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Dictionary of music. 

3 1924 017 134 168 

Cornell University 

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Dictionary of Music. 

A, the name of the first note of the musical 
alphabet (A B C D E F G). The Italians. 
French, Spanish, call the same la, or (especially 
in old theoretical works) with the complete 
solmisation name A lamire, or even A mila. (See 
SoLMiSATioN and Mutation.) 

The A's of the various octaves are distin^ 
guished from one another when written as 
letters by means of additions — ^first by the differ- 
ence between capital and small letters, then by 
strokes over or to the right of the small letters, 
and under or to the left of the capital letters ; 
or instead of the stroke — as now usual — the 

8VA and 8^* iMssa_ or even by 15"* and 15"* bassaj_ 
yet the ordinary limits of notation are those of 
our present concert-grand pianofortes, with a 
compass from Double Contra A to five-times 
accented c. Compare the following synopsis, in 
which at the same time the usual letter notation 
of the notes is given. (The French call the great 
octave the ist, the small the znd, etc. ; and the 
Contra octave the minus ist [— '], and the 
Double Contra octave the minus and ; so they 
call our a', la', and so on.) 

The once-accented c (c') is the one situated in 
the middle of the keyboard — our orchestras 


Small Octave. 

tra Octave; 

' 1 ^ ^ Great Octave. Contra Octave. t r aOctavt 

^ > A jg- :^ ^^ = ^ ^ "B AG F E D d ',B ,A .G 7f |E .D |d /b ^A' 

gi^ c d e f g a b c' d' e' f g' a' b' C' 
(B O Small Octave, Once-accented Octave. 


corresponding figure ; so that c, or c", or c^, 
bears the same meaning. The total compass of 
serviceable musical sounds extends from Double 
Contra C to six-times accented c, i.e. through 
nine octavesif but the very lowest and very 
highest tones of this giant scale occur only in 
the organ. They are not written down, but 
appear only as reinforcements of sound (in the 
32-feet stops on the one hand, and in the 
smallest mutation stops. Quint | or |, and Tierce 
; on the other hand. [See Foot-tone.]) The 
notation can indeed show these sounds (by 

generally tune from the once-accented a (a^)> 
indicated above in all clefs by a o-note, which 
is given out by the oboe. The normal pitch of 
the same, which formerly was very uncertain, 
was fixed by the French Acadimie in 1858 at 
870 single, or 435 double, vibrations per second 
(called Paris (Samber-pitch, also " low pitch," 
to distinguish it from the considerably higher 
one an general use [different in different 
countries and cities]) ; the Paris pitch (Diapason 
normal) is gradually being everywhere intro- 
duced. At the International Conference held 


in Vienna, Nov. i6-ig, 1885, to establish unity 
of pitch, it was resolved to recommend this 
pitch to be officially adopted by the Governments 
of all the countries represented. In Germany 
and France the tuning-forks from which piano- 
fortes are tuned give a^ (or a'), while in England 
they give c". — On the titles of old vocal part- 
books, A means Alius (alto part). In recent 
scores and parts, letters (A — Z, Aa — Zd) are 
written as signs; so that, at rehearsal, a con- 
ductor may easily point back to any particular 
bar. In recent theoretical works (those of 
Gottfried Weber, M. Hauptmann, E. F. Richter, 
and others), letters are used with chord-mean- 
ing : A then indicates the A -major chord ; a, the 
A-minor chord, etc. In old antiphonaries, etc, 
of Gregorian song, especially those with Neumse, 
an a written at the commencement indicates 
that the song is in the first ecclesiastical tone. — 
In Italian marks of expression and indications 
of time, a must be translated by " with," " in," 
"to," "at," "for," "by"; for ex., a due, for 
two (two-part). {SuT>VE,.) 

A;| (Ger. Ais), an a raised a. half-tone 

and then in connection with 

thorough-bass figuring ^really f) it stands for 

the triad of a with raised third, i.e. the A-major 
chord, and finally the A-major key. On the 
other hand, (ij] or aj? denotes ths A-minor chorA, 
or the A -minor key. But this mode of indication 
is not general, and, on account of its ambiguity, 
little worthy of recommendation. {Cf. A, and 


Aaron, (i) Abbot of the monasteries of St. 
Martin and St. Pantaleon at Cologne, d. Dec. 14, 
1052 ; author of the treatise (in the library of St! 
Martini) " De Utilitate Cantus vocalis et de 
Modo Cantandi atque Psallendi," also (accord- 
ing to Trithemius) of another, "De Regulis 
Tonorum et Symphoniarum." — {z) Pietro, also 
written Aron, a distinguished theorist, b. about 
1490, Florence, d. between 1545 and 1562 ; a canon 
of Rimini, afterwards (1536) monk of the order of 
Cross-bearers, first at Bergamo, then at Padua, 
finally at Venice ; published "I Tre libri dell' 
Istituzione armonica" (1516, also in Latin by 
G. A. Flaminio) ; " II Toscanello in Musica " 
{1523, 1525, 1529, 1539, and 1562); "Trattato 
oella Natura et Cognitione di tutti gh Tu- 
oni di Canto figurato " (1525); "Lucidario in 
Musica di alcune Opinione autiche e moderne" 
<I545); and "Compendiolo di molti dubbi 
Segreti et Sentenze intorno al Canto termo e 
figurato " (without year of publication). 

Abaco, Evarista F. dall', a very remark- 
able composer from about 1700-20, Electoral 
Bavarian Capellmeister ; he published sonatas 
for I and for 2 violins with continuo, and con- 
certos for stringed instruments. 

A ballata (Ital.), in the ballad style. 

Abb., an abbreviation of dbbassamento (dimano), 
indicating which hand is to go under in a crossing 
of hands in pianoforte or organ music. (C/. Alz.) 

Abbandonatamente, or con abbandono (Ital.), 
with self-abandonment, unrestrainedly. 

Abbandono (Ital.), with self-abandonment. 

Abbassamento (Ital.), the act of lowering, or 
the state of being lowered. — Abbassamento di 
mano, lowering of the hand in beating time ; 
abbassamento di voce, lowering of the voice. 

Abbatini, Antonio Maria, composer of the 
Roman school, b. .1595 or 1605, Tiferuo, or 
(according to Baini) Castello, d. 1677, Castello. 
He became (1626) maestro at the Lateran, from 
which post he passed to similar ones at other 
churches in Rome (del Gesu, S. Lorenzo in 
Damaso, Sa. Maria Maggiore, and N. D. di 
Loreto). A. wrote a large number of church 
compositions, of which some were for a great 
number of voices ; four books of psalms, three 
books of masses, Antiphons for 24 voices (1630- 
38, 1677), and five books of Motets (1635) 
were pubUshed; he produced an opera at 
Rome in 1654, entitled Dei Male in Bene, and 
another at Vienna, 1666,' entitled lone. He also 
assisted Ath. Kircher with his " Musurgia." 

Abbellimento (Ital.). Same as nrnament (q.v.). 

Abbellitura (Ital.), embellishment, ornament. 

Abbey, John, celebrated Paris organ-builder, 
b. Dec. 22, 1785, Whilton (Northampton), d. 
Feb. ig, 1859, Versailles. A. built, among 
others, the organ for the National Exhibition of 
1827, also the orgue expressif unfortunately de- 
stroyed at the Tuileries in 1830 (both designed 
by S. Erard) ; and in 1831 the one for the Paris 
Opera House, which was burnt in 1873. 

Abbreviations are used in great number in 
notation itself, as well as in the marks of ex- 
pression and indications of time. The most 
usual A. in notation are : (i) The employment 
of repetition signs {see Reprise) instead of 
writing out twice a number of bars or a whole 
section ; also, instead of this, especially in the 
repetition of a few bars, the indication lis, or 
due volte (twice) is employed. — (2) In repetitions 

of a short figure, the sign ,** or wj", also JS. 

(3) In repetitions of the same sound in notes of 
short value, the employment of notes of larger 
value with indication of the species of note into 
which they are to be resolved : ^ 


Flayed : 

J J J i ijt^itz 




/l tf ^ ^ 




1— S — 1 1 1 1 — 1 — ! — 1 — k 

■1 *• ^ ' • 

-/. J J J ; w J w J 



(4) In a pause of many bars -with indication of 
the exact number over slanting lines : 

(5) In an Arpeggio to indicate a method of 
breaking chords, previously used and written 



The octave mark is used to avoid many 
[eilger lines for very high or very low notes : 

after which the return to the ordinary position 
is indicated by loco. — (7) The mark c 8^* . . . 
(over or under single notes, also merely 8), i.e. 
con (coW) ottava or con ottava bassa, is used instead 
of writing out octaves : 

con 8vti Atfja"*******^*^'*" 

(8) In scores, when several instruments have to 
play the same notes, the indication col basso 
{" with Double-bass," i.e. same notes as D. B.), 
col violino, etc. : 


c. Viol. 

instead of writing the same notes out again. 
Similarly, in piano music, when both hands had 
to play the same passage, but at different 
octaves, it was formerly the custom only to 
write out the part for one hand, and to indicate 

that of the other — after a few notes to show tha 
distance of the hands from each other — by " ail' 
unisono," or simply " unisono " : 

(9) The mode of performance {legato, staccato, 
etc. J, if it remains the same through a series of 
similar figures, is frequently not written out, 
but indicated by simile or segue, i.e. correspond- 
ing to what has preceded. 


Also signs for shakes, the turn, mordent, etc., 
are A. of the notation. {Cf. Ornaments and 
Signs.) Abbreviations of marks of expression, 
indications of time, and names of instruments 
will be found under their respective headings. 
For ex., B.C. {Basso contitmo) under B ; m.s. {mano 
sinistra) under M ; etc. 

ABC, musical. {See Letter-notation.) 

A-B-C-dieren (Ger.) is a term employed to 
express the singing of notes by their letter- 
names, a custom prevalent in Germany in ele- 
mentary school instruction in singing instead of 
solmisation (q.v.). 

Abd el Kadir (Abdolkadir), B en I s a, Arabian 
writer on music of the 14th century, the author 
of three treatises, which have been preserved : 
" The Collector of Melodies," " The Aim of 
Melodies in the Composition of Tones and 
Measures," and " The Treasure of Melodies in 
the Science of Musical Cycles." {C/. Kiesewetter's 
" Music of the Arabians " [1842] , p. 33.) 

Abd el Mimiin (Abdolmumin). {See Ssaffid- 


Abeille, J. Ch. Ludwig, b. Feb. 20, 1761, 
Baireuth, d. 1832, as musical director and 
court organist at Stuttgart; was an excellent 
pianoforte and organ player and a, prolific 
composer (operas. Amor und Psyche and Peter 
und Aennchen produced at Stuttgart [1801 and 
1809], chamber music, etc.). Some of^his songs 
are still sung in schools. 

Abel, (i) Clamor Heinrich, chamber mu- 
sician at the court of Hanover, published 
from 1674 to 1677 three sets of instrumental 
pieces, "Erstlinge musikalischer Blumen" Alle- 
mandes, Courantes, Sarabandes, etc.), repub- 
lished together in 1687 as " 3 Opera musica." — 
(2) Christian Ferdinand, about 1720-37 
viol-da-gambist at Cothen, father of the two 
following. — (3) Leop. August, b. 1720, Cothen, 
excellent violinist, pupil of Benda ; was engaged 
in the court bands at Brunswick, Sonders- 
hausen (1758), Schwedt and Schwerin (1770) ; he 



published six violin concertos.— (4) Karl Fried- 
rich, brother of the former, b. 1725, Cothen, 
d. Tan. 22, 1787, London, the last performer on 
the gamba, and a composer highly esteemed in 
his time. He was a pupil of J. S. Bach's, at St. 
Thomas's School, Leipzig. From 1748 to 1758 
he was member of the Dresden court band ; 
after that he went on concert tours, and lived 
in London 1759-1787, with the exception of two 
years (1783-5) spent in Germany. In 1765 he 
wa^ appointed chamber-musician to Queen 
Charlotte. His numerous sonatas, concertos 
. for pf. and strings, quartets, overtures, and 
symphonies deserve mention. — (5) Liidwig, b. 
Jan. 14, 1835, Eckartsberge (Thuringia), re- 
ceived his artistic training at Weimar and 
I^ipzig (Ferd. David), became leader of the 
orchestra at Munich in 1867, and is now one of 
the principal teachers at the Royal School of 
Music (violin, playing from score, etc.). A. has 
published violin compositions and also a violin 

Abela, (i) Karl Gottlob, vocal comjjoser, 
b. April 29, 1803, Borna (Saxony), d. April 22, 
1841, as cantor of the " Francke " Institution at 
Halle : he published a book of songs for schools, 
as well as numerous choruses for male voices. 
— (2) Dom Plapido, prior of the abbey of 
Monte Cassino, d. July 6, 1876, was an excel- 
lent organist and composer of church music. — 
(3) Pedro de, teacher of singing of repute, d. 
March, 1877, Barcelona. Tamberlik was one 
of his pupils. 

Abell, John, famous English evirato and lute 
player, b. about 1660, London, where already 
in 1679 he was member of the Chapel Royal, d. 
1724. The Revolution of 1688 cost him his 
position ; yet, after long journeys on the Con- 
tinent, he returned to London in 1700, and 
gained fresh triumphs. A. published two col- 
'ections of songs. 
A bene placito (Ital.), at pleasure. 
Abenheim, Joseph, b. 1804, Worms, d. 
Jan. 18, 1891, Stuttgart, a worthy member of 
the court band at Stuttgart (violinist), ap- 
pointed musitial director in 1854; he wrote 
many entr'actes, overtures, etc., but only some 
interesting small pf. pieces and songs have 
appeared in print. 

Abert, Johann Joseph, b. Sept. 21, 1832, 
Kochowitz (Bohenua), received his first musical 
education as chorister at Gastdorf and the 
Leipa monastery, but fled from the latter place, 
and, thanks to the aid of a relative, became a 
pupil at the Prague Conservatorium under Kittl 
and >Tomaczek. In 1852 he was engaged as 
double-bassist in the Stuttgart court band, and 
in 1867 obtained, on the departure of Eckert, 
the post of capellmeister there ; in the autumn 
of 1888 he retired from active life. Abert's 
c minor symphony (first perfornied in 1852), his 
Symphonic Poem " Columbus " (1864), s-l^o his 
operas, Anna von Landskron (1858), Konig Enzio, 

Astorga, Ekkehard, Die AlmoUim (1890), besides 
overtures, quartets, songs, etc., have won for 
him a good name. 

Abesser, Edmund, b. Jan. 13, 1837, Marjolitz 

(Saxony), d. July 15, 1889, Vienna, a prolific 

salon composer, opera Die liebliche Fee. 

Abgesang (Ger., "aftersong"). [See Strophe.) 

Ab initio (Lat.), from the beginning. [See 

Da capo.) 

AboB, Girolamo (also Avos, Avossa), com- 
poser of the Neapolitan school, born at the be- 
ginning of the i6th century at Malta, d. about 
1786, Naples ; pupil of Leo and Durante. He 
wrote operas (1742-63) for Naples, .Venice, 
Rome, and London, which were highly esteemed 
by his contemporaries. In later years, after he 
had been appointed teacher at the Conservatoria 
delta pieta di Turchini, Naples (1758), he wrote 
also many sacred works (7 masses, litanies, 
etc.). Aprile was his most famous pupil. 

Abraham, (i) see Braham. — (2) Dr. Max, see 

Absolute Music (i.e. music per se, without re- 
lation to other arts, or to any presentation' 
whatever outside of it) is a limiting term, which, 
in recent times, forms the watchword to a 
great party among musicians and friends of 
music. A. M. is opposed to music-painting, to 
presentative or programme-music, i.e. to music 
supposed to express something definite. Ac- 
cording to the opinion of a hyper-modern mi- 
nority, all music which does not express some 
definite poetical thought is mere trifling with 
sounds. On the other hand, ultra-conservative 
musicians utterly deny to music the power of 
representing anything. As a matter of fact, 
when music becomes symbolic, i.e. attempts by 
means of certain formulas or artificial imitation 
of sounds intentionally to awaken certain defi- 
nite associations of ideas, it goes beyond its .own 
domain and enters that of poetry or of the 
representative arts [cf. Riemann, " Wie horen 
wir Musik," 1888, " Catechism of Musical 
Esthetics "), for^ the essence of poetry consists 
in awakening and linking together by means of 
conventional forms (words) certain conceptions, 
that of the representative arts by the direct 
imitation of objective phenomena; both, there- 
fore, reach the aim of all art, that of movinp: 
the soul, by indirect means, of which music need 
not make use. The great power of music lies 
in the direct emotions which it awakens, in the 
fact that it is a free outpouring of feeling, and 
calls forth feeling from player and listener with- 
out the intervention of intellect. {See Es- 

Abt, Franz, b. December 22, 1819, Eilen- 
burg; d. March 31, 1885, Wiesbaden, attended 
the St. Thomas School, Leipzig, and was to 
have studied theology, but soon turned his at- 
tention to music, conducted a students' " phil- 
harmonic" society, and made successful at- 


tempts at composition. In 1841 he became 
musical director at the Court Theatre, Bern- 
burg, but went in the same year, and in a 
similar capacity, to the "Aktien" Theatre at 
Zurich, and frora thence entered on his appoint- 
ment of Court Capellmeister to the Duke of 
Brunswick (1852-82). In 1872, at the invitation 
of various large choral unions, he visited North 
America, and gained exceptional triumphs. The 
songs and quartets for male voices of Abt are 
not of great artistic value, yet frequently show 
his power of inventing flowing melodies. Some 
of them have become real folk-songs ("Wejm 
die Schwalben heimwarts ziehn," " Gute Nacht, 
du mein herziges Kind," etc.). Among his part- 
songs are some of poetic beauty ("Die Stille 
Wasserrose "). A number of his cantatas for 
female voices have also become very popu- 
lar ("Cinderella," "Little Snowwhite," "Red 
Riding Hood"). In 1882 A. withdrew from 
active Ufe, and retired to Wiesbaden. 

A cappella (Ital.), in church style, i.e. fbr 
voices alone, without any instrumental accom- 
paniment. (Sm Cappella.I 

Academy (Fr. acadhnie, Ital. accademia), an 
exercise ground- in ancient Athens where Plato 
was accustomed to assemble with his pupils, 
and discourse to them ; the name then passed on 
from Plato's school, and in 1470 was seized hold 
of afresh by one of the learned societies at the 
court of Cosimo de Medici, which called itself 
the " Platonic A." Since then numerous other 
societies of learning and art have arisen, which 
have taken the name A. The greater number 
of the German academies are State institutions : 
the academies of Berlin and Paris consist of an 
almost fixed number of members in ordinary. 
The French academies consist of the Academie 
frangaise (A. for French language and literature), 
the Academie des inscriptions et belles-lettres (for 
history, archaeology, and classical literature), 
the A. des sciences (for natural philosophy), 
the A. des beaux-arts (A. of arts), and the A. 
des sciences morales et folitiques (law, political 
economy, etc.). The A. des' beaux-arts is richly 
endowed, and offers every year a number of 
important prizes : the science of music owes 
much of its progress to the competitions of this 
A. The BerUn A. of arte is a State institution 
(but entirely distinct from the A: of sciences), of 
which the School of Composition, the Hochschule 
fur Musik, and the Institute for Church Music 
are branches. {See Conservatorium.) The 
Royal Academy at Brussels has also a branch 
for the fine arts ; and since 1780' Boston pos- 
sesses an A. of arts and sciences. — In a wider 
sense institutions of all kinds for education, 
especially the universities, and high schools for 
special subjects are included under the term A. 
Also musical academies claim a right to the 
name, although it is actually only borne by a 
few (Royal Academy of Music in IxDndon, 
KuUak's Neue^ A. der Tonhmst in Berlin, the 

I Accent 

Academical Institute for church music at 
Breslau, etc.). (Cf. Lyceum.) — ^Also concert 
societies and operatic enterprises have often 
taken the name of A. ; as, for example, the 
Academy of Ancient Music (1710-92), a con- 
cert society established in London for the 
encouragement of ancient music ; the " Royal 
Academy of Music," a company for the per- 
formance of Italian opera, established in Lon- 
don (1720-28), for which Handel wrote 14 
operas ; the Acadimie (nationale, imperiale, royale, 
according to the Government in power) de musique 
at Paris is nothing more than the Grand Op^ra 
existing since 1669, in connection with which 
may be named the .Scole royale de Chant (1784), 
the germ of the present Conservatoire de Paris ; 
and the Academy of Music at New York, a 
house devoted to opera, but especially to con- 
certs. In Italy accademia is quite a common 
term for a concert, a musical entertainment. 

AcathistUB (Lat., from Gk.), a hymn of praise 
sung in the Greek Church in honour of the 
Blessed Virgin. 

Accademia degli Axcadi, a society of artists 
(poets and musicians) founded at Rome in 1690. 
The members bore old Grecian pastoral names. 

Accarezzevole (Ital.), in a caressing manner; 
equivalent to lusingando. 

Accelerando (Ital.), accelerating the time; 
getting gradually faster. 

Accent (i) is the prominence given to certain 
notes or chords by emphasis. The stress put 
upon the important notes of phrases, motives 
and sub-motives, which notes always occur at 
the beginning, or in the middle of a bar, or on 
the moment of any beat, has, according to 
the traditional teaching of metre and rhythm, 
been reckoned amongst accents (as a so-called 
grammatical or metrical, regular, positive ac- 
cent) ; but as this stress is not an extra empha- 
sis, but merely the constant rising and faJliug 
(crescendo and diminuendo) which is actually the 
basis of musical expression, it is confusing to mix 
it up with accent. Real accents are rather those 
extra reinforcements of sound which disturb 
the natural course of djmamic development (ef. 
Dynamics, THE Art of, and Metre, the Art of), 
occasionally topsy-turvy, and which the 
compbser generally indicates by special marks 
(s/., > , a)- -^ frequent and important A. is that 
of the commencement, the bringing into prominence 
,the first note of a phrase or motive ; this makes 
the thematic structure specially clear, but if 
continually employed when not demanded by 
the composer would become repulsive and ob- 
trusive. Certain rhythmical formations, espe- 
cially anticipations by syncopation of notes whose 
full harmonic effect is only realised on the 
following accented part of the bar, require 
accentuation (rhythmical A.) ; and in a similar 
manner complicated harmonies, chance dis- 
sonances, notes suggesting modulation must be made- 



prominent (harmonic A.). Again, the highest 
point of a melody, when by its position in the 
bar it does not occur at the same time as the 
highest point of the dynamic development, must 
be marked {melodic A.). On the other hand, 
dynamic contrasts of figures not organically 
connected, such as are produced with striking 
effect in orchestral works, must be regarded as 
direct emanations from the composer's creative 
phantasy, and cannot be subjected to classifica- 
tion and rule. A kind of negative accent is pro- 
duced when the culminating point of a loud 
passage is suddenly changed to piano, a means 
from which Beethoven first drew most powerful 
effects. — (2) An antiquated ornament and similar 
to our appoggiatura (Ital. accmto) ; it was formerly 
indicated in various ways. It was executed so 
that the upper or under second (scale note) was 
placed before the note which had the A. sign. 

In quick movement, and with notes of short 
value, the note following lost the half of its 
value ; in the case of longer notes, less. Wal- 
ther (1732) distinguishes, besides, a doMe A. 
(accmto doppio), in which the first note was 
shortened, and the second taken beforehand in 
portamento, in quite similar fashion to the port 
de voix. 

■ P M 1 

" -«. 11 ~ J"* 


^ Hif:\'^ 

The indication II is, nevertheless, rare ; the signs 
given above for the simple A. are understood 
sometimes in the one, sometimes in the other 
sense; and the terms A., Chute, Porte de voix, 
are used synonymously, (cf. aha Aspiration.) 
{3) Various attempts have been made to under- 
stand_ and interpret accents as musical notes, 
especially the accents of the Hebrew language. 
(Cf. Anton.) Anyhow, it is almost certain that 
the accentuation of the Psalms, etc., was a kind 
of musical notation, but only in the same sense 
as the oldest neumes (which, indeed, to all appear- 
ances, were evolved from the Greek accents), 
viz. an approximate note-indication ; a guide to 
those who had learnt the melody by oral tradition. 
It is easy to see, from their verbal significance, 
that the three Greek accents are the elements 
from which sprang the neumes ( ' oxytonon = 
raising of the voice = Virga; again, hary- 
to«o» = lowering of the voice =Jacens, Func- 
tus . — ; and a or ro perispomenon, a. waving 
to and fro of the voice, a flourish = Plica. 
(C/. Neumes.) 

Accented, Once-, Twice-, (c/. A.) 
Accentus, as part of the Catholic ritnal, is 
the counterpart of concentus. In the old direc- 

tions for liturgical singing, everything which 
the whole of the choir had to perform — 1.«. 
hymns, psalms, responses, hallelujahs, se- 
quences, etc.— was included under the name 
concentus. On the other hand, the intonation of 
the collects, epistle, gospel, lessons, in fact, 
everything which was sung, or rather recited, 
by the priest and others who served at the 
altar, was included under A. For the most 
part, the A. keeps on the same tbne, and the 
interpunction is indicated by risings (question) 
or fallings (full stop) of the cadence. 

Acciaccatflra (Ital., a crushing), an obsolete 
ornament in organ and pianoforte music, which , 
consisted of the striking of the under second of 
the note of a chord at the same time as that 
note, but immediately relinquishing the auxiliary 
note. The French name of this ornament is 
Pinci Houffe. The A. was a favourite device 
with organists and cembalists, and was seldom 
written out : in a single part it was Indicated 
(a) by a small note with a. stroke through the 
stem, in a chord If), by means of an oblique 

/"i I ^1 J 

4^-^r,..-||^''Jgq.... It 

Played : Played : 

Since the last century, however, the latter sign 
was used also for arpeggio (q.v.). The name A. 
is now used for the short appoggiatura. 

Accidentals (Ger., Versetzungszeichen) are signs 
for lowering, raising, and restoring the natural 
notes of the fundamental scale (q.v.), thus |?, ft, 
t{i bbi X, tjl?, 1|4, bjl. The simple I? lowers the 
note by a semitone, the 4 raises it by a semi- 
tone ; in either case the fa restores the scale 
note. The double flat lowers it by two semi- 

for ex., ^— fr»::»=EJ is, on the piano- 

tones ; 

forte, the key a, but' it is not called a, but 
hdoMeflat. Also after a simple 1?, previously 
marked, or belonging to the signature, 6-, e-, a- 
double flat, etc., require the sign I?!?. Jfl?, or 
simply ^ after a note with b|7. turns a note 
lowered by two semitones into one lowered by 
one; tftf, or simply tf, restores a doubly lowered 
note to its original position. The double sharp 

( X ) raises by two semitones : 


on the pianoforte the key g (f dotible sharp). 
Also With previously indicated single sharps, 
/- c- double sharp, etc., require ax; it ft, or 
simply |; after a note with x , changes a note 
doubly raised into one singly raised; Mf re- 
stores the note to its original position. With 
regard to the meaning of the A", indicated at the 
beginning of a piece or section, especially at 
the beginning of a line, or after a (fouble bar, 


Accompanying parts 

cf. Signature . fa and ft were originally identical 
signs ; the |?l7 and x are of considerably later 
origin, and first appeared about 1700. The 
whole system of chromatic signs (C««t«s trans- 
positus iransformatus, Musica ficta, falsa) has been 
gradually developed from a twofold form of the 
B, the second letter of the fundamental scale, 
which, already, in the loth century, was either 
round (B rotundum molk) or square (B quadratum 
durum [h]). ^^d then in the first case indicated 
our B flat, in the latter our B natural (the 
German h appeared in letter notation in the 
i6th century through being confused with the 
I3. {See Tablature.) Already in the 13th 
century the '□ had, by hasty writing, assumed 
the forms ft and Jj. and owing to the transfer- 
ence of the B of double meaning, to other 
degrees (E, A), became the sign for the higher 
of two notes connected with each other, while 
1? stood for the lower. Thus I? became a sign 
for lowering, and tf for raising, so that even tl 
before F indicated our F sharp, and 1? before F 
not F flat, but merely F, to distinguish it from 
F sharp. Eight into the i8th century, p re- 
voked a sharp, and t or h revoked a [> , and care 
must be taken not to interpret these accidentals 
in a modern sense. It must also be remembered 
that only in the first half of the 17th century 
did it become the custom for a ft or 7 to be 
valid for the whole bar ; they only remained in 
force if the same note was repeated several 
times, but, even with one new note interveniiig, 
had to be repeated. (Cf. Riemann, " Studien 
zur Geschichte der Notenschrift," pp. 52-63 [Die 
Musica fictaj .) 

Accolade, a brace which connects two or 
more staves {in organ, pf. music, scores, etc.). 

Accompagnato (Ital., "accompanied"), tech- 
nical expression for recitative with constant 
accompaniment, in contradistinction from Reci- 
tativo secco, in which only the harmonies are 
briefly struck. {See Accompaniment.) 

Accompaniment (Fr. accompagnement, Ital. 
accompagnamento). In pieces written for solo 
instruments or voice, the instrumental part 
other than the solo, for ex., the orchestral 
part in concertos, the pf. part in songs with 
pianoforte, etc. To accompany, to follow. 
Accompanist, player of the accompaniment, 
esp. the pianoforte player who accompanies 
a solo singer or instrumentalist, formerly the 
cembalist or organist, who, from the -figured 
bass, worked out a complete part, (i'w General 
Bass, Accompanying parts, and Accompag- 

Accompanying parts, those parts in modern 
music which do not bear the melody, but which 
are subordinate to the melodic (chief) part, and 
which unfold its harmonies. The older contra- 
puntists of the 14th to the 16th, century were 

unacquainted with A. p. in the real sense of the 
term. In purely vocal compositions, with strict 
or free imitations, which they exclusively culti- 
vated, each part contained melody (was a con- ■ 
certed part), and generally that part which bore 
what we now call the theme (the Cantus firmus, 
by preference, in long, sustained notes) was the 
least melodious. A primitive kind of accom- 
paniment certainly did exist at a much earlier 
period. The songs of the troubadours were 
accompanied by the minstrels on the viol or 
vielle; the bards sang to the crowd, the Greeks 
to the cithara, lyre, or flute, the Hebrews to 
the psaltery. It appears, however, that the 
instrumental accompaniment only doubled the 
vocal part in unison, or in octave, and possibly 
only those notes which fell upon strong beats. 
Accompaniment, in the modem sense of the 
term, appears first about 1600, and its cradle 
was Italy. When solo- had so merged intb 
choral-music that the simple love-song and the 
duet appeared only in the form of a chorus a 
4 or 5 (Madrigal), the necessary reaction took 
place, restoring to solo singing its natural rights, 
without, however, sacrificing the now recognised 
charm of harmony. Thus instrumental accom- 
paniment was at first arranged so that in a choral 
compo.sition the highest part was assigned to a 
solo voice, whilst the rest were played by 
instruments (this pseudo-monody was already 
common in the i6th century), but later on the 
composers wrote at once for a solo voice with 
instrumental accompaniment. This transition 
suggested, so it seems, arrangements of choral 
pieces for one vocal part with lute, the salon 
instrument of that day. The impossibility of 
sustaining sounds on that instrument led to the 
interpolation of ornaments, arpeggios, runs, etc., 
and this habit led to a reaction, to a thoroughly 
diSerent mode of writing for the accompanying 
instrument. The clavicembalo came into use 
instead of the lute, and for church performances 
the organ, and thus there was a gradual leading 
up to those meagre instrumental accompani- 
ments, known under the name of General Bass 
{Thorough Bass) or Continuo. In these, figures 
written over a bass part indicated what har- 
monies the accompanist had to plajj, though 
the actual mode of presenting them 'was left 
to his skill. The continuo, however, was not 
always figured, as, for example, in some of 
Handel's and Bach's works ; the proper accom- 
paniment in that case could only be discovered 
from a perusal of the score. Already in the 
early part of the 17th century, composers began, 
to add to the continuo elaborate parts for single 
instruments (obbligato), and thus the A. p. 
again came to a state of great independence, 
without, however, contesting the supremacy of 
the principal part, which, meanwhile, was given 
not only to the voice, but to single instruments 
suitable for the purpose (violin, flute, oboe). 
A similar change had also taken place in choral 
music, and the soprano (the upper part) had 

Accompanying paa?ts 



become bearer of the melody, while the other 
parts were treated in ^ simpler fashion, a justi- 
fication for the qualifying term " accompanying." 
With J.'S. Bach the polyphonic style flourished 
once more, reached, indeed, its zenith ; but his 
polyphony is so clear in its harmonies, and in 
so masterly a manner is the ensemble suhordi- 
nate to the crowning melody, that his style 
must be regarded as worthy of the highest 
admiration, and as a master-pattern. To-day, 
with a period of strongly marked monophony 
behind us, one in which melody rules over a 
chord accompaniment of more or less simplicity 
(especially in clavier composition), we are 
actually harking back to a more independent 
contrapuntal treatment of accompaniment, and 
thus approaching nearer to the manner of J. 5- 

Accord k I'ouvert (Fr.), a chord which re- 
quires no stopping, but can be played on the 
open strings. 

Accordare (Ital.), to tune ; or, to be in tune. 

Accordion (Ger. Ziehharmonika), the smallest 
instrument of the organ species, i.e. of wind 
instruments with keyboard and mechanical con- 
trivance for wind ; it was invented in 1829 by 
Damian at Vienna ; its prototype was the 
Chinese Sheng and the mouth-harmonica. Ac- 
cordions are made of various sizes ; in the 
hands of skilful players the largest and best are 
not entirely devoid of artistic value. Free 
reeds are placed against the upper and under 
boards of a bellows with many folds, and these 
reeds are bent, some inwards, some outwards ; 
the former speak when the bellows is pressed 
together, the latter (by suction, as in the Ameri- 
can organ) when it is drawn out. Small ac- 
cordions have only a diatonic scale for the right 
hand, and for the left a few bass harmonies, 
which render free modulation impossible. On 
the other hand, large instruments, such as those 
made by Wheatstone (Melophone, Concer- 
tina), have a chromatic scale, through several 
octaves, for each hand. 

Aocordo (Ital.), a chord. 

Accordo. (See Lyre.) 

Accordoir, French name for the tuning-key 
for the pianoforte, and also for the tuning-cone 
for the metal lip-pipes of organs. 

Accrescendo (Ital.), crescendo. 

Aohard (L6on), eminent singer (lyric tenor), 
b. Feb. 16, 1831, Lyons, pupil of Bordogni at 
the Paris Conservatoire, made his dl:but (1854) 
at the Theatre Lyrique ; was from 1856-62 
at the Grand Theatre, Lyons, at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, from 1862-71 ; and after fresh 
study at Milan, at the Paris Grand Opera from 

Achtfussig (Ger.), oif 8-ft. pitch. (See Foot- 

Ackermann, A. J., b. Apr. 2, 1836, Rotter- 
dam, pupil of J. H. Liibeck, W. '^. G. Nicolas, 

and Fr. Wietz at the Royal Music School at 
the Hague ; was appointed pf. teacher there in 
1865, for organ and theory in 1867. He com- 
posed songs (Op. 2, 9) and pf. pieces for two 
and four hands. 

Acoustics (Greek), literally, the science of 
hearing, i.e. the teaching of the nature of sound, 
the conditions of its origin, the mode and 
rapidity of its transmission, as well as its ulti- 
mate perception by the ear. A distinction is 
made between physical A. and physiological A. : 
the latter treats specially of the perception of 
sounds. Musical A. only concerns that part of 
A. which deals with available musical tones 
(sounds), to be distinguished from unmusical 
noises. Musical sounds are given out (i) by 
strings struck by bow or hammer, or plucked 
with the finger; (2) by wind-instruments (in- 
cluding the human voice) ; (3) by elastic rods 
(tuning-fork, steel-harmonicon, straw-fiddle) ; 
(4) by curved metal disks (cymbals, gong, 
bells) ; (5) , by stretched membranes (kettle- 
drums, drums). Musical sound, physically con- 
sidered, consists of a regular, rapid alternation 
of condensation and rarefaction of elastic bodies 
(vibrations) ; the pitch depends upon the ra- 
pidity of succession of the vibrations, and, the 
strength (intensity) of the sound on the extent 
(amplitude) of the deviations from a state of 
equilibrium. The vibrations of the elastic body 
producing sound communicate themselves to 
the surrounding air (or, previously, to firm 
bodies in contact with it, see Sound-bo ard), and 
travel in it at a rate of 340 metres per second, at 
a temperature of 16° C. For acoustical pur- 
poses it is usual to take the velocity of sound 
at 1,056 feet per second, which number stands 
in relationship with the determination of pitch 
according to foot-tone (q.v.). As, in' fact, the 
velocity of sound, divided by the vibration 
number must necessarily give the length of the 
sound-wave (a double vibration, i.e. the sum of 
condensation and rarefaction), for contra-C 
with 33 vibrations (1,056.: 33) we have a wave- 
sound of 32 feet, i.e. as the length of an open 
flue-pipe only corresponds to a simple wave 
(half a complete wave), contra-C is produced by 
an open flue-pipe of 16 feet. The number of 
vibrations which a sound makes in a. given 
time (seconds) is easily obtained by help of the 
Syren (q.v.), improved by Cagniard de Latour. 
Other interesting subjects connected with A. 
are the phenomena of overtones, sympathy of tones, 
combination tones, and beats. [C/. the respective 

Act (Ital. Atto), the usual term for tMe chief 
sections of dramatic works (dramas, operas, 
ballets), and even for oratorios, for wMch, how- 
ever, the expression "part" is more usual. 
The various acts are separated from one another' 
by the falling of the curtain and an interval of 
some length. The acts are often subdivided 
into tableaux, i.e. principal scenes with change 



of decoration, which are divided by short pauses 
and falling of the drop-scene. The number of 
acts varies between i and 5 : that of the tableaux 
is naturally, for the most part, greater. 

Acte de cadence (Fr.), the two chords that 
form a cadence. 

Action (Ger. Mechanik ; Fr. Mecanigue) is the 
name given to the more or less complicated 
mechanism of musical instruments, especially 
the pianoforte, organ, orchestrion, etc. Con- 
cerning the action of older kinds of keyboards 
(clavichord, clavicimbal), also concerning the 
difference between the English (Silbermann, 
Christofori) -and German (Stein of Vienna) 
action and Erard's Double echappement, etc., 
^ Pianoforte. 

Acuta, a mixture stop in the organ : as a rule, 
it has a tierce and is smaller than the Mixture, 
i.e. begins with higher sounds (3 fold to 5 fold, 
of If and I foot). 

Acuteness. A musical sound is said to be- 
come more acute (i.e. higher) in proportion to 
thfe increase in the number of vibrations. 

Acntus (Lat.), (i) sharp, acute; (2) the name 
of one of the accentus ecclesiastici. 

Adagio, one of the oldest indications of tempo, 
already in use at the commencement of the 17th 
century. In Italian A. means conveniently, 
comfortably, but in the course of time has 
come to mean in music, at a slow rate, even 
very slow (though not so slow as largo). This is 
specially the case in Germany ; whereas in 
Italy, following the meaning of the word, even 
to-day A. comes nearer to what we understand 
by Andante. The term A. is used either for a 
short passage, or when placed at the beginning 
of a movement indicates the tempo throughout, 
so that it has come to mean the entire move- 
ment of a sonata, symphony, or quartet, etc. 
The A. is generally the second movement, yet 
there are many exceptions (gth Symphony of 
Beethoven's, and since then frequently) : such 
a movement is still called an A., even though it 
contain a more lively section {andante, piu mosso, 
etc.). The superlative adagissimo, " extremely 
slow," is rare. The diminutive form adagietto 
means "rather slow," i.e. not so slow as A. ; if 
written above a piece it indicates a slow piece 
of short duration (small A.). (C/. Tempo.) 

Adam, (i) Louis, b. Dec. 3, 1758, Miitters- 
holtz (Alsace), of a German family, d. April 11, 
1848, Paris; a distinguished musician, who 
thoroughly studied Bach and Handel; from 
1797-1843 was professor of the pianoforte at 
the Pan? Conservatoire, and the teacher- of 
Kalkbrenner, Herold, etc. He was the author of 
a highly esteemed " Methode Nouvelle pour le 
Piano" (1802; translated by Czerny, 1826), and 
published also pf. sonatas, variations, etc. " (z) 
Adolphe Charles, son of the former, a well- 
known opera composer, b. July 24, 1803, Paris, 
d. May 3, 1S56; was intended for a literary 

career, yet showed little aptitude for it. But 
though he was received as a music pupil at the 
Conservatoire in 1817, he worked carelessly and 
fitfully, until Boieldieu took him for composi- 
tion, as he discovered his talent for melody ; and 
rapid progress was now made. After he had 
made himself known by all kinds of pianoforte 
pieces (transcriptions, songs), he brought out 
his first one-act opera, Pierre et Catherine, at 
the Op6ra Comique (1829) ; good success en- 
couraged him, and there soon followed a series 
of 13 other works, until he made his mark in 
1836 with the Postilion de Longjumeau. From 
1846-49 Adam ceased writing, for he had a 
dispute with the director of the Opera Comique, 
and started an opera-hcSuse on his own account 
(Theatre National, 1847) ; the Revolution of 1848 
utterly ruined him, and then he devoted himself 
industriously to composition. After his father's 
death (1848) he became processor of composi- 
tion at the Conservatoire. Of his 53 stage works, 
the operas Le Fidele Berger, La Rose de Peronne, 
Le Eoi d' Yvetot, Giralda, La Poupee de Nuremberg, 
deserve mention ; also the ballets, Giselle, Le Cor- 
saire, etc. If none of Adam's works can be called 
classical, yet their rhythmic grace and melodic 
wealth will at least ensure for them a long life. 
A short biography of Adam was published by 
Pougin in 1876; m'de also " Derniers Souvenirs 
d'un Musicien " (autobiographical notices and 
various newspaper articles from the pen of 
Adam, 1857-59, 2 vols.). — (3) Karl Ferdinand, 
favourite composer of part-songs for male 
voices, b. Dec. 22, 1806 ; d. Dec. 23, 1868, as 
cantor at Leisnig (Saxony). 

Adam de la Hale (or Halle), nicknamed Le 
Bossu d'Arras, b. about 1240, Arras, d. 1287, 
Naples; a gifted poet and composer of high 
importance (a troubadour), of' whose works 
many have been preserved, and were published- 
in 1872 by Coussemaker (" CEuvres completes du 
Trouvere Adam de la Hale," etc.). The most 
iinportant of them is : Jeu de Robin et de Marion, 
a kind of comic opera (operetta) of which the 
poem and music are both preserved complete ; 
also a series of other jfeux (Jeu d' Adam' ani 
Jeu du Pelerin), rondeaux, motets, and chansons. 
The works of Adam de la Hale are of incal- 
culable value for the musical history of his time. 

Adam von Fulda, b. 1450, one of the oldest 
German composers, who was much thought of 
in his time ; also the author of an interesting 
treatise on the "Theory of Music," printed 
by Gerbert in the third volume of the " Scrip 

Adamberger, Valentin (not Joseph), famous 
tenor singer, b. July 6, 1743, Munich, d. Aug. 
24, 1804, Vienna, pupil of Valesi; gained 
triumphs in Italy under the name Adamonti ; 
appeared also in London ; and was engaged in 
1780 at the Vienna court opera, and in 1789 as 
singer in the court band. Mozart wrote tho 
Belmonte, and some concert arias for him. His 

Adamberger i 

daughter Antonie was betrothed to Theod. 
Kbrner. , 

Adami da Bolaena, Andrea, b. 1663, Bol- 
sena, d. July 22, 1742, Rome ; was papal maestro, 
and wrote " Osservazioni per ben regolare il 
coro del cantori della Capella Pontifica" (1711), 
a book rich in historical notes. 
Adamonti, vide Adamberger. 
Adams, Thomas, a distinguished EngUsh 
organist and composer for that instrument, b. 
Sept. 5, 1785, London, d. there, Sept. 15, 1858 ; 
superintended, amongst other things, the musi- 
cal performances on the Apollicon, built by 
Flight and Robson. His published works are 
organ fugues, interludes, sets of variations (also 
for pf.), and sacred music. 

Adcock, James, b. 1778, Eton, Bucks, d. 
Apr. 30, i860, Cambridge; was chorister at 
-St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and then at 
Eton; in 1797 became a lay clerk, and after- 
wards a member of various church choirs in 
Cambridge, where he finally became choir- 
master at King's College. He published " The 
Rudiments of Singing," and a number of glees 
of his own composition. 

Addison, John, English composer, b. about 
1770, d. Jan. 30, 1844, London ; led an active 
life as double-bass player, conductor (Dublin), 
cotton manufacturer (Manchester), music-seller 
(with M. Kelly in London), and finally as com- 
poser and teacher of singing, and of the double- 
bass. His wife (Miss Williams) was a highly 
esteemed opera singer. Addison's operettas 
were much admired in their day (1805-18). 

Addolorato (Ital.), with expression of grief. 

Adelboldus, Bishop of Utrecht, d. Nov. 27, 
1027 ; the author of a treatise oil musical 
theory, printed 6y Gerbert in the first volume of 
the " Scriptores." 

Adelburg, August, Ritter von, violinist, 
b. Nov. 1, 1830, Constantinople, d., disordered in 
intellect, Oct. 20, 1873, Vienna; was intended 
for the diplomatic career, but studied (1850-4) 
under Mayseder, who made him a first-rate 
violinist. In the sixties he created a sensation 
by the fulness of his tone. He composed 
sonatas and concertos for violin, stringed quar- 
tets, etc. ; also 3 operas, Znnyi (1868 at Pesth), 
WalUyiitein, and Martinuzzi. 

Adelung, vide Adlung. 

"L demi jeu (Fr.), with half the power of the 

A demi voix (Fr.), with half the power of the 
voice i^ezza voce). 

A. deux (Fr.), for two instruments or voices. 
This expression is also- used for d deux temps. 

Adgio, Ado, abbreviations for Adagio. 

Adiaphon (= incapable of getting out of 
tune), or Gdbelklavier, an instrument with key- 
board invented by Fischer and Fritzsch at 
Leipzig, patented in 1882, and successfully 


produced at the festival of the Allgemeiiner 
Deutscher Musikverein at Leipzig in 1883, la- 
stead of strings it has tuning-forks. The 
ethereal though somewhat empty sound of the 
instrument has recently been strengthened by 
double forks tuned in octave. 

Adirato (Ital.), in an angry manner. 

Adjustment of the registers of the voice. {See 
Register.) ■ 

Adler (i), Georg, Hungarian composer, b. 
1806, Ofen; excellent performer on the violin 
and pianoforte, and teacher ; published a series 
of good chamber-music works, pf. variations, 
songs, and part-songs. — (2) Guido, b. Nov. i, 
1855, Eibenschiitz (Moravia), son of a physi- 
cian, after whose early death (1856) the 
mother moved to Iglau. In 1864 A. attended 
the academic Gymnasium at Vienna, of which 
he conducted the pupils' choir for a time, 
and also the Conservatorium, where he became 
pupil of Bruckner and Dessoff. In 1874, after 
gaining a prize, he left the Conservatorium, 
attended the _ University, and, together with 
F. Mottl andK. Wolf, founded the academic 
Wagner Society, which soon became an im- 
portant body. In 1878 he took the degree of 
Dr. juris, in 1880 that of Dr.phil. (Dissertation 
'• Die historischen Grundklassen der christlich 
abendlandischen Musik bis 1600, "printed in the ■ 
Allg. M. Z., 1880, Nos. 44-47), and in 1881 
qualified himself at the Vienna University as a 
private lecturer on the science of music (Thesis : 
" Studie zur Geschichte der Harmonie," printed 
in the report of the " Phil. hist. Kl, d. kaiserl. 
Acad, der Wissensch.," Vienna, 1881, also sepa- 
rately). In 1882 he went as delegate to the In- 
ternational Liturgical Congress at Arezzo, of 
which he wrote a detailed report. In 1884, to- 
gether with Chrysander and Spitta, he founded 
the Vierteljahrsschrift fur Musikwissenschaft, which 
he edited for a year, and in 1885 was ap- 
pointed Professor of the Science of Music at 
the German University at Prague. Adler on 
that occasion wrote a monograph on the Faux- 
bourdon (q.v.), and the treatise of Guilelmus 
Monachus, in which he clearly shows that 
counterpoint and harmony were of independ- 
ent origin, and developed themselves collater- 
ally. In 1892 he was elected president of the 
Central Committee of the International Ex- 
hibition for " Musiku. Theater." — (3) Vincent, 
composer and pianist, b. 1828, d. Jan. 4, 1871, ^ 

Adlgasser, Anton Cajetan, b. April 3, 1728, 
Innzell, near Traunstein (Bavaria), pupil of 
Eberlin at Salzburg, d. there Dec. 21, 1777, 
where from 175 1 he was principal organist of 
the cathedral. His church compositions were 
highly valued, and were even performed at 
Salzburg after his death. 

Adlung (Adelung), Jakob, b. Jan. 14, 1699, 
Bindersleben, near Erfurt, d. July 5, 1762; 
studied philology and theology at Erfurt and 

Adlung 1 

Jena, but at the same time pursued his musical 
studies with such earnestness that in 1727 he 
was able to be appointed town organist, and in 
1741 professor at the Gymnasium at Erfurt, 
besides which he was active as a private teacher 
of music. A. wrote three works of importance 
for the history of music — " Anleitung zur musi- 
kalischen Gelahrtheit " (1758, 2nd ed. 1783, re- 
vised by Toh. Ad. Hiller) ; " Musica mechanica 
organoedi" (1768), cind " Musikalisches Sieben- 
gestim" (1768, both published by L. Albrecht). 
Adolfati, Andrea, b. 1711, Venice, d. about 
1760, pupil of Galuppi ; he was maestro di 
capella at Venice (St. Maria della Salute), and 
somewhere about 1750 at Genoa (dell' Annun- 
ziazione). A. produced six operas, and wrote, 
besides, a great quantity of church music. 
Adomamento (Ital.), an ornament. 
Adrastos, Peripatetic philosopher, about 330 
B.C., pupil of Aristotle; he wrote a work on 
music {" 'ApiioriKuv 0lp\ia rpla ") of which, how- 
ever, only extracts have been preserved in the 
" Harmonica " of Manuel Bryennius. 

Adriansen (Hadrianius), Emanuel, b. Ant- 
werp ; a distinguished performer on the lute in 
the i6th century. He published in 1592 ' ' Pratum 
musicum," etc., a collection of compositions by 
Cyprian di Rore, Orlando di Lasso, Jachet van 
Berchem, Hubert Waelrant, and others, freely 
transcribed for the lute in tabulature (preludes, 
fantasias, madrigals, motets, canzonets, and 
dance pieces). 

Adrien (really Andrien), Martin Joseph, 
called La Neuville, also A. I'aine, b. May 26, 
1767, Liege ; bass singer at the Paris Op^ra, 
1785-1804, afterwards chorus-master there. He 
died Nov. 19, 1822, as teacher of singing at the 
Scole royale de mtisique; he was the composer of 
the " Hymne k la Liberte " on the occasion of 
the departure of the Prussians (1792), and the 
" Hjrmne a la Victoire " (1795), and the one to 
the Martyrs to liberty. 
Adufe (Sp.), tambourine, timbrel. 
A duoi and a doi (Ital.). The same as a dm. 
Duoi and doi are obsolete spellings of due. 

Aegidius, (i) Aegidius Zamorensis 
Qohannes), Spanish Franciscan friar of Za- 
mora, about 1270 ; he was author of a treatise on 
the theory of music printed by Gerbert (" Scrip- 
tores," vol. iii,). — (2) Aegidius de Murino, 
theorist of the 15th century, whose treatise on 
measured music was printed by Coussemaker 
{" Scriptores," vol. iii.). 

.Solian Harp (Ger. Windharfe, Wetterharfe, 
Geisteyharfe) is a long narrow sound-box with 
or without sound-holes, on which a number 
(ad libitum) of catgut strings are stretched; 
these must vary in thickness, so that a different 
tension for each vnll be required to produce the 
same pitch, but none should be very tightly 
stretched. If the strings are exposed to a cur- 
rent of air, they begin to sound, and in conse- 


quence of difference of tension, would give 
various kinds of partial vibrations, yet naturally 
only produce tones which belong to the series 
of upper tones of the common fundamental 
tone. The sound is of fairy-like, enchanting 
effect, as, according to the strength of the air 
currents, the chords proceed from the most 
delicate pianissimo to a rushing forte, and then 
die away again. The M. H. is ancient. St. 
Dunstan (loth century), Athanasius Kircher 
(17th century), and Pape (1792) are named, the 
first as the inventor and the others as im- 
provers. Kircher, in his "Phonurgia" (i. 7), 
gives a detailed description of such an instru- 
ment. It has been materially improved within 
a recent period, especially by H. Chr. Koch. 

.Slolian Key. (See Church Modes and Greek 

Aeoline (Aeolodion, jEolodikon), Klavaeoline, 
are names for old keyed instruments similar to 
the present harmonium (free vibrating reeds , 
without tubes). According to Schafhantl, in 
his "Biography of Abt Vogler" (p. 36), the 
organ builder Kissnik at Petersburg was the 
first who constructed instruments of this kind, 
about 1280 (in imitation of the human voice). — 
As a name for organ stops, they indicate 
such as are of similar construction, i.e. free 
reeds vpithout any tubes, or very small ones, 
which give a very soft tone, and can be used 
specially in echo work (mostly with Venetian 
swell) . 

.Solomelodicon, or Choraleon, This instru- 
ment, invented by Professor Hoffmann, and in 
1825 constructed by the mechanician Brunner, 
of Warsaw, was a kind of small organ. Its 
tone was capable of modification as regards 
character as well as loudness. 

iEqual (Ger., from Lat.). This term signifies 
" of 8 feet pitch " (see Foot-tone), i.e.oi normal 
pitch ; it is used for organ stops, which on the 
key C give the sound C; for es.., JEqtuil-prin- 
cipal, i.e. Open-Diapason 8-ft. (QC Voces 


i£quisonus (Lat.), unison. 
. Aerophon. (y^ije Harmonium.) 

Aerts, (i) Egide, flautist, b. March i, 1822, 
Boom, near Antwerp ; entered the Brussels Con- 
servatoire at the age of twelve, and already in 
1837 made a sensation as a flautist at Paris ; 
became teacher of the flute at the Brussels 
Conservatoire in 1847, but died on June 
9, 1853, of consumption. His compositions 
(symphonies, flute concertos, etc.) are not 
printed.— (2) Felix, b. May 4, 1827, St.-Trond, 
d. Dec, 1888, Nivelles; was a pupil at the 
Brussels Conservatoire (C. Hanssen), worked 
first for some time as violinist at Brussels, 
then as conductor at Tournay ; lived for some 
years in Paris, and from i860 was music 
teacher at Nivelles. A. published two essays 
on Gregorian song (plain chant), a book ot 


school songs, litanies, an elementary instruc- 
tion book, also a series of fantasias for or- 
chestra, violin variations, etc. 
Aesthetics. (See Esthetics.) 
Aeusserst (Ger.), extremely ; as dussersi rasch, 
extremely quick. 

Aevia, or iEvia, aeuia, is the oldest mode of 
noting the abbreviations of the word AUeluja 
(with omission of consonants) in liturgical song. 
Affabile (Ital.), in a pleasing, kindly manner. 
Affanato (Ital.), in a distressed, soirowful 
AKanosamente (Ital.), anxiously, restlessly. 
Affanoso (Ital.), anxious, restless. 
Afietto (Ital.), with emotioii; eon a., affettmso, 
With tender feeling, with much expression (and 
free rendering). 

Affettuosamente, Affettuoso (Ital.), with pas- 
sionate and tender feeling. 

Aifilar (or filar) 11 tuono (Ital.), to sustain 
steadily a sound, similar to metier la wee, messa 
di voee (q.v.), though in the latter term a 
Crescendo and Diminnendo are generally under- 
stood. ' 

Affilard, M i c h e 1 d' , tenor singer in the chapel 
of Louis XIV. from 1683 to 1708. He pub- 
Ushed a method for sight-singing ("Principes 
tres faciles," etc., 1691, 1705, 1710, and 1717). 
AfiBito (Ital.), cast down, sorrowful. 
Affrettando (Ital.), hurrying, like stringendo. 
Affrettato, in a hurrying manner, VikefvU mosso. 

A 1? . A lowered by a flat ; A -flat major chord 
^ a flat, c, e flat ; A-flat minor chord ^z: a flat, 
cflat, eflat; A-flat major key, with signature of 
4 flats, A-flat minor key, with 7 flats. . {See 

Afranio, degli Albonesi at Ferrara, b. end 
of the 15th century at Pavia; he was the in- 
ventor of the bassoon (q. v.) . 

Afzelius, Arvid August, b. May 6, 1785, 
d. Sept. 25, 1871 ; pastor at Enkoping (Sweden). 
He pubUshed two collections of Swedish folk 
melodies : " Svenska folkvisor " (1814-1816, three 
vols.), and " Afsked of svenska folksharpau" 

Agazzari, Agostino, b. Dec. 2, 1578, Siena, 
d. there April 10, 1640 ; was first a musician in 
the service of the Emperor Matthias, then for a 
time maestro di capella at the German College, 
the church of St. Apollinaris, and afterwards 
at the Seminario Romano, where he became ac- 
quainted with Viadana, and adopted his inno- 
vations. In 1630 he became maestro of Siena 
cathedral. In his time he was held in high 
esteem as a composer; his works (madrigals, 
motets, psalms, and other sacred compositions, 
many of them a 8) were reprinted in Germany 
and Holland. A. was one of the first to give 
instructions as to the execution of figured basses 

A goge 

(in the preface to the third book of his motets, 

AgelaoB, of Tegea, was the first victor in the 
musical contest in the Pythian games (559 B.C., 
8th Pythiad). He is said to have been the 
first virtuoso on the cithara without song. {See 


Agende (Ger., from Lat. agenda, "things 
which have to be done ") are the prescriptions 
for the order and special arrangement of divine 
service, particularly in the Reformed Church ; 
in the Catholic Church this is fixed by the 

Agevole, or con agevolezza (Ital.), lightly, 
with ease. 

Agility (Ital.), nimbleness. 

Agilmente (Ital.), nimbly. 

Agitato (Ital.), agitated, restless. 

Agnelli, Salvatore, b. 1817, Palermo, 
trained at Naples Conservatorio by Furno, 
ZingarelB, and Donizetti; he first wrote a 
series of operas for Italian theatres (Naples 
and Palermo). In 1846, however, he went to 
Marseilles, where he still lives, and produced 
the operas La Jacquerie (1849), Lionon it 
Medicis (1855), and Les deux Avares (i860), also 
several ballets. He wrote, besides, a Miserere, 
Stabat Mater, a cantata (Apotheosis of Napo- 
leon I., performed by three orchestras in the 
Jardin des Tuileries, 1856) ; and he has in 
manuscript three operas (Cromwell, Stefania, and 

Agnesi (i), Maria Theresia d', an excel- 
lent pianist, b. 1724, Milan, d. about 1780. 
She composed many works for the pianoforte, ? 
and four operas (Sofonisbe, Ciro in Armenia, 
Nitocri, and Insmria consolata). — (2) Louis 
Ferdinand Leopold Agniez, namSd Luigi 
A., b. July 17, 1833, Erpent (Namur), d. Feb. 2, 
1875, London, He was an excellent bass singer, 
studied at the Brussels Conservatoire, was for a 
time maestro at the church of Ste. Catherine, 
and conductor of several societies at Brussels. 
The small success of his opera, Harmold li 
Normand (1858), however, induced him to de- 
vote himself to singing. He studied afresh under 
Duprez at Paris, and then fulfilled various en- 
gagements, and made concert tours ; during his 
last years he was famed in London as a 
Handelian singer. He composed songs, motets, 
Agniez. (see Agnesi 2.) 
Agnus Dei (Lat., " Lamb of God "). (See 

AgobarduB, Archbishop of Lyons, d. 840, 
Saintonge. He was the author of three musical 
treatises: "De divina psalmodia," "Deecclesiae 
officiis," and " De correctione Autiphonarii " 
(printed in " Bibl. Patr.," XIV.). 

Agoge is the Greek term for tempo (Rhythm- 
ical A.) (See Agogics.) 




Agogics, This term relates to the small 
mocUfications of tempo (also called tempo mhato), 
which are necessary to genuine expression. The 
editor of this dictionary made a first attempt 
in his " Musikalische Dynamik und Agogik" 
(1884) to establish a systematic theory of ex- 
pressive performance. The science of Agogics, 
speaking generally, works on parallel lines with 
dynamics, i.e. a slight motion is associated with 
crescendo. Notes which form centres of gravity 
are dwelt upon, and feminine endings return 
gradually to the normal value (diminuendo). 
This holds specially good within narrow limits, 
whereas within wider ones the agogie restraint, 
the powerful repression of the shock must pro- 
duce a more intense effect. (Cf. Dynamics, 
Science of, and "Expression.") 

Agoglc Accent is the name given by H. 
Riemann, in his phrasing-editions, to the slight 
prolongation of the note-value indicated by 
-'^, in rhythms, which are in conflict with 
the species of time, and which clearly preserves 
the centre of gravity of the bar motive ; more 
especially, in suspensions, whereby the harmonic 
vsJue is rendered clearer. 

Agon (Gr.), contest ; the musical A. formed 
an essential part of the festival games of ancient 
Greeks, especially of the Pythian. 

Agostini (i), Ludovico, b. 1534, Ferrara, d. 
there Sept. 20, 1590, as maestro di capella to 
Alfonso II., of Este, and at the cathedral. He 
wrote madrigals, masses, motets, vespers, etc., 
which were printed partly at Venice (Gardano), 
and partly at Ancona (Landrini). — (2) Paolo, 
b. 1593, Vallerano, pupU and son-m-law of 
Bern. Nanini, d. 1629 as maestro at the Vatican. 
He was a distinguished contrapuntist, and 
wrote a great number of sacred compositions (up 
to 48 parts), which have been in some measure 
preserved in Roman libraries. Two books of 
psalms {1619), two books of Magnificats and 
Antiphones (1620) , and five books of masses , were 
printed. — (3) Pietro Simone, b. 1650, Rome, 
was ducal maestro at Parma ; an opera of his 
{II ratto delle Sabine) was produced at Venice. 

Agrell, Johann, b. Feb. i, 1701, Loeth (East 
Gothland), d. Jan. 19, 1769, Nuremberg. From 
1723 to 1746 he was " Hofmusikus " (violinist) 
at Gassel, where he also made a name as a 
performer on the harpsichord ; from 1746 he 
was capellmeister at Nuremberg. A series of 
his excellent compositions (symphonies, con- 
certos, sonatas, etc.) were engraved at Nurem- 
berg, while many others have come down to us 
in manuscript. 
Agrements (Fr.), ornaments. 
Agricola, (i) Alexander, one of the most 
celebrated composers of the 15th century, who, 
according to the most recent investigations 
(Van der Straeten), appears to have been a 
German ; he was for a long time, up to June 10, 
1474, singer in the Ducal chapel at Milan, went 
then to Lower Italy with his family, served (1500) 

at Brussels as chaplain, and as chapel singer 
at the Court of Philip I., the Fair, whom he 
followed to Spain (1505), where he probably 
died 1506, at the age of 60 (in that case b. 1446). 
He was highly esteemed as a composer, so that 
Petrucci in his three oldest publications (from 
1501 to 1503) included 31 of his Songs and 
Motets, and (1504) printed a volume of his 
Masses (" Missse Alexandri Agricolae : LeServi- 
teur, Je ne demande, Malheur me bat, Primi toni, 
Secundi toni "). How well known A. was can be 
gathered from the fact that he was frequently 
only called "Alexander." — (2) Martin, b. 
i486, Sorau, d. June 10, 1556 ; one of the most 
important musical writers of the i6th century, 
together with Seb. Virdung, one of the chief 
authorities for the history of instruments of his 
time, a musical automath. From 1510 he was 
private music teacher at Magdeburg, appointed 
in 1524 cantor of the Lutheran school ; he lived 
in somewhat needy circumstances. His most im- 
portant works are : " Musica figuralis deudsch," 
" Von den Proportionibus " (both without name of 
year, but reprinted together 1532) ; " Musica in- 
strumentalis deudsch" (1528; 1529, and 1532, the 
most important work) ; " Rudimenta musices " 
(1539, 2nd ed. 1543, under the title " Quaes- 
tiones vulgariores in Musicam ") ; "Duolibri 
musices" (1561, "Rudimenta" and " De pro- 
portionibus" together); "Scholia in musicam 
planam Wenceslai de"Nova Domo " (1540). He 
also published some collections of pieces (" Ein 
kurz deudsch Musica," 1528 ; " Musica choraUs 
deudsch," 1533; "Deudsche Musica und Ge- 
sangbiichlein," 1540; "Ein Sangbiichlein aller 
Sonntags-Evangelien," 1541), and published 
Virdung's "Musica getutscht" in verse, with 
the original illustrations. A., departing from 
the custom of his time, made use of men- 
sural notation instead of the German tablature 
in the "Musica instrumentalis." — (3) Johann, 
b. about 1570, Nuremberg, professor at the 
Augustine' Gymnasium, Erfurt, published, 1601- 
II, a number of sacred compositions (Motets, 
Cantiones, etc.).— (4) Wolfgang Christoph, 
published, va. 1651, at Wurzburg and Cologne : 
" Fasciculus musicalis " (eight Masses), and 
" Fasciculus variarumcantionum" (Motets).— (5) 
George Ludwig, b. Oct. 25, 1643, Grossfurra, 
near Sondershausen, 1670 capellmeister at 
Gotha, d. there Feb. 20, 1676 ; published at Miihl- 
hausen several collections of sonatas, preludes, 
and dance movements for stringed instruments, 
also some Penitential songs and madrigals. — 
(6) Joh. Friedrich, b. Jan. 4, 1720, Dobitschen, 
near Altenburg, d., according to Forkel's state- 
ment, Nov. 12, 1774, but according to L. 
Schneider, Dec. i, 1774, Berlin ; studied law at 
Leipzig, became pupil of J. S.Bach, and later 
(1741) of Quanz at Berlin; 1751 court com- 
poser, and in 1759 Graun's successor as director 
at the royal chapel. He wrote eight operas, 
(produced from 1750-72 at Potsdam and BerUn, 
and church compositions, which, however, have 


remained unpublished. As a writer on miisic 
he produced polemical pamphlets against Mar- 
purg (under the pseudonym Olibrio) also a 
translation of Tosi's " School of Singing," and 
contributed to Adelung's " Musica mechanica 
organoedi." His wife, Emilia, we Molteni 
(b. 1722, Modena, d. 1780, Berlin), was a distin- 
tinguished singer, and for a long time member 
of the Italian Opera at Berlin. 

Agthe (i), Karl Christian, b. 1762, Hetts- 
stadt (Mansfeld), d. Nov. 27, 1797, as Court 
organist to the Prince v. Bernburg, at Ballen- 
stedt ; wrote five operas, a ballet, and some 
small vocal works. — (2) Wilhelm Joseph 
Albrecht, son of the former, b. 1790, Ballen- 
stedt ; 1810 music teacher and member of the 
Gewandhaus orchestra at Leipzig, 1823 music 
teacher at Dresden, 1826 at Posen (where 
Theodbr Kullak was his pupil). He was 
frightened away by the political disturbances of 
1830, and went to Breslau, and in 1832 to 
Berlin, where up to 1845 he was director of a. 
new musical institution. A. published a number 
of pianoforte compositions of genuine merit. — 
(3) Friedrich Wilhelm, b. 1794, Sangers- 
hausen, pupil of Miiller and Riemann at 
Weimar, and of WeinHg at Dresden, 1822-28, 
cantor at the " Kreuzschule," d., after 1828, 
disordered in intellect, at Sonnenstein, near 

Aguado, Dionisio, celebrated guitar player, 
b. April 8, 1784, Madrid, d. Dec. 20, 1849 ; he 
published in 1825 a " Method of playing the 
jGuitfir," which passed through three Spanish 
and one French edition (1827) ; also Hudes, 
rondos, etc., for his instrument. 

Aguilera de Heredia, Sebastian, monk and 
maestro di capella at Saragossa at the begin- 
ning of the 17th century; published (1618) a 
collection of Magnificats, which are still sung 
at Saragossa. . 

Agujilri, Lucrezia, phenomenal singer, b. 
1743, Ferrara, d. May 18, 1783, knowh as La 
Bastarddla (she was the natural daughter of a 
man of high rank, who had her trained by the 
Abbe Lambertini). She threw into ecstasy, not 
only Italy (Florence, Milan, etc.), but also London 
(1775). In 1780 she retired from the stage, and 
married at Parma the maestro di capella CoUa, 
whose compositions she preferred to all others. 
The range of her voice upwards was incredibly 
high ; she could shake on/', and take the c*. 

Able, (i) J oh. Rudolph, b. Dec. 24, 1625, 
MuMhausen in Thuringia, d. there, July 8, 
1673; cantor of St. Andreas' church, Gottin- 
gen; in 1654 organist of St. Blasius" church, 
MiihlhauseU ; in 1656 member of the council, 
and in 1661 even burgomaster of that town. His 
principal works are: the " Geistliche Dialoge " 
(songs in several parts, 1648); " Thiiringischer 
Lustgarten" (1657); also the posthumous "Geist- 
liche Fest und Kommunionandafihten ; " he also 
wrote two theoretical works : " Compendium pro 

i Aigner 

tonellis " (1648 ; 2nd ed. 1673, " Brevis et per- 
spicua introductio in artem musicam," 3rd and 
4th eds., i6go and 1704, under title " Kurzedooh 
deutliche Anleitung, etc.), and " De progression- 
ibus consonantium." — (2) J oh. Georg, son and 
pupil of the former, b. 1650, d, Dec. 2, 1706, Miihl- 
hausen ; was his father's successor as organist, 
and was promoted later to the town council. 
He received from the Emperor Leopold I. the 
poet's wreath (poeta laureatus). He was scarceljf?^ 
of less importance than his father, and wrote a 
number of sacred works which were highly 
prized, many of which, however, were destroyed 
by fire. " Musikalische Friihlings-, Sommer-, 
Herbst-, u. Wintergesprache " form a method 
of composition in four parts (1695-1701). Be- 
sides this are to be mentioned : " Instrumeutal- 
ische Friihlingsmusik " (1695-96), and "Anmu- 
tige zehn vierstimmige Viol-di-gamba-Spiele " 

Ablstrom, A. J. N., b. 1762, Sweden; organist 
at St. James's Church, Stockholm, and court 
accompanist ; published sonatas for pf . and for 
violin (1783 and 1786), and songs ; and he is 
said to have also composed operas. For two 
years he edited a musical paper, Musikalish 
Tidsfoerdrife, also published, jointly with Bo- 
man, a collection of Swedish folk-dances and 
folk-songs. He was still in o£5ce in 1827. 

Ahna. (faVi De Ahna.) 

Aibl, Joseph, celebrated music publishing 
firm at Munich (established 1824) ; the present 
proprietors are Ed. Spitzweg (since 1836), and 
his sons, Eugen and Otto. 

Aiblinger, Johann Kaspar, b. Feb. 23, 
1779, Wasserberg on Inn, d. May 6, 1867, 
Munich; studied music at Munich, and in 
1802 near S. Mayr, Bergamo, lived from 1803- 
II at Vicenza, and in 1819 at Milan as second 
maestro to the vice-king; he then went to Venice, 
where he founded the " Od^on " union, and 
was appointed_ in 1825 second capellmeister at 
Munich, and in 1833 was again in BergamoJ 
His church compositions were very famous 
(masses, litanies, requiems, psalms; ofifertoires). 
He was less successful with his stage works : the 
opera Rodrigo e Ximene (Munich), and three 
ballets. La Spada di Kmnet (Venice, 1819), 
Bianca, and J. Titani (both at Milan, 1819). 

Aiohlnger, Gregor, b. about 1565 (Augs- 
burg ?) ; organist to the Baron Jacob Fugger at 
Augsburg. He wrote a great number of sacred 
works : three books, " Sacrs cantiones " (1590 
at Augsburg' and Venice, 1595 at Venice, and 
1597 at Nuremberg), " Tricinia," " Divinae 
laudes," " Ghirlanda di canzonette spiritale," 
etc. He died at Augsburg, Jan. 21, 1628, aa^ 
vicar choral and canon of the cathedral there; i 

Aigner, Engelbert, b. Feb. 23, 1798, Vienna, 
d. about 1852 ; was for some time ballet director 
at the Vienna court opera (1835-37) '• in 1839 he 
built a large machine factory, but gave it up in 
1842 and lived in retirement at Vienna. Many of 




his comic operas and vaudevilles were produced 
at Vienna at the " Karntnerthor " Theatre (1826- 
29) ; he also wrote masses, a requiem, choruses 
for male voices, a quintet with flute, etc. 

Aimo. (Vide Haym 2). 

Air, song, melody. Lied (Ger.) ; also instru- 
mental melodies, dances (gavotte, musette, etc.), 
formerly were regularly called airs. (See Aria.) 

Aireton, EcTward, celebrated English in- 
strument maker at London during the second 
half of the i8th century, d. 1807, aged 80 ; he 
successfully imitated the violins and 'cellos of 

Ajahli Eeman, a Turkish stringed instrument 
with a foot, somewhat smaller than the 'cello. 

Ajolla. (ViiU Layolle.) 

Akeroyde, Samuel, popular and prolific 
English composer of songs at the end of the 
17th century. His compositions are to be 
found in numerous English collections of that 
time, in "D'Urfey's Third Collection of Songs" 
(1685), in "The Theatre of Music" (1685-7), 
" Comes amoris " (1687-92), "Thesaurus musi- 
cus" (1693-96), etc. 

Al (Ital.)=a il ("up to") for ex., crescendo 
al forte. 

Ala, Giovanni Battista, organist at the 
church dei servitori in Monza at the beginning 
of the 17th century ; he published canzonets 
and madrigals (1617, 1625); " Concerti ecclesi- 
astici " (1616-28, four books) ; also the " Pratum 
Musicum " (1634) contains some of his motets. 
He is said to have died at the early age of 32, 
and according to Gerbert in 1612 (?). 

Alard (i), Delphin, violinist, b. May 8, 
1815, Bayonne, d. Feb. 22, 1888, Paris; pupil 
at the Paris Conservatoire (Habeneck), and 
professor of the violin there (1843-75) as suc- 
cessor to Baillot ; he was one of the most 
famous of French violinists, and an excellent 
teacher (Sarasate was his pupil) ; his playing 
was free and easy, and full of verve. A. pub- 
lished a great number of compositions for the 
violin (fantasias on operatic and original airs, 
concertos, etudes, duets for pf. and violin, etc.), 
as well as a highly meritorious "Violin School," 
which has been translated into Spanish, Italian, 
and German. — (2) C^sar, excellent 'cellist, b. 
May4,i837,Gosselies (Belgium); pupil of Servais. 

Alary, Giulio, b. 1814, Mantua, d. April 17, 
1891, Paris; pupil at the Milan Conservatorio ; 
was for some years flautist at La Scala, but went 
in 1833 to Paris as music teacher, and made a 
name as composer in the shallow style of the 
period, but produced also nine operas and the 
oratorio La Redemption (1850). 

Alayrac. {See Dalayrac.) 

Albaneae, b. 1729, Albano, Apulia, d. 1800, 
Paris ; principal singer (eviraio) in the Concerts 
spiriiuels from 1752-62 ; was in his time much 
in vogue as a composer of romances. 

Albaui, Matthias, name of two celebrated 
violin msikers (father and son). The elder, b. 
1621, Botzen, pupil of Steiner, d. 1673, Botzen. 
The son worked for several years with the 
master violin makers at Cremona, and then 
settled down in Rome. The instruments which 
he made between 1702-9 are very celebrated, 
and considered almost equal to those of Amati. 

Albani, Marie Louise Cecilia Emma 
Lajeunesse (stage name, A.), famous dramatic 
soprano singer, b. 1850, Chambly, near Montreal, 
first sang in public at the cathedral of Albany 
(State of New York). She then studied at Paris 
under Duprez, afterwards under Lamperti, and 
made her debut at Messina in Sonnambula 
(1870). She then sang for a time at La Pergola 
(Florence), and at the Italian Opera (Co vent 
Garden) for the first time in 1872. She visited 
Paris, Petersburg, America, etc., everywhere 
becoming a centre of attraction. In 1878 she 
married Ernest Gye, lessee of Covent Garden 
Theatre. Madame Albani is also an excellent 
oratorio singer, appears at the principal musical 
festivals and concerts, and is, in addition, a 
good pianist. 

Albeuiz, (i) Don Pedro, Spanish monk, b. 
1755, Biscay, d. 1821, San Sebastian; was 
maestro of San Sebastian Cathedral, where he 
published in 1800 a Method of Music highly 
prized in Spain. A very large number of 
masses, motets, villancicos, etc., testify to his 
diligence as a composer ; they brought him, any- 
how, fame in his own country.— -(2^ An early 
master of modern pianoforte playing m Spain, b. 
April 14, 1795, Logrofio (Old Castile), d. April 12, 
1855, Madrid ; pupil of H. Herz, for some years 
organist at San Sebastian, 1830 pianoforte pro- 
fessor at the newly-established Royal Conser- 
vatorio at Madrid, 1834 court organist, and 
loaded with honours of all kinds. A large 
number of pf. compositions (variations, rondos, 
fantasies, etudes, etc.) appeared in print, also a 
pianoforte Method, introduced into the Madrid 

Albergatl, Pirro Capacelli, Conte d', was 
a highly-esteemed composer at the end of the 
17th and the beginning of the i8th century (2 
operas, 15 oratorios, masses, motets, cantatas, 
psalms, also sonatas for 2 violins with continuo, 
dance pieces, etc.). 

Albert, Prinz von Sachsen-Koburg- 
Gotha, b. Aug. 26, i8ig, from 1840 Prince Con- 
sort of the Queen of England, d. Dec. 14, 1861 ; 
he was a zealous cultivator and patron of music, 
and himself composed many vocal works, 
masses, an operetta, Les Petits du Premier (Paris, 
1864), an opera, ^ean le Pol (Bagnieres de 
Bigone, 1865), songs, etc. 

Albert, (i) Heinrich, b. July 8 (old style, 
June 28), 1604, Lobenstein, Voigtland, d. Oct. 
6, 1651, Konigsberg. He attended the Gym- 
nasium at Gera, and went in 1622 to his uncle, 
Heinrich Schiitz (q.v.) in Dresden, but at the 




wish of his parents was compelled to break ofif 
the musical studies which he had commenced 
with Schiitz, and to study law at Leipzig. In 
1626 he went to Konigsberg i. Pr., started with 
an embassy to Warsaw, but on the road was 
taken prisoner by the Swedes, and only re- 
turned in i6z8, after enduring many hardships. 
In 1632 he was appointed organist at the cathe- 
dral, and resumed his musical studies under 
Stobaus. A. was not only an excellent mu- 
sician, but also a poet, and wrote the words to the 
greater number of his songs (others are written 
by Simon Dach, his contemporary and friend). 
Chorales, of which he wrote both music and 
words, are still sung in Prussia. His most 
important works are : 8 sets of Arias (1638- 
1650J, of which the first seven were frequently 
reprinted, and the " Kiirbshiitte" (1645), collec- 
tions of songs, Lieder and chorales, partly for 
one, partly for several voices. — (2) Max, b. Jan. 
7, 1833, Munich; performer on the zither, and 
an improver of this instrument ; he died Sept. 4, 
18S2, Berlin. — (3) Eugene Francis Charles 
d', distinguished pianist and gifted composer, 
b. April 10, 1864, Glasgow, son of the musician 
and dancing master, Charles d'A. (b. Feb. 25, 
1809, Nienstteten, near Altona, d. May 26, i856, 
London). He was elected Newcastle Scholar 
at the National Training School (E. Pauer, Dr. 
Stainer, E. Prout, and Sullivan). In 1881, as 
Mendelssohn Scholar, he went to study on the 
Continent, under Richter at Vienna and Liszt at 
Weimar. Already on Feb, 5, 1881, he played 
Schumann's Concerto at the Crystal Palace 
(London), and in October of the same year a 
pianoforte concerto of his own at a Richter 
Concert. At the present time d'A. stands as a 
pianist of the first rank {Tuusig redivivus), and 
is held in esteem also as a composer (pianoforte 
concerto in B minor ; overtures, " Hyperion " 
and " Esther," symphony in f, pianoforte suite, 
quintet for strings in a minor, charming songs, 
etc.). For the last few years d'A. has resided 
in Germany. 

Albertazzi, Emma, nee Howson, celebrated 
contralto singer, b. May i, 1814, London, d. 
there Sept., 1847, made her debut in London in 
,1830, was afterwards engaged at Piacenza, 
Milan, Madrid, Paris, and London, and again 
in Italy, after her voice had begun to fail ; she 
sang finally once again in London. Her singing, 
for the rest, was lifeless and without passion. 

Alberti, (i) Joh. Friedrich, b. Jan. 11, 
1642, Tonning (Schleswig), d. June 14, 1710 ; 
studied first theology, then music under Werner 
Fabricius at Leipzig; he became cathedral 
organist at Merseburg, but in consequence of 
a stroke of apoplexy was compelled to resign 
the post in 1698. He was held in high esteem 
as a learned contrapuntist and a composer of 
sacred music. — (2) Giuseppe Matteo, b. 
1685, Bologna, a celebrated violinist and instru- 
mental composer (concertos, symphonies, etc.). 

—(3) Domenico, b. at the beginning of the 
i8th century at Venice, was an enthusiastic; 1 
lover of music, and first appeared as an amateur 
singer, later also as a pianist, and finally as a 
composer (sonatas, etc., also three operas), he was 
admired by his circle of friends. [Cf. Albert! 
Bass.)— (4) Karl Edmund Robert, b. July 
12, 1801, Danzig, d. in 1874 ** Berlin ; studied 
theology and philosophy at Bgrlin, but at the 
same time was a diligent student of music under 
Zelter. As pastor at Danzig he founded a musico- 
dramatic union of amateurs, and when in 1854 hb 
became member of the school board at Stettin, 
was still zealously active in the cause of music. 
He composed only a few books of songs, but, on 
the other hand, was active as a writer on 
music : "Die Musik in Kirche und Staat" (1843); 
" Andeutungen zur Geschichte der Oper " (1845); 
" Richard Wagner," etc. (1856) ; " Raphael und 
Mozart" (1856) ; " Beethoven als dramatischer 
Tondichter" (1859). From 1866 he Uved in 
private at Berlin, and contributed various in- 
teresting articles to the Neue Berliner Musik- 

Alberti Bass, a bass consisting of chords 
broken in a similar manner, as accompaniment 
to a melody played with the right hand, a form 
much in vogue at the present day in easy piano- 
forte music (e.g. Mozart's Sonata in f). 

It derives its name from Domenico Alberfi, 
who first made extensive use of it. 

Albertini, (i)Giovacchino, b. 1751, d. April, 
181 1, Warsaw, royal Polish capellmeister about 
the year 1784 ; in his time a favourite composer 
of Italian operas : his Circe ed Ulisse was per- 
formed at Hamburg (1785) with great success; 
also Virginia in 1786 at Rome. — (2) Michael, 
called Momolctto, celebrated evirato a.t Cassel at 
the beginning of the i8th century, where also 
his sister Giovanna, called Romanina, dis- 
tinguished herself as principal singer. 

Albicastro, Henrico (really Weissen- 
b u r g). He was a Swiss by birth, and took part in 
the war respecting the Spanish Succession (1701- 
14). He published a series of chamber-music 
works (sonatas for violin, partly a tre, i.e. with 
'cello and bass, partly a due with only continm). 

Albinoni, To mm as o, prolific Italian opera 
composer, b. 1674, Venice, d. there, 1745 ; wrote 
49 operas mostly for Venice, but also a number 
of valuable instrumental works (sonatas, a trt 
and a due, da camera e da chiesa symphonies, con- 
certos, etc.). J. S. Bach, who esteemed A.'s 
music very highly, wrote two fugues (in a 
major and f minor) on themes of A.'s. 

Alboni, Marietta, celebrated contralto 
singer, b. Mar. 10, 1823, Cesena(Romaguaf)j pupil 



of Bertolotti and Rossini at Bologna; made 
her debui in 1843 at Milan as Orsini in Doni- 
zetti's Lucnzia Borgia, threw London and 
Paris into a state of ecstasy in 1847, and in 1853 
made a triumphal tour through North and 
South America, and married Count Pepoli in 
1854. In 1863, though still in full possession 
of her noble, rich-toned voice, she retired from 
the stage, and only appeared once again in 
public (1869) in Rossini's small Messe solennelk. 

Albrecht, (i) J oh. Lorenz ("Magister A."), 
b. Jan. 8, 1732, Gormar, near Miihlhausen (Thur- 
ingia), d. 1773, Miihlhausen; studied philology 
at Leipzig, but devoted himself at the same time 
so ardently to music that, in 1758, he was ap- 
pointed both collegiate teacher and organist at the 
principal church at Miihlhausen. A. is best known 
as editor of J. Adlung's " Musica mechanica 
organoedi" and " Musikalisches Siebengestim," 
but he also wrote a series of original works: 
' ' Grihndliche Einleitung in die Anfangslehren der 
Tonkunst" (1761) ; "Abhandlung iiber die Frage : 
ob die Musik beim Gottesdienst zu dulden sei 
Oder nicht" (1764) ; besides some essays in Mar- 
purg's Kritisffu Beitrdge, etc. A. was arbitrator 
in the theoretical dispute between Marpurg and 
Sorge. He published also some compositions 
(cantatas, a Passion, and harpsichord lessons). — 
(z) Joh. Matthaus, b. May i, 1701, Oster- 
behringen, near Gotha ; organist at St. Catha- 
rine's Church, later at the " Barfiisser" Church 
at Frankfort, where he died in 1769. His highly 
praised clavier concertos have not been pub- 
lished. — (3) Eugen Maria, b. June 16, 1842, 
Petersburg, where his father, Karl A. (native 
of Breslau) weis for twelve years capellmeister 
at the Imperial Russian Opera ; 1857-60 pupil of 
David at the Leipzig Conservatorium, 1860-77 
leader of the orchestra at tl;e Petersburg Italian 
Opera, from 1867-72 director of the instruction 
in music and singing at the military schools, 
and since 1877 musical inspector of the Im- 
perial Theatres at Petersburg; founder and 
president of the union established in 1872 for 
chamber music; violin teacher to several of 
the Imperial princes, etc. A. is an excellent 
violinist, and a musician of great merit. 

Albrechtsberger, Joh. Georg, b. Feb. 3, 
1736, Klostemeuburg, near Vienna, d. March 7, 
i8og. He was a distinguished theorist and 
composer, and the teacher of Beethoven. After 
he had held several appointments in small 
towns he became Regens chori to the Carmelites 
at Vienna, court organist in 1772, and in 1792 
capellmeister at St. Stephen's. Only a small 
portion of his compositions appeared in print 
(organ preludes, pianoforte fugues, quartets, 
quintets, sextets, and octets for strings, a piano- 
forte quartet, and a Concerto Uger for pf., 2 
violins, and bass). The following remain in 
manuscript: 26 masses, 6 oratorios, 4 grand 
symphonies, 42 stringed quartets, 38 quintets, 
28 stringed trios, many hymns, offertories. 

graduals, etc. His theoretical works af&, how- 
ever, of the most importance: "Griindliche 
Anweisung zur Kompositiqn " (1790 and 1818; 
French, 1814) ; " Kurzgefasste Methode den 
GeneraJbass zu erlernen" (1792); "Klavier- 
schule fur Anfanger" (1808), and some smaller 
treatises. A complete edition of his theoretical 
works wEis brought out by J. v. Seyfried. 

Albrici, Vincenzo, b. June 26, 1631, Rome; 
about 1660 capellmeister to Queen Christina 
of Sweden at Stralsund, 1664 electoral capell- 
meister at Dresden, i68o' organist at St. 
Thomas's Church, Leipzig; he died in i6g6, 
as director of church music at Prague. His 
once highly prized works were bought for the 
Dresden library, but destroyed during the 
bombardment of 1760. Only a few works were 
preserved (a Te Deum a 10, the 150th psalm, 
etc.), but not printed. 

Albumblatt (Ger.), album leaf; a title often 
given to short instrumental pieces. 

Alcarrotti, Giov. Francesco, published t 
books of madrigals k 5-6 (1567 and 1569). 

Alcock, John, b. Apr. 11, 1715, London; 
pupil of the blind organist Stanley. Already in 
1731 he was organist of two London churches ; ^ 
went later to Plymouth, Reading, and finally to 
Lichfield as organist of the cathedral, where 
he died March, i8o5. In 1761 he took his 
doctor's degree at Oxford. A. published many 
anthems, glees, psalms, hymns, etc. ; also piano- 
forte lessons, songs, etc. He also wrote a novel: 
' ' The Life of Miss Fanny Brown." His son, of the 
same name, published several anthems (1773-76). 
Alday, French musical family at Perpignan. 
The father, b. 1737, a performer on the mando- 
line, taught his sons, of whom the eldest, b. 1763, 
Paris, first appeared at the Concerts spirituels as 
mandoline player, afterwards as violinist ; he pub- 
lished a Violin Method. The younger, b. 1764, 
a pupil of Viotti, went later to England, settled 
in Edinburgh as a teacher of music, and pub- 
lished a large number of pleasing compositions 
for the violin. 

Aldovrandini, Giuseppe Antonio Vin- 
cenzo, b. about 1665, Bologna, member of the 
Philharmonic Academy, president of the same 
in 1J02 {Principe dei filarmonici). Hewrote(i696- 
1711) fifteen operas, six oratorios, and some 
other sacred and instrumental works. 

Aldrich, Henry, b. 1647, London, d. Jan. 19, 
1710, Oxford ; was a student at Christ Church, 
studied theology, and finally became dean. A. 
was not only a learned theologian and historian, 
but also an architect and musician. Apart from 
his other learned works he wrote: "On the 
Commencement of Greek Music," "Theory of 
Organ-Building," " Theory of Modern Instru- 
ments," etc. His compositions are to be found 
in various collections (Boyce, Arnold, Page) ; 
others have been preserved in manuscript in 
Oxford churches. 




^Alembert, Jean le Rond d', the famous 
mathematician, who gave a scientific account 
of Rameau's musical system ; b. Nov. i6, 1717, 
Paris, d. there, Oct. 29, 1783. His works re- 
lating to music are : ■■ Elements de musique th^- 
orique et pratique, suivant les prmcipes de M. 
Rameau " (1752, passed through many editions ; 
German by Marpurg, I757)- Besides this (m 
the MSmoires of the Berlin Academy)," Unter- 
suchuiigen iiber die Kurve einer schwmgenden 
Saite ■■ (1747 and 1750) ; " Ueberdie Sohwingun- 
gen tonender Korper " (1761, etc.) ; and " Ueber 
die Fortpflanzungs-geschwindigkeit des Tons, 

Aleasandri, Felice, b. 1742, Rome, trained 
at Naples; he was at first maestro at Turin, 
then led a stirring life in Paris, London, 
Petersburg, and in various Italian cities. From 
1789 to 1792 he was second conductor at the 
Berlin Opera, but was driven out of this post by 
intrigues, and died at Berlin in 181 1. His 
25 operas had everywhere only an ephemeral 
success ; also his character does not appear to 
have been free from blame. 

Alessandro Romano, named della Viola, was 
singer in the Pope's Chapel about 1560, after- 
wards Olivetan monk. He wrote motets, 
madrigals, etc., and, according to F^tis, also 
instrumental compositions (for viola). Of his 
works have been preserved only two books of 
" CanzoniallaNeapolitana" (1572 and 1575), the 
second book of his Madrigals (1577), a book of 
Motets a 5 (1579), and detached pieces in the 
collection, "Delle muse libri. III., etc." (1553- 
Alexandre-Orgel. {See American Organ.) 
Alfaxabi, more correctly. El Farahi (Alphara- 
bius), also named, in abbreviated form, Farahi, 
after his birthplace, Farab, the present Otrar in 
the land beyond the Oxus. He was the famous 
Arabian musical theorist, b. about 900 a.d., and 
died somewhere about 950. His real name was 
Abu Nasyr Mohammed .Ben Tarchan. 
A. possessed a sound knowledge of the Greek 
writers on music, and attempted, though in 
vain, to introduce the Greek system of scales 
into his own country. Anyhow, the Arabians 
do not seem to have required schooling from 
the Greeks, (ff. Arabians and Persians.) 

Alfi ari Abbate Pietro, at one time Cama- 
dulian monk, was professor of singing at the 
English College, Rome, b. June 29, 1801, Rome, 
d. there June 12, 1863. He published many 
treatises on Plain Song (" Accompagnamento 
coll' organo, etc.," 1840); " Ristabilmente del 
Canto, etc." (1843) ; " Saggio storico," etc. 
(1855) ; and also a " Prodromo sulla restau- 
razione," etc. (1857); biographical 'fetches of 
Bern, Bittoni, Jomelli, and others, and the 
well-known "Raccolta di musica sacra," a first 
reprint of Palestrina's works in seven thick 
volumes, with a few sets of pieces by other 
masters (Genet, Goudimel, Festa, Morales in the 

last volume). This collection preceded any others 
of smaller extent (■■ Excerpta ex mus. 
viris" 1840; " Motets of Palestnna, Vittona, 
Anerio, etc.," 1841), etc. He also translated mto 
Italian Catel's "Traits d'harmonie " (1840). 

Algarotti, Francesco, b. Dec. 11, 1712, 
Venice, d. May 3, 1764, Pisa ; a man of wide 
culture and worldly wisdom ; he was drawn to 
Berlin by Frederick the Great in 1746, where he 
remained for nine years as chamberlain, and 
was raised to the dignity of Count. In 1749 he 
returned to Italy for the sake of his health ; a 
monument was erected to him in Pisa by 
Frederick the Great. A. wrote, among other 
things, " Saggio sopra I'opera in musica" (1755, 
many times republished, and translated into 
French and German). 

AUquotfliigel. {See Bi-iJTHNER.) 

Aliquot tones. {See Overtones.) 

A livre ouvert (Fr.), at sight, 

Alkan, Charles Henri Valentin [Mor- 
hange, called A.), b. Nov. 30, 1813, Pans, d. 
there March 29, 1888 ; was admitted to the Con- 
servatoire of Paris in his sixth year, received 
the first solfege prize after a year and a half's 
study, and, at the age of 10, the first pianoforte 
prize (pupil of Zimmermann). In 1831 he 
competed for the Prix de Rome, and obtained 
honourable mention. From that time he de- 
voted himself to composition and to teaching, 
appearing from time to time as pianist at the 
Conservatoire concerts and elsewhere. A. was 
highly esteemed in Paris, and published a 
number of excellent pianoforte works (Preludes, 
£tudes, Marches, a Concerto, a Sonata, etc.). — 
His brother. Napoleon Morhange A., b. 
Feb. 2, 1826, Paris, is a sound pianist, and has 
published detached pianoforte pieces, 

All', alia (Ital.), to the, at the, in the, in the 
style of. 

Allabreve-Time (named also alia cappella) is a 
}, or rather \ time, in which, not crotchets, 
but minims are beaten (counted) ; it is indicated 
by the sign ^.' The so-called gnat A., indi- 
cated by Hb (the old 4 formerly employed to 
give to the breve the value of 3 o with breve 
counts), or \ is likewise counted in minims, of 
which it contains four. (C/. Brevis.) 
Alia caccia (Ital.), in the hunting style. 
Alia camera (Ital.), in the style of chamber 

Alia cappella (Ital.), the same as a cap 
Alla^ci {Allatim)i Leo, b. 1586, Chios, of 
Greek parents, d. Rome, Jan. 19, 1669 ; vfent as 
a boy to Calabria, later to Rome, where^i after 
diligent study, he became teacher at the Greek 
College, and in 1661 " custode " of the Vatican 
Library. For the history of music, the ' ' Dram- 
maturgia " (1666) of this learned archaeologist i> 
an important work ; it is a catalogue of all dramas 
and operas produced in Italy up to his time. 

Alia dMtta 



.Alia diritta (Ital.), ascending or descending 
by degrees. ' 

Alia francese (Ital.), in the French style. 

Alia hanacca (Ital.), in the style of a hanclcca 

Alia marcia (Ital.), in the style of a march. 

Alia mente (Ital.), extempdraneous. (v. Con- 
trapuuto alia mente.) 

Alia militare (Ital.), in the military style. 

Alia modema (Ital.), in the modern style. 

AH' antico (Ital.), in the ancient style. 

Alia Faleatrina (Ital.), (i) in the noble, chaste 
church style of Palestnna. (2) For voices 
without instrumental accompaniment. 

Alia polacca (Ital.), like a polonaise. 

Alia qujnta (Ital.), at, or in, the fifth. 

AUargando (Ital.), becoming broader (slowerV 
specially used in place of ritardando (rallentandoj, 
where the tone is to be increased (agogic 

Alia scozzese (Ital.), in the Scotch style. 

Alia siciliana (Ital.), in the style of a Siciliano 

Alia stretta (Ital.), in the manner of a stntto 

Alia torca (Ital.), in the Turkish style. 

Alia zingara (Ital.), in the style bi gipsy 

Alia zoppa (Ital.), in a limping, lame manner. 

Allegramente (Ital.), Allegro (pwderato). 

Allegrettino (Ital.), (i) a short allegretto. (2) 
A movement not so fast as allegretto. 

Allegretto (Ital., abbr. All'"-: diminutive of 
Allegro), moderately lively, a time-indication of 
doubtful meaning ; there are Allegretti more like 
to Allegro {e.g. in Beethoven's Sonata, Op. 14, 
No. i), whilst others have altogether an Andante 
character (as in the A-major Symphony). 

Allegrezza (Ital.), joyfulness. — Con allegrezxa, 

Allegri, (i) Gregorio, b. at Rome, de- 
scended from the Coreggio family, a pupil of 
Giov. M. Nanini, from 1629 singer in the Papal 
chapel, d. Feb. 18, 1662. He was the composer 
of the famous "Miserere" for nine voices, 
which is sung during Holy Week in the Sistine 
Chapel, and which, formerly, was not allowed to 
be copied ; Mozart, however, once took down the 
notes during performance (since then it has 
been often published, among others by Bumey 
and Choroiy. Besides this'Mi'serere areknown 
of A. : two books of " Concert! " (k 2 to 4), and 
two books of Motetti (a 2i-6), wMle a_ great 
number of manuscripts are preserved in the 
Archives of Santa Maria in Vallicella, and in 
those of the Papal chapel.— (z) Domenico, 
one of the first composers who wrote a real 
instrumental accompaniment 'to vocal music 
(«.«. not in unison) ; he was maestro di cappella 

at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome from i6ic 
to 1629. Only a few of his works (Motetti) 
have been preserved. 

Allegro (Ital., abbr. A"'-), one of the oldest 
time indications, signifies in Italian, " lively," 
" gay," but in the course of time has acquired 
the meaning of "quick," so that it is now used 
in connections which, with regard to the Italian 
significance of the word, appear pleonastic, or 
even void of meaning, e.g. A. giojoso ("gay- 
lively "), A. irato ("gay-passionate"). The old 
word-meaning really no longer exists. By 
Adagio is generally understood a slow piece, and 
so too the word A. has the general meaning of 
a piece moving in quick time. Thus, for ex- 
ample, the first movement of a Symphony is 
called an A., even though the same may have 
the superscription vivace or con .fuoco. The 
superlative aUegrissimo is rare, but has a mean- 
ing somewhat similar to presto. 

Allegro di bravura (Ital.), a brilliant allegro, a 
quick movement full of executive difficulties. 

Allegro furioBO (Ital.), quick and impetuous. 

AUemande (French, " German Dance") one of 
the principal movements of the old French Suite 
(q.v!), a kind of Prelude with skilful workman- 
ship, of moderate, comfortable rate in \ time, 
with an up-beat of a quaver or semiquaver. It 
was accepted under the same name by German 
composers at the beginning of last century, 
and, with naive patriotism, specially cultivated. 
The A. in J time, as a real dance, is of later 
origin ; also a more lively dance in J time, 
common in Switzerland, is called A. 

Allen, Henry Robinson, highly esteemed 
English stage singer (bass), b. 1809, Cork, d. 
Nov. 27, 1876, Shepherd's Bush, pupil of the 
Royal Academy of Music. 

Allentando (Ital.). (See Rallentaiwo.) 

All' improvista (Ital.), extemporaneously. 

Alliteration (Ger. stabreim), the oldest form 
of rhyming in German poetry. It consisted 
either of an accordance of vowels on certain 
important syllables of a verse (assonance), or of 
consonants at the beginning of the syllables 
(man, fan ; dark, drear), and not, as now, of 

Ali o abbr. for Allegro; All*" for Allegretto. 

Almeida, Fernando d', b. about 1618, Lis- 
bon, d. Mar. 21, 1660, entered the order of 
Christ, in fact into the monastery at Thobar, 
and in 1656 became visitor of the order. A. 
was one of the best scholars of Duarte Lobe 
and highly esteemed by King John IV. A folio 
volume in manuscript (" LamentaySes respoii- 
sorios e misereres dos tres officios da IV., V. e 
VI. feria da semana santa ") is all that remains. 
of his works. , 

Almeniader, Karl, b. Oct. 3, 1786, Ronsdorf, 
near Dusseldorf, ,d. Sept. 14. 1843, Biebrichi 
from needy circumstances he raised himself by 


Altered Chords 

industry : he was self-taught, and became an 
excellent bassoon player ; in 1810, bassoon pro- 
fessor at the Cologne Music-school ; 1812, bas- 
soon player in the theatre orchestra at Frank- 
fort. During the second French campaign 
{1815) he was bandmaster in the 3rd Militia 
Regiment, 1816 in the 34th Regiment of the 
line at Mayence, where he settled permanently 
and gave up the military career. He held fre- 
quent intercourse there with Gottfried Weber. 
In iSzo he established a manufactory for wind 
instruments, but gave up the same in 1822, and 
entered into the Nassau Band at Biebrich, 
superintending, at the same time, the construc- 
tion of bassoons in the Schott manufactory of 
instruments at Mayence. A. materially im- 
proved the bassoon, and wrote a pamphlet on 
the subject; he also wrote a method for the 
bassoon, and composed concertos, phantasias, 
etc., for bassoon with strings, also some vocal 
pieces, among which the popular ballad, "Des 
Hauses letzte Stunde." 

Alphabet, musical (See Letter Notation.) 

Alpharabius. (Set Alfarabi.) 

Alphorn (Alpenhorn), a somewhat primitive, 
ancient wind instrument used by shepherds in 
the Alps, from 5 to 6 feet long, with conical 
•tube composed of staff-wood, and provided with 
s. mouthpiece made of hard wood. 

Alquen, Peter Cornelius Johann d', b. 
1795, Amsberg, Westphalia, d. Nov. 27, 1863, 
Mulheim-on-Rhine ; studied medicine in Berlin, 
and music under Klein and Zelter, but while prac- 
tising as doctor at Miilheim, turned specially 
■to composition, and became popular through 
his songs. His younger brother, Friedrich 
A. E., b. 1810, d. June 18, 1887, London, was 
■destined for the law (Dr. Jur.), but was trained 
under Ferd. Ries as a violinist, and settled 
in Brussels in 1827 as a teacher of music. He 
went to London in 1830, where he published 
■various works for pianoforte and violia. 

Alschalabi, Mohammed, Spanish Arabian, 
wrote a work at the beginning of the 15th 
•century on the musical instruments of his time ; 
the manuscript is at the Escurial. 

Alsleben, Julius, b. March 24, 1832, Berlin, 
studied Oriental languages there, took his de- 
.gree at Kiel, but then devoted himself entirely 
to music. For his knowledge of pianoforte 
playing he was indebted to Leuchtenberg and 
Zech, for theory to S. Dehn. After making 
successful appearances as pianist in various con- 
certs, he developed great activity as a teacher 
■of the pianoforte, was conductor of various 
societies, and since 1865 has been president of 
the Berlin " Tonkiinstlerverein " and one of the 
founders and also president of the " Musiklehrer- 
verein " (1879). In 1872 he received the title 
•of Professor. A. is a contributor to several 
musical papers ; he edited from 1874, for several 
years, the musical paper •• Harmonie," and 

published "Zwolf Vorlesungen iiber Musit- 
geschichte," " Licht- und Wendepunkte in der 
Entwickelung der Musik " (1880). 

Alstedt, J oh. Heinr., b. 1588, Herborn 
(Nassau), professor of theology and philology 
there, and later at Weissenburg (Siebenbii.rgen), 
where he died in 1638. He wrote much about 
music in his " Encyklopadie der gesammten 
Wissenschaften" (1610), published also an " Ele- 
mentale mathematicnm " (1611), of which the 
section " Elementale rausicum " has been sepa- 
rately translated into English (1644, by J. 
Birchensha) ; he also touched on music in the 
8th part of his " Admiranda mathematica" 

Alteuburg, (i) Michael, b. May 27, 1584, 
Alach, near Erfurt, as the son of a well-to-do 
blacksmith, from 1600 was active as teacher in 
various posts ; 1611 pastor in Trochtelborn, 
and 1621 in Gross-Sommerda. He escaped 
from the dangers of war to Erfurt, became 
deacon there, and died Feb. 12, 1640. A. was 
a prolific and esteemed church-composer. Es- 
pecially worthy of mention are his Church- and 
Home-Songs, his Festival-Songs, and his In- 
trade for violin, lute, etc., with a chorale as 
Cantus firmus. — (2) Job. Ernst, b. 1734, Weis- 
senfels, d. 1796 as organist in Bitterfeld, a cele- 
brated virtuoso on the trumpet and field 
trumpeter during the Seven Years' War. He 
published a kind of instrumental instruction book 
for trumpets and drums : " Anleitung zur hero- 
isch-musikalischen Trompeter- und Pauken- 
Kunst " (1795). 

Alteration, in mensural notation, a doubling 
of the time of duration of the second of two 
notes of the same kind (two breves or two semi- 
breves), which took place when Ternary Rhythm 
was indicated by notes of the nearest greater 
species: the two notes stood either between 
two such greater ones (e.g. two Breves between 
two Longs), or were divided by a punctvm 
divisionis from the following equal or smaller 
ones. Thus in Perfect Time (Temfus perfectum 
O) the succession Q ■»• ■o- n would mean (in 
modern notation, with values reduced by one 

e> • I 9 I o ■ 

Alterato (Ital.), Alter^ (Fr.), altered in pitch,: 
raised or lowered a semitone. 

Altered Chords are those dissonances (q.v.) 
which arise through the chromatic raising or 
lowering of a note of a major or minor chord, 
especiaJly of the augmented triad c, e, gt pro- 
duced by raising the fifth of tlie major chord, 
or op, c, e produced by lowering the funda- 
mental note of the minor chord, and of the 
augmented chord of six-four (^, c, e = c, e, ^) 
and the augmerpted chord of six-three . (e, e, «4= 
»f . c, e), the former produced by lowering the 
fifth of the major chord, the latter by raising 

Altered Chords 


the fundamental note of the minor chord (the 
under fifth, cf. Minor Chord). 

Altemamente (Ital.), alternatively. 

AlternatiTO (Ital.), alternate. The term used 
for small pieces in dance form whiciL alternate 
■with a Trio [Menuetio, a) ; the Trio in such 
pieces can also be called an A . 

Altks, Joseph Henri, b. Jan. i8, 1826, 
Rouen ; 1840, pujjil of the Paris Conservatoire, 
a celebrated flautist, member of the orchestra 
of the Grand Op&a ; 1868, successor of Dorus 
at the Conservatoire ; he has also published 
compositions for flute. — His brother, Ernest 
Eugene, b. Mar. 28, 1830, Paris, an able 
violinist, was second maitre de cliapelle at the 
Grand Opera (1880-87). 

Altgeige (Ger.), the tenor violin, the viola. 

Althom, a valve-bugle in e|7, having a com- 
pass similar to that of the horn in E |? ; it is 
only used in wind-bands. 

Alti natnrali (Ital.), "natural altos." {yiat 

Altissimo (Ital.), the highest ; extremely high. 
{yide In altissimo.) 

Altaiikol, Joh. Christoph, pupil and son- 
in-law of J. S. Bach (married, Jan. 20, 1749, 
Elizabeth Juliane Frederica Bach) ; 1748, 
organist at Naumburg, d. there, July, 1759 ; 
■was esteemed in his time as a composer, but 
nothing appeared in print. Some manuscripts 
are to be found in the Berlin library. 

Alto, (1) Alto voice (Ital. Contr'alto {Alto"], 
French, Haute-contre ; in the Latin designation 
of the voices Altus, Vox alta, or Contratenor), the 
lower of women's and boys' voices, chiefly in 
chest register. In the time of complicated 
mensural music — ^which could not be performed 
by boys because it took years to learn the rules 
— the high parts (A. and Discant, i.e. soprano) 
were sung by men with falsetto voices (Alti 
naturali), or indeed by evirati, as women were 
not allowed to sing in the churches ("mulier 
taceat in eccUsia ") ; for this reason the discant 
and alto parts of that period have only a very 
moderate compass upwards, and on the other 
hand a greater one downwards. The normal 
compass of the genuine alto voice extends from 
(t, in a deep A . (contralto) from / (exceptionally 
e, d] to e', f" (but in voices of sped^ly wide 
compass higher still). Vievred historically, the 
alto part was the one last introduced by com- 
posers ; for over the normal men's part which 
took the Cantus firmus (tenor), a higher one 
was first placed, to which was given the name 
of Discant. Afterwards a third lower voice was 
placed under the tenor, which at once served 
as a foundation (harmonic support, basis), and, 
if the tenor descended, as a middle nlling- 
up voice. Finally, this third voice separated 
into two: the bass became definitely the 
support of the harmony, while the contra-tenor 
or alto {altus); as a fourth voice, was inter- 

polated between tenor and discant. — (2) Alto^ 
instruments. When, in the 15th and i6th cen- 
turies it became the custom, owing to the 
powerful development of polyphonic music, 
to strengthen the voice parts by instruments 
in unison, or even to replace them, all kinds 
of instruments were constructed in three or 
four different sizes, answering to the four 
kinds of voices; thus there were: Discant-, 
Alto-, Tenor-, and Bass-viols, trombones, flutes, 
krummhorns. Of these the four kinds of trom- 
bones have been retained to the present time ; 
also the foundation of our orchestra, the string- 
quartet, has at least a similar division ; only 
that in consequence of the powerfully ex- 
tended compass of instrumental music upwards 
and downwards the original alto instrument, 
the Alto Viol (Viola da Braccio), has been 
assigned to the third of the highest parts, and 
the Bass instrument (the Violoncello still iu' 
eluded among the "Bassi") to the second of 
the lowest parts. 

Alto clarinet, Alto Oboe, Alto Trombone, etc., 
are instruments of which the middle register 
answers fairly to the compass of the alto voice. 
{See Alto.) {c/. Clarinet, Oboe, etc.) 

Alto clef, the c' clef on the middle line 

equal to 

it was formerly in 

general use for the alto voice, but at the present 
day is only employed for viola music. 

AlTsIeben, Melitta. (i'w Otto-Alvsleben.) 

Aljrpios, Greek writer on music about 360 
A.D., whose " Introduction to Music " was first 
printed by Meursius (" Aristoxenus, Niko- 
maches. A., etc.," 1616), and afterwards by 
Meibom (" Antiquae musicae auctores septem," 
1652). The treatise contains all the transposi- 
tion scales of the Greeks in Greek vocal and 
instrumental notation, for the knowledge of 
which we are principally indebted to A. 

Alz {cUzamento, " a raising "), signifies the 
opposite of abb. (q.v.). 

Amabile, con amabilitct (Ital.), amiably. 

Amad^, Ladislaw, Baron von, b. Mar. 12, 
1703, Kaschau (Hungary), d. Dec. 22, 1764, 
Felbar, as Councillor of the Exchequer; he 
was a favourite national poet and composer of 
folk-songs, which were published in 1836 by 
Thaddaus, Graf, von A.; the latter b. Jan. 
12, 1783, Pressburg, d. May 17, 1845, Vienna, 
likewise an officer of state, was an excellent 
pianist, and the discoverer of Liszt's talent, 
for the training of which he provided means. 
In 1831 he was named " Hofmusikgraf." 

A major Chord = a, cit, e; A major hey ■with 
signature of 3 sharps. {See Key.) 

