except round 
the bill and mi (he thriKtt, which is black 
It is to he met with in North America, 
and is called the Virginia nightingal*, OB 
account of the fineness of its song. ^ 




GROSS WETCnT. The welpht ti 
giMMis together with the cask or vessel. 

GRf)T, or GROTTO. A hollow under 
eroiiiid; also an artiticial hollow ii.ade ia 
a carilen. 

GUOTE.>Jtii;E ;in Paintins and Sculj* 



184 



GUA 



ture). A work or C(iin(io8iliort in the gro- 
tesque or wild lasle. 

(jROVi:. A small wood or place set 
with trees 

GROUND (m Husbandry). Any piece 
of laud in cullivaliou, ur set apart lor cul- 
tivation. 

GROUND (in Architecture). Tlie srouiid 
plot, or piece of i;ruuud selecletl for a 
building 

GROUND (in Military Tactics). The 
field or place fur uclinu. 

GROl'.N'D (in i'aiiitius). The surface oti 
which the ti<{iires and iibjecl^ are raised 
and represented. 

GROUND (in Music). Tlie plain song 
or tune in which tlie desceiit.-i are raised. 

GROUND (aninng Mariners). The place 
where the anclior is tixrd. 

GKOUNDASH. A sapling of ash taken 
from the ground, in distiiictiun from a 
brancli cut from a tree. 

GROUNDIVY. A lierh, Ihe shoots of 
which trail upon the ground, and lake root 
at their different Joints. 

GROUNDLING. A fish, so called be- 
cause it keeps under stones 111 small bnioks. 

GROUND-PINE. A plant, the smell of 
which resembles resin. Il grows on dry 
and barren hills, and on thediichbanks by 
the roadside. 

GROUNDSILL. The lowest hi.riz.nital 
timber on which the exterior wall is 
erected. 

GROUND-SQUIRREL. See I^'hip- 

SqUIRREL. 

GIIOUP (in Painting). An :isseiiililage 
of figures, appearing to have a connexion 
with each other. 

GROUPING (amone Painters). Putting 
figures together in groups. 

GROUSE. A bird larjjertlian a partridge, 
iving in the niouiitaiiioiis parts nf Europe 
and .Asia. The .American partridge :s pro- 
perly the riilTed <! rouse. 

GKI'li. The worm or maggot priMliiced 
from the Iteetle, which afterwards becomes 
a winged insect. 

(JRUI.\ALES. One of Linnieiis'<i natu- 
ral orders of plants, containing the gera- 
niums, flax, lignnni vita-, &.C. 

GRI'S. One of I5ayer'« ronslell.itions. 

GUI.ACUM. .\ resjiiiiii-i siihsiaiire pro 
cured from a tree of the same name iii tiM 
West Indies. 

GUARANTP'.E (in Diplnmary). A 
prince or power appoiiiied by the sflpu- 
laline powers, to see ili.ii the articles of 
any treaty or agreement are perl'airmed on 
each side. 

GUARD. The liity nf eii.ir'liiie orde- 
/ending a.iV post or |iers<Mi from an sillack 



GUI 

or surprise^ also the soldier* who do thit 
duty. 

GI'Aiin (in Fencing). A poeture or 
action proper to defend the body. 

GUAKDUOAT (in Naval Tactics). A 
boat appiiinied to row aniimg ships of war, 
to see that the othcers keep a good iiHik 
out. 

GU.ARDIA.V. One who has thecharge 
of a person cmnmitied to him ) as the 
guardian of an infant, who sees to liia 
education and ina.nages his atfairs, &.c. 

GI;ARI)SHIP. a ve.s.sel apiHiinled to 
superintend the marine atfairs in a harbout 
or river. 

GIJDGEt>.V. A fresh water fish, of the 
carp kind, the ttesh of which is very deli 
cate. 

GUIDE (among Travellers). One who 
accompanies another in order to show him 
the way. 

<iU. I)E (in Music). The leading note 
in a hgure. 

GUiLD (in England). A company or 
incorporated society. 

GUILDHALL (in London). The com- 
mon hall of the guilds or coiiipaiiiss, which 
was built in 1411, by Thomas Knolls, then 
mayor. 

GUILLOTI.VE. A machine for behead- 
ing, first invented by a Siotchman and 
now u.sed in France. It was introdll^e<i 
during the revolution. 

GUINEA HEN or PINT AND. Aii Afri 




can bird domesticated in Europe, which 
makes a harsh unpleasant cry. 
GUINEA PIG. An aatmal betwiit a 




rabbit and a mnatM. aii Inhabitant of Rrm' 

7.11 

GUINEA An English gold com, flm 



C. U i\ 

Sfiined in the reign of Charles fl. nnrl till 
'ately current fur -iit. It was so calird 
*>ecaiise il was niuili- fmni the gold that 
w»^< bruiight from (Guinea, nn the coast iif 
Africa. 

GL'ITAR. A musical .■iirineed inxtru- 
nienl, rather larurr lh:ui a violin, and 
plaveil wlih the fingers. 

GLLC;;;. A tincture in heralilry, marked 
dl «ngn/in| by straight lines. 



GYP 



laJ 




GULP. A part of the sea running in 
and. as the Gulf of Mexico. 

(iTLL. A speciejiof sea bird, of which 
there are many varieties. 

(JI'M. A concreted vegetable juice, 
wliirh exudes throush the bark of trees. 
.A gum, properly speaking, is that only 
aiii.iiig chemists which is soluble in water; 
that whicli i^: insolutile In water is a gum 
resin. The gum arable flows from the 
ai:acia, in Africa and Arabia; gum lac is the 
jiiioe of the croton lacifera; gum ammoni- 
ac was first drawn from ammonia. 

GI'MS. The vascular and elastic sub- 
«laiice that covers the arclies of the upper 
mid under jaws, embracing the roots of 
the teeth. 

GUM-TREE. The popxilar name of the 
black gum, of the geuus nyssa, one of 
the largest trees of the Sou'tbern States 
of America. 

GUMliAC. The resinous produce of an 
insect, which deposits its eggs on the 
branches of a tree called bihar. 

GUNNY. A coarse sackcloth manufac- 
tured in Bengal, of which bags are mac^e 
for containing salt and other articles. 

GUN. In military science, a genercl 
term for all species of flre-aruis, as 
muskets, rifles, carbines, ordnances. &c. 
the principal of which are the Mtizzle- 
loading and Breech-loading guns, the 
latter comprehending the Ncedle-Gun 
(which see). Gunpowder is a mixture 
ot 5 parts of nitre, 1 of sulphur, and 5 of 
charcoal, finely powdered and very ac- 
curately blended. Gun-cotton is a prep- 
aration of cotton by steeping it in nitric 
or nitro-BUlphuric acid, and afterwards 
washing it, by which it acquires the ex- 
plosive properties of gunpowder. Gun 
barrel, the metallic tube of a gun. Gun- 
boat, a boat for carrj-ing cannon. Gun- 
lock, the lock of a gun. Gun-metal, an 
alloy of copper and tin. 



GUNPOWDER-PLOT (1b England.) 
The pU't or conspiracy in which tiny Kaux 
was the prlucipal ageiii, to blow up the 
parliament house, by means of gunpowder 
placed underneath, which was to liare 
b»-en set tire to when Kiiic James I was 
assenililed with his |Kirliaiiient; also the 
anniversary of that day, iiainely, the hit h of 
^iiveniher, wlii-ii this plot was discovered. 

GI'NSIInT. 'riiere.achorrangeof a gun. 

GUNSTiH'K. The woikl to which the 
barrel of a gun is tixed. 

Gir.NTKR'S CHAI.V. The chain coin- 
mnnly used in measuring or eurveyuig 
land, so called from Mr. (iunter, the in- 
ventor. The chain is 66 feet in length, 
and IS divided into 10(1 links of 7.90 inches 
each, ronsequeiitly an acre of land is eipial 
Ut 10 s<|uarr chains. 

GL'NTKR'S LINE. A logarithmic line, 
usually graduated upon scait^s, sectors, &c. 

GUNWALE or (lUNNF.L. The upper- 
most wale of a ship. 

(>UST [among Mariners). A sudilen and 
violent squall of wind. 

(;L'TTA t^KRKN A. A disea.oe in the eye, 
which deprives the patient of his siglil. 

GUTTURAL LE ITERS. Letters which 
are pronounced with the throat. 

GV.MNAS.IJM. A place among the 
ancients where Ihe youth were trained in 
gymnastic exercises; also a public school 
of learning, in which latter sense, it is nuiv 
frequently employed. 

CVMNASTICS. Athletic exercises.sitcb 
as wrestling, leaping, ninning, and throw- 
ing the dart or ipioil, whirii were much in 
use among the Greeks, from whom the 
word is derived. 

GVMNOSdPHISTS. A sect of Indian 
philosophers, who always went naked, 
and lived a solitary life. 

GYiNAMJRIA. One of the classes in 
the Liiinsan system, consisting of plants 
with hermaphrodite flowers, in whicli the 
stamina are placed on the style 




GYPSUM. A sort of ealeareona eutk, 
consisting nf sulphate of lime. Wbea 
hichty burnt il fal!s into powder, froa 
winch plaster of I'arii it made 



186 



HAI 



HAN 



fi. the eighth letter of the alphabet, for- 
Bierly stood as a ininiertl ('or -JIH), with a 
d;ish over it for 211,00(1; in Heraldry, it 
stands fi.r the middle liane, a point in the 
escutcheon ; as an alibreviation, for hour. 

HAAKTE BESTE. A variety of the Af- 
rican Antelope. 

IIABKAS cnRPUS. In England, a 
writ w hicli may be made use of hy the 
courts at Westminster for removing pris- 
oners to answer any cause, as a Habeas 
Corpus ad >;espondeiidurn, ad satisfacien- 
dum, &c.-, but the most celebrated writ of 
this itind is that of Habeas t^orpns ad sub- 
jiciendum, which a man who is. or sup- 
poses hnnself to be .iggrieved by an unlaw- 
ful imprisonment, in.iy h.ive out of the 
King's Bench, directed to the person de- 
taining hnn, and commanding him to pro- 
duce the body of the prisoner, to submit to 
or receive wliatever the court shall consider 
in that behalf. This writ was founded on 
the common law, and secured by many 
statutes, particularly that of the 'M C'has. 
[I. wliichisby disilnction called the Habeas 
Corpus Act. The writ of Habeas <;<>rpus 
!n the United t^tates is that, by which a 
man in prison may claim an immediate 
trial, oi examination. 

HABERDASHER. A dealer in small 
wares, as tape, thread, pins, needles, &c. 
The company of haberdashers in I^indon 
was incor|H>rated in 1447. 

HADIXJCK. A fish of the cod kind, 
which inhabits the northern coast. 

HADI.EVS aiJADRANT. A quadrant 
that is particularly used for taking altitudes 
at sea 

H.'E.MORRHAnE. A flux of blood from 
any part of !he botly 

HAIL. A meteor, which consistsoffrozen 
rain, or drops of rain aEghiiin.-tted together 
by the frost, so as to form little pieces of 
ice, called hailstones 

HAIMNO (among Mariners). Saluting 
or acrosiing a ship at a distance. 

HAIR. Small filaments issuing out of 
the pores of the skin of animals, and serv- 
ing for the most part as a covering, 'i'lie 
principal consiiiueni parts of hair are ani- 
mal matter, oil, silez, sulphur, carbonate of 
tune, ice. 

U.MR (in Boianyl. The down, or hair- 
'Ihe threads on the s irfnre of plants. 

HAIRdRASS. A plant, siune species 
•f wbicii are pereiint.ilsand siunr annuaiu 



HAFR'S BUE.\DTH. A measure tH 
length, equal to the Ibrty-ei;;liili i>ari of an 
inch. 

HAl^BERT. A weap<m something Ilka 
a spear, formerly carried by the serieanta 
of f(H)t and artillery. 

HAIX'VON. A name for the kingfifcher. 

HAI.F-BLOOI) (in l^w). Relationship 
by the father's or the mother's side only. 

HALF-MOON (in Fortification). Al 
outwork having two faces. 

HALFPENNY. An English copper c«ir> 
of the value of one ct-nt. 

HALL. A public edifice, a court of jus- 
tice. 

HALL (in Architecture). A large room 
at the entrance of a fine house 

HALLELUJAH. A part of church music 
in which these words are lejieaied. 

HALLI.\RDS Ropes for hoisting up 
the yards. 

HALLOO. A hunter's cry after the dnjrs. 

HALLUCINATION. An alfection either 
in the senses or the imagination, w Inch 
causes a person to feel, see, or hear wh.it 
does not exist. 

HALM. In England, the stalk of rorii 
which is left on the ground when it is i-iii. 

HALO. A ntpleor, in Iheforni of n iuiiil 
nous ring or circle, apiwarinu roiiinl ilir 
bodies of the sun, moon, or stars. 

HAM .MOCK (among Mariners). .\ pi ce 
of hempen clulh, six feet long and tlnve 
feet wide. 

HAMSTER. An animal of the ni"iis« 
tribe, entirely black, except at the tip '■( 
the nose, edges of the ears, feel, and 84iiii«- 
tinies tlie tail, which are white. 




HANAPER OFFICE. In England, an 
office in the Court of Chancery, out of 
which Issue all original writs. 

HAN I) (in the Manege). The fist clenched 
or a measure of three inches, by which the 
height of a horse is C(mi|>uled ; also the 
parts of a horse, as the forehand, for th» 
head, neck, and fore quarters; the hind 
liaiul, wliiili iiirliiiles the rest ; and also 
Uiu luirsemun'* hand, as the suur hand. 



HAR 

which Is his ris'it liaiid ; and llie brlilie 
b.'iiid, wliicli is liis lrt> liniiil. 

IIANf). All important ineiiibwr of llic 
nody, wliirliC'insislinoClliccarims, or wrist; 
tlie iiicliic:ir;i'is, (ir tlie Toiir Itunea williiii 
Um |>aliii aiid llie liiigen. 



HAR 



1S7 




HAND (amon^ VVatcliraakers). The in- 
dex of a clock or watch. 

HAXD-BARKOW. A barrow without 
wlieels. 

HANDCUFFS. Two circular pieces of 
iron locked over the wrists of a prisoner 
lo prevent him using his liand.s, 

MA.N'DSriKKrf. Wooden levers useil 
at 8ca. 

UA.N'CINCS Tapestry hung or fastened 
against the wall. 

IIANSK TOWNS. Port towns of Ger- 
many, which were incorporaleii for the 
piir|K)se of protecting tlieir trade. Tlie 
three principal of these towns were Ilaui- 
liiir)ih, Rrenien, and Lubec, which still 
rttain the name. 

HARBOUR. A place where ships may 
ride in safety. 

H \RDNESS (in Physiology). The re- 
«istaiice opposed by a body to the separa- 
tion of its parts. 

HARE. A timid animal of excpiisite 
si;£ht and henrins, with a short tail. It is 
in Europe a beast of chase, ami is some- 
times pursued by greyliounds in open 
ground, which is called coursinc ; and 
sometimes by harriers, or hare hoiimls, 
which is called hare huntinc Shooting 
of hares is not lawful in England. A spe- 
eles of hare common in America, passes 
under tlie name of rabbit. 




HARELIP A lip cloven or parted like 
(tia'. of a hara 

HAR.MATTUN. A wind which blows 
•erio licallv from the interior uarts of Africa 



towards the Atlantic. TU » wind is remark- 
ante for iI^ dry and parch n!J[ character. 

IIAU.MoNI(;A. A iiiusir.al msiniment 
coiislrucl»-d with driiiknia glasses. 

HARMONICS. Thai br.in.h of music 
which considers tte dilferences and pro- 
portions of sounds. 

HAR.Mo.NV (in Music). The acreeabU 
result or union of sevenil musical soiiiida 
heard at one and the same time. Melody 
is produced hy a succession of inusic.il 
sounds, as liaruiony is produced by tbeir 
coml)iiiaiion. 

HARMD.NV OF THE SPHERES. A 
kind ol' music, supposed by the ancieiils to 
he pri>du('ed by the accordant molioiis of 
the stars and planets. - 

HARP. A musical stringed instrument 
of gieat aiitiiiuity, of a triav2ulur form, 
and played with the finger*. 




HARPER. One who plays upon the narp 

tIAKPl.NS (among Mariners). The 
breadth of a ship at the bow. 

HARPOO.VS, or Habpinu Irons. Irons 
formed at one end like a barbed arrow, 
and having a rope at the other, for the 
purpose of spearing the whale. 

HARPSICHORD. A stringed and keyed 
instrument in a mahognny case. 

HARROW. A drag with iron teeth, to 
break the clods after ploughing. 




HARPY A fabulous monster, with tua 
head of a w<unan, the wingsof a bird.and 
the tail of a beast. 



188 



HAW 



HEA 



HARPALED^. In entomologr, an ex- ,, j > . u . r 

tensive laniUy of coleopterous insects, ^^^ * moored with two anchors out fron 
ot which the Harpalus is the type. '. '^'' bows, as ' a cl^ar or open hawse,' '■ 

HAliTALL. Orpiment, an oxide of ar-i •"""' I'awse,' &c 



Beuic, used as a yellow paint. 

HARTSHOKN. In phainjacy, the horn 
of the common stag, which obtains a 
place in the phai-maoopoeia because it 
containsless earthy matter and more 
gelatine than other bones. 

H.\TCHETIXK. A bituminous mineral 



HAWSKIt. A small cable. 
HA'/AI{n. A tranie of chance, placed 
*j much liy gamesters ami jsiiiililers. 

IIA/.r.C N'C'T. A shrub having male 

flowers growiiijr at remote diiitances from 

the fruit on the same tree. The nuta 

grow in clu.sters, anil are of three kinds, 

TjATjT-tTjTOT- T -r, ■. '*>* comiuon hazel nut, the cub nut, and 

p<>^tf4':>5retended ^oToret^efl mTtire'i ''^ «'^"'' -"'=" '=»"- -"^ '"^ ""- "* 



or mouu tain-tallow, found at Merthyr 
Tydvil, inS. Wale; 



events by the entrails of beasts, 

IIA'I'CIII.N'U.'J'lieaciofiiiaiunnfflecnn- 
dated eggs, so that they shmilil (irddnce 
yomis birds. This is coineiioiily done by 
the inciil)ali<>n of llie mother : but some- 
times by means of arliticial heat in ovens, 
aa IS practised in Ejrypt. 

IIATCIIME.N'T. t^ee AcHiEt-EME:iT. 

HATCIIW.AV (amonj! .Manners). An 
oiwniii!.' in the deck, to serve as a (>Kssjij;e 
from one deck to another. 

II.ATTKR. A manufacturer and seller 
of nals. The company of h:iiter», or hat- 
makers in lAiiidon, is very ancient. 

(CAVF.RSAl.K. A kimi of bas of sironj 
eo.irse linen, to carr)' breail and provisions 
nn a march. 

II AIJL, or YAULfaiiioncRopemakers). 
A yarn of four hundred threads. 

HAUNCH. The hind part of a sUg, or 
of a horse. &c. 

K AUNT. The walk of a deer. 

HAIJTHOV. A musical wind instni- 
menl, sliajied much like the flute, only 
that it spreads and wid<f .s at the bottom, 
.ind is sounded thron;:h a reed at one 
end. 

H AWFrXril. A sort of finch, so called 
because it feeds on haws and cherries. 

HAWK. A bird of prey of the eacle and 
falcon tribe, the two principal species of 
which are the sparrowhawk and the ;>oa- 
hawk, both used formerly in falconry. 

HAWKERS. In En-iland, itinerant [letty 
chapmen, who po with their goods from 
town to town and from house to house. 
They are obliged bjr law to have a license. 

HAWKING. The ancient »|K.rt of fowl- 
ing with hawks. 

HAWKING (in Trade). The going about 
with commodities to sell, after the manner 
of a hawker. 

HAWK'S BRI.L.. The bell put about 
the feet of a hawk. 

HAWKWEED. A plant which bears a 
flnwer in the form of a marigold. The 
whole plant has a milky juice. 

HAWPE. A sea term, for the sittiatiim 
•f the cables before the ship's stem, when 



teemed. 

HEAD (in Anatomy). The superior part 
of the body, placed on the neck, and c^m- 
sisting exiernally of the face and the hairy 
scalp: internally, of the brain and the 
medulla oblongata. 

II KAI) (among .Mechanics). The upper 
and mor« solid part of iiianiiiiate boiliea, 
as I he head of a nail, the head of a gale, 
the head of a hammer. 

II KAI) (in Painting), The representatioii 
of the head of a person. 

II EAO (in Architecture). An ornament 
of sculpture or carved work. 

IIBAI) (in (Juiiner)'). The fore part ot 
the cheeks of a gun. 

HI:aii (in Printing). In England, the 
top of a page. 

HKADKOROUGH. Formerly the oiiief 
of a borough, or frankpledge ; now a sort of 
peliy constable. 

HEADER (in Masonry). A name for 
the bricks which are inserted lengthwise 
in the thickness of a wall, 

HF.Ani-ANI). A point of land lying 
farther out at sea than the rest. 

HEAnSTAM.. That part of a bridle 
that goes about the head; also a kind of 
halier. 

HEAI.IXG (in Snrger>'). Curing a 
wound. 

HEAL.I.NG (among Rricklayers). The 
covering a riKif with any thing, as lead, 
slates, &c. 

HEARING. One of the five senses, of 
which the ear is the organ, with the help 
of the auditory nerves and membrane. 

HEAR.-^E. A close carriage for convey- 
ing dead bodies. 

II RART. The seat of life in the animal 
hod v, is situated in the thorax, and divided 
externally into the base, which is the brivnd 
part: the superior and inferior surface; 
anri the anterior and posterior martin. 
Inteniallv, it is divided into two vantrt- 
cles, riehf and left, 

HEARTBURN. A burning pain In the 
stomach. 

iiEARTSE.\SB. A plant cultiTtted 1j> 



HER 

^ it Uint yipl(l« a ^-tirieinited , nwpet- 

li^AR 'H Tlie p:ivetiieiit of a fire- 
,»l.ire 

HKAT (in i*1iyi«inlo!jy). See Cai-okic. 

IIKAT (aiii . % Ueottnipliers). The lieat 
of ilitfereiit citmves. which arisen froiii the 
riirt'frt-iilaiiirles iin.'er which the sun's rays 
strike ii|>nii the siirfs'c ■■< the earth ; added 
to whirli, the licat uf ditfereeit places i* 
either increased ur dii utiahed hy llie acci- 
dents til' sitiiatinn, with rrgard to niniin- 
taiiis and valleys, proxin''V7 to the sea, 
and the like. 

HEAT (among Smiths). T. * decree of 
heat requisite for iron work, Nimely, the 
blood red heat, the smallest <.epAej the 
tlaine, or white lieat, the second degree ; 
and the s|>arklins, ^" welding heal, n.hich 
is the strongest deiiree. 

HKAT (among Sportsmen). A CPiU'H 
^resmlied distancv which a horse riina v 

.e Course. 

Ill-'ATII. A wide oj)en place, general') 
• fergrown with lienth. 

UK ATM (in Hoiaiiy). A shnili, which 
either crows wild, or is ciillivaled with 
great care in hothouses. 'J'he ciillivated 
sorts are remarkable for their variety and 
beauty. 

HKAVEN (in Astronomy). Thit im- 
mense region wherein the planets, stars, 
andc.imels are disposed, anil perform their 
moriiiiis; anion:! tlie anrii-nts, a heaven 
denoted an orh or cirriilar region of the 
ethereal heaven. Aslronoiners ther«fure 
assumed as many ditl'ereiiilieaveiisa.^ Ihey 
ob-ervfd ilifTerent celestial motions; thus 
they had seven lieaveiis for the seven 
planets, the MiMin, Mercury, X'eniis, the 
Sun, .Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The 
eiiihth was the (i\ed stars, which was par- 
ticularly denominated the tirmament. I't<v 
leiiiy added a ninth heaven, which he calls 
the I'riiniiin Mobile ; Alphonsiisanerwards 
added two cr>'stalline heavens, to account 
for some irregularities in tlie motions of 
the oilier heavens. Other ancient aslromv 
mers admitted more heavens, according to 
their ilitferenl liypolheses. 

IIKI{. All alilireviation for Hebrews. 

HE(;.\TOMB. Jhesarrificeofa hundred 
oxen. 

HECTIC FEVER. An habitual fever, 
or one which Is slow and continued, end- 
ing in a cimsumption. 

HKI>GC. \ fence of thorns or ghnibs to 
part off land. 

IIEDfJEHOG. A qn.idniped defended 
al! over with sharp prickles, which is a 
native uf Eiin>pe, and found also in .Mada- 
gascar. It lives in thickets, and swims \ 



HEL 



18» 



easily. When frictitened. It rolls (Tselfup 
in its spiry skin, and preseiica uulhing twl 
a ball of pricklea. 




HEDGESPARROW. A kind of ajw 
row that lives in the fields and about tb« 
liedges. 

HEEL. The back of the foot pretuberat 
ing behind. 

HEEL (among .Mariners) The heel of 
a mast, that part at the foot of a ship'l 
ni:ist that is pared away slanthig. 

HEELPIECE. A piece of le.ilher put 
I pon the heel of a shoe. 

HEGIR.\ (in Chroiiolncy). An icra 
'^ hich lakes its date from Mahomet's flight 
from .Mecca, a. d. Vf&. 

HLIR (ill Law). Dne who succeeds by 
descent to lands and tenements. 

IIEIRLOO.M. Househohl gixnU and fur- 
niture which have for several ilesreiils 
belonged to a house, and necessarily cuuie 
to the heir wuh the house. 

HELIAC.VL (in Astronomy). A term 
applied to the s.ars or planets when they 
rise and set wi.h or at the name time as 
the sun. 

HELIOCE.NTK i'. An epithet for what 
relates to the centre if the sun. 

HELIO.MKTER. An instrument for 
measuring the diameter of the heavenly 
bodies. This instriimei t is a kind of tele- 
scope, consisting of two ibjecl glasses of 
equal fiKal distance, pl.ved one by the 
side of the ottier, so that th« same eyeglass 
serves for both. 

HELIOTROPE, or Tir:«, jle. A plant 
which IS said always lu follow the cours* 
of the sun. 

HKLLEBORB. A plant, tLt flower of 
which exiKinds in the fonn of a rose. The 
seed is oblnng, like a grain of wheat It 
is very doubtful whether the plant now sc 
named be the true hellebore so famous for 
its (Miisonous quality among the ancients. 

HEL.M (ill .N'aval .Architecture) A long 
flat piece of timl>er suB|)ended at the hind 
part of a ship's stemi>ost, which servea to 
direct the course of the ship. It is com- 
posed of three |>arts, namely, the /udder, 
which turns u|Nin its hingea vbe ti.lei 



J 90 



)IKR 



wliirii serves lo dirert ilie rmlilpr; and the 
wlieel, riiiiiiil winch llieullerriii)e is wimnd 
ill I;ir2>' vi'ssels. 

11 KIjM K'l". A lie:id[>ifc-e. or armour for 
the iiead, whicli was iViniierly llie imlilesl 
piece III' I'oat aniiuiir. 

JIKL.MI.N THOLLKJY. 'J'he science of 
worms. 

IIKLVE. T.ie handle of an axe. 

IIKM. The edue pari of cldh. 

HEMIPTKRA. The second order of in- 
lect!) in the l.iiiiiiraii !^y!ltelIl, iiichiding 
Ihone wlilch have their iipjier winss iieini- 
mistaceoii*, a:< the cock-roacli, main is or 
walkiiiu leaf, hrf-iist, cricket, !.'iiu«hii|i|ier, 
lanthBrii-riy, boat-Hy, water scorpion, 
aphis or plant louse, and the coccus ur 
Cochineal. 

IIKMifPIIERE. One half of the mun- 
dane sphere. 

IIK.MhOt'K. A narc<itic plant, the leaves 
of whii'li are cut into many niiiiiite seg- 
ments, like pansley. it is duulilfiil wheth- 
er tills lie the true hemlock of the ancients. 

IIE.MI'. A filiroiis plant, of which linen 
and ropes are made. 

II E.\. A female bird oi any species, par- 
tii ularly the domestic fowl. 

IIE.NUA.VE. A poisonous plant that 
grows in hedges. 

Iir,.\DECAGO.\. A figure of eleven 
aides. 

IIKI'TAOO.V. A figure of seven sides 
ftiiil seven anglej. 




HEPTAXURIA. One of the Linniean 
ela.'i!>es, including those plants which have 
seven stamens to the flower, as the horse- 
cbeslnut, cliickweed, lizard's tail, &c 




HKfTA ICHY. The seven kin(tdoms 
forinod b; the i^axnns oh their first settle- 
ment ill England. They were all united 
Into one kingdom by Eehert. 

HEK.\LU (in England). An officer 



HER 

whose bii»lne«s it is lo proclaim war and 
peace, to marshal pnicessions.and reeiilale 
armorial ensigns, &.C. The heralds are six 
in number, and are distineuished bv the 
names of Kichmond. Lancaster. Chester, 
Windsor, Somerset, and Nork. They are 
all e(|ual In degree, and have precedence 
only according to the seniority of their 
creation. 

IIEKAIiORY. All ancient art whirb 
professed to teach the true :ise of arms; Ha 
how to blazon or describe them in proper 
terms, and how to marshal or dispose the 
ditferent arms in an escutcheon or shield. 

IIEUALDRV, History of. Although 
the science of heraldry, as far as regards 
the distinctions of families by means of 
coat armour, is comparalively of modern 
date, yet the Romans were not wiilioiii 
their marks of honour, wliicli, being here- 
ditary, served as a proof of nobility, and 
a title to a certain rank. This was known 
among them by the name of jus iinagiiium, 
which was the ri&lit of having the statues 
or images of their ancestors; that belongec 
to tliose only who were either of patrician 
rank or had risen to distinction in the state. 
He who had the privilege of using the 
statues or images of liis ancestors was 
termed ' nobilis;' he who could only use 
liisown wasa 'novushomo,'oraii upstart, 
like one who first procures a coat of arms; 
and he who had neither his own statues 
nor those of his ancestors was termed ' ip- 
nobilis.' These images or statues were 
made of wood, brass, marble, and some- 
times in wavwork, and were painted, ac- 
rording to the life, with the several ein- 
hlems of military honour which IH-Ionged 
to the individual. Thus the collar or 
chain on the statue of Tor<pi:ilus. and the 
tuO of hair on that of ('incinnaius, were 
the trophies of wliirh these brave warriors 
had desiKUled their eiieiiiles. 

These statues commonly stood in their 
courts in a cabinet of wood, whence pro- 
bably originated our cabliieLs of arms, 
where the helmet, crest, gauntlet, spurs, 
banner, iiC. were kept; and as, upon par- 
ticular occasions, these cabinets were set 
open, and the statues were exposed to 
public view before the porch or gate of 
their houses, so our nobility and gentry 
have their coats of arms cut in stone, and 
painted in escutcheons over their gates. 
At their funerals those statues were borne 
before such as had the jus imaginum, 
whence in aOer times it fiecame the prac- 
tice, at the funerals of great men, to carry 
their ensigns of nobility, and the arms jf 
those from whom they were descended, 
which, being all painted, are placed under 



HER 

Ae name of an acliievement on the hou.se 
of llif p«T!iori deceaiied. As a tarllicr proof 
Uial our lienilitic disUiictious lake llieir 
rise from the Jus iiiiagiuum of ihe Koiiiaus, 
Ua|i()ears lha( the law nf arms among Ihe 
Europeans in the middle ages was regu- 
lated by the civil law. 

The introduction of armorial bearings, 
in place of the inuiges and statues of the 
Romans, is to be ascribed to the northern 
tribes whe overran Europe on the decline 
and fall of the empire. The Goths, Vati- 
dalii, and other such people, were in the 
practice, like their ancestors tlie Celts and 
Scythians, of painting on their shields the 
Aguresof animals, either for the purpose of 
rendering themselves formidable, or more 
probably by way of distinction; and al- 
though, from their martial character, their 
ensigns of honour were at first purely mili- 
tary, yet, by being transmitted to their 
posterity, they became badges of civil rank 
and honour; :ind, in process of time, other 
circumstances gave rise to bearings which 
were not purely midtary. Thus, on the 
establishment of the feudal system, the 
tenants of the king, or the great lords, re- 
presented on ihwir sh ields the services they 
owed to their superiors by way of an ac- 
knowledgement of their fidelity, wheiir« 
originated roses, cinque-foils, spurrowels, 
bowsaud arrows, huti(iiig-hurns,ships,&c. 
which are to be found so frequently in 
coats of arms. So, in like manner, the 
crusades gave rise to the figures of the 
cross, which is borne in a diversity of 
forros;and tournaments, which » ere intro- 
duced by Henry the Fowler in the tenlh 
century, are sup|)osed tuhave civeii rise to 
the fesse, pale, bend, and other ordinaries 
which represented the fillets or lists of 
different kinds which were worn by the 
combatants and those whoattended. From 
tlie practice and ceremony of the herald's 
recording the names, arms, and proofs of 
the nobility of the knights at tournaments, 
the science of heraldry took its iianie-, and 
as this ceremony was preceded by tfie blow- 
ing of a horn, blazon, which comes from 
the German ' bhuxm,' to blow, is now used 
for a scientific description of coals of arms. 

HERB (in Botany). That part of the 
vegetable which rises from the root, and 
eoniprehends the stem and leaves, &.C. 

HERB.f;. Herbs; the fourth tribe into 
which l.inncus divided the vegetable 
kingdimi. 

HERBAL. A book giving an account 
of the names, natures, and uses of plants. 

HERCULAM'.IJM. .\n ancient ciiy of 
Naples, overwhelmed by an eruption of 
Mot at Vesuvius iu the reign of Titus- it 



HER 



191 



was discovered iu the year 1689, slnc« 
which time many nianiiscripls, paintings, 
slalues, and other relicit of antiquity, have 
been discovered by disumg- 

HERCUl.Eri. A ceieUrated hero of an- 
tiquity, the son of Jupiier and Alcmena, 
who travelled as far as (he Straits of Gilt- 
raltar, and is said lo have erected two 
pillars, one at Cadiz in Spain, and the 
other at Ceula in Africa, ills exploits ar« 
celebrated by the poets and historians oi 
antiijuity. 




HEREDITAMENTS (in Law). Im- 
moveables, which a man may have to him 
and his heirs. 

HERESV. An error in some fniidanien- 
tal doctrine of the Christian faith, or a 
private opinion different from that of tlie 
ortliodox church. 

HERETIC. One tainted with heresy. 

