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Full text of "Centennial souvenir history of Gouverneur, Rossie, Fowler, Hammond, Edwards, DeKalb, commemorating "Old Home Week", August 24-30, 1905"

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Cornell TUniversit^ 


1Rew l^orl? State College of agriculture 

ag.M.'a U^'l^ 


Cornell University Library 

F 127.S2G 
Centennial souvenir history of Gouverneu 

3 1924 014 109 130 

Cornell University 

The original of this bool< is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


GoirvERNEUR Morris. 









AUGUST 24-30 


watertown, new york : 
The Hungerford-Holbrook Co. 






>^>^ HE history of Gouverncur has been written four times with greater or 
^^^ lesser detail. In that portion of this book written by myself, there has 
been no attempt to improve upon what has been done by those who have 
preceded me. Dr. Hougli wlio first wrote of the town in 1853 had the advantage 
of personal acquaintance with many of the pioneers. Durant, of Ogdensburg, 
and Pierce,of Canton, i" collaboration, (L.H.Evarts,pubhsher) followed in 1878, 
using all the material gathered by Hough and extenthng it with the official 
records of towns, churches, business and other organizations, and personal his- 
tories of some of the more wealthy citizens. In 1870 Mrs. C. A. Parker, of 
Gouverneur, made the first complete history of the town, for which she had un- 
usual facilities in acquaintance with the immediate successors of the pioneers, 
as well as a few of the pioneers themselves. The land-office records of Judge 
Dodge were valuable aids to her also. She began collecting data nearly half 
a century prior to the publishing of her excellent work. In IHdi Gates Curtis, 
of Ogdensburg, followed, using Hough's and Mrs. Parker's histories freelj' 
in his recital, but adding little to them, though presenting the record in more 
consecutive order and iu different phraseology, and enlarging upon the later- 
day industries. 

For any historical event there can be but one correct history. Repetitions 
may have merit in literary style or accuracy of statement, but these advantages 
are of trifling import to the public. What I have set forth is largely new mat- 
ter. It has been gathered and committed to paper within the space of three 
weeks. Its abrupt termination is chargeable to the exigencies of "Old Home 
Week" in wliich interest it is published. There is a mass of material never gath- 
ered awaiting, the competent hand. It has just begun to pour in upon me when 
the call of the publisher for "copy" came. Most of it was too late to be used. 
There is a general lack of appreciation of the historical value of written re- 
cords of all kinds. It is not too much to say that any written paper, be it a 
simple receipt or book account, or letter, if fifty or more years in age, has a 
value. It may not seem relevant to the owner, or even to the historian now, but 
the future writer may be able to fix dates or facts by means of it, that maj"^ 
prove of great importance. 

I am indebted to many persons for data, old memoranda, scrap-books, legal 
and other documents, for which I am grateful. Many having priceless records 
have withheld them. For tlie former praise is inadequate; for the latter silence 


IS none too profound. To Mrs. Erwin Barnes, Mrs. Col. Spencer, Mrs. H. L. 
Smith, Mrs. j\Iaria Lansing, Mrs. Robert Dodge, Mrs. E. H. Ncary, jNIiss Eme- 
line A'anBuren, ]Mr. B. G. Parker, Mr. James Thrall, and many others, my 
thanks are due. To my co-editors who have prepared special papers on sub- 
jects pertaining to their several callings or interests, I can only express the 
obligations of those who will read the book. Their contributions make the vol- 
ume of lasting value so that it is believed that, as a whole, no equally good pre- 
sentation of the interests of Gouvenieur has been published. 

To write of the town satisfactorily, at least two years time are needed. 
Records at Canton and Albany should be exhausted. Every aged citizen should 
ijL consulted. Every written line with half a century between it and the his- 
torian should be scanned. Time for deduction, and especially elimination, must 
he taken. Thus only can the most enduring work be done. 

It was a question how the hook could be profusely illustrated and still leave 
a margin for Old Home Week festivities. It was solved by allowing no full page 
or large portraits to appear, and by making every engraving of the same size 
(about twenty per cent larger than were shown on the sample pages) thus giv- 
ing no preferences. The only departure from this is the frontispiece portrait 
of Gouverneur Morris. In the case of groups the cost was covered by large 
subscriptions to the book, amounting in one case to $100. It was possible by 
using one size of single portraits to make advantageous rates with engravers 
and the reduced size also lent itself to grouping in a few instances as in the 
I'residents cf tlie Agricultural Society. 

Old Home Week has awakened great interest in local history. It should 
culminate in the formation of a Historical Society. There will be relics and 
memorabilia at tiie coming gathering that ought afterward to have a permanent 
home, accessible to all. A nucleus once formed will enlarge with the passing 
years. It will be the shrine to which every new find or resurrected manuscript 
or legend will come. The result willbe of value to the public and the future 

Never since 1861 has any movement enlisted such unanimity in sentiment 
and action as Old Home Week and the ]\Iemorial Arch. The "'knockei-" has 
been inconspicuous in numbers and personality. His isolation was marked and 
];is tenacity of purse and purpose pitiful. 
Gouverneur, June 1, 1905. J. S. C. 


By J. S. Corbin. 

eOUVi:RNEUR wan settled in 1805. In that ye^r :>- party of four hardy 
pioneers from Hartford, Washington County, N. Y., started on foot 
from their homes and, with only a pocket compass to guide them, entered 
the trackless wilderness in search of "Cambray," the most westerly of the 
famous "Ten Towns." They passed around the southerly end of Lake George, 
and from that point followed, as well as intervening mountains and water- 
courses permitted, the direction indicated by their com- 
pass, which must have been, singularly, almost if not 
exactly, the course of the southwesterly boundary of 
St. Lawrence County. These pioneers came at the 
solicitation of Dr. Richard Townsend, who was the land 
agent of Gouverncur Morris, the owner of a large ter- 
ritory in the county, the settlement of which, as was 
customary in those days, was promoted by special ef- 

Tlie boundaries of the various counties in the state 
Jay s. Corbin. i,;^^] b(.fore 1805 bccn determined, and the records were 

easily accessible to Dr. Townsend at Albany, so it is no stretch of credulity to 
infer that the course chosen was the same as laid by the surveyor of the southwes- 
tern boundary of the county, or S. 54 W. in technical language. This is the 
more probable as some histories assert that Dr. Townsend accompanied the first 
party through the wilderness. An extension of this line passes directly through 
Caldwell at the head of Lake George. 

The names of the four pioneers mentoned were Isaac Austin, Eleazer 
Nichols, Willard Smith and Pardon Babcock.'^' Another list gives the names 
i'.s Willard Smith, Isaac Austin, Pardon Babcock, John Alden, Ambi Higby and 
JMorris JMead.''* The little band was under the leadership of Dr. Townsend. '•'* 
Still another history, distinguished for careful research and a trustworthy 
sifting of authorities, names the first four as above, and places the planning 
and direction of the expedition under the leadership of Isaac Austin.*"" This 
last account was obtained from the immediate descendants of Mr. Austin, and 
the acquaintanceship of the author with the Austin family was such as to en- 
title her record to the fullest confidence. 

The statement with which this account begins, namely, the date of set- 
tlement of the town, is not made without the best authority. The first pion- 
eers while intending to reach "Cambray" in fact emerged from the wilderness 
fct what is now known as East Dekalb, but then as "Smith Settlement," or about 
twelve miles from the location they finally selected. After a brief stop near 

fi} Gazeteer of New York, i860. '2) Hough's History of St. Lawrence and Franklin Counties, 1S53. (3) History of 
St. Lawrence County by Gates Curtis, 1894. '4' History of Gouverneur by IMrs. C. A. Parker, 


the present site of Gouverneur village, they returned to their Washington coun- 
ty homes, to prepare for a more lengthy staj', the selection of land, and the 
preparation for moving their families to the new country. Equipped with pro- 
visions and the few tools necessary for building the primitive log cabin needed 
for protection, they again started in the fall of the same year, 1805, this time 
with horses, and by way of the Black River Country, reaching the spot they 
had before camped upon, in early October. They left their horses at Boon's 
tTpper Settlement, now known as Boonville in Oneida County, as the trail from 
there was impassable save to men on foot. The record is that they obtained 
a surveyor. Col. Barton Edsall of Madrid, (afterward Waddington) and began 
clearing the forest away. Necessarily this involved the location of definite boun- 
daries and this was the first work of the surveyor. These acts constituted a 
settlement, in fact and in law, albeit the first deed issued was early in the fol- 
lowing year. With the then slow methods of travel, and the necessity for mak- 
ing transfers through Morris, the distant owner, it is not probable that any 
deeds could have been received by Dr. Townsend for deliverj^ and record earlier 
than 1806. 

Early in the last named year, the pioneers brought their families and the 
more extended and successful efforts for the clearing of the lands and the grow- 
ing of crops for sustenance began. 

It is not the purpose of this account to repeat the historical researches 
made by others, nor to paraphrase them under a new, verbal dress. Only such 
salient points will be touched upon as are necessary to give a running glance 
at the general trend of events during the early years, in order to connect them 
^v]th later history. The field up to about 1870 has been well gleaned and noth- 
ing of supreme interest can be added to this date. The time to write history 
is while history is in the making. ]\Iany pens have done this for Gouverneur so 
well that nothing of runote happening is left to be recorded. That remarkable 
historian, Ur. Franklin B. Hough, has recited the earlier 
historjr of much of this northern country with infinite 
detail and painstaking accuracy and subsequent histo- 
rians, who have extended his record on to later times, 
have drawn from his exhaustless researches liberally. It 
is one of the cherished memories of the writer of these 
lines that Dr. Hough while living at Somerville, N. Y., 
took enough interest in his boyish enthusiasms to take 
him upon his knee and show him his large collection of 
curiosities, a cabinet of minerals of great rarity and 
rir. Franklin B. Hougi,. j^^^j.^^^ ^.^jj^^ gathered from the various tribes then in the 

state under the direction of the state authorities. And the parting gift was 
some duplicate sheets of the state report upon the Indian tribes, sent him for 
revision by the state printer before binding, and filled with pictures of pipes, 
tomahawks and wampum. 

Cambray as originally mapped by the surveyor-general of the state, con- 
tained 64,000 acres and was ten miles square. It embraced all of the present 


town of Gouvcrnuur and nearly one-half of the present town of jMacomb. In 
1841 by act of legislature, the portion of IMacomb named was detached and 
Since that date the boundaries of Gouverneur have remained intact until 1904 
when the Board of Supervisors of the county detached from Macomb a small 
portion from its southerly corner, containing about two square miles, and at- 
tached the same to Gouverneur. Future maps of both towns will hereafter 
have less regular outlines as this change substitutes a zigag line about two 
miles long, having many angles and windings, for the old boundary which was 
the northerly leg of the famous "Oxbow." Of the original "Ten Towns" only 
Canton, Potsdam and Lisbon have retained their first boundaries. Prol)ably 
this is due to the location of the principal place of business, mills, markets and 
town meetings, which in the towns named were near the center of the ten-mile 

Early in 1807 the population of Gouverneur was increased by the coming 
of eight more families, namely: Dr. John S})encer, Stephen and Benjamin 
Smith, Israel Porter, Stephen Patterson, Daniel Austin, Isaac Morgan, and Dr. 
Townsend, the land agent of Gouverneur ]Morris, removed his family to the new 
settlement from their Washington county home. All these took up lands with- 
in two or three miles of the present site of the village ; Mr. Morgan's log cabin 
is remembered as being located near where the farm house of A. L. Freeman 
now stands. There are still some evergreen trees standing that mark the site 
of the primitive rooftree. A local authority gives the site of this cabin as nearly 
opposite the brick house of Mrs. I. W. Stacey. The first bridge spanning the 
Oswegatchie in town was built in the sunnner of this year by Isaac Kendall, 
costing .$500, and some of the more elderly of our citizens will remember that 
the only pier required was midway between the eastern shore and the first island. 
Nature provided the other supports in the two islands and the four spans were 
thus happily within the measure of the great stringers cut from the nearby 
forest. "The bridge had no railing save the heavy beams pinned to the sides 
for protection."*-'* The original pier was replaced by one of sandstone, laid 
without mortar, when James Parker built another bridge twelve years later. 
and this stood intact with one replacement, (the one having a railing of turned 
balusters), until twenty-eight years ago when the present iron bridge was built 
spanning the entire reach and rendering, a pier unnecessary. The pier foun- 
dation of flattened logs, when removed, was found to be as sound as when first 
placed in the river bed. During the present Centennial year, a new plate gir- 
der bridge will be erected at a cost of about $18,000, the present abutments be- 
ing so well preserved as to need no change save a relaying of the top courses or 
a substitution of concrete caps of one to two feet in thickness. This bridge 
will be the fifth crossing the Oswegatchie at Main street. The first three bridges 
viere located a trifle farther down stream than now and their floors were about 
tliree feet lower than at present. Later, in 1807, came Colburn Barrel and 
Roswell Wilder and in 1808 Joel Wilder, James Parker, John Parker, Ephraim 
Case, Jonathan S. Colton (locally known as "Strong" Colton) Wm. Cleghorn, 

(i) Mrs. Park er. 



Henry Wclcli, Joromiali ^Merithcw, Jesse Dewey, Stephen Patterson, James 
Tlionipson, Jaints Haile and Jonathan Payne. The names of many of these 
pioneers are still fovuid in this and adjoining towns and probably the major 
part of them are perpetuated by descendants under other names. The blood of 
sturdy old Isaac Austin's family still courses in the veins of the Holbrooks, 
Cushmans, Waids, Nortons, Corbins and other families, while those who bear 
relationship to the Smiths number several hundred. The pioneers came here to 
settle and they staid after coming. There are wandering pioneers who continue 
the business of pioneering all their lives and some of them by successive remov- 
als have traversed the entire span of the continent. Our ancestry was not of 
this class. 

InlSGiS also came Timotliy Sheldon from Pawtucket, Rhode Island, the 
first from that state, Reuben Noble, Wm. W. Rhodes, Richard Kimball, and the 
famous builder and millwright, Capt. Rockwell Barnes. 
From the oldest carpenter in town who knew Capt. 
Rarnes while in his activities, it is learned that he was 
famous at ''pushing" the work in hand, enjoyed taking- 
large and difficult jobs and that he was, as usual with 
that class of workmen, not a master at fine carpentry. 
He was a man of tremendous activity and enterprise. 
"From this time forward settlements increased 
rapidly and farms were cleared from year to year 
from the original forest."'^' How rapidly the town 
grew from this time until the present is shown by the 
following' table taken from the II. S. and state census returns: 

Capt. Rockwell Barnes. 

18T0. . . 




1875. . . 


18J0. . . 

. . .765 


. . . 27.38 


. . .4165 


. ..U'«7 


. . . ^2856 

1 885 . . . 

... no oen.sus. 


. . 1 55-2 



1890. . . 

.. ,5851 

18:i,5 . . . 

. . 179fi 




. . .no census. 

1840. . . 

. . i',;;58 




. . .5915 

The table is instructive. The growth was rapid, as will be seen, during 
the first forty years. The panic of 1837, famous in financial annals, checked 
the growth so tliat the increase in the five years from 1840 to 184.5 was loss 
tlian one hundred, or less than one-half the increase due to births alone. There 
could have been no accessions from 1840 to 1855, inclusive, by immigration. 
The division of the town in 1841 took away a small number, probably not manv 
as "for many years the settlements were limited to small neighborhoods on the 
state road and no schools were opened until 1818."'-'* Even as late as 1850, the 
population of Macomb was only about 1400. 

The stud.nt of economics of a later day, well understands how this condi- 
tion, amounting practically to a retrogression, might have easily been ame- 
liorated by the national government and much distress, not only in the town but 

(il Curtis 

(2I Curtis' History. 


i'i the nation at large, have been averted. Reing a question of volume of cur- 
rency, it was only necessary to increase that volume. Any circulating medium 
endowed with the supreme power to pay debts and taxes, would have met the 
tmergencj' fully, whether such medium were made of metal, or paper or both 
i:iaterials. The material used is nothing ; the law that is put in it is the onniip- 
otent factor. 

About seventy years anterior to this period of sore distress among the 
early settlers of the town, Gouverneur Morris, for whom the town was named, 
graduated at "King's College," now Columbia. He was seventeen years of age 
and a little later we find he was engaged in public matters by way of discussions 
and political contentions. "He had been admitted to the bar and had a restless 
craving for excitement."'" It is recorded that at this period of young iMorris' 
life there was also a dearth of monej'. The people called loudly for more as was 
natural, and he answered them in almost exactly the terms that Wall Street and 
the controllers of money answered a similar call at a later day. He told them 
tiiat it wculd bring bankruptcy; that it was a putting-off of the date of pay- 
ment that nmst be made anyhow; that "artificial credit" (whatever that is) 
would cause farmers and speculators to go deeper into debt, and indeed, all the 
stock arguments so familiar to us who passed through a similar experience after 
1879. ]Morris was the scion of a landed aristocracy. He imbibed the preju- 
dices of that class and had little sympathy with those who aspired to better their 
material condition. He was thoroughly in accord with that spirit later per- 
sonified in Alexander Hamilton — the rights of special privilege, and the rule of 

At this time we find him writing, before taking a trip abroad, giving as 
his reason for going that it was "to form my manners and address by the exam- 
ple of the truly polite; to rub off in the gay circle a few of the many barbarisms 
which characterize a provincial education, and to curb the vain self-sufficiency 
which arises from comparing ourselves with companions who are inferior to 
us."'-* That discloses the home atmosphere in whch he was bred and, inciden- 
tiilly, it is of interest to remember that England governed the territory in which 
he was nurtured and England, therefore, inspired the sentiments quoted, as 
well as those he uttered against an increase of money when it was needed. We 
I ad the same influence at work after our Civil War, for it is unfortunately true 
that the Republic has never been free from those in high governmental places 
who toady to English opinion, and English opinion as it reaches us is but the 
reflex of a decadent and aristocratic dogmatism. Lombard and Wall streets 
are always in sympathy and interest. One is no farther removed from true 
Americanism than the other. The adolescent ]\Iorris during the years between 
liis graduation and his majority, must be written down as an insufferable prig. 
It is distinctly a happiness to find him awakened at tlic age of 23, by the re- 
verberations from Concord and Lexington and Runker Hill. 

It has occasionally been claimed by newspaper correspondents that Gouv^ 
erneur furnished a thousand men during the civil war. A glance at the table 

(i) Gouverneur Morris by Theodore Roosevelt, 1888. (2) Roosevelt. 


discloses that the wliolc population of the town in 1860 was but 3201, less than 
one-sixth of which could have been eligible for military service. The census re- 
cord of 186.5 tells the story of those gloomy days much more truthfully. The 
population had fallen off some three hundred in the previous five years. The 
natural increase was probably not less than 300 more, so those who went to tlie 
front must have numbered considerably less than one-third the newspaper state- 
ments. The writer's remembrance is that there was some movement toward 
the "Genesee country" around the forties, and this disturbs any definite conclu- 
sions as to variation of population. 

The growth of the town since 1860 has been reasonably rapid considering 
tile large number of removals to the west. The "prairie schooner" with its 
white sjieet covering over bows bent from green saplings, freighted with the 
family and the lighter household goods, was a not unfamiliar sight fifty or sixty 
years ago, even in this region adjacent to the great lakes, by which route the 
greater number journeyed. Then followed the railways and the western pil- 
grimage was accomplished thereafter b}' their use, and it has continued unin- 
terruptedly until tlie present. 

Gouverneur was first known under its present name in 1810. April 5th 
of that year the original ten mile square which had borne the name of "Cam- 
bray" was named after its owner, Gouverneur Morris. The Ijoundaries re- 
mained intact until 1841, when about one-third of the area lying north of Beaver 
Creek was detached as has been mentioned. Undoubtedly this change in outline 
came about from the fact that the A'illage of Gouverneur was located so near the 
southern boundary that travel from the opposite side of the township for town- 
meetings, courts and other purposes, was something of an undertaking with the 
roads as they must have existed at that time. Had the four pioneers, unhin- 
dered by the tortuous Osvvegatchie at Little Bow, chanced upon the water-power 
at Elmdalc as they left "Smith Settlement" in search for "Cambray," it is not 
an illogical inference that the boundaries of Gouverneur would today stand 
"four-square to every wind that blows." 

About the year 1806, the stone "mansion" of Gouverneur jMorris nmst have 
been built ne;ir the "natural dam" nearly two miles down the river from the 
village. The conception of the rigors of a northern winter by Mr. Morris is 
shown by its being built in a hillside with one-half of its walls buried and the rear 
portion facing tlie north, wholly devoid of windows. So far as the writer is 
aware there is no other example of this style of architectiu-c in the town save 
that of Benjamin Smith of the Bow. His ancient brick dwelling was pat- 
terned somewhat after the type of the Morris erection and is still in fine 
preservation. The second land agent of the proprietor, lived in the Morris 
building some years. Its primary purpose, however, was as a summer home for 
Mr. Morris during his annual visits to his domains. Roger Maddock was the 
second agent. The date of his occupancy of the place was about 1816, the 
year of Mr. JNIorris' death. '^' The solid character of the walls is attested by 

(i) History of St. Lawrence County. L. H. Evarts, rS/S. 



The Morris " Mansion ' 

their standing intact today aftur almost a century, save a crack in the wall 
caused by earthquake shock Dec. 18, 1867. 

It has been occupied for nearly a century as a farm residence, but occa- 
sionally has done duty as a storehouse of odds and ends. It is one of the quaint 
curiosities of the town. It is not known that Mr. jNIorris occupied it more than 

twice on his an- 
nual visits to his 
northern lands. 
One of these visits 
was in 1809, and 
it is remembered 
that he then board- 
ed ten or twelve 
workmen w h i 1 e 
they were building 
the first grist and 
saw mills in the 
town. These were 
not his first visits, 
however, to north- 
ern New York, as 
he was a guest of 
Nathan Ford, at 

Ogdensburg, several years earlier. It was his intention to found a 
village there and to this end he laid off a mile square adjoining the "natural 
dam" (a rock crossing the river and forming a complete dam giving a fall of 
seventeen feet without artificial addition) but his plans were frustrated by the 
building of the bridge at the present village in the previous year, to opening 
of the first store by John Brown in 1809 near the easterly end of the bridge, 
and finally in 1816 by the grist and saw mills of Israel Porter and others at the 
westerly end of the bridge. These improvements seem to have determined the 
site of the village and as the death of Mr. Morris followed in 1816, "Morris 
Mills" as Natural Dam was then called, ceased to attract residents and the 
mile square was cut up into farms and sold soon afterward. About this latter 
date occurred the difficulty between Dr. Townscnd and Mr. Morris, the tradi- 
tion of which is well preserved, and it resulted in ]\Ir. Townsend's discharge and 
the employment of Roger Maddock mentioned above. 

A sketch of Dr. Townsend's life is not without interest on account of the 
part he played in the first history of the town from 1805 to 1816. He was born 
in Hebron, Washington County, a few miles from Hartford, from which place 
the first settlers and himself set out in their journey through the trackless wil- 
derness in 1805. He removed to Delhi, Delaware County, after studying med- 
icine, engaged in the lumber business and as this took him to the city of New 
York occasionally, he became acquainted with Gouvcrneur INIorris. This re- 
sulted in his appointment as agent for the sale of the lands in this section of 


tlio county. After liis quarrel with his principal, he remained in Gouverneur 
many years, and it is recorded of him tliat he took up the practice of his pro- 
fession during the epidemic of typhus fever in 1813, of which no published ac- 
count is accessible, but finally removed to Philadelphia, Jefferson County, then 
known as Quaker Settlement, and died there in 18!26, the year that marked the 
close of the lives of two presidents, Adams and Jeiferson. He was buried at the 
latter place. In 1900 his son, Robert Wilson Townsend, came to visit the scenes 
of his birth and childhood and received the warmest welcome from the citizens. 
He was one of the students at the Seminary in 18!3-t, his name appearing in the 
second catalogue of that institution, erroneously given, probably as "Henry" 
though Benjamin ]M. Townsend lived in town that year and had "five male per- 
-sons" in liis household, two of whom were not subject to military duty. His 

death occurred in August, 190-i, in South- 
ern Iliinoiis. His son. Lean A. Town- 
send, grandson of Dr. Townsend, is at this 
Vi'riting cashier in a bank at Galesburg, III. 
The Doctor took up land where the farm of 
\Vallace ]McKean now is, built a portion of 
ihe liouse now occupied by INIcKean, used it 
iis a hotel for some years and afterward built 
the house in Gouverneur village now occupied 
by Fred Fuller, which is generally known as 
the "Townsend House." The creek flowing 
mto the Oswcgatchie just below the bridge of 
the Aldrich Paper Co., is known as the Town- 
send Creek, 
that Dr. Townsend owned the only slave. 

Lean A. Townsend 

Several historians 


a negress, ever brought into the town, but this is probably an 
eiror as the tradition exists that Dr. John Spencer, an 1807 settler, and Ben- 
jamin Leavitt, wjio came about 1808, both brought men slaves, a not xuiusual 
event in the annals of the county, as Nathan Ford, of Ogdensburg, land agent 
for Samuel Ogden, had a slave and Major John Borland, of DeKalb, also 
brougjit one, a woman, when he came here from Massachusetts. Slavery was 
lawful at that date in New York State, a repeal of the act not becoming opera- 
tive until July 1, ISHl, so no reflections can be cast upon those who retained 
ownership of the labor of negroes, and this is all the slavery that ever exi.sted 
in this nation, or in the colonies, under the protection of law, namely, the right 
to the labor, not to the persons, of men of color. It was much like the right 
of a master to the service of an indentured apprentice. "It existed in every 
state that adopted the Constitution in 1788."'^* The author quoted declares 
that wdien the Northern states passed anti-slavery laws, tliose owning this spe- 
cies of property, made haste to sell their holdings to the South before the laws 
became operative. There is neither history nor tradition connecting any per- 
son with such traflic in this town or county. "In 1810 St. Lawrence County 
had five slaves. The state then contained 11,638."*"' The two instances in 

111 Alexander H. Stepliens, War Between the States. 1S70. (2) Hough. 


Gouverneur were nothing more than the provision of homes for dependent peo- 
ple from motives of obHgation cr charity. 

The fact of the intimate business and personal relations of Gouverneur 
Morris with the land agent for this section, Dr. Townsend, and the further 
fact of the ownership of a colored woman bjr the latter, makes the attitude of 
Morris of much interest on the subject of slavery. It was IMorris who was en- 
trusted with the final draft of the Constitution, and it was he who wrote there- 
in, "No person held to service or labor in one state under the laws thereof, escap- 
ing into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein be dis- 
charged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the par- 
ty to whom such service or labor may be due." We maj' regard iNIorris' work, 
however, as but a clerical one and that he simply embalmed in words the senti- 
ment of the convention as set forth in long-continued debate, sometimes accom- 
panied with acrimonjf and resistance. 

"Slavery, however, ai'oused his enmity on much broader grounds than those 
of political power. He had already striven for abolition in the New York con- 
vention, and he renewed the struggle on the National field. On moving to in- 
sert the word 'free' before 'inhabitants' he made a speech of great force and 
eloquence, beginning : 

" 'Much will depend on this point. I will never concur in upholding domestic 
slavery. It is a nefarious institution. It is the curse of heaven on the states 
where it prevails.' '"-^^ iNIorris, as has alreadjr been adverted to, was in much 
sympathy with English opinion at this period of his life. He was but thirty- 
six years of age and England had been for some time in the throes of an anti- 
sJavery movement. Not that iNIorris was a servile copyist of any one's opinion, 
but he was conversant with all great issues and must, perforce, have agreed or 
disagreed with each. 

The personality of Gouverneur Morris must always remain a matter of 
great interest to the town to which he gave his name He was born in 1752 at 
the feudal residence in Morrisiana, ten miles north of the City Hall in New 
York. His birthplace had been in the family for three generations, the iNIorris 
family being holders of a considerable tract of land under colonial patent in the 
southern portion of Westchester county, this patent running back to the year 
1697. The Morris family were among the aristocrats of the time when English 
customs prevailed in the colonies, then under jurisdiction of the mother coun- 
try. Large landed estates were the foundation of the privileged classes in Eng 
land, and the social system there prevalent was fast becoming engrafted upon 
the colonies when the Revolution checked the spread of monarchical ideas, and 
the diffusion of democratic equality became the watchword thenceforth. 

In a considerable sense, Morris wrote his own biography. Not in a for- 
mal way, but he was an industrious correspondent, a voluminous writer on na- 
tional and other public topics and he preserved copies of whatever he wrote. It 
is mostly from these sources that we derive whatever information in a personal 
way we have of the man. Roosevelt says that Morris was unfortunate in having 

(i) Henry Cabot Lodge in Atlantic Montlily for April, iS86. 


so turgid a biographer as Jared Sparks, a contemporary, who filled three goodly 
sized volumes with selections, and omitted the original matter that might have 
been had first hand, at the time he wrote. Whatever the cause, Gouverneur 
Morris has never had justice done to his memory in popular estimation. 

"He was a man of the world and of society, a wit, a philosopher, and a fine 
gentleman, he was also a bold and ardent patriot, an able and most practical 
statesman, a distinguished lawyer, and a successful managpr of large business 
affairs.'"^' Most of his letters contain some satirical sentence or allusion, for 
he was famous as a keen and incisive wit. In 1815 he wrote: "The people must 
feel before they can think. Expect heroism from a sheep, charity from a wolf, 
and music from a crow, and perhaps you may not be disappointed; but do 
not expect, or even hope for reason from the populace." To one who sympa- 
thized with him on the loss of his leg, he said, "Oh sir, the loss is much less than 
you imagine ; I shall doubtless be a steadier man with one leg than with two." 
The accident he suffered occurred in 1785 in Philadelphia. "In his capacity of 
young man of fashion, he used to drive about town in a phaeton with a pair of 
small, spirited horses ; and because of some wliim, ho would not allow the groom 
to stand at their heads. So one day they took fright, ran, threw him out and 
broke his leg. The leg had to be amputated and he was ever afterwards forced 
to wear a wooden one."'^* So, wlien jMorris visited Gouverneur in 1808-9 he 
must have stumped about "Morris Mills" while building his grist and saw mills, 
and while planning the future village that was to occupy the mile square he laid 
out for the purpose. 

Whatever whimsicalities Morris exhibited during his life, and they were 
many, he undoubtedly came honestly by them. His father in 1760 inserted this 
clause in his will: 

"My son, Gouverneur, shall have the best education obtainable, but never be 
sent for that purpose to the Connecticut Colony, lest he imbibe in his youth the 
corruption and cunning so inherent in the character of the people of that col- 
ony, which is so interwoven in their constitutions, that they cannot conceal it, 
although by means of the sanctified garb of religion, they labor to impose them- 
selves upon the world for honest men." 

In view of the fact that Yale and Harvard were both in the vigorous years 
of their formative period, and though in different colonies with similar cur- 
riculums, this admoniton was undoubtedly intended to guard the youthful Gouv- 
erneur from the insidious teachings prevalent in both institutions. Some enter- 
prising Connecticut Yankee must have sold him a wooden ham ! 

Morris' claim to historic remembrance will rest chiefly upon these things : 
he first suggested the Erie canal ; he made the final draft of the Constitution 
of the United States ; he invented the coinage system adopted bjr the National 
government ; he wrote the Constitution of the State of New York ; as a member 
of the Continental Congress he was foremost in every effort to shake off 
the tyranny of England; he was Minister to Erance ; as a statesman, he was in- 
tent upon the good of his country though sometimes mistaken as to policy ; as 

(ij Henry Cabot Lodge. (2) Roosevelt. 



ii lawyer he was original, forceful, pugnacious, and brilliant. He opposed 
the doubling of the tariff in 1816 at a time when it was about one-fourtli 
as burdensome as now; lie advocated "hard money" taking his in- 
itiative from Adam Smith and the school he 
engendered; he opposed Jefferson in the hit- 
ter's advocacy of entrusting the people fully 
with the people's affairs; he maintained all 
his life a singular inclination toward aris- 
tocratic customs, privileged classes and a 
landed gentry, and he championed the cause 
of the disunionists at the Hartford Conven- 
tion. In 1812-14 he opposed the war with 
England although he had been the foremost 
champion of the Revolution against her 
aggressions. These are blots upon an other- 
wise fair escutcheon and we may well over- 
look them in view of his great services to his 

This brief and necessarily imperfect re- 
cital of the salient points in the career of 
Gouverneur Morris, n\iiy well be brought to 
a close by the prediction he made in 1801, 
which has been closely fulfilled. 

"The proudest empire in Europe is but 
a bauble compared to what America will be, must be, in the course of two cen- 
turies, perhaps of one ! If with a calm retrospect to the progress made within 
forty years, we stand on the firm ground of calculation, warranted by ex- 
perience, and look forward to the end of a similar period, imagination shrinks 
from the magnitude of rational deduction." 

The first death among the settlers was that of Emily Porter, two years 
old, daughter of Israel Porter. This was in August, 1808, and it brought to 
the minds of the pioneers that they had made no provision for the burial of the 
dead. In fact, they could not have acted officially in securing such a spot for 
the town was without officers as yet, the first election occurring almost three 
years later. The town still carried the name of Cambray and this continued un- 
til 1810 when it was changed to Gouverneur. In the month following the death 
referred to, however, the citizens appealed to Mr. Morris for the donation of a 
burying-ground, and the deed illustrated was prepared and sent to the 
settlers immediately. It is drawn in the stately hand of Mr. Morris, and wc 
are indebted to the fact of its irregular character for its being wholly written in- 
stead of a half printed document. It recites that: "Whereas the inhabitants of 
Cambray, have requested the grant of a piece of two acres of land for a burial 
ground, and have solicited a part of lot No. 85, beginning at a post standing- 
due east from the Island Falls forty links above the pitch of water, and 7 chains 
ti3, links from the high water mark, and running thence south five chains and 
fifty links, thence three chains and sixty-four links, and thence north five 

GoLiverneLir Morris 4th. 


chains and fifty links, and thence west three chains and sixty-four hnks. I do 
hereby devote the above phice to the burial of the dead and will execute a grant 
therefor to the town, when incorporated. In witness thereof I have hereunto 
set my hand and seal the tenth day of September, in the year of our Lord, 1808. 

Sealed and Delivered Gouvekneur Morris 

in the presence of 

/',-'■/ A^^ /^^-^■^"■f^^^'jyr./fjr /^y^/ /Z^^C yr-fira^ ;J'Z^_J?/^-/{ ,f.^l.'<:' " .. j 
.'■>, jii/i^'l^// ^■it'^^7rJ^ y,-^''-!^'^.. /■•<• XY /r.-J^.^ yr/'\>'Af'yl A.^^-»,.-^/ ^^-ir-'V 

Deed from ("loaverneur Moiris of fvvo acres tor a burying ground. 

Whether an actual deed was ever given in the place of this promise to give 
one, is unknown. The "two acres" became overcrowded by 1860, and the growth 
cf the village had brought the tract well within the built-up portions. In the 
j'ear named the Riverside Cemetery was laid out, containing thirty-six acres, 
which have been twice extended by additional purchases. The removal of bodies 
from the gift of Mr. Morris began April 28, 1860. Thomas M. Thayer was in 


flmrgc of tlie removal and his account book of tlie work luis been preserved. 
The entire two acres was dug over and many burials were found of which there 
was neither record or headstone. Tliese unknown were buried in a plot by 
themselves in the new cemetery. The record is explicit in details of all sucli, 
giving the location as well as possible in relation to surrounding buildings, or 
other graves which were well marked and known. The total removals were 637 
and the time occupied in the work, which appears to have been continuous, was 
two weeks. The well known accuracy of ]\Ir. Thayer, and the account from 
which tins record is drawn, made by his own hand, is reliable and the statement 
in other histories placing the number of removals at "over 700" is erroneous. 
"No trace of the remains of the first occupant, the little child of Israel Porter, 
were discovered.'"^' 

The inevitable missionary made his appearance early. Two came in 1806 
and Isaac Austin, who seems to have been a devout sectarian, gave them the use 
of his house in which to hold services. It would seem from the account as re- 
corded in one history, that they alternated with a Methodist preacher from 
the "Rich Settlement" now Richville, in holding Sabbath exercises, both using 
Mr. Austin's hospitable roof, though the latter was of the Baptist persuasion. 
The record of all religious movements in the town is well preserved in the various 
histories published, and no repetition will be made here. The latest accession to 
the already numerous churches as yet unrecorded, is the Unitarian, having a 
handsome building on Trinity Avenue, unique in architecture, well adapted to 
its purpose and devoid of exterior suggestion as to its intended use. When it 
is realized that C'hi-istian righteousness is simply personal rightness, dividing 
dogmas will depart and unification will take the place of division. It is the un- 
cssentials that engender theological strife. It is a happiness to read that the 
first settlers all joined in worship. We have yet to learn again the lesson that 
conduct is the vital essence, and creed but the imperfect expression of it, witli 
all the crude mistakes incident to liuman fallibility. The "Church Universal" is 
riot a dream ! 

The memory of a good woman who came with the pioneers of 1807 dc- 
.serves mention as other writers have passed her praiseworthy deeds by. "Aunt 
Fanny Dewey," wife of Jesse Dewey, mother of Warren, Maria, Lucy and Noah 
Dewey, is remembered as one who gave her best care to every sick and sorrowing 
neighbor and whose log cabin door carried a latchstring in easy reach of every 
one in want. She was of sweet and womanly nature and her children, (the 
v/riter names only those he remembers) were worthy of her. Maria, was a 
school teacher for many years and as such had no superiors in the town. Her 
penmanship was, to youthful eyes at least, a model, and her dominion in the 
school room was characterized by that obedience due only to superior excel 
lence. Warren has only recently passed into the unknown hereafter, at the 
ripe age of ninety. Noah early went to the then far west, settling in Napoleon, 
Ohio, and became wealthy as a merchant. Lucy, wife of Harvey Smith, moth- 
er of Bray ton and Burton Smith, long since ceased her earthly journey. There 

(i» Evarts History, 1S7S. 



still survives of the children of Aunt Fanny one daughter in Carthage, j\Iis- 

This recital recalls that Aunt Fanny's place was taken later by another 
Dewey, not related or at least only remotely, to the excellent woman mentioned. 
She was the wife of Eleazer Dewey, living near the Dekalb line on the Rich- 
ville road. In 18-iO or thereabout, the Thompsonian system of treatment for 
the sick had a considerable following in the town. Mrs. Dewey became a con- 
vert and it is remembered how she carried the youthful of the neighborhood 
through the mumps, measles, chicken-pox and scarlet fever, with herbal medi- 
cines gathered by herself, assisted by wet-sheet packs and hydropathic treat- 
ment generally as the disease seemed to her to warrant. And while memory 
lasts, the smile with which she greeted her patients every morning as she came 
to their bedside, will remain vivid and this poor and belated tribute is all one of 
tiiem can offer to prove his gratitude. 

It is interesting to trace the history of the Thompson family- James 

Thompson was born in 1783 
at Hartford, Washington 
County, N. Y., from which 
place came the first four set- 
tlers of Gouverneur. 

He was early married to 
Betsy Downs, daughter of 
"Squire Downs" of Hart- 
ford, and in 1808 came to 
Gouverneur, bought fifty 
acres of land of the "Morris 
tract" from Dr. Richard 
Townsend, paying four dol- 

The Thompson Family — Four (ieneratioiis. larS an aCTC f Or it. 

He was more fortunate than some of the early settlers as he was able to pay 
at once for his purchase. Here he began clearing land upon which to 
erect some rude buildings and also for a place for small crops, then returned to 
Hartford, and in 1810, removed all his earthlj^ possessions to his newly pur- 
chased land. 

He hired a man to transfer his household goods in a wagon and on top of 
these treasures was placed a feather bed whereon there rode in state for these 
long, weary two hundred miles, his young wife and infant son. Mr. Thompson 
himself drove the oxen, cows, sheep and pigs. This family endured many of the 
hardships common to pioneer life. 

A small log house sheltered them for a time but later on the rapidly in 
creasing family demanded more spacious quarters, and a second log house was 
built, larger and containing many additional conveniences. Here a large family 
was housed for many years until the house now standing was built. The fifth 
child, James Harvey, has always remained upon the farm his father chose and 
cleared, and in the house he assisted to erect in 1835. 


Eleven children came to this wilderness home. Two died in early infancy, 
while eight stalwart sons and one daughter grew up to bless the home. 

jNIr. Thompson died in 18-i5 and his wife twenty j'ears later. 

When the Baptist Church was organized, we find the name of Mrs. Betsy 
Thompson among the constituent members. jMr. Thompson subsequently joined 
the church and for many years led the choir, in fact his family often constituted 
the choir. An old near neighbor enjoys telling of the days when two of the 
boj^s "carried the soprano," the older ones taking the other parts. It was a 
proud day for the lads, Oscar and Harvey, when they rose to sing God's praises 
in the sanctuary arrayed in some new red vests made from their mother's broad- 
cloth cloak. This family was especially musical, and many of the next gen- 
eration still consider no harmonies sweeter than the singing heard when a num- 
ber of these brothers met and sang their old anthems, hymns and "select pieces." 

The oldest son, Abram Downs, followed his father as choir leader and was 
also not unfrequently "lay reader" in the absence of the pastor. 

He married Deborah Columbia, daughter of Dr. Wolcott Griffin, long a 
practicing physician of those earlier days. 

These eight brothers soon scattered far and wide, going and west and 
now but three survive, James Harvey who still walks among us bearing well his 
eighty-five years, surrounded by his children to the fourth generation, and en- 
joying the well-earned rest which has come to him in the sunset of life. Beside 
him there remain Judson Morris, the tenth child, who for over forty years has 
been a resident of St. Louis, and Joseph Sawyer, the youngest of the family. 

It would appear from data relating to the families resident in the town 
in 1809, that the following settlers came during that year: William Colton, 
Elkanah Partridge, Joseph Bolton, Aholiab (misnamed "Holeab" in some his- 
tories) Smith, Caleb Drake, Benjamin Clark, James Barnes, Calvin Bullock, 
Ephriam Gates, Colburn Barrell, Reuben Nobles, Richard Kemble, (who mav 
have been Richard Kimball who came the previous year), John Hoyt, Daniel 
Austin and Medad Cole. "Besides these, William Canning, Sela Coleman, Al- 
fred Cole, Harvejf Black, Charles McLane, James and John Parker, Josiah 
Waid, and a few others being mostly single men, were living in town or came 
in soon after. "^^* Josiah Waid subsequently married Patty Austin, daughter 
of the pioneer of 1805, while another daughter, Rebecca, married Henry B. 
Holbrook, a later accession to the early settlers who came in 1813 and took up 
land four miles from the village on the Richville Road, building a log cabin and 
making a considerable clearing. He was succeeded by Gilbert Rundell well re- 
membered as a bam builder and expert in the use of the broad-axe. Rundell 
subsequently went to Wisconsin, and the only letter the writer remembers to 
have seen that was arranged in the style current in revolutionary and colonial 
days, namely, on a very large sheet of paper, exceeding our foolscap size, 
folded and tucked in and sealed with a red wafer, in place of the modern envel- 
ope, was written by Gilbert Rundell after he reached Wisconsin in a "prairie 
schooner." Sixty years and more ago, the art of correctly indicting, folding, 

(i) Hough's History. 


.sealing and addressing a letter was taught by every schoolmaster, and the 
excellent penmanship of the early da3^s attests the thoroughness of the instruc- 
tion. The postage indicated by the sending office, was one shilling, written in 
the English style. 

Rundell was in turn succeeded hy AmasaCorbin,Sr.,the Henry B.Holbrook 
tract thus becoming a part of the Corbin farm of about four hundred acres, 
being the part lying westerly of the road. The plow has not yet obliterated 
the site of the cabin cellar, the cabin being occupied by Corbin several years af- 
ter his purchase in 1830 until his frame residence, copied after a prevalent New 
England style, (himself and wife coming from Berkshire County, ]Mass.), was 
Ijuilt, after which the cabin was taken down. 

Josiah Waid was sheriff of the county from 1847 to 1849. He built the 
l.-irge frame house still standing in fine preservation, in North IMain Strecc on 
the highest rise of ground within the corporation lim- 
its. The character of the owner for thoroughness is 
shown bjf the present condition of the building, which 
after more than seventy-five years stands true to plumb 
and level from sill to ridge-tree. 

Alfred Cole first settled on the farm owned by the 
late Henry Noble, near the Creek on the "Scotch Set- 
tlement" road, but becoming involved in some conten- 
tion with Gouverneur ]\Iorris, abandoned that place for 
another location three miles easterly on the Ford tract, 
Josiah Waid. where he settled on a farm now owned bj' J. Frank Cole 

in the easterly part of the town. Probably he owned about 18-55, the oldest 
team of horses the town has boasted, one being 28 and the other 29 at the date 
named, neither having ever been shod or broken to the saddle. 

Colburn Barrell settled on land opposite the present residence of Gray B. 
Sheldon, built a frame house thereon which stood until recently, but, being un- 
occupied many years, fell into decay. The spring nearby was doubtless a de- 
termining factor with Mr. Barrell in selecting this location instead of the more 
sightly one on the hill nearby. 

Medad Cole was a shoemaker and pursued his calling among the older pop- 
ulation up to about 1845, moving his bench and tools wherever work offered. 
It is remembered that for several years he did the hoot and shoe making in the 
family of the writer's father, staying usually about ten days each year. It 
was customary then for farmers to have their hides and skins tanned "at the 
halves," the portion coming to themselves being manufactured into footwear 
by the most accessible cobbler. ^Nledad Cole was the first to marry in the town, 
his wife being a Miss Patterson of whom the histories give no more than her 

Ephriam Case settled on a farm in the southeastern corner of the town, 
lived there many years and reclaimed a goodly sized area from the wilderness. 
He purchased the "service or labor" of the colored woman brought from Wash- 
ington county by Dr. Townsend, but subsequently returned her, as failing 


hoalth on the part of the woman made the transaction of doubtful value to 
h]m. A part of his original farm is now owned by Fred B. Hill. He was a 
strict Sabbatarian, this being of interest as showing the ciiange in sentiment 
that rapidly occurred in the third of a century preceding the advent of George 
Thompson, tlie English anti-slavery agitator in Boston, in 1840. 

Willard Smith, one of the four pioneers who came through the wilderness 
ir: 1805 in search of "C'ambray," settled on the farm now occupied by George 
M. Dodds. He was one of four brothers, two of whom, Benjamin and Stephen, 
accompanied by their father Aholiab, came proliably in 1806, and were followed 
in 1807 by the fourth brother, Rufus. The excellent judgment of these men 
was shown by the lands tliey selected which are among the best in the town. It 
was not so easy to judge of the character of the soil when every foot of it 
was covered by the virgin forest, as now. The three first named took lands at 
the Little Bow; Benjamin the farm now occupied by Sanmel Smith, his grand- 
son, Stephen the Henry B. Holbrook farm, and Rufus the Levi N. Smith farm. 
Willard's name is perpetuated in that of Willard Thayer, a grand-nephew now 
resident in the village. Aholiab died at the age of 92 in 18-10. The cellar of 
the house he lived in is still unfilled. A little knoll on the farm whereon stands 
the brick house built by Benjamin, marks the spot and is still known in the fam- 
ily' as Gran'ther's Hill. His grave is in the family cemetery at Little Bow as 
is that of his wife, Lydia. It is a fair inference that Allen Smith, son of Wil- 
lard, and the first white child horn in town, first saw the light May 8, 1806, at 
the Dodds farm. Buel A. Smith, son of Allen, is remembered with love as one 
of the capable teachers in the early fifties. 

To the more elderly of those now living who were born around the thirties 
and forties, how remote seemed the incidents of the war of 1812 in their younger 
days, as they li.stened to the oft told tales of terror ! Yet onlj' as many years 
had passed as have swiftljr fled since the Civil War of 1861. We count that a 
recent event, however. But to our children and grandchildren, the "Great Re- 
bellion" is as remote as the Revolution. Thus quickly is obliterated the viv- 
idness of scenes that stirred the blood of those nearer the active participants. 

Looking back over the century and a quarter that elapsed between the sig- 
nal defeat of England's power in the colonies, after seven weary years of war, 
we are at a loss to understand how, so soon after measuring the valor of Amer- 
ican troops, she was ready to engage in another trial at arms with those who 
had less than thirty years before humbled the arrogant cross of St. George 
and driven it across the seas to the place of its origin. LTndoubtedly the old 
animosities engendered on botli sides by a struggle for liberty on one hand and 
a settled purpose of subjugation on the other, still lingered and needed but a 
trifling motive to fan it again into a blaze. There was the desperate fear on 
the part of those living near the border of Canada, and it is with these that 
we are more immediately concerned, that the roaming, unsettled tribes of In- 
dians could again be marshaled under British direction, for the massacre of 
Wyoming had not been forgotten. England had declined to abide by her treaty 
of peace after the Revolution, and refused to vacate several American po.sts she 


had captured during that war. Slie even built a fort on American soil and I'e- 
jeeted our demand to evacuate and dismantle it. In diplomacy she attempted 
to coerce us into acknowledging the independence of the Indian tribes in the 
great Northwest, thus putting it within her power to negotiate treaties with 
them and thereby again secure a foothold upon the vast territory she foresaw 
\ras ultimately to become a part of the United States. These were the moving 
causes of the war of 1812. It seems to have come without preparation on our 
part. We had neglected to make allies of the French Canadians, though the 
time was opportune Ijecause of the signal assistance France had rendered us in 
the Revolution. Fealty to the mother land has ever characterized the French 
Canadian. It blazed up in the Papineau insurrection. Never lias the antagon- 
ism between "Upper and Lower" Canada been stilled until Laurier, a citizen 
of Quebec became premier. The French and English inherited prejudices have 
never been welded; todav they are only quieted by a composite antagonism to 
our stupid tariff exclusion, and the more stupid political crjr at home of "pro- 
tection," "smoking factory chimneys" and "Canada for CJanadians." The 
bond is a slight one. 

Tliere was another incitement to the war of 1812, remote, not immediate. 
Europe had begun to look with wondering eyes on the progress of the new Re- 
public, and the dissensions among a free people so often predicted did not ma- 
terialize. We were united and were making astonishing progress in wealth, in- 
vention, agriculture and all the arts of peace. France emerging from the 
Reign of Terror was in the throes of a struggle for liberty, and all monarchial 
Europe had as by conmion impulse, sought her destruction. Napoleon arose 
from the chaos of internecine strife and soon all Europe was confounded and 
overwhelmed by the brilliancy of his career. Republicanism not only at home, 
but abroad, nuist be destroyed. Hence arose the conflict we are to consider. 

The Canadian Ijorder from Plattsburg to Sackett's Harbor soon bristled 
with block houses in every town as protection from the Indians. It was ex- 
pected that England would invoke the ;ud of her ancient allies once more. In 
Gouverneur, a Ijlock house was built near the intersection of Main and Clinton 
streets, and if the exact spot is known, it should be marked by a block of our 
native marble before forgotten. It was surrounded by a stockade containing 
an acre of ground. The histories locate this block house in Clinton street near 
the present store of W. A. Henderson, but local authority declares that it oc- 
cupied the site of Fred B. Fuller's residence and forms a part of the walls 

A second block house was also built, tradition says, near the house of Isaac 
Austin. This is the more })robable as that indomitable pioneer enlisted and 
went to the front with the first volunteers, and it is quite natural that he would 
provide whatever protection he could for his famil}^ before going. There is no 
record obtainable of the names of those who enlisted or were drafted into the 
service in 1812 from Gouverneur. It is probable that in proportion to popu- 
lation, those who went equalled in percentage, the hundreds who, in 1860 took 
part in the Civil War either voluntarily or by compulsion. The population of 


the town was about 300 in 1812. In this war the foe was at every man's door, 
wary, silent, treacherous and easily seduced by British gold as had been 
proved years before. Every man became a volunteer in effect, performing home 
duty to give his neighbor opportunity to guard the frontier. The alliance of 
the red-coat with the red-skin, gave special terror to he situation. Grim as is 
the memory of the 60's, that of 1812-14 must have been far more terrifying to 
those tlien upon the stage of action. The St. Lawrence was at their doors — the 
Potomac, to their descendants, was six hundred miles away. 

The embargo declared against Great Britain and her colonies, five years 
before the actual hostilities, had also a potent effect in fomenting strife. Mer- 
chants were interrupted in their business ventures; commerce was palsied; 
farms depreciated in value ; future prospects were blighted and a general feel- 
ing of insecurity was engendered. Military forces were stationed at Ogdens- 
burg to prevent any intercourse between the peoples of the adjacent 
shores. The effect of the embargo of 1807 might well be studied hj our 
later day politicians. Tariff' rates can easily l)e increased until the resultant 
effect is practically an embargo. The declaration of war was made in June. 
1812. It was official notice that hostile incursions from Canada and predatory 
^^arfare with the Indians was at hand. The alarm seems to have been mutual on 
both shores of the St. Lawrence. 

So far as the campaign in this war relates to the northern frontier, it had 
an inglorious termination. Ogdensburg was captured and looted by the Brit- 
ish forces, and no counter victory was achieved by American arms. Washing- 
ton was invested and burned by the enemy and this division of forces undoubt- 
edly saved the invasion and retention of this section from Britain. General Wil- 
kinson, who had command of the men in Northern New York, was court-mar- 
tialed for inefficiency, tried at Troy on several charges, but after a protracted 
defence was finally acquitted. 

In 1813 Simeon Hazelton came to Gouvcrneur in sefirch of a new home. 
He had been a farmer of influence and means in Sandgate, Vt., and on his ar- 
rival selected lands on the Scotch Settlement road, about 
two miles from the present village. He remained here 
only three years, however, finally settling in the town 
of Fowler. With him came from Vermont three chil- 
dren, the eldest being Asa Lyman, who subsequently 
became a surveyor of skill. He made many survey's 
I ^^gi i* ^^k. / ^-^ ^^^^ town and possibly served in that capacity in 
^^^^■flB^^^R/ laying out the incipient village. He was a man of in- 
^^JKJ^^H^ fluence in Fowler to w^hich town he went when nine years 

^^ ^WS^ ^^ of age, became supervisor in 181<2-'13 after having held 

Simeon Hazelton miuor town officcs. His father, Simeon, was the first 

town clerk of Fowler. Soon after serving as supervisor, Asa L. removed to 
Washington, D. C, wliere he still lives, being at this writing ninety-eight years 
of age. The Hazelton family was a notable one, and although more intimate!}' 




Tlionias H. Van lUiren. 

;nid driver, water-tub 
seasons, to r.-frcsh the 

identified with the growth of Fowler, is entitled to recognition here from the 
facts above set forth. 

The year 1817 brought, among others, two brothers, Harmon and Thomas 
Harvey VanBurcn, the latter a soldier in the war of 1812. They settled on 
the Johnstown road, named from Johnstown, N. Y., 
from which place other settlers came. The VanBurens 
were from jNIontgomery county and three years later 
were joined by Peter, a younger brother, who in 1831 
became a hotel keeper and whose memory is still fresh. 
The trees in the park are standing monuments to his 
care for he was most insistent for their preservation, 
planting many with his own hand and watering others 
continually until their growth was assured. A famil- 
iar sight forty years ago was "Uncle Peter" with team 
and wagon, carrying pails of water during the heated 
^■rowing trees. 

Looking back over the century the student of social movements is struck 
with the trials, the tliscomforts, the privations, the dangers even, men will endure 
i:i order to obtain what should be a free offering of the Giver of all 
good, a spot of ground upon which to build a home. We are slavish fol- 
lowers in the matter of land tenure, of English customs, even as our common 
law is a direct heritage from that source. All wealth, all sustenance, all life, 
must come from the soil. To deny every child of Adam a right of access to the 
bosom of Nature, that jNIother so kind, so generous, so careful of the welfare of 
all, is to deny the right of existence. Whoever is willing to champion the pri- 
vate ownership of a 
square foot of soil, 
must be equally 
ready to defend the 
private ownership of 
water, air, and the 
gentle dew from heav- 
en. Those are na- 
ture's bounties. They 
were not given to a 
few but to all. Man 
has made legal bar- 
riers to their univer- 
sal use, but man, af- 
ter four thousand 
years of up-growth. 

Main Stiect and Park about ib6o. l^^S ,^q^ yg^- f Q^nd 

a better way to avenge the taking of life than by the taking of an- 
otlier life. So long as one person can say to his neighbor, you shall not 
grow the food you require for tlie preservation of your life from this land bo- 


cause I liavc a title deed, so long will poverty reign, social inequality exist, and 
the line of demarkation between those who have and those who have not, will l)e- 
coine more insurmountable. The privations endured by the pioneers of Gouver- 
neur, rightly interpreted, prove, if proof were needed, how tense is the struggle 
for a small .strip of land, from whose bounty the wants can be a.ssured. For hun- 
dreds of years, Ireland has been in ferment because the humble cotter could not 
obtain his share of that which the rich landholder withheld from him. Land 
monopoly is as odious as any monopoly. Men will always oppose monopoly in 
the abstract, though we, educated to the land system fornmlated by the I^nglish 
feudalist, have not yet emerged from the veil sufficiently to see the truth plain- 
ly. If every human being is entitled to life, he is entitled to the means of pre- 
serving life. 

Steplun E. \'anDuzee came in 1813, with his parents, being four years old 
at the time. Hartford, Washington county,that center from which came so manv 
of Gouverneur's earliest settlers, was his birthplace, and 
to it he returned when thirteen years old, going from 
there to Scranton, Vt., when eighteen and there learning 
the trade of wheelwright. In 1831 he again came to 
Gouverncur and soon after began manufacturing fur- 
niture, which business he followed with success for more 
than sixty years. His death occurred April 24<, 1893. 

Stained with age yet perfectly legible, is the re- 
ceipt of Dr. Spencer, then trustee of the Presbvterian 
church : 

Rcc'd Gov'r the 7th Nov'r 1822 of Hezekiah K. Stephen v.. v^n ]),„,ee. 

Smith by the hand of Wm. Kemp ten Dollars for his as; ignment for th: Meet- 
inghousc & for tlie support of ]\Ir. Murdock. John Spexcer." 

A search of the histories docs not disclose tlie name of Hezekiah H. Smith, 
but he have been a man of character as were all of that name at the period 
cf which we write. He evidently did not subscribe "ten dollars" for the "meet- 
inghouse" or the excellent and careful Dr. Spencer would have used the word 
"subscription" instead of "assignment." The chirography and spelling of 
this document are of that exact and painstaking sort so many of the men of his 
period followed, fcr it was counted something of a disgrace for any boy hav- 
ing school privileges, not to acquire a correct, albeit somewhat stately hand- 
writing. The signers of the Declaration almost to a man, left their names in 
ink as clearly decipherable as if in print. With the exception of that of "Step. 
Hopkins," the oldest member of that patriotic gathering, who was in his sixt\'- 
ninth year, there is no tremor either in signature or flourish, to indicate that 
the signers had an overshadowing consciousness that, as one of them said, "if we 
do not hang together we will all hang separately." 

An old account book bound in vellum, with column rulings adapted to the 
English money system, well preserved and the ink as fresh as if written yester- 
day, yields many items of interest. The first is dated Nov. 29, 1825, at which 
time the owner lived in Scotland, and the values are extended in pounds, shil- 


lings and pence. He was a baker by trade and tbere are charges for "biscuits," 
"loaves," "small rolls," etc., in profusion with an occasional sale of bran which 
shows that Graham was still an unknown factor in breadmaking. A "tl-qr. 
loaf" meaning one weighing three and a half pounds, is charged lOd. The ex- 
cessive land rentals paid to the titled gentry of the realm, evidently appears 
in the price of the loaf. "One stone Fine P'lour" is entered at 2 shillings 10 
pence, which would be at the rate of 70 cents for fourteen pounds reduced to our 
reckoning. A memorandum reads "In the year 1832 I commenced farming on 
my own hook. The land had been partly cleared before it came into my hand 
juid there was half an acre that had not been plowed and I had no team." Oct. 26, 
1832, is the item "For expense in bringing Clapboards fi-om Rossie to his (i\Ir. 
Duej-'s) house Is. 6d." These two items were made the year of the coming 
of the owner of the book to Gouverneur. "Paid for Crane Irons, 3s." "Paid 
for Oven ]Mantletree Irons, Is. lOd." Tlie newly arrived immigrant had not 
yet acquired the mysteries of $'s and cents. "Paid JNIr. ]\Iaddock for 27 Glass 
Lights .$1.08." "Paid :Mr. Dodge for a letter 10 cents," "For Shoeing Oxen 
and Mending Ring 11 shillings — I pay half," are charges made in 1833. In 
1836, "Paid Raymond Austin for sawing 180 boards 36 cents." indicates that 
the custom was to charge by the cut instead of by the, board measure. May 
20, 1836, "Sold :Mr. Rockwell Barnes 12 bush, of Oats at -is.," and later, "Paid 
Mr. Barnes for Framing my barn $16.72." The total income from the farm 
in 1836 appears to have been $3-57.58. Pork brouglit 4 cts., eggs of which "79 
dozen were sent to the village" and sold for .$7.10 or 9 cents per dozen, wool 
48 cents, wood ashes 12 cents, corn 75 cents, butter 14 cents, oats 31 cents, 
wheat $1.13, barley .$1, ])otatoes 2.5 cents. There are many erasures and al- 
terations in the figures showing that the new citizen was struggling with the 
reduction of pounds to (k)llars, English to "York" shillings and pence to cents. 
In 1833 he paid "Mr. Tounsend of Gouverneur" for 2 bushels of Hair, 371/2 
cents. As Dr. Richard Townsend had gone to Pliiladelphia several years be- 
fore, this "Tounsend" must have been some other than lie, probably the "Fran- 
cis D Townsend" of the census of 1835. There is an item not readily under- 
stood, reading, "Dec. 13, 1833, James paid for me one-half of Cotton at 3s. 
to weave into cloth — what the weaver will charge neither he nor I know." In 
this year he paid 84 cents for a newspaper. Did the early editor deduct post- 
age from his subscription price.'' Aug. 10, 1845, "Charles Johnson charges 
me for framing on House $3," followed by another charge of $3.25 for a like 
service. In Dec. of the same year he bought of "]Mr. Parsons a Stove at $8, 
one elbow and pipe $1.00." A few days later he paid "j\Ir. Vanduzee for my 
seat in the Meetinghouse in two installments .$25.00." In the ten years foUow- 
mg 1844 are thirty-one entries of money "Paid B. B. Beckwith Cash," usually 
$5 each time. The last four of these were paid to "Mr. Charles Anthony." 
Probably tliese were in lieu of the usual "donation" to the minister, as there are 
other entries for "seat in meetinghouse" scattered through the fifty 3^ears of 
continuous record. The book is full of the names of the old builders of the town 
with whom the accountant had dealings. It is difficult to desist from further ex- 


l)-acts, albeit, they naturally flccrcase in interest the nearer we come to tlie pres- 
ent generation. 

The present day plan of leasing farms "at the halves," or by an agreul 
, price "per cow," seems not to have prevailed in the earlier history. Here is a 
copy of an old lease dated 18^4 in good preservation: "This Agreement made 
and completed this first day of November, 182-1-, between John Hoyt of the first 
part of Gouvcrneur, County of St. Lawrence, State of New York, and Daniel 
Grout and Randall D. Price of the town and county aforesaid, of the second 
part" etc. in which 100 acres "on the Morris Tract, being the first lot north of 
James Hales" is leased for one year for this rental : Hoyt is to furnish "one 
good plow and harrer," one third of the seed for sowing and planting, and Grout 
& Price are "to cut the grass and divide in the field, putting one half in Hoyt's 
barn" and to divide the cnglish grain in the half-bushel, the corn in the basket, 
the flax in the bundle and deliver to the said Hoyt one-third of the grain, corn 
and flax" and Hoyt is "to be to one-half of the ex})ense of carting manure and 
to have one-third part of the straw and corn fodder and punkins" and the 
whole is signed by the three parties in interest, and witnessed by James Haile 
and Stephen Johnson. The seals are crude, diamond shaped bits of paper, cut 
from another sheet of same sort as that written on, and attached with red wafers 
whicli last have faded to a "crushed strawberry" tint. There is an endorsed 
addendum in which Hoyt agrees to pay one-half the taxes. The whole, except- 
ing signatures, is in the handwriting of Daniel Grout and marks him as an 
amateur lawyer of good enough skill to be able to draw a contract that would 
"stand law" undoubtedly. The land covered by this lease is included in the 
farm of John R. Hill on the "Scotch Settlement" road. 

The social current did not always flow without an occasional ripple. Our 
forefathers while men of peace were also men of opinions. Read this document 
that has been rescued from the past : 

"The petition of your devoted friends whose names are hereunto subscribed 
humbly sheweth : That we are now considered as residing in School District No. 
... in the town of Gouvcrneur, County of St. Lawrence, State of New York, 
being very remote from the central part of s^^ District so that our children can 
in no wise be Benefited by the School in s"^^ District pray that you will take our 
case into your wise consideration and Set us off from s^' District & annex us to 
District No. 1 in the town of Rossie in the county aforesaid as we your peti- 
tioners in Duty bound shall ever pray. Dated Gouvcrneur Ap'" 27*'^ 1819. To 
the Commissioners of Common Schools in the Town of Gouvcrneur. 

Benjamix Payxe, 
William Freesiax, 
Ambrose Seaman." 

There was a counter petition apparently, though the absence of the num- 
ber of the School District in the foregoing document makes it impossblc to iden- 
tify that movement with the following: 

"To the Commissioners of Conmion Schools of the Town of Gouvcrneur : 
We vour humble petitioners pray that as you have Divided the District No. 4 


that yon would discontinue your Doings and let the Same be sot back and in so 
doing you will very nnich oblige your humble petitioners. 
Gou\'erneur, July -Ith, 18253. 

Samuel IMerriam David Miller 

Ansel Johnson J. S. Colton 

Daniel Keys Bela Hough 

WiLLiAji C'laghorn Alanson Hough 

Julian Perry Isaac Smith 

Caleb S. Johnson Daniel Sears 

]\Iartin Easterly Nathaniel Martin 

Ira Perry Simeon Johnson 

Jesse ]\Iartin Elljah Hough J'' 

I. W. Porter Elijah Hough 

Alansox Townsend Walter S. Hyer 

Elisha Bann Alby Smith. 

James JNIurdock 
If this was a counter petition, the signatures although numbering twenty- 
five as against three, was insufficient to move the "Commissioners." After due 
deliberation of the latter, for the_v did not do things without nuich weighing 
o!' the pros and cons in those days, the following official document was issued: 


is hcrebv given to the Trustees of School District No. -i Gouverneur that a 
division of said District was made by the Commissioners of Common Schools 
in said Town on the Ifith day of the present month Bounded as follows be- 
ginning at the southeasterly side of John Putmans house thence on the road run- 
ning to the road that leads from Kenneys to Streetcrs Containing half the land 
laying between the two districts N" 4 and N" 7. 

James Haile. 
Commissioner of Connnon 
Schools of Gouverneur 

Gouverneur Feb. le^h 1824. 

There is an almost utter absence of punctuation marks in the foregoing- 
documents. Alby Smith remembered to end his name with a period. Daniel 
Keyes always spelled his last name with two c's but the petition shows only one. 
This does not invalidate the document — its genuineness is unmistakable — but 
it shows that the brother of the man who made the first axes in Gouverneur on 
the site now occupied by the Van Duzee ^Ifg. Co.'s shop, probably told the can- 
\'asscr for signatures to "put him down." 

Here is a memorandum of interest to those faithful sons of Scotia wher- 
ever found, showing how soon after making their homes in the new land, they 
made plans for upholding the cause ever nearest to their hearts : 

Gouverneur, June 21 1837. 

We the undersigned form ourselves into a Body to support the Bil)le So- 
c;ety according as God sliall prosper us and a box shall be kept by the treasurer 
where all flonations shall be deposited and shall be deivered to the Treasurer or 



ugciit of St. Liiwrencc Bihc Socifty every six months coiiiinencing on the first 
of January next. 

John Thomson, 
James Hill, 
James Rttthereord, 
George Rodgeu, 
James Hill, Jun'" 


David Hill, 
Catherine Hill, 
Helen Patton, 
Altha Shead, 
Jajies Rutherford." 

How thoroughly cliaracteristic of tlic nationahty of tile signers, this doc- 
liinent is.'' They <lid not wait until the crops were garnered before ]jledging 
themselves to give "as tliey were prospered." Of no people save one, could that 
deathless lyric. The Cotter's Saturday Night, been written. So none other than 
the sons and daughters of those whose simple faith and fealty were celebrated 
in that poem could have conceived and executed this document at a time when 
they were struggling for the bare necessities of life. It was a reproduction in 
the new land, thousands of miles removed from hearthstones their infancy knew, 
of the scene that Robert Burns immortalized. 

About 1837 the first agitation for a railroad from Ogdensburg to Albanj' 
began. Six years previously tlie jMohawk K- Schenectady road, 17 miles in 
length, and the first in the state, had been finished and was in successful opera- 
tion. The citizens of this town were not unobservant of the new method of travel 
and transportation, and though feeble in resources, never ceased to clicrish the 
determination to secure an outlet at the first opportunity. These aspirations 
took shape in 1852, a meeting being held in Gouvcrneur Jan. 8th of that year 
to receive the report of the survey and form a companjf. It is not the purpose 
to here recite the history of the Potsdam & Waterown R. R. which has several 
times been written. In Gouverneur Edwin Dodge and Wm. E. Sterling were 
made directors of the new line among a board of thirteen and the first named 
was made president. Daniel Lee of Watertown was elected treasurer. 

Col. H. B. Keene was an important factor in the promotion of the old 
Pot;-d:-Mn & Watertown R. R. subsequently merged into the R. W. & O. R .R. 
He was a large landed proprietor as farming posses- 
sions were then counted, and he gave time, money and 
pecuniary endorsement to the undertaking, going to 
the verge in the latter particular so that, had the ef- 
fort failed, it must have involved him in ruin. He was 
a man of indomitable energj^ and determination, self- 
educated in the scliool of practical experience, and the 
want of some method of reaching outside markets with 
the products of this and Jefi^erson counties, justified 
him in taking hazards to secure that result. He can- 
vassed his innnediate territory assiduously for stock 
subscriptions and it is a surprise not to find his name among the first officers of 
the company. Probably the division of official honors was made by localitj' 
largely as is usual. Later he received due reward for the risks and labors he 
niade, in the enhancement of the value of his lands. He was the first station 

Col. H. B. Keene. 


ag'ent at Keenes, named for liiinself, for the new road on its completion. It is 
interesting to notice that, as first surveyed, the line was 7-5% miles long <ind 
Hernion was named as a station lietwecn Richville and Uekalb. The diversion to 
include Hcrmon added about six miles, the present distance from Watertown 
to Potsdam being 69 miles. 

Here is an interesting little paper relating to the early history of this 
railroad : 

Treasurer's Office Potsdam and Watertown R. R. Co., 
Watertown, Dec. 8th, 185-i. 

Received of J. R. Absalon of the Town of Fowler, 4)5-100 of a Dollar being 
bal. of int. on ten Shares of Stock standing in his name on the Books of the 
Potsdam and Watertown R. R. Co. 

45-100 of a Dollar. D. Lee, 

ten Shares. Treasurer. 

Every dollar of that ten shares was lost as an investment. It was the price 
the citizen.s along the line paid for the new improvement. Everybody who took 
siock in the enterprise suffered in like manner. Currently with the writing of 
these words, all the metropolitan magazines of large circulation, are publishing 
astonisliing disclosures of corporate rapacity and legalized robber}^ It is no 
new thing with the railroad corporation. The history of the Pot.sdam and Wa- 
tertown R. R. Iirings this home to us when we recall it. There was no intention 
on the part of the capitalists in New York City who financed this road, to per- 
mit the stock to remain in force, nor eventually, be of the slightest value to 
tliose who invested in it. Enough was collected of the innocent residents along 
the line to grade the road and this amounted in Oct., 1852, to $750,000.'!' rpj_^g 
Absalom family were French refugees from the province of Lorraine, robbed of 
their ancient estates in France by the revolutionists of 1789 and (h'iven to Amer- 
ica, where by thrift they became again possessed of comfortable fortunes. Did 
the one named in the receipt above who I'eprescnted thi-ec other families de- 
scended from the original settler and their accumulated money savings, become 
painfully aware that the taking l)v force of tlie landed possessions of his father 
in his native country, was fairly offset by the taking by finesse in this.'' In the 
sweep of territory a score of miles in breadth, and reaching from Watertown to 
Potsdam, no person having a lumdrcd dollars at command, escaped the stock- 
solicitor. That they did not revolt and seek justice when their certificates be- 
came worthless paper, was due probably to the appreciation of their properties 
by the advent of the new road. This appreciation, however, was no justifica- 
tion for the sacrifice of their cash accumulations. 

Fifteen years after the events recorded above, the writer, then a teacher in 
Springfield, Mass., became acquainted with a wealthy bondholder of this road, 
then merged into the R. W. & O. system. Remembering how his father had been 
\ictimized, he sought an explanation of the methods used in its accomplishment. 
The process was simple enough. The capitalist invested in the bonds of the 
road ; the victim in the stock. The bond was a first mortgage. A failure to pay 

(i 1 Hough. 



its interest resulted in foreclosure and sale of the road and the bondholder bid 
it in. There was nobody else interested in buying so he bought at his own price, 
usually but a fraction of the cost of the road. Scarcely a road is now built into 
new territory but that this fraud is perpetrated upon its stockholders. 

Today the old Potsdam and Watertown railway is a part of a gigantic 
system covering many states. From being a large factor in the growth and 
prosperity of the town, it has become an engine of oppression. It makes the 
price of every article of large natural production shipped over its lines. There 
was a time when the dealer in butter and cheese for instance could conduct his 
business at a profit, but the railway has taken that from him. The price of 
every head of live stock is fixed before the animals leave the station and no skill 
of the dealer can avert a loss if it is so determined by the offshoots and co-shar- 
ers of the railway at the point of destination. Arbitrary and exorbitant 
freight rates are charged, wholly independent of service performed and the rule 
is to exact all the traffic will bear. The result of these oppressive measures is 
shown in the fact that no farmer in the town, not possessed of some special line, 
as the raising of blooded stock, running a milk route or similar specially profit- 
able business, can earn as owner and manager of a farm, more than the com- 
monest day wages of the laborer. His investment in land and buildings nets him 
nothing more than if he sold his time to any employer. The wife and the larger 
boys and girls of the family work for nothing. It is idle to gloss over these 
things. They are true. And they are as true of every other rural locality as 
of Gouverncur. We are not specially marked for exploitation. The man who 
produces wealth should be the master of his product. The corporation that 
transports it for him should be his servant. But the positions are reversed 
through the granting of special privileges, and the servant has become the mas- 

The forerunner of the Gouverneur Agricultural 
and Mechanical Society is sketched with graphic in- 
terest by one of the farmers of the town, David Hill, 
lono- since gathered to his fathers. He left a record 
dated Oct. 22, 1858, which is of sufficient interest to 
warrant reproduction here. He writes : 
^^^^^ / "I often ask myself why our farmers plow their 

^^M HB IL^/ lands so miserably. I thought can there nothing be 
^"^^H jHH^ ^one to improve this condition.? So I started out one 

^^^ S0^ day to try what could be done among my acquaintances 

David Hill. on the west side of the village, about holding a plowing 

match. I found them all willing if some one would take the lead. So, I posted 
notices all over calling upon the farmers to meet and appoint judges, name date 
and place of trial and provide means to pay the prizes. At the meeting we 
raised $24, and named the farm of Samuel Smith on the Rock Island road for 
the place of trial, on Thursday, Oct. 22. The day proved a fine one and there 
were upwards of three hundred present. Eleven plows started and the work 
\.as done in a manner those present never saw before. James Brown, a Scotch- 


man, took tlie first prize along with a Welsliman, David Lewis, who was given 
the same amount, as the work was equal We judges distributed the remainder 
of the money among them as it was the first trial of the kind." 

The success of the plowing match led to a call for the formation of a fair 
organization and the account proceeds : 

"January 16, 1859, I was in Gouverneur and founcl that mostly every 
farmer I talked with would like to have a Town I'air. So I and George Parker 
posted up notices all over the town calling a meeting in the Town Hall on the 
22nd day of January to appoint a Committee, and draft a constitution accord- 
ing to law. (has. Anthony, Esq. was made president of the meeting and a 
name was chosen — The Gouverneur Agricultural and ^Mechanical P'air. We 
invited all the neighboring towns to take a part in it. One of the days was to 
be a Sale Day ; an entirely new thing in this part of the Country. The Fair 
took place Sept. 141, 1.5 & 16 and we got the Canton tent by paying charges 
both ways on it. But the wind rose to a hurricane, and blew it down in the 
morning of the ll<th. The secretary told me he sold two thousand tickets at 
the gate and over and above two hundred familj^ tickets. We saved $200 and 
I was glad of it as we directors had bound ourselves to foot the Bill, if we fell 
short. We had an address from Thomas Clark of Jefferson countv. The 
plowing match came off on the 16th, and was keenly contested by the Welsh 
and Scotch as none of the Yankees cared to enter the list. We had an old Bull 
Plow there that was made in 1812. They got two blind horses and two men to 
matcji to lead them and they walked backwards. Gouverneur has beat both 
county and state fairs on scjuashes and cheese this year." 

The "bull-plow" was tried on the site of the present residence of Aniasa Cor- 
l)in at the corner of ]\Iain and Rock Island Streets in a dry gravelly loam, and 
it was impossible to make it stay in tlie ground. The most modern plow could 
not have been made to turn a furrow in that soil however. It belonged to 
Milton G. Norton and is still in existence. 

The tickets for the first fair were printed by two lads having type enough 
to set the words "Admit One" in a mortise, the "press" being a pine lever about 
thirty inches long and the ink being applied with the finger. Bristol board was 
supplied for tlie fair association and cut into ticket size with a jack-knife. There 
was no printing office in town and as the youths had the only type securely 
locked in their "form" with a wooden wedge, the possibility of counterfeiting 
was not considered. The names of the members of this amateur printing firm 
were Alonzo J. A'auDuzee and J. S. Corbin. 

By courtesy of the Daughters of the American Revolution, the writer is 
placed in possession of a document of great interest of which this is the title 
page : 


Census of the State for the year 18,'}.5. 

Town of GOUVERNEUR, County of ST. LAWRENCE. 


Who was the census taker does not appear but the document is unquestion- 



ably an official copy. It was rescued from the fire in 1877 which destroyed oth- 
er town records by happening to he at the time in the possession of A. Z. Madi- 
son and at liis death went into the hands of JNIrs. Sarah Madison of Buffalo 
from whom Judge E. H. Neary received it. Under the column headed "The 
Name of the Head of Each Family," are the following names, comprising every 
one in town in the year 1834. Tlie list is so valuable that it is repeated here, 
lengthy as it is, in order to ensure its preservation for future historians: 

Ayers, Eli 
Ay res, Ebenezer 
Ayers, William 
Adams, Lyman 
Austin, Elwell E. 
Atwood, Joel 
Austin, Raymond 
Aldous, Stephen 
Bolton, Joseph 
Boutwell, Martin 
Breese, Harvey 
Buck, Roger 
Beardslee, ('has. H. 
Baxter, James 
Beardslee, Ezekiel 
Beardslee, Elias S. 
Barr, Elisha 
Babcock, James 
Blandin, Samuel 
Barber, Moses 
Bosworth, Jabez 
Barker, Nathan 
Billings, Amasa 
Brooks, Joseph 
Brooks, William 
Barrel, Almon 
Ballou, Jirah 
Bowen, William 
Barney, James K. 
Barney, JMilton 
Bowne, James 
Barnes, Norman 
Barnes, Rockwell 
Bolton, John 
Barrel, C'olburn, Jr. 
Bowhall, Demarkis 
Beck, Christopher 
Bolster, Jared L. 
Beebe, Smith 
Babcock, John 
Cross, Solomon 
Cross, Joel 

Crawford, James 
Culbertson, William 
Campbell, George W. 
Colton, Jonathan S. 
Clark, James 
Cunningham, James 
Cole, Alpha 
Carrington, Aaron 
Corbin, Amasa 
Crawford, David 
Collins, Benjamin 
Case, Samuel 
Cone, Sylvanus 
Conklin, James 
Curtis, Charles 
Cooper, Aaron 
Case, Ephriam 
Cunningham, Joseph 
Clark, Charles 
Culbertson, John 
Dodds, Alexan(;ler 
Dewey, Eleazcr 
Dodge, Heni-y 
Dodge, Lyman 
Dodds, Andrew 
Dodge, Edwin 
Dodge, William H 
Davis, Nathaniel 
Drake, Caleb 
Drake, Luther 
Drake, Hiram 
Dewey, Fanny 
Drovenor, Joseph 
DeWitt, ]Moscs 
Dickinson, Braddock 
Davis, Roswell 
Darling, Robert 
Eager, Emery 
Ells, Lewis 
Fosgate, John 
Freeman, William 

Foster, William 
Fradenburgh, Peter 
Frasier, Theodore 
Fairbanks, Joel 
Fairbanks, Samuel 
Fradenburgh, Alexander 
Frasier, Ben j amin 
Fuller, James 
Guernsey, Willard 
Guernsey, Wilder 
Grout, Daniel 
Goodenough, Abel 
Griffin, Wolcott 
Goodrich, Charles 
Goodrich, Thomas 
Greene, Allen 
Green, John 
Gillman, ]Mary 
Hough, Bela 
Hawley, Percival 
Hudson, Henry 
Hopkins, Joseph 
Hyer, Walter S. 
Hunt, Asa Jr. 
Hamblin, Hiram 
Heath, JNIorrison 
Harris, Luther 
Hills, Nathan 
Hunt, Richard 
Holbrook, Henry B. 
Hulbert, Augustus 
Hailc, James 
Herring, William 
Hill, James 
Haile, Nathan 
Hill, David 
Heath, Joshua 
High, Samuel 
Haven, Clement 
Haywood, Levi 
Helmer, J. E. 

Frcdenburgh,Abraham Jr-Johnson, Stephen 



Johnson, John 
Johnson, Ansel 
Jones, Jacob 
Kneeland, Sally B. 
Kentfield, Elias 
Keyes, Joel 
Kenyon, Moses C. 
Kimball, Richard 
Kelsey, Samuel 
Keyes, Daniel 
Keyes, Calvin F. 
Kelsey, Frederick W. 
Kinney, Amos 
Kinney, Barnet B. 
Kimber, William 
Keith, Barnabas 
Kinney, John 
Killmer, William 
Leavitt, Benjamin 
Livingston, Wm. A. 
Lanphaer, Freeman 
Lake, James 
Lashbrooks, Nathan 
Lashbrooks, Charles 
Lashbrooks, Orin 
Lashbrooks, Runa 
Lake, John I. 
Livingstone, Alexander 
Lashbrooks, Hiram 
Lashbrooks, James 
Lashbrooks, William 
Maddock, James 
Murdock, Hiram 
McKay, Alby 
Marble, Jonathan 
Miller, David 
Mix, EH 
Merriman, Ora 
^Merithew, John 
^Mcrithcw, Jeremiah 
Morgan, Isaac 
jMorse, Horace D. 
Martin, Harvey 
^Murdock, Jonathan 
]\litchcll, Hiram 
Moran, Francis 
]\Io]tonner, George 
Njcliols, William 

Nichols, Geo. W. 
Northrup, Levi 
Nobles, Reuben 
Nobles, Lyman 
Nelson, VanRensselaer 
Nelson, Isaac 
Northum, Eli R. 
Nichols, Eleazer 
Norton, Milton G. 
Osborn, Olonzo 
Orvis, Charles 
Peden, James 
Phillips, David 
Parmeter, Suell 
Porter, Israel 
Peck, Josep 
Parsons, Lewis B. 
Parker, James 
Parsons, Myron 
Parsons, Israel R. 
Prentice, John 
Phelps, Benjamin W. 
Patton, Thomas 
Plielps, Alfred 
Prentice, Willard 
Peters, Alfonzo 
Parsons, Oliver 
Parker, William 
Peck, David 
Peck, Nelson 
Perrigo, Isaac H. 
Rice, James 
Robertson, John 
Rhodes, William W. 
Rhodes, John 
Rhodes, William 
Reed, William C. 
Rice, Randall D. 
Rhoades, Ebenezer 
Rhoades, Asa 
Rutherford, James 
Rundell, Gilbert D. 
Richardson, William 
Russell, Jesse M. 
Risley, Jeremiah 
Stone, Joseph 
Smith, Benjamin 
Smith, Harvey D. 

("inc. A." Z. M.") 

Smith, Benjamin H. 
Smith, Joseph, 2nd 
Smith, Nathan W. 
Smith, Joseph 
Smith, Samuel 
Smith, Rufus 
Smith, Isaac 
Smith, William 
Smith, Anion 
Smith, Jonathan L. 
Smith, Isaac P. 
Smith, Jason 
Smith, Calvin 
Smith, David 
Smith, Silas 
Smith, Willard 
Smith, Abida 
Smith, Laura 
Smith, Stephen 
Smith Zebina 
Smith, Benj. 2nd. 
Smith, Allen 
Skinner, Joel 
Schofield, Noah 
Shipman, Rowland 
Sheldon, Timothy 
Swan, Abel 
Seaman, Ambrose 
Stiles, Sanford 
Stoddard, Elisha G. 
Spencer, John 
Strecter, Erasmus E. 
Strecter, Dianthyn 
Sherwin, Isaac C. 
Sabin, William Jr. 
Slyter, Jonathan 
Scars, Daniel 
Sheldon, ^lartha 
Seeker, Peter 
Thrall, Isaac 
Tuttle, Chandler 
Townsend, Benjamin M. 
Thrall, John 
Townson, Alanson 
Townson, Levi 
Townsend, Francis B. 
Thompson, James 
Thayer, Asahel 
Thayer, Horace 


Thayer, Enoch 
Thayer, Wihard 
Turner, jNIiles 
Thompson, John 
Tanner, Fitch 
Thompson, Thomas 
A'anDuzee, James 
A'anDuzce, Stephen B. 
VanBuren, Samuel 
A'anBuren, Thomas H. 
VanBuren, Harman 
A'anBuren, Peter 
A'anDuzee, David 

Benedict, N. T. 
Clark, Harvey 
Conklin, Jolm 
Dunlap, Joseph 
Gittel, Charles 

Vary, Richard H. 
VanNamee, Stephen 
VanNamee, John 
Walling, William 
Walling, Almond 
Walling, Joshua 
Woodward, Amasa 
Winchell, Morris S. 
Wade, Josiah 
Wilcox, David 
Welch, Thomas 
Walling, Samuel 
Wait, Lynde 

Gray, A. N. 
Gray, I. W. 
. Goodale, George D. 
Hopkins, Gustavus 
Heald, John 

Wright, Enos 
Williams, Thomas W. 
Wilson, William 
Wilson, Rohert 
Wilson, William Sweys 
Washburn, Nehemiah 
Washburn, Patience 
Walker, David 
Wilson, Samuel B. 
Wilson, Amos 
Woodruff, Geo. C. 

Jewett, B. N. 
Lawton, Daniel B. 
Mills, Willard C. 
Poste, Alson C. 
Smith, James H. 

The names beginning with "Benedict, N. T." arc in a separate list follow- 
mg the main schedule. Though each was set down as the "head of family" 
there were no "female persons" nor other "male persons" than themselves in 
the "family." They were the bachelors of IS'ii. All save two were eligible to 
niilitary duty and all save one was of voting age. Were they living alone in 
some humble cabin, clearing a spot in the wilderness to which they might bring 
some future mistress of the home when fortune had smiled upon them.'' The 
census shows a total of 923 males and 873 females in Gouverneur, a total of 
1796, which corresponds exactly with the number given in the census returns 
on page 10 which were obtained from another source. There were 178 "male 
persons subject to military duty;" 3.53 "male persons entitled l)y the constitu- 
tion of this state to vote ;" 42 "male persons not naturalized," which shows 
that foreigners were not pursued so industriously and made to "swear in," 
as now ; no "paupers," which item may profitably be contrasted with the thou- 
sands of dollars now annually expended by the town poormaster ; no "persons 
of color not taxed" ; no "persons of color who are taxed" ; and 
these two records will be found still persisting in the census be- 
in o- taken as these words are penned; the "number of married 
female persons unmarried under the age of sixteen years" was -127 ; the "num- 
ber of marriages occurring; where the female resided" was 14 ; the "number of 
births" was male 39, female 44, or about one to every four families, indicating 
that "race suicide" was not a peril; the "number of deaths" was male 15, female 
16, a fair indication of splendid constitutions and steady habits; the "num- 
ber of acres of improved land occupied" was 7,24914, a record of painstaking 
accuracy when that fraction of an acre is remembered; the "number of neat 
cattle owned" was 3,390 ; the "number of horses owned" was 4.51 ; the "num- 
ber of sheep owned" was 4,071 ; the "number of hogs owned" was 1,130 ; the 
"number of yards of fulled cloth manufactured in the domestic way in the fam- 


ily" was 2,926 ; tlie "nunilx'r of j'ards of flannel and other woolen cloths manu- 
factured in the tlomestic way" was 4,250 ; the "number of yards of linen, cot- 
ton or other thin cloths manufactured in the domestic way," was 2,716, in 
which was included by the "marshal" as tlie census taker was oflicially termed, 
the "tow" cloth so manufactured. There were two "idiots" in town, one of 
each sex, which were supported by a "son" in one case and by "property left 
by father" in the other. In manufacturing the town was in its infancy. Of 
"grist mills" there was one (Israel Porter's) in the construction of which ,$4,500 
worth of raw materials were used and $4,950 of manufactured articles, which 
seems a large cost for the size and capacity of the mill Mr. Porter owned. Had 
the head of the bureau at Albany called for the number of runs of .stone instead 
of the cost of the mill, the information conveyed would have been much more 
lucid, as the capacity of the mill would have been indicated thereby as well as 
its cost. The "saw-mills" numbered three; Barnes' costing $1,500, Austin's 
costing $2,025 and Hunt's costing $8,000. Of "oil mills" there were none. Of 
"fulling mills" one, belonging to S. Cone, costing .$4,685. Of "carding ma- 
chines" one, belonging also to j\lr. Cone, costing .$'3,750. Of "cotton factories" 
none. Of "woolen factories" none. Of "iron works" none. Of "trip ham- 
mers" one belonging to Joel Keyes and costing $2,000. Of "distilleries" none. 
The one built by John Brown about 1814 had evidently failed to pay. Of "ash- 
eries" there were three ; W. E. Sterling it Co. had two costing together $6,050. 
which seems a large estimate, and one owned by Lewis B. Parsons costing $452. 
The days of "lilack salts" had passed or nearly so but liouse ashes were in de- 
mand and were sought for diligently, large wagons earring 100 bushels being 
sent out hv the owners of the asheries for them. The price of "a shilling a 
bushel" remained without fluctuation for probably fifty years. Of "tan- 
neries" there were also two, Benjamin Howard Smith's costing ,$3,000 and 
Benj. M. Townsend's (?) costing one-Jialf as mucli. This concludes the entire 
list of m;iniifaetories in th:: town. Altogether tliere were just twelve of them. 

There are puzzhng annotations in the original handwriting of whoever 
compiled this census for the town, some of which are not comprehended, others 
are. W. E. Sterling is set down as boarding with Peter Van Buren, an "aside" 
not intended probably for record at Albanj'. "A. Z. M.", probably A. Z. 
]Madison, is counted in with the family of Harvey D. Smith. The 207 head of 
"neat cattle" belonging to John Spencer is explained Ijy the word "drover," 
Joshua Heath's record of owning no land is explained by liis holdings being 
included with "^Ir. Wait's in company." Wait has the credit of owning 120 
acres of improved land, which is the largest acreage ascribed to any citizen save 
I\Iilton G. Norton, who has an equal amount and James Parker who has 5 acres 
more. Amasa Corbin is credited with 30 "neat cattle" which comports well 
with the fact that he was the first cheesemaker of tlie town. He came from near 
the famous region in ^Massachusetts (Clieshire) which made the 1,450 pound 
cheese for Thomas Jefferson, then just inaugurated president, and Elder John 
Leland a Baptist divine of National celebrity, (born 1754, died 1841), pre- 
sejitcd it to the president, hauling it on a sleigh in the early part of the winter 


of 1801. Gomorncur's first cheese product, later destined to expand to a large 
industry, was marketed in jMontreal, to which place it was drawn on a sleigh, 
via Chateaugay, the St. Lawrence crossed on the ice, and the cheese was sold 
for three cents per pound. Later Ogdensburg bought the output of this dairy, 
and a lasting friendsliip was created between the buyer, Amasa Woolley and 
the seller. Still later, this maker sent his cheese to Hoston in "casks" holding 
six to nine cheese, the casks being made by "Si." ^lorgan in a cooper shop 
near the Jolin Richardson farm on Rock Island road. Alanson Townson had 
90 acres of improved land; Morris S. Winchell the same, which is curious as 
Winchell was a harness-maker by trade; Francis IMoran had 100; Lynde Wait 
and M. G. Norton each 120 ; Jas. Parker 125 ; and Elwell E. Austin and Jason 
Smith each 150 acres which two last show the advantage of having an ancestry 
among the first settlers who came through the wilderness in 1805, hunting 
for "Cambray" with the aid of a pocket compass. The ancient copj^ of the 
official returns of tiie "marslial" is of such exceeding interest that the writer 
IS loth to abandon further deductions from it. A memorandum in pencil on 
the last page shows that it took the "marshal" eight and one-quarter days to 
make his canvass, his various routes and the time spent on each are specified and 
the statutes then in force provided that he should be paid whatever amount the 
supervisors of the county allowed. There was no stated compensation in the 

The matrons of those days now distant almost three-quarters of a century 
must not be forgotten. What a splendid body of women they were! Were other 
records destroyed, written history obliterated, memories paralyzed and tradi- 
tion silent, there is enough in the census of 1835 to prove her position in the 
making and building of the town. Seven women are classed as heads of fami- 
lies, very one of whom had children numbering from two to seven. All lived on 
farms seemingly, except one, as she has no "improved" acreage credited to her. 
All save one had live stock to care for which confirms the last statement. Her 
tireless industry is embalmed in the record of 2,926 yards of fulled cloth, 
4,250 of flannels, 2,716 of tow cloth and linen and 703 pounds of linen thread., 
not to mention 569 pounds of flax seed which may liave been threshed out by 
the masculine element of the family, albeit the "threshing" was done by draw- 
ing the matured stalks through a set of iron teeth which stripped the seed off, 
and this process was called "rippling." It was followed by "breaking" to 
separate the woody portion, "scutching" or beating it with a broad blade of 
wood about 30 incjies long, and "combing" which was not unlike the process of 
rippling the seed. What a lovely sight one of those old flax-fields must have 
been when the plant, about three feet high, was in bloom and the field pre- 
sented a waving mass of blue blossoms of delicate hue ! The spinning and weav- 
ing of the wool and flax was the winter work of the household. The family of 
William Ayres produced in the winter of 183-1-5 21' yards fulled cloth, 70 of 
flannel and 36 of tow cloth or coarse linen. The mother of the writer has to her 
credit 20, 66, and 15 yards respectively. Caleb Drake in whose family were 
three "females," has the prodigious amount of 20, 52 and 77 yards. This is 

U./IarmHMrsons /, 

I. ratty Austin— wWft of Josiah Waid, came \\\\\iw nine vcars old with lier parents and the first four families in iSod. Her 
father caine tuice in the previous year 2. L/icy (rart^eit—wWe of Willard Smith, pioneer settler in 1806 ?. I-Sctsv Dcm>i/s — \\\{& 
of James L Thompson, pioneer settler in 180S. 4. Nancy Nichols — wife of Rufus Smith, daughter of I'Je^zer " Nichols, came 
with first (our families in 1^06. 3. Almira Strecter—vjUe of Elwell Austin (son of Isaac Austin and brother of Patty Austin 1 
came from lirattleboro, Vt. 6. Sophronia A^ams—-w\fe of John i-'osgate, iSori-1873, came with four children in 'a lumber 
wagon to this settlement 7. Nancy Boiveii~^\{z of Timothy Sheldon, 1785-1856, pioneer in 1810. &. Betsy Avers— \\\{<c o{ 
Thomas H. Van Buren. 1796-1882, pioneer about 1817. 9. Caroline Jncksou—wxi^ of Benj Howard Smith, iSoCi-iSciS, came from 
Randolph, Vt., in 1^24 10. Eliza Blish—^W^ oi Judge Jas. Skinner, iSn-igoo, came to Wegatchie in 1S47, to Gouverneur 
village i<'^52 //. Mrs. Rodney Smith, has distinction of living to the age of loi years, died in Sept.. 1S95. 12. Lucretia Allen — 
wife of Erwin Barnes, 1823 — , came from Waitesfield, Vt , 1835. ij:. Cassandana Bnllara — wife of James IVI, Spencer, 1815 — , 
came from iVIassacIiu setts, 1821. 14 L. Maria f/osjner—\\\ie of Rich. Parsons, iSi4-iC)05, came from Johnstown, N. Y.', 1839. 


the largest amount in the schedule, though Rufus Smith's family came within 
two yards of it. Consider the spinning involved in these figures ! It may be 
taken as within the truth that each yard required at least 150 yards of yarn 
to weave it. One gets dizzy in further multiplying. But the mothers of ISS* 
doubtless accepted the task as one of the ordinary duties incident to the local- 
ity and the youthfulness of the town,, which was not yet thirty years old. 

"What became of the flax seed?" was asked of the oldest lady in town as 
these deductions were being prepared. "It was put in tow bags and sent away, I 
don't know where." In Carthage at this time was an oil mill. It had a trundle 
stone of granite, was driven by water and undoubtedly consumed all the seed 
produced here. Transportation was too difficult yet to permit long hauls. Mr. 
Allen Wight who saw this mill a few years later, confirms this view, and names 
$2 to .$3 as the price per bushel. 

The production of linen thread was another part of women's work at this 
time. A "hank" or skein contained iO turns of the reel or 100 yards. It 
was sold by the pound to local merchants, such as was not needed in making the 
clothing at home. It seems somewhat anomalous that the State of New York 
should order its "marshals" to secure statistics of the flax seed product and 
omit all reference to hay and grain in a community where there were 9,042 
animals and 1196 in population to feed. 

The ancient census record is not by any means exhausted. Inferences and 
deductions come to one 

"Thick as the leaves in Vallambrosa," 
as the yellow pages are turned. It is a surprise to find "Strong" (Jonathan 
S.) Colton reported as having no improved land, only three head of cattle and 
one horse, when it is remembered that the sturdy old sectarian was among the 
early ones to come (1808) and that he took up a large tract west of the village 
on his arrival. The expanation is found in turning to the name of Milton 
G. Norton who came in 1835 and bought Mr. Colton's holdings early in that 
year. Accordingly we find Mr. Norton credited with 120 acres of improved 
land which represents the industry of the first owner during the time he occu- 
pied it, which was probably more than a quarter of a century. 

1834! Seventy-one years haA'e passed since the record here preserved was 
made by our fathers. Every human being in the town in 1834 is named or 
represented here. Two generations have been born and come to maturity, and 
have largely passed onward. Not one single soul of the 327 named is left. 
They did their share in making the history of the town. Not all of them 
sufl'ered the extreme hardships of the pioneers, for the way had been blazed for 
some, the clearings made, the humble dwellings had been built, the earth had 
been subdued in part, and there was comfort and smiling plenty throughout 
the town. We inherit the thrift of their hands. We enjoy the benefits of the 
schools, the churches, the splendid examples of their lives. We shall not for- 

On a sheet of letter paper without ruling, 7 1-2 x 12 inches in size, stamed 
with the progress of seventy-two years, in a hand of faultless style, not a 


misspelled word sjive "Gouverncur," whicli is entirely pardonable in anybody 
save a Frenchman, letter-perfect otherwise except the small "p" in the closing 
sentence, is the following interesting letter: 

Putney (Vt.) Jan. 30, 1823. 
Dr. Spexcke : 
Dear Sir : 

I take the liberty to introduce to you the bearer Doctor Hiram Murdock 
who has been induced to visit Governeur with a view to settle there, should 
circumstances (after trial) appear sufficiently favorable. I cheerfully 
recommend him as a worthy young j\Ian and am enabled from information, 
to be relied on, to state that he is well read & has a thorough knowledge 
of his profession — he is studious iind Doctor Chamberlain (my friend and 
neighbor) gives me his opinion that Docf M. will, (with fair opportunity) 
become eminent in Physic & Surgery. He has attended Lectures at the Med. 
Ins. at Caselton in this State & Pittsfield i\Iass. As I expect soon to become an 
Iidiabitant of G. I feel a greater interest in the success of Doctor I\I. than I 
otherwise should. 

please to remember jMrs. S. X: myself to ftlrs. Spencer. 

Yvry Respectfully Yours, 


The letter was folded, tucked in and sealed witli a jjreen wafer and beino- 
delivered by "the bearer" was not postmarked nor charged witli the York 
"shilling" which was the postage rate then current. Dr. Spencir evidently 
responded favoral)ly and without professional jealousy for we find "Dr. Hiram 
Murdock" in the census of 183-i settled as a substantial citizen, having seven 
children apparently in his family, 12 acres of improved land, 35 liead of neat 
cattle, 4 horses which denotes an extensive "ride," and 68 sheep with which to 
clothe his mnnerous progeny. Mrs. jM. was a worthy lielpmate doubtless for 
there were woven 28 yards of full cloth, 17 of flannel and -l pounds of linen 
thread spun in the family. Dr. Murdock is remembered as an able practitioner 
and he followed his profession many years in town, coming here soon after the 
writing of the above letter of introduction. If those having ancient documents 
like this would freely give them to the writers of history, nuich valuable infor- 
mation could be preserved which, though seemingly luiimportant now, may be 
of priceless value to those coming after us. He who wantonly destroys a writ- 
ten document venerable with the passage of the years, robs his succcRsors of 
that whicli is rightfully theirs. 

What may be called the Plank Road Epidemic, reached Gouverncur in 
1848. It seems to have quickly followed the adoption of a new State Consti- 
tution in 1846, under which special legislation was forl)idden to joint stock 
corporations or at least greatly abridged. Hvmdreds of companies were formed 
all over the State to build Plank Roads and thousands of miles were laid in the 
four years, 1848-52. In the more central part of the State oak planking was 
usually used hut in the evergreen sections like our own hemlock was universally 
employed. Isaac Sherwin is rememliered as a contractor for several miles in 


tins town iiiul Dekalb and his outfit of teams and men was a novelty as such 
operations had not theretofore been done in the town, being before the days of 
railroad grading. The Gouverneur, Somerville and Antwerp Co., with Chas. 
Anthony as treasurer, built twelve miles connecting the towns named. It 
was finished in 18.50. In the opposite direction the Gouverneur, Richville and 
Canton Co. built 16 miles in 1849-50, and had Wm. E. Sterling as its treas- 
urer. Toll gates were erected at distances of about four miles and loud were 
the anathemas at having to pay for what had up to that time, been free — the 
right to travel. The thrifty citizen from the Scotch Settlement complained 
at the cost of driving, over only one mile of hemlock j)lank when coming to mill 
and to meeting, and a reduction of rates was made in his behalf. These roads cost 
about $1,000 per mile and were mostly failures as investments. That from 
Ogdensburg to Hcuvelton was successful however. The hemlock planking 
soon decayed. The surface became ridgy like a corduroy construction, and 
complaints were continuous. "Running the Toll Gate" became common, the 
law was occasionally invoked, and many companies either "turnpiked" their 
routes or graveled the surface in order to allay popular objection and maintain 
the existence of their toll-collecting privilege. Ultimately the roads were freed 
from corporate control and travel resumed its innnemorial right to freedom. 
It was simply one lesson in the school of experience, pointing to future public 
ownership of all the roads by which men travel whether of plank or macadam 
or steel. The whole scheme was not unlike the "Tulip Mania" in Holland 
centuries earlier, in its intensity and magnitude. Like all "fitful fevers" it 
soon exhausted itself. It left as a legacy, however, a better roadbed and hills 
whose steepness is in no case over 1 foot in 16. 

The heading of a well preserved paper reads : "Order of Exercises at the 
Semi-Annual Exliibition of Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary Tuesday Evening 
January 26, 1841." The exercises continued the following evening and in all 
there were 23 numbers. Of these only seven are labeled "original," the rest 
being declamations and none of the sex were accorded a public appearance. 
"Upper Canada furnished two of the forensic aspirants, Norwich, Conn., 
iiuother, Syracuse a fourth, while the remainder were from local neighbor- 
hoods. Among the list the writer rocogniz( s but two familiar names, Louis 
J. Ilaile and Avery J. Smith. The former became a stalwart son of the soil 
whose word was as good as his bond and both were unquestionable. The latter 
became a patent attorney in Springfield, jNIass., acquiring an extensive and 
lucrative practice. Chas. T. Pooler was of the family that built the two-story 
stone mansion near Richville, long remarked by every traveler and now owned 
bj' ]\Iary (Grifl'ith) Roland. George R. Brown of Richville, went to Ohio after 
which he seems to have been forgotten here. Noyes S. Wentworth had a 
brother who held a professorship in the Seminary from 1837 to 1842 and who 
died at Sandy Hill in 1886. Amasa M. Barbur died soon after the "Exercises" 
catalogued in the document we are quoting from. Jas. M. Madison was the 
son of A. Z. Madison, prominent in the early annals of the town, who removed 
to Fredonia, N. Y., living there to an advanced age. The exhibition was the 



first of the Seminary under Mctliodist management. The program was printed 
m Ogdcnsbvirg at the Repubhcan office which received the greater part of the 
job work of this section at the time. The remaining names of whom no trace 
has been attempted from lack of time, are James A. Staccy, DeKalb ; Dixon 
Alexander, DeKalb ; John S. Marvin, Watertown ; Lewis Cameron, Eizabeth- 
town, U. C. ; Morenus Thrasher, Rutland; Wm. D. Cummings, ]MerrickviIle, 
Ij . C. ; John Thompson, Somerville ; Samuel Phillips, Hammond ; Daniel 0. 
Goodrich, Gouverneur ; Henry IMcGonegal, Syracuse; Charles Parsons, Perry; 
and James A. Dean, Ogdensburg. 

Rescued from an outhouse in which it was fast going to dccav, is a bulky 
volume weighing fifteen pounds, bound in sheep and boards and bearing the 
title of "Census of New York — 1845.". The forms used by the "marshals" 
liad been expanded so that the statistics cover about double the items named 
in the 1835 census heretofore examined. A rapid survey of this bulky volume 
reveals the following regarding our town; the figures being for 1834: 

Oats (acres) 1278 

Oats (bush.) 32985 

Neat Cattle 42TG 

Cows 1859 

Butter (lbs.) 127361 

Cheese (lbs.) 57785 

Horses 605 

Sheep 7455 

Fleeces 4995 

Wool (lbs.) 14619 

Hogs 1366 

Grist M. (1) prod $7000 

Saw :M. (4) prod $4800 

Fulling M. (1) prod $4810 

Carding M. (1) prod .$3400 

Cotton Fac none 

Woolen Fac none 

Iron Works none 

Trip Ham. (1) prod $1500 

Distilleries none 

Asheries (4) prod $17500 

Glass Fac none 

Rope Fac none 

Chain Fac none 

Oil Mills none 

Oil Cloth Fac none 

Dyeing & Printing none 

Clover Mills none 

Paper Mills none 

Tanneries (2) prod $3800 

Breweries none 

Raw Silk ]Mfrs none 

- Tf X: Dumb (female) 1 

Blind none 

Idiots (male) 2 

" (female) 2 

Lunatics none 

Indians none 

Churches : 

Baptist (1) cost .$550 

Episcopal none 

Presbyterian (1) $850 

Congregational (1) .$1150 

jMethodist none 

Roman Cath none 

Dutch Ref none 

Universalist none 

Unitarian none 

Jewish none 

Quaker none 

Colleges none 

Universities none 

Academies (1) cost $4000 

Female Seminaries none 

Normal Schools none 

Other Inc. Schools none 

Common Schools (20) cost ..$2912 

Select & Private Schools none 

Pupils 535 

Average Attendance 341 


Inns & Taverns 3 Manufacturers none 

Wholesale Stores none Mechanics 30 

Retail Stores 6 Lawyers i 

Groceries 2 Ministers 8 

Farmers & Agl'ists 231 Ministers' Salaries $1450 

Merchants 8 Doctors 3 

The butter and cheese industries not reported in the previous census ten 
years earlier, had reached large figures in 1845. Oats was the only small grain 
worth naming apparently for none other is mentioned. The manufacturing in- 
dustries do not seem to have grown materially and the fault}' manner of taking 
the census is shown in their being no "manufacturers" reported at all. The 
churches not included in the census of 1835, are known to have increased by 
one. For some reason the ordinary mind cannot comprehend, the number of 
acres of improved land is omitted so that we cannot ascertain how much was 
added to the 7294 Vi acres existing ten years before. "Neat cattle" increased 
only from 3390 to 4276, showing that the great dairying industry had not yet 
been foreseen. St. Lawrence county was discriminated against in a number of 
details which were compiled in other counties. The volume is curiously con- 
structed, everj;^ leaf being pasted in, and is a good example of official wasteful- 

It was common enough in old English legal practice to specify a ridiculous 
consideration in transferring real estate by deed. It may surprise the present 
generation in Gouverneur to know that at least two transfers contain similar 
provisions. In 1823 Israel Porter conveyed to (Dr) John Spencer, Rockwell 
Barnes and Josiah Waid, "three-foui'ths of a certain piece of land whereon now 
stands a saw-mill," "containing one acre of ground as surveyed by Moses 
Rowley." The consideration for this land was "one hundred dollars by me re- 
ceived, and the further sum of one barley corn to be paid annually hereafter." 
There can be little doubt that eighty-two barley corns nmst be due the heirs and 
assigns of Israel Porter at this time. If the interest were payable also in bar- 
ley-corns, there might be enough of it all to measure a full pint by this time, 
especially if a struck measure were insisted upon as was the rule with small 
grains and is still. Eight years later the "barley-corn" appears again, this 
time Mr. Israel Porter is the party of the first part again, and as such stipu- 
lates for a further replenishment of his granary. This time he conveys the 
"two-eighths part" he had reserved in the aforementioned one acre, to John 
Spencer, Raymond Austin, Abby Smith and Joel Keyes, and in this transfer he 
is joined by "Lucy, his wife," Avho seems before this to have forgotten to sign 
with her lawful spouse and thus divest herself of her dower rights in 1823. The 
histories are clear in stating that eight "families" came to settle in 1807, among 
which was that of Mr. Porter. The only consideration mentioned in this deed 
is this : "To have and to hold the above mentioned shares of said premises to 
the said parties of the second part forever. Yielding paying therefor unto 
.said parties of the first part forever hereafter the yearly rent of one barley 


corn." If this consideration was never paid, what right exists today that may 
Ije enforced by the successors of "the parties of the first part?" 

Sonic Potsdam experience may assist in answering this question. A water 
power on the dam in the village of Potsdam was earljf conveyed by deed, a part 
of the consideration being one peppercorn annually forever. 

A few years since the heirs of the grantor made demand for the "pepper- 
corns" due and not receiving them, began suit for recover}' of title, and were 

This sketch of the life of John Garrett, a Revolutionary soldier whose re- 
mains repose in Riverside Cemetery, is interesting, and has not before appeared 
in the local histories. 

John Garrett was born in England about 1757. He came to America as 
a British soldier during the Revolutionary war. While he was fighting with 
the British, liis sympatliies began to turn, finally he deserted and joined the Con- 
tinental armv in Connecticut. According to the records in the Adj. General's 
office ((.'onnecticut) lie served as a private in Capt. Kinsman's Co. Discharged 
Aug. 25, 1775. Also a private in Capt. Pettibone's Co. Engaged INIarch 26, 
1777. Discliarged IMay 5, 1777. His name also appears as a pensioner and 
private residing in New York, under act of 1818. He was married twice and 
had three or more children, — liis daughter Lucy being the wife of Willard 
Smith, one of our first settlers. Another daughter was the grandmother of 
Dr. Geo. B. Barnes and wife of James Barnes. He died at the house of his grand- 
daughter, ^Irs. Willam Rutherford in 1853, was buried in the old burying 
ground, but the headstone may now be found in the G. A. R. plot in Riverside. 

At the time he deserted the British, he was for several days in the woods 
without food, finally he was so nearly starved he went into a log house and asked 
for food. As tlie woman set a large bowl of bread and milk before him, he 
heard the British soldiers, who were trying to capture him, say: "Here is Gar- 
ret now." He dashed out of a door on the opposite side and succeeded in hiding 
in a nearby cornfield. 

Elisha Barrell, of Hartford, Washington Co., left an interesting account of 
his journey from (Touverneur, where he had evidently been on a visiting tour, 
probably to see Deacon Colburn Barrell's people, as tliey came from that coun- 
tj'. It was probal)ly in the year 1826 as that date is written on the back page 
of the little folded sheet, having 12 pages ^Y^ x S-Vj. inches in size and bound 
with an ancient brass pin. The writing is faded and the paper yellowed with 
age. Here is his account: 

"Left Gouverneur on Thursday the 19th day of Sept., (1826), traveled 
through Somerville, Antwerp, Philadelphia, stopt at Leray, spent 3 cts. for 
beer, then to Watertown, spent 6 cts. for beer, it is very rainy. I traveled 2 
miles and put up at Browns' spent 1 shilling. 2nd day, traveled to Adams, spent 
i cents for milk, then through Ellisburg, ^Mexico, and then to Huntingtons in 
Richland and staid all night, bill 18 cts. 3rd day, stopt in the morning at Dan- 
iel Chapels and gave 1 shilling for a bowl of bread and milk, tiicn traveled 
■^hrough Constantia, Cicero, spent 18 cents for cider and dinner, tlien went on 


to Salt Point into Onondago and ]\Iarccllus and got to Mr. Pcrrys in the even- 
ing and put up till Monday. Monday morning started for Conquest, went to 
Elbridge, down to Cato, crossed the bridge at Lysander, spent 6 cts. for toll 
and cider and then went on and arrived at Uncle Josephs about the middle of the 
afternoon. Wednesday went to Auburn, spent 5 cts. Thursday 20th started 
from Conquest for home, come down to Buckville (Bouckville.?) spent 8 cts for 
rum, then took the toe path and came down to Weeds Basin and got on board 
of a boat to go to Syracuse. Boat fare 25 cts and 9 cts for lodging, and bitters. 
At nine mile creek then took the turnpike, took breakfast in Salina, then went on 
for 8 or 10 miles and got on board of a wagon and rode to Oneida Creek, paid 

17 cts, staid at Verona till jMonday. Then traveled into Westmoreland and took 
dinner with Mr. Lee, then come into Schuyler and put up at Hecocks for night, 
spent 18 cts. Stopt at Utica spent 6 cts. Then spent 25 cts for bitters and 
cider then 18 cts for my bill at Hitts tavern in Broadalbin. Then traveled on to 
Galway, spent 25 cts for breakfast, tlien 6 cts for a ride, and got to Saratoga 
springs spent 6 cts to Chayrun (Sharon.?) put up at night at Emersons, bill 

18 cts. Then come into Grisswolds and got breakfast 12 cts. then 3 cts for 
crossing the bridge to Sandy Hill and 3 cts for beer. At Nottrups grocery and 
then took dinner at home." 

The journejr was evidently made on foot and must have covered in its 
devious course at least 300 miles. The time taken, including the various stops, 
was 16 days, and the expense, eliminating "beer," "cider" "rum" and "bitters" 
was $2.42. All this casts a sidelight on the methods of the early days. Com- 
pare this journey with one today in a Pullman! 

Gouverneur had its canal spasm in the early days. Here is a petition 
which was passed out for signatures probably in 1840 although it is dateless, 
the Ogd. & Lake Champlain R. R. to which it alludes, having been surveyed that 
year : 
"To the Honorable the Legislature of the State of New York : 

The undersigned inhabitants of the County of would respect- 
fully represent, that the country bordering upon the Oswegiatchie and Grass 
Rivers and Black Lake abounds in ores of Iron and Lead and other minerals of 
a quality and to an extent unsurpassed by any portion of this, or any other State 
in the LTnion ; added to which there are extensive forests of valuable timber, and 
an unlimited amount of Water Power — all of which are nearly valueless from 
the want of a cheap and easy mode of transportation to market. That it ap- 
pears from a recent report of the commissioners and Engineer appointed by 
the State, to survey the route of a Rail Road from Ogdensburg to Lake Cham- 
plain, that the navigation of those Rivers and Lake can be opened for Steam 
Boats to an extent of about 100 miles, at a cost of about $2,700 per mile. That 
in the opinion of the undersigned the interests of the State generally, and of 
the northern portion thereof particularly, call for an immediate construction 
of this work. 

Your petitioners would therefore solicit, that a law be passed at your 
present session for the improvement of the navigation of the Oswegatchie River 


from Oxbow to Ogdensburg — the Natural Canal — the Grass River and Black 
Lake, in a manner and to the extent mentioned in the Report above referred to." 

Hough says The Oswegatchie Navigation Co. formed some years earlier 
than the date of this petition, was to improve the water ways to the town of 
Gouverneur and along Natural Canal up to Canton village. If this scheme had 
carried, we should today be able to buy coal, for instance, one dollar a ton cheap- 
er than now, as Carthage, having the protecting aegis of the Black River canal, 
is enabled to do. 

