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THE 



CRITICAL REVIEW; 

OR, 



OF 




LITERATURE. 






Soph. Tbachin. 



SER10 THE FIFTH. 

VOL. V. 



vxamt 

PRINTED FOR THE PROPRIETORS, 
JBg W. Smrh, aSi^Stretl, Seee» Dkb. 

PUBLISHED BY W. SIMPKIN AND R. HARSHALU 

(SOCCMMM TO CrOIBT & Co.) 

TjtttfffWffy ^Ifjyf^L mJOOtttt^ ^ wfrtf ff'g 

ANB HAT BB RAD OP BVBBT OTHEB BOOKtBUBB. 



1817. 



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N 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



AN 



INDEX 



TO THE 

AUTHORS' NAMES AND TITLES OF BOOKS 
REVIEWED. 



Absbmt Man, The, a Narrative 542 
Academic Errors^ or RecoUec- 

tionsofYouth 611 

Adams'sy Josephi D. D. Me- 
moin of the Life and Doc- 
. trinesof the late John Hunter 168 
Amatory and other Versesi by 

HowardFuh 543 

American Analectic Magazine 91 
■ Characters, Dela- 
plaine*8 Repository of the 
lives and Portraits pf dis- 
tinguished 293 

Portfolio 91 

Angonl^me's, t^e. Duchess of^ j 
Private MemoV^," wltU:M^^ith - * 
the Work of M.Bue, fetid the 
Journal of Clery^ comp^ste 
the history of thcT .Cuotiviiy^ 
of the Royal Family of Frcneep 

in the Temple -..»»♦« .. i;6& 

Appel a la« Nation An^fiiisestir . 
le Traitement 6proav6;f par 
Napoleon Buonaparte, dans 
PIsle de Sainte H^lene, par 

M.Santine 266 

Annata, a Fragment 103 

Arsenic, Remarks on, by John 
MarshaU, M. D. 647 

Bakbwell's, Robert, Introduc- 
tion to Geology • • • • • • • 460 

Bank Currency, a view of the 
Nature and Operation of, by 
W. T. Comber 546 

Beaumont* s, J. T. B. Esq. Re- 
futation of the Rev. T. Thirl- 
wall's Vindication of the ^ 
Magistrates 320 

Beauty, some Philological Re- 
marks concerning, by David 
Frentice 686 



Panthea, a 



P^ft 



551 



Benetf s, William, 
Tragedy 

Bentham's, Jereanr, Plan of a 
Parliamentary Reform 

Bibliotheca Antiqua — Charles 
Aleyn's Historic of that wise 
and Fortunate Prince Henrie, 
of that name the Seventh- • 306 

__ Fairfax's 

Godfrey of BuUoigne 193 

The An- 



atomic of Abuses, by Philip 

Stubbs 413 

^TbePifBt 

•Tq^tp Bookes of Virgil's 
•^iteisjTranslated intoEnglish 
'Herotcall Verse ; by Richard 

. Stanyhnrst 

Shirley's 



523 
T9 



" ' Triumph of Peace 

Borer's, Alexander. History of 
the University or Edinburgh 483 

Bdwles's, John, Esq. Reasons 
for the Establishment of Pro- 
vident Institutions, called 
Saving*s Banks 210 

Brando's, W. T. Outlines of 
Geolofi^ 460 

Brazil, History of, by Robert 
Southey, part the second* • • • 328 

Britton's Hutory and Antiqui^ 
ties of the See and Cathedral 
Church of Norwich 226 

Historical and Archi- 
tectural Essay, relating to 
Redcliffe Church, Bristol- • ib. 
History and Antiqul* 



ties of the Cathedral Church 

of Salisbury 

Brown's, Thomas, Elements of 
Conchology • • • * • 



ib. 
205 



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INDEX. 



Page 

Bttiider'8 Price Book^ new and 
improved, by W. K. Laxton 93 

Bnrrow8*8, George Man^ M. D. 
Cursory Remarks on Mad- 
hoases •, '•••• 450 

— — — , John, on National 
Prejudices 59 

Byron's^ Lord, Manfred, a Dra- 
matic Poem 622 

Cambridge Union Debating So- 
cietyi a Statement, regarding 
the 602 

Cliaimer's, George, the author 
of Junius ascertained by* • • • 143 

Cherpilloud'8,J.Guide to French 
Translalion • 315 

Chiesterfield-'s, the Earl of, Let- 
ters to A. C. Staahope, Esq. 
rekitive to the Education of 
hi» Lordship's Ckldson «••••» 286 

Children, a Cursory Enquiry 
into some of Hie principal 
causes of Mortality among, 
by John BunneU Davis,M.D« 207 

China, Emperor of, a most So- 
lemn and Important Epistle 
to, by Dr. John Wolcot (olim 
Peter Pindar). 478 

Christian Morality, a Sermon, 
deliy«red in the Cathec^* • • 
Church of Lincoln, by WAr.V: : 
Hctt t.%- W 

Church of England, the Evil of •• 
Separation, from the 640 

Coalition, the, and France • • • • 64!^ 

Climbing Boy«, Resolutions res-*« •* • 
pectin^* • • • • V6(t 

Coleridge's, S. T. Esq. Lay Ser- * * 
mon * 681 

Coleridge's, S. T. Stateman's 
Manual; or, the Bible the 
best Guide to Political Skill 
and Foresight' 42 

Colman's George, Eccentricitiei 
of Edinbur^ 238 

Comber'ftyW.T. View of the Na* 
ture and Operation of Bank 
Currency • 646 

Conchology, the Elementa of, by 
Thomas Brown •••• 206 

Crombie'Sy Rev. Alex. Cursory 
ObservattoBs on tiie Ntttiontd 
Grammar -* •••• 428 

Cutting Gorget oi Hawkins, 
Memoir Mt the, by Antonio 
Scarpa' ; translated from the 
Italian, by James Briggs • • 97 



Davis's, John Bunnell, Cursory 
Enquiry into some of the 
principal causes of mortality 
among Children 207 

Laou-seug-nrk ; or, an 

Heir in his Old Age, a Chi- 
nese Drama, translated by 
Mr. 403 

Delapiaine*s Repository of the 
Lives and Portraits of dis- 
tinguished American Charac- 
ters 293 

Distresses of the Countr)^ a 
Letter on the, by John Ash- 
ton Yates 321 

Disraeli's Curiosities of Lite- 
rature, vol. % • • • 215 

D ramas. Comic, by Maria Edge- 
worth • 607 

Dyer's, G. Four Letters on the 
English CfmstitiUion »-• 646 

East India College, Statements 
respecting^ the, by the Rev, 
T. R. Maithus 69 

Edgeworth's, Maria, Comic Dra- 
mas • • • • 607 

Edinburgh, Eccentricities of, by 
George Colman • 238 

^ the History of the 

• •Uiiiversit3iQ(J](yAlex. Bow«r 483 

^£uca(!W>ft,«Puttj^*:on 426 

'En^land^ bomsMt Consent, the 

• bcsi»#f tb^Constitntion of,&c. 209 
^n^J^lCodtftUntion, FourLet- 

• •tertf •■;*bV G. IHer 646 

iuid»Latio Languages, a 
■■^'^e View of the, by 

I • %%•• .....■.«••..• 637 
Stadenfs Companion, 
the, by M. Laisn^ 637 

— Student's Companion, a 

Key to the, by M. Laisn^ .... 637 

Evangelical Clergy, Considera- 
tions on &e Doctrines of the^ 
by the Rev. Richard Warner 649 

Evans's, W. D. Charge to the 
Grand Jury, at the Quarter 
Sessions for the County of 
Lancaster 638 

Ewing's, Thomas, System of 
Geography, for the use of 
Schoob aiid Private Students 314 

Family Annals, by Mary Hays 432 
Fernasdes, Don Felipe, Spa*, 
nisb and English Dictionary 206 




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INDEX. 



Fish's, Howsrdy Amatory and 
other Terses 642 

Foititiile and Frailty, a novel, 
by Miss Holcroft S71 

Fouddin, Benjamin, L. L. D. 
FJLS. &c. the Private Cor- 
respondence of, now first 
pabHshed by Wm. Temple 
Franklin, hi& Grandson • • • • 49 

% Wm. Temple, Pri- 
vate Correspondence of Ben- 
jaiBinPrauklln,L.L.D.F.R.S. ib. 

French Orannnar, a Modem, by 
Charles Peter Whitaker •••• 4^9 

^ Scholar's First Book, 

the, by Ph. Le Breton S15 

Tcmgne, the First Step 

tD,by A. Plqnot « ib. 

Thinslation, Guide to, 

byJ.CherpiUond ib. 

FaUer and Sontb, Selections 
from the Works of. S18 

Galrs Majolo, n Talc 279 

Gas Lights, Observations on, 
byCandidns SIS 

Geograplnr, Elements of Uni- 
versal, by A. Pignot 906 

-, a System of, for 

the use of Schools and Private 
Stodeuts, by Thos. Ewing 814 

Geology, an Introdnction to, by 
Robert BakeweU 460 

, Outlines of, by W. T. 

J.Brande 460 

Golden Key, the 98 

Gtimmar, Rational, Cursory 
Observations on, by the Rev. 
Alex. Crombie 428 

Gnnmatical Remembrancer, 
th* 428 

Grand Jury at the Quarter Ses- 
sions for the County Cff Lan- 
caster, a Cham to the, by 
W.D.Evans, Esq. 5S8 

Griffith's, Charles, Essay on 
Conraon Cause and Preven- 
tion of Hepatitis S64 

Grinfield's, Rev. £ W. Reflec- 
tiotts on the Inflnoice o< In- 
fidehty and Profaneness upon 
Pablic Liberty 541 

Haiudat's, Andrew, M. D. 
letter to Jjord Binning, on 

l4Dttttc Asylums 429 

Harold tte Dauntless, a Poem S79 
Hanrcrt, a Remedy for the late 
*»d 909 



PMgt 

Haslam's, John, M.D. Consider- 
ations on the Moral Bfanage- 
ment of Insane Persons • • •• S8S 

Hays's, Mary, Family Annals 4S9 

Hazlitfs, Wm. Round Table •• 944 

Hebrevr Grammar and Lexicon, 
a Theological, by the Rev. 
Solomon Lyon • 497 

Hepatitis, an Essay on the Com- 
mon Cause and Pretention o^ 
by Charies Griffith S66 

Herbster's, Madame, Cavern of 
RoscviUe 9S 

Holcroff s. Miss, Fortitude and 
Frailty, a Novel 871 

Holland's, Henry Richard 
Lord, Account of the Lives 
and Writings of Lope de Vega 
Carpio, and Guillen de Castro 1 

Home of Love, the, a Poem, 
by Mrs. Henry Rolls ^819 

Horse Pelasgicse, part the First, 
containing an Inquiry into the 
Origin and Language of the 
Pelasgi, or AncientlnhabUants 
of Greece, dec by Herbert 
Bfaish, Margaret Professor of 
Divinity in Cambridge^ and 
novr Lord Bishop of Uandaff 14 

Horse Pelasgicae, part the Flnt, 
containing an Inquiry into the 
Origin and Language of the 
Pelingi,< rAncientlnhabitants 
€f Greece, &c. by Herbert 
Marsh, D.D. F.R.S. Margaret 
Professor of Divinity in Oun- 
bridge, and now Lord Bishop 
of Uandaff. lio 

Hunter, John, Memoirs of the 
Life andDoctrines of the late, 
by Joseph Adams, M.D.-*** 168 

Hntchison'fe, A. Copland, Prac- 
ticalObservations in Su^ery, 
Ulustated by Cases IftS 

Important Trifles, by Emma 
Parker 648 

Increments, an Introdnction to 
the Method of, by P^ter Ni. 
cholson - 94 

Infidelity and Prophaneness, Re- 
flections on the inflnence of, 
upon Public Liberty, fay the 
Rev.£.W.GrinfleId 416 

Insane Persons, Cottsiderattons 
on the Moral Management of, 641 
byJ<rimHaslani,MJX 886 

Ireland, Narrative of a Resi* 



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INDEX. 



Voge 
deuce in, during the Summer 
of 1814 and that of 1815, by 
Anne Plomptre 14 

James's Wiltiam, Account of the 
Chief Naval Occurrences of 
the late War between Great 
Britain, and the United States 
of America 644 

4«nin8, the Author of, ascer- 
tained, by George Chalmers,. 

F.R.S.S.A. 14S 

, the identity of, with a 
distingnished Living Charac- 
ter established 60 

Xaism^'s Comparative View of 
.the English and Latin Lan- 
guages 5S7 

^ M. English Student's 

Companion ib. 

_— __ Key to the Eng»- 
lish Student's Companion* • • . ib. 

Lalhi Rookh, an Oriental Ro^ 
mance, by Thomas Moore • • 560 

Laott-seng-urh, or an Heir in his 
Old Age, a Chinese Drama, 
translated by Mr. Davis • • • • 403 

Laxton's, W. R. New and im- 
proved Builder's Price Book 93 

Lay Sermon, a, by S. T. Cole- 
ridge, Esq. 681 

Le Breton's, Ph. French Scho- 
lar's First Book 315 

■ Sacred Poems, 

selected from the best Writers 318 

Lee's, Henry, Poetic Impres- 
•ions 544 

Literature, Curiosities of, vol. 3d 215 

Lope de Vega Carpio et Guillen 
ae Castro, some Account of 
the Lives and Writinffs of, by 
Henry Richard Lord Holland 1 

Lucan, Selections from, by John 
Walker 94 

Lunatic Asylums, Dr, Halliday's 
Letter to Lord Binning on,* • 429 

Lyon's, Solomon, Theological 
Hebrew Grammar and Lexi- 
con 427 

Maciromb's, Francis, Literest- 
ing Tracts relating to the fall 
and death of Joachim Mnrat, 
KingofNaples 157 

Mad^houses, Cursory Remarks 
on, by George Man Burrows. 
M.D 480 1 



Magistrates of the Tower Divi- 
sion, Refutation of the Vindi^ 
cation of, by J. T. R. Beau- 
mont, Esq. • • • 810 

Magistrates of the Tower Divi- 
sion, a Vindication of, by 
Thomas Thirl wall, M. A. • • • • ib. 

Majendie's Elementary Summa- 
ry oi Physiology, translated 
from the French 184 

Majolo, the, aTale,by John Gait 279 

Malthus's, the Rev. T. R. State- 
ments respecting the East In* 

. dia College 69 

Manfred, a Dramatic Poem, by 
Lord Byron 622 

Mant's, Cath. Alicia, Montague 
Newburgfa 431 

Manuscrit Venn de St Helene 
d'une Maniere inconnu •••• 855 

Maps,ja Practical Example Book 
on the Use of, by J. Robertson 314 

Mariner's Account of the Natives 
of the Tonga Islands 118 

Marsh's, Herbert, Horae Pelas- 
gicaB; part the first, contain- 
ing an inquiry into tne Origin 
and Language of the Pekisgi, 
or Ancient Inhabitants of 
Greece, &c. &c. 24 

, Hone Pelas- 

gicse; part the second, contain- 
ing an Inquiry into the Origin 
and Language of the Pelasgi, 
or Ancient Inhabitants of 
Greece,&c.&c. 110 

Marshall's, John, M.D. Rtnj^rks 
on Arsenic 647 

Mayer's, L. Remonstrance 
against the Errors and Super- 
stitions of the Church of Rome, 
and Catholic Emancipation* • 317 

Melincourt, a Novel 494 

Merchants and Manufacturers 
of Great Britain, an Address 
to the 322 

Montague Newburgh, by Cathe- 
rine Alicia Mant 431 

Montgomery's, James, Verses to 
the Memory of Richard Rey- 
nolds of Bristol 86 

Morbid Poisons, an Essay on the 
Mode by which Constitutional 
Dbease is produced, from the 
Inoculation of, by Charles Salt 539 

Mother, Letters to a, on the Map 
nagement of Infants and Chil- 
dren -..- 646 



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INDEX. 



Poge 
Moore's, Thomas, Lalla Rookh, 

an Oriental Romance, by,- • • • 660 
Mourning, House of, a Poem, by 

JofanScott • 349 

Murat, Joachim, King of Naples, 
Interesting Facts relating to 
the fall and death oi^ by 
Francis Macirone 167 

National Prejudices, on, by 
John Burrows • • • • 396 

Neele's Henry, Odes and other 
Poems 207 

Nicholson's, Peter, Introduction 
to the Method of Increments 94 

Norway, the History of 645 

Norwich, the History and Anti- 

auities of the See and Cathe- 
ral Church of, 'by John 

Britton, F.A.S 226 

Odes and other Poems, by Hen- 
ry Neele 207 

PanthcA) a Tragedy, by Wil- 
liam Bennett 290 

Palsy, Essay on the Shaking •• 64b 

Parkinson's, John, Essay on the 
Shaking Palsy 648 

Parker's, Emma, Important Tri- 
fles 648 

Parliamentary Reform, Plan of 
a, by Jeremy Bentham 661 

Pastor's Fire-side, a Novel, by 
Jane Porter* • j 173 

Phillips's, CharKk, Speeches de- 
livered at the Bar, &c. 691 

Physiology, an Elementary Sum- 
mery of, by F. Majendie, trans* 
lated from the French 1S4 

Pignot's A. Elements of Univer- 
salGeography 906 

Piquofs, A. First Step to the 
French Tongue 316 

Pitcaim's Island, a Narrative of 
the Briton's Voyage to, by 
Lieutenant ShiUibeer, R. N. 447 

Plumptre's, Anne, Narrative of 
a Residence in Ireland, during 
the Summer of 1814 and that 
0fl816 14 

Poetic Impressions, by Henry 
Lee 644 

Political Economy and Taxation, 
on the Principles of, by David 
Rlcardo 440 

Porter's, Jane^Pastoi's Fire-side, 
aNovel, by -•-.. 173 

Prentice's David, PhUosophical 
Remarks conceming Beauty 680 



Piige 
Private Memoirs, which with the 
work of M. Hue, and the 
Journal of Clergy, complete 
the History of the Captivity 
of the Royal Family of France 
in the Temple, by the Duchess 

ofAngouldme 269 

Pnblications, List of New 101 

Idem 21$ 

Idem 826 

Idem 437 

Idem 649 

Idem ♦ 663 

RACiRL,4Tale 649 

Raffaelo, Sanzio daUrbino, the 
Lifti of and the Characters 
of the most celebrated Pain- 
ters in Italy, by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds 151 

Redcliffe Church, Bristol, an 
Historical and Architectural 
Essay relating to, by John 
Britton, F.S. A. 226 

Reynold's, Sir Joshua, Charac- 
ters of the most celebrated 
Painters of Italy 161 

Reynold's, Richard of Bristol, 
Verses to the Memory of the 
late, by James Montgomery 36 

Ricardo, David, on the princi- 
ples of Political Economy and 
Taxation 446 

Robertson's J. Practical Exam- 
ple Book on the Use of Maps 314 

Rolls's Mrs. Henry, Home of 
Love,a Poem 319 

Rome, Church of, a Remon- 
strance a|^inst the Errors and 
Superstitions of the Catholic 
Emancipation, by L. Mayer 317 

RoseviUe, the Cavern of, from 
the French of Madame Herb- 
ster t... 96 

Round Table, the, by William 
HazUtik 244 

Sacred Poems, selected from 
the best Writers, by Ph. Le 
Breton 318 

Salisbury, the History and An- 
tiquitfes of the Cathedral of, 
&c. by John Britton, F.S A. 226 

Salt's, Charies, Essay on the 

I mode by which Constitutional 
DUease is produced from the 
Inoculation of Morbid Poisons 639 
Santine's Appel a la Nation An- 



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INDEX, 



P(tge 
glaise, BUT le traitemait ^pron- 
▼^ par Napoleon Baonaparte 
dans risle des Sainte H^Lene 265 

Savings Banks, Reasons for the 
Establishment of Provident 
Institutions called, by John 
Bowles's Esq. 21o 

Scarpa's, Antonio, Memoir on 
the Cutting Corset of Haw^ 
kins, tranplated trom the Ita- 
lian, by James Briggs 07 

Scotland, Letters from, by an 
English Commercial Traveller 600 

Scott's, John, Honse of Mourn- 
ing, a Poem 349 

Sermons on the Epistles and 
Gospels for the Sundays 
throughout the Year, by the 
Rev. R. Warren 9S 

Shillibeer's Narrative of the 
Briton's Voyage to Pitcaim's 
Island .447 

Southey*s Robert, History of 
Brazil, part the second • - • • S28 

Letter to Wil- 
liam Smith, Esq. M. P. S90 

■ Wat Tyler, a 

Dramatic Poem 187 

Spanish and English Languages, 
a Dictionary of, by Don Felipe 
Fernandez 206 

Speeches delivered at the Bar, 
See. by Charles i*hillips, Esq. 591 

Spurrell's, Samuel, Vice Trium- 
phant 317 

Stage, m Impartial Review of 
the, by Dramaticus 73 

Idem, continued »• 190 

Statesman's Manual, the, or the 
Bible the best Guide to Poll- 
tical Skill and Foresight, by 
S.T.Coleridge 42 

Surgery, some Practical Obser- 
vations in, illustrated by A* 
Copland Hutchison 253 

Teo0*s Young Man's Book of 
Knowledge 205 

ThirlwalPs, Thomas, M. A. Vin- 
dication of the Magistrates of 
the Tower Division • • • 320 



Page 
Tonga Islands, an Account of 
the Natives of the, by William 

Mariner 11$ 

Transmigration, a Poem 432 

Unitarianism, a Sequel to a 
Vindication of, 316 

Vice Triumphant, by Samuel 
SpurreU 317 

VirgiliiMaronis Bocolica, Geor- 
gica, ^Deis,jiccednnt in Gra^ 
tiam Juventatis • . . . • 205 

Waijebr*s, John, Selections from 

Lucan ^ 94 

Warner's, Rev. Richard, Consi- 
derations on the Doctrines of 
the Evangelical Clergy, &c.** 649 
Warren's, the Rev. R. Sermons 
on the Epistles and Gospels 
for the Sundays throughout 

the .Year • 90 

Waterloo, the Shades of, a Vi« 

sion, in Verse, by M. Young 98 
Wat Tyler, a Dramatic Poem, 

by Robert Southey 187 

Westn€y*s, R. Wine and Spirit 
Dealer's and Consumer's Vade 

Mecom gig 

Whitaker's, Charles Peter, Mo- 
dem French Grammar • 429 

Walcof s, Dr* John (olim Peter 
Pindar) most Solemn and im- 
portant Epistle to the Empe- 
ror of China 47S 

Works in thePress 99 

Idem 211 

Idem •• 323 

Idem ; 435 

Idem . . • • '. 547 

Idem 651 

YeatCs's, John Ashton, Letter 
on the Distresses of the Coun* 
try 391 

Young Man's Book of Know- 
ledge, by Thomas Tegg • • • • 205 

Youo^^M. Shades of Waterloo, 
a Vision, in Verse 96 



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THE 

CRITICAL REVIEW: 

iSeries tf^t fiSi^, 

Vol. v.] JANUARY, 1817. [No. I. 

lii-ii I ' '■ Hi.i '■ h 'iT I i fciii i nii ' • ' 

Art. L — Same AceamU of the Lhes and Wriiings ef Lope 
Felix de Vega Catpiay dndOuiUen de Castro. By Hbkrt 
Rich ABD Lofd Uoljuand. LoBdoo, Longman and C!o. 
2 Tols. 8vo. pp. S61— 232. 1817. 

As&r aBtbis worfcrefers to the division assigned to the Life 
and Writings of Lope de Vega, there is no addition to the 
preceding publication which apoeared in 1806, excepting in 
the appeiMUX, (p. SOS— £14,) wnere we have some furUier . 
account of the life, with the particulars of the retirement 
and death of Don Gaspar Melchor de JoveUanos; a dozen 
or fourteen lines on the advantagf&s of the Spanish versifi-. 
cation in the use of asonante^ (p. SSI and SSS;) and a 
sonnet in imitation of Lope de Vega, which Mr. Wbitbread 
communicated to the noble author, (p. S85.) 

We ought, however, in justice to Lord Holland, to ob- 
serve, that he has availed himself of the hints that were 
given him in the several reviews of his work. There is 
more boldness and freedom in the translations of the second 
volume. In page iSO of the former edition, his lordship . 
said, that Cervantes and Shakspeare expired on the same 
day; this is corrected in v<d. i. p. 80, of the uew work. 
It bad been suggested that the son of Lopez died in hia 
sixth, not in his eighth year, as mentioned page 6, in the 
fprm^r edition : Lord H. either retains his prior notion, or . 
lias not, thought this immaterial fact worth correcting, but 
he has properly paid attention to the erroneous version 
(mge 18) of the oonclusioa of the song of the giant to 
Cbrisalda, and the fitness of the alteration will immediately 
appear to the Spanish student. The original is, 

'* Y quaato el nmr, elayre, t\ sudo cncierra 
Si me quieresji drecco a tu belitxa. 

Cbit. Bfiv. Vol. Y. Jan^ 1817. B 



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S Account of Lope de Vega and Guillen de Castro. 

The former translation was^, impt frigidlj and inaccurately, 

** Thus, what contains or sea, or earth, or air, 
I tiHtfaf ibrm^y yod approvei^cotnyikiiei'*' 

In the present edition, vol. i. p. 19, it is judiciously varied : 

" Thus wli4l|<|(y<f«h6 o^st% qc<|ir1|]^9rair, 
' If she but love, t oflPeir to my fair." 



tt i» j[wnliB|iB acMtck deamitiugL uutiutv itut jibio^Vh 
(p. S91)]s substitutedii|jiirag:tfi&^fpi S59, vol. i.;) bulk is 
meriting^ attention thai ia tl^ orth ogropby ^imii e io — » > 
rected to Quixote; and that generally throughout the pre- 
snii woiriry the ex^Mnioii. of the dowfe> aonp— ant h fwe^ 
8«rv«d,. m coMlikiice» mtb Ihe^ wgaiatMrn lo^tf Bince 
ad o fyfet d i hm tiMi* Hkdlt AoaNbmiv Smiok, wUch hate^been 
considered as the standavd'of thei^nrngfuage* 

If the inquiry in the present review were intp the politii- 
col and ecohpniical nnmuiions,, an^ no^ (ite Htenrtcrre of 
S^iiTj^ th&re* h' n^ 8ii}yftfct on wHjtjV.we conl(( &meM witir sa 
nrfKA- d^gM as^ tlft^ brograplHr^of: tliat dfstingtitdkaif'pfttrmt: 
Jbvelhmos', wHose portrait, ffonr a.b.U8lS in the posaMsfon- 
of liOFd'H'olRtnd) is- one oTt^ee^beffisiliineiits'prthtspfib^ 
licfttibn. Fterltep» w^ sllotrld^ observe, ilr reference to- Lope 
de» Vfega, tfcrti there bas iqppear<^ a disposition irr every 
writer^ wb«r rtaftroduces- a «ew (cbaractfr to ^flotice-in a com- 
nnmitv where from* neg^^ct'or aec^jenf fbiHf character ba& 
been little l^npwv, tp ma^iiiV^ tie desert^ ancP lessen Qie 
demerttr of'hi$ 8aBj|e«f; btit we^adtpowi^A^e^ tikil we see 
as. IKtfe'of tlHirdS^pb^tion^ tttour. nobfc atifboras- in mo^t 
otberindiyi^RmlbHi'tbe Kite: circnmialtencefirj and M)e sanrat 
dtegweof impatrtWf*y*ik preserved*, wftl^ regarcPlter 6hitl1t»f 
d<i Cleistrp, to wftpm- Ae secjuel! of our review wtU becon^ 

Tbi^ new part etf tbe workn comprbendbd^ifraitoatTdHP 
pftges' op Ae wsM^ aqd^ si^ oftbe noteifir.. €^Hfenp. ^ Castro^ 
w*5 was- an conteipporary of 'l^ope dtJ/f^ja-, ib- SEpoken off 
WTth^ mopb* crnnmntdbtibiY byr€7«rvaii):e&f altbotlgfrBecaflb: 
tltt' latter ^^ eJ monstruo- dfe* natwriteta." A- two of *be 
GonredRes of '6; db^Qistro were tfdten- fVont. tb<a mirjrsthrer 
ifr Dtm: QursootC) ibnmy bestipp08ed^l!ifa:t'tl(eaiH1icyrof^^ 
luilniMMte prodtictjdfi ma^b" ftiTOseJif pdrjfcubirf^ aec[ti8iiited' 
with the merits of Bib copvisf. We may pretty corredfjr 
ascertain the d^teiidiQiliiGMde.GAsb'o^ilwat^f) asttli^ appear^ 
ance of Don Quixote «MN»rQd Vih IfiQt^ aAd>^/9WiW«tes men- 
tions him in« the preface tp Jiis own comedies^^ wliich was 



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Awomd ofLopedeFega ani GuiUcn de Coilro'. S 

wiitten ID 1615. Our autlicHr k of opudon, tbat the greater 
pfvtion of the plays of 6, de Castro were pablisbed before 
that time. ThediaiaeteristicexceUeiiGiesofthisdramatisty 
accordiiig to Cervantes, are, pathetic tenderness and sweet* 
ness of stjrle; and, as wo have intimated, there is no doubt 
that this admirable critie had a just discernment of the merits 
of the subject of his eulogy.* 

There weie two plays by G. de Castro, under die title' 
of ^ Las roocedades dtk Cid,'* which were distinguished as 
the first and the second part, but it is from the former only 
that he acquired his reputation. They are founuied on a 
work which is acknowledged to be the first book known in. 
the Spanish to«tf ue, and which was composed perhaps as 
eatfy as the miiUle of the twelfth century. Siiice our author 
has said little on this curious part of the subject, it may be 
acceptable if we notice some particulars of the Poem as 
distidguisbed from the Chronicle of the Cid. 
'■ SaMoval was the first who mentioned the Poem of the 
Cid, whieh had been presenred at Bivar, and Bersanza 
^erwards inserted seventeen lines of it in his Antiguedades. 
Some leaves are deficient in the beginning of the manu- 
scripty 9dA aae in the middle; so that in its present state 
the whole fivgment consists of 3,744 lines, the three last 
of which are added by the transcriber. The character 
wcuU indicate that it was written in the fourteenth century, 
but the hngoage is considerably older than that of Gron- 
aalo Ba«eo, who flourished at the commencement of the 
thirteenth, and to whom the celebrated poem of Alex- 
aoSro is attributed. Sanchez (whom we are disposed to 
coneor with, and who is the author of the Coleccion de 
Pbenrs anteriores al siglo 15) assigns the middle of the 
twelfth century, or about fifty years after the death of the 
Cid, as the period of its composition. Mr. Southey, who 
notices all these authorities, does not venture to determine 
the &te, but asserts, that it is ^ the oldest poem in the 
Spanish language ;'^ and he adds, ^^in my judgment, it is 
nnqoestionwly and beyond aU comparison the finest."t 

Don Manual Joseph Quintaaa, who is the friend to whom 
his lordship has addressed his work, published in 1807 three 
small volumes on Spanish poetry, from the time of Juan 
Mena to the present; and he in bis introduction remarks, 
that when this poem appeared, the language began to take 

* Hii wofdi are, ^ Saa 
t Chnmicle of Oie Cid. 



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sonde r^sular forpH) vl^ch muialbsiwMrdfi hicUgr imftmeik 

Qii above dil Ilia diai^pi6B8 of BB^Hsgaky^ as tiie saliycct cf 
an Iwroie 'compcwition ; > alii ^o HBtate oirij tUt tiiia 
AcbiUeft had no Hoomf to iBoord. Us aohieYflineato; katlu 
admila tiiat the. compfitatioB h aeitker cbalilxila iif podind 
design and invention, nor of thovglitaiid emrasaiOD. 

Tie author hem swiA jiid§[iDefit omtttpd me «ariy part of 
the Itfe of ^ Cidy pjrior to Ks IjwiniBlisfteRt bf AlphoMoYI.; 
b^ relates his wavs wlh ihe Mpon^. with the Cobnt oi Bar*- 
Golona, his stftaoeedii;^ TtctorieSy th^takiilg^ of Valencia, hit 
recaneiliatien vritfaiiis Soinewign, tae iasiill offerod to faia 
daufflftfirs, |the f:epanitioa and vengeanpa bo eoyghl and 
ofatdined^ and his alljaaoes wiili du» niiyal hoium of Anaj^oft 
and iiiavarre, whene the work coocliidesTr-sUghlly touching^ 
however, opoii the death id the hero. 
- It is seeii that there are juiffieiontaiatfiridaiii sndi a stonr^ 
and thejf aris worked up in aone porta wilh copsidwrahlo 
dextarUv* Wewpnld give a single apecftraenfirom thk veAo- 
ndde r«icy hy which the proficieiit in&Hurisli Uteratoro witt 
be ^[ratified, but as ta the choice, wo bare some difficaUjrt 
Quilrtaaa haf sieAected the parting of the Cid and XimeiiBy 
wfaon ho was ^bout to pay obedienoe to the order Ifar Ua 
haoishBient, and whieh appears to great disadvantago in 
Ifr. Soathey's Chromcle, irom the eawlosion of the most 
beautifbl passages. We shall, however, avail ourselTos of 
the aopendtx to the work of the latter, for die sake oi tho 
spirited traosktion, which we beliovo is from the pen of 
Mr. Frerp, and of the fioUmf ing oa^ract that deaeriboa tho 
sally of the Cid's diampions froai the Qastle ofAkMMV 
within which his troops had heen confined by a muneKNUBi 
army of Moors. 

** Emhr^kzsn \m escudcNi ^|s|imt }os (^Jiis^al^ : 
Al^sp^a Ifis IfiDs^s apqcstas ^e \o% pcpaoQea : 
£i]|cliqsron jus c^ras d^suao 4(b |q9 ar^Qpes : 
Ybaiito9 fepr de faertei^ conuyones : 
A sr^iides voces lama d que eq buei^ pra nasi;o ; 
* Frndjos cfiballerqs nor amor de caridad ; 
f If o so Ray INaz el Cid Campeador de Bibar/ 
Todos fiereo en el faaz dp esta Ferp Bermuez. 
Trescientas laozas son, todas tieoea pendones : 
Semios llloros roatiuNNi, todos de 8Ci|i|e6«olp<|fi: ' 
A la tomada que &cen otroa tantoa ^an* 
Ven^fs ta9M«i kmm Bi«ww ^ aUw j 
Tanta adarga a foradar ^ pasar; 



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AetomiofjUipeieFegttandOuilleMieCaaro. 5 

TmUk briga illan d6Sm«ncimr; 

TwdtPf p^o«MHi bhiifot laKr bermdo*^ Mogre; 

Tan^ b«en9» «m)lq« «in nm duetiog aotar. 

1>» Mpios lanwi Ai»fooi9t : ku Cbrislmos Saoclmgue. 

€9y«»£ii 119 pooo dtt JoigiurMoro9 mnertos mill i toetf ientoi ya» 
'« 7]bw«bieU# be<9W A«ir bnnsto, forth atom» Aey go. 
Thw bfic^ 19 the re9^ ie^iU'd ^ and low : 
Thoir hopneffi 9 od their cresU waviofl io a row, 
Tb^ir he^ds ail stQO|Miig dowo towiira the saddle bow* 
The Cid was in the midst, his shout was heard aftr, 
« I ata Rui piaz. the Champion of Bivar; 
' Strike amoa^t them, gcotlemen, for swe^t mercies sake T 
There where Bermnez fought amidst the ff}e they brake. 
Three hundred bannered knishts, it was a gallant show : 
Three hondbed Moors they klfd, a man with rrenr blow; 
When they wheefdaad tum'd, as many more tay siaio, 
Y«i might see Ihem rabe their lances and level them afiain. 
There you iiiahtseetheh«ea»4)lates,bowthey were clan in twain, 
Aiid qumy a Moorish shield lie sbatter'd on the phiin* 
The pennons that were white mark'd with a crimson 9tain, 
TE^e horses runoiiuE wild whose riders had been slain. 
The Christians caU upon St. James, the Moors upon Mahound^ 
There were thirteen hundred of them slaui on a little spot of 
ground.*' 

If the author supply no extracts from the original poenifk 
he intJToduces some of the ballads founded upon it, whi^^li 
afibrdc|d the immediate materials of Guillen de Castro'a 
prfidiietion, SarmieDto was of opinion that the popular 
ballads of the Twelve Peers, among which is the Cid, wer» 
ocKnposed soon after the time of the heroes they celebrate, 
and were what the Copleros, Trouyeors, and Joeidars sang 
at the public entertainments. -These, be assumes, were in 
the eany dialect of the date of their composition ; although 
at asidbaeqiient time, when conmitted to writing, the kn- 

{nage was aaeemiiiodated to its character at the end of the 
.fteenih century. Lord Holland considers, that <* El Ro- 
mftncero del Cad,-' which contains those of which G* de 
Castro made suph ftee us^) was published ia the sixtieenth 
century. The entire collection of the Ballads of tbe Cid 
comprehended 103, all of them in octosyllabic verse, and 
vodfv the title of ^ La Historia del mny Taleroso Cavattero 
di^ CSd^ KnylMes do Bitar en Romances, en leMuage 
ai^igoo, iseopilaio pot Jqan de Escobar : Sevilla, 1680/' 
TUs^ io Mr. Beulliciy's optnioii, ^ k the onli^ separate eol- 
kctioa, a«d faji no raeaos a coin^^te one.*' 



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9 Actount of Lope deVega and ijruillen de CoiMb^. 

The ballads inserted, or referred to by his lordship, are 
twelve in number, and tbej narrate the means taken dj the 
Cid's father to ascertain the courage of his son ; the reflection 
of the latter on the parental iniu notion to chastise the Count 
Lbzano for an irreparable affront ; the death of the offen- 
der by the sword of the Cid ; thie interview with the father 
when the son brings the head of his enemy ; the tumult at 
Burgos ; and the appeal of Ximena to the justice of the 
King for the punishment of the murderer of her parent; 
the renewal of that appeal six months after the deed ; and 
finally, the extraordinary application of this lady for the 
royal sanction to her marriage with the delinquent and the 
solemnity and splendour of the nuptials. 

Poetical translations are given of all these ballads ; and 
they are written with so much taste and spirit as well as ac- 
curacy, that those who are unacquainted with the lanffuage, 
w2il feel a great portion of the beauties of the original, 
and, in some instances, what is incomplete is supplied, and 
what is dark is illumined. 

The noble author now proceeds to the drama itself, which 
is introduced by the following observations. 

*' Such were the sources from which Guillen de Castro drew the 
stoiy and sentiments of his play. The reader will have perceived 
iii thje tenth ballad [De Rodrigo de Bivar, &c.) that the proposal of 
marriage originates with Ximena herself. She is not, however, 
prompted by any romantic or ungovernable love to so indelicate a 
proceeding; Her motives are of the most worldly and sordid na- 
ture. 

Quesoy cierta su faazienda 

Ha de ir en mejoria. 

His fortune will become, I see, 

The first in all this hmd. 
Nothing could be less adapted to heroic tragedy than such sentiments 
and conduct. Guillen de Castro has, with great judgment, altered 
that part of the story. Ximena fiills In love with the Cid in the first 
^ scene of his plaY» and the Cid is described as passionately enamoured 
of her before he undertakes to execute the dreadful injunctions of 
his father. Manv other instances of Guillen de Castro's judgment 
might be adduced.'' (p. 68— <-d9, vol. ii.) 

The principal characters are King Fernando, holding his 
court at Burgos ; the Queen, Don ^ncho the Prince, Diego 
Lainez the Cid's father, Rodrigo the Cid, Count Losano 
a powerful and intemperate nobfeman, and Ximera Gh>inez 
his daughter. The first scene exhibits the decreptd Diego* 



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Accouni af Lape de Veg^ and Ouilknde Castro. 7 

Lainez on his knees, thanking the Kinc for kniffhting his 
son Rodrigo, The haughty temper or Prince Sancho is 
disphiTed in this scene, and affords a contrast to the calm 
ana dignified conduct of the Cid. This ceremony being 
concluded, the King detains his four counsellors, Diego 
liainez, ArriasGonzaio, Peranzules and Lozano, to consult 
with them on an important subject. His Majesty then in- 
forms them, that Bermudes, the tutor of his son is dead, 
and that it has become necessary therefore tp appoint a suc- 
cessor. He next assigns reasons from the respective em- 
ployments of these his counsellors for rejecting three of 
them, and nominating Diego I^nez to the duty. Arrias 
Gron»ilo and Peranzules readily assent to this appointment, 
but the indignation of liozano is strongly, excited by the 
preference given to an aged man, whom he represents as 
wholly incompetent to the office, and he thus expresses his 
disapprobation, — 

" Con. Si, merece y mas ahora ^ 

Que k ser conti^ ha Ikgado 
Preferido a mi vaJor 
Tan d costa de mi agiBvio. 
Habiendo ]^o pretendido 
£1 servir en este cargo 
A I principe mi seoor 
Que el cielo guarde mil aoos, 
Debieras mirar, buen Rey, 
Lo que siento y lo que callo ' 
For estar en tu presencia 
Si es que puedo sufrir tanto* 
{ Si el viejo Diego Lainez 
Con el peso de los anos 
Caduca ya, c6mo puede 
Siendo caduco ser sabio ? 
Y quando al Principe ensene 
Lo que entre exercicios varios 
Debe hacer un caballero 
En las plaitas y en los campos, 
^ Podrd para darle exemplo 
Como yo mil veces h'ago 
Hacer uoa lanza hastilhis 
Desalentando un caballo f 

Siyo— 

^* Laz. He deserves indei^f . . 
IVhat does he not deserve who lives to see 
His chums prefcned to mine,— j[>ieferred O King^ by thse t 



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8 AtwuMtiflJ^d^VepimiiOuahnieCaa^^ 

Fori te serve tby rogrid soardoiired. 

Arid a»itt< if(lp#» I to^tlmt p^f tspiiid; 

If 1 can stoop ray Biiierlaip to-cioowcl^ 

Ify,awedUyth(«i 1 stifle wbatlfeel; 

Still tbou must know my wioi^Sr and wdl may giiesS 

Those tboughtS'thy prtsence oaly can suppress — 

Diego r IB wbose tbtteriog frame appears 

The hand of time, the Mad weight of years ; 

Shall he our Prince instruct in drms. In ilght. 

In all the j^rowess of a perfect knight? 

When he the youth' would by etample teach 

To scour ftst plaiUy of to assaH the hreaeh ; 

The my «» toit shdl old Diego kad» 

Ur^ the fitctt Conner papling in his speedl 

Or break the lance tasfamrsin his siriit 1 

The daily sports diat form my chief delight"--- 

(p.«-T«B,Y0Liir) 

The King here interposes, and old Laine2 justifiei fati 
6wn election. 

**^ THeg^. Nunca, Conde« 
Anduvisteis tan Lozano. 
Que estoy caduco confieso. 
Que el tiempo al' fin puede tanto : 
Mas caducandoy durmiendb, 
Feoedendo, deliraudoy 
PuedOf puedo ensenar yo 
Lo que muchos isnoraron. 
Que si es verdadT^ue se muere 
Qual se vive, agouuandb 
Para vivir dari exempTos- 

Y Talor piara imitarlos. 

Si ya me ^tan las fuerzas 
Para con pies y con brazos 
Hacer de lanzas hastill'as 

Y desalentar caballos^ 
De mis hazanas tscritas 
Dar6 al Principe un ttaslad^ 

Y aprenderi en lo que bice, 

, . Sino apreiide en lo que hago, 

Y vera el mund» v el Rey 
Que ninguno en locriadb 
Merece — 

*^ DUgQ. The haughty Count's thy name, they say ; 
And wenthat title bast mou prov'd to-day ; 
Yes, I am weak, t not deny the crim^» 
SIicIf isihe dbom of age^ and such the power of time I 



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Aeeouni of Lope de Fega and Guillen de Castro. § 

Bat weak, tM, tottering^ gupbg fw my breath, 
. In slaep, in sickness^ in the pai^ of death, 
Still could I serve my Prince, his jronth could turn 
To high and mi^ty things, becoming him to kam. 
Who lives must die, — ^yet dying we may pive 
Of courage proofs,, and lessons how to live ; 
And, though these limbs no longer have the force 
To break the lance, or urge tlie panting horse. 
The Prince may read, and kindle as he reads, 
My written actions and recorded deeds. 
. Adiievements past, now crown'd widi endless fame. 
Shall more than present might his soul inflame ; 
So shall our King and so the world allow, 

[Losam^st^ forward to miarnqsiDSega. 
That none on earth d«serves this charge'* (p. W — ^70. vol. ii) 

Thia bold language occasioned the interference of the 
King^ to prevent further irritation ; but Count Lozano was 
not to be apposed, and a very an^ry dialogue ensues^ 
during which, he gives a bldw to the ii^firm and a^^ Lai- 
nez, and which gross affront is the basis on which the whole 
structure of the play is raised. The extract we are pro- 
ceeding to make, terminates with the King's calling for 
bis guard, and issuing orders for the seizure of the ag- 
gressor. 

'' Rey. Diego Lainex ! 
•* Cond. Yolomere«co— 

" Reif. Vasallos! 
" Ccnd.. Tan bien como tu y mejor. 
*• Rey. Conde ! 

" £Heg. Recibes engano. 
« ComL To digo— 

•• /l«y. Soy vuestro Rey. 
^* Di€g. No dices— 

«' Cond. Dm hi mano 
Lo que ha callado la lengua. 

[Dtde una hirfetadu. 
*« Per. Tentc. 

'' Dug. Ay! viejo desdichado! 
*' Rof. Ha de mi guardia! 

'' Dteg. Dexadme! 
•« Rey. Prendedle. 

''JKmg*. What now! 
'' Couni. I not deserve! . 

** King. Ah, why this contest saekl 
Foibear,^ my Lords !^— your King forbids you speak. 

CaiT. Rbv. Vol.. V. Jan. 1817. C 



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" Cgm^, TiiffP ]w4» fef in% $^ mtk l^>b}aw, uttfltt 

[SirScm Diego. 
The singly thoAigkU w> tpngH^. so ill suppieiU 

" 1>^4- Qb! wi^etched b^lplMAagol 

Much as we admire the general spjHtji t£i«itj?» ^f^ ^ree* 
Aoukj of the tr4n3l^tioa> we inuat, id this purt « it^ object 
to the carelessness f^^j ^V^t of judgi^pi^t wU|| w^l^h it is 
executed. It will ^iH^efr (b«^ty «K^oip4iBg t<» th^ original, 
there are (ifte^M Aif^obt int^rlo^iltioiHh^aliorl^ it iattfue, but 
a^eable to the iwliiriJ «ypffewM of thoM ht»stadf pas- 
^iQHk hjt" w|iMi lk« mioda pf the pArti^s were overpowered; 
yH ia the translation there aro only gaf^n speeches. The 
cqnseauence of these nuijiustifiablq v9i:iAti/iW ifh \^ the 
ani'matih£ principle 9f the. wholct ip \(^^^ AlUloygb,, 914 W9f 
have stated^ th^ fQ^o,d»tiQ^ of ti^« stwy is i^e |ptm^« 
rate l^low g[iven W^Hfi Covat^ 9lici with tb# a44itiQn«A \nf 
suh of this wouQd peine inflicted qo the honqu;? of the suf* 
ferer in the pve^euce <dfc the wQu^irch ; ^^t, IpQ^ing to tW 
translatipn, no v^eat pvvi^YQc^tjiAJX se^9)s to h«|ve produced 
it; buVlp t]^e9rijg;iw)t » chargci is oi^dci which ofoe^i^ 
almost to justify the outrage of the haughty nobleman, ^^K%^ 
cibes engano," is an accusatiaa of folsehood : ^^ You listen,'* 
says Lainez to the King, ^*to a }ie;^ ^nd i^m^digtely after-^ 
wards follows ihfi '^ Yoidigo*^ of the Count, and subsequently 
the ^' No dices"* ot lifdp^;^,. a S.ecoiKl c^ntjc^diciion ; and it 
was not until these taunts were utterftdf^th&vt tv^ impatience 
and indignation oIL^Q^MQ excatded all bounds of restraint, 
and the foul act was committed wbMb orcMioted the death 
of the parent oi 2^iiMAa« The explanation we have now 
given, we have the rather inivadilceil ii| aiadication of 
Guillen de Castro^ wims aisoQrdui^ to the translator, would 
have grounded his work oa «n incidMt m a Sfpttf^lsh court, 
tli» a^Atra of decorum, upon a kind of pu^iiistic degrada- 
tion almost unsought and unprovoked, and wholly incon- 
sistent with the ehmbomiisharacter of the tinies in which 
he lived, and with the r^fifted courtesy of the country to 
which he belonged. 

In the second scene Diego incites his son Rodrigo to 
revenge the blow inflicted bge Lozmo^ On which the latter 
takes the earliest opportunity of diaHmgiiig' tbfernobleman ; 
a duel oMMm andllie Ooum is killed. 

The nest act opens wkk the appearance of King Fer- 



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AkmmaofLopiitV^g$dttiCMaenaiCMr9. ll 

tiitidtt^ tHMi k tttfltmi^ hy AttiM aftd Pertntfylds ilwt fto- 
drigo, «wt>fd in hand^ had eluded, or rather defied the 
«Aeeni of jiMtlce. SttteeqiietiUy, whjie Xitii«ne in ocmtiM- 
im to her istoief Elvira her love fiir Rodrigo. thilikiM no 
>eiher j^ireseiit, he throws himeelf at her feet, ^ ofhn h^r hh 
dig^ t« ficub the itinrderer of her ftther. He then retateb 
^Ih ein)pliett5r and feelitt^ the cAvse of the aiiarrel, end 
Oeeerihes the eenfltet in hi« breaet hetween hendiir dud 
4iftctioii. She aetrlbee hie endndty to eonfideuee in her 
love) whiehehe ndmiti, however, to he too.trell^fbttttded. 
Her honour, she seye^ Will ibdoee her to hring the tttf>- 
^eetin of her fiither to Juetieej hot she eonfeeee^ her hope 
that ehe mojr not be AueceedAil, and they part in mntiiil 
de^pinr. 

• I'he siery pnteeede with the viocory obtained by the Oid 
over a Moorish King, who attends ns a prisoner; on Whieh 
occasion the royal Fernando bestows on the conqueror the 
title of the Cid, siffnifying in Arabic ^^ My ItfOrd/'—- a dis- 
tinction which had been applied to him by his respectful 
captive. Ximena continues her suit for toe punishment of 
her father's murderer, which concludes the eecond act, ex- 
cepting^ a brief under-plot, connected with the affection of 
the tftmnta Dona Urraca for the Cid, who discovers the 
attentive regards between the hero and his <hlr neen^. At 
this period the Cid ^ombuts with u giant, who hiid cUimed 
the pef6oh and property of Ximena; end 6n the report of 
the d^th of Rodrigo in tb&t conflict, XimenA effects to re- 
1oi6e in the event, yet when it Is confirmed, she ecknow* 
ledges her love, and intreats die King to allow her to sur- 
render her property, but to refnse her hand to the cononeror. 
I'he wordg hdve scarcely passed her lips, when tne Cid 
appears, recounts hid victory oVer the monster, lind soHeh^ 
mdrHsige with Xlmetie. The Kln^ gredtft his petition, and 
the ladjr, with adS^cted relnctenee. con^eot^^ observing, tb^t 
it ts in obedience to the comeaands of Heeven. 

So^ (s the 6rst part of the Mocodedee del Cid; and 
.|i6fd tlolland remarks, In his comparktive vi^W of the nie^ 
l4^ 6f (he Spenlard and his t^reiieh imitator, that had the 
letter written nothing but the Cid, he i^6old not fanve ex^ 
celled, perhaps he would 6<5arcely have equalled in repute, 
the former as a poet; but it is added, that he would have 
shewn in that single pieee more powers of reasoning, and 
more accuracy of taat^ and Judgment, tliaa are to be foimd 
in the originad* 



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12 Account of Lope de Vega mi Guillfin de Cmtro. 

Tfaere were two tr«i|pedie8 on tbe subjeet ehoBen by Cor« 
neille : the one is that of 6. de Castro, which we have de- 
tailed, and the other uB\ Henrador de su Padre, of Inan 
Bauptista d^ Diamante ; and these were within the reach 
of the French. poet, when, as one of the five writers for 
Cardinal Richelieu, and supposed to be inferior to his eooi* 
panioo^y he .undertook to write this play on which his repu- 
tation has been founded. Voltaire remarks, that as many 
of the scenes were taken from the latter as the former ; and 
he observes elsewhere, that " Tous les sentimens genereux 
et tendres sent dans ces deux originaux." 

The French copyist has not alwavs exercised that judgr 
ment which is attributed to him in the work before us. Aa 
an instance, we will only ^uote a single passage of absurd 
exaggeration which CorneiUe has been imprudent enough 
to translate. , 

'' Su sangre sennor que en humo 
Su sentimento explicava 
For la boca que fa viert6 
De verse alii derrimada 
Por otro que per su rey." 

But we may, perhaps, be more astonished at the numerous 
occasions on which CorneiUe exercised his judgment, than 
at those very few situations in which it was not employed ; 
for when he wrote the Cid^ tbe Spaniards possessed on all 
the theatres of Europe the same influence they enjoyed in 
political affairs, and their taste prevailed even m Italy, 
adorned by the Aminta and Pastor Fido, and which country 
having been the earliest to cultivate the arts, we might have 
imagined would rather have given the law to literature, 
than have condescended to receive it from Spain. 

It was not surprising that CorneiUe, who first gave pas- 
sion, strength, and dignitj^, to the French stage, should 
have excited much enmity in the minds of his contempora- 
ries. Anxious to strip him of the plumage with which he was 
adorned, they endeavoured to attribute to G. de Castro 
all the merit he had acquired, and calling up the ghost of 
the Spaniard from the shades; they represented him as 
uttering this indignant complaint : 

** Ingrat rends-moi men Cid jusques an dernier mot, 
Apres tu connoitras, comaffe deplum6e. 
Que Tesprit le plus vain est souvent le plus sot, 
Ct qu^enfin tu n|ie dois toute ta renomm^e/'' 



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JcOmni of Lope de Vega and Guillen de Castro. 13 

The author concludes with a very brief notice of the 
other productions of Guillen de Castro. Of the second 
part or the Macedades del Cid he says, that it excites little 
interest, and abounds in improbable. and unconnected events ; 
and he,, in a Spanish quotation, introduces circumstances 
attending the assassination of the King of Castille which 
he would not be guilty of the indelicacy of translating. 

Besides the preceding plays, he wrote The Maravilliu de 
Babilonia, which is foundecl on the story of Nebuchadnez- 
zar, where be is brought with his horns and cloven feet 
before the audience, and made to graze and chew the cud 
upon the stage. In the Caballero Bobo, we have an Eng* 
lish Prince, %vbo, from his resemblance to the heir of Hun- 
gary, is murdereid by mistake, but his death is avenged by 
the British ambassador, at the head of an army of our 
Goonbymen. In the Amor Constante there are needless 
slaughters, exposures of dead bodies, and unnatural and 
f<Hrced situations ; but for these defects we have a compen- 
sation in the pathetic tenderness of the dialogues between 
Nicida and Zelauro. La Piedad ou la Justicia is a very 
pitiful performance ; but the last play noticed, under the 
satirical title of Alia van leyes donde quieren Reyes, or 
^^ laws will twist where Monarchs list/' is lively in the 
dialogue, and occasionally poetical in the language. We 
might imagine, that in a country so despotic as Spain, a 
play even with the title we have last named, would not be 
allowed to be represented; but G. de Castro lived at a 
period when a considerable j>ortion of liberty was enjoyed 
by that country, and the superiority it had attained over other 
nations was to be ascribed to those energies which liberty 
alone can produce ; yet it so happens, from what cause we 
do not pretend to determine, that, to a late date, the Spani- 
ards were less cautious than any other people in respect to 
the popular efiect of their dramatic representations ; and 
even tne pride and vigilance of the priesthood appears in 
such circumstances tol^e equally improvident. We well 
remember being at Aranjuez during the periodical residence 
of the court at that place, when a representation was given 
in a poppet-show or a priest in his canonicals and the other 
peculiarities of his attire, who in this full trim was thrown 
up into the air rejp«itedly by a raging bull, to the great 
delight and entertamment of the spectators, who expressed 
their exultation during the sufferings of the mangled, tat- 
tered, and stripped ecdesiasttc, in famd peals of applause. 

The noble author does not seem to be aware, that besides 



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14 Nwrraihe of « Reiidinde in Irebrid, 

th« dramatic oofnposidons> of which be «iipplMS n list in 
\he nppendiit, Guillen de Castro wrote eotne poems. Thr^ 
of them we have met with in the publicntlon) entitledi 
*^ Coleccion de las Obras Sneltacs asgi en prosa como «n 
verso, de D. Frey Lope Felix de Yeg^a Carpio del Habito 
de San Juan, Madrid, i779," in twenty-one TolumeB. The 
one 18 a cancion, C^ Anhelando pasaron*') ; another in in 
dectmas, C^ Pide a^a quando yo*') ; and both thete oecur 
in the eleventh volume, 404 and 469: the third U in the 
twelfth volume, in octavas, (^ De grande eulpa en tu in** 
ooente edfioaa.") The lines of several of the versee are 
easy and flowing, hut these pieces do not shew suffieient 
talent to induce us to submit them to the attention of our 
readers. 

in concluding we congratulate the public on the ability 
with which Lord {follandhas ftilfilled the design he had soma 
years entertained^ of conferring this additional present on 
the friends of Spanish literature; and we believe that we 
are not amon^ the leasvt ardent of those fKends, or amonff 
the least sensible of the merit of his present aUempt, ana 
the success with which bis purpose has been accomplished* 

AuT II. Narraiive tf a Residence m Irdand during the 
Simmer of 1814, and that q/*1815. By Ahite pLtritP-* 
fftt, Author ofNarroti'^ of a Three fears' Residence in 
France^ S^. ffluHriUed with numercms Engra'oings of 
Remarkable Scenery. London, Colbum, 1817, 4to. 
pp.398. 

FevALE travellers must, of necessity, experienoe many 
difficulties to which tlie other sex is not exposed^ and 
diouf^ Irishmen (according to the partial testimony of One 
of tteir poets) ^ are not to be tempted by woman or gold/* 
yet permps tiMre ia no country, linder present circum- 
stances, in which a lady wishing to make a tour ^ with no- 
body is her companv bni herself," (to make nse of an 
irjcmn), would find those (fifficnltias so nameroue or iasur» 
monatable. To undertake sudi an expedition as that 
whidh has been performed fay Miss Plumptre, woold require 
more courage than even some men posaess; in that kind of 
fiirtitade,- however, which eonsists in Mdnranoe, women 
am often finmd mptnor, m^l t\uf am besides gifted wttii 
gmUer curiosity as a motive to its exertion* 
^ ^w^lkietimr On disturbed atate of Ireland for the ks^ 



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tra yeims ui cmse^^eiH)^ of wbidb Ibo wmih were St%* 
qnwtif ^>9coftfdky a troop of dragowst mA private tra* 
¥eUera were aometiqn^^ p«t under {Lhe proleeiioni of a oer- 
pond'« p^iMurd; f^vea supppaing Um nimptre to eojojr all 
tlie foftAtade^ and n^re tlmi fbe ordinaij curtoiitv of her 
sW| it still appear^ t^ m a boldenterpriae ; and if we urer* 
to judg? «»arei^ firoia the geaeml nature of the work which 
la vfA re«tilt of it, scarcity wiMrtb the haaard^ jwrtbe au&or 
do^ not QOQitfive to give a vtr; agreeable or inviting re« 
presentation of the places she visited. But, indeptodMtljr 
of the positive dangers to be braved from the unrestrained 
htwle^ness of thj? mbabitttnts of some districts of Ireland^ 
MB^aPfomptre bd4 to encounter alt the iDConveuieaceS} 
and maav of tbe c^Umities of bad reads and bad weatbex*. 
be^des the obstructions which the verj^ nature of tbe 
^ceaery pr^seated iu so^ae of tbe mo9t pictureaque sitna* 
ilQnsh, Without aiii7 great difficalt^ ^he eonld pB«e through 
a tow% aM could aseertaia the aaioiint ef its inhabitants, 
tbek* oeeupatioiisi, the aamber of churchy hoioitala, fto. 
httt who can read the aceooat of a ItAv^s visit to the Oia»t*s 
CatMewav^ of her ascending prectpiees, crawling along 
traahs of trees thrown down as bridges, or stepping (we do 
not use the more appropriate word) over chasms from one 
lofty rock to another, without being alarmed^ not only for 
her personal safety, but for her feminine delicacy. Qnce, 
ind^d^ according to Mi«s Plumptre^s own confbssion, she 
was n^o$t awkwardly situated even, on tbe public road, for 
theiauoting car ou which she was travelling broke dowa, 
andTsbe waj9 thrown out ^^ under ciraaia^taaee^ (we quote, 
ber awn wovds) i^ approachmg to the ludknoutt" that she 
4oei» not deem' it ptoper to eater into parliculara; the men* 
t^ons hergtaaitapprehHiaiOBa for the safety of her drrver, 
viho» BO mubty in eqnwl aajLiety fbr the iate of his mistress 
had directed hie alteation towards her, and prohaUy hehela 
the ^Mudicrous circumstances^' whteb Miss Plumptre has 
sjnoa concealed.. 

The d^taUi cjaUe^t^d by the author, le the couine of ken 
journey, 9i:e extremely ouaute, aud probably we should 
find tneux v^rj^ accurate bad we. any incUaatioo. to^ enter 
into the, in^vestigatm; but tbey are general^ imifi^[iortaAft; 
and mvint^rQ^ting^ jand are l^eaidaa to be found in the worka 
oX other traveU^a; she se^ma dete^rmiied ti^ anoidf aa fiir 
as. poBsibUv one impqtatiou thrown upoa Sir John Cants fd 
^ossQpidDg laii^,. and ruA9 tberefioii^ intaa contmry «traM^ 
spea&iDg of Dublin, Bel&st, and Cork' as if they were 

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J6 Narrative of a Hesidence in Ireland. 

newly discovered places ; she enters into all the particulars 
of their population, trade and buildings with as much pre- 
cision as if she were supplying authentic relations of the 
unknown wonders of Tombuctoo, and she follows the mean- 
ders of the Shannon and the Liffey as if she were making a 
wonderful disclosure of the sources and causes of the Niger, 
or the Congo. We will illustrate our first remark by^ a 

S notation regarding the National Bank of Dublin, of which 
be speaks as if it had never been seen or even heard of un<» 
til her time. 

*^ Among the public buildings by which Dublin is now embeUished, 
the first phce must indisputably be allotted to the National Bank. 
This beautiful edifice was originally erected for the meeting of the . 
houses of parliament ; and it must be acknowledged tbat» while they 
sat there, the representatives of the younger sister country had a much 
more splendid place of assemblage than those of the elder. The 
building was begun in the year 1729, under the administration of 
Lord Carteret, and was ten years in being completed. At the union 
of tbetwo countries, when the Irish were no longer to have a par- 
liament of their own, and the edifice was raadered nugatory as to 
its original destination, it was sold to the bank directors, and after 
various necessary alterations was opened in the year 1808for.the new 
purpose to whicn it was destined. 

** Over this building I was shown very completely, through the 
obliging attentions of Sir Arthur Clarke, who, being connected with 
some of the proprietors procured . me entrance to places not com* 
monly shown. In oiie room fs a model of the building, on the 
jscale of an eighth of an inch to a foot, which shows it as it is, almost, 
a little town of itself. A considerable part of the roof constitutes 
a platform, on which a whole regiment might be stationed if neces- 
sary for the defence of the place, while a large armoury within 
would abundantly furnish arms for their equipm^t. The room 
where the Hou^e of Lords sat remains in its original state; it is 
ornamented witlb two well executed pieces of tapestry representing 
the siege of Londonderry and the battle of the Boyne ; they are the 
production of a Dutch artist. 

She is often quite.as unnecessarily diffuse upon erections 
of much less importance, but we have taken the first that 
came to hand. There is indeed in the quarto before us an 
immense quantity of impertinent matter, and the author 
may well express a little soreness against the Waggish 
author of 3fy Pocket Booky whose shrewd satire has had 
the good effect of laying Sir John Carr asleep upon the 
•helf "With his massive productions. At least, however, the 
Kn^ht's << Stranger i^ Ireland" was amusing, and if he 



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m^M^ d/ d KMdinii hi IrelMd. it 

tUnlbi into Ui piges all 6k>Hi of dnecdbted tttat utt|i^f o^ 
tnij^ht ti6)f f elate tonis toixiff bd did if in uii eniefrtaihing and 
sbijietiines in an ihgenious manner : this' praifle,Jnowe¥er4 can 
Seldom b^ jdven to Miss Plumptr^, who seems not to niaive 
the least rdish ot kumour^ and When she introduces a bj- 
the-wagr ^Qiy^ geaendly takes care (judicioasW perhaps} 
<hal k shall Bot be oat of beeping with the rest of bet book. 
We taight prddmie nmnj ifcistances of whole pwea devoted 
to umy Mbjaet bat that whieh could properly he included 
in the Narratft«df a lte^id«h<3^ in ir^kad; at one tiia^ 
fliftf g|f VIA a loiig; ri^l«tf6ii i^ WiMlpks»€d dii ih^tih|; an old 
flttiiiy^Mrtit wfoinndtibdycal'eff, staMdy dV^to hMi»f ; ahd 
ai^ abikber Ab spins out h^r work by* tedidUs eoiiipiittieiitb 
lb d^n^'td mb6& hdil^s shd had obtktndd int^duetiOiis^ 
atla of whose kindness she seems more ttiaii duly sensi- 
ble! 

It appears that, by some means or oth^r, Miss Flump- 
tre beoimtf adqualht^ with Mr. Itean, ttie celebrated 
actor, and his wife, when' first he a£ted before a Lon- 
don kMiehee, zM iH tU^ coai^ of this Naihrative shb 
coatHVft ^ ih0^' Uh €ft' f dcmi dTi^Usdous up6n his 
▼aridds p^lrfoi'matfces; nilikt they have toi do with a tour iii 
Ilrelahd^ we are sure' oiir readers are QJ^ite as much in the 
dark as oursdives, biit we are ce^;iain of this, that their in- 
trinsic merit would not entitle them to a place evei^, among 
the hasty eritiqaes inserted in the newspapers* The first 
mention of him (Mtapies the niaderate space of two sheets, 
and the other notices areabout in th^ same proportion both 
as to dnbess and duration. We ajhe first treated with a 
▼ery. new comparison between Kemble and JCean, the 
i^bfejpomt ot wtuch^ i& (if indeed it may be called a point) 
that m6 fbjfmer pldj/s the character, while the latter ts the 
chaJrhctW h'^ replesehts; the only rauli we find with it is 
thatw'e did not waiit tb learn in a quarto upon Ireland, 
trhat'^e had already been told elsewhere a hundred timeis 
beli>^.' ^ llie observatidh is no doubt jusL but what has it 
tb dii^ with th<^ subject; we select the fbllowiQg specimen 
6t this hkdyls't&Ient for reviewing theatricar re)[>re8enta- 

** Bsdaad the Huld vf^ giaimifl^ ceilsid^lred ar his uiatifrpi«0e 
Ijtt hepbytd ftif Giles Ovtiftaaeh $ dn is now ttought to dispote 
Iht pahn #ith RiehanL For aiy own part, fiadv sd 1 think hblh 
i danksters |^ed» ihsH are etii«»i wlmjb aibrd me still 
er gratification; not perfaai^ that the playing is. intrinsically 
iM»V but tfia^t t^ cKaracters speak so much more forcibly to 
Cmn. Ear. Yoi.^ V- Jm. I8ir. D " 

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]S Namaive of a Reridence in Ireland. 

.the heart and feelings. If I were to select that which of all othevs 
appears to me the most surprising effort of genius, t should say it 
is Othello. I do not indeed conceive it . possible for actmg to fa^ 
carried beyond Mr. Kean*s performance in tlie third act, whenlago 
19 working the noble generous nature of the Moor into a phrenzy df 
jealousy. Every f<&ature of th'e , countenance, every muscle^ eVeiry 
litoh display the extremity of anger; — the working of the fingers is 
^gony, the quiveriiig of the lip is agony ; not an atom of the whofe 
frame but aeems agonized almost beyond what hiunan oatuie is 
capable of sustaining : it is scarcely possible to conviBoe oneself 
tb'dt what appears such true nature is but assumed* . By some per- 
sons it is objected that Mr. Kean wants height for this character ; — 
In the p*eat warrior, they say, in the noble Moor^ we expect a tall, 
majestic, commanding figure. But let the annals of history both 
ancient and modem be searched, we shall find that a large majority 
of the most celebrated warriors have been little men : and let the 
tragedyof Othello be attentively examined, we shall find the authoi^ 
making his hero say^ 

* I have known the time when this little arm 
And this good sword/ &c. 

every where, besides, carefully impressing upon the reader that 
there was nothing in Othello's person to charm, but the reverse,-^ 
that it was by his mind alone Desdemova was captivated : — ^we shall 
find too wherever he is called the nohh Moor, that quality applied 
solely to his disposition, his noble nature,' never to his figure. One 
of Mr. Kean's very striking excellencies in this character is, that 
all his actions, all his gestures are truly Moorish, differing wholly 
from his action in other characters. He never throughout gives tlie 
idea of an European made up to represent a Moor, as is too palpa- 
bly the case with most who attempt the character \ he appears truly 
a native of another clime.'' (p. 59 — QQ.) 

We suspect that our readers will not be inclined to adopt 
Miss Plumptre^s opinion, that Shakespeare meant to repre- 
sent Othello as a man of inferior stature ; for if " this little 
arm'* is to be understood literally, the poet could have in- 
tended nothing else : the fact however is, that the above is 
one of the errors into which those who are minute observers 
of the text, and neglect, or do not understand, the spirit df 
the poet, are apt to fall; in the same way we might prove 
that Falstaff was as thin as a country whipping post, because 
Prince Henry calls him '^ lean Jack ;*' or that Justice Shal- 
low was a second Nestor beaause he is termed ^' wise Shal- 
low." It is quile obvious that Othello, in the scene from 
which the above line and a half are quoted, cotild not de- 
scend to the insignificant consideration of whether his arf% 
were «niall or large in comparison with those of the foye- 



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l^drrniive of a Residence in Ireland^ 19 

standers, bat he terms it lUtle ag contrasted witli the hostar 
if had opposed And destroyed. 

We do not include in this censure of irrevelancy the his* 
torical account Miss Plumptre attempts of the rise and 
progress of the Irish stage : she observes, ^' there is no 
account of any regulau* theatre, established iu Dublin, 
earlier than the year 1635, when one was built in Wer- 
bmj|h Street, and the undertaking carried on by Jdhn 
Oguby, Esq. historiographer to the Kins, and Master of 
the Revels under the Earl of Stafford, then £ord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland. Here were produced two .new plays, 
bu natives of thai country y the Royal Master, ac^d in ISSS, 
tne author of which was Mr. Shirley, an intimate friend of 
Mr. Ogilby, the manaa;er; and Langartha, written by 
Henry Bumell, Esq. Neither possessed sufficient merit to 
be handed down to posterity ; 1 believe the names alone 
are all that remain of them now extant.'' If Miss Plump* 
tre were not more accurate in her other statements than in the 
above, her information would not be deemed very satis&c- 
tbiy ; in the first place, Shirley was not a native of Ireland, 
and in the dedication of his Royal Master^ (which is ea> 
tatdj and, with 38 other plays, has possessed sufficient merit 
. tbhe handed down to posterity, as our author would have 
foiind had she consulted the most ordinary authorities) he 
calls himself ^ a stranger in the kingdome' of Ireland. That 
it was acted before 1638 is most probable, because it was 
printed in London in that year. Several other plays were 
written by Shirley for the Dulilin st^e, among which is 
^ St. Patrick for Ireland," reprinted there not very lonff 
ago : this admirable dramatist was born in London, ana 
employed himself in Ireland (to use his own words) until 
^ uie English stage should be recovered from her long 
silence, and her languishing scene changed into a welcome 
return of wits and men."* 

Although we have blamed Miss Plumptre for the trifling 
minuteness of some of her details, we do not wish to be 
understood as censuring her general pains-taking accuracy, 
niore particularly w^hen it relates to matters of importance. 
The great object of curiosity in Ireland is the Giant s Cause* 
way ; and i^ in the volume on our table, a less striking 

* These mistakes are the more sinffulary because Miss Plumptre pretends 
to sueh critical Icnowledge on Uie drama, and is besides, we belierey an 
' a«ftoress for the stage. VTe beg to refer ker for an account of Shirley and 
%is works to tiie articles in our lutand our present number^ under the titte 



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air Ifmr^te.qf a t^^^jUtetu^e in /rfAv<f» 

d^^oripljCin in g ifiw fif titiis " fr^k of wtu^j^'' we l^v m^ 
dined to think that it deserves gvfi^r f^ljfipqe tfmk itie 
mptve pjetur^84^^ rfspresept^itio/is JJitjU^r^Q pul^li^q. We 
ei^ti^ct SiSi large ^ p^wtipQ af it f^^ ^^r limits w^l allovr* 

'' The usual de^ription given of tjl^e <€au8eir^ is, that it is a 
oioie iasrenog from the font pf a toweriag basaltic rock some w^y 
into the qeiu Bo far the disicriptjnq is vexy fi^c^p^r : but care should 
hf takfn^t th^ S9ff^ (tipne to eKiiitiB^ th?t4lj«i i^^Ie ilaetf i$ not taw- 
eripA th^ it do^ not in ^iiy part fUe to a c;ciu^idej:abl€ height ahove 
th<^^^r. T^e^Wle^t gill^xs ^e jn the gro^p called ti^e Gi^ts* 
1^1^, and po^ odbi^m exceed thirty-thi(ee ifeet ip Iieigbt. Mr, 
H^nMiitop says that the /Cause>v^y hyis from tlie foot of the rock 
spme hundxed feet into the se^ : this js a very Iqosc and indefiziite 
mode of (jlescription. I had heard before 1 saw it tbat it projected 
three-quarters of a niile into the sea; — estimating it uX the utujost 
possible extent to which it could be taken, I believe that it firould 
be found scarcely to run to a sixth part of that length.^ But the 
accounts are so extremely varied that one tUng cmly is to be in* 
fenred, idiich is, that no accurate measniemcAt of al has 9i99V ^ 
been taken. My guide, whom in many resp^^y^ I foiuiil wejrjf m^ 
t^lligent, seemed whoUy at a lo/ss whefl I qpftstipn^ hi^ on tb^ 
subj^t* Indeed jp cojoiputing the length pi the C^use^ay^ tb^ %st( 
tbfug to be det^m^JQ^d is the point from i^hich the measurement i^ 
tp pjo^mence. The whole length from ^he fo^t 9f th^ T^ck is cpn^- 
iP9^1y comprehended in it; whereas, in iact, the Causeway pro- 
perly 80 called -^ofprnences only at the range of |ow columns se^n in 
the pript to the right : — hence may very much arise the contradic- 
tion in the accoupts. Something will also depend upon the state of 
the t(de when the measiurement is ^lade. The mole slopes gradually 
down till it is lost at the water s edge ; but as far as the eye can 
discern, the same mass of pillars is contuiued under the water; 
consequently, at a very low ebb tiie Causeway will have the appci|r«> 
ance of much greater length than at high water. Sir R. C. 0Q9lie 
sjiys, that from the flattened surface of the pap^eivay it wouhl be 
eoiir^y pyerlooked if pot ppinted put by the guides. This is going 
much too far ; — if the eye fails of discovering the gim^ic ponder 
w}^|c|^ the ifnagjnatipp )^d coppeivjed, it se^ms wholly ipipp^jble 
that it should pot bp caught by the actual wond^f spread befpre it 
Twp SRUdkr pioles prpjept from thfi s^me mass of rocjk, the three 
being ^ph divided frqpi the pther by ^ whip dyke, vast masses of 
which rise many fee^ above thp water; they are conspicuous fis^- 
tures in Mrs. Prufy*9 print of the western sid^ of the Causeway, 
The three moles together are said to include a mass of 30,000 pillars* 
»*'■' ■ '■ ■ ■ II... " ■ 

* Dr. Popocke says he measured the more' western poinL which he fbund 
tGOi^et fropi the rock above, and thinks it m|gt|( extend 6d feet furdier at 
]o^ wat^r. The eastern of jreat mole he measured to 540 feet^ and believes 
the same dlb^nce 3f 60 teet might be made fbr the additional length seta 
at the retreating of the tide." / - ' 



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jil9t ujk«s tluin <u^ generally eotert^iqed mi to th^ extent aoi) bei^t 
of tbU pbvipovic^lV Though I c^tmotasuftnt to Sir R. C. Hoaie'^ 
posUiop, tb«t i/t wqiild he overlook/ed if not pointed out to observa« 
iif^ ^ I ^ exceedingly jdisposed to think th|t the inpresaioii 
which its woqderfyj coQstructioo woi^d n^tumlly make if the imar 
ginatjoo had not been led astray* i? extreQ[iely weakened by the dis- 
appointnent experienced in not finding it awfiiHy gjigantic. But 1 
nlust persuade nyseif that the astomslifneBt and iamimfion of every 
contemplatire mM will increase in proportkm as its constroetiov is 
nuwe and mors minutely eiamined. it ia now snfficieatiy known 
thai the whole is a mass of naturaUyrfonnad pillars 4if basalt ;^rr4i|K>n 
tbeur Ratline «od orighi the opinions of pim of tcienois vary excecdU 
i9gly> mx dofBs wy little koowMge fufficife to aathoiixji my having 
afiy decided ^^w of iffy own/' (p. 19a--rX^,.) 

The ^author has more taste (if we may so say) ibr mu 
nuHa than ^r the ^nder beauties of natural scenery : 
evjBp the Lakes of KiUarney, which she went over on her 
sec^pnd tour |n 1815, impress hef witli no feeling, and in- 
spire )ier with no eloquence; she takes more pleasure in 
mentioning a satirical remark qpon the bad weather usual 
there, by tt^e late Mr. Fox, thap in describing the plea8ure9 
of the finest da^ she spent in that delfghtfu) situation^ yet sKe 
decl^res^ notwithstandipg, that she c^n sc^ircely conceive it 
ppssible for any p^r8on who visits Kiliarney to be dis;^- 
pointed. Tosnewthe ipanner in which she contemplates 
the$e scenes, and the jmpresaiods they produce upon her 
mind, we quote a passage from about tne middle of her 
observations on this part of hf r tour. 

*f Tt^9 fwachrkoyi] is a ya^t chasm jo the top of the mpantaia» 
encircled % the f^water part by a)po«t pfrpeodifpul^r rocks, Ovk 
tJ]^ i|ide tow^Mrdjf tb^ Tvrk-vipvntaio ^l^ae is an iptServiil ^ if9^ 
af wbi^b the watef is ^cce^^sible, tn^ frpip whiph it issues put in a 
spi^ll stream; thi^rynsdown the sjde of the moiiptain, g(Vieiilly 
appeafin^ insignificant, thoqgh occasionfdly sivellec| to a fine cascfide. 
Only one spring is known to feed the lake^ the water of which is so 
extremely cold t)|at it \s scarcely possible to bear the hs|nd in it ; yet 
tbi9, water never freezes. The rocks by which the chasm is sur- 
rounded rise so directly from the water/ that it is impossMe to go 
reund its edge^ tlie only way to make the circuit of it is by the tops 
of the rocks. The guide mqoired whetl|trl would go round; to 
which I replied* By all means. We aacendtd» thcaefiwej aauing 
hkiokB-^f atone and eoarse herfiage, bnt bmA nothing dUBenlt ia 
the as^^Bt, ai)4 pw rsiie^ omr epHfse ^ the opnpsita ride ^f tbe klk?^ 
>¥bat ^n extraordipaiy scene beri^ presei^taf itself ! Another lake, 
e^9ptty of a similar ogture to the Punch-b[)wVappe9^'edii the two 



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82 Karrathe of a Residence in Ireland. 

separated only by a ridge of rock covered with the same coarse her- . 
bage. lean compare the whole to nothing so vmtt as an enormous 
bridge of a nose with the eyes on each side. How extraon)iiiary 
that, amidst all the- accounts I have read of this country, this very 
striking, very remarkable/<ra/«re» (and indeed I think it far from one 
of the least remarkable,) is never mentioned !*' (p. 272.) 

This resemblance of two lakes with a rugged ridge be- 
tween them, to two eyes and the bridge of a nose, is as fine 
a specimen of the art of sinking in comparing great things 
with small, as we recollect in any author: MissPlumptre 
wonders that no other traveller had observed " this verj 
striking and remarkableyea^tire." Does she mean the nose, 
or the eyes, or both ? For our parts, we should have thought 
It extraordinary if any other person but Miss Plumptre had ' 
pitched upon sych a ludicrous simile. She concludes by re- 
commending <^ every body to come so &r round the Devil's 
Punch.* bowl as to see so remarkable nfeature^^ and seems 
much pleased with her surprizing discovery. Her laudable 
curiosity generally induces ber to visit every thing in the 
neighbourhood worthy of notice ; but having omitted the 
Collieries, she easily consoles herself for the loss by observing, 
" but I saw a noble fire in a kitchen made from the produce 
of them/' This is a gratification most of us can enjoy, 
without the trouble of a journey to Ireland or the North. 

The latter chapters of this work are devoted to general 
topics, such as the education and condition of the lower 
classes in Ireland, their habits and employments ; with a 
discussion upon many subjects, incidental and non-incidental, 
on which the author thinks fit to dilate : among these i^ a 
long discourse upon the origin of Irish history, and an 
ailment to prove what has been a thousand times esta- 
blished, that the first historians of every country are poets. 
From the size and price of the volume, we suppose that 
Miss Plumptre addresses herself to the better-informed 
portion of society ; but it is not a little afirontiag to them 
to conclude that they are quite so ignorant as to render 
necessary the instruction here supplied. We are not by 
any means disposed to treat as lightly her remarks upon the 
present state of Ireland, upon which we are less informed 
in this country than upon the condition of some of the re- 
moter nations of the world. The following observations 
are dictated by good sense ; a quality in which the author 
is not so deficient as in many others of less importance:— 

'< There is one point to which I cannot help more particularly 
adverting. We never cease hearing the wretchedness of tlie Irish 



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. Narraike of a Residence in Irdmd. 98 

cftlnas made the Wabject of aiiiiBiidl?enion, and very initfdied in- 
deed they are, for the most part; but I have not yet toand the true 
cause of their wretchedness explained. The bbdholders do not, as 
inEn^and, provide cottages fpr the poor on their estates; each 
labourer provides his own habitation : the inevitable consequence of 
this id, that, the means being very slender, it must be built at the 
least possible expense ; that the whole family, human beings and 
animals together, must be squeezed into the smallest space in which 
they can be contained : the inevitable result is, that they live in a 
degree of filth which I am confident is no less injurious to die men- 
tal than the corporeal health. — What do I say 1--no UsbI — it is in- 
finitely more injurious. I have seen troops of healthy-looking chil- 
dren issue forth from these cabios, but I am sure . the moral man 
cannot live in such a way without being exceedingly degraded. The 
remedy of this evil would be a very important step towards introduc- 
ing more general habits of order and regularity. Is it possible for 
the infant mind to be impressed with any notion of such habits, 
when at the first dawning of its tender ideas they are presented with 
spectacles so directly opposite? Their ideas must be formed after 
what they do. see ; they cannot be formed after what they do. not see^' 
'Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will 
not depart from it.' Let him be accustomed to see nothing but neat. 
ness and order around him, depend upon it when he grows up he 
will not sigh for a mud cabin and filtli. A very laudable spirit seems 
now to be awakened among the gentry, who remain at their, posts, 
and attend to the welfare of their poorer neighbours, for educating 
the children of these classes ; but I do think that an indispensa- 
ble step towards rendering education of any avail, is first to provide 
the poor with more decent homes." (p. 339.) 

lo one respect, the opinion of Miss Plumptre difiers firom 
that of most persons who have written upon the subject, 
viz. as to the disposition of the great mass of the people to 
unite themselves with this countrjr: we are extremely liappy 
to learn that there exists this spirit of harmony, and we con- 
sider the opinion of the author a^ less questionable, not only 
on account of the pains she took in forming it, but because she 
imagines it to be m opposition to her general political sen- 
timents. Those who have hitherto contended in favour of 
the Catholic Claims have founded themselves on the com^ 
pulsion arising from the disturbed and rancorous state oif 
the lower orders in the sister kingdom ; but a much more 
powerful argument, we think, is to he derived firom. their 
tranquillity, and their wish to unite and amalgamate them** 
selves with the people of Great Britain r the first may 
prove that it is necessary to concedei but the last will pon- 
▼ince us that it is safe to do so. , 



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Whb regard tiy the ^ntUIMiiDimtt'iif tiliitf ikoAt^ hi» hm 



mtiMiMsimmsimBaatiBsiiiti^ 



Abt, liL IToTd? Petasgkd^: Pari th6 FirU. CorUminiriE 
minify into the Origin and Langmge oftitt^ PtlAsgJy 
or ancienilnhabitants of Greece; toith a DescttpttdH of the 
PelasgiCj or MoUe Bigamtna, as represeftted in, the 'eafiotis 
Inscriptions in which it is still preserved; and dH attefMt 
to determine its genuine Petdsgie PtonuneiatioH. JBjf 
HdRBEliT Marsh, 15. D. f.JJ.S. Margaret Professbt of 
Divinity in Cdfnbridgeyand now Lord Etshop ofLlandaff* 
pp. 146. 

X HB titW of this work elearlj explains its nature and 
design ; the subject will be allowed py every liberal reader 
to be one of great interest; and, flJthou^h the researches 
of scholanr, and their division of opinion, have bithMo 
tMght us not to tcnrm sangutiie hopes of any^ correct in- 
fermation reapedilig the earliest history of tlie Pehisgi, a 
new stimulus h givc^n to out ctfHosity^ when the inquiry 
is> ci»mti««eed hy at^ authof^ iAkose foriuer publicd(tions 
have raised a very high idea of the p0ihst^ and endowmetits 
of his mind. 

The tk'eiitise before iis consists of foilr chapters. The 
fitrsl dtopt^r relates t6 the origin of the Pektsgi. Its prin- 
dpal direct is to prbve, that, although we cannot tracp 
thetii atiy fiitiJiefV.we are able to ascertain that the Pelasgi 
UtA Sl^ttled in Thf ace, and thence migrated southwards 
iHtb the ditf^f^nt pdrts of Qceece. 

The flittt testimony cited by Dr. Marsh, is that of Dio- 
hysius of HiilietfrMssus, who represents it as the coihroon 
dpitiidtf of the anci^fits, that the Pelassi were so called 
tt(m a king of that riAme ; and that they had no fixed faabi- 
i&tioli, fktt miAt ih^it first residence was in Peloponnesus, 
tOtlttd sArout Afftds.' Titi At^rsh^ indeed, by a strange mis- 
ted^ (S1^ p. 2^ 3, JS^) tilidipfstands the expression of Diony;- 
rfu«, fi' )i«X*frf/a;«!oV vwv A%tfiV(iv*Apyoc, to siihtfy Jchaia 
iMti&e: fKkt «rl^ ^t^l- heard of' ah Argps in thai quartei' \ 
rf%« t&pifftt cit^ 6f^f|d/ti is doubtless rhtended hy the hif- 
torian. The epithf t ax^'^*^ was applied to it as early as 



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Aft ibat^ «f H0fmt; who ^fteH imm *AxiMi te denote th« 
Qfseks io geaMd « Bdt <wbttl U of mom iiaporlaBee €o 
^or j^fMont M^iitly) tbe whole of MopoDwesiiB wm Mllodi 
jf cAifa^ ttfUff k titiotiiie ft proriiice of the Ro«ian Empire. 
Hwoe^ in tlM Ihiie of Dionydiuay^^ anctetit and od^toatod 
M^Hd of Arjtotfls WM dOled 'A^iuv ''A^yoc, j^cAomH 
iitfrgof ; to distiiigiriflh U ^m #lk«r dtied or toriitorieg hav- 
ing the tAme Kame^^^oek a^ Arcos Hippium iii ApuKfl, 
An^tjSfK^ ''Ame^tli Epfinid^ and TteXarytnw ^Afy^i wt 
ThamdT. IpKlostioK]^ of DiMysiiM of Halicanrnssad, 
^Ao«odk «io^ biilns tifan aoy other Gredi Writer to rAve»J 
tigato 4ib eiffgfa aiid history of the Pelasgi, i« therefore 
«iMr «iid espre«9. that they wei^e first #^ttled, afeeordin^ to 
Oft t^lker^n of the geaerdlity cf the bfotoi^iaii& in tfie dfe- 
tri^ #f Atso6. No^ is the te^tittony materially weakened 
hv/a flmeifbl j^astaee la Ihtettr of AtuMUsj produced hy 
t». Marsh froai. PtlNardi, who iays, that ^^ tHe Ahsadiaos 
«teoo4ie^at Hhe the oak, hecaato thfitwas the fit^ tree, 
tad thoT were Ae firit ^m6i Who qilhrng otiit of the gro^nd.*^ 
/The allusion, of a writer, who boTe tie eharaeteif of a |ribi- 
' losoplMer and pIMor, vMA w^t^ than thai of an historian 
and itittiQoktfiMi, ou^ to have Nttle tte<^ \vt opposition 
to the plldtt infortnatioh^ dT DtotiysiMd. Dr. If arsh u&ewise 
prodiiee^ ae evideiied -ftat some of the aneients repre« 
sented AMHiJa to have beeif the ^figtfUd seat of th^ PelAsgi, 
a passtee Aom^Plifty, attd aaoiSer frOM Piausttnias, iw 
whieh Odse authors afterely stafe; tbirt Att^Ma was once 
called Pdasjgia. Evefr if there were any VaHdity in the 
tenor of sueii an arrnhient, it WouM be refuted by the aidre 
abanutent testimonies of other writ^rs^ fay whooi the aaikle 
name is given ioArg^Us. 'these testimonies fksf be seen 
in a learned note of Spanheim upon Callimaehus, (Lav. 
PaU. ▼. 4.), to whieh Dt. hf arA refers, bat^ by another 
nnaocountalde error, appeals io it fbr preofil, tfiat Pela^gia 
Was the ancient name^ not of ArgoKs, out of Peloponnesus. 
The proper nAmes, Argosy A^ghij tfe. it is true, wei^ 
semefimite used in refereilce to the wbcrie Peoiwsute.t BM 
flie authors, qo^fed by l^aheini, evMantlyemj^oy them 
ia their pripet and tesmeitd sense ; and nothiag can bo 
nore dear/ thaa that Ifris critic dies them for <^e solo pui^ 
pose of proving Akt Ar^H$ was firequentiy called Pekigh^ 



I 



* See Heyne Excnn. ad II. B, 101. et Not ad Il« ^. 684. 
t See Hrae^ iibi sBpnu Vet. S^M. tt PIimI. IftiMB. ii. IS. Spaoheoi. Ur 
n d H ai Liii JQyna. in IMsn. ▼. TS. 

Caix. Rbv. Vol. V. Jan. 1817. E 



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i$ Bishop of JJan^s If mxp Belm^^ 

aQ4 its. inbfibUaiiis' Tehfei. If, tberefovci,: the evidemto 
which lies before us can he depended on at all, the only 
conclusion tb^be derived from it is, that tbe Pelasgi fi^ 
settled in Ar£;oli8, amd at a very earlj period colonized the 
contiguous district of At^ia. The. divisipn, thu^ sef^a* 
rated from the original stock).j8 mentioned by Herod6li|8 
(L i.e. 146.) under the name ofJlsKa^yol^ApHoSegy the. 
Ptlasgiam of Arcadia, The same-^wffhor (U vii. c. 94.) 

Seaks of another colony by the nanpe w^lehwyol Xiyis^eg^ 
9 P^lasgians of CEgialus. . He s^ys, tbaHyhey infaabitdd 
the territory which, in his time, was callecK4cAai«k .It 
extended ajfong the. northern shore of Pelopoim^us^v on 
which acccfUtit, as we are informed by Pliny, Strafcip, and 
Pausaniai^ it was called AiyiuXoif the shore. Dr. Marsh 
adds, that ^^ whatever- part of Peloponnesus they firska^'* 
cupied, they g^radually spread themselves over the wwle 
Peninsula, which was thence originally called .Pelasgia\ '* 
His proofs of these assertions are very far from being sati 
factor;^. In Peloponnesus we cannot trace them beyoui 
Areolis, Arcadia, and Achaia. 

With erudition and accuracy our iauthor has cited pas* 
sages firom Greek writers of the highest authority, to prov^ 
that, beyond the isthmus of Corinth, the Pelasgi settled 
in Atticoy Baotioj Euba^ Phocisy Epirusy and Thessalia. 
Relying upon the testimony of Justin, who says of Mace^ 
dontOj <^ Populus Pelasgtj regio Pa^pnia dicebatur ;" he 
has also traced them across the chain of Mount Olympus; 
and he has shewn, thi^t they colonized the islands of the 
GEgean Sea, as far northward as Lemnosy Imbrus, and 
Semothrace. But in his endeavours to prove that Uiey ex* 
isted ^< from the earliest ages" in Thraccy which is the most 
essential object of this chapter, he appears entirely to fail. 

In order .to establish this important point, Dr. Marsh 
adopts a conjecture of Heyne, founded upon the order, in 
which Homer, in his. Catalogue, enumerates the Trojan 
auxiliaries. Having mentioned the troops raised from the } 
neighbourhood of Troy, the poet passes over to the conti- t 
Bent of Greece, and enumerates the auxiliaries from tho ^ 
other side of the Hellespont in the following order :—lsty ' 
The tribes of Pelasgians, who inhabited the rertile L^rissa. \ 
Sdly, The Thracians, established upon the shores of the / 
HeUespont. 3dly, The Cicones ; and 4thly, the Poeonians* i 
(U. B. 840—860.) In describing the three last nations, the ^ 
poet proceeds regularly from east to west. Hence Heyne 
conjectures, that the first-mentioned nation inhabited somo I 

\ 

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mOip of Lku^it^ JETofie Ptktsgkm. S7 

iistnci ^ili figfther to the ea$tward,* and, to support this 
l^pbtHteiSi'hesugg^ests, that there ihay haVie been a Pelas- 
gicdty, called Larissa, in that part of Thrace, although it 
was afterwards deserted, and its name forgotten. We 
know,^ however, that there was, upon the banks of the 
J^'ekeusj a district called LarissA^ which was certainly peo- 
ptsdbj Pelasgians. Instead therefore of imagining a citj^ 
for whose existeilce we hare no historical anthontr, it is 
much more reasonable to understand Homer as speaking of 
Larissa in lliessaty ; and the argument of Heyne appears 
weaker than i those which his candour, learning, ana good 
sense, have usually suggested, because . Lanssa on the 
Peseiis was not in a line with the other three countries, but 
t0itke south of then, and consequently must have, been 
steiitioned either b^^ure or after them, without any reference 
Id its sttqation^eastward or westward. Indeed Heyne only 
^fesses to suggest a conjecture \ ^' Suspieari licet inter 
Thraoes EJnropsB consedtsseturmas Pelasgorum." But the 
knguage of Dr. Marsh is mudi more dectdied t <^ Since then 
Homer proceeds wratward in his description from the Hel« 
iespont to Mount Hsnnus^ and includes the CpCXa n€A«a*yaiu 
in this description, we must ccmclude that, like the Cicones, 
they then inhabited some part of the extensile country 
called Thrace.^' ; Squally positive, bat (suspkari lieeat) 
equally ineondttsive are the remaining oBservatibni^of our 
author, according to whom, ^^ we may safely infer, that the 
Belasgi had possessions cm the continent ' oi Thrace,'' be* 
cause, as we are. informed by Herodotus, they occupied 
three islands, Lemnos, Imbrus, and Samothrace, in its 
vicinity, and ^' buik Placia and Scylace upon the Holies* 
pool." I 

i Having discussed the evidefnce, produced by Dr. Marshy 
to prove that the Pelasgi had settlements in Thrace, we 
fliiall take the same liberty with the inference^ which he has 
derived from that feet, snpposing it to be established. His 
oligiect is to prove that the Peiasgi' did not migrate, -as all 
the ancients assert, from the south northwards, but fivm 
die nordi southwards ; dmivthey extended themselves not 
from Pdoponnesus to Thrace, but from Thrace to Pelo« 
ponnesos. 

' *' It i^ iofinitely more pf <>beble (says he) that the first settlers in 
nirace should baVe crossed the Helle^nt, where the land on one 
side b visible from the land on the other ; and that Greece should 
have been peopled from Thraee, than that the first settlers* in 
Greece should have come immediateiy across the iEgean Sea« and 



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99 Mi^^fA^i^^ ffmt Pfk$tm^ 

puwitecod^ww mm^(^. We aay tli^Qy^ ^OrW |iift«)pM 
%h^x Thrace wa$ ^e fifit iU(r(^cai| set|kmcq| oi^ Ae P^uu^ i^f q 
fM thev sfracfualjy spread tj^selves sputbW^a, tfll ft^j fiad 0^ 
ipicd the whole of Greece.'* (pi. 13^--t4.) 



cijpied I 

l^efe we nuiafc noi itant to mtice iHe ataiitB^ii»% ^nrUd^ 
19 «»sei|tial to tlie fert« o£ Dtj Afanrsl's amuBieat, tlidLt Af 
Belasgi. Mil Milt iidnlnted Thrade and QiiiBcce, M weft 
If i^/b3i BeUlers'* in lhoi& cduntrtesw Upeft thM poiill lie 
efS^.Ba proctf, an A we b«iTe aolne grmnd Ar D^mng 
tluBfr tiie %i was othecime. Dloarfnua ef HaUtamiMm 
. afl9&rtg^ (L u a. 17.>^ Ibwl the Pdla^i^ ^hBeor thej first esta# 
Uisbed tiKiiisel¥Cfl m Tbemdj/iy ^xpeikd Us fnmur MMIf^ 
taiti/. and ApoUodocat (L i. c. 1.) sjMm^ AkI Nieba^v tte 
BMfeha of that Petaegos, Vhp condoeti^d the VMaB|p^ to 
AfgD% ud from wham tkey devhred tbaip imam^ was tli# 
ikttghter of Phoroneus, i^iv of M Pdcipmmnus'j whidi 
of course was; pteviousljF iMiaMtevt. Who^rer wav tbe 
fint settfars' in Tkitace^ k k not improfaoMfe tht^ thejf craaaal 
tto HrikafMnity as Dr. Marsbsiipptys^fftheBelaBgitvliatt 
dbnc, becrase at Abjdoa it iesanaivdw, tkiit a aiiNii|Wf 
with ease swimater it. Bmk grantiav forjiiiumeBittiai 
tiie Pdasgi exited m Thrace, we eamidt admits witkeot 
ttidenoe, tkat ihey mere the first setikts in Hnrt couiitrf # 

Sinoe^ as Dr. Marsh. aUorm, tWaatcsBntsagireeiiiiiiepiie* 
aeiitiB|[ Pdopaniaefios to have baea'the resideiiee of the 
Pdasgi pmidusli^ to their appearance i» fhe Kevth of 
Giicece^ he* oagjit aol to laiie advaaced a conteaiy oniaieii 
alitbout awightjand gobstantial reasona. When addeeiall^ 
their tttstjaaoariab toestri^lisb thedi^eision t>f the Pehisgi 
through the various Grecian territorieS| he appears to piaoe 
VB fkfSn the inost imtfdictt ami libsoliits lieiiaiioe. Aiferaach 
afiipeaia to their axu&oritjry it is) swdh^ inoenaistant t»4ia^ 
auis' IbMB as uadeaeariiBg of any fiaifnev cre^tL M kla^ 
m author ou^t ta he ver j oaamai^ aad ^ety oahfideot df 
lla aouBtfaiesB of hia ol»|niliMs^ beftncs he adopts stsdi' a 
coarse; 

fioBstlvB tte argagMBt alidvesm^ 
and tlcaraesB heqiainieito jaiiU^ such a departMS mmk 
direct historical testimony? Far from it: an argOMM^ 
FJUcbi sijy)ios«s i^tWM^ iivwpirirlMe^ diS^ties. ifi eresskig 
ms mfip^hle paeae cf wiiw^ encept wher^a th^ iuppm^ 
tewMi m> Yiiihfe, ^pp^asa to . aa penfectly pi^rik^ Whit 
aeccaailjiisi thenr that a eaotitay saeuM he sam hgr ^ hdndk of 
ttiariMfsa#(Jk eommmmmen^^f Mcv> eci^a|^ befiiee mAM 



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dMte> w botor^viai^ or Hmtkj pr tMtH^ or anjr otW a^et- 
itait^ ^n UMiP^tlioiii towanb it? How tlm cMie Wlf 
tlieri»lii«d»: ^f the gbbo to bepMpled? mud h6W can ire 
crodii flie in^lnUel^ improimblc wMunU of Gapl«i« Cook 
airi olfa^ navi^Wft> ^ho Uil m at idftUds Aualed is the 
■lidBlaf Ih^ yaat F^dific OeoAOf aod yet •watimni^ with i*- 
faoMlaotol^We are ivficioiitly cr^dttloiu^ to beli^e^ thot 
dMi^ri^ai Pobigi (ov^i if tho)f» tooeived no inAlratftioilB 
fttei the 9ttl^o«l9 of the bofoTo-mealloiMd Phoronow) might 
Mi out with thOstiirit of bold adt^ontiiretf^ or bn driven by 
straw of we*th#f to % ^horo^ wirieb tiiey hud not nctimlly 
Man at( the time of their embarhotioo. If wo preeuibo to 
form any opinion upon the sulgect, we think it but dO»- 
■Meat to adMt the ftot of thcrif beii^ firal aettkd in Atj^ 
h^ whidk ti testified by the writors who alone give ne in* 
faematjon oaneeniiag them* Wo may pethapa ventinre, firoei 
tte droamstaiicei^ niramhed by thne bialortmie^ to draw a 
prefaahlo iaferaiee respeetiag the quarter from whkh the 
coloni9t8 cametoArffolk; Their leader, Pelasgus^wa^aeroiii* 
ing to^theeoaccomilB^ the $oi of Jupiter; bnt^ aa wo learn 
ftom E wbo me tag the Meeeeliiaa» (quoted by Cieero^ Do Nat 
Sear, h iii.) ftom CaUiiaaehns, (Hyiaii. in Jo^em,) aad nr 
vioao other anthofs, Japileff was the Kiaf of Ctete^ Unlem^ 
therefimevtho whole narrative ia fiiboloua, PeAasms came 
tft AiigaB from Cvete, his fhther's oountry and kingdom.: 
This fiiett if admilled> saggeato an obvioua reaaon why 
Jepiter wae afterwards regarded h¥ the Greeks as the first 
of the Ooda. The Pdaigi estaUidied his wotsUp aad ' 
Oracle ia Dodaaa at a Very eaily period ; aocordiog to He* 
tadotaSy faeftnre a^ other friigioa* iaslitatioas Were iatso^ 
dttdod, i^ee Hotkl. iL fi2 ; >8ttabo^ L tii. fto.) He had also 
% teaiido at Laridsa^ and at otber Pelaagic settle^ 
Heyne^ therafere^ ia a ilote-iiponHomery(ll. 



9S»y) justly rem^fce^ that Jatftser was a PttasgieBirinkw. 
ki his Bfffaad dm]^, Dr. Mairsb andertakes to solve the 



qaestioa^ What was the language of the P^^ 
hagi I Hie dberim, tlmt apoa thia sid>je6t oren Hcrodatea 
oeai»te» hiamelf ahaUe.to gHe a deeisite aaswet. The 
twasrtge of thai historaan tafiinMi to is aa iblkwi^ (L i. c.57.) 
j^^What lananagp. the Pelasgi uttered,. 1 cannot certainly 
laji; but if I OMQr coiyoctwre firom ^ present lemaias of 
1iioP^bM[pr«*^semof whom iahaUt the city called Crestoa^ 
b^|\nirf tMt Tytir)M^btb^9 ted wito w^ere onei^ neifilibeiirs to 
tb(^ now cw^d tk^ti^nd, and then iohabitdd the country 
whi<^ is now caUed Thessaliotis; and others of wlioaHhais* 



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30 Bkh&pof LUMaff^s Hwrm Vdif^gkik. 

-ing been once neifrfiboiirs to tbe Atbenlani^, bvtli'PIseb 
' and Sejiace on the Hellespont, and Tariovsr lother Pelatgic 
cities, which hare obtained other names ^-^if 1 mav conjee* 
:tore flrom tlieiii, the Pelasgi uttered some barbarian Ian* 
giiage. If, therefore, the whole Pelasric race dk) so, 'the 
Attic nation^ bein^ Pelasgic, must, while they Mcame sob^ 
ject to the Hell^itans, have adopted their Inngiiaffe alto ; 
for the Crestonians and the Placians both speak the same 
language, and yet neitl^r of them speak a knguase simifor 
to that of any of the tribes in their vicinity, lliese'cir^ 
cumstances prove that they still preserve that language 
which they used when ihey emigrated into their present 
settlements/' 

- Before we can judge of the argtffneni contained in this 
passage^ it is necessary to fix the situation of the plates 
described in it. Dr. Marsh appears to reason upon the 
supposition that they were all towns in ^ruee, (see p. 1% 
iSO, SS;) but this opinion is not supported by any evidence 
whatever. 

' In the first place, we mi«t determine the correct reading 
of the passage. The printed editions, and the manuscripts 
which have been collated for them, exhibit the words KpM* 
^rvantft and Kpv}<rr«v/virtfi ; but we find from a passage in 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (1. i. c. S9,) that the manuscript, 
or manuscripts, which he employed, had Kporcovtf and Koo- 
rmt^TM. On account of the rar greater antiquity of nis 
authorities, the latter readings ought to be preferred. The 
internal evidence also is in favour of this emendation ; for, 
although we know of a region called Crestohia, which, as 
we learn from Herodotus,* was in Macedonia at the head 
of the Sinus Thermaicus, yet we hear of no tity called 
Creston, in any part ot, the world ; and if we inquire where 
the Tyrrhenians were to be found in the time of Herodotus, 
we discover them only in Italy, in whi^h country, as Dr. 
Mlirsh observes, (p. 60-^61,) they had seitlemeiits among 
the Bruttii, where Crotona was situated. Respecting thS 
situation of Placia and Scylace, our information is still 
more clear and decisive; Pomponius Mela places thein to 
the east of Cyzicum,- in Mysia, at the foot of Mount 

• L. V. 8, 5 ; vii. 124, 12T ; viil. 116. Dr. Marsh adduces the first of these 
passages as a prdof that the Crestonians irere a nee of ThFoeumtj oidy be* 
C3|u«e the Tbracians pf one j^artlcnlar tribe are said to have Kved Oinri^) 
vbwe, or heymi them. The subsequent passages here referred to afford suf* 
ficient evidence that Crestonia was not in "nirace, but in the situation we 
-have described. 



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Bishoybf Lbmdaff's JOmm Pdatpcm. 31 

Olympusy (1, i. c. 19,) ^ Post, Flaeia et Scylaoe, nrvss 
peusgorum colonie, qdibus a terffo inmiinet inoos Oljoi- 
pos, at incolie voeant, Myskis." . The same sUuation b a»« 
signed to them hy Pliny> 1. v. c. 32. If it shoakl be ob* 
jected that the towns spokeo of bj Herodotus were ^^ upon 
the Hellespontj^ the explanation ofthis phrase maybe found 
by referring to the 6tbbook of his history^ ch. 3^, where he 
diescribes the conquests of the Phenician fleet upon the 
shore of the PropotUis^ but conformably to what was pro- 
bably the Homeric pritctice^ extends to that ^^ broad'' ai^d 
^ binmdless'' sea* the name of Uellespontus. ^' The. navy" 
says he ^^ setting out from Ionia, tooK all the towns which 
lay to the left, when sailing in the Hellespont ; (for those 
to the right upon the continent had been subdued by the 
Persians themselves ;) now the cities of the Hellespont in 
Ew^pe are these — Chersonesus, in which are numerous 
cities ; Perinthus^ the forts in Thrace, Selybria, and By- 
zantium." These towns extended, not only through the 
Hellespont, properly so called, but along the shore of the 
Propontisj to the Bosphorus of Thrace. Upon the south 
Bide of the Hellespont therefore, in the sense in which He- 
rodotus used the term, that t>, upon the south side of the 
Propontisj stood the small Pelasgic colonies of Placia and 
Scylace. 

The situation of the places mentioned by Herodotus being 
determined, we perceive the force of his argument. Two 
colonies, one in Italy and the other in Mysia, both of Pe- 
lasgic origin, speak the same language ; but their language 
differs from that of all the trites around them ; it may, 
therefore, be presumed to have been the language spoken 
by the race, from which they sprung, since they are so re- 
mote, that they can scarcely be supposed to have had any 
intercourse with one another. But theirs is a barbarianr 
language, that isj u language not spoken in Greece : hence 
it follows, that the language, of the Pelasgi in general was 
barbarian, or that it difl^red from the language of the 
Greeks. This reasoning appears luminous and conclusive ; 
Dr. Marsh, however, entirely evades it, and (omnia miscens 
et turbans) thinks it sufficient to r^ply, that the Thracians 
were, the last people where one might expect that the lan- 
guage of the Peiasgi would remain unaltered, because 
they were mixed with numerous colonies from other na- 
tions^ 

* IIVtT»f*BAM^ir«rref« "XXXwrvoyTof jrtrfi(iiy. — ^HoM£&. 
t Not as Dr. Marib trai^lates it ^ a hvpftrmu language." . 



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Tfa» ^bove^tited pasiUge nw^leetiiig the langUflm of tie 
PelMgiy is immadiadel? ptfceaed by ^solher^ vhic^ 0r. 
Marsh «Bpkgr8 to «itMll.<$h bis ^8tei% oMl tr iudi th«iie$m 
it k iMcdMMfjr t0{)fodu66. It is as feUdwjB im^ 

'* Cfoesus found iipon inquiry, that the Lacedsembnians of Dom, 
and the Athenians of Ionic origin, were the most fK>werfuI atiiong 
the Greeks ; for Ihey had the pre-eminence In ancient times, the one' 
being a Pdasgic, and the other an Hellenic nation ; and the one ne- 
ver numted/ but Ihe other ver^ fteqnentW changed their sitnsMidti i 
for under Kke Dettcalioli they idfaabffad PhM<Mis, and ander Dic>rijl9. 
the son of Hellen, the eonntiy faeaaatii Ossa and Olyni|Hift» ioAka 
Histoeotis, being ctpelled thenoe by the Cadaeans, wj dwelt alP 
Macednos in Pmdus; thenee again tley paiecd to Dryopis, ami 
haying at last conwefrom 'Dry^s into re^p(»me8ui^ ineywer^ 
called Dmiam.** 

In order tointrodnce this account of the mimtions of the 
LsKsedasmonlans, or Doriaps, ^ich reqfuired, for the sake 
of perspicuity^ to be placed at thd end of the sentence, He- 
roaotns inverts tbe order in which he has first introduced 
them. Although, after mentioning '* the Lacedtemonitmit 
and the Athenidns^^* he says, *^ the one was a PelasgiCj and 
the other a JBelknic nation ;'* the context makes it evident, 
that he intends to represent the Atkemam as Pelasgic, and 
the iMcedamoniQm as Hellenic. This transposition beinp 
understood, the pasisage is clear and intelligible. Plain as 
it 1$, however, Dr. Marsh derives from it a variety of senses, 
which it does not appear, by the most distant allusion, ta 
warrant. Reasserts, (p. I^j) that Herodotus means by* 
i^og n5X«<r/«(ov ^ tbe ancient inhabitants of Greece,** and 
by ^9g 'EaXiiv/kov, ^* the Greeks of At^ own time," and that! 
those terms were commonly employed' by subsequent wrL*^ 
ters to express the same distinction. Having assumed these 
facts, be observes, that ^^ an opposition in names is almost 
always fbHowed by a supposed oppositibnr in the things,^ 
Hence he concludes, that the use of two names to denote 
the Greek nation, as existhir at different periods of tim^^ 
ted to the supposition Of tm msUnct nations, having two drj^ 
jfi^ent languages. B^ sudi A chain'of rea8oning,-^a soritef^ 
in which eveiy Ihik is: so weak as to separate as soon its it 
is taken up to be insppxted^— does Dr. Marsh endeavour to 
set aside tSie enlicit and repeated testimonies of the an- 
cients to the existence df the Pelnsgiand H^enians as iwtj^ 
distinct tribes. 

The acQounrjiVitf1l(f l9irOt«ek bfstoiirtns fa^^ fliat the 
inhabitants of Gireecei ^ifefe andendy called Pctogt, and 



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Bishop of Lhmdqfs SoM Pelasgioe. 3$ 

the country itself Petasgid'; but that^ after the descendants 
of Hellen had become numerous and powerful, their name 
was extended to all itis inhabitants; and also that the ori- 
ginal language of the Pelasgi was gradually lost, while the 
Greek, or Hellenic was substituted in its place. This Dr. 
Marsh (p. S5) affirms to be impossible, because the Ian- 

Euage of the Hellenians '^ could not have superseded the 
ipguage previously spoken in Greece, unless thej^ exter- 
minated as well as conquered, which no Greek historian 
has eyer asserted/' But why should we suppose estermi- 
nation requisite? M^en two nations, speaking different 
languages, are completely intermingled, a change of lan- 
guage will be the necessary consequence. Whichever na« 
tion exceeds the other in numbers and in power, will pro- 
bably obtain the ascendancy with respect to language : the 
speech of the greater party will bv de^ees become univer- 
sal, and will supplant the other, deriving from it, however* 
a variety of terms and phrases, and probably some new 
modifications of its declensions and syntax. If, therefore, 
the relations of the Greek historians are deserving of cre- 
dit, the probable inference from them is, that the Hellenic 
supplanted the Pelasgic language, fidopting, however, a 
considerable number of its terms and forms of construction, 
and thus producing the Greek language still extant in the 
writing^ of the ancients. 

In his further observations upon the last cited passage pf 
Herodotus, Dr* Marsh, neglecting to nptice the inversion of 
names, which we have pointed out, argues (p. S7— 38,) 
that the Pelasgi must have spoken Greek, because Herodo- 
tus says that the iMcedamonians were Pelasgi, and every 
one knows that Greek was their language. In consequence 
of the same misunderstanding, our author charges Hero- 
dotus with inconsistency in his account of the Athenians. 
But this invaluable historian has not exposed himself to 
any such accusation, uniformly representing the Athenians 
to have been of Pelasgic, as the Lacedaemonians were of 
Hellenic origin : he accounts for the prevalence of the 
Greek language at Athens, by saying, that ^^ the Attic na^ 
tion, although of Pelasgic origin, when it became sub- 
ject to the Hellenians, also adopted their language." But, 
says Or. Marsh, << a whole nation^ dl at once forgetting its 
former language and learning a new one, is a phenomenon 
of which history affords no example." Such is our author's 
manner, (for we are sorry to find the examples very numer- 
pus,) of putting upon the words of. the ancients new or ex- 
Ceit. Rev. Vol. V. Jan. 1817. P 

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S* Bishop of Lbmdafi Bora PelMgka. 

ft^gerated senses, so as to midlead any r^adenr wb6 arb not 
cautious and quick-sighted in remarking the progress of bis 
representations. The assertions of Herodotus, and of all 
the ancient historians, who enter upon the subject, only 
imply that the Pelasgians, being gtaduaUy incorporated 
with the more powerful NeUenians, grtf(fou% adopted the 
Hellenic language. 

But. Dr. Mar^ argues, tbat the Pelasgi must have 6p<^en 
Gfeek, because, as Herodotus informs lis, they called the 
Gods 0EOI, as having foundtd all things, 0ENTE1: rk 
irivrei icpvirt^cira. « Now," says he, ** if the Pelasgi not 
only cdiUed the Gods 6E0I, but so called them from eE(2, 
the root of rf&vjixi, what better evidence can we hate, that 
the PeliuBffi spake Greek ?*'— To this argument we n^ffht 
reply, einier by repeating out former observation, that the 
language, adopted in consequence of the ascendancy of the 
Hellenic fttmily, probably retained a mixture of Pelas^ie 
Words ; or by supposing that the Hellenic and Pelasgic, like 
the modem Persic and German, or Greek and sanscnt, 
though they were so different from one another as to be 
accounted distinct ianguages^ were derived from the same 
original source, and had many words in common. 

" But there i's no argument,*' Dr. Marsh proceeds, ** which 
so clearly evinces Uie language of the Pelasgi, as that 
which is derived from the Latin language." " That the 
similarity^" he continues, <^ between the languages and 
letters of Greece and Rome, was owing to the intervention 
of the Pelasgi^ is unanimously asserted botb by latin and 
by Greek writers who have treated of Roman antiquities/' 
—-We shall briefly examine the \)roofs df this assertion. 

In the first ^ace. Dr. Mar^n produces quotations from 
liiyy^, Tacitus, rliny, and Solinus, who assert that the Pe- 
lasgi, having emigrated from Arcadia under Evander^ first 
brought letters, or alphabetic writing, into Latium. But 
what proof does this circumstance fhmish that the Pelasgi 
had an^ material influence upon the language of I^tium? 
According to the princiole or this argument, we might ex- 
pect, in all countries where alphabetic writing is practised, 
to find the inhabitants speaking but one language in ditfe- 
rent dialects, because the alphabets which they employ are 
all modifications of one alphabet only. 

In the next ]glace, Dronysius of naiijcaniassus ^tes the 
fact, tliat colonies of the Pelasgi migrated into Italy. These 
migrations. Dr. Marsh in/brs, <* laid the foundation of the 
gimilarity wUth subsists bi^ween (be Gree^ mnd Latin 



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Bitipf tflJMbffs Horn Pelcisgkm, 35 

biV>>ff^' To warraot Uu9 inference, be ou^bt.to bftve 
sIniwii th«t thut similarity did npi tubaist previQuc/y to the. 
migniioM of tbe Pelafigi; fiad that ther9 was no ather 
pfobaUtt wajT in which it.cpuld baf« been produced. Bm% 
these suppoMlions ere, we ootioeivct, eetirelj baseless. The 
pMiabUiiy is, that the laiiffaa|re oF Latium bore some re« 
semUaDce to Greek before the Pelasgt reached that country ; 
because, upon eMQ)ining; all the lang^uages of Europe, both 
ancfeat and modem, of which we have any knowledge, we 
discover among them a universal resemblance, proving that 
tJiey belong to one family, and are derived from one com- 
mon Qtod(f* To prove that the language of Latium was 
affected by the migrations of the Pelasgi, it ought to hav§ 
been shewn, that the peculiarUks which distinguisfaed the 
aaeieoi Latin tengae from the languages of ot.b^r Kuropean 
tribes or nations, existed in the language of the Pela#»gi \ 
bat of their laneuage we know almost nothing, and conse* 
quently cannot draw ftuch an inference. 

We might point out various additional instances, in 
wlMcb Dr. Marsh s^pears to us to give incorrect represent 
tations of the assertions of ancient authors, or to derive 
from them unjustifiable conclusions ; but it is ipore gratify- 
ing to ourselves, and, we trust, will be more interesting to 
our readers, to close our remarks upon this secoqd chapter 
with the following extract, in which the learned author, in 
an ingenious and aatis&ctory maniaeri accofints for the mix^ 
iur^ of dialects in- the poems of {lomer, 

" Homer^s Ionic is very different from that of Herodotus, for it 
contains a mixtttre of dialects ; but we cannot suppose that Homer 
patched up his verses by calling sometimes from one dialect, some* 
tines from another, as he wanted a long or a short syllafole to suit 
the natre. Such a liberty must have appeared no kss extraordinary 
to Bmma' 9 eoootrymen, than it would to Englishiaen, if they found 
ia the 4ame senteace of an English poet, the Lancashire or Eiunoor 
djdeot ja^bWd with the dialect of London. The langMage used by 
Homer was andoubt^ly the laagu^g^ which was genereSly spoken 
in the country where be lived ; and the language spoken by the 
Asiatic louiaas in tlK time of Homer must have lieen exactly such 
as we find in the Iliad and Odyssey. When the lonians left Attica 
to settle in Asia, a considerable portion of Euboeans (/vie thaxi^rn 

■ I ■ I > » ■■ J I >lll ■■ ^11 t ■ l» I ■ ■ . ■ ■ ■ will 

* Tbe rea^ler-au^ fiii4 macb iater^stipf infonnatioii pertaining to this 
9ubj6ct in tfacT Edinbdrffh Review, toI. xiii. p. 366 — 381, written by a Uq- 
^isty (Dr. Murray, editor of the octayo edition of Bmce's Travels, &c.) 
whose early and lamented death has prevented him from diffusiag a flood of 
}i|iit pvar these cwioa^ subjects* 



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S6 Montgomery's Verses on Richard Reynolds. 

fiATf^t ta Herodotus savs; L i. c. 146) was mixed with them. Noir 
the Eubceaos spake the MaHc dialect, as appears from Stnlio, 
lib. viil p. 333. Further, says Herodotus in the same chapter^ that 
llie Arcadian Peksgi {Afxdhi TUKxffy)) were mixed with theaesame 
lonians, when they first settled in Asia. Let us now consider whem 
this settlement took place. Accordmg to Strabo» (Hb. xiii. p. 682^) 
these lonians settled in Asia Minor four generations; that is, about 
130 years after the ^olians had sent a colony to Asia Midor, which 
settled in the country called after their name £olis. And it appears 
from the same page of Strabo, that this £olian colony setued in 
£olis sixty years after the Trojan war. Consequently the lonians 
must have settled in Asia Minor about 200 years after ihe Trojan 
War; and as the^ were mixed with so lar^e a proportion of £u- 
bceans and Arcadians who spake the Molic dialect, their immediate 
descendants must have spoken a language which was a compound of 
both. When we consider, theiefore, that Homer could not have 
lived many generations after the settlement of this mixed colony in 
Asiatic Ionia, the language of his coimtrymen must have been such 
as we find in bis own poems.*' (p. 51 — 53.) 

(To be conOnued.) 

Art. IV. — Verses to the Memory of the late Richard fiey- 
, nolds of Bristol. By James Montgomeby, Author of 

the Wanderer of Siwitzerlandy S^c. London, Longman and 

Go. 1816. 8vo. pp. 31. 

In these days of advertising and ostentatious benevolence, 
it is moi^ than usually gratifying to meet with an instance 
of pure self-denying charity,-— not because instances are more 
rare than formerly, but because the contrast is more strik- 
ing. Most of those who appropriate large sums to public 
subscriptions have at least an eve homewards in their dona- 
tions ; for the announcement of their names in all the news- 
papers is not only gratifying to their vanity, but generally 
useful to their interests. It is not t6 be denied, that in 
consequence of these publications the amount obtained is en* 
faanced, but it does not follow that the relief afforded to the 
distressed is proportionably great : the object of real cha- 
rity is two-fold, as applied to the giver and to the i^eceiver, 
but the advantase to the former, by the modern practice, is . 
almost entirely destroy ed, since his purpose generally ceases 
to be to remove suffering, and changes itself into some- 
thing worse even than the mere love of notoriety : he may 
be literally said to be ^^ by his own alms impoisoned," and 
instead of ^^ doin^ good by stealth, and blushing to find it 
fame," his design is not half so much to confer benefits, as to 



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Afoufgtmteiy'f Vertes on Richard Refolds. ST 

let the world know that he can afford to do 8o. Whether the 
other parpose of charity is much advanced is another question, 
and may with some fairness be disputed by those who know 
the enormous sums paid for advertisements, and the conse-* 
quent laxity in the distribution occasioned by this careless- 
ness of disburse in the outset: it is a fact that has como 
within our own immediate knowledge, that the more impor- 
tant wants of that large proportion of the poor of the metro- 
polis conastine of emigrant Irish, were supplied during a 
whole winter b]Pa less sum than has been paid to a single 
newspaper for the insertion of the subscriptions for the suf- 
ferers in Spitalfields. 

^ The practice of the individual whose recent death occa- 
sioned the small production on our table, was directly at 
variance with this modern system of benevolence; and 
among other proofit, it is recorded, that when Mr. Butter- 
worth, the Member for Coventiy, applied to him for a siib- 
scription for the sufferers in Germany by the late war, he 
complied by giving a small sum, to which his name was an- 
nexed in the newspapers : soon afterwards an anonymous 
subscription for 500/. was received from Bristol, where Mr. 
ReynoIoB then resided, which was some time afterwards 
ascertained to have been paid out of bis pocket. Several 
other instances of the same disinterested and retiring bene- 
volence are recorded by Mr. Montgomery, on the authority 
of the individuals to whose knowledge they had come, and 
who mentioned them at a meeting held i^t Bristol in Octo- 
ber last^ to commemorate the death of Richard Reynolds, 
by the formation of a society to continue the benefits he 
had conferred upon his distressed fellow-creatures in his 
Ufe-tinie* Our readers will with pleasure peruse the fol- 
lowing extract. 

** Dr. Pole gave the following accoiint :^—* It is well known, that he 
(R. Reynolds) made it his constant practice, from religious principle, 
anonally to spend the whole of his income. What hb moderate domes- 
tic establishmoit did not require, he disposed of in subscriptions and 
donations for promoting whatever was useful to society, as well as 
to lessen the sufferings of the afflicted, witliout regard to names, 
sects, or parties. At one pmticular time, (if I am rightly informed,) 
be wrote to a friend in London, acquainting him that he had not 
that year spent the whole of his income, requesting that it he knew 
of any particular cases claiming charitable relief, he would be glad 
to be iuformkl. His friend communicated to him the dbtressing 
situation of a considerable number of persons confined in a certain 
prison for small debts. What did this humane and generous philan- 



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38 Mo9ilL^am€Tj^$ Ferses on Ifithard JfteynoUb. 

tliropbtdo on tiii» icpresentationl-r^He clear^ the whole of Xhe\f 
debt$4 He swept this direful maQ3ion of all its miserable tenants* 
He opened the prison doors, proclaimed deliverance to the captives^ 
and let the oppressed go free.' 

*' Dr. Stock said, that he had heard, from what he considered 
good authority, the particulars of an act of princely liberality, men- 
tioned by a gentleman before him. 

** * Mr. Reynolds, at the period alluded to, (1796;) resided at Coal- 
brook Dale. — He addressed a letter to some friends in London, 
stating the impression made upon his mind by the distresses of the 
comnanity, and ' desiring that they would draw%poa him for such 
sum as they might think proper. They complied with his request, 
and drew, in a very short time, to the eitent of eleven thoiisand 
pottttds» It appeared, however, that they had not yet taken due 
measure of his liberality : for in the course of a few months he ag^in 
wrote, stating, that his mind was not easy, and his coffers were $till 
too fulL in consequence of which they drew for nine thousand 
pounds more !' " (p. 10—12.) 

In the whole 20,000/., from the pocket of a private indi^ 
vidual 1 If 5,000/. from the purse of a Prince for the 8pitAi* 
fields weavers be received with such gratitude, and his 
generosity lauded to the skies, where shall we find language 
sufficient to do justice to the unequalled generosity of Rich* 
ard Reynolds of Bristol ? To be silent is the only and the 
best acknowledgement; our words would foe eyen more 
idly spent than tliose which eulogized a trifling payment 
from a fund annually supplied out of the taxes upon the 
nation at large. 

Mr. Montgomery is a roan of considerable genius, and 
tberefore a man of a liberal and enlightened miYid t on this 
accouut we are sorry to observe in the preAice to this poeti- 
cal tribute a sentence tbat may bear a construction which 
we are sure he never intended: after mentiofliDg tlmt 
Biclmrd Reynolds was a Quaker, be adds with a buty ^^ that 
as far as human jud^ent can extend, he was one m those 
who also are Cfaristians, not in woird octly, but in deed." 
Sbafespeare makes his Clown' remark, tut ^' if is your 
only peace-maker ;" precisely the reverse may be said of 
titty as it is used by Mr. Mon^s^omery; he could not, 
however, mean to cast a general censure op a society, 
remarkable we may say for its benevolence and charity : h 
its alms are confined more particularly to its own sect, it 
never, requires donations from those who do not belong to 
it ; and if the wholesome regulations observed by the Qua- 
kers were introduced into iOtther societies, poor-houses (mis* 



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Mmtigomerj^M Verses an Richard RmfnMi. 89 

called iDorifc-houses) and otker similar •stablifthments would 
be useless incumbrances. 

The (Mfietical part of this production is divided under 
three heads, entitulad ^ The Veaih of the Righteousy'' 
^< The Memory of the Just;' and « The good Ma^s Monu- 
mefU" We do not think that any of them are of very high 
merit, though it is not fair to criticise them with great strict- 
ness, taking into account the object for which, and the 
speed with which they were written. The works of this 
author have of late years been rather of too sombre, a cast 
to give general satisfaction^ and differ materially fi^om those 
of which he reminds us in the title page to the pamphlet in 
hand : he never laid any high claims to originalitv of think- 
ing, and perhaps, in his ^^ Wanderer of Switzerland," has 
{^ne as far as his powers would allow him. We will give 
a short specimen from' each of^he divisiond ofjthepoem 
before us : the titles sufficiently explain the nature of the 
contents. " The Death of the Righteous** opens with 
these stanzas. 

'' This place is holy grannd; 

World, with thy cares, away ! 
Silence and darkness retgn around. 
But, lot the break of day: 
What bright and sudden dawn appears; 
To shine upon this scene of tears 1 

" 'Tis not the morning-light^ 
That wakes the lark to sing ; 
Tis not a meteor of the night. 
Nor track of angePs wing : 
It is an uncreated beam. 
Like that which shone on Jacob's dreata. 