Amalia, the name of three artists, princesses 
by birth, (i) Anna A., Princess of Prussia, 
sister of Frederick the Great, b. Nov. 9, 1723, 
d. Mar. 30, 1782 ; composed a series of excellent 



chorales, and also wrote new music to the 
text-book of Graun's "Tod Jesu." — (2) Anna A., 
Duchess of Weimar, mother of the Grand-duke 
Ernst August, b. Oct. 24, 1739, d. Apr. 10, 
1807; composed the operetta Erwin und El- 
mire (text by Goethe). — (3) Marie A. Fried- 
erike, Princess of Saxony, sister of King John 
of Saxony ; b. Aug. 10, 1794, Dresden, d. there, 
Sept. 18, 1870. As a writer of comecjies she 
was known under the name " Amalie Heiter ; " 
composed also church music and several operas 
(Una donna, Le tre cinture. Die Siegesfahne, Der 
Kanonenschuss, etc.). 
Amarevole, eon amarezza (Ital.), bitter, sad. 
Amarezza (Ital.), bitterness, sadness. 
Amateur (Fr. ; Ital. Dilettante), a lover of 
music who does not pursue the art profession- 
ally. At the present day the word A . is used in 
a somewhat depreciatory sense, but formerly 
this was by no means the case. In 1768 Boc- 
cherini dedicated his first stringed quartets 
" ai veri dilettanti e cognoscitori di musica." The 
taste of dilettanti was not always so thoroughly 
bad, nor so favourable to shallow, affected, 
ephemeral music as it is to-day; chamber-music 
was more cultivated at home by non-profes- 
sionals, and music was more seriously studied 
and better played, than at the present day. 
Dilettantism now means a superficial and man- 
nered study of art, whether as composer or 
executant. An A. is one who has learnt nothing 
properly ; and musicians of this class should 
strive to obtain for their name more honourable 

Amati, (i) the family of celebrated violin- 
makers at Cremona of the i6th and 17th centu- 
ries, whose instruments are now considered real 
treasures. The eldest A., who evolved the 
violin from the viol, was Andrea, who died 
about 1577. He still continued to make viols 
of various sizes ; his younger brother and 
partner, Nicola, made principally bass viols, 
and of excellent quality, between the years 
1568 and 1586. Antonio A. (b. 1550, d. 1635), 
Andrea's eldest son, devoted himself almost 
exclusively to violins, the size of which, how- 
ever, varied much at that period (1589-1627). 
He was for some time associated with his 
brother, Gerouimo (d. 1638), a yoimger son 
of Andrea's, who, however, was inferior to him 
in skill, and all of whose violins are somewhat 
large. The most eminent A. was Nicolo, son 
of Geronimo, b. Sept. 3, 1596, d. Aug. 12, 1684, 
who had as pupils Andrea Guarneri and An- 
tonio Stradivari. The Amati violins are valued 
not so much for the fulness as for the softness 
and purity of their tone. Nicol6 A. was suc- 
ceeded by his son Geronimo, b. Feb. 26, 1649, 
d. about 1730, the last representative of the 
family, but far inferior to his father. Giuseppe 
A., who at the beginning of the 17th century 
made violins and basses at Bologna, which are 
said to have a fine clear tone, may possibly have 

belonged to the same fahiily. — (2) Vincenzo 
(Amatus), doctor of theology and maestro at 
Palermo Cathedral about 1665; b. Jan. 6, 1629, 
Cimmina (Sicily), d. July 29, 1670, Palermo. 
He published sacred compositions and an opera 
[L'Isauro, 1664). — (3) Antonio and Angelo, 
brothers, organ-builders at Pavia about 1830. 

Ambitus (Lat.), compass ; the A. ola. melody 
is the distance from the lowest to the highest 
note in it. One speaks also of the .^. of a 
Church Mode (whether it be from A — a or 
C—c, etc.). 

Ambo (JLat.). This was the name in the more 
ancient Christian Churches of a small reading- 
desk placed before the railing of the presbytery, 
in front of, or on the steps of which (in gradHms 
ambonis), the Gradual (Responsorium graduate or 
gradate) was sung, and hence its name. 

Ambros, August Wilhelm, musical his- 
torian, b. Nov. 17, 1816, Mauth,' near Prague, d. 
June 28, 1876, Vienna, a nephew of.R. Kiese- 
wetter, who also rendered signal service as an his- 
torian of music. A. studied jurisprudence, but, 
at the same time, worked diligently at music. 
He, indeed, entered government service, and in 
1850 was appointed Prosecuting Attorney at 
Prague, but he was also active as a musical 
critic, and produced some compositions of his 
own. His reputation as a writer on music dates 
from the publication of his pamphlet, "Die 
Grenzen der Poesie und Musik " (185&, 2nd ed. 
1872), an answer to Hanslick's essay, "Vom , 
Musikalisch-Schonen," which brought him into 
contact with Liszt and others. In i860 he re- 
ceived a commission from the publisher Leuckart 
(C. Sander) at Breslau to write a " History of 
Music," which task he almost fulfilled, and in 
the most brilliant manner. Unfortunately, he 
died before completing the 4th volume, treating 
of the time of Palestrina and the beginnings of 
modern music (Vols. 1-4, 1862-78). The 2nd 
and 3rd volumes are of special value, the former 
treating of the music of the Middle Ages, the 
latter of the Netherland School. The new 
" Westphalized " edition of the first volume, 
published by B. v. Sokolowski, must be rejected 
as an impiety towards the author. O. Kade, 
making use of the materials left behind by 
Ambros, pubUshed in 1882 a fifth volume (a 
collection of examples to the 3rd volume) r W. 
Baumker, in the same year, a list of names and 
table of contents; and W. Langhans (q.v.), a 
continuation of the work up to the present time, 
and written in a somewhat lighter style. For 
the extensive journeys for the purpose of study 
which his work rendered necessary, A. not only 
obtained leave of absence, but received a money 
grant from the Vienna Academy. In i86g he 
was appointed Supplementary Professor at 
Prague University, and at the same time mem- 
ber of the board of directors and teacher of the 
history of music at the Prague Conservatorium. 
In 1872 he was called to Vienna, where, together 




■with an appointment in the of&ces of the Minister 
of Justice, he became tutor to the Crown 
Prince Rudolf, and received a professorship at 
the Conservatorium. As a composer, A. was of 
a certain importance ; he wrote sacred music 
(a mass, a Stabat Mater, etc.), pianoforte pieces 
in the style of Schumann, also a Bohemian 
national opera, Brelislaw a Jitka, overtures, 
songs, etc. ; yet his chief importance lies, in his 
literary work, which was one of great distinc- 
tion, u not altogether free from error. His 
" Kulturhistorische Bilder aus dem Musikleben 
der Gegenwart " (i860) also deserves mention. 

Ambrosian Chant, the ecclesiastical singing 
introduced by St. Ambrose, Bishop of MUan, 
into the churches of his diocese. The Ambro- 
sian Chant is one of the most enigmatical chap- 
ters in the history of music, for we really know 
next to nothing about it ; the only certain thing 
is that Ambrose transplanted the singing of the 
Halleluja, and the antiphonal singing from 
Greece into Italy, and that he is also looked 
upon as the originator of the Responses. As 
however, he not only introduced into Italy the 
singing of hymns, but wrote many bymns him- 
self, the Ambrosian Chant seems scarcely to 
differ from the Gregorian, especially as, accord- 
ing to the trustworthy testimony of St. Au- 
gustine, the exclamations of joy formed the 
kernel of the Ambrosian, as afterwards of the 
Gregorian Chant. To all appearance the Gre- 
gorian Chant did not differ in principle from 
the Ambrosian, but was only a comprehensive 
revision, as a pattern for united Catholic Christ- 
endom, of Church song, to which, doubtless, 
much that was new had been added since 
the death of Ambrosius (397). Anyhow, the 
liturgy of the Milan diocese (as well as of other 
districts) appears, in spite of the ecclesiastical 
prescript for the whole Church, to have re- 
tained for a long period certain peculiarities, 
perhaps even certain melodies, to which certain 
remarks concerning Ambrosian song by writers 
of the Middle Ages may refer. (Cf. Gregorian 

Amhrosian Hymn (Hymnus Ambrosianus) is the 
name given to the noble song " Te Deum lauda- 
mus." It is by no means certain that Ambrosius 
was the author; but more probable that the 
same was handed down to him from the Greek 
Church, and that he only translated the text. 

Ambrosius, Bishop of Milan from 374 ; b. 
333, Treves, d. April 4, 397, Milan. Great merit 
must be ascribed to him for the manner in 
which he developed Christian Church song, in 
so far as he introduced into Italy various kinds 
of ritual singing (especially antiphonal and 
hymn singing as it had been developed in the 
Eastern Church). (OC Ambrosian Chant.) 
It is also more than probable that he took over 
the four church Tones of the Grfeek' Church 
(which, afterwards, by division into authentic 
and plagal were increased to eight). On the 

other hand, it is not likelj; that he was ac- 
quainted with the designation of sounds by 
means of the first seven letters'of the alphabet. 
{Sk Letter Notation.) A. himself composed 
a great number of hymns, {c/. Ambrosian 

Ame (Fr.), the sound-post of the violin and 
other stringed instruments of that class. 

AmerWh (Ammerbach), Elias Nikolaus, 
an excellent composer of the i6th' century, who 
was organist about 1570 at St. Tho'ftias's Church, 
Leipzig. He published a work on Tablature, 
which is of great historical' importance, as it 
contains directions 'for -fingering of instruments, 
explanations of ornaments, etc., '■' Oi-gel- und In- 
strument-tabulatur" (i57i),eto. FetiS.intheand 
edition of the " Biographie uuiverSelle," makes 
mention of a second Tablature work by Am- 
merbath (spelt thus), " Ein neu kiinstlich- Tabu- 
laturbuch," etc. (1575), which does not seem to 
be identical with the one mentioned above, and 
the second edition of which came out in 1583. 

American Organ, a peculiar instrument simi- 
lar to the harmonium ; the reeds are made to 
speak, not by compressed air forced outwards, 
but drawn inwards ; there are also other small 
differences. The invention of the A. O. origin- 
ated from a workman in the harmonium- 
factory of Alexandre at Paris, who went to 
America. These instruments, however, in their 
present complete form, only came into vogue 
after i860, through the firm of Mason and 
Hamlin at Boston. The " Alexandre " organ, 
built by fidouard Alexandre (b. 1824, d. March 
9, 1888) at Paris in 1874, is an instrument of a 
similar kind. 

A minor Chord z=a, c, e ; A minor key, without 
signature (minor fundamental scale). [See Key.) 

Amiot, Pater, Jesuit and missionary in China, 
b. 1718, Toulon; he translated a work on the 
theory of Chinese music (by Li-Koang-Ti) into 
French, which was reprinted with comments by 
the Abbe RoufiSer in the " Memoires concernant 
I'histoire des Chinois," as 6th volume. 

Ammerbach. [See Amerbach.) 

Ammon, Blasius, contrapuntist of the i6th 
century, bom, according to the titles and dedi- 
cations of his works, in the Tyr61. He was 
brought up as soprano singer in the service of 
Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, at whose 
expense he was sent to Venice. Kp afterwards 
became Franciscan monk at Vienna, where he 
died in June, 1590. His first work, a volume of 
introits i 5, appeared at Vienna in 1582, and a 
volume of masses k 4 came out there in 1588. 
A volume of motets, a 4-6, was published 
at Munich (a part of the edition announces 
that A. had died meanwhile). Still another 
volume of motets appeared at Munich after his 
death (1591), and a second volume of introits 
(a 4) was published in 1601 by his brother, 
Stephen Amon [sic).' The Munich Library 



An cot 

possesses a number of motets by A. in manu- 
script, written in part in organ tablature. The 
dates given after Fetis, in the 1st edition of this 
dictionary, which were generally accepted, are 
quite untrustworthy. 

Anmer, John, organist and choirmaster at 
Ely Cathedral, 1610-41. He took the degree of 
Dr. mm. at Oxford in 1613. He was a good 
church composer (in 1615 appeared " Sacred 
Hymns," a 3-6). — His son, Ralph, was bass 
singer at the Royal Chapel, Windsor (1623-63). 

Amon, Joh. Andreas, b. 1763, Bamberg, 
d. March 29, 1825, Wallerstein ; studied singing 
and various instruments, but devoted himself at 
last principally to the French horn, and became 
a pupil of Giov. Punto (Stich), who took him 
to Paris, and had him instructed in composition 
by Sacchini. After many concert tours with 
Punto, he became iiirector of the music at Heil- 
bronn. He died as capellmeister to the Prince 
of Oettingen-Wallerstein. A. was a prolific 
composer. Symphonies of his are printed, also 
concertos for pf., and flute and viola, sonatas 
for various instruments, trios, quartets, quin- 
tets, sets of variations, songs, etc. Two masses, 
a requiem, and two operettas remain in manu- 

Amore (Ital.), love, affection. — Con amon, with 
tenderness, with devotion. 

Amorevole, amoroso (Ital.), tenderly, lovingly. 

Amplitude of vibrations is the extent of the 
departure of the vibrating body from a state of 
rest: the A. of the vibrations determines the 
strength of the sound : the period, the pitch. A 
swinging pendulum (of a clock) shows clearly 
the difference : the excursions 01 the pendulum 
{i.e. the A.) may be augmented ever so much by 
strengthening the moving power, the period 
(time between each tick) remains the same. 

Anacker, Aug. Ferdinand, b. Oct. 17, 
1790, Freiberg (Saxony), d. there Aug. 21, 1854 > 
worked by himself at Leipzig, whither he went 
for the purpose of study, and became a sound 
musician. In 1822 he became cantor, musical 
director, and teacher in the normal school of 
his native town; he established there grand 
performances of sacred music, and also founded 
a " Singakademie." In 1827 ^^ became, be- 
sides, conductor of the miners' wind-band. Of 
his compositions are to be named the can- 
tatas Bergmannsgruss, Lebens Blume und Lebens 
Unbesiand, pf. pieces, songs and part-songs, a 
chorale book, and seven songs to Doriug's 
vernacular drama Bergmannstnm (Dresden). 

Anakrusis (Gr,). (See Up-beat.) 

Analysis of sounds by the ear is a term of 
modern acoustics, and implies the distinguish- 
ing of the partial tones contained in the single 
sounds (clangs) of our musical instruments. 
The ear is capable of analysing the compound 
vibration form of tones, i.e. distinguishing the 
various partial tones {see Clang) , but in a manner 

not hitherto sufficiently explained; resonators 
are frequently employed to strengthen the vari- 
ous partial tones, yet for a good musical ear 
they are, as a rule, unnecessary. 

Analysis of musical works is an inquiry into 
their formal construction, both as regards the 
subdivision of themes into jdirases, sections, and 
motives, and the way in which they are com- 
bined and transformed, also period formation, 
order of modulation, etc. A. of this sort is one 
of the most important duties of music schools, 
but it has been made light of, or altogether 
neglected. In recent times, short analyses of 
the works to be performed, together with 
historical remarks, have appeared on concert 
programmes. This system of analytical pro- 
grammes sprang up in England about the middle 
of this century. 

Anapest is a rhythmical foot consisting of two 
short and a long, or of two unaccented and one 

accented notes Jj \ J, also Jj | J, or 
J^ I J ., etc., as well as J J I J 

Anche (Fr.) is the channel over which lies the 
tongue in organ reed-pipes ; jeux & anches, reed- 
stops. The spatula-like reed of the clarinet is 
also called A., and instruments such as the oboe 
and bassoon, which have a double reed, are 
called instruments A a. double. 

Ancora (Ital,), same as da capo ; again. 

Ancot, (i) Jean, b. Oct. 22, 1779, Bruges, d. 
there July 12, 1848 ; studied from 1799 to 1804 
in Paris under Kreutzer and Baillot (violin), and 
under Catel (harmony), and then settled down 
as teacher of music in his native town. Only a 
small portion of his compositions is in print 
(four violin concertos, sacred compositions, 
overtures, marches, etc., in part for wind band, 
etc.). He gave a thorough musical training to 
his two sons. The elder-^(2) Jean, b. July 6, 
1799, d. June 5, 1829, Boulogne, received his 
final training at the Paris Conservatoire under 
Pradher (pianoforte), and Berton (composition) ; 
went in 1823 to London, and became professor 
at the Athenaeum, and pianist to the Duchess of 
Kent ; but he left London already in 1825, made 
concert tours in Belgium, and returned to 
Boulogne. His activity as composer was 
astonishing (225 works before he had reached 
the age of 30). Specially to be mentioned are 
his sonatas, a concerto, sets of variations, etudes, 
fugues, 4-hand fantasias , for pianoforte, etc., 
besides his violin concertos, vocal scenas, with 
orchestra overtures, etc. The younger — (3) 
Louis, b. June 3, 1803, d. 1836, Bruges, went 
for long tours on the Continent, also to London, 
and became pianist to the Duke of Sussex. He 
afterwards lived for a time in Boulogne and 
Tours as music teacher, and finally in his native 
town. As composer he was certainly not so 




prolific as his brother, but, nevertheless, made 
attempts in almost every branch of musical 

Andacht (Ger.), devoutness. Mit Andacht, 

Andichtig (Ger.), devoutly. 

Andamento (Ital., " movement "), the name 
given to the free episodes in a fugue (although, 
as a rule, they are formed from motives taken 
from subject or countersubject) which occur 
between the various developments (also Diverti- 
mento) . 

Andante (Ital.). This is one of the oldest in- 
dications of rate of movement. In Italian it 
means "going" (i.e. in moderate movement, 
somewhat slow), and one rhust guard against 
taking it in the sense of " slow," for in that 
case certain additional indications would be 
misunderstood. Piii A. ot un poco a. means 
"quicker," and not "slower," as many (and, 
unfortunately, many composers) imagine. Meno 
a. means " less agitated," i.e. "slower." The 
diminutive form andantino indicates a slower move- 
ment than «., but already in the last century it 
was falsely taken to mean quicker than a. An- 
dantino relates mostly to the short duration of a 
piece. {C/. Adagietto.) By A., as in a similar 
way by Adagio, is meant, at the present day, a 
slow movement of a symphony, sonata, etc. 

Andantino. {See Andante.) 

Ander, Aloys, a famous opera singer (lyric 
tenor), b. Aug. 10, 1821, Liebititz (Bohemia), 
d. Dec. ir, 1864, at the baths of Wartemburg 
(Bohemia). From 1845, until his intellect be- 
came disordered and the last years of his life 
in consequence rendered fruitless, he was a 
highly-esteemed member of the Vienna opera 

Andera, Gottfried Engelbert, b. 1795, 
Bonn, d. Sept. 22, 1866, Paris. He was for a 
long period archivist and superintendent of the 
musical department of the Bibliotheque at 
Paris. He wrote monographs on Paganini 
(1831) and Beethoven (1839). 

Anderson, Lucy {nee Philpot), English 
pianist, b. Dec., 1790, d. Dec. 24, 1878 ; married 
(1820) the violinist, G. Fr. Anderson. 

Anding, Johann Michael, b. Aug. 25, 1810, 
r pneienfeld, near Meinigen ; attended the train- 
mg college at Hildburghausen, and, after occu- 
pying the post of teacher in various towns, 
became (1843) music teacher at Hildburg- 
hausen college, where he died, Aug. 9, 1879. 
Several school song-books, part-songs, and 
orgjsi pieces appeared in print, as well as a 
" Vierstimmiges Choralbuch " ( 1868) and "Hand- 
budiilein fiir Orgelspieler" (3rd edition, 1872). 

Andre, (i) Johann, the founder of the famous 
music publishing house at Offenbach, b. March 
28, 1741, d. June 18, 1799. He was intended to 
carry on his father's silk factory business, but 
this he declined, and adopted the career of 

music, for which he showed strong inclination 
and a healthy talent . He made early attempts at 
composition, and in the beginning of the sixties 
produced a comic opera, Der Topfer (The Potter), 
of which he wrote the libretto, and likewise the 
operetta, Erwin und Elmire (Goethe), which was 
given with success at Frankfort. In 1777 he 
became capellmeister at the Dobbelin Tl^eatre 
at Berlin, and during the seven following years 
composed with great diligence (many operettas, 
entr'actes, a ballet, songs, etc.). In 1784 he 
returned to Offenbach, where already in former 
days he had founded, close to the silk factory, a 
music-printing ofl&ce, which he now extended into 
a large publishing business. Of his compositions 
the Rheinweinlied (Claudius) is the best known ; 
his operas are now forgotten. — (2) Johann 
Anton, third son of the former, b. Oct. 6, 
1775, Offenbach, d. April 6, 1842. From 1793 
to 1796 he received a thorough musical training 
from VoUweiler in Mannheim ; he studied after- 
wards at Jena, made extensive tours, and on his 
father's death undertook the publishing busi- 
ness. In that same year he went to Vienna, 
and acquired from Mozart's widow the musical 
remains of the master, whereby at one stroke 
the firm became one of the most important in 
the world. The art of music-printing received 
a new impulse by the employment of litho- 
graphy, which Franz Gleissner introduced on a 
large scale. But Anton A., both as composer 
(among- other things, two operas) and theorist, 
was of greater importance than his father. His 
principal work was the " Lehrbuch der Tonsetz- 
kunst " (1832-43), which, however, he did not 
complete ; the two volumes which appeared 
treat of harmony, counterpoint, canon, and 
fugue (lately revised by H. Henkel). Among 
his sons who turned their attention to music 
were: — (3) Karl August, b. June 15, 1806, d. 
Feb. 15, 1887, proprietor of a piano factory at 
Frankfort. He wrote ' ' Der Klavierbau und seine 
Geschichte" (1855). — (4) Julius, b. June 4, 1808, 
d. April 17, 1880, Frankfort, an excellent or- 
ganist and pianist, who studied with Aloys 
Schmitt (himself a pupil of Anton Andre) ; he 
composed some good organ pieces. — (5) Johann 
August, b. March 2, 1817, followed Anton 
Andrfi as proprietor of the publishing busi- 
ness at Offenbach; his sons, Carl (b. Aug. 
24, 1853) and Adolph (b. April 10, 1855), 
entered the business on June i, 1880, of wMch 
they became the sole proprietors at their father's 
death, Oct. 29, 1887. — (6) Jean Baptiste, b. 
March 7, 1823, d. Dec. 9, 1882, Frankfort, 
pianist, studied under Aloys Schmitt, Taubert 
(pianoforte), Kessler, and Dehn (theory). He 
bore the title " Herzoglich bernburgischer Ka- 
pellmeister " without holding office, and lived 
many years in Berlin. He published several 
pieces for voice and pianoforte. 

Andreoli, (i) Giuseppe, b. July 7, 1757, 
Milan, d. there Dec. 20, 1832 ; he was a dis- 
tinguished contrabassist in the orchestra of La 




Scala, and teacher of his instrument at Milan 
Conservatorio ; also a good harpist.— (2) Gug- 
lielmo, b. April 22, 1835, d. March 13, i860, 
Nice ; studied at Milan Conservatorio. He 
was a distinguished pianist and noted for his 
neat and expressive playing. From 1856 to 
1859 he attracted notice at various concerts in 
England (Crystal Palace, etc.).— (3) His brother. 
Carlo, b. Jan. 8, 1840, Mirandola, where his 
father (Evangelista A., b. 1810, d. June 16, 
1875) was organist and teacher. He, too, was 
an excellent pianist, and from 1875 teacher of 
his instrument at Milan Conservatorio, where 
he had been a pupil. ■ Already in 1858 he gave 
some successful concerts in London. 

Andreozzi, Gaetano, b. 1763, Naples, d. 
'Dec. 21, 1826, Paris. A prolific composer, who 
wrote 34 operas for Rome, Florence, Naples, 
Venice, etc., also for Petersburg and Madrid, 
and, besides, three oratorios. He always visited 
the places where he obtained success, but finally 
settled down in Naples, where he devoted him- 
self to giving music lessons ; but he became 
poor, and went to Paris to invoke the protection 
of the Duchesse de Berry, his former pupil. 
His wife, Anna A., b. 1772, Florence, was en- 
gaged at Dresden as prima donna (1801-2), but 
met with a fatal accident June 2, 1802, while 
on a journey from Pilliiitz to Dresden. 

Andrevi, Francesco, one of the most dis- 
tinguished Spanish composers, b. Nov. 16, 1786, 
Sanabuya, near Lerida (Catalonia), of Italian 
parents, d. Nov. 23, 1853, Barcelona. He was 
a priest and successively maestro at the cathe- 
drals of various towns (Barcelona, Valencia, 
Sevilla, etc.), and finally became conductor of 
the royal band. During the Carlist war he 
fled to Bordeaux, where he found an appoint- 
ment. From 1845 to 1849 he lived at Paris, 
and afterwards became maestro at Notre Dame 
Church, Barc'elona, which post he held until 
his death. Specially deserving of mention are 
his Last Judgment (oratorio), a Requiem 
for Ferdinand VH., and a Stabat Mater. A 
theoretical work of his on harmony and compo- 
sition appeared at Paris in French translation 

Audrien. [See Adrien.) 

Audries, Jean, b. April 25, 1798, Ghent, d. 
there Jan. 21, 1872 ; in 1835 professor of the 
violin and ensemble classes, in 1851 successor 
of Mengal as director of Ghent Conservatoire, 
then until 1855 solo violinist at the theatre, 
and from 1856 honorary director of the Con- 
servatoire. He published some historical works : 
" Apergu historique de tous les instruments de 
musique, actuellement en usage" ; " Precis de 
I'histoire de la musique depuis les temps les 
plus recuUs, etc." (1862) ; " Instruments Ivent. 
La flute " (1866) ; " Remarques sur les cloches 
et les carillons " (1868). 

Aad'^-, abbr. for Andante. 

j^ijtino.^ abbr. for Andantim. 

Anemochord (Animocorde), a pneumatic 
stringed instrument, a clever attempt of the 
pianoforte manufacturer, J. J. Schnell, in Paris 
(1789), by means of wind artificially produced 
(by bellows),- to give an .^olian-harp effect to 
really artistic music on an instrument re- 
sembling a pianoforte. (C/. " AUgemeine Musik- 
alische Zeitung," 1798, p. 39, f.) The idea was 
afterwards taken up by Kalkbrenner and Henri 
Herz, the latter of whom named his instrument, 
constructed in a similar manner. Piano eolieii 

Anerio, (i) Felice, 'one of the most distin- 
guished of Roman composers of the time of 
Palestrina, b. 1560, Rome, d. there, 1630 ; pupil 
of G. M. Nanini. ' On April 3, 1594, he became 
the successor of Palestrina as composer bf the 
Papal Chapel (Ruggiero Giovarielli receiving 
the post of maestro). Several of Anerio's com- 
positions passed for a long time as those of 
Palestrina (" Adoramus te, Christe," and a Stabat 
Mater for three choirs). Printed copies exist 
of A.'s works of the period 1585-1622 : several 
books of madrigals k 5-6, two books of hjfmns, 
cantica, and motets, besides canzonets and 
madrigals a 3-4, Concerti spirituali a 4, litanies 
a 4-8, and separate motets, etc., in collections. 
Many manuscripts are preserved in Roman 
libraries. — (2) Giovanni Francesco, ac- 
cording to the scanty information which the 
titles and dedications of his works afibrd, was 
probably a brother of the former, b. about 
1567, Rome ; from 1575 to 1579 chorister at St. 
Peter's under Palestrina ; about 1609 received an 
appointment at the Court of Sigismund III. of 
Poland ; in 1610 maestro di cappella at Veronav' 
Cathedral ; 1611, Prefect at the Jesuit College 
of St. Ignaz; 1613-20, maestro at the Jesuit 
Church, St. Maria di Monti, at Rome; and In 
1616 (at the age of 49) took holy orders. His 
first work, a book of madrigals k 5, appeared at 
Venice in 1599 ; those which appeared after 
1620 were not edited by him, so that he prob- 
ably died in this year. A. arranged Palestrina's 5 
Missa Papae Marcelli k 6, for four voices, in 
which form it passed through an endless number , 
of editions. His own compositions (madrigals, ; 
motets, litanies, canzonets, psalms, etc.) are 
based partly on the traditions of the i6th 
century, partly on the innovations of the 17th 
(solo singing, with figured bass). 

Anet, Baptiste. [See Baptiste.) 
AnfosBi, Pasquale, a once famous opera 
composer, b. April 25, 1737, Naples, d. Feb., 
1797, Rome ; pupil of Piccini. He wrote his 
first opera, Cajo Mario, for Venice in 1769, made a 
name with I'Incognita perseguitata in , 1773 at 
Rome, and afterwards won triumphs, so long 
as his works were specially praised up to the 
skies in order to depreciate those of his teacheirrj 
Pipcini. He wrote in all 54 operas (1769-96). 
In Paris he met with no success (1780). After 



Anselra von Parma 

being conductor for two years at the Italian 
Opera, London (1781-3), he brought out operas 
at Prague, Dresden, and Berlin, and then re- 
turned to Italy, and in 1791 took the post of 
maestro at the Lateran. In his last years he 
was chiefly occupied with sacred compositions 
(four oratorios, masses, psalms, etc.). 

Angelet, Charles Francois, b. Nov. 18, 
1797, Ghent, d. Dec. 20, 1832; pupil of the 
Paris Conservatoire. He was trained under 
Zimmerman, became an excellent pianist, and 
studied composition under Ffitis after he had 
settled down as teacher of music in Brussels. 
In 1829 he was appointed, court, pianist to King 
William of the Netherlands. His compositions 
consist principally of pianoforte pieces (fan- 
tasias, variations, etc.), yet among them are a 
trio, and a symphony wmch obtained a prize. 

Angelica {Vox a., "Angel's voice"). An 
organ stop, generally of 4 ft., which, like the 
Vox humana (8 ft.), is constructed in various 
ways, for the most part with free vibrating 
reeds and short tubes. 

Angeloni, Luigi, b. 1758, Frosinone (States 
of the Church), d. 1842, London. He was on 
the committee which issued the proclamation 
of the Roman Republic in 1799, and was there- 
fore forced to escape. He went to Paris, but 
in 1801 was implicated in the conspiracy of 
Ceracchi and Topino-Lebnm, and suffered ten 
months' imprisonment. In 1823, on account of 
his relations with Carbonari, he was expelled 
from Paris, and went to London. A. published 
an important work : " Sopra la vita, le opere ed 
il sapere di Guido d'Arezzo " {1811). 

Anglaise, " English Dance." This was the 
old name for the dance now called Frangaise 
(q.v.). Many other English dances (ballads, 
hornpipes, etc.) were, however, called Anglaises. 

Aoglebert, Jean Henri d', chamber-musician 
to Louis XIV., published in 1689 "Pieces de 
Clavecin," among which were 22 variations on 
the " FoUes d'Espagne," to which Corelli also 
set variations in 1700. A. belongs to the better 
class of old writers for the clavier; in the 
preface to the work mentioned above there are 
explanations with regard to the manner in 
which certain ornaments {Tremblement simple and 
appuyl. Cadence, Double, Pinci, Chute, Port de voix, 
Coule, Arpege) should be performed. 

AngoBcioBO (Ital.), full of anguish; with fear. 

Anhang (Ger.), coda (q.v.), 

Anima (Ital.), soul ; con a., animato, animando, 
" with life," with warmth, with fire. 

AnimoBO (Ital.), eager, spirited. 

Animuccia, Giovanni, b. at the end of the 
15th or beginning of the i6th century, d. 1570, 
or beginning of 1571, Rome. He was the real 
predecessor of Palestrina, not only in office 
(Palestrina became his successor as inaestro at 
St. Peter's), but also in the manner in which, 
amid contrapuntal devices of every kind, he 

strove after harmonic clearness. The name of 
Atiimuccia .is, however, more frequently asso- 
ciated with the species of composition named 
Oratorio (q.v.), as one of the originators; his 
"Laudi" composed for Neri's Oratorio were, 
however, not in any way connected with this 
form of art, but simple songs of praise, hymn- 
like in character. A. was appointed maestro at 
the Vatican in 1555. The following of his 
compositions appeared in print : A volume of 
masses (1567), two volumes of Magnificats, a 
Credo k 4, also several volumes of motets, 
psalms, sacred madrigals, and hymns; but 
many works must have remained in manuscript 
in the Vatican library. — His brother, Paolo, 
likewise a contrapuntist of importance, was 
maestro at the Lateran (1550-52), and died in 
1563. Only detached works of his have, how- 
ever, been preserved in collections. 

AnkertB d'. {See Dankers.) 

Ankteriasmus (Gr.), infibulation, a mild form 
of castration (to prevent mutation). 

Anna, Amalia. {See Amalia (i).) 
Annibale, a contrapuntist of the i6th century, 
b. Padua (hence called Patavinus or Padovano). 
In 1552 he became organist of the second organ 
at St. Mark's, Venice ; his successor was An- 
dreas Gabrieli (1556). The following of his 
compositions have been preserved : a book of 
motets k 5, and one k 6 (1567); madrigals k 
5 (1583) ; and motets k 4 (1592) ; also two 
masses and a few madrigals in collections (1566 
and 1575). Neither the year of his birth nor of 
his death is known. 

Anschlag (Ger.), obsolete term for a particu- 
lar kind of appoggiatura (q.v.). 

Anschutz, (i) Joh. Andreas, b. March 19, 
1772, Coblentz ; grandson and pupil of the 
court organist and Electoral musical director 
A. at Treves. He studied jurisprudence at 
Mayence, and died as State Attorney at Cob- 
lentz (1858). In 1808 he established at Coblentz 
a musical ■ society, together with a school for 
instrumental and vocal music, which was sub- 
sidised by the state. A. was an excellent 
pianist, and published successful compositions, 
especially for pianoforte. — (2) Karl, son of the 
former ; a first-rate conductor, b. 1815, Cob- 
lentz, d. Dec, 1870, New York; a pupil of Fr. 
Schneider. In 1844 he undertook the direction 
of the institute of music established by his 
father, but went in 1848 to England, and in 
1857 *o America. For several years he was 
opera conductor under Ullmann at New York, 
and in 1864 undertook a German opera season 
on his own account. He appears only to have 
composed small pianoforte pieces. 

Anselm von Parma (Anselmus Georgius 
Parmensis), a man of wide learning, who 
flourished in the 15th century, author of the 
treatise, "De harmonia dialogi," supposed to 
have been lost, but discovered at Milan in 1824. 




Answer, a term used in fugue (q.v.). 
Antegnati, an organ-builder, organist, and 
composer at Brescia; b. about 1550, d. about 
1620. He published masses, motets, psalms, 
canzoni, as well as several works in organ tabla- 
Anteludium (Lat.), prelude, introduction. 

Anthem. A form of art peculiar to England ; 
corresponding somewhat to the German Church- 
Cantata, but differing from it in the . direction 
of the motet. The word A. is derived from 
Anti-hymn or Antiphon, and referred origin- 
ally to alternate singing ; but even in the 
A. of the olden time (Tye, Tallis, Byrd, Gib- 
bons) there is no longer any trace of such 
meaning. The A. was introduced into the 
English Church as an essential element of 
divine service in 1559 ; it attained to higher 
importance through iihe contributions to this 
branch of musical art by Purcell and Handel. 
• A distinction is made between "full" and 
" verse " anthems ; in the former the chorus 
predominates, in the latter soli, duets, etc., 
have the prominent place ; in both kinds the 
orchestra sometimes takes part. The words 
are Biblical (Psalms, Proverbs, etc.). 

Anthologie (Fr. and Ger.), anthology, a col- 
lection of choice compositions ; Ut., " a gather- 
ing of flowers." 

Anthropoglossa, the vox humana stop in the 

Anthropophony, science of (Gr.), treats of 
the nature of the human voice. 

Anticipation (Lat. Anticipatio), a term used 
in harmony for the entry in advance of a note 
or notes belonging to the chord on the next 
beat, and forming, for the most part, a dis- 
sonance with the harmony on whidi they fall ; 
they must not, however, be understood in that 
sense, but as entering before their time, thus : 

^L'^jj?iirj?i.-^ i irj! i Hn 





r 1 -(S 

The A. at b, in the old masters, almost invari- 
ably occurs in full closes ; it can, without any 
alteration of meaning, be extended to all the 
parts (c). It is much more diificult to explain 
anticipations in the middle of a cadence, enter- 
ing on unaccented beats, and suggesting new 
harmonies, thus : 

This passage occurs in Bach's two-part Inven- 
tion, No. 9, and the d flat is an entry in advance 
of sub-dominant harmony, while the under part 
keeps firmly to the tonic. In any case the sub- 
dominant is not fully felt until after the bar- 

Antienne (Fr.), antiphony. {See Antiphon.) 

Antiphon (Fr. Antienne, cf. also Anthem.) 
This term really implies the alternate singing 
between two choirs. It is one of the oldest 
elements of the Catholic Ritual service, and, 
according to the testimony of AureUanus Reo- 
mensis (gth century), was adopted by St. 
Ambrosius from the Greek Church, and trans- 
planted into Italy; St. Chrysostom is said to 
have introduced antiphonal singing into the 
Greek Church. A. at the present day merely 
means a verse of a psalm sung first by the 
priest and afterwards by the choir. 

Antiphonical, antiphmieally ( ' ■ sounding 
against"). This was a term applied by the 
ancient Greeks (already by Aristotle) to the i 
interval of the octave, the only harmony of 
which they made use. {Cf. Paraphony.) 

Antiphonary, really a collection of the Anti- 
phons of the Catholic Ritual, and then gener- 
ally a collection of church music for festival 
days, of Antiphons, and also responses, offer- 
tories, communion services, hallelujahs, " trac- 
tus " melodies, hymns, and psalms for the 
various hours of the day. 

Antiquis, Johannes de, maestro at the 
church of St. Nicholas, Ban (Naples) in the 
second half of the i6th century. He published 
a collection " Villanelle alia Napoletana" (1574) 
by local composers, including himself ; and a 
collection of "canzone" (1584). A volume ^ 
madrigals i 4 of his appeared also in 1584. ' 

Antiquus, Andreas (de Mondona), a music- 
printer at Romei perhaps the Andreas de Anti- 
quis of whom Petrucci printed some frottoh 
(1504-8). He published a volume of masses, 
" Liber XV. missarum," 1516, by the most dis- 
tinguished masters (Josquin, Brumel, Pipelare, 

Antistrophe. (See Strophe.) 

Antithesis (Gr.), countersubject ; antitUtii!- 
ally, by way of contrast. 

Anton, Konrad Gottlob, professor of Ori- 
ental languages at Wittenberg from 17.75 > d- 
July 3, 1814. He wrote on the metrical system 
of the Hebrews, and attempted to decipher their 
accents as musical notes ; his pamphlets only 
rank as curiosities in the history of music. 

Antony, Franz Joseph, b. Feb. 1, i79o,'r 
Miinster (Westphalia), d. there 1837. From 
1819 he was musical director at the cathedral in 
that city, and from 1832 cathedral organist as 
successor to his father. Besides sacred com- 
positions, he published an " Archaologisch-htur- 
gisches Gesangbuch des Gregorianischen Er- 
chengesangs" (1829), and a " Geschicht}iche 
Darstellung der Entstehung und VervoUkomm- 
nung der Orgel " (1832). 

Aoidos (Gr.), a singer in ancient Greece. (Cj. 

Apel, Joh. August, b. 1771, Leipzig, d. there 
Aug. 9, 1816; took his degree 01 Dr. juris at 




Leipzig, afterwards became member of the 
council there. He published two interesting 
works on rhythm in opposition to Gottfried 
Hermann's "Elementa doctrinae metricae," 
viz., a series of articles in the Allgemeine musi- 
kalische Zeitung of 1807 and 1808, and a compre- 
hensive " Metrik " {1814-1816, 2 vols.). 

Apell, Joh. David von, b. Feb. 23, 1754, 
Cassel, d. there 1833, secret member of the 
board of finance, and theatre intendant ; 
member of the Academies of Stockholm, Bo- 
logna (Philharmonic) and Rome (Arcadian). He 
was a very prolific composer (partly under the 
pseudonym Capelli) in the department of sacred 
music (a mass dedicated to Pius VII., for 
which, he received the order of the Golden 
Spur, etc.), as well as in that of the opera, can- 
tata, and instrumental music. He eUso wrote 
" Galerie der vorziiglichsten Tonkiinstler und 
merkwurdigen Musikdilettanten in Cassel vom 
Anfang des 16 Jahrhunderts bis auf gegenwar- 
tige Zeiten " (1806). 

Apeitus (Lat.), open. A term applied to 
organ pipes that are open at the top, to dis- 
tinguish them from stopped pipes. 

Aphony (Gr.), deprived of voice, to be dis- 
tinguished from Alaly, speechlessness, dumb- 
ness. This is a sign that the larynx is out of 
order, and it can proceed from causes of the most 
varied kind (inflammation, abscesses, paralysis, 
etc.). A. only takes away tone from the voice, 
and thus produces thickness of speech. 

ApoUon (Apollo), the Greek god of light who 
awakens the lute of Nature and orders the 
movements of the planets, the harmony of the 
spheres; hence csdled the god of poetry and 
music, in whose train are the muses (" Musa- 
getes"). In honour of A. the Pythian Games 
were celebrated every four years at Delphi, at 
which musical contests occupied the foremost 

ApoUonic(ni, an instrument constructed at 
London by Flight and Robson (1812-16), and 
taken to pieces in 1840. It was both a gigantic 
orchestrion and an organ with five manuals. 

Apotome was the name given in ancient 
Greece to the interval now called a " chromatic 
semitone ; " the diatonic semitone was named 
Limma {a-bflat, Limma; bflat-b natural A.). Ac- 
cording to our acoustical calculations, the dia- 
tonic semitone (15 : 16) is greater than the 
chromatic (24 : 25, likewise 128 : 135), but with 
the ancients it was the reverse, for the Limma 
consisted of the remainder after two whole 
tones (both as 8 : 9) had been subtracted from 
a fourth (3 : 4), i.e. | : [f]'' = f^. whilst the A. 
was the remainder after the Limma (f^) had 
been subtracted from the whole tone (8 : 9), i.e. 
Iflf . (Cf. Tone, Determination of.) 

Appassionato (Ital.), with passion, i.e. in an 
agitated manner and with emphatic expression. 

Appel, Karl, b. March 14, 1812, Dessau, 

where he still resides. He is known by his 
quartets for male voices, especially those of a 
humorous kind. 

Appenato (Ital.). distressed, in a sorrowful 


Applicatur (Ger.), fingering. 

Appoggiaado, Apoggiato (Ital.), leaning and 
leaned against. These terms are applied to 
notes which are connected with others— to syn- 
copations and suspensions — and are also sy- 
nonymous with col portammto di voce. (Vidt 

Appogglatura (Ital., Ger. Vorschlag, Ft. Port 
de voix). This term is applied to the ornaments 
of a melody which, as accessory, are indicated 
by small notes, and are not counted in the time- 
value of the bar. There are two kinds of ap- 
pogglatura which must be carefully distin- 
guished, the long and the short A. (i) The long 
A. is only the expression of an harmonic relation- 
ship by means of the notation ; long appoggla- 
tura notes are holding-back notes, and the term 
suspension (" Vorhalt ") would be the most suitable 
for them. In former times composers preferred 
to cover and hide suspensions taken without 
preparation by writing them as small orna- 
mental notes ; at the present day such anxiety 
is unknown, and accordingly the long A. has 
become quite obsolete. Therefore in new edi- 
tions of old works (before Beethoven) it should 
be removed, and the amateur no longer tortured 
by having to learn the rules for the execution 
of the same ; by this means many faults would 
be rendered impossible. As appoggiaturas have 
no time value, the note before which the free 
suspension occurs (the principal note written as 
a large one) is marked with the full value which 
both together have; but the suspended note with 
the value which it is actually to have. Thus the 
mode of execution is quite simple, if the small 
note is played as written, and the following note 
with what remains of the value : 


NB,a) b) 




Only in duple ternary time (2 triplets =: J,_ J, 
etc.) there is sometimes a. difficulty, when, in- 
stead of the correct mode of writing as at N B, 
a), the incorrect as at b) is employed ; in both 
cases the execution should be as at N B, c. On 



A quatre volx 

the other hand it is better to render the 

not as at a, but as at I ; and even here the 
mode of writing is not altogether free from 
misconception.— (2) The short A. (at any rate 
in 19th century publications) is distinguished 
from the long by means of a cross stroke 
through the tail (it is never 
written as a note of larger value 
than the quaver) : 


But the ^hort A. dffers another problem, viz., 
whether it should be given at the beginning of 
the note-value of the principal note, or whether 
it should take from the value of the previous 
note. There have been advocates for both 
modes of executing the ornament, but the best 
masters have decided that the A. must enter on 
the beat, the short as well as the long; the 
other mode was already condemned by Ph. E. 
Bach (1753) as amateurish : 

Not But 

As the short A. is always played very quickly, 
it would be difficult to distinguish between the 
two but for the fact that the accentuation in 
the one case differs entirely from that in the 
other. The appoggiatura note has the accent, but 
,c/. Nachschlag. When there are several 
notes, as in the Schleifer (a) and the Anschlag 
(6) , the first note is likewise the accented one. 


1 — ^~r"j» — 1 








Also when an A. occurs 

before the note of a chord, 

it is executed in a similar 

manner. But an exception 

occurs when an A, in a melody is strengthened 

by octaves, els for example (Schubert) : 



r I -•' 


n- ;si- 


-1 — ^ 

The first mode of execution would be false, for 
it would result in two-part writing not intended 
by the composer. — (3) There are A. notes which 
hold a middle place between the long and the 
"short A.;, and- by many are reckoned as belong- 

ing to the latter. Such are A. notes which 
have the fourth part of the value, or even less, ; 
of the principal ' note, but yet no cross stroke. - 
These too are performed with the exact value 
given to them by the composer. 



re r- li V |i;"r r\ij-A 

Appun, Georg Aug. Ignaz, b. Sept. i, 
i8i6, Hanau, d. there, Jan. 14, 1885. He studied, 
under A. Andr^ and Schnyder von Wartensee 
(theory), Suppus and Al. Schmidt (pianoforte), 
Rink (organ), and Mangold ('cello). He weS 
accomplished in many ways as a musician, and 
played nearly every kind of instrument. Up to 
about i860 he laboured successfully at Frankfort 
as a teacher of theory, and of instrumental and 
vocal music. From that time he devoted him- 
self exclusively to investigations in acoustics, and 
to the construction of delicate'acoustical appa-,: 
ratus, and constructed an harmonium with ai 
scale of 53 degrees (pure intonation, see ToNE,Ji 
DETERMINATION OF, etc.), which was the means 
of his entering into close relationship with 
authorities like Helmholtz, v. Oettingen, etc., 
acquiring thereby great fame. 

A premiere vue (Fr.), A prima vista (Ital.), 
at sight. 

Aprile, Giuseppe, an eminent contraltist 
and teacher of singing ; b. Oct. zg, 1738, Bis- 
ceglia, d. 1814, Martina. From 1763 he was 
for several years an ornament on various opera- 
tic stages (Stuttgart, Milan, Florence, Naples), 
and lived afterwards in Naples as a teacher of 
singing. A. studied under Avos, and was the 
teacher of Cimarosa and Manuel Garcia, juniori 1 
Up to now there does not seem to be sufficient 
ground for the attempts which have been made 
to turn the one A. into two, because in 1809 a 
tenor singer A. distinguished himself at the 
Pergola, Florence. Aprile's vocal method with 
solfeggi, entitled " The ItaUan Method of Sing- 
ing, with 36 solfeggi," first appeared in London ,; 
at Broderip's. 

Aptommas, the name of two brothers, distin- 
guished harpists, who have written good music 
for their instrument. The one was born in 
1826, the other in 1829 at Bridgend. Both are 
teachers, particularly of the harp, in London. , 

A punta d'arco (Ital.), with the point of the 

A piinto (Ital.), exact, in accurate time. 

A quatre mains (Fr.), A quattro maul (Ital.), 
for four hands ; expressions used in speaking 
of pianoforte and organ duets. 

A quatre voix (Fr.), A quattro voci (Ital.J.S; 
for four voices. . 

Arabians and Persians 



j&xabians and Persians. The music of the A. 
and P. has been described in a monograph by R. 
G. Kiesewetter (1842). According to tms writer 
the Arabians, before Islamism, had no musical 
culture worthy of the name ; but a flourishing 
period of musical art commenced after the 
conquest of Persia (7th century), when the old 
Persian culture passed over to the conquerors, 
and blossomed afresh. The oldest Arabian 
writer on music is Chalil (d. 776 after Christ), 
"who wrote a book of rhythms (metre) and a 
book of tones. In the loth century Alfarabi 
(q.v.) attempted to introduce the Greek theory. 
Persian writers on music first appear in the 
14th century, after Persia had escaped from the 
rule of the Turks and had come under that of 
the Mongols, under which (especially under 
Tamerlane) the arts and sciences put forth fresh 
blossoms. The founder of the new Persian 
school was Ssaffieddin, an Arabian ; his prin- 
cipal work, the " Schereffije," was written in the 
Arabian tongue. Other distinguished repre- 
sentatives are: Mahmud Schirasi (d. 1315), 
Mahmud el Amul (d. 1349), and Abdolkadir 
Ben Isa(in the Persian language). The musical 
system of these writers is that which arose in 
Persia whilst under Arabian rule, undoubtedly 
containing old Arabic elements against which 
Alfarabi had already fought. The peculiarity 
of this system is the division of the octave into 
17 parts (third-tones) ; if we take the first note 
as c, then (according to Abdolkadir's mono- 
chord) the others are: 2d|7, 3 epbi 4 ^, 5 «bi 
6 f\>, ye, 8 /, 9 g^, 10 at?|?, 11 g, 12 a^, 13 
b\>tf, 14 «■ 15 6 1?, 16 c 1?, 17 d\>\>, 18 c, or, if we 
ignore differences which are absolutely imper- 
ceptible {c/. Tone, Determination of), they 
may be indicated otherwise (cf. Letter-nota- 
tion) : c, cjt, d, d,. d^, e, e,f, /J, g, g, gi, a, a, 

i t? r bh, c, c. It is not ' by chance that this 
system offers a great number of almost abso- 
lutely pure thirds, viz., e, e, d f%f, e g^, f a, gb'S^, 
ac^,b'^ d,bdji. (Cf. Messel.) In face of this 

solid practical substratum we may, perhaps, 
venture to conclude that the twelve principal 
keys (Makamat) of the theorists are only theory ; 
practical music really makes no keys, but 
melodies. The keys are as follows (the tone 
names are given according to the above numbered 
scheme) : Uschak = c, d, e, f, g, a, b\f, c; 
Newa = c, d, e'^, f, g, a^, 6|7 c; Buselik = c, 
i^,e\,f, gi>, a^, b'jf, c; Rast = c, d,e,f,g, a^ 
b'!>,c; Irak = c, d, e,f, g, g^, a, b^,c: Iszfahan 
= c,d, e,f, g, a^, b^i c; Zirefkeni = c, d^e^ f, 
/|, g'^, a, b, c; Busurg = c, d, e,f,fj^,g, a,b^, c; 
SenguU = c^d, «././$. ". ^b. <^: Rekawi = c,d^, 
'./i^b. "b. *b. "/ Husseini = c, d^ , e'^ , f, g'v , 
a)}, ib. " (= Bnselih): Hidschas = e,. ib. «b> 
fb, «b, b.\f, c. Already in the 14th century the 

Western tone system of seven fundamental tones 
and five intermediate tones was known in Persia, 
and obtained firm footing there, especially in the 
practical use of music ; the theorists, however, 
stuck to the Messel system (q.v.) even up to 
recent times. According to Alfarabi, the lute 
(q.v.) was the chief musical instrument . of the 
Arabians. They received it from the Persians, 
and, indeed, according to information derived 
from Arabian writers before the period of 
Islamism the Persians may have got it from 
the Egyptians (see Egypt) during the period of 
their rule in Egypt (525-323 B.C.). A degener- 
ate form of the lute was the Tanbur (with long 
neck, small resonance-box, and only three 
strings tuned in unison). The Persian writers 
of the 14th century make mention besides of 
stringed instruments similar to our zither: 
Kanun (evidently derived from the Greek 
monochord, canon), Tschenk and Nushet, as 
well as the stringed instruments Kemjuageh and 
Rebab (Rubeb), the ori^, according to general 
belief, of stringed instruments (q.v.) in the West. 
But against this may be placed the fact that 
the primitive construction of these instruments 
(the sounding case of the Kemangeh is a cocoa- 
nut shell slit open, and covered with fish-skin, 
and that of the Rebab a four-cornered chest 
running upwards to a point), which has re- 
mained the same up to the present day, and 
the striking fact that the fidula (fiedel, viola, 
viella) was already known to Western writers- 
in the gth century, and the oldest representations 
show a highly developed form, whereas before 
the 14th century the Orientals make no 
mention of any instruments of the kind. The 
wind instruments were of two kinds, Ney (beaked- 
flute), and Arganum (Organum ? Bagpipe). The 
number of names used by writers for Arabic- 
Persian instruments is very great, yet it can be 
shown that many of the same refer to one and 
the same instrument. (C/. Kiesewetter's " Die 
Musik der A. und P.," p. 90, etc.) 

Araja, Francesco, Italian opera composer, 
b. 1700, Naples, d. about 1770, Bologna; pro- 
duced in 1730 his first opera, Berenice, at 
Florence. He soon acquired fame, and went in 
1735 with an Italian Opera company to Peters- 
burg, where he wrote Italian and Russian 
operas, and with great success. His Cephalos 
and Prokris (1755) is the oldest Russian opera. 
In 1759 he returned to Italy. A plan for a new 
journey to Russia (1761) was speedily aban- 
doned, owing to the assassination of Peter HI. 
A. also wrote a Christmas oratorio. 

Aranda, (i) Matheus de, Portuguese 
musician. Professor of Music at Coimbra Uni- 
versity (1544), wrote: "Tratado de cantoUano 
'y contrapuncto por Matheo de A„ maestro de 
la capilla de la S« de Lixboa," etc. (1533). 
— (2) Del Sessa d', an Italian composer of 
the i6th century, spoken of in high- terms 
by M. Prsetorius; a volume of madrigals a 



4 of his was published in 1571 by Gardano at 

Arauxo iAraujo), Francisco Correa de, 
Spanish Dominican monk, d. Jan. 13, 1663, as 
Bishop of Segovia. He wrote : " Tientos y dis- 
cursos musicos y facultad organica" (1626), and 
" Casos morales de la musica " (MS.). 

Arbeau, Thoinot, pseudonym of yean 
Tabourot, an ofl&cial at Langres towards the end 
of the i6th century ; he published, " Orchfoo- 
graphie," etc. (1589 and 1596), aliterary curiosity, 
in which dancing, drum and fife playing, are 
taught in dialogue form, and by means of a 
kind of tablature. (Cf. Choreography.) 

Arbitrio (Ital.), free-will ; a suo a., at one's 

Arbuthnot, John, English doctor, physician- 
in-ordinary to Queen Anne (1709), d. Feb. 27, 
1735. He was a warm partisan of Handel's in 
the composer's disputes with the members of 
his opera company. He gave interesting details 
about various personages in his " Miscellaneous 

Arc, abbr. for arco (bow) . 

Azcadelt, Jacob {aisovtrittea J achet Arliadelt, 
Archadet, Hanadelt, Arcadet), celebrated Nether- 
land composer, b. about 1514; went to Rome, 
and became teacher of singing of the boys' 
choir at the Papal Chapel (1539), then singer 
there (1540), later on chamberlain to an abbot 
' (1544). He followed the Due de Guise to 
Paris about 1555, where we find him with 
the title of Regius musicus (1557). A goodly 
number of Arcadelt's compositions have come 
down to us, principally six books of madrigals 
a 5, in which form of art A. chiefly excelled 
(1538-56), and a volume of masses ^ 3-7 (1557 ; 
his publishers, Gardano and Scoto at Venice, 
and Le Roy and Ballard at Paris, were the 
most celebrated of that time). Many motets, 
canzoni, etc., are to be found in collections of 
the period. 

Arcadia (Accademia degli Anadi), a society of 
artists (poets and musicians), founded at Rome 
in 1690. The members bore old Greek shep- 
herds' names. 

ArcaiB, Francesco, Marchese d', b. Dec. 
15, 1830, Cagliari (Sardinia), d. Aug. 15, 1890, 
Castelgandolfo, near Rome, was for many years 
musical critic of the Opinione. He had an 
excellent pen, but his tastes were somewhat 
antiquated, and he held in horror, not only 
Wagner, but any departure from Italian opera 
in the good old sense of the term. He himself 
made several attempts at composition (three 
operettas), but met with little success. A. 
was also a contributor to the Milan Gazetta 
musicah. During the last years of his life he 
resided in Rome ; he followed the Opinione 
from Turin, passing through Florence. 

Arcato (Ital.), played with the bow. 

Archadet. (Ste Arcadelt.) 

Archambeau, Jean Michel d', Belgian 
composer, b. March 3, 1823, Herve, was at the 
age of 15 teacher of music at the college there. 
He was afterwards organist at Petit Rechain, and 
has written masses, litanies, motets, romances 
and drawing-room pieces. 

Axcheggiare (Ital.), to play with the bow. 

Archer, Frederick, excellent English organ-; 
ist, b. June 16, 1838, Oxford ; was trained at| 
London and Leipzig. He was at first conductor, 
but since 1881 has been organist at Brooklyn 
(New York). He has published works on the 
organ and organ compositions, and was for 
some time editor of The Key-Note. 

Archi .... and Arc! .... as h. prefix to the 
names of old instruments, refers to a specially 
extensive compass, and to large size, as, for 
example, Anhicymbal {arcicembalo, an instrument 
with six keyboards, constructed in the i6th 
century by Vicentino ; it had special keys and 
strings for the three ancient genera — ^the dia- 
tonic, chromatic, and enharmonic) ; Archiliuto 
{arciliuto, Fr., archiluth, Ger., Erzlaute ; cf. Bass 
Lute, Chitarrone, and Theorbo), Archiviok': 
di Lira (Lirone, Accordo, Lira da Gamba, the 
largest kind of lyres [viols with many strings] ), 
etc. ... 

Archytas, a Greek statesman and Pythagoream 
philosopher, at Tarentum circa 400-365 Km 
He was a, celebrated mathematician, probablS 
the first whose divisions of the tetrachord fixea 
the ratio of the third at 5 : 4 (handed down by 
Ptolemy). Only fragments of his writings have 
been preserved. 

Arco (Ital.), bow ; coll' arco (abbr. arc, c. arc), 
arcato, "with the bow." A sign for stringed 
instruments, after a pizzicato passage, that the 
bow is to be used again. 

Ardente (Ital.), with fire and ardour. 

Arditi, (1) Michele, Marchese, b. Sept. 
29, 174s, Presicca (Naples), d. April 23, 1838 ; a 
learned archaeologist and composer, in 1807 
director of the Bourbon Museum, iz. 1817 chief 
inspector of excavations in the kingdoni ■ of 
Naples. He wrote one opera, Olimpiade,!: as 
well as numerous cantatas, arias, and instru- 
mental works. — (2) Luigi, b. July 22, 1822, 
Crescentino (Vercelli). He studied at the 
Milan Conservatorio, was a violinist and 
maestro at Vercelli, Milan, Turin ; he went iii 
a similar capacity to Havannah, New York, 
Constantinople, and finally to London, where 
he conducted the Italian Opera for several 
years, and he has since been living as music 
teacher and composer. His name has become 
specially popular through his vocal dances, of 
which ',' II bacio ". has made the round of the 
world. He has also written three operas, as 
well as instrumental pieces (pianoforte fantasia^: 
scherzo for two violins, etc.). ' ' 

Ardito (ItaJ.), with spirit and boldness. 

Aretinian (Guidonian) Syllables, sanie as sol- 




misation syllables (ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la), which 
Guido d'Arezzo first employed as tone-names. 


Argine, Constantino dall', b. May 12, 
1842, Parma, d. March 15, 1877, Milan. A 
favourite composer of ballets in Italy ; he also 
produced several operas. 

Aria (Ital., Ger. Arie)' is the name given to 
solo vocal pieces developed at length, and with 
orchestral accompaniment, whether taken from 
an opera, cantata, or oratorio ; or it may stand 
for a detached work (concert aria) intended for 
concert performance. It differs from the ballad, 
which also has orchestral accompaniment, in 
that it is lyrical, i.e. expresses feelings in the 
first person, while the ballad relates (epico- 
lyric). The expression can rise to a high de- 
gree of dramatic power, when speech, passing 
from simple description and reflection, takes 
the form of apostrophe ; hence there are arias 
which are monologues set to music, while others 
appear as parts of a great ensemble scene. A 
special group is formed by the sacred arias 
{Church arias. Aria da chiesa), which are either 
prayers or devout meditations, and express 
moods of the most varied kind (contrition, 
anguish, thankfulness, joy, mourning, etc.). The 
A. differs from the Lied in that it is laid out 
altogether on a broader plan, but principally in 
its exterior condition, for the Lied is only ac- 
companied by one or a few instruments (Klavier- 
lied. Lied wim violin or 'cello and pf.). Arias 
of"small compass, which closely resemble the 
Lied, and which, when a pianoforte accompani- 
ment is substituted for the orchestra (as is 
always the case in drawing-room performances), 
entirely lack the feature which distinguishes 
them from the -Lied, are called Cavatinas, 
Ariettas, or even actually Lieder. (Couplet, 
Canzone.) The French word Air has, at the 
present day, a much more general sense, and 
fairly answers to the word " melody," i.e. it is 
used as much for vocal pieces of various 
kinds as for instrumental pieces, provided only 
that a beautiful melody forms their chief fea- 
ture. In the 17th and i8th centuries the word 
Arie had the same meaning in Germany, and 
there was the Spielarie (Instrumental A.), as 
well as the Gesangsarie (Vocal A.). The A. was 
developed into a fixed art-form of high import- 
ance in the so-called grand or da capo A., which 
consists of two sections, contrasting with each 
other/in mood, movement, and mode of artistic 
treatment. The first section gives the vocalist 
an opportunity to display his or her agiUty of 
voice : there are many repetitions of words, and 
the theme is richly developed ; while in the 
second section the vocal part is quieter, and on 
that account displays richer harmonic and con- 
trapuntal means. This second section is fol- 
lowed by a da capo, i.e. the first is faithfully 
repeated, only with rich ornamentation on the 
part of the singer. An essential element of the 

grand A. is the instrumental ritornello at the 
commencement, containing the principal melody. 
The ever-increasing demands resulting from the 
ever -increasing virtuoso capabilities of the 
singers became of such prime importance in 
Italian opera, that composers had in the first 
place to think about writing grateful numbers 
for the smgers ; and thus the grand A. became 
the coloratura or bravura A. The " da capo " A. 
arose already in the 17th century («« Scarlatti, 
I), and flourished until about the end of the 
1 8th century; it, has now gone out of vogue, 
and has given place to a freer multiform treat- 
ment of the A. The literal da capo has been 
given up, as undramatic ; the ritornello is only 
to be found exceptionally, and the thematic 
articulation of the A. is fixed by the demands of 
the text, so that it is frequently in rondo form, 
or includes an allegro movement between two 
movements in slower time, etc. The asthetic 
meaning of the A. in the musical drama (opera) 
is a pause in the action in favour of the broader 
unfolding of a lyrical. moinent. Wagner and 
his adherents look upon such as unauthorised 
and offensive in style, while another strong 
party looks upon the A. as the finest flower of 
dramatic music. These are questions of great 
importance concerning which it is impossible to 
come to an understanding, but only to take a 
side. The bravura aria writteA solely for the 
virtuoso is aesthetically a reprehensible thing, 
but between that and the great A. in Fidelia 
there is a difference great enough for thede- 
spisers of the former to be admirers of the 

Aiiho, Scholasticus, about 1078; he was 
the author of an extremely valuable treatise on 
the theory of music, giving a commentary on 
the writings of Guido d'Arezzo. It is printed in 
Gerbert's "Script," II. 

Arienzo, Nicola d', b. Dec. 24, 1842, Naples, 
pupil of V. Fioravanti, G. Moretti, and Sav. > 
Mercadante ; produced, at the age of nineteen, 
his first opera, La Fidanzata del Perucchiere, at 
Naples, which up to 1880 was followed by seven 
others, among which, La FigUa del Diavolo 
(1879), attacked by the critics as too real- 
istic and of forced originality.. He also 
wrote several overtures. In 1879 appeared his 
theoretical work, "Introduction of the Tetra- 
chordal System into Modern Music," in whidi , 
he advocated pure intonation (in place of equal 
temperament), and together with the two ruling 
modes, major and minor, asserts the existence 
of a third, that of.the minor second. (Cf. Minor 

Arietta (Ital.; Fr. Ariette), same as a small 
aria (q.v.). 

Arion, the fable-encircled singer of Grecian 
antiquity, who lived about 600 b.c. 

Arioso (Ital.) is the, term used for a short 
melodious movement in the middle, or at the 
conclusion of a recitative. The A. differs from 




the Aria in that it has no thematic articulation ; 
it is only a start towards an A., a lyrical move- 
ment of short duration. 

Axiosti, Attilio, b. 1660, Bologna, a. once 
celebrated opera composer ; he made his debut 
in 1686 at Venice with the opSra Dafne ; at 
first he closely followed the manner of LuUy, 
but later on imitated that of Alessandro Scar- 
latti. In 1698 we find A. at BerUn as " Hof- 
kapellmeister." In 1716 he went to London, 
where, together with Buononcini, he won 
triumphs until the shining star of Handel threw 
them both into the shade. In 1728 he published 
a volume of cantatas by subscription in order 
to improve his circumstances ; in this he suc- 
ceeded, and thereupon returned to Bologna. 

Aristides, Quintilianus, Greek writer on 
music of the ist-2nd century a.d. ; his work, 
" jrepl fiovcriKris " was published in Meibom's 
" Antiquae Musicae Auctores Septem" (1652). 

Aristotle, (i) The Greek philosopher, pupil of 
Plato, lived from 384 to 322 B.C. His writings 
contain little about music, but that little is of 
the highest importance for the investigation of 
the nature of Greek music, especially the 19th 
section of his " Problemata," drawn up in the 
form of question and answer, which treats ex- 
clusively of music; besides some chapters of 
his, " Politica,"" and some passages of his 
" Poetica." — (2) Pseudonym of a writer on 
measured music, who flourished between the 
1 2th and 13th centuries; from various indica- 
tions he is considered identical with the author 
of the musical treatise erroneously ascribed to 
the Venerable Bede (7th century), and published 
in the collection of his works. 

Aristoxenus, a pupil of Aristotle, the oldest 
and most important of the Greek writers on 
music (apart from single treatises of Plato and 
Aristotle), born about 354 B.C. Of his numer- 
ous writings the "Harmonic Elements" alone 
have been preserved complete. Only fragments 
remain of the "Rhythmical Elements." Both 
works appeared in Greek and German, vrith 
critical comments by P. Marquard, in 1868. 
{C/. Westphal.) 

Armbrust, Karl F., excellent performer on 
the organ, b. Mar. 20, 1849, Hamburg; pupil 
of the Stuttgart Conservatorium, especially of 
Faisst, whose son-in-law he became in 1874. 
He succeeded his father already in 1869 as 
organist of St. Peter's Church at Hamburg, 
and he is also active as pianoforte and organ 
teacher at the. Hamburg Conservatorium, and 
as a musical critic. 

Armer la clef (Fr.), to indicate the key by 
means of the signature. Armure same as sig- 

Armgeige. {See Viola.) 

Arming'aud, Jules, celebrated violinist, b. 
May- 3, 1820, Bayonne ; trained in his native 
town. In 1839 he wished to perfect himself at 

the Paris Conservatoire, but was refused on the 
ground that he was too far advanced. From 
that time he was active in the orchestra of the 
Grand Ojpera, and he formed a stringed quartefl 
society with Leon Jacquard,E. Lalo, and Mas,| 
which won for itself great fame ; of late, in- 
creased by some wind players, it has taken the 
name of Socilte classique. A. has also pubhshed 
some compositions for the violin. 

Armonie {Harmonie) is said to have been an 
instrument of the Minestriers from the 12th to 
the 13th century; probably the same as the 
chifonie (symphonie), a name given to the Vielh 
(Organistrum, Hurdy-Gurdy). 

Amaud, (i) Abb^ Franfois, b. July 27, 
1721, Aubignan, near Carpentras, d. Dec. 2, 
1784 ; went to Paris 1752, became (1763) Abbot 
of Grandchamps, afterwards reader and libra- 
rian to the Count of Provence, and member of 
the Acad^mie. A. wrote a series of musical 
essays which are mostly to be found in larger 
works : his collected writings appeared in three 
vols, at Paris, 1808. He was a zealous partisan 
of Gluck's : his letters in relation to this matter 
are to be found in the " M^moires pour servir 
i I'histoire de la revolution op^rfe dans la 
musique par M. le Chevalier Gluck." — (2) Jean 
Etienne Guillaume, b. March 16, 1807, 
Marseilles, d. there Jan. 1863, favourite com- 
poser of romances, known . also in Germany 
[Zwii Aeuglein so blau). 

Ame, (i) Thomas Augustine, b. March 
12, 1710, London, d. there, March 5, 1778 ; one 
of the most eminent English musicians, com- 
poser of the melody "Rule Britannia." His 
vidfe, Cecilia A., daughter of Young the organist, 
was a famous opera singer, pupil of Geminianij-a 
A. wrote about thirty operas, and music t&l 
Shakesperian and other dramas, two oratorios 
{Abel, Judith), songs, glees, catches, pianoforte 
sonatas, organ concertos, etc. The Universjto^ 
of Oxford conferred on him the degree ra^ 
Doctor. A set of eight sonatas by Ame have 
been republished in Pauer's " Old English 
Composers." — (2) Michael, son of the former, 
b. 1741, London, d. about 1806 ; composed 
likewise some operas, which he produced with 
success. In 1770 he attempted the discovery 
of the philosopher's stone, and built a labor- 
atory at Chelsea. Ruined by the expense, 
he returned to music, and wrote (1778-83) a 
number of small pieces for the London theatres. 

Arneiro, Jos^ Augusto Ferreira ^ieiga, ; 
Vicomte d', Portuguese, composer, b. Nov. 22, 
1838, Macao (China) ; he sprang from a noble 
Portuguese family (his mother was of Swedish 
descent) ; studied law at Coimbra, and from 
1859 harmony under Manvel Joaquim Botelho, 
counterpoint and fugue under Vicente Schira, 
and pianoforte under Antonio Jos6 Scares, and 
commenced to compose with assiduity. A 
ballet was produced by him, 1866, at the 
theatre San Carlos, Lisbon, entitled Ginn.. His 




principal work is a Te Deum, which was pro- 
duced first at St. Paul's Church, Lisbon, in 
1871, and afterwards in Paris under the title 
Symphonie-Cantate (a name of late much in 
vogue in France). An opera was produced at 
the Carlos Theatre, Lisbon, L'Elisin di Gio- 
vinezza, and another, La Denlitta (1885). A. 
ranks among the most eminent modem Portu- 
guese composers. 

Arnold, (i) Geof g, church composer of the 
17th century, b. Weldsberg (Tyrol); at first 
organist at Innsbruck, afterwards to the Bishop 
of Bamberg; he published, 1632-76, motets, 
psalms, and two books of masses in nine parts. 
— (z) Samuel, b. Aug. 10, 1740, London, d. Oct. 
22, 1S02; trained as chorister of the Chapel Royal 
under Gates and Nares. Already, at the age 
of twenty-three, he received, a commission to 
write an opera for Covent Garden, which was 
brought out with success — Thi Maid of the Mill 
(1765) . Up to 1802 he wrote no less than 45 works 
for the stage, and five oratorios. In 1783 he 
became organist and composer to the Chapel 
Royal; 1789, conductor of the Academy of 
Ancient Music ; 1793, organist of Westminster 
Abbey; in 1773 he obtained the degree of Doctor 
of Music atjOxford. His most memorable work 
is perhaps the " Cathedral Music," a collection 
of the best services by English masters (1790, 
4 vols.), a continuation of a work of the same 
name by Boyce, republished in 1847, by E. F. 
Rimbault. His edition of Handel's works (1786, 
etc., 36 vols.) is, unfortunately, not free from 
faults. — (3) Johann Gottfried, b. Feb. 15, 
, 1773, NiedemhaU near Oehringen (Hohenlohe) ; 
excellent 'cellist and composer. After prolonged 
study under the best masters (M. Willmann, 
B. Romberg), and njany concert tours in Switz- 
erland and Germany, he became fijrst 'cellist at 
the theatre at Frankfort, where he died already, 
July 26, 1806. His principal works are : five 
'ceUo concertos, six sets of variations for 'cello, 
a Symphonie concertante for two flutes with or- 
chestra, etc. — (4) Ignaz Ernst Ferdinand, 
b. April 4, 1774, Erfurt, a lawyer there, d. 
Oct. 13, 1812. He published (1803, etc.) short 
biographies of Mozart, Haydn, Cherubini, 
Cimarosa, Paesiello, Dittersdorf, Zumsteeg, 
Winter, and Himmel, which were reprinted in 
l8i6in 2 vols, as " Galerie derberuhmtestenTon- 
kunstler des 18 u. ig Jahrhunderts." He wrote 
besides : " Der angenende Musikdirektor oder 
die Kunst ein Orchester zu bilden, etc." (1806). 
— (5) Karl, b. March 6, 1794, Neukirchen near 
Mergentheim, d. Nov. 11, 1873, Christiania ; sou 
of Johann Gottfried A., after whose death he 
was brought up in Offenbach, where Alois 
Schmitt, VoUweiler, and Joh. Ant. Andrfi were 
his instructors in music. After an exciting life 
as pianist, he first settled in Petersburg (1819), 
where he married the singer, Henriette Kisting; 
from thence he went (1824) to Berlin, 1835 to 
Miinster, and 1849 to Christiania as conductor 
of the Philharmonic Society and organist of 

the principal church. Of his compositions may 
be mentioned a series of excellent chamber- 
music works (pf. sextet, sonatas, fantasias, 
variations, an opera, Irene, produced at Berlin 
1832, etc.). His son, Karl, b. 1820, Petersburg, 
pupil of M. Bohrer, was 'cellist in the royal band 
at Stockholm.— (6) Friedrich Wilhelm, b. 
March 10, 1810, Sontheim, near Heilbronn, 
d. Feb. 13, 1864, as music-seller at Elberfeld; 
he published ten series of " Volkslieder," besides 
the "Locheimer Liederbuch," Konrad Pau- 
mann's "Ars organisandi " (both in Chrysan- 
der's " Jahrbiicher"), pf. pieces, arrangements 
of the symphonies of Beethoven for pf. and 
violin, etc. — (7) Yourij von, b. Nov. i, 1811, 
Petersburg, where his father was councillor of 
state, studied political economy at Dorpat, 
entered the Russian army in 1831, and went 
through the Polish campaign; but left the 
military service in 1838 in order to devote him- 
self entirely to music ; he composed the Russian 
operas, The Gipsy (1853) and Swatlana (1854, 
gained a prize) ; and further, overtures, songs, 
choral songs, fete. He gave lectures on the 
history of music and acoustics, and became 
a serious critic. From 1863 to 1868 he lived in 
Leipzig, showed himself a zealous supporter of 
new German tendencies, and edited a paper of 
his own. Since 1870 he has been professof of 
singing at the Moscow Conservatoire. In 1878 
he published " Die alten Kirchenmodi historisch 
una aiustisch entwickelt." 

Axnulf von St. Gillen (15th century), author 
of a treatise printed in Gerbert (" Script " iU.), 
" De Differentiis et Generibus Cantorum." 

Axpa (Ital.), Harp; Arfanetta, small oi" 
" pointed " harp. 

Aipeggiando (Ital.), playing the notes of a 
chord in succession. 

Arpeggio (Ital.), or arpeggiato, really " after 
the manner of a harp." This is a term which 
indicates that the notes of a chord are not to be 
struck together, but one after the other, as on 
the harp. The A. is marked by the written 
word (or in abbreviated form as arp.), or by the 
following signs : 

Only the first sign is now in common use, but 
the fourth is to be found in Mozart's pianoforte 
sonatas in the Peters edition (but see Acciaca- 
tura) ; the last two signify a t)reaking up of 
the rni"™ into quavers. Formerly there were 
special signs for the A, from below (Ex. I.), anA 
for the one from above (II.) ; the A. from above 
has now to be indicated by small notes (III.). 

1 below. 

II above. 

Ill above. 



Art aria 

If a long appogiatura stands before a note of an 
arpeggio chord, that , appogiatura note belongs 
to the A., and the other notes follow as at a; 
short appogiaturas are played as at b. 

The usual way of playing the A. is to give one 
quick succession of notes of the series com- 
mencing on the beat. Formerly, however, it 
was usual for the A. sign to serve as an abbre- 
viation for all kinds of chord passages, which 
naturally had first to be written out once. 
(C/. Abbreviations.) In old compositions for 
the violin (Bach), one often meets with a series 
of chords, in notes of long value, with the 
arpeggio sign, and it is usual to play them in 
the following, or some similar, manner. 

Aipeggione (Guitar Violoncello), a stringed in- 
strument similar to the Gamba, constructed in 
1823 by G. Staufer, of Vienna. Franz Schu- 
bert wrote a sonata for it, and Vine. Schuster 
published a Method. The six strings were 
tuned as follows : E, A, d, g, b, e'. 

Arpichord, same as Harpsichord. 
'Arquier, Joseph, French opera composer, 
"b. 1763, Toulon, d. Oct. 1816, Bordeaux; wrote 
-more than fifteen operas, six of which were 
produced at Paris, and nine in the provinces. 
In 1798 , A. became conductor at the Paris 
.theatre, "des jeunes Aleves," and some years 
later he went with an opera troupe to New 
Orleans, but failed, and returned in 1804. 

Arrangement, adaptation of pieces for other 
instruments than those for which they were 
written by the composer. For example, the 
pianoforte score of an orchestral work is an A. ; 
inthe same way pianoforte duets are ' ' arranged ' ' 
as solos; also pianoforte works scored for 
orchestra are called arrangements. The oppo- 
site of A. is an " original composition." 

Axriaga y Balzola, Juan Crisostomo 
Jacobo Antonio, Spanish composer, b. Jan. 

27, 1806, Bilbao, d. end of February, 1825. H< 
studied at the Paris Conservatoire under Fetis 
in i8zi, and threes years later was undermastlt- 
there for harmony and counterpoint. A. also 
was full of promise as a violinist, but the ex- 
pectations justified by his youthful genius were 
frustrated by his early death. Of his composi- 
tions only three stringed quartets were printed 

Arrieta, Don Juan Emilio, Spanish com« 
poser, director of^the Madrid Conservatorio, b, 
Oct. 21, j;8z3, Puente la Reina (Navarre); hs 
was a pupil at the Milan Conservatorio from, 
1842 to 1845, in which city he soon afterwarda| 
produced his first opera, lidegonde. He returned 
to Spain in 1848, and produced a number (up 
to 1883 already 39) of operas and operettas. 
He was appointed teacher of composition at 
the Madrid Conservatorio in 1857, and in 1875 
successor of Eslavas as councillor in the 
ministry of public instruction. 

Axrigoni, Carlo, b. Florence at the be- 
ginning of the i8th century, an excellent 
lutenist, maestro to Prince de Carignan. In 
1732 he was called to London by Handel's 
enemies, in order, with Porpora's help, to oust 
him from popular favour, but he soon had to 
lower his sails before the great genius. 

Arrigo Tedesco (Heinrich der Deutsche), the 
name given to Heinrich Isaac (q.v.) in Italy. 

Arsis (Gr.), heaving, the contrary of Thesis 
(sinking) ; by these terms the Greeks distin- 
guishied between the heavy (accented) and light 
(unaccented) parts of a bar, so that the heavy 
one was marked as Thesis, and the light as h. 
(Raising and lowering of the foot in dancing 
The Latin grammarians of the middle ages 
inverted the meaning, took A. in the sense of., 
raising of the voice (with emphasis), and thesis ' 
as lowering (without emphasis) ; and with these 
meanings the terms are still used in the art 
of metre, ■ whereas in that of music the old 
meaning has again come into vogue : lowering 
(Thesis) and raising (A.) of the stick or hand. 
Thus :— 

Ancient metre . . . 
Metre of the middle 1 

ages and of modern V 

times ] 

Music of the present . Th. A. Th. A. 

Artaria, the well-known house at Vienna for 
prints and music, established by Carlo A. in 
1769 as a print shop, and in 1780 as a music 
publishing house. Three cousins of the same, 
Francesco, Ignazio, and Pasquale A. 
were partners from the beginning. A branch of 
the business, at Mayence was closed already in 
1793, and at Manpheim a business was estab- 
lished by two brothers of Pasquale, D o m e n i c 
and Giovanni, on their own account, trading 

Art aria 



under the name "Domenico A.," and later on, 
with the bookseller, Fontaine, as partner, under 
that of " A. & Fontaine." The Vienna business 
received two new partners in i793i Giovanni 
Cappi and Tranquillo MoUo. Cappi retired 
from the firm in 1796, and set up a publishing 
house under his own name (afterwards Tobias 
Haslinger) ; MoUo did likewise in 1801 (after- 
wards Diabelli). The inheritor of the business, 
Domenico A., son-in-law of Carlo, died in 
1842; his son, August, is the present pro- 

Arteaga, Stefano, a Spanish Jesuit, b. 
Madrid, d. Oct. 30, 1799, Paris. After the 
order had been suppressed in Spain he went to 
Italy, and lived for several years in the house 
of Cardinal Albergati at Bologna, and in 
friendly intercourse with Padre Martini, who 
urged him to write the now celebrated history 
of opera in Italy. Later on A. went to Rome, 
where he became intimate with the Spanish 
ambassador, Azara; he followed the latter to 
Paris, where he died. His work is entitled 
" Le Rivoluzioni del Teatro Musicale Italiano " 
(1783 ; thoroughly revised, 1785). A work on 
ancient rhythm, left in manuscript, has dis- 

Articulation in speech refers to the clear 
utterance of each syllable ; in music to the art 
of producing and combining sounds, and there- 
fore to the various forms of legato and staccato. 
(C^jToncH.) The meanings of "Articulation" 
and " Phrasing " have been confused together, 
and likewise separated in an unsatisfactory 
manner ; and this has caused one of the prin- 
cipal hindrances to a proper understanding of 
the latter term. Articulation is in the first 
instance something purely technical, mechan- 
ical, whilst Phrasing in the first;.instance is some- 
thing ideal, perceptionable. I articulate pro- 
perly, if in 

I connect the sounds under the same slur, and 
break off the last note within the slur. I 
phrase when I perceive that just the last note 
witlunthe slur and the first within the next slur 
together form one motive. 


Artist (Fr. Artiste), a word specially used in 
France for aiAats and opera-singers. 

ArtAt, name or surname of a distinguished 
musical family, whose real name was Mon- 
taguey. The ancestor of the musical branch 
was (i) Maurice Moritagney, named A., b. 
Feb. 3, 1772, Gray (Haute Saone), d. Tan. 8, 
iSag. He was bandmaster of a French regi- 

ment during the Revolution, went afterwards 
as first horn player to the Theatre de la Mon- 
naie, Brussels, where he was also appointed 
conductor at the Beguine Monastery. A. was 
at the same time an excellent performer on the 
guitar and violin, and a teacher of singing. — 
(2) Jean D^sirS Montagney (A.), son of the 
former, b. Sept. 23, 1803, Paris, d. March 25, 
1887, St. Josse ten Noode ; pupil of his father, 
and his successor at the Brussels theatre, first 
horn player in the regiment of the Guides, in 
1843 professor of the horn at the Brussels Con- 
servatoire, in 1849 first horn player in the 
private band of the King of the Belgians ; he 
received a pension in 1873. He published a 
number of compositions -. for horn (fantasias, 
etudes, quartets for four chromatic horns or 
cornets A piston). — (3) Alexandre Joseph 
Montagney (A.), brother of the former, b. Jan. 
25, 1815, Brussels, d. July 20, 1845, Ville 
d'Avray, near Paris ; he studied with his 
father, then under Snel in Brussels, and from 
1824-31 under Rudolf and August Kreutzer at 
the Paris Conservatoire. He became an excel- 
lent violinist, and, holding no appointment, made 
most extensive artistic tours through Europe and 
America (1843). He published various compo- 
sitions for violin (a minor concerto, fantasias, 
sets of variations, etc.) ; quartets for strings, a 
pf. quintet, etc., remained in manuscript. — (4) 
Marguerite Josephine D^sir^e Mon- 
tagney (A.), daughter of DSsir^ A., b. July 21, 
1835, Paris, while her parents were on a 
journey: She studied under Mme. Viardot- 
Garcia, 1853-1857 ; first appeared at concerts 
in Brussels in 1857, and on the recommenda- 
tion of Meyerbeer was engaged at the Paris 
Grand Op&a in 1858. She met with extra- 
ordinary success. After a short time, however, 
she gave up her engagement, appeared as a 
" star" at a great number of French, Belgian, 
and Dutch theatres, and then went to Italy in 
order to perfect herself in Italian singing.- Her 
triumph reached its zenith when she jtppeared 
in Lorini's Italian company at Berun; for 
several years she sang, principally in Germany, 
especially Berlin. She went to Russia in 1866, 
paid also visits to ]U>ndon, Copenhagen, etc. 
In 1869 she married the Spanish baritone; 
Padilla y Ramos (b. 1842, Murcia, pupil of 
Mabellini at Florence), who from that time 
shared her success. Artdt's voice was originally 
a full mezzo-soprano of passionate expression ; 
but by steady practice she materially extended 
her compass upwards, so that she can sing the 
most important dramatic soprano parts. Even 
now (1886) she is a star of the first magni- 
tude. . 

Artusi, Giovanni Maria, Canon in Or- 
dinary at San Salvatore, Bologna, about 1600. 
He published " Arte del Contrapunto " (1586- 
89, 2 parts ; second ed. 1598) ; " L' Artusi, owero 
delle Imperfecioni ■ della Moderna Musica " 
(1600-1603, 2 parts), as well as some essays 




(" Considerazione Musicali," 1607, etc.), and a 
volume of Canzonets a 4 (1598). A. was a 
thoroughly well trained contrapuntist, but 
could not enter into the spirit of the innovations 
of a Monteverde or Gesualdo di Venosa, or even 
of men like N. Vincentino, Cyprian de Rore, 
A. Gabrieli ; he was one of those api)aritions 
which are always to be met with in art in times 
of fermentation and of development of new ten- 

Asantschewski, Michael Pawlowitsch 
von, Russian composer, b. 1838, Moscow, d. 

there Tan. — , 1881 ; studied, 1861-62, composi- 

tion at Leipzig under Hauptmann and Richter ; 
lived in Paris, 1866-70, where he acqvured the 
valuable musical library of Anders, which, to- 
gether with his own, of considerable value, he 
presented to the Petersburg Conservatoire, of 
which, in 1870, he became the director in place 
of A. Rubinstein. In 1876, however, he with- 
drew from this post and devoted himself to 
composition, but up to now he has published 
little (pianoforte pieces, a stringed quartet, over- 

Asas (Ger.), A double flat. 

ABChenbrenner, Christian Heinrich, b. 
Dec. 29, 1654, Altstettin, d. Dec. 13, 1732, 
Jena. He studied first with his father, who 
had been ducal capellmeister at Wolfenbiittel, 
and who at the time of his birth was director 
of "music at Altstettin. In 1668 he studied 
with Theile at Merseburg, and finally with 
Schmelzer at Vienna. A. was an excellent 
violinist, and, with interruptions which caused 
him anxiety with regard to means of living, 
occupied the post of first violin at Zeitz (1677- 
1681), Merseburg (1683-1690), musical director 
to the Duke of Sachsen-Zeitz (1693-1713), and 
capellmeister to the Duke of Sachsen-Merseburg 
(1713 to 1719). From that time he lived on a 
smaU pension, giving lessons at Jena even when 
advanced in years. The following is all that 
has been preserved of his compositions : " Gast- 
und Hod^eitsfireude, bestehendin Sonaten, Pra- 
ludien, Allemanden, Couranten, Balletten, Arien, 
Sarabanden mit drei, vier und fiinf Stimmen, 
nebst dem basso continuo " (1673). 

Ascher, Joseph, b. 1831, London, of German 
parents, dl. there June 20, 1869. He enjoyed 
the instruction of Moscheles, whom he fol- 
lowed to Leipzig in 1846 as pupil at the Con- 
servatorium. In 1849 he went to Paris, where 
he was afterwards named court pianist to the 
Empress Eugenie. He was known as the com- 
poser of light, so-called saJojt-music. 

A sharp (Ger. Ais), A. raised a semitone. A 
sharp major chord=a sharp, c double-sharp, e sharp ; 
A sharp minor chord = a sharps c sharp, e sharp; 
A sharp minor key, 7 sharps signature. {Sa Key.) 

Ashdown, Edwin, music publisher, London, 
succeeded in i860, in company with Mr. Parry, 

to the firm of Wessel and Co.j the greater num- 
ber of whose publications they bought. They- 
have since added a variety of popular works to 
their catalogue. In the year 1884 Messrs. Ash- 
down and Parry separated, and me business i; 
now carried on under the title Edwin Ashdovra, 

Ashton, Algernon, b. Dec. 9, 1859, Durham. 
He was the son of a cathedral singer, and went, 
after his father's death, in 1863, to Leipzig, re- 
mained as pupil of the Conservatorium there 
from 1875 to 1879 ; studied after that with Rjiff 
froni 1880 to 1881, and then settled down in 
London, where he was appointed teacher of the 
pianoforte at the Royal College of Music in 
1885. A. is a gifted composer (choral and or- 
chestral works, pf. concerto, chamber music, 
songs, and pf. pieces, English, Scotch, and 
Irish Dances, etc.). 

Asioli, Bonifacio, b. April 30, 1769, Cor- 
reggio, d. there May 18, 1832; became composer 
at an inconceivably early age (he is said to 
have already written, when eight years old, three 
masses, a series of other sacred works, a violin 
concerto, pianoforte pieces, etc., and indeed 
without any previous theoretical instruction)^ 
After he had taken regular lessons in composi- 
tion for some years with Morigi at Parma, he 
was appointed maestro di capella at Correggic, 
In 1787 he went to Turin, where, diligently 
composing, he resided until 1796, and then ac- 
companied the Marquise Gherardini to Venice, 
and in 1799 settled in Milan. In 1801 he was 
appointed maestro di capella to the Vice- 
King of Italy, and in 1808 became the first 
president of the new Conservatorio at Milan, 
which offices he held until 1813. He then re- 
turned to his native city, composing still up to 
1820. A. wrote a great number of cantatas, 
masses, motets, songs, duets, etc., concertos for 
various instruments, nocturnes a 3 — ^5, with 
and without axxompaniment, seven operas, one 
oratorio {jfacoi), etc., as well as a number of 
theoretical works, viz., " Principj Elementari di 
Musica " (a general instruction book, which ap- 
peared in 1809, and was frequently republished; 
also in French, i8ig) ; " L'AlUevo al Cembalo " 
(Piano Method) ; " Primi Elementi peril Canto" 
(Vocal Method) ; "Elementi per ilContrabasso" 
(1823) ; " Trattato d'Armonia e d'Accompagna- 
mento" (Method of Thorough Bass); "Dialoghi ' 
sul Trattata d'Armonia " (Question and Answer 
Book to the Treatise on Harmony, 18.14) '• "0^ 
servazioni sul Temperamento proprio degli 
Stromenti stabili, etc. " ; and " Disinganno ,, 
suUe Asservazioni," etc.; finally, "II Maestro-' 
di Composizione" (a sequel to the Method of 
Thorough Bass, 1836). 

ABOla (Asnla), Giovanni Matteo, prolific 
sacred composer, b. Verona, d. Oct. i, i6og, 
Venice. He was one of the first to make use ot 
basso continuo for the accompaniment of sacred 
vocal music with organ. Besides a number of 




masses, psalms, etc., two books of madrigals 
(1587, 1596) have been preserved. 

Aspa, Mario, prolific Italian opera composer, 
b. 1806, Messina, d. 1861 (?). He v^rote forty- 
two operas, of which especially II muratore di 
Uapoli won lasting popularity. 

Aspiration (Lat.), a now antiquated orna- 
ment, answering to the still older Plica (q.v.) ; 
it indicated a light touching of the upper or 
under second at the end of the value of a note : 
Played ; 

Rousseau gives this definition for Accent. 

Assai (Ital. "enough," "fairly"), a tempo 
indication, or one of expression, adding in- 
tensity, e.g. Allegro A., at a good rapid pace. 

Assez (Fr.), enough, rather. Assez lent, rather 

Assmayer, Ignaz, b. Feb. 11, 1790, Salzburg, 
d. Aug. 31, 1862, Vienna. He studied under 
Brunmayr and M. Haydn ; in 1808 was organist 
of St. Peter's, Salzburg, went to Vienna in 1815, 
where he received further training from Eybler. 
In 1824 he became the Scotch 
church ; was named Jmperial organist in 1825 ; 
in 1838 supemumary vice-, and in 1846 second 
capellmeister to \h.e Court, as successor to 
Weigl.' Of his fifteen meritorious masses he 
only published one ; also only a small portion 
of his Graduals, Offertories, appeared in print. 
Haslinger published the oratorios Sauls Tod and 
David und Saul (Vienna) . 

Assolato (Ital.), absolute ; primo uomo a, a 
singer for principal r6les. 

Assonance (Fr. ; Ger. Assonanz), vowel- 
rhyme, e.g. " man " and " sang." {See Al- 

Astaxitta, Gennaro, Italian composer of 
operas, b. about 1750, Naples ; wrote from 1772 
to 1793, over twenty operas, mostly for Naples, 
of which Cine ed Ulisse (1777) became universally 
popular, and was also produced in Germany. 

Aatoiga, Emanuele d", b. Dec. 11, 1681, 
Palermo, d. Aug. 21, 1736, Prague. He was 
the son of an insurgent Sicilian nobleman, who 
was beheaded in 1701. A lady in high position 
took charge of the boy, and placed him in the 
Spanish monastery of Astorga, where he had 
an opportunity of developing his musical talent. 
Three yeats later she procured for him the title 
of Baron d' Astorga, under which name he 
entered into society, and received from the 
Spanish Court a diplomatic mission to the 
Court of Parma. By his songs and his singing 
he soon became a general favourite, so that for 
the sake of his daughter, Elizabeth Faraese, 
the duke held it advisable to send a\vay 
the dangerous singer on a diplomatic mission 
to Vienna. A. also, after that, led a life of 

adventure ; appeared again in Spain in order to 
seek out his benefactress, visited Portugal, 
Italy (with exception of his native place, to 
which he was forced to remain a stranger), 
England, then returned to Vienna, and spent 
his last years in a monastery at Prague. The 
compositions of A. are distinguished by their 
originality of invention : their principal traits 
are charm, simplicity, and warm feeling. Many 
of his works have been preserved, among which, 
cantatas (detached Arias with clavier), also 
duets, an opera, Dafne, and, best known of all, 
a Stabat Mater for four voices, with instru- 
mental accompaniment. 

] At the will, at the 

A suo arbitrio (Ital.) pleasure, of the 

A suo bene placito (Ital.) ' performer. The 
j same as ad libitum . 

A Buo commodo (Ital.), according to the con- 
venience of the performer. 

A tre (Ital.), for three voices or instruments. 

Attacca (Ital.) [Attacca subito (Ital.), attack 
immediately] is a term frequently used with 
a change of tempo, or at the end of a movement 
followed by another one, and it indicates that 
what follows should be suddenly introduced, so 
that the pause which is made be of only very 
brief duration. 

Attacca^Ansatz (Ger., Attacca-touch) is, in 
pianoforte-playing, the sudden stiffening of the 
muscles 01^ the arms and of the hands for 
specially strong accents, a quick development 
of power and pressure, close to the keyboard, 
by which the disagreeable effect of the slashing, 
banging touch from a distance is avoided. 

Attacco (Ital.), a term applied to a short 
subject of a fugue which, apparently, only con- 
sists of a few notes ; in fact in such cases (as, 
for instance, in the c 4 major fugue of the second 
part of the Wohl. Clavier) the Dux appears from 
the outset in stretto with the Comes. A. is also 
used as a term for a short motive taken from a 
theme, and developed in various ways in the 
middle section of a movement in sonata form. 

Attaignant (Attaingnant, Atteignant, Latinised 
Attingens), Pierre, the oldest Parisian music- 
printer who adopted movable types. {C/. 
Petrucci.) The types of A., elegant and clear, 
originated in the workshop of Pierre Hautin 
(q.v.), who prepared his first punches in 1525. 
He printed between 1526' and 1550, among 
other things, no less than 20 books of motets. 
Attaignant's publications consist principally of 
works by French composers, and are on that 
account of special interest ; but they have be- 
come very rare. 

Attenhofer, Karl, b. May 5, 1837, Wettingen, 
near Baden, in Swit;;erland. He was son of an 
innkeeper, a pupil of Dan. Elster (teacher of 
music at the seminary at Wettingen), and of Kurz 
at Neuenburg! From 1857 to 1858 he studied 
at the Leipzig Conservatorium under Richter, 




Papperitz (theory), Dreyschock and Rontgen 
(violin), and Schleinitz (singing), and in 1859 
was appointed teacher of music at a school 
at Muri (Aargau). In 1863 he accepted the 
post of conductor of the male choral union at 
Rapperswyl, and so distinguished himself at 
the Confederate Musical Festival held there in 
1866, that he was entrusted with the direction of 
three male choral unions in Zurich (" Zurich," 
" Studentengesangverein," and " Aussersihl"). 
In 1867 he settled down in Zurich, conducting 
a number of other societies in various directions 
(Winterthur, Neumunster, etc.). In 1879 he 
became organist and choirmaster at the Catho- 
lic Church, Zurich (this post he has lately 
resigned), and, before that, was teacher of music 
at the school for young ladies ; he has also been 
for some years teacher of singing at the Zurich 
School of Music. A. is one of the most famous 
of Swiss composers, especially in the depart- 
ment of songs for male voices, with and without 
accompaniment, but he has also written many 
part songs for female and for mixed voices 
(" FruiiUngsfeier," Op. 51, for mixed chorus 
and orchestra), also children's songs, pf. Lieder, 
masses, pf. pieces, and light studies for the 

Attmp, Karl, Danish composer and organist, 
b. March 4, 1848, Copenhagen; studied with 
Gade, and in 1869 became his successor as 
teacher of the organ at Copenhagen Conserva- 
toire, and in 1871 organist of the Friedrichs- 
kirche, in 1874 organist of St. Saviour's, and 
teacher of tne orgzin at the Institute for the 
Blind in that city. A. has published valuable 
educational pieces for the organ, also songs. 

Attwood, Thomas, b. Nov. 23, 1765, Lon- 
don, d. March 24, 1838, at his residence, 
Cheyne Walk, Chelsea. At the age of nine 
he became a chorister in the Chapel Royal, 
where he had the advantage of studying under 
Nares and Ayrton ; he soon distinguished 
himself so much that the Prince of Wales 
sent him to Italy for further tr aini ng From 
1783 to 1784 he was at Naples under FiUppo 
Cinque and Gaetano Latilla, and afterwards 
at Vieima under Mozart, who entertaiaed 
a favourable opinion of his talents. He re- 
turned to England in 1787, and at once received 
several . appoiQtmtots. In 1796 he became 
organist of St. Paul's Cathedral, and composer 
to the Chapel lloyal. In 1821 he was nomin- 
ated organist of George IV.'s private chapel at 
Brighton, and in 1836 organist of the Chapel 
Royal. A. was on friendly terms vnth both 
Mozart and Mendelssohn, and thus forms a rare 
link between these two musical natures. His 
activity as a composer may be divided into two 
periods ; in the first he devoted himself ex- 
clusively to opera, in the second to sacred 
music. He worked diligently in both branches, 
and obtained favourable results (19 operas, 
many anthems, services, and other vocal works, 

also pf. sonatas, etc.). He ranks among 
England's most distinguished composers. 

Aubade (from the Proven9al, alba; Fr., auit, 
"dawn"), a morning song oi the Troubadbur- 
period, having as subject-matter the parting of 
lovers at dawn of day, and is thus opposed to the 
serenade. Like the latter term, so A. became 
associated with instrumental music, especially 
in the 17th and i8th centuries. 

Auber, Daniel Franfois Esprit, b. Jan. 
29, 1782, Caen (Normandie), the home of his 
parents, who, however, settled in Paris ; d. May 
12/13, 1871, during the Commune. (O^ Daniel.) 
The father of Auber was Offioier des chassis of 
the king, painted, sang, and played the violin ; 
only after the Revolution does he appear to have 
started a business in, objects of art (prints) ;, 
the grandfather was, indeed, Peintre du roi. A. 
sprang, therefore, from a family connected, not 
with trade, but with art. Already, at the age 
of eleven, the boy wrote romances, which 
became favourites in the salons of the Directory. 
The father determined that he should be a 
merchant, and sent him to England, but A. 
returned (1804) more musician than ever. In 
1806 he was received as member of the society of 
the " Enfants d'Apollon," to which his father also 
belonged, for the former was already at that time 
distinguished as a composer. A. first entered 
on the career in which he spent the greater 
part of an active life — ^viz. that of dramati|| 
composition — ^by setting music to an old libretto,' 
Julie, for an amateur theatre (1812) which only 
had an orchestra composed of a few stringed 
instruments. Cherubini, who attended the per- 
formance, in spite of the inadequate representa- 
tion and the poorness of the means, recognised 
Iiis important gifts, and induced him to the 
serious study of composition under his direc- 
tion. The amiable talent of A. quickly deve- i 
loped, and soon bore the finest fruits. A mass 
(of which a fragment as prayer has been pre- 
served in the Muette di Portici) was followed 
by his first pubUcly performed opera, Le SJjow 
Militaire (Theatre Feydeau, 1813), which, how- 
ever, like the succeeding one — Le Testament [Le 
Billet Doux, 1819) — met with only a very moderate 
success. He was first recognised by the critics 
in 1820 with La Bergen Chdtelaine, and his fame 
increased more and more, first with Emma (La 
Promesse Imprudente), and then virith a series of 
operas, for the greater part of which Scribe, with 
whom he had made friends, wrote the libretti : 
Leicester (1822), La Neige (Le Nouvel Eginhard, 
1823), Vend&me en Espagne (together with H&old, 
1823), Les Trois Genres (with Boieldieu, 1824), Le 
Concert A la Cour (1824), Lhcadie (1824), Le Mafon 
(1825). With the last opera A. made the first 
impression of lasting importance ; it shows him 
as the chief representative of comic opera. 
More than anyone else, Boieldieu excepted, 
A. combined in himself true French style, grace, 
amiability, and ease. Once (in La Neige) had 




A. — thinking probably that only thus he could 
attain success — ^imitated Rossini and cultivated 
coloratura; in Le Magon there is no further trace 
of it, but the melodies flow on in free and 
happy maimer, without any unnecessary, un- 
national ballast. Two small works — Le Timide 
and Fiorella (both 1826) followed, and then, after 
a year's pause, came A.'s first grand opera, which 
brought him to the summit of fame, La Muette 
di Portin (1828), the first of those three works 
which, in quick succession, completely revolu- 
tionised the repertoire of the Grand OpSra (the 
two others were, Rossini's Tell, 1829, and Meyer- 
beer's Roberto, 1831). The master of comic 
opera unfolded in this work a grandeur of plot, 
dramatic impulse, fire and passion, which one 
had not expected of him, and which, in fact, 
were the weak points of his talent. The subject 
of the opera stands in intimate relation to the 
agitated times in which it appeared; it won 
historical importance irota the fact that its pro- 
duction in 1830 was the signal for the revolu- 
tion which ended with the separation of Belgium 
and Holland. After the Muette came La Fianc/e 
(1829), a homely genre piece like Le Magon, and 
(1830) the more elegant Fra Diavolo, A.'s most 
popular opera at home and abroad. For a 
stately series of years A.'s fame remained at its 
full height. 'There followed : Le Dieu et la 
Bayadere (1830, containing, like the Muette, a 
dumb, but dancing principal character]. La 
Marquise de Brinvilliers (1831, together with 
eight other composers), Le Philtre (1831), Le 
Serment, ou Les Faux Monnayeurs (1832), Gustave 
III. (Le Bal Masqul, 1833), Lestocq (1834), Le 
Ckeval de Bronze (1835 ; extended into a grand 
ballet, 1857), ^cteon, Les Chaperons Blancs, L'Am- 
bassadrice (1836), Le Domino Noir (1837), Le Lac 
des Fles (1839), Les Diamans de la Couronne (1841), 
Le Due d'Olonne (1842), La Part du Diable (1843), 
La Sirene (1844), La Barcarolle (1845), Haydh 
(1847). The last works of A. show a gradual 
falling off, and traces of the increasing age of 
their composer. He wrote besides : L'Enfant 
Prodigue (1850), Zerline, ou la Corbeille d' Oranges 
(1851), Marco Spada (1852, extended to a grand 
ballet, 1857), fenny Bell (1856), Manon Lescaut 
(1855), Magenta (1859), La Circassienne (1861), La 
Fiancle du Roi de Garbe (1864), Le Premier Jour de 
Bonheur (1868), Reves d' Amour (1869), and some 
cantatas d'occasion. In the last days of his 
life he wrote several quartets for strings, not 
hitherto published. A. succeeded Gossec as 
member of the Academie in 1829, and Cheru- 
bini as director of the Conservatoire in 1842 ; 
further, in 1857 Napoleon named him imperial 

Aubert, Jacques, eminent violinist, b. 1678, 
d. Belleville, near Paris, May, 1753 ; member 
of the orchestra of the Grand Opera and of the 
Concerts spirituels, 1748 leader of the band there. 
He published a good number of stylish com- 
positions for the violin, and other chamber- 
music works. 

Aub^ry du Eoulley, PrudentLouis, French 
composer, b. Dec. 9, 1796, Verneuil (Eure), d. 
there, Feb., 1870; pupil of Momigny, M6hul, 
and Cherubini, at the Paris Conservatoire (untU 
1815). The number of his compositions is indeed 
very great (156), among which, a whole series 
of chamber-music works, in which the guitar 
(for which he seems to have had a special 
fancy) is combined with pianoforte, violin, 
flute, viola, etc.). He wrote " Grammaire 
Musicale " (1830), a method of instruction in 
musical composition. 

Audiphone is the name of an apparatus lately 
invented in America (by Greydon and Rhodes) 
which, by conveying molecular vibration to the 
teeth, allows the teeth nerves to take the place 
of those of hearing, and hence enables persons 
completely deaf to hear to a certain extent. 

Audran, (r) Marius Pierre, singer, b. Sept. 
26, 1816, Aix (Provence), d. Jan. 9, 1887, Mar- 
seilles, pupil of E. Amaud, afterwards at the Paris 
Conservatoire, where, however, he obtained no 
scholarship. His parents, unfortunately, had 
not sufficient means to educate him (Cherubini 
and Leborne were of opinion that he had no 
talent) ; he received, therefore, training to the end 
from his old teacher, Arnaud. Seven years later 
A. — ^who meanwhile had appeared with success 
at Marseilles, Brussels, Bordeaux, and Lyons 
— ^became first tenor at the Opera Comique, 
Paris, solo singer at the Conservatoire concerts, 
and member of the Conservatoire jury. From 
1852 he led a restless life, appearing on various 
stages and making concert tours, until in 1861 he 
settled in Marseilles, where, in 1863, he became 
director of the Conservatoire, and likewise pro- 
fessor of singing. He also wrote a number 
of pleasing songs. His son (2) Edmond, 
b. April II, 1842, Lyons, went with his father 
in 1861 to . Marseilles, where he is musical 
director at St. Joseph's Church. He produced 
23 operas and operettas with success at Mar- 
seilles and Paris, also a mass, a funeral march 
for Meyerbeer's death, etc. Of his operettas, 
the two most in vogue are Les Noces d'Olivette 
(1879) and La Mascotte (1880). 

Auer, Leopold, b. May 28, 1843, Veszprim, 
Hungary, was trained by Ridley Kohue at the 
Prague Conservatorium, and then at the Vienna 
Conservatorium from 1857 *° ^^5^ ^V Dont, 
and lastly by Joachim at Berlin. He ranks 
among the most distinguished living performers ; 
in 1863 he received his first appointment as 
leader at Diisseldorf, in 1866 he went in a 
similar csipacity to Hamburg, and since 1868 he 
has been leader of the Imperial band at Peters- 
burg, and professor of the violin at the Con- 
servatoire in that city. 

Aufsatze, name given in Germany to the 
tubes of reed pipes, which are either inverted 
wood pyramids, or of metal (organ-metal, -also 
zinc), and are then funnel-shaped or cylindrical. 
A. are not essential to the production of tone in 




reed pipes, as can be seen from the harmonium, 
but they give to them a strength and fulness 
which otherwise they would not possess. The 
more they widen out at the top the more 
brilliant and penetrating the tone, and, on the 
other hand, the latter is more sombre and 
quieter in proportion as they become narrower. 
The height of the tube has some influence on 
the pitch : a cylindrical tube of more than half 
the height of an open lip-pipe giving the reed 
note lowers the latter considerably, and one of 
the whole height lowers it by about an octave, 
etc. It would be an interesting task for those 
learned in the science of acoustics to try to find 
out how far the mysterious phenomenon of 
undertones (q.v.) is concerned vnth this matter. 
An investigation of this kind would naturally 
include instruments with reed tongues (oboe, 
clarinet) and membranous tongues (horns, 
trumpets, etc.). 

Augener, George, founder of the music- 
publishing firm (A. & Co.), which started with 
the importation of foreign music in the year 
1853, at 86, Newgate Street, London, and which, 
since that time, has been connected vrith every 
good musical work pnbUshed abroad. As far 
back as the year 1855 they introduced the 
fitst cheap type edition of the classics, pub- 
lished by L. HoUe, of Wolfenbiittel, whose sole 
agents they became ; later on, when HoUe's 
edition was superseded by the superior one of 
Peters, of Leipzig, they obtained the sole agency 
for England of the latter. In 1867 the Augener 
Edition of Classical and Modern Music was com- 
menced, which to some extent supplements the 
foreign Peters Edition with works that have 
special interest for England. This collection 
(1892) now amounts to over 3,000 vols., is revised 
by firstTrate musicians, well engraved, and printed 
in England on superior English paper. Besides 
their cheap editions, they have a great number of 
works in sheet-music form, amounting to about 
10,000 books, representing every class of music, 
and including many of the best names of the 
present day. This firm is more particularly 
known for the large number of educational 
works, principally edited by Professor E. Pauer. 
In 1871 this firm started the Monthly Musical 
Record (circulation 6,000), which has on its staff 
writers of note — Ebenezer Prout (B.A. London), 
Professor F. Niecks, Professor E. Pauer, J. S. 
Shedlock (B.A. London), etc. This firm has 
recently issued many theoretical works by E, 
Prout, Dr. Riemanu, etc. Since the year 
1866 Augener & Co. have had a small West End 
branch at Foubert's Place, Regent Street. 
They also have three houses in Beak Street, 
Regent Street, and Great Pulteney Street, con- 
taining their reserve stock of music, amounting 
to over 15,000 ft. The printing of the firm is 
excellent, and is carried on at 10, Lexington 
Street, W., where steam-presses are constantly 
at work for them. This department is under 
the management of Mr. William Augener, the 

only English music printer who received the 
gold medal at the London Inventions Exhibi- 
tion, ,1885. 

Augmentation, (i) The prolongation of the 
theme in fugue and in other contrapuntal 
formations. {See Diminution.) — (2) In mea- 
sured music the opposite of diminution, i.e. as a 
rule, merely the restoration of the usual note- 
value. (Qc Proportion.) 

Augmented intervals, intervals one semitone 
greater than major or perfect intervals. 

Augustinua, Aurelius (St. A.), Father of 
the Church, b. Nov. 13, 354, Tagaste (Numidia), 
d. Aug. 28, 430, as bishop of Hippo (now Bona, 
in Algeria). The works of St. A. contain im- 
portant testimony with regard to the state 
of music in the ancient Christian Church, 
especially with regard to the so-called Ambrosian 
Song. A. was baptised by Ambrosius himself, 
and became one of his most intimate friends. 
He wrote a work, " De Musica," which, how- 
ever, only treats of metre. 

Auletta, Pietro, maestro to the Prince of 
Belvedere ; he wrote, between the years 1728 and 
1752, eleven Italian operas for Rome, Naples, 
Venice, Munich, Turin, Bologna, and Paris. A 
composer named Domenico A. produced an 
opera at Naples about 1760 entitled, La locan- 
diera di Spirito. ' 

AuIoB, an ancient Greek wind instrument, 
most probably similar to the now forgotten 
beak-flute {see Flute) , which was in great vogue 
up to the middle of last century. The player 
of the instrument was named Auletes, hence 
Auletik, i.e. the art of flute-playing; on the 
other hand, Aulody indicates singing with flute 
accompaniment. The A. was constructed of 
various sizes, answering to the various kinds of 
human voice, and in different keys. {C/. Fis- 
tula, Capistrum, and Wind Instruments.) 

Aurelianus Beomeusis, a monk of Reom^ 
(Moutier St. Jean, near Langres) in the gth 
century. He wrote a treatise on the theory ; 
of music, printed in Gerbert (" Script," I.). 

AuBpitz-EoIar, Augusta, b. 1843, Prague, 
daughter of the player and dramatic poet, J. G. 
Kolar. In 1865 she married H. Auspitz at 
Prague, and died Aug. 23, 1878. She was an 
excellent pianist, a pupil of Smetana, and after- 
wards of J. ProksCh, and lastly of Madame 
Clauss-Szarvady. at Paris. She also published 
some pianoforte pieces. 

Auteri-Manzocchi, Salvatore, Italian com- 
poser, b. Dec. 25, 1845, Palermo ; he wrote the 
opera Dolores (first produced in 1875 at the 
Pergola, Florence, then at Milan, Palermo, and 
other places) ; this was followed by two more, 
// Negriero (1878), and Stella (1880). 