HEBIOT (in England.) The besl beast 
that the tenant died possessed of, which 
was due to the lord of the manor. 

HERU.N. A bird similar in form to the 
crane and stork, but much larger, being 
aeven feet in standing. 




iy^l^l//f*:yv!^^' 1 



HERISON. A barrier made of beams 
stuck with spikes, to block up a (lossage. 

HERMETICAL SEAL (among Chem- 
ists). A method of stopping glass vessels 
so closely that the subtlest spirit cannot 
escape. 

HERNIA. Every kind of rupture, «• 
ried according to llie part alTecied. 



192 



IMC 



rIKRDIC; f(1KM. A fvifm wttlng furth 
.llP fXJili'itu 111' Millie llt-r-i. 

HKROM; VKKc<K. Ilfxaiiieler verse, 
»> cilleil bf cause il is U!<eil by piifls iii 
tne-ir liuroic piwiiis. 

HKKRINt;. A small snafish of a gri-en 
i-oliiiir. w.Tich iiilialiiis ilir \iirth s«'a.s, .ukI 
iniiir;ilrs siiullif riy iii iiiimeiise shiials, (lar- 
ticiilarly in the iiiniith I'f June. 'I'lii-ir 
[>riigre8s ia marked by llie ininiber of hints 
winch follow Ihein U> (irey u(>oli llleiii. 
riiosr Which Hock lo the British coasts 
are to be found in the jzreatesl number 
olf Yarmouth, the inurl lor liernnss. 

IIKKf^K (in Fortilicatioin. An engine 
ike a harrow, stuck full of spikes 

lll".?!HKUIL)^ (in Moi.iiiy .. A natural 
^riler of plants, iiicliiilin:! Ilie myrtle irilie. 

HK'IKKOSCIl (in (;e.icrapliy). 'I hone 
inhabitaiiLs of tlie e irtli which have their 
sliadows falling bul I'lie way. as those liv- 
ing between the tropic and polar circles. 

HK.KAEDKtJ.V (in (Jeoiiietry). A nolid 
figure of six equal sides. 

IIE.XAGO.N (in (".eoinetry) A figure of 
•U lidea aud 8U angles. 




HrXAGVNIA (jnootany). Anorderof 
^ A.-iU. which ha ve si n sty lev in the rlowers. 

lli;.\A.\IK'rKK (III I'oetry). A verse 
consHiini! of six feet. 

IIK.XANDKIA (in Rotany). Oneofthe 
l.iniiieaii chisses, comprelieHding those 
piaiils which have fix stamens in each 
n<'Wer, a-s the 'pineap|>le. bamboo, spider- 
won. Illy of tile valley, arrow gnua, &.C. 




RI?T). An abbreviation for bo|!!ihead. 

HIATUS. A gap or ctiastn in verses; 
■Isoany deficiency in a manuscript which 
fleslroys the connexion. 

IIIICOUCH. or lll<'Oi;P A conviil- 
•tve motion of (he stuiuuch 



IHP 

fflPE Mn Law. A portion of land, 
from Mill ti. I-.M) acres. 

il.DK tamoiiK Tuiiiiera). 'I'he skins of 
beiula alter lliey are taken otf. 

IIMlEB'iLi.Mi (in Farriery). A di8eaf<« 
III horses and cattle when the akin cleave* 
to tlie sides. 

lllllt;i)(iL'NI> (in Botany). A diwnji« 
III trees when tile bark cleavea tu lite 
wood. 

UlKR ARCHY. Church government, oi 
the subordination of rank among tlie dif- 
ferent orders of clergy. 

HIKROGLVPIIICS. Certain charac- 
ters, figures, or signs, made use of by th« 
Kgyptians instead of letters, toexpre.ss th* 
Conceptions of men, pailicularly the mys- 
teries of llieir religion. In ageneral sen.«e 
ail hieroglyphic is any .symbol or ligur* 
wli <h may serve to represent an object; 
thus lliea-strononiicalcliaraciersare many 
<if them of this nature, as the charactei 
tor Mercury, 5 , which is the ligure of hi? 
caduceus; that of .Mars, J , which in sup- 
posed to represent his shield anil spear; 
that of Saturn, l^ < which represents- hit 
sickle, Slc. 

HIGH.NESJS. In Europe, a title of hon- 
uui given tn a prince. 

Illiai-VVATER. When the tide is at 
its highest point. 

H1<;HVVAY (in I^w). a pnblicor free 
pa.ss.ige for tlie people. 

HIGIIWAVMK.V. Robbers on the high- 
ways. 

H'GLKR In England one who buys 
piiiiltry III the country, and carries them 
Dp to town. 

lll.Nll. The feiiLile of the stag. 

IM.N'UE. The iron work on which a 
door is made to turn. 

HIP. The upper part of the thigh. 

HlPHUPOTAiMl'S, or Th« Rtraa 
HuRiB. An amphibious creature found in 
the rivers of Africa. 




HIP-ROOP(ln Architecture). A parti- 
cular kind of roof, which has neither gaMs 
heads, shred heads, nor jerkin he.ads. 

IMPS (in Botany). The ripe fruit of 
the doerrtse, which is principally mad* 
into a sweetmeat 



HOM 

riRSTORV. In ii!> iiiosi gMiicral Minse, 
Ui account ur >lescri|ili>iii of oveiiU Had 
Uiiii|;s ill an orderly srrie!<,cuiii|>reliendiiig 
Civil ur i'(iliiic'4tl liislory, bacred History, 
Eccl«sia.stuMil H i:ilory . and Natural Histo- 
ry; III a particular 8t;ii!«e, a narrative of 
political eventti in the order of lime. 

lllsruRV (ill I'aintiiig). A picture 
coiupuc^d of divers*^ li<;iire8 or periioiuj, 
repreNeiaiiig Koine traiisacliuii, 

lirrc'li (among .Muriiii-ni). A sort of 
knot or uouse lor I'asteiiiug a rope tu any 
tiling. 

Ill V'l;. A lia.~kei or box, which g-'ves 
an a rece|iU':;le (or Lees. 

H. iM. ;S. Ill Kn",land, aa athrcviation 
for Her .Majesty's ti'^'p. 

HoBiiU.\'dCllUlCE. A by-word, sig- 
utfyiiig thai ur tniiie, taken from one Hol>- 
Soii, a livery-slalilt keeper at Caniliriiige 
England, who obliged hi8 custoinerti eith- 
er to take the horse that dtood next the 
■table door, or to go without. 

tiuUMA.V. A bricklayer's labourer. 

UUK. A husbaiiduian'8 tool for cutting 
up weeds. 

HUEl.NG (in Husbandry). The process 
•' citaiii't. the weeds with a hoe, and 
Breaking . c the earth on planted groiuid. 

HCHi. A doir.e.stic quadruped, very vo- 
raoioue end very prolific. 

riOGSHEAD (in Coniinerr*). A mea- 
sure of ca-jncily, containing txi gallons. 

HUL.I). The whole interior cavity or 
belly of the. ship, v^liere, in inerchaiiliiien, 
Uie goods Kte ooiiihionly slowed, 

HOI.LF.\ST. An iron book for fixing 
any thii^ xi a wall. 

HOI.'if.ACtivii. One of Lirnaeus's na- 
tural orders if plaiilK, including ohrubs 
and (teo/niiials. as rhiibarli, &v.. 

HULLuVV (in Archileclure). A con- 
cave moulding. 

HOLLY. A prickly shrub wliiclv forms 
an imper.fXjiJ'ie hedge. The vanegaled 
boUiea are reiiiark:>.lile for then iieauty ; 
•onie bear yellow herrieg, and others white. 

HOL.M-OAK. The evergreen oak. ' 

HOLY GHOST. The third person of 
the Holy Trinity. 

H0MA<;E. In England, lli« oath of sub- 
mission and loyalty, which the tenant, 
under the leudal system, used to take to 
bis lord ivheii first admitted to Ins land. 

Home, a sea phrase for the situation 
which belon;!s properly to the tackling or 
parts of the ve.s8«l, as liie anchor oiiiies 
home when it is draun oul of Uie groiiud. 

HOMICIDE (in Law). I'he caiisiim the 
death of a hniiinii creature, which is jiisll- 
ftable, if jusllIieU by unavoidable neccinilyi 
17 



HON 



193 



excui>Rhle if it happen.-i by misadventure ; 
and felonious if done wtthoni exciiae. 

HOiMILY. A plain discourse made to 
Uie people, instructing them in matiers oi 
religion 

HO.MOGtlNEAL (in Physiology) Of 
the same nature and properties as houtu- 
geneal particles. 

HO.N'E. A niie kind of whetstone used 
for selling ra/.ors. 

HONK V. A thick, viscid Hiiiil substance. 
collected by tlie l>ees from vegetables aioi 
tloweni. It IS disiiiigiiisiied inin ihiee 
kinds, namely, fiisi, the virgin honey, 
which is the first produce of the su ari,-!, 
I obtained oy draining from the combs 
without pressing; the second sort is tliickei 
than the first, and is procured by pressure : 
the third is the worst sort, which IS extracted 
by heating tlie combs over ttie lire, and 
then pressing them. In the flowers of plants, 
near the basis of the petals, are certain 
glands ooniaiiiing a sweet Juice, which the 
bees suck up by means of their proboscM 
or trunk, and, flying with it to their hives, 
discharge it again from tlie stomach ilirougk 
the mouth into some of the cells ol the 
comb. I'his honey Is destined for the foo>l 
of the young, but, in hard seasons, the bees 
are sometimes reduced to the iiecessiiy of 
feedingon it themselves, and die of hunger 
after they have eaten it all up. In Kraii'e, 
a good swarm of bees will yield, in two 
years, nearly thirty pounds of lioiiey ; bm 
honey is most abundant in the islands of 
the Archlpelago,and other coniilnes whii h 
abound with flowers throiighoiil Ihe yea/ 
rroiii honey is made the strung liijuor 
called mead. 

HONEY-HAG. The stomach of tht; bee, 
i which IS the reservoir of the honey. 

HONKY-CO.MB (ui Husbandry). The 
I rsj-osilory wImcIi the bees make in the hive 
I for saving their honey in. 

HONEY-CO.MH (in Gunnery). A flaw 
in the metal of a piece of ordnance, wlieo 
it IS badly cast. 

HO.NKY-OEW. A sort of mildew of* 
sweet taste, found early in the iiiurniug on 
plant.-<, flowers, &c. 

HONEY-FLOWER (In Botany). A 
plani having the apfiearance of a shrub, 
and tiearing spikes of chocolnte-coloiireu 
flowers 111 -May, in each of which a quan- 
tity of black sweet liquor is found 

HONEY-SUCKLE (in Botany). A shrut 
with a climbing stalk, the flowers of whick 
forir A tube in the shape of a huntsman's 
horn. They are produced In clusters, ami 
are very sweet. 

HONl SOIT QUI MAL Y P£.\&fo 



194 



HOP 



In England, the inotio ot the order of the 
Uarier, xigiiil'yiii)!, Evil be tu him that 
evil ihiiiks. 

Mi).\t)i;R. [ii England, the most noble 
part III sejjiiuiries. 

HU.NMIJ R (ill Military AfRiirs). External 
iiiirk.s (if luiiDiiir paid t(i superior otticers. 

HOMJL'R COURTS. In Kiigland, courts 
held within the bounds of an honour. 

HONOUR, Maids of (in Court Eti- 
quflle). In England, ladies in the queen's 
hoiisoiidid, who attend the queen when 
she };iip3 out. 

HONOURS OF WAR. Honoursble 
terms granted to a vampiislied enemy, 
when he is permitted to march out oi a 
town with all tiie insignia of military 
etiquette. 

IIO< )r). An upper covering for the head 
of a \v iiiiiaii. 

Ilool) (at the University). In Enulaml, 
an ornamental fold that liani;s down liie 
back of a ^adiiate, to mark hi.i depree. 

HOOF. The horny part of the fiMit of'a 
horse or other cattle. 

llooK. A lieiided iron lo '.lans thins? 
iiiHiii ; also a bent piece of iren or wire 
atia' lied lo a fisliinj!-rod for caf-hing fish. 

IU)OP, or HOOPOE. A bird iniiabit- 
iiig Euru|)e, Asia, and Africa, W£.:ch is 
■ulit»ry and migratoiy 




HOP. A plant with a creeping ivoc, 
the st.<ilks of which climb and twist about 
wli:uever is near them ; wherefore, in hop 
(;i.. ind*, poles are fixed near to the plant 
fur tliein to rise upon. Hups are said to 
liiive been intnxtiu-ed into England from 
It-f Netherlar-ds in the sixteenth century : 
Ilicy art- priiiripally used to boil up with 
liet-r. III order to prevent it from turning 
si'iir, and lo give it a strengthening quality. 
Ili<|is reijiiire to he planted in o[)en sitiia- 
lii'ii<, and in a rii:h strong ground. The 
wo liest .sort.'" are the white and the gray 
;inil. These ghmilil be planted in hills 
»bc>iil eiaht or nine feet nsiinder. About 
ijMt Wgintiing of July hups begin to Wi>w. 



HOR 

iu»d are .ead;- to gather about th» latin 
end of Augu.st, when, by their strong sct^iit, 
tlieir hardness, and the brown coloiti of th« 
seed, they may be known to be tit. Th« 
be.st method of drying hops is on a kiln 
over a charcoal lire ; wlien the stalks are 
brittle, and the top leaves easily fall off, 
they are properly dried. VVIwii taken from 
the kiln, they should be laid to cool for 
three weeks or a month before they are 
• teed. 

iOHfZO.\ (in Astronomy). A great 

I ci.vle ol ihe sphere, which divides it into 

ip.er anil ;<wer hemispheres. I'he appa- 

: r<ii- or seiisiole hori/.oii is that circle of 

I ;h«- h»'avt:is wht;.a hounds the view of the 

nnaerver, in disiii.ciVn from the rational 

or real hori/on, w;.ich is a circle enconi- 

piLssiiig tlie eaiih t.xactly in the middle. 

It is represented in the globes by the 

wo<Hlen frame which contains the globe. 

HORN (in Natural History). Tl>e hard 
pointed bodies whicn grow on the heads 
of some gritnivorous animnts, and serve 
eillier for defence or ornament •, also the 
.^lender iiodies on the hentls of nisecls, &6. 

IHjRX (in Chemistry). Is mo.stly com- 
posed of albumen, gelatin, and phosphate 
of lime, hut the horns of the buck and 
.stag are of an intermediate nature between 
horn and bone. 

IIORM (III .^lusic). A wind instrument, 
chiefly ii><-il in hunting am) in tlie chase. 

HOR.MJE.A.M. A tree that has leavea 
like the elm or beech tree ; it was formerly 
u.sed in he dgerows. 'J'lie timber is very 
tough and ;nlleilhle. 

MORiNBLCNDK (in Mineralogy). A 
7nrt of slaty stone, of a green and blackish 
g.-»-.en colour. It is a very abundant inin- 
«ial. 

.'iL RiV B' »OK. The first book for ehil- 
.'.'«i, contiiining the alphabet, which wa» 
i t-.Tic'iy covered with trans|>arent horn. 
I HtJkNE'J'. A lar<:e, stroll", and stingini* 
1 'it*ct, of the wasp kind. 

HORN-ORE (in Mineralogy). One ol 
the S|>ecies of silver ore. 

HORNPIPE. An animated sort ot 
dance. 

H(jR.\-STONE. A species of niiil. 

HOR.WVORK 'in Fortification). An 
outwork which advances toward.* the field. 

HOROLOGY. The science which treate 
on the meiisiiring of portions of time. Tlie 
principal instruments used in the mea.siir- 
ing of time are dials. clepsyilr<e or water- 
clocks, clocks, watches, and in some casef 
also hour-glasses. 

The dial was doubtless one of the first 
instruments rontri veil for the measiiringof 
time bv means of the sun. The first jn 



HOR 

Upcorti is the dial of Aha/ mentioned in 
(aninh. This kiiij; he;:»n lu n;i!!ii 4U0 
yvara before Alexander, and \iilliiii IQ 
yearn of the hiiildin" of Koine. 'I'lie Jhal- 
dee historian Iterosiis is saiil to have i;on- 
Etnicted a dial on a recliiiiiii: plane ahimiit 
parallel to the equator. Aristarcniis the 
Sainean, Thales, and oMiers are also incn- 
tioneil as the makers of dials. The first 
sun-dial at Rome wa.s set np liy fapiriiis 
Cursor in the 460th year of the hiiililing 
of the city. The subject of iliallihi;, or of 
niakiiii! dials, has particularly occupied 
the attention of ntatheinaticians within 
the last tlire* centuries. Clavius is the first 
pr<ifessed writer on the subject. Deschales 
and U/.anani in their Courses, and Wolfms 
in his Elements, havesiinplitied thescience. 
M. Picard ;:ave a new method of niakin;; 
large dials by calculating the hour lines, 
and De la Hire, in his Dialling, gave a 
geometrical method of drawing hour lines 
from certain points determined by obser- 
vation. 'J'he method of drawing primary 
dials on easy principles is to he found in 
the Dialling of Everliard VValper, and the 
Riidiinenta .MalhematicaofScliastiaii .Mon- 
ster. Among the more modern treatises on 
this subject may be reckoned that id' Wells 
in Ills Art of i;hadows, KVrgu.son In his 
Lectures cm Mechanic*, Kmersini in his 
Dialling, Leadbetter in his .Mechanic Dlal- 
.ing, Mr. VV. Jones in his Instriimenlal 
Dialling, and Bisliop Horsley in his Mathe- 
matical Tracts. 

Scipio Nasica was tlie first who con- 
structed the clepsydra, although it is 8U|>- 
posed to iiave been invented by tlie Egyp- 
tians under the Ptolemies about 150 years 
before the Christian era. They serve ff)r 
measuring time in the winter, as the sun- 
dials do in the summer ; but they had two 
great defects : the one, that the water ran 
out with greater or less facility, as the air 
was more or less dense ; and the other, 
that the water ran more readily at the 
beginning than towards the conclusion. 
The Egyptians, by this machine, measured 
the course of the sun ; and Tyclio Brahe, 
in modern times, made use of it to mea- 
sure the motion of the stars, &,c. Dudley 
also used the same contrivance in making 
all his maritime observatiims. 

The invention ol clocks has been ascribed 
to differen* authors ; namely, to Hoetius in 
tlic sixth I entiiry, to Paciticiis, Archdeacon 
of Verona, and to Silvester in the textli 
century. 

HORoMETRY The art of mejusuring 
boiirs 

IHHJOPTER (in f)ptlcs). A right line 
Imwn through the (nMiit wliere the two 



HOR 



195 



optic axes meet, |)arallel to that whick 
joins the two pu|ils. 

HOROSCOPE (in the exploded Science 
of Astrology) The degree or point ot ilie 
horizon rising above tiie eastern jtoint uf 
the horixun at any given time, when z 
prediction was to be made of a future 
event ; also a scheme or figure of the 
twelve hou^<s. 

HORSE. A domestic animal, that excels 
all others in beauty and usefulness. The 
most esteemed breeds of liorses are, the 
Burbary or Arabian horses, remarkable 
for their fleetness ; the English racehorse 
and hunter, which combines beauty with 
s^viftness; and the English draught- horses 
which are distinguished for their si/.e and 
strength, &c. There is no creature so 
valuable as the horse, and none that often- 
times fares worse. The age of a horse 
under eight years old is mostly to lie known 
by his teeth. The horse has twenty-foui 
grinders ; four tushes, or single teeth ; aiiii 
twelve front teeth, or gatherers. Mares in 
general have no tushes. The black mark 
or cavities denoting the age, are to be 
found in the corner front teeth, adjoining 
the tushes. At four years and a half idd. 
the mark teeth are just visible above the 
gum, and the cavity is distinctly to be seen. 
At five, the remaining colt's teeth are shed, 
and the tushes appear. At six. the tnshes 
are up, and appear white, small, and sharp, 
with a small circle of flesh growing near 
them; the horse's month is then ik)inpleted 
the corner teeth being filled up At eigttf 
the black marks disappear. 




HORSE (in Military AITaira). A body 
of horsemen. 

Hf)RSE (amoim Carpenters). A frame 
or trestle on which boards or planks are 
laid to be cut and otherwise worke<l. 

HORSE (ainmig I'rinters). A stnee on 
which pre.ssinen set their heaps of paper 
for priiiliiig. 

HORSE. A sea term for a rope made 



(94 



HOK 



f;isi t<i une ol llie slirouiis, having a dead 
ni:iil'!i eye al tlir end 

HOKj^E-liliA.N'. A sniaU beaii usually 
givra tu liurses. 

HORSE-BREAKEK. One who hreaks 
in yoiin-; horses, uiiil tila them lor mm. 

HORSE-CMESI'MJT. A tree, which 
yields u prickly mil. 

HORSEUEALER. One whohuys horses 
to sell iJteni again. 

nORt-E- DOCTOR. One who iindtrtakes 
to cure liie diseases ol" horses. 

HORSE-LEECH. A large sort of leech 
that fastens on liorsea. 

HORSEM.\N. One skilled in ridiiij!. 

HORSEMANSHIP. The an of riding 
and managin;; horses. 

HORSERACE. A match of iiomes in 
running. 

HORSESHOE (in Sinithery) A circu- 
lar piece of iron tilted to the t'<H>t of a horse. 
This shoe is sometimes turned up in the 
winter season, to prevent the horse from 
slipping : this is called rough-shoeing. As 
ail improvement upon tins sort of shoeing, 
the clips have lieen made removeable at 
DleaMire by means of a (crew 




HORSESHOE (in Fortification). A 
work, sometimes of an oval figure, raised 
in marshy grounds. 

HORSESHOEING. The fitting and 
nailing a shoe to a horse's foot. 

HORTICULTURE. The art of culti- 
vating a garden, and rearing the finest 
kinds of plants. 

HORTUS SICCUS. Literally, a dry- 
garden ; an appellation given to a collection 
of specimens of plants carefully dried and 
preserved. Various methods have heen 
adopted by botanists for obtaining a hortiis 
siccus ; but that of pressing the plants, that 
are to be dried, in a box of sand or with 
a hot smoothing iron, has been recom- 
mended. If pressure be employed, that is 
bustetTected liy means of a botanical press 
made for the piirpuse, in which the plants 
«re put, with sheets of dry paper between. 
At first they ought to be pressed gently, 
and occasionnt ly taken out in order to see 
thai none of the leaves are rumpled or 
folded. A i they continue to dry, the pres- 
wire may be increased. When they are 
•utiicieiiily diteil, ihty may be taken out 



liOU 

and laid on dry pajier. Plants that are 
succiileiil re(iiiire a Innserand harder pre* 
sure, t'li' tor 'he most part three days' 
pres.-5Ure is sutticienl. 

HOSANNA. A sulenin acclain;itior. used 
by the Jews in the Eeast of 'I'aliernacles. 

HOSE (aiming Marineisi. A leathern 
tube for roiiveyiiig water from the main 
decks into the cisks. 

HOSIERY. Stockings, and other goods 
in a shop that are *pun or wove. 

HOSPITAL. A house, erected out of 
charity, for the support and relief of the 
sick and poor 

HOSPITALLERS. An order of knights 
who built an hospital at Jerusalem for the 
entertainment of pilgrims. 

HOST. The consecrated wafers in the 
Roman Catholic communion 

HOSTAGE. A person lell as a surety foi 
the perfnrmanceorthe articles of a treaty 

HOTBEU. A lied made in a wooden 
frame with horse-dung, and covered with 
glasses, for raising early plants. 

HOTCH-POT. Pr(.(K'ly, tiesh cut into 
small pieces, and stewed with herbs and 
'ools; in Law, In England, the putting 
lands together, that belong to coparceners, 
for the purpose ofdislriliulingthem eipially. 

HOTHOUSE. A building, construrted 
in a garden, for the rearing of exotics and 
tender plants that require heat. 

HOUND. A kind of 8|iorling dog, having 
pendulous ears, and very siruug aceat. 




HOUND'S TONGUE. A plant culti- 
vated in gardens, bearing a pink flower. 

HOUR. The twenty-fourth part of a 
natural day; the space of sixty ininiites 

HOUR-GLASS. A ghiss for measuring 
the hours by the running of the sand fro.n 
one part of the vessel to another. 

HOUSE. A building, constructed with 
all ccmveniences for hubiiation. 

HOUSE (among Genealogists). A noble 
family, or an illustrious race descended 
from the same stock. 

HOUSE (in Astrology). The twelftb 
part of the heavens. 

UOUSEIIULU The whole of a rAiuily 



HUR 

HOUR CIRCLE. In cosmography, a 
term applied to any great circle that 
passes through the twu poles; the hour 
of the day being known when that circle 
is ascertained upon which the sun is for 
the time being. Hour-circles are drawn 
on the globe at l.^'' distant from each 
other on the equator. 



HOWITZER. A kinrtot mortar, mount- 
ed upon a carriage like a -run. 

nOV. A small vessel for carrying pas- 
sengers from one place to another. 

HUE AND CRY (in Law). The com- 
mon law process of pursuing n felon. 

HUUUE.NOrS. The Protestants of 
France, so called hy way of ctmieinpt in 
the sixteenth century. 

HULK. Any old vessel that is laid by, 
unfit for furtlier service 

HULKS. Old vessels, stationed in the 
river Thames, in P^nglund, wherein con- 
victs are kept to hard labour. 

HULL. The main body of a ship. 

HU.M.MINC BIRD. The smallest of all 
birds, which extiacts the nectar from the 
flowers with a humming noise like 'hat of 



H YD 



197 




rfUMOURS OF THE EYE. Are three; 
namely, llie aqueous or watery humour, 
which lies in the fore part of the glohe ; 
the crj'stalline, or icy, next to the .mpieous ; 
anil the vitreous or glassy humnur, wliirli 
is larger than the^ rest, atid tills the back- 
ward cavity of the eye 

IIUNKKKD. A number consisting of 
ten nuiltiplied by ten. 

HUNDRED (in Law). A part of a shire 
or county, which formerly ciuisisted often 
tithini!s. or ten times ten households. 

HUREALITE, A crystidlized mineral, 
with a vitreous lustre, whose constitu- 
ents are phosphoric acid, piotoxidc of 
iron.protoxide of manganese, and water 

HURONITE. The name ol a yellowish- 
green mineral which occurs in boulder 
stones in the neighborhood of Lake 
Huron; its constituents are silica, al- 
umina, protoxide of iron, lime, mag 
nesia, and water: sp. gr. 2'86: H = 225. 

HURRICANE. A storm of wind, fre- 
quent in the East and West Indies, whicli 
•rises frcun the conflict uf opposite winds. 



HUSBA.NDRY The practical part of 
agriculture 

HUSH-.MONEY on Law) A bribe 
given to a persun not to reveal »oniellimg 
to which he is privy. 

HUSSARS. Hungarian lidrsnuen, saia 
to be so c-tlled from the liu/./.u ur sIhmii 
which they gave at tlie onset in batli-s 

IIV.\Cli\TH (in Botany). A bulbous 
plant, the leaves of which are long and nar- 
row, the stalk upriglit and naked, and the 
Mower growing on the upper pait of a spike. 
IIY.\C1NT11 (in Minerali.gy). A sort 
of pellucid gem of a red colour with a 
mixture of yellow. 

Hy.\DES. A cluster of live stars In the 
face of the constellation Taurus. 

HY^^NA. A ferocious beast, nearly al- 
lied tolhe wolf and dog. It infests burying 
grounds, and seizes whatever comes in its 
way. 

HYBRID. An epithet for any animal 
whose sire is of one kind, and dam nf 
another kind. 

HYDATID. An animal substance, in 
shape like a bladder, and disien<le<l with 
an aqueous fluid, w lilch grows in the vis- 
cera of the hiiiiiaii body. 

HYDRA. A fabulous monster withinany 
heads, that is said tu have infested the lake 
Leonu^a. 

HYDRA (in Astronomy). A southern 
constellation. 

HYDRA.V'UEA. A greenhouse plant, 
bearing a flower with a lariir lieail. 

HYDRATE (In Modern Cbumislry). 
The combination of water with orliel 
bodies In a solid state, as slarked lime 
which, being a combination of lime and 
water, is a hydrate of lime. 

HYDRAULK.UN, or W.tkr-Oko*.^ (in 
.Music) All instrument acted upon by wa. 
ler. 

HYIiRAI'MCS. That part of statics 
whicli treats of the motions of tluida, par- 
ticularly of water issuing from orifices in 
reservoirs, or moving pipes, tubes, canals, 
rivers, &.C. .Aiiiong the inacliines which 
serve for the display of the phenomena of 
hyilraulics, are the syphon, the piiinp, ai.4 
the tire-engine. Among the nioilerns, tiie 
terms |I\ ilraulics and llydrodyiiainics dre 
employed indifl'erenlly to denote this sci- 
ence See II YURoDYriAMict. 

HYDRonYNAAIICS. Is properly that 
science which treats of the power or force 
of waier, whether it acts by impulse or 
pressure , but in an extended sense, it iM 
that branch of mechajiics which trbata of 
the motion of liquids or nonelastic fluids, 
and the forces with which lliey act ua 
other bodies 



»8 



HYD 



IIVDRODYNAMICS, History of. A1- 
thiiugli the ddctriiie of lluids and their 
motion la but parti:illy treated by the an- 
cients, yet, as respects the action of water 
in rivers, fonntaiiis, and a(|ne<lucts, it is 
Mrtain that tlicy must have had a consi- 
deralde portion of practical knowledge. 
Aristotle treats on the natnre of subterra- 
neous waters, as also of those which are 
ahove. Hero of Alexandria made an arti- 
flciai fountain, which hears his name. The 
Uonians displayed theii acquaintance with 
the art of carrying waters, in their famous 
aqueducts) and Krontinus, an engineer, 
who wrote on this subject, has given some 
fewrulesand hints on the motion of lluids. 
It is, however, only within the three last 
centuries, tli.it tliis subject has attracted 
any particular notice. Benedict Uastelli 
Wits the first who, in his treatise Dell' 
Aiiiesiiradell' Ac<iueCurren I i, investigated 
the ine:isure of the dux of waters, which 
t.v- found to depend upon tlie area of the 
section and the velocity of the water con- 
jointly, i^ince his time, many discoveries 
and theorems have lieeii made on tlie uiu- 
tioiis of fluids by Sir Isaac Newton in his 
Principiaj Daniel Rernonilli, in his ily- 
drodynamlque; D'.VIembert, in his 'l'rait6 
des F'luides; .\1. Rossiit, in his Mydrody- 
namiqne; .M. I!uai, in his I'rincipes d'ily- 
draulique; and .M. Eytelwein, in his lland- 
bucli der Mechanik iind der ilydranlik. 

IIYI)ll()(;i-:.\ (;AS. a ctmstituent of 
water and the li<>hlesl species of ponder- 
able mutter liillierto known, which was 
discovered by Mr. Cavendish in ITGii. It 
is an intlainmahle air, or an invisihleaeri- 
forni fliiid, whicli burns rapidly when kin 
died, in contact with atmospheric air, and 
forms what are now termed gas-lights. 
When combined with oxygen, it produce* 
water. It is iinht for respiration, so that 
animals, when obliged to breathe it, die 
almost immediately. 

HYDRO«llAPIIY. A description of 
rivers, bays, lakes, and other pieces of 
water. 

HYDROLOGY. That part of natural 
history which treats of and explains the 
nature ami properties of waters in general. 

HYDRO.METKR. An instrument for 
measurine the density and gravity, &,c. of 
water and other liipiids. That which is 
designed simply for;i.scertaining thespecif- 
c gravity of different waters is more com- 
monly called an aerometer or waterpoise, 
the term hydrometer being more commonly 
used todenotean instrument for measuring 
the specific gravity of spirits, thoiigli some- 
times used indifferently for eillier. Dr. 
Wesagnliers contrived an hydrometer for 



HYD 

determining the specific gravities of differ 
eiii waters to such a nicety, that it would 
show when one kind of water was but the 
40,(ll)lltli part heavier tlian another. 

IIVDRUxMliTRY. The meii.suralion of 
fluids, as to their density, gravity, &»< 

IIVDROl'lloRlA, i. e. A Dread of 
Water. A distemper arising from the Dite 
ofa mad dog, which isalwaysaccompaiiied 
witli a liornir of water and otiier liquids 

H YUKOSCORE. An instrument an- 
ciently used for the measuring of time 

HYDROSTATICAL BALANCE. A 
kind of balance contrived for the find ig 
the specific gravities of bodies soUl ta 
well as fluid. 




HYnROSTATICAl. BELLOWS. A 
machine for showing the upward pressure 
of fluids, and the hydrostatical paradox 




HYDRO.«TATlCAL PARADOX A 
principle in hydrostatics, so called because 
it has a paradoxical ap[.earanie at first 
view; it is this, that any quantity of water 
or other fluid, how small soever, may be 
made to balance and support any quantity 
or any weight, however great it may be. 

HYDROSTATICS. The science which 
treats of the laws regulating llie motions, 
pre.ssiire. gravitation, and equilibrium of 
fluid bodies, particularly water, and also 



•fsolid bo;f":e8 inimrrged therein. This 
•ciciicv U divided into three bniiicheii, 
(liinifly, hydriK«t;itics, pmperly so lutled, 
which treats ot° t]uid.s ill an e<)iiilihiiiiiii, 
their density, gravity, Slc; liydruulics, 
which treats of tluids In a slate orinnlion; 
and piieiiin.'ilics, which treats of elastic 
Hinds These two last liranches will lie 
fdiiinl explained in their respective places. 
'J'he hrst branch of hydrostatics eiieaged 
Ciic atteiitiim of Archimedes, who appears 
to nave hrst attempted to determine the 
•pecilic gravity of bodies, in consequence 
of the following circiiiiistance. Iliero, 
king III Syracuse, haviiis reason to suspect 
tliat a goldsmith, whom lie employed to 
make him a crown ol gold, liad adulterated 
it with a quanlily of silver, he reijuesled 
Archimedes to detect the cheat. Accord- 
ingly this philosopher procured two masses 
of gold and silver of equal weight witli 
the crown, uhlch lie iiniiiersed in a vessel 
full of water, at the same time carefully 
noticing the quantity of water which each 
displaced; after which he immersed the 
crown of gold also in (he same vessel, and 
by cumparing the quantity of water which 
flowed over each time, he was enabled to 
ascertain the proportions of gold and silver 
ill the crown, lie is said to have been 
leil to (his idea by observing on one occa- 
sion, whilst he w:is bathing, that as he 
iiiiiiierged his body, the water ran over 
till- bath, whence he concluded that the 
water which ran out when his whole body 
was iminerged was equal ill bulk to liis 
body; and on the same principle lie oin- 
sidt-red that if (he crown were altogether 
of gold, the ball of gold, being of the 
same bulk as the crown, would, when 
immersed, niise the water just as high as 
the crown immersed, but if it were wholly 
of Sliver, the ball of silver being immersed 
Would raise the water no higlier than the 
crown immersed; and if the crown was of 
gold and silver mixed in a certain propor- 
tion, this proportion would l>e discovered 



ICH 



199 



by the height to which the crown would 
raise tlie water higher ihaii tlie gold and 
lower than the 'silver. 'J'he authors who 
have treated further on thissubject tnay b« 
found under tile article llyuKoDTMAMii-t. 

