(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Illustrated catalogue of Flemish and Dutch paintings"



M 

!i||i<l<i;8l!i|i!< - m 



lli! 



I'l:: ir.ijir .'■'■! 



h'"''1 1 : 



\m 



<i! ;l!: 



mil 



mm' ; 






r- ■ ■■■■■^*^^ 




(Sjnt'ttell Uttiueteita 



COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE 

LIBRARY 



^qte Due 



T 



Cornell University Library 

ND 636.M62 
Illustrated catalogue of Flemish and Dut 



3 1924 016 777 405 



DATE DUE 



^ 


'-•■ W]l 






.*^**^ 


■ "iliW „ 






































































































































GAVLORD 






PRtNTEOlNU.S.*. 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH 
PAINTINGS 



THE MAX MICHAELIS GIFT TO 
THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



''«*> 




THE LETTER-WRITER 



Gerard Ter Borch 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 



OF 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH 
PAINTINGS 



WITH INTRODUCTION AND BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

BY 

T. MARTIN WOOD 



1913 



LONDON 
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES & SONS, LIMITED 
GREAT WINDMILL STREET, W. . 



INDEX TO PLATES 



JANSENS, CORNELIS : Professor Aemilius Commis 
KEYSER, WILLIAM DE : A Shepherd • 
KNYFF, WOUTER : View of a Dutch Town 
KONINGH, PHILIPS DE : A View in Holland ■ 
MAES, NICOLAS : Portrait of a Lady 
MEER, BARENT VAN DER : Still Life 
.METSU, GABRIEL: The Dessert • 
NASON, PIETER : Portr-ait of a Lady 
NEER, AERT VAN DER : Moonlight River Scene 
NEER, AERT VAN DER : Dawn .... 
NEER, AERT VAN DER: Sunset 
NETSCHER, CASPAR : A Lady at a Fountain ■ 
OCHTERVELT, JACOB : The Pet Dog • 
OSTADE, ADRIAEN VAN : The Blind Fiddler • 
PUTTER, PIETER DE : Portrait of a Lady— aged 2 
REMBRANDT (SCHOOL OF) : The Repose in Egypt 
-RUISDAEL, JACOB VAN : The Hill of Bentheim 
— RUISDAEL, JACOB VAN : Mountainous Landscape 
SAENREDAM, PIETER : The Town Hall, Haarlem 
SNYDERS, FRANS : A Concert of Birds ■ 
STEEN, JAN : The Dancing Dog .... 
STEEN, JAN : The Continence of Scipio 
— -rTENIERS, DAVID, the Younger: The Shepherd 

TENIERS, DAVID, the Younger: The Prodigal's Return 

TOL, DOMINIQUE VAN : The Oyster Seller 
TOORENVLIET, JACOB: A Family GROUP • 
VELDE, WILLEM VAN DE : The Salute • 

The Interior 



VERMEER, JOHANNES : 

Kerk at Delft • ■ . • 

VERSPRONCK, JOHANNES CORNELISZ : 

VLIEGER, SIMON DE : Fishing Boats 

WATERLO, ANTHONIE : Hunting Party 

WEENIX, JAN : Hare and Pheasant • 

VAN DER : The 



OF the 



Portrait 



WERFF, ADRIAEN 
Players 



- W ITTE, 



EMANUEL DE: 
Delft 



Youthful 
Interior of the Nieuwe 



WOUWERMAN, PHILIPS : The Cart in a Rut 
WYCK, JAN : The Sick Woman 



OUDE 



Card 
Kerk, 



Ti face p. 



25 
13 
58 
54 
26 
27 
59 
29 
30 
64 
65 
28 

3' 
60. 

32 
45 
33 
34 
61 

35 
36 
37 
38 

39 
40 

41 
63 

42 
43 
44 

45 
46 

47 

55 
66 

53 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF PAINTERS 



BLOEMART, ABRAHAM : Portrait of an Old Man 

SNYDERS, FRANS : A Concert of Birds .... 

VERSPRONCK, JOHANNES CORNELISZ : Portrait 
— *HALS, FRANS : Portrait of a Woman .... 

HALS, DIRCK : A Musical Party 

JANSENS, CORNELIS : Professor Aemilius Commis 
- GOYEN, JAN VAN : The Mouth of a River • 
_-GOYEN, JAN VAN : A Breezy Day 

SAENREDAM, PIETER : The Town Hall, Haarlem 

DYCK, SIR ANTHONY VAN : John Oxenstierna, Count 



of Sodremore 
PUTTER, PIETER DE : Portrait of a Lady— aged 28 
VLIEGER, SIMON DE : Fishing Boats • 
NEER, AERT VAN DER : Moonlight River Scene 
NEER, AERT VAN DER : Dawn .... 
NEER, AERT VAN DER : Sunset . . . ■ 
ES, JACOB VAN : A DiSH OF PLUMS • • ■ . 

CUYP, AELBERT: The Distant Town 

CUYP, AELBERT : Portrait 

EVERDINGEN, C. VAN : The Young Augustus with Wreath 



of Laurels 



. WITTE, EMANUEL DE : 
Delft 



Interior of the Nieuwe Kerk, 



WATERLO, ANTHONIE : Hunting Party 

BOTH, JAN : Romantic Landscape 

-^OSTADE, ADRIAEN VAN : The Blind Fiddler 

'--TENIERS, DAVID, the Younger: The Shepherd . 

-=TENIERS, DAVID, the Younger : The Prodigal's Return 

BOL, FERDINAND: Portrait of a Lady. 

NASON, PIETER : Portrait of a Lady .... 

FLINCK, GOVAERT: The Artist as "An Eastern Prince" 

BORCH, GERARD TER : The Letter- Writer . 

KONINGH, philips DE : A View in Holland 

BEGA, CORNELIS PIETERZ : The Cottager's Family • 

WOUWERMAN, philips : The Cart in a Rut 

DUBBELS, HENDRICK : The Beach at Scheveningen • 

BEERSTRATEN, JAN VAN : A View of Middelum, Holland- 
Winter ■ 



1564- 

1579- 
1579- 
1580- 
1591- 
1593- 

1596- 
1597- 

1599- 
160C- 
1600- 

1603- 

1606- 
1606- 

1606- 

1607- 
1609- 
1610- 
1610- 

161C- 

1611- 
1612- 
1615- 
1617- 
1619- 
1620- 
1620- 
1620- 



658 

657 
662 
666 
656 
664 

666 

665 

641 

-59 
660 

677 

666 
672 

679 

692 
676 
662 
6S5 

690 

681 
691 
660 
681 
689 
664 
668 
676 



1623-1687 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF PAINTERS 



DU JARDIN, KAREL : The Start for Hawking 

STEEN, JAN: The Dancing Dog 

STEEN, JAN : The Continence of Scipio 

AELST, WILLEM VAN : A Vase of Flowers • 

BEYEREN, JAN ABRAHAMSZ VAN : Fish on a Table • 

BEYEREN, JAN ABRAHAMSZ VAN : Fruit and Still Life 

METSU, GABRIEL : The Dessert • . • • • 

-RUISDAEL, JACOB VAN : The Hill of Bentheim 

RUISDAEL, JACOB VAN : Mountainous Landscape 

BACKHUYSEN, LUDOLF : Coast Scene • . . • 

HEEM, CORNELIS DE : Fruit and Leaves 

MAES, NICOLAS : Portrait of a Lady .... 

VERMEER, JOHANNES : The Interior of the Oude Kerk 
at Delft 



VELDE, WILLEM VAN DE : The Salute 

TOL, DOMINIQUE VAN : The Oyster Seller- 

OCHTERVELT, JACOB : The Pet Dog . • • ■ 

HONDECOETER, MELCHIOR D' : A Cat Attacking Poultry 

HOBBEMA, MEINDERT: The Water-Mill 

NETSCHER, CASPAR : A Lady at a Fountain 

HOUCKGEEST, GEERAERT VAN H. : Interior of a Church 

Member of Guild in 1639 

WYCK, JAN : The Sick Woman 1640-1702 

WEENIX, JAN : Hare and Pheasant 1640-1719 

TOORENVLIET, JACOB : A Family Group .... 1641-1719 

GELDER, AERT DE : A Taxidermist 1645-1727 

KEYSER, WILLIAM DE : A Shepherd 1647-1692 

BREKELENKAM, QUIRYN : The Morning Gossip. Member of 

Guild in 1648 

DU MOOR, KARL : Portrait of a Lady 1656-1738 

WERFF, ADRIAEN VAN DER : The Youthful Card Players 1659-1722 

MEER, BARENT VAN DER : Still Life 1659- 

CROOS, JACOBUS VAN : Landscape .... Paintings dated 1666 

KNYFF, WOUTER : View of a Dutch Town • • • . Died 1679 

DUTCH SCHOOL, I7TH Century : Portrait 

DUTCH SCHOOL, 17TH Century: A Battle 

REMBRANDT (SCHOOL OF) : The Repose in Egypt 



PERIOD 
1625-1678 

1626-1679 

1626-1683 

1627-1674 

1 630- 1 667 

163O-1682 

163I- 

1631-1695 

1632-1693 



1632-1657 
1 63 3- 1 707 
1635-1676 
1635-I7OO 
1636-1695 
1638-I709 
1639-1684 




A VASE OF FLOWERS 



H'iliia})! van AeUt 



INTRODUCTION 



In 1 910, when Sir Hugh Lane went out to South Africa to 
assist at the foundation of the Johannesburg Municipal Gallery 
of Modern Art, it caused him regret to see that in Cape Town, 
which had been the centre of the drama of the development 
of the Union, the links with the past were fast disappearing, 
few architectural features of Old Cape Town remaining to 
carry the poetry of their old associations into the new world. 
Encouraged by the attitude of leading men of the Dutch popu- 
lation and by Lady Lionel Phillips, who has always taken an 
active part in the encouragement of art in South Africa, Sir 
Hugh conceived the idea of centring in Cape Town a collection 
of the art in which Dutchman and Englishman, as artist and 
patron respectively, first met each other in spirit. 

Having conceived the value of such a gift, he went to 
work in a characteristically practical way, adding to the Dutch 
and Flemish paintings in his own possession, establishing a 
nucleus group, in the hope that it would be acquired and 
presented to South Africa by lovers of the country as the 
foundation of a national collection. 

Mr. Max Michaelis, with the most affectionate remem- 
brances of South Africa, where he spent his earlier years, 

B 



lo FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

was seeking to do something for its people when this opportunity 
occurred. It is to him that the Union of South Africa is 
indebted for a gift unique in its romantic character. 

There was a time when the Dutch and English contested 
for the paintings of the great Dutch sea-painter Van der Velde, 
and Van der Velde's genius was employed by the English to 
represent their sea-fights with the Dutch. Thus even while there 
was antagonism, as between the interests of the two maritime 
nations at sea, there was a meetinof ofround in art — in that art of 
Holland which from the first by its peculiar character excited 
the interest of the English and claimed them in particular for 
its patrons. 

So significant is this taste of the English for the character 
of Dutch art that it indicates a temperamental affinity between 
the races, which at one point might lead to antagonism where 
interests clashed, and at another form the basis of an invulnerable 
alliance where their interests could be perceived to lie in the 
same direction. 

Only a little less than its own art does that art which a 
nation singles out for its especial patronage reflect it. We 
have, of course, in pictures of any country and period an 
absolute mirror of the quality of the mind of their producers. 
The extraordinary sensitiveness to the atmosphere of coast 
scenery, as apparent in Dutch art, expressed a love of the sea 
that is partly of the sailor as well as of the artist ; it is some- 
thing which in itself was sufficient to find response from 
England — and if we would understand Dutch art, we must 
remember that no artist is an artist and nothing else ; his power 
increases to the extent to which he is more, instead of less, 
human than his fellows, more than any of them susceptible to 
the influences which stir their senses and imaginations. Upon 




FISH OX A TABLE 



INTRODUCTION ii 



this plane, indeed, the boundaries of nationaUty, which must 
always be recognized in art, can be re-defined, showing a rela- 
tionship between the Dutch and English which was later, as 
events turned out, to express itself in another way than in art, 
in the concrete element of actual facts. And here, before going 
further, we may note again a relationship between the two 
countries, which is no less evidently expressed in Dutch painting 
— namely, the dislike of vagueness, the love of the definite, the 
discovery of inspiration in just those things which are farthest 
from dreams, nay the turning of actualities themselves into 
the splendour of dreams by civic and military ritual, the defer- 
ence in art to the outer splendour of world-power, which is 
reflected in Dutch art with all its glitter like a procession 
passing, or like an illuminated inventory of costly things. 

But we shall quite mistake this art if we think it is only 
the outward spectacle of life that absorbs it. In putting that 
interpretation upon it we are merely ascribing to it the province 
of photography. We must credit it with fuller achievement 
than that. If we really wish to understand it, we must view it 
as passionately expressing its interest in that aspect of the 
world which is most relevant to actualities, in that beauty which 
things assume for the imagination when they are viewed in the 
light of poignant human associations. It is an art which is in 
spirit essentially friendly, with that friendliness which familiar 
things assume towards us when we see ourselves threatened by 
some abnormal visitation. 