*' Eternity and Tiaie 

Met for a raomeat here ; 
FVom earth to heaven, a scale sublime 
Rested, on either sphere^ 
Whose steps a saintly figure trod. 
By Death's cold hand lei home to God. 

This strikes us aa afl attempt at the auUime, which only 
arrives at the unittt^ig<Uile : it tcondudes^ however, in 
better stile and taste. 

<' — -Behdld the bed of death ; 
This pale and lovely clay; 
Heard ve the sob of parting br«i& f 
Mark'd ye (he eyes last lay 1 



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40 MciOgmery's Verses on JRHkgrd Rej^noiis* 

No; — life so aweetly ceased to b^. 
It lapsed in immortality. 

*« Coold tears revive the dead, 
' Rivers should smll our eyes ; 
Coald sighs recal the spirit Bed, 
We would not auench our sighs. 
Till love relumed this aller*d mien. 
And all the embodied soul wcr^ seen. 

*• Bury the dead ; — and weep 
In stillness o'er the loss ; 
Bury the dead ; — ^in Christ tha^ sleep, 
Who bore on earth his cross. 
And from the grave their dust shall rise* 
In his own image to the skies." 

From the second part we quote a poetical description of 
the humble and benisnant appearance of Richard Rey- 
nolds : the simile of the cedar is not at all happy, in asf 
much as, in truth, its branches shelter nothing but the 
sterile earth, which seems blasted into barrenness by its bale* 
ful shade; this surely cannot apply to Richard Reynolds. 

** He was One, whose open face 
Did his inmost heart reveal ; 
One, who wore with meekest grace. 
On his forehead. Heaven's broad seal. 

'* Kindness all his looks express'd« 
Charity was every word ; 
Him the eye beheld, and b!ess*d ; 
And the ear rejoiced that heard. 

** Like a patriarchal sage. 

Holy, humble, courteous, mild. 
He could blend the awe of age 
With the sweetness of a cmld. 

** As a cedar of the Lord, 

On the height of Lebanon, 
Shade and shelter doth afford. 
From the tempest and the sun *.^~ 

** While in green luxuriant prime. 
Fragrant airs its boughs difibse. 
From its locks it shakes sublime. 
O'er the hills, the morning dews. 

'< Thus he flourish*d, tall and strongs 
Glorious in perennial health ; 
Thus he scattered, late and long^ 
All hb plenitude of wealth." 



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MontgotMTjfs Verses on Richard Reynolds. ttl 

^^ The good Man's Monument*' is superior, in some re« 
spects, to the other two parts, but it is altogether devoid 
of originality : on such a stale subject novelty of thought, 
however, is scarcely to be expected from the utmost inge- 
nuity. There is a little too much effort in the opening, but 
the subsequent lines in praise of Bristol are easier, 
and the simile of the Severn, though not new, is better 
managed than that of the cedar, and has, besides, more 
truth of application to recommend it. 

** Bristol ! to thee the eye of Albion turns; 
At thought of thee thy country's spirit bums ; 
For in thy walls, as on her dearest ground. 
Are '' Bntish minds and British manners" found ; 
And 'midst the wealth, which Avon's waters pour 
From every clime, on thy conunercial shore, 
* Thou bast a native mine of worth untold; 

Thine heart is not encased in rigid gold, 
Withered to mummy, steei'd against distress ; 
No — ^free as Severn's waves, that spring to bless 
Their parent hills, but as they roll expand 
In argent beauty thro' a lovelier land. 
And widening, brishteniiig to the western sun. 
In floods of glory m rough thy channel run ; 
Thence, mingling with the boundless tide, are hurl'd 
In Ocean's chsuriot round the utmost world : 
Thus flow thine heart-streams, warm and unconfined. 
At home, abroad, to woe of every kfnd. 
Worthy wert thou of Reynolds ; — worthy he 
To rank the first of Britons even in thee. 
Reynold's is dead ; — thy lap receives his dust 
Until the resurrection of the just : 
Reynold's is dead ; but while thy rivers roll. 
Immortal in thy bosom lives his soul !'' 

Although Mr. Montgomery's is the only printed effusion 
upon the death of a man whose name will hereafter be re- 
corded among the great bene&ctors of the species, yet it 
is not the onfy poem that has been written upon the same 
subject by those who admired his character or experienced 
Jiis generosity. We beg leave to subjoin the following 
sonnet by a young man of Bristol, (a city not less famous 
•for the production of poets, than for other excellencies 
above pointed out), who was well acquainted with the sub- 
ject of his verse. We apprehend that it is quite as good as 
«By part of the production of Mr. Montgomery. 
: Cjiit. Rev. Vol. V. Jan. 1817. G 



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49 C^eridge's SMennan's Meom&I. 

-* SONNm' UPON THE DEATH OF RICHARD REYNOLDS. 

** Qb, bow uB\ikt the re^t of recent date^ 
Wboy ia boi^t^wiug], take especial care 

That out of th^ir good deeds they reap theu: shfire 
Of benefit ; and all in form and state 
Put forth their pames at length as ^ood and great. 

The benefactors of the human kind : 
Such boastful alms thou didst contemn and hate. 

And wisely held, in thy unworldly mind. 
That half the good of charity was loit. 
When its chiefmotive was an empty boast. 

Not such the charity which thou display'd. 
That Hke a sili^nt spring stiU watered most. 

Where least 'twas seen, and only was betray'd 

By its effects, — the verdure that it made.*' 

Art. V. Tke Statesman's Manual; oTj the Bible the best 
Guide to Political Skill ani FaresigiU : a Lay Sermon^ 
addressed to the higher Classes of Society, with an Jppen* 
dix, containing Comments and Essays connected wtth the 
Study of the inspired Writings. By S. T. Colbridge, 
Esq. ^^ Ad ist nasc quaeso vos, ^aa]iia cunque primo 
videantur aspectu, adtendite^ ut qui vobis forsfin insanire 
videar, saltern quibus in&aniam ratipnibua cognoftcatis/' 
London, Ga)le and Fenner. 1816, 

It is very true, as Johnspv said in bis formal way, " Every 
writer writes not for every reader." Unfortunately, too- 
many read^r9 presume tbat tbay are wriUea for in every 
book they take in band, aad top many writers aspire to the 
rare ^lory of addressing, with effect, readera of every de-^ 
scription. Hence, on the part of the public, a great deal 
of incompetent and presumptuous criticism; and on the 
part of authors, a great deal of ambitious and unsuccessful 
composition. The department of literature, in which ttfLia 
vice is most apparent, is that whicii in GeroQany is called 
pbilosc^hy, and by us, metapbysicks ; and, lor a viery 
obvious reason, that this prima scientia aj^pertains to the 
j^ople in its results, and to the few in its scientific study. 
In our country the well known division of doistrines and 
modes of instruction into the exoteric and esoteric has beeil 
nearly lost. Mr. Locke's philosophy is essentially populai^ 
professing, as it does, to bring 4own the most interesting 
and importing sut^eets to the levdi of ordiiiary mindSi dM 
with ordinary labour ; all his followers of the French and 



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Cokridge^M Sitdeman's Mmmai. 4S 

Ei^llsh schools have proceeded on the sune jimn ; and. the 
ScofeA philosophers, though the tendency of their sjstem is 
to revive, in some points^ the scholitstic dodrinesy have 
not dared to dispossess the larger public of their jufisdio* 
tion in the decision of the great questions which have ever 
been, and ever will be^ in dispute among^ philosophers of 
all classes* In ttie mean while, scholastic su}>tlMies have 
been^ revived with greet ardour in Germany : and me^a* 
physics BOW form, among that very studious people, aU 
objett of study requiring its distinct language and its labo- 
rious d&cipline. The metaphysicians there write tor each 
other; and all their eminent writers, adopting a scholastie 
lal^uage^ disdaim popularity. They no motie expect their 
petsondi finends and aeqoaifitances to read tbeir workS| 
thttf io this country a prowsSoi* of oriental languages would^ 
It is only in Germany that such a body of scholastic meta* 
physiciUDB eould well, have s^rufig up, for it is ohly in Oer* 
many that feeders sufficientiy numerous xsduld be found to 
repav even the expense of publteatioa ; abd though an 
ignoble impediment, it will for a long tiitie be found, we 
Expect, an eflbotual one against the intfodnetion of similar 
works in this country. Iwaders must be first formed by 
writers, but without an immediate exp^citatiokl of reenters 
ther^ will be no publishefs. These rediarks have been 
forced firom us by a perusal of <his jpamphlet^ whieh will 
assuredly be but little i^ad, and by its readers be but little 
en^yed or undmisttod; not witfaiout some Uame to thi 
author, ive conoeiv<6^ but^for the |;reAter part, from the 

feneral cause we hive already indicated^ Mr. Coleridm 
as formed his taste and opinions in the Grerman schoou^ 
he himself possessing ootigenial talent with tiwse of the 
distinguished men who have given the jaw to the publie 
mind mere. We have found, on a oompariscm of his vi^rit« 
ingswith those of his continental contemporaries, ceindd^i^ * 
cies which cannot always be accidental, at the sanim time 
we owe it to him to acknowledge that, in those writings, 
there is a felicity of statement and illustration, which are a 
sure proof that he is b^ no meaiis a general borrower or 
translator; however, it is not very important to ascertain 
how much of Mr. Coleridge's phiiosopny is derived from 
sources within or out of himself, it is certain that that phi- 
losophy is directly hostile to all the s^steoois current in this 
4souittry ; and, therefore^ in predentii^ it to a ptiMic so 
Kttle congenial with hiniself be has insuperabfo difficulties 
to encounter. What he has to say cannot be rendered intel-^ 



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44 Cokridge*s Statesman's Manual. 

ligible in merely popular language ; and if he usies only the , 
lanffuage of the schools, nobody will understand it. Under 
such circumstances the temptation is scarcely to be resisted^ 
of endeavouring to blend in one mass heterogeneous male-" 
rials, and adorn the abstractions of a scholastic system by 
a popular rhetorrck. This has been attempted in tbe^ pre- 
sent work. The failure was inevitable, if by success the 
author contemplated either the recommendation of his phi- 
losophy to the serious, by shewing the pious tendency of his 
metaphysics; or the enforcement of religion to the thinking, 
by an original and striking exhibition of its principle. . At 
the same time it abounds in eloquent and impressive pas- 
sages, which the indulgent reader will be gratified by, who 
is content to take what he finds excellent, and pass over what 
he may besides meet with that appears obscure or extra- 
vagant. 

The author's great mistake has been, we apprehend, the 
supposing that the higher classes, ^' men o( clerkly acquire* 
ments," would be willing to acquiesce in that kind of ab- 
straction which has been produced by a school of metaphy- 
sics, foreign equaUy to our language and philosophy. 
Which of our writers on t^e great question concerning the 
freedom of the will |ias yet distinguished between a. mathe- 
matical, a logical, and an absolute necessity ? How many 
professed metaphysicians have we who retain the word idea 
m its primitive sense, and are, therefore, able to follow 
Mr. O. in what he terms the master- thought. ^^The first 
man on whom the light of an idea dawned, did in .that 
same moment receive the spirit and the credentials of a 
law-giver"? 

' The object of the discourse is to point out the great ex- 
cellence of the Bible as a source of political instruction, 
and as its miraculous character is its great peculiarity, our 
"Author thus points out the efiect of miracles on an earlier 
stage of society. 

** In the infancy of the worlds signs and wonders were requisite 
in order to startle and break down that superstition, idolatrous in 
itself and the source of all other idolatry, which tempts the natural 
man to seek the true cause and origin of public calamities in out- 
ward circumstances, persons and incidents : in agents therefore 
that were themselves but surges of the same tide, passive conduc- 
tors of the one invisible inQuence, under which the total host of 
billows, in the whole line of successive impulse, swell and roll 
shoreward ; there finally, each in its turn, to strike^ roar, and be 
dissipated/' (p. 11—12.) 



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Cokridge^s SUxtesmaiis Manual. 45 

And be then proceeds to shew that the rules and precepts 
with which the Old Testament abounds, flow from univer- 
sal principles. We were in want of illustrations in order 
to follow Mr. C. in this part of his discourse, as in that in 
which be contrasts the Bible histories with those of pro* 
&ne writers* 

" The histories and political economy of the present and pre- 
ceding century partake in the general contagion of its mechanic 
philosophy, and are the product of an unenlivened generalizing un- 
derstanding. In the Scriptures they are the living educts of the 
imagination; of that reconciling and mediaitory power, which in- 
corporating the reason in images of the sense, and organizing (as it 
were) the flux of the senses bfy the permanence and sdf-circling 
energies of the reason, gives birth to a system of symbols, harmo- 
nious in themselves, and consubstantial with the trutbiSi of which 
they are the emducton. Thes^ are the wheels which Ezekiel beheld, 
when the hand of the Lord was upon him, and he saw visions of 
God as he sate among the captives by the river of Chebar. Wither- 
ioever the spirit teas to go, the wheels went, and thither was their 
spirit to go : for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels 
also.*' (p. 35.) 

We extract this passage as a beautiful description of the 
imagination, at the same time confessing that we do nd 
comprehend its bearing on the subject. More intelligible is 
Mr. C.'s enforcement of the familiar argument, that morality 
requires a deeper source than mere expediency ; and very 
clear are also his scornful deridings of the present genera- 
tion, for its presumptuous claiin to the character of an en* 
lightened and liberal age. It is, however, a satis&ction 
to us to find that, with a strong bias on Mr< C.'s mind 
against the favourite pursuits of the day, he has yet spoken 
strongly in favour of the improved education of the lower 
classes. He eulogises Dr. Bell though he characterises 
the liberal system recommended under the captivating title* 
of Schools Jbr all^ as ^^ apian of poisoning the chtlcnen of 
the poor with a sort of potential infidelity, under the liberal 
idea of teaching those points only of religious faith in which 
all denominations agree." It is assuredly a triumph to the 
great cause of reform, and the improvement of mankind, 
that there is no longer a hostile conflict concerning the end, 
but, an amicable contest concerning the means. 
Mr. Coleridge enters at large, though in a desultory 
' way, into the practical questions arising out of the intel- 
lectual wants of the age; and urges, in the same breath, 
the devout study of the Bible as the sole source of divine 



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46 Cokriig^s SMe^tiAn's MamaL 

t#atb, and tfaa Ial}arl6U8 fetody of th6 ancient ffbHdsbpbeni 
as the records of human iritdora^ 

These topics are^ hoWerer, treated it a mnoh mdre 
bati6fa<itory manner in the aptieilduc of aotes, Uiltil W6 can 
obtain a sy^eniatic view or the author's philosophj, we 
must be content with these fragments which are rendered 
yery stimulant by the impassioned and florid style in which 
they are writtto. The motto in the title pa^e sufficiently 
indicates the author's suspicion of the opinion which may 
probably be entertained of them. 

We can afford space only for a few extracts, and we must 
leave the consideration of them to our readers' taste. The 
literary merits of a book are a fair subject for periodical 
criticism, but not schemes of philosophy whicn charac* 
terise nations and ages. 

All men who have anxiously attended to the operation^ 
of their own minds, must have frequently felt a difficulty ill 
reconciling, as it w^i'e, the incompatible demands of their 
several faculties. All objects, whether of sense or of moral 
observation, address themselves to men as what are to be 
coolly thought upon and, if possible, comprehended and 
ttdderstood. At the same time a large proportion of these 
tome objects are to be felt, and to be loved or bated: they 
connect themselves with moral and laudable, or illaudable 
afi^tions. Now the powers or tendencies of the mind are 
unequally 'distributed : and some men are naturally prone 
to foeling or religion, and others to thought whidi aelighte, 
in discussion and inquiry. It is well Itnown what serious hos^ 
tilities flow from these opposite tendencies of character ; 
how the Okie class are apt to despise; and the othei^, to hate 
those who respectively oelieve too much or too little : yet 
it is (Certain that wisdom and virtue lie only in that wise 
medium, that central combination of thought and seoti* 
niettt which excludes nothing, and embraces the most essen*- 
tial qualities of our nature ; and that great evils spring flrom 
the estclUiive exercise of any one power. These truths we 
think require to be more generally felt and understood by 
all parties, and with that view we extract some parts of 
our author's interesting tkird note on this subject* 

'* There exists in the human being, at least in nan fully deve- 
loped, no mean symbol of Tri-unity, in Reason, Religion, and the 
Will. For each of the three, though a distinct agency, linplies and 
demands the other two, and loses its own nature at the m^itient that 
fl*om distittctidn It parses Intb division or separation. 

" The coffl^tefaeusiott, Smpi&itialEty, and far-s^htedness of JM^ 



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OfkHi^e's SMemani's Manual. 4T 

iob, (the LegislafiTfi of ous natureX taken aiagljr and exeliuitnly» 
becomes mere Tisionariness in imielket, and indolence or hard-* 
lieaftediiess in nunh* It is the science of cosmopolitism vithouf 
amnlryy of philanthropy without neighbourliness or consanguinity^ 
in sh«t, of all the impostures of that philosophy of the French re^ 
volution^ which would sacrifice each to the shadowy idd of All. 

*' From all this it follows, that Reason as the science of All as 
the Whole, must be interpenetrated by a Power, that represents the 
GOBcentvatioa of All m Each^s^^ Power that acts by a contiaction of 
universal truths into individual dntics, as the anl^ form in which 
tlHuie truths fsm attain life and r^li^. Naw tm is Hriigiov, 
which is the Exf^c^itive of oi|r nati^r^^ i^ oii this %fxioimt the mxm 
of highest dpyguity, and the symbol of sovereignty.. 

*' Yet this again — yet even Religion jt^if if eyer i^ its too ex- 



clusive devotion to the specific and indindml it neglects pa inter- 
pose the contemplation o? the mivef8al» chang^es its bi^g into 
Superstitioii, and becoming more and more earthly and servile, as 
more and more estranged from the one in all, goes wandering at 
length with its pack of amulets, bead-rolls, periapts, fetisches, and 
the like pedlary, on pilgrimages to Loretto, Mecca, or the temple 
of Juggernaut, arm in arm with sensuality on one side and self-tor^- 
tore OB the odier, followed by a motley group of friars, pardooeni; 
ftifDirs, gamestoi, flageHants, moualeb^ks, and liariots." 

** But 9eilhcr ean season or retigion exist or DO<«xist as reason and 
reM^on, ei^cept as fiir a# they are actuated hy the wf i»l (tbs pl^ 
MuvP BvfAit) which is the si|staiQiag,co^cive,aiid OMoifterial power, 
the fiinctio^ of whiqh in fbe i^diyidual correspond to the o^cer^ of 
war and police in the id^ Hepubiic of Plato. In its state of im« 
manence (or indwellinff) in reason and religion^ the will appears 
indifferently, as ijvisdom or as love : two names of the same power^ 
the former more inteliigential, the latter more spiritual ; the former 
more frequent in die Old, the latter in the New Testament. But in 
its utmost abstraction and consequent state of reprobation, the Wfi) 
becomes satanic pride and rebellious sdf idolatry in the r^atiens of 
die spkit to itself, and remorseless despotism relatively to others \ 
the more hopeles? as the more ebdunitie hv its subjugation of wm-' 
sual impulses, by its superiority to toil and pain and pkpsuie; m 
short, by the fearful resolve to find in itself sdone the one absolute 
motive of action, under which all other motives from within and 
from without must be either subordinated or crushed. 

'' This is the character which Milton has so philosophically as well 
as sublimely embodied in thd Satan of his Paradise Lost. Alas ! too 
often has it been embodied m r§al life. Too often has it given a dark 
and savage grandeur to the historic page ! And wherever it has ap- 
peared, und^ whatever circumstances of time and country, the same 
ingredients have ^one to its composition, and it has been identified 
by the same attnbutes. Hope in which there is no Chearfulness ; 
Stedfiistness within and immovable Resolve, with outward Restless- 



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48 Coleridge's Statesman's Mamiol. 

iiess and whirling Activity; Violence with Guile; Temerity witb 
Cunning ; and, as the result of all, Interminableness of Object with 
perfect Indifference of Means : these are the qualities that have 
constituted the Commanding Genius ! these are the Marks that 
have characterized the Masters of Mischief, the Liberticides, and 
mighty Hunters of Mankind, from Nimrod to Napoleon V* 
(p. viii — X.) 

We regret that we cannot extend our extracts or obser- 
vations. We regret ^particularly that the author should 
not be furnished with the means of doing justice to himself 
by the publication of a connected and systematic work. For 
our own part, we are not offended, though we do not ap- 
prove of the scornful bitterness with which the latitudina- 
rians in religion are noticed ; nor are we scandalized by the 
imputation cast on Mr. Locke's philosophy, as tending so 
directly to the encouragement of infidelity. It is well 
known that this was the reproach of that great man's con- 
temporaries ; and that his philosophy has been most impli- 
citly relied on by the French and Franco- English philoso- 
phers. The sincerity of his own' faith, the excellence of 
his personal character, and the practical worth of his poli- 
tical writings, will be ever acknowledged, whatever be the 
duration of his system. That system prevails in this coun- 
try almost universally : whether the schools of other nations 
have any thing substantially better, is at least worth inquir- 
ing into. We shall rejoice when any work of competent 
skill appears, which may unfold to us the vaunted mysteries 
of the German school. Till then we must be content with 
the scanty fragments which can be afforded by the few Eng- 
lish disciples of that school ; among whom Mr. C. certainly 
holds the first place for the splendour of his talents, how- 
ever unsatisfactorily it may be thought those talents have 
yet been exerted in either of the walks of lyric poetry and 
metaphysical speculation. 



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C 49 ] 

Abt. VI.-^2%c Private Correspondence of Benjamin Frank- 
lin^ LL.D, F.R. S. Sfc, : comprising a Series oftietters 
on Miscellaneous, Literarj/, and Political Subjects; writ' 
ten between the Years 1753 and 1790; illustrating the 
Memoirs of his Public and Private Ufcj and develwing 
the Secret History of his Political Transactions and Nego* 
. eiatums. Volume the Second. Now first published from 
theorighial, by his Grandson^ Wm. I'emplb FbankIjIn. 
London, Colburn, 4to. pp.449. 1817. 

Thb reputation of Dr. Franklin was so early established^ 
that nearly forty years prior to ^is decease a collection of 
his works was made. This first compilation was in 1751, 
but jt consisted merely of letters communicated by the 
author to Mr. Peter (JolUnson on Electricity, whicn ap- 
peared in the form of a pamphlet. That work was enlarged 
m 1753, again in 1764; and aft|?r^ar^8 in 1766, by the 
addition pf letters and papers op other philosophical sub- 
jects, when it was extended to a quacto, e^cceeding the 
dimensions of the volume now under our review. 

In the year 1779 another collection was published by a 
different editor, composed of papers not in the preceding 
work, and which was printeq both in <}U^rto and octavo, 
with the title of " Pdlitical, M iscelianeoqs, and philosophi- 
cal Pieces." ■ 

Subsequently, in 1787, a third colleQtion was produced, 
entitled '^ Philosophical and Miscellaneous papers ;'* and 
in 1793 issued from the pre^s twQ volumes Bvo., compre- 
hending memoirs of the life of Dr. FrankUo, with " Essays 
Humorous, Moral, and Literary, chiefly in the Manner of 
the Spectator." 

Lastly, were published in three volumes, 8vo. " The 
Complete Works in Philosophj'^, politics, and Morals, of 
the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, now first collected and 
arranged, with M!emoirs of liis early Life, written by Him- 
self." That they were not the « Complete Works," as the 
title expresses, may be supposed from an extract we shall 
^ive from the advertisement or preface of this very publica- 
tion, and in which what is denominated, the " e^^traordi- 
nary conduct" of Mr. Wm. Temple Franklin, thejmblisher 
of the quarto volume before us, is adverted to with severe 
reprehension. 

** Ib bequeathing his papers, it was no doubt .the inteatioa of 
the testator that the world should have the chance of being bene- 
Crit. Rbv. Vol. V- Jfl«. 1817. H 

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50 Private Correspondence of Dr. Franklin. 

fited by tbeir publication. It was so understood by the person ia 
qoestiony bis ^landson* who accordingly, shortly after the death of* 
his great relative, hastened to London, the best mart ibr literary 
property, employed an amanuensis for many months in copying, 
ransacked our public libraries that nothing might escape, and at 
length had so far prepared the works of Dr. Franklin for the press, 
tLnt proposals were made by him to several of our principal nook- 
sellers for the sale of them. They were to form three quarto vo- 
lumes, and were to contain all the writings, published and unpub- 
lished, of Franklin* with memoirs of his life, brought down by him- 
self to the year 1757» and continued to his death by the legatee. 
They were to be published in three different languages, and the 
countries corresponding to these languages, France, Germany, and 
England, on theiame day. The terms asked for the copy-right of 
the English edition were high, amounting to several thousand pounds, 
which occasioned a little demur, but eventually they would no doubt 
have been obtained. Nothing more, however, was heard of the 
proposals or the work in this its fair market. The proprietor, it 
seems, had found a bidder of a different description in some emis« 
tary of government, whose object was to withhold the manuscripts 
from the world, not to benefit it by their publication; and they thus 
either passed into other hands, or the person to whom they were be-, 
queathed received a remimeration for suppressmg them." (p. vii^x.) 

Such are the drcumstances under which the present pub- 
lisher (standing in the near relation of grandson and secre- 
tary to his virtuous and distinffuished ancestor) appears on 
this occasion, and we have adyerted to them in order that 
his attention may be drawn to the situation, and that he 
may justify himself before the world for the long suppres- 
sion of those. facts and particulars with which he has oeen 
charged. To perform tnis duty, he will have a fair oppor- 
tunity when the first volume of the present work shali be 
issued firom the press; and he will then, perhaps, acquaint us 
if any interesting letters have been withneld, which we our- 
selves strongly suspect. On the information of some of the 
parties who were amon^ the most estimable of the corre- 
spondents of Dr. Franklin. 

We must state here another objection to the mode in 
which this work is published,— giving the second volume 
prior to the first, with the apology, that unavoidable cir- 
cumstances having retarded tne printing of the memoirs of 
Dr. Franklin, it has been thought expedient to give his 
- private correspondence the precedence. Precisely the same 
excuse was made on another occasion, when the Speeches of 
of a popular orator were published, whidi we took the op- 
portunity of reviewing, under the expectation that the bio* 



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Pfhite Cofrespondence of Dr. Franklin. fil 

graphioal port would deserve some notice; but when it 
appeared, it was found to be beneath all critickm, and the 
purchasers of the Speeches were in the condition of being 
either obliged to retain the work in an unfinished state, or 
put to the additional expense of procuring what was wholly 
worthless. 

Whether we are to attribute it to his grandson, or to his 
bookseller, we do not know ; but a prominence is unneces- 
sarily given by a iac-siniile of the hand-writingof Dr. Frank- 
lin to an intemperate letter, which would indicate that the 
writer was exposed to, the influence of the dark passions of 
the most outrageous demagogue. It is in these terms : — 

** Pkaada. JWy6,1775. 
*' Mr. Strahan,* 

*' You are a Member of Parliament, and one of that Majo- 
rity which has doomed myCountry to Destruction.— Yoo have begun 
to born our Towns, and murder our People. — Look upon your 
Hands! — They are stained with the Blood of your Relations! — Tou 
and I were long Friends: — ^You are now my Enemy, — and 
" I am, 

** Yours, 
«' * ISaig'* PrmUr, Ltrndan. B. Franklin." 

It is the more unfiiir to obtrude upon us that indecent 
eflFbsion, because, whatever might have been the sentiments 
of the doctor on the first ebullition of feeling, when the 
political storm commenced between Great Britain and 
America, every appearance of personal malignity towards 
Mr. Strahan was afterwards removed ; and in this very 
publication we have two most friendly letters from the 
American to the English printer, dated from Passy, in Fe- 
bruary and Auffust, 1784 ; the last of which is a recom- 
men^tion of this grandson, of which he himself was the 
bearer, and whidi therefore could not well have escaped 
the recollection of Mr. William Temple Franklin. 

In order without delay to gratify our readers with the 
extracts from the Correspondence, we shall only premise^ 
that tfie author of these letters, unshackled by the fetters 
of education, has shewn the superiority of knowledge over 
mere learning; has discovered the progress that ma^ be 
made, both in natural and moral science, by the unassisted 
efforts of a sound and clear understanding; and has re- 
duced to humiliation and shame, by the candour, the sim- 
plicity, and the manliness of his political conduct, those 
&eUe and pigmy statesmen who would accomplish by 



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Id Prvo&te Corrtspondence of Dr. Dranklik 

chitane, intrigue, and falsehood, that ih ti^Kidi i\^ metitm 
fthdiild be noble as the purpose, the independence^ the hep^ 
pine^s^ and the glory of mankind. 

The first extract we ifiake is a sort of Confession of faitb^ 
with tespect to whi<A the Doittor eiijoined secre^ to the 
Reverend President Stiles, to whom it is addressed: &nd it h 
the liiore interesting, as it was the only general declaration 
of his orpinions on such a subject, and was made within less 
than six weeks before his death. The firmness of his belief 
in every essential article connected with an overrnlins Pro* 
Vidence, with 'the perfect system of tnorals and religidn 
taught by Jesus, and with the consolatoiy doctrine of a 
future state, will be a full answer to the calumnies which 
probably led to the inquiry of the American professor. 

" You desire to know something of my religion. It is the first 
time I have been questioned upon it. But I cannot take your cu- 
riosity amiss, and shall endeavour in a few words to gratify it. Here 
is my creed : I believe in one God, the creator of the universe. 
That he governs it by his providence. That he ought to be wor- 
shipped. That the most acceptable service we render to him is do- 
ing good to his other children. That the soul of man is immortal, 
and will, be treated with justice in another life respecting its conduct 
in this. These I take to^ be the fundamental points in all sound re- 
ligion, and I regard them as you do in tvhatever sect I meet with 
tbera. As to Jesus of Nazareth, iby opinion of whom you particu- 
larly desire, I think the system of morals and his religion as he left 
them to us, the best the world ever saw or is like to see ; but I ap- 
prehend it has received various corrupting changes, and 1 have, with 
most of the present dissenters in England, some doubts as to his 
divinity ; though it is a question I do not dogmatize upon, having 
never studied it, and think it needless to busy myself with it bdw» 
wh^ I expect soon an opportunity of knowing the truth with ksk 
tr<^ble. I see no harm, however, m itslieing bdieved, if that belief 
has the good conisequence, as probably it has, of making hb doctrineit 
more respected and more observed ; especially as I do not perceive 
that the Supreme takes it amiss by distinguishing the believers in his 
government of the world with any peculiar marks of his displeasure. 
I shall only add respecting myself, that having experienced the 
goodness of that Being in cohducting me prosperously through a 
lojig life, 1 have no doubt of its continuance in the next, thpug^ 
Without the smallest conceit of meriting such goodness." (p. 131-2.) 

His practical ujibrality, in the fortitude and cheerfulness 
with which be endured the severest trials, the interest lie 
]took in the happiness of his friends, and the habitual feeling he > 
indulged of^nieetiiig tlieni ivhen the corporeal impedimentg 
are removeil by death, will be apparent in the following 



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Prkaie Correspondence of Dr. Fnmklin. 53 

extract from a letter to Mr. Jordain^ of London, dated 
May 18, 1787, when the writer was eigbty-two years of age. 

*' Your letter reminds me of many happy days we have passed 
together, and the dear friends with whom we passed them ; some of 
whom, alas ! have left us, and we must regret their loss, although 
oar Mawkesworth* is become an adventurer in more happy regions ; 
and our Stanleyt gone, ' where uuly his own harmony can be ex- 
ceeded.' You give me joy in telling me that you are ' on the pin- 
nacle of cotdoit.* Without it no situation can be happy ; with it, 
any. One means of becoming content with one's situation is the 
comparing it with a worse. Thus when I consider how many terri- 
ble diseases the human body is liable to, I comfort myself that only 
three incurable ones have fallen to my share, viz. the gout, the stone^ 
and old age ; and that these have not yet deprived me of my natural 
cheerfulness, my delight in books and enjoyment of social conver- 
sation. 

'' I am dad to hear that Mr. Fitzmaurice is married, and has an 
amiable lady and children. It is a better plan than that he once 
proposed, of getting Mrs. Wright to make him a wax-work wife to 
sit at the head of his table. For after all, wedlock- is the natural 
state of man. A bachelor is not a complete human being. He is 
like the odd half of a pair of scissars, which has not yet found its 
fellow, and therefore is not even half so useful as they might be to- 
gether. 

'' I hardly know whidi to admire most, the wonderful discoveries 
made by Herschel.l or the indefatigable ingenuity by which he has 
been enabled to make them. Let us hope, my friend, that when 
free from these bodily embarrassments, we may roam togjcther 
through some of the systems he has explored, conducted by some 
of our old companions already acquainted with them. Hawkes- 
worth will enliven our progress with his cheerful sensible converse, 
and Stanley accompany the music of the spheres.'' (p. 103 — 104.) 

His sentiments elsewhere expressed, on a subject adverted 
to in such an amusing way in the preceding letter, contain 
so admirable a lesson, that we cannot persuade ourselves to 
exclude them. It Was to a familiar mend that he writes 
IB these terms : 

" TO JOHN ALLEYNE, ESQ. 
"Dear Jack, Craven-Street, August 9, 1169. 

" You desire, vou say, my impartial thoughts on the subject of an 
early marriage, by way of answer to the numberless objections that 

• ** John Hawkesworth, LL.D. author of the Adventurer, and compiler 
of theaccount of theBiscoveries made ia the South Seas by Captain Cook.** 

t *^ Ilohn Stanley, an eminent musician and composer, became blind sCt 
the age of two years." 

t " The astronomer." 



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64 PiioaU Correspondence of Dr* FrankUn* 

have been made by numeious persons to your own. Yon may 
remember, when you consulted me on the occasion, that I thought 
youth on both sides to be no objection. Indeed, from the mar- 
riages that have fallen under my observation, I am rather inclined to 
think, that early ones stand the best chance ..of happmess. The 
temper and habits of the young are not yet become so stiff and uo- 
complying, as when more advanced in life ; they form more easily 
to each other, and hencje many occasions of disgust are removed. 
And if youth has less of that prudence which is necessary to manage 
a family, yet the parents and elder friends of young married persons 
are generally at hand to afford their advice, which amply supplies 
that defect ; and by early marriage, youth is sooner formed to re- 
gular and useful life ; and possibly some of those accidents or con- 
nections, that might have iiyured the constitution, or reputation, or 
' botK, are tliereby happily prevented. Particular circumstances of 
particular persons, may possibly sometimes make it prudent to delay 
entering into that state ; but in general when nature has rendered 
our bodies fit for it, the presumption is in nature's favour, that she 
has not judged amiss in making us desire it. f^te marriages are 
often attended, too, with this further inconvenience, that there is 
not the sam^ chance that the parents shall live to see their offspring 
educated. ' Late children/ says the Spanish proverb, * are eiarfy 
crpham-"* 

The next letter we shall notice refers to some matters 
connected with our corporeal health and vigour, which the 
habits of ease and indulgence in luxurious countries, too 
much encouraged even by our medical professors, have led 
us to disregara. 

'*T0 GOVERNOR FRANKUN,* NEW JERSEY. 

** London, Augu^ 19, 1772. 
** In yours of May 14th, you acquaint me with your indisposition,^ 
wl^ich gaye me great concern. The resolution you have taken to 
use more exercbe is extremely proper ; and I hope you will steadily 
perform it. It is of the greatest importance to prevent diseasear^ 
since the cure of them by physic is so very precarious, in consi- 
dering the different kinds ofexeraise, I have thought that the ^tiaii- 
turn of each is to be judged of, not by time or by distance, but by 
the degree of warmui it produces in the bod^ : thus, when I ol>- 
serve if I am cold when I get into a carriage in a morning, I may 
ride all day without being warmed by it ; &at if on borsdback my 
feet are cold, 1 may ride some hours before they become w^rm ; but 
if I am ever so cold on foot, I cannot walk an hour briskly, without 
glowing from head to foot by the quickened circulation ; I have 
been r^y to say, (using round numbers without regard to exact- 

* '< Dr. Franklin's son, to whom the first part of the Memoirs of his Life is 
addressed. See vol. I." 



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Prhaie Carrespondettce of Dr. Franklin. 55 

ncMy but merely to make a great differenoeO that- there is more ex- 
ercise in cne mile's riding on horseback, than in/Eve in a coach ; and 
more in mte mile's walking on foot, than in^m on horseback ; to * 
whidi I may add, that there is more in walking one mile up and 
down staursy than in five on a level floor. — The two latter exercises 
may be had within doors, when the weather discourages gomg 
abroad ; and the U&st may be had when one is pinched for time; as 
containing a great quantity of exercise in a handful of minutes. The 
dumb befl is another exercise of the latter compendious kind ; by 
the use of it I have in forty swings quickened my pulse from sixty 
to one hundred beats in a minute, counted by a second watch : and 
I suppose the warmth generally increases witli quickness of pulse. 

•« B. Franklin." 

The moral or prudential calculation which is the subject 
of the ensuing letter, may admit of an improvement that 
will occur to every adept in the usual method of book' 
keeping, on the principles of which the contrivance is 
founded. Nothing should be struck put, as the final balance 
may be as properly taken withoii^t the erasure, and it is con- 
venient to preserve the short hints (like the heads of an 
account corresponding in the ledger with the figures) for 
the review of tne whole. 

" TO DR. PRIESTLEY. 
** Deak Sie, London, SepUmber 19, 1772. 

" In the afiair of so much importance to you, wherein you ask my 
advice; I cannot for want of sumcient premises, counsel you what to 
determine ; but if you please, I will tell you how. When those 
difficult eases occur, they are difiicult chiefly because, while we 
have them under consideration, all the reasons |iro, and con, are not 
present to the mind at the same time ; but sometimes one set pre- 
sent themselves ; and at other times another, the first being out of 
sight Hence the various purposes' or inclinations that alternately 
prevail, and the uncertainty that perplexes us. To get over thb, my 
way is, to divide half a sheet of paper by a line into two columns ; 
writing over the one pra, and over the other con : then during three 
or four days consideration, I put down under the different heads, 
short hints of the different motives that at difierent times occur to 
me, for or againsi the measure. When I have thus got them all 
together in one view, I endeavour to estimate their respective weights, 
and where I find two, (one on each side,) that seem equal, I strike 
them both out. If I find a reason pro equal to some two reasons 
eon, I strike out the three. If lju<jge some two reasons con, equal 
to some three reasons pv, I strike out the five; and thus proceedii^ 
I find at len|;th where the balance lies ; and if after a day or two of 
farther con8ideratk>n, nothing new that is of importance occurs on 
either side, I come to a determination accordingly. And though the 



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56 Privaie Correspondence of Dr. Franilitt. 

weight of reaaoDs cannot be taken with tbepreciuon ofalgebmie 
quantities ; yet, when each 19 thus oooaidered aeparalely and com* 
paratiyely, and the whole lies before me, I diink I can judge better^ 
and am less liable to make a rash step ; and in Act I have found 
great advantage from this kind of equation, in what may be called 
moral or prudeniial algebra. 

** Wishing sincerely that you may determine for the best, I am ever, 
my dear friend, yours most affectionately, B. Franklin." 

The first mention of a steam-boat in America, that we 
have noticed, occurs in a letter by Dr. Franklin, dated Oc-< 
tober 24, 1788, and it is in these terms : ^' We have no 
philosophical news here at present, except that a boat 
moved dj a stearo-enffine rows itself against tide in our 
river" (at Philadelphia), ^^ and it is apprehended that the 
construction may be so simplified and iro{)roved as to be*" 
come generally useful." With this invention the copious 
waters of the Republic are now navigated for many thou- 
sand miles, and the discovery has been found to be of the 
greatest importance to the commerce and agriculture of her 
extended territories. 

^ The subsequent remarks on the means of assisting the 
siffht and hearing, deserves the particular attention of those 
who are subject to infirmity in ^the use of the organs so 
employed. 

'* By Mr. Dollond's saying that my double spectacles can only serve 
particular eyes, I doubt he has not been rightly informed of their 
construction. I imagine it will be found pretty generally true that 
the same convexity 01 glass through which a man sees clearest and 
best at the distance proper for reading, is not the best for greater 
distances. I therefore had formerly two, pair of spectacles, which I 
shifted occasionally, as in travelhng I sometimes read and often 
wanted to regard the prospects. Finding this change troublesome 
and not always sufficiently ready, I had Uie glasses cut, and half of 
each kind associated in the same circle. By this means, as I wear 
my spectacles constantly, I have only to move mv eyes up or down 
as I want to see distinctly far or near, the proper glasses bemg always 
ready. This I find more particularly convenient since my being m 
France, the glasses that serve me best at table to see what I eat not 
being the best to see the fiices of those on the other side of the table 
who speak to me ; and when one's ears are not well accustomed to 
the sounds of a language, a sight of the movements in the features 
of him that speaks helps to explain ; so that I understand French 
better by the help of my spectacles. 

** The deafness you complain of gives me concern, as if great it must 
diminish considerably your pleasure in conversation. If moderate 
you may remedy it easily and readily, by putting your thumb and 



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Prioate Correspondence of Dr. Franklin, 67 

fingers behind your ear, pressing it outwards, and enlarging it as it 
were, with the hollow of your hand. By an exact experiment I 
finuid tiiat I could hear the tick of a watch at forty feet distance, 
by iMs means, which was barely audible at twenty feet without it. 
llie experhnent was made at midnight when the house was still.** 

Whatever might be the character of the French people 
when the following account of them was given in 1779, it by 
no means accords with our opinion of it, after the devastation 
of public and private morals oy the tempest of the revolution. 
The letter containing it was addressed to the Hon. Josiah 
Quincy, and is dated at Passy, near Paris, April 32, 1779, 

"lam exceedingly pleased with your account of the French polite- 
ness and civility, as it appeared among the officers and people of 
then- fleet. They have certainlv advanced iu those respects many 
degrees beyond the En^bh. 1 find them here a most amiable na- 
tion to Uve with. The Spaniards are by common opinion supposed 
to be cruel, the English proud, the Scotch insolent, the Dutch ava- 
ricious, &c. but I think the French have oo national vice ascribed to 
them. They have some frivolities, but they are harmless. To dress 
their heads so that a hat cannot be put on them, and then wear their 
hats under their arms, and to fill their nosee with tobacco, mrv be 
called follies perhaps, but they are not vices, they are only the effects 
of the tyranny of custom. In short there is nothing wanting in the 
character of a Frenchman that belongs to that of an agreeable and 
worthy man. They have only some trifles, a surplus of which might 
be spaued.*' 

Admirable observations are distributed in these letters 
on the mischief and misery of war. One of the favourite 
purposes of the Doctor's life appears to have been to pre* 
vent the slaughter of battle and the plunder which is the 
temptation to it. The letter to Dr. Priestley from Passy 
(p. SS), was written under the strongest aversion to humain 
malignity in this work of destruction, and it is as witty as it 
is energetic ; but as we are under the unavoidable oblig^ation 
of restricting our extracts, we have preferred giving the 
following letter, to which we have subjoined an ai[ticle of 
arrangement proposed to Mr. Oswald. That gentleman 
was one of the negotiators for peace, treating with Dr. 
Franklin under a commission from this Court, during the 
administration of Lord Shelbourne. 

" EXTRACT OF A LETTER TO B. VAUGHAN,ESQ. 

*' Passy, July 10, 1782. 
^ By the original law of nations, war and extirpation was the punish- 
ment of injury. Humanizing by degrees, it admitted slavery instead 

Cjwt, Rev. Vol. V. Jan. 1817. I 



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98 Pfioaie Correspondence of Dr. Franklm. 

Df death. A farther step was. tlie exchange of prisouers instead of 
flaverj. Another, to respect more the property of private persont 
under conquest, and to be content with accjuired dominion. Why 
should not this law of nations go on improving? Aees have ioter^' 
vened between its several steps ; but as knowledge of late increasts 
rapidly, why should not those steps be quickened ? Why should it 
not be agreed to as the future law of nations, that in any war here- 
after the following descriptions of men shottld be undisturbed^ have 
the protection of both sides* and be permitted to follow their eaiploy^ 
ments in surety: viz. 

** 1. Cultivators of the earth, because they labour for the sub^ 
sistence of mankind. 

*' 2. Fishermen, for the same reason. 

*< 3. Merchants and traders, in unarmed ships, who accom- 
modate different nations, by coamnnicating and exchanging tlie m^ 
cessaries and convemences of life. ^ 

<< 4. Artists and aKcbanks, inhabiting and working in open 
towns. 

«< It is hardly necessary to add, that the hospitals of enemies 
should be unmolested ; they ought to be assisted* 

*f In short, I woold have adbodv fought with but thoae who are 
paid for fighting* If obliged to take oom from .the fiumcr^ friend 
or enemyi I would pay him for it; tlie same for the fish or goods of 
the others. 

'' This once established, that encottragement to war which arises 
fiom a spirit of rapine^ would be taken away, and peace therefore 
more likely to continue and be lasting. B. FBAnKLin.'' 

" ARTICLE PROPOSED. 

** If war should hereafter arise between Great Britain and the 
United States, which God forbid, the merchants of either country 
then residing in the other, shall be alhmed to remain ninemondis to 
collect their debts» and settle their afiairs, and may depart freely, 
catnring off all their effects without molestation or hinderance. And 
all mhenncn, all cultivators of the earth, and aU artisans or mann- 
ftctiuers unarmed, and inhabiting unfortified towns^ villages, or 
places^ who labour for the common subsisti^nce and benefit of man- 
Kind, and peaceably follow their respective employments^ shaU be 
allowed to continue the same, and shall not be molested by the 
armed force of the enemy, in whose power by the events of the war 
they may happen to fall; but if any tiling is necessary to be taken 
from them, for tj^e use of such armed force, the same shall be paid 
for at a reasonable price. And all merchants or traders with their 
iroanned vessels, emfrfoved in commerce, exchangmg the products 
of different places, and thereby rendering the necessaries, copve- 
nienoes, and comforts of hiunaa life more easy to obtain, and more 
geniural, shall be allowed to pass freely unmolested. And neither of 
the powers parties to this treaty, shall grant or issue any commission 
to any private armed vessels, empowering them to take or destroy 
such trading ships, or interrupt such commerce.^ 



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Prhate Cerretpandeme of Dr. Franklin. 50 

Having alreadj gone to so much length in our review oC 
this volume, we shall pass over very cursorily both the 
subject of general politics, and the partieuhr application 
of the science as it referred to the war with America. Very 
opprobrious language is applied to our venerable So veretgn, 
whose conscientious discharge of bis exalted duties is known 
to every Englidiman, and as the errora of his reign will 
now be attributed to an infirmity* which no rectitude of 
heart could prevent, we shall not sully our pages by quoting 
the offensive paragraphs. 

It is said that the great obstruction to the peace with 
America was, that we endeavoured to detach her from her 
allies; and it might be so without any imputation on the 
hoBoar of this conotiy: which, single-handed andunsvp* 
port^ in the sequel, maintained a contest .with fiwr distinct 
powers. We have, however, under all the drcnnstances, 
no donbt of the injustice and impolicy of that war ; and if 
any uncertainty with regard to it rests on the mind of roan, 
it will be effectoaUy removed by the letters before us, which 
unfold the whole circumstances of the protracted negoci- 
ation, by which that war was terminated. The great work 
of peace was accomplished by this best friend of humanity, 
to whom the attention of our readers has been invited. 
What Washington was in die camp Franklin was in the 
cabinet; and it is to this day problematical, whether Ame- 
rica be indebted tor the early acquisition of her independ* 
oice more to the vdlour of the one, or to the wisdom of the 
othw : certain it is, that diierent as were their occupations, 
there was a great resemblance between them in their natural 
vigour of mind, and in their general character founded upon 
it. If it be objected that they were both destitute of what has 

. re<$eived the venerable appellation of learning, and should 
their writings, exceeded by few in clearness, precision, and 
force, be deemed no satis&ctoiy answer, we reply in the words 
of the eloquent advocate of the poet Arehias : ^ Qoseret qui»- 

* piam. Quid ? illi ipsi summi viri, quorum virtutes literis 
proditse sunt,' istane doctrina, qmra tu effisrs laudibus, eruditi 
fuerunt ? DilBcile est hoc de omnibus confirmare : sed tamen 
est cfertura, quid respondeam. Ego multos homines excel- 
lenti animo ac virtute fuisse, ct sine doctrinft, naturae ipsius 
hri^itu propA divino, pmr s^psos et moderatos et graves 
^rtitisse foteor: etian ilbid adjon^, ss^pius ad laudem 
atque virtutem natnram sine doctnnl^ quim sine aUturft 
Tuaisse doctrinam.'* 



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C 60 3 

Art. VII. — The Identity of Junius with a distinguished 
Living Character established, " In sese redit," London, 
Tajlor and Hessey, 1816. 8vo. pp. 366. 

Of the many attempts since the appearance of Wood&U's 
edition of the Letters of Junius, to ascertain to what indi- 
Yidual, public or private, they were to be assigned, this is the 
best executed and the most plausible. The ^^ distinguished 
living character" fixed upon is Sir Philip Francis. 

The anonymous author of this volume, not a very long 
time since, put fdrth an argument in the shape of a pam- 
phlet, in which he endeavoured to make out that the Letters 
of: Junius were the joint production of Dr. Francis and his 
son Sir Philip ; the main reason for supposing and support* 
iog this union was, that Sir Philip Francis was only nine- 
teen years old at the time, and could not therefore himself 
have been possessed of the experience or the learning of 
Junius, nor could have otherwise become acquainted with the 
political facts to which such frequent reference was made. 
The very necessity for such a combined authorship was to 
us a tolerably convincing proof that the hypothesis, how- 
ever ingeniously maintained, was untenable ; in the writ- 
ings of no man, living or dead, is there more unity than 
in those of Junius : the style of thought and lanffuafge is 
the same from beginning to end, and it is any thing but* 
the style of a younff unpractised author; granting, then» 
that Dr. Francis only furnished the intelligence, we feel 
persuaded that it was impossible that his son, a boy of nine- 
teen, should have penned any one of the masterly and po- 
lished productions that were given to the world under the 
name of Junius. 

Presuming, therefore, that this renewed attempt in hand 
was by the same individual, we took it up unwillingly^ and 
it was not until we arrived at the third chapter, that we 
found that the writer of this Identification had mistakenly 
asserted, in his first production on the subject/ that Sir r. ■ 
Francis was born in 1748 instead of 1740; this correction 
makes a most material difference in the author's favour, 
which, perhaps, he scarcely estimates highly enough ; fi»r, 
inistead of being nineteen, Sir P. Francis was twenty-seven 
years old at the date of the earliest miscellaneous letter, and 
all those signed Junius were consequently published between 
his twenty-ninth and thirty-second year,— ^^ a time of life," 
as is justly observed, ^^ in which men generally undertake 
the greatest designs of which they are capable. This cor- 



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Junius Identified. 61 

rection in point of date, we admit, renders it possible that Sir 
P. Francis should have been the author of the Letters of 
Junius: the probability is another question; and the acquired 
style of Junius, which appears to be the result of long prac- 
tice and great skill, is one of the difficulties still to be over- 
come ; for even at thirty, such sinirular regularity of con- 
struction, and precision of phraseology, held up by many 
succeeding critics as models for imitation^ could scarcely he 
acquired. 

The author of this work commences, like a skilful logi- 
cian, by clearing his ground : the great obstacle he meets 
with is a letter sent by Sir P. Francis to the Editor of the 
Monthly Magazine, who had applied to him to be informed if 
he were in truth theauthor of the Letters of Junius, as charged 
in the first pamphlet : the answer was in these terms : — 

" The great civility of your letter induces me to answer 
it, which, with reference merely to its subject-matter, I 
should have declined. Whether you will assist in giving cur- 
rency to siliy malignant falsehood is a question for your own 
discretion. To me it is a matter of perfi^ct indifference." 

What, let us ask, is the natural impression produced by 
this letter ! Sir P. F. pronounces that the statement is a 
falsehood^ and that it is a silly and malignant falsehood^ 
which, to our judgment, appear about as plain and unequi- 
Tocal words as it was possible for a man to use; out 
it is the business of our author to maintain the contrary,* 
and he sets about it accordingly with a degree of confidence 
truly legalj which is generally proportioned to the difficulty 
to be encountered. 

** I need not ask the reader whether this letter is evasive or not. 
He will perhaps wonder how any one can have been misled by it for 
a moment. The editor, however, with a simplicity that does him 
honour, did not perceive the futility of this pretended disavowal, 
though he had just stated, properly enough, that if the hypothesis 
were ' not true. Sir Philip Francis would be able by a ward to dis- 
prove it' It certainly is not so disproved, and we are therefore 
authorized to conclude that it could not fiiirly be disputed. No 
man, who had it in his power to give a simple negative to such a 
question, would have had recourse to an inuendo. The only sur- 
prising part of the transaction is, that any answer should have* been 
returned by one who knew he could not send a better ; but perhaps 

* The author's attempt to prove that ^ silly and malignant falsehood^' are 
ambiguous terms, reminds us of the man in the farce, who bein^ called 
'^ semub-el, cowardf and liar," answered that he did not onderstand such 
mittttaHons, 



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6S Junius Identified. 

Sir Philip had no saspicion riiat it y/rtunAA be printed Terbatioi in the 
Monthly Magazine. He must hare thought the editor of that pub^ 
fication wonid state the denial in his own way; and that if ao iii« 
pressioD was made on his mind in the first instaBioey the pvbiic 
would be convinced at second hand. 

** Without supposing this, we are tnvoWed in a diiBculty of a 
very pecnliar kind : the abundance of the evidence bei&g actually 
in danger of stifling the charge. For it would appear, that if Sir 
Philip calculated on his reply being given to the public, he could 
scarcely have taken a more effectual step to make the world believe 
that he was Junius. His^ unequivocal affirmation of the fact would 
not have been so directly convincing, since there exists no reason 
why the author, whoever he be, should now make that disclosure 
which he had resolved to withhold lor ever ; and unless some sofficient 
motive apparently ursed him to a publicacknowledgenMsnt, hiselaimin|^ 
it would but subject him to the imputation of unfounded pretensioiia« 

" On the other hand, to deem the evasion nnintentional, is not 
only affronting to the understanding of Sir Pinlip, but at variance 
with every trait in bis character. It is in the memory of many naem* 
bers of the House of Commons, how skilfully he can parry attacks 
like the present, by a mode not very dissimilar. Nor is it likely 
tiiat he who was styled by Mr. Burke, the first pamphlet writer of the 
age, and who has all his life been ensag^ in pohtical controversy^ 
snoukl on this occasion alone be at a loss for words in which to con- 
vey bis meaning. It is well known, that in all he writes, his expressions 
are selected with unusual care, and that he has thereby acquired a 
wonderful strength and clearness of style.'* (p. 12 — 14,) 

Here our author is aomewhat bolder in his assertions 
than logical in hia conclusions, and his argument on this 
part of the subject is strangely at variance with his preface^ 
where he states, that ^^ at this time of day it is impossible 
that any harm can accrue to the author of the Letters of 
Junius." Then why should Sir P. Francia resort to any 
evasion — to anjr artful or designed ambi^nity, in his de- 
nial ? One obvious answer to the reasoning abore given 
the author of it himself supplies, when he expresses his 
astonishment that any answer at all should have been re- 
turned, supposing Sir P. F. to be guilty ; and another is 
assigned by him in his prefiice, that the writer of the Let- 
ters of Junius, whoever be be, has no motive, personal or 
pnUic, to continne theccmcealnieBt. — Is Sir P. Francis now 
in anj official situation which would be put in jeopardy hj 
his avowal ? No.— Has he changed hia polities, and would 
be ashamed to acknowledge his ter2;iversation ? No. — Is 
there one individual living who would be likely or capable 
of wreaking vengeance upon his newly-discovered castiga- 
tor ? No.--On Uie contrary, would not any man, however 

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Juniut Identified. 85 

exalted his rank, or extensive his (kme, be nroad to adroit, 
were it true, that he was the person who deserved all the 
ftpphiuses that, since the vear 1773^ have unanimonslj been 
heaped upon a name i in short, on the part of the author 
of Uie IaMbtb of Junius, there is now every motive to dis* 
close himself, and not a single reason for continuing the 
secret. Can it be said, that the merit of the Letters of 
Junias is merely imaginary ? or that the esteem in which 
thej are held bj high and low, by the learned as well as by 
the unlearned, is to be attributed to the mystery that in* 
volves the author ? that, like the story of the Man with 
the iron Mask, the interest is derived chiefly from impene- 
trable concealment? Undoubtedly not; and the position 
would fail, unless the supporter of It could prove, not only 
that Junius is^ a fool himself, but all the rest of the world 
who admire his talents are fools also. 

For these plain reasons, most of those who have thought 
at all upon the subject, have come to the almost unavoid- 
able conclusion, that the real author of the Letters of 
Junius is not how living; that he was '^tho sole depository 
of his own secret ;" and that that secret has died with him. 
Unless, therefore^ some unforeseen circumstance should 
occur to disclose it — some remarkable confession should be 
discovered at a distant day, it is probable that, like the ad- 
mirable work of the Whole Duty of Man, or the Lives of 
Wilkins and Buncle, the Letters of Junius will remain 
anonymous to the latest generation. It would not be un« 
entertaining (though the time for such an experiment is m 
little past) to see some clever fellow, who has not, in fact, 
the slightest pretension but bis cleverness, start as a candi* 
date for this vacant honour. 

The whole reasoning in this work applying to the events 
of the life of Sir P. Francis, is founded upon a short piece 
of biography published in a monthly publication, and writ* 
ten, as our author asserts, by a friend of the subject of the 
article, with his approbation and from his materials. Now, 
if this be the fact, and we have every reason to believe it,* 
another marked, inconsistency is observable: if Sir P. 
Francis be so anxious to prevent the discovery that from 
bis pen nroceeded the Letters of Junius, is it likely that he 
should nimself voluntarily have supplied the evidence 
which was to lead to his own conviction ? — A considerable 
portion of the volume before us is made up of a parallel 

* Indeed V9% have been assured, thongh circoitously, that it was penaed 
bjr ^ the first pamphlet writer of the age.** 



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61 Junius Identifiei. 

between the incidents in the life of Sir P. Francis and events 
upon which Junius dwells in various parts of bis produc* 
tions : yet the author insists, that the very means of making 
this comparison were . furnished by the individual who is 
now resorting to artifices, and making untrue assertions of 
falsehood, to prevent a disclosure, at which, as a man of 
sense and discernment, he would most sincerely rejoice.* 
The importance of the facts communicated by Sir P. Fmn* 
cis to his biographer, to the purpose of our author, may be 
collected from some of the conclusions at which he imagines 
he arrives. 

'' On the whole, however, I consider it established, 1st, That 
the latest period to which Junius carried on that regular corre- 
spondence with his printer which marks his residence in town, was 
March 28, 1772. 2dly, That the time of his positive renewal of it 
was March 7, 1773. In the interval he wrote three public letters, 
accompanied with private notes, dated the 3d, 4th, and 10th of May, 
1772; and one private note, dated January 19, 1773; from all 
which nothing can be inferred with certainty as to his actual situa- 
tion. To compare with the above dates, we have the undoubted 
facts, 1st, That Sir Philip Francis left the War Office on March 23, 
1772, and went abroad before Midsummer; 2dly, that he returned 
to England some time in the spring of 1773. The exact accordance 
of the first date renders the other almost equally conclusive. 

The two succeeding chapters are occupied by a compari- 
son, on the same authority, between the friends of Sir P. F. 
and those of Junius, as collected from his writings. We 
willingly admit that this part of the question is handled in- 
geniously, and with great closeness of argument, more 
especially whore the author endeavours to establish his by- 

Eothesis by the praises Junius bestows upon Sir P. F. and 
is associate D'Oyley. What the author of this volume 
says on the topic of the cause of the anxiety of Junius for 
the security of his printer, deserves extracting ; it will 
afford a specimen of the closeness of the reasoning, and of 
the industry of the writer, 

'' Admitting, then, that Junius had a personal acquaintance with 
his printer, let us see how this fact will afiect Sir Philip Francis. 
His lot was certainly very difierent from Mr. Woodfall's ; and at the 

* According to the admUsion of the author of this work, Sir P. Francis 
had no secrets to keep, and refused no kind of information ; tbus^ when 
applied to by the very publishers of this volume, he admitted a fact on 
which great stress is afterwards laid, viz. that he reported a part of a 
debate in the Parliamentary History, which \% is imagmed greatly resem* 
bles Junius. (Vide p. 269.) 



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JtaSUs Iderdifiei. 6S' 

time the Letters W6re pubHsbedj; tbere seems to bave been no kind 
of coDDection between them. But it appears that at one period they 
Lad the opportanity of becodiing intimate. They were sehbol-fellows 
of the same standmg: in 1763 Sir PkiHp was placed at SL PanVs 
xhool, undfiT the care of Mr. George ThieltneUe ; in 1756 he was 
reeehed itUo the Secretmy of Stak*8 office. Let us conipare these 
cbrtet with, the following extract from Nichols's Biographical Anec- 
dotes: — Henry Sampson Woodfall was bom Jun< 21» 1739,. 0«$. 
At deven ^ears old hcS went to St. Paol's school, whence he removed 
6> sense his apprenticeship with his father." He entered the school, 
tfaerefove, Ui' 176Q-1» about two years earlier than Sir Philip. As 
between tbetl' agea there Was but the difference of one year, aad it 
was possible for them to have remained together three years at school, 
dten* intimacy mights beipresitmed: but I' am told that I have the 
antliority of the pvesent Mr. Woodfall for stating, that his fat/ker 
JiMwtd onacpmHtiancer with Sir Philip Francis whm at <c4^/, which 
caused -them through life to regard each other with particular kind- 
Bes9; ^nd though various circumstances soon dissolved that, early 
connection/ yet the ren^embrance of it was ever after kept up be- 
tween tfaem» by some irieudly token of acknowledgement whenever 
they met. 

** This piece of intelligence establi^es a point which' otberwise 
would be eiftitled'to sorAe notice from its probability. But the tttith 
may also be arrived at through a different medium : the Rev. PfaHip 
R'eifenhagen was th^ school-ftllow, and cjvAitinued tbrdti^' life the 
fiintnal friefid, <ff Sir Philip Praneb and Mr. Woodfall; tbiis there 
is additional' proof of a particalar bond of unioir havingsubsisted 
between the two latter geutlemeli at. the time they werd at school.*' 
(pi 120— 122.) 

The duthor firoili tfaend6 proceeds more particulariy to the 
public life of Sir P. P., following witb tne siame ardour of 
pursuit as if lie'Had reatliy his game in Vie^. We have iiot 
space to dwell upon these details^ which ate spdn out in 
such a manner as a little to injure their effect : he notices 
with the utmost precision every little coincidence of expr^- 
sion; sometimes descending with a decree of puerility to 
ioai^ificant mintUicSf noticing as singular, and peculiar to 
Junius and Sir P. P. the roost ordinary phraseology : we 
will insert^ short specimen, to prove that we are warranted 
m our otgedion. 

. .'' The following peculiarities are ahnost equally strong with the 
above : — 

. ** Jumus, — * Ufon occanon of a jurisdiction uniawiully assumed 
by. the" House.' 

*' fronds* — * Qn occatian of a bitlbrbught down from the House 
of Lords/ 

CajT. Rbv. Vol. V. Jan. liSlT. K 



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C0 Jmiuli tdeni^^ 

^* JunUik^* YfhtA ]r0tt ^^^BP^eMhf renouiiced Oe naltte of £&g' 

lisbltob.' 

** FnAidii-^* Tke bi^baroiis t^nns ^jfectedfy nitide we of/ 

*' JImlttff.-— ' I Bilt sorry tidtteil you, Sir Wiltiami, that, m this ^* 

ticte^ your fi^t fM is fiAe.' 

" FnmeUi-^' ThM ^art tX the niotioo, I i&y» uiipliieB zfi^fM: 
** JMm^^f Tte ca^ t» piwe that the sBsutned priviieget ^ 

eiih^r Hoiise of Parfiaaoeot are not exa^inahk ehewhet^ thaa in 

their ^wn fi6iis«s« are Lofd Sbaftsbury's dise^ Btc* 
** Fraitdg^-^* H^ has added aoiiie spieifi^ evidenoe^ which I shall 

take the liberty to letamito, because it is of an eMmimble nature i* 

itlei^ and happeni to be famiHaT to meJ '* (p. 1235-^28^) 

We ibii^ pais Over tho cbnipamon bet#6eB the politkBl 
(jpit^ions of the vm^ ilidivi<luak, (foir two wie atiU hold 
tlMi i6 \^^ Mtbf^gh t!iO ^Miikniy is mkitsi Mt wi«h «oii» 
4iRSrbMo srikill, ahl ptocei&d t6 what y^ think tte bm 
p^ of the Work, Wfcfeh, if nulftciiftAtly ftuppoHdl by othlrtr 
cgtuiiistaft'd^, foight li&ve tetided to stag^err otiir jttdboiettlt. 
We bav0 already slated that Sir I*. F. allowed that he had 
Imported certain speeches by the Earl of Ghathaia aOd othet 
Peers,^ delivered oa the opening of the session, JPanuary 9, 
177&. Here we admit there is a etrikki^reseiBblance between 
the iangnaffe of JuttHis atod that which Sir P. F* has giv^en 
to the Lords, and it cantet be mpposed to be ekac% their 
Ibrddups' own expressiomi) as tbo reporter only fn^^fessed 
to tnmsdrib^ fi^Mlk me^tkf. An important rediark, bow^ 
ever, is to be made upon this portion of the argHiferent, tliat 
the debate took place in Januaiy^ 177(^ while the most va- 
luable ot the lettirs owunius were not wrkten^until after 
that. Gate; so that Junius miglit hav^ seenand^iqpied 'front 
ttie debate as r^orted : still, however, tlie coincidence is 
rem'sUrKaUe, We quote several extracts. 

"^ "* ¥hat'he was safisfied thcr^ was a pdwer tft sblttfe dfegret «^bi- 
t«lry, trlA "Whifch the co'itetaatioii trusted the efown,*t6 "be Wade Vie 

m, ni^ My iihidaeli kmit^nty, dr tftifor^e^ 'dflsfttMy, ¥hkk 
itt^^WMdli A^%<jmn%'^>^<p^k/^ tte ^»iM^^ thfctstafe. 
That on this principle he had himselt advised a meatotne %hioh he 
knew was not slrktly kgal; but he had recooimended it as a mea- 
^t0e of *fu^ii«tfy, tomve a karwig people Jroln ftt^ikie, d^dlidi sub- 
mitted to fhtjudggfent of Ms country.' 

**• tJiwIw.-:* That PdrUiminiit may'remw the ^Us of A mHwter 
is unquestionable; but there is a wide difference becweiSh'i^yiilgThkt 
the croivh lias a le^ p(MerM^i^9i^^^^^P^ct di*ih^^perii: 
— * Instead of asserting that the proclamation wai^ legal/he^Lbra 



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Ju0fu$ Netitijlea. tf 

C$mAen) ilnmU htve said, * My lomb; I kiMMr Ute pi^^idtaation 
yrm HkgiU, bfit | adtisfed it hemae it ivas fnHqfemaify neeemmrp 

^' Tm they ought to ba treated vritb teiMienieM* fiNrin bia bcmc 
tbcy ivere th^utilMm cflibtrty ifhii^h hr^ke mt t^nm the dem, and 
went a aigo, if not of n^fact health, at kaat af a mgonmiemuHkh^ 
ti&Ht and opast not be amen In too suddenly* laat they should strike 
to the imrt.rr- 

** [«Amwf.-TT< No man regards an ervpHmmptn Himtfaee, mimk 
tiia noble parts are inMded, and he fpAn a flM>itificatioB approaeh- 
ing tp hia Aiarf / 

^ ■ i.y I shall only say, gi? e me a healthy t^gp^roKS emutiMUmt 
and I ahaU hardly <onsalt my loolung-glass to disooyer a Mamisii 
upon mr iftH|."' (p*M6.) 

.« ' That thf imerioins had puichaaed their libetty atadear jsatr^ 
since tk^y had qmtttd thnr ntdae MUHtvy, and gone iH search «/ 

** [Jiiwiai, speiking of the Ameticaiis, saysc * They left their nor 
tm lamd m uarah affrudm, and Ibund it lo a demrit: *' <p. 26B.) 

** f Ijtrd Mtm^Md. He Wgao wif h afiirming* chstf he had never 
dcinreced any opiasoa upon the legality pf die proceedings of the 
Hovae^f Commons on the Middlesex ejectiov, nor should he now, 
notwithstanding any thiag tlp^t might be eKpected from him. That 
he had helped it up in fUs awn breast, and t^ should die with him/- — 

** [Junhu to Lord Mansfield : — * As a loiii in Psirfiament, you 
were repeatedly caHed upon to eondemn or diefend tbe new law de- 
clared by the House of Cepamops. You affieeted to have scmpjies, 
and emery eapedient was attempt^' to remove thsoi. The question 
was BD^pased and urged to you in a thousand different shapes. Tour 
piud<sace atiU supplied yiou with eKsaioo ; your resohition was invin* 
#)c For my «W0 tWtt 1 fm not «qi;aoi«s I^ penetrate Xhiamlifm 
Uffitf I qan^ 1^ to wb<tee wi44oi^ it is e^fj^a^, mt ^ow sppp 
ffmiD0nyU Wi^jf^ t9 y(W fSrmeJ lu a ^te to this ps^i^ige, at 
isj9d4^: '' iU mi k^ the ffifm of Jj9rds^ Jtbalt hit b!^vd be 
ihfi^kAc/mryh^mnm 

" ijA 90 reppijfof this speeob had then been published, it is cle^^ 
6019 i^ atN>Vie .extract^ that Jiinius was in ]die Hous^.at the time it 
was detfarered/* ^. 276/) 

The oaaae course ia piuHoed witib jrogacd to ibe Rebate of 
the S2d January, 1770, also reported by Sir ¥, Fmscia : 
we will subjoin a conclu4injg cjpepiipen, in whji^b the author 
of this work seeks to deprive Junius of qro of the most 
memorable siipjil^s iju ajiy writ^i;, and which is quoted 
with a sort of JWitMi^ jby id) .bis j^dm^t^. f^vA Chatham 
aeems certainly to havo supplied the ore, which Junius has^ 
iroijml intoabape, and polished into beauty. 



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88 JaniuB ii€9U^ed4 

' *'< My loris.i revert Ahe just prero^tiwe of the crown, ^ni mm\d' 
contend for it ^s wBrmly ad for fdist vtgkts^ fif tkt peofk^ They-mre 
Unhid togothart (mdnatuMily mipfort eaeh other. 1 womld BAttmcl^ 
a feather of the prerogative. Tb» expressions perhaps, |s too U^tp 
bat aiice I have i&ade use of k, iet me ad<i, that the eatire cotnmand 
and- power of dire«&ting the iocai dispofttion of the army is therojat 
finro^aidvB, ^i the madet feaiheip'm eagle's wmg; and if I were 
p^mitted to carry the aliusion a little fartho*, I wduld say, ^y bavcr 
disarmed the imperial bird, the Ministrum Fulminis Alitem* The 
■miiatry have tifed up the ht^d which should direct the bolt/ 
• ^ [Jioiftfii.-^* The mims^ry; it dekms, .are kbounng to draw a liner 
of distinction between the. Jwnour of the crown and righU of the 
people. This new idea ^has yet heen 9iily started in discourse; for 
ai efiect, both objects have been ^nally saoriiiGed. I neither ua^ 
derstaad the distinction, nor what use tlie ministry propose to mal^e 
Qf it The king's honour and intereft is that of the people. Their 
r^l honour and interest are the same, I am not o^nteading for a 
Tain punctilio. A clear unblemished character comprehends not onl^,. 
the integrity that will not , offer, but the spirit that wili not submit 
to an injury ; and whether it belongs to an ipdividnal or to a cooi* 
mumtyyit is the foundation of peace, of indepaidefiGey and of safety. 
Private credit is wealth ;: public honour is security. The feaiher 
that adorns the royal kind st^>ports Usfiigkt, Strip him of his f^ 
mage, and you fix him to the earth* ^ (p. 331 — 338.) 

, It was |P(ot our iqt^^iq^ io, h^yi^.4ev<9ted so inuc]i space-to 
this f-ejijBwecl ii^Yestigatipn, w^ch ba^ ajiref^dj in y^iQ ^n^'* 
plowed the peos.of Wndr^ds Qrp«ip|:)liieteer« to prove tbat X% 
was any body and every body : ..these cvtide attompta^. were 
well ridiquled at the time by a friend of aur8,. who efitafilkhed 
the point with about as much plausibility in &vour of the 
late Mr, Suett the Comedian.^' Out unwUtiflgness to devote 
so large a portion of our Review to this work, did not how* 
eyer arise from th^ exhaustion of the sulnect, bqt because we 
really thought the ejiquiry scarcely worth it : a plausibly sup- 
position was thf utinost that could be attained^ and^ af^er 
SMj how \i\wh, l)etter or wiser we are for it we know ifpU 
Nothing but the positive, undeniable, avowed fiict coul^ be 
completely satisfactory ; and whether this writer or that ap- 
proach nearest the truth in their conjectures is of little 
consequence : 

TXjUth vi^ill sidmit of no degrees : 
Facts, not conjectures^ if you please ; 
Conjectures but encrease our trouble^ 
As little light makes darkness double. 



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C 69 1 

«A,AT. yilL Staiements respenting the East India CoUege^ 

, moUh an Appeal to Facts^ in Uejutaiion of the Charts 

,- iat^ brought meimt it in the Court of Proprietors. 3y 

the Rev. T. K. MjkLXHUg, Professor of Histortf and 

. Politicid'EeotHnny* London^ Murray. I&i7. 8vo. pp« 105. 

M>NY of the objections of those who, on the first proposal 
.to establish the College at. Hertford, r^isted the measure 
as HppQliiic,,hi9tve been realized, and the laie diseussions at 
the India House have opened the eyes pf the public to the 
abuses of « that institutioii ; even some of those who in 
the outset were the most zealous to 'support, hi consequence 
of recent disclosures^ have become the most forward to con- 
demn. .. 

In the debates among the proprietors, agitated bj dif- 
ferent interests and motives, it does not seem that much 
temper was ejtiercised; exaggerated statements and un- 
founded assertions were made on both sides ; between the 
.two px>nt^nding parties .IV^r-. Malthus now, steps in as 
modersitor, professing to give a calm and fair explanation 
of the caee, and appealing to facts to contradict toisre- 
presentation. That he has better means of knowledge 
than thosfi whom be attempts to set right is certain, ^but it 
is not quite as clear that he makes the best use of t;heiii, 
for it is scarcely in human nature that the Professor (^ 
the East India College, deriving a large emelument from 
it, should be perfectly impartial, or at all concede to the 
opinion of those who argue for its abolition. Considering, 
however, that he is the advocate, of the Institution, (the 
hired advocate we may say, though perhaps not hired for 
the, express, purpose), it^will he asserted by some^ that he dis- 
play^ in parts . of Jhis, p^tiQphlet, more candour than might 
have ^been expected: facts^ however, have been promul- 
gated tl^rough various channels which could not be ea^ly 
controverted, 9nd what, by too candid readers, may be 
thought fairness, by others will be considered prudence : 
this gentleman is too much practised ia undertaiuogs like 
the present, not to be aware that good use may be made 
even of the admission of koowa facts. 

The subject discussed in this pamphlet is divided into tibe 
fpllowing seven parts. 

' ** 1. What are the quatificatioBs at present necessary for the ctvtl 
•af rvior of the £^t Indk Company,, m the administration of their In> 
tlian territories ? 



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70 MaUhus on the East»India College. 

** IL Has any deficiency in those ijualifiditions bceo actually e%* 
perienced in such a degree'^as to beliyurions to the service in India! 

** III. In order to secure the qualifications requited Ibr die ser- 
vice of the Company, is aa appropriate establtshment necfssary 1 
and should it>e of the nature of a school, or a college) 
. '' IV. Should such au estaMishment be in Englttid or in India t 
or should it be an establishment in both countries ? 

*« V. Does it appear that the college actually established in Hert- 
fordshire is upon a plan calculated to supply that part of the appro* 
priate education of the civil servants of the Company, which otight 
to be completed in Europe 1 

** VI. Are the disturfaances which havie taken pboi^ui the East^ 
India CoU^e to be attributed to an^r radical and neeeasary «vils in*- 
bereot in its constitution and discipiioe; or to «dv«iititioos mA 
temporary causes, which are likely to be removed? 

** VIL Are the more general charges which bav€ lat^y been 
brought against the college in the Court of Proprietors fomided w 
truth ? or are they capable of a distinct nefntation, by an appeal to 
facts 1 (p. 2—3.) 

It will be observed that sereral of these divisions have 
little relation to the important subjects of recent discussiop; 
and tlie author, in explanation^ states in the preface that 
all but the last were written at a time when onhr rumours 
existed of cliai^s being about to be brought mrward in 
tlie Court of rroprietors. We may therefore, in our 
notice, reject the long preliminary disquisitions V^pnt^ined 
in the four first beads, which are Teir mucli n^ade up 
from public documents, prepared h^ Marquis Wellesley 
at the time he was in office in India, in commendation of a 
system in India like that now adopted at Hertford. We 
shall omit alto the arguments used to shew that a college is 
preferable to a school, observing, that if it be proper to 
ibrm anj institntion of the kind, it h very little consequence 
whether it be the one or the otber, excepting in point of 
discipline, which appears to have been most lamentably 
defiaent, and principally because it was thoujdit fit that th^ 
bojrs should wear caps and j^owns instead of the ordinary 
dress «nited to their age : Mr. Malthus himself admij& 
<p. €5) that they are all too young to be allowed ihe privi- 
leges that are enjoyed by the stu&nts at our regular Uni- 
versities. We E^an select an extract or two from the latt 
three divisions of this pamphlet. First our readers will be 
I'lad to Jaarn a JiUle wW is done by Hie Professors and the 
Students ait Ahis iNew Gellagf, a flmJMt that has been in^ 
volved in some secrecy. 



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MuHhus OH ike Ead-ln^ia CoBege. 71 

^ The lectures of the diflbreat Professon in the college are given 
ia a UMumer to make prevjoos preparation neoessary, aad to enccMi-' 
rage mosl effedually habits of iadastry and applicatioc. In tbeir 
subataooe they embrace the important subjects of classical litera- 
tuie, the Oriental languages, the elements of mathematics and natu- 
ral phflosophy, the lairs of England^ genenil history, and political 
economy. 

" At the commencement of the institution it was feared by some 
p^TSoas that this vaHety would too much distract the attention of 
th^ students at "die age of sixteen or seventeen, and prevent them 
from making a satisfactory pro^ss m any depattment. But in- 
steices of dslingaished success m many departments at the same 
tmm have fMDved that these fears were withoat fouadatfon ; aad that 
lMs satiety has not oialy beta usefal to them in reodenag a metho« 
dical aivaogeaient af their hours of study more aecessaiy, but has 
decidedly eoatributed to eiikirge» invigoratey and mature their un- 
derstendtiqgs. 

" On all the important sulijects above enumerated, examioatieas 
take place twice in the year, at the end of each term. These exa« 
minations last above a fortnight. They are conducted upon the 
])lan of the great public and coll^iate examinations an the universi- 
ties, particularly at Cam)^ridg^ with such further improvements as 
experience has sugge^d. The qaestions gii^en are framed with a 
^ view to ascertain ime degree of progress aixi actual proficiency in 
' estdh particulflir depaitment on the subjects studied during the pre- 
fX^mg term^ and ¥he srnsfi^rs, m all cases wbicfh mil admit f»f il; 
atK given in writiag, m tbepres^ce tff the professors, and wilhatft 
the possibilily «of a refereaoe to books. After tlie examinatiion ia 
aayimrtkalar^efiartment isioaer, the Professor m that ' d e p art m ent 
jReviews 8ft his leisafe all die papers that heius received, and places* 
as aeaalyas he^raa, each individual i&ithe numerioal ^er ofhSb 
lalative mOM^ and in certun division^ implying his d^roe of ^si-> 
live merit. These anaiigementiB are aM subject to the contronl of 
the whole collegiate body. They require considerable time and at- 
tcDlioa, and tare eiaecoted "with csompukms cave and striot impar- 
ta%. 

*^ besides the cihusifioaltians aboive mentioned, medals, fttiKes'of 
hooks, aiid ihaaorarry itistinotioiis, are awarded to ^hose who are Ifae 
beads al olasses, 'Or as high as second, third, fourth, or 'fifth, ia 
two, tfavee, foov, or five depaitments/* (p. 47 — 119.) 

Manj reasons must immediately occur ito the xeader, why 
this ^alem ahouU not i>e asiaucceaafiil <at ^Hertford tas at 
^OvSoBdty indcipendeiitly of ithey^uih-of tiie stndeDlB, which 
Menders alroiig feampilkianAkaQat oinaivaidabfe ; onecbief fi|H 
ponenA to dt as* that theaiudenlB IkatoMrwetjr nveU, in ^tfae &9^ 
fUsmy ttatttlte JMfldpal iAro&ssaia sbve notieserciae » * 



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72 Mdthuiontke Eetd-lndrnGoBigd. 



idy ocqmred power of eitftisioii; atidit is not if^ty 
lUk^y^ in tbe der^oud plaee, tiiat the Imij^s should be wiilin^ 
iff ohej implkitly in this country, when die vefr; rea>* 
son for' their edutatioB' m tBfei mafotier is— that they ar^' 
to exercise such unlimited authority in India : the ex- 
tent of their absolute powers civil, military, and judicial, 
often over a whole district, are disclosed in the early part 
of this pamphlet. In th^ seventh section, regarding the 
truth of the accusations against the College, Mr. Malthusis 
not sa scrupulous as might be supposed insetting an example 
of tenuper t his language is sometimes very coarse, and he falls 
foul oi Mr. Hume, Mr. Randle, Jackson, -and others, in a 
way not the most conducive to: his purpose, if it be that of 
eonvincing; He tells the former geraeman, that^ until his^ 
speech at the India House^ he (Mr; M.) thought him <^ a' 
man of sense,, a man of the world, and a friend to the gond^ 
government of India." The inference therefore is, that since 
uiat time, he has changed his opinion, and now holds- him to 
be a mail of no sense, of no knowledge of the worid, and' 
an enemy to the good governme^nt of India. Mr. Jackson is 
treated soon more roughly, and the editor of one of our. 
mostrespectable dai^y papers noticed in terms of gross scurri*. 
li^. It IS not a little amusing to see bow Mr, Malthus shies, 
alf the main accusations of disturbances, riots, and disor*> 
gaaization of the worst kind ; be does not deny it however,* 
and that is sufficient. Our concluding extract shall be the 
winding up of the pamphlet, wliicii the 'reader will per-^ 
eeive is a joint attads upori thosei who have comp laira of 
the College, and those who are educated in it^— a charge of 
a sort of conspiracy between some Members of the Court 
of Proprietors, and all the Students ajt Hertford. 

' ''' Uo^is' it pDssibie to answer for the coiidact> <3i£ young mcif^* 
under such powerfol excitements Ironi without? For my own panrt; 
I am oiifyfas4lmifliied'tbatitfae cMtige iaafbem^Mt to 'get on at all, 
under these ov«rwfaeliaiii|^obstaftl««:vaad tlmti'it faas^got oo» and^ 
done great good: too, (which I^b^dly assert^ift has,) is no commoa. 
proof of its iutermd vigour, and its capacity^ to answer its object. . 
*' The present virulent attack upon the college has been medi- 
tilted some time; and it could hardly fail to be known to tWe stu- 
dents that a disturbance this autumn would have been hailed by 
many of the Court Proprietors 'as the happiest omen of success. 
Utider these circnnstoees^ the ord^ly conduct of tb^ stadenits fst 
tbeiastyesllr does 4faem the highest hbnoor. And* it is not alittle^ 
discreditablie' tothe character of -the present altadCj a&d'the motim 



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«M«ii,lwii«P7«Ql 4»f iHalf|i«ie miietit |pav« gii^ «oine |>lwsihji^ 
gi«HUid i^r it, j!)ot «fter ;i jfmod ^of ^i?eat auiet ,9p4 pxder, jaivl #t 
Uie conclusion of a jteiam cwiufg^ti^ disjtiv^wbe^ for ^r^4t.iu$li4^/ 

THE DRAMA* 

Art. yS..-^4n Impartial Reviejs) fif the Stage from the da^s 
. ofCarrick and ttich to the present period: oftte causes of 

its degenerated and declining state^ and shewing tbe n^ce$T 
> sitj/ of a Reform in the Sj/stem as the only meapjs ofgisp- 

v%g stability to the present prpperiy of the Winter Thea- 
\ tre^. By pnAMA^ricus. Lc^i^oii, forC. Chappie, 1816. 

Th^' •iiK)le of the «ubjectfl lUinineraAed atMWjBihajfie.bectt 
eooipvelieBded in tnehij-iAxymii^ pmUtd ppq^cs, saAhttt 
he who Ipobs Jio (uithc^ tkam iheilitie page^ mii&tifeel'pQQttjr. 
ifell assiiredj either thft the author treala AfaetopioBiaa 
▼erj unsatisfactory and superficial mamert jorihiitlHBfios* 
sesses a considecable (poittioa of tlhtrt loiithMiessjaad bnefjty 
of style neicommendod fagr Abe if riter mdo ^MMrtaadkd 4hat all 
branches /of human kwmitdge mme iadndwl 'ia the iv^^ 
have. After jreadingp lAe firal page ;Qr 1 w.e, at (WtU no longer 
remain di ^question which ^ ^Ae imo aappesitiaats |s ^oor- 
rect; aqd,«a a farther peraaal, H <witl oe ifottod^imtLlhe 
poials <en iwhkh irhe wrkeniisis mostdwek^'aoe those »filf ihe 
least 4iofiipa«tiitie ifa(>oii(irnoGL. 

For jnstanee upon irbe .goeat toptc^ Abe trppt iadeed lof 
nearly aildhecomplainislaMif^ipadetregaadiogQiirf^^ 
their enormous siee, ^e liniB'saidiiiSlIejiandwsa-dirMUyito 
the point: on one aecowait, jperh^pe fbeoMs 4tt fhe^ia^t; 
because, AoMgh wilh a vieMr.todhiejspiQQets of ihednuattyil 
is a matter/of the laat ipiportaooh^iit j»ia jdefeqt WsteapaW* 
of a venecly : in fwevioas Anonberfl^ lae (haiie aUgbtly >iiDd 
ineideflilallyidiluded^to lita ificiaDwaMiQeandiiiDtpoUBy^ aed 
we now ^opoae enteuifig' « liMe iinore at Sai^ inlpfthe 
qaeeiiioBw 

We^set out then iwiA this iprofioaifeioD»n>th«tfthefMreaeii!t 
enoriBou8*8ize.of ^ ourcthealres is^itestro^fttytevof the£i\gliah 
drama, and is injuriqus to the liaieiieits of jauthoif^i pro^ 
prietdf!8,iaad(itor8;aiidjaclors. We'WittiiM>tMkiwrthe^aG^^ 
of the author of ^ pamph}eti«a jouriUiAil^y ifbr.we im 
endeaiMttir to ^be methodical. 

iFivst, with respect to thedhceatened aodipafffiifdlgr'^S'eiflted 
destruotion pf th^ l^itimate lEkigliAdKMuu xWe itfipre- 

Cbit. Rev. Vol. Y. Jan. 1817. L 

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ti Mn ikifi&tial Reoki/o •/ Me Stage. 

hfeHd, tlial it is scarcely ii<^c«Mafy fitt* tts tO eXjdttiH wlMt 
V^ to^ft by th^ tegitiitlate Eti|[Ii8h draAM: of doUMlsy we 
Iteitbier ibe)lh pahtbttitfcne^, hof fihcVkim^)^^, (or hftlf-pa«tt>« 
ttifhies, tb Use a sbtebism,) tkieluding^ the #hdle AittgOS irace 
of melodraroes, nor dveh tVajfedy atid itodi^y, t» they hiive 
biSiM |^t^«ie<ed sifiM tte r««torftlioii) but dniMttlfo proiue* 
tidns as they existed in tbe ti|[i6 of Shakespeare, and his 
contemporaries, which we hold to be as much Ihe legip 
titoate drama 6t JSiiglahtL (however expelled by usuf|>a* 
tion,) asi ^Ling; James the Firdt was the legitimate Ikin^ of 
Slngland* when in htm was rSistored to the throng the blood 
of our Saxon Hoyereigns. lii this respect, Ehgland, of 
modern nations, stands alone ; it is a pre-enl^i«ence, Wntch 
tlie mbstWrned and tasteful foreigners nave acknbwtedged; 
and Professor Scbleg^l^ as many of eur reider* hare pro^ 
baMy ^eetk by the trahsktiefn of ois German lectlires^ ploses 
it taqilesiionabiy above the Bomten^ 4t>^ probably, above 
ttie GvcttiliB dramas it haKs been approacted by Spain, but 
riviiM t>y iifl»ii«tioii of the world. 

Tins exoelleiice is otlribated to many oaittses, on wbtch 
#e B^^d iMfi hnour i^Rter. It is ^Mi^ for x>iir parfNiae 1)o 
iaj^ that it wto miiMy iprometed bjr thfe small rfsM^ afidieren 
irf Ifae ill fdnritare^ (bn, more teohtaicttltyi'sfpeaki^g) the defi>- 
eient pr&perimy) of our tbieiatlres^ in the fieignB of JEtisa^ 
belb^ Jaines^ 'and Oharlte. At « time, when the topen roof 
adtoittod ^ght frbm thfe «ky ; wben tnete benchea^ '^r no 
seats at all were provided even for the weakbiest'speolators, 
trh^n an old fala»bet was the ^i»rt»hl, and the isoenes w^re 
repMseitted by Irade insfeiiptf^ns of w'hat l)bey nvere to^ 
■tippdsedu-^wbe^ <tfae 'dl^sses of tbe jplayers were tiw catit- 
dbms'tir thfe i^etaai^i« of noUcMiea^i^wbeR aicroira was of 
|mst0b(Nir4 itjid ^a «o^raof lath,* it iv^ a matltir of eon* 
sequence 4o Ifive ?the aadioaBO aomelhing lb >oQQO|iy their 
tninds« rfiiiee,'ito ^giiitifir dieir senses, w«s impossiJm. it 
ti«6 um ivldcb bi^iugat poetiy apon dor ^i^lage, axad «er« 
tailily ^reta^efl it tberO'; imd^ fer {iroof of ^ fact) we need 
only go back as far as the days of Sir W. Davenant, <to be 
tonvroeed ^bat the ^giradoaladoptiein erf* finery and «necha- 
lliaia^ <i|ra8 thegvadiml'eadpnlsion of tpoetry <and goodvaeaee. 
The suture of GharleadL of the ^patent to the author of 
Ctondibert, tvMA lfe'm[liaAui^ of the death-wai^^ 
ilNitic ipoelrjs <tiAiob'i3ready, for4en yearfi^ had endaredia 
melancholy imprisonment, undlar -sentence ^df^gloonnrtand 
Ini^itided ielnalieai ^Efmn before tb& ioteFdietion &iMly 
procured 'by tihese iBKiirial^4ealbis,*tbe^i»tag6ffaad begun 



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4n Impniioi Xevkw ofth Stage. n 

la laMuiih iiacl«ir tliew erU eye, a«d iom of wit and wovtli 
«Msed^ in a degree, to eneourege a pro&ptioD, demmqoed 
by the pmvailing |MUPtjr as deteatabfe and impious. ThB 
^eneim^e of great poets lud almo^ passed away, an4 noae 
iMve «aeotiraged losueeeed; and in 1636, Hejwood, one 
mt ibe last, thos iaments over the decline of its cU|[Bi^, and 
4lesefft. He firat rafers to the superiority of our dramatii^ 
peedfoetions in the early pact of his life, to those of an^ 
fi^erioottntiy.* 

*^ The Ronan and AtheoisB dramas fiir 

Oiftr from oars ; end those Hmt ft«qu^ are 
fa Italy, in Frsnoe, even b tlieBe days 
Csa^ar^d vrith eofi» are latfaer Jigs than pliqrs — 
Thty de net heiM dieir .projects on that ground 
Ktf i^u ttrnir pbnuQs b«if the weight and s^aad 
Qm Ithtm^d J^mm h<we h^d ; an4 ye^ e^r pisU^ 
iAk^f top oMic^ tfix*A Ut imitstion 
Sn «e^juiy to 9p9 others) ^^jinot qujjt 
3pmie of ear poets vho have sinoed in it ; 
FAr wbei^ hefore g^cnt oatripts^ dukes^ and kv^p 
(Presented for some high faci^orpus tjbings) 
Were the stage-subject, now we strive to 9y 
%i their low jiitcli who never could so^r high • 
Tor now the cpmmpo argooient entreats 
Of piding lovers, craftjr hawds* and cheats. 

Ner blauM I tb^ <]pdc fiuioies who oan sit 
These .queasy times wMh humours flash'd in wit, 
Wlwse ait i both AEMspura^e end opmaieDd ; 
I only wish that they sometimes woiild ibeud 
To memorize the vsQour of such men 
llVlhose very names might dignify tli^ pen, 
And that our once-applaadeaftbsciatt strain ' 

In ^Kiitin^ such md^ »"be revived again : 
M^ich yon to coant'nance would the stage nrafcr proud 
And pd!ks strive lo key 'tiieir 8t«uig«moi« Ipqcfc^ 

U%^ Q^enl^n x!SiVmrk^ w|t}i smtpri^^ of the pl^dra- 
ggntiat^; ith^t io Ibeir jpl9y9 Jtbey mi^r vff^o ^11 the smMiaof 

* Shirley's DoiOifiU Hetr ,was nqt printed tJU IfiiS, bpt p^bf^ay |t was 
writtefi some yesn earlier. In the prolo^e, he censures seyerelr the 
jotrodnQtion of shpws, 4snces, &c. npon tfie staffe, to the ezcliutoii or dra- 
matic poetry. <:He says, tliatiSp^^is play wiU be round 

<< ,No;sli0^8» lOO d^q<;e, imd wba^3K|a^|iiOst,<|eligl|t i^ 



JSo b»w4^» nftr ||p,)i|^ets--ythls j^o^ l^d : 
:B«t ]ai|giu|ge.ctei|Q, and whf^t afectB ypajtot. 
Without impoBsibUlties the pl<it, &G." 



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ptmol^ kH» all die fiitv and nMre Miteto nif>dUe» 9 IM; 
tbis i?a9 most esp^Ml^r Ike ease with SMtepeare Mt ewm 
MAr witiie89».the writings of cmr aneieM masters- are 4 
ffWBt pepfeet esmUfatl tir iMsd thM sac ctftJ e d , by t%« Drj* 
4eii8, Ibe J>Bt^esMWili, and the Leesy ni wbiofa oalfy Ibe isMt 
talgai^^ oMrudiv^ SEivd YMenlt passioil^are teppeseDt^di The 
reasonr wbf tbes« reftnemen^v tb^se nfioer shAdeSy wel^ in- 
troditoedy We haVe belbte giveir<»4t waii because tb^ au*- 
dience coAld see and distinguish them: th6 theatres were 
small, without any thing to distract the attention from the 
actor when he was (ielivering^ passiSges of poetry, or pour- 
tray ing the inward workings ef the mia^; both these gra- 
tifications are now* k>8t .%6 the speelator (we ean scarcely 
call him aud(itor> at our theatres a^ ill p#^sen4 ceiisti*ucted ; 
and we mtty Ventare to a^drt^ that the greater mimber of 
those pafrts of Ibe plays ofdtirffeat dt^lnfltisl, Which, by 
violent action and stidde^M transition 6f t6)cef, stre^rioiir made 
most effective, wei^ ibirUerlv the^ l^sf pfoiUitient parts 
of the performadce. W^ coufd kpf$!A to the judgihent of 
any penMi' of ttidte, whether the passages id If fttblet, for in- 
stance, which cut the greatest tigure in the acting at Drury- 
Lane or Coveni Garden* are not in truth the worst portions 
of the play. In illustration of this subjed;, we beg to make 
a very happy quotation from au article in the Reflector, an 
almost unkriowH periodical work published in the year 
181 1 : th^ essay ffcNn wbiob u^e make the extract is totitled 
Theatralia, and was wriftea by a geiilleman whoos We know 
well, and admire miorew* 

'* It 18 common for people to talk of Shakspeare*s plays being $0 
natural ; that every body can understand hiai« They are natural 
indeed, they are grounded deep in nsture, so deep tliat the depth 
of them lies out of the reach of most of us. You shall hear the 
same persons say that jGeorge Barnwell is very natafali and OUiello 
is very iiaturai, thflrt: thi'y are both veiy deept and to them they are 
the same kind oi tdiog. At the one they sit and shed tears, because 
. i ^cud soft df ^duftg iti^ is t^Mptixi by ^ ti&tighty Wtoofati to eoUimit 
A fHjtifig: pectddltld, ihi imtd^r 6fk6 irticle bf kb,i that is Mi add 

* i(^ Mi*. L^igli Himt^ wiio principaily cenciucted tke work* 
t ^ If tm9 note coi|ld hope to meet the eve of anjr of the Msbiagers^ t wonld 
intreat and beg of theni, ifa the name of (K>£h the bstlleries, that this tasuit 
upon the moralit/of the common pc^ople of Lonaoii shonld cease to he eter- 
nally repeated iti m Holiday w^fels. tThy are !hc> "pMntld^ df this famous 
and well-governed «:ii)r, kkiikH tit itfi aAttlf^ili^ilt^ «6 m Vr^ied 6Ver and over 
again with a nanseon^ s^tiMof^df 0^tfe ^FhWfeHr Whf ^ m tnd nf their 
rittoet are we to place mifMiBtf W&fg I Hh «hctei I sHbhlCl fldtmachUke 
a nephew of mine tom^ iltk «t txttHpl^ t'^eSfl b^lrd hit 6)r68. Itis reaUy 



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An Impoiiiai Bevkw ^ihe SUige. 77 

i» ^iM&$ lo m tBtiiidY Mi, whkb is $o mnimg^: 8ttd at Ikeotber, 
bmuM a bteekftMor laa fit of jcaldttsy hills kis ioMceat wbiit 
vrife : aod the odds are thai aiUBty^niae oat of a b<Mi4re4 wouW 
wiHuigly l)eho{(l th« same. catast;ropbe happen to both heioes» aad 
have thought the rope more due to Othello than to fiaroweM, For 
of the texture of OCheflo's miudi the laward coiistructioQ matve)^- 
l6il^ly Md opeii with fill its strengths aod weaknesses, its heroic 
cM^dedceS aad ii& humaa Driisgivings, ^t» agonfes of hate, springing 
frOBl th« d6(Hbs of love, they ^ ho ihote ii^ the spectators at ft 
theaipef «itte, trho pay their pennies d-plece to look through thfe 
iiltt% Iftlescdpe id LetedsteNMds, se« Into the itfward pk>t atid to*- 
pognphj oi^tlfe ftMtoti. 96Mie dini thing or othrf the; see^ they see 
a« aotoi' fienrsdMitii^ a^a«ioav of gMt oi «Ager«- m inetati^e^ aiKI 
Ihey locopiiM it as a c^py of the usual eilemal eflbcts af fudi pas- 
sions} or al IciMtaa heiag time to iK&t Mgpnhfl^ftke emciim ninik 
poms iBmiptf at the iktattefar il, for il is oltea «o noit tkaitthat: 
box of the grounds of thfr passion^ its correspondence to ft great or 
heroic nature^ which is the onky .worthy object of tra^^y,' — ^that 
common aoditors know any thing of thi^ or can have aay such no- 
tions dinned into them by the mere strength of an actors Inegs,-^ 
thftt apprehensions foreign to them should be thus infused into thim 
by ^orm, 1 (!an dehhef believe, nor understand how it can be possi- 
ble." (p. SOS— 304.) 

We think it may be taken for granted therefore, witboot 
4welUng longer o» this part of the ^ilbjeet^ thstbytbe mag^ 
nitude of our tbeatfes we have totit nearly all dbcrtminatioll 
4>f charaet^r^ all the more exquisite touches, all display of the 
motivea of action in the workings of nitnd; ana our dra* 
matic compositions have become like the gaudy stenes 
painted to aid them^ iKiere coarse^ utifinislira, uadetatted 
representations \ and our dramatis personm are Ih^ 4»riea* 
lures of human beings, as the daubed cftnvas is the cttrica" 
ture of natural objects. Wie need not diieuss iHore partrea*' 
larly what we bavo giMoed instead, it is suiffieient ranr ur ta 
point out what we hate lost4 

When we say, in the setond place, that the extreme 
magnitude of our theatres is itgurious to the interests of 
atttnorB« we must not ber supposed lo have iti view merely 
a sordid calculation of pounds, shillings, and peace, thougb) 
were we driven even to tbis^ we should not despair of coa^- 
vincing any man, that ditimatic authorship is now a much 



makkg ancto^murief . tM trivial tb estbiblt it ts done apoastrcfi sliglit ma- 
fives ;— it is ftttributing too nraoh to auct^ charaoters as MilwOod } it ts fnlV 
tiiig uilngs iiito the heads of good.yonng men, wiilcli they would i^vor odier- 
.trifte hSiVe dreHtiied dt VACl^a. ttut think Imy thing of their liyes. should 
fstrly petition the Ghamberiain ligiittst iti'' 



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78 AnImpiMMXeifimdfapSiage. 

wofne imde than aHhe p&riAd Ito ^ich we balbr^ aliiided. 
Some of those who «re of oor optitioB, otMoparing the sac* 
eesfiOit vrot^ bf this age with those of two eenturies ago, 
say Chat it is now so easy to write for the stage ; but this wo 
apprehend is a mistake ; it is hj no means an easy tbin^ for 
a man of education and mind (especially if he have a gift of 
poetry, and consequently an admiration of the nobler produc- 
tions in this kind) to write for the stage — for he will not, or 
cannot, write badly enough; and in confirmation of our as* 
sertion we might appeal to any coUeiUioa of plavs brought 
out within the last twenty year% by which it would bo founds 
that those which bad been cosdraiBed bad unfinttely more 
talent engaged in their composition than those which had 
been aoooessful-^we would ask for no better test of the 
tmtb of what we have advanced. Besides this, let us con* 
sider for a moment who have been the popular authors in 
our day— numerous they certainly are ; Reynolds, Morton, 
Dibdin, Hooke, Dimond, &c. &c. and put in the opposite scale 
those whose names we need not bring forward, whose dra- 
matic compositions have been hooted from, the boards, at a 
Criod too, when all classes, from improved education, are 
tter able to appreciate merit, had the proportion of our 
theatres enabled them to exercise their understandings, and 
to employ tbeir knowledge. Many people have wondered 
that in this age of poets, none of them have ventured upon 
a dmmas wby has not Lord Byron, Mr. Walter Scott, or 
Mr. Sonthey^ written a tragedy ? is a queafion oft^i put, 
and the answer fo obvious*^they are too prudent, and their 
BMids, and the minds of otber living poets, have taken a 
diAmit ttnm, aooonseiouBiy perhaps, beeaose it was im- 
peanUe that an^! thini^ really exoeUent should succeed oft 
the stage. An aMtbor is now a most insignificant personage, 
a thing almost to be dispensed with in a Ibeatre, compared 
with those important appendages, tlie seene^paittter, the 
dress-mator, and the wmcmnist. 

On this account we say that large theatres are firitirioni 
to the interests of authors, oonfsidSr i ny them as a body, and 
iadndingis^hoae-intaests not eo mudi-weseiit emolument 
as posthumoos Imne, and connecting tn^r interests wifih 
those of literature in general. No tragedv, within the last 
ten or twenty years, htm been so s i i ooe ss fuT as PifunrOf and 
when we reflect upon the stuff of wbidi it is oonposed, of 
the violent opposition of its characters—^ Moody tyrant, a 
j>enetoua hero, a w'hining lover, and a rantiog heroine-**- 
and of the fustian of the inflaled diaiogua, and speeches) we 



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Bi^«t it dovn aslfae «BoM iqpan vrUdk tmgedy. fl^^ 
be MittM to km fiUcoeiafoK W^U mif^ llMiJAiQ6iito4 
' Dnr, er nllMnr transfaitor of k, my ki refenwce to, .tb« 
ma it experienecd-^^ il b ibeMer . tihaa any tUog ia 



BIBLIOTHECA ANtlQUA. 

Fur twrt of *tlie Mdc 4Mdes, 'as inen Mlietliy 
Comc^'«n Ibh newcerne, fro jen to ^yere ; 
AaiioutHBif did boobes, lofdodfmib, 
• CoiKtb««il1hBne«e8C9Qm»ilbati]iciiJere. 

JAWLES SHIRLEY- 

AttT-'X.— 7?te Trimfipht^ Peaiey a Masque ; pres^tdbj/ 
ihe 'Fbure Honaurdble JavmeSf er Itmti of Court. 'Befvre 
the King and <iueenes Majesties, in ihe SanatttfSng^home 
at ffittehttll^ 'FSruarj^ the thvrdy IWS. tmented and 
WViffipw&y James SntHLEY, df^Gratfes Ifme^*BeiH. The 
Third IntpTes^hn. "^ Prinafum fiumc At^thusa mfUi** 
liowdbn, printed *bj Jobn Woirieh, «)r VlMiftm 'Ceekie^, 
and are to he ^dd at hid shop, neere^Pnriimil's^infie^ 
-Gate, inHolborne, 1638. 

0A¥4ftirGiiDv.our last surtiole;gi^en Bp^Qimens .of the /powers 
of Shirley in itbe deparliiieBils vel the dmnia rto.w.b«o|i JVof 
getfy AodiGMietfjr iuAo9g^ -iit^will. \m our rbiMinie»a no^ M> 
npmkiii£ihiatMa$qmeiy iDramaltic £$^rt(^^ iPa9^49(^» 
and MitceHaneims JPoem$9 and to Wc<>duf#r8iiebiaddUipniil 
gootationa as WiUeaable^Qiftrifeadeiislo focm ^tfoir e8Ulmt^ 
of theAralue of the ibrth-coming edition of biB works b/ 
Mc* Giffiard, indepoodentljr ^of Uie labours of the w^y 
aUe and shrewd eeoHnentator. 

The whole nuiriber of the dramatic pieoes attributed, 
with tolerable oertainty;, .to Shirley is 39 :* they were all 
printed within thetspace of thirty years, and idisplay Afftur* 

* Fire others are^Wen to him by^ome bi^graphecs: they are caUe<|,-^ 
The Dukey Look io the Ladif, St. Albans^ The Gefierai, and Roema. There 
appears to be little or.no aatfiority for this, more , particularly the two last. 
Kogaotais mdonbtedly the same play as the Diaebfful'Heiry under a diffareiit 
name. Jn. the. catalogue of the : British Museum another piece, printed in 
1602, is stated to have been from the pen of Shirley, who wasborh only In 
If 94 : tills erior arises from the ignorance of some person who has written 
4»i die tiHe pace of the .'entertainment^ (called ^ the Contentign between 
Jrf^eralitie and ProdigsOUie;*) thename of James Shirley. 



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^rngiil^ verratiltty ofibaleiit cpiididering itlmr gaAeM cxeel" 
fence ; searod^ooe of them, (not^scepltng ieven ike Bimd's 
Revenge^ wrhich is Dtie of ii» {loorest triqprdite), fbcsvi^ 
^stitwfte of i^oelxy in die Sangoage, ofi^maiit^ in tJie ploi, 
and skill in its developenewt : iodieed mm t^uik m^ wottt 
aofoewliai ioo fajr in our last r^view^ wbe^ we pbjeipted to, 
the manner in which the catastrophe 13 usvally brought 
about by him. This part of the subject, faowe?er, we have 
already discussed as lauch as our fipace would nUpw^ und we 
shall, at present, first woceed to notice tb^ Mofiques^ (only 
two in number properly iso called), of w!hich &hkhy was 
the writer. It may not, howeirer, he intproper ^ joake a 
few preKmiRary oiiservations upon the origin, progress, and 
purpose of this species of dramatic amusement. 

Although masques tinqiiestionably had their first growth 
in Italy, the scion transplanted into this country seems .tp 
have reached a higher degree of perfection than me, original, 
fircun tbefMuns taken in its iuiUivation, rather than irom a4iy 
advaatagea .of soil^or climate : one of .the first speeimensi we 
believe, was g^\en by Sir Thomas More,* and yet thai, per- 
baips, more resembled what .is called a Pageant, a species of 
amHBemeiit vety -distinguisbable, and some time afterwards 
appFopr»ted to the city shews on hopd Mayor's 4ay. In 
our earlier writers, fna^9tit>fg'andj0»<ifnmiWaDe usually men- 
tioned together,t and probably differed but in the circum- 
stance that the faces of the actors in the first were covered 
by masfcs, sometitoies of bideMs de^jts, animals, &c. . In 
the reign of Henr^ V I II . die ws at tOail became iK«nr fire-i. 
quent and splenM, but 4t does 4iet -seem 'dear thai any 
dialogue was inteFspc'rsed with the gaudy scenety and 
dancing.f In the reign of Elisabeth ifiey were continued^ 

.. ■ ■'■ • >■ ■■ '■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ^ .. ■ a — .< i^ ' 

' ♦ Vide Ms Works, Edit. 1557. The lines of Wr T. More were appended 
10 moving pictures : they were written When he wws^a bof. 
t ^ Runfiiog at tilt, jiwtliog, with nmniiw at the ring, 
Maying and mumming with eche kintle pf thing." 

f^egtotCs King CambyaeSf written cirett 1561. 
Holiiisbed mebtiMU a^Iloyal :Mimim«ry/' in UIO, and iaunedUitely 
afterwards lie terms it a maaque. Under date of 1612, he states, that the 
King played in an entertainment, '' which was after the manner oitttHtey 
csJled a masque, a thing nojt seene before in England,*' yet he does not 
atate in what respects it differed from the masques he has noticed, in previ- 
ous parts .of his Chronicle, even as early as 1400, when Henry IV. was la 
danger of being assassinated by conspirators, ** who meant on the sudden to 
set upon ihe lung in the castell of Windaarey under colour of a masque or 
nmwmery,*' 

^ it is true that HoUnshed says, In one placQ, that a speech was made in 
a masque by a herald in the French language, but in general it seems clear 
that these masques were merely pageants in the time of Henry YIII, ^e 



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wnd-piie oS fbe rao8t fl^cg^u» eitf pdfeai^ts was exUhited 
OR jbei; QQtranoe ijito Lo«doo>l|i loSU : in these repf^eseMart 
tH>ii8.|Bat]y ^p^ckas were matter biit kio masques are; staled 
to have beeil used) iUmt. at Kenndwortb G^sile^ where she 
was's<^4il9iptiiou8tj^ eatertaiaod^f Gaseoj^ne) wkeia^fnnn- 
cipftl^utheripf tbe panphkrt of 1576ygiyii)^aB account 6f 
what there passed, is the writer ako,: we believe, 4f th^-firM 
masque sJtrictW: so called devised on the celebratipn of the 
marriatges of the sou and daughter ofViscpunt Mbi^atacute, 
and inserted iatl^e volume of his works published in 1575 ; 
yet in his Satire called The Steele Glasse^ ie aeverelj cen- 
l^^s <^ these lnterlu(^ej9 and new Ttaliaii sports." Afiler 
mi^^time these amusements at Court, and at qobfemen:"^ 
residences, on the solemnization of marriages, qu birth 
days, &c. became not.unfreaueht and ipore varied ; and Mar- 
low, in his excellent tVageaj' of £7d ward II. bjf an anachro- 
nism, represents the weal monarch as delightmg In them ; 

... ... V Therefoie I'll have Italiaa maiqiifa hv nigi^ 

Sweet ^edwB, oemedies; ampteasitt^ shews^ 

ia the limgi^a^e^ ofGayeatiooy wbo Ibiis pi^oposes ^^. to cbraw 
the pUant* king which waj he [^ased.'^ m the reign of 
James I. they weri? stlH^ more usual on any' great oi^f^ijC; 
the.best pfj^ets of the .day were. employea. to devise them, . 
and the Royal Pedant him jietf is repeotra to bavd perfoiraied 
in one written bjr I>r. Campion,; The (tinda of tft'e Inns of 
Court were lavishly expended, and eve$/ e^baiustedy in 
their .preparation; and bo much were they Ihe fashion th«t 
lAifA Bacon has an essay in their commendation. Abpat 
tiiat time^ or a little earlier,, what are eaU^ afitimasqujeft 
were iAtrodaeedinto the manqttes^ lisaally opiDpo6ed,<in the 
vrprds of the Lord Chancellbr,) ** of fools, satVres, baboons^ 
vrild-men,. anticks,.,beastsj spirits, witches, ^thipps,. &g. 
iThe business of these personages was to amuse rae oott^i' 
pany while the dancemor' singer^"tn the masque irefreshed 
themselves. Double masque^, mqir.^ complicated, were also 
employed, and the entertaiimieiit was carried^toan extreme 
on every side ; for i^ the reign of Charlee I. Sir W. Dd- 

— — • ■»■■■.»' -i; 1> 1. ,-, •■ — ■ ' •' 

King being generally a principal &^cet» That ^asks wer« wortt it however 
equally clear, but n» Aalogue is Xxk^tsa notke of. 

* Stowe says, that Queen Elisstbeth vras entertained bi^ a Mask at Nor- 
wich, in 1579, devised by Goldtnghaflu, but this was only a*pageantof gods 
and goddesses, who made speeches to bet* Majesty, i^ bestowed appro- 
priate presents.' 

Pnttenham, the author of ** The Arte of 'Bttglish Fde^,^ I j^9, Tiras the 
autiior of some pieces he calls *<Triumphals*' on Queeif £lica!beth, but from 
the account he gives of them they do not seem to be dramatic. ' 

Ceit. Rev. Vol. V. Jan. 1817. M 

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8e mdiolhecadntifua. 

venant's Briimma Triumphms was represented ^ Cburton 
a Sunday, aitd roused tne Puritans to a state of Airy:* 
this circumstance at least aiieelerated the final dofttng' of 
the theatres, after the zealots obtained power.f 

Besides amusement, another purjiose, on the part both of 
the patron and the poet, was flattei^: thus in the Maid'i 
Tragedy it is said of masques, • ^ 

. " They must commend the King^ and speak in'piraide 
Of the Assembly; bless the Bride and Bride-groom 
In person of some God ; they're tied to rules 
OfFiattery/'t 

Shirley, himself the author of two masques, makes onf 
bf his characters in 7%e Roj/al Master speak thus contemp- 
tuoudy of their composition :— 

" I have ready 'tis but to bring 
Some pretty impossibilities for Antemasques ; 
A little sense and wit disposed with thrift, 

■■ I ■ ■!■ ■— »^i»— — ^— 1*— — ■■!« ■■ I I m i III I ■■ I ,— — ^M^iM^— — — i— i^» 

* See a long account of tbU ** diabolical pvOfanstion" in The Stage 
Condemned, 1698, p. 12. 

t In the former nnmber, we mentioned the -^difficulties and distresses 
Shirley Iwd to eneoonter, in consequence of the prohibition of ititgefluieg 
by the Puritans. In the dedication to his tragedy of The Politician, if»55^ 
he thus himself speaks of that absurd measure: — ' ' ^, 

^ Thott^ the severity of the times took away those dramatique recfea- 
tionsy (whose lanjE^uage so mnch glorified the English Scene,) and pwhaps 
looking at some abuses of the common Theaters, which were not so ha{H>i|f 
purged from scurrility, and under-wit, (the only entertainment of vulgar 
<»paeitie8,) they have outed the more noble and ingenious actions of the 
eviiiient Stages; Uie rage yet hath not been Epidemicall: there are^lefn 
many lovers of this exiled roesie, who are great Masters of Reinony/aad 
that dare conscienciously own this musical part of Himiane learning, when 
it is presented without nie staines of impudence & profanation." 

X P«f<haps the v«iy grossest instance of the kind is to be fonfid in ^Tho 
Arratfnment of Paris/' by George Peek, 1584, played before Elizabeth. 
Pom is called upon to adjudge the apple of discord to JimOf VetmSp or PaUan, 
lie assigns it to Kenus, but &iana steps in, and in the following terms gives 
itto4heQneira( . . ^ 

^ And loe, beside this, care solemnitie i 

And sacrifice these dames are wont t^ doe^ , 

A favour far indeed contrarie kinde, 
fieqneathed is vnto thy wortfaynes." > 
<*SkedeUvereihikeUdlqfgMtoihi<tueeiie8oumktoide8;\ 
^ This prize from heaven and iieavenlv goddesses^ 
Accept it then, thy due by Dion's dome. 
Praise of the wisdome, beautie and the state 
That best becomes thy peei:eles excellence. ' 
*^ Vemu. To fiiyre Elizoj Vpnu doth resigne 

The honour of this honour to be thine. 
^ Juno, So is the queene of heaven content likewise 
To yelde to thee her title in the prize. 
^ PoZ/di. So PoZIosyeeldes the prayse hereof to thee 

Forwisdomei princely state, and peerelesse beautie.** 



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as 

With here tnd there Monsters to make Vin Itiigh ; 

For the grand busiiiess» to have Merenry 

Or Venus* danda>nit9 to usher ia - 

Some of the GMs Unit are good tMmn, dancing, 

Or<joddes8es, and now and thena song 

To fill a gap — a thousand ciownes perlups • 

For him that made it, and there's all the miV\ 

The last was a third purpose^ and in some cases prdNiblf 
succeeded better Aan tne other two^ judgping by the heavi- 
ness of many of these spectacles* 

The Trmmph of Peac^ by Shirley^ which forms the title 
to the present article, was undoabtediy cme of the most 
popular masques that was ever produced. Though now 
extremely scarce, it went through three editions in the first 
^ear, and the author concludes nis account of it by observ- 
ing, that ^< for the variety of the shewed, and richnesse of 
the habits, it was the most magnificent that hath been 
brought to Court in our time/' Inigo Jones, the builder of 
Whitehall, where it was represented, invented the scenery 
and ornaments, and the music was composed by William 
Lawes and Simon Fves, two of the most celebrated musi* 
cians of that time. " The third impression," firom which 
our extracts are made, contains several judicious alterations. 

The masquers, composed of gentlemen of the four Inns 
of Court, and their long and splendid retinue, went in {nro- 
eession from Ely and Hatton nouses in Holborn, to White-, 
hall: it opened with tiie antemasquers, consisting of all 
kinds of grotesaue figures, among whom were personifi^- 
tions of JFoncy, Opinion^ Confidence^ Jollity^ and Laughier: 
they were gorgeously dressed, and accompanied by Antic 
Music, and an immense Variety of characters; They were 
Ibllowed by the Marshal of the Show, accompanied by ten 
horse and forty foot, and they by one hundred gentlemen 
belonging to the Inns, ^ gloriously furnished and gallantly 
mounted, riding two and two abreast, every gentleman 
having many pages ricblv attired, and a groome to attend 
him/' The most magnificent part of the shew yet remained 
behind. 

** After these came the foure Triampbals or magnificent Chariots, 
in which were mounted the grand Masquers, oneof the foure Houses 
b euery Chariot, seated within an halfe Ovall, with a glorious Ca- 
nopy over their beads, all IxHrdered with silver Fringe, ami beautified 
with Plumes of Featliers <m the top. 

Tkefird Chariot, tOver Sf orenge. 

The teeani, mher if waUJut. 



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m MmiMeeaJkttiq^k. 

TkeikM, mhirifeniUtm. . 

nefimtftk, iiherJpWkUe. 
** All after the Romane fQiii»es» iidonied with aiocb enboised and 
carved wockca, and etch of tbeoi wBOttfi^t wkb aiirer^ aad hisseue* 
rail colour ; they wefe mounkd oncarriagca,. the Sfning tr^es^ Pole 
and Axle-trees, the Cfaaiialen 'teate^ umA fllaiideis» wheelei, with the 
fellyes, spokes, and naves all wroiig^ with^irer, and Ihdr several! 
colour. 

••' They were all drAwne with foure Horses a-front after the mag* 
nificentRomaneTriunipihs; their furniture, Hamesse, Headstall, Bm, 
Raines, and Traces, Shaferon, Oronet, Pctronell, and Borbe of rich 
oloth «f Silver, of severaH woHtes, and cotourt aoswerahle to the 
linings of the Chariots/' .(f». 4-^5 ) 

We have detailed thus much of the procession, in order 
to give our readers a notion of the enormous sums expended 
•ev^n io the preparations for a masque. These were Court 
pleasures, in which the people at large were allowed to 
«njoj their share of delight. The masque itself opens with 
a great deal of antemasquing) prepared by Fancy ^ and 
acted by him. Opinion, Laughter^ JollitVy &c. A part of it 
is a ridicule of what were then called Projectors^ and now 
Schemersy of different kinds, the humour of which is not 
now very intelligible : we shall therefore omit it, and give 
a quotation from the more serious portion of the piece. 

*^ The Aotimasquers being gone, there appeares in the highest 
and formost ])art chF the heaven, by little and little, to breake forth 
a whitish Cloude, bearing a Chanot fained of Goldsmiths-woifce, 
aaid in it sat Irene, or Peace, in a flowery vesture like the qpring^ a 
Garland of Olives on her head, a branch of Palme in her handt 
Buskins of greene Taffiita, great puffs about her necke and shoul- 
der^. , . 

Shee sings* 

** In Hepce yee profane, farre hence away. 
Time hath sipke feathers while you stay, 
is this delight. 
For such a glonous night. 
Wherein two skies 
are to be seene. 
One starry, but an aged sphere; 

another here, 
Created new and brighter from the Eyes 
of Kios iuid Que^n^ ? 

, . . . Ckc. 
Hence you prophane, larre henee away. 
Time hath sioke feathers while you stay. 



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BMoikeeBAmiifmu 65 

«• ir. Wherefore doe niy sisters stay! 
Af^seare, appeare Eunamid, 
iSs Irene calls to thee, 

Irene calb, 

Like dew that falls 

Into a streame, 

Fine lost with them 
That know not how to order me. 

Cho. 
See where shee shines, oh see 
In her celestiall gayety, 
Crownd with a wreath of Starres, to shew 
The Evening glory in her brow. 

** Here ent of tiM highest pari of the opposite^ side came softly 
desccDdiug another Cloud, of an orient c^lomr, Iwarmg a silver Clia- 
riot eariously wnniglit, and diffenng in all things from the first, in 
which 3ate£MK7nM^ Law, in a purple Sattin Robe, adom'd with 
goMen Stores, a mantle of carnation Lac'd, and Fring*d with Gold» 
a Coronet of light upon hex bead. Buskins of Pui|^ drawne out 
with Yellow. 

•• Sang a. 

** Eu» Tfainke not I could absent my selfe this night. 
But Peace is gentle, and doth still invite 
EuHomia ; yet shouldst thou silent be 
The Rose and Lilly which thou strowest 
All thcche^eful way thou goest 
Would direct tofoHow thee, 
/r. Thou dost beautifie increase* 

And cliaiae security ^ith peace. 
Eu. Irene faire, and first divine. 

All my blessings spring firom thine, 
/r. I am but wilde without thee, thou abhorrts^ 
What is rude, or apt to wound. 
Canst throw proud Trees to the ground. 
And make a Temple of a Forrest. 
Eu. No moi^, no more, but ioyne 

' Tlie yoyce and Lute with mine. • 

Bath. Tlie windd 6hall give prterogativi^ to neyth^r. 

Wee- cannot floori^' but together.** (p; 112—14.) 

Irene and Eunomia nr^ joined by Dicey or^Jn^ti^ yyhtu 
address the f^lipivii^^^pag^to^the ^ingand Queen, whichi 
Ufough extravagant m itii flatt^rj^ i$ £eauiifiiUj ^xpre9aed« 

^<Tbwoi>^:griatKiligatt4Qiieene^wlio8^ smile ' 
Oothacflttcr Ueasings tbrottgh thift^II^ 



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86 BMwIhcca Antiqua. 

To make it best 

And wonder of the rest. 
We pay the duty of our birth ; 
Proud to waite upon that Earth 

Whereon you moue. 

Which shall be oani'd 
And by your chast embraces fam^d. 

The Paradise of loue. 
Irene plant thy Olives here, * 

Thus warm'dy at once, theyle bloome and beare ; 

Eunomia pay thy lights 
# While Dice, covetous to stay. 

Shall throw her silver Wings away, 

To dwell within your sight." (p. 16.) 

The aixteen sons of Peace, Law^ and Justice, then 
dance with the hours, and after various anti-masques and 
"OQgs, the scene again changes (having undergone frequent 
previous alterations, described by Shirle;jr with glowing 
admiration), and Amphiluche^ or the Morning Star, enters, 
and gives vrarning or the approach of day : previous to her 
song the company, both ladies and gentleman, had joined 
the masquers m their iiv^y revels. The masque of Peace 
concludes with a song gracefully describing the appearance 
of day-light. 

Although there is no creat display or invention in this 
composition it is light and fanciful ; the songs are easy and 
elegant, and the whole may be considered a pattern in its 
kind. Ben Jonson bestowed more labour, Chapman more 
learning, but they are both qualities ilUsuited to such pro- 
ductions, and Shirley is infinitely superior to Heywood, 
Middleton, or Nabbes, all of whom were his rivals in this 
and other theatrical performances. We have been more 
particular in our account of this piece, because, though - 
many reprints of old comedies and tragedies have been 
recently undertaken, none have thought it worth while to 
investigate the nature of representations which employed 
the pens of the first men in the best age of English poetry. 

Shirlev's other masque is entituled Cupii and Deaths 
1653, which is more ingenious io its construction, though 
the design is borrowed from L. II. Eleg. 6. of Secundus. 
Mr. Gilford has ^quoted it in vol. I. of his Massiager, in' 
explanation of an allusion of that poet, and without being 
aware'thnt Shirley 'had' iMmitly founded a piece upon it. 
We might quote it asr (he argnment of Cupid mid Deaikj 
had we sufficient space : we can observe only, that the 



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BibUoibeca Antiqud. 87 

masque displays the misfortuiies and perplexitias occasioned 
in tne world by an exchange of darts made by Cupid and 
Death, with considerable humour and much variety. In 
the end Mercuiy^ commissioned from Jupiter, restores to 
each their own ; and the conclusion represents Elyzium, 
where the lovers who had been killed by Cupid, witn their 
mistresses, enjoy all sorts of happiness. 

Shirley has besides three other compositions, usually de* 
nominated Ma^^uiss, but which in reality are not so, but 
private entertainments, as he himself calls two of them. 
These are, ^^ A Contention for Honour and Kicbes,'^ 1633, 
afterwards extended to a comedy, under the title <^ ^^ Ho- 
noria and Mammon," 1659, and io which was added, in the 
same volume, ^' The Contention of Ajax and Ulysses for the 
Armour of Achilles.", -The third piece of thiskind is " The 
Triumph of Bean^i^e, 1646, upon the saiAe subject as <^ The 
Arraignment or Paris," referred to in a preceding note. 
All that, tijUiately, was known of Shirley, was from a song 
at the end of " The Contention of Ajax and Ulysses," be- 

irinning' << The' glories of our blood and state ;" and to be 
ound in the Elegant Extracts. We furnish our readers 
with «C short extract from the argument on both sides, in 
whn^ the two Grecian heroes are admirably contrasted. 

** Ajax. What j^ath Ulysses done, he should be nam'd 
With Telmnon ; we have iiis Chronicle, 
He surpriz'd Rhesus in his Tent, a great 
And goodly act ; nay, liad the heart to kill him ; 
He snatch'd a spy up, Dolon, and dispatcTit him 
To the other world, a most heroic service ! ' ' 

i And had the confidence to filch from Troy, 

: The dead PaUadkim, memorable actions : 

j Fought he with Hector? did he stand unmov'd 

^ J As I, when I receiv'd upon, my cask, 

A mighty Javelm that he darted at me t 
When you, pale with the wonder of imy tftteagth. 
Forsook your prayers, and gave me from the God$ '^ 

Into my own protection, and at last 
I I was not overcome, but in the face 

/ Of both the Armies, sent this mighty Champion 

V Staggering home to TVoy. 

I ** Nes. Twas a fierce battel, 

I And Ajax lost no honour. 

J « Aja. Had I done 

Bat this alone^ it might be argument 

To prefer Ajax Tel^nm before 

Wsfsses to that armour ; which I'm thiakiag 

How he'l become, or how he dare sustain 'em, 

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r 




88 BMoiiita jitiiqiiiL 

,. Ofc8am|MAst«^l,,bc.bas.theart9f rupping,,^.^.. ;, - ;. 
Twill mupbrcUriJJjJs.motioyvAr^w^ ,, ; 

V;. tibnsidering as cjotttjiful to 4is*iog ; . . , 

'* ' Some God conyey those arqa* upon the wings' ' . 

Of a swift wind iiito'the enemies camp, ' ^^ 

Guard 'cm with all the strength and ioul of Troy. 
Let etciy sword mount death upon the point. 
And leave us to our sinrieTate, who soonest 
Should fetch *em off : Then you should tell your selves, 

- How nra^^i» Gaipet Prince came short of 4l^f 
I had rather iight tha» talk:: Now here him tattTe. 