The Erie Canal attracted nation-wide attention from its magTiitude and 
necessity. Gouverneur was not a silent observer of the improvement as this 
document shows. Long before the advent of the "promoter" of the railway, the 
town was fully alive to the importance of overcoming its isolated position. 
There was the great water-way to the north, and the denser populated region 
to the south, with the new artificial water-way, and no means of reaching either. 
Harvey D. Smith had represented this district in the Assembly in 1829 ; Edwin 
Dodge in 1832 ; Preston King in 1835-7, but these forceful men were too early 
to benefit this petition, while Geo. Redington, 181'2-t, John Leslie Russell, 1845, 
and Asa L. Hazelton, 1846, were too late to be of service in its behalf. What 
might have been its fate had we been represented by men like these, it is idle 
to speculate. But perhaps, it is well that the movement did not succeed so far 
as Gouverneur is concerned. A river whose tortuous course from Gouverneur 
to Richville, for instance, covered forty-nine miles while the direct roadway 
measured but seven, could hardly have been an ideal means for reaching the 
outer world. 

As these closing lines are being written, the work of erecting the Memorial 
Arch in the village park, is being carried out. It was at first proposed to build 
a copy of the monument to the Father of his Counti'y at Washington, reduced 
to one-tenth size, which would have comported well with surrounding architec- 
ture and liave afforded large surfaces for inscriptions hereafter. Gradually, 
the arch came to be preferred by the public and plans were accordingly made 
for that. 

Within the arch on a polished slab built into one leg of the structure, will 
be engraved the names of the pioneers who came in 1805 and 1806. On the op- 
posite slab similarly built the veterans of the Civil War will place an inscrip- 
tion not yet decided upon. In a copper box, mortised into the corner stone, 
(laid June 14, 1905) arc the names of hundreds of children and others who 
have contributed toward the monument fund. No movement in the town of any 
character, ever met with so universal a response and support as tlie Monumental 
Arch. As soon as the drawings were completed and publicly shown, the con- 
tributions began pouring in. Tlie structure is to be built of Gouverneur mar- 
ble, and it is to be completed before the Old Home Week Festival, Aug. 24-30, 

(Sketches of about fifty of the men who were most active in building the 
town, were prepared in the interval between the first announcement of Old Home 
Week and its assured success, in order to save every moment of time possible. 



These were to be used in tlie History wherever relevant as the latter progressed. 
The abrupt termination of the narrative on account of demands of the pub- 
lishers, required that, if used, these sketches (for which portraits had been en- 
graved) should appear here in a body instead of being scattered through the 
work. Those personally known are drawn as they appear to the writer, with 
studious avoidance of fulsome praise. A few were contributed by those most 

campetcnt to speak. The pioneer, so far as time permitted and data and por- 
traits could be had, has been accorded space here though he may not have had 
honors given him in life. No attempt to arrange these sketches has been made 
as to merit or prominence. The number could easily be doubled, and would have 
been with time. All save five have laid aside the cares, these being the oldest 
men living in town. These arc the men whom our fathers and ourselves, knew in 
the daily walks of life.) 

Hon. Edwin Dodge was born in Kent, Connecticut, Dec. 13, 1801. Early 
ill life liis father removed to Northern New York and Mr. Dodge entered the 
office of Hon. Micah Sterling at Watertown as a law student. Having been ad- 
mitted to the bar he was in 1829 engaged by Gouverncur Morris as his agent in 
charge of large tracts of land in St. Lawrence County, and removed to Gouv- 
erneur with his wife, a niece of Mr. Sterling. 

In 1830 he was appointed postmaster and held that office for nineteen 
years. In 1832 Mr. Dodge was elected a member of Assembly and in 1845 was 
appointed a side judge of the court of common pleas for a term of two years. 
Under the new state constitution of 1846 he was elected the first county judge of 



Judge Edwin Dodge. 

St. Lawrence County, holding the office from June, 1847, to December, 1855, 
Mr. Dodge was also one of the first board of trustees of Gouverneur upon its in- 
corporation as a village in 1850, for a number of years a trustee of the Gouver- 
neur Seminary, and one of the incorJDorators of the Wa- 
ter Works Company. He was largely instrumental in 
the organizing and financiering of the Potsdam and 
Watertown Railroad, of which he became the first pres- 
ident. Confident in the future of St. Lawrence Coun- 
ty and of its great mineral wealth, he did much toward 
investigating and exploiting the mining industries and 
the present has given ample proof of his sagacity and 

Judge Dodge was a man of keen business ability, 
progressive and energetic, who by his efforts did 
much to benefit the community in which he lived. 
With charitable im})ulses and a high sense of public duty he gave freely of his 
time and money to the improvement of Gouverneur along educational, charitable 
and religious lines. Throughout his life he was a consistent and earnest Dem- 
ocrat, and his political and personal acquaintance extended to many states of 
the Union. He died Nov. 15, 1877, leaving his widow and three children, Wil- 
liam Robert Dodge, Edwin Gardiner Dodge and Mrs. John Lansing. 

In the early years of Gouverneur's history, the life and labors of Joseph 
Hopkins in the cause of advanced education and character building, left a pos- 
itive and lasting impress. His methods were peculiar to 
himself. He did not follow the routine of text books. 
He was a graduate of Hamilton College. Hamilton's 
curriculum in 182.5 was not the University course of 
1905. But the influence of Mr. Hopkins' teaching 
tended to individual research by his students that was a 
forerunner of better schools. He sought to develop 
thought and character rather than to load the memory 
with facts. There were strong men and women who 
went out from that school to battle with life, duty and 
opportunity. Some were teachers, citizens, bearers of ^'°^- J°=<=p'> Hopkms. 

high trust and responsibility. His students uniformly bore tribute to his wor- 
thy character and kind personalty. Mr. Hopkins was of early New England 
ancestry, born in Bridgeport, Ct., Oct. 26, 1796. While a yovmg lad his par- 
ents settled in Rutland, Jefferson Co. He shared with them the usual pioneer 
life until his majority. He worked his way through Hamilton College. He 
v/as a good scholar, particularly in Latin and English. After teaching else- 
where he became principal at Gouverneur from 1834< until the school came into 
care of the M. E. Church in 1840 as Gouverneur Weslcyan Seminary. He mar- 
ried Perraelia Picket of Fowler, Aug. 27, 1835. Six of their nine children are 
yet alive, scattered from Minnesota to the Pacific. For about thirty years his 
home was on his Gouverneur farm, now the home of Mr. S. F. Hartley. His 
last few years were with his sons in Minnesota where he died Dec. 13, 1875, 

Oliver Parsons 


His body was buried in the Cemetery at Gouverncur. In early life he was a 
whig, later a Republican. In religion a Presbyterian. 

It is interesting to notice the tendency of the early settlers to come from 
one locality, and how tliis hegira soon spends itself so that, after a few years 

there is no further exodus. Oliver Parsons, then thir- 
ty-one years of age, came from Johnstown, in 1820, 
and was soon followed by Richard and Myron, his sons. 
Like all the early fathers of the town, these sturdy pion- 
eers went through the usual period of paying for their 
several landed properties by making and. felling "black 
salts," which was about the only article exchangeable 
for money. Johnstown Street was a forest then with but 
the semblance of a roadway cut through. They found 
their abiding places about three miles from the,,„incip- 
ient village on that street. Scan the features of Oliver 
iind the character of man he was is apparent. The square mouth and'set lips, 
the expansive forehead, the solid jaw all betoken a man of action and determin- 
ation. Myron lived upon the 
farm he took up until his span 
was reached. Richard became 
a merchant, and the one-story, 
red-painted building where the 
Egert Block now stands will be 
remembered by a few; who still 
recall the tall, courteous man 
with spectacles who sold hard- 
ware, stoves and tinware there. 
His wife saw Lafayette on his 
visit to America in 1821! and retained to an extremely old age a lively recollec- 
tion of his courtly manner and dignified presence. Richard Parsons was a gen- 
tleman of the old school. Like so many of the pioneers he seems to have had 
much humor in his composition. The "Northern Farmer" cook stove which sup- 
planted the brick oven in the farmhouse of the writer's father, came from his 
stock and did duty for many a long year. Another is still doing daily duty in 
Richville after a continuous service of sixty years. 

Col. James M. Spencer was born in Gouverncur 
May 26, 1811, the son of Dr. John Spencer and 
Elizabeth Burnett, who came to this town from Wind- 
sor, Conn., in 1807. On October 8th, 1833, he married 
Cassendana, daughter of Ezekiel Bullard and Eunice 
Boyden, who were among the early settlers of the town. 
Col. Spencer died March 15, 188'1. The greater part 
of his life was passed In the house which was built by 
his father about 1829 or 1830 and was known all 
through this section by his name (Spencer House), and 
which was burned November 23, 1889. He was prom- 

Myrun P.lrsons 

Richard Par; 

Col. James Spencer. 



iiiently connected with the State mihtia S-iS Rcgt., N. Y., in earlier days and ob- 
tained his title from that connection. He was a man who figured largely in the 
affairs of the village and must occupy a prominent position in the annals of St. 
Lawrence county. Col. Spencer was a public spirited man. He was a large 
property owner and the land on which the depot and buildings now stand was 
given to the R. W. & O. railroad company by him for that purpose. He was a 
man of sterling merit, one who gives character and solidity to the community 
in which he lives. At this date his widow, a remarkably bright lady of ninety, 
and three children, ]Mrs. Adele E. VanNamee, Dr. James M. Spencer, a prac- 
ticing dental surgeon of this village, who rendered gallant and efficient service as 
a cavalry officer during the rebellion, and L. I\I. Spencer, now of Rochester, 
survive him. 

Benjamin F. Leavitt came in 1808-9. He was a mason by trade, and laid 
the wall under the first frame bani in town built by Isaac Austin on the lot 
where the well-known house of the Austin familj^ still 
stands. He was a man of pusli and persistence, and 
l)ought and paid for a large tract on the Richville road, 
at the same time raising a large family which he edu- 
cated in a manner according with the times. He was a 
man of set opinions, and once having formed a judg- 
ment, was slow to change it. An ardent partisan in the 
early days when partizanship was much more rancorous 
than now, lie brought down to the day of many now liv- 
ing, a stern, impetuous style of political argument, in 
Benjamin V. Ltavitt. wliich the conspicuous feature was that it was based on 

conviction. Hcwasthe sort of settler the town needed in its infancy and he did his 
part in building it. Always an earnest churchman, he brought his family up in 
"the nurture and admonition" as was customary in tliose days. Gouverneur at 
that time was not unlike the days of the Pilgrim fathers in its religious auster- 
ity. It was a condition which found ready support from 'Sir. Leavitt. He built 
a sawmill and thus showed his enterprise, and the product of his mill was used 
in buildings nearby to the exclusion of remoter lumber. He made brick from the 
clay in the creek hank opposiite the dwelling of Geo. M. Dodds, in the early 
forties. He died in 1875. 

Alexander Dodds was l)orn in Scotland 1770, married Jane Wilson 1804, 
together came to Gouverneur 1833, settled on the Scotch Settlement road oppo- 
site the present school-house three mJles from the village and there lived to the 
years 186'i and 1857 respectively. The liistory of this venerable couple is in- 
teresting. Mr. Dodds, like so many of his countrymen in the first third of the 
last century, became determined to move to America. To earn money to cover 
the voyage, he engaged at farming in his native town, Kelso, at an agreed price 
of five pounds or .$25 for six months labor. The sailing vessel, being buff^eted 
with adverse winds, was six weeks on the voyage. Five children had come to 
them before leaving Scotland, Katherine, jMargaret, Andrew, John and Alex- 
ander. The three sons were during life among the most excellent and progres- 


sive citizens of the town, all living to an old age and acquiring comfortable 
properties. Surviving representatives of all three families are still to bo found 
in our town. 

Tnnothy Sheldon, coming from Rhode Island at an early day, (1810), took 
up a farm three miles from the village on the Richville road. He" built the house 
now occupied by his son. Gray B. Sheldon in 1823, mov- 
ing to the village later as advancing years came on. An 
original character, quaint, humorous, incisive in speech ; 
he could condense in a word the salient characteristics 
of those he knew by a change in their names, or a title, 
or prefix derived from some peculiarity. He had opin- 
ions and expressed them; he was latterly, much inter- 
ested in reading for information, and he could remem- 
ber and repeat in new words what attracted him most. 
Once he became a convert to O. S. Fowler's system of 
concrete building and always wanted to construct an 
octagon house of cement and gravel. Pi-obably he was the only farmer in town 
who bought a complete set of Appleton's Cj^clopedia, at the current price of $80, 
and he became familiar with much of the information it contained. His young- 
er manhood was marked by a trip to Alabama with a relative after coming to 
Gouverneur. They went to Olean, N. Y., built a flat-boat, and with their be- 
longings reached their destination by way of the Allegheny, Ohio, and Tennes- 
see rivers. He was not attracted by what he found in Alabama and he came 
back to Gouverneur on horseback, riding the entire distance, swimming and 
fording rivers, the first bridge on the journey home Ijeing one near Buffalo. 
This journey was characteristic of the spirit which actuated the man. He en- 
listed in the war of 1812 and went to the frontier. 

John VanNamce came to Gouverneur when at the age of 13, from Fairfield, 
N. Y., and followed tlie occupation of farmer for some years on Johnstown 
Street across the road from the 
present cheese factory where the 
VanNamee farmhouse is still 
in fair preservation. He sub- 
sequently became a tinner by 
trade, working for Richard 
Parsons and several others fol- 
lowing him in that line of busi- 
ness. He was a man of genial 
temperament, small and spare in 
build, and it is said of him that 
he never had a sick day until the final close of his life 
became a druggist, built one of the finest stores in town for that particular 
trade and conducted the business several years with success. The writer well 
remembers him when a clerk in the general store of Sterling & Cone with which 
firm he became conversant with the retail trade of the town in almost every 

(Gilbert L. Van Namce. 

His son Gilbert L. 


James Bowne 

branch save drugs, as the firm named had but one competitor, and each car- 
ried everything the community needed as was the custom sixty years ago. Gil- 
bert was a great lover of good horses and for many years kept one or more of 
fine breeding. 

James Bowne came to Gouverneur in 1814 as agent for the father of 
Gen. Philip Kearney, a soldier of both the Mexican and Civil wars, in the for- 
mer of which he lost an arm at the assault on the City of Mexico, and 
in the latter was killed at Chantilly in 1862. The Kearney Tract was ori- 
ginally nearly three-fourths of a mile wide, containing 
10,000 acres, and extended from the St. Lawrence river 
to the southerly boundary of Gouverneur. Mr. Bowne 
settled near Kearney Bridge, where he followed the avo- 
cation of farmer and land agent. The property he then 
acquired is still in the Bowne family. The Kearney 
tract was reduced by sales to Parish and Nicholas Low 
so that it finally was about one-fourth of a mile wide, 
and from its narrowness and length, the latter being 
about twenty miles, it probably became known as the 
"Shecpwalk." James Bowne appears to have been a man 
of much force of character and left an honorable record that is prized by his 
descendants. The Bowne name frequently appears in the records of Flushing, 
L. I. They were non-conformists, coming from England because of religious 
persecutions, and it is of record that John Bowne entertained the celebrated 
English preacher Geo. Fox, (born 162i, died 1690), the services being held un- 
der a venerable oak which was standing in 1860. "The Bowne House stands in 
Parsons & Co.'s Commercial Garden and Nursery and is in a fine state of preser- 
vation."'-" There is some evidence that the celebrated liarbara Heck in whose 
Louse in John street. New York city, the first Metliodist church was organized, 
was a member of the Bowne family. She is buried at Blue Church, Canada, 
between Prescott and Brockville on the shores of the St. Lawrence. 

John Fosgate, born in Essex, N. Y., in 1800, came to Gouverneur in 1832, 
died in 1874. Such is the epitome of a long life of activity, probity, gentle de- 
meanor and open hand. He was among the earliest if 
not the first, brickmaker in town; he kept a hotel at 
the junction of Johnstown and Miun streets manv years, 
until the location of the depot in 1856 transferred the 
traveling trade to the east side ; he engaged in lumber 
and milling at the same time and had all the business of 
those lines for more than a quarter of a century; he 
speedily rebuilt these mills when they were burned in 
1853 and continued the grist mill until 1874, sellino- 
the saw mill some ten years previously to Bidvvell iV' 
Baldwin. ]\Ir. Fosgate was a business man of honesty, J°''" Fosgate. 

andashe came at an early date, played an important part in the town's prooress. 

(i) Ga/.etteer of New \'(irk. 

Harvey D. Smith. 


He married Soplironia Adams in 1823, and fifteen children were born to them. 
Of these five remain, Lucy, Paige, George, Jane and Susan. Mrs. Fosgate died 
m 1873 aged 67 years. Slie is spoken of as a wife of rare excellence and a 
mother of wise discretion. 

Harvey Douglas Smith, born 1789 in Pawlot, Vt., at sixteen clerk in a 
store at Sudbury, filling hkc position in Poultney two years later, and finally in 
tjusiness for himself at the latter place; this was the 
early career of Mr. Smith before coming to Gouver- 
nour. He arrived here in 1824, opened the first "apoth- 
ecary'' store in tlic place, continued in business twenty- 
five years, latterly occupying a part of the stone build- 
ing since fitted up by the late J. B. Preston as a law 
office. He held many positions of public trust ; was jus- 
tice of the peace thirty-seven years ; member of the state 
assembly in 1829, surrogate in 1859 and special county 
judge a year earlier. "Harvey D." as he was familiar- 
ly called, was one of those rare men whose presence is 
d, blessing to the community. He was a peacemaker in every contention ; an 
adviser in every perplexity, a friend whose counsel was at command of all who 
asked and when given was followed with confidence ; a man so gifted with the 
graces of self-abnegation, lofty aspirations, and sterling common sense, that 
his word was law and his deportment a model. He discouraged litigation and 
sent disputants from his court with the injunction of settle their dispute pri- 
vately ; he was a leader in the church of his choice and his fellow-members of 
all ages looked to him as the embodiment of wisdom. A sensitive nature withal, 
a man of culture and liroad enlightenment ; a citizen who met every public duty 
without seeking position ; liberal in purse to the needy ; a ready wit and bubbling 
over with humor ; such was Harvey D. Smith and he died in 1861< mourned by 
every one who knew him. We shall not look upon his like again. 

Myron Cushman was born in Rupert, Bennington County, Vt., July 27, 
1812, and died in Gouverneur Jan. 22, 1880. When twelve years of age with 
his parents, John Cushman and Annie Fuller, settled in 
EUisburg, Jefferson Co. At the age of sixteen he 
learned the tailor's trade, which was ever after the chief 
occupation of his life. In 1840 he came to Gouverneur, 
where he afterward resided. He possessed in a great 
degree the characteristics of his New England ances- 
tors. He is entitled to the honor of casting the first 
and only abolition vote in this town, at the first election 
when that ticket was in the field. He was one of the old 
directors and conductors of the Underground Railroad, 
the dividends of which were the keeping of a free table 
for all runaway slaves and Abolition lecturers, for many years. In 1861 he 
took arms for the defence of the country and was made Lieutenant in the 92nd 
Regiment. He married Susan Waid, daughter of Josiah Waid and grand- 

Myron Cusliman. 



Milton Barnev. 

daughter of Isaac Austin. Children now Hving are Mrs. Wni. Whitney, Mrs. 
G. B. Barnes and IMiss Cliristialania E. Cushman. 

Milton Barney was born May 1, 1808 in Adams, N. Y. He was the son of 
Sylvanus Barney and jNIiriani Kingsley Barney. His ancestors were of Welch 
descent, emigrating to this country at an early period 
and settling in Verniont._ His fatlier with a colony of 
relatives went from ^^ermont to Adams, N. Y., some time 
before the year 1800, where they built homes and 
established themselves in various business enterprises. 
When ]\lilton was seven years old his father was drowned 
in tlie Black river at Watertown, leaving his mother with 
a large family of children. At nine years he com- 
menced working for farmers for support. He attend- 
ed the district school in winter for two or three years. 
When older he went into a chair factory in Watertown 
as apprentice. After serving his time there, at 21 years he removed to Gouv- 
erneur and opened a shop for chair-making and painting. For many years it 
was the only business of the kind in the town. Nov. 6, 1833, he was married 
to Katherine Starr VanBuren, daughter of Barent VanBuren and Grace Den- 
ison VanBuren. Six children were born, three dying at an early age. His 
eldest son, Alljert M., died in 1886, Bradley L. is living in Hanford, California, 
and JMrs. Sarah G. B. Winslow in Washington, D. C. Early in Mr. Barney's 
career in Gouverneur he erected a building for his business which was destroyed 
by fire a few years later at a great financial loss to him. With a strong nerve 
and unflagging energy he put his shoulder to the wheel to re-establish his busi- 
ness by building a much larger factory. His health failing, he disposed of this 
property to get a well earned rest. Soon after he built the house at the cor- 
ner of Barney and Clinton streets (now owned by A. J. McDonald) in which 
he died July 3, 1885, aged 97 years. He was one of the solid business men of 
Gouvcrneiu". His word was sacred, his integrity unquestioned, and lie was the 
soul of honor. 

Milton G. Norton came in 1835, being preceded some five years by a broth- 
er-in-law, and when each had prospered sufficiently they built themselves houses 
alike in design and after the then prevalent .style in 
Massachusetts, from which state both came. These 
houses were among the finest in town when built. ^Ir. 
N. became known as a progressive farmer, a student of 
all the current literature relating to his calling, and 
was usually the first to adopt labor-saving machinery. 
He brought the first subsoil plow into town ; be built 
a revolving rake for himself when that implement was 
unknown save through the farm papers; he was cer- 
tainly the first (with the relative mentionetl) to bring 
in combined reapers and mowers, both driving to Utica 
for them, a round trip of 160 miles. Timothy Sheldon had bought a single 

Milton G. Norton. 



Peter Van Buren. 

mower the year previously, but it was not a success. Mr. Norton became in- 
terested in blooded stock and his famous four yokes of Devon oxen, so perfectly 
matched for age, size, color and training that any pair might be yoked togeth- 
er, caused much interest at the earlj^ town and county fairs. He drove them 
alone with an enormous whip long enough to reach every "off" animal. As a 
farmer he was successful: as a citizen he was awake to public interests; as a 
l.Tcedcr the first to import finc-wooled ]Merino sheep ; as a business man careful, 
sagacious and honest. 

Peter A'anBuren, Gouverneur's venerable hotel-keeper of forty-five years 
ago, and earlier, began business in a brick building which stood where the brick 
residence of his daughter, Emeline, now stands. From 
1831 until this building burned in the spring of 1848, 
he entertained the traveling public, a period of seven- 
teen years. In 184<8 he built the well-remembered, two- 
story, white, frame building on j\Iain street now the 
site of the St. Lawrence Inn, continuing here until 1869, 
or thirty-eight years in all, counting both hotels. This 
last named house became noted among the hostelries of 
the period. "Uncle Peter" as every one calkd him with 
much more of real friendliness than is now usual in the 
use of the term, was a favorite with the traveling pub- 
lic, and his house was specially known for its good table, cleanly appointments 
and the general air of home comfort that pervaded it. The ancient wood fire- 
place was always piled high with cord-wood as the chill season came on and be- 
came an attraction often spoken of after its cheerful glow had departed. His 
beefsteak, always broiled by himself, for he would trust no professional cook 

with this impor- 
tant detail, was the 
special delight of 
the connoisseur in 
cookcrjf. The sol- 
id men of the town 
often came in to 
spend the evening 
with him for he 
was well read in 
current happen- 
ings and discussed 
them with intelli- 

Van Buren Hotel i86c.. Burned 1881. gCnce. He WaS 

the ideal old-time gentleman, and the familiarities usual in hotels were never al- 
lowed to degenerate into license. No ribaldry or profanity were heard when the 
proprietor was near, nor could any patron indulge his appetite too freely. Tra- 
dition has preserved many incidents of his life and all are to his credit. He was 
a "bonifacc" of the best sort and his memory will long survive. He died in 



Jiiines Hill, the eldest son of James and Janet Sheill Hill, was born in the 
town of Hammond, Dec. 18, 1821. When seven years of age he came with his 
jiarent^ to tlie town of Gouverneur to reside; locating in what is called the 
ScdtcJi Settlement ; and their family being the first 
Scotch to settle in this town. As he grew to young 
manhood he assisted in cutting down the forest and 
clearing the land. When twenty-one years of age he 
apprenticed himself to Deacon Thomas Thayer of this 
town, to learn cabinet making and worked with him 
three years in a building which .stood where now stands 
the ^Masonic Temple. After this he worked for a num- 
ber of years as a carpenter in summer and a cabinet 
maker in winter. In January, 1854, he was married to 
^•'"'" '^"'- Jane Storie of Rossie, and settled on a fai-m which he 

bought in the Scotch Settlement. In Ajjril, 186-i, his wife died, and in March, 
1866, he was married again to ]Miss Jane Markwick of Rossie, who died in 1894. 
In 1866 he bought the farm on the Rock Island Road where he still continues 
to reside. 

James, Willett, William Henry and Charles Hicks Bowne, four brothers, 
sons of James Bowne who came in 1814, were all identified with the growth of 
Gouverneur during the last 
sixty years. The first re- 
mained on the homestead farm 
all his life, the other three en- 
gaging more actively in business 
as merchants in the village at 
various periods of their lives. 
William Henry was many years 
in the dry goods trade and was 
esteemed highly for his strict 
William H. Bowne. probity. Willett and Charles 

H. were in partnership in tlie hardware trade several y 
portion of the Union Hall block occupied by themselves. The Bowne family in- 
cluding James Bowne the elder, played an important part in the building of 
the town. They were descendants of a prominent family of the same name in 
Flushing, L. I., who held positions of prominence there. 

Edward Hall came upon his farm in January, 1844, when he was con- 
fronted by the laljor of clearing it from its timber and putting it into a state 
of cultivation. Having no knowledge of forest-clearing he secured the services 
of an experienced woodsman with whose aid he made much progress towai-d 
desired results, but while improving tlie land, debts accumulated which by 
economy, industry and perseverance lie succeeded in discharging and in bring- 
ing the farm to its present condition. xVs a dairyman his judgment has been 
good in the selection of dairy cattle and he has given them the most efficient 
care, never during his sixty years as dairyman having lost an ailing animal save 

Charles H. Bowne. 

ears. They built the 



Edward Hall. 

two that (lied of that fatal disease, milk-fever. In the year 1854 lie succeeded 
in producing 190 lbs. of butter from each of 15 cows 
by the more crude methods of dairy appliances of that 
time. Cautious to a fault, conservative and slow to 
adopt labor-saving machinery until convinced of its 
merits, yet withal a good salesman and constant reader 
of the best agricultural papers, and fairly successful, 
he might not be called one of the most progressive of 
farmers, being "slow but sure" in his methods, honest 
dealing his purpose, industrious in his habits and he is 
still an early riser and active at the age of 84 

Newton Martin Curtis was born in Depeyster, j\Iay 21, 1835. He was 
educated in the common schools and in 1854 entered Gouverneur Wesleyan Sem- 
inary wliere he remained two years. 

His military bent showed 
itself at this time by his 
choice of subjects for essays. 
In the program of the "An- 
nual Exhibition of the Stu- 
dents of Gouverneur Wes- 
leyan Seminary, ^Morning 
Session, June 28, 1854," Mr. 
N. Martin Curtis had the 
first number which was "An- 
niversary of the Battle of 
:\Ionmouth, June 29, 1778," 
and again in 1855, June 
26th, he read another 
essay on the "Benefits 
of War." While the acci- 
dent of birth gave him to an- 
other town, Gouverneur 
claims him as her own be- 
cause she fitted him for a place 
among the bravest and best. 
Marcli 8rd, 1857, he was appointed postmaster at Depej'ster, as a Dem- 
ocrat. This position he held until July, 1861. Mr. Curtis was a Democrat from 
his majority through the presidential campaign of 1860, when he voted for 
Douglas, and was on the Democratic ticket for Member of Assembly from the 
first St. Lawrence District. At the first call for volunteers after the capture of 
Fort Sumter, in April, 1861, he enlisted, enrolling April 14th, and was com- 
missioned Captain of Company H, 16th N. Y. Volunteer Infantry, iMay 7, 1861. 
The 16th, including Capt. Curtis' Company, was at the first Battle of Bull Run 
though not actively engaged. May 7, 1862, he was seriously wounded at West 

al N. M. Curtis, 


Point, Va. October i, 1862, he returned to the field. He was then transferred 
to the 142nd N. Y. Yohinteers with a commission as Lieutenant Colonel. On 
January 21, 1863, he was again promoted, getting a Colonel's commission ; and 
was placed in command of the 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division of the 10th Corps, 
stationed at Cold Harbor, June 10, 1864, in place of Colonel Drake, who was 
killed in action. June 25, 1864, he was assigned to command of the 1st Brigade, 
2nd Division 10th Corps. "For distinguished service upon the field" he was 
given the brevet rank of Brig. General, and assigned to duty under this brevet 
rank, January 4, 1865, and was appointed Major General of U. S. Volunteers 
by brevet "for gallant and meritous services" at the capture of Fort Fisher, 
the rank to date from March 13, 1865. April 15, 1865, he was assigned to duty 
as Chief of Staff to Gen. E. O. C. Ord, commanding the army of the James, 
and on July 1, 1865, he was assigned to command of Southwestern Virginia. 
This command he helel until mustered out January 15, 1866. 

Through the war he was looked upon by his superior officers as a cool 
headed daring officer and a man to be depended upon in an emergency ; but the 
world knew little of him until nearly the close of the war, when his brilliant cap- 
ture of Fort Fisher made him famous. And the country knows him today as 
the "Hero of Fort Fisher." At Fort Fisher he was wounded four times; once 
in the face, twice in the arm, and had a rib broken ; but continued to direct the 
attack until a fragment of a shell struck him in the eye. The battle was nearlj^ 
over, and Gen. Abbott continued the battle as planned by Gen. Curtis. For five 
hours he was unconscious and was reported dead, one of the war correspondents 
writing an obituary. After the Capture of Fort Fisher, the N. Y. State Legis- 
lature passed a resolution thanking him and his command for services rendered 
m that engagement. After his discharge he returned to his home in Dcpcyster. 
On the 14th of August following, ho was appointed Collector of Customs for 
the District of Oswegatchic, holding the office until appointed Special Agent U. 
S. Treasury Department, March 4, 1867, resigning the latter oflSce in 1880. 
Gen. Curtis was always interested in agriculture, owning a farm to which he 
devoted all his leisure time. This together with his executive ability, lead to his 
election as President of the St. Lawrence County Agricultural Society in 1874, 
and continuous re-election until 1878. In 1880 he was President of N. Y. State 
Agricultural Society, and from its organization in 1880 he was Secretary of 
the Board of Control of the N. Y. Agricultural Experiment Station. Li 1887 
he was elected its President. 

About 1875 he joined Dahlgren Post 113 G. A. R. of New York, which 
he left to organize Ransom Post 354 of Ogdensburg, being the latter Post's 
first commander. February 23, 1888, he was elected Department Connnander 
Grand Army of the Republic of the Department of New York State, receiving 
476 votes, the three other candidates only getting 300. In 1883 Gen. Curtis was 
elected to the Assembly by the Republicans of the 1st St. Lawrence district and 
re-elected in 1884. In 1885 there was a rupture in the Republican ranks in 
the 1st district and Gen. Curtis run on an "Independent" Republican ticket, 
defeating the regular nominee by a substantial majority. He continued in the 


Assembly until 1891 when he was elected to Congress to fill a vacancy. In 1892 
he was elected for the full term and again in 1894. March 4, 1897, he retired 
from Congress by expiration of his term and has taken but little part in the 
political affairs of his county since. In July, 1897, he was appointed Inspector 
of Soldiers Homes, which position he still holds. For several years he has been 
working on a History of the 16th N. Y. Volunteer Infantry. The work is near- 
ly completed now and is to be published the coming fall. Gen. Curtis is a man 
of strong character and among the people who know hira best, he is thoroughly 
liked. No veteran of the 16th or 142nd Infantry will hear a word against 
lil ;'re as ready today to fight for him as they were in the try- 
ing days of the Rebellion. 

Daniel Peck came to Gouverneur in 1876 as proprietor of the Fuller House, 
then newly completed. He had been an inn-keeper at Little York for twelve years. 
Prior to that he enlisted in the 106th N. Y^ Inf. at Og- 
densburg as 2nd Lieut. July, 1862, serving until 1864, 
when he was honorably discharged. He was promoted 
captain while at the front. He came to Fowler from 
Clarendon, Vt., engaged with the four Fuller brothers, 
who had built a blast furnace at Fullerville five years 
before. In 1846 he became a partner, the furnace was 
rebuilt, changed to hot-blast, and the making of bar 
ironwhichthc Fullers had begun in 183.5, was continued. 
The writer remembers that his father exchanged a 
anieip^ck. quantity of cheese with this firm a little before the 50's, 

turning over the iron received to his blacksmith in exchange for smithing. Iron 
constituted a sort of currency then. What a commentary on the laxity of the 
National government in not providing its citizens with sufficient money to make 
exchanges with ! Surrounded as this furnace was with fuel and mines of the 
best ore, a gigantic industry might have resulted had there been an adequate 
money supply. Daniel Peck was in some respects an extraordinary man. As 
ii partisan he was implacable and invincible to argument. As a statesman, for 
he served the state three terms in the assembly, he voted for what was right as 
he saw the right. He was quick at repartee in argument, strong in invective, 
extremely popular as a hotel-keeper, and many a traveler has journeyed miles 
out of his course in order to partake of his hospitable board. In the army he 
did excellent service for his country. He was an uncompromising patriot, an 
honest man, and whoever assailed his integrity did so either from ignorance or 
malice. He was missed when old age debarred him from the activities ; he was 
mourned when the final parting came. 

The memory of a good man docs not die with him. Melville H. Thrall came 
to Gouverneur from Johnstown, N. Y''., in 1819, when five years old, lived on 
his farm on Johnstown street sixty-five years, dying in 1884. Hs life was 
devoted to good deeds. Wherever a sick or suffering fellow creature was to be 
found there was Mr. Thrall to comfort and sustain. He was a devoted church- 
man, and as such was ready and anxious to bear his share of the public burden 



H. Thrall. 

George Lockie. 

necessary for its welfare. He lived the life he professed, 
and no better judgment than his can be accorded any 
man. Such public positions as he occupied were never 
sought by him. He accepted them as his duty and filled 
them with scrupulous fidelity. None better than he de- 
served the title of Nature's nobleman. 

In 1818 came George Lockie with his father, he 
being eight years old. They came by way of jMontreal 
and the St. Lawrence River, coming up the latter in a 
Durham boat. They were sixteen weeks on the sea. 
The elder Lockie settled in Rossie near tlie 
Indian River opposite the subsequently discover- 
ed lead mines. At twenty-four our subject took 
up a farm near Elmdale and three years lat- 
er had a comfortable frame house built (which still forms 
a part of old family home) and to this he took his new- 
ly made bride, Catherine McLaren of Scottish parent- 
age like himself. The marriage was in 1840. The trail 
between his father's house and his land, about six miles 
in length, was covered by a dense woods, there being but 
two small clearings in the whole distance. Mr. L. be- 
came an expert with the rifle in his lusty young man- 
hood, and at the annual fortnight devoted to hunting, averaged two deer 
dailv, the saddles and skins of which wei'e sold. He was a leading citizen in the 
town, held various positions of trust and died at a ripe old age respected by all 
who knew him. He could tell a story with infinite humor, and the annual Burns 
festival usually found him at the head of the board with some new contribution 
to the jollity of the evening. 

Dr. Grosveiior Swan was born in the town of Heath, INIass., March 27, 
1819. His parents moved from there to the town of Gouverneur when he was 
seven years of age. He i-eceived his education in the connnon schools and Gouv- 
erneur Seminary, then entering the ministry (Universalist) preaching for sev- 
eral years, being engaged at the same time in the study of medicine. Prior to 
his entering the Eclectic Medical College of Cincin- 
nati, ()., where he graduated in 1853, he practiced his 
})rofession in Gouverneur till 1869 when he removed to 
Chicago and two years later was one of the victims of 
the great fii-e whicli decided him to locate in Hartford, 
Conn., where he resided i;ntil his death in 1891. He was 
a man eminent in his profession, with an intellect which 
threw light, learning and love across the ]jath of human 
advancement. No estimate of Dr. Swan is complete 
without a reference to his irrepressible sense of humor. 
He was an inimitable raconteur, a natural actor, and 

I>r. f;ios\'enor S\v;in. 


an aptness and point to his wit that left a sense of pleasure with the 



listener. His humor was never rasping, acrid or wounding, but it came bub- 
bling spontaneously from a heart having no guile. His stories became famous 
in his immediate neighborhood and were often retold but without the delicious 
savor he gave them. 

Dr. James B. Carpenter came to Gouverneur after 
the Civil war. He was a son of Jonathan and Lucy 
Carpenter, of Fowler, being one of a family of ten 
children. The Carpenter family were from New Eng- 
land originally, going from Connecticut to Johnstown, 
N. Y., and from there the subject of our sketch came 
to Northern New York. He was educated in the old 
Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary, subsequentlj^ graduat- 
ing at Cassleton ]\Iedical College in Vermont. Twenty 
years practice in Theresa, Jefferson Co., fortified him 
aiperer. ^yjth a fuud of experience which the National govern- 

ment utilized in the army as surgeon of the 25th Regiment N. Y. S. Vols. The 
Flower family from which came Roswell P., later governor of the state in 1892- 
4. were residents of Theresa and Dr. Carpenter in 1849 married Roxaline, a 
sister of the future governor, who was one of the few who could think in mil- 
lions as easily as the ordinary man can in single dollars. The terrific battles 
of Gettysburg, the Wilderness and Fredericksburg, found Dr. Carpenter at 
his post as at all minor engagements in which his regiment was involved, and 
he retired from the arduous service with honor. He was a steadfast but not an 
aggressive partisan in politics and always affiliated with the democratic party. 
He was a man who is remembered as being held in high esteem as a practitioner 
by the citizens of the town as well as by the members of his profession. 

John Bower Preston, familiarly known by the last two names written, was 
a well-known figure in town almost his entire life. At the age of eighteen he 
entered the family of his adopted brother, Judge James 
M. Smith, of Buffalo, and was fitted for the profession 
of the law, and at the age of twenty-two was admitted 
to the bar. After two j^ears he removed to Hastings, 
Minn. On the breaking out of the Civil war he soon en- 
listed receiving a commission as Captain in the 3rd 
Minnesota regiment, which was at once ordered to Ten- 
nessee. On June 1, 1862, his regiment was obliged to 
surrender for lack of ammunition. The officers were 
offered their liberty on parole, but thought it not hon- 
orable to leave their men to endure a Southern prison. '^^^'- ^ '^- P''«'='°"' 
Thereupon the whole number were imprisoned in an old cotton factory. There 
they suffered great privations. Upon an exchange of prisoners in September, 
Mr. Preston returned to his old home in Gouverneur. In the following summer 
when, in conjunction with other patriotic young men, having raised principally 
in St. Lawrence and Jefferson counties the 20th N. Y. Cavalry, he was commis- 
sioned as Major of that regiment which was sent to join the Army of the Po- 


tomac. Major Preston continued in the service a brave and able soldier until's surrender. Soon after he received an honorable discharge and returned 
to Gouverneur where he spent the remainder of his life. He resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession proving a thorough lawyer and good citizen, always ac- 
tive to poniotc the best interests of the town. He died suddenly in Gouverneur 
Dec. 26, 1898. 

Emory W. Abbott came to Fowler in 1836, a boy of seventeen, as clerk 
in the store of Justus Picket, his future father-in-law. He became a partner of 
I\Ir. Picket in 1840 and for thirty years carried on a 
general business, including farming, merchandise, shoe- 
making, blacksmithing and an ashery. In those early 
days supplies were drawn by oxen and horses from 
Utica; purchases being made in New York, and trans- 
portation from New York to Utica being made by can- 
al. j\Ir. Abbott was for many years Supervisor of Fow- 
ler ; (also Justice of the Peace) ; and was chairman of 
the County Board during the Civil War, in which capa- 
city he contributed largely to providing men and means 
Emory W.Abbott. wliich gave to St. Lawrcucc County its glorious record 

during that trying period. He represented his district in the Legislature dur- 
ing the years 18.56-57 and while there assisted in procuring the necessary leg- 
islation for the creation of St. Lawrence LTniversity from which institution one 
son and three grand-sons have since been graduated. Mr. Abbott came to 
Gouverneur in 1871, since which time he has lived easily on a modest competence, 
allowing full scope to his literary tastes and keeping abreast of the times in all 
matters pertaining to National progress. He is now enjoying the "ease and 
dignity" of a ripe old age, yet continues always alert to the interests of the 
County, State and Nation. 

Orison Dean was one of those quiet, unassuming men whom it was a pleas- 
lu'e to meet in business or a more intimate social way. He came to Gouverneur 
in 1866 as partner in the firm of Weston, Dean and Al- 
drich, and with them conducted the most extensive busi- 
ness for over forty years the town had then or has since 
known. The firm soon became a synonym for square 
dealing and exact treatment of its customers and to this 
reputation j\Ir. Dean contributed a full share. He was 
well-informed upon all the current topics usually up- 
permost in men's minds, and could converse with intel- 
ligence concerning them. He was broad-minded in his 
judgments toward his fellow men, charitable in his 
opinions and slow to censure. Skilled in the wood-craft '"''°'" °'='"- 

pertaining to his business, he was ready with pikepole and peevey and in his 
younger days never sent a man into danger that he was not ready to share him- 
self. One of the sights always noticeable to strangers was the figure of Mr. 
Dean, then in his seventies, actively guiding the "drive" over the runwav in this 



Capt. Geo. B. Wi.islow. 

village. It was his habit to add a little to every load of lumber he personally 
sold so that the buyer would have scripture measure. His fund of experience in 
business was large and his memory accurate, so that a conversation with him 
was a delightful remembrance. The general judgment of his townsmen is that 
he was a solid unassertive, trustworthy man, successful in business, genial to 
evei-ybody, and one who never forgot a favor nor remembered a wrong done 

George Bigelow Winslow was born June 23, 1832, in Adams, Jefferson Co., 
M. Y. His ancestors were of good old Puritan stock, having come over in the 
^Maj'flower. At the early age of sixteen, he began the 
battle of life unaided and alone, as his parents had 
died. When seventeen years old he apprenticed himself 
to learn the tinner's trade at Watertown, N. Y. When 
his time of service expired, he went to Gouverneur, N. 
Y., and was employed by Messrs. Sterling & Cone to 
work at his trade. He continued with them until about 
the year I860 when he and Mr. Gilbert L. VanNamee 
formed a partnership in the hardware business, which 
they carried on until the outbreak of the Civil war. !Mr. 
Winslow enlisted in the month of August, 1861, to serve 
in "Battery D." 1st N. Y. Light Artillery. He was commissioned first Lieuten- 
ant and was later made Captain in the same Battery, known as "Winslow's 
Battery." History had honored this Battery by calling it "The Banner Bat- 
tery" and says of it that it was in more engagements than any similar organ- 
ization in the "Army of the Potomac." May 5, 1863, he was wounded during 
the first day's fight in "The Battle of the Wilderness," which compelled him to 
resign a few months later. In 1865, the townspeople of Gouverneur honored 
him by helping to give him the Postmastership of that village, which office he 
held for eighteen years. Mr. Winslow was school trustee for twenty years, the 
greater part of that time the sole trustee of District No. 1, and gave much of 
his time to advance education in Gouverneur. He was Secretary of the Gouver- 
neur Agricultural Society nine years, and was a public spirited, zealous worker 
in all good enterprises. He died Sept. 30, 1883, aged 51 years. 

Robert Ormiston was born in Jedboro, Scotland, in 1807. Coming with his 
parents to America in 1818, they settled with many other Scotch families in 
Rossie upon land purchased from David Parish. After 
his father's death, he continued to carry on the farm 
until about his 30th year, selling it to John Dickson 
and moving to Oxbow where lie began as a merchant. 
In 1861 he moved to Gouverneur buying the store and 
stock of Wm. E. Sterling tlien in hands of executors. 
He built a commodious residence at corner of jMain and 
Gordon streets after moving the Sterling store to Main 
street to the lot now occupied by William Draper as a 
drug store. Here he successfully continued tlie dry- 
goods trade, dying April 10, 1871, the tenth anniver- Robert ormiston. 



Henry Rushton. 

sary of his coming to Gouvorneur. He was a staunch Presbyterian, a Repubh- 
can in politics, and served the town four years as Supervisor, being elected for 
a fiftli term one month prior to his death. To know liim was to esteem him. He 
was one of the few who could carry the strenuous activities of life without effort 
and no untoward event could ruffle him. He is remembered for his quiet dignity, 
and gentle address toward those having business or official relations with him. 

Henry Rushton was born 1815 and removed from England to Edwards, N. 
Y., and died 1892 at Gouverneur. In 1833 or 4 he engaged in the mill business, 
first purchasing a small grist mill which afterwards 
burned, built another and a saw-mill on the east 
of the river, following these with the large grist-mill on 
the Island. When travel began to the South Woods, he 
built the Rushton House, which was burned July 4, 
1894. He owned several stores and other buildings in 
the village and a large tract of timber land. He be- 
longed to no religious sect or secret society, but liberal- 
ly aided all who asked. He was always doing something 
useful for the village where he spent the larger part of 
his long life. He was a contributor to the Union Church, 
erected in 1886, where services could be held free to alh on Sunday and other 
occasions. He had something to do with public affairs, but he was never a poli- 
tician. He sought no office but held several of trust. In the days of "general 
training" he held for several years a captain's commission and was highway 
(■(jmmissioner, town clerk and supervisor until he declined to serve longer. Some 
(if his friends unknown to him, during the Civil War, obtained from Gov. Fen- 
ton a Captain's commission for him in the army but he was obliged to decline 
iL from ill-health. 

George M. Gleason was born in the town of Pitcairn, St. Lawrence Coun- 
ty, September 16, 1829, and spent his boyhood and early manhood there. On 
his 32nd birthday, September 16, 1861, he entered as a 
private in Company I, 60th N. Y. Vol. Infty. When 
the first indications of war developed Mr. Gleason's 
voice was heard on the side of the Union and he was in- 
strumental in getting men to enlist from his part of the 
county without delay. The company which he joined 
went to the front shortly after he enlisted. He was 
soon promoted to the position of second Lieutenant and 
later to Assistant Quartermaster of his regiment. He 
served in that caj)acity until August, 1862, when he 
suffered a severe attack of typhoid fever which com- 
pelled his return to his home. He went to the war a stalwart man and during 
the weeks of his sickness was reduced in weight to about one hundred pounds. 
Mr. Gleason began his political career when he was made a member of the Board 
of Supervisors from his natve town, shortly after the close of the war, which 
he held for three years. In 1866 he was elected to the lower branch of the New 

George M. Gleason. 


York State Legislature where he served six consecutive terms, and became one 
of the leaders in the Assembly. In 1869 Mr. Gleason moved to the town of 
Gouverneur which town he represented for several terms on the Board of Sup- 
ervisors. Soon after this he began the study of the law and was admitted to the 
bar in 1879, at that time a law partnership being formed with G. S. Conger 
under the name of Conger & Gleason, which continued until January, 1883. 
Mr. Gleason then practiced law alone until 1886, when a partnership was 
formed with Arthur T. Johnson, under the name of Gleason & Johnson, which 
continued until July, 1900, when Mr. Gleason retired on account of poor health. 
In the political world he was one of the most prominent men from Northern 
New York for many years and had a large influence in the Republican party 
of this section of the state. He was a delegate to the National Republican Con- 
vention at Chicago in 1888, in 1890 was appointed Collector of Customs for 
the District of Oswegatchie and held that position for two years. 

When the First National Bank of Gouverneur was organized in 1881 Mr. 
Gleason was made its President which position he held until a few months before 
his death. Ho served several terms as President of Gouverneur Village and held 
many other local positions and was always foremost in every movement for the 
benefit of the comnmnity in which he lived. He died from apoplexy at his home 
on the 29th day of September, 1901, leaving him surviving his widow Sally, and 
four daughters, Mrs. Arthur T. Johnson, Mrs. James F. Brodie of Nashville, 
Tenn., Mrs. T. O. Bogert of Ithaca, N. Y., and Mrs. N. J. Conklin of Roches- 
ter, N. Y., and one son George H. Gleason of Springfield, Mass. 

Mr. Gleason was married in 1855 to Sally Harris of Pitcairn, who died 
at Gouverneur June 30, 1902. 

Albert Milton Barney born in Gouverneur, N. Y., Nov. 18, 1837. Died in 
New York, August 24, 1886. Was the eldest son of Milton Barney and Kath- 
erine Van Buren Barney. He was educated at Gouver- 
neur Wesleyan Seminary and subsequently took a spe- 
cial course in higher mathematics and civil engineering, 
to which he added a course in law and was prepared to 
take his examination for admittance to the bar, when 
the firing on Fort Sumter changed the course of his 
life. On the receipt of the intelligence, April 15, 1861, 
that the National flag had been struck, he wrote in con- 
spicuous letters and posted on the door of the village 
postoffice, the words: "Fort Sumter has been fired 
upon ; all patriots and lovers of their country are re- <^"- ^- ^' ^^"''^■ 

quested to take action in this crisis." At the meeting convened upon this notice 
lie was the first to volunteer in the company sent out from his native town. He 
was commissioned 1st Lieutenant and mustered into the U. S. service in the 16th 
N. Y^. Vol. Infantry May 15, 1861. Promoted to be Captain in same regiment 
June 26, 1862. Lieutenant Colonel 142nd N. Y. Volunteer Infantry, January 
21, 1863; Colonel same regiment Jan. 15, 1865 and Brevet Brigadier General 
U. S. Volunteers March 28, 1865 ; and mustered out with his regiment June 7, 


1865 ; closing a term of over four years of active military service, present and 
leady for duty at all times and in every engagement and battle in which his 
regiment participated ; performing his duty with so much ability and distin- 
guished bravery that his several promotions were made on the official recom- 
mendations of his superior officers, without tlie solicitation or interference of 
political or personal friends. In February 1869, he was appointed Special 
Agent U. S. Treasury. A few months later Collector of Customs at the Port 
of Brownsville, Texas. Two years later appointed Special Agent of the Treas- 
ury, which position he held at the time of his death. He was an officer (military 
and civil) of the Federal Govei-nment twenty-one years, charged with great re- 
sponsibilities, important trusts, delicate transactions, involving the custody and 
disbursement of a large sum of public money, each of which he discharged with 
high courage, great ability and sound discretion, and with such scrupulous ex- 
actness in financial transactions that no auditing officer discovered an error in 
his accounts. 

He was twice married. His first wife was Leonora Chamberlain, daughter 
of Peleg Chamberlain of Gouvcrneur. His second wife was Lutie ]\I. Smith of 
Rochester, N. Y. 

He was a member of the ^Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the Uni- 
ted States. 

Amasa Corbin came here in 1830. He had been a farmer in Berkshire 
county, ]\Iass., and continued in that calling all his hfe. He came from Revo- 
hitionary stock, having no less than four ancestors of 
his name, officers and soldiers, in the war for indepen- 
dence. His fatlier was killed just prior to the war of 
1812 while drilling a military company at Plattsburg, 
of which he was captain. Our subject was a man of ex- 
tensive reading and marvelous memory and could rea- 
son and argue political, religious and historical ques- 
tions with much force. Notwithstanding his ancestry, 
he was a man of peace and as such opposed the Civil 
war from its inception to its close. To him the war pre- 
Amas, Corbin, Sr. scntcd Itsclf in two aspccts : Is it to save the Union ? 

Then let those wlio say so obey the Constitution and the laws. Is it to "cast 
the shackles from four million slaves ?" The negro is worth nothing to himself, 
his neighborhood or the nation except under direction of a superior race. That 
was his reasoning and it was not to him a matter of majorities or popular clam- 
or. He cared little whether others agreed with him or not. Whether he an- 
swered the first question correctly must always remain a problem for it is not 
demonstrable. It clarifies the inquiry, however, to ask "If our present knowl- 
edge of the South and the negro, the conditions of I860 again prevailed, would 
civil war result.''" As for his second answer, let the present condition of the 
black man as contrasted with his status in slaver3f, speak. The onlv human be- 
ing, white or black, this nation ever knew, who was absolutely care-free so far 
as food, clotliing, shelter and indeed all the necessities were concerned was the 


negro in slavery. He claimed that war never settled a principle. It only settled 
the preponderance of gun-powder and strategy. It may sometimes be necessary 
but it was not in 1861. In this conclusion he exercised the traditional rights 
of an American freeman and he insisted on those rights. The story is told that 
he received a soldier's vote in 1864 with instructions to cast it for Abraham Lin- 
coln and that he did so, driving 25 miles to an adjoining town after himself 
voting for another candidate, thus canceling his own ballot, in effect. The 
story is probably true for it illustrates his manhood perfectly. Amasa Cor- 
bin was in some respects an original character, sometimes visionary, sometimes 
mistaken but never irresolute. He arrived at an opinion quickly and held to it 
afterward. He was never acrimonious in argument with his neighbors, and de- 
lighted in the family visits so common in the earlier days. He could sell an ani- 
mal of his own raising at its full value for he first settled in his own mind what 
it was worth and then adhered to it until the buyer acquiesced. He was pro- 
gressive in his calling, and with Milton G. Norton brought the first two reapers 
and mowers into town. It was on a "Manny" that he sat, singing to the 
rhythm of its rattling cutter-bar, 

"This is the way I long liave sought. 
But until now I found it not," 
and this story, told wherever he was known and persisting until the present, is 
a true one. Could he have been asked his preference as to how this sketch should 
be written he would have said, like one of old, "Paint me as I am." 

George Parker, prominent in the life and progress of Gouverneur for 
more than thirtj? years, was bom in Watertown, N. Y., June 7, 1826, and died 
in Gouverneur, May 11, 1883. He was reared on a 
farm, educated in the common schools, and when a 
young man entered the employ of an elder brother in 
the mercantile line at Theresa, N. Y. In 1852 he came 
to Gouverneur and established a grocery business, also 
dealing largely in furs, mink, otter and other fur bear- 
ing animals, being at that time numerously trapped by 
the St. Regis Indians and woodmen in this section. Mr. 
Parker's first active labors for promoting the welfare 
of tlie community were in the line of founding the 
Capt George Parker. Gouvemcur Agricultural and Mechanical Society of 

which he was the first Secretary and to which he gave liberally of his time and 
abilities. He served the Society as Secretary from 1857 until entering the 
army, and in later years again filled that office and also served as President. 

Among the foremost to respond to the call for defenders of the Union 
he enHsted at the first call for troops and was elected Captain of the Infantry 
Company, raised in Gouverneur. The departure on May 5, 1861, of the com- 
pany which became Co. D 16th N. Y. Volunteer Infantry, forms a prominent 
incident in the town's history. Captain Parker commanded his company from 
the first Bull Run to Charles City Cross-Roads, in which battle he was severe- 
ly wounded, both limbs being torn by a piece of bursting shell. He was ap- 


pointed corps commissary on the staff of General Franklin, a position for which 
he proved to be especially adapted. At the expiration of the two years' term 
of service, the regiment was mustered out. The home coming of Co. D forms 
another notable event in Gouverneur's history, and its captain as well as many 
of its members returned to find others in the places they had left when they went 
to their country's defence. 

At the general election in 1863, Capt. Parker was elected on the Republi- 
can ticket Member of Assembly from the First District of St. Lawrence coun- 
ty and re-elected the following year. One result of his labors in the Assembly 
has since been and still remains a great benefit not only to Gouverneur but to 
all the country along the Oswegatchie River and this was the passage of the 
bill creating Cranberry Lake reservoir by which the How of water is regulated 
to a degree that prevents both floods and low water, enabling mills and other 
industries to have reliable water-power. 

Li 1876, Capt. Parker was appointed Collector of Customs of the port of 
Oswegatchie, filling the position for three years. Retui'ning to Gouverneur in 
1870, he engaged in various enterprises, but principally followed the occupa- 
tion of land surveying. In 1880 he was Supervisor of United States census, 
having the territory of six counties. At the time of his death, he represented 
Gouverneur on the Board of Supervisors. Few men in this community had so 
wide a circle of friends, including all classes and all ages and few were so will- 
ing at all times to befriend whoever needed a friend. 

George Parker was united in marriage June 19, 1856, with Mrs. Helen 
R. Inman at Cincinnati, Ohio. Three children W'ere born, one daughter dying 
in infancy. His widow, his son, Barnard G. Parker, and daughter Helen I. 
Parker are now residents of our village. 

Christopher Brown, now in his 86th 3'oar, is of Scotch parentage, though 
American born. He recounts many incidents of his early life, and it will per- 
haps be a surprise to many that he and the late Willett 
Bowne were fellow-carpenters, and it is remembered to 
the latter's good credit that Mr. Bowne testifies to his 
genial companionship and unfailing good humor. "I 
always found him as square a man as I ever knew" are 
his words. Tliey worked together several years. j\Ir. 
Brown was a builder and counts to his credit eleven 
school-houses in this town and Macomb. The first four- 
lighted windows, those still in the Baptist parsonage, 
were put in by him after the architect's drawings were 
Christopher Brown. „.^,^^jg f.,^]]^^^^ f^j. "five-lighted sash, meaning five lights 

high and three wide." It was at his solicitation that the sash were changed, 
he guaranteeing that they would be satisfactory after completion. He worked 
on the Second Baptist church during its entire building, in the 50's, and dur- 
ing his long life, while not employed on a farm, has been connected as builder 
with many farm buildings in the town. A quiet, non-assertive man, he was al- 



Henry Sheldon. 

ways worthy of trust in his caUing and in his sunset years he holds the respect 
of those who know him best. 

Henry Sheldon, second son of Timothy Sheldon, was born in Gouverneur, 
in 1814. After obtaining such education as local conditions permitted, Mr. 
Sheldon at the age of 21, anticipated Horace Greeley's 
advice and went west. He remained in Michigan about 
ten years, and in 1846, owing to ill-health, returned to 

Mr. Sheldon was an industrious and painstaking 
man, and any work in which he engaged received his 
best efforts. He took life seriously. To faithfully per- 
form all the duties of a Christian citizen was his high- 
est ambition. At an early age he became a member of 
the Baptist Church, and was one of its leading and most 
devoted members, serving as deacon for many years. 
l\Ir. Sheldon possessed a fondness for books. This fact possibly led him to 
take up the business of keeping a bookstore, in which he was engaged for sev- 
eral 3'ears, selling out to G. G. Dains in 1869 or thereabouts. The custom of 
keeping a journal which was so much in vogue in the earlier years was followed 
by him from 1835 till 1873. This journal contains many facts and items of 
particular interest to his children. He held decided opinions on all questions of 
religion and politics. He was an ardent republican and strongly opposed to 
nuxsonry and other secret societies. Mr. Sheldon died in 1873. 

Amos S. Egcrt, long time a merchant in Gouverneur, was one of those 
sterling men who honor the town of their adoption. He conducted in connec- 
tion with his brother Chas. P. Egert, a dry goods and 
general business, finally buying out his brother and con- 
ducting the business alone. This store and Sterling & 
Cone's were the only ones in town then. He built the 
large brick, three-story block at the corner of jMain 
and Clinton streets, the first of that height in town, and 
filled it with the usual large variety of goods connnon 
to a country store of the time. The first floor was then 
the entire size of the block and was not divided into two 
stores until he and his successors, Killmcr & Jepson, 
had discontinued business. He is remembered for his 
always pleasant smile and greeting. He was typically honest in his deal and 
drew trade from many miles outside the usual territory that traded in town 
when his stock was enlarged on occupying his new block. After quitting busi- 
ness here he went to Prescott, Ont., began in the distilling business with John 
Wiser, his former bookkeeper and clerk many years, but the firm as a firm were 
not harmonious and soon dissolved. ]Mr. Egert then moved to Ogdensburg and 
began the business of produce, forwarding and commission, which he continued 
initil his death in 1887. He was born in Trenton, Oneida Co., in 1826, Oct. 2nd. 

Amos S Egert. 


Levi N. Smith. 

He acquired a large property by habits of fair-dealing and prudent invest- 

Levi N. Smith was one of the progressive farmers of the town. He mar- 
ried a daughter of Henry B. Holbrook, a pioneer, bought the farm that anoth- 
er pioneer, Rufus Smith, cleared, and began the busi- 
ness of dairying. He built fine farm buildings that were 
at one time the model of the town, and acquired a com- 
petence at the business of farming. Retiring from his 
farm, he moved to the village, engaged in business as 
dealer in cheese and butter, which he continued for about 
twenty years. He built the large dwelling on South 
street, now owned and occupied by W. H. Hall. He is re- 
membered as a man of reliable character, quick to avail 
himself of new improvements in farming utensils, and 
untiring in industry. 
Benj. Howard Smith was one of tlie pioneers who bore the heat and bur- 
den of the day when the town was new. Coming in 1824) from Williamstown, 
Vt., at the age of twenty-four, with little capital save 
a healthy body, willing hands and a good trade, he la- 
bored two years to found a home. He then went back 
to the vicinity of his old home, and married the daugh- 
ter of a farmer, who had been a pupil of his when he 
taught the village school two years before. Together 
they braved the hardships of a journey to this town, 
crossing Lake C'hainplain on the ice, and finding their 
way through the forest which covered nuich of the ter- 
ritory between Plattsburg and their destination. His 
trade was that of a tanner and currier and they found 
their first home in the tan-house. One wintry morning they found their store of 
vegetables frozen. They made the clothes they wore from cloth the thrifty 
housewife spun the yarn for and then wove; even the thread was spun by her. 
Those were the days of no railroads, no telegraphs, no cookstoves, no matches ; 
not even the postage-stamp had appeared. Many a time the kind-hearted post- 
master read the letter to the early settler whicli had come to his office, then re- 
stored to his own official care to await the time when its proper owner could earn 
the postage due. By industry and frugality I\h-. Smith was able in a few years 
to build a substantial frame house on the site later occupied by the A'anBuren 
Hotel, and later still by the present St. Lawrence Inn. Li time he gave up his 
trade of tanner, bought a farm of two hundred acres on the north-east side of 
the village, a considerable part of which is now within the corporation bound- 
ary. The fair grounds, East Side school and many residences are on his ori- 
ginal farm. In 1867 he built the handsome home where he spent his last days, 
at the corner of Rock Island and Barney streets. Mr. Smith was well educated 
for the time. He taught school several terms and was Justice of the Peace sev- 
eral years also, was a reader and thinker, and a consistent member of the Pres- 

B. Howard Smith. 



Erwin S. Barnes 

byterian church for more than seventy years. His descendants are proud of 
his piety, his perseverance and his honorable name. He died Jan. 17, 1899, 
and his wife Nov. 19, 1898. 

Erwin S. Barnes, son of Roclcwcll Barnes, a pioneer, was born in Gouver- 
neur Dec. 24, 1814. He was educated in the old Gouverneur Academy and 
taught school twenty-five terms thereafter, these being 
divided between district, graded and academic schools. 
He spent about fifteen years in mercantile lines, meet- 
ing with the usual success which in those times was nev- 
er large. He married Lucretia Allen in 1842 who still 
survives, a woman remarkable for her retentive memory 
of old events and her lively interest in present day 
progress. She was among the first of the aged persons 
to express a keen desire for the success of Old Home 
Week and she furnished data of value to those in charge 
of the more immediate direction of that effort. Mr. 
Barnes was School Conmiissioner and Superintendent of Schools a number of 
years. He is remembered by one country boy as having visited the school where 
the boy was being drilled into the mysteries of the three R's and leaving such a 
lively sense of his kindness, humor and good nature that even the story he told 
to illustrate "Doing one thing at a time," could almost be repeated after the 
lapse of fifty years. He died March 27, 1895. 

Deacon Thomas M. Thayer was one of those sturdy, always to be depend- 
ed upon citizens who honor the community they live in. He came here from 
Burke, Franklin county, in the latter part of the 30's, 
and began business as a cabinet-maker. Those were the 
days before machinery played such a part in this trade 
as now. His shop stood on what is now the westerly 
portion of the Anthony residence lot and his dwelling 
directly across the street where the JNlasonic Temple 
now stands. He was a mainstay of the Baptist church 
during all the active years of his life and held such offi- 
cial positions as it could offer. He was Justice of the 
Peace though not bred to the law, his sense of justice 
being better in administering justice than any trifling Dea. Thomas iM. Thayer, 
with legal and quibbling technicalities. He was a man in some sense like the re- 
vered Harvey D. Smith, and many went to liim for advice in time of trouble 
and he was helpful to such. The Bible was to him a rule and guide and he nev- 
er stopped to question its entire truth from cover to cover. His special gift in 
prayer is well remembered. Whenever a tactful and reliable service was called 
for by the public, he was first to be thought of. Two of his sons went to the 
front during the Civil war, but his antipathy toward strife and bloodshed was 
not clianged. In his dealings with his fellow men he was always honest to the 
verge of honesty ; his handiwork was substantial and there must be much of it 
still in use for he built not for a day. There was no other man just like Deacon 


John Killniei". 

Tliayer in the community ; there was none other more trusted and the memoi-y 
of liis probity, sincerity and unselfish spirit have survived him. He died in 
1 885, July 3d. 

John Killmcr, son of William and Esther (Porter) Killmer, was born Aug. 
5, 182-t, at the family homestead in Essex county, N. Y., and when six years old 
(his father learning of the cheap and fertile lands in 
the St. Lawrence valley) came with the family to Gouv- 
crneur, located on the Little Bow road on what was 
known for three-quarters of a century as the Killmer 
Farm. It is now owned by W. Baker. Here John grew 
to manhood, sharing with his father in the labors of 
the farm, attLudine the district scliool in the village 
and two terms at the Seminary. At twenty he was ap- 
prenticed to ]\Llton Barney to learn the painter's trade, 
continuing with Mr. Barney until 1850, when with a 
brother-in-law, Ahio S. Wood, they purchased the inter- 
est of Mr. B., this being the beginning of the well-remembered firm of Killmer & 
Wood, which continued until 1868. Tlicy manufactured wagons, carriages 
and sleighs, and tlieir work was reputable for its thoroughness. Subsequently 
the firm went into the grocery trade and after the retirement of Wood, ]\Ir. 
Killmer had as partners successively, Ezekiel Beardslee and M. D. Morris. He 
built the marble front store on ^Nlain street which still bears his name. About 
1890 he retired from business on account of failing health and his remaining 
years were spent in quietness, cared for by his faithful wife, Sarah (McKean) 
Killmer to whom he was married in 1852. He died ^May 18, 1902. John Kill- 
mer was a man of good business ability, industrious, popular as a merchant 
and one it was a pleasure to deal with. He had a large number of friends who 
will bear witness to this saying "John Killmer was an honest man." His store 
was the gathering place of man}' who were attracted by the genial smile of the 
proprietor, being in its day the club-room of the older citizens. He had much 
confidence in human nature and this often resulted in losses, liis good nature be- 
ing sometimes taken advantage of. A regular attendant at the Presbyterian 
churcli, a member of Gouverneur Masonic Lodge, for upwards of forty years 
he was a public spirited citizen and served his town in various offices. He was 
Excise Commissioner two terms, or six years, trustee of tlie village several 
years, being elected by votes of both parties. No jobber in franchises was able 
to impose upon the people vvhom he represented. In national politics he was a 
repuljlican but not hotly partisan, and politics played no part in his duties as a 
public servant. Such unselfish citizens are none too common and it were well had 
we more like him today. 

Benjamin F. Skinner came into this section from Washington county (in 
1847) from which section came the earliest pioneers of the town. He had been 
a farmer but was influenced in coming by the possibilities in iron production. 
In connection with a partner named Blish, whose daughter lie sub- 
sequently married, he built an iron furnace at Wegatchie, in 181'8, 



njamiii F. Skinner. 

capible of making five tons of pig iron daily. It was 
conducted five years, during which time about 2,000 
tons of pig were produced and sold. The ore used came 
from Caledonia ore-bed which was well known as a pro- 
ducer of ore of a good grade, having been worked at in- 
tervals for more than a third of a century previously. 
About 1852 Mr. Skinner abandoned the furnace, moved 
to Gouverneur village, bought the dwelling then 
standing on the southerly side of the present High 
School lot, living there a number of j'ears but moved to 
the farm now owned by the heirs of Isaac W. Stacey, which he bought and put 
the buildings into repair. He lived here during the remainder of his life dy- 
ing at the ripe old age of S-t. He held various official positions in town, acquir- 
ing the title of "judge" by which he was universally addressed by his towns- 
men, was one of the incorporators of the Episcopal church in 1866 and was a 
man who was esteemed by all who knew him. Never aggressive in his opinions, 
he was singularly free from prejudices and in business affairs was trusted, and 
in his church, honored. He was always a democrat, and in the early 60's was 
cool and deliberate in his judgments when so many were convulsed with passion 
or hatred. A just man; a worthy citizen; a model in deportment; a gentleman 
in dignity ; such is the memory of him by one who knew him in his later years. 

A record of Caleb Johnson, a Revolutionarj' soldier, came too late to have 
place alongside that of John Garrett whose history has had attention. These two 
are the only Revolutionary veterans buried in our cemetery. Caleb Johnson 
was born in Middletown, Ct., Nov. 20, 1745. One of his ancestors who spelled 
his name "Jnoson" signed the Dedham compact Apr. 1, 1775. He enlisted in 
Capt. Sumner's company, was at the battle of Saratoga when Burgoyne was 
defeated. He served in the Continental army two years. In August, 1785, he 
married Naomi Sutliff at Haddam, Ct. She was his second wife. Shortly after 
lie moved to Johnstown, Fulton Co., N. Y., living there until 1821 then moving 
to Gouverneur and living with his son John, until his death Jan. 17, 18B5. His 
sons Ansel, Caleb and Amasa had preceded him a year or two and his two 
daughters, ]\Irs. John Robinson and iMrs. Jonathan Carpenter, came about the 
same time. He was granted a pension by the U. S. government in 1832 for two 
years' service. After his death the pension was continued to his widow. His 
living descendants so far as known are : 

Miss Josie Carpenter, 

Mrs. Nina Carpenter Irving, 

Mrs. Leta Hazelton Morehouse, 

Mrs. Cecil Hazelton Margner, 

Henry Carpenter, 

Clarence M. Johnson, 

John B. Johnson, 

Herbert O. Johnson, 

Chai-les Carpenter, 

Caleb Carpenter, 

(of Gouverneur), 
Mrs. Catherine Carpenter Mowatt, 

(of Hailesboro), 
Mrs. Leta Carpenter King, 

(of Fine), 
William Carpenter, 

(Soldier's Home, ]\Iich.), 
Charles Johnson, (of Fowler), 


James E. Johnson, Archie Johnson, 

(of Canton), (in Ohio), 

]\Irs. Lottie Jolinson Stevens, Everett Hazleton, 

(of DeKalb), (of Charles City, la.), 

]\Irs. Lucy Carpenter Horton, Mrs. Stephen Rolph, 

(of Chaumont), (in Minnesota), 

Earl Hazleton, Mrs. Cora Johnson Laidlaw, 

( of Watertown ) , (of Portland, Ore. ) 

Edward Hartley, the subject of this sketch was the second child and old- 
est son of John and Abigal White Hartley, born June 15, 1807. 

John S. Hartley was of a roving disposition, residing for short intervals 
in Massachusetts, Maine, Canada and New York State. Always in the new and 
sparcely settled sections of the localities where he made his residence, his chil- 
dren had poor opportunity for schooling. 

Edward attended school but three months before he came of age. In the 
winters of 1828 and '29, he attended the district school at Heuvelton where his 
father's family resided. At the close of the winter's school in 1829, he shoul- 
dered his axe, his only capital and started out to do for himself. For the next 
few years, we find him devoting his time during the winter months to the chop- 
ping of cord wood, at which he was quite expert, often cutting and piling twen- 
ty-four cords a week, and the making of square timber, and the summer seasons 
were spent in the manufacture of salt at Salina, a suburb of Syracuse. Public 
conveyances were not always accessible in those daj's, and the trip to Syracuse 
was frequently made on foot. 

In the fall of 1833, he hired to D. Austin to go to the south side of Beaver 
Creek and hunt deer for one month, the price to be paid was fifteen dollars if he 
got twenty deer, and eighteen dollars if he got twenty-five. Report says that 
the first nineteen shots made, he killed eighteen deer. 

Attracted to tlie northern part of Gouverneur by the abundance of white 
oak and elm timber, ]\lr. Hartley came to Gouverneur accompanied by Uriah 
Waters the next fall, and entered into a contract with Benj. Smith for certain 
of the oak timber north of the Oswegatchie River on mile square lots Nos. 29, 32, 
33, 34, 47, 48, 1.9, .52, 53 and 54. Contract was dated Nov. 13, 1834, signed Gouv- 
erneur Morris, by his attorney Benj. Smith. This was the 3d Gouverneur Mor- 
ris — the 2nd, who was the owner of the town, having died in 1816. The oak 
was made into staves, which were hauled to the bank of the Oswegatchie by ox 
teams and then rafted by Hartley and Waters and floated down the Oswegat- 
chie and St. Lawrence rivers to Quebec. 

He spent the winter of 1836-7 in the manufacture of oak staves and elm 
timber on the same tract of land, but the staves and timber were sold on the 
bank. He took a contract of his first fifty acres in 1837, cleared a few acres 
of land and erected a comfortable log house that summer. Married JMiss Jen- 
nett Sophia Thomas of Augusta, Canada, February, 1838, and immediately 
moved to their new home in the woods, bringing with them a yoke of oxen, one 
cow, a dog and the trusty rifle. 


Three children were born to them ; Sylvester F. Dec. 4, 1838 ; Laura S. Jan. 
22, 1840, and Edward T. Aug. 16, 1841. 

In politics Mr. Hartley was a consistent democrat to the time of the Com- 
promise Act of 1850 and its legitimate results, the passage of the fugitive slave 
law, the barbarous cruelties of which caused such a wave of indignation to 
sweep over St. Lawrence County that his democracy was lost sight of, and in his 
desire for a more humane and equitable treatment of the colored race, he be- 
came not only a "Black Republican" but a member of the so-called underground 
railroad, the object of which was to assist the man fleeing from bondage to 
breathe the free air of Canada. Though silence left no records of those who 
were passed over the trail, the land marks of the old route arc still with us and 
the motives of those silent workers in the interest of humanity, are no longer 

While his home bore the marks of a thrifty farmer, he experienced the joys 
and sorrow^s that came to all. The long illness and death of his youngest son, 
P^.dward T., in 1862 was deeply mourned, and the death of his only daughter, 
Mrs. Leslie Parlin in 1871, seemed to have a restraining influence on his after- 
life. His wife and faithful co-worker passed away in 1882 and he followed 
her eight years later in the fullness of a ripe old age of 83 years, and a work 
well done as he understood it. 

Sylvanus Cone, a grandson of Barzilla Beckwith who served in the Revolu- 
tionary war, came to Gouvcrneur in 1832 and purchased that tract of land 
known now as John Street, extending on either side to 
the river. He also bought the water-power now called 
the Graves mill power and here he carded wool into 
rolls which were given out to the farmers' wives to spin 
and weave into cloth, the latter being returned to him 
to dye and dress. Some cloths so produced were sur- 
prising in texture, finish and fineness and there are per- 
haps a few living who remember them. ]\lr. Cone was 
an active member of the First Presbyterian church for 
many years, often reading sermons in the absence of 
the pastor. He was a man of correct habits and ready 
wit and was often found at his place of business with pen in hand composing 
verses or records of various happenings that came within his purview. He was 
called upon at times to speak at public gatherings, and a Fourth of July speech 
made by him is one of the traditions. He had good facility of language and 
could relate incidents either with pen or tongue picturesquely. Retiring from 
active business early in life on account of bodily infirmities, he still maintained 
a lively interest in public aff'airs. He was a ]\Iason for years, and in politics 
was first a Whig and later a Democrat, on the dissolution of the former party. 
Sylvanus Cone is remembered by the writer of these lines as a delightful 
story-teller and he was always listened to with interest and close attention. 
He could round out a political argument with some ludicrous story with which 
his mind was plentifully stored. Tlie gathering of the aged cronies about 

Svh'anus Cone. 


"Peter's" hospitable fire was an event that once witnessed was not easily forgot- 
ten. ]\Ir. Cone on such occasions, had opinions, and expressed them clearly but 
with becoming modesty, however, and he could and did discuss all public meas- 
ures and men in this forum for years. He was of that "dependable" quality so 
common among the early settlers, and no man questioned his integrity, though in 
the days preceding the Civil war there were those who differed with him in opinion. 
This proved his independence of mind and was creditable to him. As a manu- 
facturer he did much in building the town. He used the same water-power 
granted by Gouvcrneur Morris to William Downs in 1814, conditioned upon 
his building and operating a carding and fulling mill "timely in the ensuing 
season to card the fleeces which may be taken from the sheep at that time, and 
the mill to dress the cloth." Such literary matter as has survived him, is of 
peculiar quality and has now and then a tinge of the quaint humor that char- 
acterized him. He died in 1877 in his 85th year. 

Charles S. Cone, son of the preceding, now aged 85, is still in active busi- 
ness as a banker in the city of St. Louis, Mo. Many who hark back to the 
years around the fifties, will remember him as a partner 
of William E. Sterling in one of the only two general 
stores in town at that time. There was no grocery then. 
Whitfield M. Goodrich, with a single counter a dozen 
feet in length, did not start in the grocery line until 
about 1856. Mr. Cone was born in Lee, Mass., now a 
manufacturing town of some distinction, in 1821. How 
he came to this section is shown by his parents having 
moved to Washington county from which so many of 
the pioneers started for the northern wilds, and coming 
Charles s. Cone. witli them On their removal here in 1832. He was then 

a boy of eloven and his education was acquired mainly 
in the old High School and the Seminary which succeeded it. When of age 
William E. Sterling hired him at .$25 per month as clerk, but this was after he 
had acquired a five years experience, for he began clerking at sixteen. Shortly 
after his majority he became a partner with ]\Ir. Sterling, continuing until 
1857, when he went west, first to Keokuk, Iowa, then to Cincinnati, where he 
became treasurer of the old Ohio & Mississippi railroad, and this position he 
held for thirty years. Then in 1888 he went to St. Louis where he now resides, 
and daily takes up his task as second assistant cashier of the State National 
Bank. He appears, from a newspaper account, to possess his father's sense 
of humor. He is remembered as a tall, genial smiling young man, pleasant to 
buy of and courteous to the humblest or youngest patron of his counter. Those 
who knew him well in the long ago will be glad to look upon his face again. 

John Johnson was born in Johnstown, N. Y., in 1801. His parents were 
Caleb Johnson a veteran of the Revolution, born near Middletown, Conn., in 
1745, and Naomi Sutliff born at Haddon, Conn. Both father and mother were 
descended from families who came to New England within two years after the 
Mavflower as shown by the list of those sailing from London within that time. 


He moved into the town of Gouvcrneur wlicn twenty years of age, settling upon 
a farm on the Somerville road which he proceeded to 
clear up. The census of 1835 for the year of 1834 
shows that he then had fourteen cows, a horse, and a 
sheep, and that he had thirty acres of land cleared. A 
few years later he exclianged this farm for a larger one 
and in the early fifties his jierd of cattle had increased 
to forty. The "Black Salts" period had passed. June 
16th, 1846, he was married to Sally Freeman, daughter 
of David and Marie P'reeman. In 1846, he with Orin 
Freeman, Freedom Freeman, Augustus Preston and A. 
John Johnson. (._ VauDyck, as trustces, erected at Somerville the first 

;\Iethodist Church in St. Lawrence County south of East DeKalb. 

John Johnson inherited many of the characteristics of his Puritan ances- 
tors, and whatever may at this date be said of the righteousness of the cause 
that led them to leave homes of comparative luxury, for the trials and hardships 
of an untamed wilderness, there must be credited to them a courage and tenacity 
to principle worthy of any cause. We call them today Puritans, and speak of 
the sturdy adherence to their convictions as bigotry, but we are, however, com- 
pelled to admit that their descendants have girdled the continent marking a 
trail from ocean to ocean, of uprightness and steadfastness that are admirable. 
In the fifties the Kansas troubles, together with the passage of the fugitive slave 
law, served to solidify and extend the abolition movement. Garrison, Smith, 
Phillips and the New England continent of Puritans, said slavery in a land of 
the free was a disease worthy of tlrastic treatment, to the extent of extirpation 
if necessary. John Johnson became identified with that party at the expense 
of many a taunt and sneer. One of his sons recalls hearing a brother-in-law, 

an intense constitutionalist, call him a "Nigger stealer." His reply was "C 

I have no doubt of your honesty, but you are allowing your loyalty to the con- 
stitution to over-ride your humanity. The Constitution is of men, humanity 
of God." From then on he made a night's drive always returning before the 
household was up in the morning, and but for an accident, none but the faith- 
ful mother would have had knowledge either of the fact or cause of his absence. 
On a winter's night one of the children arose from bed and went to the kitchen for 
a drink of water, and found lying stretched out about the old fire place, three 
black men, the first he had ever seen. Filled with terror, he fled to the bedside 
of the fatlier and mother to be told there was nothing to fear, but as he loved 
the father to never divulge what he had witnessed. For several years the boy 
kept the knowledge thus gained with the silence that only a boy is capable of 
maintaining, and only when blood and gold had settled forever in this country 
the question of slavery, was the story of the underground railroad, of which 
the old homestead was a station, told. The brothers-in-law, although taking so 
radically difl^erent views, remained friends to the end, each respecting the hon- 
esty of the other's convictions. John Johnson died at what had been his home 
for more than a half century, December 15th, 1878. 


Newton Aldrich was born in Luzerne, Warren County, New York, June 6, 
1830. His ancestry is English. His father, Seth Aldrich, was a successful 
farmer and a prominent citizen of Warren County. Mr. 
Aldrich was reared to farm life and was educated in the 
public and private schools of Luzerne and Glens Falls 
Academy. Inclined to mercantile pursuits in 1852 he 
began as a merchant in his native town and became one 
of its leading business men. His ability and worth were 
recognized by his fellow-townsmen, and at the age of 
21, he was chosen supervisor. He was re-elected the fol- 
lowing year and again in 18.56. In 1862 he was elected 
a ^lembcr of Assembly from Warren County. He re- 
fused a renomination the next year. 
Newton Aldrich. i„ ]^ggg ^Ij. Aldrich became identified with the 

business interests of Gouverneur. In that year the firm 
c^f Weston, Dean & Aldrich was formed and in 1867 he became a resident of 
Gouverneur, and the erection of the saw-mill at Natural Dam, subsequently 
operated by that firm, was begun. He was a member of Aldrich, Dean & Al- 
drich, successors to the original firm, until the latter co-partnership was super- 
seded by the Aldrich Paper Co. in 1900, and the saw-mill property was con- 
verted into a paper manufacturing plant. Mr. Aldrich has large and varied 
business interests in Gouverneur and vicinity. He is a stockholder in and direc- 
tor of the Aldrich Paper Co., is vice-president of the United States Talc Co., 
is a stockholder in the International Lace Manufacturing Co. and is President 
of the Bank of Gouverneur. 

Parallel with his business career, he has attained prominence in public 
affairs. In 1872, he was elected supervisor of the town of Gouverneur and rep- 
resented his town continuously in that capacity until 1902, with exception of a 
period of four years, 1879 to 1882 inclusive. His poise of mind, his compre- 
hensive grasp of affairs, soon placed him among the leaders of that very able 
body of county legislators. Por years he served as Chairman of the most impor- 
tant committees, being at the head of the committee which had charge of the 
erection of the county court-house. He was three times chairman of the board. 
J'or upwards of twentj'-five years he was a trustee of the Gouverneur Wesleyan 
Seminary. He was many years a trustee of Gouverneur Village, and in 1883 
was elected its President. In 1886 he was appointed a member of the State 
Board of Charities by Governor Morton, a trust which he today discharges with 

Always a generous friend and public-spirited citizen, in 1900 his philan- 
tliropic impulses found expression in the beautiful library building given the 
Gouverneur Reading Room Association. In politics Mr. Aldrich is a Repub- 
lican and for over a quarter of a century has been prominent in the councils of 
his party. A man of rare executive ability, of sterling integrity, of proverbial 
modesty, Mr. Aldrich today at the ripe age of seventy-five, enjoys in an excep- 
tional degree the confidence and esteem of all who know him. 


In 1858 he was married to Kate Griffing of Washington County. They 
have one son, Herbert G. Aldrich. 

Dr. Elijah Morton of Riclivillc, was born in Hatfield, Mass., in 1802. 
In his youth he came to Herkimer county, N. Y., was educated in Fairfield 
Academy, a noted institution of learning in the earlier days. He followed his 
academic work with a course of study in medicine and became well-versed in 
pathology and pharmacy. During this period he supported himself by teach- 
ing. He gained an enduring reputation as a practitioner after coming to Rich- 
ville in 1883, and long after he jiad passed the meridian of success, his counsel 
was sought by his former patrons who would brook no empiricism in their family 
doctor. Dr. ]M. was eminently a safe adviser in his profession. He was cau- 
tious to a degree in naming an ailment and encouraged no false hopes of quick 
recovery by flattering promises. His black, leathern saddle-bags, adapted to 
bestride the withers of his dapplc-graj^ horse, at a period anterior to the mod- 
ern roads, when his visits had to be made on horseback, are still a memory with 
a few. His keen, deep-set eye ; the aff"able smile ; the cheery word ; the courtly 
salutation to the "madam" of the household ; the treatment in small doses with 
all nausea removed by deft and aromatic mixtures, (and this at a time long be- 
fore homeopathy had gained a footing in the region where he practiced) ; the 
sense of perfect trust his patients had in his skill ; these things come back to 
one who knew him well during all his practice after the first twenty years. He 
had a love for the natural sciences and was well read in them. He was deferen- 
tial to the opinions of others, even of a boy when discussing matters in this at- 
tractive field, and would listen and argue his side of a moot question in mechanics 
or philosophy with such sweetness of dispostion that his opponent always had 
a new sense of the weakness of his own position. He was tenacious in argument 
withal, but never dogmatic, and after having formulated an opinion as to the 
merits of any contention, he stood manfully by it against whoever came. This 
quality led him to firm positions on national or political affairs and in the days 
preceding the Civil war, he held to one judgment regarding it and its finality. 
His calling taught him that no process of education, civilization or equality 
could remove the kink from a curly hair or shorten the reach of a projecting 
heel. His neighbors who have survived now know what he knew a half-century 
ahead of his time. He was never assertive of his conclusions but he sturdily, 
though silently, resented any attempt to manufacture opinions for himself. He 
was a genial companion with those who had tastes similar to his own whether 
their years numbered more or less than his. He had a strong sense of humor 
and could imitate and mimic the colored brother with exactness when in con- 
genial company. A negro melody had a charm for him and he usually was an 
appreciative listener to such when opportunity offered. His judgment upon the 
feasibility of navigating the air, brought out by the experiences of LaMoun- 
tain and Haddock, stand today as true as when he uttered them and the char- 
latanry apparent in every fresh experiment attests the accuracy of his views. 
Men will fly when in the process of evolution they become birds, (if ever), and 
not until then. One thing always marked his practice ; he was as assiduous in 



the care of the poor as of the well-to-do and he never pressed the collection of a 
bill where it would prove burdensome to the debtor. A good man passed when 
he laid down the cares. A just man; a man devoid of prejudices; lenient to- 
ward the follies and failures of his neiglibors though not unobservant of their 
errors ; a gentleman of the old school ; a knight in his calling ; a man of whom 
the world could justly ask, "When shall we look upon his like again?" Such 
was Dr. IMorton in the zenith of his powers and as such his memory is cherished 
by those who knew him best. And this is the judgment of one who knew him 
intimately, was proud to call him friend and who had unusual facilities for 
forming a correct judgment of the man. He died in 1888. 

John C'heency Rich of Richvillc, came to this place from Cooperstown, Ot- 
sego Co., with his father, Salmon Rich, (from whom the town takes its name), 
in March, 180-1, and though but a lad of fourteen, did 
his share of the work in clearing up what was then a 
solid forest and in building the log house, the first on 
the town site, and which stood a little back of the pres- 
ent residence of E. A. Rich. Not many years later he 
was engaged to teach the first school in the first school- 
house ever built in the town of Gouverneur, which stood 
near the site of the old Fosgate Hotel. In 1819 John 
C. Rich in company with his brother, Christopher C. 
RicJi, carried on the hotel at Richvillc. He was the first 
Postmaster, having been appointed in 1821>, and served 
in tjiat capacity for twenty-five years. He was also 
justice of the peace for several terms. 

He jjossesscd an e\'en disposition, aft' able manners and good judgment, witli 
a wit that was keen but never unkind. His death occurred at the home of his 
son, the late Wm. B. Rich, in September, 1869. 

Augustus E. Norton was born in Lanesboro, ]\Iass., in 1817, eleven years 
after the birtli of his oldest brother, ^lilton G. Norton. He came to Gouverneur 
in 18'3.'5 with the latter, living with him on the present 
Norton farm on the Somerville road four years or un- 
til lie was twenty-one. He was a student of the old 
High School, acquired a good education, taught four 
years in Amsterdam, N. Y., came back to Gouverneur 
and bought a farm, married Mary Ann Read whose par- 
ents, William C. and Lydia Read, came from Putney, 
A't., in whicli place Mrs. Norton was born in 1818. Her 
coming to Gouverneur ante-dated that of j\Ir. Norton 
b}' ^d30ut eight years. 

He did not remain at farming long, but selling his 
place after working it five years, he came to the village 
and began the business of fire and life insurance, being the first to make a dis- 
tinctive calling of that business. His genial manner, and careful methods soon 
brought him a goodly income which he husbanded witli care. He lived at this 

John C. Rich. 

A. E. N"rloii. 



time in the house subsequently built into the Grove Hotel in West Main street. 
He was especially popular among farmers, and probably at one time had sub- 
stantially all the insurance on farm property in town. He was one of the first 
Masons and held offices in that organization many years. After accumulating 
a handsome propertj', he bought a property on East Main street, that now 
owned and occupied by Edward Barry, built the house thereon in substantially 
tlie shape it is now in, and continued the insurance business there until his death. 
He was one of the first officers in the Agricultural Society, and took great in- 
terest in its advancement giving his time freely toward it. His policy holders 
were looked after carefully and one of the remembrances of him is his constant 
travel about the region covered by his business in a covered buggy, attending 
to renewals. He was an excellent citizen, devoted to the upbuilding of his town, 
never a member of any church but always contributing to the support of one. 
When one recalls the old worthies of the town, those whose word could be relied 
upon and whose lives were marked by a wholesome regard for the rights of oth- 
ers, the name of Augustus E. Norton comes to mind naturally. 

Artemas Barnard Lynde, late of Richville, was born in Springfield, Vt., 
Dec. 26th, 1803. Coming to Richville from Antwerp about the year 1839, he 
purchased the hotel from John and Christopher C. Rich 
and christened it the Lynde House. A great hostelry 
was this hotel during the days of the plank road and 
the stase coach when the sound of the coach horn, at 
the top of tlie Pooler Hill gave notice to the people in 
general and the postmaster in particular that the United 
States mail was close at hand. He was proprietor of 
this hotel about 15 years. He retired from active busi- 
ness in 1856 and built the commodious residence on IMain 
street, where his daughter, jNIrs. Wm. Walker, now 
resides. The Congregational society were indebted to 
liis generosity and public spirit for their first real start 
toward a church edifice in the gift of the large church lot together with the 
building that stood thereon, which when sold netted the society $300. His death 
occurred in 1876. The firing upon Sumter fired the heart of Mr. Lynde and he 
gave money and time to promoting enlistments among 
his younger townsmen. A memory of him is still fresh 
in which his appearance, at a "war meeting" offering 
a ten dollar biU to the first young man to volunteer, 
remains as a picture. 

Willard Smith, the pioneer of 1805, was born Feb. 
27, 178-1, in Connecticut. Under leadership of Isaac 
Austin and accompanied by Eleazer Nichols and Pardon 
Babcock, and possibly also by Dr. Richard Townscnd, 
the land agent of Gouvcrneur Morris, he came through 
the wilderness from the southerly end of Lake George, 
arriving at the site of the present village of Gouverneur 

A. B. Lynde. 

Allen Smilh. 



ill the spring of tlie _ycar jibove named. His life up to that time had been passed 
at Hartford, Washington county, N. Y. He took up the lands now included in 
the farm of George j\I. Dodds and his son Allen Smith, tlie first born of the 
the early settlers was born here. He married Lucy Garret in i\Iarch, 1805, ac- 
cording to the record furnished by one of his descendants, but it is more proba- 
ble that the date should be some years later as John Garrett, her father, had not 
then come to the new settlement in Cambray. John Garrett was a revolutionary 
soldier, who died in Gouverneur Eeb. 16, 1853, in his 98th y^ear. Lucy Smith 
died Oct. 26, 1876, in her 93rd year. A daughter, Lucy, born July 16t"h, 1817, 
became the wife of William Rutherford. A daughter of the last named pair, 
also named Lucy, is the wife of Proctor Jewett and is living in North Main 
street. No portrait of Willard Snith is in existence. He died ]\Iarch, 181--1-. 

Among the early settlers of Richville whose interests were closely identified 
with the welfare of the little town, none was more honored than James Steward 
Lake. Born Rlarch 15th, 1797, he came to this town 
from New Englaiul wlien still a young man and settled 
on the broad acres that he thereafter called home. He 
was a staunch follower of the Silas Wright democracy 
and (lied in that faith. He was a man of industrious, 
frugal habits. When making the final payments on his 
land, he at one time walked to Ogdensburg and liack, as 
he exjjressed it, "between sun and sun" that he might 
ajjply the money saved on his indebtedness. He was an 
intelligent, public-spirited man and the only man in 
town to subscribe anything toward the building of the 
Potsdam .V' Watertown R. R., taking several shares of 
stock. He (lied in 1871 at his home on the Gouverneur road, tenderly cared for 
by his foster daughter, jMrs. Horace White, Jr. 

Benjamin Smith, usually spoken of as "Benjamin of the Bow," was an im- 
portant factor in the early history of Gouverneur. 

Samuel Smith, who now resides on the Old Homestead farm at Little Bow, 
is the grandson of Benjamin Smith, the first settler at Little Bow. Benjamin 
Smith, with his brothers, Stephen and Willard (who was tlie pioneer of 1805), 
with their families, and Aholiab and I>ydia, their parents, came from Hartford, 
Washington Co., N. Y., in the winter of 1807. Benjamin Smitli settled at Lit- 
tle Bow on land now making up the farms of Samuel Smith, Mrs. Catherine 
Smith and O. W. Bailey. His plan was to build a canal from the Oswegatchie 
river at Natural Dam to the bend in tlie river at Little Bow and thus secure an 
extensive water power that should furnish the nucleus for a village. His plan was 
frustrated by the growth of the settlement at Gouverneur. 

Benjamin Smith built the old brick house at Little Bow, (for a hotel), 
about 182Ji. Both the brick and the timber were obtained on the farm. He 
fell from the building while constructing it and died from the injury in 1826. 

After liis death the main part of the farm, now known as the Old Home- 
stead, became the property of his son Jason Smith. He was one of seven chil- 

J. S. Lake. 


Horace White. Sr, 

dren, was born in 1802, and died in 1884. During liis later days he was a prom- 
inent resident of Gouverncur village. By his first wife, Jane Crawford, he had 
a large fannly. Of the three surviving, Samuel Smith now owns and occupies 
the old Homestead. He was born in 1834 ; married Eliabeth Markwick in 1854 ; 
served in the Civil war from 1861 to 1864. Of his children the first daughter, 
Mary, died in infancy ; the second daughter, Maud Elizabeth, died in 1896 ; the 
eldest son, Albert Eugene, died in 1899. The surviving son, Elmer William, is a 
teacher in Colgate Academy, Hamilton, N. Y. 

Horace White, Sr., of Richville, was born in Heath, IMass., in October, 
1794. He was a grandson of that Josiah White who with his nine sons fought 
_ throughout the Revolutionary war, and a direct lineal 

descendant of Capt. John White who came to the rug- 
ged shores of New England on the Mayflower. He 
married Lucy Hall, of Ashfield, Mass., in 182.5, and 
they settled on White creek, Richville, shortly after, 
where Mr. White lived and died a useful and respected 
citizen. By his careful management and economy he 
acquired considerable valuable real estate. In his early 
life he was an Episcopalian, but later became a Univer- 
salist. He had a retentive memory and was ever able 
to quote passages from any part of the Bible. He was 
noted for his strict honesty, integrity and strength of 
character, qualities inherited from his Puritan ancestors. His word could always 
be relied upon. He hated deceit and was never known to say other than he 
really meant. He died at the advanced age of 83 years. 

"Uncle Moses" as Moses Barber of Richville was familiarly called, was 
among the early settlers who came to this town from Massachusetts. He 
located on a tract of land in Gouverneur, some two miles from Richville, cleared 
the land, built house and barns and the broad fertile fields, bearing testimony 
to his industry, were owned by him at the time of his death. Soon after 
coming to this section he built a store, the second that was built in Richville, 
and occupied it as long as he lived. Somewhat eccentric in all his waj's, he was 
true to his friends and his integrity was never questioned. His business methods 
were rigid and unchangeable ; he marked his goods when received and never 
varied from his price no matter who the customer was. Fashion could not 
depreciate his goods nor did the corner in cotton disturb him, he always adhered 
to his price. He was a life long whig and republican. His death occurred 
at his home in this village in 1875. 

It must have been about 1835 that he took up the farm named, for a 
settler who came in five years before, often told of hearing the resounding 
blows of Mr. Barber's axe, sometimes by moonlight. He was then a bachelor, 
lived in a small shack about ten feet square built of rough hemlock and stand- 
ing about twenty rods east of the present red farmhouse. After about six 
or eight years of this life, he married a lady from Vermont, who is well remem- 
bered for her quiet demeanor, scholarly ways and cordial sympathies, but she 


was ill fitted for the rough duties of pioneering and seemed never to accept them 
save as a duty. jMr. Barber was the last large farmer in town to buy a mowing 
machine. The writer well remembers his following a "Manny" driven slowly 
that he might see how it worked, and finally denouncing it as "a cow-starver". 
It was certainly twelve years after that "a cow-starver" appeared upon his 
fertile creek flats, for one of his agreements with tenants was never to mow a 
crop except by hand. These were typical characteristics of the man but they 
never affected his neighbors for he was most considerate of others rights. 

Gorham Cross of Richvillc, was born Oct. ith, 1808, at Goff'stown, N. 
H., and was the youngest of ten children. From the age of two and a half years 
until he was past twelve, he lived at Wearc, N. H., attending a common school. 
In 1818, his father went to the west even to the wilderness of Northern New 
York and took up land in Philadelphia. It took four- 
teen days to make the journey during which Gorham 
for the first time saw a stove, and in trying to find 
out what it was burned his fingers. When twenty years 
old he taught in a log school house near Sterlingville 
for ten dollars a month and "boarded round." The next 
winter he taught in LeRay. He was married in Utica 
in September, 1831, by Rev. Dr. Lansing, his bride 
being Miss Sophia Murdock. Three weeks later Mr. 
Rev. Gorham Cross Cross was Converted under the preaching of Rev. Lewis 

Wicks, and feeling that he nmst preach, delivered his sermon in December, 
1881. In Burrville, in 1839, the Congregational Association gave him a license 
to "improve his talents in preaching". Being ordered to St. Lawrence County 
to work he made the journey on horse-back and came to Richville, a stranger. 
Inquiring at Steward Lake's for the deacons, he was sent to Josiah Walker and 
Orson White. This commenced what, with the exception of a few years spent 
in Rensselaer Falls, was a continuous service of fifty years in the Congregational 
Church at Richville. Probably no one in Northern New York knew more of the 
history of families in St. Lawrence and Jefl^'erson Counties than he. His 
knowledge and memory of people and places was wonderful. He was deeply 
interested in the temperance and anti-slavery movements and warmly supported 
both. He was a man of strong personality, and was greatly beloved and hon- 
ored by all who came in contact with this grand old man. Hs death occurred 
in 1894. 

James Brodie, born June -i, 1815, at Yetholm, Scotland, was a merchant 
tailor in Gouverneur from about 1860 till his death which occurred about 1898, 
the date of the latter not yet appearing upon his headstone in Riverside ceme- 
tery. He came to this country in 1834 having acquired the trade of tailor, 
which he followed two years in Kingston, Canada, then settling in Rossie. He 
married Helen ^McGregor of Hammond in 1841, and fifteen years later, Eliza 
Nihlock. ]\Ir. Brodie was one of those old-time, old-fashioned, reliable men, 
whose word nobody thought to question. He never knew the meaiiing of the 
current phrase "tricks of the trade". His work was always the best and what- 


ever the quality of the goods selected by his customer, the workmanship on it 
was reliable. As one of the merchants of the town he did his part in maintain- 
ing tlie reputation of those in trade who preceded him by half a century or 
less, and whose names and features have been preserved in this volume as far 
as possible in the limited time at command. His photograph was not obtain- 
able from those having it, for reproduction here along with the other worthies 
who have given name and lustre to the town's progress. 

William E. Sterling was born in Lyme, Conn., June 9, 1801. He died 
March 5, 1861. These are the only facts connected with his life obtainable 
from records. He conducted a dry goods and general store in the brick block 
which was demolished to make room for the present Union Hall block, the site 
of his store being that now occupied by the Van Duzee furniture store. Later 
he formed a partnership with Charles S. Cone which continued until 1857 when 
Mr. Cone went west, Mr. Sterling moving to a new store which he had built 
on the corner of Main and Gordon streets. He continued trade here, adding 
a considerable line of hardware, until his death. Appeals to his descendants for 
a photograph for reproduction were, as in the case of James Brodie, unavailing. 
He was a man of solid character and hold a central place in the town's records 
for many years. He built the brick residence now occupied by D. J. Whitney. 
Dying as Mr. Sterling did, before the days of an established local press, there 
is no obtainable record of his life. 


By Herbert O. Johnson. 

In 1792 Alexander 3Iacomb purchased of the state of New York, all of 
the town of Rossic and several hundred thousand acres more for 8 pence an 
acre. He failed to make good, however, and did not get 
a title. The first title was given to Daniel McCormick 
j\lch. 3, 1795, and for four months he was the owner 
of the town, when he sold an undivided fifteenth. Be- 
tween July 10, 1795, and July 2-1, 1804, Richard Har- 
rison, Abijah Hammond, Wm. S. Smith, Wm. Constable, 
Robert Gilchrist, Theodosius Fowler, Francis Childs, 
Jonathan H. Lawrence and Jonathan Dayton were all 
interested in the lands of the town. 

On July 24, 1801., all the heirs of Wm. Constable 
and the executors of his will signed a deed conveying 
. .joinsoii. ^^ James Donatiaous Le Ray de Chaumont "A citizen 

of the United States" the town No. 2 in great tract No. 3 also called Somerville. 
Dec. 2, 1808, James Donatiaous Le Ray de Chaumont and Grace, his wife, gave 
a warranty deed to David Parish, covering the whole town of Rossie ; the de- 
scription in the deed was based on a map and survey made by Benjamin Wright. 
In 1796, the state bought the land of the Indians and agreed to pay "at 
the mouth of the river Chazy" on Lake Champlain on the third jMonday in 
August, 2230 pounds, 6 shillings and 8 pence, with an annual payment on the 
third JMonday in August each year "forever thereafter" the sum of 213 pounds, 
6 shillings and eight pence. For value received, the "Seven Nations or tribes 
of Indians" did "cede, release and quit claim to the people of the state of New 
York forever, all claim, right or title of them, the said Seven Nations or tribes 
of Indians to lands within said State" thereby making good the title of the state. 
In 1806, Ambrose Simmons, Oliver Malterner, Amos Kinney, Jr., Samuel 
Bonfy, Silvius Waters, Josua Stevens, Jerome Waldo, Geo. W. Pike, Benjamin 
Pike, Jr., Ebenezer Bemis and David Shepard made contracts for land in the 
town of Rossie, near the present village of Somerville. A part if not all of the 
men making a personal visit and locating their land that year, returning to 
their homes in Llerkimer County late in the fall. 

In 1807, Joseph Teall and Reuben Streeter purchased or rather contracted 
for all the eastern end of the town from where the Oswegatchie River crosses 
the town at Wegatchie. According to Hough's Hstory of St. Lawrence Co., 
the contract was made through George Morris a nephew of Gouverneur Morris, 
though the county records do not show that Gouverneur Morris owned any land 
in the town of Rossie. In 1810 tliey were given deeds to over 1600 acres, by 
David Parish. They came from Herkimer Country, to Somerville in 1807 and 
Mr. Streeter made the first clearing the same year. It was about half a mile 
east of Wegatchie on the farm now owned by Mr. Henry Force. 


The usual trials of pioneer settlers fell to the lot of those hardy men. It 
was no easy task to hew a farm from the forest and the first year there was lit- 
tle to live on except game and such provisions as they brought with them which 
could not have been very much. Through the first winter they all made small 
clearings and in the spring of 1808 crops were planted, most of the seed having 
been carefully saved from the little store brought with them from Herkimer 

By 1809 the little connnunity began to find life somewhat easier, roads had 
been built, one to Gouvcrneur ; another from Somerville to Wegatchie and from 
there to Natural Dam, where there was a grist mill. Mr. Strecter built a saw- 
mill at Wegatchie that year, and boards could he secured for doors and floors. 

In 1810, David Freeman, James Stroeter, Joseph Teall, Diamond Wheeler, 
Eli Winchell, Simeon Stevens, John Wilcox and Daniel Wilcox, the latter un- 
married, moved to the new countrj^ ; several of them had been up the summer be- 
fore and built log houses for themselves, so that all that was necessary to set- 
tle was a fire on the hearth and their few household goods in place. To start 
a fire on his hearth, one of the men, Mr. Freeman, walked half a mile to borrow 
a burning brand. 

Because of the easier access probably no settlement had been started west of 
the Oswegatchic River previous to 1810 ; in that 3'car, however, Mr. Parish de- 
cided to open up the western end of the town. 

It was, of course, known that Black Lake extended from the settlement 
near Ogdonsburg to the boundary of Mr. Parish's possessions in Rossie, and of- 
fered an easy route to the St. Lawrence River. Early in the spring of 1810, he 
sent Mr. Daniel W. Church, who had superintended the erection of a stone store 
for Mr. Parish in Ogdensburg, to the head of Black Lake to look for a water 
power. He found a very promising power on the Indian River about one-half 
mile above its junction with the Lake. 

In the early summer of 1810 Mr. Church with seven men, one of wliom took 
his wife as cook, boarded a Canadian bateau for the head of navigation on Indian 
River where a water power had been located. They landed just at sunset. 
Fastening their sail to poles, they made a tent for the married pair, while the 
rest of tlie party rolled themselves in their blankets and slept on the rocks by a 
fire they had built. The next day, a two room shanty was put up with material 
they had brought with them. That was the first house in what is now Rossie 
village. It was on the island near where the old furnace now stands. 


Some previous attempt to establish a settlement, or station at Rossie 
had been made, for the early settlers found a boat loaded with stone and sunk in 
Indian river, that had evidently lain there for many years, and at a point where 
the stone store was later built, an excavation had been made, as though some 
building was to be erected. Why, or by whom, no one knows. A theory plausible 
at least, is that it was done by tlie French ]\[issionaries. 

The Sulpitians erected a mission building on the point where the Oswe- 
gatchic River flows into the St. Lawrence at Ogdensburg in 17-i9. Alany years 
ago the corner stone was found in removing the walls. On it was a Latin in- 


scription which translated reads : "Francis Picquet laid the foundations of this 
habitation in the name of the Almighty God in 1749." 

There are many evidences that the Indians were numerous around Black 
Lake. Old Indian hearths, rude pottery and earthworks, implements of the 
chase and of warfare have been found all along its shores. It is quite probable 
that the Sulpitians desired to establish a mission station in the midst of the In- 
dian homes. 

No one will ever know for there is no known record French or English, re- 
garding the boat load of stone in the bottom of Indian River, or the hole in the 
ground on its shore, nor can any one tell why it was abandoned. It may have 
been an unrecorded frontier tragedy. There were many such, whatever the 
cause. It no doubt dclaj'ed the beginning of Rossie's history for many years. 

The work on the saw-mill was bcgiui the day following their arrival. Mr. 
Church says in an autobiography "The first work we did was a saw pit and set 
the whip saws going and by night had a log hut of two rooms covered with the 
plank cut for the dam and flume." 

By hard and well directed effort the mill was completed and ready to op- 
erate before winter. 

It was quite essential to the prosperity of Mr. Parish's tenants, and the 
improvement of his lands that some means of closer communication between the 
different sections he established. With this end in view, he engaged Mr. Crary, 
a surveyor of Antwerp, to run a line from OxBow through Rossie to Ogdens- 
burg, to determine the feasibility of building a road between those points. Mr. 
Crary reported such a road impossible. Mr. Parish at once wrote to Mr. 
Church, asking him to examine the ground and give his opinion. ]\Ir. Church 
says, "I started one afternon with one man and went through to Vrooman's 
Chanity (shanty) wliere we stopped that night, and as soon as daylight in the 
morning, Vrooman with us, to show us the county line, we started and began our 
line as soon as we could see. We ran over a point on the ridge and down into 
the cedar swamp where the long crossway now is." After a breakfast of raw 
pork and bread, they continued their line reaching a point near the Helmer farm 
at night and the next morning finished their survey. Mr. Church reported that 
the road could be built but at "considerable expense." 

During the winter of 1810 and 1811 Mr. Church built a bridge across the 
Indian River at the foot of "big hill" just above the present bridge. At the 
same time lumber was sawing at the new mill for contemplated buildings in 
Rossie, and also for a boat the "Genesee Packet" that was to be built in Og- 
densburg. The next summer, 1811, a road was constructed on the line run by 
Mr. Church between Rossie and OxBow. This road connected with a road pre- 
viously built from OxBow through Wegatchie to Somerville and completed a 
road from end to end of Mr. Parish's possessions. 

Rossie was made to feel the effects of the war of 1812 in various ways. 
While it was out of the path of soldiers, sent north both by the U. S. Govern- 
ment and by the State, and was far enougli from the Canadian border to be 
free from the annoyance of foraging parties, it was nevertheless so near the 


seat of War on the northern frontier tliat it experienced the excitement and some 
of the hardships of actual war. On one occasion the able bodied men or a part 
of them at least, were ordered to pack two weeks rations, shoulder their muskets 
and march to Ogdensburg. It was a "liurry call' and the trip was made in one 
fatigueing day's march, arriving late in the evening. The men camped that 
night and the next day were ordered to shoulder their nmskcts and march home 
again. They left their rations witli the half starved soldiers camped there, 
some of whom were living on flour and water mixed and roasted over the camp- 

To the settlers from the Mohawk country who had experienced the horrors 
of Indian warfare during the Revolutionary war, a means of defence was a great 
and pressing necessity. Most of the able bodied men in the eastern end of the 
town gathered on a point in the road from Somervillc to Wegatchie about three- 
fourths of a mile from the latter place, on what is now a part of the Teal farm 
to erect a block house. They worked frantically cutting and hewing timber, 
for the block house must be substantial and safe. So the timber was all squared 
that entered into its construction. It was finished in a very short time and the 
community breathed easier. 

A small block house was started at Somervillc, near the little creek that 
flows by the town, on the land now owned by John Salmon. This was of round 
logs and was never completed. 

It is not surprising that the war with its probable British and Indian alli- 
ance should send a thrill of fear through the inhabitants of that part of the 
town for most of them came from Herkimer County where the Indian allies of 
the British had committed the most villainous atrocities during the Revolution- 
ary war. The older settlers liad passed througli these horrors. Grandmother 
Malterner, the mother of Oliver and Geo. Maltcrner, and Mrs. David Freeman, 
hadfledto a swamp with lier little brood, during that awful period, and from there 
had seen night illuminated, the torches being her own home and the houses of 
her neighbors, by their light had seen women and children carried off to captiv- 
ity or torture or their heads split with a tomahawk; had seen the brains of in- 
fants dashed out on rocks. She had come within a second of death at the hand 
of an Indian warrior whose uplifted tomahawk was caught by another Indian 
as its sharp blade was about to descend upon her head. Her husband was a 
captive at Quebec, carried off b}' these same Indians. 

Something like a panic prevailed upon the declaration of war. The sight 
of an Indian, no matter how innocent he might be, would send the people to 
cover. Before the blockhouse was finished, and while the men were at work on 
it, a young man by the name of Keeney came rushing through the settlement at 
Somervillc saying, there was a party of Indians on the war path. Seizing a gun 
from its pegs in one of the houses he swore a magnificent oath that he would pro- 
tect the settlers if he had to exterminate the whole tribe. Women ran scream- 
ing from their homes, some guarding their children, others leaving them in their 
fright ; one woman dropped a child she was carrying and ran on. Grandmother 
Malterner cautioned silence, but silence was an impossibility in the frenzied state 


prevailing. Slie gathered some most valued possessions in a bundle, saw that the 
children were all together and started for the blockhouse collecting sons and 
daughters, including the infant that was dropped in the cornfield. The men 
hearing of the peril, started for their homes, meeting the fugitives on their way. 
At night all were safely gathered at the where they remained for 
several days. It was the belief of the settlers, when the excitement was over, 
that Keeney saw no Indians, but was seeking a reputation for valor. 

The same summer, 1812, Mr. Streeter's saw mill at Wegatchie burned and 
its destruction was attributed to the Indians. The incident came near causing 
another panic. Later it was found that the mill had been fired by a man living 
near who left the country the same night, never to return. 

In 1813, Rossie village was captured by the British and was in possession of 
the enemy for about ^4< hours. 

A gang of horse thieves and all-aroinid toughs, deserters from both armies 
and vagabonds from both sides of the St. Lawrence, made their headquarters at 
Rossie, making raids in various directions, l)ut chiefly into Canada, stealing 
horses and running them to the rocky ravines around Rossie where they were 
kept until there was a chance to sell them. Their raids became so frequent and 
so bold that the Canadian authorities determined to put a stop to them. With 
that end in view. Col. Frazier with a company of British regulars, came over 
by way of ]\lorristown. The "invading army" surrounded Rossie village and 
capturedit,butasno resistance was ofl^ered the battle was both bloodless and pow- 
derless. The force was divided, a part being left to guard the town, the balance 
were sent to hunt up the thieves. No captures were made, however, and the next 
day the soldiers marched back to Brockville. This ended the war so far as the 
town of Rossie was concerned. 

The excitement of new business enterprises, the work of building mills, 
houses and roads, and the toil and moil of making productive homes in the wil- 
derness, drove all thoughts of war from the people's minds, and the routine of 
life was resumed as though there had been no interruption. 

Until Jan. 1, 1811, Rossie was a part of the great unwicldly town of Rus- 
sell which then embraced the present towns of Russell, Fowler, Pierpont, Pit- 
cairn, Rossie and parts of the towns of Hammond and Fine. 

In 1810, Benjamin Pike in behalf of the inhabitants of the section of the 
town bordering on Jefferson County, requested of the free holders that they 
might be set off from Russell, the intention being to annex themselves to Gouv- 
erncur. There seemed to be no objection to letting them go, as the following 
from the records of the town of Russell shows : "At a special meeting of the 
free-holders and other inhabitants of the town of Russell assembled on Tuesday, 
the first day of January, 1811, at the dwelling house of IMoscs A. Bunnell, in 
said Russell, voted to grant the request of Benjamin Pike, in behalf of the in- 
habitants of that ])art of Russell called Somerville that they be set off from 
Russell and annexed to Gouverneur." Tlie part so set oft' embraced the town- 
ships numbered 1, 2 and 7. Hammond, Killarncy and Somerville of tract num- 
ber 'i. That is tlie present towns of Fowler, Rossie and part of Hammond. 


After the separation, it was decided to form a separate town instead of becom- 
ing a part of Gouverneur. On January 27, 1813, a special act of the Legis- 
hiturc was passed incorporating the town of Rossie. In the act a day was named 
for liolding tlie first town meeting. The day passed and no meeting was held. 
The following extracts from the records of the town gives the reason : "The 
proceedings of a town meeting held by the Justice of the Peace for the town 
of Rossie at the house of Reuben Streeter on Thursday the 16th day of Sep- 
tember in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirteen, agree- 
able to the statutes made and provided. In the case of neglect of the town in 
not choosing town officers at the legal time of holding town meeting, they not 
having been informed of their incorporation in time, we, the subscribers, Jus- 
tices of the Peace in and for the County of Saint Lawrence, having met for tlie 
purpose above mentioned, have chosen and appointed the following persons as 
town officers for this year." The following list of officers were named : Super- 
visor, Reuben Streeter ; Town Clerk, Geo. W. Pike ; Assessors, H. G. Berthrong, 
Jedediah Kingsley, Benjamin Pike; Commissioners of Highways, Simeon Stev- 
ens, Diamond Wheeler, Alvin Wight ; Constable and Collector, Elias Teall ; 
Overseer of the Poor, Samuel Bonfy and Silvius Waters ; and "seventhly chose 
Reuben Streeter, Benjamin Pike, Silvius Waters and Ebenezer Parker overseers 
of the highways in the several districts in which they respectively live, and 
lastly do agree and appoint the next annual town meeting to be held at the 
house of Reuben Streeter, in said town." 