HVOKoMK'i ER. An insirument for 
measuring the itegree of moisture and dry 
ne.ss of the atmosphere 

HY.ME.N'. 'J he gild of marriage. 

HYMENOn ERA. Anonler of insectt 
in the i.innu;an system, having membra 
naceous wings, as the »all-i:y, the saw-tly, 
the bee, the wasp, the ichneuiiioii, jcc 

HYl'ERBULA. One of (he curves 
formed by cutting a cone obliquely to its 
axis; and if the plane be produced sou 
to cut the opposite cone, another hyiier 
bola will be formed, which is called ttM 
opposite hyperbola to tlie former 




HYPERBOLE. An exaggerated repre- 
sienladon of any thing. 

HYI'(K:llO.\DRIAt;. One troubled 
with (lie spleen or melancholy. 

II Y !•< )TH E.NX'SE. 'ihe loiigest side of 
a right angled triangle. 

HYPuTHliS;t:. A principle taken for 
granted, in order to draw conclusions 
therefrom for tlie proof of a point in 
question 

HYSSOP. A plant with long narrow 
leaves, bearing a Gre.>t of rtnwers. It is 
doubtful whether this be the liyssop men- 
tioned in Scripture. 

HYSTERICS. Spasmodic, convulsive 
affections of the nerveji, to which women 
are particularly subject 



, the ninth letter of the alphabet, nsed as 
A numeral signifies one, and stands for 
iiiy numbers of units as often as it is re- 
peated, as II, two. III, tliiee, &.C. When 
placed befnre a higher numeral, it dimi- 
nishes it by one, as IV, four, IX, nine; 
»nd when after, it increa-'Jes it by one, as 
XI. eleven, XII, twelve, XIII, thirteen, 
tc. 
tA.\rBl«? VERSE. Verws composed of 



iambic feet, that M, a short and a long foot 
alternately. 

IBIS. A bird like a slork, which was 
worship|ied in Egypt. 

ICKHOI'SE. A hoii<e in whirli ice la 
deposited against the warm iiiKiiths. 

ICH UIE.N, i. e I serve. Ilie motto on 
the arms of the I'mue i.f \\ airs in Eug- 
land, hrsl taken by Edwaid lae Blac> 
Prince. 



200 



ICH 



IB. IBID, or IBIDKM. The same 
lUEX. An European variety uf die 
goat with very lung burna 




ICHNEUMON. An Egyptian animal 
•f the weasel k ind that feeds upon the eggs 
•f the crocodile. 




ICHNEUMON (in Entomology). A 
■ort of fly, which deposits its eggs in the 
bodies of other insects. 

ICHN0(;RAPHY (in Architecture). 
The ground plan of a liiiilding. 

ICHNOGIIAPHY (in Fortification). A 
draught of the Ii-ngtU and lireadth of the 
works raised ahout a place. 

ICHTHVOLOGY. That hranch of gene- 
ral zoology which treats of fishes. These 
animals are divided into five orders, name- 
ly, into apodal, or those which have no 
ventral fins; jugular, which have the ven- 
tral fins placed more forward than the 
pectoral; alidominal, or those which have 
the v;ntra! fins situated behind; thoracic, 
or those which have their ventral fins situ- 
ated immediately under 'lie pectoral; and 
tne cartilaginous fishes, whicli have a car- 
tilaginous instead tif a bony skelelmi. 

ICHTHYC)I,(MJV, IIisVoBv of. The 
subject of fishes has engaged the attention 
of naturalists from the time of Aristotle to 
the present period Aristotle, probably the 
first writer on the subject, divided fishes 
Into cetaceous, spinose, and cartilaainoua; 
ae was, after a lone interval, followed by 
•everal others, who treated of the fishes of 
MrlicitUii places, as Uvid, who truals of 



I IIS 

the fishes of the Euxine, Appian of thofw 
of the .\driaiic, and Ausoiiius of those of 
the Moselle, &,c. ; among the moderns there 
are also some who liave treated this subject 
partially, its I'aul Joviiis, who described 
the fishes of the Mediterranean, Schwenk- 
fell those of 5-ilesia, Schonefelt those of 
Hamburgh, Marcgrave the fishes of Hra/.il, 
Russell and Trancis Valentine those of 
Amboyna. I'liiiy was a general writer 
on the subject, and pursueil no method; 
>!-;iian and Alheiueiis have only scattered 
notices of some few fishes. Among liia 
moderns, Belloiiius, Koiideletius, Gesner, 
W'illughby, Kay, Artedi, and Liniia'us 
have done most towards reducing tins 
science to a systematic order. 

lUOSAMullA (in Botany). The twelfth 
class in the Linmean system, including 
plants with twenty stamens or more to 
their flowers, as the melon, Indian fig, 
pomegranate, |ilum, &,c. 




IC. In chemistry, a termination affixed 
to those acids which contain in combin- 
ation the highest known quantity of 
♦he acidifying prini'iple. 

ICE. Water or other liquid solidified 
by cold; water becoming solid at 32'^ 
Fahrenheit. Icebergs are vast bodies of 
ice, among the most remarkable of 
which are those of Spitzbergeu. Some 
of these icebergs are the creation of 
ages, and receive annually additional 
bulk by the falling of snow and oi rain, 
which often iustajiUy freezGS, and more 
than repairs the loss occasioned by the 
influence of the sun. Icefloe is an ag- 
gregated mass of floating ice, frequent 
in the northern seas, and very dang&r- 
ous to navigation. 

ICELAND SPAR. In mineralogy, a 
pure variety of calcareous spar or car- 
bonate of lime, remarkable lor its clear- 
ness, and thobeaufiiul double refrac- 
tion which it exhibits. 

ICE SPAK. A miueial of a whitish- 
grey color, consisting ol silica, alumina, 
potash, lime, peroxide ot iron, and 
water: sp. gr. i'.il; H =3. 

ICHNEUMONES. A tribe of paraniti- 
cal hymenopterous insects. 

ICHNITE8. In geology, fossil foot- 
prints of animals, lehnoliteis a stone 
retaining the impression of fossil foot- 
marks. 

1. 11. S. An abbreviation for Jesus Ilo 
niiniim Salvalor, i. e. Jesus the Saviour of 
Mankind. 



ICH 



IMP 



201 



ICHNOGEAPHT. In perspective, the 
view of unytliiug cut off by a plane par- 
allel to the horizon. In architecture, a 
transverse or horizontal section of a 
building, exhibiting the plot of the 
whole edifice, and 01 the several apart- 
ments in any story. Among painters 
the word is used to describe images or 
ancient statues of marbles and copper, 
of busts and semibusts, of paintings in 
fresco, or mosaic works. 

ICHNOLOGY. The science of fossil 
footprints. 

ICHOR. A thin and sanious fluid, 
which escapes from wounds or sores, 
«nd irritates or inflames the parts over 
which it flows. 

ICHXHVOCOIXA. ITie scientific name 
of isinglas.s, a very j)ure form of gela- 
tine, prepared from certain parts of the 
entrails of several fish. Good isinglass 
is free from smell or taste, and perfectly 
Boluble in boiling water. 

10HTHYOL.ITE. A stone containing 
the petrifaction of a fish or any of its 
l)art8. 

ICHTHTOLOGT. The science or 
knowledge of fishes; that department of 
natural history which treats of the 
structure, habits, and classification ot 
fishes. Ichthyotomy, the anatomy of 

ICHTHYOPHTHALMITE. A mineral 
of pearly lustre; the fish-eye stone. 

ICHTHYOSIS. In pathology, a rough- 
ness and thickening of the skin, por- 
tions of which become scaly, an occa- 
sionally corneous, ^yith a tendency to 
excrescences. 

ID^, or IDES. A Greek termination, 
employed in natural history to denote a 
certain order or class of animals to 
which the termination idse or ides is af- 
fixed. 

IDE. In chemistry, a termination for 
certain compounds which are not acid; 
as oxides, chlorides, &c. 

IDEALISM. In metaphysical science, 
the theory or system which makes 
everything consist in ideas, and denies 
the existence of material bodies. Ideo- 
logy is a treatise on ideas, or the science 
of mind. 

IDIOIiECTRIC. Having the property 
of manifesting electricity on friction. 

IDIOPATHY. In pathology, a primary 
disease, not consequent on other mor- 
bid aflfeotions. 

IDIOSYNCRASY. In physiology, a pe- 
culiarity of temperament or constitu- 
tion, which predisiwses persons to the 
attacks of certain disorders from which 
others are exempt. 

IDEOLOGY. A treatise on ideas, or the 
doctrine of ideas; the science of mind. 

IDES. In the ancient Roman Calendar, 
the 15th day of March, May, July, and 
October, and the 13th day of the other 
months. 

mOCRASE. A mineral of various 
fliiades of brown and green, with a vit- 



reouB lustre, consisting of silica, alu- 
minia, protoxide of iron, lime, and mag- 
nesia: sp. gr. 3-34; H = 6. 

IDRIALINE. A mineral substanoe, 
composed of 18 parts of carbon and 1 of 
hydrogen. 

ION IS FATUUS. A luminous meteor 
seen in summer nights in marshy 
places; Jack -a-lantern; Will- with- the- 
wisp. 

IGUANIDiE. A family of Saurian rep- 
tiles, of which Iguana is the type and 
genus. 

IGUANODON. In geology, an extinct 
Saurian reptile of enormous size. The 
remains ot one discovered in Tilgate 
I'orest measured 70 feet Irom the snout 
to the tip of the tail; the head was 4f^ 
feet in length; the tail, 13 feet; height 
of the body, 9 feet; its circumlerence, 
U^i feet; length of the thigh and leg, 8 
feet two inches. (Dr. Mantel). The 
Wealden formation, which contains the 
remains of these more than gigantic ten- 
ants of a former world", is overlaid by the 
chalk rocks of England, and is a fresh- 
water deposit. 

ILLUMIXATI. A sect of heretics, who 
sprung up in Spain about the year 1575; 
the name gis-eu to certain associations 
in modern Europe, who were said to 
have combined to overthrow the exist- 
ing religious institutions. 

ILMENITE. In mineralogy, a variety 
of iron ore, of a dark brown color, con- 
sisting of titanic acid, peroxide of iron, 
protoxide of iron, protoxide of mangan- 
ese, and magnesia: sp. gr. 4flli; H=5-75. 

IMMERSION. In astronomy, the dis- 
appearance of any cellestial object be- 
hind another, or its shadow. Thus, in 
the eclipse of one of Jupiter's sateUites, 
the immersion take place when the sa- 
tellite disappears behind the body of the 
planet, or enters into the planet's shad- 
ow; and in an occultation of a planet or 
fixed star by the moon, the immersion 
is the disappearance of the star or planet 
behind the body of the moon, and its 
reappearance is called its emersion. 

INALINE. A vegetable product, re- 
sembliug starch, obtained from the 
roots of Inulahelleniumby boiUng them 
in water. 

INCIDENCE. In dynamics and optics, 
the angle of incidence is the angle made 
by a ray of light falling on an object 
with a lino drawn perpendicularly to 
the surface struck 

IMPACT. In mechanical science, the 
action of one body upon another, to put 
the latter, if at rest, in motion, or if in 
motion, to increase, retard, or alter its 
direction. The point against which the 
impelling body acts is called the point 
of impact. 

IMPA8TATI0N. In sculpture, the mix- 
ture of diff'erent mattei^ bound together 
by means of cements, capable of resist- 
ing the action of fire or air. 



M2 



INC 



INCOGNITO, or INCO« (in Europe). 
Litenlly, iilikiiinvn, not tu be recognised; 
a niiide (if travelling witlioul niiy mark uf 
distinctiun, wlilcli is soniellnies adopted 
by princes and great people who do not 
wish tu be reoigliised. 

lA'CLlNEI) I'LANE (in Meclianics). 
A plane inclined to ttie borizon, or making 
•n angle with it, wliich is one uf the iiie- 
ciiauical puweis. 




mrOMBI'STIBI^. A body that U 
incapable of undergoing conibiislion. 

INCOMIM SI IBLK CLU'III. A sort of 
cloth made from a slune in the form of a 
talc; wliich stone is called lupis iimianlhus, 
and asbestos. 

INCO.MMKNSURABLE (in Geometry). 
A term a| plied to two lines or quantities 
which have no coninioii measure by wliicta 
they can be divided. 

INCORPORATION (in Law). The 
formation of a body politic. 

INCOKl'ORATION (in Chemistry). 
The mingling the particles of different 
bodies together into one mass, in such 
manner that the diflerent ingredients can- 
not be distinguished. 

INCREMENT (in Fluxion^). The small 
increase of a variable body. Dr. Brook 
Taylor, to whom we are indebted for the 
doctrineof increments or finite differences, 
denoted his increments by a dot under the 
variable <|uaiitity, thus the increment of j: 
was denoted by z: others have employed a 
■mall accent, thus r', or thus i. M. Nicole 
uses another letter to denote the increment 
of I, or any variable, as by n; but Euler 
employs the character A, thus Az the in- 
crement of r,and Ay the increment of y. 
Dr. Erook Taylor first published his Sle- 
thodiis Increinentonim in 171.'), which was 
afterwards illustrated by M. Nicole in the 
Memoirs of the Uoyal Academy of Sciences 
for the years 1717, 172:'., and 1724. In 
17£!, Kmerson published his method of 
Increments; but the writer who contri- 
buted most to the elucidation of this sub- 
ject was Ruler, who, in his Institutiimes 
Calculi Differentialis, pave a new and ex- 
tended form to this Iranch of analysis. 
Various other writers have since treated 
•n this subject, ainont whom Lacroix, in 
ais Traites des Differences, kc. istliought 
« have bei n the most happy. 

INIX'BATION. The priKiesg of a bird 
■lUing ;3 af^ii and hatching its young; 



IND 

the time required for this varies in dilTei 
em birds, domestic I'ou is sit three week* 
ducks, geese, and liirkeysaniuiilh, pigeoiui 
eighteen days, 6:.c. 

INCUBUS, or NiiiHT .Marc. A disease 
which consists in uii obstructed respira- 
tion, that irrodiices the scnsaiioii in sleep, 
of a weight pressing on thr brensi. 

I. NCI 'M KENT. One in present posse*- 
sion of a benefice 

INDECLINABLE. Not varied by ter- 
minations, as an indeclinable noun. 

INDEFINITE I'KONOLNS. Words 
that are louse and undetermined in their 
meaning, as whatsoever, any, every, &.C 
INDEMNITY (in Law). The saving 
harmless; or a writing to secure one from 
all damage and danger that may ensue 
from any act. 

ETDEHISCENT. In botany, applied to 
fruits which do not split open, as the 
apple. 

INDENTED. In fortifleation. Inlented 
line is a serrated line formiu ; several 
angles, so that one side defend ■« another. 
INDENTURE. A writing containing a 
contract, originally so calle.l from the 
two copies being indented to show their 
counecting . corresp judeuce with each 
other. 

INDETERMrNATE. In algebra, inde- 
terminate analysis is a brancli which 
has for its object the investigation of 
problems that admit of an iufi'.iito num- 
ber of different solutions. In letermi- 
nate coefficient is a method of analysis 
of very extensive apiJlication iu the 
higher mathematics. 

INDEX pi. INDEXES, an 1 in matl^- 
matics, INDICES, iu musx, a chiract^r 
or director at the en 1 of a stave fj direct 
to the first note of the nest st-ive. In 
arithmetic an;l algebra it is used as au 
exponent. In optics, it expresses the 
constant ratio which exists between the 
sines of the angles of incidence and ra- 
I'racti in. Index of a globe is a little style 
fitted on t'l the mrth pole, and turning 
round with it, piinting to certain flivi- 
Bions in the hour circle. 

INDIANITE. A greyish shining min- 
eral found in the Indian Carnatic, in 
masses of a foliated structure. 

INDIAN RUBBER CAOUTCHOUC. An 
elastic gum which exudes from a tree in 
South America. 

INDICATOR. Applied to the muscle 
which extends the forefinger- 

INDICOLITE. An indigo-colored min- 
eral, a variety of tourmaline or schorl, 
found in Sweden. 

INDIGOTIG. In chemistry, noting an 
acid obtained from indigo when it is 
gradually added to boiling nitric acid, 
previously diluted with 1'2 or 1.5 parts 
of watea. It forms flue colorless or yol- 
lowish-white needles. 
INDITED. In law, that is accused, 



INI- 

of (H>ine offence by bill preferred to jurors. 

I.NKICTIW.N, or Ctclb of Isdutiom 
(in Clironology). A mode of cuiiipuuiig 
tttiieby llies|Kice of fiflerii years, inslitiiled 
by C'oiislaiitiiie tlie(>real. 'I'lie poiiex, since 
tlie time of Cliarlein:i|!ne, have dated Ihrlr 
acts by the year of the iiidii tiuu, wliicli 
was fixed (HI the first of .laiiiiary. At the 
time of the reformation of the calendar ihe 
year ir>8'-2 w;is reckoned the tenth jrar of 
tne indirtion. Now tins date when divided 
by fifteen eaves a remainder seven, tlial is 
three less than the iiidictlon, and the same 
must necessarily be the case in all subse- 
quent cases, so tliat in order to find the 
Indiction for any year divide the date by 
fifteen and add three to Ihe remainder. 

I.M):CT.MK.N'T. A bill or accusation 
drawn up in form of law, and exiiihiting 
some offence, which is preferred to a 
grand jury preparatory to the trial in 
open court. 

INDIGENOUS. Native, as applied to 
animals and plants. 

INDIGO. A beautiful blue colour or 
dye procured from a plant called by the 
Americans, anil; in the Linniean sysiein, 
Indigofeni. The indigo used by the diers 
is a fa-cula procured from the leaves of 
the plant, which are laid in vaLs full of 
water, and left to ferment. 'Ihe liquor is 
tlien drawn off into another vat, and after 
having been well stirred up, it is drawn 
off. and what remains at the bottom is ex- 
posed to the air until it is thorouglily dry, 
when it is fit for use. The principal con- 
stituent parts of indigo are mucilaginous, 
resinous, and earthy matter, with some 
oxide of iron. 

lND<tU.<I.NG. :«ee F,?<i)ORsi?(o. 

IM)i;cTKJ.N Tin Kiialandi. I'lilting a 
clerk in p«KJsesslon of his living. 

IMHILTION (in I^.pic). A mode of 
arsuiiieiitation or reiusoning, when the 
S|iecies is gathered out of Ihe iiidi\ idiials, 
and the genus out of the s|>ecles. &c.: a.«, 
if it be true that all planets borrow their 
light from the sun, then, by indiirlion, it 
is true that Jupiter, .Mars, and eacli indi- 
vidual planet does Ihe same. 

I N D U l.G E N C I: S ( i n the Romish 
Church). I'ardons for sin, granted by the 
pope to such as profess to be iienitKiits. 

INKRTIA, or Vm Hertuj (in I'hysi- 
ology). A passive principle, supposed by 
Sir Isaac Newton to reside in bodies, by 
which they persist in their motion or rest, 
and receive motion accordinc to Ihe force 
impressed upon them, and resist as much 
M they are resisted 

I.N'FANT (in Law). Any penon under 
Um age of twenty -i(ue. 



ING 



201 



INFANTA. The title given to the eldest 
daughter of the king of Sp:iin or I'ortigal 

liNFA.NTK. The title given toihe eldest 
son of the king of Spain and Portugal 

INFAN TKV. The body of foot soldiers 

INFKCTIO.N. The coinniuii coition o' 
a disease by certain effluvia which tiy off 
from disteniprred bodies, or from good< 
that are infected. 

INFIMTESI.MALS. Indefinitely small 
parts. 

INFINITIVE .MOOD. The mood of a 
verb, 8<i named becau.se it is not limited 
by niiinber or person. 

I.NFiKMAKY. A place where the sirk 
poor are received, or can get advice and 
medicines gratis. 

INFLKCTION (in Opticsi. A multiplex 
refraction of the rays of light, caused by 
the unequal thirkness of any medium. 

INFLECTION (in Grammar). The 
change which a word undergoes in it* 
ending, to express case, number, gender, 
mtNid, tense, &.c. 

INFl.ECTIO.V, Point or (in Geome- 
try). A point where a curve begins to 
bend a contrary way. 

INFUtKESCKNCE. The manner in 
which plants Hower, or in whiih flowers 
are fastened to the stem by means of the 
peduncle. 

l.VFLUENZA. A sort of catarrh or 
disease from cold, so called, because it was 
sup|H>sed to be produced by the peculiar 
influence of the stars. 

IN FORMA PAUPERIS. See Form*. 

INFORMATION (in Law). An accu- 
sation or complaint exhibited ugaiiist a 
pers<m, for some criminal offt-nce. An 
information diflers Iroiii an inilictnient, 
in.-isiniirh as the latter is exhibited on Ihe 
oath of twelve men, but the information 
is only the allegation of the oflicer or in 
dividual who exhUiits it. 

INI'dRMEK (in l,aw.) One who give* 
information. |>articularly private iutorma- 
tlon, to a iiiaizi.stRite. 

I.NFUSIULE. Not to be fused, or made 
fluid. 

INFUSION. A method of obtaining the 
virtues of plants, riMiis, ice. by steeping 
tbein in a hot or cold liquid. 

INFUSORIA. One of the I.«nn*aD 
orders of animals, of the chiss vermes, in- 
cluding such as are simple, mi" roscoplt 
animalrulx found in stagnant water. 

INGOT. A wedge or bar of gold. 

INtJREDIENT. Any simple that enten 
into the composition of a compound medi- 
cine. 

INGRESS (in Astronomy \ The sun't 
entering into the first scruple of .^ries, ^lA. 



204 



I NO 



INS 



IMIKUI r.V.VCE (III ImW). 
tu a iiiuii ;iiitJ lilii iieirx. 

I.VJi:<, IIU.V OH Aiialoiiiy). 
tlir v«!M<eU iif . 
coliiuiril iiiiiltrr t' 



INQUIRY. The act of inquiring, warch 
for truth, infonnatioii, or knowledge; 
exaiiiiuation into lactH or ])riucipli;8, iii- 
'J"lie filling turrogatiou, Hcrntiny, investigation. 
In law, a Writ ol Inquiry in a writ di- 
rected to the slicriff, commanding him 
,.,,.,..,.,, V -1. ■ t;'«ii"""onu jury, and to inquire into 

l.\Jl,« llo.N ,11, .-.irttrry). I lie l..rcing |the amount ol damages due from the 



tteuii itiilijuct Willi any 
Ikivv iliKir riiiiitlicuiiiiiiii. 



Riiy li'^ulil intu the ImhI,« liy mean* uf a 
clyxtef. 

■ .Xri'lAI.**. I.4*(teni (iluct^d at the lie- 
(iiiiiiiigs of wiirdi) or mmiu-uckh. 

I.\JC\( l',o.\. A kind of prohibition 
griiiled py courlA of eiiulty, (iriiicqiully 
•,*ilh a view of preiierving property peiid- 
liiK a iiuit. 

I.VK. A black liquor for writing: ft is 
•oiiiriitiir* rrd, whrii it ii« called red ink. 
Ill;i<:k inn I* ••(' tlurr kiiiiU: iianii-ly, In- 
dian ink, made in l.'hiiia of laio|i-lila(.-k 
and *ii*; priiiler'n ink, ronipoM-d of nil 
and hiMipbluck tor the lihick ink. or of 
vernuliiin for the red ink, vvriliiiK ink, 
colli))'-!'-! of an iiifiiHioii nf niili-allri, aul- 
fdiaie of iron or cop|>«r diMnlvt-d in water, 
logwood, and gum arable. The red ink In 
compiMied o( llra/.il wikmI, cum, and alum. 
I.NK.tJTMi-ATHCTic. i^etsSr ur AiHKiic 
Ink. 

IM.AM). That placr which I* lituated 
in (he Interior of a c<iuairy, far Ooui the 
■facoHMt. 

I.NLA.M) BILLS (In Commerce). liilU 
payable In tho country where lliey un- 
drawn. 

INI-ANI) TKADK. Tmd« carried on 
within the coiiiilry, home trade, ai« oppo- 
•i-d to forirign Coinnierce. 

I.N LA VIN(; (aiii.ng .Mechanic*). Work- 
ing In wood or mvtal with (everal pit^cen 
of dltrrentcoloiiiKjCuriouHly |iiit topellier. 
I.\ I.LMI.NK. In the outMl^ before 
any thing U iinid or doti«. 

INN. A houM of entertainment for 
trnvellers. ■ 

I.N'.Xfe OF COailT'ln Lonrton). Hniisex 
or rfillegwi for the «iitertainment of «tii- 
deiu- in the law; the principal of iheiie 
Dorieiii-ii at prnxeiit are l.lncoln'i Inn, Ihe 
Inner Teiiiplc, and the .Middle Temple. 

IN.\i;E.\l)0(ln Uwj. Ahlnl,adouht- 
fiil or oliHcnre expreit«ion. 

I.VOCt'LATION (in Surgery). The 
o)ieniiion of giving the imallpox to pcr- 
•oiM by Inrlvion. When a pemm in Iikk-u- 
Inted with the cow-pox, it In called vacci- 
nation. 

I.Nn(;l.'LATI<)N(ln(;nrdenine).AI<lnd 
of griding In the binli an when llie bud of 
Ule fVull tree In »et in Ihe Him-k or branch 
•r another, wt an to make Keveral »orlx of 
ftnit grow 1^ the laine tree 



'Jelendant to the ijlaintilT in a f,ivon 
action. In military jnatterw, a Board of 
Inquiry, in a term used in coutradiB- 
tlnction to a court-martial. It conBimta 
ofacertaiu ni'.mlier of ollicera, who aa- 
Hunihle to make inquiry on certain mat- 
tcrM, but not on oath, an a i;ourt-martial. 
INO.SCULA'JION. In anatomy, union 
by junction of the extreniitie«, aa in 
arterieH or veins. 

IN.SALIVATION. In phyBlology, the 
admixture of saliva with the aliment 
during the act oiniaflticalion. 

IN3CO.\CIilJ. In military science, a 
term used when any part of an army 
h:iH lortillcd itK.lf"with a sconce, or 
«:nall work, in onh^r to defend a paas. 
IN.SJiCT. A small winged or creeping 
auimal; anything small or contempt- 
ible. Iuz.))logy, oueot the third claaa 
or articulated animals, withabody com- 
pwe.l of three distinct parts— the Lead, 
th« th'^nix, an 1 the abdomen; they have 
six le;;sand u.siially two or four winga 
attached to the thorax, two antenniB 
and a distinct head, and respire by 
means of spiracles or minute punctures 
along the sides of the abdomen. Insects 
undergo what Is termed mctamorijho- 
sis; the flrst of which is that of the 
larva; the se<'ond, pupa, or chrysalta; 
and the third, the imago, or perfect 
iuse<;t. The uptera, or wingless insects, 
however, issue lioin the ovum with the 
form they always possess. 

IN.SKCTIVOUA. A family of vertebrate 
quadriipeiis living on insects, including 
the shrew, hedgehog, and mole; an or- 
der of birds that feed on insects. 

INSI'^y'T. A numerous clasa of Invef" 
tnbrate animals, whose bodies are com- 
posed of three distinct parts joined to- 
gether, with three pairs offcet, and gen- 
erally wings. 

INSKKTION. In pafliology, the same 
SR inoculation. In unatomy and botany, 
thi! intimate atta<;hment of one part or 
organ to another, as tlie insertion of a 
ligi'.mont, muscle, or its tendon into a 
bone; or, in botany, that of a corolla, 
stamen, pistil, leaf, or ovary into any 
determinate point of a plant. 

INSRSHOUICH. In ornithology, an or- 
d«r of birdi< which iienh on trees. 

INSI.ST. Ill geometry, an angle is said 
to insist upon the arc of the <;ircle in- 
terci'pted between the two lines wbh.'h 
coutain the angle. 

IN HITU. In mineralogy, a term fre- 
quently apiilied to mi:ierals when found 
in their original bed or stratum. 

INSPIBATION. lu anatomy, the 



I .\ s 

act of breathing nr ukiiig in the ni , by 
itM* altKriiah; cuntriicuniiaiid tlilalatiuii <>r 
the riircl. 

I .%>!'. I{ ATIO.N tin 'riiei.logy). The < on- 
vi-yinp certain exinioniiiiiir) nutlet;!" or luo- 
imntf iuto tie uiiiul; ur, in ct^iieritl, any ku- 
prrnillllflil jnttue-iicc on tlir lininiili uiliid. 

i.S:^i'.\l.l..\ I'.x.N ,111 l-hj-lanJ;. 'I'lic 
ccrfHi.'iiy III' iii!>i:illiiii>, or imtiini; intonny 
ollii-i- or (Jitfnily, u» jiliuinu ii dt-iin or prr- 
beniiury in liui »tull ur st;at, ur u liiiiglit 
into liis ordt-r 

l.\.<I'ALMi:.\T. 'llie iKiymeiil of a 
crrttiin |H>rtion of a gn>«$ 8uni, wbiih is lu 
bt- |i:tid at dilfert'iit tunes, or, udUiv pbruise 
bi, by instulinents. 

I.NSTAM Ii (in Civil Law). The pn*- 
•ecution of a xuit. 

KN'S'l'A.NT. 'J'he smallest perceptible 
purtidii of tune; that wherein we iieiceive 
iiu «ucceiu>ioii. 

l.NtSTA.NI KR. Iiistnnlly. 

IN y'I'Ai'U Ul'O \in Diplomacy). A 
term signifying that coiiilitnni in which 
tilings weie lelt at a certain pertwl, us 
when belligerent partieit agree that their 
mutual rvlatioiiii .-Imuld be in Ktatu <{no, or 
as they were before the coiiiiiienc«iiient 
of a war, and the like. 

INSTI.NCT, The sngacity or natural 
aptitude of bruted, which supplies the 
place of reason. 

INSTITUTE. AnywKiTty instituted or 
e-stablished according to certain laws, or 
regulation for the lurtb^mnce of sumo 
paiticular object, such an college!), or aca- 
demies, us they are sometimes called, Llte- 
niry institutes, .Mechanics' Institutes, and 
itie like. 

INSTITl-'TKS. A bor^ bo entitled, con- 
taining the elements of the Koiiian or Civil 
l,aw 'I'lie Institutes ar*; divided into four 
bonks, nnd contain an aNridgement of the 
whole body of the Civil Law. 

IXSTEIXrON. TUo ivgiou of stars, or 
that spaoo boyoud the solar Hysti'iu. 

INSTKP. The lore part of the upper 
sido of the foot, near its Juuctioii witli 
the leg. TUo instep ot a horse is tliat 
part of the hind leg whicU roaches from 
the ham to the pastcrii-joiut. 

INSl'EXU'S. Tho first word of an- 
cient chartiTH, t'oufiniiiit(; a lormor 
royal ^raiit or ehirtur. 

INSTRl'.ME.NT. A rioi to do any 
thing with. 

INSTIU MENT (li» l,aw). A deed or 
writini; drawn up between two parties, 
Riiil roiitHlning several covenants agreed 
kelween tlietii. 

INSIItCMEN'T (in Music). Any frame, 
structure, or contrivance, by which har- 
"Wiiilous sounds inav b* produced. 

to 



INT 



205 



INSTRl'MENTAl, (in Min<ir^. An cpi 
thet (or the music of iiie^lrMinriils, as dl»- 
tliiguislied from the vocal uiusic, ur timt 
of the human voice. 

INSULATE. I'roperly, standing alone; 
r_s, in Arcliitecliire, an iiifulale culuiun, 
thai which siaiiils almie 

INSILATl^U (in i liomistry). A term 
till liiidies thai are supported by electric* 
or nunconductors, .-iii that their conimuni- 
cation with the earth, by coiiducling sub 
siunces, is Interriipled 

INSURANCE, or AS.><rRANCE (in 
Law). .\ contract or agreeiiienl by which 
one or more persons, called insurers or 
assurers, engage, for a certain premium 
paid, to make gi«Hl the loss «f any house, 
■hip, or goods, liy fire, shipwreck, urother- 

Wl:ie. 

INSURA.N'CE CO.MPA.MES. Poin- 
paiiies of (tervuns who form a fund or 
capital, which they dispo.<e of, in insuring 
the pro|ien^' of others against casualties 
by fire, &c. 

LNSUKAXCE OEKICE. The place 
where insurance C4iiup.iiiie.< conduct llieir 
business, of which theie are many in Lon- 
don and in all the capitals of Europe, and 
America. 

INTAGLIOS. Precious stones, having 
t!i4 beads of great men or iiiKcriptionK, 
&.C. engraven on them, such as are to bt* 
seen on ancient rings, seals, Acc. 

LNTEUEK vin ArithineliC). A whole 
nunilier, a!< disltnsulshed from a frariion; 
as uiie pound, one yard, Alc. 

INTEGKAL rAR'l"S. Parts which 
make up a whole. 

l.NTE(;t'MEN'l"8 (tn Anatomy). The 
coverings of any part of the Itody, as i%r- 
cuticle, cutis, SiC. 1'he cumnion Integii 
meiits are the skin, with the lUl and cellii 
tar membrane adhering to it, also particu 
lar nieinbraiies, which in vc.-t certain parts 
of the tHMly,aie called Integuments, as the 
tunics or coats of the e\e. 

LN TENDANT. A milit.iry officer. wh«' 
has the iiis(iectiiui and* maiiagenieol of 
certnin atllilrv. 

INTENSITY. The Slate ofbeingoff^ctwl 
to a higli degree, the power or energy of 
any i|uality ntised to its highest pitch 

INTERCALATION (in Cliro;i«logy) 
An inserting or putting In a day in th« 
liumth of February every I'ourtli year 

I.\TI:RL)ICT'. A papal ceiisuie prolii 
biting divine offices to lie performed witliui 
any parish or town, ice; which was pul 
in force In England in the reign of King 
John, and in liermany several times a< 
ttitrrreiil |ieriiHU. 