. ** Swldien. An Ajax,Ma Ajax, . ;; 

«* l/lysms. It my prayer*^ ^irilijoui' own, renowned Kmgf. 
Could have prevailed with Heavm^ ttg|^^ui been no 
Contention far these arms,, he might hmHIi^d 
To hfive eiyoy'd'thera still, and we AchUk 
But since by the unkindeness of our fate» 
We are decreed to want him (pardon me ■ 
If at that word, unmanly tears break forth) 
WfaocaQ with greater merit claim the armour 
Than he whose piety to Greece and you. 
Engaged ^bne his valour to these Wars, 
And made him yours. Nor let it but a sin 
Ere I proceed, to pray this justice from you. 
That since my adversary hath beeu' pleas'd 
To make a vertue my reproach, an& stain 
The name of Eloquence, which in me, is not worth « 
Your envy» or his rage (since he declares 
His incapacity for more than fightii^ . 
You will not judge his dulness an ^tdvantage^ 
Or that which he calls eloquence in m^ . 
A blemish to my cause, who have employed 
All that tbe Gods made mine, to serve my count rey." * 

^ llie Triumph of Beautie"* has more poetry than either I 
|if the others : a very short specimen must suffice, from the] 
«pieech of Venus in reply to Juno and Pallas. 

** Poets have feigned Elysium after death. 

Which thou shalt here possesse, and all the pleasure 

Of those blest shades they talke of in their songs. 

Shall spread themselves before thee, which thoii shalt 

Posssesse as Lord not Tenant to the Groves. 

It shall be ever Spring and ever Summer 

Where Paris shall inhabit, all rude aires 

' -.1 

* It is worth remarklBg, that the sciene between the (XowBSy with which 
this piece opens, is imitated firom the PfMm» aiid Thidft tragedy in Mid- 
•ununer Nighf s Dream. 

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SaiiMmcA Ahtiqua. 89 

The killing dews^ tempest and lightaiog Unll 
Be strangers to thy ivalkes, f^htch the West winde 
Shall wi£ their soft and gentle gales perfume : 
The Laurell and the Myrtie shall compose 
Thy Arbours, mter-woven with the Rose, 
And honey-dropping Wood-bine; on the gfonnd '* 
The flowers ambitiously shall croud themselres 
Into LoVe-knots, and Coronets to entangle 
Thy feet» that they may kisse them as they tread. 
And keep them prisoners in their amorous staikes. 
The Violet shall weep when thou remov*st. 
And the pale Lilly deck her innocent cheek . 
Widi Pearles to court thy stay ; the Hyacinth 
When thou art passing by her, shall disclose 
Her purple bosome to thee, proud to be 
, , / , l^aluted by thy eye« and -being left '. 

BJlush, droop, and wUher, like a Lovewiick.ViiigiQ.'^ 

Shirlej published two Pastorals, one called Phillis of 
^cirosj a traoalalion flrom the Italinii of Bonarelli, and the 
other ITie Jrcadiaj fpntided entirely on Sir Miilip Sidney's 
work| bearing the same title. ^ The Faithful Shepherdess'' 
is the only pastoral we ever read with niuch pleasure, and 
in those belore us there is little to admire^ but th^ lacility 
of the translation in the one,, and the ingehioii^ compression 
of a long &ble in the other. 

We now arrive at the MiseeUaneaus Poems by our 
author, and we lament that so little room is left for spe- 
cimens ; though generally speaking, 'we 'do not think them 
equal to the dramatic aompositions of the same writer : the 
two first stanzas of the following lyric' composition are 
better than the last, which savours too mucti of the stile 
of some of his oontediponiries, at the head of whom is Dr. 
Donne, who often mistook conceit for fancy, and ingenuity 
fcr wit. -• --i- • ■• i ' ■ ■■•. .rf- • 

I ! •* TO ODEUA. 

** Health to my fair OdeUa; some that know 

Hew many months are past' 
Since I beheld thy lovely brow» 
Wottld count an age at least : 

But unto me . 
Whose thonghta are Itill on thee^ 

I vow. .' . • .: 

. By thy black eyes, ^tis but an hour agoe. 

** That idistris I pronounce but poor in blisses , 
That when her Servant parts,. 

CaiT. Rbv. Vol. V. Jan. 1S17. N 



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Gives ii6t fit 'Wibli il^ith lier 4ittt hhao, 
As-wm mMiotttth twa faifitrto . 

Till both db «Met 
To teste Wliat elie^'flvreet^ 
IsVfit 
Thne measilre 'Lo^ ^dr'our 'Affe^tioii it. 

'* Chen^^'tliat Wrt/d^e/ta, tlmt is mine^ . 

And If tl^e Koirth thou fe^r 
Dispate|:^jbut from thy, Soviiheru cnme , 

A sigh to wani\ 'thine Ii^re : 
BMt he ,80 kind 

To send by'Uie i^ext wincl ; , . 

And many .accidents do wall on wat,^ 

The 8\|b9o^ueQt little ^id<S^, '^ Up^ U^ SHstNiai JSad,"^ i«. 
liappy, bui^^ wknt of s^ih Iwb binit j^ifibliTar'i^meiit* 

iV'MdawholjriKiloe^ andistt . 
tSon^iSjiiaQa^fiflirlhflo/bediy^M^ - > 

tHefQ*^fr43^ 1^ BiMUe fii^ 
Wiimli: ftliPot lip to meat desirp ; 
iSjaUen hiiB^pc.leac?e her bl<^ 
;|Mi](,9otWh i(iie;|Mirer i^^ 
~^»ttf let plea^'urea •wdluw here 
Take % Sprifag-lide dl fie yedir* 

^ Lovv m itttottM siwt^ta dbtillini|r^ 

< . ^ And witL ji'Iri suit I>o>uaje^ fillingy , . ... 

;phartD all tye% that nooe may fin^^ 
.; _ JBteabove^ before, behind tis; ., 

And while we thy raptures taste^ , ^ ^ .. 

. , '^tppipel time itself to stay, • r 

Or by forelock Jiold him ft it^ 

Xttit oc^iton slip away/" ♦• » - • ^ 

W« condipde our pe?ieir of the works of James SMrkll^ 
^ by tile foUoWiiig eo&cislSjSii^hMlnlnibfe Epitaph bgr him upoa 
tae Duke of Buc^gham. ; ^ 

•* Heie Uas tta'taHsttd iroist^ Frtai 
Two Ktiip deUahl^ 4k'peo|rtH^I^ 
Tkft CourtiaesMtor, tlte«l^p»oiiM«^. 
A mao to draw an Anatlfav^ 
aan^va^uavf r asi^^F^iavyr 
The great mans irehuMe, all time's story/^ 

«attie^ in «ke eiiril wars ofCMliat 



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MQNTHl^Y OATALOGUE. 



AM BRieAN LITERATURE. 

Wb bare often regretted, tliat the spirit fyf d^Acttop wbieh 9 
too mda9triousl^ promoted between the only two free ns^onf of the 
woiM hi political coocemSy •houlfd have been extended to arts^ li- 
teratare^ and' pHtlosophy : '^ Aft the ^^bi^nt$ of the Ignited 
9^te8 iieHber ^pprecs^ pi:oper(y the nbend attammenta of tbe 
jpeoi^ of this ^untry, nor do fbe sttbjects qf iSreat Britain estimat^ 
jBstfv the acqun^m^pts of men of seniua in the Western Republic. 

We lifi^ to draw them near to each otbiiir^ because we V« cmir 
fident tfaiit tbey will mutui^iiy improve ^on a chuie intimacy. There 
are advantages peculiar to' old ^ to i^w:*tountrtes, an^ the per- 
fection of a st^te consists in the upioii and perfik:t ipcorporaJion 
of tfaesa bene^ts ; i^od it should seem sufficient to be sensibly of 
lbisobvio^struth» ^o bring about tbit reciprocal goQd understandins 
which we vf^ould saei^rnesdy recommend. 

We h|ive I|a4 freouent opportunities of fprfning i| judflmentof the 
state of ibeliug of the more tolightened part of sppiety in America, 
ty the communicatioris of literary' fnenrJs, and by the r^guhir recei[>t 
of the joufnab/and otber penodifml publicatioh^ ; and from these 
kieans. of experience we must !iay» thaj: the alienation we coniplf|in 
pf is not less promoted oti the other aid^ thau on this side tJGie 
ivater^ as a^W extn|cts from the works which supply the title tp 
Uteji^B^t papet^ WPi^d sufficiently ejiplain* if we Mf^ wiUuig tp 
. fcaaldpttt WW ^xipos^ weeds, instead of leaving them tp^de^y 4q4 
nerisli on their Ofm soil. 

^ T^e Apa%|ic lid^igazin^ i^ pri/{cipal|y devot^^ to liferary mtel- 
hflfpce, and was op the firat <>( Jfui^a^ instant, to be connected with 
a new work under the title qf the l^uaiteriy joiariial ;* fa)pth of wh^cb 
Ve tp ^r4t it- the purpose of tfatfi'edAori be ^l$Ued, a con^lete 
tody oiF miscelianebiU heading. '*«Tfae Moothfy Publication,'' si^y 
they, «< contains a varioivi frt^re of the lifhtnr artiples of pen- 
odibl Hterature, i^e 4e Quarterly 4%^ % ^ niultiifarioiis nipd 
of ito i^ore siibstpnfuil nfpduct|oiy.*' 



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99 Monthly CniBlogtke^dm»tean Literature. 

In tbe first of the numbers we h£(ve noticed, we btve the lift 
of Paul JoQesriotroduoed by fhefoHovriog obscrvatioBs. . 

** Whatever may have been the defects in the character of Pant 
JoneSy or whatever his demerits towards the place of his birth» froia 
m he deserves at ha^tsoeh a justification as mi^ be warranted by 
tbe truth. He served this country well in ber hour of peril, and iff 
in ao^ing^i he broke the iies which bound* him to anottier, is it for 
US to become his accusers; or listen in sHence to the accusation? 
No duty requires from an individual or a nation that they should be 
ungratefill ; nor, for our part, do we Iniow of anv moral obligation 
which forbids us to extenuate the iauHs, or vindicate the^ fiime of 
one who was our firicndj when friends wer6 valuable in proportion as 
they were rare. H is motives were nothing t9 the United States ; and 
we will now proceed to the detail of his life and aclions» so htm 
they have come to our Jinowledge/^ 

with all due respect to the editors, we take leave to observe to 
them, that these sentiments do not intimate that liberal spirit with 
which such works should be. conducted. We do not censure the Aine- 
ricans for having employed such a useful rutfian as PaiiT Jones; but 
it is one thing to avail themselves of bis courage, and another to ex- 
tenuate his faults, and vindicate his motives. Morals liave no laca- 
. lity : the^ are universal in space, as they are eternal in obligation ; 
and a traitor to his country is in no region to be justified^ but every 
where is to be exposed to the detestation of mankind. 

^ The Portfolio is devoted to literature, science, and history; comT 
preh^nding public documents as connected with the latter: ai^ to 
the person by whom it is conducted we would especially requeat 
attention to the friendly admonition we have just given, as his principal 
object professedly is, " to vindicate tbe character of American lit^ 
rature and manners from the aspersions of ignorant and flliterate 
foreigners; to expose their injustice, and repel their calumnies." \ 

'* It is in vain," he says, " to disgube the fiict : we pav an humiliating 
reverence to the haughty and supercilious opinions of foreign despots 
over the empire of letters. Our light is always subsidiary, instead of 
blazing in its own refulgence (effulgence). Such is the predominating 
influence of foreign literature in this country, that we dare not form 
a judgment upon a narrative of scenes that have passed under our 
own eyes, or express an opinion upon the merits of a picture at our 
own nre-sides, until it has been tried in the ordeal of Edinburgh or 
London criticism. It comports with the national pride, as well as 
the private interests of the gentlemen who wield these powerfiil en* 
gines of modem literature, to misrepresent and degrade the Ameri- 
can name.** 

We would apprise this gentleman that we have not the smallest 
objection to tbe justification he contemplates of American literature, 
that we shall be as ^lad as perhaps he himself would be, to see t^t lite- 
rature advance to' it's meridian spteddour r but w6 would con viiice 'ETna 
^ttiiit^ tiiia glory can bealone attained by tbe assistance of foreign eru-- 



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ditiony whether from Lmidon, Ed]i^iirgfa,Paris» or Vienna. Nothing, 
a<:cordiDg to. mir Tiew8»'^ cm" niocr ^4i»lmc^A»erMii J0ipmeme& 
than the absurd penuasioo, io defiance of all truth and |uiilotophy, 
4hat ^he has acquned an extent of knowledge which readerb her as 
independent in ner Uteraturea^^he is in her goyemnwnt ; and if any 
thing ca$ eqdaaser the ^security of the latter; it woidd be the igoo- 
rance that would £eed her vanitgr ia the former. Uauicr just views of 
the relations of life, it will appear to be no humiliatioQ to in^irove 
by the attainments 6f others ; andf thie sbtitary arrogance that wontd 
ahut itself up ia its own self^cimceit, but 'adds vice to folK, and we 
are foived to ooatenn what we should be wtllmgto commiserate- 
No^ wor^ Citizen! let ][our interchange in foreign literature be 
as free as your interchange in foreign trade, aud voiii will dertte 
:cqual advanlages in both: the narrow princi(de which would lead 
you to r^ct either, is one of those misehieToifcs prejudices that par- 
lakes more of pride than prudence — mote of' presumption than pa* 
liiotism. 



ARCHITECTURE. . ' 

Abt* li,-^A new and improved BuHders' Price Book, formed upem 
ttOuai cakuMimu carejm^ digested and certecttdfram the present 
mice of maUsriab and labour: also, ike Workman's prices for 
Mour only, Sfc. wUh hints for the selection of materials, and wtui 
Practkal OhsertaOons on the prevention of the Dry Rot, Sfc, 
By W« R. LlxtoN, Snrreyor, London. Longman and Co., 8fo. 
1817. pp. 128. 

It is remarked somewhere, that it requires considerable knowledge 
to put proper questions. The difficalty in obtaining information 
x)f Suryeyon without Jbeayy charges ioi m^^iMMPMQ^* vsiuatjewtf, 
<&c. has led to the publication <^ nuiaejXMi^ pamphlets undet the 
title of the j^ilders' Pripe 3ook ; by which a gcAefftl knowled§a of 
the expense at^diog edifi^:es* or their repaiiv nay be collected 
.without, proposing questions to professional gentlemen, the answers 
to which would be followed by such serious expense. Among these 
is the work before us; and it is rendered the tnore necessary oin 
account of the late diminution in the piioe of labour, the recent 
floctu^il in the j:al« of materials^ and the almost daily intro-^ 
ductiop of articles. of a new description, ^occasioned by the various 
apd e^t^tt^v^ improyemeats in Architectare. We believe that the 
produQtion^ JMore us is edited with great care, and that the prices 
may generally, be relied upon as accurate. To the work are add^ 
some pi^tical observations upon the prevention of dry rot, which 
is attributed to the want of a tree circulation, or the exclusion of a 
stream of air io. the situation affected ; and the simple process ref 
commendedforthe.curet»f this disease, is, therefore, the introduc- 
tion of a free current of that.fluid.. We recommend this work as a 
veiy useful manual for the purposes to which it b directed. 



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ofi^m^fiimed, « MiflMogkai hdu^ mtdaLfmem aiBfUi^h> the 
work. CompiUifip Hk tim'' ^ Maok, Bif John WAt^Kifl 
4Knerly FeUow of DuUiii' CoUep. eiateow, piialed: ib» the 
Editor. l^Am, Um aB<»WliktAer,ie%£pp«^& 

I^Um of \f^^}^ ^sf»i^^imim\^ m^ - Tfcc SJintit Sirtw^*^ iwMi 

refmp^ tq. o^i; £iw)i4l D[PVri^tiie% aRfi tc^tbt^iwe Qccwoiu.00 

/HV^y i|iMl 9JI?I^Hyv ^ the ttjile «f l.uoia9«, IM well «**f 

tHimqwrJ^ 4wlV^^^<^9^ 

fMiJ^I. Q?wfc flHtbw «>^ wl»m tl» jliwite 9tiMti$tif k inftrodiifiidk 
Mid the erroto in the oollectioii by Mn Murphy being nnw(Wan» 
ftcMm the deficiency of the editor in teaming and taste : the present 
wMlif Mk » Btth0tfl«te, wiH i>e the more acceptable t^ the youth of 
Ireland. 

. If we N^ve am Ql^w^tiofk U ip n^iti^ 
iranslatiop hi the \^^ of 1^ voA^ \^ \^ m imUo^ Pf ^^ 
tjpe^ both of tbe }^w^m, woA tbe. ^(phplitejM q^t^pgu^ of vwyds 
8ii|^l^dde4 to a, XxAf^* for ♦bi? ft^t, irf.in^ ^q^n^t^f^i^. «t all, 
h ap^^ to V9 to ^wtribut^ to ^ ^i^f^rMip^ pf tlM» V/3|h|me 
Mtboiit wy substHflti^ utility. It w i| W^^% t^ thjs fprl offliib- 
.Bcation without any sufficient motive. 

MAlHNifATICS* 

kn. M.— ^ Mr^Jm^Hm t& Ae Method of hHreaniadM^ tamre^tf 

' hf0mi0fhmtof N9MUfH^ Aewifig nwreitffinuiMji fftrf]^^ fjp 

"' H^FhuiimatAiia^m. %P«TER'Ni^HOLSON,,^ivate7facjb^ 

ef th^ MatbeaiatioB. London, Davis and BickjUMy ,?vo, ff^^ ' |.^^ 

^*^* .. .. -.'' V ' .'" ■ •• ' ' ■''■' 

Tq VNIWrt tfcft w ii mHtor s tnirf iBg al*««di«^lM»Wmli«^diila«itt 
I^QJWgM ifc «N^ W fMHeWMit to. obsanre, that fo9ai{[ners usually 
im» 4».lMiml 9f ihiWMS,. IhA arithiMtie <^«aal^sis of iflfinhel)^, 
^ UMli^r: i^*$yte > » smnlL variaU^ cfuairtilias': f» m wM&d 6f 
6ifim 9», iimilf siwb ovinfiaitakyiiMiU ^K^aplity^ wbicl^ being 
tfJMm ^ iiliwtS AuniWjr nf Upies,. haqoamie^^ to a given qnU* 
Viyk $Nf U D^wtoni alt^Hi^d. ttni nomeyckitiNnBy calling tbeae inft- 
twy ^,Wfl <|0SW)4^ niW^nla, caa^ennf lhe» as ttemomentary 
iPf«(cff9^t|tK V dtofi^npnta* 9S vaaabio quantities, as ol a line me* 
191^ \ff ^hAbi^c^ ajNMPti «f< of a siirfiMBe, by- the flux of a Una. 
Mm^^^ imM^ i^m^tilm ^ caUad flueal, ami the method of 
'Wdifift ^thms tto 9imm> oa the fluent, the OMtbod of fluxions* 



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" 411 *fat • uj^BubiL 'Won, 'Art. {■ilDklii ^p4|i ^tt) i^ iiMn^ Wb luln*^ 

fib nf ^ siiboeMfare ^^olRm 'of la vaittible ^|«aattty, fiMi 4bbm 
B'C'iBd B'(rtt<ttemi^lMlion) are prolMibK iie^: ^also IIm m^ 

|»H^^ U te Hj pe rttk iil^ «M»r 1(^\ak^ the Iteevmtat or btegni, 
jHi8 it nmjr iA'ei^pkmd KkewMe in mnrleiiiiii; iMny «lgebi&ld 
fxprPstioiM. ThenHlttior*fEl¥ei ^ •ftiUdwkig'diplMlitidn :--- 
. ** Since the time 1 first made the discovery of the transformatioa 
pf products, in any form of progression^ to those of any other foraa 
of promssional products, atf oepehdenit on the doctrine ofeombiiMi* 
tiUbs^ I ha^ '%uSAe ^mideilibl^ "M^rdi %ofh1neti B^^isfa lAid TW 
f^mrta, bift Ife^ Mt'mA frfrh%thy^fll<Mk>fe»dMtt<^7ftMii Ihat 
kind of smrTysisivhich will effeit'^^^vae' pikrffiim sb g^ii«Mly'iliid 
liritb sp- little trouhlf,,.9i|drwhicb, when|educeq to.praotie^ aree^ 
tiretv independent- o£ their original inyestigation. . . ^ 
. ''o'hpi^htabjes foi^ reducing ..powers into arithmetical pnigres* 
aions y/^A consist ipfsucceecHng values Imve been giyisn^ by Stiriiog 
mliis'^piperential Mfethod^ yet>die ^rpcess by whidi he coostru^ 
&c3e tables is qerivei} from principles altpgjether different from nineA 
which resuK entirely from the doctrine of coinbinatbns. 
, *f*. Mbch has been -said on the combinatorial apabsis^^iarticularlty 
.by Hindenbui^g, a.Gerniahmatheinaticiaa: but^ 1 do ootnodin hia 
jrork 9P7 rules which i«m admit of 4he same applieation. . 

'M bsve not only appliedihe .comt>inalorial analysis ;to the reduc» 
tioq otfowm into .prqgressionsi^ and the reciprocals of .powers into 
progressioiud le^rocah^ and also reversed these probleqis, bul 
bave introduced it in tibe most coinplex cases of muItipUctttioi^ ao<l 
division of algebra, •indi^endent of the analytical investigation from 
«bl!^b k is darived." (p.*iv,-^v.) , 

The. author jecommendsi* that those who wish to prosecute &e 
integration and summation of series^ as congenial wit]n the metjhod 
here ^pointed :out» may consult the differential method of 'Stirling^ 
translated by Hatliday, (1749,) apd.tbe method <i( Increments Iqf 
iBmerson^ (1763,)the.perusal of which works will atnply repay ine 
jimder for his tiine and trouble by a greater variety oif problems, dian 
are to be fonnd in this introdudion. 



Si.rrrtrt^ Y,'-'\ 



jAMiBSon. 'm<t6n. Xa% dttcllk^fiittal^, ITSdid. TOl^. pp.174. 

Tms^tnieibMBftmfinell'Vfhe illustration of two leading objects : the 
oneisj'to teach, vons^ people that the^path of life is often .dij^calt to 
be tiaveMedt a|ia» that fit: every step they may meet iinth'iflipemni^tf 
wi^ "woaid disappoint the.fona hopes theV have ebtertaiBeil'; ttie 
second is, tkdt tM'StoreaM Bciii^ never ^anandons those who ^^t 
fheb trust in Himr. apa, that whatever mort^cationsih^ my i^^ 
^01 vaia ^f^j^tatWa, they may always iwldge'ibope mi Qodi, wfig^ 



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9St MdntBTy CkMddgtie-Pteei^ 

if he afflict tUeai for a seluoD, IvUl Utimtdy jlemrd their oMicrice 
and.fiddiry. The authclr has eiideiiToiired» but not^with pevfect suc" 
cesa, to represeDt every thiog in its sinjile aud natural itate, as in 
dukfhood, and she has rather painted sentiments than 'passions, be* 
cteise she wrote for that period of life: when the descriptions of th^ 
hitter wottld, ia -her opinion, produce. 'too mudi influence on the 
former. This story does not nfeMrre further notice. 

1 ' ' i ■! ' ' ■ ■ • ■ 

POETRY. 

Art» 16.-7^ Skada of Waterloo! a VinoH^ m verse. By VL 
Young, London ; printed for the Author^ and sold by Simpkin 
. and Marshall, Qso. X817| pp. 144. 

Some readers may be of opinion, that this poem presents itself to 
them at too distant a period after the event; the author faimsdf 
allows, that he follows ** where Seott, whert Campbell, and tvhere 
Byron led ;" in as much, however, as the battle of Waterloo, as a 
militaiT atchievement, can never but be present to the recollections 
of all Englishmen, so poems upon such a Aeme can seldom be un- 
welcome in their subject, or tedious in their execution, especially 
when as much spirit is displayed in them as in the small work before 
us. It is, undoubtedly^ not regular in its construction, or equal in 
its execution ; but it is. unfair to try an author by rules which he did 
hot profess to obey, and the writer before us admits that it is of 
** unfashioned form'*' and of '< digressive lengtii ;" he meant it to be 
tlie former, and the latter is the almost necessary, consequence of itt 
yet his digressions seldom deserve the epithet of dvlU which he iri 
diffidence applies to them. He seems a deadly foe to critics ; we 
apprehend, from the nature of this production, that his enmity does 
not arise fVom ]>revious suffering ; and, at least, he cannot charge us 
with meriting it irom unnecessary cruelty: poets of established re- 
putation ought to have their errors pointed out, since their faults are 
almys more epidemical than their beauties ; but young writers not 
only require, but deserve encouragement. One object Mr. Young 
has in view, is stated in the following lines, 

** How blest that Bard whose Harmony can soothe 
The Grief of Age — the Tenderness of Youth I 
Can touch the Strings which charmingly endear 
The pensive sigh, and sympathetic tear; 
Chase the wild pangs whieh happiness annoy. 
With strange delight of unexpected Joy ! 

Prefatory DeXeaikmtpM. 

We do not exactly understand, in what way the author applies the 
title of " The Shades of Waterloo,** or why he terms it " A Vision t*^ 
the dead and the living who fought on that day, iure equally the wh^ 
Jedts of his enthusiastic admiration, and he dwells on all the cireoni^ 
•tances of the conffict with as much detail and accuracy, as if he had 
teally been upoo the field. In this department of our Review, i^ 



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tftniiet; of coiirse, enter %i lengtii into the poem ; and' we lu&ent on 
tHis account; timt it did notcbme to hand at an earlier period 6f the ' 
month. We apprehend, that Mr. Young is a native of ** the hmd of 
Wellk^on'* (as Afr.Hobhonse, junior, names' it,) and the following 
lines shew tint tlie' writer feels no little pride in th?atchievenient8 of 
lib eoontr^an.— *We ii^itract it the more willingly, because those 
who have hitherto written npotf this great theme, have scarcely given 

" Behold the Chief io battle raivly trfed, 
Witl| laurels trembling where }m talents aiidn. 
Behold the Chief ifi danger's ffopt reveaPq, 
Rise to the rising terrors of the Field ! 
What woes can match thb day to ^rrow wed? 
Cim those where Baird or Abercrombie bled; 
€aff'9ilavefa% «ang«dnary strife, 
Wtoie brave M'ACKEKZ>iK eonipuiFd but with lifr 1 
N<lt Albuera'a SatamaucaVAuMy 
Ker att hbi gloms »atc4i thi»Md of ihnw 1 
1>^'! where his pniseseverr bosom eheery««^ 
While shouto of ^fervour feHow bis caMerl * ^ ' 
'MmgUbe field he speeds witb lapid bounds ^ '^ ' 
Cammandiog all toboid Ihehr well^cept gmnifl. 

' l<Mta^«dyaiK;e though pmrUal triasfliph blM^ ' 
Batpa^ewr, wait the torrentof tfueoess: ; : t 
S^eeeKs 6ow ditrarbtiblf but Ibe Hem's fltauea 
\ Smiles witb disdain ov aM the bbvdas ar Wmsm^ 
Her charging oobimns with infutnUe ssal ^-^ - 
Must take bis life beforrthey take bis steel! 
tSwomto his trust-^^^each Han as finn asffUtr, 
Beholds the grave Ibat /mly can ^subdue^- 
WbM pity if so fair a l^me 
Should 8V«r grace the* Rolls of iShadie.^ : . ^ 



Abt. 17. — Mflmir on the Cutting Gorget of Hawktm, (^onUffnin^ 
anAccowiiofan improvemmtQnJkM,tmtrument9 and Remarks on 

, the haeralOperatiait for the Stpm.) By ANto;Nio SCARPA, 
Member ^ the Naiionm institute of Ualy, and Professor of Ana- 
tomy and Clinical St^gery in the University of Paviq^ Sfc, SfC* ifC* 
Trtmdatedff*om ih/^ Italian by 3 AUEslR&iG^s, Surgeon to the 
PuUictHfi/mMvy^: 8vo, pp, 219. London. Cadell and'Davies, 
ajjidCaltdw, me. 

It is probdble that isosl «tti^eons interesled io the subject of this 
memoir. bav««already made tfaemaflver aequaii^ed with the remarits 
of a miler so justly ceiebntted as^eaipa. If there be any who hav<p 
i^yetfd(me:S0, IjiMey ms^ be assured of fiadiag the -enquiry poiv- 
dbpted W9tb|sri^ildi9ceraiHieBt, and" all that mintttenesft- and pecr-^ 
G«iT, R«v. Vol. V. Jam 1^17. O 



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98 Monthly Catalogue.— 7%ea&;^. 

•ion which might be expected from the Professor. The 'alterations 
which be has made in the gorget, and the directions given for its 
use, are clearly founded on a nice study of the anatomy of the parts 
concerned in lithotomy, and, we thmk, demand tbe consideration of 
operating surgeons/ Another translation of the memoir has beeii 
published by Mr. Wishart, well known as the translator of some of 
the more voluminous works of the same author. 

acaagai h ' i - ■^^■^■■^^■AMiUfcM^ma 

THEOLOGY. 

Art. 18. — The Golden Key, proving an Internal Spiritual Sense to 
the Holy Word, and containing a variety of interesting and enter- 
tainine Subjects, introduced as Dreams of Translatums into Parw- 
dise. LoudoUk Simpkin and Marshall, royal 8vo. pp. 416. . 1817. 

This Golden Key is to unlock a very valuable treasure, if, as is 
stated in the advertisement, it will confirm the Christian, alinre and 
persuade the sensual and worldly-minded, confute the atheist, re* 
move the objections of the deist and sceptic, and banish the narrow- 
ness of sectarism. The means to derive the benefit of this treasure 
are described in a way that may lead us to doubt of its acquisition, 
as they are not by -substantial instruction to correct and inferm the 
mind, but by various dreams of translations into Paradise, said to be 
** opened by the Golden Ke^ which unlocks a cabinet of curious 
truths*" Ine aullior, net perfectly satisfied with human expedients, 
introduces angds as supernatural agents to assist him in bb purpose. 
His intentions ane.good, but we very much doubt their mlfilment 
in the method he tontemplates. 

Art. W.—Serm^ns on the Epistles and Gospels for the Sundays 
throughout tie Year (including Chridma^ay and GoodrFriday ), 
for the use of Families and Country Congregations, and chimy 
aA^^ted to the Conditions of the lower Classes of Society, with a 
prejatoty Discourse. By the Re». R. Wabben, In two volumes, 
pp. 367—400. Bath, Crutwell ; London, Longman & Co. 1816. 

The prefatory discourse to these Sermons is very short, contaiM-< .. 
iug otily general observations on religious instruction, and on the ^ 
charges against the cleigy of the established church, for attaching 
too much importance to what is ,caHed human learning. 

Of tlie Sermons,it is said tibat they are offered to the public, not as 
models of composition, but as a humble attempt to illustrate, by esiam- 
ple the way in which instruction to the common people ousht to be 
conducted. They ai« plain and concise, and the texts are taken from 
the qiistles or gospel of the day, that they may be the more appro- 
priate to >eack Sunday. The author has considered Bishop Wilson 
as one of the most pofect go^i preachers, and has endeavoured to 
adopt bis style, but with what success we must leave to our readers 
to determine by the inspection of tiie work. 

The fiiBt volume is embellbhed by a portrait, which has so much, 
more of the eourtf^ and military, than of the sedate and priestiy ^in 



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J 



ffarks in the Press^ S^c. 



99 



ite appesnoiee, tiiat we y$wt very mudi sorprixed to see it snbter- 
scrib^ by the .name of tbe reverend author; but we find he is 
curate of St James's pansh in the fiishionable city of Bath ; and we 
linow not what attractions the engraving of an elegant miniature from 
the peodi of Eoglehart may have among the polished visitants of 
that place. ^■ 

Art. 20. — Christian Morality : in-, a Hint to Gamd Preachers: a 
Senmm dtUsend in the Cathedral Ckurch of Idncoln, Oct. IZ, 
laia. By the Rev. William Hett, M«A. London. J. Robin- 
son. 8vo. pp. 16. 1817. 

Thb author of this Sermon is monthlv preacher at Lincoln Cathe- 
dral^ and occasional lecturer at St Martin's Church, in that city. 
His de^gn, in diis discourse, is to discountenance the pnictioe of 
flome of the ministers of our estaUished church, of appropriating to 
themselves exclusively the appellation of Gospel preachers, and he 
insists, that to take away christian morality, is to take away the chief 
su|^rt of civil intercourse among mankind, and that he who utters 
a word in dbparagement of this morality, is not only an unfaithful 
disdi^ of Jesus Christ, but is also an enemy to the best interests of 
faOBum society. We have no difficulty in expressing our perfect con- 
cuoeace vrith such sentiments ; and we always feel pleasure, as on 
the present occasion, in contributing as much, as may be in our 
power, to their general diffusion. 



WORKS IN THE PRESS. 



We hear that shortly will be 
published some farther Observa- 
tions on the Subject of the proper 
Period for amputating in Gun- 
shot Wounds, accompanied by 
' the official Reports of the Sur- 
geons employed in His Majesty's 
Sh^ and Vessels at the late bat- 
tle before Algiers. By A. Copland 
Hutchinson, late Surgeon to the 
Royal Naval HosfHtal at Deal, 
&c. &c. 

The Antidote to Distress will 
soon appear, containmg Observa- 
tions 2M Suggestions calculated 
to promote the Employment of 
tiie Poor, the Improvement of 
Trade, and other public and 
private Advantages. By Farmer 
Meanwell. 



Soon will be issued, a Deside* 
ratum in our System of Education, 
viz. an Easj Practical Introduc* 
tion to English Composition, and 
to the tasteful reading of Poetry, 
under tbe title of '* J^Isop mo- 
demissd and moralised^ in a sari^. 
of instntctive Tales, calculated as 
reading Leuontfor Youth, and 
followed by Skeletons of the several 
Talest with hading Questums.and 
Hints, constituting a simfk and 
easy Introduction to Et^bsh Com- 
poMon r besides an Appendix of 
Poetic Readings* with interlinear 
marks to every verse» pointing, 
out the proper accentuation and 
pauses. 

In afew days will be published» 
Narrative of a Residence in Bd- 



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JOO 



Works^in the Pr€i$, ifc. 



gium duriog the Cwkipaign (^ 
1815, and of a Visit to die Fkld 
ofWaterloo« By an EBg&b^o^ 
man; 

Mr. Charles Mills b^ in the 
press, in one volume 8vo. a His- 
tory of Muhammedanisnr, or a 
View of the Aeligimis, Political, 
and .Litera^ry Annals oi the Dis- 
ciples of the Arabian Prophet. 
No work of the kind has hitherto 
appeared* 

Speedily will appear, dedicated 
by permission to her Royal High- 
9^ss: the Princess Charlotte of 
Wales, The Home of Love, a 
Poem, by Mrs. Hen. Rolls, au* 
thoress of Sacred Sketches, Mos- 
cow, an Address to Lord Byron, 
and other poem». 
. Placide, or Les Battu^cas, 
translated from the French of 
Madame de Genlis, by Alexan* 
der Jamieson, is preparing for 
publication. 

We announce with pleasure an 
Inquiry into tlie Effects of Spi- 
rituous Liquors upon the physical 
and moral Faculties of Man, and 
their influence upon the happiness 
of Society. 

Mr. James White, author of 
Veterinary Medicine, is preparing 
/or publication, a Compendious 
Dictionary of the Veterinary Art. 

Mr, Adam Stark is engaged on 
a History of Gainsborough, with 
qn Account of the Roman and 
panish Antiquities in the Neigh- 
bourhood ; to be illustrated by a 
map and several other engravings. 

Mr. Nichols has nearly com- 
pleted at press two volumes of 
illustrations of Literature, con- 
sisting of Memoirs and Letters of 
eminent Persons, who flourished 
in the eighteenth century; iu- 
tend(;d as a Sequel to the Literary 
Anecdotes: also, a third quarto 



volume of the Bio^vai^UBftl Me* 
moirH 9f Hogarth, with iUuatiativc 
essays, and fifty pbtea. 

Mr. W. Pleies, many years resi<- 
deUt in Jefsey, will toon publish 
an Account of the Island tof Jer- 
sey, with a map and four other 
engi^viogs. 

Geo. Price, Esq. barriaterr is 
preparing a Treatise on the Law 
of Extents. 

The Miscellaneous Works of 
Charles Butler, £s^. of Lincolns 
Inn, are printing in five octavo 
volumes* 

Dr. Burrows, of Gower-street^ 
is preparing for publication. Com* 
mentaries on Mental Derapge* 
ment. 

A volume of Sermons, by the 
late Dr. Vincent, with an Account 
of his Life, by Archdeacon Naves^ 
will soon appear. 

The Rev. Thomas Bowdlcr faa$ 
in the press. Sermons on the 
Offices and Character of Jesus 
Christ. 

The Rev» James Raine, of Dur- 
ham, has undertaken the History 
and Antiquities of North Durham, 
as subdivided into the districts of 
Norhamshire, Islandshire, and 
Bedlingtonshire ; it will be pub- 
lished uniformly with Mr. Stirtee's 
History of the County, of which 
it may be considered as consti- 
tuting a portion. 

A Historical and Descriptive 
View of the Parishes of Monk 
Wearmouth and Bishop Wear- 
mouth, and of the Port and Bo- 
rough of Sunderland, is prcpairing 
for publication. 

Richard Preston, Esq, has in 
the press, a Treatise of Estates ; 
also, an edition of Sheppard^s 
Precedent of Precedents, & Shepr 
pard's Touchstone of Common 
Assurances, with notes. 



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[ 101 ] 
List OF NEW t»UBLICATIONS. 



The Pastor's Fire-side* By Miss 
PoiHer, Anther of Thaddens of War- 
mmw, Seottish Chiefs, Sic, 

Report of the Comnlttee on the ' 
-Qame Laws, with Commeiit. By a 
CoimtiT Grentlenian. 

An Explanation of the Principle 
and Proceedings of the Provident 
InstiUitioa 9t Bath, for Satings. By 
John Haygarth, M.D. F.R.S. and 
F.R.S. Ed.oneoftlieMaiiageis. To 
which are added, the Depositor's! 
Book, with the Regulations, Tables, 
Stc, liie Bylaws ; an account of the 
mode of traassicting the basiaess, and 
the first Year's Report. 

Flora Sarisbwriensis ; a Repository 
of English Botany, both general and 
nedical ; being an accurate delhiea- 
tion from Nature of English Plants, 
with their uses in Medtchie,the Arts 
and Agriculture. Each Number will 
contain Six Plates, drawn and co- 
loured from Nature, with the classes, 
orders, natural orders, genera, spe- 
ciesy etymologies, habitats, descrip- 
tions and uses. By Henry Smith, 
M.D. F.L.S. Member of the Royal 
College of Physicians, and one of the 
Physicians to the Ssdisbury Infirmary. 

An Elementary Treatise on the 
Differential and Integnd Calcufait^s.' 
By S. P. Lacroix. Translated from 
the French, with an Appendix and 
Notes. 

The Life of Raffael. By the Au- 
tiror of the lifeof Michael Angelo. 

The Guardians ; or, Faro-Table. A 
Comecfy, now performing at Drury* 
lane Theatre. By the late John To- 
bin, Esq. Author of the Honey Moon. 

The CaYem of Roseville, or the 
Two Sisters j a Tale, being a Tran- 
slation of lie Sauterrain^ ou les deux 
Soenrs, by Madame Herbster, with 
an elegant Frontispiece* By Alex- 
ander Jamieson. . 

Hio Second Edition of Momton ; 
a Novel. By Margaret Cnllen, Au- 
thor of" Home.'* 

** In age, in infancy, from other's aid 
Is all our hope ; to teach us to be kind. 
Is Najtfre*B first, last lesson to man- 
kind: 
The selfish heait deserves the pain it 

feels : 



More generous sor^w, while it sinks, 

exalts, 
And conscious virtue mitigates the 

j>ai«."— YecHG. 

The Works of Thomas Gray, Esd. 
Edited by the Rev. John Mttford. 
The Editor of the present work has 
been most kindly favoured with many 
original letters of Gn^, hitl^rto un- 
pnbkshed, of the greatest interest, as 
well as with the originals of many of 
the letters very incorrectly published, 
and much altered by Mason. The 
public is therefore presented, for the 
first time, witli the authentic and va^ 
luable Correspondence of Gray. The 
additional letters in this worts, are not 
only extremely interesting from their 
number, but for their intrinsic merit* 
The insertions and alterations by Ma- 
son are rejected, and the genuine 
manuscript of Gray implicitly fol- 
lowed. The Editor is also enabled to 
lay before the public many curious 
variations to the principal poems of 
Gray, in his own hand-writing. 

The National Debt in its True Co- 
lours, with Plans for its Extinction 
by honest means. By William Frend^ 
Esq. M.4. Actuary of the Rock Life 
Assurance Company. 

A New Theoretieal and Practical 
French Grammar. By C. Racine, 
Professor of the French, Latin, and 
English Languages. 

Practical Observations in Surgery 
and Morbid Anatomy; with Cases, 
Dissections, and Engravings. By 
John Howship, Member of the Royal 
College of Surgeons in London; 
Member of the Medico-Cbirurgical 
Society. 

Poems chiefly on the Superstition 
of Obeah. 

Dramas. By Sir Js. Bland Burges, 
Bart. 

Eccentricities for Edinburgh ; con- 
taining Poems, entitled < A Lamen- 
tation to Scotch Booksellers,* ^ Fire, 
or the Sun Poker,' ' Mr. Champer- 
noune,' ' The Luminous Historian, or 
Learning in Love,* ' London Rnrality, 
or Miss Bnnn and Mrs. Bunt.* By 
George Colman the Younger. 
* His sultem vestra detur in Uvbe lo- 
cus.* — Ovid. 



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](M 



iirf of Nem PMicatum. 



A Seqvel to '' A Vindication ofi 
Unitarianisniy'' in reply to Mr. Ward- 
law's Treatise, entitled ^ Unitarian- 
ism Incapable of Vindication." By 
James Yates, M. A. Author of the 
Vindication. 

Letters from the Earl of Chester- 
field to Arthur Charles Stanhope, 
Esq. relative to the Education of his 
Godson, the late Earl of Chester- 
field. 

A Journal of a Tour to Purgatory 
and Back. Edited by Humphrey 
Ghunp, Esq. 

Viluyge Conversations, or the Vi- 
car's Fire-side: dedicated to Mrs. 
Hannah More» By ^arah Renou. 

A New Grammar of the French 
Languase, on a plan perfectly migimly 
intended for the use of those who 
wish to acquire a speedy and gram- 
matical knowledge of Modem French; 
interspersed with ingenious Exer- 
cises and Examples, illustrative of 
the peculiar construction and idiom 
of the language : the whole calcu- 
lated to facilitate the acquirement of 
grammatical knowledge, without the 
nnneces«(ary fatigue and perplexity 
of the old system. By Charles Peter 
Whitaker, formerly of the University 
of Gt>ttin£en,Professor of Languages. 
The whole comprised in a neat por- 
table volume. 

Anticipation, or View of the Bud- 
get for 1817. 

Historical Reflections on the Con- 
stitution and Represensative System 
of England, witii reference to the 
popular propositions for a Reform of 
Parliament. B v James Jopp, Esq. 

The Way to he Happy, a Tale for 
the Cottager's Fire-side. 

On the Supply of Emplo^ent and 
Subsistence ror tiie Labounng Classes 



in Fisheries, Manufkctnres, and die 
Cultivation of Waste Lands ; with 
Remarks on the operation of the Salt 
Duties, > and a Proposal for their Re*- 
peal. By Sir Thomas Bernard, Bart 

HintsI to Radical Reformers, and 
Materiab for Tme. 

Engelsche SpraakkunstmetWeric- 
dadige CEffengen ; or English Gram- 
mar for iDutchmen, wi£ Rules of 
Grammar, exemplified by Dialogues, 
Idioms, Letterii, and Bills of Ex- 
change, in Dutch and English. By 
J. B. D'Hassendonck, M. A. 

Panthea, a Tragedy. By William 
Benettbarrister at law. 

The Fourth Edition Of Essies on* 
the Nature and Principles of Taste. 
By Archibald Alison, LL.B. F.R.S^ 
London and Edinbursfa, &c. 6ic, To 
this edition are addea, Observations' 
on the Origin of the Beauty of the 
Human Countenance and Form. 

A New Edition of a History of 
British Birds, the figures engraved 
on wood. By Thomas Bewick. 

The Fourth Edition of Elemento 
of Chemistry.. By John Murray, M.D. 
Fellow of the Royal College of Phy- 
sicians, and of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh ; Lecturer on Chemistry, 
and on Materia Medica and Phar* 
macy. 

Tune's Telescope for 1817; being 
at^mpiete Guide to the Almanack : 
containing an Explanation of Saints' 
Days and Holidays; with Illustra- 
tions of British History and Antiqui- 
ties, and Notices of Obsolete Rites 
and Customs. Hie whole enlivened 
witih illustrative and decorative Ex- 
tracts from onr.most celebrated Poets^ 
ancient and modem. With an Index 
to the present and three former vo- 
lumes. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

We are much concerned to disappoint our readers by the unavoidable 
exclusion of the usual Medical Article, which, however, will appear in our 
next Number. 

Several interesting works, that were intended to have been reviewed in 
the present publication, are also necessarily deferred. 

The Index, Title-page, &c to the preceding Volume, are herewith supplied. 

PRIVTEO BT W. SMITH AMD CO. KIVO STREET,* SEVEN DIALS. ^ 



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THE, 

CRITICAL REVIEW; 



jHn 



Vol. V. FEBRUARY 1, 1816* No. II. 

II ii< l l| T i l iaiWWSBg aii ■liB» i' I K i M' 

Abt. I. — Armata: a Fragment. 8vo. pp. 209. London. 
Murray. 1817. 

^Wh^ievbr has been much withiafants must have observed 
bow intense their pleasure is when they are taken before a 
leeking-gkiss, and receive the first obscure notion of their 
4>wn identity, and that the object they see in the mirror, 
and one of it, are, at 'one instant of tine, another and the 
tame. The pleasure which fables so universally give is a 
modifiGatiov of this perception, which infinitely diversified 
tend varied attends us thriaagh lifi^, and enteird as an element 
into the complex exercises of the understanding, and into 
various forms of literary composition* Fables,. allegories, 
parables, pure or mixed with other forms of writing, in- 
clude a large department of the literature of mankind. 
And the spirit of foble has diifus^d itself oyer a large porr 
tion of writings, <)f whieb the otjyeet seems far removed 
from the reasonable use of such an expedient. In other 
Works the form of the (hble hasS been preserved, with very 
little indeed of its spifit, but with the hope, probably, i6" 
adorn a dry and unamusing subject with some of its graces 
and ornaments. 

Such is the fragment beforeus, which, as a work of ima* 
ginatiou, has absolutely nothing to recommend it, but, as 
n serie^of opinions on the present state of the country, is 
entitled to all the attention which the respected name of its 
jKitative author may reasonably claim. We say putative 
«Mtbor, for the piiblic prints have without reserve ascribed 
{his little book to a noble person who, after throwing 
around hie profession a grace and ornament whidi in mo* 
dern tiaaes had not been aspired to, and attaining to the 
highest^ivil rank which « sul^ect can reach, was cast into 
a state of premature Inactivity and inglorious repose, whic^ 
the public and himself must have alike regretted. It waa 
reserved for the incomparable Lord Bacon alone to illus^ 
trate his retreat from the chsffccellorship, by the composi* 
tion of worjis which have, ii^mortay zed his own name^ and 

CaiT. Rev. Vol. V. Feb. 1817. P 



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I04t Armala^ a Fragment. 

thrown a glory round the oiBce from which other men de« 
rive their highest honour. It is creditable to any man, 
who has filled up the sphere of ordinary ambitiom, and sur- 
Tived the period of ordinary exertions, to be still alive to 
the interests of his country and of society, and to be prompt 
in interposing with the counsels of age, at a moment when 
wise counsels are imperiously called for. 

Arm AT A is not a Utopia, nor a New Atlantis, nor a 
Brobdiffnag ; — it is no imaginary country in which either 
seriously or jocularly wise laws and institutions are recom- 
tnended, or absurd habits satirised, but it is England with- 
out any change or substitution whatever, save in the letters 
of her name, as she was in the year of our Lord 1816, com- 
plaining of her paupers, her taxes, and her expensive esta- 
blishments. That such minute realities are not well adapted 
to an exhibition of phantasmagoria figures in a work of 
fanciful fiction, our readers will we think readily agree ; 
however we cannot reproach our author with having 
blended his fiction very closely with bis reasonings. Ail 
that appertains to the tal« is comprised in a few words. 
The narrator after informing us that he sailed from New 
York, on the 6th of Sept. 1814, proceeds — 

** On the letb of March, after full day had risen upon us, we 
found ourselves as it were overtaken by a second night. The sea 
"was convulsed into whirlpools all around us, by the obstruction of 
ionumerable rocks, and we were soon afterwards hurried on by a 
current, in no way resembling any which navigators have recorded. 
We felt its influence under the shadow of n dark cloud, between two 
tremendous precipices overhanging and seemingly almost closing up 
the entrance which received us. Its impetuositv was three times 
greater, at the least, than even the Rapids above the American Nia- 
gara, so that nothing but its almost incredible smoothness could 
have prevented our ship, though of five hundred tons burthen, ft'om 
lieiog swept by it under water, as our velocity could not be less, at 
the lowest computation, than twenty-five or rather thirty miles an 
hour. The stream appeared evidently to owe its rapidity to com- 
pression, fhoogh not wholly to the compression of land, its boundary 
on one side, if boundary it ought to be called, appearing rather like 
Chaos and Old Night; and what was most striking and extraordi* 
nary, we could see from the deck, not above two ships' length from 
«s, another current running with equal force in the opposite direc- 
tion, but separated from our's by pointed roeks^ which appeared all 
along above the surface, with breakers dashing over them. Neither 
of the channels, as far as my eye could estimate their extent, were 
above fifty yards wide, nor at a greater distance from* each other, 
flnd they were so even in their directions, that we went forward like 
ian arrow from a bow, without the smallest deviation towards the 



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Armaid^ a Fragment 105 

rocks on one side, or the dreary obscurity on the other. ' Id Ais 
manner we were carried on, without the smallest traceable TariatioH, 
till the l^h of Jone, a period of tfare^ months and two days, in 
which time, if my aboTe*stated calculation of our progress he any 
thing like correct, and I am sure I do not over-rate it, we most 
have gone straight onward above seventy thousand miles,. a space 
nearly three times the circumference of the earth." (p. 5-^7.) 

After some astronomical observations, the traveller finds 
himself in a great sea : here the ship is wrecked, and he 
alone saved. He finds himself among a new race of peo- 
ple, but one man addresses him in English. This stranger 
had been carried into this new world in a similar manner, 
when a child. Our traveller's first enquiries concerning^ 
the country are answered by a reference to a journal written 
by the stranger's fiither, wliich contains his solution of the 
mysterious passage. 

*' When I consider the unexampled rapidity of the current, with 
its dismal chaotic boundary, and that we were involved in it for al- 
most three months, emerging at once into a sea where the heavens 
idx>ve presented new stars, and those of our own in different mag- 
nitudes and positions than any they could be seen in from either of 
our hemispheres, I am convinced, beyond a doubt, that I am no 
longer upon the earth, but on what I might best describe as a twin 
brother with it, bound together by this extraordinary channel, as a 
kind .of umbilical chord, in the capacious womb of nature, but 
which, instead of being separated in the birth, became a new and 
permanent substance in ber mysterious course." (p. 26 — ^27.) 

The reader now expects some account of this country, 
its external form, people, &c. Perhaps we may hereafter 
have some of these details, but our author is very philoso- 
phical, and his new friend Morven not less so ; for, with- 
out even changing the traveller's linen, as far we hear, 
or offering to relieve any hunger or thirst, save that of 
knowledge, the stranger proceeds to eulogise their common 
asylum. 

This eulogy is followed, however, by a sad drawback r 
a catalogue of sufferings and dangers. After a brief re- 
ference to the origin of the feudal institutions, to the early 
history of Armata and the revolution, Morven dwells at 
more length on the history of the war with America^ We 
proceed to describe the country as he knew it. 

'' This highly favoured island now sat without a rival on this 

Cod promontory in the centre of all the waters of this earth, with 
m^ty wings outspread to such a distance, that with your U- 



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raited ideat of iti numerous oatioii9» it il impossible youfthoj^Id 
ccnprdiend'. — She was balancnt iifK>n bftr ioiperial throne by the 
aq'ua% vast and Menungly bound Wm contiueiuts on chher side, 
bendiog alike benealh her Meptre, mid pouriog into hfr lap all that 
varieties of climate or the various cbaractetl of niankind could 
produoe, whilst the interjacent oomo was bespaQjel^ with islands » 
which seem to be posted by nature as the watch-towers of ber do- 
minion, and the havens of her fleets. — Her fortune was equal to her 
virtues, and, in the justice of God, might be the fruk of it; since 
as the globe had expanded under her discoveries, she bad touched 
it throBghoot as with a magic wand ( the wilderness becoittkig the 
abodes of civilized man, adding new millions to her sovtieigotyy 
coo^KirBd with which she was herself only like the seed fuUiog upon 
the soil, the parent of tlie forest that eoriehts and adorns it. — 
iShe felt no wants, because she was the mother of plenty : and the 
free gifts of her sons at a distance, returned to them tenfold in the 
round of a fructifying commerce, made her look but to little sup- 
port from her children at home. — To drop all metaphor, she was an 
untaxed country." (p. 46 — 47.) 

Bating the bathos of the last sentence, this must be al- 
lowed to be a beautiful picture. But now unhappily suc^ 
ceeded the war with America, — we beg pardon^ we oieaii 
Hesperia. This aera in the history of Arnouta, we are told^ 
^ may perhaps be considered as almost tlie first in which ber 
representative constitution exhibited any proof of ^iangerous 
imperfection." In a certain sense 'this is true. In the 
histoirjr of our earlier sovereigns, the object of their govern- 
ment was to reign over the parliament, that is, by prero- 
gative, now it is, to govern by the parliament, that is, by 
influence. Hume was the first public writer who distinctly 
stated how completely the system of influence, proved the 
victory which the people had gained over the court. But 
we believe that the consequences legitimately deducible 
ffom this idea, have not yet been formed. 

OuF author here discusses the subject of parliamentary 
reform, and pursues in his fable the course which hi« poli- 
tical friends are ^ow taking in parliament.. ^' The first 
step towards public reformation of every description i^, a 
firm combination against rash and violent men." Aad i^^ 
declares that he would consent to the continuauce of tb^ 
worst evils, rather than mix himself ^^ with ignoran<:^ 
thrusting itself before the wisdooi which should dUrect it '^ 
The practical good sense of these declarations is, however, 
mixed up tvitb some general observations so shallow and 
superficial, that we are compelled to look for the directing 
wisdom elsewhere. 



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Jrmti^^ it FrogmmU Vff 

** ArJ^ indittdii«U iqigbt Hfk X9 tsUmA their own powen mt 
the expeu»e of tlie {iterti^s of tbe people, M the p^k thmmbm 
coiuM surely have no interest ip uaorping a fpi^ter a^ithofity Uia#. 
was consistent with the equilibrium of a comtitulion which for cen* 
tunes had been the jijist object of their national pride, and the ad- 
miration of a world it has enlightened. 

What can that man have thought or observed of society 
wlio reasons as if be took for granted that the usurpations 
of the people would be limited by their interests ? We 
recollect Mr. Paine's demonstration in his celebmted work 
— *^ Were monarchy abolished there would be no wars; , 
for kings gain and the people suflPer by war ; and as all men 
act from their interests, therefore,'' ^. Q. E. D 

After this discuflsiony the interiocutors, eadi of whom, 
however, seems to represent (he noble author, proceed to* 
a rapid review of the war with Capetia. 

The historical, or rather eonjectional question origina* 
ting out of the refusal of the English government to treat 
with the French ministry, and interfere before the murder 
of the king had rendered war inevitable, is again treated 
with the author's jisual facility, and in the spirit of the 
whigs of 17&e. 

It would have been impossible for the writer to dismiss 
such a subject without a reference to the object of hie poll* 
tical idolatry, Mr. Fox. He is thus pourtrayed. 

** My confidence in this opinion is the more unshaken, from the 
recollection that I held it at the very time, in common with a man 
whom to have known as 1 did, would have repaid all the toils and 
perils you have undergone. — I look upon you, indeed, as a benighted 
traveller, to have been cast npon our shores after this great light 
was «et. — Never was a being gifted with an understanding so per- 
fect, nor aided by a perception which suffered nothing to escape 
from its dominion. He was never known \o omit any thing which* 
in the slightest d«gi«e could affect the matter to be considered, nor 
to confound things at all distinguishable, however apparently the 
same ; and bis conclusions were alw^yi so luminooB and c^vincing^ 
that you might as firmly depend upon fhem as when substances aa^ 
nature lie before you in the palpable forms jassigned to them fcoai 
the foundation or the world. Such were his qualifications for tbt 
office of a statesman; and his profound knowledge always under • 
the guidance of tlie sublime simplicity of his heart, softening with^-. 
ont unnerving the giant strength of his intellect, gave a character 
to his eloquence which I shall not attempt to describe, knowing 
nothing by which it may be compared." (p. 86 — 86.) 

With due subordination^ and according to the rank ihey 

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108 AmMa^ a Fragment. 

held in his affections, Mr. Pitt and also Mr. Burke ai*tf 
severally noticed. Will posterity thus appreciate these men, 
or reverse the order? The High Treason trials of 1794 
are alluded to forieflji and with reason : thej form a me- 
morable sgra in the history of English jurisprudence, and 
will fix Lord Erskine's name in the lasting annals of his 
country's history. 

The more recent events are scarcely adverted to, but the 
actual condition of the country after the peace is stated 
with a clearness and feeling creditable to the writer's un- 
derstanding and heart. We cannot, indeed, say that there is 
much of novelty in these statements, nor much of promise 
in thtt suggestions for improvement. 

The oppressive effects of the national debt and of taxa- 
tion, with a particular notice of the legacy duty, and an 
exaggerated representation of its injustice;' the most alarm* 
ing calamity of the times, the spread of pauperism ; the 
corn laws; tithes; the fisheries: having in one person or 
character related the evils, hein the other proposes reme- 
dies. For the greater part, they are suggestions to bell 
the cat. It is gravely impressed on uaas a dutv to feed 
the people^ and Jind employment for them!!! and in order 
to produce the food, to improve agriculture to the utmost. 
We expected some notice here of Mr.Malthus's speculations. 
They are passed over. We are glad to find that the noble 
author retains those notions of distributive justice which 
his professional life must have impressed on him, and does 
not concur with some of his political friends in advising the 
having recourse to a national bankruptcy to save the coun- 
try from ruin. He urges the duty of imposing equal taxa- 
tion, and adverts to the unequal pressure of the poor laws 
on occupiers only ; but we perceive that he does not notice 
the unequal duty on inheritances, personal prp{>erty being 
liable to the ten per cent, duty on wills and intestacies, 
firom which real property is exempt. 
^ Among the expedients for relieving the distresses of the 
times, we observe but one which is enforced in detail, and 
this is the repeal of the duty on salt, and the more exten- 
sive use of that mineral as manure. Whether this substance 
can be procured in suflBcient quantities, and at a sufficiently 
low rate to answer such a purpose on a large scale, we 
leave to prefessional agriculturists to determine. 

*^ * You have salt, you. say, in endless abundance, but your ne- 
cemty turns it into money, even to forty times its value, instead of 



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AmuUOy a Fragment 109 

#prdiding it abroad for variouft uses, to rbe up in jMoperty which 
no money could purchase. After thus taxing to the rery bone this 
life's blood of jour people, why, to be consistent, do you not bind 
up by law their veins and arteries to prevent circulation? — ^Do you 
know what salt alone would do for you, if it were not seized upon 
as revenue, and clung to perhaps as a plank, which you cannot quit 
in your distress t I will speak of its oiher uses heireafter ; but can 
you be so ignorant as not to know, that by taking th^ tax upon it 
direcify as tmmq^, you rob ^roiirselves of fifty times its amount in 
the productions of your soil, in your fisheries and manufactures^ and 
in the universal prosperity of the country? 

" * Lime, which has caused to start into life the most inert and 
sterile parts of Great Britain, is just nothing as a manure when 
compared with salt, which differs from it, besides, in two remark- 
able qualities, decisive of its superior value. Lime, and I believe 
^1 other known composts, are powerful only according to the quan^ 
titles in which they are used ; whereas salt, to be useful, must h% 
sparingly employed ; it corrupts vegetable substances when mixed 
with them in small quantities^ but preserves them when it predond' 
nates m the mass. It is needless therefore to add, that independ- 
ently of its comparative lightness, the expense both of the articla 
and its carriage inust be very greatly diminished. Yet you rob the 
mother of your people of this food which indulgent nature has, cast 
into her lap, sufficient, as you will see heresifter, to feed all ber 
children, even if their numbers were doubled.' " (p. 10»^17O,) 

Having expatiated on these topics, our author breaks 
off, his manuscripts being found illegible fVom #ef»-water. 
We are promised an introduction to Swaloal, the capital 
of Armata. We suppose this is a harmless joke on the vast 
extension of the metropolis as a swallqw-aU. There are a 
few other jokes of a like harmless description. Among 
others, we are frequently reminded how different the con- 
dition of England is iVpm that of its co-relative in the other 
world. But, as we before observed, it is not as a work of 
imagination that this political pamphlet is entitled to aAjr 
notice whatever. — The style is clear and lively, the humour 
not of a subtle or rare kind, and the serious passages rather 
ostentatious and obtrusive; but, as we before observed, 
there is throughout a vein of benevolence^ and solicitude, 
which indisposes the reader to severe criticism. 



of 

>ays 

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C no J - 

AvLT^ ll. — Hara Pelasgka : Part (he First* Containing 
un Inquiry into the Origin and Language of the Pelasgty 
or ancient inhabitants (^Greece/ zmth a Deseriptioii of the 
PdoMgic^or Molic Digammoj as represented in the valriou$ 
Ifiscriptions in wkich it in siiil preserved; and an attempt 
id determine kw genuine Petasgic Pronunciation. By 
nanibkttv Makbh, D./>. F-B.S. Margaret Professor of 
DhAitity in Cambridge^ and now Lord Bishop of Llanda^\ 
pp. I4(h— [Gontinued from page 36.] 

Tha two last ' chapters of the Horse Peldsgica^ are occu- 
pied hj diMUBfiions relatlog to the i^lic, or^as Dr. Mamh 
also calls it, the Pelagic digaroma. Although we have 
tiot seen reason to follow the learned author in his doc^ 
trine concerning the origin and language of the Pelasgi^ 
we entertain no doubt that the digamma was in use amotig 
theoij because they first introduced alphabetic writing 
into Latium, and that letter is found in the Latin alpha- 
bet, and indeed in nearly ajl those with which we are 
aoqnainted. Dr. Marsh's inquiries respecting the figure 
and sound of this celebrated relic of alphabetical antiquity, 
at least possess interest, if they do not always terminate in 
truth or probability. 

'* When," siys he, '' Moatfoacofi published bis Paiaographia 
Grtum, he despaired of dur e¥er obtaiai&g a spbt of this aocieot 
tetter engmved oa jaoaainentg, while It waa still in use.*' 

With this remark, he introduces a brief, but valuable 
account, of the inscription^ in which the dligamma is still 
preserved, and which, whilst they afford an exquisite gra- 
tification to the learned cariosity of more recent scholars, 
confirm in a very interesting manner the conclusions of 
"fliose whose sagacity was not aided by the appearance of 
bcular testimonials^ An enumeration of these inscriptions 
will, we trust, be acceptable to our readers 

1. In the first place, there are coins with the inscription 
f AAEtfi^f, i. e. 'HXfilwv, denoting the inhabitants of EMs^ 
who, as we know from other sources of information, used 
the iEolic dialect.* There are others with FAHIQN, pro- 
bably referring io Axus in Crete; and others exhibit the 
word a<rTU, a ciii/j written FAETV. 

2. Secondly, Tournefort copied from the pedestal of a 

14 — -— — 

* Dr. Marshy by a chain of argument more Ingenioug than convincing^ 
'^26— 131) endeavours to prove^ that mm of these coins belonged t* 

ceuUy oa the Tiber. 



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Bishop of IAandqff*s Hora Pelasgicte. Ill 

stetue, 10 the island of Delos, an inscription, which contains 
the word ATTQ, written AFV^TO. The reason of the in- 
troduction of both F and V, as Mr. Payne Knight has 
observed, probably was, that the statuary being at a loss 
to determine whether he should adopt the more ancient 
form AFTO, or the more recent AY TO, inserted the latter 
under both forms. 

3. A brazen tablet, discovered in 1783 near the site of 
the ancient Petilia, contains the word OIKIAN very dis* 
tinctly engraved FOIKIAN. 

4. In 1795, Mr. Morritt discovered in the Alpheus near 
Olympia a brazen helmet, on which is inscribed the name 
of the inhabitants of some state or city, partly effaced, but 
followed in a distinct impression by the words ANE6EN- 
TOIAIFI, that is, Avi'^etretv rS A/i, posuenmt Jovi. 

5. In the same country (Elis) an inscription was disco- 
vered by Sir Wm. Cell, and brought to England in 1813. 
In this inscription the digamma occurs no less than seven 
times. We find in it FETAE written for Irvj^, FETEA for 
irsa, FEnOE for ei^oQ, FAPFON for ipyov, FAAEIOIS 
for 'HAc/o/c, EFAOIOIE for 'Euao/o/ff, and FPATPA for 

6. Among Lord Elgin's marbles, is the record of an 
agreement, made by the inhabitants of Orchomenus in 
Keotia with the inhabitants of the neighbouring city Elatea, 
and relating to the common pasturage between the two 
places. On this ancient marble we find FIKATI for iivioffi^ 
KTIA IlETTAPA for irex riffffctpu, and in two places 
FEAATIH for 'Ehttrsla, 

7. Lastly, Dr. Marsh has received from a friend, lately 
returned from Greece, a copy of an inscription on marble, 
which was found near the site of Crissa, on the northern 
shore of the Corinthian bay. The sense of the inscription 
has not yet been ascertained ; but it clearly contains the 
letter F, followed by the letters OMA. 

We have here evidence, which, if any additional argu- 
ments were wanting, establishes beyond a doubt the pro- 
priety of inserting the digamma, as a means of restoring 
the versification of Horner^ in the words qt^ru, eroc, epyovy 
Srvig^ irog, enioc-i, and Sti^ogj with all their derivatives. 

In all these inscriptions the form of the digamma is, as 
its name denotes, that of a double gammoj or one gumma 
placed over another. It corresponds to the description of 
this letter given by Dionysius of Halicamassus, who says 
that it consisted of two side strokes drawn into one uprignt 

Chit- Rbv. Vol. V. Feb. 1817. Q 



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112 Bishop of 'Uandaff's Hora Pelasgica. 

stroke. JBut, besides its usual figure, resembling our Eiig« 
lish F, Dr. Marsh describes another form, in which it some* 
"timesiippears. It is that of an upright gamma (F) placed 
on an inverted ^amma (L), so as to compose three sides of 
a rectangle. This form occurs on various coins, .statues^ 
and tablets^ found chiefly in Ital}'. It is the more vrortby 
of notice, because it appears to have been employed when 
the digamma assumed the office of a numeral. As this 
letter originally occupied the sixth place in the Greek, as 
well as in many other alphabets, it was used to denote the 
number six; and in this application it was retained by the 
Greeks to the latest times, although at a very early period 
deposed from its service as a component part of written 
words. Dr. Marsh has produced some curious instances of 
the use of this square form of the digamma to represent 6. 
One of these is from Mark xv. 33^ Favo/xivii; is a>pus Ixrv^c, 
as represented in the Codex Beza. Wetstein, who did not 
know the meaning of this figure, took it for a gamma (F), 
and supposed the lower line to have been added by a later 
hand. He, therefore, (quoted the Codex Bezae as support- 
ing the singular reading rpiTViQy instead of ^arvig. Dr. 
Marsh subjoins the important observation, that, owing to 
similar mistakes, we often find F denoting S, in place of 
the digamma, or episemon (c), in our present copies of 
Hesycfiius. 

Dr. Marsh's object in his fourth chapter is to prove, in 
opposition to the opinions formerly received among the 
learned, that the ./^lic digamma was always pronounced 
exactly like the Latin F. His principal argument is, that, 
as it corresponded to F in^rm and in alphabetic order^ it 
must be presumed, unless reasons can be given to the con- 
trary, to have agreed with it also in sound. We reply, that 
abundant reasons to the contrary may be assigned. It is 
allowed by Dr. Marsh, that F was a component part of 
the Greek alphabet before V (afterwards written T) was 
introduced. Unless, therefore, it be granted, that the 
sounds expressed in later times by OT and T were originally 
represented by the digamma, we may ask, how were they 
represented?— for that those sounds ^eve unknown to the 
most ancient of the Greeks, is a supposition too absurd to 
be entertained. In the second place, we have already no- 
ticed an example of the highest antiquity, in which the 
digamma is used instead of the more recent T ; EFAOIOIS 
being written for ^Evetoiotg. In the lAircf place, man^ Greek 
words, which were originally written with the digamma, 



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BUkop of Llandafg Hara Peksgiea; 1 U 

exist with the proper analogical changes in the Latin lan- 
guage, and instead of the digamtoia, have V^ serving as to 
metre the office of a consonant. But the letter V, when 
used as a consonant, was equivalent to the English W. The 
obvious inference is, that the EfiglishW represents the force 
of the digamnia in the words alluded to. In the fourth place, 
some distinguished Latin grammarians, vis. Terentianus 
Maurus, Marius Victorinus, and Priscian, assert that the 
Latin Y, when used as a consonant, had the same sound 
which the ancient Greeks expressed by their digamnia ; and 
although Dr. Marsh questions the competency of these 
authors to deliver such an opinion, and asks whether thev 
ever heard the Greeks pronounce their digamma, he will 
not deny, that to ascertain the real matter of fact was at 
least as easy for a Keman as it is for an English philologer. 
FiflUj/y Dionysius of Halicarnassus expressly states, that 
the ancient Greeks employed the digamma to represent the 
same sound which was afterwards denoted by OY. But 
this was the sound of the French oti, and of the English oo 
in moon, daonij 8ic. When much abbreviated, so as to 
have the nietricarefiect of a consonant, it is expressed in 
our language by W, which letter must consequently be 
considered, so far as theauthority of Dionysius can be relied 
on, as equivalent to the digamma employed as a consonant. 
Zjostlyj there were some Gi-eek words which retained the 
,sound of the digamma, after the original mode of express- 
ing that sound had fallen into disuse. In these words the 
letter substituted for the digamma was T. Upon this prin- 
ciple Heyne explains the Homeric^ word evetSev as the im- 
perfi^t tense of FaS«, afterwards iiu^ to please, and the 
adjective xvMxoQy compounded of « privitive, and Fi«%ii, a 
shouJt. In like manner we may account for the existence of 
T in the word xtfutf^^Cy which occurs twice in Hesiod's 
Works and Days, hyta, to break, was originally pronounced 
and written F^yw, and was thus distinguished from Ayu, 
to lead* As metf^fixXe was deduced by contraction from xatas- 
0«AAa), so HtiF^iieug, afterwards written Havui^aigy was ob- 
.tainedfrom Harafuya. These reasons appear amply suffi- 
cient to justify a dissent from the inference adopted by Dr. 
Marsh, that the Greek digamma was alpoays sounded like 
the Latin- and English F. 

In subordination to this doctrine, our author maintains, 
that the Greek T and the Latin Y, to which letters be very 
incorrectly attributes the same power, were employed not 
only aa vowels^ but also to express the sound of our English 



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1 14 Bishop oflAandaff's Bora Pelasgica. 

consonant Y. The only evidence produced to support thb 
opinion, as applied to the Greek letter, seems to be the 
practice of the modem Greeks, who pronounce <6uc, zefs; 
fiecffiKevg, vasilefs ; avrap, aftar, &c. But it is too well 
known to require a moment's illustration, that the pronun- 
ciation of the modem Greeks is in many particulars utterly 
abhorrent from that of their progenitors, and affords no 
grounds for any conclusion respecting the sounds employed 
in the ancient language. Numerous proofs might be accu* 
mulated to shew, that T, whether used singly or to compose 
the diphthongs uv and fu, had the full force of a vcAvel ; and 
that its sound (at least in the classical ages of Greece) was 
intermediate between that of I and that of OY, correspond- 
ing pretty exactly to the French u. Hence it was called 
4/<Xov, slender, to distinguish it, (not, as Dr. Marsh sup- 
poses, from a consonant answering to our English F,) but 
from the broader and stronger sound of the cognate OT, 
which, though represented by tzoo letters, was in its own 
nature a simple voweL 

Equally destitute of foundation is the supposition, that 
the sound of the English consonant Y belonged to the 
Latin V J when used as a consonant, Y, when employed as a 
long vowel, answered to the Greek OT, and consequently 
expressed the sound which is denoted in French by ou, and 
in English by oo. Abbreviate this sound, so as to reduce 
it, in point of time or metre, to the power of a consonant^ 
and it coincides entirely with that of the English W. Until, 
therefore, some good reasons are assigned to the c6ntrary 
^some better reasons than the real or fancied ^^ coar^^e^s" 
of the enunciation — we ought to regard this as the power 
of the Latin Y when used as a consonant, rather than ascribe 
to it another sound, which cannot possibly be deduced from 
its known and admitted signification as a long vowel. This 
conclusion is further justified by the changes upon the 
power of this letter, practised by the Latin poets in order 
to suit the rhythm of their compositions. Thus Yirgil, 
speaking of one of his pugilistic heroes, says, ^^ Genua 
labaift,' converting the short vowel Y into a consonant, so 
as to obtain a trochee out of a tribrachys. Who can doubt 
that in this, and in similar cases, the sound of the consonant 
Y was that of the English w, which is only a rapid utter- 
ance of its vowel sound, and not that of the English v, which 
has no connection with the vowel sound ? We might esta- 
blish a similar'argument upon the mode of forming various 
derivatives froni' verbs ending in YO, in which Y is some* 



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Bishop of Uanditff's Horm PelasgkiB. 1 15 

times a vowel, as in FLYO, TRIBVO, and sometimes a 
cons&nant, as in VOLVO, but which agree in conferring 
upon their derivatives the full force of the long vowel V, as 
in FLVMBN, VOLVMEN, &c. It would also te an 
amusing su1)ject of research, to collect from those European 
and Asiatic languages which are of the 8ame^',familj with 
the Latin, the forms of words which correspond to Latin 
forms of the same words beginning with the consonant V. 
We should probably find that, in the vast majority of cases, 
these words begin with the sound of the IJn^ish W. We 
present a few examples from the English language : vallum) 
wall ; vasto, waste; ventus, wind; vicus, wick; vidua, 
widow ; vinum, wine; volvo, wheel: and, if these instances 
be opposed by such words as virtue from virtus, revolve from 
Yolvo, &c. it is sufficient to reply, that such terms have 
been formed from the corrupted pronunciation of Latin in 
modern tiroes ; whereas those beginning with W were de- 
rived from the Latin of the classical ages, or are original 
words belonging, under different forms, to various Ian* 
guages which are allied to the Latin. Lastly, the opinion 
for which we contend, is supported by the examples of all 
Latin words transferred into the Greek language, such as 
^Bovvjpog^and I^evv\pog, for Severus, in which the Latin con- 
sonant V is represented, imperfectly indeed, but as closely 
as the case would admit, by the Greek OT or T ; and since 
the sounds of these two characters, when uttered with the 
rapidity of consonants, are found to coincide, all these ex* 
amples must be regarded as conspiring to the same point, 
and therefore, when taken together, amply sufficient to 
overbalance the examples produced on the othej* side of the 
question, in which the Iflitin V is expressed yet more im- 
perfectly by the Greek B. 

The preceding observations tend to shew, that the di- 
gamma, when used as a consonant, had sometimes the sound 
of the English W. Such was the case in all those words 
where the insertion of the digamma restores the versifica- 
tion of the poems of Homer, and where also the corre- 
sponding Latin forms of the same words begin with V. But 
it is probable that the ancient Greek F was qfte$ty thouffh 
not, as Dr. Marsh contends, invariablj^ equivalent- to the 
Ztotin F and the more recently invented 4. 

It will be allowed, that the source of the digamma, as 
well as of ail those letters which originally belonged to the 
Gredc alphabet, must be found in the Phanidan or Hebrew. 
But in the ancient oriental alphabets, the digamma, them 



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1 16 Bishop of Llandcfff*s Hora Pehsgica. 

called Vau, and occupying the fiixth place, was probaUy 
employed both as a vowel and as a consonant, being analo- 
gous sometimes to the Greek OT, and sometimes to the 
Grreek 4>. This conjecture we might support, by producing 
instances of the manner in which the power of the sixth 
letter has been expressed by the ancient translators of the 
Hebrew Scriptures ; but we cannot suppose that the orien- 
tal tongues wanted either of the two sounds which we have 
^pointed out, for they are found with slight modifications in 
every known language. Now, if they existed in those 
tongues, we cannot doubt that they were both expressed by 
the" sixth letter Fau^ because the alphabets referred to 
afforded no other probable means of representing them. If 
this argument be valid, we must upon the same principle 
(as well as from the entire analogy of the ancient Greek 
alphabet to the Hebrew or Phoenician) ascribe the same 
double power to the digamma ; for this letter was in esta- 
blished use among the Greeks before they had invented 
either T to denote the one sound, or ^ to represent the other. 
The use of the two last letters was probably adopted to 
obviate the inconvenience and ambiguity arising from the 
double office of the digamma. This character then fell into 
disuse, except as a numeral. 

Among the Latins^ who adopted the Greek or Pelasgic 
alphabet after it had received the addition of the vowel T, 
the digamma always retained the office of a letter, but was 
confined to the expression of its origijnal power as a conso' 
nant. Hence those Greek words which were afterwards 
written with *, such as 4>AMA, 4>TrEQ, were expressed in 
Latin by F, as we see in KAMA, FVGIO. Nevertheless, 
in Etruscan inscriptions we find*F still used, as it was by 
the Greeks, to denote the sound which was expressed in 
Latin by V having the time of a consonant.* 

For the reasons now stated, we agree with Dr. Marsh ih 
thinking, that the most ancient Greeks used the digamma 
in all cases in which <l> was afterwards employed, and in 
which the digamma is still found in the Latin forms of the 
same words. Or, Marsh also adduces satisfactory evidence 
to prove, that this letter was prefixed to those Greek words 
which now begin with an aspirated*?, and which corre- 
spond to Latin words beginning with FR. Trypho, who 

* Observe, that in the above account of the original double power of the 
digamma, we have considered the sound of the English W, as included 
jinder its power a$ a voweL 



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Bishop of Umtdaff^s Hora Pelasgica. 117 

lived in the third century^ asserts, that in the poems of 
Alceus he had found^ the word ^viiig written fpviW* We 
now find in the £lean inscription fparfx for ^v^rpet^ Gre« 
l^orius *informs us, in his treatise on the Dialects of the 
Greek Langoage, that the iEolians beg^n such words with 
the analogous fetter B ; and as the sound of F, when used 
as a consonant, includes an aspiration, we are thus enabled 
to account, in a manner whicn confirms the hypothesis, for 
the existence of the aspirate still prefixed to such words. 
Upon this ground, we are enabled to judge how the aspi- 
rate ought to be expressed when it accompanies an initial 
rho. The sound phj with which the words under review 
originally commenced, was an aspiration, modified by press- 
ing the teeth upon the under lip. Omit this pressure of 
the teeth, and a simple aspiration remains, which however 
still precedes the initial?, and justifies the position of the 
spiritus before it, though sometimes represented as if it 
were sounded (fler. Thus the ancient FRAKTOE, cor- 
responding to the Latin FRACTVS, became in the more 
recent ana classical Greek 'PAKTOE, or ^v\)iTog^ pronounced 
Hractos. 

When we consider the age, learning, and station of the 
celebrated author, upon whom we have been animadvert- 
ing, and call to mind our obligations to him for some of 
the former productions of his pen, we should think our- 
selves chargeable with a high degree of ingratitude, as well 
as presumption, were we to blame him, even where cen- 
sure is due, without great delicacy and respect. We there- 
fore sincerely lament the deficiencies of the volume before 
us. His letters to Archdeacon Travis, and his Annotations 
on Michaelis contain the clear and abundant proofe, not 
Only of roost extensive reading, but of independence and 
energy of mind, of sound judgment, of candour, accuracy, 
and ingenuity. The present treatise contains erroneous 
representations of the classics ; assertions strong and posi- 
tive in proportion as the evidence for them is slender and 
insignificant; inferences, dependant in trains upon one 
another, and all of dubious validity, yet ending in conclu- 
sions, which are produced as absolutely certain ; and re^ 
spectAil appeals to the authority of writers, who, whenever 
they oppose his doctrines, are treated as undeserving of 
credit or regard. These circumstances indicate a deterio- 
ration of the understanding. Let the author, ere it is too 
late, beware how he devotes himself to the service of a 
party. Let the high and honourable reputation, obtained 



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118 Jccouhtoftfie Natives of the Tonga Islands. 

by his former learned publications; let a superiority to the 
world, and a noble, ingenuous, and uncontaminated desire 
for the attainment and progress of Truth ; let the memory 
of his venerable predecessor, and a strong sense of the awftil 
responsibility attached to the episcopal dignity ; in short, 
let uprigb,t principles and elevated affections influence him 
to employ his talents and opportunities in the promotion of 
those objects, which alone can appear truly important and 
valuable to the philosopher and the christian, and we may 
even yet have cause to number him among the greatest 
benefactors to his church, his country, and mankind. 

AjiT. lll.'^An Account of the Natives of the Tonga Islands, 
in the South Pacific Ocean; with an original Grammar 
and Vocabulary of their Language, Compiled and ar^- 
ranged from the extensive Communications of Mr. Wm. 
Mariner, several years resident in those Islands; hy 
John Martin, M. D. 2 vols, royal 8vo. pp. 460— 412. 
London, Miirrayi 1817. 

To no single individual is the science of geography more 
indebted than to the late Captain Cook, who fell a sacrifice 
to the ignorance or ferocity of the barbarous regions he 
explorecU In his first voyage the Society Isles were disco- 
vered by him ; the iusularitv of New Zealand was ascer- 
tained, when the streights waich separated the two compo- 
nent parts were distinguished by his name : and in the same 
voyage he explored the coast of New Holland through an 
extent of two thousand miles. In his second voyage he 
was enabled to negative the conjecture with regard to a 
southern continent within the reach of navigation; he 
added New Caledonia to our charts, the largest island in 
the South Pacific, New Zealand excepted ; and also Greor- 

S'a, in the latitude of Cape Horn, with an unknown coast 
at he called Sandwich I^nd, and which has been denomi- 
nated the Ultima Tbule of the southern hemisphere. 

In his third vovage he revisited the Friendly Islands^ 
discovered several smaller clusters on the tropic of Capri- 
corn, and the Sandwich Islands to the north of the equi- 
noctial line ; he explored the western coast of America from 
43 to 70 degre^ of north latitude ; he determined tl^ 
proximity of Asia to that continent; and passing the 
streights between them, demonstrated the impracticability 
of a northern passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific 



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\ €fA€ Nai^ of At Ibnga IsknO^ 119 

la ofiBseq^enoe of these importaat diseoverm^ tb^ kjidro^ 
gvapky of the kaJlitable gfebb naj be saiA |o have bees 
poH^Bkted, wilb tbe exception of tbe S^a of Amur mqA the 
Japanese Ardbipelago; so that little remaina toj^ future 
navigaton bat to fiiFaiih us with aoore minute aocottnt^ o{ 
tbe. aitaatioBS he bad exaauned^ and this faurposa with 
vaq^d to the Fneadljr, or Toagii Islandi, isfMrforiaed ia a 
nmy able aod interefiting aumner hj the a^lbop of the 
account before us, assisted as he was bj bia pvofessional 
editer. 

Beiore we enter on the narraiiTe heie given, it may be 
cMipeoiefit to supplji some few dates as to the visitants of 
tiMse islaadsi since the last voyage of Captain Cook in 1777, 
iuid especialty as in the geogra[&ioal illustrations the weak 
kefiDfe us is verjF deficient. 

Four jears sobsequent to 1777, Maurielle, a Spaniarc^ 
was entangled among these islands ; and in 1789, Lleuta- 
nant Bligh, in the Ekmnty, anchored at Anamooha, one of 
tiM duster of tbe Hapai Islands, Captain Perouse having 
approached them in 1787 . Captain Edwards twice visited 
Anamooka in 1791, which was the appointed place of ren- 
dezvous with the schooner that bad attended him from Qta- 
heite, and which had lost cpm.pany with the Random. Bligb 
figaip in the Providence, and Captaip Pollock in the Assist- 
unce, returning with bres^d fruit from Otaheite, remained 
diiriog the night of AMgust 3d, 1792, off these islands. Tb^ 
wh^Ie groupe is in nu^iber computed at 150, ^ut qnl; 61 
of these have their places and proper situations assigc^^ ia 
tbe diart,^ a^d in the ski^b of tbe h«rbQur of f osigiitob^ 
attached to tbe Yojagea of Captain Cook. 

We do not verjr inH understand why confusion should 
be intredueed into the gec^frapbjr of the immense tract of 
Ae Piscific, by the snbstitution m the name of Tonga for the 
Friendly Islands, merely because the chart of Capt. Cook di^ 
not comprehend, eo nomrrfryYavaoo ; and if the sf^me liberty 
were ta|cen with this sort of nomenclature as to the othef 
places in the like sea^ which v^ere visited by that distin- 
g^ished victim of useful and daring enterprise, such diffi- 
^im WOMld be opeasioned tp the inquirer, that it might b^ 
peqifm^xy to devpt^ a Ippg life to remove the needl^uip 
obitMleff which qapriee, or somo other intrusive motive, 
fpeuld oocaaion. In tbe present inatance, we do not entirely 
•tfaribole the rariation to whim or ibncy, but we rather 
nacribe it to a disposition to communicate a novel appear- 
ance to tbe work, in mrder that it may be niofe attractive 

CniT. Rsv. Vol. 7. Febi 1817. R 



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ISO Account ofihe Natives of the Tonga Jslanit^ 

to the general class of readers. The Friendly Islands have 
been mentioned so frequently since 1773, that it might be 
thought, if not by the author or editor^ by some trading 
adviser, that an account of the Tonsa Islands would b« 
supposed to be the relation of a new discovery, which had 
hitherto eluded the vigilance of all former adventurers, and 
which deception would at least continue until the book 
itself were procured, the first page of which must, however, 
remove the misapprehension. 

The Tonga Islands comprehend, Tonga, a cluster called 
the Hapai Islands, and Yavaoo. Those who have .consulted 
the Dutch voyagers will know three of them under the ap* 
pellations of Amsterdam, Middleburg, and Rotterdam ; in the 
neighbourhood of which last are a great number of other 
islands of much smaller dimensions. Amsterdam had also 
the native distinction of Tongataboo,or Sacred Tonga; tabu, 
or taboo, denotinff sacred or prohibited. 

Dr. Martin explains the circumstances which led him to 
afford his valuable assistance to the present work in the 
following manner : — 

V In the yearldlly I accidentally heard that IVIr. William Mariner* 
the bearer of a letter from the East Indies to one of my connectioDs 
in London, had been a resident at the Friendly Islands during the 
space of four years ; and, my curiosity being strongly excited, I 
solicited his acquaintance. In the course of three or four interviews 
I discovered, with much satisfaction, that the information he was 
able to communicate respecting the people with whom he had been 
so long and so intimately associated, was very fat superior to, and 
mnch more extensive than any thing that had yet appeared before 
the puUic. His answers to several inquiries, in regard to their reli- 
gion, government, and habits of life, were given with that kind of 
nnassuming confidence, which bespeaks a thorough intimacy with 
the subject, and carries with it the conviction of truth : — in fact, 
having been thrown upon those islands at an early age, his ^oung 
and flexible mind had so accorded itself with the habits and circum- 
stances of the natives, that he evinced no disposition to overrate or 
to embellish what to him was neither strange nor new. To my in- 
quiries respecting his intentions of publishing, he replied, that having 
necessarily been, for several years, out of the habit either of writing 
or reading, or of that turn of thinking requisite for composition and 
arrangement, he was ap]jflhensive his endeavours would fail in 
doing that justice to the work which I seemed to think its import* 
ance demanded: he modestly proposed, however, to submit the 
subject to my consideration for a future opportunity. In the mean 
while drcumstances called him away to the West Indies : on his 
return he brought me memoranda of the principal events at the 



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Aecwniifike NaOaDeg of the Tonga IslanA. 121 

Torna bknds, io the order in winch thej had happened daring bis 
lesiraice thefe, togother with a description of tne most important 
religions ceremonies, and a vocabulary of about four or five hun- 
dred wprds. The inspection of these materials served greatly to 
increase the interest which I had already taken in the matter, and I 
Uf§ed the necessity of committing the whole to paper while every 
thing remained fresh io his memory. To facilitate this object, I 
proposed to undertake the composition and arrangement of the in- 
tended work, whilst Mr. IVfariner should direct his view solely to 
noting down all that he had seen and heard in the order in. which 
his memory might spontaneously furnish it, that these materials 
might afterwards be made, from time to time, subjects of conversa- 
tion, strict scrutiny, amplification, arrangement and com|)osition ; 
consequently not one of the ensuing pages has been written without 
Mr. Mariner's presence, that he might be consulted in regard to 
every little circumstance or observation that could in the smallest 
degree alfect the truth of the subject under consideration ; and, in 
thi5 way, it is presumed that a great deal more useful and interest- 
ing matter has been elicited, than would probably have occurred to 
liim through the medium of his own unassisted reflections; for con- 
versation calls to mind many things that would otherwise have 
escaped the memory ; it constantly demands elucidations ; one idea 
gives birth to another, until the whole subject lies completely un- 
folded to the mind." (p. vi — ix.) 

The arrangemtint of the work may be briefly stated. It 
commences with the voyage of the ship Port au Prince^ in 
which Mr. Mariner was conveyed to. the Tonga Islands; 
next follows an historical account of what occurred during 
his stay for abouC four years at those islands, including not 
only what regarded himself, but the difierent changes, reli- 
gious tind political; and the recital being thus brought 
down to the departure of Mr. Mariner, the remaining 
chapters are devoted to an orderly statement of the con* 
dition of society; the ranks and professions; the names 
and attributes of the gods ; the notions entertained of the 
human soul and a future life ; the most important ceremo- 
nies; the games and amusements; the music, vocal and 
instrumental ; the state of pharmacy; of arts and manufac- 
tures; and. lastly, is supplied a grammar of the languagOi 
and a vocabulary comprehending two thousand words. 

This insight into the dialect of Ae people we consider 
to be the most valuable, although not the most entertain^* 
ing part of the work. Captain Cook observes, that the 
language of the Friendly Islands is sufficiently cc^ious to 
express all' the ideas of the people; and that be had many 
proofs of its applicability to musical purposes, both in song 



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arid mAaliTe. Tii^ liiM^a^ taay lifcewke ht oomiMbteAm 
the la&Bterr^ej to bH ihat tfiay be acq«bed in the ndMi* 
iMMfrkf^ 8itimtiori», ^6 on thi» 4il[e sMittoritj we kmn ttat 
fhfe t^gti^i tes^he sfr^tefft affifrity imagfiimble t^ tbrt cjf 
fffet^ Zeah^a^ xif Wit^eoo, and Mangena, and tsbnseqmntlf 
to 'tJuft of Otnheite atid the Socirty Isles. Mtey of Hie 
Vbi^ds are also the same As th6S(e spoken at Cocoa's I^klid^ 
?t8 appears by the vocabulary collected by Lis M&ire liiid 
Scbouten. Some of the terms of Horn Island, another of 
the discoveries of Schouten^ also belong to ihe language 
of T^ngs^abatoo. 

I^qse who look for srach inforaiation in these volumes 
OB tiaivpd history and ]»htlo8ci(Ay) piMrtieularly in the de- 
fftii^ineffts of bMftny^ woohgy^ and -toiaeralogy) wiU imfid^ 
Ifhfy 'be dfi»pp<^nt€^ ; ^t the morelkit, idio Ijf^^ ^ 
^kaMAie ti^Hian ttSiWre in that niiddlife stale, mtwwii 
the iWl^fi i^^'vtty t>t savTigfe and tte *fefffefcted l^rvity ^f 
IffeKshed li^, WiHffftd'tMs hif^estfrig sJtnatioh Ikltlffliaf 
dieted, 't^ilb all that rel8(t6s to Ihe rirts, the custdms, «te 
i^eliigjon, thd goverhment, and whal6vcfr is btsculiar to tntti 
fn this stage of social cultivation ; and tihaer such a View, 
we confidently recommend it to the attentive exarainatiea 
of our readers. 

' Tl^'v^gie^knhin'^nlj^ frtftn GfAvvs^nd, in the Port au 
P^ifki^, dR tlie l^Feb. ^05»,aild t^r^vw'MyK^ii^ot* 
iiattty^t&^i&titm'^^iin^hkctristj^^^ 188$, sbsbroagbt 

tb ten ^ wmh-W^M p^at^etf^ Lefdoga, 43ne of thiB llaptfi 
I^fids, ih thb edtli^ ^pl^ce ^4i^e €»ptaaii Cbtdc hart foMierly 
atl^hop^i. til #r» sfhitftloU 'set^t^l of ^th^ erew HMrtadi^ 
HlM 'W^e 'billed '6n dMi^ by tUe li«it!i ves. On tl» Ist De*- 
iSlittiber, the Man4«¥s 4dok-p^8iessimi df liie ship ; lind Mr. 
Mttrid^, afftdr b^mjg exf^osi^d njb v^ry ^^tetk danger, waa 
tmSM 4<i%icfifti6e. fie WtM 6#fidlctiid ftfto the weaeate^ 
^¥lftd^, %he kihg ^ tlie 'Mlart4, ^horditttaaMyViok^i 
pttt^kffilkr -ftiii^^lo Mill, l^he ^^Mp ^«te ffdhieqaentfy roa 
agl^ilfi#<ftidfluM]^«d by9ftM»w^<ik<d«i»^ andiatheaVensnig 
offb^Vth lleceMberthte^MANi^s^ft^eHoh^r, HI Miter llie 
ilM^'i^yvrv^^dfly tb f«t<Mt%te imim<»Pk^^iaiA wm highly 
valued By «hMi. qPHe In^Mt *il0y, nt^MB-rlBe, Aa p«oMa 
flb<l!ted to the he^h, Vnd «Mie of *the etc^, isndar the 
dii^^M of 3fr. MiariiM^,'MWv^}^d-fi^edf «he icarft^nadcB 
dn sht^. 

A^Hit%hi^M|:^^!i^ilysk^ #i^ tlie'Khig to 4he naMi'^ 
I^Mii^^^lttttdH^ t¥«iha, lie aiid Mr. ktorider retaimcTto 
L&fboigt. *Oitr %td¥i^tuM: Win MUr ^te^rnnM ^ ^an«adtr 



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^9mA^P^Vv^V ^St ^**^ • w*WB©#W^*P ^5r ^^^^ ^^^WB^I^^y* ^W^^^^PVPV)^ ••^'^r 



liis boiks «Bd pAj^ani wUok he leant •ftenr«rde 
iMinrt; Md on inqinrtw tkm tmmony he wks told (as to 
lAcriiHtiidft yffderfttfoed) twt bie Mbjesty oottM not m any 
ai«e6ilttl fallow hitti ti> pmciffii^ wHtheratft te the mjarf of 
Are 1^Mr^ people; Und Hiat it was well known to tlieKm^. 
fliat tlM)i^ %0'OKs ti'nd papefs weti^ instftnnetfts and meana 
of invocationi t6 htitig adwn Bome evil or plague upon the 
coontij. Mr. Mariner and bis oompaRionsi, who were re- 
dttced to the number of five« (the rest either being killed or 
dtt^eraed on the adjacent ishuids,) began soon to be tired ot 
ibek way of life, and endeavoiired 4o procuve from tha 
K^hgthe .rift of « eaivM, tiiat^thejr bright rig itaaa sloop^ 
IhmI nraike^erfolk fakndy lan llifeir ^roj^ge to NewHoUanoU 
Their porpoae, iMwicfvev, was disafipainted^ 

The hivkjfty of « M^i^eiulioa wWch iMk pkee is nasft 
K^VM. At the tim^ df Cat^n Obok's visit, the wholly dT 
T»6s^(that is, Ae {sknd df loaga, the Hapai Istands, 
afnd ravaoo) w^ ander the dominitiin of Tt^ngoo Ahoo; 
but in consequence of (his dian^e, the island of !fonga 
had beeii'for ten or twelve yeiars, uivided into several P^tty 
states, all at war with one knother; Finow being then ^inf, 
of the Bapai Islands and Yavaoq, and Tooboo Neuha tcir 
butery chief of the hiUer. 

The death of Finow occurred after an entevtaimiMaU^ 
His jttaess ba^n iwilli •a.difievllgr of vaspirtitiiMm hit Hpa 
bacnw furpl^ and his tinder .jaw Was •eOMnilasd. lib 
W cu da flfilMigdie ^liduol get betteis iiMcured me of faia 
liriMMi %o %aeri6ee it to the «dds, thiit<hs>di«Hiiemgi0r 
Miglift be iibptfiiiJCifd, iaMd the %eaith ^ tfie fiiAeir Testoi^, 
flie^ Rmndllite drild in a neighbotninjg; liouse, sleepin]? in 
ttbmotfret's'larp; they snatched it tway by fbrce^ and re* 
tirtng, they sti^ngleid ^t with a band of gnatoo."^ The 
eoirpse was then tsmen with aTl speed before two consecrated 
houses and a ^ve ; at each place' a short prayer to the 
god was hurried over, that be ojgbt inieipoae with the 
other deilies ki the behalf of Finowy and aoeapt ^f lUa 
saicriflee asan atonetisent 'Ufr bis cciaaes. 

lVie#ppeaitanee Mid'ohiifaeler ofjthiB deoBaaedKing^wUb 
ifflKmi Mr. MbMieir<was an ahaoat oon^ant aosodaile, lintt 
iatferOHt the vead^. 

** -Fiaow^ the sok and arbitrary aioaacch of Vavaoo abd tbs 

H^wi iLslaodSy was ia statare six feet two inches ; in bulk aad 

^1 ■ > - .. ^ .. ^ ■ .> ..-■-- ■■.— ^ ^^-^ 

^ A Mibfltanee used Ibr clothitof, prepared from the 1>ack 9f ihe Obinese 
palpsr^atiiib^ft^ ^e^ 



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lU Aocauni of the Niaivesofihe ToOga i$kmAi 

ati«BeUi» stcMit and muscular; his hdid ereet and bold ; Us shoul- 
ders br<»d and well made ; his limbs well set» stroag, aud giaoeiul 
in action ; bis body iiot corpulent, but muscular ; his hair of a jet 
black, aod curly, yet agreeably so, without being woolly ; his fore^ 
head remarkably high ; his brow bold and intelugent, with a little 
austerity ; his e^e large and penetrating, yet joined to an expression 
of mildness ; his nose aquiline and large, his lips well made and 
expressive; his teeth remarkably large, white, and regular; his 
lower jaw rather promment; his cheek-bones also rather prominent, 
compared with those of Europeans. — ^AU his features were well de- 
veloped, and declared a strong and energetic mind, with that sort 
of intellectual expression, which belongs not so much to the sage as 
to the warlike chiefhiin : ambition sat hi^h on his front, and guided 
all his energies : his deep and penetrating eye, and his lirm and 
masculine deportment, while they inspired his adherents with confi- 
dence,, struck awe to the minds of conspirators: — ^his actions were, 
for the most part, steady and determined, and directed* to some 
well-studied purpose: his resolve was fate, and those who obeyed 
him with reluctance trembled, not without reason. He appeared, 
almost constantly, in deep thought, and did not often smile ; — ^when 
he spoke, on matters of some importance, it was not without first 
holding up the balance in his mind, to weigh well what he had to 
say : persuasion hung upon hb lip, and the flow of his eloquence 
was such, that many or his enemies were afraid to listen to him^ 
lest they should be led to view the subject in a light prejudicial to 
their interests^ 

" Although, in matters of consequence, he always seemed to 
weigh well what he had to say, in subjects of minor importance he 
was very quick in reply: his voice was loud, not harsh nut mellow, 
and his pronunciation remarkably distinct. When he kragbedy which 
was not on trifling occasions, it was so loud as to be heard at an 
incredible distance ; and with a very strange noise preceding it, as 
if he were hallooing after somebody a long way off, and the same 
kind of noise as he always made when in a passion ; and this was 
peculiar to him. When in his house, however, giving orders about 
his domestic arrangements, his voice was uncommonly mild, and 
very low. 

** In regard to bis sentiments of religion and policy, they may be 
pretty weu gathered from sundry passages in the narrative : — ^with 
respect to his religion in particular, it is difficult to say whether he 
liaa any: it is certain that he disbelieved most of the doctrines 
taii^t by the priests ; for although he believed that they were really 
inspired, when they pretended to be so, yet he thought that fre- 
quently a great deal of what they declared to be the sentiments of 
the god, was their own invention ; and this particularly in r^ard to 
what did not suit his own sentiments. He never, however, declared 
Bis "opinion of these things in public; though he expressed them 
very decidedly to Mr« Mariner, and some of his intimate fiieuds, 



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Atotmtd of the Naihes of tie. Tonga liktnA. 195 

He iised to say» that the gods would alwiws ftvour that party in 
war in which there were the greatest chiera and warriors. He did 
not believe that the gods paid much attention in other respects to 
the afiairs of mankmd ; nor did he think they could have any reason 
for doing so, — ^no more than man could have any reason or interest 
in attending to the affiiirs of the gods. He believed in the doctrine 
of a future state, agreeably to the notions entertained by his coun- 
trymen; that is, that chiefs and niatabooles, having souls, exist 
hereafter in Bolotoo, according to their rank in this world ; but that 
the common people, having no souls, or those only that die with 
their bodies, are without any hope of a future existence, (p. 428 — 
43S,vol.i.) 

He was succeeded by his son,, a man whose intellect was 
of a yery superior kind, and who, unlike his &ther, was 
Toid of political ambition, and sous^ht rather the happiness 
of his people than the extension of his power. He was an 
admirer of the arts, and a philosopher among savages. 

Mr. Mariner now be^n to be very solicitous to return 
to bis native country in a tiitie of peace, when he had 
nothing on which to employ himself but objects of amuse- 
ment. Sometimes with Finow the younger, or with the; 
Chiefs, and sometimes alone, by way of recreation, he 
would frequently ^o, for two or tnree days together, among 
the neighbouring islands on fishinj^ excursions ; as he wa^ 
one evening. returning homeward in his canoe, he espied a 
sail in the westward horizon, iust as the sun had descended 
below it. He was then with three servants that worked on 
his plantation, and he insisted that they should make for 
the vessel. They admitted that they had seen her before* 
but that their fear of his wishing to go on board wevented 
them from pointing her out to him; as* they nad ofteii 
heard their chiefs say that they never meant to let him go 
if they could help it, and these attendants were apprehen* 
sive that their brains would be knocked out if they suffered 
him to escape. It was not until one of the men was killed 
by Mariner that he could succeed in approaching the vessel, 
which he reached about day-light the next morning. The 
briff proved to be the Favourite, Captain Fiske, from Port 
Jadison, of about 130 tons burthen; Mr. Mariner was 
received, and from on board sent an invitation to the Kine, 
when Finow, .with his sister and several of her female 
attendants, visited, him, bringing presents of provisions; 
and so delighted was his Majesty with ever^ thing he saw 
in the ship, and so* desirous was he of aequiring diose ac* 
complishoGients which laised Europeans so much above tl^ 



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Tonga, peojplo) tbal ke was wkh difficulty disanadad Iton 
aoeonpanymg Mr. Mariner to Europe. 

" FioQw't sitter, who ms a yeiy WautiAil* Uvel^r fiiHs prcfi^^ 
iajoketogo to Eoglandy and see the white MfQaie^: she 9skf^ tf 
they would allow her to w^sar the To^ga dre«ft ; ' thoi^ght pech^^' 
she said, ' that wo«Md not do- in aacb a eoU eouatiry in ^hf VWtf^ 
leason* I doa^t know what I shoqld do at that tiaie ; h^l Togi |elli 
aie ibaX ^aw have hot^ioa^es for plants frcwn waim oii^s^te^ so | 
should hka t^ live all wiat^er in a hot-house. Qould I bi^h^ ^m 
two or three tiai«a a ds^ without beipg seeo,1 1 wonder wheth^ i 
should stand a chance of getting a husband ; but my ^kia i% s.a 
brown, 1 suppose none of the young papalansi men would have me; 
and it wonra oea great pity to leave so naay handsome youi^ daefs 
at Yavaoo, and go to England to live a single life.— 4f I were te go 
to Eog^d, I woold amass a great quooti^ of beads, and then i 
9bo«ld like to r^tttca lo Toi^ge, becaaio ia Bogtend beada ave 10 
comihoB that nobody would adiaire mt ior wei^ri^g tbeai, aa4 1 
should not have the pleasure of being enviod/^^^^She s^, laughing, 
that either the white mea must make very kind 9nd ^[aQd-teqiper^ 
husbands^ or else the white woman mast have very httle spirit^ for 
them to live so long together without parting. She thought the 
custom of having only one wife a very good one, provided the husr 
band loved her; If not, it was a very Imd one, because he would 
tyrannize over her the more, whereas if his attention was divided 
between five or six, and he did not behave kindly towards them, it 
woold be very easy to deoeive Mm.** (p. 83—^," vol. ii.) 

^ Before the ship's defiartorf , Mr. Mariner was charged with 
aeverat ncssagcs from the chiefs of Vavaoo to those of Hapai. 
▲moog otb«ra, Fiaow aeoit his strong recommeDdalioos to Tooho 
Toa to bocoatented with the Hapai Islwidfi and oot to think of 
ioradiag Vavaoo; to «ti^ aod look to the prosperity of his own d^ 
mimopsy for that was the way to preserve pi^ea and happin^ia.-^ 
' Tell him again,' said he, * that the best way to make a country 
powerful and strong against all enemies, U to caltivete it well, for 
then the people have something worth fightioa for, and will defeud 
it with invincible bravery : I have adopted tni^ plan, and his at> 
tempts upon Vavaoo will be m vain f ** (p. 84^ vol* ii.) 

The dvil ranks of society in the Tong;a Islands may b^ 
Aiyided into How, or King, E^i, or Nobles, Matabooles, 
Mooas aikl Tooas. The King is an arbitranr monarch, and 
Ids inflaenee over the people is derived m>m hereditarj 
right, the supposed protection of the gods^ bis reputaticm 
as a warrior, and lastly but principal^, from the number 
and strength of his fghting men. The £^ are thos^ 
persons mN» are related to the diTine ihmily of Tocri** 
mga and Vooehi, or to the ceyal Howe, and is point of 



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Jt^comA of the Naiivts qfik^ Tonga I$land$. IS? 

rank, the f0raier are coasidered to be superior to the Iirfter, 
and even the King himself is allowed the priority only in 
pewer^ The Mfttabooles are a sort of banourable a^eodr<- 
aiftaiipon'tfaeeiriefey and are their compiiniOna an4 coiir« 
sellom/- Thh»y are more or lesa regarded aeeordrd^ tor 4he 
fftnk: ifif the ehief to wboiit they are attaobedy ail4 they hiye 
tke inntni^ment at M ^fematne$. The MeKf^ Me tMt^ 
the brothers, or descendants* of Matabootes. iThld or^tef^ 
haas mficb^ to do in assisting at the public ceremonies. 
Like the Matabooles they form part of the retinue of chiefs^ 
and oip«t of them are professors of some art. fthe '/"aoas, 
who till the groandi compose the bulk and the lowest order 
9fth^ people. Some of them are employed occasionally ipf. 
perfi^iaiag the tattow» cVub-carving, shaving, and ^ccord- 
pg to ^eir abilities in other duties, for the dischai^e ol^ 
ivbi^ they meet with encouragement by pregentd, u[\Ui 
attentlop paid to age, sex, and iniancy, we bave the- (ok* 
lowing particulars. 

^ OM persom of both sexes arc highly reverenced on sfccount rf 
flieir age aad exigence, in so much that it constitufear a brancti 6f 
their fitst tttei^l atld religious dnty, viz. to r^ei^eftee the ^9, th4 
tUtit^ and aged persons ; and conseqaentlj' tb^re h haYdly ai^ in/ 
atanee iir liieae islandB of old age being wantonly iisullied. 

** Wometyhave coasideiable respect afaewa to them onaoconiit of 
their sex,< independent of the rank they laight otherwise hol4 as 
ttobles. They are coo^idered to contribute much to the Qoo^fort^ 
and domestic happiness of tlie other sex, and as they are the weaker 
o^ the two« it is thought unmanly not to shew tliem attentiou an^ 
bnd regard; they are therefore not sul^ected to hard labour or anv 
very m^oial work. Those that are nobles rank like the luen accbrc^ 
ing to the superiority of their relationship, tf a woman not a noble 
is the wife or daughter of a mataboole, she ranks as a niataboole ;. if 
she be a nobte, she is superior in rank to him, and so are the chil- 
dfren male and female ; but in domestic matters she submits entirely 
fo hi& arrangements ; notwitnsfanding this, however, she never loset 
the respect n-om 6er liusbaiid due to her rank, tha^ is to say, he is 
obligea to perform the ceremony of mfft-mfi (touching the feet) 
before he can feed htmsel^ If ffie husband and, wife are boih no'- 
Ues of equaf rank, the pi^remony of mo^epu/e Ts dispetised'with ; 
&ut where there is any diKfei'enCe the iiiferioi'must peiTorni Uiiscei^* 
mony to be freed from the taboo (the offence of takinjg whaV is pro- 
bibited). , H a woiti^n mkrries a nia^ liigher ih'r&nk than herseHl^ 
^e always derives additioiial respect oil thiait account; but a man 
baring a>wife wbo is a greatcfr noble than hiimself lic^uii^ noadfti^ 
tibnal respect from this fik>urce, but he haaf tli^ sMvanljige of bet 
6iger property. ^ ; 

Cbit. Rev. Vol. V. Feb. 1817. S 



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128 Accwfd of the Natives of ike Tonga Islands. 

** It is a cQstom in the Tonga islands for women to be what they 
call mothers to children or grown up young persons who are not 
their own» for the purpose of providing them or seeing that they are 
provided with all the conveniences of life ; and this is often done, 
although their own natural mothers be living, and residing near the 
spot, — no doubt for the sake of greater care and attention, or to be 
aherwards a substitute for the true parent, in the event of her pre- 
mature death." (p. 97—98. vol. iL) 

The religion of the Tonga Islands is said to cOnsisjfc 
cbiefly in the following notions. 

That there are Hotooas, or superior beings, who can die* 
pense good and evil to mankind. That the souls of de- 
ceased nobles and matabooles, have the same power in an 
inferior degree. That there are Hootoa Pow, (mischievous 

fods), who never dispense good but always evil ; that all 
uman evil is inflicted by the gods, either on account of 
the neglect of some religious duty, by the person who 
Buffers the infliction, or by the Egi whom he serves; that 
all Egi have souls which exist hereafter, not on account 
of their moral merit, but of their rank in this world. The 
Matabooles also ^o to Bolotoo (Heaven) after death, 
where they are ministers to the gods. Whether the Mooaa 
are admitted to Heaven is doubtful, but the Tooas have no 
isouls, or such only as perish with the body. The human 
soul, during life, is not supposed to be an essence distinct 
from the corporeal frame ; the primitive gods and deceased 
nobles, it is assumed, appear sometimes to mankind to 
warn or assist them, sometimes are incorporated with li- 
zards and other animals for beneficent purposes; and 
omens with inspirations constitute also part of the creed. 

*' The Tonga people do not indeed believe in any future state of 
rewards and punishment, but they believe in that first of all reli* 
gious tenets, that their is a power and intelligence superior to all 
uiat is human, which is able to control their actions, and which dis- 
covers all their most secret thoughts; and though they consider this 
power and intelligence to be inherent in a number of individual be* 
uigs, the principle of belief is precisely the same; it is perhaps 
equally strong, and as practically useful as if they considered it all 
concentrated in their chief god. They firmly believe that the gods 
approve of vuiue, and are displeased with Tice ; that every man has 
his tutelar deity, who will protect him as long as he conducts himself 
as he ought to do; but, irhe does not, will leave him to the ap« 
proaehes of misfortune, disease, and death. And here we find some 
ground on which to establish avirtaous line of conduct : but this is 
votsttfficie&t; there b impUmted in the human breast, aknoffledge 



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Account of the Nutrocs ffthe^ Timga I$lmi$^ 189 

^r lentineDt, which cinMes us »amerimtis if not always, to distin- 
guish between the beauty of disinterestedness and the foul ugliness 
of what is low, sordid, and selfish ; and the effect of this sentiment 
is one of the strongest marks of character in the natives of these 
islands.*" (p. 149. vol. ii.) 

With regard to the sex, we cannot here call it the iMr 
wexy we have the following curious particulars* 

" The next subject we shall consider is chastity. In respect to 
this, their notions are widely different from those of most European 
nations ; we must, therefore, first examine what are their own ideas 
respecting thb matter, and if they are such as are consistent with 
public decorum and due order and regularity in the social state^ 
without tending to enervate the mind or debase the character of 
9mn, we shall take those ideas as the standard by which to judge 
them, and as fiir as they act consistently thereto, we shall call thm 
chaste, and as fiir as they infringe upon it we shall deem them 
offenders. But here it may be asked how are we to judge whether 
their own notions upon this subject are consistent with the good 
order of society, .&c To this we can make no other answer than 
by referring to the actual state of society there, and pointing out 
those evils which may be supposed to arise from their wrong notions 
upon thb subject. 

** .In the first place, it is universally considered a positive duty ii| 
every married woman to remain true to her husband. What we 
mean by a married woman is, one who cohabits with a man* and 
lives under his roof and protection, holding an establishment of him* 
A woman's marriage b frequently independent of her consent, she 
having been betrothed by her parents, at an ^rly age» to some 
chief, mataboole or mooa: perhaps about on^thurd of the married 
women have been thus betrothed ; the remaining two thirds have 
married with their free consent. Every married woman must re* 
■rain with her husband whether she choose it or not, until he please 
to divorce her. Mr. Mariner thinks that about two thirds of the 
women are married, and of this number full half remain with their 
husbands till death separates them ; that b to say, full one third of 
the female popuhition remain married till either themselves or their 
husbands aie: the remaining two thirds are married and are soon 
divorced, and are married again perhaps three, feur, or five times 
in their lives, with the exception of a few who, from whim or some 
accidental cause, are never married ; so that about one third of the 
whole female population, as before stated, are at any given point of 
time unmarried.*' (p. 106-^168. voL ii.) 

^o man is understood to be bound to conjugal fidelity^ 
but notwithstanding this admitted liberty of conduct, we 
are told that most of the married men are tolerably true to 
their wives. If they have any other amour, it is kept a 



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iS6 jteeount Sfthe Miiities of the T^ga T$idirib^ 

secret 'tcotn the tady, beeati^ it is unnlscessanr to ^)tt\1i& 
J^aloqsj^ and cruel to produce unh^ppiness. With respeH 
t6t\\e unmarried men, they range at larg^e with mpre free- 
clom, but they seldom make any deliberate att^nipts upod 
the continence of the wives of others. 
; Waik) not isnow if our European wires will ha perfeetlj 
satisfied with the cause to whicli family repose it assigped 
by the author. 

'* As to di^tnestic qusf rails, they are seldom known; bat tkk 
nrast be said to happen rather from the absoiute power which eviff 
iian holds in his o^vnfkmily: ibr even if his wife be of superior 
i^nk, he is nevertheless of the highest authority in all domestic 
kia(^rs» and no woman entetlains Sie least idea of rebelling against 
that authority ; and if she should, even her own relations wonki not 
take her part, ninless the cbioduot of her husband were undoubtedly 
eru)»f. • That the men are also cnpable of much paternal nffeotiMi^ 
Mr* Mliriner has witnessed many prooft, soma of whidh have beew 
reHvied ) and we have aheady mentioned that filial piety « n most 
impArfaAt dutv, and appears to be universally ielt. 

*f Upon these gcottni&s we would ^nture to %«y, that the native 
of these i^nd^bve rather to be consickred n c(iaste than a libettine 
people; and that, even compared with the raostoivilited nation9» 
iMr ohatacter in this respeot U to be mted at no mean height ; and 
if a free iotefoourse bould ekist with European society, itisa-|ttat« 
lev of grelit doubt (whatever might be the change in their seati^ 
Mfienb% if their habits or dnpositions in tht| respect wonld hie moeb 
improved by cooying the eMOnples of their instructom* I^ on the 
other hand, we com jNU-o them tr> the natives of tiie Sbcsety iainndsy 
and the Sandwich islands^ we sbonkl add insult to injostioe.'' (p# 
17^—180. vol. ii.) 

Mr. Mariner having, in Ibn preoedtnff ellnpteffn gisten na 
neepuht of the state of reUgiovi and morals in those klonda^ 
fMceedsr to develope the pt^ogres? in uaeAil knowledge. Ho 
first treats of the he$Htig aft^.in hl^ notice of whicb weap- 
prehetid he has been materially asi^isted by his learpe4 
Witor. 

Ajl ^1^^ refwedjes, r^sqirtf 4 (p ^riii^jng {he^ pepple m^y b^ 
l^avfeed ufK^er t ar^fe he^s, : invpcaHiow, s^c^inqen «nd e^t^r-? 
i^al pporation^ j^^f^epiing \l^t^ x\y^y sometiq^esi resiort tp i*r. 
fusions of a few plants ^^k^ ij^^iidUyi yfhi^ produce 
ho^ey^r,^ no sensible. effect, either upon the sy&ftem or the 
disease. 

' No hai^e of l\>nga undertakes to practice surgery unlesa 
he hns'b^A iit the Kji islands, irhicH are abput thf ee day'* 
tfnil, or K)^ tea^ues diatant from ll^onga. The constant 



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Avoirs in tlwl rituatioD liflbrd nbvidtnt esperienoe ti the 
profesflors. 

. " Th^ three moat important opemtiooa «rf wnOp or jpo^oeih 
t«*Ms t^orncis; tocQlod^ or an operation for the cur^ of tetanu«| 
^bich consists in making a setpn in the urethra ; and Aocffi or cas* 
tr^ion. 

' " CawiO 18 an operation which Is performed to allow of the escape 
of extra vasated blood, wfaieh has lodged In the oavky of Hie tfaom; 
hi consequence, of wounds, or for the esLthietion of a broken arrow* 
There are no other instanoes where they think of piifotfDing it The 
instraments they use are a niede of bamfaooanda spKnter of siiaH^ 
aqsMtimes a probe made of the stem of the coeoMml leaf. Mn 
Marmtr has seen a numlKr of per^na on wtioni th« operation, had 
h^eA perfcrni«}d» and who wore in perfect beaUb ; and two instanoea 
of. the (^flt itsolf be was an cje^witneM to," (p. 240— M7* ToUii,) 

'* The most common surgical operation among them i^ what the; 
caU/a^9i which ia topioal blood lettin|;» and' is performed bv msk** 
in^ with a shelU incisions in the skin to the extent of about half ao 
hich ill various parts of the body, partieularly h| the lumbar regioit 
and extremities, for the relief or pains« hissihidf, Ac; abo for in*' 
jflamed tnmoursf they ne^ver ihft to promote a Mow of blood fW>m the 
(Rirt ; by the sani« means they open abseeite^, and pr«s9 oat ih^ 
puhilent matter: in eases of hard Ipdoletit tumours, the v either apply 
lilted Upa^ or hot bteftd ftixh, repeatedlf, po as to Mister tha pnt 
apd utthtnaieiy to products a purulent BMrniBtt. ill<oiidiAMied viisn% 
pBTtleuhtt'ly in those pertoaa whoao constitatbNii iiiipo90B to auoli 
thingt^ are sdarif ad by 9h^)si IhflMW tbM ^m di^poiod to heal am 
ailnwod lotnko th^tr course witbovil aus appticaiioA* 

" (« cas^ of sprains, the afiected part i^ rubbed with a mittuit 
of pt} and wi«te(, tU friction hciug always t^ontlnu^d in one diiectioD« 
that If to .9ay, frop^. tbc smaller towards the larger branches of tha 
vessels. Friction, with the dry hand, is also often used in sioiilar 
^nd other cases, for the purpose of relieving^ (i»in." (p. 901. voL il«) 

^ An iine •pproaoii' Ihe cImo of the wbrk var Jmw tdmft 
^eral iribatrvati^sron the nrl9 aiid miinmfaetiiMi off IhMd 
Miaiida^ Mcb aa owaoo^ buiMin^^ iiUsj^iiiy mitk ivoiy^ aMt 
piakin^ oarviarchiba^ and eiilinary pfepwraiioM^ nut nr4 
do not observe tn this part of the work any thlaif of Mffi^ 
tfooi novelty and iotereat ta juafeify addUiowd extract^ tedl 
KMieoialtje aa the tnfloauUy of the people ift regard to eeve«« 
rai of these partfcularay J» desortbod vith the asstetoi^efior 
pkilee^ and with.eaiieh minateoasa. of detail bf Cook uA 
othern»vi^toM«i 

W^ n>iiit^ libewiaalinail e«tvtehncs vfit^pegfaird to a park ef 
th0 work w^kiek we have ftefaro deacriked aa of great. valM 
attd ittpovtaaoei wo nean the graniinar and Yooabalatf of 
the Tonga language ; which is a permanent acquisition that 

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192 Awmnt tfthe. NtUms of the Tongu IslanA. 

' will be had recourse to by every person who visits Tonga 
and the neighbouring islands. 

To Cooks voyages is also added a very brief vocabu. 
lary, which was collected during a residence of only two or 
three months in these situations, and although so much ta- 
lent was applied in the few particulars of which it consists, 
yet in point of accuracy it can admit of no competition with 
that before us, which was the result of four year's resi- 
dence with this remote people. There are, however, some 
omissions by Mr« Mariner wnich we cannot easily account for, 
and some variations which it may be as difficult to explain. 
Bread fruit Maiee, Shaddock Moree, Elbow Etoee, although 
in Cook's vocabulary are here excluded. Necklace, in 
Cook, is attahoa, in Mariner, cahooa or cacala. A mat to 
wear in the former is egreeai, in the latter gnafi-gnafi. To 
Sneeze, in the first, is efangos, in the other ma&tooa. A 
rat is epallo in Cook, and gooma in Mariner. We mighC 
mention fifty other examples, where there is not the smalfest 
similarity in the two versions. 

We cannot avoid repeating our complaint of the deficiency 
of this work with regard to all geographical illustrations, of 
which most writers possessing Mr. Mariner's qualifications 
are usually abundant, even to unnecessary prolixity of detail; 
and the omission is the more to be regretted, because no map 
or chart is afforded to the work, so that the reader must be 
in the greatest imaffinable perplexity, unless he be provided 
with the charts of Cook's voyages, with those of the ship 
Dufi^, or others of the like description. We confess that we 
should have been satisfied with a delineation in the simplest 
form, but without some such aid the localities are wholly 
unintelligible. 

The latitude of Port Refuge, in Yavaoo, is stated with' 
sufficient accuracn^, beine; only 14 minutes more south than 
that assigned to it in the voyage of Capt. James Wilson. 
Tasm^n, who appeared in the neighbourhood as early as 
Jan. 1642-3, lays down an island about south latitude 19, 
which is within 10 minutes, of that ascribed to Port Refuge^ 
and which is probably Yavaoo, now supposed to be a new 
discovery. Cook states that it never was visited by any 
European. That navigator was certainly deceived bv the 
Natives of the Friendly Islands, from some interested[ mo« 
tives with regard to Yavaoo, and subsequentljr^ when its 
dimensions and importance became known to him, he had 
no convenient opportunity to explore it. Yavaoo, althouffb. 
9ot comprehended in his map eo mmine^ yet is among tM 



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JecomU of the Naiite$ofihe Ihnga Islands. ISS 

sixly-one islands named in his catalogue of this claster, and 
it ia distinguished by italics, as beinff classed with the 
kigest. He ranks it with Hamoa and Fidgee (Fiji), the last 
«f these belonging to a distinct government, and a separate 
Archipelago. 

The Hapai Islands are also noticed by Tasman. The 
principal of them he called Rotterdam, the native appella* 
tion being Annamooka, and they extend, accordmff to 
Cook, south west by south, and north east by Qorth about 
nineteen miles* Lefi>oga is the most fertile of these, and 
it is consequently the most populous. The inhabitants 
of the whole of the Tonga Islands have been computed 
mt S00,000, distributed over 150 of these minute pro* 
■linences in the mighty Pacific. The way in which the 
distances between these points of land were ascertained by 
Cook, was firom the time which the natives represented as 
necessary to complete their voyages. They sail, he says, 
in their canoes about eight miles an hour ; the sun is their 
guide by day, and the stars by ni{;ht. When by the atmo- 
spheric vapours the heavenly bodies are obscured, attention 
18 paid to the direction firom whence the winds and waves 
strike upoi) the vessel. In the computation of distance the 
night is noi included, and a day's sail is somewhat within 
a hundred miles. Mr. Mariner has given an amusing ac* 
count of the use he made of a pocket oompafts on one occa- 
sion, and of the diflBculty with which he aojuired the domi* 
nion of the vessel, firom the incredulity of his companions. 
By their compliance alone he and they were preserved firom 
diat destruction to which many of the islanders must be an- 
nually consigned, on account of their ignorance of such an 
inestimable discovery. 

The botanical omissions in these volumes are of the less 
consequence, because the Tonga Islands produce the same 
plants as Otaheite; and although, according to Forster,^ 
some others not indigenous in the latter, flourish in Um 
former, yet the enquiry with regard to them seems to be 
rather curious to the naturalist than usefiil to the public. 

There is one part of the history which we read with 
mndh uneasiness. Cook says of these places^ at the time 
of his visits, ^ No one wants the common necessaries of 
life. Jov and contentment are painted on every lace> and 
an easy fireedom prevails in all ranks of people :** and that 
vrmthy navigator, when he quitted the situation, dter a 
stay of betimn two and three month^ consoled himself 
with the tttottgk^ that he had improved the condition of 



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tbi8 rtmote qimrter. Ytry differs t was th«[ sUte of Ibiiigk' 
wken Ifo. llariifer, after the kpsA of abotol ibiitf yeir% 
arrived : thqre was qeitber peae& at heme nor abroad ; the. 
kAmd which was the ««at of (^oTernsieat bad bAed divid^ 
into pettjr states, that were constantly at wair wtlb itooll. 
othfr ; and tea or t\relve yeara of bostUity #itb tU^ neiifh- 
booring ielaodsi were terfaioytt^ only l^ the iatigue afiA 
anxiety ^he elder Finow hud endured from incessant aK^tioiidr 
It i» imp that bia suecesaory from his pacific character and 
toUghtened judgment, presents a more tranqtiil preape<^ 
W/A yr# 9ball bf happy to learn froai suoceediac adventutem 
that the condition of repose ia regained, wbtcb was tlMk 
theme of ienlogy and admiratioa with Capt. CooiL ami 
which aoquii^d for these stations th^ pleasing appeliatiM 
of tba Friendly Islands. 



Akt. Vf.^An Elenrniiary Summary ijf PhtfiMogw Inf F^ 
Majtbudib^ Dec/or ^Meikine^ the Fhcuity^ Pmkif 
Spa* 4v« Trmuklted from the French by a Menwtt cf tktf 
Medko^Chirwgicdl Society, Vol. /•/ conimniHs Frelt^ 
mimuy Olnervationn^ the History cf SigM^ Hearings 
Smel^ TastCf Touck., Intellect^ Instinct^ the FasHoMj 
Voice^ JUiiudet, and MotioM. London, Colt and 8on^ 
181«. »fOvpp.31L 

It is somewhat remarkable that thia country, though it has 
l^ven birth to such a number of men eminent for tMir phy« 
Biological discoveries, haa not hitherto produced a single 
systematic work on tne subject| unless we are to confer a 
recent publication b^ Mr. Saumarez as such. The imper- 
feet outline of physiology contained in our best systems of 
anatomy, or delivered^ in a course of aaatonieal lectures^ 
cannot d3^ any zealous inquirer be thought an adequate re« 
presentatiba of the progress and actuaT state of a sciencii 
whose olgect is the natural hisMnrv of man.^ That aucb |iaa 
been the public feelTng is evinced by the fovourabte^ vaeeB^ 
tkm given to a translation of Rieherand'a Elements^ hgp the 
sub^quent translation of Bhimeiibaeh^s Institutiona of Pli^<« 
aiology^ and by the still more recent introductioB ta the 
Ingush reader of the work now under revipir- The firat^ 
liajfed author* notwithstanding his n^ity hai^ jfet dimi- 
niabedthe value of hisi productiea^by^.indiilfiag io^ hhh^I 
U nyi^tj^enia and beoj/ectur% and by. af8l^^W fqptr. fe^s^ 
^cum9ti|npQs Aojt ftnljF iinpro9e4> hai JMrdljr iH#ebA9 \ 4% 



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Dr^M^y^ndie^s Element of Physiohgy. IsA 

ftr iiistaaee, when he considers the use of respiration to be 
the oxidation of the blood; when he accounts for muscular 
contraction by supposing, with Girtanner, that it depends 
<>n a sudden chemical change in the constitution of the 
muscle ; and when he agrees with the chemists in believing^ 
that the purpose of the hepatic secretion is to uuload the 
system of its superBuous carbon and hydrogen, The Insti- 
tutions of Professor Blumenbach are not, in ah equal de-^ 
gree, exposed to this objection ; but his conciseness leaver 
tne miiia unsatisfied, and many new facts hav^ been ascer- 
tained since the publication even of his last edition in 1810* 
Dr. Afajendie comes forward, professing to follow a diffe- 
rent plan from that of his predecessors: it is, to e^i^clude 
altogether every hypothesis ; to give a faithful detail of 
what i^ really known; and to forbear from any attempt t9 
explain what, in the present state of our knowledge, i^ 
incapable of explanation ; thinking a confession of igno? 
ranee more conducive to the interests of. science^ than 4 
laboured affectation of knowledge — the seeming to see the 
things he does not. His views relative to, the proper me- 
thod of study, are exhibited in the ensMing c[UOtation frgm 
his preface. 