Signed: Isaac Austin, Pardon Babcock and Diamond Wheeler, Jus- 
tices of the Peace. Attested by Geo. W. Pike, Town Clerk. There follows a 
record of receiving and placing on file the oaths of office for all the chosen 

Diamond Wheeler was evidently the only justice in the new town. Par- 
don Babcock and Isaac Austin were residents of Gouverneur and were of the 
first party of four men to visit Gouverneur with the intention of settling there. 
This was in 1805. INIr. Berthrong named as assessor was the first "inn keeper" 
at Rossie. 

Mr. Streeter had moved to the block house shortly after its completion, it 
being the only house of any size in town. For many years the town meetings 
were held there. 

The new town was named by Mr. Parish, Rossie, being the name of a castle 
in Scotland owned by his brother-in-law. His sister's name was Rosa. Somer- 
ville was named from Somerville, N. J., which was familiar ground to some of 
the land holders of that time. Hammond was named from Abijah Hammond, 
who, with W. S. Smith, owned large tracts of Macombs land, the other town- 
ship forming the new town of Rossie. Killarney was doubtless named by iNIcCor- 
niick, who was a native of Ireland. 

When the town was formed, the settlers had made a good showing for that 
time, and their number on the first assessment roll showed a of thirty-seven 
taxpayers, not all residents of the town, however, there were 499''% acres of 
iand cleared and 90,575 acres wild, the total valuation being at .$183,751<.00. 


The buildings did not sliow up very well, they were only valued at $2,990.00 
which certainly could not be considered extravagant in the way of house build- 

The assessment roll was for the present towns of Rossie, Fowler and Ham- 
Uiond. The greater part of the land cleared was in the vicinity of the present 
village of Sonierville. There was a small settlement at Hailesboro in Fowler 
though not very much land was cleared. In Hammond, one man had established 
himself at Chippewa Bay and a hermit lived somewhere in the woods. At Rossie 
village a small clearing had been made around the mill. Of the 499 acres 
cleared, less than 100 lay outside the Teall and Streeter tract. 

Throughout Northern New York, the first industry started was the saw- 
mill, after which came the flour mill, then followed any thing that the pro- 
prietors looked upon as likely to enhance the value of their lands or help their 
tenants in their struggles with adverse nature. The pioneer found certain as- 
pects of nature an enemy to be conquered. It was a far cry from a dense for- 
est to waving fields of grain, yet the waving fields of grain were necessary to 
their prosperity, almost their existence. The one implement that he must have 
was the ax ; a gun came next. He moulded his own bullets, made his own pow- 
der ; with these implements and an iron kettle for his wife he was ready to face 
the forest. He had the liardihood, energy and good health that were sure win- 
ners. His first move was the erection of a log house with one or two rooms be- 
low and a loft above. The saw mills sometimes furnished boards for floors and 
partitions and sometimes they were split from pine logs. This is a description 
of the home of David Freeman, built in the summer of 1810, that has been 
handed down from generation to generation. It was built of square logs and 
contained two rooms on the ground floor aliout seven feet high. Above was one 
room at first, though later partitioned, about three feet high on the sides and 
seven or eight at the peak. At one end the chimney and fireplace was built. It 
was of stone and formed a part of the end of the house. It was rough and ir- 
regular, and the children amused themselves by climbing up its sides. It was 
very much like climbing stairs and from it they crawled through the little win- 
dow into the loft. Inside there was more of an attempt at symmetrical lines. The 
stones were more smoothly laid and it was rudely plastered in ])laces. The fire- 
place was wide and deep, almost large enough to set up a bed. From its capa- 
cious throat hung a pot-hook, a hook himg at the end of a chain just over the 
fire, the other or top end of the chain being fastened at the top or part way up 
the chinniey. At the side of the fireplace was attached a crane. The boards in 
the floor were loose. Traditicm says that the cracks in the walls were stopped 
with lime mortar, though more often clay was used. 

All the houses were very much alike, except that some, most in fact, were 
made of round logs, instead of hewn timlx'r. Raking was done in the kettles un- 
til the dignity of a brick oven was reached. This oven was built out of doors, 
so that baking day depended somewhat on the weatlier. Baking was quite an 
elaborate process. In the first place they must have "oven wood," dry wood cut 
short and split fine. The fire was built several hours before the baking was to 


be done to get the oven liot. Once hot, the baking could be done without further 
fire. The result was far better bread than can bo made in the modern stove or 
range, at least the old people used to say so. 

The farmer must be a mechanic as well, for most of his farm tools and fur- 
niture he made with his axe, jack-knife and sometimes if especially fore-handed, 
a draw shave. He made his drag, table, chairs, bedstead, put up shelves and 
made chests for the storage of linen. The only wagons were those in which they 
moved from Herkimer or wherever they came from. Those who had no wagons, 
used sleds. The runners hewed out of a "natural crook" selected with great 
care from some tree. Nevertheless, these hardy pioneers enjoyed life, enjoyed 
work, they liked to see the little clearing around the house grow larger acre by 
acre, the little patch of wheat, not enough for the year's consumption, expand 
until there was a surplus, enjoyed telling how many acres of rye they had sown, 
and the corn, how luxuriantly it grew. 

They read nature, not books, aside from bibles, there were not a hun- 
dred books in the town and only now and then a newspaper. They were up early 
enough to hear the birds in the morning; every bird's voice was familiar to 
them. They were strong, healthy, hearty and could sleep, and the homely fare 
was enjoyed to the uttermost. The cliildren were strong of limb, tanned and 
freckled by being always out of doors. Healthy from simple food and constant 
exercise. It was a pleasure to live. 

The education of the children of the comnnjnity commenced in 1811 when 
a ]\Ir. ]\Iaynard opened a school in a little log house on the farm now owned 
by Wallace Emonds, about one mile west of Soraerville. There were no school 
districts, in fact no school provided for except as the people subscribed for the 
purpose. The pioneers paid a certain amount for tuition and boarded the 
teacher a certain length of time, while he with a good birch rod and an Eng- 
lish reader directed the young idea. The method of teaching was peculiar to 
the time, many things of a religious character were taught. The alphabet was 
memorized before any attention was given to the appearance of the letters. 
When the children reached the proper age, the multiplication table was com- 
mitted to memory and then the youth learned to sing it. During the boy's en- 
tire education until he got big enough to "lick the teacher" he was given fre- 
quent lessons in dancing to the tune whistled by the birch rod, as it cut the air 
in its descent on the home made woolen that clothed his sturdy form. 

Not until 1815 was the matter of education taken up officially. On ]March 
80th of that year, the town was divided into three school districts, number one, 
comprising the present town of Fowler, number two, all of Rossie from No. 1 to 
the Indian River, while No. 3 reached from the Indian River to the St. Law- 
rence. The little log school house of district number two was standing not a 
great many years ago, though all trace of it is gone now. It was near where 
the first school was taught hy Mr. IMaynard. On JNIar. 31, 1814, a feeble cry 
was heard at the home of Mr. and I\Irs. Williams. It was the first cry of just 
that kind that had been heard in the town and was a little baby boy's protest 
fi gainst uncongenial surroundings. Because he was the first baby in the new 


town he was named "Rossit"' — William Rossie Williams. His advent may have 
hurried the people of the town in their eiiorts to establish a better school sys- 
tem, for at the town meeting that year Reuben Streeter, James Howard and 
Noah Holcoml) were named "commissioners of common schools." No school 
meeting was held — all the school business being transacted by the above board 
and at regular town meetings. In 1816, it was voted, that three times the money 
shall be raised for the support of connnon schools that is allowed by the state. 
The records do not show the amount. 

A wolf bounty of .$5.00 was offered in 18-5.5 ; there was also a fox bounty of 
55 cents. It was ordered at town meeting that "hogs should not run at large"' 
and that "cows should not run at large near any taveni or mill in the winter 

Until April 15, 1815, the town of Rossie extended from the present vil- 
lage of Fullerville to the St. Lawrence River. On that date, the town of Fow- 
lei was organized and with it went school district No. 1. The division took a 
goodly lot of territory but comparatively few inhabitants. Of the industries a 
saw-mill and grist mill at Hailesboro were all the mw town possessed. 

It was a fortunate thins for the town of Rossie that David Parish was in- 
duced to invest in its real estate for he, and the others who followed, took a 
personal interest in their tenants, knew them all and were always looking after 
their welfare. 

David Parish was the second son of John Parish, an English gentleman who 
was a resident of Hamburg where he was interested in a Rothscliild bank. David 
was educated with the expectation that he would continue liis father's business, 
but instead, he was employed by European capitalists to transfer certain credits 
from the Spanish colonies in ^Mexico to Europe. Mr. Parisli located in Phila- 
delphia where he met Robert and Gouverneur Morris, the Ogden families, so 
prominent in the history of Ogdensljurg, LcRay de Chaumont and others in- 
terested in northern lands, and through them was induced to make large pur- 
chases. He never became a citizen of the United States, and the State Legis- 
lature on Nov. 8, 1808, passed an "enabling act" giving him permission to 
"purchase or take by descent any real estate within this state ; and to hold and 
dispose of the same in like manner as a natural born citizen." He built a fine 
place at Ogdensl^urg where he made his home most of the time until 1816 when 
he returned to Europe, where by investment in a concern that proved to be a 
corrupt institution, he lost heavily and died in 1826 possessed of but little 
property outside of his American holdings. Lie died intestate and without is- 
sue. His heirs were his father, John Parish, and his brothers, George, Charles, 
Richard and John. Being aliens they could not hold real estate in New York, 
except by special act of Legislature. Such an act had been passed, however, 
in 1817 allowing David's brother, Gecn-ge, who had acted as his agent since his 
return to Europe, to hold real estate, thus he inherited. The remaining heirs 
brought suit through the court of Chancery and obtained a judgment. The 
property was sold to the highest bidder by Peter Seton Henry, master in Chan- 
cery, and was purchased by Joseph Rossell, the confidential agent of the Par- 


ishes. The deed to Rosscll was dated June 26, 1827, and on July 2, 1827, Jos- 
eph Rosscll and Louisa, his wife, gave a deed of all the property to George 
Parish. For six days iNlr. Rossell owned the property. Mr. Rossell came to 
this country to escape conscription in Napoleon Bonaparte's arnn' and was of- 
ten the only representative of the Parishes in this country. Until his disastrous 
speculation in Europe, David Parish was very wealth3^ He with Steven Girard 
of Philadelphia, put up seven millions — almost half of a sixteen million dollar 
loan negotiated by the government in anticipation of the war of 1812-15 with 
England. He was generous, but practical in his generosity ; aristocratic in 
the best sense of the word; energetic, painstaking and not discouraged by ap- 
parent failures. His brother George, who succeeded him in management and 
finally in possession of the property in Northern New York, was a man with 
many of his characteristics. He, too, was educated for a commercial life, in 
addition to a finished literary course. He had traveled extensively and contin- 
ued his trips to manjr lands while owner of Rossie. George Parish was born 
in 1781 and was about 35 years old when he came to America. 

The difficulty experienced in settling the estate of his brother David, made 
George more careful. That there might be no trouble in case of his death, he 
executed a "Last Will and Testament" in which he bequeathed his property in 
the state of New York to Joseph Rosseel of Ogdensburg in trust for his broth- 
er Richard, his heirs, etc. Mr. Rosseel was further directed to "Devise and be- 
queath the estate aforesaid to competent trustees. He died very suddenly in 
Paris, Apr. 22, 1839, while preparing for an extensive journey in Asia, leaving 
as heirs, Richard Parish of Hamburg, John Parish of Bohemia, Charles Parish 
of Hamburg and Elizabeth Hamilton of Glasgow. His will was proved July 
12, 1839, before Horace Allen, Surrogate of St. Lawrence County. 

For the second time j\lr. Rosseel was in possession of all the Parish pro- 
perty in New York State. On Dec. 6, 1841, Mr. Rosseel sold to George Parish 
all the land in Rossie. The deed recites the will of George Parish and further 
says "the said Richard Parish has authorized and directed the said Joseph Ros- 
seel to grant, sell, and convey to his son, George Parish,, .all lands, etc.. .and 
m consideration of $228,000.00 conveys with other lands in the town of Rossie 
township of Somerville, the unsold residue of various lots amounting to about 
1700 acres. This deed also covered all personal property, machinery, mines 
and minerals. On Dec. 31, 1859, another deed was given by jNIr. Rosseel where- 
in he convej^ed "all real and personal estate of what nature and kind, whatso- 
ever. Whereof, the said George Parish, deceased, died seized or possessed or was 
in any way or manner entitled or interested, not otherwise conveyed." 

George Parish 2nd, a nephew of David Parish, was the last of the name 
to live in this country. He possessed the extensive ability of his uncles, man- 
aged tlie property in a way to keep values increasing, but was less inclined to 
make improvements that were not of direct Ijenefit to his property. His pace 
was rather more swift tlian that of tlie previous owner. He kept quite exten- 
sive stables, maintained his house in great style, evidently was ratjier fond of 
display, though always easilj' approached. He gave himself no air of superi- 


ority in his contact with other men. There are four old hthographs in the 
Laidlaw liouse at Rossie that Mr. Parish had executed in Germany sliortly af- 
ter taking possession of the property in IS-il, — one is of Victoria lead mine, 
one of the iron works at Rossie. He spent a great deal of his time in Eui'ope 
and gave powers of attorney to different people to transact any business in- 
cluding the transfer of real estate. Joseph Rossoel and his son, John Francis, 
Charles R. Wcstbrook, Royal Phelps, Robert Gordon, Benjamin F. Butler 
(Maitland Phelps & Co.) were among those to whom such power was granted. 
About 1866 he was given the title of Baron VonSeftonburg by Austria and at 
once removed to that country, and so far as is known, no member of the Parish 
family has visited the United States since. He died in 1883. About 1899, a 
deed was given by Oscar Parish througii his attorney, closing out the last little 
end of the Parish interests in tliis country. 

For sixty years the Parish family took a personal interest in Rossie, spend- 
ing their money freely for its betterment, entering into its history when it was 
a wilderness, watching and directing its growth until it became a prosperous, 
highly cultivated and well developed town, then leaving. They are as much a 
part of its history as its mines, mills or farms. 

In 1812, iron ore was discovered at about a mile east of Somerville. ]\Ir. 
Parish sent samples to Albany for assay. The assay proving satisfactory, 
enough ore was sent to give it a trial in a furnace. The furnace trial showed 
tlie ore to be of good quality, making a superior grade of iron. Mr. Parish in 
18l;3, began the erection of a furnace at Rossie A'illage. Mr. James Howard, 
a brother-in-law of U. W. Church, and who had worked with Mr. Church in 
Ogdensburg, was placed in charge of the building operation. A JMr. Bempo, an 
English furnace man was made the first manager and conducted the first blast 
in 1815 which was a complete failure. Then began a series of costly experi- 
ments, lasting until about 1819, when Mr. Bembo gave it up and returned to 
England, no further work being done there for a number of years. Meanwhile 
I\Ir. David Parish had returned to Europe, 1816, and his brother George had 
assumed the management of the Parish property. In 1817 James Monroe, 
President of the United States, visited Rossie as a guest of Mr. Parish. The 
.' ame ye; r, the recorded vote in the town, for Governor, was Daniel D. Tomp- 
kms 14 and Preston King 5, making 19, the total number of votes cast in the 
town for Governor of the great state of New York. 

Some time in the 2()'s, Mr. Parish opened correspondence with a jMr. Call 
of New Jersey who was familiar with furnace work as practiced in Germany. 
He came to Rossie in 18ii2 or 23. Under his management a successful blast 
was made for iMessrs. Keith, ^Marvin & Sykes, to whom Mr. Parish had leased 
the furnace for experimental purposes. Having demonstrated that the furnace 
was a success, they gave it up and it was leased to S. Fuller & Co. After three 
years, ]\Ir. Parish bought the contract of Messrs. Fuller and made a long lease 
with Robert R. Burr of New Jersey. ]Mr. Burr gave up his lease in 1827 after 
having run the furnace for only two or three years. For ten years the furnace 
was idle. 


In 1837, Mr. Parish built a new stack and in other ways enlarged and 
improved the property and JNIay 12th the furnace was again blown in. In 
1844, the furnace was again enlarged. Between 1837 and 1852, something 
over 17000 tons of iron was made. 

In 1848-9 a foundry and machine shop was built in connection with the 
furnace. The shop was devoted largely to material for railroad construction. 

In 1844, George Parish, 2nd, a nephew of David Parish, became owner of 
the Parish interests in St. Lawrence County. Me kept the furnace property 
until 1864 when he sold it and the iron mines at Keenes and Caledonia to Sam- 
uel W. Torrey, who in turn sold the property to the Rossie Iron Works, a cor- 
poration of which Mr. Torrey was made President. The furnace was blown out 
for the last time in 1867 and is now a somewliat picturesque ruin owned by Mr. 
John P. Crary of Rossie. 

The furnace at Rossie was built to smelt the ores found at the Caledonia 
mine, which had been opened in 1812. For many years all the ore mined was 
hauled to Rossie usually by the tenants of Mr. Parish, he paying them from .$1.00 
to $3.00 per ton for hauling. Mr. Parish and his attorneys managed the mines 
until the property was sold in 1864, when Mr. Chas. R. Westbrook of Ogdens- 
burg was given the management by the Rossie Iron Works. Mr. Westbrook 
was of an old Ulster County family, his ancestors having settled there in 1640. 
In 1883 his son, Charles S. succeeded him in the management which he retained 
until 1890, when J\Ir. Gregory P. Hart succeeded him and continued until the 
mine was closed in 1893. 

The history of the mine would furnish a good ground work for the finan- 
cial history of our country, its periods of activity and of depression being al- the same as the periods of financial prosperity and gloom. Until the 40's 
all the ore mined was hauled to Rossie. Between that time and the building of 
the railroad in 1856, other furnaces had been built near by and used Caledonia 
ore. From 1868 to 1873, the mines reached high tide, at times 400 men were 
employed. After 1873, there was but little ore shipped until 1879, when an- 
other wave of prosperity struck the iron interests. In 1881-2, the hand drill- 
ing was mostly abandoned and the work was done with compressed air. A ma- 
chine shop was built and a company store started under the management of Mr. 
Addison Cummings, a native of the town of Rossie. In 1887, shipments of ore 
stopped, and from then no work was done except to keep the mine free from 
ivater. In 1890, shipping was resumed in a small way, lasting until 1893, when 
everything, pumps, tracks and all machinery was taken from the mines and 
they were allowed to fill with water. The property was placed in charge of 
Mr. Victor Boulet, who had been in the employ of the company since 1868. 
coming from the "Gi-and Banks" where he had been a fisherman. 

The Rossie Iron Works made application for a voluntary dissolution and 
Mr. Joseph P. Curtis was appointed receiver to sell tjie property. On Sept. 26, 
1898, the property was sold, Mr. Chas. S. Westl)rook and j\Ir. James :\I. Wells 
buying tlie mines and mineral rights. 

In 1900 Mr. Westbrook pumped out tlie Caledonia mine and sold to the 



Rossic Iron Ore Co., who liave continued its operation since, first under the 
management of ]\Ir. Rodie until 190-t, when the present manager, Mr. Brims- 
mead assumed charge. He is a native of New York, a technical graduate with 
a wide practical experience, liaving been connected with mines in Missouri, 
Montana, British Columbia and South America. At present about 100 men are 
employed at the Caledonia ]\Iine and they are raising about 200 tons of ore per 

The first postoflice established in the town of Rossie was at Rossie vil- 
lage, ]\Iay 16, 1816. It was the eleventh oflice in the county, the first having 
been established in DeKalb in 1806. Mr. Roswell Ryon was the first postmaster 
and was one of the supervisors of the town. 

In 1828 a postoffice was established at Somervillc, Solomon Pratt was the 
first postmaster being succeeded by ]\Iartin Thatcher, Ward P. Lewis, H. R. 
Albro, Chauncy B. Fell, Lyman Merriman, Gilbert 
Wait, Hiram Hall, Chas. Witt, J. B. Johnson, (whose 
portrait is given), P. j\I. Crowley, A. A. Scott, John 
Brickley, and Geo. VanOrnum. In January, 1905, the 
postoffice was discontinued. 

The postoffice at Spragueville was first established 
at the house of Alexander Wright on Shingle Creek, 
some distance from its present location. Later it was 
moved to Steels Corners, then to Spragucs Corners. It 
was first named Shingle Creek then Keensville and final- 
ly Spragueville, its present name. jMr. Wright was the 
first postmaster, followed by Daniel Wilcox, Geo. F. 
Steele, Eben Gillett, A. M. Tedder, L. G. Draper, D. W. Spragae, Geo.Steele, 
D. W Sprague, A. H. Johnson, (whose portrait appears), and Frank Johnson, 
the present encumbent. 

A good roads movement started June 8, 1812, when a company composed 
of David Parish, L. Hasbrouck, N. Lord, J. Rosseel and others was incorpor- 
ated with a capital of $50,000 and was known as the 
Ogdensburg Turnpike Co., for the purpose of making 
a turnpike road from Ogdensburg to Wilna. They 
turned the road over to the town in 1826. This road ex- 
tended from OxBow to the ]Morristown line. The town 
maintained its own roads from 1826 to 1848, when the 
Gouverneiu-, Somervillc and Antwerp Co. was formed to 
build a plank road from Antwerp through to Gouver- 
neur. This road crossed the town of Rossie at Somer- 
ville, being only about ly^ miles in tjie town. The com- 
pany was incorporated Dec. 30, 1848. The road was 
finished in September, 1850. The directors were C. P. 
F.oljert, S. B. A'anDuzee, (portrait shown), Gilbert Wait, N. L. Gill, Chas. 
Anthonv and iMartin Thatcher. Gilbert Wait and ]Martin Thatcher, the latter 
beino- treasurer, were botli residents of Somervillc. Jan. 23, 1850, the Ham- 

J. B. Johnson 

A. H. Jolmson. 



S. B.VaiiDuzee. 

niond, Rossic and Antwerp Plank Road Co. was incorporated to build 
a plank road from Antwerp via Ox Bow and 
Hannnond to Ogdensburg. From OxBow to the 
Morristown lino it was in Rossie. Its directors 
were Ira Hinsdale, E. Brainard, Z. Gates, A. P. 
]\Iorse and D. W. Baldwin. ]\Ir. Baldwin was a resi- 
dent of Rossic and manager of the Parish industries of 
the town. 

The construction of the plank road through the 
town presented two difficult problems ; one was crossing 
the long swamp about a mile out of OxBow and the other 
was the approach to Indian River. The swamp was soft 
and gave no secure foundation for a road bed. At Indian River, there was an al- 
most perpendicular descent of overSO feet. There was a standardgrade established 
for plank roads, which must not be exceeded. This made it necessary to cut 
down the hill which was rock and fill from there to the river, a distance of about 
one-eighth of a mile and a fill of over forty feet at its greatest depth. Messrs. 
Frazier & Co. took the contract to build the road from OxBow to Rossie for 
$7,000. The approach to the Indian River cost all they had got for the whole 
road. The road was completed in December, 1850. After the plank was worn 
out, the company was permitted to gravel the road and maintain it as a turn- 
pike, collecting the toll the same as before. In 1880 the company's charter ex- 
pired and the road was turned over to the town. Previous to 1854', when the 
railroad was completed from Watertown to Potsdam, crossing the town at 
Keenes, where a station was established, there had been two lines of stage 
coaches, running A'ia Antwerp, Somerville and Gouverneur north, the other 
from Antwerp to Ogdensburg by OxBow, Hammond, Rossie and ]\lorristown. 
Before the advent of the railroad, all produce was hauled to Albany or Troy. 

In 1818 an element entered the town, destined to have a great influence 
in shaping its moral and industrial growth. In that year, came Robert Or- 
miston, (portrait accompanying). William Faichney, 
James Dixon, James Fairbairn, Thomas Elliott, Don- 
ald McCarvie, James Henderson, Colon IMcLaren, James 
Douglass and Andrew Dodds, with their families. Thej- 
sailed from Scotland for Quebec. From Quebec they 
sailed up the St. Lawrence as far as Prescott, where they 
met one of Mr. Parish's agents who induced them to vis- 
it Rossie. They finally settled in the town between the 
Oswegatchie and Indian Rivers, now known as Scotch 
Settlement, Mr. Parish agreeing to clear three acres 
of land and build a log house for each family, and fur- 
nish a yoke of oxen for each two families, and give each 
a cow, provision and seed wheat for a year. In 1819 Robert Clark, Andrew 
Culbertson, John Henderson, Andrew Fleming, John Dodds, James Hobkirk. 
John Tait, James Ormiston, David Storie, Wm. Laidlaw and James Lockic, 

Robert Ormiston. 


joined tlie little colony. John iMcRobhie, Thos. Turnbull, and his brothers 
;Michacl, Adam, Andrew and William, came in 1820. 

In 1829 oi- 30 Joel Jcpson who had moved to Rossic from Vermont, was 
planting corn. His little daughter, nine years old, was dropping it for him ; she 
saw a peculiar looking stone, white and covered with cubes. She hit it break- 
ing it into numberless cubes, and squares of a dark gray color. She had dis- 
covered the Victoria Lead ]\Iine. No real effort was made to work the rich de- 
posit until 1835, when on Dec. 11 Mr. Parish made a contract with j\Ir. Bliss 
T. Nash, to prospect for minerals in the town of Rossie, one of the conditions 
being that Mr. Parish was to get fifty cents a ton for all iron ore mined and 
seventy-five cents for all lead. Any lead mined was to be smelted at Rossie. The 
contract was for ten years. On ^Nlay 12, 1837, two lead mining companies were 
incorporated, one was naniLd the Rossie Lead JNIining Co., and the other the 
Rossie Galena Co. Both were to be capitalized at $24,000. The two companies 
worked on the Coal Hill vein. Some work was done by the Rossie Galena Co. in 
1836 but no extensive operations were commenced until 1837, when both com- 
panies put an immense number of laborers at work. The smelting was done un- 
der a contract with JNIessrs. Moss and Knapp, whose furnace was on Indian 
River, something over a mile from the mine. They got $25 a ton, and all over 
68 per cent, that the ore might yield in lead, giving them over $28 a ton for 
smelting. Work was discontinued by both companies in 1840. The Victoria 
and Union veins had been worked by 'Sir. Parish. He also opened a mine on 
what was called the Robinson or Indian River vein, out of which he took 1,100 
pounds of lead at a cost of $1,600. The two companies opeiating Coal Hill 
vein took out 3,250,690 pounds of metalic lead, the ore yielding 67 per cent on 
an average. After remaining idle for more than ten years, Mr. Parish, to 
whom the leased mine had reverted, made another lease to R. P. Remington, for 
ten years, with a privilege of ten years more. ~Slr. Remington was to pay a 
royalty of 1-12 of all lead mined. A stock conij)any was formed Sept. 8, 1852, 
called the Great Northern Lead Co., capitalized at $500,000. The best machin- 
ery that could he procured was installed. They ran the mine about three years, 
with miners from Cornwall, England, wlien they were forced to close. The low 
price of lead and high royalty made it a losing venture. 

In 1854 J. B. ^Morgan leased the mines running them with varying fortunes 
until 1868, when they were again closed. About this time the Parish interests 
in the town of Rossie were nearly all closed out, A. Pardee buying tile mineral 
rights in the western end of the town and also buying about 365 acres of land 
at the Victoria and Union Mines. The mines were opened for the last time in 
1875 under the management of Mr. John Webb, Mr. Pardee's agent. The 
work only lasted about one year when tlie mines were finally closed. The mines 
and mineral rights still remain the property of the Pardee estate. Mr. Ara J. 
Moore of Dekalb being the present agent. 

The advent of railroads, the invention of automatic machinery, and the 
concentration of manufacturing in large centers, were all factors in ruin of 



the sniiill interior towns, even though they had water ])owers of great value. No 
town in St. Lawrence county was harder hit than Rossic. At one time the vil- 
lages of Sonierville and Rossie were tlie leading places in the county and We- 
gatchie had promise of being a manufacturing center of great importance. 
Rossic had its furnace, foundry and machine shop, saw mill, grist mill, oat-mcal 
mill, though the latter was never nuich of a success. Now, there is a saw mill 
doing purely local work, a grist mill, grinding feed mostly, four stores, two lio- 
tels and two blacksmith shops. 

Wegatchie had a furnace, saw mills, grist mill, spoke factory, woolen mill, 
and stone mill. Now there is the woolen mill owned and operated by H. K. 
Wright ; one saw mill, a store, hotel, cheese factory and blacksmith shop. 
Somerville possessed in its days of prosperity two furniture factories, one car- 
riage factory, two blacksmith shops, stores and two hotels. Now there is a 
l)lacksmith and carriage repair shop, one store and a hotel. The postoffice has 
yielded to the mail carrier and been abandoned. 

There arc five religious societies in town, one Catholic, one Presbyterian, 
and three Methodist. The Catholic societj'- begins officially in 1846 when an 
attempt was made to build a church. The frame was raised but never en- 
closed. Previous to that, priests from Ogdensburg had visited the community 
with more or less regularity. By 1861 a church was completed. St. Patricks 
society was incorporated in 187.'2 with Thomas Kane and Thomas Spratt as the 
first trustees. The pastors have been Father Clark from Carthage, Fathers 
Harvey, Sherry, De Shannhac, JNIcDonald, Rossiter, and Brown from Redwood, 
and Fathers Kelly, who built the present stone church, Fitzgerald, O'Neil, who 
died at Rossie in 1899, and the present pastor, the Rev. Father Crowley of 

The Presbyterian Society was organized in 1855. Andrew Laidlaw, Wil- 
liam Allen, James Brodie, George Lockie, (whose portrait appears), and David 
McFalls, (portrait shown), were the first trustees. The 
pastors have been John McGregor, James Gardiner, 
Alex. Adair, Wm. H. Robinson, Daniel A. Ferguson, 
John E. Beecher, Elias B. Fisher, John A. Pollock, Al- 
bro Green and Chas. G. jMitclicll. They have a hand- 
some church overlooking the Indian River. The Meth- 
odists at Rossie village have never built a church. Their 
first pastor was the Rev. Samuel Orvis appointed in 
184-i. He was followed by Henry WoodruflF, J. Fran- 
cis, G. W. Plank, Samuel Griffin and P. M. Crowley. 
These pastors serving until ISSi, when the church ap- 
parently ceased to exist until 1868, when it reorgan- 
ized with A. T. Nichols as the first pastor. 

Wegatchie has a small Alethodist organization served by the preacliers 
located at OxBow. 

On Aug. 16, 1845, the ^Methodist Episcopal Society of Somerville was or- 

George Lockie. 



Jolm Joliiison. 

ganizcd with Hiram Halc,Onii Freeman, John Johnson (portrait) Freedom Free- 
man, Augustus Preston and A. C. VanDyke as trustees. 
In 1846 a church was built. Silas Slater was the first 
pastor, followed by P. M. Crowley, C. C. Symes, J. Zim- 
merman, C. E. Beebe, J. Austin, L. Whitcomb, M. O. 
Kinney, S. Ball, D. Sinnnons, G.P. Kinney, S.Blackburn, 
V. W. Brooks, S. Boyd, H. Hesselgraves (1871), A. L. 
Smith, A. T. Nichols, J. G. Price, A. G. Woodard, 
(whose portrait is given), W. P. Hall, B. M. Phelps, 
John Bragg, G. S. Hastings, A. Warren, T. H. Mc- 
Clanthan, and the present pastor, H. Hesselgrave. 

The first Universalist Society of Somerville W'as in- 
corporated in 1812 with Lyman jNIerrinian, Alva Weeks 
and Wm. Ayres as the first trustees. For many years 
services were held with more or less regularity, being 
supplied from the St. Lawrence University at Canton 
much of the time. A cluu'ch was built in 18-1'6. The 
society has gone out of existence and a few years ago 
the church was sold. 

The town of Rossie has good reason to be proud 
of her record in the war of 1861 to 1865. But few 
towns in this or any other state, furnished more vol- 
unteers for the same population than Rossie, while the 
village of Wegatchic sent nearly one man to every six 
of her total population, to the front. Anoth- 
er direction in which the town takes great pride, is the character of the men sent 
to the county Legislature. Her supervisors have always been strong men, deep- 
ly- interested in the town's welfare. Mr. Reuben Streeter, the first supervisor, 
Mas a man of exceptionally strong character, wielding a greater influence dur- 
ing the town's infancy than any other one man. He served as supervisor in 
1813-1'1-16-17-18 and 29. Theodocius O. Fowler was elected in 1815. He was 
a resident of what was later the town of Fowler and was the first supervisor 
of that town. In 1819 and 1825, Ebenezer :\rartin was elected, and in 1820 
Russell Ryan. Lewis Franklin followed ^Ir. Ryan holding the office until 1824. 
James Howard was elected first in 1826 and again in 1827. William Brown 
served one year, 1828. In 1830 Solomon Pratt was elected holding the office 
until 1832. He was again elected in 1835 and in 1845-6 and in 1852 he was 
appointed to fill vacancy, holding the office until 1854. Wm. Skinner was sup- 
ervisor in 1833-4 and in 1836-7-8 Robert Clark held the office. ]Martin Thatch- 
er was elected in 1839 and 1840 ; William B. Bostwick was elected in 1843 ; re- 
elected in 1844 and again in 1858. H. V. R. Wihnot held the office' in 1847-8. 
Zacheus Gates followed Mr. Wilmot in 1849 and in 1851 and 52, dying the lat- 
ter year. R. R. Sherman served one year, 1855, followed by D. S. Baldwin, 
in 1856-7. From 1859 to 1863 James H. Church was supervisor. Thomas A. 
Turnbull served in 1864-65 and 66; again in 1870 he was elected, holding tlie 
office until 1874 and finally in 1878 he served one year. In 1867-68 and 69 

Rev. A. (',. Woodard. 



Dr. David McFalls. 

Dr. David ^McFalls (portrait) was the executive officer of tlie town. 
Abial E. Helmer followed Mr. Turnbull, holding tjie office during the yeai-s 

1875-76-77-79-80-83-84-85 and 86. George McLear, 
a democrat, was elected in 1881 and again in 1882. 
John Barry was elected in 1887 and re-elected in 1888. 
In 1889, D. W. Church held the office for one year. 
From 1890 to 1894, James W. Marshall (portrait) was 
supervisor. Dr. Fuller was elected in 1895, serving 
during the years 1896-7-8-9 and was re-elected in 1901. 
The May following he died. Mr. Marshall was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy, and at the next town meeting 
he was elected for the full term, holding the office un- 
til 1905, when John Barry was again elected and is now 

There are many of Rossie's citizens who are de- 
serving of more than passing notice. Such men as Reu- 
ben Streeter, James Howard, the Churches and Turn- 
bulls, James Marshall and many others who have iden- 
tified themselves with all that meant progress, improve- 
ment, and honesty in the town's affairs. The influence 
of such men will last as long as time and Rossic owes 
to them more than can be realized. 

i\Ir. Streeter was of New England parentage, pos- 
.sessing all the traits that make a leader in pioneer life. 
His wealth was freely expended for the benefit of tiic 
community in which he lived. He gave the new town of 
Rossie its start in the direction of honest growth. 

His old age was clouded by the loss of property brought about by an un- 
fortunate lawsuit. In the 40's he left Rossie for Vermont, where he died. 

Mr. Marshall was a native of the town. He was born at Spragueville, 
where his boyhood was spent. After his marriage he moved to Somerville, where 
the remainder of his life was spent. He had many things to hamper him, yet 
by force of character and the will to go ahead, he succeeded in becoming a man 
of influence in his town and a man looked upon by the Board of Supervisors, 
as one of the few men worthy of leadership. Of him, it can safely be said that 
be never knowingly did a mean thing or wronged any man. 

The Churches were always identified with the town's best interests. Dan- 
iel Church, son of Daniel Whipple Church and Dorothy (Wheeler) Church, was 
born in the town of Canton, Sept. 17, 1809. His father w^as one of the first 
pioneers who settled St. Lawrence County and who in 1810 surveyed and laid 
out the road through the long swamp between OxBow and Rossie, a thing that 
had been considered impracticable. 

Daniel came from Morristown to Wegatcliic in the town of Rossie in the 
year 1855, and engaged with his brothers, Louis and Howard, in the woolen 
business. In 1867, the factory was burned and rebuilt by Daniel the same 

James W. Marshall. 


year. This mill is still in operation and the little village is yet often called 
Cliurch's iMills, after the men who so long ago were active there. 

Mr. Church was of New England descent, his ancestor, Richard Church, 
being one of the first settlers of Hartford, Conn. The pioneer life which he had 
lived strengthened his sterling (jualities and though he had very few advantages 
except of the most primitive sort, his natural desire for knowledge was so strong 
that he mastered many branches of science, without the aid of school or teacher 
and his ever widening range of useful information was a source of surprise even 
tf his intimate friends. 

Modest, retiring, and unobtrusive by nature he was a fearless thinker and 
dared to investigate thoroughly the great questions of life and stood by his con- 
victions sometimes almost alone. 

He hated sjiani and hypocrisy and inculcated honesty, charity, temper- 
ance, economy and love of humanity, both by precept and example. 

In 1848 he married Harriet Law Wheeler of Groton, ]Mass. Their four 
children are ^lartha Adams now ^Nlrs. G. S. Conger, whose portrait will be seen 
in the group of Daughters of tlic American Revolution, Marjr Hay ward, who was 
lost at sea November 22, 1873 : Daniel Whipple, a civil engineer in Chicago, 111., 
and H^irriet, now Mrs. A. W. Orvis. 

His wife died October 22, 1878, and five years later, the cares, toils and dis- 
appointments of life came to an end and Daniel Church entered into rest July 
13, 1883. 

JMarjr Hayward Church, second daughter of Daniel and Harriet Church, 
was horn in Jlorristown, N. Y., July 20, 1851. Her childhood days were spent 
at Wcgatchie, where the beauties of nature surrounding her helped to develop 
her innate artistic qualities and at an early age her fondness for drawing was 
displayed, her pet animals being always her patient models. 

Ella Turnbull, a natural artist, of Wegatchie, guided her first efforts and 
later she studied at the Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary. In 1870 she entered 
Cooper Union in New York City, where she spent two years in honest, patient 
work, earning besides a diploma and two silver medals, the love and admiration 
of her co-workers and teachers. So much encouragement was given her that 
she decided to go to Europe to study in the great art galleries there. Her whole 
soul was filled with love for her chosen art, and her parents, with remarkable un- 
selfishness and love, gave her the o})portunity which in those days was quite un- 

November 15, 1873, tlie steamer YiWc du Havre left New York harbor with 
nearly three hundred passengers on board. None with brighter prospects, 
purer and higher aims than Mary H. Church, then only 22 years old. In mid- 
ocean and at midnight, a sailing vessel, the Loch Earn, came gliding through 
the waters. There was a collision and this large steamer, the finest, strongest 
and most elegantly equipped on the ocean, in ten minutes sank out of sight ; 
226 people were lost, Mary H. Church being one of the number. 

James H. Church, a brother of Daniel, was born in Canton. He learned 


the clothiers' trade in Antwerp and witli his brother started tlie woolen mills at 
Weg-atchie, one of that village's industries that still survives. 

The Churches trace their ancestors back to the ITth century, Samuel being 
born in Massachusetts some time in that century. His son, Nathaniel, was born 
at Hadley, in that state in 170-1. 

It is impossible to do justice to the men who made Rossie. ^Messrs. Pratt 
and Thatcher of Somerville, were two who deserve more than passing mention. 
Mr. Gilbert Wait for many years one of the town's assessors, and so on, for Ros- 
sie has been fortunate in having more than her share of strong men, such as 
give to communities a name that stands in history, not so nmch for great deeds 
as for sterling honesty. 


By Allen Wight (aged 81). 

Fowler was formed from Rossie and Russell, embracing Killarney No. 7 
(of the sulidivision of No. 2 of jMacomb's purchase) and Portaferry No. 11, 
April 15, 1816. The first town meeting was held at the 
house of Noah Holcomb. 

At the time of its erection. No. 7 constituted scliool 
district No. 3 of Rossie. On the lOth of April, the town- 
Khi})s of Edwards (No. 8) and Fitz William (Hermon) 
previously in Russell, were attached to Fowler, but af- 
terwards taken off in the formation of those towns. 

In forming Pitcairn in 1836, a triangular ])()rtion 
of No. 11, beginning in the County line at the most west- 
erly corner of No. 11 and run thence southeast along 
Allen Wight '^h'-' county line three miles, thence at right angles un- 

til it intersected the line between No. 7 and No. 11 
(2 1-6 miles), was retained by Fow-ler. It contained 2,087 acres. On the divi- 
.sion of the Great Tract into townships. No. 7 fell to Gilchrist and Fowler. On 
the 3rd of August, 1810, the former conveyed his share to the latter. Tlieodo- 
sius Fowler on the 15th of ]\Ia_v, 1821, conveyed to his son, T. O. Fowler, un- 
der whom most of the town was settled. 

Theodosius O. Fowler was a captain in the Continental Army of the Rev- 
olution. He received his commission as ensign in 1776, was promoted to Lieuten- 
ant and in 1778 to Captain in the N. Y. 1st Regiment, but in 1780 was trans- 
ferred to the 2nd Regiment, in which he served until the close of the war. He 
was present and took part in the battles of Long Island, Saratoga, Monmouth 
and White Plains, and shared in the hardships of the camp at Valley Forge and 
]\lorristown. The first set of town officers were Theodosius O. Fowler, Super- 
visor; Simeon Ha7X'lton, Clerk; Noah Holcomb, Eben Cole, Benjamin Brown, 
Assessors ; John Parker, Noah Holcomb, Commissioners of Highways ; Ben- 
jamin Brown, Noah Holcomb, Overseers of the Poor; Simeon Hazelton, Samuel 
B. Sprague, Overseers of Highways; Alvin Wright, Constable and Collector; 
Alvin Wright, Simeon Hazelton, Eben Cole, Commissioners of Common Schools; 
Theodosius O. Fowler, Jcdediali Kingsley, Ricliai-d Alerrill, Inspectors of Com- 
mon Schools. Names of Supervisors with years of service: 
Theodosius O. Fowler, 1817. 
Benjamin Brown (to fill vacancy) 1818. 
Eben Cole, 1818 to 1821. 

Justus Picket, 1825 to 1829, 1831-32, 1837-38. 
StiUman Fuller, 1830, 1833-34. 
William Harlbut, 183.5-36. 
Henrv H. Haile, 1839-40-41. 


Asa L. Hazelton, 1842-13. 

Alfred Burt, 1814-45. 

Herman Fuller, 1846-47. 

Adison Giles, 1848-49, 18.5.5-56-57-58. 

Thomas J. Hazelton, 1850-51, 1853-54, 1859, 1865. 

Emery W. Abbott, 1852 and 1860 to 1864 inclusive. 

Daniel Feck, 1866 to 1875 inclusive. 

Abner H. Johnson, 1876-77. 

George W. Kelley, 1878-82. 

Simeon H. Austin, 1883. 

Henry W. Johnson, 1884-87. 

Wm. T. Clark, 1888-90. 

Simeon H. Austin, 1891. 

Wm. T. Clark, 1892-94 to 1899. 

G. M. Holmes, 1900 to 1905. 

The first settlement in the town of Fowler was made by Brigadier General 
James Haile from Fairfield, Herkimer Co., who came into the town to explore 
and who purchased of Richard Townsend, agent for Gilchrist and Fowler, in 
the month of June, 1807, a tract one mile square on the ground where the village 
of Hailesboro now stands, under obligation to build mills within a year. In the 
fall of the same year. General Haile came with several men to commence the 
crecton of the mills, w'ith Captain Ward, as millwright, and Captain Jason Rob- 
inson as carpenter. A saw-mill was built the same fall and a small grist mill 
with one run of stones was put in operation in 1808, which was swept away by 
a freshet in 1809, and was rebuilt the following year, with one run of stones. 
A second run of stones was added the following year, 1810. A superior mill was 
built in 1844, with Wm. Robinson as millwright and Jason Robinson and Rock- 
well Barnes as carpenters. Elijah Sackctt from Hartford, N. Y., came to town 
in 1808 and was employed as miller, until his death in the spring of 1812. He 
was the first white person who was known to have died in town. 

Lemuel Arnold, John P. Ryon, Charles Ryon, Smith Cleveland, Ebenezcr 
Parker and others came and settled soon after. In 1811 Samuel B. Sprague 
made the first stand on the Lake Road, about a mile west of Little York in a log 
shanty, but afterwards built on the hill north of Little York where Byron Wight 
now lives. 

Durine the war of 1812 several families left the town from fear of the 
Indians. The town did not begin to settle rapidly until 1820. The Wight fam- 
ily came in the winters of 1820 and 1822 with ox teams from Herkimer County. 
Abner, Reuben, Jason, John, Alvin, Harvey and a sister, Abigail Green, follow- 
ing their uncle, Jason Robinson. John and liis mother stopped the first night 
in town at Hczekiah Hodgkins' a few rods from the present house on the Balmat 
farm in December, 1820, where he met Laura Hodgkins, wliom he afterwards 
married in November, 1821. (Hezekiah Hodgkins was a brotlier to Pardon 
Babcock's wife). John Wight settled oii tlie farm where the first talc was 


(lap- ant 

id ground. Abnor settled in the west part of the town. Reuben married 
Susannah ^'anBuren, cousin to President Martin ^'anBuron, and removed to 
Ohio in 1881, near Clevehuid, and died of cholera twenty days rifter he reached 
there, leaving a family of twelve children. Alvin married Eunice, a sister 
of George Draper in 1823. Draper held the office of Justice of Peace in West 
Fowler for several years. John Parker purchased the land where the village of 
Fullcrville now is and built for a hotel down the river on the old Turnpike, the 
house now owned by E. Austin. 

The earliest religious organizations in Fowler appear to have been by the 
regular Baptists and JNIethodists. The Baptists' first organi>.ation in Fowler 
was made Jan. 30, 1822, under Elder Jonathan Payne, the original members 
l)cing tliirteen in number, viz: Benjamin Brown and wife, Ephriam Gates and 
wife, Josiah T. Lawton and wife, Asa Wade and wife, Noah Barrell and wife, 
James Barnes, ]\Iartin Rowley and Hannah Johnson. Elder Noah Barrel be- 
came their pastor in November, 1822. The duration of his pastorate is not 
known. Elder Wm. Gorrey came in 1828 and remained three years. Next came 
Elder Guernsey and in June, 1833, he was succeeded l)y Elder M. Wilkie. In 
1835 they built a house of worship at Fullerville at a cost of about .$1,200, 
niainlv through the influence and assistance of the Fuller brothers who were all 
Baptists. Prior to this they had worshipped in the school house. In jNIay 
1836, Elder Brand became their minister and served them for two j^ears. Elder 
John Peck then preached to them for two years, from the fall of 1838. Then 
for five years, they appear to have had no regular preacher, but Elder David 
Deland came in 1843 and remained for about one year. The last three resided 
at Fullerville. In 1851, Elder Nichols was engaged to preach part of the time. 
The church went in a decline and from 1855 to 1870 continued very low. In 
1876, but seven members remained and worship was discontinued. Their last 
minister was the Rev. H. ('. Dike. 

The Baptist Society of Antwerp and Fowler was incorporated Dec. 31, 
1825, with Moses Birge, James M. Graves and Peter Sinourney, trustees. They 
built a church at Steels Corners, but this is all gone ; all dead. The ]Methodists 
held worship here at a very early day, but we have no account of their organi- 
zation or earliest teachers. They had a strong society in Fullerville and vicin- 
ity before 1837 at which time N. R. Peck was the pastor. About 1845 they 
purchased the unfinished church of the Presbyterians and completed it. They 
also owned a ])ars()nage in fullerville. Their organization was ke})t uj) imtil 
about 1865. The church edifice is still standing. The Universalist appears to 
have always been the strongest of the churches in Fowler. The first Universalist 
Society in the town of Fowler and Gouverneur, was organized January 26, 
1832, Simeon Hazelton and twenty-five others being the original subscribers to 
the constitution. In June tlie number had reached seventy-two. Their earliest 
jjreachers were Elders Longworthy, Wilcox and Wood. The Little York Uni- 
\ersalist Soc'iet_v was formed March 22, 1841, Jabez Glazier, Leman Fuller, 
Simeon Hazelton, Albert A. Veddcr and John P. Ryon being the first trustees. 
A church was built at Little York by Simeon Hazelton at a cost of $1,200 about 




the year 1840. A sum of money had been plaeed in tlic hands of a committee 

some years before by T. O. Fowler for the purpose of 
building a church and tjie members of the committee 
had either died or moved away and it devolved upon Mr. 
Hazelton to build the church. The churcii was after- 
ward sold to the Free Baptists, dressed over and fur- 
nished and is now used by them. 
^i *,„.«r ^^ I The first Universalist Society of Gouverneur and 

\^^^^^|L^^^/ Hailesboro was formed Jan. 27, 1849, Addison Giles 
^^^^^K^K^ heading the list of trustees. The original members 
^^Hj^^^^ numbered eighteen. In 1851 the Rev. C. Dodge was 

their pastor, })reaching every fourth Sabbath in the 
school house. 
The Union Church edifice at Hailesboro was erected in 1860 on land do- 
nated by H. H. Haile and on Jan. 3, 1861, a meeting was held for the sale of 
pews. The record gives a list of fifteen pews sold at 
that time, aggregating .$905. On the same day, the 
Universalist Union Society of Hailesboro was organ- 
ized in the new meeting house, with Francis Farmer, 
Wm. T. Burt and Daniel Z. Sartwell as trustees. 

The West Fowler Free-will Baptist Church was 
organized in 1826 by Elders Dodge and Waite. Their 
first pastor was Rev. Amasa Chandler. A church edi- 
fice was built in 1852. Their last regular pastor was B. 
F. Jefferson. 

The Free Baptist Church of Fowler was organized 
on March 17, 1877, at Little York and Albert E. Smith, 
Allen Wight, and Justus Barnes elected as trustees. B. F. Jefferson, pastor. 

The Baptist Society soon after purchased the old church from Simeon 
Hazelton and re-seated it, and dressed it over and continued their meetings un- 
der the direction of C. A. jNIorehouse and have continued under the leadership 
of different ministers since. 

Tlie town was covered with a heavy growth of timber. On the extreme 
north and south sides was considerable spruce, mixed with hemlock and some 
pine, which was devastated with fires at an early date. A wide .strip crossing the 
town nearly north and south, contained a strong, heavy soil, covered with a 
heavy growth of timber, especially hemlock. One Wm. Newton purchased lH 
acres of what is now the farm owned by L. L. Austin and let the job of felling 
40 acres to Daniel Woodcock, John Woodcock and Hiram Bates, which was 
burned over and afterwards cleared by Samuel A. Austin. About the same time, 
1835, John Wight on the opposite side of the road, slashed about nine acres 
from which years after, 120 large hemlock stumps were removed, varying in 
size from two to upwards of four feet in diameter. Notwithstanding the im- 
mense growth of timber, but little use could be made of it, although there has 


licen built and operated not less than twenty-two saw-mills in the town. They 
were slow, crude affairs, compared with a modern mill. 

The life of mills and bridges built of the best of timber, insufficiently cov- 
ered, has been only about 8 to 12 years. The old saw-mill was a crude, slow 
jifFair. No matter what the size of the log, it would take from ten to fifteen 
n;inutes to cut a board twelve feet long. The up and down saw hung in a gate 
that only made one stroke to a turn of the water-wheel. About 1850, the saw 
was taken out of the gate and geared so as to make four or five strokes to one 
turn of the wheel, but not until about 1860 was the large circular saw used en 
the Oswegatchic River, consequently a thousand feet of lumber must have been 
a large day's work for an old saw mill depending much upon the size of the 
logs. The old mills were run with wooden wheels made on the spot by the ovdi- 
lary mechanic, requiring a large quantity of water to operate them and a large 
l)ulkhead to make a cut through the length of the log. For example, a man by 
the name of Asa Barker was working tlie mill on the outlet of Sylvia Lake and 
in making a cut the length of a log, emptied the bulkhead. Some obstruction 
prevented him shutting the gate properly, so he set the log at the head ; next 
vvent under the saw gate to set the tail end of the log and enough water had 
gathered in the bulkhead to start the wheel and down came the gate that held the 
saw and knocked him down and his left arm fell across the log in front of the 
saw and cut or broke it, cutting all but the artery in the front part of the arm, 
and he was able to travel over a half mile to get help, and no doctor within reacli 
liad nerve enough to amputate the arm and good luck was his. It was done up 
the best it could be and he had a fairly good arm afterward. 

In 1825 works were erected by Jasper Clark at Hailesboro for the sawing 
and working of veined limestone, which abounds in the vicinity. The business 
was continued by him and his successor, Addison Giles, for a number of years, 
and then abandoned. About the same time, a carding and fulling mill was put 
in operation by Raymond Austin. After him, it was owned and carried on by 
^'uldison Giles, and later by James and Edwin Mcintosh, who aboui 
1865, transformed it into a manufactory of woolen cloths. An in- 
terest with them was purchased by J. H. Abbott and they after- 
wards sold the remainder to E. W. Abbott, and it was then operated by J. H. 
Abbott & Co., emj)loying about twenty hands and making about 30,000 yards of 
cloth annually. The cloth making was abandoned a few years ago, and the 
power used in talc manufacture for about seven years. The establishment is now 

About 1850, Jesse Bannister commenced the business of chairmakina-. His 
establishment was afterward owned by Seymour Sweet, who used it as a Cooper's 
shop. It was then owned by E. W. Al)l)ott and \ised by Cyrus Barnes for mak- 
ing axe-helves. From him, it })assed to Carpenter and Tupi)er, who used it as 
a wood-working shop until it was destroyed by fire about 1871, after which 
it was rebuilt by J. H. Carpenter, the present owner by whom it is carried on as 
-I planing-niill, sash, blind and door factory. 


George W. Carpenter ran a tannery for a few years just above J. H. Car- 
penter's shop on the same flume now used as a grist mill by Charles A. Clark. 

The first store opened in Hailesboro was by Wni. Hurlbut in 1825. He was 
siicceeded by Justus Picket, who continued it until his death in 1842, since which 
time it has been kept by Horace Barnes, John R. Stewart, Farmer & Stewart, 
Theodore Clark, Mathias Fithian, S. D. Rich and J. T. McCombs. Another 
store has bctn kept on the opposite corner of the street by Edwin Noble. 

The first hotel in Hailesboro was opened about 1835 by Wm. Hurlbut. It 
has since been kept by Geo. P. Holmes, Apollas Leggett, S. D. Rich, and now 
by Mrs. S. D. Rich. 

The principal business at Hailesboro is preparing talc for market. The 
talc mining and manufacturing is the largest and most extensive business of 
any in the town. There arc at present eight large mills operating night and 
day, all run by water power, except one, grinding and bolting from 25 to 100 
tons a day each, for the past ten to twenty years ; all these are in the towns of 
Fowler and Edwards. 

There were many years ago, three distilleries in the town for the manufacture 
of whiskey from rye, corn and potatoes. One on the Francis Hilts farm, one 
on the E. Johnson farm above Little York and one at Fullervillc. The writer 
of tliis well remembers having assisted in raising two crops of com on new 
cleared land, thrsshing it out, having a little of it ground and a pint basin of the 
meal fed to each cow, the balance being taken to the distillery, exchanged for 
double whiskey, a bushel for a gallon, and what was not drank was sold for 
fifty cents per gallon, when butter sold by the tub for eight cents per pound 
to Wm. E. Sterling in Gouvcrneur. 

Jabez Glazier with Ransom H. Gillett and Asa Woodcock, came into the 
town on foot in 1819 from Hadley, Saratoga County ; made selection of lots 
and went back and moved in with their ox-teams. Glazier located upon the 
turnpike, Gillett went and taught school in Edwards, finally going to Ogdens- 
burg and studying law, receiving an appointment to an office m the Treasury 
Department at Washington, where he assisted Asa L. Hazelton to a clerkship, 
where he reached the same position Gillett held, and is living there now at the 
age of ninety-eight years. 

Jason Wight acted as agent for Fowler for several years while keeping 
hotel at Little York, afterward Jabez Glazier was his agent until Fowler sold 
to T. D. Carpenter and left the town when Judge Dodge took the agency. 

The large majority of the early settlers came with ox-teams and a cow 
and spent most of their time the first winter with their cattle in the woods, fell- 
ing timber and helping them to get a scanty living from the browse of buds and 
twigs among the brush, thereby preparing for clearing the land for the next 
season's crops, and burning the timber and making potash from the ashes, which 
was about the only thing that brought them any money. 

Richard Merrill divided the town into big lots when in a square form, one 
half mile square, but made many subdivisions in all sorts of shapes to suit pur- 



Asa L. Hazelton. 

chasers, and lie died in the woods about the year 1835 
01 36. Then Asa L. Hazelton made the surveys until he 
sold his instruments to Allen Wight in 1853. 

The first birth in town was in the family of Rich- 
ard ^Merrill. The first marriage was John Parker to 
Elizabeth Sackett. who taught the first school in Gouv- 

For many years the mail was carried by a boy or 
light man on horseback from Antwerp to Canton by way 
of Edwards and Russell. Then changed and carried in 
wacrons or sleighs from Gouvcrneur to Fine by wav of 

The largest purchaser of lands from Fowler was Thaddeus Hildreth from 
Herkimer County. He bought over a thousand acres in this vicinity of Chub 
Fake and gave his nephew Thaddeus Willard fifty acres and leased the remain- 
der to him, which upon Willard's failure to pay for it, was divided into two 
farms, one to A. H. Payne and the other to Win. ]McKean. Hildreth purchased 
several thousand acres besides from time to time as his means accumulated, and 
resold farms to different individuals. Settlers came in from Herkimer, Sara- 
toga and ^Montgomery Counties soon after the advent of General Haile. The 
Burt family, Alfred Sawyer and Daniel with their sisters ; Chauncey and Robert 
Conant, William and Joseph Farmer, Win. Hurlbut, Caleb O. Root, the Bax- 
ters, the Wights and numerous others, with but little means, generally taking 
contracts of land and consequently, as they mostly raised quite large families, 
took several years to pay for their lands and support themselves. 

The inhabitants of Fowler were not possessed of any peculiar personal 
characteristics, were generally industrious, honest in their dealings, frugal, tem- 
perate, religiously liberal in their views, and in their early days generally Dem- 
ocratic, but upon the great breaking up of the parties about the years 1856 to 
I860, the great majority entered the Republican party. 

The Fowler Library was incorporated April 12, 1831, with Simeon Haz- 
elton as Librarian, and Justus Picket, Albert Tedder and Reuben Wight, as 
trustees. It contained Rollins Ancient Flistory, Josephus' works, Lewis and 
Clark's expedition to Oregon, Arabian Nights, A'olney's Ruins, Comstocks Cliem- 
istrj' and Philosophy, Noah Webster's History of Diseases and other works, 
all of which the writer of this read and studied with much interest. The books 
all disappeared years ago except Webster on Diseases. 

There have been built in the town twenty-two saw mills at different times 
on the Oswegatchie River and its tributaries. All have served their purpose and 

In 1853 Allen Wight bought good hemlock lumber for .$4 a thousand; 
spruce for $6; pine mostly clear stuff for $10; shingles $1.25 or a thousand for 
a day's work at carpentering, showing but little, if any, difl:\rence between the 
comparative prices of labor and materials then and now. 

About 1840, some ^Mormon missionaries came into the town and made sev- 



eral com'crts. One Silsbury in the west part of the town engaged in preaching 
the doctrine in school-liouses, and one Rogers near Little York preached for a 
few years, and a tliird one at Fullerville, Heatli, preached the Joseph Smith doc- 
trine of polygamy for a time. Several of their converts left and joined tiie 
Mormons in the west. 

At the time of Addison Giles' first election to the office of Supervisor, a 
whig, there were only seven whigs in town, and previous to that time there were 
over forty abolitionists in the town led bjf jNIartin jMitchel, while at the same 
time there was only about forty-three in the rest of the countj^. 

The town probably furnished its full share of volunteers in putting down 
the Rebellion, but we have no means of knowing how many enlisted from the 
fact that other states offered large bounties and a class of speculators induced 
men to go with them and join a regiment in Connecticut. The writer of this 
was threatened with personal violence for making a statement in a public meet- 
ing that the town's quota called for would have been filled had it not been for 
the fact that a class of knaves and scoundrels had taken the men out of town 
and sold them to other places. 

There is not known to have been but one murder committed in town. One 
Samuel Kirkhani, living on the old turnpike between the Balmat farm and the 
John Parker place, shot his wife in the woods on the back part of the John 
Wight farm, using lumps of cast iron picked out of the sand at the furnace at 
Fullerville for shot. He was an object of curiosity to the children in 1835 be- 
cause he wore his beard about a foot long. He was sent to Auburn and died 
chained to the pump for refusing to work. 

Soon after the settlement of Little York, a small store was opened by Wm. 
Lawrence who had come from New York to take charge of the erection of tlie 
Fowler jNIansion. He was succeeded by Martin INIitchell, after whom came 
Justus Picket, after whose 
death in 18-i2 the store was 
kept many years by Emory W. 
Abbott and an establishment 
run for many years for manu- 
facturing pot and pearl ashes, 
calling for 400 or 500 or more 
cords of wood every year. Af- 
terwards the store was occupied 
by A. H. Johnson and S. H. 
Austin, then sold to G. W. Ivel- 
lev, finally to L. L. Austin, when later it burned with other buildings. One 
Aaron Rowley for a short time kept a store in Little York and then removed 
to Gouverneur. • 

Simeon Hazelton & Sons also built a store in Little York and ran it in con- 
nection with a large ashery until about 1851, when Ward Glazier kept the store 
for two or three years, and Thomas J. Hazelton continued it several years more. 

Eniorv W. Abbott. 

Abner H. Johnson. 


wlien it was sold and the old building converted into a blacksmith shop for which 

it is still used. 

The first school house in Little York was of logs within a few feet of where 

M. V. B. Hazelton's house now stands and in which a Universalist minister by 
the name of Wood lived some time, and was occupied as 
late as 1850 by a shoemaker. A frame schoolhouse was 
built on the ground where Varnum Green now lives and a 
school house was built in 1840 on the site where the pres- 
ent school house stands, veneered with brick, built by 
Benjamin Brown who moved to Fine subsequently. Lit- 
tle York, having no water power to invite manufactur- 
ing, has not grown beyond a mere huddle. Chester H. 
Sprague employed from a half dozen to a dozen men for 
several years making boots and shoes, supplying the 
,,„„,, , town and surrounding towns. 

M. v. B. Hazelton. ^ , ., „ ,i ■ ',1 

Between 1840 and 45 the writer of this with one 
John Green, made friction matches, splitting them with a small hand machine 
and keeping Edwin A. Carpenter on the road wholesaling them to merchants in 
the different towns at prices but a little higher than they are sold at the present 

Chauncy Goodrich carried on the business of tanning hides and skins on 
shares and for pay, with shoe-making for several years. 

In July, 1895, Little York was swept by fire, taking the old hotel and 
barns with the stores and the next year a movement was begun to build a town 
hall on the site of the old hotel, and a fine structure was erected for a hall with 
a store in the lower story, and a clerk's office and store were built on the oppo- 
site side of the street, the store being kept by A. C. Johnson & Son, with the 
postoffice as an adjunct. 

The building that was built for a wagon-shop is now used as a hotel. 

The village of Fullerville is in the southeastern part of the town. Here 
John Parker built his early saw-mill in 1813 on the west branch of the Oswe- 
gatchie. This mill was burned in 1822 and was rebuilt the next year. It was 
about the only improvement there until the coming of four brothers from Ver- 
mont named Fuller, Sheldon, Stillman, Heman and Ashbel. They formed a 
business firm under the name of S. Fuller & Co. They had experience in iron 
v.orking in the town of Rossie, and at once began the erection of a blast-furnace. 
It was finished in 18B3 and put in operation on ores from Edwards and Pitcairn 
and the magnetic ores from Jayville and Clifton. The admission not long af- 
terwards of a j\Ir. ]\Iaddock, changed the firm to Fullers and Maddock, but the 
latter soon retired. 

The furnace finished its last blast in October, 1837, having produced about 
.3,500 tons of iron. 

In 1846 the firm of Fullers & Peck composed of Sheldon and Lcman Fuller 
and Daniel Peck, rebuilt the old furnace and put in the hot blast. They oper- 


atod the works until 1861 wlien they were closed. Ten 
years later, Daniel Sterling and brothers took up the in- 
dustry but closed down in two years. In 1875 the prop- 
erty was purchased by Bixley, Clark & Co., who put in 
a new tuyere and other improvements. A little later 
George H. Clark became the proprietor and continued 
operations to about 1882 when business was again given 
up for good. For a few years, Fullers & Peck operated 
a forge making bar iron from scrap and ores, also mak- 
ing blooms which were taken to Carthage for making 
cut nails. „ ■ i n i 

Uaniel Peck. 

The Fullers built a grist mill on the east side of 
the river, which with fifteen acres of land adjoining, was sold to Rockwell Bul- 
lard & Co. (Edwin Rockwell, Luther Bullard, Chester H. Benton and Oliver 
Benton) in 1838. Two years later this firm finished a forge for making blooms 
from ore. James R. Bignall made the blooms under a trip hammer. 

In 1861, Frank Fithian built a shingle mill as an addition to the saw mill, 
tore down the old grist mill, but sold out soon after to Balmat & Brayton. They 
after a few years sold to the Oswegatehie Pulp Co. composed of F. H. Haile, 
S. H. Austin, Charles Clark and Geo. H. Clark. This mill was burned in 1892. 

A short time previous to 1863, Heman Fuller had built a saw mill on the 
east side of the river above the old furnace dam, which Chester H. Sprague 
purchased and put in a muley saw and two shingle mills and had just commenced 
to run it the next winter when it was burned, and the next year he put up the 
building which he afterwards sold to the Keller Brothers into which they put 
machinery for the manufacture of wood pulp and afterwards for manufactur- 
ing talc, for which it is still used. 

About the same time Jlr. Sprague purchased the water-power below the 
bridge and on which the Ontario Talc Co. erected recently a large mill that is 
now (1905) in successful operation by Messrs. Gardner & Potter. 

The first mercantile business at Fullervillc was by Fuller & Co. in connec- 
tion with other interests. Rockwell Bullard & Co. kept a store and another was 
opened about 1865 by F. H. Davidson on the west side. Then by C. D. Carr 
on the east side. He sold out to Balmat, the present proprietor. 

The first hotel was kept by C. G. Edgerton on the east side of the river. 

About 1839 a hotel was opened on the west side which was kept by several 
different ones. The Franklin House, now owned and kept by Sidney Brown, 
was built by Hezekiah Hodgkins about 1830 and has changed hands as to title 
twenty-four times. The postoffice was established in 1832 with Heman F'uUer 
as postmaster. 

The first cut nails made in Northern New York were cut from plates rolled 
from blooms made at Fullerville about 1835. The cut nail was a jMassachusetts 
invention, devised in 1810 but it made slow progress, owing probably to the in- 
ferior strength and liability to split in driving. The early rolled iron was very 
impure, the plates being "laminated" with scoria or slag which in the early pro- 


cesses was not eliminated from tin iron when it was in a spongy state in the pro- 
cess of puddling. Hiram JMcCollum carried on the business at Carthage, 
employing a man named Thomas Dunlevey whose principal characteristics were 
great expertness in feeding the plate to the cutting machine, and his fondness 
for whiskey. He was able to cut 500 pounds of M. or "shingle" size nails per 
day. Nails were made by machinery as early as 1810 at Auburn, N. Y., but 
\>liethcr cut nails or not, the record does not show, but they were probably a 
sort of clinch nail, cut and subsequently headed by a second process as was cus- 
tomary with the early makers. 

One of the blooms forged at Fullerville weighing about 50 lbs. is now doing 
duty as a land-mark at the corner of a seyen-acre lot liought by the Gouver- 
neur Wood Pulp Co. It is in the center of the road nearly in front of the house 
occupied by Cephas Leonard. It was about 4 inches square and 12 inches long 
when first set but in the process of years, has proliably been reduced in size 
and weight by oxidation. The early irons were more porous than the finer 
grades afterward made, owing to the presence of slag which admitted mois- 
ture so that they were more subject to "rusting" than now. 

There are no records to show the time of settlement of many of the inhab- 
il:ants of the town for several years after the organization of the town. It is 
known that about a mile west of Fulleryille, Alvin Wright, Oliver Wright and 
Ephriam Stockwell settled and took part in the town's organization, but left the 
town, removing to Ohio in 1833, with two of the Wights, Reuben and Alvin. 
There were three Coles, Ira, Eben and Medad, in town at the time of its organ- 
ization, Benjamin Brown, who married a VanDuzee, Ira Kingsley, Stephen 
Mosher, Chauncy Conant, Robert Conant and Andrew Baxter. Noah Holcomb 
bought ten acres on which the Balmat family are buried, now owned by David 
H. Balmat, and sold it to Joseph Smith ; Smith sold it to John D. Balmat, where 
Balmat lived and died. John D. Balmat with his brother, Peter, came over from 
Paris where they had been an CTC-witness of the bloody scenes of the French 
Revolution and settled first in the town of Champion, Jefferson County, after- 
wards removing to Fowler. 

John I), was educated for a Catholic priest, but became a convert to the 
teachings of A'oltaire, Tom Payne and A'olney and consequently became a lib- 
eral critic after the style of Dr. Lyman Abbott. The writer heard the latter 
a few years ago compare Christ's sermon on the iVIount with the 109th Psalm ! 

Mr. Balmat married JMrs. Nancy Gooder, whose father came over as an 
officer with Lafayette in tiie Revolution. They reared a family of eight boys 
and six girls and although I lived within a mile of them from early childhood to 
manhood I have no recollection of ever licaring one of them indulge in any pro- 
fane language. 

On the Balmat farm is located one of the large talc mills of the town, be- 
longing to the Union Talc Co. The farm is noted for the variety of valuable 
ores it contains, zinc, lead, silver and gold being found, and a large number of 
cabinet minerals of no commercial value are also foiuid here. Tlie zinc appears 



A. S. Davis, 
Asa Davis, 
Mrs. C. P. Holmes, 
John B. Absalom, 
Hiram Baxter, 
D. P. Woodcock, 
Asa B. Woodcock, 

Albert Pike, 
G. M. Hodgkin, 
D. W. Fuller, 
Joseph Bigarol, 
Asa L. Hazelton, (98) 
]Mrs. Alvin Harris, 
iNIarinas Edgerton, 
Warren B. Pike, 
Ward Glazier, 
Alvin Harris. 

to occur in quantity but has not bem worked except to sink a sliaft 80 feet, but 
it contains a large percentage of sulphurets which depreciate its vahie. 

The following list of names are sons and daughters of the first settlers who 
are living at the date of this record (June, 190.5) : 

Fred H. Haile, Mrs. G. G. Johnson, 

David H. Balniat, Dexter Lcggptt, 

John Sprague, M. V. B. Hazelton, 

Andrew Wight, Mrs. jMary ftlerchand, 

Mrs. John Day, 

Mrs. John Sprague, 

Allen Wight, 

Edwin Davis, 

H. P. Legate, 

G. D. Hazelton, 

Jacob jNIcrchand, 

Thedosius O. Fowler came to Killarney in 1814. Ho insisted that his fath- 
er should give him almost the entire township. He married Amelia DePau, 
whose father built him a stately mansion on the shore of Sylvia Lake, then 
known as Lake Killarney, but rechristened Svlvia Lake from Miss Sylvia Fow- 
ler, a daughter of Theodosius. The account in one history stating that Mr. 
Fowler's father built the mansion is an error. ]Mrs. Theodosius Fowler's moth- 
er was one of three daughters of Count DeGrasse, who came from France and 
who commanded the fleet at the mouth of the James River at the seigc of York- 
town in 1781. He prevented the escape of Cornwallis bjr sea. The British 
fleet in the harbor surrendered to him. The mansion spoken of was begun in 
1820 and was finished three years later at a cost of $17,000. The interior was 
finished, in some rooms, in mahogany and polished marble brought from France 
in one of DePau's ships. A mahogany table from this elegant home is now 
owned by H. Wright. 

Here the Fowlers lived in summer, often entertaining their friends from 
New York City. During the winter tliey resided in the city themselves, but 
latterlv lived during tlie whole year in the mansion. The mansion was burned 
hi 1872 and the hewn stones were removed to Gouverneur village and relaid in 
the fronts of the Killmer & Morris blocks and the Fuller House where they may 
still be seen. 

Fowler sold to Thomas D. Carpenter in 1838 from whom the land passed 
to John L. Parker and after his death to his son, D. L. Parker. 

Ward Glazier was born in Oakham, jVIass., Sept. ,22, 1818. His father 
Jabez, came to the wilderness township of Fowler the following year and became 
a leading business man consequent on his employment by Theodosius O. Fow- 
ler the owner of the township, as his land-agent and general manager of his 
business affairs. His grandfather was a Revolutionary soldier and pensioner, 
dying at West Boylston, Mass., aged 97. He was postmaster a number of years, 
acted as Justice of Peace besides holding various other town offices. Ward's 


minority was spent in clearing land, running a saw-mill 
built by his father, and the usual work falling upon the 
young man of that day. His education was acquired at 
the common schools of his town, and in Gouverneur Wes- 
ley an Seminary. 

When 22 years old, with his father he went to 
Boston with a drove of 400 cattle, taking along several 
tine horses as a speculative venture. During this trip 
while stopping at his grandfather's house, he met Me- 
hitable C. Bolton, whom he afterward married. She 
,„ , ^, . died in Fowler in 1890. Returning with his young wife 

Ward Glazier. » . w 

they settled on a farm now known as the Glazier home- 
stead or jNIaple Grove. Here he managed his land and conducted a general 
store until a California enterprise induced him to sell his interests and start for 
the land of gold. It was a hazardous journey and was abandoned on the death 
of the projector. The Civil war found him ready to cast aside peaceful pur- 
.suits and respond to the call for volunteers. 

In August, 1861, with others, he recruited Co. I 92nd N. Y. Inft. then be- 
ing raised by Jonah Sandford, and while not achieving distinction by deeds of 
daring, went through the Peninsular campaign, won the esteem of his officers 
and the love of the corps by his efficient treatment of wounds in the Medical De- 
partment, being called thereto by Surgeons Hewitt and Mansfield, who knew 
ef his skill. At F'air Oaks he was prostrated by the concussion of a solid twelve 
pound shot which passed close to his head, shattering a nearby tree. Notwith- 
standing his enfeebled condition afterward, he remained at his post for six 
succeeding days without removing his clothing. At the end of that time, par- 
alyzed and exhausted, he was obliged to go to the hospitals at Harrison's Land- 
ing, Va., David's Island, N. Y., and the Thrall Home Cure in New York City, 
at last leaving for home on crutches. 

Remaining on his farm until 1885 he opened a pension office in Gouverneur 
and for twenty years has followed that calling. When 80 years old he married 
Mrs. Eliza S. Fuller. ]Mr. Glazier has the distinction of having shipped the first 
car of freight, consisting of butter, venison, grass-seed and poultry over the 
Boston & Albany R. R. as well as urging the introduction of refrigerator cars 
on the Ogdensburg & Champlain R. R. 

When five years old he started for school one day through the woods, the 
school being aljout one mile away, happy in the possession of a new straw hat 
iuid trudging along with dinner-basket on his arm, when he was startled at 
seeing a large "dog" peering at him tlu'ough the buslies. Thinking the dog 
belonged to a neighbor he at first made efforts to call him, but every advance 
was met with a low growl and a display of teeth. Finally his eye caught sight 
of a bushy tail and at once knew his visitor was a wolf. Remembering what 
liad been told him about running from wild animals, he cautiously backed away 
and was soon relieved of his fears. The next mornina; his father shot a hiro-e wolf 
where he iiad been waylaid. 



Peter Absalom. 

In the army he recalls administering a thrashing to a Dr. O'Leary, who 
bad kicked a wounded soldier whose leg had just been amputated. In the sub- 
sequent years this gave him more satisfaction even than the discharge of the 
doctor from the service which quickly followed. At this writing Mr. Glazier 
carries his 88 years with vigor, dimmed but undaunted, and is seen at his office 
every working day. 

Peter Absalom was born in Lorraine, France, June 20, 1815, two days suc- 
ceeding the battle of Waterloo. At a sacrifice for the benefit of her children, 
his mother disposed of her home, sailed in 1831 in one 
of jNIr. DePau's ships for America, lived in New York 
City during the winter and came to Fowler May 25, 
1832. He took up a tract of land, cleared it of the for- 
est growth, and began a prosperous career as a farmer. 
He was a natural mechanic, and built, with his father, 
a loom which is still in existence, hewing the timbers 
for it from timber taken from the forest. The French 
settlers were an honest, industrious class and Peter Ab- 
salom was of like disposition. He died Aug. 26, 1890. 

His father, Sebastian Absalom, (originally spelled 
"Absalon" of noble ancestry, was born Nov. 27, 1778. 
He was a blacksmith and weaver in France and on coming to 
this country occasionally followed these trades. His mother was 
Margaret A. Tiseraud, born 1788. The children coming from France 
^vith him were Catherine, Peter, Nicholas, Margaret, Gucrard, Mar- 
chandc (now living in Jefferson County, aged 87), the latter having a daughter 
grand-daughter, great-grand-daughter and great-great-grandson. The family 
liad relatives at Cape A'incent and in the carW days often walked the distance 
between Fowler and that place in eighteen hoiu's. 

Other French pioneer settlers were ]\I. Brunelle, a cabinet-maker; Louis 
Bigarel, master at arms in his native country, where every young man had to 
serve at least four years in the army; M. Filbert, who was wounded at Water- 
loo; ]\I. Pelclieur in the battle of Waterloo also and taken prisoner by tlie Eng- 
lish ; Louis Bazille an expert swordsman from Paris and 
a soldier under Napoleon, who lived to an age of 
100 years; Hurelle, a carpenter; Christopher Lc- 
Maitre, a tanner ; Sherwin, a cabinet-maker, who was 
taken prisoner by the Prussians at Waterloo ; Augustus 
Rederick, a mechanic, who deserted the Austrian army 
to serve under Napoleon, and was also at Waterloo ; 
Gaudin family from Switzerland, who came separately 
at various times. These names arc well remembered by 
the older citizens of Fowler who survive at this writing. 
David H. Balmat was born in Champion Mny 16, 
1822, and has lived the most of his life in Fowler. He 
married Sophronia Wight, and four children born to them are living. John 

David H. Balmat. 


D., father of David was born in Paris, France, Jan. 3, 1785, his mother being 
a '"lady" by birth and consequently obnoxious to the common classes, was obliged 
to flee to America to escape the mob during the Reign of Terror. He was 
Joseph Bonaparte's land agent for years before settling in Fowler. June 10, 
1812, he married Xancv Gooder, who was born near Utica and lived to nearly 
one hundred years. Major Gooder, her father, was one of eleven officers who 
came with Lafayette and Baron DeKalb during the American Revolution. He 
was wounded at the battle of Brandywine and was in the service at Bunker Hill 
and the siege of Yorktown. Jacques Balmat is said to have been the first to 
iiscend ]Mont Blanc. His relationship to the Balmat familv of Fowler is known 
but not traceable. 


By Alexander Allen. 

When the Revolutionary war closed in 1783 and for thirteen years after- 
wards, the British held possession of the only little settlements and fortifications 
located in the extreme northern part of New York, namely : Carlton Island in 
the St. Lawrence River and Oswegatchic at the mouth 
of the Oswegatchie river. Those places were held prin- 
cipally as a rendezvous for their soldiers coming to Nor- 
thern New York bj' the way of tlie St. Lawrence river. 
Although according to a treaty made at the close of 
the war, these fortifications were dismantled, yet they 
still remained in possession. 

^'ery little was known about this locality except 
along the south side of the river ; back of that for hun- 
dreds of miles was one vast wilderness. All this part 
Alexander .^iien. "^' ^^^^ couutry had not been conveyed to any one by the 

British government ; therefore it belonged to the LTnited 
States and was a part of the state of New York. The Mohawk Indians, who 
claimed title to all this land, surrendered that title to the United States at a 
treaty held with them at Albany, but not until March 29th, 1795. But previous 
to this, and as early as in 178-5 by legislative enactment, the state of New York 
had made provision to dispose of the unappropriated lands of the state to in- 
dividuals, and accordingly the surveyor-general was directed to survey off and 
make a map of two ranges of townships on the south side of the St. Lawrence 
River for sale. These were afterwards known as "The Ten Towns." 

These towns were to be as near as possible ten miles square, therefore 
would contain 64,000 acres each, and were to be subdivided into square mile 
lots for convenience in selling to individuals of limited means.. 

The front towns included Louisville, Madrid, Lisbon, Oswegatchie and 
Hague, now called ]Morristown, but have since been divided and subdivided. 
Two years later they were conditionalljr offered for sale at Albany and bid in 
by individuals, the principal buyer being Alex. ]\Iacomb, hence the term so of- 
ten used in your deeds : "Part of ^Macomb's purchase." Several transfers were 
made during the preceding years and many actual settlers took up lands, and 
the ten towns had petitioned to be made a part of Clinton county, but that would 
make a great inconvenience in transacting county business, therefore a further 
petition was presented to the legislature on Feb. 8th, 1802, and signed by nearly 
every actual settler, asking for the erection of a new county, which petition was 
speedily granted, and the act passed March 3rd, 1802, whereby St. Lawrence 
became the largest county of the State, almost an empire of itself, more than 
twice as large as the state of Rhode Island, and larger also than the state of 


Delaware, with tlie town of Hammond and 5,000 acres added, it having an area 
of 2,880 square miles. 

When the county was surveyed and laid out, there was a long, narrow (and 
uneven on one side) "strip of land on the western side of the county not named, 
and which was placed under the jurisdiction of the town of Oswegatchie, and 
later, in 1807, when the town of Russell was organized, it was included in that 

By a vote of the freeholders of that town it was released Jan. 1st, 1811, 
with the intention of being annexed to the town of Gouverneur, but resulted in 
the formation of a new town named Rossie which was organized in 1813. 

A settlement was made in the part of the town which is still Rossie in 1805, 
but not at Rossie village until 1810, and the blast furnace was started in 1813, 
and put in blast in 181.5. Some histories claim this furnace to be the first one 
in Northern New York, but I have been informed that the fir^t furnace built 
and operated in New York State was built at Alpine in the town of Diana, at 
the outlet of Lake Bonaparte, and was erected by Joseph Bonaparte, but oper- 
ated by his son-in-law, Mr. Zebulon Hoel Benton. The Gazetteer of New York 
State (1860) gives the date of the "Alpine" furnace as 1847, and the builders 
Suchard & larvager. A furnace was built in 1833 at Sterlingbush (then 
Louisburg) on the outlet of Lake Bonaparte. These are the only furnaces on 
lecord in Lewis county. The building of the iron works at Rossie led to the 
opening of an outlet to the St. Lawrence River, which was done by the construc- 
tion of a road over the hills and across Black Creek, through that part of the 
town which is now Hammond, there intersecting the military road which led to 
Ogdensburg and later on by a shorter route to the river by going to Chippewa 
Bay, where jNIr. Parish, the owner of the iron works, had built a wharf and 
■erected a large warehouse in 1817. 

We have referred to land being sold in large quantities to Alex. Macomb, 
a merchant of Detroit, Mich., who had passed up and down the river several 
times and was enchanted with the beautiful scenery, which led him to purchase 
so extensi\'ely, nor do we wonder at it. He had sold tjuite a large' tract to David 
Ogden and Ogden in turn sold it, or a part of it, to his brother-in-law named 
Abijah Hammond, a merchant prince of New York City, but, poor man, he never 
knew what he possessed, for without ever feasting his eyes on the sight of his 
northern possession, he sold 28,871 acres to David Parish in 1814 for a paltry 
profit of a few dollars, perluips never realizing what he had lost. 

The nominal price of land sold by the state in those days was twelve and 
one-half cents per acre. The middle man made a profit and j\Ir. Parish's estab- 
lished price was five dollars per acre, but on unusually favorable terms. 

The first actual resident in Hammond is said to have been William McNicl, 
who resided in a cave in the sandstone ledge at Chippewa Bay, quite near to 
where the warejiouse was built. He is saitl to have come there previous to 1812. 
A few settlements had been made at various places, but tlie first land contract 
was made by Wm. Wiley in 1818 for a piece of land where Hammond village 
now stands. ]\Ir. Wiley and McNicl, as well as some others, came from Ver- 


mont, but it is not stated whether they "abandoned" their farms to emigrate 
here. Isaiah Wiley, son of Wm. Wiley, was the first white child born in the 
town. We know but little of his history save that he spent nearly all of his life 
here and died at a good old age. 

As no one resided here at the time of the war commencing in 1812, it was 
not the scene of any strife, but the British built a block house and a small for- 
tification on Chimney Island directly opposite to Chippewa Bay and about 
eighty rods from the Canadian shore. The chimney still remains standing as a 
monument of that struggle. The creeks and bays along the shore afforded a 
hiding place for a gang of thieves who made incursions into the country and 
appropriated to their own use cattle and horses. Nor were their raids confined 
to one side of the river, for what they stole on one side they took to the other 
side and sold or hid away. Various stories are related of how they even seized 
the British army's paymaster, and captured the money chest and secreted the 
same on Chippewa Point or sunk it in the waters of Chippewa creek. But all 
these have been thoroughly ventilated in previous histories. 

The boom to develop and open up this part of the country, which was 
planted immediately after the close of the Revolutionary war, now began to 
bear fruit at the close of the 1812 war. Mr. Parish opened a land office at 
Chippewa and installed Loren Bailey as his agent, who came to the place July 
31st, 1818. During that same year, several Scotch families whose destination 
was upper Canada, and who came by the way of Montreal in sailing vessels and 
up the river in Durham boats, had stopped at Prescott to obtain other means of 
transportation. There they were intercepted by Mr. Parish's agent, Joseph 
Rosseel, who offered them strong inducements to cross the river and go up to 
Rossie to visit the Scotch settlement, which they did, but being far more fav- 
orably impressed with his possessions near the river, they accordingly decided 
to take up land and form a settlement about one mile west of Hammond vil- 
lage. Of those who settled there during that year were Peter Allen, John and 
David Gregor, John Baird, Wm. Cowin, John and James Hill; all of these had 
families except the two latter. For a temporary residence, until they could build 
shanties for their families, they took up their abode in the large warehouse built 
by Mr. Parish the year previous. 

Peter Allen selected the farm where John Nicol now resides, John Gregor 
the farm directly opposite, and the Hills immediately adjoining them. David 
Gregor engaged with Mr. Parish as overseer in some of his work at Rossie, where 
he removed his family. During the following year there were large additions 
to this settlement, as well as other settlements being made. Andrew Nicol, with 
a large family, James Rodger, Robert Morris, Robert and Andrew Shiell, and 
Thomas Dodds, all of the above located on the Bay Road ; also Samuel Webster 
and Wm. Tappan, from New Hampshire, located at South Hanmiond. In 1820 
Jonathan King built a tavern at the Military Road, where his son and 
later his grandson lived, and where now lives his great-grandson, Myron King. 
In the same year (1820) quite a few families came from Rome, N. Y., to the 
southwestern part of the town (Calabogia) ; of these were Joseph R. Donner, 


Ira Taplin, Hazen Taplin, George i\Iartin, and later Robert Taplin, Henry 
bmith, Epliriani Wilson, and Abraham, Reuben and Jonathan Reynolds. The 
former party came through the wilderness in carts drawn by oxen, the time 
consumed in coming being about six days. It may be interesting to the reader to 
know how otjiirs came to Hammond. 

The emigrants from Britain crossed the ocean in sailing crafts by way 
of iSIontreal, where they were transferred to Durham boats to navigate the riv- 
er. The Durham boats were rudely constructed, having neither sail or spar, but 
had an enclosed cabin in which the emigrant might eat and sleep. They were 
sometimes drawn by horses, and sometimes were rowed or poled along. Some- 
times the men took a pull at the hawser. As they did not travel by night, the 
time usually consumed in making the trip to Ogdensburg, a distance of 140 
miles, was seven days. Thomas Phillips, who came from Trenton, N. Y., in 
1819, came on foot. Christopher Pliillips came also from Trenton in 1820 vrith 
his wife and one child on horseback. He was the first blacksmith in town, and 
his shop stood where Mr. Stiles' store now stands, and his log house where the 
American Hotel was located. There was a small .store and a tavern and three or 
four houses comprised the whole. About this time a few settlements were made 
across Chippewa Creek at and near Oak Point, and a bridge was made across 
the creek. We have no knowledge of when or by whom this bridge was built. 
The settlers were Samuel Morse, Ira Allen, Reuben Allen, and George Eliott. 
The latter sold his improvements to a Mr. Cowin, who opened a store in 182*. 
There also lived at Oak Point at that time a ^Ir. Jones who opened a liquor 
store. Frederick Thatcher bad a grocery store. JMr. iMarvin a general store. 
]\Ir. Battel and ^Ir. Atwood also came prior to this. In the same year came 
Al)ram Schermerborn, ]Mr. Garret and ]\Ir. Hicks, who came from Trenton, 
Oneida Co., and drove their own teams, the three teams bringing all their liouse- 
hold effects. ISlr. Schermerborn opened a hotel and also built a tannery and a 
-shoe shop, also a distiller}'. 

About this time came also Daniel Schermerhorn, who built and operated 
a tannery at Chippewa Bay. 

In the spring of 1826 there moved into North Hammond, and was per- 
haps the only one living there who came in that decade, Ethan R. Hammond, 
who, with his wife, drove from Plattsburg, N. Y., lea\'ing there late in the win- 
ter, when there was four feet of snow on tlie grounel ; the_y came to IMalone, 
wlien tliere came the spring break up. Thejr exclianged the sleigh for a wagon, 
and were nine days making the trip. Mr. Hammond at once took up a farm 
anel began clearing. The first winter was spent in a pioneer shanty. They 
liad no glass in the windows and junig up blankets to keep out the cold and 
the storms. I\Ir. Hannuond was born Oct. .5tb, 180.5, and is therefore in his one 
liundredtb year. He voted at fifteen presideiitial elections, including the last 
one, at the age of ninety-nine years. Otis Gardner, who is a native born resi- 
dent of the town, is seventy-seven years of age and is living on the same farm 
where he was born. 

By an act of the State Eegislature passed March 30, 1827, the town of 

HISTORY OF HAI\iai()NI). 1^7 

Hammond was erected and became the twenty-first in number in the county, 
ranking the twentieth in population and twenty-second in area, and containing 
35,815 acres. There are also about 160 islands and shoals lying opposite to 
and under the jurisdiction of the town. 


The illumination of the pioneer's home began in many places long before 
the moulded candle had an existence there. The most primitive light in use was 
the pine knot, or the light from the fire of the burning logs on the fire place 
grate. Many a favorite book has been read, many a hard lesson learned, knit- 
ting and even sewing done, and if a few neighbors called in, a friendly chat was 
had around the old fire place, lighted only by the blazing light upon the hearth. 

Tlien came the dip light — a fat deer has been killed and from it a hard, 
white tallow, not unlike mutton tallow, but harder even ; perhaps there is more 
than is required for cooking purposes, so a portion of it is melted in a small 
basin, and into it a strip of cotton cloth which has been dipped into the melted 
tallow, is placed over the edge of the dish, and is then ignited. Then by capil- 
larity it continues to feed itself until the tallow is exhausted. 

But mankind is a progressive being, so the dipped candle takes its place. 
The wick is dipped into the melted tallow and allowed to cool, tlien redipped 
again and again, until a candle has been formed. For a candlestick a piece of 
board or a block is procured, an augur hole is bored into one side, tlie candle is in- 
serted and is ready for use. But man is an inventive creature also, and a candle 
mould has been invented, and the neighborhood, perhaps five or six in number, 
join together and buy a candle mould, which will mould three, six or twelve 
candles at once. 

Beef tallow is now quite plentiful, or even the family can afford to kill a 
sheep, and from it procure a quantitjr of tallow, so a quantity of candles are 
raoulded and the moulds are then passed to some other joint owner in the set- 
tlement, and the same process is there gone through. 

The family can now afford metal candlesticks, and with many, fancj^ brass 
ones were brought from the old country and are now lirought into use. An- 
other essential article is a pair of snuffers, and the candle light period is now at 
its zenith. 

With the best regulated families the whale oil lamp is brought into use, in 
which wick is used but no chimney or globe is necessary. 

Later came the camphene lamp, in which the article used is nothing more 
or less than a rectified spirits of turpentine, and it was used more in stores and 
public places. 

Petroleum was discovered and first used for lighting in 1859, but was not 
brought into general use in our town until about 1863, when a common, tin, one 
gallon can, filled with refined petroleum or kerosene oil, could be obtained for one 
dollar and fifty cents. 

The same outfit today can be procured at a country store for from twenty- 
five to thirty-five cents. An improvement on the above now used in our homes 
is acetylene gas. 



The 3'ear 1830 began a new era in the history of the town. The first cen- 
sus being taken showed a popuhition of 767 and in the following five years no 
other town in the county showed such a gain. The state census for 1835 re- 
ported a population of 1327 or a gain of seventy-three per cent. Some towns 
decreased; Gouverneur increased 16 per cent and Rossie gained five in number 
only. It was during those five j^ears that so many Scotch emigrants came, be- 
sides more from Vermont and a great many more from Trenton, though Isaac 
Forester, Benjamin Soper and Sidney Soper with their families all came from 
Canada. From Scotland there came William Rodger and a family of eight sons, 
four daughters and one son-in-law. The Brodie family, James W. Hoag and 
brothers, ]\Ir. Cuthbert, Sr., and family, William Smith, wife, three daughters 
and three sons-in-law, three sons and their wives and children also came. The 
sons were William, Robert and John. The Smith family settled in the northern 
part of the town and each son had three sons named respectively : William, 
Robert and John. Robert, however, had five sons, and they afterwards removed 
to Morristown. The three sons of the elder Smith, as well as himself, were all 
tradesmen of no mean order, having served their apprenticeship in Scotland. 

The old people took up a home and lived in a log house standing midway 
between John A. Taylor's and James Lcadingham's farm houses, where he did 
undertaking, furniture and other carpenter work, and perhaps no man ever 
came into town who added so much to the material comfort of the early settler 
as he. Scarcely a house in the whole town was without either chairs, tables, 
beds, a wooden clock, spinning-wheel, flax-wheel or a reel, or farming imple- 
ments for out-of-door use and to this day many of these may be found and in 
use, although Mr. Smith has been dead for upward of sixty-five years. 

During this decade came tlie Canadian Rebellion in 1836, but none of our 
town's people took any part. The loyal people of Canada were worked up to 
a high pitch against the American people and made many threats. At one time 
during a religious service in the Bay Road sclioolliouse, a man rushed in to the 
house and reported that an armed band were crossing the river to attack our 
people and burn their homes ; the result was the meeting was broken up and 
the people dispersed to their homes by the false report. 

One young man who was sent on an errand to Hammond was accosted bj^ 
a couple of recruiting officers for the Patriot Army and induced to enlist. 
Without consulting his parents he decided to go at once lest they should ob- 
ject. The officers left him by the fireside at the hotel while they went to dinner, 
and he being hungry this angered liira so much that, on serious reflection, he 
concluded to arise and go to his father which he accordingly did. During the 
Civil war the same "boy" served nearly three years in the Union Army. It was 
during this decade that so many stone houses were erected, yet Thomas Dodds 
built the first one in 1820. It has since been remodelled but it stands today 
and is occupied by his great-grandson; four generations occupy it. 

During the period alluded to forty dwellings, one church and seven school 


houses were constructed of sandstone, some of tliom have served their day and 
are replaced by wooden structures. 

In 18-10 tlie census report showed a })opuhition of 18-1.5, or a gain of over 
210 per cent in ten years, and (hu'ing the next ten years each had been quietly 
attending to his own affairs, clearing the forests to make more fields and clear- 
ing the older fields of decaying hard wood stumjjs, to be ready for the coming 
mowing machine. During all that period all the farm work was done by hand. 
It was no uncommon sight to see eight or ten men in the hay field, in tandem, 
keeping stroke as they swung their scj^thes through the heavy grass. 

The grain was cut with cradles and one good man could rake and bind and 
keep up with a cradler. 

The Mormon excitement occurred during this period, when a few of our 
people were proselyted to that faith and joined the others on their journey to 
Nauvoo, 111. One old man and his wife, also one young man and his sister were 
among the converts. The old gentleman died there, and later the widow re- 
turned to her home and kindred. The j^oung man and sister went on to Salt 
Lake City where he became a latter-day saint and apostle, and married eleven 
wives. The sister secured a one-sixth interest in a husband and they both spent 
their remaining days in Utah. 

With 1850 came the mowing machine. A. P. Morse brought the first one 
into town, the "Ketchum," a one wheel, side-draft, combined so as to reap by 
affixing a large wooden rim around the driving wheel, thus raising the cutter- 
bar high enough to cut the grain. The following year two "Manny" combined 
mowers and reapers and in 18.52 there was added fifty-seven more of the same. 
Later came the two-wheeled mower and the old Manny was dubbed the "Horse 
Killer," although it served its day well and saved a great deal of labor in cut- 
ting the immense fields of wheat produced during the fifties. 

It would be impossible to give the acreage, but forty bushels per acre was 
accounted a fair yield, and in one instance eighty bushels were produced from 
an acre. 

From 1850 to 1860 there was added to the population of the town 149 
when it reached high tide mark and began to wane. The Civil war coming on a 
good many enlisted, some began to move away because new and improved farm- 
ing tools did not reqviire so much farm help. 

The self rake attachment where by an automatic attachment the bunch 
of grain sufficient for a bundle ready for the man to bind was thrown off was a 
saving of one man for every reaper in town Then later came the binder, the 
improved horse rake, the hay fork, all of these silently warned the laborer that 
his services were no longer required. About one man out of twelve inhabitants 
enlisted in the "war for the Union," or 162 men. Of these about twenty gave 
up their lives for the cause ; one died in Andersonville rebel prison, two were killed 
in battle, some died of their wounds, and perhaps one-half died of disease. 

At home, the people although bus}^ with avocations, were not indifferent 
to the calls for men and money to prosecute the war. Rather than allow more 


drafts to be made on our people, money was freely subscribed and one thousand 
dollars bounty offered to her volunteers. 

Two drafts had already been made, some were allowed to enlist and many 
who could not be spared commuted; others sent substitutes. At the close of the 
war the census returns showed a population of 1819, or a loss of 149 in five 
vears, and in 1870 it fell to 1757, or nearly one hundred less than there was in 
1840 ; but the people took on new energy and went on with their work. Then 
the prospects were good for a railroad to run through the town to Ogdensburg 
and an effort was made to bond the town to aid in its construction. It required 
a majority of the free holders. The effort was made and barely succeeded, but 
strong resistance was offered by the "anti-bonders" who did not want to mort- 
gage their farms to benefit a corporation and they also declared that the rail- 
road was a foregone conclusion and would be completed without the town's aid. 
The bonding party held the fort and commissioners were appointed who were 
authorized to execute bonds for sixty thousand dollars payable in thirty 
years with interest payable semi-annually at seven per cent, for which the town 
was to receive a like amount of stock in tlic railroad. The anti-bonders secured 
an injunction on the proceedings of the commissioners, proving that they had 
proceeded illegally : when the other party went before the legislature and 
secured an act legalizing the illegal acts of the R. R. commissioners of the town, 
thus carrying the day, and at the first meeting of the board of supervisors a 
tax of four thousand two hundred dollars for interest on the bonds and one thou- 
sand dollars as a sinking fund were levied on the town. It seemed like a great 
burden on the people for about that time or soon afterwards the Ijgal rate of 
interest was reduced to six per cent. 

At the first collection of taxes some even refused to pay their tax until 
their chattels were levied upon. And at the first annual town meeting, like one 
or two former ones, town ])o]itics ran up to fever heat ; two candidates for sup- 
ervisor were in the field; after a hard day's fight the board announced that 
there was no choice, the vote being a tie; therefore, another town meeting was 
called and it is said that every man over twenty-one years of age and a few 
under that age residing in town voted that daj'. The vote resulted in sustain- 
ing the present incumbent, who had allowed the tax to be made against the town, 
by a Ycry small majority, thus settling the question for all time. 

After the road was completed to Ogdensburg the railroad bonds were 
placed on the market and found ready sale at })ar, and with the money received, 
the bonds were redeemed, the great burden of tax was thrown off and the people 
were again happy; new life wfis instilled and a market for all our produce was 
brought to our doors. 

Shortly aftei- this dibt was discharged the ]X'ople by a vote of the taxpay- 
ers incurred a debt of if'Sj.^OO to erect a Town Hall which is quite an ornament 
to the town. 1'he debt for the above has since been liquidated. 

The first postoflice established in town was at Hanmiond village in 1824, 
and Arnold Smith was postmaster. His salary the first year was $1.5.90. Prior 


to that date, letters were usually directed to Ogdensburg in the care of Joseph 
Rosseel, or to Morristown, and from thence were forwarded by chance or a 
messenger dispatched for the purpose. The old time letter was written on a 
large, unruled sheet of paper, very much like the old foolscap, or school-cap 
paper, and written on three pages, then neatly folded so that the writing was 
all enclosed and the address placed on the back or unwritten page, hence the use 
of the term or request "Will you back my letter." The letter was then sealed 
with a wafer or with colored sealing wax. A box of colored wafers was an in- 
dispensable article beside the old gray goose quill pen and the bottle of home- 
made ink. No envelopes were used until about 1837, nor postage stamps until 
18-i7 to 1850. And so late as the 50's ink made from soft maple bark with a 
small piece of copperas, was used in the common schools, and to that date it was 
a part of the teacher's duty to sharpen the quill pen and set the copy, and some- 
times to rule the unlined paper in the copy-book. 

The postage on early letters to foreign countries was fifty cents, and on 
domestic letters as high as twenty-five cents, but the cost was reg-ulated by the 
distance sent. Within my recollection, ten cents was charged on a letter to Cal- 
ifornia or the Pacific coast, and twenty-five cents to Britain or other foreign 
countries, and ten cents to Canada. A letter coming from Canada was often 
paid in part and postage due collected on delivery from six to ten cents. 

The records of mail carrying prior to 1836 are incomplete on account of 
being destroyed by fire. But the first route we know of was from Jan. 1, 1829, 
to Jan. 1, 1833, from Denmark, Lewis Co., by Carthage, Wilna, Antwerp, Ros- 
sie, Hammond to Ogdensburg, 62.50 miles, contractors Parker and Sherwood 
of Utica, paying $1<,'71<8.60 per annum. 

Later than this the mail was carried by Theresa and South Hammond, 
Hammond to Ogdensburg, three times a week. Li 1837 the mail service required 
only one round trip a week from Theresa to Hammond. 

Back in the 50's the old four horse coach was used and the line was owned 
by Mr. Reuben Nott of Somerville, sheriff of the county in 1853-5. 

When the stage came within one-fourth of a mile from the postoffice a horn 
was blown to announce its coming, the mail bag was hurriedly carried in and 
the contents of the pouch were emptied on the floor, and the Hammond mail 
sorted out, then the balance together with the outgoing mail were replaced in 
the bag without delay and carried to the stage. 

Usually a good many passengers and some freight was carried, sometimes 
crowded ; but like all stages there was alwaj's room for one more. 

A postoffice was established at South Hannnond in 1833 with Jonathan 
King P. jNI., and one at Oak Point in 18il!0. Both of these were afterwards dis- 
continued. At North Hammond in 1861 by Asa T. Barber P. M. — these offices 
were supplied by a carrier from Hammond who usually made the trip on foot 
twice a week. 

The postoffice at Chippewa Bay was established in 1880 with Alex. Allen 
J'. M., with three mails per week. 

Soon afterwards the Oak Point, No. Hammond and Chippewa route was 


consolidated into one, and still later it became a daily mail route. ]Mr. Allen 
held the office for 1'3 years, when W. Backus the present incumbent took the 
<;tfice. The office at Hammond has been held by Henry Butrick, Abel P. ^lorse, 
Peter McC'rady, Orange G. Waldo, David ]Moyer, Alida Sherman Palmer, E. S. 
Ketchum, Benjamin Franklin and Daniel D. ^Moyer. 

For several years two daily stages were placed on the Ogdensburg and 
Antwerp line, running alternately in opposite directions, but not until 1876 
was the office supplied by railroad, and then only one mail from the east and one 
from the west each day. 

The stage route was then changed to run between Hammond and Gouver- 
ncur, supplying the intermediate villages. 

In 1899 a rural free delivery route from the Hannnond office was estab- 
tablished, supplying the Bay Road, Chippewa Bay and triangular road, each 
morning, and in the afternoon to Pleasant valley River road, Oak Point and 
North Hammond, the office at Oak Point and No. Hammond being discontin- 
ued, but the office at Chippewa was retained on account of a large mail to the 
islanders and cottagers at the river. There is a postoffice at South Hammond, 
:Mrs. Anna F. Billings is P. M. 


Compared with adjoining towns the expense for bridge construction and 
maintenance has been very light, there being but two bridges of any size ; one 
across Black creek leading to Rossie, and one over Chippewa creek to North 
Hammond. The latter bridge was first built in 18.51 by James S. :More and 
Robert Welsh. It was since rebuilt above water, and later an iron structure, 
built about 1890, lias taken its place. Several years ago the bridge across 
Black creek was rebuilt and a. long bridge, which ran across the marsh border- 
ing the creek was removed, and an attempt made to fill in with stone and refuse 
from the quarries. The town sunk a large quantity of stone (and also of 
money) and every spring for a few years found an excellent place for a ferry 
from the end of the bridge to the high land. It was finally remedied by laying 
down trees and long logs crosswise of the road and placing the stone thereon. 
About twelve years ago the town procured a stone crusher, and that being 
brought into use freely, backed hy a large quantity of stone which had accu- 
mulated at the numerous quarries and in fence corners, together with a liberal 
town appropriation, and the commutation of the highway tax instead of statute 
labor, very great improvement has been made on the highways of the town. 

A special town meeting was very recently held at the pojling place, to vote 
on an appropriation of $1,300 to procure a new stone crusher and outfit. The 
appropriation was carried by a majority of 34 votes. So that new and much 
needed impovemcnts will soon be the order of the day. 


The assessed valuation of the town is .$832,900 and the town is practically 
out of debt. 

Con.irlcring the fact that the town, only a few years ago, built a fine town 
hall at an expense of $3,-500, and also later appropriated quite a large sum for 


liighway purposes, all of which have since been liquidated, goes to sliow that 
Haiiunond is in a })rosperous condition. 


Our town can boast that we have a newspaper published within our bor- 
ders, the Hammond Advertiser, whicli was first printed in 1886 on a job press, 
one page at a time. It has four pages, 11 by 16 inches. 

David JNIoyer was the founder and the editor ; and Wm. B. Burton was the 
foreman. At the end of the second year Mr. Burton purchased the outfit and 
became the editor, manager, foreman, devil and mailing clerk. He discarded 
the job press and purchased a Washington Hand Press and enlarged the paper 
to a six colunm folio. The hand press did service for five years, when he pur- 
chased an up-to-date cylinder press and engine. The paper is now being print- 
ed on the same press, but has been reduced to a four page paper, and the press 
is driven by the latest make of gasoline engine. The plant is valued at about 

The circulation is rated in Rowell's Newspaper Directory as less than one 
thousand, but it extends into nearly every state in the Union and many Cana- 
dian points. 

Although the paper has bem in existence for upwards of nineteen years, 
Mr. Burton and some member of his family have done the entire work and have 
never missed an issue, except during the winter of 1902, when he suffered from 
a severe illness and the oflScc was closed. The "Advertiser" has outgrown its 
quarters four times. The paper is republican in politics, but quite indepen- 
dent, and is the organ of an}^ party or creed who wish to express their views on 
any subject in a reasonable manner. Its size often makes it a subject of ridi- 
cule compared with the innnense sheets now offered at the same price, but it is 
the home paper and is gladly welcomed as a friendly visitor by those who have 
removed to distant places, and its discontinuance would be a severe loss to the 
village and the town. But the little village paper is a success and not an ex- 


The ^'illage of Hanmiond was incorporated Aug. 29, 1901, (the date the 
election was held). The officers were: W. T. Stiles, President; W. D. Evans and 
Fred iMayer, Trustees ; Byron A. Evans, Treasurer ; C C. Forester, Clerk. The 
present offices, C. C. Forrester, President ; Fred ^Nlayer and D. E. Eustis, Trus- 
tees ; W. T. Stiles, Treasurer; A. M. Stiles, Clerk. The census in 1901 was 
339. Present census, 400. The valuation, $110,000. The Evans Mfg. Co. 
and the Wm. Soper Mfg. Co. have small dynamos which they light their plants 
with. Mr. Soper lights two stores with his electric machine, W. T. Stiles and 
J. T. Rodger. The other stores and hotel arc lighted with acetylene gas. 

The following are the merchants of the village in 1905 : 

W. T. Stiles, Brown Bros., hardware; C. C. Forrester, dry goods; J. T. 
Rodger, clothing; W. R. Wilson, I. Franklin, W. J. Ireton & Co., grocers; W. 
D. Evans, harnesses, carriages, furniture and farm implements ; A. E. Wood- 
side, boots, shoes and harnesses ; E. J. Murphy, boots and shoes ; Geo. H. 


Wyllie, druggist and jeweler; Lena Dygert, Mrs. Woodworth, milliners; Fred 
Mayer, Wm. Gibson, blacksmiths ; James Scanlon and D. G. Bacon, barbers ; 
Guy Taylor, meat market; R. Evans, flour and feed; Donald Bros., undertak- 
ers; D. D. Moyer, postmaster; H. K. Kerr and Geo. H. Rodger physicians; 
W. B. Burton, editor Hammond Advertiser. Secret societies : Indepen- 
dent Order of Foresters, established in 1890, Court Hammond, No. 545, 
membership now 137 ; C'omp. Court Rhtsa No. 80, membership 45 ; Modern 
Woodmen of America, established 1903, Camp Hammond, No. 11156, mem- 
bership 52; Knights of JNIaccabces, established 1904, Tent No. — ; Indepen- 
dent Order of Odd Fellows, established 1904, Hammond Lodge, No. 9, member- 
ship 100. Rebekahs have been granted a charter and organize this month. 
Eastern Star has been organized (1904) and prospects are that we will soon 
have a Masonic Lodge. 

Mr. Stiles has established a telephone line in village and town. J\lany of 
the farms have taken advantage of it and some of our merchants can talk with 
the farms five miles out. 

We also have the Central New York Telephone and Telegraph Co. line. 
Great North Western Telegraph Co., New England Telegraph Co., Citizen's 
Telegraph Co., American Telegraph and Telephone Co. The Citizens Line 
7'elegraph was organized and put up from Chippewa Bay to Hammond, three 
miles, in 1890, at an expense of .$400, which was subscribed for at five dol- 
lars per share. A good share of the amount was taken by laboring men who 
worked out their interest in the same. Although a small affair it paid a good 
dividend to its owners and is the same line mentioned above. 

The first school house erected in town was during the year 1819 on the 
Bay road, and in the following winter a school was taught by Dr. James Scott 
of Lisbon. Later, several log school houses were built in various sections of the 
town. And during the stone-house period seven substantial and commodious 
ones were built, two of which after serving their day and generation, were torn 
down and replaced by modern wooden structures. The old "Block school house" 
a small structure which stood on the Silas Robinson farm very near where the 
cheese factory is now located, was used for school purposes until 1852. It re- 
mained there for a long time afterwards, as if all were loath to destroy the 
"Alma Mater" of so many of our towns people. 

The town now has thirteen districts, the Hammond Union Free School 
(Number 1) being under the managonent of the State Regents, and has four 
departments taught by four teachers of whom Mr. Lewis is principal. 

The town received $2,000 this year from the State and has a surplus of 
$500 on hand from the School and Gospel fund. 

Although the Methodists had held services at an early date, no church 
was organized until 1832. In 1835 a church was built near Hammond village 
which served their use until 1873 when the present church was erected at a cost 
of $7,000. Their present pastor is Rev. Mr. Andrews. 


The Universalist church was organized in 1870 and a church edifice erect- 
ed the same year. Tlie first pastor was Rev. D. L. R. Libby. At present only 
occasional services are held. 

An eff^ort is being made to establish a Roman Catholic church. Mrs. Kate 
Donald has presented the society with a church site. 

The First Presbyterian church of Hammond was organized April 1st, 
1821, and was named The First Union Pres. Society of Rossie. Rev. James 
Sanford of OxBow was pastor. The first members were Peter Allen, James 
Rodger, John Hill, Thomas Dodds, John Mercer, David Gregor, James Hill, 
Robert Sheill, John Gregor, Alpheus Talcott, John Baird, Agnes Baird, Janet 
Stewart Allen, Margaret Rodger, Janet Dodds, Helen Sheill, Janett Allen 
Gregor, Patty Talcott, Mary Gregor, 19 in number. The elders were James 
Rodger, David Gregor, John Hill. There was added also James Hill, Alpheus 
Talcott. The trustees were Loren Bailey, Thomas Dodds, Nathaniel Ives. Rev. 
James Rodgers, who was also one of the elders, was the first pastor. He was 
licensed by the Presbytery of Ogdensburg March 6th, 1823, and sen'ed as pas- 
tor for six years. 

Rev. John M. McGregor, who came from Scotland in 1830, was soon af- 
terwards licensed as pastor and served as sucli until 1852. During the same 
year Rev. James Gardner, D. D., who was a teacher in the St. Lawrence Acad- 
emy of Potsdam, succeeded him and served as pastor until 1869. 

Rev. James Rodger, now of Farmington, Minn., who had I'ecently grad- 
uated from a Theological Seminary, supplied the church for two years. He had 
been a teacher in an American college at Constantinople, Turkey, for two years 
and was a grandson of the first pastor. 

Rev. Harry B. Swift, of Indiana, and Rev. Andrew Milne, formerly of 
Canada, each served the church for one year. 

Rev. Daniel A. Ferguson, D. D., the present pastor, was installed June 
16th, 1875, and his thirtieth anniversary has just been celebrated by the church. 

Church service was first held in the barn of Thos. Dodds, afterwards in 
the school house at Chippewa Bay and at private houses around town. In 1833 
a movement was made to build what was afterwards known as the Stone Church, 
which was completed and dedicated in 1838 and during the pastorate of Rev. 
J. M. McGregor. In 1871 the church building was torn down and the present 
structure built, and was dedicated Jan. 17, 1872. It has since been refitted 
inside and a handsome organ worth $1,800 placed in it. With the parsonage 
built in 1876, the entire property is valued at .$11), 000. 

There was added to the church membership during the pastorates of Rev. 
James Rodger 20 members ; John M. McGregor, 128 ; James Gardner, 166 ; D. 
A. Ferguson, 392. The church now reports 276 members with 45 on her Absen- 
tee and Inactive Roll. 

All the pastors who have served the church are now deceased with the 
exception of the Rev. James Rodger, Farmington, Minn., and the present pas- 
tor. When Mr. Ferguson preached his anniversary sermon lately he said that 
he had baptised on an average of six infants a year, and that on an average 


eleven persons had been received on confession of faith each year. Of the 392 
persons received into the church only .55 were received from other churches. Of 
the 312 persons on the active and inactive list only ii were members thirty years 
ago. He has officiated at 21-1 weddings and 311 funerals and has preached 
upwards of 3,500 sermons. 

The church has sent out into the ministry: Rev. James G. Rodger, Ph. D., 
Ocean Beach, Cal., Rev. James F. Brodie, D. D., Fish Univ., Nashville, Tenn., 
John Leadingham, Theological School at Honolulu, Sandwich Islands, Rev. 
Thomas C. ]Miller, of New York City, Rev. Alex. Wouters, Memorial Church, 
Syracuse, N. Y., Albert L. Evans in Auburn Theological Seminary. The 
church has also been a large contributor to the working force of churches in 
different portions of our land. The Ladies Foreign Missionary Society con- 
nected with the church has contributed over $2,000 in 28 years. The Ladies 
Home Missionary Society $1,300 in 2-1 years. The Ladies Improvement So- 
ciety $1,300 in 13 years. 