IN'l'EKEsj'I' 111 CouimriM). Money 



a>c 



INT 



p;ii(l for the use or I<an f-f money. The 
sriin lent Is c:lll^(l ilm |iriiict|ial ; the sum 
pii:il hy ihe iMirrower, the iiilert^.st ; ami 
wften the two are incorporated, tile mleresl 
|>H!d U|Miii that is called cunipound iiitere:il, 
or interest ii|Kin interest. 

INTKUKS'I' (in Aritliinetic). A rule by 
which the interest of money is computed, 
which ;s either simple or ronipoiiiid. 

IiNTKIUKCTION. An imlecliiiahle part 
if speech, serving to express the emutiuns 
of the mind, 

INTEHX^OCUTORY ORDER (in Law). 
•An order wliich does not decide the cause 
itAelf,unly some intervening matter relating 
to it. 

INTERLOPERS (in Law). Those who, 
without leeal authority, intercept or hinder 
the trade iifa company, lawfully established 
to trade in a particular way or part. 

IN'I'ERLIJDE. An entertainment be- 
tween the acts of a play, for the pur|H»se 
of allowing the performers time to re$t,&c. 

INTERP(JLATL\G (among Critics). In- 
serting a spurious passage, into tlie writings 
of some ancient author. 

LN'TERREGNL'.VL In Europe, the va- 
cancy of a throne, by the death or deposition 
of a king. 

LVTERRE.V. He who governs whUe 
there is no king. 

LNTERRUUATION. A question put. 

LNTERROGA'IMO.N, or Notb or Ix- 
TERHunATioM (III Gnuiiinar). A mark tlius 
(!) put at the end of a ijuestion. 

INTERROGATIVES. Words used in 
atsking a question, as why, wherefore, 

&.C. 

INTERROGATIVE SYSTEM. A mode 
of teaching by means of question and an- 
swer. 

LXTERROGATORIES (in I^w). Ques- 
tions in writing demanded of witnesses in 
a cause, particularly in the Court of Chan- 
etry. 

IN TERROR EM. By way of frighten- 
ing or deterring. 

LN'JERfJECTIOiV (in Mathematics), 
riiecuttingofone line or plane by another. 

LNTEUVAL (in .Music). The ditference 
between two sounds, as xespecls acute and 
grave. 

INTEST.'^TE. One dying without a will. 

INTESTINA (in Zoology). An order 
in the Linnxaii syst«<n,of iJie class venues, 
indnding earthworms and leec'ies. 

INTESTINE MOTION fin Pnysiology). 
That motion which takes place in the cor- 
puscles or smallest particles of a body. 

rNTKS'I'lNES. The convoluted mem- 
kraneoiis tube in the body uf auimals. In 
the human Kubjecl, tlie iivestinea ore divi- 



I O i\ 

ded into large and small, each of which 
consists of three <listin(t (lortions. 

INTOLERANCE. The not tolerating 
or allowing of every man's private jiidg 
ment, in matters of dociniie or discipline. 
INTON.\TION (in Music). Tlie act of 
sounding the notes in the scale with the 
voice, or any other given order of miisica) 
tones. 

INTRA.N'SITIVE VERBS. Verbs thai 
express actions, that do nut pass over to 
an object, as go, come, &c. 

L\ 'I'RA.VSITU. During the passage 
from one place to another. 

INTRUSION (in Law). A violent or 
unlawful seizing upon lands or tenements 
I.VTUITION. The mental view of a 
inatter,or the instantaneous act of the mind, 
in perceiving the agreement or disagree- 
ment of ideas. 

L\ V.\CUO, i. e. In empty space, or 
in spare comparatively empty. 

IN VALID (in-Military or Naval AfTairs). 
A soldier or sailor, wounded or disabled 
in war, and unfit for service. 

INVENTIO.N. Any new mechanica. 
contrivance for assisting human labour. 

INVENTORY. A catalogue or list of 
goods. 

L\ VERSION (in Geometry). The chang 
ing antecedents into consei|uents in the 
terms of prop<irtion, and the contrary. 

INUNDAT.* (in Botany). One of the 
Linna-an natural orders, consisting of aqua- 
tic plants. 

I.\ VOCATION (among Poeta). An ad- 
dress to their favourite poet. 

I.\ VOICE. A bill or account of goods 
sent by a merchant to his correspondent 
in a foreign country. 

INVOLUNTARY HO.MICIIIE 'in 
Law). The killing a man by accident, 
which differs from excusable homiiide by 
misadventure in this, that the hitler hap- 
pens in the performance of a lawful act, 
but the former may ha an indiflerent or 
a |K>sitively unlawful art, which is murder 
or maiislaiighter according to the nature 
of the case. 

LNV(M.UTION. The raising any quan- 
tity to a given power by multiplying it 
into iiself the required number of limes; 
thu», the cube of :i is got by multiplying 3, 
the root, into itself twice, as 3X3X''=27. 
lODI.N'E. A deadly poison, of a black 
colour and metallic lustre, procured from 
kelp, which resembles chlorine initsodoiir ■ 
and power of destroying vegetable colours 
Iodine is incombustible, but with azote it 
forms a curious detonating powder. 

lO.MC ORDER (in Architecture). An 
order so called from Ionia in Lisser Asix 



IRO 

The body of (he pillar is usually channelled 
or fiirrciwert with twenty-four gutters, and 
it:^ leu'.'ili, with (he capital and hase, is 
twenty-nine modules, the chapiter being 
ciiietiy composed of volutes or scrolls. 



ISS 



207 



juuu/jjjatxT 



•\^W.',\ ^.•^•. KT^J^ ■, A ^ > 




^ i 2 



IPECACUANHA. A m«dl;inil root, 
which conies from South America, and was 
introduced into Europe in I lie seventeenth 
eontury, when it was much esteemed for 
the cure of dysenteries, but afterwards fell 
into distioe. 

IPSE DIXIT. Literally, he himself 
said It ; a term sivnifyini; an opiniim that 
rests on ihe word or authority of an indi- 
vidual only. 

IPSfl FACTO. The very fact. 

IRIDIUM. A metallic substance procured 
from platina. 

IRIS (in Anatomy). A striped, varie- 
fated rirrle, next to the pupil of the eye. 

IRIS tin Botany). The flower de luce 
K flag flower, &.C.; a plant with a bulbous 
foot, which bears a beautiful blue flower. 
There are in;iny species of it, as the coin- 
nen yellow nr water iris, the fla;; Iris, the 
■Iwarf iris, tec. 

IRIS (aiming Opticians). The change- 
ihle colours which ap|iear in the gla:ises 
of telescopes, &.c. 

IRON. One of the most useful and 
abundant metals, which was one of tbn 
first metals thai was Known and worked. 
Tills iiietal IS easily oxidi/.e.d, but Is infii- 
»ible e-ccept by an intense heat ; It is, how- 
ever, mallealite at a less degree tt heat, 



and several pieces may be united into one 
muM), by a process called welding. Iron is 
rhe only metal that is susceptible of mai;- 
nelic attrarticm. Pure iron is very rardly 
to be found ; the principal varieties of irua 
are the cast or pig iron, or that which is im- 
mediately extraited from the ore ; wrought 
iron, that which has gone through the pro- 
cess of melting in a furnace ; and steel, 
that which has been heated in charctval, 
and hardened by its combination with 
carbon, 

IKON. The name of several tools made 
of iron, particularly that which serveii, 
when heated, to smooth linen after it has 
been washed. 

IRONiMONGER. A dealer in iron. 
The company of ironmongers In London, 
were incorporated in 1462. 

IRONMOULDS. Spots in linen, leU 
aner ironing fnuii stains of ink. 

IRON.MOULDS (among Winers). Yel- 
low lumps of iron or stone found in chalk- 
pits. 

IRRATIONAL (In Mathematics). An 
epithet applied to surd quaiilitivs. 

ISINGLASS. A gelatinous matter, 
formed of the dried sounds of cod and 
other flsli. It is the principal ingredient 
In the blancmanger of the cooks, and is 
also used medicinally. 

ISIS (in the Mythology of the Egyptians). 
The wife and sister of Osiris. 

ISLAiND. A country surrounded on all 
sides with water, as Great Britain, Ii«- 
lanil, &c 

ISLA.XT) CRYSTAL. A transparent 
stone of the nature of spar, a piece of 
which laid upon a book, every letter seen 
through it will appear double. It Avas 
originally found in Iceland, whence it was 
called Iceland or Island Crystal, and is to 
be met with in France and other ports of 
Europe. 

ISOCHRONAL or ISOCHRONOUS 
VIBRATIONS. Vibrations of a (lendulum 
performed in the same space of time. 

ISOPEREMETRICAL FIGURES. Fk 
giires having equal perimeters or ctrcua»- 
ferences. 

ISOSCELES TRIANGLE. A triar,gle 
having two sides or legs equal to aach 
other. 

ISSUE (In Law). L The children hm- 
gotten between a man and his wife. 2. The 
profits arising from lands, tenements, fines., 
&c. 3. The point of matter at issue between 
contending parties in a suit, when a thing 
Is aflirmed on the one side, and denied on 
the other. Issues my be either on matten 
of fact, nr matters of law. 
ISSUE (in Medicine) An artiOcial 



208 



JAC 



^p«rtiire, sivliig vpnt la noxious hiiinoiire 
n tht; liodv. 

rssUKS (in Atilitary Affiirsl Certain 
»iims of indiiey tiveii iiil.n the hnnds of 
asfnt". for llif payineiit dfllu* army. 

ISSUES (III Ktirtificatioii). OutleW in a 
kown. 

ISTHMIAN GAMES. Games formerly 
selebralecl by the (Jreeks at llie Isthmus 
of Corinth every three, four, or live years. 

ISTHMUS. A Iittleiieckof land joining 
n peninsula to a continent, as the Isthmus 
of (^riiith. Sec. 

ITALIC. A kind of letter used in print- 
Jne, by way of di.^tinction from the Roman, 
as in tins word, Italy. 

ITCH. A cutaneous disease, supposed to 
tm caused by an insect of the aciiriis trilie 
called the Itchniite. This small insect, 
wbich ii white, with reddish legs, i8 found 



JAL 

In the small peinicir: vesicles of the haoili 

nnd j.'.ints ii.i-rted with the itch. 

ITTNERITE. A bluish mineral, con- 
sisting of silica, alumina, limo, soda, 
paroxide of iron, and water: s'j. er .2-33: 
H =70. 

ITTRIA. TTTUIA. A non-acid com- 
pound of tlie metal ittnum or yttrium 
with oxygen. 

IXODES. The name of a genus of par- 
aHitical Acari found on the skins of do- 
mestic qniidrupeda. 

IXOLITE. A mineral ofa greasy lustre, 
found in bituminous coal. 

IVORY. A finer sort of hone, or an 
Intermediate siilistaiice between lione iiiid 
horn, prepared from the tusk of the male 
elephant. 

IVY. A parasitic or twining plant, that 
nins about trees, walls, &.c. by means of 
roots and fibres from ito branche*. 



J. 



J, the tenth letter ofthe alphabet. 

J.^t,'K (In Meihamrg). An uiiiriimpnt 
m coinmon ii-se for rai.siiij; very great 
weights of any kind. 

J.ACK (among Mariners). The flag which 
18 hung out in the bowsprit end. 

J.At'K I III .Natural History). A kind of 
pike lliat is very destructive in lisliponds. 

JACK, Smokb. An engine placed in 
cliiiiineyB, and turned by means of the 




Bac«B«iing smoke, which answer* the pur- 
pose of the kitchen Jack. 
JACKAXi A beast of prey nearly allied 




to the dog. It follows the lion and feed* 
opon the remains of animals he has killed 



JACKDAW. A bird of the crow kind, 
having a white collar about its neck. 

JACKS. Small bits of wood tixed to 
the keys of virginals, harpsichords, and 
spiniiets. 

JAC K-W IT H-T H E-L A NTE R N.or 
U'lLu-o'-THK-VVur. Vulgar names for the 
ignis fatiiiis or meteor, which hovers in the 
iilght alxiiit marshy places, and seems to 
be iiio-itly occasioned, by the e.\trication of 
phosphorus t'rom rotten leaves, and other 
vegetable matters. Ii appears like a candle 
ill a lantern, and hits sometimes caused 
travellers to lose their way. 

JACOBliN. A partisan of the French 
revolution. 

J ACOBITKS. A name given to the ad- 
herents of James II. at and alter the revo- 
lution in England. 

JACOB'S STAFF. A mathematical in- 
strument for taking heights and distanres. 

JACOBCS. A gold coin in the reign of 
James I. current at 20*. 23». and *2.'w. 

JACTITATION OF .MARRIAGE. In 
England, a suit in the ecclesiastical court, 
when one of the parties boasts or gives 
out tliat he or she is married, which the 
other party denying, and no adeipiate 
proof of the marriage being brought, the 
offending party Is enjoined silence on thiU 
head. 

JADE. See Nkphritk 

JAG (in Botany). A division or cleft in 
a leaf. 

JALAP The root rf a West Indian 
plant, of the convolvulus tribe, of a blac^ 
colour on the outside, and reddish withia 



JEL 

with resiiiniis veins. It was not )<nown in 
EiiclAiid until after the dip-overy of Ame- 
rica, nnil received iis name fnun Xnlnpa, a 
town in New ^|miri. Tlie principal con- 
ttitiieiit pans of Jahip are resin and starrh. 
JAGUAR. An animal of the cat liind, 
reseuililJiii! the panther j it is found in the 
northern part of South America, aiid in 
Mexico 



JEW 



ao9 




JAMB (among Carpen'era). Any anp- 
porter on either aide, ms the poata of m 

door. 

J.\MR (among Miner*). A thick bed of 
Etone that obsiructs the miners in their 
piirsnins the veins of ores. 

JAMZARIES. Tlie grand seignior's 
guard, or the soldiers of the Turkish in- 
fantry, which have lately been aliolislied, 
and their places supplied by troops trained 
aflerthe European manner. 

JANUARY. The first month in the year, 
supposed to take its name from Janus, an 
ancient kin;! of Italy. 

JAPAN.NING. The art of varnishing 
and painting figures on wood, metal, &.c. 
as is practised by the inhabitants of Ja- 
pan, &c. 

JAPONIC A. The Japan rose. 

JAR. A measure of capacity, as ajar of 
t»il, rontainins; from 18 to 26 gallons 

JASMIN. See Jessamine. 

JASPER. A precious slone of a green 
i,ransparent colour, with red veins. It Is a 
Bort of silicioiis earth, consisting mostly of 
silica, with a smalt portion of alumina, 
oxide of iron, magnesia, and potash. 

J.W'ELIN. A sort of half pike c spear. 

J.AUNDICE. A disease proceedi^i from" 
olistructions in the glands of the li ver,which 
causes the bile to overdow, and turns the 
complexion yellow. 

JAW. A bone of the mouth, in which 
the teeth are fised. 

J.AWS. The two pieces in the ;ock of 
a gun between which the flint is i;xed. 

JEIIOVAll. The proper name of the 
Host ilit;h ii the Hebrew. 

JELLY. .Vuy lifpiid, as the Juice of 
it* 



fruits, coagulated into a treiiinlous soft siib- 
Riaiice : when long boiled it lo.'^es the pro- 
perty of gelaliitizing, and becumts anala- 
gous to mucilage- 

JERBOA. A lively little animal shaped 
like the Upossum of the size of a rat, and 
found in Egypt, and the adjacent cuaniritis. 

JAY. A bird with particoloured pluii>a{>e, 
some varieties of which may be taught to 
speak. The blue jay of America is remark 
able for its brilliant plumuf e. 




JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. A sort 
ofsunflower.whichresemblea the artichoke 
in taste. 

JESSAMINE, or JASMIN A plant 
bearing fragrant flowers, which Is com- 
inonly trained to the walls of houses. 

JESUITS, or the Order of Jtsi-s. A 
religions order founded by Ignatius l^woU 
in 15.38, and abolished in ITT3, on arcuuiil 
of their intrigues, but partially restored 
since. 

JESUITS BARK. The Cinchona or 
Peruvian Bark, so called because it was 
first used by the Jesuit missionarie.'* im 
Pent. 

JET (In Alineralogy). A deep black sort 
of bitumen. 

JET D'EAL'. The pipe of a fonotaht 
which throws up the waier in the air. 

JETSAM (in l«nw). Any thing throvvD 
outof asliip which is in danuerof a wreck. 

JEt; D'ESPUIT. A lively, pretty 
thought. 

JEWEL The name of the precioua 
stones which are worn as ornaments. 

JEWELLER. One who works or deals 
in jewels and all kinds of precious stoiiea. 

JEWEL OFFICE. In England, an of 
fice where the king's plate is fashioned, 
weighed, and delivered out by the war- 
rant of the lord chamberlain 

JEWS. The descendants of the twelve 
tribes of Israel, who were so called after 
their return from the captivity o( Babylon, 
from Jiidah, one of the sons of Jacob, 
wliose tribe formed the most considerable 
part of those that remained of the IsraHitea 
Although the Jews have lost the dlstinctloa 
of tlie ir tribes, and are dispersed throughoot 



no 



JOU 



all nations, yet they remain a perfectly 
distinct (leople, and adhere to the religion 
tf their fotefathers. Tlieir condition had 
mten considerably ajiiellorited in all Chris- 
tian countries where they now reside. 

JEWS-EAR. A kind of mushroom. 

JEVV'g-IIAIiP. A nnisical in.-itrument 
whlcii is played between the teeth. 

JBWS-MALLOVV. A plant whose 
leave* are produced alternately at the 
maifcs. The flower expands in tlie form of 
B roMi. 

J I n. 1 he foremost sail of a ship. 

JOBBER. One who buys and sells 
for another. 

lOCfcEif. A man who rides horses at 
njces. 

JOHN DOREE. A species of flsh. 

JOINER. A worker in wood, who fits 
together the several pieces which have been 
prepared for each other, lie dilfers from 
the car[>enter, masmuch as he does the finer 
work, that requires more skill. The com- 
pany of joiners in London, was incorpora- 
ted hi^570. 

JOI.VT (in Anatomy). The place where 
•ny hone is articulated, or joined with 
another. 

JOl.NT (in M.isonry). The separatinn 
between the stones, which is filled with 
timrtar. 

JOI.\T (In Joinery). The parts where 
two pieces of wood join. 

JOINT (in Botany). The knot in the 
stalk of a plant. 

JOINT (among Butchers). The limb 
that is cut from the carcass of an animal. 

JOINT STOCK (in Comuierce). A 
«tnck or fund, formed by the union of 
several shares from different persons. 

JOINT STOCK CO.MPANIES. Com- 
mercial associations, having a stock con- 
sistlngof many shares: in such associations 
the shareholders gain or lose, according to 
the number of shares which they hold. 

JOINTURE (in Law). A settlement of 
lands and tenements made over by the 
husband to the wife, to be enjoyed after 
his decease. 

f O rSTS. Timbers framed Into the girders, 
or sommers af a building. 

JONaUIL. A plant of the Narcissus 
kind, the flowers of which are either single 
or double, and are much esteemed for their 
fweet scent. 

JOURNAL. Any book In which is kept 
»n account of what passes in the day. 

JOURNAL (in Merchants' Accounts). 
A book wherein every thing is posted out 
jf the waite-book. 

JOURN \L (antong Pub^ishtsra aDd 



JUD 

Booksellers) A periodical work, either 
daily, weekly, or monthly, &.c. 

JOURNAL (.-imons; iM.iriners) A book 
wherein is kept an acco«int of the ship's 
way at sea. 

JOVE. The name ot the enpreme 
deity among the Romans; Jupiter; the 
planet Jupiter; the air or atmosphere, 
or the god of the air. In alchemy, tin. 

JOURNEYMAN. One win works by 
the day, liie week, or the year, trc. for 
another. 

JUBILEE. Every fiftieth year, cele- 
brated as a festival among the Jews, ia 
commemoration of their deliverance out 
of Egypt. At this festival, which was a 
season of joy, bondservants were set free. 

JUBILEE (in the Romish Church). A 
solemnity instituted a. d. 1300, by Poi>e 
Boniface, to be observed every hundredth 
year, or every twenty-liflh year, as er 
joined by Pope Sixtiis IV. for the per- 
formance of several cerem(.nies in order to 
obtain pardons, remissions from sins, in- 
dulgences, &c. The juhilee lasts a whole 
year, and as it brings in great stores of 
wealth to the popes, it has been called the 
Golden Vear. 

JUD.AIS.M. The rites, customs, and 
doctrines of the Jews. 

JUDGE (in Law). A chief magistrate 
apiioJnted to administer justice in civil 
and criminal causes. 

JUGATE. In botany, a term applied 
to the leaflet pairs in compouiid leaves. 

JUGULAR. Pertaining to the throat 
ornook. Jugular veia.s are tbo veins 
which bring the blood from the head 
down the sides of the neck. By their 
union with the subclavian vein, they 
iorm the superior veua cava, which 
terminates in the superior part of the 
right auricle of the heart. Jugulars, in 
ichthyology, comprehend (hat class of 
fishes wliich are distinguished hy having 
ventral fins anterior to the pectorals. 

JUDGE AlARTIAL, or Jidoe Aoro- 
CATE, or Advocate Ge:<eral. The su- 
preme judge in courts martial. 

JUDG.MENT (in Law). The sentence 
of the court, pronounced by the judge on 
the matter in the record, either in cases ol 
default, where the defendant puts in no 
plea ; or of confession, when the defendant 
acknowledges the action; or upon demur 
rer, where the defendant pleads a bad plea 
in bar ; or upon a nonsuitor retraxit, where 
the plaitKiflT withdraws or abandons the 
prosecution. Judgments are either inter- 
locutory, that is, given In the middle of a 
cause on some intermediate point, or final, 
so .as to put an end to llie action. 

JUDICIAL (in Law). An epithet foi 



JUP 

«rh»t apperlains to a court, as judicial I 

JUJUBES. In the materin niedioa. a' 
Criiit of the pulpy kiuil, prciiice'l on a 
tree wlilcli LiunKua couwders as a 
jpecies oi Khaniuus. 

JULEP. Ill medicine, inucilagiuous 
mixture. 

JULUS. In botany, a catkin: an in- 
Soresceuce of tlie Wdlow, Hazel, &:. 

Jin, IAN PKKIOli .ui (:iir..ii..logy). 
A period of 7980 Cdu-ifriiiivf vf;(rs, pro- 
diirrd by tlie niiillipliralinii nf the thrt^e 
c>clps of the sun, moon, and indiction into 
one another. Il waa so culled because it 
eon.'i-Jls of Julian years 

JI'MA.N YI'.AR. A sp.ar« of time con- 
■if>lin2 of :itw> days and l> huiir!<, so called 
from Jiilms Cssar, hy whom it was esta- 
blished. The calendar, which contained 
an nccoiint of Julian time, was called the 
Julian Calendar-, and llie time when it 
wa-a first instituted, namely, 46 a. c, the 
Julian K|Ni<*ha. 

JULY. The seventh month in the year, 
BO called in honour of Julius Ca!sar. 

JUMPER TREE. A sort of tree or 
shrub, having long, narrow, and prickly 
leaves, and bearing a soft pulpy berry. 
This r^hrub is coinnion on heaths and bar- 
ren hills, but the berries which are used 
medicinally are brought from (Jeniiany. 
Frtuii the lierries is made, in Holland, the 
gin called Mnlb.i'ds gin 

JUNO (in the Heathen Mythology). The 
wife of Jupiter, whose emblem was the 
peacock. 



JUS 



211 




JUPITER (in the Heathen Mythology) 
The son of Saturn and Oiis, and chief of 
the gods, was the most honoured among 
men. His most usual attributes are ttw 
eagle, and thunder, and someliiuea a figure 
of victory, and a spear, &.C. 



JUNO (hi Astronomy). One of the 
■ewly discovered planets. 

JUNT.'V. A Spanish term for a meeting 
of men silting in council. 

JUPITER (in Astronomy). One of the 
largest of all the planets, being, according 
to stune, upwards of two thousand times 
bigger than our eartii. It is the most bril- 
lianl star .ifler Venus, revolves on its own 
axis in 9 hours and 5fi minutes, and (ler 
forms Its revolution round the sun in A'.flQ 
days m hours IS minutes and 41 secuuda. 




JURISDICTION. The power or autho- 
rity invested in any individual or court, of 
doing justice in the causes brought before 
them. 

JURISPRUDENCE. Properly, a know 
ledge of the laws, or skill in interpreting, 
and applying them ; also the laws tiiem 
selves, together with all that relaies to 
their administration. English jurispru- 
dence comprehends the common and stat- 
ute law, together with such parts of the 
civil and canon law as have been admitted 
into their courts. 

JURY (in I«iw). A cert.nin number of 
persons sworn to inquire of, and to declare 
the truth upon the evidence otTered to them 
relating to the matter of fact. Juries are 
of different kinds, as the grand jury, petty 
jury, special jury, common jury,con>ner's 
jury, &c. The grand jury, consisting of 
twenty-four persons, is ibosen to roiiiiider 
all hillsof indictment preferred to the court, 
which they return as true, by writing upon 
them, ' billa vera,' true bill, or tlirow out 
by indorsing the word ' icnoranius.' The 
petty jury, consisting of twelve men, i» 
chosen to try all causes civil and criminal : 
in the latter causes they give a verdict of 
Guilty, or .\'ot Oiiilty ; in civil causes, they 
bring a verdict either for the plaintiff or 
the defendant ; and in real actions, either 
for the demandant or tenant. A jury is 
called special, when it is returned for a 
particular cause, and common when it is 
returned by the sheriff in the same panel, 
to tr>' every cause at the same court. 
JURY.MAN. One whoissworn on ajury 
JURY-MAST. A great yard used in 
the place of the foremast or mainmast, 
wben it is broken down by a storm. 



212 



KAM 



JUNGETlMANNIACEiE. In botany, a 
natural order of Acrogeus, cons«sting of 
creeping nioss-liUe plants, of wliicli 
Juugeriuaunia is the genus and type. 

JUNKKKITE. A crystaUized mineral 
of a yellow-grey color, consisting of 
protoxide of iron, carbonic acid, silica, 
and manganese: sp. gr. 3-8; H=3*81. 

.insSI. A textile fibre produced in 
Manilla, of which dresses, &c., are made. 

JUTE. An annual plant common in 
Bengal, from which a coarse kind of 
doth is woven, and of -which the gunny- 
bags are made. 

JUTES. An old Teutonic or Scandina- 
vian tribe from Jutland, who invaded 
Euslaud in the fifth century. 

K 



KEE 

JUWANZA. The name of the camel's 
thorn (Alhagi Maurorum), which fur- 
nwhes the manna of the desert, and is 
used for making screens, &c. 

JUXTAPOSITED. Placed near; "adja- 
cent or con tigiious. 

JUXTAPOSITION. The state of being 
placed in nearness or contiguity. 

JUZAIL. A heavy rifle used by the 
Affghans. 

JURASSIC. In geology, a term applied 
to the oolitic system, and so called from 
its occurrence in the Jura mcuutaius 
of Switzerland. 

JUREMA BARK. An astringent bark 
obtained from the Acacia jurema of 
BraziL 



K, the eleventh letter in the alphabet, stmid 
as a iiiinieral for 2-^0, with a Kiriike over 
it thus, R, for 2.50,000 ; as an ablirt-vialion, 
it stands fur Knight, as K. U. KiDiilit of 

e Csirlrr, K. li. Knight of the Balli. 

K.\I.K. A liarily kind of winter calv- 
• ice, with a curleil leaf. 

K.ALEI DOSt'OI'E. An optical in- 
ktrument for exhibitinj; a diver>iity of 
beautiful fiftures, invented by Dr. Ilrews- 
ter. It is chietty Uoed by calico-printers, 
potters, and car|>et manufacturers, who are 
tints supplied with an iinuiense variety of 
patterns. 

K.M.I (called in Botany Sai.*ola Kali). 
A *'rt of marine plants, from which the 
•Ita.l iif couimerr« is procured by burning. 




KALMUC8. A nation of Tartars inha- 
bltiae parta of Russia in Asia. 

KA.MSI.N. A hot and dry southerly 
wind, common in Rn\'pt and the deserts 
of Africa, wliirh prevails more or less for 
fi(\y days. On the appmarli of this wind 
Uic sky becomes dark and heavy, the air 
gray and (hick, and filled with a dust so 
subtle that It penetrates everi'where. It 
ts not remarkalilv hut at first, liiit inrre.tses 
hi heat the longer il continue?, during 
•rbicta time U cauMss a difficulty of breath- 



ing, and when at its highest pitch, will 
cause sutfocation and sudden death. I'd 
prevent this, it is necessary to stop the 
nose and mouth with handkerchiefs. 

KAN. A magistrate In Persia, answer- 
ing to a governor in Europe. 

KANGAliOO. Aniiininalin Austra- 
lia, which, when full jirown, is as lar^e 
as a sheep. It leaps and eats like a squir- 
rel, it isfurnislied. like the opossum, wilh 
a pouch in the abdomen, which is a recep- 
tacle for its young during the lime "f 
breeding, and is resorted to after the birth 
fur the sake of warmth and protection. It 
is said to leap ttiiity yards at a single bound. 




KAOLIN. A sort of eartk which is 
used as one of the two ingredients in porce- 
lain. 

KECKLING (among Mariners). U'ind- 
iiig or twining small r<>|>es about a ralile or 
bolt-rope, to preserve them from galling. 

KEOGER. A small anchor. 

KEDGI.NG (among Manners). Setting 
up the siiils, and leitins a ship drive with 
the tide, when the wind is contrary to the 
tide. 

KEEL The lowest piece of timber In 
a ship, running her whole length. Some- 
times a second keel, or false keel, as it is 



KET 

called, iR put under the first This name 
is also givttn tu a low tlat-bottninrd vessel 
used in the river 1'yuc« i'> Kngland, fur 
brin^ins c.oals fniin Newcastle. 

KKKhKUS (among Mariners). Binall 
tul'S life in ralkin^ ships. 

KEEL-HAULING (among Mariners). 
A pniiislinient ut' otl'enders at Beit by lei 
ting them down with ropea, and drawing 
tliem under the keel from one side tu the 
otlier. 

KKELSOiV (in Naval Architecture). A 
principal timber in a ship, laid withinside 
across ail the timbers. 

KEEP. A strong tower In old castles, 
where the besieged retreated in cases of 
extremity. 

KEEPER (in England). An officer of 
different descriptions, as the Keeper of the 
Great Seal, a lord by his office, and one 
of the Privy Council, through whose liands 
pass all charters, commissions, and grants 
of the king under the (Jreat Seal ; Keeper 
of the Privy Seal, tiiroiigh whose hands 
pas8 all charters, &c. before they come to 
tlie Great Seal ; besides which there is the 
Kee|)er of the Forests, the Keeper of the 
Tuucli, an otficer of the Mint, &c. 

KEEPING (among Painters). The ma 
nagemeiit of lights and shades, so as to 
preserve the projier distances of otijects 
according to the rules of perspective. 

KE(«. A barrel lor pickled tish. 

KELP. The ashes of the salsola soda 
and other marine plants, which, when 
burnt in pits, and stirred about for a length 
of time, form hard masses, that are used 
in making soap. In this manner tlie min- 
eral alkali called soda is procured. 

KENNEL (amon:: Sportsmen). A place 
in which dogs are kept ; also the hole in 
which a fox lies. 

KEK.M ES. A round body of the size of 
a pea, and of a llrowlli^<ll-red colour, which 
contains a number of soil granules tilled 
with a red colour. It is found in the 
southern fuirts of Europe adhering to the 
scarlet oak, and was till lately supposed 
to be a vegetable excrescence, but is now 
known to be the extended body of an 
animal filled with a numerous offspring, 
which are the little red granules. 

KER.MEts MINEKALIS. A preparation 
of antimony, so called from its beautiful 
deep orange coUiur. 

KESTIIEL. A small kind of bank. 

KE'J'CIIUP. The liquor of mushrooms, 
which is much used as a sauce. 

KETTLE-llllUM. A drum, the vellum 
bead of which Is spread over a body of 
brass. 

KETTON STONE. An upa<|ue compact 



KI D 



213 



sort of marble found in different parts of 
Britain. 

KET()n. A strongly built ship with 
a luaiu and a uiizzeii luajit. 




KEY (among Smiths). An Instrument 
for opening a lock, having cavities to cor- 
respond to the wards of the lock. 

KEY (in Gunnery). The firelocks and 
springlocks of gun-carriages. 

KEY (in Carpentry). The last board 
that is laid. 

KEY (In Music). A name for the pieces 
of wood or ivory in an organ or harpsi- 
chord, which are struck by the finger in 
playing an instrument ;nlso the fiindamen 
lal note, otherwise called the cleff or clitf. 

KEY (in Commerce). The same as 

KEY, or Gold Key (in Court Eti- 
quette). In England, the key which is 
worn by the Lords of the Beilcliamber. 

KEYS (in Naked Flooring). Pieces of 
timber framed in between every two joists. 

KEYS (in Joinery). Pieces of timber let 
in transverse to the fibres, into the back of 
a board. 

KEYS (in England). The twenty-four 
commoners in I he Isle of Man, who are the 
conservators of the liberties of the people 

KEY-STONE (among Architects). The 
nauie for those stones which form the 
sweep of an arch, particularly the last or 
middle stone placed on the top of the arch 
or vault. 

KIDNAPPING (in Law). The forcible 
taking away a man, woman, or child, in 
order to carry them abroad. This is an 
offence at common law, and punishable by 
fine, imprisonment, and pillory. 

KIDNEY-BEAN. A garden pulse hav- 
ing a papilioiiaceoiis flower, the pistil of 
which becomes a long pod, that is eaten 
before the seeds are fully formed. 

KIDNEYb. Glands sha|>ed like a kid- 
ney-bean, which separate tlie urine fVom 
the blood. There are two kidneys, one on 
eacli luiuttat mgiuu 



214 



KIN 



KIL-nE?:R PI.OVEIl. A well known 
bird lliat tmiiie-nls o)i«u grotiiiUM ami ciui- 
Kaiilly crieii Kililrer. 

KIMIKUKI.N'. A iKimd measure con- 
tainiii): el|;lilfeM i-:!!!!!!!!). 

KIl.N. A liiriiace in which chalk is 
burnt for inakin^ liiut- ; aUu a pi, ice where 
bricks, tiles, anil iiiall nrr bnnil or ilrieii. 