Dutch paintings were composed entirely with a view to 
influencing the mood of those who lived with them daily. 
In this spirit they differ from modern painting, which for the 
most part seems to concentrate on making an effect in an 
exhibition. It is significant of the temper of both the Flemish 

B 2 



12 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

and the Dutch that they preferred the representation of a 
civilized and familiar aspect of life to the " elementary " and 
" exceptional." To any one of their great painters the words 
might have applied which their great descendant, Maeterlinck, 
has used to describe the inspiration of the characteristic artist 
of modern times: "He will place on his canvas a house lost 
in the heart of the country, an open door at the end of a 
passage, a face or hands at rest, and by these simple images 
will he add to our consciousness of life." * 

The direction taken by the art of the Netherlands was 
determined by the traits it had in common with the Flemish 
School. But Flemish art is feminine by the side of that of 
Holland, in its more devotional genius, its greater instinctive- 
ness, and its sensitiveness. The image of sister and brother, 
illustrating the relationship of the two schools in aspect, springs 
at once into the mind. In the place of tenderness Dutch art 
reveals a miraculous precision of touch, and a clearness of vision 
which is also the very language of a full response to life, if less 
expressive of a divination that there is beauty hidden from our 
sight. Dutch art is more than Protestant, it is " Positivist " ; 
practically it rejects everything to which the five senses can- 
not respond. In an age like our own, when even science has 
advanced to the acceptance of other senses, this art assumes 
a local character which is not characteristic of the art in which 
the Flemish spirit finds its full expression. But even in moving 
in the world which seems at first bounded by the evidence of 
five senses only, Dutch art is to be distinguished from some of 
the results which art has put forward in modern times, in 
painting which founds itself on the theory that it is the world 
of vision alone in which a painter moves. As a matter of 

* " The Treasure of the Humble." 



■^ 




sr- '■ ■) ■■ " 


.': '■'. 


,\s\ .^^ite^- ,, 


'^- .r 


1 m ' ' 




4 ^ 


1 




-., . «■' 






- ," ■•V' :.^, 






' '^^^ 




■^ 


'.' I 


<^j«^ 


^^^^'^'.^«^' 




.4. ^(^S 


^^>^' ■ 








^1%:^. 


Ti 


^^fffli 




1. 


^ 


m/ «^f 





FRUIT AND STILL LIFE 



A. 7>aii Beycrcfi 




a:; 
X 

X 




INTRODUCTION 13 



fact the art of painting is not able to rest itself permanently 
on a theory of this kind, for the painter, whether he is con- 
scious of it or not, paints out of a store of experience which 
is replenished within him through the channels of all his 
senses acting simultaneously. The salt-wet wind which is stir- 
ring the surface of the water in a Dubbels' or a De Vlieger's 
seapiece, this in actual fact is something which at the moment 
of perception affected the painter's mood and vision, and effected 
thus an interpretation on canvas which can only appeal to us 
through vision — through the passage to imagination provided 
by our eye, as spectators of the picture. Paintings, however 
realistic, affect us quite differently from photographs, for the 
eye of a painter is more than a lens, it is a window through 
which he looks out. And whereas in a camera there is nothing 
but darkness and emptiness at the back of the lens, at the back 
of the eye there is an individual regarding the world from a 
point-of-view, and in a state-of-soul, which may be resembled in 
the experience of another, but never repeated. All this would 
seem so perfectly obvious as not to admit of repetition, but in 
the case of Dutch painting, with its intense realism, it does 
become necessary to make clear, to the point of emphasis, that 
its realism is not to be understood by comparison with the 
purely visual realism of a photograph. It expresses influences 
upon the painter from a thousand directions, in the shape of 
sounds and memories waiting upon his spirit in the moment 
of creation. 

It is the very intimate note in Dutch art — the feeling that 
we are never really out of the sound of the human voice — that 
gives it its hold upon the imagination. The idea of these artists 
was that of setting apart within the frame a little world to 
which imagination might have recourse at any moment. A 



14 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 



photograph embraces everything, and so cannot sway imagina- 
tion. Realism in art, rejecting ten thousand things for the one 
thing that it prefers for representation, gives a direction to the 
thoughts of the spectator, which for the moment determines 
the character of his sense of reahty. And then, to use the 
recent words of a great modern artist in the medium of the 
novel, there is "the gain of charm, interest, mystery, dignity, 
distinction, ga:in of importance, in fine, on the part of the repre- 
sented thing (over the thing of accident, of mere actuality, still 
unappropriated)." * 

The whole elaborate structure of modern "realism," as we 
have it in great novel-writing and in every other form of later- 
day art, rests upon the broad foundation of the conscience for 
truth to nature established in the sevententh century by the 
school of the painters of Holland. The refinement of impres- 
sionism, as refinement of the truth, does but the more infinitely 
express this conscience. The achievement of Dutch art com- 
pared with that of the art of Italy which preceded it was 
that it contrasted the beauty of actualities with invented or 
imagined beauty. And, as we have suggested, the Dutch found 
their way so immediately to the special grace of things of every- 
day aspect by the route of their passionate interest in every- 
thing that reflected human nature. It has been claimed for 
them that they were the first of the "moderns" in all this — 
and that we have in Rembrandt's art with its delicate psycho- 
logy the very brand of that curiosity after conditions of mind 
which has in modern art and science taken such a conscious 
shape. The modern portrait-painter, and writers on portraiture, 
understand each other in the light of a whole vocabulary of 
definitions which could be referred back to the interpre- 
* " A Small Boy and Others." By Henry James. 




Plate J 



PORTRAIT 



Aelbert Cuyp 




2; 



u 

CO 



a: 
u 

< 



INTRODUCTION 15 



tation Rembrandt quite instinctively put upon the rules of 
the art. 

In one feature, more than another, perhaps, Dutch art 
isolates itself in character, except from later English art — and 
that is in the topographical sentiment by which it was evidently 
guided in landscape. Its attachment, here again, is to everything 
connected with human incident, to the farm, to the field, to the 
house, to the site of markets, and to the sea-port, about which 
the Dutch are quite as enthusiastic as about the sea. Every- 
where they seem quite unconscious of the nature which Rousseau 
later was in search of, virgin of contact with the human element. 
Their most emotional painters, such as Ruysdael, come no nearer 
to untrodden country than long-neglected woods, whose very 
heart to him, as to all his fellow-countrymen, would be in the 
dismantled castle, from which hunting parties had sallied a 
century before. Ruskin, who had received his education — so 
far as his life's work was concerned — in Italy, did not conceal 
his enmity to many traits of the Dutch school, but upon one 
ground, his own pen might have received its inspiration from 
their pictures, and in a particular passage it describes the 
state of mind in which the message of this landscape painting 
originated * : — 

"In the children of noble races, trained by surrounding 
art, and at the same time, in the practice of great deeds, there 
is an intense delight in the landscape of their country as 
memorial ; a sense not taught to them, nor teachable to any 
others ; but, in them, innate ; and the seal and reward of per- 
sistence in great national life." 

" The Dutch School," says a French critic, who well under- 
stood its significance, " is the last of the great schools, perhaps 

* " Lectures on Art." ,, 



i6 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

the most original, certainly the most local. It was born on the 
morrow of an armistice . . . when a breath of more propitious 
temperature had passed over men's minds." * 

All of the art of which we have written here flourished in 
its most expressive form in the seventeenth century. It was in 
its fullness of bloom at the very hour of the inception of Cape 
Town, and when the prestige of the Dutch East India Company's 
fleet was at its height. 

T. M. W. 

* Eugene Fromentin. 




PORTRAIT 



/7 Cent. Dutch Sclwol 




S/y A. I 'an Dyck 



lOHN OXENSTIERNA, COUNT OF SODREMORE 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 
or 

FLEMISH AND DUTCH 
PAINTINGS - 



AELST, WiLLEM VAN 

I626-I683 

WiLLEM VAN Aelst excelled in still-life painting. He was the 
nephew and pupil of an artist, Aert van Aelst, who had achieved 
fame in the same subjects. Van Aelst's father was a notary of 
Delft. Upon reaching manhood the painter travelled in France 
and in Italy. It was from his long residence in the latter country 
that he came to affect an Italian style in signing his name. He 
enjoyed great favour with the Grand Duke of Tuscany. When he 
returned to Holland in 1656, he went to reside in his native town of 
Delft, but later moved to Amsterdam. He married Helena Niewen- 
huys in 1679, the painter Eglon van der Neer being witness at the 
wedding. He died in Amsterdam in 1683. Van Aelst differed in 
one respect from many of his contemporaries in that he enjoyed 
much recognition during his life. He possessed the ability to 
bring his pictures to an exquisite state of finish without losing 
spontaneity of touch. 

1 A VASE OF FLOWERS 
A painting of flowers in a silver vase of elaborate design in the 
style of Lutma ; a watch lying upon its face with the crystal 
back open for the better view of the goldsmith's work ; attached 
to it a blue ribbon introducing lively incident of colour in con- 



1 8 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

trast with the flowers. Butterflies and a dragon-fly alight upon 
the flowers. Signed and dated. (See Plate i.) 
Canvas. ^2^ in. x 8 in. 

In arrangement of detail the picture is very happy, the position 
of every leaf being studied with care. Everything assists the 
intricate pattern without destroying the impression of the wilful- 
ness of nature. The petals of the flowers are defined with a 
touch which is quite expressive of their fragility. The closeness 
of the observation where a flower of one colour affects by reflec- 
tion the colour of another, is worthy of note. The piece is 
characteristic of flower-painting in the golden period of that kind 
of subject. The painter ranks as one of the greatest of the still- 
life painters. That he regarded this painting as among his 
masterpieces is evident from the fact that he was at pains to 
retouch it after an interval of years, signing it again and re- 
dating it. 



BACKHUYSEN, Ludolf 

1631- 

LUDOLF BACKHUYSEN (Bakhuisen), who was born into a family 
of position in 163 1, was intended for a commercial career, but 
neglected his work in an Amsterdam counting-house for the society 
of artists. Eventually he put himself under Van Everdingen as a 
pupil, and studied also with; Hendrick Dubbels, both represented in 
this collection. The port of Amsterdam gratified his great love 
for scenes of shipping, and he commenced his career with pen- 
drawings of the different vessels in the port. He then turned to 
painting the same class of subjects, and used to brave great danger 
by hiring fishermen to take him out to sea in storms. Indeed he 
became the painter of storms in opposition to Willem van de Velde, 
the painter of the sea in calm. He painted the embarkation of 
Jan de Witt on the Dutch fleet, a view of the building yard of 
the East India Company, a picture of the Dutch squadron and 
many other pieces which preserve the image of the old Port of 




THE ARTIST 



EASTERN PRINCE; 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 19 

Amsterdam, and the fleet with which the commercial glory of 
Holland was promoted. 

2 COAST SCENE 
A large rock reflected in the sea, beyond which a ship is 
anchored, the hilly coast and a coast-town in view ; in the near 
foreground two figures stand out sharply, while a third is push- 
ing a barrel in the water. (See Plate u.) 
Signed with initials and dated 1663. 
Panel. 21 in. y. 18 in. 



BEERSTRATEN, Jan Abrahamsz van 

1622-1687 

BEERSTRATEN was bom in 1622 at Amsterdam, and christened in 
the old parish church. All his life he worked in Amsterdam, and it 
is supposed that the name Beerstraten was assumed by his father, a 
cooper by trade, after the Beeren-straat, in which he lived. In 1642 
the artist married Magdalena van Bronckhorst, by whom he had 
five children. He died in his native city in 1687. Some of his 
finest work remains in Amsterdam, in The Gallery, Town Hall, and 
Six Collection. 

3 A VIEW OF MIDDELUM, HOLLAND- 
WINTER 
Church, houses, and surrounding country covered in snow ; 
many figures, in brightly-coloured dress, skating on the canal. 

(See Plate 2.) 

Signed Middelum : J. A. Beerstraten, fecit. 
Canvas. 36 in. x 49 in. 



BEGA, CORNELIS PlETERZ 

I620-I664 

CORNELIS Bega was born at Haarlem in 1620. He was the son 
of a sculptor, Peter Begijn, or Beggijn (other forms of the name 



20 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

Bega). The pupil of Adrian van Ostade, the celebrated illustrator 
of scenes of peasant life, also represented in this collection, he takes 
a high rank among the artists of interior genre. His themes are of 
the same kind as those of his master, and, like his master's, they 
betray a sense of humour and ability to respond to the incidents of 
humble life. He entered the guild of St. Luke as a member in 
1654, and died in Haarlem in 1664 — a victim of the plague, caught 
whilst in attendance upon the lady to whom he was engaged. 

4 THE COTTAGER'S FAMILY 
The interior of a cottage in which a mother is seated, babe at 
breast, while the father leans over, pipe in hand, trying to 
attract the attention of the baby. In the background a man, 
drinking-jug in hand, is conversing with a girl. The general 
scheme of colour of the picture is brown ; a noticeable feature, 
characteristic of the masters of the Dutch School, is the precision, 
and the happy appreciation of the beauty of loose folds in cloth- 
ing. The delicacy of the painting in the faces also illustrates 
the supremacy of Dutch art in work on this scale. (,See Plate ifi.) 

Canvas. 16 in. X 14 in. 

From the Scarisbrick and Massey-Mainwaring Collections 



BEYEREN, Abraham van 

1627-1674 

Van BeyeREN, or Beijeren, chiefly confined himself to pictures of 
still life. He was a member of the guild at The Hague in 1640, at 
Delft in 1657, and his name occurs again as member of The Hague 
Guild in 1663, and of that of Alkmaar in 1674. It is supposed 
that he died at the latter place in that year. He was particularly 
fond of painting fish, but he was also one of the most successful of 
the painters of flowers and fruit, and of gold and silver vessels. 

5 FISH ON A TABLE 
A basket full of fish, with fish on a table ; through an opening 




A TAXIDERMIS'l' 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 21 

the sea, with lowering clouds, is in view, and part of the beach 
where a group of fishermen foregather round a landed boat. 

(See PlaU 3.) 