'' Every natural science may exist under two different fonn^,--^ 
l.Systenuitic ; 2. TlieoreticaK 

" Under. the systematic form, the scisnee is fymoAed upon ^pme 
gratuitous »uppo9itiQns*r-9C!iBe. principles^ jestahli^ to 

whicji k|ipw9 fact^.are attachedc so ai to b^ explpiped. ^ If a nfw 
fact h di$cQvered» wbicbdpes not accord vvith tbp fi^d^n^fntal prio- 
^ple^ tlm a modified tiU ii furoishe3 m explaaatioa which gives 
satisi^etioq : if the learned ^i^e themselves up to tbe labour of expe- 
riment, it is always with the intentiou of conffrmibg the system which 
has been adopted: every thing that can tend to overthrow it is De«- 
/glected or unperceived; they seek ai^er what ought to be, not What 
fs ; in short, the synthetic course is completely followed^ in which 
they descend from hypotheses to facts, without rising to any of the 
geaeral consequences which ought to be had in view in inquiries 
afrer truth. > When this form is observed, it is almost impossible for 
a. natttfii scrance> to make feal progress. 

. ^ .The tbeontic forni of natural sciences is diametrieally opposita 
(q this, T'iiLcU, and fiMit^ uluik;, constitute the fpundatum.of the 
icicDcei under this form : the L^nied eude^vour to verify them, and 
to multiply them as much sis possible, and afterwards study tbe rela^ 
lions of the different pbenomeua, and the laws to which they arf 
subject, when they give themselves up to ejfperiinental researches, 
tt Is with the view of augmenting the number of ascertained lacts, or 
fg discover their recipnK^al rcLatmu; in a word; die analytical course 

Crit. Rbv, Vol. V. Feb. 1817. T 



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by Google 



J3Q Dr. Majeniie's Elemenh of PhfiiMoggt. 

is followed, trbicb alone can lead to truth. By foUowkif tbi» muB* 
thody the sciences increase, if not rapidly, at least surely, and we 
may hope to see them approach perfection." 

Physiology has hitherto existed under the systematic 
form, and it has been our author's aim to effect a salutary 
change in this respect, by giving it the form of analysis ; a 
method which, if never yet adopted in elementary books, 
has been steadily pursued by several modern experimenters 
of the greatest note. The subject may thus, perhaps, be 
robbed of some of its illusive attractions— the splendid 
reveries of ineenious men ; but the future progress ot the 
science will be facilitated by clearing away the rubbish 
which encumbers the path, and dissipating the mists which 
have so much perplexed and bewildered the understandiiijg^. 
In no branch of medical science, indeed, so much as in this, 
do we acknowledge the justice of the ancient mythology, 
which assigned to medicine and poetry the same tutelary 
^od ; the^ nave both alike dealt largely In works of the 
imagination. 

Physiology, in a large sense, comprehends the science of 
life in general, which for convenience is divided into that 
of vegetables f of animals, and of man: they diffef, however, 
only m the particnlars; and it is accordingly from experi- 
ments made upon brutes that the greater part of our know- 
ledge -concersing Uie animal economy, mduding that of 
man, haa been derived. Dr. Majendie limits himself to the 
oonsideratiOB of human physiology ; a stud^ of essential 
importance to the physician, andwell meriting the atten* 
lion of all who have leisure for the pursuit : it is for medi- 
cal students in particular that the present work is designed. 
We do not intend, nor is it consistent with the nature of a 
Review, to enter minutely into such a subject ; it will bo 
sufficient to shew the author's general plan, and to tran* 
scribe a few of the most interesting observations. 

He commences with a concise account of the properties 
of bodies in genera), of the differences between hrute and 
living bodies, and of those between animals and ve^ta* 
bles, the two classes into which living bodies are divided. 
He then enumerates the elements^ sdid, licjuid, gaseous, 
and incoercible, which enter into the compositioa of animal 
bodies, and which, combined three and three, four and 
four, &CU according to laws yet unknown, form what are 
called the immecSate principles of animals, such as albumen, 
$brine, &c. The various combinations of these constitute 



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JQV. MaseniieU Elements ofPhynohgy, 137 

thB arpanic ekments^ which are either solid or liquid. The 
ofgame solids are distinguished into eleven kinds of tissuOi 
denominated the cellular, vascular, nervous, osseous, fibrous, 
muscular, erectile, mucous, serous, bomjr, or epidermous, 
And parenchymatous systems, which, united togiether, and 
with the fluids, compose the organs or the^ifisU-uments of 
life. The fluids are classed according to fUe mode of their 
formation, without regard either to their use or their che?* 
mical composition. Tbey are estiaiated to exceed the solida 
in the proportion of about nine to one : a bodv wdghingt 
one hundred and twenty pounds was reduced to twdvs 

Cunds by remaininir several days in an oven, according to 
» Chaussier ; and Blumenbacb, in proof of the great pre^^ 
ponderance of the fluids, tells us that his museum contains 
an entire, but j^rfectly dry mummy, of an adult Gruancha, 
onef of the original inhabitants of the island of Tenerifie, 
whidi weiffhs no more than seven pounds and a half. 

Our autnor next adverts to the mjrsterious, long-sought 
cause of life, concerning which nothing satisfactory can be 
said; and notices also certain supposed vt/o/propertte^ by 
which the vital power has been thought to manirest itself. 
These properties, have been spoken of by some modern, 
writers unoer the terms, organic sensibility, insensible cv» 
gaoie contractilutjr, animal sensibility, sensible oi|[anie eon.^ 
traetiUty, and animal contractility ; the two first of which 
are here declared to be nonentities, and the ' remainder 
unworthy the title of vital properties. We are neverthe- 
less of opinion, that the power inherent in muscles, by which 
they are enabled to contract on the application of a suitable 
stimulns, is fairly entitled to the appellation of a vital pro- 
perty; since a muscle, deprived of that power, no longer 
exhibits the phenomena of a living body, but becomes sub« 
ject to the laws which govern inammate matter. The author 
shall be allowed to speak for himself in what follows. 

" Whatever may be the number or diversity of the phenomena of 
the living man, it is easily seen that they may be ultimately reduced 
to two principal ones, nutrition and vital action, 

** The life of man, and other organised bodies^ is founded upoa 
flirir habitually assimilating a certain quantity of matter called alir 
mmt. The privation of this matter for a very limited period neces- 
sarily causes the cessation of life. On the other hand, daily obser- 
vation shews, tliat the organs of man, and other living beings, lose 
every moment a. certain quantity of the matter lyhich composes 
them; and it is, in fact, from the necessity of repairing these habi- 
tual losses^ that the necessity of nourishment arises. From these 



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twt) data; Wb4 I'op^ otban vyhieli w^ yiullt mdiod knaWQ' in out pnN 
gresft. it basbeeo pcmclodod lyith m^oKiy AlUt li^ip^'bodieii^reiiot 
^pA^posed ot ihe.same matter at every period of tbciir existence r.ijt 
ha3 WQcven said th^t< bodies undeigo a total renovation. The 
Relents EQaSntaio^ tiipt this renovation takes place every seveni 
jfeAfs. Without admitting this conjecture, we shall say, that it i^' 
^ktti^dkeiy ptobafcle' that every p^rt of the huinan body expetl^ces 
im ttttestuie ttovetii^nt, thi; object of which U bdth to e^tpel the 
(Mifrtitles ^ich ait to lotoger destined to i^'mainln the cO!lbpO!Jition 
6t 4(e ot^Hs^ 'lK(Jt\o tephce them by fresh partielt^. TKi^ ihtimtc; 
ndteaiefit eotestittftes Mlrition. It is tibt semM^^ btltits'«^fecl9 
afe{ and to dioufct' its oecurrettce wduld bis Hl^ hdffbt of ^iij^ciMi. 
Thi$ oiiiTcment k in^plkable/ a^ can lie refinroi, iir th# -i^sait 
8tat€^ of pbysi^iogiyy only to. thi^ radkoalar ttt^ycaientft of cMblicM 
affinity. To say that it dependa on organic sebsibility and insedsiMe 
organic contn^;tilit^s or sin^>]y on vital fotc^ is merely expressiai^ 
&e same fact ip different terms. However this mav be. the orgaoA 
of ttie human body preserve and change their physical properties iu 
virtue of tbeir nutritive movement, or of nutrition. As our different 
organs present different physical properties, the nutritive movement 
mtist l^ry Itt eicb of theii. Indepenclently of the physical pioper- 
tfeft which ^very ^wirt of tbd body presefife, thert are rtany whichf 
offer either eoAtffcudly, or 2^1 mbiiebrless distant intervals, iM^ 
tKmenoA tem^d ifitnl Mim. Fc^ example, the liver colitflt^ttlly 
favmaafliriMl tiblled Mle, iti Vkt^e ^ A power pecalmr fa irt ChlT 
aane nay be«aid of the kidney, With resp^t to the urin^. Tte 
T^untBry mii0i^les» uadlel' ceMliiit ednditiowi hatdea and cfatto^^ 
their form^ in a word, contniet. This wko h an imtance «f a vitaJb 
«c^n. These vitid actions are very important to the life ofnrna 
and,animals» and particularly demand the atteDtkm of the phy^io- 
logbt. . . , . i ' ' .• ' 

^' .Vital, action depends evidently upon nutrition, and nutrition 
a^n is , influence^, py vital action. Thus an organ which ceases 
fo be botinshe^* IbsJes k the same time the faculty of icthig; 
thd^ orgat^si whose adtion is the inost frequently repeated, hWe a 
iiitirt sNs^e nutrifibn^^n tisi tdnit^ry, those which ti^t le^Vhtivfe 
evidently ii ^^iM hutHtivte tt6V6iittot. The ttieehiUmih bf "iM. 
action is unknown. There occurs in the organ which acts an ins^- 
aibie flfol^ctikar ttovejbx^t. as jnekplic^ble as the initritiv^ i^^ve^ 
ttieiA. No vital su^oii, h6W6Vei* siiikple, is an excfeptioa th this 
respect ,.. .^ . r i - 

Z**^^ the phbibmen^ of tife inai^ oe thtfs utttinately tefetited to. 
niilritibh 'sitfd vi^l icldon; but the tiiolecular movfemehfs, Wmc^ 
constitute these tWo ph^h^end, are not scfnsible, an4 we ihust hbr 
direct our ^tentio|i*toraeiii; we dib study their last results ontyj^ 
i.e. the physic^ )plro;perties pf oi'jg^s, dh<) the sensible feftfects ^f th^ 
iri^,aca<M|i» im ^iainhie how thcfy both toncur to i;enera1 Rfe/*! 
(p.lUm) 



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Br. Ufjfkai^ MemMi ofPhjfOblQgjf. 189 

StricMy a ye Aiu yf fiefiiafift mitritioii oiight to-be called« 
vital aetMm^ being that' whaeh nMI dearly deines the boun* 
dari^er betweM liTing and ittaninif&te bodies; but' tb^ no^n- 
in^' of tbe' autbor, in the abore passage, is sufficiently 
erid^nt^ and the distinction there made can hardly give rise 
to an^ confusion : the term tital action^ it appears to us, is 
used as synonymous with what is elsewbere called organic 
action. 

In his classification of the functions of the human body, 
our author lia^ adopted an arrangement similar to that of 
M^ Riclfinratid^ dividing tbem into those* which plaxse* tbe in- 
ditidiml in relntion wim snmunding objeets^ those wbostS 
otitis nulrilioii) andtbos^whioh^flreiiiteiid^dfar the pre^ 
aervMion ofthe E^ecies. Tbe fire^ ha mVkJktMi&m ofVeAi-^ 
Ifoft/ th^ si^dttd, nutrUroe JumUtmi; and the thirdt gehmn^ 
t(v^ finHtPi^s. ft is almost Bninateriai in #bat drder tbeaH 
sevidlal dasses are" treated o^ though tbetiutritit« IhnctioRS 
#o«dd 9eMi natural^ to chum a priority, beea^^ iadispen^ 
sabl^ t6 tbe eonfiflHM exerche of tiie others, hr ' the pre*^. 
smfC ins€anoe, bei^eter, tbe fcnotienfir of relation, or tmsli 
j^ffaiAin^ t(^ anitlials in genemi and to man in partietriac^ 
aire first discnssed; and firom the tide at the beadoi^llna 
artide, it will be ȣteii that they oocdpy the wbole of Ibe 
telume M «ur M9le^tbe ^lAy part of this transiMteW tiM 
is y^ 'pttbli^ed^ These iiBctiona consist of tb6 BensaUMf^' 
i8k€i^n4f Aetoiea, tkiid fnoHa/0^ whieh are sefeirally de- 
scribed at cdftsrdemble length, and in a veiy inetbodieai 
mand^: for particitlars we refer to tbe bocw, intending 
fi^re only to present eur readers with a few nrisceUaneous 
^xtfticCd^ arid firstly, the sabdequent observatioas relative 
to vision. 

" The ftHiki receivei the. ioipression of Ii|;bt when it h within 

certain liniits of intensity. Too wealipa U^ht is not felt by the re- 

. tiim^ and too stropg a light iq)ures it, and incapacitates it for seeing* 

• • • •Mrheu we have been long in tbe dark^ even a faint li^ht causes 

dazzling. 

*^ tf Hk a^t wbicli Ttecbes the eve is extiemely weai, and me 
endeavt>ar to nx objects, the retina bfecomes very mudi fiitigDed; 
sad- w^ soba etperienee aptmiAil sensalioB in the orbit, aad even in 
the head. 

«< Aiigiitiaf tt6 verrgieat loteBsity, acting 6reaai|aiatia«on 
adttenninaUe point of ttie retina, lendem it at knglh iaseasibk in 
tUspont WlnnweJME forsainetiaeatawhitespstonabtack 
ffl-eawl.^lldafWsivaidsdiseot oar eyes la a white ffmmH are^eaia 
tbc^ to set a ^mk ^fft^» bac^ose the r^^tiqa bis bscoiae imsoisilik 
in the point which was previously £aitigaed by the white light Con- 



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140 Dr. Mtgendk't EkmenU ofPtg^log^. 

finely, nSbki one poiot of the retina has been some time free fioni 
aetioo» wiiik the rest were acting, the fiomt which remained in re« 
pose acquires a greater degree of lensibilitj, fiOMiml^/^ whence 
okgectB appear spotted. In this wajr it is expUined why» after look« 
11^ for some time at a red spot, white bodies seem spotted green: 
in this case» the retina has become insensible (imenmef) to the'red 
rAy, and we know that a ray of white light deprived of the red ray, 
prodoces the sensation of green. Analogous phenomena occur 
.when, after looking steadily at a bod^ of a red or any other colour, 
we look at bodies that are white or differently colour^." 

A curious^ but not singular instance of imperfect vision 
with renrd to colours, has been rec(n*ded by Dr. Micholi 
of CowwidgO) in the seventh volume of Meiuco-Clururgi-* 
cal TranmclioaiB lately published. The subject is a clever 
Iieeltfiy bqy, eleven years old* . << His eves are grey, with a 
yellow tinge surrounding the pupil. He does not call any 
colour green. Dark TOttk-green he. calls brown, con- 
founding it with certain browns. Light yellow he calls 
yeUow; but darker yellowiB and liebt browns he confounds 
with red/ Dark brown he conrounds with black; pale 
gre^n he calls light red ; common green be terms red ; light 
red and pink he calls light blue ; red he calls by its proper 
name ; blue,, both dark aqd light, he calls blue. On look* 
iasf through a prisin, he 9aid, that he could discover no 
^cmurs but red, yellow, and purple." A piece of scarlet 
piper being^ placed on the grass,, and afterwards on green 
oaisse, he sfiid that the grass and the baize were of the same 
colour as the paper, but that thev were a shade lighter. A 
pair of green spectacles he called red glasses, and said that 
OTery bMy and every thing in the room had a reddish cast 
when seen throiigh them. This peculiarity is derived trouk 
his maternal grandfather, his mother, aunt, and four sisters 
being free from it. The grandfather had two brothers and 
three sisters, who were all, except one brother, exempt 
from the imperfection. He was in the navy, and once pur- 
chased <^ a blue uniform coat and waistcoat, with red 
breeches to match the blue." His brother ^^ has mistaken 
a cucumber for a lobster, and a green leek for a stick of red 
sealing-wax." It would be in vain to attempt an explana- 
tion of the (fact. 

When speaking of muscular contraction, the author falls 
into a serious error, by supposing the co-operation c^ the 
brain and nerves to be essential to that phenomenon : to 
the production of voluntary niotion it undoubtedly is so; 
but the late communications of Dr. Wilson Philip to the 

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Dr. M^fcndie'M EkmaUs ofPi^$Ubgg. 141 

Royal Sodetv have fnllj shewn, ti»t the mosdeft «re hide* 
pendeat of the faram and nerves for their power of con* 
traeting; that ewe set of them is exdted into action by the 
stimnlos of the will, another set hy stimnli of an appro- 
pr»te kind ; and thus the opinions of Haller and his disci« 
pies, which Majendie looks upon as extravannt and ill- 
ibunded, are in a great measure confirmed. Of this divi-^ 
sion of the work (comprehending those functions of relation 
which depend on muscular action) a description of the vocal 
organs, and an examination of the nature of voice, occupr 
a very consideraUfr Dortion : our concluding extracts shall 
be relative to this sumect. A variety of q[>inion has existed 
respecting the charader of the larjiix, or proper organ of 
Toice ; some having, with Dodart, regarded it as a wind* 
iostnraient ; others, with Ferrein, as a stringed instmraeitt t 
the former comparing it to a flute, the latter to a violin ; 
whilst others consider it to partake of the nature of both : 
our JNresenf author's opinion is expressed below. 

" To comprehend the mechanism by which voice is produced 
and modified, we mast say a few words of tlie manner m which 
sound Is produced, proiMgated, and modified, in wind instrnments^ 
and principally ia tiiose which have most analogy with the organ of 
yoiee. 

** A wind instnunent is generally formed of a straight or bent 
tube, in which the air b thrown into vibration by various methods, ^ 
Wind instruments are of two kinds, — some wMmt rttdf, others 
mUirttds. 

** In the former, sacfa as the horn, trumpet, iajseolet, flute, organ 
flate-pipe, the column of air contained in the pipe is the sonorous 
body. For sounds to be produced, it must be thrown into vibration. 
The means employed for this purpose are variable, according to the 
kind of instrument. The length, breadth, and shape of the tube* , 
the openingsin its sides or at its extremities, the mode in which the 
vibrationsare excited, are the causes of the varieties of the sounds 
of this kind of instruments. The nature of the materiak of the in* 
strament influences the timbre only of the sound. The theory of 
these instruments is precisely the same as that of the longitodmal 
vibrations of chords. When the ohysical conditions of such an 
instrument are known, there is nothing obscure in their theory, ex-* 
cept certain points relative to tlieir mouth, 1. 1, to the manner in 
whieh the vibrations are produced. There is no evident relation 
between this kind of instrument and that of the voice. 

** Instruments with reeds are the most important for us to know» 
because the or^ of voice is one of (his description. In these in- 
struinettts (clanonet, hantboy, bassoon, flute-pipe of an orgiin) we 
must distinguish the fwifand theted^torpipe; the mechamn is 



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149 DfyM^feilUe's EkmeiUi of Ph^Oology. 

hercTer^r diflUmit A' retd is alwmys' Ibroicd of/ane/.«ad occflsioO" 
ally of note tfain-. |>liite»^ mifeeptible of fapirf..inotiiin^ andi.frboie 
alginate vibratjciis ikreiiiteoded'«lter]iat4y4Q:|^iriitiiiKi'.prf.«flnt . 
the motion oC <( current of «ijr: lieoee tbe |4Nuids.^hicb ^j^pco* 
dace do oot follow the aame lawi a» rounds /ormed by ekuti^ ^^e«« 
free at one end and. fijied at tbe otber, wbicb es^ite .imspeaiately 
sonorous undubitioBsin free air; in reed instruments the reed alone 
produces and modifies tbe sound. If tbe reed is lon^;, its move- 
ments are estensive and sIow» and conseauently tbe sounds grave; a 
sbdrt plate*, on the contrary, necessarily produces acute sounds, 
Biecause tbe aTtettiate transmission and repression of'theair occur 
iii6re rapidly.*' 

** A reed is never employed alone ; it is idwi^a adapted to a tnbe, 
along wfaich'Ibe* wind driven into the reed' passes, aMi which asnst 
o^nsequently be fsoea at both extremities. The tiibe has no infloeace 
Upon the tone of the sound,- but oMiely upon its intensity; ^bttAmArr, 
and the possibility; of makiog'tbe reea speak. . Tbpsif which 4e|er^ 
mine tbe most brilliant sounds, are conical tubei^ gradpiMly tuniipg 
outwards. If the cone is reverscdf tbe sound deaomes dull; ^t 
if two equal cones, opposed base to base, are adjusted to a conical 
tsfoe,'the sound ac^foires ftdness and force. Philosophers cannot 
account lor tiisese modifications." 

** Can' we explain jrfiysically the fonaatiott of the voice? T%e 
fidlowini; q^pears to me the most probable -explanation* Tbe air 
driven firom tbe lungs passes first through a pretty large canal 3 this 
ifaod soori glows narrower^ and tbe ur is competM to pass tbroneh 
aimrhiwslit; the two sides of which are vibrating plates,. wbidi* 
like the plates cf a reed, alternately pennit and prevent the passage 
of tbe air, and determine, by these alternations, sonorous uodiifii- 
tions in'the cbmnt of the ainwhick is tr^oisttikted.*' 

. Thejr who: are acquainted with tbe structure of the larynx 
will be diBposed to coincide with the rfaregoing e^cplaqation 
of the niatten We would, however, justaumesl^ that the 
difference between inatfuments with reeds, and those with* 
olit, is not quite so great as it is here asserted to be : in the 
horn aiid irumpetf for instance, do not the lips of the per« 
farmer bear the same relation to* these instruments as the 
fips'of the glottis do to the vocal tube ? And if the latter 
pcfrferm the p&rt of a reed, do not the former act in exactly 
the same manner ? To us they appear perfectly analogous : 
and thus the French horn is actually cpnTerted into a reed 
instrument, whenever it is^jdayed upon; the reed, top, is^of 
the moat excellent description, because it is a livings one, 
and therefore ausoeptible of the nicest rmodificatipna. la 
eoQ^^usion, wo caarveiy siacerely recemmend tbia book to 
tte^alteulion of- 4hat>ehni of ireadees fosi.wboae Mat it. ia 
more especially designed. 



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[ 143 ] 

31kt. VI. — The Author of Junius ascertained; from a con' 
catenation of circumstances^ amounting to Moral Demon- 
stration. By George Chalmers, F.R.S, S.A. 8vo. 
pp. 115. London, T. Egerton, 1817. 

Hating devoted some pages of our last Review to one 
enqnirjinto tbe real author of the Letters of Junius, which 
professed to be conclusive, we should not now have adverted 
to another, purporting to be equally indubitable, but for 
the respect unquestionably due to the name of Mr. Chal- 
mers, who in the pamphlet before us attempts to estaUish, 
that all previous conjectures have been erroneous, and that 
Hugh Boyb is entitled to whatever praise may belong to 
the writer of a series of political papers, which at the time 
they were published, ana ever since, have attracted the ad- 
miration of all readers, at least for the talent, if not for the 
principles displayed in them. This position is not quite new, 
»>r some years ago Mr. Chalmers endeavoured to maintain 
it, though not with the regular systematic line of argument 
he now adopts, which evinces considerable research and 
ingenuity, however inconclusive we may hold it as to the 
main result. 

All that we thought it necessary to say upon general 
probabilities, we urged in our remarks upon ^' Junius Jden* 
iifedy^ the author of which fixed upon Sir Philip Francis 
as the writer bf the letters. Mr. Chalmers is equally, if 
not more positive in his assertions, and of course falls foul 
in his preface of all previous attempts : between the vari- 
ous candidates we will not pretend to decide, but it seems 
pretty clear that the claims of none have been completely 
satisfactorily mode out, and it may not be ver^ easy to de- 
termine with precision, which advocate has arrived nearest 
to the truth. When we reflect of how little importance 
the investigation really is, how litde the world would be 
benefitted even by an undoubted discovery, we cannot but 
hold these laborious arguments, tKese endeavours to give a 
shadow a substance, as vain exercises of acuteness and 
industry that might be much better employed in other pur- 
suits : supposing it proved that Hugh Boyd or any other 
man were the true author of Junius*s Letters, what do we 
gain by tbe disclosure ? It may be said that thc^ discovery of 
a truth is always of consequence; and so it is, when thereby 
a positive error is removed; but here there is no mistake 
to rectify, and the obscurity that bangs upon the question, 
may in some views be productive of more advantaged thAa-. 

Cbit. Rev, Vol- V. Feb. 1817. U 

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144 The Author of Junius ascertained. 

could be reaped from the fullest discovery. Mr. Chal- 
mers terms it a ^^ political mystery/^ and oii this account 
would persuade himself that ne is performing a useful Vask 
in its developement, but does it deserve the appellation/ or 
if it do, does he not create new '^ political mysteries," ht>w 
fioyd could procure the iaferoiatioo for Which Jumus \Mi 
BO celebrated, and which made him appear at odce tke^k* 
t>ository and the betrayer of miniisterkil 8ecrei«? 

Mr.Chalmers is a zealous antagonif^tof the political pranoi^ 
{:Ae8 0f Junius, and aft^r a series of invectives egttimt htoli 
he proc^eeds to his arguvieiit whitih he asserts by Hm «oiic}tt» 
sivteness will ^' cut off the whole list t>f daimtnte to tho 
honour of writing bad gramiuar^ fiilse £nglish)\ Jftvidioili 
eenstired, and personal crifoimltrone^ national i^ftectioflKli 
akid treaeoRous lampoons/' in ottier places he takes seve- 
ral of)f>drtuilities of enlanginfi^ upon these vafioils ehtot^f 
and he sums up nearly the w%ole of his proofi fay observing 
that ^^ it 16 surely time to make a stattd against this dege* 
neracy of considering a writer who aboutid6 in biKl gram^ 
nnr, and ftilse Englini^ in imserfect senMe^ and etnbarrassed 
seinrtiment, as si^einely excel tent in «ty)e asid matter." 

At the same time he admits that Junius must have been 
k man of very considerable talents, and of great pow&r of 
langnage, bilt he makes not the slightest aliowances for hasty 
eom position, or even for errors iif the press. Tbe Ol^ec^ 
tions on the score of grammar are therefore often insi|^nt*' 
fioftiit and paltry : in one place ke censures hitn foromploy*' 
ing the ^ordinary phrase of mMftg eoinim)^ cause^ inateaid 
of inseillang the indefinite article ^Jket the partidf^ ; and 
in another plaoft he Wastes many ilronh ted much vebe«> 
meneo, beeanse in 1^ edfti6n of tbe Letters of Juntos *of 
1771, the table vf matters wa^ imtitnled '^ CoitftontA,'^ tn^ 
siead of ^^ the Coatelilsv" If these be heinous oflRstvces 
agliihst (grammar not to be pardoned^ what would Mr.GhaK 
itiers iiay to a geivtleman w4n» sbould publish a pamphlet^ 
the titie of which should l>e <^ The Author cfJumms asoer^ 
tkioed'' ? Would he not hnmedfatei}' exclaim^ that a per- 
son who -tould beguiMy of Sfich a barbarism Ooght never 
to be allowed ^gain to |9*t pen to paper ! ^^ The Author of 
nhtnius t»c«rtained" ! Wfawt d6es it mean i It can mean 
iiothrini^ but a <diilcoV€fry of the iFt^er ofJunifts, and Hot a 
df^domire nif the *wrifer<of the letters €Jgned Jumm. Yfet 
sroch is the title of Mr. Chlduiers' own pampMot^ ki which 
he X!6mnien(»s hie attack u^MAi the princiffesof Juntas by. 
a v%cvoils erssault ropon the outwodcs cfliis tgrannim!^ 



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f%e 4utkar qfJmim m^rttiin^i. W 

t^ateUoiea e?t« descending so Iqw as iticorFectfi^M of orlb^ 

But tliiei part of tbe subject is yery upimportanti wkM* 
pver stress Mr. Cbaliaers maj Uy upoa his supposed dis*^ 
coyei^ that Junius is ^ot tlie wci^mpiurabh wrUer the world 
bas hitherto esteemed him : we wiU prooeed to notice pointy 
of more eoasequeucQ. 

The name of Hugh Qoyd is not familiar to the ears of 
laanjr readers, or if his name be known to them, the parti* 
eulara of his lifiei are npt; Mr* Chalmers, therefore, |mm 
been at great pains in collecting his memoirs, io order to 
lay a ground-'Work for bis hypothesis. He first, however, 
endeavours to prove, from internal evidence, that the Let-* 
ters of Junius w?re written by an Irish man^ and could only 
have been the produ<^tion of a native of that country ; and 
then he shews that Hugh Boyd was the sop of Alex. Mac 
Aulay, an Iri^ barrister, aad that he was born in Dublin 
oo the l@th April, 1746; that he was educated, first at the 
fohool of the Rev- Thos. Ball, with Lord Clare and Mr. 
Grattan, and afterwards at Trinity College, Dublin. His 
fctber died in 1766, but Hugh Mac Aulay (for be some 
time afCf^wards took his mother's name of Boyd) had pre-* 
Tiouslv come to London to prosecute his studies for the 
bar : here it is said that he beisame a man of the town, at* 
tended all the important debates, and mixed in all the 
political armies ; fnarrying, however, at the early a^e of 
twenty-rtwo. Pecuniary wants, and his own natural inclir 
nations soon made him a political writer, and in 1776* ho 
wrote letters in the Belfast paper, which were ailterwards 
collected, under the signature of^ Freeholder of Antrim ; 
and Mr. Chalmers maintains, that ^^ the rojnd of our JVee- 
holder qf 4ntrw is strongly impregnated with the very 
essence of JuniuSt" Boyd's next employment was the pen- 
nil^ of ^pm^ letters in the Public 4dvertiseri in support of 
the claims of th^ Nabob of Arcot, for whiph purpose bo 
liad been hired by a eonntryman of the name of Macleane : 
through the same iafluence, and for the same purpose, he 
obtained admission into the Court of Proprietors of the 
East India Company. He continued his scribbling (to use 
Mr. C's own term) on various subjects, and published, 
among other things, abstracts of two famous speechep by 
the Earl of Chatham ; for it is asserted that Boyd had a 
surprising memory, and a great talent in detailing the ad- 

* The reader will observe, that this 19 tbe date of Boyd's earttett known 
tfsrt of any importaace, sitlumi^ tbe Lsttars af Juius finiihad ia ITTB. 



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146 The Auihor of Junius ascertained. 

dresses he made it his basioess to bear. About this ttiii# 
he wrote The Whig in the London Courant, which contains, 
says Mr. Chaimers, ^^ the same principles of anarchy, the 
same topics of turbulence, the same dexterities of sophistry, 
and the same peculiarities of style; the inaccuracies, the 
fibres, the declamation, and the vigour," that are to be 
noticed in Junius; In 1781 Boyd went out with Lord Ma- 
cartney to India, and while resident at Madras, in 1793, he 
still indulged his scribbling vein in the Madras Courier, 
under the title of The Indian Observer. He died at Madras 
on the 19th October, 1794. 

The above facts, with reflections and remarks, occupy 
the first portion of this pamphlet ; and the author then 
proceeds to prove affirmatively (for, in the confidence of his 
argument he rejects all negative evidence) that Boyd was 
the author of Junius's Letters. We shall supply two or 
three extracts from this part of the work ; observmg at the 
outset, that Mr. Chalmers does not appear to us veir sue- 
oessfuUy to have connected the circumstances of the life of 
the candidate he sets up with the politics of the times, nor 
with the peculiar and personal circumstances in which 
Junius seems from his letters to have been placed; The 
first positive proof is the evidence of William Woods, who 
was apprentice to Woodfall, and who said that the band- 
writing of Boyd resembled that of Junius; the second is 
the absence of Boyd from London at the period when there 
was a chasm in the communications of Junius; and the 
third piece of affirmative testimony is given in these words: 

" The next witness whom I will call, is John Almon* who knew 
many anecdotes of many men, while he acted as a bookseller in 
Piccadilly ; and he says, * that during October, 1769, a meeting of 
the proprietors of The Lmdon Evening Pott being Jield at the 
Queen's Arms, St. Paul's Church-yard, Mr. Woodfall, the printer 
of the Public Advertiser, was present; when there was a conviersa- 
tion concerning newspapers, and other such topics, in the course of 
which something was remarked that caught Mr. WoodfalPs atten* 
tion ; and he immediately said; ' he had a letter from Junius in his 
pocket, which he had just received, wherein there was a passage 
that related to tlie subject before them, and he would read it.' This 
letter consisted of three or four sheets of foolscap ; and while Mr. 
Woodfall was reading one sheet, the other sheets lay on the table ; 
and I saw them, in common with the company then present, but 
did not take them into my hands : the moment I saw the hand- 
writing, I had a strong suspicion th>at it was Mr* Boyd% whosfi 
hand^niiing I knew, Imving received several letters from him con- 
cerning books. I took no notice of the matter at that moment ; but 



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The Author of Jurmus ascertained. 14T 

Die next time that Mr. Boyd called on me, {i<x he was in the birt>it 
of ireqaently calling at my house in Piccadilly,) I said to him, that 
I had seen a part of one of JunkutM letters in manuscript, which 1 
believed was his hand-writing : he changed colour instantly ; and» 
after a short |iause, said, the similitude of hand- writing is not a 
conclusive fact [proof]. These were the first grounds of my sus- 
picion.* 

*' Almon says, secondly, that Junius always speaks handsomely 
of Lord Temple ; praising his * firmness, perseverance, patriotism, 
and virtue.' And Almon adds, from his own knowledge, that, when«* 
ever Mr. Boyd spoke of Lord Temple, it was always in similar 
terms.' 

** Almon says, thirdly, that during the whole time the prosecu- 
tions were going on against the printer and publishers of Junius't 
Letter to the King, Atr. Boyd newer once called upon mf , which I 
could not help ob^rving; because, before thu time, he commonly 
called twice or thrice a week ; and I thought it not less remarkable, 
that after the prosecution uhu totally at an endf he resumed his for- 
mer custom. 

** Almon says, fourthly, what is material to his conclusion of 
Boyd being the writer of Jifiitw, that during the publication of 
Junius's letters, the writer must have resided on the spot ; and that 
no gentleman of rank and fashion would live three complete years 
[January, 1769, to January, 1772] in London, for the sake of writ- 
mg political letters, and answering anonymous antagonists. Almon 
further says, that though Junius's letters had been ascribed to man^ 
persons, yet none of them were hurt by the imputation, because it 
was false ; but when Junius was only attributed to Mr. Boyd by in- 
ference, Mr. and Mrs. Boyd immediately took the alarm. Almon» 
moreover, says, that he knows that the Whig was also written by 
Mr. Boyd ; and he had heard very good judges say, that there are 
passages in the Whig equal in force and eloquence to any thing in 
the writmgs of Jumus. 

1' Almon, finally, says, that he had no doubt of Mr. Boyd's being 
the author of these letters ; that H. S. Woodfall, the first printer ot 
them, never knew the author of Junius: and as he never knew who 
waSf he could not undertake to assert who was not the author.'' 
(p. 58—60.) 

Half this eyidenee of Almou is mere inference,/and was 
derived firom the gossip of his shop, which it does not 
appear he took any great pains ta conceal, and which, if 
well founded, could scarcely have escaped the vigilance 
of Garrick, at the time he was so alarming the fears of 
Junius l^ his close and persevering pursuit. The evidence 
of his wife, Mrs. Boyd, is next resorted to, who, after the 
death of her husband, communicated the following parti- 
culars : — 



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U8 The Author of Jtmtm w^etHUmd. 

** Mrs. Boyd, ^o ia 9 aeosible and a discreet WQ«ieii» siiyf » li^ 
That at the epd of the year 1768 Mr. Boyd coenneDced his <)Qri^ 
•pondence with the Pybtie AdoHmr; aod 00 the Slst of JaQiiary* 
1769> the first letter oi Junmt appeared in that paper: that in 17W 
and 1770 he also wrote occasionally in the same paper, under the 
signatures of ZdcrfiM and Bruhu; and he sometifnes sent oominnnir 
cations to H. S. Woodfall without any signature at all. Secondly; 
She says that in January, 1769, Mr. Boyd was at great pains in ac- 
customing himself ta dUgmm his handwriimg; and showing her 
slips of paper, he used to ask her whether she thought be had diSK 
guised his band sufficiently; to which she said, he had so completely 
disguised his hand, that none but thou very well acquainted with hi$ 
common htmd would nupeei the writing to be hi9* Thirdly, She says, 
that Mr. Boyd, notwithstanding her entreaties, would not take in 
the Public Advertiter while Junius was puUisbed in it, during tiie 
ytur$ 1700 and 1770 ; yet he faiinsdf always manifested much aeJi»> 
oitude to see the letters of «/ifiiti», and would tell with animation, 
that Jumm was mminmced for to^norrom. Fourthly, She says, that 
during 1769 and 1770, Boyd continued to send letters seoretly to 
the Public Advertimr almost every week, simeracribed in his dis- 
guised hand ; and at thb time he used eagerly to seek opfK>rtunitief 
of introducing the subject of Junim: and whatever their private 
conversation might be, they always ended with Jumu$* Fifthly, 
After the publication of Junius's letter to the King, Boyd used to 
redouble his arts of secresy; and would sometimes take her Qnta 
walking, and would slily put a packet ia some penny^post office at 
a distance from WoodfeU's office; and would at other times ask her^ 
taking his packet out of his pocket, to earry it to Woodfall's kttevp 
box, at the comer of Ivy-lane; and often, when tbey returned home 
from such walks, she would hint to him that sAf mpteted he um$ 
Junuu: but to this he would make no reply, bot turn the cooverr 
sation. Sometimes be would write under other signatures, an^ ask 
her to copy what he had written, and send such copy to iho prtnttr. 
Sixthly, She says, that in Jnne, 1771, Mr. Boyd took a bonse at 
Ruston Green, near Harrow, when Junius's eontroversy w^h Mr. 
Htene began, and Mr, Boyd manifested the same aageraesa about 
it; and while it lasted, he used to write every forenoon ; and when 
he had finished what he had written, he would walk with it to Lon- 
don, and return the same day ; and h^ used to say, that Mr* Hnrne 
was an able reasoner, but that Junius, notwithstanding, had the bet- 
ter of him. Seventhly, She farther says, that in November, 1771, 
Boyd borrowed, from a neighbour of bis at Ruston Green, severat 
law-books and stalie^rkds, which he daily read with seeming muctt 
atteatioai, for the porpoae, as she thinks, of supportmg the charge 
of Junifii agmnst Lc^rd Mansfteld hr admHtiuf^ f^c to bod. tbn 
result wher^ appeared in Jnaj«is*s letter t^ Lpni Chief JM9ti<^ 
Maosfiekl, of the 21^ of January^ 1772; a^ that abt^ot threa 
weeks aft^r the publication of that letter Boyd went to Irsland^ and 



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like Author of Junhn mttrbUntd. 14S 

leased to write under tliii tigmtore in the Pablio Adver- 
ttser» wfaeti he woe extremelj eiaberragsed in hb cireumstanccs.-**- 
Eighthly, She alto says, that during the same year (1772) Juaios's 
Letters were republished in a book, with a dedication, preface, and 
notes, which publication seemed to relieve Mr. Boyd's mind from a 
bttrdeti ; and that, after that publication, he nevet was at so much 
pm&s to conceal from her the contents of the letter which he oeca*> 
dskMially transmitted to the PaMic Advertiser^^-^NIfllhly, She more^ 
ever says, that on the rery day whereon the abote-mennoned editioB 
of JuftMi LefHers was published, he brought home with hka a copy 
4f the same book, and presented it to her with the kindest aiiima- 
iSon in his fiice; and that, in looking over the pages, she was much 
^tfiick lit smnf some anecdotes of Lord Irnlmm, Miss Davis, and 
Mr. Nishet, trtie t)f lief guatdmns, which she had communicated #a 
iifttf&ieMUs to Mr. B^y^, and which she knew had been very sttidt* 
oiftly kept secriift by the parties concerned.* — ^Tenthly, She fiaafiy 
says, that she repeatedly told Mr. Boyd that she had strong suspi* 
cions he wafs Junkts: but, to tA\ she said on that subject, he was 
totally sfleAt.* p.6a— «6.) 

Th« iv%ole of thid detail is merely cifcutiidtantiti}) and «1- 
ihODgh Mr. Chaltnetd seema to think it tondnai^, he mtist 
altbtr tfd to 8^ tfatit we by no me£iits conctir in his opinion. 
At the time Jutiins wks producing his letters fioyd waa 
probably also a writer, under various signatures, in the 
newspapers on the same side of the question^ though none 
•f bis compositions bare been since avowed ; and most of 
tlie iacts above stated are perfectly reconcileable with the 
ifiAerest be latist feel for a brother politkiaa, at that tia^e 
nMktDg«o knp^rlant a figure in the world : thedisguiaing of 
bis kwad was^ perhaps, a neoessaiy «xpedietit, «apeoiaUir 
i^ like dnrttertemii he wrtste wt the same moment on both 
sides of the question ; and when he told Mrs* Boifd witli 
aaimation that Junius was announced for to-morrow^ it 
might otily proceed from the curiosity the lettelrs of that 
Goncealed*^ individual excited more especially in Boyd, who 
was a professed admirer, iind even imitator of his style i 
the same obvious remark will apply equally to the echtion 
of the letters of Junius, which he brought home on their 
pnbljcation. In short, it may be fairly asked, whether IF 
l^yd were in truth the author of the Letters of Junius., 
his wife must not necessarily have become acquainted with 
many more important particulars fhan the scanty gleaniqga 

. * ** jPliose anec^tes were introdiiced into, and upon, Jnnias's Letter, 
1^0. JL^ VI yaatted the SfTth of Notember, 1771, being the last teeter ad- 



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150 TTie'Authat of Junius ascertained. 

from which Mr Chalmers draws his inference P The fol- 
lowing additional piece of evidence deserves a place from 
its singularity. 

'' We are now arrived at the last step of this concatenation of 
evidence. When the Jury has heard all the previous circumstances 
of a criminal case, what remains for their decision when the confes- 
sion of the culprit is laid before them 1 Moos. Bonnecarr^re, late 
minister-plenipotentiary, director-general of the foreign department^ 
under Louis XVI, being sent on a confidential mbsion to India, 
became acquainted with Hugh Boyd, at Madras, in 1785 : and going 
afterwards to Calcutta, Bonnecarr^re, instead of being treated as a 
spy, was received into the house of Sir John Macpherson, with all 
the good-nature and genuine hospitality which is so natural to that 
admirable man. Here Hugh Boyd joined him, during the same 
year; when the familiarity between Bonnecarr^re ^nd Boyd was car- 
ried up to friendship. It was in this residence, and on that occa- 
sion, that Hugh Boyd made a confidential declaration to Bonnecar- 
r^re, on conditian that he should not reveal the secret to the Gover- 
nor-General of Bengal, nor to any one else, during Boyd*s life, 
' that he was the retd author of Junhu's letters.' M. Bonnecarr^re 
seems to have acted honourabiy towards Boyd. He kept this secret 
which was so important to Boyd, till he was assured that the author 
of Juntas wsts no more, and could neither be injured by his unfaith- 
' fiiluess, nor vexed by his garrulity. He made the first mention of 
the secret to the respectable character, in whose hospitable mansion 
the interesting trust was reposed in him. M. Bonnecarr^re has re- 
cently published a solemn declaration of the same fact in le Journal 
des Dibats. But I do not perceive that he has added any material 
fact, in addition to the important secret which he revealed in 1802 
to Sir John Macpherson ; except giving a sort of narrative of the 
manner in which he became acquainted with Boyd, and the mode 
how their acquaintance, by various attentions, ms carried up to 
friendship.'* (p. 70— 71.) 

What reliaqce is to be placed upon the memory of M. 
Bonnecarr^re, or upon the declaration of Boyd we know 
not: the date assigned is 1785, about twelve years after 
the appearance of the last of the Lettiers of Junius, when 
all exertions to discover the author had fiiiled. We do not 
see any reason for casting an imputation upon the veracity 
of Boyd, excepting that he does not seem to have possessed 
much steady principle, and, as a party writer, it was his 
interest to malke himself appear to the foreigner of as ffreat 
importance as possible. It is worth adding, that Lord 
Macartney, who had many opportunities of observing and 
estimating the talents of Boya, was constantly of opinion 
against the hypothesis pf Mr* Cbalmers, notwithstanding 



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i 



iAfe of Rdphaeti ibi 

an t&)^ eifii^iice 8U)ppli6d, arid cfaiefiy upon thi^ jfrotrnd 
that nothing could be produced written by Boyd before the' 
appearance of the Letters of Junius, to shew that he was 
capable of being their author. This preliminary and, we 
think, &tal objection^ Mr. Chalmers answers by quoting, 
ei^^t lines written by Boyd, in or about 176f<j upon the 
death of Sterae : he admiU that this is the only specimea 
ot his candidate's composition that he can furnish before 
1770, but with a sort of ludicrous gravity he adds, ^^ I sub- 
mit the above statizas ^ superior to any of the epistles of 
JFnnius." That may be, but where is the resemblance, or 
how will he institute a comparison ? the reader wilt be 
curious to &ek these verses and we subjoin themf. 

'' And is DO friendly nKnmier near! 
The last sad office to assume ; 
O'er his cold grave to drop a tear. 
Or ' piuck the nettle frum his tomb]' 

" Forgive m^. Sterna, if from thy line. 
The syfl^A^etic hint I drew; 
The fedmg heiict must copy thine, 
The tender moiirner tfaiitk like yon." (p. 77.) 

Can Mr. Chalmers mean seriously to contend that these' 
lines warrant the inference, that the writer of them was 
competent to the production of the Letters of Junius ? 

Art- YL— The Li/h of JRaffaelh Sanzio pa Urbinq: B^ 
the Author of the Life of Michael ^ngeU>. And the Chfl^ 
tacters of the most cdebrg/led Painters of Italy, hy Sir 
Joshua KcYMOiiOs^ 8vo. pp. 230. JLondon. Murray. 
1816. 

This is unfortunately a handtome little voltfm^; having 
the ext^nal t&rta of an drigii^l Work it has been laid be-* 
fore Uff oiBcidlyy aiM^ we do not, therefore, feel ourselves 
at Kbefty to Isrf it asMe altogetheir fdthout nbtice, tlk^u^ it 
appears to henrng 16' part to two kinds of bodes, each of 
Which is? alldWra td p2LSki unnoticied by Ml critics and re- 
tfewers : we were, indeed, not suiTerea to remain long* ifl 
nneertairity cotilcerni^^'tbe character of this piMibation, — 
t&i thus sayfe the pr^fice^ 

*' I'his Biogirajihical Irract is published as a means of directing 
the public attention to t&e higlies^ excellence in Historical Painting* 
and to pomf out what ought to be expected from the great Works of 

Chit. Rev. Voj,. f. Feb. 1817. X 



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153 UJt of RaphaeL 

Raffiiello in the Vatican, b^ those who nowhave an opportunity of 
enlarging their views b^ visiting Italy and Rome. ' . 

" That this sniall Book might be rendered still more useful, the 
Characters of the most celebrated Painters of Italy, by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, are added ; which, as far as they extend, will be a sure 
guide ; for what he says of Michael Angelo, might be truly said of 
himself, that he was the bright luminaiy from whom Painting boit* 
rowed a new lustre, and under whose hands it ateumed a new a^ 
pearance, and became anotlier and a superior art." (p. ▼ — vi.) 

In fact, nearly half the volume is reprint, in a conve- 
nient shape, of Sir Joshua Reynolds^s judgment concerniDg 
the great masters of painting. At the same time, the pro- 
fessed object of the oook is to serve as a sort of guide or 
manual, or companion for travellers to Rome. Books of 
this latter description are very seoeral ; there is not a city 
in England which has not its guide to the cathedral at least, 

Senerally printed very humbly and at a humble price, — a 
ook which every traveller is anxious to procure while he 
is viewing the curiosities of the place, and generally leaves 
behind him there. And, since the Peace, numerous guides 
to Paris, Italy, Holland, Waterloo, &c. 8cc. have appeared ; 
we did not expect to meet with the name of any respectable 

J)ublisher to such a book; nor that a gentleman would con- 
ess himself its foster-father who could refer to a work of 
respectability as proceeding from himself. 

Rome is richly furnished with publications of a higher 
description than those we have mentioned, but compre-. 
bending the same objects ; and it contains a body of men 
well bred and wfell instructed, whose profession it is to 
assist the traveller in enlarging his views in that glorious 
and unparalleled city. We must add, however, that we 
would sooner trust the traveller to the lowest lacquai de 
place which the city affords, than to a Cicerone, who should 
commence his instructions by reminding the English visitor 
that, however respectable such artists as Raphael and Mi- 
chael Angelo were, still painting was an inferior art under 
their hands, compared with what it became under the hands 
of the late President of the English Royal Academy 1 ! ! 

That a gentleman who has devoted time and labour in 
the practice of any one of the fine arts, who has been led to 
dwell with the intense contemplation of a critical biogra- 
pher, on the works of one of the great heroes of art, who 
nas resided, during some of the most susceptible years of 
his life, in that wonderful spot, in which are crowded toge- 
ther niore memorials of human greatness, more monuments 



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Lijb of UaphaeL 153 

at the most sublime and perfect exercise of human intel-* 
lect and genius, than all Efurope besides can produce ; that 
after all this he can so appreciate what he has had such 
means of comprehending and feeling, may serve to console 
those who have not had the happiness of enjojinff the pri- 
vilege of one pilgrimage to the eternal city. We are ut* 
terly at a loss to conceive in what sense painting is a supe- 
rior art as it is exercised by Sir Joshua Reynolds. We 
mean no disrespect to a man whose memory ought to be 
protected by his countryman, for he was the acknowledged 
chief of his brother artists in his own ase, but we protest 
against an hyperbole of praise which, if it could pass into a 
national judgment, would render us objects of derision to 
the well educated in all Europe. The fact undoubtedly is, 
that with the great men already named, and their cotempo- 
raries, painting rose at once to an heightb, the contempla- 
tion of which has filled posterity with admiration and 
wonder ; and that it was consecrated to the noblest uses to 
which any art can be applied ; or perverted, a rigid protes- 
tant, with iconoclastic propensities, might exclaim* We 
do not mean to argue this question. It may be true, that 
the pernicious errors of the Roman Catholic Church have 
been fostered by the charm thrown over some of its peculiar 
sentiments by their great painters. The excessive reverence,' 
Utterly unwarranteaby scripture, paid to the person of the 
Madonna is justified to the eye— and through the eye to 
the heart, by that astonishing series of paintings by Raphael 
idone, (to say nothing of the other great painters), each of 
which expresses, with the most fascinating and pathetic 
beauty, some one of the fine features of that mysterious 
combination of womanly graces. Brautiy in his ^' Life and 
Works of Raphael," published at Wiesbaden, 1815, has, 
with a care and exactness, which our author ought to have 
copied, as he was resolved to do something, enumerated 
about forty Madonnas by Raphael. The gteater number 
exhibit her in the subordinate character of the .virgin- 
mother — the mother worshipping her child ; while several 
of his more elaborate and perfect works represent her as 
the queen of heaven, resplendent in the glory of an appal- 
ling beauty. 

Such is the* high excellence of these works — such their 
overwhelming charm, that if the power of reasoning is not 
taken a:way in their presence, the desire to exercise it is 
lost, and the understanding soon tolerates what the heart 
excuses. The doctrine of the immaculate conception (surely 



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}5i Ly^f of Rqphael. 

an iifpertinence ^tthe best, thoju^h w bfiri9le«3 one, (e;pc)eQ/t 
l^here^^ jas in Spain, it is death to deny it) becomes ^ cre^ji-r 
ble opinion wbea affiri^ed of one oi* IJ^phaers Miudoiia^^ 
The «pecta<;or exclaims unconsciously, ^^ In ith^it M^Qmim 
{here W9s no ^in !'^ We advert to the Madonpa ip partlcur 
iar, becj^yse it is the object most within the painter s reach, 
ajad because it s,triking^y shows hovr a ppe^ic concept ipi^, al 
first delightful merely to the imagination, and §o long hargiT 
less,7naj gradually be embo4iea iptp ijy^ popjt^lajr qreed^ 
find bi^qonie ^ article of fait^, seicu^ed by ^& the tpri^prs pf 
superstitiop and all the authority of t^e f^h}l pai^Fer. ^^^ 
ijie greatest artists of Italy have thrown a glory oyer all 
;be characters of the Old and New Testapients. It is w»\\ 
inown If hat a rich treasury of noble forms the f|rescp p^inkt 
ings aqd cartoons of Michael Angelo, liaphael, Lep^ar^a 
da Vinci, SCiC. exhibit in the persons of the prophets qf ijf^e 
Old, and the apostles of the New Covepant. To borr&w 
fhe French idiom, even the impossible was attempt/eij ij^ 
the person of the Supreme Being ; aiid jthough the judgn 
ment recoils from the idea of ^n adequate represen^atiopi 
yet the eye is filled with delight at the sublime failure* ^t 
however pernicious to true religiop ipaybe the mythic^ 
character given to Cb^^stia^ity by its great artists, yet it ii^ 
not therefore less tr^e, that the dignity, value, and excel*? 
lence of the fine arts, can rest on np other principle ib^n 
that of the worth and grandeur of its object. Under the 
great pasters of Italy, painting was dedicated principally 
to the service of religion,' and that with a universality of 
zeal and devotion which no subsequent ^ge could h^ve dis- 
played. To what purposes has art been applied in later 
ages, and in our country ? Our author truly states, to th/a 
cultivation of the dpmestic ^nd social afiections in {portrait- 
painting. A few public-spirited individuals have wished t^ 
give a political and patriotic tpudiencv to the arts : with 
every respect to Ihe memory of Mr* iVl^^i'man Boydel), we 
do not think he has proved a Julius II. o)r a Leo A. Ipdi- 
yidual paipters have treated with rfispect^le and varip9?^ 
falents, sulgects belonging to siil classes of con^po^ition i 
our great ppets^ our national history, incident^ ip ancient 
fable and modern romance, have occasionally an^ ^pciflent? 
^}ly been the subjects of our painter^" exertions ; ^nd far 
pe it from us to insinuate that nothing respectable ar )aud-s 
ffb^e ^s been completed ; ive mpr4jK ^49h to pro^e^^ ag^ipsl 
. m^W^g % tepglish trayeller w\ik ^ ^gregip^u? ^ mist 
ccmjB^tipn of 1m ?«i»ii«n 1?*H* kk m^ RORPtry s^ itf 



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artists be^r to tUe ^^bel paesp clu^ el j»^r drooad^ £ YMf^i^ 
and iU f UL^stripus sops, wJhieb 'Our ;^uifaor irpnU conviBy. 

We must confine our remarks upon this book witlMA ft 
Tef7 nv^rvovr 4Bonipa6s, and iodteed it does not jadmit of 
ipa«y.. The Tvrii&e truly says, ^^Of tialBijeUo, as of oimt 
iiiiW>rt(al Shakspe^re, all that is really kno^vn wight be inh^ 
scribed on fi tablet." Op icompariBg the voluoie before m 
with Braun's book, aad Fiissii^s ^^ liicture on tb^ Jjife aii4 
\y<>rks of jR^hael/' puUisbed Mi Juriok in 1813, W0 
fnd tl^ samfB meagre faei^, Tbe two iadtistripus G^rmaa 
vriters baye been able to gleap as IkUe after Yasari a^ ouqr 
author ; md as every ^pn^fiooa biographical dietjonavy wn^ 
tains tlip»e jPa^cts, we do not see why a new book should lie 
made to tell the o]d story for the huadredtb time. But fhe 
zp^rk^ of Raphael ^re still an interesting subject bath of 
historical and critical composition. The two modera foreign 
writepre we h^ve refeired to place the works of tbeir author 
on tl^^i^ ^ery tjtle-page ; gnd we .cannot but e^tEpress wr 
great regret that oi|r author, instead of swelling out hie 
Uttje volume by fijliag it with borrowed matter having verjf 
little relation to his subjjBct, did not exercise some portion 
of the attention and investigation which be efnployed in bis 
life of Michael Ang^lo. His publisher and his readers have 
equal right to coa^[>lain of him. It is singular enough, tiMMt 
he thought it right, even in his Michael Angelo <3d edit, 
p. 88) to introduce a discussion concerning the precisn 
Hiomeot at which Raphael painted the Retneat of Attilai 
which he omits wben he writes expressly about Raphael* 
In any book of which Raphael is the subject we are eetitled 
to e^ipect two things : first, a critical description of tbe 
great master's master-pieces; and secondlj^, a eomj^eto 
Bst of his works, with their history, and, in particular^ 
their present resting-place. Of the former, Mr. D. baa 
copied all. he found at hand from Sir Joshua Reynold^, and 
has added some eloquent and masterlv descriptions extracted 
from Mr. Fuseli's lectures. The throe or- four pages of 
general observations by himself are variations in substance 
ta^en from Sir Joshua. He observes, as an excuse for not 
doing what alone tsould render the book other than an in- 
ciittbrance to the « stall on which it might be left, <^ as the 
description of a picture can bring before the reader but n 
i%int representation of it, though it be ever so scientif cally 
desicribed, t shall direct my oWrvations to general prin- 
oiplesi, avd make nvj^ remarks subservient to th«n.'- Uw* 
lAg ^gotten wbat Iw piPeAi^ hoirevnri takeit for 



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I56 lAft of Raphael 

granted, that such descriptions are never considered a« 
substitutes for, but as companions bj the sideof the pic- 
ture. 

Thej are designed for the use of those who, unaccus- 
tomed to the stu^ of such works, nor able to devote much 
time to them, are glad to be assisted by a translation into a 
lanffuage they are more familiar with — words, Socrates 
professed to be to his younger companions, a sort of mid. 
wife to assist in the birth of thought or reasoning ; and 
such is the connoisseur to the amateur. Where nature has 
given merely a correct eye and just feeling, it is only ne- 
cessary to point with the finger, and the beauty and ex- 
cellence will be seen ; but the finger is necessary still. 

The list of Raphael's pictures, &c. is exceedingly im- 
perfect, and no historical intelligence of any kind whatever 
18 afforded. 

We anxiously looked for some information concerning 
the celebrated tapestries^ which were sold after the plun* 
dering of the Vatican by the French in 1798. {leports of 
their recovery were many years since circulated on the 
Continent, and afterwards they were renewed : our author 
does not advert to them. Concerning the originals of those 
tapestries, the celebrated Cartoons, we expected their 
histoi^ in this work, blended as that of some of them is, with 
the misfortunes of the house of Stuart. Instead of attempt- 
ing a catalogue of deficiencies, it is sufficient merely to ad- 
vert to the two foreign tracts, which we do not in other 
respects notice as works of great merit, but at least we 
have in them a variety of useful particulars. Fiissli con- 
cludes his book by a list of the more excellent engraving? 
after Raphael, and a list of his drawings in the Louvre. 
The catalogue of Raphael's oil paintings is classed accord- 
ing to the countries which they adorn : probably in this 
catalogue are many psez/db- Raphaels ; but pretensions 
merely, when of a lon^ date, ought to be recorded. It is 
no slight fame for a picture to have been conjectured ta 
proceed from so great an artist. Braun has classified the 
works without reference to the substance on which it was 
produced, style, time, or place, but merely according to 
the subject. He has adopted this classification, I. Histori- 
cal objects ; A, from sacred history. Of this department 
the'Madonnas are the most numerous class ; then follow 
the ideid characters of the Old Testament, Isaiah, Ezekiel, 
Jonas, and Elias. The Sibyls connect themselves with these : 
the ideal charactcirs of the New Testament. The Cartoona 



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The FaU ottdDeaih of Murai. 157 

were destined tp record the great incidents of the New Tes« 
lament; the Old Testament having been elaborately painted 
in the Loggie; the lost Cartoons are added in description B, 
from profane history; some of the finest of which 
are found in the Stanze. IL Allegorical representation ; 
A, of figures ; B, of allegorical compositions. The noblest 
specimen is the school of Athens, of which our author has 
no other account to give, than that it is a ^^ composition of 
the sages of antiquity/' tnough the painter, his master, and 
some of his friends and patrons are there : a volume might 
be written upon this wonderful painting alone. C, AJle- 
gorico-my thical representations, among wnich are placed the 
numerous designs for the history of Psyche, the Seven 
Planets, &c. O, AUegorico-mfstical representations, where 
we find the celebrated Transfiguration, St. Michael, Helio** 
rus, the Mass of Bolsena, the Disputa^ &c. Fotive pieces 
in which the artist's subject was given him, and in spiffht 
of which he has produced some of his most exquisite works, 
viz. the St. Cecilia, and the Madonna del Sisto, the pride^ 
of the Dresden gallery. III. Mythical representations 
from the classical mythology. IV. Representations from 
human life. V. Ornaments; and, Vi. Portraits. We have^ 
not copied this classification in order to recommend it, but 
to hint what the subject is still capable of; for it would be 
really lamentable if the work before us should not only in- 
cumber our libraries, but also prevent its place being filled 
by a better book. 



Aet. VI L — Interesting Tracts relating to the FaU and 
Death of Joachim Murat^ King of Naples; the Capita^ 
lotion of Paris in 1815, and the Second Restoration of the 
Bourbons : Original Letters from King Joachim to the 
Author^ with some account of the Author^ and of his Per^. 
secution by the French Government. By FaiiNcis 
Macirone, late Aid'de-Camp to King Joachim; Knight 
of the Order of the Two Sicilies, 8fC. Sfc. 8vo. pp. 167. 
£ondon. Ridgways. 1817. 

The author of this narrative had a considerable share in 
the transactions he relates, and we place much reliance on 
the fidelity of his statements. We have the more confi. 
dence in them because it so happens from the accident of. 
our situation, that some of the letters and documents in- 
troduced into the Appendix devolved under our observa-. 



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I5S Tie Fall a^i BekOt ofMufal. 

ikntt wUM tU teoirreotes weve ;pel iir progi^diM^5 and wbna 
)t was su|iDtoed, by so»e,t&&l4b»'inriiu»rpiil sul^^ oft^M^ 
tittgesiwofuM barre teen restMed.t^ tife thronB fto^ nAAaSti 
be bad been diiv^n bjf the sueoesses of his eneitiie9. ; 
: :Mr. Mftdrdnehad been^em^oyedar(he^a€cradU«d'affM« 
df IbaaUieid poweris snbBeqaeiit to %\m wetilsfitm 0t Suc^^ 
Baflafte^ to diecficHei to Murat tb(sir detertorafttibti' im ttig»^ 
to hia fatqre destiny; and hejustly eoDii>pllriii8, thait on de^ 
tounto^ the jealoosj at th6 CJourt of Franc^ a9 to bk in<' 
tftrveation in this bvsiness, he was on his retani seie^d at 
MlurBeiJIes bj an ordchr from her goveramenti his property 
wafe taken froosbiiB^ and he himself was tbf own in^ a dim-A 
gcoif for tweifty-thyee days^ where! the coffldefy necessaries 
o£ life were denied to bim; But this was not the end of 
hia fltiffetii^ : he tVas horried froni thence to Fbris, aatf 
there confined for more than a month in the prisons of thfe 
Cooeiergerie and the Abbaje. 

. He adinowledgea^ that to make his innocence kno#n co^^ 
eittenstrelj aa is tbe notoriety of these acts of pei^eetition, 
is the pffincipal. object of this production ; and he marntaiav 
not only that be is free from biaaie, but that he was mAi^ 
ded io the regard aad consfderatioir of the very govemttiM)| 
which^ hie says, sought to destroy him. In order to shew 
&at there was nothing anterior to the negotiation he conu 
ducted, either with regard to bis iamily or himself, in 
whicA he would not willingly challenge investigation, he 
supplies some biographical particulars of the House of MJa-> 
cirone, from the time of his grandfather, Francis Philip, 
who was the chief of a noble and wealthy family of Rome ; 
^tud in ails^^er to an a^gation of the French Minister of 
Police, that th^ author was an Italian, and not under the 

Eotection of the British Ambassador, be states the fact of 
s bfarth to this country. When justi^ing his conduct 
in^ entering into the Neapolitan service, he attempts the 
vindi<^tion of the Pfince by whom he was employea. 

'^ Here 1 may be permitted te make a few observations on the 
character of the sovereign in whose service I engaged, in vindica- 
tion of my own conduct as well as that of numerous Englishmen of 
high rank and- character^ whose courteous and liberal recqitioa at 
the Neapolitan court, has by the prejudiced and uninformed been 
made the subject of calumniating reflectioni instead of being consi- 
diered, as in truth it was, an honourable distiuction conferred, upon 
them by a valiant and generous prince — by one who was highly at- 
tached to the British name and charsictef— by one t6o^ whose ruin 
1^ aided if not ultimately consumuiatedi by his implicit c^oiifiden'ce 



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Stk€ HaH and Dmth of Murai. 159 

ia-Bri&ii ftitfa aod honour. King Joaehim was eminently gifted 
vUh that nobleness and generosity of character which Englisybmen 
SQ well know bow to appreciate. The treatment the Sngliih pri- 
soners received from the goyerfiifient was highly ioduigent, even to^ 
the extent of being allowed the singular privilege of vi&iting, upon 
their parole, Rome, Florence, and every part of Italy* Whenever 
it wa9 necessary to deifend s^ national privilege, and the dignity oJT 
his crown, or to display the benevolence of his heart, he did not 
hesitate to offer resistance to the government of France, all power- 
ftil as that government then was, and abundant as were bis reasons 
for endeavouring to keep the favour of the ruler of that country. 
Instances oi such resistance several times occurred in behalf of the 
English prisoners in Naples, when the French government demanded 
thitt they sbooid be sent to the dep6ts in France/' (p. 12 — 13.) 

With regard to this nobleneas and generosity attributed 
by the author to his patron, we certainly entertain some 
doubts, find Mr. Macirone seems to have prudently onqitted 
the early part of the history of his friend^ which we will 
endeavour to supply. 

In the ye^rs 1796 and 1707 Murat, who was in the military 
service of the French Republic, was appointed by Buona- 
parte his aid-de-camp, and was raised to the rank of Geqe- 
ral of Brigade. In April of the former year he distinguished 
himself at the battle of Mondovi, and soop afterwards, was 
sent with Junot to Paris to present twenty-one stand of cp- 
loiirs, that had been taken from the Austro-Sardinian 
army. On the 18th of July following he directed the at- 
tack upon the intrenched camp at Mantua, from whence, hav- 
ing discomfited Wurmser, Murat was dispatched in pursuit 
of him at the head of a body of chasseurs. The same activity 
was displayed by Murat in the campaign of 1797. On tbe 
I4th of January he drove the Austrian cavalry across the Adi- 
gio ; on the 16th of March he passed the Tagliamento at 
the head of his division, aqd his prowess and ability having 
been thus exhibited^ he was afterwards permanently an at- 
tendant on the person of Buonaparte, whom he accompa- 
nied to Egypt, and with whom he returned to Europe. It 
has been incorrectly stated, that he penetrated into the 
council of five hundred at St. Cloud to protect Buonaparte ; 
that service was unquestionably performed by Gen. Ser- 
rurier ; but in Dec. 1799, when an alteration in the go- 
vernment had taken place^ to him was assigned the coni- 
mand of the Cpnsular Guard, ^nd as a further proof of the 
affection and confidence of the new ruler of France, Buo- 
naparte gave hini bis own sister ip marriage. Notwith-. 
Chit. Rev. Vol. V. Feb. 1817. Y 



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160 7%e Fall and Death of Uurat. 

standing the courage and talent which Murat on all the de* 
casions we have referred to displayed, it is remarkaUey 
that in no single instance was he entrusted with insulated 
and protracted commands, and this reserve shews the ex- 
traordinary discernment of his superior officer. ^* I say 
nothing to ^ou," says Buonaparte in one 'of his letters to 
King Joachim laid on the table of the House of Commons, 
" of my displeasure at your conduct, which has been dia- 
metrically opposite to your duty. That, however, belongs 
to the weakness of your nature. You are a good soldier 
on the field of battle, but, excepting there, you have no 
vigour, and no character.'' 

But what was Murat's conduct when his master had as- 
sumed the imperial purple, and he was appointed Viceroy by 
Charles the 4th of Spam. It was under his direction that 
the massacre at Madrid, on the !^d of May, took place. 
The Queen of Etruria and her son were leaving that city, 
Buonaparte having determined, that not a branch nor a 
scion of the family should continue in the country. The 
inhabitants of the capital thought themselves abandoned, 
and in the rage of their grief, as her majesty was leaving 
the palace, a scuffle took place between the citizens and the 
French soldiery. The disorder might have been quelled 
without difficulty or danger, as the Spanish troops had no 
share in the engag;ement, they having been confined to their 
barracks by the command of their officers. Ten thousand 
of the French troops, with musquetry and artillery enfi- 
laded the streets and squares ; and in the houses neither 
age, sex, nor infancy, were spared. The work of blood 
was not yet complete, but a military tribunal under the 
presidency of Gen. Grouchy was formed, and in cold blood 
every person discovered with a sharp instrument, even 
with scissars, was triad, and immediately shot. What is 
the motive assigned for this indiscriminate murder ? ^^ It 
was the cruel policy of Murat," says the historian, " which 
be knew would be approved of by his master, to crush, if 
possible, the rising spirit of Spain in the bud, by a dread- 
ful example." 

We wul notice but one other fact, in the way of obser- 
vation, on the nobleness of character attributed by our 
author to Joachim. In the war with Austria which pre- 
ceded the peace of Presburg, the French did not enter 
Vienna until the I3th of November, when it was evacuated 
by the native troops. Murat commanding the advance, 
inarched onward to take possession of the city; while there 



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The FaB and Death of Murai. 161 

was a corps of Aostrians, under the Prince Auersbutg, 8ta« 
tioned at the bridge of the Danube, for the purpose of destroy* 
ing it in case of necessity. Preparations had been made, and 
that necessity had arrived. What was the expedient by 
which Murat avoided this consequence, that would have 
considerably retarded the march of his army into Moravia^ 
whither the Emperor with his court had, ror safety, with- 
draMm ? He rode in full speed to the Prince, and assured 
him, on his ward of honour^ that an armistice had been 
concluded ; and by this infamous falsehood he accomplished 
hispurpose. 

We have mentioned these circumstances to expose the 
real character of Murat, and to shew that the partial view 
taken of it by the author since he entered into the Neapo- 
litan service, can in no satisfactory way exhibit the merits 
or demerits of the man ; but even within the limit assigned 
to Mr. Macirone's personal experience, there were situa- 
tions which exposed the inordinate ambition of his patron, 
and the total disregard of the rights and interests of nations 
in the purposes he centemplated for its gratification.^ 

With respect to the connections of Murat with the Allied 
Powers, we have the subsequent observations : — 

** In the 14th article of a treaty formed in the beginning of 1814, 
between Austria, Russia, England, and Prussia, it was stipulated 
that this treaty should not be an obstacle to any engagement that the 
high contracting powers might have made with other states, nor 
hinder them from forming other treaties in the view of obtaining the 
result which that treaty contemplated, namely, the success of the 
war against Napoleon. It was thought that nothing would more 
effectually conduce to this end, than depriving Napoleon of his only 
remaming ally, the king of Naples — an ally, who evidently then 
held the iate of Italy in his hands. With this view, Austria dis- 
patched Count Nieperg to Naples ; and on the 11th January, 1814» 
a treaty of alliance, offensive and defensive, was signed between 
Austria and Naples, with the sanction of the allies ; and it is a no* 
torious fact, that in the conferences at Chatillou, the French pleni- 
potentiaries having presented divers propositions concerning Italy, 
they were answered by the ministers of the four great powers — 
' That Italy then formed no part of the question, the coalition hav- 
ing already resolved to re-establish the ancient governments of that 
country, except at Naple$, where the HtU of Kmg Joachim had been 

* We aUnde to the project he formed to divide Italy between hinuelf 
and Francis, assigning to the Emperor tfae^ coimtries north of the Po^ 
and to himself those south of it. 



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K2 TkeBdtniUlBiiAhtffMunU: 

recognmd S^ mrtiie vf a tteghfwhSbh idushm httd kioMudcif midio 
whkh England hoi ameded."* 

^' When King Joachim recdved the propo«al to eater ioto the 
coalitioii, he declared in the most precise terms to Count Nieperg^ 
the Austrian plenipotentiary, * That he would never carry his arms 
beyond the frontiers of his own kingdom, or take an active part iq 
the war against Francie, until he had engaged in a previous treaty of 
peac6 ai^d alliance with )£ng1and.' (p. 13 — 14.) 

The imnicdiate ^ng^ements of Murat with thi^ couatiy 
lure exfiiaintd witSi some miButeness. 

" Lord William Bentinck arrived at Naples in the English frigate^ 
the Furieuse, in the beginning of January, 1814, and signed a con- 
vention with the Neapolitan government, which was not a mere 
armistice, but which placed amiirs on a footing of petfect peace, 
AJree commercial intercourse was authorized, and it declared that 
the ports skeuld be tedprocally open to the peoph ef the twoHk^ons* 
This carried with it the positive recognition of the Neapolitain flag : 
in short, the convention was considered by the contracting parties^ 
as having so perfectly the force of a treaty of alliance, though kt 
might not yet have the form, that no time was lost in arranging this 

{)lan of the campaign, in which the Austrian, English, and Nefipo- 
itan troops should simultaneously act for the attainment of the 
same object. 

** The king immediately opened the campaign, and advanced 
with his army to Bologna, without waiting for the ratification of the 
treaty with Austiga. On his attival at that place, he learnt by & 
messenger from Basil, that some modifications were proposed. His 
sufrprise was at first very great, as the (^ondiUons of the treaty ^hud 
been previously approved by fhe Austrian goverament. It tm^ied 
out, however, that there was nothing objectionable in the proposed 
alterations, which had been suggested, not by Austria, buthy En^'* 
land : tiod the King of Naples was assured tfaak if they wefe adaiittt!d> 
then tb^ treaty mi^t (be regarded as being in common with Great 
BritiEiin. These modificattiMis did not in any way alter the substance 
of the stipulations ^previously agreed to, they only related to territo- 
rial in^lnnificatiims which were to be gnmted t« King Joachim it 
tbe ex|ien»e off the Papal See. 

" The propositinHiBonthis subject Werfe highly acceptable to the 
feelings of the king ; he considered them ^ a reiterated proof of tb^ 
sincerity of the Ei^tsh government; and he caused it to be oiade 
iiaovv'B to Lord Castkr^h that be should refy on the wo^d of all 
£iig[lBh minister with lis much confidence ais if the treaty hiid ^ba^ 

AXmailv i*nMit*XiM£Uui . m i'liA nw^st AAljMiin tatbh. J\nf tint .dkixliali n£ka 

iwrnment did not think it proper that the king should remain with- 

«*T i ^ , - i. . . ■ , I ^ • ■ » ■■■■■ 

* ^ The treaty here spoken of, is that ortheUtli{|a&Uary,l«H/'/ 



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tmt « fomd fiiMAbte^ tm Its fttt ; a«d Lefrd Willwn Be&lidtk kuLY^ 
mg aritved at tfae liead^qiiarters of thekiag* declared anew, that hu 
goverameftt entirely adhered ta the treatjf concluded on the 11th 
JftiHiarf, between ois Miyest^ the Emperor o# Austria, and hisMa-^ 
jesty tile King of Naples ; and that it assettted to the advantages 
stipulated in favour of the king* u«der the cooditioas insisted upoo 
by Austria^ of an active and iamiedSale co*operation of the Neapoli* 
tan army with tlie allied forces. 

<* ThisdeohuratioOy which perfectly agreed with all that had been 
before said by L6rd Castkreagh, i^s confirmed by several dis* 
patches from that fninister, whi^ were coaMiiMiicatea to the king, 
and particularly by a letter in whieh Lord Castlereagh dep}ared»--« 
' that U Una m^fffinm moiivet cfdekcaejf t&wardsthe King iff Sicify^ 
%kat the Englidi gt^emmttU was indmed t^ ddayfor a mamad thi 
cdnduskm of a pt^tktUm' amd special treaty of aUiance with ike King 
4^ Nofks; iheBriiishgwertimemt beimgdesiu^us thai a treaty rfim* 
dmmty ta the King of Sicily, vMch eSdd not yet be framed, amnUd 
go hand in hand wit^ihe treaty i^aWance with King Joachim.*'^ 
If further confirmation of this treaty were wanted, it would be found 
in the Utiequivoca! Iket of the Neapolitan and English troops having 
fought togiether utider King JoBchim*s command against the commoa 
enemy." 5>- 15-^lB.) 

It is subseauently stated, that a yarietj of circumstances 
had eombined to induce the King to doubt of the sincerity 
of the Allies, and the particulars which led to that doubt 
are, we think, satisfactorily explained ; but the reasoning ia 
of little consequence, since the event has shewn that, as his 
assistance became less necessary, they in such proportion 
abandoned him, until finally he was expelled from his 
tbrone. With regard to the extent of the aid that might 
have been expected from Joachim, it is candidly acknow- 
ledged that he would not have co-operated in the purposes 
of &e Allies to the reach of the destruction of the autbori^ 
of Buonaparte, and tbo conquest of his native country* 

** That the Kin^ of Naples was in the result an enemy to Fiance^ 
in theifegfw that heasmttedthemoeemirfthealUei is undeniable ; bat 
it attst in justice be stated, that he was induced to become so in 
eonsequeace of Napoleon's haviiig^expresaed a resolution to dethrone 
him and inca^tporate Naples with the kingdom of Saly. He 'knew 
4bai this design was only snspcoded, not relinquished. It was pro>^ 

Eied> indeed, by !9apoWoD, as an indemnification» to ouike the 
g^his captain^[BBeral, or constable of the empire, a post certainly 
ofigrcfiit Sbonoi;^, JNit inferior to an indcfwndent sovereisnly of one 
of the finest countries of Europe, and which assured royal estahlisb^ 
ments toihis<flhildrtii» already educated under tthatexpectatioB. 
r Wtm fUqg, when linfonaed «f Niqpoleon'a r^uiiQiii bddiy 



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164 The Fall and Death ofMurat. 

avowed in his presence, that he wonid defend his throne by force of 
arms; and he ever afterwards felt that there was no security for hia 
kinj^om, whilst the French maintained dominion in Italy. He 
therefore co-operated with the allies, to confine the empire of Napo- 
leon to the Alpst the Rhine and the Pyrenees, confiding in the pnh 
fetsed policy of Napoleon's father-inrlaw, the Emperor of Austria, 
and in the strong ties by which he was bound to the family of Napo- 
leon, which alone furnished a natural guarantee that the war against 
the power of France would mat be converted hUo apersonal war agaitut 
his daughter, the husband of that daughter^ and his grandson. 

** The King of Naples would never have consented to the de- 
thronement of Napoleon, who had given him his sister in marriage, 
and a sceptre ; he never intended to assist in the conquest of France; 
his native country, and still the country of the former coadjutors of 
his fortunes. On various occasions he expressed the strongest feel- 
ings on these points, so that the allied powers were never deceived 
by him as to the extent of his assistance on which they might calcu- 
late, or the nature of his co-operation.*' (p. 20 — ^22.) 

A chance was yet afforded of conciliation between the 
King of Naples and the Allies, and the expedition of Buo«- 
' naparte to France from Elba, by placing matters in Europe 
in a new position, improved the probabilities. 

. ** The same persons who were anxious to promote the war of 
Austria against King Joachim had recourse to various modes of ex- 
citing him to strike the first blow. I have myself read the dispatches 
to which he alludes in his letter to me, wherein those pretended 
friends assure him that the Austrians were making every preparation 
to attack him, and advising him by all means to be before-hand with 
them, especially as he might be fully assured of the neutrality of 
England, whose interest it never could be to allow Austria the entire 
dominion in Italy. 

" These persuasions induced the king to attack the Atistrians, at 
the very moment, as it afterwards turned out, that the apprehen- 
sions of his union with Napoleon, who had just returned to France 
from Elba, had determined the British cabinet to attend to the invo- 
cations of justice in his favour. Lord Castlereagh had written to 
the Duke of Wellington, who was at that time the plenipotentiary 
of the British court at Vienna, and informed him that in conse- 
quence of the re-appearance of Napoleon at the head of the French 
nation, the British ministers had thought it advisable to unite all the 
force they could collect, and had consequently come to a determi» 
nation immediately to conclude a treat;;^ of alliance with the King of 
Naples. The duke was moreover enjoined to communicate this de- 
termination to the other powers assembled in congress, in which they 
were to be invited by him to join. 

*< Unfortunately the Kmg of Naples could not foresee this unex* 
pected ohaoge in his favour, and in an unlucky hour he made Ibe 



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The Fall and Death ofJUurai. I6i 

mttack on the Aostrians, and drove them from position to position 
as far as the banks of the Po. — ^In vain had the Austrian army at- 
tempted with a superior force to defend the passage of the Panaro, 
they were overthrown by the Neapolitans in a sanguinary conflict 
and driven beyond Reggio. The advanced guard of the centre of 
the Neapolitan army was already at Reggio, that of the right at Re- 
dina and Occhiobeflo; the left, commanded by General Pignatelli 
Strongoli» occupied Florence and extended its advanced posts as far 
as Pistoja, In this state of things the arrival of the king at Milan 
was confidently expected by the inhabitants, as well as by 40,000 
disbanded Italians, who had shared the glory of the French armies 
in innumerable victories, and who most ardently desired to join the 
standard of independence under llie King of Naples." (p. 24 — ^25.) 

The author next relates the termination of the war in 
Ital^, with the reasons which induced him to proceed to 
Paris, in the expectation of serving the cause or the fallen 
King. We have then an account of his instrumentality 
connected with the ne^ociations then depending^ between 
the French and the Allied Armies before Paris, in reeard 
to which, there are many curious and some new particulars, 
but on which so much has been published officially, that we 
do not think it convenient to extract any of them, consider- 
ing the limits to which we are confined. 

Murat was a wanderer and a fugitive, when Prince Met* 
temich presented the author with the following document, 
by which he was empowered to propose an asylum to the 
£x-King, in the name of the Emperor of Austria. 

" * Mr. Macirone is authorised by these presents to inform King 
Joachim, that his Majesty the Emperor of Austria will giant him an 
asylum in his states on the following conditions : — 

*' * 1. The King will take the name of a private person : the Queen 
having adopted that of Countess of Lipona, the same is also pro^ 
posed to the Kiog« 

*' ' 2. The King shall be free to choose for his residence, a town 
either in Bohemia, Moravia, or Upper Austria: and sliould he be 
desirous of fixing himself in a country residence in any of these 
provinces, his wishes will not meet with opposition. 

" * 3. The King will engage his word to his Imperial and Royal 
Majesty, that be will not quit the Austrian states, without the ex* 
press consent of his said Imperial Msyesty ; and that he will live in 
the style of a private individual of distinction, but subject, however* 
to the laws in force in the above states. 

" ' In virtue of which, and that it may have the proper effect, 
the undersigned has been commanded by the Emperor, to sign the 
present declaration. 

*€ 4 ^iy^n at Paris, tbb 1st of Sept. 1815. 

(Signed) " * The Prince Metternich.*' 



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K8 The Fdl aridDiM of MuM. 

The author gives a very ihteraBtiii||f, i^^ough pain« 
fill, accoitnt of the movements of Joachim, as he ran^eil 
about the country, beset on every side with enemies. Mr. 
Macirone, in the sequel, proceeaed to Ajaccio, where be 
met with Murat, and hat! a long interview with him, iq 
order to induce him to accede to tne proposal of the Empe^ 
ror Francis, The £x-Klng'§ objections are thus stated ;-— 

** He replied, that I was come too late, that the die was cast, that 
he had waited nearly three months with the utmost patience, and at 
the constant risk or hb \\^ for the decision of the allies. That it 
appeared evident to him that he had been abandoned by the sove- 
reigns who had so lately courted his alliance, to perish by the re- 
vengeful daggers of his eiaemies, and that he had at length resolved 
to attempt to regain his kingdom. He declared that although h^ 
entertained the greatest confidence in the success of his intended e^ 
pedition for that purpose^ stilt, in one respect, the result was a 
matter of indifference to him, as he should at least have it in his 
power to meet death, which be had so repeatedly faced in the field. 
That the war in which he had been engaged with England and Aus- 
tria, during the course of which he had been obliged to take reftige 
in Corsica, could not remove him from his position as a sovereign 
acknowledged by all Europe. That kings in going to war for terri-> 
tory, do not intend to question their respective titles to the crowns 
they have worn, nor do they cease reciprocally to consider them as 
sacred. That when it happens by the fate of war a monarch is 
driven from hb capital, he has a right to return if he can find the 
means ; that he had signed no abdication." (p. 88 — 89.) 

The circumstances of the fall of Joachim are well known. 
When he was endeavouring to advance to Monteleone^ 
the capital of the Calabrians, be was met by Colonel Tren- 
tacapelli, commanding some troops which he supposed to be 
favourable to his cause, but which turned out to be hostile ; 
* a sharp conflict ensued, and the small party of Murat having 
been overpowered by numbers, he himself, after a gallant 
resistance, was taken prisoner. 

** The intelligence of the event was immediately conveyed by 
telegraph to Naples. The military commander of the district, lately 
placed there by King Ferdinand, received orders by the same ex- 
peditious conveyance to assemble a court-martial to try King Joa- 
chim. The trial was very summai^ : the king received his sentence 
with a smile of contempt and indignation. He wrote a most affec- 
tionate farewell letter to his wife and children, which he earnestly 
begged might be safely delivered. He declared that he thought it 
incumbent upon him to die in the profession of the religion in which 
he had been educated, and requested the assbtance of a clergyman^ 
from whom he received the Eucharist He bad upon his person a 



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The Fall and Death of Mural. 187 

IK>rtrait of his queen and children, which he placed upon his breast; 
and refusing to sit upon a stool which was offered faim, or to have 
his eves coyered, he smiled upon his executioners, and received the 
iatal fire. (p. lO-}— 108). 

Considering this work as a biographical sketch of the 
principles and conduct of Murat, for reasons we have 
already explained in adverting to his deportment at Madrid 
and Vienna, we by no means form the favourable notions 
. that are entertained bjr Mr. Maurone ; and we think that, 
after the disgraceful dereliction of his credit and honour as 
a soldier, imd as a man, at the bridge of the Danube, no 
reliance could be placed upon his assurances. So far we 
justify the hesitation of the allies in giving credence to any 
statement he made of his own designs ; but we do not think 
that when he was already in the field, and was carrying 
their purposes into prompt execution, that the sudden turn 
of affairs at Paris should have induced them to abandon his 
cause, and support the pretensions of his competitor to the 
throne of Naples. Whatever may be the strength of the 
Btshionable argument of legitimacy in favour of the present 
incumbent of the throne, implied if not positive engage- 
meats had been made by Lord Castlereagh to dispense with 
this legitimacy, and it was of great consequence to the sub- 
jects of the Neapolitan sceptre, whether Joachim or Ferdi- 
nand were to be their sovereign, considering the compara- 
tive talents of these rival princes.* 

What should particularly have recommended Murat to 

* Mr. Eostace mentionfl some anecdotes of Ferdinand that ought not to 
be forgotten because he has reascended the throne to which he was raised 
in the eighth year of his age, and which shew the inferiority of his 
mind. ^ Mention being made of the great power of the Turks some 
centuries ago, he (Ferdinand; observed, it was no wonder^ as all the 
world were Turks before the birth of our Saviour." A courtier alluding 
to tlie murder of Louis the Sixteenth, observed, it was the second crime 
of the kind that had stained the annals of Europe. The king asked where 
the first was committed ? The answer was, in England, on the person of, 
Charles the First. '' No, Sir," resumed Ferdinand, ^ it is impossible : 
yon are misinformed, the English are too loyal and brave a people to be 
guilty of such an atrocious crime." He added, ^ depend upon it. Sir, it 
IB a ^e trumped up by the jacobins of Paris to exercise their own guilt 
from the example of so great a nation : it will do very well to deceive 
their own people, but will not, I ho{>e, dupe us." It beins the policy of 
France to iiave a prince of some abilities on the throne of Naples, and 
1H19 would not wholly accommodate himself to the views of Spain, the 
French Minister was instructed to present the young king with the life of 
Henry the Fourth for his perusal. After some time Ferdinand returned 
it, saying to the ambassador, **• There is your book untouched; they don*t 
widi me to read, so I have given it up." 

Crit. Rev. Vol. V. Feb. 1817. Z 



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168 Adams's Life of John ttunler. 

ihe favour of this coimtry^.waB the qoij^iapt Respect fie ri4M 
to British visitors, tb^ uniform attention hejjdirectea/ V> 
British merchants, and the invarieci preference he affbrdUd, 
ia all its ramifications, to British commerce. It is not oiir 

{i^resent purpose to contrast |his conduct d^ td' these particu- 
ars with .the present monarch of Naples, but if it WelfB 
' iyithin our desigb, we should be able to shcfw, that Wch "a 
JDonnexion Was likely to have been fortned withfthe i^hol^i^f 
the Italian peninsula, had Murat retained (he kingdooij^is 
' would have abundantly promoted the trad6 of thi^ countl^, 
and have largely contributed to relieve the' distl^esses which 
have arisen from the suspension of our intercourse with th* 
Mediterranean shores. • '.--^"l 

4bt, ^iU.-T- Memoirs pfthel^ife and Docirinei of (he Mc 

\ John Hunter^ E^q. Founder of the Hmteridn Musettm 

at the Royal College of Surgeons ih Ijdhdoh. By Josi&tu 

Adams, m, D. • ovo.. ppi. 284. London, Callow, 1817. 

At the conx^Iusion of our review of Dr. Adams's works on 
epidemic aind hereditary diseases, we adverted to the teport 
of an intended publication by the saftie author, regarding 
the late John Hunter, in which a refutation was to begiven 
as to some calumnious rois-statements, and the ambiguity 
was to be removed as to some opinions insufficiently ex- 
plained. At the same time we expressed the hope that 
such a design was seriously entertained by the-Doctoc^-be- 
cause we are acquainted with no professional man whaen- 




the purpose nas been accdmplished^ and the motives which 
led to the undertaking the author has explained. . ' .. :[ 

*^ To; render the histpry of any U(e interest]o|,. Ve expect^' |je- 
side» the most serupiilous attentionita truths certain qualities ii|,^he 
'writer, viz. a style flowing and suited to the subject; a sufficient 
. i^UQwledge of the character descrihed» with a^li^l^f interest forhis 
posthumous fame. It is hoped, that mediocrity in the first maybe 
compensated by an undisputed portion of the Utter, 'as it is s^ari^ely 
possible to iiear an incident or a character described* withonti in 
.^ome measure, participating in the feelings of the narrator. 1 

" Such must be the apology for offeiriQg aljfe which has alreldy 

• Vide Critical Review, Serieg V. Vol. IV. page 479. 



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Adams* $ lAfe of John Hunter. 169 

been written by an enemy and by a friend, a relation and disciple ; 
brides having appeared m various compilations of Biographies, Die* 
ttodhties, and Encyetopcedias. Bilt the only one entitled < to any 
^veftit; wiis written at an early period after the v^ter and tfa^ world 
lad sustained so heavy a los^» At such, a time, the relation of many 
^veifts* might appear les^ init)oiftant from their suppo^ notoriety ; 
QCfr was it po^^ihle to calcukte, h^w new and how interesting they 
might p^ove to* the. rising gen^eration. Moreover, there are so many 
f^fors, even in t^e dat^s of Sir Everard Home, as can only be apor 
tpgised for by th^ haste witl^' which' the Memoirs we'r^ put together^ 
ut me ple^d lastly, that a new edition oi Mr. HuntePs gi-ieat w6r!t 
ba$ Appeared, without a repulltieatiou of ^tlii life/' (p. 9-^4.) ^ 

fftTh^folfowing^lMirtidblars WecoUeotfrom the work. Mr. 
Hunter w«is descended from an ancient family, and vfas t|i|B 
youngest of ten^faildren. He was born on the l.'ith Feb« 
1788, at long Calderwood, in Scotland, a sm^ll estate be^ 
Inngrng^'td ^e family.* From the time he was sent, to 
school to* his seventeenth year seems to have been passed, 
as his biographer strongly expresses himself, ^^ without 
any improvement from education r" When h^ was at that 
age be was sent to console hid sister, wjiose husband 
Wa!^ a " (^afpenter, and' who had fallen into some en^bar- 
rassment, and the probability, is, that he assisted in. the 
bCisiriess. -^^ Those who were acquainted with John's 
temper,"' says oor author, " will hardly believe that he 
could keep from the ^lue-pot .wlien orders, were pressing, 
and when the comptetion of them promised the means of re- 
moving diffii^ulties." His effibrts, be they, what they migl|t, 
;were ineffectual, and he returned to Long Calderwood. 
'Here he received a very kind invitation from his brother 
William/ who had settled in London to pursue the study of 
anatomy^ He arrived in that city in 1748, when this bro- 
ther, who was anxious to form some opinion of his, talents, 
gave him an arm to dissect for the muscles, and.tbe perform- 
ance was such as- greatly exceeded expectation. Another 
experiment in the same member, in which al) the arteries 
"Were injected, and these, as well as the ,muscl^8, were ex- 
pbsed and preserved, gave so.' nJuoh satisfactiqn, that confi- 
^dence in Mr. Hunter's snccess was perfectly estHblished in 
Hie mind of his fraternal instructor. 

" The author proceeds to state the opportunities of expe- 
rience Mr. Hunter enjoyed by his attendance at Chelsea 

• It is remarkable, that his birth.4ay is celebrated at the College of Stfr- 
feons on the 14th of February. The register of the parish states the day 
of his birth to be on the ISth of Febmary. < 



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170 Aiams*s Life of John Hunter. 

Hospital^ and the lessons of Mr. Pott, until the year 1755, 
when he was entered a Gentleman Commoner in St. Marj'a 
Hall, Oxford. It seems to be very doubtful what was the 
object of placing a person so unprepared for the studies of 
a university at. this learned establishment; but it mighl 
have been the intention of his brother that he should be 
matriculated at this institution, with the view to his becom- 
ing a Fellow of the London College. It maybe considered 
fortunate for himself and for mankind^ whatever may have 
been the design in placing him in such a situation, in 
the following year that purpose was abandoned, and he was 
introduced as Surgeon's Pupil to St. George's Hospital. In 
1755 Dr. Hunter admitted his brother into a partnership in 
his lectures, and a certain portion of the course being allot- 
ted to him, we see him arrived at a period when his disco- 
veries became of importance. He now began to study 
comparative anatomy with great ardour, and at this early 

Seriod he was most eager to acquire every rare animal, 
e might trace and apply its peculiarities. 
In October, 1760, Mr. Adair, Inspector of Hospitals^ 
appointed him Surgeon on the Staff, an^ in the Spring of 
1761, he embarked with the array for Bellisle. To this 
fortunate event we owe many improvements in military sur- 
gery which had not before his time been reduced to a 
science, nor accommodated to any national system. He 
remained with the army until 1763, and the knowledge he 
there obtained on the subject of gun-shot wounds, is the 
theme of gratulation with every practitioner. In this em- 
ployment he was competent to remove certain phisiological 
doubts. •* The number of subjects," says our author, "re- 
cently killed, and in previous high health, enabled him to 
trace the healthy structure of every part, and the secretions 
of some with peculiar accuracy." 

After the peace in 1763, Mr. Hunter, settling in London, 
resumed witn unabated zeal bis enquiries into comparative 
anatomy, and acquired all that was necessary to give his 
talents and industry their full scope. Having been elected 
Fellow of the Royal Society soon after his return, he gained 
the earliest knowledge of every pathological transaction 
throughout Europe, and having been elected to an hospital, 
he had not only the means of introducing, but of inculcat- 
ing on others, all his practical improvements^ and of con- 
firming his pathological doctrines. 

About the time of his marriage, Mr. Hunter became an ' 
author : in the year 1771 was published the jfirst p^rt of bis 



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Adams's Life of John Hunter. ^ 171 

Treatise on the Teeth. In 177 She became a public lecturer, 
and he assigned as the reason for it, that he was frequently 
hearing his opinions^ either incorrectly quoted, or delivered 
as the discoveries of others; so that he found it absolutely 
necessary that he him3elf should systematically explain 
them. His situation was then materially changed. 

'* Having now a settled mode of life, fair prospects, and a daily 
increasing reputation, Mr. Hunter indulged to the utmost his favou- 
rite pursuits. These were Physiology, more particularly as connected 
with Pathology. Inflammation, whenever it occurred, he perceived 
to be the most common cause of organic lesion. He therefore traced 
the progress of it in parts, according to the difference of their struc^ 
ture, situation, or functions. In doing this, he soon discovered the 
importance of the blood ; and that, to detect the share it has in 
health, in disease, after accident, and under violence, bis business 
should be to observe, not how he could distort it by fire or other 
chemidal agents ; not the mechanical figure of its various constituent 
parts, imder the uncertain inspection of the microscope ; but, the 
form it assumes in health, in its natural situation, in or out of its 
vessels, in and out of the body, and its changes, according to the 
condition of the whole animal, or of individual parts. All this was 
so new to the most able piractitioners then living, that we can scarcely 
wonder if, when his opinions were retailed, with mutilations or ad- 
ditions, he should share the fate of Democritus, who was considered 
by the uninformed as a madman, but by the greatest physiologist of 
the age as the wisest man in Abdera.*' (p. 83 — 84.) 

About 1776, Dr. Cogan had first introduced from Holland 
the subject which l\as so usefully occupied the Humane 
Society. Before the Royal Society, in that year, Mr. 
Hunter exhibited a paper which is the foundation of evei^ 
thing rational on that interesting inquiry ; and here, our 
author observes, a distinction was first made between ab- 
solute death and the suspension of the functions by which 
life is supported. 

In the same year Mr. Hunter was appointed surgeon- 
extraordinary to his Majesty, and in 1778 he published the 
second part of his Treatise on the Teeth. Five years after* 
wards bis reputation Was so generally established, that he 
was chosen into the Royal Society of Medicine, and the 
Royal Academy of Surgery in Paris. 

The author having given a biographical account of this 
eminent professor to the period we have noticed, next sup" 
plies a statement of the difierences which arose between 
Dr. Hunter and his brother, and he concludes with the 
complaints and decease of the latter. For the last twenty 



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172 Adams's Life of John Hunter. 

▼ears of his life be suffered under the angina pectoris, and 
bfisrsituation fbroQs pae. o^ thpnmost Qoinpl|^te histories of 
tiiat disease, upon record. His dpath w.a$,:^uclde^ and un- 
expected. In the 56th.jear.of hijs age^ oji the 16th of Oc- 
tober, 1793, when he was in hi^insual statc^ of health, h^ 
went to St, Geor^e<s Hospital^ wh^re meeting with pome 
things which irritated hisf mind, and not being perfectly 
master of the circumstances, he withheld his sentiments ; 
in which state of restraint he withdrew into the next room, 
and turning round to Dr. Robinson, one of the physicians 
of the hospital^ he gave a deep groan, and dropped down 
lifeless, 

'••Mr^ Hunter was the first man who examined the recipro- 
cal sjmpatbies'of tt^: several organs pf the hupa^n frame, 
acnd^xplainedi the simple causes, in which the most complex 
disorders onginate; His prudence .as much ^s , his inge.- 
iiuity shewed bis superior miad; for, withii^ the fc^ctft. re- 
lating to sympathy tnat he had accumulated^ be reluctantly 
ibrmed any general conclusions, lie took the jead in points 
ing out m a physiological and ' satisfactory manner, the 
diseased processes, " the formation of abscesses, the secre- 
tion of pus, the intersticisLl and other growths ; the causes 
and circumstances of mortification." Baron Haller, it is 
,«aid, declared. Jt to. be bis opinion, that ^^ living actions 
have a great share jn /causing the peculiarity of secretions, 
.and the changes we observe in them ; but the direct proof 
of thi^ feet remained to be exhibited to the public by Mr. 
I|ijmteh it was by observing theipeculiarityof the local 
actions, and consequent secret iotis resulting from tbcj appli- 
cation of different morbrfic p6isons, that. this subject w^s 
placed in a dear aiid direct point of view.V I ,,1,2 

it has been justly ' observed, that Mr. H unter's sentiments 
respecting life aj^e necessary to the explanatwn of. bis 
notions of disease; and that the vital functions. have bee^n 
by him sof far illuminated, that both in health aad disease 
they are pourtrayed with a^distihctness and aocuraoy highly 
'<ireditable to his penetration. In shorty he is adaiittied^>bg^ 
the new facts; and opinions he adddd to the stock .of pvofiw- 
^ional knowledge, to be thfe cause of a great and'^important 
revolution in medical science; and the publicuar#. greatly 
indebted to Dr. Adams, Mt. Abernethy,i.and otherS;<of his 
iii6re' persevering, intell%ent^iand successful pupils, who 
have unfolded his doctrinesy and who ini doing -so, have 
pointed out ; the hberrations into - whicht ^ his less. Jo- 
^tmcted admirers have uhiiitetttionaUy deviated.! Und^r 



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The Padof^s Fireside. ITS 

these iirtproved drcumstaiices, no prbfes^rwitt be iDvolred 
Sn the uncertainty expressed by a learned writer as to the in>- 
medfate branch of study to which Mr. Hunter devoted fata 
extraordinary talents: — '* In cfairurgicis nescio qaomods. 
factum est, ut vix unqu&ni perinde, ut in alits medtciaaB 
partibusy inagnus aliquis vir eminuerit, qui late posteros 
^sequaces habuerit."* 



Art. IX.— Tiic Pastor*s Fireside^ a Novell in Four Fo' 
lumes. ^By Miss Janb Po-rveB) Author of Thaddeut 
^f Warsaw^ Sfc. ISmo. London, Longman and Co. 

^ 181T. . . , .. . , 

. Jt is ifp much the custom to esteem lightly works ot fliis 

. kindj as if, eveh if^ the compositiod and con'structton ofthe 

best, little talent was concerned'; but when we consider 

vhow many impprtant requisites there are iii a good nov^l, 

. wp shall be mpre inclined \,o wonder that attempts in thkt 

way should so often be successful. ' Wo arb in ihef h^btt of 

Joqkin^ up to .the writer of an apj)r6yed play, n&oire espe- 

.cj'ally if it' be' a tragedy, as 'a man of genius, 'whose a\:- 

• qus^intance is to be courted ; but the author ^^a good QoV^l 

seei]^ ratlieff an object of cc^mpassioti'in sodiety, since it is 

. concluded, that very little ingenuity sufficed for his purpose, 

.J and that he v^rpte on 'the sput* of the tnbment to relieire 

.temporary necessities. 'The fact is;, that in consequents of 

^jtheJTrequent failures by persond totally incompetent, who 

, Jiave, ijndertakeh to write novels as k means of dubsisten^, 

.; t|^is department ..of literature has of late fallen into nanfe* 

, .rited pWoqijy^ and but for the' excellent prbductions df ftfiss 

-. . Edg^wortn, the Miss, Porters, jbluA the author of WaverWy, 

.^ novels would have had but few I'eadets among the better 

inrormed classes of the community. Yetthis' generdlcon- 

v;dejpnation would l^ave been uK^st Unikir, since, if We 

me-rejyVeflect upon the. invention and ingenuity re^uiredfin 

the formation of the fab(e of a >vork exteiiding to three or 

. fo;iju:^voluqaes, independently" 6f ahy skifl iii thte ex:6Cutron 

m^d m ti|e opposiUoo of the' chc^facters, we shall find that 

<fjvep the worst deserves considerable respect!' '^ *''^ 

.,. , N.ovels. in their present shape dre cPmparatively'of iho- 

r.demdate,' though they gi-ow but df^ krrd are impit^vemehts 

f , upon what were termed hen)icari*oman^8, which, howeier 

-famous in theif ti^^,.to. readers qf the, present day would 

• Bibliptheca Chiroi^ca, Init, torn, tit 



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174 The Pastor's Fire-side. 

appear of the most tedious wire-drawn prolixity, in the &te 
of whose heroes and heroines no interest would have been 
excited, but for the extraordinary and fearful nature of the 
adventures in which they were engaged. The long ha- 
rangues and heavy soliloquies of those moralizing perso- 
nages, have, however, now been omitted, and in general 
the characters are chosen from among persons in whose 
happiness or sorrow all can sympathize, and the scenes are 
laid in situations, the relations of which all can understand 
and enjoy. 

The principal fault of the novel before us is, that the 
author has not judiciously chosen the scenes where the prin- 
cipal actions are laid, nor the personages chiefly engaged 
in those actions. The title, it is true, is " The Pastor^s 
Fire Side/' and by those who first take up the volumes, it 
would be supposed that they treat of the simplicity, the 
tranquillity, and the domestic comforts of the circle of a 
country clergyman; but far otherwise; at least three of 
the four volumes refer merely to transactions at the Courts 
of Germany and Spain, and the personages, instead of con- 
sisting of the family and friends of the Pastor, are empe- 
rors. Kings, queens, ambassadors, and ministers of state : 
with such characters as these, the reader can have but feW 
feelings in common ; in their successes or defeats, be can 
take but little interest, and though his curiosity may be 
gratified by a supposed insight into the proceedings of these 
magnificent individuals, it is soon satiated, and he conti-^ 
nues to read of their factious disputes and their secret in- 
trigues with almost as little interest, as he would peruse 
the unnatural incidents in the heroical romances to which 
we have above referred. This is an error in the very con- 
struction of the plot, and with a very slight exception it 
runs nearly through the whole work; ana though Miss 
Porter, even in spite of these difficulties, contrives some- 
times powerfully to engage our sympathies ^and excite our 
feelings, yet her talents for this reason have always to en- 
counter many additional obstacles. 

^ Although a good novel consists both of character and in- 
cident, yet it generally happens, that both these requisites 
are not combined in the same work, and that aii author 
who has a talent for drawing characters, will not also pos- 
sess^ the power of employing them in combined and inte- 
resting situations: on the oUier hand, some writers feel 
their principal strength in the invention and developement 
of a mble^ and bestow comparatively little aittention upoa 



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The Pastor's Fireside. 175 

the peYBonages who are engaged in it, trusting principally 
tp the curiosity excited hy the story they have invented. 
Among the latter, we think Miss rorter is to be ranked, 
more especiallj in the production before us, for though 
some of the individuals are marked with sufficient force, 
and are clearly distinguishable from each other in their 
motives and passions, vet they are only distinguishable by 
strong shadowing and hard lines, and not by any of the 
nicer gradations and finer traits, which give an irresistible 
life and charm to the productions of some of our best writers 
in this department. Our readers will find what we have 
said illustrated, when we speak of the story of the novels 
to which we shall now proceed. 

The hero of the ^^ Pastor's Fire-side'' is Louis de Mon- 
temar,the only son of the Duke de Ripperda, whose father, 
in consequence of some dispute with the government, had 
emigrated from Spain to Holland, and had obtained high 
employments in the United Provinces. The father dyiu^, 
the son, the present Duke de Kippcrda, succeeded to his 
estates and influence in the Dutch councils, and married 
the niece of the Rev. Richard Athelstone (the Pastor from 
whom the work derives its title), who, a widower and child- 
less, resided at Lindisfarne, with another niece Mrs. Con- 
ningsby, who had two daughters, Cornelia and Alice. The 
issue of the marriage between the Duke de Ripperda and the 
niece of the Rev. Richard Athelstone, was Louis de Mon- 
temar, his mother expiring soon after his birth. The Duke 
de Ripperda entrusted the education of his son to the Pas- 
tor, and soon afterwards was recalled to Spain, and being 
restored to his titles, guided the councils of his sovereign, 
although not nominal^ at the head of his cabinet. The 
novel opens in the year 1725, when Louis was nearly ar* 
rived at manhood, and when the daughters of Mrs. Co- 
iitngsby were also approaching maturity. There is consi- 
derable complication of relationships between the Rev. 
Mr. Athelstone and Sir Hedworth Athelstone, who had 
resided at Bamborough Castle, and who at the time when 
the action commences was dead, and had left his son Sir 
Anthony, nephew to the P&stor, in possession of his very 
extensive property. -'^ 

Louis is on a visit to Sir Anthony, when the Paste's 
fire-side at Lindisfarne, consisting of himself, Mrs. Co- 
ningsby, and her daughters Cornelia and Alice, is disturbed 
by the arrival of two Spaniards, the Marquis Santa Cruz, 
and his son Ferdinand, who brought letters of introdaction 

Crit. Rev. Vol. V. Feb. 1817. 2 A 

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19S !ZiA« JPdiM-'i JRn^nVIrk 

of tlitt' tm> sitftens^ an thi§ octe^i^nv A^ M€ iMihMfireMAgv 
ibeiigH it will i^emiiKf o^ i^esKfot^ of & tfftMPe MMnltl^ 
sinoilar iiv thd tteclos^ <ft Netiimi^, by Mi^ Aim# Mtfrtw 
Porttjr. 

'* The sisters bad withdrawn tlieir chairs far fVom the fii»rSide 
circle, and were plying their needles with indefatigable ditig^ce. 
Cornelia'^ raven hair was braided bacft from her polished bro^,, aucT. 
confined in a knot with a golrf bodUin. TJSe majestic codtour of fter 
f&iaftures suited weW with het f^om^ir name ; dnd tfiie dtoplfdty itt 
thef pitim whit« garrmenf in whieA^ she w^sr arrat^d, hafflMnne^ ^ttx 
thtt modest dignity of tt figifr^i wMcfr prddttittied ifteftty fnott** 
ment that tlie nobility of the soul iie«#»ia^Mleignoi1linb«tf4^F Ai 
bet Ait hand^ tr^^rsed titie ensbrtiiivry fbobtf^ teiidittMd furtfed 
from these M^ btismties^. lb tb^gnMeAMm^ xfimm •baffte, if «f 
a^fedblerv w«re of a subtktforod. Hiof he«d^ tmhiclrBifMrediafaniil 
Tgthef often^ than, ber sisfker's^ i» s«arob i4 s^, ichmm, andp 
BttedleSy gav^ free scope to the ooifteaiplatioii of the ^ouof^ SpwiaricU 
she appeared several years youn^^r. thaa Cornelia. Her form wa« 
fairy in its proportions; sli^)t>,airy, and apparenllHnipalpable ta 
aught but the totich of a syl^^i. Her azure eye^ gjanemg around 
for what she sought^ shone so lucidly bright fcom under her flaxen 
locks, that F^rdin^nd thought b^ had ne^er seen ^y€$ so beautffut ; 
• Never/ said he to biittseff, ' so divmely itanoecnt ; never so hrre- 
sistibly.exftiteratiiig/'' (p. 16^W; tdf. h> 

The last exdamation wifi diiffioi«nfly prepitte the' seadefi 
to expect that Fet^dittand (wbeee fi^hOF M^ai pt'oud aiid rig^ 
Catfetolio} should &U in love vfiA Alfee i the affieGtioii: is> taut»* 
tual^ and before the imo Spaniards q^uk tbe Pastor^s fire<« 
side^ he declares llis passiofi^ which sh^ lehidtantly fiai^ 
sentB to ceitceal fiiltil events dhoiil J eaable him to reliMii 
firom Spain^ vrhither he was saniiikoiied^ Before the de^ 

ELrture^ however, of the Mar^ii Santa Cru& and kis sa«^ 
GUIS returns firom BtitmborougV to LiadisliEivne^ hjf sWiiBr 
ininjl on hprse-baek tbo Barrow eva diat flows Detwee%. 
havkig escaped frooi' (be ga^, Dlike 6f Whavteity w\k6i ail^ 
rived an tmexpeeted gaesi with Sir A»theii^ Athetstlite^ 
and against ODntinuinl; ia whofiie daiigero^ secietj tW good 
Pastor had warned his- tiepbeW^ add had ev^n extorted a 
promise. Louis, however, could perceive nothing fo* be 
drsaded inthe fraek and apparendjr^ generous Duke, who 
hadassidiiottdy sought hid feiendshipt, and towards wfaoia 
the heart of Louisr feU a secret and imitentifoiilable jemnioff^ 
The Duke is flrinlj attadied to the cause of the hanisbed 
^tuarts^ and he le tefnesented by Ali$s Peitter^ aiidf^hk* 



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ifiry Jpc9r4s Uiu» w ngr aii(l ewy w4M0.dra3u€«^«Hi'» wuning 

n J l ft t iH tfit in bis pewwsifm^ iiaoA wjitiMiJ, ^jjiyinmAvfi^^ 
Mid jntrigMiDg. hom^ IwwevQCi oiii^r «aw bk ismgftmg 
ifnnXkkfjy ^iMmMkatomiiia^ «« aileupt to dsednce Inm mn 
iiiaioyaky ; and one ooqwdnqvUe ifiiiut of Ifaeitory is, ^tiuA 
m^ung man Hke the liero, of aAmimble education und ex- 
cc^ent nntufflfl 'endownients, sboiiM thus be imposed npoA 

Sr the artifices of the Duke of Wharton, .in opposition to 
e advice of vAl fris^ends, and to the known reputation 
of the Duke, ^iis^ Porter's excjuse, Ixowevc^r^ is, that th^ 
jnature of her plot required that it should be .sq. 

XiQiiMs, ixk ti^ Aeelusion of Lindis&rne, Jhad often .e;c- 
MasMd hh Mxi/sty iQ Join in the scenes of life Hinder hi^ 
Jkther at the aawtv^f Spain : the longs for honourable 4k^ 
•tfictiaa, ^aad # fer faM>nlkhs atW ithe defiarture ^f the Mar^- 
ifittB fiuila 'Omz aad OReffdiaand, a courier amaes wildi 
aetlen*finana«liiel3Ae de vRq^pecda, retfuiring'Aatiiisson 
aboold m iei i d 4he ^aessenger to Vienna, fpihere be wotfld 
^pot -to Ae test bis abilities and ambition. Th^ -reach »tfhe 
AustTian eapital in the depth of winter; but instead of 
meeting Vis 'fether and eirjojing any of the saj scenes ctf 
fmmwoBi^ Louis die tjlotitannr itnds himselt icoave))/^ to 
W fM ^eiaeited mansioa «n tibe aubarhs : the circnai^laaaai? 
<fitlefldi«gbisairi}»aal areHUhws daiaiied? 

** The anan mouirt^ the steps of a huge bUck buildiog, suffi- 
ciently capacitms for fi petace, hot gloomy ^nou^to heaiprison. 
iioois Mlewed his conductof and fbe ntraibeaa-bearer across a 
large ooid ^M\, ap a wide-paiated stair-^nise, inil^lewed and crasyy 
andHiaaugh a long atfhokig gallery into a «sakM« whose distant ex- 
JKinilii I, ^ke (the oater cottft, weie lost in deep shadow. A fMiir 
af waa 'UgUta* ^9m§ m the wind» staod upen a great chiw4abfe 
wkoftt ^Qaqe;|^ded Mir^Noe iias fciiewned by time and negl«ct lititle 
jaoae ^mKim^'W visible ^haa^a «aaple ^^f chairs of similar &hirick, 
.two ar thfise, mgaatic ^aer-^gbasaat inflecting .the persons in the 
apartaHent in '^^osit4ihe ohacuiityy :^ a bvpaiftr of n^w^Jkindtal 
Ael, .^iM^gxpishly ^liauaering on stbe hearth. 

<* Whoa Louis entered the saloon, laqd so jGir took possession 
afi^. disaial bospitdity, as to lay his bat and. swocd upon the table ; 
tiastanos csdled to the ^ttteudant hy the name of Gerard^ and whis- 
'pering to him 'Aey ^dthdiew tqgether. lioais sat for some time» 
«qieeting the fferea^mce af the Spaniard, but no one appeared. 
.lie leakcid at Ins watch: it wasaevleiiaV^lock. From the hour, 
4tt.sappoaed:tfie laestuni ascadaiy was ataying awav in hit usual 
tiane ot aiamifiMstManK kis/Siqppar ; and tint jae waidd .pvi8ca% ae- 



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178 The Pastor's Ftre-side. 

^' Louis sat composedly ten minutes afler ten minutes, but at last 
his impatience to know why he was brought to so deserted an 
abode, and who he was to see, got the better of bis determimitioii 
to quietly await events, and he rose to ring the bell. He took 
one . of the candies to seek for this indispensible piece of furniture, 
but in so comer of the grim-visaged tapestry could he find even its 
remainSf He opened the door, and called Castanos. No voice 
made answer, but the dull vibration of his own from the numerous 
vacant apartments. With the candle in his hand he retraced his 
' way to the great hall, still calling on Castanos, and then on Gerard, 
and with as little success. 

". Determined to find somebody, he turned down a paved passage 
to the quarter that seemed to lead to the offices. Not a living 
creature presented itself, and all doors which appeared likely to 
open to the air were padlocked, and therefore resisted his attempts 
to force them. He returned to the hall to examine the great door, 
and found it unbolted, but locked, and the key taken away. He 
now comprehended that Castanos, and the only apparent inmate of 
the house, had left the place, that he was alone, and fastened in ; 
but for what purpose he was thus betrayed into solitary confine* 
ment, time only could shew. To quell the vague alarm that rose 
in his breast, he had again to recollect he was brought into these 
circumstances by his father's orders." (p. 281 — 285, vol. i.) 

Here Louis, after waiting a long time in eager suspense^ 
receives a letter from bis father, the Duke de Ripperda, in 
which he is directed to pay implicit obedience to the Sieur 
Ignatius^ who soon appears, of a commanding stature, 
wrapped in a cloak, and with a large hat flapped over his 
brows. It afterwards turns out, that this mysterious indi- 
vidual is a secret emissary from the Court of Madrid to that 
of Vienna, and that his business is through the influence of 
the Empress to reconcile long existing enmities, and to 
forward a marriage between Maria Theresa and Don Car^ 
tos of Spain. Louis is disciplined for some months in cp^ 
pying long dispatches in cyphers, which he did not under- 
stand, and where the least error might have been fatal to 
the whole negociation : his health^ sufiers in conse<|uenc4b 
of the confinement, and his severe task-master, Ignatius, at 
length allows him to take the air by walking on the 8hore9 
of the frozen Danube. Here he is recognized by the Duke 
of Wharton, who was then engaged in intrigues in an 
opposite interest, and who discovers the purpose of Louis's 
visit to Vienna. In the course of the secret correspondence 
carried on by Ignatius and the empress, an attempt ismade 
to assassinate the former, and he is so dangerously wounded 
that Louis is obliged to conduct the complicated traosad- 



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Tke Pastor's Fire-side. 179 

tioiis under the directionir of bis instructor. De Montemar, 
in consequence, is introduced to the empress under the 
name of the Chevalier Phaffenburg, and he foils in lo?e 
with a favourite of her majesty, the Countess Altheim, 
Mrho receives his advances, not from any return of passion, 
but because she is aware of the illustrious house to which 
Louis is heir : though extremely beautiful, she is artful, in- 
triguing, and ambitious, beyond tho ordinary limits of her 
sex. The important business in which Ignatius and Louis 
are engaged is favourably terminated, and the latter is in- 
formed, that on the following day his father will enter 
Vienna as ambassador from the Court of Spain. The Duke 
de Ripperda arrives, and Louis to his astonishment finds, 
that he and the Sieur Ignatius are the same person, the 
Duke having found it prudent to carry on his neffociation 
in the disguise of a Jesuit, without disclosing the secret 
even to his son. Every object is now attained, Ripperda 
is almost idolized by his own country, which through his 
exertions had attained most important advantages, and 
foreign powers reverence his genius and envy his success. 
His son, Louis de Montemar, is nominated Secretary of 
Legation. 

Sefore this consummation, Louis had several times' seen 
the Duke of Wharton, but still unsuspicious of ill, though 
the Duke was endeavouring to undermine him, his heart 
had secretly drawn towards him, and their friendship would 
have been renewed but for the peremptory commands of 
Ignatius. 

The Countess Altheim, otherwise called the beautiful 
Otteline, seconded by the empress, now uses all her in- 
fluence to hasten the marriage with Louis, who is almost 
irrretrievably entangled in the complicated nets she had 
spread. The eyes of De Montemar are, however, now 
opened to her real character, and events most disastrous in 
their other consequences, at least relieved him from this em- 
barrasment. The tide of the Duke de Ripperda^s prosperity 
has now reached its height, and it begins rapidl^tto decline 
towards its ebb. He is recalled on some capricious change 
of policy in the Court of Spain, and disgraced in the eyes 
of his country and the worla : he is even cast into prison on 
a supposed charge of treason, and is about to be immured 
in- the dungeons of the Inquisition, when he makes his 
escape by the assistance of a foithful servant. Louis, who 
had been left for a short time chargi d^affmres at Vienna, 
soon follows his fiither to Spain, and learns with astonish^ 



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jDOBt llw iadiffnityand (cruelty mstili ^ifih the ^ 

iieoefiEuslor of *« ceMiitrjr Imd loseii 4reated, tte^edia hk 
Artber ia Us 'ooofiaeamit (imd iHicfe bimiAowBy aod in dug 
inra is oidered >t# he aeauvedy thMgfc te is afterfnuib 
jieleased thitoug^ the mfl«eiiQe of Abe i^neao an the reyrep- 
•eDtatkiD €f Ihe illarqviB Satfta iCn». 

In the neaatiaie thedltthe, Me&lhir, hud ifdieB nefiige 
«niaiig4teMt»Qns*OB4he coirat'«f Afrkm, mkI «tfairating for 
revenge, iie mm jiboiit 4o chases Us rfattih fcr Ihait of the 
MAhonetan, ifhen lieais dtacovers his .netreat, and ^Ae 
Didce rdfuctandy -consemts to «ae biai, suapectiag in the 
«wdiiemofbt8'rage, Ihat^vtea bisacmbad foinedliis eae- 
jnies. l%e subMquent is la iDiQvt ;spef>tmctt af 4to iater* 
www ilHt Ipak place. 

-^ ft 1WBS a cold wekone ; 'brit fioois fboa^itfiot 'efthe ivarfs^ 
«iDee the fmaksnim >was «graHt«4. He ^avteaed Jth»>ag i i 4be at«ad«s» 
4a a lai|ge'C«vlaBiedl><loor.p-*^MartiQi drew k>hfick, aad Jjouw^hih^li 
tbe ^fanwaMd afajcct af hb iopgmd Mialtpiigriaiigfi. The duhe 
mm fitiBiiing laitfa hbhaohilahini, tasdaiga aavall of <p9i|pAr. N*- 
Miiagitbat mbb aat pwdy ithe aon, was tbea ja his labawnogbeiwts 
aad hif^apss .ad^waoin^ to thr<ow binseiyf at his fiilhar^ fse^ iwhea 
Martini spoke : — 

*' VM^Lotd! Xlie Marquis de Montemv.* 

'< Biipp«rda turned bis bead. 

** * utt bim wait my leisure/ jand^ looking on tbe papier 3gaii^ 
sternly resumed his reading. 

"** ,Loais Stood.— ^The face rf deadly psheness, the eye^s fitffl 
Hash, tnid Ibe ileep emaciated fines, finro^ed ViCh every* trace d( 
the burning volcano within, filled him with a dismay, «ven «iai% 
lerr JMe Iban the €eroe^stfangsmcftt this vaoefitioa aaoMioced. >But 
-it was4>nly far a nMuaent tiui; ]faisasiounie|l laoaltieB wcae itsBH»- 
SoDod hv the «diveful apprehension. JAe iwas ijas^Mher siiUt; Ms 
liable, lajared, aaffadiig 4atb€r ! ^d» Tashjog ^tmmi^ ^ Aaig 
hmelf ilia jUb knees he£M2e.bi«|» and covered Jiis £u;ein hisrcohe; 
for 4heihiaid.^be4Ksysld have. grawedM(S»J«iitbbel^ .. 

'' R^esdaVs ihceasl was liv;ked. 

•*• 'lillUiat,tsityQuaaquireafiaeT ^said h^ *Th€ mimou of two 
igufiens .must have ^me reasop for beodii^ thus low, to the man the 
one has dishonoured, and Che other betrayed 1' 

'*< Louis looked up in that imjdacable countenance : be attempteA 
to speaik, bat no soond obeyed, tte straggled for bis flfthei's Mntf, 
ancrwrmffi tt to his heart. 'Ripperda ^tood cold aad .cflfRei^ted. 

" 'iPhat would igtm -yet •seek ^ aiel I lis«« aolsngsrlhaiak 
nor liehes, nar power4o hestaw. Tbeae weae jroar idoki Denyat 
«at1 They wem ^ajanvo! I foand Unir *fisad asfaeai But the 
ohwMightthatimwMd my Used to powNb ws Iheidaseiiisikof pjr 



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nt Poser's Fire^iA. 1«^1 

«* • Ii((ttr me, 111]!! lather r rt la8^fcunlfroi»tiielip»o€de]lf&»- 
teMaf^as 1m ekingiawwid tliatattgiwt„biit fc«put frame* No wanatli 
glwmei thue^ but the gloomy flame' ai vengeanca; no cespopsive 
tiifoe whispeted tbece, tfaat symgntk^ and forgiveness weie witkuk 
l^e very stilloesa witb wbich he sufiered» without vetuniiug or re-> 
proving this agonized embrace^ smote his sot the more s&retelj to 
the soul. Yet he thought he saw more resentment, than the object 
of his lately conceived appreheasiou, in Che stem calmness of hi9 
father; and hoping to prevail by reason, where reason yet reigned^ 
m^ atlei» agptatad voice,, he relocated* 

** * Hear me, and then condemn me ! or befieve me, and acq^ 
me,, before the tribunal of heavea and your <i«n justice V 

" Eipperda, with the same uamaved air„ replied; 

** ' Sf«ak what you have to say ; I will attend/ 

** He pcMttted to s sofa, for Louift to sit. He obeyod ; and bis^ 
lather »t oj^posite to hiim folded m his nuuUie. Mis eyea were 
bcDt t» ibe floor, except, when he occasionally taimed theai in- deep 
sayiftion upon the earnest aasrator. Sot o«e oral semask escaped 
hioi) tiU tb& ooonuinieation waa brought to an and. He then 
looked u|p^ and slowly pNOMinaed:. 

** \ Tia well ;. and the, tale is macvelloualy told: but i have no 
canneetion- with^ iti^ truth, on falsehood.' (p. 4a — ^ vol. iv.) 

Tbmrgb Lotris Is eragotvered by tbe govemmeni ofSpam 
to make tWrms with, his indignant parent, bL» efEbrts are 
iaeSectiialCo induce bimto forsake the course of his bloody 
and desperate revengie: the Duke de RIpperda takes the 
oaths of a ilusaoloiaiiy and ia placed iiy the Eoopecor 
o£ MovooQCh al the bead ^ a ^rge wtmy^ with whioh, 
after mahi g kig aofna of the bavharaiia stateS) be besk^ea 
.Geuta^.tben io Ibe baada^ef a S^oaiab garrisd^ comnuui^Mt 
\» %\lb Nbmpm 8tfitla Cna aad hia seat Ferdttaand: 
tMre arttKi f9 ftaml I>o<ris de Moatcfmar, wIm^ in the cKa^ 
g||H«9eof a MeortsH 9tave, enters YAs fkther^^ tent ni aiid^ 
itr^bt, Und once merer with tearrs and prayers earborta bioi 
tor lay down hid drtnd and bis infidelity. He pleads in variir, 
Ceuta is assaoltied, Ripperda mounts a breach, and just aa 
he is about to be cut aowa by two Biscayans, Louis inter- 
pbaes, and by receiving the wounds himself saves the life 
of his father : Ferdinand is also severely hurt^ but neither 
mortaUy ; and they are attended in their sufferings byt the 
Marebimess Santa Ci^na and her lovely dau^bter Man:eUa, 
wlie had been dastined fiar a nunnery. Louts became* unr* 
cemNriaudkf emiawaiifed of kis beanliftiL and benevoleni 
attendant. Before they are perfbc^ reootrered, a getiatal 
etf^fat^ilM^ tttbea pl^ce betw^ea the M^ors under Ripperdk^ 
and tne Spamardd undet Simfa Cms; iHken the fbrwer ie 



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182 i%e Pastor's Fireside. 

totally defeated, and flieS) desperately wbunded, to*Tettlaii« 
Here again he. is visited by Louis, wlio dares all extreinitiM, 
in the garb of a charitable brother of the order of St. 
Philip : he learns that his father is dying in the agonies of 
despair ; and his purpose is to endeavour to re-convei*t him 
to Christianity, that he mifi^ht participate in. its hopes. A 
part of the interesting dialogue on this dreadful occasion, 
is the following : — ; ♦ , 

** * Yes, my father*' gently rejoined Louis, ' there is rest in the 
grave when— 

*' ' Silence !' interrupted the Duke, all his former haughtiness 
confirming his voice and manner : ' Is it you that would cajole rea- 
son with sophistry 1 That would give up your unsullied truth at 
last) to insult your father by preaching an annihilation you know to 
be a falsehood? I know a different lesson* A man cannot rid him- 
self of bodily pangs by moving from place to place. How then shall 
the torments of the spirit be extinguished; by so Small a change as 
being in or out of this loathed prison of flesh f > When my soul, my 
own and proper self, when it is freed by death from the fetters of the 
passions which have undone me ; then I shall think even more in- 
tensely than I do now. I shall remember more than I do now. I 
shall see the naked springs, the undisgubed consequences of all my 
aptions. They will burn in my eyes for evier. For such, I feel, is 
the eternal book of accusation prepared for the immortal spirit that 
has transgressed beyond the hope of pardon, or the power of peace ! 
Louis/ added he, grasping his arm, and looking him sternly in the 
face ; * has not your Pastor -U^de taught you the same V 

' ^' ' Yes; and mgre,' replied his son. * He has tatight me, that 
it is impossible for the finite faculties of man to comprehend the in- 
finite attributes of God; — how he reconciles justice with mercy, in 
the mystery of the redemption, and renews the corrupted nature of 
man by the regeneration of repentance ! Recal the promises of the 
Scriptures, my father; and there you will find, that He who washed 
David from blood-guiltiness, and blotted out the idolatry of Solo- 
mon; that He who pardoned Cephas for denying Him in the hour 
of trial, and satisfied the perverse infidelity of Thomas ; th^t He 
who forgave Saul his persecutions, and made him the ablest apostle 
of his church ; nay, that He who has been the propitiation of man, 
from the fall of Adam to the present hour,— wills not the death of a 
sinner, but calls him to repentance and to life ?' 