The growth of the church has been continuous and healthful. The number 
of families represented in it has nearly doubled in twenty years, thus showing 
its growing influence. JNIr. Ferguson is Stated Clerk of the Presbytery of St. 
Lawrence, and Permanent Clerk of the Synod of New York, both responsi- 
ble positions which require a mailing list of correspondents of from six to seven 
hundred letters per year besides printed circulars. He has not been absent a 
single Sabbath on account of illness in all those thirty years and but few on 
vacation except in 1895 he took an extended trip to the British Isles. Thirty 
years ago the church gave for benevolent objects .$101. Last year it gave .$659. 
During the thirty years it gave .$11,350 for benevolence and $34,967 for local 


There are several bur3ung places in the town, the oldest perhaps, being 
the Hammond church ground located by custom near the Presbyterian church. 
This ground is filled, however, and not used, but is kept up and neatly fenced 
at the expense of the town. The Rarick ground was opened in 1829 and con- 
tains upwards of eight hundred graves. It is located at South Hammond. The 
Butrick ground is near the railroad track and Hammond village on the farm 
once owned by Sylvester Butrick, and is beautifully located. A little ceme- 
tery and church lot was given to the village of Oak Point years ago by George 
Eliott, a merchant of that place. There are several graves in that ground, but 
wheiT it failed to be kept in proper order, the remains of many were removed to 
other grounds. The Pleasant Valley cemetery was opened in 1839. Previous 
to that date a man named Ripley took up a piece of land that is now a part of 
Robert R. Wilson's farm, and began a clearing on top of the hill. One day 
when he had gone to the woods his wife took her little son and climbed the hill to 
where the father was at work, guided by the sound of the blows made by the 
ax. She went through the woods until within sight of him when the little lad in 
great glee ran from his mother toward his father, just as a tree was toppling 
to fall. The mother called to tlie child but he being ignorant of the danger, 


rushed on. And there the parents stood as if riveted to the spot, compelled to 
v'itness the life crushed out of their little one midway between them. They hav- 
ing no burial lot it was arranged to make his grave on a gravelly piece of land 
near the roadside not far from their home. This was the first grave made at 
what is now Pleasant Valley. In the early fifties the writer knew every grave 
in the lot. Today there are upwards of three hundred graves. There are sev- 
eral private grounds and many arc buried outside of the town. 


The first fatal accident recorded in the history of the town was the falling 
of a tree that killed Wm. Cowin, one of the early pioneers. Mr. Parish with 
his usual generosity, paid the fare of his widow to the old country. 

A little son of Andrew Nicol was drowned in Chippewa creek, while on 
an errand up the creek where his father was at work. He was not missed until 
his father returned at night. 

Robert Jepson was drowned while crossing Crooked creek on the ice in 

In the winter of ISS-l Joseph, son of Robert Riddell, while cutting down 
a tree with his father, was struck by a small piece of the dead top of the tree 
and instantly killed. The accident occurred just over the line, and only a few 
feet from where the Ripley child was killed. 

In 1863 Boone Hicks, a stranger who was visiting in town, was drowned 
while crossing Chippewa creek on the ice. 

A boat load of people while crossing the river from Oak island to Canada, 
in attempting to change seats, capsized the boat and two or three were drowned. 
One woman clung to the boat several hours until insensible, and was finally res- 

The steamer Buckeye while passing up the river and not far from the 
American shore, struck a rock or shoal during the night of Septembe 16, 1865, 
and sunk in a few moments. The boat had on board 20 passengers besides a crew 
of about thirty. Three women passengers were drowned. The remaining pas- 
sengers and crew all safely got into three or four life boats and went ashore. 
The boat was afterward raised and repaired. 

Along this line it is worthy of mentioning the absence of drowning acci- 
dents and collisions among the many pleasure boats on the St. Lawrence River. 
There have been several accidents on the railroad to town's people employed in 
railroad service. Robert Jepson, William Bowen and Henry Delong, all young 
men and acting as freight brakemen, were instantly killed at different times, 
and a Mr. Grant had the misfortune to lose both arms by falling under a train 
in motion. 


The facilities for shipping produce out of town and bringing merchan- 
dise in, before the railroad entered our town, were not of the best. Several com- 
modious steamers stopped at Oak Point and conveyed passengers to and fro, 
during the summer months, but this manner of transporting hay, grain and 
lumber was too expensive. About 1850 Robert Allen constructed at his own 


l;ome, now Allen's Park, the sloop Industry, which ran in connection with the 
new railroad just built to Ogdensburg, carrying freight to the upper ports of 
the river. Large quantities of lumber were made and hauled to Chippewa Bay 
for shipment. James Denner purchased two small schooners for freighting 
purposes. Tlie "Mary" of 130 tons burden, was built at Sackets Harbor, and 
the S. P. Johnson of 150 tons. They plied between Lake Ontario ports and 
Ogdensburg in the lumber, grain and salt trade, for several years. The John- 
son finally went ashore near Big Sodus, the owner sold the wreck which was re- 
built and taken to Lake Erie. The schooner ]\Iary sailed out of Oswego dm-ing 
the fall of 1861 with a cargo of coal, crossing the lake and while at anchor in 
Picton Bay, Ont., during the night was run into and sunk and all on board were 
drowned, or at least never heard from. Her topmast can still be seen in a clear 
day near the surface of the water. 

]Mr. Denner later purchased two larger sailing craft, the schooners Volun- 
teer and Billow, which sailed tlie lake and river during and later than "war 
time," and were profitable property but proved unfortunate to the owner. The 
A'olunteer went ashore in ^Mexico Bay in 1869 laden with fruit and all on board 
were drowned. 

During the seventies this class of vessels was superceded by steam barges 
which carried larger cargoes and were not hindered by adverse winds, and 
the railroad then running into our town took large quantities of freight for- 
merly carried by water. Some smaller steamers were put on both as freight and 
j)assenger carriers. The steamer John Harris, a new boat built for Morris- 
town parties, was put on the river in 1871), and the same year the Stranger from 
Alexandria Bay to Ogdensburg, made daily trips touching both at Chippewa 
Bay and Oak Point, and were both successful. Later the Cygnet owned by par- 
ties in town, and the Guide owned and run by Capt. Frank Dana, \\ ere put on 
the line, but both proved "too slow" for this age and were sold. Capt. Dana 
purchased the Masscna, which proved to be a staunch craft and profitable to 
the owner. 

Capt. Dana was a resident of the town but removed to Alexandria Bay, 
the terminus of his route. The Massena was burned at the dock at Ogdensburg 
in 1903, after which he purchased the Riverside, which is still on the old route. 
Capt. Dana died during the present year, but the boat is still owned by his 

Most of the exports of the town now find a way to market by rail, except 
cheese, which finds a ready market at Brockville, Ontario, from thence by boat 
to Montreal, where it is shipped to England after being branded as Canadian 
goods. Not that the brand is superior but that the English markets discrim- 
nate in favor of our neighbor's product. 


If any of our town's people ever had any political aspirations their ambi- 
tions have certainly never been gratified farther than to represent their own 
town at the county seat, except that Sylvester Butrick represented the Assem- 
bly district a.s a member of that body at Albany in 1833 and ISSJi. 


Our aged townsman M. L. Lauglilin was elected Scliool Commissioner for 
the First Conmiissioner District in 1860 and held the office f'o;- four terms of 
three years each. While he held the position he brought the condition of the 
schools up to a high standard of perfection. Previous to 1856 each town had 
charge of its own schools and worked independently of otiiers. Teachers' asso- 
ciations were not known so there was a lack of system. Mr. Laughlin with his 
colleagues did much to establisji a needed uniformity in school books, and to 
bring the teachers together to discuss methods of teaching. 


The first machine shop or manufactory of any kind in town was carried 
on by John Taplin who came to town in 1830 and resided where W. S. Cuth- 
bcrt now lives. He was the inventor and maker of a sweep h.orse power for 
threshing and sawing purposes. 

Later than this Robert Slieill, one of the pioneers of 1818, a? his farm be- 
gan the manufacture of "The Highland Mary" plow, wheel horse rakes, but- 
ter workers, and other farm implements, which met with ready sale. 

But no castings were ever made in town until the Evans Manufacturing 
Co. was incorporated Jan. 1st, 1903, with a capital of $2.5,000 for the purpose 
of manufacturing disc harrows, plows, castings. They also made elm veneer- 
ing. Mr. Fred Mayer is President, B. A. Evans is General Manager and Treas- 
urer, and Albert Mason, Secretary, and the company are all workers and have a 
daily increasing business which will compel them to enlarge their plant at an 
early date. 

There are five cheese factories engaged during the summer months mak- 
ing English cheese which finds a ready sale in Brockville and also in New York 

The Wm. Soper Manufacturing Co. are engaged in the manufacture of 
all kinds of lumber, shingles, sash, doors and planing and custom grinding of 
provinder. They also have an electric light plant by which they generate light 
for their own establishment and light several stores in the village. 

When the pioneers first found their way to town and had provided them- 
selves with houses to shelter themselves, they found an abundance of fish and 
game for subsistence, but the surplus if any did not find a market whereby they 
could procure money with which to meet incidental and necessary expenses such 
as taxes, postage, doctor bills, &c. The first commodity that brought the ready 
cash was Black Salts, which was simply a concentrated lye, and found ready 
sale at from three and one-half to four cents a pound at tlie stores in town, 
but more often was sent to Brockville. But finally there was a glut in the mar- 
ket and other means had to be resorted to. Then came a demand for oak pipe 
staves which were riven out of red oak logs cut five feet in length. These had a 
cash value on the river shore and were shipped by boat down the river to Mont- 
real thence to the West Indies. At nearly every hamlet or village where there 
was a store, an ashery was erected for the manufacture of potash, which differed 
from black salts in being prepared by leaching lime and ashes. The ashes were 


bought by the merchant who generally owned the ashcry and paid for in "store 
pay." They were formerly delivered at the asliery but later the merchant sent 
a team around to gather the article which then had a cash and a trade price : 
ten and twelve cents per bushel. 

Fall wheat found a ready market later and steers and other young' cattle 
two and three years of age were bought by dealers and taken away in droves, 
the wintering of which would require twice the sum today that the seller pro- 
cured at the time for the stock sold. 

In certain portions of the town especially in the valley of Chippewa creek 
and a narrow strip of about forty rods on the ledge on the north side of the 
creek was an immense pine forest of large sized trees, also through all the broken 
and hilly portions of the town. The most of the lumber was sawed up at home, 
but a quantity of it was shipped or rafted whole to be used as spars of vessels 
which required the soundest and straightest trees. ]\Iany of these trees were of 
immense size as the old stumps standing today will testify, measuring five and 
six feet across. Some of these stumps have stood the test of time for seventy- 
five years. 

And 3'et those trees sold at a very low price and the manufactured lumber 
at home sold for five and six dollars per thousand. During the 1830-1840 
period cord wood began to be a salable article commanding seventy-five cents 
per cord on the bank ; then rising in price step by step until during the Civil war 
it brought in 186-1 $5.00 per cord. At nearlj' every available place on the river 
shore wood docks were erected where steamers could "wood up," taking on from 
twenty to seventy-five cords at one loading. The old time tugs of Calvin and 
Breck, which towed the great rafts of logs covering acres of the river, would 
often clean out a dock and the surrounding yard until they resembled a float- 
ing island. 

In later years the N. T. boats used immense quantities of wood from our 
town until bituminous coal came into use. Charles Lyon owned nearly all the 
land lying between Chippewa Bay and the county line a tract of twelve hun- 
dred acres. At one time he lost one thousand cords of steamboat wood by a 
forest fire. 

Later, dairying began to be one of the chief industi'ies, the farmer packed 
awav the summer make of butter in large tubs or firkins ; then usually buyers 
came around and bought it up. In the fall of 1861 it brought from nine to 
twelve and one-half cents per pound. 

Prior to the war wheat was one of the staples ; afterwards barley was a sal- 
able commodity. Not imtil about 1870 was any cheese made in factories al- 
though several farmers made dairy cheese which commanded a fair price when 
properly made. Since 1870 the dairy interests have received greater attention 
and the greater quantity of milk is manufactured into cheese. For a few years 
past the winter milk is sold at the milk station and finds a market in New York 
city. So that winter dairying is receiving more attention than formerly. And 
from the above date hay is one of the chief exports. The same attention is not 
given to the sale of dressed hogs as formerly ; but the farmer finds it less labor 


to sell by live weight. Other staple products of the farm are veal calves and fat 
cattle and lambs. Poultry receives its share of attention. All of thest 
articles find ready buyers at home or he may ship it to the cities and take his 
chances of securing a better price. 

Immense quantities of hay are also shipped out of town each year, being 
bought up principally by local dealers. 



B.v Francis M. Holbrook. 

{Y graiul father, Isaac Austin, one of tlie four original settlers of the town 'who came 
through the wilderness in 1805, from Washington County, N. Y., was born in Will- 
ianistown, INlass., about thirty miles from Hartford, in the county named, where he 
waited to hear from Gou%erneur Morris in answer to his inquiry as to the inducements 
Jhn-ris would make to settlers on his lands in Northern X. Y. The reply was, substantially, 
that 160 acres of land would be given him. It was this induce- 
ment that lu-ought the pioneer here early in 1805, and which re- 
sulted in his settling here later on in the fall of the same year. 

When they left Washington county in 1806 they came up the 
Mohawk valley to Utica where they stojjped over night. Land 
was being sold there on the Mohawk flats, (now said to be worth 
.several hundred dollars an acre), for .$3 per acre. My grand- 
mother (who was Tabitha Foster before her marriage in Will- 
iamstown, Mass.), wished to stop there and buy land and begin 
work at once. But grandfather reminded her that he was under 
obligations to Gouverneur Morris to go to this town and settle 
on the 160 acres offered him as a gift. Grandmother thought 
Francis M Holbvook. ^^^,^^ y^^ ^^^^-^^ about Utica was as fine land as they could wish, 

ill wliich opinion every one acquainted with that splendid section will agree. 

Land was being sold in Cambray, as this town was then called, at ijil.^a per acre. Leav- 
ing Utica tliey started northward, being guided by marked trees, the road such as it was ex- 
tending only as far as Boon's Up]ier Settlement, now Boonville, though there was a little 
travel along ])aths or trails as far as The Long Falls, now Carthage. The river here was 
not bridged until 181.3, or eight years later. 

The journey I am writing about occurred in the spring of 1806. Grandfather had 
been here twice in the previous year. The family that came in 1806 consisted of Rebecca, 
F.lwell, Patty and Joshua and their parents, Isaac and Tabitha Austin. I do not have any 
remembrance of their story of the rest of the journey from Utica, but when they reached 
here, they stopped at a hotel on the hill on the west side of the river, there being no bridge, 
the tavern-kecjier's name being Israel Porter. The ]:iresent two-story house owned by Judge 
Neary was afterward built by Porter and kept as a hotel, the log portion in which my 
grandparents stayed and which was all the hotel there was, formed a wing to the frame 
building at first. 

They made a raft and took the oxen, wagon and children across lielow the falls or 
rapids, to where the house, started the year before, was being built. This was on the sight 
of the house now well known as the yVustin house between Clinton and Austin streets. 
'I'he floor was made of hemlock boughs and my mother used to tell me that the first meeting 
held in Gouverneur was at this house, the minister lieing on bis ^vay from Ogdensburg to Utica, 
and stopping over for the purpose on Sunday. They called in a few of the neighbors who 
wore straw luits and linen shirts of home-make, although it wi\s in the dead of winter, 
and there in the primitive cabin, destitute of everything we now class as necessaries, offered 
up their allegiance to the Most High. 



Amasa Corbin, Si'. 

My father, Henry B. Holbrook, lived four years in Gouverneur before he was married. 
He cleared most of the land on wliich the main or central part of the village now stands. 
It was then a bushy, hemlock grove and he received .$1 per acre for clearing it. He boarded 
with the man who then kept the hotel across the river, but I do not know wliether it was 
Israel Porter or not. There were four including himself, who boarded there at the time. 
Tliey used to amuse themselves Sunday mornings trying to throw stones across the river at a 
point a little above what is now known as the "Goose Bend," the river being about twenty 
rods wide there. My father was a Benjamite. He could throw .stones with tremendous 
force and was the only man who could plant one on the steep hill on the farther shore. The 
axeman of those days who could cut the cleanest "calf" and the youth who could throw the 
mobt of his fellows "square hold," was accounted the best man and was looked up to with 
considerable awe. 

After boarding four years Henry B. Holbrook married Re- 
becca Austin, eldest daughter of Isaac Austin. Isaac Bolton, 
brother of John Bolton, was present and gave the bride away. 
After this marriage, my father contracted for a piece of land 80 
acres in extent, un what Is now the Richville road, four miles east 
of the village, subsequently owned bj Amasa Corbin, Sr. Gilbert 
Rundell succeeded him on this land, taking it under contract 
also, and Rundell sold to Amasa Corbin who, unlike most of the 
settlers, brought enough money with him in 1830 to pay for it, 
his wife who was a Foster from near AViliiamstown, Mass., from 
which place my grandfather had come, having .$500 as her dower 
while Amasa had sa\ed up .$^00 from his earnings before com- 
ing. On this 80-acre tract my father liuilt a log house, and prob- 
ably cleared 50 acres of it as that is the number reported in the 1835 
state census as being "improved" at that time. Se\en (hildrcn were liorn in this cabin, 
Lydia, Emellne, Isaac, Betsey, Daniel, Frank and Henry, the latter dying in 18;25. 

While clearing he built a large barn, of the standard "thirty 
by forty" size, Rockwell Barnes hewing the timbers and my father 
doing the "scoring." This frame, with sills only renewed, is still 
in the finest preservation and in daily use. The hewing is won- 
derfully smooth for the scorer evidently imderstood his business, 
and each timber, is without a "wany" corner. The frame tim- 
Ijers are large, all of rock-elm, and the bracing was sav\'ed anil 
pinned. The pine lumber in this barn, flooring and all, was cut 
on Pine Hill, Macomb, (then a portion of Camliray), by Aaron 
Carrington, sawn at Elmdale in Carrington's mill, rafted to "Rich's 
Landing" at the mouth of Borland Creek one mile below Rich- 
ville, and drawn from thence to the frame which stood about sixty 
rods northeast of its present site, having been moved twice in the 
more than three-quarters of a century since it was built. 

It stood at first near the steep bank of the brook where plaster sand was afterward found 
and dug. The frame was put up in four weeks time from the felling of the trees in the 
forest nearby. 

Many incidents occurred to the new settler on this tract but I will mention onlv two or 
three. My father had a patch of coin near the house and when it began to ripen, a black 
bear quietly took possession. His visits were made at night and "Jack", the dog, was soon 
cognizant of the presence of the intruder. This dog- is remembered as one of the best of his 
kind. He kept the bear at bay, finally driving liim up a tree where the bear seated himself 
upon a limb about thirty feet from the ground. Help was summoned while the dog stood 
guard, and two neighbors came with guns. A third took his post near by, counted "one, 
two, three — fire" and both guns spoke togetlier and the bear tumbled to the ground. As this 

Rockwell Karne.s 


adventure occurred at t\ielve o'clock at night, it was of a sufficiently exciting character to be 
long remembered. 

My father also experienced a "hold-up" by wolves shortly after the incident mentioned. He 
had three liorses, t\\o of which he customarily drove in the team while the third was yet a 
colt. Returning one day from the village lie found tlie colt had disappeared. My mother 
told him the colt had gone toward the road now called the AVeish road running from the 
corners near Rock Island liridge to Richville. It was almost sunset but my father started 
for tlie colt through the woods, emerging near the present Rock Island cheese factory. 
There he was held up by five wohes, sitting on their haunches in the middle of the road, defy- 
ing liim to pass. He gathered a handful of stones, and opened the battle. His skill with his 
strong left arm stood him in good stead. As each missile whistled through the air, there came 
an answering hoMi from the pack. At last they gave way leaving him master of tlie im- 
mediate field. Knowing the treaclierous nature of tlie animals, he did not cease to guard 
against a rear attacli and walked backward the entire distance to the house wliere Addison 
Hall now li^'es, about half a mile, the wolves following and growling viciously. The shanty 
tlien standing at this place was owned by Cecil Rhodes. Elder Barnabas Hall, a spiritualist 
and L'niversalist, afterward owned the place. Meantime, my mother l)econiing frightened 
at the long absence of her husband, started at 12 o"clocl< midniglit to find him. She had a 
long tin horn, a usual hou.sehold necessity of those days, blowing it vigorously but getting 
no answering call. Two neighbors persuaded her to wait till daylight and about eight o'clock 
next morning, the colt and its owner appeared in good order. 

This is one of the events in the life of my father while living on the tract now known 
as the Corbin farm. There were many others of interest, enough to fill a book, but I will 
leave them to others to supply. 

I was born on this farm and in the log-house spoken of, July 10, 1823. At twenty I 
took a school in Edwards for the winter. The school-house was built of stone by a Scotch- 
man whose name I do not recall. I had 108 scholars through the winter, which was that of 
184.2-43. The next fall Laban Skinner and myself took a joli of driving 300 head of cattle 
to Boston for John Rhodes, then a merchant of Gouverneur. A\'e left Gouverneur in the 
last days of August, 1813, driving the cattle to jVntwerp where we put up for the night. 
AVe sat uji all night watching the drove to keep them from a grain field adjoining. Election 
time was just then approaching and Clay and Frelinghuysen were the Whig candidates and 
Polk and Dallas the Democratic nominees. The campaign following was an exciting and 
strenuous one. 

I.aban Skinner, my partner was a great singer, having been in the Presbyterian choir 
many years. About midnight he struck up a campaign song then current. Some of it I can 
remeinher and it ran thus: 

Now Polk and choke will alv\'ays rhyme. 

And Dallas and galhis are quite sublime. 
We'll dose the fox on tioke-root pizen, 

Harrah for Clay and Frelinghuysen. 
At Linden Hall the foxes hold, 

The coons all laugh to hear it told. 
Ha ! ha ! ha ! such a nominee 

As Jaiiies K. Po'k of Tennessee! 

Our own Silas Wright was nominated for vice-president with Polk but refu.sed saying 
that he "did not propose to ride behind on the black pony (slavery) at the funeral of his 
slaughtered friend Martin Van Buren." 

We arrived at Boston with the cattle in due time. I remained there M'ith relatives who 
were the ancestors of A. J. Holbrook, who will be remembered as cashier of Godard's 
Bank early in the 70's. He is now in the Boston post office. 

The year 1843 was one of salvation for the Millerite jiersuasion, or was expected to 



be at least. Sixteen miles from Boston where Wellesley College now stands, Skinner and 
I husked corn on our way home. We lost no opportunity to earn a dollar. The place 
was in a state of excitement over the expected ascension which had been predicted to occur 
from that hill. The trumpet was to sound, and the robes of white had been donned for 
entrance into glory. We waited for the trumpet but it wasn't blown while we were there. 
It is one of the curious circumstances that my daughter was sent to this spot years after 
for education at the college. My two oldest daughters were educated at Vassar. 

As I write this I am 8:2 years old. How long I shall be spared I know not, but I be- 
lieve what I have here written will prove of interest to all who enjoy Old Home Week or read 
Ihe History in which this will appear. 


By George H. Robinson. 

In the earlier days of the 19tl) century, when this part of St. 
Lawrence Coimty wrs sectionally settled by such Scotch families 
as the I^ockies, Dodds, Browns, Robinsons, Rodgers, McClarens, 
Brodies, Taitts, Dicksons, Clarks, Pring-les, Flemings, Hills, 
Nobles, Watsons, Clelands, Todds, Grants, Laidlaws, Darlings, 
Ormistons, Faiclineys, Stories, Hardies, and McDonalds, it was 
all a dense, howling wilderness, with only an occasional clearing, 
generally where a roving squatter had found temporary quarters 
for the time being, with only a blazed trail running through the 
timber here and there to mark the line or road, this being all that 
furnished a guide to the settlers in traveling from place to place. 
There was the prowling wolf, the migratory bear, the screaming 
George H. Robinson. panther or the almost domestic deer as it grazed on the 

succulent grasses, which furnished a rare treat to these beauties that roamed the wilderness 
aimost undisturhed. There under these conditions, the Scotchman found a home, and from 
the dense forest sturdily and unflinchingly hewed out productive fields, and in time gained 
a competence that, when death came, found them in position to render invaluable assistance 
to tliose who were in line to take up the worjc of their fathers and continue the chain of an- 
cestry transmitted to their care. 

In earlier years, here the Scotch planted their settlements, erected their homes, cleared 
the land, cultivated the soil and thus made the pre-historic home of the Indian, an Eden of 
thrift and a garden of civilization. Too much cannot be said of the industry of these first 
settlers from the ancestral home of a Wallace, a Bruce and of Burns, the Bard of "Bonnie 
Scotland," who in the inspiration of the hour sought to found and Imild up homes in the 
"land of the free," severed the ties that held them l)y the tender necessities of ehildliood 
and those most dear to them, and with that unselfish pre-eminent attribute that constitutes 
the man, became the instrument inspired by nature to help revolutionize and bring iiito use, 
and dex'clop, an old-created but newly discovered world in the hemisphere of the west. They 
have added much to the jjrosperity, wealth and thrift of their adopted town. As a factor of 
enterprise, their perseverance, invulnerable push and indomitable grit, have passed down 
through the several generations, which becoming instilled into the minds of their posterity 
here, accomplished much and will continue to be felt long after the commingling of the 
races and nationalities have absorbed, or nearly so, all lineal traces. In some cases the line has 
almost become obliterated, and can only be pointed out through certain families, by reference 
to some great grandparent, whose memory is more of the present than the past, and whose 
family ties are so remote, it would be hard to prove that any relationship ever existed. 
This may in the future be the outcome, but the past examples will never be erased from 
hi.story's page and will prove an incentive for future generations to emulate. There is not 


a town covered liy this history but has felt the impetus imparted to it by the iron nerve 
of the early Scotch settler and after giving truly deserved credit to other nationalities rep- 
resented here, a great vacuum would still exist had not tlie Scotch emigrants created their 
"Scotch settlements" throughout this section. No scheme of deception was ever tolerated 
in their ranks, \\hile the Holy writ was found in every home. The sacred family altar was 
erected at every hearthstone. The Bil)le and church obligations were first and all other 
things second. The fruits of their church-living example has permeated the entire common- 
v.ealth, and has done much toward holding down all insubordination that might have gained 
a footing here on our shores, and proved disastrous to our free institutions, our country, our 
homes, and our land. They have brightened the page of history by their unswerving alle- 
giance to their Christian faith and their devoted sense of duty to their friends, their high 
appreciation of the rights of American citizenship. The sanctity of the Sabbath they revered, 
and their fidelity to Christian principles was the sacred pledge of their intense loyalty. The 
latch string to their homes always hung on the outside of their doors, and needed no gilt 
edged, printed label of invitation, for in the benevolence of their hearts, none ever left 
their humble dwellings without aid. 


By Grace H. Corbin. 

I am indebted to the aged and highly respected Harvey Thompson for the peg upon 
which I shall hang these reminiscences of tlie musical past. 

That the early toilers in a new countrj' found time for musical recreation I have been 

Chorus music found expression in the singing-schools and church clioirs at a time when 
the violin and organ in the meeting-house were regarded as "instruments of the devil." 

Jas. L. Thompson, the father of Harvey Thompson, led the choir in the old Baptist 
church away bacli in the twenties and, it is said, he sang a fine tenor. His daughter Sophronia 
led the soprano with her small brothers, Oscar on the one side and Harvey on the other, 
and the voices of the entire choir rang out with clarion distinctness guided only by the 
key-note from Jas. Thompson's pitch-pipe. 

The Thompsons were all musically inclined, of whom nine brothers at one time practically 
comprised the choir. 

Early in the thirties David Wilcox, the itinerant singing-school master introduced the 
"fiddle," Isaac King, the flute; and Deacon Willard Guernsey the bass viol. Brother Wilder 
Guernsey sang a good bass and: was at one time the organizer and leader of a singing-school. 

Miss Emetine Smith, (now Mrs. E. H. Drake), and her sister Elizabeth were sopranos; 
Louis Loomis, tenor; John Leavitt, bass; Lydia Austin and Olive Barrell were among the 
choir singers of a later date. 

Joel Keyes conducted the Presbyterian choir for twenty years about the same time. 
Among the choir members was Thomas Goodrich who possessed a rare tenor voice. Mr. 
Goodrich had a large famil_v of children, who as soon as they could read music were given 
places in the choir; their names were Selina (the eldest), a soprano; John, Daniel, Mary, 
Julia, Ann, Robert, Charles, and Fidelia, also soprano. The latter, now Mrs. F. E. Burt, 
is a successful vocal teacher in Brooklyn; her daughters, Mary F. Burt and Julia A. Burt, 
have large classes in vocal and ])iano respectively in New York City. 

The late Mr. Howard Smith played the liass viol and John Goodrich the violin with the 
choir, during the ministry of Rev. B. B. Beckwith. 

Ca])t. Geo. B. Winslow will also be remembered as choir-master in the Presbyterian 
church with Maria Dodge, Sarah Barne\% William Roger and Jas. S. Black, Dr. Parmelee, 
Orville \'an Buren, Delia and Julia Cone and others in the choir. 

Glancing down the line to more recent times, we are reminded of a number of musical 


people active in the business and social life of the present day. The following "poetic" 
extract found in a scrap-booli, though in a humorous vein gives merited praise and reference 
to several always cordially welcomed on concert programs, in solo and cliorus. 


Now, Freddie (1) and ]?.ddie (2) the l<ids of our Choir, 

Well known to our musical people, 
The whole congregation their voices admire 

Resounding well up tow'rd the steeple. 

Gay Eddie's a hasso both valiant and bold. 

With voice that comes clear from his shoes, 
And Freddie's a tenor whose style we are told. 

Is what you'd expect him to choose. 

Sweet Alice, (3) soprano, the gem of the Choir, 

For lucre doth warble they say. 
But is not the laborer worthy her hire 

Who charmingly warbles high A? 

Our mezzo-soprano, (4) that good-looking dame. 

With voice low and sweet in its compass. 
Is not to be sneezed at by us, all the same, 

(We don't want to kick up a rumpus.) 

Now gaze on our alto (5) so gifted and mild. 

To solo she never aspires. 
Perhaps for this reason is never much riled 

As usual in other church choirs. 

And now comes the baritone, (6) liere j'ou get style. 

To paint him we cannot now tarry. 
He's firm and so faithful, but once m a while 

Gets mad as the very old Harry. 

At last comes our organist Ci3 pretty well Ijnown, 

Outside of our town — we admit it. 
He's too independent and somewhat high-flown. 

By Judas, I've just about hit it! 

A most pleasant duty it is to relate, 

What a blind man could almost see clearly. 
They (8) sing well together it's fair for to state. 

In harmony perfect — or nearly. 

(i) Fred. Hall. d) Ed. Van Duzee. (3) Alice Lawrence. (4) Mrs. H. Sudds. (5I Mrs. W. F. Sudds 

(6) Henry Sudds. (7) W. F. Sudds. (8) The choir. 

Although the days of the old-fashioned singing-school have 
passed, its good work in sight-reading and chorus will not be 
forgotten. With a broader scope and greater aspirations the 
Choral Union was organized and ably conducted for over ten 
years by Prof. W. F. Sudds. Their first concert program, April 
33, 1878, contained such numliers as "Festival Hymn," by D. 
Buck; "He watcheth over Israel" from "Elijah;" "Hallelujah" 
chorus from the Messiah. 

Soloists from away were several times secured for the Choral 
Union and other concerts of this period; Miss J. Etta Crane, Miss 
w. F, Sudds. Howe, and Miss Lillian Bacon will lie most pleasantly remembered 

on tliese occasions. 



A few extract numbers from these concerts may recall several pleasing musical affairs. 
Chorus. — "Song of the Vikings." 
^'iolin Solo. — Fantaise Melodique, - _ - - 

Miss Edith Norton. 
Song. — "Sing, Smile, Slumber," _ . _ - . 

Miss Julia Hotchkiss. 
Song. — "Thou Art Not Xear Me," _ _ - _ 

Mrs. Henry Sudds, 
liecitative and Bass Solo. — "The Heathen Raged," . _ _ 

Prof. Donaldson Bodine. 
Duet. — "Spring 1^'lovvers," _ _ - 

Miss Lillian Bacon and Miss Edith Norton. 
Solo with Violin Oliligato. — "Angel's Serenade," 

Miss Alice Lawrence. 
In these pleasant reflections over the highly creditable work done in song, our thoughts 
turn to many who have successfully followed other lines of musical culture. 

In the year 1869 a music department was established in the Gouverncur Wesleyan 
Seminary under Prof. Dains' princi])al.ship by Mrs. Jessie E. Paul, who during the six years 
of her work there, graduated a number of successful pupils. Miss Julia Hotchkiss, a pupil 
of Mrs. Paul has won recognition as a church soloist and teacher of music in New York 
City and in the South and West. 

Another was Miss Harriet B. Cutting, whose cherished name recalls not only a delightful 
artist of the piano Ijut also a beautiful character, whose untimely death came in the be- 
ginning of a promising career. Miss Cutting studied in New 'York under Hoffman and 
Dr. Mason, followed by a two years course in Berlin under Dr. Raif, where unremitting 
practice eight hours a day undermined her health. Returning to .Vmeri"a, she accepted 

W. F. Sudds 


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The Citizens' Baxd. 

Chas. M.Taitt fDirector,) Sulo Bb Cornet; W. R. Cros.sman, Bb ; Krlward James, Rh ; Louis Seff. ist Rb cumet ; 
Harry Hinton, 2nd Rh cornet ; Claude Gates, Eb cornet; Pearley Lytle, Piccolo ; Howard Peck. Kb Clarinet; Wm. R. 
Jone-s, P.b Clarinet ; George Seaman, ist Alto ; Alex. Laidlaw, Sr., 2nd Alto ; Lawrence Lewis, vd Alto ; Frank Living- 
ston. I.St Tenor ; Grant Kalev, 1st Trombone ; Elmer Lytle, 2nd Trombone ; Herbert Clapp, Raritone ; (iiiv Rebvor, Bb 
Rass ; Frank Turnbull, Kb Bass ; Earl Kenyon, Kb Bass ; Al. Clap]», Snare l>riim ; Carl Clapp, Bass Drum. Louis Boulet, 

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a responsilile ]iosition as teaclier of piano in a school of music in Springfield, Mass. A few- 
months later lier health gave way; slie returned to her home and friends where after a 
sliort illness she died. 

The following extract from a bill-poster dated June 30th, 1881, may revive pleasant 

"GRAND BAND CONCERT by the Gouverneur Cornet Band for the benefit of 
Prof. Frank Thompson, Cornetist ! Union Hall. Miss J. Etta Crane of Potsdam and Miss 
Harriet B. Cutting. A Fine Duet (the only copy) by the Misses Drake and Smith ! Union 

One of the established musical necessities of our village is the Citizen's Cornet Band, 
ill present under their popular leader, Mr. Chas. M. Tait. Its inspiration is essential to 
every patriotic demonstration and popular movement. 

Speaking of music and patriotism recalls a great celebration July 4th, 190.3, when fifteen 
tliousand citizens were assembled in our town to celebrate the nation's birthday. It was on this 
memoraljle occasion that sixteen leading society' young people in the quaint and picturesque 
liall gowns of a century ago danced to the strains of Mozart's Minuet from Don Juan dis- 
coursed liy the Citizens' Band; and Miss Von Goodnough won distinction liy singing "Tlie 
Star Spangled Banner" liefore the same large assembly. 

To Prof. Marsh is due the credit of estaljlishing the present system of music instruction 
in llie pul)lic scliools of onr village. 

Tliere is one singer whom Gouverneur is proud to claim and 
^\'ho is a universal favorite wherever her ricli contralto is lieard. 
Mrs. Edith Norton-ReussA^•ig is now singing in concert in New 
Yorli and conducts the singing in the First Baptist Church in 
Somerville, N. J. Tlie many friends of Mrs. Reusswig gladly 
accord to lier the first place among the vocalists of Northern New 

Tliere are others from our former towns-peojile wlio are truly 
missed in musical circles. Miss Anna Tumpson, now pianist and 
instructor in Connellsville, Pa.; yXlfred Mackay, an organist of 
much promise in Pittsburg, Pa.; Mrs. Bertha Huyette-Sudds, and 
Miss Helen Kecfer, formerly in the Presbyterian choir as solo 
sopranos are among them. 

In closing, this sketch would seem incomplete without general 
i-efercncc to those of musical culture who still remain with us, most kindly contributing their 
i;id and talents to the success of musical affairs. 

We have good choirs in all the churches, 
among whose conscientious leaders may be 
mentioned Mrs. H. C. Rogers of the Metho- 
dist, Mrs. Jennie Phelps-Corby of the 
Baptist, and Mr. Tait of the Presliyterian 
clmrclies, whose organist Mrs. Lillian Tait- 
.Sheldon is a favorite song comjioser. 

There are also the music teachers, culti- 
vating true musical taste among the young 
people under their instruction. 

Mr. Clarence M. Johnson and Miss Helen 
?iIarkH'ick, teachers and musicians of taste, 
together with several others form a group 
of music lovers proficient in their several 
lines of musical art. 

^\'h;^tcver else might be said of their good work will find sufticient reeord in the com- 
nendalion of Iheir many friends. 

Editli Norton Reus.swig. 

Mrs. H. C. Rogers. 


M. Johnson. 



By Florence Earle Pnyne. 

Undoulitcdly the virgin literary sod, in this locality was turned by the hand of Mrs. 
Cornelius Parker, \\hen she began in tlie year 1850 the preparation of the History of 
Gouverneur, afterward published in pamphlet form. With her husband, who was I'len a 
land agent, she made numerous excursions into the surrounding country and while he at- 
tended to his tnisiness she gathered material for future use from the older inhabitants. 
P-'ach succeeding year makes this work of greater value and although she has written and 
published continuously since that period, "The History of Gouverneur" is, and always will be 
the Alpha of local literary interest". 

Nelson Bruet of the firm of Bruet & Co. who purchased the "Northern New Yorker" 
the first paper published in Gouverneur, was a man possessed of a highty jioetical nature. 
Puring his residence in the tow.ns of Edwards and Gouverneur he mingled literary pur- 
suits with his ordinary calling. The paper was discontinued in 1851 and he removed to 
Jefi^erson, Wisconsin, where he practiced law until his death. The following is the only avail- 
able quotation. It is from an unpublished jjoem. 


" I take the rose kind brother 
AVhich thou hast offered me 
For thou niayst pick another 
From off the parent tree." 

"It came in the early morn, 
And midday saw its bloom, 
That ere another was born. 
To smile upon its tonilj." 

Miss M. M. Smith was a native of Dekalb. She was the pioneer among her sex in 
journalism in the town of Gouverneur. In those days adverse criticism followed the foot- 
.steps of woujen who walked in new and di\erging ]iaths, but she was prepared to 

" publish right or wrong 

Fools are my theme 
Pet satire be my song." 
By her fearless example she helped to emancipate her sex from the slavery of custom 
and blazed a trail for genius to follow when she published "The Rising Sun." She also 
published a novel entitled "Kick Him Down Plill." An artist of no mean abilit,y, she painted 
and dreamed until the light of her weird intellect became clouded and finally went out 
forever. She was removed to the hospital for the insane at Ogdensburg. 

Mrs. Cornelia McFalls is well known in this vicinity. In the heart of this village 
M'hich loves and appreciates her warm honest natured and versatile talent she has sung her 
sweet songs always. Although no literary "blue-stocking", for quoting from her own words, 
she can "work with ore hand and write poetry with the other," the very spirit of poesy 
breathes in every line of her dainty verses. The little gems "Forget-me-nots" from the pen 
of this author ought to have a place in this volume, but 

"We have a sprig of forget-me-not 
We are wearing for thee in our hearts." 
Mrs. Mary S. Gillette whose maiden name was V,an Ness, was born on a farm in the 
town of Rossie so near to the border of Jefferson County that she might easily have drawn 
inspiration from its magnetic soil. Much of her life wai spent in Watertown and among 
the "Thousand Isles," where she has a summer home. In the year 1878, she published a 
book entitled "Facts and Fancies," and in the year 1888 "The Pleasures of Memory" ap- 


peared in book form. Her rare talent and genial sunny disposition make her a welcome 
\isitor in the homes of her relatives and friends since the death of her hnsband. The fol- 
lowing lines are from "Facts and P'ancies." 

"Opal, and ruby, and amethyst, 
Their glories show by the moonbeams liissed. 
Shimmering down through the quivering wave, 
To light tlie halls of the sea queen's cave; 
Arabesques of quaint device, 
Of jewels rare of countless price, 
Hadst thou a voice how well thou could'st tell 
Of old ocean's wonders ! O beautiful shell." 

iSIiss Helen L Parker of Gouverneur is a marvel of literary activity. She is the 
Editor of the Grand Army Journal, a paj)er devoted to the interests of the Grand Army 
of the Republic, and its auxiliary, the Woman's Relief Corps. The Sons of Veterans, 
Ladies of the G. A. R. and other kindred societies all find s])ace in its columns. While 
thus occupied she finds time to lend a helping hand to every enterprise of any degree of 
merit that is projected in the town. She is a member of the New "i'ork Press Association 
and is a familiar figure at their annual gatherings. Althougli her business qualifications 
make her an important factor in the outside world, her greatest enjoyment is found in the 
home where she resides with iier widowed mother. 

.Macomb has furnished us an author of more than ordinary ability in James F, Sayre, 
Init Gou\'erneur now claims him as lier own. He was born in England, came to Macoml) at 
tlie age of five years and resided there until manhood. He is a veteran of the Civil War and an 
inventor of some merit — having lieen granted several patents. He lias l;een a contributor to the 
leading journals of Xew York, Albany and other cities for manj' years. His book "Lenore ajid 
I," a love story in verse, was favoralily reviewed liy the Saturday Review, Times of New York, 
and other journals. He has quite a numlier of unpuldished poems of equal merit that will 
c\'entnally Ije published in book form. 

"That man is fatlier of his fate 

Is the conclusion of the sages; 

His destiny he doth create; 

'Tis fruitage of liis deeds, the wages 

Of his own v\isdom, or his folly. 

One harvests mirth; one melancholy." — "Leaiire and I." 
.Miss Sarah E. Sprague, of Chicago, occupies a place as unique as it is lofty in the 
literary firmament. She was ))orn m Fowler and educatcc( at the Gouverneur Wesleyan 
Seminary, St. Lawrence LTniversity, and Oswego Normal Scliool. She was at one time part 
owner of an educational journal in Rochester, is the author of "Methods for Teachers" and 
has recently completed a series of Readers for a firm in Boston. Although her work lies 
mainly along educational lines, she has been a contriliutor to some of the leading journals 
of the day. While visiting a friend in Seattle, Washington, she wrote the words of the col- 
lege song adojited by the "University of Washington." This poem was copied into the New 
"i'ork Sun in choice selections of verse. 


From the, Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. 
Sound, ye trumjiels! Sound on high! 
Let your echoes fill the sky. 
Make a loud, triumphant noise, 
Sound the rally for the bojs; 
March from Maine and Tennessee; 
Sail for Cuba! Set her free! 


March from Western hill and plain, 
Wake the echoes once again; 
' Spain no more at us shall scoff, 

Spanish chains we'll help throw off. 
Every man from sea to sea, 
Fight for Cuba, Cuba free ! 

Let it never more lie said 
Babes and women cry for bread, 
Homes in flames and honor lost, 
While we stand and count the cost ! 
Shall these human vampires be? 
Wait no more! Set Cuba free! 

Rouse, Columbia! Lend a band! 
Drive the dastards from the land! 
Spanish rule denies a crust, 
Spanish soldiers glut their lust; 
Force them from the land and sea ! 
Rally, men ! Set Cuba free ! 

Helen Townsley Knox was born in Dekalb. She was educated at Houghton Seminary, 
married J. Earle Knox of New York City and resided there up to the time of her death, 
two years ago. She was for years a regular and v.ilued contriliutor to the columns of the 
"New York Simday Sun." With literarj' excellence she combined rare graces of character 
that greatly endeared her to every one with whom she came in contact. 

Sirs. Laura Stevens Allen won fame and money contriliuting to the columns of the New 
York Sun. Left an orphan at an early age, she made lier home with her aimt, Mrs. R. G. Sey- 
mour, of Hermon. She married Ernest Ij. Allen of Chicago, and during her residence in that 
city was a leading spirit of its most exclusive literary circle. She removed with her husliand 
from Chicago to New York, where his death occurred. 

Cornelius Carter, called the "Poet of the AdirondacivS," lived in the town of Edwards. 
Three years ago his poems were collected and published in book form. He was an ardent 
lover of nature and his verses are replete with descriptions of her beauties. He built for 
himself a cabin on the "Plains," where he lived sunmiers and many a weary sportsman has 
sought shelter vmder its hospitable roof. He served his town as Justice of the Peace and 
Supervisor. His death occurred recently at his home in South Edwards. One of his most 
popular poems was: 


P'arewell, thou lovely region. 

Long time Eve been with yoti. 
Have slept upon thy bosom 

And viewed thy peaks so blue. 

Have heard the scream of panther 

And hoarser growl of bear. 
Where game are wont to wander. 

On mountains bleak and bare. 

Where songs birds, at the dawning, 

Awake me from repose. 
And zephyrs soft and sighing 

Kiss petals of ttie rose. 


Where the cool, rushing river. 

Controlled hy laws that he, 
Goes wandering- on forever 

To the mysterious sea. 

Where God, the mighty Maker, 

Wrought mountains hold and grim; 
Made the hright sjiarkling water 

And valleys hroad and dim. 

Oh ! I coidd dwell supernal 

jVmid Thy spruce and pine 
Until the God Eternal 

Shall fold the wings of time. 

Farewell, then, lofty mountains. 

And you, ye valleys fair. 
For I must cross the waters, 

I'm summoned to he there. 

Miss Emma Paul of Goiiverne\ir is a young lady whose articles have occupied promi- 
nent places in the Cosmopolitan, Munsey, and other magazines. She was born in Quincy, 
Florida, and during the war was with her mother in a small town in Georgia, near Ander- 
sonville prison, some times in the midst of hostile troops. Her father attended school at 
the Gou^'erneur Wesleyan Seminary and her mother was at one time a teacher in the same 
institution. She is a graduate of Ives Seminary. 

Miss Cora Loomis of Gouverneur is a writer of verse and her early jiroductions gave 
great literary promise. 

J. S. Corbin is a prolific writer on Political Economy. Those who have read his pub- 
lished articles can not fail to apjjreciate his terse arguments and forceful manner of •sus- 
taining them, and those that treat of local events have great influence in moulding popular 
o]iinion. The stupendous task of preparing the "Souvenir History of Gouverneur," in such 
a short space of time, fell into his hands and it will always .stand as a fitting monument 
to both his executive and literary jiowers. lie was almost three score when the activities 
of a business life were laid aside, and a more frequent use of the pen permitted. 

Jesse T. Reynolds, who was a resident of this town at the time of his death and lived 
here the greater portion of his life, was the author of a book entitled "Conflict of Reason 
and Theology." History also shows that he figured cons])icuously in the literary growth of 
this town. 

Chas. Winslow, son of Capt. Geo. B. Winslow, a native of Gouverneur, was np to the 
time of his tragic deatli a v.'riter on the staff of the New York Tribune. 

Thomas DowniTig of Rochester, formerly of Macomb, has written several poems of greater 
or less merit. 

Harvey Ormiston wlio went West from tliis to\(n and died there was one of the verse 
writers of his time. 

To the town of Fowler belongs the honor of giving birth to that most talented son of 
the soil, AVillard Glazier. He reached the pinnacle of fame at one bound when he published 
the thrilling story, "The Capture, The Prison Pen and Escape," of which 400,000 cojiies were 
sold. This hook was followed liy "Three Years in the Federal Cavalry," 1870; "Sword and 
Pen," "Battles of the I'nlon," 187-1; ";\cross the Continent," 1H7(); "Heroes of Three Wars," 
1878; "Peculiarties of American Cities," 1883; "Down the Great River," 1887. In this latter 
hook he made the claim of discovering the headwaters of the Mississippi. In the controversy 
that followed he ably defended himself in a series of articles published in the "Albany 
Sunday Press." He was a most indefatigable worker and traversed hundreds of miles of 
territory and endured countless hardships to gain the necessary information for the prepa- 



ration of his books. Author, soldier, lecturer, explorer, gentleman, and neig:hl)or, it is not 
the privilege of Gouverneur to crown him Our Hero, tor his laurels have been won from a 
grateful nation. Alas ! "Taps" have sounded. "Put out the lights, a life is done." 

The veteran author, Edward Everett Hale, once took a journey through this section of 
country and in one of his early stories, "The Children of the Public," the scenes are laid 
in Gouverneur and Kossie, proving that even at that early date genius was stimulated by 
this bracing atmosphere. literary greed almost induces one to reach out and lay claim to 
the Sun of the North country, Irving Bacheller, but surely this town is to he forgiven for 
feeling that it has a mortgage on its idol and namesake, Gouverneur Morris. As he carries 
the name of Gouverneur higher and higher up the ladder of fame, the heart of this people 
will go with him always. 

This article is not designed as a complete and authentic history. Some there may be 
who scattered seed in hidden places. Unknown, modest flowers are these — 
So they bloom on, and breathe their incense uj) to Him 
Who made them, that they might perfume these hidden nooks. 
And scatter petals in the limpid purling brooks, 
That spots remote might catch the scent of violets. 


By James F. Sayer. 

Fair Gouverneur, my heart's delight; 

Would that I could thy charms recite 

In fitting strains, and render due 

Acknowledgements for all that you 

Have been to me since, when a boy, 

I felt the overflowing joy, 

That did my buoyant bosom All, 

When first from brow of Thompson's hill 

Thy presence on my vision burst. 

My mission then to slake my thirst 

For knowledge at the loved old Sem. 

That student's Mecca, 'twas no gem 

Of architecture; by the side 

Of what is now our city's pride 

'Twas small and mean, but O, its walls, 

To us who met within its halls. 

Are ever sacred, and will stand 

In memory as something grand. 

As luminary of the North, 
As pioneer who first held forth 
The torch of science, that did pour. 
From out the founts of classic lore. 
The rare enchantment of the past 
Into our lives. Too sweet to last 
Those halcyon days. The chapel bell 
In memory rings, but who can tell 
Where are the youths and maidens fair 
Who met with us for song and prayer. 
And sly exchange of glances fraught 
With meanings books have never taught? 
A few of them may yet be found 

Anear the old enchanted ground. 

But most have gone, some east, some west. 

And many, whom we loved the best. 

Who of us were the flower and pride. 

Have passed beyond the grand divide. 

And those of us, who yet remain 

On earthly shores, may as we drain 

The cup of life find it di^'ine 

As 'twas within this early shrine. 

The Oswegatchie winds between 

Enchanting shores where e'er it goes. 

But most inspiring 'tis I ween 

Where it so picturesquely flows 

Through Gou^'erneur. Its long grand sweep 

yVbove tne Town, its graceful curve 

Around the sacred soil where sleep 

Our loved and lost. And then the swerve 

To northward of its beauteous shores 

To where it musically pours 

Apparently iTito a lake 

Land-locked, northboimd by Easton's range 

Of hills, and here its features take 

Of such a transformation strange. 

Such swan's neck semlilance, that the l)end. 

The quiet graceful beauteous trend 

Out from the hill, leaves margin wide 

Upon the warm the sunny side 

Of rare poetic ground, with room 

For gardens fair below the home 

Of him who bountifully fills 

Our marts with grapes from native hills. 



One hundred rare eventful years 

Have passed since hardy pioneers, 

Of toil and hardships unafraid. 

The crude but sure beginnings made 

Ol thy fair self O Gouverneur! 

Tell me O Muse what was the lure 

That led thy founders from a home 

Of peace and plenty on to roam 

To Northern wilds, where hillocl<s wear 

Their cloaks of snow through half the year; 

Its very wildness had its charms. 

The air was bracing, strange alarms 

Were tonics, aye the panther's yell. 

And howl of wolves, that nightly fell 

Upon the lonely settlers ears, 

The unavowed, the fitful fears 

Of Indian raids, did send a thrill 

Through manly breasts, a sturdy will 

'I'o do and dare they fostered. Men 

Of mettle were determined then 

To win in face of dangers new. 

.Vnd so as soon as came to view 

The present site of this fair town, 

The new homeseelvers here laid down 

Their household goods, their penates, 

And fell to slaughtering the trees, 

And of tlieir corses shelters made 

For man and beast, and still they laid 

On sturdy blows, till ax and brand 

Had cleared a virgin spot of land 

For cornfields, wliile from forests round 

Tlie clearing, that did then resound 

With rifle shots, delicious meat 

Came fortli, rare venison and neat 

Rare furs for mats and clothing. Farms 

M'ere soon created, with the charms 

Of tingling cowbells, dinner horns. 

The low of cattle, and the morns 

Made vocal l)y ]>roud chanticleer. 

The cackling from his harem near, 

The happy grunts from pigs in sty, 

The turkey's gobble, and the cry 

Of hungry calves for absent dams. 

The bleating of the sportive lambs. 

The filly's whinney, while at play 

In pastures green, the stallion's neigh. 

The kitten's mew, and Rover's bark. 

Who with the children loved to lark. 

But Gouverneur although thy morn 
Of life was passed in fields of corn. 
And wheat, and pasturage for kine. 
The charms of nature did combine 
To change thy course. Thy very site 

Was beauty's self, it did invite 

New emigrations. Side by side 

Were built their dwellings, satisfied 

With small allotments, if so be 

The lovely river they might see. 

But not on loveliness alone 

Could people live, so the millstone 

Was started, a sure toll to win 

From grists of grangers, and within 

The settlement rose shop and store 

More trade to draw, and, as the more 

Home seekers came, more nouses new. 

And church, and schoolhouse rose to view. 

The streets extended, bridges spanned 

The witching stream. On every hand 

Was sound of hammers. Blocks arose 

To airy heights, and no one knows 

To what extent had gone the same 

Had not hissed forth from tongues of flame 

The word, "hath never city stood 

For long that's built alone of wood." 

Time after time the fire fiend raged 

Upon our streets; was not assuaged 

His fury, till were one by one 

The blocks rebuilt of wood and .stone. 

Serene between her guardian hills 

Lies Gouverneur. The wind that chills 

Is broken by kind Nature's wall. 

The Babcock hill, and Bald Face tall 

Always delays awhile the beams 

Of jnorn while we round out our dreams. 

O pleasant vale; did ever dream 

The early settlers by thy stream 

Fair Oswegatchie what a change 

The years would bring? Did fancy's range 

E'er picture how the oxcart slow 

Bv the barouche and the auto 

Would be displaced? How monthly mail 

M'ould change to hourly one by rail ; 

How cabins rude would be dis]ilaced 

By mansions, and cowpaths that laced 

The fields be changed to boulevards? 

And how unsightly stiunpy yards 

Would change to parks and velvet lawns. 

Fresh at the noons as at the dawns, 

yVU pearled and freshened by the showers, 

Born of the tall twin water towers 

On Crown of Bald Face? Shielders grand 

From and fire for us they stand. 

How fidl-cloth mill would yield its place 

To large palatial halls where lace 

Is deftly woven, being fair 

As snow falls hanging in the air. 



Or frost work on the window panes, 

Or drifting showers of apple bloom 

Within the dandelion's home, 

In the sweet-scented Mayday lanes? 

How, as time passed, the people good 

Would raze their temples built of wood. 

And meet for worship where divines 

Break bread of life in marble shrines? 

How that unsightly rocks, that marred 

The landscape, would be mined and carved. 

As costly marble, o'er our land 

To every part, to make more grand 

The architecture of our time. 

And monuments make more sublime? 

Our quarries, factories and mills 
To Gouverneur must give renown. 
But that which most the bosom thrills 
With pride, in this our queenly town, 
Is memory of the noble ones. 
And their succeeding stalwart sons, 
Who founded, prospered us, and saved 
Vs when secession's Ijanner waved. 
The household names of just a few 
To whom are ever honors due 
Are Austin, Babcock, Spencer, Smith 
And Porter, Patterson, and with 
The later ones are Walling bold. 
And Parker, Barney, Barnes who sold 
His life for freedom, our first one 

To lay his earthly all upon 
Our Country's altar; Wiuslow's band 
Of heroes, known as "Battery D," 
And scores of others, who our land 
From slavery did help to free. 

Now all who erstwhile breathed the air 
Of Gouverneur, come home, and share 
With us, on this centenial year. 
Our celebration, our good cheer. 
Come home from where is ever drouth 
Of glistening snow, the sunny South. 
Come to us from the Golden Gate 
From mountains grand, and prairies free. 
Come from the puritanic state. 
Come from the islands of the sea, 
Come from Alaska's fields of gold. 
Come from where\'er is unrolled 
Our starry flag, in east, or west, 
Or north, or south, come to the best, 
The dearest spot beneath the sun, 
To all who here their lives begun. 
Come from the cities, ships, and mines. 
Come lawyers, doctors and divines. 
Come teachers, authors, singers all. 
And by your presence, help to call 
Up pleasant memories of the past, 
And help a future to forecast 
Of wonderous growth, and large increase 
Of products of the arts of peace. 


By Alice Corbin Livingston. 

1,00k at the grim, rocky fortress iinown as Gray's Hill; let 
your mind revert to the pioneer settlers in the boldly-outlined 
forest who ga\e a kitchen corner and the penny of jirivation for 
a neigbliorhood library; dream of oriental splendors where the 
setting sun turns its diminishing lights on the rolling hills o'er- 
topping the Sheldon Creek; lose yourself in rugged reveries in 
the northern portion of the town where hills "rock-riblied and an- 
cient as the sun" per^'ade, or follow the Oswegatchie, caressingly 
winding its course in picturesque abandonment and you can readi- 
ly see how this normal, healthy child, Gouverneur, nestling in the 
foothills of the Adirondacks, owes its first charm to natural en- 

Within the mind strong fancies work, 

A deep delight the liosom fills. 
Oft as I pass along the bank 
Of these fraternal hills, 
the days when the roving schoolboy let down the bars of Waid's Pasture, to re- 
wintergreen lot beyond, or the local and prosaic drain-pipe emptied its slimy but 
iving waters at the roots of the maple whose foliage took on the shape of a 

Alice Corbin Livingston 
vel in the 



spliere, the goddess of peace has waved her olive-branch and the barriers of isolated selfish- 
ness called fences, are removed, ]ea^'ing tlie verdant lawns as emerald carpets whereon the 
fonimon family of mankind may walk. 

The beauty of the homes of Gonvenieur is not in the lavish expenditure of wealth, for 
it has no palaces, but in the care for the little details which make home attractive. The care- 
fully trimmed lawns are sufficiently large to give tasteful settings to the homes. In the old 
■world the pavement takes tlie place of the sod here. As a consequence, there is a grey ap- 
proach, rejjellant, cold and austere. There is infinite detail and difference in the dwellings, 
for the distant architect has invaded the place, and so, no two are cut to the same pattern. 
In many the touch of personal fancy and conceit in landscape decoration, given perspective 
by broad streets and artistically arclied elms and maples, separated liy the smooth, white 
macadam of the streets, make Gouverneur a city set on a hill and the most beautiful town 
in this or any state. 

"Beauty is truth," and truth manifested herself like a green bay tree and lo! old 
Gou\'erneur Weslej'an Seminary is replaced by the modern high school, symmetrical and 
severe, but expressing in its architectural lines good substantial thought for good substantial 
jieople. It is an advance upon the old grej' sandstone wall to which never an ivy clung. 
"The drooping flower of knowledge changed to the fruit of wisdom" and as nature lavished 
her wealth in mottled marble veins, the churches, outgrowing the sombre and ultra orthodoxy 
of the past, took on new and splendid garments. Truly, Gouverneur is a city of churches 
and one feels the silent influence of these stately edifices, the homes of thought and aspiration 
suggestively realized. 

"Kver the Rocl'C of Ages melts. 

Into the mineral air. 
To be the quarry whence to build 
Tliought, and its mansions fair." 
Xor is the commercial world lacking in the artistic. Devastating fires have resulted only 
in fine lirick and marble buildings, whose sky-lines do not bespeak the "overreach" but rather 
a dignified concept for a practical people. 

As the inner, true life needs not the blare of trumpet to make it known, so the modest 
but elegant liljrary strikes the keynote. 

"If thou indeed derive thy light from heaven. 

Then to the measure of that heaven-born light 
Shine, Poet in thy place and be content." 

One of the few remain- 
ing landmarks, the con- 
fidant of every child 
while in the joys and 
sorrows of school-life, is 
tlie bit of woodland, 
Dodge's Grove, a pleasure 
land which Nature fram- 
ed for her delight, resting 
in the very heart of the 
busy town. This, too, 
now bears the guinea 
stani]). Homes are claim- 
ing the right of way and 
to the shame of Gouver- 
neur, the only native for- 
est remaining is nearing 
the mournful condition of 
"something remembered, 
something lost." 

Main Street and tlie Park 


Riverside, gently sloping in undulating waves toward the scarce-moving Osvvegatchie, 
gives the beholder a glimpse of quiet stream and green meadow, where each bright blossom 
mingles its perfume with that of flowers which never bloomed on earth. Reverent care of an 
unconsciously conceived idea, aided by nature's kindly thought, has converted God's Acre into 
a fitting place in which to dream of the Sabbath of Eternity. 

The most pardonable pride a Gouverneurian has in his beautiful town is the natural 
fall of water ami its crescent rapid below, at Natural Uam. The steep and lofty marginal 
cliffs join the landscape with the quiet of the sky. The little lines of sportive wood run 
wild, impress one with thoughts of deep seclusion, made (^uiet liy the harmony of the water's 
ceaseless song so that one forgets the rumbling- mill-wheels near. 

As the mind's eye rests upon this beautiful city in a Ijower of interarching foliage, the 
focal point is the simple, symmetrical Park, located in the center of the mart, surrounded 
by stores, banks, churches and educational halls, it seems silently to speak "Thou art troubled 
about many things — rest." 

Many castles in Spain had been built ere all this wholesome taste manifested itself. The 
inner and outer eye had become so adjusted as to recognize beauty as a commodity, because 
when utility becomes artistic, it is re-created and in turn gives a higher grade of usefulness. 
Possibly because of its location, Gouverneur was first artistic, then utilitarian, and these in 
turn gave this blending of the practical and the beautiful, an expression of the One Mind 

"Beauty through my senses stole, 
I yielded to the perfect whole." 


By Nettie Sternberg Whitney. 

Household Antiquities — The very words carry our thoughts back to our grandmother's 
attic ! How we spun an imaginary thread on the great wheel or, perchance, brought from 
their corner, the candle-moulds or cherished foot-stove. 

We little thought, then, the old spinning-wheel, relegated to the attic when not in actual 
use, would today hold a place of honor among our cherished treasures. It was only an 
article of service. On it was sj5un the yarn which was later made into all manner of woolen 
materials for the household. 

The blankets were woven at home; the "full-cloth" for men's garments was woven and 
colored by the same hands; the stockings and mittens Nvere knitted by the kitchen firelight; 
and if there still remained a few spare hours, the daughter of the house might be found busily 
engaged upon a piece of homespun cloth, fashioning her one garment of luxury, — a quilt; 
i. e., a woven petticoat, quilted by hand. 

The little flax-wheel, with its distaff so enticing to the novice, ^^'as another busy article 
of the household machinery. 

The flax was gathered from the fields and spread upon the ground to cure. When de- 
composed so the chaff or straw would break from the flax, it was taken up and threshed; 
the coarser or tow part removed, and the finer part or flax, twisted into hanks for the distaff 
of the fiax-wheel. The tow was spun into coarse yarn, which in its turn was woven into 
heavy linen cloth suitable for men's working clothes, overalls, and grain bags. The flax 
made a finer grade of linen which was converted into tablecloths, sheets, towels, etc. The 
very finest grade was reserved for the Sunday shirt, with its collar attached; the white vest 
and linen trousers; the embroidered petticoat, collars and cuff's; and the vallances for the 
spare bed. 

From the products of these two wheels, the famous coverlids of our grandmother's days, 
were made. After spinning, the woolen yarn was doubled, twisted, and reeled into hanks or 
skeins. It was then colored and when dry, put upon the swift from which it was wound, by 
a quill-wheel, upon quills or spools for the shuttle of the loom. 


The bleaching of the linen yarns required an equal amount of labor, so the making of a 
coverlid was no small undertaking. The designs were quite elaborate, though usually of a 
conventional form while the colors were blue and white, occasionally changed for red or 
green and white. While designs and colors might vary, one principle remained fixed — each 
coverlid contained white yarn and that was always linen. The art of coverlid weaving was 
not confined to the women. Many men were adepts in this work. 

Another treasured possession was the down bed, often used as a covering. Imagine 
sleeping upon a feather bed with a down bed over you ! Yet, how many boys, whose later 
years were made famous by deeds of valor, have finished the day's labor and sought repose 
on a bed whose mattress was a husk tick; whose springs were supplied by the old rope bed- 
stead; and whose covering was a down bed. 

The warming-pan was a newer device for the comfort of the guest. It consisted of a 
large, round, shallow dish, usually of brass or copper, with a hinged cover and a handle 
about four feet long. Burning eml^ers were put into this pan, the cover securely fastened, 
and it was then moved about the bed between the sheets. Its warmth must have been very 
welcome when one considers that many a house bad no stove and but one fire place. The 
foot-stove was an invention which partially filled a long felt want, because of its portability. 
These little stoves, usuaDy from eight to twelve inches square and six or eight inches high, 
were of perforated tin or sheet iron. Their fuel was a charcoal of domestic manufacture. In 
winter the stove was carried by its bail-like handle to church or in sleighs on the journey to 

The great clock, its face painted so white, its weights of iron and whose interior 
mechanism was made entirely of wood and whittled by hand, came as a much needed piece 
of housefurnishing. Previous to the invention of the clock and sun-dial, the house-wife 
reckoned the flight of time by a certain shadow and a crack in the floor or some such sta- 
tionary mark. History records several instances where the grandfather's clock with its 
roomy case, has safeh^ sheltered some member of the family from the attack of Indians. 

The introckiction of candle-molds lessened the housewife's labor not a little. The original 
method of doubling the wicks and then coating them with tallow, by clipping them 
into the hot liquid; suspending from a slender wooden rod between two chairs, until dry; 
and then repeating this ]")rocess until the wicks attained the size of a candle, was long and 
tedious. The n)Oidds were easily threaded with the wicking and as easily filled with the hot 
tallow. U'he absolutely necessary accomjianiments of these tallow candles — the snuffers and 
tray — were aln'ays ^lithin reaching distance. Occasionallj^ tlic candle-sticks, snufi'ers and 
tray woidd be of brass or pewter, lint generally speaking, the candle-sticks, because of their 
required numbers, ^\'ere of tin or wood. In the humblest homes, sometimes a turnip was 
whittled into sliape and made to do service as a candle-stick. Then the fingers of the 
master or mistress of the house did the work of the snufi'ers. The candle was followed by 
the fluid lamp. The first of these were of pewter, aljout three or four inches across, either 
round or oval in shape, and having at one side, a jirojection about two inches long. In them 
were burned tallow, bear's grease, or oil, b}^ means of a bit of rag or candle wicking which 
lay on the little projection and extended into the fluid. Each lamp was supplied with a chain 
and hook or spike, by which it coidd be hnng from a nail or fastened into the back of a 
chair if the light was needed louver. These were called Betty I^amps. 

The old brass and iron knoclscrs were not as utilitarian as ornamental The first door 
fastenings «-ere wooden latches, worked by a latch string which hung through a small hole, 
outside the door. To lock the door, was simply to pull the string within the hole, thus cutting 
ofi' all means of lifting the latch from without. Small wonder is it that a more ornate 
decoration for the main entrance of the home was soon devi.sed, and found its expression in 
these knockers which were the ancestors of our present day door bells. 

The kitchens were always cheerful with the glow from the huge fireplaces. On hooks 
against the chimnej', hung the cherished nmsket, which in Colonial days was often called the 
"Queen's-arm." Nearby hung the mould which shaped the musket bullets. Think of the 
necessary labor! One at a time, they were run from the molten mass, cooled and extracted. 


The chief furnishing of every firephice was the andirons — simple or elaliorate, as the 
means of their possessor might allow. For the kitchen fireplace, iron was usually chosen, 
while for the best room they might he of brass or even steel. 

In some homes the \'ery costliest jiossessions — the pots and kettles — hung I'.y pot-hook, 
crane or trammel, within the chimney place. The great brass or copper kettle often held 
twelve gallons. The iron pot might weigh thirty pounds and lasted in daily use for several 
generations. The iron skillets, gridirons, bake-kettles, and Dutch ovens were all made to 
stand on legs. Sometimes in the fireplace corner stood several three-legged iron stools, of 
different heights, called trivets. By tlieir use, the desired proximity to the fire might be 
obtained. The need for this stilting up of cooking utensils is evident. If the bed of coals was 
too deep for the pots or skillets legs, then it must stand on a trivet or be suspended from above. 
From its swinging crane hung the iron teakettle with abbreviated spout and bulging sides. 
How clear the voice of its song, yet I have heard remarked of it, — "grandmother used to boil 
eggs in her iron teakettle". 

Even toasting-forks and frying-pans were fitted «ith long, adjustable, wooden handles, 
which helped to make more endurable the heat from the blazing logs. Occasionally the fire 
did not crackle and blaze. Then the bellows \\as brought from its corner and the family 
cook proceeded to blow up the refractory flames. 

In some kitchens the rotary paring machine had been installed and the product of the 
orchard and field thus finished, might be seen hanging from the ceiling, in long festoons of 
dried apples and circles of golden pumpkin. 

The rare old china, so much sought after today, occupied a place on the kitchen dresser; 
timing rooms being chiefly in the great or town houses. The "flowing blue " mulberry and 
willow pieces \(ere most in exidence, and proud indeed was the wife who could boast a set of 
dishes and a toilet set of the same pattern. The shapes of the dishes appear very quaint to 
us. Tea pots, sugar bowls, and cream pitchers often had legs while cups rarely had handles. 
The huge tureen and the platters of corresponding size were the cherished members of the set. 
Wooden plates, two-tined forks, and steel knives with bone handles, and pewter spoons were 
the usual accompaniments of the snowy homemade tablecloths. This last named article was 
sometimes entirely lacking, the neatly scoured lioards bei)ig' without cover. 

Among the more elegant labors of the busy housewife, the arts of embroidery and lace 
making were paramount. 

Who can describe the hours of patient industry beside the glowing hearth or flickering 
tallow candle? Who knows the hopes or fears that were woven into her silent stitchery? 
We only know that from her inherent love of things beautiful and her equal devotion to her 
self-imposed tasks, there were wrought for us those rare old treasures. Treasures of a 
time long passed away and whose memories fade with each succeeding generation. As we 
fondle the filmy "Tulip under-sleeves," literally covered b)' its pattern of eyelet embroidery 
or gaze at the quaint cap of hand-run bolibinet lace, we often wonder how so much time 
could have been devoted to such tasks. Each piece represents so many hours, taken from 
a sturdy life; but not purloined from the necessary drudgery of every pioneer woman. 



Its CoNt'EFTioN, Development and Consummation. 

By F. H. lyamon. 

Tlie idea of iitteni])ting to interest the people of Goinerneur in an "Old Home Week" 
gathering, in commemoration of the one hnndreth anniversary of the settlement of the town 
of Gouverneiir, was suggested to ri\e in Fehrnary last, by the effort then being made by the 
]>ei>ple of Jefferson County in a similar enterprise. 

A personal canvass was made by me, among influential citi- 
zens, who without exce])tion gave words of approval and prom- 
ises of support when the scheme was briefly outlined before 
them. This gave the needed encouragement and on Feliruary 21 
the Northern Tribmie pulilisbed the first story on the subject. In- 
dications of interest immediately cropped out on all sides, enab- 
ling the Tribune the following week to tell of the sentiment that 
had licen aroused and to publish several letters of commendation 
from prominent citizens. A week later, the time seeming right, 
another ]iersonal canvass A\as made with the result that a public 
F. H. Lamon. meeting was called by J. S. Corbin, G. S. Conger, S. F. Hartley, E. 

D. Barry, .J. B. Johnson, Amasa Corbin, W. R. Perrin, J. G. Clutterbuck, and F. W. Sprague, 
as a temjjorary committee, for Thursday evening, March 9, at the village l)oard room in Masonic 
Temple, with the following citizens present: J. A'. ]5aker, A. V,. Cushinan, H. O. Johnson, 
Charles M. Taitt, E. W. Abbott, B. F. Brown, F. M. Holbrook, Fred Norton, E. H. Neary, J. 
B. Johnson, G. S. Conger, F. W. Sprague, H. C. liogers, S. F. Hartley, George I^. Tait, and 
¥. H. Lamon. 

Judge Conger was chosen chairman and F\ H. Tamon secretary. Tlie purpose of the 
meeting;, namely, to consider the advisability of holding an "Old Flome Week" gathering, 
was ex])lained, and the plan lieing ajiproved by all present, it was unanimously voted that 
it was the sense of the meeting to hold an "Old Home Week". A committee for selecting a 
date and providing a place for holding a second jiublic meeting, was appointed, consisting of 
J. V. Baker, S. 1''. Hartley, B. G. Parker, J. B. Johnson, and B. F. Brown. 

The second meeting was held in Masonic Temple Hall, Thursday evening, March 10, 
Judge E. H. Neary, presiding. The Inisiness session was preceded by a short entertainment, 
consisting of a solo by Orvis Hesselgrave, readings by Misses Blanche Hodgkin and Blanch 
Van Derzee, followed by an adth-ess liy Col. Martin li. Sackett, United States Consul at 
Prescott, Ont., and remarks by J. S. Corl)in, Allen Wight, t'\ M. Holl)rook, Fred H. Norton 
and others. The scheme was heartily ap])roved by the 300 or more persons present. A per- 
manent executive committee consisting of Amasa Corbin, J. B. Johnson, B. F. Brown, A. T. 
Johnson, Walter W. Hall, and H. G. Aldrich was named, Amasa Corbin being elected presi- 
dent, F. H. I^amon, secretary, and Henry Sudds, treasurer. This executive committee was 
empowered to create suli-committees and to ha\'e entire charge of the undertaking. Mr. 
Corliin was out of town at the time of his election, but on his return, accepted the office as 
did all the others. At a meeting shortly succeeding Mr. Corbin's return, y\ugust 34-30 was 
the time selected for holding the "Old Home Week" gathering and Centennial celebration. 

'l"he jiroblem of financing the enterprise was solved by the decision to publish an illus- 
trated souvenir history of the towns of Gouverneur, DeKalb, DePeyster, Macomb, Rossie, 
Hammond, Fowler, and Hermon. To raise the money required on a legitimate basis, by 
giving tlie public a work of value, instead of attempting to solicit donations proved to be 
the keynote of success. J. S. Corbin was selected as historian-in-chief, to be assisted by half- 
a-hundrcd persons, each selected with a view to his ])eculiar fitness for handling the subject 
assigned. How well their work was done is shown by the volume of which this article is a 

Suliscri))tions f(n- the history were solicited by the members of the executive committee, 



the secretary and a few others who were anxious to have the undertaliing a success. The first 
$800 was quickly raised. Increased effort brought it to the .$1000 mark. Buyers soon became 
scarce and by the time ,$1200 had been received, the committee was about to abandon the 
undertaking. In the meantime, there had been consideraWe talk of erecting a monument to 
the memory of the pioneer settlers and the soldiers and sailors of the town of Gouverneur, 
in connection with the celebration. In ]5lace of the monument, i). G. Scholton, village presi- 
dent, suggested a memorial arch for which he submitted a design, upon which. President 
Corbin at once declared himself in favor of the arch. With the "Old Home Week" and the his- 
tory to finance, however, Mr. Corbin, felt that to take on the l)urden of erecting the arch 
would require more tiiue than he could afford to give. It was a case of "live or die" for 
"Old Home Week." A meeting of the execntive cnn'niittee was held, consequently, on Thurs- 

day, May 4, at which it was found that but $1^00 worth of histories had l)een sold. "Boys, 
if you will show me .$3000 in subscriptions for the history by Saturday night, I will agree 
to finance the arch," was the stalenient made by Mr. Corbin. This inspired renewed courage 
but wlien Saturday night arrived, several hundred of the $3,000 were still lacking. It wa,s a 
dramatic moment, when J. B. Jolinson slowly arose and imjiressively offered a document 
containing the signatures of tlie following citizens: W. W. Hall, H. C. Rogers, B. F. Brown, 
W. R. Perrin, B. G. Parker, J. B. Jolinson, F. H. Lamon, J. B. Thompson, E. W. DufiHe, 
D. G. Scholton and J. V. Baker, each of whom agreed to pay for enough copies of the his- 
tory at the standard price of $5 per volume to make up the deficiency. The smile of appre- 
ciation which radiated from the president's face was worth all the chances the "boys" were 
taking. Turning to Mr. Scholton, he said: "Prepare the working drawings of the arch ac- 
cording to the design you have submitted and give me a perspective view drawing at the 
earliest date possible." "Old Home Week" was thus saved from a humiliating death, and 
the illustrated history and the memorial arch were assured. 

The work of compiling historic data, pict\ires and tjiographical sketches, and of securing 
subscriptions for the history was now taken up with greater enthusiasm. Business men left 
their desks and went out among the people in the interests of "Old Home Week." By main 
force, the idea was lifted, boosted and carried to a trimnpliant success. 

A distinctive part of this success was owing to the idea of the memorial arch which im- 
mediately became popular. Bids for furnishing the stone and erecting the arch were asked 


for from producers of Gouvernciir marble, the contract being awarded to the Extra Dark 
Marble Company for $1()50. Permission to erect the arch over the walk crossing the park in 
East Main Street was unanimously voted by the Board of A'iUage Trustees, after which it 
was decided that tlie first ceremonies would take place most a])propriately on Memorial Day. 

At 11:45 on the morning of Memorial Day ground was broken for the arch. The ceremony 
was a simple, yet impressive one. Following the rendition of "Home, Sweet Home," by the 
Gouverneur Citizens" Band, President Corhin made a few remarks appro])riate to the occasion 
and invited Christopher Brow.n as one of the oldest natives of the town, to remove a spadeful 
of earth from the site of one leg of the arch, and Osmon Welch as one of the oldest veterans 
to perform a similar service on the site of the other leg. Others of Gouverneur's elderly and 
honored citizens followed, among them being E. W. Abbott, J. D. Easton, yVUen Wight, Ward 
C'lazier, Elijah Bailey, Harvey D. Thompson, Frank M. Holbrook, P. P. Clark and George S. 

A contribution of .$150 from E. H. Barnes Post G. A. U. formed the nucleus of a fund 
for financing the arch. The balance of the money is being raised by popular subscription, 
hundreds of men, women and children giving accortling to their means. The corner stone 
of the arch was laid on Flag Day, the name of every contrilnitor to the fund lieing deposited 
in the stone. The U. S. Government will, it is ex]iected, donate a Dalgren gun to be mounted 
upon the arch, which is to be comjileted and dedicated "Old Home Week." 

The plans for "Old Home Week" include a series of high class entertainments, morning, 
afternoon and evening for seven full days. Re-unions of Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary 
students, of the veterans, churches, ^Masons, Odd Fellows, Foresters, JIaccabees, and all fratei- 
nal organizations; liand concerts in the ])ark afternoons and evenings, triumphal arches erected 
at several points in the tillage, prominent personages of state and nation to be present and 
royally entertained, a day set apart for the opening of Gouverneur's industries, the lace mill, 
paper mill, marlile quarries, and talc mills and mines; an industrial parade, and military and 
civic demonstrations; public buildings decorated, electric fountains and illuminations making 
the business section spectacular at night. Among the entertainments offered will be festival 
choruses, an opera. Ball of the Silver Greys, banquet to distinguished visitors, parades, serious 
and comique, a tournament of knights with a crowning of the Queen of Beauty. A log 
cabin is to be erected at headquarters for a historic loan association, and as a bureau of infor- 


By H. Sudds. 
Previous to 1860, Gouverneur was without Banking facilities, the few residents of the 
town ivho foimd it necessary to borro\\' from Banks, being obliged to go to Watertown or 
Ogdensburg, and as the good old custom then prevailed of requiring all notes to be abso- 
lutely paid at maturity, borrowers wovdd "skirmish round" and borrow or pick up enough of 
the bills of other banks to pay their notes, and could then get a new note discounted and 
receive the proceeds in the bills of the lending bank, it being a great object with the banks 
in those days, to keep their bills in circulation. 

In the year 1860, however, shrewdly foreseeing the future growth and needs of the 
village, and witli due regard to their own interests, Charles Anthony of Gouverneur and 
James G. Averill and William J. Averill of Ogdensburg became the pioneer bankers of 
Gouverneur and on the first day of October of that year, began the banking Imsiness under 
the firm name of Charles Anthony & Co., in the small, white, one-story wooden building pre- 
viously used by Mr. Anthony as a law office, standing on the site of the store now owned by 
Mrs. Helen Draper and occupied by G. P. Taitt & Son as a dry goods store. Mr. Anthony 
already had a small brick vault in the office, an old safe was borrowed from Ogdensburg and 
a cheap desk and counter provided, although for a few weeks, Mr. Anthony personally did 
all the work and received the deposits on his law table. 

The paid in capital was only §10,000, one-half contributed by Mr. Anthony and the re- 



inainder l)y the Averills, but owing- to the known financial strength of the partners, the firm 
enjoyed unlimited credit, and if, as was sometimes the case, the cashier had to "skin round" 
on the street to pick up currency to meet checks, no one was in the least disturbed, l)ut if they 
could not get their money that day, they woidd wait till the next. 

The business increasing, Mr. Holiert P. AVilson was employed to do the clerical work, 
which he contiiu ed to do, till on the breaking out of the Civil War in 18(il, he enlisted and 

the position was offered to Henry Sudds, who for the next four or five years did all the liank 
work and also a good deal of law copying, until the increasing business of the bank required 
all his time. He was then appointed Cashier and continued to fill that position, with various 
assistants, till early in 1871, when he resigned to engage in the banking business in Ogdens- 
burg and Andrew J. Holbrook was ap|iointed in his place. 

In 1873, the prosperity of the concern warranted and required better accommodations 
and it was removed to a new and conmiodious building at the corner of Main and Park 
streets, where the business is .still carried on, although the interior has re?ently been entirely 
remodelled, resulting in the elegant and up-to-date banking room now in use. 

Early in ]H'ii, Mr. Holbrook's management not being entirely satisfactory, Mr. Sudd.s, 
whose new business had not been very successful, was offered and accepted his old position. 


ooiitiiniing on without change until 1879, when the partners heing well advanced in years, 
decided to incorporate, and the business was merged into a State Bank, called the Bank of 

Of the members of the firm of Charles yVnthony & Co., Charles Anthony, afterwards 
President of the Bank of Gou\'erneur, died in 189^ and was succeeded liy Newton Aldrich. 
William .J. Averill, afterwards Vice-President of the Bank of Gouverneur, died in 1897 and 
was succeeded l)y Henry Sudds. James G. Averill died in 189(1 

The business of Charles Anthony & Co. had always been fairly successful and although 
the partners had regularly drawn dividends at seven ])er cent, l)esides two or three large 
extra dividends, one of them equalling the entire capital, the remaining capital and accumu- 
lated earnings were sufficient to provide the entire .$50,000 capital of the new liank, and to 
divide up about $^5,000 more on the fiiud closing up of its affairs. 

On the seventh day of July, 1879, the Bank of Gouverneur began business with Charles 
xVntliony as President, William J. Averill, Vice-President, and Henry Sudds, Cashier, one- 
half the stock being owned by Charles .Anthony and the other half by the Averill familj'. 

In 188i?, Henry Sudds became a stockholder and director and in 1883 it being thonglit 
best to take in a few other prominent business men as stockholders, the capital was increased 
to ,$80,000. It was further inci-eased to $100,000 in 1891, this time by a Stock Dividend from 
the accumulated earnings, and Mr. Newton Aldrich and his son became stockholders at that 
time. In the year 1900, James O. Slieldon, who had filled the position of Teller for .several 
years, was appointed Assistant Cashier and now acts in both capacities. The Bookkeepers of 
the bank have been successively, C. I. Cushman, H. H. Noble, Frank B. Hoover, George W. 
Smith and Leon B. JIurray. 

After a continuous ex))eriente of almost forty-five years, and pa.ssing through the many 
periods of panic and depression occurrmg during that time, the numagers feel an honest pride 
in the fact that all obligations have been met on demand, that no customer has ever lost a 
dollar by them and that the institution is at the present time, larger, safer and in better 
condition than ever, and while their earnings and profits have been by no means phenomenal, 
they have been considerably better than the average, the records showing that while the amount 
of capital actually paid in has been only $40,000 and $30,000 of that no longer ago than 1883, 
there has actually been paid in dividends: 

By Charles .Anthony & Co .$ 5,5,000 

By Bank of Gouverneur 180,-^00 

.Add to this the present Capital and Surplus 154,000 

Making a total of ,$389,. '00 

And showing a profit of $349,300 on tlie $40,000 paid in. 

The increase in business is well shown by the fact that while in June 1880, the 

Ca])ital and Surplus was $ 00,000 

.\nd the Deposits 135,000 

The respective amounts are now: 

Capital and Sur])lLis $154,000 

Deposits 440,000 

The list of former Directors, now deceased, includes the well known names of Charles 
Anthonv, James G, Averill, William J. Averill, AViUiam H. Averill, Edwin G. Dodge and 
William R. Dodge; the present Directors are, Henry Sudds, Newton Aldrich, Charles H. 
.Anthony, Edward D. Barry, James H. Rutherford and Herbert G. Aldrich, and the officers 
are Newton Alclrich, President; Henry Sitdds, A'ice-President and Cashier, and James O. 
Sheldon, Assistant Cashier. 

The Bank has for some years paid its stockholders ten per cent per annum, besides paying 
all taxes. 



By Leslie Bwrdiok. 
The First National Bank of Gouveriieur, N. Y., was organized February 19th, 1881, by 
Hon. George M. Gleasoii, Hon. Heniy R. James, Hon. Dolphus S. I.ynde, Abel Godard, Law- 
son M. Gardner, A. L. Woodworth, Hon. Leslie W. Russell and Hon. Newton Aldrich, The 
above named constituted the first Board of Directors and, with Mr. Gleason as President, Mr. 

,\idricli as "v'ice President and Mr. Woodwortb as Casliier, the l)ank ojieneel for business 
April -'nd, 1881, with a paid up cai)ital of .^i.iJ.OOO.OO. 

In 1891, F. M. Burdick .succeeded Newton Aldrich as Vice-President and in 1901 was 
elected to succeed G. M. Gleason as President, who retired on account of ill health but 
retained his place as Director until his death later in the same year. 

Fred H. Haile was elected Vice-President in 1901, and A. L. Woodworth has been 
Cashier since the hank wa.s organized. 

The present Board of Directors consists of F. M. Burdick, President; Fred H. Haile, 
Vice-President; A. I^. Woodworth, Cashier; y\rthur T. Johnson and Lorenzo Smith. The 


bank now has the same amount of capital, if55,000.00, an earned surplus fluid of S|il9,'J00,00, 
and undivided ])rofits of $10,000.00. The deposits amount to about $4.00,000.00. 

During its existence the institution has enjoyed uninterrupted prosperity as may De oest 
shown by the fact that it has paid in di^'idends to its stockholders tlie sum of $116,600.00. 

After a period of nearly twenty-five years the constantly increasing business necessitated 
the enlargement of the banking rooms which was done during the past year. New steel ceil- 
ing and wall coverings have beautified the interior, while modern office devices, new desks and 
a copper bronze railing on the counter facilitate the haiulliug of business. 

The books, pa])ers and records of the bank are all contained in a separate modern fire 
proof book vault, fitted with metal filing cabinets and appliances for their proper care and 

In these improvements the greatest stress was laid upon safety and security, and to this 
end was constructed a modern fire and burglar proof steel safe deposit vault. This structure 
is in full view of the street both day and .night and is built entirely of massive plates of 
armor plate and chrome steel welded and Violted together into one mass. The outer door 
to this vault weighs over four tons and is locked by twenty-four bolts held in jilace by two 
combination locks and a triple movement time lock. The inner door is locked by eighteen 
bolts held by a double combination lock. The %\hole mass weighs about twenty tons and is as 
impregnable to the attack of burglars and fire as human ingenuity can make it. In this vault 
are kept the funds of the hank together with private safe de])Osit boxes for rent to individ- 
uals for the safe keeping of valiud)le jiapers, jewelry, mementoes, etc. 


By Benj. F. Brown. 

It was in December, 1891, that a paper was circulated by B. F. Brown, securing the 
names of all persons who were favoral)le to organizing a local savings and loan association. 
The first meeting was called on January 6th, 189-2, at which time M. R. Sackett was elected 
chairman and B. F. Brown Secretary, at whose office the meetings were held. After discuss- 
ing the matter at some length a committee of three, consisting of A. \V. Orvis, B. F. Brown 
and B. G. Parker, were appointed to draft articles for a constitution in order to perfect a 
permanent organization. A committee was also appointed consisting of M. R. Sackett, J. B. 
Johnson and B. G. Parker, to advertise a general meeting to be held on January 12th. At 
this meeting the report of the committee on a constitution was adopted and it was further 
decided to incorporate under the law of Xew York State, provided by an Act passed April 
10, 1851. 

On January 14th, 1893, the following officers and trustees were elected for one year: B. 
G. Parker, President; M. R. Sackett, Vice-President; B. F. Brown, Secretary; Frank Star- 
buck, Treasurer; A. W. Orvis, Attorney; Trustees, S. W. Payne, A. L. Woodworth, Henry 
Sudds, W. W. Hall, and J. F. Hodgkin. Of these Parker, Brown, - Orvis and Payne have 
continued to hold the same office. 

The first stock of the Gouverneur Savings and Loan yVssociation (as it was so christened), 
was issued February 13th, 1892. There were no less than ninety-six original stockholders 
subscribing for 393 shares of $250 each. The general plan originally was for each subscriber 
to pay, or deposit, with the Association, 25 cents per week on each share until the sum of 
said payments plus the dividends earned and credited to each account was equal to $250. 
Nine of these accounts, or 27 shares, were paid regularly until Dec. 190-1, when the Directors 
declared the shares matured. In maturing these shares there had been paid in $168 and $82, 
credited as diviHends. A few years after organizing, two other methods of savings were devised 
where large amounts could be deposited at any time. One was to issue a certificate of not 
less than $50, or multiples of $50, but not to exceed $2500. Our third and last method was to 
receive deposits of $1, or multiples of same not to exceed $2500, on a book account, the same 
to be withdrawn at pleasure and not unlike a regular Savings Bank Book. This has been our 



most popular stock and has iiuhiced many to lay by for future contingencies a snug little sum 
tliat will prove of great good. 

It was the lielief of the jironioters that a local institution that encourages and fosters the 
savings of its people is of untold benefit to that community. The men that have put their 
personal efforts into building up this savings association has not been for personal gain, as 
they have not profited beyond any other citizen; but the spirit has largely been to help and 

'..'lark l^ncj. ^ttof>'£>f 

encourage those to ways of saving and thrift who need such help and to assist others in 
l)uilding and owning their own homes. Our motto has been, "The American Home the Safeguard 
of American LTrerties." This broad and philanthropic view has not been confined to those 
who have had the personal oversight, luit many other citizens who have spoken a good word 
;iii(i cxi)i"essed confidence in tlie men and methods who were in active cliarge. 

Tlie Association has grown steadily and rapidly being the largest local association in the 
State north of the large cities of Syracuse and Utica. The assets have incre;ised from 
$7,:nt.77 at the close of the first year to nearly .$400,000 at the present time. 

As this Association is purely nnitual with a minimum expense, it has been al)le to credit 
7 to 8 jier cent per annum on its Installment Stock and ^'/^ to t jier cent per annum on 



Savings and Prepaid Stoclv, lieside accumulating; a surplus of al)out .fj.OOO. These dividends 
are all credited or paid semi-annually. 

The present officers have served for several years and are as follows: B. G. Parker, 
President; T. J. Whitney, Vice President; B. F. Brown, Secretary; H. C. Rogers, Treasurer; 
A. W. Orvis, Attorney. Trustees— Ji. H. Neary, S. W. Payne, G. S. Conger, Geo. E. PiUe 
and J. 0. Sheldon. 


By Mrs. E. H. Neary. 

The pioneers of this town lironght with them, in addition to the goods and chattels that 
have heen mentioned. Christian principles, which they practiced from the first settlement 
of the town. 

The Sabbath was strictly observed, meetings being held for religious purposes in the 
various homes. Meetings for prayer were also held in addition to the Sabbath observance. 
Most of the people were members of Baptist Churches in their former homes. 

As time passed their numbers increased and they felt the need of a church home. 



They formed articles of Faitli and Practice and a Cliurcli Covenant and presented these to a 
council consisting of three persons, Rev. Aniasa Brown, Timothy Attwood, and Eli Carring- 
lon of the First Baptist Church of Hartford, Washington County, who met to consider the 
petition of tliese people for the organization of a church. On the eighteenth day of Feb- 
ruary, 1811, the committee accepted the articles of faith and they were constituted a church 
of Christ «ith 18 meniliers. The name cliosen was the First Baptist Churcli of Gouverneur. 

The memljers of this early church were as follows: Jonathan Payne, Ste])hen Patterson, 
Eleazer Xichols, John Brow.n, Hezekiah Nichols, Isaac Austin, Benjamin Drake, Aaron Att- 

Tlie First BaplisL Cluuxh. 

wood, Joel jVttwood, Tahitha yVustin, Zilpha Gates, Patty Payne, Betsey Thimipson, Nancy 
Nichols, Lovicie Smith, Polly Brown, Alice Payne, and Hannah yVttwood. 

Jonathan Payne, one of their number, was their first pastor and served five years. The 
church joined the St. Lawrence Baptist jVssociation at its first session in Stockholm, in 1812. 

F^rom 181C to 18;25 the church was without a settled pastor but the jnilpit was supplied the 
greater ])art of the time and lO'S were added to the member.ship. 

In ]8x!2, a number were dismissed to form a church in Fowler and in this year also the 
church completed its first house of worshi]) so far at least as to occupy it. 

During the pastorate of He\'. J. AV. Sawyer, who was called in May 1828, there was much 
disturbance in the church growing out of the Morgan excitement in the Masonic order. Tlie 
church voted to exclude all members who refused to withdraw from that order. Most of 
them refused and were accordingly excluded. This continued for a little over a year when 
they returned to the church on terms that were acceptable. 

In 1834-, sixteen of their memiiers were dismissed to form a church in Hichville. 

In 18-11, during the pastorate of Sanniel Pomeroy, the first parsonage was built, the 
house now owned by James H. Rutherford on CTro\'e 8ti*eet. 

Again members were dismissed to form a church in North Gouverneur, but in 1847 the 
church disbanded and they resimied their membership. 

In 1838, the church reports 199 members, 115 scholars in the Sunday School, 13 teachers, 
a Woman's Benevolent Society, and a promising Woman's Missionary Society. For missions, 
education, and Bible translation, they contributed .$17fi.()5. 

The pastors following Mr. Payne were Noah Barrel, J. W. Sawj'er, Clement Havens, E. 
W. Locke, N. Broughton, Samuel Pomeroy, ,T. N. Webb, Conant Sawyer, H. A. Morgan, O. 
W. Babcock, George A. Ames, J. W. Daniels, J. B. Child, J. W. Putnam, E. P. Weed, H. 
C. Townley, M L. Rugg, H. S. Swartz, F. A. Marsh, D. D. Monroe, A. W. Rogers and J. G. 



Rev. A. W. Rogers. 

Under J. W. PutiiMni'.s pn.storate the pre.sent par.sonage wa.s 
Iniilt. While Rev. H. C. Towiiley was pastor, during tlie winter 
of 1878 and 1879, .$;3,.50i) were sjient in repairs, organ and stained 
glass windows. 

Under the pastorate of Rev. D. D. Monroe, it was resolved 
to build a new edifice. Accordingly the corner stone of the 
])resent building composed of Gouverneur marble was laid June 
.5, 1894., and it was dedicated November J, 1895, tlie forty-fiftli 
anniversary of the dedication of the former edifice. The new 
one cost about $35,000.00. 

Mr. Munroe was succeeded liy Rev, A. W. Rogers, a young 
man of marked spiritual attainments as well as financial aliil- 
ity, who began his labors April 1, 1897. His work was 
greatly impeded by the heavy burden of a church debt of aliout $13,000, as a result of the erec- 
tion of the new edifice. The pastor realized that the prosperity of the church largely de- 
]5ended on the removal of that delit. He labored earnestly and efficiently to remove this 
heavy financial burden and .succeeded in doing so liefore tlie close of his pastorate, November 
], 1903. 

Soon after, the church extended a call to Rev. J. G. Clutterbuck, the present pastor, 
who was then a student in Hamilton Theological Seminary. He accepted tlie call, continued 
his studies in the Seminary and preached for the church most of the time ii]) to his graduation 
in June 1901.. His portrait appears in the clergymen's group. 

According to the church record, the present memliership is 313. A Salibath School has 
lieen maintained since the beginning and numbers at present 330. 

In conclusion, the church can ajipropriately say, surely, goodness and mercy hath followed 
us all our davs. 


By Mrs. Harvey I.. Smith. 
On May 3i, 1817, .seven years after the organization of the Baptist Church, and eleven 
years after the arrival of the first settlers, the Presliyterian Church had its birth. Hence it 
has a history lacking but twelve years of a century. 

Tile Presbytemn Churtll 

The church was founded witli six names upon her roll: William Cleghorn, Jonathan 
Colton, Elijah Hough, William Colton, Mrs. Betsey Colton and Mrs. Hannah Colton. 



These names (ie,sei-\e to be perpetuated, as they are the heginning of a church life, whose 
Influence for good in this conniiunity is beyond the computation of any man. 

Tlie church was formed under the supervision of Rev. Nathaniel Dutton, of Champion. 
Two months after the church's inception the first sacrament was administered to twenty- 
two memliers. 

Nearly tliree years elajised liefore the church was legally constituted a society with corpo- 
rate po«-er, which was accomplished April iJ-O, 18^0. 

During these three years, they had neither pastor nor stated preaching, 
Reading meetings were held nearly every Sabbatii, and e\en ])rinted sermons were so 
scarce that "Burder's Village Sermons" were read and re-read to the congregation, Init it is 
recorded that religious privileges were highly a])])recialed and thankfully enjoyed. 

So far they had no house of worship. In 1830, the first meetinghouse was erected. It 
is thus descril:ed: "It was enclosed, a floor was laid, seats were constructed of slabs with 
the flat side upwards, and stool legs." 

Here, with un))lastered walls, without a stove in winter, the congregation worshiped for 
h\'e years. 

In carts and sleds drawn by oxen, these jieople came to tliis tabernacle punctually and 
regidarly, some of them from a distance of five miles. 

Tims tliey sti'i;ggled on mitil their hearts ^\■ere made glad by the settlement of Rev. 
James ^lurdock as their first ]iastor. He served the cluirch faitlifully for four years, and it 
grew aiul ])rospered. 

In ]S3t-, the first rude structiire was replaced l)y a more comfortable l)uilding. Up to 
this time the niembership did not exceed seventy-five. In 183.5, the church experienced a 
work of grace, which is historic tln'oujjli the labors of the noted evangelist. Rev. Chas. G. 
Finney, witli the result of eighty persons added to its number. 

^Ir. ,Mi;rdock was snccee<led by bev. Ri< hard C. Hand, wlio continued in the church six 
years, lie was {ireally helo\ed Ijy tlie pe;)]ile and rich!)- Idessed in his laliors. F'oUowing his 
])astorate. the churcii was without a ]»astor foi" i\ve yeai's. 

Among wlio served as .stated sn]!|)ly dviring this trying experience, were Rev's. 
.bmathan Hovey, Bucknell and R.ol:ert F. Lawrence. On Octol:er 10, 1838, Rev. Simeon 
P,icknell was installed as ]iastor. He remained oidy two years, and was succeeded by Rev. 
John Orr, whi sipplied the jmlpit for two years. 

In IHIH, Rev. B. B. Beekwith «as called to be the pastor. 
"Here seemed to have ended the trouldes of the church and it 
now entered u])on a career of steady and u.seful habits, growing 
and strengtlien'ng from year to year. 

'I'hc same year in whicli ;\lr. Bcckwith herame the pastor of 
the ch\irch, the building of a new h(nise of worship was begun, 
and comjilcted in 1814. After a long and fruitful jiastorate of 
tuenty-tbree years, Mr. Beckwith was compelled to resign by fail- 
i;ig health. He ».is succeeded by Rev. N. J. Conklin, March 13, 
18(i(). 'i'he mini.stry of Mr. Conklin is to a large number of 
the present membership, aiul jirecious to all who were as.sociated 
with him. Of rare exerutive ability, stro:ig in faith and love for 
Christ, a genial friend and faithful ])a,stor, the church during his 
ministry enjoyed great ])ros])erity. .\ new jiarsonage was built and the church enlarged and 
the memliershi]) grew from 179 to -297. 

Mr. Coidilin jireached his farewell serniim Iti 1870. A call was then tendered Rev. 
Tryon I'Ulwards, who entered uj)on his labors February 1880, and closed them in 1886. A 
scholar of exceptioiud learning, a writer of no mean alidity, a gracious and godly man, his 
ine}nor\ is cherished here with esteem. 

The ])resent jiastor. Rev. William F. Skinner, received from the churcli a unanimous call 
;ind was In.Htalled in .Inne 1887. He came to us in the ardiir of his youth. He remains with 

l e% I L 1 . 



us ill the strength and vigor of maturity. It Itehooves us not to spealc too much here of his 
warm heart, his thorough culture and liis true piety. Suffice it to say, tliat we hope he may 
long be the last pastor. Through his faithful labors, the church has nearly doubled its 
memlsershi]) since his ministry began — nuiulicring- now H.5 — and more than doubled its lienef- 
icences. Through his influence the people were inspired to build and ])ay for the spacious 
and costly edifice it now occupies. 

Of tlie Sunday School with upwards of 300 niendiers, its missionary work and its Christian 
Endeavor Society, there is not space to sjieak here. 

The beautiful ])arsonage just east of the church, is a recent gift to the Presbyterian 
Society from Mrs. Myra A. Dean and lier daugiiters. 


Bv Mrs. F. M. Barlier. 

The early history of 
Methodism in Gouver- 
neur is unique, and 
])ecuharly interesting. 
But few persons now 
living are aware of the insurmountalile 
difiiculties which the 
"early fathers" bad to 
overcome in tlic for- 
mation of their so- 
ciety here liecause of 
tlie bigotry, ridicule, 
jirejudice and opposi- 
tion current at that 
period everywhere. Or- 
iginally they were part 
of a circuit embracing 
Spragueville and sev- 
eral other surrounding 
villages, but as early as 

1828 they were strong enough to have a regular pastoi', Benjamin i>ighton, by name, but as they 
had no church their meeting place is unknown. 

In 1830, Dr. Townsend who lived in the house now occupied hy Wallace ;\IcKean, o]iened 
his dwelling as a temjiorary church-home to this struggling but determined people, where 
they remained until the Brick School House was rented for the modest sum of $1,5 ]ier year. 
Here, in the buirding now occupied by the Steam l^aundry, the standard of the M. E. Church 
was first raised by the Hev. I,y.ndon King in 1832, and a "village class" was formed con- 
sisting of Isaac Smith and wife, Joseph Smith and wife, .Moses Kenyon and i\ife, and a few 
others. Later they were greatly reinforced by the coming of Dr. E. I,. Beardslee and wife. 
These sturdy men and women were the pioneers of the early church in tliis locality. With 
brave hearts and willing hands they laid the foundation stones of their own peculiar faith deep 
and slyoitif. Their heroic courage is well represented by an old favorite hymn they often 


"We want no cowards in our hand 
Who will our colors fly. 
Our army calls for valianl men 
AVho're not afraid to die." 

Tlie Metliodist Chinch 


After u.siii};- the Brick School House for three years tliey found more desirable quarters 
iu the chapel of the Gouverneur High School. AVhen this Iniikliug was destroyed by fire 
.January ], 1839, they were compelled to return to their former place, remaining until the 
com])letion of the Ciom'erneur Wesleyan Seminary. This property being under the control 
and ]iatronage of the Black River Conference, became their permanent home from 1839 until 
1S()3. The chapel and other rooms were used for places of worshi]). i\t this period they 
were greatly strengthened by the helpfid presence of Rev. Jesse D. Peck, who was Principal 
of tlie High School at the time it was burned, and it was through liis ceaseless efforts and 
energy that the Seminary was e}-ected. In 186x?, under the pastorate of Rev. Francis A. 
O'Farrel, the society were able to ])urcliasc the Congregational Church which stood on the 
site of the present church edifice for .ft, 000. It was a "red letter day" for this people when the 
full amount was secured by .subscription, and they were privileged to occupy their own 
property free of debt. Little did they dream that in seven years the old shell would be 
outgrown, and in its place would rise a new and modern structure as if by magic, capable 
as was su])posed at tliat time, of accommodating their congregation for a generation to come. 
Xot only temporal but great spiritual prosperity attended their efforts at this time, which 
resulted in a large increase of mendiersbi]). In 1891, this building liecame inadequate to their 
needs and the old structure was replaced by the commodious one of marble now occupied. 
During the pastorate of S. T. Dil)ble, the ])resent church edifice was erected and a modern 
parsonage was built, also churches at Natural Dam and Hailsboro. Although now a separate 
charge, they were originally branches of Gouverneur Church. 

Owing to the itinerant .system the list of ])astors is long. The older ones have long 
since entered "the silent bourne." 

\ery jirecious memories cluster around tl'.e names of those who have served in later 
years, the most of whom are now engaged in active service in other fields. They are C. AV. 
Parsons, A. .1. Cowles, (now deceased), W. D. Chase, M. AV. Chase, S. T. Dibble, S. AV. 
(jreenfield, E. B. Topping, C. L. Peck. M. G. Seymour is the jiresent ])astor. His jiortrait 
appears in the group of clergymen. 

No geimine sacrifice is ever \\'asted. The early seed of Methodism scattered in virgin 
soil in weakness, has been raised by God in mighty ]iower. With a membership now number- 
ing over 400, with a flourishing Sunday School of 900 pupils, including the "Home Depart- 
n)ent," the "Cradle Roll," and the "Cosy Branch," with a church projierty valued at $35,000, 
who can tell of the marvelous results which may lie achieved in the futiu'e? One by one the 
workmen fall but the work goes on. The living links whicli liind the present with the past 
are few, liut whatever of change may come the cluirch will stand and throughout 
all ages the watchword for her \\(H-shipers shall be, 

"Build thee more stately mansions, O my soul. 

As the swift seasons roll ! 

Leave thy low vaulted ! 

Let each new temple, nobler than the last 

Shut thee from Heaven, with a dome more vast. 

"J'il thou at length art free 

Leaving tbiiie outgro«n shell by life's unresting sea." 



Tlie Protestant Ep'scopal Cluirch. 


By Mrs. Jessie A. Paul. 

In the year 18C(), many 
residents of the village, 
desiring the worship of 
the Prote.stant Episcopal 
Church, had quietly as- 
sembled with other de- 
nominations, until an op- 
portunity offered to re- 
solve themselves into a 
corporate l)ody. 

Kev. J. Winslow of 
AVatertown, N. Y., being 
the Missionary in charge 
at that time held the first 
services, February 1866, 
in the chapel of the Wes- 
leyan Seminary, which 
w a s kindly tendered 
them by the Trustees of 
the school. Within two 
months, April 16th, 1866, parish organization was efl'ected, and Trinity Church was incorporat- 
ed. The first Wardens were B. F. Skinner and A. B. Cutting; Vestrymen chosen, Wm. H. 
Bowne, J. S. Honeycomb, J. D. Easton, A. E. Norton, A. M. Barnev, A. S. Egert, G. E. Burt 
and Thomas .Tones. 

Rev. J. Winslow, as a minister, 
established many Parishes in North- 
ern New York, and will be remem- 
bered as a genial, courteous man, 
having a merry joke for everyone. 
No public meeting was complete 
without him, and underneath his 
merry speech there was alwaj's a 
sober thought, a serious view, to be 
impressed. He died in 1893, aged 
74, and his memory will be cherished 
Judge Benjamin F. Skinner. by all who knew him. ^^^^^ p Cutting. 

Within another two months, an eligible lot of land was offered, on which to build a 
church, by Messrs. Jas. G. and Wm. Averill, of Ogdensburg, N. Y. The vestry resolved to 
build, a subscription was started for raising funds, and never was a paper more industriously 
circidate3. The ladies, too, united their efforts for the ad\'ancement of their beloved object. 
Festivals, weekly sociables, sewing societies, suppers, were held to raise funds for furnishing 
the new church, and the}- worked joyously and unitedly. The Ladies Aid Society was or- 
ganized in 1866 and elected the following officers: Pres., Mrs. A. Egert; Treas., Mrs. J. B. 
Preston; Sec, Mrs. L. Barney; Directresses, Mrs. S. Beebee, Mrs. Hoover and Mrs. Conklin. 
There were thirty members. As a result of the year's work $900 was added to the church fund. 
The corner stone was laid on the 10th of September, 1866; the clergy present were: 
.Acting Rector, Rev. J. Winslow; Rev. Kiding, of Potsdam; Rev. Linn, Theresa; Rev. 
Brewer, Carthage, (uow Bishop of Montana); Dr. T. Babcock, Watertown; Rev. Biret, 
Canton; and Rev. Foster Ely, Rondout, N. Y. Early in the fall of 1867 the present unique 
church was completed, at a cost of about $7,000. The basement being fitted up for a Parish 
school, and used for that purpose. 


July 8th, 18(j7, Rev. E. DoUoway was callpd to the Rectorate and remained three years; 
a Sundaj' School was estalilished and an efficient choir aided the yoinig Rector in making the 
ser\ices impressive and devotional. 

May 1869, a house and spacious lot at the northwest corner of John and South Streets 
was given for a Parish Rectory, liy Judge James Smith, of Buffalo, N. Y. The church was 
dedicated free from deht July 39th, 18()9, with appropriate ceremonies and it was provided 
in the original suliscriptions for the huilding of the church, that the pews or sittings should 
he assessed yearly for the contingent revenue of the Parish. In 1870, Trinity Church was 
admitted into the Diocese of Albany. Rev. J. H. Babcock served as Rector for one year, 
when Rev. Wm. M. Ogden succeeded liim and remained four years, from 1875 until 1880. 
Tiie following clergymen have served as Rectors of Trinity Church: Rev. T. Barry, Rev. 
H. C. Miller, Rev. J. Thornlowe, Rev. B. K. Kirkhride. When the Rev. S. B. Bostwick 
of Sandy Hill, N. Y., accepted the Parish and died while in charge, March 16th, 1881, he was 
succeeded hy Rev. J. D. Skeene, who ^vas Rector for a year and six months, during which 
time a pipe organ was purchased, and an organ chamber was built. 

The old Rectory was sold and the proceeds put into a larger 
and more convenient house, at the rear of the church lot, which 
was completed in 1882. Feb. 1883, Rev. B. K. Phelps succeeded 
Re\'. Skeene. From April 1885, Rev. Sommerville served as Rec- 
tor until 1889. 

Since that date Rev. Jas. A. Dickson has very elficiently 

continued the work of the Parish. The heavy debt on the churcli 

at tluit time, was paid, $5,000 being given to the church by Mrs. 

S. Beeliee. The group of clergymen also contains his portrait. 

In 189.3, the old organ was exchanged for a new one at an 

additional expense of $1,100. The money was raised within the 

year by the Ladies Aid Society, Mrs. J. B. Preston, President, 

Rev. J. A. Dickson. and this was her crowning work in the church, where she had 

lal)ored devotedly from the first. Tlie Ladies Aid Society are still helping to defray the 

expenses of the church, and since 1900 have ])aid into the treasury, .$1,150. 

A branch of the Woman's Auxiliary to tlie Board of Missions is doing considerable Mis- 
sion work. 

The young ladies of the Parish formed the Guild of St. Agnes to assist in the expenses 
of the church. Music and the congregation will bear testimony to their contmued success 
in furnishing fine music. 


By Katherine Leahy. 

In 1850, it is said, there were only two Catholic families in Gouverneur. But its luisiness, 
at that time increasing, a numljer of Irish and French Catholics settled in the village and its 
vicinity and services were occasionally held for them liy Rev. James Mackey of Ogdeuslnirg, 
and l)y other jjriests. These services were held in private houses. But tine erection of a church 
Ijeing contemplated, in 1856 a lot located on South Street was purchased of Judge Dodge. 
However, as the luuTiher of Catliolics was yet small and their means limited, nothing was 
done al)out Iniilding and the lot was afterwards sold. 

Gouverneur wns then attached to the parish of Canton and was attended regularly from 
that place. During the ministry of Rev. James O'Driscoll a lot and building located on 
Park Street was juu'chased as a place of worship. This building, formerly the Methodist 



Church, was dedicated December 23, 1871, but was destroyed by the great fire of January 
15, 1875. An insurance of .'*1,000 was collected and a new church, their present house of 
worship on Gordon Street, was erected in 1875 and dedicated by Bishop Wadhams on Nov. 
25th, ni that year. Its whole cost was four thousand dollars. 

The Catholic Chnrcli 
In 1877, Gouverneur was detached from the parish of Canton and Rer. Thomas Kelleher 
was apjjointed its first resident pastor. He remained in charge of the parish only aViout one 

Gouverneur was then made a part of the parish of Rossie and was attended from that 
place until 1882, when Rev. D. Guilbault was appointed its resident pastor and remained un- 
til the appointment of Rev. E. C. Laramee in 1883. Rev. Father Laramee remained in charge 
of the parish until October, 1896, when he was succeeded by its present pastor, Rev. M. F. 
Gallivan. The parish at present consists of about one hundred and forty families. 


By Mrs. G. S. Conger. 

P^or many years a growing .mmiber of jieople in Gouverneur and vicinity while recogniz- 
ing the value of religious sentiment and the importance of incentives to the highest aims in 
life, yet felt unable to subscrilie to the creeds of the so called orthodox churches and were 
unwilling even by a nominal comiection with them to l)e considered as lielievers in the forms 
and dogmas which seemed inse])arable from those churches. No movement was made toward 
the formation of a separate society until in yVpril, 1895, when Rev. Ure Mitchell of Edwards 
began holding meetings in Masonic Temple. Unitarian literature was distriljirted and in- 
terest was aroused, and in May, 1895, a jireliminary organization was formed, which declared 
that its "object in addition to charitable work, moral teaching and correct li\'ing should be 
the searching after and dissemination of religious truth." A board of trustees was elected 
May 26, 1895, consisting of Moreton P. Abbott, Miss I-oie Austin, Charles S. Bodman, Gerrit 
S. Conger, Miss Ella Hall, Miss Nora Herring, G. Murray Holmes, Eddis N. Miller, Harvey 
H. Noble, Miss M. M. Smith, James F. Sayer, and Mrs. Barbara E. Waldo, and Rev. 
Mitchell was engaged and regular meetings were held. 

In November 1895, platform meetings were held in Union Hall, at which Rev. D. W. 
Morehouse, Secretary of the Middle States Conference, Rev. Sanniel R. Calthrop, Rev. 



Thomas R. Slicer and Rev. AVra. M. Brundage, all prominent ministers of the Unitarian 
faith, took part. Shortly afterward a hranch of the Woman's Alliance was organized among 
the ladies, and it has ever since been of great service to the cause. 

In Alarch 1896, Mr. Mitchell resigned as pastor, and from that time until November 1896, 
occasional services were held partly conducted by candidates, partly by lay members, but 
largely liy friendly ministers of our sister denomination, the Universalist church. 

June 9, 1896, a meeting was held, -39 members lieing present at \\hich it was voted to 
incor]5orate under the name of "The First Unitarian Church of Gouverneur." The following 
nine trustees were elected by ballot: G. S. Conger, A. T. Johnson, Dr. C. B. Hawley, J. F. 
Sayer, H. H. Noble, Charles Bodman, George G. Royce, M. P. Abbott, and A. W. Orvis. 

Articles of incorporation were prepared and filed June 15, 1896. 

Tlie First Unitarian Ctimc'i. 

In November, 1896, Rev. Hasket D. Catlin accepted a call from the church and imme- 
diately entered upon his duties as jiastor. 

The society had from the beginning held its meetings in Masonic Temple Hall, but it 
now began- to consider the feasibiUty of building a chui-ch. In November 1897, a committee 
was appointed to look up a site and tlie next spring a building lot on Trinity Avenue was 
purchased and a building committee appointed. 

Mrs. Minerva P. Nichols, an architect of Brooklyn, very kindly nuule and presented the 
plans for the church, and in Jtdy 1898, \\'ork on the new church was begun. The first service 
in the church was held December 4, 1898, and the dedication services were held January, 
1899, at which Revs. D. W. Morehouse, S. R. Calthrop, W. M. Brundage, H. P. Forbes and 
H. D. Catlin took part. 

In January 1900, Mr. Catlin tendered his resignation as pastor. Mr. Catlin had served 
the society most acceptably for nearly four years. He was a gentleman of rare attainments 
and his ripe scholarship was nowhere more agreeably shown than in his Wednesday evening 
bible study class, which to those who attended was most instructive and helpful. Mrs. Catlin 
was held in Tiigh esteem as a most agreeable lady and very active in all that pertained to 
the social life of the church. 





Rev. Charles A. Livingston accepted a call and began his pastorate in November 1900. 
Installation services were held in January following. In June 1901, Mr. Livingston married 
Miss Alice Corbin, daughter of J. S. Corbin of Gouverneur. Mrs. Livingston became a most 
efficient worker and aided her husband in all the activities of the church. Mr. Livingston was 
a man of great literary ability, and a brilliant preacher. Many of his sermions were master- 
pieces and it was a matter of dee]) regret to tlie congregation when he tendered his resigna- 
tion to take effect January 1, 1904. 