Signed with monogram A. v. B. 
Canvas. 49 in. x 42 in. 

6 FRUIT AND STILL LIFE 
Fruit overflowing from silver dishes. In the centre a gold- 
mounted nautilus cup and a covered glass goblet of yellow wine ; 
a crystal watch lying open, with ribbon attached, as in the Van 
Aelst picture ; grapes in profusion among other objects, upon a 
crumpled white cloth spread over a green cloth, gold fringed. 
A purple curtain is looped above. Signed with monogram. 

(Stt Plate 4.) 

Canvas. 49^ in. X 42^ in. 

The genius of Holland in the representation of shining gold and 
silver, the strange surface of mother-of-pearl, and the evanescent 
bloom of fruit might well seem all poured into this one picture. 
It shows an enthusiasm for fine specimens of manufacture equal 
among the Dutch to their enthusiasm for nature. Their art 
was immensely civilized in spirit int regarding such things as 
the last effort of nature, put forth through human talent. It 
betrays no sign of the feeling that an antagonism exists between 
the aims of man and the intentions of nature which is so evident 
a note of later art. 



BfcQEMART, Abraham 
1564-1^658 

^- ABRAHAM BloEMART, painter and engraver, was born about 1564. 

He was the master of more than one of the eminent Dutch painters 



22 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

of the seventeenth century. His pupils included Jan Both and 
Weenix. His death occurred in 1658. 

7 PORTRAIT OF AN OLD MAN 
A small painting of the head and shoulders of an old man with 
white beard. {See piau 5.) 
Panel. 6 in. x 6 in. 



BOL, Ferdinand 

161 1-1681 

Ferdinand Bol was a native of Dordrecht. He was born in 
1611. As a child he was brought to Amsterdam by his parents, 
and it is with that town that he is identified. He became the pupil 
of Rembrandt, was made a citizen, and in 1653 married Elizabeth 
Dell. He died in Amsterdam in 168 1. In his own time his works 
were on at least one public occasion preferred by his fellow citizens 
to those of Rembrandt. He adopted his master's methods so fully 
that at a first study his works seem to approach those of Rem- 
brandt ; the intimacy and the mastery of the style of Rembrandt 
are, however, missing. While in actual contact with Rembrandt 
he ascended to achievements which he was afterwards unable to 
maintain. 

8 PORTRAIT OF A LADY 
Half-length, seated portrait of a lady, in black embroidered 
dress, with a ruff, lawn cap and cuffs. She wears a ring on the 
third finger of either hand, and holds a white embroidered hand- 
kerchief in her lap. (See Plate 49.) 
Canvas. 33 in. x 2"] in. 



BORCH, Gerard ter 

1 61 7-1 68 1 

Gerard ter Borch (Terburg) was born in 1617 at Zwolle. He 
was the pupil of his father, a painter who had been influenced by 




PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN 



Frans Hals 




INTERIOR OF A CHURCH 



G. van Ilouchgeesi 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 23 

residence in Italy, and he studied also at Haarlem from 1632 to 
1635. He then went to England — this was the period of Van 
Dyck's ascendancy there — and later to Italy, returning in 1641 
to Amsterdam. Here he painted small portraits. He was at 
Miinster at the time of the ratification of the treaty of peace with 
Philip IV., 1646 to 1648, working at the picture of the event, which 
is in the National Gallery, and he was afterwards received at the 
Court of Spain. He visited France before returning to Holland. 
From 1650 to 1654 Ter Borch lived in his native town, ZwoUe; 
eventually he settled at Deventer, where he married his cousin and 
became a member of the town council, and afterwards a Burgo- 
master. A portrait of himself painted in 1660 is in the Hague 
Museum. Ter Borch died at Deventer in 1681 ; his body was con- 
veyed to his birthplace and laid with ceremony in his father's 
vault in the Church of St. Michael. He is pre-eminent among the 
painters of interior genre. His painting expressed a temperament 
of refinement, in its choice of the aspects of life represented, and in 
its intimate touch. 

9 THE LETTER-WRITER 
A lady seated at a table, pen in hand, wearing a dark red velvet 
jacket trimmed with swansdown over a white satin skirt. Her 
carefully dressed hair, showing the forehead and adorned with a 
little plume, subscribes to fashion, and her expression seems 
arrested at the moment when pursuit of thought gives place to 
the recognition of someone's presence. The unemployed hand 
rests in her lap ; the appurtenances for writing are before her on 
the table, which is covered in green. A framed picture hangs 
on the wall, against which a map is also suspended. (See Frontispiece.) 
Canvas. 2i\ in. x 17 in. 



BOTH, Jan 

1610-1662 

Jan Both, a native of Utrecht, was born in 1610, and with 
his elder brother Andries studied under his father, a painter on 
glass ; later they were both pupils of Abraham Bloemaert. At the 



24 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

termination of this apprenticeship they travelled together in France 
and Italy, and at Rome they were greatly influenced by the art of 
Claude Lorrain. The extraordinary sympathy that existed between 
the brothers enabled them to work extensively on the same can- 
vases, leaving the pictures with that unitj^ of spirit which as a 
rule only pertains to work from a single hand. In this partner- 
ship they rose to fame, Jan composing the landscape whilst Andries 
solved the difficulties of figure composition. They occasionally 
produced works which represented them individually. The partner- 
ship terminated only with the death of Andries, under the saddest 
circumstances. They were returning from an entertainment at 
Venice one evening in 1644 when Andries fell into one of the 
canals, and was drowned. Jan immediately left Italy. Ineffectually 
he sought to co-operate successfully with another figure artist. 
He died about 1662. 

10 ROMANTIC LANDSCAPE 
A small procession of muleteers following a pathway in a 
romantic valley. A sharp cliff, with overgrowth, on the right of 
the valley ; slender trees in the foreground. 

This picture is one that represents Dutch art at the time when 
foreign influences, chiefly Italian, were at work, predicting the 
decline of the Dutch School (see note on Du Jardin). (See Plate 47.) 
Canvas. 24 in. x 31 in. 



BREKELENKAM, Quiryn 

Member of Guild, 1648 

BREKELENKAM was born near Leyden, though it is not known in 
what year. Gerard Dou was his teacher ; he was also affected by 
Rembrandt's influence. Brekelenkam was received into the Guild 
of St. Luke at Leyden in 1648. His signed works date from 1653 
to 1669. He lived at Leyden during the whole of his life, and was 
twice married. 

H THE MORNING GOSSIP 

The interior of a dairy, with two women seated gossiping, 
while a child stands by ; one of the women is peeling turnips, 




PROFESSOR AEMILIUS COMMIS 



Cornells Jansens 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 25 

while the other, apparently her maid, has the results of market- 
ing slung in a pail from her arm ; one of her hands is outstretched 
in gesture, the other holds a flower. The expression of her 
companion listening to her story is a good piece of character 
study. Bright colour is introduced into the picture by the 
means of the red skirt of the maid, and a blue jacket hanging 
from a wooden screen. (See Plate so.) 
Signed, and dated 1663 
Panel. 20 m. by 15^ in. 



CROOS, Jacobus van ' ' 

Paintings dated 1666 

Jacobus van Crocs was a Dutch landscape painter who flourished 
in the latter part of the seventeenth century. The dates of his 
birth and death are not established. There is a view of the Hague, 
painted in 1666 by this artist, in the Town Hall of the Hague. 

12 LANDSCAPE 
A country house near a river, flat country beyond, with a 
church-tower in the distance. In the foreground two figures 
on the near river-bank. The picture awakens curiosity from 
its apparent truth to the character of some particular place. 
It is not improbable that the place represented is still standing. 

(See Plate J,.!.) 

Panel, id in. x 12 in. 



CUYP, Aelbert 

1606-1672 

Aelbert Cuyp, who was born at Dort in 1606, was the son of 
Jacob Gerritz Cuyp. He studied with his father, from whom he 
inherited sufficient property to place him beyond the difficulties 
that embarrassed so many of his contemporaries. He became a 
member of the Common Council and a burgher of Dordrecht. The 

C 



26 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

date of his death has not been traced, but there is evidence to show 
that it was not previous to 1672. 

13 THE DISTANT TOWN 
A stretch of flat country with the outlines of a church, houses 
and windmills extended across the plain in the haze of the 
middle distance. In the foreground three men are in conversa- 
tion : they are attended by a dog ; beyond them are two figures. 
The right side of the picture is filled with the leafage of a tall 
tree The foreground is thrown into strong shadow from trees 
on the left, a common device with the Dutch landscapists for 
securing contrast of effect, which Cuyp probably learnt from 
van Goyen. The elements which go to the composition of this 
picture are of the simplest, but it is characteristic of the highest 
Dutch achievement in its subtle interpretation of atmosphere 
and distance. (See Plate 51.) 
Signed 
Panel, ig in. x 27^ m. 

14 PORTRAIT 
Portrait of a man in dark green velvet suit, with white shirt and 
gold embroidered vest. He wears a velvet cap, and a chain 
over his shoulders which is gathered in his left hand. {See Plate 7.) 
Panel. 27 in. x 22 in. 



DU JARDIN, Karel 

1625-1678 

Du Jardin was born in Amsterdam in 1625. He became a pupil 
of Nicholas Berghem, and commenced travelling in Italy while 
still a youth. He early attracted attention by his distinguished 
talents. For many years he resided at Rome, where his art met 
with great appreciation. In later years he made a second visit to 
Italy and died at Venice in 1678. His art partakes of some of the 




PORTRAIT OF A LADY 



Nicoliis Maes 




STILL LIFE 



Bareiit Z'aii der Mcer 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 27 

brighter quality of colour that distinguishes Italian painting, and 
this is united to the neatness of Dutch craftsmanship. 

15 THE START FOR HAWKING (or 
Rendezvous de Chasse) 
A party of horsemen carrying falcons in the grounds of a 
chateau. Incidents of the scene are a boy with a bugle coup- 
ling greyhounds ; other dogs are distributed in the composition, 
and a turkeycock with spread tail. In the foreground a servant, 
holding cloaks and a sword, stands with back to the spectator, 
beside a white horse saddled for a lady who is seen descending 
steps to the right with a cavalier. The grounds are orna- 
mented with statuary and surrounded with trees. f,See Plate S6.) 

Signed, and dated 1664. 

Canvas. 21^ in. x 25 in. 

Exhibited in the British Gallery, 18 19 
From the Philip Henry Hope Collection. 
Described in Smith's " Catalogue Raisonn^," Vol. 5, No. 107 
" It is impossible," says Smith, " to commend too highly this 
exquisite work of art." But, as a matter of fact, the Italian 
influence, reflected in Du Jardin's work, and so much admired 
in 1829, when the "Catalogue Raisonne " was first issued, fore- 
told the decline of the Dutch School, the genius of which was 
rooted in native temperament. (See note on Jan Both.) 



DU MOOR, Karl ' - . 

1656-1738 

Karl du Moor, the elder, was born at Leyden, 1656. His 
parents intended him for one of the learned professions, but 
developing a love of art he persuaded his father to place him under 
Gerard Dou. He was afterwards the pupil of Frans van Mieris. 
He became celebrated through the execution of a sensational picture 

C 2 



28 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

of Brutus condemning his two sons to death, for the Town Hall 
of Leyden. His name reaching Italy, the Grand Duke of Tuscany 
desired the artist's portrait painted by himself to be placed among 
the illustrious artists in the Uffizi Gallery. Du Moor sent the 
portrait to Florence in 1702, and was honoured in return with a 
gold medal and chain. Later in his career the Emperor of Austria 
commissioned him to paint portraits, including one of the Duke of 
Marlborough, and conferred on him the order of knighthood. One 
of his best works is in the hall of the magistrates at the Hague, 
representing the Burgomasters and Eschevins in the year 1719. 
Du Moor died at Warmond in 1738. 

16 PORTRAIT OF A LADY 
Small portrait of lady, in a dark dress embroidered with blue, 
wearing a pearl necklace. {See Plate 22.) 
Panel. 6 in. x 3 zVz. ■ . ■ 



DUBBELS, Hendrick 

1620-1676 • . 

Of the story of Dubbels' life practically nothing is known, though he 
is admitted to rank with the foremost Dutch marine painters. 
L. Backhuysen, to whom his sea-pieces have often been attributed, 
was his pupil. There is a small work attributed to Backhuysen in 
the collection. The names are known of a Jan and a Dirk Dubbels, 
but the former, at least, is now generally considered as identical 
with Hendrick, instead of as his son. The vacillation of many of 
the Dutch painters in determining upon a style in which to sign 
their work is a continual cause of confusion to the historians of 
their art. 

17 THE BEACH AT SCHEVENINGEN 
A storm gathering on the coast, fishermen landing a masted 
fishing-boat near a wooden breakwater ; a ship in the offing 
with furled sails. On the sands a horseman and other figures. 

(See Plate S.) 

Canvas. 18 J hi. x 25 m. 

There is an exquisite effect in this picture. The sail of the ship 




PORTRAIT OF A LADY 



Pieter Nason 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 29 

carries a last reflection of sunlight into the cloud which over- 
shadows the sea. The transparency of paint in these Dutch 
sea pieces showed the way to such exquisite qualities as 
Whistler was to reach long after in such a painting as his 
Valparaiso. The sensitive modern artist could refine upon the 
colour of the earlier school, but in the representation of the 
atmosphere of the sea the Dutch painters of the seventeenth 
century remain unrivalled ; and this, though artists like Dubbels 
met the demands of fashion by the production of effects made 
to a recipe. 