Authentic Mode. {See Ecclesiastical 
Auto (Spanish " Act ") is the name given to 




Spain to any public or judicial action (e.g. A. 
da Fi, actus fidei, "religious tribunal"), but 
especially to dramatic representations of stories 
from the Bible, Mysteries (autos sacrammtaUs) 
in association with music. The most distin- 
guished Spanish poets (Lope de Vega, Calderon) 
have written Autos. In 1765 they were for- 
bidden by royal command. 

Automatic Musical Machines (mechanical 
musical instruments) are apparatus which 
simply by the employment of mechanical 
means (turning of a handle, or winding up 
of a spring), and thus without any musicsu 
effort on the part of the performer, can be 
made to play tunes. According to the manner 
in which they are set in motion, they are classed 

(a) Machines with springs or weights (musical 

(i) Machines with a handle to be turned 
And according to the means for producing 
sound, as — 

(c) Machines with bells, small bells, steel 

rods, or strings. 

(d) Machines with flute- or reed-work. 

All old mechanical musical machines have in 
common — 

(i) A barrel pointed with pins, whether set 
in motion by clock-work (a), or by a 
handle (i), and whether the sounds are 
produced by bells, steel rods, or strings 
(c), or pipes (d). 
Quite recently, barrels have been replaced by — 

(/) Plates with perforated holes (the so-called 
sheets of music ["Notenblatter"]). 
In the Glockenspiel (Carillon), which is, per- 
haps, the oldest mechanical instrument, the 
pins of the barrel produce sounds by the lifting 
of hammers which strike the bells ; but lately 
the English firm, Gillet & Bland, at Croydon, 
has so changed the mechanism that the pins 
only release the hammers which are lifted by 
separate cam-wheels. In small musical snuff- 
boxes and musical clocks, th6 pins rub against 
teeth, variously tuned, of a, metal comb (i.e. 
steel rods). In barrel-organs the pins open 
the valves of the several pipes. But as after 
the passing of the pin the valve would at once 
close, in barrel-organs, instead of pins, there 

are doubly-bent wires (1 1), which keep the 

valves open for the time required. The per- 
forated plates, like the new mechanism of the 
Carillon, do jiot lift, but loosen a spring. In 
the barrel-organ the barrel turns much slower' 
than the handle, which is concerned with the 
mechanism of both bellows. 

The Orchestrion, a fairly large-sized organ, 
with flute and reed stops, with clock-work and 
weights (up to now only with pin-barrels), is 
the largest automatic musical machine On 
the other hand, the Ariston, Herophon, and 

Manopan, have turning-handles and perforated 
plates (Notenblatter). In the Manopan, the 
latter are fasciated; all three, like the Har- 
monium, have reed-stops. The Swiss musical 
snuff-boxes (with handle), and the Swiss musical 
clocks (with clock-work) have pin-barrels and 
metal combs. The new German musical snuff- 
boxes (Symphonion) have perforated circular 
steel-plates (Lochmann's patent). 

In the Dnh-Piano (organ-clavier) Orpheus' of 
Paul Ehrlig, a mechanical keyboard is played 
in the same manner. 

Auxiliary Notes (Ger. Nebennoten) are, in the 
shake, mordent, turn, battement, etc. (see 
Ornaments), the upper and under second 
of the .note to be ornamented, and which is 
properly called the principal tone. Also in the 
case of. a suspension (q.v.), the note held on 
before the note of the chord is called an 
auxiliary note. Passing notes and changing 
notes can also be classed as A.N. (melodic 
A. N.), while every note belonging to the chord 
is a principal note. 

Ave (Ave Maria), the salutation of the ajigel 
Gabriel at the Annunciation, a favourite subject 
for sacred composition. The salutation of the 
angel is followed by that of St. Elizabeth, 
closing with a prayer to the Virgin. 

Aventinus, Johaniies, really Turmair, but 
took the name of A. after his native town 
Abensberg (Bavaria), a Bavarian historio- 
grapher, b. July 4, 1477, d. Jan. 9, 1534. He 
drew up the " Annales Bojorum," which, so far 
as music is concerned, must be used, with 
caution and compared with more ancient 
annals. He did not write, but only edited, the 
" Musicse rudimenta admodum brevia, etc." 
(by Nikolaus Faber). 

Avison, Charles, b. 1710, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, d. 1770. He studied in Italy and in 
London under Geminiani, became organist in 
1736 in his native town, published a pamphlet 
of no great value on musical expression, " An 
Essay on Musical Expression " (1752), which 
was sharply attacked by W. Hayes. He also 
wrote works for orchestra and chamber music. 
In 1757, A., jointly with J. Garth, published 
Marcello's Psalm-paraphrases, with English 

A vista (Ital.), at sight, (v. A. premiere vue.) 

A voce sola (Ital,), for one voice alone. 

Ayrton, (i) Edmund, b. 1734, Ripon, d. 
1808 ; for many years master of the boys at the 
Chapel Royal, London. He wrote some sacred 
music (two complete morning and evening ser- 
vices, and various anthems). — (2) William, 
son of the former, b. 1777, London, d. 1858. 
He was a musical critic of note to various 
papers, member of musical societies in London, 
promoter and member of the Philharmonic 
Society, more than once musical director at the 
King's Theatre, and distinguished himself by 




producing Mozart's operas. From 1823 to 1834, 
jointly with Clowes, he published the monthly 
musical periodical, Harmonicon, and also two 
collections of practical music — " Musical 
Library" (1834, 8 vols.), and "Sacred Min- 
strelsy" (2 vols.). 

Azevedo, Alexis Jacob, French writer on 
music, b. March 18, 1813, Bordeaux, d. Dec. 21, 
187s, Paris. He was at first a contributor to 
the France Musicale, and to the Sieck ; afterwards 

editor of a paper of his own, which, however, 
soon failed ; then occasionEtlly to the Pnsse, 
and finally from 1859 to i8yo femUetoniste to the 
Opinion Nationale. A. was a passionate admirer 
of Rossini and of the ItaJian school, and by no 
means courteous in his criticisms of works of a 
different order. He also wrote several pamphlets 
attacking Cheve's endeavours to reform nota- 
tion (system of figures). 
Azione sacra, oratorio. 


B, really the second note of the musicaU alpha- 
bet, was, in Germany, through a misunderstand- 
ing, replaced by an H, and itself became a 
chromatic sign (t?). In England and Holland B 
still stands for the whole tone above A (and as in 
Germany this note is called H, B is there applied 
to that note lowered a semitone) . [See Chromatic 
Signs.) In old, also German, theoretical works 
B quadratum (quadrum, durum ; Fr. bicam) indi- 
cates our B, and it is also the sign for a natural 
(h). On the other hand, B rotundum {moUe, Fr. 
bimol) answers to B flat, and is used also as a 
sign Jot lowering the pitch (hence German 
•' Moll-Akkord," " MoUtonsat," i.e. minor chord, 
minor key, with lowered third). B cancellatum, 
cancellated B = 4, was originally identical with 
tt ; but a distinction was made at the beginning 
of the i6th century. — The old solmisation 
name of B was B,fa, mi, i.e. either B fa (=6b) 
or B mi {:=b^). In Italy and France B flat is 
called sJJ7 (si bemol). 

B == Basso, C.B. = col Basso, C.B. = Contra- 
basso, B.C. = Basso continuo. B. is also an ab- 
breviation for Bachelor : Mus. B. = Musics 
Baccalaureus (M.B., on the other hand, Medi- 
cine B.). 

ba. (See BoBisATiON and Soimisation.) 

Babbi, Christoph, b. 1748, Cesena, went 
to Dresden in 1780 as leader of the Electoral 
band, and d. there in 1814. He composed 
violin concertos, symphonies, quartets, etc. 

Babini, Matteo, one of the most celebrated 
tenor singers of the last century, b. Feb. 19, 
1754, Bologna, d. there, Sept. 22, 1816; was 
intended for the medical profession, but, as his 
parents left him without means, he was trained 
by his relative Cortoni, a teacher of singing, 
and made his debut about 1780. His success 
was so great that he soon received engage- 
ments in Berlin, Petersburg, Vienna (1785), 
and London. In Paris he sang a duet with 
Marie Antoinette. The Revolution drove him 
back to Italy, but he was again in Berlin in 
1792. He was still singing in 1802, and died a 
wealthy man. 

Baboracka and Baborak, Bohemian dances 
with various changes of tempo. 

Bacchius (Senior) , Greek writer on music (about 
150 A.D.), of whom two theoretical treatises 
have been handed down to us (pubUshed by 
Meibom, Mersenne, and Fr. Bellermann). C. 
von Jan wrote an analysis of his " Isagoge " (1891). 

Bacfaxt (Bacfarre, really Graew), Valen- 
tin, a famous performer on the lute, b. 1515, 
Siebenburgen ; he lived alternately at the 
Imperial Court at Vienna, and at the Court of 
Sigismund Augustus of Poland, and d. Aug. 13, 
1576, Padua. B. published two works on the 
tablature of the lute (1564 and 1565). 

Bach, name of the Thuringian family in 
which, as in no other, the pursuit of music was 
hereditary (during the 17th arid i8th centuries), 
and carefully nourished from childhood. When 
several members of this family met together 
musical performances of a serious kind took 
place, opinions were exchanged concerning new 
compositions, and there were improvisations ; in 
fact, they so strengthened one another in know- 
ledge and ability that the Bachs were held in the 
highest esteem throughout the land.andfumished 
many cantors and organists to the Thuringian 
towns. So in Erfurt, Eisenach, Arnstadt, 
Gotha, Miihlhausen, we find Bachs "as organists, 
and still at the end of the i8th century the 
town-pipers in Erfurt were called " the Bachs," 
although not one among them was any longer a 
Bach. Spitta, in his biography of T. S. Bach, ; 
has shown that the family sprang from Thur- ' 
ingia, and not, as was formerly supposed, from 
Hungary. The baker, Veit Bach, who wan- 
dered (about 1590) from Hungary to Wechmar, 
near Gotha, was a native of that very village^ s; 
Veit B. pursued the art of music for pleasure 
(he played the cithara) ; his son, Hans B. (the 
great grandfather of J. S. Bach) was, on the 
other hand, a musician by profession, and was 
trained at Gotha under Nikolaus B. Thus the 
Bachs were already at that time, apparently, 
"in the trade." Of the sons of Hans Bach 
Johann became the ancestor of the Erfurt 
" Bachs," Heinrich, organist at Arnstadt, the 
father of Joh. Christoph and Joh. Michael B., 
and Christoph B. organist and town-musician 




at Weimar, the grandfather of J. S. Bach. By 
the sixth decade of the 17th century the Bachs 
were, so to speak, settled occupants of the 
music posts at Weimar, Erfurt, and Eisenach ; 
if a place was vacant here or there, one of them 
came forward and filled the gap. Thus, for 
example, a son of Christoph B., Ambrosius 
B. (the father of J. S. Bach), went from Erfurt 
to Eisenach to take the place of another B. 
The most important composers of this family 
are: — 

(i) Johann Christoph, son of Heinrich 
Bach, and thus uncle of J. S. B., b. Dec. 8, 
1642, Amstadt, from 1665 until his death, 
March 31, 1703, organist at Eisenach, is the 
most distinguished of the older Bachs, especi- 
ally in the department of vocal music. A work 
after the manner of an oratorio, Es erhoh sich 
ein Streit (Rev. 12, v. 7-12), also some motets, 44 
chorale preludes, and a Sarabande with twelve 
variations for clavier, have been preserved. 
His son, Nikolaus, b. i66g, d. Nov. 4, 1753, 
was for a period of 58 years musical director at 
the Jena University, and a conspicuous connoi- 
seur in the construction of instruments. Of his 
compositions have been preserved a " masterly " 
mass and a comic Singspiel, "Der Jenaische 
Wein- und Bier-Rufer." 

(2) Johann Michael, brother of the former, 
b. Aug. 9, 1648, Amstadt, from 1673 organist 
at Gehren, near Amstadt, where he died, 1694. 
His youngest daughter, Maria Barbara, became 
J.„S. Bach's first, wife, the mother of K. Ph. 
Emanuel and W. Friedemarm Bach. The in- 
strumental works of Johann Michael are of 
greater importance than those of his brother ; 
unfortunately, only a few chorale preludes have 
come down to us, but these lead us to form 
a high opinion of his ability. So far as can 
be judged from the few motets which have 
been preserved, his vocal works show technical 
facility, but are inferior to those of his brother. 

(3) Johann Sebastian, b. Mar. 21, 1685, 
Eisenach, d. July 28, 1750, Leipzig; one of 
the greatest masters of all times, and one of 
those who cannot be surpassed, inasmuch as 
they embody the musical feeling and potency 
of an epoch (Palestrina, Bach, Handel, Gluck, 
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Wagner). Bach, 
however, is of special importance, and his 
greatness is without parallel, for in him the 
styles of two different ages attained to a high 
pitch, so that he stands, as it were, a. striking 
landmark between these two, in each of which 
he displayed gigantic power. B. belongs with 
equal right to the period of polyphonic music 
with its contrapuntal imitative style, which 
lay behind him, and to the. period of har- 
monic music bearing the stamp of tonality. 
He lived in a transition period, i.e. at a time 
when the old imitative style had not yet out- 
lived itself, and when the new still stood in 
the first stage of its development and bore the 
stamp of immaturity. The genius of Bach united 

the_ characteristics of both styles in a manner 
vvhich.must be looked upon as worthy of aspira- 
tion for a period extending into the far future. 
There can therefore be no question of Bach's 
musicbecoming antiquated ; the most that can 
be said is that certain accessories — such as 
cadences, ornaments, and such like, in which 
Bach showed himself a true child of his time — 
remind us of the past. On the other hand, his 
melody is so thoroughly healthy and inex- 
haustible, his rhythm so manifold and pulsat- 
ing with life, his harmony so choice, so bold, 
and yet so clear and intelligible, that his works 
are not only the object of wonder, but are most 
zealously studied and imitated by the musicians 
of the present, day, as indeed they will be by 
musicians in the far future. The outward life 
of Bach was simple. His father was the town- 
musician Ambrosius B., b. Feb. 22, 1645, d. 
June 28, 1695, 1'is mother, Elizabeth, nee Lam- 
merhirt, of Erfurt. At the early age of nine years 
he lost his mother, and a year later his father, 
and was handed over to the care of his brother, 
Johann Christoph B. (b. June 16, 1671}, 
organist at Ohrdruf. This brother, a pupil 
of Pachelbel, now became his teacher. In 
1700 he obtained free tuition at St. Michael's 
school at Liineburg, from which place he made 
several excursions (on foot) to Hamburg tojiear 
the famous organists Reinken and Liibeck. In 
1703 he received his first appointment, that of 
violinist in the private band of Prince Johann 
Ernst, of Saxony, at Weimar, but only remained 
there a few months, as he was oflfered.the post 
of organist of the new church at Amstadt. 
From that place he made (1705-6) the famous 
journey on foot to Liibeck, to Dietrich Biixte- 
hude, the celebrated organ-master, and this 
brought him into conflict with the authorities 
at Arnstadt, as he cotisiderably outstayed the 
allotted time. Matters did, not, however, come 
to a crisis, as they much wished to retain the 
gifted youth. In 1706, through the death of 
Joh. G.'Ahle, the post of organist of St. Blasius 
at Miihlhausen became vacant, and Bach ob- 
tained it in 1707, having married his cousin, 
Maria Barbara, daughter of Joh. Michael Bach, 
at Gehren. Although the musical conditions at 
Muhlhausen were not unpleasing, and in any 
case better than those at i!ijmstadt, B. remained 
only a year, and went in 1708 as Court organist 
and " Kammermusicus " to the reigning Duke 
of Weimar, where, in 1714, he was appointed 
" Hofkonzertmeister." But already, in 1717, 
he wandered to Cothen as capellmeister and 
" Kammermusikdirector " to Prince Leopold 
of Anhalt-^a post of an entirely different kind 
from those which he had hitherto occupied, 
for he had neither an organ to attend to nor a 
choir to conduct, but had to occupy himself 
entirely with orchestral and chamber music. 
As the various posts which he filled always had 
a marked influence on his activity as a com- 
poser, so in Cothen he viTOte almost exclusively 




chamber music. But he only developed his 
full creative power at Leipzig, wluther he went 
in 1723 as Cantor to the St. Thomas's School, 
and as musical director to the University, as 
"successor to Johann Kuhnau. In this post he 
died after 27 years active service. He was 
tormented during the last three years of his 
life by a malady of the eyes which gradually 
impaired his sight, till at the last he became 
completely blind. He was twice married. 
Maria Barbara died in 1720, and, however 
happily they had Uved together, B. felt com- 
pelled to give a new mother to his children, 
and in 1721 married Anna Magdalena, daughter 
of the " Kammermusikus " Wiilken at Weis- 
senfels, who survived him. B. left six sons and 
four daughters ; five sons and five daughters 
had died before him. 

The works of J. S. Bach are very great in 
number. First are to be named his church 
cantatas, of which he wrote a complete series 
for five years (for all Sundays and festival days), 
bat of these many have -not been preserved. 
Also of five Passions only three remain, viz. the 
"St. Matthew Passion " (a truly gigantic work), 
the " St. John Passion," and the dubious " St. 
Luke Passion." To the two former named 
immense works the b minor Mass forms a 
worthy companion, which, together with four 
short masses, ■ are all that remain of a great 
number written by B. The " Magnificat " k 5, 
is also one of his most striking works. The 
Christmas, and also the Ascension and Easter 
oratorios are not far behind the Passions. Still 
more imposing is the number of the in- 
strumental compositions, especially those for 
clavier, organ, as well as clavier, with other 
instruments (preludes and fugues, fantasias, 
sonatas, toccatas, partitas, suites, concertos, 
variations, chorale preludes, chorales, etc.). 
Particularly worthy of mention are: "Das 
wohltemperirte Klavier" (the name strictly 
belongs only to the first set of 24 preludes 
and fugues, but is almost universally used for 
the two sets, making two for each major and 
each minor key ; it is a vade mecam which every 
pianoforte player should possess), and the "Art 
of Fugue" (15 fugues and 4 canons on one 
and the same theme). For violin alone three 
partitas and three sonatas — ^works which have 
not their equal; the great Chaconne in the 
D minor Partita alone suffices to give a concep- 
tion of Bach's immense power. For instru- 
ments no longer in use B. wrote three sonatas 
for gamba, three partitas for lute, and a suite 
for viola pomposa — -an instrument of his own 
invention. Only a small part of the works 
of B. appeared in print during his lifetime 
(" Klavieriibung," "Das musikalische Opfer," 
the "Goldberg" variations, chorales, etc.) ; the 
" Art of Fugue " was published by Ph. E. B. in 
1752. When, after about fifty years of neglect, 
considerable attention was bestowed on the 
works of B., some were" printed or reprinted. 

But Mendelssohn had the merit of bringing the 
composer to light in his full greatness by the 
performance of the " St. Matthew Passion" in 
1829 at Berlin. The ever-increasing cultivation 
of the works of Bach made it possible for 
Peters in 1837 to undertake a complete edition 
of Bach's instrumental works ; and later on the 
same thing was done for the vocal. But the 
Bach Society (Bach-Gesellschaft), founded at 
Leipzig in 1850 by Hartel, K. F. Beckfer, M. 
Hauptmann, O. Jalm, and R. Schumann, has, 
since 1851, been preparing a truly monumental 
critical edition ; at least one thick folio volume 
appears each year. The yearly subscription 
for the members of the society is fifteen marks, 
in return for which they receive a copy of 
the year's publication. Bach societies (Bach- 
Vereine), specially formed for the cultivation of 
the composer's music, exist at Berlin, Leipzig, q 
London, Konigsberg, and other places. On the 
28th of September, 1884, a. monument was 
erected to Bach in his native town, Eisenach — . 
hitherto the only one, with the exception of 
the small one set up at Leipzig by Men(felssohn. 
The history of the life of J. S. Bach has been 
written by various authors — first by K. Ph. 
Emanuel B. and J. Fr. Agricola in Mizler's 
" Musikalische Bibliothek," vol. iv. i (1754), 
then by Forkel (" Ueber J. S. Bach's Leben, 
Kunst und Kunstwerke," 1802), Hilgenfeldt 
(1830), Bitter ("J. S. B.;" 2nd ed., 1881, 4Vols.). >. 
Ph. Spitta has recently published an exhaustive : 3 
biography worthy of the master ("J. S. B.," •' 
1873-80, 2 vols. ; English translation by Clara Bell 
and Fuller Maitland : Noyello). 

(4) Wilhelm Friedemann (Bach of Halle), 
eldest son of the former, b. Kov. 22, 1710, Wei- 
mar, d. July I, 1784, Berlin, was exceptionally 
gifted, and his father's special favourite, but by 
his disorderly mode of living became incapable of • 
serious work. From 1733-47 he was organist of 
St. Sophia's church, Dresden, then of St. Mary's, 
Halle, until 1764. When compelled by his ex- 
travagant behaviour to give up this post, he 
lived, without any fixed employment, now here 
now there (Leipzig, Berlin, Brunswick, Gottin- 
gen, etc.), and died in complete poverty at 
Berlin, a ruined genius in the true sense of the 
word. There exists a great number of his com- 
positions in manuscript in the Berlin hbrary. 
Unfortunately, through his fault, a great part 
of his father's works were lost; for, of the 
manuscripts divided between the two eldest 
sons at Bach's death, so far as is at present 
known, only those which fell to the share of 
Ph. E. have been preserved. 

(5) Karl Philipp Emanuel (the "Berlin" 
or "Hamburg" B.), the second of the sur- 
viving sons of J. S. Bach, b. March 8, 1714, 
Weimar, d. Dec. 14, 1788, Hamburg, was 
intended for the law, and for this reason 
his father allowed his musical fancy to turn 
more in the ■4irection of the light "gallant" 
style; and to this very tendency he owes his 




greatness, for by it he became the father of 
modern instrumental musio, the precursor of 
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven in the depart- 
ment of the sonata, symphony, etc., which he 
clothed in more pleasing modern dress. His 
career was simple enough. He went to Frank- 
fort on the Oder in order to study jurispru- 
dence, but instead of doing this he foimded a 
choral union. In 1738 he went to Berlin, and 
in 1740 became chamber cembalist to Frederick 
the Great, a rare musical dilettante, who often 
sorely plagued B. when the latter had to ac- 
company his flute performances. Th6 Seven 
Years' War cooled the musical ardour of the 
king, and therefore in 1767 B. asked for his 
discharge in order to take the place of Telemann 
as church musical director at Hamburg. He 
died, highly esteemed, of a chest complaint. 
For us Hs most important work is the " Versuch 
fiber die wahre Art das Klavier zu spielen" 
(1753-62, two parts), the principal source for 
explaining the ornaments of the previous cen- 
tury. The number of his compositions is very 
great, especially for clavier (zio solo pieces, 52 
concertos, many sonatas, etc.). In the depart- 
ment of church music he was certainly prolific, 
but less important (22 Passions, many cantatas, 
two oratorios, etc.). K. H. Bitter wrote the 
life of the sons of Bach, "K. Ph. Emanuel 
B. uud W. Friedemann B. und deren Briider," 
1868, 2 vols. ; 2nd edit. 1880). H. v. Billow 
has republished six clavier sonatas of K. Ph. E. 
Bach (Peters), and C. F. Baumgart the com- 
plete collection of sonatas "fur Kenner und 
Liebhaber" (Leuckart, six books), E. Pauer, 
eighteen of his popular pieces (Augener's Edi- 
tion). — (6) Johann Christoph Friedrich 
(the "Buckeburg " B.), the third of J. S. Bach's 
musical sons, b. Tune 21, 1732, Leipzig; also 
first studied law, but finally became a musician, 
and from 1756 was capellmeister to Count 
Schaumburg at Buckeburg, where he died, 
Jan. 26, 1795. He was likewise a diligent com- 
poser (sacred and chamber music works, can- 
tata Pygmalion, opera Die Amerikanerin), though 
not of equal importance with Ph. Emanuel. — (7) 
fohann Christian (the "Milan" or "Eng- 
ish"B.), the youngest son of J. S. Bach, b. 1735 
(baptised Sept. 7), Leipzig, d. Jan. i, 1782, 
London ; like Friedemann, he was endowed with 
great talent, but almost as light-minded. After 
his father's death he was trained by Ph. 
Emanuel B., went in 1754 as organist to Milan, 
and became there an opera composer A la 
mode. In 1759 he came to London and became 
comt composer; he also gained a great but 
ephemeral success as a composer of Italian 
operas.— (8) Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst, 
grandson and last male descendant of J. S. 
Bach, son of the "Buckeburg" B. (6), b. May 
27, 1759, Buckeburg, d. Dec. 25, 1845, Berlin ; 
pupil of his father and of the " English " B. (7), 
for whose instruction he came to London. He 
was an excellent performer on the pianoforte 


and organ, and much sought after as a teacher 
in London. When his uncle died he went to 
Paris, where he gave concerts, and then settled 
down in Minden. In 1792 he settled in Berlin, 
where he was appointed cembalist to the queen 
with the title of capellmeister ; later on he became 
cembalist to Queen Louise, and music-master 
to the royal princes, but was pensioned off after 
the death of the queen, and lived in retirement 
until his own death. Only a few of his composi- 
tions (songs and pf. pieces) have been published. 

Bach, not belonging to the family of J. S. 
Bach, but possibly in some way connected with 
it.— (i) August "Wilhelm, b. Oct. 4, 1796, ■ 
Berlin, d. April 13, 1869, son of Gottfried B., 
the secretary of the lottery department and 
organist of the church of the Holy Trinity ; he 
was organist of various Berlin churches ; in 
1822 teacher at the Royal Institute for church 
music ; 1832 director of the same, as successor 
to Zelter; member of the Academy, and ap- 
pointed Professor in 1858. He published sacred 
compositions, also pf. pieces and songs. B. 
was Mendelssohn's teacher for the organ. — (2) 
Otto, b. Feb. 9, 1833, Vienna, where fis father 
was advocate, pupil of Sechter at Vienna, of 
Marx at Berlin, and of Hauptmann at I^ipzig. 
He was chief capellmeister at various German 
theatres, and in 1868 became artistic director 
of the Mozarteum and capellmeister of the 
cathedral at Salzburg. Since April i, 1880, he 
has been capellmeister at the new great " Votiv- 
kirche " at Vienna. Of his compositions may 
be mentioned the operas Die Liehesprohe (Der 
Lowe von Salamanha, 1867), Leonore (1874), Die 
Argonauten, Medea, Sardanapal, a requiem, four 
symphonies, the ballad for chorus and orches- 
tra, Der Blumen Rache, the overture Elehtra, 
chamber music works, part-songs, masses, Te 
Deum, etc. He showed praiseworthy activity 
as director of the Mozarteum. — (3) Leonhird 
Emil, b. March 11, 1849, Posen ; pianist, pupil 
of KuUak (pianbforte), of Wiierst and Kiel 
(theory) ; was for many years teacher at Kul- 
iak's Academy. 

Bache, (i) Francis. Edward, b. Sept. 14, 
1833, Birmingham, d. there Aug. 24, 1858 ; 
studied the violin under A. Mellon, then com- 
position under Bennett. From 1853-53 he was 
a pupil of Hauptmann and Plaidy at the Leipzig 
Conservatorium ; he was a very talented com- 
poser, but, unfortunately, was consumptive. 
He spent 1833-56 in Algiers and Italy, the 
summer of 1856 at Leipzig and Vienna, and 
from the summer of 1857 '^^^ i° England. A 
number of pianoforte pieces, songs, a trio, 
violin romances, are published ; a pf. concerto 
and two operas (Rubezahl and Which is Which) 
remain in manuscript .-r-(2) Walter, brother of 
the former, b. June ig, 1842, Birmingham, d. 
March 26, 1888, Lcaidon; was first a pupil of 
the organist Stimpson at Birmingham,- then 
at the Leipzig Conservatorium under Plaidy, 




Moscheles, Hauptmann, and Richter, together 
with his fellow-countrymen Sullivan, Dannreu- 
ther, C. Rosa, Fr. Taylor, etc. After a short stay 
in Milan and Florence, he went in 1862 to Rome 
and studied for three years under Liszt, and 
was on friendly terms with G. Sgambati. In 
1865 he returned to England, and lived from 
that time as conductor and music teacher in 
London. B. was a warm admirer of Liszt, and 
brought out in London nearly all his Sym- 
phonic Poems, also The Legend of St. Elizabeth, 
and Psalm XIII., and himself played both 
Liszt's pf. concertos in e|? and a. 

Bachelor (Ger.B«Afta/««y«s; 'PT.Baehelier). An 
academic degree, formerly usual at all (iniver- 
sities, but now only granted by' English and a 
few German. It is lower than that of Doctor, 
and, as a rule, has to precede it. {€/. Doctor 
OF Music.) 

Baohmann, (i) Anton, court-musician and in- , 
strument-maier at Berlin, b. 1716, d. March 8, 
1800. His son, and heir to the business, Karl 
Ludwig, b. 1743, d. 1809, was a good violist, 
and as such a member of the royal band. His 
wife, Charlotte Karoline Wilhelinine, 
nee Stowe, b. Nov. 2, 1757, Berlin, d. Aug. 19, 
1817, was an accomplished singer and a worthy 
member of the " Singakkdemie " under Fasch. — 
(2) Pater Six t us, b. July 18, 1754, Ketters- 
hausen (near Babenhausen), d. 1818 ; a monk 
of the order of White Canons at Marchthal, 
was a prolific composer both of instrumental 
and vocal music, of which, however, very little 
has been printed. At the age of nine he entered 
into a musical contest with young Mozart, and 
passed through the ordeal with honour ; at that 
time he was remarkable for his excellent me- 
mory. B. was a contributor to Hofineister's 
Collection of music. — (3) George Christian, 
celebrated clarinettist, b. Jan. 7, 1804] Pader- 
bom, d. Aug. 28, 1842, Brussels ; a highly 
esteemed solo player in the royal band at 
Brussels and teacher of his instrument at the 
Conservatoire. He was also well known as a 
clarinet-maker of the first rank, whose instru- 
ments even to-day fetch high prices. 

Bachofen, J oh. Kaspar, sacred composer, 
b. 1697, Zurich, d. 1755 ; became in 1718 sing- 
ing master at theLa;tin School and organist there, 
and afterwards director of the male choral 
union. His compositions, at one time very popu- 
lar in Switzerland, consist, "for the most part, 
of sacred songs: " Musikalisches Halleluja,"' 
"Irdisches Vergniigen in Gott" (after Brookes), 
"Psalmen," the Brookes' " Passion," etc., also 
an instructive " Musikalisches Notenbiichlein." 
Bachrich, Sigismund, b. Jan. 23, 1841, 
Zsambokreth (Hungary). He went to the 
Vienna Conservatorium from 1851-7, and 
studied under Boehm (violin). After acting for 
a short time as conductor at a small theatre at 
Vienna, he went in 1861 to Paris, where, for 
some years as conductor in an inferior post, 

journalist, even apothecary, he fought his way 
with diflSculty ; so he returned to Vienna and 
joined the Hellmesberger quartet party, to 
which he has belonged for twelve years. B. 
has composed chamber music, violin pieces, 
and songs, the comic operas Muzzedin (1883) 
and Heini von Steier (1884), which were favour- 
ably received. Already in 1866 these had been 
preceded in Vienna by two operettas ; a third 
operetta, Der Fuchs-Major, was brought out at 
Prague in 1889. Also a ballet of his, Sakuntala, 
was produced. B. is teacher at the Vienna 
Conservatorium and member of the Philhar- 
monic and Opera orchestras, also a member 
of the Ros^ quartet party. 

Bacber-Groudahl, A g a t h e, Norwegian pianist 
and composer, b. Dec. i, 1847, Holmestrand; 
pupil of Kjerulf and Lindemann ; in 1863 at 
Kullak's Academy, Berlin ; 1871 under Biilow in 
Florence ; married her teacher of singing, 
Grondahl, in Christiania, 1875 (songs, pf. pieces, 
concert etudes, Op. 11, etc.). 
Backers, Americus. (See Broadwood.) 
Backfall, one of the old EngUsh graces, an 

Backofen, Joh. G. Heinrich, performer on 
the harp, clarinet, and other instruments, b. 1768, 
Durlach, d. 1839, Darmstadt. On his concert 
tours he attracted notice as a many-sided 
artist ; in 1806 lie was chamber musician at 
Gotha, and in 1815 an instrument maker at 
Darmstadt. B. published compositions for 
harp, a Harp Method, and Methods for the 
basset-horn and clarinet. 

Back-positive (Ger. Ruckpositiv) is the name 
given to the set of pipes which stand at the 
player's back, hiding him from the church. In 
three-manual organs it belongs usually to the 
lowest manual, which is Connected with the 
pipes by a mechanism carried under the floor. 

Bacon, Richard Mackenzie, clever musi- 
cal critic, b. May _i, 1776, Norwich, d. there 
Nov. 2, 1844 ; he was the editor of the Qtiarterly 
Musical Magazine and Review (1818-28), also of 
the "Elements of Vocal Science" (1828). He 
was also the founder of the triennial musical 
festivals at Norwich. 

Badarczewska, Thekla, b. 1838, Warsaw, d. 
there, 1862; became known by her pieces de 
salon (" La priere d'une vierge "). 

Bader, Karl Adam, celebrated opera singer 
(tenor), b. Jan. 10, 1789, Bamberg, d. April 14, 
1870, Berlin ; received his first musical training. 
from his father, who was cathedral organist at 
Bamberg, became his successor in 1807, and 
wished to take holy orders, but on the advice of 
T. A. Hoffmann (q.v.) went on the stage (1811), 
and appeared with gradually increasing success 
at Munich, Bremen, Hamburg, and Brunswick, 
and in 1820 was finally engaged as leading tenor 
at the Berlin Court Opera, of which he was a 
conspicuous ornament for twenty years: In 
1845 he gave up singing, but was regisseur still 




up to 1849, and for a long time after that was 
active as director of the music at the Catholic 
"Hedwigskirche." B. was a specially famous 
representative of the hero tenor roles in Spon- 
tini's operas ; he was one of the few tenors who 
could do something more than sing, and he had 
an imposing presence. 

Badia, (i) Carlo Agostino, b. 1672, Venice, 
d. Sept. 23, 1738, Vienna ; already on July i, 
i6g6, he was appointed royal court composer 
at Vienna, wh^n the ofl&ce was first established. 
He wrote seventeen operas and serenatas, and 
fifteen oratorios, also twelve cantatas for one 
voice with clavier (Tributi Armonici, printed), 
besides thirty-three k 1-3 (preserved in manu- 
script). B., for the rest, had only moderate 
gifts, and wrote in an antiquated style. A 
singer, Anna Lisi Badia, was a member of the 
Vienna court company (1711-25). — (2) Luigi, 
b. 1822, Tirano (Naples), composed four operas, 
also songs, with which he had good success. 

Bagatelle (Fr.), a trifle. 

Bagge, Selmar, b. June 30, 1823, Coburg, 
1837, pupil of the Prague Conservatorium 
(Dionys Weber), and afterwards of S. Sechter 
at Vienna; in 1851 he was teacher of composi- 
tion at the Vienna Conservatorium ; in 1854 
organist at Gumpendorf, near Vienna. In 
1855 he resigned his post at the Conserva- 
torium and criticised the organisation of that 
institution in the Monatsschrifl fur Theater 
und Musik, also in i860 in the Deutsche Mwsik- 
zeitung. B. remained for many years musical 
critic and editor ; in 1863 he undertook the 
editing of the Allgemeine Musikaliscke Zeitung, 
which had been established by Breitkopfand 
Hartel, but discontinued since 1848, and he 
conducted the same for two years, when (1866) 
it passed over to the firm of Eieter-Bieder- 
mann. (C/. Newspapers.) B. has been director 
of the School of Music at Basel since 1868. 
Besides his journalistic work he has published 
chamber music, a symphony, songs, and a 
" Lehrbuch der Tonkunst " (1873). 

Bagpipe (Ger. Dudelsack, Sachpfeife ; Ital. Cor- 
hamtisa, Piva; Ft. Musette, Sourdelins ; Lat. Tibia 
uiricularis; Gr. Askaulos (leathern pipe). In the 
Middle Ages, like the hurdy-gurdy, Symphonia, 
corrupted into Samponia, Zampugna, etc., it was 
made in the 17th century (Prastorius) in various 
sizes ; grosser Bock, (drone ; contra G or great 
c), ScJuiperpfeif (drones : d^ f), Hummelchen 
(f c'), and Dudey (e' flat, b'flat, e'^flat). The B. 
is practically an obsolete instrument, and only 
found now in the hands of beggars and the in- 
digenous population of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland. It consists of a leathern wind-bag, 
which is either filled by the player by means of 
a tube of pipe-shape (as in those of the older 
kind and in the Scotch Highland bagpipes) or 
by means of small bellows worked by the arm. 
Several pipes are fastened to the leathern skin, 
by means of which, when pressed by the player's 

arm, they are made to speak ; also a chanter 
vnth six sound-holes on which melodies are- 
played, and from one to three drones (Ger. Stim- 
mer; Fr. bourdons, cf. Drones), which give out,, 
without interruption, one and the same sound. 
The bagpipe closely resembles the Vielle, and,, 
like it, was a fashionable instrument from 
the 17th to the i8th centuries. The skin was- 
at that time covered vnth silk, the little case 
which received the drone reeds being made of 
ivory, and ornamented with gold, precious- 
stones, etc. Descouteaux, Plulidor, Douet, 
Dubuisson, Hotteterre, Charpentier, Chedi- 
ville, etc., were famous as players on the B. 

Bahn, Martin. (5« Trautwein.) 

Bahr (Bar, Beer), J ohann, leader of the band 
of the Duke of Weissenfels, b. 1652, St. Georg 
a.d. Enns (Austria), d. 1700 of a wound received 
at a rifle match. He made a reputation by his- 
satirical, polemical, musical pamphlets, in which 
he latinised his name (Bar, " Bear ") into Vrsus 
(" TJrsus tnurmurat, U. saltatt U. triumphat," etc., 
again-st the " Gymnasialrdttor " Hartnoth at 
Gotha, 1697, ■ etc.) ; also by his " Bellum 
Musicum " (1701) and " Musikalische Diskurse"" 
(1719), both posthumous. 

Bai, Tommaso, b. about 1650, Crevalcuore, 
near Bologna; he was a tenor singer in the- 
Papal Chapel, 1713 maestro, but died already 
Dec. 22, 1714. B. was the composer of the- 
celebrated Miserere which is sung alternately 
with those of Allegri and Baini in the Papal 
Chapel during Holy Week. It is published in 
the collections of Papal Chapel music for the- 
Holy Week (Bumey, Choron, Peters). Many 
other compositions of B. are to be found in 
manuscript in Roman libraries. 

Baif, Jean Antoine de, poet and musician, 
b. 1532, Venice, d. Sept. 19, 1589, Paris; pub- 
lished two lute tablature works, twelve sacred 
songs, and two books of chansons a 4. 

Balllot, (1) Pierre Marie Frangois de 
Sales, b. Oct. i, 1771, Passy, near Paris, d. 
Sept. 15, 1842 ; one of the most celebrated 
violinists that France has produced. He re- 
ceived his first instruction on the violin from a. 
native of Florence, Polidori by name, at Passy, 
then in 1780, when his parents settled in Paris, 
from Sainte-Marie, who ■ laid great stress on 
exact playing. After the death of his father 
(1783) he was sent for additional training to- 
Rome, to PoUani, a pupil of Nardini's.who laid 
stress on big tone. In 1791 he returned to- 
Paris, and played to Viotti, who procured for 
him the post of first -violin at the Th^itre- 
Feydeau. In spite of bis high artistic develop- 
ment, he does not yet appear to have taken up 
music as a profession, for soon afterwards he 
accepted a subordinate appointment in the- 
Ministere des Finances, which he held until 1795, 
making himself all the while more known by 
appearances at concerts, until he -yiras appointed. 




professor of the violin at the newly-organised 
Conservatoire. He now sought to fill up the 
gaps in his musical knowledge, and studied 
theory diligently under Catel, Reicha, and 
Cherubini. Only in 1802 did he undertake his 
first tour, and indeed, to Russia. This was 
followed by others through France, the Nether- 
lands, England, and Italy. In 1821 he became 
first violin at the Grand Op^ra, and in 1825 
solo player in the royal band. He died highly 
esteemed, and was mourned by a large number 
of distinguished pupils. B.'s princip^ work was 
his " L'Art du Violon " (1834), which is excellent, 
,and not to be surpassed. He published, jointly 
with Rode and Kreutzer, the " M^thode du 
"Violon," a work officially recognised by the 
Paris Conservatoire, repeatedly republished, 
reprinted, and translated into foreign languages. 
He ecUted, besides, the " M^thode de Violon- 
■celle" of the Conservatoire (authors: Levas- 
seur, Catel, and Baudiot). He wrote also 
" Notice sur Gretry " (1814), " Notice sur 
Viotti " (3:825), 3^^ other small essays. His 
•compositions, which, at times, make heavy 
■demands upon the executant, are 10 violin 
concertos, 30 sets of variations, a symphonie 
concertante for two violins with orchestra, 24 
preludes in all keys, capriccios, nocturnes, etc. 
for violin, 3 stringed quartets, 15 trios for two 
T/iolins and bass, etc. — His son (2), Ren^ 
Paul, b. Oct. 23, 1813, Paris, d. there. Mar. 28, 
1889, was professor of ensemble playing at the 
Paris Conservatoire. 

Baini, Abbate Giuseppe, b. Oct. 21, 1775, 
Rome, d. there, May 21, 1844 ; at first pupil of 
his uncle Lorenzo B. (maestro at the Church of 
the Twelve Apostles, Rome), a worthy musician 
of the Roman School who still held fast to the 
traditions of the Palestrina style. Later on he 
became the pupil and friend of Tannaconi, 
maestro of St. Peter's, who procured for him an 
appointment as singer in the Papal Chapel ; he 
became Jannaconi's successor in 1817, which 
post he retained up to his death. B. was a 
strange phenomenon in our century ; he lived and 
moved completely in the music of the i6th cen- 
tury, and understood nothing of the powerful de- 
velopment of the art which had since taken place. 
In his opinion, music had been going down hill 
since the death of Palestrina. His own com- 
positions must be looked at and judged from the 
standpoint of that period. It is well known 
that during his lifetime (1821) a Miserere of his 
was included among the regular Holy Week 
performances at the Sistine Chapel (alternately 
with the Misereres of Allegri and Bai). B's 
chief work, and the one to which he devoted the 
greater part of his life, was the biography and 
characteristics of Palestrina (" Memorie storico 
critiche della vita e delle Opere di Giovanni 
Pierluigi da Palestrina, etc.," 1828), which was 
translated into German by Handler (with com- 
ments by Kiesewetter, 1834). He wrote, besides, 
an essay on ancient rhythm (1820), and a sharp 

criticism of a prize motet by Santucci written 
for four choirs. 

Bajetti, Giovanni, Italian opera and ballet 
composer, b. about 1815, Brescia, d. April 28, 
1876, Milan (Gohzalvo, L'Assedio di Brescia, 
Uberio da Brescia, ballet Faust, jointly vdth Costa 
and Panizza). 

Baker, famous English composer, b. 1768, 
Exeter, d. 1835 ; pupil of W. Cramer and 
Dussek in London, afterwards organist at 
Stafford ; in 1801 he took his degree of D.Mus. 
at Oxford. His chief works are anthems, glees, 
voluntaries, pf. sonatas, etc. 

Balakireff, Mily Alexejewitsch, b. 1836, 
Nishnij Nowgorod, already, as a boy, took part 
in concerts, but went to the Gymnasium, and 
attended the University at Kasan in order to 
study mathematics and physics ; through 
friendly intercourse with A. v. Ulibischew, he 
resolved to devote himself to music. In 1855 
he appeared at Petersburg as pianist with great 
success. In 1862, jointly with Lamakin, he 
founded the " Free School of Music," under the 
patronage of the Grand Prince, heir to the 
throne. In 1865 he went to Prague to the 
Czechish theatre, to put Glinka's Russian and 
Ludmilla into rehearsal. From 1867 he was 
sole director of the Free School, conducted the 
concerts of the Russian Society of Music from 
1867 to 1870, but in 1872 retired altogether into 
private life. B. pays homage to the Berlioz- 
Liszt tendencies. His principal works are: — 
Overtures on Russian, Spanish, and Czechish 
themes, symphonic poem, " Tamara," music to 
King Lear, an Oriental fantasia for pianoforte 
(" Slamey "), pf. pieces, pf. arrangements of 
overtures by Glinka and Berlioz, etc., as well as 
a collection of Russian popular melodies. 

Balalaika, a primitive stringed instrument of 
the guitar family, which is used in the Ukraine 
to accompany the songs of the people; it is 
also sometimes found in the hands of gipsies. 

Balancement (Fr.), same as Bebung (q.v.), a 
manner of playing peculiar to the clavichord. 

Balart, Gabriel, Spanish composer of 
Zarzuelas (operettas), b. June 8, 1824, Bar- 

Balatka, Hans, conductor and 'cellist, b. 
March 5, 1827, Hoffhungsthal, near Olmutz, 
pupil of Sechter and Proch at Vienna ; went in 
1849 to America, and founded at Milwaukee 
a Musical Union, which soon flourished, and 
still exists. In i860 he was called to Chicago 
as conductor of the Philharmonic Society. 
After the great fire in that city he went back 
to Milwaukee, and, for a time, to St. Louis, 
but returned to, and finally settled down in 
Chicago. B. enjoys great fame as conductor 
of male choral unions (Chicago Festival, 1881), 
and especially deserves credit for his share in 
the progress of the culture of music in America. 

Balbi, (i) Ludovico, church composer, 




about 1600 maestro at St. Antonius' Church 
at Padua, later at the great Franciscan monas- 
tery, Venice ; edited jointly -with Joh. Gabrieli 
and Orazio Vetchi the Graduals and Antiphons 
which Gardano published in 1591 at Venice. 
Of his compositions have been preserved : 
masses (1584), Cantiones (1376), motets (1578), 
Ecciesiastici Concentus (1606). — (2) Melchiorre 
Cavaliere, b. June 4, 1796, Venice, d. June 
21, 1879, Padua, theorist and composer, pupil 
of Antonio Calegari (d. 1828), whose " Sistema 
Armonico " he published in 1829 with notes ; 
he wrote besides " Grammatica ragionata della 
musica sotto I'aspetto della lingua " (1845), and 
" Nuova scuola basata sul sistema semitonato 
equabile " (ist part, 1872 ; a " chromatist " there- 
fore). From 1818 to 1853 B. was leader in both 
theatres at Padua, and afterwards maestro at 
the basilica St. Antonio. He brought out also 
three operas {1820-25) 

Baldewin. {See Bauldewijn.) 

Balfe, Michael William, one of the most 
distinguished of modern English composers, b. 
May 15, 1808, Dublin, d. Oct. 20, 1870, Rowney 
Abbey (Hertfordshire). B. was one of the few 
Englishmen who devoted himself to the compo- 
sition of operas, but certainly without present- 
ing this art species in any new light, for B. 
was only an Italian opera composer of English 
descent. Already at the age of seventeen (1825) 
B. went with a rich patron to Italy and studied 
counterpoint under Frederici at Rome, and 
later on singing under Fillippo Galli at Milan. 
His first attempt of any note at composition 
was the ballet La Perouse, for Milan (1826). In 
1828 he appeared at the Italian Opera, Paris, 
as principal baritone under Rossini, after he 
had studied for a short time with Bordogni. 
Up to 1835 he sang at various Italian theatres, 
produced some Italian operas at Palermo 
(/ Rivali di se Stesst), Pavia iJJn Avertimmto di 
Gelosi), and Milan {Enrico IV. al passo della 
Mamo, 1833), and married the German vocalist 
Fraul. Rosen (d. June 8, 1888, London). On his 
return to England as composer and singer, he 
celebrated a double triumph. Then followed 
in quick succession the operas, Siege of Rochelle, 
1835 ; The Maiden of Artois, 1836 ; Catharina 
Grey, 1837 ; jfoan of Arc, 1837 ; Diadeste, Fal- 
staff, 1838; and Keolanthe, 1841— in the last 
of which his wife appeared. Falstaffy/as pro- 
duced at Her Majesty's Theatre, the others at 
Drury Lane, with exception of the last-named, 
which B. brought out at the Lyceum when he 
was manager of an opera company. The un- 
dertaiing failed, and soon afterwards B. went 
to Paris, where he produced with great success, 
at the Op&a Comique, Le Puits d'A mour, 1843 , and 
Les Quatre Fils d'Aymon, 1844. In 1843 followed at 
Drury Lane The Bohemian Girl, his most famous 
opera, which was given at the principal theatres 
of note throughout Europe ; in 1844 The Daughter 
of St. Mark ; in 1845 The Enchantress:=L'Etoile 

de Seville, written for the Paris Grand Op^ra. 
Other operas followed {The Bondman, 1846 ; The 
Maid of Honour, The Sicilian Bride, The Devil's In 
It, The Rose of Casiille, Satanella, Bianca, The 
Puritan's Daughter, The Armourer of Nantes, 
Blanche of Nevers, The Sleeping Queen, 1864 ; also 
two Italian operas— Pittore e Duca, at Trieste, 
1854 {=Moro, the Painter of Antwerp), and II 
Talismano {=The Knight of the Leopard, London, 
1874), but Balfe's fame began gradually to 
decline. In 1846 he visited Vienna, in 1849 
Berlin, Petersburg and Trieste, from 1852 to 
1856, producing operas, and coining money. 
In 1857 his daughter Victoire made her debut 
in Italian opera at the Lyceum. From 1864 
B. lived on his estate, Rowney Abbey. In 1874 
his statue (by Mallempre) was placed in the 
vestibule of Drury Lane Theatre. Besides 
operas, B. also wrote cantatas, ballads, etc. 
B.'s good points were his extraordinary ease of 
conception and natural aptitude for melody 
appealing to the feelings; but his faults were 
the lack of all self-criticism and serious applica- 
tion to more solid work. 
BaJgklavis (Ger.). {See Clavis.) 

Ballad (Ital. Ballata; Fr. Ballade), originally 
a song accompanied by dancing (from Ital. ballo, 
"dance"). It was in Scotland and England 
that B. acquired the meaning of an epico-lyric 
poem with features of a saga or fantasy kind. 
Acquaintance with the Scotch ballads prompted 
the great German poets of the last century to 
write poems of a similar nature, but they did 
not thoroughly distinguish between the romance 
and the B. The musical form of the B. is as 
indefinite as the poetical. Songs are called 
ballads if narrative in character ; all songs, in- 
cluding ballads, are poems which the poets, 
without doubt, class among romances. Accord- 
ing to present use, the B. is a narrative poem 
composed for one voice with pianoforte or or- 
chestral accompaniment ; but if the musical 
development be extended so as to include 
choruses, various soli, etc., then it is no longer 
called a B. (although in such cases composers 
have occasionally used the term). In order to 
make confusion worse confoimded, the term B. 
has been employed in purely instrumental 
music, and now we have pianoforte, violin, and 
orchestral ballads, etc., which half belong to 
programme-music, inasmuch as composers in 
writing them would seem to have something 
definite in their mind. It would, however, be 
extremely difficult to show in what way Chopin's 
Ballades are entitled to that name. Composers 
would do well to reserve the name B. for ballad 
poems set to music (also for those in which 
choruses are introduced), and extend it, at most, 
to instrumental works with programme. 

Ballad-opera, a term applied in England to 
an opera composed, for the most part, of popu- 
lar songs ; the first example of the kind was 
John Gay's The Beggar's Opera (1727). 




Ballard, celebrated French family of printers, 
and, with exception of P. Attaignant, the oldest 
Paris firm in this particular department. At- 
taignant appears to have died about the same 
time that Robert B. began to print; the latter 
received in 1552 from Henri II. a patent making 
him " Setil imprimew de la musiqm de la chanibn, 
dhapelU, et menus plaisirs du roi," and this he 
held in common with his brother-in-law and 
associl Adrien Le Roy. Trusting to their patent, 
which had been coastantly renewed (Pierre, 
1633; Robert, 1639; Ed. Christophe, 1673; 
JeanBaptiste Christophe, 1695 ; Chris- 
tophe Jean Francois, 1750; Pierre 
Robert Christophe, 1763), the family took 
no notice of the progress made in the art of 
printing, and still in 1750 used the original 
types, namely, those made by Guillaume le Be 
(q.v.) in 1540, whose punches Pierre B. had ac- 
quired for the sum of 50,000 livres. For the time 
at which they were made they are elegant and 
clear, but even in the last century, by the side 
of those of J. Breitkopf, appear old-fashioned. 
The removal of the patent in 1776 put an end 
to the privileges of the Ballards and to their 

Ballet (Ital. Ballitto, from hallo, "dance") is 
the name now given to the dances introduced 
(and standing frequently in very loose relation- 
ship to the action) into operas, and consisting 
of most varied pas seuls and evolutions of the 
corps de baflet ; also to independent stage pieces 
in which there is little speaking or singing, but 
rather an action represented by pantomime and 
dances. Both kinds of B. can be traced back to 
a remote period, and this without reckoning the 
measured dance movements of the chorus in 
old Greek tragedy. Pantomimes with music 
treating of subjects taken, for the most part, 
from Greek mythology, with allegorical allu- 
sions to royalty present, were frequent already 
in the 15th century, at the Courts of Italy and 
France at marriage festivities ; these differed in 
principle scarcely at all from the modern 
"grand" B. Immense sums of money were 
spent in "mounting" such pieces. But 
ballets in opera are also of long date ; dances 
with or without singing, in the middle or at 
the close of tragedies (in imitation of the 
ancient choral dances), are already met with in 
the 15th century. But even in the first period 
of opera they developed themselves into the 
rare form of Intermedes, which, when introduced 
in fragmentary fashion into the action of an 
opera, formed a second action, standing in no 
sort of relation to the principal one. The name 
balletto for a complete ballet opera, in which, 
however, there was singing, is to be found 
already in 1625 {La Liberazione di Ruggiero dalV 
isola d'Alcina, libretto by Saracinelli, music 
by Francesca Caccini). Ballets were in special 
favour at the French Court, where not only the 
high nobility, but even the kings themselves 
(Louis XIII., 1625 ; Louis XIV. very frequently) 

joined in the dancing ; the ballets of the Qurn- 
ault-LuUy opera in the time of Louis XIV. were 
much admired. Noverre (d. 1810) made essen- 
tial changes in the B. ; he assigned to dancing 
its proper subordinate place, and brought to 
the fore pantomime with its wealth of expres- 
sion he was the real creator of the modern 

Balletto (Ital.) is the frequent title, at the 
beginning of the i8th century, for what we now 
call " Partita" or " Suite," a series of dances of 
various character in the same key (Allemande, 
Sarabande, Courante, Gigue), written for stringed 

Ballets, light compositions in madrigal style, 
frequently with a "Fa la" burden. Morley 
says that these pieces were " commonly called 
Fa las." 

Balli (Ital.), dances; Balli inglesi, English 
dances ; Salli ungaresi, Hungarian dances. 

Balthasar-Florence, HenriMathias (Bal- 
thasar called B.-F.), b. Oct. 21, 1844, Arlon 
(Belgium), pupil of F^tis at the Brussels Con- 
servatoire ; he married, in 1863, the daughter 
of the instrument maker Florence, of whose 
instruments he has a warehouse at Namur ; a 
diligent and talented composer (operas, sym- 
phonies, Missa Sokmnis, cantatas, a pf. concerto, 
a violin concerto). His daughter, pupil of the 
Brussels Conservatoire, is a clever violinist. 

Banchieri, Adriano, b. about 1567, Bologna, 
d. 1634; first of all, organist at Imola, later on 
" Monaco olivetano " of St. Michael's Monastery, 
Bologna ; he was in his time a famous com- 
poser, and many of his works are preserved 
(masses, madrigals, canzonets, sacred concertos, 
etc.) ; but more important for our time are his 
theoretical pamphlets, "Cartella Musicale sul 
Canto Figurato" (2nd ed. 1610), "Direttorio 
Monastico di Canto Fermo " (1615), etc. {C/. 


Banck, Karl, b. May 27, 1809, Magdeburg, 
d. Dec. 28, 1889-, Dresden. He studied vrith B. 
Klein, L. Berger, and Zelter, in Berlin, and with 
F. Schneider in Dessau ; he made a long jour- 
ney through Italy (1830-31) with the poet and 
painter, Karl Alexander Simon, and then lived 
at Magdeburg, Berlin, and Leipzig, afterwards 
in Thuringia (Jena, Rudolstadt, etc.), and from 
1840 at Dresden. In 1861 he married an Ameri- 
can lady, and remained for a year in North 
America. B. was one of the most esteemed 
German musical critics, and his Lieder are 
well known; he pubUshed, besides, pianofqrte 
pieces, part-songs, etc. He distinguished him- 
self as editor of a series of old and previously 
unpubUshed work^ (sonatas of Scarlatti and 
Martini, arias of Gluck, etc.). 

Baud (Ital. Banda; Fr. Bande), music-band. 
This was a term formerly used, and by no 
means in a depreciatory sense, for a body of 
musicians, especially wind-players; but the 


twenty-four violins of Louis XIV. were Called 
bande, and the twenty-four fiddlers of Charles 
II. the King's private band, etc. In Italian opera 
orchestras B. is the collective term used for the 
players of wind and percussion instruments ; 
and an orchestra appearing on the stage is also 
called a B. 

Bandola (Span.), Bandolon, Bandora, Ban- 
dura, an instrument of the lute family, with a 
smaller or larger number of steel or catgut 
strings, which were plucked with the finger, like 
the Pandora, Pandura, Pandurina, Mandora, 
Mandola, Mandoer, Mandura, Mandiirchen. In 
essential points it was identical with the Mando- 
line (q.v.), still existing at the present day. 

Banister, (i) John, excellent violinist, b. 
1630, St. Giles-in-the-Fields, London, d. Oct. 3, 
1679 ; he was sent to France by Charles II. to 
perfect himself, and later on was appointed 
leader of the king's band. He was afterwards 
dismissed because he spoke contemptuously of 
the French vioUn players patronised by the 
king (his successor was the Frenchman, Grabu), 
and lived up to his death as director of a music 
school, and manager of concerts in London. 
B. wrote music to Davenant's Circe, and, jointly 
with Pelham Humphrey, inusic to Shake- 
speare's Tempest, and also songs, lessons for 
violin, etc. — (2) John, b. about 1663, d. 1735 ; 
son of the former, was principal violinist at 
Drury Lane, wrote some music for the theatre, 
and was contributor to H. Playford's " Division 
Violin" (1685).— (3) Charles William (1768- 
1831), published a " Collection of Vocal Music." 
— (4) Henry Joshua, 1803-1847, an excellent 
'celUst. — (5) Henry Charles, son of former, 
b. 1831, professor of harmony at the Royal 
Academy of Music and at the Normal College 
for the Blind. He has published ' ' Text-book of 
Music" (1872), sjfmphonies, pf. music, "Life 
of Macfarren," "Lectures on Musical Analysis," 

Banjo, a favourite instrument among the 
American negroes, who brought it from Africa, 
where it is found imder the name Bania. The 
B. is a kind of guitar with a long neck, a body 
like a drum-head (a parchment stretched upon a 
hoop, and without any back). It has from five 
to nine strings; the chanterelle is played with 
the thumb, and lies on the bass side of the 
lowest-tuned string. 

Bannelier, Charles, writer on music, b. 
March 15, 1840, Paris ; pupil of the Paris Con- 
servatoire ; he was for many years contributor 
to the Revue et Gazette Musicale, and chief editor 
during the last years of its existence (the paper 
ceased to appear in 1880). Besides many ex- 
cellent articles in the flaper just named, he 
wrote a French translation of Hanslick's " Vom 
Musikalisch-Schonen " (1877), translated also 
the text of Bach's " Matthew-Passion," and 
published a pianoforte duet arrangement of 
Berlioz's "Symphonie Fantastique." 

53 Bsirbereati 

Banti, Brigitta, nie Giorgi, vocalist b 
1759. Crema (Lombardy), d. Feb. 18, 1806, 
Bologna. She was discovered as a chanteuse in 
a cafe at Paris, and afterwards attracted much 
notice by her noble voice both in Paris and 
London ; but she could never make up for the 
want of musical training, and remained during 
her whole life a singer with only nature's gifts. 
In her journeys through Germany, Austria, and 
Italy, she celebrated great triumphs. From 
1799 to 1802 she was engaged in London as 
prima donna, and after that lived in Italy. 

Baptiste (really Baptiste Anet), famous violin- 
ist about 1700, studied with Corelli, attracted 
notice at Paris^ went afterwards to Poland, 
where he died as capellmeister. He wrote 
some violin sonatas, and sonatas for two 

Bar (Ger. Taktstrich, Fr. barre) is the name 
of the perpendicular Une crossing the stave, 
which marks off a metrical foot, but always so 
that it comes before the principal accent of the 
same, and in no manner marks its end. {C/. 
Metre, Art of.) However indispensable the 
B. may appear to us, it was not known in 
measured notation, at any rate not in the 
part-books for the singers, before the year 
1600 ; for composers it was, if only as a small 
memorandum (for even after 1600 it is often 
met with running through only one line), 
naturally indispensable in writing out a score, 
and this is confirmed by the few early scores 
which have been preserved. On the other 
hand, it had been in use for a long period in 
organ and lute tablature. 

Bar. {See Strophe.) 

Barbacola {Barbarieu, Barberau). {See Barbi- 


Barbaiini,! Manfredo Lupi, composer 
about the middle of the i6th century, detached 
motets of whom are to be found in collections 
under the simple name 'Lupi (q.v.), but this 
cipher was used by many other masters of that 

Barbedette, Henri, b. about 1825, published 
pianoforte and ensemble works, but became 
known especially as a musical writer by his 
biographical works on Beethoven, Chopin, 
Weber, Schubert, Mendelssohn, and Stephen 
Heller. For many years B. has contributed 
biographical articles to the Menestrel. 

Barbereau, Mathurin Auguste Bal- 
thasar, b. Nov. 14, 1799, Paris, d. there, July 
18, 1879; he was a pupil of Reicha at the 
Conservatoire, obtained in 1824 the Grand Prix 
de Rome, was for some time conductor at the 
Theatre Franfais, was occupied for many years 
with historical studies, and lived as music 
teacher in Paris. He was appointed in 1872 
professor of composition at the Conservatoire, 
but exchanged this post for that of professor of 
the history of music ; as, however; he had no 
talent for speaking, he was soon compelled to 


give up the latter (E. Gautier became his 
successor). B. published " Traits theorique et 
pratique de composition musicale" (1845, in- 
complete), and " fitudes sur I'Origine du Systeme 
Musical " (1852, likewise unfinished). 

Baxbier, Frederic fitienne, b. Nov. 15, 
1829, Metz, d. Feb. 12, 1889, Paris; pupil of 
the organist Darondeau at Bourges, where in 
1852 he had his first stage success (Le Mariage 
de Columbine). He made his dlbut in 1855 at 
the Theatre Lyrique, Paris, with Une Nuit S, 
Seville, and since then has produced no less than 
thirty pieces (but written more than sixty), for 
the most part in one act; he has taken more 
and more to the style of opera bouffe. 

Barbieri, (i) Carlo Emanuele di, b. Oct. 
22, 1822, Genoa, d. Sept. 28, 1867, Pesth. He 
was a pupil of Mercadante at Naples, maestro 
at various Italian theatres, then in 1845 at the 
" Karntnerthor " Theatre, Vienna; in 1847 at 
the " Konigsstadt " Theatre, Berlin; 185X, 
Hamburg ; 1853, Rio Janeiro ; lived in private 
from 1856 to 1862 in Vienna; and then, until 
his death, became capellmeister at the! Pesth 
National Theatre. B. wrote a number of 
operas, among which, specially Perdita, ein Winter- 
marchen {1865), was performed at many German 
theatres. — (2) Francisco Asenio, b. Aug. 3, 
1823, Madrid, in modest circumstances, studied 
at the Madrid Conservatorio the pianoforte, 
clarinet, singing, and composition ; was at first 
clarinettist in a military corps, and in a small 
theatre orchestra, then went as leader of the 
chorus and sojiffleur in an Italian opera company 
to North Spain (Pamplona, Bilbao, etc.). One 
day he took the part of Basilio in the Barbier for 
a singer who was ill, and now became for some 
time an opera singer. On returning to Madrid in 
1847, he was named secretary of the association 
for the establishment of a Zarzuela (operetta) 
Theatre, also musical critic to the Illustracion, 
and made a name as teacher of music, com- 
posing diligently all the time. In 1850 he pro- 
duced his first one-act Zarzuela, Gloria y feluca, 
and, especially after the success of the three-act 
Zarzuela, Jugar con fuego, quickly became the 
hero of the day. B. was not only the most 
popular " Zarzuelero " in Madrid (during thirty 
years he wrote more than sixty Zarzuelas), but 
was member of several artistic societies, an ex- 
cellent conductor, and a genuine musical savant. 
In 1859 he established the Concerts spirituels in 
the Zarzuela Theatre, which, meanwhile, had 
been built, arranged in 1866 regular concerts of 
classical music, from which the Madrid Concert 
Society was developed (in 1866 he gave fifty 
concerts) ; and in 1868 he was appointed pro- 
fessor of harmony and of the history of music at 
the Conservatorio, and in 1873 member of the 
Academy of Arts. Notwithstanding this many- 
sided activity, he also wrote a great number of 
orchestral works, hymns, motets, chansons, and 

54 Barge 

Barbireau (Barbiriau, Barberau, Barbarien, 
Barbyrianus, Barbingmt, Barbaeola), Jacques, 
was choir-master at N6tre Dame, Antwerp, in 
1448, and died there, Aug. 8, 1491. He was a 
highly esteemed contrapuntist, on friendly terms 
with Rudolf Agricola, and quoted by Tinctoris 
as an authority. The Vienna Library contains 
a few of his works in manuscript. 

BarbitoB (Barbiton), an old Greek stringed 
instrument, a favourite with Alcaeus, Sappho, 
. and Anacreon, as an accompaniment to their 
songs. Nothing, however, more is known of its 
construction, except that it had a greater 
number of strings than the cithara and lyre 

Barcarola or Barcaniola (Ital. ; Ger. Barca- 
rolle, Fr. Barcarolle), Italian boatman's song. 

Bards, the name given to the singers (poets) 
among the ancient Celts in England, Scotland, 
Ireland, and Wales, where they formed a caste 
specially favoured, highly honoured, and pro- 
tected by laws. They soon disappeared from 
Wales and those parts of Britain which fell 
under the yoke of the Romans, for they were 
systematicaJly persecuted by the latter as 
fosterers of patriotism. Bards existed in Ire- 
land until the Battle of the Boyne (1690), and 
in Scotland until the abolishment of hereditary 
jurisdictions (1748). The Germans never had 
a special class of singers, but the Scandinavians 
had their Scalds (q.v.). The instrument with 
which the bards accompanied their songs was 
the chrotta (Irish cruit). 

Bardi, Giovanni, Conte Vernio, a rich 
and intelligent Florentine nobleman at the end 
of the i6th century, who assembled in his house 
the most distinguished artists and scholars of 
Florence; and the first attempts at dramatic 
composition (opera), in imitation of ancient 
tragedy, appear to have been due to his per- 
sonal influence. A madrigal k 5, of his, which 
has been preserved, testifies to his ability as a 

Bardit, Bardiet, a bard's song. The term 
was introduced into German poetry by Klop- 
stock, and it arose from an incorrect reading of 
a passage in Tacitus (barditns instead of baritus); 
from this it was concluded that the Germans 
had bards. {See Bards.) 

Bardone, Viola di B., is the same as Baryton, 
of which word it was probably only a corrup- 
tion. The term Viola di bordone, which is also 
to be met with, refers to the plucked or sym- 
pathetically sounding strings below the finger- 
board, {c/. Borddn.) 

Barem, the name of a specially soft-toned 
organ stop ; as a rule an 8-ft. Gedackt stop. 

Baxge, Tohann Heinrioh Wilhelm, dis- 
tmguished flautist, b. Nov. 23, 1836, Wulfsahl, 
near Dannenberg (Hanover). He was self- 
taught; and from his 17th to his 24th year 




flautist in a Hanoverian royal regiment, then 
principal flautist in the Court orchestra at 
Detmold, and since 1867 has occupied a similar 
position in the Gewandhaus orchestra at Leip- 
zig. B. has published a " Flute Method," four 
sets of orchestral studies for flute (a collection 
of the most important passages from operas, 
symphonies, etc.), and arrangements ("Bear- 
beitungen ") of many classical and modern 
compositions for flute and piano. 

Bargheer, (i) Karl Louis, violinist, b. Dec. 
31, 1831, Biickeburg, where his father was 
member of the court band. He was trained 
(1848-50) under Spohr at Cassel, as a virtuoso 
player, and was then appointed to the Detmold 
court band. He made use of the liberal leave 
of absence grsmted for further study with 
David (Leipzig) and Joachim (then in Hanover). 
In 1863 he became court capellmeister at Det- 
mold. In numerous concert tours he proved 
himself an excellent solo and ensemble per- 
former. On the change of government in 
Detmold in 1876 the band was dissolved, and 
B. accepted the post of leader of the Philhar- 
monic Society and that of teacher at the 
Hamburg Conservatorium, holding both until 
1889. Since then he has been leader of the 
Neue Abonnement-Concerte under Hans von 
Biilow. — (2) Adolf, brother of the former, b. 
Oct. 21, 1840, Biickeburg, Spohr's last pupil 
(1857-58) ; received his final training from 
Joachim. Like his brother, he was for two 
years " Hofmusikus " at Detmold, then for five 
years leader at Munich, and is now (since 1866) 
leader and principal teacher at the Basle school 
of music. 

Bargiel, Woldemar, composer, b. Oct. 3, 
1828, Berlin. His father, who died in 1841, 
was the teacher of music Adolf B. ; his 
mother, Marianne, nee Tromlitz, was Fr. 
Wieck's first vnfe. B. is therefore step-brother 
to Clara Schumann (q.v.). He first received 
training from his parents, and studied after- 
wards with Hauptmann, Moscheles, Rietz, and 
Gade, at the Leipzig Conservatorium. After 
giving private lessons for some time in Berlin, 
he became teacher at the Cologne Conserva- 
torium, in 1865 director of the institution of the 
" Maatschappij tot bevordering van toonkunst " 
at Amsterdam, in 1874 professor at the " Hoch- 
schule fiir Musik " at Berlin, in 1875 member of 
the senate of the Academy of Arts in that city, 
and is at present one of the heads of the 
"Meisterschule fiir MusikaUsche Composition" 
in connection with the Academy of Arts. B. 
is a distinguished instrumental composer, and 
belongs to the school of Robert Schumann. 
Several overtures (Prometheus, Medea, Zu einem 
TrauerspieT), a symphony, sonatas, trios, quartets, 
an octet, suites, etc., display inventive power 
and skilled workmanship. B. has also pub- 
lished some part-songs, and psalms for chorus 
and orchestra. 

Baribasao (Ital.), a deep bass voice. 

Baritenore (Ital.), a low tenor voice. 

Barker, Charles Spackmann, b. Oct. 10, 
1800,, Bath, d. Nov. 26, 1879, Maidstone. A 
famous organ-builder in London. He went 
to Paris in 1837, and took direction of the busi- 
ness of Daublaine and Callinet. In i860 he set 
up a factory of his own under the style of Barker 
& Verschneider. In 1845 he built an organ for 
St. Eustache, and also repaired that of the 
church of St. Sulpice. He returned to England 
in 1870. He was the inventor of the pneumatic 
lever (q.v.), and of electric action, which ef- 
fected a complete revolution in the art of organ 

Barmamt, (i) Heinrich Joseph, famous 
clarinet player, b. Feb. 17, 1784, Potsdam, d. 
June II, 1847, Munich; was oboe player in a 
Berlin regiment of the guards, and afterwards 
" Hofmusikus " at Munich. B. was on friendly 
terms with Weber (who dedicated three con- 
certos to him^, Meyerbeer, and Mendelssohn 
(who wrote his Op. 113 for him) ; and on his. 
concert tours his success as a performer on the 
clarinet was unprecedented. His compositions 
for clarinet are now held by performers in high 
esteem. — (2) Karl, son of the former, b. 1820, 
Munich, a. there May 24, 1885 ; accompanied 
his father on his later concert tours, and also 
gained great fame as a clarinet player. After 
his father's death he took his place as first 
clarinet player in the court band. Besides 
various compositions for clarinet, he has estab- 
lished a lasting memorial to himself by his 
" Clarinet Method." 

Bamby, Joseph, b. Aug. 12, 1838, York; 
pupil of the Royal Academy of Music, con- 
ductor of the Royal Albert Hall Choral Society. 
In 1875 he was appointed director of musical 
instruction at Eton College. He became con- 
ductor of the Musical Society on its formation. 
In 1886 he succeeded Mr. Shakespeare as con- 
ductor at the Royal Academy of Music. His 
psahn. The Lord is King, was produced with 
success at the Leeds Festival of 1883. In 1884 
he gave two concert performances of Wagner's 
Parsifal at the Albert Hall. In 1892 B. was 
appointed Principal of the Guildhall School of 
Music, as successor to Mr. Weist Hill, founder 
of that institution ; and in the same year he 
received the order of knighthood. 

Bamett, (i) John, b. July i, 1802, Bedford, 
d. April 17th, i8go, Cheltenham. He was the 
son of a German jeweller who emigrated to 
England, and whose real name was Bernhard 
Beer. At an early age B. received a thorough 
musical training, and came forward before the 
footlights of the Lyceum Theatre with his 
operetta. Before Breakfast, in 1825. He soon 
became a prolific composer for the stage, and, 
after writing a number of small pieces, which 
were produced partly at the Lyceum, partly at 
the Olympic and Drury Lane theatres, he made 




his first serious attempt with The Mountain 
Sylph in 1834 ; Fair Rosamund followed in 1837, 
and FarinelU in 1838. In 1841 B. settled at 
Cheltenham as teacher of singing. The number 
of detached songs which he wrote is said to 
number about 4,000. He wrote three operas 
which have never been produced.— (2) John 
Francis, nephew of the former, b. Oct. 16, 
1837, London; a gifted composer and good 
pianist, free scholar at the Academy. He 
played already, in 1853, Mendelssohn's Con- 
certo in D minor under Spohr's direction, dt the 
New Philharmonic. From 1857 to i860 he was 
pupil at the Leipzig Conservatorium, and made 
an appearance at the Gewandhaus in i860. 
The following of his compositions deserve 
mention; — a symphony, symphonic overture, 
overture to the Winter's Tule, stringed quartets 
and quintets, pf. trios, a pf. sonata, impromptus, 
an oratorio (The Raising of Lazarus), two can- 
tatas for the Birmingham Festivals (the Ancient 
Mariner and Paradise and the Peri), and a Tantum 
Ergo a 8. For the Liverpool Festival of 1874 
he wrote an orchestral piece, The Lay of the 
Last Minstrel, for the Brighton Festival of 1876 
the cantata The Good Shepherd, for the Leeds 
Festival of 1880 The Building of the Ship, and 
for Norwich in 1881 The Harvest Festival. Also 
a scena for contralto, "The Golden Gate," a 
flute concerto, flute sonata, etc. 

Baron, Ernst Gottlieb, famous lutenist 
and historiographer of the lute, b. Feb. 27, 
i6g6, Breslau, d. April 20, 1760, Berlin. He 
was appointed court lutenist at Gotha in 1727, 
and in 1734 theorbist to the Prussian Crown 
Prince, who afterwards became King Frederick 
II. His principal work was " Histoiisch-theo- 
retische und praktische Untersuchung des In- 
struments der Laute, etc." (1727). He added 
an appendix on the lute to Marpurg's "His- 
torisch-kritische Beitrage " (2nd vol.), and 
this was followed by "Abhandlung von dem 
Notensystem der Laute und der Theorbe." Of 
less value are the following works: "Abriss 
einer Abhandlung von der Melodie," "Zufal- 
lige Gedanken iiber verschiedene Materien," 
"Versuch iiber das Schone," and "Von dem 
uralten Adel und dem Nutzen der Musik." 

Barozyton (Gr. literally "something which 
sounds low and high"), a brass wind instru- 
ment constructed in 1853 by Cerveny at 
Koniggratz: it is of wide measure, with the 
respectable compass of contra d to once- 
accented a (,D to a'). 

Barre de meaure (Fr.), a bar-line. 

Bane de repetition (Fr.), a double bar with 
dots, indicating a rispeat. 

Barr^, (i) Leonard, contrapuntist of the 
i6th century (also named Barra), b. Limoges, 
studied with Willaert, appointed Papal chapel 
singer in 1537. He was a member of the 
special musical commission sent by the Pope 
to the Council of Trent (1545). Some of his 

madrigals and motets have been preserved. — 
(2) Antoine, a contemporary, and perhaps a 
relation of the former. He was a composer of 
madrigals, and proprietor of a printing-press at 
Rome from 1555 to 1570. He afterwards went 
to Milan. 

Barr^ (Fr.), in guitar playing the placing of 
the forefinger of the left hand on several strings. 
The placing of the forefinger on more than 
three strings is called grand barre. 

Barrel organ (Ger. Drehorgel), a small port- 
able organ with covered pipes, or even reeds, 
which, by means of a handle, is not only pro- 
vided with wind, but also made to play. The 
handle turns a roller set with pins (or, more 
recently, plates perforated with holes) which 
open the valves to the pipes. The B. O. is 
often provided with a tremolo, which causes 
the tone to be intermittent. The B. O. is the 
instrument most in vogue amongst itinerant 
beggars, and has almost entirely superseded the 
older hurdy-gurdy. 

Barret, Apollon Marie Rose, distin- 
guished oboe player, French by birth, b. 1804, 
d. March 8, 1879, London. He studied under 
Vogt at the Paris Conservatoire, was a member 
of the orchestras of the Odeon Theatre and of 
the Opera Comique, and of the Italian Opera, 
London, up to 1874. He was the author of 
an excellent " Complete Method for the Oboe," 
to which a set of sonatas and studies for that 
instrument is appended. 

Barrett, (i) John, music master at Christ's 
Hospital, and organist at St. Mary-at-Hill, 
London, about 1710. He composed songs once 
very popular in England, one of which Gay put 
into his Beggar's Opera, and also overtures and 
entr'actes. — (2) William Alexander, b. Oct. 
15, 1836, Hackney, English writer on music, 
chorister at St. Paul's, London ; 1870, Mus.Bac. 
(Oxford). , He published, with Dr. Stainer, a 
"Dictionary of Musical Terms" (1875), and 
wrote monographs on the English glee and 
madrigal composers, on English Church com- 
posers, and on Balfe ; he was musical critic • 
of the Morning Post, and formerly edited the 
Monthly Musical Record, also the Musical Times. 
He died suddenly Oct., 1891. 

BaiTington, Daines, b. 1727, London, d. 
there March 11, 1800. He was recorder of 
Bristol, afterwards judge in Wales. He was 
the author of many small musical essays, and 
also of a letter on Mozart's appearance in 
London (1764), and a description of the two 
old Welsh instruments, the Crewth (see Chrotta) 
and Pib-corn (Horn-pipe). 

Bany, Charles Ainslie, b. June 10, 1830, 
pupil of Walmisley, afterwards at the Conserva- 
torium of Leipzig and that of Dresden ; from 
1875-9 he was editor of the Monthly Musical 
Record, in 1886 Secretary of the Liszt Scholar- 
ship. He is an advanced musical writer, also 
composer ("Festival March," songs, pf. pieces). 


Barsaati, Francesco, b. about 1690, Lucca ; 
came in 1714 with Geminiani to England and 
entered the orchestra of the Italian Opera as 
flautist, but afterwards took up the oboe. For 
a long time he held a lucrative post in Scot- 
land, but returned again in 1750 to London, 
and was engaged as viola-player at the opera 
and at Vauxhall. B. published a collection of 
old Scotch songs with bass, twelve violin con- 
certos, six flute solos with bass, six sonatas for 
two violins with bass, and six antiphons in the 
"Palestrina" style. 

b. Sept. 4, 1786, Florence, d. April, 1868, Mar- 
seilles ; founded in 1821, at Marseilles, a free (I) 
school of music, of which he was director 
until 1852. His published works are pf. varia- 
tions, a " Salvum fac Regem," and a " M^thode 
de Musique " for the free school of music (1828). 

Bartay, (i) Andreas, b. 1798, Sz^plak (Hun- 
gary), d. Oct. 4, 1856, Mayence. In 1838 he was 
director of the Hungarian National Theatre; 
in, 1848 he gave concerts in Paris, and after- 
wards lived at Hamburg. He composed Hun- 
garian operas [Aurelia, Csel, Die Ungarn in Neapel), 
an oratorio. Die Ersturmung Ofens, masses, 
ballets, etc. His son (2) Ede, b. Oct. 6, 1825, 
is director of the National Music Academy at 
Pesth, founder of the Hungarian "Musiker- 
Pensions-Anstalt," and likewise a, composer 
(overture Pericles). 

Baith, (i) Christian Samuel, celebrated 
oboe-player and composer for his instrument, 
t>. 1735,' Glauchau (Saxony), d. July 8, 1809, 
Copenhagen. He was a pupil of J. S. Bach at St. 
Thomas' School, and was oboist successively in 
the bands at Rudolstadt, Weimar, Hanover, 
Cassel, and Copenhagen. — (2) F. Philipp C. A., 
son of the former and his successor as oboist in 
the court band at Copenhagen, b. about 1773, 
Cassel ; published collections of Danish and Ger- 
man songs, also a flute concerto, and left behind 
oboe concertos in manuscript. — (3) Joseph 
Joh. Aug., b. Dec. 29, 1781, Grosshppen (Bo- 
hemia), was in Vienna from about 1810 to 1830, 
a highly-esteemed concert singer (tenor) and 
member of the royal band. — (4) Gustav, b. 
1818, Vienna, son of the former, pianist and 
composer of vocal works ; from 1848, and for a 
long time, conductor of the Vienna Male Vocal 
Union, and now living in private at Frankfort. 
He married the celebrated singer Wilhelmine 
Hasselt.— (5) Karl Heinrich, b. July 12, 
1847, Pillau, near Konigsberg, the son of' a 
teacher ; received his first musical training from 
his father, 1856-62 from L. Steinman in Pots- 
dam, and after that was a pupil of Biilow at 
Berlin (1862-64), °f Bronsart, and, for a short 
time, of Tausig. In 1868 he became teacher at the 
Stern Conservatorium, and in 1871 at the Royal 
High School, Berlin. B. is an excellent pianist, 
and, besides, an ensemble player of the first 
rank : he has made several successful concert 

57 Baa?3rtoii 

tours in Germany and England, some of them 
with Joseph and Amalie Joachim. The trio 
party B., de Ahna, Hausmann, enjoyed a high 

Barthel, Johann Christian, b. April ig, 
1776, Plauen, d. June 10, 1831 ; musical director 
at Greiz, later on court organist at Altenburg 
(successor of Krebs) ; he wrote a large number 
of sacred works (104 psalms, Easter cantata), 
organ pieces, etc. ; but only a few dances for 
pianoforte were printed. 

Barth^lemon, Fran9ois Hippolyte, b. 
July 27, 1741, Bordeaux; d. July 20, 1808, 
Dublin ; great violin player, who came to Eng- 
land in 1764, was engaged as leader of the opera 
band, and had great success in London as an 
opera composer, Pelopida (1766), Le Fleuve Sca- 
mandre (in French, Paris, 1768), The Judgment of 
Paris, The Enchanted Girdle, The Maid of the Oaks, 
The Election, Belphegor (1778). In 1770 he became 
leader at Vausdiall. Alter long tours in Ger- 
many, Italy, and France, he accepted a post in 
Dublin in 1784. B. also wrote an oratorio, Jefte 
(1776), and published a great number of instru- 
mental works (for violin, organ, and pianoforte). 
One of his violin sonatas (Op. 10, No. 2), is 
published in G. Jensen's "Classische Violin- 
musik beruhmter Meister." 

Bartdli, (i) Pater Erasmo, b. 1606, Gaeta; 
lived, under the name of Pater Raimo, at 
Naples, entered, finally, the order of the Ora- 
tonans, and died of the plague on July 14, 1656. 
His compositions (in manuscript) are preserved 
in the Oratorian Library (masses, psalms, 
motets, etc.). — (2) Danielo, b. 1608, Ferrara, 
d. Jan. 13, 1685, Rome ; a learned Jesuit, author 
of a work on acoustics, "Del Suono, de' Tre- 
mori, Armonici e dell' Udito " (1681). 

Bartholomew, William, b. 1793, d. 1867; a 
violin-player and excellent flower-painter. He 
translated into English, or adapted, the texts 
of most of Mendelssohn's vocal works. In 1853 
he married Miss Mounsey, for whom Mendels- 
sohn wrote " Hear my Prayer : " she died June 
24, 1891. 

Baryton (Ital. Baritono), (i) the finest of all 
the kinds of male voices, combining the dignity 
and strength of the bass with the brilliancy of 
the tenor voice, and thus a medium between 
the two ; and, according as it extends upwards 
or downwards, is called a tenor-baryton or a 
bass-baryton. The ' tenbr-baryton can with 
difficulty, if at ail, be distinguished from the 
dramatic tenor (Heldentenor), for very many 
dramatic tenors are nothing more than tenor- 
barytons vnth the upper register specially cul- 
tivated. The term B. really means "deep- 
toned," and is evidently selected as antithesis 
to the higher tenor. It is named basse-taille by the 
French, i.e. low-tenor, and to this name it fully 
answers ; or Concordant (agreeing with), prob- 
ably because in position it agrees about, as 
much with the bass as with the tenor (A—f^, 

Baryton 58 

or G—g'). Of late, opera composers willingly 
write principal parts for B., but this is not in 
the slightest degree the result of the scarcity of 
good and well-trained tenors. — (2) A stringed 
instnment, now obsolete, but one which in the 
last century enjoyed great popularity (Ital. Viola 
di Bordone or Bardone) . It was of the size of the 
'cello (likewise of the gamba), and was con- 
structed like the bass instrument called the Viola 
d'amour, in so far as it had seven strings, under 
which, however (under the finger-board), there 
lay a number of wire strings (nine to twenty-four) , 
which sounded sympathetically when the in- 
strument was played upon, or were even pinched 
with the thumb of the left hand. The tuning of 
the upper strings was as follows : Contra B, E, A , 
d, f, b, e'. Prince Nlkolaus Esterhazy, Haydn[s 
patron, was a great amateur player on this 
instrument, and Haydn, therefore, wrote a great 
number (175) of pieces for the same (125 di- 
vertimenti for B., tenor, and 'cello, six duets 
for two barytons, twelve sonatas for B. and 
'cello, seventeen cassations, etc.). The greater 
number of these were destroyed by a fire, and 
not one has been printed. Several other con- 
temporary composers also wrote for the B. 
(F. Paer, Weigl, Eybler, Pichel, etc.). The in- 
strument was constructed already in the 17th 
century, for instance, by A. Stainer (1660). — 
(3) A'brass wind instrummt (Baryton Horn) of the 
family of the bugle-horn, or bass tuba (wide 
measure). (Cf. Bugle.) It is also called eu- 
phonium. — (4) In combination with the names of 
instruments, B. refers to the compass of the 
same; for example, Baryton Horn {see above, 
3) ; Baryton Clarinet {see Clarinet). 
Ba ryton clef is the F clef on the middle line : 

^^ : it is now antiquated. {Cf. Chiavette 

and Transposition.) 

Bas-desBUB (Fr., "low soprano"), mezzo- 

Basevi, Abramo, Italian writer on music, b. 
Dec. 29, 1818, Livomo, d. Nov., 1885, Florence. 
He practised first of all as a physician at Flor- 
ence, but turned to music. His first attempts as 
an opera composer {Romilda ei Ezzelino, 1840 ; 
Enrico Howard, 1847) ™et with no success. He 
foimded a music paper, Armonia, which became 
extinct in 1859 ; but in that year he established 
the Beethoven-Matinees, which afterwards de- 
veloped into the SocietS, del quartetto. He also 
offered a yearly prize for the composition of a 
stringed quartet. B. was a diligent contributor 
to the musical paper Boccherini, and wrote 
besides, "Studio suUe opere di G. Verdi" 
(1859), " Introduzione ad un Nuovo Sistema 
della Musica" (1862), and "Compeudio della 
Storia della Musica " (1866). Finally he was 
engaged in philosophical studies. 

Basili, Francesco, b. Feb., 1766, Loreto 
d. March 25, 1850, Rome. He studied under 
the. Papal maestro Jannaconi at Rome, and 


first held small posts as conductor at Foligno, 
Macerata, and Loreto, while a series of (14} 
operas of his were given at Milan, Rome, 
Florence, and Venice. In 1827 te was ap- 
pointed censor at the Royal Conservatorio, 
Milan, and finally, in 1837, was called to Rome 
as maestro of St. Peter's. B. wrote a number 
of sacred compositions (masses, offertories, mag- 
nificats, motets, etc.), also a requiem for Jan- 
naconi's obsequies, and an oratorio, Samson 

Basil, St., the Great, b. 329, Caesarea (Cap- 
padocia), d. there as bishop in 379. He is said 
to have won great merit in the matter of Church 
song, and to have introduced antiphons which, 
according to contemporary writers, Ambrosius 
had learnt from him and carried to Milan. 

Basis (Gr. foundation), an obsolete term for 
the bass part, especially in the hellenizing of 
the i6th century, in place of Bassus. 

Bass (Ital. Basso, Fr. Basse), (i) The deepest 
of male voices. A distinction is made between 
the low (second) B., and the high (first) B. 
(Bass-baryton, see Baryton.) The compass of 
the bass is, as a rule, F—f ; the deep bass ex- 
tends somewhat further downwards, in certain 
cases to contra BJ? and further, the high bass 
not so far (to great A) ; while in the other direc- 
tion the limit in both differs, at most, by i to 
ij tones (the low extends to e'b, the high to 
/' 4). With regard to timbre, there is the Basso 
profondo, of which the tone is full and powerful, 
and Basso buffo, of a shouting, less noble char- 
acter, and for which volubility of tongue is 
essential. — (2) The instruments which take the 
lowest part in instrumental music are called basses. 
In Germany, by B. is, for the most part, under- 
stood merely dottble bass (qv.), but formerly the 
violoncello (q. v.) . Bassi (basses), on the other hand, 
includes both 'celli and double basses playing 
in octaves; and by " Harmonic "bass is under- 
stood the lowest bass instrument of a wind band 
f bassoon, trombone, bass-tuba, helikon, etc.). — 
(3) The lowest part«f a piece of music (c/: Basis), 
which, as support, foundation of the harmonies, 
requires a particular mode of treatment. (See 
Parts, Progression of.) In the compositions 
of the great period of the imitative style (see 
Netherland School), in which there was no 
independent instrumental music, not even a 
simple dance piece, a bass part in our sense of 
the term did not exist, even though certain con- 
siderations, which it was impossible to ignore, 
carried weight (progressions by fourth or fifth 
in cadences). The inventor of the bass part in 
a modern sense was Viadana (q.v.) ; his Basso 
continuo is a real supporting part. A real dif- 
ference existed between Basso continuo (General 
bass) and Fundamental bass (Fr. basse fondament- 
ale): the latter (also called Ground bass), an in- 
vention of Rameau's, is no real part, but one 
theoretically formed in the analysis of a piece 



Bass Lute 

of music to show the succession of the funda- 
mental tones of the harmonies. (See Clang- 
Succession.) — (4) In combination with names 
of instruments (for example, bass clarinet, bass 
trombone, bass trumpet, Basse de Viole, Basse de 
Cromome, etc.), B. indicates the nature of the 
compass of the instrument (cf. the simple 
names). In the organ the addition of B. shows 
that the stop belongs to the pedal board, for 
example, Gemshom-bass, etc. 

Basaa (Ital. "low, under- . . ."), when joined 
to 8, 8™ (ottava), it indicates the lower- or unier- 
octave. (Of. Abbreviations.) 

Basaanello, an obsolete wood-wind instru- 
ment, related to the bassoon, with double reed 
which was placed in a futmel-shaped mouth- 
piece. It had a bent neck (S), and was built in 
three different sizes (Bass, Tenor, and Discant). 
Bttssanelli of 8 and 4 feet are reed stops to be 
met with in old organs. 

Basaani, (i) Giovanni, teacher of music at 
the College of St. Mark's Church, Venice, 
about 1600. Two books, " Concerti Ecclesias- 
tici " (1598 and 1599), and a book of canzonets 
a 4 (1587) have been preserved. — (2) Giovanni 
Battista, b. about 1657, Padua, d. 1716, Fer- 
rara; maestro di cappella of Bologna Cathe- 
dral, lived at Ferrara from 1683. He was an 
excellent violinist (teacher of Corelli), and a 
prolific composer whose works were held in 
high esteem. Sonatas (suites) for violin (Op. i 
and Op. 5), many solo songs, motets, psalms, 
masses, etc., and six operas. — (3) Geronimo, 
b. Venice, pupil of Lotti, excellent singer and 
teacher of singing; also composer of sacred 
music (masses, motets, vespers) and operas 
{Bertoldo, 1718 ; Amor per forza, 1721, both of 
which were produced at Venice). 

Baas Clarinet. {See Clarinet.) 

Baaa Clausel, the usual bass progression in a 
full close (clausula finalis), i.e. a fifth downwards 
or a fourth upwards, from dominant to tonic. 

Baaa Clef is the name of the F clef on the 

fourth line [ 

In former times both the 

G and F clefs, like the C clef at the present 
day, were placed on various lines— 

Baritone clef. Deep bass clef. 

(Cf. F and Clef.) 

Baaae (Fr., see Bass). 

Baaae chantante (Fr.),. the high bass voice, 
or a singer who has such a voice. The more 
flexible "singing bass" (6a5so cantante) as dis- 
tinguished from the "deep bass" (basso pro- 

Baaae chif&:ee (Fr.), figured bass (q.v.). 

Baaae contrainte (Fr.), same as Basso Osti- 


Basae centre (Fr.), low bass voice, just as 
Hautre-contre is the lowest of the high (female) 
voices (Alto, Ital. Contr'alto). 

Baaae double (Fr.), double-bass. 

Baaae taille (Fr.), the name of the male voice 
which lies between the basse (bass) and taille 
(tenor)— namely, the barytone. The expres- 
sion is also used synonymously with basso can- 

Baaaet-Hom (Ital. Corno di bassetto, Fr. Cor de 
basset) , a wood-wind instrument lately gone out of 
use, an alto clarinet in f, which has below four 
semitones more than the clarinet (q.v.); its 
compass is from f to (thrice accented) c'" (writ- 
ten c— g«'). The B. H., on account of its con- 
siderable length, is curved or bent. The real 
sound-tube is generally straight, but the mouth- 
piece is fixed on at a flat angle, and the small 
brass bell at the end turned out in the opposite 
direction. Mozart has employed two basset- 
horns in his Requiem, and has also written soli 
for the instrument in his Titus. Mendelssohn, 
again, wrote two concert-pieces for clarinet and 
B. H. The quality of tone, as in the bass 
clarinet, especially in the lower register, is 
sombre, but soft. 

Basaett (Bassettl, also Bassl), old German 
name for the violoncello. (See L. Mozart's ' ' Violin 
School," p. 3.) Joined with names of other 
instruments, B. means that they have a middle 
compass (tenor compass), for example. Basset- 
horn (q.v.), Bassettpommer (see Bomhart), Bas- 
sett-flute, etc. There is also an organ stop 
of this name (B. 4-feet, a. pedal flute-stop). 

Baaaevi. (See Cervetto.) 

Bassflote (Ger.), a bass flute; the lowest 
member of the old family of straight, or direct, 
flutes (Fl&tes A bee). 

Baasgeige (Ger.), violoncello. — Grosse Baaa- 
geige, double-bass. 

Baas Horn, a wood wind-instrument allied to 
the serpent, with cupped mouthpiece on an 
S-tube, and with brass bell. It had a compass 
of four octaves, from C to c'" but it was of slow 
speech, and had a dull tone. It was made at 
the beginning of the century, but only remained 
in vogue for a few decades. 

Basai, Luigi, b. 1766, Pesaro, d. 1825, Dres- 
den; distinguished baritone singer, was from 
1784 to 1806 at Prague, and then, in conse- 
quence of the war, lived at Vienna without any 
settled appointment. In 1814 he was again in 
Prague (under Weber), and afterwards director 
of the Dresden Opera. Mozart wrote the part 
of Don Juan for B. 

Baaairon, Philippe, a native of the Nether- 
lands, composer of^the i6th century, of whom 
Petrucci has printed some masses in his 
" Missae diversorum " (1508). 

Baaa Lute, a large kind of lute (q.v.). 




Basso (Ital.). (See Bass.) 

Basso numerato (Ital.), a figured bass. (See 
General Bass.) 

Bassoon (Ital. Fagotto, Fr. Basson), a sym- 
phonic orchestral -wood -wind-instrument of the 
present day, and successor to the Bomhart, 
common in the 16th century. The bulky 
dimensions of the larger kinds of the latter 
(Basspommer and Doppelquintpommer), which were 
over eight and ten feet long, suggested to Afranio 
degh Albonesi, canon of Ferrara in 1525, the 
idea of bending the tube and putting it together 
like a bundle (fagotto). The construction of the 
first bassoons was so imperfect, that the Bom- 
hart remained in vogue for over a century. On 
account of its much softer tone, the B. was 
calle,d for a long time Dolcian (Dulcian). The 
B. belongs to the double-reed instruments (like 
the oboe and English horn). The reed is in- 
serted and fixed in the S-shaped neck of the 
instrument, whereas in the Schalmeys and 
Bomharts, the reed is free in the kettle-shaped 
mouthpiece, and is not touched by the player. 
In the oboe and bassoon there is no mouth- 
piece whatever, and the player takes the double 
reed directly between his lips, whereby he has 
full control over the. tone. The B. is thus not 
merely a bent Bomhart with improved sound 
holes and key mechanism, but the invention 
which turned the Schalmey into an oboe must 
be assumed. Almenrader and Th. Bohm 
in this century have materially improved the 
mechanism of the B. The compass of the B. 
extends from (contra) B fiat to (twice-acciented) 
c", and on the most modern instruments to e" 
ilat. Virtuoso players can even bring out the 
e" and f", but b" flat is the usual limit for 
orchestral use. A soft reed is better for the 
production of the lower notes, a hard one for 
the higher ; in orchestral music the composer 
must, therefore, carefully distinguish between 
the I St and the 2nd B. The Double Bassoon is 
an octave lower in pitch than the B. ; the Quint- 
fagott (Tenor Bassoon), now completely out of 
use, a 5th higher (lowest note F). There is a 
scarcity of good methods for the B. (Ozi, 
" Nouvelle M^thode, etc.," 1787 and 1800, also 
in a modern German edition ; Cugnier, Blasius, 
Frohlich, Kiiffner) ; as a rule, the help of 
fingering tables (Almenrader) is sought for, and 
the rest left to practice. 

Basso ostinato, also basso obbligato (Ital.). 
{See Ostinato.) 

Basso profondo (Ital.), a deep bass. (v. Basso 

Basso ripieno (Ital.), Lit., "the filling up 
bass " — ^namely, the bass played by ail the per- 
formers in contradistinction'to that played only 
by one or a few. (». Ripieno.) 
Basspommer. (See Bomhart and Bassoon.) 
Bass Trombone. (See Trombone.) 
Bass Tuba. (See Bugle Horn, Cf. Tuba.) 

Bastardella. (See Agujari.) 

Bastiaans, J. G., b. 1812, Wilp (Geldres), d. 
Feb. 16, 1875, Haarlem ; pupil of F. Schneider 
in Dessau, and of Mendelssohn in Leipzig ; he 
settled at Amsterdam, where he became organist 
of the " Zuiderkerk," and teacher of the organ 
at the Institute for the Blind. In 1868 he 
was appointed organist of the famous great 
organ of St. Bavo, Haarlem, and was highly 
esteemed as player and teacher. B. published 
some songs, and a " Choralbuch." He was 
succeeded by his son, Johann B., b. 1854, d. 
Dec. 7, 1885, Haarlem. 

Baston, Josquin, Netherland composer, b. 
about 1556 ; his chansons and motets are to be 
found in several collections printed at Antwerp, 
Louvain, and Augsburg (1542-61). 

Bates, (i) Jo ah, a well-known and excellent 
musical amateur, b. March 19, 1741, Halifax, 
d. June 8, 1799, as director of Greenwich Hos- 
pital. He composed the opera Pharnacis, 
operettas, pf. sonatas, etc. In 1776, together 
with other " amateurs," he established the 
Concerts of Ancient Music, which must not be 
confounded with the Academy of Ancient Musk 
established by Pepusch, which only lasted until 
1792. He was also the instigator of the great 
musical festivals given in memory of Handel 
(1784, 1785, 1786, 1787, and 1791), of which he 
was also the conductor. — (2) William, English 
composer, b. at the beginning of the 18th 
century, date of death unknown. He wrote 
glees, songs, catches, and canons, etc. 

Bateson, Thomas, organist at Chester from 
1599, and later on "Vicar and Organist" of 
Christ Church, Dublin. He was probably the 
first person who took a musical degree at Dublin 
University. Two books of his madrigals have 
been preserved. 

Bathjrphon (Gr., "deep-sounding") was the 
name of a wood wind-instrument constructed in 
1829 by Skorra of Berlin. It extended from 
(contra) D to (small) b|7. It appears to have 
been somewhat similar to the Serpent and Bass- 
horn, but it was only used for a time in military 

Batiste, Antoine Edouard, b. March 28, 
1820, Paris, d. there, Nov. 9, 1876; a distin- 
guished organist, professor at the Paris Con- 
servatoire (choral singing, harmony, and accom- 
paniment). He was organist of St. Nicholas- 
aux-Champs, and afterwards of St. Eustache. 
He composed some organ pieces of value, pub- 
lished a " Petit Solfege Harmonique," and the 
oflicial " Solfeges du Conservatoire." 

Batistin. (See Struck.) 
Baton (Fr.), Rest stroke 




etc. Rests of more than two or three bars are 
now indicated only by figures. (Cf. Rest.)— 
(2) B. de mesure, conducting-stick. 




Baton, Henri, performer on the musette, 
while his brother Charles (B. Lejeune) played 
on the vielle, or hurdy-gurdy. The latter wrote 
compositions for vielle and musette, and pub- 
lished a " Memoire sur la Vielle in D la re " in 
the Mermn, 1757. 

Batta, (i) Pierre, b. Aug. 8, 1795, Maastricht, 
d. Nov. 20, 1876, Brussels, at the Conserva- 
toire, and was professor of the violoncello in 
that city. His sons were: — (2) Alexandre, 
b. July 9, 1816, Maastricht, studied first with 
his father, then with Platel at the Brussels 
Conservatoire, had his name coupled with that 
of Demunck for the first 'cello prize in 1834, 
and after that his merits were acknowledged 
abroad, and especially at Paris, where he settled 
down. His playing, calculated for effect, lacks 
the higher inspiration. He has published 
romances for 'cello, fantasies, variations, etc. — 
(3) Jean Laurent, b. Dec. 30, 1817, Maas- 
tricht, an excellent pianist ; he lived in Paris, 
afterwards (1848) as teacher of music at Nancy, 
where he died, Dec. 1879. — (4) Joseph, b. 
April 24, 1820, Maastricht, a vioUnist and com- 
poser ; he received in 1845 the grand prize for 
composition at Brussels, and since 1846 has 
been in the orchestra of the Opera Comique, 

Battaile, Charles Am able, a distinguished 
bass singer, b. Sept. 30, 1822, Nantes, d. May 
2, 1872. He was originally a _physician, and 
from 1848 to 1857 at the Paris Op^ra Comique, 
after which he was obliged to retire from the 
stage owing to a throat complaint. He only 
appeared exceptionally at the Theatre Lyrique 
and at the Opera Comique in i860. From 1851 
he was professor of singing at the Conserva- 
toire. He published a great Method of singing, 
the first part of which contains elaborate physio- 
logical investigations. 

Battanchon, F^lix, b. April 9, 1814, Paris, a 
distinguished 'cellist and a noteworthy com- 
poser for his instrument. He studied with 
Vaslin and Norblin at the Paris Conservatoire, 
and from 1840 belonged to the orchestra of the 
Grand Opera. From 1846 to 1847 B. tried to 
make known a kind of smaller 'cello, which he 
named Baryton, but the interest which it ex- 
cited was only short-lived. 

Battement (Fr.), an ornament which, strange 
to say, has become obsolete, viz., the trill with 
the under-second (commencing with the latter). 
There was never any special sign for the B. ; 
it was always indicated by small notes : 


The B. takes up the whole of notes of small 
value. There is no reason, indeed, why this 
ornament, of equal rank with the upper-second 

trill, should be allowed to fall into complete 

Batten, Adrian, appointed vicar-choral of 
Westminster Abbey in 1614, and from 1624 
held the same office, together with that of 
organist of St. Paul's. He composed some ex- 
cellent anthems, which are still sung, also a 
Morning, Communion, and Evening Service, 
etc. Some of his music is printed in the Eng- 
lish collections of Barnard, Boyce. He died, 
probably, in 1637. 

Batterie, a French term to be recommended 
for general use for figuration of all kinds, when 
chords are broken up thus : — 

According to Rousseau {" Diet, de Mus."), B. is 
distinguished ' from Arpeggio in that the former 
is not played legato, but staccato. 

Battishill, Jonathan, b. May, 1738, London, 
d. Dec. 10, 1801. He was cembalist at Covent 
Garden, for which theatre he wrote several 
operas, the first of which -wasAlmena (in con- 
junction with Arne, 1764). Later on he gave him- 
self up to sacred composition, and devoted the 
last years of his life to the collecting together 
of a valuable musical library. Some of his 
glees, anthems, and fugues are to be found in the 
collections of Warren and Page; six anthems 
and ten chants appeared separately in 1804. 

Battiata, Vincenzo, b. Oct. 5, 1823, Naples, 
d. there Nov. 14, 1873. He studied at the 
Naples Conservatorio, and produced eleven 
operas on various Italian stages with good suc- 
cess for the time, but was quite forgotten before 
his death. 

Battmann, Jacques Louis, b. Aug. 25, 
1818, Maasmiinster (Alsace), d. July 7, 1886, 
Dijon. In 1840 he was organist at Belfort, later 
on at Vesoul. He published many composi- 
tions for pianoforte and organ (among which 
etudes), a method for pianoforte, a treatise on 
harmony (for the accompaniment of Gregorian 
Song), a method for harmonium and many com- 
positions for that instrument;, also masses, 
motets, choral works, etc. 

Batton, Desire Alexandre, b. Jan. 2, 1797, 
Paris, d. Oct. 15, 1855. He studied at the Con- 
servatoire under Cherubini, and received the 
Prix de Rome. in 1816. He wrote five operas, 
which met with small success ; also in 1831 
(jointly with Auber, Carafa, Herold, Berton.and 
others) he wrote the Marquise de BrmvilUers. 
After carrying on his father's business (artificial 
flowers) for a long while, he was appointed 
inspector of the 'branch establishments of the 
Conservatoire in 1842, and, besides, teacher ot 
an ensemble class in 1849. 

Battu, Pantaloon, b. 1799, Paris, d. Jan. 
17, 1870. He studied with R. Kreutzer, was a 



, Baumker 

member of the opera orchestra and the royal 
band until 1830, and from 1846 second con- 
ductor at the opera. He published two violin 
concertos, some violin romances, variations, and 
three duos concertants. 

Battuta (Ital., from batters, to beat), time- 
beat; a bait, ("in time"). A prescription for 
the instruments accompanjdng a vocal part (in 
contradistinction to coUa parte, which means that 
the instruments are to follow the singer) ; also 
an indication for the singer that the passage is 
to be taken in strict time. The so-called .(4 noso, 
or A ecomf agitato (q.v.), which sometimes occurs 
in a recitative, is therefore tnarked a bait. In 
a more restricted sense B. means down-beat, i.e. 
commencement of a bar ; hence ritmo di tre or 
di guattro battute, i.e. rhythm of a set of three or 
of four bars connected with one another (bars 
forming one bar of higher order. [Cf. Metre, 
Art of.) In counterpoint B. means a progres- 
sion forbidden by the old contrapuntists, viz., 
the passing of the extreme parts from the tenth 
to the octave on a strong beat, for example : — 

Already, about 1725, T- Fux gave up the strict 
observance of this prohibition. 

Baudlot, Charles Nicolas, performer on 
the 'cello, b. March 29, 1773, Nancy, d. Sept. 
26, 1849, Paris. He studied with Janson, and 
in 1802 became his successor as professor of his 
instrument at the Paris > Conservatoire ; and in 
i8i_6 first 'cellist in the royal band. He re- 
ceived a pension in 1832. He published many 
compositions for the 'cello, and, jointly with 
Levasseur and Bajllot, the M^thode for 'cello 
adopted at the Conservatoire ; also, alone, a 
" Mfithode complete de Violoncelle " (Op. 25) 
and a Guide to composers, showing how they may 
write and how they ought to write for the 'cello. 

Baudoin (Baudouyn). {See Bauldewijn.) 

Bauer, Chrysostomus, Wiirtemberg organ- 
builder at the commencement of last century. 
He introduced the large bellows now used in 
organs, in place of the former many small ones. 

Bauemflote (Bauernpfeife, Bauerlein, Feld- 
flote; Lat. Tibia mrestris), a by no means rare 
" Gedakt " pedal stop of wide measure in old 
organs. If of two feet it is generally called B., 
if of one foot, Bauernpfeife.(oas-ioot stops were 
for the most part called " Pfeifen," i.e. pipes). 

Bauldewijn (Baldewin, Balduin, Baulduin, 
Baudoin, Baudouyn), Noel (Natalis), maitre de 
chapelle at N6tre Dame, Antwerp, from 1513 
to 1518 ; he died there in 1529. Motets of his 
are to be found in various collections (for 
example, in Petrucci's " Motetti della Corona ") ; 
masses in manuscript at Rome and Mutiich 

(Missa " Mijn Liefkens Bruijn Oghen " and a 
" Da pacem," formerly attributed to Josquin), 

Baumann. {See Paumann.) 

Baumbach, Friedrich August, b. 1753, 
d. Nov. 30, 1813, I^ipzig. He was capellmeister 
at the Hamburg Opera, 1778-89, and after that 
lived in Leipzig, devoting himself exclusively 
to composition. Besides many instrumental 
and vocal works (for pianoforte, violin, guitar, 
etc.), he wrote the musical articles in the 
' Kurz gefasstes Handworterbuch iiber die 
schonen Kunste," which appeared in 1794. 

Baumf elder, Friedrich, composer of salon 
music, b. May 28, 1836, Dresden. He studied 
under Joh. Schneider and at the Leipzig Conser- 
vatorium (1851). Besides many brilliant draw- 
ing-room pieces, B. wrote etudes (especially 
Tirocinium mtisica. Op. 300), a pianoforte sonata 
(Op. 60), and a suite (Op. loi). 

Baumgart, E. Friedrich, b. Jan. 13, 1817, 
Grossglogau, d. Sept. 14, 1871, Warmbrunn. 
He was Dr. phil., director of the music at the 
University and teacher at the Royal Institute for 
church music, Breslau; a distinguished ama- 
teur, known in wider circles by l5s edition of 
the Clavier Sonatas of Ph. Em. Bach. 

Baumgarten, (i) Gotthilf von, b. Jan. 12, 
1741, Berlin, d. 1813 as "Landrath" at Gross- 
strelitz (Silesia). He composed operas which 
were performed {Zemire und Azor, Andromeda, ' 
Das Grab des Mufti, the last of which was pub- 
lished in pianoforte score, 1778). — (2) Karl 
Friedrich, b. in Germany, came as a young 
man to London, and was for many years leader 
at the Opera, Covent Garden (1780-1794). His 
operas, Robin Hood and Blue Btard, were re- 
peatedly performed there. 

Baumgartner, August, b. Nov. 9, 1814, 
Munich, d. there Sept. 29, 1862 ; since 1853 
Regens chori of St. Anna, at Munich. He 
published in the Stenographische Zeitschrift (1852) 
suggestions for musical short-hand writing, and 
a "Kurz gefasste Anleitung zur musikalischen 
Stenographie oder Tonzeichenkunst " (1853). 
He also pubhshed a " Kurz gefasste Geschichte 
der musikalischen Notation" (1856). 

B&umker, Wilhelm, b. Oct. 25, 1842, Elber- 
feld, studied theology and philology at Miinster 
and Bonn, took holy orders in 1867; he has 
been chaplain since i86g, and school inspector 
since 1880 at Niederkruchten. In his leisure 
hours B. is a zealous writer on music. In 1889 
the University of Breslau rewarded him with 
the title of Dr. theol. hon. c. for his researches 
into the history of music. He wrote : " Palas- 
trina, ein Beitrag," etc. (1877), " Orlandus de 
Lassus ein historisches Bildnis" (1878), "Zur 
Geschichte der Tonkunst in Deutschland" 
(1881), "Der Todtentanz," a study {1881), "Das 
katholische deutsche Kirchenlied in seinen 
Singweisen von den fruhesten Zeiten bis gegen 
Ende des 17 Jahrh." {1883-1891), continuation 




(vols . 2-3) of the work commenced (vol , i , 1 862) by 
K. S. Meister ; he also brought out a complete re- 
vision of the first volume in 1886 ; and besides, 
in 1888, " Niederlandische geistliche Lieder 
nebst ihre Singweisen aus Handschriften des 
15 Jahrh." B. contributes articles to the Allg. 
Deutsche •Biographie, Monatshefte fur Musikget- 
chichte, etc. 