In June 1904, Rev. Wayland L. Beers became the fourth pastor of this church. Mr. 
Beers is a man of scholarly attainments and deep religious feeling, a fine sermonizer and 
heartily interested in his work, in all of which Mrs. Beers is an able and efficient helper. 
Under his pastorate renewed encouragement is manifested and an etfort is now being made 
with excellent prospects of success to pay off the remaining indebtedness of the church. Mr. 
Beers' portrait appears in the group of clergymen. 



By Prof. F. R. Darhng. 
The history of the Gouverneur schools l)egins with the year 1809, when the first school 
v\'as opened in a log house which stood near the present site of the Presliyterian church. To 
Silas Brooks of jVntwerp, fell the lionor of becoming the first schoolmaster. Evidently the 
responsiliilities of the position were too great for him to bear for it is related tliat he resigned 
at the end of the first week and his place was taken by a young woman, Miss Betsy S. 
Sackett, who conducted the school for some time. Another of the teachers in this early 
school was Sylvester McMasters, but the names of the most of them have long lieen for- 

Early in 18:2(), the movement began for the establishment of a High School. A few 
years before, academies had heen orcanired at Lowville and Belleville and there were some 

forty other schools of 
this grade in the state, 
but with the exception 
of the two mentioned 
above none were to he 
found in the northern 
part. Franklin Acad- 
emy at Malone was 
not established until 
1831, the Ogdensburg 
jVcademy came into 
existence in 18 3 5, 
another was founded 
Watertowu the next 
year, while the good 
citizens of Syracuse 
did not feel the need 
of an institution for 
higher learning until 
First High Scliool, Burned in 1839. onr Own had been in 

operation for nu)re than a quarter of a century. 

The Gouverneur High School came into existence officially on April 5, 18iJ8, when it was 
incorporated by the legislature. The school was made possible by the sul)scription of $540 
with which a second story was added to the brick building that was Ijeiug constructed at this 
time for the use of the j)ublic school. At first the High School met with considerable oj)- 
position from those who held that the common school svas sufficient for the needs of the 



people iiiul thought that the new institution would lie aristo- 
eratic in its tendencies. This opposition, liowever, soon died 
out and the jieople hecame united in tlieir support of tlie school. 
Hev. Joseph Hojikins became the first principal and under his 
leadership the numlier of students increased until in 18.'J1 there 
were 57 students and the monej' apportioned to the school from 
the literature fund amounted to $:205.95. Early in the same year 
a two story hrick building was completed and occupied by the 
school. This structure stood on a lot which now forms tlif 
eastern end of the pulilic park. In 1837, Mr. Hopkins resigned 
and tlie school passed under tiie control of the Black River Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, which assumed all prof. Joseph Hopkins. 
the debts of the institution. Rev. Jesse T. Peck, who afterwards became President of Dick- 
inson College, succeeded Mr. Hopkins as principal. 

The first great crisis through which the school passed came in 1839, when the building 
and all its contents burned. Most of the insurance proved worthless and the trustees found 

themselves the guardians 
of an institution practi- 
cally bankrupt. The citi- 
zens, however, promptly 
rallied to its support and 
sulLScribed $3,600. A loan 
of .$3,000 was obtained 
from the State and this 
enabled the authorities to 
rebuild. The present site 
of the High School was 
purchased of M'olcott Grif- 
fin and a .stone building 
erected at a cost of $5,- 
500. With its n a m e 
changed to Gouverneur 
Wesleyan Seminary, the 
school occupied its new 
quarters in 1840. 

East Side, West Side nnd High Schnol, y^^ nearly thirty years 

the school prospered and little that is worthy of S|iecial note occurred. Then in 1868 came 
the second crisis when the church transferred its support from Gouverneur to Antwerp. 
Once more friends rallied to the support of the Seminary and by their energy turned what 
had seemed a into a blessing. Those who had held aloof because of the church 
affiliations of the school became strong supporters. The capital stock was increased to $50,- 
000 and $1,000 was used to repair the buildings. The legislature passed an act allowing the 
towji. of Gouverneur to levy a tax of $30,000 for huilding and repairs. This money, however, 
was never raised. Instead a supplementary act was passed in 1871 allowing the town to 
raise annually the interest on this sum for the support of the school. 

In the meantime as the village grew, the number of ])upils increased, until the old brick 
building used as a public school became too small. A lot was purchased on Gordon Street, 
East side, and a frame building with accommodations for a larger number of pupils was 
erected. This was ready for use in 1873. With the advantage of a new building, ample 
equipment and support by taxation, the public school flonri.shed and soon began to encroach 
upon the j)reser\-es of the Seminary. Alile principals and teachers were employed and the 
course was gradually extended until a year of high school work had been added. Everywhere 
throughout the State similar conditions existed. In fact a new and ])Owerful adversary was 



arising which in a few short years was destined to overthrow the old line academy. This was 
the public high school. One after another the old academies eitlier passed out of existence or 
were absorbed by their rivals. The movement began to he felt in Gouverneur in 1880. The 
people gradually became restless under the burden of supporting two different systems and 
here and tliere a citizen began to advocate consolidation. 

Nellie Parsons, Principal ; Margaret Canfield, Jnlia Regan. Pearl Fletcher, Mary S. Parks. 

Margaret Caliill, P.lanche Hodgkins, Iva L Dodds, Jennie McCloy, Principal South Side School 

On the West Side of the river, there was another school district liiiown as district No. 

12, witli its set of district officers, its school house and its teachers. This school also prospered 

with the growth of the village, and as the marljle industry flourished it liecame more and 

more c\'ident that it was to- become a large school. 

This was the situation when, early in tlie eighties, several of the prominent citizens on 

both sides of the river began to urge the unification of the two public .schools and the Semi- 
nary. Prominent among the leaders of this movement were 
.John McCarty, lioliert Jlarliwicli, ,). S. Corl)in, Fred H. Norton, 
and B. F. Brown, who was at tliat time priiK'ij)al of the public 
school on Gordon street. For several years the campaign was 
carried on in tlie newspapers and on the street. The brunt of 
tlie struggle was borne l)y .John McCarty, to whom belongs in a 
great measure, the credit for the final success of the movement. 
Finally, March J'), 1887, a meeting called liy Henry Sudds, John 
.McCarty, .lames W. Ormiston, trustees of District No. 1, and J. 
B. .Johnson, ,\. S. Wliitney, Joscpli Laberdee, trustees of District 
.N'o. 1;?, was iield in Union hall. This meeting by a decisive vote 
of 3-J2 to 77 decided in favor of the Union Free School District. 
John McCarty It wiifi also dc:-idcd by this meeting that there should be nine 



trustees of the new district and Henry Sudds, J. B. Johnson, I-. M. Lee, J. W. Ormiston, 
Joseph Laberdee, B.L. Barney, John McCarty, A. S. Whitney and Fred H. Norton, were elect- 
ed the first members of the Board of Education. Steps were immediately tal^en to complete the 
consolidation liy securing control of the Seminary. There was no serious opposition and on 
May 23, 1887, the Seminary propert}' was leased to the Union Free School District. Later 


Harriet Marshall, Principal ; Mary Thayer, 

Winifred S. Palmer, 

Nora M. Palmer, 
May L. Jeffers, 

Mary Cuullliart, 
Agnes Racket. 

Jennie L. Wilson 

the title ^^'as transferred and the Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary ceased to exist as a separate 

James F. Tuthill, A. B., was made the first superintendent of the new .sy.stem of schools 
and principal of the High school, while B. F. Brown became vice-jirincipal. The wisdom of 
the unification was immediately shown liy the increased efficiency in all departments. The 
attendance rapidlv increased and in 1889 it was foinid necessary to provide additional ac- 
commodations for the pupils. The question was settled for the time being by the building 
of an addition to the West Side School at a cost of if(),(KIO and the erection of a new build- 
ing on Depot street just south of the railroad at a cost of $3,000. Mr. Brown's photograph 
reproduced a])]iears in the Savings & Loan group. 

The number of jjupils attending the Seminary and at the Side School continued to 
increase and it soon became evident that more room must be provided for these rapidly 
orowing schools. Various plans were suggested and at the annual school meeting held A\ig. 
2, 1892, the first steps were taken toward providing for a new building by appointing a com- 
mittee to report upon the matter at a later meeting. This committee reported September 13, 
and the special meeting voted unanimously in favor of a new building for the academic 
department of the schools. The real struggle came over the selection of the site. What was 
known as the Sheldon property on Church street was thought by some to be the proper place 



for the new building 
wliile others urged the 
use of Dodge's grove. 
Tlie matter was, liow- 
ever, finally decided in 
favor of the site of the 
old Seminary for the 
reason that the land 
where that building- 
stood would revert to 
llie original owner 
unless it continued to 
be used for school 
jjurposes. The Board 
of l*;ducation immedi- 
ately secured plans 
and at a meeting of 
tlie voters held in 
Union Hall, February 
South Side School. ~3> 'iS93, Submitted a 

])roj)osition for the erection of a biiilding at a cost of .til7,,50(). This proposition was defeated 
liy a A'ote of Hi) to i'.i2. The village had just been bonded for .'g60,000 to provide for water 
works and numy of the tax payers, while not opposed to the idea of a new building, felt 
that action should lie postponed until this dcl)t had been reduced somewhat. The friends of 
the measure, however, did not allow the matter to drop, and at pulilic meetings held March 
4 and 11, in Preston's Hall, continued the campaign. The opposition was strong but at last 
at a meetiTig held in Union Hall, April 13, 1893, it was voted by 447 to 437 to appropriate 
$45,000 fen' the erection of a building. This amoimt did not }iro\e sufficient and an additional 
$.5,000 was s])ei)t in completing the structure. With this amount the present beautifid build- 
ing was comjileted and occupied in 1895. At this time the name was changed from Gouverneur 
Seminary to Gouverneur High School, its original title. The pressure at the East Side 
School was relieved liy the removal of some of tlie higlier grades and tlie formation of a 
Grammar School in the new building. 

Since the completion of 
the High School, the 
Board of Education has 
jirovided liberally for its 
equi]5ment until at the 
present time it has a 
good physical laboratory 
with apparatus valued at 
.1!1,000. There is also a 
large natural history col- 
lection and an excellent 
working library of 1700 
volimics. It is expected 
that a modern chemical 
laboratory will be fitted 
up in the near future. 
Three strong courses are 
offered at present, the 
academic, Latin-scientific 
and classical and gradu- 

Oouvenieiir \Vusle;'an .Seminar 
Old F.a))tist Church 

Demolished I 
I >ld I'resliyte 



BoAiin OF EnucATiojT. 1905. 


ation from these courses with a certificate from the Principal will admit to many colleges 
and schools which do no accept the diploma furnished hy the State. A teachers' training class 
has been instructed for some years and is now considered the strongest in the state. The num- 
ber that may be in the class at any one time is limited to twenty-five and there are so many 
applicants for places that it has become necessary to hold competitive examinations for ad- 

During the past year more than 1100 pupils have been in attendance in difi^erent 
departments of the school and twenty-nine teachers were employed. The High School alone 
registered at one time 243 students, and more than 7.5 of these were non-residents. ITiis is 
the largest registration the High School lias ever known. Since the organization of the Union 
School system there have been 181 graduates. A large proportion of these have gone to 
college and normal schools and it is hoped that the proportion will be still larger in the 

What the future holds in store for the schools of Gouverneur, we cannot tell. For more 
than three-quarters of a century they have occupied a leading place among the schools of 
the state. There will be no lagging l;ehind. In the future as in the past, there will be pro- 
gress everywhere and they will continue to send forth men and women well fitted to win 
their way in life. 


Henry Sudds, 1887-1888; F. H. Norton, 1888-1889; Robert Markwick, 1889-1895; A. S. 
Whitney, 1895-1897; M. R. Sackett, 1897-1903; C. W. Hewitt, 1903-Still serving. 

Secretaries oi the Board of Educatiox. 
James Orniiston, 1887-1889; A. T. Johnson, 1889-1895; W. R. Dodge, 1895-1899; C. W. 
Hewitt, 1899-1903; S. W. Close, 1903-Still serving. 

Clerks of the Board of Educatiox. 
Charles McCarty, 1887-1889; George E. Pike, 1889-Still serving. 

Members of the Board of Educatiox. 
Henry Sudds, 1887-1888; J. B. John.son, 1887-1888; L. M. Lee, 1887-1890; J. W. Ormis- 
ton, 1887-1889; Joseph Laberdee, 1887-1889; B. L. Barney, 1887-1889; John McCarty, 1887- 
1893; A. S. Whftney, 1887-1893, 1894-1897; F. H. Norton, 1887-1893; Robert Markwick, 1888- 
1897; B. F. Drury, 1888-1891; E. H. Neary, 1889-1890; George S. Parson.s, 1889-1895; A. T. 
Johnson, 1889-1895; J. H. Rutherford, 1890-1891; C. W. Hewitt, 1890-Still serving; Frank 
Starbuck, 1891-1897; B. F. Brown, 1891-1894; C. H. Graves, 1893-1898; W. R. Dodge, 1893- 
1899; A. C. Gates, 1893-1899; M. R. Sackett, 1895-1904; C. P. Earle, 1895-1901; G. S. Conger, 
1897-Still serving; A. J. McDonald, 1897-1903; A'. P. Abbott, 1897-Still serving; G. D. Hazel- 
ton, 1898-1901; S. W. Close, 1899-Still serving; J. C. Callahan, 1899-Still serving; S. H. David- 
son, 1901-Still serving; A. A. Potter, 1901-Still serving; H. G. Aldrich, 1903-Still serving; A. 
J. McCoy, 1904-Still serving. 


Ruger and Morgan (before incorporation); Rev. Joseph Hopkins, 1830- 

1837, Principal; Rev. Jesse T, Peck, 1837-1840, Principal; I>oren B. Knox, 1840-1843, Prin- 
cipal; Rev. A. W. Cummings, 1842-1844, Principal; Rev. John W. Armstrong, 1844-1850, 
Principal; William W. Clark, A. M., 1850-1853, Principal ;Rev. E. C. Bruce, A. M., 1853-1860, 
Principal; Rev. Andrew Roe, A. M., 1801-1803, Principal; Rev. George G. Dains, 1864-1870, 
Principal; M. H. Fitts, 1871-1870, Principal;H. W. Hunt, A. M., 1877-1880, Principal; Martin 
R. Sackett, A. M., 1881-1887, Principal; James F. Tuthill, A. B., 1887-1891, Superintendent 
and Principal; Donaldson Bodine, I'h. B., 1891-1893, Superintendent and Principal; John C. 
Blis.s, A. B., 1893-1900, Superintendent and Principal; Harry DeW. DeGroat, A. B., 1900- 
1904, Su|)eriiitendent and Principal; Frederick R. Darling, A. B., 1904-Still serving. Super- 
intendent and Principal. 




By 51. R. .Saokett. 

Xo rural county of New York can more or better educational facilities than St. 
Lawrence. A generou.s Kprinkling of Scotch among its early settlers may be responsii)le for 
the high value placed upon sound learning in this northern county. A full fledged University 
of three colleges, a normal school second to none of the state, a fully equipped and endowed 
school of technology, together with numerous high schools, giving a full academic education 
and working under the general statute creating Union Free Schools, attest the large interest 
shown by the people of this section in the work of higher education. Gouverneur had hardly 
emerged from the stumps liefore her citizens took ste]is to secure educational facilities for 
their children in advance of the common school. In this movement lies the origin of the 
institution which was to become the Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary. This was in the Spring 
of ISiS. The school was to be controlled by the "subscriliers," each ten dollars carrying one vote 
in the management of the .school. The school was opened in 18iJ7; the first teacher was named 

Ruger. The school was incorporated as the Gouverneur High 
School, iVpril -25, 1H-2&. The incorporators were .Varon Rowley, 
John Spencer, David Barrell, Harvey D. Smith, Josiah Waid, 
Allni Smith, Almond Z. Madison, Robert Conant, and Joel Keyes. 
Their working capital was made $!20,000, in shares of ten dol- 
lars each. In 1830, a new school house was erected after weary- 
ing discouragements in a search for funds. It is said that the 
plans of this structure \^'ere drawn by Philip Kearney, a name 
to lie rememliered. The building consisted of a central portion 
two .^tories high with wings at each side. By the generosity of the 
community, with a subscription of SpWO, from Prof. Joseph Hop- 
khis of Potsdam, who became its first principal, the building was 
Josiah Waid. finished and school oi)ened in 1834. Hopkins resigned 

in 1837 and the trustees in March of the same year transferred the school to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, under conditions set forth in written articles. Jesse T. Peck was 
the first principal of the school under the Methodist regime. The buildings and apparatus 
were burned in January, 18.39. 

The heroic struggles to rebuild, and to get the means for raising the money required 
need not here be told. With indomitable' courage and energy, led by the principal, its friends 
rallied and the work was done . 

The cost of the new structure was .$5,500. April 35th, 1840, by act of the Legislature, the 
name of the institution was changed to the Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary — the school which 
people now living remember, and ^^■hich under the same corporate name, for forty-seven 
years, or until the establishment of the present school system of the village, exercised a 
powerful influence over the youth of the section and through them and their works upon sub- 
sequent time. 

The building which all our adult population today recall, stood upon the site of the 
present high school building. It was demolished in 1894, and every stone of it hidden in the 
strong foundations of the present modern and handsome structure. This Seminary for many 
years, furnished the best academic education to be had in the county. It fitted for college 
and business life. It supported not only the usual literary courses but gave instruction in 
music and painting. Its students came from every town of the county, and its old catalogues 
show that "Upper Canada" contributed not a few students to the famous school. Jesse T. 
Peck was its first principal, a name famous in the annals of the Methodist Church. He be- 
came subsequently president of Dickinson College at Carlisle, Pa., and later was made a 
Bishop in his church, achieving its highest honor. He was the author of a number of books 


and a preaclier of great eloquence and power. He never lost his interest in educational 
work, which trutli is abundantly attested l)y the benefactions of his will for Syracuse Univer- 
sity, with the estalilishment of which great institution hei had much to do. He died full of 
years and honors some fifteen years since at his home, Syracuse, N. Y. 

The Seminar}' was ever fortimate in its jjrincipal teachers. They were successes in teach- 
ing and administration. The ])rincipals in order were, .Jesse T. Peck, I^oren B. Knox, A. W. 
Cunimings, Dr. James W. Armstrong (one of the ablest men and best teachers of his genera- 
tion, a truly great man), W. AV. Clarlc, Eli C. Bruce, Andrew Roe, Geo. G. Dains, M. H. 
Fitts, Hiram W. Hunt, and M. R. Sackett. 

Martin R. Sackett, who was the last to hold the position, was elected in the Spring of 
1880, before his graduation from college, and taught the Seminary successfully until the 
present .system was inaugurated, 1887, the Seminary ceasing to exist as it liad until that time 
been constituted. 

The institution sent out men who became eminent in many lines of activity over the nation. 
This imperfect paper can note but in a cursory way, some of the men who have added fame 
to the old Seminary. She furnished pioneers for the opening of the great West. A number 
of her sons became justly eminent on the pacific coast. In business, politics, the church, in 
literary and in scientific lines of activity — everywhere are to be found men who went out 
from the halls of the old sandstone building which faced the park for so many, many years. 
Vie can mention only a few of them from a long list of equally worthy. 

Dr. Erastus Wentworth went from the Seminary as a missionary to China at an early 
day before such sacrifices became common affairs. He achieved success in his chosen avocation, 
but his work there broadened imder his hand. He possessed a mind wonderfully apt in 
linguistic research. He was attracted by the study of the Chinese language and literature. 
He studied it jtrofoundly and liecame a leading authority, so recognized the world over, not 
only upon the language of that remote kingdom — far more remote then than now. He was 
intrusted with imjjortant work liy our government, which ultimately led to fair commercial 
intercourse and a friendly feeling. We speak now of the "open door," it may not be generally 
known tliat a former Seminarian had much to do in achieving that mighty consummation in 
the Orient. Clinton Hastings went from the Seminary in 1841 to Iowa, then way out west. 
From there he migrated overland to California, was a lOer. He became one of the first citi- 
zens of that great state both as a lawyer of the first rank on the coast and as a capitalist. 
It was he who gave the funds to found the "Hastings Law School" at San Francisco, now the 
law dejiartment of the University of California. His work in the organization of the new 
state of California and in various lines of activity was of an high order. He wrote his 
name deeply upon the institutions of tliat rich land. Another who made his mark in the great 
west was Ora S. Easton. He was also one of tlie .Vrgonauts who sought gold on the Pacific 
coast. He was the first city surveyor of San Francisco. He mapped out the town which 
was destined to become a great city. The Parsons family furnished a number of students 
all of whom amounted to something. Oiarles S. Parsons is at the present President of the State 
National Bank of St. Louis, Mo., a leading bank of the west. He was the president of the 
National Bankers Association from 1890-3. Anotliei- son, Lewis B. Parsons, fitted for Yale 
at the Seminary, and was graduated from Yale College about 164(). He enlisted in the Civil 
War and arose to be a Brigadier General. He was stationed at St. Louis under Grant, and 
had charge of the quartermaster's department of the whole Mississippi valley. His work was 
of sucli a character as to call forth compliments from the great commander in chief. At the 
close of the war he liecame much interested in politics and achieved notoriety. He was the 
candidate of the democracy of Illinois in 1884, for Governor, and although no democrat could 
have hoped to win in that state that year, tJencral Parsons made a splendid run. A relative 
of Gen. Parsons was more fortunate in 18!)3, in the ])erson of Adlai K. Stephenson, who was 
elected A'ice President with Grovcr Clevelaiul. A third of the Parsons family, Phdo P. 
Parsons, was ])residcnt of a large bank in Detroit, Midi., from 188,5 to 189,5. This family 
surely has left its nuirk upon the civilization of our connnon country. It should be a matter of 


pride to recall during the centennial days soon to be observed, the fact that the Parsons boys 
were started from Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary. 

The school gave its full quota of boys to the War of the Rebellion. She furnished five 
•colonels and two generals at least and a multitude of minor officers. Col. Albert M. Barney 
went from Gouverneur. His command was the ]4-:2nd Regiment. Col. Abel Godard com- 
manded the 60th Regiment which led the charge at Lookout Mountain. To write the history 
of the gallant old sixtieth one would needs have to write the history of the Civil War. The 
regiment was with McClellan on the jieninsula, with Slocum at Gettysburg, then was sent west to 
Tennessee; then fought it out with Sherman in tlie Atlanta campaign. Col. William M. 
Goodrich of Canton commanded the 6'Oth when slie went out. He was sliot at Antietam. N. 
Martin Curtis of Depeyster, a gallant soldier still living and hale and impressive in presence 
as ever, was a captain, then a colonel, then a general, remembered everywhere where the deeds 
of the sixties are recalled as the hero of Fort Fisher. All these were Seminary students. 

The Jioet, Caleb, of I^ewis County, not unknown to the literary world, was a student of 
the Seminary back in the forties. 

The Eustis family of Hammond sent two sons to the Seminary, lioth of whom liave 
achieved prominent positions in the business and financial and ])olitical world. Jolin Eustis of 
Xew York City is a leading lawyer there, has lieen Park Commissioner, and is in every sense 
a strong man. His brother, William H. Eustis has made for himself a name in the west. 
He went to Minneajiolis in 1881. He finished at the Seminary in the class of '69, pursued his 
education at AVesleyan ITniversity and Columbia I^aw School. He was associated in the 
practice of law with John R. Putnam, sulvsequently Supreme Court .Judge of this district. 
He has won wealth at Minneapolis, has been mayor of that hustling city, ran for Governor on 
the Republican ticket, and was the first Repuljlican in the history of the state to fail of 
an election, due we are sure, to no fault of his but to adverse conditions bevond his control. 
He has had an influence in national politics. The National Republican Convention of 189^! 
was held at Minneapolis largely through the efforts of Mr. Eustis. 

Dr. Clarence AValdo, professor of mathematics at Purdue University, is worthy of mention 
in any list of Gouverneurians who have made their mark. He lias devoted his abilities to the 
teaching profession and has accomplished a good worli. His l)rother, younger, Charles H. 
Waldo, lias achieved success in the railroad world, lia\-ing worked all the way up from the 
telegraph key to the superintendency of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad, a large 
ruid growing line of the middle west. 

Judge James M. Smith of Buffalo, got his start at the old Seminary. He remembered 
the community with the gift of the site of our present village library. He achieved great 
wealth and the resjiect of all. 

James M. Madison also of Buffalo, who died hut recently, was educated here. He achie\ed 
wealth and position as a banker. 

J. Lawrence .Johnson of Heuvelton, attended the Seminary in the late sixties. He is now 
a Chancery Judge in the courts of New Jersey. 

Walter C. Noves, one of the later time graduates, shortly liefore the Seminary was lost 
in the Union School, has made a success of himself and achieved a Judgeship in the Chancery 
Court of Connecticut. 

This list might be indefinitely extended were there sjiace and time to look uji the record 
fully. No mention is here made of those living in this immediate vicinity who have been 
students of the old school. It were only possible to give but a sketch of some of the more 
conspicuous names and this 1»!S been done with the idea of being just to all within the knowl- 
edge of the writer, and if any conspicuous omissions have been made they have been unin- 




By Helen I. Parker. 

It was micl-afteriioon of an April day in 
1849 wlien tlie first copy of the first newspaper 
to be puljlislied in Gouverneur was struck off 
from a hand press in a room on the ground 
floor of the Iniilding then standing on William 
street, known as the old church. Gathered 
about to witness the novel proceeding were as 
many persons as the small office would ac- 
commodate, and it was a cordial reception the 
new enterprise met with. A practical printer 
l)y tlie name of Wilson had brought into the 
toM'u a hand press and sufficient type for 
l)rinting- a six-column folio, which he named 
"Northern New Yorker." As were other news- 
]iapers of the day, the "Northern New Yorker" 
was largely devoted to the publication of 
political debates and articles on questions of 
National policy. The news items were mostly 
upon events in distant cities, and the strictly 
local matter consisted almost entirely of adver- 
tising. Short stories, with a moral, and poetry, 
usually occupied the first page. The 
"Northern New Yorker" clianged liands several 
Helen I Parker. times in the two years and three months of 

iis existence. Besides its founder the names of Goodrich and Greenleaf appeared as editors 
and proprietors. Nelson Bniett & Co. owned the paper afterward. 

In July, 185:3, appeared "The Laborer," pul>lished at Gouverneur every Wednesday morn- 
ing in Conklin's bloclj, corner of Church and William streets, by Martin Mitchell. "The 
I^aborer" was a temperance organ. The character of the reading matter was similar to the 
first mentioned. It was a five colunm folio and the typographical ajipearance excellent. At 
the liegiiming of 1853, Mr. Mitchell took a partner, Ira D. Brown, who continued his labors 
hilt a few weeks. The publication next appeared under the name of "St. I^awrence Free 
Press," Mr. Mitchell and A. M. Hurlbert, editors and pulilishers. It was enlarged to six 
columns to the ]iage, and took an active part against slavery as well as intemperance. Local 
news items a])peared more frequently. In its second volume the name was enlarged to "St. 
Lawrence Free Press and Maine I^aw y\dvocate," and Mitchell and Hurlbert were succeeded 
by Mitchell and Armstrong. Early in A'ol. HI, J. J. Emmes had become the editor. Emmes 
droppe<l the second part of the paper's title, but still contiimed to advocate temperance and 
anti-slavery. ITarly in the year 1855, the "St. Lawrence Free Press" was removed to Og- 
densburg, and Gouverneur was without a newspaper for several years. iMthough the greater 
portion of news di-stinctively local was in the advertising columns, these early papers were 
a credit to the journalism of the day. No record of their circulation is within reach beyond 
the statement that there were seventy Smiths on the subscription list of the earliest paper. 
The GouvEiisEUH Commerciai, and Nouthern Recorder. 
In October, ISfifi, appeared the first numl)er of "The Gouverneur Commercial," a six 
column folio, published monthly by Miss M. M. Smith, who was also the editor. It was 
largely devoted to local news, the Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary among the principal 
topics. Miss Smith being much interested in that institution in which she was an instructor 
for .some years. During the second year of its existence the publication was changed to a 
weekly and "Northern Recorder" added to the name. The )5aper continued imder the same 
management until March, IS'iS, when the office was moved to Rome. 


Several amateur papers have at different times liee.ii printed in Gouverneur. Ttie earliest 
of these was "The Peo])le's Friend," printed hy Alonzo Van Duzee, of Gouverneur, in 1869, 
but giving Watertown as the plaee of ]inl)lication. 

In 187:3, B. G. Parker came into ])ossessi()n of the press and type used by Alonzo Van 
Duzee. He began printing a monthly, bearing the name of "The Nut Shell." It was a three 
column folio, and its existenee reached into the second year. This was succeeded by "The 
Temperance Visitor", four cohnims, 15. G. Parker, editor and proprietor, an outgrowth of 
enthusiastic tem])erance meetings held weekly in the old Seminary chapel. The first number 
appeared May 1, 1874, and the short lived venture lapsed during the summer. At the same 
time "Tlie News," dated at Hiiilshoro, edited by Hurbie Clark, and printed by B. G. Parker, 
had a career of four months, its issues appearing semi-monthly from March 15, 1874, to the 
following July. 

Robert W. Beardslee, twenty-eight years after tlie original "Nut Shell" ajipeared started 
an amateur paper under the old name. It was entered at the post office as second class 
matter and existed for aliout two years. 

The Gb.\nd Army Journal. 

The Grand Armj' Journal was established in Utica under the name of "The Campfire," 
in 188-t. Both name and ownership were soon changed and Rev. George B. Fairhead be- 
came the editor and proprietor. On June (ith, 1894, B. G. Parlier purchased the suljscription 
list and good will of the paper, and published it from the office of the Gom'erneur Free 
Press. Miss Helen I. Parker was the editor. In 1903, Miss Parker became also the owner of the 
paper. As tlie name indicates the paper is de\'oted to the Grand jVrmy of the Republic, the 
Woman's Relief Corps, the Sons of A'^eierans, and allied patriotic orders, and is the recognized 
official organ of these societies in New York State. It is a nine column folio, pviblished every 
other Saturday, and its circulation is tlirnuglunit New York and New England. Today the 
Grand Army Journal occupies the unique position of being the only pul)lication in the United 
States devoted solely to the interests of the Orders above named. 

The Noutherx Tribune. 

The Gouverneur Publishing Comjiany was organized in the spring of 1887, for the pur- 
pose of publishing a ne\\spaper for the town of Gouverneur and adjacent sections, and for 
conducting the Inisiness of printing and publishing generally. The stock of the company was 
fixed at .$5,000, and was taken by citizens of the town, although the promoter of the company, 
M. R. Sackett, controlled a majority of the issue. An entirely new and complete outfit of 
newspaper and jo]) tyjie, presses, and other jjrinting material and machinery was purchased 
and installed, the office being located in the .second .story of the Egert block. The publication 
of "The Northern Tribune," the name adopted for the paper, began .Tune 11, 1887, when the 
first copy of the paper issued from the press. It's first "leader" announced that the new 
publication would be republican in politics, clean in tone, would stand for Gouverneur as 
against any other town, would print only wholesome matter as opposed to sensation dis- 
guised as news, would cater to those enterprises which make for good in the community. The 
people gave the new paper generous welcome. It added subscribers to its list rapidly and 
from the first cTfd a large job printing business. In the fall of this year, the subscription 
list of the Ogdensburg Signal was purchased and added to the Tribune's, giving the paper a 
list as large as most similar papers achieve after years of effort. The history of the enter- 
prise for some time following is not other nor different from that of the common experience 
of business ventures. Competition was sharp, there being at the time three weekly papers in 
the town. The newcomer had to sometimes battle hard for its share of trade, sometimes get- 
ting it, often taking a minor share. In the Spring of 1893, Mr. Sackett purchased the plant 
entire, of the Gouverneur Herald-Times, of its owner, H. G. Reynolds, and consolidated its 
subscription list with that of the Tribune, selling the type, ]H-esses and other material to B. 
G. Parker, of the Gom'crneur Free Press. The Tribune now removed its office to the larger 
and better adajited quarters in the Herald-Times lilock. A ne^\- and larger press was in- 
stalled and the business greatly increased. The work of its editor had begun to attract the at- 
tention of the [)oliticians of the county and in 1893, Jlr. Sackett made a canvass of the 



county for the office of County Treasurer, achieving a unanimous nomination in the fall 
caucuses, equivalent in St. Lawrence County to an election. We believe it to be true that 
no weekly paper of the county ever had so large a circulation as this paper enjoyed during 
the years immediately following the jnirchase of the Herald-Times. Opportunity presented 
in 1897, for obtaining an office on tlie ground floor, and the present quarters in the Holmes 
block were leased. 

Having l5cen honored with an appointment to the consular service, the editor, Mr. 
Sackett found it impracticable to retain the active management of the business, at the same 
time serving the federal government, therefor the corporation leased its plant in February 
1304. to Wm. F. Bowhall, who had lieen with the business in one capacity or another, with 
only two or three interruptions, from its inception, the editorial department of the paper 

T 7*^" — ^iy:^ TH 

The XoKTiiERx Thibuxe St.\ff. 

remaining where it had lieen from the Ijeginning, with Mr. Sackett. F. H. Lamon was 
in.stalled as local editor, and under this arrangement the luisiness has been conducted smoothly 
and successfully to date. 

The paper has waged some notable liattles for good govenuiient and local order. It has 
favored every enterprise loolcing to the ujjbuilding of the town of Gouverneur and believes 
that some share of the success the town has reajied has been due to its efforts. It has ever 
been outspoken in denimciation of what it believed wrong. While believing sincerely in the 
tenets of the republican part}' and upholding its policies, it has been willing to admit that 
democracy has her \'irtues, and with a great history behind it is entitled to the respect due to 
a real elemental force in the political life of the nation. In the exploitation of the great 
lumber, talc, marble, and other local enterprises the paper has done its full share. It was 
the first in print with the oiiening and advantages of the great lace plant now domiciled in 
town and doing so nuich to add wealth and population to Gouverneur. It was from the first 
an advocate of a proper celel)ration of Gouverneur's one hundredth anniversary of "Old 
Home Week." It has given large space and nnich attention to educationsd matters, believing 
that the school question and its collaterals furnish the biggest of problems with which a 
growing village has to deal. 


The officers of the corporation at i)re.seiit are: President, Hon. E. W. Ahbott; Secretary, 
M. R. Saclielt; Treasurer, B. F. Brown; Manager, Wni. F. Bovvhall. 

The High School Echo. 

"The High School Echo," twelve two-column pages with cover, has from time to time been 
published monthly during the school year by the students of the High School. It was devoted 
entirely to school news and printed at the office of the Gouverneur Publishing Company. 

The Methodist Sunday School has also at irregular intervals issued a paper for circulation 
among its members. 

"The Poultry Industry," owned and edited by John E. Bennett, appeared September 
23rd, 1899, and was issued monthly until January, 1901. It was in magazine form of sixteen 
pages and some of its i.ssues reached a circulation of five thousand copies. It was devoted 
to tlie poultry industry, and was printed at the office of the Gouverneur Free Press. 

The only daily newspaper, excepting sheets temporarily issued for special occasions, 
published in Gouverneur up to this date was "The Gouverneur Record," of which the first 
number a])peared Sept. 17th, 1901, with Harold B. Johnson, editor, and .Tames D. O'Brien, 
business manager. The first numbers were of three short columns to the page. A larger 
page, four colun\ns wide soon appeared. The paper was devoted to local news, general news 
and advertising, and sold at two cents ])er copy. It was printed at the office of the Gouverneur 
Puljlishing Company. With number 33 of the first volume, published Octolier, 1901, 
the publication ceased, for the reason tliat tlie owners coidd not mal^e satisfactory arrange- 
ments with tlie printers. 

The Gouverneur Times. 

F. E. Merritt, a practical printer and experienced newspaper publisher, removed his 
printing office from Sandy Creek to Gouverneur during the summer of 1864, and on August 
l'3tli, 1804., issued Number 1, Volume 1, of the Gouverneur Times. Typographically it was 
excellent for a country weekly. The Times was started independent in politics, but in time 
liecame thoroughly repulilican. It was in the last year of the Civil War that the career 
of the Times began. Its salutatory, in referring to the war, expresses this sentiment: We 
believe that in God's own time we shall be again united." 

The Times was devoted to the usual local news and advertising, the dispatches from the 
scenes of war filling several columns of each issue until peace was declared. It had no com- 
petitor for several years imtil the Northern Recorder, and later The Herald appeared. It 
was enlarged from a seven column to an eight cohmni folio and continued under the manage- 
ment of Mr. Merritt until May 20th, 1879, when the outfit and good will passed to Messrs. 
Ireland & Rich. Changes in ownership were rapid for a few months until the proprietors of 
The Gouverneur Herald purchased it and consolidated it with that newspaper. 

ITie complete file of the Times is in the possession of B. G. Parker, and from its pages 
many facts have been gleaned by diflferent writeis in compiling this history. Mr. Merritt, its 
founder and owner for nearly fifteen years, is now a resident of Utica. 

The Gouverneur Herald. 

With type and presses brought here from Watertown, James M. Holmes and Frank M. 
Redfield, under the firm name of Holmes & Redfleld, launched The Gouverneur Herald. The 
first issue appeared Ma}' 3, 1873. Tlie office was estalilisbed on the second floor of the wooden 
building on Main street, corner of Park street. Mr. Holmes' connection with the paper was 
trief, and in July Mr. Redfield took as a partner Horace G. Reynolds, to whom he sold his 
interest the following month. H. G. Reynolds associated with him his elder half-brother, 
Jesse T. Reynolds, who assumed the editorial work. Tlic Herald was Republican in politics 
and devoted to local and general news. 

At the big Are of Jan. 13th, 1875, the Herald ofBce was entirely consumed. There was 
no insurance on the plant, which was the property of Watertown parties. In the stress for 
quarters by business concerns after the fire, Mr. Reynolds secured a one-story wooden 



structure on Park street, then unused and formerly a barn. He converted it into suitable 
quarters, and installed another printing outfit, continuing there until the Reynolds marble 
front building was erected on Main street in which rooms suited for the various departments 
of newspaper work were especially pro\ided for tlie Herald. 

Two important additions were made to the efficiency and volume of the enterprise. Frank 
L. Cox entered the management soon afterAvard. 

Under the firm name of Reynolds & Cox, and the purchase and consolidation of the 
Gouverneur Times increased the subscription list to an appreciable extent. Mr. Cox retired 
from the firm subsequently, and shortly afterwards the Imsiness was sold to The Gouverneur 
Publishing Company and B. G. Parker. The former took the list and good will, consolidating 
with the Northern Tribune, and Mr. Parker took the presses and type which were later re- 
moved to Potsdam to be used in publishing the Potsdam Recorder. 

GouvERSEUR Free Press. 
In March, 1883, Barnard G. Parker, a practical printer and newspaper man, sold the 
Norwood News «hich he had established and published for four years, and returned to 
Gouverneur, his native town, to engage in the newspaper business. Under his management 


and ownersliip the Gouverneur Free Press was established, the first number appearing April, 1882. The paper was a nine column folio, and has always retained that form. Capt. 
George Parker, father of the proprietor, was the editorial writer until his death the following 
year. The Free Press is Repuljlican in politics aiul largely devoted to local news. Not- 
withstanding many and diversified business interests, B. G. Parker, the proprietor, has 
always maintained editorial command and l)usiness management of the paper. Miss Helen 
I. Parlier was for some years local and then associate editor, retiring in February, 1903. 
Cliarles H. Clark, the present local e<litor, joined the staff in July, 1900. The Free Press 
has enjoyed an uninterrupted career uiulcr the one management for a longer term of years 
than any other Gouverneur newspaper, ajid in point of continual connection with the business. 
Mr. Parker is the oldest newspaper num in St. LaAvrence County. 



By J. jV. Spencer. 
The hotel in Gouverneur, 1808, wtis conducted l)y Israel Porter on the west side of 
the rixer. It was a small log structure hut was later enlarged by the addition of a frame 
building, the hoards being sawed by hand in the "saw-pits." 

The old Porter Tavern was for many years the only hotel 
in the town of Cambray. In 1811, there were six licensed as 
Inn Keepers in the town, Israel Porter, Wm. Cleghorn, Rufus 
M'ashburn, Abraham Lewis, John AVilson, and Truman Bristol. 
These with the exception of the first were farm-houses and not 
rated as hotels or taverns. 

Dr. Spencer conducted a hotel on the present Johnstown 
road on what is now known as the McKean Hill, from 181:3 to 
lS3xJ. He then jiurchased the brick building occupied by 
John Bro\\n, the first merchant in the town, as a residence. 
The building was erected in 1818, Dr. Spencer enlarged the 
building and conducted it as a liotel until he sold it to l'oI. James Spencer 

Moses Rowley, in 1854.. It was sold on execution to Jas. .Vverill, who sold it to P. Van Buren, 
who conducted it until it was destroyed by fire in 1848. Mr. A'an Buren rebuilt it as a 
private residence and it is still occupied by his daughter, Miss Emeline. Dr. Spencer was one 
of the three slave owners of the town. He had a man named "George" whom he brought from 
Connecticut. Dr. John Spencer, in 1838, built the Spencer House on Upper Main Street and con- 
ducted it until 1843, when he transferred it to his son. Col. James M. Spencer, who ran the 
Hotel until about 1884, selling it to Bogert & Morrison in 1884. In 188fi Bogert purcha.sed 
Morrison's interest, selling in 1887 to K. Pierce of Macomli, who contiinied it imtil the house 
was burned in 1890. 

The old Fosgate House was first opened in 184,5 by Henry Hiulson, who enlarged a 
dwelling formerly occupied by Caleb Morgan. He was succeeded by John Fosgate and his 
family wlio conducted it until 1857. 

The Van Buren House 
on the North side of Main 
Street was built in 1849 
liy Peter Van Buren. The 
East end of the building 
was formerly a two-story 
dwelling purchased from 
Benj. H. Smith. 

Mr, A'an Buren was a 
Sergeant in the 248 Reg. 
of Inf. 

Many parties and balls 
were held in this liotel. 
The following are the 
directors and floor man- 
agers of a hall held on In- 
dependence Daj^ 1850: 
Managers — John Bolton, 
Henry Gates, I. C. Stevens, Benj. Smith, T. B. Raymond, E. W. Cooper, Chas. Barnes, N. W. 
Howard. Floor Managers — E. McAllaster, Theo. Parker. C. P. Egert, B. N. Smith. 

Peter Van Buren sold the house to his son, J. B. Xnn Buren, in 18()8, who ran it until 
it burned in 189x3. Jas. A'an Buren reluiilt the Hotel ivhich was again destroyed bv fire in the 
winter of 1893. 

A jjortion of the A^in Buren Hotel lot was bought by A. E. McCrea, who erected the 

Van Buren Houie, iS6o. 



present St. Lawrence Inn. This was opened in 1899 by Robert Murphy who conducted it 
until 1898. Getman Bros, of Theresa succeeded him and conducted it until 1901, when the 
present proprietor, Everett Peck, took charge of this, the finest Hotel in Northern New 

The Peck House was built in 1875 by C. T. Fuller and opened in 1876 by Capt. Daniel 
Peck, and was conducted bv him until 1891. 

?eter Van 

John Fosgate. 

Daniel Peck. 

The Kinney House was opened in October 1880, by Chas. M. Kinney, who conducted it 
until 1893. Mr. Kinney was a private of Battery D. 1st N. Y. Light Artillery. He was 
succeeded by his wife, Mrs. K. L. Kinnej', who continued the Hotel until June, 1904, when it 
was purcliased by P. La%'asseur of Massena, the present proprietor. 

The Clinton House was built in 1894 by Robt. Webb, who kept it until 1896, when it was 
rented to J. Gillett. In 1897 it was leased by W. Kenyon who, with his sons ran it until 
1901, when it was purchased by Wni. Smith. Mr. Smith conducted it till 1904 and sold it 
to its present proprietors, Randolph and Chase.. 

The Hinton House was built in 1896, on a portion of the site formerly occupied by the 
old Van Buren House. It was leased and is still conducted by Wm. Hinton. 

The Gouverneur House was opened by Wm. Rice in 1896 and leased by him to Homer 
Kenyon in 1902, who is the present proprietor. 

The Brooklyn House, on the West Side, was l)uilt in 1889 by Sidney Nash, who still 
conducts it. 

The Grove House was built in 1890 by John Wainwright. He conducted it until his 
death in 1894. The House is now run liy his widow, and son, Tunis. 

For almost the entire history of the toivn, or nearly one hundred years, Gouverneur has 
had ^\■hat may well be termed, first-class accommodations for tlie traveling public. It is 
true that Israel Porter began in a humble log cabin, but he afterward built the large two- 
story building no\\- owned Ijy Judge Xeary on the West side, and conducted it as a hotel 
l)ut for wliat time is not known. Dr. .lohn Spencer was a man of conspicuous business ability 
and his various \'entures in innkeeping could not hiwe been less than efficient and satisfactory 
to his patrons. Col. James Spencer was a model manager, and Peter "V'an Buren has left 
a solid i-eputation as a host. Daniel Peck had long experience before coming to Gouverneur, 
and he and his son have kept the family reputatioji good. So, it will be seen that our village 
has never been without masterly management in its hotels. It lioasts today, the hotel 
in appointments, table and service of any hotel north of the great cities. 




By E. D. Taitt. 
In presenting this short siietch of the Dry Goods trade of Gouverneur, the writer has 
been j>.iven a verj- limited S])ace. Such a history should contain a sketch of each Dry Goods 
house, its successes or failures, also a brief history of the lives of the merchants. The history 
of the numerous stores in the past sixtj' years is sf> interivoven, that it is with difficulty that 
such an article can be written in a few words. A lirief statement of names, dates, and 

Capt George Parker. Capt. Geo. 1-J. \\'i,islow. Charles S. Cone. 

transfers is all that can l;e made. In the year 1857, the only so-called stores in town, com- 
mencing- at the present Kgert Block corner were as follows: The Tin Shop conducted by 
the late G. I,. Van Xamee and Capt. G. B. Winslow. The adjoining building east was the 
Tailoring department of A. S. Egert & Co. A gable roof building since moved to the corner 
of William and South Streets, now used as a residence by Mr. H. C. Smith. Adjoining this 
were the general stores of A. S. Egert & Co., Capt. Geo. Parker's grocery, Browne & Smith, 
and the Union Store Co. William E. Sterling and Chas. S. Cone conducted a general store on 
the present site of the Union Hall Block. The Cabinet Shop and Undertaking establishment 
(;f the late S. B. VanDuzee was the only other business jilace. 

John N. Draper. 

T). G. Wood. 

George F. Leak. 

The present Dry Goods houses of the town are: .\. A. Potter & Co., Geo. F. Leak, J. E. 
McAUaster & Sons, J. H. Rutherford, and G. P. Taitt & Son. These are strictly Dry Goods 
houses. Messrs. H. H. Ryan, J. W. Ormiston and J. N. Draper carry qiute extensive stocks 
of dry goods with other lines. 

Mr. A. A. Potter commenced business in the .Spring of 1879, the firm name being Potter 
& Sherwood. Mr. Sherwood died during the summer of 1887. Mr. Gregor was taken in as 
a partner and the firm name was changed to A. A. Potter & Co. 

Geo. F. Leak is the successor to Leak & Snyder, young men from Utica, who came here 
in April 1904. Mr. Snyder retired in Feb. 1905. 

The history of the dry goods houses of J. H. Rutherford, G. P. Taitt & Son, and J. E. 


JIcAlhister & Sons, is a succession of clianges from ISfiO to aliout 1890. Mr. Rutherford, now 
of Main Street, commenced with Howard & Uutlierford,— this business was bought two 
years later by Mr. G. P. Taitt. A few years later, Mr. Rutherford bought the interest of 
Mr. McAllaster,— of the firm of McAllaster & Wood. Tliis partnershii) was dissolved about 
18T9, Mr. Rutherford moving to his preseni: location. 

H. H. Kvan. 

J. W, Ol'iniston. 

Tlie Dry Goods l)usiuess of J. K. McAllaster & Sons is managed by one of the partners, 
Mr. R. T. Allen. This .store was started in the early seventies by McAllaster & Wood, Mr. 
Mc.Vllaster selling to Mr. Riitherford. After Jlr. Rutherford retired, Mr. Wood continued 
the Inisiness until his death in 1901. ,J. K. McAllaster & SoTis purchased the business and have 
conducted it on its ])resent site since that date. 

Mr. G. P. Taitt has lieen associated with 
the business street for a longer time than any 

other merchant. Coming to Gnuverneur in 

1H,58, he secured employment with the Union 

.Store Co. He commenced liusiness in his 

nvn name in 18()0, then was associated 

For a sliurt time with Capt. Parker. In the 

,S])ring of I8(i:3, Mr, F. S. Bariies, Adam 

Killmer, and Mr. Taitt bought the old Union 

.Store. ;\lr. BarTies soon retired. The firm 

of [\illmer, 'I'aitt and Jej>son was then 

formed, this firm |5urcbasing the business 
Cewge P. Taitt. „f ^ ^^ |,g.p,.^ ^^ ^.„; y^^. .^..,y^ An.os .S Kpert 

witlidrew from this firm in two years, purchasing the business of Howard Ci Rut he ■• ford. 
^h\ ,J. H. Ilickson was associatcil with Mr. Taitt for a few years lint withdrew about 1875. 
^ir. Taitt continued iii business alone until 1891, when his son Kdward D. Taitt was admitted 
as a partner, the firm name being G. P. Taitt & Son. 

In the good old days, general stocks were carried l)y all of the merchants; the change 
from general stocks to one regular line came during the years from 1875 to 1880. It is a 
well-known fact that tiie dry goiids houses of Gouverneur carry larger stocks in proportion 
to the ])0])ulatioii than any other t«>\\'n in the countr\'. 


I!y Walter W. ilall. 

So far as the colonization of the white man is concerned, the history of New York State 

may be divided into two eras. The first extends from that autumnal day in 1()08 when the 

"Half Mooji" entered tlic liay at tlie mouth of the Hudson river, down to the close of the 

Revolution in 1783, and the second from that date wl'.cn a free ])ci)|ile took up tliat wonderful 


career of adviinceiiient along all lines that make for national 

greatness a career that even yet shows no signs of halting. The 

first period was the time of the Dntch Colonists— first under the 

HollantI, later under tlie English flag, slowly pu.shing themselves 

up the valleys of the riud,son and the Mohawk and their tribu- 
taries. Then as early as 1700, the Yankee, the man from New 

England, filled with restless fever of that colonizing age, heard 

of richer lands beyond the Hudson, and gatliered his family and 

household goods around him, and joined hands ^\hh tlie man from 

the Rhine in carrying the ax and the plow into the wilderness. 

Slowly the thin line of civilization cre])t westward through the 

forest, halted and harrassed at every advance until the man ^''"" ^^'' """' 

from Connecticut, and the man from the Hudson stood side 

by side on the fields of Saratoga and Orisl^any and proved in the stern argument of war the 
right of a people to work out their own salvation in tlieir own way. Note, that at t)ie l:e- 
gumiiig of the Revolution, the advance guard of civilization rested on a line running from 
Rome to Deposit at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix. Most of this was acknowledged Indian 
lands. East of it was wliat we may now properly speak of as old New York. Then in 1783, 
peace with honor came again and the men who had made freedom possible came back once 
more to their homes, laid down the old flint-lock rifle, grasped the ax, set their faces toward 
the setting sun and went forth an irresistal)le army of them to conquer the wilderness. 

What a magnificent array it was flooding all around the bases of the Adirondacks, 
sounding the ax through the rough mountains of the soutliern tier, clearing the giant forests 
from the fertile lands of western New York, jjlanting everywhere the school and the church, 
carrying knowledge and law and justice into the wilderness until the .state was won. We 
never can pay enough reverence to those brave men and patient women who since the days 
of New York Bay and Jamestown and Plymouth Roc]< ha\e gone forth not knowing whither 
they went to lay in the wilderness the foundations of American civilization. 

Prior to 1851, cheese making and Jmtter making were confined wiiolly to farm dairies. 
When cheese were made, the millc of the herd was made into one cheese regardless of the 
quantity or of the size of the herd. Tliese cheeses were held in tlie farm dairy rooms, and if 
butter \\as made it was also held in the farm house cellar, from the time the butter and 
cheese making began in the spring until Uie dairy season closed in the fall, when the whole 
season's output was sold. Up to this time, cheese malting had lieen carried on in 
England for centuries, and as the peojile came to this country, and engaged in agriculture, 
farm dairy cheese making was continued. The size and quality of the cheese varied as the 
quality of the milk and the skill of the maker varied. In nearly all cases the work was done l)y 
women and the process was as simple as it coidd be made. The cream which came to the 
surface of the milk during the night was carefully remo\'ed and made into butter for family 
use. This was an act of economy, as they believed, if it was left on the milk it would all pass 
off in the whey and l)e lost. The cheese were necessarily of a soft nature, and from the fact 
that tliey had been made from milk of one dairy where conditions were under control, and 
held in the dairy until the casine was completely broken down and destroyed by 
bacterial development and the natural cheese flavor had liecome fully de\eloped, they were 
considered very fine in quality. Bui, the system became expensive. The person who was 
spending a large portion of her time in malving one cheese each day, and in many cases one 
in two days, could with proper equipment make the milk of several dairies with as little effort 
as was given to the milk from the one herd. The first step toward a factory made cheese, 
took jilace in Oneida county. New "^'ork, in 18.51. Jesse Williams, a dairy farmer, 
together with his sons living upon separate farms, pooled their milk and the father made 
it into cheese, each receiving his share according to the numljer of pounds of milk he furnished. 
The methods employed did not differ from that of the iiulividual dairy, as the expense which 
could l.e reduced by the pooling system, was the only inducement wbidi offered itself at that 


time. But from this time on co-operation dairying, both butter and cheese making, began to 
develop in New York State and was introduced into other states and Canada. As time went 
on and the demand for cheese increased, particularly from England, there was necessity for 
changing the method employed in making. The farm dairy cheese was nearly a sweet curd 
product, and if not, it was due more to an accident than to any intention on the part of the 
person in charge to improve the quality of the cheese. But as the demand from England in- 
creased, the request for a more solid body accompanied the order, until after a few years, 
the request came in the form of a demand. The demand was such that it was necessary to 
grant it, regardless of the tastes of American cheese consumers, and the result was a decrease 
in consumption of cheese on this side of the Atlantic as it increased on the other. From this 
time on, the English "Cheddar" *system has been adopted in Xew York State for cheese mak- 
ing. iVmong the first cheese factories which were built in this and adjoining towns, are the 
old "Barker" at Richville, West Fowler, little Bow, Schofleld, in Dekalb, after which co- 
operative Initter factories and cheese factories have been increased in number until Gouverneur 
has ten, Fowler has five, Hermon has eight, Hammond seven, Edwards three, Depeyster five, 
DeKalb twelve, and Rossie nine. No sooner had we won the good opinion of English cheese 
consumers, the unscrupulous dairymen of our state, thinking that no one could tell the 
difference, continved the ])ernicious habit of removing more or less cream from the milk 
and making a "light skim" and branding it full cream American Cheese, when filling the or- 
ders from English exporters. Not being satisfied with skimming alone, the "wise" ones in- 
troduced a system of "filled" cheese which were made from pure skimmed milk, with the ad- 
dition of foreign fats, mixed by a force which, when made into cheese resembled full cream 
quite well as far as texture was concerned, but after the cheese had reached the English shores, 
the flavor Ijecame vile. The Mercantile Exchange of London issued circular letters to the 
manufacturers of this vile product, that if any more of it came to their country, it would 
not be removed from the "docks." 

At this time, about 1878 to 1885, Canada and other British possessions had bent every etfort 
to make the very finest quality of full cream cheese, and to resemble those made in England 
so closely that the diflFerence could not be detected by the best judges on the English markets. 
They have already passed the English in the race and Canada has the proud distinction of 
making the finest and best keeping quality of cheese of any made on earth, from an English 
point of view. Gouverneur and adjoining towns held the trade with England for both butter 
and cheese, initil the consum]5tion in our own country increased to such an extent that the 
foreign markets could not respond to the extreme high prices paid by our American dealers. 

The industry has grown during the past fifty years to such an extent, that the little 
shallow pan for raising cream bj' the "gravity" system, has given way to the Centrifugal 
Separator, which has the cajjacity to separate 5,000 pounds of milk per hour and reduce the 
amount of fat left in the skimmed milk to 5-100 of one per cent, and produce a cream that 
contains 50% fat. The little dash churn has given way to the mammoth combination churns, 
with a capacity for churning 1,000 pounds of butter, and washing it at the same time without 
removing it from the churn. All of the many obstacles which stood in the way of the farm 
dairy butter and cheese maker, have been removed, and the results of scientific research has 
made the work comparatively easy. With the assistance of all of the improved machinery, 
su'-j, as tlie latest improved cream separator, combination churn, pastuerizers, and many other 
less im])ortaiit unprovements, one competent person can manufacture the butter from 10,000 
])Ounds of milk in one day and prepare it for the refrigerator or for market. 

During the year of 1003 

Gouverneur produced Butter, Dis. 131,513 

Clieese " 1.609.673 

DeKalb " Butter " OO.C'SO 

Cheese " 1.646,936 

* Named after a town in England where this system was discovered. 

Butter, Ihs 




Butter " 


Cheese " 


Butter " 


Cheese " 


Butter " 


Cheese " 


Butter " 


Cheese " 


Butter " 


Cheese " 


Butter •■ 







Hermon produced 

Edwards " 

Depeyster " 


Macomb " 


Hammond " 

Total Product 

The above is the product of tlic butter and cheese factories only, and in addition to this 
must he added the milk consumed in our villasfes, the l)utter and cheese made on the farms, 
and the milk shipped out of our county into the great consuming centers. When we glance 
at the above figures, one cannot helj) liut ask the question. What would become of the 
"Empire town" in the "Empire State," if the dairy cow should he talcen from her support? 
It will also be seen, that Gouverneur and adjoining towns do their part toward making St. 
Lawrence the banner dairy county of the United States, with her 93,500 cows, against Jefferson 
C'.unty, Wisconsin, with 33,500 cows as second highest, that we are doing our part toward 
making up the value of the dairy products of the United States which is .'p605,315,354.00 from 
18,000,000 cows. The improved niacliinery combines economy of labor and efficiency in the 
highest degree. It makes it possilile to handle tlie great flow of millt with comparatively 
slight cost, and when assisted by modern methods, as a result of scientific investigations, a 
uniformly fine quality of product follows. The lack of imiformity in the methods, and of the 
quality of butter, when made on the farm, assist largely to liring about the co-operative 
system of today since tlie mysterious laws of nature ha\ e been solved to the extent that cream 
refining is made easy, and today a river of pure, well refined cream, is running from the cream 
vats into the churns every morning tliroughout our dairy community which has the appearance 
of glossy satin with a flavor develojjed that not only insures clean churning, but the high 
aroma and solid Ijody which enables the dealers to carry it until June the following year, or 
until consumed. The old tale that "the liutter w'ont come" and the time when the dairy maid 
put a horse-shoe, or a silver dollar, or a clothespin in the cliuru "for luck," has passed away 
and the scientific methods explain away all of the old trouldes which once existed in the 
manufacture of butter and cheese. 

It was a century ago, that a little band of that innumeralile company with their children 
and their goods, and their cattle came down the woodland trail to Gouverneur. East of them 
was the great \\ilderness of Adirondacks. West and North of them ran the vast mysterious 
river concerning whose wonders the French voyagers had lieen singing for generations. So 
here where since has arisen so fair a civilization, these grand sires of ours made the 
rude beginnings of a home. Measured by American standards of time, that was not long 
ago. A hundred times have the deep St. Lawrence snows whitened all the land. A hundred 
times has been seen a miracle, for the south wind has breathed upon tliese old fields and they 
have been covered with living green. 

Those heroes of that heroic age have grown into a great, free, intelligent people. Those 
forest clearings have broadened into leagues of fertile fields. From these few cows dri\'en 
down the woodland road, have come the herds that cover tlie liills of this great dairy county 
of St. Lawrence. As a people, our Coat of Arms miglit well be a cow at rest in a green 
field. 01 us it is true that where the dairy cow goes, she carries blessing. May the lowing of 


liertis, tlie mellow call of the cow boy, and the sleepy hum of the cream separator never 
fease to he heard in the land. 


statistics of the folh 


towns during the year of 




Lbs. Butter. 

lAs. Cheese. 

































8,076 603,421 424,059 


J?y S. F. Hartley, 

On tile 27th day of February, 1875, twenty-seven men and ten women met in what was 
ealled the Masonic Hall in the Fgert Block, Town of Gouverneur, and organized what has 
pa.ssed into history as Gouverneur Grange Xo. 303 of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry. 
Officers elected were: S. F. Hartley, Woj'thy Master; tieo. S. Parsons, Worthy Overseer; 
Thomas Miller, Worthy Lecturer; A. J. Borland, Worthy Steward; O. E. Van Buren, Worthy 
Assistant Steward; Chas. Henry Smith, Worthy Chaplain; James Brown, 2nd, Worthy Trea.s- 
urer; Hall, AVorthy Secretary; Mrs. A. B. Billings, Worthy Ceres; Mrs, Henry Brown, 
Worthy Ponu)na; JIrs, S, V. Hartley, Worthy P'lora ; Mrs. Charles Henry Smith, AVorthy 
Jyady ^Assistant Steward. Gouverneur was the fourth Grange to organize in St. Lawrence 
County, starting with twenty-seven charter members, but four of whom are now living and con- 
nected with the Order, viz.: Mr. p'rank H. Smith, Mrs. Chas. Henry Smith, and Mr. and Mrs. 
S. F. Hartley. 

Our growth has ke]>t ])ace with the demand of the farTuers for organization and fraternal 
fo-opeiation. Our roll call shows 335 names in good standing, representing the sul)stantial and 
progressive part of the agricultural community. The objects of the Grange have been defined 
as co-operation for mutual benefit, and protection. Education is inculcated, social relations 
fostered, and brotherly love cidtivated. y\rl;itration is also a prominent feature of our Order. 
"Cultivate an observing mind. It is delightful to acquire knowledge and much more so to 
ditfuse if is an injunction given every member of the Order and thus our discussion of 
topics ])ertaining to the farm and the home, are ever a source of pleasure and profit. 

Lookhig over results accomplished, probably no one act of the Grange has been of more 
benefit financially, or has done more to form a strong liand of union lietween its members 
than the organization and successful operation of the Patrons Co-o])erative Fire Relief As- 
sociation of St. Lawrence County. This com])a,ny was organized Nov. 8, 1878, in the early days 
of the Order, when there were but three active working Granges in the county, viz.: Potsdam, 
No. 39, Crarvs Mills Xo. 54, and Gouverneur No. 303. 

As soon as .¥100,000 in risks was secured, the first ])olicies were issued Feb. 8, 1879. The 
.'\ssociation now has four thousand policies and carries sonu'thing over eight million in risks. 



The first officers were: Noel O. Freeman, President, and Benj. Butterfield, Director, front 
Crarys Mills Grange. Charles F. Allen, Treasurer, and George W. Waldo, Director, from 
Potsdam Grange. Lott Hall, Secretary, and S. F. Hartley, Director, from Gouverneur 
Grange. Articles of Association and By-laws were adopted at the meeting of Nov. 8, 1878, 
and thus equipped the first purely mutual insurance company counnenced business in St. I^aw- 


rence County. For a time our annual reports were made and filed with County Clerk only, 
l)ut soon after incorporation, the annual reports were filed with the department of insurance,, 
Albany, N. Y. Our present Secretary, Mr. Harvey W. S. Knox, informs us that the cost of 
insurance on one thousand from this date of organization to the close of the last insurance 
year has been less than one dollar per year. 

In matters of legislation in which our local grange has taken active interest, the so-called 
Bob Veal Law was first suggested in the discussions of our local grange. Mr. Frank H. 
Smith was delegated by Gouverneur Cirange to visit Albany and confer with the Hon. Ira C. 
Miles, member of A.ssembly, from this district. Mr. Miles took the suggestion in hand and 



after nearly two terms of hard work, succeeded in passing the act. Thus by his determined 
efforts, marked ability and integrity of purpose, did our Hon. Member of Assembly earn 

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the grateful remembrance of the Patrons of this and adjoining counties. While the Grange or- 
ganization looks carefully after the wants and welfare of its local members, it has come to 
be a recognized ])Ower in maintaining the dignity and protecting the interests of Agriculture. 


The College of Agriculture at Cornell, The Experiment Station at Geneva, The Depart- 
ment of Agrioilture at Albany, have no more hearty support, no higher appreciation of the 
work well done, than comes to them through the membership of the suliordinate grange. 

"And step by step since time began. 
We see the steady gain of nuin; 
That all the good the j)ast has had, 
Remains to nuike our own time glad." 


By E. W. Duffie. 

The Gouverneur Agricultural and Mechanical Society was organized .January 29, 1859, 
' pursuant to an act of the State Legislature passed in 1855 "to facilitate the forming of Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Societies." A charter was granted to the following citizens of 
Gouverneur and surrounding towns: Richard Parsons, George Loekie, Jr., Ossian I/. Barnum, 

E. M. Beardslce, George Rodgers, Milton Barney, Peleg Chamberlain, .John Pooler, Jr., Lewis 
Loomis, David Hill, Henry H. Haile. 

The officers for the year 1859 were: President, Henry H. Haile, Eowler; 1st Vice Pres., 
George Rodgers, Gouverneur; 2nd Vice Pres., Milton Barney, Gouverneur; 3rd Vice Pres., 
David Day, 2nd, Macomb; 4th Vice Pres., Wni. B. Rich, Gouverneur; 5th Vice Pres., Benj. 

F. Skinner, Gouverneur; 6th Vice Pres., Milton G. Norton, Gouverneur; Secretary, George 
Parker; Treasurer, Augustus E. Norton. Directors, David Hill, Edward Hartley, F. M. 
Beardslee, Stephen Van Duzee, John Pooler, Jr., Cieorge Loekie, Jr. Superintendent, Peleg 

The organization of the Society being effected, steps were then taken toward securing 
suitable grounds for Fair purposes. 

From Messrs. Egert & Averill, a lease was obtained of the plot of land included within 
the bounds of Main, Rock Island, Barnes, and Park Streets, no charges for the use thereof 
being made by the owners so far as the records show. A race course was quickly constructed 
under the supervision of Edward Hartley, G. L. Van Namee and John Kenyon, and prepara- 
rations went forward for the holding of the first annual fair upon this site which is now 
the center of the fashionable residential district of Gouverneur. 

For a floral hall, the St. Lawrence Agricultural Society of Canton, kindly loaned the use 
of a large tent and temporary sheds were built for the housing of the live stock exhibit. 

The grounds were formally opened Sept. 14, 1859, and the reader can easily imagine the 
excitement of expectancy which attended the event. 

Town and country flocked to witness the spectacle. Sleek cattle and carefully groomed 
horses vied with each other for popular attention. 

The products of farm and garden in profusion greeted the eyes of an enthusiastic throng. 

The side-show barker and fakir, jjatent medicine and whip men, whose deep toned voices 
might plainly be heard above the general balible, all added gayety to the scene, likewise, 
shekels to their own pockets. 

Mr. Thomas Clark of Jefferson County, N. Y., delivered the address speaking upon 
agricultural topics. The fair continued three days, and upwards of 2,000 admission tickets 
were sold besides the 200 family membershijis issued. 



Light harness racing was the feature of the amusement programme, and most prominent 
among tiie loeal jiioncers of tliis sport may he mentioned tlie names of Orin Partridge, A. S. 
Rhodes, Nate Garisoii, G. 1.. Van Xainee, O. Judd, and W. Van Valkenhurg. Suhsequently 

PiiiisKXT OiriCERS, 1305. 

Amasa Corhin, .F. K. McAllaster, A. J.. McC'rea, J. H, yVlihott, William Conistocli, Judge 
Leslie AV. Russell, and George Hossington, liave l^een jv.-ominently identiiied with local racing 

Mr. Van A'alkenhurg, familiarly known as \'an, holds the unique record of having driven 
the most winners and the largest numher of heats in one afternooon of any teamster over 
the Gouvcrneur track, (sixteen), and he has participated in nearly every race meet during the 
history of the Society. 

The Treasurer's report of tlie first meeting shows a surplus of .fl3(),79, a matter of much 
satisfaction and encouragement to the promoters. 

For seven succe.ssive years, fairs were held u|)on the original site. 

In IfiOf), during the administration of Peleg Chamherlain, likeness appears else- 
where in this hook, the society having liccome a permanent institution, it was decided that more 
commodious grounds should he secured to meet the growing denuinds, and twenty acres of 
land were jiurchased from B. Iloward Smith, for the sum of .f3,;5()0.00. This plot was quickly 
transformed into the present Fair grounds, and the anmud show held there, Sept. 13, 13, and 
1 1, of the same year. 

The receipts advanced from !);8J0 in 18(i3 (the first availahle rejjort), to .$5,363 in 1866, 
when .f3.5()..50 was paid in jiremiums and the Ijalance ex])eiided for jjermanent improvements, 
such as a grimd stajid, ticket office, sheds, fences, etc. 

The present floral hall was erected in 1873 at a cost of .$1,300, and notwithstanding its 
ample proi>ortions a serious inconvenience occasioned hy lack of space to properly display 
the exhiiiits has lieen experienced u|)on several occasions. 


At this period of tiie Society's existence, of tlie 58 town ffiirs in New Yorl< State, only 
three exceeded ours in receipts, and tliose were in the much more populous localities. 

Plowing- matches and sale days were interesting- features of the early fairs, and farmers 
derived much heneflt therefrom. 

The first electric lig-ht (arc and iucaiulcscent) was one of the drawing attractions away 
hack in the eighties, furnished free of charge to the Society, except for poles, hy Mr. C. A. 
Benton, representative of the large electrical company. Poles were set around the course 
and an evening racing- program given in connection with the demonstration of the new light. 

Xever hut once prior to 1882, did the Society's gross income equal $3,000. In Secretary's 
Winslow's report of 1881, he advised the abandonment of tlie fair, on the ground that it was 
hadly incumbered and not self-sustaining. 

Anuisa Corhin, ,Ir., became Secretary and liegan active work in 188? — with a delrt on the 
Society of about .$3,500. His first recorded official act was a resolution to liorrow .$225, with 
which to pay the interest on the debt. I'he following shows the growth of the fair for six 
succeeding years. 

In 1881, Geo. Parker, Pres., Geo. Winslow, Secretary, receipts, .$3,1 5-l'.35. 
In 1882, John Rogers, Pres., A. Corhin, Jr., Secretary, receipts, $5,185.11. 
In 188.3, John Rogers, Pres., A. Corhin, Jr., Secretary, receipts, $5,821. (il. 
In 1881, D. G. Wood, Pres., John Webb, Jr., Secretary, receipts, $(i,l 12.72. 
In 1885, D. G. Wood, Pres., V. H. Norton, Secretary, receipts, $4.,7(;2.80. 
In 1886, A. Corliin, Jr., Pres., F. H. Norton, Secretary, receipts, $8,4.70.3(). 

During the entire exi.stence of the Society, with the exception of the first two years, one 
of the ]iresent directors, Mr. Frank H. Smith, has been actively identified with the fair as 
one of its officers, and to his indefatigable efforts is due much praise for its successful career. 

Up to 1882, the grand stand consisted of fifty feet of seats without any roof over them. 
It was deemed wild extravagance by many when the erection of the great grand stand was 
conuiienced in 1882. It more than paid for itself, ho\i'ever, the first year, from the rental of 
booths and the sale of seats, and has been a source of large revenue ever since. 

At the close of the fair in 1884, the receipts were sufficient to wipe out the entire debt 
and leave a large surplus. During the fall of 1881, however, the track was lengthened at a 
large expense and another indebtedness thereby incurred. In 1886 the affairs of the Society 
reached the high water marlv, the receipts having- exceeded .$8,100. Tlie well advertised at- 
tractions of that year consisting of the Great Sham Battle in which the 29th Separate Com- 
pany of Ogdensl)urg, of which Mr. Corbin was an honorary member, and the 35th Separate 
Company of Watertown, participated and went into the "field of carnage" side by side with 
till old veterans of the Civil War, the late Dr. McFalls following- the aml)ulance convevinn' 
the wounded from the battle field past the grand stand amid the tumultous applause of the 
largest mass of peojile ever assembled in the village of Gouverneur. 

During the earh' history of the organization and until recent years, annual addresses liy 
men of prominence, constituted one of the principal attractions and among the list of men 
v\-h'j have sjioken at our fairs, we find the names of Horace Greeley, Geo. W. Bungay, Edward 
Everett, F. E. Sjiinner, Daniel Sickles, N. M. Curtis, and Roswell P. Flower. It is a matter 
of general regret that this once popular feature of the program has been abandoned. 

That the fair is an institution deserving of the encouragement and patronage of our 
j>eo])le is generally conceded, affording pecuniary benefits along with educational advan- 

It has grown from an humble origin to its jiresent ])roportions, keeping step with the 
progress of our thriving community under the guidance and direction of the loyal citizens 
upon whom from year to year, is ])laced l)y election, the burden of management. "I^ong live 
the Fair." 



Mij. Henry H. Haile. 

Edwin r)odge. 

Peleg Chaniherlain. 

John Rodsie! 

Genrge Lockie. 

(;. S. Congei" 

George M. Tileason. 

Amasa Corbin, 

Frederick J. Kolton. K. I). Barry. S, F. Harllty. 




List of Presidents of G. A. & M. Society. 

Henry H. Haile, 1856-61 

Edwin Dodge, 1863-63 

Jolin Porter, 1864. 

Peleg Cliamlierlain, 1865-71 

George Parlver, 1872-73 

George I-otlvie, 1874-75 

George M. Gleason, 1876-77 

S. F. Hartley, 1878 

W. E. Bacon, 1879-80 

George Partner, 1881 

John Rodger, 1882-83 

D. G. Wood, 1884-85 

List of Secretaries of G. A. & M. Society 

George Parlier, 1859-61 

C. F. Keyes, 1863 

A. B. Cutting, 1863-66 

W. H. Walling, 1867-68 

George B. Winslow, 1869-70 

George Parker, 1871 

George B. Winslow, 1873-77 

George Parker, 1878 

George B. AVinslow, 1879-81 

A. Corbin, 1882-83 

James R, Austin, 1884 

Amasa Corbin, 
G. M. Gleason, 
G. Parker, 
H. Smith, 
S. Conger, 
D. Barry, 
Fred J. Bolton, 
J. H. Abliott, 
Charles Fuller, 
A. H. Turnbull, 
S. F. Hartle^-, 

John Webb, Jr. 
Fred Norton, 
Frank H. Smith, 
W. W. Hall, 
.1. 15. Johnson, 
D. A. Leggett, 
Frank H. Smith, 
J. H. Abliott, 
D. A. Leggett, 
i (Iw. W. DufBe, 























By H. G. Aldrich. 
Situated on the Oswegatchie river, two miles below Gourerneur village, is the principal 
plant of the Aldrich Paper Co. The corporation organized in 1900 by Gouverneur and 
Watertown capitalists. The water power and saw mill jjropert)^ of Aldrich, Dean & Aldrich, 
at Natural Dam, together with thirty-two thousand acres of timber land, were purchased by 
that Company, and in the summer of that year the erection of the jiaper mill at that place 
was begim. There was built a large and modern paper ]5lant em- 
bracing ground and suljibite pulp mills. The paper mill has one 
133 inch nuichine with a.n average capacity of 25 tons daily. The 
sulphite mill has two digesters and can turn out daily twenty tons 
of pulp. The wood pulp mill contains iive grinders with a total 
daily cajiacitv of twenty tons of ground wood. The Natural Dam 
affords a splendid water jjower for this plant, there Ijeing some 
two thousand horse-power available. The mill at Natural Dam 
{ ives steady emjiloyment to 125 men and %\ omen. The Company 
owns about forty liouses in this hamlet. A branch of the N. Y. 
C. R. R. running direct to the mill, furnishes convenient shipping 

In August, 1903, the Aldrich Paper Co. purchased of the 
Gou\'erneur Wood Pulp Company their pid]) mill property at 
Emeryville. This mill situated on Edwards branch of the N. Y. C. R. R., is also located on 
one of the best water powers of the Oswegatchie rii'er. There is a thirty-two feet head to 
furnish jiower for driving wheels of mill. There are eight grinders in this mill and its 
daily capacity is thirty tons. Fifty men find steady employment at this plant. The present 
officers of the Corjioration (Aldrich Paper Co.) are: President, Charles R. Remington; Vice- 
President. Herbert G. Aldrich; Secretary, Sanuiel Child, and Treasurer. Nelson R. Caswell. 

H G. Aldrich. 



By A. J. McDonald. 
Talc, which is a silicate of magnesia, is by no means a rare mineral, but the qualities 
wliich have made Gonverneur talc generally known and valuable in the manufacturing world, 
more especiallv in the Inisiuess of ])aper-nu\king, do not seem to be duplicated in any of the 
numerous deposits of the mineral which are known to exist at other localities in this country 
ami Canada, as well as in several countries of Europe. This difference is in the physical 
(jualities of tlie mineral rather tlum its chemical ])roportions which are almost identical with 
Ihe talc of the various other de])Osits, of which mention has been made. 

The local material lias a filirous character peculiarly its own, wliich, combined with a 
])urely white color and a strong matting or felting tendency, in connection with paper pulp 
ingredients have made a wide field for its use in the paper-making trade, in which the major 
portion of the output is consumed. Its use in the manufacture of paint and rubber goods, 
while relatively small, is growing and iu time will doulrtless become an important factor in 
tlie l)\isiness. 

It might lie well to say here tliat altliough no talc is mined in the town of Gouverneur, 
tlie fact that Gouverneur has always lieen the shipping point for the talc produced in the 
towns of Fowler and Edwards has given the name of Gouverneur Talc to the product, and as 
Gou^■erneur Talc it is l<nowu to almost all who have to do witli it. 

There are several versions of how talc hajipened to be discovered in this section and as 
to how it was first learned that it was valualile in the making of paper. The old geological 
surveys of the state mentioned tlie fact of talc Ijeing herealiouts, l)ut this seeius to have at- 
tracted no especial attention, and there seems to have lieen nothing done toward developing 
the mineral until aliout 1S73, when S. C. Merritt, a veterinaiy 
surgeon of Gouverneur, did some prosjiectiug and called attention 
to Hie talc ci'0]ipings and indications at various places in the town 
of h'owler. His work and the faith he had that the mineral was 
of N'alne seems to have started an effort toward finding some use 
for wliicli it was adapted. Within tlie Tiext two or three years, 
Col. Henry Palmer, and G. A. Mendin of Gouverneur, and Daniel 
Mintliorn of W'atertown, N. V., liecame interested in the attempt 
to utilize the talc deposits in a commercial way, and it seems to be 
conceded that to one of these three is due the credit of first 
suggesting its use in the manufacture of paper, for which 
as it proved, it was eminently adapted. In view of the conflicting 
claims as to who first suggested this use it is as well perha|)s 
that tlie credit for Hie suggestion be shared equally l)y the three, and that thej' 
with S. C. Merritt, be accorded tlie honor and credit of originating and starting on its way 
the talc industry of Xorthern New York. During the years 187.5-(), Palmer, Mendin and 
Minthorn, secured some mining leases in Fowler, and some crude grinding experiments were 
made of the talc found there. Attempts were made to interest eajiital for the business of 
mining and grinding the mineral, and developing a market for the jiroduct. As a result of 
these efforts, two talc mills were erected during the years 187() and 1877, one of which was 
a steam mill on the farm of Abner Wight in Fowler, to grind the talc found on that property; 
the other lieing established in a water power mill on the Oswegatehie River below Natural 
Dam in the town of Gouverneur, wliich had been used to grind iron ore for paint and was 
known locally as the "Paint Mill." The talc for this mill was mined on the William Wood- 
cock farm in Fowler. 

The steam mill on the Wight ])ro))erty was owned by the Agalite Fibre Company, this 
company being organized and controlled by A. E. McCrea and Touro Roliertson, both of Xew 
York, with some of their friends. With them were interested Col. Henry Palmer and G. A. 
Mendin. In .luly, 1877, A. E. MeCrea, Jr., who had become interested in the company came 
to Gouverneur and assumed the management of the business. Grinding operations were con- 


ducted at this steam mill until the sjiriiig- of 1878, when a portion of the Clai'k and Howard 
mill property at Haileshoro was leased and equi])])cd for g-rinding talc; during the year 
187!), the entire Clark and Howard mill property was purchased by the Agalite Fibre Co., 
and tale machinery installed. During the same year this conijiany had also developed a mine 
of fibrous talc on the Nelson H. Freeman farm at Freemansburg, now Talcville, in Edwards, 
and thereafter their ore sujiply was olitained from that mine. The jiroperty and business of 
this company were purchased liy the International Pul]) Comjiany in 1893, and are now 
operated by that corporation. 

'I'lie mill proi)erty below Natural l^am was eqidpped as a talc mill during the years 
187(i-7 by the Mineral Attrition Mills Co., a corporation organized and controlled by Alfred 
C Smith, Jr., and Thomas Ciirvan of New Yorlc, with some of their associates and Daniel 
Minthorn of Watertown, N. "i'. During the years 1878-9, the pro|)erty changed ownership and 
was owned sxiccessively by ?Ienry C. Post of Patersoa, N. J., Beuient P. Sharp of New York, 
and finally in Februar}', 1879, acquired by Theodore W. Bayaud of New York, who in 1884. 
organized the Natural Dam I'ulp Co., to conduct the business, lie retaining a controlling in- 
terest in the ])roperty. The Woodcock mine in Fowler su]i]ilied the ore gi-ound in this mill 
until in 1879 when a mine was opened on a property owned by F.dwin G. Dodge, near the 
Peabody Bridge in North Gouverneur. The ore from this mine was a variety of soapstone, 
and while Ihe mine was worked for a year or two, the i)roduct was not satisfactory and 
almost constant prospecting \\as being tlone for a suital)le material, resulting in the develop- 
ment of a mine in 1881 on the Anthony property at Freemansburg, in Edwards, from which 
the ore supply of this mill was thereafter taken. During the year 1891 a large new mill was 
built by the Natural Dam Pul]) Co. on the Oswegatchie Uiver, on a water power about half a 
mile above Haileshoro. Both of the mills of this Conijiany were operated until 1893, when the 
properties were purchased by the International Pulp Co., and arc now owned by that corpor- 

During the year 1879, Col. Henry Palmer of Gouverneur, who bad then severed his 
relations with the Agalite Fibre Co., associated with Stejihen B. ^'all Duzee and .John S. 
Honeycomb, both of Gouverneur, organized the Gouverneur Pulp Co. to mine and grind talc. 
They developed a valuable talc mine on the Brayton jiroperty at Freemansburg, in Edwards, 
and liuilt a mill on the Haile water ]iower on the Oswegatchie River, a short distance below 
Haileshoro. A very successfid business was conducted by this Com])any until 1883, when 
they dis])osed of their property to the jVdirondack Pulji Co. 

In 1880, the Gouverneur Talc Co. was organized by Amasa Corbin, Samuel Graves, I^awson 
M. Gardener and A. G. Gillet, all of Gouverneur. They bought a water power a mile above 
Haileshoro, in Fowler, of A. W. Brown, and liuilt a mill, at the same time developing a mine 
on the Anthony lands at Freemansburg, in Edwards. The Imsiness of this Company was 
.successfully conducted mitil 188;2, when its properties were sold to the Adirondack Pulp Co. 

The Adirondack Pulp Co. was organized during the winter of 1883-3 by Amasa Corliin, 
Jr., and some business associates, with the view of purchasing and consolidating the properties 
of the Gouverneur Talc Co. and the Gouverneur Pulp Co. This plan was carried out soon 
after the organization of the comjiany and the properties were conducted by the Adirondack 
Pid]i Co. until their sale to the International Pulp Co. in 1893. 

The St. Lawrence Pulp Co. was organized during 1884 by M. M. Belding and associates 
of New York, and a mill built below Haileshoro, in Fowler, on a branch of the Oswegatchie 
River known as ^lill Creek. The ore supply for this mill was jirocured from the Brayton 
farm in Edwards. The ]n-0])erties of this eomjiany were acquired by the International Pulp 
Co. in 1893. 

Another talc cor))oration to enter the field in 1884 was the Northern New York Jlanu- 
facturing Co., organized by AVilliam L. Palmer of Rochester, Leslie W. Russell, Milton D. 
Packard and William H. Kimball of Canton, N. Y., and some others. A stone building was 
erected on the Saver lauds in the village of Gouverneur, very near the present junction of the 
Gouverneur and Oswegatchie R. R. with the R. W. & O. R. R. tracks. Steam was used 
at this mill which so increased the cost of manufacturing, as to render the business impi-ofitable. 


The property changed hands several times and was finally destrojed by fire in 1803. What ore 
was ground at this mill was mined on the Woodcock property in Fowler. 

In the latter part of the year 1888, Lawson M. Gardener of Gouverneur, who at that time 
had been out of the talc business for a number of years, purchased the Freeman or the old 
iron furnace water power at Freemansburg, and with some associates built a mill there and 
commenced tlie grinding of talc, the ore for this mill coming from a mine in the Gideon 
Freeman property a short distance from the mill and also from the Palmer mine on the 
Bray ton land just across the Oswegatchie River from the mill, both of these mines being 
operated by power transmitted from this mill by ^^•ire cables. This mill and business were 
sold liy Gardener and those interested with him to the Asl:estos Pulp Co. in 189J. 

Early in the year 1891, the Abbott Woolen Mill on the Oswegatchie River at Hailesboro, 
was leased to A. L. [HcCrea, Jr., who, in connection with James M. Sparks of Gouverneur, 
Fred W. Streeter and Frank H. Munson, of AVatcrtown, equip])ed it as a talc mill, and com- 
menced the grinding of ore obtained from the Palmer mine at Freemansburg. These parties 
continued the operation of this mill until the spring of 1893, when they disposed of the 
property to the Asbestos Pulp Co., a corporation organized largely through the efforts of A. 
L. McCrea, Jr., in the winter of 1891-3, to take over and consolidate the works of the 
Gardener mill at Freemansburg and those at the Alibott mill in Haileslioro, together with 
leases of the Palmer and Gideon Freeman mines at Freenuinsbin-g The capital of the Asbestos 
Pulp Co. was principally furnished Iiy Rochester men who controlled the company and 
operated its mines and mills until 1894, when the property was purchased by the International 
Pulp Co. 

In the spring of 1891, the United States Talc Co. was organized with F. W. Emery of 
Boston, Mass., Newton Aldrich, W. R. Dodge and F. >I. Burdick of Gouverneur, and Earl 
Bancroft of Edwards, as directors. This company had an excellent water power on the Oswe- 
gatchie River at Dodgeville, some seven miles up the river from Gouverneur on which they 
began the erection of a mill. This construction was not hurried, as there was every probability 
at this time of a railroad being built from Gouverneur to Edwards, and it was desired that the 
mill be so planned as to permit of the most economical connection with the railroad which 
was actually completed in 1893. The mill commenced grinding in 1894., obtaining its ore 
supply from a mine on the Anthony lands at Talcville, in Edwards, and later from the 
Nelson H. Freeman mine at the same place. The control of this business which is still in 
successful operation has not been materially changed since its organization. The present 
officers are F. W. Emery, Pres.; W. R. Jones, Treas. ; F. M. Burdick, Sec. 

During the years 1893-3, the steam mill on the Balmat farm near Sylvia Lake, in 
Fowler, was built Ijy the American Talc Co., a corporation organized by Providence, R. I. 
people to engage in the talc business . The ore for this mill was taken from the Balmat mine 
on the same premises. The American Talc Co. continued in business until October 1901, when 
the property was ]iurchascd by the Union Talc Co. 

The firm of Keller Bros., composed of Karl Keller and I'^/rnest Keller, manufacturing wood 
pulp at Fiillerville, in the town of Fowler, installed talc grinding machinery in a portion of 
their mill in 189.5, and conmienced the manufacture of talc. Their ore siipply was obtained 
successively from mines on the Van Namee, Wilson and Arnold farms, ;dl in the town of 
Fowler. In the latter part of 1901, Keller Bros, disposed of their plant to the Union Talc Co. 

The Columbian Talc Co. was organized early in 189.5 through the efforts of O. J. David 
of Gouverneiir, and J. J. Wallace and William T. Clark of Fowler, and Earl Bancroft of 
Edwards, all of whom served on the first board of directors of the company. Considerable 
of the capital for this undertaking was provided Ijy W. R. Candler and associates of Detroit, 
Michigan, and the company was controlled by them. The Columbian mill completed in the 
fall of 1895, was built on the "Island Branch" of the Oswegatchie River in Fowler, at a point 
some three miles from Gouverneur. The ore supply of this mill was the Arnold mine in 
Fowler. The Columbian Talc Co. disposed of its property to the Union Talc Co. in Oct., 1901. 

The Ontario Talc Co., organized in Novemlier 1899, built their mill on the Oswegatchie 
very near P'ullerville, in Fowler, and conmu'nced the maimfacture of talc early in 1900. The 


ore for the early operations of this mill was mined a few rods from their mill and on the 
same premises; later the niinin;;' o^jerations of the com])any were transferred to the Van 
Namee mine about a mile from tlie mill, where tlieir ore supply is still obtained. The directors 
of this company, unchanged since its organization, are I.. JI. Gardener and Anson A. Potter 
of Gouverneur, Edward B. Sterling, Gilbert B. Gregor and John Sterling of Watertown, 
N. Y. 

The International Pulp Company incorporated early in 189.'? with a capitalization of .$5,- 
000,000.00, was organized on broad lines; the intention being to consolidate in this corporation 
the entire business of mining and grinding talc in this section. This plan and the formation 
of the International Company were largely due to the publicity and advertising given to the 
talc business in the efforts made during the years 1891-2 to bring about the building of a 
railroad from the various talc mines in Kdwards to the mills in Fowler and on to the R. W. 
& O. R. R., at Gouverneur. This exploitation resulted in a very thorovigh investigation of the 
possibilities of the industry by H. Walter Webb, then prominently connected with the New 
York Central R. R. and W. J. jVrkell, a well known publisher and cajjitalist, and their in- 
teresting the necessary capital to form the International Company. Its first board of directors 
included Agustus G. Paine, President; H. Walter Webb, Chauncey M. Depew, W. J. Arkell, 
Theodore W. Bayaud, John A. . Manning, Touro Rol)ertson and others. In April, 189.S, this 
company purchased and took over the properties of the Natural Dam Pulp Co., Agalite Filire 
Co., Adirondack Pulp Co., and St. Lawrence Pulp Co., and in April, 1894, purchased the 
properties of the .\.sbestos Pulp Co., thus securing all the properties that were manufacturing 
talc at that time. Efforts were made to acquire the properties of the United States Talc 
Co. and the i\merican Talc Co., the mills of both these companies then being in course of 
construction, but it was found impossible to agree on terms for them and they were not pur- 
chased by the International Co. The ])roperties and plants of this company have been con- 
solidated to a considerable extent for coTivenience and economy in manufacturing, and many 
improvements introduced to perfect the quality of their product. The present officers of the 
corporation are Jlichael Doyle, President; JI. M. Belding, Jr., Treasurer, and S. J. McCrim- 
lisk, Secretary. 

The Union Talc Co., organized late in 1901, was formed to purchase and consolidate the 
properties of Keller Bros., the Columbian Talc Co., and .\merican Talc Co.; the transfer of 
these properties to the Union Co. was made very soon after its incorporation. The officers of 
the company are Charles E. Locke, Pres., and George Sraallwood, Sec'y and Treas. 

At this time, June 1905, the jiroducers of Gouverneur Talc are the International Pulp Co., 
the L'Uion Talc Co., the United States Talc Co., and the Ontario Talc Co., and the aggregate 
annual output is from 6,5,000 to 70,000 tons. 


By D. J. Whitney. 
The first retail marble business established in Gouverneur was in, 1865, by N. E. 
Whitney and J. H. Sawyer, under the firm name of Whitney & Sawyer, which was succeeded 
in the Spring of 1866 by N. E. Whitney. In the Summer of 1867 D. J. Whitney was admitted 
to partnership, it then becoming N. E. Whitney & Son. The 
senior member died in the Fall of 1868 and the son having pur- 
chased liis interest continued it until he sold out to George Park- 
er, early in the Spring of 1870, who continued it until Decemiier, 
1871, when he sold to Whitney Bros., D. J. & T. J. They enlarged 
the Ijusiness quite materially and furnished considerable cut stone 
work for buildings, the material used for several years being most- 
ly sandstone or blue limestone, but in 1876 they commenced cut- 
ting Gou\erneur stone for that purjrosc. The trimmings of the 
Presliyterian Church at Canton, N. Y. was the first building job 
to lie done in wliat was later known as Gouverneur Marljle. They 
rT'^wirr' ^"'^ used some of this marlile for monumental work during the 


M'inti-r of 1S77-S, In tlif fall of 187 7 their works were coiii|)letely destroyed by fire and were 
reliiiilt that fall, business being resumed in December. In the fall of 1878 they .sold their marl)le 
l)usiness to A. S. Whitney, a younger brother, and a couple of years later P. R. Whitney, the 
youngest brother of the family, joined as a partner. They were together .several years when 
they sold to Ilurlbut & Dunkelberg, this firm being comjiosed of E. B. Hui'lbut and C. C. 
Dunkellicrg. The former retired after a coujjle of years and was succeeded by Dunkelberg 
Bros., and later by C. C Dmdielherg, who conducted it until his death in 1903. In the settling 
of his estate the stock and business ^\■ere .sold to Crooks & McLean who were and are con- 
ducting a similar establishment at Carthage, X. Y. They still continue the business at the 
old staTul on William Street, Jlr. McLean heiiig the resident member. This has grown from 
a small undertaking in 18(i,5 until at the ]iresent time, and for .several years jiast, it has be- 
come by far the largest retail marlile business in Northern Xew York. 

From the first scttlcmeiit of Gouverneur it had been the practice to l)last out stone from 
ledges in nearby fields for foundation walls, road building and that class of work, but it 
was not until 187(3 that (juarry ojjerations were conducted on a.ny kind of a large scale. In 
the early spring of tliat year, D. J. & T. J. Whitiu=y and John S. Honey<'oml) formed a co- 
partnershi]) under the name of Whitneys & Honeycomli, and entered into a contract with the 
Town of Gouverneur to build the foniulations of the presejit Main Street bridge. Honeycomb 
being ordy interested in the bridge contract and not the niarlile and cut stone business of the 
Whitneys. They entered into a lease with James K. Barney whereby they could quarry stone 
on his farm and .selected a ledge liaek of his house a.s the place to make the opening, it now 
iieing the quarry of the Gouverneur Marble Co. There were two derricks erci-ted and a large 
number of njen employed during the year and several hundred cords of stone removed. The 
1 etter class of this was utilized )iy the M'hitneys for cut stone trimmings for buildings, bottom 
liases of monuments, etc., the balance being iised in the bridge piers and abutments. The 
trimmings for the Presbyterian church at Canton came from this quarry. With the com- 
jjletion of the liridge contract in Deoemlier, Mr. Honeycomb retired and Whitney Bros, re- 
sumed oiierations at the quarry in the Sjiring of 1S77. During this year the stone for the 
County Clerk's Office at Canton, was aot out as well as for several buildings in Gouverneur; 
among the latter were fronts for the Xnn Naniec and Dra])er blocks. AVith the close of 
work in the Fall this (|narry was not W(U-ked for several ycais or iintil ])urchased by the 
Clouverneur Marble Co. about ISSfi. 

In the late Fall of 1877, the Whitneys (piarrind some stock on the other part of the 
Barney farm southwest of the I>azenby lot and close to the Somerville road. Some of this 
was worked uj) during the Winter aiul ;v;is the first that was made into monuments. About 
tliis time dark marlile had come iido demand for monumental work and during 1878 some 
from this quarry was sold in the ronyli to inarlile dealers for that purpose, as well as being 
worked uj) locally. During the l-'all of that year, A. S. Whitney bought out the marble busi- 
ness of D. J. & T. J. Whitney and 'J'. .1. went to Vermont. D J. retained the quarries which 
were ojieratcd by him quite extensi^ely in 1879 and a large i)uantity of it shijiped for monu- 
mental pnrp(jses to Canada, Michigan, Indiana and Illinois, as well as being in good demand 
in (Jiir own state. It was being put u])on the market as (Jouverneur Marble, Init during this 
year some of the western dealers nicknamed it "Whitney Granite," which term or "Whitney" 
is still a]iiilied by dealers to some consider.ilile extent throughout the eouritrv when speaking 
about the ])roducts of the different quarries here. 

During the Sjiring of 1880 a misunderstanding arose between A\'liitiuw and Barnev as 
to the terms of the lease and was followed by long litigation. Work was therefore abandoned 
al this ojiening and another opening nuide across the road, an arrangeme?it havinr, been made 
iiy D. J. Whitney with J. Bower Pi-eston for a lease of jiart of the old Ilarvev D. Snnth 
farm. Work was coTumcnced on this lot July bst, 1880. L']> to this time ((uarrvina- had been 
done by taking ad\aTitage of the natural o))cn seams and the use of ))lugs and feathers. 
Powder was also used in natural In-eaking jilaces to loosen uj) large so that it could 
be broken to reqviiied sizes but as the new (juarry ccjuld luit be worked in this wa\' hand 
channelling w;is instituted. About this time J. E. Mc.Mlaster became interested in the en- 



terprise and the concern was called the Gouverneiir Marble and Whitney Granite Co. An 
arrangement \\a.s made with a firm in Cleveland, Ohio, to saw the larger blocks while the 
smaller sizes were shipped to dealers as previously, either roughly broken or else pointed to 
.size. \ side track was put in dnring the .Sinmner and followed in the Fall by a large steam 
power derrick. j\s hand channelling was a slow and expensive process it was re])laced in the 
Spring of 1881 liy a diamond drill channelling machine and this was the first modern quarry- 
ing machinery to l:e introduced here. Xov. 1st, 188H, an option was given on this property to 
New York caj)italists and I). J. 'Whitney and his brother 1'. J., who had returned from 
^'ermont ran this quarr}- for them mider contract l)y the culiic foot until May 1st, 1881, wlien 
the option e.\]iired and they completed the purchase of the jiroperty and organized as tlie 
St. Lawrence Marble Co., retaining the services of both the Whitneys, D. ,T. staying in their 
omplo\ until Aug. 1887, but T. J. has contin\icd in the management up to the jiresent time. 
.V 10 gang mill was started in M.av and completed in the Ftdl and Winter. The Lazenliy 
lot was also purchased about this time and about ten years later they acquired the fifty-live 
acre farm lot from the estate of J. K. Barney on which the first monumental marble was 
quarried. On account of insuificieTit ca])ital lieing pvit in at the inception, cou])led with some 
heavy business losses a.nd a large falling oft' in their trade due to dull times, they went into 
receivers hands in Jan., ISOli, and the plant was idle for se\eral years lint was bought in by 
M. M. i'elding, one of the original stockholders, and a heavy creditor. He ojjerated it suc- 
cessfully for aliout five years and was succeeded in the fall of IflOl liy the St. Lawrence Marble 
Quarries who are its present owners. 

'I'lie next qiuirry venture in clu-onologicfd order was made liy .John N. Baxter and .John 
A. Sanford of Rutland, Vt., in tlie Summer of 1881. They were assisted in tlie ])rospecting 
for a couple of months by T. J. Whitnev, who had returned from A'ermont, but he was not 
identified with them in developing the quarry whicli was situated on the old Hamlin farm 
now owned by Vasco P. yVbhott. The opening was made about one hundred rods directly back 
of the lime kiln but, after working it until the summer of 188:5, they were not satisfied with the 
quality of the marble they were getting and abandoned the midertaking and removed the 
imachinery to ^"ermont. 

In 18S1, T. J. Whitney and otiiers prosjiected with a diamond core drill on the McKeaii 
l(!t near the present site of the Gouverneur mill and later acquired tiiis piece of land, or- 
ganizing as the Whitney Marble Co., the incorporators being S. B. Van Duzee, Lewis Ecknian, 
T. J. Wh'tney, Daniel Peck, J. W. Tracey, Abel Godard, F. H. Haile, H. E. Gates, G. P. 
■Ormiston, and three others whose names have escajied tlie writer's memory. Tlie quarry 
was developed during the first year and was under tiie management of T. .1. Whitney, who 
retired after one year and was succeeded successively in the following years by of the 
stockholders who at different times took an active hand in the management. In 188:3 or 1883, 
thev built a 4. gang mill which was partially destroyed liy a boiler ex]ilosion May 1st, 1881-, 
lost their lives. Boiler makers were rejiairing the boilers 
and in testing them witli steam caused the explosion, and as the 
Watertown Steam Engine Co. sent these men to make the 
re]iairs they assumed practically all the res]ionsiliility, rebuilt the 
mill and settled the death losses. In 188() they purchased three 
acres of the J. K. Barney home lot from ¥,. B. Hurlluit, this lie- 
ing wliere A\'hitney Bros. & Honeycomb took out marble for the 
bridge and other work and it has lieen in continuous ojieration 
to the jiresent writing. Owing to insufficient capital at the outset, 
and their original quarry not producing a satisfactory quality of 
marble, they went into the hands of a receiver in 1887, and 
in the Fall of 1888 were reorganized into the Gouverneur Marble 
Co., tlie principal parties interested being S. B. Van Duzee, Lewis 
Lewis Eckman. Eckmaii, Daniel Peck and G. P. Ormiston. The following S|)nng 


Six men 



D. J. Whitney took tlie management and later became a stockholder and director. He had it 
in charge between 4 and 5 years during which time the mill enlarged and other improve- 
ments made. He A\as followed in succession by Daniel Peck, A. Z. TurnbuU and Maurice 
Eckman, who is in charge at present. In the morning of July 24th, 1904, the mill and 
other buildings were destroyed by tire and were rebuilt during the following Fall and Winter, 
sawing being resumed in March, 1905. 

Davidson Bros., of Chicago, 111., purchased about ten acres of J. B. Preston in 1888, it 
lieing part of tlie old Harvey D. Smith farm and opened up a quarry about sixty rods south- 
west of the St. I^awrence mill, E. B. Hurlbut being in charge. Several years later this was 
abandoned and a new ojiening made on the Jlilton Barney farm, formerly kno\\n as the Peter 
Van Buren farm, they in the meantime having purchased a ])ortion large enough for 
their purpose. Their mill is at Watertown, N. Y., where tlie blocks are shipped for sawing. 
The concern is now known as the Watertown Marble Co., A. C. Davey being the general 
manager and Josejih Callahan in charge of the quarries. 

The Empire State Marble Co., was organized in 1889 by D. G. Wood, J. W. Tracy, Gilbert 
MoUison and James Dowdle, the two latter being from Oswego, N. Y. They bought a part 
of the C. W. Overacker farm, opened a quarry and built a mill which was under the manage- 
ment of ilr. Tracy and later Mr. Esser, John Babcock and J'lr. 
Mitchell. The plant was sold to the Empire Marble Co. in July, 
1895, the parties interested being W. R. Dodge, R. G. Dodge, L. 
S. I^ansing, D. J. Whitney, and others, Mr. Whitney having 
charge of the business. This plant was leased to the Northern 
New York Marble Co. from Jan. 1st, 1901, to Jan. 1st, 1904, since 
which time it has been operated by the D. J. Whitney Co. 

Some prospecting was done on the back part of the Wm. 
Kitts farm adjoining the Empire plant, which resulted in the 
forming of the Northern New York Marble Co., in 1890. W. A. 
Beach, Geo. B. Massey, and John Webb, M'ere the parties princi- 
pally interested. Mr. Webb was manager about eight j'ears fol- 
lowed for a year Ijy D. J. Whitney, who divided his time between 
that quarry and the Empire, and was succeeded liy A. M. Jepson 

who is now secretary and manager. The Northern Crushe.'l Stone 
Co. have a crushing plant on this property which is also in charge 
of Mr. Jejison. Their produce of crushed marble is used for road 
metal and concrete work. 

In 1892 some preliminary work was done on part of the V. 
P. Abbott farm by the Oswegatchie Marble Co., those jirincijially 
interested being V. P. Abbott, J. B. Abbott and a Mr. Mc- 
Guire. They erected a derrick and put in some quarry machinery 
liut discontinued after a few months, on account of the panic of 
189;?, and at present writing have not resumed. 

Eive or six years ago J. W. Tracy and H. P. Bingwanger, the 
latter of New York, commenced the development of a quarry of 
light colored inarlile on the farm of Samuel Graves on the Scotch 
Settlement road. It has been only partially develojied and at 
present is not being worked. 

The Gouverneur Cut .Stone Co. started about six or seven years ago aud was made up of 
five or six stone cutters part of whom retired after the first year or two leaving E. M. Hamp- 
ton, Richard Mahon and O. B. Fisher interested. For the first two or three years they con- 
fined their efforts to building work, purchasing the sawed marble principally from the Gouver- 
neur Marble Comjiany, hut later they branched out into finishing and wholesaling monumental 
marble. In 1902 they secured a lot from the Milton Barney farm owned by Mrs. G. B. 
Winslow and, after some preliminary work during that year, reorganized in 190U into the 

W. R. Dodge. 

A. M. Jepsnn. 


-" a; y 

w S „ 

O o = 
H U £. 

X . § 

H = ■-> 

c c 

C -S 

o o 
O ^ 

r C- 




Extra Dark Marlile Co., when they further (levelo])ed the qviarrv 
ami built a mill. The mauagemeut is in the hands of the above 
named ])arties. 

The Rj'lstone Co. was organized in 100:5 «'itli Frank M. Nor- 
li)u as ])resident, Fred H. Norton, vice-president, and R. C. 
Giindennan as uuniager. They are located on the hack end 
of the Xorton farm and have developed a quarry aiid built 

C[^H / a mill, their hrst sawed product licing turned out in the fall of 

TV/ i9.)-t. 
'^^ In ]9()], D. AV. C. ^\ hitney and Edward Morrison secured 

____ — ]),;it of the Clinton Hall farm aho\it four or five miles from the 

" '■ l^islier village, near Peabody liridge, and o])ened a quarry of verv white 

crystalline nuirl)le to lie used for Iniilding purposes. From thi > 
l:erinning was organized in 190-2 the White Crystal JIarhle Co., 
in whicli Chas. A. I.u.k, H. I). Brewster and others became inter- 
ested with Wliitney and 31(n-rison. A mill was built that year 
and other im])rovcments made so that they have l)een al)le to ship 
quite a larg<- (piantity of nic-e white building niarlile. I). E. Lux 
has l:ce:i the manager since the retiring of Mr. Whitney and the 
deatli of Mr. .Min-rison. 

Huiliurt & Scholton formed a ]«irtnerslii]i and started in the 
wlinlesalc marlile and finishing business in March 1898, handling 
marble from the different quarries here as well as from other 
localities. Their first place of business was on the Somerville 
road near the Gouverneur and St. Lawrence quarries but i]i the F^ank M. Norton, 

ciiurse of aliout a year tlieir quarters ])roved inadequate and tliey piirchased what was known 
as tlie old tannery water power and lot on which there was a 
large building and removed to same nudiing required improve- 
ments to meet the wants of their largely increasing trade. K. B. 
Hurlbnt retired from the firm in 1903 leaving D. G. Scliolton 
sole proprietor. 

I). J. Wliitney commenced a regular wholesale nuirhle busi- 
ness in 1901. In addition to handling jiroclncts from different 
(juarries here anfl in A'ermont, he has the entire out])ut of nionu- 

.,. . ii'cntal stock fi'om a blue marble qmirry in Pennsylvania to dispose 

'f I of. (^nite a consideralile quantity of this latter marlile is 

(^^^ / brought here to be finished. The name was changed in January, 
^^t^ 1901, aiul incor])orated as the D. J. Whitney Co. They are oper- 

^^^ ating the Empire Marble Co. plant in connection with their whole- 

1) ( :, Srlwilt<iii sale ln;siness. 

The .St. Lawrence Finishing Co. is com])osed of P. \\. \\'hitney 
and W. 15. .\ioran, wIkj started in 190-'. They are located at the .St. Lawrence ;\Iarhle Quar- 
ries and are (ioing marlile finishing' and a wholesale business. 

The ]iro(luction of marble is one of the leading industries of CJouverneur and gives steady 
employment to more thaii two hundred men in quarrying, sawing, finishing and other work in 
connection with |)re))aring it for market. The greater part of the product is used for monu- 
mental ]>ur]>oses lint building wiirk takes quite a large quantity of the lower grades. 

As a marble producer, Xe«- York State ranks third, the bulk coming from Gouverneur. 
\'ermont largely takes the lead in marble production and is followed by Georgia, which 
slightly exceeds our state. 



Amasa Corbin. 


]5y Ainasa Corbin. 
The most i-ecent mineral industry developed in Goiiverneur is the raining and milling of 
Pyrites of Iron. Its principal use is in the manufacture of Suljiluirio Aoid. The mine is lo- 
cated five mile.s from the village of Gouverneur, and consists of several parallel veins dipping 
to the northeast at an angle of about 50 degrees. Kach vein is 
from fourteen to eighteen feet in thiciiness and the ore as mined 
carries about 70 per cent of iron sulphurets and 30 per cent of 
rock waste. Much of the ore is shipped and sold as it comes from 
the mine after being sorted. The residue is hoisted on an inclined 
railway, an.d delivered hy a car over a 400 feet tramway to the 
concentrating plant where it is crushed, sized, dressed and washed 
over water-jigs such as are used in the great zinc and lead fields 
of Jlissouri. The concentrates from this mill are free from arsenic 
and yield aliout 48 per cent of suli)luir. The cajjacity of tlie plant 
is about one hundred tons ])cr day. The mine and mill are lieing 
operated by the Adirondac]< Pyrites Company, with a capital 
stock of .fil 00,000, of which Amasa Corbin is President, O. J. 
David, "N'ice President, and R. G. Dodge, Secretary and Treasurer. 

The cabinet of the late William D. Andrews contained several specimens of garnet from 
local sources. Init tlie great deposit located on the farms of Frank Balicock and Ell)ert C. Pool, 
although within one mile of the village of Gouverneur, was unknown until located liv J. S. 
and Amasa Corbin in 190;3. The mineral occurs in a singular condition, consisting of masses 
of crystals, the largest lieing about the size of a marrowfat pea, embedded in a diorite matrix 
of extraordinary hardness. The crystals are so plentiful that they compose aliout twentj- per 
cent of the whole mass. No similar formation is known to exist elsewhere. Tlie matrix has 
well developed flowage lines wliere\er exjiosed to weathering action, showing the imdoulited 
volcanic origin of both matrix juid crystal. The mine was not an accidental discovery how- 
ever. Becoming cognizant of Ainasa (^orbin's activit}' in jiromoting large corporations for 
mining lead and zinc in Joplin, Mr. A. Hill of Pettis County in the same state, Missouri, a 
brother of Mrs. Byron Billings of this village, wrote Mr. Corliin as follows: 

Hughesville, Mo., (no date). 
Mr. A. Corbin, Jr., 
Dear Sir: — 

I take the liberty to write you in reference to mining as you seem to be lucky in finding 
mines. There is, about one mile north of Ciouverneur on tlie road that goes over to Little 
Bow, past the Ros. Streeter place, across the flat beyond, iqi the rise to where William Walling 
used to live, go a little along the side-hill not far, there is a perpendicular rock ei"lit or 
ten feet high, of granite. Sixty-five years ago my father, Na- 
than Hill, liuilt a fire by the rock. The fire shelled the rock and 
in the shells, there was some kind of mineral I know not. The 
mineral came out of the shells in particles the size of wlieat and 
they were hard and sharp. Perhaps you may examine it. Your 
father, if alive, will know me. I am 84 years old. A. Hii.i.. 

Just ))rior to the receipt of the foregoing letter Mr. O. J. 
David had interested Mr, Corbin in the commercial uses of gar- 
net, especially as an abrasive, and they had visited the g,-,riiet 
mines in the vicinity of North Creek, N. Y. Mr. Hill's descrip- 
tion of his discovery as being of the "size of wheat" and "hard 
and sharp," led to investigation which resulted in the location of 
an extensive ledge of garnet covering several acres. The min- 

O J. David. 


eral rights were olitained of the heirs of the late Judge Dodge, a lease procured and a com- 
pany formed for working the mine. ,\ concentrating plant was erected and several hundred 
tons of the material was milled at a profitable margin. 

Meantime, carliorundum, an abrasive manufactured at Niagara Falls, was found to be 
harder and sharper and better adapted to buffing leather which was the principal use for gar- 
net and corundum theretofore, and in less than one year it superceded both in the market. The 
plant of one of the most extensive users of garnet was also destroyed by fire in 1903 and 
the mining of Gouverneur garnet ceased. A recent order for $700 worth of garnet con- 
centrates indicates that the industry may again be revived. Carborundum is not well adapted 
to wood polishing, being too brittle from its crystalized edges being thin. 


By J. B. Johnson. 
Iron was discovered in Gou\erneur al.out the year 18l!2 at a point near the present 
boundary line of the towns of Gouverneur and Rossie, one and one-fourth miles from Soni- 
merville. It was first mined ahout one year later at the point of original discovery, the mine 
being then and since known as the "Kearney." 

l"l)e ore was in this early history of the mine hauled to the 
Rossie Furnaces where it together with similar ores, was made 
into foundry pig iron. 

The Kearney mine has l)een operated at intervals since. Prior 
to 1886, the product was iiscd in nearby charcoal furnaces, much 
going to Rossie, FuUerville and Sterlingbush, and the writer is 
inf(5rmed that a considerable quantity was at one time hauled by 
teams to Utica. This, however, is without substantial verification. 
About :?,000 tons were sold to the FuUerville furnace as late as 
the year 1883. 

The first shipments to more remote points by rail were aljout 
the year 1873, when Messrs. Frost and George F. Paddock of 
Watertown having leased tile mine from Messrs. Poije, Wheelock 

J. B. JolmsoTi. _ ^ 

and Co., of Ogdenslnirg, the then owners, formed the Northern 
N. Y. Iron and ilining Co., and operated to the capacity of the mine for about two years, 
then getting into financial difficulties, abandoned it allowing the lease to terminate. It then 
remained idle until 1880, when John Webb, Jr., leased it and equipping it with modern 
macliinery, oj)erated it with great success for about two years, when a question arising re- 
garding the Southern l)oundary, i. e. the boundary between the Kearney and Rossie Iron 
Co.'s property, a prolonged suit at law occurred, finally decided in favor of the latter Co., 
and the property came into their jiossession, and v\-as operated by them until about 1894, when 
tliey discontinued operations dismantling all of their mines in that vicinity. 

Jlessrs. ^Vells and Wcsthrooli next became the owners of the property and operated it 
from al)out Jan. 1900 uidil Aug. 1901, wlien tliey sold to the Rossie Iron Ore Co., who have 
operated it since. 

In 1883, John Welib, Jr., and W. R. Dodge, comprising the firm of John Welib, Jr. & Co., 
leased from the heirs of PJiilip Kearney, the mineral rights upon the farm of Bardine 
Clarlc, lying northeast of and adjoining the Kearney Ore Bed projjerty, and developed thereon 
what was subsequently linown as tlie' Clarl< mine. This jjroperty was operated as a mine un- 
til 1896 when the low price of iron rendered operation unprofitable and it was closed dow'u. 
The ore of these Tuines is recognized by consumers as excellent in quality, although not high 
in percentage of metalic iron, averaging al)out 4-5 per cent, and being rather high in silica. 
The formation is ;-edimentary and occurs at the conjunction of Potsdam Sandstone, and Ijinie- 
stone. The quantity is a])]iarently limitless and the mines referred to have unquestionably 

contributi:d papers. 


a bright future when the desirable qiuiUties of tlieir ores are better Icnown. In the Northern 
part ot the town, near Ehudale, are numerous oiit-croppings none of which, however, have 
been worked. 

Frank .St.iibuck. 


By Frank Starl)uek. 
The haulier industry of Gouverneur was at one time of grc;it 
magnitude and imjiortance. The old "sash" saw of Israel Porter 
had gone through successive transformations, under John Fos- 
gate to the "muley," under Bidwell & Waldwin to the "gang" and 
under Starhuck & McCarty to the "circular" and the "slabber." 
'i'lie Morris mill at Natural Dam under Rockwell Barnes and his 
descendants, followed at a slower pace, the bullv of the sawing 
of lumber lieing done in tliis village from about 18;30 to the close 
of the Civil War. In tliese years there was no floating of logs 
down theOswegatchie,its bosom wasvuivexed by boom and pier, and 
tlie supjily for the recii)rocating teeth of the insatiable saws was 
hauled l)y te;uns into the mill-yards to be again loaded upon the 
"log-boat" and delivered at the mill upon the "log-way." Xo 
lumber was sent away tor there was no means of freighting it. 
All this was changed upon tlie advent of the railway. The Oswegati'hie for a hundred miles 
above the town, traversed a dense and primeval wilderness, luitrodden save by the feet of the 
hiniter and soon the reduction of this vast storehouse of material was being wrought into 
forms adajited to the uses of the builder. 