DUTCH SCHOOL, 17TH Century ' ■ 

18 PORTRAIT 

Three-quarter length portrait of a youth with long dark hair. 
He is dressed in a black silk suit with lace collar and slashed 
sleeves showing pink lining. He wears a gold embroidered 
sword-belt, and holds a cane in his left hand. Dated 1665. 

(See Plate 9.) 

Canvas. 40 in. x 30 in. 

19 A BATTLE 

Cavaliers charging in war ; two are shown in close combat, 
the nearest is mounted on a galloping wh^e horse, which 
forms the central feature of the composition. In the middle 
distance is a leafy tree assisting the decorative character of the 
picture. The line of advance of mounted soldiers in combat 
extends across the whole canvas. In the foreground, on rough 
ground, lies a wounded soldier, his face downwards with head 
towards the spectator, i^see Plate 57.) 
Canvas. 42 in. x 66 in. 



30 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

DYCK, Sir Anthony van 

1599-1641 

Van Dyck was born at Antwerp, on the 22nd March, 1599. He 
was apprenticed to painting when he was ten. In 161 5 he entered 
the Academy of Rubens, Rubens was delighted with his great 
intelligence. Van Dyck acted as Rubens' assistant until 1620. In 
1618 he was admitted into the guild of St. Luke at Antwerp. In 
1620 he visited England and worked for James I. Acting upon 
the advice of Rubens, he set out for Italy in 1624. He was now 
regarded as a rival to Rubens himself At the invitation of the 
Prince of Orange he visited the Hague in 1630, and it is also 
thought that he went to London, and immediately returned, not 
meeting there with the encouragement from the English Monarch 
he had looked for. Charles I.'s accession, however, was propitious 
for him. On seeing one of his portraits the King, whose noble 
character he was afterwards to express so well, invited him to 
England. So many commissions were offered him from the nobility 
of England and France, that at last he would consent to paint only 
those whose appearance attracted him. He married one of the 
most beautiful women of the Court. The painter always went 
magnificently dressed, with a numerous and gallant equipage. In 
appearance he was of low stature, but well proportioned, very 
handsome, modest and extremely obliging. He died in London, 
and was buried in 1641 in old St Paul's. 

20 JOHN OXENSTIERNA, 
Count of Sodremore, Baron of Kymeck, son of Axel Oxen- 
stierna ; plenipotentiary Minister at the Peace of Munster. 
A nobleman with his arm resting on a pillar, at the base of 
which is sculptured a coat-of-arms. The black of his suit and 
cloak is of beautiful intensity, emphasized by the splendour of 
gold ornamentation ; rosettes of a darker gold ornament his 
shoes, the hose being of a faded crimson, particularly pleasant 
in colour. The background shows a heavy green curtain in 

folds. [See Plate 10.) 

Canvas. 82 in. X 50 in. 




THE PET DOG 



Jacob Ochtej-veit 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 31 

Litrie is known of the history of this painting before it appeared 
in a London sale room in recent years, and its authenticity as 
a Van Dyck has been doubted. The question has been asked 
as to where the painter could have met the Swedish Count. 
This difficulty is disposed of by recent information from the 
Swedish Minister in England, giving details of the Count's career 
which correspond with Dr. Bode's opinion that the picture was 
painted about 1633 by Van Dyck with the assistance of his 
pupils in the accessories : — 

In 1632, when the Count was but twenty-one, he was made 
Colonel of the Guard, after having travelled and taken his 
degree of doctor in England at Oxford University. As early 
as 1634 he was Envoy first in England and then in Holland. 
It was noted of him that his demeanour was haughty and that 
he appeared with great pomp at ceremonies. The coat-of- 
arms at the base of the column in the picture is that of the 
Oxenstiernas, one of the oldest and most eminent families in 
Sweden. 



ES, Jacob van 

1606-1666 , : 

Jacob van Es (or Essen) was a Flemish painter. He was born 
at Antwerp in 1606, and must rank with the important still-life 
painters of the period. He painted two remarkable pictures of the 
same subject, a Fish Market ; these are in the Vienna Gallery ; 
the figures in both instances were put in by Jordaens, the friend 
and assistant of Rubens. Es died at Antwerp in 1666. 

21 A DISH OF PLUMS 
On a table a Delft dish with some green and purple plums ; 
beside it is a glass vase, containing two carnations. (See Plate S3.) 
Panel. 12 in. x 16 in. , , 



32 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

EVERDINGEN, C. van 

1606-1679 

C^SAR VAN EVERDINGEN was born at Alkmaar in 1606. He 
became the pupil of a glass painter, who executed windows in the 
new Church at Amsterdam, and was entered a member of the 
Guild of his native place in 1632, and a member of the Guild at 
Haarlem in 165 1. He attained eminence through a picture of the 
portraits of the Company of Archers. In addition to being a painter 
Van Everdingen had some fame as an architect. His death occurred 
in 1679. In the Hague gallery is a picture by this artist repre- 
senting Diogenes in the market-place of Haarlem seeking an 
honest man. The painting contains portraits of the Steyn family 
of Haarlem. Two younger brothers of Everdingen were artists : 
Allart van Everdingen, a romantic landscape painter, etcher and 
engraver, and Jan van Everdingen, an advocate who painted for 
amusement. 

■ 22 THE YOUNG AUGUSTUS WITH 
WREATH OF LAURELS 
A white marble bust crowned with laurels and cloaked with 
red drapery, a horn with ribbon attached placed by its side. 

{See Plate 11.) 

Canvas. 30 in. x 20 in. 



FLINCK, GovAERT 

1615-1660 

In 1633, the year in which Rembrandt painted his picture The 
Lesson of Anatomy, pupils came to him in numbers. Among them 
were many youths whose names were subsequently to be notable, 
Ferdinand Bol, for instance, and Metsu, Nicolas Maes, De Hoogh, 
and Govaert Flinck. Flinck was born on the 25th January, 1615, at 
Cleeves. He became painter to Frederick William, Elector of 
Brandenburg, and Prince John Maurice of Nassau, but he chiefly 
resided at Amsterdam. Flinck was of an impressionable nature, 
and his art changed its character many times, according to the 
master to whose influence at the moment he happened to submit. 
Thus he threw off characteristics in which he had been the disciple 




PORTRAIT OF A LADY— AGED 28 



Pieier de Putter 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 33 

of Rembrandt, and followed the Italians in the love of pure colour. 
His subjects were generally of Biblical and classical themes. He 
was one of the most employed artists in the country, and the 
magistrates of Amsterdam engaged him in considerable works for 
the Town-hall. He died in 1660. 

23 THE ARTIST AS " AN EASTERN 
PRINCE " 
Three-quarter length portrait of the artist, in grey tunic, with 
embroidered cloak fastened with breast clasp and chain, wearing 
a white turban and carrying a bow. (See piate is.) 
2,7^ in. X 29^ in. 



GELDER, Aert De 

1645-1727 

De Gelder, who was born in Dordrecht in 1645, was a pupil of 
Rembrandt's at the end of the master's life ; previously he had 
studied with Hoogstraeten. In style he followed Rembrandt closely. 
He commenced to study painting at the age of sixteen. He painted 
portraits, but his chief interest was in historical subjects. With its 
immense collection of armour and drapery of every description, his 
studio at Amsterdam is said to have resembled a broker's-shop. 
There is a portrait by this artist of Peter the Great. It was 
subsequently engraved. De Gelder died in Dordrecht in 1727. 

24 A TAXIDERMIST 
An old woman, in brown hood and spectacles, working at her 
task at a table littered with draperies and straw ; at her left 
dead birds suspended and resting on the table. (See Plate 14.) 
Panel. 2 gi in. x 24 in. 



GOYEN, Jan van , ' ' 

1 596-1 666 

Van Goyen was born at Leyden in 1 596, and was married in that 
town in 161 8 to Annetje Willems van Raelst. Previous to his 



34 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

marriage he made a short stay in Haarlem. In 163 1 he went to 
the Hague, and was there elected a member of the Painter's Guild. 
He died at the Hague in 1666. Always striving to be in dose 
contact with nature, with his sketch-book never out of hand, no 
artist has responded more sensitively to the moods of the sea than 
Van Goyen. His paintings are charged with temperament. We 
feel that he too might have spoken, like St. Francis of Assisi, of his 
brother the wind, his sister the rain. He was, however, a man of 
the world who, incidentally, controlled a vast speculation in ,bulbs 
and continually speculated in land and houses. From papers 
preserved it also seems that he occupied himself with the planning 
and building of the latter. But his activity as a painter never 
abated. " He described the Dutch landscape," says Dr. Bode, 
" characteristically and decidedly, with a truth and mastery which 
no other master before or after him has attained." Of a changeable 
and capricious disposition, even as a pupil Van Goyen changed 
his master some six or seven times, and, always extravagant, he 
died financially involved. Nevertheless throughout his life he 
retained respect and social position. His eldest daughter became 
the wife of Jan Steen, and her face is immortalized in many of that 
master's paintings. 

25 THE MOUTH OF A RIVER 
The sea at the entrance to a river, with town in the distance ; 
on the left, in full sail, a boat filled with men ; several other 
sailing-boats in view. On the right a boat, with fishermen at 
work, anchored near a sand-bank, and nearer to the spectator 
two men watching the operation from a rowing-boat. (See Plate 62.) 

■ 26 A BREEZY DA Y 
Like the preceding picture, this one represents just one of those 
effects of a grey day at sea in which the Dutch marine painters 
showed their responsiveness to the mood of nature. In the 
right of the picture is a bank with low bushes bent in the wind, 
and a coach with two horses apparently proceeding along a 
coast road ; in the left two boats, with fishermen, near some 
stakes, and beyond them the opposite bank of the river is 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 35 

brought into view, with church spire and roofs of houses indi- 
cated. The centre of the canvas is occupied with the stretch 
of tumbled water, and numerous sailing-boats taking advantage 
of the stiff breeze. (See piau 63.) 
Signed, and dated 1638 
Panel. 24 in. X 15^ in. 



HALS, DiRCK 

1591-1656 

DiRCK Hals was a brother of the great painter Frans Hals. He 
was born at Haarlem in 1591, of parents descended from a patrician 
family, and was the pupil of Abraham Bloemaert. He devoted 
his art to the representation of gaily-attired people drinking, 
dancing, or listening to music. His death occurred at Haarlem in 
1656. 

27 A MUSICAL PARTY 
A group of eleven men and women in bright costumes, gathered 
together in a room for music ; a chart and pictures on the wall. 

{See Plate 15.) 

Panel. 21^ in. x 27^ in. 



HALS, Frans 

1580-1666 

Frans Hals was probably born at Antwerp about 1580, or 1581. 
His parents belonged to a Haarlem family that had moved to 
Antwerp a few years before his birth. There is no record of his 
early life, and no early work of his preserved. If we accept the 
date of 1580 generally given as that of his birth, it was not until 
the painter was more than 35 years of age that he produced an 
important picture. He began with the masterpiece, T/ie St. 
George's Shooting Guild at Haarlem. There is no other instance 
on record of an artist of such standing emerging in middle-life from 



o 



6 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 



obscurity without leaving a trace of the steps by which he 
approached supreme achievement. Hals appears to have possessed 
his genius entirely without self-consciousness and without impressing 
his generation with the miraculous order of his skill. The facts of his 
later life come down to us only vaguely outlined. It is known that 
he married in 1610, a girl named Anneke Hernanszoon, and in the 
following year that a son was born christened Herman. Five years 
later his wife died and he married Lysbeth Reyniers. A painting 
of her with himself hangs at Amsterdam. They lived together 
nearly fifty years, bringing up a large family but incessantly 
struggling in narrow circumstances. To mend matters in later 
years the painter turned his studio into a school for teaching paint- 
ing ; a picture of the interior of the school, painted in 1652, is in the 
Haarlem Museum. Hals died in 1666. There is evidence in a 
record of a reprimand from the magistrates of Haarlem, dated 1616, 
that the painter was guilty of intemperance and violence. But it 
may be presumed from the fact that in the succeeding year he was 
elected a member of the School of Rhetoric that nothing was 
proved to lower him very much in the estimation of his fellow- 
citizens. It is perhaps of interest in view of the inter-relationship 
which undoubtedly exists between character and art, to avail our- 
selves of any light the incident may throw upon the disposition of 
one whose complete freedom from convention in art probably 
ranks him as the most natural artist who ever painted. 

28 PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN 
This painting is described as follows in Smith's " Catalogue 
Raisonn^," Dr. Hofstede de Groot's Revised Edition, page 121, 
No. 417 : — Portrait of a woman. " Half-length, her right hand 
rests on her left, which holds a white handkerchief. The ex- 
pression of her face is strong and calm, and the cheek-bones are 
very prominent. She is in black, with a very simple white cap 
drawn down on the forehead, and a broad ruff framing her face. 
Dark background; very delicate tones " (See Plate w.) 
Signed with monogram and inscribed AE T A 35 1644. 
Canvas. 29J «Vz. x 24^ in. 
Sale — Baron de Beurnouville — Paris, May 9th, 1881 ; No. 300. 




THE DANCING DOG 



Jan Sic en 




THE CONTINENCE OF SCIPIO 




A DISH OF PLUMS 



lac<it, viin F.s 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 37 

From the Collection of Maurice Kann, Paris. Exhibited at the 

National Loan Exhibition, London, 1909. 

Hals read his sitters with the shrewd insight of a man of the 

world, recording, but seeming to pass no judgment upon their 

character. This aloof, but not uncritical attitude may well 

be contrasted with Rembrandt's entire sympathy with his 

sitter. 

Hals anticipated the modern method of painting in one process, 

instead of in two or three stages. No method could be more 

spontaneous. It contributed to that great vitality which makes 

a portrait by this master seem to rival life itself 1 



HE EM, CORNELIS DE ! 