Bausch, Ludwig Christian August, b. 
Jan. 15, 1805, Naumburg, d. May 26, 1871, 
Leipzig ; an instrument - maker in Dresden 
(1826), Dessau (1828), Leipzig (1839), Wies- 
baden (1862), and from 1863 again in Leipzig. 
He became specially famous as a maker of 
violin bows and restorer of old violins. During 
his last years he worked together with his son, 
Ludwig, b. 1829, who, after a long residence 
in New York, set up business on his own 
account in Leipzig, and died shortly before his 
father (April 7, 1871). His brother Otto, who 
inherited the business, was bom in 1841, and 
died already, Dec. 30, 1874. The business then 
passed into the hands of A. Paulus, in Mark- 

Bazoncello, (Span.), Open Diapason (organ 
stop). B. de 13 = Open Diapason 8 feet, B. de 26 
= Open Diapason 16 feet. But, on the other 
hand. Open D. 32 feet = F/aM*o de 52, Open 
• D. 4 feet = Orfawa, Open D. 2 ieet=Quincena, 
Open D. I ioot=:Flauto en 22 (triple octave). 

Bazin, FranQois Emanuel Joseph, b. 
Sept. 4, 1816, Marseilles, d. July, 1878, Paris. 
He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, received 
the Prix de Some in 1840, was appointed profes- 
sor of singing on his return from Italy in 1844, 
and later on professor of harmony; in 1871 he 
became professor of composition, as successor 
to A. Thomas, who was advanced to the post of 
director; and in 1872 he succeeded Carafa as 
member of the Acad^mie. Of his nine operas, 
not one remained in the repertoire. He pub- 
lished a " Cours d'Harmonie thioiiqae et 
pratique." 1 

Bazuis (Dutch), trombone. 

Eazzini, Antonio, an eminent violinist and 
composer, b. March ir, 1818, Brescia, where he 
studied under maestro Faustino Camisani; in 
1836 he played before Paganini, who advised 
him to travel. B.,, after many short journeys 
(1841-45), went to Germany — making an especi- 
ally long stay in I^eipzig, then at the zenith of 
its musical fame — and became an enthusiast of 
German art, and especially of Bach and Beet- 
hoven. After a stay of many years in Italy, 
he went in 1848 to Spain and France, and 
settled in Paris in 1852. In 1864 he returned 
to Brescia in order to devote himself entirely to 
composition, but in 1873 accepted a call to 
Milan Conservatorio as professor of composi- 
tion, and in 1880 became director of tha.t in- 
stitution. As a composer, Bazzini occupies a 
special position among the Italians; the free- 
dom and grace of his melodies are thoroughly 

Italian, but the careful workmanship and har- 
monic wealth betray the influence of Germany. 
Among his works his three quartets and 
quintet for strings stand highest, yet he has 
made successful ventures in choral and in 
orchestral composition : La Reswmzione di 
Christo, the symphony-cantata Senacheribbo; the 
51st and 56th Psalms, overtures to Alfieri's 
Saul and Shakespeare's King Lear, and a sym- 
phonic poem, Francescada Rimini. On the other 
hand, he had no success with the opera, Turandot 
(produced at La Scala, Milan, in 1867). 

Bazzino, (i) Francesco Maria, eminent 
theorbist, b. 1593, Lovero (Venetia), d. April 
15, 1660, Bergamo. He wrote for the theorbo, 
but also canzonette, an oratorio, etc. — (2) 
Nat ale, d. 1639, published masses, motets, 
psalms, etc. 

bb, double-flat. (See Chromatic Signs.) 

Bearbeitung (Ger.), revision or adaptation. 

Beards are small projections placed on both 
sides of the mouth, or directly under the same, 
or even on both places, in the lip-pipes of the 
organ, to promote better speech, especially in 
the case of pipes of narrow measure. A distinc- 
tion is ma&e between side-beards and crossbeards. 

Bear-pipe (Ger. Barpfeife, Barpip, Bdrpipe, 
etc.). A reed-pipe stop in old organs, probably 
named after some instrument now obsolete. 
The tubes of peculiar construction were almost 
covered, and they gave out a somewhat growl- 
ing tone. Praetorius describes the piipes as 
sounding inwardly (" Sie klingen in sich hinein ") . 

Beat, (i) a melodic ornament, by some de- 
scribed as a mordent, by others as a battement. — 
(2) The movement of the hand or foot in mark- 
ing the time, and the corresponding division of 
the bar. 

Beating Beeds. {See Reed and Reed-pipes.) 

Beats (Ger. Schwebungen, Schlage, Stosse; Fr. 
Battements) axe those striking reinforcements of 
intensity at regular intervals which occur when 
two notes of sUghtly different pitch are sounded 
together. For instance, if 436 is the vibration 
number per second of the one note, and 438 
that of the other, the difference per half-second 
amounts to one vibration, i.e., the first of every 
218 vibrations of the former note begins at the 
same moment as the first of every 217th of the 
other, or, otherwise expressed, at every 217th and 
2i8th vibration, respectively, the maximum of 
intensity occurs (the greatest amplitude), pro- 
ducing striking reinforcements of sound (beats). 
If the number of beats per second reaches the 
figure which answers to the vibration number 
of the lowest clearly perceptible sound (about 
thirty per second), the beats pass from a grating 
to a low buzzing sound, and generate a com- 
bination tone (q.v.). . The slower B., which can 
easily be counted (from two tofbilr per second), 
offers valuable assistance in fixing the tempera- 
ment of keyed instruments. (See Tijning, 3.) 




B^, Guillaume le. {See Le Bb.) 

Beauchamps, Pierre Francois Godard 
de, b. 1689, Paris, d. there 1761. He wrote a 
History of the French theatre since the year 
1161 (1735), and " Bibliotheque des Theatres" 
(description of dramas, operas, etc., which have 
been performed, with notices of composers, etc., 

Beaulieu, Marie Desire Martin, b. April 
II, 1791, Paris, d. Dec. 1863, Niort; pupil of 
Mehul; won the Prix de Rome in 1810, but 
did not accept it. Soon afterwards he married 
and withdrew to Niort, where he founded a 
musical society, and devoted himself to study 
and to composition. In the course of years he 
stirred up musical life in other departemmts of 
the west, so that in 1835 ^ great central society, 
under the name " Association Musicale de 
rOuest," sprang into life, and established a grand 
musical festival every year in alternate towns. 
B. bequeathed 100,000 francs to this society. 
The Paris society for classical music was also 
created by B. The list of his compositions is a 
stately one, including operas, Anacrion, Phila- 
delfhie; lyrical scenes, " Jeanne d' Arc," "Psyche 
et I'Amour ; " oratorios, masses, hymns, orches- 
tral pieces, fantasias for violin, songs, etc. But 
besides these, B. published the following writ- 
ings : " Du Rhytmne, des effets qu'il produit et 
de leurs causes " (1852) ; " Memoire sur ce qui 
reste de la musique de I'ancienne Grice dans 
les premiers chants de I'Eglise"; "Memoire 
sur le caractere que doit' avoir la musique 
d'Eglise, etc. " (1858) ; " Memoire sur quelques 
airs nationaux qui sent dans la tonalite grigo- 
rienne" (1858); "Memoire sur I'origine de la 
musique" (1859). 

Beaumarchais, Pierre Augustin Carron 
de, b. Jan. 24, 1732, d. May 19, 1799, Paris; 
famous French poet, whose two comedies. The 
Barber of Seville and The Marriage of Figaro, fur- 
nished the two libretti in each of which the 
genius of Mozart and of Rossini was most fully 

Beauquier, Charles, French writer on music, 
b. about 1830. He published a "Philosophie 
de Musique" (1865), a book of doubtful value. 
B. was for a long period a contributor to the 
Revue et Gazette Musicale ; he was also the poet 
of the libretto of Lalo's Fiesque. Since 1870 he 
has been an administrative officer. 

Bebisation. (See Bobisation.) 

Bebung (Fr. Balancement). This was a mode 
of playing on the clavichord, not possible on 
the pianoforte (the clavier of our day). It con- 
sisted of a light balancing of the finger on the 
key, which produced a soft rubbing of the 
tangent against the string. The B. was indi- 
cated by .TT? above the note. Somewhat simi- 
lar is the trembling of the tone on stringed 
instruments, also on the zither and the guitar, 
i.e., a light vacillation of pitch produced by a 
quick trembling movement of the finger placed 

on the string. The tremolo of the voice (which 
singers prefer to call B. or vibrato) is a similar 
kind of eflfeot. Excessive use of such manner- 
isms produces dulness, and renders the per- 
formance effeminate. 

Becarre (Fr.), the natural (tf, B. quadraium). 
(See B.) 

Beccatelli, Giovanni, Francesco, a native 
of Florence, maestro at Prato, d. 1734. He 
wrote several short musical essays, some of 
which were printed in GiornaU de' letterati d' Italia 
(33rd year and third Supplement) ; the rest re- 
mained in manuscript. 

Becher, (i), Alfred Julius, b. April 27, 1803, 
Manchester, of German parents; went as a 
child to Germany, was for a short time lawyer 
at Elberfeld, but devoted himself to musical 
studies and to composition ; was editor of a 
paper at Cologne, went next to Diisseldorf, the 
Hague, and finally to London, where he was 
appointed harmony teacher at the Academy in 
1840. From there he moved to Vienna, where 
in 1848, on account of participation in the Re- 
volution, he was condemned by martial law 
and shot. A great number of his pf. works and 
songs were printed, also the pamphlets " Das 
niederrheinischfi Musikfest, asthetisch und his- 
torisch betrachtet" (1836), and "Jenny Lind, 
eine Skizze ihres Lebens " (1847)- — (2) Joseph, 
b. Aug. I, 1821, Neukirchen (Bavaria), first 
prefect of the nornial school and precentor at 
Amberg, afterwards minister at Miutraching, 
near Ratisbon. He wrote a great number 6i 
sacred compositions (of masses alone more than 

Bechstein, Fr. W. Karl, pianoforte maker, 
b. June I, 1826, Gotha; worked first in vari- 
ous German pianoforte factories, and from 
1848-52 managed the business of G. Peran, at 
Berlin. He then travelled, for the purpose of 
study, to London and Paris, where he worked 
with Pape and Kriegelstein, and in 1856, with 
modest means, set up business on his own 
account in Berlin. Within a short space of 
time the house took such a favourable turn 
that the greatest pianists began to show an 
interest in Bechstein's manufactory. His three 
large factories in Berlin, with two steam- 
engines of 100 horse-power, at present give em- 
ployment to 500 workmen, and he turns out 
yearly over 3,000 instruments, of which 1,200 are 
grands, and the rest cottage pianos. At the 
international exhibitions of London (1862), Paris 
(1868), and at other important exhibitions, his 
pianos received the highest medals. In London 
the firm keeps up a branch house. Bechstein's 
three sons now successfully assist him in the 
management of his factories, offices, and store- 

Beck, (i) D avid, organ maker, at Halberstadt, 
about 1590 ; built the organ at Griiningen, near 
Magdeburg, 1592-96, which was restored 1705 
(cf. A. Werckmeister), the organ of St. Martin's 




Church, Halberstadt, etc. — (2) Reichardt 
Karl, published a book of dance pieces (alle- 
mandes, ballets, etc.^, for two violins and bass, 
at Strassburg (1654). — (3) Johann Philipp, 
edited a volume of dance pieces for viola 
da gamba (1677). — (4) Michael, professor of 
theology and Oriental languages at Ulm, b. 
there Jan. 24, 1653 ; wrote " tJber die Musik- 
alische Bedeutung der hebraischen Accente " 
(1678 and 1701). — (5) Gottfried Joseph, b. 
Nov. 15, 1723, Podiebrad (Bohemia), d. April 
8, 1787, Prague ; organist at Prague, afterwards 
Dominican monk, professor of philosophy at 
Prague, and finally provincial of his order ; he 
wrote much church music, also instrumental 
works. — (6) Franz, b. 1730, Mannheim ; good 
violinist, and highly esteemed at the court, but 
on account of a duel with fatal result, he was 
forced to leave, and went to Bordeaux, where 
he became concert director {1780), and died 
there, Dec. 31, i8og. He wrote some excellent 
instrumental and vocal pieces. — (7) Christian 
Friedrich, lived at Kirchheim, and published 
(1789-94) instrumental works (pf. sonatas, con- 
certos, variations, etc.) . — (8) FriedrichAdolf, 
published at Berlin (1825) " Dr. Martin Luther's 
Gedanken iiber die Musik." — (9) Karl, b. 
1814, the first singer in the titie-^dle of 
Lohengrin, d. March 3, 1879, Vienna. — (10) 
Johann Nepomuk, b. May 5, 1828, Pesth; 
celebrated baritone singer; was engaged in 
"succession at Vienna, Hamburg, Bremen, 
.Cologne, Diisseldorf, Mayence, Wiirzburg, 
MHesbaden, and Frankfort, and from 1853 until 
he^pceived his pension (1885) was the pride of 
the^ienna Opera. — (11) Joseph, son of the 
former, b. June 11, 1850 ; likewise an excellent 
baritone vocalist; sang first on various pro- 
vincialWages in Austria, and was engaged in 
1876 at )gerlin, and in 1880 at Frankfort. 

BecW.^oi. Baptist, b. Aug. 24, 1743, 
Nurembunt; first of all adjutant to General v. 
Roth, duri^ the Seven Years' War, afterwards 
" Hofmusikj^ " at Munich (1766). He was an 
excellent performer on the flute, and published 
flute concerto^^ 

Becker, (i) Dietrich, published at Hamburg 
in 1668 " Sonatdk fiir eine Violine, eine Viola 
di Gamba, und CS^eralbass iiber Chorallieder," 
also " Musikalische Frihhlingsfriichte " (instru- 
mental pieces k 3-\ with basso contimio). — (2) 
Johann, b. Sept. i,"^26, Helsa, d. 1803 ; court 
organist at Cassel, coimoser of sacred music, of 
which only one chorale\ook appeared in print. 
— (3) Karl Ferdinandz-^b. July 17, 1804, Leip- 
zig, d. Oct. 26, 1877 ; was ia,,i825 organist of St. 
Peter's Church, 1837 of Stl Nicholas Church 
there, 1843 teacher for organ-playing at the 
Conservatorium. He resigne^ his appointments 
in 1856, presented his library to the town 
(" Becker's Stiftung," rich in " ijjrks on theory), 
and lived in private at Plagwitz'feitil his death. 
B.'s most meritorious work is fbe revision of 

Forkel's "Systematisch-chronologische Dar- 
stellung der Musiklitteratur " (1836; supple- 
ment in 1839). The following also deserve 
mention ; " Die Hausmusik in Deutschland im 
16., 17., und 18. Jahrhundert" (1840); "Die 
Tonwerke des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts " {1847), 
etc. He also published some instrumentSil 
compositions (pf. and organ pieces) and several 
chorale books. B. was a diligent collector, but 
not a learned scholar. — (4) Konstantin 
Julius, b. Feb. 3, 1811, Freiberg, d. Feb. 26, 
1839; pupil of the above, 1837 editor of the 
Neue Zeitschriftfur Musik, settled in Dresden in 
1843 as teacher of music, and lived from 1846 
in Oberlossnitz. He wrote operas, choral and 
instrumental works, also a " Mannergesang- 
schule " (1845), '' Harmonielehre fiir Dilettan- 
ten " (1844) ; also a novel with a purpose, " Der 
Neuromantiker " (1840).— (5) Valentin Ed- 
uard, b. Nov. 20, 1814, Wiirzburg, d. Jan. 23, 
i8go, Vienna ; 1833, municipal functionary at 
Wiirzburg, lived later on in Vienna; a well- 
known composer of songs for male voices ("Das 
Kirchlein"), wrote also masses, operas [Die 
Bergknappen and Der Deserteur), songs, and many 
instrumental works, of which a quintet for 
clarinet and strings gained a pri^e. — (6) Georg, 
b. June 24, 1834, Frankenthal (Rheinpfalz), 
writer on music and composer ; a pupil ofKuhn 
and Prudent, lives at Geneva ; he has published : 
" La Musique en Suisse" (1874), "Aper^usur 
la Chanson Fran9aise," "Pygraalion de J. J. 
Rousseau," " Eustorg de Beaulieu," " Guii- 
laume de Gueroult," etc., and has other mono- 
graphs in his portfolio. He has also published 
for several years a small musical print. Ques- 
tionnaire de V Association Internationale des Mu- 
siciens-lcrivains, and is contributor to various 
newspapers dealing with special subjects, espe- 
cially the Monatshefte fur Musikgeschichte. Of 
his compositions have appeared pf. pieces and 
songs. — (7) Albert Ernst Anton, b. June 
13, 1834, Quedlinburg, pupil there of Bonicke, 
and of Dehn at Berlm (1853-56) ; lives as 
teacher of music in Berlin ; since 1881 teacher 
of composition at Scharwenka's Conserva- 
torium ; 1881 conductor of the Berlin Dom- 
Chor. A symphony in G minor of B.'s gained 
a prize from the " Gesellschaft der Musik- 
freunde" in Vienna. In 1877 his songs from 
Wolff's Rattenfdnger and Wilder Jager first 
excited general notice. His great mass in bI? 
minor (first produced in 1878 at the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the foundation of the Riedel 
Union, printed by Breitkopf and Hartel) is a 
work of much importance. Besides the above 
must be mentioned Reformationskaniate (1883, at 
the Luther Festival) ; the oratorio Selig aus 
Gnade, psalms, motets, and songs for solo 
voices or chorus. — (8) Jean, b. May 11, 
1833, Mannheim, d. there Oct. 10, 1884, pupil 
of iCettenus and Vincenz Lachner, a celebrated 
violinist ; was appointed leader of the band at 
Mannheim, but already in 1858 gave up this 




post and made long tours as a virtuoso, during 
■which he appeared, among other places, at 
Paris and at London with great success. In 
1866 he settled down in Florence and founded 
the "Florentine Quartett" (2nd violin, Masi; 
viola, Chiostri; 'cello, Hilpert), which, owing 
to his special efforts, obtained, world-wide re- 
putation, and continued until 1880 (from 1875 
with L. Spitzer-Hegyesi as 'cellist in place of 
Hilpert). During the past years B., when he 
was not on tour, lived in Mannheim, where . it 
was his intention to found a violin school. His 
daughter, Jeanne, b. June 9, 1859, Mannheim, 
pupu of Eeinecke and Bargiel, is an excellent 
pianist; his son Hans, b. May 12, i860, Strass- 
burg, pupil of Singer, an accomplished viola- 
player; and Hugo, b. Feb. '13, 1864, Strass- 
burg, pupil of Friedrich Griitzmacher, a highly 
gifted 'cellist. From the time of the dissolution 
of the "Florentine Qug.rtett " B. made successful 
concert tours with his children . — (9)Reinhold, 
b. 1842, Adorf, Saxony ; he lived for some time 
in the south of France as violinist, and gave con- 
certs, but, on account of a hand affection, was 
obliged to abandon that mode of life, and has 
since been living in Dresden. He composed a 
violin concerto, symphonic poem, " Prinz vom 
Homburg," a work for male chorus, " Wald- 
morgen," and many songs. 

Eeckmann, Joh. Fr. Gottlieb, b. 1737, d. 
April 25, 1792 ; organist at Celle, was a cele- 
brated pianist, and also famed for his improvis- 
ations. He published twelve pf. sonatas, six 
concertos, and a solo for pf. ; in 1782 his opera, 
Lukas tind Hannchen, was produced at Hamburg 
with great success. 

Beckwith, John, b. Dec. 25, 1750, Norwich, 
d. June 3, 1809 ; became organist of St. Peter 
Mancroft's there in 1794, and of the Cathedral 
in 1808. He took the degree of Mus. Doc. at 
Oxford in 1803. He wrote many anthems, 
glees, songs, which in their day were popular, and 
also pianoforte sonatas and an organ concerto. 
He was succeeded by his son John Charles, 
b. 1788, d. Oct. 5, 1828. 

Becqui4 J- M. (?), b. about 1800, Toulouse, 
d. Nov. 10, 1825, as flautist of the Op^ra 
Comique ; he was a pupil of the Paris Con- 
servatoire. His compositions for the flute 
(rondos, variations, feintasies) are of great merit. 
— His brother, Jean Marie, named B. de 
Peyreville, b. 1797, Toulouse, d. 1876, dis- 
tinguished himself as violinist (pupil of Rudolf 
and August Kreutzer) ; he was for many years 
member of the orchestra of the Theatre Italien, 
and published pieces for the violin. 

Beovaf ovsky (Beczwarzowsky) ,AntonFelix, 
b. April 9, 1754, Jungbunzlau (Bohemia), d. 
May 15, 1823, Berlin. In 1777 he became 
organist of St. James's Church, Prague, and in 
1779 of the principal church at Brunswick. In 
1796 he resigned, resided in Bamberg up to 
1800, and after that in Berlin. He published 

sonatas and concertos for pianoforte, as well 
as songs and important vocal pieces with pf. 
accompaniment. , 

Bedon (Fr.), formerly a kind of drum. Bi de 
Biscaye, same as Tambour Basque. {Cf. Tam- 

Bedosde Celles, Dom Francois (or simply 
'Dom Bedos), b. 1706, Caux, near Beziers, 
became a Benedictine monk at Toulouse in 
1726, and died Nov. 25, 1779. B. wrote a work 
of great importance, "L'art du Facteur 
d'Orgues," 3 vols. (1766-78) ; a fourth part con- 
taining a brief history of the organ, has 
been translated into German by VoUbeding 
(1793). All later works, (esp. those of Topfer) 
are based upon it, and the excellent drawings 
are always reprinted. B. also drew up a report 
of the new organ of St. Martin at Tours (1762, 
in the Mercure de France), which, is to be found 
in Adlung's " Musica Mechanica," etc. 

Beecke, Ignaz von, b. about 1730, d. Jan. 
1803, Wallerstein; he was an officer in the 
Wurtemberg army, and afterwards "Musik- 
intendant " to the Princte of Otting-Wallerstein. 
He was an excellent pianist, and a friend of 
Gluck, Jomelli, and Mozart. He wrote seven 
operas, instrumental works, songs, and an 
oratorio {Auferstehung). 

Beellaerts. (See Bell£re.) 

Beer, (i), Joseph, b. May 18, 1744, Griin- 
wald (Bohemia), d. 1811 ; he was at first field- 
trumpeter in an Austrian regiment, afterwards 
in the French army. He became one of the 
best performers of his time on the clarinet. 
After an exciting life of concert touring, he died 
at Potsdam, as royal Prussian chamber musi- 
cian. B. improved the clarinet (by the addi- 
tion of a fifth key), and wrote various pieces 
for his instrument (concertos, etc.). — (2) Jules, 
b. about 1835, nephew of Meyerbeer, was a zeal- 
ous amateur composer (operas, songs, psalm with 
orchestra, etc.), but neither in Paris, where he re- 
sides, nor in Brussels, did he achieve success. — 
(3) Max Joseph, b. 1851, Vienna, received his 
first instruction on the pismoforte from his father, 
and, after obtaining a Government scholarship, 
studied composition under Dessoff. Beer's 
compositions are principally lyrical pf. pieces 
for two and four hands (" Eichendorffiana," 
' ' Spielmannsweisen, " " Abendfeier, " " Heide- 
bilder," "Was sich der Wald erzahlt"), and 
songs. Besides these, are a pf. suite (Op. 9), 
' "Der Wilde Jager" (soli, chorus, and orches- 
tra), a burlesque operetta, Das SUUdichein mf 
der Pfahlbrucke (which won a prize and was 
published), and m manuscript the operas. Otto 
der Schiitz and Der Pfeiferhonig. 

Beethoven, Ludwig van, was baptised at 
Bonn on Dec. 17, 1770, therefore probably b. 
Dec. 16 ; d. March 26, 1827, Vienna. His father 
was tenor singer at the Electoral Chapel, his 
grandfather bass singer, and finally capell- 
meister; during several generations, indeed; 


'the family had followed music as a vocation. 
B. received his first musical instruction from 
his father, afterwards from the genial oboist 
Pfeiffer, to whom, later on, B. sent help from 
Vienna ; and the court organist, van der Eden, 
and his successor, Chr. &ottl. Neefe, were also 
his teachers. Already, in 1785, B., thus early 
developed, was appointed organist of the Elec- 
toral Chapel. For this appointment, and for his 
being sent later on to Vienna, he was indebted 
to Count Waldstein, his first, and in every 
respect most important patron. The same 
was knight of the " Teutonic " order, afterwards 
commander and chamberlain to the Emperor, 
and not only held music in high esteem, but 

. himself played the pianoforte remarkably well 
(B., as is known, dedicated to him the Sonata 
in c, Op. 33). When Haydn returned from 
England in 1792, and was entertained by the 
Bonn orchestra at Godesberg, B. had the op- 
portunity of placing before him a cantata, of 
which the former thought very highly (probably 
on this occasion it was arranged that B. should 
go to Vienna). In October of this year Wald- 
stein wrote as follows : " Dear Beethoven, you 
are travelling to Vienna in fulfilment of your 
long-cherished, wish. The genius of Mozart is 
still weeping and bewailing the death of her 
favourite. With the inexhaustible Haydn she 
found a refuge, but no occupation, and is now 
waiting to leave him and join herself to some- 
one else. Labour assiduously, and receive 
Mozart's spirit from the hands of Haydn. — 
Your true friend, Waldstein." Already, in 1787, 
B. (with recommendations from the Elector to 
his brother, the Emperor Joseph II.) had spent 
a short time in Vienna, when Mozart is said to 
have heard him, and to have predicted for him 
a great future. B. was two-and-t*?enty years 
old when he went to Vienna. As he was well 
recommended, he could not fail to gain access 
to high art-loving circles (Prince Karl Lich- 
nowsM, Count Moritz Lichnowski, Count 
Rasumowski, etc.). But little came of the 
proposed lessons of Beethoven with Haydn ; 
the latter was not born to be a teacher. Beet- 
hoven certainly went through a course of in- 
struction in composition with him ; biit, behind 
Haydn's back, B. worked with Schenk, the 
composer of the Dorfbarbier, and went to Haydn 
with his exercises already corrected by Schenk. 
This well-meant mystification lasted for two 
years. B. was a gainer, for he learnt the strict style 
from Schenk, and profited by Haydn's wider, 
more artistic mode of looking at things. 
Further, he studied counterpoint with Al- 
brechtsberger, and dramatic composition with 
Salieri. To the first period of B.'s artistic 
career, which is generally considered to extend 
to 1800, belong the works with the opus 
numbers 1-18, among which are six pf. trios, 
nine pf. sonatas, four trios, and one quintet for 
strings, several sets of variations, the grand aria, 
"Ah perfido," and the first set of six quartets for 

67 Beethoven 

striugs. The critic of the Leipzig A Ugemeint Musi- 
kalische Zeitung did not doubt the importance 
of the man, but opposed his bold harmonies 
and daring rhythms. The circle of distin- 
guished lovers of music which surrounded 
Beethoven was increased by Count Franz v. 
Brunswick, Baron v. Gleichenstein, and Stephan 
v. Breuning, an old friend and patron dating 
from the Bonn period. The brothers of Beet- 
hoven — Karl, who held office in a bank, and 
Johann, an apothecary, settled in Vienna — re- 
presented the hard prose of life to one to 
whom poetry was indispensable, for they carried 
on a provokingly petty trade with his manu- 
scripts. B.'s pecuniary position was good : he 
never accepted a post again, but, from the time 
of his arrival in Vienna, lived solely by his com- 
positions. His works were well paid, and he 
received from Prince Lichnowski a yearly al- 
lowance of 600 florins; and from i8og to 1811 
a yearly sum of 4,000 florins from Arch- 
duke Rudolf and the Princes Lobkowitz and 
Kinsky. In spite of this manifold relationship 
to archdukes and princes, B. was by no means 
a time-serving man and a courtier, but rather 
remained all through his life a democrat and a 
republican, and looked upon rulers as tyrants. 
As is known, he originally dedicated his ' ' Eroica " 
symphony to Napoleon, because he regarded 
him as a genuine republican ; but when the latter 
assumed the title of Emperor, B. tore up -the 
dedication. When, during the Vienna Congress 
(1814), the foreign monarchs present, together 
with B., were frequent guests at the house of the 
Archduke Rudolf, the composer (to quote his 
own expression) made these high personages pay 
court to him, and he put on airs. He felt him- 
self, and rightly, a king of art. The saddest 
period of his me began after the death of his 
brother Karl (1815), of whose son B. became 
guardian. This boy caused him much sorrow 
(concerning him, as well as for all other details 
of B.'s life, we refer the reader to detailed bio- 
graphies of the composer). Of quite different, 
but far deeper, import for the character, and 
consequently the tendency of his music, was 
the malady of the ears, which commenced at a 
very early period, and increased, so that already, 
in 1800, he had great difficulty in hearing, and 
gradually became quite deaf. He was ashamed 
of this difficulty of hearing, and attempted to 
hide it; his rough, morose, and monosyllabic 
demeanour was, therefore, in early years at 
least, to some extent a mask, though, in other 
respects, it was an inevitable result of the 
malady. His health, which, for the rest, was 
robust, began gradually to give way about 1825 ; 
in 1826 symptoms of dropsy showed themselves, 
which threatened his life. A violent cold, which 
he caught in December of this year, confined 
him to bed. After a painful operation, his 
dropsy gradually undermined his health, and 
he died at six o'clock on the evening of March 
26, 1827. 




In B. we honour the greatest master of 
modem instrumental music, but he wrote, at 
the same time, vocal works of equal importance 
{Fidelia and Missa soUmnis). If religious feeling 
found its noblest expression in the works of 
Bach, on the other hand it is the purely human 
joy and sorrow which appeals to us with the 
language of passion in those of Beethoven. 
Subjectivity, the characteristic agent of our 
time, coming gradually to the fore, is embodied 
in B., but turned, through the beauty of form, 
into classic purity. In detailed figurative de^ 
velopment of themes, B. is unequalled — ^nay, un- 
approachable. In the last period of his creative 
power he attained to a degree of refinement, 
the full comprehension of which is only to-day 
dawning upon the world at large. This is pre- 
eminently true of his art of rhythm. The " last 
B." dates from about the time (1813) in which 
he took charge of his nephew, changed his style 
of living, and set up a household establishment 
of his own, etc. During this period arose the 
five pf. sonatas. Op. loi, 106, 109, no, and in ; 
the great stringed quartets. Op. 127 (e|7). Op. 
130 (bJ?), Op. 131 (cl minor). Op. 132 (X minor), 
and Op. 135 (f); the great quartet-fugue, Op. 
133 ; the ninth symphony ; Missa sohmnis and 
the overtures. Op. 115 and 124. The number 
of Beethoven's works, as compared with those of 
other great masters, is not large. He wrote : two 
meisses (one in c. Op. 86 ; and the Missa soUmnis 
in D, Op. 123), one opera (Fidelia), one oratorio 
{Christus am Oelberge), nine symphonies (No. i, 
c. Op. 21; No. 2, D, Op. 36; No. 3, e1> ("Eroica"), 
Op. 55; No. 4, b\>. Op. 60; No. 5, c minor. 
Op. 67; No. 6, F, (Pastoral), Op. 68; No. 7, 
Op. 92 ; No. 8, F, Op. 93 ; No. 9, d minor. Op. 
125, with chorus (Schiller's " Hymne an die 
Freude"), Die Scklachi van Vittoria (fantasia 
for orchestra), music to Prometheus and Egmant, 
Die Euinen van A then (overture and march with 
chorus), besides seven overtures (Corialan, three 
Leonora overtures, Konig Stephen, Namensfeier, 
Op. 115, and Ztir Weihe des Hauses, Op. 124), 
one violin concerto (d. Op. 61), five pf. concertos 
(c. Op. 15; b1?, Op. 19; minor. Op. 37; g. 
Op. 58; eP, Op. 73; besides the arrangement 
of the violin concerto) ; one triple concerto for 
pf., violin, 'cello, and orchestra (Op. 56); one 
fantasia for pianoforte, orchestra, and chorus ; 
one rondo for pf . and orchestra ; two Romances 
for violin and orchestra, a fragment of a con- 
certo for violin, one Allegretto for orchestra, 
two marches, twelve minuets, twelve German 
dances, and twelve Contertanze for orchestra; 
" Cantata on the death of Joseph II." (1790), 
and one on the accession of Leopold II. to 
the throne (1792); Der glorreiche Avgenblick 
{cantata) , Meeresstille undglucMiehe Fahrt (four solo 
voices and orchestra), " Ah perfido " (soprano 
solo with orchestra), Opferlied (ditto), "Tremate 
empj " (soprano, tenor, and ba^s, with or- 
chestra), BundesHed (two solo voices, three-part 

chorus, two clarinets, two horns, and two bas- 
soons), Elegischer Gesang (quartet with stringed 
orchestra), sixty-six songs and one duet with 
pf., eighteen canons for voices, Gesang der 
Monche (a 3, acappella), seven books of English, 
Scotch, and Welsh soiigs, with pf., violin, 
and 'cello ; thirty-eight pf. sonatas, ten violin 
sonatas, one rondo and one set of variations 
for pf. and violin, five 'cello sonatas, three 
sets of variations for 'cello and pf., seven 
sets of variations for flute and pf., twenty- 
one sets of variations for pf. alone, one 
sonata, two sets of variations, and three 
marches for pf. for four hands; four rondos, 
three books of Bagatelles, three preludes, seven 
minuets, thirteen Landler, an Andante (f), 
Fantasia (g minor). Polonaise — all for pf. ; one 
sonata for horn and pf. ; eight trios for pf., 
violin, and 'cello; two sets of variations for 
trio; one trio for pf., clarinet, and 'cello; ar- 
rangements of the second symphony and septet 
as trios for pf., clarinet, and 'cello; four pf. 
quartets (three posthumous juvenile works, and 
one arrangement of the pf. quintet), one quintet 
for pf . and • wind instruments, two octets and 
one sextet for wind instruments (Op. 71), one 
septet and one sextet for stringed and wind 
instruments, two stringed quintets, one arrange- 
ment of the c minor pf. trio for stringed quintet, ■ 
sixteen stringed quartets (Op. 18, 1-6, belong- 
ing to the first period; Op. 59, 1-3 ; Op. 74, 95, 
and the great "last," Op. 127, 130, 131, 132, 
135), also a fugue for stringed quartet and for 
quintet, five stringed trios, one trio for two 
oboes and English horn, three duets for clarinet 
and bassoon, two Equali for trombones. 

The first complete edition of B.'s works (by 
Rietz, Nottebohm, Reinecke, David Haupt- 
mann, etc.) appeared in twenty-four series 
(1864-7), published by Breitkopf & Hartel, 
and a Supplement in 1890. Biographies: F. 
G. Wegeler and Ferd. Ries, " Biographische 
Notizen iiber Ludwig van B." (1838) ; A. 
Schindler, "Biographie von Ludwig van B." 
(1840 ; 3rd ed. i860) ; W. v. Lenz, " B. et ses 
trois styles" (1854, 2 vols), " B. eine Kunst- 
studie" (1855-60, 6 vols; 2nd ed. of vol. i. 
(Biography) under separate title, 1869); L. 
Nohl's " Beethoven's Leben " (1864-77, 3 vols.) ; 
" B. nach den Schilderungen seiner Zeitgen- 
ossen" (1877); Ulibischeff, "B., ses Critiques 
et Glossateurs " (1857 ; in German, by Bischoff, 
1859) ; A. B. Marx, " Ludwig van Beethoven's 
Leben und Schaffen" (3rd ed. 1875, 2 vols.). 
A. W. Thayer has written the most exhaustive 
biography — " Ludwig van Beethoven's Leben'" 
(in German, by H. Deiters, 1866-79, vols, 
i.-iii. ; the fourth and last volume has not yet 
appeared) ; " L. van Beethoven," by W. J. v. 
Wasielewski, 2 vols. ; and " Neue Beethoven- 
iana," by Dr. T. Frimmel. Interesting inform- 
ation is given also in Gerhard v. Breuning's 
"Aus dem Schwarzspanierhaus " (1874). The 
published letters of Beethoven are: Nohl's 




"Briefe Beethovens" (1865, containing 411); 
" Neue Briefe Beethovens " (1867, 322 letters) ; 
Kochel, "83 neu aufgefundene Originalbriefe 
Beethovens an den Erzherzog Rudolf " (1865) ; 
" Briefe von B. an Grafin Erdody und Mag. 
Brauchle," edited by Schone (1867) ; and there 
are other detached letters in the biogra- 
phies, in Pohl's "Die Gesellschaft der Musik- 
freunde zu Wien" (1871), and other works. 
Of former numerous small and great works 
about B. may still be named : Ignaz v. Seyfried's 
" Ludwig van Beethoven's Studien im General- 
bass, Kontrapunkt und in der Kompositions- 
lehre" (1832, recently revised by Nottebohm, 
1873); besides Nottebohm's " Beethoveniana " 
(1872), "Neue Beethoveniana" (vfhich appeared 
originally in the Musikalische WochmUatt, and 
were afterwards republished in a volume, as 
2" Beethoveniana (1887), and " Thematisches 
Verzeichnis der Werke Beethovens" (1868); 
Thayer's " Chronologisches Verzeichnis" (1865), 
etc. A monument was.erected to B. in Bonn (by 
Hahnel, 1845), and another in Vienna {by Zum- 
busch, 1880). 
Beethoven Foundation. {See Pfujghatjpt.) 
Beethoven Prize (500 gulden), offered yearly 
since 1875 by the " Gesellschaft der Musik- 
freunde " in Vienna. Hugo Reinhold was the 
first to win it in 1879 ; only former pupils of the 
Vienna Conservatorium can compete for it. 

BefFara, Louis Frangois, b. Aug. 23, 1751, 
Nonancourt (Eure), d. Feb. 2, 1838, Paris, 
where he was Commissaire de Police from 1792 to 
1816. He wrote jthe " Dictionnaire de I'Acade- 
mie Royale de Musique " (seven vols.), and seven 
more vols, with rules and regulations in connec- 
tion with the Academic (Grand Op^ra), and like- 
wise " Dictionnaire Alphab^tique des Acteurs, 
etc." (three vols.) ; " Tableau Chronologique 
des Repr&entations, etc." (from the year 1671); 
" Dictionnaire Alphabetique des Tragedies 
Lyriques, etc., non r^presenttes k I'Acad^mie, 
etc." (five vols.) ; and, finally, " Dramaturgie 
Lyrique fitrangfere " (seventeen vols.). He be- 
queathed his rich libraiy, together with his 
manuscripts, to the city of Paris; but unfortun- 
ately everything was destroyed by fire during 
the Commune (1871). - 

Beffroi (Fr.) tocsin; the Tamtam is some- 
times called by this name. 

Beffroy de Keigny, Louis Abel, b. Nov. 6, 
1757, Laon, d. Dec. 18, 1811, Paris (pseudonym, 
Cousin Jacques), was a singular personage, who 
wrote abstruse works (libretto and music) for 
the stage, which, however, met with little 
success. The two, Nicodeme dans la Lune, 1790, 
and Nicodeme aux Enfers, 1791, certainly made a 
sensation, and had to be forbidden, as they 
excited the democrats. 

Beggar's Opera. (See Ballad Opera.) 

Belcke, Friedrich August, b. May 27, 
1795, Lucka (Altenburg), d. there Dec. 10, 1874, 

a famous trombone-player and composer for his 
instrument. He was chamber musician at 
Berlin from 1816-58, and after that retired to 
his native town. — His brother, Christian 
Gottlieb, b. July 17, 1796, Lucka, d. there 
July 8, 1875, was, from 1819 to 1832, a famous 
flautist in the Gewandhaus orchestra at Leipzig ; 
and after some years of rest was again active at 
Altenburg from 1834-41. His concertos for 
flute, fantasias, etc., are well known. 

Beldomandis (Beldemandis, Beldemando), 
Prosdocimus de, about 1422, professor of 
philosophy in his native city, Padua; an in- 
teresting writer on measured music, whose 
works have been published by Coussemaker 
("Script." in.). B. was an opponent of Mar- 
chettus of Padua, on matters relating to musical 
esthetics, but even the practical teaching of 
each reveals important points of difference. 

Belegt (Ger.), hoarse, muffled (of the voice).. 

Beliczay, Julius von, b. Aug. 10, 1835, 
Komorn (Hungary), was originally an engineer, 
but took up music and became a pupil of 
Joachim, Hoffmann, and Franz Krenn, at 
Vienna. He lived alternately at Pressburg and 
Vienna, and in 1888 became teacher of theory 
at the National Academy of Music at Pesth. 
Of his compositions the following deserve men- 
tion : a quartet for strings in a minor (Op. 21), 
a trio in e[? (Op. 30), Andante for stringed 
orchestra (Op. 25), a serenade for strings (Op. 
36), an " Ave Mana" for soprano solo, chorus, 
and orchestra (Op. 9), pf. works foi^ two and 
four hands, etudes (Op. 52), songs; and, in 
manuscript, a mass often performed, antiphons 
to the Virgin, etc. 

Belin (Bellin), (i) Guillaume, tenor singer at 
the Chapelle Royale, Paris, 1547 ; Cantiques k 4 
(Biblical hymns of praise, 1560) and Chansons, 
of which a number are to be found in At- 
taignant's collections of 1543 and 1544. — (2) 
Julien, b. about 1530, Le Mans, a famous 
lutenist, who published in 1556 a book of motets, 
chansons and fantasias in lute tablature. 

Bell (Ger. Stiirze), the name of the wide open- 
ing of brass wind-instruments at the end op- 
posed to the mouth-piece. 

Bella, (i) Domenica della, published in 
1705 a 'cello concerto, and in 1704, at Venice, 
twelve sonatas With 'cello obbligato and cem- 
balo. — (2) Job. Leopold, b. 1843, St. Nicolan 
(Upper Hungary), priest and canon of the 
Neusohl Cathedral, composed sacred music; 
also part-songs of national character, and some 
pf. pieces. 

Bellasio, Paolo, b. Venice, published a book 
of madrigals in 1579, and Villaftelle alia Romana 
in 1595. A collection of 1568, entitled "Dolci 
Affetti," contains some of his madrigals. 

Bellazzi, Francesco, b. Venice, pupil of 
Johannes Gabrieli, published psalms, motets, 
litanies, fauxbowrdons, a mass, canzone, etc. (for 




the most part k 8) in Venice from 1618 to 

Bell6re (Bellerus) , j e a n, really Beellaerts; 
bookseller at Antwerp, entered into partnership 
■with Pierre Phalese (fils) ; they published prin- 
cipally works of Italian composers up to about 
1600. — His son, Balthasar, transferred the 
business, after his father's death, to Douai ; he 
printed, from 1603 to 1605, a catalogue of his 
publications, which Coussemaker discovered in 
the Douai lilsrary. 

Bellermann, (i), Johann Friedrich, b. 
March 8, 1795, Erfurt, d. Feb. 4, 1874, Berlin, 
where from 1819 he was teacher, and from 
1847-1868 director of the Gymnasium "Zum 
Grauen Kloster." He distinguished himself by 
his researches in connection with (ancient) 
Greek music. His principal work, " Die Ton- 
leitern und Musiknoten der Griechen" {1847), 
gives an exhaustive account of the Greek system 
of notation, and the two smaller pamphlets, 
" Die Hymnen des Dionysios und Mesomedes " 
(1840), and " Anonymi Scriptio de Musica et 
, Bacchii Senioris Introductio, etc." (1841), treat 
of the few remnants of Old . Greek practical 
music. — (2) J. Gottfried Heinrich, b. March 
10, 1832, son and pupil of the former, attended 
the " Graues Kloster," afterwards the Royal 
Institute for church music, and was for a long 
time a private pupil of E. A. Grell. In 1853 he 
was appointed teacher of singing at the " Graues 
Kloster," received in 1861 the title of Royal 
Musical Director, and in 1866 became Professor 
of Music at the University, on the death of A. 
B. Marx. In 1875 he was made member of the 
Academy of Arts. Bellermann's published com- 
positions are all vocal (motets, psalms, songs, 
part-songs, a choral work with orchestra, " Ge- 
sang der Geister iiber den Wassern ") ; larger 
works (even an opera) are still in manuscript, but 
selections from them have been given, especially 
the choruses from Sophocles' Ajax, CEdipus 
Rex, and CEiipus Colotms. Bellermann's " Die 
Mensuralnoten und Taktzeichen im 15. und 16. 
Jahrhundert " (1858) is a work of special merit, 
and the first which enabled persons to study 
the theory of measured music, who, through 
lack of knowledge of Latin, had not been able 
to examine for themselves the treatises of the 
mensural theorists. In his book, " Der Kon- 
trapunkt " (1862 ; 2nd ed.1877), B. follows J. J. 
Fux's " Gradus ad Parnassum," a work already 
old-fashioned in its Aay (1725). The pamphlet, 
" Die GrSsse der musikaliscnen Intervalle als 
Grundlage der Harmonie" (1873) is a bold 
attempt to make modern acoustics fit in with 
his counterpoint. The "AUg. Musikal. Ztgi" 
(1868-74) contains valuable articles by B. 

Belleyille-Oury, Emilie, b. 1808, Munich, 
d. there, July 22, 1880 ; an excellent pianoforte 
player, pupil of Czerny, who made great con- 
cert tours, and married the violinist Oury in 
London ; she published pf. pieces. 

Bell 'Haver, Vincenzo, b. about 1530; 
Venice, pupil of A. Gabrieli, and his successor 
as second organist of St. Mark's (1356) ; he 
appears to have died in 1588, as on Oct. 30 
of that year J. Giuseppe Guarni succeeded him. 
B. was a renowned composer of madrigals, of 
which several books (1567-75), and some in 
collections, have been preserved. 

Belli, (i) Girolamo, b. at Argenta, chapel- 
singer to the Duke of Mantua; published a 
book of motets a 6 (1586), a book of madrigals 
a 6 (1587), motets a 8 (Venice, 1589), motets 
and magnificats a 10 (1594) ; also the collection, 
"De' Floridi Virtuosi d'ltalia" (1586), contains 
some madrigals a 5. — (2) Giulio, b. about 1560, 
Longiano, was choirrmaster at St. Antonio, 
Padua about 1600, finally maestro of Imola 
Cathedral (about 1620) ; he was a prolific 
church composer : canzonets k 4 (1586 ; 2nd 
ed. 1595), masses a 5 (1597), masses i 4 (1599), 
masses and motets 4 8 (new edition, with 
thorough-bass, 1607), masses k 4-8 (1608), 
psalms a 8 (1600, 1604, 1615, the last with 
continuo), motets for double chorus, litanies, 
etc. (1605, 1607), "Concerti Ecclesiastici " with 
organ bass a 2-3 (1613 and 1621). — (3) Do- 
menico, musician at the court of Parma, pub- 
lished: "Arie a i e 2 Voci per Sonare con il 
Chitarrone " (1616), and " Orfeo Dolente " 
(1616, 5 Intermedes to Tasso's " Aminta"). 

Bellicosamente (Ital.), martially, in a warlike 

Bellin. {See Belin.) 

Bellini, Vincenzo, celebrated opera com- 
poser, b. Nov. I, 1801, Catania (Sicily), d. Sept. 
24, 1835, Puteaux, near Paris ; pupil of the 
Naples Conservatorio under Zingarelli. He 
first published instrumental and sacred com- 
positions. His first opera, Adehon e Salvina, 
was produced in 1825 at the theatre of the 
Conservatorio ; in 1826 there followed, at the 
San Carlo Theatre, Bianco, e Fernando, with such 
good success that, in 1827, he was commis- 
sioned to write for La Scala, Milan. He wrote 
II Pirata, which was brilliantly received ; but in 
the following year the success of La Straniera 
was even greater. After that, Zaira came out 
at Parma, but failed ; Montechi e Capultti at 
Venice, and La Sonnambula at Milan. The 
critics found fault with Bellini's simple instru- 
mentation and with the meagre forms of his 
vocal numbers ; B. took the reproach to heart, 
and displayed more careful work in iVorma (Milan, 
1831), and the opera, especially with Malibran 
in the title-yfifo, made quite a furore. Beatrice di 
Tenda did not meet with equal success. In 
1833 B. settled definitely in Paris, where he 
won rich laurels, though only for a short time ; 
for it was granted to him to write only one 
more opera, / Puritani, produced at the Theatre 
des Italiens in 1835. The general mourning 
over his early death found expression in many 
notices and memorial pamphlets. A brother of 




Bellini, Carmelo B., b. 1802, Catania, d. there 
Sept. 28, 1884, won for himself a modest name 
as church composer. 

Bellmann, Karl Gottfried, b. Aug. 11, 
1760, Schellenberg (Saxony), d. 1816 as instru- 
ment-maker in Dresden. He made in his time 
famous pianofortes, and was also a performer 
on the bassoon. 

Bell metronome, a metronome with a small 
bell which marks the first beat of every bar or 
group of beats. 

Belloli, (i), Luigi, b. Feb. 2, 1770, Castel- 
franco (Bologna), d. Nov. 17, 1817; performer 
on the French horn, and in 1812 teacher of 
that instrument at the Milan Conservatorio. 
He wrote several operas, and left behind a 
Method for horn. — (2) Agostino, b. Bologna, 
likewise a performer on the horn, pubUshed 
several studies for that instrument, and also 
produced four operas at Milan (1816-23). 

Belloni, (i) Giuseppe, sacred composer, b. 
Lodi ; he published : masses a 5 (1603), psalms 
a 5 (1605), masses and motets a 6 (1606). — (2) 
Pietro, of Milan, teacher of singing at the 
Conservatorio di Sant' Onofrio, Naples; after- 
wards in Paris, where he wrote many ballets 
(1801-1804), and published a " Methode de 
chant" (1822). 

Bellows. The simplest bellows of organs is 
constructed after the manner of smiths' bellows, 
i.c. pump-work. According to the form and 
manner of drawing-in the wind, a distinction 
is made between diagonal and horizontal B. 

Bells (Ger. Glocken), are musical instruments 
only occasionally employed (as, for example, in 
Parsifal), but they were formerly much in vogue 
as Glockenspiel {see Carillon) on church towers. 
In consequence of an irregular series of over- 
tones (answering to the squares of the natural 
series of figures — i, 4, 9, 16, 25, etc.), their pitch is 
not easy to grasp. Even small carillons differ 
entirely from the Stahlspiel {see Lyre), and 
cymbals, semi-spherical, with thin edges, are 
used in opera, instead of the more important 
(too great and too dear) church-bells. 

Belly, (i) the upper part of the sound-box of 
an instrument ; that part over which the strings 
are stretched. — (2) Also the sound-board of the 

Bemetzrieder, theorist, b. 1743, Alsace, en- 
tered the order of the Benedictines, but soon 
left it and went to Paris, where Diderot took 
him in hand, but without being able to make 
anything of him ; all trace of him in London, 
after 1816, is lost. B. published several theor- 
etical works : '■' Lemons de Clavecin et Prin- 
cipes d'Harmonie" (1771 ; in English, 1778), 
"Traits de Musique, concernant les Tons, les 
Harmonies" (1776), "Nouvel Essai sur I'Har- 
monie " (1779), " New Guide to Singing " (1787), 
" General Instruction in Music " (1790), " A 
Complete Treatise of Music " (1800), and several 

smaller ones; also some non-musical, philo- 
sophical writings. 

B^mol (Fr.), same as t' (a sign indicating 
lowering) ; mi blmol = e^, etc. 

Benda, (1), Franz, b. Nov. 25, 1709, Altben- 
atky (Bohemia), d. March 7, 1786, Potsdam. 
He was a chorister at St. Nicholas' Church, 
Prague, then a strolling musician, by which 
means he became a performer on the violin. 
He was appointed first at Warsaw, in 1732 at 
Berlin, and in 1771 he became leader of the 
royal band. He was especially famous for his 
expression in playing. He formed many pupils. 
He only published a few solos for violin, and a 
flute solo. After his death there appeared 
studies, etc. — {2) Johann, brother of the 
former, b. 1713, Altbenatky, d. 1752 as chamber 
musician at Potsdam. He was an excellent 
violinist, and left behind in maniiscript three 
violin concertos. — (3) Georg, b. 1721, prob- 
ably also at Altbenatky, brother of the former, 
d. Nov. 6, 1795, Koestritz. From 1742 to 1748 he 
was chamber musician at Berlin, and then oc- 
cupied a similar position at Gotha. The duke 
of the latter place sent him to Italy, and in 
1750 appointed him Hofcapellmeister. From 1774 
he attracted notice by his melodramas {Ariadne 
aufNaxos, which he also produced at Paris in 
1781, but without success; Medea, Almansor, 
and Nadine). He considered himself slighted, 
and hence resigned his post in 1778. He lived 
at Hamburg, Vienna, and other places, went tp 
Georgenthal near Gotha, and, having entirely 
renounced music, returned to Koestritz. His 
compositions are very numerous, and are, for 
the most part, in manuscript. They have been 
preserved in the royal library at Berhn (church 
cantatas, masses, etc.). He wrote fourteen 
works for the stage (operas and melodramas). — 
(4) Joseph, the youngest brother and pupil of 
Franz B., b. March 7, 1724, Altbenatky ; was 
his brother's successor as leader, and, after 
being pensioned in 1797, d. Feb. 22, 1804, 
Berlin. — (5) Friedrich Wilh. Heinr., b. 
July 15, 1745, Potsdam, d. there, June 19, 1814, 
eldest son of Franz B. ; 1765-1810 royal cham- 
ber musician, able performer on the violin, 
pianoforte, and organ ; he composed operas 
{Alceste, Orpheus, Das Blumenmadchen), two ora- 
torios, cantatas, and instrumental pieces. — (6) 
Friedrich Ludwig, son of Georg B., b. 
1746, Gotha, d. March 27, 1793 ; in 1782 con- 
ductor of the opera at Hamburg, afterwards 
virtuoso at the Schwerin Court, and finally 
director of concerts at Konigsberg. He com- 
posed several violin concertos and four operas. 
— (7) Karl, Herm. Heinr., youngest son of 
Franz B., b. May 2, 1748, Potsdam, d. March 
15, 1836, was for many years leader of the royal 
opera band. He composed some chamber- 

Bendall, Wilfred Ellington, composer, b. 
April 22, 1850, London, pupil of Lucas and 


Silas and of the Leipzig Conservatorium from 
1872-74. He has written' operettas, cantatas, 
songs, trios, duetSj pf. pieces, etc. 

Bendel, Franz, b. March 23, 1833, Schon- 
linde, near Rumburg, d. July 3, 1874, Berlin. 
He studied under Proksch at Prague and Liszt 
at Weimar, and was for a time teacher at 
KuUak's Academy at Berlin. He was an ex- 
cellent pianist, and composed pleasing high- 
class, drawing-room pianoforte pieces; also 
songs which attained great popularity {" Wie 
berihhrt mich wundersam "). 

Bendeler, Johann Philipp, b. 1660, Rieth- 
nordhausen, near Erfurt, d. 1708 as cantor at 
Quedlinburg. He wrote " Melopceia practica" 
(1686), " Aerarium melopoeticum " (1688), "Or- 
ganopoeia " (i6go ; republished in 1739 as " Or- 
gelbaukunst"), "Directorium musicum" (1706), 
" Collegium musicum de compositione " (in 
manuscript, quoted in Mattheson's "Ehren- 

Bender, Valentin, b. Sept. 19, 1801, Becht- 
heim, near Worms, d. April 14, 1873, as musical 
director of the Royal House, and of the Guides 
(Guards) at Brussels. He had previously been 
bandmaster in the Netherlands, and afterwards 
conductor of the wind-band at Antwerp, which 
post he handed over to his brother. He became 
a distinguished virtuoso on the clarinet, and 
composed several pieces for his instrument, as 
well as niilitary music. — His 'brother Jakob, 
b. 1798, Bechtheim, formerly bandmaster in the 
Netherlands. He died as director of the wind- 
band at Antwerp ; he was a good performer on 
the clarinet, and composed principally military 

Bendl, Karl, b. March 16, 1838, Prague, chief 
conductor at Brussels (1864), afterwards chorus 
master at the German Opera, Amsterdam, He 
returned to Prague in 1865 as capellmeister of a 
male choral union. He wrote Czekish national 
operas [Lejla, Bretislaw, Cernahorci, Karel Skreta), 
songs, choral works, etc. 

Bene, ben (Ital.), well. 

Benedict, Julius, b. Nov. 27, 1804, Stuttgart 
(son of a Jewish banker), d. June s. 1885, 
London. He studied under Abeille, Hummel 
(Weimar, 1819), and K. M. v. Weber (1820). 
In 1823 he was capellmeister at the " Karnth-. 
nerthor " Theatre, Vienna, and in 1825 at the 
San Carlo Theatre, Naples, where he produced 
his first opera, Giacinta ed Ernesto; this was 
followed by / Portoghesi in Goa, at Stuttgart, in 
1830. Neither opera met with much success. 
In 1835 he went from Naples to Paris, and, still 
in the same year, to London. From that time 
he became thoroughly English, so that only very 
few knew that he was a born German. As 
conductor of the Opera Buffa at the Lyceum in 
1836, he produced a small work, Vn Anno ed un 
Gionio, and as conductor at Drury Lane Theatre, 
under Bunn, in 1838, his first English opera, 



The Gypsy's Warning, which was followed by 
The Brides of Venice and The Crusaders, In 1850 
he went with Jenny Lind to America, and soon 
after his return became musical conductor to 
Mr. Mapleson (at Her Majesty's Theatre, and 
afterwards Drury Lane), when, amongst other 
things, he produced Weber's Oberon, with added 
recitatives. In 1839 be became conductor at 
the Monday Popular Concerts. He conducted 
several Norwich Festivals, and the Philharmonic 
Society at Liverpool from 1876 to 1880. His 
merits were fully acknowledged ; he received the 
honour of knighthood in 1871, and was decor- 
ated with many foreign orders. Of his com- 
positions may be specially named the opera, The 
Lily of Killarney (produced in Germany in 1862 
as Die Rose von Erin), and the cantatas. Undine 
(i860), Richard Coeur de Lion (1862), and the ora- 
torio, St. Cecilia (1866), all produced at Norwich. 
His oratorio, St. Peter, was produced at Birming- 
ham in 1870, and his cantata, Graziella, there in 
1882. His Symphony No. i, and a portion of 
No. 2, were given at the Crystal Palace (1873-5). 
B. also wrote a short biography of Weber for" 
Hueffer's " Great Musicians." 

Benedictine Honks. This order has rendered 
great service to music, its theory, and its history, 
especially during the Middle Ages, when the 
Benedictine monasteries were the chief centres 
of learning. Commencing with Pope Gregory, 
nearly all the men who are mentioned as dis- 
tinguished in the musical history of the Middle 
Ages were Benedictine monks : Aurelianus 
Reomensis, Remi d'Auxerre, Regino von Priim, 
Notker Balbulus, Hugbald von St. Amand, 
Odo von Clugny, Guido d'Arezzo, Berno von 
Reichenau, Hermannus Contractus, Wilhelm 
von Hirschau, Aribo Scholasticus, Bemhard 
von Clairvaux, Eberhard von Freising, Adam 
von Fulda. In more recent times may be 
specially named Prince-Abbot Martin Gerbert 
of St. Blaise (d. 1793), Dom Bedos de Celles, 
Jumilhac, Schubiger. A source of great im- 
portance for the history of music in the Middle 
Ages is the work of the Benedictine monk 
Mabillou, " Annales ordinis S. Benedicti" 
(1703-39. six vols), together with Gerbert's 
"De Cantu, etc." and " Scriptores." 

Benediotus (Lat.), a portion of the Sanctus. 
{See Mass.) 

Benedictus Appenzelders (B. von Appen-' 
zell), contrapuntist of the i6th century, master 
of the boys of the royal chapel at Brussels 
(1539-35)- He must not be confounded with 
Benedictus Duds; their names have become 
unfortunately mixed, as many compositions in 
the collections of chansons, motets, etc. (1540- 
69), are only marked " Benedict." 

Benelli, (i) Alemanno, pseudonym of Bot- 
trigari (q.v.).— (2) Antonio Peregrine, b. 
Sept. 5 1771, Forli (Romagna), d. Aug. 16, 1830, 
Bornichau, in the Saxon Erzgebirge, whither he 




had retired in 1829. He was first a tenor singer 
at San Carlo, Naples, and from 1801-22 in Dres- 
den, and later on was engaged in teaching at the 
Royal Theatre School for Singing, Berlin ; he 
published a " Method " in 1819, " Solfeggi," and 
some sacred and chamber-music works, etc. 

Benesch (Benes), Joseph, b. Jan. 11, 1793, 
Batelow (Moravia), violin-player. He was in 
the orchestra at Pressburg, and afterwards 
made concert tours in Italy. He was leadey at 
Laibach (1823), member of the band at "Vienna 
(1832), and he published compositions for the 

BenevoU, Orazio, b. 1602, Rome, d. June 
17, 1672. He was maestro di cappella at various 
churches in Rome, and finally at the Vatican 
(1646). He had previously been " Hofmusikus" 
to an archduke in Vienna. B. was a distin- 
guished contrapuntist ; his works (masses k 12, 
16, and 24, also motets and psalms) are lying 
in manuscript in Roman libraries. A mass for 
twelve choirs (i 48) was performed in Rome 
(1650) in Santa Maria sopra Minerva. 

Benfey, Theodor, a distinguished orientalist 
and philologist, b. Jan. 28, 1809, Norten, near 
Gottingen, d. there June 26, 1881 ; he was also 
a musician, and active as a writer on music 
(in the Neue Zeitungfur Musik). 

Benincori, Angelo Maria, b. March 28, 
1779, Brescia ; from 1803 he lived in Paris, and 
died there Dec. 30, 1821. He was a violinist 
and composer, and published quartets _ for 
strings, and pf. trios. His sacred compositions 
remained in manuscript. He wrote a march for 
the first act and the last three acts of the opera 
Aladdin, or the Wonderful Lamp (first two acts by 
Nicolo Isouard), which made a furore in Paris 
in 1822, while three earlier operas of his met 
with only moderate success. 

Bennett, (i) William Sterndale, b. Ajpril 
13, 1816, Sheffield, d. Feb. i, 1875, London. 
He came of a family of musicians and organists, 
at the age of eight was chorister at King's 
College Chapel, Cambridge, where he so dis- 
tinguished himself, that in 1826 he was received 
into the Royal Academy of Music (pupil of 
Lucas, Crotch, W. H. Holmes, and C. Potter). 
In 1833 he played a concerto in d minor of his 
own at a prize concert of the Academy. Men- 
delssohn was present, and gave him much en- 
couragement. The work was published by the 
Academy. In 1837, at the expense of the Broad- 
wood firm, he went to I^eipzig for a year, and 
there he entered into friendly relations with 
Mendelssohn and Schumann ; a second visit to 
Leipzig followed in 1841-42. Though the influ- 
ence of Mendelssohn on Bennett cannot be 
denied, yet, on the other hand, it must be ac- 
knowledged his natural disposition had some- 
thing akin to that of Mendelssohn's. In 1849 
B. founded the London Bach Society, which, 
among other works, performed the St. Matthew 

Passion in 1854. In 1856 he was appointed 
conductor of the Philharmonic Society, but 
resigned this post when he became Principal 
of the Academy in 1866. In 1856 he was elected 
Professor of Music at Cambridge, and soon 
after had the degree of Doctor of Music con- 
ferred on him. In 1867 the University further 
conferred on him the degree of M.A., and in 
1870 Oxford granted him that of D.C.L. He 
was knighted in 1871. His principal works 
are : four pianoforte' concertos, four overtures 
("Parisina," "The Naiads," "The Wood- 
nymph," and " Paradise and the Peri "), G minor 
symphony. The May Queen (cantata). The Woman 
of Samaria (oratorio), music to Ajax, sonatas, 
capriccios, rondos, etc., for pianoforte, songs, a 
'cello sonata, a trio, etc. Most of his piano 
works and all his overtures have been recently 
published in the Augener Edition. B. is looked 
upon in England as the founder of an " English - 
School ; " and without doubt he ranks among 
the important musicians whiph England has 
produced. — (2) Theodore. (.SwRitter). — (3) 
Joseph, writer on music and librettist (Ben- 
nett, Mackenzie, Sullivan, Cowen, etc., are in- 
debted to him for some of their best books), 
b. Nov., 1831, Berkeley (Gloucestershire). He 
prepares the programmes of the Philharmonic 
Society, and of the Monday and Saturday 
Popular Concerts ; he is also one of the chief 
contributors to the Musical Times, etc., and is 
musical critic of the Daily Telegraph. 

Beunewitz, (i) Wilhelm, b. April 19, 1832, 
Berlin, d. there Jan., 1871, as member of the 
orchestra of the royal theatre. He studied 
with Fr. Kiel, composed an opera. Die Rose von 
Woodstock (1876), also pieces for pf. and 'cello. 
— (2) Anton, violinist, b. March 26, 1833, 
Privat (Bohemia). He has been director of 
Prague Conservatorium since 1882. 

Benois, Marie, an excellent pianist, b. Jan. 
I, 1861, Petersburg. She studied with her 
father, who was a pupil of H. Herz, and after- 
wards with Leschetitzky at the Petersburg Con- 
servatoire : on leaving which, in 1876, she was 
presented withagold medal. Afterthat shemade 
concert tours (Vienna among other places) with 
great success until 1878, when she married her 
cousin, the painter, Wassily Benois. She has 
recently played again in public. 

Benoist, Frangois, b. Sept. 10, 1794, Nantes, 
d. April, 1878. He studied at the Paris Con- 
servatoire in 1811, obtained the Prix de Rome 
(1815-9), and, after his return from Italy, became 
royal court organist and professor of the organ 
at the Conservatoire ; in 1840 chef du chant at 
the Grand OpSra, and received a pension in 
1872. A collection appeared of his organ works 
entitled, " Bibliotheque de I'Organiste " (twelve 
books). He wrote, besides, a mass k 3, with 
organ ad lib., the operas Llonore et Fllix (1821, 
printed), L'Afparition (1848), and the ballets La 
Gipsy (1839, with Marliani and A. Thomas), Le 




Diable Amonreux (1840, with Reber), Nisida 
{Die Amazonen der Azonn, 1840), and Pdquerette 

Benoit, Peter Leonard Leopold, b. Aug. 
17, 1834, Harlebecke (Flanders), was a pupil of 
the Brussels Conservatoire from 1851 to 1855, 
and during that period wrote music to several 
Flemish melodramas, as well as a small opera 
for the ParktheaUr. In 1856 he became con- 
ductor of this theatre, and in 1857 won the 
great state prize (Prix de Rome) with his cantata, 
Le meartre d'Abel. He used the Government 
grant in extensive journeys, for 'the purpose of 
study, through Germany (Leipzig,' Dresden, 
Munich, Berlin), and sent to the Acad^mie at 
Brussels an essay, " L'iicole de Musique Flam- 
ande et son Avenir." In 1861 he went to Paris to 
produce an opera {ErlhSnig, Le roi des aulnes), 
which was accepted by the Theatre Lyrique, but 
not put on the stage ; while waiting, he conducted 
at the Bouffes-Parisiens. On his return to Brus- 
sels, he produced a solemn mass, which made a 
great impression and excited great hopes. B. 
is heart and soul Flemish, i.e. Germanic, and, 
as director of the Conservatoire at Antwerp — 
which post he has held since 1867 — his desire 
is to establish spiritual relationship with Ger- 
many. The most important compositions of 
B. besides those named are as follows ; a Te 
Deum (1863), Requiem (1863), pf. concerto, 
flute concerto; Lticifer, a Flemish oratorio 
(1866) ; Het Dorp int Gebergte and Isa, Flemish 
operas; De Schelde, Flemish oratorio; Drama 
Christi, a sacred drama for soli, chorus, organ, 
'celli, double-basses, trumpets, and trombones ; 
De Oorlog ("'War," cantata for double chorus, 
soU, and increased orchestra) ; a Children's Ora- 
torio"; "DeMaaiers" ("The Mowers "),achoral 
symphony ; music to Charlotte Corday ; music 
to E. van Goethem's drama, Willem de Zwijger 
(1876) ; Vlaandereus Kunstroem (Rubens-cantata), 
for mixed chorus, and children's chorus, and 
orchestra (1877) ; " Antwerpen," for triple male- 
chorus (1877); " Joncfrou Kathelijne," scena 
for alto solo and orchestra (1879) ; " Muse der 
Geschiedenis," for chorus and orchestra (1880) ; 
" Hucbald," for double chorus, barytone solo, 
and orchestra with harp (1880) ; " Triomf- 
marsch," for the Exhibition (1880); De Rhyn, 
oratorio (1889) ; " Sagen en Balladen," 'for 
pianoforte; " Liefde int leven " (songs) ; " Lief- 
dedrama " (songs) ; ' motets with organ ; a 
mass, etc. In 1880 B. became corresponding 
member, 1882 member in ordinary, of the 
Royal Berhn Academy. His writings are : 
"De "Vlaamsche Musickschool van Antwerpen" 
(1873) ; " Considerations a propos d'un Projet 
pour rinstitution de Festivals en Belgique" 
(1874) ; " 'Verhaudeling over de Nationale Toon- 
kunde" (2 vols. 1875-77); " De Musicale Op- 
voeding en Opleiding in Belgie" (no date), 
" Het Droombeeld eener Musicale 'Wereld- 
kunst " (no date) ; " De Oorspaong van het 

Cosmopolitisme in de Musick " (1876) ; " Over 
Schijn en Blijk en onze Musikale 'Vlaamsche 
Bewegjng" (no date) ; " Onze Musikale Beweg- 
ing op. Dramatisch Gebied " (no date) ; " Een 
Koninkhjh 'Vlaamsch Conservatorium te Ant- 
werpen " (no date); "Onze Nederlandische 
Musikale Eenheid" (no date); "Brievenover 
Noord-Nederland " (no date). B. wrote besides 
important articles for the papers, De Vlaamsche 
Kunstbode, De Eendracht, Guide Musical, etc. [Cf. 
thtf reports of the sittings of the Brussels 

Berardi, Angelo, maestro di cappella at 
'Viterbo, afterwards at Spoleto (1681), officiat- 
ing canon at 'Viterbo in 1687, and, in 1693, 
maestro at the La Basilica Santa Maria^ 
Trastevere. He was a distinguished theorist 
(" I^agionamenti Musicali" (1681), "Documenti 
Armonici" (1687), "Miscellanea Musicale" 
(1689), "Arcani Musicali (1690), "II Perche 
Musicale Ovvero Stafetta Armonica" (1693). 
The following of his compositions have been 
preserved: a Requiem a 5 (1663), motets k 2-4 
(1665), psalms (1675), offertories (1680), etc. 

Berblguier, Benoit Tranquille, b. Dec. 
21, 1782, Caderousse CVaucluse), d. Jan. 20, 
1838, excellent flute-player, studied under 'Wun- 
derlich at the Paris Conservatoire. From 1813 
to 1815 he served in the army, and after that 
lived in private as a composer; he wrote a 
stately series of works for flute (ten concertos, 
seven books of sonatas, etc.). 

Berceuse (Fr.), a lullaby. 

Berchem (Berghem), Jachet de (Jaquet, 
Jacquet, Giachetto di Mantova), one of the 
most celebrated contrapuntists of the i6th cen- 
tury ; was maestro to the Duke of Mantua from 
about 1535 to 1565, and was probably born at 
Berchem, near Antwerp. The number of his 
works which have come down to us is great — 
masses, motets, madrigals (1532-67). [Cf. Buus.) 

Berens, Hermann, b. 1826, Hamburg, d. 
May 9, 1880, Stockholm; son of the band- 
master Karl B. at Hamburg, known as flautist 
and composer for the flute (b. 1801, d. 1857). 
He studied first with his father, then under 
Reissiger at Dresden, and, after a concert tour 
with Alboni, resided for a time in his native city; 
went in 1847 to Stockholm, where he deserved 
well of the lovers of music by performances which 
he gave of chamber-music. In 1849 he became 
musical director at Oerebro, in -i860 conductor at 
the "Mindre " Theatre, Stockholm, afterwards 
court conductor ; he was appointed teacher of 
cornposition at the Academy, and professor and 
member in ordinary of the Academy. B. com- 
posed a Greek drama, Kodros, an opera, Violetta, 
as well as three operettas — Ein Sommernachts- 
traum, Lully und Qmnault, and Siccardo — all 
received with approval ; also some successful 
pianoforte and chamber-music. B. is now best 


known by his "Neueste Schule der Gelaufig- 
keit " (excellent pianoforte studies, Op. 6i). 

Beretta, Giovanni Battista, b. Feb. 24, 
1819, Verona, d. April a8, 1876, Milan. He com- 
menced life as a wealthy amateur, but later on, 
after the loss of his fortune, was for some time 
director of the Conservatorio (Liceo musicale) 
at Bologna. Finally he worked at Milan at the 
great musical dictionary commenced by Americo 
Barberi, which, however, he was only able to 
bring up to the letter G. (" Dizionario artistico, 
scientifico storico, tecnologico musicale," Milan, 
published by Gir. Polani). 

Berg, (i) Adam, celebrated music printer at 
Munidi, 1540-99 ; he gave a striking proof of 
his extraordinary productive activity by taking 
up the publishing of the great collection (" Pa- 
trodnium musicum," ten vols.) at the Duke's 
expense, the first five volumes of which were 
exclusively devoted to the works of Orlandus 
Lassus. — (2) Johann von, also a celebrated 
music printer, b. Ghent, settled down in Nurem- 
berg, where he entered into partnership in 1550 
with Ulrich Neuber ; he always named himself 
Johannes Montanus on the title-page of his 
books. As Neuber entered into partnership with 
Gerlach in 1556, B. would seem to have died 
about this time. — (3) Konrad Mathias, b. 
April 27, 1785, Colmar (Alsace), violin pupil of 
Franzl, in Mannheim, then (1806-1807) pupil of 
the Paris Conservatoire, d. Dec. 13, 1852, 
Strassburg, where he settled in 1808 as piano- 
forte teacher. He wrote pf. works (three con- 
certos, sonatas, variations, ten pf. trios, etc., 
pieces for four hands), four quartets for strings, 
etc. ; also " Ideen zu einer rationellen Lehr- 
methode der Musik mit Anwendung auf das Kla- 
vierspiel," in G. Weber's " Cacilia " (vol. 5), 
and " Aperfu historique sur I'^tat de la musique 
a Strasbourg pendant les 50 dernieres annees " 

Bergamasca (Bergamask dance), an old 
Italian dance, deriving its name from Bergamo. 
In Midsummer Night's Dream, Bottom asks the 
Duke if he would care to see a Bergamask 
dance ; hence the dance was already in vogue 
in England in the i6th century, 

Berger, (i) Ludwig, b. April 18, 1777, Berlin, 
son of an architect, d. there Feb. 16, 1839 ; 
passed his youth in 'Templin and Frankfort-on- 
Oder, studied harmony and counterpoint under 
J. A. Gurrlich at Berlin in 1799, travelled in 
1801 to Dresden, in order to become a pupil of 
J. G. Naumann, but when he arrived found that 
the latter had just died. He dedicated a funeral 
santata to his memory. In 1804 he went with 
M. dementi, whose acquaintance he had made 
in Berlin, to St. Petersburg in order to study 
with him ; he there became intimate with A. Klen- 
gel, and found, in addition to his teacher, excel- 
lent models in Steibelt and Field. He made a 
happy marriage with the vocalist Wilhelmina 
Karges, but soon lost wife and child, and went 

75 Bergmann 

in 1812 to Stockholm, and from thence to London', 
where he joined Clementi, and also made the 
acquaintance of J. B. Cramer. In 1815 he re- 
turned to Berlin, where, until his death, he was 
highly esteemed as a teacher ; and among his 
many distinguished pupils were Mendelssolm, 
Taubert, Henselt, Fanny Hensel, H. Kiister, 
etc. B. published many excellent pianoforte 
works, also songs, quartets for male voices, 
cantatas, etc. In 1819 he founded with B. 
Klein, G. Reichart, and L. Rellstab, afterwards 
his biographer, the junior " Liedertafel." — (2) 
Francesco, composer and pianist, b. June 10, 
1835, London, pupil of Luigi Ricci and C. 
Lickl, and also of Hauptmann. He was for 
some years director of the Philharmonic So- 
ciety, and is now Honorary Secretary. He has 
composed an opera and a mass, part songs, pf. 
pieces, etc. 

Berggreen, Andreas Peter, b. March 2, 
1801, Copenhagen, d, there Nov. g, 1880. He 
first studied law, then turned his attention to 
music, and in 1838 became organist of Trinity 
Church, in 1843 teacher of singing at the me- 
tropolitan school, Copenhagen, and in 1859 in- 
spector of singing at the public schools. In 
1829 he wrote music to Ohlenschlager's Bridal- 
cantata; later on an opera, Billeiet og lustan, 
music to several of Ohlenschlager's dramas, 
also pf. pieces and songs. B. edited a collection 
(eleven vols.) of popular songs of various nations, 
and from 1836 a musical paper, Musikalisk 
Tidende ; he also wrote the biography of Weyse 

Berghem. (Su Berchem.) 

Bergkreyen (Bergreihen), originally secular 
songs, and, as the name indicates, songs acconiT 
panied by dancing, to which, however, in the 
time of the Reformation, sacred words were 
composed. Collections of secular and sacred 
B. (but without the melodies) appeared in 1531, 
1533, 1537, and 1547. The name Bergreihen 
probably arose from the fact that these songs— r 
as it appears from the title of the 3rd part of 
Daubmann's B. (1547) — originated in the Erzge-. 
birge; the title runs as follows: "Etzliche 
schone Bergreyen vom Schneeberg, Annaberg, 
Marienberg, Freiberg, und St. Joachimsthal." 

Bergmann, Karl, b. 1821, Ebersbach (Saxony), 
d, Aug. 10, 1876, New York. He was 'cellist 
and conductor, a pupil of Zimmermann in Zit- 
tau, and of Hesse in Breslau. In 1850 he went 
to the United States, as member of the strolling 
orchestra, " Germania," of which he soon be- 
came the director, and which post he held until 
the company broke up in 1854. In 1855 he 
entered the Philharmonic orchestra in New York, 
and conducted the concerts alternately with Thi 
Eisfeld, but alone from 1862 until his death. 
For several years B. conducted the German 
male choral union, "N'Bw York Arion," and 
rendered important service in the spreading of 




musical culture throughout the United States. 
As a composer he only produced a few orches- 
tral pieces. 

Bergner, Wilhelm, organist, b. Nov. 4, 
1837, Riga, where his father was organist at the 
church of St. Peter. He studied with his 
father, afterwards with the cathedral organist, 
( Agthe, at Riga, and with Kiihmstadt at Eise- 
nach. After that he became teacher in a board- 
ing school (Liebau), in 1861 organist of the 
Enghsh church at Riga, in 1868 cathedral 
orgardst there. By the establishment of a Bach 
society and cathedral choir B. raised the 
musical status of Riga, and it was owing to his 
influence that the great organ in the cathedral 
was built by Walcker (1882-3). 

Bergonzi, Carlo, celebrated violin-maker at 
Cremona , (1716-55), Stradivari's most distin- 
guished pupil. Of less importance were his 
son, Michelangelo, and his two grandsons, 
Niccolo and Carlo B. 

Bergreihen. (See Bergkreyen.) 

Bergson', Michael, composer and pianist, 
b. May, 1820, Warsaw. He studied at Dessau 
with Friedrich Schneider, went to Italy in 1846, 
and produced the opera Luisa di Montfort at La 
Pergola, Florence, in 1847, 'with success (it was 
also given at Livorno«and at Hamburg in Ger- 
man in 1849). He lived for several years at 
Perlin and Leipzig, and then settled down in 
Paris, where in 1859 he produced at a concert 
his one-act operetta. Qui va & la chasse perd sa 
place; he also offered a two-act opera to the 
Theatre Lyrique, but it was not given. In 1863 
he went as principal pianoforte teacher to the 
Geneva Conservatoire, of which institution he 
soon became director; a few years later he 
went to London, where he still lives as a private 
teacher. B. has written many Hiides and char- 
acteristic pieces for pianoforte, also a pf. con- 
certo, etc. 

Bergt, Christian Gottlob August, b. 
June 17, 1772, Oderan, near Freiburg; from 
1802 until his death, Feb, 10, 1837, he was 
organist at Bautzen, also music teacher at 
the college and conductor of the choral union 
there. B. wrote a Passion oratorio, Te Deum, 
cantatas, and other sacred works, as well as 
symphonies, quartets, pf. variations, several 
operas, duets, ballads, and small songs, of which 
much was published. 

Beringer, Oscar, pianist and composer, b. 
1844, Baden, studied under Moscheles, Rei- 
necke, Richter at the Leipzig Conservatorium 
and under C. Tausig and Weitzmaun in Berlin' 
He has resided in Loudon since 1871 : and in 
1873 established an " Academy for the Higher 
Development of Pianoforte Playing." He has 
composed pf. pieces, two sonatinas, songs, etc 
He was recently appointed professor of the 
pianoforte at the Royal Academy of Music 

Beriot, Charles Augusta de, celebrated 
violinist, b. Feb. 20, 1802, Louvain, d. April 8, 
1870, Brussels. He really never had a teacher 
of any name, but, for his virtuosity, he was in- 
debted to his happy disposition, to his perse- 
vering diligence, and to the solid elementary 
training of his guardian, Tiby, a music teacher 
at Louvain. When he played to Viotti in 1821, 
he was already an independent artist. For a 
short time he attended the Conservatoire as a 
pupil of Baillot's, but only to make the dis- 
covery that this would be prejudici^ to his 
individuality. His first public appearance in 
Paris was a victory, and he was at once able to 
make a successful concert journey to England. 
On returning home he was appointed solo 
violinist to the King of the Netherlands, with a 
stipend of 2,000 florins. The revolution of July, 
1830, cut off' this source of income, and B. was 
again compelled to travel, this time with Mme. 
Garcia-Malibran; whom he married, and whose 
singing, perhaps, had something to do with his 
method of producing tone. She bore him a 
son in 1833, but died already in 1836. During 
the next few years B. made no appearance in 
public ; it was only in 1840 that he undertook 
a concert tour through Germany. In 1843 he 
was appointed professor of the violin at Brussels ; 
but the complete loss of his eyesight, and, in 
addition, paralysis of the left arm, forced him 
to retire in 1852. His principal works are: 
seven violin concertos, a violin school in three 
parts (1858), several sonatas, sets of variations, 
and many studies for the violin, as well as some 

Berlijn, Anton, b. May 2. 1817, Amsterdam, 
d. Jan. 16, 1870 ; pupil of Ludwig Erk. He was 
musical director at Amsterdam, and composed 
nine operas, seven ballets, one oratorio (Moses), 
symphonies, etc., and many small pieces ; out 
of Holland, however, he is little known. 

Berlin, Joh. Daniel, b. 1710, Memel, went 
m 1730 to Copenhagen, and as organist to 
Drontheim (Norway) in 1737, where he died in 
J775- He published an Elementary Method 
(1742), also a Guide to Temperament Calcula- 

Berlioz, Hector, b. Dec. 11, 1803, C6te St. 
Andre (Is6re), d. March 8, 1869, Paris. He 
was the son of a physician, and intended for 
the medical profession. Against his parents' 
wish he left the University and went to the 
Conservatoire, and, since his father refused to 
help him, he was compelled to earn a living as 
chonster at the Theatre Gymnase. He soon 
left the Conservatoire, as the dry rules of solid 
learning were not to his taste, and he then gave 
free rem to his phantasy. A mass with orches- 
tra, first produced at St. Roch, the overtures 
Waverley and Les Francs Juges, and the Fan- 
tastic Symphony, episode de la vie d'un Artiste, 
were already written and produced, when B. 
in 1830 won the Prix de Rome with his 




cantata, SardanapaU. In order to try for that 
prize, he had again entered the Conservatoire, 
and become the pupil of Lesueur. During the 
period of study in Italy, he wrote the King Lear 
overture, and the symphonic poem with vocal 
music, Lelio, ou le Retour A la Vie, a sequel to 
the Symphonie Fantastique. At the same time he 
was active with his racy pen, contributing 
feuittetons to the Revm Europienne, the Courrier 
de VEurope, Journal des Debats, and, from 1834, to 
the newly founded Gazette Musicale de Paris. By 
word and deed he sought to establish a style of 
composition which, even to-day, is opposed and 
disowned by many — the so-called programme- 
music. In Germany, Liszt was heart and hand 
with him, adopting his ideas, though in inde- 
pendent fashion. In 1843 B. visited Germany, 
in 1845 Austria, and in 1847 Russia, producing 
his works in the most important cities, and, 
though often meeting with strong opposition, he 
everywhere excited lively interest. In vain he 
longed for an appointment as professor of com- 
position at the Conservatoire; he was only 
appointed Conservator in 1839, and librarian in 
1852, which post he occupied until his death. 
B. was not successful in Paris during his life- 
time ; only recently is his importance beginning to 
be understood, and, perhaps, over-rated; and the 
concert institutions of Paris vie with one another 
in Berlioz-worship. B. materially helped to 
remove many prejudices, but the greatest service 
which he rendered was to enrich the orches- 
tra with new effects and to suggest entirely new 
treatment of the same. His " Traits d'lnstru- 
mentation " (translated into German by Dorffel 
in 1864, also by Griinbaum, without year of 
publication, and into EngUsh by Mary Cowden 
Clarke), in spite of many modern attempts, still 
holds the first place. Besides the above-named 
works should still be mentioned the grand ' ' Messe 
des Morts" (for the burial service of General 
Damr^mont at the Invalides, 1837), " Harold 
en Italie" (Symphony); "Rom^o et JuUette" 
(S3fmphony, with soli and chorus); the "Te 
Deum," for three choirs, orchestra, and organ ; 
the operas, Benvenuto Cellini, Biatrice et Bene- 
dict, Les Trqyens (ist part, " La Prise de Troie ; " 
2nd part, "Les Troyens a Carthage"); the 
dramatic legend La Damnation de Faust; the 
Biblical trilogy L'Enfance du Christ (i, "Le 
Songed'H^rode"; 2, "La Fuite en Egypte;" 
3, "L'Arriv^e a Sais"); the "Grande Sym- 
phonie Funfebre et Triomphale," for a large 
wind-orchestra (strings and chorus ad lib.) ; 
"Le 5 Mai" (bass solo, chorus, and orchestra), 
for the anniversary of Napoleon's death; Le 
Carneval Romain (overture), etc. To these must 
be added his writings: "Voyage Musicale 
en Allemalgne et en Italie " (1844, 2 vols.) ; 
"Soirees d'Orchestre" (1853); "Grotesques 
de la Musique" (1859); "A Travers Chants' ' 
(1862), etc., translated into German by R. Pohl 
(complete edition, 4 vols. 1864). After his 
death appeared his " M^moires" (1870), which 

also contain the letters written during his 
travels. These have been translated into Eng- 
lish by Rachel and Eleanor Holmes. 

Bermudo, Juan, b. cir. 1510, near Astorga, 
drew up a description of musical instruments 
(" Declaracion de Instrumentos"), of which one 
volume appeared in 154s : the manuscript is in 
the national library at Madrid. 

Bemahel, (i), Giuseppe Ercole, b. about 
1620, Caprarola, d. 1687 Munich ; was a pupil 
of Benevoli's, and (1662-67) maestro di cappella 
at the Lateran, then at San Luigi de Francesi. 
In 1672 he succeeded Benevoli at the Vatican, 
and in 1674 became court capellmeister and 
member of the Electoral Council at Munich. 
As a composer, B. belongs to the Roman 
School. Besides five operas produced at 
Munich, he wrote specially sacred works : 
masses, psalms, offertories a 4-16 are preserved 
in the archives of the Vatican. The only 
printed works are, motets (1690), and madrigals 
(1669, 2 books a 3 and ^ 5-6). — (2) Giuseppe 
Antonio, son of the former, b. 1659, Rome, 
d. March 9, 1732, Munich. In 1677 he became 
vice-capellmeister at Munich, and in 1688, as 
his father's successor. Bavarian court capell- 
meister. He wrote fifteen operas for Munich, 
and published a number of masses. 

Bemacchi, Antonio, b. i6go, Bologna, d. 
March, 1756 ; was a celebrated evirato, pupil of 
Pistocchi. He sang in London already in 1716- 
17, then at Munich and Vienna, and in 1729 
was engaged by Handel again for London (in 
place of Senesino), as the most distinguished 
Italian singer of the time. He became specially 
famous for a new method of ornamentation in 
singing. In 1736 he returned to Bologna, and 
founded there a school for singing. The Paris 
Conservatoire possesses some of jus vocal com- 
positions in manuscript. The " Grosse Gesang- 
schule des B. von Bologna," published by 
Manstein in 1834, ^^ '^°' written by B., but 
only attempts to reconstruct his method of 
teaching, so far as this may have been pre- 
served by tradition. 

Bernard, (i) Emery, b. Orleans; published 
a Method of singing (1541, 1561, 1370).— (2) 
Moritz, b. 1794, Courland, d. May 9, 1871, 
Petersburg. He was a pupil of J. Field and 
Hassler at Moscow, in 1816 capellmeister to 
Count Potocki, in 1822 teacher of music at 
Petersburg : in 1829 he founded a music busi- 
ness in the latter city, which attained to a high 
degree of prosperity. He published some 
pf pieces of his own, and wrote a Russian opera 
(Otea).— (3) Paul, b. Oct. 4, 1827, Poitiers, d. 
Feb. 24, 1879, as a private teacher in Paris. 
He was a pupil of the Paris Conservatoire, and 
published many pf. pieces, songs, etc., was 
also active as critic to the Paris musical papers, 
Minestrel and Revue et Gazette Musicale. — (4) 
Daniel, b. 1841, also a writer on music, and 




principal contributor to the Mlnestrel ; he died 
at Paris, June, 1883. 

Bernard!, (i), Steffano, canon at Salzburg 
about 1634. rie published a series of books of 
madrigals, also masses, motets, and psalms 
161 1-37), as well as a " Lehre vom Kontra- 
punkt " (1634). — (2) Frances CO, under thename 
Senesino, a world-famed evirato, b. 1680, Siena. 
He was first engaged at Dresden, from which 
place Handel won him in 1720 for London ; in 
1729 he quarrelled with Handel and went over to 
Bononcini. In 1739 he returned to Italy. — 
(3) Enrico, b. March 11, 1838, Milan, was con- 
ductor of the theatre in that city ; he wrote, for 
stages of Upper Italy, a number of operas, 
operettas, and ballets, but only with moderate 

Bemardini, Marcello, b. about 1762, Capua 
(Marcello di Capua), wrote (1784-94) twenty 
operas, mostly comic, for the ItaUan stage, 
which had good success, but were speedily for- 
gotten ; he himself, for the most part, wrote the 

Bemasconi, Andrea, b. 1712, Marseilles, d. 
Jan. 24, 1784, Munich, where he became vice- 
capellmeister in 1753, and court capellmeister 
in 1755. He wrote twenty operas for Vienna, 
Rome, and especially Munich ; also some sacred 
works of his exist in manuscript. 

Bemelinus, writer on music at Paris (prob- 
ably a Benedictine monk) about 1000; his 
treatise on the division of the monochord is 
printed in Gerbert, " Script." I. 

Bemer, Friedrich Wilhelm, b. May 16, 
1780, Breslau, d. there May 9, 1827. He was 
organist at St. Elizabeth's Church, music teacher 
at the college, and later on director of the Royal 
Academical Institute for Church Music. He 
was a distinguished organist (teacher of Ernst 
Kohler and Ad. Hesse) and a fair composer 
(principally sacred works; much remains in 

Bemhard, Christoph, b. 1627, Danzig, d. 
Nov. 14, 1692, Dresden, was a pupil of H. Schiitz 
in the latter city. He was twice sent to Italy by 
the Elector of Saxony to engage singers; in 
1655 he became vice-capellmeister at Dresden, 
was (1664-74) cantor at Hamburg, and then 
Schutz's successor as capellmeister at Dresden. 
B. was an excellent contrapuntist. The follow- 
ing of his works were printed: "Geistliche 
Harmonien" (1665) and" Prudentia Pruden- 
tiana," (Hymns 1669); his " Tractatus Com- 
positionis," and a work on counterpoint, remain 
in manuscript. 

Bemhard, von Clairvaux, Saint, b. 1091, 
Fontaine* (Burgundy), d. Aug. 20, 1153, as 
Abbot of Clairvaux. He wrote an introductory 
letter, "De correctione antiphonarii" to the 
work drawn up under his authority, "Praefatio 
sen Tractatus in Antiphonarium Cisterciense." 
" Tonarium " {Tonale in dialogue form), known 

under his name, is likewise only under his 
authority. All three works are printed in a 
collection published at Leipzig, 1517 (Cf. F^tis, 
"Biographie Universelle, article "Bernard"); 
only the Tones are to be found in Gerbert 
("Script." II.); and only the Letter and the 
Prologue in Mabillon's edition of the works of 
St. Bernhard. 

Bemhard der Deutsche is said to have been 
the inventor of organ pedals, but probably only 
introduced them into Italy. He was organist 
of St. Mark's, Venice (1445-59), and, according 
to the register of that church, was called Ber- 
nardo di Stefifanino Murer. 

Bemicat, Firmin, b. 1841, d. March, 1883, 
Paris ; wrote a number (thirteen) of operettas 
for Paris theatres. 

Bemo, Abbot of Reichenau monastery (hence 
named Augiensis) from 1008, d. June 7, 1048. 
Besides many works not relating to music, he 
wrote a "Tonarium" with a Prologue; also 
" De Varia Psalmorum Atque Cantuum Modu- 
latione " and " De Consona Tonorum Diversi- 
tate" (all printed in Gerbert, "Script." II.). 
Trithemius mentions, besides, a treatise, " De 
Instrumentis Musicalibus." W. Brambach 
wrote a monograph on Berno's system of 
music (1881). 

Bemouilli, Johann, b. July 27, 1667, Basle, 
d. there, Jan. 2, 1747, as Professor of Sciences ; 
and his son, Daniel, b. Feb. 9, 1700, Gronin- 
gen, d. March 17, 1782, as Professor of Sciences 
at Basle; both wrote important treatises on 

Bemadorf, Eduard, b. March 25, 1825, 
Dessau; studied there under Fr. Schneider, 
and under A. B. Marx at Berlin. He was a 
teacher of music, and musical critic (of the 
Signale) at Leipzig, and completed the "Uni- 
versal-Lexicon der Tonkunst" (three vols., with 
appendix, 1855-56), commenced by J. Schlade- 
bach. As a composer he produced a few pf. 
pieces and songs. 

Bemuth, Julius von, distinguished con- 
ductor and teacher, b. Aug. 8, 1830, Rees 
(Rhine Province). He studied law at Berlin, 
but enjoyed at the same time musical instruc- 
tion from Taubert and Dehn ; and, after beinf 
referendary at Wesel for two years, went, in 
1854, to the Leipzig Conservatorium. In 1857 
he founded the Aufschwung Union, in 1859 the 
Arnateur Orchestral Union ; was conductor for 
a time of the " Euterpe ' ' (successor to Langer) , of 
the Vocal Academy (successor to Rietz), and of 
the Male Choral Union. In 1863 he studied sing- 
ing in London under Garcia. For several years 
he again conducted the "Euterpe" concerts, 
and with very great success ; since 1867 he has 
conducted the Philharmonic Concerts and the , 
Singakademie at Hamburg, and since 1873 he 
has been director of a prosperous Conserva- 
torium there. The impulse given to musical 




affairs at Hamburg is mainly owing to the 
efforts of B. In 1878 he was named "K. 
Preuss. Professor." 

Berr, Friedrich, famous performer on the 
clarinet and on the bassoon, b. April 17, 1794, 
Mannheim, d. Sept. 24, 1838. He was at first 
bandmaster in various French regiments, then 
(1823) first clarinettist at the Theatre des 
Itahens, Paris ; in 1831 teacher of the clarinet 
at the Conservatoire, in 1832 solo clarinet 
player in the royal band, and in 1836 became 
director of the newly - established Military 
School of Music. He published in 1836 a 
" Traits Complet de la Clctrinette k 14 Clefs." 

Bertali, Antonio, b. 1605, Verona, d. April 
I, 1669, Vienna ; from 1637 "Hofmusicus" in 
the latter city, and from 1649 court capell- 
meister, as successor to Valentini, which posi- 
tion he occupied with honour until his death. 
Already, from 1631 to 1646, cantatas of his own 
composition were produced by him at Vienna, 
but later the operas, L'Inganno d'Amore (1653, 
with great success), Teti (1656), II re Gelidoro 
(1659), GU Amori di Apollo (1660), II Giro Cres- 
cente (1661), L'Alcindo (1665), Cibele e Atti (1666), 
La Contesa dell' Aria e dell' Acqva (1667) ; and 
the oratorios, Maria Magdalena (1663), Oratorio 
Sacro (1663), and La Strega deW Innocenti {1665). 

Bertelmaim, Jan Georg, b. Jan. 21, 1782, 
Amsterdam, d. there Jan. 25, 1854. -He was a 
pupil of the blind orgamist, D. Brachthuijzer, a 
highly esteemed teacher (Stumpff and Hoi were 
his pupils), and a composer of importance. He 
published a requiem, a mass, a quartet for 
strings, and compositions for violin and piano- 
forte. Cantatas, violin studies, clarinet con- 
certos, double-bass concertos, etc., as well as a 
"Harmonielehre," remain in manuscript. 

. Bertelsmann, Karl August, b. iSii,Guters- 
loh, d. Nov. 20, 1861 ; was a pupil of Rinck's 
at Darmstadt, then teacher of singing at Soest 
seminary, and went finally to Amsterdam, 
where, in 1839, he undertook the direction of 
the newly established society, " Eutonia." In 
1853 he conducted the musical festival at Arn- 
heim. He wrote songs for solo voice, part- 
songs for male chorus, and some pianoforte 

Berthaume, Isidore, b. 1752, Paris, d. 
March 20, 1802, Petersburg ; became first vio- 
linist at the Grand Opera in 1774, in 1783 con- 
ductor of the " Concerts Spirituels," travelled 
and gave concerts during the Revolution, became 
leader of the ducal band at Eutin in 1793, and 
afterwards solo violinist in the private band at 
Petersburg. B. published violin sonatas and 
also a violin concerto. 

Berthold, K. Fr. Theodor, b. Dec. 18, 1815, 
Dresden, d. there April 28, 1882 ; studied under 
Fr. Schneider, and J. Otto. From 1840 to 1864 
he lived in Russia, and founded at Petersburg 
the St. Aime Union (for oratorios). In 1864 he 

succeeded Fr. Schneider as court organist at 
Dresden. B. was a sound composer {Missa Solem- 
nis; oratorio Petrus, symphonies, etc.). In 
collaboration with M. Furstenau, he wrote 
"Die Fabrikation musikalischer Instrumente im 
Voigtlande " (1876). 

Bertin, Louise Ang^lique, devoted herself 
to composition (also poetry and painting), b. 
Feb. 13, 1805, Roche, near Bievre, d. April 26, 
1877, Paris. She wrote the operas, Guy Man- 
nering, Le Loup Garou, Faust, and Esmeralda 
(Ndtre Dame de Paris), the last of which was 
given at Munich. She also composed songs, 
choral pieces, stringed quartets, a trio, etc,, 
some of which appeared in print. 

Bertini, (i) Abbate Giuseppe, b. 1756, 
Palermo, royal maestro di cappella there, pub- 
lished in 1814 "Dizionario Storico-Critico degli 
Scrittori di Musica " ; he was still living in 
1847. — (2) Benoit Auguste, b. June 5, 1780, 
Lyons ; studied with Clementi in London (1793), 
lived for a time in Paris, Naples, and again in 
London as teacher of the pianoforte. In 1830 
he published "Phonological System for Ac- 
quiring Extraordinary Facility on all Musical 
Instruments as well as in Singing"; and also, 
at an earUer date, in Paris, " Stigmatographie, 
ou I'Art d'ecrire avec des Points, suivi de la 
M^lographie," etc. — (3) Henri (the younger); 
younger brother and pupil of the former, b. 
Oct. 28, 1798, London, d. Oct. i, 1876, Grenoble. 
At the age of six he went to Paris, where — not 
reckoning his concert tours — ^he resided for the 
most part. In 1859 he withdrew to his Villa 
Meylan, near Grenoble, and died there. His 
Etudes are educational wprks universally 
known; they are of great technical service, 
and are not only useful, but melodious and 
harmonically interesting, especially Ops. 100, 
29 and 32 (in which order they may be looked 
upon as preparatory to Czerny's Op. 299), 
Gius. Buonamici has published a selection of 
fifty studies, with excellent comments and 
modern fingering. — (4) Domenico, b. June z6, 
1829, Lucca, studied at the music school there, 
and under Puccini. In 1857 he became maestro 
di cappella and director at the Massa Carrara 
music school ; went to Florence in 1862, where 
he also acquired fame as conductor of the 
Societa Cherubini, and as a musical critic. 
Songs, fragments from two operas which were 
not produced, and a system of harmony, " Com- 
pendio de' Principii di Musica Secondo un 
Nuovo Sistema " (1866), appeared in print. 

Berton, (1) Pierre Montan, b. 1727, Paris, 
d. there May 14, 1780, as royal maitre de 
chapelle, and chef d'orchestre at the Grand 
Op^ra. He was an excellent conductor, and 
his services were of value for the performance 
of Gluck's works. He also wrote several operas, 
and re-arranged some of Lully's. — (2) Henri 
Montan, son of the former, b. Sept. 17, 1767, 
Paris, d. there April 22, 1844 ; a favourite opera 




composer. In 1795 he became professor of har- 
mony at the newly established Conservatoire, in 
1807 conductor of the O^sj-aiw/a (Italian Opera), 
in 1815 member of the Acad^mie, in 1816 profes- 
sor of composition at the Conservatoire. Besides 
many operas (forty-eight) — from among which 
may be mentioned Montana et Stephanie (1799), 
Le DUire (1799), and Aline (1803), and four 
ballets — ^he e[1so wrote five oratorios, cantatas, 
etc., which were produced at the " Concerts 
Spirituels." — (3) Henri, natural son of the 
former, b. May 3, 1784, Paris, d. July 19, i8u|.2 ; 
was professor of singing at the Conservatoire 
from 1821 to 1827; he likewise wrote some 

Bertoni, Ferdinando Giuseppe, b. Aug. 
15. 1725. on the island of St. MalO, near 
Venice, d. Dec. i, 1813, Desenzano. In 1752 
he became first organist at St- Mark's, and in 
1757 also choir-master at the Conservatorio " de 
Mendicanti." In 1784 he succeeded Galuppi 
as maestro dicappella at St. Mark's, and retired 
to Desenzano in 1810. B. wrote many sacred 
works (including five oratorios) and thirty-four 
operas, as well as some chamber music. 

Bertrand, Jean Gustave, b. Dec. 24, 1834, 
Vaugirard, near Paris, a learned writer, musical 
critic, and contributor of articles to various 
Paris papers. He published " Histoire eccU- 
siastique de I'orgue (1859) , ' ' Essai sur la musique 
dans I'antiquitfi," " Les origines del'harmonie " 
(1866), " De la reforme des etudes du chant au 
Conservatoire " (1871), and " Les nationalites 
musicales ^tudiees dans le dramelyrique " (1872). 

Berwald, (i) Joh. Friedrich, b. 1788 (?), 
Stockholm, d. 1861 ; was a youthful prodigy, 
played the violin in public at the age of five, 
and produced a symphony at the age of nine, 
made many concert tours, was for a long time 
pupil of Abt Vogler, in 1806 was named 
chamber musician, and in 1834 conductor 
at Stockholm. Of his compositions, which, for 
the rest, are not of great value, some aweared 
before 1800. — (z) Franz, nephew of the former, 
b. July 23, 1796, Stockholm, d. there April 30, 
1868, as director of the Conservatoire, wrote 
symphonies and chamber-music works, of which 
only a few appeared in print ; also an opera, 
produced at Stockholm, Estrella de Soria. 

Berwin, Adolf, b. March 30, 1847, at Schwer- 
senz, near Posen, attended the Gymnasium at 
Posen, learnt the pianoforte with Lechner and 
the violin with Frohlich, then studied counter- 
point at Berlin with Rust, and composition 
with Dessoflf at Vienna. B. is academical pro- 
fessor and regular member of the Cecilia 
Academy at Rome, principal librarian of the 
same and of the Lyceum of Music ; and he was 
knighted in 1879. By royal decree, in 1882, he 
became director of the Royal Library and of the 
St. Cecilia Academy, amalgamated into one. 
He edited an Italian translation of the Lebert 
and Stark " Pianoforte School," and is working 

at a " Geschichte der dramatischen Musik in 
Italian wahrend des 18. Jahrhunderts." 

Besard, JeanBaptiste, b. Besan5on,lutenist 
and composer for the lute, published: "The- 
saurus harmonious " (1603, arr3,ngements for 
the lute), " Novus partus " (1617, the same), 
and "Traits de luth," in a second edition, as 
" Isagoge in artem testudinariam " (1617). 

Beschnltt, Johannes, b. April 30, 1825, 
Bockau, Silesia, d. July 24, 1880, Stettin; 
attended the Normal School at Breslau (1842), 
and from 1844-5 the Royal Institute for Church 
Music there. In 1848 he was appointed cantor 
and teacher at the Catholic School at Stettin, 
directed a male vocal society, and wrote a large 
number of light, easy choruses for male voices 
("Mein Schifflein treibt inmitten," "Ossian," 

Besekiraky, Wasil Wasilewitch,' violinist, 
b. 1836, Moscow, went in 1858 to Brussels, to 
Leonard, appeared there and at Paris with 
great success, and in i860 returned to Moscow, 
where he had already been member of the 
theatre orchestra. Since then he has made 
many concert tours, among others, in 1866 to 
Madrid, 1869 to Prague, etc. ; he has also 
published much for the violin. 

Besler, (i) Samuel, b. Dec. 15, 1574, Brieg; 
1599 cantor, and 1605 rector of the Gymnasium 
" zum Heiligen Geist," at Breslau ; d. July 19, 
1625, of the plague. A series of compositions 
for the church, written between 1602-24, ^ve 
been preserved. — (2) Simon, 1615-28, cantor 
at St. Maria Magdalena, Breslau, was probably 
related to the former ; only a small number of his 
songs a 4, printed in score, have been preserved. ■ 
For the two Beslers cy. E. Bohn's Catalogue 
of Musical Publications in Breslau up to the 
year 1700. 

Besozzi, Louis Desire, b. April 3, 1814, 
Versailles, d. Nov. 11, 1879, as music teacher 
in Paris ; he sprang from a very musical family 
(many excellent performers on the oboe, bassoon, 
and flute distinguished themselves at Turin, 
Parma, Dresden, and Paris from 1750), studied 
composition under Lesueur at the Paris Con- 
servatoire, received in 1837 the Prix de Rome, 
and wrote besides pianoforte works. 

Beasems, Antoine, b. April 6, 1809, Ant- 
werp, d. there Oct. 19, 1868 ; was in 1826 pupil 
of Baillot at the Paris Conservatoire, and for 
some time member of the orchestra of the 
Italian Opera, but then went on concert tours 
as violin player, and settled in Antwerp in 1852. 
B. has written instrumental works and soine 
sacred compositions. 

BeBSon, Gustave Auguste, improver of the 
mechanism of the valves of wind instruments, 
b. 1820, Paris, d. there, 1875. 

Best, William Thomas, b. Aug. 13, 1826, 
Carlisle, distinguished organist, first in 1840, 
of Pembroke Chlapel, Liverpool ; 1847 of the 



Church of the Blind, and 1848 organist of the 
Philharmonic Society there; in 1852 London, 
at the famous Panopticon organ, and at St. 
Martin's Church, 1854 at Lincoln's Inn Chapel, 
and 1855 at St. George's Hall, Liverpool; he 
is, besides, still organist of the Musical Society 
and of the Philharmonic Society in that city 
(1872). In addition to anthems and other com- 
positions for' the church, he has composed 
especially fugues, sonatas, and other organ and 
pf. pieces; also two overtures. But his prin- 
cipal works are : " The Modem School for the 
Organ" (1853) and " The Art of Organ Playing" 
{1870, pts. I and 2 ; two more parts are still in 
manuscript). In recent years Best has been 
arranging twenty books of Handel's rarely-per- 
formed instrumental music,' and four of his 
concertos for concert use, editing and revising 
a series of original organ works by different 
authors, called "Cecilia," and also editing and 
thoroughly revising J. S. Bach's organ works, 
on which he is still engaged. All these later 
works have appeared in Augener's Edition. 
Betont (Ger.), emphasized. 
Bettlerleler. (See Hurdv-gurdy.) 
Betz, Franz, b. March 19, 1835, Mayence, 
one of the most distinguished stage singers of 
the present (baritone); from 1856 to 1859 he 
was on the stage at Hanover, Altenburg, Gera, 
Bemburg, Coethen, and Rostock, and since 
then at the Royal Opera House, Berlin, where 
he first made his dlbut as Don Carlos in Emani 
(1859). B. is one of the best Wagner singers ; 
he sang the part of Wbtan at Baireuth in 1876. 

Bevin, Elway, 1589 organist of Bristol 
Cathedral, 1605 gentleman extraordinary of the 
Chapel Royal. In 1637 he lost both appoint- 
ments because he became attached to the 
Roman Catholic faith. He published Church 
music (anthems, etc.), and " Brief and Short 
Introduction to the Art of Musjc " (1631). 

Bexfield, William Richard, b. April 27, 
1824, Norwich, d. Oct. 29, 1853, London ; was 
at first organist at Boston (Lincolnshire), from 
1848 at St. Helen's in London. He took the 
degree of Mus. Bac. in 1846, at Oxford ; that of 
Doctor in 1849, at Cambridge. He wrote an 
oratorio, Israel Restored; and a cantata. Hector's 
Death ; also organ fugues and anthems. 

Beyer, (i) Joh. Samuel, b. 1669, Gotha, 
d. May 9, 1744, Carlsbad ; 1697 cantor at Frei- 
berg i.S., 1722 at Weissenfels, and in 1728 again 
as musical director at Freiberg ; he published : 
" Primje linese musicse vocalis " (Elementary 
Method of Singing, 1703), also " Musikalischer 
Vorrath neu variirter Festchoralgesange, etc. ' 
(1716) and " Geistlich-musikalischeSeelenfreude, 
bestehend aus 72 Konzertarien, etc." (1724).— 
(2) Rudolf, b. Feb. 14, 1828, Wilther, near 
Bautzen, d. Jan. 22, 1853, Dresden, composer 
and valued private music teacher, 1840 pupil, of 
Weinlig and Hauptmann, later at the Leipzig 

Conservatorium. He composed songs, cham- 
ber music, music to O. Ludwig's " Maccabaer,'' 

B-flat chord = 6 fiat, d, f; b flat major key, 
two flats in the signature. (^« Key.) 

B-flat minor ohord=J;?ai, dflat,f; B&atminor 
key, five flats in the signature. (See Key.) 


Bial, Rudolph, b. Aug. 26, 1834, Habel- 
schwerdt (Silesia), d. Nov. 13, 1881, New York ; 
he was violinist in the orchestra at Breslau, 
made a concert tour with his brother, the 
pianist, Karl B. (b. July 14, 1833), in Africa and 
Australia, and then settled down in Berlin, and 
first as conductor of the KroU orchestra. He 
becEune capellmeister in 1864 of the Wallner 
Theatre, where he brought out his amusing 
farces and operettas ; afterwards director of the 
Italian Opera in Berlin ; finally concert agent 
in New York. 
Bianca (Ital.), white (note), i.e. a minim. 
Bianchi, (i) Francesco, b. 1752, Cremona, 
d. Sept. 24, 1811, Bologna. He went to Paris 
in 1775 as cembalist at the Italian Opera, to 
Florence in 1780, and to Milan (S. Ambrogio 
and La Scala) in 1784. In the following year 
he became second organist of St. Mark's, ■ 
Venice, but was dismissed in 1791 as unsuit- 
able. In the following year, however, through 
the favour of patrons, he was reinstated. In 
1793 he went to London as conductor at the 
King's Theatre, and in 1800 married the singer. 
Miss Lucy Jackson. Up to 1795 he produced 
at least one new opera every year (altogether, 
up to 1800, forty-seven operas). A theoretical 
treatise of his remained in manuscript. — (2) 
Valentine, celebrated stage-singer (soprano 
of extensive compass), b. 1839, Wilna, d. Feb 
28, 1884, Candau (Courland), was trained at the 
Paris Conservatoire, made her dibut at Frank- 
fort and Berlin in "1855, and was then engaged 
at Schwerin (1855-61), Stettin, Petersburg 
(1862-65), and Moscow (until 1867) ; and dur- 
ing this period, and for some years afterwards," 
accepted^ starring engagements and gave con- 
certs. In 1865. she married the chief-forester. 
Von Fabian, and in 1870 withdrew into private 
life.— (3) Bianca (really Schwarz), stage- 
singer (high soprano), b. June 27, 1858, in a 
village on the Neckar, was trained at Heidel- 
berg by the musical director, Wilczek, and by 
Madame Viardot-Garcia, in Paris, at PolUni's 
expense, who engaged her for ten year?. She 
made her debut at Carlsruhe in 1873 as Bar- 
barina in Figaro. After she had sung for 
him in London, she accepted an engagement 
at Mannheim, then at Carlsruhe, and in 1880 
at Vienna. 