« * But what,' returned the Duke, * if I know nothing of these 
things? You start ! But it is true. The Scriptures you talk of, is 
the only book I never opened.' There was a terrible expression in 
the eyes of Ripperda as he delivered this, and listened to the heavy 
groan that burst from the heart of his son. 

** * In this. hour,' continued he, when all human learning deserts 
me ; rejected by the world, and loathing man and all his wa^s ; — 



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Tie Pastof^s Fireside. 183 

ia this bitter lMMir» I belieyv^ tbefeio I inight have fo^nd thd ivord 
«f life ! Bttt I derided its pieteosioiis, .and the penalty must foe 
pwd!'" (p. 958--S61. vol. IV.) 

Louis farther impresses upon his agonized parent the 
cocpfbrts of Christianity : he gradinUly becomes more tranr. 

Suil,^ and soon afterwards, having received the sacrament, 
e dies in the arms of his son. 

De Monlemar returns to England by wa^ of Gibraltar, 
having answered letters from the Marquis Santa Cruz 
and Ferdinand; the pen of Marcella of course contributed 
no part to these communications, nor indeed had Louis 
yet declared his passion. He is welcomed with the utinost 
transport by the^ good Pastor, Mrs. Conin^sby, and Alice; 
and after remaining at Lindisfarne a short time, he pays a 
Tisit to his uncle Sir Anthony Athelstone, with whom Cor* 
neiia is on a visit. On their return at night they, are 
overtaken on the moors by a violent storm, and they AeU 
ter themselves in a low uninhabited hovel, which scarcely 
excluded the weather. Cornelia is left alone with a li^ht, 
while Louis directs the servants in disengaging the carnage 
from a deep slough : she hears several successive ffroan's in 
the interior of the hut, and taking the lamp in her hand^ 
she finds lying upon some half^putrid sheep^skins, " a man 
in the garb of a gentleman, and with one of the noblest 
forms that ever met her sight/' The scene is tbiis descri- 
bed: — 

" A deep groan broke the fixture oi his lip«. It was that of pain ; 
ind she took up the lamp, to see if she could lind its immediate 
cause. She then saw that where his waistcoat was open, the linen 
en his breast was stained and stiff with blood. His before tranquil 
features, which had appeared fixed ia death, were agitated by an 
evident sense of acute suffering. She put her hand upon that part 
of his linen, where the blood-stain was the widest, and in the act, 
ihe thought she felt a gaping wound. He shrunk under the touch; 
and convulsively opened his eyes. They were shut as suddenly, and 
in a low voice, he hardly articulated — 

'* * Where am I r 

'^ * In a wretched place,' replied Comdia, * bat with those who 
only wait the morning light to hear you to one of comfort.' 

'< Oa the first soumls of her voice, the sufferer appeared to strug- 
gle to bear the light with his fyes; but it was beyond their power. 
He tried to speak :— - 

*< *lfllive — ' said he. But a sudden agony rushing through 
his frame, arrested the rest ; and turning hb fiice again uppn the 
dark pillow, Cornelia thought that moment was his last. 

Cbit. ftET. Vol. V. ^eb. ISIT, 2 B 




by Google 



184 Tke Pmlor's Firi-sidi. 

. ** Sh^ clasped Iter hadds in the wordless s^diikitii^ bf litiiiiaQ'tiaH 
lura She was then . bought through the hdniors of ibe »tiH 11^119 
tempest, at that dismal hour of night, t^ this kmely hovel, tb idose 
the eyes of a forlorn stranger ! — ^To perform the last offices to jthe 
beloved son or husband of some tender mother or doating wffe, \^ho 
mo^t * long look for him who never would return.' - 

. '** Loins, Louis I* cried'^e, in the-piteotis acceuVs l»f dUe'caNfllg 
for an assistance they needed, but despaired of it^ bHnging helpi 
Louis beard the cry, and the tone struck hinr with an alarm* thi^ in - 
stt^itly brought him into the, hovel. Lor^nxo ibUowed bis nmster; 
and both rushed through the chatnber in which she was not to. be 
round, into the one whence the light gleamed. She pointed, without 
r being able to spcak^ to. the bes^p on the floor. Seeing her so over* 
come» instead of approachiug it, Louis put bis arm round her waist 
to support her.' Lorenzo stepped towards the wretclied bed, and 
the rays of the lamp resting upon^tbe marks of blood, be started 
back, and exclaimed :-^ '' 
"" « Santa Maria ! — a tniirdered inan !' 

*' Cornelia ga^p^ at t^^ enunciation of his actual death; and 
Lotiis, white he held hir faster to his heart, instfi^jvely moved 
towards the terrific oibject. Her fm readily obeyed ithe humane 
impulse of his ; anid 3liduig downon her knee by the side isf the uio^ 
tionless stra^er, she veitared to put bar hand on bis, expecting to 
feel the^cWll bf death. 

" ^ He is. warm l[ cried she» looking up in the face of her cousio* 
He had caught a glimpse of /the figure as it lay, and she saw him 
pale and trembling, while putting away Lorenzo, who leaned over 
to assist In raising the dying man, he approached close to the bed« 
He bent to the head that was smothered up in the wool, and touch- 
ing it with an emotion ia his; soul he had onl^. felt, once bdbre, he 
turned that lifeless iaOeupwardsi. Be did not gaade on it a moment* 
His nen«less hands let go their hold, and it woi^ld have fallen back 
into its loathsome pillow, had not the watchful care oi Qomelia 
4:«ughtitonher arn/V (p« 335-r-339« voL iv.) 

To be brief, the djiog 'maa is the Duke of Wharton, who 
notwiOistandihg the attainder against himi baviug secretly 
come to the North to ascertain the disposition of the people 
to the banished Stuarts, had dislocated his shoulder by a 
fill! from his horse, and had afterwards been stabbed afid 
left for dead by his own foi^ign attendants. The Duke is 
conyeyed to Mor6wick*liaU, (one of the residences of the 
Hev. Mr. Athelstone,) and is attended by Cornelia, who is 
kept by liotm in ignorance; of the name of her patient. 
Compassion for his suiTerings is soon nursed into love for 
Jiis noble countenance, fine figure, and splendid accomplish-: 
inents,wb]ch are devcfloped as the Duke gradually recovers. 
-^-^Xhle Pastor arrives not long afterwards, and discovers tbat 

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TkePtiaor'^ Fire-nit. ^ i8| 

it it the Dakv of Wkarton^ and aM«d hf his niece, for 
tvbop the woamled nan feels a gtpwing* and honouraMe 
paasioD, be represente lb him the folly and aiiseiy of hii 
farmer mode of life, and s«cce»»AiUjr exhorts him to aban- 
don it. ' 
In the mean time, the Marquis Santa Crne, the Blar- 
diioness, Ferdinand, akl Marcella, opportunely arrive in 
£ngland, and are conducted by Louis to Liiidisfamer^the 
denouement is now nearly complete : the Marquis consents 
that his SOB sbouid marir Alicm, and that Louis should be 
united to his daughter JAarcella. The attainder agfainst 
the Duke of Wharton is unexpectedly reversed, in coosi* 
deration o{ the services and claims of Lquis, wbo^ to his 
gfea^ joy - discovers that, instead of being the concealed 
enemy 6f hia father and himself at the Court of Spain, the 
Duke bad exerted all his. influence to prevent the calamities 
they had endwed. Cornelia consents to become the wift 
of the Duke of Wharton after a probation of a year. 

The reader wiH perceive that this story is extremely 
eomplicated«-*'not so much from the number of the incidents, 
as fmn^ the peculiar manner in which they are interwoven^ 
and the many characters of importance that are engaged in 
them I «ar eaurse, in the sketch ^e- have supplied, we have 
endea«oiired 1» strip it of some of its episodes, and we have 
been oooipeUed to omit much that is interesting. It might 
4sertatnly ha«e been managed in several respects more judi- 
ciously^ and cae chief error is the introduction of such a 
Variety of personages, some of whom are rendered of more 
cmisequence than they at all merit. The best drawn cha*- 
racter is unquestionably that of the Duke de Rippetxia, but 
even he is a little inconsistent; for in the commencement 
nothing i» said of his temper and disposition which should 
lead ue. to suppose that'he would become an apostate to his 
faith, and a traitor to his country; on the contrary, hia 
disinterested lore and devption to Spain are the constant 
subjects o(). praise. His son Louis wants firmness and stea- 
ndiness, and is too easily imposed upon, not because he is 
jonocent of the artifices of politics, but because his faculi- 
•ties seem too obtuse to comprehend them. 

The Duke of Wharton plays a> prominent part through- 
out the navel) and almoist rorms a rival to the hero: indeed 
had Miss Porter shewn from' the dialogue, that he possessed 
the brilliant wit and persuasive powers she attributes to 
him, Louis would have sunk quite into a secondary person- 
age : that the Duke is not made witty and persuasive^ how- 



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186 The PasM'$ Fire-iide: 

«verj IB not Miss Poirtmr's fault.; site rspreseiltg faini ai 
Biaking many attemf^ bblh at the one and the other, bat 
uniformly without success : bis chafaoter is formed upon 
that of Lovelace in Clarissa Harlowe, hut'tbe peculiar turn 
of Miss Porter's talents could not enable her to suppcst dt. 

Respecting the females, little n^ore is i said than we ex- 
tracted in the outset: however aiiniable, . the reader cannot 
but feel that Maraella is not worthy of Louis, even with 
his Weaknesses. 

As to.the style of the. work, we have bnly space to say a 
few words : it is in general too ambitious, and bears the 
appearance of effort; to use a familiar phrase, it is too 
high-flown; and we would recommend Miss Poker to studjr 
simplicity, instead of attempting to make her prose poeti- 
cal : the story is certainly above the ordinary run of novels^ 
and, with some omissions and restrainta, the language 
might have been so. In one place, the author says of 'a 
man's 9mile, that '^ it dwelt on his features like a bending 
seraph lingering on its cloud ;" and in another of a lady s 
ringlet, that ^^ it waved over her spotless neck, as if it were 
the wing of love fluttering towards the. guarded region of 
her heart :" these affectations are frequent, and evre to the 
work an air of vulsaritv that does not r^ly belong to it* 
There are some other mults, which we must in candour 
attribute to carelessness, particulariy those of grammai^, 
which are too numerously sprinkled not to require a remark: 
it almost uniformly happens, that when the relative by 
transposition of construction is placed before the verl^ in^ 
stead of after it, the printer has given it in the nominative 
case, and not in the accusative — ^thus, '^ De Montemar, what 
is your opinion of tiie Marquis of Montrose ? he who. Crom« 
well sent to the scaffold," &c. — ^^ it is he who that father 
has commanded me to reverence," &c.— -^^ it was instantly 
opened by a man who Louis recognized to be Martini," &c* 
We might multiplv instances of this kind of iaise gnUnmar 
to several pages, but we have given enough for illustra- 
tion: now and then, but not so constantly, we have the 
accusative case after the verb to &e-^thus, ^^ all that his 
glad eyes had taken in of that d^ar apparition, was that it 
was Atm," &c. These are errors that may easily be cor- 
rected in another edition, which the indisputable merits of 
<' The Pastor's Fire-side," as a whole, will no doubt soon 
enaUe it to reach. : - 



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- [ 187. 3 

Abt. X.—Wai Ttfkrx a Dmmatic Pmik. Itno. Loiidm. 
Sherwood and Co. pp. 70. 1817. 

Two quotations are placed upon tbe title page of this Dra- 
matic Poeni) from which it should seem that Mr. Southej 
was its author: recollecting that not many years have 
elapsed since the Laurede^ (however now changed and for 
whatever reasons), carried his notions of liberty and equa- 
lity almost as far as the writer of Wat Tyler, the joke might 
have been fair enough had it been better executed, and 
more successfully pursued : but the title*page contains aU 
most the only indication ; it is not followed up by any apt 
citations either of the expressions or opinions to be round 
abundantly dispersed over the earlier works of the present 
Court Poet, nor is any attempt made even distantly to imi- 
tate his stile and manner. What miffht therefore have 
been rendered a sarcasm of severity, looks merely like a 
petty artifice to obtain for the work. of an unknown indivi- 
dual, a portion of the notoriety that belongs to the produc- 
tions of an approved, and practised writer. 

The author of Wat Tyler, however, appears not to be 
at all practised, and win probably be as little approved : 
his piece is entirely political, and the principles he promul- 
gates and enforces in his drama may oegathered nrom the 
event he has chosen to celebrate : Wat l^ler is held up to 
admiration as an example of patient endurance riling under 
the severity of his oppressions, while Jack Straw and Johii 
Ball are exhibited as instances of political and religious 
wisdom. They and their coadjutors are represented as 
taking up arms to revenue themselves for unjust because 
unnecessary taxation. Tne whole subject, indeed, and the 
manner in which it is handled are made to bear upon the 
circumstances of the present times, and into the mouths of 
the principal orators, such as the Hero and Ball, are put 
most of the common-places that have recently afforded mat- 
ter for popular harangues and two-penny .pamphlets : the 
address of John Ball, after his escape from Maidstone jail^ 
is formed upon this model, and is like a part of a weU« 
known weekly publication, clipped into ten-syllable verse 
without the exercise either of much skill or any originality : 
the following is a specimen. 

** Oh» my honest friends! 
Have ye n^ Mt the stvong indignant tbiob 
Of justice in your bo8oms» to beholds . 



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188 JVai Tyler J a Dramatic Pom. 

The lordly baron feastiug on yonr spoils ? 

. Haveyoik not in yonr hMrtiarniign'd the lot 
That cave him oa.tbf couch of bixtit^ 
To pillow his head, and pass the festive day 
In sportive feasts^ andease^ and|%yelry? 
Have yoa not often in your conscience ask'd 
Why is the difference, wherefore should that man 
No worthier than myself, thus lord it over me, 
Aud bid me labottr,*and enjoy the fruitsi 

« The Grod within your breasts has argued thus f 
The vi^ce of truth haa murmured ; came ye not 

. As helpless to th^ world 7 — shiiies not the #un 
Willi equal ray on botli l-n-do ye not feel 
The self-sam^ vind^ of heaven as keenly pafch ye ? 
Abundant is the ciiarth — the Sire of all 
Saw and pronounc'd that it wa^ very |[ood. 
Look round : the v^rqa| fields smile with new flowers. 
The budding Qrchard perfumes the soft breeze. 
And the green com wateis to the passing gale. 
There is enough fbr all, but your proud baron 
Stands up, ana, arrogant of strength, exclaims, 
* I,am a lord — by nliture I am noble : 
These fields are mine, for I was born to them, 
I was bom in the castle — yo^t poor wretches, 
Whelp*d in the cotti^e, are .by birth my slaves/ 
Almighty God I such blasphemies are utter*d ! 
Almighty God ! 8i|ch bl^[|phemies believ'd/' 

The drama and the divine art of poetry are thus at- 
tempted tp be made fiubservient to the worst purposes, but 
we cannot flatter the author with gre:at succesjs ; iome of 
the mob will eitl^er laugh at his labours, or, like the 
Clerk of Chatliani, hang (liin with his ink-horn round fails 
neck; while the bettcfr infl^rmed will contemn binii as an 
empty pretepder without one original idea. 

The cli^ss ^f f-eaders to whom he addresses himself is dis- 
close^ in the very outset ; for imagining with some shrewd- 
ness, that most of them would be in total ignorance of hia 
^ero and his associates, he prefaces his drama by a long 
quotation from Hume^ $?ivipg an account of the insurrection 
of Wat Tpcler, concludlin^ with the following reflection by- 
that *^ philosophicall^istorian," upon which the author of 
Wat Tyler, and tb6se who think with him, would do w^U 
to reflect ; that ^' the mischiefk consequent to an abolition 
of aJl rank and diAtiACliQA bf^cpme; ao great, that they are 
immediately felt^ aiid soon brins amirs, hack to their 
former order and amiDgemciit." It is impossible to criti- 



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Wnk Tyler^ a BiamiUic Poem. 189 

tise sacli a perfomMlnc^ 9A (Ufa i iii4e*d it is not worth it ; 
we should probably not have bestowed fnj notice npon it 
had not some persons^ unacquainted ^ith its real nature, 
heen imposed upon bj the petence that it was the work of 
Mr. Southey. We will aud another specimen by way of 
conclusion, that the reader may judffe how much, oir rAther 
how little taleht has been engaged in the compoiiitioi^ of 
Wat Tyler. 

** Enter Tax^alAerers. 

'* CoOtehr. Three greats a head for all your fiOnUy. 

*f Piers. Why is thi^ n^onsy gathered ?-r'ti$ a bard taa 
On the pdor labourer ! — it cao never be 
That goveminent should thus distress the people. 
Go to the rich for money— honest labour 
Ought to enjoy its fruits. 

•* Collector. The state wants money* 

War is expensive — ^*lis a glorious waf, 
A war of hokrouf, and must be siipported.— 
Three groats a head. 

" Tyler. There, i:hree fct my ^n head. 

Three ioY i«iy wife's !— i^hut ^ill the state tax aestt t 

^^Cothct^. You have u dau|^ter. 

«< 7|r/m She is below th^ agc^^ot yet fifteeti. 

*' C^lUet^t. You would evade the tax. 

** 7^. Sir Officer, 

I have paid ydu fairly what the law demands* 

(Alice and her Mother a/^er the Sh^. 7%e Tajp-ga^ 
therers go to her. One ^ them lays hold 0/ her, ohe. 
screams. Tyler goe^iK J 

i* Collector. Vou say ^e^s under age. 

" (Alice screams again. Tyler htotki Out the Tajt-ga- 
therer^s brains. ttisCimpahimsJly.) 

•* Pifcri. A just i-evenge. ■ 

" Tyler. Most jdst indeed ; but id the eye <>f the law 
Ills mttrder^--^ad fhe aiurderer*^ lot is ttthie. 

(Piers ^"^rtoitf.) 
(T'^etwisdaummaurnfiiUy.) 

*' Aliee. Fly» my dea^ father I kt ui leave thb place . 

Before they raise pursilit. 

" Tjjffer. Na)s nay, my child, r 

Thgbt would he Q8eiess--^I have done my duty, 
1 have punished the brute insplei^ce of lust, 
And here will wait my doom.'' 



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.:'••.'• -J ' ' : ;THi! DRAMA; .. • -; :: - 
Aift. XI.*— iff! Tiripartid itevim of Vie '^^ (he 

Dlxj/i ofGarritk anS'lticK to the jfresent PeriM; dndbf 
ihecautes of Us degentraitd ahd decHning itcke^ dnd'shew-^, 
ing ike riectssitt/ 0/ h Reform in the System as the onXy^ 
mecd/is ofjpving sttihility to (he prtseni property of ifte 
' JVMer Theatres. By Dramaticus. 8vo. pp. iff; 
London, C. Chappie, 1816. - ' 

HAtiNG, we think, established in our last number that the 
maffiiitude of our present winter theatres is most injurious 
to Ae English Drama, and to theinterestsof aiithors, it will 
be our business now, in continuation of the subject, to 
shew that it is also detrimental to proprietors andactors, 
and most distressing and disappointing to the auditors. We 
have necessarilj said something of the latter branches in 
noticing the former in our last Review. 

What we observed ii;i our previous article with regard to 
Tragedy, and the injury it receives from the prodigious size 
of our theatre, will also apply to Comedy, though not in 
an equal ae^e : the province of the latter is dimrent ; it 
deals more m contrasts and broad features of character, and 
is very much made up of striking and ludicrous situation ; 
but the consequence of bur enormous theatres is — ^that evea 
this is unavoidably carried to the extremes of caricature, 
and that off-set, or sucker of com^d^, called Farce, (which, 
while it produces no wholesome fruit itself, draws awa^ the 
sap and strength from the parent stock,) has its origin in 
this cause : it is exclusively confined to coarse humour and 
boisterous mirth, and may be quite as well enjoyed at the 
distance of fifty, as of five yards. Of late years it has been 
eradually making encroachments, and thrusting its tnother 
fix>m the boards; and of many of the modern comedies it 
may be fiiirly said, that they are more properly f»rces in 
five, acts : if an exception be made in favour of Sheridan, 
it is not that his comedies are according to the true standard, 
but that he has given us wit and satire instead of extrava- 

Smce and vulgarity ; his wit and satire, too, are not ialways 
e most refined, and can be much better understood and 
relished at a distance, than the delicate distinction and 
nice shading of passion and character which belong to good 
tragedy. 

Were we, with one or two exceptions at the utmost, to 
^0 over the whole catalogue of modem dramatists, and to 
examine the jwinciples (as fiir as they followed any) upon 
which they have written, the personages they have intro- 



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jtltlMfmrtug Mifriew oftise Siage. I9f 

diid«d, iLiid tkifeidi^logtt0tliey'h«tvfe put iti«o the ni(><ifU«>f 
tiidsb persona^^ wbfit w^ have advanced would be fully 
<5onfiriiiad* Had otar theaire» been of moderate dimemioM^ 
few of their pieces would have been heard of after the first 
iiigbt, or their jiBHiea only rei««ttibered by those who, having' 
been e^^ttliy unfortunate^ aȣt eonsotation in their amietidns, 
kejH an accurate register of aiU aathora that had been 
dafnned* ' ■ ■ " 

' There ean be lio stronger proof of the injury the prd«* 
l^rielort «i»8tiiin fronf the excessive enlargement of our 
theatres, than the ^etieral deprecmtien or tlieatrical fro'- 
pettp ii is known that shares are now sdat^celir saleable 
at A greiit di^coiiiit ; and how many individmls have bedil 
fttined by indireetlfr engagfnfg in concerns of the kiodr At 
l^e^nt, Covenrt Garden is only well filled when Mitd 
O^'eill performs; aiad Kean is alnvost the sole attraction of 
Druty tAne : before the foriner came to town^ the itanagera 
of OdVeUt Garden were in the act of hiafciiig rafpid retretv^h-' 
BAents rand, nniil the latter appeared, Drnrt Lune wasiiv « 
state of bankruptcy. What is tlie tanse of Mihs O'N^illV 
i^iolent, linnatural; an^ even offensive eflbrtsj to gi^e efieet 
6) her dying scenes in ffelvideiti or iisabena, but the slxel o^ 
the theatres, whidh compels her to dari^tore and ex^gge-^ 
fate even expiring agonies ? Could it be ettdured in ail 
area of moderate proportions^ would It not be revolting X6 
tagte, and disgastiirg to delicacy ? The same i^ the origin 
of Mr. Keans pantomime—the Woftders of his ^^good 
nigbt,^' and theenrceHence'of hitf fencing. People ca^ Me 
when they cannot hear $ oWd if ttey eotdd hettr, otir actbrg 
Would not be obliged^ as at present, to make points, instead 
of sustaining a fine dmracter in it* whiteness and com* 
pleteness.' " ' 

The proprietors haVe tried the exp^rime^nt, and (hey find 
that melo-draraas and pantomime* Will answer* their purpbse 
no' longer^audiences begin to grow tired ot them i fiind 
these repfesenfa'tiond canhot' be « carried beyond aeertaiA 
extredie: 4ioweter probability May be stretched in sotne of 
them, Yhey mi^st stop on' this side o(^ possibility ; and scenery 
and machinery can only go to a certain extent in splendour 
and ingenuity. It is now a very hazardooi» eXpermient to 
l^ing out a new-m^Io-drama, fbr the spectators naVe^own 
%8tidiOus even as^ to this species of representation. Coyent 
Gardfien has carried it to the utmost vetge, and M 06w under 
the necessity of pausing : even in their zenith inelO-'dram^i 
scarcely repaid th6 expenses incurred in tb^r preparation i 
Cbit. Rev. Vol. Y. Feb. 1817. 9C • 



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198 Jn Impartial Remew of the Stagi. 

and however iourishing the contfem miiy lui?e'appei|redfj 
the renters, &c. of this theatre have yet f'eceived no inte- 
rest for the money they advanced for the rebuilding^ of xYkfi 
house : one of the greatest and most succ^sful actors our 
stage has ever produced, and who is ^^Iso ^ proprietor ofi 
Covent Garden to a very large amount, is in this yoluckj: , 
situation ; and he is no.^v about to retire, not only from the 
boards, but from the kingdom; and after the sale of .his> 
fine theatrical library, (the finest, next to that of the British 
Museum,) to retire to the Continent for the improvement 
of his health, to say nothing of his fortune. . 

With respect to actors, and the mode in which they suffer, 
by the unreasonable proportions of our theatres, it is unr 
accessary to say much. Many promising performers have, 
been found unable to sustain parts> in consequence of the 
inadequacy of their voices to fill the immense area of , the 
house ; and those who are gifted with extraordinary power 
of lungs, are obliged to keep up a continual strain^ whidi. 
most materially interferes with harmony and expression* 
Other inconveniences, with respect to acting, or the fii 
delivery of the part, we have elsewhere referred to, and it 
is the more unnecessary to enlarge upon it, because it must 
be obvious how much success depends upon being under* 
stood, and how much being understood depends upon being 
beard. In a pecuniary point of view, however, actors are 
severe suflerers, from tne same cause which renders necesn 
sary the employment of a company of performers in pro-, 
portion to the size of the house : the salaries of the princi;^ 
pal players are perhaps sufficiently large, and if the manc^ 
gers restrict themselves to twenty pounds per week, those 
who receive it have no right to complain; but there is an 
immense crowd of performers who do not obtain a tenth, or 
even a twentieth part of that sum, and yet are sometimes 
put forward in characters ^that deiQ^nd talei^ts much above 
the despicable pay allotted to thjem^ Thie^ defect, by whic^ 
the representation of some %>% oyr<; be^t p\a) s, more parti* 
cularly those of Shakspea^*e, i$ ifuined, .is o^ng to (he 
Immense disproportion bet,if^pn the eu^pluments of tbefirs;!* 
rate and the lower actors, a^d this disproportion is to be 
traced to the same source; for if such numerous companies 
were not necessary, the second and third rate performers 
might be more ^liberally paid, and consequenUy men ot 
higher talents and better education would be found to fill 
their places. 

. All. that itjs necessary here to saj, with regard to the 



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BibliothecaAntiqua. 193 

Auditors, and the manner in which they are affected, we 
have incidentally introduced as we proceeded through the' 
other points, and it is the* less needful to enforce this part 
of the subject, because there is not a single visitor of our 
theatres who does not, in a greater or less degree, experi- 
ence inconvenience and distress. It is remarked by foreign- 
ers, that the English are not a play-going nation ; but we 
are convinced that this disinclination is much to be attri-' 
buted to the disappointments to which they are subject. In 
short, as we stated in the outset of our former article, there 
IS scarcely an evil under which the drama and its dependents 
labour, that may not be fairly attributed to the enormous 
and unreasonable proportions of our theatres. Were it not 
for the pri%'ate property embarked in these concerns, as 
lovers of the drama, nothing would please us better than 
to hear, that Co vent Garden and Drury Lane Theatres were 
again burnt to the ground. 

With regard to the pamphlet on our table, we have little 
to say in addition to what we remarked in our preceding 
Number : although it dwells principally upon minor points, 
the observations are pot deficient in good sense, and the 
author seems to participate with us in a sincere love for 
the best interests of the stage. 

BIBLIOTHECA ANTIQUA. 

** I study to briog forth some acceptable worke ; not striving to shewe^ 
any rare -inuention that passeth a meane man's capacitie, but. 
to utter and reuive matter of some moment, knowne and talked 
of long ago, yet ouer>long hath been buried and as it seemeth 
laid dead, for anie fruite it hath shewed in the memory of 
man." 

Ckurchyarde** Sparke of Friendship to Sir W. Raleigh. 

Aht. ILlh— Godfrey of Bulloigne^ or The Recouerie of 
Jerusalem. Done into English Heroicall verse^ by Ed- 
ward Fairfax, Gent. Imprinted at London, by Ar. 
Hatfield, for I. laggard and M. Lownes, 1600, fo. pp. 
399- 

As it is in contemplation soon to reprint this early transla- 
tion of Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata, which translation, 
in the words of our motto, ^^ over-long hath been buried 
and as it seemeth laid dead" we have selected it as the sub- 
ject for our present article that our readers may be able to 
jfidge how well it deserves the distinction it is about to re* 
ceive. 



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IM Bibtioibeca jintiptft. \ 

It n somewbat aiagulur ilmt Mr. Hoolet <w]u)ae veraioii 
a few Years ago was so popMlar, though it has now faUeo 
into aliDOst proporlioDate aisesteeia,) ^boald have beeu so. 
little acquainted with former trandatioAs of the Jeruisalevi, 
Delivered, as to omit all notice of them in his earlier edi- 
tions; it Is true that in some of those which followed^ he 
mentioas the name of Fairfax, but he adds that his work is 
^^ m stanzas that cannot be nead with pleasure by the ge- 
nerality of those who have a taste for English poetry ; of 
wbicb no other proof is necessaij than that it appears scaroe 
to have been read at all : it is not only unpleasant but irk- 
spme, in such a degree as to surmount curiosity." We can 
hardly suppose that Mr. Hoole ^poke without haying seen 
tbe book at all, but certainly he seems in utter ignorance 
of it : if it be any merit in a translator to give the reader 
a notion of the versification of his original, at least Fai|r-. 
fax's translation has this merit, for it is precisely iu the 
same stanza, and Mr. Hoole ought therefore rather to trans- 
fer his censure to Tasso for selecting a form which Ario3tq 
bad chosen, and which the Italians thought most barniQ^ 
nious and least fatiguing.* Mr. Hoole is equally incorreist 
when he asserts that Fairfax's translation ^^ appears scarcelu 
to have been read at all^'^ for being first pubiisJied in 1600, 
it was reprinted in 1634, again twice in 1687,t and a fifth 
time in 1749. James the ^t^ himself a poet, held it in the 
highest estimation, and the edition of 16S4 was printed by 
the King's printer, by the King's express command, thd 
original c^ies being at that time scarce ; it was also the 
solace of Charles I. dtiring his imprisonment. Sir Roger 
L'Estrange in introducing to the public the reprint of 1687, 
. declares that ^^ it is one of the most correct pieces, perhaps, 
for tbe turn of the verse, the apt and harmonious disposi- 
tion of the words, and the strength of thought that we have 
any where extant of the kind in the English tongue/' 
Among more modem aodiorities in its favour, we may 

* It Is the fiishion to say that att stanzas in EngKsb, how«Ter yaried in 
their form, ate tedfami miid monotondos, aod that what pieaseft in Italtap is 



those whom he has imitated, with a perpetual recurrence of heavy mon»- 
pliable rhimes, without the leafet rariaftton of the etemura; this indeed ^K% 
ftot ^1% unpleasant butlritftnUe.*' 

f Probably Pi^4eo or Walter (the latter of w^tti'tdmi^d that be foi«ie^, 
hia vcs^tlScaftion ojd the model of Fairfax) directed attention to this triansta- 
tloh. The two editions of 16S7 aVe by t)ie same prikiter, but the vaxiAe^ 6t 
dSfti^t^ liMctetters are apfteiUled to theMk > the one w for if. Henrd^gHMH 
See, 6ic, the other for Ric ChiaweU, &c. ,^;^ 



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Baiiotkecfl Asaiqva. IBi 

quote Hume) who vm fte^uenily oritscallj fkstidjam, wd 
who states that ^^ Pairfu Iwus tr^uaalfted Taaeo yfiib an 
ele^nce and ease, and at the.«aiae time with an exactness 
wliich tor tbat age are surprizing ; each line in tbek«>rigiDa)i 
is iaitbfuU^ revdened by a correspoiid^t Jine in the traasr 
lalAou." 

But oar business is not to coUec t numerous panegyrics 
upon the ivork before us, nor should . we .have quoted the 
ahovcT but for the flippant charges of Mr. iioole, wfa^ 
seemed to think that to establish his own translation^ it 
was necessary to destroty the reputation of rivals. 

Of the author of the trsfisbNtion pinder review, we hay# 
but little to say, for his life was so reth*ed as to aflEu^r^ 
«caroelf a sifijgle incident. Edward Fairfax (whom aoqpui 
writers hj^ mistake have catted JSdmund) was the secoml 
sou of Sir Thamas Fair&x ^f Denton, Yorkshire; hi| ■ 
brothers went into the army, and t^e eldest afterwards be* 
came the first Lord FairG» ; but Edward prefWred a life of 
retineoipot an/d study, ^^eat pains having been bestowed 
upon his .educatioiv He probably married at aa early age^ 
and establifi^g himself at Fuyistpne, he commenced his 
translation ^f Tasso's Jerusalem, which he published with 
a dedication to Queen ^Elizabeth in 1600.* It is stated by 
^ome of bis bio|gni()her8, that this was his first work, but we 
doubt the &ct and think it probable that some of the M.S.S. 
in prose and verse, which were left at his death in the 
library of JLord Fairfax, at Denton, were earlier eflforts. 
It is much to be lamented that these productions wiU jtf>w 
probably never see the light, ' though Mrs. £li«. Goofier^ 
who published the Muses Library in 1741, was allowed m 
sight of them by the family and published one £cclpgw 
out of twelve : according to her account also, he wrote 
tike History of Edward th^ Black Prince^ but. whot^s* 
in prose or verse is not stated, hut most likely the lalterr 
he was besides the author of a treatise calleul D.mman^lo^i^^ 
a title King James had previously employed. The isihtor 

pf the Biog* Brii. secpnd .edition, thus speaks pf these uar 

,1, . . > -- ■ ■ ■■..«■ 

♦ Tassd's GerusaUnme tiberata was finished in 1574, 9nd it W»s quickiv 
traAsferred to otiier European' lan^ueg^fi^ Htkt ^rst attempt la Bng4i9li 
was made by Richard iGarew, f^sq^ antborof Uie ^iurteff'qf i) f> mm » U: km 
translation consisted of the ;6ve first cantoi, and was printed in London 
with to date, and at £xoter in 1594. To this, howevel*, Fa'i^fa^ do«8 nojt 
dlBeiti to hai^ been indebted. Mr. H«ole brad Bever heard of 4t of courae. 
^Bew eeems lo i»ve jbeea toeited bjr die recoMnwendation'Of Galiritl Har- 
wevp the friend of Spenser, who jn bis ** New Letter of Rotable Contents,*^' 
15U3, alter praillng Sir Jolin Harrington's trtmslation of Ailosto excUdmb, 
<« Oh 4iiat we Tiad sftch an En^i* l<ashe«'' 



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196 BibiiothecaJntiqua. 

Jublished remains—" No part of Edward the Black Prince 
as we believe ever beeii laid before the public, which is the 
rather to be regretted as it might have more distinctly been 
discovered what were our poet's powers of original inven- 
tion. The Ecclogues were composed in the first year of the^ 
reign of King James, and after thejr being finished lay 
neglected ten years in the author's study, until Ludowic, 
Duke of Uichmond and Lennox, desired a sight of them, 
which occasioned Mr. Fairfax to transcribe them for his 
Grace's use. That copy was seen and approved by many 
learned men, and Dr. Field, afterwards Bishop of Herefordf, 
wrote verses upon it ; but the book itself and Dr. Field's 
encomium perished'inthe fire when the Banquetting House, 
at Whitehall was burnt, and with it part of the Duke of 
Richmond's lodgings. Mr. William Fairfax, however, our 
author's son, recovered the Ecclogues out of his father's 
loose papers. These Ecclogues were twelve in number, 
and were composed on important subjects, relating to the 
manners, characters, and incidents of the times : they yrere 
pointed with many fine strokes of satyre; dignifiei(, with 
wholesome lessons of morality and policy to those of the 
highest ranks ; and some modest hints were given even to 
Majesty itself. With respect to poetry, they were entitled 
to high commendation, and the learning they contained was 
so various and extensive, that according to the evidence of 
bis son, who wrote large annotations upon each, no man's 
reading besides the author's own,* was sufficient to explain 
his references efiectually." If a judgment may be formed 
from the fourth Ecclo^ue which is found in Mrs. Cooper's 
work, we scarcely think that the eulogy is deserved to its 
fall extent. 

The date of the death of Edward Fairfax is by no means 
settled; some say 1631, others 1632; but we are inclined 
to think with Dr. Aikin, that it was before 1624, as John 
BiH the printer, in putting forth his edition of that date, 
makes no mention of the author, nor of any permission ob- 
tained from him ; he was living in 1621, because his ^^ Dse* 
monolog^ie, or a Discourse of Witchcr?ifl," was " acted in 
the family of Mr. Edward Fairfax of Fuyistone," in that 
year, as the title of the manuscript imports. 
^ We now come to speak more particularly of his transla- 
tion of the Gerusalemme Liberata : to say that it is much 
superior in energy and dignity to that of Mr. Hoole, is to 
give it no great praise. ; for, iii these qualities, though not 
perhaps in correctness, the modern version is very deficient* 
Vet Fair&x does not always rise to the majesty of bis ori- 

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giDal, and be is yeiieially more sup&iU)! tfaeori»iiaI,,aiid 
than in the lofty parts. Oa takii^ff himiii spirited; let him 
of course be prepared to ineejb with ^uainV. Hoole, and his 
are less abundant in. .pair/ax, th^n m tUnnsa of the above 
his day, and' if now. and then, an awkward i/ and inefficiently 
the smoothness of his progress^ the wondt .^ .i»^ 

they are so few,, considering the difficult! ^.-tn^'taqza ana 
language he had to oyeraome. .Coippouad epithets, to 
which the English tongue is so well ada{)ted, . and which 
are so often employed by our elder poets, will frequently be 
found, and words are sometimes employed in senses that of 
late years have been forgotten. The nature of the verse 
requiring always three similar rhymes in each stanza, com-' 
pelled the translator to take a few li1>erties now and thien 
with pronunciation ; and like ' Spenser and other poets of 
that day, he sometimes accommodates his orthography to 
his rhymes. One defect will be noticed in the translation 
of Fairfkx, which would be more censurable if it were not 
too much the error of the time in which he lived, viz. a 
reduplication of words of nearly the same signiGcation, 
without approaching a climax, and sometimes even rather 
weakening the force of what precedes. These general 
remarks will better, prepare the reader for the ensuing ex- 
tracts. 

One singularity in the very first stanza of the work, de- 
serves remark. It originally stood thus : 

'' The sacred armies and I he godly knight 
That the great sepulcherof Christ did free, 
I sing ; much wrought his valour and foresight,. '• 
And in that glorious war much sufired hee : 
In vaine gainst him did Hell oppose her mighty 
In vaine liie Turks and Morians armed bee, 

His soldiers wilde (to braules and mutines pre»t) 
Reduced he to peace^ so heau'a bim blest/* '* 

After it was printed, however, Fairftix found some rea- 
son to change his mind, and a slip with: a different version 
was pasted over the first stanza of all the copies : the alte- 
ration was the following : 

** I sing the warre made in the Holy Land, 
And the Great Chief that Christ's. great tombe did free ; 
Much wrought he with his wit, much with his hand» 
Much in that brave atchieuement suflfred hee : 
In vain doth hell that Man of God withstand, 
In vaine the worlds great Princes armed bee; — 

For beau'n him favour'd, and he brought againe 
Vnder one standard all his scatf red trained* 



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published remains^Sf^l?^ Bfeal ifn* J^rtllt ^^^^^^ 
has we believe evr '™*''^<«'''w» a\dsm' tit Ltbta tlp^pbl 
rather to be reffr^'^*^*' ^l^ " *» "^^^ *** Wdf 1(P^'' ^r^d? 
discovered what i««'" ^ *•»* ijMe, we iir^^lWcHfrckrW 

tion The EcclooJ^**^'!^^^*^*^^®*'*^*'^^^^'^'^^ 
^rc>irp*^^j^ Jpast^tt over th^ftrst' 6\An!^pf ihiewhfbti 

of 1600=^ iH-WTse oar readei^ are too ^1) acl}fiaiiltecf 

#{th the JetuniSem Delivered, to require m6r|f th^ft a hint 

to render the ensurng* extriactg inteH^g^e. We shall firs* 

Mv0 s| part of tb^ artftrl address df Afmida t& GddAty antf 

Ms pi^er^, to fudiide them ta attempt the redreA§ off her 

apposed wron^. 

, '^ Victorious Prince, whose hooourable name 
Is held so great among our Pagan kings* 
That to those lands thou dost by couqiuest taaie„ 
That thou bast woqae them, some content it brings ; 
Well knowne to all is thy immortaQ fame. 
The eairth, thy worth ; thy foe, Ihy praised siugs,^ 
Anil P^inims wronged come to sc^k tbttie aide. 
So dbtb thy vierttiiei; so thy powte perswaidi^. 

<< And I though bred in Macons heath'nish lore, 
Which thou oppressest with thy puissant might. 
Yet trust thou wilt an heiplesse maidi^ restore, 
And repossesse her in her fathers right : 
Others in their Mtl«sse doe Mt ittploM 
Of kinqe and friends ; b«t I inr tiri» sad: plight 

Inuoke thy helpe« my kingdome to inuade. 

So doth thy vertue^ so wj need perswade. 

** In thee I hope^ thy succours I inuoke. 

To win the crowne whence I am d^osttest ; 

For like reaowtte «wait«th m the stroke 

To cast the hauehtie dfcuvrMf or raiMPtb' oppreat : 

Nor greater glome brinjp a scept»r bt-oke» 

Than doth deKo'iatfee of a maid dittyeal : 
And since thow caort at will performe the things 
More is* thy praise to make, than kill a kuig.. . 

** But if tfaott wookPst thy 8uecoiif» due exeuse, 

Bicause in Christ I haue no hope or trust. 

Ah yet for vertues sake, thy vertue vse I 

Who scometh gdii' because it Hes in dust? 

Be witnes heau% it fhou to graiit refuse. 

Thou dost forsake a maid in cause most iust. 
And for thou sBaltat laige my fortune know, 
I will my wrongs, and their great treasons show." 



I M I TT I | [ | I IT i - ii Tf i I ill ri y j I 



* It is worUi. iifytiii^ tbalJ aU file sab'seqneitt editiow <lbwil to 1749, 
have preferred the ftu»a as iM»fiiia% penned by FaLrftXy and not the 
Doment. ^. ^ 



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tidt Uie reader eonnpare the above with Uie original,, and 
tie frill find the translation correct and spirited; let him 
tompare it wJth the same paseaffe by Mr. Hoole, and his 
kdniiration will be doubled : the third stansa of the above 
which is thas tamely and inefficiently 
oole t 



is particularly habpy, 
i^ndercid by Mr. Hoo 



** On thee I caU; in thee tny hopes I place: 
. *Tb thine alone my abject state to raise, 
Mb less a glofy shall thy labours crown. 
To ex^t the low, then pull the mighty down ; 
An equal praise the name of mercy yields. 
With routed sqaadrons in triumphant fields.*' 

i!'iie whole of Mr. Hoole's effort is in the same siraiii^ 
diluting to in8if)idity the bright and ardent spirit of the 
original ; but it is not our purpc^e to pursue this compari- 
6on. The contest between Tancred and Argantes, when 
the latter sends a challenge to the Christian camp, has aK 
ways been admired in Tasso as one of the best descriptions 
of a duel of that kind : after the chi^mpions were both 
thrown b^ the violent concussion of their horses, they rise 
upon the instant and contidue the fight on foot. 

** Close at his sparest warde each warriour lieth. 
He wisely guides his hand, his foot, hbeie. 
This blow he proudh, that defence Ke trieth> 
He tiauerseth, retireth, preaseth nie, . 
Now strikes he out, aiid now he fiUsifieth, 
This blowe he wiirdeth, that he lets slip hie; 

And for aduantiige oft he lets some part 

Discouer'd seeme ; thus art deludetn arti 

** The Pagan ill defenst with sword or targe 
T«tfcrei&< thigh (as he 8U{)pos'd) espide. 
And reaching forth gainst it his weapon larg!^. 
Quite naked to his roe leaues his left side ; 
Tanertd auoideth quiche his furious cbaige^ 
And gaue him eeke a wound deepe, sore and wide; 
TImt donne lumselfe snie to his ward retireil. 
His courage prais'd by all, his s&ill admired* 

** The protid Circassian saw his streai^ing blood, 
Downe jfrom his ^oond (as from a fountain) runnhig^ 
He sigh'd f6r rage*, and trembled as he stood. 
He blam'd his fortune, foUie, want of cunning ; 
He lift his sword alofl^ for ire nigh wood. 
And forward rusht: Tancred his furie shunnin^^ 
With a sharpe thrust once more the Pagan hi^ 
To his broad shoulder where his arme is knit. 
CttiT. Rev. Vol. V. Fet. iaj7. 8 D 

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'■ " L%« u ft heeit tliltMigh ptaftcd wilb a dart* 
Within tiife seeiet woods^ no foitfaer flieth, 
bnt bit^ the seilselesse wea|ioii mad mtk smart, 
Seekiis reuenge till vnreneng^d she dieth ; 
So m&Q ^^'ganiei iar*d, when his proud hart 
Wouod vpon wound, and shame on shame espiedi» , 

Desire of veng'ance so orecame his senses^ 

That he forgot all dangers^ all defenses." 

Night interposes, and the combatants are separated by 
heralds. Few more felicitous translations will be foand in 
any writer than this whole extract^ but the first stann is a 
pattern of excellence of its kind — close and spirited^ ^ith 
all the ease of originality. That the reader may the more 
i^adfly f6tm a judgment, we quote the Italian. 

** Cmtiamenie tmcmno m calm mow 
J^dairm, aiguarditecchio, aipasniipiede: 
Si reca in atti mrf^ e'n guardie nave. 
Or gira internop or cresci tnnaitzt, er cede: 
ih" quiferireaccama, cpatciaahrove, 
Dave nanminaccio, ferir si vede : 
Or disc discaprire dlcuna parte, 
Etentar di icherhit Parte con Tarte/* 

In the nineteenth canto, the fight between Tadcred 
and Argantes is ^.renewed, and for the sake of continuity, 
we will extract a portion of it, recurring afterwards to 
intermediate parts : the first of the following stanzas we 
will venture to say, is even a considerable impnovement 
upon theori^nal: the descriptioki of Acgantes, ^ still un- 
conquered, though oe#«c^," w4iile his unshrinking counte- 
nance was ^^ dreadless, doubtless," and even ^' careless," 
is quite equal to Miltob's picture of Satan gathering resolu- 
tion from despair. 

" Now deaths or f6ai^, Air^fcafe t6saue ttreir liu^s. 
From their forsak^ih wallesih^ Pagans ch&6e: 
Yet neither fbifdft, Mr ie9^, ndr wisddme drtu^ 
The constant iMight At^ant^, from his j)l«ite ; 
Alone, against te& thousieaid foes he sfriues, 
Yet dreedlesse, doubtlesse, carelesse seem'd his face. 
Not death, not danger, out disgrace he feares» 
And ^till vncdnquer'd (though oreset) appeares* 

*' But mongst the rest vpoh his helmet gay 
With his broad sword Tahcfedie came and smote: 
The Pagan kaew thfe- Prince by his aritay. 
By his strong blowel^, his armour and his'tdt^ ; 



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Bmotk9cm AnUqua. 801 

For MMse tliey ibug^t, and wheo night staid Ihat fny, 
K«w ttmethey ehosc to rnd tbeir oombat bote* 
But fimcred £iiled» wherefore the Pug^ knight 
Cride, (Tammd) com'st thou th|i9, thus lafe tP figh^r 

We have only room to insert a sinall portion of the 
represeQtatioii of the battle. 

«« With a tali ship so doth a g$4|ie %bl» 

Yfkm thrB still winces stiiii^ not th'v^i^bl^ na^e, 
Wheve this i^ pi|n)>lenes^y as that ip oy^t^ 
fyio^ ; that stands, this gp^s and coo^s again^. 
Aipd shifts fjroBi pro^y to poope with t^rni^gs hght ; 
]\^e%oewh,iIe the other doth vnpiou'd repiaine, 
And on her nimble foe appru^hetb nie, 
Her weigfatie engins tumbletfa downe from hie : 

" The christian sought to enter on his ffye, 

Voiding his point, which at his brest was bent ; 

Argantef at his face a thrusjt did throe. 

Which while the prince awards, and doth preuent, 

|Iis ready hand the Pa^n turned soe. 

That ail defence his quickenes farre prewent. 

And pierst his side, which done be said and smHde, 
The craftsman is in bis owne craft beguiide : 

** ToficmBdie bit hisUps |bf #cp;»/e 9nd ^ame^ 
Mor longer stood on points of fence and skilly 
^jUt to reuenge so fierce and fiist he canie^ 
A.s ^^his hand could not oretake his wiLl^ 
And at his visour aiming iust^ gan frame 
To his proud boast an answere sbarpe, but.stiM 

Ar^antes broake the thrust ; and at halfe sword. 

Swift, bardie, bould, in stept the christian Joni. 

** With his left foote fast forward gan he stride. 
And with his ileft the Pagans rightanae bient. 
With bis rigltt hand meanewhile the mans jright jsi^e 
He cut, he wounded, mangled, lx>re, and r^t. 
To his victorious teadier ( ToMcr^ cnjjde) 
His conquered schotter hath^fais answer s^; 
Argmdeschd^ed^ ^trnggled, tunui si;Dd tjwind. 
Yet couM not so his captiiieanne vsAmimI: 

'< His sword at last he let hang by the chaine. 

And gripte bis liardie foe in boui his ibandSf 

In his Strong aiuie^ Timcreflf caught bim agaane. 

And thus each o^^ held and wr^t in huids. 

With greater might Akideg did not stnune^ 

The giant ^niMison IheiJhiaB sands; 
On hcMfiist Juiatsiheir hrawnie acmes ilbey oii^ 
And whom he hateth most, each held embrast;'' 



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9De MibtiaikfieffJtU6pia. 

There are tiro cireiiikisUmoes Ant desery^ reiiigFk id thi9 
last quotation: in the first pkce, the fourth stansa affords 
an iflustration of the remark we made in the outset, re- 
specting the reduplication of terms sometimes almost syno- 
pimpu3 ; thus^. in one line we have cuij zoountfedj mangled, 
tore, and rentj and in another, not by any means so olg^jc- 
tionable, cAo^, struggled, turtCdy and twin'd : the latter 
in the original is Freme il Circasso, e si cantorse^ e scotCy but 
the former has no parallel. Another point to be observed 
is the conceit in the last line of the extract. ^^ ^nd whom 
he hateth most, each held embrast," whicn i^ entirely a 
voluntary of^ the translator's, and would have been better 
omitted : Fairfax, however, was rather fond of these turns ^ 
in the twentieth canto hie has these two unai^thorij^ed lines, 

" Down fell the King, the guiltless land be bit. 
That now keeps him becaiue he kept not it f '* 

which is really a contemptible pun : but thi| is the worst 
instance of the kind. 

It is from the 16th canto pf Jerusalemme Liberata^ that 
Spenser ha? so freely borrowed for the description of the 

firdens, &c. of the Bovver pf Bljsse, in 1. ii. c« 12, of his 
'aerie Queenc: yet his cannot be called a translation since, 
although the ideas are not new, they are so improved, height* 
ened, and embellished, that they are not easilj^ recognized. 
It is quite clear, th^t Fairfaij^^ while putting into ]&glish, 
the 16th canto of Tasso, had Spenser under hjs eye; but 
while this scarcely detracts ^t all from bis merit as ^ trans- 
lator, it does great credit to his taste as an admirer of true 
poetry. The following extract we think could pot be im- 
proved by any alterations : 

*' When they had passed all those troubled waies, 
The garden sweete sored foorth her greene to shew. 
The mooing christall from the fountaines plaies, 
Faire trees, high (^nts, strange herbetana iowrets new* 
Sunshinie hils» dales hid from Phoebus raies, 
Groues, arbours, mossie caues at once they vew» 
And that winch beautie most, most woonder broughtt 
No where appeard the arte which all this wrought. 

'^ So with the rude thepolisht mingled was» 
That naturall seemed all, and euery part. 
Nature would craft in counter£iiting pas. 
And imitate her imitator art: 

Milde was the aire, the dues weiedeereiui flat, . * 
The tiees no whirkwmd felt, nor tempest smart ; 



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BiUisihefiB jti^ipm. 80t 

Boteretfaeir firuif dropoi^ tlie btossoBC corns, 
Tbis H>nng<> tM ^^ |bii^ rqmetli, and tbwIrioipiM. 

'* The leauet vpon the selfesame boi^r did bide. 
Beside the yoong the old and pp^ied figge. 
Here fniit was greene, there ripe with veripile side. 
The apples new and old grew on one twigge. 
Hie fruitfitli vine b^r annes speed high and wide. 
That bended Tnderneath their pliistera bigge. 

The grapes, were tender here, hard, yoong and sowre. 
There puiple, ripe, and nectar $wee|te foorth power. 

*' The ioyons birds, hid vader gTMoewood shade. 
Sang merrie notes on eury b|wich and bow. 
The winde (that in the leases and waters plaid) 
With murmur sweete, npw song, and whistled now. 
Ceased the birds, the winde loud answere made : 
And while the^r sung, it rujmbled soft and low ; 
Thus, were it happe or cunnins, chance or art. 
The winde in this strange inusicke bore his part. 

** With partie coloured plumes and purple bilU 
A woendreus bird among the rest there flew. 
That in plaine speech sung louelaies loud and shrill. 
Her ledenr ytw like humane language trew. 
So much she taikt^ and with such wit and skill. 
That stiteige it seemed how much good she knew ; 
Her feathred fellpwes all stood husht to heare* 
Dombe was tbe winde^ the waters silent weare. 

f^ The gentlie budding rose (quodi she) behold. 
That first scant peeping foorth with virgin betOMS, 
Halfeope, halfe shut, her beauties doth vplbld 
In their deare leaqes, and Icsse scene, fiiirer searoes. 
And after spreeds them foorth more broad and boM, 
Then languisheth and dies in last extremes. 

Nor seemes the same, that decked bed and boure. 

Of many a ladie late, and paramoure : 

f ' So, in the passli^g of a day, doth pas 

The bud and blossome of the life pf emq. 

Nor ere doth ^ouriih more, but like the gras 

Cut downe, becommeth withred, pale and wan : 

O gather then the rose while time thou has. 

Short is the day, done when it scant began ; 
Gather the rose of loue while yet thou mast, 
Louing, be lou*d — embnising,'be embrast. 

f* He oeast, and as aporoouuig all he spokci 
The quiie of birds ueur hemi'idy tones lei 



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904 Bibtieihtca Jntiqua. 

The turtles sigliM, and sigbw with kisses brobe, 

Thefoules to shades Tiiseeiie, by paires, withdmw; 

It seefDd the luureJi cba^t, ajod stubborne oke, 

And all the gentl* trees on earth tJisjt grew, 
It seemd the land, tke se^ and heau'o aboue^ 
AU breath'd put fepcie 5weete^ and sigb'd jout loue/' 

The resemblance between Spenser and Fairfax is espe- 
cially observaMe in the fpurth, sixth, and seventh stanzas^, 
of the above qiiotation : as some of our readers may not 
have Spenser at hand, we will transcribe two of his stanzas, 
perhaps the mkMi exqukify^ in the whok of his work. 

" Eftspones l^hey heard a nipst ipelodions ^ound» 
Of aJU that mote delight .a dainty eare. 
Such as at qj^ mJ^t not pn UTJnjg ground, 
Save in this Pjaradise, be bc:ard cEewher^ : 
Right hard it was for wi^ which did it hieare» 
To read wh»t joaanner musick that niptJB We; 
For all that pleasing is to human eare 
Was there cooMrted ki oie ksuwtmfi^f 
Birds, voice?, iwtruneols, wiiidsi, water's^ itU Agfinr.. 

** The joyous birds^ shrouded in chear^ful sh$ide. 
Their iKltes unto the voice jattempred sweet; 
Th' AAgeiicall soft tcembling voices made^ 
To th* instruments tfivine r^spondeoce fiiieeit : 
The silver-sounding instruments did na^et 
With the base murmur of the waters fall : 
The watetBAH, wiilh (dUtt^nenoe iiistsne^t 
Now mik, now )«i«d» uotD Ae wifid 4^ cidl : 
The genHif-wwUiog wind Jow miswened tp sU/' 

We musjt uow draw our review of Fairfax'* T^sso to a 
close, and we doit with irelujetaBce^ because w^ are obliged 
to omit mmf adxaicableipafisages wUch w^ Jh94 fielected as 
additional specimeas. Mr. Uoole w^ jip4^;^bt^ill have 
his admirers, even after the reprint of the whole work 
before us; but they wJll be principaHy coivfined tp that class 
who are fond of What thev call gented poetry ; who Jike to 
see (as in Pope'^ Homer) all the .heroes and heroine^ finished 
gentlemen and acoonyiliabed ladies ; ajcid wlio WQuld throw 
by with disgust ^any ^.erse :^liKb wm ^fut^ei^uallyi^mootb, 
polished, and wunmiusg:. ^. P. C. 



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C SOS ] 
MONTHLY CATALOGUE: 



CONCHOLOGY. 

AiftT. t9.-^The SkmenUt>f Qmch^hgj^: or N^Omni Hiii&ry ^ 
SMIb^ mMtding to the Uimt&n S^em, wUk ^bser^saicm m Mo- 
dem AfranffmmtB^ By Thomas BrowKi Esq. Sec. %>9<^ ^ 
168. iMoSon^ Lackin^on, 1S16« 

1 HX design of this work is, iu its sinpkst form, to I^y btfofe the 
stadent the Linnean arrangement of shells ; and the work is the 
more useful becavse with tbe^^eepHoo of Dr. Cftsta's, whoM system 
is now generality exploded, there is no elementary book in tb« Eiig« 
lisli lingttage on the tnli^ot. In describing the geneni, the Mtbor 
ims pointed out the diferent alterations of MKKleni inpro^mnent, and 
seveini very aently eKecQtcd plates illiiBtraVe tbe work, witli designs 
of iBHtish shells, which wiH be beneficiti also in the pnreuit of geoe- 
rat eoncboiogy. 

EDUCATION. 

Art. 14. — P. Vtrgiltt Marani$ Bucolica^ Geargiea, jEHeist aecedunt 
4» €iratiamJumthai$. Not^ Quadim AngUei SeHfim. &M$io 
Secunda^ 12mo. pp. 640. Londini^ Law et Whittaker, 1817. 

To the prelent conitedieBt pocket edMon of Virgil, is tdded notei^ 
bnt they are confined strictly to the clueidfttion ^ the text, «nd «ae 
not eiftended to the general subjcets «f liisloiy,«aytbalogy, chrono- 
logy, and geography, regarding which the stadettt sna^ mHv to the Ok- 
tionary of Lempriere. The authorities for the notes are principally from 
the Delphin eoitions, and from Professors Mtrrtyn and Heyne, yet 
those dn the Eclogues andGeorgics ate from the valuable work of J* 
H. Voss, who has conferred such impoftant obligirtions on the lovers 
of iehmcal iileralure* It is perhaps r{gbt lo observe, ithat ilhe work 
readied oar liands at « very late period of the. moBt^ which 
|»eclttdod the possibility of «Dy ramtlle atteation to ks aMvite, but 
we W6M tinwilliBgiiot to take the^earlieat op)x>rtuBity of tiotimi^ iL 

A&T. l&.^ne Yctmg Mam'$ Book 4f Knowledge: xmiiabme m/m^ . 
wiHar tkw vjf^ ike mnwriMHe of i?«%tMi« the Worke ^ SiaiuH^ 
Logic^ Elofmncc, the Pasmanf, Matter and Motion^ Mdgndm^ 
Meehimkal Powen, HydroetaHct, tfc. By I'uomas TBGGb 4tli 
edit. 8vo. .|>p. *S86. London^ Sherwood, Neely« and ione^ 

aen. 

Yhi3 work must 1>e considered u a'mere compflation, hi wfiidi 
the principles of the several scieac^ are laid down, with peopi- 



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t06 Montblj CtLisBldgnii.'^tdtigtidgei; 

coitj to tft to fequiie no previous knowledge to tbe stodeipi. 
The only novelty id tb^ prcfseht edition is a concise ifildex, which u 
however sufficient matdrisuly to&cilitale the references to the several 
subjects. 

Art. l6.-^^emenl^ ofl/mvend Geography^ Antkni and Madeni; 
'a descrif^on of the BtnMdary, BxtaUi Dmsian, chief 



CitieSf Sea-portBi Bays, Qulphs, S^c, of the several ComUrietj 
States, ifc. of the Known Woridi to tphim are added. Historical, 
Classical and Mythological Notes. By A. Pionot» 2d edit. 8vo# 
pp. d28. London, Lackington, and Co. 1817. 

The changes in the governments and relations of Europe, deter- 
mined upon at the late Con^p^ss at Vienna, have been introdiiced 
into the present edition of this elementary work, and generally au- 
thentic sources of information have been resorted to^ in order to 
cmrect the errors of the former publication* and to enlarge the infor- 
mation contained in the present. As it is intended that tbe whole« 
or the greater part of the contents should be committed to memory^ 
in order to attain the necessary conciseness every thing superfluous 
has been omitted. The author is a foreigner, which will be an apo- 
logy for any little incorrectness that may be discovered in the use 
ofuie English Language. 



LANGUAGES. 
Abt. I7.~il DicHokuary of Oe Spanish and Englidk Lahgnages, 
hf lAe Rev. Don FeUpe Fernandez, a native of Spain, and 
Fontider of the Royal Eumomical Society ^ J/Cerez de la Fron- 
teta. Londotty^Lackington, Bvo. 1817* 

Diecianario de la Lengua Inglesapara eluso delos Espanoles, com- 
jpUddo de bs mgmts amtora de ambas naciones, par el Rev. Don 
Fdifc Fernandez^ Sfc* London, &c 1817- 

Xhb first of these dictionaries b a most singukr attempt, to which 
we'are sorry we cannot promise -much success, although the author 
has devoted sixteen years to reflection upon it. It is the incorpora* 
tiott of two languages under a single alphabet, so that you have the 
English and Spanish words in succession ; the one translated into 
Spttibh, and the other into English. This scheme is perfectly new, 
mid it is supposed by the autlior to be the best means of saving 
trouble and loss of time by the frequent mistakes of looking for 
«n E^ish word in the Spamsh, or a Spanish word in the English 

Eirt of the dictionary in the common foim. We confess that we 
ve conned over our Latin and Greek dictionaries and lexicons 
dnrmg a long apprenticeship! and the Spanish dictionaries of Del- 
pino/rineda yet others for an e<|ual time, yet we have never found , 
the difficult]^ to which Don Felipe alludes : much greater, as it ap- 



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fMrnri to visi h XM eabsmstmeot llmt wMi be •ceaaiM^ h^ theao-. 
telty he has thought fit to introduce. .' ' 

On a curstiry exaoihiation of the last publication noticed, we 
observe no objection to tfire S|ianish ptirt of ii; bdt both in this 
iuid the fordM^, we s^ material errors, equailly iti the versions of 
the Spanbh to the English, and \he English to the Spanbh.— 
Thes^ works are neatly printed, and in a compact and commo- 
dious form^ add so far we can tecommend them to our readers^ 

w— ■ tini Mila iiiihili iN*i^Mii<<iMwa<MMMWM*JiS 

Medicine. 

Abt. 11.— a dwnory inquiry info tbnit of the prhmpd tmm of 
MoriaHhf among ChMirin, itfiHk d view to auiei in amcUonOiKig 
ike Hate of the Rigmg Generation In Health, MoroUi and Hof- 
pmm. To which is addddi an Aioommt of the Umnaid Di^^en- 
oary for Sick Indigent Ckiidnn. By John BunKftLi. Davi9j» 
Mi D. London, T. and G. Underwood, 8voi nP* "^^ IWt* 

It is an imponant enquiry to wLat.cafases are to be atiributed the ill 
health of children, and the great .mortality among those of th^ 
lower orders in the metropolis i It is, in part, to be assigned to 
fnoral depravity, i^esi|lting, not so much uom die want of nataital 
affection^ as the degrading and destructive practice of dram-dnnk- 
ing, which occasions parental neglect; and as is stated by our 
author, a weak, delicate, and diaeued organization is the unhappy 
inheritance of those in/ants whose ppenta have impaired and en- 
ffcebled their constitutions, from the inmiodeTate use of spirits. Of 
the siduiirable charities which British munificence has establish^, 
few appear entitled to more consideration than whftt is called the 
Universal t)ispensaiy for Children, of which an interesting accornit 
is given in the pamphlet befbre Us. 

-T ui li If i I I I i< " I ' II igcgscacg III i ' ^ 

POETRY. 

AmT. la.— CHfa and other Poem. By Henry Heelh. London, 
Sherwood and Co. I2xa^ pp. 144» 1816. 

W^AHT of rooln compels us to tidtice these productiofts ill the 
Moi^y Cataioguei though we had reserved them fer a sepittle ar- 
ticle in another part of our Review i tbey are several degrees better 
than the shape in which they are put forth to Ae world would lead 
na to expect; Who the author is, we know not; bat if not a poet 
likely to rise to eminence, he is not to be phiced upon the common 
level of versifiers; and if he do not possess great or^nahty of 
dionght, his versification is some of the most pleasing and h«™^ 
<Nis, that has recentiv come under our observation. Taktthcfplr 
lowing specimen from'an Ode to Memory^ a stale subject, on whicli: 
CbitVRet. V^t.. V. Feb. 1817. 2K 



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SOS UontMjr GaUJogae^Aidrjir; 

it would bie cKlkolt lor cor best tvriten now to ofir mj pett iio<^ 
velty. 

Yet open Memory*s book again^ 

Turn o'er the lovelier pages now. 
And find that balm for present pain. 

Which past enjoyment can bestow : 
Delusion all, and void of power, 
For e'en in thought's serenest hour. 

When past delights are felt, 
And Memory shines on scenes of woe, 
Tis like the moonbeam on the snow, 
' That gilds but cannot melt; 
That throws a mockerj lustre o*er. 
But leayes it, chec^less.as before* 
Her sweetest song will only teU > 

Of long departed noon ; 
Of things we iov'd, alas I bow well ; 

And lost, alas I how soon ; 
For feelings blasted, hopes deferred, 
And secret woes unseen, unheard 

By the cold crowd around ; 
Will rise, and make their plaintive moan. 
And mingle with her softest tone. 

Till in their murmurs drown'd, * / . 

Her lyi'e shall lose its soothing ilow. 
And only tell a tale of woe.*' (p. 16 — 17.) 

The author is certainly ambitious, for he has made attempts at. 
the highest order of lyrical compositions: he has written Odes to 
Timey Hope, Despair, Enthusiasm, Fancy, the Power of Poetry^ 
Pity, Allegory, «&c.; biit lie wants a little Judgment in commencing 
with such lof^ aims. In a few of these subjects he endeavours to 
ibllow some Imrds who wiH never be overtaiien> and who jb their, 
airy progress have left behind no footsteps by which they may be 
traced. With them we suppose Mr. Neale cannot mean for a mo« 
ment to put himself in competition ; or if be do, he does *ot poi* 
sess that sure accompaniment of aU true excMenct-^kamUUy : and 
we woiddadme him. to la^ dpwn bis f* quill presumptions.*' Beside 
OdeSf we bave in the small volume before us Sonnets andMiscel- 
Ittoies: we have only space to quote the following, iA^ch wefiwl 
mnued will be read witn pleasure : — 

** Why do we love thee* Famel thcHi art not sweet; 
If sweetness dwell with softness and repose ; 
Thou art not fair, if beauty be ie|4ete 

With peace and tenderness, and ease from woes ; 
Thou art not faithful, for thy power and flame 

To fierce extremes the maddening votary urge. 
And qft the winds that should hi« bliss proelaim* 
Swell but the chorus of his funeral durge : 



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Y^ W^ do love tliee — I^ve tbee till the Uood 

Wasted ipr Ihee, forsakes the heart thy shrine ; 
Till happiness b past, and toil withstood, 

Aadlife it^lf pour'd idly forth: — for thine 
Is that m^MierioMs witchery thait b^iMtes 
The soul it stabs» and manters while it sni jl^s*^' 
We loiagiQe that the author's wishes have been gratified in thi$ 
maQoer in which his poeqis are published; but we never saw a 
more successful endeavour to spread a few lines oyer a large space : 
this is the first ^ae we recollect to ht^e. observed sonnets, of four- 
teen lines each, extended over two pages^ for the sake of swelling 
the bulk of the volume. This practice deserves severe reprobation, 

■ ■ III I I » • I I li iiii 'im l i \i i f\l SS^ssssss m* i ri,, ] 5» 

POLI'nCAL ECONOMY. 
Art. 19. — A Remedy for the late Bad Harvest. 12n]o. pp. 24. 

iJondon, Ricbardsan, 1817. 
TV E doubt if tlie word remedy iii this little pamphlet be properly 
employed, and it i& certainly misapplied, if we are to understand by it 
a cure, and not simplv an alleviation of the pressure of the disease. 
It is properly said, that the dearness of bread is a security against 
its total failure ; and in this view, it is of the utmost importance 
that this safeguard should not in England, as in the metropolis of 
France, be removed, by enabling the most numerous part of the 
community to purchase it under the actual price^ Whatever relief is 
now afforded to the poor, should be furnished in any commodity 
rather than in bread. The author expresseshimself somewhat strange- 
ly, v^ere he says, that the only effectual way of relieving them in 
this article, is by means of a reduced consHmptim; or. If we under* 
stand him, by depriving them, as much as possible, of the use of it. 
We agree, however, with him in the policv of employing every 
effort by care and economy, in order to bring the slock of wheat upon 
a par with the time it h to kat. 

Art. fiO.— Common C&iueHt ike hamof the Omstitutum of England t 
Of* ParHamenktry Reform eonmdered and tried by the testi <f Law 
and Reason. 8vo. pp. 96. [/)ndon, T. and J. AUman^ 1817. 
Among tfie subjects of serious complaint, with this writer* he enu^ 
ikierates the neglect of tlie nobility and gentr;^ of the kjngdoas thft 
3tagndte$ et Proceres Regni, to attend to the niterests of Aepeopitt, 
mid lie contrasts the present apathy of that powerful body with, the 
neti, valour» and intelligence by which Magna Chartawas acquired* 
It is here insisted that the legislature of England is represenlative, 
and that the common consent of the people ought to be expressed 
by a £iir and equal representation, Sucn propositions we believe 
there are very fsw in this country^ at the present tioie» inclined to 
oj^pose; and I he only rational question is, whether it be safe and 
ime, by a general and comprehensive phin, to civrect at mact all 
the existing abuser or whether it bjs belter to proceed step bv step^ 
removing one abuse after another, until the ^entice pii{p<is6 be ac« 
compliabHi. 

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ilO Monthly Catalog^e^Po/tltca/ Bcm^my, 

Thf author is in the dass of what have been eriied swiping ror 
formers. *<I have not," he sa^s, <<propo9<^ thdt the House ot 
Commons should be reformed by successive changes ; first, because 
the present calamities are so dreadful, that if n remedy be not imr 
mediately sought for, it may be found too late to prevent the ap- 
proaching horrors. Secondly, l>ecanse every change of the govern* 
in^ most be attended with great national anxiety^ and we ought 
not to proceed in a manner to prolong that anxiety for a suceetsioii 
of years. Thirdly, because no reform of this nature can be effected 

Sslow degrees ; *^ to think so,'* he observes very pliiu»ibl% ** imr 
, es a belief that the usurpers are so unwary in the support of their 
power^ as to bt^ led to concede one point after another, till the3r'have 
lost the whole of it." In the limits to which we are confined .in our 
Monthh^ Catalogue,, we cannot be expected lo discuss these impor- 
tam topics. — rr — 

Art. 2^.—Reaitm8 for the EsiabUAmetU of Provident InaUtaUm 
catted Satnngs^ Bank$; wkh a Word of Caution remcting their 
fbrmation: and an Appendix, contaimng a Model for theForr 
mutton of Savings* Banks, according to the Plan adopted hy the 
Provident Institution ettablished m the Western Part of the Me- 
tropolis, and hy that for the City of London and its Vicinity, by 
John Bowles. Esq. 8vo. pp. 45. London, Btchardsou^ 1817, 

It will be recollected that the Bill for the Encoiiragement of 
Savings' Banks, having in the last year passed the Commons, was 
read Sie first time in the House of Lords, ^hen the Minister for the 
Home Department recoromeQded that it should be primed, in order 
that it might receive the full consideration when the attention of 
their Lordships should be called to the subj^t ip the ensuiiig ses- 
sion. In this situation the bill regains, apd there is ground to 
expect that it will be soon offered for the sanction of the Peers. 
Although this expected law will afford additiooal facilities and secur 
rities to Savings' Banks, together with an exemption from various 
stamp duties and otlier expenses, to prevent delay the author properly 
stated, that in one respect only these banks are materi^ly defective^ 
from the want of legislative assbtance. " As," be says, ** the l9w 
now stands, they are unable upon Ihe death of depositors to obtain 
a dischaige from responaibility for deposits, however small, unless 
the expense attending the probate of a testamentary disposition, or 
the tailing out of letters of administration be first incurred." To 
anpplv thb defect, it seems some provision has been made in the 
biu already framed, but inadequately ; and it is suggested, therefore, 
by the author, that the rmdatbns acted upon in the institutions 
fi>nned at Bath, Exeter, the western part of the m^ropplis, and the 
city of London, would fbmish a good model for the legislative enact- 
ment. We form very pleasing expectations of the consequences of 
auch institutions; ana m order tliat thejf may be attended with all 
the benefits the^ can confer, we are anxious that attention should be 
Mid to thecantioos proposed by Mc ]Bowles in tbis third editipiiff 
las sensible pamphlet 



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[211 ] 



WORKS IN THE PRESS. 



TbeHoiiseofMouniiig:,m Poem, i 
vritb some snmllcr pieces* by John 
Scott, author of a Visit to Paris, 
and ParM Revisited. 
^ Wluth«r U hecowB, what accident 
. hath rapt him from as." 

Mr. Bayley, foimerly of Mcrton 
College, lias in the press Idwal, 
the Narrative of Brito, md the 
Hostage, detached portions of an 
Epic Poem ; with a Poem in GreeM 
Heiameters. 

. Mr. J. H. Lewislias in the poess, 
•o Htslorical Account of the Rise 
and Progress of Short-hand, ex- 
tracted from Lectures delivered at 
different periods by the Author. 

The Rev. Sir Adam Gordon 
has in the press a Course of Lec- 
tures on the Church Catechism, 
for every Sunday in the Year. 

A Journal of a Tour in Ger- 
many, Sweden, Russia, Poland, 
kc. by J.T. James, Esq. Christ 
Church, Oxford : the 2d edition. 
The Comforts of Old Age, 
with Biographical Illustrations^ 
by Sir Thomas Barnard, t)ie se- 
cond edition. 

Tules of My Landlord, the 
third edition, 4 vol. 12aio. 

A oeyt and greatly enlarged edi- 
tion by the author of the Kev. 
Rowland Hlirs celebrated Village 
Dialogues, is in the press ^nd will 
be completed in about tifventy- 
four nunibers. No. 1. will appear 
on the is| of April, with a portrait 
of the author. 

The second number of the new 

and improved edition of Stej^hen's 

GreelLThesaui^ is justpublishcid. 

'^IThe Pl!e84&Dt nuitiber hi|s been de- 

hyea a con^r^l^^ tim(& by a 



twaty witli theProfeiaorScbttfer, 
of L«ipsic, for hb valuable MSS* 
which the editors have at ksffth 
procarads bnt they trast that 
their present arrangements will 
enable them to pablish the future 
nnmbers regiibrlv. The two first 
numbers will be round to contaiD 
about &000 words omitted by 
Stephens. A few copies belong- 
ing to deceaMd subscribers may 
behad; the price to hfe hereaftor 
raised again nrom time to time. 

A work of verjf general utility 
will be published in the coome of 
the present month, ^titled. The 
Bible Class Book, m Scripture 
Readings for every Day in the 
Year; being Three Hundred and • 
Sixty-five Lessons, selected from 
the most entertaining and instruc- 
tive parts of the Sacred Scrm- 
tures. This selection is made 
upon a plan recommended b^ Dr. 
Watts, and though its chief aim is 
that of becoming a school class 
book for youth m all stations of 
life, and of every religious deno- 
mination, (fo|r doctrinal and con- 
troversial points have been studi- 
ously omitted,) ^et will it be found 
equally beneficial in all fiimilies 
— to persons of mature age, as 
well as youth — to the h^s.of 
establishments as vrell as to ser- 
vants, and the manufiicturing 
classes of the commqnity. 

The Rev. Mr. Broome has en- 
larged his selections firom.the 
works of those eminent Divines 
Fuller and South, and they will be 
published in.the.course of tbe pie- 
sent month as a second edition* 

A small vohima upon ttie Art 



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9If 



Works in the PresSy ifc. 



of Making, Managiog^ Flavour- 
ing, Colouring, Prflscrvingt, and 
Recovering all Kinds of Wtncf, 
Spirits and Compounds; with 
Directions for Brewing, &c. &c. 
by M. R. Westney, will be pub- 
lished in a few days. 

Mf. Sotheby will sell during 
the piresent sedson, the interest- 
•iug and rare collection of the 
Rev. Henry !Vf eep, 6 D. late Rec- 
tor of St. Nicholas, Olave, and 
St% Nicholas, Cole Abbey; also 
' The very valuable and highly 
interesting united Libraries of 
Thomas Mollis, £si|. and Thomas 
Brand Hollis, Esq. including like- 
wise tiie Theological and Political 
Library of the late Rev. John 
Disney, D. D. F.S. A. removed 
from Hyde, near Ingatestone, 
Essex. Among the former are a 
cam)[^€te Collection of tlie diffe- 
rent Editions and various Works 
•of Milton ; likewise Yiolet^s vari- 
ous Pieces. A veir large Collec- 
tion of Historical Tracts relative 
to the Grand Rebellion and Com- 
monwealth. The entire Collec- 
tion by, and relating to the Works 
of Dr. Priestley. 

A very valuable and extensive 
Collection of Ancient and Modem 
Coins and Medals, collected by 
Thomas Hollis, Esq. and Thomas 
Brand Hollis, Esq. removed from 
Hyde, in Essex ; comprising nu- 
merous and highly preserved spe- 
cimens in the Saxon and British 
series. Pope's medals, large Re- 
man brass, Greek and Roman 
medals, &c. &c. in copper, silver* 
•nd gold, will also be sold ; and 

A considerable Selection of 
BconaeSyVases, Lacranee, Lamps, 
Terracottas, Raphaers China, and 
«lfaer curiosities of the Hollisi 
CoiJectien. I 

A veprint of Morte^^Ai4hur< 



The text of this edition will be a 
faithful transcript from the Cax- 
ton editioi^ in the possession of 
Earl Spencer, with an introduction 
and notes. By Robert Southey, 
Esq. poet laureatCi 

Mr. J. M. Kenneir is preparing 
a Journey through Asia Minor, 
Armenia, and Kurdistan, in IBIS 
and 1814, ^with remarks on th^ 
Ma/ches of Alexander, and the 
Retreat of the Ten Thousand. 

Capt. Beaufort has a Descrip- 
tion of the Remains of Antiquity 
on the South Coast of Asia Minor, 
with plates and charts, nearly 
ready for publication. 

Dr- f rvmg is preparing an en- 
Jarged edition of the Memoirs of 
Buchanan; with an appendix, 
which will contatn a great num«- 
ber of original papers. 

Mr. Isaac Blackburn^ ship- 
builder at Plymouth, has ready 
for tlie press) a Treatise on the 
Science of Ship-building, illus- 
trated by more than 120 figures 
and tables, and will form a quarto 
volume. 

Mr. Newman, of Soho-square, 
has in the press, an Essay on the 
Analogy and Harmony of Co- 
lours, with a new theory of their 
relations and arrangement. 

T. S. Raffles, Esq. late lieute- 
nant-governor of Java, has in the 
press, in a quarto volume, an Ac- 
count of the Island of Java, illiM- 
trated by a map and numerous 
plates. 

Mbs Edgeworth has a volume 
of Comic Dramas in^the press. 

The Rev. Dr. Bymroons* trans- 
lation of the £neid of Virgil is 
neariy ready for publication, in a 
quarto volume. 

Melincourt, in three vohmea, 
by the author of Headtong Hall, 
is lit die press* ; / 



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: J 



C MS 3 



LIST OF NEW PUBMCATIOT^S. 



' The OrigiH, fexTcletleiice, and P^r- 
>r)Bjr«ion of Wakes or Parish Feasts, a 
Senttoa, pftsacMed at Madtey, near 
Hereford, on Sunday, September 
as, 18M. By George Cope, D.D. 
Canon Residentiary of Herelbrd, and 
Ticar of Madley. 

- Observations for the Use of Land- 
ed Gentlemen on the Present State 
and Fatnre Prospects of the British 
Famer. By Rustictts. 

Six Weeks at Long^s ; a Satirical 
Koi^iy by a Late Resident. 
** Longo ordine gentes." 

Considerations on the Poor Laws, 
and tite Treatment of the Poor, with 
.Suggestions for making the Public 
AnnuitantB Contributary to their 
Support. By one of his Majesty's 
Jnstiees of the Peace. 

Illustration (efaleily Geotgraphical) 
of the Hifttoiy of the Expedition of 
the Youngs Cyrus, and uie Retreat 
of tiie Ten Thousand Greeks. By 
Major Rennet. 

PoeuM on Moral and Relieious 
Sali^ects. To which are prehxed, 
Intro<kictn)ry Remarks on a Course 
of Fenade Education. Bv Alice 
Flowerdew, Conductress of a Semi- 
nary fdr Young Ladies, at Bury St. 
£dninnd8, Suffolk. Third edition. 

A View ai the History, literature, 
and Relision of the Hindoo* • indud- 
iftig a Hi inute Description of their 
Manners and Customs; and Transla- 
tions froin their principal Works. 
By the ReV. W. ward, one of the 
Baptist Missionaries at S^rampore. 
llid third edition, carefnlly^abHdged 
and greatly improved. 

Historical and Miscellaneous Qnei^ 
tiohs, Ibr the Use of Young People; 
with a Selection of British and Oe- 
neral Biography, Sec, By Richnnl 
MatagnalL 

Historical Anecdotes of some of 
the Howard Family. By Charles, 
Teftth Dttke«f Nolfolk. 

The Jurisdiction of Justices of tiie 
Ptecfe, and Aathority of PaHsh Of- 
ficers, in ail matters relating to Pa- 
ii»(bhial Law, with Practical Famu 
of all necessary Proceedings ; the ad- 
judged Cases to Micha^mas Term, 
I8U9 and the Statutes of the last Ses- 



sion of. Fttrlianient 1816. By Itio- 
msis Waltisr Williams^ Esm of the In^ 
ner T«mplfe, fialrrister-atJaw^ 

The Law and Practice of Smnmaiy 
Convictions «n'l'eBat Statutes, by 
Jdvtices of the Peac6. In Four 
Parts. Part L tontaining tfa^ Pro^ 
ceedings b9fot^e Conviction. Part IL 
The Conviction itself. Part IIL 
Proeeedings after' ConvtctitM, viz. 
Distress, Imprisomnent; alsoaiiAp* 
peal and Removal by Habeai Cor* 
puis, or Certioryi, Costs, 6:Ci Part'IV4 
Actions, dec. against, and indemnity 
of Justices and their Officers in the 
Execution of Sttmnmry Jnrisdtction ; 
with an Appendix, containing Prac- 
tical Forms syid Precedents of Con- 
victions. By W. Paley, Esq. of Lin- 
coln's Inn, Barrister-at-iaw. 

Borne Facts, shewing the Vast Bar* 
den of the Poor-Rates in aparticukuf 
District, with a View Of the anecpMil 
Mode in which difierent kinds of 
Property contribute to. the sappart 
of Paupers. By a Member of the 
Shropshire Committee for the Bdi- 
plOjrmeat of the Poor destiCota ol 
Work. 

A Letter on the Distresses of Ihe 
Country, addressed to his Royad 
Highness the Duke of KenV ia €Ofr» 
sequence of his Motion respecting 
<<The Revulsion ofTradie, aad 4nr 
sudden transition from a system. of 
extensive War to a state of Peabe ;'' 
m which the supposed IhQuencb of 
our Debt and Taxes . npon oar Ma-^ 
nufactories and Foreigfa ■ Trade it 
investigated. By John Ashtoil YMtfcs. 

A View of the Agrienltulral^ Confe. 
mereial^ and Financial Intereftis 6i 
Ccylnn. With an Appendix; ean« 
taining some of the principal LA^ 
and Usages of the Candia^; Part 
alidCSastDrt»>h<)nse RegnlatioBt; Ta-* 
bles of Exports and Imports^ Public 
Revenue and Expenditure, Stt^Stotm 
By Aadiony Bertniicci,. £s(|. lath 
Comptroller-general of Customs^ ami 
acting Andrior-geneM of Civil Ac* 
eoanta in that Colony. 

The Home of Love^ a Poenu By 
Mrs. Henry Rolls, author of Sacrod 
Sketches. 

Carsory Hints on the Applicatioa 



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914 



tist of I^,ew^ Piibticaiions^ 



pf Pubtie Siib8criii^«;iir{)ffOTUing 
Emptoynieiit and Relief ibi* the La- 
bovring Clasfles ; in a Letter to the 
Editor of •" Hw Timet^" Bf siMem- 
her of the Univeratr^ of Oxford* 

A Third Volume of the Cur iointies 
of literature. 

An Elementary Treatise on the 
Differential and Integral Calculates. 
By 8. F. Lacroiz. Translated . from 
the French) with an Appendix and 
Notes* 

A SermOU) delivered at Lewin'a 
Head Meeting, in Briatol^ Decern- 
ber 22, U16 ; and published at the 
Request of the Congregation* By 
John Rowe* 



Secmons, preached in' the Piftrist^ 
Church of KHmaUie. By the Rev. 
John Ross, AM. 

I^ectnre^ on the Prtnclple»tJEnd 
Institution^ of the Roman* Catholic^ 
Religion; with an Appendix, con- 
taining Hbtorical and Critical It- 
lustrations^ By the Rev. Joseph 
Fletcher, M.A. 

The History and Antiquities of the 
Abbey Church of St. Peter, West- 
minster. By K. W, Br^yley : with. 
Architectural and Graphic Illustra- 
tions, by J. P. Neale. Part II. witl^ 
fine Engravings, folio, to correspond 
with Dugdale's Monasticon ; and iif 
imperial and itoyal quarto's. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

The Letter of AmiaUy from Sunderland, has come to hand, t^ith regard, 
to die G<«iplaint of our unknown friend, we admit that we were severe, 
but the lash was well deserved, and we think we should find very few who 
would not willingly join ns in the castigation. At the same time the can^ 
dour and benevolence ofAmieus are creditable to his heart, if hi» criticism 
and opinion do not much redound to the honour of his judgment. While, 
enforcing forbearance, it might have been as well, if he had set the exam- 
ple ; in &IS infltance (after vniat he has said) we exercise that virtue with' 
Mine reluctance. We should have thanked Amkus for the prwaiM infonna- 
tion he transmits had it not been known long ago to all the re«t of Uie world. 

Two new Tragedies are before ns. one of which will be criticised in our 
next dramaticarticle. That from Manchester would have founa a place in 
onr present number, but fbr the unavoidable continuation of an unfinished 
review. 

We thank Dr. Yeats for his obliging communication informineuA of a fact 
with which we were unacquainted, not suspecting that the me<ucal articl^i. 
of the Critical Review could be open, at least, to the obarge of want of 
candour* Dr. Yeatsfa letter U quite satisfactory, and convinces us that the 
error in tiie heading of his article in the MedioiU and PhysiaU Jaunud could 
onhr have originated in a mistake. 

The Editors are obliged by the communication of Mr. T. U. in defence of 
Britbh Seamen, and he will be aware that the work he refers to having 
abeady been noticed, it would not be consistent with the general plan of a 
Review to comment on a second edition, unless some material variation 
had been made from the former. 

Several respectable publications are unavoidably deferred, and one espe- . 
dally connected with Gothic Ai«failecture, we have very reluctantly post* 
poned to our next number. 

We beg leave to refer a Medical Gentleman to our notice to Correspon* 
dents hi the Critical Review of December last, in reply to his communi-. 



The writer of a note fiom Soho Squaire, inclosing an account of a Medi- 
cal Institution,^ should be apprized, that insertions of the kind he desires ' 
are liable to the payment of daty^ and are not williiii the literary purposes 
•fa periodical review. 



MIITTBD BY W. SMtta AMD Cd. KJKQ STBBST, SBVKII DIALS. 



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THE 

CRITICAL REVIEW; 



j> ,n " i 



Vol.. v.]! MARCH, 18ie. [-No. III. 

Art. l.—CurioHties ^Literature. In Three Foluitnes. 
VoL 111, 8vo. pp. 483. London, John Murtay, 1817. 

Ttt"^ nib of a tollector of bibgiraphicat iLtiecdotes dnd' Ifterdt^ 
reiitd mxxM ht one 6^ the pleii'sanliest rn ttie M^oHd, ph^Vtded 
i\h likif^e c^tbp^t^iitandmde^endent'aiea'n^ofsappoff. Witti- 
otit undergoing thfe dn)dg^i*y of a'ttthbrshipjfwhlch'ohd Writer 
by professtoh'has decsiai^d'tb'bfe' " worsti'thaH Aie occiipcitibki 
of a scav^tiget",") he wanders froni Hbrkry'tt) litttar^, and pry- 
ing first into otie curious wbrk* a^d' tii^h' into dnbth^r, M 
picks 6u< with w^-reWdt'd^d indusby eVei^y liltle cti^m- 
stance; of narrative, thU! niajf'^bit'his j^ui^pbsef: hefe^k'nonfe 
of tie oppression 6r tbos^* i<*tt" haV^ dhHyairked irl' ah ex- 
tended undertaking; ahd v#ltti'riiusta[ib)y all their ibairhihg and 
research^ in tUat bUI^ dtt^^idn; hb Ha^ libtlliHg to do'btit 




sort of fiisFtlHc^,' he pitches dpbn stich pam bf d*wb^k as 
suii^ht^'pifrpo^. He keep^ a poftfblib, ih wUcK'He depo^ 
sh^;Ui^8^Uii alphabeti^aiiy ; and dt stated titi^^s; ^e\\ bi^ 
<ib11^criXM'i§^8U0iti^btly Ikt^e, he arranges thedi id sUbject^^ 
sMn^s'tiiiftntf tbgetherbydbnnMting paragraphs; ah'd aiduses 
(KtfShnfB with whalSMs ddighted Uiinseif: 

Ani'ittdividlial wlio thus bt^pies'hii tld^ h^l)^sides'.th* 
fHitisfirdlort of belifeving tltaf it has hot been wlasted : lidt, ihi 
d*ted, tHtft be'ife undefr an fllusioii^of ihitadrtality, like Perce^- 
val Sto^KHale, but* that K^ ii nofin tbg unfottViriite'srtU&tioA 
of Dr.Ole • wlio iiavih^ derbtfed His life tb 'making collectibhb 
Wf hf^ Jfhend^ CdHtabri'gietisys'j diedMir4W cbrtvictfoh Aat 
all Ms lalToiffs hjtd been iid^ritrplted,^nd that h^ had'bi^^H s(fa 
ilhprofitafelfeiti^ihbei-'oftfodety:* thifccJllc'ctbf ofrfW^irffbibi 
<^iii^arid<bo6ks hkk hoWev^r tW plea^urb dFkjUHfitik 
tinrt his publK^tibn^ Will b« rehd'; and that; itide^i^na^ay^ 

* TVrotatttviUpals ifhpAQ biograj^by hu beon cBetoBed ^yMr.'D^UnAUi 

Cait. Rev. Vot. V, Marehy 1817. 8 F 

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816 WhraeWs Curiosities of Literature. 

of the entertainment they will afford, (which in itself is a 
great gain,) they Will be useful as an assenoblage of parti- 
culars not elsewhere so easily to be found; and though he 
does not pretend to give much that is original, be is saving 
those who do, a great deal of labour in hunting over the 
volumes to which he has resorted. 

We do not mean to say that the above is precisely the 
.character of Mr. D'Israeli, the author of the Curiomties of 
.Literature^ a third volume of which has just been published, 
and is now under review ; on the contrary, though not 9 
man of very high talent, or of very original mind, be has 
more of both tfian usoalty falls to the share of mere collec- 
tors, and his taste upon subjects of poetry and belles letlres 
IS generally correct, and frequently refined : he i^ also well 
informed in the lighter departments of literature, though 
.the variety and extended nature of his pursuits has, per- 
haps, prevented him from becoming entitled to the epithet 
of learned : his error is in the attempt to shew himself 
pmnis Minervce homo^ which sometimes occasions him to be 
superficial upon topics where even a respectable degree of 
knowledge is not of \ery difficult acquisition. His style is 
generally easy and tiuent-— running, indeed, sometimes with 
too great facility, without depth or energy. We think 
this a just estimate of the agreeable author before us, after 
the perusal of the works he has put forth, which congregate 
more entertaining and useful particulars of the lives of men 
of note, and especially of those connected with letters, than 
are to be found elsewhere in so small a circuit; in his 
Calamities and Quarrels of Authors, he has so arranged 
and systematized his materials, as to make them amount to 
ingenious and welUcontrasted pieces of biography : these 
works fully illustrate what we have above said of the de- 
light which even a man less gifted than Mr. D'Israeli majr 
take in the hunt for anecdotes and curiosities; and the 
author himself appears to have taken so much pleasure in 
writing them, that he could not fail of communicating some 
portion of it to his readers. This, indeed, is one secret 
why Mr. D'lsraeli is a writer so universally approved. 

His Vindication of the Character of James 1., which we 
reviewed in our Number for June last, was a work of more 
pretension than any other he has given to the world ; but^ 
SOT the reasons we then assigned, we -do not think it a very 
successful historical effort, if such it may be called ; and 
Jthe opinions it records arequite at variance with those con- 
tained in the second volume of the work in our hands, in 



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jyiiraeKB CuriosUies ofLUtraiure. 217 

^Uich the *^ Royal Pedant" is certainly not treated with 
great respect :* perhaps Mr. D'Israeli's sense of justice on 
better acquaintance, has induced him to make amends, and 
to endeavour to establish, that King James was not only a 
poet, but a philosopher, and one of the first wits of that 
age of learning and genius. 

The Curiosities of* Literature may be considered as the 
unappropriated leavings of the various works above men- 
tioned — such anecdotes as are usually comprised under the 
title oiAnOy the notices of works not generally known, and 
- the historical facts and critical observations .the author has 
interspersed : we call these the unappropriated leavings, not 
to diminish their value, but in order to indicate their miscel- 
laneous nature : such notes and memoranda as did not relate 
to any of the persons or subjects more systematically treated 
by him, the author has periodically thrown together in vo- 
lumes, with some apposite connecting remarks ; and though 
he ^^ has picked up wit as pidgeons pick up peas,'^ he has not 
" dealt it forth again as Heaven doth please ;'* for he has taken 
considerable pains in the arrangement and discussion of the 
different topics. In this third volume the subjects are not 
ijuite so various and entertaining as in the two previous 
portions of the same work, but they are more original, as 
the writer became better informed, and he has been a great 
deal less indebted to foreign works for the intelligence 
supplied. We will furnish our readers with some extracts 
from the most curious and interesting parts of the work : 
the first part is occupied by a discussion upon pantomimic 
characters, and the Commedie a Sog^etto^ or impromptu 
plays of the Italians: from hence Mr. Disraeli supplies a 
very useful note upon a passage in Massinger*s Emperor of 
the East, and explains plausibly a circumstance regurding 
the English stage, upon which we have been hitherto in 
the dark. 

" The pantomimic characters, and the extempore comedy of 
Italy, may have had some influence even on our own dramatic poets ; 
this source has indeed escaped all notice ; yet I incline to think it 
explains a difficult point in Massinger, which has baffled even the 
keen spirit of Mr. Gilford. 

'* A passage in Massinger bears a striking resemblance with one 
in Moliere's ' Malade Imaginaire.' It is in * The Emperor of the 
East/ vol. iii. 317. The Quack, or ' Empiric's' humorous notion 
is so closely that of Moliere's, that Mr. Gifford, agreeing with Mr. 

* W« refer to the edition of 1797, p. 324. 

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CIS jyJiradfsOurimUesBfLiieraiHre. 

Gilchrislf * finds it difficult to believe the coiiifiideaa.e accideDtd ;^ 
but tbe gK9fer dififPuU^ i^, lU) p^vc^ive ^th^lt ' Mas^ivg^r e^r feU 
ufio Miofiere's bai^d^/ ^t U^at p«rio4» in the iji^cy qf our literar 
ti^re, otf r pativ/e f^tbji^nB ^d our oyfji laogu^gfe iiye^p a^ i^|^ii)at«fl n§ 
tpfir country. It is mipie t|i^a probable that M^btuger ;3od Molju^i^iii^ 
baid drawn from the same source — the It^liao comeqy. M^f super's 
* En^pjric/ as well as th(e acknowledged copy of Moliere's ' ]^^de- 
cin,* came from tfie * liottore' of t^e Italian comedy. The humour 
of these old |[talian pantomimes was often as traditionally preserved 
a^ proverbs. Msissinger was a student of Italian authors ; and some 
of the lucky hits of Ibeir Theatre, whiah then consisted of nothing 
else but these burlesque comedies, might have circuitously reached 
the English bard ; and six -^qd thirty years afterwards the sanp tra- 
ditional jests might have been gleaned by the Gallic one from the 
' Dottore/ who was still repeataiig what be kafiw was suw of please 
iQg. Qur the9tre9 pf the £|iz^rh%p peripd seem to bay^ faa<) l)gv» 
the f xtempore comedy after (be manner of the Italians : |v^ surely 
possess one of these Scenarios in the remarkable ^ Plattf^* wbic^ 
were accidentally discovered at Duiwich College, beefing pvpry fea- 
ture of an Italiai) Scenario. Steevens calls them *iv m2fs^mQ^nfrqf^-t. 
ment of ancient stage-direction ;' and adds, that ' the paper describe!., 
a species of dramatic enterti^iament of which no memorial is pre- 
served in any annals of the English stage. The commentators on 
Shakspeare appear not to hav^ kno\yn the nature of tbe^e Scenarios. 
The ^ Plat," as it is called, is fairly written in a large hand, containr 
ing directions appointed to be stuck up near the prompter's station; 
and it has even an oblong hole in its centre, to admit of beinff sus- 
pended on a wooden peg. Particular scenes are barely ordered, ^Mi 
the names, or rather nic^ruames, of several of the players, appeal 
. in th$ fpost ffipiliat manner, a^ they w^re kn^wn to th^ ir conifiaiVQiis 
in the rude gi^en-ropm of t|iat day; such ^s ' Pigg, \Vbi^ ImM^ 
Qla^k Dick and ^^ip^ Little Will ^s^ni^, Jack Grfgory, ^J^ tbfi 
Red-l^aced Fellow,' ^c Some of tbes^ ' Platts' are qq splenpo 
subjects* like the tragip p^ntomim^; ai^^ \i^ some app^r ' P^ntfV^ 
Iqctn and his mad Peascod» with spectacle^/ Steevens observ^ 
that * ne niet with no earlier example of the appearance of Panta- 
loon as a specific character on our stage ;' and that this direction 
cpQcerQiJ^ ' the sp^^f^cles/ canno^ fi^il to reiifind tb^ ^V^iv oi a 
celeln:«|ted p^s^ge % • -4* Y<fu Wuif, 

-: 'X^€^ k^n and ^l^pfre^ P^p;lflloot^ 

Perhaps, he adds, Shakspeare alludes to this personage, as habited 
in bis own time. ' Can ytfi doubt that tbii Pantaloon had come from 
the Italian Theatre, after what we have already said 1 Does not 
this confirm the conjecture, thajt tbeoi cxiiUed an inttcoourse betwe^ 
the Italian X'heati^ and our own 1 F^rthar, Tarlelen, the qomediaB, 
andotbers celebrated for their * extempoial wit,* was the ^vntai^ op 
inventor of one cij tl^osj? ' Pl^tsv StQ^ i^^Ofdf^ of one of ouf 



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mg^v^ U|^t *' li^ bad a quick^ 4ettcale, refined, egimpmti ^" AfiA 
oi t^ifoik^F t^at " kp h^ a wondenww, pkatifuU ptea^ap^ estmf^ 
r^l lyit/' 7 >i«sf ^ctor* then, w)io ver€ ia the faabi^ of ««9C)$iog 
>tfa€JLr jmpr^H&ptus, r«B€iii9^1t!d thos^ wbo perf«f»«c} in tb.e uoivriU«a 

The most interesting' sketch of biogr^ph^ lo thi^ volunse^ 
is that of Chidiock Titjcbbourne, a name with which our 
r^aijler^ ^Te npt, pierhaps, familiar: he played an underpart 
in the conspiracj of Ballard and Babiiigtoo against Queen 
Elizabeth, in 15^6: Camden a9S9rt9 that bis «Ka3 to ha¥« 
been th^ hand to* coiyimit the murder. He ww» a voung Ca- 
tbioiic, fvlio espoused the cause of Mary Queen of Seoti ; ha 
If as of a very ancient fkmily, and was induced to join in 
this plot, not because he had a hope of its success, but be- 
cause his ^ dear friend" had upited himself to the traitors. 
Mr! D'lsraell succeeds in interesting our feelings deeply 
fpr all fbe unhappy sufferers wbo6^ youth »no ardour 
^' more adapted them for lovers than for politicians/' and 
several pf whpuu life? Titchbourn?, risked their lives and 
tb(3ir fortunes because they could npt allow their intimata 
associates to wall^ singly to destruction* Mo3t of the impor- 
tant particulars relative tQ Chidiock Titchbourne are con«- 
tained in his own pathetic address to the populace at hit 
exepvitipn, pf^erved in theHarleian MS, There is no doubt 
G^' the authenticity of this oiirious dooumant, and Camden 
states that ^' he mo¥ed the multitude to pity and eommisera- 
tion of his case.," It is as follows :— 

*' Countrymen, and m^f di^r friends, yau eip^ct I abould speak 
something ; I am a bad Qr^tor» and my t^xt is wor^e ; It were in vain 
to enter into the discourse of |b^ whole matter for which I am 
broai^ht hither, for tltat it bath b^en revealed beretafor^ ; let me be 
a warning to all young geatjemeu ^^pecially gmor^modAkscmtulis. 
I had a friend, and a dear friend, of whom 1 made no small account, 
whose friendsftw huth krmight me to ikio; he tokl me the whole mat- 
ter, I canoot qeay, as they had laid it down to be done ; but I al- 
ways thought it impioas, and denied to be a dealer iu it; but the 
regard of my friend eaused ne to be a man in whom the old proverb 
was verified ; I was sikat, and so. consented. Before this thing 
chanced, we lived together in most icHtrishing estate: Of whom 
went report in the Strand^ Fleet Str^U 94id el^^bere about hmdon^ 
but of Babington and Jttchbovm? No thre^bold was of force to 
brave our entry. Thus w^ lived, and wanted pothiag we c^uld wish 
for ; and God Hpqws wivit le^ in m^ he^d tfa^n nuftters of State? 
Now §ive me leay^, to declare th^ a^is^ries I si^staiined after I was 
acquamted witb tb^. ^^i^m^ wbe^^ein i, ia9^ ji(is% compare my estate 



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820 D^Israelfs Curiosities of Literature. 

to that of Adam's who could not abstain cnt thing forbidden, to tn^ 
joy all other things the world could afford ; the terror of conscience 
awaited me. After I considered the dangers wherein I was fallen, I 
went to Sir John Peters in Essex, and appointed my horses should 
meet me at London, intending to go down into the country. I came 
to London, and then heard that all was bewrayed ; whereupon like 
Adam, we fled into the woods to hide, ourselves. My dear country- 
men, my sorrows may be your joy, yet mix your smiles with tears, 
and pity my case ; / am descended from a House, from two hundred 
years Before the Conquest, never stained till this my misfortune, J 
have a wife and one child; my wife Agnes,' my dear wife, and there* s my 
grief — and six sisters left in my hand — my poor servants, I khowy 
their master being taken, were .dispersed ; for all which I do most 
heartify grieve^ I expected some favour, tho' I deserved nothing 
less, that the remainder of my years might in some sort have recom-^ 
penced my former guilt ; which seeing I have missed, let me no^ 
meditate on the joy si hope to enjoy.' *' (p. 104 — 105.) 

Mr. D^Israeli also introduces a letter from the wretched 
sufferer to his wife, giving a picture of repentant agony not 
less distressing, and a few verses, usually ascribed to Sir W. 
Ralegh, but which probably were composed by Titchbourne; 
we do not estimate their merit quite as highly as Mr, 
D'lsraeli, but they are worth extracting. 

*' ^ Verses made hy Chediock Tichdforne of himself in the 
Tower, the night before he suffered death, who was executed 
in Lincolns Inn Fields for Treason, 1586. 

** ' My prime of youth is but a frost of cares. 

My feast of joy is but a dish of pain. 
My crop of corn is but a field of tares. 

And all my goodes is but vain hope of gain. 
The day is fled, and yet I saw no sun. 
And now I live, and now my life is done! 

" * My spring is past, and yet it hath not sprung; 

The fruit is dead, and yet the leaves are green. 
My youth is past, and yet I am but young, 

I saw the world, and yet I was not seen ; 
My thread is cut, and yet it is not spun, 
And now I live, and now my life is done ! 

*' * I sought for death,' and found it in the wombe; 

I lookt for life, and yet it was a shade, 
I trade the ground, and kuew it was my tombe^ 

And now 1 die, and now I am but made. 
The glass Is full, and yet my glass is run ; 
And BOW I live, and now my life is done !* ** 



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D^Iiraeli^s Curiosities of Literature. *?1 

To this succeeds a long article upon Queen Elizabeth 
and her Parliament, which, as it comprises little not already 
before the public in one shape or another, we were sur- 
prised to find among Curiosiiies of Literature ; the same 
ihult cannot however be stated against the anecdotes of Prince 
Henry, the eldest son of James J. who died in 161^ in his 
eighteenth year : the estimation in which he was held by his 
contemporaries, certainly does not exceed the admiration of 
Mr. D'lsraeli, who asserts that had he lived " the days of 
Agincourt and Cressy would have been revived." The par- 
ticulars of the childhood and youth of this " Prince or all 
princely virtues,*' the theme of. all the great poets of the 
time, are new, and the importance of the person to which 
they relate gives them additional interest : in themselves^ 
however they do not indicate much for the future, or war- 
rant the conclusion at which our author arrives, and which 
we have above given ; we will furnish a few specimens of 
these anecdotes: they are copied from a coeval MS. in 
the Harleian collection, written by a person who was con- 
stantly about the person of the young Prince. 

5* His martial cbaracter was perpetually discovering itself. Wh^n 
asked what instninient he liked best ? he answered, * a trumpet.' 
We are told that none of his age could dance with more grace, bat 
that he never delighted in dancing ; while he performed his heroical 
exercises with pride and delight, more particularly when before the 
Kinsr, the Constable of Castile, and other ambassadors. He was 
instructed by his master to handle and toss the pike, to march and' 
hold himself in an affected stvie of stateliness, according to the mar^ 
tinets of those days ; but he soon rejected such petty and artificial 
fashions ; yet to shew that his dislike arose from no want of skill in 
a trifling accomplishment, be would sometimes resume it only to 
iaagfa at it, and instantly return to his own natural demeanour. On 
one of these occasions one of these martiutts observing that they 
could never be good soldiers unless they always kept true order and 
measure in marching, * What then must they do,' cried HenryV 
' when they wade through a swift running water?' In all things 
freedom of action from his own native impulse, fie preferred to th^ 
settled rules of his teachers ; and wlien his physician told him that 
he rode too fast, he replied, 'Must I ride by rules of Physici* 
When he was eating a cold capbn in cold weather, the physician 
told him that was not meat for the weather. * You may see, d6c- 
tor,' said Henry, < tluit my cook is no astronomer.' And wlten th4 
«ame physician observing him eat cold. and hot meat together, 
protested against it, ' I cannot mind that now/ said the roy^l boy 
facetiously, ** though they should have run at tilt together in my 
belly.^' * * • . ; : 



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ft36 D'i^etrf?5 Ci^ih§Ui^ of LimMurs. 

*" A^m ^<f4f^Uftif 9pp!»^s ti^ H»«e filled hi$^ t^Sa^ As pticf^)^ior, 
1l»illl^flois«f^il% M tb« etifiiyaiioUs HindM <yf tbe pmdelj^ boj». .Db- 
tlHiMis;.llowev«ir, of ciii^sbing^the nderons spirilrami'piayAki bttmbuf 
•f Henry; his< tutor eneduitiged'aA^edoili of jesting wifh hin)» wl]^ 
i^peanto ba^'beeB'O^i'pied' dt times toa d<egree of moffleatary irrif 
Utbilkj ^d the side of the tutor, by the keen humour of the bo^ 
While the roynl pupil held his master in equal reverence and affec- 
lion,, the gaiety of his temper sometimes twitclied the equabitity or 
ffie gravity of the preceptor. When Newton.' wishing to set aii 
example to the Prince in heroic exercises, one daj? pi^ctis^d the piiltt^, 
ai^d tossing it with such little skill as to haVe failed iU'ttie att^i^ipt, 
fh» yx^udg^ P^rfrice tellirtg hirii cif liis fkiltlre, N-ewtbH obtribtlsly \6ht 
fiis- xetApet, obserting, thaf ' f6 fiM^ (kiM was- nti eVil hutndti¥/ 
^Ma^er, I tkke the hlimoilf of you.' 'It bccomesr not aPriilW/ 
•ItterV^ Neu^tbn. ' Thetf/ retorted the yotibg Prince, 'doth it 
Wdnfc b^eoili« a< Prin<5e's master !' — Sonie of thes^ faanttless biokeii 
m^ aire amusing.' When iiis tutor,* playing at' shuffieboard' with tlit 
Prince, blamed' him for cliaiiging so ouen,' and taking up a piece% 
tiA-eW it oil the board, add missed his aim, the Prince smiling ex;- 
claimed^ * Well thrown^ Master ;* on which the tutor, a little vexed^ 
said * he would not strive with a Prince at shufile board,' Henry 
observed, * yet you gownsmen should be best at such exercises, 
iffaidK an? riot meet for men wtio are more stirring/ The tutor, a 
lit^irritatfed; sAid, 'I ammeet for whipping, of boys.' * You vaiint 
Ikeh,' retorted the Prince, * that which a ploughmBii or cart-driVel* 
eacf< do- better than^you.' *' P caa do niore,^ sadid the tutor, 'Ibrl 
^aU govvm- foolisffa* children.' On v^ieb tbe Prince, who, in fats 
Milipeiti for bis- tutor, did not care to cktry the jest farther, ros« 
fttwiitablr^ alid'ia a loUr voice to these near him taid, * he had seed 
titi^iwiteiiailithftt could do^that.' * *'* 

'* ItwaH'tbedtfae mode»' when<the King or the Prince travelled, td 
4ie«t^>witb tta«ir suite at' the boosed of thie -nobility^ and the loyalty 
iMd aeal of thei host were usually displayed in tlie reception given to 
tlk^ royal gtte»t^ Ir happened that in one 6f these excursions iht 
Pribc^Si ser^atfttf^ com)iiained< that tliey bad been obliged to go ta 
bed sttpperlesd,'tbibti^ thepiMcbimgparsimbny^of the house, which 
tiiierUfde^ Prince at the time of he^ritig- seemed to take nR> great no^ 
tioe^ oft* Tbe riext* morning the lady of the house, coming to pay 
het respettsUO^ hlmh, . she tband him turning a volume that had man^ 
fiii<:fttiresiii^it>, one of which wto a painting of a company sittkfg «t 
a bftnqn^t I '< tbi» be stiewied bei^, * I invite youi Madam, to a feast/ 
^ To what' feast r she asked. * To tbi* feast,' said the boy. 
^'What^ vmnldiyoiir'HigphaeBS'giv^mebut a painted feafstT' Fitinj^ 
hk eye^on Imr^ be said, ' No belter. Madam, is found in this- house/ 
Vh«te' wtts^ar^d^Ucabyiand greatliess of spirit in this ingenious repn^ 
mtskdi ii» e»eiettiiig tfaer wit^oif a diild/' (p. 128^137.) ^ 

From a lon^ and rather proBing; article upon DiarieBjWe 

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]y Israelis CwiMiiU$ of IMmiute. 9» 

shall extract nothing. Afr. D'lsraeli Uitventt^tls in yecom- 
ineoding, both by example and arffument, a practice which 
it is obvious he has fbllolirctd;' But we shall' still retain 
our opinion that as they arc ordinarily kept^ (we of course 
speak not of such diaries as tho^ of Oiatendoti dr S^lden) 
tney seldom are better than gratifications of vanity and 
egotism at the expense of triith \ they ate often a salve of 
self-accusation nith which ttien anoint their consciences^ 
but never cure their crimes. Sometidies they ai*e coitverted^ 
into refuges against tlie fieglect of an ungrateAit worlds 
which the writer thinks does not estimate him' at hisi true' 
price, but are nU>re frequently like the humoi'ods specimen 
in the Spectator, mere etfusions of sdf-itnpbrt^nt insigni- 
ficance. ; ' 

Mr. D^Israeli^s remarks tipoil ariagratns, iicrosti<5s, ahd> 
eeho verses are amusing, though hfe has not entei^ed at aH' 
d^ply into the atltiquitjr of these Sports of iDgeriiiitv : not* 
withstchiding his acqna,intarice*with Ititlian literature, he 
seems not to bcf aivare that all thre^ probably had theit'origitt 
ID that countty ; ni le^st, eehb verses Wer^ inti^oduced into 
Italian pastdrals somc^ tim^ befoi*e they reached England^ 
which was perhaps about the middltf of the r^ign of Elizabeth, 
Aough Mi". D^lsnLeli appears to have seen none much earlier 
than the civil war : they are to be fotind, however, in seve-, 
ral of the tedious Arcadian pieces, so rouchriii fashion b^- 
ibre and about the year 1600.^ Echo rerses, howeveir, were 
by no means confined to that period. Mt*. D'Israeli quotei 
aome of the date of 1642, and as the clefverest ahd most 
ingenious piece of the kind ^ver composed, we extract the 
Ibfiowingfrdm MS. Harl. Plut. 7, vi. which seems to have 
escaped reseairch. It was probably made dtlting the protec« 
torate of Cromwell. 

AN &CHO. 
'« What waot^ thou, that thou art in this tad takinyi 

A king. 
What made him first remove hence h|s residing? 

Suling. 
Dkl any here deny him satisfiiction t 

Faction, 
Tf II me wherefai the strength of factionr lyes ? 

On lyes. 
What didst thoa when the Kilig left his Parliamentt 

Lament 

\ ■ . ■ • ■ ' — ' ' ' ^ 

* Oqs it introdaced into a Tery rare play eaUed Tht CoMer't Propkew, W; 
R. WiUon, 1594, which has notiiinf do wHlr pastoral life. 

Chit- Rev. Vot. V. Mmh. 1817. « G 



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WhitteMHi fiovUbl ^ive fa gain &is coinpiiiy^l 

\Mhat w^iildattbou db if here thoa mighftst bel^oldfaiin.} 

HoldbiiD. 

But woidclkt tiiou senre &ini witli tb; best endeavoucf 

Even 

But if hecoifies Dot^/what Becomes of London t 

Undone/* 

lii£r* ])^l8raell ia very vioIeDt in his attack upon acroatics, 
ttiougli it would not be difiicult to produce many written by 
tjie most admired poets of tbe Elissab^tban and later periods ; 
tbejr are to the fidl as difficult and more pleasing than 
anagram^i, which only consist of tfad mechanical transpogt- 
tion' of the letters of a name, and which out* authof hig^y 
I^aiaes^ probablj because he discovered in; Camileii's Jwe- 
jsmM some, fiivourable examplW* 

In his cqmparison between ancient and modern Saiur" 
i)alia;. he omits to notice one important point of r0sdm-< 
blaiM^ which ia certainly striluBft '^ be tells us, that among, 
the Stomans at this season- or wordei^ in Decembei:^. the, 
slaves were allowed an equally, with their nMlsters,. and 
tliat ^' raidi was decided. by a lottery;!' but when sCssiroiliiu 
tSug. it to our Christmas festivities^ he omits to ehserve- upon* 
tt^ clear origin of drawinsKing and Queen frona this prac^ 
tica bf'decidu^ rank by Tottery during the ancient l^ti»r- 
natia.: that this is tha mot., curious as it nmy, seem^. is fur*^ 
tner shewn by- what Mr. ^ iFlsraeli afterwards states of thei 
amnscuuents o( our tnns of CburjUt andt other plaof s*^ ^^ ^^i^ 
jpyous.timevon the auihorityofDugdale^s (ing%ne$,Jundl^- 
cicdesj, from whence it appears,, ihat at an early i&te oertaim 
jjotesque names^K^ith. nioiik authority^ were assigned to^ 
particular persons joining in the sports. 

The two essays (if they may be so termed) upon the 
Licensers of the Press affd Upon the History of the Stage 
during tlie MerttGfgtlUtit^ though tfitejBftVtf^ moorptihg' titles, 
are remarkably uninteresting : the article i{pon the harmless 
madmen, wfiof in the reig^ii of £lkatietfr and J&mes, wan- 
dered abi^ut the country^ and were called Tom o' Bedlams^ 
and upon which Shakspeare buiU his character of Ifdgar in 
^^ King £ear/^ is learned and'amusingf : it besides illustrates 
ver^ satisfactorily one of the characters of our great dra- 
matist, not. bitfaertif well underatoody notwittetaflidhig^ all 
the labour* of Steevens, Malone, Warburton, and aU the 
&c* of c omment a tor s^- 

. ''Betbiem Hos^iitdfomed^itf itirbrfgihdifmh!^^^^ 
and penurious ehaHty; ik-g^iveijnoA^soon discovered that the nie- 



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liroiMilis/teniiiMd Hmbi ivMi mott ItanticBcHnp ittejpted^dcidflHl 
^^H ; ihty ftlflo Mqiilivd from the fneods of the patients a ^tobljr 
•ttipend, berimes cJotUag. it isa mehRidKiAy &ot^ to Moord in the 
hi^tQf]^ of human qatore, that when one of their Qriginal rr^utetions 
)»fescribe4 that peiSons w|»o pot In patients irtiQuM protide their 
dodic% it was soon obierred chat the poor Itmatics were freqiiciitiy 
perishing:, 'by the omission of this sli^ duty from Ihos^ 'former 
mends ; so soon Ibrgottm ^were they whom «one IboJnd ^tanlnte- 
«Bit to ncoNeet* TlMy weise ciidifed to open oantiibiitions to pno- 
W(te P'WHrdfohe. 

f* jii^$3Qii^(|M<oiiQ^ of 4b^ Umited ffe^uioen <pf ibe iwApital* (tbey 
relieved the establishment by /r^eiGiuenitl^ ^iscbffrgipgiPttiiettt^ wb^l^ 
.pm:e might be .vei^ ^^uijiroK^C U^wle^s J^atii^s tbrivw tbii# ^'nto 
the vai;14» ^^Q wj^bou^ a single fcieud, x«andei:ed nhput tb^^cquiv- 
iry, ohauntiflg wild ditties, apd w^amiag a j&nt^tstkd^dce^.to a^ttrji^ 
the notice of the obantable^ .091 whose alms tb^ liyed. Th^y ha^ 
a .kind of costume, which I find described by Randl^ Holme^ in ,{i 
..curious and extraordinary vtotk, 

** '"nie Bedlam hfis a lon^.stalF, find a cow or ox horn by 1^ 
aide ; ^his dolling 'fentaslic and ridJcdous ; for being a madman, ht 
is madly decked and dressed all over with rubins (ribbands), fclrtbeft* 
cnttings of cloth^ and what nol^ to make him seem a madman* or 
one distracted, .w|ieu he is no other tban a wandering and dissem- 
bling knave.' This writer here pojnts out one of tiie gnevz^c^s ite- 
diluting from lieensuig even barnifless 'hiuatfcs to roam about the coun- 
try ; ^r a set of pletOodted aradmen called * Abram men/ (a pant 
tesm<£Nr certain 6tttffdyjoette8,),ooBoealed t^Mmmlveiin^tmr eekmntCp 
cnvered tiie eouairy, awTplMded the pfivtleged dewwiiiMBtion * Wtien 
itkt«;t(Klin<the»r d^r^altons/' ♦ ♦ ♦ (p. 364--«#6.) 

*< I hav^ now to itipl^ (temething in tbe ebaradier gf £dsal> in 
JUar^ m nhictil^MVUimtators soem to :ha?e lUlgeiH0^$ly Ij^n- 
4ered, Aom m Jw(¥»fept j(<iowl«(iteo of tb« ^\m^eu» Cilprfier- 
s^i^s^ 

" Edgar, ip w^ndedng ^bput the .Qoantrju Jfpc ^ ^^^ disguise 
assupies tlie cbaiacter of tlu^ IJim o^JUjUUm: be Ams .<;l9se»one 
of hi9 di$trap|ed speedv^, * Poqr T0919 fhj/ Wn is dryt pn this 
Johnson is content |o inform ys» thsvt ^meh thiit ti^gged^nderpre- 
leBHce of lunacy used formeHy to carry ailiom, and blow h ,tbrqugk 
the streets/ This is no eiLplanadon of Edgar's Elusion to fbe ^&y- 
IMM <cif bis bom. Stedvens addsin fimdfofnote, that Edgar alladet 
to a proverbial ei^ression. Thy ^h»r% is durv^ designed to express 
tbat a man had sa^ *^ be could ^ys aad^aitbary Steenns tup- 
fiQ^es tbirt JBdgar^pfiikiiitiieseiwori^ mbfer aa if 4ie had ham ^nite 
li^ry otTam^^ JMUmi(^im^$mA9^vH wit>kfV it up any logger. 
'Siiei^isons ,of aH IJbis f;oi|)ectiair^.eritigiwi|i«.«*curiQ«si^^ 
tion of perverse ingenuity, ^br^s n^\mi^ »Ple b«K idi^wa 
us that the Bedlam's bom was also a dnmkmg4uTn^ and Edg^ 
^fm^im apuwdt /JO'Hie.peKfeotian at the isa a mad dmracter, autf 
viffim4m nAo M:fn»Wit ww7iaf ^ lyakiog^ ipwidlriii i nt 
lunatic desirous of departing from a hearth, to marph, as be enes. 

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SSS -BtfUUm^s ArchiiecUtral Jntu/miti(». 

< Dot 'wvkeft-Mrid -Airs, and iMDrkel4i»wiu--<^Poc»r'TMa!*tliy horn U 
4f|jr V us more likely pbtctts to solicit tlma ; aod he iv Ihinknig of his 
jmnk-Bioniyt wfo«i he cries .that ' Ats Aom i§ dfifJ " (p. 358--8d9.) 

I*hi8 last explanation is certainlj^ acpurate; but Mr. l)*Is- 
raeli is as clearlj in an error wnen he says tJi^t'Sbakspeare's 
£d|{ar occasioned the namerqus ballads which were circu- 
Jated over the country, ^nd were supposed to be sung by 
thele Toms oVBedlam, or Abraham* men. Our poet puts 
scraps of ^some of the ballads into the mouth of Edgar, and 
th^te id decisive proof that others wpre in existence before 
Sbakspeare produced his tragedy. 

We regret that we cannot devote more space to oi|r 
review of this volume, which, as a whole, is very ingeni- 
ously and entertainingly put together ; though it consists of 
the crumbs and scraps of literature, Mr. D' Israeli has sliewn 
bimself skilful in collecting and hashing them up so as to 
convert them into a very palatable repast, without much of 
the usu^l sauce piquanle of gossip, scandal^ and court in^ 
trigue. 

Art. II. — /in Historical and Architectural Essav relating, 
fo Redcliffe Churchy Bridol; illustrated witfi Piansy Viemy 
and Architectural Del/iils^ incftuUng m Account of th^ 
Monumtntsj and Anecdotes of the Eminent Persons in* 
. termed within its Walls i ^so^ m Essay on the Life and 
Character of Thos. Chatterton, By J. Britton, F.S*A. 
4lo. pp. 40. London, Longman and Go. 18IS. 

Uie History and AnfiqnUies of the Cathedral Church of 
Sdishurtf ; illustrated with a series of Engravings ofViewsy 
Elevations^ Plans j and Details^ of that Edifice/ alsoEtch^ 
ings of the Ancient Monuments and Sculpture : including 
mographical An^dotesof the Bishops^ and of other Enu^ 
nent Persons connected mth the Cnurch. By J. Brit* 
TON, F.SfA^ 4to. pp. US. I London, Longman and Qo, 
11814. 

The ffistory md Antiquities of the See and Cathedral Church 
of Norwich; illustrated with a series of Engravings^ of 

. Views^ Elevations^ Plansy and Details ^ the Architecture 
of the Edijke: including Biographical Anecdotes of the 
Bishops^ and of other Eminent Persons eotmctei wi^h ihe^ 
Church, JB^ John Brittoit, F.S.A.' 4to. pp. 8^. 
London, Longman and Co. 1816. < t 

Iv these elegant ifrprks have not been before notified in our 
Review^ the omission is not to be ascrib^ io iii8en$ibi« 



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BrtiHottV ArchUedural AntiquUia. SSf 

tky to tMr meritB, but* to the difficulty of rendering these 
prodaetioiis entertaining or instructive to our reedera. the 
illustration ^ which so much depends upon the fidelity and 
skill of the artist. 

It is not necessary that we should at this time ejtamine 
into the doctrine of Hogarth, whether the beauty of pro^ 
portion in architecture be to be ascribed to the expression 
of fitness, and not to any original capacity in the forms 
themselTes, to excite the emotion of beauty; it will be 
enough for our Dur[>o8e if we supply some general remarks 
on Saxon and Gothic architecture, as referable to the sub* 
jects contained in these publications. 

Ii has fireq'uendy been supposed, that the class of build- 
jogs to which we now direct our attention is destitute of 
orders, rules, and proportions ; that, unlike the Grecian 
or Roman, it has no acknowledged distinctions ; and thati 
in short, it is a mass of human &bour, in which no regular 
art is consulted, but the whole is consigned to the determi* 
nation of caprice and fancy. It might be sufficient to ob- 
scirve, in answer to such remarks, that the consistenejf 
which appears in these structures ought to rescue the archi* 
tects from such an accusation ; but we will endeavour to 
reply more particularly to the objection. 

The general characteristics of Gothic architecture are, 
the numerous prominences and buttresses, the lofty spires 
find pinnacles, the large and ramified windows, the orna* 
mental nicheti and sculptured saints, the delicate lace* 
work of the fretted roofs, .and« in the later edificee of 
thip style, the profusion of ornament lavished indiscrimi* 
nately over the whole buildins:. The peculiar character- 
if tics are, the small clustered pillars, and the pointed arches 
fiMrmed from the segments of two intersecting circles. 

On this latter three orders have been grounded, 
which, if not as distinct from each other as those of 
Grecian architecture, have their respective members, orna- 
ments, ^nd proportions; although the degree of angle 
ibrmed hj the pointed arph constitutes the essential, and 
characteristical distinction. Of these three orders,.the foL 
lowing specimens or examples have been produced, with 
which many of oor* readers will be acquainted. The east end 
of Canterbury Cathedral, which was built at the dose of the 
twelfth, century, is almost wholly in the pointed style, and 
is esteemed to be the most perfect specimen of it extant of 
«o remote a date. This is the first order. — The second i$ 
the interior of York Minster, the erection of which is re- 



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4!mf»d .t<rillit |i»tii!teaitfi leeDtaivf. Ibtte ercnf pti€ is^trnA.. 
«nf atedt toit ibe dacoradion 10 flQ<wtiere BediindaiiA ; md - m 
^jdiamYioNt J9 jrcii4icr«d i4s embcUMhiBeiils to Mtiihgr, IhiU k 
is said of it, ^^ no spectator who has e;^es to nee, and aitoiii 
io&«i^99miA wiAb ^ngleoMiaauMit fn Ike Miiwternaiit to 
iie^remomd w eAtteffed/'^HBtUl iess pointed tkaa Ihe fke^^dm 
inff J9 ^ t»iiiklin^ wUdi all 'Our London «tuileiitBdiav6tdir 
At^ opportunity pf eflianiimiig : ^'v^ nefer >to Henry the 
^evenlhVi Gliapei) in WeatMiimter Ahb^^ the dtsttogMitiir 
tfUgr fe^unas lof^i^'bioli a#ie ipag»i£oenee, jng^nuitjr^and deti** 
4ams > ^^^ -^ poiveif ul is Hib jimpreaston .of /thta florid stj4e 
lipon some spectators, .it»it«»rtbigr hands seem to ikmm i^ 
Jie iVOiv^arUijr of it, and it is.da^oeibedims ^'JHiit together by 
Ahe fingers of angeds." This is the third order. 