1631-1695 

CORNELIS DE Heem was born at Leyden on the 8th April, 163 1. 
Some of the Dutch painters were born into families, whose members 
succeeded each other for two or three generations, not only in the 
practice of art, but in application to one particular branch of it, such 
as still-life painting. The De Heems were an instance of this. 
Cornelis was the son and pupil of Jan Davids de Heem, and 
grandson of David de Heem, still-life painters. He left Utrecht for 
Antwerp about 1660, where he was received into the Guild of 
^ St. Luke. It is in the museums of Brussels and the Hague that 

works of Cornelis, which are rarer than those of Jan Davids, are to 
be found. The De Heems between them were the founders of a 
school of painters who devoted themselves almost entirely to the 
painting of flowers and fruit. Cornelis de Heem's death occurred 
at the Hague about 1695. 

29 FRUIT AND LEAVES 
, A cluster of white grapes, some purple and green plums, 
peaches, nuts and cherries, surrounded with bright green leaves 
against a dark background. (See Plate 52.) 
Canvas. 24 in. x 21 in. 



38 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

HOBBEMA, Meindert 

1638-1709 

HOBBEMA, like his contemporary Ruisdael, was a poet of the 
country-side in his painting. His work has the same deep under- 
current of feeling. Upon the art of these men the great naturalism 
of modern landscape painting was built up. It is surmised that 
Hobbema was a native of Amsterdam. His birth is recorded in 
1638. He was married in 1688 to the servant-maid of the Burgo- 
master of Amsterdam. Through influence he obtained from the 
Burgomaster a small position in the wine-customs, which secured 
him sufficient means to live upon. From that time forward the 
artist did little painting, but we probably owe the masterpiece in 
the National Gallery, " The Avenue of Middelharnis " to the first 
years of his married life. His death occurred in Amsterdam in 
1709. He received scanty recognition during his life, dying in 
poverty. The figures in his pictures were sometimes introduced by 
Wouwerman. 

30 THE WATER-MILL 

In the centre of the panel a mill surrounded by trees, with a 
church in the background ; on the left some farm buildings 
enclosed in a yard, and men loading a punt ; on the right a 
bridge over a winding river. (See Plate 4s.) 
Panel. 18J in. x 25 in. 



HONDECOETER, Melchior d' 

1636-1695 

D'HONDECOETER was bom in Utrecht in 1636. He was the son 
and grandson of a painter. His father, Gysbert d'Hondecoeter, 
came of a noble family of Brabant. Melchior studied painting under 
his father and his uncle the famous painter Weenix, and commenced 
as a marine painter. From 1659 until 1663 he lived at The Hague. 
He is mentioned in the " Confrerie Pictura " ot Hague during those 
years ; afterwards he went to Amsterdam. He received the rights 
of citizenship of Amsterdam in 1688, and his death occurred in that 
city in 1695. His fame rests on his success in depicting birds and 



.^^^m 


ii-aii&- ■^' 


&^fc"-' 


B ^ ' 


'^ "wm 


H^^^^^^^^m^^^^^^H 




K' 


s^^ \^«..', ^mgE^j 


.■■^'^:„ V ., ■ "^- • «**- ^« 


^^^^HinHlft 'dHBlK 


j^B;: .^ 


,1 '.--^--ii-^:^. 


^^HhaH" <f 


1^1" : 


fg:"^,^,^.. .. 


^^^hi^; 3^ 


Ht>^4 w^. ^ 


fS'-^'^^^^^^s 




^rm 


|;|'i:.,v^^^» 




^^^HKTSut'' 


;<;^V'' ■^^^''■'* ^J^' .- j4 ' 


:s\f '^^^ a^^^^He.-^ 


IW^^ 


■'*B-/;i^'-i '•■ '-' -: ■•, -.-\£r'- "^ 


L ^■^•,=&:i.?-i*ali»>^ 


iJk^H 


1^^ 








^ '" '• 'V ^ 








dmH^Hi "^^ ■ ■ ■'.'(^"'^f''"" ""'%' ' 




F VHiBfii^^^BH|| ^^d|w 


hS^R^;^^^'' ■^1'-^.^ ' ".'^W' ^ -* 


*' ^^ A 


' T^^F^ \^ ;'. 




*■.-.<■ ' 




[^^HB^^^SmL:. '■''^1 


ti.:^ 


■.•■■' ' . —--^ ■ '' 


pi i^^^i 




'^'''■' -■ MlP'j'-,' 


f ^jm 


<^m' 


^LjUm^': 


n ' wia^H 


s^P^ ' 


;. /%*fe-.' T^^ii'' 


idMWlIM '~ . 


^Bm^V^ 


tN - ^';M|ffl|S6y 


rmWl" 


^pSaf' ' 


, St^^v^mP^ 


T} ^^91^ 


.<"■■ '^E;? 


(C.' Wul, .shB^^:" ''' 


|]^ aMm 


B^B, '^^H 


l^^^^^^^l^H '^l^^^^l^^^^l 


r '' ^M 


B|?^ 


^^^^^Hi" \ '^irS^H^H^I 


t I^^H 


^kH 


^'f . %!^^^^*^, -^^;' ■ 


ff M ^^^ ^^^^1 


J^la^SSB^H '^ 


■"viiW ■■ '^&^-^'- — ■ - d^-v ' ■ 


jSf 'fls''^?' ^^^B 


.i^uws.. W0 


■.^Yw >*^,..... ., .'Mi" 


'. W-"-^ 


.G%-1 


^•> 'f'^'^' 


' J^^l^Vi 


hSb^'ik'mji 


* *^'' (^'f^^pV 




^f'^^.** * 


■ ,--■ ^ l8?^' . 


^' i ,'^Sl 




■ ■ ->^'- "^"" ^<^- ^■■' 


-?/»r ' 




"■^E- •■'-•'■ 


■/ 




^^^ ; 






'.->»- ** 






FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 39 

esp>ecially on his representations of peacocks, ducks, and hens, in 
fact the birds that are associated with a farm. He aimed at a 
decorative effect in his composition, but lack of distinction in his 
colour sometimes compromised this. 

31 A CAT ATTACKING POULTRY 
A cock, of bright plumage, angered by the appearance of a cat, 
guards a white hen. Beyond the yard, in which other fowls 
are apparent, a hilly landscape is in view. [See Plate is.) 
Signed and dated 1652. 
26^ in. X 34 in. . ' 



HOUCKGEEST, Geeraert van Hoegerst 

Member of Guild in 1639 

HouCKGEEST, who is supposed to have been the son of Joachim 
Otto Hoecgeest, the portrait painter, was admitted into the Guild 
of St. Luke at Delft in 1639. He devoted the whole of his attention 
to painting architecture, and is best known by his pictures of church 
interiors. He painted many interior pictures from the Nieuwekerk 
at Delft, and two of these are now in the Hague Museum. 

32 INTERIOR OF A CHURCH 
An interior of a church, with cavaliers and peasants walking, 
the pillars to the right are illuminated by slanting rays of 
sunlight ; the black escutcheons in the right are effective, as in 
the Vermeer picture. [,see Plate 17.) 
Panel. 24 in. x 20 in. 



JANSENS, CoRNELis 

1 593-1664 

Cornells Jansens was also called Janssens van Keulen, or 
Janson van Keulen, and in England he is now generally spoken of 
as Cornelius Jonson or Johnson, which is the spelling he used in 
signing his works. Of Flemish descent, he was born in London in 



40 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

1593. He regarded himself as English and practised in England 
during the greater part of his life. In 1622 he married and had 
one son. James I. attached him to his Court, and he painted that 
sovereign many times. He painted a portrait of Charles I., now 
at the Duke of Devonshire's seat, Chatsworth, also portraits of 
Henry, Prince of Wales, and of Sir George Villiers, father of the 
Duke of Buckingham. He is largely represented in private collec- 
tions in England. The rise of Van Dyck seemed adversely to affect 
the vogue of Jansens, but he was painting in England until 1643. 
Afterwards he settled at the Hague. He died at Amsterdam 
between 1662 and 1664. " During his first thirty years of practice," 
says Mr. Collins Baker,* " he was conspicuously English in temper ; 
then with strange adaptability to his surroundings he became 
Dutch." 

33 PROFESSOR AEMILIUS COMMIS 
Three-quarter length portrait of a man, in black gown, with 
slashed sleeves and plain white collar, wearing long hair touch- 
ing his shoulders. {See Plate 19.) 

Signed, Cornelius Jonson van Ceulen, y^«V 1658. Inscribed on 
the back : " I an . soon . van . Prof , Aemilius . Commis . Gen . der . 

CONVOYEN . en . LiCENT . " 

Canvas. 40 in. x 30 in. 



KEYSER, William de 

1647-1692 

William de Keyser was born at Antwerp about the year 1647, 
and was brought up as a jeweller. In the craft of jewellery he 
attained celebrity, but employed his leisure in practising minia- 
ture painting, enamelling and oil painting. After painting some 
altar-pieces at Antwerp his business called him to Dunkirk, and 
whilst there he painted a picture for the chapel of the English 
nuns. This work was so successful that De Keyser was persuaded 
to go to England. He sailed without telling his wife and family. 
Upon receiving a good reception in England, including an introduc- 
tion to King James II., he sent a message to his wife to convert 

* " Lely and the Stuart Portrait Painters." 




PialijO 



THE OYSTER SELLER 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 41 

his effects into money, dismiss his workmen and join him. The 
Revolution, however, followed within half a year, and by bringing 
disaster to his chief patrons adversely affected the fortunes of the 
artist. It is said that recourse, in his despair, to the pursuit of the 
philosopher's stone completed his ruin. He died, at the age of 
forty-five, about 1692, leaving a daughter whom he had taken pains 
to instruct, who painted small portraits and copied well. 

35 A SHEPHERD 

A half length portrait of a peasant in brown coat, with head 
wreathed with leaves, holding a shepherd's crook. (See Plate 6.) 
Panel. 12 in. y. g in. 



KNYFF, WouTER 
-1679 

WouTER Knyff, the son of Haarlem people, was born at Haarlem. 
The date of his birth is unknown. His death occurred after 1679. 
No records of his life remain to us. 

35 VIEW OF A DUTCH TOWN 
View of a town from the riverside. On the right a path 
approaching the town by way of a narrow draw-bridge. A 
barge containing three figures is moored at the quay. In the 
distance is a water-mill. A cloud of smoke from a low chimney 
on the left is blown across the sky. {See Plate 58.) 
Canvas. 42^ in. x 59I in. 



KONINGH, Philips de , • 

1619-1689 

Philips de Koningh, or De Koning, was born in 1619 at Amster- 
dam, and died in that city in 1689. His place is in the front rank 
of the landscape painters of Holland, and the picture in this 
collection is very characteristic. The artist always returned to the 
theme of flat country viewed from a height with greater pleasure, 
apparently, than to any other. 

D 



42 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

36 A VIEW IN HOLLAND 
View of a vast stretch of country in which a town encircled by 
fields and streams is the central feature. In the foreground a 
winding road by a river, the roof and fagade of a mansion 
showing above some garden trees ; on the opposite bank of the 
river a windmill. The whole valley is subject to alternations 
of light under an April sky, and the buildings of the town, 
starting into prominence under sudden illumination, are defined 
with a delightfully free and expressive touch. {See Plate 54.) 
Canvas. 36 we. x 42 1 in. 



MAES, Nicolas (or Maas) 

1632-1693 

Although Nicolas Maes (or Maas) was one of the most eminent 
genre painters of the seventeenth century, we have little record of 
his life. He was born in Dordrecht in 1632, and became a pupil 
of Rembrandt. In 1665 he removed to Antwerp, and lived there 
until 1678. In that year it is supposed that he went to Amsterdam, 
where he died in 1693. 

There was such a marked change in his style towards the end of 
his career, that it is thought that there may have been another 
painter of the same name. This theory has received support from 
the fact that the signatures in his early, and superior period, are 
altogether less ornamental in style. It is considered possible that 
the Maes who returned to Amsterdam to die in 1693 was not the 
pupil of Rembrandt of whom we write, the painter of the early 
pictures, but his son. 

37 PORTRAIT OF A LADY 
A lady resting her head on her left hand, and gathering some 
strands of her long dark hair, which falls in ringlets, in her 
right. She wears a grey and red satin dress and a pearl neck- 
lace. Painted in an oval. {See Plate 20.) 
Canvas. 30 in. X 27 in. 




PORTRAIT 



/. ! 'erspr07ick 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 43 

MEER, Barent (or Bernard) van der 

1659- 

Barent van der Meek, who was born in Haarlem about 1659, 
is generally assumed to have been a son of the elder Jan van der 
Meer, not to be confused with the great Jan van der Meer, or Ver- 
meer of Delft. He entirely confined his art to still-life. He resided 
in his native town and there married a member of the Dusart family. 
The date of his death is unknown. 

38 STILL LIFE 
A silver centre-piece filled with delicacies ; a blue and white 
Delft dish, containing purple and white grapes, peaches, a 
pomegranate and an orange, resting upon a blue-grey table 
cloth. An apple, divided, and some nuts scattered upon the 
table close to a large glass filled with an effervescing brew. 

(See Plate 21.) 

Canvas. 2>^ in. X 47 in. 

When this painting was discovered some years ago, there was 
evidence that its composition had undergone a curious trans- 
formation. The cup of the centre-piece had been cut from 
its pedestal and put as another dish on the table. The picture 
gains greatly in charm of design by restoration to its original 
composition, and the centre-piece as it is now seen is of interest 
as a specimen of the craftsmanship in silver of the period. 
In a note in the " Burlington Magazine," No. cxix., Dr. Bredius 
says that of the rare paintings by Barent van der Meer, two 
are at the Castle of Wiirzburg, two have lately appeared in sales 
at Amsterdam, and another is in his own collection. 