Biber, (i) Heinrich JohannFranz (von), 
b. 1644, Wartenberg (Bohemia), d. May 3, 1704, 
Salzburg. He was a violinist, raised by Leo- 
pold I. to the rank of a nobleman ; he was 




afterwards at the Bavarian Court, and pub- 
lished six violin sonatas (1681), seven partitas 
^ 3, two sonatas, " Tam Aris Quam Aulis Ser- 
vientes," and a. book of Vespers and Litanies 
With instrumental accompaniment (1693). — (2) 
Aloys, b. 1804, EUingen, d. Dec. 13, 1858, at 
Munich, an esteemed pianoforte manufacturer. 

Bichord, an instrument with two strings, or 
an instrument the strings of which are tuned in 
pairs, each pair in unison. A bichord piano- 
forte is one with two strings to each key. 

Bicinium (Lat.), a composition iii two parts; 
a term used specially in vocal music, (cy. Tri- 


Biedermann, . . . about 1786 official receiver 
of taxes at Beichlingen (Thuringia), was one of 
the last performers on the vielle (hurdy-gurdy), 
which he himself improved. 

Bierey, Gottlob Benedikt,b. July 25, 1772, 
Dresden, d. May 5, 1840, Breslau. He studied 
under Weinlig, was at first musical director of 
an itinerant opera company, but, by the suc- 
cessful performance of his opera, Wladimir 
(1807, Vienna), he was called to Breslau as 
capellmeister in the place of K. M. v. Weber. 
He became director of the theatre in 1824, re- 
tired in 1828, and lived for several years in 
various German towns, but finally returned to 
Breslau. Besides many operettas, he also wrote 
cantatas, masses, as well as orchestral and 
chamber music, and a " Method of Harmony " 
which remained in manuscript. 

Biese, Wilhelm, b. April 20, 1822, Rathe- 
now, a pianoforte maker (especially pianinos) 
established at Berlin since 1853. 

Bifara {Bifra, or Piffara, Piffaro, really Tibia 
UfUris, "double-speaking pipe") is an organ 
stop which replaces the Tremulant, and gives a 
slight trembling to the sound. 

Bigaglia, Diogenio, b. Venice ; a Benedict- 
ine monk there. He published in 1725 twelve 
sonatas for violin or flute alone ; other works 
remained in manuscript. 

Bignio, Louis Von, distinguished opera 
singer (baritoneli b. 1839, Pesth, son of a high 
functionary. After attending the Gymnasium, 
he went to the University. He was, however, 
soon attracted to music, studied at the Pesth 
Conservatorium, and afterwards was trained 
under Rossi and Gentiluomo for the stage. He 
made a favourable debut at the German theatre, 
Pesth, in 1858 ; but, after a few months, was 
engaged at the Hungarian National Theatre. 
In 1863 the Vienna Opera succeeded in get- 
ting him, and there he specially distinguished 
himself in lyrical parts. He was universally 
esteemed, and remained thus until he received 
his pension in 1883. He then returned to the 
Pesth National Theatre. B. also appeared virith 
great success as a concert singer (in London, 
among other places). 

Bigot, Marie [nee Kiene), b. March 3, 1786, 
Colmar, d. Sept. 16, 1820. She was a distin- 
guished pianist, and was held in high esteem 
by Beethoven. She lived many years in Vienna, 
where her husband was librarian to Count Rasu- 
mowski. She settled in Paris in 1809, and 
gave pianoforte lessons from the year 1812. 

Bilhon (Billon), Jean De, a singer in the 
Papal chapel, whose masses, motets, etc., are to 
be found in collections between 1534 and 1544. 

Billert, Karl Fr. August, b. Sept. 14, 1821, 
Altstettin, d. Dec. 22, 1875, Berlin ; was a 
painter and musician. He studied at the 
Academy of Painting, and at the class for 
composition of the Royal Academy at Berlin. 
He produced some important works of his own 
at Berlin. He contributed a. great number 
of articles to the Mendel-Reissmann " Musik- 

Billet (Alexandre Philippe), French com- 
poser and pianist, b. 1817, Petersburg, lived in 
London as teacher and composer. 

Billeter, Agathon, a favourite composer of 
male part-songs ("Im Maien"), b. Nov. 21, 
1834, Maennedorf (Lake of Zurich). He studied 
at the Leipzig Conservatorium, and became 
organist and conductor at Burgdorf (Switzer- 

Billings, William, American composer, b. 
1746, Boston, d. there 1800. He wrote, " Music 
in Miniature" {1779), "The Psalm Singer's 
Amusement " {1781), etc. 

Billiugton, Elizabeth {nee Weichsel), b. 
about 1768, London, d. Aug. 25, 1818. She 
was the daughter of a German musician, and 
was the pupil of Joh. Christian Bach. She was 
a distinguished vocalist and a striking beauty. 
She married the contrabassist, James B., in 
1784, and went with him to Dubhn, where she 
commenced her stage career. She returned in 
the same year to London, and obtained an en- 
gagement at Drury Lane, for which she received 
a thousand pounds. She left London in 1794, 
and was a " star " in Italy. Her husband died 
at Naples, and she soon separated from a second 
one (Felissent). In 1801 she returned to London, 
and sang in public up to 1811. In 1817 she 
became reconciled with her second husband, 
and retired to a country seat near Venice,, 
where she died. 

Billroth, Joh. Gustav Friedrich, b. Feb. 
17, 1808, Halle, near Liibeck, d. March 28, 1836, 
as Professor of Philosophy at Halle. He was a 
contributor to musical papers, and, jointly with 
K. F. Becker, published chorales of the i6th 
and 17th centuries. 

Bilse, Benjamin, b. Aug. 17, 1816, Lieg- 
nitz, was educated from . early youth for a 
musical career. He was " Stadtmusikus " in 
his birthplace, and brought the band there to 
such a Mgh ^tate of perfection, that he ven- 
tured to travel with his orchestra to the Paris 




Exhibition of 1867, giving concerts on his way 
thither and homewards in many great cities, 
and with marked success. Through intrigues he 
had ailready lost his appointment, but kept his 
orchestra . together at his own expense, and 
made concert tours abroad with it. Since 1868 
he has been living in Berlin, and his concerts 
(in the " Konzerthaus ") were thought much of. 
In 1884 he withdrew from active life. The 
Emperor bestowed on him the title of " Hof- 

Binchois, Gilles (Aegidius), one of the 
oldest composers of the first Netherland School, 
contemporary of Dufay, b. about 1400, Bins 
(Binche), Hennegau, was in 1452 second chap- 
lain in the Chapel of Philip the Good of Bur- 
gundy, and died at Lille in 1460. Of his 
compositions little has been preserved. Besides 
those named by F^tis, six rondos and two songs 
have recently been discovered in the Munich 
Library, and published by Dr. H. Riemann. 

Bind (Ger. Bindebogen). (ste Legato and 

Binder, (i)K.Wilh. Ferd.^b. 1764, Dresden, 
was a famous harp builder in Weimar about 
1797.— (2) Karl, b. Nov. 29, 1816, Vienna, d. 
there Nov. 5, i860 ; was first capellmeister at 
the Joseph Town Theatre in that city, after- 
wards at Hamburg, Presburg, and finally re- 
turned to Vienna ; composed operettas, melo- 
dramas, etc. 

Bioni, Antonio, b. 1698, Venice, produced 
first some operas in Italy, went then, in 1726, 
as musical director of an Italian Opera com- 
pany to Breslau, where in 1730 he Mmself be- 
came theatre manager, and composed with 
incredible diligence (in all, twenty-six Italian 
operas). His Endimione (1727) met with special 
success. He was appointed court composer to 
the Elector of Mayence in 1731. The Breslau 
undertaking came to an end in 1733, and no 
farther trace of B. can be found. 

Birchall, Robert, English music publisher, 
one of the first to establish a circulating musical 
library. He was originally employed by Randall, 
and his successors were Lonsdale and Mills. 
He published works by Beethoven, Mozart, 
Haydn, etc. ; he died in 1819. 

Birckenstock, Johann Adam, violinist, b. 
Feb. 19, 1687, Alsfeld (Hesse), d. Feb. 26, 1733, 
Eisenach. The Landgrave had him carefully 
trained by Ruggiero Fedeli at Cassel, Volumier 
at Berlin, Fiorelli at Baireuth, and de Val at 
Paris. From 1725 to 1730 he was capellmeister 
at Cassel, and was afterwards employed in a 
similar capacity at Eisenach. B. published 
twenty-four violin sonatas with continue, also 
twelve concertos for four violins, with tenor, 
'cello, and bass. 

Bird. (See Byrd.) 

Birkler, Georg Wilhelm, b. May 23, 1820, 
Buchau (Wurtemberg), d. June 10, 1877, as 

professor of the Ehingen College. He wrote 
about old Church music in Roman Catholic 
musical papers, and himself published masses, 
psalms, etc. 

Birnbach, (i) Karl Joseph, b. 1751, Koper- 
nick, near Neisse, d. May 291 1805, as capell- 
meister of the German Theatre, Warsaw. He 
composed works of all kinds, of which little was 
published. — Y2) Joseph BenjaminHeinrich, 
son of the former, b, Jan. 8, 1793, Breslau, d. 
Aug. 24, 1879, as proprietor of a musical in- 
stitution at Berlin. Towards the close of his 
life he was completely blind. He composed 
and published many instrumental works ; also 
edited a book of musical instruction, " Der 
voUkommene Kapellmeister" (1845). 

Bime (Ger. "pear"), the name, owing to its 
form, given in Germany to the mouthpiece of 
the clarinet. 

Bis (Lat.), twice. (See Abbreviations, i.) 

Bischoff, (i) Georg Friedrich, b. Sept. 2i> 
1780, EUrich (Harz), d. Sept. 7, 1841, Hildes- 
heim ; at first cantor and school teacher at 
Frankenhausen, 1816 musical director at Hildes- 
heim ; he has the merit of having organised the 
first Thuringian Festival (July 20, 21, 1810, at 
Frankenhausen, under Spohr's direction and 
co-operation as soloist). He took an active 
part in the arrangements for subsequent musical 
festivals. — (2) Ludwig Friedrich Chris- 
tian, b. Nov. 27, 1794, Dessau, d. Feb. 24, 1867, 
Cologne ; was from 1823-49 college director at 
Wesel, founded in 1850, at Cologne, . the 
Rheinische Musikjseitung, gave up the same in 
1853, and established in its place the Nieder- 
rheinische Miisihzeitung, which he edited until, 
his death ; he also translated UlibischefTs work 
on Beethoven, (1859). — (3) Kasper Jakob, b. 
April 7, 1823, Aiisbach, studied (1842) m Munich, 
under Ett, Stuntz, and Franz Lachner, gained 
the Mozart stipend, and went to Leipzig. In 
1850 he founded, at Frankfort, an Evangelical 
Sacred Choral Union, and lived from that time 
as teacher of singing. B. wrote some sacred 
compositions, symphonies, etc., and lately a 
great "Method of Harmony" (1890). — (4) 
Hans, pianist and writer on music, b. Feb. 17, 
1852, Berlin, d. June 12, 1889, Niederschon- 
hausen, near Berlin, pupil of Th. KuUak and 
Rich. Wiierst ; studied, 1868-72, philosophy 
and modern laugnages at Berlin, took the degree 
of Dr.Phil. (dissertation on "Bernard von Ven- 
tadorn ") in 1873, became teacher of piano- 
forte playing (1879, also for method of teaching), 
at Kullak's Academy, later on at the Stern Con- 
servatorium. B. made successful concert tours ; 
recently he has undertaken the conducforship, 
with Hellmich, of the Monday Concerts of the 
Berlin " Singaiademie." Of his publications 
should be mentioned: the revision of Ad. 
Kullak's "Aesthetik desKlavierspiels" (1876), an 
" Auswahl Handelscher Klavierwerke ", (Stein- 
graber), " Kritische Ausgabe von J. Seb. Bach's 




Klavierwerkep " (six vols., Steingraber), and 
other editorial work (he had much to do with 
the KuUak-Chopin edition). He wrote two 
programme essays, " Ueber die altere Franzo- 
sische Klavierschule" and "Ueber Joh. Kuhnaus 
Biblische Geschichten, etc." 

Biscroma (Ital.), Biscrome (Fr.), a de'misemi- 

Bisdiapason, the double octave, or fifteenth. 

Bishop, Henry Rowley, b. Nov. 18,1786, 
London, d. April 30, 1855, pupil of Francesco 
Bianchi, 1810 composer and conductor at 
Covent Garden, 1813 conductor of the newly- 
founded Philharmonic Society, 1819 conductor 
of oratorios at Covent Garden, 1830 musical 
director at Vauxhall, 1839 Bachelor of Music of 
Oxford, 1841 Professor of Music at Edinburgh, 
which post he resigned in 1843, was knighted in 
1842, 1848 succeeded Dr. Crotch as Musical 
Professor at Oxford, and received the degree of 
Doctor 6f Music in 1853. He conducted the 
Ancient Concerts (1840-8). B. was one of the 
most distinguished composers England has pro- 
duced; his productivity in the department of 
dramatic composition was extremely great 
(eighty-two operas and vaudevilles, besides 
some ballets and revisions of old operas) ; he 
also wrote an oratorio. The Fallen Angel; a 
cantata. The Seventh Day (of creation), a 
triumphal ode, etc. ; he also published the first 
volume of "Melodies of Various Nations," and 
three volumes of national melodies set to 
Moore's words. His wife, Anna (Riviere), 
b. 1814, London, d. March 18, 1884, New York, 
was a highly-esteemed concert-singer, travelled, 
from 1839, with the harpist Bochsa, went in 
1847 to America, in 1855 to Australia, where 
Bochsa died ; she married, in 1858, an American 
of the name of Schulz. 

Biaogna (Ital.), it is necessary. Si b. d. c. dal 
s«^»o = must be repeated from the sign. Ic/. 

Bitter, Karl Hermann, Prussian Minister 
of Finance, 1879-82, b. Feb. 27, 1813, Schwedt 
on the Oder, d. Sept. 12, 1885, Beriin. He is 
distinguished as the author of the following 
works : "J. S. Bach " (biography, 1865, two vols.; 
second ed. i88i, four vols); " Mozart's Don Juan 
u'nd Gluck's Iphigenia in Tauris ; ein Versuch 
neuer Uebersetzungeu " (i866), "K. Ph. E. und 
W. Friedemann Bach und deren Briider " (1868 
two vols. ; his most meritorious work), " Ueber 
Gervinus' 'Handel und Shakespeare '" (1869) 
"Beitrage zur Geschichte des Oratorlums'' 
(1872), "Studie zum Stabat Mater" (1883), 
"Die Reform der Oper durch Gluck und 
Wagner" (1884). He also published K. Loewe's 
autobiography (1870). 

Bittoni, Bernardo, b. 1755, Fabriano d 
there May i8, 1829. He resided for many 
years at Rieti, but returned to his native city. 
He was a diligent musician, and of a genial 

disposition ; his sacred compositions, preserved 
in manuscript at Rieti and Fabriano, deserve 
special mention. Alfieri wrote his biography. 

Bizet, Gebrges (his real names were Alex- 
andre Cesar Leopold B.), a distinguished French 
composer, b. Oct. 25, 1838, Paris, d. June 3, 
1875, Bougival, near Paris. He was the son of 
a teacher of singing, and, at the age of nine, 
entered the Conservatoire, where during ten 
years of study he carried off prize after prize. 
His teachers were Marmontel (piano), Benoist 
Morgan), Zimmermann ^rmony), and Halevy 
(composition). In 1857 B. received the Grand 
Prix de Rome, shortly before which he had won 
the victory over Lecocq with his operetta, Le 
Doeteur Miracle, in a competition appointed by 
Offenbach. From Italy B. sent the required 
proofs of his diligent use of the stipend in the 
form of an Italian opera, Don Procopio, two 
symphonic movements, an overture. La Chassi 
d'Ossian; and a comic opera. La Guzla de I'kmir. 
On his return from Italy he produced a grand 
opera at the Theatre Lyrique in 1863, entitled, 
Les Fecheurs de Perles, which, however, together 
with Lajolie Fille de Perth, in 1867, were coldly 
received by the public ; his endeavours to emu- 
late Wagner bore bad fruit for him. The one- 
act work, Djamileh (1872), increased the ill- 
feeling. He was more successful with the 
symphonic movements and the Patrie overture 
produced by Pasdeloup. However, B. was not 
discouraged by the failure of his operas ; after 
a long pause, the music to Daudet's drama, 
L'ArUsifnne, appeared; it was played also in 
Germany, and it gave favourable proofs of 
Bizet's talent. Lastly, Carmen, an opera in four 
acts, his masterpiece, appeared in 1873 ; it 
excited great hopes for the composer's future 
career, but these were frustrated by his death, 
of heart disease, which quickly followed. B. 
married Halevy 's daughter, Genevieve. {C/.Ch.. 
Pigot's " B. et son CEuvre " [1886] .) 

Blaes, Arnold Joseph, b. Dec. i, 1814, 
■Brussels, d. there January, 1892 ; distingiushed 
performer on the clarinet. He studied under 
Bachmann, who obtained for him an appoint- 
ment in the royal band and at the Conserva- 
toire. B. was successor to Bachmann, on the 
death of the latter in 1842, as solo clarinet and 
teacher at the Conservatoire. 

Blagrove, Henry Gamble, b. Oct., 1811, 
Nottingham, d. Dec. 15, 1872. He was a dis- 
tinguished violinist, and the first pupil of the 
Royal Academy of Music opened in 1823, and 
especially of Francois Cramer. From 1833 to 
1834 lie went to Spohr at Cassel, and from that 
time up to his death was member of the best 
London orchestras. 

Blahag, Joseph, b. 1779, Raggendorf (Hun- 
gary), d. Dec. 15, 1846. In 1802 he becatne 
tenor singer at the, Leopoldstadt ' Theatre, 
Vienna, and in 1824 the successor of Preindl as 
capellmeister of St. Peter's Church in that city. 




He was a prolific composer of sacred music 
(masses, oratorios, etc.). 

Blahetka, Marie Leopoldine, b. Nov. 15, 
1811, Guntramsdorf, near Vienna; studied with 
Czemy, afterwards with Kalkbrenner and Mos- 
dieles. She was a distinguished pianist, also a 
performer on the physharmonika, and a com- 
poser of merit (S. Sechter was her teacher). 
She lived in Boulogne from 1840 until her 
death, Jan. 17, 1887. Many of her pf. pieces, 
concert pieces, sonatas and rondos, are printed. 
An opera, of hers, entitled Die Rdiiber und die 
Sanger, was produced at the " Karntnerthor " 
Theatre, Vienna, in 1830. 

Blainville, Charles Henri, b. 1711, near 
Tours, d. 1769 as 'cellist and teacher of music 
in Paris. He published two symphonies and 
some small pieces, and also transcribed Tar- 
•ini's sonatcis as grand concertos. He wrote, 
" L'esprit de I'art musical " (1754 ; in German 
in Hiller's " Nachrichten "), " Histoire genfir- 
ale, critique et philologique de la musique " 
(1767), and " Essai sur un troisieme mode " 
(1751). B. held interesting views in this matter 
of theory. He looked upon the inversion of the 
major scale — i.e. the pure minor scale — as the 
basis for a third mode having equal rights with 
those of the major and minor. A symphony 
composed in this mode was performed at a 
"Concert Spirituel," May 30, 1751, and, to 
Rousseau's astonishment, Sarre attacked B.'s 
theory. B. defended . himself in the Mercure, 
1751, but without doing himself much good. 

Blamont, Francois Colin de, b. Nov. 22, 
1690, Versailles, d. there, Feb. 14, 1760, as 
Surintendant de la Musique du Roi. He studied 
composition with Lalande, wrote a number of 
Qperas and ballets — ^partly for the Opera, partly 
for court festivals ; ^so cantatas, motets, songs, 
and a treatise, " Essai sur les gouts anciens et 
modemes de la musique fran;dise " (1754). 

Blanc, Adolphe, b. June 24, 1828, Manosque 
(Basses-Alpes) ; one of the few French com- 
posers who turned their attention principally to 
chamber-music. He went to the Paris Con- 
servatoire in 1841, and afterwards was a special 
pupil of Halevy for composition. In 1862 he 
received from the Academie the Prix Chartier 
for his services in the department of chamber- 
music. He was, for a time, conductor at the 
Theatre Ljrrique under Carvalho. Besides 
many sonatas, trios, quartets, quintets, he 
wrote also songs, two operettas, and a one- 
act comic opera, Une aventwe sous la ligne. 

Blanchard, Henri Louis, b. Feb. 7, 1778, 
Bordeaux, d. Dec. 18, 1858, Paris. He studied 
the violin with R. Kreutzer, harmony with 
Beck and Walter, composition with M&ul and 
Reicha. From 1818 to 1829 he was conductor 
at the Theatre des Vari^t^s, Paris; and in 1830 
at the Moliere Theatre. Besides operas, B. wrote 
chamber-musicv the latter containing more solid 

work than the former. In addition, especially 
in his later years, he was active as a musical 
critic, and wrote for newspapers maijy musical 
biographies (Fr. Beck, Berton, Cherubini, 

Blanche (Fr.), white (note), i.e. a minim. 

Blangini, GiuseppeMarcoMariaFelice, 
b. Nov. 18, 1781, Turin, d. Dec, 18, 1841, Paris. 
At the age of nine he was a chorister bpy at 
Turin Cathedral under Abbate Ottani, and, at 
the age of twelve, he already composed sacred 
music, and played well on the 'cello. When 
the war broke out in 1797, the faniily moved to 
the south of France, where B. gave successful 
concerts. In 1799 he went to Paris, and first 
made a name as composer of romances, but 
from 1802 as an opera composer ; he was also 
soon sought after as a teacher of singing. In 
1805 he produced an opera at Munich, and was 
appointed court capellmeister. In 1806 the 
Princess Borghese, sister of Napoleon, made 
him her capellmeister, and he held a similar 
ofl&ce at the court of King Jer6me, at Cassel, in 
1809. He returned to Paris in 1814, where he 
became " Surintendant de la Musique du Roi " 
composer to the court, and professor of singing 
at the Conservatoire; the last-named post 
was, however, taken away from him. Fortune, 
indeed, began to desert him. In 1830 his rich 
savings commenced rapidly to diminish, his 
operas no longer drew, and his successes are 
now forgotten. B. wrote 174 romances for one, 
and 170 notturnos for two voices, four orches- 
tral masses, thirty operas, etc. 

Blankenburg, (i) Quirin van, ,b. 1654, 
Gouda, d. about 1740 as organist at the Hague. 
He wrote, " Elementa musica, etc." (1739), and 
" Clavicimbel en orgelboek der gereformeerde 
psalmen en kerkgezangen. etc." (1772). — (2) 
Christian Friedrich von, b. Jan. 24, 1744, 
Kolberg, d. May 4, 1796, an officer ia the Prus- 
sian army; received a captain's pension in 
1777. He published additions, treating specially 
of music, to Sulzer's "Theorie der schonen 
Kiinste " which were incorporated in the 2nd 
edition of this work, 1792-94. 

Blaramberg, Paul, Russian composer, b. 
Sept. 26, 1841, Orenburg. He studied law at 
Petersburg, and, at the same time, and with 
diligence, music under Balakireflf. He entered 
the statistical Bureau Central service, but 
withdrew from this post in 1870, and became 
journalist (editor of the Moskow Russische 
Zeitung). Of his compositions are to be named 
the operas, Maria Tudor and Der erste Russische 
Komiker, music to Ostroffski's Der Wojewode, the 
cantata Der Damon (after Lermontoff's poem), 
the Tartar dances of which were much admired. 
B. belongs to the new Berlioz-Liszt school. 

Blasius, Matthieu Fr^d^ric, b. April 23, 
1758, Lauterburg (Alsace), d. 1829, Versailles, 
In 1795 he was professor of wind-instruments 




at tte Paris Conservatoire, in 1802 conductor at 
the Opera Comique, and received a pension in 
1816. He was an excellent performer on the 
clarinet and bassoon, also on the violin; his 
compositions for wind-instruments became 
popular (Suite for wind-instruments, clarinet 
concerto, bassoon concerto, " Nouvelle methode 
pour la ciarinette," 1796, etc.). But he also 
wrote three concertos for violin, twelve stringed 
quartets, violin sonatas with bass, etc., and two 
comic operas. 

Blassmann, Adolf Joseph Maria, b. Oct. 
27, 1823, Dresden, d. June 30, 1891, Bautzen ; 
an excellent pianist ; studied with Charles 
Mayer and Liszt. He was first of all teacher 
at the Dresden Conservatorium, from 1862 to 
1864 conductor of the Euterpe concerts at Leip- 
zig, then again in Dresden; in 1867 court 
capellmeister at Sondershausen, and after that 
again in Dresden. Up to the present he has 
only published small pieces for the pianoforte. 

Blatt, Franz Thaddaus, b. 1793, Prague. 
He attended first the Academy of Painting in 
Vienna, but went in 1807 to the Prague Con- 
servatorium under Dionys Weber, where he 
became an excellent clarinet player, and was 
appointed assistant teacher in 1818, and regular 
teacher of his instrument in 1820. He composed 
especially for the clarinet, and also published 
a Method for that instrument (1828), and a 
Method of singing (1830). 

Blatt (Ger.), reed. iff. Reed Pipes and 
Wind Instruments.) 

Blauwaert, Kmiel, an excellent concert 
singer (bass), b. June 13, 1845, St. Nikolaas, 
d. Feb. 2, 1891, Brussels. He studied at the 
Brussels Conservatoire (Goossens and Waruots), 
and made his dihit in 1865 in Benoit's Lucifer 
as the " Spottgeist " (mocking spirit), and soon 
made a name for himself throughout Europe. 
He also sang the part of Gurnemanz in Wagner's 
Parsifal at Baireuth with great success. From 
1874, until the return of Huberti, he was pro- 
fessor of singing at the music schools of Bruges, 
Antwerp, and Mons. 

Blaze, (i) Francois Henri Joseph, named 
Castil-Blaze, b. Dec. i, 1784, Cavaillon (Vau- 
cluse], d. Dec. 11, 1857, Paris. He received his 
first mstruction in music from his father, H. 
Sebastien B. (b. 1763, d. May 11, 1833), who, 
while- actively engaged as a notary, was a dili- 
gent composer (operas, sonatas) and a poet 
(Novel : " Julien, ou le prStre "). The sou also 
became a lawyer, but at the same time studied 
at the Paris Conservatoire, where he received a 
thorough musical training. He gave up the 
law in 1820, and went with wife and child to 
Paris, where he soon made a name as writer 
on music and as critic ; and then as the author 
of " L'Op^ra en France" (1820, 2nd ed., with a 
supplement on the lyrical drama and on rhythm), 
and as musical editor of the Journal des Dihats. 

He published besides : ' ' Dictionnaire de musique 
moderne" (1821, 2nd ed., 1825 ; republished in 
1828 by Mees, with a sketch of the history of 
modern music, and a supplement giving bio- 
graphies of Flemish musicians) ; " Chapelle- 
musique des rois de France," and " La Danse 
et les ballets depiiis Bacchus jusqu'4 Made- 
moiselle Taglioni" (reprints of articles for the 
Revue de Paris, as well as the two following); 
"Memorial du grand opera" (from Camberl, 
1668, up to and including the Restoration); 
" Histoire de Musique " (not complete in itself; 
" Moliere musicien " (1852), and " Theatres 
Lyriques de Paris " (1847 to 1856, three vols.; 
a history of the Grand Opera and of Italian 
Opera). He won great merit by his trans- 
lations into French of German and Italian 
opera texts (Don Juan, Figaro, Friischutz, Bar- 
Here, etc.) — (2) Henri Baron deBury, son 
of the former, b. May 1813, Avignon, d. 
March 15, 1888, Paris; was for a time attachi 
to an embassy, during which he was made a 
nobleman. Like his father, he became a lit- 
terateur, and contributed a series of musico- 
sesthetic essays and biographical sketches to the 
Revue des Deux Mondes, the first of which was 
undersigned " Hans Werner " (his other nam de 
plume was " Lagenevais"). The "Musiciens 
Contemporains " (1856) is a collection of such 
articles in which a standpoint, now obsolete,- is 
maintained. In his pamphlet, " Musiciens du 
passe, du present, etc.," he sought to deal out a 
certain measure of justice to Wagner, whom, 
up to that time, he had persecuted without 

Bletzacher, Joseph, b. Aug. 14, 1835, 
Schwoich (Tyrol). After attending the Salz- 
burg Gymnasium, he studied jurisprudence for 
four years in Vienna, then turned to singmg, 
and for the last twenty-two years has been 
principal bass at the Royal Theatre, Hanover, 
and also an excellent and popular concert 
singer. He is honorary member of various 
societies, among others, of the " Maatschappij 
tot bevordering van toonkunst," in Amsterdam. 

Blewitt, Jonathan, b. 1782, London, d. 
there Sept. 4, 1853. He was the son of the 
organist, Jonas B. (d. 1805), who published 
" A Treatise on the Organ," and organ pieces. 
He held appointments as orgzmist in several 
churches in London pjid the provinces, and at 
last became organist of St. Andrew's Church, 
Dublin, and composer and conductor at the 
Theatre Royal in that city, and, likewise, or- 
ganist to the Masonic body of Ireland, and 
conductor of the principal concerts in Dublin. 
In 1825 he returned to London, where he pro- 
duced a number of operas and pantomimes (Th 
Man in the Moon, 1826) at Drury Lane and other 
places. He won considerable popularity by his 

Blied) Jacob, b. March 16, 1844, Briihl-on- 
Rhine, d. Jan. 14, 1884. He attended the 




teachers' college at Bruhl, where he afterwards 
became teacher, and music teacher in 1874. 
He also became known by clever educational 
works for pianoforte, violin, and for singing, 
and composed motets, masses, etc. 

, Blochflote (Blockflote) was a direct flute of 
small dimensions used in the i6th century. 
Also an organ stop (flute-stop) of pyramid 
shape, and covered; of somewhat dull tone, 
and, .^.ccording to Walther, of two feet ; also 
four, eight, and sixteen feet. 

Blbckx, Jan, composer, pianist, and conductor, 
b. Jan. 25, 1851, Antwerp, pupil of Benoit (com- 
position) and Callaerts (pif.) : he was a pupil 
there of the Flemish Music School, and of L. 
Brassin at Brussels, and then went to Leipzig. 
He has been teacher of harmony at the Antwerp 
Conservatorium since 1886, and musical director 
of the " Cercle artistique," etc. His works are : 
" Vredesang' ' (for double chorus, solo, and orch.), 
" Op den spoom" (double chorus, solo, and orch.). 
Jets vergeien (one-act opera), " DeLandvestrizers" 
(madrigal a 8), " Een liedeke in den o de trant " 
(flute, oboe, bassoon, and four 'celU), Rtibms 
(overture for grand orchestra, etc.). 

Blodek, (i) Pierre Auguste Louis, b. Aug. 
15, 1784, Paris, d. 1856. He studied at the 
Paris Conservatoire (Baillot, Gossec, Mehnl), 
received the Prix de Rome in 1808 (cantata, 
Maria Stuart), and on his return from Italy was 
tenor player at the Grand Opera until 1842. 
Besides a quantity of chamber music, pf. pieces, 
songs, he wrote : two grand Te Deums, one mass 
for double choir, three overtures, one opera, 
and one ballet, all of which were produced; 
also theoretical works : a Method of Singing ; 
an Elementary Instruction Book ; a Treatise on 
Harmony, Counterpoint, and Fugue; and a 
History of Music since the Christian era. — 
(2) Wilhelm, flautist and pianist, b. Oct. 3, 
1834, Prague, d. there May i, 1874. He studied 
at the Conservatorium in that city, and after 
teaching privately for three years at Lubycz 
(Poland), he was appointed professor at the 
Prague Conservatorium in i860. During the 
last four years of his life his intellect became 
disordered, and he died in a lunatic asylum. 
His Czeckish comic opera, Im Brunnrn, produced 
with great success at Prague in 1867, was 
published ; a second, entitled Zideh, he left 

' unfinished. He composed, besides, especially 
quartets for male voices, songs, pf. pieces, but 
also a grand mass and an overture. 

Bloir, John, b. 1648, probably in London, 
d. Oct. I, 1708. In 1660 he became chorister at 
the Chapel Royal; under Henry Cooke, Jlnd 
already in 1663 composed anthems. He after- 
wards studied under J. Hingeston and Ch. 
Gibbons, and was chosen organist of West- 
minster Abbey already in 1669 ; he had to 
make way for Purcell in 1680, but, on the 
death of the latter in 1695, was re-appointed. 
He was swom-in one of the gentlemen of the 

Chapel Royal in 1674, and soon after succeeded 
Humphreys as " Master of the Children " ; later 
on he became organist, and finally composer, to 
the Chapel. He received the degree of Doctor 
of Miisio from Oxford University. The number 
of Blow's sacred compositions, which have been 
preserved, is very great (anthems, services, 
odes for New Year's and for St. Cecilia's Days), 
but of the anthems few are printed. Organ 
pieces and "Lessons for Haipsichord" were 
published, and a collection of his songs, by 
subscription ("Amphion Anglicus," 1700). ' A 
number of his pieces have been republished in 
Pauer's "Old English Composers." 

Blum, Karl Ludwitg, poet and composer, 
b. 1786, Berlin, d. July 2, 1844. He was for 
many years regisseur at the opera house, Berlin ; 
he was a thoroughly-trained musician (pupil of 
Fr. A. Hiller at Konigsberg, and Salieri at 
Vienna), and wrote a great number of works 
for the stage (operas, ballets, vaudevilles, the 
last of which he was the first to introduce into 
Germany) ; also instrumental' compositions, 
which pleased much in their day, but, through 
lack of originality, were not long-lived. 

Blumenthal, (i) Joseph von, b. Nov. i, 
1782, Brussels, d. May 9, 1850, Vienna. He 
studied with Abt Vogler in Prague, followed 
him to Vienna in 1803, where he found an 
appointment as violinist in an orchestra, and, 
later on, became precentor at the " Piaristen- 
kirche." B. was an excellent violinist, and 
wrote much for his instrument (Violin Method, 
duets, studies, etc.), and made successful at- 
tempts in the department of orchestral and of 
dramatic composition. — (2) Jacob, b. Oct. 4, 
1829, Hamburg, an excellent pianist, pupil of 
F. W. Grund at Hamburg, and of Booklet and 
S. Sechter at Vienna, after which he went to 
the Paris Conservatoire under Herz. Since 
1848 he has been living in London. B. has 
written many brilliant salon pieces and also 
some chamber music. — (3) Paul, b. Aug. 13, 
1843, Steinau-on-Oder (Silesia), studied at the 
Royal Academy, Berlin. Since 1870 he has 
been organist of the principal churches at 
Frankfort-on-Oder (royal musical director, 1876). 
He has composed orchestral works, masses, 
motets, etc. 

Blunmer, (i) Martin, composer and conduc- 
tor, b. Nov. 21, 1827, Fiirstenberg (Mecklenburg). 
In 1845 he commenced studying theology at 
Berlin, afterwards philosophy and science, but 
in 1847 he turned entirely to music, and had 
the advantage of instruction in composition 
from S. W. Dehn. In 1853 he became vice- 
conductor, and in 1876 conductor, of the Berlin 
" Singaiademie," of which he was already mem- 
ber in 1845. He also conducted for a long time 
the Zelter Liedertafel. B. , as a vocal composer, 
is conservative in his tendencies : his oratorios, 
Abraham (1859). and Der Fall jferusalems (1874), 
a Te Deum i 8, psalms, motets, etc., also songs. 



duets, and other works display scholarly writing 
of a high order. In 1875 he was named member 
in ordinary of the Royal Academy of Arts, and 
recently, a member of the Senate. The Govern- 
ment also conferred on him the titles of " Kgl. 
Mnsikdirector " and "Professor." — (2) Siegis- 
mund, b. 1S34. 

BIttthner, Julius Ferdinand, b. March 11, 
1824, Falkenhain, near Merseburg, founder and 
manager of a pianoforte manufactory at Leipzig 
(since Nov. 7, 1833). He is " Kgl. Sachs. Kom- 
merzienrath" (Counsellor of Commerce), and 
in 1856 received a patent for improvements in 
the construction of the pianoforte, and speedily 
acquired such fame for^s establishment that 
for many years he has used steam power ; up to 
Jan. I, 1880, 15,000 instruments had been made, 
giving employment to more than 500 workmen. 
Bliithner's instruments have repeatedly won the 
highest prizes (Paris, 1867 ; Vienna, 1873 ; 
PMladelphia, 1876 ; Sydney, 1880 ; Amsterdam, 
1883 ; Melbourne, i88g). A speciality of Bliith- 
ner's are the " Aliquot " pianos, in which the 
{one is strengthened by a double set of strings 
(those that lie higher, and are not struck by the 
hammer, are tuned in the upper octave). In 
1872 Bliithner, jointly with Dr. Gretshal, pub- 
lished an instruction book on the making of 

Bobisation, a comprehensive term for the 
different solijiisation-syllable names given to 
the seventh note of the fundamental scale ; 
various propositions were made in the i6th and 
17th centuries by many composers and theorists, 
until at last the "si" was generally accepted. 
In order fully to understand the importance 
which this matter once had, we English, Ger- 
mans, Dutch, must bear in mind that the de- 
signation of sounds by letters, now universally 
adopted, was formerly employed in Germany 
and the Netherlands, not exclusively, but toge- 
ther with solmisation (chiefly for instrumental 
music, and specially for keyed instruments). 
In Italy and France they were only used in 
combination with the solmisation names (c sol- 
faut, f faut, etc.). When, however, these were 
found to be cumbrous, and, what is of greater 
importance, insufficient (especially as names of 
the chroinatic sounds), and a fixed meaning, once 
for all, was given to the syllables, ut, re, mi, fa, sol, 
la, so that they could be changed at pleasure by 
\> and i, it was noticed that the sound (answer- 
ing to b) had no name. By giving a name to 
this sound solmisation received its death-blow, 
for in mutation, thus set aside, consisted its 
very essence. It would certainly have been 
easier to return to plain letter notation, as 
clearly seen in our clef signs — F, c,g = 

Instead of this, Hubert Waelrant, a Belgian com- 
poser and founder of a school at Antwerp about 

the year 1550, is said to have proposed and intro- 
duced the seven syllables, bo, ce, di, ga, lo, ma, ni 
(Bocedisation), and, about the same time, the 
Bavarian Court musician, Anselm, of Flanders, 
selected for b the name si, but for 67, bo (accord- 
ing to the old view, both were fundamental 
sounds). Henri Van de Putty (Puteanus, Dupuy) ♦ 
in his " Modulata Pallas " (1399), made bi stand 
for b; Adriano Banchieri, in the " Cartella 
Musicale" (1610), on the other hand, chose 6a, 
and Don Pedro d'Urenna, a Spanish monk, 
about 1620, ni. Daniel Hitzler was in favour of 
totally different syllables (1628), la, be, ce, de, 
ME, FE, GE (Bebisation), answering to our a, b, 
o,d,e,f,g: and, again, Graun (1750) thought_ 
he was doing something useful in proposing dai 
me, ni,po, tu, la, he (Damenisation) . Most of these 
proposals only had local influence ; a French- 
man, Lemaire, is said to have obtained general 
recognition for the si in place of b (but without 
bo for b^). He can, however, scarcely be credited 
with this, for Mersenne ("Harm, univers," p. 
342) only mentions that a certain Lemaire pro- 
posed the name za for the last syllable, while 
Brossard ascribes to Lemaire a book of which 
he was not the author (" Le gamme du Si, 
nouvelle methode pour apprendre k chanter en 
musique sans nuances," 1646 ; author, Nivers). 
It almost seems as if Anselm of Flanders had 
gradually succeeded with the si, for Seth 
Calvis,the most worthy cantor of St. Thomas's, 
Leipzig, decided in favour of Bocedisation in 
his "Compendium musics practicae pro in- 
cipientibus" (1611), but in his " Exercitatio 
musicaa tertia, etc.," for the si, which, from the 
way he mentions it, would appear to have been 
something universally known ; for, with him, it 
is no longer a question how the seventh note 
should be named, but whether solmisation with 
si (therefore without mutation), or with muta- 
tion, is the more correct. That, si was finally 
accepted is sufficiently clear from the fact that 
it was taken, like the other solmisation syllables, 
from the well-known St. John's Hymn (the 
first letters of the two words of the concluding 
line, Sancte loannes). {C/. Solmisation.) 

Bocca (Ital.), the mouth ; a b. chiusa. {See 


Boccheiini; Luigi, an important Italian com- 
poser of chamber-music, b. Feb. 19, 1743, Lucca 
(all dates differing from this are false), d. May 
z8, 1805, Madrid. He was the son of a double- 
bass player, studied with Abbate Vannucoi, 
maestro to the Archbishop of Lucca, and after- 
wards received additional training in Rome. 
On his return to Lucca, B., who was an excel- 
lent 'cello player, undertook a great concert 
tour, lasting several years, with the violinist, 
Filippino Manfredi ; this led them to Paris in 
1768, where B. published his first stringed 
quartets (Op. i: "6 sinfonie o sia quartetti 
per due violini, alto e violoncello dedicati a veri 
dilettanti e conoscitori di musica") also two 




books of stringed trios (for two violins and 
'cello), which were received with special and 
lasting favour. In 1769 the two artists (of 
whom, indeed, the other was more a man of 
business) went to Madrid, where B. settled 
down, first as virtuoso di camera to the Infante 
Luis, and, after his death, in a similar capacity 
to the king. In 1787 he received from Fried- 
rich Wilhelm II. of Prussia, in return for a 
work dedicated to him, the title of chamber- 
composer, and from that time he wrote only for 
this king, who unfortunately died in 1797, 
when B. lost his salary. B. appears, later on, 
also to have lost his post of capellmeister, for 
he spent his last years in great poverty. His 
works were badly paid, however much they 
may have been admired by musicians and ama- 
teurs. He published not less than 91 stringed 
quartets and 125 stringed quintets (113 with 
two 'celli, twelve with two viole), 42 trios, 
54 stringed trios, twelve pf. quintets, eighteen 
quintets for stringed quartet with flute or oboe, 
sixteen sextets, two octets, violin sonatas, duets, 
etc., twenty symphonies, an orchestral suite, and 
a 'cello concerto; he also wrote sacred music 
(mass, Stabat Mater, a Christmas cantata, Vil- 
hancicos, etc.); and an opera. L. Picquot wrote 
an excellent monograph on the life and works 
of Boccherini (1851). 
Bocedisation. (See Bobisation.) 

Bochkoltz-Falconi, Anna (really B o c k - 
holtz), a' vocalist, b. 1820, Frankfort, d. Dec. 
24, 1879, Paris. She made her dlbut at a Con- 
servatoire concert at Brussels (1844), then in 
the following year at Paris in the " Concerts de 
Musique Ancienne," arranged by Prince de la 
Mosskva (Joseph Kapoleoin Ney). When the 
Revolution broke out in 1848, she went to 
London, then to Italy, was engaged for a time 
in Coburg, and at last settled down in Paris 
as teacher of singing (1856). She published 
songs and vocal studies. 

Boclisa, (i) Karl, oboe player in the theatre 
orchestra at Lyons, and afterwards Bordeaux. 
He went in 1806 to Paris, where he had a 
music business, and died in 1821. He published 
quartets for clarinet, violin, viola, and 'cello, 
six duos concertants for two oboes, likewise 
a Method for flute and one for clarinet. — (2) 
Robert Nicolas Charles, harpist, son of 
the former, b. Aug. 9, 1789, MontmMy (Maise), 
d. Jan. 6, 1856, Sydney (Australia). He began 
to compose at an early age, for he wrote an 
' opera when only sixteen. He studied with 
Franz Beck at Bordeaux, and. in 1806 at the 
Paris Conservatoire under Catel and Mehul. 
His teachers for harp-playing were Nadermann 
and Marin ; but he soon went his own way. In 
1813 he was appointed harpist to the Emperor 
NapoWon, and remained court-harpist under 
Louis XVIII. ; but in 1817, on account of for- 
geries, he had to flee the' country, and went to 
London, where he was sought after as a teacher. 

Parish-Alvars and Chatterton were his pupils. 
He arranged Lenten oratorios with Smart in 
1822, and in the following year on his own 
account. When the Academy of Music was 
established (1822), he was appointed professor 
of the harp, but was dismissed in 1827 because 
he could not answer certain charges brought 
against him. From 1826 to 1832 he was con- 
ductor of the Italian opera at the King's 
Theatre. Finally, in 1839, he ran away with 
H. Bishop's wife, made extensive tours, and 
died in Australia. He published a Method and 
compositions for harp, and produced seven 
(French) operas at the Op^ra-Comique,. Paris, 
between the years 1813 and 1816; an eighth 
(English) followed in fondon in i8ig, where, 
up to 1837, he produced four ballets and an 

Bock. {See Bote und B.) 

Bock (Polish B. ; Gross-Bock), (.y^c Bagpipe.) 

Bdckeler, Heinrich, b. July 11, 1836, Co- 
logne; in i860 he became priest, 1862 vicar-choral 
and conductor of the cathedral choir at Aix-la- 
Chapelle. Since. 1876 he has edited the Gre- 
gorius-Blatt. He has published songs for male 
chorus (1875), and has also written some sacred 

Bdckh, August, learned philologist and anti- 
quarian, b. Nov. 24, 1785, Carlsruhe, d. Aug. 
3, 1867, as professor in Berlin. In his compre- 
hensive introduction to his edition of Pindar 
(181 1, 1819, and 1821), he wrote, under the 
heading " De metris Pindari," with great know- 
ledge of, and sharp judgment concerning the 
music of the Greeks (harmony, melopoeia, sym- 
phony, musical instruments, etc.). 

Booklet), Karl Maria von, b. 1801, Prague, 
d. July 15, 1 88 1, Vienna. He studied. the piano 
with Zawora, violin with Pixis, and composition 
with Dionys Weber. In 1820 he was violinist 
at the "Theater an der Wien," Vienna, but 
soon devoted himself entirely to pianoforte 
playing. He made public appearances for a 
time as pianist, but afterwards confined himself 
to giving lessons. Beethoven took an interest 
in him, and Schubert was his friend. 

Bockmiihl, Robert Emil, 'cellist and dili- 
gent composer for his instrument ; b. 1820, 
Frankfort, d. there, Nov. 3, 1881. 

Bockshom (Capricornus), Samuel, b. 1629, 
was musical director at a church in Press- 
burg, and, from 1659, capellmeister at Stutt- 
gart, where he died about -1669. B. published 
sacred music (masses, motets, etc), and some 
secular songs and instrumental works. 

Bockstriller (Ger. " goat-trill ")1 a faulty 
shake ; the giving out, in a wretched, bleating 
manner, of one note instead of two alternate 

Bocquillon-Wilhem. (See Wilhem.) 

Bode, Johann Joachim Christoph, b. 




Jan. 16, 1730, Barum (Brunswick), d. Dec. 13, 
1793, Weimar. He was the son of a poor brick- 
maker, and gradually trained himself. He 
began his musical career as a pupil of the 
" Stadtmusicus " KroU in Brunswick, in 1755 
was oboist at Celle, from 1762 to 1763 music 
teacher at Hamburg and likewise editor of the 
Hamburger Korrespondeni ; ten years later, in 
company with I-essing, printer and publisher 
there (he brought out the Hamburgische 
Dramaturgic), and from 1778 he lived at Wei- 
mar. B. wrote many instrumental compositions, 
and published (symphonies, bassoon concertos, 
'cello concertos, violin concertos, soli for viola 
d'amour, etc.). He was also a clever trans- 
lator from English, and translated Burney's 
" Tour in Germany " (1773, which, he himself 

Bodecker, Louis, composer, b. 1845, Ham- 
burg, pupil of Marxsen, lives in Hamburg, as 
teacher of music and musical critic. He has 
pubhshed songs, pf. pieces : Variations, Op. 6 
and 8; Rhapsodies, Op. 9; "Friihlingsidyll," 
for four hands; a "Phantasie Sonate," for pf. 
and violin (Op. 15), and a " Trio-Phantasie " 
(Op. 18), etc. — about thirty works. He has 
orchestral, vocal, and chamber compositions in 

Bodenschatz, Erhard, b. 1370, Lichtenberg 
(Erzgebirge), d. 1638. He studied theology at 
Leipzig and became master of arts, was cantor 
at Schulpforta (1600), pastor at Rehhausen 
(1603), and from 1608 pastor at " Gross-Oster- 
nausen," near Querfurt. The name of B. is 
kept alive, not by his own compositions (" Mag- 
nificat samptBenedicamus," 1599; "Psalterium 
Davidis," 1605; " Harmonia Angelica," 1608; 
"Bicinia," 1615), but by his compilations, above 
all by the " Florilegium Portense " (two parts : 
the first in 1603, second edition 1618, printed in 
eight, the second, 1621, in ten part-books). The 
work contains 115 and 150 songs i 4 to 10, 
by ninety-three composers of the time (about 
1600). A smaller compilation is the "Flori- 
legium selectissimorum hymnorum " (for school 
use, hence repeatedly republished; last of all 
in 1713). 

Boekelmann, Bernardus, excellent pianist, 
b. June 9,. 1838. He studied with his father; 
the musical director, A. J. Boekelmann, at 
Utrecht ; from 1857 to i860 he was pupil of the 
Leipzig Conservatorium, and from 1861 to 1862 
in Berlin, a private pupil of Kiel, Weitzmann, 
and H. von Biilow. In 1864 B. went to Mexico 
and played several times before the court. 
Since 1866 he has resided in New York, where 
he has become known as teacher and pianist, 
and especially by the chatnber-music evenings of 
the New York Trio Club, which he established. 
In 1884 he undertook the direction of music at 
one of the greatest institutions in Farmington. 

Boely, Alexandre Pierre Francois, b. 
Aoril ig, 1785, Versailles, d. Dec. 27, 1858, 

Paris. He was an excellent pianist and violinist, 
and for a time pupil of the , Conservatoire 
(Ladurner). He was a musician of serious aim 
and classic taste; he published pf. and violin 
sonatas, stringed trios, organ pieces, etc. 

Boesset, Antoine (Sieur) von Villedieu, 
music intendant of Louis XIII., b. about 1585, 
d. 1643; he composed ballets for the court 

Boetius, Anicius Manlius Torquatus 
Severinus, b. about 475 B.C. at Rome. He 
was of noble origin, consul in the year 510, for 
many years a trusty counsellor of Theodpric, 
King of the Ostrogoths, who, however, in 524 (526) 
had him unjustly put to death, because he sus- 
pected him of a secret and treasonable cor- 
respondence with the Byzantine Court. B. was 
a philosopher, a distinguished mathematician, 
and wrote a work, " De Musicd " (in five books), 
a comprehensive revision of the then declining 
Greek system of music. What the Middle 
Ages knew about Greek music they had learnt 
from B., who, for the rest, was a disciple of 
Pythagoras, i.e. opposed to the views of Aris- 
toxenos. There are manuscripts in many 
libraries of the " De Musica' ' of B. ; it was printed 
in the collected writings of B. at Venice, 1491- 
92, and a second edition in 1499 (Gregorii) ; 
also Basle, 1570 (Glarean), and in separate 
form (only with the " Arithmetic ") at Leipzig, 
1867 ; also in German by O. Paul (1872). A 
French translation by Fetis has, up to now, 
remained in manuscript. The general opinion 
that B. used Latin letters in place of Greek is 
an erroneous one; and the term "Notation 
Boetienne " false, as applied to the notation in 
vogue from the loth to the 12th century with 
a—j), Or A — P. 

Bogeuflugel, Bogenklaviere (Ger.), bow-piano- 
fortes. In these instruments attempts have 
been made to combine the effect of stringed in- 
struments with a key-board. On Hans Heyden's 
Nuremberg Geigenwerh (Geigmklaviqimbal, 1610) 
the catgut strings, -v^hich on pressing' the keys 
were drawn down by means of little hooks, 
were acted on by rosined rollers kept in con- 
stant motion by means of treadles. {Cf. Hurdy- 
gurdy and SchlOsselfiedel.) In 1709 Georg 
Gleichmann, organist at Ilmenau, constructed 
a similar instrument, with certain improve- 
ments, and named it Klaviergambe ; in 1741 Le 
Voirs at Paris followed likewise with a Gambe- 
klavier, and Hohlfeld at Berlin with the Bogm- 
kldvier, an improvement on Heyden's instru- 
ment, inasmuch as the wheels were covered 
with horsehair. In 1710 Garbrecht, at Konigs- 
berg, brought out a Bogenklavier with improve- 
ments, which proved failures; Mayer one at 
Gorlitz in 1795, which Kunze turned to account 
at Prague in 1799; and, finally, Rollig, at 
Vienna, in 1797, with the Xanorphika, the most 
complicated instrument of the kind, having a 
bow in motion for each key and string. .In spite 




of all the anxious thought devoted to these 
instruments, not one of them has attained to 
higher fame than that of being a curiosity. 
Karl Greiner's Bogenhammerklavier (1779) was a 
combination of the Bogenfiugel with an ordinary 
Bogenhammeibhtner and Bogenklayier. (See 


Bohm, Karl, pianist and salon composer, b. 
Sept. II, 1844, Berlin ; pupil of Loschhorn, 
Fl. Geyer, and Reissmann. He lives in Berlin. 

Bohm, (i) Georg, distinguished performer on 
the organ and clavier, b. 1661, Goldbach (Thurin- 
gia), d. 1734, Luneburg, where from 1698 he was 
organist of the St. John's Church. His Suites 
in E and C minor rank among the best of their 
time.— (2) Theobald, b. April 9, 1794, Munich, 
d. there Nov. 25, 1881, was for many years 
member of the royal band (Hofmusicus), a per- 
former on the flute, composer for his instrument, 
in the construction of which he made some clever 
improvements. The " B. System" created a 
perfect revolution in the construction of wood- 
wind instruments. Together with the English- 
man, Gordon, he started, from the idea that not 
convenience in the mode of fingering, but the 
acoustical principles for the best resonance, 
must determine the position of the sound-holes ; 
so he first fixed the bore of the flute, and then 
sought after a suitable arrangement of the 
mechanism. The holes, formerly so small, he 
made so wide that the tips of the fingers did 
not completely cover them, etc. The tone of 
the Bohm flute is certainly very different from 
that of the old flute ; it is much fuller, rounder, 
diapason-like in quality ; the opponents of the 
system miss in it the speciality of flute tone. 
Professor v. Schafhautl was Bohm's scientific 
adviser. — (3) Joseph, b. March 4, 1795, Pesth, 
d. March 28, 1876, Vienna, an excellent violinist 
and teacher, pupil of Rode, appeared at Vienna 
in 1815 with great success, then travelled in 
Italy, and after his return (1819) was appointed 
professor of the violin at the Vienna Conserya- 
torium, and in 1821 member of the Imperial 
band. From 1823 to 1825 he made many con- 
cert tours. B. was held in high esteem as a 
teacher : Ernst, Joachim, Singer, Hellmesberger 
(sen.), L. Straus, Rappoldi and others were 
his pupils. In 1848 he gave up his post of 
teacher at the Conservatorium, and in 1868 
retired from the band. He published only a 
few works for the violin. 

Bdhme, (1) Johann August, established 
himself at Hamburg, in 1794, as music pub- 
lisher and seller; in 1839 his successor was 
his son, Justus Eduard B., and in 1885 
his grancfeon, August Kduard B. — (2) Au- 
gust Julius Ferdinand, b. Feb. 4, 1815, 
Gandersheim (Brunswick), d. there. May 30, 
1883. He was a pupil of Spohr, was theatre 
capellmeister at Berne and Geneva, in 1846 
conductor of the "Euterpe" and director of 

the music school at Dordrecht; and in 1876, 
after some years of rest, owing to a disorder of 
the eyes, he appeared in Leipzig as a composer, 
with orchestral, chamber, and vocal works. — (3) 
Franz Magnus, b. March 11, 1827, Willer- 
stedt, near Weimar. He studied with G. Topfer, 
afterwards with Hauptmann and Rietz in Leip- 
zig ; for eleven years he was schoolmaster, and 
then for more than twenty years active in 
Dresden as teacher of music. He received 
from the King of Saxony the title of Professor, 
and in 1878 was appointed teacher of the his- 
tory of music and of counterpoint at the 
newly -established Hoch Conservatorium at 
Frankfort, which post he quitted in 1885. From 
1886 B. was again living in Dresden. He has 
published " Altdeutsches Liederbuch" (1877, a 
thankworthy, elaborate, although not altogether 
trustworthy collection of texts and melodies), 
an ' ' Aufgabenbuch zum Studium der Harmonie ' ' 
(1880), a " Kursus der Harmonie " (Mayence, 
1882), a " Geschichte des Tanzes in Deutsch- 
land " (Leipzig : Breitkopf & Hartel, 1886) ; also 
several books of songs in parts (sacred part- 
songs, popular songs for male chorus). 

Bohmer, Karl, excellent violinist and pro- 
lific composer for his instrument; b. Nov. 6, 
1799, Hague, d. July 20, 1884, Berlin. He wrote 
also two small operas. 

Bohn, Emil, b. Jan. 14, 1839, Bielau, near 
Neisse. He attended the Gymnasium there, and 
studied classical and oriental philology from 1858 
to 1862; at Breslau, but already as a student con- 
ducted the concerts of the academical musical 
society, and finally devoted himself exclusively 
to music as pupil of J. Schaffer (theory), and E. 
Baumgart (organ). In 1868 he became organist 
of the " Kreuzkirche," Breslau, and founded in 
the same year the "Bohn Choral Union," which 
of late has attracted much notice by its histor- 
ical concerts. In 1884 the Breslau University 
conferred on B. the degree of Dr. Phil. Hon. C, 
and he undertook the direction of the Univer- 
sity Choral Society, and the singing at the 
Mathias-Gymnasium ; he gives, likewise, lec- 
tures at the University, In 1884, also, he 
became musical critic of the Bnslauer Zeitung. 
In 1887 the Philharmonic Academy at Florence, 
and in 1891 the " Cecilia " Academy at Rome, 
named him honorary inember. As a composer, 
B. has only produced songs and part-songs. 
His " Bibliographic der Musikdruckwerke bis 
1700, welche auf der Universitatsbibliothek, 
Stadtbibliothek, etc., zu Breslau aufbewahrt 
werden" (1.883), ^.nd " Die Musikalische Hand- 
schriften des 16 und 17 Jahrhunderts in der 
Stadtbibliothek zu Breslau " (1890), are works 
of great merit. B. also edited the pianoforte 
works of Mendelssohn and Chopin. At the 
present time he is engaged on a monumental 
work, viz., a complete edition in score of all 
secular songs in several parts between the years 
1550 and 1630. 




Bdhner, Johann Ludwig, b. Jan. 8, 1787, 
Tottelstedt, near Gotha, d. March 28, i860, 
Gotha. He was a composer of much talent, 
whose life bore some similarity to that of 
Friedemann Bach. About 1810 B. was theatre 
capellmeister in Nuremburg for one year, but 
otherwise held no fixed appointment ; he con- 
stantly led a wandering life, giving concerts, 
and settling down, often for years together, 
wherever the fancy took him. Unfortunately, 
he came gradually down in the ^yorld, and gave 
way to drink. His compositions are : piano- 
forte sonatas and concertos, fantasias, overtures, 
marches and dances for orchestra, divertisse- 
ments, etc. ; also an opera, Der Dnihennstein. 
It is supposed to be B. whom E. T. A. Hoffmann 
portrayed as Kapellmeister Kreisler. 

Eohrer, (i) Anton, b. 1783, Munich. He 
was a performer on the violin ; studied with his 
father, afterwards with R. Kreutzer in Paris. 
He and his. brother — (2) Max, b. there 1785, 
performer on the 'cello, pupil of Schwarz — 
were, at an early age, appointed members of the 
Bavarian court orchestra, in which their father 
was double-bass player, and they then made 
extensive tours together (1810-14) through 
Austria, Poland, Russia, Scandinavia, ' and 
England ; in 1813 France, in 1820 Italy, etc. 
In 1834 Anton B. settled in Hanover as leader 
of the orchestra,'and died there in 1852. Max B. 
became principal 'cellist and leader at Stuttgart 
in 1832, and died there Feb. 28, 1867. Both 
published concertos and solo pieces for their 
instruments, and also chamber music. Max 
was more important as a virtuoso ; Anton, 
on the other hand, acquired more note as a 

Boieldieu, (i) Fran9ois Adrien, b. Dec. 
15, 1775, Rou^n, d. Oct. 8, 1834, on his estate, 
Jarcy, near Grosbois. His father was secretary 
to an archbishop, and the boy joined the choir 
of the metropolitan church, and received further 
regular instruction in music from the organist 
Broche, who treated him cruelly, and made him 
do menial duties, so that once B. ran away 
frorn him, and had to be brought back from 
Paris. When B. was eighteen years old {1793), ' 
a small opera of his (La fills coupaUe) iot which 
his father had prepared the libretto, was pro- 
duced in his native town, Rouen ; and, in 1795, 
followed a second — Rosalie et Myym. The 
favourable reception given to both these works 
encouraged him to go to Paris and try his luck 
there. B. was well received by the house of 
Erard, and had the opportunity of seeing the 
most distinguished composers, and of making 
their acquaintance (Mehul, Cherubini). The 
singer, Garat, first performed some of his songs, 
and he soon won fame and found a publisher. 
In 1796 he brought out at the Op^ra-Comique 
a one-act comic opera, Les Deux Lettrss, and in 
1797 a second, La FamUle Suisse, which, by reason 
of their fresh melodies, met with general approval. 

Zordime et Zidnare, produced in 1798 with suc- 
cess, gave still higher proof of Boieldieu's gifts, 
after several small and unimportant works had, 
in the meantime, been coldly received. Another 
fortunate venture was Le Calif e de Bagdad (1800). 
At the same time B. began to make a name as 
instrumental composer (pf. sonatas, a concerto, 
pieces for harp). The career of B. is simple 
enough. His knowledge of composition was 
obtained in a practical way, and he never 
troubled much about counterpoint and fugue. 
He had learnt what was essential from Broche, 
and he profited by hints from M^hul and Cheru- 
bini, but was never actually their pupil. His 
ndiveU and naturally fresh invention would, per- 
haps, have only been spoilt under their influence. 
In 1 802 B . married the dancer, Clotilde Auguste 
Mafleuroy. The choice was not a fortunate 
one, and already in 1803, to escape domestic 
broils, he resolved to go to Petersburg, where 
he remained until 1810. The operas which he 
produced there (B. was named court com- 
poser) met with no lasting recognition ; but, on 
the other hand, the opera which he produced 
after his return, Jean de Paris (1812), proved a 
brilliant success. In 1817 he was appointed pro- 
fessor of composition at the Conservatoire, as 
successor to Mehul ; and, in order to justify the 
choice, he devoted the utmost care to his work 
(he was, as a, rule, conscientious) Le Chaperon 
Rouge, the first performance of which (1818) 
was a real triumph. After a long interval 
{during which he was engaged on two works 
jointly with Cherubim, Kreutzer, Berton, and 
Paer), there followed at last, in 1825, La Dame 
Blanche, the crown of Boieldieu's creations. He 
only wrote one moveo-peTa,,LesDeuxNuits(iS2(j); 
and it was received with just the respect due 
to the composer of ia Dame Blanche. B. keenly 
felt this, and laid aside his pen for ever. After 
the death of his first vrife (1825) he married in 
the following year the singer, Phillis, sister of 
Jeanette Phillis. In 1829 he retired from the 
Conservatoire and received a good pension, 
which_ was, however, reduced in 1830. The 
king, indeed, gave him an extra pension, and 
the director of the Opera-Comique did likewise. 
But he lost both entirely in 1830, so that during 
his last years he was forced to think seriously 
about his position. He begged to be re- 
appointed at the Conservatoire, and was actually 
reinstated,, but died soon afterwards of pul- 
monary disease. His obsequies were celebrated 
in the Dome des Invalides, and Cherubini's 
Requiem was performed. Boieldieu's most 
celebrated pupils were Fetis, Adam, and Zim- 
mermann. To the list of his works must still 
be added : L'heumtse Nouvelle (1797), MombreuU 
et Merville (Le Pari, 1797), La dot de Suzette {1798), 
Les Mlprises Espagnoles (1799), La Prisonniere, 
jointly with Cherubini (1799), Beniowsky (1800), 
Ma Tante Aurore (1803), Le Baiser et la Quittance 
(1803, jointlywith Mfeul, Kreutzer, etc.). In 
Petersburg: Aline Reine de Golconde, La Jeune 




Fmme CoUn, Amour et Mysten (Vaudeville), 
Aiderhan, Calypso (= Tllemaqne), Les Voitures 
Venks (Vaudeville, afterwards arranged as a 
comic opera for Paris), Un Tour de Soiibrette 
(Vaudeville), La Dame Invisible, Rien de Trap 
(Les Deux Paravents, Vaudeville), choruses to 
Athalie. Lastly, in Paris, after 1810: Le Nou- 
veau Seigneur de Village (1813), Bayard 4 Mlzieres 
(jointly with Cherubini, Catel, and Niccolo 
Isouard — ^his rivals for many years), Les Bear- 
nais {Henri IV. en Voyage, 1814, jointly with 
Kreutzer), Angila (V Atelier de Jean Cousin, 1814, 
jointly with Madame Gail, pupil of F^tis), La 
Fete du Village Voisin, Charles de France (with 
Hfrold), La France et I'Espagne (Intermezzo), 
Blanche de Provence (La Cour des Fees, 1821, with 
Cherubini, Berton, etc.), Les Trois Genres (with 
Auber), Pharamond (with Cherubini, Berton, 
etc.). La Marquise de Brinvilliers (with Berton 
and others). A. Pougin wrote the life of B. — 
"B.,saVieet sesCEuvres" (1875). — (2) Adrien 
L. v., son of the former, b. Nov. 3, 1816, d. 
there July, 1883, also made a name by a series 
of operas. He wrote a Mass which was per- 
formed at Rouen on the hundredth anniver- 
sary of his father's birth, 1875. 

Boise, Otis Bardwell, b. Aug. 13, 1845, 
Ohio (North America), a pupil of the Leipzig 
Conservatorium, 1863-4 ; after that, for some 
time under KuUak at Berlin. Since 1868 he has 
been living at New York, and is held in high 
esteem both as teacher and composer. He has 
written a symphony, two overtures, a pf. con- 
certo, trio, songs, and part-songs. 

Boito, Arrigo, b. Feb. 24, 1842, Padua, 
stiidied with Mazzucato, at the Milan Conserva- 
torio. He is an opera composer and poet full of 
talent, visited Paris, Germany, and Poland (the 
home of his mother, the Countess Josephine 
Radolinska) in 1862 and 1869, and became ena- 
moured of German music and the musico-dra- 
matic reforms of Wagner. After he had first made 
himself known by the cantatas. The 4th of June 
(i860) and Le Sorelle d'ltalia (1862, jointly with 
F. Faccio), he came forward, in 1868, with the 
opera, Mejistofele (after Goethe's Faust, first and 
second parts) ; it failed completely at Milan, 
but since then has been received with increasing 
favour (revived at Bologna in 1875 with great 
success, and at Hamburg in 1880). An older 
opera. Hero e Leander, and two more recent 
ones, Nerone and Orestrade, have not been pro- 
duced ; neither has the Ode to Art (1880). In 
Italy, B. (pseudonym in anagram form, Tobia 
Gorrio) is held in higher esteem as a poet 
than as a musician ("Libro dei versi," "Re 
Orso " ; libretti : " Gioconda," " Alessandro Far- 
nese," "Zoroastro," "Iram," "Otello"; many 
novels). B. lives in Milan. The King of Italy 
gave him the title of Cavalier, and later on 
appointed him Ufficial and Commendatore ; of 
these titles, however, B. makes no use. 

Bolck, Oskar, b. March 4, 1839, Hohenstein 

(East Prussia), d. May 2, 1888, Bremen. He 
studied at the Leipzig Conservatorium, and 
lived alternately as teacher of music in Leipzig 
and in various capacities at Wiborg (Finland), 
Liverpool, Wurzburg, Aix, and Riga. From 1870 
B. was for many years active as chorus-master 
at the Leipzig theatre, occupied a similar post in 
1886 at Hamburg, and finally at Bremen. 
Besides various small compositions (pf. pieces, 
songs, etc.), B. wrote three operas (Gudrun, 
Pierre Robin, and Der Schmied von Gretna Green. 

Bolero, Spanish national dance, mostly in \ 
time, but often with change of time, and of . 
moderately quick movement. The dancer ac- 
companies h^ steps with castanets. Charac- 
teristic is the rhythm — 

BoliciUS. (See WOLLICK.) 

Bombardon is the name of a deep brass in- 
strument of wide measure, with valves. (Cf, 

Bombo (Ital. ; Ger. Schwarmer), an old term 
for what is now called Tremolo, a quick repeti- 
tion of a sound. 

Bombyx (in German Brummer ?), an old Greek 
wind instrument of great length, probably with 

Bomhart (Bommert, Pommer, a corruption of 
the French Botnbarde) was a wood-wind instru- 
ment of fairly large dimensions : the bass in- 
strument of the Schalmey family. But the B. 
itself was constructed of different sizes — as an 
ordinary bass instrument (simply called B.), as 
double-bass instrument (great Bassbomhart, 
Doppelquintbomhart, Bombardone), and as 
tenor instrument (Bassetbomhart cr Nicolo), 
and as alto instrument (Bombardo piccolo). The 
unwieldy length of both the large kinds led to 
the introduction of the bassoon, for it occurred 
to Afranio (q.v.) to bend the tubes. In the 
organ, a powerful reed-stop with funnel-shaped 
tubes (16 or 32 feet) ; the French Bombarde is 
the usual term for the Posaune, or Trombone. 

Bomtempo, Ja3,o Domingos, b. 1775, 
Lisbon, d. Aug. 13, 1842. He went, in 1806, 
for further training to Paris, and, after a short 
visit to London, lived again in Paris up to 1820. 
He founded subsequently, in Lisbon, a Philhar- 
monic society, which, however, came to an end 
already in 1823. In 1833 he became director 
of the Conservatorio in that city. B. was a 
composer of merit and an excellent pianist. 
He wrote two pf. concertos, sonatas, varia- 
tions, several masses, a requiem in memory of 
Camoens, an opera, and a Method for the 

Bonk, Giovanni, b. Oct. 12, 1609, Mondovi 
(Piemont), d. Oct. 25, 1674, as cardinal,_ at 
Rome. He wrote "De divuia psalmodia" 


(1653, and often afterwards), a work giving 
many explanations with regard to old . ecclesi- 
astical music. 

Bonawitz (Bonewitz), Joh. Heinrich, b. 
Dec. 4, 1839, Diirkheim-on-Rhine, a pianist of 
merit ; he attended the Liege Conservatorium, 
but already in 1852 migrated with his parents 
to America, whence he returned to Europe in 
1861 in order to obtain further musical train- 
ing. From 1861 to 1866 he gave concerts in 
Wiesbaden, Paris, London, etc. From 1872 to 
1873 he gave popular symphony concerts in 
New York, and produced two operas at Phila- 
delphia in 1874 (The Bride of Messina and Ostro- 
Unha). During several years after that he lived 
in Vienna, making now and then concert tours. 
He is at present settled in London as teacher 
and composer. 

Bonicke, Hermann, b. Nov. 26, i82i,Endorf, 
organist and music teacher at Quedlinburg, 
d. Dec. 12, 1879, as conductor of the Musical 
Society at Hermannstadt (Siebenbiirgen). He 
published pleasing part-songs for male voices, a 
"Method "of choral singing, and " Kunst des 
freien Orgelspiels." 

Boniventi, Giuseppe, b. about 1660, Venice; 
between i6go and 1727 he wrote eleven operas 
for his native city and one (Venceslao) for Turin. 

Bonnet, (i) Jacques, b. 1644, Paris, d. there 
1724, as parliamentary paymaster. He pub- 
lished ' ' Histoire de la Musique depuis son origine 
jusqu'a present " (171 5), and " Histoire de la 
danse sacree et profane" (1723). — (2) Jean 
Baptiste,_b. April 23, 1763, Montauban, in 
1802 organist in his native city, performer on 
the violin, and composer of violin duets and 
concertantes for two violins. 

Bonno, Joseph, b. 1710, Vienna, d. there 
April 15, 1788, was appointed royal court com- 
poser in 1739, together with Wagenseil, and 
from 1732-62 wrote for Vienna twenty operas 
and serenades and three oratorios. There are 
also some psalms, a 4, and a Magnificat pre- 
served in manuscript. 

Bononcini, (i) Giovanni Maria, b. 1640, 
Modena, d. there Nov. ig, 1678 ; prolific com- 
poser of instrumental pieces, chamber sonatas, 
also some cantatas (solo vocal pieces), and 
madrigals. He wrote a work on counterpoint, 
" Musico pratico, etc." (1673). His sons were : 
(2) Giovanni Battista, b. 1660, Modena 
(usually signed his name ■' Buononcini"), greatly 
celebrated as an opera composer in his time ; 
he was a pupil of his father and of Colonna, at 
Bologna, and at first wrote masses and instru- 
mental works. About 1691 he went to Vienna 
as 'cellist in the Court band, wrote in 1694, 
Ttdlo Ostilio and Serse iac Rome; 1699, La 
fede pMica, and 1701, Affetti piu grmidi 'vinti 
dal piU giusto for Vienna ; 1703, Polifemo for 
Berlin, where, until 1705, he was court com- 
poser to Queen Sophie Charlotte, who herself I 



accompanied on the harpsichord at the first 
performance of Polifemo. After the death of 
the queen he went again to Vienna, and 
there followed : Tomiri (1704), Endimione (1706), 
L'Etearco (1707), Turno Aricino (1707), Mario 
Fiigitivo, II Sacrifizio di Romolo (1708), Ahdolonimo 
(1709), Muzio Scevola (1710), etc. In 1716 he 
was called to London to the newly-established 
King's Theatre, and there followed the cele- 
brated rivalry between B. and Handel, which, in 
consequence of the patronage of Handel by the 
Court, and of Bononcini by the Duke of Marl- 
borough, assumed an almost political character. 
B. wrote for London: Astarte (rjio), Ciro, 
Crispo, GriseUa (1722), Farnace, Erminia (1723), 
Calpwnia, (1724), and Astianatte (1727). The end 
was the defeat of Bononcini, which was rendered 
complete by the discovery that he had given 
out one of Lotti's madrigals as his own com- 
position. In 1733 he went' with an alchemist to 
Paris, by whom he wras thoroughly swindled, 
so that he was compelled again to think of 
earning money. He wrote still in 1737 for 
Vienna {Alessandro in Sidone; oratorio, Ezechia)t 
The year of his death is unknown, but he prob- 
ably lived to the age of ninety. His brother 
(3) Marco Antonio, b. about 1675, Modena, 
maestro there in 1721, d. July 8, 1726, wrote 
likewise several operas {Camilla), of which the 
greater number exist in manuscript in the 
Berlin Library, as well as an oratorio. Die 
Enthauptung jfohannis des Taufers, and a Christmas 
cantata. Padre Martini praises hini for his 
refined and noble style, and places him above 
most of his contemporaries. 

Bontempi, Giovanni Andrea, really An- 
gelini (he took the name B. at the wish of his 
guardian), b. 1620, Perugia, d. about 1697. He 
lived for a time at the Berlin Court, in 1647 
was member of the band of the Electoral Prince 
at Dresden, and returned to Perugia in 1694. 
He wrote " Nova quatuor vqcibus componendi 
methodus " (1660), " Tractatus in quo demon- 
strantur convenientiae sonorum systematis par- 
ticipati " (1690), and " Istoria musica nella 
quale si ha plena cognizione della teoria e 
della pratica antica della musica armonica" 
(1695). In Berlin he wrote the operas, Paride 
(1662) (dedicated to the Margrave, Christian 
Ernst, and printed in Dresden), Apollo und 
Daphne (1671), and Jupiter und lo (1673). B. 
was, for the rest, gifted in many ways, and 
highly cultivated (linguist, singer, conductor, 
composer, historian, architect, mechanist, etc.). 

Bon temps de la mesure (Fr,), the accented 
part of a bar. 

Boom, van, (i) Jan, b. April 17, 1783, Rotter- 
dam ; he was a performer on the flute, and a 
composer for has instrument. He lived in 
Utrecht. His sons were — (2) Jan, b. Oct. 15, 
1807, Utrecht, d. April, 1872, as professor of 
the pianoforte (since 1849)' at the Stockholm' 
Academy, where he settled down, after a concert 




tour through Denmark, in 1823. He com- 
posed a piaxioforte concerto, stringed quartets, 
trios, symphonies, etc. — (3) Hermann M., b. 
Feb. ,9, 1809, Utrecht, d. there Jan. 6, 1883, 
a distinguished flautist, pupil of Toulou, at 
Paris; sSter 1830 he lived for a long time in 

Boosey & Co., an important London publish- 
ing firm, founded in 1825 by Thomas Boosey, 
with copyrights for England, especially of 
Italian operas (Rossini, Mercadante, Bellini, 
Donizetti, Verdj) : these, however, were lost in 
1854 by a decision of the House of Lords. 
Since then, the firm has devoted itself specially 
to popular English music. 

Borde, de la. (See Laborde.) 

Bordese, Ludovico, b. 1815, Naples, d. 
March 17, 1886, Paris. He studied at the Con- 
servatoire there, produced an opera at Turin in 
1834 ; then went to Paris, where, in spite of 
many attempts, he was unable to obtain success 
on the stage. From about 1850 he turned his 
back on the theatre, and wrote an immense 
quantity of small vocal pieces, also a Mass, a 
Requiem, etc., and a Vocal Method, an Ele- 
mentary Vocal Method, solfeggi, etc. 

Bordiei, Louis Charles, b. 1700, Paris, d. 
there, 1764. He wrote a Method of Singing 
(1760 and 1781), and a Method of Composition 

Bctrdogni, Marco, b. 1788, Gazzaniga, near 
Bergamo, d. July 31, 1856, Paris. He was a dis- 
tinguished teacher of singing, and studied with 
Simon Mayr. He was in Milan from 1813 to 
1815, and engaged at the Theatre des Italiens 
as tenor singer from 1819 to 1833, after which 
he gave his time entirely to teaching. From 
1820, with one interval of several years, he was 
professor of singing at the Paris Conservatoire. 
He was the master of Sontag, and of many 
other celebrities. He published a number of 
excellent vocalises. Death prevented the carry- 
ing out of a great Method of Singing. 

Bordoni, Faustina. (See Hassb {3).) 

Bordun, Bourdon (Fr. ; Ital. Bordotie; also in 
corrupt form Barduen, Perduna, Portunm), a 
common term for the i6-feet Gedackt (Grob- 
gedackt) of the organ. The derivation of the 
word is uncertain. Bourdon in French means 
humming; Fanx bourdon, drone; but it is a 
question whether these meanings are not more 
recent. The word bordunus occurs in the 13th 
century as the term for the bass strings lying 
near the finger-board of the Viella. The strings 
lying both sides of the finger-board of the 
hurdy-gurdy (Orgaitistrum), and which continu- 
ally sounded sympathetically, were called Bor- 
dune (bourdons), and from these the name 
probably passed to the bass fifth of the bag- 
pipes. It seems reasonable to suppose that the 
word B. comes from bord (Ital, bordo), "edge." 

(For Faux Bourdon, Falso Boedone, c/. Faux 

Borghi, Luigi. He was a pupil of the famous 
violinist Pugnani, settled in London about 1780, 
acted as leader of the second violins at the 
Handel Commemoration in 1784, and published 
a number of sonatas, concertos, symphonies, 
and Italian canzonets. G. Jensen, who pub- 
lished in " Classische Violmmusik " two of 
Borghi's violin sonatas, remarks : " Borghi's 
works combine, in a happy manner, something 
of classicality with the taste of his time." This 
is true : we find in them a compromise, as it were, 
between the measured, restrained, and even 
severe beauty in form and expression of an 
earlier age, and the ease, grace, and limpidity 
of the new era of which Joseph Haydn became 
the presiding genius. 

Borghi-IIamo, Adelaide (nee Borghi), a re- 
markable opera singer (contralto), b. 1829, 
Bologna. She was induced by Pasta to train 
herself for the stage, made her debut, 1846, at 
Urbino, sang with ever increasing success on 
various Italian stages, married at Malta in 1849, 
won triumphs in Vienna in 1853, and at the 
Italian Opera, Paris, from 1854 to 1856, and 
was engaged in 1856 at the Paris Grand Opera. 
In i860 she returned to the Italian opera, and, 
after some " star " engagements, withdrew from 
public life. Pacini, Mercadante, and Rossi, 
wrote parts for her. Her daughter, Erminia 
B., soprano singer, with a clear, flexible voice, ' 
appeared with great success at Bologna in 1874, 
and afterwards at the Paris Italian Opera. 

Borodin, Alexander, b. Nov. 12, 1834, 
Petersburg, d. there Feb. 27, 1887. He studied 
medicine and chemistry at the medico-surgical 
school there ; he became military surgeon, and 
then followed an academical career. He was 
professor in ordinary at the above named 
school, academician, active counsellor of state, 
knight,' etc. B. was not only engaged in 
scientific pursuits, but was a zealous musician, 
and one of the chief representatives of the new 
Russian school. He was on friendly terms 
with Balakireff, at whose suggestion he trained 
himself to be a musician. He was president of 
the Society of Amateurs at Petersburg. B. 
travelled much also in Germany. His prin- 
cipal works are: two symphonies (No. i, e|7, 
produced in 1880 at the Wiesbaden gathering of 
composers), symphonic poem " Mittelasien," 
pf. pieces, chamber music (stringed quartets), 
etc. An opera (Furst Igor) remained in manu- 

Boroni (Buroni), Antonio, b. 1738, d. 1797, 
Rome. He studied with Padre Martini, and 
afterwards with Gir. Abos', from 1770 to 1780 
he was court capellmeister at -Stuttgart, and 
finally maestro at St Peter's, Rome. He wrote 
four operas for Venice (1760 to 1764), one for 
Prague (1765), three for Dresden (1769), and 
eight for Stuttgart (1771-78). 




Bortnianski, DimitrioStefanowitsch, b. 
1751, Gluchow (Ukraine), d. Oct., 1825, Peters- 
burg. He studied first at Petersburg under 
Galuppi ; then, under the patronage of Cather- 
ine II., continued to work at Venice with the 
same master ; and after that stayed in Bologna, 
Rome, and Naples for the purpose of study. 
In 1778 he produced an opera at Modena {Quinto 
Fabio), returned in 1779 to Petersburg, and 
was appointed Imperial capellmeister. To him 
belongs the merit of having thoroughly weeded 
the chapel choir, and thus brought it into high 
repute. For this reformed choir he wrote 
thirty-five psalms k 4, and ten a 8, a mass, and 
a Greek ritual, etc. His compositions take a 
high rank. Tschaikowsky edited a complete 
edition of his works in ten volumes. 

Bosendorfer, an important pianoforte manu- 
factory at Vienna, founded in 1828 by Ignaz 
B. (b. July 28, 1796, Vienna, a pupil of J. Brod- 
mann, d.. April 14, 1859), and since managed by 
his son, Ludwig B. (b. April, 1835, Vienna). 

Bote und Bock, an important, firm of music 
publishers in Berlin, founded in 1838 by Eduard 
Bote and Gustav Bock, who bought the music 
business of Frohlich and Westphal. E. Bote 
soon retired. After tha death of G. Bock 
(April 27, 1863) his brother, Emil Bock, became 
manager, and when he died (March 31, 1871) 
his place was taken by Hugo Bock, son of Gustav 
Bock. The last-named edited the-Nem Berliner 
Musikmtung — which came out in 1847 — ^up 
to his death. To this firm belongs the merit 
of having first issued cheap editions of classical 

B&tel, Hei.nrich, tenor singer, b. May 6, 
1858, Hambvirg. He was a cab-driver until 
Pollini discovered his high c ; since then he has 
been principal lyric tenor in the theatre of that 

Botgorschek, Franz, celebrated flautist, b. 
May 23, 1812, Vienna, d. May, 1882, Hague. 
He was trained at the Vienna Conservatorium, 
and was for many years teacher at the Hague 
Conservatoire. B. published compositions for 

Bott, Jean Joseph, b. March 9, 1826, Cas- 
sel, son of the court musician, A. Bott, who was 
his first teacher ; he afterwards became a pupil 
of Moritz Hauptmann and of Ludwig Spohr. 
In 1841 he won the Mozart scholarship, in 1846 
was solo violinist in the Electoral band, in 1852 
under Spohr as second capellmeister, in 1857 
court capellmeister at Meiningen, and in 1865 
held a similar post at Hanover. He received a 
pension in 1878, lived for several years in Mag- 
deburg as a teacher of music, went to Hamljurg 
in 1884, and left there for America in 1885. B. 
was an excellent violinist, and Spohr held him 
in high esteem. He published violin concertos, 
solo pieces for violin and piano, songs, a sym- 
phony, and two operas, Der Unhekannte (1854) 
and Ahtaa, das Madchen von Korinth (1862). 

Bottle de Toulmon, Auguste, b. May 15, 
1797, Paris, d. March 22, 1850. He studied 
originally for the law, but never held any ap- 
pointment, for he preferred a free life, fol- 
lowing his own, and especially his musical 
inclinations, of which 'cello playing was one. 
When the Revue Mmicale appeared in 1827, te 
turned his attention to musical literature. In 
i83j;he offisred himself as librarian to the Con- 
servatoire without salary, and was accepted. 
From the' time of the Revolution in 1848 his 
mind was disordered. Among othisr things, B. 
wrote: "De Igi Chanson en France au mo- 
yendge" (1836), "Notice Biographique sur 
les Travaux de Giiido d'Arezzo" (1837),. "Des 
Instruments de Musique au moyen-ige (1833 
and 1844 ; all of which are in the " Aiinuaire 
Historique ; " also separately). 

Bottesini, Giovanni, b. Dec. 24, 1823, Crema 
(Lombardy), d. July 7, i88g, Parma. He studied 
at the Milan Conservatorio, especially under 
Rossi (double-bass), Basili and Vaccai (theory). 
From 1840 to 1846 he gave concerts in Italy as 
a double-bass virtuoso, went then as conductor 
to Havannah, from whence he paid visits to the 
American continent. In 1855 he returned vid 
England, and was cdnductor for two years at 
the Theatre des Italiens, Paris. After that he 
continued his wanderings, became maestro at the 
Bellini Theatre, Palermo in 1861, at Barcelona 
in 1863, then established at Florence the Societil 
di Quartette, for the cultivation of German class- 
ical music, was opera conductor at the Lyceum, 
London (1871), returned to. Italy, was director 
of the Parma Conservatorio, and finally pro- 
duced at Turin the operas, Ero e Ledndro (1879) 
and La Regina del. Nepal (1880). His operas of 
earlier date were : Christofofo Colombo (Havan- 
nah, 1847), L'assedio di Firenze (1856), // Didvolo 
Delia Notte (1858), Marion Delorme (1862), Vin- 
ciguerra (1870), AH Baba (1871). His oratorio. 
The Garden of Olivet, was produced under his 
direction at the Norwich Festival of 1887. He 
wrote, besides, many compositions for double- . 
bass, but none were published. 

Bottrigari, Ercole, b. Aug. 1531, Bologna. 
He came of a good and wealthy family, and 
died at his castle Sept. 30, 1612^ He was a 
man of distinguished culture, and wrote: "II 
Patrizio, ovvero de' tetracordi armonici di Aris- 
tosseno, etc." (1593), "II Desiderio, ovvero de' 
concert! di varii stromenti musicali, dialogo, 
etc." (1394, under the nom de plume Alemanno 
Benelli), " 11 Melone, discorso armonicO, etc." 
(1602). Besides these, he left some works (prin- 
cipally translations) in manuscript. The titles 
of the above-named works relate to friends 
of Bqttrigari — Francesco Patrizio, Grazioso 
Desiderio, and Annibale Melone. 'The second 
work appeared under the last name in. form of 

Bouche (Fr.), mouth (in organ pipes). 




Bouch^ (Fr.), stopped (of horn notes) ; covered 
(of organ pipes). 

Bouche Fennie (Fr. ; Ger. Brmnmstimmen) , 
vocalisation without words, and with closed 
mouth {a bocca chiusa), so that only a humming 
sound comes through the nose. B. F. is often 
used in part-songs for male voices. 

Boucher, Alexandre Jean, b. April ii, 1778, 
Paris, d. there, after an agitated fife, Dec. 29, 
1861. He was a performer on the violin, of 
great interest and originality. From 1787 to 
1805 he was solo violinist to Charles IV. of 
Spain. He published two violin concertos. 

Bourdon (Fr.). {See Bordun.) 

Bonigavlt-Ducoudray, Louis Albert, com- 
poser, b. Feb. 2, 1840, Nantes, pupil of the 
Paris Conservatoire, gained the Prix de Rome in 
1865, and made further study at Rome. He 
founded an amateur choral society in Paris. 
He has composed a Sfabat Mater, cantatas, 
feintasia, etc. 

Bou^eois, Loys, one of the first who ar- 
ranged the French psalms (in Clement Marot's 
translation) for several voices, also the composer 
of some of the melodies to which they are set. 
He was bom about 1510, Paris, lived from 1545 
to 1557 in Geneva, and after that probably in 
Paris.- Three collections of psalms si 4-6 by him 
appeared at Lyons in 1547, and Paris in 1561. 
He also pubUshed at Geneva, in 1550, "Le 
droict chemin de musique, etc.," in which he 
proposed a reform in the naming of sounds, 
which was generally adopted in France, viz., 
in place of (reading downwards) — 

F G A B C D E 

fa sol la — ■ — — — 

ut re mi fa sol la — 

— ut re mi fa sol la 

— — — — ut re mi 
the more rational method, with ut first — 

F G A B C D E 

ut re mi fa sol la — 
fa sol la — ut re mi 

— ut re mi fa sol la 
These names remained in use even after the si 
had been introduced. {C/. Bobisation.) 

Bonrgea, Jean Maurice, b. Dec. 2, 1812, 
Bordeaux, d! March, 1881, Paris. He gained a 
good reputation as musical critic, and especi- 
ally as co-editor of the Revue et Gazette Musicale. 
An opera of his (Sultana) was produced at the 
Opera-Comiqne in 1846. He published a Stabat 
Mater, and many romances. 

Bourr^e, an old French dance of lively move- 
ment in ; time, beginning on the fourth crotchet, 
and having frequent syncopations between the 
second and third crotchets. According to Rous- 
seau, the B. came originally from Auvergne. 

Bousquet, Georges, b. March 12, 1818, Per- 
pignan, d. June 15, 1S54, St. Cloud. He was a 
gifted composer, received the Prix de Rome in 

1838, became conductor of the National Opera 
(1847), later of the Italian Opera, and was for 
some time member of the tuition commission 
of the Conservatoire. He was also esteemed as 
a critic (of the Commerce, the Illustration, and 
Gazette Musicale de Paris) . He wrote some operas : 
L'hbtesse de Lyon (1844), Le Mousquetaire (1844), 
Tabarin (1852). 

Boutade, a term for short improvised ballets, 
also instrumental fantasias and similar pieces. 

Bovery, J ules (really Antoine Nicolas Joseph 
Bovy), b. Oct. 21, 1808, Liege, d. July 17, 1868, 
Paris. He was at first conductor at Ghent, 
then at Parisian operetta theatres (Folies Nou- 
velles, Folies St. Germain), and wrote twelve 
operas and operettas, also overtures, etc, 

Bovy. (See Lysberg.) 

Bow (Ger. Bogen; Ital. Arco; Fr. Archet), the 
instrument by means of which the strings of 
violins, 'cellos, etc., are set in motion. Bows 
are made of very hard wood (Brazil, Pernam- 
buco), to which horsehair is attached, the ten- 
sion of which can be regulated by means of a 
screw in the nut. The terms, A punto d'arco 
(with the point of the bow), and "from the 
nut," indicate, the one, very light, the other, 
very heavy playing. 

Bowing, Art of (Ger. Bogenfuhrung ; Fr. Coup 
d' archet). The handling of the bow (generally 
with the right hand) in stringed instruments is, 
for playing, of equal, if not of greater, importance 
than the art of fingering, i.e., shortening of the 
strings by means of the other hand. The purity 
of tone with regard to pitch depends upon the 
fingering, but everything else — softness or hard- 
ness of tone, expression, articulation — depends 
upon the bowing. A distinction is made in bow- 
ing between the down stroke and the up stroke. 
In methods for the violin and in studies, the 
mode of bowing is exactly indicated. • n (nut) 
stands for "the down stroke, and V (point of 
the bow) for the up stroke (any other use of 
these signs — viz., /\ for the down stroke, in 
contradistmction to V, also u for the up 
stroke in contradistinction to n ; or, again, 
U, togethet with n, for the down stroke, 
and A, together with V, for the up stroke — 
is contusing, and should be strongly opposed). 

Bowman, Edward Morris, b. July 18, 1848, 
America, pupil (1872-74) of Fr. Bendel, Haupt, 
and Weitzmann. He is organist at Newark 
(New Jersey), president of various musical 
unions, etc. B. pubhshed Weitzmann's Method 
of Harmony in English, also his School System. 

Boyce, "Wfilliam, b. 1710, London, d. Feb. 
7, 1779. He was a chorister of St. Paul's, a 
pupil of Maurice Greene, and later of Pepusch, 
in 1736 organist of St. Michael's Cornhill, and 
soon after composer to the Chapel Royal, as 
Weldon's successor. In 1737 he became con- 
ductor of the festivals of the Three Choirs of 
Gloucester, Worcester, Hereford. In i749he was 




chosen organist of All Hallows, Thames Street ; 
in 1755 master of the King's band. When ap- 
pointed organist in 1758 of the Chapel Royal, 
he resigned his places at St. Michael's and All 
Hallows, and withdrew to Kensington, to devote 
himself entirely to the publication of the col- 
lection prepared by Greene of " Cathedral 
Music " (an edition in score of English sacred 
compositions of the last two centuries). An 
old ear complaint ended in complete deafness. 
His principal 'works are: " Cathedral Music " 
(1760-78, three vols., containing morning and 
evening services, anthems, settings of the Sanc- 
tus by Aldrich, Batten, Bevin, Bird, Blow, Bull, 
Child, Clarke, Creighton, Croft, Farrant. Gib- 
bons, Goldwin, King Henry VIII., Humphrey, 
Lawes, Lock, Morley, Purcell, Rogers, Tallis, 
Turner, Tye, Weldon, Wise); "Lyra Britan- 
nica" (collection, in several books, of songs, 
duets, cantatas, by B.) ; " Fifteen Anthems, Te 
- deum, and Jubilate " (published in 1780 by 
his widow) ; Masque for The Tempest, Dirges 
for Cymbelim and Romeo and Jidiet, twelve 
violin sonatas, a vioUn concerto, symphonies, 
an oratorio, Noah, etc. 

Braban90ime, the national air of the Belgians, 
words by Louis Dechez, surnamed Jenneval, 
music by Franz v. Campenhout, 1830. It 
begins thus — 

i^g^5Ep= ^^f^ ^E355 

and there follows the refrain, " La Mitraille a 
brise I'orange sur I'arbre de la liberty." 

Braccio (Ital.), arm. Viola da b. (See Viola.) 

Brace, a bracket connecting two or more 

Bradsky, Wenzel Theodor, b. Jan. 17, 
1833, Rakonitz (Bohemia), d. there Aug. g-io, 
1881. He received his musical training at 
Prague (Caboun and Fischek), and afterwards 
became a member of the cathedral choir at 
Berlin, where he also taught singing and com- 
posed diligently. In 1874 he was appointed 
court composer to Prince George of.Prussia, to 
whose lolanthe he wrote music. B. is best 
known by his songs and part-songs (also Bo- 
hemian) ; his operas Roswitha, Dessau, i860 ; 
Jarmila, Prague, 1879 ; and Der Rattenfdnger von 
Hameln, Berlin, 1881, met with only moderate 
success. Three older works, Der Heiratszwang, 
Die Braut des Waffenschmieds, and Das Krokodil, 
were not produced. 

Braga, Gaetano, b. June 9, 1829, Giulianova 
(Abruzzi), studied at the Naples Conservatorio. 
He lived at Florence, and was esteemed as a 
performer on the 'cello, and as a composer 
(songs, and eight operas, of which La Reginella, 
produced at Lecco in 1871, was particularly 

Braham (really Abraham), John, b. 1774, 

London, of Jewish parents, d. there Feb. 17, 
1856. He was a distinguished singer, and ap- 
peared at Covent Garden, Drury Lane, Royalty 
Theatre, etc. He was the first Sir Huon in 
Weber's Oberon, written for London. B. was 
accustomed to write the music for his own 
parts, and many numbers achieved considerable 
popularity. He lost the large fortune which 
he had amassed by the " Colosseum " specula- 
tion in 1831, and that of St. James's Theatre 
in 1836. 

Brjihinig, Julius Bernhard, b. Nov. 10, 
1822, Hirschfeld, near Elsterwerda, d. Oct. 23, 
1872, as teacher of music at the collegiate 
school at Detmold. He published a " Choral- 
buch" (1862J, " Ratgeber fiir Musiker bei der 
Auswahl geeigneter Musikalien" (1865)'; school 
song-books, pf. and organ pieces, Methods for 
pianoforte, violin, and viola. 

Brahms, Johannes, the greatest of living 
musicians, b. May 7, 1833, Hamburg, where 
his father was double-bass player, and from 
him he received his first musical instruction, 
and further training from Edward Marxsen. 
Schumann's warm recommendation in the Neue 
Zeitschrifi. ficr Musik (Oct. 23, 1833) drew the 
attention of musicians, public, and publishers 
to the young man, who afterwards, slowly but 
surely, built up his temple of artistic fame. 
After working for some time as conductor at 
the Lippe Court at Detmold, B. retired to his 
native city, studying the old masters diligently, 
and maturing his general culture. In 1862 he 
went to Vienna, which became his second home. 
For although, after conducting the concerts of 
the '■ Singakademie" in 1864, he left Vienna, 
yet he could find no place (Hamburg, Ziirich, 
Baden-Baden, etc.) in which he could com- 
fortably settle, and returned in 1869 to the city 
on the Danube. Then, again, after conducting 
the concerts of the " Gesellschaft der Musik- 
freunde " (1871-74) until Herbeck, who, mean- 
while, had again taken his place as court 
capellmeister, replaced him, he lived for. some 
time away from Vienna (near Heidelberg), but 
returned to that city in 1878. The degree of 
Mus. Doc. was conferred on him by the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge in 1877, and that of Dr. 
Phil. Hon. C. by Breslau in 1881. In 1886 the 
Prussian Government named him Knight of the 
Ordre pour U Merite, with voting power, and 
also member of the Berlin Academy of Arts ; 
and in 1889 he was presented with the freedom 
of his native city. What gives to Brahms a 
place among the immortals is the deep, true 
feeling which is always expressed in the choicest 
manner. All his works (with the exception of 
some dating from his storm-and-stress period, 
which, here and there, are somewhat bombastic 
and unruly) gain on closer acquaintanceship. 
He makes many new experiments in harmony, 
and these, at first, are confusing to the under- 
standing, but, on that very account, all the more 


conducive to lasting interest. Brahms' art of 
rhythm can, with good reason, be regarded 
as a continuation of that of Beethoven, in so 
far as it has turned from Schumann's charac- 
teristic mode of adhering to some marked 
rhythm, only suitable to small forms, to or- 
ganic variety and to refinement of figuration in 
thematic work. The somewhat obtrusive syn- 
copation to which B. was at first partial recedes 
more and more into the accompanying parts. 
B. depicts moods in a masterful manner ; not 
only has he at his command, and more so than 
any of his contemporaries, the strikingly sombre 
tone, the particular feature of the serious art of 
to-day, but, equally so, the redeeming euphony, 
the mild reflection of undying light which 
fills the soul vdth peac^'and devout feeling. 
Brahms' music comes straight from the heart : 
it is not made, but felt ; and this becomes more 
and more evident the more it is contrasted and 
compared with the wanton " picture " music of 
to-day, with its calculated objectivity. The 
difference between music which comes from the 
heart and that which comes from the head may 
quickly be shown by placing a work of Brahms 
over against one by Bruckner, whom so many, 
at the present time, would rank near to, if not 
above, Brahms. The latter employs all art 
technique only as a means to an end, and that 
long, and it may be interesting, spinning out 
and thematic weaving together of motives only 
as the subsoil from whence spring the radiating 
blossoms 6f overflowing feeling, whereas with 
Bruckner one is forced to recognise the technique 
and instrumental apparatus as an aim in itself, 
if one would not pine away longing after 
some soul-stirring emotion. Although Schu- 
mann's recommendation at once brought B. 
into note, the recognition of his importance, in 
vrider circles, only dates from the production 
(1868) of his " Deutsches Requiem " (Op. 45). 
This noble and yet so charming work has 
opened the eyes of many, who hitherto had 
looked upon lum as a plodder. Since that time 
every new work from his pen has been looked 
forward to with expectation and ever-increasing 
joy. We give here a complete list of the com- 
poser's works which have appeared up to 1892, 
without, however, noticing the very numerous 
arrangements of the same : A. — For Orchestra : 
Two serenades (Op. 11, in D for full. Op. 16, in 
A for small orchestra) ; four symphonies. (Op. 
68, c minor; Op. 73, D ; Op. qo,t; Op. 98, e 
minor) ; Variations on a 'Theme by Haydn (Op. 
56); "Academic Festival" Overture, Op. 80 
(Brahms' thanks for the Breslau Doctor's de- 
gree), and "Tragic" overture, Op. 81. B. — 
Concertos : Two pf. concertos (Op. 15, D minor; 
Op. 83, Bp) ; a violin concerto (Op. 77, d) ; a 
iouble concerto for violin and 'cello (Op. 102, 
A minor). G. — ^Vocal Works with Orchestra: 
Ave Maria for female chorus and orchestra (or 
organ). Op. 12 ; Funeral Hymn, for male chorus 
and wind (Op. 13) ; German Requiem, for soli. 

99 Brahms 

chorus, and orchestra (Op. 45) ; " Triumphlied," 
for chorus i 8 and orch. (Op. 55) ; " Schicksals- 
lied," for chorus and orch. (Op. .54) ; " Gesang 
der Parzen," for chorus a 6 and orch. (Op. 89) ; 
" Rinaldo," for tenor solo, male chorus, and 
orch. (Op. 56); "Rhapsodie," for alto solo, 
male chorus, and orch. (Op. 53) ; " Nanie," for 
chorus and orch. (Op. 82) . D.— Chamber Music: 
Two sextets for strings (Op. 18, B? ; Op. 36, g),; 
two quintets for strings (Op. 88, F ; Op. iii, g) ; 
a quintet for strings and Clar. (d minor. Op. 115); 
three quartets for strings (Op. 51, c minor and 
A minor ; Op. 67, B[?) ; a pf. quintet (Op. 34, f 
minor) ; three pf. quartets (Op. 25, G mmor ; Op. 
26, A ; Op. 60, c minor) ; five pf. trios (Op. 8, 
B. minor [completely revised, 1891]; Op. 40, E|7 
[with horn or 'cello ad lib.]; Op. 87, c; Op. 
loi, c minor ; Op. 114, a minof [with clarinet] ) ; 
two "cello sonatas (Op. 38, E minor; Op. 
99, f) ; three sonatas, pf. and violin (Op. 78, 
G ; Op. 100, A ; Op. 108, D minor). E. — ^Piano- 
forte Music : (a) For four hands : Variations on 
a Theme by Schumann (Op. 23), waltzes (Op. 
39), Hungarian Dances (four books) ; (i) for 
two hands : three sonatas (Op. i, c; Op. 2, vjt 
minor ; Op. 5, f minor) ; four ballads (Op. 10) , 
scherzo (Op. 4) ; two rhapsodies (Op. 79) ; eight 
pieces (Op. 76, Capricci and Intermezzi) ; Varia- 
tions (Op. 9 [Theme by Schumann] ; Op. 21, 
Op.. 24 [Theme by Handel] ; Op. 35 [Studies on 
a Theme by Paganini], and Studies [on a theme 
by Chopin, on the Pirpetuum Mobile by Weber, 
a Presto by Bach, e minor], the d minor 
chaconne by Bach [for left hand alone]). F. — 
Choral ; (a) Sacred : " Geistliches Lied " (Op. 30, 
with organ) ; the 23rd Psalm (Op. 27, for female 
chorus, with organ) ; " Marienlieder " (Op. 22) ; 
two motets (Op. 29, k 3) ; two motets (Op. 74) ; 
three sacred choruses for female voices (Op. 
37) ; three motets k 4 and 8 (Op. no) ; (6) Secular: 
Part-songs : Op^ 31 (three quartets with pf.) ; 
Op. 42 (three k 5) ; Op. 62 (seven lieder) ; Op. 64 
(three quartets with pf.) ; Op. 92 (four quartets 
with pf) ; Op. 93a (six lieder and romances k 4) ; 
Op. 93* (TaffelUed a 6) ; Liebeslieder-Walzer, 
with pf. duet (Op. 52 and 65); " Zigeunerlieder" 
(Op. 103 and 112, 44, withpf.) ; Op. 17 (four songsi 
for female chorus, two horns, and harp); Op. 44 
(twelve lieder and romances for female chorus, 
with pf. ad lib.) ; Op. 41 (five songs for male 
chorus); " Deutsche Fest und Gedenkspriiche," 
for double chorus (Op. 109). G. — Duets ; Op. 
20 (three for soprano and alto); Op. 28 (four for 
alto and baritone); Op. 61 (four for soprano and 
alto) ; Op. 66 (five for soprano and alto) ; Op. 75 
(ballads and romances). H. — Songs : Op. 3, 6, 
7, 14, 19, 32, 33 (" Magelone " romances) i 34, 
46, 47, 48, 49, 57, 58, 59, 63, 69, 70, 71, 72, 84, > 
85, 86, 91 (with viola), 94, 95, 96, 97, 105, 106, 
107 (with pf.), and "Mondnacht." I. — For 
Organ : Prelude and fugue in a minor, fugue in 
aP minor. H. Deiters wrote a special account 
of B. (1880). (C/alsa B. Vogel's biographical 
sketch "J. B.") 



Brah-Hiiller, Karl Friedrich Gustav, 
(Miiller, as composer B.), b. Oct. 7, 1839, 
Kritschen, near Oels (Silesia), d. Nov. i, 1878, 
Berlin. He attended the normal school at 
Bromberg-on-Brahe, whence he published his 
first work (hence the name B.). He was for 
some time teacher at Pleschen, then at Berlin ; 
he still pursued his musical studies under Geyer 
and Wuerst, and in 1867 was appointed teacher 
at the Wandelt Institute of Music. B. com- 
posed pf . pieces, songs, some operettas, etc. A 
quartet of his gained a prize at Milan in 1875. 

Brambach, (i) K. Joseph, b. July 14, 1833, 
Bonn ; studied at Cologne Conservatorium from 
1 85 1-4, then won the Mozart scholarship and 
went to Frankfort, and, still holding the scholar- 
ship, became private pupil of Ferdinand Hiller at 
Cologne. From 1858 to 1861 he was teacher at 
the Cologne Conservatorium, in 1861 musical 
director at Bonn, gave up this post in i86g, and 
since then lives as composer and private teacher. 
B. has made his name specially known by a 
series of important choral works : " Trost in 
Tonen," "Das eleusische Fest " (with soli), 
" Fruhlingshymnus " for mixed chorus with or- 
chestra, " Die Macht des Gesangs," "Velleda," 
" Alcestis " for male chorus, soli, and orchestra. 
His latest works of this kind are : " Prome- 
theus," which received a prize at the Rhenish 
" Sangerverein " in 1880, and "Columbus" 
(1886) ; also some smaller choral works, among 
which " Germanischer Siegesgesang," " Das Lied 
vom Rhein," part-songs, pf. songs, duets, etc. ; 
a sextet for strings, a pf. sextet, two pf. quartets, 
a pf. concerto, a concert overture {Tasso), etc. — 
all of which have been published. — (z) Wil- 
helm, a philologist of note, b. Dec, 17, 1841, 
Bonn ; in 1866 ex-assistant professor, in 1868 
professor in ordinary of philology at Freiburg, 
and since 1872 principal librarian of the 
" Hof-und Landesbibliothek " at Carlsruhe. 
Besides various works on philology, he wrote : 
" Das Tonsystem und die Tonarten des chiist- 
lichen Abendlandes im Mittelalter, etc." (1881), 
also " Die Musiklitteratur des Mittelalters bis 
zur Bliite der Reichenauer Sangerschule " (1883), 
and " Hermanni Contract! Musica" (1884), 
monographs of importance. 

Brambilla, (i) Paolo, b. 1786, Milan; pro- 
duced from 1816-19, in Milan and Turin, four 
comic operas; and 1819-33, in Milan, nine 
ballets. — (2) Marietta, b. about 1807, Cassano 
d'Adda, d. Nov. 6, 1875, Milan, a. highly es- 
teemed teacher of singing. She was a pupil at 
the Conservatorio of her native town, made her 
debut in 1827 in London with great success as 
Arsaces in Rossini's Semiramis, and was for 
some years an ornament to the opera houses of 
London, Vienna, and Paris. She published 
also vocahses, songs, etc. 

Brancaccio, Antonio, b. 1813, Naples, d. 
there Feb. 12, 1846, trained at the Naples Con- 
servatorio, made his dlbut as dramatic composer 

at Naples with / Panduri (1843), followed in the 
same place by // Morto ed il Vivo, L'Asseiio di 
Constantina, II Puntiglio, and L'Incognita (" Dope 
15 anni"). Of five other posthumous operas, 
LUla (1848) was performed in Venice in 1848. 

Brandeis, Friedrich, pianist and composer, 
b. 1832, Vienna, pupil of Fischhof and Czerny 
(pianoforte), and Rufinatscha (composition). In 
1848 he went to New York, where he occupies a 
high position as teacher of his instrument. B. 
has published pf. pieces (including a sonata), 
and songs, also an Andante for orchestra, and a 
Ballad for chorus, soli, and orchestra. 

Brandes, Emma, b. Jan, 20, 1854, near 
Schwerin, an able pianist, pupil of Aloys 
Schmitt, and the court pianist, Goltermann; 
recently married the philologist. Professor En- 
gelmann, of Utrecht. 

Brandl, (i) Johann, b. Nov. 14, 1760, at the 
Rohr monastery, ■ near Ratisbon, d. May 26, 
1837, Carlsruhe, as coutt musical director ; com- 
posed masses, oratorios, symphonies, an opera, 
and some small pieces. — (2) Johann, Viennese 
operetta composer, since 1869 Has produced 
every other year at Vienna, a dramatic work, 
but of no artistic value. 

Brandstetter. (Sre Garbrecht.) 

Brandt, Marianne (really Marie Bischof), 
b. Sept. 12, 1842, Vienna, where she became a 
pupil of Frau Marschner at the Conservatorium; 
was first engaged in 1867 in Graz, was from 
1868-86 a highly esteemed member of the Berlin 
Opera (contralto) ; from 1869-70, during the 
vacation, she studied with Viardot-Garcia in 
Paris. In 1882 she sang at Baireuth as Kundry 
in Wagner's Parsifal. 

Brandus, Dufour & Co., great Paris music- 
publishing firm, founded (1834) by Moritz 
Schlesinger (q.v.). In 1846 it was taken up 
by the brothers, Louis B. (d. Sept. 30, 1887), 
and Gemmy B. (b. 1823, d. Feb. 12, 1873). 

Branle (Bransle), an old French ring-dance 
of moderate movement and in binary time, as 
was indeed the case with all old dances accom- 
panied by singing. It had a refrain after each 

Brant, Jobst, orjodocus.vo m,the younger. 
He was a captain at Waldsachsen, and gov- 
ernor of Liebenstein., His friend, George 
Forster, speaks of him as a " fein lieblicher Kom- 
ponist'^ (1549 and 1556). The fifty-four German 
songs in harmony, and a Motet a 6, prove 
that he was not only a sound contrapuntist, 
but a musician of deep feeling. (Cf. Eitnef: 
" Bibliogr. of Collections of Musical Works, 
etc.," 1877.) 