KIL.N l»K\'l.\(;. 'I'lie process olilr) ins 
wetted barley uu a kiln t'ur tlie purjMHie uf 
makin<; matt. 

KliNO (in I>aw). In their natural state, 
as lithe in kiml, that is, in (he coinuiiiUi- 
tiea themselves ;is distingiiislieil froiii their 
value III iiiiiiiey ; mi, in Military Atfairs, 
ratios supplied in kind. 

KIXDRI::!) (in l,.aw) Persons of the 
■ame blond or descent. 

KIN(J. The sovereign ruler of a state. 
7'he law ascribes to the kln>; of Kii);Uiid, 
in his political capacity, iiiiniurtality, for 
the kinj; never dies; and on his decease, 
which is called his demise, his regal dignity 
ia vested, witlmiit any interregnum or in- 
terval, at once in his heir 

KI.NG AT AUMS (in Heraldry). An 
officer at arms, that has the preeminence 
over the rest, and is otherwise culled Gar- 
ter King at Arms. 

KliNG BlltU. An American variety of 
the Uy-catcher, sometimes called the ty- 
rant Hy-catcher, from his constant attacks 
upon oilier birds. 

KINCIIO.M (in l^vr). Any country 
governed by a king. 

KI.\:iU().M (in Natural History). A 
-jenentl division of natural objects, as the 
animal, the mineral, and the vegetable 
kingdoms in the Liiiniean system. 

KING FISH. A Kuroitean fish of re- 
Barfcably splendid udours. 

KIMG-FISHEK. A bird that feeds on 




KNE 

who hear and delermire, for the most part, 
all pleas wliicii cuncern the king's crows 
and dignity. 

KI.NG I'llX'E, or KiKo-Potx (in Car- 
pentry), 'i'he chief beam under Uie niof. 

Kl.\(;'f; Bi:.N(;U ntlSO.V (m England) 
A prison wlie:ein debtors, and olfeuders 
against llie state, are coiilined. 

KI.Ni;'?; ICVIL. A scrt>riiliMis disea.<ie,lB 
which the elands are iilci;raled, the gitl of 
curing wliitli, w;is fnrnierly ailnliiiied to 
the kings and ijueensof I'.iigland from lh« 
lime of Kdward the Confessor. The prac- 
tice of touching the king or queen fur llie 
evil, is now abolished. 

KI.NG'SSILVh;i{(iii F.ngl.and). Money 
due In the king in the Court of Common 
Pleas, for a license there granted to any 
man for passing a fine. 

KIRK. The Scotch Presbyterian church. 

KITE. A bird of prey, of the falcon 
kind, the tail of which is forked, and dis 
tinguistaes it from all oUief birds of prey. 




KITR. A playth'.ng among schoolboys, 
coMsistiiiKofasllgli: Wooden frame covered 
with paper, and constructed so as lo rise 



lali, wbow piumage reiietnblea the purple 
■oiour uflbe king's robes. 

KING'S BENCH, Bmcui Reoici, or 
B R. The supreme court of common law 
in England, ronsisting of the Lord Chief 
lusticc, aiMt three piiuiae or iuferuir judges. 




In the air. By the help of a long strinf It 
may be allowed to fly at the pleasure of 
the person tiolding it. 
KNEES (in .Naval Arcbitoiaare). Pieces 



LAB 

of tiiiitwr bowed like a knee, wliicn bind 
the IwHiiiM uiid luttockH loijellier. 

K.NAI'riACK. A lealliKrii bag in which 
toldiers carry llieir pruvisioiis, &c. 

K.NKE. 'I'lial part wliich joiii!> tlie leg 
«n<l tliiuli louKltier 

KN Kl-^-l'A.N. A little round bone placed 
in III*- fiire pari of llif kii«e. 

K.NKU^. A pussiiii* bell, anciently rung 
Rt tlie tune when a person wa:: abuiu lu 
CI pi re. 

KMCMT (in F.nsland). A title of hon- 
our, originally besuiweil on every man nf 
rank or iiononr, llial lie iinijlit lie i|iialified 
to give challenges, and lu perforiii featfi 
uf arms. It is now an order of gentlemen 
next to baronets, or a mere honorary dis- 
tincrion, which entitles the person on 
whom it Is Conferred to be styled Sir L). I)., 
and his wife Lady I). 0. ,A knight is now 
made by the king touching him with a 
■word as he kneels, and saying, ' Rise up, 
Sir I). I).' 

KN'IGHTS BACIIKLORS(in England). 
A description of kiiigiitd inferior to the 
knights bannerets. 

KMUIirs l!A.N'.\KRnTS(in England). 
Knishta so called, that were created 
knights on tlie lield for some valiant 
achievement. 

K.MGII IS OP TIIK SIirUR (in Eng- 
land;. Two kiiighls or genilemen of es- 
tate, who are elecled by the freeholders of 
every cuniily, to represent them in I'arlia- 
meut The qualihcalion of a knight of 



LAC 



215 



the shire 1« to be pnssess«><l of 600J per 
annum in a. frr«hold esiut«. 

KNri'Tl.Mi. The process of weaving 
without a loom, by the help of a net-Ule, 
also the act of l> ini together cerlaiii ijuan- 
tilies of yarn, and then warping lliem into 
hanks to be larrert. 

KNOT (aniiiiiu Manners). Any large 
knob formed on Hie eMreiiiily of a rope; 
al.so the division of ttie lii;i line, answering 
to half a minute, as a mile di>es tu an 
hour. 

K.NOT (in Ornitholo.'y.) A fen-bird, lh« 
flesh of which IS very delicmud. 

KN'Oirr. A Russian punishment, which 
consi.sts in harharons scourging, sluting 
tlie nostrils, and maiminga uf different 
kinds. 

KORAN The book of the Mahometan 
doctrine, containing the revelations of 
theii pretended prophet. 

Koumiss, a lemiemed litpior made 
by the Tartars, of mare's iiiilk. Soiiiettiiiii; 
similar is prepared in llie Orkney and . 
Shetland Isles. 

KRE.M I.I.N. The palace at Moscow, 
standing in a central and elevated part of 
the city, which sntfereil liiii liule in t!ie 
coiitlagralion that followed the entry of 
the Krench in l»12. It was built in the 
fifleenth cenlnry. 

KT (in England). An abbreviation for 
Knight. 

K. T (in England). An abbreviation 
for Knight of the Thistle. 



L, the twelfth letter In the alphabet, de- 
noting, as a niiiiieral, 50, and with a line 
»ver it llinsT., .'>l),IIOII; as nn abbreviation, 
t stands for libra, pi.iind, and liber, biHik. 

LA (in .Mnsic). The syllable by which 
Guido denoted the hist sound uf each 
hexachord 

Ii.\BEL (among Mechanics). A thin 
brass ruler, witn sights, commonly used 
with a circuinferentor, to t.ike heights. 

LABEL (in Heraldry). A fisinre sup- 
posed to represent ribands, which in coats 
of arms distinguished the eldest sun uf a 
(kmily. 



ZjTli^n 



LABEL (In I>aw). A slip ftL«tened to 
ieeds or writings, or any paper Joined by 
way of addition to a will. 



LABIAL LETTERS L,eners rpfiuiring 
the use of ihe li|>s in proniiioiaiion. 

LABOKATOKY. A cbemisi s wor« 
shopi also a workhouse where hreworken 
and bombardiers prepare Ihvir stores. 

LABOL'RKR. One who does day 
labour. 

LABYRI.VTFL Amaze, or place fill 
of intricate windings. The labyrinth oi 
Egypt, built by I'saniinilicus on the hanks 
of the river Nile, lontained, within the 
compass of one continued wall, one thou- 
sand houses and twelve royal palaces, all 
covered with marble; it had imly one en- 
trance, but innnmeranie inriiings and 
windings, so that those wlm were in could 
not find their way uul without a guide. 
This labyrinth was leckoned one of the 
seven wondern "^f Ihe wurld. 

L.At'. A siilisi.Tiici- well known In Riirnpe 
under the di.Icreul names of stick- liic,shell- 



216 



LAD 



•c, and seed-tac. !~tick-Iac Is the. lac In Its 
natural M:it«; seedlac is th« stick-lac sepa- 
rated fruiii thet\vi|!s;sliell-tac is that winch 
bail undergone the |iroces8 iifbeing purified. 
Lac was for some lime suppnsed to he a 
gum, but improperly so, because it is in- 
tlanimable, and not soluble iti water. It 
is the product uf the coccus laccii, which 
deposits its eggs on the branches of a tree 
•in Thibet, and elsewhere in India, where 
lac is fa:>hioned into rinus, bead^, and other 
trinkets. t^ealiii» wax, viirnishes.and lake 
for painters, are made from it, and it is 
also much used as a dye. 

L,\CCICACI[> (in Chemistry). An acid 
procured from iiumlac, (he comfHiuent 
parts of which are supposed tu be carbon, 
hydrogen, and oxygen. 

LACE (in Commerce). A work com- 
posed of many threads of gold, silver, or 
silk interwoven, and worked by means of 
spiiidle.o on a pillow, according to tlie 
(lattern designed. 

LACHttVM.-\L. An appellation given 
to several parts of the eye, from their 
•erving to secrete or convey away the 
tears, as the lachrymal ducts, the lachrymal 
fland, the lachrymalia puncta, &.C. 

LACI.N'u {amnni; Mariners). The rope 
or line used to confine the beads of sails 
to their yards. 

LACK (in Commerce). The number of 
100,000 rupees in India. 

LACKER, or LACat'ER. A sort of var- 
nish applied to tin, brass, or other metals. 
The basis of lacker is a solution of the re- 
■inous substance of seed-lac in spirit of 
wine. In order to give a golden colour to 
the solution, two parts of gamlMige are ad- 
dtd to one of anotto. When silver leaf or 
tin IS to be lackered a larger quantity of the 
colouring materials is requisite than when 
the lacker is intended to be laid un brass. 

LACTEAL VES.SELS (in Anatomy). 
Tender transparent vessels which convey 
the chyle from the mesentery to the tho- 
racic duct. 

LACTIC ACID. An acid p*^ured from 
sour milk by precipitating it with linie- 
water and separating the lime with oxalic 
»cid. It is supposed to consist of acetic 
acid and mitriaie of potash, with a small 
portion of iron and an animal mailer. 

LAUDER. A wooden f. line made with 
•teps for niflunting. 

LADDER, ScALiso (in Fortification). 
A p.irticiilar kind of ladder made of rofies 
or flat staves, with which the men scale 
the walls of a place that is to be taken by 
surprise. 

LM>Y-BIRD. A small red insect with 
slack fputfl. 



LAM 

LADVS SLIPPER. A plant which 
grows wild, the (lower of which U som* 
thing in the shape of a shoe. 

LADY'S SMOt'K. A plant that grows 
wild, the flower of which consists of four 
leaves succeeded by narrow (Hids, which, 
when ripe, roll up and ca«l ftirth their 
seeds. 

LAIR (among S(Hirlsmen). The place 
where deer harbour by day. 

LAIKD. The name of a lord of a manor 
in the highlanits of Scotland. 

LAITV. The people, as distiiignished 
from the flercy. 

L.\KE (in Ceognipliy). A collection of 
waters in an inlaml place of great exieiil 
and depth, as the Luke of Ceneva, &.c. 

LAKE (in Painting). A line crimson 
colour, between carmine and vermilion. 
It is formed by precipitation from the 
solution of the colouring matter with an 
earth or metallic oxide. I'recipilules of 
different shades are obtained wiUi alum, 
nitre, chalk, &.c. 

LA.M.\ (in Theology), or the Or»nd 
liAUi. OF Thibet. The prince and high- 
priest of the country, who is suppoKed to 
be immortal, and on the dissolution of his 
mortal frame his soul enters into tlie Imdy 
of a new born child, lie is worsliip|>ed 
as a supernatural being by his siilijef-ts, 
and is never to be seen but in iJie secret 
recesses of his palace, where he sits cross- 
legged <m a cushion. 

LAM B. The young of sheep wtiil« under 
a year old. 




LAMINA. A thin plate of any metal 

LAMINiE (in Anatomy). Are the two 
thin plates or tables of the skull. 

LA.MMAS DAY. The first of Augu.n, 
formerly a day of thanksgiving. 

LA.MP. A light made of oil and a wick- 
also the vessel to receive the oil and li.e 
wick. 

LAMPBLACK. A colour procured from 
the smoke uf burning oil mixed with gum 
water. 

LAMPERS. A disease in the palate of 
a horse's mouth. 

LA.MPREY. A sort offish which ad- 
heres firmly to rocks and other bodies by 
<he luouLh. It u lu shape like an eel, and 



LA N 

U dlippery. I.am|)rHy« arc e.-»tppitio<1 as n 
d<*lic:try. iiiiil nre. in lar-iismi in Ilie iiioiitlis 
of March. A|iril. ami May. 

LA.M.'K. An rifrniMvc weapon formerly 
Oiwd hy knigliis in tl»-ir tilu ami lourna- 
meiits. 

LA.NCKRS (in Military Affairs). A 
Itixly of iiieii III I'liliiiiil ariiii-il with long 
lanres antl iiiuiititcd mi swiH horsttK. 

liA.NCF/l' (in Surgery). An insiriiinent 
«%d ill bleeding, <i|H-iiiiie tiiiiii>iirs, &.c. 

LANIJ (in (leograiiliy 1. One main di- 
vision of the earth, a» itisiiiiifiiiihed from 
w.ater; In Law, lain! includes not only 
arable land, meadow, p;i.siiire,&c. hut a!so, 
ine>;suat!es and houses, for In ronveyiiig 
the land the buildings pass with il. 

LAND FALL (among iMariners). The 
first land discovered after a voyage. 

LAM) FORCKS (in .Military Affairs). 
Troops employed only on land. 

LAM)G R.AVE. The governor of a 
district in Germany. 

LANDI.N'O. Going on land out of a 
boat or yeses!. 

LA.\1)IN(; (in Archilectiire). The first 
part of a flour at Itie head of a HIght of 
itaint. 

LANPLOCKRO. A sea term for a 
ve.'t.sel when she is at anchor in a place 
not open to the sea. 

LANDLORD (in Law). He of whom 
ands nr tenements are held. 

LA.N'DMA.N. One ■■ii board a ship who 
has never been before to sea. 

LA.ND.MARK tin lliisliandry ). A bonn- 
d.iry set between the lands of different 
person*. 

LANDMARK (anions Manners). Any 
niounlain or other ohjert winch may serve 
lo make the land dislinyiiisliiible at sea. 

L.A.N DtSCAPE (in I'aintlng). A picture 
representing any pan of a country, wiih 
the varioilii objects of fields, trees, hedges, 
houses. Sec. 

LAXDSTURM. In militniy affairs, 
a local militia of I'nissia. wliit li is never 
called from it.s own di.stricl Init in case 
of iictiial invasion. 

LANGUAGE. Human (>piH-ch in gene- 
ral, or an asseniMaae of articulate sounds 
forming word?) and sisns fur ihe expression 
nf the thoughts of the mind. 

I>AN(;UAGK, IImtort or. That all 
men at first spoke one laneuase we knfiw 
on the aulliorily of S<-ripliire, and that 
that language iinisl have l>eeii the Hebrew, 
the Holy Laiiguaiie, l\» it is called by the 
Jews, in which (oid w.'is pleased to reveal 
bis word lo man, is clearly dedui ilile from 
Scripture In giving the names of .Adam 
•ud nianj of his posterity, the inspired 



LA IV 



217 



penman erpressly declares them lo he nt 
Hebrew origin, for of Adam he siiys that 
he was expressly so called from Ihe He- 
brew Adam, earth, because he was made 
out of the dust of the earth, and ii. a 
similar manner he explains the naiuej if 
(.'ain, .Aliel, .Ahraiii, Isaac, Jaco^ snd 
others. When God thought proper to >:i>u 
found the tongues of men, he reserved the 
Hebrew tongue lor his chosen people, who, 
in that tongue, were to keep and ImnJ 
down his oracles lo future ages. 

Judging from the deviations whicu the 
earliest languages underwent, it does not 
appear that any new language was formed 
ill the confusion of toneiies at the tower of 
llabel, nor in fact that any other change 
took place than what was needful to ar.- 
swer the divine pur|)o,«e of causing the 
dispersion of mankind. The ( halde.ins 
or Babylonians being one of the first (leople 
formed after the rtood, we find that their 
language, which has been handed do vn lo 
us unchanged, differs the least of any fr>in 
the Hebrew. The Syriac, whi-h was 
spoken by the (,'aiiaaiiites, w.is n its 
primitive .-late so ner.rly allied to the 
Hebrew that .Abraham undersicHiC tiieir 
speech ; and although the Syriac wl...h in 
now extant, and which was spoker. by the 
inhabitants of ancient Syria, underwent 
many changes by the intercourse of differ- 
ent people, yetlt.stlll retains many vestiges 
of its origin. In the time of Joseph, the 
language of the Egyptians, which is still 
e.xtant under the name of Coptic, was so 
different that the Israelites required an 
interpreter in order to be understood, but 
notwithstanding they retained in their 
letters and In many of their words rr.arks 
of their affinity to the Hebrew. Thisgrsat 
diversity in the language of the Egyptians, 
the de.sceiidants of Ham, tvithin so short a 
(teriod after the ll>M>d, is not surprising 
when we consider ilie peculiar character 
of this people for invention and device 

The Arabian is another language wh'ct 
from the antiipiity of the people was 
probably formed at or very soon arte, Ihe 
confusion of tongues. It is also very uif- 
ferent from all the other toiigites then 
existing, and surpassed them all ir "he 
number of its letters and the harmony a .1 i 
richness of its eX|>ression, but still it cai'ie* 
with It innumerable marks of it.s afliaity 
to the Hebrew. The jlCthiopiaii was iii 
all probability a dialect of the Egyptian, 
at least in the names of us letlers it is 
very similar Ui thai lai giiage; but Lndulf 
observes that il bearsa great altiiiity *r*»i» 
Hebrew and the Syri.ic, and a still •wmiKw 
to the .Arabic, from which ae mppo«iet tt 



218 



i>angua(;e 



to !i« d^nved. In fart, he maintains that 
coiii|>«(dil Ktiowlriliit* (if tlie II<-lirew, iir 
miiy otlir-r of the oriciilal laiisim^es, will 
enable a |ienti>ii td uiiiterslatiit very niiicii 
ofihe i!lilil<i|iic, there lieiii:; several llehrew 
roots and ^mnitirations of Hebrew word:* 
■ '• '.U'.» .t^ri^uage whicli are not lu be fuuiid 
Ic any oilier. 

Ai '.ne l*lupnician«, the descendants of 
the \;.tiiauiiites, inhabited tlie niaritliiie 
parts of llie land of <'uiiaaii it is not siir- 
pris :,i that tlie:r laiiciiage should be siip- 
p<Kit. . to have been nearly the same as the 
Ilel .e\v. Some vestiges of tills aliinity 
i.re to be foniid in the |iro|>er names of the 
CaiiliHijinians, their descenilants, ivho 
■poh. a dia'ect of the I'lnvnician called the 
Punic language: this latter language is 
als( Mild to have had a tincture of the 
Cl.ildee and Syriac, which may be eiisily 
aicjjnted for by the iiitertciirse which 
the!> , two trading nations held with all 
oltjcr peopie. A writer in modern tunes 
Nif -.><s« sliuwn that the Maltese cuntaina 



a number ofPunic wonls, from which Nii 
Justly inferred that Alalia w:is once in iht 
possession of the Canhagiiiians. 

The i'ersian, as il is now handed down 
tons, is confessedly (Kistenor lo ihe Arabic, 
to which It IS nearly allied both in iU 
primitive letters and whole construction, 
bui II has been sIjuwii by writers tiiai llie 
Parlhians or Persians were 5-cytliians who 
mingled with the Llemiles or original in- 
habitants of Persia, and gave to the I'ersian 
language thai (-"ellic tincture which biingii 
il nearer In accordance with the northern 
language jif Kurope. In the language of 
India and Armenia there are strong inarki 
<if resemblance to the I'ersian ; but as to 
the ('htiiese it was probably one of the 
earliest tongues formed after the tiinid, as 
It bears few or no marks of itfinity to aiij 
but the Hebrew. 

In proof of what has been advanced oa 
the oriental languages tlie following alpha- 
beta are given : — 



k<ll!>.EW AND 

..-■A-.OEB. 

Alep:i 
BttS 
GhlincI 

He 

Viu 

Zxin 

fin* 

T»ih 

Jo.< 

Ch*|>h 

I.kmed 

Jleir 

(rncili 

Vht 

T>aJI 

R»ph 

^at 

jchic 

7Uu 



BTmoriC. ARABIC. 



Dola;h 

He 

W.«r 

Kain 

llliiita 

Telh 

Y.id 

Cof 

Koinad 

Mim 

N.ID 

Somecth 

F. 

P« 

Hod* 
Kof 
Riah 
Shin 
Taa 



m 

Chi 
V 

Shel 

Fei 

Kher 

Ituri 

J:.u)» 

Sl.ima 

Dhei 

Kyi 



U|Milo 



Air 

Bet 

GemI 

Daiit 

ilaut 

W.w 

Zai 

1 1 harm 

Tail 

Jameo 

Caf 

Lanri 

Mai 

Nahu 

Bast 

Aio 

M 

Tiadal 

K..I 

Reea 

Saul 

Tawl 



Gala 

Dal 
Dtal 



Ye 
Caf 
I.i.m 



Sad 

Ala 

r. 

Kar 



ARMCniAK. 



Jelach 

Sa 

E 

Jeih 

Thua 

Je 

J 

I.aim 

Chlia 



Kiea 

Hue 

Dm 

lihat 

Tee 

Mien 

111 



If he 

Fa 





AS the ahovementioned languages were 
•t>-:keii by the most ancient people, it is 
Hot surprising to find that thi-y retained so 
r!.<;ny marks of their origin, but it is 
Worthy of observation that those languages 
*hich sprung out of them underwent 
e:eat?r changes in their e.xternal fomi, so 
»* if give iheni an air of originality which 
»0'-8 not in reality belong to them. Thus 
.. IS that the Oreek, from the inventive 
gea js ol the people, acquired a peculiar 
rtrintiire and a richness of expression 
vnich made it pass for a primitive tongue, 
wl en in truth it is as much a derivative 
Un/imge as those which have since been 
formed. That it was indebted to the 
Egyp. sti: for the names of its letters will 
le obv'ioii.s l<> any one who should cum- 
vare i1m> Ureek alphabet with the Coptic, 



given above ; and antiquarians have made 
it clear thai the roots of the Greek are to 
be traced either to the Ei;yi>lian, the 
Phffinician, or the Pelasgian, which was 
spoken by the Pelasgi, a Celtic (leople, 
who first took pos.session of Greece, or the 
Isles of Klisha as it is called in Scripture. 
It has also been clearly shown that this 
Pelasgian had a common original with 
the Irish and Welsh, the primitive lan- 
guages irf Ireland and lirltain, which were 
peopled by two kindred tribes, the do- 
scendants of .Magog and Uoiiier, the son* 
of Japliet, who at a very early periiKl pro- 
ceeded from Scytliia to Kuro|»e, and laid 
the foundation of all the modern European 
languages. Those people which inhabited 
the countries of Kiiro(ie, except Greece, 
were alXerwards called by Uie Uteeki 



UVNOUAnE. 



lit 



Relte OT GallntiE, and by the Ruinatis 
Cell) M Calli, (>lt« or Caiila. 

The 1^1 111 wd* niit loriiied until a 
eolfiiiy ul tlie Pc l;i«<^i or (!reeks iiilriiilt-d 
llirm.-x-lves ii|h)ii ilie L'nibn iir (^oiiit-rii, 
ttif iitMiriuiiiesiif Italy, niiil «> far |>reviiil«<d 
over tlirir laiiKHiiiit- llial liit^y liKHlellrtI llitr 
miMiire ol" llie two upim tin- pliiu ol' llie 
Cret-k in the liiriiialuni uf (ascD, iiiimkIs, 
and teiisrs, In which »v»»rf aflerwiirdsadili-d 
many wiirds o( l^gyptiaii nr riiu;niciaii 
extrartioii, from the interroiirse whirli 
Cook |ila(-e liet«eeii the Romans, t'arllia- 
ghiiand, and Ejoiiliaiiii. As to the (>er- 
inan, Danish, Swedish, and other northern 
lani^uaees, they all hear evident marks of 
their attinity not only to each other, but to 
that of the I^itin, with which they had a 
common Cellit orisinal. At Ihesametime 
their anresiors bi fore their second irrii|i- 
tion into Kur^pe under the name ofCjoths, 
Vandals, Huns, &.c. had iiilrmliiced such 
ehanses in the pronunriation and letters 
of tlieir several lanpiaues ;is gave them an 
ap|H-arance of ori^rinatity and |ieciiliarity. 
Besides, it appears that the Hiin^rian, 
Sclavonic, l)almatian,:uid Russian assumed 
a Greek ctiararier by a niixtiirt; uf Uie 
Greek and its seversU dialects. 

The French retains many vestiges of its 
Celtic orijiinal. but in consttipience of the 
Roman congiiest the additions of the L.aUn 
prevailed. ii> all which Ihe [leople gave it 
a peculiarity both in its pronunciation, 
orttjopr.iphy, and stnicture. The same 
remark applies to the t'panish, which also 
nnilerwent some additional changes from 
the incursionti of the MtM>rs, who ingraAed 
upon it many words of Arabian and Phte- 
nician origin. The luilinii Is obviously a 
diilect of the Latin, modified by and 
assimilated to the French and Spanish, 
doubtless during the period when Fnince, 



Spam, and Italy were governed by tiM 
eiii|ierors of the west. 

'I'lie i'.nulish, the last formed language 
in Ihe u iirld, IS also reiiiark.<lile for being 
c<im|M>iiiided of a sireatei diversity of lan- 
giiaues than any other. 'I'lie groiindwora 
of the Kiiiilish is the Saxon, but there is 
not a lanuuaiie in Europe which has not 
Conlribiiteil mote or Ir^ss to Its I'ormatmn. 
.Many words were retaiiieil or borrowed 
by Ihe Saxons from the I:iii<.'iiai2e of the 
original iiaiives,nHiiiely Ihe Wvish, which, 
as before observed, was one of the ancient 
Celtic dialects, of the same oripn as the 
Saxon it-seif, but existed long prior to it. 
On the invasion and settlement of the 
Danes some changes as well as adilltlons 
were made in the lan!>:iage, which under- 
went still greater change.s at the Norman 
conquest, by the admission of Norman as 
well as French words, and the iiiiHlellinE 
of the iangiinge itself into a form more 
nearly allied to the French. From this 
source are derived a vast number of the 
Latin words and some few words of Creek 
origin, but the most nnmeroiu: additions 
from these resources have since l)een made 
by the English themselves, who have also 
gradually given it a di.stinct form and pro- 
nunciation that entitle it as much to the 
name of original as any of the other Euro- 
jieaii languages that are of more aucieirt 
date. To this diversity in the origin of the 
English, and its aptitude to naturalize 
every foreign term, il is indebted for a 
variety and richness of expression which 
is not equalled by any other language in 
the world. 

'J'he following list of the names of -he 
ten first numbers among the Eiirop^ia 
nations, taken from Parson's Remains •</ 
Japhet, will siirtice to show the alhnit. •>! 
the languages altovemeiitioned. 



IRISH. 

1. Aon 

2. Uo 

3. Tri 

4. Ceathaii. 

5. Cnig 

6 She 

7 Shragd 

8 Ochl 
a Nyi 

10. Deie 



WELSH. 

Ln 

Diiy 

Tri 

Pedwar 

Pymp 

Chuech 

Saith 

L'lth 

Haw 

Deg 



CREEK 

eU 

TJivit 

'Et 

^Ettt'o 

'Oxxat 

Eiria 

/ttxa 



LATIN 

Unus 

Duo 

Tret 

Uuatuor 

Cluinque 

Sex 

Septem 

Octo 

Novem 

Decern 



ITALIAIt. 

Uno 

Due 

Tre 

Qiiatro 

Cinque 

Sei • 

Sette 

Otto 

Nove 

Diei-J 



tPAMSH 

lino 

Dos 

Tres 

Qiiatro 

Cineo 

Seyj 

Siete 

Ocho 

Niieve 

Diez 



FREncM 

L'n 

Deux 

Trois 

Onati* 

CiiK] 

Sit 

Sept 

Unit 

Nkii( 

Dix 



OtrmaK. Dutch. Svedith. Damtk. Sax»n. Englitl . Potlii. IhutimH Hm^v^m 

'. Ein Een En F.en if.ne, an One Jeden Yediia Eg 

2. 7.wei Twee Twa Toe Twa,l\vy Two Dwa Twa Kelt© 

3. Drei I>rii Tre Tre Drie Three Trizi Tree liarun 

4. Vier Vier Fvra Fire Feower Four C/.terr.tl Shatim Negy 
k Kiinf Vyf Faein Fem Fife Five Uioc« Pel "Cl 



220 

6. Seehs y.ei 

7. Jijehen /.even 

8. A.lil Arilt 



LA K 

S'irrrfJsA. 

Aotla 



9, Neiin ^«-giien Nut 
.0. Zetieo Turn Tio 



Syv 
otte 
.Nie 



!?«!<ifen 
Ealit 



LAT 



BnflUh. Poli$h, 

Seven Sieden 
ElgUt l«ni 



AiKfion. liu 
Client H:tt 
Sel llel 

\V<issim Niolez 



Nine Dziewree Drvit Kilenez 



Tyn, tien Ten Dzea/.iec UiaatiX Tin 



liANNER. A Sdrt of hawK, formeriy 
miu'h esteemed in Inlcoiiry. tl lo ue\l to 
tlie buzzard in cize. 

LANTKK.N FLY. A reinarkalile in- 
tect of Sou 111 America, thai emits an 
extraordinary light from the litillow of its 
head. 

LA.VYARnS (among Mariners). Short 
pieces of rope fastened to !«everal parts of 
ac^hip. 

LAPIDARY (in Commerce). One who 
polishes and engnives stones. 

I.AIMS IXFER.NALIS. A sort of 
caustic comptisitlon. 

I. APIS LAZULI (In Painting). A 
stone of an azure or hlue colour, of which 
tlie paint called ultramarine is made. It 
is a cop(>er ore, very compact and hard, 
and is found in lumps of a beautiful blue 
colour, richly variepited with clouds of 
white and veins of sliining ^old colour. 

LAPSE (in Law). An omission on the 
part of the patron to present to a bent- fice 
within six months after it is vacant, upon 
which default the ordinary has a right to 
collate to the said benefice. 

LAPSED LEGACY. I'allen or Uat hy 
a lapse, as where the legatee dies before 
the testator, &.C. 

LAPWING. See Pebwit. 

LARBltARD. A sea term for the left 
hand side of a ship, when looking: inwards 
the stem or head. 

LA RCENY. The felonious and fraudu- 
lent taking away the personal soods of 
another, which in England, is petly larceny 
if the thmp lie of the value of twelve pence 
or under, and i^rand larceny if above that 
value. 

LARCH. A lofty tree of the pine kind, 
beariMg leaves like those of ihe pine, and 
a sort ot inuslirouifi for the fruit. The B'lm 
of this tree is called Venice tur(>eii»tiie. 
The leaves fall off in wiiiler. The timber, 
which is remarkably durable, ts used in 
buildin<! ships. 

LARDER. The room where meat is 
kept and .-lalted. 

LARES. The domestic or household 
|ods amoiic the Romiins, placed in some 
5Mivaie part of (hi house, which the family 
boooured as their protector. 

L>AR(<E (in Music). The ereatest mea- 
mre of musical ipianlitiea ; on« 'args con- 
laining two longa. 



LARGE. A sea phrase for the wind, 
when il crosses Ihe line of a ship's course 
in a favourable direction. 

L.VRGESS (in Husb.indry). A gitl to 
the labourers in the harvest sea-son. 

LARGU (ill M^isic). A slow muve- 
menl. 

LARK. A well known singing bird, the 
most remarkable species of which is the 
skylark, that slii<!s so beautifully as it is 
soaring in the air. This bird is not found 
in America. Our meadow lark bears s(une 
resenibliince to it, bill is nearly twice as 
lartse. 

LARKSPUR. A plant cultivated in 
gardens, the flower of which consists of 
many dissimilar petals or leaves, some of 
which end in a tail or spur. 

LARVA. The grub or caterpillar stato 
of some in.sects so called by Linnaeus, but 
by others the eruca or caterpillar. 

LA RUM. A sort of clock that makes a 
noi.se or alarm at a certain hour. 

LARYNX (in Anatomy). The top of 
the windpijie. below the root of the tongue 

L.'VSSO. A rope with a noo«e, u«ed in 
Suiitli America (ur catciliug wild caUle 




LAST. A meamire or weight, •• a last 
of corn, &c. etpial to ten quarters, and a 
la.it of cod tish, tec. equal to from twelve 
to twenty- four barrels. 

L.ATH (in Carpentry). A long, thin, 
piece of wix>d, nailed to the rafters of a 
wall or rool to receive the plaster or 
covering. Laths are distinguished accord- 
ing to the wood of which they are made, 
inti> hearts of oak, sap latha, and deal 
laths. 

LATHE (in Turnery). The engine used 
in turning wood, &c. 

LATIN. The language spoken by th« 
ancient Romans, or the inhabitants aC 
Latiiini, from which it derives its name. 

LATIT.\T (in Bngland). A wni oaed 



LAY 

•■ penonal actions, wher** thp pnrty In to 
Da arrested id any other cniiiily tliaii Mid- 
dleMX. 

LATITUriK (In Cengraphy). The dis- 
tance of a plact! friiiti the rqiiatnr, which 
is ritlier nurthcrii or southern, accurdnig 
a-i Ihr piare is iKirth or «>iith. The lati- 
luile cannot ex<-t-«-<l IK) ilesrei's,the distance 
of the et|uator from Ihe nortb or miith 
ptile. 

I.ATTEN. Iron plates tinned over, of 
which tea canisters are made. 

LAVA. The mineral substance which 
(lows from Mount Kfna, Vesuvius, and 
other volciinoes, is of a grayish colour, 
light, moderately hard, and brittle, ajJiJ, 
easily frangit)le : it generally attmrts.'tne 
mag:netic needle, and is easily fusible into 
C(m)pact glass. 

L.AI'D.A.NK'.M. A S4>p<.nfic tincture, con- 
taining the liner and purer parts of opium, 
dnwn in water and -ipirils of wine, and 
then reduced to its due consistence. 