In September, ISfifi, came Abijah Weston, already an extensive mi'l owner in all the 
Xorthern States and Canada, having large forest tracts, and associated with him Xewton 
Aldricli and Orison Dean, also experienced lumliermcn from the eastern side of the .Vdiron- 
dack mountain.s, "to operate in the lumlier Inisiness at tlie X'^atural Dam." The firm was 
amply equipped with means and exjierience and had a trade already established co-extensive 
with the demands of the whole country. The fall was spent in digging stone for piers, and 
the winter in lumbering, the logs aggregating one million feet. At the same time timlier was 
obtained fm- the mill which was erected the following tpring. A branch railroad was built 
to the main line about one mile in Itngth and a railway bridge was thrown across the river 
leading to the mill. A shingle mill was also built that year. In 1870 a jilaning mill was 
added and dressed lumber was thereafter shijijied largely. In 1880 a kindling-wood plant 
was built and in 1888 a box factory which two latter enterprises were destroyed by flre 
in 18!)4. Four years later the saw mill averaged 1(),00U,000 to 17,000,000 feet annually, 
wholly of pine, spruce and hemlock. The .shingle mill produced 600,000,000 shingles annually 
during this time. The company early acquired a large tract of forest bind, -m' >Tcp-iting about 
50,000 acres at the headwaters of the Oswegatchie and its trilnitaries. In 1898 Abijah 
Weston's estate was retired from the firm liy the purchase of 
that interest bjr Herbert G. Aldrich, and the firm name was cliang- 
ed to Aldrich, Dean & Aldrich. Two years after this in I90>1, 
the bu.siness and remaining forest lands were sold to the Aldrich 
Paper Co., reserving the stock of sawed lumber and logs in the 
river. Of these there were about 40,000,000 feet which were soon 
marketed and the lumlier yard, covering aliout 100 acres, was 
stripped of its valuable contents and became a barren waste 
of sand. Tiiis mill in the heyday of its existence was one of the 
largest in tlie country. 

Meantime tlie industry in the village boundaries was not 
languishing. Isaac Starhuck who had been a lumberman and tan- Newton Aldrch 



nrry ]iroi)rietiir in StarlnicUville and Horicon near lake George, came in 18B9 in April, and 
"ith John McCarty and John P Matteson, bought the old Fosgate-Portcr mill of its then 
owners, Bidwell & Baldwin, and after improving the property, continued it as a manufactory 
of Inmlier. The natural acconi])aninients of lath and sliingles and a planing mill were car- 
ried cm. This mill heing possessed of a limited water jiower, was imequal to the demands 
of the trade of Starbuck, McCarty & Co., and a steam mill of a capacity of 10,000,000 feet 
annually was erected and cqui])pe<l with a modern system of handling the lumber and by- 
l)rodncts. This mill Imrned in July 1887, and was rebuilt the same year. In 1887, Mr. 
Matteson died and the two remaining members of the firm continued the busi- 
ness. They had a considerable tract of forest land on the river aliove, which 
they su])]ilementcd liy the purchas-e of logs from land-owners adjacent to the 
stream. Their shi))]iing yard was convenient to the main line of the r-iilroad, 
and l)cing abovit three feet aliove the track facilitated the handling 
of their product expeditiously. March 24, 1892, Mr. Starbuck 
died and was succeeded by his son, the contributor of this article. 
The business was discontinued in the fall of 189,5 and the mill was 
thereafter dismantled and sold. The lumber business here and at 
the Natural Dam gave employment to a large number of me 1 
and when it was discontinued, much hardshiji was ex))crience.l 
liy them. Continuing for about forty years, it added greatly t) 
the wealth and j)]-()s])erity of the town and many were the re- 
grets at its di.scontinuance. 

The place of these two ini))ortant industries has been taken 
by the Aldrich Pajier Co., the successor at Natural Dam of the 
lumber I)usiness there. In point of mnnl;ers, there are less men 
emjjloyed luit in output, the value is increased. The Oswegatchie 
now l:ears from the remote wilderness, logs of smaller size than once floated to the l)Ooms, 
and these are reduced to ])nlp and ])aper and daily shipped to the consumers, tlie great daily 
press of the country. 

John McCarty 


By H. Walter Lee and Robert K. McLear. 

I'he writing of a lirief history of the Bar of Gouverneur, having been assigned to two of 

the youiiLcr .\ttoriieys, it lias lieen necessary frjr the writers to gather their information 

largely from histories, public records and from personal con- 

\'ersations with some of the older members of the Bar, who have 

practised their ])rofession in this town for many years. 

It ajjpears that in early times, it was the custom for nearly 
all jjersons between whom questions of difference would arise, to 
submit their cases to a Justice of the Peace, without the aid or 
assistance of an attorney on either side. The Justice acting as 
sole arliitrator and from his dcfision an apjieal was seldom taken. 
The Courts of the Ju.stices of the Peace were created prior to the 
year 1829, and Mr. Isaac Austin was the first Justice. The office 
at that time, and for many years afterward, carried more weight 
than it does now, and matters jiublic and private were passed 
iipon by the learned Court. 

Perha])s no Ju.stice who ever served in the Town wielded the 
influence of Harvey D. Smith, who located here in 1824. He held the office for about tliirty 
vears and passed his judgment upon a multitude of nuitters that were brought before him by 
all sorts and conditions of men. Although never admitted to the Bar, he served as 

Robert E. .McLear 




Edwin Dodge. 

Sjierial County Judge froiii .Tainiary 1, 18.59, to Decemlier 31, 18.5f), when he wa.s elected 
Surrogate which office he lield for three years. 

The first attorney to locate in Goiiverneur who hecame iden- 
tified with the history of the town, was Edwin Dodge who came 
here as agent of the Morris estate in the year lS-29. Mr. Dodge 
was County Judge of St. Lawrence County for two terms and 
as such was one of the Judges of the Court of Oyer and Ter- 
niiuer, which was a Court of Criminal Jurisdiction conijios^d of 
the Justice of the Supreme Court, County Judge and Justice of 

The office of Surrogate, one of the most important in the 
Count}', iias heen lield hy two Ciou\'erneur Attorneys since tlie 
deatli of Harvey D. Smith, — Dexter A. Johnson who served from 
January 1, 1878, to the time of his death in July, 1880, and Vasco 
P. Ahbott who succeeded Mr. Johnson and held the office until Decemher .31, 18!);?. 

The office of S]iecial County Judge has heen held hy Gouverueui attolne^s for the past 

forty-five ye:irs, commencing with E. 

H. \eary who served from ]8(i0 to 

18Tl>; A'. P. Alihott from 187() to 

18H0; G. S. Conger from 1880 to 189(). 

and Artluir T. Johnson from 1896 to 

the ])rescnt time. E. H. Xeary also 

held the office of United States Com- 
missioner for the Northern District 

of New York, for a period of about 

J.5 years and until the repeal of the 
(;. s. Conger. .^^.^ creating Commissioners. ''-■ ^- ^'eaiy. 

Forty years ago the legal |)rofession had )iut a small nmulicr of rejjresentatives. Edwin 
Dodge, Cliarles Anthony, Cornelius A. Parker, William H. yVndrews and Edwin H. Neary 
\\\-vv the principal practitioners. 

Two Clouverneur attorneys h.ivc held legislative office, I'dwin Dodge, who was a Member 

of Assembly, for the year 1833 and 

George M. Gleason who served as 

.Member from ]8fi() to 1871. Mr. 

Gleason also held the im}^oi*tant ])0- 

sitlon of Collector of the Port of 

( )swegatchie. 

Among the attorneys who i)rarticcd 

f(n- a long period of years in Gouver- 

neur was ,T. Bovver Preston who, a 

short time after the war, came from 

HuflFalo and remained until the time 

of his death in 1898. 

The first woman to be admitted to 

the 15,ar in St. Lawrence County and 
one of the first in the State was Miss Grace E. Robinson of Gouverneur, who was admitted 
as an Attorney and Counselor at Law on December 2, 1893. Miss Robinson formed a legal 
juid matrimonial partnershi]) with Chas. M. Hale, on June i3(i, 189,5, and for several years the 
husband and wife ])racticed law at Gouverneur under the finn name of Hale & Hale. For 
the last five years they have resided at Canton, Mr. Hale being Clerk of the Surrogate Court 
and Clerk' of the Board of Sni)er\'isors. 

Tliere are now iiftecu attoriuTs in Gou\eriueur actively engaged in practice, namely: 
Vasc(j P. Abbott, /\rthur IL Abbott, Herbert G. Aldrich, Gcrrit S. Conger, John F. Cook, 

Cti-or^e yi. Gle.i.son, 

Mnj. J. K. Preston. 


James C. Dolan, Joseph George, Dallas M. Hazeltoii, Arthur T. Johnson, H. Walter Lee, 
Rohert E. McLear, Edwin H. Xeary, Arthur W. Orvis, George W. Parker, C. Arthur Parker. 

Attorneys residing in Gouverneur hut not in practice: Cyrus W. Hewitt, Archie F. Mc- 
AUaster, Fred H. Norton. 

Attorneys who have practiced in Gou\'erneur, hut who now reside elsewhere: William S. 
Farmer, Charles N. Reynolds, Charles M. Hale, Grace Roliinson Hale, William Neary, Edward 
H. Neary, Jr. 


By Dr. S. W. Close. 

The story of the Medical profession in the early settlement of a community is the story 
of the lights and shadows of human life. Of all classes of men the physician pre-eminently 
has a genuine experience of life. He surely sees doM'n into the depths of it. The rich man 
does not attemjit to deceive his doctor, or put the best face on his character as he does with 
a priest. On the other hand the doctor kno\\'s the joys and pleasures of his little community 
and always is invited to he a sharer therein. So it comes about that he is relatively and 
actually the most important man in the settlement, always the one sought out in sickness and 
trouble and not infrequently the only oj-.e to jierform the last rites, when some loved one is 
committed to the dust. 

In the settlement of Gouverneur, a physician, Richard Townsend, a young man of about 
36, was the pioneer. iVcting as the agent of Gouverneur Morris he brought a party of set- 
tlers to the town in the siuunier of 1804. He seems to have had more love for adventure, 
political, and business life, and farming than for his profession, as it is recorded that he never 
}iracticed the healing art except for a brief time about 1813 when an epidemic of typhus 
fever prev'ailed. 

For a time 1811-1814., he held the office of supervisor, and in 181(5 he was postmaster. 
A^ery little is known of his personal life, beyond the fact that late in life he became a 
Quaker, \\as much esteemed in the settlement and died in 18^6. 

It is recorded by one of our historians that "Gouverneur has ever been known as one of 
the healthiest localities upon record," and on this account, no doubt, all of our earlier phy- 
sicians have been forced to engage in other callings to enable them to secure a living. So 
when Dr. John Spencer came to Gouverneur in the spring of 1807, bringing his family from 
^\'indsor. Conn., he came not to secure a lucrative field of work but to establish a practice in 
his chosen profession and build a home for his later years. 

like the country practitioner in all fields. Dr. Spencer was resourceful, practical, and 
willing to work. Very often he must make long trips through the primitive forest in all 
kinds of wintry weather, and on foot with nothing to break the monotony save the inquisitive 
note of a blue jay, the glimpse of a startled deer, the slow trot of a bear, the sharp bark of 
a fox, or the fiercer cry of a hungrv wolf. But it was during these long walks that he did 
nmch of his hard thinking, and smoothed out seeming difficulties to the common sense level of 
practical experience. 

Dr. Spencer was an eminently practical and successful physician, Init as he grew older 
the exigencies of professional work caused him to relinquish it to others. In 1S3-2 Dr. Spencer 
bought the "Brick Hotel," which was located near the east end of the Main street bridge and 
from this time did little professional work. 

By reference to a day hook of Dr. Spencer's, we learn that the fee for a visit varied from 
$ .50 to $3.00 — that he was able to lend money to a man with a sick wife — that he received 
in pay all sorts of produce — e. g. 3 bush, oats — .T5; 371/4 lbs. honey, with the pot 5i3.50; 5 
bush, wheat $5.00; 13 lbs. sugar $1.17; 18 lbs. veal $ .54; 10 pumpkins $ .20; 1 bush, peas 
$ .63; 31/2 days work on the highways $^.62; 114 lbs. beef $3.43; 37 lbs. 13 ozs. butter $1.73; 



20% lbs. cheese $1.30, and so on. M'e also learn from this (lay liook that he had a yoke of 
oxen which he rented to liis neighljors for 25 cents per day, and that he sometimes went with 
the oxen and worked himself. One charge reads, Uaymoiid Austin, Dr. To Vi c'ays work, 
myself and oxen drawing logs, $ .75. I'jvidently the kind of n-ork determined the amount of 

Of the professional associates of Dr. Spencer during the later years of his work very 
little can be learned at this time. Drs. Murdock, Orvis and Griffin are said to have "exercised 
their art with caution," and "to have paid equal attention to the rich and the poor," and left 
the field of lalior with the respect and love of their fello\\' citizens. All of these passed out 
of the history of Gouverneur more than fifty years ago. Dr. Griffin died in 1847, and Orvis 
and Murdock had previously moved away. 

In the year 1835, about the time that Dr. Orvis moved away, there came to Gouverneur 
a young physician who was for about forty years prominent among his professional associates and 
in the affairs of the town — Dr. Samuel Clark Wait. He was l)orn 
in Ma3'field, New York, June 1st, 1807, and began his life work 
as a public school teacher and a teacher of music. These occupa- 
tions were not suited to his taste, and he began the study of 
medicine, receiving his degree of M. D. from tlie Fairfield Medi- 
cal School, in 1833. He immediately located in Somerville, N. 
Y., and two years later moved to Gouverneur, where he soon be- 
came the leading physician of the town. He was actively interest- 
ed in the schools and the Presliyterian Church, of which he was 
a member. Dr. Wait died Oct. 30th, 1875, leaving a widow and 
four daughters. Three daugliters are still living, Mary J., wife 
of Chas. C. Oalics of Colorado; Katherine A., wife of Welcome 
Dr. S. C. Wait. A. Farnsworth of Colorado; and Sarah E., wife of Byron N. 

Scott of Black River, N. Y. 

Mrs. Oaks is the daughter of Electa Keyes the second wife of Dr. Wait; and Mrs. 
Farnsworth and Mrs. Scott of Polly Thrall his third wife. The sixth wife, Jane E. Merriman 
died July 9th, 1893. 

Dr. Peter O. Williams came to Gouverneur in 1847 and remained until 1854, when he 
removed to Coxsackie, N. Y., where lie died March 19th, 1887. 

In 1854, Dr. S. L. Parmelee came to Gouverneur. He enjoyed a lucrative practice, was 
a man of positive moral and religious convictions, and one of the leading physicians of the 
town until 1876 when he removed to Watertown, N. Y., where he died April 17th, 1881. 

Dr. Edgar H. Merrick practiced here for about five years 1864-1869. He later went to 
Gananoque, Ont., and then to Toronto, where he died in May 1890. He left a widow formerly 
Sarah E. Carpenter, a son Edgar, now residents of this town, and a daughter Mrs. Snell of 
Potsdam, N. Y. Dr. Merrick was educated in Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary, and McGill 
University, and was prominently identified with the building of Trinity Episcopal Church. 

Dr. James B. Carpenter located in Gouverneur in 1867 coming 
from Theresa, N. Y., where he had been in practice for 20 years, 
excepting the years of his service as surgeon of the 35th N. Y. 
Volunteers. F'or many years Dr. Carpenter was the leading 
physician of the town. During his later years he spent his winters 
in Florida and relinquished the active practice of his profession. 
He was highly esteemed in the town, served as president of the 
village, and was a very generous contributor to many worthy 
causes. His death occured Oct. 28th, 1895. His only child, Mrs. 
Andrew Irving is a resident of the village. 

Another physician very prominently identified with the pro- 
fessional, political, and business life of the community was Dr. 
David McFalls. He was born in the town of Morristown, N. Y., 

Dr. J. B. Carpenter. 



Dr David McFalls 

spent his early lioyhood in Kossie, and on the 30th of June, 184.8, 
received his degree of M. D. from the college of Medicine, Cas- 
tleton, yt. After jjracticing his profession in his boyhood town 
for a number of years, he enlisted as a soldier, and on Aug. 25th, 
1802, was commissioned surgeon of the l-12d Regiment, N. Y. 
>'ol., and served in that capacity until the close of the war. Re- 
turning to Rossie he resumed his professional work. In 1873 he 
came to Gou\'erneur, where, with the excejition of four years in 
Park City, I'tah, he remained until his death April 6th, 1891. 
Dr. McP^alls was an active, public spirited man, a leader among 
men. He rejiresented the 1st St. Lawrence County Assembly 
District in Albany for two terms, 1877-8, was for a number of 
years one of the Coroners of the County and held many offices 
within the gift of his professional brethren. 

Dr. McFalls married Cornelia Pierce of Rossie, May 10, 

185-1. The widow and two children, David McFalls of Buffalo, N. Y., and Mrs. Stanley C. 

Reynolds of Corning, X. Y., survive. 

Dr. Chas. M. Wilson Ijegan the practice of medicine in Gouverneur in 1871, and took a 

prominent I'.lii'-e until 1888 when he removed to Park City, Utah, where lie now resides, and 

is engaged in active jjractice. 

Dr. Thomas R. Hossie was for a nunil)er of years engaged 

in the drug Ijusiness in this town, but later engaged actively in 

medical practice until his death in 1900. He was very actively 

interested in Masonry. 

Several other physicians have lieen located here for a longer 

or shorter time, among them Dr. A. J. Spencer, a relative of Dr. 

John Spencer, now in New York City; Dr. G. E. Baldwin, now in 

Syracuse; Dr. E. J. (Juyctte, now in Mendon, N. Y. ; Drs. S. 

Dandurand and B. C. Cheesenian, now in Watertown, N. Y.; Dr. 

P. Monakey, now in Burke, X. Y., and Dr. Grosvenor Swan, now 


At the present time tbe following jihysicians are actively e i- 

gaged in medical practice in Gouverneur: Dr. B. F. Drury, who 

came in 187«; Dr. A. H. Allen, in 1881; Dr. S. W. Close, in 1886; 

Dr. Charles B. Hawlcy, in 1888; Dr. Wm. J. Flint, in 1890; Dr. Fred V. Drury, in 1891; Dr. 

J. A. Rega, in 1895; Dr. B. ^Y. Severance, in 1898, and Dr. David M. Foss, in 1900. 

For sketches of the resident physicians tlie reader is referred to the biographical part of 

this history. 

Dr. Gi'osvenor Swan. 


By Dr. Jas. Spencer. ' 

Dr. James Sjiencer, son of Col. J. M. Spencer, was Capt. of Co. H. 20th N. Y. Cavalry, 
served in tbe Rebellion to tbe close of tbe War, commenced the study of Dentistry in 1870, 
and graduated from Philadelphia Dental College in 1872, <'ommencing tbe practice of dentistry 
in Gouvernt^pr in 1876 and still continues at the present time. 

George H.,',Barnes, graduate of the Pennsylvania College of Denti.stry in 1878, and 
conunenced practicing in Ciouverneur in 1877 and continued until 1905. 

Dr. Connor, graduate of the Philadel])hia Dental College in 1897. Commenced the 
practice of Dentistry in Gouverneur in 1898 and has continued until tbe present time. 



Dr. A. H, Van yVUen, graduate of the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery iu 1897 
Cmnnienoed practice of his profession in Gouverneur in 1898 and still continues. 



Drs. McNiilty, Bra.sie, Connor, Spencer, Van Allen. 
I. G. Brasie, graduate of the Pennsylvania Dental College of Surgery in 1903. Coni- 
practice in Gouverneur in 190-1, having purchased from Dr. 1-iarnes his dental business. 

Dr. Thomas P. McNulty, graduate of The Uni\ersity of 
Pemisylvania in 1904. Dr. JlcXulty came to Gouverneur Jan. 1, 
1905, and is associated in practice with Dr. Jas. M. Spencer. 

Dr. Dan AVaid practiced dentistry in Gouverneur from 18.3-1 
to the time of his death in 1860. He was succeeded by his brother. 
Dr. Andrew J. Waid, who jn-acticed dentistry in this town from 
IHKO to 1870 and was succeeded l)y Dr. Stevens who practiced 
till 187.5, then leaving this profession for the purpose of studying 

Dr. Myers, graduate of Pemisylvania Dental College, prac- 
ticed from 1868 until the time of his death which occurred in 
1876. He was a man of engaging personality and made friend- 
ship.s that have survived the more tliau quarter of a century since 
his death. 



By J. B. Abbott. 
The postal service was established in the town of Gouverne\u- Oc^. HSih, 1818, and Rich- 
ard Townsend was api^ointed postmaster. There was a small increase of business for 
the first few years but for many years past there has been a steady increase, as the 



iown expanded in population and large business interests have 
grown up. Since the present jiostmaster has held the office the 
business has increased more than fifty per cent. The Rural Free 
Delivery System has been established whereby the farmers of the 
surrounding country are accommodated by their mail being de- 
livered to them daily at their homes— bringing them into close 
touch with the Inisiness of the village and all sections of our 
country. Tliere are five delivery routes from this office, all ot 
' which ha\e lieen established in the past five years. This large 
mcrease represents to some extent the great prosperity of this 
Ijeautiful village. Below are the names of postn;asters that have 
held the office since the organization of the town of Gouverneur: 
Richard Town.send, October 28, 1818; Moses Rowley, August 
3, 18J1.; Edwin Dodge, June 14., 1830; Chauncey Dodge, March 

SG, 1849; Charles Anthony, April 9, 1853; William H. Bowne, June 15th, 1855; Stephen B. 

Van Duzee, April 30, 1861; George B. Winslow, May 27, 1865; Horace G. Reynolds, March 

3, 1883; William R. Dodge, May 18, 1886; Aliram C. Gates, April -2-2, 1890; C. Pliny Earle, 

May 4, 1894; Justus B. Abbott, Feb. 10, 1899. 

J. P.rayton Abbott 


By A. W. Or^'is. 

Tlie Fire De])artnient of Gouverneur Village at present con- 
sists of three organizations: Gouverneur Fire Company, No. 1, 
Marble City Hose Company Xo. 1, and Rescue Hook and Ladder 
Company. Each of these has its separate officers, but all are in- 
cluded in one central organization, having general authority over 
the separate companies, and all the members join in an annual 
election of officers for the department. 

The officers of the Gouverneur Fire Department at the present 
are: Chief Engineer, Thomas R. White; Assistant Chief, William 
A. Green; Secretary, Frank H. Farmer; Treasurer, Gilliert E. 

The first fire company in Gouverneur was "The Fire Bucket Ez.ekiel F. Beardslee. 

Brigade" which was organized about 1859. It included as meml^ers Charles Antliony, George 
Parker, W. R. P'osgate, Gilbert L. VanNamee, Charles Clark, Plenry Rogers and other busi- 
ness men. Charles Clarke was the first foreman, and Charles Anthony, drill master. Well 
water and pails were the principal equipment for figliting fire, but with these the fire com- 
pany was very successful in subduing several fires, though no very large conflagration ever 
visited Gouverneur until considerably later than this date. 

About the year 1867, the Gouverneur Water Works Conipanj' was incorporated and a wa- 
ter main was laid from the Main St. bridge to the Spencer Hotel, at the corner of Main and 
De])ot streets. The water was forced by piunps from the water power at the island, by a 
method known as the "HoUey Sj-stem." This was a great improvement in fire protection for 
the business part of the village. 

In 1868, The Gouverneur Hose Company, No. 1, was organized. Its first officers were: 
Foreman, J. Bower Preston; Asst. Foreman, Albert M. Barney; Sec'y., Ezekiel F. Beardslee; 
Treasurer, Wm. P. Fosgate. A constitution and by-laws were made and applied as far as 
was practical in a volunteer fire company. A hose cart and regulation cotton hose were pur- 
chased by the village, a fund for the same having been voted and a small sum of money was 
turned over to the Treasurer of the Fire Comjiany for its use. Uniforms of red shirts, hats 

p ■ >. 

h =■ a 
^ S „• 

-^ a. £; 




aiitl belts were purchased and the new fire company ])resented a very respectable apjiear- 
ance. .Many a hard liattle A\ith the fire fiend was fought by this company during the ten years 
of its existence, as will he seen b}' referring; to the dates of principal fires given below. 
Some dissatisfaction arose, and on account of friction lietween the Village President and the 
Fire Company the members withdrew in a body. 

This Company having thus disbanded, the village Board of Trustees selected a numlier of 
citizens to form a new company. A meeting was held January -29, 1878, and a fire company 
was re-organized under the name of "Gouverneur Hre Company 
No. 1", by \\hich name it is still known. The first oificers of this 
fire comjiany were: Foreman, John Webb, Jr.; Asst. Foreman, 
Albert K. Barnes; Sec'y., Frank L. Cox; Treasurer, Charles A. 
Ormiston. The company had aliout forty members among whom 
were Edward H. Drake, John F. Matte-iin, Geo. P. Ormiston, Orin 
FI. Beardslee, Wallace FF h'oster, Thomas H. Chisholm, Bradley 
F. Barney. 

In this year, 1878, the brick Hose H(ULse was Iniilt on Clinton 
Street, which is still occupied by the fire company, and the base- 
ment of wbicli is used as a village lockup. 

Ill 1880, the LaFrance Steam Fire Engine was purchased 
and was use;! at all fires requiring it v:]) to the year 1900. The 
Frank L. Cox. purchase of the fire engine was largely due to the cfl'cn-ts of 

Edgar H. Drake, the tirst Chief Engineer of the Fire Depart- 
ment, whose death March 10th, 188:3, was the first death occurring 
in the present Gouverneur Fire Company Xo. 1, and his name 
engrossed on nickle ])late \\as placed u])on the steamer in com- 
memoration of his services. 

In 1900 Gouverneur village established a system of numicipal 
water works, building a ])inTi]iing station with a stand pijie on the 
hill southeast of the village, and a system of ten inch aiul smaller 
water mains extending on all the i)rinci|)al streets of the village. 
The cost WiLS about $60,000 — and the work was accejited Jan. J, 
1891. 'i'be stand pipe is at such a height that the \\'ater ])ressure 
on Jlain street is about 80 pounds to the square inch, and is 
sufficient to throw water over the highest buildings in the village 
v.'ithout the use of the steamer. 

Lentil 189.5 the water was ]iumj)ed b\' steam power, but since that time electric ]>o\\'er is 
used to run the ]ium])s. In 1903, another stand pipe was erected within a few feet of the 
old one, and the pumj) liouse was enlarged, and new pum])s in.stalled, and the following year 
an additional 10 inch nuiin was laid from the pump house to the mahi street, so that Gouver- 
neur ^'iUage now has the best system of water works that can be fomid and the most 
adeqiuite lire protection enjoyed by any village with a volunteer ftre department. 

^Alarblc City Hose Company Xo. J, was organized in 1891, with about twenty-five mem- 
bers, Alexis S. Whitney being the first foreman. This Company occu))ies the brick and 
marble hose house which was built in 1894 on JIain St., Brooklyn side. 

In 189I., the "Rescue Hook and Fadder Company" was organized with twenty members. 
A wagon, truck, and ladders were purchased by the village, and this comjiany was installed 
in the hose house on Clinton street with Hose Co. Xo. 1. 

iVbout this time, 1894, the membership of each of the three comjianies was reduced to 
twent)' members, a total of 00 active firemen. 

In 190-1, Gouverneur Village purchased a team of liorses for the use of the fire depart- 
ment and general village work. The hose hoiise on Clinton street was remodelled to accommo- 
date this team and apparatus, \\'ith dwelling above for driver and family. A new hose wagon 
with ))ole, alarm bell ami extension ladder was pur<'based, the hook and ladder truck to be 

Wallace H. Foster. 



drawn by the horses to fires. These changes necessitated other quarters for the assemljly 

room, whicli is now located in the third story of E. W. Gaddis block on Main street. 

The village can well feel proud of its fire department, of its 
standing- at home and abroad, in duty performed at fires, and in 
the high character of its niember.s. All the organization are mem- 
bers of the "Xew York State Fire Association" and are repre- 
sented liy delegates at each yearly convention. Two of the mem- 
bers are now holding ajijiointments on committees of the State 
organization, George H. Robinson on committee of Topics, and 
Dexter A. I.eggett on Legislature Committee. 

'J'lie three companies are each provided with good dress uni- 
forms, and each has silk l)anners of appropriate design which 
were presented to the respective companies liy the ladies of the 
Dexter A. Leggett. " village. 

It is im]K)s:-ihle in the space allowed to give proper tribute to the many 

brave men who have served as volunteer firemen in Gouverneur's fire department. 

.^lany of them have passed away, but their memoi'y is cherished not cmly by 

the remaining firemen, but by the communitj' in «'hich they did their work, 

and which they served so well, riskhig their very lives without fee or reward other th in tlie 
consciousness of work well done. The 
village can afford to deal generously 
with its firemen, and among those 
who have held the position of Chief 
Engineer of the Fire Department 
for one year or more are: Edgar H. 
Drake, Henry C. Rogers, Franl-: 
Levasseur, Frank L. Cox, Geo. P. 
Ormiston, John McCart}', J5radley L. 
Barney, Cyrenus A'ail, jMbert W. 
Hill, Alexis S. Whitney, Dexter A. 
Leggett, Thomas R. AVhite. 

A partial list of the Foremen of 
Gouverneur Fire Company Xo. 1, is 
as follows: Aaron B. Cutting, J. 
Bower Preston, H. J. Warren, A. M. 
Burt, Jr., Bradley L. Barney, Frank 
Levasseur, Alexis S. Whitney, John 
Welib, Jr., Frank L. Cox, John Mc- 
Carty, Thomas H. Chisholm, Edward 
W. Gaddis, Homer Plurlbut, Stephen 
A. Aekerman, George H. Robinson, 
Dexter A. Leggett, John G. Gilmore, 
Geo. H. Whittaker, Arthur T. New- 
ell, Geo. A. Palmer, Lewis E. Beards- 
lee, Eli C. Mosher. 

Those who have held the ofSce of 
Foreman in Marble City Hose Co., 

No. '2, are: Alexis S. Whitney, Thomas Anderson, Samuel Taylor, Sanniel H. Davidson, Wm. 

McCnllough, George Cottrell, O. L. Simons, Thomas Brown, Fred lerlan, William Cassaw, 

William A- Green, George E. Bracey. 

The Foremen of Rescue Hook and Ladder Company have been: Gilbert E. Hutton, 

Thomas R. White, Ellis H. Ethridge, John Farley, Lawrence W. Bennett, Claude Gates. 

Albert W. Hill. 

Henry C. Rogers. 

Cyrenus Vail. 

Aaron B. Cutting. 


Principal Fiees. 

The fires resulting in tlie largest losses to manufacturing 
plants and business houses in Gouverneur A'illage are given in the 
following list wliich is generallj' correct. 

It is recorded in past liistor}' that a flour and grist mill of 
Israel Porter Ijurned in 18J.5, located on the west side of the 

Bricli Hotel owned liy Peter Van A'aren, Imrned in 1848, 
located at corner of Main and Wall streets. 

Flour and grist mill, with part of liridge, burned in 1853. 
Two-story tenement block on Clinton street, burned Dec., 
G. E. Hutton. 1864, owned by Erwin S. Barnes, estimated loss, $3,000. 

Large wooden row of liuildings from Park street to Potter Block on Nortli side of Main 
street, burned Jan. 15, 18T5. The principal owners of the property were: Herald Office, 
Evan Mosher, W. F. Sudds, A. Kinney, AV. A. Short, James M. Sparks, James Brodie and 
Killner & Morris. Estimated loss .'SSO.OOO. 

Three story frame hotel and store building, burned April 18, 1881. Owners, Peter Van 

Buren and Wm. Whitney. Located on North side of Main street. Estimated loss $30,000. 

Frame Factory, doors, sash and l)linds, Corbin Machine Shop and Foundry. Located 

North side of Main street near the bridge. Burned Aug. 5, 1882. Owners S. B. Van Duzee 

Mfg. Co., and J. S. & A. Corbin. E.stimated loss $30,000. 

Frame liuilding of Stephen Burtis and Post Office, occupied by Horace G. Reynolds. 
Located on Main street, north side. Burned July 16, 1884. Estimated loss $10,000, 

Large steam saw mill owned by Starbuck & McCarty, located on Haileslioro street near 
Tiver, Burned July 9, 1887. Estimated loss $30,000. 

F'rame and brick hotel and barns (Spencer Hotel,) owned by Everett D. Pierce. Located 
corner of Main and Depot streets. Burned Nov. 23, 1889. Estimated loss $10,000. 

Three-story brick veneered hotel. Van Buren House, North side of Main street. Burned 
Jan. 8, 1893. Principal owners, James B. Van Buren. Stocks — Isaac I. Block, Max Tum- 
pousky, James W. Ormiston. Estimated loss $50,000. 

The store of J. W. Ormiston contained the Town Clerk's office, and all the Town records 
were liurned in this fire. 

Frame carriage and paint shop with one dwelling, located on South side of Brooklyn 
street ( Main), owned l)y Turnlnill & Gardner. Burned July 23, 1887. Estimated loss 

Gouverneur Marlile Company's mill located on Somerville street just West of Village. 
Burned July 23, 1904. Estimated loss $30,000. 


By Mary I. Beardslee. 

One of the institutions of which Gouverneur is ju.stly proud, and which belongs to the 
last quarter century of its history, is the Reading Room and I,il)rary. In 1885, a few brave 
hearted women realizing the need of something that would not only attract, but also be a 
benefit to the vouth of our town, in the face of many discouragements and seeming im- 
possibilities, decided to furnish a room with a limited numlier of magazines and books, 
which would be open to all who might wish to avail tliemselves of its privileges. 

The project of a free Reading Room had its origin in the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union and the first money contrilratcd, $30, was by that organization, and used in purchas- 
ing furniture. A meeting was called, an organization formed the nam. "f-ni-i'erneu'- Free 



Reading Room Association" adopted, officers elected, with Mrs. C. E. Hotchliiss as President 
and committees appointed to solicit subscriptions and menil)ership. A "Xevv England" dinner 
vas served, an "Old Follis Concert" given, which was liberally patronized so that in December 
the same year, $591 were in the treasury. Rooms in the Reynolds' building were secured and 
Jan. 14, 1886, were o])ened to the jniblic with a "book recejition" and 40 vols, were contributed 
Dy those present, which with a numlier of magazines subscribed for the donation of local and 
county papers, and Miss Mary Fowler installed as Librarian, the Reading Room in the 
minds of the most interested, at least, was an assured success. 

Kl dinu, Koum mj Lil j ii\ 

Judge James M Smith ot Buffalo sent, thiough Mrs \nthon>, two checks of .$50 each, 
one from himself and the other from Mr. Robert AVilson to be used in the purchase of 
books. The daily attendance increased so much that liefore the close of the first year, it was 
found desirable to secure larger rooms in the St. Lawrence l)lock, which were better suited 
to the purpose for which they were opened, that of providing good reading and harmless 
amusement for many boys and girls \vhose homes were destitute of both. These rooms were 
leased for two years, a loan exhibition was held Oct. -20, 188fi, which added .|91.59 to the 
treasury. There now lieing over 300 books in the library, it was made a circidating library. 
Tickets were sold at $1.50 per year, or books loaned at 1 cent per day, the money accruing 
to be known as a "book fund" and used only in the purchase of books. At the close of the 
vear, an inventory showed 365 books, $50 worth of magazines and $:200 in the hands of the 

In October, 1888, through the eiforts of Mr. Newton Al- 
drich. President of the Town Board, a lease of what was known 
as the Seminary house was obtained (by the payment, as rent, of 
taxes and making needed repairs) and occupied until early in 

1894, when the space which it covered was needed for the new 
High School building, then to be erected. Rooms were again 
taken in the St. Lawrence block. During this time the constitu- 
tion and by-laws were revised, the yVssociation was incorporated, 
giving its legal standing and making it possible to receive $500 
from the State yearly, provided an equal amount should be ex- 
pended for l)ooks, over and above the current expenses. May 10, 

1895, Judge Smith who from the first was a loyal friend of the 
imdertaking, purchased the Sheldon property, located on Main 
street near the High School building at a cost of $3,500 and gave 

Newton AldricK. 


it to the Association as a ]iernianent location for the liln-ary. On Octolier 3Lst, of the same 
year, tlirongh the generosity of Mr. B. G. Parker in giving the menihers the privilege of 
pulilishing one edition of his paper, the "Woman's Edition of the Free Press" was issued. 

Judge Smith received the first completed copy wliich came from the press, for which 
he sent the Treasurer his check for $.50. Others paid liberally for their copies and the project 
proved a financial success. The ijioney realized was used in making repairs and fitting the 
Iniilding which had been donated, to receive the library which now numliered 1200 vols. This 
was the I^ilu-ary home for several years, when it again became evident that more room was 
required to meet the constant growth in attendance and number of books to be loaned. Mr. 
Aldricb, e\er a friend to whatever makes for the betterment of the commimity, placed $5,000 
in the hands of a conunittee to lie used for a new building on the site given liy Judge Smith. 
Tliis was completed and th.e keys given to the Board of Trustees, Sept. 28, 1900. A recep- 
tion was held on that evening by the memliers which was well attended by three or four 
hundred friends of tlie I,iln-ary. all expressing great pleasure in the commodious rooms 
which will serve as a lionie for the Library for many years to come. For several years the 
town has voted an a]i]iropriation of ^300 to $300 toward the support of the Library. 

Those who have served as President during the twenty years are as follows: Jlrs. C. K. 
Hotchkiss, ."^Irs. Wni. IL Whitney, Mrs. J. T. Reynolds, Mrs. E. H. Xeary, Mrs. L. il. 
Gardner, iliss Jennie Dean, Jliss Helen Parker, Mrs. Andrew Irving, Miss Jennie Dean, 
Mrs. E. H. Neary. 

The IJbrarians have lieen: Miss JIary Fowler, Miss Jlary B. Brodio, Miss Hattie Church, 
Mrs. Jessie E. Paid, Mrs. X. .1. Ellsworth. 

The Library today contains lOJO vols. Average daily attendance 50. Books loaned dur- 
ing last year 5295. 


By Arthur T. .Johnson. 

The Round Taiile Club of Gouverneur, was organized No\'ember 3nd, 1899, at the LTnitar- 
ian Chnrcli, where its meetings have all been held. 

Its object is fnlh' stated in tlie jireamble to its constitution, \\iiicli reads as follows: 

Tlie ])ur])ose of this Society is to bring its members into jileasant social relations with one 
anotlier, and to afford op]iortunity to discuss, on a perfectly free ])latform, without sectarian 
01 other limitations, and without restriction in the range of subjects, questions (es)iecially 
living ones), of importance or interest to an;,' thoughtful mind. It is to deal with tiie earnest 
things of iihilosojiliy and life; and it is undi! rftood that any question, whether in science, reli- 
gion, or philoso])hy, in literature or education, in history, politics, economics, or social 
science, shall be eligible for discussion. 

The following named gentlemen were charter meinliers: Charles JlcCarty, H. D. Catlin, 
George G. Hoyce, James F. Sayer, Jolin F. Cook, Arthur W. Orvis, Charles B. Hawley, (ler- 
ritt S. Conger, S. F. ITartley, J. S. Cm-bin, Arthur T. Johnson, T. M. Roliinson and C. Lellaii 

And the following have since been duly elected: H. H. Xolile, T. R. Hossie, George M. 
Gleason, II. Walter Lee, T. D. C. Ormiston, (). J. David, Sevard A. Conger, H. H. Herring, 
F. H. Xorton, B. W. Severeance, George W. Parker, Harold B. Johnson, .Toseph George, 
Harry W. Forljes, Lloyd J. Corbin, Allen Wight, E. J. N'oble, C. A. Living.stoii, Robert E. 
McLear, Robert A. Irving, Amasa Corbin, W. L. Beers, R. M. York, and F. IT. Lamon. 

Any gentleman, a resident of Gouverneur, of good moral character is eligible to member- 
ship, wliich is limited to forty. 

Meetings of great interest have been held each year every two weeks on ^\^eduesday 
evening, from October to May, at which live questions of every nature have been discussed, 
after thorough investigation with nuich profit to the inenihers. 


At least one meeting eac)i yciir has lieen addressed liy a gentleman not a memljer of the 
Club upon some suliject witli wliieh he was particularly familiar. 

The club is believed to he tlie best of its kind in Northern New Yorlc 


I5y George H. I}ol)inson. 

On Dec. 31, 1898, Cliajiter Xo. 55 of the Brotherliood of St. Paul, an auxiliary of the 
Jlethodist Church, was organized in Ciouverneur with aliout ten charter memliers. It is com- 
posed entirely of men, banded together for mutual aid in cliureh work, who hold their regular 
meetings on the secoTul Tuesday e\ening of each month. They have a roll call at present of 
fifty active members. A venison supper is served annually under the auspices of the Brotherhood, 
whose proceeds go directly into the channels of Christian work. The Brotherhood officers at 
present are as follows: Geo. H. Uobinson, President; Frank Wood, Vice President; George 
Frazier, Sec'y. ; William A. Miller, Treas. Appointed officers: Chairman Christian Work 
Committee, AVm. Whitney; Cliairman Social Committee, E. C. Moslicr; Chairman Memb.ership 
Committee, H. Beach. 

In March, 1903, they organized tlie "Cozy Branch" Smiday School on the West side and have 
since maintained it, and are now jireparing to l>uild a neat and connuodious chapel at tlie 
corner of West ]Main and Readc Streets. The raemliersliiji of tlie Scliool is at present about 

The Brotherhood of St. Paul originated in Little Falls nearly nine years ago, is tlie 
oldest Methodist men's society and has become the largest Protestant denominational frater- 
nity. It has made great strides in growth and has accomjilislied a marvelous amount of good. 



By Anna E. Rogers. 

This Chapter was organized March 24-, 18,93, in the Masonic Hall, Gouverneur, N Y, 
Mr. Geo. H. Gilmour, Worthj- Patron of Empire Cliajiter No. (iS, lieing deputised liy Most 
Worthy Grand Matron of Grand Chajiter, State of N. Y., to organize a Chapter of O. E. S. 
at Gouverneur, duly obligated the following qualified ladies and gentlemen: 

Charter members: Ida E. ITarrigan, Harriet Sparks, Hattie C. Smith, Sophie Tump- 
o\\'sky, Florence Payne, I.ydia Woodworth, Kathleen McCarty, Mary L. Chandler, Anna 
Tumpowsk}-, Cornelia M. S]iarlvS, Augusta Whitney, John McCarty, D. J. Whitney, Nannie 
L. McCarty, Martha Fuller, Marion J. Sackett, Frank H. Smith, Jlary E. Bowne, W. H. Hall, 
Mallei W. Foster, Helen M. Jepson, Julia S. Neary, Martha C. Reynolds, A. L. Fuller, 
Lizzie B. Hall, A. G. Smith. 

The work of the degree was then exemplified with Mrs. Florence /Vckerman as candidate. 

At the first regular meeting in April, twenty petitions were received and so our beautiful 
Order has continued to grow, 505 persons having l;een admitted uji to the present time. 
The following named persons having held the highest offices safely guiding our ship of State 
into this prosperous year of 1905: Florence Payne, Worthy Matron, 1 yr. ; Ida Harrigan, 
Worthy Matron, 2 yrs.; Hattie Hurlbnt, Worthy Matron, lyr.; Ida L. Wright, Worthy 
Matron, 3 yrs.; Mary C. Loveland, Worthy Matron, ] yr.; Zelma Henderson, Worthy 
Matron, 1 yr.; Sarah Starlnicli, Worthy Matron, 3 yrs. Wortliy Patrons, Frank H. Smith, 
2 j'rs.; Chas. McCarty, 1 yr. ; Daniel J. Whitney, 1 yr. ; Alexis S. Whitney, 4 yrs. 

The present officers, for year 1905, are: Ida Loveless, Worthy Matron; B. W. Severance, 
Worthy Patron, (5th year); Philena Severance, Asso. Matron; Clara AV. Legate, Secretary; 



Anna Harvey, Treasurer; Elma Gaddis, Conductress; Adaline Earle, Asso. Conductress; 
Sarali Bockus, Marshal; T. T. Soper, Sentinel; Rhoda F. Graves, Adah; Onie J. Gorman, 
Ruth; \'enetia Wright, Esther; Gertrude Leak, Martha; Geruah Dodds, Electa; Xellie F. 
Holt, Organist; Anna G. Flint, Chaplain. 

The Eastern Star is the basis of the Degrees of the Order. Its lessons are Scriptural, its 
teachings moral, and its purposes are beneficent. 

We trust that when we are called hence by the Grand Patron on high. He "whose Star 
we have seen in the East," may give us each a fraternal welcome. 



By G. S. Conger. 

This Post was organized May .iith, 1880, with :5() charter memliers, Gerrit S. Conger 
served as its first Commander, with D. J. Whitnej* as Adjutant. 
Its subsequent conniianders have been as follows: .lames 
M. S])encer, William H. Whitney, Fred H. Xorton, George M. 
Gleason, Silas W. Payne, Genrge S. Parsons, Jay F. Hodgkins, 
Elmer W. Grey and Warren B. Pike. 

For a name it selected that of the first soldier from C!o\iver- 
neur to f^dl in battle mortally wounded. j'^rwin H. Barnes, son 
of Erwin S. Barnes and Lueretia Allen Barnes, was liorn Xovem- 
ber 22, 1843, and answered Lincoln's first call for volunteers, in 
April 18i)l, at the first Recruiting Meeting held in Gouvenieur. 
He volunteered as a private in Company D, 16, \. Y. Vol. Inf., 
Commanded by Capt. Ge'jrre Parker, and he fell mortally 
wounded at the battle of Gaines Mill, June iTth, 18()J. Ceiiree S. Parsons. 

The Post has always had the confidence and loyal supjjort of the ])eople of Gouverneur 
and its membership comes from all the towns re])resented in this "Old Home Week." Its 
special purpose has been the rendering of assistance to destitute and needy soldiers and the 
families of those deceased and the ]^ro]ier oiiservance of "Memorial Day." 

It has sought to inculcate true |iatriotism and love of country and its influence will long 
be felt in this community. It has been represented in all the Department Encampments and 
nearly all of the Xatiriuil Eneam])ments since its (irg;nizHt;i;n ;:nd with it.; famous "Steel's 
Drum Corps," attended the Xational Eiicam]mients at Washington and Buffalo in a body. 

The "Woman's Relief Corps Auxiliary to Barnes Post" was organized February 15th, 
1803, and is composed not only of the wives and relatives of soldiers, Init of many prominent 
and [latriotic ladies of the town. 

It has licen of great service to the Post in its charitable and ])atriotic win-k. In 1900, 
the Post and Corps by joint cft'ort erected a granite momunent in Riverside Cemetery i)i 
Gouverneur, on a lot presented to the Post by Comrade Lorenzo Smith, and the same was 
with impressive ceremony dedicated to the soldiers of 18G1-.3. 

To this lot have been removed the bodies of several Revolutionary soldiers and soldiers 
of 18H, and in ft lie buried many Union soldiers. 

The Post has also been materially assisted in its work by the "I,adies of the Grand Army 
of the Republic", an organization composed entirely of the wives and descendants of Union 
soldiers and the beautiful flag now carried hy the Post was a present from the Ladies of the 
G. A. R. 

A camp of the Sons of Veterans has recently been forn)cd with F. H. Cole as Captain, 
and on their strong arms the old veterans now lean for s\i|i|iort. 


The following is tlie Robter of tlie Post. Those marked (*) appear in the group picture 
of the G. A. R. 

Chakteh Membeks Rank Comp ■.■ KEf.'r Siaik Seiuice Date of Death 

Gerrit S. Conger Private Co '.) N. Y. Light Art. 

B. M. .Miller Corporal " H iOth " Cavalry 

, ., I Pri-"f: " I 92d " Infantry and 

■'Lorenzo hniith . , . .' .err ^„^, .. r- i ' 

( ' :ivate tl JOih Cavalry 

*Malon H. Maxiner. ..Private " H lS6th " Infantry 

J. -M. Reynolds Cajitain " H ISOth " Infantry Defeased 

■'Tlionias Prittie Private " H 133d '" Infantry 

, ,,,, . ( Serfeant " C ;34th " C'avalrv ami 

D. .1. W hitnev ..-',.' , .,,.-■ , 

j Private " C 1st ^ et. Cavalry 

Henry Itogers Corporal " I) 10th " Infantry 

James p. S: ver Private " H Ist " Artillery 

*Levi X. Sni th Private " E 18th " Cavalry 

James B. C- rperiter. .SnrgeonS.Jth X. Y. Infantry De;'easerl 

♦Stephen M. Thayer. .Sergeant " D 1st X. Y. light Art. 

Jose])h Clif I 1 1 Corporal " D 1st " Light .\rt Defeased 

W. H. W.'^.ney Lieut. " B .50th Engineers 

Ge'":--.c ;\i. Gleason. .. .Lieut. '• D flOth X. Y. Infantry Deceased 

A. X. Barne.s Private " E 193d " Infantry 

J. T. Richardson Cor])oral " 11 ;?Oth " Cavalry 

*Williani Bero Private " D 1st " Light Art. 

Josejih Laberdec Ciir))oral " H 113d " Infantrv 

J. T. Reynolds Ca)itain " .\ 3,5th " Infantry Deceased 

Jolm P. Conger Lieut. " P, Klfith " Infantry 

, . , . I Private " 15 Kitli " InfaTitr\- jind 
Lucnts ,1. A\"ers . . .' 

( Private " D 1st " Light .\rt Decease;l 

Sanuiel .'Masters Private " .V 14:2d " Infantry Deceased 

Thomas Hayden Private " B 1 12d " Infantry Taniary 3, ]f(8S 

George Parker Ca]>tain " 1) Ifith " Infantry May 11, 1S8! 

George B. Winslow. . .Captain Bat. D 1st " Light Art . .Septemher 30, 1883 

James J. Smith Private Co, I 9;3d " Infantry January IT, 1885 

William Woods Private " D lOfitli " Infantry March ;28, 1887 


Charles R. Allen. ... Private " D 1st " Light .\rt Deceased 

Joseiih .Vniond Pri\ate " E llith " Heav,- .\rt Deceased 

Hiram .\])])le Private " K Uth " Heavy .\rt. 

J. I{. .Vustin Private " .\ 39th Wis. Infantry 

'Leandcr .Vustin Private " I 11th X. Y. Cavalry 

( .Private " C 10th " Heavy Art. 

■( Private " E 10th Mich. Infantry 

Orville E. -Vyers Private " H JOth X. Y. Cavalry Deceased 

C. B. . Vustin Private " B .5th " .Vrtillery 

*Alonzo H. Bisho|i. . .Private Co. K 11th X. Y. Heavy .\rtillery 

William Boscoe Private " E 9th " Heavv Art Deceased 

Julius C. Bishop Sergeant " G 16th " Infantry Decea.sed 

John Bassett Private " E 20th " Cavalry 

Isiiac L. Beardslee. ... Private " D 1st " Light .\rt Deceased 

J. B. Blodgett Private " M 11th " Cavalry 

John Boshaine Private " K Est " Light Artillerv 

X'athan Brotherton ... Private " C 10th " Heavy Art Decea.sed 

*George \. Bnsh. ... Private " B ll:2d " Infantry 

.Silas A..Vckerman 



I\lFMf!liKS l.UrsTFKniJ 1n R A N K C( 

. . , _ I 1st Lieut. ' 

A. M. Barnev ' ^ 

I Hvev.BriGei 

Milburn C. Butcher . . Private . ' 

AV. Bediers Private Co. 

George Bisliop 

*J. H. Barker Private 

Peter J^ean Private 

J. K. Bolton Lieut. 

*H. H. Brown 

James A. Bennett . . . .Private ' 

Geo. Bacon ' 

*Peter Boscoe Private 

*Fred Cliarter Sergeant 

Aimer Cross Private 

f Private 

■ ■ ■ I Private 

Joseph Clifton Private 

*James Crowder Private " 

J. V. Clark Private 

Chas. A. Cunningham . Private " 

Rodney I-. Conant ... .Lieut. " 

J. C. Clifford Private 

Alex. Carbina\\' l^rivate 

*Wm. D. Cleveland. .Corporal " 

,.„,,, , Private 

Lewis Chevalley . 

*Charles Clark 


Colvin Contier Sergeant 

* Aaron Coojier Corporal 

*George Coojier Private 

M. B. Conroy Private 

AV. H. Cunningliam ..Corporal 

*Brainard Cross Corporal 

J. P. Cronker Private 

*S. C. Conger Private 

James AV. Crawford. .Private 

Perry Cross Private 

Mile B. Collins Private 

Edward Cutting Private 

Darius Chapin Lieut. 


John Dusharm Private 

Thomas Downing .... Private 
David E. Downing. .. .Private 

*Amasa S. Davis Private 

John B. Day 1st Sergeant 

M. F. Dimmock Private 

David Doran Private 

Patrick Dolan Private 

Edward G. Derby Surgeon 94th N 

James Davenport ....Lieut. Co. E 

Samuel Dunkelberg. . .Private " B 
* James Dion Private " K 



.St ML 

Si:k\'icf. Date oh Death 

' D 



and Col. and 




Infantry yVugust 33, 1886 

■ D 



Light Artillery 








' L 




' C 


Artillerv Dec-eased 

' B 




• C 



Heavv Artillerv 

' H 




' B 


N. Y. 


' B 


X. Y. 


■ C 




■ C 




' C 



Infantry and 

■ A 


U. S. 


■ M 


N. Y. 


■ C 








■ D 











CiiN'alry Deceased 











U. S. 

Artillery and 



N. Y. 




N. Y. 

Infantry Deceased 




Light Artillery 




Heavy iVrtillery 




Light Artillery 




Artillery Deceased 























X. Y. 

Heavy Artillery 




Cavalry Deceased 





D. I 


N. Y. 

















Cavalry Deceased 




Infantry ...November 14, 1885 




Cavalry Deceased 




Infantry Deceased 

N. Y. 




33d N. Y. Infantry 

96th " Infantry 

10th XT. Y. Heavy Artillery 


Members Mustered In Rank Comp'y Rkg't State Service Date of Death 

Philip DonoUy Private " M 5th N. Y. Heavy Art July 14, 1903 

Wm. Dougharty Private " B 5th Iowa Cavalry 

Gilson Downs Private ." F 193cl N. Y. Infantry 

John C. Eager Private " D 16th " Infantry Deceased 

Jonathan Ellsworth ..Private " I Uth " Heavy Artillery 

Lewis Fuller Private Co. B UJd N. Y. Infantry 

Milton W. Fowler Private " C 60th " Infantry 

Matthew Fletcher Private " G 13th '' Cavalry 

♦E. F. Fishliack Sergeant " B 60th " Infantry 

♦Charles Field Private " K 6th " Heavy Artillery 

*Ephriam Forlies Private " C 15th " Engineers 

George W. Fox Private " C 60th " Infantry Xoveniher i-l, 1888 

James Fulry Private " G 14th " Heavy Artillery 

Hugh Foy Private " K 14th " Heavy Artillery 

*Simeon Fishlii'.ck ...Private " B 60th " Infantry 

H. S. Fox Private " D 10th " Eight Artillery 

Walter Fleming Private " E 2(nh " Cavalry 

*Xornian Fuller Seaman U. S. X. gunboat Susquehanna 

*E. W. Gleason Private Co. L Lst X. Y. Eight Artillery 

Elmer W. Gray Private " A 14th " Heavy Artillery 

Asa Green Private " G 14th " Heavy Artillery 

Ward Glazier Private " I 9-2d " Infantry 

*W. A. Goodnough. .Private " M 11th " Cavalry 

W. H. Goodnough Private " H JOth " Cavalry 

John H. Graves Private " B 14;3d " Infantry De:'eased 

James Gaddis Private " C 106th " Infantry Deceased 

Frank W. Gillette Private " C ;20th " Infantry 

Geo. Gillett Private " C JOth " Cavalry 

R. E. Goodrich Private nnisician — 10th " Infantry band 

James .1. Green Private Co. G 14th " Heavy Artillery 

J. ^^ Goodrich Private " D 106th " Infantry 

Daniel Graves Private " B 60th " Infantry 

Abel CJodard Colonel 60th X. Y. A'olunteer Infantry Deceased 

Enoch P. Griffith Private Co. K 00th X. Y. Infantry 

.lames W. H-.iruion. . . .Private Co. B 9;2d X. Y. Infantry 

*W. H. Hazelton Eieut. " A 143d " Infantry 

*Henry Harland Private " C 106th " Infantry 

James Hurst Eieut. " B 60th " Infantry 

James Hutton Private " B 113d " Infantry 

George Hill Private " D 10th " Infantry 

Joseph B. Huntley. . .Private " D 13th " Eight .\rtillery 

J. F. Hodgkin Private — K 18th " Cavalry Decca.sed 

Thomas Huftle Private " F 10th " Heavy Art Deceased 

A. V. Hyde " C 50th " Engineers 

Charles M. Howe Private — — 10th " Heavy .\rtillery 

Xorman House Private — — 60th " Infantry 

A. J. Holbrook Eieut. " E 5th Mass. Vol. Infantry 

David Ingerson Private Co. I 93d X. Y. Infantry April 23, 1880 

Thomas lerlan Private " H 10th " Heavy Art. .X^'ovember 16, 1886 

Vilas Ingram Private " K 6th " Heavy Artillery 



Members Mustered In Rank 

Geo. W. Jones Private 

James Johnson Private 

Ephraim Johnson .... Private 

H. W. Johnson Private 

*Proctor Jewett Private 

*AsheI C. Johnson .... Private 

Wm. A. Johnson Private 

Gilas Johnson Private 

Epaphroditns Johnson . Private 

Rob. W. Jones Private 

S. B. Johnson Private 

*H. S. Jones 

*Wm. Jones 

Lewis E. Knowlton. . .Private 

Jolin L. Krake Private 

Henry Kenyon Private 

Luther O. Klock Private 

Minton Keene Private 

Milton Keech Lieut. 

Charles Kinney Private 

*Wm. Knowlton Private 

Jonas Krake Private 

C. M. Kinney Private 

Andrew Lachine .... Private 
Andrew M. Leach .... Private 

John Learj- Private 

Moses Ludrick Private 

James Larock Private 

*H. P. Legate Private 

I Sergeant 
( Private 

*Wallace Lyons Private 

Morris i^ee Private 

Allen C. Leigh Private 

Wm. Lachine Private 

Geo. W. Lenst Private 

Wm. E. Lamb Private 

E. C. Loucks Private 

Orrin Lesure Private 

Edward A. Legate . . . Private 
*Geo. F. Lockie Private 

*C. B. Minnick Private 

William Martin Private 

Lewis H. Mitchel Private 

Wm. McKean Captain 

John Maddock Private 

Jas. R. Livingston 





Sek\ick Date 

ciF Death 

Co. I 





" I 




" D 




" H 




" K 


Heavy Artillery 

" A 




" I 




. Deceased 

" D 




" C 



Cavalry M 

\y 17, 1901 

•■ D 



Light Artillery 

" I 




" A 




Co. B 





. Deceased 

" B 




. Deceased 

" B 




. Deceased 

" D 




. Deceased 

" D 



Light Artillery 

" E 




" D 




Light Artillery 

" K 



Heavy Artillery 

" D 




" D 



Light jVrt 

. Deceased 

Co. D 




IJght Artillery 

" C 



IJght Art 

. Deceased 

" E 




" K 




" I 




" H 




" D 



Infantry and 

" H 





" B 




" B 




" G 




" L 



Heavy Artillery 

" D 




" K 





" L 



Light Artillery 

" H 





" I> 



Light Artillery 

Co. D 




Heavy Artillery 

" M 




" I 




" I 





" K 




■M X. Y. 



*Wm. Mclntyre : Corporal Ci. C 10th N. Y. Heavy Artillery 

Wra. Martin Private " D 1st " Heavy Artillery 

Wallace McKean Private " D 1st " Light Artillery 



MF^r^.F-KS Musteked In Rank C 

Henry W. Miller Private 

Samuel E. Magaw. ... Private 

Kvan ilosher Private 

Geo. D. Morrison Private 

David A. Mcintosh . . . Private 
Charles A. Millett . . . .Comniissary 
Henrj' Mcintosh ....Private 

William T. Miller Sergeant 

.1. T. McCombs Private 

Patrick McKaii Private 

.\aron Marsales Private 

AV. R. McKean Private 

James K. Merrithew. .Private 

G. L. Merrithew Private 

.James Maybee Private 

*W. M. Moore Private 

John W. Marcellus. . .Private 

Geo. Matice Private 

* James Murphy .... Private 
AVm. I. Miller Sergeant 



" c 


' M 


• C 


' B 


' .V 



• D 

" H 


• D 


' M 


' C 


• D 


• D 


' D 


' C 


" H 


' H 


' H 


" G 


" H 


SEiniCK Date of Draih 

Heavy iVrtillery 

Infantry Deceased 


Cavalry Deceased 


Cavalry May 3, 188+ 



Hea\'y iVrtillery 

I.iglit .\rt Deceased 

Light Artillery 

Light .Art Deceased 

Light Artillery 





Fred H. Norton Ass't Eng'r V. S. Steamship Colorado 

Henry Xeener Private — — Penn. Cavalry 

James F. Xoyce Private Co. F 6th Vt. Infantry 

.lohn O'Brien Private 

H. E. Ortord Private 

Frances Oakley Private 

S. W. Payne Private 

Isaac W. Payne Private 

*Warren B. Pike Private 

Stephen Porter Private 

G. W. Parker Private 

Nelson O. Phelps Corporal 

*Gcorge S. Parsons. .. Private 

George Porter Private 

.J, X. Patterson Private 

J. B. Preston Major 

Daniel Peck Captain 

E. H. Partridge Sergeant 

Thomas Patton Private 

F. H. Payne Private 

Xelson Pike Private 

*George B. Pike 

Richard Peck Private 

.Samue] W. Phelps. ... Private 
X. F. Pratt Private 

Timothy Quill Private 

Thornas Quinn Private 

E. R. Quinn 

Co. C 


X. Y. 

Light Artillery 

" L 



Light Artiiiery 

" E 



Light Art 

. . Deceased 

Co. E 


X. Y. 


" D 



Light .\rtillery 

" C 



" I 




• H 



Heavy .Vrtillery 

" F 




. . Dei'eased 

" I 




" D 



Light Artillery 

" H 


Infantry .... 


. . Deceased 

" K 



. . Deceased 

" B 




" B 




. . Deceased 

" I 




" I 




" D 



Light .\rtiller\ 

" I 



" D 




•■ H 




Co, H 


N. Y. 


. . Deceased 

" G 




. . Deceased 






I\Ir:\ibeks Mustiiked In Rank 

Andrew J. Rounds . . . Private 
Chas. W. Rickerson . . Private 

Geo. W. Rowley Private 

Thomas Ritchie Private 

S. D. Rich Sergeant 

*George E. Radigan. .Private 

John Rowe Private 

L. J. Richardson Lieut. 

*Moses Rising Private 

Roswell Reed Private 

John H. Rivers Private 

E. A. Rich Lieut. 

Martin Riverside .... Corporal 

Rob Ray Private 

*Walter Robb Private 

W. F. Sudds Private 

Wm. W. Siver Private 

Daniel W. Smith Private 

Orrin Shippee Private 

Charles Swem Private 

Webster N. Smith. .. .Private 

( Captain 
*Jas. M. Spencer - „ . . 
^ j Private 

John jI. Sterling .... Private 

•Samuel Smith Corporal 

*Lucius J. Smith Private 

Brayton N. Smith. .. .Private 

Fred T>. Steele Private 

H. S. Schwartz Private 

Edward Saver Private 

James Storie Sergeant 

Thos. H. Soper Private 

W. H. Smith Private 

Charles H. Smith Private 

Alexander Savage . . . Pri\'ate 

Willard Stowell Private 

James F. Sayer Private 

Samuel Shaw Private 

Patrick Shay Private 

John J. Stevens Corporal 

*Amos Streeter Private 

Theodore Shepard . . . Private 

*Charles D. Shaw. .. .Private 

Geo. B. Sheldon Private 

Daniel Stanton Private 

Thomas Schampine. . .Private 

James B. Stearns Private 

Charles Snow Private 

* Jesse Streeter Private 

*Wm. Scott 




Skrvre D 

ATE OF Death 

Co. A 


N. Y. 


" C 



Heavy Artillery 

" D 



Heavy j\rtillery 

" A 





" I 
•■ 1? 






" C 



.March 7, 188!) 

" D 



Light Artillery 

" E 




" E 



IJght Artillery 

" G 




" K 




" B 




" I 




.Sept. 25, 1903 

" C 




Co. I 




" A 




" C 




" A 


N. Y. 


" B 





" L 


" H 




" F 




<' F 




" I 




" D 




" D 



Light Art 

.... Deceased 

" H 





" F 




" C 


X. Y. 


" C 




" B 


N. Y. 


" — 




" D 




.July 16, 1885 

" A 



Infantry March 17, 1887 

" A 




..Dec. 30, 1887 

" H 



Light iVrtillery 

" A 




" H 




" K 




•' M 





" B 




" H 



Light Artillery. 

" I 




Co. B 




" H 

N. Y. 


" C 



Light Artillery 

" I 




" I 




George P. Taitt Lieu;. Co. B 

N. Y. Infantry 


Members Mustered In Rank Cohp'v Reg't 

*Alva J. Tmde Private " D 1st 

M. J. Tmax Private " A 142d 

Jacob Thomas Private U.-2d 

Willard Thayer Private " C 1st 

Ansel W. Tompkins. .Private " D 16th 

Russell Tripp Private " — 

Jacol) '1 nomas Private " A 14th 

Geo. A. Tann Pri\'ate " C 59th 


St.\te Service Date of Death 

" Light Artillery 

" Infantry 

" Light Artillery Deceased 

" Infantry 


" Infantry 

Chas. B. YanXamee. .Private Co. H li-2d 

Spencer S. VanPelt. .Private " H 186th 

Nelson VanPatton ...Private " B 186th 

J. E. VanOrnum Private " K 106th 

Seth VanOrnum Private " B 14.3d 

Andrew J. VanDuzee. Private " D 1st 

A. H. VanNorman. . .Private " B 143d 

N. Y. 



Light Artillery 
Infant rv 


Lorenzo Woodard . . . .Private 
*Osman Welch Sergeant 

* John Washburn .... Private 
*Richard Woodard ...Private 

Edwin Wallcer Private 

Simon Washburn .... Private 
Brayton A. Woodcock. Private 

Lyman Weed Private 

*Charles E. Wright .. .Private 

* John Wall Marine 

David Welister 

James Wall Private 

Hiram Walrath Private 

R. H. Wood Private 

M. B. Warren Sergeant 

Co. E N. Y. Light Artillery 

" C 20th " Cavalry 

" A 143d " Infantry 

" D 186th " Infantry 

" D 106th " Infantry 

" B 60th " Infantry 

" H 24tli " Cavalry 

" E 147th " Infantry 

" D 1st " Light Artillery 
with V. S. Navy 

68th Ohio Infantry 

" I 5th Iowa Cavalry 

" H 14th N. Y. Heavy Artillery 

" I 100th " Infantry 

" I 146th " Infantry 




Erwin H. Barnes Woman's Relief Corps, \o. 200, Department of New York, was or- 
ganized Feb. 15th, 1892, with forty charter memljers. 

This society is auxiliary to the Grand Army of the Republic, and its objects are to assist 
that Order in its work, to aid the Union soldiers of the Civil War and dependent members 
of their families \i'ho may be in sickness or distress, to promote patriotism in the community 
and especially to inculcate lessons of among the children, to aid in the proper o'.'- 
servance of Memorial Day and to enjoy the benefits of social and fraternal intercourse with 
the membership of the Order. The Order inmnbers over one hundred and forty thousand, of 
which there are ten thousand in the State of New York. 

The first President of Barnes Cor])s was Mrs. Florence E. Payne, who served until Jan- 
uary, 1895, when she was succeeded by IWiss Helen I, Parker, who served two years. Mrs. 
Annie E. Turner, Mrs. Martha A. Reynolds, Mrs. Harriett Barnes, and Mrs. Elizabeth 
Smith were the successive presiding olBcers. Parker was again elected, serving in 1902 
and 1903. Mrs. Anna E. Rogers was the President in 1904. The present jirincipal officers are: 
Mrs. Dell A. Hodgkins, President; Mrs. Agnes Hartley, Senior Yice President; Mrs. Cor- 
nelia Legate, Junior Vice President; Mrs. Pearl A. Turnhull, Secretary; Miss Helen I. 
Parker, Treststrren 








The ritualistic and floor « ork, adorned w itli four sill-c parade flags carried Ijy color l^earers 
who are regular officers of the Corps, is impressive and attractive. 

Barnes Corps now nunihers sixty-four niemliers, nineteen of whom are on the charter list. 
Tliat the local Corps is held in esteem in the Order is evidenced from the fact that honors of 
officers, both elective and ajipointiAe, on the staff of the Department President, have been 
repeatedly bestowed upon members of Barnes Corps. 

Regular meetings are held the second and fourth Tuesday evenings of each month, at 
.Maccabee Hall, third floor of Egert building. 

St. Lawrence county has six societies of the W. R. C, located at Potsdam, Gouverneur, 
Canton, Xorwood, DeKalb Junction and Hermon. 


Gleason Circle No. 3:3, Ladies of G. A. R., was organized by Mrs. Eva Call Johnson, on 
Feb. 13, 1903, with eighteen charter members as follows: Mrs. Nellie Holt, Jlrs. Mary 
Hesehvood, Mrs. Maria Butcher, ilrs. Alice Call, Mrs. Clara Smith, Mrs. Maggie Fordham, 
-Mrs. Susan Smith, Mrs. Minnie Magee, ilrs. Elizabeth Woodward, Mrs. Phoeby Jones, Mrs. 
.Malinda ^Maxim, Mrs. Sarah Bracey, Mrs. I^aura Butcher, Mrs. Bessie Lytle, Mrs. Ella Thayer, 
Mrs. Julia Ray, Mrs. Cordelia Keech, Mrs. Eva Johnson. 

Comrade G. S. Conger of Barnes Post 156, instituted the lodge and installed the follow- 
ing officers: President, 3Irs. Nellie Holt; Senior Vice President, Mrs. Clara Smith; Junior 
\'ice President, Mrs. Mary Hesehvood ; Secretary, Mrs. Eva Johnson ; Treasurer, Mrs. Laura 
Butcher; Chaplain, Mrs. Maggie Fordham; Conductor, Mrs. Alice Call; Assistant Conductor, 
Mrs. Bessie Lytle; Guard, Mrs. Ella Thayer; Assistant Guard, Mrs. Susan Smith. 

On January, 1904, Comrade G. S. Conger, again installed the officers with Mrs. Clara 
Smith as President. 

The present officers were installed liy Comrade ^\'arren Pil^e in January, 1905, and are 
as follows: President, Mrs. Eva Johnson; Senior Vice Pres., Mrs. Julia Ray; Junior Vice 
Pres., Mrs. Cordelia Keech; Secretary, Mrs. Elizabeth Boudiette; Treasurer, Mrs. Laura 
Butcher; Chaplain, Mrs. Phoel^y Jones; Conductor, Mrs. Clara Smith; Asst. Conductor, Mrs. 
Georgia Brooks; Guard, Mrs. .Mary Jordan; Asst. Guard, Miss Hazel Do.ids. 

The objects of this Order as laid down in the constitution are to assist the Grand Army 
of the Republic in its high and holy mission and encourage and sympathize with them in their 
noble work of charity, to extend needful aid to members in sickness and distress, to aid sick 
soldiers, sailors, or marines, and especially to look after the Soldiers Homes, Soldiers AVidows 
Homes and Soldiers Orphan's Homes. 

To be eligiMe to membership in this Order, one nuist be either a mother, wife, sister, 
daughter, or blood kin niece of an honorably discharged soldier, sailor or marine, of the 
war of 1861 to 1865. 

All soldiers, sailors and marines wlio can produce an honoralile discharge are entitled 
to membership as honorary mcmliers, but liave no vote and are not sul)ject to assessments or 

The organization was named after the Hon. G. M. Gleason of Gouverneur. It has a 
membership of 8:2 active and 107 honorary members, and has in its treasury >pl80.()0. 


• ' :■ * 

r.'i By H. O. Johnson. " 

To Mr. Thomas W. Osborn, a young law student in the office of Starbuck & Sawyer, 
Watertown, N. Y., belongs the honor of initiating the movement which resulted in the organi- 
ziftion of one of the most famous light batteries that took ])art in the war of 1861-1865, Bat- 
tery D. 1st N. Y. Liglit Artillery. After the first liattle of Bull Run, Mv. Osborn decided 
t( form a com]iany of light artillery, .\fter his jilaiis were well matured, he consulted Mr. 



Sawyer, who fortunately was a personal friend of Colonel Guilford 1). Hailey of the regular 
army, who was authorized to organize a regiment of light hatteries. Mr. Sawyer wrote Col. 
Bailey, asking if Mr. Oshorn's proposed company would be received in his regiment, a fav- 
orable reply being received, Mr. Osborn at once commenced recruiting. In Mr. George B. 
Winslow of Gouverneur, was found an able assistant and together they secured the necessary 
one hundred men, reporting to Col. Bailey on, Aug. 20, that the company was complete. AU the 
men recruited by Mr. Winslow, nearly half of the company were 
from Gouverneur and its immediate vicinity. August 3.5th the 
men reported at Watertown, and on the 28th left there for El- 
mira, where they arrived Se]it. 1th. Col. Osborn says, "not a man 
who signed the roll was missing," being the fourth company to 
reach Elniira, they were designated Company D. 

Sept. 6th, 1861, the Company was mustered into United 
States service. The officers elected were: Captain, I^uther Kief- 
fer, who had been in the regidar army; 1st Lieutenant, Thos. W. 
Osborn; 2nd lieutenant, Geo. B. Winslow. The first commis- 
sions received, however, were Kieffer, Major; Osborn, Captain; 
and Winslow, 1st Lieut. Oct. 29th, the Company left Elmira for 
Herbert O. Johnson. Washington, reaching there on the evening of the' 31st. That 

night they were quartered in a large frame building called the "Soldier's Rest," where they 
slept on the bare floor with knap sacks for pillows. • Nov. 6th, they were transferred to Camp 
Barry, where a school of instruction for light artillery had been established. The battery 
remained there until March 2nd, 1862, under the instruction and drill and there tliey were 
equipped with four three-inch rifled guns, horses and other supplies. 

Sunday morning, March 22, 1862, Battery D started for the 
front, it being the second battery deemed fit for service; battery 
B being the first to go. They were loaded on transports and 
taken down the Potomac as far as the Confederate blockade would 
permit, restching Liverpool point in the alternoon and camping 
about a mile from the river. While there the battery had its first 
little lirush with the enemy. A section of the battery was de- 
tailed to do duty opposite the blockade flatteries. They got per- 
mission of Capt. Osborn to ojjen fire on the enemy — twelve shells 
were fired by Battery D, and about twenty-three by the enemy. 
No one was hurt and Mr. Hilts says, "The boys were considerably 
amused by their first experience." 

On jVpril 9th, they started in transports for Fortress Jlonroe 
to join the Army of the Potomac. Mr. Brainard Cross says of 
this trip that after reaching Chesajieake Bay, a terrific storm came up; they were separated 
from the steamer that had them in tow, and for a time there was a very poor show of their 
ever reaching land and he confessed that he was very much "scared." They got a glimpse of 
the Confederate gunlioats, Yorktown, and the famous Merrimac, while landing. The battery 
reported to Gen. Hooker, then conmianding the second division of the third corps, and en- 
gaged in the seige of Yorktown. Three days after the evacuation of Yorktown by the enemy, 
they started in pursuit of the retiring Confederates. May Sth, 1862, at the Battle of Williams- 
burg, Battery D took part in its first real fight, and here as Col. Osborn says, "The battery 
acquired the reputation of discipline, endurance and reckless bravery which remained with 
it during the war, and which, too, from the beginning to the end it maintained." 

The Battery did not fight with its own pieces, but manned those of a battery of regidars 
who could not stand the hot fire and abandoned their guns. Major Wainwright called for 
volunteers from Battery D and the officers and men served the guns of the regidars through 
the battle. Here "Young Garrison" of Gouverneur was killed, the first man of the battery 
killed. Lieut. Stopler, was wounded and Mr. Hilts lost an arm. Here, too, Mr. Geo. West- 

C.ipt. Geo. B. Winslow. 



onument to Batter}' J' at (jettrsburi? 

cott, a gunner, ca])ture(l three stalwart confederates alone, and with, an empty gun. Mr. 
Westcott was killed at Chancellorsville. I>ike all men of the liattery, he was a good soldier. 

May 31st and June 1st, the hattery was engaged at the Battle of Seven Rivers, doing 
good service. In this hattle. Battery A was captured and Col. Bailey was killed, while spiking 
the guns after all of Battery j\'s horses had been killed. Upon the re-occupation of the 
Field of Se\en Rivers by the Federals, Battery D occupied the redoubt at the Twin Rivers 
where Battery A had been captured, remaining there with an occasional part in some .skirmish, 
until Jui:e ;?.5tli, when it moved to the front and was engaged in the Battle of Oak Grove. 

After the battle, it return- 
ed to the redoubt. On June 
29th the Battery was engag- 
ed in the battle of Peach 
Orchard, after which they 
vere ordered to report to 
the commanding officer at 
Savage Station, and at Ave 
o'clock in the afternoon, 
June 29th, they opened the 
fight of Savage Station, for 
General Sumner by firing 
tl-e first shot, which the Rich- 
mond papers said killed Gen. 
Griffith of the Confederate 
Army. They knocked out 
the moving batters that the 
enemy had naiued the 
■'Railroad Merrimac" l:efore it had fired more tlian two shots. Mr. Fd. W. Anderson 
in a letter to Colonel Osborn says, "Do not fail to mention how our little rifle 
guns knocked out that Railroad Battery, tlie enemy ran out on a car — How we 
just swept that four gun battery — clean off the face of tlie earth. It only took a half dozen 
shots to do it. We cleaned up that job and finished them before the other batteries on our left 
got to work."" 

Here Col. Osborn, then a Captain, had the novel experience of having a full liattery open 
fire on him. He says, "I had often l:een a target for infantry sharp shooters, but to be a 
target for sharp shooting by a whole battery was new to me." 

At ttie close of the battle. Gen. Sumner ordered the btittery to report its own command. 
It reported to Gen. Hooker just as the battle of Glendale opened. He considering that the 
battery was being overworked, ordered it to move on to Malvern Hill. It had gone but half 
a mile, when the battle was so fierce, that without orders, Capt. Osborn ordere.l the battery in- 
to position and it did effective service. 

On the morning of July r2nd, during tlie temporary alisence of Capt. Osliorn, the enemy 
made a dash from the woods in front of the liattery. Gen. Griffith refused to give Lieut. 
AVinslow orders to open fire, so Winslow opened without orders. Capt. Bramhill, who was a 
qtiarter of a mile to the right, also ojiened fire without orders. Winslow and Bramhill se- 
cured a good cross fire and broke uj) the enemy's lines, driving them back to the woods. 

Batterv D went into position with Hooker"s division on the brow of a hill and was a very 
busv company until the battle of .Malvern Hill was fought and won. An incident of this bat- 
tle was the cleaning out of a lot of sharp-shooters who had taken cover in a house and out 
building about three-quarters of a mile from the battery. Corporal Sterling, a gunner, and 
chack shot of the battery at that time, was ordered to put a few shots in a barn that was 
sheltering shiir]) shooters. Ibe first shell fired went through the barn, and the second exploded 
in the barn, setting it on fire. A general officer on learning what battery had driven out 


the sharp shooters, said of it, "I never sa\v' such deadly work done hy a battery as I witnessed 
at Savage Station and now, here today." 

After Malvern Hill, the army went into camp and entrenched at Harrison's I/anding. 
Lieut. Winslow whose health was badly liroken, was ordered North to enlist men for the bat- 
tery. While here the equipment of the battery was changed from the three inch rifled guns 
to light brass twelve-pounders, and it was notified that it was selected as the best battery in 
the divison. 

The battery took part in Gen. Pope's campaign in Northern Virginia after which the 
Srd army corps was detailed to garrison the defences of Washington. This was to give it a 
chance to recuperate from the suffering in previous campaigns. 

While at Washington the battery received ninety-eiglit recruits enlisted by Lieut. Winslow, 
among whom were S. M. Thayer, H. W. Freeman, and many others from Gouverneur. 

The 3rd corps rejoined the army at Falmouth. ,Vt Fredericksburg on Dec. 13th, Battery 
D lost one man killed and one man wounded. 

Feb. (ith, 1863, Capt. Osborn was detailed to duty on the staff of Gen. Berry, Chief of 
Artillery, commanding the 2nd division of the 3rd corps. Lieut. Geo. B. Winslow took com- 
mand of the battery. 

The battery was actively engaged in the Battle of Chancellorsville. On the evening of 
May 2nd, Stonewall Jackson received the wound from which he died, and at the time he was 
directly in front of Battery D, not more than 300 yards away. On the morning of May 
3rd, the hottest fighting was directly in front of the battery. It put up a fierce fight «'hile 
its ammunition lasted and until the enemy was within 100 feet of the line where it withdrew 
in perfect order. Shortly after Chancellorsville, Capt. Osliorn was promoted and assigned to 
another corps and Winslow was promoted to Captahi. 

At the battle of Gettysburg, Battery D was engaged on the 2nd day of July only, but 
was in the fiercest of the fight, it was in the famous AVheat Field when it fought until the 
position became untenable. When by command of Gen. Birney, Capt. Winslow withdrew 
piece by piece losing hcavilj^ during the movement. The battery lost eighteen men wounded 
and missing. 

Two days after the battle of Gettysburg tlie 3rd army corps, inchiding Battery D, 
started after Lee, where at battle of Wapping Heights J>dy 23, and on Aug. 1st, reached 
Brandy Station where it remained imtil Sept. Kith. While at Brandy Station the term of 
enlistment of the first 100 men expired. There liad been many deaths, many more were dis- 
al)led. The service had been most severe, yet every man able to perform the duties of a 
soldier re-enlisted. 

The Battery was at Mine Run on Nov. 27-28 but took no active part in the battle and on 
Dec. 3rd, returned to Brandy Station where it remained until April 30th, 1S(H. 

May .5th, at the Battle of AVilderness, Capt. Winslow was woimded from the effect of 
which he finally died in 1883. Capt. Winslow ditl not again command the battery, the command 
devolving upon Lieut. Richardson. 

May 10, 11 i'.nd 12bh, was fought the Battle of Laurel Hill, Battery D was in the 
hotest of the fight, firing over COO j50u.nds of amunition. The batteries of Spottsylvania 
Court House, North Anna, and Tolopotomoy Creek were all fought in May and in the last, 
D was the only battery engaged. June 3rd, G. S. Conger was wounded at Bethsada Church. 
Lieut. DeMott a.nd one man were killed, and Capt. Richardson says, "How any one escaped 
is beyond comprehension." June 18th occurred the battle of Norfolk Railroad and Jerusalem 
Plank Road on the 20th. 

There was but little more fighting for the battery until Sept. 29th when occurred the 
short struggle at Poplar Grove Church and on the 30th the battle of Prebles Farm where 
Lieut. Richardson was wounded, and his connection with the battery ceased. 

Oct. 1st the battle of Chappie House was fought and here Capt. Hazelton took command 
of the battery. 

The j)olitical camjjaign that resulted in the second election of Lincoln was at its height 



Aaron Cooper 

Stephen Al. Thayer. 

at tliis time. An interesting souvenir of tiiat election deserves copying here, especially as it 
is signed l)y two of the liravest of 
";";"; Battery D's In-ave men, one of whom .■."'''',-,—, 

is the moving force in the annual re- 
union of that famous hattery. It is 
a "Soldiers Power of Attorney." 

fV#&^ After reciting an Act of Legislature 

.^I^W to enable electors absent from the 

State on military duty to vote; it 
reads: "I, Aaron Cooper, a member 
of Co. D, of the first Regiment of 
Light Artillery, X, Y., State A'olun- 
teers, now at or near Peterslnirg, 
in the State of Virginia, and being 
a resident of the Town of Gouverneiir, Coimty of St. Lawrence, do hereby enpower Edward 
Hall, of tlie town of Gouverneur, Counly of St. Lawrence, to cast for me and in my name 
or stead — my vote or liallot tlje same as if I were personally present at the polls at the 
ele.-tion to l:c lield on tlie eighth day of Xovemlier, 186-1. Signed, 

A.VKOX Cooi'ER. 
Witness : 

S. ^l. TlI.VYKII. 

Then comes the affidavit lieginning: On this 8th day of October, 1864, personally ap- 
peared before me, etc., and signed .Tames B. Hazeltou, 1st Lieut, X. Y. Light Artillery, 
Conmumding Battery D. 

The doCKinoit was enclosed in an envelope and sealed; that was 
enclosed in another envelo])e whicli was addressed to Edward 
Hall, Esq. On the outer eiivelo)ie are instructions in which the 
recipient is cautioned not to open the inner envelope but to de- 
liver it to the insjiectors of election on election day — they were to 
o])en it, and if found correct, were to permit Mr. Hall to cast a 
vote for ^Ir. Cooper. 

The day before the election, Xov. 7th, occurred the "aifair" 

^^^ / of Hatcher's liuji, and in P'el). ISfi.j, a reconnoi.ssance of six days 

^^■■l^^^^^^k/ in the severe cold with no (ires. The rest of the time from the 

^^^^^^^H^ 1st of Oct., ]8()4, tf) March 11, lS(i,5, the battery remained in camp. 

^^^^/^^^^ March Jflth, it started in the final campaign of the war, Lieut. 

irluard Hall Johnson in comnjimd. On the 31st of :\larch, the battle of Butler 

House or Gravelly Hun was fought; Lieut. Johnson was knocked 

off his horse by a s])e)it ball and for half an hour Lieut. Babcock was the only commissione;! 

officer o?i duty. 

Sergeant Stephen M. Thayer, in his diary says, "Batteries D and H are the ones that 
must go to the extreme front at every alarm, just as they always have done in this campaign 
under Gen, Clrant." 

At Five I-'orks, April, it had it easy and on that day for the first time it guarded 
prisoners — one section with Sergeant Thayer as Sergeant of the Guard, was trained on the 
prisoners with orders to open fire if they tried to esca])e. 

Then came the morning of A])ril Otli, and Appomattox. The fighting was over, after 
being in ac-tive service from Sept. (i, ]8(i!, to April flth, 18(i,5. taking its ])art in the thirty-six 
recognized battles. 

The men were mustered out and discharged June 18, 18fi,5. Thus ending the war cf record 
of as ))rave a comjiaTiy as e\er "went fortli to do battle," in all the world's history. 




By Mrs. Zelma Burt Henderson. 

On June twenty-fifth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, invitations were issued hy Mrs. 
Annabelle Andrews Wolfe to attend a meeting at lier home to consider the cn-ga nidation of a 
Chapter of Daughters of the American Revolution. Three years liefore this Mrs, Wolfe had 
joined Lcray de Chaumont Cliaptcr of \Vaterto\\-n and Mrs. G. S. Conger was a memlier of 
Swekatsi Chapter of Ogdensluirg. Tlie plea.-ant associations tinis formed made tliem 
anxious that their friends here should be interested in kindred topics. At this meeting there 
were present, Mesdames E. H. Neary, C. T. Moffett, S. W. Payne, T. S. Whitney, R. T. 
Allen, B. V. Severance, Emelia Crane Anthony, J. W. Henderson, Wm. Neary, Jane Dodge, 
George Pike, Ann Rushton, L. M. Gardner, G. E. Baldwin, G. S. Conger, Misses Dean, Helen 
Parker, Sarah Parl^er and Daisy Barnum. 

At our request that a Chapter be formed here the State Regent, Mrs. Belding, appointed 
Mrs. Wolfe, Regent. 

As evidence of the dilligent efforts of Mrs. AVolf, on January 10, 1839, a meeting was held 
at her home for the purj^ose of perfecting the organization with nineteen charter menil)ers. 
Oflicers were then elected a.nd the first official act wa.; a courtesy extended in recognition 
of the ])ntriotism of a yomig soldier (Wm. Canfield), who laid down his life m (lie struggle 
to free Cnlia. 

Contriliutions were given to the funds for the monument to Lafayette, a statue of 
Washington to be given to France, also for a monument to a nurse of the Cuban Army, 
Rubena Hyde A\'ahvorth. A fund has also been set aside to procure suitable markers for 
the graves of Revolutionary and 181^ soldiers, in this vicinity. With the hearty approval of the 
State Regent, cnir Chapter was named for one whom we all unite in lionirring in this our 
Centennial birthday — Gouv. Morris. Communicating with ilrs. Henrietta B. Morris, we learn- 
ed that the colors of the Morris livery and coat of arms were scarlet and gold, which were 
adopted as onr Chapter colors. Scarlet and yellow carnations were ado]ited as the Cbajiter 

Our ga\-el \\'as made from the historical Washington elm wliich still stands in Maiden, 
Mass., owned b,y Mr. Dexter and sometimes known as the Dexter elm. This was presented by 
Mr. Whitteinore through Miss Sarah Parker. 

Hon. I. C. Jliles presented us with a Revolutionary roll for New York and ^'ermont. 

Mr. W, H, Andrews gave us a magnificent lap-stoiie, formed, dressed and polished by 
his own hand. The stone was made from a piece of one of the pillars of the old National 
Capitol which was burned in ]81t. 

Among otlier objects of historic value which have lieen given us by interested frienas, 
is a co]3y of the last will of Gouverneur Morris, 

Believing that our first and chief efforts should lie in onr home town, we have striven 
to keep burnlTig the fires of patriotism kindled by our ancestors and to that end have offered 
a prize of $5 in gold for the best essay, written on American history liy a student of the 
High School, the subject being selected by the "Daughters," and announced at the Annual 
Conmiencement Exercises, 

A feature in the celeln-ation of Independence Day, \sliich has met with the approval of the 
patriotic portion of the community is the public service annually held in one of the churches 
under the auspices of Gouv. Morris Chapter. 

A corner in the ])ublic library has been loaned by the Association for present use, in 
exhibiting some articles which could be appropriately shown there, including the lineage 
books, Re\olutionary roll, a fac-simile of the Declaration of Inde])endence, etc. 

Our meml-iership is forty. Our stud}' has been most interesting, extending from pre- 
Revolutionary periods through Colonial History with something of local history. 


Only once has death entered our circle to diminish our number. On March seventeenth, 
1901.,, one of our charter members, Mrs. Emelia Crane Anthony, was called to join the great 
majority in her Father's home. 

"It is God's will that whoever is born a subject, should not reason but obey." 
The objects of this socieby according to Article II of our National Constitution are: 
(1). To perpetuate the memory of the spirit of the men and women who achieved 
American Independence, l)y the acquisition and protection of historical spots, and the erection 
of monuments, by the encouragement of historical research in relation to the Revolution and 
the publication of its results, liy the preservation of documents and relics, and of the records 
of the individual services of RevolutioTiary soldiers and patriots, and by the promotion of 
celebrations of all patriotic anniversaries. 

(2), To carrj- out the injunction of Washingion in his farewell address to the American 
people, "To promote, as an oljject of primar^r importance, institutions for the general diffusion 
of knowledge," thus developing and enlightening public opinion, and affording to young and 
old such advantages as shall develop in them the largest capacity for performing the duties of 
American citizens. 

(3). To cherish, maintain, and extend the institutions of American freedom, to foster 
true patriotism and love of country, and to aid in securing for mankind all the blessings of 

Charter Mejiiiers. 

Mrs. Martha Cliurch Conger 
Mrs. Anna Belle Andrews AVolfe 
Mrs. Emilia Crane Anthony 
Mrs. Adelaide McAllaster Allen 
Miss Sarah Helen yVdams Parker 
Mrs. Julia Sheldon Xeary 
Miss Emma Jane Sheldon 
Mrs. Gertrude Alcott Xeary 
Mrs. Florence Earle Payne 
Mrs. Caroline McCartv Williams 

Mrs. Mary Whitney Bowne 
Mrs. I4icy Chapin Hawley 
Mrs. Zelma Burt Henderson 
Mrs. Eva Drake Peck 
Mrs. I'jleanor Cooper Pike 
Mrs. Delia Cleveland Hougkin 
Miss Blanche y\deen Hodgkin 
Mrs. Xettie Cleveland Royce 
Mrs. Philena M^oodruff Severance. 


Emilia Crane Anthony. 

Mrs. Kina Carpenter Irving 
Mrs. Nettie Sternburg Whitney 
Mrs. Harriett Church Orvis 
Mrs. Millicent Pope bneklon 
Mrs. Emily Hagar York 
Mrs. Louise Haile Case 
Mrs. Isadore Waite Foster 
Mrs. Lena Cook McAllaster 
Mrs. Catherine J. Griffing Aldrich 
Mrs. Zeruah Johnson Dodds 
Mrs. Clara Whitney Legate 
Mrs. Ella McKean Whitney 

Mrs. Anna Belle Andrews Wolfe 
Mrs. Edward H. Neary 

Regent, Mrs. George Elton Pike 

Miss Jennie Winifred Hudson 

Mrs. Eleanor Terwilliger Lamon 

Mrs. .Tnlia Foster Drury 

Mrs. Editi. Norton Reusswig 

Mrs. Evangeline Norton Foster 

Mrs. Anna Bowne Dodge 

Miss Mary Church Conger 

Miss Ruth Burt Henderson 

Miss Elizalieth Carpenter Ormiston 

Miss Jennie Dean 

Miss Cora Dean. 

Chapter Regexts. 

Mrs. George P'lton Pike 

Presext Officers. 

Yice-Kegent, Mrs. Andrew Irving- 



("haplain, Mrs. Richard M. 'S'ork. 
Historian, Mrs. Charles B. Hawley 

Secretary, Mrs. J. Wesley Henderson 
Treasurer, Mrs. Robert Dodge 
Registrar, Mrs. Everett J. Peck 

Winners or Prize Essay. 

Subject 1900 — Xew York in the Revolution — Won by George V. Webster. 

Subject 1901 — Our Navj^ in the Revolution— Won by Wni. Lee Soper. 

Subject 190!2 — The Women of the Revolution — Won by Glenn W. Severance. 

Subject 1903 — AVhat the Fourth of July means to us — Won by Wm. G. Smith. 

Subject 1904— Colonial Schools— Won liy Miss Hazel Clifton. 

Subject 1905 — The social and domestic conditions in the North American Colonies — Won 
by Miss Helen P. White. 


By H. H. Gerner, 

During the year 1850 several Master Masons residing in Gouvernenr desiring to establish 
a lodge of that ancient Order united in a petition to W. H. Milnor, Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge of the State of New Vork, asking for authority. 
This was granted and their first meeting "under dispensation" 
was held in what was known as "Lady's Hall" in the old Sem- 
inary building, Jan. 34-, 1851, with Sylvanus Cone as Master, Jo- 
siah Waid, Senior AVarden; William Holmes, Junior Warden; 
tliere were also present, Wm. H. Bowiie, Xewell Havens, Myron 
Cushman, O. L. Barnum, B. H. Smith, Edward Easton, Wm. 
Barnet, Wm. H. Andrews and Wm. R. Fosgate. 

At the session of the Grand Lodge on June 5, 1851, the com- 
mittee on warrants being satisfied with the progress made, re- 
commended that a cliarter he issued to Gouverneur Lodge. The 
Grand Lodge appro^•ed of their recommendation and a charter 
was issued on June 9, 1851, signed l)y Most Worshipful, Oscar 
Cole; Grand Master; Right Worship- 
ful, Nelson Randall, Deputy Grand 
Master; Right Worshipful Dan S. 
Wright, Grand Senior Warden; Right 
Worshipful Wm. Holmes, Grand 
Junior Warden. 

On July 8th, 1851, Worshipful 
Brother, A. Kingsbury, of Canton, 
acting under authority of the Grand 
Master. constituted Gouverneur 
Lodge, No. 217, installing Benjamin 
K. Skinner, Master; Josiah Waid, 
Senior Warden; William Holmes, 
Junior Warden; and the lodge began 
its existence as a permanent Ijody with seventeen members, sixteen Master Masons and one 

Interwoven with its history since that date are the names of men who have been most 
prominent in the upbuilding of the town; although it encountered the opposition which the 
prejudices of those days prompted, there were always faithful brethren to maintain its ex- 

SylvaiiLi.s Cone. 

Ossian L. Barnum. 

Myron Cusliman. 

- 5,^ 



istence and through steady growth it stands todaj' the largest and 
strongest lodge in the twenty-third Masonic District of the State, 
having a nicniliership at the lieginning of the present year of 318. 

The following is a. list of tlie brethern wlio have served as its 
Master; B. F. Skinner, Sylvanus Cone, H. L. C'onklin, Isaac A. 
Waid, C. A. Parker, A. E. Norton, Geo. B. Winslow, A. M. Bar- 
ney, A K. Je])son, J. M. Reynolds, John McCarty, Geo. W. Car- 
penter, Geo. H. Clark, Frank H. Smith, S. A. Ackerman, T. R. 
Hossie, W. J. Donaldson, John Webb, A. S. ^Vhitiiey, W. V. Bow- 
hall, Jno. E. McFerran, Clias. MoCarty, J. Y. Baker, D. G. 
Scholton, H. H. Gerner. H. Bmvne. 

William Gardner. 

^\^ S. Woodcock. 

EDWARDS LODGE, NO. 833, I. O. O. F. 

By Wm. Gardner. 
Instituted at Edwards, N. Y., April lf)th, 1901, with 4.5 charter meniliers, the officers 
being N. G., M. H. Holhrook; A'. G., E. C. Locke; Sec, Mott. Meldwin; Treas., Xolney A. 
Miller. The following lu-others «'ithdrawing from their own lodges and signing ])etition 

for charter: M. H. Holhrook of 
Gouverneur Lodge No. 335; E. C. 
Locke of Gouverneur Lodge No. 335; 
H. P. Peterson, of Gouverneur Lodge 
No. 325; S. J. Darrah of Gouverneur 
Lodge No. 335; Joseph Dulack of 
Antwerp Lodge No. 4TT; Fay N. 
Goutremont of ^Mountain View Lodge 
No. 380. 

We as a lodge feel indebted to our 
Sister Lodges for their aid in assist- 
ing us in the estal)lishement of an 
Odd Fellows" Lodge at this jilace, and 
this locality has pro\en to be a favor- 
able place for the advancement of Odd Fellowship. There are now 115 members and since 
the time of organization there has been no meml;er suspended or expelled. 

At the time of institution the second floor in what is known as the Andrews lilock was 
leased for use as a lodge room, liut as the membersliip increased it \\'as fouiul tliat tliere was 
not sufficient room in which to prop- 
erly exemjjlify tlie work. An action 
was taken for the erection of a build- 
ing where the lodge might liax-e a 
home of their own, and with that ]ioint 
in v\e\v a building committee was aj)- 
j)ointed consisting of Bros. E. A. 
Jlerkley, Wm. Gardner, W. S. Wood- 
cock, W. B. Newton and Milo E. 
Woodcock, with authority to purchase 
a site and erect a suitable building. 
Tliis committee met with remarkaljle 
Milo E Woodcock. success, having purchased the lot 

known as the Haile lot, and erected thereon, a solid brick building 33x74, with basement, ban- 
quet room, and lodge room al)o\'e, at an expense of about !f!(),000, which is an ornament to 

L. D. Ravnionrl. 



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the place and a credit to the fraternity, and proof that the Order has been founded on a 
solid basis not only in this town but in the world at large. 

Feb. 3rd, 1905, witnessed the dedication of our Temple, and it was the pleasure of this 
Lodge at that time to entertain the grand blaster of this State, Arthur S. Tompkins, who per- 
formed the dedicatory ceremony. 

The officers at the present time are: N. G., Eddie Beach; V. G., W. O. Cleland; Sec, 
Wm. Gardner; Treas., L. D. Raymond. 



By G. E. Bancroft and G. H. Robinson. 

Amongst the many organizations in Gouverneur we feel that when special mention is made 
none more tndy merits a more honored place in "Old Home History", than the Gouverneur 
I^odge of Odd Fellows No. 325. Instituted April 4th, 1888, with ten charter members they 
sprung into existence, receiving their State charter they began the struggle of life. Although 
like most all societies its youthful days were beset by many discouragements, still it sturdily 
jiushed forward, supported and surroimded by the elements that unite in the one great 
cause, to "do good," especially in succoring and relieving the wants and needs of the widows 
and orphans, sacredly pledging their honor that no member should suffer from neglect or 
after death sleep in the "Potters field." It has never faltered or wavered, and after these 
years of struggles and triumphs, enters the 20th century with a glowing past record and a 
working lodge of 325 active members. The following are a list of the charter members: T. B. 
Mackey, Allen Murdock, AVm. H. Hall, G. A. Palmer, P. Fleming, Jacob Green, L. A. 
Moore, Wm. Culver, Wm. J. Perrin. 

The past history of Odd Fellowship is bright with its exalted work and unselfish deeds 
performed. In public or private, in the home where destitution or want too often reigns — 
where the unfortunate too frequently find a narrow home and a meagre existence — to the 
polished drawing rooms of the palace and the gilded home of the millionaire, or in contrast 
ir: the happy domestic home of the farmer to the unknown home of the wanderer on the 
plains, or tossed on the changing tide of old ocean. Anywhere, everywhere, no exclusion, no 
matter what the environments or surroundings, the same "heart touch" is there. Here the God 
inspired elements of this imselfish Order bloom and gi^■e forth its mellowed fragrance of love. 

"One with God is a majority", and 

everything fovmded on this heavenly 

principle must and will succeed and 

bear grand fruits for eternal life. 

Out of the ten charter members only 

one Geo. A. Palmer, remains in good 

standing and still continues a resident 

of Gouverneur. The present officers 

of the lodge are: Fred R. Butters, 

Noble Grand; M. W. Randall, Vice 

Grand; G. H. Summerfeldt, Record- 
ing Secretary; R. 31. Percival, Finan- 
cial Secretary; F. W. Sprague, 
Treasurer; G. W. Parker, H. Walter Lee, G. A. Palmer, Trustees. 

The thirty Past Grands who served as Noble Grands of this Lodge are as follows: T. B. 
Mackey, Allen Miirdock, Geo. A. Palmer, J. Y. Baker, Geo. H. Robinson, G. H, Summer- 
feldt, Geo. E. Bancroft, C. F. Smith, John A. Jones, L. B. Murray, E. H. Nearv, C. E. 
Bowman, W A. VanDuzee, Chester M. Hale, E. J. Loveless, C. L. Mosher, O. L. Sutherland, 
S. S. Dunkelberg, Alfred Smith, N. E. Brown, C. N. Holt, Geo. A. Parker, V. C. Bockus, H. 

F. W. Sprague. 

George \\', Parker, 



Walter, Geo. B. Barnes. H. O. Johnson, T. R. Rutherford, G. A. Allen, J. G. GUmour, 
Charles I^. Bro^vn. 

The names of four Past Grands who joined the lodge by card are R. M. Percival, A. L. 
Storie, ilyron Gates, and J. E. Bosworth. 

During the history of this lodge 4-9(i have been admitted to full membership, 19 of whom 
have passed through death's dark valley to the Grand Lodge in the eternal world, over 
whose names we let fall the luourning drapery of death. Since the lodge was instituted it 
has paid in sick benefits to the members .f3,.594-..50, ifoOO of which was paid out during the 
jiast year. The furniture and furnishings are conservatively estimated at .liS.OOO, a large per- 
centage of which is new, liaving been purchased during the year of 1904. 

The financial condition of the lodge is excellent, the cash on hand amounting to S3,G00. 

T«o of the Past Grands, Geo. A. Palmer and R. M. Percival, are the two oldest Odd Fel- 
lows in the lodge as far as years of service are concerned. The former joined the Briar 
Hill Lodge, Xo. 470, Oct. 6th, 1879. The latter becoming a member of Brockville Lodge Xo. 
9, Aug. 22, 1883. Both were admitted to Gouverneur Lodge by card. 


By Chas. ilcCarty. 

Among the popular social organizations of Gou\erneur is Temple C'luli, located in a 
pleasant suite of rooms on the second floor of the ilasonic Temple. 

This Club wa.s organized in 1897 with a memljership of about sixty which has increased 
steadily, numbering at the present time nearly one huTidred, made up from among the best 
class of the Town's citizens. 

While its name and location might imply that its meniljersbip is restricted to the Masonic 
Order, such is not the case. Although its qualifications for membership have been fixed at a 
high standard, it is cosmopolitan, depending not upon wealth or influence, l)ut entirely upon 
the standing and character of the applicant. The membership is restricted to men over twen- 
ty-one years of age, residents of the town of Gouverneur. Xon-residcnts are admitted to 
limited membership under a special provision of its Constitution. 

Lor the purjiose of nuiking a better working organization, the Clulj was incorjiorated in 

On its tables are to be found the best ])eriodicals of the day for the instruction and en- 
tertainment of its meml)trs. Innocent amusements furnish diversion; games of chance of 
e\'erv character l)eing ytroliibited by its constitution. 

The entire absence of discord or 
Cf)ntention has been a noticeable fea- 
ture of the existence of this organiza- 
tion; harmony, goodfeeling, and a 
s]>irit of fellowship always pervading. 
Its jniblic receptions are remember- 
ed as among the most successful and 
;njoyal)le social events. 

The following gentlemen have 
served the Club as its Presidents: JI. 
U. Sackett, A. J. .McDonald, C. C. 
Dunkellterg, a)id .lames C. Dolan. 
Its official list at ]iresent is made 
uj> as toilo\\'s: President, James C. Dolan; \'ice-President, 
retary, M. W. Bigarel; Treasurer, .John E. ^IcLerran; Directors, D. G. Scholton, M. W. 
Bigarel, S. A. Easton, Chas. R. Rodger, and Alfred .Smith. 


I). G. Scholton. 
G. Scholton ; Sec- 

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From its roll of membership, death has striclien the names of Dr. T. R. Hossie, John 
McCarty, Chas. C. Dunkellierg, John A. Lockie, Edward Morrison, WiOiam Rutherford and 
George W. Walker, a loss felt hy the community wlierein they were well and favorably 
known, as well as hy the Club. 

In providing a place where men can spend an hour in amusement and social converse 
when the cares and burdens of the day are left behind, this Club is doing its share, through 
promotion of friendship and increase of confidence among men to build up the standard and 
ideals of life. 


By R. L. Kinney. 

Court Gouverneur, No. li^O, was instituted Dec. Uth, 1893, by Geo. L. Faichney, D. D. 
S. C. R., assisted by G. S. Philips, \. D. S. C. R., and held its first meeting Dec. 21, 1893, 
with the following officers: James il. Spencer, Jr., C. D. H. C. R.; John JIcBride, C. R.; 
A. E. Smith, P. C. R.; John A. Jones, V. C. U.; J. R. Richardson, R. Secy; F. M. Peterson, 
F. S.; W. L. Mix, Treas.; AVm. A. Smith, S. W.; T. R. White, J. W. ; Earl S. Rickerson, S. 
B.; Edward Locke, J. B.; T. B. ilackey, Chap; Dr. Fred Drury, Phy. 

The Order is for fraternal insurance of its members on the assessment plan, at as low 
rates as are possible to provide funds to promptly pay all losses and, so successfully has it 
lieen managed l:y the Supreme Court that it has accumulated nine millions of dollars in its 
Treasury, and is today, one of the strongest if not the strongest fraternal insurance order 
in the world. The Order in Gouverneur numbers among its members some of the most sub- 
stantial business men, doctors, lawyers, and men from every walk in life, and is constantly 
increasing in meml)ership and influence, and is one of the most progressive orders in the 
village. Meets every Monday night at Foresters Hall, Union Hall l)Iock. Numbers one 
hundred and ninety members in good standing. A'isiting brothers are alwaj's warmly wel- 


By Gottleib Lohr. 

This group are the officers for IflOJ of Oswegatchie Tent Xo. 2ii, a subordinate branch 
of tile Order known by the title "Knights of the .Maccabees of the World." Oswegatchie Tent's 
creation dates from Xovemlier fjth, 1893, and was instituted b}' Deputy Spencer, with seventeen 
charter members, some of whom are yet living, as, A. F. Thayer, A. E. Eager, G. W. Briggs, 
W. H. Draper, Sam Taylor, and Clinton O. Burch. The object of this organization is to pro- 
vide sick, accident and death benefits to the members and their families and to assist one 
"mother in time of danger, need and sorrow, for (practically speaking) a very small sum of 
money annually, which may lie paid monthly, quarterly or annually, according to the mem- 
liers ability or inclination. 

Oswegatchie 'lent had its adverse conditions to contend with like most new creations; its 
first important battle occurred in 189T-98, equal to the battle fought hy its valiant hero 
".Judas Maccalieus" at Mizpah and the second one in 1901 and 1903 also equal to the one fought 
at Bethsur, only the battles fought by this tent were for fraternal achievements and the 
financial protection of the widows and orphans of its departed members. 

It being the smallest fraternal insurance society up to six j'ears ago, has since then outgrown 
all others as regards timber, numbers and members, and lodge quarters which are one of the 


finest in town with all home comforts. Its present membership is three hundred and thirty- 
two, ont of wliieli thirteen are social memliers. Oswegatchie Tent had nine deaths in its 
history for which it paid nine tliousand five hundred dollars to the lieneficiaries and over 
three tliousand dollars in sick and accident benefits, the sic]< benefit being five dollars a 
week. Tlie accident lienefits are according to the occu]5ation a memlier works in and tlie 
hazardous nature of the work governs the amount of benefits received. 

Its blessings are manifold and the moral standard of the member is raised, l)ecause the 
Order is continually trying to inculcate manly ])rinci])les, integrity and veracity, all of wliich 
raise the standard of citizenship, therefore it should at all times receive the re.spect and 
support of e\'ery commiuiity where such a lirancli is located, especially the tax payer, on 
account of the fraternal su])])ort toward one other, which lowers the poor account. Oswegatchie 
Tent's quarters are located in the Egert lilock and occup}' the entire upper floor, formerly 
occupied by the Odd Fellows. 

The present officers are a briglit looking lot of men and represent as a wliole the most 
progressive element in the organization, wbicli the members acknowledged by electing them, 
and it is to their efforts, as well as some of their ])redecessors and Deputy Bacon that this 
Tent has no equal in tliis ])art of tlie State numerically or financially. 


By H. M. York. 

Gouverneur Council Xo, 1190, Koyal Arcanum, was organized October 1, 18S9, with the 
following charter members: J. B. .Johnson, W. H. West, C. C. Cunningham, ,T. H. Coats, 
■T. J. Rutherford, W. E. lirodie, H. F. :\Iarsh, H. O. Reynolds, J. D. Harrigan, George R. 
Thomson, Roliert Warwick, W. ,1, Barr, Frank L. Cox, A. A. Hildreth, R. M. York. 

The Council has now a membership of sesenty-five, and is in a sound and healthy con- 
dition. Tbei'e ba^'e been four deaths among the members since its organization, and bene- 
ficiaries have recei\ecl .'iilO,000. 

The present officers are: R. M. York, Regent; Lynn Sjirague, \'ice Regent; W. E. 
Lynde, Orator; ,T. J. Rutherford, Past Regent; W. F. Leonard, Secretary; A.' K. Dillabaugh, 
Collector; H. F. iSIarsh, Treasurer; E. C. Mosber, Chaplain; J. A. Cuinmings, Guide; W. 
Ferran, Warden; F. W. Sjirague, Sentry; E. H. Cole, Trustee, I. I. Block, Trustee; A. A. 
Potter, Trustee; Dr. S. \V. Close, .Medical Examiner. 


}'>y Clarence T. Stinsou. 

Organized Dec. Mth, 189->. Prcs., ,J. B. Carpenter; Y. P., Chas. McCarty, Rec. Sec'y, 
Wm. Xeary; Fin. SeeV, L. C. Woodworth; Treas., .\. L. Woodworth. 

Incorporated .Tune ;27th, 1898. Pres. Andrew Irving; \. Pres., M. E. I.oveland; Rec. 
Sec'y, .7. A. Spencer; Fin. Sec'y, R. G. Dodge; Treas., FI. Sudds. 

190.5.— Pres. Charles H. Anthony; "S". Pres., Jas. C. Dolan; Rec. Sec'y, T. J. Whitney; 
Fin. Sec'y, J. P. Killmer; Treas., P. A. Graves. 


By Mrs. ,1. E. Duffie. 

CJiir local W. C. T. U. dates back ])roperlv to the evening of ,Tan. 1st, 188+, when Mrs. 
Mary I. Hunt of Boston, JIass., State Superintendent of Scientific Instruction, delivered a 
lecture in Union Hall, subject "Waiting for the ^'erdict". At the close of her temperance 
talk she called ii|Hin the ladies i)rcsent for an ex])rcssion of their attitude upon the question 

2 ^ 


of forming a local union and by a vote it was decided to go ahead with the work. The week 
following. Miss Blanche Hazelet, State Officer, met the ladies in the parlors of the Baptist 
Church, and then organized our society consisting of eleven charter members. Officers 
elected: President, Mrs. J. E. Duffie; \'ice President, Mrs. H. S. Eddy; Rec. Secretary, 
Miss Lillian Taitt; Treasurer, Jlrs. Elmina Dods; Cor. Secretary, Jlrs. H. L. Rugg; Super- 
intendent of Scientific In.struction, Miss Grace A'an Duzee; Siipt. Junior Work, Miss F. 
Xicols. Thirty-one members were enrolled the first year. 

In the autumn of 1884, we served our first supper, the net receipts «ere .fiSO, which we 
put by towards starting a Reading Room for our young people. At a business meeting 
Oct. 20, 188.3, Mrs. J. R. Crane proposed a joint conference of committees of ladies from 
the several churches, with the officers of the Union, relative to the raising of funds for the 
erection of a Pulilic Library. They decided upon and ga^e a Xew England supper which 
netted .$129, and this sum with .$30 subsequently voted by the AV. C. T. U. from their treasury 
was in realitv the nucleus of the Ladies' Reading Room fund. In 1891, the Union purchased 
and caused to be erected at the lower end of the Park a handsome drinking fountain with 
ice refrigerator at a cost of .filS.?. We have striven as a society to create public sentiment for 
the abolition of the drink traffic by scattering temperance literature at our annual fair and at 
public meetings. As a societv we have tried to relieve poverty and suffering in our midst, 
and the good accomplished during its existence is incalculalile. .\t the second annual liusiness 
meeting held in ]88fi, Mrs. H. S. Randall was chosen President, and served twelve years. 
L'nder her leadersliip the L'nion did some grand work. Next President, Mrs. Mary L. Beardslee. 
who served only one year, but was an inspiration to tlie society. The present incumbent. 
Miss Marv .Sa:'er, lias held the office for six years and has l)een an indefatigal)le worker. 

Two business and one social meetings are lield every montli. Tlie memlier.ship at present 
date, numl;ers IIG. June 14th, 190.5. 


By .Mrs. C. B. Austin. 

On accoimt of certain conditions then existing in tlie W. C. T. U., it was thought best by 
several of the members to organize a Jlother's Clul), whicli was done Dec. .3, 1898. Mrs. C. B. 
Austin was elected President. The Clulj continued to affiliate witli the W. C. T. U. imtil Feb. 
22nd, 1902, at wliicli time it was organized independent of the W. C. T. U., ))elieving that 
more good could lie accom])lislied as a separate organization, which has been verifiefl l)y 
results. The olijcct of this society is to sympathize with and assist Mothers in the duties of 
the home. Subjects of interest to the home are considered in their meetings which are held 
montblv in the various homes, endeavoring to reach all parts of the town in their work. 

Sewing scliools have Ijeen held and much philanthro])ic work accomplished. 

Present oificers are: Mrs. C. B. ,\ustin. President; .Mrs. Barr, Mason, Hart, Lang, Vice 
Presidents; :\lrs. S. Gamble, Sec; Jlrs. Willard Thayer, Treasurer. 


Was incor])orated in January, 1899, with the following trustees: Roliert JIarkwick, A. 
W. Orvis, James .\. Dickson, M. E. Gallivan, William Uodds, .\. W. Rogers, Miss Helen I. 
Parker, .Mi>.s Mary .\. Saver and Miss .\li(la McFalls. 



The first officers of the society were; President, Rev. A. W. Rogers; Vice President, 
Rev. James A. Diclison; Secretary, Miss Helen I. Parl<er; Treas- 
urer, Rev. M. F. Gallivan; Agent, Mr. William Dodds. 

The objects of the society are to rescue children who are 
in a condition of suffering and want, or without ])roper guardian- 
ship, or living under evil influences. Tlie society aids in en- 
forcing the laws for the protection of children, and assists the 
various courts in prosecuting worthy cases. As many as fifty 
children have come vmder its jurisdiction and care in a single 

The officers last elected were; President, Robert Markwick; 
Vice President and Secretary, Miss Helen I. Parker; Treasurer, 
Miss Mary A. Saver; Agent, John G. Gilmour; yVttorney, H. \V. 

The death of Mr. Markwick, May 15, 

J A. Dickson. 

1905, leaves a vacancy at present in the office of 


Bv J. C. Dolan. 


Barry E. D Clinton Street. 

Collins, Harlow D Rock Island Street. 

Easton, E. C Clinton Street. 

Fuller Fred B Clinton Street. 

Roulston Bros Main Street. 


Abbott, Arthur H 147 Main Street. 

Abbott & Dolan, Vasco P. Abbott, James C. Dolan, 175 Main Street. 