Brassin, (i) Louis, b. June 24, 1840, Aix, d. 
May 17, 1884, Petersburg. He was a distin- 
guished pianist. He studied with his father, 
the operatic singer Gerhard B. (b. 1810, d. 
Sept., 1888, Briihl, near Bonn), and then under 


Breltkopf und Hartel 

Moscheles at the Leipzig Conservatorium. In 
1866 he was at first teacher at the Stem Con- 
servatorium in Berlin, from 1869 to 1879 at the 
Brussels Conservatoire, after that at the Peters- 
burg Conservatoire. Of his pianoforte com- 
positions the Etudes deserve special mention. 
His brothers are — (2) Leopold, b. May 28, 
1843, Strassburg, d. 1890, Constantinople; court 
pianist at Coburg, then teacher at the Berne 
Music School. He lived also for some time in 
Petersburg. — (3) Gerhard, b. June 10, 1844, 
Aix, celebrated violinist ; in 1863 teacher at the 
Berne Music School, then leader at Gothen- 
burg (Sweden), in 1874 teacher at the Stem 
Conservatorium in Berlin, 1875-80 conductor 
of the Society of Artists in Breslau, and since 
then has resided in Petersburg. He has pub- 
lished several pieces for violin alone of great 
merit and technical interest. 
BratBche (Ger.). {See Viola.) 

Bravo (Ital.), brave, valorous ; the usual word 
for a shout of approval ; in the superlative, 
bravissimo. To a man the Italians call bravo, 
bravissimo (pi. bravi) ; to a lady, brava, bravissima 
(pi. brave). 

Brayonr (Fr. ; Ital. Bravura), bravery. Bra- 
vourarie, i.e. an aria with great technical diffi- 
culties; and so also Bravourstuck, Allegro di 
bravura, Valse de bravour, etc. 

Brawl, an old country dance ; a round. 

Breath, the air stored up in the lungs, which, 
during expiration, condensed by muscular con- 
traction, produces the effect of wind, and evokes 
sounds from the human wind-instrument (the 
voice), as well as from other wind-instruments 
iiito the mouth-piece of which the air is con- 
ducted. Proper economy with the breath, and 
the right time for taking it, are difficult matters 
both in singing and blowing. For both, deef 
breathing (taking a full B.), where the pause is 
long enough, is of importance ; for with the lungs, 
thus once well filled with fresh air, there is no 
necessity to take repeated small gasps of breath 
(taking a half breath). For the singer it is, 
besides, of importance that he should not 
breathe {see Embouchure) before the formation 
of the note ; and, even when the breathed mode 
of attack is adopted, he should endeavour to 
make it as short as possible. While a note is 
being held out, all puffing out of the air must 
be avoided, especially in fiano and mezzoforte, 
whfen the need of air is exceedingly small ; only 
the forte demands a stronger pressure, and even 
then a great waste of breath is possible. The 
composer has principally to show where a breath 
should be taken. The wind-instrument player 
must not break up a tied phrase, and, in addi- 
tion, the singer must take notice of the words, 
and breathe in places where, in speaking, short 
pauses would be made. A special caution inust 
be given against taking breath at the end of a 
bar, or between article and substantive, etc. 

Brebos, Gilles. {See Gilles.) 

Bree, Jean Bernard van, b. Jan. 29, 1801, 
Amsterdam, d. there Feb. 14, 1857. He studied 
with Bertelmann, and, in 1829, was artistic 
director of the Felix Mentis Union ; in 1840 he 
founded the St. Cecilia Society, which he con- 
ducted up to the time of his death, and was 
director of the music school of the Union for 
the Advancement of Musical Art. B. was a 
prolific composer of instrumental and vocal 
music (opera, Sapho, 1834). 

Breidenstein, Heinrich Karl, b. Feb. 28, 
1796, Steinau (Hesse), d. July 13, 1876, Bonn. 
He first studied law, but went to Heidelberg, 
where he made the acquaintance of Thibaut, 
and turned to philology. He then became 
private tutor in the house of Count Wintzin- 
gerode, in Stuttgart, and afterwards principal 
teacher at Heidelberg. In 1821 he went to 
Cologne, where he gave lectures on music, and 
in 1823 was appointed musical director at Bonn 
University, qualified himself as lecturer, and 
afterwards received the title of professor. He 
was the promoter of the Beethoven monument 
at Bonn, for the unveiling of which he wrote a 
festival pamphlet, and produced a cantata. 
Some of his chorales are particularly well 
known. The valuable materials which he had 
collected for a Method for Organ came into the 
possession of the compiler of this dictionary. His 
Method of Singing was formerly much in vogue. 

Breltkopf und Hartel, renowned firm of music 
publishers in Leipzig, was founded in 1719 as 
a printing-office by Beruhard Christoph 
Breltkopf, from Klausthal (Hartz), b. March 
2, 1695. His son, Johann Gottlob Im- 
manuel Breltkopf, b. Nov. 23, 1719, entered, 
in 1745, the business, which from 1765 traded 
under the name B. C. Breltkopf und Sohri, 
and which increased so rapidly that the " Zum 
goldnen Baren " house was not large enough, 
and more room had to be obtained by pur- 
chasing that of the "Silberner Bar" house. 
When the father died, March 26, 1777, Im- 
manuel Breltkopf became sole proprietor. This 
name is of importance in the history of music- 
printing, for he it was who wisely ■ revived 
Petrucci's invention of movable types. {Cf. 
Music-PRINTING.) Although this invention, 
which might justly be regarded as a new one, 
soon found imitators,'he benefited principally by 
it. The music business, too, prospered greatly 
under his hands, for he gathered together a 
comprehensive store of manuscript and printed 
music and books, and published catalogues. 
He also wrote : " Ueber die Geschichte und 
Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst " (1779) : 
"Versuch, den Ursprung der Spielkarten, die 
Einfiihrung des Leinenpapiersund den Anfang 
der Holzschneidekunst in Europa zu erforschen " 
(1784) ; " Ueber Schriftgiesserei und Stempel- 
schneiderei ; " " Ueber Bibliographie und Biblio- 
philie" (1793). After his death (Jan. 28, 1794), 



his son, Christoph Gottlpb Breitjcopf, b.' 
Sept. 28., 1750, took the business, but soon 
handed it over entirely to his friend, partner, 
and heir, G. C. Hartel, and died already April 
7, 1800. — Gottfried Christoph Hartel was 
b. Jan. 27, 1763, Schneeberg, and when he be- 
came partner the firm was called B. and H. 
He increased the business by the addition of a 
pianoforte manufactory, which soon acquired 
an immense reputation, began, from Oct. 1798, 
to publish the AUgemeifie Mmikalische Zeitung (the 
first musical paper of durable fanie), brought out 
complete editions of the works of Mozart and 
Haydn,etc.,iutroducedpewter plates, andin 1805 
arranged wjth Senefelder, the inventor of litho- 
graphy, to introduce lithography for the printing 
of the titles. Hedied July 25, 1827. His nephew, 
Florenz Hartel, continued the business for the 
heirs, until in 1835 the eldest son of Gottfried, 
Dr. Hermann Hartel, b. April 27, 1803, be- 
came the head (d. Aug. 4, 1875, Leipzig ; married 
the pianist, Luise Hauffe, b. Jan. 2, 1837, Diiben, 
d. March 20, 1882, Leipzig). His brother, the 
town-councillor, Raimund Hartel (b. June g, 
1810, d. Nov. 10, 1888, Leipzig) snared the 
management with him. These two men, who for 
a long period stood at the head of the Leipzig 
book-trade, were faithful to the good traditions 
of the house, causing it to be held in still higher 
esteem. To them we owe monumental, critical, 
complete editions of the works of Beethoven, 
Mozart, and Mendelssohn ; the Bach Society 
Edition is engraved and printed by them. 
Their number of publications extends to 16,000. 
B. and H. have recently undertaken a cheap 
edition of the classics (Volksausgabe), which 
compares favourably with others of the same 
kind. But the book department under their 
management has increased in an extraordinary 
manner. After the death of Hermann Hartel 
and the withdrawal of his brother Raimund 
(1880), the sons of their two sisters, Wilhelm 
Volkmann (b. June 12, 1837, Leipzig, son of 
the Halle physiologist), and Dr. Oskar Hase 
(b. Sept. 15, 1846, Jena, son of the Jena Church 
historian), became the sole managers of the 
business. The latter published a monograph 
on the book trade in the i6th century, " Die 
Koberger" (second edition, 1885). 

Brendel, Karl Franz, b. Nov. 26, 1811, 
Stolberg, d. Nov. 25, 1868, Leipzig. He studied 
philosophy at Leipzig, and, at the same tinie, 
the pianoforte under Fr. Wieck, graduated at 
Berlin, and only in 1843 turned his attention en- 
tirely to music. He held lectures on the science 
of music in Freiberg, and later on in Dresden and 
Leipzig. In 1844 he undertook the editorship 
of the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik (founded in 1834 
by Schumann), which he carried on in the 
spirit of the " new German " school ; the same 
lines were followed in his monthly pamphlet, 
Anregungen. fur Kunst, Zeben, und Wissenschaft 
(i8g6-6jo). Soon afterwards he became teacher 

of the history of music at the Leipzig Conserv- 
atorium, which post restrained him from act- 
ing logically, and siding with Liszt and Wagner. 
B. was one of the original founders, and for 
many years president, of the Allgemeiner 
Deutcher Musikverein (1861). Besides his 
newspaper articles, he published : " Grundzuge 
der Geschichte der Musik" (1848; fifth ed. 
1861) ; " Geschichte der Musik in Italien, 
Deutschland, und Frankreich von den ersten 
christlichen Zeiten an, etc." (1852, two vols. ; 
sixth ed., published. by F. Stade, 1879); "Die 
Musik der Gegenwart und die Gesamtkunst 
der Zukunft " (1854) ; " Franz Liszt als Sym- 
phoniker" (1859), and " Geist und Tecknik im 
Klavierunterricht " (1867). 

Brenner, Ludwig von, b. Sept. 19, 1833, 
Leipzig, pupil of the Leipzig Conservatorium, 
lived at Petersburg for fifteen years as member 
of the Imperial band, was conductor {1872-76) 
of the Berlin "Symphoniekapelle," and after- 
wards of an orchestra of his own (the " Neue 
Berliner Symphoniekapelle "). He is now con- 
ductor at Breslau, and has written orchestral 
and vocal works. 

Breslaur, Emil, b. May 29, 1836, Kottbus, 
attended the Gymnasium of his native town, 
and the training college at Neuzelle, and, after 
a long probation, became instructor in religion 
and preacher to the Jewish community of his 
native town. In 1863 he settled in Berlin for 
the purpose of devoting his whole attention to 
music. He studied four years at the Stern Con- 
servatorium, especially under Jean Vogt, H. 
Ehrlich (pianoforte), Fl. Geyer, Fr. Kiel (com- 
position), H. Schwanzer (organ), and J. Stern 
(playing from score, conducting). From 1868 
to 1879 he was teacher at KuUalc's academy for 
pianoforte playing and theory, and lately for 
the art of teaching pianoforte playing. Since 
1883 B. has been choir-master at the reforined 
synagogue as Stern's successor. B. was also 
active as a musical critic {Spmersche Zeitung, 
Fremdenblatt). In 1879 he founded a union for 
music teachers (male and female) at Berlin, 
which, thanks to his efforts and to the influ- 
ence of his paper (see below), developed in 1886 
into the " Deutscher Musiklehrer-Verband." 
B. is the founder and director of a college for 
the training of pianoforte teachers (male and 
female). For the instructive work, " Die Tech- 
nische Grundlage des Klavierspiels " (1874), he 
received the title of Professor. In 1881 the 
Philharmonic Academy at Bologna named him . 
honorary member. In wider circles, B. is espe- 
cially known by his pedagogic periodical, Def 
Klavierhhrer (since 1878), also by the " Noten- 
Schreibhefte " published by Breitkopf & Hartel. 
He has also written a number of choral pieces, 
songs, pf. pieces, a " Klavierschule," and a 
"Fiih'rerdurch dieKlavierunterrichtslitteratur" ; 
also the pamphlets, "Zur Methodischen Uebung 
des Klavierspiels," "Der Entwickelnde Unter- 




richt in derH^monielehre," "Ueber die schad- 
lichen Folgen des unrichtigeh Uebens." His 
"Methodik des Klavierunterrichts in Einzel- 
aufsatzen " (1887) is a collection of treatises by 
various authors. 

Brennimg, Ferdinand, b. March 2, 1830, 
Brotterode, below Inselsberg, d. Sept. 22, 1883, 
Aix-la-Chapelle, pupil of the Leipzig Conserva- 
torium, 1855 Reinecke's successor as pianoforte 
teacher at the Cologne Conservatorium, and 
from 1865 " Musikdirektor " at Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Breval, Jean Baptiste, b. 1756, Departe- 
ment de TAisne, d. 1825, Cha,mouille, near 
Laon, 'cello player, principal 'cellist at the 
Grand Opera, and 'cello professor at the Paris 
Conservatoire until 1802, when the institution 
was reorganised and he received a pension. 
He wrote a great quantity of instrumental 
music, especially concertos, and chamber-music 
for stringed instruments ; also an opera — Ines 
et Leonore (1788). 

Brevis, the third species of note in measured 
music = ^ or -^ of a I/mga (according to the 
measure prescribed ; cf. Mensural Note). The 
B. occurs in our present notation only in the 
so-called great allabreve time (f) where, as bar 
unit, it has the value of two semibreves or 
whole bar-notes. Concerning breves in liga- 
tures, cum froprietate and sine perfectione, see Liga- 
ture, Proprietas, and Imperfection. In 
reprints of old music the B. is generally repre- 
sented by PI . 

Briard, fitienne, type-founder at Avignon 
about 1530. His types, instead of notes of the 
usual angular shape, gave round ones, and, in 
place of the complicated ligatures, the notes 
with their proper value. The works of Carpen- 
tras (q.v.) were printed with such types by 
Jean de Channay at Avignon in 1532 — a. unique 

Briccialdi, Giulio, b. March 2, 1818, Terni 
(States of the Church), d. Dec. 17, 1881, 
Florence, excellent flute-player, made extensive 
journeys and Uved for a long time in London. 
His compositions for flute are held in esteem. 

Bridge (Ger. Steg) is, in stringed instruments, 
the delicately cut block of hard wood over 
which the strings are stretched. The B. rests 
with its two feet firmly on the top block. 
Exactly under one foot, between top and bottom 
block, is placed the sound-post. This prevents 
any giving way of the top block, and gives to 
the B. a firm support on the one side ; and this, 
as soon as the string vibrates, enables the vibra- 
tions to be transmitted by jerks from the other 
foot to the top block. (Cf. Sound-board, Trumb- 
SCHEIT (2).) The B. is used for a similar 
purpose m pianofortes. Here, it is a long ledge 
running parallel with the pinblock. This ledge 
lies on the sound-board, and the strings are 
stretched over it. 

Bridge, (i) John Frederick, b.Dec. 5, 

1844, Oldbury, 'Worcester, pupil of J. Hopkins 
?.nd J. Goss, at first in 1865 organist at Trinity 
Church, Windsor, then in 1869 at Manchester 
Cathedral, 1875 deputy, and 1882 principal, 
organist at Westminster Abbey. B. is also 
Professor of Harmony and Counterpoint at the 
Royal College of Music, .conductor of the 
Western and the Madrigal Societies, and Ex- 
aminer of Music at the University of London, 
etc. (he took his degree of Dr. Mus. at Oxford 
with his oratorio Mount Moriah).> B. has written 
hymns, cantatas, also anthems and orchestral 
works, and primers on Counterpoint, Double 
Counterpoint, Canon, and Organ Accompani- 
ment of the Choral Service. B. was decorated 
by the Queen for his "Jubilee" Service in 1887. — 
(2) Joseph Cox, brother and pupil of the above, 
b. Aug. 16, 1853, Rochester ; studied also under 
Hopkins, and is likewise a celebrated organist, 
since 1877 at Chester Cathedral, where he 
helped to resuscitate the Chester Triennial 
Festival, which had not been held for fifty 
years. He took his degree of Dr. Mus. in 1879 
at Oxford. He has also written several im- 
portant vocal works (Daniel, Rudel, 1891). 

Briegel, Wolfgang Karl, b. May 21, 1626, 
1650 court cantor at Gotha, 1670 capellmeister 
at Darmstadt, d. there Nov. 19, 1712. He was 
a very prolific composer of sacred music, in- 
strumental pieces, etc. 

Brillante (Ital.), brilliant, sparkling. 

Brilleubasse (Ger. "spectacle ^a« 

basses"), a nickname for the f ^_ \^ — 

figure which has to be resolved f ^ "■' 

into quavers. 

Brindisi (Ital.), a drinking-song. 

Brink, Jules ten, composer, b. Nov., 1838, 
Amsterdam, d. Feb. 6, 1889, Paris. He studied 
with Heinze at. Amsterdam, with Dupont at 
Brussels, and with E. F. Richter at Leipzig, 
He was musical director at Lyons from i860 to 
1868, and then settled in Paris, where he dis- 
played his gifts as a composer in some in- 
strumental compositions, produced' partly at a 
Concert spirituel, partly at a concert given by 
himself in 1878 (orchestral suite, symphonic 
poem, symphony, violin concerto, etc.). A one- 
act comic opera (Calonice) was given, at the 
AtWn^e Theatre m 1870, and favourably re- 
ceived. A grand opera in five acts remained in 

Brinsmead, John, founder of the celebrated 
London pianoforte firm, J. B. & Sons, b. 
Oct. 13, 1814, Wear Giffard (North Devon). 
He established the business in 1833, and in 
1863 took his two sons, Thomas and Edgar, 
into partnership. The younger, Edgar B., 
wrote a "History of the Pianoforte" (1868; 
partly revmtten and republished in 1879). 

Brio (Ital.), vivacity; con b., brioso, with fire. 

Bris^ (Fr.), broken, played arpeggio. 




Brissler, Friedrich Ferdinand, b. June 

13, 1818, Insterburg, pupil of flie Berlin Acad- 
emy (Rungenhagen, A. W. Bach, F. Schnei- 
der, and R. Schumann) ; gave concerts from 
1838-45 as pianist, and was for a long time 
teacher at the Stern Conservatorium. B. is 
especially known through his numerous useful 
vocal scores (for two and four hands), an opera, 
symphony, etc. 

Bristow, George F., pianist and violinist, 
b." 1825, New York. He was trained by his 
father, and is highly esteemed in his native city 
as teacher, performer, conductor. He has also 
made a reputation as composer (two sym- 
'phonies, opera Rip van Winkle, oraionos Daniel 
and St. John, many pf. pieces, songs, etc.). At 
present B.' is professor of singing at New York 
Municipal Schools. 

Brizi, Franz Xaver, noteworthy Bohemian 
Church composer, b. 1732, Prague, d. there Oct. 

14, 1771. He was an orphan at the age of five, 
and was brought up at Kosmanos by an ecclesi- 
astic to whom he was related, and afterwards 
received musical training under Segert at 
Prague, where he also attended the university. 
B. was first appointed organist of St. Gallus, and 
became capellmeister at Prague Cathedral in 
1756. B. wrote fifty-twO grand festival masses, 
twenty-four smaller masses, many psalms, litan- 
ies, vespers, several oratorios, a Requiem, etc. 

' His masses are still performed in Bohemia. 

Broadwood & Sons, the eminent pianoforte 
makers in. London. The firm was established 
in 1732 by an immigrant Swiss, Burkhard 
Tschudi (Shudi), whose harpsichords soon 
became famous (some of, his instruments are 
in Windsor Castle and at Potsdam). John 
Broadwood, originally a cabinet-maker, 
became Tschudi's partner, son-in-law, and heir. 
The so-called " English action," first applied 
to pianofortes by Americus Backers in 1770 — 
and which, before his death in 1781, he recom- 
mended to Broadwood — is only a development 
of the action invented by ' Cristofori and de- 
veloped by Silbermann. (See Pianoforte.) 
John Broadwood, b. 1732,. d. 1812, was suc- 
ceeded by his sons, Tames Shudi andThomas 
Broadwood. The present head of the firm is 
Henry Fowler Broadwood. The manufac- 
ture of pianofortes has increased to a colossal 
extent. The firm turns out several thousands 
of instruments every year. 

Brodj Henry, b. Aug. 4, 1801, Paris, d. 
there April 6, 1839. He was a. distinguished 
performer on the oboe, and professor at the 
Paris Conservatoire. 

Eroderies (Fr.), Ornaments (q.v.). 

Brodsky, Adolf, distinguished violinist, b. 
March 21, 1851, Taganrog (Russia). He played 
in public at Odessa when only nine years 
of age, and excited the interest of a well-to- 
do citizen there, who had him trained under 

J. Hellmesberger at Vienna, and finally at the 
Conservatorium (1862-63). B. then joined the 
Hellmesberger quartet-party, and from 1868 to 
1870 was member of the opera orchestra, mak- 
ing appearances at the same time as soloist. A 
long artistic tour ended at Moscow in 1873, 
where B. resumed his studies under Laub. In 
1875 he received an appointment at the Con- 
servatoire, and became successor to Hrimaly, 
who was advanced to the post left vacant by 
the death of Laub. In 1879 B. left Moscow, 
conducted the symphony concerts at Kiev, and 
in 1881 recommenced touring, appearing at 
Paris, Vienna, London, Moscow with great 
success until, in the winter (1882-83) he re- 
ceived the violin professorship at Leipzig, 
which, through the departure of Schradieck, 
had become vacant. Since 1892 he has been 
living in New York. 

Broer, Ernst, b. April 11, 1809, OWau 
(Silesia), d. March 25, 1886, Tarnopol. He 
was 'cellist and organist (about 1840 at the 
" Dachsemkirche," Breslau), 1843-84 teacher of 
singing at the Matthias Gymnasium there ; also 
a composer of sacred music. 

Bromel. (See Brumel.) 

Bronsart von Schellendorf, Hans (Hans 
von Bronsart), pianist and composer, b. Feb. 
II, 1830, Berhn. He was the eldest son of the 
General Lieutenant v. B. ; he studied from 
1849 to 1852 at the Berlin University, and, at 
the same time, studied the theory of music with 
Dehn. He lived for several years at Weimar, 
working with Liszt, and gave concerts in Paris, 
Petersburg, and the principal cities of Germany. 
From i860 to 1862 he conducted the " Euterpe" 
concerts at Leipzig, and the concerts of the 
" Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde " at Berlin as 
Billow's successor. In 1867 he became in- 
tendant of the royal theatre at Hanover, and 
was afterwards named royal chamberlain ; and 
since 1887 he has been " Hofmusikintendant " 
at Berlin. Of his compositions the Trio in 
G minor, and the pianoforte concerto in Ff 
minor have become known far and wide ; and 
besides, his " Friihlings-phantasie " for orches- 
tra has been repeatedly performed. In addition 
to many pianoforte works may be named a 
cantata, Chrisinacht (performed by the Riedel 
Society at Leipzig), and a sextet for strings. In 
1862 B. married the pianist, Ingeborg Starck 
(b. Aug. 24, 1840, of Swedish parents), a dis- 
tinguished pianist and pupil of Liszt. Both 
have won reputation as composers for the 
pianoforte. Frau v. B. has also written three 
operas (Die Gottin zu. Sdis, Hjarne, Jiry, und 
Baeteli), also songs, violin pieces, etc. 

Bros, Juan, b. 1776, Tortosa (Spain), d. 1852, 
Oviedo. He was, in turn, maestro at the 
cathedrals of Malaga, Leon, and Oviedo. He 
was' famed as a composer of sacred music. 

Broschi, Carlo. (J'<; Farinelli.) 




Broaig, Moritz, b. Oct. 13, 1815, Fuchs- 
•winkel. (Upper Silesia), d. Jan. 24, 1887, Bres- 
ku. He attended the Matthias Gymnasium at 
JLeipzig, was then a diligent pupil of the musical 
director and cathedral organist Franz Wolf, 
and, when the. latter died in 1842, replaced him 
in his various posts. He became cathedral 
capellmeister in 1853, was named doctor of 
philosophy, and became sub-director of the 
Royal Institute for Catholic Church Music, and 
lecturer at the University, also a member of 
the "Cecilia" Academy at Rome. B. was a 
diligent and prolific composer of sacred music, 
and published four great, and three small in- 
strumental masses, seven books of graduais and 
offertories, twenty books of organ pieces, an 
" Orgelbuch " in eight parts, a " Choralbuch," 
a " Modulationstheorie," and a " Harmonie- 
lehre " (1874). 

Brossard, (i) Sebastian de, b. 1660, d. 
Aug. 10, 1730, Meaux; took holy orders, and 
was at first prebendary, in 1689 capellmeister 
at Strassburg Cathedral, and, from 1700 up to 
his death in 1730, grand chapelain and musical 
director at the Cathedral of Meaux. B. is the 
author of the oldest musical dictionary (apart 
fromTinctor's " Definitorium," Naples, cir. 1475 ; 
and Jauowka's " Clavis ad thesaurum magnae 
artis musicse, etc.," 1701). ^ His work bears the 
title " Dictionnaire de musique, contenant une 
explication des termes grecs, italiens et frangais 
les plus usites dans la mUsique, etc." (1703, 2nd 
'ed., 1705; 3rd ed., without year of pulDlication). 
B. also published some books of church composi- 
tions. — (2) Noel Matthieu, b. Dec. 25, 1789, 
Chalon sur Sa6ne, where he died as magistrate. 
A clever theorist who, in his work, " Th^orie 
des sons musicaux" (1847), called attention to 
the various possible acoustical values of sounds, 
and of these he reckoned forty-eight within 
the compass of the octave. He also published 
a table of keys (1843), as well as a Guide how 
to use them in teaching (1844). 

Brouck, Jakob de, also de Prugg, b. in 
the Low Countries, was alto in the Royal 
Chapel, Vienna, from 1573 to 1576. He pub- 
lished a collection of motets at Antwerp (1579), 
and three are also to be found in Joanellus' 
Collection of 1568. {Cf. Bruck.) 

Bronillon-Lacombe. (Set Lacombb.) 
Bruch, Max, b. Jan. 6, 1838, Cologne, re- 
ceived his first musical instruction from his 
mother (nee Almenrader), who was an esteemed 
teacher of music, and who, in her youth, re- 
peatedly took part in Rhenish musical festivals as 
soprano singer. Already at the age of eleven, 
B., at that time pupil of K. Breidenstein, tried his 
hand at compositions on a large scale, and, at 
the age of fourteen, produced a symphony at 
Cologne. In 1853 he gained the scholarship of 
the Mozart Foimdation (q.v.), which he held 
for four years, and was the special pupil of 
Ferdinand Hiller for theory and composition. 

of Karl Reinecke (until 1854), and of Fer- 
dinand Breunung for pianoforte. After a short 
stay in Leipzig, he lived as teacher of music at 
Cologne from 1858 to 1861, where, already in 
3:858, he produced his first dramatic composi- 
tion, Goethe's Singspiel, Scherz, List und Roche. ' 
After the death of his father, in 1861, he made 
an extensive tour for the purpose of study, 
which, after a short stay at Berlin, Leipzig, 
Vienna, Dresden-, Munich, ended- at Mannheim, 
where in 1863 his. opera (written to the libretto 
prepared by Geibel for Mendelssohn), Loreley, 
was produced. In Mannheim (1862-64) he 
wrote the choral works, Frithjaf, Romischer 
Triumphgesang, Gesang der heiligen drei Konige, 
Flucht der heiligen Familie, etc. From' 1864-65 he 
travelled again (Hamburg, Hanover, Dresden, 
Breslau, Munich, Brussels, Paris, etc.), and 
produced his Frithjofvnih extraordinary success 
at Aix, Leipzig, and Vienna. From 1865-67 
he was musical director at Coblenz ; from 1867- 
70 court capellmeister at Sondershausen. At 
Coblenz he wrote, among other things, his 
well-known first violin concerto, and at Son- 
dershausen two symphonies and portions of a 
mass, etc. The opera, Hermione, produced at 
Berlin in 1872, where B. resided from. 1871-73, 
only met with a sueces d'estime. The choral 
work, Odysseus, also belongs to the Berlin 
period. After devoting five years at Bonn 
(1873-78) exclusively to composition (Arminius, 
Lied von der Glocke, the 2nd violin concerto), 
only making two journeys to England for per- 
formances of his works, he became in 1878, 
after the departure of Stockhausen, conductor 
of the Stem Choral Union, and in 1880, as 
successor to Benedict, conductor of the Philhar- 
monic Society, Liverpool. In 1881 he married 
the vocalist, Fraul. Tuczek, from Berliti. In 
1883 he resigned his post at Liverpool, in order 
to undertake the direction of the orchestral 
society at Breslau, as successor to Bernard 
Scholz ; he remained here until the end Of the 
year i8go. In 1892 B. succeeded H. v. Her- 
zogenberg at the Kgl. Hochschule, Berlin. 
In the department of choral music B. is one 
of the most distinguished German Composers. 
The great works for mixed chorus, soli, and 
orchestra, Odysseus, Arminius, Lied von der 
Gloche, and Achilleus (1885), as well as the 
choruses for male voices, Frithjof, Salamis, 
Normannenzug, are his most important crea- 
tions : his first violin concerto, however, is a 
favourite with all violinists. The characteristic 
points of B.'s style of writing are delight in 
beautiful effects of sound, simplicity, and na- 
turalness of invention. Further may be men- 
tionedhis 3rd symphony in E (Op. 61) ; the 3rd 
violin concerto in D minor (Op. 58) ; the Hebrew 
melody, "Kol Nidrei," for cello; the choral 
work, Schon Ellen (an early work) ; the cantata, 
Das Feuer Kreuz (Op. 52) ; and two choruses for 
male voices, with orchestra. Op. 53 (T/ierm- 
pyla, Spartdos). 




Brack, (Brouck), Arnold von, probably a 
German from Switzerland. Already in the year 
1534 he was principal capellmeister to the 
Emperor Ferdinand I., and died in 1543. A 
medal was struck off in his honour in 1536. 
He was one of the most distinguished com- 
posers of the i6th century, and many of his 
German songs in parts : (secular and sacred), 
motets, hymns, etc., have been preserved in 
collections of the 16th century. (See Biblio- 
graphy OF EiTNER. C/. Brouck.) 

Bruckler, Hugo, a highly-gifted song com- 
poser, who unfortunately died at an early age, 
b. Feb. 18, 1845, Dresden, d. there Oct. 4, 1871. 
At the age of ten he was member of the Evan- 
gelical chapel boys' choir. He was a pupil 
of Johann Schneideri and received further train- 
, ing at the Dresden Conservatorium (Schubert 
for violin, Krebs, Armin, Fruh, Rietz). He 
published (Op. i and 2) songs from Scheffel's 
Trompeter von, SdcMngm (i. Five Songs of Young 
Werner by the Rhine. 2. Songs of Margaret). 
After his death, A. Jensen published "Sieben 
Gesange" and Rheinhold Becker the ballad, 
"Der Vogt von Tenneberg." 

Bruckner, Anton, composer and organist, b. 
Sept. 4, 1824, Ansfelden (Upper Austria). He 
was the son of a village schoolmaster, from 
whom he received his first musical instruction. 
After the premature death of his father he was 
received as chorister in the collegiate church of 
St. Florian. Though in extremely needy cir- 
cumstances as assistant schoolmaster in Wind- 
hag, near Freistadt, and afterwards as teacher 
and temporary organist at the Church of St. 
Florian, B. trained himself, and became a dis- 
tinguished contrapuntist and excellent organist, 
so that in 1855, at the competition for the post 
of cathedral organist at Linz, he came off con- 
queror. B. went frequently to Vienna from 
Linz, as he had already done from St. Florian, 
in order to receive further training from Sechter 
in counterpoint ; and from 1861 to 1863 he 
st-udied, in addition, composition with Otto 
Kitzler. After Sechter's death, and on Herbeck's 
, recommendation, B. was appointed successor 
to the former as court organist, and, at the same 
time, professor of organ-playing, counterpoint, 
and composition at the Vienna Conservatorium, 
to which appointments that of lecturer on music 
at the University was added in 1875. Up to the 
present B. has written eight symphonies, of 
which No. 2 in c minor, the 3rd, in D minor, and 
the eighth, in c minor, were produced in Vienna 
(1876, 1877, and 1892), but without creating any 
special impression. No. 3 appeared in print. 
It was first by No. 7'(e major, printedin 1885), in- 
troduced with great flourish of trumpets, that the 
name of B . came into everyone's mouth, although 
his music has never met with general recognition. 
So far as one can judge from the specimens 
published, Bruckner's peculiarity is a striking, 
and often repulsive, harmonic mixture, which 

may be explained by his tendency to employ 
Wagner's stage style for absolute music. His 
contrapuntal training is undeniable, and so is the 
cleverness of his instrumentation, but his music 
lacks warmth, and appears made rather than 
felt — so to speak, external music. Bruckner's 
art of rhythm, all appearances to the contrary 
notwithstanding, is exceedingly poor, for it is 
confined within the limits of never-changing 
4-bar rhythm. To the above-named works, for 
the sake of completeness, we must add : a grand 
Te Deum, a quintet for strings ; " Germanenzug," 
for male chorus ; some graduals and offertories. 
Besides the symphony in E flat (of which frag- 
ments have been heard), he has also in manu- 
script three grand masse"! and works for male 
chorus of large and of small compass. 

Bruhns, Nikolaus, b. 1665, Schwabstadt 
(Schleswig), distinguished violinist, organist, 
and composer for the organ and pianoforte. 
He was a pupil of Buxtehude's, at Liibeck, 
at whose recommendation he was first appointed 
organist at Copenhagen. From there he after- 
wards went to Husum, where he died in 1697. 

BruU, Ignaz, b. Nov. 7, 1846, Prossnitz 
(Moravia). He studied the piano with Epstein 
at Vienna, composition with Rufinatscha, and 
afterwards Dessoff. When he had become a 
competent pianist, he gave concerts in Vienna 
of his own compositions (pf. concerto, etc.), and, 
later on, made concert tours as pianist. An 
orchestral serenade was first produced at Stutt- ■ 
gart in 1864. From 1872 to 1878 he was piano- 
forte teacher at the Horak Institute, Vienna, 
The increasing success of Das Goldene Kreuz 
induced him to devote himself entirely to com- 
position. Up to now he has written the operas. 
Die Settler von Samarkand (1864), Das Goldene 
Kreuz (1875, a favourite work, which speedily 
made its way, and has been translated into 
other languages and produced abroad ; London, 
among other places), Der Landfriede (1877), 
Bianca (1879), Konigin Mariette (1883), and Das 
steinerne Hens (1888) i and, besides',, a Macbeth 
overture (Op. 46), two pf. concertos, a violin 
concerto, a sonata for two pianofortes, a 'cello 
sonata, two violin sonatas, a, trio, suite for 
pianoforte and violin (Op. 42), pianoforte pieces, 
songs, etc. 

Brumel, Anton, distinguished Netherland 
contrapuntist, contemporary- of Josquin and 
pupil of Okeghem. He lived at the Court of 
Sigismund Cantelmus, Duke of Sora, and in 
1505 went from there to Alfonso I., Duke of 
Ferrara. Here he appears to have remained 
until the end of his life (see the documents, 
" Monatshefte f. MusUcg. XVI. 11 "). In 1503 
Petrucci printed five masses 4 4 of Brumel's, 
another one ("dringhs") in the first book of the 
" Missas Diversorum" (1508), also portions of 
masses in the " Fragmenta Missarum," Motets in 
the " Motetti XXXIII." (1502), the " Canti CL." 
(1504), "Motetti C." (1504), "Motetti Libro 

Brum el 



quarto" (1505) , and "Mbtetlidella Corona" (1514) . 
There are three masses in the " Liber XV. Mis- 
sarum " of Andreas Antiquus " (1516), one in the 
•' MissK XIII." of Grapheus (1539), and two in 
the " Liber XV. Missarum " of Petrejus (1538). 
Finally, one mass sk 12 (!), and three credos k 4 
are in the Munich Library (a copy of the mass 
by Bottee de Toulmon is in the library of the 
Faris Conservatoire). 

Bnunmeisen (Ger.). [See Jew's Harp.) 

Bnmelli, Antonio, cathedral maestro at 
Prato, afterwards at Florence, where finally he 
received the title of Maestro to the Grand Duke. 
He was a composer of sacred music, who pub- 
lished, between 1605 and 1621, motets, Cantica, 
madrigals, etc., and a work on counterpoint — 
"Regole e dichiarazioni di alcuni contrapunti 
doppi e maggiormente . contrapunti all' im- 
proviso, etc." (1610). 

Brunetti, Gaetano, performer on the violin, 
and composer, b. 1753, Pisa, d. 1808 through 
terror at the taking of Madrid by Napoleon. 
He was a pupil of Nardini's, and was attracted 
to Madrid by Boccherini in 1766, where, by in- 
tercourse with this master, his talents quickly 
developed. Yet he was ungrateful towards 
Bocdierini, for he carried on intrigues against 
him, and compelled him to give up his posts 
of maestro and court composer. Thirty-one of 
his symphonies for orchestra, and numerous 
chamber-music works have been preserved, but 
for the most part in manuscript ; they are in 
the possession of Picquot, the biographer of 

Bruni, Antonio Bartolommeo, performer 
on the violin, b. Feb. 2, 1759, Coni (Piedmont), 
d. there 1823. He studied under Pugnani and 
.Spezziani, went to Paris in 178 1, where he was 
at first violinist at the Comfidie Italienne, then 
cliif d'orchestre at the Theatre Montansier, at 
the Opera-Comique, and finally at the Italian 
Opera. Between 1786 and 1815, twenty-one 
French comic operas of his were produced. In 
1801 he retired to Passy, near Paris ; in 1816 he 
made a somewhat unfortunate stage venture 
{Le Manage par Commission), and then returned 
to his native town, Coni. He also published a 
Method for violin and for viola, likewise duets 
for violins. 

Brunner, Christian Traugott, b. Dec. 12, 
1792, Briinlos, near StoUberg (Erzgebirge), d. 
April 14, 1874, as organist and conductor of the 
choral society at Chemnitz. He became kno\yn 
by his educational pianoforte pieces, potpourris, 
etc., especially for beginners. 

Brustwerk (Ger. ; Lower Manual), a term for 
the second or third manual in the organ, con- 
nected with pipes in the centre of the instru- 
ment. As a rule, the tone of the Lower Manual 
is not so strong as that of the Great Organ. 
(See Manuals.) 

Bruyclr, Karl Debrois van, writer on 

music, and composer, b. March 14, 1828, Briinn. 
He went, already in 1830, with his parents lo 
Vienna, where, after attending the Gymnasium, 
he studied jurisprudence, Eind only turned to art 
when he was twenty-two years of age. He was 
a pupil of Ruflnatscha's for the theory of music, 
and soon became a diligent contributor to several 
musical newspapers. Up to i860 he published 
about thirty works. His musical activity was 
interrupted for a long period by philosophical 
studies ; but he published two excellent mono- 
graphs, "Technische und asthetische Analyse 
des Wohltemperirten Klaviers " (1867 ; 2nd ed. 
1889), and "Robert Schumann" (the latter in 
Kolatschek's " Stimmen der Zeit" (1868), and 
began again to compose diligently. An essay — 
" Die Entwickelung der Klaviermusik von J. S. 
Bach bis R. Schumann " (1880^ — was his last 
publication. He has, however, m his portfolio, 
many important .compositions. B. lives at 
Waldhofen on the Ybbs. 

Bryennius, Manuel (sprung, according to 
F^tis, from an old French family which settled 
in Greece at the time of the Crusades), was the 
last Greek writer on music (about 1320). His 
" Harmonica," of which many copies exist, is, 
however, not an independent work, but an 
arrangement and comprehensive digest of earlier 
writings on music by the ancient Greeks, and 
contains extracts of more or less importance 
from Adrast, Aristoxenos, Euclid, Ptolemy, Ni- 
comachos, Theo of Smyrna, and others. The 
explanation of the Neo-Grecian Church Modes 
is taken from Pachymeres (1242 to 1310). B's 
" Harmonica" is printed in the" third volume 
of Joh. Wallis's "Opera Mathematica" (1699). 
C/. Christ on B.'s system of harmony, and 
Paranika's "Aids to Byzantine Literature" 
(Report of. a sitting of the Munich Academy, 
1870), two treatises of great value. 

Buccina (from Gr. bukane; or Lat. bucca, 
"cheek," and canere, "to sing.") A Roman 
wind instrument ; probably a straight trumpet 
or tuba, from which came our trombone (and 
also its German name " Posaune "). 

Buchholz, an old and famous Berlin firm of 
organ-builders, founded 1799 by Joh. Sim. B., 
b. Sept. 27, 1758, Schlosswippach, near Erfurt, 
d. Feb. 24, 1825, Berlin. His son and succes- 
sor, Karl Aug. B., b. Aug. 13, 1796, Berlin, 
d. there Aug. 12, 1884. The last representative 
of the family— his son, Karl Friedrich B. 
(b.1821) — followed him to the grave already on 
Feb. 17, ,1885. The Buchholz firm, which 
built many large organs for Berlin and for 
other towns, planned many improvements in 
the mechanism of the organ. 

Buchner, Emil, b. Dec. 23, 1826, Osterfeld, 
Naumburg, pupil of the Leipzig Conserva^ 
torium, 1866 court capellmeister in Meiningen, 
now director of the SoUer Musical Union at 
Erftirt. a dilieent composer (operas-^Launcelot, 


1 08 


Dame Kobold — overtures, symphonies, chamber- 
music, etc.). 

Buck, (i) Zechariah, b. Sept. 9, 1798, Nor- 
wich, d. Aug. 5, 1879, Newport (Essex), for 
many years organist of Norwich Cathedral. 
The degree of Mus. D. was conferred upon 
him by the Archbishop of Canterbury. As a 
composer he was not remarkable, but he was 
an excellent teacher.— (2) Dudley, organist 
and composer, b. March 10, 1839, Hartford 
(Connecticut). After having been assistant 
organist in his native town for several years, 
he studied (1858-59) at Leipzig under Haupt- 
mann, Richter, and especially Rietz, whom he 
followed to Dresden in i860, and studied the 
organ there under Joh. Schneider. He then 
spent a year in Paris, and in 1862 became 
organist at Hartford. After the death of his 
parents he accepted the post of organist of 
St. James's Church, Chicago; but, after the 
great fire in that city in 1871, he went to 
Boston, where he was appointed organist of 
the Music Hall, and of St. Paul's Church. In 
1874 he gave up these posts and became 
organist of St. Anne's Church, Brooklyn, and 
assistant conductor of Thomas's orchestra at 
New York. In 1877 he was appointed organist 
of the church of the Holy Trinity, Brooklyn. 
He has composed principjJly sacred and organ 
music — Psalm xlvi. for soli, chorus, and orches- 
tra, likewise scenes from Longfellow's " Golden 
Legend " (which won the prize at Cincinnati), 
several overtures, songs, part-songs, cantatas, 
Don Munio, Easter Morning, Centennial Meditation 
of Columbia (1876), The Light of Asia, Colum- 
bus (for male chorus), overture Marmion, a 
concerto for four horns, two quintets for strings, . 
a symphony, etc. ; also a burlesque operetta, 
etc., and finally an organ Method, "Illustrations 
in Choir Accompaniment," and Pedal Studies. 

Buffo (Ital.), comic. Opera buffa, same as 
comic opera. {See Opera) . ' Basso buffo, a bass 
singer who sings comic parts. {See Bass.) 

Bugle Horn, signal horn for the infantry ; it 
is of wide measure, and has no real bell ; hence 
the tone is full, neither blaring nor noble, but 
of somewhat coarse quality. Between 1820 
and 1835 it was provided with sound-holes and 
keys, so as to fill the gaps between the open 
notes of the instrument {key bugle, also called 
Kent bugle), with compass from small c to twice- 
accented g, or at most thrice-accented c; (these 
are bugles in b? and in a). By the addition of 
three valves, the following modern instruments 
were formed : piccolo (in e|? ) , Fliigelhorn (in BJ? ) , 
Althom (in Et>), and Tenorhorn (in bJ?), all of 
which are only employed in wind bands ; they 
are despised by the orchestra of the symphony. 
The so-called cornet-notation (q.v.) is used for 
all kinds of bugles. TThe compass of the piccolo 
is a-b= ; of the Fliigelhorn, e-b^ ; of the Althom, 
A-e^7 ; of the Tenorhorn, E-b'l? (according to 
the sound). For the buglehoms of larger 

dimensions, with four or five valves (and with 
power of producing the real fundamental note), 
see Tuba. iTie French saxhorns are identical 
with buglehoms and tubas. 

Buhler, Franz (Peter GregoriusJ.b. April 
12, 1760, Schneidheim, near Nordlmgen, d. 
Feb, 4, 1824, Augsburg. He was a Benedictine 
monk at Donauworth, in 1801 capellmeister 
of Augsburg Cathedral. He wrote sacred 
compositions, small theoretical pamphlets, and 
also an opera. Die falschen Verdachte. 

Bull, (i) John, b. 1563, Somersetshire, d. 
March 12, 1628, Antwerp ; was trained at Queen 
Elizabeth's Chapel under William Blitheman, 
became organist of Hereford Cathedral in 1582, 
and afterwards Master of the children. In 1586 
he took his degree of Mus. Bac. of Oxford, and 
in 1592 that of Mus. Doc. both at Cambridge 
and Oxford. In 1591 he is said to have become 
organist of the Chapel Royal, and in 1596 
Music Professor at Gresham College, with 
special permission to lecture in English instead 
of Latin. He married in 1607, and, in con- 
formity with the statutes, had to resign his 
post there. He became organist of Antwerp 
Cathedral in 1617. B. enjoyed the highest fame 
as an organist, and was a sound contrapuntist ; 
of his compositions only scholastic pieces and 
variations for the virginals, an anthem, and 
some canons have been preserved. A num- 
ber of his pieces have been republished in 
Pauer's "Old English Composers." — (2) Ole 
Bornemann, b. Feb. 5, 1810, Bergen (Nor- 
way), d. Aug. 17, 1880, at his country seat, 
Lysoen, near Bergen. He was a famous, 
though somewhat eccentric violin virtuoso, 
whose capricious playing often brought on him 
the reproach of charlatanism. In 1829 he went 
to Cassel, against the wish of his parents, in 
order to become Spohr's pupil, but soon dis- 
covered that they were not suited to each other, 
and was induced to follow Paganini to Pa,ris 
to appropriate to himself the more sympathetic 
manner of the latter. In Paris all his goods, 
even his violin, were stolen, and in despair he 
threw himself into the Seine, but was soon 
taken out ; a rich lady received and nursed 
him, and he even had a present made to him of 
a new violin (a Guameri) . From that time he 
began his many wanderings through Italy, 
Germany, Russia, Scandinavia, North America 
(1844), France, Algeria, and Belgium. In 1848 
he returned to Bergen and founded a national 
theatre, but quarrelled with the town authorities, 
and went away in 1852, once again to North 
America, where he purchased large tracts of 
land in Pennsylvania and founded a Norwegian 
colony, which, however, failed, and brought 
him to ruin. On his return to Europe, he 
travelled once more through France, Spain, 
Germany, and then retired to Bergen, but after- 
wards paid several visits to America. As a 
composer for. his instrument, B. wrote much 



that is interesting and piquant, especially fan- 
tasias on Northern themes. 

Billow, Hans Guido von, a highly intel- 
lectual musician, eminent pianist and conductor, 
b. Jan. 8, 1830, Dresden, became at the age of 
nine a pupU of Fr. Wieck for the pianoforte, 
and of Eberwein for harmony. In 1848 he went 
to I-eipzig University to study jurisprudence, but 
at the same time worked at counterpoint under 
Hauptmann. In 1849, excited by the political 
events, he went to Berlin, and, as contributor 
to the Abendpost, adopted Wagner's theories, 
whose " Die Kunst und die Revolution ' ' appejared 
at that time. A performance of Lohengrin at 
Weimar matured his resolve to devote himself 
entirely to music, and in spite of his parents' 
opposition, he hastened to Ziirich, the place of 
rerage of the master who had been banished on 
account of his political convictions, and there, 
from 1850-51, he received hints in the art of 
conducting. After B. had won his spurs as 
theati-e conductor in Zurich and St. Gall, he 
betook himself to Liszt at Weimar, who gave 
the final touches to his pianoforte playing, which 
already showed mastery of a high order. In 
1853 he made his first concert tour through 
Germany and Austria ; his success was not 
exactly brilliant, but ever on the increase. A 
second tour followed in 1855, and ended_ at 
Berlin with Bulow's appointment as principal 
pianoforte teacher at the Stern Conservatorium 
(in KuUai's place). In 1857 he married Liszt's 
daughter, Cosima. In 1858 he was named 
royS court pianist, and in 1863 the degree of 
Dr. Phil, was conferred on him by the Uni- 
versity of Jena. Meanwhile Wagner had found 
in King Ludwig of Bavaria a distinguished 
patron, who now drew B. to Munich, and first 
as court pianist ; but in 1867, after a short stay 
at Basle, giving lessons and concerts, he was 
appointed court capellmeister and director of 
the reorganised Royal School of Music. Al- 
though active here only for a short period, he 
exercised great influence on music in Munich. 
Domestic misunderstandings led in 1869 to a 
separation, and B. left the city. For several 
years he settled in Florence, and by establishing 
regular concerts and performances of chamber 
music there successfully spread a knowledge of 
German music in Italy. From 1872, frequently 
changing his place of residence, he_ has been 
recognised as an interpreter of classical piano- 
forte works, and received everywhere with en- 
thusiasm as a master belonging to the whole of 
Europe. Even on the Americans he lavished 
artistic pleasure from his horn of plenty, play- 
ing (1875-76) at no less than 139 concerts. On 
the 1st of January, 1878, he was appointed 
capellmeister of the court theatre at Hanover 
(successor to K. L. Fischer), but disputes with 
the intendancy with regard to the competency 
of some of the artists, led to a rupture, already 
at the end of two years. On October i, 1880, 
he became " Hofmusik-Intendant " to the Duke 


of Meiningen, soon raised the orchestra there 
into one of the first rank, and undertook con- 
cert tours with it through Germany, achieving 
phenomenal success. The excellence of the 
orchestra consisted not so much in striking 
artistic ability of the individual members as in 
subordination of the players to the authority of 
the conductor, a subordination without example, 
and well worthy of imitation ; by means of it 
he was able to display to the full his congenial 
comprehension of the standard classical works. 
Unfortunately, B. resigned his post in the 
autumn of 1885, whereupon the band was re- 
duced, while B. displayed elsewhere his quali^ 
ties as a conductor — at Petersburg (Philhar- 
monic Concerts), Berlin (Philharnionic Con- 
certs), etc., developing at the same time in- 
creased activity as a teacher (at the Raff 
Conservatorium, at Frankfort-on-Main, and at 
Klindworth's Conservatorium, Berlin, a month 
at each institution every year). In August, 
i88z, and for the second time, B. married ; this 
time with the Meiningen court actress, Fraulein 
Marie Schanzer. Since 1888 B. has resided at 
Hamburg, where he established a new concert 
society (the Subscription Concerts), which 
naturally was held in the highest consideration. 
There are many pianists, of high importance 
too, who go in triumph through the world, but 
B. is not one of the kind. He not only im- 
presses, but instructs ; he is a missionary of 
true, genuine art, and plays, therefore, from 
preference, classical music. His rlpertom is, 
nevertheless, the most extensive of all pianists, 
and includes everything of importance which 
the rising generation has produced. Of new 
works he is an influential critic — the pieces 
which he has once played in public have free 
course. B. always plays by heart, and con- 
ducts also without book (he was the first to set 
the fashion) ; his memory is without example. 
The special characteristics of his playing are a 
finish even to the most minute details, a worthy 
pattern, but by no means easy to imitate, a 
thorough entering into the spirit of the work 
which he has to interpret, technical perfection 
and smoothness ; but he is less imposing in the 
matters of strength and nobility. He has been 
active as a composei: of pianoforte pieces, songs, 
and some orchestral works, which all display a 
well-trained mind and refined feeling. Of high 
artistic value are the classical works which he 
has edited (Beethoven's pianoforte works from 
Op. 53, Cramer's Studies with admirable in- 
structive comments, etc.). 

Buiss, Paul, distinguished opera singer (bari- 
tone), b. Dec. 19, 1847, at Birkholz Manor 
(Priegnitz), pupil of G. Engel; was engaged at 
Lubeck (1868), Cologne, Cassel, then at Dresden 
(1876-89), and is now at the Berlin Hofoper. 

Bungert, August, b. March 14, 1846, Mul- 
heim on. Ruhr, received there his first instruc- 
tion on the pianoforte from F. Kufferath, then 



attended the Cologne Conservatorium, and for 
further training went to Paris for four years, 
where Mathias took an interest in him. In 
1869 he became musical director at Kreuznach, 
then at Carlsruhe ; and from 1873 to 1881 lived 
in Berlin (where once again he diligently studied 
counterpoint under Kiel), and has resided, since 
1882, at Pegli near Genoa. B. is a highly talented 
composer. His pianoforte quartet (Op. 18) won 
the prize offered by the Florentine Quartet in 
1878 ; besides, he has published pf. pieces, varia- 
tions (Op. 13), songs (among which many to 
words by Carmen Sylva from her " Lieder einer 
Konigin), quartets for male voices, overture to 
Tasso, "Hohes Lied der Liebe," symphonic 
poem " Auf der Wartburg," and in 1884 produced 
at Leipzig a comic opera — Die Studenten von 
Salamanha. Of his great tetralogy, "Homer- 
ische Welt" (i, Circe; 2, Odysseus; 3, Nau- 
sikaa; 4, Odysseus-Heimkehr), the third part 
is printed. A drama (Hutten und Sickingen) was 
produced at Kreuznach and Bonn. 

Bunting, Edward, b. Feb. 1773, Armagh, 
Ireland, d. Dec. 21, 1843, Belfast. B. has the 
merit of having collected and preserved for pos- 
terity the melodies of the immortal Irish bards, 
and in this he was assisted by then still living 
harpers of distinction (O'Neill, Hempson, Fan- 
ning, and others). His collections appeared in 
three volumes (1796, 1809, and 1840). 

Buonamici, Giuseppe, eminent Italian pian- 
ist, b. Feb. 12, 1846, Florence; received his 
first musical instruction from his lincle, Gius. 
Ceccherini, and in 1868 studied at the Munich 
Conservatorium under Biilow and Rheinberger 
with such success that after two years aad a 
half he was engaged at the same institution as 
teacher for advanced pianoforte playing. In 
1873 B. returned to Florence as conductor of 
the Florentine Choral Union " Cherubini," and 
founded afterwards the Florentine Trio Union. 
While in Munich B. wrote a concert overture, 
a stringed quartet (which met with Wagner's 
approval), pf. pieces, and some songs, all of 
which appeared in print. Specially worthy of 
mention is B.'s selection of fifty studies from 
Bertini as a preparation for Billow's edition of 
Cramer's Studies. 

Buononcinl. {See Bononcini, 2.) 

Buranello. {See Galuppi.) 

Bvixbure, Leon Philippe Marie Cheva- 
lier de B. de Wesembeek, b. Aug. 16, 1812, 
Termonde (East Flanders), d. Dec. 8, 1889, Ant- 
werp ; a wealthy Belgian nobleman, Benedictine 
monk, first-rate connoisseur and himself an able 
musician ; in 1862 member of the Brussels 
Academy. B. wrote, and in part published, 
a number of sacred compositions, also orches- 
tral works, chamber-music, etc., likewise mono- 
graphs on the old Antwerp community of 
musicians of St. Jacob and St. Maria Magda- 
lena, on clavier and lute makers at Antwerp 

from the i6th century, on Ch. L. Hanssens, C 
F. M. Bosselet, and Jan van Okeghera, also on 
the Belgian Cecilian Society. His works are of 
high value. B. has also drawn up an excellent 
catalogue of the Antwerp historical museum. 

Burck. {See BuRGK.) 

BllTCi. {See BURTItJS.) 

Biirde-Ney, Jenny, celebrated stage singer 
(dramatic soprano), b. Dec. 21, 1826, Gratz, d. 
May 17, i886, Dresden ; daughter of a singer to 
whom she owed her first training, made her 
debut in 1847 at Olmiitz, and sang afterwards 
at Prague, Lemberg, in 1830 at the Kdmtnerthor- 
theater, Vienna, 1853 ** Dresden, 1855-56 Lon- 
don, and appeared also at Berlin, Hanover, etc. 
In 1855 she married the actor, E. Biirde, and 
retired from the stage in 1867. 

Burette, Pierre Jean, b. Nov. 21, 1665, 
Paris, d. May 19, 1747, as Professor of Medi- 
cine at the Paris University, member of the 
Academy, etc. ; wrote learned notices of Greek 
music, all of which are preserved in the me- 
moirs of the " Acad^mie des Inscriptions" (vols. 
1-17). B. was of the opinion that polyphonic 
music was unknown to the ancients : the 
attempt at the present day (by Westphal) to 
show the contrary has met with but little 

Burgel, Konstanlin, b. June 24, 1837, 
Liebau (Silesia), pupil of M. Brosig at Breslau, 
and of Fr. Kiel at Berlin ; was from 1869 to 
1870 pianoforte teacher at KuUak's Academy, 
Berlin ; he lives there now as a private teacher 
of music. His compositions (chamber-music, 
overtures, etc.) deserve mention. 

Burgk, really Joachim Moller (Miiller), 
named Joachim a B. (Burg, Burck), b. 
about 1541, Burg, near Magdeburg ; about 1566 
organist at Miihlhausen (Thuringia), where he 
d. May 24, 1610. He was one of the most 
distinguished old Protestant Church composers. 
His Passions, Nicene Creed, Te Deum i 4, 
Communion Service, besides Cantiones (of the 
Villanella kind), German songs, and sacred 
odes (of the Villanella kind) to poems of the 
Miihlhausen Superintendent, Helmbold, have 
been preserved in prints of the years 1550-1626. 

Burgmuller, (i) Joh. Friedrich Franz, b. 
1806, Ratisbon, d. Feb. 13, 1874, Beaulieu, 
France (Seine-et-Oise) ; was a popular composer 
of light pianoforte music. — (2) Norbert, b. 
Feb. 8, 1810, Dusseldorf, brother of the former, 
pupil of Spohr and Hauptmann at Cassel, com- 
posed orchestral and chamber works which 
showed talent ; but he died already on May 7, 
1836, Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Burkhard, Joh. AAdr. Christian, a min- 
ister and school inspector at Leipheim (Swabia), 
published in 1832 at Ulm a small musical lexi- 
con, and in 1827 a Method of thorough-bass. 

Burla (Ital.), a farce. 

Biirlesco i 

Burlesco, m., Burlesca, f. (Ital.), burlesque, 
facetious, comic, merry. 

Burletta (Ital.), a burlesque, a whimsical 

Bumey, Charles, celebrated musical his- 
torian, b. April 7, 1726, Shrewsbury, d. April 
12, 1814; pupil of Baker at Chester, then of 
his brother James B. at Shrewsbury, and finally 
of Ame in London. In 1749 he received a post 
as organist at Ixindon (St. Dionis Backchurch). 
In 1750 he wrote, for Drury X^ane Theatre, 
music to the three dramas, Alfred, Robin Hood, 
and Queen Mob ; but his health would not allow 
of such strained activity, and he therefore took 
a post as organist at Lynn Regis (Norfolk). In 
1760 he returned to Xlondon, and brought out 
some pianoforte concertos of his own composi- 
tion with great success, and produced a new 
stage work at Drury Lane Theatre — The Can- 
ning Man — music and libretto adapted from 
Rousseau's Devin du Village. In 1769 the Uni- 
versity of Oxford conferred on him the degrees 
of Bachelor and Doctor of Music. His exercise 
(an Anthem) was often performed afterwards at 
Oxford, and was produced at Hamburg under 
the direction of Ph. E. Bach. From the time 
of his residence at Lynn Regis B. collected 
materials for a History of Music, and in 1770 
he was induced to make a tour of investigation 
through France and Italy, which was followed 
by a second in 1772 through the Netherlands, 
Germany, and Austria. The results of these 
journeys, in so far as they concerned the music 
of the time, were published in diary form — 
"The Present State of Music in France and 
Italy, etc." (1771), and "The Present State of 
Music in Germany, the Netherlands, and 
United Provinces, etc." (1773). In 1776 ap- 
peared the first volume of his " General History 
of Music," at the same time as Hawkins' com- 
plete work: the fourth and last volume ap- 
peared in 1789. In that year he was appointed 
organist at Chelsea College, and passed the 
remainder of his life in that institution. Be- 
sides the writings named, there are also: "A 
Plan for a Music School" (1774), "Account 
of the Musical Performances in Westminster 
Abbey in Commemoration of Handel" (1785), 
the musical articles for Rees' "Cyclopedia," 
and some subordinate non-musical Works. B. 
published also, "La musica che si canta 
annualmente nelle funzione della settimana 
santa nella cappella Pontificia, composta da 
Palestrina, Allegri e Bai" (1784). He also 
wrote and published sonatas for pf. and for 
violin, flute duets, violin concertos, cantatas, 
etc. Miss B., authoress of the novel " Evelina," 
was his daughter. 

Buroni. {See Boroni.) 

Burtius (Burci Burzio) Nicolaus, b. 
1450, Parma, d. there about 1520. He was the 
author Of " Musices Opusculum," printed by 
Ugone de Rugeriis at Bologna in 1487, the 


oldest work containing printed measured music 
(cut on wood-blocks). 

Busby, Thomas, b. Dec. 1755, Westminster, 
d. May 28, 1838. He was organist at various 
London churches, and took his degree of Mus. 
Doc. at Cambridge in 1801. He was a diligent 
and prolific composer of dramatic and other 
music, but was not gifted with originality. His 
"History of Music" was compiled from Bumey 
and Hawkins. He wrote, besides, ' 'A Dictionary 
of Music" (1786); "A Grammar of Music" 
(1818) ; " A Musical Manual, or Technical 
Directory " (1828) ; "Concert-room and Orches- 
tra Anecdotes" (1825); The Monthly Musical 
Journal (four numbers, 1801), etc. 

Busi, (i), Giuseppe, esteemed Italian or- 
ganist and theorist, b. 1808, Bologna, d. there 
March 14, 1871. He was trained by Palmerini 
(harmony) and Tomm. Marchesi (counterpoint), 
but learnt most by himself, for he copied a 
large collection of works by composers of Bo- 
logna, from 1500 to 1800. In spite of a success- 
ful venture, he gave up opera writing, devoted 
himself to sacred music and to teaclung ; for 
many years he was professor of counterpoint 
at the i-iceo Musicale, Bologna. His " Guida 
alio Studio del Contrappunto Fugato " remained 
in manuscript. His son — (2) Alessandro, b. 
Sept. 28, 1833, Bologna, likewise- an excellent 
contrapuntist, succeeded his father as teacher 
at the Conservatorio. 

Busnois, Antoine, really de Busne, im- 
portant contrapuntist of the first Netherland 
School, was appointed in 1467 chapel singer to 
Charles the Bold of Burgundy ; he died in 148 1. 
Only a few of his works have come down to us, 
viz., three chansons in Petrucci's " Canti CL." 
(1503), and in manuscript two Magnificats, one 
mkss (Eece Aneilla), and a few small pieces at 
Brussels, several masses in the pontifical chapel 
at Rome, and detached motets and chansons 
scattered in various libraries. 

BuBoni, Ferruccio Benvenuto, highly 
gifted pianist and composer, b. April i, 1866, 
Empoli, near Florence (of a German mothei") , 
pupil of W. A. Remy (Dr. Mayer), at Gratz. 
Already in 1881 he passed the test and became 
a member of the Philharmonic Academy at 
Bologna. His technical ability as a pianist is 
great, and he can improvise on given' themes. 
In 1888 he accepted a post as teacher at the 
Helsingfors Conservatorium, and exchanged the 
same in 1890, when he won the Rubinstein 
prize, for a professorship at the Moscow Con- 
servatoire. The best works of B., which have 
appeared (two stringed quartets, an orchestral 
suite, many pianoforte pieces, Variations and 
Fugue, Op. 22), justify great expectations of .his 
talent as a composer. 

Busshop, Jules Auguste Guillaume, b. 
Sept. 10, 1810, Paris, of Belgian parents, who 
already returned in 1816 to Bruges, where B. 
grew up, and by the study of the works of 



Albrechtsberger and Reicha became a self- 
taught composer. His patriotic cantata, Das 
belgische Banner, obtained a prize in 1834. He 
produced, besides, numerous sacred composi- 
tions and choral works with and without or- 
chestra, also symphonies, overtures, etc., and 
an opera. La toison d'or. A grand Te Deum 
was produced at Brussels in i860 with great 
success, and a symphony in f, and several 
overtures, etc., of his have been given with 
like results at the Concerts Nationaux lately 
established at Brussels. 

Bussler, Ludwig, an esteemed theorist, b. 
Nov. 26, 1838, Berlin, son of the painter and 
author, and privy counsellor, Rob. Bussler, and 
on his mother's side, grandson of C. A. Bader 
(q.v.). He received his first musical instruction 
as chorister boy from v. Hertzberg, and after- 
wards training in theory from Grell, Dehn, and 
Wieprecht (instrumentation), without, how- 
ever, appropriating to himself the method of 
any one of these, but studying in an inde- 
pendent spirit the various methods from Zarlino 
down to the most recent period, and selecting 
the bes't from all. In 1865 B. became teacher 
of theory at the Ganz School of Music, in Berlin. 
For some time he was actively engaged as con- 
ductor (capellmeistei: in i86g at the Memel 
Theatre), and since 1879 has taught at the 
Stern Conservatorium. Since 1883 B. has also 
been one of the musical critics of the National 
Zeitung. The writings of B., on account of 
their thoroughly practical tendency, are much 
in vogue. They are as follows : " Musikalische 
Elementarlehre"(i867; third ed., 1882), "Prak- 
tische Harmonielehre in Aufgaben " (1875 ; 
second ed. 1885), "Der strenge Satz" (1877), 
"Harmonische tJbungen am Klavier " (without 
year of publication), "Kontrapunkt und Fuge 
im freien Tonsatz " (1878), v Musikalische For- 
menlehre " (1878), " Praktische musikalische 
Kompositionslehre : I. Lehre vom Tonsatz 
(1878); n. Freie Komposition " (1879), "In- 
strumentation u. Orchestersatz " (1879), " Ele- 
mentarmelodik " (1879), " Geschichte der Musik" 
(six reports, 1882), " Partiturenstudium " (Mo- 
dulationslehre " (1882). 

Bussmeyer, (i) Hugo, b. Feb. 26, 1842, 
Brunswick, pupil of Litolff and Methfessel, 
went in i860 to South America, appeared as a 
pianist at Rio de Janeiro, visited Chili, Peru, 
etc., ajid also published some pf. pieces. In 
1867 he visited New York and Paris, where he 
gave concerts with success ; after his return to 
America he settled down in New York. B. is 
author of a pamphlet, " Das Heidentum in der 
Musik" (1871). — (2) Hans, b. March 29, 1853, 
Brunswick, brother of the former, pupil at the 
Royal School of Music at Munich, was for 
some time with Liszt, made concert tours (1872- 
74) as a pianist in South America, residing for 
some length of time in Buenos Ayres. After 
his return, in 1874, he was appointed teacher 

at the Royal School of Music at Munich ; in 
1878 he married the singer. Math. Wekerlin, 
a.nd since the autumn of 1879 has been the con- 
ductor of the Munich Choral Union, of which 
he was the founder. 

Buths, Julius, distinguished pianist and 
composer, b. May 7, 1851, Wiesbaden; he was 
the son of an oboe player, who gave him his 
first musical instruction. He attended the 
Cologne Conservatorium as pupil of Hiller and 
Gernsheim ; and after conducting the Cecilia 
Union at Wiesbaden for two years, won the 
Meyerbeer Scholarship, and continued his 
studies under Kiel (1872), and journeyed to 
Italy for the purpose of gaining further musical 
knowledge. On account of ill health he lived 
for some time with his parents, and then in 
Paris, Breslau, and in 1875 became conductor 
of the musical society at Elberfeld. In 1889 he 
was appointed successor to Tausch as musical 
director at Diisseldorf^ 

Buttstedt, Joh. Heinrich, b. April 25, 1666, 
Bindersleben, near Erfurt, d. Dec. i, 1727, as 
cathedral organist at Erfurt; an excellent or- 
ganist, pupil of Pachelbel, composed church 
music, fugues, preludes for clavier, etc. But 
he owes lus fame to the pamphlet, " Ut re mi 
fa sol la, tota Musica et Harmonia .sterna," 
or " Neu Eroffnetes Altes, Wahres, Einziges, und 
Ewiges Fundamentum Musices " (cir. 1716), 
which was an attack on Mattheson's "Neu 
Eroffnetes Orchester," and with some skill 
sought to uphold solmisation; but the argu- 
ments were thoroughly demolished by Matthe- 
son in his "Beschiitzes Orchester" (1717). 

Buus, Jacques (Jachet) de, Netherland 
contrapuntist of the i6th century, probably 
born at Bruges, where the name " de Boes " 
occurs about the year 1506. In 1541 B. was 
elected as second organist of St. Mark's, 
Venice, but owing to the small salary (eighty 
ducats), he gave up this post and went to 
Vienna, where he became organist (1553-64) of 
the court chapel. Two books of "Ricercari" 
and two of " Canzoni Francesi," and a book" of 
" Motetti " by B. have been preserved (printed 
1547-50). The motets to be found in various 
collections of works, and only marked Jachet, 
Jacques, Jacches, Giacche, Jaquet, Giachetto, 
are not by B., but by Berchem (q.v.). 

Buxtehude, Dietrich, celebrated organist, 
b. 1637, Helsingor, where his father, Joh. B. 
(d. Jan. 22, 1674), who most probably trained 
him, was organist. Already in 1668 B. obtained 
the important post of organist at the Marien- 
kirche, Liibeck, which he held until his death. 
May 9, 1707. In 1673 he established the 
" Abendmusiken," which soon acquired great 
fame ; these were grand sacred concerts after 
the afternoon service of the five Sundays before 
Christmas, and for these he always wrote new 
works. It is well known how Bach made the 
pilgrimage on foot from Arnstadt to Liibeck, in 





order to hear and to learn of him. The organ 
works of Buxtehude have recently been pub- 
lished by Ph. Spitta in a complete critical 
edition. Some " Choral-Bearbeituiigen " had 
already been made known by S. Dehn, Commer, 
and others ; it was, however, not in these, but 
in his free organ compositions, that B. showed 
himself to best advantage. Of his vocal works a 
number of cantatas are to be found in the royal 
library at Berlin, and in the town library at 
Liibeck, and several of these were printed in the 
17th and i8th years of the " Monatshefte fiir 
Musikgeschichte." The so-called "Abend- 
rausiken " are said to have been printed from 
1673 to 1687, but hitherto have not been found. 
The only printed works of B. which have been 
discovered are : five wedding arias, seven sonatas 
for violin, gamba, and cembalo, " Die Fried-und 
Freudenreiche Heimfahrt des Alten Simeons " 
(1674, on the occasion of his father's death), 
" Die Hochzeit des Lammes " (1681), " Castrum 
doloris," and "Templum honoris" (1705). 

Buzzola, Antonio, b. 1815, Adria, d. March 
20, 1871, Venice ; son of the director of church 
music for many years in his native town, 
from whom B. learnt to play on various instru- 
ments, and with whom he also studied composi- 
tion. He was afterwards a pupil of Donizetti 
at Naples. B. produced with success some 
operas {Faramondo, Mastino, Gli Avventurieri, 
AmUto, and EUsdbetta di Valois or Don Carlos) 
at Venice, and thus became known. After 
making long journeys for the purpose of widen- 
ing his knowledge, he became Perotti's suc- 
cessor as chief maestro of St. Mark's, Venice. 
Besides the operas named (a sixth he left 

unfinished), B. wrote several masses (a requiem), 
also cantatas and many small vocal pieces. 

Byrd (also written Bird, Byrde, Byred), Wil- 
liam, b. about 1538, London, d. July 4, 1623 ; 
was, in 1554, chorister of St. Paufs Cathedral, 
pupil of Tallis, in 1563 organist at Lincoln, in 
1569 Gentleman of the Chapel Royal. In 1575 
a patent was granted to B. and his master, Tal- 
lis, for twenty-one years, for printing and selling 
music and music paper; but, after Tallis's 
death (1585) the patent became the sole prop- 
erty of B. He is, perhaps, the most distin- 
guished of English Church composers. F^tis 
names him the Palestrina or Orlando Lassiis of 
the English. Of his works printed by himself 
by virtue of his patent, and also by his assignee, 
Thomas Easte, a large number have been pre- 
served : " Cantiones (sacrs) " (1575, with some 
by Tallis) ; " Psalmse, etc." (1587) ; " Songs of 
Sundrie Natures, etc." (1589) ; two books, 
"Sacras Cantiones" (1589, 1591) ; two books, 
" GraduaUa ac Sacrae Cantiones " (1607 ; 2nd ed. 
1610) ; " Psalmes, etc." (1611). He also wrote 
three masses, all of which were printed, but 
only a single copy of the third is known to 
exist. Some English collections of the i6th 
century contain pieces by B. The so-called 
"Virginal Book of Queen Elisabeth" in the 
Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge contains 
seventy organ and clavier pieces by B., and 
Lady Nevill's " Virginal Book,"'twenty-six. A 
number of his pieces have been republished in 
Pauer's " Old English Composers." 

Byzantine Ilusic. (See Johannes Damas- 
CENOS, Bryennius, Lampadarius, Chrysan- 



C, the name of the third note of the musical 
alphabet, and indeed one of the notes which, 
since the invention of staves (loth century), 
have served as clefs to determine the mean- 
ing of the lines. The letters selected for clefs 
were those under which lay the semitone, i.e. 
/and c («-/, b-c), so as to warn the singer of the 
difilerence between the whole and the half tone ; 
this plan was strengthened by drawing coloured 
lines: /, red, c, yellow). From the nth to the 
13th century, the meaning of the /-.and the c- 
clef was not as yet restricted to small /and once- 
accented c (c*). but indicated equally well once- 
accented/ {/') and small c; and then the colour 
occurred in a space. The form of bur c-clef 

has been gradually evolved from a 
real c. : 

A vocal part-book marked C. means Cantu$ (Dis- 
cantus): ci, C2 are first, and second soprano. 

For c solfaut, c faut, cc solfa, cf. Solmisation. 
In Italy, Spain, etc., the first note C is simply 
called io, in France id (q.v.). 

(3, (fi, and in old publications even Q, are 
time-signatures (q.v.) ; the is really a half 
circle (C). 

C, as abbreviation, means (i), con (with) ; c. b. 
=LCol basso, with the bass; c. 8^*'=:coU' ottava, 
with octaves; (2), cantus {c.f.^^cantus firmus); 
(3), capo (d. c. ^ da capo, from the beginning). 

Cabaletta, really cavatinetta (Ital.), small aria. 

Caballero, Manuel Fernandez, b. March 
14, 1835, Murcia, pupil of Fuertes and Eslava 
at the Madrid Conservatorio. He is one of the 
most popular Spanish composers of zarzuelas 
(operettas) ; and he' has also written sacred 

Cabo, Francisco Javier, b. 1768, Naguera, 
near Valencia, d. 1832; was in 1810 chapel 
singer, 1816 organist, and 1830 maestro di cap- 
pella of the cathedral at Valencia. He was one 




of the modern Spanish church composers of 
note (masses, vespers, etc.). 

Caccia (Ital.), hunting, hence, como di C, oboe 
di C. (See Horn, Oboe, etc.). 

Caccini, Giulio, b. about 1550, Rome (hence 
called Giulio Romano); pupil of Scipione 
della Palla for singing and lute-playing ; went 
in 1565 to Florence, where he died about 1615. 
C. was one of the founders of the modern style 
of music, the style of our time, the nature of 
which is accompanied melody: his " Nuove 
Musiche " (i6oz) gave to it its first distinguish- 
ing name. At the meetings of artists and 
literati at the houses of Bardi and Corsi (q.v.) 
in Florence, the new style was discussed in a 
sober manner. It was a question of helping to 
its rights a text overladen with contrapuntal 
confusion of vocal parts, and of giving to it 
greater pathos and expression by means of 
simple musical declamation.. Thus arose recita- 
tive, from which, by an increase of musical 
expression, was evolved the aria, and this 
proved also the germ of the new art form of the 
opera : the new style made its way at the same 
time into the church. Caccini's earliest com- 
positions were madrigals, of no special value, in 
the old polyphonic style ; it was only after inter- 
tercourse with Galilei and Peri, at the houses of 
Bardi and Corsi, that he was urged into the new 
path by thefoUpwing of which he indeed quickly 
acquired extraordinary fame. His first work 
in the new style was " II combattimento d'Apol- 
line col serpente " (1590), the poem by Bardi; 
then followed " Daphne," poem by Rinuccini, 
written in collaboration with Peri (1594) ; Rin- 
ucdni's Eurydice ("Tragedia per Musica," 1600, 
published by R. Eitner, with accompaniment 
from written-out figured bass, 1881) ; " II Rapir 
mento di Cafalo" (1597, printed 1600); "Le 
Nuove Musiche" (madrigals for one voice 
with bass, 1602) ; " Nove Arie " (1608) and 
"FuggUotio Musicale" (madrigals, sonnets, 
etc., 1614). 

Cachucha, a Spanish dance resembling the 


Cadanz, Justin, b. April 13, 1813, Alby 
(Tarn), d. Nov. 8, 1874, Paris; composer of 
comic operas, pupil of the Paris Conservatoire, 
from which, however, he was dismissed for 
irregularity. He lived for a long time in Bor- 
deaux, afterwards in Paris, and for a time in 

Cadeac, Pierre, French contrapuntist of the 
i6th century, choir-master at Auch. Of his 
compositions, masses and motets were pub- 
lished separately at Paris, 1555-58 (Le Roy & 
Ballard), as well as detached works scattered in 
collections of that period. 

Cadence (Ital. cadenza; Fr. cadence), an har- 
monic turning-point forming a rest or close. A 
perfect C.'is the same as a full close, an imperfect 
C. as a half-close. The plagal C. (subdominant- 

tonic) is, however, also named imperfect, and 
the great C. (tonic — ^under-dominant — upper-do- 
minant — tonic) perfect, (i'w Close.) Asuspended 
C. (pause) in concertos with orchestra, sonatas, 
etc., is a break in the middle of the C, as a 
rule, on the chord of six-four (q.v.) of the tonic, 
followed by a more or less extended flourish, 
in which the virtuoso generally has to grapple 
with the most formidable difficulties. Formerly 
(up to the end of last century), at the suspended 
cadence, artists improvised on themes of the 
work which they were playing. Beethoven 
preferred to prescribe to the virtuoso what he 
should play at this point, and wrote special 
" cadenzas " (for this was the name given to 
the insertions themselves) for his earlier con- 
certos. In his E t? concerto, the cadenza was, 
from the outset,' organically connected with the 
whole movement. Nevertheless, pianists now- 
adays prefer- to introduce, at any rate into the 
other concertos, cadenzas of their own (but no 
longer improvised ones) instead of thosei pro- 
vided by the composer: Moscheles, Reineoke, 
and others, have published such cadenzas. In 
Schumann's pianoforte concerto, and other 
modern works, the C. forms an integrant part 
of the movement. 

Cadence biisee (Fr.), an abrupt shake; it 
begins with the upper auxiliary note, but is not, 
like the cadence pleine, preceded by it as a long 

Cadence ^vit^e (Fr.), lit. " avoided cadence." 
A dissonant chord followed by another disson- 
ant chord instead of the expected consonant 

Cadence imparfaite (Fr.), an imperfect cad- 
ence, a half close (tonic-dominant). 

Cadence interrompue (Fr.), an " interrupted 

Cadence irreguli&re (Fr.), the same as Cad- 
ence Imparfaite. 

Cadence pleine (Fr.), (i) a shake which is 
preceded by the upper auxiliary note as a long 
(Appoggiatura. (2) A dissonant chord followed 
by a consonant chord. 

Cadenza d'inganno, or Cadenza finta (Ital.), a 
deceptive cadence. 

CssBura (Lat.), a pause; metrical break. 

Cafaro, Pasquale, eminent Italian com- 
poser, b. Feb. 8, 1706, San Pietro, Galantina, 
near Lecce (Naples); pupil of Leonardo Leo 
at the Conservatotio della Piet4, Naples, where 
he died Oct. 23, 1787. He wrote oratorios, 
cantatas, and other church works, as well as 
operas; his Stabat Mater (Canon a 2 with 
organ) deserves special mention. (See Caffar- 


Caffarelli, really Gaetano Majorano, 
famous castrate, b. April 16, 1703, Bari, d. 
Nov.' 30, 1783, Santo Dorato, near Naples ; was 
discovered and trained by Cafaro (q.v.), and, to 




do the latter honour, called himself C. Cafaro 
afterwards sent him to Porpora, who at the end 
of five years dismissed him as a singer of the 
first rank. After he had acquired great renown 
in Italy, he came in 1737 to London, where he 
did not meet with special success, but cele- 
brated afterwards greater triumphs in Italy, 
Vienna, and Paris. C. was very covetous, and 
amassed a large fortune, with which he pur- 
chased the dukedom of Santo Dorato (from 
which time he also bore the title of Duca), and 
built a grand palace with the proud inscription, 
" Amphion Thebas, ego domum." C. excelled 
in pathetic song, and possessed also immense 
skill in coloratura, especially in chromatic runs, 

pttpil of the Conservatoire, pianist and music 
teacher in Paris, composed a few operettas, etc. 

Caillot, Joseph, distinguished French actor 
and opera singer (tenor-baritone) at the Paris 
" Comedie Italienne," b. 1732, Paris, d. there 
Sept. 30, 1816. 

Calmo, Joseffo, madrigal composer of the 
second half of the i6th century, published .568- 
85, four books of madrigals (H 5), and one book 
(£ 5-8), also two books of canzonets (i 4). 

9a ira, celebrated song {Carillon national) of 
the French Revolution, 1789, words by a street- 
singer of the name of Ladre, melody by Be- 
court, drummer at the Grand Opera ; begins 

Ah ! Qa i • ra, Qa i - 

Qa i - ra! Lepeupleen ce jour sans ces - se r6 - p6 - te, etc. 

which he seems to have been the first to cul- 

Caffi, Francesco, Italian writer on music, 
b. 1786, Venice, d. there, 1874; was advocate 
at the Court of Appeal in Milan until 1827, from 
which time he lived privately in Venice oc- 
cupied with the study of the history of music. 
His principal work is " Storia della Musica 
Sacra nella gisL Capella Ducale di San Marco in 
Venezia dal 1318 al 1797" (1854-55, 2 vols.). 
We are also indebted to him for monographs 
on Zarlino (1836), Bonaventura Fumaletto 
(1820), Lotti, Benedetto Marcello (in Cjcognia's 
"Veneziani Inscrizioni" and Giammateo Asola, 
1862). A " History of the Theatre " remained 

Caffiauz, Dom Philippe Joseph, Bene- 
dictine monk of the congregation of St. Maur, 
b. 1712, Valenciennes, d. Dec. 26, 1777, at the 
abbey of St. Germain des Pr&, Paris ; he was 
the author of a somewhat voluminous history of 
music, the publication of which was advertised 
in 1756, but not carried out. Fetis discovered 
the manuscript in the Paris " Bibliotheque," 
and highly extols it. 

Cagniard de la Tour, Charles, Baron de, 
b. May 31, 1777, Paris, d. there, July 5, 1859, 
celebrated natural philosopher and mechanician, 
member of the Academic, etc. ; was the in- 
genious improver of the syren (q.v.), which he 
transformed into an instrument recording with 
precision the vibration numbers of sounds. 

Cagnoni, Antonio, favourite Italian opera 
composer, b. Feb. 8, 1828, Godiasco (Voghera), 
pupil of the Milan Conservatorio. His Don 
Bucefalo, written before leaving the Conserva- 
torio (1847), became part of the ripertoire of the 
Italian stage. Up to the present he has written 
about twenty operas. In i8g6 he became 
maestro di cappella of Santa Maria Maggiore 
at Bergamo. 

Cahen, Ernest, b. Aug. 18, 1828, Paris, 

Caisae roulaute (Fr.), long side-drum. {See 

Calamus (Lat.), also calamellus, reed, reed- 
flute ; the French chalumeau and the German 
Schalmei are derived from this word. 

Calando (Ital.), decreasing in loudness, also 
rapidity. It has also the meanings of dimi7m- 
endo and ritardando combined. 

Calandrone, an Italian flute used by peasants. 

Calaacione {Colascione, Fr. colachon), an instru- 
ment with finger-board similar to the mando- 
line, in use in Lower Italy ; it is struck with a 

Calata, old Italian dance of quiet movement, 
and in binary time. 

Calcando (Ital.), hurrying the time. 

Calcant (Ger.), bellows-treader. 

CaIdara,'Antonio, a prolific, and in his time 
highly appreciated, composer, b. 1670, Venice ; 
became in 1714, after many years' residence at 
Bologna and Mantua, imperial chamber-com- 
poser at Vienna ; from Jan. i, 1716, vice-capell- 
meister (J.J. Fux was chief capellmeister), and 
died at Vieima, Dec. 28, 1736, at the age of 66. 
C. wrote no less than sixty-six operas and 
serenades, twenty-nine oratorios (nearly all of 
them at Vienna), besides much church and 
chamber music. 

Calegari, (i),, Francesco Antonio (Cal- 
legari), Franciscan monk, b. at Venice ; about 
1702 maestro di cappella at the great Minorite 
monastery at Venice, 1703-1724 maestro at 
Padua, where G. Rinaldi and VaJlotti became his 
successors in 1729. In addition to various 
church compositions, C. wrote " Arapia Dimo- 
strazione degli Armoniali Musicali tuoni." Val- 
lotti and Sabbatini knew his manuscript, and 
made use of it.( — 2) Antonio, b. Oct. 18, 1758, 
Padua, d. there July 22, 1828, brought out 
(1779-89) four operas at Modena and Venice, 
lived during the early years of the present 
century at Paris, wh're he published a French 




edition of his method of composition for non- 
musicians, " L'Art de Composer, etc.," 1802; 
2nd ed. 1803 ) previously in Italian (under title 
" Gioco Pittagorico, 1801). He afterwards re- 
turned to Padua, where he became first organist 
and maestro di cappella of San Antonio. C. 
wrote six psalms in the style of B. Marcello (but 
without his genius), a continuation of the latter's 
" Estro Poetico." After his death, his " Sistema 
Armonico " was published with notes by Melch. 
Balbi, 1829, and another posthumous work, a 
Method of Singing, on Pacchierotti's system, 
" Modi Generali del Canto," appeared in 1836. 

Caletti-Bmni. (See Cavalli.) 

Calkin, J. B., esteemed pianist, organist, and 
composer, b. March 16, 1827. 

Callaerts, Joseph, famous organist and com- 
poser, b. Aug. 22, 1838, Antwerp, pupil of 
Lemmens at the Brussels Conservatoire, where 
he received the first prize in 1856 ; 1851-56 
organist of the Jesuit College, afterwards of 
Antwerp Cathedral ; since 1867 teacher of the 
organ at the Music School. He composed a 
symphony for the Brussels Acad^mie (1879, 
which gained a prize), a pf. trio (1882, also a 
prize work) , the comic opera, Le Retour Imprevu 
(Antwerp, 1889), masses, litanies, cantatas, 
organ and pianoforte works, etc. 

Callcott, John Wall, b. Nov. 20, 1766, Ken- 
sington, d. May 15, 1821, Bristol; was organist 
of various London churches. Bachelor of Arts 
and Doctor of Music (Oxford), from 1806 
lecturer on music at the Royal Institution (suc- 
cessor to Crotch) . C. wrote a great number of 
glees and catches, also anthems, odes, etc. A 
collection was published in 1824 by his son-in- 
law, Horsley. C. intended to write a musical 
dictionary, and had procured the manuscript 
left behind by Boyce, and collected a quantity 
of material ; but in 1797 he had not got beyond 
-the syllabus. His only theoretical work is a 
" Musical Grammar " (1806). Callcott's son, 
William Hutchins C, b. 1807, d. Aug. 4, 
1882, London, was highly esteemed as a vocal 
•composer (songs, anthems, etc). He was also 
a popular arranger of pianoforte pieces. 

Callinet. {Ste Daublaine ex C.) ' 
Calmato (Ital.), calmed, quieted. 

Calore (Ital.), heat, affection. Con calore, with 
warmth, with passion. 

Caloroso (Ital.), with warmth, with passion. 

Calvisius, Sethus, really Seth Kallwitz, 
•son of a labourer at Gorschleben (Thuringia), 
b. Feb. 21, 1556, d. Nov. 24, 1615, at Leipzig. 
By singing iti the streets of Magdeburg for 
alms he was able to attend the Gymnasium, 
and, by giving private lessons, obtained sufiicient 
for a visit to the Universities of Helmstedt 
(1579) and Leipzig (1580). In 1581 he became 
-musical director of the Paulinerkirche at. 
Leipzig, in 1582 cantor at the Schulpforta, and 

in 1594 cantor at the St. Thomas' School and 
musical director of the principal churches of 
Leipzig. This honourable position he retained 
until his death, refusing all appointments to 
other places, as, for instance, that of professor 
of mathematics at Wittenberg. C. had a good 
theoretical training, and his works are still one 
of the most important sources for the state of 
musical instruction in his time: "Melopoeia 
seu Melodise Condendas Ratio " (1582) ; " Com- 
pendium Musicse Practicae pro Incipientibus " 
(1594; 3rd ed., under the title " Musicae Artis 
PrKcepta Nova et Facillima," 1612); "Exer- 
citationes Musicas Duas" (1600); "Exercitatio 
MusicasTertia" (1611). (OC Bobisation.) Of 
his compositions the following have been pre- 
served : " Auserlesene teutsche Lieder " (1603) ; 
" Biciniorum Libri Duo " (1612) ; " Der 150. 
Psalm " (k 12) ; besides a collection, " Harmonise 
Cantionum Ecclesiasticarum a M. Luthero et 
aliis Viris Piis Germanise Compositariim " 
(1596), and an arrangement (a 4) of Cornelius 
Becker's psalm melodies (1602, 1616, 1618, 
1621). Manuscripts of motets, hymns, etc., are 
still in the library of St. Thomas' School. 

Calvoer, Caspar, learned theologian, b. 1650, 
Hildesheim, d. 1725, as general superintendent 
at Clausthal ; wrote " De Musica ac singillatim 
de Ecclesiastica eoque Spectantibus Organis " 
(1702), as well as a preface to Sinn's "Tem- 
peratura Practica" (1717). 

Cambert, Robert, b. about 1628, Paris, 
d. 1677, London ; pupil of Chambonnieres, 
and for some time organist of the collegiate 
church, St. Honore ; became, in 1666, intendant 
of music to the queen-mother, Anne of Austria. 
C. was the true creator of the French opera, 
but through LuUy his merit was afterwards 
darkened and denied. Excited by the repre- 
sentation of Italian operas brought about by 
Mazarin in 1647, Perrin sketched out a libretto 
,for a lyrical stage piece, which he called La 
Pastorale, and which was set to music by C. 
(1659) ; the representation at the Chateau 
d'Issy was successful, and Louis XIV. interested 
himself in it. In 1661 followed Ariane; ou, le 
Manage de Bacchus, and in 1662 Adonis (which 
was not produced, and is entirely lost). In 
1669 Perrin received a patent for the establish- 
ment of regular operatic performances under 
the name, " Academic Royale de Musique." He 
associated himself with C, and in 1671 the 
first real opera, Pomone, came out ; another one, 
Les Peines et les Plaisin de V Amour, was not pro- 
duced, because in 1672 LuUy succeeded in 
having the patent transferred to himself. Em- 
bittered, C. left Paris and came to London, 
where he was at first a military bandmaster, 
but became master of the music to Charles II., 
and died holding that post. Fragments of 
Pomone were printed by Ballard; and in a 
recent edition Pomone and Les Peines et Us 
Plaisirs, de I' Amour" (in "Chefs d'CEuvre 


Classiques de I'Op&a Franfais," published by 
Breitkopf and Hartel) have been brought out. 
Cambiata (Ital.), changing note. 

Cambini, Giovanni Giuseppe, b. Feb. 13, 
1746, ILeghorn, d. 1825, Paris, pupil of Padre 
Martini; in 1770 he went, after some strange 
adventures, to Paris, where he met with success 
as a composer of ballets, and occupied the post 
of conductor at various theatres, but finally fell 
into great poverty, and died in the workhouse 
at Bicetre. C. wrote with remarkable facility, 
and composed in very few years sixty sym- 
phonies, some of which were performed through 
Gossec's influence; besides, several oratorios, 
144 quartets for strings, etc. From 1810-1811 
he was a contributor to Geraude's musical 
paper. Tablets de Polymnie. 

Camera (Ital.), chamber. Musica da camera, 
chamber mu$ic; sonata da camera, chamber 

Camidge, (i) John, b. about 1733, d. April 
25, 1803, organist of York Cathedral for forty- 
seven years. He published " Six Easy Lessons 
for the Harpsichord." — (2) Matthew, son of 
former, b. 1764, d. 1844, succeeded his father at 
York Cathedral. He published " A Method of 
Instruction in Musick by Questions and An- 
swers." — (3) John, son of the former, suc- 
ceeded his father at York; the present organ 
was constructed chiefly under his superintend- 
ence. He died in 1859. 

Campagnoli, Bartolommeo, b. Sept. 10, 
1751, Cento, near Bologna, d. Nov. 6, 1827, 
Neustrelitz ; violin pupil of Dall' Ocha (pupil of 
LoUi at Bologna), of Quastarobba (pupil of 
Tartini) at Modena ; and after many years of 
activity as violinist in the orchestra at Bologna, 
he still became a pupil of Nardini's at Florence. 
After he had made himself known by giving 
concerts in various towns, he became in 1776 
leader of the band belonging to the Abbot of 
Freising, and afterwards musical director to the 
Duke of Courland at Dresden, whence he un- 
dertook extensive concert tours ; from 1797-1818 
he was leader at Leipzig, and finally court capell- 
meister at Neustrelitz. Besides a great deal of 
chamber music, he wrote concertos for flute and 
one for violin ; also a violin Method. 

Campana, Fa bio, Italian opera composer, 
b. Jan. 14, 1819, Leghorn, d. Feb. 2, 1882, 
London, where he lived for a long time. His 
Esmeralda (Nostra Dama di Parigi) was pro- 
duced with success at St. Petersburg (1869). 
Besides this, C. brought out in Italy six other 
operas, as well as a ballet in London. 

Campana (Ital.), bell. 

Campanella, small bell. 

Campanetta (Ital.), a set of bells, a carillon. 

Campenhout, Fran90is van, b, Feb. 5, 1779, 
Brussels, d. there April 24, 1848 ; he was at first 
violinist at the Theatre de la Monnaie, after- 



wards a much-prized tenor there and on other 
Belgian, Dutch, and French stages until 1827. 
He afterwards devoted himself to composition 
at Brussels, and made a name with a series of 
operas, masses, Te Deums, a symphony, etc., 
but is specially remembered as the composer of 
La Brabttfonne (q.v.). 

Campion, (i) Thomas, physician, composer 
and writer on music in London ; published 
"Two Bookes of Ayres " (with lute and viols, 
1610 ; the third and fourth books followed in 
1612) ; a " New Way of Making Fowre Parts in 
Counterpoint " (ist edition, undated ; 2nd edition, 
1660. He also wrote many Masques and pieces 
d'occasion. — (2) Franfois, theorbist at the 
Grand Opera, Paris (1703-19) ; published "Nou- 
velles picouvertes sur la Guitare " (1705) ; 
" Traite d'Accompagnements pour la Th^orbe " 
(1710) ; " Traite de Composition selon les 
Regies del'Octave" (1716), and "Additions," 
etc., to the works named (1739). 

Campieni, Carlo Antonio, b. 1720, Leg- 
horn, d. 1793 as court maestro, Florence. He 
was much admired as a violinist and as a com- 
poser of church music. 

Camporese, Violante, b. at Rome, 1785, 
a soprano singer. She sang at Paris, Milan, 
etc. Made her dlbut at King's Theatre, London, 
in 1817, and appeared at the Ancient and Phil- 
harmonic concerts. She died after i86o. 

Campos, JoSo Ribeiro de Almeida de, 
b. about 1770, Vizen, Portugal; in 1800 maestro 
at Lamego, also professor and examiner of 
church singing ; published " Elementos de 
Musica" (1786) and" Elementos deCantochao" 
(Elements of Cantus Plamis, 1800 ; many times 

Campra, Andre, the most noteworthy French 
opera composer of the period between LuUy and 
Rameau; b. Dec. 4, 1660, Aix (Provence), d. 
July 29, 1744, Versailles ; was at first maitre de 
chapelle of the cathedrals at Toulon (1679) , Aries 
(i68i), and Toulouse (1689 or 1690), then went 
to Paris as maitre de chapelle of the collegiate 
church of the Jesuits, and soon after of N6tre 
Dame. As this appointment, however, pro- 
hibited him from bringing out operas, he gave it 
up after having gained success with two operas 
which he had had performed under the name 
of his brother, Joseph C. (viola player at the 
Opera). In 1722 he became royal chefd'orchestre, 
and director of the music page-boys. His 
operas were as follows : L'Europe Galante (1697), 
Le Camaval de Venise (1699), Hesione (1700), 
Arithuse (1701), Tancrede (ijoz), Les Muses (1703), 
Iphigenieen Tauride (1704, with Desmarets), TUe- 
maque, Alcine (1705), Le Triomphe de I'Amour, 
Hippodamie (1708), Les Fetes VSnitiennes (1710), 
Idomenle (1712), Les Amours de Mars et Vinus, 
Telephe (1713), Camille (1717), Les Ages (1718, 
ballet opera), Achille et Dlidamie {lyjs); and to 
these may be added anumber oidivertissements and 




smaller operas for court festivities at Versailles, 
as well as (printed) three books of canfatas 
(1708, etc.) and five books of motets (1706, etc.). 
L'Ewrope Galante and Tancrede appeared in new 
editions by Breitkopf and Hartel. (C/Cambert.) 

Camps y Soler, Oscar, b. Nov. 21, 1837, at 
Alexandria, of Spanish parents; went with 
them to Florence, where he became a pupil of 
Dohler, and already in 1830 made his debui as 
pianist. He finished his studies under Merca- 
dante at Naples, and, after some extended con- 
cert tours, settled in Madrid. Besides various 
compositions (songs, pf. pieces, and a grand 
cantata, etc.), he has also published "Teoria 
Musical lUustrada," " Metodo de Solfeo," " Es- 
tudios Filosoficos sobre la Musica," and a 
Spanish translation of Berlioz's " Traite d'ln- 

Cauarie (Fr.),, a dance much in vogue in the 
time of Louis XIV. ; a lively kind of gigue in | 
or I time, sharply accentuated, and with the 
dotted note staccatoed. 

Cancrizans (Lat.), retrogressive. 

Candeille, Amelie Julie (SimonvC.) 
singer, actress, and composer, b. July 31, 1767, 
d. Feb. 4, 1834, Paris, daughter of Pierre 
Joseph Candeille, a somewhat fortunate opera 
composer (b. Dec. 8, 1744, Estaire, d_April 24, 
1827, Chantilly). She made her debut in 1782 as 
Iphigtoie in Gluck's Iphigenie en Aidide with 
great success at the Paris Grand OpSra, but 
already in 1783 quitted this stage to go as actress 
to the Theatre Fran9ais, to which she belonged 
until 1796. In 1798 she married Simons, the 
carriag;e-builder at Brussels, who, however, 
failed in 1802. She then separated from him 
and lived as a music-teacher in Paris, and 
in 1821 married a painter (Pi^rie, d. 1833), 
for whom she procured the post of director 
of the dravdng-school at Nimes. Madame C. 
brought out, with great success in 1792, at the 
Theatre Franjais, an operetta. La Belle Fer- 
miere, of which she had written words and 
music; she played the tit\s-rdle, sang and ac- 
companied herself with piano and harp. In 
1807 she made a fiasco with a comic opera, Ida, 
VOrpheline de Berlin. Of her works, the: ollow- 
ing appeared in print: three pianoforte trios, 
four sonatas for piano, a sonata for two pianos, 
the songs out of La Belle Fermiere, and some 
romances and piano fantasias. 

Cange, Du. (See Ducange.). 

Cannabich, (i) Christian, b. 1731, Mann- 
heim, d. 1798, Frankfort, while on a journey ; son 
of the flautist in the electoral band, Matthias 
C, pupil of Stamitr. C. studied for many years, 
at the expense of the Elector, in Italy under 
Jomelli, and became leader in 1765, and in 1775 
capellmeister of the band at Mannteim, which, as 
is well known, then acquired great fame. The 
lights and shades, especially the crescendo and 
diminuendo, were first brought to perfection 

under C. at Mannheim. In 1778 the court of 
Carl Theodor, and with it the band, removed 
to Munich. Cannabich's compositions (operas, 
ballets, symphonies, violin concertos, chamber 
music, etc.) were held in esteem. (2) Carl, son 
of the former, b. 1769, Mannheim ; in 1800 
succeeded his father as court capellmeister 
at Munich, d. March i, 1805; he was also a 
capable leader, violinist, and composer. 

Canuiciari, Don Pompeo, composer of the 
Roman school, d. 1744. He wrote masses, 
motets, magnificats, etc. He was maestro of 
S. Maria Maggiore, 1709. 

Canon, (i) according to present usage the 
strictest form of musical imitation ; it consists 
of two or more parts progressing in a similar 
manner, but not simultaneously. In the C. in the 
unison, the parts actually give out the same notes, 
but the second (imitating) part enters a half or a 
whole bar, or even later still, after the first. In 
the C. in the octave, the second part gives out the 
melody in the upper or the lower octave. In 
the C. in the fifth below, the melody is transposed 
a fifth lower, and here a further distinction is 
made, according as the imitating part repeats 
all the intervals exactly, or modifies them in 
conformity with the ruling scale. There are, 
likewise, canons in the upper fifth and fourth, 
in the upper or under second, etc. Further 
changes arise from lengthening or shortening 
the value of the notes in the imitating part [canon 
per augmentationem or diminuUonem), or by inver- 
sion of all intervals [al inverso, per motum con- 
trarium), so that rising are answered by falling 
progressions ; or so that the second part gives 
the melody backwards [canon cancricans, crab- 
canon). The Netherland contrapuntists of the 
15th and i6th centuries brought the art of C. 
to its highest stage of development. [C/. Am- 
brbs, " History of Music," vol. iii. ; also 0. 
Klauwell, " Die historische Entwickelung des 
Musikalischen Canons," 1877). In Greek the 
word C. means prescription, indication (rule), 
and the older contrapuntists were not in the 
habit of writing out their canons in score or 
parts, but merely of noting down one part and 
indicating the entry of the other parts, likewise 
pointing out the special modes of imitation by 
enigmatical prescriptions (Riddle C.) ; this in- 
scription was called a C, the piece itself Ft^a 
or Consequenza. The terms Dux (Subject) and 
Comes (Aiswer), which are now used for fugue 
— a strict, though in comparison with C. a very 
free form of imitation — served also for the C. ; 
the first part was called Guida, Proposta, Ante- 
cedente, Precedente, . and the part which followed 
Consequente, Risposta. If the parts were at the 
distance of half a semibreve [Minima), the C. 
was named Ftiga ad minimam. [Cf. example 
in article Entry-Signs.)— (2) The old name 
for the Monochord, because by means of it 
the intervals were measured ' (octave ^^ of 
length of string, etc.); hence the followers of 




Pythagoras, whose theory of music was based 
on the C, were named Canonists in opposition 
to the Harmonists (Aristoxenos and his school), 
who did not lay much stress on niathematics 
in music. 

Caatahile (Ital., " in a singing style !'), full of 
expression, synonymous with con expressions. In 
passages marked c, the principal melody is 
always made more prominent than the accom- 
panying parts. 

Cantata, a " vocal piece," just as sonata 
originally meant nothing more than instru- 
mental music. But, as the term sonata gradu- 
ally acquired a fixed meaning, so was it with 
the term C, only with this difference, that all 
old forms, to which in their time the name C. 
was given, are still so called in spite of the 
restricted meaning attached to that word, 
whereas it would occur to no one to CeJl a short 
simple prelude a sonata. By C. is now under- 
stood an important vocal work consisting of 
solos, duets, etc., and choruses with instru- 
mental accompaniment. The C. differs from the 
oratorio and the opera by the exclusion of the 
epic and dramatic elements ; a total exclusion 
of the latter is indeed impossible, as the purest 
lyrics occasionally rise to dramatic pathos. 
The art form is exhibited in the clearest 
manner in the department of church music 
(Church Cantatas). Here J. S. Bach has 
created types of the highest artistic beauty, and 
in great number, and from these it is not dif&- 
cnlt to form a definition. The C. expresses a 
feeling, a mood in manifold forms, which are 
connected in a, higher sense by this unity of 
mood. The solos in the church C. do not 
introduce various personages speaking for them- 
selves, but in the name of the congregation ; 
their subjectivity has, it is true, an individual 
colouring, but still it is a genera^ subjectivity. 
Thus it happens that the ensemble and choral 
movements, especially the chorales, form the real 
core of the church cantata : the various sing- 
ing characters are not sharply opposed to one 
another, but exalt one another mutually. If 
we preserve this definition of the C. for the 
secular C, then very many works, though thus 
designated by their authors, are not cantatas. 
We find, on the one hand, works arranged in a 
completely dramatic fashion, and differing from 
the opera principally by being shorter, and by 
the absence of scenery. Of late the title 
Lyrical Scenes has been aptly introduced for such 
compositions. On the other hand, there are 
works of a decided epic character in which an 
action is developed almost entirely in narrative 
form ; if such pieces are laid out on a grand 
scale, and if the subjects are Biblical, heroic, or 
ancient, the name Oratorio is more in vogue, and 
a better one ; also for Biblical, or those in any 
way religious, the name Legend. For romantic 
subjects, especially if treated briefly, the term 
is very loose and uncertain : composers are 

always in a state of perplexity, and, in fact, 
avoid giving any title at all. A suitable title 
would be Ballad, but this term for important 
forms has gone quite out of fashion. Appar- 
ently, then, there remains little to which the 
term C. is appropriate ; but, on closer examina- 
tion, there is still a considerable number of 
important vocal works to which it may be 
applied. Thus, Liszt's setting of Schiller's 
" An die Kiinstler " is a real C., and so with 
Brahms's Triumphlied and Schiclisalslied, Beet- 
hoven's Hymnus an die Freude at the end of the 
Ninth Symphony, and many others, especially 
all festival cantatas. Works such as the settings 
of Schiller's "Glocke" (Romberg, Bruch) are 
indeed difficult to classify. Strictly speaking, 
they belong to none of the art forms named, 
but consist of mixed elements, like Bach's 
" Passions." The latter are at the same time 
oratorios and cantatas, and the former, scenes, 
ballads and cantatas. Historically considered. 
Cantata, after the invention of accompanied 
monody (1600), was the name for vocal solos 
developed at length, in which arioso singing of a 
dramatic kind alternated with recitativo ; but 
this alternation was not at first a result con- 
nected with the name C, but merely the natural 
consequence of the extension of the piece ; and 
in the first half of the 17th century there was 
no sharp distinction between aria and cantata. 
Cafissimi introduced the name Chamber Can- 
tata (Cantata di camera), to mark the difference 
from the Church Cantata (Cantata di chiesa), 
which, in the meanwhile, had sprung up. Yet 
both remained for a long time within very 
narrow limits : instead of one, two or three 
vocal parts with continuo were intro^iuced, and 
one or two obligate- accompjmying parts, but 
they lacked entirely the characteristic features 
of the grand C. of the present day with 
chorus and orchestra. Even Dietrich Buxte- 
hude (d. 1707) wrote detached cantatas only 
for one voice. The grand secular C. was at 
first developed as a festal cantata for marriage 
festivities, acts of homage, etc. ; but the Church 
C, under the name of Church Concerto. . J. S. 
Bach used that name for the greater number 
of the cantatas, to which he gave a title other 
than the first words of the text, i.e. Conzerte, thus, 
hinting at the essential part which instruments 
play in them. {Cf. Anthem and Villancicos.) 

Cantatorium (Lat.), a service-book in the 
Roman Catholic Church, containing the music 
of the Antiphonary as well as that of the 

Cantatrice (Fr.), singer. 

Cantica (Lat.), Cantici (Ital.), canticles, hymns. 

Cantico (Ital.), canticle, hymn. 

Cantlcum (Lat.), canticle. The three so-called 
"evangelical," i.e. New Testament hymns of 
praise, or Cantica majora of the Catholic Church, 
are the "C. Maria:" (at the, Annunciation), 



"Magnificat anima mea" (generally called 
" Magnificat "), the " C. Zacharise," " Bene- 
dictus Dominus Deus Israel," and the " C. 
Simeonis," "Nunc dimittis servum tuum." The 
Cantica minora (seven in number) are taken from 
the Old Testament. All of the canticles are 
classed under psalm-singing, and the Psalms 
themselves are called Cantica {DavidU) — Cantica 
gradmim, i.e. Graduals; C. canticorum, the Song 
of Solomon. 

Cantilena (Ital.), a song-like composition; a 
song-like melody. 

Cantiones [Sacrae] (Lat., "sacred songs;" 
Ital. Canzoni spirituali). Tins term, from the' 
15th to the i8th century, was used in the sense 
of motets. 

Cantique (Fr.), a canticle. 

Canto a cappella (Ital.), vocal church music 
■without instrumental accompaniment. 

Canto Ambrosiano (Ital.), Ambrosian chant. 

Canto armonico (Ital.), a vocal composition 
in parts. 

Canto CTomatico (Ital.), chromatic vocal 

Canto fermo (Ital.), cantus firmus (q.v.). 

Canto figurato (Ital.). (Sa Cantos Figdr- 


Canto Gregoriano (Ital.), Gregorian chant. 

Canto piano (Ital.), plain-chant. 

Canto prime (Ital.), first soprano. 

Canto recitativo (Ital.), recitative, declam- 
atory singing. 

Canto secondo (Ital.), the second soprano. 

Cantor (singer), precentor of a congregation 
in large churches virhere there is a choir. The 
teacher and leader (capellmeister) of this choir, 
especially where there is a school' with scholar- 
ships for the choristers attached to the church, 
as at St. Thomas's School, Leipzig (q.v.). The 
French maitrises were similar to these founda- 
tion schools for choristers, and the post of 
/maitre de chapiHe was similar to that of the 
German Cantor. 

Cantus (Lat. ; Ital. canto), song, melody, 
hence the part specially bearing the melody, 
the soprano {Discanttis). With the contra- 
puntists of the isth and i6th centuries the 
tenor was really the principal part, the one 
bearing the melody, as the C. firmus, a theme 
usually taken from Gregorian song (C. planus), 
was assigned "to it, and against it the other 
parts moved busilyin counterpoint (C.figurattcs). 
Among these other parts' it was undoubtedly 
the soprano which stood out as the most 
melodious. Besides, the tenor notes were often 
of such length that of melody in the proper 
acceptation of the term there was none. 

Cantus, durus, mollis, naturalis (Lat.). (Cf. 
Major, Minor, Solmisation, and Mutation.) 

Cantus- firmus (Lat.), lit. "fixed chant." 
(i) plain-chant, plain-song, Gregorian chant. 
(2) A fragment of plain-song or any other melody 
to which counterpoint is added. , 

Cantus planus (Lat.), Plain-Song. 

Canzona (Ital. Canzone and Canzonetta; Fr. 
Chanson) , secular songs in several parts, popu- 
lar in style, of the 15th and i6th centuries, 
hence known under the names Canzoni Na- 
foletani, Siciliani, Francesi, etc. In Germany 
corresponding compositions at that time were 
called Lieder (" Frische teutsche Liedlein," 
" Gassenhawerlin," etc.). To the C. genus 
belong also villanellas a'nd villotas, only that in 
these the style of composition is still simpler 
(note against note, with little movement in 
the middle voices). 'When the strict poly- 
phonic style flourished compositions of this 
kind stood nearest to the taste of the present day, 
for they were sharply articulated, and showed 
period-formation answering to the rhyme posi- 
tions in the stanzas consisting for the most part 
of short lines. The C. sprang from the Volks- 
lied; in many ways it can be shown that the 
tenor part of these songs is used by various 
composers, and thus they are popular melodies 
arranged in four parts. Skilful masters (for ex., 
Heinrich Isaak, in " Inspruck, ich muss dich 
lassen," 1475) have set against the original 
melody in the tenor part a more beautiful one 
in the soprano, which afterwards was taken for 
the principal melody. The French chansons 
can be traced back to the songs of the Trouveres 
(troubadours), and the Neapolitan and Sicilian 
C. to fishermen's songs. Again, the French 
chanson is written for one voice with pianoforte 
accompaniment, but it has retained its fresh 
character. In its rhythm, answering to the 
national character, it may be distinguished, and 
to its advantage, from the Romance, the sweet 
Lied after the manner of Abt and Kucken. 
The modern art song is called in France by the 
German name. Lied, Lieder. 

Canzonetta, diminutive of Canzone, a little 
song. (See Canzona.) 