1IK« #haH endeavour to refer «ome of these general t>rin<> 
4liples jto:the aiibfects lo wJitoh the author has dJpectea<our 
HtltiKioii; land /we shall jbe enabled to do it ^vith. the .more 
mhwoitge, fbtcauBe ithose he has ohosen afford specinens of 
ail the Karielies in Sa^ion and iGrothic sdmotuces. 'His de** 
foiipyon of tihe liuilding to whidi the first movV. relaites, Is 
as ffoUows. 

'* In the Church of RedcliiFe ih^ arcUteet hqs manifested ibotli 
genius and science, tts design has som^ traits of novelty, au4 its 
excjtrufion is founded on ^ecviietrical princq;)]es. Though its drnji- 
fHenls, and some of tlie pi^rts are shnfhr in mi^n^ other cfhurqhes, 
yctthe "whole 46iHi(que-; and it may be justly called «^rand» and 
4fQly intcvestuif sMdimetiof the ardiiteiiliire of "the a^e ki ^Mi %. 
Mas^eracted. Loniness, tightness, aad variety, nife lte>mai(kei i<haT 
mctemtka. tENeryrfart, ilMldi iiiteraall|r«nd exttsrHidly, is .^har^ad 
Mtil|»,iHBaMiiea|i; ;i#!corp0lied vilh snidptun^ and ;anchiiroluml em^ 
MWw t ^ t» : .W Ae^ie ar<s i^ $» pivaiiBfait mid phlrusive ^ m tHie 
gorgeous !ch9pdis-9f King'^ £9)!? ge at Cambvidgfu imd of lAewy 
tde^y/enlb at W-eitmioster." 

" Built oa th« side of -sjielving ^uod» it »ras jje^fissary tp ,ha«f 
alflight of laany steps .from tli^ lev^l on .the noxtb, to .tb.e p^vismtV^ 
of the churchy which is,sli)l below the surfape pf .the cemeterjr, qju 
the sQutb. A fine and very picturesque /ei^ture is thus ))rpduced^ 
apd the same elevated site, ponf<^rs on the tower apd charch a IcfQy 
and iai|Kising aspect.^ (p. 8 — 0.) 

Tf^^e prints (di^l^y tbp;f9r/as %f^9ttsikk^fkm^^mt 
Ij^iea .pf Disarly the wt^ ^^m^^ Tj^ l^i^ ftrst ;a«^ 4»r 
irotisd t9 ^b^ grmnd^pW ; fine a^ ^^li^d^^^itha ^Ktmart 
iM)4fii^.to,tIidij»tf)rH»'#f^ebuiEffb. Vfimt^wtmiitoimkiy 
tb^9>nwht jh^i£ ki^ U ^^^ftiwl ftau, »lh»t ^cfc w i g Ji a g 



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«^l^^Irficllk'iiiiii8pfl8«Mfe^ Itt «wfciCi$tMi^l tHfOtf^f; tM< 
linind^tkM of (to older patt is As^rtbeil fo SitnoiY AeBttrt6W^ 
Mfftty Wag htayorof BHstoUti the ye^tf I90fi ami f3b&; a Ate* 
when ftiucli more parity m btfifdkfg prevdifed thaW tve are * 
here enabled to discover. Nothing can be more disgilstrn*^ 
t^Kin the view of the north porch, erected at this.period ; it 
exposes all tbe lumfier, without anj oftlie^.grace of'tfio. 
Gothic stvie; preserving, however, the diktiootioA of tlie« 
acute angjfes, wJiich had then beeu adopted* ^ ^ . 

TEe secoiid' work is devoted to the liititor^ ^ndCantr^uiiieff^ 
of Salisbury Cat^dral. On the ^8th of April,. BgO, tlie 
foundation was laid; but the person who performed thiV 
cereihoify, aodf the particulars relatin^j^ to it^ arauot satis* 
^ctorily exfiliuned. Our autJior gives t&e ioUomug ,i9c- 
cpuot:— « , '...,'.. 

"^'Th^ orijgiiiattd th^ tiiil6 of banking, :$kfis&QYy (iatfied^ifal hV^hg 
^ktn ak^dv stklerf, it now fettiatiiw forme ftt deiiertbe*iukl.dyne 
t&^p^culiaritibs^ of th^ edflice; tryj>oibr ou< if^clbnft5tef iis d* wfitofe, 
a^ tb part{(ea!^ri^<^ i( ie* MtA. THAi chuttW is rellisl^kiible asf Mftg^ 
tiie ilkMt tiitffonn, t^^6i¥, AlMi s^fUeMtitk^ Miitft<aiMMgMl»li<rilMf' 
9MM!MlaM6t juy Mdiirff <fiitbediirf^ tnc Eng^Ad^ mil ifl^this^ii^ 
8|Mt is als»- cnvlnidifltiiigiiislmf t» Aes6^ ov teCoHlideMt^ fo^ 
viWhiay;tbred»er»tfo»M* of disainiilan and dMcri* bttab^rnrtmr 
puM and styiel>> that of $sAi«bi^ 19 alitiost wfatUy of mX nfi^k^H 
and of Qo^ ei» of «xec«^k]ii»«{ It) ap^^arer not 4H»ly( ta Ifave^ ba^i|oq|iK 
aiHActed firouvona odginal des^,» bul th baw remained tb the pr&* 
stnl) dayp. nearly in the state it» wa&left b^ its buitdi^r$'> at lei^st w^ . 
clo ifot reality perceive any very ^scoidfaiH; adcUtion^i, or serious 
and' ilsdpabfe dSapidkiJoos. tlei\ee c^nsisfencY a'i$df h^inony are 
i^ohat^cit^tistics; atfd from tlib <?aus^ the ^I'dnfigdiiraf attti((Mary 
lAUst view^ ir ivitU admihtfdtf, attd* fevt^tkafe" ik ex^eutiotar wjft'.s^- 
thfkttlow, aade¥eiirwitfr|He^i!fre/*' (jnw.) 

We:|id¥e tffiiplb^v d^8erf|^tii^>of itereomi^tioat paFfei 

** ttie ^h^fe 6f tttls' csttA^dtaf m«$' te sdi^ tt> ^o-A^f of ^ dl^- 
tirtct anrf ^^t^ (kiftrnttiTdr iA^dtbers-^1'. l*fi<5 body of flic cliufrti : 
-^2. Th^ toim Attd ^iW :J^ft Th^ d«fett!f :— * The nbrth iw>wfr:- 
-»^. Th^ ch«pteit6ou6e :-*flti4 €^ TheehMfriie^ a«td tticMMiilteiftsi 
E^l^ <^ tH^^ hat» St pMttlittr and ^itiitt eh«iiiti^<ttt sltld tpt)#<ipii^ 
ttoin aifdi^dvfi'CdnlMailttMgtnbiid tot the dtbei^'by ararkedr iinbi^; 
alMJf diasBBdltnty in^ %ib ani oraaalent^ Tbe church eonsfotS' itif^^ 
T^f$ of » mM^o, with' tivty falerai aisle? ; » l3rg0 traiiMq^tw With an. 
ea9te«i aisle Uraliohiog off fireai the. tower ; a staaUer tnliiaopV ^tb 
a%ai6]i6 aaatof the foraief ; a eboir>. with lateral aisles ; a space easf^ 
of the dioir^ atid a fanij^ cixmel at tbe east end. ^ dn tbe Bor^<sid«v 
of die church is a large pofcb, with a room* over it; and rising from 



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SIO BriUon'i JrcbUedural Af^iquiHe9. 

Um ioteneetioQ of tbe prindpal tiuiMpt with Ibe nave is ft lofly 
tower aod spire* South of mt church is a square clobter, with a 
library over half of the eastefti side : a chapterwhouse ; a consistoiv 
court ; and an octangular apartment^ called the muoiment-room^ 
(p. 60.} 

Saliabiltjr Cuthedfal h^s kit ndvantagfe <iot eoiumon with 
the gi^t churches of England, it is detached from all ejt* 
ti^ileous and degrading o^ects, and is thus laid opeti to the 
examination of the spectator ; it is rendered easy of access 
from several different points of vieir, atid maj be inspected 
by the draughtsman, and studied by the architect from nu^ . 
merous situations which advantageously display the propor"- 
tlons, the beauty, and general elect of the whole. 
[ In thereign of Henry tbe 3d, the circular arch and mas- 
sive coiumnirere wholly laid aside, and to this time tho 
erection of Salisburv Cathedral is to be ascribed. It waa 
probably fished about 1S58, or a little more than 40 years 
a,fter the accession of that prince. Sir Cbristopher Wreq . 
says of it, that it ^^ may be justly accoupfed one of the, best 
patterns of ardiitecture in the age wherein it was.built.'^ 
f here are many differences of opinion as to thet style, mere^ 
beeause the proper classification is not preserved, some 
writers denominating all our ancient architecture, without 
aav distinction of round or pointed arches, Gothic, whil« 
otners apply the term only to the latter. Thus Benthami ' 
in his Essay, says, that ^^ the Cathedral of Salisbury con« 
sists entirely of that style, which is now called (though t 
think improperly) Gothic;" and Grose, in bis Essky, as« 
serts, that ^^ the present Cathedral of Salisburv is entirely 
in the Gothic style." It is observed, that Wharton in 
dividing the edifices, of which we are speaking, into the 
absolute Gbthic, the ornamental Gothic, and the florid 
Gothic, ^ exdndes the beautiful and highly pointed Cathe- 
dnd of Salisbury from holding a places in any of his classes." 

In reference to the three works before us, it may be con* 
venient to explain Whartou^s notion of these variations in 
the forms of ecclesiastical structures. The absolute Gothic, 
or that which is free from all Saxon mixture, he considers 
tp have began with the ramified windows after the year 
}dOO ; the^ were divided into several lights, and branched 
out at the top into a multiplicity of whimsical shapes. But 
at that perioa, besides the alteration in the windows, more 
ornament in the vaulting and other parts was introduced. 
Of that &shion) he supposes the body of Winchester Cathcf** 



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Bftll«^V Arckkeehtfpid AntiquUm. SEi 

d^l will 'ftfibrd> the most ^leciinitei^ea^ but ihtsredifice^ 
whfcb''<(v^ft Koitt' by WiHiani of Wkkh«iii, iras n6t raised 
until about the year IS80, neai^lya'eealiry bfter/theidaM 
be mentfom, and eubse^ueal tothe erection of Stir&farji'ef 
Ch<irch at Warwick, which he admits was beg^n, »t leasts 
before the impraT^mentg at Winchester. Thedatehe^iireB 
for the commencement of St. Mary's is 1341, and for the 
compietton, 1305^. ^n old poem called ^ PiercQthe Plow* 
man rCreede/'- written, perhaps, before ChaocerVdescrfpft' 
tion of the ^^ Hoose of Fame,'' describes the embeUism. 
ments known at that time. 

. *' Than I mootc n|e forth the Minstre for to kiiowen. 
And awayted a woou, wonderly well ybild ; * 
With arches on everich half, and bell Vch^ TCOfVilhV'" 

* With crocbetes in comeres, withknoftes of goM ; . ' * 
Wyd wjndotre^ y wrpuglit, 5^Htten fall tliickie/* •/ • ' • ' 

,Tfce 6riaamentpl Qqthi<i> . WWtoix ?^fer& to^ the ■ r^jgii oC 
Edward lU-^ aodiis 4ill qoqfirroaAion to abo^t the year 
l^^rU.^f'.hen the cbapi^l iflf Kinglii C^oUege,. atrQamliridge», 
was erected. We had, a few ^ears before, the ir^novationft 
beaulifuUy diapl/aj^^d iii^He I>iviuity.Sc)iool .a| Oxford, or 
which the fountjatipawaa "laid i0 I4S7. .. 
. >The florid sftyte, belays, jdbtinguishea itj^lf by an exu*^ 
Wlunce pf deeotr^tioi^) by. roofe having .tbfe niost delicate 
firet*^4>rk, exj^reas^d.iiii ^tone, ^nd by a certain lightness 
,of iftishing^. a$ in X\t& tpoS of th^ d^oir of <jlloucester,* 
where if is thrown, like a web.. of epijiroidery^ over thc^ 
whole l^a^on vaulting. 

" Such are the'iiJisttnctioiij? of:(his Writer. Dr. MBner, to 
whose classification'we have before alluded, considers that 
his first order, that of the/niost a<:.ate arch, was perfected 
before the conclusion of the 12th century, i^ that, this 
order continued till near.the 9lQse of thell^h.^ His second 
Qrder, or that ofjibe perfi^^ or equilateral arch, he dates^ 
from this latter perioa to the' middle of the Idth century; 
and' bis third' order^' that of the obtusQi'arch, from the mid- 
dle of the IStb to themiddlei of the 16th century, when het 
says, the style itself was exploded, and a great (proportion 

, * Built about the year 147tf. ^fie words of the iDscninipn cm the iMide 
•of' the *iroh by whibh we enter the ettolr are renkurkable. •' ; * i 

^ ' ^<Hbe^fiiod>'DiCEsvuM spee«tan», opiAqoePotrrt'Di^ 
#v .> TulUii^aeaiex-ofierft Seftb^i^ok^iabbftejiibeDte.'' • ^ .'-, >. 
Xhfr to^or Yi^» built i|t tJie-^ame tiine^ The lMy% Chapel i^oo after, a^utt 

* CniT. Rev. Vol. V. Jliirc*, 1817. 2 H 



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a£!tlie most' beantifiii snecimeiis of it wetB destfvgretf. Of 
tiie first he ooosiders the whole of Salisbury. GMhedmly nKdr 
lie; observes that! Ihe order is eharadeirised lHlneftr'tbf9; 
Utter pert of the ISth eeetair, chietj hj its. acute aDeb^(il9i 
pittaHBaiid cHher niembiBrs beiiig^ frequently. SilxoDi;)f{bi«t 
after its complete formation, not only by the narcdwAe^ and' 
aotrteness of its arch, but also b^ its detached slender diaftsi^ 
its groininjj of simple intersecting^ ribs, its plalin pediments 
without crotchets or side pinnacles, and its windows, wbii^ 
are. either destitute of mullions^ or baye onlvMA sinifd^ 
bisecting mullion, with a single or a triple tre^il^nquatie* 
foil, or other flower, at the, )iead of tb^." 

Before we quit this volume, it i^ our dqt^ as welt as our 
inclination to state that the engravings of this beautiful sub- 
ject are executed in a manner, in some' degree vfort^y of it, 
and we particubuiy recommend to the attention of th/^ artist, 
(he view of the north porch, and of the nave looking east, 
cMtained in the Plates 4 and'SOj Vet,\wh«fii»' each ji to 
be so much admired, we reluctantly ieleet any^ lest' ire 
should appear to do injjustioe to the tident disj>lay€>d ia^flilci 
reiiiainder. ^^ '< 

' From this magnificent spediiietf Wei sdmeii^batreluc^iilly- 
turn to the Cathedral Church of Norwich^ the history aM 
totiquities of which are the sotgecti' of the last of thcise pino- 
dnctions, but it is cdni^^Aibat to ndtide it^ as it aflTords the' 
opportunity of attiending to a description of English ecdi^^* 
smstical architectiiifisito which w^hbye not^ in our (irevSoiis' 
Sbservationsj apjllted^oiirselves. " '•* ^ ,' .] ^ 

, :'< M.«<9peci^en»^#fQK^,th^H^iithor^/t;Qf anciept A^gl^hlj^^rniBn 
aidiitectiir^ tbe^C^edm CJIfH5<^H of |^orwich js lyjgbly curioos Hffd, 
mUmtiog,; and iaotfc iia^cu[|pirly M^^fff^ »oi^ peculiarities oC 
tqm and ^niaiiient, Raised, umler the. dynasty of Kotidaii 13ms, 
]|?d Norimm pre^t^'l^^ IiM Mine slniiUt^' 

to the ^hurebes ind ^a^itik^t'tkte of Noftnandy r ahd Uenik^y^i^ 
lilso justified in QftU|f tti^'terih'Nb^^;' itither tbalk' Ssxotl 4f 
^hibV as designaim oTthe preifttiUii|;<«HkMof'thb edifice^ ' ' -r.ni) 
^ The whole ehurdhne^ consists or a^ 'nave; with 't#o Mtknl 
aisles; a north uid south tfabsept, Mthoul^iaisleslor colonHs;)i4 
dtoir^ oecnpyiagpaitof tbe itaiviBaiid'arta under die fewer;, an wfH 
osewpied space east of the choir.; and a chanpel, with side. iisjes^ 
eontinuied ;roaiid the semicircular east end :-T-a chapel* of two com- 
partments and of very sineular form at the soudi-east angle of ^^ 
church ; and a correspooding chapel at the aorthieast angle : a 
square chapelp branchlti|g; ihnn the sbutib aisle of the choir i a Mnali 
chapel* with •emidteuM' east eodyon the likit iMel of thenorth 
transept ; a tower and qpire,. 'Y^. f'^ ^^ intersectioii.^f the ttj^^ 



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Brim^i AnoUUdiral AhliquMts. *tK 



^t Irili the 4Bii6k«*d«m; aMi;« cMiter» neoHy f^tfftel, 'onAe 
.#0i|kli0Ue#f «e cbiweii." (pi in.) 

[ fK TlM leKliiMt |NHt of tbi^Qmcfil cburqb. Iiegttp about tiie leifii 

; j9f WimafB Ri|rf|i^.AtiU x^iQ^ it» ciuii|>roii« and ipaMvre ^^hiuraclf^ ; 

^iid tj^ smti sbru^ , i9 . .con^uf^, . Ibrough th^ iiari^, altboiigb ra^d 

j^i Jti^^eigip of ^efvryh Thts^ swbs to Euive^f^^. doqe. to preserve 

undorinity in the wiiole buildiu^^^ (p. 28.) 

"*''"* The whole bo<^ of ih^ cathedral, including; the tower, may 
'Ae siild Vo fconsist of Norniait archifecturte^ except 'fli'^ uppfer'ticr 6f 
' «n*ffddWi' tif llie choir, . iihd th^' Whole ▼imlting of the cHtrt^h ; vet a 
^i)iMiirfhi«iiteiit6f a eohimfi aifd aiich'«giiltast flie eiist'effd t>f Ae 
'^ttAv^<4li6w'tfa^t"1lle saif»^ defli^ Of {fot^iiah ^WilMhlWki M'ilirtlle 
• opper pait of th« mtve\ ,.<]firigMrtilly )«dlitfuiedf >niiMrir tbt^ J^vr^ ptmr 
tl»thflRM9cHiob<)€t&e^arse^«riftdoifo,:«ri9ClMlifa^^ KkMrnAT 

(p. 29.) . • ' .' / ih vR vh .- ' » •. I : .?«l:'\) -.--yt 



y 




'^ feiy pariicutars i^ith f*eo^ard to ]S(orman architecture, qn 
"trhicii there Is.a vast deaf of. inforniatioo, givep by thfe So- 
ciety of Antiquaries, df whicn jVfr. Brittpii is tt member^ in 

; \^11]'hex6^^cne^ befor^.the Norman cphquefil \yere of tim- 
^beri' and.of verj liaean construction.* William the Ik 
'^ built more thaQ4hi|*ty. monasteries wtien be had established 

hiaiself on the throne, and among these are the Abbeys of 
^ £(a(,tle and Selbj. The «tyle then used is the same we s^e 
; iii the finely executed .eno^^aytngs of this work, cpnsi^tiiKg 
^ of I'ound , ^rchips,| rppnd-headed windowsp and round masdy 
: pillafs, with fl j^ptUct ai^d base in rude imitatioti Of the 

Grecian mantier. This is the genuine Saxon style, and it 

prevailed prior lo the jVprnwin invasion :'l)iit the Ndlrmafis 
; enjafged the Sical^, and improved: the ihaterlals.f Of this 
'^iyle, besides Norwich 'XJaihedral, ma^ny specimens may, l^e 

iiientioned. aiid atidpog these^ ^lie'^Transept of Winchester 
:. Cathedral^ built in IfiSOf , thfe ^^T? ipF^loufced^^^^ 

* But there were some exceptions, and amoi^ these is ^t. Peter*8, in 
Tbrk. which is de^mbed'iiB a spuctons and magnificent labri^ of stbile/ 
r.f<mpAedA,J>.wrthy^\ng'ndmimi scMSinfterlniwas bfi^tifled. .**^/tifKnt 
jMwtunia jconaecnta^^t <.£dWiniiiiv) nifutr^^ et wgpMxQxem dslapide 
fyhrica re curavit basmcam." ' Beds Hist. EccL lib. ii. cap. 14. Another is 
' tnnEfiufch at Lincoln, ,baiTt by Paulinns on the conVBrsioii of Bhicca. the 
: Ck^Temor of that city. ^ In qoa civitate et ecelaiiiui operU efr^ii de 
i j^pkle fecit.'* Bed» Hist, ntsapri. i >- 

,>.i .f,M Aliglt pBvrk et abjectis domibns totot tomptas absmndbant^ Fraiic 
«t Normaiini ampUs et snperbis edificiis modicaa expaifaa agant*'* fitaiA 
lageatia JEdificia, ^c. Maun. 1. iii» De Re§»p*.l«0. : .^ — ^ . ^ . ' '( 



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SS4t BriUon^ArclAedureljintklmBes. 

itt 1 100, and the tivo towers of Exeter CJalhednil, milWi 
all constructed between the ret^ns of theCon^u^Yorftrfd his 
youngest son the first Henrj. One indication 6f thi« style, 
however, we do not obsei've ih Nb^wlch Cathedral, and 
the exclusion of which is a peculiarity dt^ttnguishin^jtironi 
other' contemporary edifices! we refer to a circular series 
of zigzag sculpture applied to arches generally, and ejspe- 
cially to the &c]ng of porticoes, as in the north entrance tjo 
Peterbprough Cathedral, We observe here the three wiq- 
dpws, as in the. view of the tower wbich became subsequently 
fiiioiliar ia the, Gothic style, but in thia earlier example, the 
centre-light is not higher than its neiffhboiini, and t(ie win- 
A>w« do not apfH'oach each other closely, which was Ibe 
taste of the architect as early as theyear 1^00. 

I4(M*wich Cathedral is one of those structures surmounted 
by spires, and we ought to have remarked when the uni- 
formity in the plan of that of Salisbury was adverted to by 
our author, thalt it appears^ from a late survey of Salisbury 
by Price, as well as oth^r proofs, that its spire was nptin- 
guided in the plan of the builder, and was added many 
years after the church was completed. The spire of Nor- 
wich Cathedral was finished about 1278. t Wharton is of 
opinion that the Qotion of a spire was brought from the 
east, where erections of this kind we^e fiiiiong the fashion- 
able ornaments of the mosques, and ^here pyramidal 
structures were common ; but Sir Christopher' Wren had 
said, that the Gothic method ^^ ViSecieA steeples, thougb the 
Saracens, themselves used cupblai8.''t He further says, that 
the architects of tl is period thought height the greatest 
magnificence. "Few stone^/* he observes, " were us^d 
but what a man inight carry up a ladder pn bis back, frPm 
scaffold to scaffold, though tney had pullies and spoked 
wheels upon occasion ; but having rejected cornices, they 
had no need of great engines, Stdne upon stone M^as easily 
piled up to great heights ; theref(»*e the pride of their W6rk 
was in pinnacles and steeples. The Gothic way carried all 
their mouldings perpendicular, so that,'' lie adds, "they had 
nothing else to dp but to spire up all they could.'^f. Wren 
was, however, much more learned in Roman, > than 'In 
Gothic architecture, and he has been confuted in many pf 
J - -- -| — \ — ■ ^ ■ ■ II ■ ■ ■ ^ — 1^ — 

f Bentham remarks, that one. of the eaf^est spitei . we ha^ any aceotmt 
of, is that of old St. Panl's, finished in the year 132fl> He adds*. *' It mm^ I 
thtnk, of tamber, Covered with^ lead." See also Stowe*s Sncvey \of Loodai^^ 
page dSO. edit. 17li4» . "- i 

t Wren's Parentafia, p» 3^5. .. .t/X . ..,.•. 



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BriUon's ArchHedural JnUquki^i* l^ 

Bis opiaioiig with rc^gard to the latter by sutMequent irritefi, 
who have aliaast exclusively devoted their attention lx> this 
curious and interesting enquiry. 

We shall make only one additional remark on the Nor- 
,man style, as applied to Norwich Calhedral. Acoerdiiig 
to. this maoaec, there were no pinnacles, or spices eonstitut- 
i^ tl^ minor orrv»meots of the churchy but which form the 

frii|cipal embellishoieot of what is now called the Gothic, 
t is true that an exception may be made as to s^eitie small 
figures we occasionally meet with over the dopr^way8;..silth 
US that of:Bish9p HerebiMrt Losirv^ in Plate IQ, represeiitc)d 
over the doqr in the< view of the North Transept oS the 
Cathedral; and there is another figure, of our ^aviowr of 
the same kind, over one. of the south doors at Ely. The 
niches, and statuary that appear in Plates 33 and S4 of 
this work, (the former of which exhibit a most beauUfal 
f^cimen of the Gothic,.) are not to be considered as ejicep- 
tions, these structures forming no part of the.catbedrw* 
The first, is the view of the £rpingbam Gate-house from 
the westi built about 1400, and named from Sir Thos* Er- 
pingham under the following circumstances. The worthy 
ILnight had adopted the principles of Wicklifie, which excH* 
Ing great indignation in the minds of the bishop and Ike 
monks of this church, the ecclesiastics caused his arrest 
aiid . ccimmitment to prison, and afterwards compelled him 
to build the prejsQut gate house as an atonement for bis 
b%re9y, and as a durable monument of the authority of the 
B>rie$thoo,d« The other is a view of the west front of St. 
Ethelbert'sor St. Albert's gate- house and diapel, which is 
a building that appears to have been erected as an atetne- 
Qient for the injury done to the cathedral and its gates/in 
the ffreat insurrection of 121% Here we have, a series of 
blank niches, and a statue in the centre, with .pedi meats 
and crocked, which our author ascribes to the style and ' 
age of Edward L . Th^fe were originally four loop^hol^s 
pr .windours suited, to the missiles of the time, but which 
are now closed up» Ii| the spandrils of the great arch is 
described, in basso relievo, a warrior armed with, a sword 
and round ^hield^ attacking a dragon. 

.Such ai?e the observations that occur to us on thepvoduc- 
tions of this kind with which Mr* Biittpn has supplied the 
public Ifis next pttbl^^ation is to be the History and An- 
tiquities of Winchester Cathedral, which be says will be 
embellished iwith thirty qn^vings, from the drawinga by 
BkMri9;;.afid tbf)y lice to display almoftk every portion and 



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936 'Brmi'^'J^mecyriiAnti^^ 

the structure was raised. 'TM>sPi^t^'Mf'«BltoWM<4)jK^ftnHfi^ 
M/di]D!t^ of YiH^^iShihMtiai «lki§ti*atie{P bif Mt<il#li'^Hfirty 
^uiii^rlf vieWs^ l^Iuris,) dfd «e1^atkto»^ from tt'^rf^((^bf^«ltf- 
'\Hihti& dfrawitlgs^ prMMbMl mR«f * iiii(tl^ ' t&teVi«#'¥if' 6*161^ 
^dikdnM(»ytisMe.' 4«:iii^^d^ki^ tl^ttitfHt, that ^h^^^ikMfy 
>^M4i«k^>Vrbidi wais fot^iftedillifbufttfa^ tribe <>f'£dwiiM>^^^^^^ 
ii«M»iigf ttie«liea^tilfbl^^oi«idif«^b«l»^'^ th^'^^^ 
itWincfa^sttf ttfild^Ybrk^^bM iij^^dthel'^refifyects th^tfd^lWit 
^li^rtek«iit9fr4Jint'^bfge>oa^'idfr ia6Hdf%^Ie,.whieh ^^n'^cfiA- 
>niei«eAiitf'th^^re%«o1P Hefary ¥f; krfd^teri^iftot^d in tBtitf i6r 
^«M»y VI II'., on thcjj ;dl8cdritiftiAiiWe^i^4llfe extil68i^,>'*8 
^»DK MUifcr has it, of the pdint€»d^Me»^ WW^batl beV^ 
^4iat)^yltd m^etMri'BrittOB'^^iiiWhei^' those wdrks-infilBe ' 
iiMit<'ajp{^ilMnl^> aififd in the nfiean'tinie to expre^otif- 
^^l^l^-^^i^otitefty, but jii^tl^^ fetbuH^^emsh liiin" ifll 

%bi»idibe^86'tedesbrtis8itl siiehl^ndertakiii^^/ ' > '/ 

Tip White' #e tfd^f^ witb ^pprobbflton tb the attehtlon tirtit 'is 
]}diid46 th^i^ gfgttntic monmnetyts' of fthj^n^y,^ We CfaAW^t 
Xdtoi(f cMdemntH^ the senseles^lififitaftiofi €)f th^m in tiHasW^ 
-tettd^i' Whii>b%ft8 become th% igghrion 6F tlie pres^^t dirjr. 
'^ll i^icAit^'^ th^4^hbns of artliit6ctu^e;«ha^t every tii^l<e% 
i^hmld He sojted to its destination ; 6^t:#hat suitability t^n 
thbi^beityetweehU sthictiure de^rdtedUb p^bHc /WorsMp, 
abd^b hoUM^' tuis^ for ^private %cb6mYkiodatibii?'" Tile 
ithcieilt^e^aJllkte wbs Welt adapted to^Oi^ tough uncuttiv^^^d 
^gein ^ic^it^ytisli^YeM^, and th4-pu^fp<&e wtf^ to f HA- 
^ dace^^he effedt'oJP'^andettV Uie edtbtioii ^hi^b Uiis in nblh 
maHerfir tfce mbdC ^owetful operaUon'^eiiik lh>'^dd; a^ tKe 
f^htgenpsB of thfe^ tkiildin^ 'g^^^ly cdndil^d- to €hif^ pufp<f^ ; 
•4>iit ki BMdWiettntrWe 'must bave rcfgulin^if)' ah^d ;propdl-(i^h, 
' which Mv^tfifeceite the ejr^ by iteaking btg^ts il|^ettr iUi^r 
tiwnthey> really tire. Yet sfze, coiltribUtrAg as it dde«^<«o 
fftabdeiir gen^ndly, is not alwtyd jpi^ductiW dfthe^trbn^t 
'ferilfn£:Ad(difilon supposes that^he^niaf^y tH^Kytfcfifki 
bnie^^of ' did ^st^tde^ of A)<!bcMdei^ "by Lys^bU^^^hHtltfgl! ^ 
Ugger than life^ H^dW ^Wriien the'tehiibitttyifai<W^Mnv^, 
according to the nrbposal of Phidiasy ikodftit ^A'tb^'^HM 
J>e^n^ut Into tbe^'figifire of ^he hero, witti'^ VW^r'^M^ne 
^liaod'aiitf'aeftyiii'tlieotber.' ''' •'"' •»-J'>' •;'•'•* k-. -mmI 
i 'Ahfoud^ bdheath the rank of a fmlateftd^ks of IHfle 
>4ariely of forai^; anrt iti etinh A building, a #rUei^ bf stbfcuriLte 
jfudgttiMt And' \h»iiti taste ha§ saidw tMr^ ifif'nb ilt^lktic«^f 
iattiMl i^om^Mien^^^^g ^d^^aT t^%i(!^kia!l'l%g^il(^Qr. 

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BriUon's ArfhU^mral Antiquities. ^ 

^^ The unwearied propensity to make a house regular, as 
^1^11 ai d^iiii^n^Mft, tbtds^ ttie aVehit^t }«isdAe^rM(fleff W^ 
sii^rtfit^oiliretiieheetoVefularity^ aifid Jit4)tberk^n^g<^rhv 
ta cOnrMieff«e\ nhtt aecordinf ijr tlie' hdiise tut bs out i^i- 
the^regulttr hof '^#v^fiient;" ^ A <> .u.v o\ 

If 4v« 4tt4Nnptt«^ lioiioe tbenubei^uBvdiikii^^ 
the <Ufi^r«iH'ldfidi^<of«t4fbdUjr« tinder itekiU^ 
chitecture, we shall discover that there wtk beiK^Uiiilt lii^llie 
a^urdit)^ of ^his fHshipnable i^nitation . A p^ralk^lopjpedciti 
for a dwelling) ^^S^ ^9 ^ qri thcf larger base ; for a Gothic: 
tower, on the^ smaller. The steps and door of a churchy 
ought to be wide, to adroit the egress of a multitude; thosffj 
of a house of much more contracted' ^imensjonn. The aiz^^ 
dT^tne windows in ^ Gothic cathedral is to be accomino-^ 
oat^4 i9\ that obscurity which sq materially assists tbiej 
spleinp ^flTect; but. in a house, the stze ofthe winidows^ 
ougl^jf^tpbe comparatiyely large. a|iicl proportioned to^ jtK^j 
rbbifi and its purposes,^! aud if the^ dja nqt c^nvej^ light (p^ 
eiyery corner,' it' is uhequaltji illuminaiedj wliieh ts a jgreatj 
deformity. In theae churcties yoii hayej on account of th^i^. 
s^jt^itude, double /rows of wmcipw^, liut the spa<:e betwefDJ! 
t^erowsis always gloomy. Aloj'tyapartmeiit, which can-, 
i?ot be served by s^ singly row^^.ojUght to be ljght€;4 frcjp the 
rooE^ ^'tn Gothic edifices^. cro^'s-ligh^ are .^^tniltoid^iyflu^l^, 
Sn a houseware extreo^elv ^' V f, ^jf^jpl 

; T|ie imitation of what is considered^ rf^'ihe orn$iin^i^ 
tal part of Gothic churches ^ would be s,tm more , al^ur(i;» 
9ifd| we dp not Wean to. sa^ . that arcnitec^pre is in ,s^^ 
degraded a stat^ 'as lo, ^ecom^ a slavish copy lin this ^a^tir, 
<^mr. We do not recollect tp^have,se;eii niches with imager, 
on the external front; we hayp.jipf noticed the c|usteredj 
qotumny or the U^gbtnTes^ aii^ friyolity of carved w.9rl^,j in-, 
CMonsistently Pppoised^tjp, ^^ firmnessi and >olid7ty,pf ,tlie| 
pedesJEat; yet we do not pretend^ to anticipate tp what hevi:-] 
eic^pLyagance.s tjbe passion oi the times may give bir^b, i^n^ 
wejiaye iherefpre ajgaib .spbmittted a very few obserya^wn^ 
pfl th^ humiliation^ this useful and beauCituI art t(j tfiej 
attf^htibn of the public-r-^ liberty which has' teen l^e^op^^ 
c^ndj^ly al^pWjed to us, when . Grecian, not Gothic ^Yfih**' 
t«?turfjjj/dey6(ved uhqer our review.^^ . /j ;,, .*, 



^ 



y^fle (Jri^ Refv,^f,9;tewartfs Antiq.^^f Atl^s^jVoJ. ix^ tf),ij]ifjy,,^3fjS,. 



O iiiO lii 






^^^i ni }i \\i' ' :i-: J :\\, ^ j ;:;l v. ,- ^\"^v^>■i^ -z^ ^x^ 



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Amx. iil.^-^JEkceniricUies iff Edinburgh : oMammg Poems 
etitHM^ A Lamentation to Scotch Booksellers ; Fire^ «r 
4he Sun Poker f Mn Champemonne ; The Luminous His* 
torioff, or Learning in Love; London RuralUjfy or Miss 
ButmandMrSfBimt. B^ George Cqi^man the Younger. 
ISnuo. pp« 106. Edifiburi^h, Ballaiit^ne and Cq* ; I^n* 
' jdooi Xioogoiaii aad Co.* . 

yTHY these -pieces are called Eccentricities of Edinburgh, 
rkther than Eccentricities of Masulipatam^ or any other 
place, however remote or unconnected with the subjects' 
treated of, we know not : not one of the tales has the 
slightest relation to the natives or manners of Scotland; 
and even the humorous author's ingenuity could make out 
no connection between his productions and the city from 
whence their title is derived, than that they \vere published 
by an Edinburgh bookseller. It is no great eccentricity in 
our times,' to see the works of English writers purchased on 
the other side of the Tweed. The name, however. Is not of 
much importance ; only our readers must not suppose that 
it has any thing to do with the book, or that it gives the 
leiist information regarding its contents. 

Goldsmith, speaking of ^' merry Whiteford,'' says, rather, 
Uncandidly perhaps, that for his sake he fain would admit^ 
^^ that a Scot mi^nt have humour, he had almost said WiV' 
We are not inclined to go quite so far with respect to th^^e 
Scottish Eccentricities, as they are misnamed ; for though, 
the V possess humour, very little wit has Been engaged iii* 
their composition : we use the word humour here in its ge- 
neral sense, to denote that sort of q^uality which bears about' 
the same relation to wit, that boxing does to fencing, and' 
not in its proper and almost forgotten meaning— individual 
peculiarities, those characteristics that distinguish one man 
from another. The term humour is now understood as; a 
sl>rt of lowywit, one degree above punning, which is the 
ihere excise of ingenuity, and ninety degrees below what 
has pot been defined, but is to be found most conspicuously 
s^ong the writers of the time of Charles II., who had the 
facultv of so gaily adorning the worst vices, as to hide their 
most hideous deformities, [n this respect, wit and humour 
al'e especially distinguishable ; for while the first (to use the 
liinguage of a great master) ^' makes vice tolerable, by re- 
moving half its grossness," by refining, or putting out of 
sight what is disgusting ; the last very often consists in rea- 



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CohMn^ flcffnimHw of E^Mmgh. 899 

Bering obtrusive and prominent what ihefiistendmvoyiB 
to conceal. Neit)ier wit nor humour «re, how^«r, ejcdu* 
Ayely conliBed U> thes^ proviiicei : a map may of ^oiur«e 
be a wit witbout eiapiojiiig it to vadermina virtai^) 
and tboMgh the na^ur^ of bumour b^ to degenarate into 
coarsenesS) it does not necessarily do so, aaj more than a 
person ^i vulgar inclinations must be perp^tuaUj engaged 
in \dw and degrading pursuits. The confounding of these 
two terms has oft^n made a man pass for a great wit, wbp 
was only gifted with but little delicacy, a competent shigr^ 
of quickness, and a strong love for the ludicrous. 

Of humour Mr. Colman has a sufficient proportion ; but 
notwithstanding the opinion generally entertained of him, 
ire shall venture to assert, that with true wit be is but sc^n* 
tily provided, and we think the manner in which he employs 
his talents is an evidence in our favour. In # sort of pre*' 
face to the small yo]4ime before us, he states that ^^ tliis kind 
of metre*mon^€rj^ can scarcely be reckoned a branch of his 
professed business/' and be adds, that ^^ his chief pursuit 
is dramatick composition." We admit that his pieces for 
the stage have been tolerably successful, but we deny that 
they have any portion of the originality or character that be- 
long to wit, and some ofthem have been positively stolen, plot 
and persons, from the French, without the slightest acknow- 
ledgement.* We apprehend that Mr. Colman will not rest 
bis dramatic character (of which it seems he is desirous here 
to remind the reader, not having produced even a farce 
for some years,) upon such a performance as the Moun- 
taineers. Perhaps because, his father was a scholar and a 
dramatist of deserved reputation, ^ Gteorge' Colman the 
Younger, Esq." may imagine he has that wit and fame by in- 
heritance, and that he has only to put in his claim to ^^ dra- 
matic composition," being considered ^^ bis professed busi- 
ness,'-' and that that claim will be allowed witbout enquiry. 
In the composition of his Poetical Vagaries, a good deal of 
humour was certainly concerned, but it 'was accompanied 
with quite an equal * portion of grossness, and the writer 
did not pretend to any originality in the invention of his 
stories ; one of them, that of the Two Friars, bad been 
told often and better before, particularly by Hey wood the 
poet, in his ** Hi$torj( of TFomeny'^ where he introduces 
several laughable incidents that never occurred to Mr. 

* '< We Fly by Night, or Long Stoiies/' is noOiing but a translation «f 
^ Le8 Ctmieun oulea deux Pnaiei*'^ 

Cbit. Rev. Vol. V. JMawA, 1817. 2 1 



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fiO Colmqn'i Eccentridtiei of EdUAurgh. 

Cblman. The tales in the yolame before us are eqasklly 
old and even more known ; therefore if there be not some 
noveltj in the manner of telling them, they are sood for 
nothing ; we are not disposed, however, to deny that some 
are lauffhable, and that the pleasure we receive is chiefly 
derivea from the humourous style in which they are nar- 
rated. Thev are introduced by << a Lamentation to Scotch 
Booksellers, who had purchased his work, which runs 
over the names of most of the Northern Poets, from Ossian 
(alias Macpherson) down to Walter Scott« This is followed 
by the story of Prometheus and Pandora which is called, 
not verf approfiriately, <^ Fire, or the Sun-poker.*' There 
is noUime new in the fable, but on the whole, though too 
much at length, it is happily treated.— We quote as the 
best specimen from it, the description of the manubctun^ of 
Pandora, by Vulcan. 

" Vulcan^ who didn't like the job, said, * damn hcr» 
Fetch me my hammer; — 

^Tk Jove^s own order, so I'll set about her; 
But 'tkp friend Merenry, my firm opinion 
That Pluto, and the imps of his domiaicm. 

Will not be very long witbout her/ 

** And, now, the labouring bellows pla/d. 
The hammer beat, the anvil rung ; 
The Cyclops only know what stuff 
Was work'd on by a God so rough. 
To thump, and pommel into shape, a maid. 
So tender, and so young. 

** As Vulcan plied, with luck'd up sleeves. 

His arms, too sinewy to tire. 
Close to the stithv stood the God of Thievei, 

Watching the God of Fire. 
So stands a robber, while the smith nailif fast 
The clidKing shoe his horse has nearly cast. 

•* And oh! 'twas odd 
, To see whene'er the swarthy God 
Had dealt a softer, or a lustier stroke. 
How some new beauty he awoke I 
How fiur, and delicately fresh. 
The rigid substance soften'd into flesh ! 
While here a limb, and there a feature came. 
As he was manufacturing the Dame. 

^ Seen, a luxuriant, heaving bosom rose^ 
To Mercury's agreeable surprise ; 



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Cdman's EeeenirkUiei of Edmburgh. Ul 

Shordv, a hip was ftsbkm'd,^— now*-— a oos^ — 
Ana, then, a pair of legs,— and, theo^^a pair of eyes : 

^ For, thoagh expert ia thunderbolts, and armour, 
Vulcan, till now, had never made a Charmer; 

Wherefore, he ^ent on, all the while. 

In a most desultory style : 
And, so cQafuse*d was the old Bellows-blower, 

He left the face, by starts, and fits. 

As soon as be had hammerVl a few hits. 
To go and give another hammer, lower* 

At last, in spite of bungling, and confusion. 
The Work n'as coming near to a oonclusioo. 
Itdwindle'd into giving her a tat,—* 

And, then, a pat ; — 
Makmg her, hm and thtee, a little fiitter. 
And, sometimes, thumping her a little flatter; 
Till, having here increase'd, and there diminished* her. 
He gave her the last knock, — and finished hen*' 

'^ Mr. Champernoune/* the title of the next sixxry^ 
merely consists of the description of a Beef*eater, who 
knelt behind two persons who were praying to Henry YIll. 
for some abbey-lands at the dissolution of the monasteries : 
Mr. Ghampemoune by thus joining in therequest^ unseen 
by the petitioners, obtained a third share of the grant made 
by the Uoff . ^< The Luminous Historian, or Learning in 
liove," refers, as may be guessed, to the well known aneo 
dote of Gibbon, ana the fair Swiss, afterwards wife to 
Necker. The unwieldy scholar having journeyed fiur, and 
all up hill on foot, arrives at the lady's house, and the 
meeting, the previous conversation, and the whole scene 
having been minutely described, Mr. Colman proceeds as 
follows. 

** Eudoxus, squatting in a eushion'd chair. 
Gave her that interesting gJance which owns 
A double feelings — and would fab dedart 
The heart is lull of lov^ the shoes of stones. 
His tender sighs, inflating into groans. 
Were debts, as in a parti£rshq» concern. 
Due, jointly, both to Bosom and to Bones ; 
And seem'd to say, * Sweet Lady ! let me learn 

' Whether in vain I ache, and pant, and jgrunt, and bum V 

'* In vain they question'd ;— for the Fair pursn'd 
Iter prattle, which on literature flowed ; 
Kow changed her author, ndw her attitude. 
And much more symmetry than leaming'show'df 



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UB OoAnoH'f Ec^mrioHlet wf EiMmrgh, 

Endontts WflUdi'd lier tetem, wkH« tbej- i;loif -id. 
Till psMsktfi burst hii |iafy bosMB's boiiild ; 
And, rescuing bis cushion fron it*9 load, 
Flounc'd on his koees, appearing like a round 
, Large fillet of hot veal, just tuinbTd on the ground. 

^ Could such a Lover b# with soom repoif'cll 
Oh, no !•— disdain Mitted not the case ; 
And Agnes, at iSat sight, was so coDV«ls'd, 
That teaia of iaugbter tftoki'd dowii her ^tput, 
Ettdoxvs fdt Mb folly, and dispmce ; — 
Look'd sheepish* — nettl'd, — wish'd himself awaj ; — 
And, thric0, be tried to quit his kneeling-place ; 
But Fate, and Corpulency, seem'd to say. 

Here's a Petitioner that piust for ever pray 7 

** 'Mm Dim f* said Agnes, 5 what abaind distress I 

* How hing must ^lou maintain thin pofture berie 1 

* Ak ! iki^i/ he sigb*d, * di^ieods on the success 

* Of yanr eudeai/^oaTs, jawe than mine, 1 fear. 

* Get up I cannot, by myself 'tis clear: — 
*Btit, mough my poor pretensions YOU despise, 

* Foil many a mati is living, Lady dear ! 

* HVbosetoteHt, «s a Lofier, mther lies 

* Iftimhoeiteto iLMset^ Am readiness tm rise.* 

}* Again he atrain*d^ again he ^tuck like wax« 

WnSe Agnes iufjg^d <at him, in various ways j 

But he was heavier than the Income Tax, 

And twenty times more difficult to raise. 

*Shefeai^ that Sctndal would the stoiy bfaitt'; 

T^, boipdess, Yang tlie b«91; — fbe Servant camc^ 

And f!*f«d thepiiMtrate Lover withwrnaze; 

Ithen 'heat^di^n his legs the Man rwhose name 
Is iiftedfup •» lligh by inev^r-dying £ame. 

*' Eudoxns, fretted with the morn*s romance* 
Opined, while lia was waddling to 'the plain. 
Himself an wiser ^n that King cff ¥ranoe 
Who marchVl upfiiN, and then marcsli^d doWH^gilin. 
He found that he bad striven agaimt Ibe-gmin; 
That suffering ii9«>e within Im bveast •do laf k 
Brought ' labcttr;' whR^ ^ no metm ' frtiysidc'd pain ;' 
That Bessatkm, ^^ho «m Eminences tperk. 

Make OiMftsh^, 4br the ^a^ u^ery t^ll Wtnt:^ 

The piece entituled ^^ London Rurality ^ or Miaa Buna 
tind Mrs. Bout," isontains the correspondefice bftwa ladies 
who lived next door to each othev, contiguas tenuSre damos^ 
and who quarrelled jonaccoimt of some imnejd^hoiirly niii- 



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Colman^s EceetUrie^es of EdMurgh. ftf 

saoces of which ode of thmn was gatlty, and a|[^tiu;t which 
the other reRionstnUed. This is at onee the best and the 
worst of these Gccefitr icities : the obserralions upon ridi- 
culous cockney^retteats at Newington- Butts, Islington and 
other similar places, (" very rural but rather lonely/' in the 
words of the play)^ are satirically humorous and entertain* 
ing, but the letters of the two ladies are tixll of the coarsest 
and most vulgar doubljS-fmtendres. Other parts of this 
volume might Be fiiirly objected to on the same ground, but 
this proof of the degenerating character of Mr. German's 
humour is the most offensive that has come under our obser- 
ration. We select with pleasure a specimen from the in- 
troductory reflections which, as we have said, are in some 
re8pe<^8 superior to any thing else in the volume : it is aa 
attempt in the manner t>f the poets of Queei^ Anoe's time. 

** Peace to each 8wain» who rural rapture pwus^ 
As soon as past a Toll^ and off the Stones ! 
Whose joy, if Buildings solid bliss bestow. 
Cannot, n>r miles, an mtermptioQ know :— 
Save when a gap, of sqiqc half dozen feet^ 
Just breaks the continuity of ^neet; 
Where the prig Architect, with sii^e in view» 
Has dole'd his houses forth, in two by two ; 
Aad reftr'd a Row upon the plan, na douM, 
Of old men^s jaws, with every third, tooth oi^. 
Or where, stiU greater lengths^ intast^ togo^ 
He warps his tenements into a bow ; 
Nails a scant canvass, propt on slight deal sticks, 
Nick-nani'd Feranda, to the first-floor bricks ; 
Before the whole, in one snug segmoit drawiij 
Claps half a rood of turf he calls a lawn ; 
Then, chuckling at his lath-and-plaster bubfaie. 
Dubs It the CasscENT,— -and the x^ts are double. 

f* Sometimes, iadeed, an acre's breadth, halfgmn» 
And half strew'd o'er with rubbish, amy be seen : 
When, lo ! a Board, with quadrihterail graoe» 
islands, stiff, in the phenomfsnon of space; 
Proposing, still, the neighbourhood's increase. 
By — — « Ground to Let upon a Builduig Lme.** 

f* And, berea^ theie, thrown batk, a few yatdsdeep. 
Some daring Coxcombry pretends to pup ; 
Low pal'd in firoiit, and sbnibb'df with laurels, io^ 
That, sometimes^ flourish higher than your chkik 
Here Modest Ostentation sticks a pht^ 
Or daubs %jptiiuilettfr% on flie gpit^ 



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»4| Mr. Ha%lUe$ RounH Table. 

Informing pessengera 'tis *Ccw$lipCoii 

Or ^ Woodhine Lod^; or ^ Mr. Pumnock's Grot: 

Obi whynoty Vaoitvl Rioee Dolts bestow 

Sticb miines on Dog-boles, squeez'd out from a Row« 

The title of Horn Hermitage entail 

Upon the habitation of a snail 1 

Why not mscnbeCtwoold answer quite as well) 

' marine Pamlian' on an oyster-sbell V 

We do not, perhaps, think industrious shop-keepers whtf 
during the week have been confined to their deskft and • 
oounters, and retire out of the smoke and bustle on Sun* 
Aajj quite fair objects of ridicule ; but Mr. Colman may 
h^Yfi some personal grounds for his enmitj against trades* 
man^ though we suspect that he would have no objectioa 
to inhabit one of these Cowslip Cots^ or Woodbine Lodges^ 

Provided it were out of the disagreeable and irksome neigh* 
ourhoodof the Borough Road and St. 6eorge*s Fields. 

Abt. IV.-^The Round Table; a Collection of Essays on 
JLileraiure^ Men^ and Manners. By Wm. Hazlitt. 
S vols. ISmo. Edinburgh Cpnstable and Co.; I^ondony 
Longman and Co. 18 IT. 

The plan upon which this series of periodical papers was 
originally started was, in some respects, not quite happj^, 
and the result has been what might haye been es^pected : 
there were to have been many contributors to the Round 
Table; many knights were to have broken lances withjn 
the lists, but only two engaged in the contest : Mr. Hazlitt 
has carried off the prize, and is the Arthur of the band : his 
arguments, like the armour of proof of jthe prince, could 
not be pierced ; his .pen, like the enchanted sword, could 
not be resisted; and his intellect, like the magic shield 
which threw a g;lorious light over the inost pbscure 
objects, secured him an easy triumph. This indeed was 
the great fault of the project at nrst formed,— that the 
Knights of the new Uouna Table, instead of being, as of 
old, ^' friends and companions sworn," in their very consti- 
tution would have been compelled to enter into a painful 
and unfriendly rivflllship ; and this doubUess was the reason 
why Mr. Hazlitt and Mr. Hunt, with a smgle exception, 
were the only suj^porters of the undertaking. 

Of the fifty-two papers of which these volumes consist, 
Mr. Hunt only wrote twelve, many of which wer0 not, ini 
troth, like the rest, published in the Examiner newspaperi 



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Mr. Bmmes Round Table. SftS 

but in a periodical work called The Refleclar^ whidi soma 
years ago met with a much earlier death than was merited 
by the general talent with which it was conducted. Mr. 
Itunt also wrote the two introductory numbers, and some 
others upon trivial subjects, such as Washerwomen, the 
Night-Mare, ftc. ; but having very slightly contributed to 
the character which the Round Table has acquired, we shall 
not think it necessary to go out of our way to criticise efiii* 
ticms that were scarcely intended for serious consideration. 
• The other fort^ papers by Mr. Hazlitt display a degree 
of original thinking, a shrewdness of observation, and a 
depth of critical acumen, that seemed quite out of their 
place in a newspaper, and ill assorted with the mate- 
rials of which it was ordinarily composed : after the perusal 
of a few flippant observations on the politics of tba day, or 
a detail of paltry accidents and petty offences, the reader 
was not at all prepared for the enjoyment, or even perhaps 
for the understanding, of some of the articles under tne 
title of the Round Tal>le, where profound reflection, inge- 
nious ailment, and happy illustration, vied with each 
other. It has often been asked, more particularly since 
this design was first taken in hand, wh^ such periodica) 
papers were not published separately, as m the days of the 
Spectator or the Tatler f-'^-ana the ready answer has always 
been, that the success would not repay the expense, and 
for several reasons : in the first place, the Spectator, the 
Tatler, and other works of that description, have acquired 
so complete a hold of public opinion, that any attempt to 
equal them, or even to follow their steps, would now be 
treated as the height of presumptuousness. It might be 
yeiy well, some thought, to have a letter now and then in 
a newspaper, which people might or might not read at 
their pleasure, and wnich, by being so accompanied, might 
force truth and reason upon a few even without their know* 
ledge and against their will; yet a grave atteilipt at imita^ 
tion of what was so hiffhly reverenced, however little un- 
derstood, would neyer be tolerated: in the eyes of many 
it would be deemed a sort of litidraiy blasphemy to assert 
that Addison, Steele, or eyen Dr. Johnson could be rivalled 
by writers of the present day. In the next place, there is 
in this age of partial refinement and half information, an 
unwillingness to receive instruction on that very account : 
all (at leasts all who are in the habit of looking at a news- 
paper) have a smattering — every man thinks bnnself '' suf- 
fl.cient unto himself 3" and if an endeavour be made to in- 



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Ua Mr. BaiUifi Round TabU. 

ttnict bim iiiair|r way^ ib art^ sdenoe, or IkeiHture, he Uke# 
it fti a penonal affront^ and an imputation upon his acquire- 
ments and understanding. In the third place^ it muat be 
admitted, that in this more polished age^ when all classes 
are nearly equally wel^ bred^ .and when the degree of in* 
atruction, which each person and each sex obtains in a 
certain rank of 11% is about the same, there is not so much 
food for a satirist, or so much matter of observation upon 
various habits and peculiarities, as existed when people 
did not endeavour to fashion themselves to the. same stand-* 
ard of moderate excellence, both ia deportment and edu^ 
cation. 

The latter, we apprehend, is one principal reason wbjr 
many of the numbers of the Round Table are devoted to 
the discussion of abstract questions, and take comparatively 
so little notice of the manners of the age : in one of the 
early papers (No. 5) Mr. Hazlitt has occasion to distin* 
guish between the Spectator and the Tatler in this respect, 
and to give the palm to the latter as the more entertaining, 
if not the more profound, because it gives us such an amua« 
ing and accurate picture of the fashions and habits of th^ 
time of Queen Anne; but, however Mr. Hazlitt maj^ admire 
this species of instructive and humorous description, the 
reader will look in vain for much of that kind in the pages 
before us, and for the cause above assigned. In this respect, 
the Hound Table more resembles tlie Spectator, or the 
Rambler of Johnson, excepting that it is always more ori- 
ginal than the first, and generally less assuming and dicta* 
torial than the last ; the style, too, has nothing of thai 
pompous phraseology which often imposed the Gommont 
places of ^^ the British Seneca" as the important diacoveriea 
of a deep thinker. In this r^pect the work of Mr. HaalitI 
ia clearly distinguishable from all its predecessors, for from 
beginning to end scarcely a single cQmmoa-place of politita, 
of morals, or of criticism, is to be found ; <mi the contrary, 
the originality of the structure of the mind of the writer 
sometimes leads him so*much out of the beaten track, that 
the reader is scarcely able to follow him : even old roads 
are new to us in his company ; and as an examine, w6 will 
quote a small portion of the first paper from his pen, ^^ Oa 
die Love of Life ;" as stale a topic as could well be selected, 
and which is rendered peculiarly &roiliar to as by the iage« 
nious and entertaining essay of Qoldsmith. 

*< It is our intention, in the course of Ihese papers, oeaisienaHy 
to expose certain talgar errors, which have crept into our i 



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Mr. Hazliifn Round Table. 1247 

ings on n^ and manners. Perhsq[>s one of the most interesting of 
tbese^ is that which relates to the source of our general attachment 
to Jile. We are not going to enter ijito the question, whether 
liife is, on the whole, to be reaarded as a blessing, though we are b^ 
no means inclined to adopt the opinion of that sage, who thought 
" that the best thing tliat could have happened to a man was never 
to have been bom, and the next best to have died the moment after 
he came into existence.'' The common argument, liowever, which 
18 made use of to provethe value of lile, from the strongdesire which 
almost evieiy one feels for its continuance, appears to be altogether 
■ocoiiclinive. The wise and the foolish, the weak and the strong, 
the lame and the blind, the prisoner and the free, tlie prosperous 
and the wretched, the beggar and the king, .the rich ana the poor, 
the young and the old, irom the little child who tries to leap over 
his own shadow, to the old man who stumbles blindfold on his grave, 
all feel this desire in common. Our notions with respect to the im. 
portance <9f life, and our attachment to it, depend on a principle, 
which has very little to do with its happiness or its misery. 

** The love of life is, in general, the effect not of our enjopients, 
but of our passions. We are not attached to it so much for its own 
sake, or as it is connected with hap]Mness, as because it is necessary 
to action. Without life there can oe no action — ^no objects of pur- 
suit — ^no. restless desires — no tormenting passions. Henoe it is tliat 
we fondly clmg to it — ^that we dread its termination as tlie close, 
not of enjoyment,. but of hope. The proof that our attachment to 
life is not absolutely owing to the immediate satisfaction we find in 
it, b, tliat those persons are commonly found most loath to part with it 
who have the least enjoyment of it, and who have the greatest diffi- 
culties to struagle with, as losing gamesters are the most desperate. 
And farther, there are not many persons who, with all their pi^e- 
tended love of life, would not, if it had been in their power, have 
melted down the longest life to a few hours. * The school-boy,* 
sa^s Addison, * counts the time till th(e return of the holidays; w» 
minor (ongs to be of age ; the lover is impatient till he is married»f 
— ' Hofie and fentastic expectations spend much of our lives; and 
while with passion we look for a coronation, or the' death of an 
enemy,' or a day of joy, passing from fancy to possession without 
any mtemiedlate notioes, we throw away a precious year.' J bbbm Y 
TAYLOR.-^We would wilUngly, and without remorse, sacrifice not 
only the present moment, bnt all the interval (no matter how long) 
that separates us from any favourite object. We chiefly look upon 
life, then, as the means to an end* Its common enjoyments and its 
daily evils are alike disregarded for any idle purpose we have in 
view. It should seem as if there were a few green sunny spots in 
the desert of life, to which we are always hastening ferwara : we 
eye them wistfully in the distance, and care not what perils or suf- 
fering we endure, so that we arrive at them at hist. However weaiiy 
We may be of the same stale roand-^however sick of the past-*- 
Cbit. Rev. Vol. V. Mmhy 1817. 8 K 



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however bbtktl^ df fh« Aili^f«!^--dle Mkid ^H-HfVltllyvttteitbiMgllt 

Hittlns ivith 'Wh, l^CMefrs -JtiieiigAi Us it Is ^(MC tdt« ^(ftn fftMA m 
fbr ti^r, nod the dullest^eiie lodk8brlg|lit<«oifii])at«d %kh tiK 4lUfk^ 
ijess «f th« grave." (p. \9--Qa. Via*, l) 

The Ifttter obscfrvation^ do not appear to si^pport so well 
Mr^ H^tit'8 poskion: truekis, Ihfit tbe love of life«eenM 
6fbento tmnieiit in proporlidti to-onrinciipaoily to ei^w it, 
bttt whefe In e:xtf«ttfe age ^re^die passiotHs tMt, aoeoraifii^ 
(6 him, 180 *ff(rotlgty i^hid Us >6'kl ^n^im av^ the limpet ^ 
Be gratified that are tb^itihte 'His ^ H^ to^theiak wMtrnd 
cr^lturoti the Vieiry bririk ttf ^he «fete/' ^Dffi»ti^^ 
dires^sTt? ISur^y/^tinrtegaftl^a'alg^e* hii6ti<Mie'Mrfh^ipe?«^ 
Wrm passfori^ 'lind liijrh Hdbles, "(vhi^h Mt*. 'Htelitt sayiB 
att^Ti us'io life, are tS^ UhdUj^bte'd >rot)^^ty bf totith— 
car^eless, ancl even prod[ig;arof life^ aiid /it is Omjr When 
t^se passions a^dliopes, the green leaves and^ay jlowers 
of the U^ of life, have been stripped i^ bv ^^ age's'boar," 
that we think it most vainai^le; then it is that we wish ^Ho 
bold death i^ the arm's end^^' and wouM ^^ rather g^ironn so 
iti f erpetnity, th«n becured fay the sure pbysi^iaa." Tlie 
tbth^ddin^ fMtaiA ^ven Miote^ is jidist <^ ithat'the^kkdlest 
iftetie 'Vtfbks 'hti^t ^exm^ttA wHh the da^^oiess lof tbe 
Wtitf^ ;^ bdtifiis is iknOEi^ th^ lot^e «f life'reMJilt ttn^tis fi-Mki 
fhei^^tiirW tTesifth ^^alid ^ttnihifaltioto, tlifaii mtn %iiy hope df 
fiitiire ehio^eiit by todtihuitig (^ist^^e, whitfa iAte v^ 
di^er^rit unngs. 

. Wbile ibese JEstoays were in the cotfrse of perio^dital ptA- 
ilcsition, it urasiBrequently objected Chat they were too ni^ta- 
plQ^sioa), (wbidi word, by the bye, ivas often used to express 
niiv-tbing^^ reader^^ottld not coraprebend,) end that thisjr 
dta fiot (lossess ^sufficient variety { both these complaints, 
«tpteiaily the last, w^ well fodnded, and both ai^ in a 
ttem^ reBMNlfed in tiie inc^rivt: sueh artteles as were 
<i9ei¥ly;and|mi^itMfipih^ beeir^oiaitled; md if 

itieteadef rtrh Ms eye ov«t-*the wtilehtB «f each volmae, 
lile Will find ihki, 'at lea^ a ^it<Rcie^ variety of sdbjcieU 
liifcVebeftn tfea'ted : eren pcffitics, to 'biSfr regret, Imve ne|t 
l^en^ttqgeiber^^jtdludcid. Stifl it tsttmot be denied that 
tiiereis a inai>nerism in the s\yie of'flidiight, reasoning, and 
ozpr^s^^ w'bich it was scarcely possible to avoid* ani^j^hich 
.WeshoiAdnav^ been sonry to have seen avoided; be^use^ 
^ei^r Mr. Ilaaditt must nave reduced himself to a meve 
Adificiid trriter^— a sort' of literaiy .posture-master, distort- 
ing himsdifinto all sdlrt^of ^lw|Mf0,eiKl reaigniiig'bis fiatiiral 



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^Irwgtk % VOH^ve i^r^atile pliahilH;; or ^^^^m^st h«tve 
l^^W troNAbUdi further ttum at pi^aept nei^ ttie intri^ded 
4iiin|fii^e«8^ of (e?I4? MiiUiiiig^ or th^ dul^ m^p^in^ of 
«li^«t«4 «aji:w»ji» W^ will now f^r^i8h ow r^w& wUh 

bandied ; avoiding, koweTer^ theatrleal orttidsM where k is 
9?r^]f p^rspnsji The following; is a verj I^app^ opening to 
two Ui^t^fut an4 scientific articles on Hogartn s Wirria^e a 

^ BofOtmda^ the mil vcfiaed zni s^nlivifoM o^ nU thf nowl- 
wrijters, haijs been stigmatised a^ a mere investor of hc^ntioMs tales, 
becanse readers^ m general hfiTe only seized on those tfiiB|s ip his 
WQrks which were suited to their owq taste, and hfiye rejected \hf\t 
own gro^ness h^ick upon thf writer. So it has happened that Hk 
majority of critics having lieen most stryick with the strofig and de. 
cided expression in Hogarth, the extreme deKcacy and subtle grada- 
tions pf character in his pictures hfive almost enttrely escaped ihem. 
In the first p}<:ture of the Marriage a-ki'Mpftet the three Ifignres Of 
the ypnng Noblepian, hfs intended Bride, and her inamorato^ the 
Lawyer, sfiew hpw m\ich Hogarth excelled in the power of gtring 
soft aha ^ffeniin^te egression. They have, however, been less no- 
ticed than the other figures, whi^fa tell a plainer story, and convey 
a more palpable moral. Nothjng can he ipo|re finely n^ana^ ths^i 
the differences of character in tji^se delicate pe^rsonages. Tiie beau 
si^ sniOing at the looking-^lass, wifh a reflected simper of sejlf-a4- 
miration, and a lapgi^ishing uiclin^^on of the bead, iivhile the test 0f 
iiis body is p^rki^d up op his high heels with a certain air of tip-toe 
elevation. H^ is the Nfircissus pf the reign of George 11. whose 
powdered peruke, ruffles, gold l^ce, and patches, ^vide his sdf- 
love unequally with his own person,— the true Sir Phme of his 
day ;r~ 

' Of amber-lidded snuff-box justly vain, 
And the pijee conduct of a clouded cane.* 

Them ifi a^^v^ f^idiy in the fi^cure and altitude of the Bride, 
pWrMby tfy^ C^wy^, Tb(?re i^ tlie utmost llexjl>ility, and jlel^j- 
Mtf foftn^ in her wh^^ R^od^ ^ H^tle^s hnguo^ md tremulous 
flltlffai^ in Ih^ e^pi^ss^n of her f^t. It is the precise loQk and air 
wh^ Pope }m given to his l^voiirite Belinda just at the nioment uf 
U^^aff^t^ th^liO^ 'Ilie heighti^ed glow, the forward intelli- 
ynOBSa jinn l9PS(Wie4 sonl of love iu tbe ^apie facf^ in the assi^^nation 
M^fi; h^pr^ th^ masquerades tonu ^ fine and in&tructive contrast to 
th^ 4(^C9pv, tii|9i^ity» and c;oy reliKtanw; eit^jressied in the first, Tlje 
Inwyier in l;u>tbpic&^ isn^eh the siime— perb«p:s too mueh sii— 
fhpilgb^y^ this 9nin^ved^ i^altered appearance may be designed as 
diwf«te4i^i9^ |n h^h owei he has ' a person, and a smooth di^ 
IHW^ ffm^ t^m»h« wpqi;en false.' He i» full of that easy good- 
Iimilt«^r«!i4 41197 ii^^ of tjimaelfi with yrhich the sex are 



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«30 Mr. Hazlitfs Round Table. 

delighted. There is not a sharp angle in his fkct to obstruct his 
. success, or give a hint of donbt or difficulty. His whole aspect b 
round and rosy, lively and unmeaning, happy without the least ex- 
pence of thought, careless and inviting ; and convrp a perfect idea 
of the uninterrupted glide and pleasing murmur of the soft periods 
that flow from his tongue/' (p. 79—81. vol. i.) 

The next extract is equally excellent, but in a different 
way, and with some tinge of metaphysical reasoning : the 
application of the doctrine of association to natural objects 
and scenery, is not new, but it is happily illastrated. 

^ There is, generally speaking, the same foundation for our love 
of Nature as for all our habitual attachments, namely, association of 
ideas. That which distinguishes this attachment from others is the 
transferable nature of our feelings with respect to physical objects % 
the associations connected with any one object extending to the 
tHiole class. My having been attached to any particular person does 
pDt'make me feel the same attachment to the next person I may 
chance to meet ; but, if I have once associated strong feelings of de- 
light with the objects of natural scenery, the tie becomes indissolu- 
ble, and I shall ever after feel the same attachment to other objects 
of the same sort. I remember when I was abroad, the trees, and 
grass, and. wet leaves, rustling in the walks of the Thuilleries^ 
seemed to be as much English, to be as much the same trees and 
grass, that t had always been used to, as the sun shining over my 
head was the same sun which I saw in England ; the £ices only weie 
foreign to me. Whence comes this difference? It arises from our 
always imperceptibly connecting the idea of the individual with man, 
and only the idea of the class with natural objects. In the one case, 
the external appearance or physical structure is the least thing to be 
attended to; in the other, it is every thing. The springs that move 
the human form, and make it friendly or adverse to me, lie hid 
within it* There is an infinity of motives, passions, and ideas, con^ 
tained in that narrow compass, of whicbri know nothing, and ia 
which I have no share. Each individual is a world to himself, go« 
verned by a thousand contradictory and wayward impulses. I can, 
therefore, make no inference from one individual to another; nor 
can my habitual sentiments, with respect to an^ individual* extend 
beyond himself to others. But it is otherwise with repect to Nature. 
There is neither hypocrisy, caprice, nor mental reservation in her 
favours. Our intercourse with her is not liable to accident or 
change, interruption or disappointment. She smiles on us still the 
same. Thus, to give an obvious instance, if I have once enjoyed 
the cool shade of a tree, and been lulled into a deep repose by the 
sound of a brook running at its feet, I am sure that wherever I can 
'find a tree and a brook, I can enjoy the same pleasure again.—^ 
Hence, w(]en I imagine these objects, I can easily form a mystic 
pehonification of the friendly power that' inhabits diem. Dryad or 



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Mr. HaxUU's Round Table. SSt 

Nai»df oflbring its cool feootaio or its tempting shade. Hence the 
origm of tbf Grecian mythology. All objects of the siame kind be- 
ing the sanie, not only in their appearance^ but in their practical 
meSy we habitually confound them together under the same general 
idea ; and» whatever fondness we may have conceived for one, is 
immediately placed to the common account. The most opposite 
kinds and remote trains of feeling gradually ^ to enrich the same 
sentiment ; and in oar love of Nature, there is all the force of indi- 
vidual attachment, combined with the most airy abstraction. It is 
this circumstance which gives that refinement, expansion, and wild 
interest to feelings of this sort, when strongly excited, which every 
one must have experienced who is a true lover of Nature.*' (p. 66-— 
68. vol. i.) 

The aiiicles on paintinf^, and its requisites and excel* 
lences, ffro^pi^which we can scarcely quote a small par^ so 
as to give a fit notion of the whole^ possess this ^reat ad* 
vantage, — that though often almost purely scientific, they 
are accompanied by a felicity of language and illustration^ 
which mdkes them intelligible even to those who are eom* 
parativel}' ignorant of the art. The Review of the Caialogue 
Jiaisonn^ of the British Instiution at once displays some of 
the finest specimens of argument, eloquence, and know- 
ledge : the vein of ridicule which at times api>ears above 
the surface, would have been more severe, bad it been now 
and then a little less coarse. We have only room for a very 
small portion of the subject, which can be understood and 
enjoyed by every body. 

** As to the comparative merits of the ancients and the modems, 
it does not admit of a question. The odds are too much in favour 
of the former, because it is likely that more good pictures were 
painted in the last three hundred than in the last thirty years. Now, 
the old pictures are the best remaining out of all that period, setting 
aside those of living Artfsts. If they are bad, the Art itself b good 
Ibr ncything; for they are the best that ever were. They i|re not 
good, because they are old ; but they have become old, because they 
are good. The question is not between this and any other genera- 
tion, but between the present and all preceding generations, whom 
the Catalogue-writer, in his misguided zeal, nnd^takes to vUify and 
/to keep under, or hold up to derision.' To say that the great 
names which have come down to us are not worth any thing, is to 
say that the mountain tops which we see in the farthest horizon are 
j^t so high as the intervening objects. If there had been any 
greater painters than Vandyke or Rubens, or Rapheal or Rem- 
brandt, or N. Poussin or Claude Loraine, we should have heard of 
them, we shpuld have seen them in the Gallery, and we shouM have 
read a patriotic and disinterested account df them in the Ceidag^ 



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BMimm^* Wat itag the uoSur and kmimm cMipansoti betwcoo all 
ftfttcr txceUeaee and tbe eonoentiated easeaee of it in the prcMot 

rr let U0 ask who» ia the kwt genetatioii of peinten, ww equal fee 
oMnnsters? Waa it Highmoie, or Hayinaa* or Hudson^ or 
Knelier T Who wa9 the Engfoh Raphael, ov Rubeiui> or Vaodykcv 
<if thatdagf^ to vbom the C^kigfie<:ritie woald hafe extended his 
|Nitrioti0 aynipfttbjaod danuiiog patronage? KneUer» we have bteo 
Md, waa thought superior to Vandyke- by the peisons of ^Mhioa 
whom ha painlcd* So S4« Tboiaas Aposde seems higher thao Si 
Paura while yon are ckiae under it ; but the failher off you go^ the 
faigiier the n^^ dooK aspfaea into the skies/' (p..2d1— ^t38» ¥qI. il) 

We do not think the numbers devoted to tbe criticism of 
poetry the most successful ; that upon Milton's Lycidas is 
tli0 lieat, and it opena picturesquely and beantifuUjr: the 
two artietce, Mr. Wprdaworth'a ExcuTBion, we think are 
IM mudi laboured. There ia an easa^ ^ On Posthumoua 
Paitie, and whettier Sbakq>eam were luiuenoHl bj a love 
4f ity'' wbich we are more disposed to quarrel with thui 
witb any other in the two volumes : we do not diftpute thut 
^^ the love of feme is the offspring of taste rather than of 
fenius,'' but we think that Shabpeare was more impelled 
by it than Mr. Hazlitt supposes. He seems indeed to have ' 
MM carelese reffardinip tne preservatioa of his plays, but 
ai that period^wbich of onr drauiatists was not so, and from 
neeessibf ; beonuse, having sold their pieces to the theatre^ 
Aay continued the property of the theatre, and coold not 
be publbhed by them. Hey wood was concerned ia above 
SOO plig^s, and only 27 have reached us; and several of Mas* 
fiinger^% Fori% Shirley's^ ai^ many others,^ have been lost 
on the Mime account We adimit that Shakspeare says little 
about hia own feme in his plays, but it was not a mamatic 
subject; hot however^ dwells much upon it in his sonnets and 
Aioor poems, which^if properly attendedto, afford a fine Bad 
true picture of his youuff mind before he had yet mueh iur 
volved himself in theatrical drudgery. We will quote two 
or three passages out of many, to estaUish how^ nauch he 
k>oked forward te times tike the present^-when, it may be 
asserted, notwitfastandins, that he is mueh more reverenced 
thiMI read. In bis 18th Sonnet, he says to his mistress, oir 
to whomever be is addressing,* '"* 

*< Nor shall death brag thou wand'fest m the shade* 
Wheti in eternal linm te time thon gvouest; 

■»*•■■ ■■ I. '■ ■■■ ' ■ ■ '■■■ '^ 

• Mit.€halaMri»«a hftf Afok^y tad Sapptwacatat ApWagy^ ami a ta ia f 
that f t was Qaefa 45UsfM^ 



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WiOekisan^^ Observations in Surgery. iSi 

'So lon^asittto'csii'bMAliey •t tfjts dn NSp 
So long lives this, and this gwret life to Aee.** 

. 4g^n, in Sonnet -SS, 

*' Not wrble^ nor tke:gilded wonamcnt 
Of pruttses, sball^Nit^ife tinspoweifiil tbyae;*' 

and ill Sonnet 101, lie telh liis Muse — 

*' Bxcuie not silence so, for^t lies in thee 
To4Dake him much out-live u gilded tomb. 
And to be praised in ages yet to be: 
Then do thj dflice. Muse, I teadh'theeliow. 
To m^Le'him seem long hence, as he slnms nofr.** 

' Theaeacet quite 'Suffioiedt la fprave tkot, .at-bosty iKhen 
Skakmemie ^rote Uieae early ipaenay Jie did not diiniagraril 
4im«adfluratiaa'«f fMfiterity. From faia&Miiieiiraot^att^sa 
fidthfiiljfiiciiire of .Us^mtfid, >btttaii accamte ^momoirtaf rUa 
Kfe, 'iiuglit nbe compiled: hitboito bis -editoes ihave ibeaa 
aioiiouB tiadier'to^eKfaibit their JuKHKladge of any tbiagtafee 
iluHi af tbair author. 



Abt. VI, — Some Practical Observations in Surtterjf^ iUus^ 
Irdied hj Cases. By A. Copland Hutcmisoit, hie 

Sincipal Surgeon io the Royal Naval JloqfifiU ia iXedl^ 
^emoer of4he Ifoy at College of Surgeons in London^ 4rc. 
S-c. 8vQ. pp. 167. London, Callow, J816. 

Tti« Ihaiits >6f ike mm%; froor whiehrwe iawg latdy amet yd , 
Jai9er«M;«iliyetyaonia«aaiatiirity? oaaoaM ofrttesbitteraat 
ttf^tbase^'Aie'peoi^ mre ne^r feeiding aritti -aiigtiiiA, but «w 
baaiiMaa hnxa >wilhT<Aem. AaaiaiS'^'^ naatexoeUeiit fraMa 
of the field of bloody MRiytAiffly ba eoaattedtitfaase^addltiana 
lD4a^aal affiti>au»Mad scaanee, irhicii.iiawaoeraed'fram 
aai'kNK&llMiitittaB 3af tbe nmortaidttaB far obaervatiaa, ao 
k»|:€lj'afir<iraad to HtB memosA afBetrn oMke arnij mi 
navy. ( Owetof^tiaa) awm himMe^aimain^ tbk faarvwtai 
Ae ^mthor J«f<tiie ^rnall v<dmne which taoav lajfa dinai^ 
aiMae «hare of otar tiortiee : viiiB pretenioas are moderate) 
«i«ti|K^««amiaartJaai^ km firodactian mead not datalh «s 
tary kng. 3)he veaiAer wiA ted m .it immrka^and btiita, 
4>ft^ jttdtdotiatand juaafitl, on themrioaaaubjectaof am* 
)HtiatiaiB, arjraipelalam iaiaaMDalgoa, apeariam, iwaciwjg, 
lAKeeas^if aheimr, lonibarabseeaa, ad unuaiteiifraatut'ea; 
«r i^kii «i«8 abail liare fvaeaed^tatraaeA biiiof iaHd^sMl 
oattiaa, 4alai^vm€ii^witbair«nrioaBaiaalaiof ^lar^wa. 



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254 Hutehisan's Observaiums in Surgery. 

Doring a great part of the last centurj, it has been a 
question eager]? disputed, wbat is the fittest time for am* 
putatiiig after dangerous gun-shot wounds, or injuries from 
other causes; where, on a first view of the case, the loss 
of a limb appears inevitable. About the year 1757; the 
Royal Academy of Surgery in France awarded their prize 
to M. Faure, ior a dissertation, in which he professed him- 
self an advocate for delaying the operation ; but it is now 
pretty generally agreed, among well-judging and expe- 
rienced surgeons, that, in the severe casesliere alluded to, 
no time should be wasted in expectation ; that promptitude 
afibrds the patient his greatest chance of recovery. A late 
writer of eminence, however, (Mr. Guthrie,) though partial 
to early amputations, recommends a delay of from two to 
six hours, for the purpose of allowing the agitatipn — the 
unaccountaUe state of alarm often conse<)uent on these 
aocidents-— to subside. This proposition is combated by 
Mr. Hutchison, who gives a deciaed preference to as early 
a removal of the limb as possible, being supported in this 
opinion by a tolerably large experience of his own, as well 
as by the testimony of many professional friends in the 
navy; and he thinks^ that had Mr. Guthrie made himself 
acquainted with the practice of naval surgeons, he would 
have found that '^ the utility of earh/ amputation in gun- 
shot wounds has been the settled practice of the naval me- 
dical service for fully half a century past." A similar 
opinion is maintained also b)* the Baron Larrey,. who would 
never permit a necessai^ amputation to be deferred, but by 
the occurrence of delirium, convulsions, or inflammation^ 
immediately after the injury ' ^hese he would allay by ap- 
propriate remedies, and seize the ^rst moment oftranquuf 
lity for the performance of his operation. 

After some remarks on the application of the tourniquet^ 
on the division of the parts, and on securing the blood- 
vessels, (in the course of which, the use of a large f»ad 
under the tourniquet is condemned as dangerous, and in- 
stances given in proof of the assertion,) our author comes 
to speak of the manner of forming the stump. The com- 
mon mode of closing the wound, he observes, is to approxi* 
mate.the integuments, so as that the line in which they 
meet (the line of incision, as it is called) may be vertical, 
or extended in a direction from the anterior to the posterior 
part of the limb : the most plausible reason assigned f<Mr 
this practice is, to give a free outlet to the secretions of the 
stump. Mr. Alanson recommended that the line of incision 



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HvkkkofCt QitHPMtknz in Surgery. 855 

dioald 1» traosvene, or firott aide to side; because, if it is 
made vertical) the etcatrix \» opposed dirsctlv to the end of 
the bene ; whereas, in the other ease, k will be foimd^ he 
sajSy after the cure is complete, ^ that, in consequence of 
tiiie more powerful action ot the flexor musdes, the cicatrix 
is drawn downwards, and the extremity of the bone ia 
therefiDre ^vered with the <M shin ; and hence, in walkiagy 
the point where the greatest pressure feUs^ is upon this part, 
and not upon the new skin." Mr. Hutchison ahM» aoeptt 
the transverse line in fernung the stmnp of tbe thi|(h ; nut 
though he thinks the above reason a go<Nl one, gives ao'v 
other which he thhiks much better : tUa reason is, that tbo 
wei^ of the thiffh pressing against the bed on which U 
rests, will certainfy tend to sepmile more or less the ed(|^ea 
of a vertical seam, and that this separation must necessariljf^ 
occasion the formation of matter, and prevent, ai l^aaj^ 
some parts of the wounds from uniting hj the first intention. 
Aay one, who reflects on the subjeeti, may easily opneeive 
the nature of this oeourrence; in the book an etekiAg is iut 
troduoed, to make it meeo pkia. The advantages, on the 
other hand, of a transverse line, are thus stated:*-^ 

** In making the seam transversely^ the weight of the thigh must 
necessarily press the sides of the flaps into closer contact ; and 
hence union by the first inteution, the grand object of oqr efforts, 
is more effectuail]rpromoted ; and hence also, the exclusion of col* 
lections of matter, no cavity heing left ^r its secretion and dsposi* 
tion, which, when they occur, omn protract the euve to an indefi« 
nite period, by favouring troublesome exfoliations of the hone, %lq. 

** In fbranng the Stump transversely in Ihif^ casef » there is, how- 
ler, a necessary caution t^ be given to tlie yoiina si|f9MHi„ Strang^ 
^Yea^Ifiied by a cireuniftanGe which I wijfcnrsscdi^ 9m of the pi|b)ie 
bospi^s of diis metropolis awl whic|i caofi^ B9Ui^h eqihanpassnicnt 
to several dressers in that establisbi^/ent. Th^ surgeon having am- 
putated the limb» and secured the blood- ves^l.s, left the subordinate 
psrts to be performed by the young gentlemen. In drawing the 
us^9 together, these pupils, by mete accidei)!^ formed the line of 
incision transversely ; ai|d aldiough ther^ was sqfBcient integument 
to cover the bone» yet, wMi alt then* effort?, they ^ere unable to 
bring into contact^ by nearly an inch, the edges of the woimd ; and 
they were on the point of abandoning the contest^ when I took the 
llbertv of snggfsttng to them the pvoprie^ of relaamg the posterior 
moscwft ef the tbi^, by depressfiig the end ef the stump, whkA 
was 1h^ ate right an^e with the bqdy : the lesoU of this simpk 

EBi$siwii9 ttie immediate appmaimsy^w and con^f9|pf the Ji^ 
ecciu^rvn^e plakdy dtmeasts^tea tjfM ii|ipropFMy <rf fh^m% ^ 
stiMOp^W ^evatsd cuahions, as is tof^ coi|im<#|y tbf cast ^WM tk 
CaiT. Rev. Vol V. MarcA, 1817. 2 L 



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S56 Hutchison's Observations in Surgery.. 

ctn-e. It should be noticed also, that vfhete a stump is formed traos^> 
viersely, tke patieut must be confined to his back when placed in bed, 
otiterwise the stump will partake of ali the disadvantages of a loo^: 
^dinal one/' (p. 38 — 41.) 

At the conclusion of his remarks on amputation, tttt? 
author adduces two cases in support of the practice latelj 
introduced, of taking off a limb during the progress of 
mortification, the consequence of a wound; and by Larrejr 
denominated traumatic gangrene* The doctrine which has 
heretofore commonly prevailed in the schools of sorgerj^ 
was, in every case of spreading mortification, to forbear 
from amputating until the boundaries of the mischief were 
marked by aline of separation ; but a distinction begins 
now to be established between the spontaneous and the 
traumatic gangrene, which affords a prospect of ultimately- 
preserving many valuable lives. In the former, arising 
irotti an internal cause, the old doctrine still holds good ; 
no advantage will be gained by amputating before the mor- 
tification is stopped. In the latter, the sooner the operation 
is performed the better, if it appear that life is endangered 
by the disease ; because the spreading of the mischief here 
depends, according to Larrey, not on any constitutional 
cause, but on the absorption of noxious matter from the . 
injured and mortified part, by which the sound parts are 
contaminated in succession upwards, until the infection, if 
not prevented by a timely removal of the offending member, 
at length extends to the trunk, and speedily puts a period 
to existence. 

The observations on erysipelatous inflammation are re- 
printed, Mrith some enlargement, from the fifth volume of 
Medico^ Chirurgical Transactions; and their object is to 
recommend the practice of incisions for the cure of that 
complaint, as it occurs in the extremities. If gangrene 
does not takfe place, the common Qourse of the inflammation 
is to terminate in effusion or suppuration between the inte- 
guments and muscles, so as to separate them completely, 
to a greater or less extent, from each other; the integu- 
ments thus deprived of their connections, die and slpugh 
off,, leaving the muscles bare, and often inducing a neces- 
sity for amputation. To prevent these consequences, it has 
been the practice in the Deal Hospital, during the last six 
y^ars and a half, previously to any secretion having taken 
place, to make longitudinal incisions with a scalpel, freely 
through the skin, and down to the muscles, ^^ about an indh 
and a half in length, two or three inches apart, and varied 



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Ifuichism's Ob$€rvaiions in Surgery 257 

in flundber, from six to ei^iteen, according to the extent of 
nurface the disease is found to occupy." A quantity of 
blood is thus abstracted, to the great relief of the distended 
vessels; and the incisions affording a ready outlet for any 
4uid which may be effused, no collection of matter, nor a 
consequent insulation of the integuments can take place. 
Before the adoption of this practice, the author witnessed 
three deaths and five amputations in consequence of this 
disease ; but since that period, he has never tailed to bring 
the cases under his care to a favourable issue. 

An interesting case of popliteal aneurism next solicits our 
attention; being remarlcable chiefly on account of a little 
deviation from the usual practice in such cases, and its un- 
fortunate termination. The author, desirous of ascertainr 
itig whether the present improved operation for the cure of 
aneurism might not be still further simpliBed, resolved to 
operate, on the first favourable occasion, in a manner sug- 
gested by some experiments of Dr. Jones, Mr. Traverlv! 
and. himself; the following was accordingly his mode of 
proceeding in the case we are considering. The femoral 
artery having been exposed in the usual way, two ligatures 
were passed around it, and tied with slip-knots, leaving a 
space somewhat leefs than a quarter of an inch between 
them : the pulsation in the aneurismal tumor was reduced 
to a slight undulatory motion. The wound was then slightly 
closed and covered for about six hours ; at the expiration of 
that time it was again opened, and the ligatures very care- 
fully withdrawn. '^ In less than half a minute aller the 
removal of the ligatures, the artery became distended with 
blood, and the pulsations in the tumor were equally strong 
as they had been previous to the operation." In conse- 
quence of this occurrence, though Dr. Jones, in his expe- 
riments on dogs, found that the artery was ultimately obli- 
terated under similar circumstances, Mr. Hutchison did not 
think himself justified in putting the life a human subject 
to the hazard of such an expectation, and therefore imme- 
diately secured the artery with two fresh ligatures, applied 
a little above and below the site of the first ; thus reducing 
the operation to that which is generally practised. The 
case went on favourably till the twenty- first day, when both 
liffatures were removed with facility ; but in the afternoon 
of that day there was an alarm of hemorrhage, which was 
found to proceed from the inferior orifice of the artery : the 
vessel was secured before much blood had been lost. In a 
few day% however, a second hemorrhage occurred from the 



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358 MmickboH^s ObmnMMU ^ Surgery. 

upp^ {^oitidn i>f llie ar(«ry ; in coftsequeace oT whidii, «m1 
of the iDcreasfiag pcrlsalion in the ham, it was deeaied adirt* 
fiaUe to amputate the liaib. The dtmvp became iU-ooBdi« 
tioned, and the pattent fmm thin time ctttitimied gradtM^y 
declining until his death.— - We are not ^sposed to blame 
the author for his oooduct in this easier «n oie contr«rj, be 
merits praise for eo expUoitlj detailing bis mmui of fiuoeefPB ; 
it 16 probable that the event would have been equally bad^ 
though the operation had throughoat been ^ondneted in the 
ordinary moae. With reepe^ to the practical laiferences to 
be drawn from expertmeivts made upon brntes, we Ihink 
that considerable caution is required : tbe apteries of man 
being much more prone to disease than those of other a(ni« 
mals, and apparently possessing inferior powers of repairimr 
iniuries, it would be rash to ccHiclude that equal effects will 
follow from like causes in the one and the other* This de- 
partment of pathology is nevertheless infinitely indebted to 
experiments of the hind that we speak of, and will prebaUy 
receive yet further accessions from the same source; it la 
only necessary to proceed warily. 

The subject of necrosis is illustrated by a good ease, and 
an engrawig. The case cf abscess of the liver occurred 
in a woman thirty years of age, who is stated to have re* 
covered from a most deplorable condition, after there had 
been discharged, at intervals, by means of a trocar, neartf 
eight gallons of purulent matter mixed with hydatids. Wb 
remember to have witnessed a similar case, some time since^ 
in the Royal Infirmary at Edinburgh : the patient was i^ 
' man about sixty, who continued for a long time to disoharM 
|>U8 and hydatids through an ulcerated opening in the ab* 
domen, till at Jast he annk under the complaint. On exa« 
mining the body, there was found, besides the source of the 
disiiharge above-mentioned, a large and entire i^stfiHed 
with hydatids, and closely attached to the liver : the prepa* 
ration, we believe, is preserved in Dr. Monroes museum. 

The remaining communications in this voluase are, a 
single case of lumbar abscess, which was onred by Mr. Aber« 
«ethy^« plan of treatment, with the addilmi of injecting 
lime-water into the cavity after each evacuation of sta oon« 
tents; and a ease of ununited fracture of the ImaeruB) 
wherein considerable advantage^ 'though not a perfect cnmy 
was derivt&d fi^m the introduction 4>f a seton between tha 
ends of the bone. Our readers h««»e now some idea ff tbe 
informfction to *be derived from Mtr HnlefaiaMi's iKiok, and 
we leave them to fonn l^ir "i^wn eonelosions ^espeetiiig its 
merit firom what has been already said of it. 



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L «» ] . 

-Art VI.— PrttJfl/c Memoirs, which, with the Work of AT, 
Hue^ and the Journal of Clerj/, complete the History of 
the Captivity of the Royal Family of France in the jfcm- 
ple. Translaled from the French, with Notes by the 
Translator. 8vo. pp. 13B* London, Murray, 1817. 

This little work contaiae the account of the knprifionnietft 
of five individuals, who experienced more fiaio&il and 
extraordKnary vicissitades than any other persons in no- 
dern • history. Tliese indiridiials were, tbe reigning So* 
vereign of France ; his oonsort, the daughter of an Ens^ 
peror; Madame Elisabeth, his sisier; the Princess RoydU 
and the heir*apparent of France* Of these, three ineoeived 
their death from the hands of the public exeoutioner, one 
Ml a Tictim to disease froni the loathsome skuation to which 
his tender age was exposed, and the last is ^allegi^d to he 
the author of these memohrs. 

" The foflovying pages,'* says the translator, " are written by the 
only survivor of the Prisoners of the Temple, — the Duchess of An- 
goul^me. Princess Royal of France. ^ 

** Her name does not indeed appear-in the title-page, because» 
we suppose, it would be contrary to etiquette ; but the work is 
avowed at Paris ; and there is hardly a page which does not afford 
ifrtemal evidence of its atithenticity. 

** The notes of wliich it is composed were either made at the me-> 
meBt by stealth, and with pencils which her Royal Highness eon* 
trived to conceal from her persecutors, or weve added ioimediatelj 
afiter her relnMe from prison. 

** It will he observed that several passages are obscure* and ono 
or two contradictory ; there are frequent repetitions, and a general 
want of arrangement. All these, which would be defects in a r^u^ 
lar history, increase the value of this Journal : they attest its au- 
thenticity, and forcibly impress on our minds the cruel circum* 
stances of perplexity and anxiety under which it was written ; aad 
the negligence and disorder, if I may use the expressibn, in which 
tbe Princess appears before us, heeome ber misery better than a 
fiiore careful and ornamented attire.** (p. v — vii.) 

The Fi^ndi editor is more on his guard, and designatea 
pboBuroIy the author. 

** Birt what Tetiance,** he says, •* it will be aifced, can we place 
hi «i account, whose author is unknown t We foresaw this objee- 
tion ; and all that we shall say in reply is, that. If we were penmt» 
led to reveal the author^s name, we sfaodUl not hmre any occasion 
tomconMiend the work: 4t wonldbefclt to be heyoad ail|M«iii^ 
lad sis irahieiwieidd have«o otiier maaaaie iIumi that^of the atladi^ 



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S60 Duchess of AngouUm^s Journal. 

ment of good Frenchmen to the family, a portion of whose snfier- 
higs are here described." (p. xiv — xv.) 

^ The general opinion in France is, that the Duchess of 
Angouleme reallj composed these memoirs, and without 
deeming it to be necessary to particularize the passages in 
which we discover the hand by which they were written, we 
think there is abundant internal evidence of the correctness 
of that opinion. 

It appears, from the account, that the members of the 
Royal Family of France we have mentioned reached the 
prison of the Temple on the ISth of August, YK% ; on the 
26th of the following, month the republic was proclaimed ; 
6n the 18th of Jan. 179S, sentence of death was pronounced 
upon the King, and on the 2Ist he was executed, when he 
was thirty-nine years of age^ and when he had been in pri- 
son five months and eight days. 

On the 3d of July the Dauphin was separated from his 
inother, and placed in another part of the prison, under the 
custody of a man of the name of Simon, or whom the trans- 
lator says, that his chief duty was to debilitate the body, 
and impair the understanding of the prince. 
' On the 3d of August, under a decree, the Queen left the 
Temple^ and was conveyed to the prison of the Conciergerie. 
On the 16th of October she suffered by the guillotine 
before she had completed her 38th year, and when she had 
survived her husband eight months. She had then been in 
France twenty- three years. 

After the Queen had been removed, the confinement of 
the Princess Royal and her Aunt was more severe than 
during the presence of her Majesty. Thev made their own 
beds, swept their own room, and were told that the reason 
ibr engaging them in these menial employments was, that 
equality was the first law of the French liepublic. Their 
rdiigious scruples, as to fastings and other privations en- 
joined by the Catholic faith, were disregarded, and they 
were informed, that the Sabbath was superseded by tM 
Decades. Even their amusements and comforts, of the sim- 
plest kind, were progressively interfered with and 'with- 
drawn; a pack of cards was to be tak^n away because they 
contained the effigies appropriated to kings and queens, and 
the luxurious indolence of royalty was not to be indulged 
with an armed chair. ' t . 

• At the commencement of the year 1794, the filth and 
misery to which the Dauphin was exposed may be eanly 
collected from the circumstance^ that he had not chengea 



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Dmhai^f AkgauUme's Journal. S6t 

Ilis liaen for twel^ months, the consequence of whicb wasi 
that he fell into an alarming state of atrophy, which occa-^ 
lioned his death on the 7fh of June, 1795, oeing otil^ ten 
years and two months old. ' On the 9th of May of the pre- 
ceding year Madame Elizabeth followed the steps of her 
sister to the Conciergerie, and the next day to the guillo-! 
tine, to which she suomitted with the heroism of a martyr. 

With the particulars we have, just stated these, memoirs 
conclude, but the Princess Royal remained in the Temple 
until the 19th December, 1795, nipre th^n six months after 
the death of her brother. It will have been seen that 
M. Hue's account refers, to, the Jast months of the confioe- 
mentof the Princess, and it also gives a description of tlw 
ancient edifice of the Tower of the Temple, which was so 
little known at Paris, that someof those who attended the 
King, never saw or heard of it until the night of his Ma-^ 
jesty's confinement within the walls. The oarticulars are 
the more valuable, because the policy of ouondparte had 
razed it to the ground. 

Havinff given this slight sketch of the contents of the 
small volume before us, we will extract a feVv interesting 
but afflicting passages; and if U shall, appear that some- 
thins^^more than justice is done to the charapter of Louis 
and faiis queen, and something less to their persecntorSi it 
will naturally be attributed to the influences. under which 
an afiectionate- daughter was placed, and to/her ignorance 
of. the aberrations of her parents. 

*' The #Dllowiog is the way the prisoners passed their days. 

" The King arose at seven, and was employed in his devotions 
till eight. Afterwards he drest himself and, ms s(hi» and at nine 
came to hreakfost with the Queen. After break^t the King taught 
the Dauphin bis ksisoDS till eleven* Tb^ ^hild then played till 
twelve, at which hour the whole family was obliged to walk in the 
gfirden,* whUtever the weather might be; because the goairdi which 
was lelieved at that time, wished to see all the prisoners, and satisiV 
jtbemselves that they were safe. The walk lasted till dinner, which 
was at two o'clock. After'dinner their Majesties played at tric-trac, 
or jHqutt, that they might have an opportunity of saying a few 
words to one anotJler. At four o'clock, the Queen, her sister, and 
children, generally retired, as the King was accustoni^d to sleep a 
little at this hour. At six the Dauphin went down agaia to his fa^er 

* ^ Tbis, it will be seen, applies only to a small portion of the time. The 
^Qxaiy of a walk in the garden was soon denied to them."«~-T. 



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981 Dmchess cf Jngonlime'$ Jgurml. 

U fHy his kff^m, aod l<> fUy till 9iiM)^^tiaM^ Aft^r siippflif, 4i 
nine 9*4«dE» the Qnttn ui^^saed him quietly «Bd |^t Jiiin ta ¥e4« 
The Priacfsses thtri irent up tp tb«ir qwq apsirtmfliQt agaifl, mi thk 
Kisf did not go to bed tiR eleven. The Qaeeo worked a good deal 
of tapestry ; &e directed the studies of Madame tl<^leA and often 
made her rrad sdoud to her. Madame Elizabeth was freau^ntly fa 
praver, and read every mornia^ the divine service of the day. Sh^ 
read a good deal in books of piety, and sometimes, at the Queen's 
teiiaest* would read aloud to them,"* (p. SO — 33.) 

The circumatancos previous to th^ death of liouia and 
of Uis execution, are told in a simple and affecting manner^ 

* On Sunday, the 20th Jami»ry, Garat, the minister of Jvsticei 
end the other members of the esfiecuftive power, came to aonowiee 
to Mm the sentence for hb execution next day* The King heard it 
with fortitude and pietv : he demanded a re^e of tbro^ <hiya» to 
kaow what the late of his iamily was to b^ and to have a caAcdic 
oonfeasor. The respite was refused. Garat assured him that tbavt 
was BO charge against bis fiimily, and that it would be sent out of 
France. Mr. Edgeworth de Finnont was the priest he wished for* 
De gave his address, and Garat brought him. The king dined ar 
usud, which surprised the ^unicipKif officers, who expected that 
he would endeavour to commit suicide. 

^ The rest of tlie fiimilv learned the sentence b^r the newsmen, 
who came about seven o'clock in the evening, crying it under their 
vrindovrs. 

'* A decree of the Convention permitted them to see the King. 
They ran to his apartment ; they fonnd him much altered : he wept 
for them, and not for fear of death; he related his trial to the 
Queen, apoloeizing for the wretches who had condemned him ; he 
told her, that R was proposed to attempt to save him by haviog 
weoofse to Ihe primary assemblies, but that he would not consent, 
lest it should excite confiision in the country. He then gave his 
soa some reHgioas advice, mid, above all, to forgive tbose who 
caused his death; and he gave him his blessing, as vrdl as to his 
sister. 

«* The Qaeea was vm desirous that the whole ftanly should 

Ctiie B^fat with the King ; bat he opposed this, observing to her 
nmefa he needed some hoars of repose and quiet. She ashed 
at least to be allowed to see him next morning, to which he con- 
sented. But, when they were ^ne, he requested that they might 
not be permtttcd to come, as it aMeled him too mudi. He tbea 
teamined with his eonfcssor tiH midnight, when he went to bed. 

He slept tfll he was awakened by the drums at five o'clock. At 
aia the ^W^ ftAgnnvOi said mass, and administered the holy^ 
MnaaNrntt^theSSng. At aiae o'clock he left the Temple. On 
the stans he diiif«Eed has aatl ta a aMUttdpal officer, ami a sam «f^ 



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Duchess of Angoul6me*s Journal, S69 

uooey, which M. de Malesherbes had brought him, and which he 
desired shoved be returned tp him ; but the officers shared it amons^at 
themselves. He met one of the turnkeys, whom he had reprimanded 
rather sharply the day before: he now said to him» * Mathieu, I 
am samffor havmg offended pan.' On his way to the scaffold, he 
read the prayers for those at the point of death. 

'' On the scaffold he wished to have spoken to the people ; but 
Santerre prevented him by ordering the drums to beat : what he 
said was heard by very few. He then undressed himself without 
assistance. His hands were tied, not with a rope, but with his own 
handkerchief. At the instant of his death, his confessor exclaimed^ 
* Son of St Louis, ascend to heaven !* 

** He received the stroke of death on the Sunday, the 21st of 
January, 1793, at ten minutes past ten o^clock in the forenoon. 

'* Thus died Louis XV L king of Fiance, at the age of thirty- 
nine years, five months, and three days, of which he had reigned 
eighteen. He had been five months and eight days in prison." (p. 

4d— 51. 

• 

The Queen did not long survive her husband, and prior 
to her execution she was removed from the Temple to the 
Conciergerie. 

" On the 2d of August, at two o'clock in the morning, they 
^ame to awake them, to read to the queen tlie decree of the Con- 
vention, which, on the requisition of the attorney of the Commune, 
ordered her removal to the Conciergerie/ preparatory to her trial. 

" The queen heard thb decree read without visible emotion, and 
she did not speak a single word to them. But Madame Elizabeth 
and IVfadame Royale immediately required to be allowed to follow 
the queen: this was refused. During the whole time that the queen 
'was employed in making a bundle of the clothes which she was to 
take with her, vthese officers never quitted her. She was even 
obliged to dress herself before them. They asked for her pockets : 
she gave them. They searched them, and took away every thing 
they contained, though there was nothing of any importance. They 
sent them in a parcel to the Revolutionary Tribunal, and told the 
queen that this parcel would be opened in her presence, at the tri^ 
bunal. They left her only a pocket-handkerchief and a smelling- 
bottle. She was now hurried away, after having embraced her 
daughter, and charging her to keep up her spirits and courage, to 
take a tender care of her aunt, and to obey her as a second mother: 
she then threw herself into the arms of her sister, and recommended 
her children to her care. The young princess was in a kind of 
^, trance; and her affliction, at parting with her mother, was so deep 
and overpowering, that she was unable to speak. At last, Madame 
Elizabeth having said a few words to the queen, in a whi^r, she 
departed without daring to cast another look on her daughter, lest 
she should lose her firmness. 
CjiiT. Rev. Vol. V. Marcky 1817. 2 M 



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SS4 ^ Duchess ofAngoulime's Journal. 

*' She was ohlioed to stop again at the foot of the tower, becmse 
the o(fic«rd insisted on making a proces-verbal of the delivery of her 
porftoD. In going out, she struck her forehead against the wicket, 
not having stooped low enough. They asked her whether she bad 
not hurt herself: she replied, No ; nothins^ can hurt me now. She 
.got into a carriage with one municipal otiUcer and two gen- 
darmes. 

" On her arrival at the Conciergerie, they put her into the filthiest, 
dampest, and most unwholesome room of the whole prison. A po- 
lice officer guarded her day and night. Madame Elizabeth and 
Madame Royale spent many days and many nights in tears, though 
they had assured Madame Elizabeth, when her sister was removeit, 
that no harm should happen to her. 

" The company of her aunt, whom she tenderly loved, wai a 
great oonsolatioii to Madame Royale ; but, alas ! all that she loved 
was perishiDg around lier, and she was soon to lose her also.** (p. 
77—81.) 

The state of the Dauphin, as here represented, exhibits 
A ootidition of misery that must powerfully aflect every 
feeling beort. 

** Unheard-of and unexampled barbarity ! to leave an unhappy 
sickly infaat, of eight years old, in a great room, locked and bolted 
in* with no other resource than a broken belt, which he never rang, 
so greatly did he dread the people whom its sound woukl have 
brought to him ; he preferred wanting any tiling, and every thing, 
to calling for his persecutors. Hia l^d had not been stirred for six 
months, and he had not strength to make it himself — it was alive 
with bugs, and vermin still more disgusting. His linen and his per^ 
son were covered with then. For more than a year he had no 
change of shirt or stodLiogs ; every kind of filth was allowed to ac- 
cumulate about him» and iii his room ; and, dnting att that pei'iod 
nothing of that kind had been renMved. His window, whrcfa was 
locked as well as grated, was never opened ; and the infeetioas 
smell of this horrid room was so dread(iil, that no one could hear 
it for a moment. He might, indeed, Imve washed himself^ for he 
had a pitcher of water, and have kept himself somewhat more clean 
than ht did ; but, overwhelmed by the ill-treatment he had received, 
he bad not resolution to do so, and kb ilkMss began to deprive him 
of even the necessary strength. He never asked for any thing, so 
great was his dread of Simon and hk other keepers. He passed his 
days wititout any kind of cyscupation. They did not even allow him 
light in tlie evening. This situation affected liis mind as well as his 
body, and it is not snrprising that he should have fiiltea into a 
fiightfui atrophy/' (p. 109-^111.) 

There was no character in this dreadfiil state of eofifioe* 
men4 more irreproachable than that of the sister of Louis, 



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Afpd a fa Nation Angbuse^ par JhT. Santim^ 265 

and we bdievsd ttnt cfUumny ney«r iMneatliecl a fiyliabie in 
her ^iflpraiee ; yet slie was among the victioas. 

•* They condemned her to death. She asked to be placed in the 
same room with the other persons who were to die with lier. She 
exhorted them, with a presence of mind, en elevation of souI» and 
religions enthusiasm, which fortified all their luinds. In the cart 
i%e preserved the same firmness, and encoara^ and siqsported the 
%v«yiBea who aceompanied her. At the scaflbid they had the bar- 
barity to reserve her for the last. All the women, in leaving the 
vart, liegged to cffibraee ber^ Slie kissed them, and, wkh her 
usiiii benignity, saM fione wands of cooi^^rt to leaeh. Her streagth 
ttcver abaodooed her« and she<Jied with all the r^^nation pf the 
^rest piety. Her soul was separated from her body, and ascended 
tQ lacrive its reward from the merciful Being, whose worthy ser- 
vant she had been. 

" Marie Phillipine Elizabeth -Helenc, sister of Louis XVI. died 
on the 10th May, 1794, at the age of thirty years. She had been, 
during all her life, a model of virtue. From the age of fifteen, she 
liad aedicated herself to piety, and the means of her salvation. 
ISince 1790, when I was in a sitnadon to appreciate her merits, I 
«aw in her nothing %trt the love of God and the horror of sin, reli- 
gion, gmtleness, meekness, modesty, and a devoted attachment .to 
^er faoHly ; ^e sacrificed her life tor tbetn, for notliiag could |)er- 
aaade hereto leave the king and queen. She was, in short, a prin- 
,oesB worHiy of the blood to which she beloQj^d.'' (p. 114 — 1 16.) 

The narrative concludes with extracts from a Journal of 
M. de Malesherbes, supplying details of what passed in 
the Temple between Louis XVI. and himself after he had 
laeen permitted to act as his counsel^ and the particulars Hre 
^creditable to the understanding as well as to the heart of 
the king. On the whole we can strongly recommend these 
short raeo^oirs to the perusal of the public, and, as we 
before observed, they certainly possess much internal evi- 
dence of being the work of the august princess to whom 
they have been so generally ascribed. 

Art. VII- — Appel a la NutioH Angiaise star le traiiement 
ipr4wc6 par Napoiion Buonaparte dans risk de Sainie 
iHldne. Par M, Saw tine, huissier du cabinet de FEm- 
perem*, Suivi de m Leltre addrehSe a Sir Hudson Lowe, 
'8fo. pp. 61. Londrea, Kidgwayg, 1817. 

This appeal Is the |)roductioa of a person culling himself 
in liis title-page Huissier du cabinet de TEmpereur, and it 
see^is !that uis master having no longer any cabinet, this 



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266 Appd a la Nation Anglam, par M. SatUine. 

officer was dismissed, like the keeper of the plute, there 
being no plate to preserve ; and such were the circumstances 
with regard to several other attendants on the person and 
establishment of Napoleon. 

The term Huissier, although common in French juris- 
prudence, is not generally understood here. Huis, a door, 
is now obsolete; but it is frequently used in connection, 
'^ a huis clos," and ^^ a huis ouverts, ' which imply closed 
or open doors. In a register of the year 1317, these officers 
were denominated ^^^aleti curiae;" and in some letters of 
1365, the King of France calls them familiarly ^^ nos ames 
varlets,"' (valets.) We are anxious that it should not be 
supposed that we mean any disrespect to M. Santine, in 
these explanations with regard to the nature of his office, 
which was known to the Roman law under the appellatives 
apparitores, cohortales, &c. which he may assume, if he 
so please, in his next publication. 

But this person was not merely an agent of that descrip- 
tion. He was a countryman of Buonaparte, and^ had 
entered the military service in the battalion of Corsican 
sharp-shooters, at the age of thirteen. It may be assumed 
that he has seen much service, as he says he was pre- 
sent at the battles of Ulm, Austerlitz, Jena, Eilau, Fried- 
land, Ratisbon, Eckmuhl, Aspern, Ypersberff, Wagraro, 
and, finally, at the conflict at Polask, after which he quitted 
the army, and became a courier. He next followed Napo- 
leon to the island of Elba, and was appointed '' huissier de 
son cabinet, et gardieu du porte-feuille." Having returned 
with Buonaparte to France in 1815, he accompanied his 
Inaster on board the Bellerophon, where he ranks himself 
among the ^' petit nombre de fideles serviteurs de sa Ma- 
jest6, qui eurent le bonheur de le suivre a Ste. Helene." 

The author of this Appeal havine recited the circum- 
stances of his dismission, details the particulars of his 
recent voyage to England on board the Orontes frigate, and 
speaks with especial mortification of being deprived of the 
comfort of the beverage that had been provided for him, 
and he assigns a curious reason for the disappointment. 
'' Quant au vin,'* he observes, ^' nous n'en avous point bu, 
ne voulant pas nous soumettre a nous voir distribuer en 
ration par le Capitaine, comme il pretendait faire, ce cadeau 
de TErapereur qui nous appartenait en plein droit." We 
can divine no reason why any restriction should have been 
imposed upon M. Santine with regard to his wine, tinless 
be«hould have shewn an inclination to pour forth those 



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Appel a la Nation Angtaise^ par M. Santine. 267 

liiiations to the Jolly god, which are not perfectly consistent 
with the discipline and ceremonial regarded on board u 
British ship of war. Be this as it may, on the S5th Febru- 
ary last he arrived at Portsmouth ; from thence he pro- 
ceeded to London, ^^ pour reroplir," as he expresses him* 
6elf, '^ le devoir penible, roais sacr^, dont je m'acquitte, eo 
publiant cette relation." 

I'be rest of the Appeal is merely a repetition, or rather 
an abridgement of the complaints stated in a letter from 
Count de Montholon, sent by order of Buonaparte to Sir 
Hudfion Lowe, the governor of St. Helena, which is sub- 
joined in an appendix; and it will be more acceptable to 
our readers, if we state the alleged circumstances of Buo- 
naparte's situation from the communication of his own 
friend and minister, now acknowledged to be official by 
JjovA Bathurst, than from the representation of M. Santine, 
which is sanctioned by no admitted authority. The letter 
commences in the following terms :•— 

** Monsieur le General, 

<* J'ai Te9U le Traits du 3 Aoiit,1815, conclu entre Sa Majesty 
Britannique, rEmpereur d'Autriche, r£inpereur de Russie, et le Roi 
de Prusse, qui ^toit joint k votre lettre du 23 JuilJet. 

** L'Euipereur Napoleon proteste contre le contenu de ce Traits, 
il D'est point prisonnier de I'Angleterre. Apr^s avoir abdique eotre 
les mains des repr6sentans de la nation, au profit de la Constitution 
adopts par lePeuple Frangais, et enfaveur de son fils^ il s'est rendn 
volontairement et librement en Angleterre, pour y vivre en particu- 
lier dans la retraite, sous la protection des lois britanniques. La 
violation de tmttes les lois ne pent pas coMtituer tin droit. De feit la 
personne de TEmpereur Napol6on se trouve au pouvoir de TAngle^ 
terre, mais d« fait ni de droit il o'a k\k^ ni n'est au pouvoir de TAu- 
triche, de la Russie et de la Prussc, m^me selou les lois et coutumes 
de TAngleterre, qui n'a jamais fait eutrer dans la balance des pri- 
' sonniers les Russes, les Autricbiens, Jes Prussiens, les Espagnols, 
les Portugais, quoiqu'uoie k ces puissances par des trait^s d'alliance, 
et faisant la guerre conjeintement avec elles. 

** La Convention du 2 Aoi^t, faite quinze jours apr^s que TEmpe- 
reur Napoleon ^toit en Angleterre, ne peut avoir en droit aucun 
efiet; elle n'otfre que le spectacle de la coalition des quatre plus 
grandes Puissances de TEurope pour Toppression d*un seul konrnie^^ 
coalition que desavoue ropinion de tous les peuples^ comiiie tous 
les principes de la saine morale/' (p. 28 — 30.) 

One of the great errors in the conduct of Napoleon, 
whether we consider it in reference to morals or policy, is 
bis total disregard of truth in all his public declarations ; 



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S68 Jf^ a la Nation Anglalse^ par Mn Santi$U. 

Mid we find in ibis letter the sanie indiflferenoe to that prin- 
dple, or rather, the total abandonment of it, whenever it 
suits his purpose. It is untrue that he repaired volunta* 
tily and mel^ to England) with the Tiefw oi living there as 
a private individual undar the protection of British laws. 
It appears by the dispatch from Rochefort to the French 
Minister of the Marine and the Colonies, that it was not 
until he was pressed on every side, and incapable of makings 
bis Escape, that he surrendered himself to Capt Mai<3and 
of the Bdlerophon. This British officer then distinctly 
told him he had no power to make cociditions, and thtft he 
could only receive him on board, and convey him to £ng- 
land^ where fae must abide- the decision of the British ^o« 
vemment. The letter pretends to state w4»t would liav« 
been the conseqnence had Napoleon, instead of confiding 
his person to the Engli^, entrusted himself to the other 
members of the Grand Alliance* 

** Les Empereurs d'Autricbe et de Russie, et ie Roi de Prusse 
n'ayant, de fait ni de droit, aucune actioa sur la personne de r£m- 
perenr Napoleon, ilt n'out pu rien statuer rekitiveuierit k lui. 

** Si rEmpereiir Wapoleon eut ete au pouvoir de I'Empereor 
d'Autrichey ce Prince se flit soavenu dcs rapports que la religion et 
la nature ont mis enUt tm pere et tin ^/!f---nipports qu on ne viole 
jamais impun^ment. 

'* II se fi^t ressouvenu que fuatre/ois Napoleon lui a restitae son 
tr6ne : h L^oben, ea 1797, et a Lunevilk en 1804; lorsque ses ar- 
m^ etoient sens lea murs de Vieane, i Presbourg, eu 1896, et k 
Vienne en 1809 ; lorsque ses armies 'Etoient mahre de la capitate et 
des troi»-quarts de la monarcbie. €e Prince se fdkt ressouvenu des 
protestations qu'il lui fit au bivouac de Morarviie ea 1806, et Tentre- 
vue de Dresde en 1812. 

' ** Si hi personne de TEmpereur Napoleon ei^t ^t^ au pouvmr de 
I'Empereur Alexandre, il se kit ressouvenu des liens d'amiti^ con- 
tract^ k Tilsit, k Erfbrt^ etpmdant dame atts ttun commerce jour- 
iuiikr. 

** II se fiit ressouvenu de la conduite de I'Empereur Napokon k 
teodemain de la bataHle d'Aosterlitz, oik pouvant le iatre jpriionntfr 
arrec les debris de son arm6e, il se coutenta de sa parole, et lui 
kussa op6rer sa rettaite. II se fiit ressouvenu des dangers que, per- 
sonnelkment, FEmperear Napoleon a brav^ pour ^teindre Tincendae 
deMoseou et kii oon$erver cettecapitale; certes, ce Prince n'eikt 
pas viole les devoirs de ramiti^ et de bi reoonnaissaace, enven un 
^mi daos le malheur. 

** Si la personne de TEmpefeur Napoleon ei^t ^A m^me an pou- 
voir du Roi de Prusse, ce Sonverain n>^ pas oubli^ qu^tl a dependu 
de I'Baipemur, apres b batulle de Fiirdkiad, de placei aa autre 



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Jfpel a la Nation jhtglaisey par M. SanHne. 969 

Prince sur le tr6ne de Berlin. II n*et^t point oubli6 decant an ea^ 
ntmi dharmi les protestations de d6voueinent et ies sentiment qu*il 
lai t€moi£;na, en 1812, aux entrevues deDresde**' (p. d0-«-32.) 

It might be ini»giQed from this statement, that, instead of 
waging almost incessant war against these princes, Napo* 
leon had conFerred upon them the greatest obligations. Ha 
boasts that he had restored the Emperor Francis four time9 
to his throne, as if having taken up arms, and obtained 
conquests, under no impulse but that of his ovrn ambition, 
could constitute any right to the sceptre of his opponent ; 
and the same absurd reasoning is to support bis pretensions^ 
upon Alexander and Frederick William* ^^ Quiconque 

Erend les armes sans sujet legitime," says a writer of the 
ighest reputation, ^' n'a dbnc absolument aucun droit, 
toutes les hostilit^s qu'il commet sont injustes. Uest charge 
de tons les inaux, de toutes le^ horreurs de la gnerre: le 
sang vers^, la desolation des familes, les rapines, les rio** 
lences, les ravages, les incendies, sont ses oeuvres et ses 
crimes : coupable envers rennemi qui Tattaque, qu*il op- 
prime, qu'if massacre sans sujet : coupable envers son 
peuple, qu^il entraine dans Tinjustice, qu'il expose sans 
necessite, sans raison; envers ceux de ses sujets que la 

! guerre accable ou met en souflrance; qui y perdent la vie, 
es biens, ou la sant6 : coupable ennn, envers le senre 
humain entier dont il trouble le repos, et auqnel il donne 
un pernicieux example." Buonaparte proceeds to advert, 
with the disregard of truth of whicn we complain, to 
alleged reproaches of the Emperors and the King of Prussia, 
tor having submitted to England, instead of committing 
himself to their protection. 

'* Ces Princes ont reproch^ k TEnipereur Napoleon, d'avoir pr^ 

fkr€ h. protection des lois Anglaises k la leur. I<e$ iausses id^s que 

r£mj>ereur Napoleon avoit de la lib^ralit^ des lois Anglaises^ et de 

ytinJhUnce del opinion d'un veuple grand, genh'eux et libre mr ton 

fmnememtnt, font dlcid^ a pir^f6rer la protection de ses lois k celle 
e son beaupere oo de son anclen ami. L'Empereur' Napoleon a 
toujonrs ^te le maStre de iaire assurer, ce qui lui €toit personnelf 
par an tnit^ diplomatique, soit en se remettant k la t^te de Tarm^e 
de la Loire, soit en se mettant k la tite de Tarmac de la Gironde 
que commandait le general Clause!. Mais ne cherchant d6sormais 
que la retraite et la protection des lois d*une nation libre, soit An« 
daises, soft Afo^ricaines^ toutes stipulations tui ont paru iuutiles. 
fl a cm le peuple Anglais plus \ik par sa d-marche fcanche, noble* 
ct pleine de cemiaQce qull ne feut pu Itre par les trait^s les plus 
solennels. II s'est trompi, mais cette erreur fera ^ jantais rougir les 



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S70 Appel a la Nation Jnglaise, par M. Santine. 

tntis Bretons ; et dans la g^n^ration actueile, comme dans les g^n6» 
rations fatures, elle sera une prmve fk la deloyaiUe.de Vadministra- 
iion Anglaise:' (p. 3^— 34.) 

The fact is, that he had no option as to the delivery of 
his person. He fled from France, where he was fearful of 
the. penalty of death, either with or without the forms of 
law^ and the Sovereigns to whom he refers had not fleets at 
the port to which he had rej>aired, either to protect or receive 
him. It is an attempt at imposition on the common sense 
and common feeling of mankind, and becomes utterly ridicu- 
lous when he represents himself, although an outcast and a 
fugitive, as capable of placing himself at the head of the 
armies of the Loire or the Gironde, and treating like an 
unfettered independent sovereign for the conditions of his 
future inviolability. Having disposed of this part of the 
case M. Montholou touches on other topics, and it is ob- 

^'ected that the Austrian and Prussian agents are not al- 
owed to interfere with what is passing at St. Helena. He 
then objects to the climate, and to the degraded rank 
assigned his master, as merely that of a superior officer in 
the army. 

*^ Des cemmissaires Autrichien et Russe sont arrives k Ste.-H6- 
Ihne. Si ieur mission a pour but de remplir uoe partie des devoirs 
que les Empereurs d'Autriche et de Russie ont contract^ par le 
Traits du 2 Aoi^t» et de veiller k ce que les agens anglais, dans une 

r^tite colonic au milieu de TOc^an, ne manquent pas aux ^gards dus 
un Prince li^ avec eux par les liens de parente et par tant d'autres 
rapports, on reconnoit dans cette demarche des marques dn carac- 
t^re de' ces deux Souverams, mais vous avez, Monsieur, assur^ que 
ces cemmissaires n'avoient ni le droit ni le pouvoir d'avoir aucuate 
opinion de tout ce qui peut se, passer sur ce rocher! 

'* Le minist^re Anglais a rait transporter TEmpereur Napoleon k 
SteH^l^ne, k 2000 lieues de 1* Europe. Ce rocher, situ^ sous le 
tropique k 500 lieues de tout continent, est soumis si la chaleur d^- 
vorante de cette latitude ; il est convert de nuages et de brouillards 
les trois-quarts de Faunae, c*est k la fois le pays le plus sec et le 
plus bumide du monde ; ce climat est le plus contraire k la sant6 de 
FEmpereur. C'est la haine qui a preside au clioix de ce s6jour, 
comme aux instructions denudes par le minist^re anglais aux offi- 
ciers commandant dans ce pays. 

** On Ieur a ordcmu^ d'appeler FEmpereur Napoleon *« G^n^ral,* 
voulant Fobliger k reconnoitre qu'il n'a jamais r^gn^ en France. 

" Ce qui Fa d6cid6 k ne pas prendre un nom d*incognito, comme 
il y etoit r^solu en sortant de France : Premier MagistHit k vie de la 
R^publique jous le titre de Premier Consul; il a conclu les pr61i. 



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Appd^ la Nidion Anghhe^ par M. SimUae, 871 

^iRftirefl Ae Loiidres«t k Tr»t^ d\4iiiteii8 ayec le Roi de la Grande- 
Bretagne; it a re^u, pour An^MS9adeur8, Lord ComwaUis, M. 
Merry, Lord WhHworth, qui ont »6joume en oette quality k w ttmr. 
11 a aoor^it6 an pr^s du Rm d^Angieierre le •Conte Otto et le <9^- 
B^nd Andi^ossi* qui ont r^sid^ comme aatfoassadeors k la cour de 
Wiadser. Lorsqu'apr^s un echange de lettrts eotre les ministries 
4t8 alRilrefi ^rang^res des ^kux ManarehkSf Lord Lauderdale vint 
k Paris ffluai des pleins pouvoirs da Roi d*Aiigleterre, il traita ayec 
les pl^ipoientiaipes muiiis ^es pleins poOvoirs de VEmperewr Nafo* 
Utmt et si^oiinm plusiears mots k la cawr des Tkiierfeg. Lprsqiie 
depuis k CMkttlloB, Lord Cas^reai^h signa raltimatuni que lea Pui$- 
mitKeg Aliiia prkiseo^vmt 2Ln% pimtjHttefdiaires de i^Efnperetir 'Na- 
pMem^ il recoimutjNir-f^ is quoMhne tfynoiHe,'^ (p. 84--M.) 

The letter pe|Ejt.diatif^^Ube9 the roUitary mak of ^^nerply 
and Iha ^iperior <digiiUy ia its appliaatioo to BuoMtpavtet 
and indolges ki a straki of politioal phtlpsepiiry, which bm 
he regarded wImo on the throne of Fpanoe^ the probability 
is, that 4ie would dot b^e been huded'lip0Bi it. 

" Le titfe fi0 Qetiftifi fk^m&a^ e&l ^ans do^te ^mi^fiiiaijeiit 
glori^upK, r£#Bp0iei»r le imN>it a I^etdi, A (>i#tiglppoe, k Rii^li, k 
Arcele» 1 ILepbeii, a^^iPyian^ides, k AbcHll^ir ; imiadspuis |ii¥nSf|it 
ans il a port^ o^li^^e Ptvyijcr Cmml i^t A' ]&&^ffnfefir : <Je |e.|io«i« 
iner niainteiiaBt q^t^^niir0ls Cft^^fr^^itc^vepjr qi&ll n'^ ^tk m pr^- 
wder mt^i$h'0tAe la ri^puM^iiue, .fflAottvfra^ 4e l&qmttiime d^qas- 
tie. Ceixx qui penseQt q^ |^s ^alJoas s^t /d^s troupe^^i qui, du 
dmt dmm* m^iemmt ^ fn^ifi^sfamiHes, ye siM^t.pidM »ii^c.Ic, 
ai m^oae 4ms fespntdeh l^ishiMre mgifii^f f^' 4kmgw plumtrs 
fsis />rdi^ de,f» d^fn^sHe^ fmree i^e de grmds ekfimgmm9t 4!ttr«0i«A 
dans hs opinions auxquels n*avoient pas partipip^ fes pvinces Vfgfunif* 
les axment rendus ennemis du bonheur et de la grande mqforiti de 
eefte^mfim' iCtfr l^rsU ne0)^t.fm d^^fnffsistraks ii^ qui 

n'e^sl«99t;^ftf ptfurklnmhf^ ^es^afunift «t b^ k»,pa»mspmrh 
^fiiif^ifitidurqisr (p.30r-4PO 

~ Objection is n^aide, that correspondence ^rith his nearest 
r^ativtes is interdicted to Napolepn^ and that ffenerall/ he 
ba8 been obstmcted in ;his jnter^^ourse, contrary to the 
rights of a prisoner of war, and in a manner suited pn]y to 
the abasement of the wretched inmates of the dungeons of 
the Inquisition. 