Aldrich, Herbert G 137 Main Street. 

Conger, Orvis & McLear, — G. S. Conger, A. W. Orvis, Rolrt. E. McLear, Corner Cliurch aiul 
John Streets. 

Cook, John F 93 Main Street. 

George, Joseph 147 Main Street. 

Hazelton, Dallas M 127 Main Street. 

Johnson, Arthur T. (Special County Judge), 119 Main Street. 

Lee, H. Walter Corner Church and John Streets. 

N'eary, Edward H 57 Main Street. 

Parker, C. Arthur 93 Main Street. 

Parker, George W Corner Mam and Park Streets. 


Eager, A. E 55 Mahi Street. 

Smith, Henry C 119 Main street. 

Geo. Bartholomew 73 Trinity Ave. 


Bank of Gouverneur Corner ParK i;nd Main Streets. 

President, Newton Aldrich; Vice President and Cashier, Henry F. Sudds; Ass't. Cashier, 
Jas. O. Sheldon. Directors, Newton Aldrich, Henry F. Sudds, C. H. Anthony, E. D, 
Barry, J. H. Rutherford. 


First National Bank 117 Main Street. 

President, Frank M. Bnrdick; "V'ice President, Fred H. Haile; Casliier, A. L. Wood- 
«(]rtii. Directors, Frank M. Bnrdick, Fred H. Haile, .\. L. Woodworth, Lorenz) Smith, 
.\rthur T. Johnson. 


Bowman, Chas. E St. Law rence Inn. 

Briggs, Frank G SI ilain Street. 

Call, .Vrthur L Cor. ^Slain and Park Streets. 

Corhin, W. H / j ;\Iain Street. 

t'redenlierg, Edw. S 75 3Iain Street. 

Gillett, Ernest Main Street. 

Leonard, Walter 14-.5 ^lain Street. 

Cohr, G 131 Main Street. 

•Mallett, John 193 Main Street. 

.Massaw, West Main Street. 


Freeman, F. X. & Co Clinton Street. 

Lytic, Walter E Clinton Street. 


AllcTi, G. A Clinton Street. 

Boiick, John _M Cor. Main and Wall Streets. 

Doane, .1. H Vnstin Street. 

Fortune, >i . J Clinton Street. 

Holt, Capt Clinton Street. 

hutt, Bciij Clinton Street. 

Lalierdce, .Martin Clinton Street. 

.^lerritt, W. II Park Street. 

.Merritt, C. B Water Street. 

McKean, Wni Park Street. 

Wel)Ster, .1. A ClintoJi Street. 

AViliiams, D. A West Main Street. 

BROKER. ■ / 

R. M. Brown i)9 -Main Street. 


Donald, Chas, C 51 Main Street. 

Drajier, Win. H 1.53 Main Street. 

Kinney, B. O S3 Main Street. 

Mead Bros :)7 .Main Street. 

i5(K)TS .\XD SHOES. 

Block, I. I (»0 Main Street. 

Edgar, F. J 101 Main Street. 

Kinney, .\. & Son 79 .Main Street. 

.Mar,h, H. F .3 .Main Street. 

Orniiston, Jas. W Cor. Park and Main Streets. 

Schwartzioan, J 133 .Mahi Street. 


Brooks, R. J 131 .Main Street. 

Scalz.o, Fred Depot Street. 


Bemiett, .1. A. & Sons West .Main Street. 

Pettis, Eli -Mill Street. 



Barry, E. D Clinton Street. 

Freeman, E. N. & Co Clinton Street. 

Henderson, J. W Clinton Street. 

C I G A K M A X IT F A C T( ) R I E S. 

i.avar, Andrew West Main Street. 

Seaman, B. H ol Main Street. 


Bloek, I. 1 9!) Main Street. , 

Elliott Bros 14,5 Main Street. 

Gerner, H. H 1:5:5 Main Street. 

Kinney. A. & Son 7!) Main Street. 

Tait, Geo. L Chnreh Street. 

Sehvvartzman, J 1:5:5 Main Street. 


Corliin, AV. S Xear Depot. 

Jenne & Laidlaw — E. A. Jenne, W. .\. Eaidlaw, Rear of Depot. 

Xolile, H. H Rear of Depot. 

l?ariies, A. N, Lynde, W. E. Rogers, Henry 

Baekus, David McRohliie, William Robnison, Geo. 

Clapp, Al. Jliller, Jerry Staey, Geo. 

Ethridge, Ellis Palmer, Geo. Storie, F. J. 

Johnson, J. H. Prittie, Tlios. TurTibuU, Frank 

Jerden, Frank Pickit, Alonzo Wilson, J-'hn 

Love, Fred. Quill, Tlios. West, J, W, 

I^ytle, Henry 

Carpenter, J. H. Ethridjje, Ellis Post, Henry H. 

Corbin, W. S. Johnson, J. H. 


Citizens" Club 15:5 Main Street. 

Masonic Tem])le Club Masonic Temple. 


Brasie, Ivan >. or. Main and Park Streets. 

Connor, AVm. R 107 ;\Iain Street. 

McXulty, T. P 1:^1 .Main Street. 

Spencer, Jas. A 131 Main Street. 

Spencer, Jas. M 1-1 Main Street. 

Van Allen, W. C 103 Main Street. 

Conkey, Chas. Leach, Walter. Rickerson, Chas. 

Goodale, Earl. Hutton, John Whalen, Wni. 

Harper, Henry. Martin, L. H. Whalen, Jas. 

Harden, Henry. 


Ayers, Mrs. Lucy Somerville Street. ' 

Ferguson & Janiieson Park Street. 

Henderson, Mrs. J. W Clinton Street. 

Lytle, Mrs. Walter E Gleason Street. 

Love, Mrs. Fred Gleason Street. 

Lytle, Mrs. Elmer Peck Block. 


McGillis, Mrs. J. H Ur Main Street. 

McXally, Mrs. Kate Bal)Cock Street. 

Prouty, :\Ir.s. Hiram Somerville Street. 

Raw.son, JIr.s. E. C Cor. Barnes and Gordon Streets. 

Scott, Bessie Barnes Street. 

Storie, Carrie Main Street. 

Stinson, Susan B Sterling Street. 

Wilson, Nellie Gordon Street. 

Williard, Mrs. A 103 Main Street. 

Whitney, Mrs. P. R Somerville Street. 


Donald, C. C .51 Main Street. 

Draper, Wm. H 1.53 ilain Street. 

Kinney, B. 83 Main Street. 

Mead Bros 97 Main Street. 

Nicholson, J. J West IMain Street. 

Payne Chemical Company 191 .Main Street. 


Leak, Geo. F 79 Main Street. 

McAllaster, .J. E. & Sons 9.5 .Main Street. 

Taitt, Geo. P. & Son 81 Main Street. 

Potter, A. \. & Co 131 .Alain Street. 

Rutherford, J. H 119 .Alain Street. 


American Express Company 173 Main Street. 


Clinton Street Sheds Clinton Street. 

Fuller, Fred B Clinton Street. 

Van Xorman, .\II)ert Rear of Bank of Gouvernenr. 

Roulston Bros Main Street. 


Frazier, P. A Clinton Street. 

McAllaster, J. E. & Sons Clinton Street— West .Main Street. 

Nohle, H. H Near Dejiot. 


Brainard, I. M Roek Island Street. 

Rogers, H. C Cor. Chureli and ,lohn Streets. 


Markwick & Cushman 177 Main Street. 

Mosher & Spragne Ilj9 Main Street. 

Van Duzee, S. B. .Mfg. Co Clmrcli Street. 


Brown, X. E Clinton Street. 

Cole, E. H .57 Main Street. 

Davis & Sprague — W. A. Davis, B. W. Spragne — 137 Main Street. 

Frazier, A. P Clinton Street. 

Fuller, A. L Clinton Street. 

Hazelton, G. D West .Main Street. 

Harvey & X'ewell — Warren A\'. Harvey, Arthur X'ewell — 129 Main Street. 

Hutton, G. E 1()7 Main Street. 

McFerran & Sprague — John E. McFerran, Le.vis Sprague — 195 Main Street. 


Moxley, Sam Grove Street. 

Randall, Rella J West Main Street. 

Swett, Lotus A 179 Main Street. 

St. Louis, Adolpli Grove Street. 


Bowne & Co Church Street. 

Cutting & Perrin 91 Main Street. 

Williams, D. H 185 Main Street. 


St. Lawrence Inn Main Street. 

The Hinton Main Street. : 

Clinton House Clinton Street. 

Marble City Hotel Depot Street. 

Brooklyn House West Main Street. 

Grove Hotel West Main Street. 

Gouverneur Hotel Clinton Street. I 

Freeman, Henry H. 

Baker, J. V. & Co.— J. A'. Baker, Frank B. Harris— 143 Main Street. 

Brown, B. F (_or. Church and John Streets. 

Earle, C. P 81 Main Street. 

Leggett, D. A 55 Main Street. 


Hall, E. K 101 Main Street. 

Laberdee, E. S 51 Main Street. 

York & Goodnough— R. M. York, R. E. Goodiiougii— 173 Main Street. 

Gouverneur Steam Laundry John Street. 


Bickford, John G Rear of St. Lawrence Inn. 

Campbell, C. E Trinity Avenue. 

Dickson, A. A William Street. 

Holt, Marvin John Street. 

Overacker, Albert \v Trinity Avenue. 

Smith, A. C Clinton Street. 


Gouverneur Lumber Company Hailesboro Street. 

Parker, B. G West Main Street. 

Van Duzee, S. B. Mfg. Co Main Street. 

Gouverneur Machine Works. 


Jackson, E. W 57 Main Street. 

Hall, W. H 137 Main Street. 

Hunger & Quinn West Main Street. 

Swett, Lotus A 179 Main Street. 


Clark & Boudiette 177 Main Street. 

Carpenter, Mrs. B. J William Street. 

Easton, Mrs. A. N Trinity Avenue. 


Mclntyre, .Miss E. J 133 Main Street. 

Mosher, Mrs. E. C John Street. 

Taitt, Geo. P. & Son HI .Main Street. 

Ryan, H. H >Iasonic Temple. 


Marsh, ,1. M 14-7 Main Street. 

Union Hall .Music Store Church Street. 


Drajier, Wui H 1 .53 .Main Street. 

Kinney, B. O S3 Main Street. 


.-Vldrich Paper Co Xatural Dam. 

Adirondack Pyrites Co. 

Bennett, J. .\. & Sons, Brooders and Incubators, West Main Street. 

Ontario Talc Comjiany, offices 131 JIain Stret, Mill at Eullerville. 

International Pulp Co., offices Union Hall Bid p., Cleneral Offices Xew York City. Seven Talc 

Union Talc Conijiany's Offices, offices 1()7 ^lain Street, Three Jlills. 
V. S. Talc Co. Offices Ifl :Main Street, Mill Dodgeville. 
Pettis, Eli, Brooders and Incubators, Mill Street. 
ilc.\llaster, J. E. & Sons, Flour and Feed, Jl-iin Street. 

St. Lawrence. Gouvernenr. Davidson. 

Xorthern X'e\\' York. A\'hite Crystal. P}'lstone. 

Empire. Extra Dark. 


Crooks & McLean \\'i]liam Street. 

Scholton, D. G West Main Street. 

Wliitney, D. J -Main Street. 


Cummings, J. Arthur 133 .Main Street. 

Hall, E. K 101 .Main Street. 

Severance, H. W 37 .Main Street. 

York, R. M 173 .Main Street. 

Bignall, Harvey D. Easton, Seymour. She|iard, L. H. 

Beach, Henry. Kenyon, Chas. Woodman, Fred. 

Barliary, Murray. Porter, .M. A. \\ ooster, Jos. 

Booth, Weslc;-. Raymond, Chas. 

Barbary, George. Barliary, Walter. West, Ed. 


Cunningliani, C. C .Main Street. 

Runions, C. E Pa rk Street. 

Shepard, L. W John Street. 


Allen, -\. H William Street. 

Close, S. W Cor. Church and Grove Streets. 

Drurv, B. F Cor. Howard and Park Streets. 

Drury, F. F Park Street. 

Flint, Wm. J -Main Street. 


Foss, D. M John Street. 

Ha%vley, Chas. B Main Street. 

Rega, John A Barnes Street. 

Severance, B. AV ry.i .Main Street. 


Lox, Frank ;,j Main Street. 

Gouv. Free Press Cur. JIain and Park Street.s. 

Grand Army .Toiirnal. 

Nortliern Trilnme 17!) .Main Street. 

Bush, George. Dusharni, Jas. Sinmions, Edw. 

Compo, John. Gardner, Jos. Snow, Chas. 

Countryman, M'm. McCarthy, W'ni. AVatson, Zacliary. 

Castleman, Chester. rost, Henry H. Watson, Ott'en. 

Broeftie, Eunice. — Conger, Orvis & JIcLear La.v Office, Cor. Church and Joli.i Streets. 
Bogart, Roy D.— U. S. Talc Co. Office, 119 Main Street. 
Fulton, Mrs. Etta E.— D. J. AVhitney Marlile C ). Office, Main Street. 
Hodgkin, Harry D. — Ciouv. Maciiine Co. Office, Main Street. 
Graham, John X. — D. J. Whitney Marlile Co. Office, Main Street. 
O'Brien, Bertha E.— Al)l)Ott & Dolan's Eaw O.lices. 
Spotten, JIaity.— J. A. Bennett & Sons Office, West Main Street. 


Brown, B. F Cor. Church and John Streets. 

Baker, J. V. & Co.— J. V. Baker, Frank B. Harris— 143 Main Street. 

Pattison, John Cor. Park and Main Streets. 

Rogers, H. C Cor. Church and John Streets. -"t :■ 

iSheen, D. H 177 Main Street. 


Eager, A. E j.3 JIain Street. 

Johnson, G. B Under Post Office. 

Smith, H.C 11!) Main Street. 

Turnhull, J. C Clinton Street. 


Boudiette, E. D West Main Street. 

Gardner, Alfred Clinton Street. 

Leahy, James ilarsli Shoe Store. 

McGee, R. A Ormiston Shoe Store. 

O'Brien, Peter 55 Main Street. 

Central N'ew York Telephone and Telegraph Cjnipany. 
Great X'orthwestern Telegrapli Company. 

Western LTnion Telegrajih Company. .; 

Xorth Western Telephone Company. '■ " 


Markwick & Cushman 177 Main Street. 

Mosher & Sprague 169 Main Street. 


Draper, John N"" To Jlain Street. 

■Ormiston, Jas. W Lor. Park and JIain Streets. 

Jlyan, H. H .Masonic Temple. 




Merritt, S. C Water Street. 

Summerfeldt, Geo. H Park Street. 


Corbin, AV. S Rear of Depot. 

Jenne & Laidlaw — E. A. Jenne, Wm. A. Laidlaw — Rear of Depot. 
Noble. H. H Rear of Depot. 


By Chas. H. Clark. 

The pride of Gouverneur is tbe splendid plant of the International Lace Manufacturing 
Company erected in 189;? principally through the brains, energy and capital of its citizens 
and the Lesser brothers. It stands on the Brooklyn side of the river on a site the most 
advantageous from a health and shipping standpoint that coidd have lieen chosen. By its 
location in Gouverneur a page is added to the history of the village of which every citizen 
is now proud. 

In the early part of June, 190;2, the Messrs. J. S. and Jlorris Lesser of 511 Broadway, 
New '^'ork City, sent out a prospectus of the International Lace Manufacturing Company to 
their customers in the various towns in different states of this 
country. One of these prospectuses came to A. A. Potter, who 
immediately called the attention of the Lessers to Gouverneur's 
advantages and invited them to paj' it a visit. Later the Lessers 
sent Robert A. Irving up to look over the ground and report to 
them. A meeting of the business men of the town was called 
at which Mr. Irving unfolded the particulars of the enterprise 
and at a puljlic meeting subsequently held, a committee was ap- 
pointed consisting of F. M. Burdiclv, G. S. Conger, H. G. Al- 
drich and Y. P. Abbott who visited New York, investigated the 
financial and general character standing of the Lessers and re- 
ported that everything was more than satisfactory and recom- 
mended their proposition to Gouverneur citizens. 
An agreement was formulated and subscriptions amounting to ?f85,(IOO ol)tained and nego- 
tiations were opened in earnest with 
the Lessers. J. S. Lesser came to 
Gouverneur and satisfying himself as 
to the conditions, such as water, 
freight rates, etc., he decided to lo- 
cate the mannuoth plant here. 

After reaching this decision he oli- 
jected to the one-sided agreement. A 
meeting of the subscribers was called 
and it was deemed liest to modif\' the 
Anson A. Potter. agreement so that instead of Gouver- 

neur's subscriptions lieing payable when the plant was in operation it sliould lie paid in 
installments of equal amounts, in the same ratio as the Lessers paid theirs and as the monev 
was required. This necessitated the agreement to be re-signed which caused a hitch in the 
progress of the enterprise and for a time it looked exceedingly doubtful as to whether Gouv- 
erneur after all was going to capture the magnificent industry. Otlier towns in New Yoric 

Morris Lesser. 

*i. S. Conger. 


State were making desperate efforts to induce tlie I.essers to locate in tfieir respective 
towns, offering them fully as good inducements. 

It was now that B. G. Parker was induced l)y the citizens to take the matter up and from 
that moment there was sometliing doing until the last hitch had l)een swept away, and tlie loca- 
tion of the plant in Gouverneur Avas settled in its favor. Everyliody recognized tlie fact that 
Jlr. Parker is a man of s])lendicl liusiness training, excellent executive aliility and fully con- 
versant with the intricacies iuvohed in a pro]>osition of the kind that confronted them. Af- 
ter his determination to do what he could to land the indu.stry in Gouverneur, he went to Xew 
York, had an interview witii the Lessers and olitained their promise that if Gouverneur would 
agree to raise the sti]nilated amount under the modified agreement they would sign to erect 
the plant. Armed with this promise, >Ir. Parker returned home and at once set the wheels of 
progressiveness in motion. A meeting of the sul)scril)ers was called, the situation exjilained, 
enthusiasm aroused, and the lace mill for Gouverneur assured. 

Directly after the location of the jilnnt was decided upon and sufficient money had been 
rai.sed to assure the success of the project. Architects Williams & Johnson of Ogdensburg were 
selected to draw plans and specifications of the buildings. The design of the plant was drawn 
up after the most modern and latest improved style of buildings under the plans as laid 
out by J. S. Lesser. 

Tliere is not a lace plant in tlie United States or any other country where everything has 
been so judiciously modelled to facilitate at the least expense the manufacture of its pro- 

The contract for constructing tlie ludldings above the foundations was let to the H. P. 
Cummings Company, of Ware, Mass. 

Work was commenced for the foundations of the buildings under B. G. Parker's super- 
vision at noon September S, ]9(H. The first stone \ias laid in the early ]iart of Octol.-er, the 
roofs on the buildings were finished January 1, 1903, the mill completed the following June 
and the first loom started October 15, 1!)03. 

A brief description of the buildings follows. The entire group forms a horse .shoe or a 
tliree sided parallelogram, the open end being toward the east with a court running in between 
the buildings fifty feet in width. 

The dimensions of the buildings are 174 feet from north to .south and .561 from east to 
west. The two story building is in the form of a capital letter T with the cross part toward 
the south. From the easterly end of the cross of the T a building one story high extends 3fi.5 
feet toward the ea,st ending at the chiumey stack and the power bouse. This is the finishing 
plant. Fifty feet north of this building at the other end of the T is another building running 
easterly and parallel to the finishing jilant, which is the manufacturing building -100 feet in 

The automatic devices for jirotecling the building from fire are of such a superb nature 
that it costs the com])any only six cents on eacli one hundred dollars of insurance carried. 

Ten looms are o])erated and 2.30 to 300 people employed, entailing a jiay roll of $2,500 a 
week, adding greath' to the prosperity of the town. The massi\e plant requires about 150 h. 
p. to make its big looms and other machinery hum, and has a capacity of 250 h. p. The mill 
has a capacity for an output of $500,000 w(n-tli of lace curtains a year. The market for the 
sale of the company's goods is principally throughout the United States. 

The International Lace Manufacturing Comjiany is incor])orated imder the laws of Xew 
York State. The product of the mill was formerly manufactured solely at Nottingham, 
England, and it is practically a new industry in this country. There are now about $25,000,000 
invested in the lace biisiness in this country, which was brought to the United States by the 
ilcKinley law and which protects the manufacturer by a 70 per cent tariff^ against England's 
manufactured article. 

The machines used are a very comjilicated affair each weighing fi^e tons and consisting 
of thirty thousand pieces. These machines are made in Nottingham and until within the past 
ten years Nottingham supplied the world with its lace goods. 



The firm of J. S. Lesser & Co., who are llie leaders in Gouverneiir's hice industi-y Iiave 
been established in the lace trade since 187C and are experts in the business. The citizens 
of Gouverneur have done a great work for the town in securing- for it this niagnificient in- 
dustry and they are now ever ready to give it a helping hand. 

To A. A. Potter is due the credit for first moving to secure this industry, and to those 
named who followed u]) his licginnings, nuist be awarded the credit for sc;'uring it. 


By H. Sudds. 

Previous to 18.37, the oidy burial place available to residents of Ciouverneur ^'illrtge and 
\icinity, was a small graveyard, which the recoi'ds show was owned by the town, situated 
directly in the rear of the ])resent Presliyterian Churcli, of which not a trace now remains, 
and M'hich was subsequently sold and the ])roceeds used to apply on the expenses of the re- 
moval of bodies therefrom, but it becoming more and more apparent that both on account 
of its crowded condition and lor sanitary reasons, larger grounds, away from the center of 
the village, were needed, a ]ireliniinary meeting was held on the 33nd day of ,Iune, 18.57, and 
Gouverneur Cemetery Association was duly organized under the laws of the State, the miui- 
agement being vested in a lioard of twelve Trustees, the original memlicrs of which were: Wil- 
liam E. Sterling, B. B. Beckwith, Edwin Dodge, S. B. VanDuzee, Chas. Antiiony, Cornelius 
A. Parker, Thomas M. Thayer, John Roliertson, Milton Barney, William H. Bowne, Harvey 
D. Smith and Richard Parsons, who elected as the first officers, B. B. Beckwith, President; 
Charles Anthony, Vice President; C. A. Parker, Secretary, and S. B. \i\n Duzee, Treasurer. 

This board, with highly counuendable 

judgment and foresight, at ouce pur- 
chased of the Babcock Estate the 

nrounds now occupied as a cemetery, 

containing about thirty-five acres, 

lying between the left bank of the 

Oswegatchie River and A\'illiam 

Street, at a cost of .fl,500, naming it 

Riverside Cemetery, and the present 

beautiful condition and appearance 

of the grounds, bear convincing testi- 
mony that no better selection could 

possibly have been made. B. F. 
Rev. B. B. Beckwith. Hathaway of Flushing, Long Island, '^'■"°" '*"'"'=>■ 

an accomplished landscape gardener and sur^•eyor N\as engaged to lay out the gromids and 
about $1,000 was exjiended for this and otlier imjirovements, the remo\al of the bodies from 
the old gra\'eyard was undertaken l)y the Cemetery Association and the work performed in the 
year 1860. 

The presidents of the Association have been successively, B. B. Beckwith, Edwin Dodge, 
Charles Anthony, William R. Dodge and Newton Aldricn. The "Vice Presidents, Charles 
Anthony, Edwin G. Dodge, ^'illiam R. Dodge, James B. Carpenter and A. B. Cutting; and 
the Treasurers, S. B. Van Duzee, William H. Bowne, and Henry Sudds. William Miller was 
Superintendent from 1857 to 1893, when he was succeeded by William H. Hazelton, the present 

The present Board of Trustees consists of Newton Aldrich, A. B. Cutting, E. D. Barry, 
G. S. Conger, F. M. Burdick, J. E. McFerran, J. H. Rutherford, Henry Sudds, James D. 
Easton, E. H. Xeary and C. W^ Hewitt, and the officers, Newton .Vldrich President; A. B. 


Cutting, Vice President; Henry Sutlds, Secretary and Treasurer, and AV. H. Hazelton, Sup- 

Effort has lieen made to seleet Trustees \\ho would take a personal interest in the ceme- 
tery, and the great improvement of the last few years, hears witness to their care and atten- 
tion, want of fluids alone preventing their still greater improvement. 

The Association now has ahout .$8,000 in good investments, and the interest on this, and 
the receipts from the sale of lots, are used for running expenses. Lots were originally sold 
at a uniform price of .$;2.5, hut during the past few years, many choice lots have been sold at 
from $J0 to ^-200. iMeanwhile there is an am])le supply of free burial lots for the poor. 

A small receiving vault was provided about 18(i4, Init its size and condition is not now 
all that could he desired, and a new one, in coiuiection with a small chapel, is perhaps the 
greatest present need. 

The Association undertal^es the jierpetual care of lots, on paj'ment of a sum of .$100 or 
more, about twenty lot owners having already made this arrangement, and the Trustees 
strongly recommend this as a very fitting and appropriate provision for the permanent care 
of those gone l)efore, besides assisting in providing a fund for the general care of the 


By J. B. Johnson. 

Post office addresses are Gouverneiir, N. Y., unless otherwise given. 

The Pulilishers arranged the order in which the slvctches appear, (other than aljihahetical) 
varying same to aocomniodate cuts and a]ipearance of pages typographicidly. 

Acknowledgements are due Hon. C. R. Walker and Mrs. Ida R. Hendricks of Richville, 
for assistance in preparing DeKalli sketches. 

Dr. Frank Allen, jjhysician and surgeon, Richville, N. Y., was horn at Antwer]) in 1860. 
After a course of study in the Gouverneur Academy, he took a medical course in the Uni- 
versity of the City of New York. He also took a course of study at Burlington, Vt. He 
came to Ricliville in September, 1888, succeeding Dr. Chas. B. Hawley. He was married to 
Miss Anna J. Todd of Edwards in 1887. Out of this union, twO' sons were born, Roy T. and 
F. Don. Mrs. Allen died in 189^. In 1893 he was again married to Miss Mary L. Hurd of 
Richville. He is a Mason of high standing. His parents were Lonzo D. and Mary (Cummings) 
Allen. ( 

Emery AV. Abbott, born in Hopkinton, 1819. Parents were 
J. B. Abbott, horn in Connecticut, 1789, and Daraxa Ru.ssell Ab- 
bott, born in Vermont, 1794. Was educated in the common 
schools of Ho]ikinton and Edwards and married in 1839 to Han- 
nah S. Pickett. There are three children living, J. Henry, J. B., 
and A'asco P., all of the town of Gouverneur. Mr. Abbott was 
prominently engaged in farming and manufacturing and was a 
merchant of Fowler for many years. Was member of Assembly, 
First Di.strict, St. Lawrence County, 1850-57. Supervisor of 
Fowler from Feb. I860 to 1865, during Civil War period. Was 
active in filling quotas of soldiers for the county. Has been a 
magistrate in the towns of Fowler and Gouverneur almost con- 
Emory w. Abbott, tiniiously from 1847 to the present time. 

Justus B. Abbott, born in Fowler, 1843. His parents were 
Emery W. Abbott, born in Hopkinton, 1819, and Hannah S. 
Pickett yVbbott, born in Fowler, 1819. Was Educated in G. W. 
Seminary and married in 1864 to Francis A. Wight. Has three 
children, Sherman A., Lester H., and Wight V. Mr. Abbott 
taught school in the years 1859-60. Was from 1866 to 1873 a 
merchant in Minnesota. Was engaged in the same capacity at 
Spragueville, this county, for several years, at the same time was 
also engaged in farming. He now holds his second term as post- 
master of Gouverneur. His portrait will be found in the group 
picture of the Masonic Blue Lodge. 

Dr. .Vndrew H. ^\llen, whose portrait ajjpears with the group of physicians, was born in 
Antwerp in 1855. His parents were Lorenzo D. Allen, born in Massachusetts in 1818, and 
Mary Cummings, born in Massachusetts, 1830. He was educated in Ives Seminary and L. I. 
College Hospital, from «-hich institution he graduated in 1879. Was married in 1880 to 
Libbie A. Cheney. Has four children, E. Blanche, Grace M., Maude B., and Hazel Belle. 
Dr. Allen studied medicine with the late Dr. H. Abel of Antwerp, first practiced in Sprague- 
ville, N. Y., where he remained until August, 1881, then locating in Gouverneur. Jlember of 
St. Lawrence Medical Society, Northern N. Y. Jledical Society and American Electro 
Therapeutic Association 



Chester B. Austin, liorn in Harrisburg, Lewis Co., 1838. His parents were Lacey Benson 
Austin, liorn near t'tioa in 1810, and AIngal (Myers) Austin, l)orn near Utica, 1813. He was 
educated in tlie conunon schools and at Fairfield Seminary. In 
Irtfil married to Frances Jl. Terry. Mr. and Mrs. Austin are the 
parents of I'jva F. (.Vustin) .VcliermaTi. Mr. Austin was first 
employed as a clerk in the store of W. & J. Johnson, Depauville, 

in 18.5(5, continuing in their emjiloy until Aug. 7, 1862, when he 
enlisted in the 10th X. Y. Hea\y Artillery. Was disabled on 
account of sickness and discharged Nov. 29, lH(r2. Attempted to 
re-enlist but was not accepted. In 1853 entered the employ of 
.Alexander Campl;ell of Watertown. Was later with Davis and 
Bartlett as traveling salesman. Was in liusiness with X. E. Doug- 
las in Tlieresa, was again employed as traveling salesman continu- 
ing until failure of liealth. Supplied the jnilpit in the Methodist 
Churcli at DcKall), from Xov. 1,5, 1904- to .Vpril 9, 1905. 
Daniel Austin, born in Argyle, 

Washington County, March 8, 1800. 

His ])arents were Daniel Austin and 

.Mary Elizal)eth Davis. He was edu- 
cated in Gouverneur and in May, 

1833 married to Amanda Hurlbut. 

?ilr. and 3Irs. Austin are the parents 

of Daniel Isaac, John Henry, Lay- 

fayette Francis and Mary. His death 

occurred in 1888 and that of ilrs. 

.Vustin in 1880. He lived for a time 

on land nOH' occupied l)y the River- Mrs. Daniel .\iistin. 

side Cemeterv and helped at clearing the forest away in that section of the village. He was 
an excellent citizen and did his part in the making of the town after his arrival in the 
early 30's. 

Steplien .VIdous, l)orn in Wilby, England, in 1793. He was 
educated \\itb horse and wagon selling Yankee notions and dr}' 
goods. Was married Oct. ;2(), ISIS, to Margaret Crawford, yir. 
and 3Irs. .VIdous are the jiarents of William, .James, Louis, 
Charles and listhcr. Came to Gouverneur in 1817 after having 
served eight years in the English Army. Cleared the farm known 
as the Overacker farm at North Gouverneur. Was one of the 
early meml;ers of the first Baptist Church. A man of industry 
and integrity. He died at the home of his grandson, James O, 
Sheldon, aged 95 years, 20 days. Was the father of six sons and 
six daughters. 

Stephen .^Iduus. 

Vasco Pickett Aliljott, liorn in Fowler, X', Y,, Ma_\' 20, 1817. His parents were Emery 
W. Abljott (see biographical .sketch), liorn in Hopkinton, July 26, 1819, and Hannah Pickett 
Abbott, born in Fowler in 1819. He was educated in Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary, St. 
Lawrence University, and Union University. He was nuirried in 1872 to Anna E. Farmer. 
Mr. and Mrs. Alibott are the parents of two children, Worth P., and Hugh. Mr. Abbott 
was graduated from St. Lawrence University in 1867, A, B, y\ll)any Law School, Union Uni- 
versity in 1808, LL, B, Admitted to jiractice May 20, 1808, settling in Gouverneur in 1S71. 
Was Special County Judge from 1876 to 1881; Surrogate of St. Lawrence County in 1881-93. 
Delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1S91,. Has been Trustee of Canton University for 
twenty years, Tnistee of Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary and High School, fifteen years. 
His jjortrait apjiears in the group of iVttorneys and Board of Education. 

I>.iniel .Austin. 



Levi Aldoiis, liorn 
ivere Stephen Aldoiis, 

Levi Aldous. 

ill Babeoci-; iieigliliorliood, Goiiverneur, Xov. o, lrt37. His parents 
liorn JHai-cli 10, 1793 and Margaret Crawford, liorn Xov. 1, 1798. 
Educated in Cinuverneur ami March 10, 18C3, married Margaret 
Kicliner. yiv. and Mrs. Aldous are the parents of George 
Stejihen, Charles Eddy, D. D. S., Robert Henry, Mrs. Julia 
.Vldous Corbiu, and Marion L. A nieniber of I. O. O. F. since 
1864.. Member of Ba])tist Church since 18()(i. Member Royal 
Arcanum since 1891. Member of Improved Order of Heptosophs 
since 1893. Treasurer Master Plumber's Association of Passaic, 
X. J. Member Passaic Encampment X"o. (>2 and Daughters of 
Rebecca X'o. 3(i. William Levi ,\ldous, son of the suliject 
of this sketch, born June J8, 186+, died July 30, 1904, leaving a 
widow, nee Alary \im Riper and three children, Florence Edna, 
Edith Marie and ilarion I^oiiise. 

A. I,. Althouse, born in Edwards, X'. Y., Oct. 1, 1861. His 
parents were Peter Althouse, liorn at Beverly, Canada, 1810, and 
Eliza .Vnn .Leach jVlthouse, born in Fowler, 18:31. Mr. Althouse 
was edticated in public schools of Gouverneur. Has lieen Supt. 
of Water Works since 1891 with the exce]ition of two vears, 1903- 
04, being re-appointed in the Spring of 190j. Mr. Althouse owns 
the house first occupied by Peter Althouse which was the third 
frame building in Gou\-erneur. Peter Althouse ran a blacksmith 
shop still known as Althovise shoj) on Austin Street until al)out a 
year before his death, 1890. 

A. L,-'\ltIiouse. 
Dec. 3, 1860. Early in life 

Llerbert G. Aldrich, was born in Luzerne, AVarren Co., X". Y 
his father, X'ewton Aldrich, moved to Gouverneur. ilr. Aldrich attended school at G. W, 
Seminary from which he was graduated in 1880 being valedic- 
torian of his class. He then took a classical course at Hamilton 
College, graduating in the class of 1884 with honors. After rc-td- 
ing law a year in the office of X'elson L. Roliin.son of Canton, he 
entered the Law Department of Harvard University and was 
graduated from the Law School of that L'niversity in 1888. He 
was admitted to the liar in 1889. 

On account of the protracted illness of his father beginning 
in 1896, Mr. Aldrich gave much of his attention to the business 
affairs of Weston, Dean & Aldrich, and in 1898 purchased the 
interest of the late Abijah Weston in the co-partnership. When 
H G. Aldi-icli. the ■'"''^^' "lill property was converted into a paper manufacturing 

plant by the iVldrich Pajier Co. he became a large stockholder and was sulisequently elected 
a director and vice-president. He is director of the U. S. Talc Co. and of Bank of Gouver- 
neur. Being greatly interested in the location of the plant of the International Lace Mfg. 
Co. in Gouverneur, he subscribed liberally to the stock of that corporation, and wa,s chosen one 
of its resident directors, a trust which he has held until he interposed his positive declination 
to further serve in that CK]iacity at the last annual election of the Co. He is a member of the 
Board of Education of Gouverneur schools. Li politics he is a Republican. Has been 
married twice, Sept. 3, 1890 to Jeimie A. Loucks, deceased, and April M, 1905 to ilrs. Anne 
C. Fish of X'ew York City. He has one child by his first marriage, Ruth K. His portrait 
appears in the Board of Education grou]), also that of Bank of Gouverneur and O. H. W. 
Ex. Com. 



Peter Alisalom, of Fowler, born in Loraine, France, June 20, 

1815. His parents were Sebastain Absalom, born Nov. 27, 1778, 

in France, died in Fowler, Dec. 30, 1858, and Margaret A. Tiser- 

and, l)orn in Loraine, Sept. 13, 1788, died in Fowler, May 25, 

1872. Mr. Absalom sailed from France in 1831 in one of M. 

DePeau's ships, and resided in New Yorlv City during the winter, 

removing to the farm in Fowler, May 25, 1832, where he continued 

to live until his death, Aug. 26, 1890. Mr. Absalom was a natural 

mechanic and did much of the construction of the buildings upon 

his farm. A loom is still in existence built l\v his hands. Mr. 

jVlisalom died respected by his neighliors. He sought no worldly 

„ , , , honors, he courted no public f a\'ors. 

Feter .Absalom. ^ 

Elijah Bailey, born at New Fame, Vt., 1824. Parents were 
David Bailey, Ijorn at New Fame, Vt., 1785, and Sarah Goodell 
Bailey, Ijorn at New Fame, 1792. Educated at New Fame, and 
married July 6, 18-17 to Maria Miller. Two children are li%'ing, 
Mrs. J. E. Bass and Willjur Bailey. 

Mr. Bailey came to Gouverneur at the age of eight years. He 
started in the then common vocation of cutting and piling green 
timlier for the manufacture of black salts. Purchased a farm 
and built thereon, of logs, his first residence. Worked for a time 
at Richville, N. Y. at the cooper's trade, then came to Gouverneur 
where he was employed as a mason. Mr. Bailey on his eightieth 
birthdav built a chimnev. 

■ £,iijaii riaiiey. 

Almon Barrel came to Gouverneur in the fall of 1827, with his fatlier, David Barrel. He 
bought 100 acres of land where Bower Morris now lives, subsequently building the brick liouse 
still in excellent preservation. He afterward added to his original purchase and at the time 
of his death still owned the one hinidred acres first bought. He is remembered well as a mail 
of staunch character, unyielding in his spirit of fairness and honesty toward everybody with 
whom he had business relations. He had a ready command of language and could make one 
disposed toward crooked ways wince imder his sharp sarcasm. Astride of a good bay mare, 
he often went to the "snowshoe" in DeKalb, where his son-in-law, Volney Morris, lived, to 
hunt deer, his rifle (always the liest then olitainalile, for he was a skillful marksman) swung 
across the pommel of his saddle. Tins was about 1850, the region about the snowshoe (an island 
in the Oswegatcbie) being at that tirjie still a dense wilderness with an occasional clearing. 
"Aunt Fanny Dewey" pre\'iously spoken of, was his sister and the wife of Jesse Dewey. 
Another sister. Prudence, married Israel li. Parsons and lived on the farm now occupied by 
Andrew C. Dodds on the Richville road. Parsons built the house still standing, but left it about 
1850 to live with his daughter in the village, Mrs. Marcus Chamberlain, then a widow. A 
daughter of Almon Barrel still lives near the old homestead, Mrs. Giles Haywood, born April 
i3, 1830. 31r. Barrel was born in Washington County in 1806. 

Cornelius Franklin Brown, born in 

Gouverneur, 1851. His parents were 

Roliert Conil) Bro\vn, liorn on mid 

ocean 1828, and Margaret R. Dodds, 

born in Rossie, 1828. He was edu- 
cated in G. W. Seminary and married 

1878 to Elizal)eth M. Collins of Rossie. 

Mr, and Mrs. Brown are the parents 

of two children. Royal C, and Hazel 

M. Mr. Brown is a prosperous 

farmer in Rossie, \\'ell and favorably 

known in Gouverneur. ,, , ,. ,, 

Kohert C. Brown. 



Roliert M. Brown, born in Rossie, 1851. Parents were James Brown, born in Scotland, 
and Margaret Comb, born in Scotland. Mr. Brown was edncated in Gouverneur Weslej'an 
Seminary, and has been thrice married: to Jennie Morrison, in 1875; Philinda Bnlicock, in 1877, 
and Sarah J. I.aclare, in 1887. Mr. Brown is the father of six children, two l)y his second 
wife, Winnifred M. and Floyd S., and fonr by his third wife, Ethel S., Robert R., Ella and 
Guy. Mr. Brown went to Dakota in 188:3 wliere he engaged in farming and stock raising, re- 
turning to Gouverneur in 1895, since when he lias occupied the farm of the late James Brown 
on the Johnstown Road. 

Benjamin F. Brown, born in Gouverneur 1856. His parents were Christoplier Bi-own, 
born in Rossie, 1813, and Roxana Drake Brown, born in Gouverneur, 1817. He was educated 
in G. W. Seminary and Antwerp Seminary, Potsdam Normal, 
Brockport Normal a.nd Rochester University. Was first married 
in 188() to Jean F. Paul who died April 11, 1889, and to whom 
\\ere boi'u Hazel Jean and Marion Ruth. Was married in 1893 to 
yVima S. Backus, to whom were born Gertrude S., Malcolm C, and 
Caroline Delight. Mr.Brown'smaternalgrand-jiarents were among 
the early settlers of Gou\'erneur. Mr. Brown commenced teaching- 
school at 16 years of age, continuing teaching except when a jiupil, 
until his 36th year. Assisted in the organizing of Richville Union 
Free School in 1883, compiling the first printed graded course of 
study for common schools in St. Law. Co. Taught at Hammond, 
James Gilbert Brown. Morristown and Gomernein'. Had charge of jiublic school 3 years 

prior to organization of Union Free School. Was among the important advocates of that 
system. Was first vice-jirincipal of Gouverneur High School. Since 1891 has been in the 
Insurance, loan and real estate ))usiness. Assisted in organizing Gouverneur Savings and Loan 
Association, with which he has been identified since. His portrait appears in the group of the 
officers of that association, and in that of the O. H. W. Executive Com. The portrait appear- 
ing here is of James Gilliert, a brother who died about twenty-fi\'e years ago . 

Albert B. Brown, born in Gouverneur, 1875. His parents were Henry Brown, born in 
Rossie, 1839, and Charlotte Becksted, born in Williamsburg, Out., in 1844. He svas educated 
in the High School at Gouverneur and married in 1892 to Amy Sprague. Mr. and Mrs. Brown 
arc the parents of Helen May and Ralph lirnest. 

David H. Balmat, of F^owler, born in Champion, N. Y., May 

16, lS-2'2. His parents were John D. Balmat, born in Paris, 

France, Jan. 3, 1785, and Mancy, daughter of Major Goodar, born 

near LTtica. John D. Balmat died in Fowler Jan. .SO, 1862. Major 

Goodar, maternal grand father of the suliject of this sketch, came 

to this country with Lafayette and was wounded in the battle 

of Brandywine. Mr. Da\id H. Balmat was married to Sajjhrona 

Wight, deceased. Four children are living. Mr. Balmat was the 

owner of extensive farming lands in Fowler, underlaid with talc 

and pyrites. One of the talc mines is now being operated by the 

L'nion Talc Company. 

David H. Balmat. 

Edwin C. Babcock was born in Gouverneur in 1867. His parents were Byron Babcock, 
born in Gouverneur in 1841 and Emily Overacker, born in Gouverneur. He was educated in 
G. W. Seminary and married in 1893 to Mary L. Morris. Mr. and Mrs. Balu'ock are the 
parents of Earl B., Carrie and Kate. Mr. Babcock is a prosperous farmer residing upon the 
farm formerly owned liy his grand-fathei'. 

Albert Frederick Billings, born in Gouverneur in 1860. His parents were Byron Billings, 
born in Vermont in 1825, and Ann Hills, born in Gouverneur, 1823. He was educated in the 
public schools and in 1881 married to Addie Tyler. Mr. and Mrs. Billings are the parents of 
Vera Ann, Mary Louise, Byron Tyler, Dorris Olive, and Beatrice Blanche. 



C'olliert Austin IV-iiiiett, born in C'oi-n\(all, Ont., Jan, 17, 1S7(). HIn parents were James 
,V. Kcnnett, horn in Jlcjntreal in ISt,' and Elizalieth O'Grady l)orn in Ireland in IS-ti). Mr. 
iTcnnett wa.s educated in Goiiverneiir Higli School and April 2-1, 1899, married to Bertha H. 
Draper. Mr. I'eTinett is the father of Colbert Ralph Bennett. Jlr. Bennett, together with 
his bi-otiier, began the mannfactnre of brooders and incubators in 1S9G and in 1900 purchased 
the Starbnck c& McCarthy planing mill where they are now manufacturing mission fur.nitui'e. 

John Emerson Bennett, born in Montreal 181-2. His parents were James Austin Ben- 
nett, born in Corwnall, Out., 18-12, and Elizabeth O'Grady Bennett, born in Ireland. She 
died Oct. ;?1, 1904., at the age of 53 years. Mr. Bennett came to 
Gou\erneur in 1889 with his parents. His father was a veteran 
of the Civil War, having joined the army in Oconto, Wis., Co. 
H, 39th Heg. Wisconsin A'olunteers. After Mr. Bennett senior 
married he resided in Chicago, III., and St. Louis, Mo., and 
Montreal, P. Q., pursuing liis trade as carriage maker. Subject 
of the sketch has living three Ijrothers, Colbert, Lawrence and 
Winafred and three sisters, ;Mae, Xettie and Ella. Mr. Bennett 
is an inventor of some note, having- produced Pioneer Clover Meal 
Poultry Food, the Champion Brooders and Champion Incubators. 
He is the founder of the Bennett & Millett Co., which firm intro- 
d\iced the Chamjiion Brooder, now extensively sold by the suc- 
cessors of this firm. 

John K. tjcnnett. 

John H. Berry, of Rossie, was liorn in Ontario, 18ir2. His 
parents were John Berry, liorn in Ireland in 1831 and Betsy Mc- 
.\voy Berry, l)orn in Ireland in 18.'io. He was educated in Ives 
Seminary, Antwer]i, and married in 1891 to Isabelle Tenney. Mr. 
Berry is an expert chesse maker and owns a cheese factorv at 
S])ragueville. He was appointed by Gov. Flower as expert and 
agent in the dejDartment of agriculture, which po.sition he held 
for two years. He was elected sujierNisor of Rossie in 1887 and 
re-elected in 1888, serving 2 years. He was again elected supervis- 
or in Marcli of the present year. :\Ir. and Jlrs. Berry are the 
parents of Bessie L., Maybel I. and Dorris H. 

John H. Berry, 

Isaac Milton Brainard, Iiorn in Lairdville, N. Y., 18;;7. His 
parents were Landon Brainard, born in Haddon, Ct., 1791 and 
Ella Hunt Brainard, liorn in Hinsdale, X. Y., 1797. He was ed- 
ucated in Clinton Academy and in 186:2 married H. R. Caulkin. 
.Mr. Brainard has two children, Wdliam and Emily E. iirainard 
Johnston. :\Ir. Brainard's ancestor, David Brainard, was a mis- 
sionary to the Indians. Was born in 1718. Mr. Brainard came 
to CJouverneur to educate his children in the old G. W. Seminary. 
ilr. Brai?iard in company with liis son liave, for many years, been 
engaged in market gardoiing. They also have a large green 
i.oi >e. 
Isaac M. Brainard. 
George J. Bowman, of Fowler, was born in Adams, 181)8. His parents were J. A. Bovv- 
n)an, born in Jefferson County and ,\dell Bowman, born in Oswego County. Mr. Bowman 
is a cheese maker by jirofcssion, having followed that avocation for thirteen vears. He has sold 
butter and cheese in Gouverneur and on the Canton board for nine vears of the thirteen. He 
built the Haileshm-o butter and cheese factory in 1890, selling it in 1898. In 1890 he bought 
the Leahy farm in Fowler and in the fall of 1903 sold it to John Babcock and moved on the 
John Da\' farm, near Hailesljoro. 



George D. Burnett, born in Canada, 186(i. His parents were P^dwin Burnett, liorn in De- 
Kalb and Cai'oline Dorn Burnett. He was educated in DeKaili and married to Ella I.afelle. 
Mr. and Mrs. Burnett are the parents of James and Hazel. Jlr. Burnett is an extensive farmer, 
operating 600 acres of land in DeKalb, 160 of wliich was the original farm settled upon by 
James Burnett, his grand-father, in the early history of DeKalb. Mr. Burnett moved to 
Gouverneur several years ago, conducting here and in DeKall) a large breeding farm. 

Kzelviel V. Beardslee, horn in Gouverneur, IS-IS. His par- 
ents were Elicnezeer L. Beardslee, born in Johnstown, 1793, and 
Xancy ilurpliy, liorn in 1806. He was educated in G. w . Semiji- 
ary and Eastern Business College and married In 1874 to Mary 
I.. "Winslow. 'Hiey are the parents of Robert AVinslow Beardslee. 
Air. Beardslee was for some years in the grocery business liere, 
later he became a member of the firm of Beardslee & 
Dodge, millers, in which Inisiness he continued until his death. 
He was a member of the Masonic Order, a Republican in politics 
and active and honoral^le in all of his iDusiness relations. 

'Ezekiel F. Beardslee. 

William H. Bowne. 
X. Y., 1849. His par- 

William H. Bowne, born in Gouverneur in 18J4. His par- 
ents were of Quaker origin, coming' from Flushing, L. I. At the 
age of twenty he entered the dry goods store of Winslow as clerk, 
continuing in the dry goods business until about 1880. During the 
time he was associated as a partner with Henry Smith. D. G. 
Wood and Milton Barney. He was agent for the Am. Express 
Co. until that office was transferred to Mr. McCarthy. He served 
as postmaster under Pres. Buchanan and was president of Gouv- 
erneur village. His father was Jas. Bowne, born at Flushing, 
L. I., and his mother was Eliza Wilson, born at X'ew Providence, 

Ijalius D. Brown, born in DeRuyter, 
ents were Samuel E. Brown, born in Unadilla Forks, 18:35 and JI. 
A. (Wheeler) Brown, liorn in Binghamton, 1830, :\Ir. Brown 
is a woolen mill overseer and was married in 1901 to ilrs. Stella 
Bolton McKean. Jlr. and Mrs. Brown are the parents of Edith 
M. Brown, Lillian M. McKean and Robert M. McKean. Mr. 
Brown has had charge of the weaving department of the AVoolen 
Mills at Wegatchie. Has been employed at different times at 
ProN'idence, R. I., Philadelphia, Pa., and throughout the west and 
on the Pacific coast. He is at present emi)loyed with the Interna- 
tional Lace Mfg. Co. He is a member of the Masonic Lodge, 217, 

, ,. -,, ,. F, & A, M. 

Lalius V. Brown. _ 

Sidney Brown of FuUerville, was born in Edwards, April 21, 
1863. His parents were Robert Bro«n, liorn in Edwards, Feb. 12, 
1831 and Elizabeth Webb Brown, born in Edwards, April 25, 
1837. He was educated in Edwards and Nov. 19, 1885, married 
to Julia A. Wight. They are the parents of Sayle A., X'ora L., 
and Sidney C. Brown. Mr. Brown is by profession a cheese 
maker having worked at the trade fifteen years. In 1880 he 
learned the barliers trade which he still follows on occasions. He 
is the present proprietor of the Franklin House, FuUerville. He 
is a grandson of Robert Brown, one of the first settlers of the 
town of Edwards. 



AViUiani F. Bcnvhall, born in Stockholm, N. Y., 1861. Educated in Canton Hig-h School 
and in 18S1 married to Jeanette Myers. Mr. Bowhall is l)y profession a printer. Served his 
apprenticeship in tl)e St. Lawrence Plain Dealer office at Canton. Was foreman in the 
Northern Tribune office for nearly 1:3 years, leasing the same office in 1904. Is now con- 
ducting the imsiness. His portrait appears among the Tribune .staff. 

Alfred Bush, Kichville, X. Y., was liorn in Canada in the 
year 185.3. His father's name was Archie Bush and his mother's 
maiden name was Elizaljeth Prasser, a native of England. He 
received his early education in the public schools at Rensselaer 
Falls, X. Y. AVas married in 1886 to Miss Ruby Barnnm of 
Hernion township. One child was horn unto them, Mary B. 
Bush. Mr. Bush as always l)een a stauncli Democrat in politics, 
refusing all offers of liigh ]>osition in liis party, ]> to ser'v'c 
them in his quiet modest way. AI)ont ten years ago he ])ur- 
chased the Daniel Gard]ier farm on the Gouverneur road, where 
he has very successfully followed his chosen occupation as farm- 
er and apiarist. 
James Brown, liorn in Ancram, Scotland, 1821. Parents were Archiliald Brown, horn 
in Scotland and ^largaret Comb 
born in Scotland. He was educated 
in Rossie and in 18fo married to 
Jeanette TurnbuU. They are the 
parents of Margaret C, Roljert il., 
Elizabeth E., and James A. Brown. 
Mr. Brown came to America in 18J9, 
landing in Ogdensburg- and settled in 
Rossie. Moved to the town of Gou- 
verneur in 185,5, locating on the farm 
on .Tohnstown Street. Moved to the 
village of Gouverneur in 1877, where 
he died in 1900. 

James Kruwn. 

jan es Blown. 

Charles H. Bowne, liorn in Gouverneur in 1828. Married in 1874 to Mary Eliza Whitney. 

To Mr. and Mrs, Bnwne were liorn 

two children, William C, and .\niui. 

Parents of Mr. Bo\\'ne came to Gou\'- 

erneur from Flushing, !>. I., tak- 
ing up farms in X'ortheast of the 

town. .Mr, Bowne went to California 

in 1849, remaining tliere for three 

years, returning was a farmer in 

Gouverneur for some time. Coming 

to (mu\ crneur in 1868, entering in 

the hardware business with Bradley 

L. Barney, whom he subsequently 
succeeded. Mr. Bowne's father, Jas. Bowne, liorn at Flushing, 
Eliza Wilson, born in New Providence, Bahamas, 1793. 

Mary Eliza (Whitney) Bowne, born in Mexico, Oswego Co., 
parents were Oliver Cady Whitney, born in Granville, Washington County, Jan. 31, 1806, 
and I>ois Grossman Whitney, lun-n in Mexico, J;in. 8, 1808. Mrs. Bowne received her edu- 
cation in Mexico Academy and was nuirried April 9, 1874 to Charles Hicks Bowne, of 
Governcur. Mrs. Bowne is a Daughter of the Revolution, a menilier of the Episcopal 
Church, and Library y\ssociation. 

Frank B. Beaman, Richville, X'. Y., born at Philadelphia, X^. Y., in 1855. Fjducated in 

Charles H. Fiowne- 

L. I 

William C Pjriune. 

., 1787, and mother. 

April 21, 1845. Her 



public schools at Antwerji and took a course of study at Oliorlin, O. He is a licensed 
Pharmacist and has conducted a store here since 1877. He is President of the Board of Educa- 
tion. He is serving his second term as postmaster. Politically, he is a strong Repuljlican 
and is very fond of debating en the issues of the day. He was married to Ruth Wa'ker in 
1880 and has one son, Daniel W. His father's name was Ezra B. Beaman and was horn in 
Westmoreland County, Mass., in 1804.. His mother's maiden name was Lydia M. Jones, born 
at Philadelphia, in 1824. 

Frederick John Bolton, born in Gouverneur, Oct. 13, 1853. His parents were John 
Bolton, born in Frankfort, Pa., 1805, and Prudence Foster Bolton, born in Gouverneur, June 
i28, 1811. He was educated in the G. W. Seminary and in Og- 
densljurg. Was married Sept. 1-2, 1888, to Jennie Chisholm, 
"Sir. and ]Mrs. Bolton are the parents of Maria Benton Bolton. 
Mr. Bolton is a memlier of the Grange, Masons, and a prominent 
farmer, residing on the homestead farm, Kearne}' Road. Ever- 
ard Bolton, great, great, great grand-father, came from Rosshere- 
fordshire, England, 1082, with William Penn in the ship Wel- 
come, settling in Bylierry, Bucks Co. Pa. He belonged to tlie 
Society of Friends. Mr. Bolton's great, great grand-father was 
liorn in 1697 and died 1795. The grand-father of Joseph Bolton, 
Frederick Bolton, M'as born in 1709 and died in 1862. Came to 
Frederick J. Rolton. Gouverneur from Frankfort, Pa., in 1808, li\'ing for many years 

in the old Morris Mansion at Natural Dam. He was a stone mason by trade and laid the wall, 
of the old Morris Mansion about 1808, Rockwell Barnes doing the carpenter work thereon. 
Maria Benton Bolton is the seventh generation from Edward Bolton who came to this 
country with Penn. 

Charles S. Bodman, Jr., born in Gouverneur in 1882. His parents were Charles S. 
Bodman, born in Theresa in 1852 and Anna Leary Bodman, born in Wexford, Ireland. Jlr. 
Bodman received his preliminary education in the Gouverneur High School, graduating in 
classics and also graduated from the Law division of Union University at All)any in 1905. 
Now a practicing attorney. His portrait appears in the group of Attorneys. 

Ossian L. Barnum was born in Bangor, Franklin County, in 1816. He came to Gouver- 
neur when in boyhood j'ears, and as he grew to manhood took up a farm on the Johnstown 
road about three miles from the village. He married about that 
time and reared a large family, subsequently removing to the 
A. I. Shattuck farm in Hermon, where he died in 1880. Ordinar- 
ily he was known among his fellow-townsmen as "LaCarva" and 
was esteemed for his probity and good citizenship. He was a 
maji who kept in touch through the newspaj^ers, with all that the 
world was doing and was able to comment judiciously upon af- 
fairs at home and aljroad. There was a debating societ}^ formed 
in the school district ^^•here he lived on the Johnstown road, which 
is remembered for its memliership of farmers who were able to 
discuss intelligently the national crisis then approaching, any 
member of which could mount the rostrum and talk interestingly 
to a crowd of listeners. This society was a single instance of the educative effect of public 
discussions. LaCarva Barnum was a member of this club and was usually equip]ied for 
the forensic contests occurring fortnightly. He was progressive in his business, early tried 
and purchased improved farm machinery and in politics was clear-visioned and prophetic. The 
old stock, composed of such as he, seems to have gone with the passing years. 

Lucretia Allen Barnes, born in Westfield, Yi., No. 26, 1823. Her parents were Erastus 
Allen, born in Shelburne, Mass., and Paulina AVilder Allen, born in Shelburne, Mass. She 
was educated in the G. W. Seminary and married in 1842 to Edwin S. Barnes. Has one child 
living, Celia E. Barnes Smith. Mrs. Barnes came to Gouverneur in 1835 at the age of twelve 

Ossian L. BarnLini. 



years. Married at the age of nineteen. "Was tlie mother of four children. After marriage 
.she resided at Evans :Mills for five years, then at Orwell, Oswego County, finally settling 
in Gouverneur where her husl)and died. (See liiographical sketch of lirwin S. Barnes.) Her 
portrait appears with the "Matrons of the Early Days." 

Nathan E. Brown, horn in Vermont, in 1855. His parents 
were Aldis A. Brown, born in Vermont, and Phyla A. Tenney, 
horn in Vermont. Educated in the puijlic schools of A'ermont 
and New York. AVas married in 1878 to Mrs. L. J. Crawford. 
^Ir. Brown has been successfully engaged in the grocery business 
in Gouverneur for the past twenty-five j'ears. He is prominent 
as an official in the Baptist Church, and a member of the Masonic 
and Odd Fellows' lodges and his portrait appears in the group 
picture of the latter organization. At the present time Mr. Brown 
conducts one of the largest grocery stores in the village, being 
located in the new Freeman luiilding on Clinton street. 
Xathan E. lirown. 
Frank il. Bal)Cock, liorn in Gouverneur in 1855. His parents being Sheldon Babcock, 
born in Fabius, Jan. 21, 1817, and Lydia Mason Babcock, born at Plattsburg, Sept. 3, 1819. 
He was married to Jennie Brown in 1876. They have four children, Leon, Ethel, lone, and 
Luava. Mr. Balicock was educated in the Gouverneur AVesleyan Seminary and has been a 
farmer and breeder of thoroughbred stock for some years. He is a member of the New York 
Protective Legion. Owns and operates 350 acres of land, part of which is in the village of 
CTOnverneur. Sheldon Babcock, the father of the suljject of this sketch was among the 
early settlers. 

William Francis Burlingame, l^orn in Russell in 1873. His 
parents were William Ira Burlingame, born in Russell, in 1837, 
and Harriet ^I. McKinsey Burlingame, born in Essex County, 
X. Y. Mr. Burlingame was educated in Russell and is by pro- 
fession a cheese and butter maker, having received his instruction 
in the Dairy School at Ithaca. 

William F. Burlingame. 
Isaac I. Block, born in CJermany, May 15, 1867. His parents were Samuel Block, born 
in Seidargan, Poland, and Sarah D. Isaacs, born in Neustadt, Poland. Mr. Block was edu- 
cated in Germany, and married Feb. 5, 1896, to Rachel Solomon, 
who was born in Syracuse, X. Y., June 30, 1873. Has one child, 
Ruth Dorothy. Mr. Block came to the United States at the age 
of 16, landing in X"ew York, May 5, 1883. June first, follow- 
ing, went to Syracuse and soon after commenced selling notions 
and jewelry, continuing in this line until 1887, when he bought 
a team and started a traveling store, selling dry-goods, clothing 
and jewerly in Jefferson, St. Lawrence and Oswego Counties. In 
1893 he bought the good will and business of Farmer Bros., of 
Gouverneur. He has continued in the clothing Inisiness until the 
])resent time. He is a memlier of the Gouverneur Lodge, F. & A. 
Isaac I. Klock. ^I- 33nd degree INIason; member of Syracuse Consistory, Mystic 

Shriners; member of iledia Temple, Watertown; member of Gouverneur Council R. A. 
M.; Oswegatchie Tent, Xo. 314-, K. O. T. .M., and of the Temple Club. 

Bradley L. Barney of Hanford, Cal., l)orn in Gouverneur in 1819. His parents were 



Milton Barney, born in Henderson, N. Y., 1804, and Catherine Starr Van ^'uren, liorn in 
Mayfield, X. Y. Mr. Barney was edncated in Gouverneur and in 1873 married to Mary E. 
Herring. Mr. Barney was for some time engaged with C. H. Bowiie in the hardware Ijusiness. 
AVas one of tlie organizers of the Gonverneur Machine Co., of which institution he was for 
some time President. He moved to California alioiit 188fi. 

William Henry Bell, born in Williamsburg, Ont., 18.54. He 
was a son of James Wellington Bell, l)orn in County Antrim, 
Ireland, in ]8;23. He was educated in Williamsburg, Ont. and 
married in 1888 to Eva J. Boss. Mr. and Mrs. Bell are the par- 
ents of Hazel, Ircel and Merton Bell." Mr. Bell is at the present 
time hotel keeper at Edwards. Previous to entering the hotel 
business, he was a brick layer and plasterer. For many years 
conducting billiard parlors in Gouverneur, thence moving to Talc- 
ville, where he ran the hotel for thirteen years. No«- proprietor 
of the American House in Edwards. 
William H. Dell. 
Wayland Lewis Beers, born in Montana, N. J., in 1867. His parents were William 
Beers, born in Montana, X. J., Oct. 18^8, and Lydia A. Miller, born in Harmony, N^. J. in 1831. 
Educated at Peddle Institute, 1800; Brown University, 1895; Union Seminary and Columbia 
College. Married in 1890 to Elizabeth Beardsley. Mr. and Mrs. Beers are the parents of 
Howard AVayland. Mr. Beers has been a clergyman since 1896. Accepted a call of the 
First Unitarian Church at Gouverneur, June, 1904. Previous settlements were in N'orthern 
X'ew York and St. John, N^. B., Canada. His portrait appears in the group of clergymen., 

Marvin W. Babcock was born in Gouverneur in 1867. His 
parents were Jacob Babcock, born in Gouverneur and Martha 
Streeter Babcock, born in Gouverneur, 1835. Mr. Babcock was 
educated in Gouverneur and married in 1888 to Addle Austin. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bal)cock are the parents of two children, Pearl and 
Harold. Mr. Babcock is a prosperous farmer on the Somerville 
road. Mr. Babcock is an enterprising farmer and a breeder and 
lo\'er of good horses. He has developed many desirable matched 
pairs and is a persistent advocate of good roads. 

Marvin W. Babcock. 
Joseph Yinton Baker was born in the town of Antwerp, X^. Y., Oct. 24th, 1849, tne son 
of John W. Baker and Susan Williams. He came to Gouverneur in 1877 and has engaged in 

the insurance business continuously 
ever since. He is superintendent of 
the Methodist Episcopal Sunday 
School and Treasurer of the Church. 
He is also a member and past pre- 
siding olEcer of Gouverneur Lodge 
X'o. 217, F. & A. M., Gouverneur 
Chapter X'o. 233, R. A. M., and 
Marble City Commandry No. 63, K. 
T. He was married to Louisa E. 

, ,. „ , Harris in 1871. Mrs. Joseph Vinton 

Joseph V . Baker, 

Baker was born at Fowler, X'^. Y., 

April 21st, 1852, the daughter of Alvin O. Harris and Mary D. Hodgkin. She is a member 

of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Woman's Christian Temperance Union and Oi'der of 

Mrs. J. V. 



the Eastern Star. .Mr. aiid Mrs. Baker have three children, Coralyn E., Leslie W., and 
.tosie Viva. His portrait also appears in the Odd Fellows' group. 

Frederick Henry Brown of Rossie, born in Rossie, June iJ9, 18(j9. His parents were 
John Henry Brown, born in Gouverneur May 10, lSi-2, and Edith Wilson Brown, born in 
Rossie. He was educated in Rossie and married July 17, 1873, to Hattie Ann Taylor. 
Mr. and Mrs, Brown have one child, Leon Raymond. ;\Ir. Brown learned the cheesemaker's 
trade early in life, working at Elmdale, River Road, and AVegatchie factories. Purchased 
the farm and commenced farming at his present home on the Campljell road in the town 
of Rossie in 189:3. 

\Vm. Baird was born in Brockville, Ont., 1850. His par- 
ents were Joseph Baird, born in Canada, and Amanda Pulman, 
l)orn in Lisl)on, X. Y. Occupation, gardener. He was married 
in 1868 to Adeline Blair. He has one child, Lillian Baird Ware. 

William Baird. 
J. W. Barbary was ijorn in Oswego in 1855. His parents were Josei^h Barbary, born 
in Canada, and ilaria Sparljack, horn in Canada. Jlr, Barbary came to Gouverneur in 1874-. 
Is l]y occupation a painter and carpenter. 

Eli P. Bacon, born in Rossie in 18fi5. His parents were Wil- 
fred Bacon, born in Rossie in 1839 and Charity Jepson Bacon, 
horn in Rossie in 1830. He was educated in Rossie and in Gou- 
verneur. He li\ed on the home farm in Rossie until 18 years 
of age, then learning the carpenter's trade, which he followed 
until 1879, then went to Park City, L'tah, and was employed in 
a silver mine. Returned to Gouverneur in 1882, going into the 
boot and shoe business. He served as policeman in 188+. Mem- 
ber of the Masonic order, K. O. T. M. anS Foresters. Deputy 
great commander of K. O. T. il. 

Eli P. Ba> on. 

John Alfred Beach was liorn in DeKall), xVug. 30, 1862. 
His parents were John Beach, ))orn in Canada and Paulina Row- 
ley, born in DeKalli. Educated in DeKall) and married in 1880 
to Ida Alvora Todd, He has one child, Nettie Blanche, born in 
DcKalb. Mr. Beach is a dairy farmer and now located in the 
'I'own of Gouverneur, where he has won the respect and esteem of 
liis neighliors. John Beach, the father of the suljject of this sketch, 
died in the army. 

Jr.lin .\. Beach. 

ilr. G, B, l?arnes, born in Fowler in 1854., His parents were Franklin Barnes, born in 

F'owler, and ^leTinda Pickett Barnes born in Fowler. Mr. Barnes was educated in the 

Gouverneur Wcs'eyan .Seminary, Potsdam Normal Institute, and Pennsylvania College of 

Dental Surgery, He was married in 1880 to Anna M. Cushman. Mr, Barnes practiced 



dentistry in Gouverneur for about twenty-seven years. He is a prominent m;inlier of tlie 
I. O. O. F. Is now occupied as a commercial traveller. 

Edward D. Barry, born in Canada in 185j. His parents were Edward Barry, born in 
Canada in 180:2, and Eliza Swarts Barry, liorn in Canada in 1813. Mr. Barry's mother was a 
descendent of the early Xew England settlers, ha\'iiig- removed from \'eruiont to Canada. 
Mr. Barry was educated in Canada and in I88t) married to Emogene Payne. Mr. Barry 
came to this coiuitry in early life and became prominent in manufacturing circles. Commenc- 
ing the manufacture of wagons, carriages, etc., in Richville, soon after removing to Gouver- 
neur where he has since conducted the Barry Emporium. He is a director of the 
Gouverneur Ba.nlv and has been President of the Excise Board, President of the Board 
of Health, memlier of County Repul)lican Committee and Delegate to State Repub- 
lican Committee in IflOl. Director of Intel-national Lace JIanufacturing Co. His portrait is 
in the group of officials of the Bank of Gouverneur. 

Frank L. Cox, Ijorn in Culpepper Court House, \a., Feb. 7, 
1850. His parents were Robert A. Cox, born at Port Tobaco, 
Md., and Maria Ward Lane Cox, born in Virginia. His paternal 
grand-father was Capt. Jesse Cox of Maryland. His maternal 
grand-father was Benedict Middleton Lane of Virginia. He 
was educated in Virginia and Washington, D. C. Married June 
10, 1875 to Louisa A. Barnes of Gouverneur. Mr. Cox is the 
father of four children, of which l)ut one lives, Frank Erwin Cox, 
of Gouverneur, N. Y. Louisa A. Barnes Cox died in 1885. Mr. 
Cox was again married in January, 189-1, to Mary Xewell. He 
lias lieen engaged in the printing Inisiness in Gouverneur con- 
, , , tinuoush" since 1873. 

J. Arthur Cummings, born in Wheeling, W. Va., Dec. 3, 
1857. His parents were James Davidson Cummings, born in 
Paisley, Scotland and Eliza J. Passenger, Ijorn in Fowler 1833. 
Mr. Cummings was educated in Watertown and in 187-t married 
to Mary E. Youngs. Mr. Cummings was engaged for many 
years in Gouverneur in the undertaking business. He is now 
by profession an optician. His portrait is in the Arcanum group. 
Mr. Cummings is an expert with the drum and his services are 
often contril)uted when the Drum Corps of Gouverneur heads the 
military organizations of these parts. 

J. A. Cummings. 

James Clark, born in Gouverneur, July i, 1833. His par- 
ents were James Claris, born in Bucklyn, Mass., 1796, and Lydia 
Woodward Clark born in Bucklyn Mass. 1796. Mr. Clark 
was educated in Gouverneur Vv'esleyan Seminary in 1853-54-55. 
He has lieen married three times, his lirst wife being Mrs. Ives; 
liis second Orcelia J. Sart\\ell, and the third was Mrs. S. J. Hor- 
ton. Xo children are living. The elder James Clark, in 1831, 
settled upon and cleared up the farm now owned and occupied by 
the subject of this sketch. Mr. Clark has held numerous import- 
ant positions and town offices. He is a member of the Gouvern- 
eur Grange, and is and has been his entire life a prominent mem- 
ber of the ?tIethodist Church. Since the above sketch was written 
James Clark. the death of Mr. Clark occurred Aug. 10, 1905. 

John Proctor Crary of Rossie, born in Carthage, Aug. 6, 1831. His parents were A. 
K. Crary, born in Lewis County Feb. 24, 1793, and Clarisa Wright, horn in Oneida County 
in 1795. He was educated in Carthage and in 1853 married to Margaret Furnier, deceased. 



In 1883 married to Mary Doughin. Mr. Crary is the father of John H., Joseph F., Mar- 
garet, !Mary jVllen, Daniel and Elizabeth JI. Mr. Crary settled in Rossie when about 16 
years of age. Entered the employ of George Parish with wiiom he continued in various 
capacities until operations were discontinued in the furnaces, then Ijecame a contractor in 
which line he continued until the furnace was put in operation Ijy the Rossie Iron Works. 
Was employed liy that firm until the furnace closed down in 1867. In 18T3 purchased a 
saw mill of Mr. Parish in Rossie village and carried on business of lumbering and shingle 
manufacturing until 1880, then selling the mill to W. W. Leonard and William Allen. In 
1895, together with Otis Brooks, lie liought the Rossie furnace property, sul)sequently Mr. 
Crary bought out Mr. Brooks' interest in tlie property whicli he now owns and occupies. Mr. 
Crary's grandfather was one of tlie first settlers of Lewis Co. Was by profession a surveyor. 
Aniasa Corliin, l)orn in Gouverneur, Dec. 31, 1843. His parents weif .\masa Corbin, 
born in Champlain, X. Y., Dec. 12, 1802, and Phoebe Maria Foster Corbin, born in Han- 
cock, Mass., Sept. 5, 1809. He is the father of Artliur F., Grace 
H. and Ralph H. Mr. Corliin was educated in the Gouverneur 
\\'esleyan Seminary. "Was a teacher at eighteen, president of 
Inisiness college under the firm name of Bryant, Stratton & Cor- 
bin, at Bridgeport, Conn., in 1804-5, also at Poughkeepsie in 1866. 
General agent and superintendent of Insurance Co. for several 
years. President of the St. Law. Manufacturing Co. and of the 
Adirondack Pidp Co. of Gouverneur, l)otli of which liusinesses he 
organized. Pres. of the Gouverneur A. & M. Society. Pres- 
ident and director in several zinc industries in Missouri, which he 
promoted and organized. These Zinc Companies in^■olved t)ie 
Amasa Corbin. investment of nearly two millions of dollars. Mr. Corliin is the 

president of the .Vdirondack Pyrites Co., now operating near Ciouverneur. 

AV alter Spencer Corbin, born in Philadelphia, Pa., 18T0. His 
parents are Jay S. Corbin, born in Gouverneur and C. Anna Hill 
Corbin, born in Gouverneur. He was educated in the graded 
schools and married in 1897 to Lulu May Haymen. Jlr. Corbin is 
the father of Jay S. Corbin Jr., and is a coal dealer, which occupa- 
tion he has pursued since 1894. Aside from his business as coal 
dealer, he is a contractor for sewer and water works construction, 
being well equijiped and posted for that business. Mr. Corbin 
pretends to no social or political asiiirations liut has the respect 
of the liusiness communitv. 

Walter S. Corbin. 

Benjamin Collins was born in Xew Hampshire, 1806, and 
married to Betsy Foster. Mr. Collins was one of the early set- 
tlers of the town of Fowler and the father of Harlow, Louis, Calista 
ioid Fremont. 

Kenj. Collins. 
Daniel Hurlbut Cutting, born in Colwell's JIanor, 1808, and married in 1834 to Jane Bar- 
roivs. Of this union two cliildren are living, \. B. Cutting of Gouverneur, X. Y., and H. G. 
Cutting of Bradford, Pa. JNIr. Cutting learned the carriage maker's trade in Vermont and 



moved to Cvan's Mills in 1S33, where he married and continued to live at Potsdam and 
Crar.y's Mills, now known as Hannawa Falls, until his wife died in 1842. He was married the 
second time to Catherine Church in 18-14, moving soon after to Norfolk. He returned again 
to Crai-j-'s Mills wliere he lived until 1863, when he came to Gouverneur, residing here with his 
son. His death occurred in 1902. Mr. Cutting's ancestors were among the early New Eng- 
land settlers of the United States. 

George Fletcher Carjjenter, of Fowler, X. Y., was liorn in 
Johnstown, X. Y., 1823. His parents were Stephen Carpenter, 
horn in Johnstow.n, Sept. 26, 1799, and Ann Eliza Olmstead Car- 
jienter, l)orn in Jolmstown, X'ov. 17, 179,5. Mr. Carpenter was 
educated in Haileslioro, X. Y., and married in 1854. to Louisa D. 
Hoard. Four children are living, Lilla, Jennie, Minnie and 
Arthur. Mr. Carpenter came to Fowler when fourteen years of 
age and worked for some time in a saw mill at Antwerp. Next 
engaged in the grocery business at Shingle Creeli, now known as 
Sprague\'ille. Mr. Car]ienter's wife died in 1898. He is now 
and has been for some time engaged in the care of l)ees, devoting 

^ r r- . nmch time to their study. 

George b. Carpenter. 

Ralph Corbin, born at Gouverneur, 1879. His jiarents are 
Amasa Corbin, born in Gouverneur, 184.3, and Alice Thorp Cor- 
bin, born in Bridgeport, Conn., 1842. He was educated in Gouv- 
erneur High School and in 1904 married to Jessie Onstott. JMr. 
Corbin is by profession a mine operator, which he has followed 
since 1900. 

Ralpli Corbin. 

Arthur F. Corlnn, born in Bridgeport, Conn., 1867. His par- 
ents are Amasa Cor))in, l)orn in Gou^•erneur, Dec. 31, 1843, and 
Alice Thorp, liorn in Bridgeport, Conn., 1842. He was educated 
in Gouverneur AVesleyan Seminary and is now in the hotel busi- 
ness. Has been operator in mines and real estate since 1903. 

Arthur F. Corbin. 

Joseph C. Callahan, liorn in Danbury, Vt., May 5, 1855. His parents were Robert Calla- 
han, born in County Cork, Ireland, and Elizabeth Lennahan Callahan, also liorn in County 
Corlc, Ireland. He was educated in Rutland, ^'t., and married to Mary Tennicu, to whom 
were born five children, Elizabeth, Joseph Henry, Leo Augustine, Robert Emmett, and 
Thomas J. Mr. Callahan is by professio.n a superintendent of quarries. He is now the Supt. 
of the Watertown Marble Co"s. plants at Gouverneur and Canton. Previous to accepting his 
present position, he was for eight years in charge of the machinery of the Gouverneur quar- 
ries. Has been a member of the board of education since 1899. His portrait appears in the 
group of the board of education. 

Aaron Cooper was born in Jefferson County, X''. Y., March 13, 1834. He married Laura 



Aai'on Cooper 

A. Hunt in 1855, was educated at Farm Ridge, 111., and took up the calling of a carpenter, 
when 16 years old. He has diversified with lunihering, running ._%■.,., 

saw-mill and farming. August -2-2, lS(i-2, he enlisted to serve in 
Battery D., 1st X. Y. Light Artillery for "three years or during 
the war." He was discharged June Kith, 1865. His father was 
Haskill Cooper who was born in I.eray, X. Y., in 1800, married 
Louisa Sweet, who was born at Alexandria, X. Y., Dec. 23, 1808. 
Aaron Cooper first came from Leray to Gouverneur in 1816 and 
settled on a farm aliout one mile from Richville toward Gou\'er- 
neur but a little distance off the direct road. The land he took 
u]) is still the property of his descendants. He was a .soldier in 
the war of IS12 and served at Sackett's Harbor and Goose Bay. 
The suljject of our sketch came from fighting blood. To the 
present generation the fact of service in the Civil War carries the evidence of valor, of 
deprivation in the service of the nation and of personal danger Ijeyond estinuite. But tlie 
enlisted man, while knowing these things to be true in general, has a different estimate of 
those he knew in the field. There were degrees of courage, of suffering, of faithful service 
never spoken outside the circle of comradeship but nevertheless real, and vivid Iti the u)emories 
of those \\ lio wore the lihie. Tried by this judgment, tlie record of Aaron Cooper stands out 
among the best. These qualities rarely shine upon the page of histor;', for those who liear 
them are not given to the recital of their own deeds. How many reputations in and out of 
the army would change had not some one in the past held the key which unlocked the 
mystic and enduring resources of the printed page! Xo man knowing Aaron Cooper could 
doubt that any trust given him would be fulfilled if in his power to fulfill it. He will be 
remembered as a man of sterling good sense, an accurate memory, a peculiar and uncommon 
faculty for clear statement and a .stalwart honesty that no allurement could sway. There 
were thousands of as good soldiers as he, but there were none better. And that is an achieve- 
ment than which none can Ije more worthy. His portrait also appears in the contributed 
article "Battery D". 

E. C. Curtis, l)orn in Mrginia in 1808. 
Henry Curtis, liorn in Jefferson County, X. Y., 
ful Babcock Curtis, born in Jeffer.son Co., 1830. 
in Alexandria, and married in 1890 to Maggie McLellan. He has 
two children, I^nima and Velraa. Mr. Curtis is an extensive man- 
ufacturer of clieese and butter, owning and controlling several 
factories in Gouverneur and vicinity, five in all. During the \'ear 
1904' he manufactured 663,105 pounds of clieese and li2,032 
jiounds of butter. He has devoted himself to the manufacture 
of cheese for American consmnptinn at which he lias lieeu very suc- 
cessful. He is also owner of aljout 385 acres of land in Macomb. 
He resides in the villaire of Gouverneur. ,■ r- ,■ 

William Lester Collins, born in Kowler, in 1875. His par- 
ents were Harlow Collins, l)oru in Fowler and Ora Sweet Collins, 
born in Fowler. Mr. ColUins was educated in the public schools 
of Fowler and the Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary and in 1873 
married to Ida May Fulliugton. They have two children, Jessie 
L., and Douglas H. 

His parents were 
1835, and Thank- 
He was educated 

\Vm. L Collin,s. 



Benjamin Franklin ChancUer, born in Richville, lS:a. His jmrcnts were Arzi \'. Chand- 

ler, born in Caniilus, N. Y, 

Kenj. F. Chandler. 

1794, and Esther Babcock, l)()rn in Orwell, Xt., ITSIi. He was 
educated in Richville and in 1857 married to Kllen Holland. He 
was again married to Catherine Spooner in 1883. Air. Chandler 
is the father of Carrie Belle, and Edwin Spooner Chandler. Arza 
B. Chandler, father of the subject of this sketch, was one of the 
early settlers of the town of DeKalb, corning here with his wife 
from Orwell, about 18i!3 a.nd clearing a farm about one-half a 
mile north of Hich\'ille, which is now owned by the subject of 
tills sketch. At the time when the farm was on the stage route 
from Watertown to Ogdeiisburg, Mr. Chandler, Sr., kept a hotel. 
After moving here he made a visiting trip to A'ermont in a lum- 
ber wagon. Mr. Chandler is the owner of about one mile square 
of land. He is a Prohibitionist and takes great interest in bee 

Benjamin F. Churchill, of Macomb, was born in Oswegatchie, 
in 18x?9. His parents were Bartholomew Churchill, born in 
Dutchess Co., 1798, and Sarah W. Taylor Churchill, born in Can- 
ada, 1811. Mr. Churchill was educated in Oswegatchie and Ma- 
comb and in 1853 married to Eniih' Parker. They are the par- 
ents of Sarah, YanBuren, John, Hubbard, Jennie and Stella. Mr. 
Churchill is a descendent of John Churchill, who came to America 
in the Mayflower. He came to Ogdensl)urg in a cart drawn by 
oxen through the wilderness, then inhalrited by wolves, bear.s, pan- 
thers and deer, the latter were quite common. Mr. Churchill set- 
tled near Brasie Corners where he has always lived. 

Benj. F. Churchill. 
Garrett S. Conger, born in Canandaigua, Sept. 25, 1847. His 
parents were Calvin Conger, born in Malone, Aug. 7, 1807, died 
Feb. 6, 1902, and Rosanna Parker, born in Morristown, Jan. 31, 
1812. She died March 30, 1889. Mr. Conger was educated in 
G. W. Seminary and in 1873 married Martha Adams Church, who 
was born Jan. 10, 1850, daughter of the late Daniel Church. Mr. 
and Mrs. Conger are the ])arents of Alger A. and Mary H. C. 
Conger. Mr. Conger was a private in Battery D, 1st X. Y. Light 
Artillery, (AVinslow's Battery) and participated in the battles of 
Wilderness, Laurel Hill, Spottsylva.nia, N. Anna River, Totopot- 
oniy Creek, Bethsada Church, Cold Harl.)or, Weldon R. R., Five 
Forks, .\ppomatox and several others. He received a shell 
wound in the left knee at Bethel Church. His father and three brothers were also in the 
service; together they took part in fifty battles. Mr. Conger is a member of the G. A. R. and 
WAS repeatedly elected commander of Barnes Post. He was junior vice commandant of the 
department of New York in ISSi. Was attorney for the legislative committee that investigated 
expenditures of armories and arsenals of the state. Is a graduate of the law department of 
the University of Michigan. Studied law in the offices of Chas. Anthony and E. H. Xeary. 
Is now a member of the firm of Conger, Orvis & McLear. Was special county judge from 
1880 to 1897. His portrait also appears in the group, board of education, attorneys and the 
G. A. R. 

Charles H. Clark, born in Haileshoro, May Ki, 18t)2. His parents were Charles A. Clark 
and Jane Hurlbut Clark. His mother died when he was a child. Mr. Clark's primary edu- 
cation was secured in the G. W. Seminary from which he graduated with the class of 1881. 
In the fall of that year he entered Hamilton College from which he graduated in class of 
1885. After leaving college he studied law in the office of Judge RoUin H. Smith and was 

G. S. Conger. 



admitted to the bar in 1888. He tlieii entered tlie newspaper business. Four years ago he join- 
ed the staff of the Gou\'erneur Free Press. He was promoted to local editorship upon that 
paper. His portrait is in the Free Press staff group picture. 

Elbert L. Cunningham was liorn in Gouverneur in 1868. His 
parents were William H. Cunningham, born in Gouverneur, April 
1.5, 1835, and Julia Crawford Cunningham, born in Gouverneur, 
Xo\'. 13, 1837. He was married in 1889 to Eva Herrick. They 
have two children, Lena J. and Edith. B'Ir. Cunningham is fill- 
ing his second term as Higliway Commissioner of the town of 
Gouverneur. He is a memoer of Gouverneur Lodge, F. & A. M. 
and I. O. O. F. 

E. L. Cunningham. 

Mr. Arthur E. Cushman was born in Gouverneur, June 91, 
1863, the son of Talcott H. Cu.shman, born at EUisliurg, Jefferson 
County, X. Y., and Anna Conner Cushman, l)orn at Ottawa. He 
was educated in the Gou\erneur Wesleyan Seminary; is and has 
been engaged in the furniture liusiness siiice 1887. 

Arthur K, Cushman. 

George Henry Cars^sell was Ijorn in England, at Dover on the English Channel, in 1837. 
He came to Gouverneur in 18-t9 and after arriving at his majority, took up a farm within that 
fertile strip of clays running through the town in North Gouver- 
neur, parallel with the trend of the rocky ridges of the town. He 
was named George for his father, his mother's maiden name laeing 
Hannah JIunnnery, both being English born and bred. Our sub- 
ject was one of the students at the old Gouverneur Wesleyan 
Seminary in its palmy days, and is remembered for his bright, 
alert mentality and his readiness at absorbing knowledge. He 
was a Ivcen disputant in the deliating clubs of the institution, 
^\'hicli at that time were well known for their membership of 
young men of imusual promise. His gift of argument was car- 
ried into practical life later and his determined questionings at 
Georce H.Carswell. t^^ annual town-meetiugs then carried out on the New England 

system so that any taxpayer could be heard, are well remembered. The division of the town 
into districts has destroyed this ])rivilege. Physically, he was never strong and he contracted 
consinnption when 48 years old, dying in 1880 of that disease. He was a loyal American 
citizen, never allowing his ancestry or birthplace to influence him in his obligations to the 
country of his adoption. In politics he was a Democrat of the staunch, Jeffersonian sort and 
continued such while so many of liis party associates lost their bearings during the commotion 
of the early 60's. He was never a waverer then liecause he had ojiinions based on intelligent 
and broad views, nor did he cover his opinions liy silence or evasion. Few men were better 
trusted than he bv' those knowing him intimately and his death was a distinct loss, to the com- 
munity as is that of every man willing to stand for something openly and without dissimula- 
tion. It is fitting that the memories of such men as George Carswell should be preserved. 



William R. Conner, born in Gananoqnc in 1874. His parents were Wni. Conner, Ijorn in 
Canada and Catherine Scott Conner, born in Ireland. Mr. Conner is by profession a dentist. 
Was educated in Philadelphia, Pa. He has ])racticed his profession in Gouverneur for sever- 
al years. His portrait appears in the group of dentists. 

Christialana Estelle Cushnian, liorn in Gouverneur in 184i. Her father was Myron Cush- 
nian, born in Bennington, Yt., 181^;, and her mother was Susan AVade Cushnian, lK)rn in a log 
house on the "Wade farm in Gouverneur in 1818. She was educated in Goll^■erneur, and is 
occupied as a house kee])er. Myron; Cu.shman, father of the subject of this sketch, and who.sft 
portrait appears in this history, enlisted in the 9:2nd Reg. V. S. A., "War of the 60s. 

Aaron B. Cutting was born in Pierrejiont, X. Y., hi ISSCi, his 
parents are Daniel H. Cutting, born near Rouses Point, in Can- 
ada, in 1808, and Jane Barrows, born in Canton, X. Y., in 1810. 
Mr. Cutting commenced the hardware business in Gouverneur in 
1861 and excepting for an interval of about two years, has con- 
tinued in that business since. He is a Scottish Rite ilason, has 
been village trustee, Secretary of Gouverneur iVgricultural and 
Mechanical Society and held many other important positions in 
the village. He is one of the oldest merchants in Gouverneur 
and has won an enviable reputation. 

Aarcin H. Cutting. 

Dr. Samuel W. Close, whose portrait appears in group of physicians, was born in Toronto, 
Canada, May 2, 1857. His jiarents were John R. Close and Sarah A. McCarty. Dr. Close 
received his preliminary education in Potsdam State Normal School. His medical education 
in the University of Xew York. He was married June 16, 1886 to Clara A. Smith. Mr. 
and Mrs. Close are the parents of three children, Alison J., Dorothy L., and Catherine C. Dr. 
Close is secretary of the Medical Society of the County of St. Lawrence, whicli position he has 
held for the past 17 years. He is a member of the X^orthern X"^. Y. and X'^. Y. State Medical 
Societies. Jlrs. Clara Smith Close is a great grand-daughter of Eleaser X'ichols, one of the 
first settlers of Gouverneur. His portrait is also in the group of Maccabees and also in the 
Arcanum group. 

Arthur F. Coates, horn in Olcott, X'^. Y., 1857. His parents 
were I.unian B. Coates, born in Olcott, Oct. 15, 1833 and Emily 
R. Cooper Coates, born in Olcott, Feb. 21, 1835. He was educated 
in Olcott and Lockport, X'. Y., and married in 188-1 to Nellie AV. 
Kilmer. Was station agent at Gouverneur from 1883 to 1888. 
Tra\'eling freight agent for the R. W. & O. R. R. from 1888 to 
1891. He is now sales manager for the D. & H. Coal Co's. Utica 
ofBce. He has recently organized a stock company at Utica, X^. 
Y., for dealing in coal, wood and lumlier. 

Arthur F. Coates. 

Rev. James Greenly Clutterbuck, see portrait in group of clergymen, was liorn in Hamil- 
ton, Ont., 1873. His parents were William Clutterbuck, born in Anapolis, Xovia Scotia, 1811, 
and Mary Greenly Clutterbuck, born in Perth, Ont., 1845. Mr. Clutterliuck was educated at 
Northwestern University, 111., and Colgate University, Hamilton, X'. Y. He was married in 



1893 to Myrtle Dean. He is the father of Paul Dean and Dorris Clutterhuck. Mr. Clutter- 
buck's father's family occupied conspicuous places in the British Army and served in a number 
of historic battles. His portrait is also in the Blue Lodge group. 

George ff. Cameron, liorn in Hermon, N. Y. His parents 
were Hugh Cameron, born on the Atlantic Ocean and JNIartha 
Holmes Cameron, l)orn in Canada. He was married in 1890 to 
Lillian E. ^Vood. IMr. and Jlrs. Cameron are the parents of two 
children, L. Douglas and Donald. He has been engaged in the 
manufacture of butter and cheese, learning the business in I-a- 
conia, Wis. He owned and operated the Breese, Little Bow, 
Rock Island and Cottage Grove Creameries. In each of the above 
factories he acted as salesman. I 

George W. Cameron. 

Charles C. Cunningham, born in JMacoml), 18.57. His ]")arents 
were John Cunningham, born in Edinburg, Scotland, 18^0, and 
Isahelle Story Cunningham, Ijorn in Roxlniryshire, Scotland, 1833. 
He was educated in the public schools of JIacomb and married 
in 1891 to Mary F. Beardslee. Jlr. and Jlrs. Cunningham are 
the parents of two cliildren, Worth B. and Isahelle. Jlr. Cun- 
ningham is a jihotographer, operating the Cunningham Studio, 
and resides on Beckwith St., Gouverneur. 

L'lias. C Ciinningliaiii. 

Harlow AV. Collins, Ijorn in Fowler, 1848. His parents were Benjamin Collins, liorn in 
New Ham])shire and Betsy Foster horn in Gouverneur. Mr. Collins was educated in Hailes- 
boro and about 1874- married to Anna M. Sweet. M'as a farmer in the town of Fowler rmtil 
about 1898, when he moved to Gouverneur where he has since resided. 

Jay S. Corljin. Inventor. Born 1840. 

Watson F. Carjienter, born in Brownville, 1862. His parents 
were .leremiah Carpenter, born in Brownville, and Elizabeth L'n- 
derwood Carjienter, born in Hermon, N. Y. Mr. Carpenter is by 
occuijation a commercial traveler. He was educated in Ives Sem- 
inary at Antwerp, and Perkins Academy, Copenhagen. He finish- 
ed his education in 1883 and commenced the manufacture of but- 
ter and cheese in .Jefferson County in 1884. Continuing in Frank- 
fort and McXitt, X. Y., until 1889, when he moved to OxBow 
where he remained until 1901. Since that he has been engaged in 
the sale of dairy and agricultural implements. He is now employ- 
ed liy D. H. Burrell Co., of Little Falls, N. Y. Mr. Carpenter was 
married in 1889 to Laura AlcXitt. They have two children. Bertha 

Watson F. Carpi 
Laura and Gladvs 


F^dson H. Cole was born in Gouverneur, 1876. His parents were Seth Cole, born in Gouv- 
erneur, and Ellen Reed horn in Hermon. He was educated in the Gouverneur Seminary and 
in Rochester. Was nuirried in 1896 to Cirace L. Phillips. They have two children, E. Harold 
and Willahcl. Mr. Cole is engaged in the grocery business on Main street. He is a member 
of the lodges of Odd Fellows, Royal Arcanum, Xational Protective League, and Sons of Veter- 
ans. His picture is in the Arcamnn group. 



Mrs. A. S. Carpenter born April i, 1833. Was the adupted daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Raymond .Austin of Gouverneur. AVas married Sept. 1,5, 185.5 to Alfred .S. C'ar])ent(-r, uho 
was born Feb. 15, 18:33 in Hailesboro, N. Y. They \\ere the parents of two daughters, one 
of whom still lives, Miss Josephine Carjienter, residing y\\ih tlie subject of this sl<etch. Mr. 
Alfred Carpenter's parents were Jonathan Carpenter and Luey .(olinson Carpenter, who 
came to the town of Fowler from Johnstown, X. Y. 

Griffith E. Davis, Riehville, N. Y., was born in AVales in the 
year 1849. He received his education in the district school. Al- 
ways followed his chosen occupation as dfiry farmer. He has 
lieen twice mari'ied. Flis first wife was Murtor Macomb, 
liy whom he had two daughters, Mabel and Myrtle. His second 
wife. Miss Minnie Hill of Rensselaer I" alls, by whom he had one 
daughter, Ethel E. He is a very active worker in all matters 
religious, a member of the first Congregational Church. In j)oli- 
tics he has helped to gain victory always on the Republican side. 
A'er}- conscientious in all his doings. Five years ago he sold his 
farm on the AVelsh road and moved into the village. Not con- 
Giiffith E. D,ivis. tent without any land to work, he has purchased a number of 

acres adjoining liis village property. 

John Davis, Jr., born in Wales, in 1844, His parents were Jolni Davis, l)orn m Wales and 
Jane Davis, also born in Wales. He was edcuated in Gouverneur and married in 1873 to 
Eliza Stammer. Mr. Davis is a successful farmer and the father of Glena J. Davis and Lulu 
B. Davis. He lives in Gouverneur. 

James H. Dickson, born in Rossie, 1844. His jiarents were John Dickson, born in Gouv- 
erneur and Catherine McGregor. He M'as educated in G. 'W. Seminary and married in 1846 
to M. J. Taitt. Mr. and Mrs. Dickson are the parents of Cyrus J. Dickson. Mr. Dickson 
moved to Adams, Mass., in 1875, living there two years, thence moving to Scotland, S. D., 
where he now resides. He is engaged in the mercantile ousiness and the handling of grain, 
live stock and coal. 

Asa Davis, born in Fowler, Nov. 9, 1834. His parents were 
Edward O. Davis, liorn in Ohio, 1801, and Julia Brown Davis, born 
in A'ennont, 180i2 He was educated in Fowler and in 1865 mar- 
ried to Mary J. Clark Mr. Davis is by occupation a farmer, hav- 
ing followed farming his entire life, residing always in Fo-wler 
and Gouverneur, excepting one year, which was spent in Fay- 
ette Countv, la. Their children are Florence L. and Willnir A. 

Asa I'avis. 
Samuel H. Davidson, born in Granville County, Canada, 1861. His parents were John 
Davidson, born in Antrim County, Ireland, 1816, and Anna Edwards, born in jNIarlboro, Can- 
ada. He was educated in the common schools of Rossie and 1890 married to Mary E. Met- 
calf. They are the parents of Lena E. and Dorothy R. Mr. Davidson is by profession a 
stationary engineer in which capacity he has been in the employ of the St. Lawrence Marble 
Works for many years. He was a member of the Board of Trustees of Gouverneur village 
for two years; member of the Board of Health one year and the Board of Education four 
years. One of the organizers of the Gouverneur Assn., No, -M of the National Association of 
Stationary Engineers, of which he is now president. He has been a resident of Gouverneur 
for twenty years and of St. La^^•rence County for forty-one years. His ])ortrait appears in 
the group pictures. Board of Education and Fire Co., No. 1. 

Anna Caroline Dodds, born in Gouverneur, 1854. Her parents were Alexander Dodds, 



born in Kelso, Scotland, and Elmii-a L. Leavitt, born in Gouverneur, X. Y., Jinie 5, 1825. 
She was edncated in G. AV. Seminary. They were married Sept. 15, 1848, settling on a farm 
in Scotch Settlement. Moved into the village in 1875. Mr. Dodds died in 1894 and Mrs. 
Dodds in 1898. They were the parents of Emma L., Anna C, Albert W., and Isabella J. 
Enniia married L. L. Clark and died in 1888, leaving one daughter, Edna B. 

0»en E. Davis, Iiorii in Troedyrhinfergam, South Wales in 
1863. His jjarents were Evan Davis, born in Troedyrhinfergam, 
in \S3-2 and Frances Davis, born in Slwynbedw, So. Wales, in 
183:2. yh: Davis was educated in Druen, Xew Castle, England. 
His post office is Richville. 

Owen E. riavis. 
Andrew Dodds, l)i)rn in Roxburyshire, Scotland, 1785. His father was John Dodds, born 
in Scotland. He was educated in Scotland and in 1815 married to Margaret Rutherford. 
Andrew Dodds came to America in 1818, settling on a farm in Rossie. In 183() he came to 
Gouverneur, Ijought a farm, removing the timljer from the same. He lived upon the farm 
until the death of liis wife in 1855. He died in 18(j7. 

John B. Day, born in AVorcester, 
X. Y., Oct. 15, 1833. His parents 
were Benjamin Day, born in Swansey, 
X. H., May 27, 1787 and Elmira Ful- 
ler Day, born in Schenectady', March 
-'8, 1792. He was married March 4, 
1858, to Ann Baxter. j\Ir. and Mrs. 
Day are the parents of Marvin H., 
Ida Sweet, Ella A. Bowma.n, Bertha 
E. Clark, Will Bettie Howe, and Eva 
J. Robinson, ilr. Day was a promi- 
nent farmer in Fowler, holding im- 
Juhn B. Day. portant town oifices. '^'"- J"''" ^- ^av- 

Frederick E. Drnrv, whose portrait ap))ears in group of physicians, was born in Edwards, 
18()8. His parents were Benjamin F. Drury, M. D., born in Canton, X'. Y., 1836, and Mary 
A. (Ritcliie) Drury, born in DeKall), X'. Y., 1838. He was educated primarily in the Gouver- 
neur Wesleyan Seminary aiul married in 1896 to Julia E. Foster. Dr. Drury graduated in 
the Gouverneur AVesleyan Seminary in 1887. His medical education was obtained in the Uni- 
ver.' of Vt., and Bellevue Hospital College, Xew York, from which college he graduated 
in 1891. He is a practicing pliysician and surgeon in Gouverneur and at present one of the 
coroners of .St. I>awrence Co. Mr. and Mrs. Drury are the parents of Frederick F., Jr., Mabel 
Foster and P'oster Taitt Drury. 

Homer W. Dailey was born in Gouverneur, X'. Y., March 28th, 1861. His parents were 
Henry Dailey, born in Franconia, X'. H., Jlarch 13th, 1822, and Alma Hall Dailey born in 
Lockjjort, X'. Y., in 1828. Mr. Dailey was edncated in G. W. Seminary and in 1888 married 
to Mary E. Sprague. Mr. and Jlrs. Dailey are the pai-ents of Raymond E. They reside on 
the TnthiU road wliere Mr. Dailey was liorTi. 

Alexander A. Dickson, born in Rossie. His parents were John Dickson, born in Rox- 
buryshire, Scotland, 1808 and Catherine JIcGregor Dickson, born in Pertlishire, 1810. Mr. 
Dickson was educated in G. W. Seminar}- and in 1878 married to Helen McCiregor. They 
are the parents of one cliild, John E. Dickson. He resides in Gouverneur. 



Oriii J. David, born in Wayne Connty, Micli., in 1855. His 
parents were .Jame.s R. A. David, born at Troy, X. Y., and El- 
Miira Meff, liorii at .Vnisterdam, X. V. He was educated at De- 
troit, Mich., and was married in 1S8J to Cora M. J. Sterne. He 
bas six children, Blanche C, Grace, Sydney M., Aulierey, Earl 
and Pearle. His present occnpation is miner and promoter. Mr. 
David commenced lumliering in jMichigan in 1874, after which he 
managed mines in I/alce Snjierior, Wyoming, and Iowa. He came 
to Gouverneur in 1893 and assisted in organizing the U. S. Talc 
Co. and the Union Talc Co. Was president of the last company 
for three years. He is at present engaged in mining in Joplin, 
Mo. Mr. David's father distinguished himself in the war of the 
O J. Liavid. rel)ellion, rising from the ranks to the command of a regiment. 

Uolicrt Dodds, born in Rossie, 1833. His parents were Andrew Dodds, born in Scotland, 
1785, and Margaret Rutlierford Dodds, Ijorn in Scotland in 1797. He was educated in the 
common schools of Rossie and married in 184-9 to Susan Deans. Jlr. and Mrs. Dodds are 
the parents of Jennie, Franlj, Claris and John. Rol)ert Dodds managed his father's farm 
until bis death which was in 1873. His wife died in 1890. 

David E. Davis, born in Wales, 1844, and married to Sarah 
Jones in 1867. Mr. and Mrs. Davis are the parents of Jennie C. 
Thomas. Mr. Davis came to tlie United States in 1856 with his 
parents, settled in Richville and lived in Gouverneur for forty 

David E. Davis. 

Franii Andrew Dodds, born in Gouverneur, Dec. 36, 1851. His parents were Robert 
Dodds, liorn in Rossie in 1834 and died in Gouverneur in 1871, and Susan H. Deans Dodds, 

born in OxBow, in 1836. Died in 1891. 

He was educated in the Gouverneur 

Wesleyan Seminary and married X'ov. 

26, 1873, to Matilda Althouse, who 

was born in Gouverneur, X'ov. 35, 

1855. Mr. and Mrs. Dodds are tlie 

parents of seven children, Alberta 

Dodds Overacker, Maude S., Roliert 

D. S., Francis I']., A. Murra_\', Claud 

K. and Stanley C. .Mr. Dodds is by 

Dccujjation a farmer and resides near 
Fianli A. Dodds. Elmdale. His paternal grand-father ji^,,. prank A. Dodds. 

was Andrew Dodds, see Ijiographical sketch, who came from Scotland to Rossie in 1818 and 
settled in what is now known as the Scotch Settlement near OxBow. 

iVnna I.aura Bowne Dodge, born in Ciouverneur, X'ov. 38, 1878. Her parents were Charles 
Hicks Bowne, born in Gouverneur, July 33, J838, and JIary E. Whitney Bowne, born in Mex- 
ico, Oswego County, X'. Y., 1845. She was educated in Gouverneur, Tarrytown and X'^ew 
York. Married X'ov. 9, 1899, to Robert Griffin Dodge. Mr. and Mrs. Dodge are the 
parents of one child, Dorothy Bowne Dodge. Mrs. Dodge is a Daughter of the Revolution 
and member of the Episco])al Church. Her daughter, Dorothy Bowne Dodge, is the .sixth 
generation from Charles Hicks. 



Mis. Jeriislta lioswnrlli Plieljis. 

Mrs. .'Vblij- Lynde Dickson, born in Ricliville, Aug. 12, 1935. Her parents were Alfred S. 
Phelps, born in Sterling, Mass., Nov. 18, 1806 and Jerusha Bosworth Phelps, born in Bethle- 

heni, Mass., May 13, 1801. Mrs. Dick- 
son v'ss educated in Richville and 

married in 1856 to Carlos W. Lynde 

She is the mother of Anna M. Lyndt 

Clark, deceased, and Mary Lynde 

\\'atson, children of Carlos W. Lynde 

Mrs. Dickson was married the second 

time to Rev. James A. Dickson in 

1879. Her father, Alfred S. Phelps, 
^^ ^B / came to Richville with his parents at 

^^^ JK^ the age of two years. The mother, 

Rev J A. Dickson. Jerusha Bosworth, came to Richville 

cary in life with her lu'other, Jaliez Bosworth. There was no bridge when they came to 
Richville at Gou\'erneur nor «as there any highway between Gouverneur and Richville. Her 
father Samuel \\'. Plieljis was in the war of 181;3 at Sacketts Harbor as Captain. Her great 
grand-father, Elijah Phel]is, was in the Revolutionary War. An uncle, Edward Herrick 
Phel]is, was killed at Lookout Mountain, Civil War. A brother, Samuel W. Pheli)s, was in 
tlie 106th Reg. N. Y. Vol. for three years and participated in the liattle of the Wilderness and 
six other engagements. Was twice ^^•ounded. 

Henry Simeon Day, born in Hermon, 1874. His parents 
were Simeon P. Day, born in 1833 and Susan ^\'eeks Day, born 
in Jefferson County, in 1843. Was educated in Hermon school and 
married in 1903 to Lottie Jlay Hill. Mr. Day was a student of 
Cornell University Dairy School class of 1899. Is a successful 
farmer in Hermon. Has dairy of 30 co«s. His jjost office is 
Simjison, X. "^ . 

Hfiirv S. I)av. 

William Henry Dra]ier, born in Champion, Sept. 9, 1864. His 
parents were George Draper, born in Cham]")ion, May 39, 1835 and 
Helen M. Newell Drajier, born in Gouverneur, Dec. 28, 1841. He 
was educated in G. W. Seminary and first married June 24, 1891, 
to Stella Matte.son, who died June 28, 1895. December 17, 1895, 
he married Grace Keech. Mr. and Jlrs. Dra])er are the parents 
of Dorothy Helen, Herbert G. and JIarion B. Jlr. Draper is 
the ])roprietor of the Draper Drug store on Main .street. His 
])oi-trait is also in the Blue Lodge grou]>. 

William H. Draper. 

Roliert Griffin Dodge, born at HarrisviUe, 1870. His parents \iere William Robert Dodge 
and Jane Noyes. Mr. Dodge was educated in the G. W. Seminary and Andover College. He 
was married Nov. 9, 1899 to yVnna Laura Bowne. Mr. and Mrs. Dodge are the parents of one 
child, Dorotliy Bowne Dodge. The subject of this sketch has lieen since leaving school, em- 
]5loyed in the post-office, with U S. Talc Co., in the store of C. H. Bowne & Co., Secre- 
tary and treasnrer of the Emi)ire Marble Co., and is at ]n-esent secretary, treasurer and man- 
ager of the y\dirondack Pyrites Co. 

Benjamin Franklin Drury, whose ])ortrait ap])ears in group of jihysicians, was born in 



Canton, N. Y., in 1836. His parents were Isaac Drnry, horn in Vermont and Klizatieth Van- 
Allen Drury, horn in A'erniont. He was eclncatecl in the common and select schools and mar- 
ried in 1859 to Mary A. Ritchie. They have three children, Jnlia L., Frederick F., and Al- 
bert N. Dr. Druvy spent his early life on a farm. At the age of 30 he commenced the study 
of medicine, gradnating at Burlington, Vt., in June, 1854. He has been continually engaged 
in the practice of his profession since, for the last '2S years in Gouverneur and vicinity. 

'—■ Charles Clement Dunklehiirg, liorn at Fort Covington, Feb. 
■m, 1803, His ]5arents were Samuel Dimkleburg, born in Lock- 
port, May !), 1831, and Maria White Dunklebnrg, bom in Russell, 
in 1839. He was educated at Canton, N. Y., and Oct. 26, 1880, 
married Hana May Sabin. Mr. Dunkleburg was the father of 
Charles, Stanley, Florence and Frances Dunkleburg. Mr. Dunkle- 
burg came to Gouverneur in 1889, liuying out the Whitney Bros, 
marble finishing business, then conducted by Alexas and P. R. 
Whitney. He was one of the trustees of the Baptist Church and a 
prominent member of the building committee in the construction 
of the new church. He was a prominent Mason, Odd Fellow, 
Cliarles c. Dunklebiirg. <incl member of the Temple Club. He was trustee of the village 

and one of Gouverneur's most highly honored and respected citizens. Mr. Dunkleberg died 
suddenly at Syracuse where he had been taken from Star Lake to undergo an operation for 

Byron W. Dewey, born in Gouverneur, 1843. His parents 
were Warren Dewey, born in Hartford, N. Y., 1815, and Altha 
Lea\'ett, born in Gouverneur on the old Leavett farm in 1818. 
Mr. Dewey is by occupation a farmer. AVas educated in Gouver- 
neur Wesleyan Seminary, and married 1870 to Anna C. Howe, 
who was born in Grand Haven, Mich. Mr. and Mrs. Dewey 
are the parents of five children, Altha, Claud, Harriett, Warren, 
Jr., and Jay Leavett. Mr. Dewey has been occupied as a farmer 
since 1875, prior to which time he was a tanner and currier. He 
was a soldier in the war of the CO's. 

Byron W . Dewe>'. 
William Robert Dodge, born in Gouverneur June 16, 1834. His parents were Edwin 
Dodge, born in Kent, Conn., Dec. 13, 1801, and Jerusha Lay Sterling Dodge, born 

in Lime, Conn., May 35, 1803. Mr. Dodge was educated in Gouver- 
neur and in 1866 married to Jane Noyes. Mr. and Mrs. Dodge 
are the parents of Edwin, Robert G., Richard P., Gertrude L., 
and Mrs. Catherine N. Dodge Gill. Mr. Dodge held the office of 
President of the village in the year 1881, was appointed post-mas- 
ter in 1885 and held this office one term. Commenced his busi- 
ness career as clerk for Wm. E. Sterling in this village, a little 
later established in connection with C. H. Russell, an express line 
from Watertown to Ogdensburg; the first system of pony express 
in Northern New York. He later engaged in railroading and lo- 
cated in Cincinnatti and St. Louis, returned to St. Lawrence Co. 
W. R. Dodge ^'icl engaged in the tanning business under firm name of Beach & 

Dodge, operating a large tannery in Harrisville. About 1873 he sold out his business in 
Harrisville, returning to Gouverneur. Soon after coming to Gouverneur he formed a part- 
nershijJ with John Webb under the firm name of John Webb, Jr. & Co., and engaged in min- 
ing iron ore at the Kearney mine. He was Vice President, and oi'e of the originators of 
the Gouverneur Wood Pulp Co., also the U. S. Talc Co., and the Empire Marble Co. He was 
director of the Bank of Gouverneur. 



George M. Doclcls, born in Gonverneur, 1854. His parents 
were Andrew Dodds, l)orn in Scotland, 1813 (see liiograi)lucal 
sketcli) and Sally Smith Dodds, born in Gonverneur, 1810. He 
was educated in G. W. Seminary and married in 1878 to Ruie J. 
Joluison. Jlr. and Mrs. Dodds are the parents of Bertha A., G. 
Wilson, Bly A., and Vincent. Mrs. Sally Smith Dodds, mother of 
the suliject of this sketch, was the daughter of Willard Smith, 
one of the first settlers (see history). Mr. Dodds served the 
town as Commissioner of Highway from 1891 to 1903. Has lieen 
director and superintendent of the Gonverneur Agricultural and 
^lechanical Society from 1894 to the present time. He is a promi- 
nent and prosperous farmer on the Richville road. His portrait George M. Dodds. 
also appears in the group of officers of the Gonverneur Agricultural and Mechanical Society. 

W'illiur A. Davis, born in I-'owler, 1877. His parents were 
.Vsa Davis, born in Fowler, 1834, and :\Iary J. Clark Davis, born in 
Gonverneur, 1839. Educated in Gou^erneur High School, and 
married in 1899 to Clara Belle Sprague. Mr. and Mrs. Davis 
have one child, Robert L. Davis. Subject of sketch was born 
on a farm and followed that occupation imtil 1900, working about 
a year after that as a mill wright. In 1903 he became connected 
as a partner with the fii-m of Davis & Sprague. Is an Odd Fel- 
low, member of Royal Arcanum Lodge and I. O. O. F., of which 
lindy he is Financial Secretary. His portrait also apjjears in the 
Foresters" group. 

Wilbur A. Da 

Amasa Stephen Davis, l)orn in Fowler, 1830. His parents 
were Edwin O. Davis, born in Ohio, 1801 and Julia A. Davis, born 
in Conn., 180j. Educated in the common schools of Fowler and 
married 1851 to Adaline L. Newton. Mr. and Mrs. Davis are the 
parents of four children, I\lrs. Davis Lamb, Eugene L. Davis, 
.Stephen A., and Arthur. 3Ir. Edwin O. Davis, father of the sul)- 
ject of this sketch, moved into the town of Fowler in 18^5, where 
he lived continuously mitil his death, 1884. .\niasa S. Davis served 
ill the War of the Rebellion, 1S64-5, in the 14th X. Y. Heavy Ar- 

A[nas.l S. Davis. 

Edwin Gardner Dodge, born in Gonverneur, Aug. 10, 1839. 
His parents were Edwin Dodge, born in Kent, Conn., Dec. 13, 
1801, and Jerusha Lee Sterling, liorn in Lime, Conn., May 25, 
1803. Mr. Dodge was educated in Gouverneur and Auburn, N. Y. 
Was never married. He was by occu]iation a mill and land own- 
er. Was president of the %'illage of Gouverneur from 1872 to 
'76. He was prominent in Democratic politics of the state. Was 
for many years member of the Democratic State committee. 

Edwin G. Dodge. 
Frederick Raymond Darling, born in Andover, X. Y., X^ov. 7, 1873. His parents were 
I'.dwin B. Darling, born in Elkland, Pa., 3, 1850, and Hattie A. Chase Darling, born 
in Andover, X'. Y., X'ov. 14, 1855. He was educated in Hornellsville High School and Cornell 



University. Received degree of A. B. in tlie University of Cliifiigo. Is by occupation a 
teacher, having lielcl the following positions: Prin. WoodhuU Union School, 1896-98; Prin. 
Limestone Union School, 1898-1901; Prin. Portville Union School, 1901-04. Supt. of schools 
in Gouverr.eur 190+ to the ]iresent time. He is of Xew England descent, his ancestors having 
come to this country prior to 1700. He is a descendent of Rodger AVilliams. He wa,s married 
to Emma A. Schu, Aug. iJU, 189(). Mr. and Mrs. Darhng are the parents of Carl Egbert, born 
Aug. 30, 1903. His portrait ap])ears in the group of High School teachers. 

Alexander Dodds «ith his wife and Ave children, three boys and two girls, came to this 
country freni Scotland in 1833, and settled three miles east of Gouverneur on a farm that 

wtiH named Mount Hillie, iu what became the Scottish settlement. 
One of the daughters, Catherine, married David Hill, and settled 
on a farm near Ravenwood. The other daughter, Marguarette, 
married .John Thompson, both settling within a half mile of the 
old homestead. Andrew, the elder son settled on a farm within 
one and one-half miles, and Alexander on a farm across the road 
from the old homestead. John, remaining on the old farm where 
three children were born; Jane Elizabeth, now Hodgkins, and 
.\lexander Dodds now of Grand Rapids, Mich., and Wm. A. 
Dodds. For 35 years death did not enter the Scottish settle- 
ment, but after that it came often, aiul all of the family that 
Alexander Dodds. Came from Scotland ha\'e passed away. W. A. Dodds died 

in Sept. 1876. G. H. and Elizabeth Hodgkins are now enjoying the old homestead. Mount 
Hillie, of the days gone by. The farm is now known a,s Highland Home. Alexander Dodds 
3d, whose jiortrait appears, is nOA\' a manufacturer of wood-working machinery at Grand 
Rapids, Mich. He learned the trade of machinist in Gouverneur where he spent the years up 
to his majority, and after going west, made and patented several inventions which he now 

John Xewell Draper, born in Gouverneur, Nov. 21, 1870. His 
parents were George Draper, born in the town of Champion, May 
39, 183.5 and Helen M. Xewell Drajier, born in Gouverneur, Dec. 
38, 184.1. Mr. Draper was educated in G. AV. Seminary and mar- 
ried Fell. 34, 1897, to X'ellie C. Hibbard. He lias conducted a 
store in Gouverneur since 1898, previous to which he was a hook- 

John N. Draper. 