Capella, Martianus Minneus Felix, 
Latin poet and savant at Carthage at the be- 
ginning of the 5th century a.d., whose " Satyri- 
con " (gth book) treats of music. Remi d'Auxerre 
(Remigius Altisiodorensis) wrote a commentary 
on the same (printed in Gerbert's " Scnptores," 
I.). The first two books of the " Satyricon," 
entitled "De nuptiis Philologise et Mercurii," 
contain extracts from Aristides Quintilian (re- 
printed in Meibom's "Antiquae Musicae Auc- 
tores," 'VII., and in the various editions of the 
" Satyricon," the last by F, Kopp, 1836). 

Capellmeister (Ger. ; Ital. Maestro di capella: 
Fr. Maitre de chapelle), master of the children, 
choir-master; also conductor of an orchestra 
(Fr. Chef-i'orehestre). 

Capistrum (Lat.; Gr. Peristomion, Phorbeia) 



was the name given by the ancienfs to the 
bandage which the flute-player put round his 
cheeks, so as to prevent immoderate stretching 
of the same when blowing vigorously. Schaf- 
hautl ("Bericht iiber die Ausstellung zu 
Munchen," 1854) concludes from the employ- 
ment of the C., that the flute was not a 
beak-flute, but a reed instrument with kettle 
mouthpiece. (C/., however, Wind-Instruments 
(i) and Fistula.) 

Capo (Ital.), head, beginning. Da capo (abbr. 
d.c.), from the beginning, a sign for the repetition 
of a piece up to the place marked /!»« (end.) 

Capocci, Filippo, b. May 11, 1840, Rome, 
excellent Italian organist, son of Gaetano Ca- 
pocci, maestro di cappella at San Giovanni in 
Laterano, Rome. C. commenced to study the 
organ at an early age, and, thanks to excep- 
tional gifts and hard work, rose, until in 1875 
he became organist of San Giovanni. He is an 
organ composer of some distinction. 

Capotasto (Ital., from capo = head, and tasto 
= touch or tie; Capodaster), the upper end of 
the flnger-board in stringed instruments. Also 
(especially in the. guitar) a contrivance, by 
means of which the first fret is made a C. (the 
strings shortened by a semitone). 

Capoul, Joseph Amedee Victor, tenor 
singer, b. Feb. 27, 1839, Toulouse. He learnt 
singing at the Paris Conservatoire under Revial 
and Mocker. He was at the Op^ra Comique 
from 1861 to 1872, and since then has appeared 
at New York, London (with Christine Nilsson) , 
and other places with great success. 

Cappella (Ital. ; Ger. KapelU), originally the 
name for the place (recess) set apart for 
the worshipping of a particular saint, in a 
large or even in a small church ; then it was 
applied to the place occupied by the body 
of singers, and lastly to the body of singers 
itself. The oldest chapels were wholly vocal 
chapels, and of these the oldest, which bore, 
and still bears, the name of C, is the Papal 
Chapel {Cappella pontifica).. The Berlin Cathe- 
dral choir, the court Chapels of Munich and 
Vienna, King's Chapel (Chapel Royal) at Lon- 
don, and formerly the SainU Chapelle at Paris, 
etc., at each of which there is a body of paid 
singers, are institutions of a similar kind. As in 
old- times sacred compositions were written for 
voices only without any kind of instrumental 
accompaniment (up to 1600), the term a cappella 
{alia Cappella) received the meaning of poly- 
phonic vocal music Without accompaniment. 
When, after the date mentioned above, instru- 
mental accompaniment was also introduced 
into sacred music, it became necessary to add 
instrumental players to the C, and the cor- 
porate body also gradually received the name of 
C. {Cf. Orchestra.) 

Capriccio (Ital.; Fr. Caprice). This term, 
when applied to a piece of music, does not 

imply any particular form, but only indicates 
that it is piquant in rhythm, and especially rich 
in original and unexpected turns of thought. 
The C, therefore, cannot be distinguished from 
the Scherzo ; pieces like Chopin's b|7 minor 
Scherzo might with equal right be called 
capricci. A .c, ad libitum, at pleasure ; a free, 
characteristic rendering. 

CapricomuB. (See Bockshorn.) 

Caxaccio, Giovanni, b. about 1500, Ber- 
gamo, d. 1626, Rome ; employed as singer at 
the court at Munich, afterwards maestro of the 
cathedral, Bergamo, and finally of Santa Maria 
Maggiore, Rome. Of his compositions there 
exist two books of magnificats, five books of 
madrigsds (the third book is missing), psalms, 
canzone, requiems, etc. 

Carafa (de Colobrano), Michele Enrico, b. 
Nov. 17, 1787, Naples, d. July 26, 1872 ; second 
son of Prince Colobrano, Duke of Alvito. He 
was an officer in the Neapolitan army, from 
1806 personal adjutant to Murat, with whom 
he went through the Russian campaign. When 
Napoleon fell, he gave up the military career 
and devoted himself entirely to music, which 
he had already cultivated with assiduity. Al- 
ready in 1802 and 181 1 he had had small operas 
performed at Naples. After he had written a 
great number of operas for Naples, MUan, and 
Venice, and also brought out a few pieces at 
the Th^itre Feydeau, Paris, he settled there in 
1827; in 1837 he became a member of the 
Academic (successor to Le Sueur), and in 1840 
professor of composition at the Conservatoire. 
Besides thirty-six operas and some cantatas and 
ballets, he also wrote a few important church 
works (masses, requiems, Stabat Mater, Ave 

Caramuel de Lobkowitz, Juan, b. May 23, 
1606, Madrid, d. Sept, 8, 1682, as Bishop of 
Vigevano (Lombardy); published, "Artenueva 
de Musica, inventada anno 600 por S. Gre- 
gorio, desconcertada anno da 1026 por Guidon 
Aretino restituida a su primera perfeccion anno 
1620 por Fr. Pedro de.Urenna, etc." (1644). 
{Cf. Bobisation). 

Caiessont (Fr.), Carezzando (Ital.), Carezze- 
Tole (Ital.), in a caressing, insinuating manner. 

Carestini, Giovanni, evirato, known under 
the name of Cusanino, which he added to his 
own in honour of the family of Cusani in Milan, 
which had taken him under its protection when 
he was only twelve years of age ; b. about 1705, 
at Monte Filatrano, near Ancona, d. there 
about 1760. He sang at Rome, Prague, Mantua, 
London (1733-33, under Handel, when Farinelli 
was engaged by his adversaries), afterwards at 
Venice, Berlin, St. Petersburg (1755-58). 

Carey, Henry, b. about 1690, d. Oct. 4, 1743, 
London ; natural son of George Savile, Marquis 
of Halifax; he was a favourite English composer 
of ballads, operettas, and of so-called ballad- 



operas. He published in 1737 a collection of 
100 ballads under the title, "The Musical 
Century." According to Chrysander's showing 
(" Jahrbuch " I.), Carey was the composra: of 
" God Save the King," which Clark {1822) tried to 
assign to John Bull. It should, however, be stated 
that the same Clark, in 1814, ,had written a 
book to prove that Carey was author of the 
tune. (Cf. long and interesting articles on the 
subject by W. H. Cummings, MmsjcaZ Times, 

Caricato (Ital.), overloaded with regard to 
embellishments, dissonances, instrumentation, 
or any other means of musical expression. 

Carillon, set of bells (Ger. Glockenspiel);. In 
former centuries carillons were much in vogue. 
The grandest kind of C. is to be found on 
church towers, where a number of small bells 
are played by means of clockwork mechanism 
with rollers, as in the barrel-organ or the 
musical-clock. Carillons of this kind are com- 
mon in HoUaJid and the Netherlands, -and were 
only transplanted to England within modern 
times, where the mechanism has been brought 
to a great state of perfection. In 1885 the Petri- 
kirche at Hamburg received a new C. with forty 
bells. Smaller carillons were played either by 
means of a keyboaird (as those in old organs for 
the upper half of the keyboard), or struck by 
small mallets (especially the portable ones, 
formerly common in military music, now re- 
placed by the lyra with steel rods). The 
idea of the C. is very ancient, and was realised, 
particularly by the Chinese, a long time ago ; 
it is possible that the Dutch may have received 
them thence. The monks of the early Middle 
Ages had, however, already constructed bells 
tuned in different ways [noloe, tintinnabula). A 
mass of indications how to fit these up for the 
nine tones of the octave (C — c, with b\f and 
itf) have been preserved in manuscripts of the 
loth to the i2th century, and, in part, reprinted 
in Gerbert (" Scriptores," etc.). The cymbalum 
(miniature drum) appears to nave been of equal 
importance. Carillons is also the name given 
to musical pieces, especially for pianoforte, 
which imitate a peal of bells (melody in 3rds 
with ostinato upper and lower notes). 

Carissimi, Giacomo, born about 1604 at 
Marino (Papal States), was at first maestro at 
Assisi, and from i6z8 occupied a similar post at the 
Church of St. ApoUinaris, attached to the German 
College, Rome, where he died Jan. 12, 1674. 
C. contributed much towards the development 
of the monodic style which arose at the begin- 
ning of the 17th century ; he rendered essential 
aid in perfecting recitative and giving greater 
charm to instrumental accompaniments. He 
is said to have been.the inventor of the chamber 
cantata, but this statement is misleading, inas- 
much as all his cantatas are composed to sacred 
words. Many of his works have, unfortunately, 
been lost, for when the Order of the Jesuits 

was abolished, the library of the German College 
was sold. But even of the printed ones (motets 
a 2-4, 1664 and 1667; "Arie da Camera," 1667) 
there exist only single copies. The Paris 
Library, possesses a manuscript with ten ora- 
torios by C. ; the library of the Conservatoire 
and that of the British Museum contain also 
detached works by C. The Fitzwilliam Museum, 
Cambridge, possesses motets, madrigals of C, 
some of them autographs. There is, besides, a 
specially rich collection (made by Dr. Aldrich) 
in the library of Christ Church, Oxford. A 
sacred cantata, Jonah, has been edited by Henry 
Leslie (Augener, No. 9,117). A small treatise, 
" Ars Cantandi," by C, exists only in a German 
translation, as supplement to the " Vermehrter 
Wegweiser " (Augsburg, Jak. Knoppmayer, 2nd 
ed., 169Z ; 3rd ed., i6g6). 

Carmagnole, one of the most noted popular 
songs of the Teneur period of the French Re- 
volution, of which both poet and composer are 
unknown. It commences thus : — 

- dame Ve ■ to 

a - vait pro • mis, ecc. 

The name is derived from the C, the jackets 
worn by the members of the Jacobin Club. 

Camicer, Ramon, b. Oct. 24, 1789, near 
Lerida (Catalonia), d. March 17, 1855 ; from 
1818-20 conductor at the Italian Opera, Barce- 
lona, 1828 at the Royal Opera, Mflidrid, and 1830- 
54 professor of composition of the Conservatorio 
of that city. He composed nine operas, many 
symphonies. Church music, songs, etc. 

Carol, Caxola (Ital.), Carole (Fr.), a mediaeval ' 
dance (ring-dance), which, like all old dances, 
was accompanied by singing. The name lias 
recently been given in England to songs half- 
sacred, half-secular, of a popular kind, sung 
at festival times, especially at Christmas. 
(Christmas Carols.) 

Carolan. (See O'Carolan.) 

Caron, Firmin, distinguished contrapuntist 
of the 15th century, contemporary of Okeghem, 
Busnois, etc., pupil of Binchois and Dufay. 
With the exception of a few masses in the 
library of the Pope's chapel and a three-part 
chanson in a manuscript in the Paris Biblio- 
theque, nothing has been preserved. 

Carpani, Giuseppe, b. 1752, Brianza (Lom- 
bardy), d. Jan. 22, 1825, Milan, as Imperial 
court poet. C, is principally known by his "Le 
Haydine, O vvero Lettere su la Vita e le Opere del 
Celebre Maestro Giuseppe Haydn'.' (1812), and 
" Le Rossiniane, ossia Lettere Musico-teatrali " 
(1824). He produced several operas at Milan. 




Carpentras (Ital. II Carpentrasso, real name 
EUazar Genet), b. about 1475, Carpentras (Vau- 
duse) ; became in 1515 principal singer in the 
Pope's chapel, and soon after maestro di cap- 
pella; he was sent to Avignon (1521) to settle 
some negotiations connected with the Papal 
ihair, and appears to have died there after 1532. 
A1x>ok of his masses, l,amentations, hymns, and 
Magnificats was published by Jean de Channay 
at Avignon (1532) ; it was prmted with round 
notes (!) and without ligatures. {Cf. Briard.) 
Single numbers from it have been reprinted in 
collections of the present day. Some motets of 
C. are to be found in Petrucci's " Motetti della 
Corona" in the first and third volumes (15 14 
and 1519). 

Caxzi, Louis, b. 1663, Clofontaine (Brie), 
d. April II, 1711 ; mathematician and member 
of the Paris Academie; he published several 
works on acoustics. 

Caxreno, Teresa, b. Dec. 22, 1853, Caracas 
(Venezuela), the daughter of a distinguished 
functionary. She studied with Moritz Gott- 
schalk, and is a most accomplished pianist. She 
made her debut in Europe already in 1865-66, 
but her fame dates only from the time of her 
reappearance (1889). C. is also singer, com- 
poser ("National Hymn of Venezuela"), and, as 
manageress of an Italian opera troupe, was 
sometimes compelled to wield the bdton. She 
married, 1892, the pianist Eugen d' Albert. 

CarroduB, John Tiplady, b. Jan. 20, 1836, 
Keighley (Yorkshire), violinist, pupil of Molique 
in lindon and in Stuttgart (1848 to 1853). He 
has resided in London since 1854 as solo violinist 
and leader of some of the principal orchestras. 
He has published several violin solos. 

Carter, Thomas, b. about 1735, Dublin, 
d. Oct. 12, 1804 ; studied music in. Italy, and 
(1775-82) wrote incidental music to several 
plays produced at Drury Lane Theatre. In 
1787 he became musical director of the Royalty 
Theatre, for which he wrote operas. He com- 
posed, besides, concertos and lessons for piano- 
forte, as well as ballads, some of which became 
very popular. 

Caitier, Jean Baptiste, violinist, b. May 
28, 1765, Avignon, d. 1841, Paris; pupil of 
Viotti, afterwards accompanist to Queen Marie 
Antoinette, 1791-1821 violinist at the Grand 
Op^ra, 1804 member of the imperial, 1815-30 
of the roy^ band, after which he received a 
pension. Besides variations, Hudes, sonatas, 
duets for violin, he wrote two operas and pub- 
lished an excellent Method, " L'art du violon " 
(1798 and 1801). 

Caxuso, Luigi, b. Sept. 25, 1754, Naples, d. 
1822, Perugia ; he was one of the most prolific 
opera and church composers of his time (sixty- 
one operas for all the great stages of Italy). 

Carvalho, Caroline Felix Miolan, b. 
Dec. 31, 1827, Marseilles, distinguished French 

opera singer (soprano, lyric artist) ; in, 1853 
she married LSon Carvaille, who was called C. 
(b. 1825 ; first of all opera singer (1855), then, 
until 1869, manager of the Theatre Lyrique, 
which flourished under his direction ; from 1876 
director of the Opera Comique). Madame C. 
was first engaged at the Op^ra Comique, then 
sang at the Lyrique, 1869 at the Grand OpSra, 
1872 again at the OpSra Comique, and in 1875 
again at the Grand Opera. She retired from 
the stage in 1885. 

Caiy, Annie Louisa, a distinguished 
American contralto vocalist, b. 1846, Wayne 
(Kennebec, co. Maine), daughter of a physician. 
She was trained at Boston and, after a journey 
to Milan for the purpose of study, made her 
debut at Stockholm. She then went under 
Madame Viardot- Garcia (Baden-Baden) for 
further study, and was engaged first at Ham- 
burg, 1868, and then at Stockholm. After that 
she sang at Brussels, Ixjndon, New York (1870), 
Petersburg (1875), etc. She married at Cin- 
cinnati in 1882, where she was engaged as 
soloist at the Festival in May. 

Casali, Giovanni Battista, from 1759 to 
1792 maestro at the Lateran; a church com- 
poser in the style of the Roman school. 

Casamorata, Luigi Fernando, b. May 15, 
1807, Wiirzburg, of Italian parents, d. Sept. 24, 
1881, Florence. He went with his parents to 
the latter city in 1813, received at an early age 
regular musical instruction, but studied law and 
took his degree ; he assisted in the editing of the 
Gazetta Musicale at Florence, and was a zealous 
contributor to the Milan paper of like name. 
C. produced ballet music and an opera, but on 
the failure of these he turned his attention to 
saCred vocal, and to instrumental music. In 
1859 he was appointed vice-president of the 
foundation committee of the Royal Institute of 
Music at Florence, and was afterwards en- 
trusted with the working out of the organisa- 
tion, and named director of the Institution. 
Besides many vocal and instrumental works, he 
published a " Manuale di armonia" (1876), like- 
wise " Origini, storia e ordinamento del R. Isti- 
tuto Musicale Fiorentino." 

Casella, Pietro, b. 1769, Pieva (Umbria), 
d. Dec. 12, 1843, as Professor of the Royal 
Conservatorio, Naples. He was maestro of 
several Naples churches, and wrote many 
masses, vespers, etc., also several operas. 

Caserta, Philippde, writer of the 15th cen- 
tury at Naples on the theory of measured 
music ; a treatise of his has been printed by 
Coussemaker (Script. III.). 

Cassa (gran C). (Set Drum.) 

Cassation (Ger. Kassation, Ital. Cassazione), 
really a "farewell." This was in the last 
century a serenade (esp. as " Abendmusik ") to 
be performed in the open air. It consisted of a 
piece in several movements, of simple character. 




and arranged for several instruments, {ff. 
Serenade, Divertimento.) 

Cassiodorius, Magnus Aurelius, b. about 
470 (in Lucania), was chancellor of the kings 
Odoacer and Theodoric, and worked beneficially 
as consul at Rome (514). Deposed by Vitiges 
(537), he retired to the monastery at Vivarium 
(Vivarese, Calabria), where he wrote his work 
" De artibus ac disciplinis liberalium litterarum, ' ' 
of which the part treating of music ("Insti- 
tutiones musicse ") was printed by Gerbert 
(Script. I.). 

Castanets (Sp. Castanmlas), a simple clapper 
instrument much in vogue in Spain and Lower 
Italy. It consists of two pieces of wood, in 
shape something like the capsule of a chestnut 
slit through the middle ; these are fastened by 
means of a cord to the thumb, and struck one 
against the other by means of the other fingers. 
An effect similar to the C. can be obtained by 
drawing the fingers quickly from the point to 
the ball of the thumb, to which movement the 
name C. is appUed. C. are indispensable 
features of Spanish or Neapolitan dances in 
our modern ballet. For further details see 
Gevaert's " Nouveau Traite d'Instrumentation." 

Castel, Louis Bertrand, Jesuit father, b. 
Nov. II, 1688, Montpelier, d. Jan. 11, 1757, 
Paris ; he seized hold of the idea suggested by 
Newton of colour harmony, and constructed, 
first in theory, afterwards in practice, a coloured 
keyboEurd (Clavecin oculaire), the description of 
which was translated into German by Tele- 
mann (1739). He wrote besides " Lettres d'un 
academicien de Bordeaux sur le fond de la 
musique" (1754), as well as the reply to it 
(" Reponse critique d'un academicien de Rouen, 
etc." (1754). C. was acquainted with Rameau, 
and it is said that he had a hand in Rameau's 
theoretical writings, but this has not been 
proved. C. was a dreamer, but Rameau a 
musician with a fine sense of harmony. 

Castelli, Ignaz Franz, b. March 6, 1781, 
Vienna, d. there Feb. 5, 1862 ; author of 
the libretto of Weigl's Schweizer Familie and 
other favourite operas, also the translation into 
German of many foreign operas for stage use. 
He was appointed " Hoftheaterdichter " at the 
Kamtnerthor Theater; and from 1829-40 was 
founder and editor of the Allgemeiner Musikal- 
ischer Ameiger. 

Castration, the emasculation of boys prac- 
tised for centuries in Italy to prevent the mu- 
tation (q.v.) which takes place at the age of 
puberty, i.e. for the sake of preserving the 
boy's voice, the quality of which, as is known, 
is more agreeable than that of a woman's. The 
voice of evirati combined with the timbre of a 
boy's voiofe the developed chest and lungs of a 
man, so that they could sing passages of enor- 
mous length, and could produce wonderful 
me$sa di voce effects. Castration flourished 

during the 17th and first half of the i8th cen- 
tury; but cases are to be found far into the 
19th century. The origin of C. for the purpose 
named must be sought for in mutilations 
through some accident or other ; and the most 
famous evirati of the 17th century had always 
some tale to tell how they had suffered C, for 
no one willingly submitted to it. In conse- 
quence of the enormous success of certain 
evirati, C. became, as it appears, a matter 
for most reprehensible speculation; a great 
number of boys were emasculated who never 
developed into singers of any importance. It 
has not been proved that the church approved 
of C, but it certainly tolerated it, and even at 
the beginning of the present century evirati 
were admitted into the Papal Chapel. The fol- 
lowing were specially famous : Farinelli, Sene-' 
sino, Cusanino, Ferri, Momoletto, Gizziello, 
BernaccM, Caffarelli, Crescentini, Pacchierotti, 
Manzuoli, Marchesi, Salimbeni, Velluti. 

Castrucci, Pietro, b. i68g, Rome, d. 1769, 
London, violinist, pupil of Corelli, came (1715) 
to London as leader of Handel's opera band. 
In his playing he showed a straining after effect. 
He was specially famous as a performer on the 
vioUtta marina, a stringed instrument of his own 
invention. Handel used the instrument in 
Orlando and Sosarme; in the former an air is 
accompanied by two vioUtte marine, " Per gli 
Signori Castrucci," i.e., Pietro and his brother 
Prospero. C. died in great poverty. He pub- 
lished two books of violin sonatas, and twelve 
violin concertos. 

Catalani, Angelica, b. Sinigaglia, Oct. 1779, 
d. of cholera, Paris, June 12, 1849, a singer of 
the first rank at the beginning of this century. 
Already as a child she made a great sensation, and 
was looked upon as a prodigy. She was educated 
at the Santa Lucia convent at Gubbio, near Rome, 
which derived great pecuniary advantage from 
her presence. She never became the pupil of a 
great master, and was never able to slmke off 
certain faulty mannerisms of which Crescentini, 
later on, complained. Her voice was full, 
flexible, and of great compass. At first she 
tried sustained, expressive singing, but for that 
she lacked inner warmth. She only rose to her 
true height when she devoted herself to bravura 
singing. In 1795 she made her dlbut at the 
Fenice, Venice, then sang at La Pergola, Flor- 
ence, in 1799, and in i8or at La Scala, Milan, and 
afterwards at Trieste, Rome, Naples. In 1801 
she accepted an engagement at the Italian 
Opera, Lisbon, where she studied her parts 
with M. Portugal. She married Valabregue, of 
the French emba.ssy, who, as a pure man of 
business, directed her further career vrith the 
sole aim of making as much money as possible. 
They first went to Paris, where C. only ap- 
peared at concerts, but definitely established 
her fame. Sh? went to London in 1806 to fulfil 
a brilliant' contract, and by 1807 had received 




no less than ;f 16,700. She remained seven 
years in London, visiting Scotland and Ireland 
during the oflf season. On the fall of Napoleon 
(1814) she returned to Paris, and King Louis 
XVIII. gave over to her the management of the 
Theatre Italien with a subsidy of 160,000 frs. 
During the " hundred days " she retired before 
Napoleon, visited Germany and Scandinavia, 
and only returned through Holland to Paris 
after the capture of the emperor. This dread 
of Napoleon first arose in 1806, when she re- 
fused his offer of an engagement for Paris, and 
gave the preference to London. As directress 
of a theatre she met with Uttle success. In 
1817 she gave up the management, and for the 
next ten years led a wandering life. In 1827 
she sang in Berlin for the last time, and at York 
Festival in 1828, after which she spent the rest 
of her life in retirement on her country estate 
in the neighbourhood of Florence, giving les- 
sons in singing, it is said, to young girls gifted 
with a voice. C. had not only an extraordinary 
voice, but, in addition, a handsome figure and a 
lofty, majestic bearing. 

Catalectic. A poetical measure is called thus 
if the last foot of the verse is incomplete, i.e. if 
there is a pause in place of the last syllable. 

Catalini, Alfredo, b. June 19, 1854, Lucca, 
studied with his father, and afterwards at the 
Paris Conservatoire and Milan Conservatorio. 
He produced a one-act opera, La Fake (1875), 
and also Elda (Turin, 1880), Dejanice (Milan, 
1883), Ero e Leandro (1885), Edmea (1886). 

Catch, a species of composition peculiarly 
English; a kind of vocal fugue with comic 
words and all sorts of teclmical difficulties 
(division of the lines, nay, even of the words 
among the different voices), rendering the sing- 
ing of catches a troublesome art. The oldest 
collections of catches are : " Pammelia " (1609), 
" Deuteromelia" (1609), and " Melismata" (1611). 
The words of the catches were often of a highly 
questionable character. A Catch Club has existed 
in London since 1761 for the preservation and 
cultivation of this peculiar form of art. The 
club counts princes and noblemen, together 
with the best musicians of the country, amongst 
its members. The prizes offered have been 
won, amongst others, by Arne, Hayes, Webbe, 
Cooke, Alcock, Callcott, and, in recent times, 

Catel, Charles Simon, b. Jvme 10, 1773, 
L'Aigle (Ome), d. Nov. 29, 1830, Paris; went 
at an early age to Paris, where Sacchini took 
interest in him, and obtained admission for him 
into the 6cole Royale de Chant (afterwards the 
Conservatoire). Gobert and Gossec were his 
teachers there. Already in 1787 he wsis ap- 
pointed accompanist and " professeur-adjoint " 
of the institution, in 1790 accompanist at the 
Opera and sub-conductor of the band of the 
Garde Nationaie (Gossec was the principal). 

On the formation of the Conservatoire in 1795, 
C. was made professor of harmeay, and was 
commissioned to write a " Traite d'Harmonie," 
which appeared in 1802. In 1810 he became, 
jointly with Gossec,' Mehul, and Cherubini, 
one of the inspectors of the Conservatoire, but 
gave up all his posts in 1814 when Sarrette, " 
who had been friendly to him, was dismissed. 
In 1815 he was elected member of the Acad^mie. 
C. wrote much for the stage, but with little 
success (Shniramis, Les Bayaderes, Les Aubergistss 
de QualitS, etc.) ; also his national festival can- 
tatas and some chamber works, though dis- 
playing good workmanship, show no inventive 
power. His chief title to merit is his " Traits 
d'Harmonie," which for twenty years was a 
standard work at the Conservatoire. C. also 
took part in the publication of the " Solfeges 
du Conservatoire." 

Catelani, Angelo, b. March 30, i8ir, Guas- 
talla, d. Sept. 5, 1866, Modena ; was a pupil of 
Zingarelli at the Naples Conservatorio in 1831, 
and private pupil of Donizetti and Crescentini ; 
in 1834 conductor of the opera at Messina, in 
1837 town musical director at Correggio ; lived 
in Modena from 1838, where he was appointed, 
in turn, town, court, and church maestro di 
cappella, and in 1859 sub-librarian of the Este 
library. C. wrote several operas, but is more 
worthy of mention as a musical historian. He 
wrote biographical notices of Pietro Aaron and 
Nicola Vincentino (for the Milan Gazetta Musi- 
cale, 1851), published letters of celebrated old 
musicians (1852-54), wrote concerning the two 
oldest Petrucci prints discovered by Gaspari 
at Bologna (1856), and finally about the life 
and works of Orazio Vecchi (1858) and Claudio 
Merulo (i860). 

Catena di trilli (Ital.), a chain or succession 
of trills. 

Catrufo, Giuseppe, b. April ig, 1771, 
Naples, d. Aug. 19, 1855, London. On the 
outbreak of the Naples revolution he entered 
the service of France, and remained officer until 
1804. He settled in Geneva", but went to 
Paris in i8io, and from thence- to London in 
1835. C. was a prolific, but not an original, 
writer of operas ; h^ produced also arias, sacred 
pieces, and compositions for pianoforte and 
other instruments, as well as a " M^thode de 
Vocalisation " (1830). 

Cauda (Lat. " tail "). This is the name given 
in the terminology of the writers on meastired 
music to the vertical stroke falling from the note- 
heads of the Maxima ^, and the Longa M. 

as well as the commencement and close of the 
ligatures (q.v.). C. is sometimes, though rarely, 
used to indicate the upper stroke (sursum C.) in 

the Minima 


and Semiminima 


and the 




ligatures cum opposita proprietate. The Plica 
(q.v.) at the close of ligatures is frequently 
called C. in old measured music. 

Caurroy, Francois Eustache du, Sieur 
de St. Fremin, b. Feb. I549,' Gerberoy, near 
Beauvais, d. Aug. 7, i6og, Paris. In 1569 he 
became singer in the royal chapel, afterwards 
conductor, and in 1598 " suriijtendant de la 
musique du roi." In his time he was highly 
esteemed as a composer. His Requiem, two 
books of "Preces," besides "Melanges" (chan- 
sons, psalms, and Christmas songs) and " Phan- 
tasies," have been preserved. 

Cavaill^-Col, Aristide, b. 1811, Montpelier, 
d. Jan. 1886, sprang from an old family of 
organ-builders. He went to Paris in 1833, and 
became successful competitor for the construc- 
tion of an organ at St. Denis. He settled in 
Paris; and besides the St. Denis organ, in 
which Barker's pneumatic levers were first 
used, built also the celebrated instruments for 
St. Sulpice, the Madeleine, and many others in 
Paris and the provinces, and for Belgium, Hol- 
land, etc., of some of which detailed descrip- 
tions have been given (by La Fage, Lamazou, 
etc.). C. introduced important improvements 
in the construction of organs, as, for example, 
the employment of separate wind-chests with 
various intensities of wind for the low, middle, 
and upper parts of the keyboard, and again the 
flutes octavianies. He wrote " Etudes ExpSri- 
mentales sur les Tuyaux d'Orgue " (Report for 
the Acad^mie des Sciences 1849) ; " De I'Orgue 
et de son Architecture " ("Revue Gen^rale de 
I'Architecture des Travaux Publics, 1856"), and 
" Projet d'Orgue Monumental pour laBasilique 
de Saint-Pierre de R6me" (1875). 

Cavalieri, Emilio del, b. at Rome, of noble 
family, Uved there many years, and then was 
appointed " Inspector -General of Arts and 
Artists" at Florence by Fernando de Medici. 
He appears to have died in that city in 1599, as 
his most famous work, " Rappresentazione di 
Anima e di Corpo," was published in 1600 by 
Alessandro Guidotti, together with a preface 
and comments. C. was, without doubt, one of 
the founders of the modem (homophonic, ■ ac- 
companied) style of music, and of these the 
first to die. Hitherto it has not been clearly 
established whether he was drawn towards the 
new tendency by the esthetic circle in the 
houses of Bardi and Corsi (q.v.) — for it is not 

even known that he was a member of it or 

whether, on the other hand, he influenced it. 
Anyhow, as well as they, he was hostile to 
counterpoint, and, if they came together, the 
reasons of it are assuredly to be sought for 
outside of music. Already, in the work named 
above, C. wrote a Basso continuato {Contirmo) 
with figuring, and Guidottj explained the mean- 
ing of the same. C. also attached importance 
to the formation of melody, to which he, per- 
haps first, added ornaments (borrowed from 

the lute and clavicembalo), the signs of which 
were explained by Guidotti in the above-men- 
tioned preface. Cavalieri's compositions appear 
dry and monotonous to modern taste, but it 
should not be forgotten that they were the first 
attempts in an entirely new style. The Rap- 
pnsmtazione is lopked upon as the first oratorio 
(q.v.), just as his Disperazione di Filene, his 
Satiro (1590), and Giuoco delta Cieca (1595) must 
be considered the beginnings of opera. The 
earliest work of C. is a book of over eighty 
madrigals, known only by name. Like Caccini, 
he first wrote in the stilo osservato. 

Cavalieri, Katherina, b.Wahring (Vienna), 
1761, d. 1801, a dramatic singer mentioned by 
Mozart in a letter as " a singer of whom Ger- 
many might well be proud." It was for her 
that he composed the part of Constance in the 
Ent/iihrung, and the air " Mi tradi " in Don 
Giovanni on its first representation at Vienna. 

Cavalli, Francesco (really Pier Francisco 
Caletti-Bruni),, b. 1599 or 1600, Crema, 
where his father, Giambattista Caletti, named 
Bruni, was maestro, d. Jan. 14, 1676, Venice. 
On account of his musical talent he was taken 
by Federigo C, a Venetian nobleman, for a 
time podesta at Crema, to Venice to be trained 
as an artist. According to the fashion so 
common in Italy he assumed the name of his 
patron. In 1617 he became singer at St. Mark's 
under the name Bruni; in 1628 as Caletti, and in 
1640 as second organist under the name Caletti 
detto C. He became first organist in 1665, and 
maestro of St. Mark's in 1668. His Requiem, 
written not long before his death, was per- 
formed at his funeral. C. was held in high 
esteem as organist, as church composer, but espe- 
cially as an opera composer (forty-two operas). 
The pupil of Mohteverde, and heir, of his 
spiritual gifts, C. in, his works advanced a step 
beyond ; his detached vocal pieces already 
show broader form and more warmth of ex- 
pression. Rhythmical power and sound melody 
invest them with something more than his- 
torical value. One can judge of the fame which 
C. enjoyed from the fact that it was he who 
composed the festival opera {Serse) for the mar- 
riage ceremony, at the Louvre, of Louis XIV. 
(1660), and the Ercole Amanti on the occasion 
of the Peace of the Pyrenees (1662). His Gia- 
sone was produced with the greatest success on 
Italian stages (1649-62) ; it was, republished by 
Eitner in the twelfth volume of the publications 
of the " Gesellschaft fur Musikforschung." 

Cavata (Ital.), (i) production of tone. — (2) The 
word has also been used synonymously with 

Cavatina {Cavata), a lyrical vocal solo in an 
opera, of simpler character than the aria, and 
treated more in Lied form — i.e. it avoids repeti- 
tion of words and long coloratura passages, 
and has only one tempo. Although, as a rule, 
the C. is of shorter duration than an aria, it ■ 



frequently has a longer text. In modern opera, 
the C. is generally a separate number, but oc- 
curred formerly also as the lyrical close of a 

Cavos, Catterino, b. 1775, Venice, d. April 
28, 1840, Petersburg, pupil of Bianchi. He 
went in 1798 to Petersburg, where, after the 
success of bus opera — Iwan Sussanina, composed 
to a Russian text — he was appointed capell- 
meister to the court, a post which he held 
until his death. C. wrote thirteen Russian 
operas, which were favourably received, and 
won for him many marks of distinction. Be- 
sides, he composed a French and several Italian 
operas, also six ballets {Zephyr und Flora). 

Caylus, Anne Claude Philippe de Tu- 
bieres, Comte, b. Oct. 31, 1692, Paris, d. 
there Sept. 5, 1765. He wrote much about the 
music of ^the ancients in his "Recueil d'An- 
tiquit^s Egyptiennes, fitrusques, Grecques, 
Romaines, et Gauloises" (1752, etc., 17 vols.), 
and on the same ■ in his " M^moires de 
I'Academie des Inscriptions " (vol. 21). 

C barr^ (Fr-). tlie z=M'ZZ which indicates 

nlla breve time — } and J. 

C doable sharp (Ger. Cisis), the c doubly 
raised by means of a x . 

Cebell, an old English term for a lively Gavotte 
(used by Purcell and others). 

. Cecilia, Saint, was a noble Roman lady, who 
suffered martyrdom for the Christian faith a.d. 
177. A later age has adorned the history of 
her death with legends, and has even attributed 
to her the invention of the organ. She is the 
patron saint of music, particularly of church 
music ; her anniversary day is Nov. Z2nd, 
and for this festival many celebrated composers 
(Purcell, Clark, Handel) have written special 
sacred pieces (Odes to St. Cecilia). Musical 
societies without number bear the name of St. 
Cecilia : the oldest is probably the one founded 
in Rome by Palestrina, which was at first a 
kind ot order with many privileges from the 
popes, and which in 1847 was chang:ed into an 
academy by Pius IX., which maintains the re- 
putation of its churcii music. The London 
" Cecilian Society " was founded in 1785, and 
until 1861 was valued for its performances of 
oratorios (especially those of Handel and 
Haydn). The " Cadlienverein fur Lander 
deutscher Zunge " was founded in 1867 by 
Franz Wilt, at Ratisbon, for the improve- 
ment of Catholic church music. {See Unions.) 

Celere (Ital.), quick, nimble. 

Celerita (Ital.), celerity, swiftness. Con celerity, 
with swiftness, quickly, nimbly. 

Celestina. {See Tremulant ; c/. Bifara.) 

Celestino, Eligio, b. 1739, Rome, considered 
by Bumey the best Roman violinist of his time. 
He came to London when sixty years of age. 


and published some compositions for violin 
and 'cello in that city. 

CeUer, Ludovic, pseudonym of Louis Le- 
clerq, b. Feb. 8, 1828, Paris. Under the name C, 
he published, together with other non-musical 
works, " La Semaine Sainte au Vatican " (1867) ; 
"Les Origines de I'OpIra et le Ballet de la 
Reine " (1868), and " Moliere-LuUy, Le Mariage 
Forc6 (le Ballet du Roi) " (1867). 

Cellier, Alfred, English composer, of French 
origin, b. Dpc. i, 1844, Hackney (London), d. 
Dec. 28, i8gi, pupil of Th. Helmore and choris- 
ter of St. James's Chapel Royal; in 1862 he 
received a post of organist, and in 1866 became 
conductor of the Ulster Hall Concerts and the 
Philharmonic Society at Belfast. He conducted 
from 1871-75 at the Prince's Theatre, Man- 
chester; from 1877-79 at the Op^ra Comique, 
I^ndon ; and, jointly with Sullivan, the Pro- 
menade Concerts at Covent Garden. He lived 
for a long time in America and Australia, but 
returned to London in 1887. C. wrote a large 
number of operettas : Charity Begins at Home 
(1870) ; The Sultan of Mocha; The Tower of London; 
NellGtaynne; Bella Donna; The Foster Brothers ; 
Dora's Dream ; The Spectre Knight ; After All '; In 
the Sulks (1880); The Carp (1886); Mrs. Jar- 
ramie's Genie (1887), and also a grand opera, 
Pandore (Boston,' 1881), a symphonic suite, etc. 

'Cello, abbr. of violoncello. 

Cembal d'amour, a species of clavicembalo 
constructed by Gottfried Silbermann with 
strings of double length divided exactly in the 
middle by a bridge, so that both halves gave 
the same note. The strings were raised by 
means of tangents, each one, according to the 
strength of the blow, at a different height from 
the bridge. The attempt to obtain by this 
means the desired piano and forte was soon 
abandoned. {Cf. Pianoforte.) 

Cembalo (Ital.). (See Pianoforte.) 

Cento (Ital.), (i) the Antiphonary of Gregory 
the Great (q.v.), which was a collection of the 
various chants sung in the churches of Italy. — 
(2) Centone, a patch-work opera, or a composi- 
tion {Pasticdo) consisting of fragments taken 
from various works. The verb centqnizare, de- 
rived from it (Ft. centoniser), means, therefore, 
to join together, and is used mostly in a depre- 
ciatory sense. 

Cercar la nota (Ital., " to seek for the note ") 
is a singing term to indicate the sounding 
quietly beforehand of the note falling on the 
next syllable, as is done in the so-called porta- 
mento : — 

iDstead of thus 




Cernohorsky. {See Czernokorsky.) 




Cerone, Domenico Pietro, b, 1566, Ber- 
gamo ; he went to Spain in 159Z, and entered the 
chapel of Philip II. ; in 1608, under Philip III., 
he joined the chapel at Naples, where he was 
still living in 1613. He wrote " Regole per il 
Canto Fermo" (1609), and "El Melopeo y 
Maestro, Tractado de Musica Theorica y Pra- 
tica" (1613), which is perhaps founded on a 
MS. of Zarlino's which has totally disap- 
peared. (Cf. Fetis, " Biogr. Univ.") 

Cerreto, Scipione, b. 1551, Naples, where 
he appears to have lived and died. He wrote 
three important theoretical works, of which 
two appeared in print, " Delia Pratica Musica 
Vocale e Stromentale" (1601), and " Arbore 
Musicale," etc. (1608, very scarce) ; the third, 
in two different versions (1628, 1631), has re- 
mained in MS. 

Certon, Pierre, choirmaster of the Sainte 
Chapelle, Paris, was one of the most important 
French contrapuntists of the first half of the 
i6th century. His works, consisting of masses. 
Magnificats, motets, psalms, and a number of 
chansons, are to be found in French and Dutch 
publications (Attaignant, Susato, Phalese, etc.) 
of the years 1527 to 1560. 

Ceru, Domenico Agostino, b. Aug. 28, 
1817, Lucca, engineer and musical amateur 
thqre, published in 1864 a biography of Boc- 
cherini, and in 1870 a letter to A. Bernardini, 
comparing German with Italian music ; and in 
1871 a valuable historical inquiry respecting 
music and musicians at Lucca. 

Cerveny (Czerveny), V. F., b. 1819, Dubec 
(Bohemia), celebrated manufacturer of brass 
instruments at Koniggratz (from 1842), whose 
firm, trading since 1876 under the name "V. F. 
C. u. Sohne," shows great enterprise, and 
among other things has a bell foundry. C.'s 
numerous inventions have been universally 
recognised, and have been awarded prizes in 
many exhibitions (see Schafhautl's comprehens- 
ive report of the musical instruments at the 
Munich Industrial Exhibition, 1854) . His inven- 
tions are the " Tonwechsel-" and the " Walzen- 
maschine," etc., and, besides, the instruments 
phonikon, baroxyton, komon, contrabass, con- 
trabassoon, subcontrabass, and subcontra- 
bassoon, and other brass wind-instruments, for 
the most part of very wide measure (Ganz- 
instrumente) ; also drums of modern construc- 
tion (" Votivkirchen-Tympani," because he pre- 
sented the earliest specimens to the new " Votiv- 
kirche ' ' at Vienna) . Turkish cymbals, tamtams, 
etc., have also been made by C. 

Cervera, Francisco, Spanish theorist of the 
1 6th century ; wrote, among other things, " De- 
claracion de lo -Canto llano " (1593). 

Cervetti. (See Gelinek.) 

Cervetto, Giacomo (Bassevi, called C), 
distinguished 'cellist, b. about 1682, in Italy, 
came, 1728, to London and entered the orchestra 

at Drury Lane, of which, after a few years, he 
became for some time director. He died Jan. 
14, 1783, over a hundred years of age, leaving 
;f 20,000 to his son. This son, likewise named 
Giacomo (English, James C), d. Feb. 5, 1837, 
was also an excellent 'cellist ; he performed for 
a time at concerts, but after his father's death 
gave up public life. He published solos for 
'cello, and duets and trios for violin and 'cello. 
Cesi, Beniamino, b. Nov. 6, 1845, Naples, 
pupil for composition of Mercadante and Pappa- 
lardo at the Naples Conservatorio, and private 
piano pupil of Thalberg; he is an excellent 
pianist, and, besides Italy, has played also at 
Paris, Alexandria, Cairo, etc. He has been pro- 
fessor of the pianoforte at the Conservatorio, 
Naples, since 1866. He has published piano 
pieces and songs; a pianoforte Method and 
an opera, Vittor Pisani, remain in manuscript. 

Cesti, Marc Antonio, b. about 1620, Arezzo, 
d. 1669, Venice; pupil of Carissimi at Rome, 
1646 maestro di cappella at Florence, 1660 
tenor singer in the Pope's chapel, 1666-69 
vice-capellmeister at Vienna to the Emperor 
Leopold I. He was one of the most famous 
opera composers of the 17th century. C. trans- 
ferred to the stage the cantata, which had been 
perfected by Carissimi (mixture of recitative 
and arioso singing). The following operas of 
his are only known by name : Orontea (1649) ; 
Cesare Amante (1651) ; LaDori (i65i, new edition 
by Eitner in vol. xii. of the "Publ. der Ges. 
f. Musikforschung ") ; IlPriticipe Generoso (1665) ;• 
Jl Porno d'Oro (1666) ; Nettuno e Fiora festiggumti 
(1666) ; Semiramide (1667) ; Le Disgraaie d'Amore 
(1667); La Schiava Fortunata (1667); Argene 
(1668) ; Argia and Genserico (1669). Besides 
these a few Arie da Camira have come down to 
us. La Don had the greatest success. 

Cetera (Ital.). (See Zither.) 

C flat (Ger. Ces), c lowered by means of a 
flat ; cj? major chord = cj?, «f , g\f ; cjf minor 
chord = c!?, et?l>, gP ; i^ major key with signa- 
ture of seven fiats. (See Key.) 

Chabrier, Alexis Emmanuel, b. Jan. 18, 
1841, Ambert, (Puy de D6me), studied law, and 
received an appointment at the Ministere de I'ln- 
terieur. He studied the pianoforte with Ed. Wolff 
and composition with Ar. Hignard, and produced 
in 1877 his first operetta, L'£toiU; after which, 
in 1879, L' Education Manquee; 1885, a scene with 
chorus, "La Sulamite;" 1886, a grand opera, 
Gwendoline (Brussels) ; and 1887, at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, Le Rot malgrl Lui. C. has 
also published pianoforte pieces, and a Spanish 
rhapsody. From 1884-85 C. was choir director 
at the Chateau d'Eau, and helped Lamoureux 
with the rehearsals of Tristan und Isolde. 

Chaconne (Ital. Ciacona) is an instrumental 
piece which, like the Passacaglia. (q.v.), consists 
of a series of variations over a basso ostinato of, 
at most, eight bars (| time, slow movement). 



Olianging Note 

A grand example is to be found in the noble 
C. attached to J. S. Bach's Sonata in d minor 
for violin alone. 

Chadwick, George Whitfield, b. Nov. 13, 
1854, Lowell (Mass.). He studied at the Leipzig 
Conservatorium ; he is composer (orchestral 
and choral works), conductor and organist at 

ChalUer, Ernst, b. July 9, 1843, Berlin, 
where he has a music business. He is noted 
for his monographic catalogues (catalogue of 
songs, 1885 ; also one of duets and trios, etc.). 

Chalumeau. {See Schalmey, Oboe, Clarinet.) 

Chamber Music is the name for music suit- 
able for performance in small rooms, as dis- 
tingiiished from church music or theatre music, 
and, at the present day, especially from concert 
music. The term C. M. came into use at the 
beginning of the 17th century, i.e. at a time 
when instrumental music in the modern sense 
was in its infancy, and was limited to dances, 
Toccatas, Ricercari, etc., in 4 parts ; it referred then 
almost exclusively to voceJ music, and especially 
to accompanied vocal music (chamber cantata, 
chamber duet). When the more important 
forms of instrumental music came into exist- 
ence (chamber concerto, suite, symphony [over- 
ture], sonata, etc.), these, and everything which 
was not church- or theatre-music, received the 
name of C. M. At the present day only works 
performed by a few solo instruments — such as 
tiSos, quartets, quintets, etc., up to octets and 
nonets, for strings, or strings and wind, with or 
without pianoforte, sonatas for the pianoforte and 
one stringed- or one wind-instrument, solo com- 
positions for one instrument, and even songs, 
duets, trios for voices with accompaniment of 
one or a few instruments — are included in the 
term C. M. Concert music (orchestral and 
choral) is the real term opposed to C. M. 
As in C. M. the lack of fulness of sound and 
variety of instrumentation must be made up for 
by fine shading and detailed workmanship, it is 
quite correct to speak of a special chamber style. 
C. M. works in which the parts are treated 
orchestrally are faulty. (For chamber-cantata, 
chamber-sonata, chamber-concerto, and other com- 
pounds, see Cantata, Sonata, Concerto, etc. 
C/. L. Nohl's "Die geschichtliche Entwickelung 
der Kammermusik," 1885.) 

Chamber Pitch or Tone, same as Normal 
Rtch. As formerly there were no means of 
counting vibrations, such a thing as an abso- 
lute fixed pitch did not exist ; but in the course 
of time pitch changed repeatedly both upwards 
and downwards. From the i6th to the 17th 
century it appears to have been very high, as 
can be shown from old organs which are about 
a tone higher than our C. P. But it gradually 
came down, especially when independent in- 
strumental music [chamber music) was developed 
outside the church, and soon acquired a normal 

pitch of its own, which, as C. P., was distin- 
guished from that of the organs according to 
which the choir sang (Choir Pitch). Still higher 
than the chpir pitch was the Cornett-ton (a 
minor third above the C. P.), probably the 
tuning of the " Stadtpfeifer." Choir Pitch and 
C. P. have existed side by side for a long time, 
moving up or down pretty much in parallel 
lines. Even after choir pitch had become an- 
tiquated, C. P. varied, for a long time, until the 
Paris Academic in 1^58 (for ever,' let it be 
hoped) adopted the Diapason normal, fixed by j. 
commission at 870 simple, or 435 double vibra- 
tions per second, for once-accented a. (For 
further details see A.) 

Chamber Style. (See Chamber Music.) 

Chamboimi6res, Jacques (Champion de;, 
really Jacques Champion, was, like his- 
father and grandfather, a highly valued organ- 
ist ; he was principal chamber cembalist to 
Louis XIV., and teacher of the elder Couperins, 
d'Anglebert, and Le Begue. Two books of 
his clavier pieces (1670) have been preserved. 

Champein, Stanislaus, b. Nov. 19, 1753, 
Marseilles, d. Sept. 19, 1830, Paris ; was, at the 
early age of thirteen, maJtre de chapelle of the 
monastery church at Pignon (Provence), and 
went in 1770 to Paris, where he first became 
known through some sacred works, and Eilso 
two operettas, which were performed at the 
Theatre Italien. After 1780 he wrote over 
forty operettas and operas for the Theatre 
Italien, the Theatre de Monsieur, and the 
Grand OpSra, of which the most admired were 
Melomanie (1781), and Le Nomieau Don Quichotte 
(1789) . At least sixteen were never produced. 

Champion. {See CHAMsoNNifeRES.) 

Change, Enhaimonic. (See Enharmonics.) 

Changing Note is used (i) in the sense of the 
Ital. Nota cambiata, Fr. Note d'afpogiature, Ger. 
Wechselnote; but also (2) for a note which 
takes the place of one belonging to a chord, and 
which lies a second below or above it ; also 
for an auxiliary note from wliich a downward 
spring of a third is made. 

The last kind of C. N. is old (i6th century), but 
there is no reason why analogous formations 
should be forbidden, such as : 

Chan^inf Notes of this kind have been 

Changing Note 


Character of Keys 

characteristically described as "passing notes 
by leap ; " they could also appear thus : 


Another kind of free contrapuntal formation 
consists in the laying hold of the neighbouring 
note, in the opposite direction, to the sound 
which follows : 

Channay, Jean de, music printer at Avig- 
non in the i6th century, [ff. Briard and Car- 


Channels [Cancella) axe the separate portions 
of the wind-chest by which wind is conveyed to 
the pipes ; and, in the sound-board, only pipes 
belonging ' to one and the same key stand over 
one and the same channel; but in the wind- 
chest used in Germany and called Kegellade 
(cone-box), all pipes belonging to one and the 
same stop. The channel valve, by means of 
which the wind gains access from the wind- 
chest into the channels, is therefore identical 
in the former with the playing-valves, i.e. is 
ruled by the keys. In the Kegellade, on the other 
hand, the wind is admitted by a register pallet, 
while each pipe, likewise each set of pipes, has 
its separate playing-valve. 

Chanot, Francois, b. 1787, Mirecourt, son 
of an instrument maker. He performed mili- 
tary service as naval engifi«*;.bnt at the time 
of the Restoration, in consequence of a satirical 
lampoon, he was dismissed from the service on 
half-pay, and placed under police supervision. 
At this time he laid before the Academie a 
violin which, in various ways, was a return to 
older and less .complete forms (without side 
curves and without tail-piece, with straight 
sound-holes in the direction of the strings, and 
constructed lengthways of one piece). The 
Academie exposed itself to ridicule by its very 
favourable judgment, which placed the violin 
of Chanot on an equality with those of the 
Stradivari and Guaneri. C. was again taken 
into favour; and his brother, an instrument- 
maker at Paris, worked for some time accord- 
ing to his model, which, however, he was soon 
compelled to give up. 

Chanson (Fr. = song). (See Canzona.) 

Chant, a short composition to which the 
Psalms and Canticles are sung. There are two 
kinds of chants, Gregorian and Anglican : the 
latter are either single or double chants. A 
single chant consists of a strain of three and 
one of four bars. Double chants consist of 
four strains, respectively of three and four, and 
again three and four bars. Quadruple chants 

have latterly also been introduced. Apart from 
tonality and rhythm, the ancient Gregorian 
chant differs from the modern Anglican chant 
by certain opening notes called the intonation. 
The several parts of the Gregorian chant are: 
the intonation, first reciting note, mediation, 
second reciting note, and termination. The 
Anglican chant begins at once with the reciting 
note. Monotone recitation (on the reciting 
note) followed by, melodic modulations (the 
mediation and termination) in the middle and 
at the end of each verse are the characteristics 
of what, in the restricted sense of the word, is 
called " chanting," the original and wider mean- 
ing of the word being "song" or "singing." 
{vide Ambrosian Chant, Gregorian Chant, 
and Plain Chant.) 

Chant sur le livre (Fr.), an extemporaneous 
counterpoint added by one or more singers to 
the canto fermo sung by others. It is identical 
with contrappunto alia mente. 

Chanter k livre ouvert (Fr.), to sing at sight. 

Chanterelle (Fr. " singing string "), the highest 
string of the instruments of the violin and the 
lute classes, especially the E string of the violin. 

Chantry, an endowed chapel where masses 
are said for the souls of the donors. 

Chapel boys, Chorister boys (Ger. Kapill- 
hnaben.Fr. Enfants de chceur), are the boys who 
form the choir in churches and cathedrals. In 
important churches they receive education and 
special musical training. Many distinguished 
composers commenced their career as chorister 

Chapel Boyal, King's Chapel. (See Cap- 


Chappell & Co., celebrated London music pub- 
lishing firm, founded in 1812 by Samuel C., 
the famous pianist and composer, Jean Baptist 
Cramer, and F. T. Latour. Cramer retired from 
the business in i8ig, Latour in 1826. After the 
death of Samuel C. (1834), his son, William, 
became principal (b. Nov. 20, 1809, d. Aug. 20, 
1888, London). He started the " Musical An- 
tiquarian Society" (1840), for which he pub- 
lished Dowland's songs and a collection of old 
English airs which, from 1835-59, was enlarged 
to " Popular Music of the Olden Time " (2 vols.) ; 
he also left behind a " History of Music" (in- 
complete). A younger brother, Thomas C, 
■founded the Monday and Saturday Popular 
Concerts, which, under the direction of the 
youngest brother, Arthur C, have become an 
important factor in London musical life. 

Character of Keys. The variety in the char- 
acter of keys is no vain fancy, but it does not, 
as one might feel inclined to believe, and as has 
been asserted by some writers — depend upon 
unequally tempered sounds (viz., the idea of 
c major with perfectly just intonation) ; the 
effect is an esthetic one, and proceeds, for the 
most part, from the manner in which our 

Character of Keys 



musical system has been built up. This is 
based on the musical scale of the seven funda- 
mental sounds A-G, and the two keys of c major 
and A minor, in which prominent use is made 
of them, appear plain, simple, because they can 
be presented in the simplest manner. The 
deviations on the upper-tone side (|l keys) 
appear more intense, clearer, more brilliant; 
those on the uuder-tone side (I? keys) relaxing, 
more sombre, more veiled : the former effect is 
of a major, the latter of a minor, kind. Then, 
in addition, there is the difference of the es- 
thetic effect of major and minor keys them- 
selves, which is based on the difference of their 
consonant element (see Clang) : major sounds 
clear, minor sombre. Major keys with sharps 
have therefore potential brilliancy, and minor 
keys with flats potential sombreness ; the 
chiaro-oscuro of major keys with flats, and 
the pale light of minor keys with sharps, offer 
characteristic mixtures of both effects, which 
vary in intensity according to the number of 
sharps or flats. Absolute pitch, as it appears, 
has the least share in the character of keys. 

Cbarakterstucke (Ger.), characteristic pieces; 
pieces descriptive of moods, impressions, and 

Charpentier, Marc Antoine, b. 1634, Paris, 
d. March, 1702 ; went at fifteen years of age to 
Italy to train himself as a painter, but was so 
drawn to music by Carissimi's compositions 
that he devoted himself entirely to it, and 
studied under Carissimi at Rome. After his 
return, he was appointed maitre de chapelle to 
the dauphin, but through LuUy's intrigues he 
lost his post ; hence Ms aversion to LuUy, 
which went so far that, as an opera composer, 
he shunned the style of the former, although 
by so doing he spoilt his own success. He 
next became maitre de chapelle and music 
teacher to Mademoiselle de Guise, then intend- 
ant of the Duke of Orleans, then maitre de 
Chapelle to the monastery church and to the 
religious house of the Jesuits, and finally oc- 
cupied a similar position at the Sainte-Chapelle. 
Charpentier was Lully's superior in training 
and in knowledge, but lacked his genius. Be- 
sides fifteen operas, he wrote some tragedies 
spirituelles for the Jesuit monastery, as well as 
some pastorales, drinking songs, and sacred 
music (masses, motets, etc.). 

Chauvet, Charles Alexis, a prominent or- 
ganist, who unfortunately died young, b. June 
7, 1837, Mames (Seine-et-Oise), d. Jan. 28, 
1871, Argentan (Ome); in 1850 he entered the 
Paris Conservatoire as organ pupil of Benoist 
and composition pupil of Ambroise Thomas, 
and in i860 was awarded the first prize in the 
organ class. He then became organist of some 
of the smaller Paris churches, but in 1869 of 
the newly-built large Eglise de la Ste.-Trinite. 
A chest affection put an early end to his fame. 

A series of excellent organ compositions of his 
were printed. 

Chavenue, Irene von, famous stage singer 
(alto), b. about 1867, Gratz ; 1882-85 pupil of 
Joh. Resz, at the Vienna Conservatorium, since 
1885 at the Dresden Court Opera. 

Check (Ger. Fdnger), a cross of silk thread, in 
old pianofortes, which caught the hammer re- 
bounding from the s,tring, and prevented it 
from striking against the hardwood and bound- 
ing upwards again. A ledge covered with cloth 
now takes the place of the above C. 

Chef d'attaque (Fr.), he or she who leads the 
singers of a chorus part — the sopranos, altos, 
tenors, or basses. This term is also applied 
to orchestral leaders. 

Chef d'orchestre (Fr.), the conductor of an 

Chelard, Hippolyte Andrg Jean Bap- 
tiste, b. Feb, i, 1789, Paris, where his father 
was clarinet player at the Grand Op^ra, d. Feb. 
12, 1861, Weimar; pupil of F^tis, then only 
sixteen years of age, at the Hix Pension. In 
1803 he was admitted to the Conservatoire, 
where Dourlen and Gossec became his teachers, 
In 1811 he obtained the Prix de Rome, studied 
the Palestrina style under Baini, under Zingarelli 
the accompanied church style, and, for a time, 
opera composition under Paisiello at Naples. 
In 1815 his first opera was performed at Naples 
(LaCasaa Vendere). In 1816 he returned to Paris 
and entered the Opera orchestra as violinist. 
Not until 1827 was he able to bring out an 
opera, Macbeth (libretto by Rouget de I'lsle), 
■but this effort met with such small encourage- 
ment that he went to Germany, and in 1828 
this opera, thoroughly revised, was performed 
at Munich with brilliant success, whereupon he 
was engaged as court capellmeister. In 1829, 
however, he returned to Paris, came to grief 
with La Table et le Logement, and founded a music 
warehouse, which the revolution of 1830 ruined. 
He thereupon returned to Munich, and with 
new operas {Der Student, Mittemacht) and a 
mass gained renewed success. From 1832-33 
he was conductor of the German Opera in 
London ; but the undertaking proved a failure, 
and he once more returned to Munich, where 
in 1835 he brought out his best work, Die 
Hermannsschlacht. In 1836 he was appointed 
court capellmeister at Weimar, and brought 
out there his comic "tjperas, Der Scheibentoni 
(1842) and Der Seekadett (1844). He remained 
here, when Liszt had been drawn to Weimar in 
a similar capacity, up to about 1850. From 
1852-54 he again lived in Paris. He left be- 
hind an opera, L'Aquila Romana, which was 
performed at Milan in 1864. 

Chelleri, Fortunate, b. 1686, Parma, d. 
1757, Cassel, of German descent (Keller), was 
trained by his uncle, Fr, Mar. Bassani, maestro 
di cappella of Piacenza Cathedral ; he wrote with 




good success from 1707 (Griselda) to 1722 
[Zenobia e Radamisto) sixteen operas for the 
stages of North Italy, especially for Venice. In 
1725 he went to Cassel as court capellmeister, 
but on the death of Carl I. was attracted to 
Stockholm by Friedrich I., who was at the 
same time King of Sweden ; he was not, how- 
ever able to stand the climate, and so returned 
to Cassel. He does not appear to have written 
any operas after leaving Italy ; but in 1726 he 
published in London a volume of cantatas and 
arias, and in 1729, at Cassel, a volume of 
sonatas and fugues for organ and clavier. He 
also wrote masses, psalms, oratorios, and 
chamber pieces. 

Cheri, Victor (Cizos, called C), b. March 
14, 1830, Auxerre, d., by his own hand; Nov. 
II, 1882, Paris. He was a pupil of the Paris 
Conservatoire, was an excellent conductor, first 
at the Theitre des Varietds, then at the Chatelet, 
and for some years at the Gymnase ; composed 
charming ballet-music and a comic opera, Une 
Aventure sous la Ligue (Bordeaux, 1857). 

Cherubini, Maria Luigi Zenobio Carlo 
Salvatore, b. (according to Choron) the 8th 
(but according to his own statement) 14th Sept., 
1760, Florence, d. March ijth, 1842, Paris. 
His father, who was accompanist at the Per- 
gola theatre, was his first teacher, then Bar- 
tolomeo Felici and A. Felici, and after their 
deaths, Bizarri and Castrucci. In 1778 the 
Grand Duke, afterwards the Emperor Leopold 
III., sent him to Sarti, at Bologna, under whom 
he studied the Palestrina style for a few years ; 
without doubt C. had to thank Sarti for his 
perfect mastery of the polyphonic style. Until 
1779 he only wrote church music (for Florence) ; 
but in 1780 he entered the domain of opera with 
Quinto Fdbio (produced at Alexandria). There 
soon followed Armida (Florence, 1782); 
in Siria, II Messenzio, Lo Sposo di tre (Venice, 
1783), Idalide, AUssandro nelV Indie {Mantua, 
1784). In the last-named year he was attracted 
to London, where he wrote La Finta Prindpessa 
and Giulio Sdbino, and received the appointment 
of royal court composer. His reputation was 
already made ; and also in Paris, where he first 
went in 1787, his talents received full recognition. 
In the winter of 1787-88 he wrote, at Brescia, 
Didone Abbandonata, and at Turin Ifigmia in 
Aulide. In the year 1788 he settled down in 
Paris. The opposition between the Gluckists 
and the Piccinists was well calculated to lead a 
man of Cherubini's gifts to earnest thought. 
Up to this time he had written his operas in 
the light Italian style, but from the time of his 
removal to Paris he became a new man. It 
would be misleading to say that he followed 
Gluck ; he searched deeply among the stores 
of his knowledge, and thus gave depth to 
his musical ideas. His works, therefore, ap- 
peared to the Gluckists, as well as to the 
Piccinists, as something new. His first Paris 

creations were, Demophon {iy88), Lodoisha (1791), 
AUsa (1794), II Perruchiere (1796), Medk (1797), 
L'Hdtellerie Pnrtugaise (1798), ia Punition (1799), 
Emma (La Prisoiiniere, 1799), Les Deux Journks 
(1800), Apicurj (i3oo), Anact-ion (1803), and the 
ballet, Achille A Scyros {1804). All these works, 
with the exception of Dlmophon (which was 
written for the Grand Op^ra, but produced no 
effect), were brought out at the TWitre de la 
Foire St. Germain ; C. himself conducted, 1789- 
92, at this little theatre founded by Leonard, 
Marie Antoinette's hairdresser. In 1795, at the 
organisation of the Conservatoire, he was named 
one of the inspectors of the institution. Other 
marks of recognition were denied, and the doors • 
of the Grand Op&a remained closed to him 
because Bonaparte, who was rising higher and 
higher, disliked Cherubini. C. was no flatterer, 
and had found fault with the general's musical 
judgment ; this the emperor had never for- 
gotten. In 1805 Cherubini was commissioned 
to write an opera for Vienna, which was all the 
pleasanter to him as his income in Paris had 
been very meagre. He therefore went to Vienna, 
and after Lodoiska had been put on the stage, 
Faniska followed in Feb., 1806 (Karntnerthor- 
Theater) ; Haydn and Beethoven were full of 
enthusiasm for this work. The events of 1806 
led him to Vienna at the same time as Bona- 
parte, who commanded him to take the con- 
ductorship of his court concerts at Schonbrunn, 
but C. still remained in disfavour. On his return 
to Paris with Pigmalion he made his last attempt 
to win the emperor's favour, but again to no 
purpose. Disheartened, he then gave himself up 
for rf length of time to inactivity. From 1806- 
1808 h^ wrote next to nothing ; he drew pictures 
and studied botany. A chance circumstance 
turned him to other thoughts : at Chimay a church 
was to be consecrated, and C, who had been 
staying for some time at the castle of the Prince 
de Chimay for his health, was invited to write 
a mass for the occasion. The noble mass in 
F was the result ; C. therein displayed his pure 
and perfect mastery over the severe style, and 
with it returned to a path which he had aban- 
doned eighteen years pi^eviously. For the rest, 
he did not as yet quite give up writing for the 
stage ; there still followed Crescendo (1810), Les 
Abencerrages (1813, at the Grand Opera, but an 
entire failure), two occasional works in col- 
laboration with other opera composers ; Bayard 
d. Mezieres (1814) and Blanche de Provence (1821), 
finally his last important work, Ali Baba (1833), 
worked up from Koukourgi, an early opera, 
which had remained in manuscript. 'The suc- 
cess, however, of his mass at home and abroad, 
strengthened his determination to concentrate 
his energies more in other directions. In 1815 
he spent some months in London, and wrote 
for the Philharmonic Society a symphony, an 
overture, and a four-part hymn to Spring, with 
orchestra. The suppression of the Conservatoire 
at the beginning of the Restoration deprived 




him of his post of inspector ; but in 1816 he 
became professor of composition, and was named- 
royal superintendent of music, and from that 
time diligently wrote masses and motets for the 
royal chapel. In 1821 he was appointed director 
of the Conservatoire, and quickly restored that 
somewhat declining institution to its former 
splendour. A year before his death he had with- 
drawn from all his appointments. A catalogue 
of Cherubini's works, drawn up by himself, was 
published in 1843 by Bottle de Toulmon ; in it 
are mentioned eleven grand masses (five printed) , 
two requiems, many fragments of masses (a 
part of them printed), one credo (a 8) with 
organ, two Dixits ; one magnificat, miserere, 
Te deum, each with orchestra; four litanies, 
two Lamentations, one oratorio, thirty-eight 
motets, graduals, hymns, etc., with orchestra; 
twenty antiphons, fifteen Italian and fourteen 
French operas ; many arias, duets, etc., intro- 
duced into Italian and French operas ; one 
ballet, seventeen grand cantatas and other occa- 
sional compositions with orchestra, seventy- 
seven romances, Italian songs, nocturnes, etc. ; 
eight hymns and republican songs with orches- 
tra, many canons, solfeggi, etc. ; one overture 
and one symphony, several marches, country 
dances, etc. ; six quartets for strings, one quintet, 
six pf. sonatas, one sonata for two organs, one 
grand fantasia for piano, etc. His life was 
written (anonymously, in German) 1809, by Lo- 
menie (under pseudonym "Homme de Rien"), 
1841 ; Miel, 1842 ; Place, 1842 ; Picchianti 
(Italian, 1844) ; Rochette, 1843 ; Garaucci 
(Italian, 1869); Bellasis (English, 1876). In 
1869 a memorial was erected to him at 
Florence. The well-known " Theory of Counter- 
point and Fugue" was not written by C, but 
by his pupil Halevy (q.v.). 

Cihest of Viola, a set of viols. A good chest of 
viols consisted of two trebles, two tenors, and 

Chest Voice. {See Register (2), and Fal- 

Chevalet (Fr.), bridge (of stringed instru- 

Cihev^, £mile Joseph Maurice, b. 1804, 
Douarnenez (Finistere), d. Aug. 26, 1864; 
originally a physician, married Nanine Paris 
(d. June 28, 1868), and published, in collabora- 
tion with her, a series of articles on P. Galin's 
method of notation and of teaching music (Melo- 
plast) . He also founded a music school, in which 
he employed this method, and tried repeatedly, 
but in vain, to provoke the Conservatoire into 
a discussion of methods. 

Chiara, f. (Ital), clear, pure. 

Chiaramente (Itfil.), clearly, distinctly. 

Chiarezza (Ital.), brightness, clearness. 

Chiarina (Ital.), a species of trumpet, a clarion. 

Chiaro, m. (Ital.), clear, pure. 

Chiaiomonte, Francesco, b. July 20, i8og, 
Castrogiovanni (Sicily), d. Oct. 15, 1886, 
Brussels, choir singer at Palermo, pupil of Doni- 
zetti at Naples, composed operas and church 
music ; he was afterwards professor of singing at 
the Conservatorio there, but was compromised 
in the disturbances of 1848 and imprisoned for 
two years ; and in 1850, while his new opera, 
Caterina, di CUves, was being performed with 
success, he was banished. He first went to 
Genoa, where he brought out operas with dimin- 
ishing success ; then to Paris, eIs repetiteur at the 
Theatre Italien. He came afterwards to London, 
as chorus director at the Italian Opera, and 
finally settled in Brussels as teacher of singingf 
receiving in 1871 an appointment at the Con- 
servatoire. Here he brought out important 
sacred compositions, also a Methods de Chant. 
At Brussels, in 1884, his Biblical opera, Job, 
was performed at the Conservatoire. 

Chiave (Ital.), (i) clef; (2) key of an instru- 
ment ; (3) tuning-key. 

Chiayette (Chiavi tvasportate) was the name 
given at a later period to the transposing clefs 
used in the i6th century. Instead of the usual 
clefs — 



either those raising the sound-meaning of the 
lineal- system by a third (high Ch.) — 

^^ ^3=^ 

or those lowering the same by a third (low Ch.)- 

were employed. By these the composer in- 
tended the composition to be performed so 
much higher or so much lower. Or, expressed 
in modern language, the high Ch. stood for the 
ordinary clefs, only with three flats or four 
sharps (eJ? or e major, instead of c major; 
c minor or dt minor, instead of A minor ; the 
low Ch. (rare) stood for the ordihary clefs with 
three sharps or four flats (a major or a|7 major, 
instead of c major; or f|; minor or F minor 
instead of A minor). Thus the music was sung 
at about the pitch which the notation would 
have had if the ordinary clefs had been given 
in place of the Ch., \ 

i.e., l^^iij=| and ^.j z:^ 


but the Ch. governed the shifting of the relations 
of the tone and semitone to the key into which 
transposition was made, just as the keyrsigna- 
ture does now. As, besides, nal transposition to the 
lower fifth (by the signature of the j? before 6) 
was in general use, and the p could be employed 




with both kinds of Ch., it was possible, notwith- 
standing appearances to the contrary, to sing 
in pretty well any key, and to indicate the 
transposition by means of clef and [> . For the 
simple discant-clef, without \f answered to our 
c major, with 1? = f major, high Ch., without \f 
= ■£ major (e1? major), with |7 = A major (aJ? 
major), low Ch. without p= A major (a[? major), 
with i>^D major (dJ? major). The theory of 
the Ch. however simple it may thus appear, was 
in reality highly complicated, because the 
choice of another clef, other than the usual one, 
did not always indicate the Ch., but was fre- 
quently used when the compass of the vocal 
part would necessitate ledger lines. The g-clef 

also was frequently used in the highest 

part to indicate a transposition to the upper 
fifth answering to the transposition to the lower 
fifth with the p signature. Then fJL instead 
of /would be self-evident, and a b would have 
to be placed before f, if the violin clef were 
only chosen for the sake of avoiding ledger 

Chica, a Spanish dance much in favour with 
the descendants of the Spanish settlers in South 

Chickering & Sons, celebrated pianoforte 
manufacturers at Boston and New York, founded 
in 1823 by Jonas C. (b. 1800, d. 1853, Boston), 
a rivaJ of Steinway's, of New York, in the 
magnificence of the tone of their instruments. 
In 1867 the firm added to its fame by gaining 
the first prize at the Paris Exhibition, the head 
of the firm being named Chevalier de la llgion 
d'honneur; he died in i8gi. 

Chiesa (Ital.), church. Concerto da chiesa, a 
sacred concerto. 

Chiffr6 (Fr.), .figured. Basse chiffree, figured 

Chifonie (Cyfonie), a corrupt Old French form 
of Symphonia, name for the Hurdy-Gurdy (q.v.), 
to be met with even in the 15th century. 

Child, William, noted organist, Mus. Doc. 
(Oxford), b. 1606, Bristol, d. March 23, 1697, 
Windsor ; organist and chanter of the Chapel 
Royal, as well as royal private musician; he 
published psalms (1639; 3rd ed., 1656); and 
single anthems, catches, etc., of his composi- 
tion are to be found in collections (Hilton, 
Playford, Boyce, Arnold, Smith). 

Chipp, Edmund Thomas, b. Dec. 25, 1823, 
London, d. Dec. 17, 1886, Nice, celebrated 
organist ; from 1866 organist at Edinburgh, and 
from 1867 of Ely Cathedral; he composed an 
oratorio, yoi, a Biblical idyll, Naomi; published 
a book of organ pieces and other smaller com- 

Chiroplast (Gr., "hand-former"), an appar- 
atus first invented at Londo;i by J. Bernhard 
Logier, and patented in 1814 ; it prevented the 

wrist from falling, and the fingers from striking 
in any but a vertical direction. The C. made 
much sensation, was imitated by Stopel, and 
simplified by Kalkbrenner under the name of 
the,"Bohrer Hand-giiide." It has been im- 
proved and revived in recent times, but, what- 
ever the form in which it has been presented, 
quickly laid aside ; for a pupil, once the me- 
chamical help withdrawn, will always fall back 
into the old faults. The best C. is a good 
teacher. An invention of more value is Seeber's 
finger-former, which only forces the nail-member 
to draw in, i.e. prevents a bending backwards 
of the end joint at the moment of striking ; for 
the rest the whole hand has complete freedom, 
as only a separate and small pressure is put 
upon each finger. The advantage of tlds ap- 
paratus consists in this, that the faulty bending 
backwards of the separate fingers can be re- 
moved by employing separate restraints. As 
the joint is not thereby rendered completely 
inactive, a strengthening of the same, by prac- 
tising with the restraining apparatus, , is the 
wholesome result. 
Chitarra. (Sei Guitar and Zither.) 
Chitarrone (Ital., " Great Chitarra," "Bass 
Chitarra"), one of the large bass instruments of 
the lute kind of the 17th and i8th centuries. It 
was used for the general bass. It was a kind of 
large guitar with steel strings struck with a 
plectrum. {Cf. Theorbo.) 
Chiuso (Ital.), close. Canone chiuso (q.v.). 
Cbladui, Ernst Florens Friedrich, b^ 
Nov. 30, 1756, Wittenberg, d. April 3, 1827 
Breslau; studied jurisprudence in his native 
town and at Leipzig. He graduated in 1780, 
and taught at Wittenberg ; and after the death of 
his father (professor of law), turned to the 
study of physical science, to which, as an ama- 
teur, he had already diligently applied himself. 
To his unwearying investigations science owes 
great and important discoveries, above all, ia 
acoustics. He turned his attention specially to 
the vibrations of glass plates ; the sound-figures, 
i.e. the peculiar, regular, star-shaped forms 
into which sand scattered on a plate shapes 
itself when a bow is drawn along the edge 
of the plate, still bear his name. Amongst 
his discoveries are also the Eufhon (glass-rod 
harmonica) and the Clavicylinder (glass-rod key- 
board). C. travelled a great desJ, introducing 
his inventions and giving scientific lectures. 
His most important Writings on acoustics are 
" Die Aknstik " (1802 ; French ed. 1809) ; " Neue 
Beitrage zur Akustik " (1817) ; " Beitrage zur 
praktischen Akustik " (1821) ; " Kurze Uber- 
sicht der Schall- und Klanglehre" (1827), be- 
sides the smaller works which appeared earlier : 
" Entdeckungen iiber die Theorie des Klanges " 
(1787), and " Ueber die LongitudinaJschwing- 
ungen der Saiten und Stabe " (1796) ; also 
articles in periodicals ; in Reichardt's Miisihal- 
isehe Monatsschrift (1792), in the Neue Schriften dtr 




Berliner Naturforscher (1797), Voigt's Magasin, 
etc. ; Guilbert's Annalen (1800), and in the 
Leipzig Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung (1800 to 
, 1801). 

Choeur (Fr.), choir, chorus. 

Choir, that part of the church in which the 
singers are placed, generally in front of the 
organ, opposite the altar. 

Choir Organ was originally the name given 
to the small organ with stops of small tone, 
used to accompany the vocal choir. In modern 
three-manual organs, the so-called third manual. 

Chopin, Frederic Franfois, highly cele- 
brated, epoch-making pianist, and a delicate and 
original composer, especially for the pianoforte ; 
b. March i, 1809, Zelazowa Wola, near War- 
saw, d. Oct. 17, 1849, Paris. He was the son 
of an emigrant Frenchman (Nicolas C, from 
Nancy, at first private tutor, afterwards teacher 
at the Warsaw Lyceum) ; his mother was a 
Pole, Justine Kryzanowska. Already at the 
age of nine C. played in public, and excited 
wonder. His teachers were a Bohemian, Zwyny 
by name, and Joseph Eisner, director of the 
Warsaw music school. In 1828 he left his 
native town as a perfect piano virtuoso, and 
went to Paris, giving concerts on the way at 
Vienna and Munich. He appeared like a 
meteor in the heavens, sending out luminous 
splendour, but only for a brief time. He came 
fully equipped to Paris, and had already a great 
number of compositions in his portfolio, and 
amongst them his two pianoforte concertos. 
His first publication, variations on a theme 
from Don Juan (Op. 2), inspired Schumann 
with great enthusiasm, and it was a true fete 
day when C. arrived in Leipzig. In Paris he 
soon found a most delightful circle of friends — 
Liszt, Berlioz, Heine, Balzac, Ernst, Meyerbeer 
— men who understood him, and in whom he 
himself found something more than insipid 
admirers. After having introduced himself both 
as pianist and composer, Chopin soon became 
much sought after as a teacher, and in the 
best circles. Unfortunately, dark shadows soon 
began to steal over his sensitive, though not 
naturally melancholy soul. Symptoms of a 
dangerous chest affection set in, and in 1838 he 
went by way of cure to Majorca. George Sand, 
the novelist, whom he enthusiastically honoured, 
accompanied and nursed him, but during the 
last years of his life left him in the lurch. The 
malady was not to be removed, but made 
startling progress. Early in 1849 there ap- 
peared to be a slight improvement, and he 
carried out a long-cherished wish when he 
visited England and gave several concerts; 
careless of the state of his health, he went into 
society, also visited Scotland, and returned 
quite worn-out to Paris. He died in the autumn 
of the same year. At his funeral, in accord- 
ance with his expressed desire, Mozart's Requiem 
was performed ; his grave lies between those of 

Cherubini and Bellini. C. was of a rare, poetic 
nature ; as Heine in words, so did he compose, 
in full, free tones, untrammelled by tradition 
and recognised forms. But not only in the 
main, but also in detail was he entirely new 
and original ; he was the founder of something 
unknown up to that time, a perfectly new genre, 
a new pianoforte style, which Liszt took up 
and propagated, but without really developing 
it further ; of that it is not capable, however 
little C. may have done in that direction after 
his twentieth or twenty-second year. Schumann 
copied him once or twice in small pieces ; the 
anecdote is also known how Liszt imitated his 
mode of improvisation so as completely to 
deceive even his friends— also in imitations, 
Chopin can be recognised; but, for all that, 
they remain imitations. Chopin's music is not 
of a stereotype kind ; he is not limited to a few 
original turns and graces ; on the contrary, it 
is just in the very wealth of such that the key to 
this mystery of his nature is to be sought. His 
works, exclusively pianoforte works, or^ works 
with pianoforte, are : two concertos (e minor, 
Op. II ; F minor, Op. 21) ; Krakoviai, Op. 14 
(with orchestra) ; " Don Juan " Fantasia, Op. 2 
(with orchestra); EJ? Polonaise, Op. 22 (with . 
orchestra) ; Fantasia on PoUsh Airs (with or- 
chestra) ; Duo Concertante, for pf. and 'cello 
(themes from Robert le DiiibU) ; Introduction et 
Polonaise, for pf. and 'cello. Op. 3 ; a pf. and 'cello 
sonata. Op. 65 ; a trio (g minor. Op. 8) ; a rondo 
(c. Op. 73) for two pianofortes. Further, for pf. 
solo, three sonatas (o minor, BJ? minor, b minor), 
four ballades, one fantasia, twelve polonaises, a 
polonaise-fantasie (Op. 61), fifty-six mazurkas, 
twenty-five preludes, nineteen nocturnes, fifteen 
waltzes, four impromptus, three ecossaises, 
bolero, tarantella, barcarolle, berceuse, three 
rondos, four scherzi, three sets of variations, 
one funeral march, concert allegro, twenty-seven 
concert etudes, and seventeen Polish songs; 
in all seventy-four works with Op. number. 
Eind twelve works without Op. number. His 
life has been described in an imaginative way by 
Liszt (2nd ed. of the original French, 1879 ; in 
German by La Mara, 1880), and with critical 
conscientiousness by Karasowski (2nd ed. 1878). 
Two volumes also, by Frederick Niecks, entitled 
"Frederick Chopin as a Man and Musician," 
were published in 1888 (Ger. ed. 1889). In 
1880 a tablet to his memory was erected in the 
Church of the Holy Trinity at Warsaw. 

Choragus (Lat.), the leader of the ancient 
dramatic chorus. 

Choralbeaxbeitung (Ger., "working up of 

chorales "), the contrapuntal treatment of the 
chorale, either as a simple composition in four 
or more parts, note against note, or with rhythm- 
ical ornamentation in several, or in all parts, 
with the chorale as Cantus firmus (" figurierter 
Choral ") ; or with canonic developments, 
whether of the chorale melody itself, or of the 




free parts (Chorale Canon), or lastly in the 
form of a fugue (chorale fugue, fugued chorale), 
which likewise can appear in two different 
forms, viz., as fugue over a chorale as chorale 
fugue, or as a fugal working of the chorale 
theme itself. All forms of the C. are found 
both for voices and instruments. The fugued 
C. with Cantus firmiis is suitable as an organ ac- 
companiment for congregational singing, but 
was more frequently employed as a chorale 
prelude. The greatest master in C. was John 
Sebastian Bach. 

Choralbuch (Ger.), chorale book ; a collection 
of chorales arranged, for the most part, in plain 
four-part harmony, or only melody with figured 
bass, for the use of organists in accompan}dng 
the singing of the congregation in the Pro- 
testant Church. The name C. first appears 
before 1692, but J. Walther's " Geystlich Ge- 
sangk-Buchleyn " (1524) must be regarded as a 
C. Until after the middle of the i8th century 
the hymn-book served as a C, for it contained 
the melodies with figured bass. The most 
comprehensive C. of the i8th century was the 
" Harmonische Liederschatz " of Joh. Balthazar 
Konig (ist ed. 1738 ; 2nd ed. 1776 : 2,000 
chorales for hymns). Of importance are 
also the chorale books of Doles (1785), J. Chr. 
Kiihnau (1786), J. Ad. Hiller (1793), G. Umbreit 
(1811), Schicht (1819), F. Chr. H. Rinck (1829), 
F. Becker (1844), Eck (1863), Kade (1869), Jakob 
and Richter (1873), and I. Faisst (1876). 

Chorale (Ger. Choral), (i) the plain song 
{Cantus ckoralis, Cantus planus) of the Catholic 
Church which sprang from the so-called Gre- 
gorian song (q.v.) of the early Christian centuries. 
Gregory the Great certainly only flourished 
about 600, but the songs which bear his name 
were of earlier date, and not essentially different 
iroraAmbrosian song {q.v.). There was the chorale 
song {Concentus), which differed from the reciting 
Accentus of an officiating priest. The chorale 
song has no rhythm. As used to-day, in spite 
of renewed attempts at reform, it consists of a 
series of sounds of equal length of a wearisome 
monotony, which only dogmatic credulity can 
deny. This, however, came about in the course 
of time, especially from the period when counter- 
point flourished. Formerly it was full of life, 
and most like to the shouting, jubilant exclama- 
tions of the Hallelujah- and Psalm-singing. The 
never-ending extensions of syllables consisted 
formerly of ornaments and coloratun beyond the 
powers of German and French singers. Unfor- 
tunately, the key to the rhythmic system of the old 
notation (neumes) has been lost, and there appears 
no hope of a complete restoration of chorale song 
in its original form. When music in several 
parts came into existence, together with the 
chorale song, called Cantus firmus or Tenor, which 
remained unchanged, was associated a part {Or- 
ganum), moving in parallel octaves or fifths 
(fourths), which later on proceeded, according to 

rule, by contrary motion {Discantus) ; this soon, 
however, acquired greater freedom, and formed 
an ornamental melody above the C. So gradu- 
ally it became the custom to treat the C. as a 
rigid skeleton, which the contrapuntist clothed 
with parts alive with flesh and blood. The 
greatest portion of the rich musical hterature 
of the 12th to the i6th century is built on 
Cantus planus ; and still to-day church composers 
frequently base their works on chorale motives. 
{cy. Church Music.) 

(2) The Protestant C. has a history quite similar 
to that of the Catholic. When it was a question 
of obtaining fresh songs for the young reformed 
church, and not such as recalled the stiffness 
of the Roman creed, Luther laid hold of the 
Volkslied and the popular songs in several 
parts — compositions which at that time enjoyed 
great prosperity (" Frische Liedlein," etc.), and 
boldly adopted them by setting to them sacred 
words. Many chorales — for example, " Ein' feste 
Burg " — ^were certainly composed expressly for 
the church, but in the same form, and, so far as 
the hymns were concerned, similar to the simple 
Strophenlied of two shoi i stanzas (Stollen), and 
after-song (Abgesang). Also Catholic hymns 
of similar character were employed. All these 
chorales were pregnant with rhythm, but, like 
the Gregorian song, were stiffened into notes 
of equal length. All attempts to revive the 
rhytlunical chorale have, as yet, failed. It 
appears that again here the contrapuntists are 
guilty of the destruction of the rhythm, and 
this time the German organists who, as for- 
merly the chapel singers, were the chief re- 
presentatives of musical composition. The 
circumstance also — that already in the course 
of the i6th century the congregation began to 
take part in the C, especially in churches which 
had no trained choir — may have had much to do 
with the shaping of the melody, so that it might 
be suitable for a congregation. In proportion 
as the melody grew slower /and the rhythm dis- 
appeared, a more lively accompaniment became 
a, matter of necessity, and the figuration of 
chorales {see Choealbearbeitung), already in 
the 17th century, was developed with great 
show of art. Concerning the origin of the 
Protestant C. and its development, c/. v. Win- 
terfeld, " Der evangelische Kirchengesang " 
(1843-47, 3 vols.). Of Protestant Church 
composers who enriched the treasury of 
church songs (chorales) may be mentioned 
Johann Walther, Georg Rhau, Martin Agri- 
cola, Nikolaus Selneccer, Johann Eccard, Ehr- 
hardt Bodenschatz, Melchior Franck, Heinrich 
Albert, Thomas Selle, Johann Rosenmihller, 
Johann Criiger, Georg Neumark, Andreas Ham- 
merschmidt, Joh. Rud. Able, Joh. Herm. Schein, 
and Johann Sebastian Bach. {C/. Tucher, 
" Schatz des evangelischen Kirchengesangs im 
ersten Jahrhundert der Reformation" (1848, 
2 vols). The reformed church received chorale 
song much later than the Lutheran, dnd, first 




of all, indeed, in Switzerland, where fifty 
psalms translated by Marot were provided 
■with melodies by Wilhelm Franck (1545), which 
were arranged for four voices by Claude Gou- 
dimel (q.v.) in 1562; Bourgeois and Claudin 
Lejeune followed his example. In the course 
of the i6th century the English Church in- 
troduced chorale singing (psalms sung in 

Choraliter (Lat.), Choralinassig (Ger.), in the 
style of Plain-Song. 

ChoraJnote (Ger.) is a term applied to the 
notation of Gregorian song (by whidi, not rhythm 
but only changes of pitch were expressed). All 
the notes of Musica ^lana (Cantws planus) — as, on 
account of the absence of rhythm, Gregorian 
song was afterwards named— are black, and 
are square shaped (■), and have hence been 
named nota quadrata or quadriquarta. The only 
exception is a note-shape which occurs in 
certain figures, such ^ | ^ » or . ♦ ^. These 

signs have nothing in common with the values 
of Long, Breve, and Semibreve in mensurable 
music, notwithstanding the similarity of shape. 
The measured music which came into vogue in 
the 12th century, merely used the note signs 
of the C, and gave to them fixed rhythmical 
meaning ; this is the reason why occasionally for 
the C. use was not made of the signs ^ and ♦, 
but merely of ■. The C. is really nothing more 
th^ Neuma (q.v.) placed on lines, with the re- 
quired pitch more sharply determined by the 
body of the note : ^ is the old Virga (■), and ♦ 
the Point. The direct descent from neume no- 
tation is especially seen in the so-called Figura 
obliqua in compound figures — oblique strokes 
which indicate a note both in their beginning 

and end, for ex., H^. Such figures were termed 

Ligatures (q.v.), and they were introduced into 
measured music. 

Chord (Lat. chorda), the combination of 
several sounds of different pitch ; and a special 
distinction is made between consonant and dis- 
sonant chords. {Cf. Major Chord, Minor 
Chord, and Dissonance.) 

Chordes essentialea (Lat.), the tonic, third, 
and fifth of any key. 

Chordometer (Gr . " chord measurer ") , a simple 
instrument for gauging the strength of strings. 
{See Set.) 

Chord Passage, arpeggio, a chord in figura- 
tion, i.e. a quick passing through the sounds of 
a chord, as distmguished from scale passages 
proceeding by degrees. 

Chords proper to the scale are such as consist 
only of notes which belong to the scale of the 
ruling key. (Cf. Key.) 

Choreographie (Gr. literally " dance writing "). 
The notation of dances by means of conven- 
tional signs for steps and evolutions. The 

system was first employed by Arbeau (q.v.), 
who named it " Orch^sographie." The term c! 
was introduced by Lefeuillet and Beauchamp. 

Choriambus, a metrical foot consisting of two 
short syllables between two long ones : — -^^^ . 

Chorley, Henry Fothergill, b. Dec. 15, 
1808, Blackley Hurst (Lancashire), d. Feb. 16, 
1872 ; was from 1830 to 1868 musical critic of 
the AthemcuM, also dramatic poet, novelist, 
and author of libretti for English composers 
(Walla,ce, Bennett, Benedict, Sullivan, etc.). He 
was highly esteemed as a man of impartial, 
though somewhat one-sided judgment (he could 
not endure Schumann). His works which spe- 
cially belong to musical literature are : "Music 
and Manners in' France and North Germany " 
(1841, 3 vols.), " Modern German Music " (1854, 
2 vols.), " Thirty Years' Musical Recollections " 
(1862, 2 vols.). After his death there appeared 
his interesting "Autobiography and Letters" 
(published by Hewlett, 1873, 2 vols.) and " Na- 
tional Music of the World " (1879). 

Choron, Alexandre Etienne, b. Oct. 21, 
1772, Caen, d. June 29, 1834, Paris ; learned 
theorist : he studied languages, and afterwards 
mathematics. He was stirred up by Rameau's 
theory of music based on acoustic phenomena, 
and, though against his father's wish, diligently 
pursued his theoretical musical studies. Only 
at the age of twenty-five did he devote himself 
entirely to music: he studied the Italian and 
German theorists, and became " the most 
thoroughly trained theorist France ever pos- 
sessed " (Fetis). A great number of publica- 
tions of old practical and theoretical works, 
besides numerous works of his own, show the 
untiring industry of this man. In 181 1 he 
became corresponding member of the Academie 
des Arts, and was entrusted by the ministry 
with the reorganisation and regulation of church 
choirs (maitrises). He was also appointed con- 
ductor of religious and other festivals : it is 
true that his practical knowledge as such was 
not great, but he managed to get on. In 1816 he 
was appointed director of the Grand Op^ra, and 
then brought about the reopening of the Con- 
servatoire (closed in 1815) as " ficole Royale de 
chant et de declamation." In 1817, dismissed 
without pension because he experimented too 
much with novelties, he founded the ' ' Institution 
royale," also named the "Conservatoire de 
musique classique et religieuse," which ac- 
quired great fame, and existed until the Revo- 
lution of July. (5«« Niedermeyer.) Its fall was 
his deathblow. From among the great number 
of C.'s writings may be noted: " Dictionnaire 
historique " (with FayoUe, 1810-11, 2 vols.), 
" Principes d'accompagnement des ecoles 
d'ltalie," 1804; " Principes de composition des 
Ecoles d'ltalie" (1808, 3 vols; 2ria ed., 1816, 
6 vols.), " Methode ^Wmentaire de musique et 
de plain-chant" (1811), Francoeur's ".Traits gen- 
eral des voix et des instruments d'orchestre" 




(revised and augmented, 1813), French transla- 
tions from Albrechtsberger's " Griindliche An- 
weisung zur Komposition " and " Generalbass- 
schule " (1814, 1815 ; new complete edition, 
1830), and Azopardi's " Musico Prattico " (1816), 
" Methode concertante de musique k plusieurs 
parties " (1817 ; on this method his Conserva- 
toire was founded), " Methode de plain-chant " 
(1818), " Liber choralis tribus vocibus ad usum 
coUegii Sancti Ludovici" (1824), and finally, in 
collaboration with Le Fage, "Manuel complet 
de musique vocale et instrumentale, ou Ency- 
clop^die musicale" (1836-38, 8 vols.). 

Chor-Ton, also Kapellton (Ger. ; choir-pitch). 
C. was formerly the normal absolute pitch for 
church choirs in opposition to that of instru- 
mental music (chamber- tone). Both changed 
jepeatedJy, and M. Praetorius is quite wrong 
in naming the high pitch chamber tone, and the 
low choir tone. Praetorius puts the latter at 
424, and the chamber tone (which, however, was 
the tuning of the church organs at that time) 
at 567 (double vibrations). (C/. Ellis's " His- 
tory of Musical Pitch " (1880-81). 

Chorus, Choir (Gr. Chores), (i) This was the 
name given to the body 01 singers (12-15) in 
the Greek tragedy of the classical period, and 
to the body of 24 in comedy, which performed 
dances in measured movement around the 
Thymele (altar) on the portion of the stage 
(orchestra) set apart for that purpose, and 
which was. led by the choragos, who struck his 
shoes against the ground ; the rhythmical song 
accompanying the dance, likewise called C., 
was throughout in unison, and vidthout instru- 
mental accompaniment. The principal kinds 
of choruses were the entrance chorus (Paro- 
dos), the singing while standing on the orchestra 
(Stasima), and the departure chorus (Aphodos). 
The C. took no part in the action, but moved 
around it generally, only passing reflections on 
the resolutions of the actors. — (2) In quite a 
general sense, a union of singers for artistic 
purposes. The oldest choirs of the Christian 
Church sang, like those of ancient times, in 
unison, or, if boys' voices were used together 
with men's voices, in the octave. From the 
loth to the 12th century the various kinds of 
voices (liigh and low voices both of men and 
boys) were distinguished by the various parts 
of the Organum (q.v.). Composers of measured 
music at the close of the 12th century already 
wrote Tripla and Quadrupla, i.e. pieces in 
three and four independent parts. 'The intro- 
duction of female voices into choirs appears to 
have come into vogue only in the 17th century ; 
for a long period the Catholic Church forbade 
the singing of women in church (mulier taceat 
in ecclesia). Concerning the different kinds of 
voices, c/. Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass. Ac- 
cording to the combination, one speaks of a 
male C., female C. (C. of boys' voices), or a 
mixed C. A double choir (q.v.) consists, for 
the most part, of two four-part choirs. 

Chouqnet, Adolphe Gustave, b. April i5, 
i8ig, Havre, d. Jan. 30, 1886, Paris ; lived from 
1840 to i860 as a teacher of music in America, 
after that in Paris engaged in historical work. 
In 1864 he received the Prix Bordin for a his- 
tory of music from the 14th to the i8th century, 
and in 1868 the same prize for a work on 
dramatic music in France, which he published 
in 1873, " Histoire de la musique dramatique 
en France depuis ses origines jusqu'a nos 
jours." From 1871 C. was keeper of the col- 
lection of instruments at the Conservatoire, and 
in 1875 published a catalogue of the same. C. 
aiso wrote the words of several cantatas, which 
became well known (amongst others " Hymne de 
la Paix," the prize cantata for the Exhibition of 

Christiani, (i) Lise B., b. 1827, Paris, d. 1853, 
Tobolsk, was in the forties a highly esteemed 
'cellist ; Mendelssohn wrote for her the well- 
known Lied ohne Worte for 'cello.— (i) 
Adolf Friedrich, pianist and teacher, b. 
March 8, 1836, Cassel, d. Feb. 10, 1885, Eliza- 
beth, near New York ; went already in 1855 to 
London as a teacher of music, afterward? to 
America, and, after stays of longer or shorter 
duration at Poughkeepsie, Pittsburg, and Cin- 
cinnati, settled down in New York in 1877. 
During the last five years of his life he was 
director of a music school at Elizabeth. C. 
was the author of an interesting work ("The 
Principles of Musical Expression in Pianoforte 
Playing," New York, 1886 ; German ed., Leip- 
zig, 1886, " Das Verstandniss im Klavierspiel "J, 
but died before the book came out. 

Christmann, (i) Franz Xavier, excellent 
Austrian organ-builder, d. May 20, 1795, during 
the construction of an organ at Rottenmann 
(Styria).— (2) Joh. Friedrich, b. 1752, 
Ludwigsburg, d. 1817, Heutingsheim ; an evan- 
gelical minister ; composer of church songs and 
chamber-music; he published " Elementarbuch 
der Tonkunst " (1782 ; 2nd part, 1790). 

Chroma (Gr., "colour"), (i) same as chro- 
matic semitone, i.e. the interval which a note of 
the fundamental scale (note without an acci- 
dental) forms with that same degree raised by 
a 4 or lowered by a |7 ; likewise the interval 
which a sharpened note forms with that same 
degree doubly sharpened (by means of a x), or 
a flattened note with that same note doubly 
flattened (by means of a p|7) : 

In the mathematical determination of intervals 
{c/. Tone, Determination of) a distinction is 
made between a major and a minor C. ; the 
major C. (128 : 135) occurs between notes which 
stand to each other in the relationship of the 
triple step of a fifth and the step of a third, as 
/ : /| (7-'^-^-/$) ; tlie small one (24 : 25) 




between those which stand to each other in the 
relationship of the double step of a third and 
the step of a fifth in the opposite direction, as 
e-gf (S-i^-S #). for example : 

By the enharmonic identification of d with d_ 
(by the mediation of the a), the distinction has, 
in fact, no practical meaning ; but the acous- 
tical formulae remain as the equivalents of dif- 
ferent harmonic conceptions, which determine 
not the absolute sound but the connection. 
Chromatic notes in a chord are only such as can 
be conceived as raisings or lowerings of a note 
belonging to a clang (fundamental note, third, 
fifth of the major or minor chord), for example, 
5 4 as raised fifth of c.e.g', a |? as lowered funda- 
mental note of a.c.e, likevdse also g in the chord 
of c sharp major, and a in the chord of D flat 
major, etc. {See Altered Chords.) For the 
chromatic mode of the Greeks see Greek 
Music ; for the chromatics of the i6th century 
cf. ViCENTiNO and Gesualdo. — (2) A society 
lately established, the aim of which is to reform 
our system of music, i.e. to set aside the funda- 
mental scale (q.v.), and establish a division of 
the octave into twelve equal parts {Zwolfhalbton- 
system), so that, for example, on the keyboard, 
each black key should have its independent 
name, and not be derived from the lower key. 
(c/. Vincent (2), Hahn (2), Sachs (2), and Jank6.) 

Chroma duplex (Lat.), a double sharp ( x ). 

Chroma simplex (Lat.), a single sharp (|;). 

Chromatic Instnunents are such as have at 
command all the notes of the chromatic scale, 
s.e. which can produce all the twelve semitones 
within the octave of the tempered system. The 
term is used specially in connection with brass 
wind-instruments with valves (likewise, formerly, 
keys), and in contradistinction to natural instru- 
ments, which have only the series of overtones 
of the lowest note of the tube. {Cf. Horn, 
Trumpet, Cornet.) 

Chromatic Scales are those which run through 
the twelve semitones of equal temperament. 
The notation of a chromatic scale difliers ac- 
cording to the key in which it occurs, and 
accoritog to ■ the harmony with which it is 
connected. If the diatonic scale is to be re- 
garded as a major or minor chord with passing- 
notes {cf. Scales), and if the choice of passing- 
notes — especially from the third to, the fifth, 
and from the fifth to the octave — difiiers accord- 
ing to the key in which a chord occurs {cf. Rie- 
mann: "Neue Schule der Melodik," 1883), so 
must the C. S. — which, after all, is only a'filling 
out of the diatonic scale by chromatic inter- 
mediate notes — ^be regarded from a similar point 

of view. The rising C. S. has sharpened, the 
falling, flattened notes. So, for example, in 
o major, the d minor chord generally gives the 
diatonic scale : — d, e, f,g, a,b, c, d; the d major , 
chord in A — d, e, if, ig, a, b, ic,d; and the 
D flat major chord falling in G flat — \>d, |?c, \^b, 
\fa, ^g,f, ye, bi, The chromatic scales in these 
three cases will appear thus : — 

It is to be noticed that some old composers 
(Mozart), in the ascending chromatic scales, 
are fond of replacing the augmented second, 
fifth, and sixth by the enharmonic intervals of 
the minor third, sixth, and seventh, whereby the 
harmonic meaning is often deeply concealed. 

Chronometer (Gr., " time-measurer "). {See 

ChronoB protos (Gr., " the first time "), i.e. 
the smallest time-unit ; in ancient metre, the 
duration of the simple Short', which served 
as measurement for the long-syllable values. 
Thus, for example, the simple Long = two 
chronoi protoi. R.' Westphal ("AUgem. Theorie 
der musikal. Rhythmik ") made an unfortunate 
attempt to show the existence of an indivisible 
C. p. in modern music. 

Chrotta, one of the oldest, if not the oldest, 
of European stringed instruments, already men- 
tioned by Venantius Fortunatus (609) in the 
verse " Romanusque Lyra plaudat tibi, Bar- 
barus harpa, Graecus achilUaca, chrotta Brit- 
anna canit." It seems that the.C. {crwth, crowd, 
crowth) was originally a British instrument, and 
that for a long period it preserved its peculiar 
shape only in Great Britain and in Brittany, 
whereas it was quickly transformed in France 
and Germany. From the instruments in use 
since the gth century (Lyra, Rebeca, Rubeba, 
Viella) it is distinguished by the absence of a 
neck. The four-cornered sound-box is really 
prolonged in hoop-form, and at the top, in the 
centre, the string-pegs are fixed; the strings 
(five) pass, partly over, partly near to a narrow 
finger-board (without frets), which extends from 
the hoop-end to the middle of the sound-box. 
It has also sound-holes and a bridge. The 
most ancient kind of C. had only three strings 
(no Bourdons). As soon as the hoop was done 
away with, and replaced by a solid continuation 
in the middle (under the finger-board), the in- ■ 
strument became a Vielle. This transforma- 
tion appears to have taken place at an early 
date. The C. must not be confused with the 




Rotta (q.v.). The C. in its ancient form existed 
among the natives of Ireland, Wales, and Bret- 
agne still at the end of the former and the be- 
ginning of the present century. J. F. Wewerten 
wrote a comprehensive and learned treatise on 
the Chrotta and Rotta, " Zwei veraltete Musik- 
instrumente" (Monatsh.fur Mus. Geschichte, 1881, 
Nos. 7-12). 

Chrysauder, Friedrich, b. July 8, 1826, 
Liibtheen (Mecklenburg), studied philosophy at 
Rostock and graduated there. After he had 
several times changed his place of residence, 
and lived for a long time in England, he settled 
permanently at Bergedorf, near Hamburg. C. 
is one of our most meritorious writers on music. 
His still unfinished biography of Handel (1858- 
67, extending to the first half of the tWrd 
volume) is a work showing great industry, 
historical knowledge, and a warm admiration 
for the master ; but the most important period 
of Handel's life, that of his great oratorios, has 
still to be written. C. is one of the founders 
of the Handel Society, and superintends the 
monumental Handel edition, In 1863 and 1867 
appeared, under C.'s name, two "Jahrbiicher 
fur musikalische Wissenschaft," with valuable 
contributions from difierent writers (among other 
things the " Locheimer Liederbuch " and Pau- 
mann's "Ars organisandi," edited by F. W. 
Arnold). From 1868-71, and again from 1875 
until it ceased to exist (end of 1882), he 
edited the AUgemdne Musikalische Zeitung, in 
which have appeared numerous interesting 
articles from his pen, among others a sketch of 
the history of music-printing (1879), investiga- 
tions with regard to the Hamburg opera under 
Reiser, Kusser, etc. (1878-79). Since the be- 
ginning of 1885, in conjunction with Spitta 
and C. Adler, he has edited a " Viertelsjahr- 
schrift fiir Musikwissenschaft." Two little 
pamphlets, "tjber die MoUtonart in Volksge- 
sangen " and " tJber das Oratorium," appeared 
in 1853. Finally, he has also published Bach's 
" Klavierwerke " (1856) and " Denkmaler der 
Tonkunst," oratorios by Carissimi, sonatas by 
Corelli (Joachim), pieces de clavecin by Couperin 

Chiysanthos, vonMadyton, Archbishop of 
Durazzo (Dyrrhachium), in Albania, formerly 
teacher of church singing at Constantinople; 
one of those -who of late years have simplified 
the liturgical notation of the Byzantine Church 
by the removal of many superfluous signs. 
His two works are, " Introduction to the Theory 
and Practice of Church Music" ("Isagoge," 
etc.), 1821, edited by Anastasios Thamyris, and 
" Great Theory of Music " (" Theoretikon 
mega," 1832). 

Church Cantata (Cantata da chiesa) is the 
name given to the grand sacred cantata with 
soli, chorus, and orchestra, in contradistinction 
to the chamber cantata, with simple accompani- 

ment and for few solo voices ; and also to the 
secular festive cantata, of similar plan, but dif- 
ferent contents (for marriage and coronation 
festivals, birthdays, etc.). The form of the C. C. 
reached its highest point of development in 
J. S. Bach. [Cf. Cantata.) 

Church Modes are the various possible species 
of octaves of the musical alphabet (q.v.), which 
during the period of one-part (homophonic) 
music, and also during that in which coun- 
terpoint (polyphonic music) flourished, were 
regarded as special keys or modes, some- 
what similar to our major and minor. The 
development of harmony, the recognition of 
the importance of consonant chords (triads), 
and their position in the key (tonic, dominant) 
caused the C. M. to be set aside, and led 
finally to the two modes, major and minor. 
The difiisrent species of octaves received the 
name of CM. because the chants of the 
Gregorian Antiphonary (q.v.) were written so 
as to be within the compass (ambitus) of one 
of the same, without using any other chromatic 
notes except the semitone Bp, in addition to the 
whole tone, B, above the a of the middle posi- 
tion (small a). By that means a strict diatonic 
style was, so to speak, sanctioned by the church, 
when the Greek system of music, from which, 
after all, the CM. were derived, had degenerated 
into chromatics and enharmpnics. The oldest 
Western writers who make mention of CM. 
(Flaccus Alcuin in the 8th century, Aurelianus 
Reomensis in the gth) knew nothing of their 
connection with Greek music, and simply num- 
bered them as modes 1-8, or as authentic 1-4, 
and plagal 1-4 (see below). On the other 
hand, in the old Byzantine writers on music 
(especially Bryennius, q.v.), traces are found of 
the transformation of the ancient system into 
that of the Middle Ages. The old Byzantine 
Church also distinguished four CM. (^x<n), 
but arranged them from top to bottom, thus :t- 
ist mode (o):=jO'-g' (without chromatic signs). 
2nd mode (&)■=. }-f „ „ 

3rd mode (y)=:e-e' „ „ 

4th mode (8) = rf-(i' „ „ 

The plagals of these principal C M. lay, how- 
ever, like the ancient hypo-keys, a fifth (not a 
fourth) lower than the authentic : — 
ist plagal := c-c* 
2nd plagal := B-b 
3rd plagal =.<4-« 
4th plagal =: G-g. 
The fourth plagal mode of that old Byzantine 
system was then based on the note, which the 
West from the time of Odo of Clugny designated 
by Gamma (r), and looked upon as an indis- 
pensable lowest note, notwithstanding the fact 
that the lowest Western plagal mode (see 
below), only reached to a (in ancient Codices 
before the r was used, the note was called 
Quinttts prima [!]). The compiler of this dictionary, 
in his treatise " Die Kaprvpuu der Byzantischen 

Church Modes 


Ohiiroh Music 

Liturgischen Notation " (report of a sitting of 
the Munich Akademie d. Wiss., 1882, ii. 1), has 
shown that probably the old Byzantine system 
of C. M. was evolved from the mode system of 
the ancient Greeks, and, first of all, in en- 
tirely setting aside chromatic and enharmonic 
notes, and forming from the fundamental 
notes of the most essential transposition scales 
{the Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, 
Hypodorian, Hypophrygian, and Hypolydian) 
a fixed diatonic fundamental scale. The initial 
letters of the old names were probably used at 
first as memoranda (Maprupiai) for the new 
designation of modes by means of the first 
letters of the Greek alphabet (said to have been 
introduced by St. Ambrosius), and still retained 
with the new Byzantine notation. In the West 
there appeared a new notation, first in the loth 
century, so far as we know (and thus a long 
time after Ambrosius), which used the first 
letters of the Latin alphabet in a similar man- 
ner {cf. Letter-notation), viz. : — 

ABC><DEFGKA, in the sense of our 
c d efg a b c'. (J shows the semitone Steps.) 
The older Byzantine notation was — 

likewise with solfeggio syllables, iro /Sou 7e 81 
Ke (a vr). In the West the pitch-meaning of 
the letters was afterwards lowered a third ; but 
in Byzantium the pitch rose one degree, so that 
the a was equal to our d.,i.e. the key-note of the 
first church mode of the later order formed 
firom the Western mode. Bryennius has also 
handed down a nomenclature of the Byzantine 
church modes of the older order, together with 
the names of the ancient Greek modes ; in it 
the church mode answers, as the intervals 
show, to the ancient transposition scale on 
which it is based (c-V Dorian, d-d' Phrygian, 
«-e' Lydian, /-/' Mixolydian, etc.). A similar, 
but less reasonable, shifting of the meaning of 
names took place also in the West (by [pseudo-] 
Notker and [pseudo-] Hucbald) through a 
misunderstanding of a passage in Ptolemy, and 
what he wrote about different positions of pitch 
was erroneously made to refer to the different 
species of octaves. The CM. of the West 
are: — (i) The first church or authentic mode 
{Authentus protus) 'D'K'P Ga^cd (our defgab 
c d'), named the Dorian mode (DoriKs) since 
the time of Hucbald.— (2) The second, or first 
plagal [Plagius proti, plagis proti, plaga proti ; 
lateralis, svbjugalis proti), A B CDEFGa (=:AB 
cdefga), the Hypodorian (Hypodorius). — (3) The 
third, or second authentic {Authentus deuterus), 
EFGahcde {=efg ab if d' «'), the Phrygian 
(Phrygijis).—(^) The fourth, or second plagal 
(Plagius, etc., dmteri), BCDEFGatf(=Bi;<i 
efgab), the Hypophrygian (Hypophrygius). — (5) 
The fifth, or tUrd authentic (Authmtus tritus), 
FG atcdef l=:f g a b d d' e! /'), the Lydian 
{Lydius).—{6) The sixth, or third plagal {Plagius 
triti), CT)'EFGaJS^c{=cdefgab!f),th.e Hypo- 

lydian (Hypolydius). — (7) The seventh, or fourth 
authentic (Authentus tetartus), G ait c' d' e' f g" 
(;=.g ab c d' ef f g"), the Mixolydian (Mixolydius). 
— (8) The eighth, or fourth plagal [Plagius 
tetarti), DEFGatjcd (r=d efgab d d'), the 
Hyponiixolydian (Hypomixolydius since the nth 
century). The plagal modes (2, 4, 6, 8) were 
merely shiftings of the authentic ; the principal 
note (Finalis) was not the limiting note of the 
octave, but occurred in the middle as fourth note. 
The Final of the first and second modes was 
therefore D, of the third and fourth E, of the 
fifth and sixth F, of the seventh and eighth G. 
The eighth and first are therefore by no means 
identical. Not one of the four authentic modes 
has C or A as Final ; hence the two modes (C) 
major and (A) minor, the only ones used in 
modern music, were wanting. In the i6th 
century, which first perteiTfed the principles of 
harmony {c/. Zarlino), and opened up the way 
to modern tonality, two new authentic modes 
with their plagals were added : the fifth au- 
thentic, Ionian, cd efg ab d, and the sixth 
authentic, jSolian, ab d d' e' f ^ a' (also named 
modos peregrinus), and the plagal fifth, or Hypo- 
ionian, G A B c d efg, and the plagal sixth, or 
Hypoaolian, e fg abi" d' d, .so that then there 
existed twelve church , modes {c/i Glarean, 
"Dodekachordon"). The seventh authentic 
mode, the Locrian (q.v.) was never of much im- 
portance. C/. the following synopsis : — 

Dorian mode. Hypodorian mode. 