LAVE.N'DER. A plant with a shrubby 
■tern, much branched with numerous 
boary leaves. The tlowers are produced 
in tenninuting spikes from the young sluMits 
on long peduncles. The leaves, stalk, and 
flower yield a fnigrant perfume, and from 
the latter are prepared an essential oil, a 
simple spirit, and a coiii|Hiiind tincture 

LAIJNCE FISH, or S a. to Lalucb. A 
sen tish which buries itself <hi the recess 
of the tide a f<Mit deep in the sand. It is 
genrntlly used for.ljaits. 

LAUNCH. A particular kind of boat, 
used in underniniiiiig the cables nf differ- 
ent shi|M, that are fa-itened across each 
otiier. 

LAUNCH I. \«. Putting a ship out of 
tlock, and conveying her into the water. 

I^AUNDKE:$S. One «vhoM) business It 
Is to wash and get up linen. 

LAl'RE.ATE, or P«kt LtuaiATB (In 
England). A title given to the king's poet. 

LAL'KEL. An everirreen tree, havins 
broad, thick, shining leaves. The tiower 
consists of five petals or leaves, which ex- 
pand in the form of a rose. 

I.A URls^TI.NUS. The wild bay tree. 

L.WV. In Its most extensive sense, the 
rule of conduct prescribed by the supreme 
power of a state. The laws nf England 
e<imprehend the Common l.aw and the 
Statute l.aw, together with certain por- 
tions of the Civil Imw and the Canon Law. 

I..A\V.\. A plain or level space covered 
with grnst, in a pleasure ground. 

L.\Y (in Ecrlesiastical l.aw). An epi- 
thet or whatever belongs to the people at 
Inrco. in distinction from limae who are in 
lM*lv urilers 

»• 



LEA 



» 



LAV (with PoeU). A kind of ancieo 
poetry, consisting of short ver>>es. 

LAY (in Husbandry). O'nmnd that lies 
follow or untilled. 

LAY BK<»THEnS. In the Rorolsh 
church, such as performed the secular and 
servile offices in a convent. 

LAY CDRPtiRATIoN (in England). 
A lay investiture of bishops, ice. 
. .LAYER (in llortuiiliurei. A young 
sprout lient down and covered with nioiild 
for raising fresh planis 

LAYER (anion: Ki^liermen). A ehan 
nel or bed in a creek. » here suiall oysters 
are thrtiwn for breeiling. 
.^LAYVeE (in Euilaiid). Lands held 
in (i»e of a l.iy lord, as distinpiislied from 
those lands which l>eliiiig to Ihe church. 

LAY I.MPROPRIATION (in England). 
TTie lnipro|iriating or pinplnyiiig the reve- 
nues of the chiirctvto llie use of a layman. 

LAYMAN (in Ecclesmstical Ijiw). Itiic 
who has not taken holy orders. 
• LAV.MA.N (in Painiing). A statue of 
wood, whose joints are so made that it 
may be put into any |iosture. 

LAZARETTO. An hospital for lazara 
or leprous persons. 

LAZl'LI. See Lapis. 

LAZI'LITE. A mineral of the silleioui 
order, of which lapis la/.uli is the principal 
species. Its principal constituents are 
silica, aliiniines, carlHUiale of lime. Mil- 
phate nf lime, oxide of iron, Slc. 

LEACH (among Miners). A tern signi- 
fying hard work. 

LE.M) (in .Mineralogy). A bliiisl while 
metal, very si>l\ and tlexible, and easily 
beaten into thin plates by the hs nnier 
In a strong heat it boils and emits names, 
and if during that tune it ise\|Mised to the 
air. Its oxidation proceeds very npidly. 
It is very brittle at the time of congelation. 
Most of tlie acids attack lead, but it unites 
with most of the nieials, particularly tin. 
which in union with le.-id I'lirms the solder 
used by plumber^. Thecarb«inateof lead, 
which is a p«iwder, isj>etter known by tlie 
name of white lead ; the red oxide of lead 
is otherwise ralleil led le.-id. 

LEAD, or SoixniMi Lbad. A seaterio 
for an instriiineitl which tidised to disC4i« 
er the depth of water at sea. 

LEAF (in Botany). A mpmbran*ceoi# 
and sonieliines succulent part nf a plant, 
which arises from the stem. lieares ap- 
pear to assist the pncess of vegetation l>y 
c<imniunlcating the air to the whole of the 
plant, which on that account is found tn 
tie exceedingly tender of its leares, and 
tn siitfer niiirii from any rough tivktnMBi 
which Umy way receive. 



222 



LED 



liKAF. A KTiii aj)|)!if(t in other ohjectR 
rnufiiiblin!! a leaf n. siKiik.- nr iiiuke, nn tiie 
le:if of a boiiK ; also leuf niM or gilvcr, 
((old or Oliver beaten iiilu plutes of exceed- 
ing thinnfss. 

l-EAC;rK (in Oeosraphy). A meaxure 
of leniftli, contaiiiiiig a rrrlaiii niiiiilier of 
Eeograpliic.-il pares, arroriliiic to tlie iisiige 
or compulation of iliirrrr'nl toiiiilriei'. A 
icague at Sf-a, wliere it i» mostly iis«-d by 
us, is eijiial to lliree united, ur tliree thou- 
sand piMMiielriral paces: llie leaiiue in 
Kraiice toiilains three thousand live hun- 
dred pace*. 'I'he iJulili or Cjernian league 
four geogrnphicjii miles. Seventeen Spa- 
nish lea;:ues are eipial toa degree, or sixty- 
nine and a half !>talute iiiilea. 

LEACI/K (in rolltics). A treaty of 

^liance between dillerent states or parlies. 

IJ-'.AK. .\ny hole or chink in a vessel 

vvbir.b adiiiits the water, particularly ap- 

plip<» To a ship at lea. 

LEAKa<<E ; in Commerce). An allow- 
ance made to iiierchaiiUi for the leaking; or 
running oi vessels. 

LF^.AP (in Cuminerce). A measure equal 
to half a bushel. 

LEAP VEAR (tn Chmnoln-fy). Any 
year in whicli a day ia added more than 
ordinary. 

LEASE (In I.aw). A conveyance of 
lands, cenenilly in considemtion of rent 
or other annual recompense, for term of 
years, for life, or al will, provided it be 
for a shorter term than the lessor has in 
'iie premises. 

I.E.ASII (amnn!» Sportsmen). The num- 
ber of three applied tu partridges or other 
game which are killed. 

LEASINtj. The same as pleanine, or 
picking u|i the ears of coin after the field 
is cleared. 

LEATII ER. The skin or hide of a beast 
tanned and dressed. 

LEATHER -DRESSER. One who 
diesiies leather. 

LEATHER SELLER. One who deals 
n leather. The company of leather-sellers 
III London, was incorporated in iri)^. 

LEAVEN. A piece of sourdough put tn 
fernienl a mass of breail. 

LECTURER (in E(rlesiastica:i Law). In 
England, a miuisiler uho preaches in the af- 
ternoon, and is usually paid liy the people. 
LEIKIE (in Geograpby). A long ridge 
*f nicks near the surface of the sea. 

LEI>c;ER. The chief lifM.k used in mer- 
chants accounts, wherein every man's par- 
ticular account is ke|K ; and also all the 
fr<Hls noil!.'!!! anit sold are distinctly placed 
WT by Jitiiisdves, as <lebtor on the left 



LEM 

hand page, and creditor on tht tight 
hand. 

LEE. A sea term for that part whici 
llie wind blows upon, or that is opposite 
to the wind, as the lee shore. 

LEIX'H. A well known insect that lives 
in the water, and is commonly u.-<ed In 
bleeding. The two principal sjiedes ai« 
the medicinal leech, which Is employed to 
dniw blood where the lancet Is Ir.-s safe ; 
and the horse leech, which is larger, and 
applied to horses for the same purpose 

LEECHES. A sea term for the edges 
of a sail. 

LEEK. A potherb having long cylindri- 
cal and coaled riMits. It has Miniethiiig of 
the flavour of the onion. 
LEES. The dregs of wine. 
LEET. In England, a little court within 
a manor, having a criminal jiiri.idirtion. 

LEO (in An.-ilomy). A limb, and that 
part of the aniinal body which serves for 
walking. 

LE(! (among Artificern) Whatever 
serves for the supjiurt of a thing, as the 
leg of a sto<d. Sec. 

LEO (in Mathematics). The two sides 
of a triangle are called the legs. 

LEfJ. A sea term for rojies put through 
the boll ropes of the main and foresail. 

LE(;ACY (in I»TW). A beipiest or gift 
by testament of any |>ersonal effects: Ihe 
person heipieathiug is called the lestaior, 
and he to whom it is bequeathed the 
legatee. 

LEGATE. A cardinal or bishop sent by 
the pope as his ambassador to sovereign 
princes. 

LEGEND. A book used in the ancient 
Roman churches, containing the lessons 
that were to be read ; also a chr(uilcle oi 
register of the lives of saints. 

LE(<ENU (among Antiquarians). The 
inscription on the edge of a medal or 
coin. 

LEGERDEMAIN, orSurjHT or H*^d 
Tricks which, from the dexterity of the 
performer, are made to deceive the ob- 
server. 

LE<:fON (in the Roman army) A 
body of 6000 fmit and 3(10 horse, or less 
LEGITMEN. All manner of pulse. 
LE(;i;.MEN (in Uotany). That species 
of seed vessel vulgarly termed a (mhI, as 
the seed vessel of the pea, vetch lupi le, 
&.C. '^ 

LEMMA. A proposition in Mathematics, 
which serves to prepare the way (or Itim 
demoiistnirion of son e theorem. 

LE.M.MI.N'G. A sfM^cies of animals of the 
rat Xindj the Lapland leniming inigratea. 



LEN 

•t the npuroacli of winter, and rather than 
4cviiiir Irnin Ins xtrai^lil cuur:$e he will 
perir'li III iilteiiipliii^ to •urmuuiit olMluclea 
that lie III Ins way. 

LEAH i.NADK. A drink made of water, 
leiiioiiM, anil sii^ur 

LEilOIsr. A n acid fruit of the lemon 

tree, l>eloii<!;iii<i to iho geiiim citrus. It 
j;i<iwsin Florida and Louibiuiia,auUalso 
111 tlie south of JiuroiKj, 



LET 



za 




LEMUR. A gcnns of quadrupeds soma- 
nrhat refwinbling the monkey in the I'orin 
of the feel, but widely (liirereiit from thai 
aiiiinai in its manners ami temper. Two 
of these aniniiils liroiiciit from India lately, 
iiid exhihited in iloston, would walk back- 
ward and forward on a wmall tigltt cord, 
tuuig Uteir tiild for balance pules. 




■^^~ 



LENS. A piere of gttias or other trans- 
parpnt •iibstanre of the fimire of a lentil, 
which either rollfctg the rays of light it.tii 
a point. In their passage through it, or dis- 
perses them according to their form and 
the laws of refraction. The convex lens 
converges lUe riys of light, and the con- 
cave dis|>erse» the rays. If only one side 
is convex and the fither plane, It Is called 
a piano cj III vex lens, such as A in the fol- 
low ing llgiire ; if convex on both sides. It 
l» a double convex lens, as H. The con- 
cave lenses are also ;liviiled into llie plano- 
concave, as O, coiicavo concave, as U. and 



the meniscus, which is concave on oaa 
side and convex un Ui« other, a* K. 




LENT. A timeof faxtlngandabftlneoec 
for forty ilajs before Easter. 

LEN'I'I !>?. A sort of pulse. 

LEU (ill Astronomy). A constellatioo 
and one of the twelve signs of the zodiaa 
marked lliiis ^. 

LEOPAUD. An African animal of the 
cat kind covered with black spots upon a 
yellow ground, so di8|Vieed, as to resemble 
the print of its fiHil. It Is one of tlte nios 
beautiful of all quadrupeds. 




LEPTDOPTERA. An order of taiweta 
In the Linna'an system, which have their 
wings imbricated with Kales, as the but- 
terfly, moth, &.C. 

LEI'KUSY (in Medicine). A foul cuta- 
neous disea.se, appearing in dry, white, 
thin, scurfy scabs. 

LEri?S (in Astronomy). The flare, a 
constellation in the southern hemispheie, 

LE ROV LE VEUT.i.e. The king wills 
It. In England the form of words by which 
the king signides his assent to the bills 
that have passed the two ho.iBes, aOer 
which they acquire the force of laws. 

LE ROY S'AVISERA, i. e. The king 
will coni^ider of it. The form of words by 
which he refuses his assent to any bills 
that are presented to him. 

LETHARGY. A disease arising from 
cold, phlegmatic humours which oppresa 
the brain, and cause an incessant drowsi- 
ness. 

LETHE. A river in hell, which, accord- 
ing to the poets, caused all whs drunk of 
it to forwt the past. 

LETTER (in Crammar). A charactet 
in the alplialwt, used to express the simple 
sounds of the voice which in every Ian 
guage are collected mlo a series called ths 



124 



LRV 



ftiptiahet. Letter* are Cdmposert of vowels 
•B<1 eoniionants, and form wcrds. 

LETTER (in Printing). The type or 
character u'liich is used in coiniiosing. 

LETTER (in Coniinerce). Any writing 
sent from one person to another. 

LETTER OF ADVICE. A letter written 
by a merchant to his correspondent, ad- 
visinj; or piving him notice of what bills 
he lias drawn upon hnn. 

LETTER OF ATTORNEY (In Law). 
A writing wlierehy a person constitutes 
another to do a lawful act in his siteud, as 
to receive delits, &.C 

LETTER OF CREDIT (among Mer- 
chants). A writing by one niertliant to 
another, desiring him to credit tlie bearer 
with a certain sum of nK>ney. 

LETTER OF MAKQUE. A coniinis 
•ion jriveii to priviito Hliijis. \)y :\ govern 
iiieiit. to make reprisals on llie ships ol 
another state. 

LEUCHTEXBERGITE. A iniii.iHl 
of a yellow color iuid penrly lii.stre. lt.-< 
constitiionls are Kilica, aliiniitin, niaij 
(hisia. peroxide of iron, lime, and water. 

LEUCITE. A stone of the garnet kind. 

LEVEL. An instmment used to maka 
a line parallel to the horizon. The plumb 
level is that which shows the horizontal 
line by means of another line perpendicu- 
lar to that described hy a plummet or 
pendulum, which instrument consists of 
two legs or branches, joined together at 
riirlil angles, whereof that which carries 
the thread and plummet is about a foot 
and a half long, the thread is hung towards 
the top of the branch. A telescope is 
placed on the horizontal branch of the in- 
strument, havitvga hair placed hori'/.onfally 
arriiss the focus of the object glass, wh.i<h 
determines the point of the level. The 
telescope is fastened by a ball and socket. 




LEVER Tn England, a company of the 
vnbility, fentry, &c. who assemble to pay 
their respects to the king. Ft consists of 
t>ntl«inen only, by which it Is distir- 



LET 

giiished from a drawingroom, where ladiM 
as well as gentlemen attend. The tena 
is also applied to the evening assembliei 
at the president's house in Washington. 

LEVELLING. The art of finding a line 
parallel to the horizon at one or m<rt 
stations, in order to determine the ht i«hl 
of one place in respect to another. The 
subjoined figure showsthe manner of tind- 
lug the ilitference of the level of a place, 
where there is a level line and two sights 
level witJi each other, whereby the per- 
penilicular distance between the surface oi 
the ground and any point in ti'e level line 
may he discovered. The art of levelling 
is particularly applied to the laying out 
grounds even, regulating descents, drain- 
ing iiiora.sses, conducting water, ttc 




LEVELLING (in Fortification). Th* 
.educing an uneven surface to that of a 
plane, so that the works may be of a cor- 
responding height and figure. 

LEVER. One of the si.x powers, which 
may consist of any Instrument, as a straight 
bar of iron or w<n.d, as A B, supported 
upon a fulcrum or ()rop, C, having a 
weight, W, at (me end, a power, I*, at the 
other. Then A C and II C are the arms 
of the lever. Of this kind are balances, 
scales, pincers, &c. 




LEVER ET. A jronn« hare. 

LEVIGATION. The mechanical pro- 
cess of trinding the parts of bodies to a 
fine paste, by rultbing the flat face of a 
stone called a muller, upon another stone 
called the table or slab. 

LEVITE. One of the tribe of Levi, of 
belonging to the priestly office. 

LEXICOtiRAPHY. The art of writing 
dictionaries. 

LEYUEN PHIAL, or L>tde!< Jab 



LIB 

80 called from M. Vankleigh, a' Leyileii, 
who ftrsl observed its projjerlies. A glass 
jar, having ihe ouuide and the inside 
coated with tin foil, ajid a brass wire, the 
upfier part of wliicli terminates in a ball 
of the game metal, and the lower part 
in a chain that communicates with the in- 
side. This jar arimiu of being charged so 
as to prodnce the electrical shock and 
various other exjierinienls illuslruUve of 
the power of electricity. 



Lia 



229 




LIBATION. A sacrifice among the 
Greeks and Romans, which consisted iii 
oflering up Borne liquid to the gods. 

LIBEL (in Law). An injurious reproach 
or accusation written or published aiiaiiist 
the government, a magistrate, or a private 
person. 

LIBEL (in the Civil Law). The decla- 
ration or charge drawn up in writing, as 
is used in tiie ecclesiastical courts. 

LIBERAL ARTS. Such as are fit for 
gentlemen and scholars. 

LIBERTY (in Law). A privilege by 
which men enjoy some favour or benefit, 
keyond the ordinary subject. 

LIBERTY OF CO.NSCIENCE. The 
iberty of following any profession of reli- 
gion, which one pleases, without any con- 
trol from government. 

LIBERTY (in the Manege). A void 
•pace in the middle of a bitl of a bridle, to 
give place to the tongue of a horse. 

LIBRA (in Astronomy). A constellation, 
and one of the twelve signs of the zodiac, 
marked thus (-Cz). 

LIBRARIAN. One who has charge of 
a library 

LIBRARY. A large collection of books, 
also the place which contains them. The 
first library spoken of in history was that 
formed by Pisistratiis, tyrant of Athens. 
Eumenes, kin? of Perganins, also formed 
a lilirao' of 200,000 volnnies; but the li- 
brary of Alei.indria, formed by Ptolemy 
PhiladelihUis, coiilained 700,000. Anion!! 
iie libraries of the modems, tliat of the 



Biblistheque Imperial, of Paris, ia 
the most oelebruted. It was begua 
in the middle of the 14th Century with 
ten volumes, but has been augmented, 
till it now contains l.iOO.OM printed 
Vjlumes and 84,000 manuscript volumes. 

LIBliATION. In astronoiny, an ap- 
parent irregularity of the moon's mo- 
tion, by which she appears to librate 
about Uer axis. 

LIBBETTO. A little book containing 
the words of an opera. 

LICHEN. In botany, an orJcr of 
plauts ol very low organization, wliich 
grow on the bark of trees, ou rock.s, and 
on the ground. In pathology, au erup- 
tion of the skin; acutaueou.s distemper. 

LICTOR. A Eoman officer, who bore 
an axe aud fasces or rods, as ensigns of 
his oifice. 

LIEBEKKUHN. A metallic mirror at- 
tached to the object-glass end of a mi- 
croscope lor the purpo.-^e of throwing 
down light on opaque objects: a reflector 

LIEUrENANT. In tlie army or uavy, 
one who supplies the place awl dis- 
cliarges the duty of his immediate sa- 
perior in bis absence. 

LIEUXEN.\NT GENERAL. In the 
United States, an officer next in rank 
below the Governor of a State aud du- 
ring the absence of the Governor per- 
forms his duties. 

LIEN. A legal claim; the right by 
which the possessor of property holds 
it against tl)e owner in satifilactiou of a 
demand. 

LIEVBITE. A brownish-black miner- 
al, occurring iu long, vertically striated, 
prismatic crystals, 

LIGAN. In luw, goods sunk in the 
sea, but tied to a cork or buoy, in order 
t-> be found again. 

LIGAMENT. In anatomy, a strong 
elastic membrane or substance connec- 
ting the extremities of the movable 
boues. In conchology, an external sub- 
stance, gt'uerally of a compact tibi-ous 
texture, by which the two valves ot 
bivalvulnr .shells are united. 

LIGNINE. The proximate chemical 
principle of wood; the fibre of wood, 
forming about 95 per cent, of barked 
wood, and the chief ingredient of cot- 
ton, lineu, aud paper. 

LIGNITE. Fossil wood carbonized, 
and converted into a kind of coal. 

LIGNUM VIT^. A very hard and 
close-grained wood, of the plant Guaiac- 
um officinale, remarkable tor the dii-ec- 
tion of its fibres, each layer of which 
crosses the preceding diagonally. A 
native of S. America and the W. Indies. 

LIGUL.\. Ia botany, a membranous 
appendage at the apex of the sheathing 
petiole of grasses. In Entomology, the 
lower lip ot insects; also, the name of a 
gennsof Eutozoa. forming the family 
Cestoidea. Ligulated flowers, in botany, 
are such a.s have a monopotalous slit on 
one side, and open flat, as in the Dan* 
delion. 



226 



LIM 



LU;ATt'KE(inPurf:eryVThediRpos>Dg 
itf banrtages for closing wniiiidd 

M'JATI'RB (amimg Priritsrs). Ty?f 
eonsMtiiig ol' two letters tn one piece, as 
ff, 4^c. 

J^IGHT (In Optics). The eensation 
whuJi arises I'roiii lielioldliig any olyecl, or 
theraiiseoftliatseiisatuin. The nature and 
properties of liplil, and the changes which 
if undergoes in passing through bodies, 
form a principal part of the science of o(>- 
tics. 

LIGHT (in Palming). That part of a 
piece which is illuinined. 

LIGHT (in Architecture). Lightsaretlie 
apertures in a house. 

LIGHT (in Military Affairs). An epithet 
for sohliers liglitly armed, as lightborse, or 
liglilinfautry. 

LIGHTER. A large vessel for carrying 
goods. 

LIGHTERAGE. .Money paid for the 
carrying goods in a lighter. 

LIGHTERMAN. One who conducts a 
lighter. 

LIGHTHOUSE. A tower or lofty build- 
in gun the seacoast, having a light in it, 
for the guidance of mariners at night. 

lilGHTNIXG. In physies, tho flash 
that precedes thumler; au electric 
pUenomeiion produced by the passage 
of elfiotricity betweeu one cloud and 
another, or betweeu a cloud aud tho 
<«.vth. 

ipiLASrSTE. A chemical principle dis- 
covered in lilac. 

LILIACE^. A natural order of Endo- 
gons. containing many of the most 
beiutiful floral plants of that class of 
tha vegetable kingdom, of which the 
Lilium, or Lily, is the tvpe, 

LILY ENCKINITE. lu geology, the 
fossil zoophyte, one of tho most beauti- 
ful of the Crinoidean family, lound in 
the Muschelkalk; so termed from the 
rosemblauce it bears to tho head of a 
lily when tho arms are folded. 

LIM.\CIANS. A name comprehending 
the genera of Slugs. 

LIMB. In astronomy, a term applied 
to the edge of a planet. 

LIMBERS. In the artillery service, 
two-wheel carriages having boxes for 
ammunition. 

LIMB AT. A name in the island of 
Cyprus applied to a cooling wind, blow- 
ing from 8 A. M. till mid-day or later; 
the local sea-breeze. 

LLVIBO, or LIMBUS. A region border- 
ing on hell; purgatory. Ariosto makea 
it the place of all lost things; Milton 
the paradise of fools; and Shakspeare 
hell itself. 

LLME (in Mineralogy). An earthy siib- 
Rtance, which is found purest in limestone, 
marble, and chalk, and is prorifrcd by 
burning in a while heat. It is of a white 



LIN 

colour, and easily reduced to a p.>w<ler. 
If water be poured on newly burnt lime, 
it swells and falls to a powder, tn which 
state It IS called slacked lime. 

LIME (ill llotany). A tree oftbeorang* 
kind, that grows in wami climates. 




"^LIMEKILNS. Furnaces in which lime- 
stone is converted iiilo lime by burning. 

LLMEST'iNi;. 'i'lie native carbonate 
of lime, which is generally rather blue, 
from the pre.-ipiice of iron 

LIMIT (in Malheniatics). A determi- 
nate onanrity, to which a variable one 
continually a|iproaches. 

Ll.MITA'I'lUiN (in Law). A certainiiine 
prescri)>ed by statiile, within which an 
action must be brought 

LIRLMNG The art of painting in vva- 
ter colours. 

Ll.NCIlPIN, or LINSriN. An iron pii» 
that keeps the wheel on the axle-lree. 

LINE (in Geometry). A qiiantity ex 
tended in length only Lines are either 
curves or right lines. 

LINE (in Fortification). Whatever in 
drawn on the ground of the field, as a 
trench, or a row of gabions, &c. 

LI.\E (in Military Affairs). Repilar 
troops, in distinction from the militia, 
volunteers, &.C. 

Li.VE, or a Shif of the Line (in Naval 
Affairs). Is any vessel of war larg* 
enouirh tn be dmwn up in the line of hatile. 

LI.VE (in (Jeography). Another nanM. 
for the equator, or enuinoctial line. 

LINE OF KATTLE. The disjiositM* 
of an army for battle. 

LIN E.N. A kind of cloth made of fla* 

LING. Asort ofcod fish. 

L1NN^;AN SVSTK.M. a system of 
nntnral history, so called from Linineus, 
the Swedish naturalist. It comprehends a 
scieiitiAc arrnngeinrnt of all natural ob- 
jects, as animals, plants, and minerals into 
three kincdoiiis, sulidlviiled into classes, 
orders, genera, Si>ecies, and varieties, with 



LIS 

t dRBCiiptin I or llieir i^neric anU specific 
cliarHriera. 

LI.WRT. A tfiiiati giueliis bird, i>(' the 
ftnr.h kiQtl The bird in Anitrioa «:itlled 
Indigo bird li • vmiiaty ofiiie Imiiei 



LIV 



iXi 




^ 



.IVPEET). Tbe seed of h*mp or flax, 
rriiiii which an oil is extnirted. 

I.IXT. l^iiien 8rr«[>«-il iiiiu asofl, n-ool- 
ly HiilMlance, tit for :i|>plyiiig lo wtiuiids. 

LINTEL, 'i'hr u\>pei part of a door or 
wiiiilovv fmine. 

LION. The fterresi and noblest of all 
wild iK'it.'Jtg, whii'li i!< iiiHile 1(1 he llie cm- 
bicMi of streiiipli and viiloiir, ami is on tli:il 
arcoiiiil the iinisi l'rei]M»-iilly lioriie in conis 
of arms. It in a native of Africa and In- 
dia, and twin)! nearly allied lo tlie cat 
tribe, is cliiwed by Liniiasiu under tbe 
•ame geniu. 




LiaUTI>S(lnCh'>mi«»ry). Fluids which 
are not elastic, nor diTiiini-ih seni^ibly in 
bulk, in di^tinclion from gasett or elastic 
fluids. 

LIUIJIDS (in fJrainniar). The letters 
I, III, n, r, so called from tlieir soft and 
nisllins sound. 

l.Kll.'OR. Any lliin:; !l<iiiid that may 
be drank, (larticiilarly what is of a spiritu- 
oiis iialure. 

IJHIORICE. A shrub, the root of 
which IS full of a sickly sweet juice. 

1.1.>*T. A roll or r.iialo:;iie of names. 

LI."<T, Ci»iu tin England). The whole 
eTthe kiiia's revenue. 

MsSTiaiiioni! .Mariners). An oclination 
lit our Mile, a|i|ilird lo a ship. 

»,li-'J .aiiii-ng flolhierai. A border or 
•d(e of ckHh. 



LIST, or LISTEI.l. .In Architecture). 
A Kuiall baud t>r square muuJdiiig, •erving 
lu crown larser moiiidins;.*. 

LI."<TS. A place encU>«ed with mils, 
w Ithin which lournaineiils or fe.it!> of drma 
were e.xhiliited. 

LITA.N'Y. A cmral siippliration or 
pnyer siiiig or saiil in > liiirches, esjiecially 
that III the Book of (.'oiiinntn I'rayer. 

LITEKAKV rKDl-KKTV. The nsht 
w.'iich authors have in their works. 

Ln'IIAIt<;i:. 'J'he .srum or dross ihal 
•rises in purifying silver with lead. It i* 
an oxiile of lead. 

IJTIIU; ACM). All acid exlracleil from 
the urinary call iili. 

LITIKn;KArillt;. Anepithet for wli.tl 
pertains to eniiraviiig on stone, as litlio- 
graphic iiupressums, those which are takm 
on |a|>er from engravings on stone. 

LITIIOtJKAIMIV. The art of cutting 
or ensravinu on sione, from which impres- 
sions are taken on (taper. 

MTHOM AR(;E. An earth of the clay 
kind, which is known by the niiine of 
fuller's earili and (Killer's clay. 

LITIIdTO.MY (in Surgery). The ope- 
ration of removing a calculus or atone from 
the bladder. 

LIT.ML'S (in Chemistry). A substance 
fnim which is formed a tincture that serves 
as a test of the presence of an acid nr an 
alkali. Alt acids and salts change ine 
natural vfolet of the litmus into red, and 
all alkalies restore it tu its natural ctdoui 
the \"iolet. 

LITUKCY. A set form of pt»yer, or a 
formulary of piihlic devotion. 

LITTORAL. In geology, applied to 
operations and tleposit.s which take 
place near the shore.iii coutradistinction 
to those of a deep-water character, tu 
botany, growing on the sea-shore or on 
the banks of a river; Littoral Zone, that 
zone of marine life which lies between 
high and low water mark, varying in 
extent according to the rise and fall of 
the tide, and shillowness of the shore. 

LITURGY. The established formulas 
for public worship. 

LIVER. In anatomy, a large abdom- 
inal organ, of a deep red color, lying 
under the false ribs on the right side; 
its principal use is to secrete the bila. 

LIVERY.ME.N (of Ixmdon). .\ certain 
number of pers'^* rhusen from among the 
freemen if e.arli c..«npany in the i ity. Out 
of this boily are rhosni the coniim n coun- 
cil, sherilf, ami ><lier superior otticer* of 
the city, and Ihey alone haveihe privileg* 
of vol lug at the election of nieinbera ul 
parliament. 

MVERV STABLES. Public lU'iM. 
where horses are let ool lo hjr». 



S28 LOA 

1<I VRE. A moiiKV of arcoiint formerly 
DM-il in P'nKirp, equal lo twenty suuB, or 
twenty cents 

J.IXI VIUAL A lye ni.ide of ashes. 

LIZARD. An extensive tril>e of ani- 
mals, classed by Lintiieus iirirlertlie genus 
lacestii, comprehending the crucudile, bas- 
ilisk, chameleon, and salamander. The 
lizard, properly so called, is a little reptile 
of a green colour, and is frequently to be 
met with in gardens oi under dungtilUa,&c. 




LLAMA (in Natural History). An Bnt- 
mal of the camel kind in Peru and Chili, 
which has a bunch on the breast, long, 
soft tiaif , and defends itself by ejecting its 
•aliva. 




a^vjsg©" 



LLANDELLO FOKMATION. In geol- 
ogy, the lowest series of the Bilurian 
system. 

IXANOS. A term applied to extensive 
treeless plains which extend along the 
banks of the river Orinoco.in S. America. 

LLOYD'S. A part of the Royal Ex- 
change in London, appropriated to the 
use of underwriters and insurance 
brokers; so called from Lloyd's coffee- 
house having been the original place of 
meeting. 

LOADSTONE. A sort of ore dug out 
of iron mines, on which the needle of the 
manner's compass is touched, to give it a 
dir*?ctiun nurl/i or south it is a peculiarly 
rifli ore of iron, found in large masses in 
England, and most other places where 
there sue mines of that metal. It is of a 
d«rp iron m'ay, ami wher. fresh broken, it 
is oiVen tinged witti a Itrc A'liish or reddish 
colour. 

f/^AP. A lump ol bread of a certain 
veigilt, worlled by tlie baker into a par- 



LOC 

LOASACE.E. In botany, the ChiU- 
nettle lamUy, an order of plants, alh- 
ance Cactales. The Loasat:e<B are all 
natives of North and South America. 

LO.-XF (among f'ugitt l)alversj. A lump 
of sugar of a conical fiirni. 

LOAM, or LOME. A particular kind 
offal, unctuous, aiid tenacious earth, thai 
is used much by gardeners in making cuiii- 
post. 

LOAN. In general, any tiling iulrusled 
to another to be returned again ; purticu- 
Krly iiHiiiey. 

Loan (in Pulitical Economy). Sums 
of money borrowed from individuals or 
public bodies for the service of the stale. 
This practice of borrowing money to defray 
the extraordinary expenses in time of war 
which has been adopted in Great Britain 
during several of her late wars, has given 
rise to the national debt. All loans on the 
part of government in England, are con- 
tracted for hy the Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer, and afterwards cotilirmed by parlia- 
ment. Loans used formerly to be granted 
by public bodies to the king in considera- 
tion of certain privileges thai were secured 
lo them, but now money is cummoni) 
advanced by individuals, in consideration 
of receiving interest. 

LOBBY (in Architecture). A kind of 
passage, room, or gallery, as the lobby in 
a theatre 

LOBBY (in Naval Architecture). A 
small room near the bread-room in a 
vessel of war, appropriated to the use o' 
tke surgeon. 

LOBE (in Anatcmiy). A division in any 
Iwdy, as the lun^s or liver 

LOBE (in Botany) A division in seeds, 
such as beans, peas, &c. 

LOBSTER A small cnistaceous fish, 
having a cylii Irical body, with a long tail 
and long anten. a;, l^ibsters are found on 
most of the rocky coasts of England, and 
are abundant in this country 




LOCAL (in Law). Tied or Joined to a 
place ; thus real actions are local, because 
they must by trought in the country wh<re 
the lands, trc. lie. 