Helen Maria Draper, born in Gouverneur, Dec. 38, 1841. Her 
parents were John D. X'ewell, born in Saratoga County, X^. Y., 
July 19, 1811, and Olive Smith X'ewell, born in Edinburg, Sara- 
toga Co., Oct. 1, 1813. Mrs. Drajier was educated in the G. "\V. 
Seminary and married Sept. 33, 1863, to George Draper. She 
is the mother of William H., Dora M. Draper Palmer, John W., 
Bertha H. Drajier Bennett, Kathleen G. Draper Kinney and Bes- 
sie P. deceased. Mrs. Drajier after the death of her husband in 
1885, carried on the luisincss inaugurated liy him to financial suc- 
cess. Mrs, Drajier lias lieen an enterprising towns-woman, always 
living to the progress of the community. 

Helen M. Draper, 



Elmer Wentwortli Estes, born in Lexington, Maine, Dec. 35tli, 185;?. His parents were 
Richard Estes, Ijorn in Xe\^' Hampshire in 1T9;;, and Jane Cool^, born in Embden, Maine. 
Richard served in the war of 1813, and died in 18ii-2 at the age of seventy. The suliject of this 
sketcli was educated in Farniingham, Maine, has lieen twice married, his first wife was Jane 
Perlvins, deceased. His second wife, to whom he was married Sejjt. 10th, 1894', was Mary 
Lathrop. Mr. Estes is the father of Maud, Sumner, Alvin, Wentworth Hayden and Jane 
Mary. Jlr. Estes is an expert manufacturer of wood jiulp and is in charge of the Aldrich 
Paper Comjjany's mill at Emeryville. 

James Dunham Easton, born in Brockville, Out., 1838. His 
parents were Solomon Easton, born in Hartford, Conn., and Au- 
rilla Galuchia Easton, born in Shaftsbury, Yt. Mr. Easton was 
educated in Brockville, Ont. Came to Gouverneur in March, 1850, 
and engaged in the occupation of Blacksmith. He was president 
of the village in the sixties. Was married to Lydia L. Hoover 
in 1853, and has two children living, Seymour A. and Eva Caro- 
line. Seymour A. married Sarah Drake and has one child, Ruth, 
liorn April 3, 1803. Eva Caroline is now the wife of C. F. Ken- 
non. Has one da\ighter, Frances E., born Nov. 14, 1897. 

James J). Easton. 
Lewis E. Eckman born in Bavaria, Germany, 18.38. His parents were Bernard Eckman, 

born in Bavaria 1789 and Getta Sigbart Eckman, born in Bavaria, Jan. 1794-. He was edu- 
cated in Bavaria and married in 1867 to Babette L. 

Mr. and Mrs. Eckman are the parents of Bernhard, Morris and 
Clara Eckman. Mr. Eckman came to this country in 1853, learn- 
ing upholstery business in Xew York. Came to Gouverneur in 
1858, entering the employ of S. B. YanDuzee. This position he 
held until 1864, then entered co-partnership under the firm name 
of A'anduzee & Eckman. This co-partnership was incorporated 
in 1883, under the name of S. B. YanDuzee Mfg. Co., with which 
concern he has lieen actively interested initil the present time. 
He was one of the pioneers of the marble business in Gouverneur, 
licing interested in the Whitney Marble Co., now the Gouve.-neur 
.Marlile Co., which has been steadily in o])enitioii since 1888. Mr. 
survivor of the original corporation, viz: Whitney Marble Co., and has 
held the ]>osition of treasm'er continuously since the organization of that company. 

William A. Freeman, liorn at Athens, Ont., 1865. His jiarcuts were William Freeman, 
liorn in England aiul Lucy Jackson Freeman. .Mr. Freenniu was educated in Athens Ont., 
and married in IKill to .Vugusta McArthur. He is by occupation 
a manufacturer of ])uttci' and dairy ]")roducts. Mr. Freeman came 
to Gouverneur in 1899, engaging in the manufacture of dairy ])ro- 
ductj. First ein]iloycd in East Gouverneur factory, then became 
owner and mana{;er of that factory. Has kept pace with the pro- 
gress of his ])rofession and is now an expert. Was the recipient 
of a silver jiiteher at the annual convention of the \. Y. S. D. 
Assn. in Watertown i)i Decemlier, 1900, comjieting with the en- 
tire state for best clieese for American consumption, for highest 
two years scoring. Won gold medid same year at Paris Exposi- 
tion f(M' highest scoring .\mcrican cheese. He is an active mem- 
l:er of the Board of Trade and salesman for his factory on Johns- 
town street, this town. 

Herbert G. Farmer, born in P'owler, 1858. His parents were Francis Farmer, born in 
Hcrlvimer and Louisa Homer, born in Fowler. ^Mr. Farmer was educated in Gouverneur and 

L(;\sis Eckman. 

Eckman is tlie onh' 

William A. I'Vteinan. 



in Canton University. He was married Dec. l(i, 1888, to Hariet Elizalietli Pacliard, who was 
liorn Jnly 31, 18,)8. Mr. and Mrs. Planner are the parents of three children, Glenn, Ruth and 
Milton. Mr. Farmer was for many years in tlie clothing husiness in Gonvernenr, selling out 
to I. I. Block, who still continues the liusiness. He is now a commerical traveler. He is a of the Masonic and Odd Fellows lodges and the Roval Arcanum. 

Oscar P. Fidler, deceased. Born at FuUerville in 18-1-3. His 
parents were Lenian Fuller, horn in \'eruiont, and Abigal Parker 
Fuller, liorn in Fowler. He was educated at FuUerville a,nd in 
the Gouverneur AVesleyan Seminary. Jlarried to Martha A. 
Rolph in 18U0. Three children are now living, Fred B., Helena 
M. and Ainsworth L. Mr. Fuller was engaged for many years 
at Gouverneur in the sale of agricultural implements. 

Osca' P. Fuller. 
Ole B. Fischer, horn in Chauniont, Jefferson County, X. Y., 
in 18(i9. His parents are Daniel W. Fischer and Kmily Marks 
Fischer. He was educated m Chaumont and married in 1890 to 
Laura N'auDewalker. Mr. Fischer is by occupation a stone cutter. 
He was instrumental in the organization of the Gouverneur Cut 
Stone Co. and later the Extra Dark Marble Co., of which Mr. 
Fischer is Treasurer. The Extra Dark Marble Co. are the con- 
tractors for a memorial arch. Mr. Fischer is a member of Gouv- 
erneur Lodge, 3^5, I. O. O. F. Mr. and Mrs. Fischer are the par- 
ents of Carl Fischer, Mr. Fischer was leader of Gouv- 
erneur Citizen-^ band for seven years, ilemlier of Prof. Sudds' 
Uninn Hall orchestra for fifteen years. 


parents were Jos. Farmer, horn in Cambridge, Washington County, 

.Vug. J9, 179T, and Ruth Brown Farmer, liorn in Herkimer, X. Y., 

April 10, 1807. Educated in the to\\n of Fowler and married in 

185B to Clarisa Rhodes. Mr. and Mi-s. Farmer are the parents of 

Frank H., of Gouverneur, and Myron G., of Buffalo. Mr. Farmer 

occupied his own farm between Hailesboro and Gouverneur until 

1884-, removing to Gon\erneur A'illage where he resided until his 

death in 1904. Was an active memlier of the Grange since 187.5 

of w hicli he was for some time the master. Was prominent and 

influential memlier of the Unitarian Church. Energetic, honest 

and progressive citizen. 

.Mrs. Clarisa Rliodes Farmer, born in Fowler, Dec. -21, 1836. 
Her parents were Beloved Rhodes, born in Brownville, Jeff. 
Countv, May Ij, 1809, and Haiuiah Sweet, born in .-Vdams, Jeffer- 
son County, Se]it. J2, 181(), She was ediicated in the town of 
Fowler and married in 18,5(i to Ichabod G. Farmer. Mrs. Farmer 
is the mother of two children, Frank H., of Gouverneur, and Jly- 
ron G. of Buffalo. She has been an active member of the Grange 
shice 1871); member of the Unitarian Church and an efficient 
worker of that society, ^\'as treasurer of the Womans' Alliance. 
Mrs. Farmer's grandfather, Aaron Rhodes, was one of the pioneers 
of the town of Fowler as was also her maternal grandfather, Orin 

I r- IT Sweet. 

Mrs I (j 1' armer. 

(J. B Fisclier 
Ichabod Gardner Farmer, born in Fowler, Dec. 9, 183-2. 

Ichabou i'l. Farmer 



Dr. Daniel ilontefiore I"\)ss, whose ]iortrait a])]iears in the group of ])hysiciaiis, was horn 
in Lawrence, in 1860. His parents were Daniel P'oss, liorn in Fairfield, ^'t., 18;?3, and Char- 
lotte A'. Montefiore Foss, horn in New York City, 1833. He was educated in Lawrenceville 
Academy, I'niversity of Minnesota and University of ^'ermont. He was a memher of the 
United States army in 1879. Assigned to hospital corps under Surgeon Gen. Morgan and was 
stationed at Fort Thomjison, Crow Creek Reservation. Was ])resent at the surrender of Sit- 
ting Bull and his band. Resigned from the army in 1881 and liegan the practice cTt' medicine 
in DeKall) in 188(), removing from there to Dejieyster in 1888, coming to Gouverneur in 190U. 
He took jjost graduate course in 1899. 

Fred B. Fuller, horn in Fowler, July 18, 1861. His jiarents 
were O. P. Fuller, born in FuUerville in 1840, and Martha A. 
Rolph Fuller, horn in Fowler in 18+0. ^Ir. Fuller was educated 
in Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary and married Octoljer 13, 1903 
to L. S. JIarselles. Jlr. Fuller is engaged in the sale of farming 
imjjlements and dairy supplies. He is ])ro])rietor of the Farmer's 
Sheds on Clinton Street. 

Fred B. Fiillei 

Grant AV. Fuller, horn in FuUerville, in 1869. His parents were Daniel Welister Fuller, 
born in FuUerville in 1834 and Irene ^\'oodcock Fuller, horn in Fowler, 1838. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of FuUerville and Albany Business College. Was married in 
189; to Mary A. Towne, of Potsdam, X. Y. Has one child, Louise Towne Fuller. Mr. Fuller 
lias served two years as village trustee. 

Xelson Horatio Freeman, born in Edwards, Sept. 3, 1844. 
His parents ^\'ere Thomas Freeman, born in Biddenden, Eng., 
Jan. 7, 1804, and Phoelie Carr Freeman, born in Steventown, Ren- 
sselaer County, in 1H07. Died April 14, 1890. ilr. Freeman went 
to California in 1863, returning settled on his farm in TalcviUe in 
1868. Talc was discovered xijion his farm in 1875. He moved to 
Clouverneur in 1893 and settled ui>on the corner of Beckwith and 
Sterling streets, where he now resides. Toyetiier ^\■itl^ his son 
Frank, he constructed what is known as the Freeman Block on 
Clinton street in 1903. Mr. Freeman is an enterprising gentleman, 
prominent in matters that enter into the welfare of the community. 
Nelson H Freeman ^J''- Fi'cem«n's father came to America in 1836, settling in Ed- 

wards, on iN-hat is kiunvn as the Thomas Freeman farm. Had ten children all of whom grew 

Mrs. Eliza J. Xoble Freeman, liorn in Edwards, June 18, 
1847. Her parents were John Xolile, liorn in Edinliurgh, Scot- 
land in 1817, and Mary Rushton Xoble, born in Xew York City 
in 1834, and died Sept. 1, 1900. Jlrs. Freeman's father was one 
of the early pioneers of Edwards, settling where the village of 
Edwards now stands. He bought considerable land, was also 
a dealer in cattle, driving them to Montreal and Quebec markets- 
Accompanied by a dog, they would start with their drove through 
what was then a comparative wilderness. Mrs. Freeman's grand- 
father came to this country when her fatlier was two aiul one- 
half veai-s old, settling near Ed^\ards on «hat is known as the 
William Brown farm. "... x. h. ,,-,-e,„„„ 


313 Wright Ferguson, born Aug. -25, 1819, at Omslvirk, England, niarriril Tliinnas Fer- 
guson in 1S37, graduated from a medical college in F'dinburg, Scotland, in 1H4-3 after study- 
ing medicine under Dr. I>augliton of Soutli])ort, England; such is the liistory of one of the 
excellent women who made Gouverneur her home. She ])racticed her profession of obstetrics 
over forty years here and elsewhere, with credit to herself and the gratitude of her jiatients. 
Left alone with eight children to provide for at the death of her husl)and, the moral filirc inter- 
woven in her character hecame known to her friends as she successfully battled with adverse 
circumstances, and all her children were l)rought to uuiturity, a credit to her wise direction 
and untiring industry. Her vigorous connnon sense, he.r winning personality and her 
assuring presence made her welcome in numberless homes. Mrs. Ferguson was related 
through her marriage with the royal house of Stvuirt, long reigning upon the English throne. 

Clarence Henry Fuller, l)orn in Antwerp in 1851. His parents 
were AVilliam Fuller, born in Jefferson County in 18:3.3, and 
Elizabeth Martin Fuller. He was educated in Antwerp and in 
188i married to Alice Smith. Mr. and :\Irs. Fuller are the 
parents of Edith, Pearl, Morris Albert, litta Alice and Clarence 
Henrv ,)r. Mr. Fuller has hauled talc for twenty years. 

Clarence H. Fuller. 

William Samuel Ciriffith, born in Gouverneur, N. Y., 18o3. His parents were William 
Griffith, born in X. Y. City, August 1, 1806 and Elizabeth Herriman Griffith, lun-n in Xew 
Hampshire, August i2, 18:30. Educated at Griffitli School Hoiise 
and Gou\-erneur Wesleyan Seminary. Married in 188-.' to Xora 
J. AVight. Mr. Griffith, the father of the svd)ject of this sketcli, 
and lirotber Samuel, came to Gouverneur from Oneida in 1840. 
Bought a farm near Griffith Bridge, still in the family. They 
were among the first to make dairy cheese in the town. This 
cheese was sold in Ogdensburg at a jirice of three to four 
and one-half cents. Suliject of the sketcli made cheese for abo\it 
twelve years. Exhiliited at Columbian Exhiliition at Chica- 
go in 1893, receiving diploma aiul medal for high scoring. Mr. 
Griffith now resides upon his farm about two miles from Griffith 
Bridge adjoining that of Lott Hall. ^Mlliam S. Griffith. 

Hamiil)al S. Fox, liorn in Indian River, Fewis County, in 
1810. Parents were jVbraham Fox, born near Ft. Plain and Elea- 
nor Putnam, born near Fort Plain. Jlr, Fox came to Gouverneur 
in 1876 from the west to take charge of the Gouverneur Flouring 
Jlills to bring up the standard of the tlour. Entered the employ 
of Dodge & Beardslee and remained in their employ and that 
of their successors for 38 years. He now resides at ij Washington 
Street, Ogdensburg, X. Y. 

Hannibal .S. Fox. 



Frank N. Freeman. 

Frank Nelson Freeman, born in Edwards in 1877. His 
parents were Nelson H. Freeman, liorn in Edwards in 184-1-, aid 
Eliza Jane Nolile, born in Edwards in 1848. Educated in Gouver- 
neur and Poug-hkeepsie, and married in 1901 to Grace E. Mosher. 
;Mr. Freeman's early life was spent on the homestead farm in 
Edwards. At the age of 13, moved witli his people to Gouverneur, 
where he pursued a course in the High School. In 1898 took a 
Imsiness course at Eastman College, Poughkeepsie, soon after 
entered tlie harness, carriage and implement business, together 
with his father. The growth of luisiness compelled the erection 
in \!)0J of what is now the Freenuni lilock on Clinton street. Mr. 
Freeman is a ])rominent member of the Masonic, Odd Fellow and 
Encampment orders. 

Grace K. Mosher Freeman, born in Philadelphia, N. Y., in 
1878. Her parents were Charles E. INlosher, (see biographical 
sketcli), and ^\d(lie A. Scram, Itorn in Antwerp in 1856. She was 
educated in Gouverneur and in 1901 nuirried to F. N. Freeman, 
(see liiographical sketch). 

Mrs. F. N. Freeman. 
Dr. William J. Flint, whose portrait appears in the group of physicians, was born in 
Oiieid;'. County in 1807. His parents were Robert Flint, liorn in New York and Mary A. 
LeClare Flint, I'.orn in New York, Dr. F"lint is a practicing physician and surgeon having 
practiced bis profession in Gouverneur since 1890. He received his preliminary education in 
Ca/.enovia .Seminary, graduated from the N. Y. Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 
lie «'as married in 189i to Anna D. Gnodfellow. Flas one child, Mildred Irene. Rev. Roli- 
crt Fbnt is a .Methodist Clergyman now upon the retired list. Dr. F'lint's maternal grand- 
fatlier came from France to .\merica with the Lafayette Expedition. 

Jlrs. Isadore LeWaite Foster, born in Hammond, May 30, 
1817. Her parents were Sydney S. Waite, born in Herkimer, 
.Tune (i, 1807, and Julia A. Pond Waite, liorn in .Vddison, Vt., 
June 9, 1873. Sul)ject of the sketch was educated in Herkimer, 
Hammond and .\ddison, Yt. Was married March 19, 18(58 to 
W^diacc H. Foster, who died Jan. .\5, 1S90. .Mrs. Foster has 
two cliildren living, Julia K. Foster Drury, wife of Dr. Fred 
Drury, of Gouverneur, and James Bowne Foster, of Hanford, 
California. Her portrait appears in the D. A. R. Group. 

Of Wallace II. Foster, one who knew him intimately says: 
"He was the soul of lioiior, a steadfast and relialile friend, a 
man of good business ability and a citizen whom to know was 
to esteem." 
Enocli P. Griffith, Richville, N. Y., was born in South Wales, in the year 184;?. Emigrated 
to this country with his parents, the late Ebenezer and Esther (Jones) Griftitli in the year 
]85fi. Wlien the Civil War broke out, be enlisted in Co. K., (iOth N. Y. Infantry and served 
four \ears. ,\t the close of the war, he bought the lilacksmitb shop conducted at the thne 
bv J. E. Xash. He luiiU the sbo]i now owned by .V. F. Owens. For upwards of ten years 
he conducted a. first-class liardware store. He was married in 1866 to Miss Jaue Jones and 
h:\ve three children, Maria, wife of \. W. Overacker, Walter ()., and Welister E. Mr. Griffith H. Foster 



is a member of Riehville Lodge, No. 633 F. & A. M., a staunch Republican and is well posted 

on all topics of tlie day. 

Webster Everett Griffith, born in Riehville, ilarch 17, 18T(i. His ])arents were E. P. 

Griffith, born in Wales, 184;2, and Jane Jones Griffith, born in Lewis Co. Mr. Griffith received 

his preliminary education at Riehville, grailuating at Gouverneur 

High School and married June 1, ]H98, Bessie Walch. They 

are the parents of one child, Margaret. After graduating at 

Gouverneur High School, Mr. Griffith entered Cornell University 

Dairy School in 1895, from which institution he graduated with 

honor, p'irst accepted a position as manager of a Creamery 

at Bangor, Franklin County. This factory was the first factory 

to distriliute the proceeds from average of butter fats rather 

than the weight of milk. This sampling and computing falling 

upon Mr. Griffith as well as the keeping of books and accounts 

for the association. He returned to Cornell in 1896 where he 

pursued an advanced course. After completion of the course, Wehster E.Griffith. 

accepted a position with W. R. Boynton & Co., Jladrid. He remained with Jlessrs. Boyn- 

ton two years, then passed civil service examination and was appointed expert by Commissioner 
of Agricidture. In 1889 was made butter inspector at Cornell LTniversity wliich position he now 

holds. In 190i? took post graduate course in Ohio State University. 

AVilliani Gardner, born in Edwards in 1860. His parents 
were Alvin L. Gardner, liorn in Sacketts Hariior in 1831, and 
Christiana Gier Gardner, liorn in Edwards in 1838. Mr. Gardner 
was educated in Edwards and in 1881 married Teresa Murty. 
Mr. Gardner is a retired farmer. Was elected supervisor of Ed- 
wards which office he now holds. Has been president of the vill- 
age and trustee, which position he now holds. Has lieen Super- 
intendent of the Ontario Talc Co., which position he held from 
the organization for five years, during which time the comjiany 
constructed their talc mill at Fullerville and did nujch of their 
development work. Mr. Gardner is now engaged in extensive 
Irmber operations in Edwards. 
Hermon H. Gerner, born in Lowville, 18T1. His parents were Joseph Gerner, born in 
Germany, 1830 and .loha.nna Frick Gerner, born in Germany. Jlr. Gerner was educated in 
Lowville and married in 1901 to Nina Thayer. Mr. Gerner is a tailor by profession, conduct- 
ing a sho]) in Gouverneur. He is a prominent Mason, memlier of the various Masonic bodies in 
Gouverneur and master of the lodge. Member of the Masonic Temple Club. His portrait 
ai)pears in the Blue Lodge grouji. 

Edward W. Gaddis, born in DeKalb in 1860. His parents 
were James Gaddis, born in Ireland in 1830, and Mary McLoruen 
Gaddis, born in Ireland in IS3-2. Was educated in the conunoji 
schools of DeKalb and married in 1886 to Elma JI. Seaver. .Mr. 
and Mrs. Gaddis are the parents of five children, Raymond, 
Ruth, Fred, Edith and Esther. He has been in the grocery busi- 
ness since 188:2. Served as village trustee, 1904-5. Jlemlier of 
Gouverneur Lodge No. -217, F. & A. M. Since retiring from mer- 
cantile business Mr. Gaddis has engaged in extensive building 

Ed«aul W. (;.iddis. 

A. A. Gates, Riehville, X. Y., was born in Fowler in IS.JO. Educated in the Gmiverneur 
Wesleyan Seminary. He has lieen twice married. His first wife was Miss Frances Bacon 
who died hi 1889. In June 1896 he was married to Jliss Hattie Andrew of .Vntwerp, by 

William Gardner. 



Louisa A. Griffin Coniua 

Iiriscull oriffin. 

whom lie lias two sons, A. Moi-ris and Jlerrill A. He was in the feed and lumber business at 
Antwerp for a numlier of years. Last autumn, he sold out his interest there and took posses- 
sion of the Riehville Jlills. His method of doing business is "on the square" which has gained 
him a reputation as an honest and upright business man. He is a Mason. In politics a Demo- 
crat. His parents were A. F. Gates who was born in Champion in 1835 and his mother's 
maiden name was Jane Nicholson of Lewis County, X. Y. 

Louisa A. Griffin Cornwall, liorn 
in Redwood, 18()3, her parents were 
Xichohis Bush, born in Metz, France, 
1834 and Elizalieth DoUinger, born in 
Leray\-ille, Jefferson County, 183-!-. 
She was educated in Redwood and 
married i)i 1881 to Florence D. Grif- 
fin. She has one son, James Dris- 
coU Griffin. Jlrs. Cornwall's mother, 
Flizabeth DoUinger, was a niece of 
Ignatius Xon DoUinger, who started 
the reform Church at Munich. (See 
encyclopedia ) . 

Ross E. Cioodenough, born in Fowler, 1877. His parents were \Vm. Henry Goodnough, 
liorn in Gouverneur, 1830 and Ellen Kitts Goodnough, born in Fowler, 1833. He was edu- 
cated in Gouverneur High School and married in 1901 to Anna Gene Parsons. Has one 
child, Dorothy Ho]ie Goodnough. Mr. Goodnough is a partner in the Jewelry firm of York 
& Goodnough. 

Horace Elon Cjardner, born in Gouverneur in 18.55. His 
jiarents were Nelson Gardner, born in Rodman, .Jefferson County, 
N. Y., in 1836, and Harriet White, born in DeKalb in 1836. He 
was educated in Gou^'erneur "W^esleyan Seminary and married in 
188-1 to Edith R. Hildreth. Jlr. and Mrs. Gardner are the parents 
of Grover, Cecil, ^'e^non, Clyde, Earl, Herbert, Stella and 
Ernest. Spent his early life as a farmer and resides near Rich- 

Horace E. Gardner. 
Joseph George, born in Madrid, Fell. 7, 1850. His ])arents were Henry Cieorge, born 
in 'SVaterford, Ireland, 1796, died 1869, and Elizabeth Green, born in Cork, Ireland, 1801, died 
1903. He was married in 1877 to Cornelia Graves. Mr. George came here from Richville sev- 
eral years ago and entered the ]>ractice of lau' which he has continued until the present time. 

Ward Glazier, born in Oak Lane, ilass., in 1818. His 
parents were Jaliez Glazier, born in West Boylston, ilass., and 
Sarah Tucker Glazier, born in Shrew.sbury, Mass. Mr. Glazier 
was educated in Fowler and G. W. Seminary and married in 
1840 to Maliitalile Bolton, to whom were born three children. 
George H., .Vrthur W., and Lena .1. Mr. Glazier's life is more 
fully set forth in the Monograph on Gcnivcrneur. 

^\'a^d Gl.i/ier, 



Abram Caleb Gates, l)orn in Goiiverneur, 1840. His jiarents 
were Caleb Gates, born in A'ermont, Jan. 26, 1811, and Harriet 
Miller Gates. He was educated in the district schools and G. W. 
Seminary and married in 1881 to Fannie Johnson. Mr. and Mrs. 
Gates have one child, Nellie Harriet, l)orn Sejit. 37, 1883. Mr. 
Gates lived on the farm until about 33 years of age, removing to 
the village of Gouverneur and engaging in business «ith J. M. 
Sparks. Later worked for W. P. Herring five years, buying stock 
in Canada. Was a keeper in Dannemora prison four years. 
Postmaster in Gouverneur during President Harrison's adminis- 
tration. Is the present Superintendent of Poor of St. Law. Co., 
and resides at Canton. 

Abiani C ("Jates. 

Rev. AVatson K. Gale, liorn in Moirali, Franklin County, 18K3. 
His parents were Ezra Gale liorn in New Fame, and Soloma 
Pierce, born in Connecticut. Mr. Gale was educated in 
Franklin Academy and in 1880 married to Fannie M. Anderson. 
They are the parents of F. Bethel, L. Bernice and C. Beatrice. 
Mr. Gale is a Jlethodist minister, and lias been for two years pas- 
tor of the Hailesboro and Natural Dam Churches. 

Rev. W. E. Gale. 

Benjamin Cross Goodnough, born in Fowler, July 19, 1876. 
His parents were Eugene Herljiert Goodnough, born in Sprague- 
ville, and Amelia Jane Cross Goodnough, liorn in Fowler. He 
was educated in Gouverneur AVesleyan Seminary and married 
Oct. Ji, 1896 to Rose Lawrence. He is the father of four 
children, Howard Benjamin, Everett Lyle, Murray Lee, and 
Donald Lawrence. Mr. Goodnough is a prominent farmer resid- 
ing on the Spragueville road, this town. 

Benj. C. (inodnough. 

Arthur Judson Gilson, born in DeKalb in 1873. His parents 
are Edwin M. Gilson, born in DeKalb in 1836 and .\ngeline Wil- 
son Gilson, born in Depeyster in 1853. He was educated in De- 
Kalb and in 1891 married to Mary A. Weatherup. They are the 
parents of Ray, Ralph, Harry and Belle. Mr. Gilson is a suc- 
cessful cheese and Imtter maker in the town of Hermon. Is now 
re])airing the Elm Grove factory which he intends to make his 
home and permanent place of liusiness. 

Artliiir J. Gilson. 
Fred Spencer Hill, born in Gouverneur, 1868. His parents were David Hill, born in 
St. Boswells, Roxburyshire, Scotland, and Chloe Kennan Burnett, born in DeKalb, 1831. He 
was educated in G. W. Seminary and 1905 married to Helen E. Graves. Mr. Hill is a farmer 
residing on what is known as the Scotch Settlement Road. Mrs. Hill is a relative of the 
famous litterateur, George Kennan. 



W. L. Hendrick. 

Stephen V. R. Hendrick, Richville, N. Y. (the portrait is of his son, W. L. Hendrick), 
born at Easthanipton, Jlass., in 1831. Educated at Easthampton, Mass. He was married 
to Miss Helen E. Eynde of Richville in 18.56. They have one son 
living, Re^. W. L. Hendrick of Xorwicli, Mass. Mr. Hend- 
ricli has heen active'y engaged as contractcu' nearly all his life. 
In politics he is a stanncli Democrat of the old school. \ nieni- 
her of the Congregational Church. He is a man of good judg- 
ment and is fearless in his convictions. He is the son of Stejihen 
and Xancy (Phelps) Hendrick, lioth residents of Massachusetts. 
Few men living have so intimate a knowledge of the early history 
of tlie old Potsdam & V>'atertown R. R. as ilr. Hendrick. Geo. 
B. Phelps, a relative and a contractor from Springfield, JIass., 
from which state Hendrick also came, gave him many contracts 
at grading as was also true on the Watertown & Rome portion 

of the road. He tells of the struggles of Judge Dodge, Hiram 
B. Keene and others to get the road completed. When ready 
for the rails there was no money to Iniy them. There were 
none rolled in this country then, and the first laid on the road 
came from England. The directors, including Dodge and Keenc 
became jiersonally responsible for them, signing notes as collat- 
eral security. They were obliged to meet these obligations when 
they became due. Each of the directors named paid $10,000 
from his private fortune and this was true of the others on the 
board. How nnich of this, if any, was returned to them when 
the road was transferred, is not known, but doulrtless they rc- 
Col. H, B. Keene. co\ered the full amount when this ])ortion of the road was merg- 

ed into the H. W. & O. System. He tells of a trip of the directors 
to Canton when the rails were first laid. The engineer, not hav- 
ing been paid his wages for several months, "opened the throttle" 
and the road being rough, soon had the occupants of the car 
in a state of ner^■ous prostration. Being e>)iostulated with on 
sto|5])ing, he told the terrified officials to "l>ay me up then — you" 
and that concluded the interview. The writer has a vivid re- 
meml)rancc of riding over the Ogdensburg branch with Mr. 
Hendrick al)Out twenty-five years ago, and lieing told of the 
struggles to get the grading done with little money to pay the 
men and an insutti<'ient supply of teams and equipment. There 
\vas a trifling rock-cut pointed out which gave him infinite trouble 
with the resources he had at command. Probably the necessity for the (lersimal endorse- 
ments spoken of above, was only a part of the Wall street end of the affair, it being the 
settled plan there to make residents along the line put up every dollar possible so that when 
the inevitable forclosure of the bondholders came, there would be more in the "pot" for 

Judpe Oodpe 

Willis P. Hendrick, one of twin sons of Ste])hen Y. R. and Helen I,ynde Hendrick, was 
born at Richville, Dec. 2, 1H5(). He was educated in the public .schools of his native town 
with about three years in Oberlin College, O. His health incapacitated him for further study. 
For one year he engaged in business with his brother at Easthampton, Mass. He was married 
Oct. 9, 1881, to Jliss Ida R. Hendrick of Springfield, Mass. Seven children were born unto 
them, Helen, Isabel, Stej)hen, Carl, Joel, Rachel and I.ois, the younger born two days after 
her father's death. Mr. Hendrick joined Richville Lodge, I. O. G. T., No. 85 when 13 years 
old ajid l;ecame a Good Templar of International repute. At 14 years of age he became a 
memlier of the 1st Congregational Church and for a number of years held the office of clerk. 



He vvns closely associated with all the auxiliaries of tlie church. He was also a faithful 
ineiiiher of Richville Lodge, No. 633, V. & A. M., and was also associated with tlie Foresters 
and Maccahees. For a number of years he was editor of the St. Lawrence Templar. In 
1897 he estahli,shed the Richville Recorder and DeKalli Township Telegram; but was called 
away before he realized the fruits of his labors. For two terms he held the position of 
postmaster and was justice of the peace three terms. He died Feb. 3, 1300, loved and re- 
spected by all. 

William H. Haile, Richville, X. Y., was liorii in DeKalb, in 1840. He had tlie usual 
experience of farmers" sons. AVhen 38 years old he married Viola M. Scri])ture, of Herman, 
and to them have been Ijorn Lulu M., Welby \V., and Melvin 
H. He has 250 acres well equipped with buildings and modern 
machinery for all agricultural purposes and his farm is in 
a high state of cultivation as a result of his personal supervision. 
He has, in addition to managing his farm, held the position as 
salesman of butter and cheese for nearly all of the factories of 
his and adjoining towns, numbering no less than sixteen the pres- 
ent year. He has held the position as President of the Canton 
Board of Trade for several years. His ability, together with his 
honesty and di])lomacy, have given him a wide reputation as sales- 
man of dairy products. He is a meml)er of Ricliville Lodge 
No. aXi F. & A. M., and Richville Chapter No. 2!)I, O. E. H. William H. Haile. 

Mr. Haile is held in the highest esteem by all jjersons that he has come in contact with either 
in a friendly or business way. 

Gilbert H. Hodgkins, born in Fowler, 183S. Llis ]>arents were Phineas Hodgkins, l)orn in 
Fowler in 1806, and Esther Hawkin Hodgkins, born in A'ermont. Mr. Hodgkins was ecU- 
cated in Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary and married in 1875 to Jane Elizabeth 
Dodds. Mr. and Sirs. Hodgkins are the parents of two children, Grace J., and 
Harry H. The subject of this sketch taught school in the l^rick school house 
now occupied l)y the Gouverneur Steam Laundry in 1864-5. Was in tlie insurance business 
in Canton representing the Agricultural Insurance Co. of Watertown, for several years, be- 
ginning such occupation in 1866. Now a retired farmer on Rowley street, Gouverneur. 

Jay Fuller Hodgkins, born in F^owler in 1845, his parents 
were Phineas Hodgkins and Esther Hawkins Hodgkins. AVhen 
not yet eigliteen years old he enlisted in the 18th X. Y. Cavalry 
serving until the close of the war. Participated in the Red 
River expedition imder Gen. Banks. Remained in Texas until 
discharged. Returning home pursued a course in the Gouverneur 
Wesleyan Seminary and in 1871 was married to Delia Cleveland, 
who together with one daughter, Blanch A., survive him. Mr. 
Hodgkins was a well known dairy operator having manufactured 
and dealt in cheese here and in tliis vicinity fur many years. 
For several years he had owned and operated tlie Hodgkin or 
Jay F~H^kins. Gouvemeur factory near this village. His death occurred 

June 3, 1903. Mrs. Hodgkin.s' portrait appears in group 2, D. A. R. 

Westel Hildreth, born in Fowler, 1829. Died in Gouverneur, 1904. His parents were 
Amos Hildreth, born in Chesterfield, X'. H., 1789, and Eunice Johnson Hildreth, Viorn in Lan- 
caster, Mass., 1792. He was the father of Albert, Elmer, Eugene, Evlyn, Frank and Inez 
Hildreth, all of whom were educated in the G. W. Seminary and Gouverneur High School. 
The sons are successful business men in tlie The oldest daughter, Miss Evlyn, lives 
with her mother in Gouverneur. The other daughter, Inez, is the wife of Mr. G. W. Edwards, 
a slate manufacturer of Granville. Mr. Hildreth, prior to his death, lived for some years 
on Barney St., mo\ing there from the farm on Rock Island road. 



Edwin K. Hal 

Edwin K. Hall, born in Potsdam, Oct. 30, 1868. His jiarents were Theodore A. Hall, 
born in Malone, Jnly 2i, 183-i. and Mary Jl. AVest Hall, born in 
Broadalbin, X. Y., July 12, 1843. Mr. Hall was married Oct. 
7, 189i to Klla M. Cook. .Mr. and .Mrs. Hall are the parents 
of three children, Chuid Al., Theodore F., and Maria M. !Mr. 
Hall gained his education in Potsdam, working his way through 
school liy the sale of pajiers, ])op corn, etc. .Vfter finishing school 
worked for some time with carpenters and masons, then as clerk 
in a store. Learned the jewelry trade with Fred Hall. His first 
liusiness venture was in the jewelry business in W. Va. Was 
nine years in the jewelry Inisiness in AVatertown, coming to 
Gouverneur from there. Xow conducts a successfid jewelry 
establishment on Main street. 

Amos Hildreth, liorn in Chesterfield, X. H., 1789. Married to Eunice Johnson. Amos 
Hildrcth, founder of the Hildreth family in this section was an early pioneer, coming here 
from Herkimer in 1818. He Ijought 11:2 acres of land two miles from Gouverneur, returned 
to Herkimer for his family, moving here in .\pril, 1819. Six of his children were born here of 
whom only one is now living, Mrs. Susan Hilts, wife of William J. Hilts. Mr. Hildreth died 
in 187(i. 

.Sylvester Folies Hartley, l)orn in Gouverneur, 1838. His parents were Edward Hartley, 
born neftr Pertii, in 1807, and Jeanette Sophia Thomas Hartley, I:)orn in Perth, Canada, 1806. 
.Mr. Hartley was educated in the district schools and G. W. 
Seminary and married in 1871 to .Vgnes Wilson. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hartley are tlie parents of Winifred Laura, Seward Wilson, 
Chester .\rthur, and Ernest Sylvester. Mr. Hartley spent his 
early life upon his farm In X'orth Gouverneur, moving to Gouver- 
neur about 1883. Was for five years after coming to this village 
treasurer of the St. Lawrence ^lanufacturlng Co. Has always 
lieen identified with the Cjouverneur .Vgrlcultural Society of 
which he is now President. Mr. Hartley is an enthusiastic 
agriculturalist and is identified with all Institutions for its ad- 
\ancenient. Mr, Hartley's portrait appears also in the group 
of charter members of Patrons of Industry aiul in tlie officers 
of the CHJuverneur ,\grlcultural and Mechanical Society. 

.\gnes (Wilson) Hartley, born in ilaitland, Ont., 184-8. Her parents 
s(ui, born at Glasgow, Scotland in 1808, and .Jane Bolton, born 
near Perth, Canada, in 1818. She was educated In the common 
schools of Canada and in 1871 married to Sylvester F. Hart- 
lev. (See biograiihical sketch). She is the mother of AVIni- 
fred Laura, Seward Wilson, Chester Arthur, :ind Ernest Syl- 
\ester Hartley. .\ndrew E., father of the sul)ject of this 
sketch, came to Canada in 181.5, was self educated. AVas justice 
of the peace in the ]ilace for fifteen years, .Member of the 
County Council for several years. Mrs. Hartley is a prominent 
member of Gou\erneur Grange. Her portrait is also In the 
grou]) of cliarter Tncmliers of the P. of I. 

Mrs, S, F Hartley. 
William J, Hilts, born in Boouvlllc, 18J8. His wife's father, .Amos Hildreth, was born 
in Chesterfield, X'. H,, 1783, and his wife's mother, Emiice Johnson, was born in Lancaster, 
Mass. 179?. He was married in 18,)1. to Susan Hildreth, Mr. and Mrs. Hilts are the parents 
of Sumner, .Mice, Hattie, .Vnnette, Helen, and Grace, Air. and :\lrs. Hilts' children were 
born and educated in Ciouverneur. .Ml but two are now in the West. .Airs. William Tlionip- 
M)n now resides In this town, and .Ailss Grace is a teacher In Garden City, L. 1. 

re .Vndrew AVil- 



Martin YanBuren Hazeltoii, born in Fowler, March 3, 1838. His jnirents were Joseph 
H. Hazeltoii, born in Poultney, Vt., Feb. ;.'l, 1809, and Eliiiira Wight Haz-lt i;i, bini in Fair- 
field, Herkimer County, June 20, 1814. Mv. Hazelton is by occu- 
pation a farmer, was educated in the common schools of St. 
I/awrence and JefFcr:-,on Counties. Jlarricd April 8, 18()3 to Clar- 
inda Rhodes. Mr. and Mrs. Hazelton are the parents of Lydia 
I. Fiazeltoi! Kelley of Fowler, and Annette E. Hazelton Ban- 
croft of Edwards. Mr. Hazelton assisted his father in the clear- 
ing up of a farm on what is now known as the Russell Turn- 
pike in Fowler, and experienced the usual trials incident to siicji 
occu])ation. Left home in 18G3 and purchased a farm in Jeffer- 
son County, between Antwerp and Philadelphia. Paid for the 
same from the jiroceeds of tlie farm in six years. Returnel 

to Fowler in 1869, buying the Chas. Hale farm. In 1875 moved jj y. n, Hazeli.m. 

to the Simeon Hazelton farm at Little York. Mr. and Mrs. Hazelton are memlers of the New 
York State Graiij e and Gonverneur Grange No. 303, Pomona Grange of St. Lawrence Co. 

Cyrus W. Hewitt, liorn in Dickinson, N". Y., 184-6. His 
parents were Flenry Hewitt, born in Shellnime, Vt., 1810, and 
Emily Prentiss Hewitt, born in Charlotte, Vt., 1814. He was 
educated at Potsdam Normal School and Albany Law School. 
Was married in 1880 to Mary A. Thompson. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hewitt are the parents of four children, Florence, Harry, Carl, 
and Ryland. Mr. Hewitt taught school on various occasions 
from 1809 to 1875, after which he took up the study of law which 
jirofession he practiced two years prior to 1880 Representa- 
ti\es of the Hewitt family have taken acti\e part in all the wars 
of this country from Bunker Hill to Manilla. Mr. Hewitt is 
Cyrus W. He«ett. President of the Board of Education in this village and his 

portrait appears in the group of that body. 

Dr. Charles Barzilla Hawley, whose portrait appears in group of physicians, was born 
in Jlillroches, Canada, in 1847. His parents were Jesse Barnum Hawley, born in Seneca Falls, 
N. Y., in 1797, and Rebecca L. Hitchcock Hawley, born at Fort Covington, N. Y. Dr. Haw- 
ley completed his education in Michigan University and Cincinnatti College of Mecheine and 
Surgery. He was married in 1871 to Lucy Chapin. Dr. and Mrs. Hawley are the parents 
of Henry Bartiett and Jesse Benson of New York and Cincinnatti. Dr. Hawley has prac- 
ticed his profession in Gonverneur since Dec. 13, 1888. Mrs. Hawley's portrait will be found 
in D. A. R. group No. 1. 

John Wesley Henderson, born in South Mountain, Ont., Jan. 
4, 1859. His parents were Isaac Chauncy Henderson, and Me- 
linda Guernsey Henderson. He was educated at South Mountain 
and Jan. 18, 1884, married to Zelma Burt. Mr. and Mrs. Hen- 
derson are the parents of Ruth Burt and Kate Morse Hender- 
son. Mr. Henderson came to Gonverneur in 1881, entering the 
emploj' of O. H. Waldo as telegraph o])erator and harness mak- 
er. In 1883 started business for himself. In 1895 adding to 
his hnslness the handling of carriages, etc., which he still con- 

John W. HtiiclL-rscin. 

Louis J. Haile, liorii Nov. 3, 18i;3. His parents were James Haile born in Putney, Vt., 
and Tabitha Johnson Haile, born in Putney, Vt. Was educated in Gonverneur Wesleyan Sem- 
inary and married in 1849 to Lucy A. Leach. Four children of this union are now living — 



Edith C, .7. Lewis, Elmer L. and Lucy E. Mr. Halle's parents were among the first settlers of 
Gouverneur, coming into the town in 1808. Drove from Antwerp to Gouverneur ^\'ith an 
ox team through the forest where just sufficient trees were cut to mark the road. Settled in 
Scotch Settlement where he continued to live (uitil his death, as did also the subject of this 
sketch. -Mr. Haile, the subject of this sketch, was assessiu- of the town, road commissioner and 
one of the prominent and influential habitants. Died April Ij, 1880. 

Joseph F. Hawkey, born in Glenvale, Ont., in 1879. His 
l)arents were Thomas Hawkey, l)orn in Cornwall, Eng., and 
Sarah Toland Hawkey, born in Gananoque, Ont. Educated at 
Glenvale, Ont. Mr. Hawkey is an athlete and professional 
wrestler. Has won eleven out of twelve wrestling matches. De- 
feated W. R. Holmes, April 1, 1905, and Cajjt. Duncan C. Ross 
at Gouverneur, May (!, 190,5. He is the cliampion middle weight 
of Ontario. 


Joseph F. Hawkey. 
Alva 13. Hargrave, bom in Lisbon, May 13, 1863. His parents were Henry "W. 

grave, horn in Madrid, April 23, 1829, and Sarah W. Lylle, born in Lisbon, Aug. (i. 
He was etlucated in the common schools of Lisbon and married 

in 1882 to Deborah C. Morgan. Mr. and Mrs. Hargrave are the 
parents of three children, Jlyra L. Dollar, Jlaudc and Lena M. 
He has been engaged in the manufacture of butter and cheese 
2(i years until 1889 in the town of Lisbon, removing to Heuvel- 
ton. In 1899, p\irchased the Stone Creamery and Cheese Factory 
of that ])lace, operating the same imtil the ]irese)it time. A\^as a 
successful candidate for jiosition of cheese inspectoi' in 19 10, 

recei\'ing highest score in compctiti\e Ci^■il Ser\'ice examinatiiin, 

receiving his appointment in 1901. He received numerous 

]>ri/.es in New York State Dairymen's Association, Xcw A'ork 

State P'air and Pan-.\merican Exhibition. A few of these ]iriz,'s j\i,a j; Hargrave. 

were as follows: Solid silver medal given l)y .Tcflf. County Agricultural Society. .$10 cash 

])rizc and sih-er lo\ing cu]), won after three comjictitions. Received a score of 100 on cheese 

cxiiibited at Pan-,\nierican Exhibition for cheese made for American consumption, and 99i/j 

per <-ciil. at .St;itc Fair for cheese for consinn]:)tion in F^ngland. 

I'jrwin B. Ihirlbut, born in DeKalb in 1856. His jiarents 
were .\ndre«- .1, Hurlbut, liin-n in Dciieyster, Oct. 25, 1829, and 
Clarisa Barney Hurlbut, born in Gouverneur. He was edu- 
cated in Gouverneur and in 1880 married to Hattie R. Marsales. 
Mr. Hurll)ut has l)een ]ironiinently interested in the Marble busi- 
ness for J.'i years, as superintendent of the Davidson Quarries 
and later as a ])artner in the firm of LIurlbut & Scholton, marble 
finishers. Retired in 1903. Is now one of the town assessors. 

];r\vin B. Hurlbut. 

Mrs. Eliza Bo«iie Foster Hall, born in Gouverneur, July 32, 1850. Her parents were Isaac 
Foster Ixjrn in Gouverneur, Feb. 16, 1815, and Eliza Bowne Foster ))orn in Sautucket, ly. I. ,1813, 
Airs. Hall was married to Wiliam Llenry Hall Nov. 17, 1886. She was educated in G. AV. 
Seminary and has laie daughter, Susie Mary. Mrs. Flail's great great grandfather, William 
I'oster, was in the Revohitionarv war. 



Joseph Howes, deceased, born in Ashfield, Mass., Sept. 3, 1800. His pai-ents were Joshua 
Hjwes, born in Cape Cod, Mass., and Hepzibah Hall Howes, horn in Mass. He was educated 

in the public schools of Massachusetts and married Oct. -26, IHST, 

to Margaret Stevens. Emigrated to New York State at the age 

of Jl. Engaged in manufacturing in St. Johnsville. Joined 
State Militia in which he was appointed ensign, 6th Reg. N. Y. 

Light Infantry by Enos Thorj), Governor. Was promoted to 

Lieutenant by W. L. Marcy, served until his discharge. Dis- 
charge being as captain after eight years service. Discharge was 

signed by Brigadier Lewis Averill. He was married Oct. 26, 

1837, soon after moving to Gouverneur. Purchased a farm on 

North Side. Was an active member of the Presbyterian Church, 

held position of elder for thirty years. His Avife, Margaret, died 

Sept. 9, 1804'. Sept. s31, 186,5, married to Hannah Saunders and 
moved from the farm into the village, March, 1874', building a house on the corner of Rock Is- 
land and Rowley Sts., where he died Se])t. 8, 1884. 

Josepii Houes, 

Captain N. Holt, born in DeKalb, 18,5i). His parents were 
Ccn-tland C. Holt, born in DeKalb, 1819, and Helen A. Thorn- 
lill Holt, born in DeKalb, 1836. Mr. Holt is by occupation a 
)laoksmith and has conducted a blacksmith shop in Gouverneur 
since 1883. 

Captain N. Holt. 

Eaton W, Hurst, born in Macomb in 1870. His parents 
were James Hurst, born in Ireland in 1830, and Patience Wilson 
Hurst, born in Macomb. He was educated in Macomb and 
Gouverneur and married in 189:3 to Carrie A. Truax. They have 
one child, Marion L. Mr. Hurst is the proprietor of the 
Cold Spring cheese factory at Macomb. He is one of Macomb's 
leading cheese manufacturers and citizens. The factory is oper- 
ated as a butter faetnry during the winter months. 

W'i'liam i-i . Hazelton, 

Eaton W. Hurst. 

William H. Hazelton, lioru in Hammond, 1842. His parents 
were John Hazelton, born in Bo.ston, 1801, and Elizabeth Yer- 
don, born in Herkimer County, 1807. Educated in Gouver- 
neur and married in 1867 to JIariette E. Carpenter. They were 
the parents of Everett, Earl, Leta and Cecil Hazelton. Mr. Haz- 
elton enlisted in 1863 and served three years in 142 Reg. Infan- 
try. Carried flag of that regiment fen- two years. AVas promoted 
to Second Lieutenant Nov. 17, 1864, and discharged June 5, 1865. 
Mr. Hazelton's first wife died Sept. 27, 1887. He married for his 
second wife Hattie Campbell. She is the mother of one child, 
Vivian Pearl. Mr. Hazelton was for three years quartermaster 
of the Barnes Post 1.56. Is employed as Superintendent of the 
Riverside Cemetery. 



James F. Hill, born in Hammoncl in 1821. His parents were James Hill, born in St. Bos- 
well, Scotland, and Jeanette Shields Hill, born in :\Ielrose, Scotland. He was educated in 
Goiiverjieur and in 18j4. m-irricd 
Jane Storie. They are the parents of 
two children — Mary and Edwin, with 
whom Mr. Hill resides. Mr. Hill's 
parents came to tliis country in 1818 
settling in Hammond. In 1828 they 
moved to Gou\erneur on \\'iiat is 
known as the Scotch Settlement road. 
Tlie descendants of James Hill, Sr., 
and Jeannette Shields Hill now resid- 
ing in this vicimty number about 
James F. Hill. fortf. James Hil 

Alvin Orville Harris born in Fowler March 1, 1824. His parents were Ebenezer Harris, 
born in Vermont Oct. 30, 1790, and Turpenia Streeter liorn in Vermont Nov. 23, 1796. He was 
educated in Fowler and G. AV. Seminary and married Jan. C, 184.8, to Mary D. HodgI<ins. Her 
jjarents were Phineas Hodgkins, Ijorn in Fowler 1806, and Esther Ha^vkins, born in A' 
Mr. and Mrs. Harris are the parents of Julia M., Louisa E. Hodgkins Baker, Ella M. Hodg- 
kins Parlow and Frank B. Mr. Harris was a farmer in Fowler until 1878, then moved into the 
town of Gouverneur on what is known as the Little Bow road. Came to Gouvcrneur in 1882 and 
for a number of years conducted farmers' sheds on Park street. 

'William Henry Holt, born in DeKalb in 1861. His parents 
were Cortland C. Holt, born in DeKalb in 1819, and Helen Fran- 
ces Thornhill Holt, l)orn in DeKalb in 1836. Mr. Holt was edu- 
cated in the common schools of DeKall) and married in 1904 to 
Clara E. Townsley. Mr. Holt has been a resident of Gouver- 
neur for several years conducting a livery and sale stable. 

William H. Holt. 
Walter W. Hall was born near Gouverneur, in 1849. His father, Edward Hall, was a 
thrifty farmer of Xew England ancestry, and his mother's maiden name was Catherine Mc- 
Chesney. He was educated at the Gouverneur Wesleyan Semin- 
ary. In his early business career he acquired an enviable repu- 
tation as a cheesemaker, and at one time owned one of the larg- 
est factories in Northern New York. Being a careful inves- 
tigator and an earnest student, the product of his factory was 
in quick demand at the top jirice. In 1891, his services were 
sought by the state, and he was tendered and accepted the posi- 
tion of Dairy Instructor at Cornell LTniversity, where he has 
l)een activey engaged for a period 'if fourteen year-. Mr. Hall 
married Emma Holt of Carthage, N. Y., in 1878, and they have 
three children, Clarence L., Ruth M. and Jean L. His |inrtrait 
also appears in the grou)) of O. II. W. Executive committee. 
Albert M. Hilts was born in Fowler, N. Y., in 1879, his parents were Fred S. Hilts, born 
in Fowler March 27th, 1859, and Luella A. Rhodes Hilts, born in Fowler, Nov., 18,';8. Mr. 
Hilts has been occupied as a railroad Ijrakeman since 1901, and resides in Carthage, N. Y. 

Lucy A. Rutherford Jewett, born in Gouverneur June 19, 1842. Her ])arents were William 
Rutherford, born in Scotland, Oct. 23, 1813, and Jane Smith R\itherford, Ijorn July 16, 1817, in 

Walter W. Hall. 



Gouverneur. Jane Smith Rutherford was the daughter of Willard Smith (whose liiograpliical 
sketch is in this history). Mrs. Jewett is by occujiation a house wife — was educated in Gouv- 
erneur, where she has always resided. Allen Smith, l)rother of our subject was tlie first 
wliite child bom in the town of Gouverneur. 

.Vlhcrt AV. Hi]], liorn in Gouverneur in 1858. His parents 
were Andrew Hill, born in Hammond in 1838, and Margaret 
Tliompson, born in Gouverneur in 183.3. He was educated in 
Gouverneur and in 1885 married to Jennie M. Sartwell. Mr. and 
.Mrs. Hill are the parents of Clara E. and Edith L. Mr. Hill 
ii a machinist by trade, was for some j'ears su])erintendent of 
lie Gou\'erneur ^Machine Co. Is now enijiloj'ed in tlic Xe\\' York 
'\ir Brake Works, Watertown. 

Albert W. Hill. 

Mr. Fred Henry Haile was born in Hailesboro, X. Y., March 
8, 1843. His parents were Henry H. Haile, born in Fairfield, 
Herkimer County, X. Y., in 1803, and Eliza Goodell Haile. Mr. 
Halle served with honor and distinction in tlie war of the (id's. 
Was Sergeant in Co. D 16th New Yorlc Infantry; Captain Co. 
F 18tb Kew York Cavalry. His portrait apjiears in the grou]! 
of officials connected with the Xational Bank. He has been 
])rominent in tiie organization and management of se\'eral pul}> 
mil^s and has licen identified with both the Talc and Marljle 
interests in this vicinity, and is now a director in the First 
X'ational Bank. Tlie portrait is of Maj. Henry H. Haile, father 
nf the subject of the sketch. 

Maj. Henry H. Haile. 

Edward Hall, born in Ashfield, Mass., in 1831. His parents 
were Hall, born in Cape Cod, JIass,, in 1793, aiul Achsah 
Paddock Hall, born in Holden, Mass., 1796. He was married to 
Catherine McChesney in 1843. Is the father of Lott, Ella M., and 
Walter W. Hall, all of whom are living. Spent his early years 
upcui a farm at .Vshfield, ilass., after which he served an ap- 
■prcnticeship as a Yankee peddler, traveling mostly through X'ew 
York State. At the age of twenty-two years, married and set- 
tled upon a Avild farm A\'here he now resides. 

Iduvird Hall. 

Gilbert E. Hutton, born in Macomb, 1865. His parents 
were William Hutton, born in England, and Mary Bristow Hut- 
ton, born in Morri.stown, N". Y. He was educated in Gouverneur, 
and married in 1893 to Anna D. Fox. Mr. Hutton is a grocery 
merchant in Gouverneur, also a breeder of fast horses. He is 
a member of the Masons, Odd Fellows and K. O. T. M. Has 
been for some years a Vice-President of the Gouverneur A. & 
M. Society. Was two years a member of the Board of Trustees. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hutton have three children living, Donald, Ralph 
and Anna F. 

G. E. Hutton. 



William Henry Hall, born in Ft. Jackson, P"eb. -20, 1839. His parents were Theodore 
Alonozo Hall and Mary M. AVest Hall. Mr. Hall was educated at Norwood and Xov. 17, 
188(i, married Eliza Bowne Foster. Mr. and Mrs. Hall are the parents of one child, Susie 
.Mary. AVilliam H. Hall was news agent on the railroad, and ship])ing clerk in a commission 
house in Toledo. Is a charter member of the Odd Fellows lodge of Gouverneur; Free Mason; 
member of the I'.astern Star; Citizens" Club and Masonic Temple Clnli. Has been a resident of 
Gouverneur for M years. 

Dallas M. Hazelton, born in Fowler, 
18'i8. His parents were George D. 
Hazelton, born in 1849, and Ellen A. 
Carr, born in Antwerp, 1850. Mr, 
Hazelton was educated in Gouverneur 
High School and Albany Law School 
and married in 1903 to Ethel B. 
Taitt. He graduated from law school 
in 1901 and was ad.nitted to the bar. 
Is a Democrat in politics. Was trus- 
tee of Gouverneur village in 190:3. 
Dallas M. Hazekoi 

Levi Hurlbut, born in DcKalb in 1851. His parents were 
Thomas Hurlbut, born in Dojicyster and .lane Giffin Hurlbut, 
Ijorn in Morristown. ^Ir. Hurlliut was educated in DeKalb and 
married in 187.3 to Elmira J. Stevenson. Six children are living, 
Fred E., Orla B., Clyde S., Bertie E., Howard S., and Ethel P. 

Levi Hurlbut. 

Charles P. Holmes, born in Carthage, 18J7. His parents were 
Elijah Holmes, born in Fairfield, Herkimer County, N. Y., and 
Eliza Pitman Holmes, born in Xew London, Ct. Mr. Holmes 
was by occupation a commercial traveler. He was educated in 
Carthage and was married in 18.54 to Amelia Hurlbert. He died 
Aiiril 5, 1888, at Hailesboro, X. Y. 

Charles P. Holmes. 

William M. Hinton, born in Syracuse, X. Y., 1866. His parents were T. Harry Hinton, 
born in England, and Olive Barton Hinton, born in Syracuse, ilr. Hinton was educated in 
Syracuse, X'. Y., and was married in 1887 to Isabelle Frislue. Mr. and Mrs. Hinton are the 
parents of William B. and Harry. 

Ho was engaged in manufacturing in Weedsport prior to 1891, whence he moved to Can- 
ton, X'. Y., remaining there until 1896, when he came to Gouverneur, and engaged in the hotel 

He has during the ])ast year erected an Opera House in Muskogee, I. T., known as the 
Hinton Opera House. 

His father was until his death a prominent musician of Syracuse, X. Y. 



Lott Hall, born in Gouverneiir, April 7, IH-ll. His parents were Kdward Hall, horn at 
Ashfield, Mass., July 1, 18!31, and Catherine McCliesney Hall, born in Danube, HerUinier Co., 
N. Y. Was educated in Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary. Is a prominent farmer and breeder. 
Charter member of Gouverneur Grange; former Secretary of the Grange Insurance Co.; 
I'residenl of the St. Lawrence Farmers Insurance Co., and has tlie honor of having written 
the first Mutual Insurance policy upon farm proj)erty ever issued in St. Lawrence Co. 

Mr. Hall has been for many years prominentlj- identified with Gouverneur's interests and 
has held various positions of lionor in connection witli the Gouverneur Agricultural and Me- 
chanical Society, of which he is yet an active director. 

John Brayton Johnson, born in Gouverneur Oct. 14, 1850. His j)arents were John John- 
son, born at Johnstown, N. Y., 1801, and Sally Freeman, born in Somerville, N. Y., 1817. Was 
educated at public schools at Somerville, G. W. Seminary and 
Poughkeepsie. ^Married Dec. 29, 1875, to Elizabeth J. Bowtell. 
Mr. and Mrs. Johnson are the parents of John B., Jr., born Sept. 
16, 1878; died Sept. 10, 1899; Harold Bowtell, Martha Deliza, 
and Herbert Douglas Johnson. Came to Gouverneur in 188,3, 
and entered the employ of the St. Law. Manufacturing Co. 
Bought interest in the Gouverneur Machine Co. 1885, was Secre- 
tary and Manager of that in.stitution until 1895. Conducted the 
machine shop and foundry until 1902, then organized the John- 
son Iron Co., of which he has been president since. Was a mem- 
ber of the first Board of Trustees of the Gouverneur Free School; 
member of the Board of Trustees of Gouverneur A'illage, during j. b. joiinson. 

the inception and construction of the water works .system; President of the village 1901-2. His 
portrait also appears in the group of Old Home Weelv Executive Conunittee. 

Elizabeth J. (Bowtell) Johnson, born in Richville Sept. 8, 
1851. Her parents were Henry Seymour Bowtell, l)orn in Bos- 
ton, .Mass., in 1824-, and Deliza Prudence Kendal born in Lewis 
Co. in 182K. IMrs. .lohnson ^\as educated in the puljlic sciiools of 
Lewis and St. Lawrence counties and Dec. 24, 1870, nuirried to 
J. B. Johnson. Is the mother of J. B. Johnson, Jr., who died in 
1899, Harold Bowtell, .Martlia D. and Douglas H. Johnson. 

Mrs. J. B. Juhnson. 

Harold Bowtell Johnson born in Somerville, Aug. 9, 1880. 
His parents are John B. Johnson, born in Gouverneiir Oct. 14, 
1850, and Elizabeth J. Bowtell Johnson, born in Richville Sept. 
8, 1851. Mr. Johnson was educated in the Gouverneur High 
School and married March 4, 190,S, to Jessie Roslinn Parsons, 
who was born Jan. 9, 1882. After graduating Mr. Johnson was 
occupied for some time as corres])ondent of AVatertown Times 
and other papers. In 1901 was employed as reporter on the 
Helena, Mont., Record. In 1903 was local editor for Xorthern 
Tribune. July 1, 1904, entered the employ of the Watertown 
Times, which position he still continues to hold. 

HFirold B. Johnson. 

Mr. William Owen Jones now of N. Y. city, was born in Wales. His parents were Rev. 
David Jones, born iVi Wales, and Elizabeth Davis Jones, also Ijorn in Wales. He was educated 
in Oberlin College, Ohio, from which he graduated in the class of 1881. Was married to Jessie 
l'\ Pound. They have one child. Mr. Jones was private secretary to the general management 



of the XortbcrTi Pacific R. R. from 1S81 to 1887. Private Secretary to the Pre.iiderit and As- 
sistant Cashier of the Chase National Banl; of New York City from 188T to 1903. He is at 
present First Assistant Cashier of the National Parlj Banli in New York City. 

Herliert (>. Johnson liorn in Somerville, 1856. His parents 
ttere Jolm Johnson, Ijorn in Johnstown, N. Y., May, 1801, (see 
hiouraphical sketch), and Sally Freeman Johnson, horn in Som- 
erville, 1816. Mr. Johnson was educated in G. AV. Seminary and 
in 18!),5 married to Eva F. Call. They are the ]iarents of Lloyd 
Herbert and Calvin Wilson Johnson, ilr. Johnson is by trade 
a machinist and has been for some time Superintendent of the 
Johnson Iron Co.'s Works. Member of the I. O. (). F. and was 
in 1904 appointed village clerk, holding this position until March, 
1905. His portrait wil be found also in group of Fire Co. No. 1. 

Herbert (.). Johnson. 

Mr. George B Johnston was l)orn at Ottawa, Canada, in the 
year 1845. His parents were William Johnston, born in Ireland, 
and Catherine Johnston, born in Ireland. Mr. Johnston was edu- 
cated in Otta^\a. He has lieen married twice, his first wife be- 
ing il. E. Fairborn. His .second, Jimnui Brainard. His children 
are Helena C. and I.ila L. L. He is at jiresent occupied as ship- 
per for the .\ldrich Paper Co. Was for several years manager 
for the .Mdricli, Dean & ,\klrich I.uml)er Mills. He is a member 
of the Potsdam Lodge, 303, F. & A. .M. 

George 11. Joinson. 

.\bner Henry -Johnson, liorn in M'ilna, }'CA. His jiarents 
were John .Inhnson, born .at Hartford, Ct., 1781, and Zeruah 
Bligh Johnson. ;\Ir. Johnson was educated in the common schools 
of Fo\>ier and married first in 1853 to Lydia S. Glazier to whom 
A\ere born Dewitt Clinton and Eloyenen. Married second time to 
Paulina Coriiis in 1870 to whom were born Leslie A. and Grace 
B. Mr. Joiinson for nian^" years conducted an csta})lishment for 
the sale of general mcrclunidise in Spragueville. Retired several 
vears aii'o, mo\'inti' to Gou^erneur where he bas since resided. 

Abntr H . Jolmsun. 

William R. Jones, born in Remsen, N. Y. His ]>arents were Robert W. Jones, born in 
England, and Elizabeth Jones, horn in Remsen. He wa , 
educated in the common schools of Oneida Comity and 
Whitestown Seminary. Married 1878 to Henrietta L. 
Hatch. .Mr. and Jlrs. Jones are the parents of Robert 
H. and F^mery H. Jones. ^Ir. Jones s]icnt his early life in Oneida 
county in farming and mercantile business, entering the emjiloy of 
the L'. & B. R. R. R. and American Ex])ress Co. in 1871, re- 
maining in their employ until 1881. Then removed to Fine, N. 
Y., as Superintendent for the Sole Leather Tannery Co., remain- 
ing in their emjiloy until 1893, when he came to Goiiveriieur t ) 
aecejjt the .Su))erjritendence and Treasurership of the Lnit: d 
States Talc Co., which jiosition he still holds. \Vini.iiii K, Ji, 



Rev. Ddvia Jones. 

X. Y., Aug. JO, IMl,? 

Ezra A. Jeiine 

Rev. David Jones, born in I,lan])nni.scnt, Carniarthanshire, Soutli Wales, July 9, 18^1. His 

])arents were William and Elizabeth Jones. Graduated at Carniantjir College 18,34. and from 

Tlu'olog-ieal Seminary 1847. Was pastor at Horeb and J5reaciifa 

1847-.'i,l. He was ordained July 35, 18,50, at Talsarn, North Wales. 

Dismissed 1853. Pastor at Drewen and Bethesda, South Wales, in 

18515 and 1885. Installed at Riehville, X. Y., became pastor of 

the Welsh Congregational Church of that pbice. Performed his 

duty at that church for 21 years. He was married Feb. 26, 1854, 

to Elizabeth Davies of Drewen, Cardiganshire, Soutii Wales, who 

survives him. Four of his eight children are living — William O. 

Jones, New York, (see biographical sketch). Dr. .John D. Jones, 

Utica, X'. Y., Miss Margaret Jones, Uichville, and Miss Carbett i 

clones, of New York City. Mr. Jones died of Bright's Disease 

.lune 3, 1886, aged 64 years. 

Ezra A. Jenne, born in FuUerville, 
His ])arents were Joseph C. Jenne, born in Fowler April 38, 1312, 
and Sarah Jane .Johnson, born in Westmoreland, Aug. 18, 1818. 
Educated in Rossie and Oct. 22, 1874, nuirried Eavilla E. Moody. 
?4r. and Mrs. Jenne are the parents of Maliel Reita, deceased, 
and Hazel Preston. From 1866 to 1892, Mr. Jenne traveled for 
a wholesale boot and slioe firm in X'ew York. In 1887 he, together 
with S. H. Austin, Charles Fuller and Fred H. Haile, established 
a wood ])ulp mill at FuUerville, N. Y. In 1893 built Standard 
Pulp Mill at Jenne's Falls, which he superintended for 12 years. 
1905 bought out the coal business of .\. S. Whitney in G'uiver- 
neur. Resides on Rowley St. 
j\cil C. Johnson, born in Fowler, 1838. His parents were Henry .Johnson, horn in A'ermont, 
1793, and Hannah Brown Johnson born in Fowler, 1807. Was married in 1860 to X'ancy .John- 
son and in 1873 to Mary Beermaii. Has one child — Cora Truelove. Mr. Johnsnn was educated 
in Fowler and has lieen a merchant in that to\\'n since 1903. 

Jason Jeffers, born in Theresa, X. Y., Feb. 12, 1840. His 
|)arents were Frederic JeflFers, born in Suellsbush, Herkimer Co., 
in 1821, and I.ovina Pierce Jeffers, born in Pamelia, Jeff Co., N. 
Y., 1824. He was married to Margaret C. Brown, who was born 
in Gouverneur Oct. 10, 1843. Miss Brown was a daughter of 
the late James Brown, born in Glasgow, Scotland, May 11, 1821., 
and Jeanette TurnliuU Brown, born in Glasgow, Oct. 29, 1821. 
Mr. .Jeffers is by occupation a farmer. Received iiis education 
in the public schools of Theresa. Mr. and Mrs. .Jctfers are the 
parents of five children — Fred J., Delia, Carrie C, Blanche A., 
and X'^ina E. Jeffers. 

Jason Jeffers. 

Arthur T. Johnson, born near Burlington, Xt., March 12, 1859. His parents were Thomas 
P. Johnson and Harriet I^. Newton, natives of ^'ernlont, the family moving to St. Lawrene 
comity in 1863. Mr. .Johnson was educated in the common schools and Eastman Business col- 
lege. He taught school several terms and conmienced the stndy of law in 1882 in the office 
of Conger & Gleason. Admitted to practice in 1886, then entered into co-partner.sbip with 
George M. Gleason inider firm name of Gleason & .Johnson, which co-partnership was continued 
until 1900, since when Mr. Johnson has been practicing alone, giving his entire attention to 
his profession. Has held various local offices. Is director of the First Xational Bank, has bee-i 
Special County Judge for nine years, and at the recent con\ention was nominated for the 
fourth term. His portrait appears in the group of attorneys and in the Old Home AVeek Fx- 
ccutive Committee. 



Rodger Daniel Jones, liorn hi Soutli Trenton, X. Y., 18o3. Parents were JJaniel Jones, 
horn in Steulien, N. Y., 181i?, and Margaret Davenport Jones, horn in Sharon, X. Y., 1816, 
My. . I ones has been a contractor and merchant in Gonverneur for 
many years. Was educated at South Trenton and Holhind Pa- 
tent, X. Y. Was first married to Abbie E. Crane, in 1875. By 
this union two children were liorn — Mrs. Lulu M. Rhodes, now 
of Austin. I^a., and Mrs. Hattie A. Oakes of X'ew York, X'. Y. 
Mr. .Icuies married for his second wife Lucy A. Uobinson in 
1880 to wliom were born William R., Susie C, Daniel K. and 
Charles K. Mr. Jones came to Gouverneur from Utica, N. 
Y., in 187.5, ]iursuing his occupation as contracting ]")ainter and 
sign writer. In 1896 he built a store and flat on West Main St., 
which he has since occupied. He is a Master Ma-son, belonging 
Rodner Jj. Jones. to Lodge i?]7, V. & A. M. served on the board of village trustees 

and water board during the years 1003-+. Was elected financial secretary of the Painter's 
L'nion X'o. 34-0, in which capacity he has served for three years. Was president of the Trades 
Assembly in 1904.. 

Edmund D. .Johnson born in Fowler, 1857. His parents were 
Homer Johnson born in Fowler and X'ancy E. Brewster John- 
son, born in Fowler. He was educated in Fowler and in 1884. 
married to ^lary Sprague. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson ha^■e one 
child, ^lorris. His postoffice is Fowler. 

Kdnumd J-), Ji;linson, 

John Kilmer, liorn at Fort Ann, X. Y., Aug\ist 5, 18.M. His 
jiarents \\ere Wui. Kilmer, luirn at Argu}'le, October 18, 1791, 
and Esther Porter. Was married Jan. 7, 185-3, to S:ir:di .McKean. 
Two children are living — Jolm P. Kilmer of Gonverneur, X". Y. 
and !!llrn W. Kilmer Coats. 

Mr. Kilmer died in (Jouverneur May 18, 190i. He was for 
many years engaged in the business of retail grocer, and various 
manufacturing enterprises. Was seven years trustee of Gonver- 
neur village and for five years Commissioner of excise. 

John Kilmer. 

William y\rthur Jones l)orn near Xew Quay, South Wales, 
1869. His parents were John Jones, horn in Rhydlewis, 1836, and 
Hannah (Harris) .Tones, born in ,Vcw Castle, 1841. Mr. Jones 
was educated in the common schoo's and married in 1893 to 
Anna M. Davis. They are the jiarents of Thomas and Mildred 
Hannah. Mr. .Jones came to this country in August, 1889, and 
worked upon a farm until Octolier, 1893, then entered the em- 
])loy of the railroad company as lirakcman. Became freight con- 
ductor in 1895 and passenger condnctcn' iii 1899. Is a member of 
Gouverneur Lodge ;217 F. & A. .M., Gonverneur Chapter and 

Gonverneur Commandery. 

William A. Jones. 



A. ^l. Jepson. 

Albert Morris Jepsoii horn in Gouverneiir 1870. His parents were Alfred K. .Tepson, 
born in Hjuinnoiul, 184.1, and Helen M. Kilmer Jepson, l)orn in Gonverneur in 181,3. He was 

educated in the public schools of 

Gonverneur and G. W. Seminary and 

married in 1893 to Nellie M. Pierce. 

Mr, Jepson was 4i/> years in the eni- 

])]oy of the First National Bank, ten 
years in the employ of the Northern 

New York Marlde Co., as director of 

which ci:)mpany he is now secretary 

and superintendent, Mr, Jepson's 

father, Alfred K. Jepson, was for 

several years supervisor of the town 

ot' Gouverneur and also served as 
town clerk. \\'as ji resident of Gouverneur village. 

Lewis I. Jones, Richville, N. Y,, was born at Richville in 187(), and is tlie son of Henry 
and Hanngli (Davis) Jones. Received his education in the Richville Union Free school. In 
lS!)o he was united in marriage to Miss Fannie M. Southwell. Being a natural born machinist, 
he went to work in his father's shoj). Not contented with what little machine work that was 
done here, he went to Massachusetts and remained there until his fathers health gave out, when 
he came here and took possession of the blacksmith and machine shop. He is a meml)er of 
Richville Lodge No. 633, F. & A, 31. and verv successfid in business. 

Clarence Murrell Johnson, l)orn in Somerville, N. Y., 1870. His 
parents were Wilbur AVright .lohnson, born in (Jouvcrneur, in 
1847, and Melvina S. Atwood, born in Depey.ster. .Mr, .Johnson 
is by occupation a musical instructor. Was educated in Gouv- 
erneur AVesleyan Seminary and Boston Conservatory of Music, 
Was married in 1898 to Paulina Seaman of Gouverneur. Has 
two cliildren — Dorothv Louise and Clarence \\'illtui'. 

Clarence M, Johnson, 

Hiram Bannister Keene, born in Pompey, Ono.ndaga Co,, N, Y,, June 17, 1810, His par- 
ents were Joli Keene of Scotch descent and Nancy Keene also of Scotch descent. He was edu- 
cated in Pompey and was for many years a farmer aiul rca. 
estate dealer in Southern St. Lawrence Count)' and in Antwerp, 
.Jefferson County. Col. I\eene attended school but fifteen months 
])rior to his marriage, nine months after. Was a man of great 
energy and good judgment. Was interested in the construction 
of Watertown and Potsdam railroad. Was for many years Jus- 
tice of the Peace. Keene's Station was named after Mr. Keene, 
He was captain of a company belonging to the 84th Reg. N. Y, 
State Militia and later promoted to Colonel, same regiment, 
\vhich position he held until the regiment was abandoned, AVas 
for many years President of the Union Agricultural Society of 
Antwerp. Was a discoverer of iron ore on his farm near Keene's col, H. R. Keene. 

Station. Was .station agent at Keenes for eleven years. President of the Board of Trade of 
Gouverneur 12 years. Died Feb. 18, 1903. 

Alexa.nder Kellough, born in Dundas County, Ontario, 1873. Came to Gouverneur 1898 and 
conducted a hardware store on Clinton St. for several years, selling out in 1904. Since selling 
out, he has been occupied as a contractor. Has been successful in constructing several water 



mains and sewer jobs. Made a petition to the Board of Trustees during the past winter for 
gas light franchise, this proposition not being accepted. Is a member of Gouverneur Lodge, 
217 F. & A. M., 3^5 I. O. O. F., Oswegatchie Tent, K. O. T. M.; Court Gouverneur, Foresters, 
an active member of Young Men's Republican League. In religion a Methodist. His jjortrait 
is found in tlie group of b'oresters. 

Bert Orrin Kinney, l:orn in Gouverneur, 1873. His parents were Orrin Kinney, born 
in Fowler Jan. 10, 1834, and Klecta \. Bignall Kinney l)orn in Clintonville, 1838. He was edu- 
cated in Gouverneur AVesleyan Seminary and married in 1896 to Kathleen G. Draper. They 
iiave one child — Harold D. .Mr. Kinney served several years in Gouverneur as a druggist 
cleric and in 1890 1 ecame jiroprictor of a drug store which he has since conducted. 

Aliraliani L. Katzman, born in INlinsk, Russia, Aug. 20, 18C-1. 
Ills fatlier was .Jacob Katzman, l)orn in Russia about 1341. 
j^'.(hK'::ted in Eu.-sia and married April 1, 1833 to Slava R.achael. 
Has live cliildren — Fannie, Max, Samuel, James, and Esther. 

]Mr. Kiitzman came to this country, arri\j'ng in Piiiladelphia in 

'■-ss. A\'as employed some time in Pennsyhania and came from 

ire to Glens Falls, X. Y., tiience to Watertown. Located in 

1 uverncur in 190J. Is engaged in the occupation of buying and 

: elling merchandise in Gouverneur anil \i(inity. Is a memlier o" 

:)swegatchie Tent Xo. -2J4 K. O. T. M. 

.Abraham L Katzman. 

.Mrs. Thanliful J. Sliipi)ee Keyes, born at Catamount Hill, Coleraine, Franklin Co., Mass., 
I\!ay JO, 1833. Her parents were Amasa Shippee, l;orn July id, 1774, at Charlemont, Frankliii 
Co., Mass., and Ehoda Androus Shipjice, born .Tan. 9, 178() at Charlemont, Mass. Educated va 
the common schools of Coleraine, and married May 16, 1850, to Levi Hillman Keyes, who died 
Aug. 16, 1896. Has one cliild, Henry Mav Keyes. ilrs. Keyes was employed in early life 
in a cotton mill. Her mother carded, sjnni aid wove the linen for tlic first flag ever raised over 
a scliDol house in the I'nitcd .States, 'i he loom upon wliicli this worl< w.-'s dv'ne is still in exis- 
tence. INIrs. Keyes' father made the poles used for tlie flag staff. Levi Hillman Keye.s en- 
listed witli Scotts 900 in lS(i-3. 

Y^alter Lytle. born in Rensselaer Falls, X. Y., ->;ay 13, 18(;7. 
Hi^ parents were .Tosepli Lytle, iiorn in Canada and Sarali Gilles- 
[lie Lj'tle, born in Ireland. He was educated in Rensselaer Falls, 
and married in 1895 to Sarah Love. Mr. Lytle came to Gouver- 
cc'ir iu 189.2 and pursued his trade as carpenter and joiner, which 
lie filiowed until 190L "lien lie engaged in the business of selling 
luid repairing liic'}'cles, wliicli business he now conducts. Mr. 
Lytic is an entliusiastic sjun-tsman and regarded as an exjicrt 
rifle shot. 

Walter Lytic. 
Ella ,S. B. Lockie, liorn in Gou^•erneur, 1854. Her parents were John C. Brown, liorn in 
Ancrum, Scotland, 1808, and Betsey Wilson Brown, born near Lillies Leaf, Scotland, 1811. 
"Was educated at Gouverneur AVesleyan Seminary and married 1878 to John A. Lockie. Has 
one son, AYeldon G. Lockie. John C. Brown, the father of Mrs. Lockie, came from Scotland 
in 18:39, settling with his parents in Rossie. Had a fair education, wiis a stone cutter by trade, 
at wliich he found ready eni]iloymeiit. AVas employed in the construction of the furnace and 
other liuildings connected witli the iron works. In 1840 tool-; u]) and commenced clearing a 
forest farm in the nortliwest of the town, now owned liy Weldon Lockie. He was iqiright, gen- 
erous and public spirited. Died 1870, the wife dying 1893. 


Benjamin LeavitS, boi-n Aug. 18, 1785, in Poultney, Vt. Came to Gouverneur in 1808 or 
9. Bought and cleared a farm on the Richville road ijy^ miles from Gouverneur now known 
as the Dewey farm. jVfter clearing a small piece and building 
a house, he started for Vermont on foot, Feb. 18, 1811. Married 
Cynthia Ashley, who was l)orn Nov. 17, 1787. Bought an ox 
team and brought what goods they had on a sled drawn l)y 
oxen, his wife coming on horse back, riding a horse given her 
by her father. Mr. Leavitt remained on the farm all his life, 
dying- in 1875. His wife died in 1877. They were the parents 
of eight children, Benjamin F., William A., Asaph W., .\ltha 
Y., John A., Harold W., Elmira L. and Halsey C. The children 
were \\idely scattered, all being now dead except John A. i^ho 

resides in Blooming-dale, Mich. ^ ■ , , 

^ benjamin t . Leavitt 

Chaii. C. Laidlaw, born in South Edwards, N. Y., January 
27, 1844. His parents were Thomas Laidlaw, born in Edinourgh, 
Scotland, 1801, and Eliza Blood Laidlaw, born in Temple, X. H., 
1803. He was educated at South Edwards and married Dec. 39, 
1869, to Viola D. Shaw. He has one son, Chas. Dean, of Canton, 
N. Y. Mr. Laidlaw came to Gouverneur May 23, 1864 and was 
employed as clerk and book-keeper for ten years, after which he 
■ntered the grocery and crockery business, which business he pur- 
sued here for manj^ years, fmally returning to Edwards and engag- 
ing in farming-. His postoffice is at the last named place. 

Chas. C. Laidlaw. 

Francis H. Lamon, born in Macomb, 111., Jan. 30, 1879. His parents were Pliny E. Lamon, 
deceased, born in Watertown, and Mary E. Carpenter, born in Watertown. He was educa'.ed 

in Watertown and New York City and married Dec. 3-t, 1903 

to Eleanor M. Terwilliger. Attended Watertown Schools and 
Art Students League, the latter during the winter of 1897-8. 

In 1898-9 attended Northern Business College in Watertown. 

In March 1899 took position with the St. Law. Mills, Dexter, X. 
Y. Came to Gouverneur in 1900 and entered the employ of Gouver- 
neur Wood Pulp Co. and U. S. Talc Co. April 1, igO-i, 

took the local editorship of the Northern Tribune. Is Gouver- 
neur correspondent for the Watertown Times and Syracuse 

Post Standard. Mr. I^amon's portrait will also be found in the 

group of "Old Home Week" Executive Committee and also 

in the Tribune staff. 

Eleanor Terwilliger Lamon, born in Owego, X. Y., 1877. Her parents were Jesse E. 

Terwilliger, deceased, born in Kingston, X. Y., 1847, and Marcella E. Evans, born in 1849. 
Teacher of English in 1898 to 1903, the last two years in Gouver- 
neur Higli School. Memlier of St. I^awrence Travelers Cluli 
and Gouverneur Morris Chapter D. A. R. Ar^cestor Jan (John") 

VanAken, founded city of Aix La Chapelle, Germany. Ancestor 
Gideon VanAken built first stone house at Rondout, X. Y. 
Abram VanAken great, great grand-father, famous Indian 
fighter at Kingston and Captain in Revolution. Ancestor Chris- 
tian Deyo, Huguenot refugee to Holland from France, thence 
to X^ew Platz, X^. Y. Mrs. Lamon's portrait also appears in D. 
A. R. group 2. Mi-s, 1 . H. LE.n < n 



Lyndon Holt I.andon, born in Pierpont, N. Y., in 1880, his parents being Frank Landon 
and Cora A. Holt Landon. He is at jiresent a student in the Gouverneur High School 
and is President of the Athenean Society of that school and President of the class of 1905; 
Secretary of the Gouverneur High School Athletic Counsel. 

John A. IjOckie, born in Gouverneur, 1849. Parents were George Lockie born in Maxton, 
Scotland, 1810, of whom see biographical sketch in body of history, and Catherine McLaren, 
l)orn in Perth, Scotland in 181.3. Educated in Gouverneur Wes- 
leyan Seminary and married in 1878 to Ella S. Brown. Died 
in Xov., 1900, Survived by his wife and one son, AVcldon G. 
Lockie. 31 r. Lockie removed from his farm to Gouverneur 
village in 1891 and resided here until his death, gaining the re- 
'^pect, confidence and warm friendship of a wide circle of friends. 
Mr. lyOckie was conspicuous for his integrity of character, firm 
and unflinching adherance to right and manly de])ortnient. "Was 
a director of the Savings and I^oan Association and for many 
years Treasurer of the First Presliyterian Church Society. ,Vt 
his death the following was ])laced upon the records of the 
John A Lockie. church: "A man of modest bearing, unusual integrity, un- 

flinching in the acts of right and justice, the friend of rich and poor alike, he won the con- 
fidence and esteem of all our citizens." 

Colin J. Lockie, born in Gouverneur, ISIJ. His parents were 
George I^ockie, born in Scotland, 1810 (see sketch in history) and 
Catherine ilcLaren Lockie, Ijorn in Perth, Scotland, 181.5. Mr. 
Lockie was educated in the common schools of Gouverneur and 
in the G. W. Seminary and was married in 1878 to Jennie Dodds. 
Mr. and 3]rs. Lockie are the jiareuts of George and Catherine. 
\Ir. Lockie is a prominem iarmer near Elmdale. Is successful 
')reeder of sheep and has for many years been prominent in poli- 
tics in Gouverneur, holding nianv town offices. 

Colin J Lockie. 
Walter Earl I^eacb, born in Gouverneur in 1877. His jiar- 
euts were John Spicer Leach, horn in ^'ernlont, in 1838, and Sarah 
C. Barren Leach, born in Gouverneur in 1841. He was educated 
in Gouverneur High School and married in 1900, to Eva E. Fox 
Has one son, John Piobert Leach. j\Jr. Leach's occupation since 
1901, has lieen that of a drayman. He is a member of the K. O. 
T. 'SI. and Young Men's Republican League. Mrs. Leach is the 
daughter of tlie late George Washington Fox, veteran of the 
Civil War, having served in Co. C, (iOth X. Y. State Vols, dur- 
iiig the \var. Her mother was Sarah Jane Shippee Pox, grand- 
daughter of Rhoda Androus and Amasa Shippee, wiio made and 
raised the U. S. Flag in 1812, the first flag ever raised over a 
scliool house in tlie L'. S. (See liiograjihical sketch of Mrs. Keyes.) 
Gottfried Lohi-, wliose portrait appears in the grouji of Maccabees, came to America from 
Bavaria in 1SS7, arriving in Canton May 9th. where his father already resided. He conducted 
a barber sho]i in Canton until 1894 when he came to Gouverneur and bought out William Robar. 
Has continuued to operate the shop in Gouverneur since. Mr. I^ohr is a memlier of the Mac- 
abees of which institution he has lieen Secretary since 1899, Mrs. Lohr was born in Weurteni- 
berg. They have four children. Mr. Lohr is one of Gouverneur's substantial and successful 

Walter E. L-nch, 



Dexter A. Leggett, born in Fowler Dec. 20, 1817. Hi.s parents were y\])ollos Legate, horn 
in Massachusetts, 1805, and Eunice Parsons l^egate, Ijorn in Massachusetts, IKK). He is liy 
profession an insurance and real estate operator. Was edu- 
cated in Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary. ApoUos Legate and 
wife came from Massachusetts in 1836, settling in Fowler. He 
pursuing the occu]iation of farmer and mason. Moved to 
Gouverneur in 187(). Died May 30, 1883. Eunice Parsons Leg- 
ate died in 1888. The subject of this sketch was married on 
Sept. 1, 1879, to Lilla D. Howe. Mr. and Mrs. Leggett are the 
parents of the following children: Halsted Howe, born June li, 
1880, died May 6, 1899; Marion Harland Leggett, born Dec. 3, 
1887, and Harold Dexter Leggett, born June 6, 1889. Mr. I>eg- 
gett has held ^•arious town offices in Fowler and Gouverneur. 
Was deputy sheriff three years, village trustee two years. Chief 
of Gouverneur Fire Dejiartment for several years, and niemljer 
of the department for twenty-three years. He is at tlie present time 

Dexter A. I.eggett. 
a nieuiher of ti;e 


of Directors of Gouverneur A. & M. Society, of which 

association he was secretarv for several 

John S. Leach, ))orn in Whitesfield, \'t., in 1830. His parents 
were John Leach, born in Xew Berlin, N. H., and Lucy Hawley 
Leach, born in Windsor, Vt. Mr. I^each was educated iu Gouver- 
neur and married Sarah Barrell. Mr. and Mrs. Leach are the 
parents of Bertha, Julius, Mae and Walter. Is a ]u-oniinent 
farmer and stock breeder, residing on the Sci)t<'h Settlement 
road near Gouverneur. 

Jolin S. Leach. 
C. .\. Livingston, born in Coventry, ^'t., ]8S4. His parents 
were John IJvingston, Jr., born in Sorell, Canada, in 18j8, and 
Esther dcGarlaneau, born in Paris, France, in 1828. AVas 
married in 1901 to Alice R. Corbin of Gouverneur. >Ir. IJvings- 
ton is a clergyman. Was educated in Vermont Seminary, and 
pursued elective courses in institutes of America, Germany and 
Berkeley. Mr. Livingston is a descendent on the paternal side 
of the Livingstons prominent in the early history of Xew York 
State. He is now located in Morristown, X. Y. 

Alice Corbin Livingston, born in Gouverneur in 1867. 
Her parents were J. S. Corbin and ChrLstia Ann Hill Corbin. 
AVas educated in Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary and Pratt 
Institute of Brooklyn. Married in 1901 to Rev. C. A. Livings- 
ton. Mrs. I>ivingston .several years ago made an extensive tour 
of European countries, an account of which appeared in the local 
papers at that time in twelve letters written by her while enroute. 

Alice Corbin Livingston. 

Her ])ortrait ap])ears in the contributed article for this history, "Picturesque Ciintvernenr." 

Jennie Dodds Lockie, born in Gouverneur, 1850. Her parents were Roltert Dodds, born in 
Rossie in 1823, and Susan Deans Dodds, born in OxBow, 1825. Was educated in Gouverneur 

Wesleyan Seminary and married in 1878 to Colin J. Lockie. Mr. and Mrs. Lockie have two 
children — George and Catherine. Mrs. Lockie was a teaclier in the conunon schools in the 

■vicinity of Ciouverneur. 



George F. Lockie, born in Elmdale, Dec. 13, 18-t2. His par- 
ents were George Lockie, Jr. (see biographical sketch) and Cath- 
erine McLaren. He was educated in Gouverneur and in 1897 mar- 
ried to Emma Campbell. Jlr. Lockie enlisted Sept. 1, 1864-, in the 
famous Battery D. He was assigned to Battery L. Served in 
front of Peterslnirg al)out ten montlis until the close of the war 
and was in grand rc\ie\\' in AVashingon ^lay ;23, 1865, where 
he was discharged. He subsequently lived in Tennessee about ten 
years, l;eing occupied as a railroad contractor. Here he met witli 
nn accident ^ihich disabled him and he returned home and en- 
gaged in farming. He is a successful Ijushiess man and one of 
Gouverneur's prominent farmers. 

George F. Luc]^ie. 

AVilliam Andrew Laidlaw, born in Macomb, 1870. H'.s parents 
were Alexander Laidlaw, born in Macoml), 1840, and Sarah P. 
ilills Laidlaw, liorn in Macoml), 184,5. He was educated at Rich- 
held Springs and married in 190::? to Adelaide Hartman. Mr. aid 
Mrs. Laidla\\' are the parents of one child, Frances Alyce. Mr. 
Laidlaw's occupation is that of a teacher. He was employed on 
the farm until Jl, then entered school and graduated in 1894, has 
since been a teaclier. A\'as principal of Redwood schools for 
5ix years. Jlr. Laidlaw's grand-father came from Jedburg, Scot- 
land, in 183:3. The name of Laidlaw is supposed to have been de- 
liven from L'.desdale. 

Wniiam A.Lfiidlaw. 

Ge:)rge F. Leak, born in Chatham, Ont., 18,59. His parents 
nere Henry B. Leak, born in Chatham, Ont., and .jane A. Flooter, 
li<n-n in Amesbury, Ont. He was educated in Canada and in 1896 
married Gertrude B. Cater, of Watertown. ilr. I^eali came to 
Watertovvn in 1889, and was employed by A. Bushnell & Co. He 
was naturalized in 1883. Was for seven years window dresser in 
the employ of John A. Roberts & Co., of Utica. Opened dry- 
goods emporium in the Duffie Block under the firm name of Leak 
ii Snyder in 1904. Mr. Leak bought out his partner's interest Feb. 
1, 1905, and continues to conduct the business. 

George F. Leal<. 

Thomas I.avack, horn in Canada in 1830. In 1856 married 
to Mary Force. ^Ir. and Mrs. Lavack are tlie parents of Frank, 
Al]le, Judon, Fred and Annice. He resides on tlie Kearney 
road, on w hat was at one time the Bowne f :irm. 

Thomas Lavack. 

George E. Legate, born in Shelburne Falls, Mass., in 1863. His parents were Edwin 
Legate born in Fowler, and Sophrona Colwcll. 

IMr, Legate was educated in Gouverneur and married in 1890 to Lillian Pierce. They have 
four clnldrc", JNIurrav, Gladys, ,\lza and Odell. Mr. Legate resides on the Rock Island road. 



John W. Laidlaw. 

John W. I^aidlaw, born in Rossie, Aiifr. i, ISoW. He was the 
'-I'coiicl .son of James I^aidla\\'. Was married in IHHl to 
lantha Story, who was born in Ro,ssie. Mr. and Mrs. Laidlaw 
are the parents of Earl E., Andrew K., and Arthur J., and one 
daugliter, Jennie I. Soon after marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Laidlaw 
tno\-ed to Gouverneur, lie being- the first Laidlaw to become a 
resident of this town. Located on the Pooler farm just east 
of the village, the farm being at the time owned Ijv Frank M. 
Holbrook. Mr. Laidlaw bought the farm in 1887 and resided there 
until his death, May 28, 1900. Mrs. Laidlaw and her four chil- 
dren still reside upon the farm. 

Judson H. Lalone, Kichville, N. Y., born in lasbon, N. Y., 
in 18()4. Was married to Miss Esther A. Brown in 188(). Four 
children are the result of that union, Marion, Mildred, Marie and 
Merrill. Mr. Lalone is a first class butter and cheese maker, 
having had the experience of about twenty-six years of almost 
continual service. No one in his employ works as hard as he, 
always taking the butt end. He belongs to the Masons, Odd 
Fellows and several other secret societies. He is a Republican 
in politics and is a man upright in all his dealings. 

Judson H, J.a][jne. 

Edward S. Labardee, born in Gouverneur in 1866. His 
parents were Joseph Labardee, born in Canada and Amelia Rehor, 
born in Canada. He was educated in Gouverneur AVesleyan 
Seminary and was married in 190.3 to Fannie F. Johnson of 
Phoenix, X. Y. Mr. Labardee has lieen engaged in the jewelry 
business in Gouverneur for the twenty years, commencing 
business with John Reynolds in 1885, continuing until October 
when he engaged with J. C. Ijce, for whom he worked imtil 
894', when he engaged in the same line for him"elf, continuing 
until the present. 

Edward S. Labardee. 

Morris Lesser was born in Germany, March 1 7th, 18,5H. At the 
age of twelve he left school and entered mercantile life, learning 
the lace trade in this country, having come here at the age of 
seven. He has continued in the same line since. In 1876 he be- 
came associated with the firm of J. S. Lesser and Company in 
which company he is still interested. Mr. Lesser was instrumentafe' 
in organizing the International Lace Manufacturing Co., of which 
he is general manager. His residence is on Beckwith Street. 

Morris Lesser. 

Norman J. Lang, born in Canada, 1864. His parents were Henry Lang, born in Canada, 
and Catherine Dool Lang. He was educated in Gouverneur. Was formerly employed in Whit- 
ney's drug store. Is now by occupation a commercial traveler. Resides when in Gouverneur 
with his father. 



C. W. Lynde 

A. B. Lynde. 

Carlos Webster I.ynde, of Richville, was born in Antwerp in 1834 and was the only son 
of A. Barnard and Mary Bishop I>ynde. When a young man he was clerk in the general 
store of the late Moses Barber for a 
number of years and soon after ojjen- 
ed what was called the Union Store. 
He also dealt considerably in real es- 
tate, and was justice of the peace for 
a nmnber of years. Mr. Lynde was 
a charter member of Richville Lodge, 
F. & A. M., No. 633, the first meeting 
of which was held in a room over the 
Union Store. He was greatly beloved 
by old and }-oung and was every- 
body's friend. His death occurred in 
lS(iS at the age of 34.. 
Kddis Nelson Miller, residence at 414 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Born in Gouver- 
neur, Fel). 1, 1872. His parents were Jeremiah Fairlianks Miller, born at Kingsbury, N. Y., 
in 183(1, and Harriett Melvina Nelson Jliller, born at Fort Ann, Oct. 16, 1839. Mr. Miller 
\\'as educated in Gouverneur High School at which institution lie graduated in class of 1890. 
Mr. Miller's maternal ancestors came to this country, settling in Massachusetts in 1630. He 
has been a resident of New York City since 1896. 

James W. Marshall, born in Spraguex'ille, Nov. 24', 1846. His parents were Samuel Mar- 
shall, born in England and Mary Jane JIurray, born in Ireland. Mr. Marshall was educated 
in the G. W. .Seminary and public schools and i\]iril 13, 1870, 
married to Delia Isabelle Freeman, daughter of Chauncey Free- 
man, liorn in Herkimer, March 4, 1807, and Harriet Smith, liorn 
in DeKalb in 1810. Mr. ilarsliall was the father of Harriet M., 
Frank M., Clark H., Cecil Clare, and Roy J. Marshall. Mr. 
Marshall commenced his business career in the drug store of 
Dr. Spencer in Gom'erneur. I^ater taught school for several 
seasons. Learned the business of cheese manufacturing which 
he followed in Sjiraguevillc and Somerville. His later years 
were oc<'upied upon the farm formerly owned by Chauncey 
Freeman. He held many luiblic offices in Rossic (see history 
of that town). He died .Kjiril 11, ]90,), well knoHri and highly James W Waishall. 

respected throughout tlie town of his nativity, as well as the entire county of St. Lawrence. 

John .McCarty, born in Hartford, AVashington County, N. 

v., .\]iril .30, 1837. His parents were Patrick McCarty, born in 

Ireland, and Mary Murray, born in Ireland. They were farmers. 

"\]r McCarty was educated in tlie common schools of Washing- 

' n County and married April 3, 1866, to Nannie Lane Cox, of 

\> iiienton, A't. They are the parents of A'irginia, Kathleen, 

ma C, .Mary M., Nannie L., Sadie and Charles R. Mr. Me- 

( 11 1\ came to Gouverneur in 1868 and engaged in the lumber 

liiismess in the firm of Starliuck & McCarty. Was President of 

Gouverneur A'illage two terms. Commissioner of Highways 13 

years, member of the Board of Education, member of all the 

.Masonic Orders. Was prominent in the building of the Masonic 

John .McCariy Temple. He died Dec. Hi, 1902. 

.Tames A. .Mills, born in Antwerp, N. Y., 1866. Parents were Thomas Mills, born in Rossie, 

and Eniihemia Laidlaw Mills, born in Macomb. He was educated in Oxliow, and married 

in 1891 to Jessie K. Smith, of Gouverneur. He was engaged for several years in this vicinity 

in the manufacture of cheese. Now occupied as a traveling salesman. 



M. Duane Morris, deceased. Occupation, farmer, gro<'cr and dealer in farm produce. 
Born in Depeyster in 1830. His parents were Harolin Morris, and Clarissa BuUard. He 
was married in 1850 to Maria Shel- 
don. (See Timothy Sheldon). One 
child survives Mr. Morris, Grace Mor- 
ris Babcock. Mr. Morris was dur- 
ing' his early life a prosperous farm- 
er on the Rock Island Road; later in 
the grocery IjusLness in co-partnership 
with John Kilmer under the Arm 
name of Kilmer & Morris. As a firm 
they built two stores. Upon the dis- 
solution of the co-partnership, each 
M. Duane Morris. of the partners took one store, Mr. Mrs. Morris. 

iiorris taking what is now known as the Morris store. Jonathan Morris, Mr. Morris' grand- 
father, was a descendant of Gouverneur Morris from whom the town of Gouverneur is named. 
While in the grocery business and later, he dealt largely in butter, cheese, and country pro- 
duce. He was for many years commissioner of highways. Tlie farm owned by Mr. Morris was 
bought in 1856 and consisted of 3:30 acres, of which but ten acres were cleared. He built 
the farm house .now standing upon the farm. He died in 1890, leaving a widow who still 
sur^'ives him. 

Chester David Merriman, born at Somerville, Dec. 11, 18fi3. 
His parents were I.yman Merriman, born at Somerville in IS'23, 
and Caroline Hannah P^reeman Merriman, born at Somer- 
ville in 18;!9. Mrs. MerrimanV: mother was a direct descendant 
of David Freeman, one of tlie first settlers of Rossie. Mr. 
Merriman was married on October 1, 1881, to Minnie May Car- 
penter, who was born in Jidy, 1865, and was the daughter of 
George F. Carpenter whose biography appears. Mr. Merriman 
is an influential farmer residing near the Rossie line on what 
is known as the Ore Bed Road. Mr. and Mrs. Merriman are the 
parents of Harold Arthur, Louise, yVUen, Chester, Carleton, 
Pauline and Isalielle. Cliester D. Merriman. 

Wayne O. Munger, born in Cope/ihagen in 1850. His parents 
were Sylvanus Munger, born in Massachusetts in 1806, and 
Anna Rich, born in Copenhagen in 1816. He was educated in 
Copenhagen and in 1879 married Martha S. Fletcher. Mr. and 
-Mrs. Munger are the parents of two children, Ethel, (Mrs. Earl 
G. Graves) and Lloyd. Mr. Munger is a member of the firm of 
;\Iung-er & Quinn and conducts a meat market in AVest Goua- 
crneur. He came to Gouverneur in 1900 and has been in busi- 
ness here since. He is a member of the Orient lyodge Xo. 338 
F. & A. M., of Copenhagen; Gouverneur Chapter No. 233 R. A. 
M.; Court Gouverneur Foresters Xo. 630. 
\\'ayne O. Munger. 
Ebin Willis Mack, born in Antwerp, August 8, 1856. His parents were layman Mack, 
born in Antwerp, Nov. 6, 1806, and Murinda Witherell, born in Antwerp, Oct. 12, 1813. He 
was educated in Antwerp and married in 1885 to Josephine Austin. He is the father of 
three children, Willis Earl, Helen Josephine, and Jessie Irene. His present occupation is 
that of a farmer, which has been his calling for tibout eiglitecTi years. Prior to that, he was 
a manufacturer of cheese. Mrs. Mack's father, James Austin, was born in Scotland, 1830. 
Her mother was Jeanette Johnson Austin, liorn in Antwerp, in 1835. 



J. Walter McLean. 

J. AValter McLean, born in Winche.ster, Ont., Oct. 3, 1873. 
His parents were John McLean, born in Dunfries, Scotland, 
Xov. 1835, and Caroline Hammell JIcLean, liorn in Chesterviile, 
Ont., Ma3', 1840. He was educated in Dunljar, Ont., and married 
Dec. 4, 1894', to Cora M. Morrow. They have one diild living, 
Mildred E. Mr. Mcl>ean was one of a family of six l)rothers 
and four sisters, of whom five l)rothers and three sisters are liv- 
ing as are also his parents. Has had IT years experience in 
granite and marlile business and is at present one of the jiro- 
prietors of Gouverneur, Carthage and Brownville Granite and 
JIarljle Worlds, employing about twenty-five men. Mr. Mc- 
I^ean is a meml)er of Gouverneur Lodges Xo. 317 V. & A. .\I., 

Xo. 335, I. O. O. F., Oswegatehie Tent, 344, K. O. T. M., and of the Temple Club. 

.\ll)ert ;\I. Myers, l)orn in Theresa, Jefferson County, in 
1846. His parents were Miles Myers, born in Herkimer County, 
in 1805, and Caroline Spaulsberry Myers, born in .Tefferson 
County in 1830. Mr. Myers was educated in Gouverneur and 
in the CoHcge of Dentistry. Was married in 1873 to Olive A. 
Graves. Mr. and .Mrs. Myers have one cliild, .Mrs. Clark S. 
Xortlirup. Dr. Myers practiced iiis profession in Gou\'erneur 
for several vears. He died in 1876. 

Dr. A. M. .Mvers. 

Andrew Murray, born in Scotland, Jan. 3], 1830. .Married 
in 1856 to Susan Gates, ilr. and Mrs. JMurray are the parents 
of .Vndrew A., Mrs. V. C. Eddy, and Leon B. Jlurray. .Mr. 
Murray conducted a general blacksmith shop in Fowler from 
184f) to 1857, purchasing in 1857 the Gates farm in Hermon. In 
ISTO he purchased the Goodman Carj^enter farm near Ciouver- 
neur. Followed farming until 1890 when lie retired, moving to 
his present home on Park street. 


Uoliert E. .McLear, born in Rossie, 1877. His parents were 
George McLear, l)orn in Morristown in 1833, died .March 19, 
1893, and Llannah E. Ranney, born in East Williamsburg, Ont., 
Sept. 36, 1843. .Mr. McLear was educated in Gouverneur High 
School, Packard Commercial School of Xew York and Xe\\' 
"^'ork La\\' School, and was nutrried in 1905 to Edna M. Savers. 
Mr. McLear is a lawyer in Gouverneur. 

Robert K McLear 

Harrison C. Jlaine, born in Hermon, 1844. His parents were Clark JIaine, l-.orn in 

.Mbany, 1813, and Lucinda Mather Maine, born in Yt. He was educated in Hermon and in 

1870 married Christiana Cousins. They are the parents of four children, Brayton, Plinv, 

Myrtle and ArtTuir. Mr. Maine has been supervisor of Heriuon for nine years. President 



of Canton Board of Trade, five years. Justice of peace 26 years still continuing in that 
office. Commissioner of Highways, 5 years. Was member of Co, D., Capt. Parker's Reg., 
IG N. Y. Vols., enlisting in 18fil. Past Master of Masonic Lodge of Hermon. Director of 
P. F. R. Association and Master of the Grange. His address is Hermon, N. Y. 

Charles Julius Maxiner, born in DeKalb, April l(i, 1861. 
His parents were Julius Maxiner, born in Germany, and Ruth 
iVngeiine Cole, born in DeKalb. Educated in G. W. Seminary 
;'nd married in 1893 to Luelja Storrin to wl'om was born three 
children, Mildred, Zada and Ira. His second wife was Cora 
Dailey, to whom he was married in 1899. Mr. Maxiner was for 
: ome time a farmer but for the past five years has been a manu- 
facturer of lime near Gouverneur. Julius Maxiner, the father 
of Charles Maxiner, was a member of Scotts 900. He died in 
New Orleans in 1865. 

Charles J. Maxiner. 

Eli C. Moslier, 
diughter of 15.' 

F orence L. Moslier 


Eli C. Mosher, born in Antwerp, October 6, 1863. His parents were Norman Mosher, 
born in Philadelphia, Nov. '29, 18;39 and Julia A. Snow Mosher, born in Wilna, N. Y., Aug. 

19, 1836. He was educated in G. W. 

Seminary and married Jan. ii, 1894. 

to Elorence I>. Henderson. Mr. and 

Mrs. Mosher are the parents of L. 

Evadel and Helen A. Mr. Mosher 

was a farmer until a few years ago 

when he took up the carpenters' trade. 

He is a charter member of the Par- 
tier Camp, S. of \., past presiding 

officer of the Royal Arcanum and 

member of the Brotherhood of St. 

Paul. Mrs. Mosher was born at We- 

gatchie, Aug. 14, 1872. She was the 
Henderson and Mary Wilcox Hen- 
derson. Is a member of the Methodist Church, and Supt. of the 
Junior League. She has conducted a millinery business here for 
five years. His portrait also appears in the yVrcanum group and 
also in Fire Co., No. 1 group. 

Dr. Ellis Albert Merkley, born in Winchester, Ont., in 1870, 
the son of Richard Merkley. He married in 1893 to May Stiles. 
They are the parents of one child, Leona. Dr. Merkeley was 
educated in McGills Medical College, Montreal, and is now a 
]5racticing physican and surgeon in Edwards. He was a direct 
descendant of Col. Merkeley who figured prominently in Cana- 
dian history. Dr. Ellis A. Merkley. 

H. Frank Marsh, born in Antwerp, April 4, 1844. His parents were Hiram Marsh, born 
in Trenton, N. Y., April 4, 1811, and Lucinda Seaver, born in Wallsfield, Vt., 1816. He was 
married Jan. 26, 1868, to Mary E. Eggleston. Mr. and Mrs. Marsh are the parents of Norris 
E. and Roy D. Mr. Marsh is by trade a shoe maker which trade he followed for about ten 
yeai's. Was about three years in Odell, 111., in the boot and shoe business, then returned to 
Antwerp where he conducted the same line until 1873, when he came to Gouverneur, establish- 
ing a business there which he still conducts. He is a member of Royal Arcanum, and resides 
on Austin Street. 



George F. iloslier 

George Freman Jlosher, born in 
Wilna, Jeflf. Co., 1854. His parents 
were Norman ilosher, born in Ster- 
lingville, Jeff. Co., X. \'., 1829, and 
Julia A. Snow !Mosher, born in Wilna, 
1837. He was educated in Antwerp 
and in I8T8 married to Eva P. Miller, 
iir. and Mrs. Jlosher are the parents 
of four cliildren, Lyndon, Archie, 
Xornian and Claud. His occupation 
has been that of a farmer his entire 

Mrs. Eva P. Mosher. 

Charles McCarty, born in Hartford, X. Y., 1852. Parents were Patrick McCarty, born 
in Ireland, and Mary Murray, Ijorn in Ireland. Was educated in the public schools of Hart- 
ford and Hartford Academy. He was reared and spent his youth upon a farm, then learned 
the machinist's trade. He came to Gouverneur April 16, 1875, working for two years for Star- 
Imck cS: ilcCarty, then entered the oiBce of W. H. Bowne as book-keeper, where he was occu- 
pied for 5 years. Then express agent which business he has continued since, with brief inter- 
vals. He was president of the ■village in 1897. Mr. McCarty has always been prominent in 
affairs social and political in Gouverneur. 

Julia A. Snow ilosher, liorn in Wilna, Jeff'. Co., X'. Y., Aug. 19, 1836. Her parents were 
Jonas Snow, born in Putney, Xt., April, 1790, and Mary Davy Snow, born in Springfield, X'. 
Y., Dec. 1793. Mrs. Mosher was married in 1853 to Xorman Mosher and is the mother of 
George F., Eugene H. and Eli C. Mosher. She was post-mistress at Homestead, X'. Y., 12 
years. Member of the Jlethodist Church, Gouverneur, and member of the Gouverneur Grange, 
Xo. 303. Her late husljand, X'orman Mosher, enlisted in Co. D, 186 Reg. X". Y. State Vols., 
Civil AVar. Her father was a \-eteran of the war of 1812, and her grand-father, James Snow, 
died in the Revolutionary j\rmy. 

Charles L. Mosher, born in Philadelphia, X". Y., Jan. 15, 
1852. His parents were Leonard W. Mosher, born in ^loiiawl:, 
Feb. 10, 1811, and Margaret S. Strickland Mosher, Ijorn in Phil- 
adelphia, May 18, 1816. He was educated in Philadeljjhia and 
married in 1875 to Addie A. Scram. They nre the parents of 
one child, Mrs. F. X". Freeman. Mr. Mosher is in the furniture 
and undertaking business as partner of Mosher c& Sprague estali- 
lishment. His portrait will be found also in the group of Odd 

Cliarles T.. .Mosher 

James Murphy, l)orn in Rossie, Oct. 2i, 1836. His parents were Thomas Murphy, born 
in Ireland and Mary Hans JIurphy, liorn in Ireland, ilr. Murphy was educated in Rossie 
and Sept. 2-2, 1869, married to Rose Mullen. He is the father of three children, James C, 
Catherine and Mary. Mr. Mur])hy is a miner by profession, having pursued his vocation in 
Western mining camps, the lead mines of Rossie, ore mines near Keenes Station, Talc mines of 
Fowler, Pyrites Mines of DeKalb and in prospecting for minerals throughout northern X'^ew 



Isaac N. Morrison, born in Gouverneur, in 1851. His parents were George Morrison, 
born in England in 1811 and Elizabeth Hodge Morrison, liorn in Scotland in 1818. He was 
educated in Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminarj^ and in 1888 married Louise Peterkin. Tbey have 
one child, Jessie Zoe. Mr. Morrison is a speculator and dealer in live stocl-c. 

Albin S. McBrier, born in Rodman, JeiT. Co., 183!). His par- 
ents were Henry McBrier, born in Ireland, 1805, and Kaziah 
Stone, born in Ireland, 1805. He was educated in G. W. Semin- 
ary and in 18(i3 married to Calista C. Brown. Mr. and Mrs. Mc- 
Brier are the parents of E, Morton, and Mildred. Mr. McBrier 
is a capitalist and is engaged in the real estate business. 

Alijin S. McBrier. 

J. M. Marsh, liorn in ,\ntwcri), in 1851. His parents were 
Harvey S. Marsh and Lucinda Seaver. He was educated in Ant- 
werp and came to Gouverneur in 188fi. Mr. Marsh was the iirst 
to introduce music in the pul)lic scliools in Gouverneur. 

Lewis H. Mitcliell, Ijorn in Gouverneur in 1833. His parents 

were Hiram H. Mitchell, Irorn in Holland Purchase, N. Y., in 
J. M. Marsh. l^^lf. ai"! Sally M. Sears Mitcliell, born in Vermont in 1810. Mr. 

Mitchell was educated in the common schools of Gouverneur and 
first married to Sarah J. Marshall in 1860. Again married in 1888 
to Cora E. Hewlett. Mr. Mitchell enlisted in the U. S. A'olunteer 
service, 6th Reg. N. Y. Vol. Cavalry, Nov. 13, 1861. He re-enlist- 
ed in the field and was discharged June 9, 1865. At tlie organi- 
zation of his company it consisted of 113 men. At the close of 
tlie war, it consisted of 18 men. Of the original volunteers present 
to receive their discharge at the close of the war, but one re- 
mained. Mr. Mitchell was slightly wounded and had two horses 
shot from under him. Since the close of the war he has been 
occupied mainly as a carriage painter until failure of health 
recently. Lewis H. Mitchell. 

Harvey H. Noble, born in Verona, N. Y., 1847. His parents were Edward Noble, born 
at Westfiekl, JIass., 1814-, and Maria Little, born in Vienna, N. Y., 1830. He was educated 

at Whitestown .Seminary and in 1876 

man-ied Edna L. Wood. He has 

three children, Kathleen Noble Con- 
ger, Robert and Edward. Mr. Noble 

moved from Rome to Potsdam in 1870 

coming to Gouverneur in 1873, where 

he acted as station agent until the 

fall of 1879 when he went to St. Louis 

I'eniaining there until the spring of 

1880. He returned to Gouverneur 

in 1880 and entered the employ of 

Harvey H. Noble. the Bank of Gouverneur as book- Mrs. E. L. Noble. 

keeper where he remained until 1883, then went to iVdams, Mass., for a few months, returning 



to Gouverneur, he entered the coal husiness, which he has pursued until the present time. 

Sirs. E. L. Kohle's portrait is attached. 

Edwin H. Xeary, liorn in El]iliiii, Ireland, 1834'. His parents 

were William Xeary and Bridg;et Bradagan. He was nuirried 
in IK(,] to Margaret Cochrane. deceased, to wliom 
were born two sons, William and Edward H., both practicing 
lawyers, ilr. Xeary was again married in 1890 to ,Tulia Sheldon. 
He came to the United States in 1848 and graduated at the 
Ogdensburg Academy in 1853. Studied law and was admitted 
to practice in 18.56. Opened an office and began practicing law 
in Gouverneur in 18.59. AVas made Judge in 18fi0, which office 
he contiinied to hold imtil ]87li. Served as U. S. Commissioner 
2-J years, prior to 19:)(>. His jjcjrtrait also a])pears in the grou]) 
of Attornevs and among tlie Odd Fell(n\s. 

E. H. Nearv. 

Frank M. X'orton, born in Oswego in 187.S. His parents 
were Fred H. Xorton, born in Gouverneur and .'^rlatilda Gray 
Norton, born in Pittsburg, Pa. Mr. X''orton was educated in 
Gouverneur High School and married in 1902 to Mabel Rae. 
Is by occupation a traveling salesman. Is n