METSU, Gabriel 

1630-1667 

Gabriel Metsu was bom at Leyden in 1630. He was the son 
of Jacob Metsu, a painter oi genre, and a native of Bailleul, in French 
Flanders, and of his third wife, Jacomina Garnierns, widow of a 

D 2 



44 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

painter, Willem Fremault. There must thus have been a tradition 
of the art of painting even in the nursery of this artist. He was 
educated in the art by Gerard Dou. " It is a fact," says de Groot. 
"that in 1644, when he was only a boy of fourteen or fifteen, Metsu 
was one of the signatories of a petition in which the artists of Leyden 
sought permission from the magistrates of the town to establish a 
Guild of St. Luke. The Guild was established in 1648, and Metsu 
was one of its first members." About 1654 he removed to 
Amsterdam. He married in 1658 Isabella Wolff. The following 
year he obtained the rights of the citizenship of Amsterdam. 
He died in that city in 1667. His painting is similar to that of 
Ter Borch's in choice of subject, leaning to the elegant side of 
life, with an equivalent delicacy of execution. 

39 THE DESSERT 
A lady and a gentleman seated at a table, the gentleman offering 
the lady a bunch of grapes from a blue and white dish. A 
child, holding a peach, plays at the lady's knees. The figures 
are seated in a lofty room, with an overmantel supported by 
marble pillars and surmounted by a framed painting ; another 
painting, above a polished cabinet, hangs on the wall imme- 
diately behind them, suffused with light from the left. There 
a green curtain is drawn back from the alcove of a window, in 
which a bird-cage hangs. The colour of the picture is beautifully 
controlled, and the black of the man's suit is well contrasted 
with a bright red table-cloth and the lady's blue dress. 

(See Plate 59.) 

Canvas. 2 1 '^m x 1 9 zn. 

In the Collection of M. Schryvere, 1763 

In the Lormier Collection 

Mentioned by Descamps 

Exhibited in the British Gallery, 1832 

From the Collection of the Earl of Harrowby ; in the possession 

of his family since 1833 

Described in Smith's " Catalogue Raisonn6," Vol. 4, No. yj. 

" A powerful and admirably painted picture" — Smz^/t 



m 



,1^$^^ 




r^"-m 




Simon <ic \'Ht\zey 



FISHING BOATS 




J acobtis van Croos.': 



LANDSCAPE 




Anthonie Mutcrla 



HUNTING PARTY 




Pi a,, J J 



THE REPOSE IN EGYPT 



Sclio.il r/ Kr,u/n„,„:t 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 45 

NASON, PlETER 

1612-1691 

It is not known whether Nason was born at Amsterdam or at The 
Hague. It is supposed that he was a pupil of Jan van Ravesteyn, 
who was the first painter of the assemblages of the Civic Guard and 
the first meetings of the Regents. He was a master of the Guild 
of Painters at The Hague in 1638, and one of the forty-seven artists 
instrumental in founding the '' Confrerie Pictura " in 1656. Nason 
was in England in 1663. In 1666 he was working in the House of 
Assembly in Berlin. For the rest he resided mainly in Holland. 
He was known to have been at the Hague in 1688, but the date of 
his death is uncertain. His widow is referred to at that place in 
1691. In his " Lely and the Stuart Portrait Painters," referring to 
Nason's short residence in England, Mr. Collins Baker says, " Nason 
must have been a formidable rival to Lely, if the quality of his work 
is any gauge." 

40 PORTRAIT OF A LADY 
Girl, with fair hair, wearing a yellow moir6 silk dress, with coral 
trimming. She wears a lace collar, and this is delineated in 
detail with exquisite skill. It is fastened by a bow which as a 
note of black on the picture is of inestimable value to its colour ; 
a diamond pendant is attached to the bow. The girl wears a 
necklace of pearls, and has pearls in her hair. Signed, and 

dated. (See Plate 2Jf.) ■ 

Panel. 26^ m. x 22, in. 
Painted in an oval. 



NEER, Aert (or Arnold) van der 

1603-1677 

Aert van der Neer was bom at Gorkum in 1603. If we can 
be guided by the dates of his known works, he had passed the age 
of thirty-five before producing his first pictures. There is no evi- 
dence as to whose pupil he was. In his early manhood he was 



46 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

steward of an estate. The attitude of his contemporaries towards 
his painting was not encouraging, and he could only pursue his art 
at the cost of the sacrifice of the ordinary comforts and necessaries 
of life. At one time he was compelled to open a tavern in Amster- 
dam to supplement his income, keeping it with assistance from his 
son Jan van der Neer, a less famous artist. Van der Neer's death 
occurred in November, 1677. He is chiefly remembered by his 
emotional interpretation of landscape in moonlight. 



U MOONLIGHT RIVER SCENE 
Figures embarking on a barge by moonlight. The surrounding 
features of the landscape include trees, a distant bridge, and a 
windmill reflected in the moonlit river ; in the foreground a 
man holding a white horse for towing the barge. (See Plate 25.) 
Signed with monogram. 
Canvas. i() in. X 25 in. 

42 DAWN 

A landscape with a wide river, enveloped in the soft light of 
dawn. On the left bank, to which boats are moored, are some 
cattle, and figures walking under the trees. The distance is 
occupied by the outline of roofs seen through trees, and in the 
middle of the river distance is a barge with the sail spread. 

{See Plate 65.) 

Signed with monogram 
Canvas. 39 in. x 47 in. 

43 SUNSET 

A landscape of flat marshland with water-mill, the whole 
suffused with a red glow from the evening sky. Cattle in the 
foreground, with herdsman ; and to the right, on rising ground, 
a man seated, a boy and a dog. In the left a farm house 




Plate ^4 



HARE AND PHEASANT 



Jan IVeenix 




Ptali ts 



THE YOUTHFUL CARD PLAYERS 



Adriaen van der Werjf 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 47 

surrounded by trees, and a pond reflecting red from the sky. 
Church towers and distant roofs are indicated faintly on the 

horizon. (Su Plate 66.) 

Signed with monogram 
Canvas 4.1 in. x 57 tn. 



NETSCHER, Caspar 

1639-1684 

Netscher was born at Heidelberg in 1639. His father, an en- 
gineer in the service of the republic of Poland, died at Prague 
leaving a widow and three children, of whom Caspar was the 
youngest, his age at the time being only two years. War compelled 
his mother to fly from Germany and make her way to Holland. 
Two of her children died on the journey, and she arrived at Arnheim 
in Guelderland in a state of utter destitution. Netscher was there 
adopted by a prominent physician and educated for medicine, but 
his taste for painting led to his becoming the disciple of Gerard 
ter Bosch. He set out from that master's studio on an intended visit 
to Italy, embarking at Amsterdam for Bordeaux. The encourage- 
ment which he received in that town delayed his progress, and in 
the meantime conceiving an attachment for the niece of the person 
in whose house he lodged, he married, and changed his intention of 
proceeding to Italy. He returned to Holland, and though possess- 
ing gifts for domestic g-enre and " conversation pieces," the need to 
maintain a large family caused him to devote his whole time to por- 
traiture. In this he became so eminent in his time that there was 
scarcely a considerable family in Holland that had not a work of 
his. Charles II. tried to tempt him with a pension to reside per- 
manently in England, but the artist, having acquired sufficient means 
for his family, declined to consider the prospect of life at a great 
court. He died at the Hague in 1684. 

M A LADY AT A FOUNTAIN 
A girl holding her hand in the spray of a fountain shaped like a 
swan. She wears a blue and white dress, and a flower in her 



48 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

hair. Beyond the hedge of the garden in which she stands is a 

view of distant country. (See Plate 2S.) 

On copper, i^ in. x 1 1 in. ..i 



OCHTERVELT, Jacob 

1635-1700 

Jacob Ochtervelt, also sometimes called Uchtervelt or Achter- 
velt, was born about 1635, probably at Rotterdam. In 1667 he 
was a candidate for the Presidency of the Brotherhood of St. Luke 
in that city, and in 1672 was still working there. He painted the 
portraits of the Regents of the Lepers Hospital at Amsterdam in 
1674. The date of his death is supposed to have been before 
1700. 

45 THE PET DOG 

An interior in which a lady, in a dress of silvery white satin 
with a red jacket, teaches a spaniel to beg. Behind her a man 
is represented thrumming the strings of a lute. (See piate 26.) 
Canvas. 37 in. x 30 in. 



OSTADE, Adriaen van 

1610-1685 

Adriaen van Ostade was a native of Haarlem, the son of a 
weaver. He was born in 1610. The name Ostade was adopted 
from a small hamlet of that name. He entered the studio of Frans 
Hals, and his style was subsequently affected by the practice of 
Rembrandt. He was a member of the civic guard of Haarlem. In 
1638 he married, but in 1640 his wife died, and.after a lapse of time 
he married a woman of aristocratic connexions whose name is not 
known. 

Ostade died in 1685. He was the master of Cornelis Bega, 
represented in this collection, and Jan Steen was influenced by 
him. He was prolific, working in oils and also in water-colours 




THE COTTAGER'S FAMILY 




ROMANTIC LANDSCAPE 



Inn Roth 




THE WATER MILL 



M. Hobl.e,„a 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 49 



and he left a number of pencil drawings and etchings. His 
favourite themes were drawn from peasant life, and in this genre he 
is one of the foremost artists of the Dutch school. 

46 THE BLIND FIDDLER. 
A group of peasants drinking and smoking round a fiddler 
seated outside a cottage, from the doorway of which a woman 
looks out. The yard in which the peasants sit is surrounded 
by out-houses and trees ; three children are playing ; at the feet 
of the peasants a dog is resting. The picture is sympathetic 
in colour ; the red of the cottage wall in the right is particularly 
pleasant in contrast with the space of lighted wall beside it, and 
it gives the key to warm golden tones throughout the panel. 

(See Plate 60.) 

Panel. \\\ in. x 19 m. 



PUTTER, PlETER DE 

I 600- I 669 

Of De Putter's life there is very little record, though the dates of his 

birth and death have been established. 

m PORTRAIT OF A LADY-~a.ged 28 
A lady in a black embroidered dress, with white collar of lawn 
and lace, fastened with a black bow ; her hair is smoothed from 
her forehead, and she wears a lawn cap. Painted in an oval. 

(See Plate S7,] 

Signed with monogram and dated 1666. 

Panel. 29 z«. X 23 in. 

From the Collection of the Earl of Kinnoull. 



so FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

REMBRANDT (School of) 

48 THE REPOSE IN EGYPT 
Figures, representing the Holy Family resting, make a brightly 
coloured group in the right of the picture ; beyond them a stone 
archway, and view of the country-side. [See Plate 43.) 
Panel. 20 ?«. x 13 in. 



RUISDAEL, Jacob van 
1 630-1 682 

RuiSDAEL, Ruysdael, one of the greatest painters of landscape the 
world has ever seen, was born at Haarlem about 1629. He was 
the nephew of the artist Salomon van Ruisdael. His father was 
a painter and a pupil of Everdingen. 

Ruisdael was at first a surgeon, but having formed a great friendship 
with Nicholas Berghem, painter of landscapes with architectural 
ruins, and influenced perhaps by his uncle, he abandoned the pro- 
fession of surgery for that of painting, putting himself under the 
sea-painter Cornells Vroom. In 1648 he was entered a member of 
the Guild of Haarlem. In 1659 he went to Amsterdam, and there 
received the rights of citizenship. Hobbema, the great landscape 
painter, was among his pupils at this period. 

Ruisdael had considerable skill in introducing miniature figures 
into his landscapes, but whenever he felt figures on a larger scale 
would be necessary to his composition, he availed himself of the 
sei-vices of one or other of the better-known figure-painters of the 
day. 

At the age of fifty-three, when nearing the end of his life, he 
returned to his native city. He died broken-hearted, perceiving 
the efforts of his great genius to go unrequited, and himself 
allowed to sink to uttermost destitution. 

It is thought probable from the character of some of his landscapes 
that he lived for some time on the borders of Germany, but the 
neighbourhood of Haarlem was the source of much of his inspira- 
tion. Some of the more notable of his landscapes were painted in 
the vicinity of the Castle of Bentheim. It is even now possible to 




Plate 4Q 



Ferdinafid Bol 



PORTRAIT OF A LADY 




THE MORNING GOSSIP 



O. ISrekekiikaii 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 51 

trace without difficulty the places from which he must have made 
the studies for his pictures. 

49 THE HILL OF BENTHEIM P^' ^ ^ '^' 
A wooded hill, silhouetted against a cloudy sky, with houses 
among the trees ; in the foreground a river in rapids ; on the 
farther bank a shepherd reclines tending sheep ; in the distance, 
some fields are brightened by a fugitive gleam of sunlight. 
The right side of the picture is occupied by the definition of a 
large tree. (See Plate ss.) 

Signed ■ 

Canvas. 35^^ in. x 54J in. ■ . 

Noted by Dr. de Groot for his Revised Edition of Smith's 

" Catalogue Raisonn6." 

50 MOUNTAINOUS LANDSCAPE ?l ^^ 
Rain-clouds passing over a wooded river valley and wreathing 
the surrounding heights. On the river an open boat with 
figures, a barge in sail, figures apparently constructing a tem- 
porary pier, and others fishing. In the foreground a cottage is 
sheltered in the wood, and on the right of the picture there 
are stumps of broken pines ; farther in, overlooking the valley, 

a towered chateau, "bosomed high;" fitful sunlight seems to 
play over the whole of the green valley-side. (See Plate S9.) 