, ^* <^tei9)l^-\^.ili^ef)i}jttlaiy)fs«biU^4de^i^^ det.^ui^i^ 
de sa m^re, de sa /emme, de son Jils, de ses fo^es; et 49I^IU|ue;)^]^ 
|«i^se^90lWtfS9i;;e)9iV.^. Pi^^^l^^i^s^ d& v^r . ^» tetjtips li^ jR^r |des 
»jJm^X^ .ftubalji?i;flRs, ^1 a VQuJu f^ojjer ^e^ Iftim pm^^ ^ 
/^f.iii^ef/^^e^/vpuar^poudu qu'^on pe pouyoit se cbaiper.^q^e j^ft 
Wsser paisser des lettres ouverties, que telles 6toient les instructions 
Cbit. Rev. Vol. V. JkforcA, 1817. S N 



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S72 Appd a la Naiion Jnglaiscy par M. SMiine* 

du mioistre. Cette mesure n*a pas besoin de reflexion, ella dounen 
d'^tranges id^es de I'esprit de i*adiuioistration qui Ta dict^, elle 
seroit d^savou^ k Algers, Des lettres sont arriv^es pour des offi>* 
ciers g^oeraux de la suite de FEinpereur^ eiles ^toientd^cacbet^es et 
vous fttrent remises ; vous ne les avez pas commuoiqu^, paroe 
qu'eltes n*^toieDt pas passees par le canal du ministre anglais* // a 
fallu kur /aire refaire quatre mitte Ueues, et les officiers eurent la 
douleur de savoir qu'il exiatait sur ce rocher deB namtHes de leur. 
femme, de kur mere^ de ieurs enfasM^ et qu^iU ne pourroient les eon" 
fMkre que dans sis mais^ Le cceur sesouUve! 11 On n'a pas pu ob* 
tenird*^tre abtan^ au Morning Chronicle, au Morning Post, k 
qoelques joumaux fran9ais de temps k autres, ou faire passer h 
Longwood quelflue num^ros d^pareiil^s du Tunes, Sur la demandc 
faite k bord du Northtmherlana on a envoy6 quelques livres ; mais 
(ous ceux relatiis aux affaires des demidres ann^es en out ktk soi- 

gneusement 6cart6s. Depuis on a voulu correspondre ayec on li-* 
raire de Londres, pour avoir directement 6it!s livres dont on pou- 
voit avoir besoin et ceux relatifs aux 6v6oemens du jour, on Ta em- 
p^cb^ ; un auteur anglais ayant fait un voyi^ge en France, et TayaiH 
imj^rim^ k Londres, prit la peine de vous Tenvoyer pour rofiVir k 
VEmpereuTt mais vous n'avez pas cm pouvoir le fui remettre, parce 
qu'il ne vous 6toit pas parvenu par la nli^re de votre gouvemement. 
On dit aussi que d'autres livres envo^^s par Ieurs auteurs, n'ont pu 
^tre remie, parce quil y avoit sur Tmscription de quelques-tins, d 
lEmpereur NapoUon, et sur d*autres k NapolSon-k-Grand. Le mi^ 
nistre anglais n'est autoris^ k ordonner aucunes de ces venations ; la 
k>i quoiquHnique du Parlement Britannique, consid^re TEUnpereur 
^apol^on comme prisonnier de guerre, or jamais on a d^fendu aux 
prisonniers de guerre de s'al>onne» aux joumaux, de recevoir les 
li^sres qui sHmpritnent: une telle defense n^estfait que dans les cachets 
deV Inquisition" (p. 40— 42.) 

The answer of Lord Bathurst) as given in his place in 
Parliament on the 19th March, was distinctly, that the 
rule applied to prisoners of war in general, was adopted 
with regard to him, and that Sir Hudson Lowe had no autho- 
rity to depart froin it. Buonaparte was informed that he 
might impart any complaint to this government he thought 
fit, as to his treatment, but that the {^aper must be opened 
-by the Governor of St. Helena, in order that it might be 
accompanied with the suitable answer. With respect to 
books, no impediment had arisen, one application only had 
been made, and then every attention was paid to obtain 
those required. 

With regard to the joumalsi Lord Bathnrst observed, that 
^ the General** was not to be admitted to receive whatever 
lie (deased, because so extended an indulgence vi^s deemed 



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jippd a la Nation Anglai^e^ par M. SatUine. VIS 

to be dangeroas, since attempts had been' made to corre- 
spond throufrh tbe medium of newspapers. Perhaps when 
the facility of correspondence by signs, in the nature of 
stenography, and other expedients so well understood at 
the French Court, is consiaered ; and also the ingenuity of 
the chemist which has been so often made subservient to 
secret communications in a manner that would almost elude 
the possibility of discovery, the restrictions as to such volu- 
minous materials as the public papers would afibrd, will 
not be judged to be either improper or unnecessary. 

The next difficulty regards the situation of Napoleon at 
Longwood, and the means taken to prevent his escape from 
the island. 

L'Isle de Ste.-Hel^ne a dix lieues de tour, elle est ioabordable de 
toutje party des bricks enveloppent la c6te, des postes places sur 
le rivage peuvent se voir de Tun k Tautre, tit rendent impracticable 
les coofinunications avec la mer. 11 n'y a qu*UD seuil petit bonrg, 
James Town, oik mouilient et d'oi^ s'exp^dient les batiineos. Puur 
emp^cher un iDdivido de s'en aller de rile, il suffit de ceroer la c6te 
per terre et par mer ; ea inte'rdiseut Tinterieur de Tile, on ne pcut 
done avoir qu'un but, celui de priver d'uoe promenade de huit ou 
dix milles, qn'il seroit possible de ^ire k cbeval» et done, d'apres la 
consultation des hommes de Tart, la privation abr^ge les jours de 
I'Empereur. 

** On a ^tabli TEmpereur dans la position de Longwood, expose 
^ tous les vents, terrain st6rile» inhabit^, sans eau, n'^tant suscepi- 
tible d*aucune culture. 11 y a uue enceinte dVnviron douze cents 
toises ; ^ onze ou douze cents toises incultes sxkx us mamelon on a 
^tabli an camp ; on vient d'en plafcer un autre ^-peupr^s h. la m^me 
distance, dans une direction oppos6e, de sorte qu*au milieu de la 
ebaleur du tropique de quelques c6t6s qu'on regarde on ne voit que 
des camps. 

^ L'Amiral Malcomb ayant compris Futility dont, dans cette po- 
sition, une tente seroit pour TEmpereur, en a fait ^tablir une par 
ses matelots« k vingt pas eo avant de la maison ; c'est le seulendraU 
ai^ tonpuUse trouver de I'ambre. Toutefois I'Empereur n'a lieu que 
d'etre satisiait de Tesprit qui anime les ofiiciers et soldats du brave 
53e, comme il I'avoit €t€ de T^quipage du Northumberland. La 
maison de Longwood a iih construite pour servir de grange k la 
jferme de la compagnie : depuis, le sous-gouvemeur de llle, y a fait 
^tablir quelques cbambres, elle sui servoit de maison de campagne, 
mais elle n*^toit en rien convenable pour une habitation* Depuis uu ' 
an qu*on y est, ou a toujours travaill^, et TEmpereur a constant 
mtnt eu Tincommodit^ et rinsalubrit^ d'habiter une maison encon- 
stniction. La chaqihre dans laquelle il couche est trop petite pour 
contenir ua lit d*une dimension ordinaire* mais toute b^tisse k llong- 
wood prolongenat rincommodit^ des ouvriers. Cependant dans 



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374 dppel o h Nation Anghi$€j pat M. ^MfAff . 

oeUe mis^nikle Ule« il tmie de belles positfons* ofimt de btoHX 
arbres. des jardins, et d'assez belles musons, entre autres PUmUh 
iion-iioiife, mais ks tlu<ftic<u>fM ponhm fifu mtnisfere vous interdi. 
sent de doDoer cetie luidson, ce qui cut ^parga^ beaueoup de d6- 
ptns^ k volr^ tr^sor, cf^penses einplo^^es k b^tir k Longwo6d deg 
^abditei coYiveil^s ^ti pip\€t, goudronn^ et qiii M^k soul hors de 
i^riie^. Vdus 2Ltt'i int^rdit tOfUte cotr^spoaasctice eHtre nous et leis 
iJibitiufS a^ IH^ itM htfti HUsi de faft la mtiXidn de Longivdod aa 
iMtttt, totis tvH MM lirtrav^ l^s comNiunicatio^ avec les nffMen 
#e fa iUhdan, OHf ^Mblifc dont s'^tre 6tudi6 ^ nous ^er du pea 
de ressocrrvev fpN^kt ee nniktskXAt pa^s, et tious y Mmiifies coimM 
tioas fo fleridtts Mr le rteb^r incldte et nriiabif^ de VABmamn*^ (p. 

The answer of the Secretary of State on the' subject of 
the Mcefisity of guarding the individual, is ^vmliiitly 
founded on a strongs suspicion that attempts would be m&m 
to ikcilitate his Escape. He considers that it was expedient 
to surround ev^n the garden of the prisolier with fi>etitli)el8> 
which it seems prevented titfe inmate of Longwodd froiii 
leaving th^ jii-ethniies on foot, on accouht of his disgust at 
this sort of Exposure. Ad to th^ situation of the pikce, it 
^pe^tQ to be that which he himself had chosen, and with 
respect to the abcommodations, any deficiency of room is 
entirely ascribed by the noble Earl to his own humour^ 
since he was dissatisfied with any attempt that could be macle 
to extend it. 

In answer to the objeetion that intercourse is obstrueted 
with the inhabitants of the island and the officers of the 
garrison, it seems to be admitted, that unrestrained <X]i^* 
verde is not allbwed with the natives, but no comniii«»iba<' 
tidn i^&d prevented with those who visited the inland, Ikl 
the same time, that any disrespectful intrusion wasaVoidhed ; 
aiid in no case was the intercourse wilii the officers of the 
gatfisoh interdicted. 

The noble secretary also gave an explanation as to the 
raiige allowed to Napoleon. It was first designed to ex- 
tend twelve miles, but it wa*s afterwards thought prudent 
to limit it, in order to prevent any experiment like tan- 
perin|;: with the soldiers ; but throughout the whole island 
be raiffht take his rides, if be would consent to be aecMa- 
panied bjr an offieer sustaining no inferior rank to thai rf m 
captain. 

After % comtmrittM ii^tended to b^ disadvantageMis t!b 
Ae ft^ma ^^Veiiruyr, bh the relative View <tf Ihe tM&^dt 
<X %ic Viyami L'bwe land that of his ^decessoi*; a p^t- 



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Jppd a h Nation JngUdsCj par M. Santine. S7jf 

script 18 added, in wkich it is propoaedy that Napolcov 
shcNild pay bis own expenseg, but with the eondfttion that 
b«s cdrrespondmce should be itoopeiied^ aad that tbe ftiiidi 
he 8bo«iM receive shouM be at hi* own.dispoiaL Under 
the cireumstanoet of the real or supposed necessity of ex- 
amiuing into the nature of that correspondence, such a 
proposrtion could not be listened to for a moment. With 
regard to tbe expense*, the origiaal intention was to liimt 
them to jC8,000, bat th^ 4ii^re enlarged to j§ 19,000 ^r 
annum, which sum was to be applira for tbe exelnsive 
4u!eotiffAodation of Biionaparte, his friends and attendants^ 
an amount equal to that devoted to Sir Hudson Lowe, 
his st^fj and the whole of his establishment. We are 
unwilling to enter into frivolous explanations about the 
quantity of beverage allowed, but considering that th^ 
associates of Buonaparte, including two children, consist 
only of ten persons, besides inferior attendants, the aUot* 
^ luent assigned of twenty-eight dozen of wine everyfortnigbt^ 
besides porter, surely is amply sufficient, not only for the 
natural appetites, but for those that are luxurious and arti* 
ficiaU 

Tl^ noble Secretary of State incidentally noticed his own 
letter, and the instructions which accompanied it for the 
safe-custody and treatment of Buonaparte which appeared 
in the German papers. As these documents are now con- 
firmed on such hi^ authority in further illustration of the 
subjects, connected with the Count de Montbolon*s letter, 
we have thought fit to supply a translation of them. 

LMiUr Jrom Eefl BatkutH, Serreimy tj State, 4^ the Lari$ af the 
Adnamliy. 

•« Downing Street, ZOth July, 1815. 

" My LoltDy — I wish your Lordships to have the goodness to 
communicate to Rear Admiral Sir George Cockbiun a copy of the 
following Memorial, which is to serve him by way of instruction^ 
to direct his conduct, while General Buonaparte remains under his 
care. 

Xhe Prince Regent, in confiding to English officers a nussioo of 
such importance, feels that it is necessary to express to them bis 
earnest desire that no greater personal restraint may be employed 
than what shall be found necessary faithfully to perform the duties 
bf which ^e admiral, as well as the Governor of St Helens^, must 
never lose sight, namely, ^e perfectly secure detentioa of the persou 
of General Buonaparte. Every fhing whicb,^ without opposiiw 
the grand-olgect^ can bajgrantedas an indulgence^ win» bisjlayu 



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376 Jppel a la Nation Anglahe^ par M. Saniine. 

Highness is convinced, be allowed the General. The Prince Re- 
gent depends further on the well known zeal, and resolute character 
of Sir George Cockbum, that he will not suffer himself to be 
misled, imprudently to deviate from the performance of hivluty, 

** Bathcbst.** 
" Memorial. 
** Witen General Buonaparte leaves the Belleroplion to go on 
board toe Northumberland, it will be the properest moment for 
Admiral Cockbum to have the effects examined which General Buo- 
naparte may have brought with him. 

** The Admiral will allow the baggase, wine, and provisions which 
the General may have brought with him to be taken on board the 
Northumberland. Among the baggage, his table service is to be 
understood as included, unless it be so considerable as to seem 
rather an article to be converted into ready money, than for real 
use. 
^ ** His njioney, his diamonds, and his saleable effects (consequently 
. bills of exchange also) of whatever kind they may be, must be de- 
livered up. The Admiral will declare to the General that the 
British govtfhiment by no means intends to confiscate his property, 
but merely to take upon itself the administration of bis effects, 
to hinder him from using th^in as means to promote his flight. 

** The examination shall be made in the presence of a person 
named by Buonaparte, the inventory of the effects to be retained 
shall be srgned by this person, as well as by the Rear-Admiral^ 
or by tbe person whom he shall appoint to draw up the inventory. 
** The interest or the principal (according as his property is more 
or less considerable) shan be applied to his support, and in this re- 
spect, the principal arrangement to be left to him. 

" For this reason he can from time to time signify hSs wishes to 
the Admiral, i\\\ the arrival of the new Governor of St. Helena, and 
afterwards to the latter ; and if no objection is to be made to his 
proposal, the Admiral or the Governor can give the necessary 
orders, and the disbursement will be paid by bills on. his Majesty's 
Treasury. 

** In case of death, he can dispose of his property bv a last will, 
and be a^ured that the contents of his testament shall be faithfully 
executed. 

** As an attempt might be made to make a part of his property 
to pass for the property of the persons of his suite, it must be sig- 
nified that the property of his attendants is subject to the same re- 
gulations. 

** The disposal of the troop left to guard him must be left to the 

Governor. The latter, however, has received a notice, in the case 

whiqh will be hereafter mentioned, to act according to the desure of 

the Admiral. 

'* Tbe General must constantly be attended by an officer ap- 



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Jppelnla Naiion Jnghi$e^ par M. Santine. 977 

poiDted by the AdmitBU or, if the case occurs, by the Gtorernon 
If the General is allowed to go out of the bound where the sentinels 
are placed, an orderly man at least iHust accompany the officer. 

When ships arrive, and as long as they are in sight; the General 
remains confined to the limits where the sentinels are placed. 
During this time all communication with the inhabitants is forbidden. 
His companions in St. Helena are subject during this time to the 
same rules, and roust remaui with him. At other times it is left to 
the J4idgnient of the Admiral or Governor to make the necessary 
regulations concerning them. 

" It must be signified to the General, that if be makes any at- 
tempts to fly,, he will then be put under clo^e confiiuefflent, and it 
must be notified to his attendants, that if it should be found that 
they are plotting to prepare the General's flight, they shall be sepa- 
rated from him, and put .under close confinement. 

** All letters addressed to the General, or to persons in his suite, 
must be delivered to the Admiral or Governor, who will read them 
before he suffers them to be delivered to those to whom they are 
addressed. 

** Letters written by the General or his suite are subject to the 
same rule. 

*' No letter that does not come to St^ Helena through the Secre- 
tary of State, must be communicated to the General or his atten- 
dants, if it is written by a person not living in the island. All their 
letters addressed to persons not liWng in the island must go under 
the cover of the Secretary of State. 

" It will be clearly expressed to the General, that the Governor 
and Admiral have precise orders to inform his Majesty's govern- 
ment of all the wishes and representations which the General may 
desire to address to it ; in this respect they need not use any pre- 
caution. But the paper on which such request or representation is 
written, must be communicated to them open, that they may both 
read it, and when they send it, accompany it with such observations 
as they may judge necessary. 

** Till the arrival of the new governor the Admiral must be con- 
sidered as entirely responsible for the person of General Buonaparte, 
and his Majesty has no doubt of the inclination of the plesent Go- 
vernor to concur with the Admiral for this purpose. 

'' The Admiral has full power to retain the General on board his 
ship, or to convey him on board again when, in his opinion, secure 
detention of his person cannot otherwise be eflfected. 

'' When the Admiral arrives at St. Helena, the Governor will, 
upon his representation, adopt measures for.sending-immediately to 
England, the Cape of Good Hope, or the East Indies, such officers 
or other persons in the military corps of St. Helena, as the Admiral, 
either because they are foreigners, or on account of their character 
or disposition, shall think it adviseable to dismiss from the military 
service of St» Helena. 



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ffTS -^PP^ ^ Ntilien Jtnghiit^ par M. "Stmfine. 

'** ff there are siraBgevs ib the island, <wbose leaideBise in Cbe 
ewMtry, shall fleem to & with a view «f becomini; Jostrumental in 
the flij^ of Oeoerrf Haenapavte. he must take measures to remove 
tfMM. The Wb6)e coaat of the islaiKi and all ahipa and heats that 
▼i^ a, are placed rnider the aurveillance of the Admiral. He <fiiies 
the fAaecto where ^e boats may visit, and the Governor will send a 
st^ekiit guard to the points where the Admiral shall consider this 
preeaotian as necessarj. 

•o The Admiral will adopt the most vigorous measures to watdi 
over the arrival and departure of every ship, and to prevent all 
cfNnoiDiiication with the coast, except such as he shall allow. 

" ^sAers will be issued to prevent, after a certaio necessary 
imervul, any foreign or mercantile vessel to go in 'future *to St 
Hetena. 

" If the General should 'be seized with serious illness, the Admi- 
lal and'liie Govemofwili •each name a physician who enjovs their 
confidence, in order to attend the General in common wit« his own 
physician ; fhey will give them strict orders to give in every da^ a 
report on the state of his health. In case of his death, the Admiral 
WW give orderslo convey his iiody to Bngland. 

" Given at the War Office, 30th July, 1816." 

We have notbing to ao mih partgr quesUoine, p»rtj po}!* 
liet, and pavty inlerests in our re^view^of ttheCouiit de Man- 
tlioLon'c fetter ; iiot it will he dbvioua we <thinkyto erery one 
of our readers, that no restrietton is imposed on Napoleon 
not connected with the real or imagined purpose of his <safe 
custody ; and it will be lor the public to juoge if from any 
nnfbanded suspicion, or outrageous precaution, what is de- 
signed merely for security, is converted into oppression. 
In this inquiry the British character is concerned, to which 
no native can be indifferent. 

It may be proper to state that anotber-edition of the work 
before us is soon to appear with new fects, in which, as we 
understand, additional complaints are to be slated, aiid it is 
to be asserted that a distinction 'is made between the de- 
portment of .the Rjttsainn and the other commissionefs 
at Sit* Helena. The former, we are told, are iostructed not 
to^teeat thk'illuatriovs exile merely as a superior military 
officer, but, in all matters of external ceremony, to consider 
him as having the titled-rank nnd dignity of an independent 
Bmperor,8Ucn ashewas acknowledged to be when abdicating 
flie throne of France, he withdrew to the Island of Elba. 

We confess ihat whatever may be the crimes oT Naipo- 
teon committed against himself, his empine, and mankiniL 
we have labourecT through this article wilth tveryp^iACiu 
emotions; we think it is impossible to ^ntemplate such a 



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Mr. Oak's Majoh. 279 

tremendoas fiiU from the pinnacle of human ambition to 
the depth of captivity, without compassion for the suf- 
ferer» whatever may be the consolations with regard to 
the rest of the species ; and we heartily join in the senti- 
ment addressed to him by the Mousquataire JNoir, — 
^ L'epreuve du malheur vous donnait a mes yeux, ce je 
ne sais quo! d'achev^^ qui jusques la manquait a votre 
gloire !"• 

— " 

Abt.VIII.— TAe Majoh : a Tale. In Two Volumes. By 
John Galt, Esq. Author of Travels in the Mediterra^ 
neofiy Sfc. ISmo. London, Sherwood and Co. 1816. 

TV £ confess ourselves unable with any precision to describe 
the nature of the small work before us ; — it is scarcely a 
novel,^ for it is very deficient both in incident and charac* 

ters; it is not a piece of bio^phy, at least if we may credit 
the author's assertion : he himself calls it a *< peculiar tale," 
in which, with the relation of the life of an individual, he 
has mixed up a number of discussions upon ethical topics, 
frequently not very original, and seldom at all entertaining* 
Thus those who take up The Majolo^ and expect to be in- 
terested in the story, will lay it down as prosing and 
tedious, while those who look at it as a work upon the phi- 
losophy of the mind, will reject it as a repetition of what 
has been better said before. It would be unfair, however, 
to deny that in the application of the metaphysical parts of 
the work to situations of ordinary life, there is some novelty 
and considerable ingenuity. 

Very few persons know what a Majoh is, and therefore 
so tat the title is ill chosen, unless Mr. Gait thought that it 
would excite curiosity : according to his account it is a 
name giyen to certain natives of Sardinia, who have been 
educated at a singular establishment in that island called 
the School of the Majoli : the scholars are composed of such 
of the children of poor persons as display early talent, and 
while they are en^ged in acquiring the dead languages 
and other accomplishments they are placed as domestic ser- 
vants in some lamily to which they are recommended in the 
town ; having completed their education, they are allowed 
to return to their native vallies among their flocks and 

herds, or to enter the world as adventurers in any capacity 

■ '■■■'■ ■■ ■ ■ ' ■ ■ '"^ 

* Menoire a PEmperear snr lea Griefs, et le Yceu da Peuple Fniiifius ; 
par Narciflte Achille de SalTandy. 

Crw. Rev. Vol. V. Marchy 1817. « O 



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by Google 



980 Mr. Gaits M^iib. 

Mliieh industry or talent may enable then' to flih The trie 
before us is composed of the incideots of the life df ooeof 
the latter who returns^ it is true, to his native valley^ but 
not until be has travelled much b; sea and land^ and having 
made philosophical reflections upon itiea and their employ^ 
ments in all countries, becomes tired of society. The autUor, 
while travelling; in Sardinia, represents himself as taking 
shelter in the cottage to which the Majolo had withdfawn> 
and where he supported himself and an old feoude rels^^ion 
chiefly by the laoours of the field. 

Having abandoned his instructors at an earbf^ age, the 
mind of the Majolo hnd not been trammelled by any pre- 
existing notions or opinions, and the principal purpose* of 
these volumes is to shew its gradual formation into the shapii 
in which it was pourtrayed by the author : the leadingfeature 
of the character of the Majolo is — tbat he is a fetaUst, and 
to this doctrine he modifies and adopts all the transactions 
to which he refers in bis relation : thus,, contrary to esta* 
blished systems of morals, he attempts to prove that all 
crimes, from pilfering up to murder, are tbe efle^ts of pre- 
destinated causes, over which the offender had no controul, 
and that he should rather be treated aa a being affiicited 
with a moral disease, than aa a fit object of punishment. 
Certainly there is nothing new in these notions, but the 
novelty consists in the mcnle in which the Majolo arrives aft 
them. He is also an advocate for the accordance between 
the physical form of a man and bis intellectual character, 
and for a sympathetic and antipathetic power in different 
minds : a fourth position he maintains is the great necessity, 
in education, of consulting tbe natural inclination, or, in 
other words^ the predestinated bent of the mind of the 
pupil. How far, in all this, Mr. Gait is displayrag and en- 
^rcing bis pwa optnions, we cannot of course ascertain, nor 
l^ow far he is ^^ the hero of each tale,'' but the observations 
he makes upon various countries, and their institutions, we 
suppose to be the result of his own experience during his 
travels. The story is, of course, the most insignificant pa<rt 
of the work, audi' is only intended as a vehicle for senti- 
ments, out of which a theory is to be formed ; we shall con- 
sequently not enter into it, but make a few extracts, in the 
choice of which we shall be guided both by their interest, 
and the doctrines they are intended to enforce. The sub- 
sequent relation is introduced to support the Majolo^s no- 
iions respecting secret sympathies and antipathies. He is 
Mi this time travelling companion to a German Count, 



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Mt^ GaltU Mqjoh. £81 

iWfldteersiam, and hits gone with biai and the EBf^Usb am- 
faasstdor at Nafiles to the Opera. 

** Bjtfais time,I was pretty well ac<quainted with the Ep^sh cha- 
i:9f ter,,apd fullv awareof tlie ^qcoonnon m^iiMber of odd anc) ecoentric 
individuab which your country more tjbaa auy other furnishes. The 
jserfonuance on the evening to which I allude was truly exquisite ; a 
new piece was performed, and every thing went off divinely. The 
eyes of the audience sparkled with delight. Count Waltzerstein ap- 
Ptaudevl the music to the skies, and Sir William Hamilton was de- 
lighted to hear the erudite opinion of so excellent a judge. Like 
the rest of the company I was ravished with delight, and at the con- 
clusion of one of the most beautiful airs, 1 turned to the young 
finglMiBian to express what I Mt. To my astimishmeat he.ap- 
pniifd ja the utmost oeglig^lice of apathy. Hiseyes were loose and 
Ifranjdering, nod the geaerfl relaxation of all the muscles of his face 
indicated the greatest indifference and insensibility to the perform- 
ance. Struck with so extraor.dinary a spectacle, I repressed what I 
bad intended to say, and looked at him.injs^ence for he did not 
happen to observe me. From that luomeut the piece became as in- 
different to me as to him, and I watched every movement of his fea- 
tures with the keenest scrutiny. At length his eye caught a stranger 
who entered a box on the opposite, skle of the house, and in an in- 
Mant, as If touclted by some Promethean energy, tbeidertDess of his 
nftUid ceased, his coontenance became animated and lull of iiltelh- 
gence* On: IpokingtOwards the stranger, I perceived that be was 
also an RogiishinaB« and I conjectuved that they were friends ; . b«t 
when I ttgaun turned to the naUemao, he had undergone a sf ilLab9rt 
eaUQocdwary ch«iPge« He fvas evideatly greatly alarmed, and there 
Wfas a <^t of sorrow in bis face so inexpressibly desppnding, that 
J could scaripely look at him without shedding tears. Soon lyfter he 
rpse and left the box, and presently I saw him enter the pit, and 
|ij{^prpaph as near as he could to the box at which the stranger ap- 
peared. When he had satisfied his curiosity he left the theatre, and 
a message was almost immediately brought to the minister, that he 

Sid shot himself. It was this affiiir which so deeply interested me. 
obody could account for the commission of the crime. No cause 
could be assigned. All that was known amounted only to this, that 
^e ha^ spent the day cheerfully in a large party at the "Cnslish n^iui- 
stei^s, and had accompanied us afterwards to the Theatre, from which 
he abpiptiy, retired > and committed suicide. 

<* 'To this. statement what could I add. The case was mysterious 
to the highest degree, for upon enquiry, I found that the stranger 
did not know the unhappy nobleman even by sight. I was never* 
thelesp, however, convinced that the api>earance of the stranger had 
. 9Qcaaidned the fatal catastrophe, and this idea taking possession of 
my imagination, I could not rest until I had endeavoured to discover 
the^ truth. 



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est Mr. GaU's Majoh. 

** * I Gontmed to become acquainted with the fttraiiger. I exerted 
every power that I possessed to obtain his confidence, for I sus- 
pected that he sliflea the truth, when he affected to deny his ac- 
quaintance with his wretched countryman ; but I was mistaken. 

" ' The common opinion of the English was, that his Lordship 
had lost a great deal of money at play, and had on that account left 
England. This» however, was not sufficient to explain the precipi- 
tancy of his death. He was not exasperated at the time by any loss. 
But that the stranger was somehow connected with the cause, and 
that his appearadce in the theatre had induced the fatal deed, no 
reasoning on earth could have persuaded me to think otherwise.* ** 
(p. 202—205. vol. i.) 

The Majolo attributes the suicide immediately to a secret 
antipathy between the English nobleman and the stranger^ 
and becoming acquainted with the latter, he takes him to 
see a convict who greatly resembled the English nobleman 
in face and person : the result confirmed his opinion, for 
the convict was also affected upon the si^ht of the stranger* 
To be sure this is a mere whimsey, and it is rather singular 
to attenopt to form philosophic truths upon fictitiou« narra- 
tives, aoon afterwards the Majolo dreams that he beholds 
CcMint Waltzerstein dying while he is in the room, and he 
is scarcely awake before he is informed that the Count has 
actually expired. The connection between dreams and 
realities is another point he endeavours to establish. The 
Count is found to have been poisoned, and the Majolo is 
arrested and thrown into prison on suspicion, arsenic hav- 
ing been found in his portmanteau ; in this dilemma, con- 
scious of his innocence, he casts about in his mind to disco- 
ver who could have been guilty, and the name of Antonio, 
a young inoffensive domestic, presses upon his conviction 
in spite of his reason ; the Majolo at last becomes con- 
vinced that Antonio is the murderer. The Majolo was ex* 
amined by the judicial autboritie% and the witnesses against 
him were produced. 

" ' At that moment Antonio and the other servants were admitted 
into the dungeon. 

** * His appearance acted upon me with the electricity of an in- 
sult. I leapt from the ground, and in an^gony of rage and griei^ 
grasped him by the threat, and exdaimed, * Wretch ! what is this 
you have done V 

** * He was thunderstruck ; his complexion, naturally pale, be- 
came of a gangrenous yellow, and before I could master myself, he 
fainted and fell down at my feet. 

** Mn a fenf minutes he was reooveied, and, scarcely mote to the 



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Ut. Gaits MaJQlo. fSS 

astonisfanent of the other penao9» who had b^ this Uaie entered the 
dungeon than to me* he acknowledged himself the murderer! 

** *\\ is imfMMsible to describe the tumult of di&rent feelings wilk 
^hicb this disclosure affected me. Overcome by an emotion that 
felt like gratitude, I embraced the mysti*rious wretch, for relieving 
me from the horror of the situation into which I had been cast. The 
spectators — dumb and overawed, — looked at us alternately. 

" ' Antonio (Irooped his head upon his breast as be sat on the 
floor, leaning against the wall. In the same instant I fell on my 
knees, and in a fervour of devotion which no language can describe, 
I uttered in tears and sobs, my sense of the miracle which Divine 
Providence had wrought In my behalf/ *' (p. IB— 19. vol. ii.) 

Afterwards the Majolo visita the self-convicted malefac* 
tor in his dungeon, ii| order to ascertain what motive he 
could have in murderine so kind and generous a master a^ 
Count Waltzerstein. He asks him ;— 

** * In the name of Heaven, Antonio, what tempted you to poison 
the Count r 

** * To this he made no reply, and I repeated the question with 
greater emphasis.' 

'* * He laid down a piece of bread, which he was raising towards 
bis mouth, and laying the back of his right hand on Us knee, placed 
his leA in its palm, with a sort of emphatic negligence. 

'' ' Did you never. Sir, feel yourself,* said he, * inclined to do 
afa^ t^ng which you could not account for. Unless you have felt 
this, I cannot expkiin to you how I have been tempted to poispn 
Count Waltzerstein, nor why I feel no sorrow for the sin.' 

" < But vou might feel something for the miserable fate that awaits 
you.* ' I do not however,' said he, ' I have long been prepared for 
It.' ' How,' exclaimed I^ ' have you always thou;rht that you were 
destined to suffer an ignominious death V * Yes, Sir, I have, ever 
since I could understand any thing, being persuaded that it was my 
late.' 

** ' This smgnlar confession overawed me, I remained silent and 
at a loss wiiat to ask next. AAer a pause of a few minutes, I again 
addressed him. 'Is this your first crime, Antonio T—* It is the 
only murder that I have committed,' said he, looking at me with a 
smile, expressive of the remembrance of enjoyment; and he added, 
* I have long desired to gratify myself in that way; but I was always 
afraid till the opportunity presented itself of making you responsible 
for the guilt. How did you discover me, for I shut your trunk and 
packed it up for the journey immediately on stealing the poison, and 
it was not opened till the search was made.' '* (p. 26 — ^27. vol. ii.) 

' This is what Mr. Gait, througl) the persdn of the Majolo,. 
calls ^^ a predestinated villain, arguing that all vices are 
only ^^ erroneous conclusions of the understanding," which 



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W« Mr. GaW^ Majob. 

crronedm conclustODs the oSender is fated to arrive At«' 
We need not dwell upon the consequenees of such doc-* 
trines; thej have already been refuted by all who have 
bitten upon the accountableness of man as a moral agent. 
It is unnecessary for us also to enlarge upon the stale topic 
of the degraded light in which man ought to be viewed, if 
thus is reason is to be supposed to have no power over his 
will. He applies the same arguments to the case of a young 
midshipman, who having been dismissed his ship for petty 
thefts, is afterwards tried at the Old Bailey fpr a higher 
crime, &kd is transported : to these persons be attributes no 
moral guilt; they were onlj^ the unfortunate instruments of 
certain crimes, the commission of which they had no power 
to controuL This is the principal point laboured through- 
out the work, and so far it has not a very beneficial ten- 
dency. 

Agr^^t many of the common- places of ethics, jtaorals, 
and politics, are dispersed in various parts of this tale : the 
Majolo considers himself a profound metaphysician, and 
broaches his egostitic notions with all the pomp of grand dis* 
coveries, every now and then interspersing pieces of literary 
criticism that might be new in Sardinia, but assuredly are 
not so here; we refer particularly to the long episode 
upon Shakespeare at p. 101 of vol. i. ; if all that is there 
stated have not been repeated over and over again by va- 
fious English writers, it is only because it was not worth 
sayinff. Some of the triteness to which we above alluded 
may oe found in vol. i. p 158, 159, and 156, and vol, ii. 
p. 50, 60^ 140, and 144. The Majolo is undoubtedly made 
out to be a man of talents, but Mr. Ualt b^s not given, bioi 
what be strove hard to comtnuHicate-r-origioftlity and pro* 
fundity ; on the contrary, he is generally superficial in fais 
dbservations upon the faabits and customs of society^ though 
he would fain convince us, as he sets out by statioff, that be 
bas not viewed foreign countries and their establiHhments 
with the eye of an ordinary observer. He dogmatizes upon 
all subjects, and there is scarcely ail art or a science but falls 
under his flippant censure; for instance, in 'Vol. i..he there 
summarily condemns and ridicules the labours of the che- 
Qiist, the mathea^aUcian, the metaphysician, and tl^e poli- 
tical economist. 

<* * The chsaiist, by studyiog the little partial experiments of h)k 
kbpratory» loses flie power of applying . bis .principl<?a to the gv^t 
and conipreheiisiye processes ^f nature; the mathematician fprgiets 



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L^rd Ck^ieffidtFs Letters io A. C. Skwhepe^ Esq. iBff 

tibe oijectft of hb scknee ia tfa« dctelopemeiit of aidlHNli; tiMr 
■wtiipbysiciui) by attadung himself toiely ta kittlleetttal opefali«iu^ 
venders fats reasonipg futile^ beeamse he neglects the plq^Mcal pton 
fieosities of man ; and the political economist errs in the same maaM 
oer, conceiving that he has asoertaioed the strength or we^duesi of 
Dations» when he has only measured the extent of their financial 
means.' " (p. 223. vol. i.) 

Mr. Gait is guilty of the usual fault of confounding the 
errors of the followers of these sciences with the sciences 
themselves ;. what he says is true to a certain extent, and 
mast be true as long as man continues fallible, and science 
progressive. 

I. Il l I II li I I I I 11 il I I II I i iiib tilllii m9* 

Art. IX.~Z^^er9, writieM hy ike Right UPon&urtibk'Phiitff 
Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chester j^ldj to Arthur Chtirh^ 
StMhope, Rsq. relative to the Edmation of his LordMp^s 
Godson^ Philip, the late Earl. 8vo. pp. 196. London, 
Colbum, 1»17. 

Gray, in a letter to Wharton in 1763, Botices a celebrated 
produetion of the most ingenious and persuasive writer of: 
kis agie : ^' 1 doubt not/' he says, ^^ you have read Rous* 
seau's £mile; every body that has children should read il 
more than once ; for though it abounds with bis. usual g^o* 
clous absurdities, though his general scheme of educatioAt 
be an impracticable . chimera — ^yet there are a thousand 
lights struck out, a thousand important truths better ex^ 
pjressed than ever they were before^ that may be of service 
t,6 the wisest man. rarticularly, 1 think, he has observed 
cfcddren with more attention^ and knows their meaaing^i 
and the workings of their little passions,, better than, an^r 
Other writer.'* 

We are not to expect a work of this kind in thelittle^ 
YoVume before us, but it contains the sentimeats of aQi 
affectionate relative at an advaxiced age, towards a bqgi 
scarcely advanced beyond in&ney, and all the commoa. 
seutiments of a sound understanding, as applied tot the" 
oooduct of education at this early period, of life. 

The letters universally known, written by the same de^ 
blemau to his natural son Philip Stanhope, wece fir^st, pulK 
liahed in two volumes^ quarto^ in the year 1774, and were 
dated from about June 1738, to October 1768, when tha 
death of the son closed the correspondence. The present 
letters ta hia lwiMf% godsooyr who succeeded ta his tiil% 



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286 Lord Chesterfield's Letters to A. C. Stanhope^ E$q.. 

eommenoe ip Septeniber 1759, and terminate in June 1767; 
and so far, it will be observed, thej are contemporaneous 
MTith those which were written to the former* We notices 
this circumstance, because, at the same time the author 
was composing; the most discreet instructions for the educa- 
tion of the latter, he was recommending the most dangerous 
and immoral principles and practice to the former; jet in 
both, no doubt can be entertained, that he was actuated by 
the warmest affection ; so that we can only look with regret 
on that state of mental perversion to which the writer was 
subject. 

Severe things have been said on Lord ChesterlSeld* 
Johnson, who had some cause for irritation, and who with- 
out such an impulse was often prodigal of his acrimony, 
observes of his Letters to his Son, that they inculcate <^ tho 
morals of a strumpet, and the manners of a dancing- 
master." Mary Wolstonecraft, who charges Rousseau with 
celebrating barbarism, and uttering the apotheosis of the 
savage virtues, is not sparing of the peer, and insists, that 
a lil^rtine is a saint compared with '' this cold-hearted 
rascal ;" but while she denominates his system, very properly^ 
an immoral one, and repres^ts his correspondence in some 
respects as frivolous, she admits that it contains useful and 
shrewd remarks, and is instructive in the art of acquirins; 
an early knowledge of the world. It must be acknowledgec^ 
that the reputation of his Lordship suffered much and de- 
servedly, in consequence of the indfustry of those who un- 
dertook this posthumous publication; but he was by no 
means destitute of virtuous qualities, which occasionally 
gave force and character equally to the politeness of his 
manners, the brilliancy of his wit, and the eloquence of his 
harangues. He was a man both of pleasure and busihess, 
but he never suffered the attractions of the former to en-* 
croach on the duties of the latter. He twice discharged 
the functions of ambassador in Holland, was Lord Lieute- 
nant in Ireland, and in England filled the office^ of Secre- 
tary of State and Lord High Steward of the Household. 
For thirteen years he was uniform in adhering to bis partv, 
which was that of the Prince of Wales, and nothing could 
induce him to abandon it, although his relation, General 
Stanhope, who was at the close of this period in the zenith 
of power, had the best means and the best inclination to 
gratil^bis utmost ambition. 

It IS a little remarkable, that the discountenance he re- 
ceived, originated in a mistake which it might be expected 



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l4Qrd Ches(erfiel<Fs Letters to A* C^ StafihopCy Esq. 887 

b^i ^. M otlifr men. from bis koowledg^a of cburaoteri 
would be iea$t likely to cofniuit : he paid his court to Mdjr 
Suffcdk, the mistress of George the Second, instead of 
8hewiiiff that respect to the Queen ; not having had suffi* 
cient aqdress to discover, that while to the former were de* 
▼9ted the passions of the King, for the latter were enter- 
tained bj hk M^esty the greatest esteem, and the most 
profound reverence ; and any disregard shewn to her by the 
QQbility in his service, would be visited with the most severe 
iniMrkB of his displeasure. We shall only add, that his tran- 
eaotions tn Holland shewed him to be an able negociator; 
that in Ireland be conducted himself with integritj^, vigi* 
lance, and sound policy, and conciliated the affections of 
the people i and that be would have died beloved and re« 
vored, from the impracticability of discovering the motives 
of the human mind under ordinary circumstances, had not 
his officious friends underpvined and destroyed his reputa* 
tion, by ei^posing the secret windings of his intrigue and 
vanity in tne publication of his letters to his son. This 
eorrespondence proves thiit he was a man with whom the 
applause of mankind was the governing principle ; and 
that be was not, on common occasions^ scrupulous about 
the means by which this darling object of his pursuit could 
be acquired. 

When his Lordship retired from public life, he wa^ 
anxious to become as distinguished in literature as he had 
been in politics, and be affected to be the patron of men of 
« science and erudition. An anecdote with regard to him, 
we have had occasion to mention in our review of a posthu- 
mous publication of Dr. Johnson's, by which it appears, 
that although Lord Chesterfield was desirous of the name 
of beinff the patron of letters, he was not disposed to pay 
dearly for it; but dearly he did pay for his neglect, since the 
^proof of the lexicographer has never been, and will never 
be forgotten. " The notice," says the Doctor, " which you 
have been pleased to take of me, had it been early, had been 
kind; but it has been delayed, 'til [ am indifferent, and 
cannot enjoy it; 'til I am solitary, and cannot impart it; Hil 
I am known, and do not want it." 

After the death of his son, this nobleman fell Into a state 
of despondency, being destitute of the only effectual sup- 
port under decay and pain, and be fell a sacrifice to bis 
accumulated infirmities, augmented by that, whidi of them 
all is the most unmanageable-^old age. 

But i^ is time that we should advert more directly to the 
Crit. Rev. Vol. V. March, 1817. 2 P 



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288 Lord Chesterfield! $ Letters to A. C. Stanhope, Esq* 

letters respecting his godson, who certainlr had much occa^ 
sion for advice, as he was placed under the influence and 
authority of three instructors,' with each of whom he wa« 
in great danger of the most mischievous effects on his 
moral habits. One, we are told in the preface,. was M. 
Kobert, a dissipated Frenchman, who kept an academy at 
Mary bone; another was Guthbert Shaw, an indifferent poet, 
who had been a strolling player, and had formed alt the 
vicious habits to which in suth a walk of the profession he 
was exposed ; the third was Dr. Dodd, whose history and 
unhappy end are well known. The impatient divine soon 
began to build high expectations of prefbrm^nt, in conse- 
quence of having this pupil, the heir apparent to the 
titles and estates of the earldom, under his superintend- 
ence; and on the occasion of soliciting the interest of his 
Lordship for some benefice, he received an answer which 
does credit to the feelings of the writer. 

'' Sir, Blackheaih, July Wth, 1706. 

*' I will not begin this Jetter with the common-place expreision 
^f ' 1 should be very glad to serve you, were I able,' which is much 
oftener a eivil denial than a pledge of services really intended to be 
performed; but I hope that you will give a juster and more favour- 
able interpretation to the assurance ofmy good wishes for you, bow- 
ever unavailing. As for any direct application from me to the King, 
It 18 utterly impossible. I have made my court but once to him 
since he came to the crown, and that was iu the first week ; s*fnce 
when I have never seen his face, and probably he has never heard 
my name. Moreover, it would be wholly useless to you, for reasons 
which I will tell you when I have the pleasure to see you next. If 
you think that my writing to Lord Hertford in your behalf, can be 
of any service to you, (which I do not thin^ it can,) I shall very rea- 
dily do it ; and if the Duke of Newcastle should retain the ecclesi- 
astical department, 1 will apply to him, and not without some hopes 
of success ; but further, this deponent saith not, because further is 
not in his power. 

'' I am, with great truth and esteeio, 
" Sir, 
" Your most faithful humble servant, 

•* Chesterfielu." 

The .first of the series, is a letter which Lord Chester- 
field, in September 1759, wrote to the father of his godson, 
to whom these letters are addressed ; and it stated^ that Sir 
Wm. Stanhope proposed to marry Miss Delaval, a circum- 
stance which was \ike\y to divert the rank and propertv of 
the chief of the &mily ttom its descent to his correspondent 



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Lori Che^erjmdts Lettm^s to J. C. Stanhope, Esq. 9S9 

and his oflbpring. On this occasion Mr. Artbur Stanhope 
speaks of bis disappointment in very proper terms, and his 
iMter prodneed the subsequent from Lord Chesterfield. 

" The Earl of C/iesterfield to Arthur Stanhope, Esq. 

••Sir, • London, October 26, 1 769. 

I wm very glad to find by your last letter that you took the news 
of my brollier*8 marriage, which could not be very agreeable to you, 
with so philosophical and religious a resignation. Rank and for- 
tune are by. no means the necessary ingredients to happiness, but 
often the contrary. Happiness must be internal, and not depend 
upon the outwaro accidents of fortune; and Providence has kindly 
distributed it equally among the poor as among the rich, and perhaps 
more libcrallv among the former. Sturdy* knows no difference, 
and it may be never will ; for if he should have deserved a large 
ibrtune, he will know how to be ov^ntent, and consequently happy, 
with a small one. But that he may have a chance of mending it, I 
send him here inclosed a lottery ticket, which will bring him at 
least 10,000/. prize, if not one of the twentys. Tell him that he 
will have no luck if he does uot learn his book very well, and speak 
French to Jack. It would not be amiss if you made Jack read him 
a short story every day in the Metamorphoses, in your presence. He 
would, by the help of the pictures, retain something of it. I am 
stiH, and ever shall be, in a very crazy state of health, but always 
your faithful, &c. *' Chesterfield." 

Of the evil effect of the manners and morals of a great do- 
mestic establishment on the infant mind this nobleman was 
perfectly aware. In his letter of the ]3th Sept. 1762, he says, 
*^ 1 should take our boj into mj house this breaking-up time, 
but 1 dare not, both on account of his health and of his 
manners. I kave too many servants, many of whom would 
give him s^ood things, as they call them, and very few of 
tbem good examples." 

We quote the following, liecause it affords some traits of 
tbe character equally of the writer, the parent, and the 
ehild« 

'* 9tkJidy,V76B. 
*' Qur boy was very thoughtful and grave upon account of your 
last letter to him, and Mr. Robert's letter to you, which, by Mr. 
Robert's order, he brought me, though very unwillingly, to read. 
I must say, that be acted contrition very well to me ; but when my 
back was turned, be was very cheerful. I read him a grave and 
strong lecture upon sudden passion : for what Mr- Robert wrote to 
you is very true, that he is subject to too sudden gusts of passion ; 

* The name his Lordship familiarly gave his godson. 



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S90 Lord Chesierfiild's Lctt&rsto J, C. St&nhope, JS^« 

but it iff as true, too, timt tiiey are f ery soon over. How^ver^ iiasf 
raaat be got tbc better of; for I know notking^ in the oomniMM^ 
course of the world, more prejudicial, awi ofteii more fata), thaa 
those sudden starts of passion. 1 have inquired about this combus^ 
tibie disposition of bis of itiy valet-de-chambre Wakh, who is his 
intimate confidant^ and who' confessed to me that he was exeeed-» 
iogly inflammable, but that the flame was immediately extkigiiish^. 
This disposition is only to be cured by tine and by reasonhig, ridi- 
cule and shame, but not by anger and passion ; which, instead Of 
curing, would authorixe his own hastiness* Therefoi«, I must de* 
sire you not to write him any ai^ry letters upon tlus subject^ whioli> 
would dispirit and d^ect him too much, but to ridicule and shame 
him by the feigned examples «>f third persons. That he can oheck 
this humour is evident, for I am sure that the whole world coiiUl 
not provoke him to be in a passion in my presence ; so that you may 
depend upon it, that 1 will cure him ifi time, and by fair means* He* 
has now begun to learn Latin, and, as a new thing, (for the gentlema» 
loves novelty exceedingly,) he goes on with great rapidity. To shew 
you how soon he can learn any thing when he pleases, he played 
the other day with bis confidant, Walsh, at draughts, who {wqrs to 
well as people commonly do, but be beat him all to nothings woA 
this from only seeiiig Mr. Robert play on evenings. When you 
come to live over, against him^ it will be of infinite Use to him, pro* 
vided (excuse my speaking plainly) that you are never too fond* nor 
too angry." (p. 6Q— 63.) 

The circumstances of the introduction of Mr. Shaw, as 
the instructor of the j^odson, shews tbe carelessness and in* 
difference with which' his Lordship could, on aome occa^ 
sions, treat matters which in other situatipns he would halve 
considered of the deepest interest. His credulity was im«« 
posed upon hy the Marybone schoolmaster. 

« 4th Ma^ 1765. 

" I have not troubled you for a considerable ^e ; our boy, who 
is the principal object of both our cares, not having supplied me 
with any new matter* But now I mast acquamt you with what I 
have done, and what I further propose to do with him. Mr. Rob^fc 
came to me two days ago, and very honestly told me, that the boy 
could dot posstblj learn any more at his school singly, when there 
aieuow fourteeir other boys, and most of them youngeir than hiriiself ; 
that his prodrgiotiA vivacity, and atteutioff io what even he was imI 
dcung himself, would keep him backward at his <»- auv other selMidi 
m Eoglatid ; and he wished that he were placed with some learned 
man m town, who should at most have but three or ioixt scholars in 
Ws house; In which case, he would answer for it, that our boy 
ifuuld leatfi more in one year than any otlier iu two^ from the gre*€ 
quickness of his conceptioif . He added, that i must be sensiDie Re 
could not dismiss aU bis other scliotorsy by whoas he got his liveli- 



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tjiffi Ghtri€^Jiel(fi Letters td A C. Stanhaffy E^ 29f 

kRfttd, to litWnd mt boy »lone, t<^ whom h^ gmt€»fiilly confessed titat 
b^ow^d most ^f th«fn; that in the mean time, till we could find h 
pttfpert }>la«e 16 $^tle him in, fa^ wo«td, if I approved of it, send 
^tm mo liotir9 evet\ morning and two in tl>e etening, to one Mr. 
Sbftw, who lived within three doord of him, who had been heaff-^ 
iMfttet to a great dcfaool in the country, and waa a mf^n of soutid 
isiassical learning. I told him 1 greatly approved of hist scheme for 
the presentiand desired that he would put it in exeetttion nextMon^ 
day. The boy, who i9 acquainted with Mr. Shaw, b not only will- 
ing to go to him, but is proud of it, and thinks himself of more 
importance for it. This Mr. SImw is a poet, though perhaps not 
the best in the world ; it was he who wrote the Race, which the boy 
sent you some months ago, and which is something above medio- 
crity;' (p. ldB-^ia2.) 

'the gcBuiDe sentiments of Lord Chesterfield oa womeo 
and marriage, may perhaps be as accurately collected from 
the following tetter, ^s from any that could be produced. 

" 12/A October, 1766. 
*' In answer to the favour of your last letter, in which you desire 
fny opinion concerning your third marriage, I must freely tell you, 
that in matters of religion and matrimony I never give any advice ; 
because I fill not have any body*s torments in tkiS'Wortd or the next 
laid to my charge. You say, that you find yourself lonely and me- 
lancholickat Mansfield, and I belfeve it: but then the point for 
your mature constdemtion is, whetlier it is not better to be alone 
than in bad company ; which may very probably be your case with 
a wife. 1 may possibly be iu the wrongs but I tell you very sin* 
ecrely^ with all due regard to the sex^ that I nev^r thought a woanan 
good company for a man tlte-a-t^te, unless for one purpose, wbieb^ 
I presume, is not yours now. You had lingular good fortune whh 
your last wife, who has left you two fine children, whicb are as many 
ts any prudent mau would desire. And how would you provide for 
more ? Suppose you should have five or six, what could you do 
with them % Voa have sometimes expressed concern about leaving 
vour daughter a reasonable fortune: then what must be your anxiety, 
if to Miss Margaret) now existing, you should add a Miss Mary, a 
Miss Betty, a Miss DoIly» &c.: not to mention a Master Feidi* 
nando, a Master Arthur, &c« My brother gave me exactly tfw 
same reasons that you do for marrying his thira wife. He was weary 
of being alone, and had by God*s good providence found out a 
young woman of a retired disposition, and who had been bred up 
prudently under an old grandmother in the country; she bated and 
dreaded a London life, and ^hose to amuse herself at home with 
her books, her drawings^ and ker music. How this fine prospect 
turned out, I need not tell you^ It turned out well» however^ for 
my boy. Notwithstanding all these objections, 1 made your propo- 
add t6 ray siattr and her girl» beeauae yoa denred it* But it would 



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fS2 J^rd ChesferfielcPs Leti^s to A. C ^Uimh&fey Esq, 

ac^do: for they considered that her fortune, which is ao great one, 
joined to yours> which is no great one neither, would not be. suffi- 
cient for you both, even should you have no children: but if you 
should have any, which is the most probable side «f the question, 
they could not have a decent provision. And that is true. More- 
over, she has always led a town life, and cannot bear the thought^; 
of living in the country, even in summer. Upon the whole, you» 
will marry or not many, as you think best: but, to take a wife^ 
merely as an agreeable and rational companion, will commonly be 
found to be a great mistake. Shakspeare seems to be a good deal 
of my opinion, when he allows them only this department: — 

* To suckle fooh, and chronicle small beer.' 
I am just now come to town to settle for the winter, except an ex- 
cursion to Bath. I shall see my boy on Monday or Tuesday n^t» 
and I am apt to think that we shall be very glad to meet. I shall now 
«oon know what to trust to with Mr. Dodd." (p. 144 — 147.) 

There are occasional remarks on wonaen dispersed even 
in this little volume, that shew his splenetic temper towards 
the sex. In speaking of Miss Stanhope, the sister of his sod- 
son, he observes with more than his usual candour, ^^f am 
very glad she likes, and succeeds so well in, drawing; for 
it takes up a good deal of time, and, so far, keeps women 
out of harm's way. Most of them do ill, because they have 
nothing else to do.'* His profligate declaration to his son, 
will ever be recollected to his disgrace : ^' I have endea- 
voured," he says, "to gain the hearts of twenty women, 
whose persons 1 woald not care a fig for." 

The brief concluding letter will aSbrd those who ei^joyed 
a personal acquaintance with the late Earl, an opportunity 
dicomparing the opinion of his ancestor with the individual 
of whom it was expressed, and we are inclined to think it 
will shew the discernment with which it was formed. 

" ntkJune, 1767. 
'M am extremely pleased that you are so well satisfied with the 
boy. 1 will venture to pronounce that he will do. I cannot in the 
least approve of laying out the money in hand, which I destined 
towards his immediate education, and to which I will now add an- 
other 1,000/., and place them both in the bank consoL annuities, 
ni^hich are a safe fund, and pay four per cent, by half-yearly payments 
to a day. I received as good an account from him of his journey to 
Mansfield, as any man in England could have wrote. He can do 
every thing well when he pleases, and 1 must do him the justice to 
day, that he generally desires to please, though not always for a 
great while together." (p. 196—196.) 

. Before we conclude we should remark of this little 



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Ameriean Biography. 293 

V*oIume, that niaDj Valuable principles of eckieation may be 
drairn from it, trifling as it appears in the shape in which it 
is presented. The leading maxim every where is that which 
was so ably inculcated by Mr. Locke — ^^ If children's spirits 
be abased and broken by too strict a hand^ they lose' all 
their vigour and industry." 

XAbt, X, — Delaplaine's Repositan/ of the Lives and Por* 
traits of distinguished Amerkcm Characters, Philadelphia^ 
Delaplaine. 4to. pp. 106. 1815. 

As this work has been published more than a year, it is ten 
or eleven months beyond the limit of time we usually pre- 
scribe to ourselves for the review of literary productions ; 
but, since the communication on subjects of this nature is 
maintained with so much difficulty, with the intervention of 
winds and waves to the extent of three thousand miles, we 
may, without much apology, be allowed now to submit this 
publication to the attention of our readers. Yet, is it worth 
their examination? We can scarcely venture to answer 
this question in the affirmative ; and it must be allowed, 
that whatever advances the citizens of the United States 
have made in commerce, agriculture, and political science ; 
in all that constitutes taste, in all that relates to the imagi^ 
nation, and in all that embellishes life, tbey are greatly 
inferior to the people of the country which their forcmthers 
thought fit to abandon. This is not the opinion which Mr. 
Deiaplaine (who appears to be the author as well as the 
publisher of the work) entertains of his compatriots; but 
we notice, that he seems to value himself less upon his text 
than upon his portraits — less upon the skill of the writer, 
than upon the dexterity of the artist. A feeling of injus- 
tice to the New World he complains of, which we think 
not founded in correct observation, and we are sure it is 
not with reference to the present sentiments in Europe. . 

** It is well known that» since the first colonization of the New 
World, efforts have been made by the writers of Europe to degrade 
the character of the natives of America. The people of the West* 
although the immediate descendants of European ancestors, have 
been declared to be inferior, both In body and intellect^ to those 
who are bom in the eastern hemisphere. 

** This assertion, however imprabable id appearance, and un- 
founded in fact, was so often repeated* and maintained with such 
effiroDtery, as to gain at length a very general currency in Amorica, 
89 well as in Eoro^ and to be received* perhaps, by a miyoritjr of 



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2M jitmsriem Brngt^ph^' 

tbt people of Iwth ooualrkft 9^ a settled trulb ; nor Ipps it bee^ 
f<»mid 40 ea»y i»sk to disfi^t^cowpUtely tbe popular (jkliUMOd* 

** But from various causes, wluch it loigbt uot be pi^rtiiicaJ: ta 
oiir purpose U> mention, the spc|l is broken ; and, provided Ameri- 
WDs be true to tbcwselv^s, oao never be restored, to reduce again to> 
bondage the human mind." (p. iv.) ^ 

This publication is intended to be introductory to a series 
of others, in which the biography of the tiiost distin^^uishe^) .^ 
peraons in the United States is to be detailed^, yet, aUhou^h ' 
professedly to shew native worth and excellence, the balf \ 
of his characters are not natives. He commences with Co- 
Uiii»|hi9 and Vesputi^s, borp in Italy ; aad Ui^se are fol* 
low^d by the lives of Dr* Benjamin Hush, Fibber Aoies^ 
Alex, Hamilton (not a native), and Ge<M*ge Wa^hiogtpn. 

Of Columbus the author states positively, that be w^a ^ 
Genoese by birth ; but the iact is, that numerous pUw^ 
have contended for the honour, yet we admit that, on 9t 
^aioulation of probabilities, we prefer assigning the dis* 
tinction to Genoa, although the tamily was originally from 
tjie PradiUo, in the Placentine. Mr. Delaplaine commends 
the ardent thirst of Columbus for honourable exploits, 
whicb hurried him ii^to the strife and tumult of arms; and 
nesU ^eaks of an obstinate conflict with a Venetian galley, 
when the vessel he commanded was discovered to be in 
flames, and when he escaped by his dexterity in swimming. 
The aiuU»er here suppresses the fact so inconsistent with 
^ the honourable exploits'' be talks o^ that all this w?a 
done, and much more when this bold adventurer was iQ 
t^ servipe of a fiimous corsair of his own name and lamily, 
and be even spent several years ifi cruizing against toe 
MAbometws and the Venetians, in pi^datory hostility, 
befin^ the accident mentioned occurred. We afterwarde 
betur about the enlightened piety of this eminent x^yigator, 
whkb probably formed no part of bis chara^cter further 
than the semblance of it might be awilifiry to the purpoeeft 
of his ambition. 

Mr. Delaplaine has omitted to mention the real fact on 
which the circumstance of his employment by Spain turned, 
and the consequent acouisition of those rich and extensive 
provinces which have neen both the glory and the disgrace 
of the parent state. The truth is, that the uqa^isted e:i;- 
ertioos of Columbus had completely failed at the coffrt of 
Spain, and he waa prepmring to follow his brother Qarthcjo«« 
mew, who wee interceding wUb Henry YIL to ftbcilttate Ua 
r prqjectBi whtp Jfoaii Ferez ilie Meno^^ 



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AtHerkan Biograpky. 395 

dian of a Franciscan monastery near Palos, aided him bj in-* 
terceding with Isabella, and the purpose was accomplished* 
The first voyage was commenced on Sd August, 149!8, from 
Palos, and to Palos he returned on the 15th of November 
in the following ^ear. 

The next article of biography is Americus Yesputius 
(Yespucius) from Amerigo Vespucci, who was born at Flo« 
rence in 'March, 1451. His first enterprise across the At- 
Ic was commenced in lifay, 1497, and he returned on the 
Nov. 1498, In this voyage he reached the continent, 
passage of thirty-seven days, and visited the Gulf 
ia and the Island of Santa Marguerita* He does 
not seem to have been the principal or commodore, but 
only a companion of Alphonso d'Ojeda, who commanded 
the squadron. But if the year 1497 be the correct date, as 
be himself pretended, he certainly saw the continent of 
America berore Columbus, because it was not until the 
third voyage that the latter discovered it. Columbus, on 
that occasion, sailed along the coasts of Caracas, Cumana, 
and Paria; but even then he was not aware that these 
shores belonged to a great continent, but supposed them to 
be parts of some extenisive island. 

It is manifest, if these dates be accurate, that Americus 
Ycfsputius was the first who discovered the continent of 
America; but there is a doubt which goes to the root of 
this priority, and which is most warmly supported bv the 
Spanish writers, who contend that the first voyage or that 
navigator did not take place until 1499. The Abb6 Reynal 
sa^s, that he << did notnine more than follow the footsteps 
of a man whose name ought to stand foremost in the list 
of ^at characters. Thus," he continues, alluding to Yes- 
putius having given his name to America, ^^ the very aera 
which added America to the known world, was distinguished 
by an instance of injustice that may be considered as a 
fiUal prelude to those scenes of violence, of which this 
country was afterwards to be the theatre."-— ^^ Yesputius,'' 
observes Delaplaine, ^^ had the address not to publish his 
narrative, wherein he asserts his claim to the discoverv of 
the new continent, ^till about a year after the death of 
Columbus. By this stratagem-— for as such it must be con- 
sidered—he escaped the refutation which that illustrious 
navigator would immediately have prepared and given to 
the world." 

. The third subject is Dr» Benjamin Rush, who was born 
in December, 1745, at the distance of about twelve miles 

6rit. Rsv. You. Y. Mareh^ 1817. S Q 

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SdO American Biographif, 

froin Philadelpbja. If Mr. Oelapkine asfetinies moelf 
credit to America, as a school of roedicitie^ on aocdbnlof 
the iiativitv of Rush in that country, it is surely ^me de- 
duction, that at about the age of twenty-one, he cotbpleied 
his studies at Edinburgh, and subsequently attended tbe- 
hospitals in London, not returning to the Wedt until Ihe 
yekr 1769. 

(n the political portion of the history of Dr. Rddh, for 
everj^ nian Was a politician during the American reVcrtutibtL^ 
it is improperly oniitted that he took an active part in ttle 
affairs of the state to which he belonged, and (Sbntril^uft^dlo^ 
the formation of a new govertiriient in P^nsylvaiiia, mt pre* 
Vioiis system appearing to him to be very defective. 

But we do not think that Mr. Oelaplainie ba^ done justi<<e' 
to the mefrits of Dr. Rush, e^en in fais owh prqM^ioil^t tfnitt 
(his neglect is the more cul{)able bectidtfe 'ne nii^tf. fiat^ 
suplplied himself with many itiiportttnt factd^wfatcll ltd hkk 
disregarded, from thb Atiierickn Medical ahd PhilolAp&iod* 
Register, conducted by Dr. Hosacfa and FrattcU df 'NaA^ 
York. We have also a very meagr6 notie* 6f tfo woMfti\^^_,, 
of this physician, and the " History of the Yelte^ Fever,"^ J ^'*' 
from his hand, ought to have been particularU" m&ntijDii^d. 
The year 1793 was memorable oh account of the grfeaet mor- 
tality in the United States from that (Ksorder, and th^ pro- 
ductioit of the Doctor cannot be too highly valued for the 
minute and accurate description it contains of the complaint 
itself, and the many important fkcts it records iit delation 
to it. 

The editions b^ the same author of Sydeinham aiid Cleg^ 
horn, published in 1809, and those of rrrngle arid Hillany^ 
in 1810, shoold have been noticed. Also his introductory 
le'ctures of the following year, comprehending ten toorc"^ 
discourses, with two additional on the Pledsure^ of thi^ 
Senses and the Mind. His work on the Didedses of the 
Mliid appeared not until the close of 18l!9; and his latest 
composition was a letter on hydrophobia, containing for^ 
ther reasons in support of the theory he had before ad*' 
Vanc^d, as to the blood vessels being the chief seat of the 
disorder. 

The error of Dr. Rush was^ that he did not confine hi^ 
paUicatibns to tnedical subjects, but £;o highly was he ap- 
predated that distinction was conferred upon him in dif«* 
ferent parts of Europe, as well as in his own countrjr^ by 
his admission as a metnber to many of the most eminent 
literary and t>Uilosbphical assoyctations. 



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r Tfp ^in. Fl§^r 4°^?B our aathof is very prqcUgcil of his 
praMe) ^fi^ in tt|f» furor of his ^ot))usjafm he «a;8) '^. Cicerb 
|4!9^u w^s scar^^y pof^essed of more yariefi atti^ii^iaenls." 
This gentleman yfu^ bor|) at Qld Dedh^m, \n Af^ssachusete, 
in April9 1758, tte lost his father when six years of age, 
he tta^ regulatly educated and graduated, and was for 
several years an instructor of youth. In 1781 he was ad- 
mitted id the bar/ in 17S8 be became a Member of the 
Convention for Ma^sachusets, and was subsequently the 
6rbt Reprefiei|tative to Congress for the Suflblk district, 
fpr eigl|t years be was a leading orator of theJflQuse of 
Kepr^nentativjes, and ajfterwards deplining all public silua<- 
tions he became a political writer. In lw4 be was invited 
to the Presidency . of Harvard University, which honour 
he did not dccept. In July, 1808, he died of a consump- 
tion at bis residence at Dedham. Soon after his death a 
selection from hi> political essays Wtis published, with a 
biographical memoir, in one volume, 8vo. 

The unfortunate end of Mr. Alexandler Hamilton is well 
known. ..H« was a native of St. Croix, but bis mother \vas 
an American. His father was the younger son of an Eng- 
]is|i ^mily. Youjig Hamilton emigrated to New Yprk at 
the age of sixtj^en, and for three years was a student iii 
polliqabia Co)leg^. , When nineteen b^.left his literary p^r- 
^liits to eater the army, the quarrel with the mothpr coun- 
try having^ ripened into open conflict. Promotion was 
eaisily acquired, he attained the rank of captain of artillery, 
and although utiinstructed in^ military duty, he distin^ 
guished himself on several oci^asions. in 1777 he was ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to Gen: Washington, and from that 
period untii near the time of the capture of Lord Cornwal- 
lis, in. 1781, he was the inseparable companion of his su- 
pffiftr q^oeri. bpth in (he cpb(inet and the field. As first 
^^7d^-c^mp \o the '^o^maqder^in-chief he served lu the 
littles of Brftqdyiviqe, Gerqnan Town^ and Monmoutk; 
4iA at the siege of Yprk Towq, pn the Uth of Oct. 1781, 
t^l^, at his oyrn request, f he American detachment that 
f»irijue4 by assault one of th^ Bfjtlsh put-works. 
<. A,t the .con^usipn qf the war llafoilton having a family 
d^peja^iog fpr ^uli^i^tfpce pn his personal exsirtiops, he en- 
tered, after a brief course of study, on ^hfe^ prof^sKfon of the 
law. His intermediate history, until the year 1789, when 
he was Secretary of the Treasury, is not very important^ 
but his reports in that office are highly appreciated. On 
the death of Washington, in 1799, he succeeded to the 



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89S Atnerkm Biography. 

GotDmaDd-in-cbief of the armies of America, but from 
8ome cause unexplained, the rank of lieutenant-general 
was never conferred upon Mm. Tfae unhappy event which 
occasioned his death is related in these terms* 

'* In June* 1804, General Harailton received from Colouel Burr 
a note requiring, in language that was deemed offensive, an acknow- 
ledgment or a disavowal, touching certain expressions, which he 
was unable to make. This led to a correspondence, which, after 
every honourable effort by the former to prevent extremities, ter- 
minated in a challenge on the part of the latter. By a man conspi- 
cuous in the eyes of Europe and Ameriba, and looking forward to 
certain contingencies which might call him again into military life» 
an acceptance was considered unavoidable* 

" As well from a reluctance U> shed the blood of an individual in 
single combat, as from an apprehension that he might, in some un- 
guarded moment, have spoken of Colonel Burr in terms of unmerited 
severity. General Hamilton determined to receive the fire of his an- 
tagonist, and to reserve his own. This determination he communi* 
cated to his second, who, after a friendly remonstrance* acquiesced 
in the measure. 

** On the morning of thellth of July, 1804, the parties met at 
Hoboken on the New Jersey shore; the very spot where, a short 
time previously General Hamilton's eldest son had (alien in a duel. 

** The tragical issue is known to the world. The challenger was 
an adept in the use of the pistol ; the party challenged much 
less so, had he even ceme to the ground with a ratal intention. The 
terms of the combat were therefore unequal. 

*' On the first fire Hamilton received the ball of his antagonist 
and immediately fell. For a time the wound threatened to prove 
speedily mortal,— he was even thoueht by those present to be already 
oead. He recovered, however, from the first shock until two 
o'clock P. M* of the following day, when he expired in the forty- 
seventh year of his age." (p. 77 — 78.) 

With regard to the lifiB of Washington) which terminator 
these brier biographical sketches, it is deficient both in in- 
cident and thought, and is wholly unworthy the august ner- 
sonage whose history it is intended to pourtray. We snail 
conclude with the eulogium heretofore pronounced on this 
virtuous patriot, accomplished general, and pre-eminent 
statesman. ^^ The whole range of history does not present 
a character on which we can dwell with such entnre and 
uumixed admiration.'* 



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[ 299 ] 

THE DRAMA. 

AftT. XI. — Pmtkea: a Tragedy. Jl^ William Benett^ 
Esq. Barrister of Law. 8vo. pp. &(. London, Carpen^ 
ter and Son, IS 17. 

The author informs us, in an advertisement prefixed to 
his tragedy, that it was written five years ago, ^' for the 
amuseioent of leisure hours;" and it seems evident that no 
parpose of business was connected with its composition. It 
was never designed for -representation on the stage: th0 
action is not sufficiently rapid, the incidents too thinly seat* 
tered, and the characters not sufficient in numbcMr to afford 
that variety which a public auditory requires. ^^ Panthea," 
18 theref<H^ to be considered a tragic poem ; and those whp 
would review it as a tragedy intended to be performed^ 
would judge it by rules whi«h the author punposely vio- 
lated. 

Mr. Bienett appears to be one ,of those who, for the rea« 
aons assigned iq our last Number, despaired of success in 
writing for the theatres, under their present proportions 
and regulations : on this account he comes before the pub* 
lie in print, appealing to thisir understandings, and not 
merely to their eyes: so far, therefore, his task is move 
arduous, for he has none of the meretricious aids of sceneiy 
and decoration to give effect to his performance, and he 
must stand or fall by his own merits. We do not, perhaps, 
think him judicious in the choice he has made of giving nis 
thoughts a dramatic form ; for those who take ud his pro- 
duction to read it as a tragedy for the stage, will be sur- 
prised at the apparent languor with which the plot is con- 
ducted, and at the impertinence (we use the word only to 
save a circumlocution) of some of the scenes, not contribut- 
ing to ita developement; while even many of those who 
merely peruse it as a dramatic poem, (the true light in 
which it ought to be viewed,) will lament the absence of 
the " life of action," which they will fancy would have 

E'ven it an interest it certainly does not otherwise possess: 
»th will consider it dull— the first incorrigibly so— while 
the last will attribute the want of animation to the want of 
scenic effect and delusion. To these difficulties, in a greater 
'or less degree, all dramatic poems are exposed, and we are 
therefore of opinion that, almost any other shape than a 
dramatic one would have been preferable. 

The story of Abradates and Pantheai our readers are 

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300 Pantl^a^ a Tragedy. 

aware, ie told in Xenophon*s Cyropadia, and Mr. Benett 
correctly stateii, that in general he nas strictly adhered to 
historical facts : it is to be regretted, indeed, that he ha® 
not allowed himself more license in this^respectj^ for inci- 
dents might without difficulty have been interspersjed that 
would have given a life' to the piece, which it requires even 
as a tragedy to be read : the capture of Pantfaea, the mag- 
nanimity of Cyrus, the corresponding generosity of Abra* 
dates^ the desertion of Adrastes, the death olT Abradates in 
battle, and the despair and suicide of Panthea, are all th^ 
incidents presented to us; and they are much too few and 
anyaried even for perusal in a dramatic form, which, as we 
have above observed, naturally leads us to expect more 
Ijustle and business than in a poem of anv other description. 
The story is not ill-adapted for theatrical efiect, and several 
writers have been of this opinion— one of them as early a@ 
1694, when " The Warres of Cyrus, King of Persia, with 
the tragicall Ende of Panthaea, was printed. Had this 
piece feUen into our author*6 hands' before he began to 
write, it might have afforded him some very useful hints in 
the conduct of the fable, as well as in the support of the 
characters; more particularly that of Panthea, whose'for- 
titude, and equanimity under calamity, is well sustained iii 
the old play : when made a prisoner, and separated from 
Abradates, she exclaims with dignity — 

. ** Philosophy bath taught me to ^o^bracf 
A mean and moderation in mishaps : 
Long smce I learnt to master all eifects 
And purturbations that assaile the mind ; 
Only I have not learnt to master chance!" 

It is this nobility of deportment, in the first instance) that 
demands the generosity of the cphqn^ror ; . bat althouffli 
Mn Benett, in his tragedy, has repres^t^d Panthea a9 suV 
missive and trusting to Heaven, 

-since the immortal gods 



Dispose of us according to tlieir will," 

he .has not strpngly marked the character of his heroijie in 
the outset, which was carefully done: by his predecessor. It 
is not, however,,o«ir intention to carry this comparison fyx!" 

><''■■■■* ■.,■■■■ ;< ■■ IWIM H .!■■ I l«. . .11 . , I ■ ' .. ■■■■■il ^ i ■ W. ^ |l | l 

. * lAiS'ifla libefty pearly ajl our l^est poets have allowed th^raselYjBff. 
One of our' oldest dramatiits says, in prefacing a histoiricat tragedy^ that 
he dfd not intend to tie himself t# rehite' every thing as a historilm, but to 
OQlar^e ^Very thing as -a poet.' (Pref. to Marston's Sopil^nisba, 16SS.> 



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PdnOedy a Trajgedy. 301: 

tber, though, if we did, Mr. Benett woiild' be no great 
sufferer by it, since the piece of 1594, like many others of 
thut daj, as a whole, is a very unequal and irregular per* 
formance, though it possesses some scattered passages anui 
scenes of no mean excellence. 

It is not necessary for us to detail the outline. t)f a plot 
which may be found m almost every school book, and from 
which there is little or no variation. The general style in 
which the piece is written convinces us that the author is 
not much practised in theatrical composition, and we ap« 
prebend that his reading in this kind is not very extensive : 
the chief fault is a want of vigour in the versification, and 
the defect is increased by the sentence being almost invari- 
ably terminated at the end of a line, which ||;ives a beavi. 
ness to the speeches avoided with the utlnost cate h^ expe* 
rienced dramatists. The attempts at poetical Atghts are 
not frequent, but we would rather have to complain of 
deficiency in this respect, than of such obtrusive redundancy 
as is to be found in some tragedies recently acted, where 
the affected sublime, and yvhat used to be pedanticdly 
called bomphiology, or fine writing, are really qUite dis- 
gusting. At least, we have no reason to complain of Mr. 
Benett on this score, though he may have deviated a little 
on the other side, and sometimes has not taken pains 
enough to raise his composition to the level of poetry. We 
have stated that the characters are few : Cyrus has little 
concern in the catastrophe, but as fightiifg the battle where 
Abradates is killed; Cyaxares has still less to do with it, 
but he seems introduced in some degree is a foil to Cyrus ; 
Araspes is tlie chief, io whotn Panthea is confided by Cyrus, 
and who betrays his trust : the rest of the men, excepting 
Abradates, \i^hose part is known, are* mere assistances. The 
piece would have been improved, had we seen in it more of 
Araspes, whose character might have been well contrasted 
with that of Cyrus ; but we hear nothing of him after the 
second act, when he deserts to the enemy. 

We shall now endeavour to furnish such extracts as will 
enable our readers to make a just est innate of the tragedy 
before us : what we hav^ lilready remarked will give them 
a general notion of the style 6f the pieese, and leatd them 
Dot to expect too much of at writer obviodlly dififdent of 
jhis own jpowers, and embarking in an undertaking in which 
s&nieof the greatest names in the history of poetry have 
fililed of success: it will be recollected also, that disjointed 
parts ^o iiot appear to advantage when separated firoin* Hi 



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aOS Paittheay a Tragedy. 

scenes to which thej belong. The following is from Act IIL 
where Cyaxares reproadies his nephew with having injured 
him: C^rus replies l^ appealing to his actions, and tho 
uncle answers in these terms :— 

^ " Cyntucaret, That you 
Have done these things for me, I can*t deny ; 
Nor can I say they are not benefits ; 
But they are benefits of such a sort, 
I well could wish that they had not been done ; 
For I would rather, with my Median troops. 
Extend your territories, than behold 
My own enlarged by yours ; for these are acts 
Which shed a glorious lustre round your head» 
Who nobly have achieved them, but on me 
Cast but the shadow of disgrace : and I 
. Would rather see my subjects injured by you 
Than thus overwhelmed with fiivours. If I appear 
To think unreasonably in this, then make 
The case your own : if any one by gifts 
Should so estrange the Persians from your service. 
That they, deserting you, would follow him ; 
Should you esteem yourself oblieed to him ? 
And if your friend, having your leave to take 
What he has need of yours, should seize on all. 
And leave you destitute ; still should you thmk 
That man an unexceptionable friend? 
Yet such has been your conduct towards me : 
Taking unfair advantage of my favour. 
You marched my army from me, leaving me 
Deserted and dishonoured in the field I 
And now, you bring me things, which with my force 

[PahUing to the BpoiU set apart for kimp 
You late have captured, and with my own troops 
Extend my territory ; whilst I alone. 
Patient and unemployed, have Bou|;ht achieved 
Of these advantages ; but, womanhke. 
Resigned myself to others to be served ; 
Then, if you reverenced me, you would respect 
My dignity and honour. Of what good 
Is It to me to have my land enlarged, 
And see myself contemned 1 I have command 
Over tiieMedes, at least by seemiag to 
Surpass them alL" (p. 4(^-41.) 

We wish Mr. Benett, who is a barrister and a roan of 
education, had avoided, which he miffht have done easilj^ 
saoh vulgarisms as amU^ (or cannot^rd^ for i would^ Saci 



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Paniheaj a IVagedy, 30S 

they produce an unfavourable impression against him in the 
very iieginning. Before the battle with Croesus, the Chiefii 
east lots, and the post or greatest danger and highest 
honour Alls to Abraaates. Panthea congratulates him on 
his fortune and on his cause ; and in the subsequent extract 
the author, in a great degree, loses the languor that often 
attends his unpractised pen. 



" Pmikea. If ever man had a just cause to fi^ht* 
Such must be yours, my Prince ; since 'tis not stauied 
By tyranny^ revenge* desire of power. 
Or any lawless passion of the mind ; 
Bat friendship, honour, gratitude, and love. 
With one strong impulse urge you to the field. 
To fight for Cyrus! whofe exalted soul, 
Thirstinff for fiime alone, has doubly conquered ; 
Vanquished the enemy ! subdued himself! 
Who, taking not advantage of his fortune. 
Has treated me, his captive, as a Queen, 
With honour and respect ! Siich is your cause ; 
Which makes you a nrm friend to Cyrifs* friends. 
And mortal enemy to Cyrus' foes ! 
For, with the generous mind, true gratitude 
Expires not coldly on the lips, in thanks ; 
But dwells within the heart, and ripens there. 
Till a fit opportunity arrives. 
In tenfold measure to repay, in acts. 
The obligation. As for my regard, 
Tbou§[h surely none e*er eaualled it for you ; 
Which prizes you above alt earthly ioys. 
And ranks you with the gods, yet that regard 
Is founded on your character ! — 

[Pmuet with mwari canfiioi nf mmd. 
Yd rather see thee bleeding on the field. 
Than live a life of base indifierence 
To gratitude, to honour, and to love! 

Abradaies. My heart, my dear Panthea, beats with yours 
In sweetest unison : I am prepared 
To sacrifice my life; but not to leave thee : 
That is a contest far beyond my strength. 
For, thoagh the swords and arrows of the foe. 
Though instant death, in form most terrible. 
Cannot appal me/^ (p. 47— 48.) 

We have only room for one further specimen. In the 
conflict Abradates is killed, and Panthea represented as 
sitting by his body on the field, fitting his severed hand to 
tli^ moody stump of his arm, and endeavouring in her 

Grit. Rev. Vol. Y. Marchy 1817. 2 R 



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901 Panthea^ a Tr^i^edy. 

frantic deepaiiriQ recall him ioVfyi Ibis pH^twe i^ raljb^ dtf- 
gusUitg than aflEecting, andtHefefbre unfit for tragedy^tbowgH 
we would not carry our refineoient ^ far a» to abri^t® idk 
fireedom and power of description,, a^ tbe Frenui j^itica^. 
bava done. Tbe catastrophe is nearly the save ae^ 4^ oJK 
Anthony. Panth^, desir^^ her feniale «lave to ^i?e, her tbe^ 
8word of Abradates that she may co^uait wiicidei l^t tW 
attendant stabs herself^ and Panthea follows her example. 
This event We think by ho metttit Well )H^fiit^A^ but the 
unfair cotiiparison it pr6dirce9 wiVh €be Work or SlrtAbspeare 
may a little tend to mislead our ludginent. We gii^^a, part 
of the scene which is much too long. 

" [AsTEBT A tdktng the swori, Utah ierselfr andfomU U 
ttaaheh dying. 

*• Astma. Stay yet, my parting souT— on« moment yet — 
Forgive me. Princess — since it was my love 
That strengthened me in this resolVe— fairewelt ! [Dies. 

** Panthea, Fiwevell, thou fBifhUil servant; nmy thy soul 
Meet its reward above ! — Can I noW pause« 
When this poor creature^ from regard to me. 
Urged by no other motive, thos coald act — 
And can I pause, when be who went l^fore. 
Sealed with his blood the tribute of his fove? 

[thawing the sword from A st fik I a's ^ea$t. 
Sad reeking instrument of dcatK, whose point 
Unfolds the gates of everlasting fife ; 
How many in the field in hostile guise 
Hast tiiou released from this disaaterous world ! 
To me thou com'st a ^end — a welcome guest — 
To thee Panthea trusts her late-^nor doubts fhy truth — 
And soon will press thee to her bfeedtf^ heart! 
Farewell world— -^ 

Farewell ye parmted vanities of lif& 
That bind the grovelling minds of grosser spirits : 
J^rewell pomp and state, and thou resplenaent son, 
Tliat o*er llie orbit of this transient globe 
Sheddest thy beam diumal; 
No more thy orient light shall ibrake these eyes. 
Or cheering warmth invigorate thfs frame ! 
Ye groves Jarewen, to first affection dear. 
Where fondly lingering 'midst your silent shade. 
My Abradates wooed my maiden love : 
, i^o woce by me renwaibeiad ! — ^Ai^ tbf u my heaHi 
*):hat idly tremblest^t the thoudit of death, 
$oon in tbe tomb thy anxious pulse shall e^aae, 
3*6 slumber in et^aal rest! 



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Bittiofheca Antiqua. 905 

Botcome thoa ikitliful sword— .' 

My Abtadat^' spirit beckons me — 

Set, see bis mangled ami» reft of the hand, 

feoiMk t» the grirve! Ms g^ty Hsag6 udds; 

And ill tiM piSlid «tiltieM of a corse. 

Scams to npbraid my taittibess I 

4imI aoon my aoiil thatt dleod with thioe, anr Itira [ 

r^theaeom«(i« wwl^ a hi^temi^race 

Pief ^es tby fsl^y-oold t^pSt aad sinks ii| death I 

tk4<atev^Urm%n:' (p. 6^-^) 

Thesd tiipiog of refltctioii are not only coninion-plece in 
dleniaelV^, but th^ are treated in a common^plaee way. 
TMire k a striking Inelegance, not of moch coiisequetloe, 
to be ante, in the stiige directions ; thus abore we have 
<* tbe AltendaWs run in," and a little before we are told 
that PatitlvSfi ^^ gets up/* and whenever a slave enters W<^ 
hMT, not that he kneels before the king or Panthea, but 
that he ^ falls down/* This almost appears like an aflec- 
tattoa of 8i;il()licit7y of which we do hot believe the author 
to haM been guilty. 

Tj. y . ,. . . : 

J^IBLIOTHEGA ANTIQUA. 

'' I ^tudy tp briog forth some acceptable workc ; not striving to shewe 
suiy rsre inuentioo that passeth a meane man's capkcitie, but 
to utter and reuive matter of some moment, known^ and talked 
of \ot^ aeo, yet ouer-long hath been buried and as it seemeth 
feid d^o, for anie frnite it hath shewed in the memory of 
{.""^(^kittchyard^s Sparkt of fViefuMip U Sir fV. RiOeigh. 




__^_^„,^ — ^ -_..-^ ^ , upon -_- 

fnoorc fiecr^ Bofiworfh. Jna Pqem bj/ Cha&les Aletn. 
'^ tt^nns mibi pfb popiiloi & populus pro uno.'* London, 
printed by Thpinas Coteis^ for Williaoi Cooke, and are 
tD be pold at bis abbp neere f'urnivaU's Inne Gate, in 
ftolburae, 1Q3I&. 

Aw iUelligent Writer has observed, that the defeat of 
Richard, and the^ triuuiph of Henry upon Boaif orth f idd, 
arMi some 6f the eventa imoiediately antecedent and con- 
aeqnent, wotild form a jgood subject fbr a heroic poeni : he 
probably was m^i awaiji^ Hit tbe tiiaa he oiade the remark, that 



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S0& Biblioiheca.AtiUqum. 

Charles Aleyn, a poet of do mean celebrity in tbe reij^ of 
James I. and his successor, had heen of the same opioion^ 
and, in conformitj with it, had penned the small volunve 
before us :* whether his production strict!}' deserve the epi- 
thet heroic, maj be a doubtful point which the reader will 
be better able to settle when he has concluded the perusal 
of the present article. Besides gi vine the particulars of the 
conflict which gained the Earl of Kichmond the crown of 
England, Aleyn details most of the important circum- 
stances of the whole reign, with such reflections upon the 
conduct of that wise and politic prince as the Events sug- 
gested. Wilson in his ^ Artes of Rhetorique," (edit. 1553. 
fi>. 356), enquires — ^' What witte can sette out the wonder* 
ful wysedom of Henry the Seventh, and his gr^ foresif^kt 
to espie mischiefe like to ensewe, and his politique devises 
to escape daungers, to subdewe rebelles, and mainteyne 

Eace V but Aleyn, who had before written a poem on the 
ttles of Cressy and Poicteers with considerable succesSf 
was not to be discouraged by great undertaking^: indeed 
he seems to have had a little too much confidence in^his own 
powers; and although his History of Henry VII. has fine 
passages, it is a very unequal and* in some places a careless 
performance. We have not space, however, at present, 
to make many general criticisms upon the work, and iGrom 
the specimens we shall supply, the reader may form an esti- 
mate for himself. Aleyn possessed but little of the flow 
of poetry which may be said to have been somewhat in its 
decline at the time he published: his eflbrt is to be terse 
and sententious, and he seldom states a fact without follow- 
ing it up by a remark or reflection : he is, perhaps, more 
Juaint tnnn any other poet of his immediate day, and, in a 
egree, anticipates the extreme to which this defect was 
carried not long afterwards : he is not unfrequently most 
gravely and unconsciously humorous on this very taccount^ 
and his reader now and then breaks out into an involuntary 
laugh when the author, no doubt, expected that he would 
rather be disposed to weep. Aleyn has very little 'fiuicy, 
and he attempts to supply this deficiency by the same dis- 
play of learning and ingenuity that obtamea such a repu- 
tation for many of his followers. 
Very scanty materials are supplied for his biography, 

• Sir John Beamnont had many yean before written his ^ Boawertk 
Field :" it was published in lG29f after bis death, by his sod. This piece 
baft been seTeral timet re-printed, and b sufficiently known from the very 
just praises bestowed upon it by Dr. Johnson and oUiers. 



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Biblioiheca AtUiqua. 307* 

which may be dismissed in a sentence or two : bis birth-place 
and birth time are both unknown, but it is said that he was 
of Sidney College, Cambridge, which he left after taking 
a degree, and became assistant in the great school of the 
celebrated Farnabj, in St. Giles's. How long he continued 
there does not appear, but Famabj left London in 1636. 
Aleyn next became tutor to the son of Edward Sherburne, 
Clerk of the Ordnance to Charles I. and Commissary«6ene- 
ral of Artillery at the battle of Edge Hill. On the death of 
the father, the son succeeded to his place in the Ordnance, 
but not a word is said as to the employment of Aleyn : that 
he was a warm royalist, is quite clear, and his poem of 
Henry YII. is full of loyal sentiments, and of abuse of are- 
bellious rabble. He died in 1640 or 1641, and was buried, 
as some report, at St Andrew's, Holborn. Among his 
friends were several poets of t^e day ; he has a few com- 
mendatory lines before Shirley's ^^ Grateful Serrant ;" and 
Sheppard, in his rare poem of the ^^ Times Displayed," 
1646, mentions Aleyn, with Beaumont and Fletcher, Mas- 
singer, May, Shirley, &c. His poem on ^^ the Battailes 
of Crescey and Poictiers," was first printed in 1631, and 
again in 1633: his History of Henry YII. appeared in 
1638, and a third production, a translation from the Latin, 
called <' Eqryalus and Lucretia,'' in 1639. 

Two copies of commendatory verses are prefixed to the 
production on our table : the first by Edward Sherbuma, 
the pupil of Alevn, and the other signed Ed. Prideaux: the 
last is a tolerably good epigram. 

** When Fame had said thy Poem should come out 
Without a Dedication^ some did doubt 
If fame in that bad toU a truth ; but I» 
Who know her iklse> boldiv gave Fame the lie; 
For I was certain that this [KK>k by thee 
Was dtdicaUd to Eternity.'' 

The first extract we shall make is from the address of 
Richmond to his troops before the battle, which ia spirited, 
and in the author's usual sententious style. 

*' On Crooke-backe as a Malefactour looke, 
Abdracted from the Tltk of a King: 
But view your selves as lostrumentSf are tooke 
By Heav'ns corrective hand vengeance to bring: 
Be Bold ! there caa be no resistance made^ 
ft When luiiice striketh with a Saiddkn blade. 

" This is the point of time : yon must strike home ; 
hdgemeni holds execution by the hilt: 



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90ft Bi^Mheta Antiqua. 

Hm siniies ar^ ripe, attd to tbi*ir growib are come; 

His Hoed is now prepafM to wa^ fais gilt. 

Vm^aHce doth »»i*efy, tbotigh but doibly tread, 
Andff Wluri mth Jtm, 'tiiougli it wMu witb Uaf. 

** Dare, \ivhit they thinke you dare not; for that thought 
Makes the act easie» *cause they think not so : 
. The ends at which we levell, will be brought 
Vnder command, If we but dare to doe : 
The hardnes9$ of lui act as often springs 
from ow iMg^iOkn, as the <Atii^. 

** If yQu fear^ death, you shall decline that feare 
By change of Object : pitch yc^ur thoughts upon 
f hose (jarlaqds, which victorious you $hall w^are : 
Graspe conquest hi your apprehension. 
No other ffuaHties cap be exprest, 
Vi^hen th' tntirumentv^ of sense art prepossest. 

" ypu vantiAge d^th by fecipg it; Wqwes shun 
Those that present themselves to meete a wound ; 
Death^s a Cov Mutresse, court her she'$ not wpnne, 
pf those which sought her, she was rarely found. 
Who shewes his backe to danger soonest dies. 
The shadow of death ftt>m her pursuer JUts* 

'* Though his ^fts^i^lts be feirce^ ihf charge^ hot, 
ParjaWwg of tbftt wil(jl-fire which doth glow 
In fiichards btisom« ; yc^t conceit theip not 
Certain^ pres^g^s of an overthrQWf 
Sharpe maladies, and hardest to endurS, 
Have not in Physkke their predictions sure. 

^ Feare not his Wttahhers: Victories consist 
In mindes, not imtUibidest Inost of their jpilrt 
Favour our cause, and eoldiy will resist: 
Feare net the hemi^ assured of the luittrL 
Be wisely bold, iind like a Cenier stand. 
And fly with Brvius, not with foote,' but hand/' 

.(p.18— »>-) 

battle 18 described) b^t i^ \}mm^\mmi W« «r« Mt aU iOff 
clined to concur ; the peculiar turn of Aleyn'a talent was 
not suited to sucb mpid 9XiA buay scenes \ now and jtben we 
find a stanza or two, in successior^, that seem to partake of the 
heat of the conQict, but the current is generaujr ^tppped by 
some affected copceit or Ptber : tbe fqllQwiiiji; ifi one in* 
stance out of s^Tf^^^t 

'< As^iui^iQc^ n^w l^vji^ annM aU tbeir hearts 
With proofe *gaimt f€!8«e^ opt danger; tfc^y pi«Pf!» 



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To arme themselves Gompleatel^ at allpaitiy 

Offensive and defensive : one night Mvearey 
They did such motions to their Anno«r give. 
That irm h-eaihtd, and that Mieek did Uvc. 

'* AUnrty whose speaking statue with a stroke 
Of Aqidn fell : "A worke of Art (cryed out) 
Of thirty yearei is broke; but here were brc^e 
Workes, which ev*u Neiute ^as a9 (oi^ i^l^6«Mi« 

Blows to their Principles resolve f^gti^ 

iVa/ura// statues, «r||^€<«tfinf)f. 

'< The Arcken strip their ske^St who nifst di^im 
The Catttraverde here debaUd on : 
The j»fi of JUchmondi hopes was in the s^gfie 
Of SagiitariuSt and there chidely shon : 
The i^thfYs of their shafts mng as th^y went. 
Being newly mt to th* one-itring'd instrument*^ 

As our readers #otjltf iiot probat^ty 1^^sh 16 mdP other 
passages of a similar kind, we wM j^roced'if to (he ditoth of 
llichard^ who during the battle 

** With uiad<bd filss hiki^ fiimd 4m ^4 h^ 
In a magnanimous scorn, that fame should say 
That Michatd ^otoMout-five fas tfVcrtfcrOw.*^ 

Of bis Mi AWjii ik^' 9f9Nik9^ 

<* T«f Atdkfftf wfth such rage hfmsetfe conimits 
1?ll!M!he Who* Ift^ast, tHafthe ro^y nmke tfie story 
Question'd ^though writ by ThM: fM the^l: stTbng itu 
Were lightnings before death ; for this worltl»ifflafifjf 

Is figured i& the Moon$4 tkey both w«ie 4HUk 

And sutfer their jl^Hgatsm their jM& 

** And now I see Mas rfhftSe: Im^sf^ dU ttilk« 
A shot like falling stlnraes^ Aakb otttaji#doii^ ; 
Groaning, he dM a Hately'ftimMI td^ 
And in his night of death set like the smme. 

For Bkfktr&^A hi^ tt^est sef^ih'd greater^ than 

When FXehdrai^W^'tk his Mtndtm. 

** Three yeares he acted iU,. tliese two hMires w^)^ 
And with unmated resolution strove : 
Htfinu^Ht as bravffydiS hej»stl§fifsU. 
As didtiie CapiloU to Mantius prove, 

So Bosuimihi6\^t» Mtti, th^wiiWiMittMl 

Both of his<€fftM9»iitad hisjMflMlikiffff. 

^' Here HJhffe'ftir Just iii(Joipori*f6 with aioiiltf; 
He was a VSHsg tibtt dhatfeHgeth tesj^ct ; 



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910 Bibliotheca Aniiqua. 

Passe b^ his Tambe io silence, as of old 
They did their Heroes Temples, and erect 

An Altar to Oblivion, while I 

Another build to Henries Memory/* (p. 31 — 32.) 

He afterwards attempts to do some justice to the charac' 
ter of Richard, 

'^ Who though he entered in by usurpation, 
Yet both his equity and laws convmce 
That he was noble in administration ;*' 

an opinion which has since been supported by several able 
authors. We now enter upon the reign of Henry, the 
minor eveiits of which we pass over until we arrive at the 
capture of the pretender Simnell,. of whom Aleyn with 
laughable seriousness observes, 

** But Henries scome or pitty would not goe 
So farre as to his life ; rather thought lit 
To keepe him in his Kitchin for a show : 
Where he should turne a Scepter to a spt^: 

And there the king, whose right they did so boast, 
. Must be content to sit, and nUe the roast*" (p. 48.) 

This is the most ludicrous specimen of the kind in any 
writer with which we are acquainted. As a sort of antidote 
to it, we quote the subsequent reflections upon the execution 
of Lord Stanley, which are continued much beyond our 
extract : they are apt, and the terseness and clenches are 
not so much out of tneir place. 

*' How oft doe men advaocM prove treacherous! 
How soone the Graces of their Prince forget 1 
Thus Seian, PlauHan, and Peremms. 
So true is that the Fkradme bath writ: 

Great benefits, as well as usuries. 

Have beau the motives to consptrades. 

'' Knowing (hat nothing but a crowne can adde 
The last perfection to their power and state. 
They reach at that : and here more meanes are had. 
Whereby they mav their plot facilitate : 
Thm Princes love, smi/reedome of wxesat. 
Make th«r strength more, and their nuptYuMi lesse, 

** Henry was closed at Bosworth, and the foe 
Had hem'd him in his toiles: l^anfy forbad 
Deaths, and the foes surprise, and sav*d him so. 
This Sianfy did, yet this hard fortune had. 



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BibliUheea Jtniiqun. Sll 

Was there no wf to gratiie but this : 

To take ku life mm Alsi, who gave Aim liitf 

** Nay, thinking this his service too to low 
For his so high intentions, he did briqg 
Thte Crowfu, and s«t it upon Henries brow^ 
And at once sav*dikman, and niade a ^tii^. 
Was it not strange, he that did M a crowne 
Vpon bis Mtuter$ htad, should loose his mene$ 

" Some Authours make his Case abstruse to know. 
As if by Bntf^ riddled up in doubt; 
And though Kings Hearts cannot be sfurdkW into, 
They doe pretend to picke his secrets out ; 
And by a won4rous kind of theft to get 
The lewelt, and not ope the CbMM. 

'< I dare not say, he could ungratefull be'*; 
As in Itivinity *t\s better farre 
iTo thinke there is no God, fhan thinke that he 
Can be un^st: so I had rather sware, 
* That be in ndtufe ntever was at aU, 

Than thinke he icoald bfe w» uatatumll/* (p. W^IQ.) 

The Iftst sentiment is fi-bm ^lotarbh, ati^ i^ repeated hf 
Lord Bacon in one of his Essays, and has l>een held worthy 
of bbth those ^eat men. We have isot room for th6 
smooth address of Perkin W^arbeck to the King of Scotland 
when soliciting his aid, but roust f^foeeed to the contest 
between the rebels and the Kkkg ; a portion lof Which we 
insert to enable the reader to judg^ «f 4iur aodior^s powers 
in that dir^tion ;--^8liU be c^iksaweiy doMt ft stanza with- 
out a conceit, and the two rhimes with whicft each con- 
cludes, were tempting opportunities, the sense being gene- 
rally completed in the four first alternate lines. 

'* Dawbney at the declimng of the Dity, 
rWhich was their fcrtttnes dedindtim too^,) 
At Detford bn^ disoiii!ep«!l their array. 
And taught what reason against ri^ could do. 
He beate them fjxMn that standing to a Ferriey 
And made the change the bridge for Char4m*s whirry. 

** There he did wmde his valour to ttfextreame* 
(Men belie, vertue to u meane:) and 'though 
rttcooipatlble qualities they seeme, 
H^ <)Tct a XklfCrals part and sovddiers show. 
A sbutifiers ijrmmdr will not be compkat 
Tin Cibtflines Huleh UnA their ^taripUs mi\. 
Cteft. Ilsv. Vol. V. Jfonr*, IS17. tt 



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SIS BiblMheca Jntii/ua. 

** But iightiog hotly, (which I will not call 
An incannderatenesst but forward zeaie) 
Dawbney captivd into their haods did fall. 
But was redeemd before they well could feele 
They had him there : no sooner todke, but nM, 
As if they had gratpd lightning in their fist. 

" Then Oxford likt his owne AHilkry 
Shot himselfe through them : had this worthy plaid 
Such straines of valour in Romes Infancy 
Which cammisd great worths, she had not staid 

Foi^s Death, as her strict orders did provide^ 

He had beeue deified before he dtde. 

*' Essex by Active proofes evinced so well 
A constant spirit, that had he beene there 
When the whole b,reed of Giants did rebell 
Against the gods, and made the gods for feare 

Assume new shapes, that they might lye unknowue; 

Essex had scorned any but his oumeJ* (p. 11(> — 111.) 

From hence to the conclusion there iu not much worthj 
of particular notice ; the incidents become less important 
and the interest consequently is diminished. We will con- 
clude by adding two or three disjointed sentiments, ^ood in 
themselves, though not always new, and quite as intelli- 
gible disjointed, as when accompanied by the context. 

" Greatness triumphing on the towering height - 
Of honour, if it once be tum*d at all. 
Finds motion in itself: the very weight 
Great bodies have, accelerates their fall/' (p. 84.) 

** The fine and noble way to kill a foe 
Is not to kill him : you with kindness may 
So change him, that he shall cease to be so, 
And then he's slain. Sigismund us'd to say. 
His pardons put his foes to death ; tor when 
He mortified their hate, he Igiird the men." (p. 110.) 

*' Henry's disposition would not bow 
To hate a worm ; for spirits highly born 
Did never join their anger to their scorn." (p. 131.) 

The copy of the volume from which the above extracts 
are made, was once in the possession of the celebrated an- 
tiquary, Thomas Hearne, as his autograph testifies, and 
wre have availed ourselves of the marks he has itiade against 
various passfiges,^, though they are unfortunately not accom- 
panied by any critical observatioas. J. P. Cv 



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L SIS ] 
MONTHLY CATALOGUE. 



CHEMISTRY. 

Art. 13. — Observations on Gas Ughts ; being an Impartial Inquiry 
concerning the Injurious Effects on the HeaUh of the Community ^ 
from the Use of Coal Gas for Lighting the Metropolis, By Can- 
DilHJS.^ • 8vo. pp. 48. London^ T, and G. Underwood* 1817. 

In this work some useful hints are ^ven to the Gas Companies, in 
order to give permanence to the utihty of their discovery. The use 
of socfa lights for the street lamps is great and unquestionable ; but 
if these establishments look to a much. wider range of employment 
ft)r the interior of dwelling-houses, sitting-rooms, and audience- 
rooms of any description, where a strong currejit of air is inadmis- 
^ble, they should obtain the purest coals for the preparation of the 
gtis, and pay a due and even liberal regard to the convenience, com.- 
forf, atid health of the community. 

The truth is, that unless these precautions are regarded, noxious 
matter will be combined with the atmosphere of the room, and the 
air will be greatly vitiated for the purposes of respiration. 



Art, 14. — The Wine and Spirit Dealer's and Consumer's Fade- 
Mecum; containing Instructions for managing^ flavouring, colour- 
ingt preserving, and recovering Wines ana Spirits ; with a Collec- 
tion of Receipts for making British Wines, Sfc. By K. VVest- 
NBT. 18mo. pp.162. London, Lackington and Co. 1817. 

We hardly know whether we can properly refer this little work 
to the scientific title assigned to this part of our Monthly Catalogue, 
but as nearly the whole refers to chemical combinations, we do not 
perceive how we can conveniently place it elsewhere. Our judg- 
ment is not considerable in such matters, but we are told that the 
v>ery best and most approved receipts at present in use will be here 
found, and the writer, we believe, has devoted a great portion of 
his time to an examination into their merits, and to the orderly 
statement here supplied. In the deficiency of our own skill, we 
have submitted the volume to the inspection of a laborioua compiler 
of such recipes for domestic purposes ; and we are allowed to say, 
OQ such authority, that it is a very useful little book. 



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[ 314 ] 

QEOGRAPIIY. 
ABf . 16.— i4 System of Geography for the Ux of Schools and Pri^ 
vote Students, oti a new and easy Plan ; in whkh the European 
Boundaries are stated as settled by the Treaty of Paris and Cot^ 
gress of Vienna: with an Ateouni of the Solar System, and a va- 
Tietyif Problems to be solved by the Ttrrestrial and Qsifstud Globes* 
By. Tqos. Ewing. 8vo. pp. 300. EcliaUirgb, Oliver and 
fioyd ; London, Law 9nd Wmtta^en l.dl6» 

It is joseJy said, that the present is a period pecu^mriy favourable 
tQ the production of a ^ew spteia oi g^f^graphv, as even th* mo* 
d^rii publications, wllieh were founded on the changes cun^equfuit 
on the French Revolution and the usurpation •f Buonaparte Im^e 
become comparatively useless from the new arrangemeats that hjavf: 
been made, pursuant to the decisions of the Congress of Vienii^ 
apd the Treaties of Paris* 

It is on this accoi^it, particularly, that we can recommend Mr* 
Ewiug's book to the fieqgrapliicai student; and alUiougb there is 
nothing new in the order of treating his subject, yet wbese altera^ 
tion is not improvement, we desire no npvelti^. )le first g^vef the 
historical geography of the couutrieq, and subsequently tfie pojiti- 
cai, civil, and natural geography. Under the chronological article 
we have a general account of the different situations traced to the 
most remote antiquity, and brought down to the present time. To 
these particulars are added a series of useful problems on the ter- 
restrial and celestial globes, with a vocabulary of such names of 
places of which the orthoepy is doubtful, and which are divided and 
accented according to the most usual mode of pronunciation. 

Art. 16. — A Practical Example-Book on the Use of Maps: con^ 
tainimg Problems and Exercises to be worhsd and JMsd up by 
Students in Geography: designed as an auxiliary to that Sktdyt^ 
for the Usft of Schools and Primde Studesds. By 1. ROBBRTaoii, 
4ta pp. 38. London, liackington and Co. 1817. 
This work is on the plan of questions for exercises in geography, 
and to this form it has been objected, that they are intended to 
serve no other purpose bat that of securmg to the author the sale of 
a Key to his queries. We believe that no mer cciiary motivie of tbis 
kiod has influenced Mr. Robertson, and we have heard of no Key 
he has produced to unlock the Juvenile mysteries of these probtenis. 
Nothing can be idore important in education than to lead yottng 
persons to exercise th^ir own rising fecukies, instead of prompting' 
them by a teacher constantly at their elbow; and works of the nature 
of that before us afford the most favourable opportunity of this ex- 
ercise. A space is left for the written answers to the inquiries, so 
that the scholar will have the advantage of recurring to his own 
manuscript for future use, which he will ficd of more advantage 
than any printed records, however caraiiilly prepared for him and 
attentively studied by him. 



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[ S15 1 



LANGUAGES. 

Abt. XL-^Thc Fir$i Siep to the French Tongue: de^gnetl as an 
easy Inir^uctian to» fnd consisting cntirefy of the Verbs ; with 
Practical J^ercise^. ^ A. PlgUOT. 18mo. pp. 81. Londpu, 
Law and Wliittaker, 1817. 

The French Scholm*s First ^ook ; comprising a copious Vocahuf0ryit 
a Collection of Familiar Phrases^ Reading Lessons, and a concise 
View of French Grammar. By P^. Lb Breton. 12fl)o. pp.92. 
London, Law and Wliittaker^ 1817- 

The Book of Versions, or Guide to French Translation : Jar He Us,^ 
c^ Scij^, A'^ By, h Ch£BPIL1.oud. 12no. pp. 2it!6. Lon- 
doQ, Souf«ri 1917- 

I HE first of these works is limited to the French Vertts, and con- 
t^iqs all that i^ necessary for the information of the learner with 
regard to them. Care has been taken to explain the formation of 
the tenses, numbers, and personn, and to exhibit this part of ^eech 
in its affirmative, ne^tive, and interro^tive shapes. Exercises s^re 
subjoined to render easy all that relates to the conjugations, both 
regular and irregular. 

Tlie second of these bqoks comprehends four divisions: the first 
contains a vocabulary of words in common use, the second a col- 
lection of familiar phrases, the third a series of reading lessons, and 
the fourth is an abstract in English of the conipiler*s Elemens de la 
Grammaire Fran9oise. It has now for twenty years been notorious 
that the former practice of obliging children to wade through con- 
fused and prolix grammars, exhausted the spirits, without enlighten- 
ing the understandings of young persons; and these short elemen- 
taiy productions have been advantageously substituted jn the con- 
duct of education. 

The purpose of the last of these works is to supply the defi- 
ciency of a medium between common grammatical exercises and 
free and unassisted translations. Dr. Wanostrocht's Recueil Choisi^ 
apd several other publications, are well adapted to students of the 
French language, m making English versions from them ; but there 
are very tew to give them aid in the more essential purpose 
of turning English into French. As to the manner of using this 
guide it is recommended, that the pupil should first write down, 
% tiif nslation, and«/when his exercise has been corrected, construe 
from the book, in order to impress the amendments on his recollec- 
tion, — Tb^ best French classics have supplied the materials to which 
this a.uthor b^s bad recourse : Boiieau Despreaux, Corneillej| Racine, 
&|ar^ontel, &c. 



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[ 316 J 

MORALITY AND RELIGION. 

•Art. 18.— i< Sequel to *« A FindicatUm of Unitarianim,'* in Reply 
to Mr. WardlaufB Treatise entitled " Unitarianism incapable of 
Vindication, By the Author of the " Vindication^ 8vo. pp. I66w 
Liverpool, Robinsons. London, David Eaton, 1817. 

If it were consistent with the plan of our periodical work to in- 
clude controversial divinity, we should have assigned a different 
place to this publication. The candour with which the question is 
conducted by the author may be seen from the language of the in* 
troduction, suggesting rules which in such disputations ought never 
to be disregarded. 

** My object in the following work will be. First, to correct the 
inaccuracies, which I have been enabled to discover in my " Vindi- 
cation of Unitarianism,*' by the perusal of Mr. Wardlaw*s Reply ; 
and. Secondly, to defend the statements and reasonings, which I 
have advanced, where they appear to me to be partially represented, 
or unjustly attacked, by my opponent. I make no pretension to 
security from errors ; I am so far from feeling any unwillingness to 
acknowledge those, which I have been able to detect, that I think 
it my duty to bring them prominently into view, as the only means 
of atoning for my inadvertency, and preventing others from being 
misled by my want of information ; and I esteem it a great advan- 
tage to myself and to my readers, that the endeavours of an ardent, 
acute, and able disputant to destroy Ibe reputation and expose the 
fallacies of my work, are likely to leave few errors unn* ticed, and 
may thus be made subservient to what ought to be our only object, 
the attainment of Truth." (p. 1.) 

This Sequel is divided into three sections, corresponding in their 
contents with the tirst, second and third parts of the former volume. 
With regard to the last part, the author of the " Vindication" com- 
plains of the temper by which his opponent was influenced, and 
cautions his readers not to be infected by the same spirit 

" He says, Mr. Wardlaw loses entirely the calmness of a dispu- 
tant, who is conscious of the strength of his cause. He does not 
hesitiite to avow the provocation^ the indignant disdain, &c. by 
which his mind is agitated ; and it must be confessed, that here 
we discover little indeed of the dignity of the philosopher, the cor- 
rectness of the scholar, the courtesy of the gentleman, or the mild 
benevolence of the Christian. Whilst I regret exceedingly, thit in 
a controversy upon a subject of supreme importance, and from 
which, if properly conducted, the most valuable results might have 
been expected, my opponent should have had recourse to this most 
unhallowed species of warfare, I must solemnly enjoin the reader to 
" take heed to his spirit," and to preserve his heart from any feeling 
like indignation or resentment either towards myself or towards Mr. 
Wardlaw) and I must request him, injustice to myself, to read at- 
tentively wliat I have written in the Third Part of my " Vindicatiom 



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Monthly Catalogiie-^Jlfara&fy and Religicn. 317 

of Unitarianism/' comparing my statements of Mr. Wardlaw's doc- 
trines witli what he himselffaassaid in his ** Discoarses/* and then 
to judge of the grounds for the heavy charges bf |' wilful misrepre- 
ientation" and '* provoking disingenuousness^'' which in his present 
work he has advanced agabst me." (p. 57.) 

On the merits of the controversy we hazard no opinion^ bnt we 
have never entertained any doubt of the utility of discussion, and 
we remain always in the confidence of the truth of the sentiment of 
Gamaliel. '< if this counsel or this work be of men it will come t» 
nought ; but if it be of God ye cannot overthrow it" 



Art. 19. — A Remnutranee asainst the Errors and SuperstUioni cf 
the Church nf Rome^ anm Catholic Emancipation, Spc. By 
L.Mayer. 8vo. pp.56. London, Williams and Co. 1817. 

The writer possesses more zeal than knowledge, and he, at this 
day, is at a loss to ascertain, *' what can be the object the Romai» 
Catholics have in view by an emancipation so- eonstantly and re- 
peatedly brought. forward]" He is apprehensive that the conces« 
sion of the privileges of other subjects to Catholics would produce 
tbe most serious consequences to both church and state, by a 
divided interest, which must, he says, " produce disorder, anarchy 
and coufusion.'' It is to prevent this divided interest that we recom- 
mend catholic emancipation. If the Catholics have a community of 
rights, they will possess with it a commuDity of interests, and the evils 
will be avoided which the author contemplates with so muchakurm. 



Art. 20.— FiVe Triumphant , the Remedy proposed Easy and Effect 
tual: with the Statement of a New Hypothesis, to explain Accotmt- 
ableness. By Samuel Spurrell. 8vo. pp. 83. London, R. 
Hunter. 1817. 

Jm this tract the author seems to proceed upon the popular error 
of Mother Dorcas, that *' the world grows wickeder and wickeder 
every day.'' Whatever may be the opinion of antiquated females, 
who think their own merits have not been fitly appreciated, and are 
terminating life in maidenly disappointment, the converse of their 
position is most true, that the world grows better and better every 
49y. This Essay is said to be built on a new hypothesis, intended 
to explain aceountableness, the novelty of which, howev^, our Im- 
perfect optics do not enable us to discover ; and indeed the matter 
bas been so largely and. ingeniously discussed during the last cen- 
tury, that invention seems to be completely exhausted with, regard to 
it. The work is produced with the best intentions, and we give credit 
to the pious writer for them : it is designed to ajrouse the feelings, and 
" to direct the youthful mind to the easiest and most effectual means 
•f resistance to vicious iocitementv.'' 



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318 M^tU^ Ca^l^gm^MatrtHtif tnS fidtgio^ 

Art/31.— StfccftbfM jrm ike Wsfrkt tf Fhdkr hjmi Sotth ; hM 
'< ^Me Account aftkt Mvmiund Wriiinjgis efihbx^ dmhent OMmi. 

Second Ediiitm,.JSnltmgtd. 12flib. pp.2lB. LondbD; Labklng^ 

ton and Co. 1B17. 

Dr. Thomas Fuller Wias bbrn at an bbsctirt village ih Ndrlbanip- 
tdfasbii-e^ ib i€08, fie #^ ^efit to Queen's €b!l^^ at twelve Vears of 
tige, ^hd at twenty-tbr^ bfec^nie a Prebend of Salisbury. He ad- 
lifei4d to fJie royal bsmse, ind died the year subsequient to the resto- 
hidoM. iTie selefcticWi here giveh is extracted from a work entitled 
the **Prophane aifid Holy State," which has become scarce, its 
merits having been under-rated, and no impressions having been 
laken of it since 1757i 

Dr* Robert South was born at Hackney in 1639^ and was a j^apil 
at Westminster of the celebrated Dr. Busby. He afterwards wient 
to Oxford^ and obtained great applause for a Poem entitled " Mu- 
aidel IncaBlaiis,'* ivfaicli wai ai^iH-waitls prilited siep^Urately at the re- 
qmeti of adbther Well kno4^n didra<;ter, Dr. Fell. 

** Dr. SoQth was disthigaisfaed by his turn for humourous sar- 
ccsn, in which he indulged in the pulpit Us w«ll as elsewhere. Of 
tbiB he ^ve a specittieii in a sermmi preached before Charles fb^ 
Seoohd ill 1681, on the topic of the various uUexpe<ct€!d tcrrfas of 
fortune iu human life. Having exemplified the fact by the instanced 
ef Agafthocles tind Mussaniello, be proceeded — * And who tfaaft be- 
lleldsuch a beggarly baakmpt fellow as Crdtn^ell first enteiriti^ th6 
pMkiniei&l-hoii^e, vrith a ^read-bare coat atid gi^sy hat, perhftps 
neitfadrof tittm paid for, could have suspected that in the space of 
so few years he should, by the murder of one king and the banish, 
ment of another, ascend the throne Y This sally threw the merry 
monarch into a Hi of laughter ; and turning to Lord Rochester he 
said, with his usual exclamation, * Tour chaplain must be a bishop, 
therefore put me in mind of bini at the next vacancy.' After the Re- 
volution, he took the oaths of allegiance to their Majesties, but i» 
said to h^ve refused a high dignity in the chun^, f aoated by » re- 
foflul Dfthfese oaths.'* (p. xxiii — xxiv.) 

He died at Ihe^eod old age of ed» and was buried in W^tttriA^ 
sler Abbey^. wbere a n^^ihimeht is erected to his menierry. The ^ 
leotipin frm^ boilb t^ieae antfaora are jididmisly nwde, equally iHth 
H^rd to ^e tttbjeets, and the tnaaner in which they ate treated t 
nod lihe ^topieft tare sd vanonsv that tliei« is seaiicely a sitilatioB ^ 
hlH&aa life^ <m w^ich Ihey wiU tiot he feund lusthielite. 



Akr, is2.'—$acred J(^,o€m9, $ekoted from the iest Writers^ dmgmi 
td dSdtft Yimng Ppnons to read and recite metrical coti^fOsHion^ 
ii^i% pr&priety. JSgr Ph. Ls Br bton, AM. ISmo, ^ 1.44. 
i.oiiid<Hi, Law and Whitafeer, ldl6. 

IThis small yolume is not the best ddksulated for tint fsuifleve fdr 
which it is intended, as there is no sufficient variety in the metre 



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Montblj Catalogue — Poetry. 319 

to produce that facility in recitatioo which is contemplated. The 
poems themselves are of an ordinary cast, and we cannot avoid tak- 
ing ihb^ opportunity of recommending a greater degree of attention 
in the selection of that description of poetry which is employed in 
the most cheerful exercise of the pious disposition. The vice of 
Sternhold and Hopkins has continued uncorrected to our own times. 

POETRY; 
Abt. 23. — The Home of Low ; a Poefn. Dedicated by Permission 
to Her Rhfal Highness the Princess Charlotte of Wales, By 
Mrs. Henry Rohhs, Authoress of Sacred Sketches, dfc. 8vo. 
pp.31. London, Lloyd, &c* 1817. 

MU\% small production by an amiable, dnd agreeable authoress, 
makes no pretension to be more than ^sy and graceful, and it b 
both : the principal subject is the marriage of the Princess Charlotte, 
and if it come a little late, it at least shuns the vulgar tlirong of con- 
gratulations, and the writer prettily observes, as an excuse, " that 
what, at the time it was written, could be hopes and wishes only, 
ara.pow found realiased in the happiness and security tried virtues 
confirm." This may be considered a pardonable degree of flattery : 
we ought not to addresss princes in the ordinary language of com- 
mon acquaintance, and to state a flattering hope is sometimes the 
mode to accomplbh a happy purpose. 

1 he Home of Love is Great Britain : Cupid is represented in the 
Paphian Bowers with flagging wings, bow uustrung, and tearful 
eyes, moumuig over his banishment from the society of men, by the 
mercenary feeling and other antidotes to pure aflection, when he is 
visited by Britannia, who invites him to her shores to celebrate the 
union of a Royal Pair. 

** As slowly ceased tlicf Ocean Queen, 

Triumphant Cupid spreads his wing. 
Resumes his arch and smiling mien. 

And to his bow refits the string.'' 
He complies with gay alacrity, and pronouncing a blessing on the 
nuptials he was about to celebrate, spreads his wings for &igland. 
This is a pretty classical imagination, and the execution accords with 
the subject. To this are added three smaller poems, the first of 
which, inthled ** Sighs," we quote as a specimen of Mrs. Rolls's 
delicacy of thought, and refinement of feeling. 

" There is a sigh — ^that half suppresa'd, 
Seems scarce to heave the bosom fkir ; 
It rises from the spotless breast. 
The first faint dawn of lender care. 

" There is a sigh — so soft, so sweet. 
It breathes not from the lip of woe ; 
^Tis heard where conscious lovers meet. 
Whilst, yet untold, young passions glow. 
Crit- Rev. Vol. V- Marchy 1817. « T 



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9S0 Monthly CaitAogae-^^Poliiicd Economy. 

*• There is a sigh-^-shert^ deep, and strong, 
» That on the lip of rapture dies ; 

It floats mild Evening's shade aiong, 
When meet the fond consenting eyes. 

" There is a sigh — that speaks regret, 

Yet seems scarce conscious o? its pain ; 
It teffs of Wiss remembered yet, ' 
Of bliss that ne*er must wake again. 

•• There is a sigh — that deeply breathed 
Bespeaks tlie bo9om*9 secret woe ; 
It says tl>e flowers that Love had wreathVi, 
Are withered ne'er again to blow. . 

** There is a sigh — that slowly swells, , 

Then deeply breathes its load of care ; 
It speaks, that in that bosom dwells 
That last worst pang, fond Love's despair/' 
TT-r- ^r agjBaaBag h i i 'i i h l i i i Th i I'l' m i iiiiit aaiaaaaaBg 

POLITICAL ECONOMY. 
ART. 24. — A Vlndicati&n of the Magufrates acting in and fat the 
Tower Division^ from the tharges contained in a Printed Workrfn- 
tituled, *< The Report of the Commit fee on the State of the PoBce of 
the Metropoits ; together with the Minutes of Etidence taken before 
a Committee of the Hou$e of Commons." By Thomas Thirl- 
WALL, M. A. 8vo. pp. 348. London, RicTbardson, 1817. 
J Reftdaticn of the Rev. Thomas ThirhoalVs •« Vindication of the 
Magistrates acting in and for the Tower Division.'* By J. T^ B. 
Beaumont, Esq. F. A. S. 8vo. pp. 78. London, Uicfaardson, 
1817. 
L H R Rev. author of the first of these publications, considers a 
very important question as growing out of this enquiry, and he jiays 
it amounts to this : — " whether the magistrates shall in future sus- 
tain their independence^ and be allowed to exercise their discretion 
in the administration of justice, or whether they are to be draped 
from their seat to be the but and scorn of every disappointed indi- 
vidual who thinks fit to offer himself at the b^r of the House of 
Commons, and vent his complaints, and discharge bis rancoitr 
against them.*' This lengthy pamphlet is written under the strong 
feelings of indignation, and it is not among the least objectionable 
parts of it, that the worthy magistrate for the counties of Middle- 
sex and Essex, opposes himself to the investigation of public 
grievances by the representatives of the people. Among the crimes 
attributed to the antagonist J. T.~B. Beaumont, Esq. F. A. S. is one 
from which a great number of other magistrates and antiquarians 
cannot exonerate themselves. It seems, he does not understand 
Latin, and this curious line is submitted to his attention, w[e suppose, 
by way of enigma. 
" Qiris, quid, ubi, quibns aaxiliis, coi) quomodo, quando.*' 



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/ 



Monthly Catgldgoe— Po/f^Vo/ Economy. 391 

The SdutfttioD i^ given with these e^ipiaDatory remarks : — 

^* J wjih it to be uoderstoody that it b.by no means my wish to 
hold up tbe dealers in beer aud spirits to po|Hilar odium, io conse- 
qoeoce of tbe use they make of lieensiog justices; nor am L ebiefltf 
indigoant with tbe latter for coaTertiag tlie patronage which is given 
them to the advantage of tfaemselves» their relations and friends. 
All this is but too natural it is' the mamir§u$ u^tmrdUy and n^u$- 
Uu cf tke laws ff huntrng which I principally condemn, and wish 
to illustrate. When the law gives to particular men in tlieir locali- 
ties Aft ejtcbuhe and uncantroulMe power in vfpdating and rtdrki- 
tasgr the fMippiyof a principal nteemary of life, it fumiSies tbe direct 
mmani ofwumapoly and appresmn. 

** To rasfeore, or to improve the affections of tbe people, it is 
necessary to examine into the injuries which they personally suffer, 
and to remove the causes of their sufferings. Thiii seems to have 
been the object of the Police Committee ; and every friend of hu- 
manity* of tbe country, and of government, ought to rejoice in its 
laboiirs ; it lias unveiled scenes of iniquity, which the actors, fencing 
theur irresponsibility against tlie forms of law, flattered themselves 
were undiscoverable, and laid open the festering sore for cure, 
which* until lately, was hastening to an incurable gangrene/' 

Whatever way be the merits of the contest between these justices 
of the peace* we wish they had been more pacific in tlie mode 
in which they had conducted it ; and whatever censure may have 
been applied, under a culpable sensibility, to the Committee of Par^ 
liiment, no man, who has seen the result of their exertions in the 
rqMrt. can entertain a doubt of tbe industry, seal, beneficence, and 
ahittity with which such labours were conducted. 

Art. 25. — A Letter on the Ihatreeaei of the Cotmtryt addrested Io 
his Royal Highness the Duke of Kent, in consequence of his M(^ 
iian respecting " the Rewnlmn of Trade, and eur sadden Transit 
. tkmfrima system of extensive War, to a state of Peace f m which 
the supposed influence of oar Debt 9nd Toxca, upon oar Manufae* 
tares and Foreign Trade is inoestigaied. By John Ashtok 
Yatbs. Second Edition. 8vo. pp. Sll. Ixmdon, [jongman and 
Co. 1817. 

Having already, in our number for November last, noticed tiie 
£rst edition of this letter, we have only to add, that the author has 
introduced some additions and alterations, and has brought forward 
more fully the argument eoncemii^ our foreign trade, and the ma- 
nufacturing interest dq)endent upon it. Although Mr. Yates de- 
dines all future controversy under the excnse of want of leisure, 
we cannot avoid peisuading ourselves, from the spirit with which 
this work is written, that his seal will not be so easily quieted as be 
supposes, and we shall be disappointed if we do not agaiu meet him 
in some of the walks we are accustomed to frequent. 



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322 Monthly Catalogue— Po/f^a/ Ecowmj/. 

Art. 26. — An Address to the Merchants and Manufaetunn of 

Great Britain on the present State of the Country. 8?o. pp. 76. 

LondoD, Richardson, 1817. 

This writer is a decided enemy to the measures that have been 
laken by the landed interest, and to the principles by which that 
interest has been supported in Parliament. He considers that the 
proprietors of estates have had no other view, than to secure to 
themselTes, at all hazards, the enormous rc^ts they have been of late 
receiving, and that, in so doing, they are following the most short- 
sighted policy imaginable, since their success would inevitably occa* 
sion the destruction of the country and of themselves. He ex- 
amines the question, if Britain, under the present circumstances, were 
independent of commerce, and' he states the consequences* should 
she be deprived of that foreign intercourse, which, in his view, are 
prodigiously extensive. 

*' In the first place, they might bum all their shipping, as being 
perfectly useless ; in the second place, they might do the same witb 
their navy, as it would be impossible' to keep it up, Great Britain 
not furnishing materials for even repairing the wear and tear of their 
ships, far less for building and fitting out new ones. In the next 
place, they would have to turn out of the country, altogether^ a 
considerable part of its present inhabitants, who exist entirely by 
foreign trade. They would then have to pass laws restricting the 
increase of inhabitants beyond a certain number ; prohibiting mar- 
riages, except where the parties could prove their ability to support 
their olSspring, or else allowing infanticide. It would then be ne^ 
cessary topassan Agrarian law, making a new and equal division of 
all the property of the country among its inhabitants : — what would 
the agricultural interest say to this?'' 

But the author would not have our fertile lands and their owners 
abandoned 

*'That there is a natural connection betwixt the increase of maau> 
fkctures and commerce and of agriculture I by no means deny ; 
on the contrary, I am perfectly persuaded, that the one supports 
and assists the other, and, that the general prosperity of the country 
depends upon the encouragement of both; but, it is on this very 
account that I object so strongly to unnecessary advantages being 
given to the one over the other/' 

Having so lately expressed our sentiments on these subjects, in 
the review of Mr« PrestoD*s pamphlets, we do not feel it to be ne- 
cessary to dilate upon them here, but we should have been glad* if 
our. room had allowed us so to do, to have adverted to several other 
important subjects of political economy introduced into this work» 
and particularly in the way .of objection to the observations of the 
author on tlie opinions and calculations of Dr. Price. 