LOCAL COLOURS (in Painting). Rnci 
as are natural and proper for eactl par- 
ticular objecl 111 a picture 



LOG 

l^OCAL PROBLEiM (m Matheniatica). 
That whicli admits of iiiiiuitiomble imiIu- 
tions 

LOCK (among Smiths) A piece of iron 
wt'rK, whii:h i.i looked upon a:; a ma^ter- 
pie<e In srathery, as much an and nicety 
is rei|Uire<l in contriviii-; and varying tile 
):prln!;a, holta, and difterent jiartg to tlie 
uses for whi-jh tliey are intended. Locks 
inienaed for outer doors are called stock- 
locks, those on cliamber doors spring-locks, 
besides whish there are padlocks, trunk- 
locks, &.C. The principle on which all 
'ocks depend is the application of a lever, 
;het is the key, to an interior boll, by 
means of a couimuiiicalion from without; 
and the securi'y of locks depends upon 
the impediments which may be interposed 
between this lever and the bolt. These 
impediments have commonly been pro- 
duced by means of the wards of the key 
so artfully contrived as to preclude the 
access of all othei instruments besides the 
key In the bolt. As these contrivances 
Iiavtf ni-l, however, been always an etfec- 
luat bar, Mr. Bramah has constructed a 
lock en such a principle thai the otiice 
wii:ch in "tner locks is performed by tlie 
•>.\tr< n<e pt.mt of the key is here assigned 
lo ;i :<'vpr, « hich cannot approach the bolt 
iniil every ;>art of the lock has undergone 
a r.^inge '-l ihisition. 

).ncK,"r vV'eir (in Inland Navigation) 
A nirtie fo' -ill works of wood or stone 
wl ' ,h arf made to confine or raise the 
K'fifcr of .1 river or canal. In artificial 
navigations the lock consists of two gates, 
t.*fc upper one called the sluice gale, and 
the inder one the flood gate. 

I<)CK(among Cuus—iths). That part 
c' a niusKet by which tiie is produced fur 
the discharge of the piece. 

LOCKED JAW. A spasmodic affec- 
tion which prevents the nioiion of the 
Jaws. 

L0(;KER (among Mariners). A box or 
chest m whicli things are stowed. 

LOCHABEK-AXE. A formidable weap- 
on of war, lornieriy n.soil by the High- 
landers of Scotland, consisting of a 
Bhort pole with a sharp axe at one end. 

LOCHIA. Ill niediiinc, the discharge 
that flows from the uterus and vagina 
alter child birtli while the mucous 
membrane is returning to its former 
condition . 

LOCULAMENT. In botany, the cell 
in the pericarp of a plant, in which the 
seed is lodged. 

LOCUS, in geometery, a line or sur- 
face over which a point may travel so 
as always to be In a position which sat- 
isfies some given condition; the line 
generated by a point, moving according 
to a fixed law. 



LOG 



229 



LOCUST. A voracious insect, like the 
gra:9Shopper, which in sunir parts. |iarticu- 
larly in Africa and Asia Minor, fall like a 
cloud upon the country, and lay waste all 
before them. They are no less terrible 
dead than alive, for their piitrified carcas- 
ses cause a pestilence where ll <i) ^lapjuo 
to alight 



:^ 




LODE. In mining, a metalli; vein, or 
any regular vein or course; a cut or 
reach of water. 

LODUMEN T. The act of lodging, or 
the .state ot being lodged; accumulation 
ordcoUectioii of sjmethiiig deposited or 
remaining at rost. In militaiy affairs, 
an encampment made by an army; a 
work cast up by besiegers during their 
approaches, in some dangerous post. 

LOGAN. In geology, a large rock so 
balanced as to be easily moved; a large 
rocking stone. 

LOGANIACE^. In botany, a natural 
order of dichlamydeous Exogene, of 
which Logaiiia is the type. 

LOG (among Mariners). A flat piece of 
>iood, with lead at one end an i a line at 
the other, for measuring the rat< >f a ship's 
sailing. 

LOGARITHMS. .Numbers »<< contrived 
and adapted lo other niiiiibns, that the 
sums and differences of the firmer shall 
corres|Hind to and show thf pniducts and 
(|uotieiils of the latter, or mjre properly a 
series of numbers in arithn.elical procres- 
sion answering to another aeries in geo 
metrical progression, thus, 
0, 1,2, 3, 4, .">, &.C. Indices or Logarithm!. 
1 , 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, &.C. Gr.omet. Progressio» 
Or, 

0, I, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. Indices or Logs. 

1, 3, 9, 27, 81, 243, &c. Geoinet. I'rog. 
Or, 

0, I, 2, 3, 4, &c. Indices or Log 

1, 10, 100, 1000, 10,000. &.C. Stom. I'rog. 
Where it isevidenl thai the same numbers 
in arithmetical proeiessicm, which are the 
logarithms or indices, serve e(|iially for any 
geometrical series, consequently there may 
be an endless variety of systems of loga- 
rithms to the »i.n:- common numbers, by 
only changing the seconJ term, 2, 3, 10, 
tc. of the geometrical series. ifcTtylwo 
indices be added together their sum wiil 
be equal lo I lie product ul the two terms la 



280 



LCii 



feometrlcal pnigressioti with whirh those 
indices corr«!«|M>iid, thus, '2 uiid ;< added 
liiC^ther are riinal to 5, and the iiii:iiber:i 
4 mid 8 «(irri-«|i(indiiig with thuse iiidicfS 
being niiilti|ilif-d Idgcll er are equul tu 312, 
which is the niiinber Hfiswt-riiii; to the 
itidez 5. Su if aii> index be subtracted 
from anolher, the dillerence will he the 
Indei u( tha: miiiiber, wIik li is eqiiil to 
Che quotient ut° the twu terms to which 
those indices belong, thus the index 
6 — 4=-2, thenGt divided by 16, ihe tei.ns 
corresponding tolhe.^e twu indices leaves 
the quotient A, which answers to the Index 
a. Logailthins being the eX|)oiicnts of 
ratios are on that accuunt called indices, 
thus the logarithm 2 is the exponent or 
Index of the several nnniliers In the geo- 
metrical series over wtiicli it stands, as 2-i 
or the square of 12 equal to 4 in the first 
series, S'i or square of 3, that is 9, in the 
second series, and 10- or the si|iiare of lU, 
that is lUO, in the tiiird series; so likewise 
3 is the index or exponent for the cube 
numbers 8, -27, 1000, &.c. over whicli it 
stands. 

LOG-BOA KP. A table on which an 
account of the ship's way is marked. 

LOG-BOi)K. The book In which the 
tccouiit of the log IS transcribed. 

lAKJIC. The art whicli teaches the right 
use of reascii, and treats of the several 
operalions of the mind which are em- 
ployed In argumentation or reasoning. 

Lot; LINK. The line fastened to the 
log, which is divided into certain spaces 
fifty feet In length, by knots or pieces of 
kiK'tted twine, iinreeved between the 
strands of the line, which show, by means 
of a half-minute glass, how many of these 
spaces or knots are run out in half a 
Diinule, and as the distance of the knots 
bears the same proportion to a mile that 
half a niiniile does to an hour, whatever 
number of knots the ship runs In half a 
minute, the same nunitter of miles she runs 
in an hour. 

LOGdORAPMY. A method of printing 
in which the types form whole words in- 
stead of letters. Hy ihis inethi'd the iiie- 
niory of the comp.isitor in less burdened, 
and the business proceeds witli more ex- 
pedition and less liability toerr. It isalso 
■aid that the logograpliic method is not 
more expensive than I he cooiinon method. 

I-OGVVIMH). i» sort of wood used by 
dyers, called also I'amiteihe wond, be- 
cause it was origin.illy bn'iiglit from (\im- 
pectiy. in .New ."^pain. I.i-jwood is very 
dense and firm in Its leTture, exreedincly 
tieavy. so as to sink into water, <if a deep 
n'd colour, andailuiiLs of a fine polish 



LOO 

It yields its colour both to spirltuooa and 
watery menstrua, but alcohol extract! il 
more readily than water. Acids turn iu 
dye to a yellow, alkalies deepen its culour, 
and give it a purple or violet hue. 

L(JMK.NTACfc;.(f: (in Botany). Thtt 
name of the thirty-third natural orilT in 
I.iniixiis's Fragments, consisting o*" i lasts 
many of which furnish beautiful rfye». an'i 
the pericarpium of which is always a tioO 
containing seeds that are carinrx'nus, ni 
meally, like those of the bean,art.*ie'W!ci-a, 
tiie wild senna, logwood, niiaiosa, or Ihs 
sensitive plant, &.c. 

LONDON PRIDE. A p'ant bc-ri.'g a 
small flower. 

LO.VG fin Music). A note eqval ".c •.'"o 
breves. 

LONG BOAT (among M.i-i'v?) Tht 
strongest and longest boat be!' r.g'.ig fa 
vessel of war. 

LO.N'G BOW An ancent tov/ thst ww 
once much used. 

LO.NGIMKTRY. The n-.ea<<.;ri-'» of 
lengths or distances, both atc«bsi^i> '^nt' 
inaccessible. 

LONGITUDE (in Astronomy^. Ar Mi 
of the ecliptic intercepted V 'tween tlv 
beginning of Arius and the ;rir.: ■!< la* 
ecliptic cut by 4i*e circle of long'.tuce >•- 
longing to any star. 

LONGITUDE (in Geogru'itiy Tt'. «:• 
tent of the earth from east jo v/e?< 

LONGITUDE OF A PLACE Ar wc 
of the equator intercepted be.we«.i, gone 
grven point called the first merid ij. ii.i! 
the meridian passing through tne (.re osect 
place. This may be either east o. »evi, 
according as it is reckoned on th^ et* o- 
west side of the first meridiai^. 

L< )OF. A sea term for the arte* j*r. of 
a ship's bow. 

LOOKING-GLASS. A plain g!a.s9 
mirror, which being impervious to i.ii 
I sht, reflects the images of things placed 
before it. 

L<)f)M (among Weavers) A frame by 
which the process of weaving is pir- 
formed. 

Lotl.M. A sea terra for a ship wn:«t 
when seen at distance, appears big. 

LOOP (in Gunnery). A small iron r'j:{, 
in the barrel of a gun. 

LOOP (in the Iron Works). A r'"'. •" 
a sow or block of cast iron, bioken oi 
melted off from the rest. 

LOOP. A sea term for the noos* In 8 "or a. 

LOOPIIOLKS (among Martnerc" Hc!«i» 
in the coamings of the hatches of a th^tk 
for firing muskets through. 

LOOPHOLES (in Fortification). .Mttl« 
hole.s in the walls of a cutis or fbrtittn*- 



LOU 

iinii, through wliicli arrows were dis- 
churgpil. 

LDKl). In England, any p«er of llie 



LTIS 



231 



LOXA BARK. In hotany, a pale Pera- 
Tiau bark, the product of Oinchonacou- 
i damiucPt. 

I LOXODROinCS. Tho art of obliqna 
i-e^iluii alto a tiilf of hunniir sonietiniK* g^^j^ng by tlie rhomb, which always 



fWKii til peroiins by virtue nf their ortire, 
ii- llie Lord riianrellur, the l>ifd i bief 
Jiisixe, the Lord Mayor. 

I.OKIIOF A .MANOR !in Kneland). A 
I'.erxDU that had a fee, and ii.u«rquenlly 
the hoiiin^t- ol the lenanls within hi» ma- 
nor, anil al.-io the privilege of boidiiip a 
court harnn. l.ordK of the manor still re- 
tain some of thi- old nmnorial nahls. 

L(lK\'. A hird of the parrol kind. 

LOTETRi^K. .\ kind of tree which 
from its jagged leaves wa.s called the nettle 
tree. 

LOTIO.N. The washing or cleansing of 
any medicine with watery also a wash for 
the skia. 

liOitvJii.V, Ali^U: c )astiajj vessel used 
in Chiua, au-1 lao ijii.s,.cra bjas, Uaviug 
the hull buUc ■■.111 uEurupuauiuodel, but 
riggoi liUo a Chxuese juuii. 

LOXii- I'ltKK. The Airican shrub Zizy- 
phusljtus, theloms oi'the Lotophagi, 
orliOtus-eaters. The fruit is used as 
foci lor cattle, and cou verted into bread 
by the natives. 

IiOrUS. A genus of leguminous 
plants, the name of which was applied 
to an Egyptian plant (the Water-lily of 
the NUl;), and to the several species of 
the geaus lotus, 

LU.V JPXIES6URE. A term applied to 



makes an equal angle with every meri- 
diau. 

i,UG«5KR. A Kniall vessel carrying ^ithef 
two or three tnastn, with a runiiinj bow- 
sprit, upoD which lucsails are set, and 
sometjmea lopaails adapted to them 



«l'll|i 



■J 




LUMB.AGO. A rheumatic affection of 
the muscles about the loins. 

LUN.'\cy. A kind of madness, so called 
because supposed to be iuflueiiced by the 
moon. 

LfN.\R. Belonging to the moon, as a 
lunar ecliiwe, innnlh, year, &.C. 

LUNATICS. Are properly such as have 

diseased imacinations, which deprive them 
ljUt\ ifKiiJioUiiin. A term appuea lo , , • • c i,., „ „,• 

a Bteam-eusme, the luotive lorce of of the use of their rea.soning faculty, some- 
times altogether and sometimes only on 
particular subjects. 
LUN.ATIO.N, otherwise called the 8t 



vrliich in produced bj- forming a vacu- 
um wituiu the cylinder by drawing ctf 
the steam into another vessel called the 
condenser, and there condensing it. 

LOZE.NGE (in Heraldry). A fifiire 
which is used to contain the coats of arms 
of all maidens and widows. 




LOZE.VGR Mn Ceometry). A quadri 
Il.teral timire. Itavini: iwn angles acute and 
t'ae twti (ipposile (Hies obtuse. 

LOZKNUK (in Pharmacy). A medicine 
made tn be held in the month, wlijch was 
originally in the fnr.ii of a lo/.enge. 

I,. S. An alilireviation for hicus sigilU, 
Uie place of the seal. 

1,1 >i IS. St., fiBPFn or. An tirder of 
kiiigiiihiMxlinsiitiiird l(>9:<,by I^Hiis'XIV 



NODICAL AioriTH. A revoliiiion of the 
iniHin, or the time between one new moon 
and another. 

M'.NE (in M.ithematics). A aeonietrii ai 
figure in form of a crescent. 

Ll'.NtlS iin Anatomy). A viscus in the 
animal liody, coinpoted of iwo lobes or 
divisions, which are spongy bodies, situ- 
ated in the chest, and serving the purpoe« 
of respiration. 

LUPINE. \ sort of pulse, which bean 
a papilionaceous flower. There aie several 
species of liii^ines cultivated in gardens, as 
the wliite lupine, the small blue lupine, 
and the great blue lupine, &c. which are 
all aiiniinls except one species, called by 
distinction the perennial lupine. 

LI.'PCS. The Wolf in Astronomy, a 
constellation in thesouiliern hemisphere. 

LI'Rin/E (in Botaii\ ,. A n;iturdl ornei 
of planu in the l.inniran system, whitiJ 
are poisonouR, as the nigliUibade, digitalis, 

&.C. 

LUSTRATION The reri-mony of ptirl 
fication peifomieil by the aucu^ul Itomana 



232 



MAC 



every five years; whence that space was 
called a lustrum. 

LUSTRE (iu Mineralogy). One chirac- 
tcr of mineral bodies, which in that reaped 
are distinguished into splendent, shining, 
glistening, glimmering, and dull. 

LUTE. A striniicd instrnineiit, contain- 
ing at first only five rows of strings, to 
which were afterwards added six more. 
It was formerly much used. 

LUTE (in Cht inisiiy). A compound 
paste made of pdltei's clay, sand, and 
other materials, for lln- purpose of closing 
up the necks of retort:*, receivers, &.C. in 
different chemical experiments. 

LUTHERANISM. The doctrines of 
Martin Luther, the German reformer, 
which form the creed of all the protesiants 
in (Jermany who are not Calviuisis. 

LYCUPODIUM. or Cluf Moss. A 
fcort of moss, the seeds of which when 
Ignited hurn off like a flash of lightning. 
It is used in the London theatres. 

LYUIAN STOXE A, stone of a gray- 
ish black colour, which is found in Bohe- 
mia «nd other parts of Germany, and also 
in Scotland. When polislied, it is used as 
a tesi sione for deterininina the purity of 
gold and silver. It was used for that pur- 
pose among the ancients, hy whom it 
received this name, because it was found 
only in the Tmolus, a river of Lydia 



MAC 

LYK. A composition of aahe« aiid w» 
ter for washing or scouring. 

LV.Viril (in Anatomy). Aclearlympid 
humour, secreteil from the hliKMl, which 
is carried by the lymphatic vessels into tne 
thoracic duct, where it mixes with tlie 
cliyle. 

LYMPHATICS. The lyn phatic ve« 
sels. 

LYNX. A wild beast, of atawny brown 
col<<ur, with black sfiuts, and very quick 
sighted, which in its habits resembles tne 
wild cat. 




LYRA. The lyre, a constellatioa In the 
northern hemisphere. 

LYRE. A musical stringed instrument, 
much used by, the ancients. 

LYRIC. Pertaining to the harp, as lyric 
verse, poetry made for or set to the liarp 



M, the thirteenth letter of the alphabet, 
which as a numeral stands for inille, a 
thousand, aiid with a stroke over it, thus 
M, it stood for l.(IUI),llUO. As an abbre- 
viation M. A. stands for Master <if Arts, 
M. I). Doctor of Medicine. 1). Mus. Doctor 
of Music, MS. Manuscript, MriS. Manu- 
scripts. 

MACADAMIZING. A method of mak- 
ing roads, introduced by Mr. Mac Adam, 
which consists in breaking the stones so 
small thai they may bind with the earth 
iiilo a solid smooth mass. 

MACARONIC PUEM. A sort of bur- 
Ie8(pie [loetry. 

MACAROON. A sweetmeat made of 
almonds. 

MACCAW. A kind of parrot. 

MACE (in Botany). A sort of spice, the 
second coat of the kernel of the nutmeg, 
a thin membrana:eous substance, of an 
oleaginous nature, a yellow colour, an 
extremely fragrant aromatic perfume, and 
K pleasant but acrid and oleaginous taste. 

M ACE (in State Etit{uette). In England, 



an ornamented sfafT, borne as an ensign 
of iKuiour before a magistrate. 

MACERATION (in Pharmacy). An 
infusion of ingredients in any liquid, la 
order to sofl^n them. 

MACHINE. An engine composed of 
several parts, put touether by mechanical 
art and contrivance, for the purpose of 
raising bodies, assisting, regulating, or 
stopping their motions, &c. Simple ma- 
chines comprehend the six mechanical 
powers. Compound machines are com- 
posed of the simple. Machines are like- 
wise distinguished according to the pur- 
pose for which they are used into the 
architectural machine, electrical machine, 
hydraulic machine, &c. 

MACHINE INFERNAL. A machine 
used in modern warfare, for the purpose 
of blowing up bridges, &c. 

MACKEREL. A well known fish, that 
visits the shores of the ocean in th» sum- 
mer season in vast shoals. 

.MACKEREL-GALE A strong breezs 
that is very favourable for mackerel fiahiug 



MAG 

MACTJI^ifinn / «lrnniiniy) Dark spots 
ipp«aring ofi tlip liiuiinuuii xiirfHres of the 
■iin snd moon, and evrn lonie nf tbe 
planets. 

MACULE rin Medicine). Diseolom- 
tions III! the snrf.ice of tlir b<idy. 

MA DOER. A subsianre used in dying, 
which i« eitmcied from the root of a 
plant hrttanir.-illy disiin^iiished hy the 
name of ruhia. The madder root grows 
In France and other counirifi of Europe, 
that of Zealand is the Iteat uf European 
growth, but that which comes from the 
Levant Is still more esteemed. 

MADEIRA A rich wine made in the 
island of Madeira. 

MADRIGAL. A short amnroua poem 

MAGAZINE (in Commerce). A ware- 
house for all sorts of merchandise. 

MAtJAZINE (in Military AtTairs). A 
storehouse for arms, tc. 

.MAG.\Zl.\E(in Literature). A periodi- 
cal work coiitainini; miscellaneous matter. 

MAGGOT. The larva of flies, bees, &c. 

MAGL Astriiloeers and priests among 
the Persians and Asiatics. 

MAGIC. The black art, or the pre- 
tended art of producing supernatural ef- 
fects, derived from the Persian inagt. 

MAGIC SQUARE (In Arithmetic). Fi- 
gures ao disposed into parallel and eqnal 



4 9 2 

3 5|7 


8 I |6 



ranks as that the sums of each row, as well 
diagonally aa laterally, shall he equal. 

MAGIC LANTER.N. An optical 'ma- 
chine, by means of which are represented 
nn an opposite wall in a dark room, mcm- 
■troua figures, magnified to any size at 




m. This etmtft 7«ne* consists of a 
common lantern with a candle in it, aa in 



MAO 2SS 

the subjoined fiipire, to which Is added • 
tube, ami a len* that throws the light on 
the oliject, and another lens which macnl 
ties the image on the wall. Then by cun 
tracting the tube, and brtncing tbe glass 
nearer to the object, the iniaf>e will be 
enlarged. 

MAG.NA CIIARTA (In England). Or 
the great charter of liberties tirst granted 
by King John in the seventeenth year of 
his reign, A. d. !315. 1'Iiis w.osattrrwards 
renewed, with some alterations, by his 
son and successor lleiiry 1 1 1, and repeated- 
ly confirmed both by this king ami King 
Edward I. The Magna Charta which is 
the first statute given in the statute btHiks, 
is the same as that granted by llejiry IIL 
In the ninth year of his reign. 

MAGNESIA. A white, soft powder.and 
one of the primitive earths, having a me- 
tallic basis called magnesium. It is niiRitly 
extracted from talc, asbeslna, boracite, and 
other stones. 

MAGNESIUM. See M4Ho»!»b»b. 
MAGNET. See LoADr>To!.E. 
MAGNETIC or MAGNETICAL. Per- 
taining to tbe magnet or loadstone, as 
magnetic attraction, magnetic needle, &.t 
MAGNETICAL .MERIDIAN. A great 
circle In the heavens, which Intersects tbe 
horizon in the points to which the mag 
nelical needle, when at rest, directs itself 
MAGNE'lIC NEEDLE, s^ee Nekdlb 
MAGNETISM. The property of attract- 
ing and repelling iron, as tbe loadstone 
does, which was partially known to the 
ancients, but it does not appear that they 
knew any thing of its directive power, 
which has been so usefully employed by 
the motlems. The natural magnet has the 
power of ciimniiinicatliig Iin pn>|ierties to 
iron or steel, which then becomes a magnet 
itself, and Is employed as such on most 
occasions. 

MAGNETISM, A^imau. A pretended 
science, which pnifessed to cure diseases, 
particularly nervous disorders, by commu- 
nicating a sort of magnetical fluid or Tirtue 
from one body to another. 

MAGNIFYING (in Philosophy). The 
making objects appear larger by t.e means 
of glasses than they do to the naked eye 5 
convex glasses, which have this power, 
are called magnifying glasses, of whic|| 
mirmscfipes are made. 

SIAG.MTUDE. The extension of may 
thing, whether it be in one direction, as • 
line; in two directions, as a surface ; or 
in three ilirections, as a solid. 

MAGNOLIA. A plant, of which th« 
magnolia rmndlflora, or the great mag- 
nolia, is tile prmcipal species. It is a 



2M 



MAL 



Bstive of Florida, and bears a beauiiftil 
milkwhite fltuver. 

MA«;i'IE. A ciinnini!, vnrip»nt.«d bird 
coiniiioM in KHro|H« anJ fnuiid in Uie wea- 
'ern rrEinm nf llie I'niled Siatt^s. 

IVIAHiiCANY (in Bolany). A bi*amiJ\il 
woriil, liel(ini>ln^' Id a tree tliHl grows In 
America ajiil tli«> Wenl Indies, known by 
the botanicnl name ot Ihe ewelenea ma- 
tio^nl, or llif fnaliocany tree. 

MAHo.Min'ANf*. lielievers In the doc- 
trines and divine uii»sion of the linpostof 
Mahomet 

MAIDKN HAIR. A plant, native of the 
south of Friinre. 

MAJKS'I'Y. A title piven ronirnnnly to 
kingH. It was first used in Eiitfliind In 
tlie reign ol" Henry VIII. instead of high- 
ness. 

MAIHEM, or MAVURM. A coriioral 
Wound or hurt, hy whifli a man Ic^sesi tti« 
use of any menil>er. It orlL'iMaMy a|ipiied 
to such corporal injuries as rendered a 
man le."* tit for war. 

MAIL, or .Mail B»o. A leathern bag 
for the conveyance of letters. 

MAII.-<'<»ACH. A roach of a particular 
conctruction for expeditions travelling, 
several of which are ernploved by govern- 
ment for the conveyance of letters to all 
parts of England. Mail coaches were first 
brought into use in 1784. In the I'nited 
Plates the coaches belong t<i proprietors 
with whom (he government contracts to 
carry the mail. 

.MAINPKI'/R (in \.:i\v). Receiving a 
person into friendly custody who might 
otherwise be coniinittrd to prison, on secu- 
rity given for his forthcoming on a day 
appointed ; a sort of liail. 

MAI.\TF.NA.\('K(in Law). The wrong- 
ful uphoMing another in a cause. 

MA.I(iR fin .Military Atlairs). An officer 
above a cr.ptain. 

M.A.I<)R-<;F..\RRAL. fie who receives 
the general's order. 

MA.I01! IIP A BRIOAHE. The officer 
who receives the orders from the major- 
general. 
' MAJOR OF A REGIMENT. The offi- 
cer ne\t the fieiitenant-colonel. 

MA.U)R, Town. The third officer of a 
garrison. 

MALACIIITF,. A minernl, the green 
carbonate tif copper, found frpqiieiitly 
erj'stallir.ed in long slender needles. It 
consists of » ■pper, carhonic acid, oxygen, 
and water. 

MALACJOMTE. A minernl found in the 
•liver mines in Swelen, niid also in .Nor- 
way, consivttng of s Mca, lime, magnesia, 
tlumina, oxide of iron, &c. 



MA.L 

MAJUSCTJL.S. Capital letters.in which 
Latin mauuscnpts, beioro the sixth cen- 
tury, were written. 

M.VLrii.\. A terai applied to slagpjy 
miuoral pitch, as ilistmct from fluid 
)oUvleUiii, ami from koIuI asplialt. 

M.VLl\iaSI.\N. Pc;tainiug to Mal- 
hu.'f, wlio taui^ht that jiipulation in- 
u'casel more rapidly thiu tlio means of 
;iibsistence could be made to iiicreiiflc, 
'.ud cousequeutly the undue increase 
>r population siiouLl bo checked, aud 
jarly marriages discouraged. 

MAMALCJKK. A term applied to a 
military lone in Egypt, which was 
destr.)yed by MeUemet".\liiu 1811. 

MA.VIMEA. Tne Mammee apple, the 
produce of a fruit-tree of tropical Am- 
erica. 

MALLEOLI. In military science, 
buu.Uea of wood, made oi combustible 
materiiils, for setting on fire at night, to 
discover the pu.sition ot an enemy. 

M.\Li'HA. in mineralogy, a solt glut- 
inous substance which smella hke 
pitch; mineral pitch. 

MiVLV.\CE.ffi. In botany, a natural 
order oi' exogenous plants, of which the 
Malva, or Mallow tree, is the genus. 

MAMIIALIA. In zoology, the first 
grand division of vertebrated animals 
which suckle their young. Mammalogy 
is the science of luammiterous animals. 

MAM.MOTH. A fossil elephant of im- 
mense size, the bones of one of which 
were discovered buried in ice in the 
nort'i ot Kussia. 

M.VX. In zoology and natural history, 
the great epitome of all 8cien<:e and ai-t; 
the sole specific exainxilc of tho only 
genus Homo, as contaiuel in Cuvier's 
order Bimaua. The groat iiaturahst, 
Blumenbach, divides this spe(ries into 
five varieties. 1. The Caucasian va- 
riety, which includes all the ancient 
and modern Europeans, ex('cpt the 
Fins; the former and present inhabi- 
tants of Western Asia, as far as the 
River Oby, the Caspian Sea, and the 
Ganges (that is, the Assyrians, Medes, 
I and Chaldeans; the Sarmatiaiis, Scyth- 
'ians, and Parthians; the Philistines, 
I Phoenicians, Jews, and the inhabitants 
of Syria, generally; the Tartars, prop- 
erly so called; the tribes actually occu- 
pying the chain of the Caucasus; the 
Georgians, Circassians, Mitigrehans, and 
Armenians; the Turks, Persians, Ara- 
bians, Afghanns, and Hindoos of high 
castes), and the Northern Airicans, the 
Egyptians, Abyssiuians, and Guanches. 
2. Tne Mjugoliau Vi'.rn'ty which in- 
clules the tribes of Cell trsd and North- 
ern Asia; as the Mongolians, Calmucks, 
and Buiiats; the Mantchoos, Da-urians, 
Tuugooses, and Coreans; the Samoides, 
Yukagers, Koriacs, Ts.^huktschi, and 
Kamtschadaljs, the Cjine'^e and Japan- 
ese, the inhabitants oi Tibet and Bootan, 
of Ton(iuia, Cochir.-China, Ava, Pegu, 
Cambo.li'v, Laos, and Siara; tho Finnish 
racesofNu'lhurn Europe, as the Lap- 



MAN 

landers and the tribes of Esquimaux. 
3. rUe Kthiojjian variety, coinprcUeud- 
ijg all tiie nations of Africa not included 
ki the fli-?t variety. 4. The American 
variety, including all the native Ameri- 
cans except the Esquimaux. 6. The 
Malay variety, which includes the in- 
habitants of Malacca, Suiuau'a, Jav.i, 
Borneo, Celebes, an! the adjacent 
Asiatic Islands; of the M <lucca. La- 
drone, Philippine, Mariun, and Carohne 
groups: of New Holland, Van Diemen's 
Laud, New Guinea, New Zealand, and 
ot all the Islands of the South Sea. 
Cuvier's airangement, however, differs 
from th-it ot Bluinenbach; he distin- 
guishes only three principal divisions — 
the Caucasian, the Mongolian, and tho 
Ethiopian: leaving the Milay and Am- 
erican virieties as doubthil. 

M.^NCHOO. or MANTCHOO. The lan- 
guage sp lUen in Mauchooria, and at the 
court of China. 

MANITOU. The name given by the 
American Indians to their spirits or gods. 



MA.N'nAMl'S (in TviwV A writ oripnal- 
ly eraiii«-d l>y the kuic, so called fnnn the 
first word, Maiidaiiiiig, we cniiimniiil.mrii- 
niaiiilmg roriMiratiims and inferior ronrts, 
orothrr [lersoiis, to do some particular 
thiiiK, US to admit any one to an oflice and 
the like. 

MANOARIN. A Chinese mainstrate. 
MA.N'ltATB. A judicial command of 
the king. 

MA.\"!»!IM.R. The jaw of brutes; in 
Oriiitholosry, the liill of hirds. 

.MA.MiUAKE. A plant, whose divided 
root bears some resemblance to the legs 
and tliicli^ of a man. 

.MA.MiKII,. or MANPKRIt.. A wooden 
pulley, pari "fa liiriierN l:ilhe. 

M.ANKCK. A riding school; also the 
art of Imrsem.Tnship, or the management 
of both ilie lior-e and the rider. 

MA.NF-til'I.N (in the Fine Arts). A 
little statue or model, usually made of 
wckmI or wax, and so contrived as to be 
put into (xistiire at pleasure. 

M.A.VtJA.VESE. A mineral which, when 
pure, is of a prayish white colour, .and 
considerable brilliancy ; It has neither 
taste nor smell, is of the hardness of iron, 
and very brittle, when rediireil to powder 
it is ntlrarled by the niat'iift. The ore of 
mansatieiie is remarkable for its s|><inta- 
neons iiidainmation with oil. It is much 
jsed by 2la<sinakers and (Mitters, and is 
*omellmes called s<«ip of ulass. 

M.A.V(;E. a rutaneoiis disease incident 
to horses, dogs, and other domestic aiii- 
a^aU . It IS attended with eruptions and 
<••• of hair 



MAN 



235 



MANfJEI, VVl'R/.F.I.. A rop ofliirrip 
that is nearly in the shape of a carrot, but 
niiirli larger ; it is rerkoiieil a itood winter 
fmlder for rows, and h:Ls been si.nietiines 
used in Ceriiiany as Hie IimmI of man in 
times of scarcity, whence it derives lis 
name, sinnifving literally rool of scarcity. 

.MANCKR. A iroiiL'li out of whicb 
horses eat their corn or dry food. 

MANt^KR 'among .Manners). A place 
on the deck of a vessel for receiving the 
sea water. 

MA.\i;l!OVK TRKE. A tree of Suri- 
nam, which, like the baniiiin tree, send* 
forth nwmerons branches, that take root in 
the earth and form fresh trees, so as tr 
make a wood out of one main stock. 

M A .\ It'll K K.^. The lol lowers of a Per- 
sian impostor in the third century, whc 
taiiplit that there were two inilependent 
principles or gods, one g<K>d and one evil. 

.M A .M K E .< T (in Commerce). The 
draught of the cargo of a ship. 

MA.MFESTO. A public declaration 
made by a prince, explaining his rea.'ont 
for going ti. war or adopting any hostile 
measure towards aiii>tlier countr>'. 

MA.MI.I.E. A large brass ring, like a 
bracelet, which was given by the Eiiro- 
(wans in their iratlic for slaves on the 
African cikisi. 

MA.MS. .An Indian animal having no 
leelh, a body covered above with scilcs, 
and a round extensile tongue, wilh whick 
it catchos insecU 




MANN.^. The food sent from heave* 
for the supiHjrt of the Israelites in the 
wilderness. 

MA.N'.NAfin Botany). A sweet juice ot 
eum which flows from many trees and 
plants in Syria, and also in Calabria, 
where it exudes from two species of the 
a-=li. lis smell IS strong, its ta«te rafhT 
nauseously sweet, if ex|M>sed in hot coals 
ll swells lip. l.Tkes fire, and leaves a light 
coJil. which atfofds a fixed alkali. It is 
disMilved by water, and affords by distilla^ 
tnin water, arid, oil, ami amrnonia. 

MA.NOMETER, or .M»':tu>. ..fe. Ab 
iastrnmeiit for slunviu- the iilterations ta 
the rarity and density of the air. lidi.Ters 
fniin the Imn.iiieler. in as miirh as the latlef 
, iinlv msTVea to measure lUe weight of the 



236 



MAP 



ntmospherp, \iiit the fdrmer the density of 
the iiir ill which it is fnunil. 

MANOR (in [.awj. In Kticlniid, a nolile 
iort of fee anciently cr:iiite<l liy the kinc; to 
■onie baron in dwell upon, anil toexercise 
n jurisdiction greater or'less vvllliiii ilial cir- 
cuit: tins was III part let out to ttie lord's 
tenants, and jiart \\;u reserved for the use 
of Ins f:iiiilly, wliii'.ti iatU;r was calleil terra 
doiniiiicalis, or demesne. Some pari was 
leCl uncultivated, which was called the 
lord's Wiiste. 