Canvas. 30 in. x 40 in. 

This artist's landscape work takes two forms. On the one 
hand we have the representation of Dutch meadow-land, on the 
other the romantic landscape. But even in the latter he was 
always true to topographical character. " There seems no 
doubt," says Dr. de Groot, " that Ruisdael must at least have 
penetrated into the outlying hill-regions of Germany, the Teuto- 

E 2 



52 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

burger Wald, or the well-watered valleys, not in his day defaced 
by factories and smelting works, of Mark and Berg. The 
traveller who carries reproductions of Ruisdael's pictures with 
him to these districts will find there many of the painter's 
subjects. Only one must try to imagine the country as it was 
when it had fewer inhabitants and more woods, and when the 
streams were not embanked. . . . The pictures of wood and 
meadow are derived from the sandy country of Holland, from 
the Gooiland lying to the east of Amsterdam, and also from 
the provinces of Utrecht, Gelderland, and Overyssel. In those 
districts were the forest giants with lofty trunks, the workshops 
and watermills, as well as the hills and the marshy pools in 
woods. The dunes are, in contrast to these, characterized by 
low bushes which have been bent in a particular direction, and 
stunted by the strong south-west winds." 



SAENREDAM, Pieter 

1597-1665 

Pieter Saenredam was the son of Johannes Saenredam, an 
engraver of eminence. He was born at Assendelft in 1597, but few 
particulars of his life are known. He was renowned for his paint- 
ings of architecture, and he executed many pieces representing 
interiors of churches. He died at Haarlem in 1665. 

SI THE TOWN HALL, HAARLEM 
A view of the Town Hall of the City of Haarlem. The inci- 
dent may represent the solemn entry of Prince Maurice. The 
square is thronged with people who gather in groups, a few men 
mounted, with dogs in attendance ; an incident of the compo- 
sition is the group of children playing in the street. {See Plate ei.) 
Canvas. 40 in. x 30 in. 
From the Hope Collection 



SS-fWi'iT;-' 


P^'-—" 


Bpj-v-, 






li 


HB-^!^':v -^Vv^" 'i'"^- -^^ ^*-.-^- 


,1^'. 






|pWFj^;*8?^J*^'f ■;-,■': r<«^.^, • ' . it;'-— , ■■ ■_3^' 


■ ■. n %., 




i 




t 


1 




iEfc^BMf^^HffJBWBMBHf"'jiyiMBBKf*"- .'^'^^SEjUilS'SF^ ^W ' .i^Sv^ 'j^^^^^l 


'■''^^m 


K'^ 




<^u^j|^B^^|l^^*jr^;> j''^~^^^^ ^^' W^^m 


C-'^ ■ 


m' 




^^^^w£^ "^^m" ■ ^ 




1 




'w^Jr^ '^SF 'f^ 


o 1 




?f*fe ' ^^ ' M^ 


'ml 'J 




i :1 


^H 




ri 


'^ vl 




y '' 


Be. ^H| 




^-, ' 


% H 




1 


m JM 




f 


K^^ 1^1 




■<f 








'?< 


^■D. 


( 




, . *#-> ■ 


R| 4' 


• 




■ u 


r - 1 






-If 


i ' . ' 


; 




' ?*, 








<T^ 










1 ■ 




■^' 


1 B 




*^l 






s^ 


1 H 




'.?.^ . • . ' . ^'*^B 


V^m 




^J 


WF 






i w 






'l!' ■. 




'*4'fr % ii 


f ' 




Mw^*^^i^f'^ ^^' ^2stui 


pS 














f ■" 


f!:^»^ V jspJI^IfKKL, I' .. jfcgi-' ^■■1^1 


(j?^' 




':( " 








^i..,-.. 







2; 
o 















■"> 


^|n^|L / ^^' ^^^^■L.J^^^^^^^^^V^ii^l^^l 


^ ^'^■- ^_=_ 


^h'1^1^^ ^^'jHRBBmH 


'^99%^^^ \,^^-^ 





2: 



D 

Qi 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 53 

SNYDERS, Frans 

1 5 79-1 65 7 

Frans Snyders was born in Antwerp in 1579. His master was 
P. Brueghel. Snyders commenced his career by devoting his talents 
to still-life painting, in which he excelled. But it was by the 
delineation of birds that he established his position, which is with 
the very greatest masters in this genre. His extraordinary skill in 
subjects of the kind commended him to Rubens, who made of him 
a close friend, deferring on many occasions to his special knowledge, 
and employing him to introduce still-life and animals into his 
pictures. With the exception of a short visit to Brussels at the 
invitation of the Archduke Albert, for whom he painted many 
works, it is believed that Snyders always resided at Antwerp. 
Among the pictures painted for the Archduke was one of a stag- 
hunt, destined for presentation to Philip HI. of Spain. This work 
resulted in the commissions from Philip for hunting-pieces and 
combats of wild beasts, and these still hang on the walls of the old 
palace of Buen-Retiro. Snyders died at Antwerp in 1657. His 
likeness is preserved for us in a portrait of him by Van Dyck. 

52 A CONCERT OF BIRDS 
Birds of all sizes and of great variety of plumage congregated 
on the branch of a tree, upon which rests an open book. A 
peacock, a cockatoo, a brown owl and small birds of golden 
feather afford rich incident of colour. Birds fly into the picture 
from the sides ; at the foot of the canvas the tops of trees in 
foliage appear, and birds are shown in the distance flying low. 

(See Plate 30.) 

Canvas. 53 in. x 69 in. 

The companion picture is in the Kaiser's Collection, Berlin. 



STEEN, Jan 

1626-1679 

Born at Leyden about 1626, Jan Steen was about twenty years of 
age when he became a student at the university there. In 1648 he 
had emerged from studentship, for in that year he was among the 



54 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

artists who founded the Leyden Guild of St. Luke. Steen appears 
to have received very little direct tuition in painting, though he 
perhaps took some of the elements of the art from Jan van Goyen, 
who was his father-in-law. Steen went to the Hague in 1649. In 
1654 he removed to Delft, where for six years he leased a brewery. 
During the years 1661 to 1669 he was a resident in Haarlem, where 
his wife Margaretha van Goyen died. From the latter year until 
his death, ten years later, he continued to live at Leyden, where 
he opened a tavern. In 1673 he married as his second wife Maria 
van Egmont, widow of a bookseller. The artist was thriftless and 
restless, but anything but idle; he painted an infinite number of 
pictures, carried out with genius unrivalled by any other painter 
who has entirely devoted his energy to the representation of popular 
themes. 

53 THE DANCING DOG 
A scene in a tavern in which a group of people are watching 
with great amusement a poodle's antics while a boy plays a 
flute. A red curtain is looped over the doorway through which 
trees are seen. The group consists of ten figures, chief 
among them a man idly holding a violin, behind him a girl 
taking the step of a dance with another man, an aged woman 
with lifted glass on the left, and a serving man ; above is an 
owl in a niche; underneath it, upon a placard pinned to a 
wall, is a proverb (probably "Wat baeter Kaers of Bril, als 
den UIl niet zien en wil?"). In the foreground a child is 
raising a pewter jug from a wine-cooler. A parrot on a perch, 
and above it a birdcage in the left hand corner of the picture. 

(See Plate SI.) 

Panel. 35 m. x 29 in. 

Described by Ch. Blanc. Exhibited in the British Gallery, 

1838; formerly in the Poullain Collection, Paris, No. 41, and 

engraved while there. 

Sales: Gagny, Paris, 1762. Amsterdam, 1765. Nogaret, 

Paris, 1780. Langlier, Paris, 1786. Robit, Paris, May 1801'. 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS ■ SS' 

H. Muilman, Amsterdam, April 12, 181 3. George Morant, 
London, 1832. 

From the Collection of Sir Charles Coote, Bart., 1842, and after- 
wards in the Collection of Sir Algernon Coote. Reproduced 
in Mrs. Jamieson's "Art Treasures of England." Described in 
Smith's " Catalogue Raisonn^" No. 17, and in the Supplement 
No. 2 1 ; also in Dr. de Groot's Revised Edition of the " Catalogue 
Raisonn6," Vol. I., No. loi. Reproduced as a special illustration 
in Dr. Breduis' Book on " Jan Steen." 

The fiddler in this picture is a portrait of the artist. 
In the interpretation of every aspect of the life of the people 
Jan Steen's resources as an artist seem inexhaustible. If we 
can believe his pictures, no one has ever painted with greater 
ease, but they never lack precision or show an absence of con- 
centration. Many people may not find his subjects or their 
treatment sympathetic ; but of the mirrors which have been 
held to life there probably have been few so unflawed as the 
one put forward in the art of Steen. 

54 THE CONTINENCE OF SCIPIO. 
A preliminary sketch, in oils, for a picture of the above subject, 
containing many figures in a landscape. (See Plate s^.) 



TENIERS, David (the younger) 

1610-1690 

David TENIERS (the younger) was born in Antwerp in 1610. He 
was the son of David Teniers (the elder), who had married Dympne 
Cornelissen de Wilde, the daughter of an officer. There is no 
doubt that he took lessons from his father in painting, but there is 
no evidence that he studied with any other artist. He enjoyed, 
however, the intimate friendship of Rubens. Teniers married the 
daughter of a pupil of Rubens, Anne Brueghel. By her he 



56 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

had five children. She died in 1656, and six months later he 
married the daughter of the secretary to the Council of Brabant, 
Isabel Andreas de Freu, by whom he had three children. Teniers 
started by being an unsuccessful artist, so far as the sale of his 
pictures was concerned, but he was destined to live to be among 
the most prosperous of painters, the owner of a country house, and 
seeking entrance into the rank of the noblesse. It was recom- 
mended that his admission should be granted upon the proofs of 
his pedigree if he no longer publicly exercised painting for gain. 
Evidently the painter decided that it is possible to pay too high a 
price for the gratification of a desire ; he remained a painter. In 
1644-5 he was Dean of the Guild of St. Luke, and appointed 
painter to the Archduke Leopold William, who loaded him with 
gifts, and made him Director of his Picture Gallery at Brussels. 
He set himself to make copies of the pictures, more than two 
hundred in number, in the collection, and afterwards published 
plates from them. Teniers retained this post under the Archduke's 
successor, the son of Philip IV. who took the opportunity of 
obtaining the many examples of his work which are now in the 
Madrid Gallery. It is said that for a short time the artist was sent 
to England by a nobleman to buy for him Italian pictures. Teniers 
died at Brussels in 1690. His remains were interred in the grounds 
of his Chiteau at Perck. 



55 THE SHEPHERD 

A shepherd boy attending sheep and cattle in a field adjoining 
a farm. The near sheep and a white cow form the central 
features of the picture. Near the farm two figures appear ; 
beyond the trees which enclose the field a hilly country is in 

view. (See Plate SUf.) 

Canvas. 16 in. x 22 in. 

Teniers, in such a painting as this, anticipates that idealisation 
of rural scenes which reached its height in the following century 
in France, and even in England, where incidents of the country- 
side and of peasant life were interpreted entirely in the spirit of 
a townsman's day-dream. 



Wgt^l^^g^^W^<^?^^T~'^ ' ' """ 'i¥~' -'.riT* "^ "T-f,- 1 


^;-^.:,. 


^^B^^B^SSbs"% jI 


i 


1^ 









1^- 


Hi^^^^^^^kBKj',!^ i^^BsBli^tf^^S^^^^^^I 


•P 


■1 






V^"'^^ 


5,^ 


1^^ 


fSra 


w^ 


. ;.-■:■..- ^ 'W^g^^^ 












■.../^■''. 


'i^, ;4^^,:'^ 




1 ■'^i^W 






■lH^pSiV^^.^s^ C 


fm ^W 




^"■^ffMW 


-^^'"'fi>^ .,;;* 








i'" 


-M^^ 


iJt^ 


-C^ 


IBUf "^ .— i«*i^^"^^ 


w 



H 
H 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 57 

56 THE PRODIGAL'S RETURN 

A group of people gaily dressed, and attended by musicians, 
waited upon at a repast outside an inn. A wine-cooler and 
glasses are incidents of the foreground ; also a small dog, 
and to the left a cavalier's scarlet coat, with hat and sword, 
thrown over a stool. In the distance, in the shelter of a 
wall of an old house, the prodigal son is to be discovered ; 
beyond a view of country, with trees clustering round a church. 

(See Plate SS.) 

Panel, ib in. x 36 in. 

TOL, Dominique van 

1635-1676 

Van Toi. was born at Bodegrave between 1631 and 1642. He 
was the nephew, scholar, and one of the most successful imitators of 
Gerard Dou. He painted for a time at Amsterdam, but most of 
his life was passed at Leyden, where he died in 1676. 

57 THE OYSTER SELLER 

A woman, in a red dress with black hood, looking through an 

arched window with a basket of oysters before her, and oyster 

shells scattered on the window sill ; at her left hand a brown 

earthenware jar, partly covered with a cloth ; behind, an interior 

is seen with a dresser and pewter dishes. (See Fiati se.) 

Signed with initials. 

On copper. 12 in. v. \q\ in. 



TOORENVLIET, Jacob (Torenvliet) 

1641-1719 

ToORENVLIET, JACOB (Torenvliet), who was called Jason, was born, 
at Leyden in 1641. He took his lessons in drawing from his father 
Abraham Toorenvliet, a glass painter, and became a portrait painter. 