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I 38S ] 



WORKS IN THE PRESS. 

Ifmatt Inttflfsena, Sfc. 



la the course of this month 
will be published, a Treatise, 
touching the Libertie of a Chris- 
tian Man, written in Latin, by 
Doctor Martyne Luther, and 
Translated by James Bell. Im- 
printed by U. Newbery and H. 
Bynneman, 1579. Dedicated to 
Lady Anne, Countesse of War- 
wicke. With the celebrated Epis- 
tle from M. Luther to Pope Leo 
X.— Edited by William Bengo' 
CoUyer, D.D. F.A.S. and Dedi. 
cated (by permission) to hb Royal 
Highness the Duke of Sussex. 

Mrs. I^ilkington has in tlie 
press a new Work for the In- 
struction and Entertainment of 
Young People. 

. Dr. Carey is about to publish 
an Appendix to his " Latin Pro- 
sody,'' viz. " Latin Versification 
made Easy ;'' or, a copious Se- 
lection of Veises from the An- 
cient Poets, altered and prepared 
as progressive Exercises for the 
Juvenile Versifier, according to 
the improved Continental System 
adopted in his "English Prosody 
and Versification,'* and in. his 
private practice as a teacher. 

France. By Lady Morgan, 
Author of O'Donnel. 
** Chaque Jonr de roa vie, est une 

feailie dans mon livre.'* — ^ThomaI. 

A Description of the Elgin 
Marbles, with an Historical and 
Topographical Account of Athens. 
Volume the First, illustrated with 
about 40 Plates, drawn from the 
Original Sculptures, by the Rev. 
E. J. Burrow, A.M. F.L.S. 

Mandeville, a Domestic Story 
of the Seventeenth Century, by 
the Author of" Caleb Williams.'' 



The Bower of Spring, with 
other Poems. By the Author of 
the •* Paradise of Coquettes," 

Speedily will be published by 
the same Author, a new Edition 
of The Paradise of Coquettes. 

A Practical Enquiry into the 
Causes of the Frequent Failure of 
the Operations of Extracting and 
Depressing the Cataract, and the 
description of a new and im-* 
proved Series of Operations, by 
the practice of which most of 
these causes of failure may be 
avoided. Illustrated by tables of 
the comparative success of the old 
and new operations. By Sir Wil- 
liam Adams. 

Historical Account of Disco- 
veries and Travels in Africa, from 
the Earliest Ages to the Present 
Time. By the late John Leyden, 
M.D. Completed and enlarged ; 
with Views of the present State 
of that Continent by Hugh Mur- 
ray, Esq. F.R.S.E. 

Early this month will be pub- 
lished. Narrative of a Voyage to 
Hudson's Bay, in his Majesty's 
ship Rosamond, containing some 
account of the North-Eastern 
Coast of America, and of the 
Tribes inhabiting that remote 
region. Illustrated with Plates. 
By Lieut. Edward Chappei, R.N. 
Mr. J. Robertson will in a few 
days publish a Practical Examplle 
Book OB the Use of Maps ; con- 
taining Problems and Exercises 
to be worked and filled up by 
Students in Geography* De- 
signed as an auxiliary to that 
study, for the use of Schools and 
private Students. 



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3U 



Works in the Press, S^c. 



Oweniana; a Selection from 
the Works of Dr. Owen. By^ 
Arthur Young, Esq. Editor of 
fiaxteriana. 

Letters on some of the Events 
of the Revohitionary War. 

A New Edition, the Four Vols, 
handsomely printed in Three, be- 
ing the Third, of Sermons on 
Practical Subjects. By Samuel 
Carr, D.D. late Prebendary of 
St. Paul's ; Rector of St. Andrew 
Undershkft, London; and of 
Finchley, Middlesex. 

Lallft Rookh» an Oriental Ro- 
mance. By Thomas Moore, Esq. 

Journal of the late Captain 
Tuckey, on a Voyage of Disco- 
Tery in the Interior of Africa, to 
explore the Source of the Zaire, 
or Congo ; with a Survey of that 
River beyond the Cataracts. In 
4to. unirormly with Park and 
Adams' Travels. Published by 
Authority. 

An Authentic Narrative of the 
Loss of the Americiui Brig Com- 
merce, wrecked on the Western 
Coast of Africa, in the Month of 
August, 1315 ; with an Account 
of the Sufferings and Captivity 
of her surviving Officers and 
Crew, on the Great Ajfrican De- 
sert. By James Riley, late Mas- 
ter and Supercargo. To which 
Is added, some Particulars of the 
Cities of Tombuctoo and Was- 
sanah. 

Journey through Asia Minor, 
Armenia, and Koordistan, in the 
Years 1813 and 1814. With Re- 
marks on the Marches of Alex- 
ander, and the Retreat of the 
Ten Thousand. By John Mac- 
donald Kenneir. 4to. 

The Plays and Poems of James 
Shirley, now first collected and 
GJironologically ^ arranged, and 



the Te^Lt carefully collated sind 
restored; with occasional Notes, 
and a Biographical and Critical 
Essay. By William GifFord, Esq. 
Handsomely printed by Bulmer, 
in 6 vols. 8vo. uniformly with 
Massinger and Ben Jonson. 

Specimens of the British Poets, 
with Biographical and Critical 
Notices, and an Introductory Es- 
say on British Poetry. By Tbos. 
Campbell, Esq. Autlior of the 
<< Pleasures of Hope," <&c. In 
4 vols, post 8vo. 

On the Principles of Political 
Economy and Taxation. By 
David Ricardo, Esq. 8vo. 

Algebra of the Hindus, with 
Arithmetic and Mensuration. 
Translated from the Sanscrit, by 
H. T. Colebrooke, Esq. 4to. 

The Fourth and- concluding 
Volume of Captain Burn4>y*s His- 
tory of Voyages and Discoveries 
in the South Seas ; with a copi- 
ous Index. 4to. — ^This work com- 
prises all the voyages and dis^- 
veries antecedent to the reign of 
his present Majesty, bringing down 
their history until the point where 
Hawkesworth's Col lection begins. 

The Rev. Sir Adam Gordon 
has in the press, a Course of 
Lectures on the Church Cate^ 
chism for every Sunday in the 

The Rev. George Mathew is 
printing, in two 8vo. volumes. 
Sermons on various Subjects^ doc- 
trinal and practical. 

l^he Rev. Hu^h Pearson^s Me- 
moirs of the Life and Writings 
of the Rev. Dr. Claudius Bucha- 
nan, will doon appear. 

Mr. Farey is about to publish 
the third and concluding volume 
of his Report to the Board of 
Agriculture, on Derbyshire. 



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Lui of New PubliccAionSn 



S8i 



Mr. Alex. Bower has io the 
pi^s, a History of the University 
of Edinburgh, with Biographical 
Notices of many eminent Persons, 
in two 8vo. volumes. 

Mr. Allen's translation of Dr. 
Outram's Dissertation on Sacri- 
fices, will appear early in April. 

Mr. Howard Fish will soon 
publish the Triumph of Love, 
and other Poems. 

Mrs. and Miss Taylor, authors 



of sevenl esteemed works, win 
jointly produce, in the coarse of 
this month. Boarding School Cor- 
respondence, or a Series of Let- 
ters between a Mother and her 
Daughter at School. 

J. £. Bicheno» £s<|. will soon 
publish an Inquiry mto the Ma- 
ture of Benevolence, principally 
with a view to Elucidate the Mo- 
ral and Political Principles of the 
Poor Laws. 



LIST OP NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



A Series of I^iscourses on the 
Cliristiaii Revelation, yiewed in Con- 
nection with the Modern Astronomy. 
By liiomas Chalmers, D. D. Minis- 
ter of the TronChnrch, Glasgow. 

Apicius Rediyivns, or, the Cook's 
Oracle; beine the result of actual 
Experiments in the Kitchen of a Phy. 
Biciaa, for the pnrpose of composing 
a Culinary Code for the Rational 
epicure, and augmenting the enjoy- 
ments of Private Families; in which 
the Receipts are composed to be as 
agreeable and useful to the Stomach, 
as they are inviting to the Appetite ; 
Nourishing without being inflamma- 
tory, and Savomry withomt being sur- 
feiting. 

A Reply to a Letter from a Rector 
to his Curate, on the subject of tike 
^ible Society. By a Deacon of the 
Church of England. 

" The Scriptures are the word of 
God ; and from whence can we learn 
the will of Ood so well as from his 
own mouth." — TiUotson*8 SerfMM, 
8vo. edit. 1742, vol. 2, p. 318. 

Postscript to a Letter the Right 
Hon. N. A'^ansittart, in which some 
popular Objections to the Repeal of 
the Salt Duties are considered. By 
Sir Thomas Bernard, Bart. 8vo. 

Laon-seng-urh, or, an Heir in his 
Old Age, a Chinese Comedy : belnc 
the Second Drama ever translated 
from the original Chinese into any 
Language. By J. F. Davis, Esq, of 
Canton; with an introductory Essay 
on the Chinese Drama, small 8vo. 



This Drama was selected fbr trans- 
lation out of the same collection of 
one hundred ancient plays from which 
Pere Premare translated the ** Or- 
phan of Tenao," afterwards adapted 
for the French stage by Voltaire, 
and for the English by Murphy. 

A Defence of the Constitution of 
Great Britain and Ire]and,as by Law 
established, against the Innovating 
and Leveling Attempts of the Friends 
to Annual Parliaments and Univenal 
Suffrage. By the Right Hon. John 
Somers, Lord Soroers, 

Nolumns leges Anglas jniitari. 

An Answer to Mr. Beamaonf s Re- 
futation of the Rev, T. ThirlwalTs 
Vindication of the Muriotrmtoo lb» 
the Tower Dlvifion. Bytho Rer. 
Thomas Thirlwall, A. M. Rector of 
Bowers Gifford, in the county of Es- 
sex, and a Magistrate for MMdlesex 
and Essex. 

A Sketch of aPlan by J. CCmrwea^ 
Esq. M. P. for Bettering the Condi- 
tion of the Labouring Classes of the 
Community, and for Eoualizing and 
Reducing the amount or the present 
P«>ochiu Assessments, submitted to 
the Committee appohited by the 
House of Commons, for taking the 
Laws respecting the Poor into consi- 
deration. 

The Absent Many a KanmtiT^. 
Edited by Sir Peter Plastic, Kidght 
of the Order of the Tower and 
Sword. 

Select Pieces of Early Popidar 



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536 



List of New Publicaiions» 



Poetry; repablished principally from 
early printed copies in the black let- 
ter. Edited by E. V. Utteraon, 
X^sq. oi-namented with wood cuts. 

The House of Monraing, a Poem, 
-with some smaller Pieces. By John 
8cott, Author Ufa Visit to Paris, and 
Paris Revisited- 

— Whither is he gone, what accident 
fiath rapt him from us ? 

Paradise Regtaned. 

Placide, a Spanish Tale, in 2 vol. 

translated from Les Battu^cas of 

Madame de Genlis, by A. Jaminson. 

Fortitude and Frailty, a Novel, in 

4 vol. by Fanny Holcron» 

Frightened to Death, a Musical 
Farce, in Two AcU, by W. C. Oul- 
ton. 

A new edition of M. G. Lewis's 
Tragedy Adelgitha, or the Fruits of a 
Single Error. 

"Die Second part of Neale's Illus- 
trated History of Westminster Ab- 
bey; imperial folio, to correspond 
with the large paper of the new edi- 
tion of Dugdale's Monasticon. 

Sons of St. David, a CambrO'Bri- 
tish Historical Tale of the Fourteenth 
Century, with explanatory notes and 
references. By Griffiths Ap-Grif- 
fiths Esq. 3 vol. 

The History of the Wars, from the 
French Revolution, to the ever me- 
morable Battle of Waterloo, in 1815 ; 
to which will be added, the particu- 
lars of the successful attack upon 
Algiers. Compiled from official do- 
cuments, and other authentic sources 
of information with strict impartial- 
ity, and wUl be illustrated with ele- 
gant portraits of the most distin- 
guished public characters. 



Ponisonby. 
" Fuggi 'I serenoe 1 verde ; 
Non t'appressar oye sia riso e cauto, 

Cauzon mia nb, ma pianto : 
Non fa perte di star fra genteallegra^ 
Vedova aconsoiata in veste ne- 
gra." II Petrarca, 

, Examination of the Objections 
made in Britain against the Doc- 
trines of Gall and Spurzheim. By 
J. G. Spurzheim, M.D. 

Christian Essays. By the ^ev. 
Samuel Charles Wilks, A.M. of St. 
Edmund Hall, Oxford, and Curate 
of St. Martin's, Exeter. 

Brief Remarks on Mf. Warden*8 
Letters from St. Helena, respecting 
tbe Conduct of Buonaparte and his 
Suite. 

National Expenditure no Cause of 
National Calamity* -^ 

*' Mox reficit Rates, quassas, indoci- 
lis, pauperiem pati." 
Harold the Dauntless; a Poem, 
in six cantos. By the Author of 
" The Bridal <tf Triermain;** to 
which work it forms a second volume. 
The Pavilion, or a Month In Brigh- 
ton. By Humphrey Hedgehog, Esq. 
The Sixth Edition of Gertrude of 
Wyomins. or the Pensylvanian Cot- 
tage, and other Poems. To which 
is added, an Ode to the Memory of 
Bums. By Thos. Campbell. 
' Letters to a Mother on the Ma- 
nagement of Infants and Children, 
embracing the important Subjects of 
Nursing, Food, Clothing, Exercise, 
Bathing, &c. ; with Cursory Remarks 
on the Diseases of Infancy and 
Childhood ; with a particular refer- 
ence to their Prevention. By a Phy- 
sician. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Thb Editors are obliced by the communication regarding two pamphlets, 
mentioned in a note of the 20th of this month, and they regret that it 
arrived too late to enable them to pay the attention of which they were de- 
sirous. They are obliged by the hhat, and will not fail to avail themselves of 
it some eariy opportunity. 

The verbal corrections in nomenclature are observed. 

A notice regarding Oriental and Jewish Literature, is not in a form suited 
to this periodical work. 

Many respectable works are before the Editors, of which they much 
regret the omission from want of room, but they shall not be disregarded* 



PRIVTBD BY iriLLIAM SMITH, KINO fTRBBT, SEVEN »IALS. 



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THE 

CRITICAL REVIEW; 

Vol. v.] APRIL, 1817. [No/iyT 

Art. I. — History of Brazil. By Robert Southej/. Part 
the Second. 4to. pp. 718. London, Longman and Co. 
1817. 

Three centuries have elapsed since the discovery of the 
New World, but At no period the moral and philosophical 
interest it has excited has been so powerful as at the pre- 
sent moment. 

The enterprise of Columbus laid open to us a new hemi- 
spheij^, with a territory more spacious than either of the 
three continents east of the Atlantic, and approaching in 
dimensions a third part of the habitable globe. The gran- 
deur of the objects, as well as the immense extent of the 
theatre on which they are displayed, invites our curiosity, 
and commands our attention. Nature has carried on her 
operations with a bolder hand, and has distinguished the 
features of these immeasurable regions by a peculiar mag* 
nificence. Even the plain of Quito, which is considered as 
the base of the Andes, is elevated further above the ocean 
than the summit of the Pyrenees; and that stupendous 
rid^ of mountains, extending from north to south, while 
their heads are concealed in the clouds, and the storms 
roll and the thunders burst at their feet, are covered with 
everlasting snows. The waters are in proportion to these 
vast eminences ; such are the profound and expanded ch^in* 
aels of the Maragnou, the Orinoco, the Plata, the Missis- 
sippi, and the St. Laurence ; and such the vast caverns of 
the Lakes, spacious as the inland seas, with which in this 
part of the earth we are aquainted. 

The portion of this ample subject to which the work 
before us relates, is corarpreheDded between the equator and 
thirty-five decrees of south latitude, and between the 
thirtieth and sixty-fifth degree of west longitude ; including 
not only the territory of Brazil, but also a considerable 
portion of the countries claimed by the Spanish crown, to 

Crit. Rev. Vol. V. Jprtty 1817. 2 U 

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328 Southey^s History of Brazil. 

the confines of the dominions of the royal Atahaalpa, who 
fell a sacrifice to the treachery and cruelty of Pizarro. 

The dates of this volume, independently of the digression 
respecting the Jesuits, involve the period between 1641 and 
1685, or forty-four years; taking up the subject obout 
ninety after the time when the polished and eloquent Ro- 
bertson closes his History of America. The first twenty 
years of this interval are occupied very 'much with the sub- 
sisting wars between the Dutch and Portuguese, which were 
terminated by the treaty in 1661, when the former resigned 
all pretensions to the country in favour of the latter, for the 
trifling mercenary consideration of 350,000/. 

The era of Portuguese history at which this narrative 
commences, is extremely interesting. Philip 11. in 1580 
had united Portugal to Spain, and the severity of his policy 
had been continued for sixty years, when John of Braganza 
threw off the yoke ; and, on his accession, both the Asiatic 
and American dependencies of the sceptre readily submitted 
to his authority. The consequence of this revolution was 
twenty-six years of war with Spain, contemporaneou%with 
the events oefore us in the western hemisphere, and which 
closed with the peace of 1668. The Portuguese, sur- 
rounded by hostile natives, had to contend both with the 
Dutch andi the Spaniards ; and the respective encroachments 
of these competitors are among the most active materials 
of this history. 

The different policy adopted by Spain and Portugal con- 
tributed to the confirmation of the latter in these possessions. 
It was among the maxims of the former to extend to Brazil 
the jealous system that obstructed the prosperity of her 
other colonies, and a monopoly was established prohibiting 
all intercourse with foreign nations, consistently with a 
restrictive system which has for three centuries been riffidly 
adhered to by the same oppressive government. The Bra- 
ganza family for a long period acted on more liberal prin- 
ciples ; and it was not until gold was discovered in abund- 
ance by the short process of removing the soil to obtain it, 
that both the rulers and the people, neglecting the slow 
and surer means of wealth and power, excluded strangers 
from the harbours of Brazil. 

Although the Dutch had declined any interference with 
the concerns of Brazil subsequent to the treaty of 1661, yet 
the ancient enmity of the Portuguese towards them in Brazil 
still subsisted at the close of the seventeenth century ; and 
this was more strongly excited to action by the rival in- 



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Southejf'i History of Brazil. S28 

terests of the two nations at the opposite extremity of the 
globe. Even the pursuit of gold was to be abandoned to 
destroy the foundation of Dutch influence in the East, and 
an opinion being entertained that the spices of Java were 
some* centuries before indigenous in Brazil, a project was 
formed for their extensive cultivation in the latter. In 
furtherance of this purpose, orders were given by the court 
of Lisbon, that every ship in the India trade which touched 
at Brazil should convey the plant for cultivation to South 
America. It was in consequence of a hint given by 
Charles II. to the Portuguese ambassador in London that 
this expedient was resorted to, but the project, in the sequel, 
proved abortive. 

The epoch on which this volume is employed was not 
only important to Portugal, but to her competitors in the 
north of Europe. The emancipation she had obtained in 
1640 was acquired by Holland eight years afterwards : on 
the introduction of the Inquisition, she indignantly threw 
off the Spanish yoke, and was declared free and independent 
in 1648. To facilitate their purposes in the East, in 1652 
the Dutch established a colony at the Cape of Good Hope; 
and in 1667 was concluded the peace of Breda between the 
Seven United Provinces and Great Britain. In the follow- 
ing year a commercial treaty was entered into with the 
same country, to enlarge the sphere of their action, and to 
improve the sources of their prosperity. 

ouch were the circumstances of these rivals; and to the 
miseries with which their contests were attended in Brazil 
is assigned the earlier division of the work. 

*' Itamaraca had been relieved by the removal of these natives ; 
but that island vvas now laid waste ; the garrrison bad no otlier re< 
sources than what the scanty magazines of Fort Orange contained, 
and the works which the Portugueze bad erected on the opposite 
shore prevented them from marauding upon the main-land. In 
Recife the distress was more severely felt ; the city was searched for 
food, and all that could be found was seized for the common stock, 
a single pound per week being the allowance of bread for soldiers 
and inhabitants alike. Ere long this miserable pittance was with- 
held from the inhabitants, that it might be doubled fov the garrison, 
who in their hunger were now beginning to listen to the offers of the 
enemy. Cats and dogs, which are stated to have been very nume* 
reus when the blockade began, were now all cousumed ; rats had 
been hunted with such perseverance that the race appeared to 
be exterminated in Recife ; the horses also had all been eaten, and 
the negroes dug up the rotten bones of such as had been buried^ and 



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3S0 Souihei/'s Historjf af Brazil. 

^awed them with miserable aviditj. Slaves of course suftred evea 
more than their masters ; tiieir faces and bodies were as of liviag 
skeletons ; their legs swelled, and many died of inanimation. No 
courage, no cunning, bo enterprize could relieve them ; to venture 
beyond the protection of the works in search of food was almost cer- 
tain death. Henrique Diaz and his Negroes occupied the nearest 
station, and carried on the war with the vindictive and unwearible 
spirit of savages. Wading through mud and water till they were 
girdle-deep, they hid themsdves among the mangoes, so near the 
walls that none could stir without being perceived : they gave no 
quarter ; and it was long before the camp-masters and their own 
leader could suppress a ferocious custom which they had esta- 
blished, of carrying about the heads o^the Dutchmen from house to 
house, as religious mendicants go with a saini in a glass case, and 
extorting money as a remuneration for the spectacle/' (p. 179 — 80.) 

The situation of affairs after incessant hostility for a long 
period, may be conveniently collected from a brief view of 
the negociation in Holland, of the demands of the republic, 
and of the effect these produced on the court of Lisbon. 

*' The ambassador in Holland had exhausted all the arts of 
diplomatic chicanery ; and the Couit, dreading an open war, yet 
chnging. with all the strength of honourable and religious feelings to 
the hope of recovering Pernambuco, as a sort of compromise be- 
tween its pride and its weakness, instructed him to turn the nego- 
ciation into a bargain, and offer the Company a price for their 
claims upon Brazil, and their remaining possessions there. The 
Dutch knew the value of this long-contested territory ; they pre- 
sumed upon the strength of their arms, which nowhere but in Brazil - 
had as yet suffered any humiliation; and presuming also upon the de- 
bility and helplessness of Portugal, they thought themselves entitled 
to dictate any terms to such an opponent. Instead, therefore, of 
listening to the proposal, they insisted that Portugal should cede the 
whole of the provinces which they had occupied when the truce was 
made, and the third part of Seregipe also ; that the isle and fort of 
the Morro de S. Paulo, (which would have given them the com- 
mand of Bahia,) should be put into their hands as a cautionary pos- 
session for twenty years, till the whole of the terms should be ful- 
filled ; that, as an indemnity for the losses which they had sustained, 
the King of Portugal should pay 100,000 florins yearly, for twenty 
years, as a subsidy for the maintenance of Dutch troops in Brazil ; 
that one thousand draft oxen, one thousand cows, four hundred 
horses, and one thousand sheep should be delivered yearly to the 
Company in Brazil for ten years, and one thousand chests of sugar, 
averaging twenty arrohas each, yearly for twenty years. All the 
slaves also whom the insurgents had carried off were to be replaced, 
according to a fair estimate of their numbers, and every thing be- 
longing to the works which had been destroyed, to be restore^ the 



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Southeys History of Brazil. S81 

Dutch haying full power to reclaim and seiase their property of every 
kind for a year afiter the publication of the trea^, wherever they 
could find it. They should also retain their conquests in Africa ; 
and if the Portugueze broke this agreement in any part beyond the 
line, it should become null and void in all parts beyond the line.. 
These extravagant demands were so far modified in the course of 
their conferences with Francisco de Sousa, that they ceased to re- 
quire the Morro de S. Paulo, and lowered the compensation to 
600,000 cruzadoes, or 1«,000 chests of sugar, half white, and half 
of inferior quality, in annual payments, which should complete the 
whole sum in ten years. 

" Cruelly as the Portugueze had suffered under a foreign govern- 
ment and a domestic superstition, the nation had lost neither its 
courage nor its pride ; and the public voice was for supporting their 
brethren in Pernambuco at all hazards. The government felt its* 
poverty, its weakness, and its danger; what course to pursue in 
these difficulties perplexed the cabinet of Joam IV. whose crown 
was indeed a crown of thorns ; and this business, which bad so 
often been discussed among his ministers, was again brought into 
debate. He laid before his counsel the ultimatum of the States, and 
also their first extravagant project : he desired them to bear in mind 
that France was on the point of concluding a separate peace with 
Spain, and enjoined them to keep the busuiess perfectly secret, and 
make no minute in the council either of the decree which thus sum- 
moned it, or of the discussions consequent thereon. But though the 
council were thus ordered to leave no memorial of what past, their 
various opinions weie given in writing ; these have been preserved^ 
and they are equally curious and characteristic/' (p. 112 — ^213.) 

While India was receding from beneath the sway of Por- 
tugal, Brazil was preserved to her, and she was in conse- 
quence enabled to carry her struggle for independence in 
Europe to a successful termination. One of the expedients 
recommended to Joam IV. was to foUon^ the example of 
the Dutch, and establish a commercial conopany ; but there 
were many obstructions in the way of a Catholic govern* 
ment, with which the Reformists had not to encounter. 

** Never had any country suffered so dreadfully in its vital inte^ 
rests from the spirit of intolerance as Portugal at this time. Vieym^ 
who had most ably and most eloquently exposed the atrocious prac- 
tices of the Inquisition, perceived the whole political evil, as well as 
the whole moral iniquity of this accursed tribunal. The exemption 
which he required, and without which it was impossible that these 
Companies should be formed, was for the sake of the New Chris* 
tians, a denomination undeb which probably the greater part of the 
Portugueze merchants were liable to be included, — for in fiict no 
man was secute. The Holy Office took the ahurm; the mixture^ 



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532 Southeys History of BraziL 

not of suspected persons, but, as he says, of suspected money, was 
denounced as an pbomination ; and it was not till the losses of eight 
successive years had nearly ruined the trade of Portugal, and laid the 
government almost at the mercy of its enemies, that this obstacle was 
overcome. Even then only half his project was adopted; that, 
however, was for the nearest and most important object : a Brazil 
Company was established. This country had been so long and ob- 
itinately contended for, that the mere contest had made the Portu- 
guese reel its value, and take a pride in its possession : and the King, 
with this feeling, gave his eldest son Theodosio the title of Prince 
of Brazil." (p. 228— 229.) 

The death of Joam in 1656 Was likely to produce un- 
favourable changes to the Portuguese in the Brazils, and 
at the critical time when, after a protracted contest, they 
had recovered Pernambuco. The Queen, a woman of a 
masculine understanding and undaunted courage, was left 
regent during the minority of her son Alpbonso VL, when 
the hopes of the Spaniards were more than ever awakened 
to crush, what they still termed, the rebellion of the Portu- 
guese; and the Dutch, beins delivered from the formidable 
enmity of Cromwell, not only renewed their demands upon 
a helpless country, but prepared to enforce them. In these 
circumstances, it so happened that it was the policy of 
France to prevent the ruin of Portugal. Louis AlV. was 
then on the throne, and on his offer to act as mediator, he 
was accepted in that character by both parties. The claims 
of the Dutch were very extensive, and they were, 

*' That all the country between the river S. Francisco and Seara, 
inclusively, should be restored ; all the artillery and stores which 
had been taken in the different forts ; and all the private property of 
which the Dutch had been dispossessed in those provinces ; that the 
Brazilian Portugueze should give the Company one thousand draft 
oxen, one thousand cows, three hundred horses, and six hundred 
sheep, annually, for six years ; that six huildred thousand florins 
should be paid to the Company in six months, and thirteen thou- 
sand chests of sugar in thirteen years. Debts should be mutually 
paid ; the Portugueze who chose to quit the ceded Captaincies might 
sell their property, but not remove it. The island of St. Thomas 
should be restored to the Dutch, with Angola, and all that had 
been taken from them upon that coast." (p. 244 — 245.) 

Charles II. of England at this time was in treaty for his 
marriati:e with a Portuguese princess, and he, therefore, 
intimated to the Dutch, that if they persevered in their 
resentment against her family, he should become a party 
the dispute. France supporting most earnestly the same 



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Souihei/*s History of Brazil. SSS 

cause, with such powerFul interference, the negociations 
were at length concluded, Portugal consenting to pay 
four millions of cruzados, whether in money, sugar, to* 
bacce, or salt, as might be most convenient to her, and to 
restore all the artillery taken in Brazil, which was marked 
either with the arms of the United Provinces, or of the 
West India Company. The reflections of our author on 
this occasion deserve particular attention. 

'* Thus after so many years of mutual insincerity and mutual suf- 
fering, the struggle between the Portugueze and Dutch was ended. 
The dishonourable aggressions of the Dutch at the commencement 
of the ten years truce gave the Portugueze a fair pretext for their 
subsequent infractions of the same agreement : though if no such 
pretext had been given, it cannot be doubted that the Pemambu- 
cans would have risen again^ a heavy and a galling yoke, and it is 
more than probable that Portugal, from its religious principles and 
its national spirit, would have aided and abetted the insurgents. 
The notive) of that insurrection were both as evil and as good as 
they have been represented by the writers of the different countries. 
Joam Fernandes Vieira would not perhaps have found encourage- 
ment in his designs, if many of the leading conspirators had not 
been men of desperate fortunes ; but on the other hand, nothing 
short of the high principle of patriotism could have enabled him aud 
his couutrymen to persevere through so many difficulties, and such 
continual disappointments. As in the commencement of the strug- 
gle, there is much that is disgraceful on both parts, so also the ter- 
miaation cannot be considered as honourable to either ; the Dutch 
were beaten out of the country in dispute, and the Portugueze con- 
sented to pay for the victory which they had obtained. But Portu^ 
gal must not be reproached for this submission, at a time of the ut- 
most internal weakness, and the greatest pressure of danger from 
Spain. At that time the ' loss of Ceylon may perhaps have been 
. thought to outweigh the recovery of the Brazilian proviaces : but 
Ceylon must always have fallen to a stronger maritime power, and 
the Portugueze, though the most amalgamating in their policy of all 
the European conquerors, and in that respect the wisest, would stiU 
have formed but a small part of its population. On the other hand, 
the recovery of Pernambuco has left Portugal in undisputed posses- 
sion of one of the most extensive and highly-favoured regions of the 
globe ; — an empire which under every imaginable circumstance of 
misgovernment has continued to advance in population and in indus- 
try, which is now rapidly progressive, and which, whatever revolu- 
tions it may be destined to undergo, will remain the patrimony of a 
Portugueze people, speaking the language of Femam Lopes, of 
Barros« of Camoens, and Vieyra.'' (p. 249 — ^350.) 

We are now proceeding to another division of the vrork, 
of a character perfectly distinct from the protracted contest 



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384 Southeys History rfBraxU. 

between the Dutch and Portuguese : it is the peaceful 60* 
niaion of the Jesuits which was established in Paraguay, 
and of which the rise, progress, and oTerthrow, are perhaps 
improperly considered by our author to be inseparably con- 
nectea with the account of Brazil. In order to supply this 

Eart of his narrative, he deviates from the limits which he 
ad originally prescribed to himself, both in respect to time 
and place ; he devotes a whole chapter to tne interval 
between 1586 and 1643, in order to trace the origin of the 
authority of the Jesuits ; and he penetrates into the ex- 
tended regions of Paraguay, to examine into the nature, 
character, and effects, of their government Some political 
difficulties occurred which the Order had the success to 
remove. These Christians, who sought to reclaim, with 
no other weapons than those of the Gospel, demanded that 
they should be allowed to interdict the Spaniards from any 
intrusion on their commonwealth, and their wish was com* 
plied with. When thus set at liberty from foreign interfer- 
ence, they formed a Utopia of their own. The first object 
was to remove from their people all temptations which were 
not inherent in human nature, and by establishing as 
nearly as possible a community of property, they excluded 
a lar^e portion of "the crimes and miseries whicn embitter 
the hfe of civilized man. 

*' There was no difficulty in beginning upon this system in a wide 
and thinly-peopled country ; men accustomed to the boundless li- 
berty of the. savage life would more readily perceive its obvious ad- 
vantages, than they could be made to comprehend the more com- 
plicated relations of property, and the benefits of that inequality in 
society, of which the evils are apparent as well as numerous. The 
masterof every femily had a portion of land allotted him sufficient 
for its use, wherein he cultivated maize, mandubi, a species of pota- 
toe, cotton, and whatever else he pleased ; of this land, which was 
called Abamba, or the private possession, he was tenant as long as 
he was able to cultivate it ; when he became .too old for the labour, 
or in case of death, it was assigned to another occupier. Oxen for 
ploughing it were lent from the common stock. Two larger portions, 
called T\ipamha, or God's Possession, were cultivated for the com- 
munity, one part being laid out in grain and pulse, another in cotton ; 
here the inhabitants all contributed their snare of work at stated 
times, and the produce was deposited in the common store-house, 
for the food and clotiiing of the infirm and sick, widows, orphans^ 
and difldfen of both sexes. From these stores whatever was needed 
for the church, or for the pubUe use, was purchased, and the Indians 
were supplied with seed, if, as it often happened, they had not been 
pnmdmiteaeu^tolayitupfiHrtheniidiveBt but they were nquiitd 



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6outhey*s History of Brazil. 335 

P^ Mum fiwm their pfrivate harvest the same measure which they 
receifed." (p. 335'-^a6.) 

** As ia the Jesuits* system nothing was the result of fortuitous 
chrcumstaucesy but all had been preconceived and ordered, the 
towns were all built upon the same plan. t*he houses wer^ placed 
on three sides of a large square. At first they were mere hovels: 
the frame work was of stakes firmly set in the eroundy and canes 
between them, well secured either with withs or uiongs ; these were 
then plastered with a mixture of mud» straw, and cow-dung. Shin- 
gles of a tree called the Caranday were found the best roofing ; and 
a strong compost, which was water proof, was made of clay and bul- 
lofcks* blood. As the Reductions became more settled they improved 
in building; the bouses were more solidly constructed, and covered 
with tiles. Still, by persons accustomea to the decencies of life, 
they wotfld be deeMed raiserkble habitations/' (p. 999.) 

The houses were built and repaired by the community, 
imd every couple had a dwelling assigned them on th^ir 
marriage. Highly as the state of celibacy is esteemed 
among the Romish adherents, it was not thought fit to 
recommend it here, and the union of the malet Wfl^ encoa- 
raged at the age of seventeen, and of the females at fifteen. 
These early connections were to provide against ificon« 
tinence, and they were less injurious than they would have 
been in any other condition of society. 

** An Indian of the Reductions never knew, duritig his whole 
progress from the cradle to the grave, what it wsKs to take thoui^ht 
for the morrow : all his duties were comprized h ol^edience. 'th^ 
strictest discipline soon becomes tolerable when it is certain atnf im- 
mutable ; — that of the Jesuits extended to every thing, but it was 
neither capricious nor oppressive. The children were considered as' 
belonging to the community ; they lived with their parents, that the 
ooune of natural affection might not be interrupted ; but ihdt edo- 
catidn was a public duty. Early in the morning the bell summoned 
them to church, where" having praved and been examined in the 
catechism, they heard maiss ; their breakfast was then given them it 
the Rector's from the public stores ; after which tliey were led by 
an ddert who acted both as overseer and censor, to their daily oc- 
cupations. From the earliest age the sexes were separated ; the^ 
did not even enter the church li^ the same door, lior did woman or' 
giri ever set foot within the Jesuit's house, "^fae business of the 
young girls was to gather the cotton, and drive Hwi^ birds from the 
field. T\^ boys were employed in weeduig, heeping the roads in 
order, and other tasks suited to their stren^. They went to w6rk 
with the music of flutes, and in procession, bearing a little imag^ of 
St. Isidro the husfbandman, the patron saint of Madrid, who was in 
l^ghi»doar durine the seventeenth century : this idol was placed in 

Cmx. Rbv. Vol. V. April, 1817. S X 



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S36 Soulhet/'s History of Brazil* 

a conspicuous situatioo while the boys were at work, and bofi^ 
back with the same ceremony when the morning^s task was ov^.— >. 
In the afternoon they were again summoned to church, where they 
went through the rosary ; they had then their dinner in the same 
manner^s their breakfa&t, after which they returned home to assist 
their mothers, or amuse themselves during the remainder of the day/' 
(p. 343—344.) 

In dancing according to the European manner, we are. 
told, the Jesuits saw as many dangers as the old Albigenses, 
or the Quakers in later times; and like them, perhaps, 
believed that the paces of a promiscuous dance were so 
many steps towards hell. But they were aware that to this 
practice the Indians had a strong propensity, and the^jr 
therefore ingeniously contrived to make it a part of all their 
religious festivities. Yet here caution was observed to 
prevent the influence of the sensual passions; so that 
young men and boys were the only performers, the more 
mature of the same sex and the females attending as spec- 
tators. The performances were dramatic figure-dances, for 
which the Catnolic mythology furnished subjects in abund- 
ance. It is curious to observe the advance of improvement 
under this singular hierocracy. 

'* Considerable progress had been made both in the useful and 
ornamental arts. Besides carpenters, masons, and blacksmiths, they 
had turners, carvers, painters, and gilders ; they cast bells and built 
organs. In these arts thev were instructed by some of the lay- 
brethren, among whom artificers of every kind were found. Metal 
was brought from Buenos Ayres, at an enormous cost, having been 
imported there from Europe. They were taught enough of me- 
chanics to construct horse-mills, enough of hydraulics.to raise water 
for irrigating the lands, and supplying their stews, and public cis- 
terns for washing. A Guarani^ however nice the mechanism, could 
imitate any thing which was set before him. There were sererd 
weavers in every Reduction, who worked for the public stock ; and 
a certain number were employed for the use of individuals, women 
taking their thread to the steward, and receiving an equal weight in 
cloth when it had past through the loom, the weavers beipg paid, 
from the treasury. This was the produce of their private culture, 
and in this some little incitement was afforded to vanity and volun- 
tary exertion ; for they were supplied every year with a certain quan- 
tity of clothing, and what they provided themselves was so mich 
finery. In their unreclaimed state some of these'tribes were entirely 
naked, and the others nearly so, — but the love of dress became al- 
most a universal passion among them as soon as they acquired the 
first rudiments of civilization. ' Give them any thing nne," says 
VohruihoSeu * Bud— 'in ccelum juueris, ihmt' This, therefore* 



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Sautke^^s History of Brazil. 337 

was one of the ways by which his colleagues enticed them to heaven.'' 
<p» 350—951.) 

The exclusion of the Spaniards from the common- wealth 
excited so much suspicion, as well as enmity, that it could not 
be long maintained ; hence, in later times, ingress was per- 
mitted to the inhabitants of six towns north of the Parana, 
and to the people of the Corrientes. Money was scarcely 
known in Paraguay, and all officers at Assumption, the 
capital, were paid in kind ; every thing had its fixed rate, 
and he who required one article gave another for it in pay- 
ment, according to the usage in barter, so that there was 
throughout these establishments no circulating medium. 
The^ had factors at Santa Fe and at Buenos Ayres who 
received their commodities, paid the the tribute from the 
products, and returned the surplus in utensils, colours for 
painting, oil, salt;, vestments, and other merchandize. But 
the chief article of export was the Matte, or herb of Para- 
guay, which throughout these regions is almost as generally 
m use as tea in £ngUnd. It is prepared from a tree, which 
the natives call Caa, and which in its form and foliage, 
resembles the orange- tree, but the leaf is softer, and the 
tree itself much larger. 

The exertions of the Jesuit missionaries were great, and 
.the difficulties ^nd dangers to which they were exposed, in 
seeking out, and reducing the wild tribes, were of the most 
serious nature. The itinerant set forth with his breviary 
and a cross, which served him for a staff, about thirty con- 
verts accompanied him as guides, interpreters and servants, 
or rather, as fellow-labourers. Thev were armed, but not 
with weapons of battle ; they carriea axes and bills to open 
a passage through ttfe woods, and they had a stock of maize, 
and implements for producing ignition. The danger from 
wild beasts (for the crocodile in this country is not to be 
dreaded), is in Paraguay and the adjoining provinces in- 
considerable ; but there are few parts of the world in which 
the traveller has so many plagues to molest him. 

" The first business upon halting for the night, or even for a meal 
during the day, is to beat the ground and trample the gmss for a 
safe distance round, in order to drive away the snakes, who are 
very numerous, and who are attracted by fire. The torment of 
insects is almost insufferable. Where there is finer grass, where 
there are thickets or marshes, on the borders of lakes or rivers, or 
where Uiere are thick woods, there says Dobrizhoffer, if you are to 
pass the night, you must not dream of sleeping. All tit plagaes 



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988 SwMfjf'i Hitiary of BranU. 

of Egypt wtm to ha^ beeo tniP9ferred to the lowlands of So«tli 
America* Ticks of every size are numerous enough' to fivm a curse 
themselves. The open country swarms with fleas ; so that he who 
lies down upop what he supposes to be clean turf, where there is no 
vestige of either inao or beast, rises up black with these vermin. 
The vinciucat ox flying bug, is more formidable io hoqties than in 
the open air. Breeae>flies and w^sps .tprment the horses ^od mules. 
But tne common fly is far the most serious plague both to man and 
beast in this country : it gets to the ears and noses of those who are 
asleep, deposits its eggs, and unless timely relief be applied, the 
maggots eat their way into the head, and occasion the most excru- 
ciating pain and death. This is well known in the Columbian 
Islands, as a danger to which the sick are exposed ; but in Para« 
guay it occurs frequently, and DobrizhoBer says he dreaded the fly 
oiore than all the other msects and all the venemous reunites of the 
country. la addition to these evils the Missionaries had often to 
endure the extremes of £itigue and hunger, when making- their way 
through swamps and woo< Hands: and when, having persevered 
through all these obstacles, they found the savages of whom they 
were in quest, they and their companions sometimes fell victims to 
the ferocity, tlie caprice, or the suspicion of the very persons for 
whose l>enefit they had endured so much." (p. 364 — 366.) 

If any one should doubt the happy effects of kindness 
towards savage nations, that uncertainty will be instantly 
removed if, in looking to the history betbre us, he compare 
the rapid progress the Jesuits have made towards the civUi-i 
zation of the natives by the arts of peace, with the tardy 
advance during the compulsory hostility of Spain and Por* 
tagal. The history of America, under the latter, is a 
catalogue of crimes. At the commencement of this career 
of mischief, the navies and armies were employed in de« 
grading two great and bappy empires into ferocity and 
barbarism, and in converting their cultivated fields Into 
frightAil deserts and solitucks. Very different was the 
reception of the forces of the Europeans, and of the peace* 
ftii missionaries of religion. The latter seem to hjd inspired 
onljr b^ sentiments of affection and charity, and their mag*^ 
nanimity confounded the tribes when they saw forgtveness 
exchanged for vengeance. By degrees their confidence was 
extended towards men whd appeared to seel^ them ojpi^ 
with the design to make them h^ppy. In these curcHinr 
stances, their attachment to the JesMits resembled a filial 
regard. Wh^a ^ Jesuit was expected^ all a^es flocked to 
see him; and m his approach omitted ooUiiiig that cowU 
express their joy a«d reject. Thus, siUToanded by peip* 
sow under tke most docile laiuenea, Wiwtrueted Aera w 



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Saua^*s Sistcry ef BrakU. 380 

the fundamental doctrines ofreligioii, exhorted theiu' t« re* 
gulority of conduct, to justice, beneficence, and, above all, 
to an abhorrence of the shedding of human blood. Very 
diflierent were the lessons of instruction the same people 
received from the mouths of the cannon of European 
warriors. 

Notwithstanding the comparative advantages of the state 
erf* society introduced by the Jesuits, over tne brutal eon* 
dition in which man appeared in these wild regioiis, it f$ 
obvious from the nature of their government, that imder k 
he could never attain a high dejme of virtue. He was 
reduced to an automaton, and if not whoUy deprived of 
consciousness, yet his movements were so regular, and hie 
actions, both moral and physical so uniform, that no variety 
was admitted into his existence by which experience could 
be acquired, passion could be inflamed, or the noblest emo- 
tions of the heart excited. Our surprize is awakened when 
we consider the permanence of such an artificial Mvern- 
ment, and it is to be ascribed only to the cool and deJibeFate 
judgment by which the most ardent seal was controuled in 
Its operations. This authority was in Paraguay overthrown, 
but it has beeU' transferred to the vast peninsula of Call* 
fernia, which was discovered by Cortes in the year 1538. 
Towards the close of the seventeenth century the Jesuits 
explored thk neglected province, civilized its rude inh*-* 
bitant«, and introaneing into it the same poHcy, they imper- 
ceptibly acquired a dominion over it as complete as that 
which they possessed in the interior of the southern eon. 
tinent. In this situation matters continued, until the ex- 

Julsion of the order from the Spanish dominions, when Don 
oeeph Galves, who was afterwards appointed minister far 
the indies, was directed to visit that country, in order to 
ascertain its resources, and the influence the Jesuits po»- 
sessed within its boundaries. Yenegas and Lorenzano in- 
ferm us that his account of it was fiivourable in respect to 
its commerce, that he discovered nines of gold of a pnK 
nising ampearance, and that the pearl fishery on its coasts 
WMB vuluabler Hopes are now entertained that California 
is ia a much better condition than her religious rulers have 
represented it ; that from its vicinitv to Cinaloa and Sonora, 
the population of its provinces will increase, and that the 
territory will no longer be reckoned among the desolate and 
useless tracts of the western world. 

We have before hinted at the liberal policf of Portugaiy 
wMi veqpeot to her colonies^ and we mighty in <me reepeely 



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MO Sauthey^s History of BraxU. 

Teiy advtntageoiisly ^rontrast it with tbat adopted bj her 
eastern neighbour.-^ The kings of the former have ever 
been desirous of protecting the Indians, whom they re* 
ffarded as their subjects; but their humane intentions were 
ToDg opposed by the mercenary interest of the settlers. As 
earh^ as 1570 a law was passed by Sebastian, declaring that 
. no Indians should be considered slaves, excepting such as 
should be taken in open and authorized war. Seventeen 
years afterwards this regulation was confirmed, and it was 
also provided, that the natives who laboured for the Por- 
tuguese should be treated as free servants, and that they 
should work or not, according to their own inclination. 
Subsequently, it was enacted, that they should not become 
slaves in any case, but the evil was too inveterate to be 
removed, mandatory laws were not strong enough to resist 
long- established practice, and at the beginning of the 
aeventeenth century, Philip 111. was induced to revoke 
the measure, and to allow, under certain conditions and 
restrictions, that the Indians taken in war, rebellion, or 
insurrection, should be enslaved. 

It is partly to be ascribed to these laws, that the old cap-, 
taincies had depended upon the African trade for labourers, 
the lawfulness of negro slavery never having been called 
in question, even by the Jesuits. But when the Portuguese 
became masters of Maranharo, finding the adjoining country 
well peopled, they began the same work of oppression to 
the natives, but it was not suffered to proceed without 
.interruption. Joam IV., says our author, following the 
natural impulse of his own good heart, renewed the 
abolition according to the law of Philip 111. and in the 
year 1652 Balthazar de Sousa Pereira, the new governor 
of Maranham, conveyed out with him orders even fot the 
emancipation of all the Indians who were then in slavery* 
The distance, however, was too great from the seat of 
government to enforce obedience, a repeal was prepared^ 
and the law was suspended. 

About this time appeared a character of great importance^ 
who makes a distinguished figure in the sequel of this 
narration. Antonio Vieyra was born at Lisbon in 1608^ 
and when he was in his eighth year, his parents had rer 
moved to Bahia, where he was educated in the Jesiuts' 
school. A sermon at which he attended, determined hiin 
at fifteen years of age, tochuse a religious life; and it isrer 
tnarkable, that the effect was produced by a&bulous lespend, 
which the preacher related of St. Jordan. ^ A devil said 



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Souihet/\ Huiortfof Braut. tit 

\o this holy personage, that he would willingly endure, not 
only all his own torments, but those of all hell beside, if 
be might only behold God for no longer a time than the 
opening and closing of a hand." What then, said the 
young Yieyra, must be the joy of the beatific vision ? and 
he determined from that moment to secure it for himself by 
renouncing the world. At sixteen the Jesuits admitted him 
tK> take the vows, which bound him irrevocably to the order; 
and in the following year he was selected to draw up the 
annual letter of the province. In 1635 he lectured in the- 
ology at Bahia, and he was subsequently sent by the Mar* 
quis de Montalvan to Portugal, to congratulate the king on 
Uie recovery of his royal rights. Fie was soon appointed 
preacher to the king, and in his sermons, with all the absur- 
dity of their typical and allegorical parts, there is, says our 
author, *' a. political freedom equal to that of Latimer, and 
firequently resembling him in manner, as well as in fearless 
honesty— a poignancy of satire, a felicity of expression, a 
power of language, and an elo<}uence proceeding from the 
fulness of a rich mncy, and a noble heart ; which have made 
bis writings^ notwithstanding all their alloys, the ^lory, as 
well as the boast of Portuguese literature." This extra- 
ordinary man^ high in the royal favour, was sent back with 
ample powers to Brazil, and* from thence he thus expresses 
himself in his first letter to his majesty. 

** Heathens and Christians were living in equal blindness for 
want of instruction ; there being, says he, none who catechize, none 
who administer the sacraments, while there are those who enslave, 
there are those who tyrannize, and what is worse, there are those 
who approve all this, so that Portiigueze and Indians are alike going 
to Hell. Let bis Majesty see to this state of spiritual neglect, said 
he to Prince Theodosio, and let your Highness see to it also, for 
the sake of Christianity, and for your own souls' sake ; for of all 
these souls an account will be required from the King of Portugal, 
and from your Highness as Prince of Brazil. I do not ask for 
appointments, I do not ask provision for those who come,* •God 
will provide ;•• what I ask is that they may coms, and that they be 
many, and of great zeal ; for though we who are here are doing and 
will do all that we can, without sparing toil or peril, the harvest is 
great, but the labourers are few: and as Christ hath said. Ask ye 
therefore the Lord of the harvest that he send labourers into his 
vineyard, so I ask them of you, who are Lords of this vineyard in 
his place. The Provincials of both provinces have been applied to, 
hot 1 do not rely upon them, unless your Highness interpose your 
royal authority, commanding the Superiors to send us subjects by* 
every ship, and commanding it abo by a peremptory order. Be 



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3t» SohUu^/^s HiOor^ of Brm^. 

astiiredi my Ptioce, that tlie armies of souU who shall be ooa^ 
verted here, will be of more avail for defendios and establisbing 
jfour tliroue, than the soldiers whom >ou raise. 'There is no King 
that can be saved by the multitude of ^n host ; neither is any mighty 
man delivered by much strength/^ (p. 468—4690 

Vieyra made rarions subsequent comibuDications to his so- 
vel'eign, by irliom he was loved and admired, find with ^hom 
he could exercise the unreserved frankness, and unrestricted 
i^armth of a friend. After a consultation with his brethren 
of Brazil, thev unanimously requested him to go himself to 
Portugal, and expose to the king the iniquities which were 
practised in his provinces. Joam lY. was lying danger- 
ously ill at Salvatierra, when he, iti compliance with this 
request, was concluding his voyage at the mouth of the 
Tagus ; he was however immeaiately summoned, and the 
king's illness bavins^ taken a favourable fum, the Jesuit wa9 
admitted to an audience on the affairs of M aranbam. 

. *' He spake with hb usual ardour. In the hope of converting 
infidels to the church, he said, and for the love of God, he had, a» 
in that Court was well knowa, left the love of such a King the fa- 
vour of the Queen and of the Prince, persons whom there were few 
in the world to equal ; and he had seen his hopes frustrated by the 
Portuguese, who obstructed the preaching of the faith/despised the 
missionaries, broke all laws diviue and liunfiaTi, and outraged and 
' trampled upon the King's orders. The King might establish a most 
ample dominion in that country, and acquire millions of vassals ; 
but the avarice which enslaved one drove away a thousand ; they 
who were driven away, dying in their heathen state, and the poor 
slave remaining little better than a heathen, without sacraments, 
without Instruction in life, and after death even without burial ! The 
Kings of Portugal possessed those regions by the covenant that they 
should extend the faith there, the knowledge of Christ, and the 
boundaries of the Catholic Church ; and in the name of those wide 
regions he came to represeirt to his Majesty this his strict obli- 
gation, that he might be pleased to help the poor souls who would 
Sock in shoals to the nets of the Church, if the Portugueze did not 
drive them away. There was an Original Sin in that country,* -the 
practice of enslaving the natives: it was the King's duty to deliver 
them, and it was no new thing for him to become a Deliverer. Love 
qf the souls of these [>oor people, said Vieyra, tore me from Por-> 
tttgal; th^ur wantsi their oppressions, their forlorn condition, have 
made me return ; and now, prostrate at your Majest/s feet I lay 
be&re you* •not gold» not the precious produce of the conquests, •• 
but injjured innocence, * • but lamentations, sufferings, iiyustice, bl(^d, 
and murder, which call upon you for compassion and for fedress !'' 
(p. 492-^49a.) 



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Smahet/'s Hntory of BratU. 9lt 

The resoh was fayounible to the views of Yiejra ; a de« 
cree was issued, declaring that all the Indian settlements in 
the state of Maranhain should be under the direction of the 
Jesuits^ that Yieyra, as superior of the missions, should 
regulate the expeditions into the interior; that the Indians 
in slavery should be ransomed in five years ; and that the 
free Indians were to work only under certain limitations as 
to time, and allowances as to emolument, according to a 
previous arrangement. 

The most urgent motives operated on the religions and 
moral feelings of Yieyra to enforce these regulations with 
all his. eloquence and aotbority at the court of his sovereign. 
The slaves who were fairly purchased, were very few com- 
pared with those who were kidiuipped, and great numbers 
perished before they reached the Portuguse settlements. It 
was the custom to catch them, and turn them into a pen 
like cattle, until a large herd could he sent off at once^ and 
they were thus shut up for eight or nine months in a state 
of inaction and exposure to the elements. The consequence 
was, that the Portuguese agent seldom brougbl borne moro 
than half the number which bad iatlen to bis sbare; and 
the loss was not only of slaves, but of the Indians, who 
accompanied them, and who died under the severity of the^ 
service. Such was the avidity for gain, thai these' plan-' 
derers penetrated to the reach of two thousatrdf miles into 
the interior, until the populous banks of the great river of 
the Amazons were nearly deserted ; and afong the whole 
coast from Maranham to 6elini, and from thence to Curupa^ 
the Indians had disappeared. But it was not by the Por- 
tuguese only that this infernal work had been peribmvsd* 
The conduct of the Dutch, in general, both to' Ike Indinn« 
and Negroes, was marked with that deep depravity by wkiifhy 
in all their colonies, they have been charactenssed. Oaring' 
tfao war, their privateers seised the ifrdiiane whony ihej 
found fishing, and as many as they couM sei^e on ^ktac^^ 
they sold to the sugar islands. Of 6400 ifuvportMsd negi^oes^ 
more than 1500 died within a year and a half; and ihtsF 
frightful mmrtriity, after they had set foot on solid groondi 
is ascribed tO' tM insufficient food, and intenee suiferiiiifa' 
faring the myage. These wretched slaves frequency 
attempted to murder their inhaaHin masters ; ana wbent 
they mled ia the atiempt,. deli^ewyd t^emiebmis by poisoi^ 
frona a Ufe af iefiapporlable misery^ <^ Yeaeao ubii(ne 
obvioy sSiimetipais alroces nanus infernDt*' gfatalentes sibi 

Cbit. Rbv. Vol- V. Apnl, 1817. « Y 



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844. Southeys History of Brazil. 

naturae renuniiare, viodictamque dominis plus justo fleTarii 
reponere.", (Piso.) 

VifsyrB, compares the condition of slaves to the sufferinj^s 
of that Redeemer in whom he exhorted them to look for 
comfort ^^ BondS) stripes, wounds, and revilings; to be 
deprived of rest by nignt and day ; to be scourged, to be 
hungered ;" such, he said, ^^ were their sufferings, and if . 
they endured them with patience, they would have th« 
merits, as well as the torments of martyrdom." 

As a sort of return for the miseries thus incurred, the in- 
vaders were unwearied in their endeavours to promote pro- 
selytism, but the new Christians were not improved by their 
conversion ; they became a despised race, and were alike 
regardless of obloquy or danger, where there was a sure 
prospect of gain. 

''Nine or ten years were sufficient at this time for realizing a 
fortune in Bahia. Pyrard, who came from India, had never seen 
silver so common in any city as in this;* •it was smuggled from 
Buenos Ayres by an ingenious device ; sacks full of the precious 
metal were fastened to the anchor, and the anchor wa^ not heaved 
till after the revenue officers had left the ship ; in this manner all 
the silver in Brazil and Angola was obtained from the Phta. When 
the two crowns were separated this influx must have ceased ; but 
Bahia possessed in itself abundant sources of wealth. Its whale 
fishery was at one time the greatest in the world ; under the Spanish 
government it was leased, and carried on by adventurers from 
Biscav : the flesh of these poor animals was eaten by the slaves ; 
and they possessed all the oil which was burnt in Brazil during the 
seventeenth century.'* (p. 661.) 

F. Manuel de Salvador describes the state of Olinda be- 
fore the conquest as lawless, or worse than lawless ; the 
courts of justice being so scandalously corrupt that the^ 
scarcely preserved even the semblance of decency in their 
decisions. The wands of office bent double if four chests 
of sugar were placed upon them : ^' Os ministros da justiga, 
como traziam as varas mui delgadas, como Ihe punham os 
delinquentes nas pontas quatro caxas de assucar, logo do- 
bravan " The traii^ of hungry dependants who accompa- 
nied the Governors from the parent state, were, perhaps, 
more prejudicial to the community in Brazil, than even tne 
convicts who were transported from the dungeons. Thiis, 
the administration of justice, which in Portural was in- 
fiimous, became, even worse in these colonies, wnich seemed 
to be consigned to every kind of judicial degradation. 



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Souihey^s History of Brazil. 340 

** To coanteiact," says Mr. Southey» *'the comiption of monilfl 
which so many causes concurred in producing, there was a retigious 
establishment richly endowed, and maintaining unbounded dominion 
over the minds of the people, as far. as related to points of faith and 
outward obsenrances. But it was the religion of the Romish Church, 
which contents itself with the husk of superstitioui ceremonie» and 
the chaff of superstitious works, and supports its empire by the 
boldest arts of impudent imposture. The tricks by which Joam 
Fernandes persuaded the Pemambucans that the Saints had actually 
engaged in their behalf, were borrowed from the practices of a 
Cliurch, which from the earliest ages of its history to the present 
day, has systematically juggled with the credulity of mankind. The 
monastic orders vied with each other in inventing fables, to exag- 
gerate the merits of their respective Founders and Saints ; and the 
wildest fictions of romance are not more monstrous than these le- 
^ds, which were believed by the people, approved by the Inqui- 
sition, and ratified by the Church. It would be impossible to say 
which Order has exceeded the others in Europe in this rivalry, each 
having carried the audacity of fklsehood to its utmost bounds*'* 
(p. 681—682.) 

Although the Dutch were twenty- five years in the coun- 
try, there had been very little intermixture between them 
and the Portuguese : the difference of religion was the 
great obstacle, both regarding each other's creed with con- 
tempt, mingled, however, on the part of the papists, with 
the fiercest and most intolerable abhorrence. The struggle 
which Holland carried on so long, with such inhumanity, 
and such an expense of treasure and blood, produced^ ob- 
serves our author, no benefit but that of proving, as a 
warning for other powers, how impossible it is to effect a 
permanent conquest of Brazil. A people of such deter- - 
mined nationality as the Portuguese, in such a country, are 
invincible by any human force. 

The western hemisphere, from causes which may be easily 
explained, has been almost wholly unproductive in those 
subjects to which the antiquarian is attached ; but we ap- 
prehend that some materials may be afforded by a more 
diligent search in these regions. Elias Herckmann was 
sent into the interior of Pemambuco to discover mines. 
The attempt was unsuccessful, but he was enabled to trace 
vestiges or a forgotten people, who occupied the country 
before the present race of savages, and of whom not even 
the most vague tradition had been preserved. He saw two 
huge perfectly round stones, manifestly wrought by the 
hand of man, and which had been placed by art, the one 
upon the other, the largest being the uppermost. They are 



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340 &nHhey'$ History of Brazil. 

described as sijiteen fiset in diameter, and the thickness such, 
. that a man standing on the ground could scarcely reach 
the, middle. He also noticed some other stones of such 
magnitude, that it seemed to have been impossible for any 
human strength to have moved them, yet they were piled 
up like altars.* Koster describes not onlv a rocking stone 
in the same part of the country, but he ooserves that rocks 
inscribed are to be traced in the bed of the river Paraiba. 
Mr. Soutbey adds, that rocks sculptured with the repre- 
sentations of animals, of the sun, moon, and stars, with 
bieroglyphical signs, and, if an incurious Franciscan may 
be trusted, with characters also, have recently been found 
in Guyana, the most savage part of South America, and 
hitherto the least explored. 

We have thus endeavoured to give a general view of the 
interesting account supplied in the present work, compre- 
hending the state of society in the whole range of country 
between the River of the Amazons, those of La Plata and 
Paraguay, and east towards Peru, as far as the Portuguese 
have extended their settlements or their discoveries. Of 
the execution we have little to remark but in commenda- 
tion ; the arrangement and conduct of the narrative is the 
same as that adopted in the preceding volume, published 
seven years since. The former included the interval from 
the discovery in 1500 to 1659; and the present, introduced 
\if the truce between Portugal and Holland in 1641, termi- 
nates in 1685. Many passages are distinguished by the 
splendour of eloquence, justness of thought, and acuteness 
of observation they display; and we reluctantly notice the 
. eccentricities of language to which a fondness for singularity 
has sometimes led the author. Flis £nglish or his taste, 
we might have thought, would have rejected ^' unwearU^le 
patience,'' (171) — '^ monsirositif of Romish superstition," 
(348)-^" dmamjfbrh and dangers," (S64)— " others opined^^ 
(379)-^^' depQHUwn of the Jesuits," (619)— «< acclimated by 
course of time," (643) with other the like peculiarities, that 
we must venture to denominate either solecisms or barba- 
risms^ whatever they may appear to Mr. 8outhey, accus- 
toKhed as he is to the license of poetical composition. We 
should also assume, thai ^^ the snakes, who are very name* 
rous^ and wba are akio attracted by fire," (365) is a phrase 

.■ ■ ■ .' ■ .. I.. .1. .1 .■■ 1^. » ....■.. — —■■ II ■ .wa n ,1 ....I, I ■..■!■ M . ...I ■ I ■« W.I I )■■■* ! '>■ 

* *^ Visi itermn nagtttt molis lapi^es knmano labore congesti, <^iuikis 
eti^m in BetgtiQ Drentift regio habet, quos naU4 v«ctaUoiie, nxiHik bomuiun 
tI Uluc fiepnrUrl potiiisse. •b magRitudlnem credaa: eft formd, ut Anu 
t'eferFe videantur.'* (BaHaeus, p. 21S.) 



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Souihey*$ Bisiary of BratU* 317 

not perfectly eonsistent with the modern rule in the sppli* 
cation of the personal relative; and it ghould be recollected 
by so voluminous and instructive a writer as our author, 
that the connective parts of sentences are of all others tha 
most important, as, on the ri^ht use of these, perspicuity, 
the only indispensable requisite of stvie, and, as we con** 
ceive its g;reatest beauty, necessarily depends* 

An increased interest will be felt in the perusal of the 
work from the operations which are at this time conducting, 
under the direction of the Portuguese government, beyond 
the confines of their own territory, to the left bank of the 
River of La Plata ; and it will be found by those who 
consult the history of former periods, that the measure now 
adopted by the Braganza &mily is but the revival of thtt 
ambition and policy of its ancestors, who looked with a 
jealous eye upon the treasures of the Spanish settlements, 
an alluring portion ofwhich the communication with Buenot 
Ayres had occasionally transferred to their dominions. 

In such circumstances, new motives of action arise which 
often elude the notice of the statesman, in the precipitatioii 
with which he contemplates events, amid the din and confii- 
sion of a licentious court. At Madrid the minister appears to 
have forgotten that the Portuguese will be no way auxiliary 
to the supremacy of Spain in her colonies; that a century of 
warfiure has not been sufficient to deter them from encroach* 
ments by which their avarice has been heretofore* so largely 
gratified : and he appears to have equally obliterated from 
his memory, that the insurgents themselves will favour the 
(HTOJects of the intruders. At no interval, during the pro* 
traeted experience of three hundred years, has tM prospe* 
rity of the provinces of La Plata been so much pronsoled 
as when, by the aggression of the Portuguese, th^ becaiM 
in the nearest connection with that power ; but in the mani- 
fest violation of all the laws and maxims Spain had eaidcv* 
▼oured to enforce for the maintenance of a cheerless, hope* 
less despotism; throughout her dependencies, from the rising 
to the setting sun. 

If that country should presume to flatter hsrself thai her 
late subjects will prefer returning to her unnatural bosom, 
to placing .themselves under the protection of her snpposed 
enemy, she will before long discover her mistake* WIn^* 
ever may have been the practice, from the appetite for gaia 
amonff the colonists, the theory of the government of the 
Brazils has been comparatively wise and humane; and the 
neighbouring people know how to distinguish between the 



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348 Southed s Hutorjf of Brazil. 

barbarous monopoly of the Spaniards and the liberal autbo* 
rity of the Portuguese. The treaty of (810 opened their 
harbours in the western world, to British navigation and 
commerce; and at the close of 1814, it was announced in 
Europe, that the same intercourse had been extended to 
the powers of the Continent. They have lately converted 
these colonies into an empire, and vassals into subjects; so 
that if the question arise, whether the authority of Por- 
tugal or Spain should be predominant in South America, 
what neutral nation would not prefer that the supremacy be 
conferred on the former, to the continuance of the frigid 
and unproductive, yet avaricious, tyranny of the latter. It 
has been said of Poland, that next to her existence as an 
independent state, it was advantageous to her to be under 
the sway of the imperial Alexander. We perhaps may 
entertain serious doubts of the truth of this proposition ; 
but we are at less uncertainty as to another, that, next to 
the complete emancipation of these multitudes from the 
iron sceptre of Spain, it is to be wished that they should 
devolve under the dominion of the crown of the Brazils. 
' Many important reflections will occur to the British 
reader on the perusal of this volume. He will notice with 
concern the disadvantageous comparison drawn between 
the colonial government of his native country, and that of 
Portugal. He will feel the desire that, as the unnatural 
authority assumed over distant regions, from better notions 
of the nature and relations of man, and more accurate views 
of the ground of political submisfsion, is gradually verging 
to its final disappearance and extinction, that the rule exer- 
cised by his own government may be so mild, in its charac- 
ter,ana so beneficent in its influence, as, without the horrors 
of revolution and without the miseries of warfare, to pre- 
pare the colonists for ultimate release from servitude.— 
0uch, sooner or later, must, in the progress of knowledge,- 
be the result; and those who, with us, think the period 
not to be very remote, will be anxious that, in parting with 
the power we can no longer retain, we may leave those 
favourable impressions on the hearts of our dependents, 
that may secure to us their confidence and afiection>; and 
with these, all the substantial advantages which the inter- 
course with our fellow-creatures on rational, enlightened^ 
and generous principles, will invariably confer. 



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[ '849 ] 

Art. II. — The House of Mournings a Poem; with some 
smaller Poems. Btf John Scott, 8vo. pp. 75. Lon- 
don, Taylor and Hesiey, 1817. 

tVhatbver other qualifications Mr. John Scott might be 
supposed to possess, few readers, judging from his other* 
productions, would give him credit for those of a poet : he 
IS the author of a work containing his observations and' 
opinions during a three weeks' visit to Paris, and of a num- 
ber of political papers in a country newspaper and in the 
Champion. These certainly were not of a character to in- 
duce a belief that the writer was at all fit for the element 
in which he is anxious now to place himself, unless indeed 
a few poetical exaggerations in his statements regarding 
the French capital were to be taken as specimens of his 
talent for invention. The distinguishing characteristics, 
however, of Mr. Scott's labours, more particularly of his 
periodical essays, were good sense and some shrewdness, 
without any extraordinary depth of thought or feeling, and 
without even the fervour of zeal, much less the inspiration 
of poetry. When, therefore, we took up the small produc- 
tion on our table, we felt pretty well assured, that though 
the writer had too much judgment to obtrude any thing 
positively ofiensive, and too much talent to produce any 
thing decidedly unworthy, yet that we should meet with 
nothing betokening the presence of the innate fire of poetry, 
being confident that had it existed, it must long ago have 
burst forth. It is not as if Mr. Scott had been altogether 
out of the habit of writing, and was diffident of venturing 
his opinions before the public, for he has been in the fre-^ 
quent practice of composition almost from the time he left : 
school ; and had a talent for poetry existed, it could not 
have* ^n dormant while so many ^ opportunities were 
afibrded of displaying it. Tacitus gives the character of 
Galba in four words, capax imperii nisi imperdsset; but 
we apprehend that no man could say of Mr. Scott thai he 
appeared capable of poetry until he attempted it. 

The well Known Italian proverb, tanto buon cht vol nierAe^ 
w<ll too much apply to the poem before us ; for generally its 
merit, we are afraid, is so mediocre, that readers and lovers of 
eood poetry will allow it no merit at all. The subject indeed 
18 well suited to the display of fine feelings, and to interest 
the sensibilities of our nature : the death of infancy has 
employed many of the ablest pens— but few fathers, though 
poets, have engaged in such a theme : one popular writer| 



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350 Scotfs House of Mourning. 

adverting to the importunities of gome who urged him to 
produce a monody on the death ci his wife, sUttes after- 
wards as an excuse, that he felt incapable ; that poetty 
without thought was worth nothing; and that deep ^rief 
predadied the possibility of refleetioo, and more especially 
of the fiM:titiaiiis clothing in which it was invested by poNetry: 
*< a man who feels a great deal," says he, *^ can write a 
very little;" and that ^' true grief is silent," has become a 
proverb from the days of the poet who used the expression. 
Alitton did not begin his Lyeidas until about nine months 
after the melancholy event it celebrates ; yet there he only 
niQumed for the untimely loss of a college friend. We are 
not so uncharitable as to imply that Mr. Scott is not bitterly 
sorrowful for the loss of his son, but only that he would 
have evidenced it more had he not taken so much pains to 
convinee the world of its depth and its sincerity. But Mr. 
Scott had mother object — if Lord Bacon could say of such 
mea aa Cieero, Seneca, and Pliny, that ^^ their &me would 
not have borne her age so well, if it had not been joined 
with s<Hne vaniiy in themselves," we may observe, without 
offence to the feelings of Mr. Scott, that in penning the 
poem in our hands, he had an eye to his own refrntation ; 
if he were desirous of giving vent to his flood of griei^ he 
wae of course anxio«» to do it in such a way as would add 
something to his literary character. In the pre&ce he 
states^ titot he ^' felt inclined to venture the present publi- 
caticm as a nwnument of the dead," though he also tells us 
that a stone piUbr has been erected over the body of his soit 
19 the cemetery of the P6ffe la Chaise at Parb. The House 
of Mourning is dedkated to Dr. Darling, who it seems had 
attended Paul (such was the name m the author's son) 
during some illness^ in London ; and at page 40, Mr. Scott, 
adverting to tiie scene of his dead child uoon the bed, thiie 
states hift reasodDt^ for writing al all, and tor writing to Dr. 
lading. 

•* The picture in its inspiration gave 
Two tfaoughtBy that singly can e'ercome the mind : 
It brought together genius — ^and the grave, — 
Antf 8«t the spirit seeking — not to fiira I 
F said; my friend, tliat I would sing of it^ — 
^or tliea I hew*d me, though I mm not hit) 
iind faitfafal to my promise now^ Vm found, 
WiUiag to draw a witness from my wound, 
J» §KfSax of thy truth of heart and hand.; — 
Nee Wilt thou deem it tdvial evidence. 



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Stoles House of Mourning. S5I 

That I could o*er his laid*out body staod> 

And have of thee, and of thy works a sense. 

I brac'd nyself, in sheer despair of cure. 

To pride, because thy fame would still endure V* 
» 

The reasons do not appear to us either very clear or very 
satisfactory. The words '' though I was not AiY,'' were in- 
troduced, we suppose, only for the rhyme, and therefore we 
have no riffht to require an explanation of them : with 
regard to Dr. Darling's fame. Mr. Scott perhaps hoped 
that his own would be as durable. 

\ However great may be the number of elegiac effusions, 
and however various their merits, Mr. 8cott at least has 
exceeded all that have come within our knowledge in 
length : with a few exceptioi^s, a sonnet, or two or three 
stanzas, have been deemed a sufficient tribute; but here no 
less than two-and-fifty pages are travelled over by the 
avtbor, who seems to delight ia particulsMrising the minutest 
cireuflutances in the riae, progrens, and sad condusioii of 
the illness of bis son. Througheii^t thene is an efEDrt ta 
OMike every little point tell to the utmost, by working 
up every trifling incident as if it were of the highest value 
and importance: nothiiiff is omitted that could possibly have 
added to the eflect; and here it is that the ingenuity and 
talent of Mr. Scott is particularly observable, though he 
was not eaual to the arrangement and management; of the 
materials ne himself procured : if pampa mortis plus terret 
quam mors ipsa^ Mr. Scott has succeedjed in carrying to the 
utmost pitch all the circumstances that make de^itb fearful. 
We will|;ive several extracts seriatim from the prodnction : 
to state that they are the best we could select woujd not be 
so correct as to say that they ai«as good as any others to 
be found in a poem which is remarkable for its general 
equality. It opens with affected simplicity, with the words 
^^ Our little boy is dead !'' and then proceeds as follows :-«• 

** Yes, — ^we have lost ths^ gfntle, laitblul child, 
Whom doatiag tc^idecness oouU never spoily 
So good he was in heart, so undefil'd I 
He to his mother never turn*d his head. 
But love^ sttfomission, and content to sfflie. 

" And to his wearied Atber no one knows 
How much be was : — ^this let me aom deelane. 
The garden of our bo{)es has lost its roae ; 
Our path leads ao where ; — aU the view is hfire ! 

Crit. Rbv. Vol. V. Jpril, 1817. 2 Z 



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35t ScotVs House of Mourning. 

Otkv hearts beat dull, wanting their vital air ; 

No voice replies to our accustom'd call : 

We can have nought, — for we can nothing share 

With him, — whose part in what we had was all 

It was to us : — he made it great, sweet boy» though smaN. 

" But can it be !— shall we ne'er see that face ! 
Fresh-priuted still his footsteps we can trace; 
Can we not catch him at some favourite place ! 
Here are his signs, and tokens, all around ; 
Oil, let us seek him, he may yet be found ; 
Ob, let us listen for his gladdening sound ! 
His hasty voice, springing on wings to greet us : 
His grateful run, quick as his heart to meet us: — 
No, no, — he lies in nook of foreign ground ; 
Mute, cold, and lonely, — in a sheet.he's bound!" (p. 3 — 4.) 

What succeeds is but an expansion of the often-quoted 
reply of Constance to the French King, when he told her» 
<^ You are as fond of grief as of your child," and she an- 
swered, " Grief fills the room up of my absent child," &c- 
(King John, Act iii.) It would have been very difficult for 
a man of more originality than Mr. Scott to have steered 
dear of this shoal. The following is a pretty description 
of the boy, his affections and employments : — 

" These are not words of course ; 
Those who know him well know their force: 
His look of life and pleasure well they knew, 
That mark'd him for himself, special and true ; 
That made his name convey to every ear 
A creature only found when Paul was near. 
Oh, he was ours by habit and by heart. 
So that it seemed impossible to part ! 
He was a presence never out of sight. 
First object in the morning, last at night; 
Our fellow-traveller when from home we went, 
On every little service he was sent ; 
And every round our ways his eyes would hover. 
Like watching cherub, or like anxious lover. 
Excuse for busy doings to discover. 

" Glad harbinger was he when friends would call, — 
Flinging a ray, like sunshine on a wall, — 
Glancing in comers, dartuig on the floor. 
Chasing our goings, playing round our door ; 
Midst storms and troubles, still a shining spot. 
Which threw a heat, and lightened all our lot. 



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Scott*s House of Mourning. 353 

. Unconscious of each foul and evil thing, 
' He drew around our lives a hallow'd ring, 
Within whose bounds, when gnef or want assaiPd, 
We stood, and found a charm that never faii*d. 
Oh, native fragrance, more enjoy'd than told ! 
Blest spark of warmth, o'er which we cower*d when cold I 
Sweetest diffusion of domestic balm. 
Our table's olive-branch, our parlour's palm ! 
His silver tongue struck every short hour's close. 
Round which a shadowy hand now dumbly goes : 
A stated sammoner, with> looks of light. 
To duties, and to pleasures he made bright; 
T* share his tasks, his sports, his handinesses. 
To meet for him each care that tries yet blesses 
The parental heart ; — unlike that foundering sorrow. 
Which sinks to-day, to anchor down to-morrow/' 

(p. 10~12.) 

Mr. Scott is an imitator of Mr. Wordsworth, and, like 
other imitators, falls into the usual error of considering 
defects beauties, or of ^o exaggerating what in itself is 
excellent, as to render it absurd : thus, an unaffected style 
adapted to the subject is good, and is the verj source of 
good poetry, as far as expression is concerned ; but to ex- 
aggerate it to mere simplicity and insipidity, as is dpne by 
most of the followers of the system of Mr. Wordsworth, is 
onl^ to render ludicrous what in truth is admirable : inju- 
dicious supporters of a new system more retard its progress 
than its avowed opponents. This error will have been 
noticed in the extracts above made; but the subsequent 
highly-wrought passage has a fault of another kind, viz. 
that it is only a dilatation (though by no means an unhappy 
one) of a poem by Mr. Wordsworth, entitled •* We are 
Seven,'' in which the author, by a familiar illustration, 
shews how incomprehensible a thing death is to children. 
Mr. Scott's expansion of the idea is this : — 

** As time grew short with him, we felt it worth. 
In real import, ages of the earth ; 
For what we had, ^we measur*d by its loss. 
And then the gold is greater than the dross. 
Facts, thoughts, imaginations, crowding came ; 
Careless of date or distance, in they burst 
At once, — as if they were a whirling flame 
They kindled altogether,-*last and first. 
Our spirits laboured, and we felt them choke. 
For they were full of all he'd done and spoke. 



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3S4 Seoifi House ofMaurfiiug. 

Since those blue eyes firftt smil'd Upon t^e light. 

That now were closing slow, iti eeaseless, bopekssi, night: 

He was too goiktie even to iSght w iUn death. 

But hard it is to drew the dregs of hreath. 

And hard he drew them, — 9oA we had ito aid 

for UiB whoiie breath to us had iniisic made ; — 

Wlio never had a thought that lie could be 

Beyond our reach to help, our si|^t to see ; 

Who luiew himself but in our anxious tending. 

Amusing, and providing, and defending ; 

Who had it not witUn bis simple heart 

That he could thus be forced to depart 

From his dear mother, from the happy day. 

From love, from sights, from the fresh m, from |ilay : 

He saw the Sun continue in the sky. 

And while it shone, how should he thiak to die ! 

To all his childish wants he knew we'd give, — 

How should he ever want the means to live ! . 

Death was a word he heard but could not feel. 

He never had a wound we did not heal. 

He slept to wiijie, and well be knew that whfle 

H.e slept, we'd come, and wliispering look ^ and smik. 

Death was a word, but meaning less to him. 

He lived in spirit as he lived in limb ; 

Air was to freshen, — water was to flow, — 

The fields to brighten, and the flowers to grow ; 

Time was to bring him what he wish'd to nnd^ 

Lips were to laugh, and faces to look kind ; 

Strange places show'd him what he long'd to see. 

And home retum'd him where he lik'd to be ; 

The world went round, — he gladly went with it,-^ 

And we went still with him, — and all was fit/' (p. 20-- ^2.) 

After several other ^^ farewell^/' Mr Scott at length arrives 
at bifi conclusipn, which is in these words : — 
" Once 4(nore farewell ! — 'tis true that I had hope 
To climb witli thee the upward mountain-slope. 
And triumph in the transport of thine eye. 
Matching the blue of an Italian sky, — , 

See thy blest face spread with a youn? amaze. 
When wonders all unthought -of struck thy ga2e,— 
And hear thee all thy simple feelings tell, 
Forc'd iiito words by the pure bosom's swell — 
Or watch thee look, and listen silently — 

" But why continue f — such was not to be ;— ^ 

And all is now reduced to tliis 

Objects remain but their glory we miss ; 



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MaMi$crUdeSi. ffehm. IM 

I'he 8urliice extends, biit the liMttre hath Timiih^cly-^ 

W€ afifiear lo abkk, but our spirits arc baiiiisheri ; 

We have b«arts, but no moie are lliey fsiwkmg or swriliog* 

They rot in disu&e like a teiiaBtless dwelling ; 

The spring of our water-course is liry, 

And our harvest-field must fallow lie, — 

We have turned o'er the leaf to find a blank paii^e,-^ 

The staff of our youth hath dropped down from our age/ 

(p. 61— 6ft.) 

The forefi^oing specimens ^ill be BuffiGient to enable o«if 
readers to judge of the frbol<e piece^ which we should n#l 
have reviewed at so nsach length but for the sinoere rested 
we entertain for the character and talents of the mvtber | 
though we nu8t saj in conclusion, as we obsenred in the 
commencement, that they are not well adapted to peetkal 
composition. It is obvious from the metre of the lines onlVi 
that he has had bat little practice in this fciad, and should 
he again come before the public, he will be able to corl^ct 
some inaccuracies and inelegancies of style which cannel 
have escaped the attention of our readers^ and which there** 
fore we need not point oat : one instance out of several of 
false grammar shall suffice, and it is rendered more promi*« 
nent by a capital letter : he inquires, ^' could it be Us who 
would his term prolong," &c. putting the pronoun iifter 
the verb substantive, in the accusative case. 

After all, had Mr. Scott postponed his attempt for a 
short time, and not written so immediately after the event, 
his poem would probably have more contributed to the 
advancement of his reputation ; the reproductioi^ of otteit 
existing feelings, and the reflection upon past scenes bjf 
which the mind is raised to new energy and sympathy, have 
been the origin of better poems, more especially of this 
dasB, than have ever flowed from strong and immediate 
impressions, which in some degree incapacitate the nltder^ 
standing. 

Four smaller pieces are appended to J%e Housi of 
Mournings but their merit beyond that of the principal 
piece in the collection^ does not entitle them to partieulaf 
notice. 



Art. III. — Manuscrit venu de St, Hdency d*une maniir€ 
inconnue* 8vo. pp. 151. London, Murray, 1817. 

Is it the fhct that this work is from St. Helena, and from 
the pea of Nepoteoa ? Let us look to the extemtd eirideiic* 



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9S§ Mdmiscrit de St Hekne. 

first; the internal will be supplied in our review of the 
contents. It is in favour of its voyage that it appears just 
at the time when M. Huissierdu Cabinet, Santine, makes 
his appearance ; affording a natural channel for its convers- 
ance, and to give it circulation he might consider among 
the " devoirs sacres" he was bound to perform. A thou- 
sand conjectures may be hazarded, but one only can be the 
winner. If we are rightly informed, M. Santine professes 
himself to be in no degree acquainted with this Manuscrit; 
he never saw it, nor heard of it; and it is as new to the 
Huissier du Cabinet de FEmpereur as it is to the Briti&k 
public. Further, says this confidential servant, his patron 
18 enraged on a voluminous account of his life and actions, 
which, it should seem, this brief outline would render less 
interesting by the foretaste it would give to the keen appe- 
tite of curiosity, which would otherwise be reserved in all 
its vehemence for the more elaborate production. 

But supposing it to possess the character of autography 
to which it pretends, what says the Manuscrit as to the 
motives of the publication ? Are they worthy of the alleged 
author, and probable in his situation ? The introductory 
paragraph purports to assign his reasons. 

" Je donne (he says) le precis de ccs ^v^nemeiis, parceque mon 
caract^re et roes intentions peuvent ^tre ^trangement d^figures, et jc, 
tiens ^ ptraitre tcl que j'ai ^te aux yeu\ de mon fils, cotiime k ceux 
delapost6rit6." (p. 1.) 

The first inducement stated for this abstract is a natural 
one, to avoid misrepresentation; but the rest is illusory 
and absurd. What judgment could the infant sou have' 
formed of the motives and conduct of the father, and how* 
can posterity have entertained any opinion at all ? The last 
clause, to be any way intelligible, should be cleared of a 
grammatical inaccuracy that must be obvious to every 
reader. 

Be the writer who he may, he appears to us to have too 
much elevation of thought to descend to the petitesse of 
low punning; and our persuasion is that he never meant to 
deceive, as to the genuineness of the authority, those who 
were not obstinately determined to be deluded. Qui vuU. 
decipi decipiatur was his feeling, and he deemed it to be of 
little consecjuence if such were misled. 

Ifwe attribute to the author constant boldness of thought, 
we do not mean to give him credit for uniform correctness 
of judgment ;^ and ine . union of confidence and error is m > 



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Manuscrii de JSi. Helene, S57 

coincidence that would tend to refer the work to the pre- 
tended writer, if other circumstances did not resist the ini- 
presaion. In the peculiar daring spirit, likewise, with 
which he advances his fallacies, he shews that contempt for 
the sentiments of mankind by which Napoleon, in the 
zenith of his prosperity, was remarkably distinguished; 
trusting that wliat was deficient in truth would be supplied 
by audacity. Such singularities shew that the composer 
has not studied neglio^ently his prototype: be evidently has 
endeavoured to identify himself with his original ; and his 
success in the attempt will gratify and astonish every reader. 
The production is like a portrait from a skilful hand; and 
it is not children only that will be the dupes of the dexterity 
of the artist. 

Why is our sensibility actively awakened by such a cha- 
racter as Buonaparte ? The answer is found in a writer of 
the- last century: ^' On aime a voir la petite source d'un 
torrent qui a monde pr6s de la moiti6 de Themisph^re." 
But this work is not only curious as an adroit personifica- 
tion of Napoleon^ or as an explanation of the prodigies of 
history in which he was concerned; it is so, as afibrding a 
summary of the events during his rule, which, as far as 
we have observed, is executed with equal taste and accu- 
racy. It exhibits transactions of the greatest magnitude 
and deepest interest in the short period of the interregnum 
of France, — if indeed so it may be called. But what op- 
probrium is there in the distinction ? Whether we look to 
Britain, America, Spain, or France, at the time when they 
are described as headless trunks, incapable of all action, 
we find them stultifying the adulation of the courtly histo- 
rian, and exerting those masculine energies which seem 
only to belong to such situations. With the establishment 
of new trials, the abolition of feodal tenures, and the art 
of navigation, which had their origin with our own inter- 
regnum, we have at present no concern ; but what was the 
neighbouring state in the reign of Louis XV. ? " Cette 
nation avilie," says Helvetius, ^< est aujourd'hui le mepris 
de r Europe. Nulle crise salutaire," he adds in despair, 
^^ ne lui rendr& la liberty." We admit that innumerable 
errors at this moment prevail in the government of France ; 
but it is in a condition of triumph and exaltation compared 
with the disgrace and abasement in which it continued to 
the time of the Revolution. So important is this crisis, 
that all former history is thrown into shade ; and we dis- 
toyer, in the hasty lapse of twenty years, not only a con- - 



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S08 ManuHrit de St Mekn^* 

peii4i«iD of liitnifliA vicissjliide, but of buinafi pdiflyr? 
ev€rj potsiUe oiMiige in the afiatrs of mankiml seems t» 
hare been pnoducedy and every maxim by which their 
QMidQot ooiftld have been negtiiated appears to have bee» 
adopted. 

The work commeiioes with the inbaoy of the assumed 
autognapber. 

" Ma vie a 6t6 si ^tonnante que les admirateurs de moa pouvoir 
out pens^ que men enfajKe m^me avait ^t^ extraordinaire. lis se 
sont tromp^s. Mes premieres ann^es n'ont rien en de singulier. Je 
q'^tais qu'un enfant obstin6 et curieux. Ma premiere Education a 
^^ pitoyable, comme tout ce qu*on faisait en Corse. J*ai appris 
aissez facilem^nt le Praa^ais, p^r les militaires de la gamison, avec 
les-quels je passais mon terns. 

** Je r^ussissais dans ce que j'entrepreaais pareeque je le wiufaus : 
ipes voleat^s ^ient fortes, et mon caractere dhciai^ Je a'h^sitBJA 
jfiipyais ; oe qui m*a donpi6 de Tav^u^age sur tout le monde." (p. 2.)> 

la the concluding^ sentence, rashness of determination^ 
and promptitude of decision, appear not to be sufficientlj 
distinguished. The first important action in which Buona- 
parte was engag;ed, was the siege of Toulon : he was then 
commaiider of a battalion. The plan of attack was sub- 
mitted to Barras, ^nd approved by him ; but the destruc- 
tion attending it was deemed to be a matter of little conse^ 
Quence, since ^^ la Convention ne lui deraandait pas compte 
des bras et des jambes mais du succes/' The narrative of 
the event is short. 

** Mes artilieuis 4taieapt braves^ et sans expMenee. C'est la niell- 
leui« de teuAes les <tisppsitions pcMir Jes soldats, Nos attaques r6u8* 
silent; I'leiiQemi s'latimidait ; il a'osait plus rien tenter coatre nous. 
II nous enroyait b^temeat des bouiets, (|ui tooibaient oix lis pouvaient, 
et ^e servaient k rien. Les feux que je dingers allaient mieux au 
but. J*y mettais beaucoup de z^le» pareeque j'en attendais mon 
ava^cemenl: : j'aimab d'aiUeurs le succ^s pour lui-m^me. Je pas- 
sais nion terns aux batteries ; je dormais dans nos ^paulemens. On 
ne fetit bien que ce qu'on fait soi-m^me. I^s prisoaniers nous ap- 
preoaaient que toat aJhut aa diable dans la place. On I'^vacua 
eafia d*uoe maaiha effroyaMe.*' (p. 10.) 

BuoMP^rt^ njow obtained raak, and the writer thus char 
rii^gt^i?^^ the government bj wbich it was conferred. 

^ Neas afions bien m6iM de la patrie. On me fit g^n^ral d^- 
biiijada. Je fas empleyd, d^aoac^, destittt^y ballottfe, par les in- 
trigues et las Actieaa. Jepnt en honeur ranarahie qai ^it alofs k ' 
sea aanibK ^ j^ ^^ "^ ^^ i^Moais raaoaiDBiodi aiee eHe. €>e« 



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Mahuscrii de $L Ildefit. 350 

%6Wf^tattAtni niassacreur m'^tait d'autant plus aniipatbique qu'il 
Itkit absurdif, et se deVArait lui-id^me. C'^tait une r^volutieo per- 
p^tueil^, dottt I'es iheneiirs ile cherchaient pas seulement k s'^tablir 
d^une mani^re permaneute/' (p. 11.) 

The particulars which led to the matriag^ of the yo^ng 
^neral, and th^ motives assigned For it, we must not omit, as 
they shew this extraordinary roan under circumstandes id 
whtch he has been rarely seen— if indeed this account may be 
cotisidered as entitled to (if edit. It is among the disadvan- 
tages of mystery, that wherever it is assumed, truth itself 
partakes of the obscurity. History, even in its least ques- 
tionable form, is listened to with hesitation. '^ Toute cer- 
titude, dui n'est pas demonstration mathematique," says the 
sceptical philasopher, ^^ n'est qu'une extreme probabilite. 
II n'y a d'autre certitude historique." The passage we 
refer to is as follows. 

** Je n'^tais pas insensible aux charmes des feninies^ mais jusqu'a. 
lors elles ne m'avaient pas gdt^ ; et men caract^re me rendait timide 
aupr^s d'eiles. Mad. de Beauharnais est ia premiere qui m'ait ras- 
sur^. Elle m'adressa des choses flatteuses sur mes talens miiitaires, 
uo jour oil je me trouvai piac6 aupr^s d*elle. Cet ^loge menivra; 
je m'adressai continuellement si elle ; je la suivais partout ; j*en etais 
passionement amoureux, et notre society le savait dej£l, que j'etais 
encore loin d*6ser le lui dife. 

** Mon sentiment s'^bruita; Barras m*en parla. Je n'avais pas de 
raisons pour le nier. * En ce cat/ me dit-il, ' il faut que \6m ^pou- 
siez Mad. de Beauharnais. Vous avez un grade et des talens k faire 
valoir ; mais vous ^tes idoI6, sans fortune, sans rehtioas ; — il faut 
vousi marier— cela donne de Taplomb. Mad. de Beauhartiais est 
agr^abie et spirituelle, mais elle est veuve. Cet 6tat ne vaut plus' 
rien aujourd'hui; les feromes ne jouent plus de r61e ; il ifaut qu elles 
i^'marient pour avoir de la consistance. Vous avez du caract^re ; 
vous ferez votrez cbemin ; — vous liii convenez ; — voulez-vous me 
• charger de cette n^sociatioii V 

•* Tattendis h reponse avec mxihL Elle fut favorable : M4d. 
de Beauharnais m*accordait sa main, et sll y a eu des moment 
derbonheutdansnia vie, c'est ^ elle que je les ai d^.** (p. 13— .15.) 

The subsequent paragraphs appear to us to be correctly 
indicative of the policv of Buonaparte at the period of the 
Revolution to which they refer* 

'« J* paafsAl le P5 k rtaisanfcfe, et VAdAi ktodV, cfe ne fut pa4 
s^H^peines, mais B^aulieu seretira, et j'eiitfai dans Milan. 

** Les Autrichiens firent des efforts iiiier«>yables pour r^prendr^' 
ritalie. Je fas oblig^ de d^iaire cinq fob leurs anuses pour en vtnir 
ik,-bout 

Cbit- Rev. Vol. V. April, 1817. » A 

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360 Mamiscrit de St, Helene. 

*• Maitre de Tltalie. il fallait y 6tablir le sysl^mc de la Revolurj 
tion, afin d'attirer ce pays k la France, par des principes et des in- 
t^r^ts coramuns : c*est-^-dire qu'il fallait y detruire Tancieo regime 
pour y ^tablir I'egalite ; parcequ'elle este la cheville ouvri^re df la 
Revolution. J'allais done avoir sur les bras le clerg^, la noblesse, 
et tout ce qui vivait k leur table. Je prevoyais ces resistances, et 
je r^solus de les vaiacre par Tautorit^ des armes, et sans ameuter le 
peuple. 

** J'avais fait de grandes actions, mais il fallait prendre une atti- 
tude et un langage anologue. La Revolution avait d^truit chez nous 
toute espece de dignite ; je ne pouvais pas rendre k la France une 
pompe royale: je lui donnai le lustre des victoires, et le langage du 
inaltre." (p. 18— 19.) 

He IS represented as considering the day on which the 
victory of Marengo was gained to be the happiest of his life. 

" Cejoura6te le plus beau de ma vie; car il a ^t^ un des phis 
beaux pour la France. Tout etait chang^ pour elle avait conquise. 
Elle s^endormait comrae uu lion. Elle allait ^tre beureuse ; parce- 
qu'elle 6tait grande. 

** Les factions semblaient se taire ; tant d*6clat les 6toufFdit. La 
Vendue se pacifiait; les Jacobins ^taient forces de me remercier de 
ma victoire ; car elle etait k leur profit. Je n'avais plus de rivaux.'' 
(p. 33.) 

It is curious to observe the reasoning by which the most 
pemicioua and oppressive maxims of his government are 
defended. ^^ I organized the conscription, a rigorous but 
dignified institution," says this writer, " and alone worthy 
of a people cherishing their glory and their freedom." 

Speaking of Hanover, he is made to complain of th^ 
Prussians, for requiring from him what was not his to con- 
fer; yet while he justifies on this ground the withholding 
it from them, he is made to assert that he took upon himself 
to bestow it elsewhere. The work abounds in such contra* 
dictions in principle and practice, and to which the author 
seems to be wholly insensible. 

While the writer is blind to such moral inconsistencies, 
many errors of judgment are frankly confessed, and some are 
gratuitously assumed and unnecessarily acknowledged. It 
was the policy of ancient Rome to allow the forms of the 
governments she subdued to remain, and the native princes 
to exercise a temporary authority, whatever future plans 
the might project for their humiliation. The principle here 
recommended is the reverse. 

^ Ainsi j'anniis d^ changer, d'uoe part, la formtet le personnel 

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Manu9crii de St, Helene. 961 

Ae tout les 6tats que la guerre mettait dans mes mains, pareequ'on 
ne fait par des revolutions en gardant les m^mes bommes et les 
m^oies cboses. J'^tais don« si^r, en consertant ces gouvernemens, 
de les avoir toujours contre moi : c'6taient des ennemis que je res^ 
sascitaisi" (p. 77—78.) 

The maxim proposed in the next paragraph is much less 
questionable in its operation, and to it he was indebted for 
the entire devotion of Wurtemberg and Bavaria to hi» 
cause, to the time when his falling fortunes left them no 
hope of the continuance of his protection. 

** Si je voulais, d*autre part, garder ces gouvememens, f^iute d« 
mieux. il hllUt les rendre complices de ma grandeur, en leur faisant 
accepter, avec mon alliance, des territoires et des titres." (p. 78.) 

It was not. until the immediate power of Napoleon ex- 
tended from the Adriatic to the mouths of the Weser, and: 
his intermediate influence throughout the continent of 
Europe, that he thought it prudent to aim a fatal blow 
at British commerce. Then it was that the Continental 
System was adopted, which, in the words of this writer, 
" avait decide les Anglais a nous faire guerre a mort." 

" Le principe vital de la resistance 6tait en Angleterre. Je n'avaiy 
aucun mo}en de Tattaquer corps k corps, et j'^tais sflr que la guerre 
se renouvellerait sur le continent, tant que le minist^re Anglais 
aurait de quoi en payer les frais. La chose pouvait durer long-tems, 
parce-que les benefices de la guerre alimentaieut la guerre. C'^tait 
un cercle vicieux, dont le r^sultat eta it la ruine du continent. II 
iallait done trouver un moyen de detruire les benefices que la guerre* 
maritime valatt k TAngleterre, afin de miner le credit du minist^re. 
On me proposa, dans ce but, le syst^me continental. II me parnt 
bon, et je Tacceptai. Pen de gens ont compris oe syst^me. On 
s'est obstin^ k n'y voir d'antre but que celui de rencb6rir le caffe. II 
devait avoir de toutes autres consequences. 

** II devait miner le commerce Anglais. En cela il a mal fait son 
devoir, parce-qull a produit, comme toutes les prohibitions, un ren^ 
ch^rissement ; ce qui est toujours k Tavantage du commerce ; et 
parcequ'il ne put ^tre assez completement ^tabli pour bannir la con- 
trebande." (p. 81-82.) 

It is -true that, at the period to which we are referring, 
England was without ostensible auxiliaries ; but she was 
not without secret allies, for she had for her confederates 
all the enemies of the French Revolution and Usurpation ; 
and the contraband system, which was the effect and riral 
of the continental, began to be organized under circuiii* 



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369 Mamfcrit de St. ffelisnt. 

8^aac^,9 of regularity and success, that madie it an effectual 
cpuutcrpoise to ^ts poiupetitor. 

Th^ sityi^tiw of tilings brings us to the closing acenep of 
the glory of Napoleon, for it conducts us to Russia ; re- 
specting which country we have this arrogant ^nd impious 
declaration, copsi^ning her again to )[>urbarism. 

*' J'avais calculi que la Rus»6 6tait d*uD trop gros volume pour 
qu'elle pi^t jamais entrer dans le systeme europ^en que je venais de 
raaire^ et dout la France 6tait le centre. 11 tallait done la remettre 
en dehors de TEurope pour qu^elle ne gMt pas TiMiit^ de ce sys^ 
t^me. II fallait donner k cette nouvelle demarcation politique des 
fronti^jes assez solides pour r6sister au poids de toute la Russie. II 
fidlaii remettre de force cet 6tat dans la place qu'il occupait il y a 
centans." (p. 116.) 

In a very few lines his progress from Paris to Moscow is 
described, to effect this-inhuuian purpose. 

** J'6tai8 k la t^te d'une arrn^ qui ne cqnn^iss^it plus d*9utfe« 
sentimens que celui de la gloire, et plus d'autre patrie que Ifs 
champs de bataille. At| lieu d'^^surer men terrein^ et d'avancer h 
toup Bdr, je traver9ai la Pologne, et passai le Ni^men. Je battif. 
les armies qu*on m*opposa ; je marchai sans rel^che> et j'entrai dans 
Moskow* 

*• Ce Alt le ^rme de ipes succ^s^ ^t 9'aurait dft ^trc ce|ui de ma 
Tin." (p. 119.) 

His disappointment is attributed to variqus cause?. " Un 
Fran^ais tombe par hazard sur le trone de Su^de trahit Ifs 
interlts de sa patrie ;" iq the retreat froq:^ Mqspoav he lost 
I^alf the army which had h^n the terror of Europe, find 
he was not sufficiently aware of the revival of the '< et^litipn 
eternelle." Bttt hope returned, and he appeared again at 
the head of an army, although '^ plus belliqueuse qu* aguer- 
rie." He yet retained Italy, Holland^ and the greater 
part of Germany when terras of peace were proposed by 
Austria, with the concurrence of Great Britain, and thf 
conditions are stated. 

^ Les conditions en 6taient supportables en apparence, et bean- 
eoup d'q^utres k ma plape le^ auraient avc^pt^es. Car on ne dc- 
mandait que la restitution des provinces Illyriennes, et des villeii 
Ans^atiques; la nomination de souverains in d^pendans dans les 
royaumes dltalie et de HoUande ; la retraite de r£spagne, et h 
retour du Pape k Rome. On devait me demander en ouire dt 
rcBoncer k la conftd^ration du Rbin, et ^ la m^daation de la Suisse; 
■us on mk Mxke da oidfr sut cea deux aittclea.*' (p* 19d~rl34*y 



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Mamticrit d$ Si. ffdene. 868 

TJie offer was rejeoted, aad soon fallowed ike hattk of 
Leipeic, oi nicNre importance than tbal of GratiaiGiiB or 
Waterloo, or any other in the protracted and eaofufaiarj 
history of ancient or modem warfare. The misfortune of 
that day is briefly and frankly described, and with the pencil 
of a master. 

^* Notre position n'^tait pss boone* parceque nous Miom attaqu^t 
en demi-circle. La victoire m^me ne pouvait pas avoir de grands 
r^suhats pour nous. Nous etunes en effet Tavanftage le premier 
jour; mais sans pouvoir rcprendre roffen^ive. O'^tait done une 
bataille nulle, et il falhit la reeommencer. L/ami6e se battait bten 
malgr^ sa lassitude ; mais alors^ par un aote que ia post^rit^ d^if^ 
nera corame eiie voudra, les allies qui se battaient dans nos rangs 
tourn^rent iaopin^ment leurs annes cootve notia» et nous ftunaa 
▼•incus." (p, l?7— 128.) 

The retreat from Saxony bad cost as many lives to tho 
fugitive arm^ as that from Russia, France was not pre- 
pared to resist the pursuing enemy; but had her fortifi- 
cations been in the best state of defence, the concession of 
the Swm^ by allowing to the allies the passage of the 
Rhine, would have rendered all such means ineffectual. 
The Bridge of Basle resounded with the artillery and ca^ 
Talry of the victorious troops, and the contest was recom-* 
menced at Langres. 

At this time the mistakes of Bonaparte were more ap.. 
parent. Confident of success in Crermany, he had left hia 
garrisons in that country, and he could derive firom them no 
support. In Italy he had yet a powerful army^ hut that alaa 
was inapplicable to his immediate purposea ; yet such waa 
the respect or alarm of the allies, that even in this state of 
abandonment and distress, thev offered peace at Chatillon. 
But prudence bad deserted Bonaparte under the reversea 
of fortune, and he yet vainly flattered himself that he shoaldl 
re-establish his eagles on the Rhine. He was in the sequel 
convinced of his error. 

'* Ms^ perte 6tait d6cid6e. Un courier^ que j'avais infN'adem- 
laent adress^ k rimp^ratricey tomba dans les mains dc;s alU^s^ II 
Vdui fit voir qu'ils ^taient perdus. Un Corse^ qui se trouvait dans 
leur conseil, kur apprit que la prudence £tait plus dangerause que 
Taudace. lis prirent le seal parti que je n'avais. pas priviv par- 
ceque c'^tait le seul bon. lis gagn^rent Tavance, et march^rent sur 
?aris. 

'* La cauae d^ la R^volutW^ 6^ perdn^ poisqat j'^tais vaiaiHi^ 
€e 9'^taimt nile^ royali^tfes, m leuppbrowb 9i 1^ ia/ifost«its^ %a% 



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35* Br. Griffith on Hepatitii. 

m'avtieDt retivers^ : e'^taient les ann6es eniemies. Les allies ^taient 
maitres du monde, puisque je ne leur disputais plus cet empire. 

** J'^tais k Fontainebleau^ entour^ d'une troupe fiddle, mais pea 
nombreuse. J*aurais pu tenter encore aTec elle ie sort des combats, 
ear elle 6tait capable d'actions h^roiques. Adais la France aurait 
pay6 trop cher le plaisir de cette vengeance. £Ile aurait eu le 
droit de m'accuser de ses maux. Je veux qu'elle ne m'accuse que 
de la gloire oii j'ai port6 son nom. Je me r^signai. (p. 131 — 138.) 

The work afterwards details the motives which led to 
the enterprize from Elba, andi t seems to be considered a 
aolitary instance of such an experiment; but those who 
have consulted the later annals of Roman history, will 
recollect an extraordinary resemblance in the circumstances 
which gave Severus the empire of Rome, and restored to 
Napoleon the sceptre of France. The number of his 
Attendants, the incidents of his march, the precautions of 
his policy, and the particulars of his admission into the 
^pital, rorm a counterpart so remarkable that we are sur- 
prized the similitude, we had almost said the identity, has 
escaped the notice of the writers of our time. 

Whether this production be to be attributed to Madame 
de Stael, to Schleigel, or to whomsoever it may be ascribed, 
the general and rapid narrative it supplies, and the diver- 
ilified and innumerable incidents it comprehends, if it 
afford few lessons applicable to private life, suggests many 
referable to the policy of the age in which we live, and the 
country to which we belong The character described 
commits many mistakes of judgment, and many more of 
principle ; but his errors are those to which a great mind 
IS most prone, whether they be in opinion or feeling, whe- 
ther of the understanding, or of the heart. 

Akt. IV.— y^w Essay on the Common Cause and Prevention 
. of Hepatitis^ or Disorder of the JLiver, and of Bilious 
Complaints in general^ as well in India as in Europe. 
With an Appendix^ particularly addressed to the Medical 
Profession^ recommending the old Submuriates of Mer» 
cury^ in preference to those now in use. By Charles 
Griffith, M. D. Deputy Inspector of Hospitals^ and 
late Senior Surgeon to the Forces, 8vo. pp, 20?. Lon- 
don, Highley and Son, 1816. 

In proceeding to a 'review of this essay, our attention ia 
first drawn towards the preface ; and contrasting some ob- 
aervaiions there to be found, with the general aspect and 



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Dr. Griffith on Hepditii. J65 

character of the book, we cannot entirely reooncile ih% 
author's profession of hatred to the trade of book-making 
with his peiforroance : for, in the first place, though the 
volume is indeed an octavo, yet in order to eke out a re- 
spectable number of pages, the letter- press is contracted 
into a scanty duodecimo form ; and then an appendix of 
forty-four pages, addressed particularly to the medical pro- 
fession, rather than the public should be taxed with another 
volume, is tacked to the l58 pages (including blanks) which 
are calculated almost solely for the unprofessional public; 
so that each class of readers is invited to purchase some- 
thing which it does not want, and thus it is attempted to 
take them both in. To have'insertod the substance of his 
appendix anonj/mously in one of the periodical medical 
publications, would have been more consistent with the 
author's avowed object, which is stated to be neither profit 
nor honour, but utility ; and we have no hesitation in say. 
ing, that his opinions >vou]d have been likely to obtain a 
much wider circulation amongst his professional brethren in 
such a vehicle, than as they at present stand ; though so far 
as relates to the great purpose of these remarks upon mer- 
curial preparations, we are inclined to think they would be 
as useful in the desk of their author as any where else. — 
We have yet another quarrel with Dr. Griffith on the score 
of a sweeping declaration in the concluding paragraph of 
his preface : we transcribe the whole passage, which is 
extremely characteristic, and leave the reader to judg« 
between us. 

*' When public utility is not the object of medical and surgical 
writers, 1 will venture to say they have no good one; notoriety is 
then the motive, or profit, it matters not which— or whether, as in 
most cases, these are blended, whilst self-interest mars the doubtful 
pages of the man that dishonours a liberal profession ; nor does the 
occasional success of some of these adventurers plead more in favour 
of their mercenary productions than does the success of the God- 
holds and Brodums of this motley metropolis^ the intention of the 
book and the quack-bill being the same. Could I persuade myself 
that the following sheets would be, with any probable appearance 
of justice, subjected to a suspicion of motives like tliese, not a line 
should be obtruded on the world. From personal friends in the 
profession I am secure of credit for the reality of my intention ; to 
all others I submit, that having passed three score^ men seldom 
commence hunting, whether it be after fiime or foxes ; and with 
regard to profit, I have chosen a wrong subject: besides that, ever 
sipoe I have bieen fully able to use my reason^ I have possessed the 



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KS- Dt. OrtjUh on RtpaiUh. 

s^ret of hmsg indiepfttident"^^ secret of no small value, bttt wlifch, 
to sbow my disinterestedness, 1 will comiDUDioatetO'tbe naderiii ft* 
few words — * preserve the fnmm cemcia recH, and lediiceyoor watitv 
to my standard/ 

♦ Whetjber my coat is ntfw or old. 
Whether my mutton's hot or cold ; 
Whether I drink small-beer or claret^ 
Or live i* th* parlour or tht garret ; 
I feel no want, I fear no shame : 
Integrity is wealth and fame/ " 

(Siving;^ the author full credit for his independence, and 
not in the least sut^pectiug him of a wish to deceive others, 
we do think, nevertheless^ that he deceives himself most 
eKregiousIjr in supposing the desire of reputation to be a 
dishonourable motive ot action, or that he himself was not> 
ill some measure instigated, on the present occasion, by the 
hope of praise for communicating what he thought useful 
inrorniation. We are well aware that too many t)Ooks are 
published by medical men, with the sole view of recom-* 
mending the writers to a profitable employment, without 
regard to the public good ; but there are others, who seek 
and acquire a lasting reputation by contributing something 
to the stock of useful knowledge : their object is honourable 
distinction^ which they seek by the only legitimate means 
of obtaining it — the utility of their works. The desire of 
the one is a guarantee for the other : take away the love of 
approbation, implanted by Nature in the human mind, and' 
one of the most powerful incentives to meritorious exertion' 
is gone ; the denial, in any particular instance, of the influ* 
ence of this principle, appears to us something very like 
hypocrisy. Dlsmissinff the preface, we shall now lay before 
the reader a view of the mam part of the Wdrk, which, it 
must be admitted, contains several directions for the preser- 
vation of health, that might be advantageously followed not 
only in India, but in Europe, thou^ph they will not have 
miifch novelty in the eyes of a medical reader. It is to be 
ftared, however^ that in most instances the loss of health is 
owing not so moeh to ignorance of a proper regimen, as to 
tbii gratification af propensities opposed to its observance : 
Ia>w &w of UB, indeed, have not reasoirever to exclaim, in' 
the words of the Roman poet, 

*' vid^o melidra proboque 



Deteriora sequof I" 
the attthbr has divided Ms esda^r int6 six seetidns, wherbiii'^ 

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Dr. Griffith on Hepatitis. 367 

he severally treats of the use and abuse of medicine ; of 
climate, air, and soil ; diet, sleep, clothing, and exercise^ 
through which we mean to follow him in a cursory manner. 
The prevention of disease is justly considered of primaky 
importance, and is thought to be more practicable in the 
East than in the West Indies, on account of the early affe 
at which the Company's servants usually arrive in w» 
country ; but it is subsequently shown, that in fact a greater 
exeoiption from chronic disease is enjoyed by Europeans in 
the West Indies, merely because their manner of living is 
more rational — more suitable to the nature of the climate. 
Amongst the means preservative of health, we do not, 
however, find the employment of medicine recommended; 
on the contrary, what is called ^^ a regular course ofphysicj 
a practice which has not wanted even medical advocates^ 
one extolling rhubarb, another bark, a third mercurials, for . 
various fancied puiposes of prevention,'' is reprobated as 
highly absurd : it is rather quaintly remarked, — 

*' When we begin to feel hunger or thirst, we eat or inok ; but 
he must be a strange fellow who practises eating and drinking for , 
the purposes of prevention ; so» venienti oceurrite merW is good ; ' 
sickness barely anno^fing us should be encountered at ' its onset by ^ 
proper remedy; but if a man is to take medicines when sick for his 
core, and when well for prevention, a dog has the ple^lsanter life of 
the two animals/' (p. 19.) 

Neither will the general reader here find any encourage* 
ment to attempt the cure of disease either in himself or his 
friends, unless professional assistance is unattainable: we.. 
cannot afibrd to quote all that is said on this subject^ but 
will eive the following warnings, intended foV domestic use. 
and leave the reader to apply them as seemeth good to Itis 
wisdom. 

** Woe to iht nursery, however tendierly watched, which d^it^^ 
its medical aids from a female practitioner! t6 whom a swe^n^ 
aneurism, or abscess, is but a swelling; and a feVer, no matter wiii^ 
ther inflammatory or the reverse, is but a fever; whose book-^leamii^i 
and practice, one as extensive as the other, is denied from oner- 
thrifty volume;* wha whips her child for play mg wkh fiie, whOit 
she is trifling with far greater dangers, destroying by e]q)erimen|i(- 
the health she would improve«.or curing wluit has no existence bv^t; 
in imagination."—'' I would therefore reconmiend it seriously to all \ 
amatewrg in this science to have this ever in view, that a fatse Mtep] 
— — - ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ y 

* ^ C«veab itto qui anicmn legitlibmiiBU Bewsve of sueh as read but out ' 
book." 

Crit. Rkv. Vol. V. Aprils 1817. 3 B 

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368 Dr. Griffith on Jiepatitis. 

inphj/ncis very commonly a fatal 9ne: let those wko would drink of 
this knowledge drink deeply, or never taste the spring themselves^ 
but confide to such as have the cup ever at their lips." (p. 27 — 32.) 

In the section concerning climate, some facts are adduced 
in proof of the well-known insalubrious effects of the eflSuvia 
arising in hot climates from low and uncultivated ground, 
and the danger more especially of spending the night on 
shore in such situations : our author also shows some reason 
for differing from several of our best writers on this subject, 
with respect to the distance from shore to which the noxious 
influence of these effluvia is extended ; he is convinced that 
ships Ijing to leeward of their source, will be visited hy 
them, even though they be at a very considerable distance 
from land. In the month of July, 1785, he was on board 
a Bengal ship, moored off the low woody shore of Kedge- 
ree, and distant from it about two miles; the excessive 
heat of the nights, in this situation, was succeeded at an 
early hour of the morning by a cold breeze from the land, 
extremely offensive to the smell : ^' the effect produced on 
myself," he says, " was as periodical as the breeze, and I 
was regularly awakened by acute pains of the bowels in 
about twenty minutes after it began to blow." Dysentery 
and fever progressively spread through the whole ship's 
company, ^^ and» in the end, four only were left on board of 
ninety-nine seamen, the remainder having; been compelled 
to seek shelter in a hospital at Calcutta. On comparing 
the state of health amongst the English seamen with that 
of the Danish and Portuguese, it was found that the latter 
suffered far less than the former ; and as it further appeared 
that these foreigners did not kill one bullock for six killed 
by the English, it is concluded that the greater liability of 
our countrymen to disease arose from the too copious con- 
sumption of animal food, assisted as this cause was by a 
Htate of idleness, not incidental to the others, who were for 
the most part compelled to unload their own ships ; whilst 
gangs of lumpersy or black labourers, relieved our sailors 
from a labour, ^^ which, duly and seasonably persisted in, 
would contribute to their welfare." 

On the subject of diet, much earnestness is displayed in 
pointing out what is thought the most appropriate in such 
a dimate as that of India ; and though much indiscretion is 
charged upon those who live as they would in England, it 
in said to be an erroneous supposition that the luxuries of 
^he table are particularly de&tructive to the European resi- 



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Dr. Griffith on Hepatitis. M9 

dents; it Is even affirmed, ^' that there is more havoc made 
of the human species in one year at the London Tavern, 
than occurs in the whole Indian territory in ten^ from such 
causes." The subsequent passajg^es exhibit the leading ideas 
of the author upon this subject, to which we assent without 
the slightest objection. 

" He keeps a bad table* however liberal his intentions towards 
his friends* who in the East makes a point of having it conducted 
after an English model, since neither all our materials* nor our 
manners of using them* are applicable to warm climates, where the 
infirmity of a weakened digestion should be indulged with such ali- 
ment as the stomach is really able to cope with, and not be oppressed 
with the tough fibres of newly-killed animals, simply boiled and 
roasted; or with the meats brought finm Europe, hardened and 
rendered difficult of digestion by salt, such as hams, tongues, pickled 
tripe, with salmon and other dried fish, bacon, cheese. Sec; suck 
food in such climates becoming an outrage against common sense, 
whilst fresh fish, poultry, fruits, and a variety of vegetables are to 
be easily obtained, and whilst the culinary art of stewing and ma- 
cerating the strong fibres of meat is practicable, which it is as well 
in India as elsewhere, and indeed is very commonly resorted to, but 
this rather for the sake of variety than utility.** (p. 80.) 

" The recollection of what has been our daily practice regarding 
diet in England, must in India be effiiced as soon as possible; for it 
will mislead us whenever we indulge in it, and if we constantly prac- 
tice such indulgence, /tfto//^. That a labouring farmer in our tem- 
perate climate should eat a pound of cheese or bacon at a meal, 
and be benefited by it, may seem to imply the eiistence of some- 
what like gizzards amongst our labouring countryman at home, but, 
as we cannot in warm climates imitate the laborious occupations 
which give rise to such strength of fibre, we must be content with«^ 
out gizzards, and use such food as will not require them in warm 
latitudes." (p. SC.) 

'* During my stay in Bengal, a remarkable, but there very com* 
mon^occurrence took place : — I was in the habit of visiting daily 
the sick of an Indiaman, which had lost one of her medical officers 
by death, whilst the other was absent, and going on board generally 
about the same hour, was invariably invited by the second officer, 
who had charge of the ship, to sit down with him and partake of 
what be called his lunch, consisting of beef-steak or cold beef, the* 
former killed the preeeding day: this I always deelioed; and when 
I last saw this young man, who was one of the most healthy and 
athletic men of my acquaintance, took some pains to convince him 
of the dan^r attaching to his diet, observing to him as I went over 
the ship's side, that he would, notwithstancUng his great strength, 
* get a knock-down blow firom which he would not readily recover.' 
He replied, laughing, that his maxim was to live while he could; 



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370 Dr. Griffith on Hepatitis. 

but djfiu^ in two hours after that day's lunchf our {Nuriin^ became 
impressed on my memory ; and more particularly on being informed 
by the gentleman left in command that he died of ' the cramp in his 
^omach ;' — ^in other words, he died (or I mistake much) of an in- 
jury sustamed by the stomach in its attempt to exonerate itself of 
a large indtgesttble foreign substance on which its diminished con- 
tractile power could make no impression ; and I am much inclined 
to the opinion, that what is called cramp in India, very commonly 
is derived from some such violence done to this very susceptible and 
important part of our fabric." (p. 88 — 80.) 

We presume that, whjen Dr. Q. was talking of gizzards, 
)ie did not imagine the gizzards of birds to be any further 
fx>ncenied in the process of digestion than the teeth of other 
animals; it is doubtless nothing in<^e than a figurative form 
of speech, calculated to make a suitable impression on the 
cabin passengers of an Indiaman. 

In the remaining sections of his essay, the author depre- 
cates that indulgence in sleep, to which the inhabitants of 
warm climates are unfortunately too prone, as injurious 
alike to mental and corporeal vigour : he attempts alsp to 
rally the British residents in India on their partiality for the 
European modes of dress; asking, ^^ if the natives can find 
sufficient warmth in a fold or two of muslin, why, in the 
name of common sense, are we, the natives of a climate 
comparatively cold,, to be broiled in broad cloth ?" Pro- 
babfy, it may be replied, because pride or policy suggests a 
distinction of this kind between the rulers of the land and 
their subjects. Some, indeed, who have lived in that coun- 
try, say that woollen clothing is actually the most comfort- 
able. Finallj^, the great importance of regular exercise in 
the preservation of health is very strenuously ur^^ed, and 
none, we imagine, will be inclined to dispute the doctrine, 
however erroneous may be their practice. There is nothing 
particularly worthy of notice m this part of the book; 
neither does the appendix deserve further notice than has 
been already taken of it ; this feeble attempt to revive an 
exploded pharmaceutical process may therefore be suffered 
to pass peaceably. — ^On the whole, this book has seriously 
disappointed the expectations which its title was so well 
calculated to I 



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L 3T1 ] 

4rt- V. — Fortitude and FraUti/y a Novel: in Four Yo^ 
lumes. Inscribed to the Memory of her lamented Father^ 
hy Fannt Holcroft. ISmo^ London, Simpkin and 
Marshall, Stationers' Court, 1817. 

In one respect Mies Holcroft may consider it a misfortone 
to have had a father of such eminence in the department of 
literature to which the work oil our table belongs, because 
it occasions an unfair arid disadvantageous comparisoti. ' In 
the law it has almost grown into a proverb, that the son of 
a judge will never be heard by a jury ; for let that soa 
possess as great, or even greater abilities, than his fathet^ 
he never has justice done him ; opinion runs afi^ainstfatm; 
he treiids in the steps of his parent, but he is able to follow 
him but for a short distance : contrasted with his precursor, 
in the judgment of those whom it is most important for him 
to please, he appears to possess neither talent nor learning. 
By some this has been treated as a fatality ; and it afflicts 
authors at least in an equal degree, more especially if th^ 
same species of composition be unluckily chosen. 

On this account, and some others to which it is not 
necessary now to refer, we think that strict justice has not 
hitherto been done to Miss Holcroft as a novel-writer ; and 
the present is a iair opportunity for saying so, because the 
production before us will best bear us out in the opinion. 

There is no department of literature in which there are 
so many dejjprees of good and bad as in works of fancy of 
this kind : it may be true of poetry (and the high authority 
for the maxim has perhaps led to its too absolute establish* 
ment) that there is nothing good but the best ; but it will 
by no means apply to novels, about which there may be 
many disputes wnich are the best — some prefer those in 
which character yields to incident, and others where inci. 
dent gives place to character— some admire those in which 
instnii^tion is conveyed by wit and satire, and others, those 
where grave precept and moral axiom give additional 
weight to every rounded period ; not a few may be foun4 
who reject all these, and pronounce a novel excellent thai 
lias neither incident, character, satire, nor instruction.— « 
There are, in truth, no standards of excellence by which 
new novels can be measured: a judgment often is regu- 
lated by caprice, according to the good or ill humour in 
which the reader takes up the book; and not unfre^uently 
it is governed by some pre-conceived notions regarding the 
writer. So it is, we aomit, sometimes with poems, but in 



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372 Miss HokroJVs Foniitude and Frailty. 

a much less degree, tor they are estimated by certain fixed 
rules ; and though hasty opinions may now and then be 
formed, they are sure to be corrected in time. Besides, a 
novel-writer addresses the living public, and must accom. 
modate himself to wavering tastes and idle notions. We 
should be cautious therefore in condemning, not only on 
account of the fallibility of the judge, but on account of 
the many difficulties attending the undertaking. 

In one respect, the novel under review deserves peculiar 
praise; we mean for the manner in which the two principal 
male personages are contrasted. It not unfrequently hap- 
pens that theliero of a novel — the man who is held up to 
admiration and imitation — is precisely such a character, as 
ia the work before us is represented as an object worthy of 
contempt and ridicule ; and this is effected by contrasting a 
flimsy, flashy, insinuating barrister, with an individual of 
solid attainments and sterling virtues. As the incidents are 
not extremely complicated, we will give the outline of the 
story, and the reader will perceive the correctness of our 
observation. 

Leoline Hargrave is a barrister of good attainments, 
considerable talents, engaging manners, and no small por- 
tion of worldly wisdom : he is acquainted with the family 
of Mr. Fairfax, a banker, whose niece Eleonor is the he- 
roine of the novel \ she is young, beautiful, and unsuspi- 
cious, imagining that all the rest of the world is as good as 
herself. In the same house with Eleonor resides Archibald 
Campbell, a young Scotchman, who is the ward of .Mr. 
Fair&x; his parents having died in his infancy: the cha- 
racter of Archibald is grave without severity, and learned 
without pedantry ; open-hearted and generous, though de* 
void of the shining qualities of Leoline Hargrave. Both 
are in love with Eleonor Fairfax j Hargrave circuitously 
making his way, with the assistance of a cunning manoeu- 
vring sister, Mrs. Grafton, while Campbell, diffident of his 
deserts, allows his rival graduially to supersede him in the 
afiections of the young lady. Hargrave has no property, 
but, as Mr. Fairfax perceives that the happiness of his niece 
is at stake, he does not oppose a uuion, naming a distant 
day, that either of the parties might have room for repent- 
ance. Hargrave, by passionate entreaties, procures the 
period of probation to be shortened ; but before the arrival 
of the appointed time, he becomes acquainted with Lady 
Clarissa FoUington, daughter of an earl, and ci-devant 
friend to Eleonor; he likewise unexpectedly comes i^to tha 



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Mi$i Hokrqffs FariUude md Frailiy. 379 

possession of the title and fortune of a rich baronet, his 
uncle. The ambitious views of Sir Leoline Harffrave are 
now chan((ed : be discards Eleonor^ and nuirries Lady Cla- 
rissa. In the mean time, Campbell had gone abroad, and 
had formed an intimate friendsnip with ap intelli^ut and 
amiable young merchant, named Alexander Lemaire. After 
the lapse of a suflScient time for the partial recovery of 
Eleonor from the shock of rejection by Sir Leoline Har« 
grave, Campbell, who possesses a large estate, makes her 
an offer, but is rejected: he then proceeds to Grermany, 
where he is made acquainted with Baron Ehrenheim and 
bis beautiful and interesting daughter Sophia: Campbell 
has the good fortune to save the life of both of them, and 
he finalljjr marries Sophia. Hargrave and his lady, soon 
after their union, disagree violently, and she elopes with an 
old friend of Hargrave of the name of Dashington, who ik 
afterwards shot by the enraged husband : Lady Clarissa 
soon dies. Sir Leoline goes to Germany, and by in* 
trigue obtains a high appointment in the court of one 
of the Electors : here he exerts all his influence to injure 
Campbell, but without avail ; and he is finally detected in 
a treasonable correspondence, and thrown into a dungeon, 
from whence he is released by the entreaty of the generous 
Campbell, who also pays his debts, without exciting either 
gratitude or compunction. Leoline returns to England, 
launches again into all the follies and vices of iashion, and 
in the end is shot in a duel, after an intrigue. Campbell 
also revisits his native country, accompanied by his rela- 
tives and friends ; and Eleonor, towards the conclusion, is 
united to Alexander Lemaire, who had previously arrived 
in London with letters from Campbell to Mr. Fair&x.-^ 
Thus Fortitude is made to triumph over FraiUy. 

Several characters, besides those we have enumeratedi 
are incidentally made to contribute to the interest and en* 
tertainment of the novel : among these is a singular per- 
sonage named Donald McDonald, an uncle to Campbell^ 
who, after having been educated at the University, retires 
into solitude in a remote part of Scotland, disgusted at the 
moral and physical depravity of man in a civilized state^ 
apd ultimately resolving to proceed to North America, to 
spend the remnant of his life among the amiable salvages* 
This person is a little caricatured, but it is not ill supported^ 
and the inconsistency of such beings is well illustrated by a 
long work written by Mr. M^Donaul to establish his theory, 
notwithstanding his conviction that letters and authorship 



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3r4 Misi Hokroffs RfrtUude and PraiUy. 

Imre been the .ruin of the species. Mrs. Altammit^ a proud 
but amiable woman, tiie Hev. Mr* Maiden, an eccentric - 
clergyman, and others, also aid in the developement of the^ 
narrative. 

Although the stoiy upon the whole is interesting, we must 
confess that one or two of the incidents are a little com- 
mon, and have been in the daily use of novel writers from 
the days of Madame Scudenr : there is rather too much* 
duelling and saving of lives by land and water. We no- 
ticed- in the outset the comparison that would be made 
between Miss Holcroft and her father; she has herself con- 
tributed to this inconvenience in inore ways than one; for 
she has inscribed her volumes to the memorv of Mr. Hol- 
croft, and in the two first volumes she has afforded several 
striking imitations of his manner of writing : resemblances 
are to be found throughout, but towards the end they are 
not so numerous nor remarkable. In the first volume, par* 
ticularly, in the way in which the fable is oj^ned, we find a 
sort of boldness of manner; a fearlessnes