MANSION (in Law) The lord of the 
manor's chief dwelling house wilhin his 
fee. 

MANSLAUGHTKa (in I,aw). The 
killing a man by misadventure without 
malice pre|)ense. 

MANTKLr::TS (in Fortification). A 
kind of moveable panpet* used ma siege. 

MAN'l'IS. A sort of insects, of winch 
there are numerous species, disiinjjuislieil 
h> the difference and smeularit) of their 
nhape. The chief species in Knmpe is the 
camel cricket, or praying mantis, so cafled 
liecause when sitting it holds up its two 
fore legs as if in the attitude of prayer. 
1°his is a rapacious insecl, that attacks 
other Insects with great (ierceiiess. 

.MA.NUAL. I'ertaining to the hand, as 
loaiiual operation, an nperatiun performed 
by the hand. 

iMANU,\L.Pio:c (in Law). Thesigning 
of a deed or writing, under hainl ami seal. 

MANUAL (in Literature). Any book 
omall enough to be carried in the hand, 
wliicli contains a compendium of science. 

.M \Nt'F.\i:TIKE. Any commodity 
made by the hand, or any thing formed 
from the raw materials or natural pro- 
diii-tions of a country, as cloths from woid, 
anil cotton or silk goods from the cotton 
anil silk, &c. 

MANirFACTIJRRR. One who employs 
his capital in manufactiirinE goods 

M ANIJ.MISSION (in Law). The act of 
eiifi-anchising, or setting a slave or bond- 
man free. 

.M A.\ I 'R R. Whatever serves to enrich 
the eroiind and fit it for husbandry pur- 
poses, as dung, loam, soap ashes, &,c 

MVNUSCIilPT, aldireviated MS. or in 
the plural MSS. A book or copy written 
with the hand, in opposition to a printed 
copy. 

MAP. A plane ftgnre representing the 
mirfar* of the earth, or any part thereof, 
logetner with theseveral divisions of land 
and water, and the several comitriea. 
towns, and the like. It Is called a iiniver- 
lal map when it represents the whole -Jiir- 
face uf tlia earth, ur the two hemis|ihe.es. 



MAR 

and a particular map when it otk y repre 
sents particular regions or countries A 
map is properly a representation of land, 
as distinguished from a chart, which <m|v 
represents the sea or seacoast. 

.M.\ri.E(in liotany/. A tree of w hid 
there are numerous species, classed b> 
Liniia-iis under the scienlihc name acer. 
The acer sacliariiiiim, or sugar maple, in 
.North .America, is one of tlie most reinaik. 
able species, from which, by tapping the 
trees early in the spring is procured a viust 
((iiantity of sugar, a tree of an ordinary 
si/.e yielding in a good season from twenty 
to thirty gallons of sap. 

MARABUXS, or MARABOOTS. Among 
the North Alricaiis, a km. I oi saints o/ 
sorcerers held iii hiya e.-;imiation; mar- 
aboot feathers, or marabou, hue delicate 
feathers, the white kind being very val- 
nable, much used in the dress of ladies, 
obtained from a larye crane of Asia and 
Africa. 

MaUACAN. a species of parrot in 
Brazil. 

MARAI. In the Pacific Islands, a sacred 
enclosure or temple. 

MARAJAH, or MAHARAJAH. A Hin- 
doo sovereign prince. 

MARASOHIiSO. A spirit or liquor 
made from the marasca cherry of i)al- 
matia. 

MARBLE. A calcareous stone or min- 
eral, of compact texture, and suscepti- 
ble of a beautiful polish; a little ball of 
marble. There are many varieties of 
marble, the finest ol which are the Car- 
rara and Parian, as used by the ancient 
Greeks. 

MARC. The refuse matter of grapes 
or other truit from which the juice has 
been expressed. 

MARCASITE. Iron pyrites, occurring 
crystallised in modified rhombic prisms, 
in stalactite ciu.sts, &c.. nearly tin- 
white, and more strongly metallic in 
lustre than oriUnary pyrites, used m 
the manufacture of sulphur and sul- 
phuric acid, also for ornamental pur- 
poses. 

MAREMME. An Italian term for those 
unwholesome sea-marshes which dif- 
fuse with more or less virulence pestil- 
ential exhalations along the whole west 
coast ot Italy. 

M.iRCELINE. A mineral of a green- 
ish-black color and vitreous lustre, con- 
sisting of silica, oxide of manganese, 
oxide of iron, and alumina. 

MARGARAMIDE. A substance ob- 
tained from ammonialsoap. 

MARGARATE. A salt lormed of mar- 
garic acid and a ba-^^e. 

MARGARIC, MAKGARITIC. In ( hem- 
istry. noting a fatty acid prepared Ivom 
kog's lard and putaaJbu 



MAR 

MARINER. One accustomed to a sea 
life. 

M ARFNTS. Soldiers who serve on board 
ft Bhip, and trained to fight either by sea 
or on land. 

MAKITI.Mt;. Bounded by the sea, as a 
maritime province or county, that is, one 
bouniifd by tlie se!i;»i> tikewioe maritime 
conirnes. such a;* Encland or Holland. 

MAKGARITE. In mineralogy, pearl 
mica, a tliinly-laminateJ mineral of 
greyish, redilish, or yellowish-white 
color: sp.gr. 3 0; H=3-5 — 1-5. 

MARG.AKOX. lu chemistry, a solid 
fatty matter, obtained by distilling 
mar<;aric acid with excess of lime. 

M.AliGINATE, MAUGINATED. In 
conchology, denoting a prominent mar 
gin or border. In entomology, an 
epithet used when the sharp edge is 
marginated on the outside, and sur- 
rounds the surface with aaarrow border 

M.AKL. A sort of fat eanh, consisting 
of clay and the carbonate of lime, in which 
the latter prevails. Alarles are particularly 
useful ;i.s manures in harren lands. 

.MAKI.I.NS. A *ea term for lines of 
untwisted hemp well tarred, to keep the 
ends of the ropes, &c. from unravelling. 

MAR.MOTTE. An animal between a 
rabbit and a mouse, which abounds in the 
Alps. The animal common in the United 
Stales called woodchuck. Is a species of 
marmotte; the prairie dog, found in the 
plains of Missouri is another species of 
marmotte. 



M.\R 



2» 




MARaUIS (In England). A title of 
honour next to a duke, first given to those 
who governed the Marches of Wales, who 
were called Lords Marchers. The title of 
Marquis was first given in the reign of 
Richard II. The coronet of a marquis bas 
flowers and pyramids with pearls on them 
in erralxed. 




MARdtTB. 8m LKTTBBt or MA>«nK. 

MARai.'ETRY. A curious kind of in- 
laid work, composed of several fine, hard 
»iece» of wo««l. iifvariou" colours fastened 1 



in thin slices on the jrround, and some- 
times enriched with silver, ivory and 
other matters. 

M.\RRO\V. A fat and oleaginous sub- 
stance in the bones of animals. 

M ARS ( in Astronomy ). < )ne of the <>even 
primary planets, distinguished by ine red 
colour of his light, and iisnalty marked by 
this character ^ . He |ierforn:s his revcv- 
lution in his orbit in (>«id;<ys 'Z? Hours 
30 minutes and 39 .seconds, and Ins revo- 
lution on his a.\is in -24 Imiirs 40 minutes. 

MARS (in the lleaihen .Mytlioio,!y ) 
The son of Jupiter f.tid Juno, anil iiie nod 
of war, whose common attribulea are ."lis 
helmet, spear, and sword 




MARTEN. A species of swallow, thai 
builds under the eaves of houres, but nut 
in chimneys. 

MARTEN, or Martlet. A large kind 
of weasel found fn .Northern countries 
It has a small head, an agile body, an(> 
lively eyes. The fur of the marten is val- 
uable. There are two kinds in America, 
the Pine marten, and Pennants marten, 
called Fisher 




"^"^f^i^^M 



MARSHAL (In England^ The eh.ef 
officer of arms, as the Earl Marshal a great 
officer of the crown, who takes cognizance 
of all matters of the law of arms; the name 
also of other officers, as the Knight .Marshal 
or Marshal uf the King's House, Marsha> 
of the King's Bench, who has thecusioily 
of the King's Bench prisfin, and Marshal 
of the E.xchequer, to whom the king's 
debtors are committed. In this country, 
the term is applied to the executive officer, 
attendant ujinn the United States Courts. 



S38 



MAS 



MARPIIAI,. or KiELD Maii«hal (in 
Mililary Atfairsl. In Kiij:l:in<l, llie liighesl 
olhcer in ilie army. 

MAKSHAl.LING (in llemldry). The 
di!i|tiisiii!< ol tile .-ievf^ral oiaL'j of arms be- 
Iiiij!iIii$! lit disdiii'l liiiiiilles iii iiiie anil llie 
».liiieestiilclieoii, lncellit-r Willi llicir iiriia- 
mfiilsj one braiicli of llie science of heral- 
dry. 

.MARSHALSF.A (in F.n>»laiid1. A court 
originally iiistiluled lo hear ami deleniiine 
causes between the servant* of the king's 
mnueliold and others within the verge of 
itie court, that is wltliin twelve miles 
round Whitehall, in London. 

MARTIAL LAW {in Knsland). The 
law thai has to do only with soldiers and 
seamen where the kind's army is on foot. 
This law differs from the romnion law, in 
as much as it depends ii|iiin the pleasure 
of the king, in cases of riots and rebel- 
lions. Martial Law is sometimes |iroclaimed 
when the civil power is not strong enough 
to preserve the peace. 

MARTINGALE (in the Manege). A 
thong of leather l:islened al one end of the 
girts under the belly of the horse. 

MARTINGALE. A sea leriii fora rope, 
extending from the jib boom to the end 
of the buinkin. 

M Xt^CULLVE GE.\DER. The gender 
of nouns that denote the male sex. 

MASH. Bran scalded in hot water and 
jiven to a horse or cow, &.c 

MASHES OF A NET. Holes formed 
by the strings of a net. 

MASHING. The mixing the malt and 
k )t water together in brewing. 

MA.SK A covering forthe face. 

MASONRY. Theart of hewing, cutting, 
Ol aquarutc stones, and tilting them forthe 
use of buildings; aUo of joining them to- 
gether with mortar. 

MASONS, or Workers ik Stone. 
Were incorporated in London about the 
year 1419. 

MASONS, Free, or Accepted Masons. 
A fraternity of great antiquity, so called 
because the first founders of that society 
were persons of that profession. They 
are bound by an oath of secrecy not to 
reveal any thing that passes within the 
•ociety, and the members throughout the 
whole world are known to each other, by 
certain secret signs. 

MASORITF.S. The rabb=es who, under 
Esdras the scribe, are supposed to have 
purged the Hebrew Bible of the errors 
that crept into it during the Babylonish 
captivity. They divided the canonical 
books ill to twenty-two, and these twenty- 



MAS 

two looks into chapters, and the chajiten 
into verses. 

M XSai'E (in Architecture). Certain 
[lieces of siulplure representing hideoiK 
forms, which serveto till iipvacantspaces. 

MAS(iLrERAI)E. An exhibition in 
which persons, having m:isks or vi/.ard«, 
meet together and represent different cba- 
rarlers. 

MASS (in Ecclesiastical Affairs). The 
ritual or service of the Romish church; 
when the prayers are simply rehearsed, 
with 111 singing, it is called Low Mass: 
but when the prayers are sung by eliotis- 
lers, and the servire is performed by a 
deacon and subdeacon, it is called High 
or (irand Mass. 

.MASSr,S lin Painting). The parLs of a 
picture contaiiiing great lights and shad- 
ows. 

MASSICOT. A yellow oxide of lead. 

MASS-PRIEST. The name for priests 
who are kept in chantries or at particular 
altars, to say so many masses for tliesouls 
of Ihe deceased. 

MAST. The upright beam or post on 
Ihe deck of a vessel, lo which the yards 
sails, &.C. are fixed. The maininast is the 
largest msist in the ship; the foremast is 
the next in size, standing near the stem of 
theship; the mizenmast, the smallest of 
(lie three, stands between the mainmast 
and the slern. 

MASTER (in Englind'. The name of 
several officers who preside in their severa 
departmeiris, as Master of the Assay 
Master of the Ceremonies, Master of the 
King's Household, &c. 

MASTER OK THE FACt'LTTES (in 
Enaland). An officer iimler the Archbish- 
op of Canterbury, who grants licenses and 
dispensations. 

MASTER OF THE HOUSE (In Eng- 
land). A great officer of the crown, whf! 
orders all matters relating to the king's 
stables. 

MASTER OF THE ORDNANCE (in 
England). A gre.at officer who Ii;ls charge 
of all the kings ordnance and stores. 

MASTER OF THE ROLLS (in Eng- 
land). The chief assistant of the lord 
chancellor and lord keeper. He liax lh« 
keeping of all the rolls and grants, &.c. 

MASTER Oy A SHIP. An officer in 
a public ship who inspects the provision*, 
stores, &c. 

MASTER AT ARMS. Inashipof war, 
he who has charge of the small arms, and 
exercises the petty officers, &c. 

MASTER OF ARTS. The second de- 
gree taken up at Cambridge and Oxford la 



MAS 

Bn^nn<1. tn nrhich candidates are not ad- 
Biittt-d until they are parsed seven years 
Standing. In tlie Scotch, and other uni- 
versitK^, this is the first degree. 

MASTERS IN CIIA.NCEKY. In Eng- 
Asswt^iiits to the Lord Chancellor, ol 
11 hit ti there are twelve ordinary masters, 
xvUn sit in ciiiirt every day durinjitenn, ta- 
king alhihivits and acknowledgments of 
deeds, ice. To them are referred alt inter- 
locutory orders and com|iiitiiig damaijes, 
&.C. There are also Masters Extraurdiiiary 
appointed to act in every ctiunty beyond 
ten miles distant from London. 

MASTICATORY. A medicine that re- 
quires to tie chewed, to promote the saliva. 

MASTICK, or MASTIC. A resinous 
Biihstaiice in the form of tears, of a very 
pale yellow colour, and farinaceous ap- 
pearance, liaving tittle smell and a bitter 
astrin;rent taste. It exudes m(«tly from a 
tree of the turpentine l(ind, called in liotany 
pistacia lentiscus, which grows in Turltey . 

MASTICOT (in Painting). A yeUow 
coloar, prepared from tin. 

MASTIFF. A kind of dog with pendu- 
kMM lips aad a robust body 



MAT 



xai 




MASTODON, or MAMMOTH. This 
animal, which must have been many times 
lar<!er than the elephant, is now extinct, 
and all that remains to attest its former 
existence, are the bones which a"* f't.nd 
d«eply imbedded in the earth These 
bones have Iteen discovered in various parts 
of the United States, hut as yet only one 
nearly entire skeleton has been obtained. 
This was dug up near .Newburg, in the 
State of New York, and is now in llie 
museum at Philadelphia. 

It is iiiip<isBilile to determine to what race 
this huge annual belonged, except th.it its 
formation and modes of living were anal(>- 
goua to those of the elephant. Tb<tt he 
was not of the same species, is probable ; 
that he was nearly allied to the rhinoceros 
and hip|iopotanius, is also probable 

The bones of prodiciously large animals 
•f the elephant kind have been found in 
Siberia, and those af th4 mastodon have 



been found in varimis parts of Europe 
The following striking observation* on 
this Kiihject, are by Dr. Codinin. 

'The emotions e.vj)erieiited, when foi 
the first time we behold the giant relics of 
this great animal, are those of unminfle4 
awe. We cannot avoid reflecting on the 
time when this huge frame was clothed 
with its peculiar integuments, and moved 
by appropriate muscles ; when the iniality 
heart dashed forih lis torrents of blood 
through vessels of enormous caliber, and 
the mastodon strnde along ii supreme do- 
minion over every other tenant of the 
widerness. 

'However we examine what is left to 
us, we cjinnot help feeling that this animal 
must have been eniJowed wiUi a strength 
exceeding that of other quadrupeds, as 
much as it e.vceeded them in size ; and, 
looking at its ponderous jaws, armed with 
teeth (teculiarly formed for the most ettec- 
tiial crushing of the liniiest siilisiaiices, we 
are assured that its life could oi<'y be sup- 
ported by tlie destruction of vast quanuttea 
of food. 

' Enormous as were these creatures dur- 
ing life, and endowed with faculties 
proportioned to the bulk of their frames, 
the whole race has been extinct for ages. 
No tradition nor human record of their ex- 
istence has been saved, and but for the 
accidental preservation of a comparatively 
few bones, we sliould never have dreamed 
that a creature of such vast sixe and 
strength once existed, nor could we have 
believed that such a race had l>een extin- 
guished tiirever Such, howev-er, is the 
fact ; ages alter ages have rolled away, 
empires and nations have arisen, flourish- 
ed, and sunk into irretrievable oblivion, 
while the bones of the mastodon, which 
perished long before the periods of their 
origin, have lieen discoveaed, scarcely 
changed in colour, and exhib^ing all the 
marks of perfection and durability 

'That a race of animals so lar?e, and 
consisting of so many species, should be- 
Home entirely and universally extinct, is a 
circumstance of high interest ; for it is not 
with the mastodon as with the elephant, 
which still continues to be a living genus, 
although many of its species have become 
extinct ; the entire race of the ma^todoo 
has been utterly destroyed, leavine noth- 
ing but ;he " mishty wreck" of their skel 
etons, to testify that they once were amcn| 
the livins occupants of this land.' 

MATCH (in Gunnery). A rope slightly 
twisted aud prepared with intlammabis 
ingredients, which will burn for a length 
of time without going out. 



240 



MAT 



MATCHLOCK. A kind of hanjuebuss, 
which was firi:d with a malch. 

MATE. All assistant othcer on board a 
vesoel. 

MATER. Sec Alma Mateb 

MATERI.\LIST. One who maintains 
that tOc soul is material 

MATERIA MEDICA. All that Is used 
in the art of medicine for the prevention 
vt cure of diseases, whether prepared from 
vegetables, minerals, or animals. 

MATHEMATICS. The science which 
teaches or treats of whatever is capable of 
beins; numbered or measured, and is di- 
yidt^d into arithmetic, or that branch which 
has numbers for its object, and geometry, 
which treats of magnitude. It is also dis- 
tiii<:uished into Pure Mathematics, which 
consider quantities abstractedly, and with- 
out any relation to matter, and Mixed 
Mathematics, which treat of the properties 
of quantity, ma applied to material or sen- 
sible objects, and interwoven with physi- 
cal considerations, as astronomy, geojrra- 
phy, navigation, mechanics, surveying, 
architecture, &.C. 

The following list of the writers who 
have distinguished themselves in ibe diffe- 
rent branches of the mathematical science 
will furnish the best historical view of 
matheniatica in general. 



7¥i Confucius, the Chinese philmopher. 

6IK) Tliales, a Gr»?rti astronomer. Anaxi- 
inander, an inventor of globes. 

50;i Cleostratus, an astronomer. Aiiaza- 
goras, a philosopher Ana.xinilnes, a 
diallist. Pythagoras, an astronomer and 
geometrician. 

400 Plato, a geometrician. Euctemon, an 
astronomer. Meton, the inventor of the 
Melonic cycle Hippocrates, a geome- 
trician. Oenopides, a geometrician. Zen- 
o<lorus, a geometrician. 

300 Aristotle, a philosopher. Calippus, an 
astronomer, and inventor of the Calyppic 
period. Diiiocrates, an architect. Tlieo- 
phrastus, a philosopher. Xenocrates, a 
philneopher. Eudoxus, an astronomer 
and geometrician. Pytheas, an astrono- 
mer. Archytas, a philosopher. .\rist*u3, 
a geometrician. Denostratus, a geome- 
trician. Menechmus, a geometrician. 

200 Apollonius, a geometrician, author of 
the Conic Sections. Archimedes, a ge- 
ometrician, and inventor of machines. 
Arisiarchiis, an astronomer. Eratosthe- 
nes, a mathematician. Euclid, a geom- 
etrician, author of the Elements. Aratiis, 
an astronomer and poet. Aristillus, an 
astronomer. Nicomedes, a geometri- 
cian, the inventor of the conchoid 

100 Hipparchus, !in astronomer, numbered 
the stars. Ctesihius invented water 
pumps Hero invented the clepsydra 
•tid a fountain 



MAT 



Cleomedes, a Roman astronomer. G«n»- 
III us, an astrtmomer of Rhodes. Manil- 
ius, astronomer and poet. Manlius, aa 
astronomer. Vitruviiis, an architect. 
Julius Ca-s-ar, the reformer of the calen- 
dar. Sosigeiies, an Eg}'ptian astronomer. 
Menelaus, a writer on spherical irmo- 
nometry. Possid(mius,a iii.itheiiiatician 
ThetMlosius, a writer on sfiheres. Jam 
blichiis, a iSyrian philosopher. 
IIHI Nicnmachus, a Greek mathematician. 
Sextus Kri>ntinus, an encineer. I'lole- 
my, an Esiypliaii astronomer and senfra- 
pher, author of the Aliiiaglst. Hy psiclcs. 
a (Jreek mathematician. 
200 Diopliaiitiis, a Greek algebraist. 
300 Jamhilcliiis, a Syrian philosopher. 
Pappus, a Greek commentator on .Apol- 
lonius, &.c. 'J'heon, a Greek coiiimeiila- 
tor on Ptolemy, &.c 
400 Hypaiia, daughter of Theon, a com- 
mentator on Diophantiis. Proclus, a 
Greek commentator on Euclid. DIocles, 
a Greek geometrician, discoverer of tlie 
cissoid. Sereiius, a (ireek geoiiieirician. 
500 .Vlarinus, a geometrician of Naples 
.'\ritheiniiis, an architect. Eiitocius, a 
Greek geometric uui. Isudorus, an ar- 
chitect. 
60O The Venerable llede, an English monk 

and philosopher. 
700 Almansor the Victorious, an astrono- 
mer. Hero the Younger, a Greek geom- 
etrician. 
800 Al .Maimon the Caliph, an astronomer 
Al Ra-schid, a Persian astronomer. Al- 
frasaii, an Arabian astronomer. Aiba- 
tegiii, an Arabian astronomer. 
900 Pope Silvester, II. a niiithematician 
1000 Ibii lunis, an Arabian astronomer. 
Geber Ren .Alpha, an .Arabian couimen 
tator on Ptolemy's Almaiiest. 
1100 Alha/.en. an Arabian optician and 

astronoiiirr. 
1203 Leonard de Pisa, an Italian, and the 
first Eiiri>|)eaii algebraist. Nassir Kitdin, 
a Persian a.stroiioiiier. .Alpbonsus, king 
of Ca.stile, an astriuiomer, and author of 
the Alphonsine tables. John Halifax, 
or Sacroboeco, an English maihemarici' 
an. Jordanus Neniorariiis, an ariiliiiie- 
tician Roger R.icon, an English philits- 
opher Campanus, an astronomer. Vi- 
tellio, an optician. 
1300 .Atbano, an It.ilian mathematici.tn. 
Ascoli, an Italian mntheinaiician. Joiia 
of Saxony, an astronomer. 
1400 Bianchini, an Italian astronimier 
Moschopulus, a modern Greek arithme- 
tician. Purbach, an a-stronomer. Iti-gi- 
omontaniis, or Miiller, an astronomer of 
Vienna. Cardinal Cusa, an astronoiuer. 
Henry, son of John king of Portiiaal, the 
inventor of chart*. Uliig Beg, a Persian 
astronomer. Lucas de Rurgo, or Pacci- 
oli, a German algebraist. Bernard, an 
Italian a.strr>nonier. Dominic Novera, 
an Italian astronomer. 
1500 Copernicus, a German astronomer, 
and the reviver of the siilar system. Peter 
Apinii, or .\ppian, a German astronomer 
Cardan, an Italian algebraist. 



MAT 



M A r 



241 



1600 Cnnimaniline.nn lt.'ili;inrfitn ••• niaior 
on Kur.lii) ami nilier aiicn-ni iiiailwinntin- 
ans. Kerreus, ;in Italian inailieiiialirmn 
Maiirolycus, an llullan iiiatliematician. 
Nuinus, a P(irtii-.Mic8« niHtlieiiiaticiaii. 
Sturiiiiiis, aGeriiiaii aritlimatician. Tar- 
taclia, an Italian algebraist. Vieta. a 
rr-Mcli algetiriist. Ferniri. an Italian 
alpebraist. ^^tevinus, a Fleniisli matlie- 
Bialician. Mertator, a Cernian gfiiira- 
ptifr. Kamiis, a Krtncli inatlieiiiatician. 
Eecorde, an Cn;!lisli alpebraiKt. t^titeli- 
us, a (:«rnianHl<;el)raist. Ubalili (liiido, 
an Italian niathmiatinan. I'vrho Bra- 
be, a Danish astroniiiiier. Lord liacun, 
an Eii^lisli pliilosiiplier. (Galileo, an 
Italian (iliiloKoplier. Uonibelli, an italiar. 
alfiebraist. Castelli, an Italian mathe- 
matician. Claving, a German geometri- 
cian. Digiit-s, an Ku-ilioh philoguplier. 

1600 l<rie!!s, an Knelish aaithmeticiaii, the 
inveiili.r of loaaritlims. Des Cartes, a 
French geometrician and algebraist, 
discovered ilie equation of curve lines. 
Kepler, atiermaii astronomer, ex plained 
the laws of celestial motion. Napier, a 
H<-oi(h arltliinetician, improved the sys- 
tem of lo|;arlthms. 'l'orricelli,an Italian 
phiiu.-^opher and discoverer of the barom- 
eter. I'.ayer a German astronoiiirr. 
Gacsendi, a French astronomer. Longo- 
montanus, a Iianisii mathematician. 
Harriot, an English algebraist. Ilorrox, 
an Kngli.sh asironoiiier. Kircher, a 
German philosopher. Oughtred, an En- 
glish geometrician and arithmetician. 
Porta iiaptista, the inventor of the cam- 
era olisciira. Cavalerius, a .Milanese al- 
gehniisl. Brouncker, an Irish mathe- 
matician. Permat, a French arithmeti- 
cian, wrote on the theory of numbers. 
Pa.scat, a French philosopher, intr<Htiiced 
the doctrine of chances. VVallis, an 
Kn^liKb iitathematician, first treated on 
tlie aritliinetic of infinite quantities. 
Bulialdiis, a French astronomer. I)es- 
cliales, a French geometrician. Girard, 
a French alpelirai.it. J. and 1). Gregory, 
a Scotch family of mathematiiiaiis, the 
first of whom invented a telesco(ie, Stc. 
the second edited Euclid. Hevelius, a 
Prussian ;islronoiiier. Horrebow, a Da- 
nish astronomer. .Mersenne, a French 
geometrician. Riceioli, an Italian as- 
tronomer, geometrician and chnmolo- 
pist. Roberval, a French «eonietrician. 
Tac<|uel, a French matliematirian. t^eth 
Ward, an F.uglisJi geometrician and 
arithmetician. John de Witt, a Hutch 
Iiiatliematician James Rernoulii, a 
Swiss matliematiriaii. Harrow, an En- 
glish matttetnaiician. IliMike, an En- 
glish philosopher, made many disci ve- 
ries In mechanics. Iluygeiis. a geome- 
trician, <liallist.and hi-rolngist, discover 
ed the evolnie of curves. I^ilinilz, a 
German gentueincian and arithmeti- 
cian, wrote im the ditTi-reiitial calculus. 
L'Honital. a French iiiathematician. 
Flamstead, an English astronomer. t)l- 
denhureh, an English mathematician 
uid astruuu:ier. lioyle, an English 
31 



philosopher. Ozanam. a Fi-enrli inatt» 
eiii.'i(ii'i:i«. Pel', an Kiic'isn aeeliraist 
i^ciu>olen, a Dutch maihemalician 
U'ren, an English architect. 
1700 Newton, author of a new system ol 
plillosophy. John Bernoulli, a Swim 
mathematician. Bradley, an Eiiglub 
asironomer, discovered the uberrctiiin ol 
the stars. Cutes, an English geometri 
cian. Taylor, an English Rrllhnieliclan 
and optician. Casslni, i>. and J., Freiicti 
astronomers. Gravesande, a Dutch 
matheinatii'ian. Ke II, ats:otch nsirun- 
omer. La Hire, a French geometrician 
and astronomer. c>aunderson, an En- 
glish mathematician, i^aurin, a French 
mathematician. Woltius, a German 
mathematician. C'lairaiit, a Frenih 
mathematician. Maclaurin, a Scotch 
algebraist. De Moivre, a French aritii 
metician. Simpson, an English mathe- 
matician, liellidor, a .»"'rench engineer. 
Bernoulli, N. and D., Swiss philosrv 
ph»rs. l>a Caille, a French astronomer 
Collins, an English luallieniaticiaii 
Dolland, an optician. Maupertiiis, a 
French astronomer and geometrician. 
Meyer, a German astronomer, and 
author of some tables. Robins, an 
English mathematician and engineer. 
Sintson, a Scotch geometrician, trans 
lator and editor of Euclid's Elenienta 
U'Alembert, a Fren n niiithematician 
Euler, a tlerman geometrician and alue- 
braist. I>anden, an English algebraist, 
author of the liesidual Analysis, t.a- 
laiide. a French astronomer. .Miu-ke- 
lyne,an English astronomer. Waring, 
an English aril metician. Bailly, the 
F'rench historia of astronomy. Berke- 
ley, an Englista philosopher. Boscovitch 
an Italian ni ibematiciaii and pliil<>si>- 
pher. Eme son, an English arithiiiefi- 
ciaii and algebraist. Monlucla, a Freiu h 
mathematician, and the histori.iii of 
niathemaiica. Horsley, an Eiiglum 
matliem tician. 
1800. During the preBent Century, 
works ou Mathomaticfl, have been 
numerous. We cau only mention a 
few of the writers. Chastles, Brus- 
seles, 1837: Plueker, 1828-31- Pouceld. 
Paris, 1822; Steiuer. Berlin, in3a: 
Benjamin Pierce, Boston, 18.58; Charlea 
Davis, New York, 1855; Mulcahy, 1864. 
M.VrEllIA MEDICA. In medical 
science, that branch which treat-s of 
the articles employed in the practice of 
medicine, and explains the nature and 
mode of action of those substances 
which are had recourse to for the res- 
toration of health. 

MATICO. The leaves of a Peruvian 
lilant, used as a powerful styptic. 

MATRICE, or MAtRIX. The womb; 
the cavity in which anything is formed, 
and which gives it shape; the mould 
or form in which printers' types are 
ca.-jt. In mineralogy, the place where 
anything is deposited or formed. lu 
dyeing, a term applied to the fire sinipla 
colors. 



•42 M E A 

MATJVE. A pnrple dyo obtained from 
aniline and benzol, two of the constitu- 
ents ot coal-tar. 



M A'I'UON (in Law). A married woman 
sf experience, whii is in certain cases em- 
iHiiiielled upon juries 

MA'I'T. Rope yarn, junk, &.C. beaten 
fl;tl and interwoven to save the yards, &.C. 
froiii culling. 

M \ TTE Peruvian tea, much used in 
Sositli America. 

HJ ATTKR. That which is the object of 
oiir senses, and appears under the diverse 
forins of s<ilids, Hiilds, and gases. 

MAL'NDV 'IHI'RSDAY (in Eng- 
land). The Thursday befcreOood Friday, 
in which the king Is accusitomed to give 
al'jts to the poor. 

MAU^oLRIIM. A stately sepulchre 
built by Artemisia, queen t)fCaria, fo/her 
husband Mausolus ; also any pompous 
(epiilchMl monument. 

.MAXI.MU'M (in Mathematics). The 
grealesl (pjaiility attainahle in any case. 

M.'VY. The fifth month in the year. 

iMLAU. An agreeable drink, made of 
honey and water boiled and fermented. 

MK.ADoW. Ground covered with grass, 
which is commonly left for hay. 

Mr.AUOVV SWEET. A herb with 
crumpled leaves, something like those of 
the elm, growing in meadows. Its flower 
expands in the form of a rose 

MEAL. The edible part of com, par- 
ticularly of barley. 

MEAN (in .Mathein.itics). The middle 
between two extreintt«, as a mean motion, 
mean distance, arithmetical mean, geomet- 
rical mean, &c. 

MEAN ARITIf.METICAL. Half the 
mm of the extremes. 

MEAN GEO.METRICAL. or A Mean 
Pbupohtiohai.. The sipiare root of the 
product of the two extremes. 

MEAN HARMONirAL. Double a 
f Hirth proportional to the sum of the ex- 
tremes. 

M.-.ANTIME, or Equal Time. That 
H nii:h is measured by an equable motion, 
as a clock. 

MKA.-JtjEP A disorder incident to chil 
dren, cons'sting of a fever, attended wi'n 
iotlHuvimiliin, r^iugh, and difficulty «f 
br!-ittliiii|; 

Mb.i.-i'RE. .■\ny e'ven quantity by 
which the (luantily , lenaih, l>readth, thick- 
ne'^. and rripitcity of oiln-r things may be 
Mtinialed. 

AIEASI.'UE (in Geometry Any cer- 



MEC 

tain quantity assumed as one, or nnitf tr 
which the ratio of otiier similar quanti^iet 
is expressed, thus the measure of a line i« 
the extensiim ot a right line at pleasure 
which is to be considered as unity, as an 
inch, a foot, or a yard. 

.MEA^ib'RE (in Arithmetic). A certain 
niiinber or quantity, whn h lieing repealed 
a certain number of times ig equal to ano 
ther that is bigger, to which it has relation, 
us u is the iiiea.sure of '.i(i. 

MEASI'RE(iii Music). That note, ai 
the seuiibreve, by winch all the othei 
notes are measured or adjusted to its val 
ti«. 

MEASl'RE (in Poetry). A certain 
number nf syllables metrically measured 

MEASI'RE (ill ('oiiimerci-). Delermi- 
iiale quantities, by wliah all things that 
are txiught and sold are measured as to 
their quantity, and estimated as to tb»*'' 
rate: these are various in different cuui-- 
tries. 

MKCnANIOAL Pertaining to me- 
chanics. 

M ECU AN IC A L AFFECTIONS 
(among I'hilosopiiers). Such pro}>erlies t>.' 
matter r)r body its arise from its ligure, 
bulk or m^'tion. 

M ECU A N I ( • A L PH I LOSOPH Y. Thai 
which explains the phenomena or .ippea< 
Hiices of nature from mechanical priiic' 
pies, VIZ. from the motion, rest, size, fig 
lire, &c. of the small |&g