5 8 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

He went to Italy in the company of a friend, and at Rome made 
Raphael's paintings his particular study. He improved his colour 
by submitting himself in Venice to the influence of the work of the 
Venetian school. He died at Leyden in 17 19. 

58 A FAMILY GROUP 
A gentleman and his family on a garden terrace overlooking a 
romantic prospect ; the lady wears a silvery white satin dress 
with blue scarf, the folds of dress and scarf being disposed by 
the artist with much regard for beauty ; a curtain behind the 
lady is arranged with equal care, and is in one of those rare 
colours which, lost apparently to the dyer's art, escape defini- 
tion in modern terms. The girl to the left holds gathered 
flowers ; her dress is of golden-yellow silk ; a younger child with 
one hand caresses a spaniel on the lady's lap, and with the other 
affords a perch for a brightly plumaged paroquet. {.$■&■ Plate 37.) 
Signed and dated. 
On copper, ly in. x 2 1 4 tn. 



VELDE, WiLLEM VAN DE 

1633-1707 

WiLLEM VAN DE Velde, the younger, was born at Amsterdam in 
1633. His paintings, like those of his father, were greatly prized at 
the English Court. He was employed by Charles H. to represent 
the English naval engagements with the Dutch, and for this purpose 
a small vessel was put at his service. Whenever possible he 
introduced his own vessel in a naval battle scene, as evidence of his 
presence at the combat. It pleased him in his larger pictures to 
put over each vessel its name, also names of the admirals com- 
manding, and under his own vessel " V. Velde's Gallijodt." He has, 
perhaps, been rivalled by Turner alone in the almost incredible 
number of pencil drawings he produced in addition to his pictures — 
drawings executed with miraculous celerity. Besides studying under 



w. 





THE DESSERT 



Cntricl I\Ulsu 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 59 

his father, who also assisted him with many important pieces, he was 
trained by De Vlieger, that master of marine painting. Van de 
Velde the elder had enjoyed the favour of Charles II. — from whom 
he received a pension, continued under James II. — and this patron- 
age was extended to the son, to whom in 1674 Charles II. 
granted a considerable salary as painter of sea-fights. "■Mr. William 
Van de Velde, senior, late painter of sea-fights to their Majesties 
King Charles II. and King James II., died in 1693 " — so ran the 
inscription on the tombstone of Van de Velde the elder in St. 
James's Church, Piccadilly, and it was here also that the younger 
Van de Velde, the painter of the picture below, who inherited the 
Royal appointment, was buried in 1707. On account of the 
esteem in which his skill was held, and the innumerable com- 
missions which his official position guaranteed, the art of this 
painter was almost entirely dedicated to themes of battle and 
merchant venture representing the rivalry of the navies of England 
and Holland. 

59 THE SALUTE 
A battleship, firing a gun ; behind it another large vessel, 
and smaller cruisers in attendance. A fully-manned rowing- 
boat approaches the large ship from the right. On the left, in 
the foreground, are two small boats with figures. The sky 
is partly overcast, and the loose sails of the ships catch the 
light vividly from another direction. The horizon, with 
mysterious suggestion of distant ships, is interpreted with much 
charm of colour, intensified by the bright flags of the near vessels. 

{See Plate 6Jf.) . , 

Signed, and dated 1701 

Canvas. 15 in. x 22^ in. , 



VERMEER, Johannes (of Delft) (?) 

1632-1657 

Johannes, or Jan Vermeer (or Van der Meer) of Delft, was born 
at Delft, and baptized there October 31, 1632. His father's name 



6o FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

was Teynier Vermeer, but little is known of the family. The 
painter married in 1653. Eight months later he was entered 
master-painter in the Guild of St. Luke. He died in 1657. 

60 THE INTERIOR OF THE OUDE KERK 
AT DELFT. 

The interior of a church, with light reflected on the white 
pillars ; figures in the aisles on the right, in the left a vault 
being opened. The panes of the stained glass windows and 
the quarterings of the black escutcheons introduce incident of 
colour into the ethereal white scheme of the picture as a whole 
which are peculiarly effective. {Sei Plate ss.) 

Signed J. Vermeer, 165 1 

Canvas. $1 in. X 41 m. 



VERSPRONCK, Johannes Cornelisz 

1579-1662 

Johannes Verspronck (or Spronck), the second son of E. C. 
Verspronck, was born at Haarlem in 1 579, and entered the Guild 
in 1632. He was a pupil of his father and Frans Hals, and 
painted portraits and shooting pieces. He died at Haarlem, June 
1662. 

61 PORTRAIT 
Portrait of a man in a black suit, with wide ruff. He holds 
a grey glove in his right hand. Painted in an oval. {See p/ate S9.) 
Canvas. 26 in. x 34 in. 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 6i 

VLIEGER, Simon de 

I 600- I 660 

Simon de Vlieger was born at Rotterdam about 1600. It is 
not known who was his master. He became famous through his 
sea-pieces. In 1634 he entered the Guild at Delft, and in 1643 
became a citizen of Amsterdam, and in that city died about 1660. 
He was the Master of Willem van de Velde, the younger, the 
greatest of the Dutch Marine painters, to whom Charles II. granted 
a large salary for painting sea-fights, and who was buried in St. 
James's Church, Piccadilly. 

62 FISHING BOATS 
Fishing boats upon a choppy brown sea, the shadow of a rain- 
cloud on the water in the foreground, where men in a boat are 
fixing a net to stakes ; on the right, a saiHng-boat putting out 
from the pier, flying the flag of Holland. (Su Plate 40.) 

Panel. 16 in. x 24 in. 



WATERLO, Anthonie 

1609-1676 

Anthonie Waterlo (or Waterloo) who was born in 1609 at Lille, 
is perhaps better known as an etcher than as a painter. He lived 
in a chateau near Utrecht for many years, where Weenix used to 
pay him periodical visits for the purpose of inserting figures into his 
pictures. Waterlo was married at Zevenbergen in 1640, and died 
at Leeuwarden in 1676. 

63 HUNTING PARTY 
A party of huntsmen with hounds pursuing a stag through a 

glade. (See Plate 4Z.) 

Panel. 26^ in. X l^\ in. 



62 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

WEENIX, Jan 

1640-1719 

Jan Weenix (or Weeninx) was born at Amsterdam in 1640. He 
was the son of Jan Baptist Weenix, landscape painter, and the 
grandson of an architect of celebrity in Amsterdam. He acquired 
a great reputation for painting still-life, especially for depicting 
trophies of game. Weenix was attached to the court of the 
Elector Palatine, for whom he painted his finest works. He died 
at Amsterdam in 17 19. 

m HARE AND PHEASANT 
A group of shot game, including a hare, a pheasant, and a 
number of small birds attached to a stick ; a gun is resting 
with other dead birds on a table To the right is a view of 
country with a sportsman approaching carrying a long gun and 
attended by a dog. (Ste Plate 44.) 

Canvas. 40 in. x 30 in. 



WERFF, Adriaen van der 

1659-1722 * *~ 

Adriaen van der Werff was born at Kralinger-Ambacht, near 
Rotterdam, in 1659. He showed at an early age a disposition for 
art and was placed under Cornelis Picolet, a portrait painter, with 
whom he remained two years. He worked next under Eglon van 
der Neer, leaving him at the age of seventeen to set himself up at 
Rotterdam. There he became acquainted with a gentleman who 
possessed a collection of Italian drawings, and it was the study of 
these that influenced him in the direction of that coldly correct 
method of design for which in his own time he was admired. In 
1696 the Elector Palatine, passing through Rotterdam, was particu- 
larly struck with the works of Van der Werff. He commissioned 
him to paint a "Judgment of Solomon," and his own portrait for the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, inviting him to bring the two pictures 
when finished to Dusseldorf The following year the painter was 
engaged to devote six months in the year to the service of the 




.P o 



!. .: X 







A [^jRliRZV DAY 



Jnn 7'an Goyeu 




THE SALUTE 



W. van de Velde 



FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 63 



Elector, for which he received a pension. In 1703 he was ennobled. 
He died at Rotterdam in 1722. Van der Werff was the author of 
plans for the Rotterdam Exchange. 

65 THE YOUTHFUL CARD PLAYERS 
Three boys playing cards in a vaulted passage, into which the 
sunlight pours from the right, making a pool of light on 
the floor ; other figures in the distance near the entrance of 

the passage. {See Plate 45.) 

Signed 

Panel, i \\ in. y. 12 in. 
From the Wynn-Ellis Collection, 1876. 
From the Collection of Sir James Knowles, 1908. 
This painting, the very best example of its school, is to be 
distinguished from earlier Dutch genre in a fresh ideal of finish 
which it introduces. Here we have the beginning of a pro- 
fessed realism which yet all the while seems ashamed of 
reality ; which, without opposing the " ideal " to nature, 
takes that conventional view of nature to which we have 
been made accustomed — all too thoroughly — in modern 
academic art. 



WITTE, Emanuel de 

I 607-1 692 

Emanuel de Witte was born in 1607 at Alkmaar. He studied 
painting under Evert van Aelst, a still-life painter, the uncle of 
Willem van Aelst, represented in this collection. De Witte did not 
follow the branch of painting in which the van Aelsts had been 
eminent, but, after unsuccessfully essaying to be a portrait painter, 
found his mMer in painting the interior views of churches. It was 
his habit to introduce into these scenes numerous figures, which are 
drawn with great expression. He is the foremost of the many 



64 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

Dutch artists who took this particular kind of " interior " painting 
for their own province, and who have been without rivals in it. De 
Witte died at Amsterdam in 1692. 

66 INTERIOR OF THE NIEUWE KERK, 
DELFT 
A church in which figures are in conversation, dogs in some 
instances in attendance on the figures. A woman is seated in 
the foreground instructing two children. In the chancel people 
are gathered for a service. The soft illumination of the white 
walls of the aisles, the perspective, and the suffused light of 
stained glass are exquisitely treated. A green curtain in heavy 
folds drawn right across the picture is one of the most noticeable 
features of its composition. This was a favourite device in 
Dutch pictures, intended to create the illusion of a curtain 
suspended from the frame between the spectator and the view 
of a very precious picture. The same emblem is apparent in 
the still life piece by Van Beyeren, Plate 4. As a matter of 
fact, it was not uncommon at the time for a curtain of rich 
material to be suspended from a rod fixed at the top of the 
frame. {Sa Plate 55.) 
Signed, and dated 1658. 
Canvas. 34 in. x 38^ in. 



WOUWERMAN, Philips 

1620-1668 

WOUVERMAN was born at Haarlem in 1620. He was the son of a 
painter of Alkmaar who did not rise to distinction, and he had two 
brothers who were also painters, though of inferior rank. At the 
age of nineteen he eloped with a lady to Hamburg and married her 
there. He is said to have received great financial assistance at 
this time from a friend, a priest. In 1640 he returned to Haarlem 
and was received into the Guild of St. Luke He died at the ao-e 




Q 



i*-' 




FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 65 

of 48, in 1668. His place is a very distinctive one in the Dutch 
school. He was the master of the subject-picture, stage-managing 
pictures crowded with incident with a unique sense of pictorial 
possibilities. He so often introduced a white horse into the centre 
of his compositions that this feature is identified with his pictures 
in the public mind. About seven hundred pictures by this great 
and prolific painter are preserved. He had grown up under the 
influence of the Thirty Years' War, and subjects from its events form 
an important part of his work. The hunting party was also a 
favourite theme. 

67 THE CART IN A RUT (or "La Charette 

EMBOURBfiE ") 

Baggage waggons ascending a sharp hill, followed by a cart just 
entering the picture. In the foreground a man is pulling the 
head of a white horse, harnessed to the cart, and an attendant 
rider is urging the animal with a whip. By the roadside a 
woman is resting with a baby, and beside her a man stands with 
a heavy pack, leaning on his stick. Trees partly dismantled of 
their leaves crest the hill. {See piate 67.) 
Panel. \']\in. x 14^ m. 

From the Collection of the Comtesse de Verrue, 1737 

From the Mansard Collection, Paris 

From the Collection of M. Blondel de Gagny, 1776 

From the Collection of M. Destouches, 1 794 

From the Collection of M. Tolozan, 1801 

From the Collection of the Marquis de Montcalm, 1849 

From the Collection of Robert Field, Esq., 1856 

Mentioned in " Le Tr6sor de la Curiositd," i. 337-8 and ii. 472 

by Ch. Blanc 

Described in Smith's "Catalogue Raisonnd," Vol. i. No. 119 



66 FLEMISH AND DUTCH PAINTINGS 

WYCK, Jan 

1640-1702 

Jan Wyck, in England called John Wyke, was the son of a 
painter who was a Dean of the Guild at Haarlem, and who came 
to England at the time of the Restoration. Wyck was born in 1640. 
He followed his father to England, where he remained until his 
death in 1702. 

68 THE SICK WOMAN 
A peasant-woman in a wooden bed in a roughly furnished cabin, 
a sister of mercy seated at the foot of the bed, and a man on the 
farther side holding a measure of medicine up to the light. In 
the forepart of the picture a table drawn up to the bed, bearing 
a covered jug, bottles, a napkin and spoon. (See Plate 53.) 
Panel. 15 in. x 12^ in. 




';^?^!RWlWPWR;?^rry>- ■- 




THE CART IN A RUT 



P. IP'ouwernian 



LONDON : 

PRINTED EY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, GREAT WINDMILL STREET, W., 

AND DUKE STREET, STAMFORD STREET, S.E. 




il^iiiiiiij! 

i! UilBliun 

K mmm 

"ii,!!. Viii! 



,5 

■■ ;i.li!;!i!l!Ri ! 




•i 
■I'lL, 

ill 



iiiii