Phrygian mode. Hypophrygian mode. 


Mixolydian mode. 


Hypolydian mode. 

Hypomixolydian mode. 

j^olian mode. 

HypoBEolian mode. 




Church Music, Cathedral Music (Musica eede- 
siastica,. sacra, divina; Ital. Musica da chiesa; Fr. 
Musique d'iglise). C. M. is nearly as old as the 

Church Music 



church itself. The oldest C. M. was only vocal 
music, yet already in the early middle ages 
instruments appear to have been introduced to 
reinforce the voices ; but, according to the 
statement of the Abbot £ngelbert of Admont 
(13th century), these, the organ excepted, were 
banished. In the course of the i6th century it 
again became general to strengthen, likewise 
partly to replace, the vocal parts; and, with 
the introduction of the continue about 1600, 
the first step was taken towards regularly ac- 
companied C. M. Instrumental music also, 
in the first place as solo organ-playing, was 
introduced into the church about the end of 
the i6th century, and probably for the first 
time at Venice, by Merulo and the two 
Gabriehs. The Ritual music of the Catholic 
•Church is old — proba,bly handed down in part 
from the Jews ; possibly also certain pagan 
melodies may have been adapted to Christian 
words. Antiphonal singing also was developed 
in the Byzantine Church, and was transplanted 
into Italy by St. Ambrosius (d. 397) ; Gradual 
singing arose in Italy ; singing of hymns, specially 
cultivated by Ambrosius, probably had its origin 
in pagan worship. Pope Gregory the Great 
(d. 604) established uniform Ritual music for 
the whole Western Church; this, under the 
name of Gregorian song, has remained up to the 
present day, and unchanged, so far as was 
possible with the imperfect neume notation — 
almost the only one used in the 12th century. 
Yet the melodies seem to have been preserved 
fairly intact, while the whole ancient art of 
rhythm has completely disappeared. From the 
jubilant exclamations of the time of Ambrosius 
and Augustine was gradually evolved up to 
the 12th century the psalmody void of rhythm 
in use at the present day. Gregorian song was 
entirely in one part ; only from the gth to 
the loth century does singing in several parts 
(Organum) — though scarcely differing from that 
in one part — m^e its appearance. The prin- 
ciple of real polyphony only came to light in 
the 12th century, i.e. contrary movement (Dis- 
cantus), and from that time was gradually 
developed complicated polyphonic writing, but 
always based on the Gregorian chant (Cantus 

The names of the oldest forms of church 
compositions (in the 13th century) in several 
parts are : Organum, Discantus, Condtictus, Copula, 
Ochetus, Motetus, Triplum (three-part), Quad- 
ruplum (four'part). The following were dis- 
tinguished masters at that early period : Leon- 
inus, Perotinus, Robert of Sabilon, Petrus 
de Cruce, Johannes de Garlandia, the two 
Francos, Philipp of Vitry (14th century), 
Johannes de Muris, Marchettus of Padua, etc. 
Thus, already about the middle of the i5th 
century, we find counterpoint brought to a high 
state of perfection. Forms of importance, more 
or less independent of the Gregorian chant, 
were developed (Motet, Mass, Magnificat), and a 

long list of names of great importance indicates 
a long period in which an art, now fast pass- 
ing away, flourished, but which finally degener- 
ated into subtleties (Busnois, Dufay, Okeghem, 
Hobrecht, Josquin, de la Rue, Brumel, Clemens 
non Papa, Mouton, Fevin Pipelare, de Orto, 
Willaert, de Rore, Goudimel, Orlando Lasso, 
Paul Hofhaimer, Heinrich Isaac, Senfl, Hasler, 
Gallus, Morales). All these masters wove their 
parts together with art, and in obedience to the 
laws of strict imitation. In sharp contrast to 
this music laden with artifices, stood out the 
popular (four-part) Lied, from which was 
evolved the Protestant Chorale, and it was 
probably on this account that the Council of 
Trent resolved to banish polyphonic music 
from the church, unless a plainer, more suitable 
style of C. M. could be provided. Thus, by an 
impulse from without, arose the noble and 
simple Palestrina style, whose representatives, 
in addition to Palestrina, were the Naninis, 
Vittoria, and the two Anerios. (C/. Roman 
School.) In so far as the forms of accom- 
panied C. M. (Church concerto. Cantata), 
directly evolved from the musical drama and 
o?'atorio which arose about the year 1600, were 
transplanted into their native country by 
Germans trained in Italy (Schiitz), the Italians 
can be looked upon as participating in the 
grand development of Protestant C. M., which 
reached its zenith in the Cantatas and Pas- 
sions of Bach. CM., since his time, breathes 
a modem spirit: the display of instrumental 
means is more brilliant, the melodies are 
weaker, sentimental (operatic), the harmonies 
are more piquant ; but in grandeur of the total 
effect and earnestness of conception they only 
rarely approach Bach. The most distinguished 
representatives of modern C. M. are Mozart 
(Requiem), Beethoven (Missa Solemnis), Fr. 
Liszt, and Fr. Kiel. 

Chute (Fr.), obsolete ornament (q.v.), from 
which was evolved the long appoggiatura ex- 
pressed by sijiall notes. When the old French 
clavier masters wanted the C, they placed a little 
hook before the note, (^ (d'Anglebert, 1689), or 
an oblique stroke, ^|*, likewise ""p. The upper- 
and under-second took from the real note half 
its value. 

Chwatal, (i) Franz Xaver, b. June 19, 
1808, Rumburg (Bohemia), d. June 24, 1879, 
Soolbad Elmen ; went in i8g2 as teacher of 
music to Merseburg, whence in 1835 he re- 
moved to Magdeburg; wrote much pianoforte 
music, especially pieces de salon aiid some in- 
structive works, amongst others two Methods 
of the pianoforte, as well as quartets for male 
voices, etc. (2) Joseph, brother of the above, 
b. Jan. 12, 1811, Rumburg. He (with his son) 
is organ-builder at Merseburg, and has made 
many valuable small improvements in the 
mechanism of the organ. 

Ciacona (Ital.). {See Chaconne.) 



Cifra, Antonio, b. 1575, Papal States, d. 
1638, Loreto ; pupil of Palestrina and Nanini ; 
at first maestro at the German College at Rome, 
then at Loreto ; in 1620 at the Lateran, 1622 in 
the service of the Archduke Carl of Austria, from 
1629 again at Loreto. C. was one of the best 
composers of the Roman school, to which a 
goodly series of printed volumes which have 
been handed down bear witness (five books of 
masses, seven books of motets [a 2 et a 4] with 
organ accompaniment, motets and psalms [i 12] , 
scherzi and Arie with cembalo or chitarrone, 
madrigals, ricercari, canzone, concerti ecclesiastici, 
etc., in publications from 1500-1638). 

Cimarosa, Domenico, b. Deo. 17, 1749, 
Aversa, Naples, d. Jan. 11, 1801, Venice; was 
the son of a mason, and an orphan at an early 
age. He attended the school for poor children 
of the Minorites at Naples, and, when his 
musical talent showed itself, was taught by 
Pater Polcano, organist of the Minorite monas- 
tery. In 1761 he was placed in the Conserva- 
torio Santa Maria di Ixaeto, where Manna, 
Sacchini, Fenaroli, and Piccini successively 
became his teachers. In 1772 he began his 
career as a dramatic composer with Le Strava- 
ganze del Conte for the Teatro de' Florentini at 
Naples, and, although Paisiello was then at the 
height of his fame, C. was soon able to take 
rank beside him. With unexampled rapidity 
his works followed one another. In 1779 he 
wrote for Rome L'ltaliana in Londra, and 
lived alternately in Naples or Rome accord- 
ing to the custom of the time tjf always writing 
an opera in the very place in which it was to be 
performed. In 1781 he wrote for each of the 
cities of Rome, Venice, Turin, . and Vicenza a 
new opera, and thus he continued. In 1789 he 
was offered brilliant terms to go to Petersburg, 
where from 1776-85 Paisiello had suppUed the 
Italian Opera with novelties. He travelled by 
way of Florence and Vienna, and was every- 
where received with the greatest honour. But 
he was not able to bear for any length of time 
the Russian climate, and left in 1792 for Vienna, 
where they would willingly have kept him. 
He there wrote his most famous work, // 
Matrimonio Segreto, the success of which not 
only surpassed that of all his previous operas, 
but was unexampled. C. had then already 
written seventy operas in less than twenty 
years. // Matrimonio Segreto was also played 
at Naples in 1793, and repeated sixty-seven 
times. Other operas followed, of which the 
most noteworthy was Astuzie Feminili (1794). 
He took part in the Neapolitan insurrection, 
was arrested and sentenced to death, but was 
pardoned by King Ferdinand and set at liberty, 
and, with the intention of going to Russia, 
went to Venice; but was taien ill and died 
there, it was said, of poison. Public opinion 
blamed the Government, and it needed an 
official proclamation of the physician of Pius 
VII., who resided in Venice, to dissipate the 


rumour and to certify a natural death (abscess 
in the abdomen). Besides over eighty operas, 
C. composed several masses (two requiems), 
oratorios (Jfudith and Triumph of Religion), can- 
tatas, ana 105 detached vocal pieces for the 
court at Petersburg; C.'s // Matrimonio Segreto 
still appears from time to time on the best 
stages. According to our present ideas, his 
music is simple, but fresh and full of humour. 
A splendid bust of C. by Canova, who was 
commissioned by Cardinal Consalvi, is to be 
seen on the Capitol at Rome. 

Cimbal, Cimbalon, Cinelli. {See Cymbal and 

Circle. (See Fifths, Circle of.) 

Circular Canon (Lat. Canon perpetuus), a canon 
without end, which, as it returns to its com- 
mencement, is frequently set out in circular 
form ; it can be repeated at pleasure. If it is 
to have a coda it cannot be presented in circular 
form, but has a repetition sign with coda added. 
Canons set out in circular form have a pause 
marked over the end note. 

Cistole, Cistre, Citole, Cither. {See Zither.) 

Cizos. {See CheRI.) 

CI., abbreviation for Clarinetto. 

Clairon, French name for the Buglehorn. 

Clang, Sound is the name given to audible 
vibrations of elastic bodies, i.e. C. or S. is the 
scientific word for the lay term tone. In 
acoustics a distinction is made between sound 
and noise ; by the latter is understood the im- 
pression produced on the ear by irregular, and 
by the former that produced by regular vibra- 
tions. Regular vibrations are those which 
follow one another at equal intervals of time, 
like those of the pendulum of a clock ; and, as 
the rapidity of succession (period) of the separate 
vibrations determines the height of the sound 
heard, it follows that vibrations pf like period 
produce sounds or clangs of constant/iteA. Since 
it has been known that the sounds of our 
musical instruments are not simple tones, but 
compounded of a series of simple tones which 
can be distinguished by a most attentive listener 
(but commonly are not thus distinguished), the 
term S., in scientific works, has been replaced by 
the more general, comprehensive one, C, whilst 
sound is applied to the simple sounds as part 
of the C. The height of the C. is determined 
by the pitch of the lowest, and, as a rule, the 
strongest of its compound tones, which are 
also called Partial tones. Aliquot tones. Scale of 
nature. As all the other partial tones lie higher 
than the ground tone, fundamental tone, principal 
tone, which gives to the C. its name, they are 
usually caliedovertones, but, let it be understood, 
the second overtone is not the third tone of the 
series, but the second. In so far as the remain- 
ing tones above the ground tone usually escape 
notice, they are also called secondary tones, 
and so far as they stand-in close (harmonic) 




relationship to the former, also harmonic tones 
(sons harmoniqms). For example, for the tone 
c the series of the first sixteen partial tones 
is as follows : — 

understood as overtones of overtones, in fact 
secondary overtones, i.e. as integral elements 
of the primary ones (the gtli as 3rd of the 3rd, 
the isth as 5th of the 3rd, etc.). If these are 

The tones written in minims are all component 
elements of the major chord of the ground tone 
(1; major chord), and it cannot be doubted that 
the consonance of the major chord (major conson- 
ance) must be referred to the series of over- 
tones, i.e. a major chord, whatever the arrange- 
ment of notes, must be regarded as a C, in 
which certain overtones (those answering to 
the notes of the chord independently produced) 
are reinforced. The following examples may 
make this clearer; the low note placed after 
the chord is the ground tone of the C. , of which 
the chord must be regarded as the representa- 
tive : — 


The ground tone of the C. here indicated is in- 
deed always present as a combination tone. 
The series of partial tones, however, is not only 
completed by the combination tones down to 
the ground tone of the .C, but continues upwards 
through the series of upper tones of the chord 
tones. For this reason it is quite natural that 
far higher overtones than those which can be 
distinguished in any particular C. (note of an 
instrument) play an important rSle in musical 
hearing ; for in modern harmony very high 
overtones are produced with unusual strength, 
to which still higher ones, the immediate over- 
tones of the same, are added. The monophonic 
music of ancient times and of the early middle 
ages was necessarily forced to move within 
very narrow harmonic limits, since it was con- 
cerned only with the nearest overtones. The 
overtones indicated above by means of a * do 
not quite agree in pitch with the notes by which 
they are represented ; if they are produced as 
independent notes in the chord they will no 
longer have the meaning of the series of over- 
tones, but must be regarded rather as approx- 
imations, tones related in a minor sense (see 
further, below) ; this is the case with the over- 
tones from the seventh, whose cardinal numbers 
are prime numbers. But those whose cardinal 
numbers are the result of multiplication 
(9 = 3 X 3. 15 = 3 X 5. 25 = 5 X 5. etc.) are 

11 12 13 14 16 16 

represented in the chord, i.e. produced in equal 
strength with the primary ones, they give the 
effect of dissonance; the primary overtone of 
which they are the overtones itself appears as a 
C. ground tone, so that two clangs are represented at 
the- same time. The simplest ratio (2:1), that 
of the octave, forms an exception ; no power to 
which it may be raised ever yields a dissonance ; 
and indeed all other intervals can be extended 
or contracted one or several octaves without 
changing their harmonic meaning. If we then 
strike Out all octave tones from the series of 
overtones there remain as dissimilar elements 
of the major consonance of the upper clang only 
the ground tone (i), the twelfth (3), and seven- 
teenth (5) ; the original formof themajorchordis 
therefore not actually the triad in a narrow posi- 


^ - — but widened out thus: ^^^3 

The cardinal numbers of the partial tones re- 
present at the same time the relative number of 
vibrations of the intervals formed by them. 
For example, the vibration ratio' of the fifteenth 
to the sixteenth overtone (leading-note ratio { : c) 
=z 15 : 16. {Cf. Interval.) It should not be 
forgotten that the pleasing efiisct of certain dis- 
sonances which of late have come much into 
vogue (Wagner) must be explained by their 
approximative agreement with higher overtones 
(for example, c, e, b]f,fil=:ii : 5 : 7 : n). 

The consonance 0/ the minor chord cannot be ex- 
plained by the series of overtones, and all at- 
teihptS, nevertheless, to do this (Helmholtz) must 
lead to results unsatisfactory to musicians. On 
the other hand, if looked at from a reverse point 
of view, the result desired will be obtained. 
Long before the discovery of overtones the 
major consonance was referred to the string 
division, i — |-, i.e. i is the string length of the 
ground tone, j that of the octave, J that of the 
I2th, and so on up to the 6th partial tone. 
The minor consonance, on the other hand, was 
referred to the inversion of the series, i.e. to 
the string lengths i — 6; i was the principal 
tone, 2 the under octave, 3 the under twelfth, 
etc. This conception of the minor . consonance 
as the opposite pole of the major consonance is 
first to be found, so far as is known, in the 
thirtieth chapter of Zarlino's " Istitutioni ar- 
moniche" (1558). It has also been maintained 
with more or less consistency by Tartini, one 



ClElng Succession 

of the most learned and intelligent theorists; 
and within recent years since M. Hauptmann 
(1853) by a number of young theorists (O. 
Kraushaar, O. Tiersch, O. Hoftinsky), and with 
great acuteness and consistency by A. v. Ottingen, 
and by the compiler of this dictionary. The minor 
consonance is related to a series of undertones 
in precisely the same way as the major con- 
sonance to the series of overtones : the pheno- 
mena in acoustics which justify the acceptation 
of this undertone series are those of sympathetic 
and combination tones. A sounding tone sets 
bodies capable of producing sound into sympa- 
thetic vibration, whose own tone answers to 
one of its undertones, or, which is the same 
thing, of whose ground tone it is an upper tone. 
In any case, bodies sounding by sympathetic 
vibration make, first of all, strong partial vibra- 
tions (with so many nodes that the causal tone 
is produced), but they also make total vibra- 
tions (weaker, and therefore more difficult to 
detect). The lowest combination tone of an in- 
tervsJ is always the first undertone common to 
both intervals ; for example, iore'g', c ; for c", d", 
likewise c, and even for e' d", c, and so on. The 
series of the first sixteen undertones, taking c"' 
as starting tone (principal tone), is as follows : — 

of the upper clang. They cannot, any more 
than the latter, be directly referred to the 'prin- 
cipal tone, but only through the mediation of 
primary partial tones, of which they, in their 
turn, are primary partial tones, i.e. represent 
the clangs of the same ; and thus their intro- 
duction, together with primary undertones, into 
a chord, forms a dissonance resulting from the 
simultaneous presentation of two clangs. {C/. 
Clang Succession and Dissonance.) 

Clang Colour (Timbre) . The difference of C. C. 
in the tones of our musical instruments, accord- 
ing to the investigations of Helmholtz (" Lehre 
von den Tonempfindungen "), is mainly caused 
by the varied composition of the sounds or 
clangs. Many (such- as those of bells, rods) 
have secondary tones other than those of 
stringed and wind instruments, which are em- 
ployed for real musical purposes ; but in these 
latter, the different kinds of intensity, likewise 
the absence of certain tones of the overtone 
series, bring about a similar change. The 
varied clang colours of the human voice depend 
partly on the formation of the vocal chords, 
partly on the resonant qualities of mouth and 
nasal cavities. The numerous vowel gradations 
also produce varieties of C. C. Professor v. 

The ordinal figures of the undertones represent 
the relative string-lengths for the same; the 
ratios of vibration are expressed by the series 
of simple fractions, .1, J, J, etc., just as, with 
reversed meaning, the ratios of string-lengths 
for the tones of the overtone series are repre- 
sented by the series of simple fractions. For 
instance, if c = i, then the octave e : </ in an 
overtone series sense is expressed by i : 2 with 
regard to the relative number of vibrations ; but 
by I : J, with regard to length of string. _ On the 
other hand, however, in an undertone series sense 
(taking c' = i), the vibration ratio is expressed 
by I : J, but that of the string length by i : 2. 
The ist, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th, loth, 12th, 
i6th, etc., in fact all tones of the undertone 
series, which answer to the lower octaves of the 
1st, 3rd, and 5th undertones, are component 
parts of the minor chord under c, i.e. of the c under- 
clang, just as the same numbers of the overtone 
series give the major chord above the ground 
tone, i.e. the upper clang (in above example 
the chord of c major). The 7th, nth, 13th 
undertones, in fact all answering to prime 
numbers from the 7th, are of as little use for 
chord formation as the primary overtones from 
the 7th. But the figures obtained by mul- 
tipUcation (9 = 3 X 3, 15 = 3 x 5. etc.) are, as 
secondary undertones, as much dissonant against 
the principal tone of the under clang as the 
secondary overtones against the principal tone 

11 12 13 14 13 16 

Schafhautl (Allgem. Musik. Zeitung, 1879) is 
right in insisting on the fact that the material 
of which a musical instrument is constructed 
has great influence on the C. C. ; that, for 
example, a trumpet made of wood or pasteboard 
sounds quite differently from one made of metal. 
The difference of C. C. is called timbre. Here 
the molecular vibrations of the body of the in- 
strument play an important role, as is sufficiently 
evident from the sound-board of stripged in- 
struments. Organ-builders have long known 
that it is something more than a matter of price 
or outward beauty whether the diapason pipes 
are made of tin or lead, or whether the tubes 
of reed-pipes are made of zinc or metal. 

Clang Figures. {See Chladni,). 

Clang-relationship [Chord-relationship) ^ [See 

Clang Succession is the succession of two 
chords with regard to their clang-meaning. In 
order to be able to speak about C. S., all 
chords, even the dissonant, must be conceived 
and classed according to a clang-meaning ; and 
—to look at the matter from a general point_ of 
view — a terminology is necessary; one which 
will be suitable, not to a special case, but to a 
large number of oases. The beginnings of such 
a terminology are common property. Within 
recent times the triads of the various degrees 
of a scale have been provided with cardiiial 

Clang Succession 



numbers — large ones for the major chords, 
small ones for the minor — with a smalj. nought 
added for diminished, and a stroke for aug- 
mented triads (Richter) : 

(a) Major 

I n III IV V VI vri" 

(b) Minor 






I 11° III' IV V VI vn» 

V-I indicates, then, a succession of two major 
chords, of which the first is upper-dominant of 
tlie second ; V-i, on the other hand, the transi- 
tion from a major to a minor chord, of which 
the former is upper-dominant, etc. But, in a 
free system of harmony, this mode of indicating 
the chords is insufl&dent. The series of chords 
— c major, a[> roiajor, d major, a major, a major 
— ^which forms a perfectly intelligible little 
period — could not be made clear according to 
above system'of figuring ; for, although it in no 
way implies modulation, one would have to 
look upon the a\> major chord as connected with 
F minof or c minor, and the d major chord, with 
G major. 


For such a C. S., figuring in the sense of one 
scale is not possible: it belongs to the free 
tonality (q.v.) which has only recently been 
recognised, and whose limits extend far beyond 
those of a scale-established system of harmony. 
This tonality recognises neither chords true nor 
foreign to the scale, but only a principal clang 
and related clangs. In the above example, the 
c major chord is, and remains, principal clang 
to which the others are referred : the chord of 
Ab major is its under-third clang, the d major 
chord the clang of its second upper-fifth, the 
G major chord that of its first upper-fifth. The 
first step (c major — a]? major) inclines towards 
the undertone side, the second proceeds by 
leap to the overtone side (h^ major — D major), 
while the third and fourth steps lead back to the 
principal clang. The succession a)? major — d 
major does not appear incomprehensilple, because, 
from the relation which it bears to the principal 
clang (a|?-c-[g]-d), it consists of the step of a 
third and a double fifth step (or step of a 
whole tone). The terminology demanded by 

considerations of this sort must proceed from 
the degree of relationship to the principal note ; 
this therefore causes a distinction to be made 
between steps of a fifth, of a third, whole tone 
steps, steps of a minor third, leading tone, and 
tritone steps. Further, it must be seen whether 
both clangs belong to the same mode (major or 
minor), or whether there is a change. If suc- 
cessions of chords of like kind be simply called 
steps, and those of unlike kind, changes, then 
there are four kinds of chord succession in 
which the principal notes stand in fifth relation- 
ship. In the matter of tonality it makes a great 
difference whether a step from the tonic tales 
place on the upper-, or on the under-tone side, 
[C/. Clang.) From a major chord, the latter 
would prove a contradiction to the clang,prin-' 
ciple ; and^ in the former case, there would be a 
similar objection to a minor chord. Hence, the 
steps and changes to clangs in an opposite direc- 
tion are appropriately distinguished by the 
prefix " Contra." The succession c major — 
G major, and likewise a minor — d minor {s-under- 
clang — krunderclang), is therefore a (plain) jifth- 
step ; and c major — ^F major, likewise a minor — 
E minor ('e.-^nderclang — B-tinderclang,' or briefly, 
under-B — tmder-Bi indicated according to eMjlana- 
tions given in article " Klangschliissel " as'*e — %), 
a contra-fifth-siep (Gegenquintschiitte). Again, 
c major — c minor ("g), liewjse A minor (»«) — 
A major, is a (plain) fijih change; but c major— 
b|7 minor {"/), likewise a minor {"e) — e major, a 
contra-fifth change. In all kinds of clang succes- 
sion the plain changes, as here, are easily 
understood, but the cowira-changes very 
great difficulty. The third successions are, for 
example: (plain) third-step (c major — % major, 
likewise A minor — F mirior {"e — 'c); contra-third- 
siep c major — A^ major, likewise A minor — ejt 
minor ("e — "gi) ; (plain) third-change c major — 
A minor ^e), likewise A minor ("«) — c major; 
lastly the contra-third-change, c major — d|? minor 
("al?). Every step towards a clang which lies at 
a distance creates a d,esire to spring to a middle 
one, which has been omitted, and to such a one 
it Js easy to modulate, i.e. to assign to it the mean- 
ing of a principal clang. {C/. Modulation.) In 
his " Skizze einer neuen Methode der Harmonie- 
lehre" (1880), "Neue Schule der Melodik" 
(1883), and " Systematische Modulationslehre " 
(1887), Herr Riemajin has systematically de- 
veloped this terminology; and also in his 
" Musikalische Syntaxis " (1877), ^^* ^^ *°° 
complicated a manner, so that it was replaced 
in the above-mentioned works by a more suit- 
able one. (Cf. Clang, Klangvertretung, and 

ClapiBson, Antoine Louis, b. Sept. 15, 
1808, Naples, d. March 19, 1866, Paris, as 
membe'- of the Aca.demie, and keeper, of the 
collection of musical instruments of the Con- 
servatoire, the greater number of which he had 
gathered together and sold to the state ; he was 




also a composer (twenty-one operas, many- 
romances, etc.). 

Clarabella, a soft, sweet-toned organ-stop 
invented by Bishop, usually of 8-feet pitch. 

Clari, Giovanni Carlo Maria, b. 1669, 
Pisa, d. about 1745, pupil of Colonna at 
Bologna, maestro at Pistoja; he composed an 
opera for Bologna (/Z Savio Delirante). He is 
also of importance as a composer of sacred 
music (masses, psalms, a requiem, etc.), but 
became famous by his various chamber duets 
and trios vnth continuo (1720), which may 
worthily be set side by side with those of 

Claribel flute, an organ-stop similar to the 
Clarabella, but generally of 4-feet pitch. 

Clarichord. {Vide Clavichord.) 

Clarinet or Clarionet {Clarinetto, diminutive 
form of Clarino [q.v.], Ger. Klarinette), (i) the 
well-known wood-wind-instrument used in the 
symphonic orchestra and in wind bands ; it has 
a cylindrical tube, and is blown by means of a 
single reed, which closes the under-side of the 
be£&-shaped mouth-piece, and acts as a beating 
reed. (See Wind-Instruments.) The C. iii over- 
blowing, gives out first, not the octave, but the 
twelfth (fifth of the octave) ; all the partial tones 
represented by even numbers in the overtone 
series are, in fact, missing (see Clang) ; the sound- 
hole and key mechanism is therefore much 
more complicated than in the flute and oboe, 
which only need the intermediate space of an 
octave to be filled up by shortenings of the tube. 
Over-blowing in the twelfth is facilitated by the 
help of a small hole covered with a key (at the 
spot where lies the nodal point for the division of 
the column -of air into three equal parts). This 
was the invention of Gustav Denner of Nurem- 
berg (about 1690), who, by that means, trans- 
formed the old French Chalumeau, which was 
limited to the low register, into the present 
clarinet. The Chalumeau had nine sound-holes, 
was in'p, and extended (diatonic notes) from / 
to a'. The clarinet of to-day has eighteen sounds 
holes (since there are eighteen semitone steps 
between the fundamental note and the twelfth), 
of which thirteen are covered by keys. The 
art of plajring on this complicated instrument is 
indeed a difficult one. The compass of the C. 
extends (with chromatic notes) from e to c"", but 
the highest notes (above ^•) are' dangerous, and 
of shnll tone, whereas the lowest ones are 
always good. To avoid blowing in keys which 
He at a remote distance from the natural key of 
the instrument, clarinets are constructed of 
various pitch, viz., in c, B?, and A, formerly 
also in b — great clarinets used only in the 
symphonic orchestra. But for all kinds 
the natural key is noted as c, i.e. e (the 
lowest 'note of the C.) sounds on a c clarinet 
as c, on a b1> C. as </, on an a C. as cf, on 
an e[> C. as g, and on a d C. as /. The small 

clarinets higher than c — i.e. in D, e|7, f (obso- 
lete), and xy, of shrill sound — are only used in 
military music, especially wind-bands, in which 
they taie the place of violins. It almost seems, 
however, as if the b|7 C. would supplant the 
others in the symphonic orchestra. The extra- 
ordinary state of perfection which this instru- 
ment has reached through the efforts of Stadler, 
Iwan Miiller, and Klos^, by means of partial 
application of the Bohm flute-mechanism, has 
made pure playing possible in all keys ; and 
the best clarinet orchestral players have not 
only mastered the difficulties of fingering, but 
can transpose at sight, and play what has been 
written for the A or c clarinet on the one in 
'Bp. It would be a matter for regret were the 
A clarinet, with its mild tone, to disappear from 
the orchestra ; conductors may therefore be 
advised to insist that the Bj? C. should not be 
used when the one in a is prescribed. To the 
family of the C. belong also the a) Alto Clarinets 
(Barytone C.) in f and e!7, sounding a fifth 
lower than those in c and b7. The Alto C. 
was never popular, as was the Basset-horn (q.v.), 
from which it differed but little; 6) Bass 
Clarinet, sounding an octave lower than the C, 
generally in BJ?, seldom in o ; in Wagner also 
in A. The Bass Clarinet has the full soft tone 
of the C, and therefore is distinguished, much 
to its advantage, from the bassoon. The fol- 
lowing are the names of distinguished clarinet- 
ists: — Beer, Tausch, Yost, Lef^vre, Blasius, 
Blatt, Barmann (father and son), Berr, Val. 
Bender, Iwan Miiller, Klos^, Blaes ; Blatt, Bar- 
mann (junior), Berr, Iwan Miiller, and Klosg 
wrote Methods for the C. which have become 
famous. (2) Organ stop ; the C. is a reed-pipe 
of eight feet, and of somewhat soft intonation ; 
Clarionet-flute, on the other hand, a kind of reed 
flute (covereif flue-work with holes in stopper). 

Clarinetto (Ital.). (.S« Clarinet.) 
Clarino, ( i) Ital ., same as Trumpet , a name used 
formerly in Germany for the high solo trumpet, 
which only differed from the lower (Prinzipal 
Trompete) in having a narrower mouthpiece. 
To blow the clarino ("Clarin blasen"), in the 
trumpeter's art of the last century, meant to 
blow the high solo trumpet ; to blow the 
"Principal" ("Prinzipal blasen"), the low 
trumpet. The bass part (which really belonged 
to the drum) of a choir of trumpets wau 
called Toccato. The compass of the trumpet 
was formerly considerably higher than at pre- 
sent (up to d') ; we should now take little 
pleasure in its thin, jjointed highest notes. (C/. 
EicHBORN, "Die Trompete alter und neuer 
Zeit " (1881). — (2) Name of the middle register 
of the platinet (6' — fi), produced by overblowing 
the notes of the shawm register in the twelfth. 
When the Clarin passed away, the new reed 
instrument took its name and rdle. — (3) A 4-ft. 
trumpet stop in the organ, octave trumpet 
(Fi. Clairon, Clarin; Eng. Clarion); in the 




London Panopticon organ there was a 4-ft. 
Clarion, and also a 2-ft. Octave Clarion; at the 
Marien-Kirche, at Liibeck, there is a 4-ft. C.,' 
a flute-stop (a half-stop from/'). 

Clarion, a shrill -toned trumpet. {Fide 


Clark, (i) Jeremiah, old English composer, 
in 170^ joint organist with Croft at the Chapel 
Royal; he shot himself October, 1707, owing to 
an unfortunate attachment to a lady in high 
position. C. was the first composer of music for 
1697 ■ ^s ^1^° wrote anthems, cantatas, and, in 
conjunction with Purcell (Daniel) and Leveridge, 
music for operas and plays. — (2) Richard, b. 
April 5, 1780, Datchet (Bucks), d. Oct. 5, 1856 ; 
lay clerk at St. George's and Eton College, 
afterwards lay vicar of Westminster Abbey and 
vicar choral at St. Paul's ; he made himself known 
by his glees, anthems, etc., also by some pam- 
phlets on Handel's MessiiA and " Harmonious 
Blacksmith," on " God Save the King," and on 
the etymology of the word " Madrigal," and by 
a collection of the words of favourite glees, 
madrigals, rounds, and catches (1814). — (3) Rev. 
Scot son, organist and composer, b. Nov. 1840, 
d. July, 1883. He was a pupil of the Royal Acad- 
emy, studied under Bennett, Goss, and Lucas, 
the organ under Hopkins, and harmonium under 
L^f^bure-Wely. He afterwards devoted himself 
to the church, and studied both at Cambridge 
and Oxford, in the latter city filling the post of 
organist at Exeter College. In 1873 he returned 
to London, and established the London Organ 
School. Clark was a talented performer, more 
especially on the organ and harmonium. His 
most successful compositions were his marches, 
and a number of voluntaries. His organ works 
contain fifteen marches, forty-eight voluntaries, 
communions, improvisations, etc., and are pub- 
lished in three vols. For harmonium he wrote 
five vols, of original pieces and arrangements, 
while of pianoforte pieces he left more than one 
hundred, mostly of a brilliant character (Lon- 
don, Augener). 

Clarke, John (C. Whitfield), b. Dec. 13, 
1770, Gloucester, d. Feb. 22, 1836, Holmer, near 
Hereford ; pupil of Hayes, at Oxford, organist 
in succession at Ludlow, Armagh, and Dublin 
(St. Patrick's Cathedral and Christ Church) ; 
he left Ireland in consequence of the disturb- 
ances in 1798, and became organist and choir- 
master of Trinity and St. John's Colleges, Cam- 
bridge, but changed his appointment (1820) for 
a similar one at Hereford. He retired from 
active life in 1833. In 1799 the degree of Mus. 
Doc. was conferred on Mm. by the University 
of Cambridge, and in 1810 by Oxford ; and in 
1821 he was appointed professor of music at 
Cambridge. In 1805 he published four volumes 
of "Cathedral Services," and anthems, and a 
collection of church compositions by various 
masters ; besides which he wrote an oratorio, 

The Crucifixion and the Resurrection, as well as 
glees, songs, etc., and arranged Handel's ora- 
torios and other works for voice with piano 

Clasing, Johann Heinrich, b. 1799, Ham- 
burg, d. there Feb. 22, 1836, composed operas 
(Micheli uni sein Sohn ; Welcher. ist ier Rechts), 
oratorios (BeUazar ; Jephtha), choral works 
(" Vater unser "), etc. 

Classical, a term applied to a work of art 
against which the destroying hand of time has 
proved powerless. Since only in the course of 
time a work can be shown to possess this power 
of resistance, there are no living classics ; also 
every classic writer is considered romantic by 
his contemporaries, i.e. a mind striving to 
escape from ordinary routine. 
Claudin. (See Sermisy.) 
Claudin le Jeune. {See Lejeune.) 
Claudius, Otto, b. Dec. 6, 1793, Camenz, d. 
Aug. 3, 1877, Naumburg, as cantor of the ca- 
thedral ; he composed much church music, and 
several operas {Der Gang nach dem Eisenhammer), 
songs, etc. 

ClauBser, Wilhelm, a celebrated composer, 
who died young (the first recipient of the 
Meyerbeer scholarship, q.v.), b. 1844, d. Dec. 22, 
1869, Schwerin ; he was a pupil of A. Schaffer. 

Clausula (Lat.^, cadence (q.v.), or close. 
Clausula bassizans is the name given to the usual 
progression of the bass in a full close (Dominant- 
Tonic). The terms Clausula cantizans, altizms, 
tenorizans, are also' met with, but, being inter- 
changeable, are of no value. 

Clausz-Szarvady, Wilhelmine, b. Dec. 13, 
1834, Prague, distinguished pianist, pupil of the 
Procksch Institute ; she has lived in Paris since 
1852, married in 1857 Fr. Szarvady (d. March 
1, 1882, Paris) . She is one of the classical inter- 
preters who think more of the intention of the 
composer than of effect. 

Clarseoline, same as Moi-ine. 

Clavecin, Clavicembalo, Clavichord. {See 

Claviatur (Ger.), the keyboard of a piamo- 
forte, organ, harmonium, etc. 

Clavicylinder, a keyboard instrument con- 
structed by Chladni in 1799, consisting of a 
cylinder made to rotate by means of a treadle ; 
steel rods pressed down by keys produced the 
notes of a scale. {C/. Edphonium.) 

Clavicytherium. {See Pianoforte.) ^ 

Clavia (Lat., pi. aaves; Ger. Schlussel). This 
was the name first given to the keys of the 
organ, which, in fact, exercise the function of a 
key in that they open a way for the wind to 
the pipes. It was customary (already, as can 
be shown, in the loth century) to write the 
names of the sounds on the keys of the organ, 
and, hence, the name C. passed over to the 




letters which stood for the sounds. When, in 
the nth century, letter notation was abbrev- 
iated by means of the staff system, by using 
only some of the letters as signs before the 
lines {Claves signata), these specially retained 
the name of C. (the " clef" of to-day). At the 
same time the name C. remained for the keys 
of the organ, and from thence passed to the 
harpsichord and all similar instruments. The 
keys of wind-instruments are also called claves. 
The bellows-handle in an organ is called in 
. Germany Balgclavis. 

Clay, Fr^dSric, b. Aug. 3, 1840, Paris, of 
English parents, d. Nov. 24, 1889, Oxford 
House, Great Marlow, near London, received 
his musical training under Molique, at Paris, and 
also studied for a short time at Leipzig, under 
Hauptmann. Between 1859-60 he came out 
privately as an opera composer in London with 
two little pieces, but afterwards brought out a 
whole series of operas and operettas at Covent 
Garden : Court and Cottage (1862), Constance 
(1865), Ages Ago (1869), The Gentleman in Black 
(1870), Ha^^y Arcadia (1872), The Black Crook 
(1872), Bahil and Bijou (1872, of the last two C. 
only wrote a part), Cattarina (1874), Princess 
Toto and Don Quichote (both 1875), The Merry 
Duchess (1883), The Golden Ring (1883). Besides 
these operas he wrote incidental music to 
dramas, and the cantatas The Knights of the Cross 
and Lalla Rookh. 

Cleemann (Kleemann), Fr. Joseph Chris- 
tOph, b. Sept. 16, 1771, Kriwitz, Mecklen- 
burg, d. Dec. 25, 1827, Parchim; he wrote a 
" Handbuch der Tonkunst " (1797), as well as a 
book of songs. 

Clef (Lat. Clavis, Ger. SchlOssel) is a note- 
letter at the beginning of a stave, so called, 
because only by means of it do the notes receive 
a definite pitch-meaning : — 

F, or bass- Soprano- Alto- 
clef; clef; clef; 

Tenor G-clef, or 
clef : Violin-clef. 


With regard to the separate clefs, compare the 
respective articles. Those letters were first 
(loth to nth century) selected as clefs {Claves 
signata) which marked the place of the semi- 
tone degrees in the fundamental scale, i.e. 
f{e:f) and c (b : i^); and in order to impress 
tms step of a semitone more forcibly upon the 
memory, the , clef lines were coloured (/ red, 
c yellow). The ®, r (Gamma, for our capital 
G), g and dd {g" and d') also used as Claves signata 
(already in the 13th century) did not really as- 
sume practical importance. Only from the 15th 
to the i6th century did the g clef become more 
frequent, and, indeed, in connection with the 
Old meaning of the C. as sign of the transposition 

of the Church Modes into the upper fifth, 

with raising of / to ft, so that even the S 

marked the semitone (though in another sense, 
c/. Chiavette). In the Tablature (q.v.) nota- 
tion of the Cantus, the g clef, on the other 
hand, had, already in the i6th century, become 
quite common without transposition meaning. 
(With regard to the transformation of the clef 
letters to their present shape, cf. the articles C, 
F, and G, C.) 

Clemann (Kleemann), Balthasar, writer on 
music about 1680 ; he wrote a work on counter- 
point, and " Ex musica didactica temperiertes 

Clemens non Papa (" C, not the Pope"), 
really Jacob Clemens, Netheriand contrapuntist 
of the i6th century. He was, at first, capell- 
meister to the Emperor Charles V., and ranks as 
one of the most famous composers of the epoch 
between Josquin and Palestrina. Eleven masses, 
and a. great number of motets, chansons, etc., 
were published in special editions by Peter 
Phalese at Louvain (1555-80), as well as four 
books, " Souter Lidekens " (psalm-songs), i.e. 
psalms based on popular Netheriand melodies, 
printed 1556-57 by Tylmann Susato at Ant- 
werp, besides many separate pieces in collec- 
tions by different printers and publishers since 
1543. According to the ingenious, but risky con- 
clusions of F^tis, C. was born about 1475 and 
died 1558 ; but it is probably more accurate to 
place him altogether in the i6th century. 

Clement, Franz, violin virtuoso, b. Nov. 19, 
1784, Vienna, d. there Nov. 3, 1842 ; he came 
out as a boy, with great success, at London and 
Amsterdam ; was from 1802-11 conductor at 
the Theater an der Wien, afterwards leader 
under C. M. v. Weber at Prague; from 1818 to 
1821 again at the Theater an der Wien, and then 
travelled for many years with Catalan!. C. 
wrote six concertos, and twenty-five concertinos 
for violin, pf. concertos, overtures, quartets, and 
some small pieces for the stage. 

Clement, (i), Charles Franjois, b. 1720 
in Provence, afterwards lived in Paris as teacher 
of the pianoforte. He published " Essai sur 
I'Accompagnement du Clavecin" (1758), "Essai 
sur la Basse Fondamentale " {1762) ; both these 
works were united under the former title. He 
also brought out at Paris two small operas, a 
book of harpsichord pieces with violin, and a 
"Journal de clavecin" (1762-65). (2) F^lix, b. 
Jan. 13, 1822, Paris, d'. there Jan. 23, 1885. With 
the fixed determination to become a teacher, 
unknown to his parents he devoted himself at 
an early age to musical studies ; was then for some 
years private tutor in Normandy and at Paris, 
until in 1843 he resolved to devote himself 
entirely to music, and at that time busied him- 
self especially 'with the study of the history 
of music. In that same year he became music 




teacher and organist at Stanislas College, and 
then, in succession, maltre de chapelle of 
the churches St. Augustine and St. Andre 
d'Antin, and finally organist and choir-master 
of the church of the Sorbonne. In 1849 he 
conducted the church festivals in the Sainte- 
Chapelle, on which occasions he performed, and 
also published in score, a series of compositions 
of the 13th century under the title "Chants de 
la Sainte-Chapelle " (1849). It was principally 
at his suggestion that the Institute for Church 
Music was founded, the direction of which was 
given over to Niedermeyer. Of his numerous 
writings the most celebrated are : " M^thode 
Complete de Plain-chant" (2nd ed., 1872); 
" Methode de Musique Vocale et Concertante," 
" Histoire Gen^rale de la Musique religieuse" 
(1861), " Les Musiciens Celebres depuis le XVI 
Siecle, etc." (1868 ; 3rd ed., 1879), " Dictionnaire 
lyrique, ou Histoire des Op&ias" (1869, with 
four supplements up to 1881), the last-named 
enumerating " all" (?) dramatic musical works 
produced since the birth of opera ; and ' ' Methode 
d'Orgue, d'Harmonie et d'Accompagnement " 

Clementi, Muzio, b. 1752, Rome, d. March 
10, 1832, at his country estate, Evesham, War- 
wickshire. The son of a goldsmith, he received, 
as soon as his musical talent showed itself, 
regular instruction in music, first in piano- 
playing and thorough-bass from a relative, the 
organist Buroni, afterwards from Carpani and 
Santarelli in counterpoint and singing. In addi- 
tion, he had already filled a post as organist since 
1761. When fourteen years of age, he caused 
excitement at Rome by his musical knowledge 
and skill, and attracted attention by his com- 
positions. An Englishman, Bedford (Beckford) 
by name, obtained from his father permission to 
take the boy to England, and undertook to pro- 
vide for his further training. C. lived in the 
house of his patron until 1770, and distinguished 
himself as a performer on the pianoforte. In- 
troduced by Bedford, he quickly succeeded in 
gaining great renown as master and teacher of 
his instrument. He officiated (1777-80) as 
cembalist (conductor) at the Italian Opera, 
and in 1781 made his first tour on the conti- 
nent, travelling through Strassburg and Munich 
to Vienna, where he gained honour in a musical 
contest with Mozart. In 1785 followed a concert 
tour to Paris. Between these two tours, and after- 
wards, until 1802, he worked in London with ever- 
increasing repute, taking a share in the music- 
publishing department, and in the pianoforte 
factory of Longman and Broderip ; and, after 
their failure, founding a similar business on his 
own account, in company with CoUard, under 
whose name it still exists. In addition to his 
mechanico-technical studies for the construc- 
tion of pianos, he found time to write a series 
of high-class pianoforte works, aild to train cele- 
brated pupils (J. B. Cramer and John Field). 

In 1802 he went with Field, by way of Paris 
and Vienna, to Petersburg, and was everywhere 
received with enthusiasm. Field remained 
behind, obtaining a lucrative post, but he was 
replaced by Zeuner. In Berlin and Dresden 
Ludvrig Berger and Alexander Klengel — men 
who afterwards acquired high fame — associated 
with them. Moscheles and Kalkbrenner studied 
for a time under C. in Berlin. C. married in 
that city, but lost his young wife before a year 
had expired, and, deeply distressed, travelled 
with his pupils, Berger and Klengel, to Peters- 
burg; but he returned in 1810, and went to 
Vienna, Italy, and afterwards England. With 
the exception of a winter {1820-21) spent in 
Leipzig, he remained, for the future, m London, 
and married for the second time in 1811. 
He left a large fortune. His principal works 
are : 106 pf. sonatas (of which forty-six with 
violin, 'cello, flute), also the " Gradus ad Par- 
nassum," considered, still at the present day, an 
educational work of the highest importance : it 
is everywhere used, and has appeared in many 
editions. Also symphonies, overtures, a duet 
for two pianofortes, caprices, characteristic 
pieces, etc., as well as an anthology of the 
clavier works of old masters. 

Clement 7 Cavedo, b. Jan. i, 1810, Gandia, 
near Valencia. He was, at first, organist at Alga- 
mesi, afterwards at Valencia, and lived from 
1840-52 as teacher of music at Gu^ret (France), 
and afterwards Madrid, where he published an 
elementary musical instruction book, "Gram- 
matica musical." By order of Espartero (1855), 
he elaborated a plan for the reorganisation of the 
School of Music, and contributed articles to the 
papers El Rubi and El Artista. He also gave in- 
struction in the French language, and in music. 
He became known as a composer by a magic 
opera and a farce (Zarzuela), as well as by 
romances and ballads. 

Clicquot, Franfpis Henri, b. 1728, Paris, 
d. there 1791. He was one of the most im- 
portant French organ-builders of the last 
century, and worked in partnership with Pierre 
Dallery from 1765. From this establishment 
many excellent organs were turned out for Paris 
and the provinces. 

Clifford, James, b. 1622, Oxford, d. Sep't., 
1698, as senior cardinal of St. Paul's Cathedral. 
He published in 1663 the words of anthems 
usually sung in cathedrals (2nd ed. 1664). 

Clifton, John Charles, b. 1781, London, 
d. Nov. 18, 1841, Hammersmith, He was first 
conductor at Bath, then produced a musical 
piece at Dublin, and, from 1816, taught music in 
London on Logier's system. He composed 
glees, songs, also an opera (Edwin), and in- 
vented a kind of melograph (q.v.), named 
" Eidomusicon," of which, however, owing to 
the expense, he was not able to make prac- 
tical use. He wrote a simplified system of 




harmony, which, however, was not printed, 
and published a collection of British melodies. 

Cloche (Fr.), a bell. 

Clochette (Fr.), a little bell. 

Close. The feeling of a close in music depends 
upon two things — rhythmical symmetry and 
l^rmonic consequence. The nature of the 
former is explained under Metre, the Art 
of; the latter depends upon the necessity for 
clear tonality, i.e. the uniform relation of an 
harmonic series to one principal clang, the 
tonic. Every deviation from the tonic is, in 
the strictest sense, a conflict which can only be 
settled by a return to the same ; within the key 
this conflict is most sharply expressed by the 
under-dominant which appears in real opposition 
to the tonic, whereas the upper-dominant leads 
back to the tonic. (For more on this matter see 
Riemann's "Musikalische Syntaxis," 1875, and 
his " Systematische Modulationslehre," 1887.) 
The basis of logical tonal progression is to be 
found in tonic — under-dominant — upper-domin- 
ant — tonic. The effect of a perfect close depends, 
harmonically, on the succession, upper-dominant 
to tonic (at least in a major key), the so-called 
authentic C. ; the return from the under-dom- 
inant to the tonic is not a real solution of the 
conflict, but only, as it were, a retractation, a re- 
nunciation of further formation — the so-called 
plagal C. Apart from this distinction, which, 
as already said, does not exactly apply to the 
minor key, the effect of a close, generally speak- 
ing, depends, harmonically, on the return from 
some related clang to thefrincipal clang (that related 
clang may even be, for example, a third clang. 
Cf. Clang Succession.) A real effect of close 
is felt, however, only when the concluding 
tonic enters on a beat which has rhythmical 
cadential power, i.e. one on which the sym- 
metry can come to a proper conclusion. (Cf. 
Metre, the Art of.) A cadence-like effect arises 
also when the upper-dominant enters on a beat 
capable, in a marked manner, of close ; this is 
called a half C. The half close produces de- 
cided articulation; it forms a strong caesura, 
but in no' way disturbs the symmetry, i.e. the 
construction proceeds undisturbed, and in sym- 
metrical fasmon. The reason of this is that 
the upper-dominant, as cadence member before 
the final tonic, leads one to expect the latter ; 
but, though it may afterwards reappear, it is not 
as an end, but as a new commencement. The 
under-dominant at a moment of such rhythm- 
ical cadential power produces quit6 a different 
effect ; as a real conflicting chord it presses 
forward to a near termination, and disturbs the 
symmetry in proportion to the closing power of 
the beat on which it enters. The under-dom- 
inant at the fourth or eighth bar leads almost 
invariably to a disturbance of the symmetrical 
construction, since, as a rule, a close follows it 
two bars later. It entirely takes away the 
effect of a close, and always produce^ a double 

relationship (double phrasing). The so-called 
deceptive C. produces a specially important 
modification of cadence-effect ; for in it all the 

Earts carry out the cadence according to rule, 
ut the bass moves one degree upwards, instead 
of proceeding from the fundamental tone of the 
dominant to that of the tonic. The deceptive 
cadence is then a real C, but one disturbed by a 
foreign note. This foreign sound naturally gives 
impulse to further formation, but does not 
obliterate the feeling of a principal section ; it 
demands, as it were, a. rectification, a fresh 
cadence, without the unwelcome disturbance. 
To the pure forms here explained many mixed 
ones can be added, above all the borrowing of 
the deceptive C. from the tonic minor, i.e. 
for c major the one belonging to c minor, and 
vice vers A; and agaim the change of the under- 
domiuant occurring on a cadence-beat, into the 
second upper-dominant by the raising of its 
fundamental note, whereby, for the rest, its 
effect of pressing to a close is not altered. 
Purely rhythmical changes of the C. are ob- 
tained by delaying the entry of the concluding 
tonic by means of suspensions; the effect of 
these is enhanced if directly before the close- 
beat the under-dominant enters, so that the 
upper-dominant only enters on the close-beat, 
producing altogether the effect of a suspension 
of the tonic, for example : — 

(8th bar.) 

All cadences which, owing to suspensions, have 
to be brought to an end on the following un- 
accented beat (no matter the order) are called 
feminine (weiUiche), to distinguish them from the 
perfect, or masc^lline. The syncopated antici- 
pation of the closing chord is itself only a 
rhythmical modification. 

In the polyphonic style of the 15th and i6th 
centuries, especially in the old music built on 
the church modes, a knowledge of cadences was 
of great importance, because the indefinite 
system of harmony in the closes of the several 
sections and subsections must have required 
particular management if a real cadence effect 
was to be obtained. Only now, when we are be- 
ginning to understand the principles of the har- 
monic formation of movements, do we become 
aware of the- difficulties which polyphonic 
writing in the church modes must have cost. 
To-day we know that the effect of a close is 
only possible by means of the return from a 
few directly-related sounds to the tonic, and 
that to bear the stamp of definite tonality there 
must be relationships, not only from the over- 
tone, but also from the undertone series. Now 
in the Phrygian mode (« — «', natural notes), 
taking the k minor as tonic chord (which is not, 
indeed, correct, but was for a long period taken 




thus), the upper relationships ^e entirely 
wanting : — 

Phrygian : d f a c e e b 
■■ — '- — 'I I 


and, on the other hand, in the Dorian mode 
(d-d') those below : — 

Dorian : d f a c e g b 

I 1^ — ' — ' 


SO in the Lydian the relationships below, and 
in the Mixolydian, those above are wanting — 

Lydian : f a c e e b d 

I I'—' — 

Tonic , 

Mixolydian : facegbd 


Nevertheless, with an imperfect comprehension 
of the original meaning of the church modes 
(q.v.), for centuries there was a struggle to 
harmonise these four systems. This, of course, 
led to all sorts of concessions, i.e. departures 
from the kind of harmony actually belonging 
to these scales, especially in the closes ; whereas, 
with the exception of the closes, pieces keeping 
strictly to the modes were of necessity indefinite 
In tonality. The concessions were : introduc- 
tion of the sub-semitone (of the major seventh), 
<A for the Dorian and /J for the Mixolydian, 
and introduction of the minor sixth for the 
Dorian {bflat), and of the perfect -fourth for the 
Lydian (ft flat). Hence arose quite diflferent 
systems, viz. : — 

Dorian : g by df a cjte (Min.) 

Lydian : bp d f a c e g (Maj.) 

Mixolydian: c e g b df^a (Maj.) 

i,e. in the cadences the church modes changed 
into our modern keys. Nothing, however, 
could be done with the Phrygian, as the change 
of d into d^ lay beyond the sphere of that 
period, and without a simultaneous change of/ 
into /J would not even have produced a satis- 
factory result. Hence the great difficulty with 
regard to the Phrygian Cadence (q.v.). 

Close Position of chords, in contradistinc- 
tion to " wide position " or "scattered har- 
mony," e.g. : — 

Close position, 
■ Ciotz. {See KloTZ.) 

Wide position. 

Cluer, John, English music printer during 
the first half of the i8th century, probably the 
inventor of engraving on tin plates. (C/. Chry- 
sander's treatise in the AUgemeine Musikalische 
Zeitang, 1879, No. 16). C. published several 
works of Handel, and after his death the copy- 
right was bought by Walsh. 

C Major Chord = c, e, g ; u major key, with- 
out signature (major fundameatal scale), [c/. 

C Minor Chord ^c, e^, g ; c minor key with 
signature of three flats. {See Key.) 

Cocchi, Gioacchino, b. 1720, Padua, d. 
1804, Venice; a. prolific composer of operas, 
who, from 1743 to 1752, wrote a series of operas 
for Rome and Naples, and afterwards for 
Venice, where he became maestro at the Con- 
servatorio degli Incurabili. In 1757 he went 
to London, where, up to 1763, he produced 
more works, and returned in 1773 to Venice. 
Although C. cultivated the serious as well as 
the buffo style, it was in the latter that he 
met with most success. 

Coccia, Carlo, b. April 14, 1782, Naples, d. 
April 13, 1873, as maestro of the cathedral at 
Novara. He was an exceedingly prolific com- 
poser, and wrote forty operas, Maria Stuarda, 
Eduardo Stuard in Iscoaia, L'Orfana della Selva, 
Caterina di Guisa,La Solitaria della Asturie, 1831 ; 
La Clotilde, etc., a series of cantatas, twenty- 
five masses, and other sacred music. 

Coccon, Nicolo, b. Aug. 10, 1826, Venice, 
pupil of E. Fabio, published his first composi- 
tions (motets) at the age of fifteen, became in 
1856 principal organist and in 1873 maestro of 
St. Mark's Church. C. is one of the most 
esteemed musicians of Italy, and a very prolific 
composer, especially of sacred music (over 400 
works, among which eight requiems, thirty 
masses, etc.) ; he also wrote an oratorio {SavH), 
two operas, and various pieces d'occasion. 

Cochlaus, Johannes, b. 1479, Wendelstein, 
near Nuremberg (hence he also published some 
works under the name Wendelstein), d. Jan. 10, 
1552, as canon at Breslau. He published: 
" Tractatus de Musicae Definitione et Inven- 
tione, etc." (1507, under the name Joh. Wendel- 
stein) ; " Tetrachordum musices Joannis Coclsei 
Norici, etc." (1511 ; repubUshed I5i3and 1526)., . 

Cocks & Co., Robert, celebrated London 
music publishing firm, founded in 1827 by 
Robert C. ; in 1868 he took his sons, Arthur 
Lincoln and Stroud Lincoln C, into partner- 
ship. The present proprietor (1892) is Robert 
Macfarlane Cocks. 

Coclicus, or Coclico, AdrianPetit,b. about 
1500, Hennegau. He studied with Josquin 
Deprls, lived an unsteady life, and was for a 
time singer in the Pope's Chapel, and confessor 
to his Holiness. He was imprisoned on account 
of his sinful course of life, and, on recovering 
his liberty, went, in 1545, to Wittenberg, and 




embraced the new teaching. He went to 
Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1546, then to Konigs- 
berg, and, finally, to Nuremberg, where he pro- 
bably died ; there are two letters of his in the 
Mmatsh.f. M,-G., vii., 168. He published " Com- 
pendium Musices " (1552) ; a book of psalms 
a 4 (" Consolationes," etc., 1552). 

Coda (Ital., from Lat. cauda, "tail"), a closing 
section in movements with repeats. The term 
C. is employed, especially, when on taking the 
repeat a skip has to be made; as, for' example, 
in scherzi, where after the trio the scherzo has 
to be repeated, and then the C. played {Scherzo 
da cttfo epoi la c). The free ending in canons 
is also called C. 

Codetta (Ital.), A short coda, (vide Ft;gue,) 

Coenen, (i) Johannes Meinardus, b. Jan. 
28, 1824, the Hague, was trained at the Conser- 
vatoire there under Ch. H. Liibeck. He was a 
performer on the bassoon, was chef d'orchestre, in 
1864, of the grand Dutch Theatre at Amsterdam, 
then capellmeister of the Palais d'Industrie, 
and town musical director. He composed 
cantatas (a festival cantata for the 600th anni- 
versary of the foundation of Amsterdam, 1875), 
music to Dutch dramas, ballet music, over- 
tures, two symphonies, a clarinet concerto, 
flute concerto, quintet for pf. and wind, sonata 
for bassoon or 'cello, clarinet and pf., fantasias 
for orchestra, etc. — (2) Franz, b. Dec. 26, 
1826, Rotterdam, son of an organist of that 
city. He studied first with his father, then 
with Molique and Vieuxtemps, made concert 
tours as violinist with H. Herz, and afterwards 
with E. Liibeck in America, and then settled in 
Amsterdam. C. is director and professor of 
the violin and of composition at the Amsterdam 
Conservatoire, one of the branches of the 
Maafschappy tot bcvorderung van toonkunst, also 
chamber musician (solo violinist) to the King 
of the Netherlands, etc. The string quartet- 
party which he has organised enjoys great fame. 
C. is also highly esteemed as composer (32nd 
Psalm, symphony, cantatas, quartets, etc.). — (3) 
Cornelius, b. 1838, the Hague, a violin soloist 
who travelled much, composed overtures, songs 
for chorus and orchestra, etc., became in 1859 
conductor of the theatre orchestra at Amster- 
dam, and in i860 bandmaster of the Garde 
Natiouale at Utrecht. 

Cohen, (i) Henri, b. 1808, Amsterdam, d. 
May 17, 1880, Brie-sur-Marne. He went, as a 
chad, with his parents to Paris, where he 
studied theory with Reicha, and singing with 
Lays and Pellegrini. After somewhat fruitless 
attempts to maie a name in Naples as dramatic 
composer (1832-34, 1838, and 1839), C. settled 
in Paris as teacher of music, and was also, for 
a time, principal of the branch of the Paris Con- 
servatoire at Lille. As his numismatic know- 
ledge was great, he was appointed Conservator 
of the caHnet of medals of the National Library. 
Besides some operas and small pieces, C. wrote 

various elementary works on theory, and con- 
tributed criticisms to various musical papers. — 
{2) Leonce, b. Feb. 12, 1829, Paris, pupil of 
Leborne at the Conservatoire, received the Prix 
de Rome in 1851, became violinist at the Theatre 
Italien, composed some operettas, and pub- 
lished the exceedingly comprehensive " £cole 
du Musicien."— (3) Jules, b, Nov. 2, 1830, 
Marseilles, a pupil of Zimmermann, Marmontel, 
Benoist, and Halevy at the Paris.Conservatoire. 
As his parents were well off, he withdrew from 
the competition for the Prix de Rome, and re- 
ceived first a post as assistant-teacher, and, in 
1870, one as regular teacher of the ensemble 
singing-class at the Conservatoire. In spite of 
repeated attempts, C, as a dramatic composer, 
has met with no success ; his numerous sacred 
compositions (masses, etc.), instrumental works 
(symphonies, overtures, etc.), and cantatas, 
appear to be of greater value. 

Col (Ital.) = con il, " with the." 

ColaBse, Pascal, contemporary and pupil of 
LuUy, b. about 1640, Rheims, d. Dec, 1709, 
Paris, became chorister at the church of St. Paul, 
Paris, and was trained by LuUy, who entrusted 
to him the writing out of the accompaniment 
parts of his operas from the figured bass. In 
1683 C. received one of the four posts of master 
of the music, and in 1696 the appointment of 
royal chamber musician. Louis XIV. granted 
to him the privilege of performing operas at 
Lille ; but he was unfortunate, for the opera- 
house was burned down with all its contents. 
The king granted him compensation, and restored 
to him his post of .master of the music ; but C. 
set his mind on discovering the philosopher's 
stone, completely ruined himself, and died an 
imbecile. Of his operas only Les Noces de Thetys 
et de Pelee (1689) had real success. He also 
wrote many sacred and secular songs. 

Colin (Colinus, Colinaus, also with the so- 
briquet Chamault), Pierre Gilbert, 1532- 
36, chapel-singer at Paris under Francois I., 
afterwards chorus-master at Autun Cathedral, 
was one of the best French contrapuntists. 
Numerous masses and chansons, also some 
motets in original publications up to 1567, have 
been preserved. 

Coll' (Ital.), before vowels, for colla (for con 
la) or cello (for con to), "with the"; coW arco. 
(Set Arco.) 

Colla (Ital.), same as con la, "with the"; 
c. parte, " with the principal part," a term used 
in connection with accompanying parts to show 
that in the matters of time and expression, they 
must follow the principal part. 

CoUaxd, celebrated London piano manufac- 
tory, originally Longman & Broderip (1767), 
transferred in 1798 to Muzio dementi (q.v.), 
who had F. W. C. as a partner, to whom, before 
his death, he handed over the sole management 



Combination Tone 

of the business. The present head of the firm 
is Charles Lukey C. 

Callins, I s a ak, eelebrated English violinist, 
b. 1797, d. 1871, London. His sons are Viotti 
C. (violinist) and George ('cellist). 

Collo (Ital.), same as con lo. [See COLI,'.) 
Colonna, Giovanni Paolo, b. 1640, Brescia, 
d. Dec. 4, 1695, as maestro of San Petronio, at 
Bologna, one of the founders, and several times 
president of the Accademia Filarmonica I hewas 
one of the most celebrated Italian church com- 
posers of the 17th century. A great number of 
his works have been preserved : three books of 
psalms a 8 with organ (1681, 1686, 1694); 
" Motetti a Voce Sola con 2 Violini e Bassetto 
de Viola" {1691); motets a 2-3 (1698) ; litanies 
and antiphons to the Virgin a 8 (1682) ; masses 
k 8 (1684) ; eight masses, psaJms. etc. (1685) ; 
complines and sequences a 8 (1687) ; Lamenta- 
tions a 8 (1689) ; " Messe e Salmi Concertati " a 
3-5 (1691) ; vesper psalms with instrumental 
accompaniments i. 3-5 (1694) ; and an oratorio, 
Im Profezia d'EUseo " (1688) ; also many other 
works in manuscript (Vienna, Bologna). 

Colonne, Kdouard (his real Christian name 
was Judas), b. July 23, 1838, Bordeaux, pupil at 
the Paris Conservatoire, especially of Girard 
and Sauzay (violin), Elwart and A. Thomas 
(composition) ; founder and conductor of the 
Concerts du Chatllet (from 1874). He is famous 
as a conductor, and has won merit by the per- 
formances of the works of Berlioz (Requiem, 
Romeo et Juliette, La Damnation de Faust, L'En- 
fance du Christ, La Prise de Troie). In 1878 he 
conducted the ofldcial concerts at the Exhibition. 

Colophoniiuu (resin), a very hard gum 
(named after the city Colophon, in Asia Minor), 
with which the bows, stretched with horsehair, 
of stringed instruments are rubbed. Resin is 
what is left after turpentine oil has been ex- 
tracted from turpentine. 

Color (Lat.), was the general designation in 
measured music for notes of different colour ; 
hence both for the red note {notula rubra) which 
was used in the 14th century, and for the 
white note {notula alba, dealhata, cavata), also in 
the 14th century, in contradistinction to the 
black, which was then general. When the 
white note became common (15th century) the 
term C. was employed for the Hack {notula nigra, 
denigrata) in opposition to the former. Origin- 
ally C. (red colour) employed instead of a time 
signature, indicated a change of measure (q.v.) : 
thus, in perfect time, the Introduction of red 
indicated imperfect time, and in the latter, 
with reversed meaning, a change to perfect. 
This last method was, however, soon given up, 
and this much was settled, viz., that the C. 
should indicate imperfect time. The white 
note of the 14th century was therefore always 
imperfect, and so with the black note of the 
I5lh and i6th centuries. C. was given up 

at the commencement of the 17th century, {c/. 

Coloratura (Ital.), ornamental passage. C. 
aria. {See Aria.) 

Combinaisou de F^dales, a clever invention 
of CavajlM-Col's (q.v.) ; by means of a treadle it 
is possible to set into action the stops of an 
organ in groups, instead of drawing them out 

Combination Tone is the name given to a 
note produced by two notes sounding simul- 
taneously. The cause of the origin of com- 
bination tones is probably the same as that of 
beats. It is well known that two strings not 
tuned in perfect unison give out reinforcements 
of sound at regularly recurring intervals, and 
this phenomenon is known under the name of 
shocks or beats. Each beat must be looked 
upon as the occurrence of a maximum of con- 
densation of the sound-waves of both tones. 
If the number of beats reaches somewhere 
about thirty in the second, the single beats are 
no longer separated, but there arises the sensa- 
tion of a low humming, i.e. a low note is heard, 
the C. T. The recurring beats account for the 
origin of this note. Combination tones are of 
considerable strength, and with some practice 
can be heard without the assistance of reson- 
ators. Tartini, the discoverer of combination 
tones, first of all (in the Trattato) fixed their 
pitch generally as corresponding to the second 
tone of the overtone series in which the given 
interval occurs with the smallest possible or- 
dinal figures ; but later on he corrected himself 
(in the pamphlet " Dei Principi, etc."), stating 
that the C. T. is always the fundamental tone 
of the series in question. This definition has 
been changed by most physicists, who assert 
that the vibration number of the combination 
tone always answers to the difierence Of the 
vibration numbers of the generators (differential 
tone) ; but it cannot be disputed that, under all 
circumstances, the note answering to the fun- 
damental tone of the harmonic series is audible 
(unless of a pitch imperceptible to the ear), 
whether it be defined as a C. T. of the first or 
of the second order. On closer investigation, 
it becomes apparent that the whole harmonic 
series to which the given interval belongs is 
audible ; not only lower, but also higher tones. 
According to Helmholtz, the combination tones 
of the interval g : «' are as follows : 


ist 2nd 3rd Order, 
but, according to Tartini, 

2nd Order 

Oombination Tone 



«'.«. every interval produces the note of which 
both tones of the interval are the nearest over- 
tones (here third and fifth) ; and in the second 
place the full overtone series of this note. 
Helmholtz makes mention of another kind of 
combination tones, which he names Summation 
Tones, i.e. those which answer to the sum of 
the vibration numbers of the tones of the in- 
terval, i.e. for g : 1' (3 -|- 5 =8)=c«. It is 
not, however, right to say that this tone would 
be the more prominent one of the series ; for 
the first overtone common to both intervals, 
'•«■ (3x5 = 15). the fifteenth overtone b«, is very 
prominent (the phonic overtone of v. Oettingen, 
named multiplication tone by the compiler of this 
dictionary; c/C the result of his investigations 
respecting combination tones in the pamphlet 
" Die objektive Existenz der Untertone in der 
Schallwelle," 1875). 

Come (Ital. " as ") ; C. sofra (" as above "), 
an abbreviation of notation when a passage is 
Comes (I^t.). (Set Fugue.) 
Come stSl (Ital.), as it stands, as it is written. 
Comettaat, Oscar, b. April 18, 1819, pupil 
of Elwart and Carafa at the Paris Coilserva- 
toire, lived from 1852-55 in America, after that 
in Paris, and made a name, not so much by his 
compositions (choruses for male voices, pf. 
fantasias, Etudes, some sacred songs), as by his 
activity as a writer. C. is musical feuiUetoniste 
of the Steele, and contributor to many other 
papers (especially musical papers). He has 
also published: "Histoire d'un inventeur au 
XIX. siecle, Adolphe Sax" (i860); " Porte- 
feuille d'un Musicien," "Musiqueet Musiciens" 
(1862) ; " La Musique, las Musiciens et les In- 
struments de Musique chez les DifTerents Peuples 
d\j Monde " (i86g, in connection with the Paris 
Exliibition, 1867), etc. 

Comma is the name given to the differences 
which result from the comparison of mathe- 
matical determinations of notes of nearly the 
same pitch ; these differences are (i) the C. of 
Pythagoras, 531441 : 524288, by which six whole 
tones, with the ratio 9:8, exceed the octave 
(s« • f) I (2) the C. of Didymus, or C. syntonum, 
81 : 80, the difference between a, major and a 
minor tone (| : V). (For further information 
respecting the C. and also the schisma, «« the 
table given under Tone, Determination of.) 

Commer, Franz, b. Jan. 23, 1813, Cologne, 
d. Aug. 17, 1887, Berlin. He was first a pupil 
of Leibl and Jos. Klein at Cologne, and, already 
in 1828, organist of the Carmelite church, and 
cathedral chorister there. In 1832 he went for 
further training to Berlin, and studied under 
Rungeuhagen, A. B. Marx, and A. W. Bach. 
He was commissioned to set in order the library 
of the Royal Institute for Church Music, and 
this led him into the path of history, and the 
result, the following collections of old works : — i 

" CoUectio operum musicorum Batavorum 
saeculi XVI." (12 vols.), " Musica sacra XVI., 

XVII. saeculorum" (26 vols.), "Collection de 
Compositions pour I'Orgue des XVI., XVII., 

XVIII. Si6cles" (6 parts), and " Cantica Sacra " 
(i6-i8th centuries, 2 vols.). In addition to the 
work of editing and revising these publications, 
he occupied the posts of regens chori at the 
Catholic Church of St. Hedwig, of teacher of 
singing at the "Elisabeth" School, at the 
theatre school of singing, and at the French 
College, etc. In 1844, i° conjunction with 
H. Kiister and Th. KuUak, he founded the 
Berlin " Tonkiinstlerverein," and, in the same 
year, became Royal Musical Director, also 
member of the Akademie, Royal Professor, and, 
finally, was named member of the senate of the 
Akademie. C. wrote masses, cantatas, choral 
works, music to the " Frogs" of Aristophanes 
and the "Electra" of Sophocles. He was also 
president of the " Gesellschaft fur Musikfor- 

Commodo (Ital.), in a comfortable manner; 
a sua c, at pleasure. 

CompeniuB, Heinrich, b. 1540, Nordhausen, 
organ-builder, also composer, perhaps a brother 
of Esajas C., who, about 1600, was a cele- 
brated organ-builder in Brunswick, and, ac- 
cording to Praetorius (" Syntagma," II.), is said 
to have written on the construction of organ- 
pipes. Esajas C. invented the double flute 

Compere, Loyset, celebrated Netherland . 
contrapuntist, d. Aug. 16, 1518, as canon of 
St. Quentiu Cathedral. Unfortunately, only 
few of his motets have been preserved (21), 
and in very scarce books, viz., in Petrucci's 
" Odiiecatou." {Cf. Petrucci.) To the works 
mentioned by Fetis must be axided a Magnificat, 
which is in the Munich Library. 

Compiacevole (Ital.), in an agreeable, pleasant 

Compline (Lat. Completorium), the last (before 
going to bedj of the hora canonica ; likewise the 
songs prescribed by the Romish Church (psalms, 
hymns, etc.). 

Composition, generally speaking, is the mode 
of constructing musical works of art — musical 
gift, "talent for composition," being assumed. 
The art of composition can regulate, forward 
talent, but not act as a substitute for it. The 
study of composition begins with learning the 
elements of our system of music (general in- 
struction-book), and then exercises in several 
parts, with prescribed harmonies, must be written 
out [ste Part-Writing, General-Bass), and 
with this is carried on, as a rule, the study of 
the relationship of notes. (Harmony, Method 
OF.) Real musical productivity receives richer 
nourishment from exercises in counterpoint (q.v.), 
and, by submitting to the fetters of the imitative 
style (see Canon and Fugue), becomes worthy 



Concerts spirituels 

of full freedom. At length the fledged bird can 
venture to fly : it reaches the last rung of the 
usual educational ladder, free C. (C/. Form.) 
That, at least, is the general plan and order of 
study, and in it, the creation of melody and the 
study of the nature of rhythm axe left out of con- 
sideration. These two (inseparable) modes of 
discipline should never be lugged in, but rather 
proceed apart, together wiOi the study of 
harmony. Youthful and impulsive talent has 
little respect for study planned according to 
certain divisions, and with certain gradations, 
and often attempts composition of the freest 
kind before working at harmony and counter- 
point ; many a one, indeed, never studies the 
elements on which music is based, but, on 
that very account, remains, all through life, 
an unruly talent. The great masters studied 
earnestly, though perhaps not strictly accord- 
ing to the present system in force. By instruc- 
tion in composition is generally understood all 
branches of musical writing, i.e. the arts of 
harmony, melody, rhythm, counterpoint, and 
form. But, in a narrower sense, the art of 
composition — as opposed to the various branches 
of -theory belonging to the earlier stages of 
musical development— is the highest and last 
course of study, and concerns the creation of 
■ works of art, with the study of musical form as 
a starting-point. The rules for composition are 
not so much of a technical, as of a general 
esthetic nature. A distinction is properly made 
between the grammar of composition and 
musical esthetics. To the former belong har- 
mony and counterpoint, whilst the art of com- 
position consists, in a narrower sense, of 
applied esthetics, (cf. Form, Esthetics, Har- 
mony, Counterpoint, Rhythm, etc.) The 
great treatises of C. by Reicha, Fetis, Marx, 
Lobe, and others, discuss all the branches 
named in separate sections. 

Compound times are those in which several 
simple times are grouped together : f time, for 
instance, is simple time ; f time, compound time. 

Con (Ital.), with. 

Con alcima Ucenza (Ital.), with a certain 
degree of licence. 

Concentus. (See Accentus.) 

Concert (Ger. Konzert), a . public musical 
performance (Symphony concert, Sacred con- 
cert, MiUtary concert. Garden concert, etc.). 

Concertante {Duo [Trio'] concertant), a com- 
position for two (three) principal instruments 
with accompaniment. {See Concerto — 3.) 

Concertina. {See Accordion.) 

Concertino. (See Concerto.) 

Concerto (Ger. Konzert), (i) an important 
instrumental piece for a solo instrument, as 
a rule, with orchestral accompaniment, which 
offers great difiiculties to the executant, and 
enables him to display his virtuosity (piano 
concerto, violin concerto, etc.). The form of 

the concerto is that of the sonata and symphony, 
with modifications resulting fromthe aim of the 
composition. — (2) A form of composition, no 
longer in vogue at the present day, in which 
several voices or instruments vie with one 
another (hence the name C, "contest"). The 
oldest form of the concerto in this sense is to be 
found in the sacred concertos {Concerti ecclesiastici or 
da chiesa), first introduced by Viadana (1602), 
motets for one (I), two, three, and four voices, with 
organ bass. These reached their highest stage 
of development in the cantatas of J. S. Bach, who 
himself always named them concerti; and taking 
into consideration their concertante style (apart 
from the chorales introduced into them), they 
can lay full claim to that title. The chamber 
concerto {concerto da camera) aro?.s considerably 
later ; Giuseppe Torelli was the first to intro- 
duce the name, and he also wrote double 
concertos : the first (1686) as concerto da camera, 
others (1709) as concerti grossi — the former for two 
violins with bass, the latter for two concertante, 
and two ripieni violins, viola, and continue. 
The concerto grosso was extended by Corelli, 
already in 1712, to three concertante instru- 
ments {di concertino), and this number remained 
the usual one. On the other hand, the or- 
chestra {concerto grosso) became more and more 
strengthened. The chamber concerto passed 
into our present C. {see above). Corelli, Vivaldi, 
J. S. Bach brought these forms to perfection. 

Concert piece (Ger. Konzertstuck), a concerto 
in one movement of somewhat free form, for 
the most part with change of tempo and measure. 
The term is also applied to small solo pieces 
intended for concert performance. 

Concerts du Conservatoire (Fr.), one of the 
most esteemed concert institutions of Paris, and 
one of the best in the world, founded in 1828 
under the direction of Habeneck, whose succes- 
sors up to the present have been : Girard (1849), 
Tilmant (i860), Hainl (1864), Deldevez (1872). 
The number of concerts during the year was at 
first six, and is now nine ; but since 1866 each 
concert is given twice for two sets of sub- 
scribers. The orchestra consists of severity- 
four ordinary, and ten extra members; while 
thirty-six members form the ordinary standing , 

Concerts spirituels (Fr., " spiritual concerts "), 
the name given in the last century in Paris to 
concerts given on church festival days when the 
theatres were closed. They were established 
by Philidor (1725), and were held on twenty- 
foi(r days in the year in the Salle des Suisses at 
the Tuileries. They were continued by Mouret, 
Thuret, Royer, Mondonville, d'Auvergne, Ga- 
viniis, Le Gros, up to 1791. The Revolution 
put ah end to them. The C.s. were the fashion 
then, as are now the Concerts du Conservatoire 
(q.v.). The Paris C.s. of to-day are onlj; held 
in Holy Week, and are limited to religious 
music ; they were revived in this form in 1805. 

Concerts spirituels 


Con fiducia 

From 1770 there was great rivalry between the 
C.s. and the Concerts des Amateurs under the 
direction of Gossec, which from 1780 took the 
name of Concerts de la Loge Olympique, for which 
Haydn wrote six symphonies. The Concerts de 
la Rue de Clery (from 1789) and the Concerts 
Feydeau (1794) also gained repute for a time. 

Concitato (Ital.), in an agitated manner. 

ConcSne, Giuseppe, b. 1810, Turin, d. 
there Jime i, 1861, as organist of the royal 
chapel ; before that he lived for ten years in 
Paris as teacher of singing (up to 1848). Of his 
compositions — among which are to be found 
two operas, aria, scenas, etc, — vocalizzi (five 
books) came into high repute, and are prized 
by teachers of singing. 

Concussion-bellows is a small bellows in the 
organ, placed near the wind-chest, over an 
.opening in the wind-trunk, the top plate of 
which is kept half raised by means of a spring. 
When the air is suddenly condensed, or rarefied 
(through inattention on the part of the bellows- 
blower, or through excessive use of the wind by 
the playing of full chords), by the taking in of 
superfluous air, or drawing it out, the concus- 
sion bellows regulates and steadies the wind in 
the wind-chest. 

Con desiderio (Ital.), with an expression of 

Con desperazlone (Ital.), in a despairing 

Con dolce maniexa (Ital.), in a sweet manner. 

Conducting, Art of. A musical work, even 
within the limits prescribed by the composer, 
can be presented in various ways, according to 
the particular conception of the interpreter. In 
the performance of an opera, symphony, etc., 
not one, but many take part, and their indi- 
vidual conception has to give place' to one of a 
more general character ; for then the conductor 
is really the performing artist. The means by 
which he can give effect to his conception are 
very limited, at any rate, during the actual 
performance. At rehearsaJ he can explain by 
word of mouth, can sing over passages to the 
executants, or play them over on their instru- 
ments, or hammer out the rhythms with his 
stick, etc. ; but nothing of the sort can be 
done at performance ; and only noiseless move- 
ments of the marshal's Mton in his hand can 
be the interpreters of his intentions. A glance 
cast at a singer or player may occasionally prove 
of priceless service, and an occasional movement 
of the left hand may be found useful ; but still, 
the conducting-stick remains the most important 
factor, and its movements have therefore a 
fixed conventional meaning. As its German 
name — TaMstock {" time-stick ") — shows, its chief 
province is to mark the time clearly, i.e. to give 
the tempo, and mark the primary accents. The 
principal movements are as follows : — the first 
part of a bar is, as a rule, indicated by a down 

beat ; the middle beats are neither high nor low, 
and the last goes upwards. It is of no import- 
ance whether the second beat be taken from 
right to left, or vice versd; it can be indicated in 
various ways. The usual and most important 
kinds of time-beating are : — ^binary time (§, J, 

(p f , but also !»,, J, « in fast time [when only 
two is counted]) ; ternary time (|, J, |, but also 
Its' 8> ° [when only three is counted]); quad- 
ruple time ((3, J, t, also JJ, V- ^*'^-)> ^^^ 
sextuple time (J, |). They are beaten in the 
following manner : — 






Quadruple time-beating. 

Compound triple time is taken as three times 
three, compound quadruple as four times three ; 
but, always, so that the beginning of the bar is 
made clear by a beat from a greater height. A 
crescendo is generally indicated by beats of 
greater sweep, and a diminuendo in the reverse 
way ; sharp accents (sforzati, etc.) are marked 
by short, jerky movements, changes of tempo 
(stringendo, ritardando) with the assistance of the 
left hand ; but already here, individual charac- 
teristics come into play. The length of a pause 
is shown by a raised and motionless stick, 
and the end of the same, by a short curved 
movement. For further information consult 
the appendix to Berlioz's " Treatise on Instru- 
mentation " ("The Orchestral Conductor"), 
also Karl Schroder, "Katechismus des Diri- 
gierens und Taktierens" (1889). A good con- 
ductor is only formed by practice ; only the , 
elements can be learned from books. (C/. Richard 
Wagner, " Ueber das Dirigieren," 1869.) 

Conductor, in German Capellmeister (q.v.). 

Conduotus (Lat.), one of the oldest forms of 
composition in several parts (12th century) ; it 
differed from Organum and Discantus in that 
counterpoint was not added to a Cantus Gre- 
gorianus in the tenor part, but this part \ya5 
also invented by the composer. A distinction 
was made between C. simplex (in two parts) and 
duplex (in three parts, hence also triplum), etc. 

Con facility (Ital.), with facility. 

Con fennezza (Ital.), with firmness, with de- 

Con festivitJl (Ital.), in a festive manner. 

Con fiducia (Ital.), with confidence. 

Oou fierezza 



Con fierezza (Ital.), fiercely. 

Confinal. {See Final.) 

Con fiochezza (Ital.), hoarsely. 

Con forza (Ital.), with force. 

Confririe (Fr.), "brotherhood." {See Guilds.) 

Con fretta (Ital.), hurriedly. 

Con fuooo (Ital.), with fire. 

Con furore (Ital.), with fury, with vehemence. 

Con garbo (Ital.), with elegance, gracefully. 

Con giustezza (Ital.), with precision. 

Con grandezza (Ital.), with ' dignity, with 

Con grazia (Ital.), with grace. 

Con gusto (Ital.), with taste. 

Con impeto (Ital.), impetuously. 

Coninck, (i) Jacques F^lix de, b. May 18, 
1791, Antwerp, d. April 25, 1866, pupil of the 
Paris Conservatoire, excellent pianist ; he lived 
for many years in America, where he travelled, 
among others, with Malibran, was then for 
some years in Paris, and finally in Antwerp as 
conductor of the SociiU i'Harmonie which he 
founded. His compositions are: concertos, 
sonatas, sets of variations for pianoforte. — (2) 
Franfois, b. Feb. 20, 1810, Lebbeke (East 
Flanders) ; he first studied at Ghent, afterwards 
at Paris under Pixis and Kalkbrenner, and then 
settled in Brussels as teacher of music in 1832. 
He published a Method of the Pianoforte, and 
various pf. pieces. — (3) Joseph Bernard, b. 
March 10, 1827, Ostend ; he went, when young 
with his parents to Antwerp, where he received 
a thorough musical training under the guidance 
of Leun, maitre de chapelle of St. Andrew's 
Church. His " Essai sur I'Histoire des Arts et 
Sciences en Belgique" gained a prize in 1845 
from the "Verein zur Beforderung der Ton- 
kunst." In 1851 he went to Paris, studied at 
the Conservatoire under Leborne, and settled 
in Paris as teacher of music, and as musical 
critic to various papers. C. has written several 
operas, besides small vocal and pf. pieces. 

Con Ira (Ital.), with an expression of anger. 

Con leggerezza (Ital.), with lightness, airily. 

Con lenezza (Ital.), in a gentle, quiet maimer. 

Con lentezza (Ital.), slowly. 

Con maao destra (Ital.), with the right hand. 

Conradi, August, b. June 27, 1821, Berlin, 
d. there May 26, 1873 ; pupil of Rungenhagen 
at the Academie, 1843 organist of the " Inva- 
lidenhaus " at Berlin, 1849 theatre capellmeister 
at Stettin, 1851 at the old " Konigsstadt " theatre, 
Berlin, then at Dusseldorf and Cologne; and, 
from 1856, again in Berlin, where he worked 
alternately as capellmeister at the KroU, new 
Konigsstadt, WaJlner, and Victoria theatres. 
He left his property to musical institutions. C. 
is at present chiefly known by his potpourris, 
arrangements, etc., for garden concerts. He 

had formerly some success with his operas, 
farces, and likewise with a symphony. 

Con Bdegno (Ital.), scornfully, angrily. 

Conseguente (Ital.), the "following after" 
{i.e. imitating) part in a canon. 

Conseguenza, same as Canon. 

Conservatorium (Ital. Conservatorio, Fr. Con- 
servatoire), the name of the great schools of 
music at which scholars receive a great number 
of lessons in music free of charge, or at a moder- 
ate cost ; and where they are trained to become 
composers, teachers, virtuosi, or merely orches- 
tral players. The name C. comes from the 
Italian, but is by no means chosen because 
these institutions are considered to " conserve" 
true art ; in Italian, indeed, conservatorio means 
" hospital," " orphan-asylum." The first were, 
in fact, nothing else but orphan-asylums, in 
which talented children received a musical 
training ; as in the Conservatorio Santa Maria 
di Loreto, founded at Naples in 1537, and 
also in the three Delia fietd, de' Turchini, Dei 
poveri di Giesu Christo, and Di SanV Onofrio, 
founded at Naples, likewise in the i6th century. 
By command of King Murat these four were 
amalgamated into the Collegio reale di musica. 
The pupils of this institution are divided into 
interns and externs : the interns are pensioners 
(private scholars), i.e. receive board and lodg- 
ing. The institution is wealthy enough to give 
away seventy scholarships. The age limits for 
scholars are from twelve to twenty-three ; excep- 
tions are, however, permitted. In 1885 the 
number of teachers was thirty-five ; of scholars, 
about two thousand. The oldest music schools 
of Venice were not named Conservatorio but Ospe- 
dale {" hospital "), and further, Delia pietA, Dei 
mendicanti, DegV incurabili, and San Giovanni e 
Paolo {Ospedaletto, only for girls). At present 
the principal C. of Venice is the Liceo Benedetto 
Manello, with (since 1877) subsidies from city 
and state. Its orgamisation is similar to that 
of German schools (no board, and few scholar- 
ships). The number of teachers is 13 ; of pupils 
135 (1885). An old C. is aJso that of the Regio 
conservatorio di musica at Palermo, opened in 1615 
as Conservatorio buon pastore; by a change of 
statute, rechristened (1737) Collegio dimmica; and 
in 1863, by confiscation of its property, changed 
into a state institution (twenty-six teachers, fifty- 
six pupils). Many other Conservatoria have 
arfsen in Italy within recent years, of which the 
most important are : the Liceo musicale at Bologna 
(founded 1864, town institution; only scholar- 
ships, but without board), twenty-two teachers, 
313 pupils (1885), and a library of great import- 
ance (works bequeathed by Padre Martini and 
Gaet. Gaspari) ; the Regio conservatorio di musica 
at Milan, founded by Eugene Beauharnais (1807), 
with twenty-four scholarships fmaintenance 
scholars) : rfeorganised in 1830 (maintenance 
withdrawn), thirty-six teachers, about two hun- 
dred pupils, and directors up to the present: 




Lauro Rossi, Mazzucato, Ronchetti-Monteviti ; 
the Civico instituto di musica at Genoa, founded 
1829, subsidised by the city since 1838 (nineteen 
teachers) ; the Regio instituto musicale at Florence, 
founded i860, state institution, richly endowed 
(twenty-six teachers, 216 pupils) ; the Liceo 
musicale at Turin, deyeloped from a humble be- 
ginning in 1865, city institution, free instruction 
(eighteen teachers, 155 pupils [1884]); and the 
ticeo musicale Rossini, founded by a legacy of 
2,joo,ooo lire from Rossini, established 1883 : 
twenty-six teachers, seventy-four pupils (only 

Older than these, and, indeed, the oldest C. out 
of Italy, is the Paris Conservatoire de Musique, 
founded 1784 under the name £cQle royali de chant 
ttie declamation for the purpose of training opera- 
singers, enlarged 1793 to the Institut national de 
musique ; it has existed since 1795 under its present 
name, only resuming that of Ecole rqyale de chant 
et de declamation during the period of the Restora- 
tion. This C. is one of the greatest of all exist- 
ing institutions of the kind, and enjoys a dis- 
tinguished reputation. The most renowned 
musicians of France esteem it an honour to act 
as professors at the C. The directors since 
the foundation have been as follows : Sarette, 
Cherubini, Auber, Ambroise Thomas. Besides 
A. Thomas, the most prominent professors for 
theory and composition are : J. Massenet, Bour- 
gault-Ducaudray, Dubois, Pessard, I^nepveu, 
Barthe; for singing: Masset, Saint Yves Bax, 
Boulanger, R. Bussine, Barbot, Crosti, Bonne- 
hee ; for elementary instruction : Danhauser, 
Heyberger, Mouzin, Hommey, N. Alkan, La- 
vignac (dictation), and the ladies : Mercie- 
Porte, Doumie-Saint-Ange, Devrainne, Donne; 
choral singing : J. Cohen ; declamation : Obin, 
Mocker, Ponchard, Got, Delaunay, Worms, 
Maubant ; history of dramatic literature : de 
Lapommeraye ; mimic art : Petipa, Mile. Mar- 
quet; conducting: Deldevez; ensemble-playing: 
R. Baillot ; pianoforte : Marmontel, Mathias, Le 
Couppey, Delaborde ; harp : Hasselmans ; violin : 
Dancla, Sauzay, Maurin, Garcin, Chaine ; 
violoncello : Delsart ; for otter instruments, 
nine more teachers. A committee of tuition 
{Comite dis £tiides), composed of the most im- 
portant professors and special members (among 
others, also Gounod, Saint-Saens, Legouve, 
Alex. Dumas), regulates the course of study, 
and for each department has issued a care- 
fully-prepared method. For pupils who distin- 
guish themselves there are prizes in the several 
classes. The highest prize for composition 
offered by the state, the Grand Prix de Rome, a 
three years' stipend (two in Rome and one in 
Germany), the stipendiary having, during that 
period, to send in compositions, from] time to 
time, to the Academie, as proofs of diligent 
study. In the chief provincial towns of France 
so-called Succursales (branches, affiliated insti- 
tutions) of the C. are established (at Mar- 
seilles, Toulouse, Nantes, Dijon, Lyons, Rouen). 

Another important musical institution at Paris 
is the £cok Niedermeyer, which sprang from 
Choron's Church-musicilnstitution (1817) ; pre- 
sent director Gust. Lefevre (School of Organists) . 
The C. at Prague is another excellent estab- 
lishment, and of old date; it was opened 
May I, 1811, under the direction of Dionys 
Weber, whose successors were Kittl, Joseph 
Krejei, and Bennewitz, the present director 
(instrumental and vocal music; practical and 
theoretical) ; also religion (Catholic), German 
grammar, geography, history, arithmetic, and 
calligraphy; and, besides, in the higher section, 
style and literature, mythology, art of metre, 
esthetics, history of music, and the French 
and Italian languages are taught. The in- 
struction in instrumental music includes all 
orchestral instruments. (C/. Ambros, " Das K. in 
Prag," 1858.) The Vienna C. (K. der GeselU 
scha/t der Musikfreunde) was opened Aug. i, 
1817, under Salieri, as a vocal school ; instruc- 
tion on the violin was added in 1819 ; and in 
1821 the institution was so far developed as to 
become a real C. G. Preyer (1844-48) was the 
first actual director (up to that time the in- 
stitution had been under the management of a 
committee) ; his successor was J. Hellmesberger, 
who is still at the head ; and from among many 
distinguished teachers may be named : J. Bohm, 
J. Merk, 8. Sechter, Fran Marchesi, Herbeck, A. 
Bruckner. The institution is in high repute and 
well attended (52 teachers and 758 pupils [1883] ; 
104 scholarships ; cf. K. F. Pohl, " Die Gesell- 
schaft der Musikfreunde, etc.," 1871). From 
among all German Conservatoria, the one 
founded by Mendelssohn at Leipzig (opened 
April 2, 1843) occupied, for several decades, the 
foremost place; since 1876 it has been called 
" Kgl. Konservatorium." The first teachers 
there were men of eminence : — Mendelssohn, 
Schumann, Ferd. David, M. Hauptmann, L'. 
Plaidy, E. F. Wenzel, E. F. Richter, K. F. 
Becker, and K. A. Pohlenz ; and, afterwards, F. 
Hiller, Niels Gade, I. Moscheles, J. Rietz, C. 
Reinecke, Fr. Brendel, K. Fr. Gotze, etc. ; but 
of these only Reinecke remains. The institu- 
tion counts at present over 450 pupils ; among 
the teaching-staflf are to be found the names of 
C. Reinecke, S. Jadassohn, R. Papperitz, Jul. 
Klengel, O. Paul, Coccius. From the long list 
of pupils who have made a name may be men- 
tioned Th. Kirchner (the first whose name was 
entered), W. Bargiel, L. Meinardus, L. Brassin, 
S. Jadassohn, Rob. Radecke, F. v. Holstein, E. 
Gneg, A. Sullivan, A. Wilhelmj, J. S. Svendsen. 
(C/. the " Jubilaumsschrift " of E. Kneschke, 

The oldest C. in Berlin is the one founded 
Nov. I, i8go, by A. B. Marx, Th. KuUak, and J. 
Stem ; KuUak withdrew (1855) and Marx (1857), 
and the institution, which was carried on by 
Stern alone, still flourishes ; in addition to the 
founders, the following were teachers there: — 
Hans von Billow, G. Brassin, Barth, A. KuUak, 


1 60 


A. Krug, O. Tiersch, B. Scholz, R. Wiierst, 
etc. After twenty-five years the school list 
showed over three thousand names, among 
which J.Huber, H.G. Gotz, andM.Moszkowski. 
The New Ahademie der Tonkunst, opened by Th. 
KuUak, April i, 1855, assumed still larger dimen- 
sions ; at one time there were over one thousand 
pupils, and over a hundred teachers. Training 
in pianoforte-playing was the speciality of the 
institution, which was closed by Dr. F. KuUak 
in i8go. The; KonigUche HochsfhuU fur Musik 
is undoubtedly the most important, though, at 
the present moment, not the best attended, 
musical training institution in Berlin ; it forms 
a branch of the Royal Academy of Arts, and 
consists of three sections. Of these the oldest 
is the Kbnigliches Institut fur Kirchmmusik, 
opened in i8z2 ; principals, A. Haupt (1869-91), 
Rob. Radecke; admissible number of pupils, 
twenty (gratuitous instruction). The section 
•for musical composition {akademische Meisterschitlen) 
was opened in 1833 ; the teachers at present 
are Bargiel, Blumner and Max Bruch ; the in- 
struction is also gratuitous. Finally, the section 
ioi executive art TNas opened on Oct. i, 1869, under 
the direction of J. Joachim. It included, 
at first, only classes for violin, 'cello, and 
pianoforte; on Oct. 1, 1871, an organ class was 
added; on April i, 1872, classes for singing, 
wind-instruments, and double-bass were estab- 
lished ; and, further, in April, 1873, a " Chor 
schule," and in 1874, a choir. This section is 
now divided into four branches, each of which 
has its own director : strings (Joachim), theory 
(Bargiel), pianoforte (Rudorfi), singing (Schulze). 
Ph. Spitta is, at present, administrative director 
of the "Hochschule." In addition to Joachim, 
there are the following teachers : Ph. Spitta, 
Bargiel, Wirth, Rndorff, Ad. Schulze, G. Engel, 
Hausmann, A. Dorn, Barth, Raif, Wieprecht, 
Succo, and others. The Cologne C, of good fame 
{Rkeinische Masikschule), was founded by the 
city of Cologne in 1850, and the organisation 
and management were entrusted to F. Hiller. 
Among the present teachers, besides Killer's 
successor, Fr. Wiillner, are : I. Seiss, M. Pauer, 
Klauwell, G. Jensen, E. Mertke, G. Hollander. 
The Royal C. at Dresden was establishecf Feb. 
I, 1856, by the chamber musician Trostler, and 
taken up by F. Pudor in 1859 ; it was formerly 
under the artistic direction of F. Wiillner, and 
is now under a directorship composed of the 
principal teachers: Eugen Krantz (the present 
proprietor of the institute), F. Draseke, Rap- 
poldi, and F. Griitzmacher ; and of pupils may 
be named — Stageminn, Fran Otto-Alvsleben, 
Fides Keller, Anna Lankow, etc. The institu- 
tion consists of schools for instrumental music, 
opera, drama, and a college for music teachers ; 
in 1883 there were over seven hundred pupils. 
The C. at Stuttgart, founded (1856-57) by Stark, 
Faiszt, Lebert, Laiblin, Brachmann, and Speidel 
(directors : Faiszt and SchoU), is also an excel- 
lent school of music, and specially famous for 

its pianoforte teaching. It consists of two dis- 
tinct schools — the one for artists, the other for 
amateurs (forty-three teachers, and over six 
hundred pupils). The Royal Music School at 
Munich, founded in 1867, reorganised in 1874, is 
a public institution ; at the head stood, until 1893, 
the court musical intendant, K. v. Perfall, while J. 
Rheinberger superintends the instrumental and 
theory classes. The organisation is excellent, 
and worthy of the municipality ; and, as at the 
Prague C, general culture is not neglected for 
the sake of musical culture. By means of the 
performances of the " Kgl. Hofkapelle " (a cap- 
julla-ckoir), accessible to the students, the 
history of music is illustrated in a vivid manner ; 
(there are thirty-three teachers, and about two 
hundred pupils). There is also a Royal School 
of Music at Wiirzburg, founded in 1801, town- 
(1820), state-institution (1875), which is well 
attended (Kliebert is the director; there are 
seventeen teachers, and over five hundred and 
fifty pupils). The " Hoch" C. at Frankfort is 
still young, but well endowed, and provided with 
a good teaching staff; it was founded in 1878, 
under the direction of J. Raff, wjth the help of 
a legacy left by the late Dr. Hoch. The insti- 
tution is well attended, and has a future before 
it ; of this there is proof in the fact that the 
Mozart-foundation (q.v.), taking into considera- 
tion the prosperity of the " Hoch" C, definitely 
abandoned its intention of establishing a C. of 
its own. (The administration of the Mozart 
fund was recently amalgamated with that of the 
" Hoch " C.) The principal teachers are : Bern- 
hard Scholz (director), J. Kwast, B. Cossmann, 
Dr. Kriickl, H. Heermann, Hugo Becker (at- 
tendance about two hundred pupils ; only those 
showing talent are received). Of other German 
schools of music, of which nearly every town has 
several, may be still mentioned the " KonigUche 
Institut fiir Kirchenmusik " (J. Schaffer, M. 
Brosig), at Breslau; the C, under the direction 
of V. Bernuth (teachers: J. v. Bernutb, K. 
Bargheer, K. v. Holten, Arn. Krug, K. Arm- 
brust, A. Gowa, W. Marstrand, Max Fiedler, 
E. Krause, and others), at Hamburg: the 
"Kirchliche Musikschule" (Haberl) aXRaiisbon: 
the municipal C. at Strasshurg-i.-E. . (director, 
Franz Stodrhausen, founded 1855, reorganised 
1873 ; eighteen teachers and about three hun- 
dred pupils) ; the " Grossherzogliche Orchester 
und Musikschule" (director, MuUer-Hartung, 
opened 1872) at Weimar; the "Frankfurter 
Musikschule," founded in i860 by H. Henkel, 
Hilliger, Hauff, Oppel, at Frankfort (the original 
founders are, in turn, directors [Hilliger died 
1865]) ; and the " Raff Conservatorium " founded 
by teachers who left the "Hoch" C. when 
Bernh. Scholz assumed the management of 
the latter (1883 ; founders : Roth, Schwarz, and 
Fleisch) ; the " Grossherzogliche Conservator- 
ium'! (founded 1884 by Heinr. Ordenstein) at 
Carlsruhe; the'C. (founded in 1872 by V. 
Freudenberg), present director, Albert Fuchs, 




teachers — Dr. Hugo Riemann, Ed. Uhl, Oskar 
Bruckner, Max Reger, and others, at Wies- 
baden;- the Scharwenka, Schwanzer, Luisen- 
stadt Conservatoria, the music schools of Klind- 
worth, W. Freudenberg and others at Berlin. 
At Vienna the brothers Eduard and Adolf Horak 
have a flourishing pianoforte institute in three 
branches (the Wieden, Mariahilf, and Leopold- 
stadt) ; at Of en-Pest there are the " Landes Musik- 
akademie," of which Fr. Liszt was honorary 
director, the National Conservatorium (director, 
E. Bartay), and the " Ofener Musikakademie " 
(Szantzner) ; at Graz the music training-school 
of J. Buwa ; at Innsbruck the " Musikschule 
des Musikvereins " (founded in 1818 ; director, 
J. Pembaur) ; at Lemberg the " Musikschule des 
GaUzischen Musikvereins" (Mikuli) ; at Salz- 
burg the" Musikschnls des Mozarteums" (since 
1880; already over three hundred pupils). The 
most important Swiss schools of music are 
those at Geneva, Basle (director, Bagge), Berne 
(Reichel), and Zurich (Fr. Hegar). One of the 
largest institutions in existence is at Brussels, 
founded (1813) as a municipal school of music, 
reorganised (1832) and changed into a govern- 
ment institution. The first director was Fr. 
J. Fetis, and, since his death, Fr. A. Gevaert 
(forty-eight teachers, 539 pupils; instruction 
gratuitous, but foreigners are only received by 
consent of the minister and the director). The 
school at Liege (founded 1827 as " Kgl. Musik- 
schule," reorganised in 1832) is a worthy rival 
of the former, and is still better attended (one 
thousand pupils ; director, Th. Radoux). Both 
institutions are supported by the state ; and, 
likewise, the C. at Ghent (founded 1833, state 
institution since 1879 ; first director, Mengal ; 
since 1871 Ad. Samuel) ; the C. at Antwerp, 
" Antwerpens Vlaamsche Muzickschool," is an 
institution subsidised by the state, and it was 
founded in 1867 by its present head, the far- 
famed Peter Benoit (thirty-eight teachers). 
This last-named institution, thanks to its di- 
rector, Benoit, cultivates specially Gej'man 
music, and, besides, nourishes, and in a manner 
not to be despised, the political sympathy of 
Antwerp for the German Empire. Of Dutch con- 
servatoria must be named the one aX Amsterdam, 
C. of the " Maatschappij tot bevordering van 
toonkunst," opened in 1862, reorganised in 1884 ; 
in 1883, sixteen teachers and 560 pupils ; and 
the one at Rotterdam, founded in 1845 (present 
director, R. v. Perger; fifteen teachers, over 
six hundred pupils). At The Hague there exists 
since 1826 a flourishing Royal School of Music 
(first director, J. H. Liibeck, and since his 
death, F. W. G.Nikolai; instruction gratuitous, 
three hundred pupils). Also the C. founded 
at Luxemburg in 1864 is not without im- 
portance. Russia has a C. at Warsaw (1821), 
one at Petersburg (1865), and one at Mos- 
cow (1864 ; there are at present forty-eight 
• teachers and over 340 pupils). In London 
there are five : — the Royal Academy of Music, 

founded in 1822 : principal, Dr. A. C. Mackenzie, 
about eighty teachers and about four hundred 
pupils ; the London Academy of Music, founded 
in 1861 ; trinity College, 1:872, which grants di- 
plomas ; the Guildhall School ofMusic,i88o, over 
one hundred teachers and over two thousand 
pupils : principal. Sir J. Barnby ; and the Royal 
College of Music, 1883 (which sprang from the 
National Training School of Music founded in 
1876, under Sullivan's direction) : principal. 
Sir George Grove (over sixty teachers ; a richly 
endowed institution, and one full of promise for 
the future) ; also one in Edinburgh, and one in 
Dublin. Scandinavian schools have been estab- 
lished at Copenhagen (1867, but, in accordance 
with the intentions of the founder [P. W. 
Moldenhauer] , receives only fifty pupils), at 
Christiania (1865) and at Stockholm (1771) ; the 
last-named is a state institution, with instruction 
gratis, twenty teachers and about 150 pupils. 
Spain has a C. at Madrid (1830, twenty-eight 
teachers, thirty-four assistant teachers, and over 
two thousand pupils), at Saragossa and Va- 
lencia ; and Portugal, one at Lisbon (since 1836 ; 
fifteen teachers, over 350 pupils) ; Greece one at 
Athens ; and lastly America, which, thanks to 
the industrial feeling of the nation, possesses 
many in the more important cities (New York, 
Boston, Baltimore, Cincinnati (1880 ; 283 pupils). 
Opinions are divided respecting the value of 
a Conservatorium ; the Collegiate intercourse of 
young musicians with one another is, without 
doubt, uncommonly stimulating ; but to many a 
fresh talent, full of danger. The greater number 
of unprejudiced thinkers are, nevertheless, 
agreed that most of the Conservatoria produce 
unsatisfactory results, inasmuch as their aim is 
a purely musical one. What is exceptional at 
Prague and Munich should be the rule in all 
institutions, viz., compulsory teaching of the 
most necessary branches of general culture.. 

Consolante (Ital.), consoling. 

Consonance (Lat. Consonantia, " sounding to- 
gether "). The coalescence of two or more 
tones forming claiig-unity. Tones are conson- 
ant which belong to the same clang, whether 
it be as fundamental note, fifth, or third. (See 
Clang.) It is, however, necessary for tones 
which can be regarded as elements of one and 
the same clang to be made really intelligible in 
this sense by their context, otherwise they are 
not consonant but dissonant. A striking illus- 
tration of this is offered by the chord of six-four, 
for although it contains only tones {g : c : e ; 
g : c : e\f) which can be understood in the sense 
of one and the same clang (c-major chord or 
c-minor chord), yet for the most part itis a 
dissonance, and treated as such, i.e. it is re- 
solved by progression of a second. When it 
appears in its characteristic form as a prepara- 
tion for a cadence, it is regarded as a G-major 
chord with double appoggiatura, with the fourth 
in place of the tbird, and the sixth (major or 




minor) in place of the fifth. For this reason 
neither the fourth nor the sixth of the chord of 
six-four is doubled in four-part writing {as a rule 
dissoiiant tones are not doubled), but the bass-note; 
for this is really the fundamental tone, and the 
only one representing the clang. The old dis- 
pute about the C. or dissonance of the fourth 
is, from this, easy t9 understand, and to settle. 
g : c, taken in the sense of the c-major or 
c-minor chord, is consonant ; but in the sense 
of the chord of G-major, or G-minor, or also 
F-minor, F-major, or Ap, is dissonant. The 
sense of the clang presentation — ^which depends 
on the tonality of the previous harmonies, and 
often indeed on rhythmical position — decides 
the question of C. or dissonance. (For con- 
sonant intervals c/. Interval.) Of consonant 
chords there are only two kinds — riiajor chords 
and minor chords (q.v.). The major consonance 
is the sounding together of a fundamental tone 
with its upper fifth and upper third, and the 
minor consonance the sounding together of a 
fundamental tone with its under fifth and under 
third. This is established with further detail 
under Clang. 
Con sonority (Ital.), sonorously, 

Con sordino (Ital.), with the mute. This 
indicates : (i) in pianoforte-playing that soft 
pedal is to be used; (2) in violin-, viola-, etc., 
playing, that a mute is to be placed on the 
bridge; (3) in horn-, trumpet-, etc., playing, 
that a mute is to be inserted into the bell. 
Sordini is the plural of sordino. (See Sordino.) 

Constantin, Titus Charles, famous con- 
ductor, b. Jan. 7, 1835, Marseilles, pupil of 
Ambroise Thomas at the Paris Conservatoire ; 
in i856, conductor at the Fantaisies Parisiennes, 
also after their removal to the Athenaeum, 1871 
conductor of the Concerts du Casino, 1872 at 
the "Renaissance" Theatre, 1875 at the Opera 
Comique. C. has written some operas, over- 
tures, etc. 

Con strepito (Ital.), noisily. 

Contano (Ital., abbr. cont., "they count," i.e. 
pause). An indication in scores at the begin- 
ning of a movement, not that the instruments 
against which the C. is marked are to be silent 
(otherwise tacet or tacmt would be marked), but 
that they enter later on ; to save room, however, 
and for convenience of reading, no stave is marked 
for those instruments until they enter. This 
term is also used in the middle of a movement 
when certain instruments are silent for a long 
time ; it is intended, of course, for the copyist 
writing out the parts from the score. 

Conti (1), Francesco Bartolommeo, b. 
Tan. 20, 1 68 1, Florence ; he was court theorbist at 
Vienna in 1701, court composer in 1713, d. there 
July 20, 1732. He was highly esteemed as an 
opera composer, and as a performer on the 
theorbo. His most important work was Don 
Chisdotte ' in Sierra Morena (1719). He wrote 

in all sixteen operas, thirteen serenades, nine 
oratorios, and many (more than fifty) cantatas. 
— (2) Ignazio (Contini), son of the former, b. 
1699, d. March 28, 1759, Vienna. He wrote 
there a number of serenades and oratorios, but 
was less talented than his father, light-minded, 
and died in great poverty. — (3) Gioacchino, 
named Gizziello (after his teacher Gizzi), 
one of the most famous evirati of the last 
century, b. Feb. 28, 1714, Arpino (Naples), d. 
Oct. 25, 1761, Rome. He made his debut in this 
city in 1729 with very great success, sang there 
up to 1731, then at Naples, and from 1736 to 
1737 in London, afterwards in Lisbon, Madrid, 
and again Lisbon. In 1753 he retired from 
public life, and went to Arpino. — (4) Carlo, 
opera composer, b. Oct. 14, 1797, Arpino, d. 
July 10, 1868, Naples. He was a member of 
the Academy of Arts of that city, and in 1846 
professor of counterpoint at the Conservatorio, 
and in 1862 director in place of Mercadante, 
who had become blind. Of his eleven operas 
Olimpia (1829), obtained the greatest success. 
C. wrote also six masses, two requiems, and 
other sacred compositions. Florimo, Marchetti, 
etc., were his pupils. 

Continuo, Giovanni, Italian contrapuntist, 
teacherof Luca Marenzio ; he became maestro to 
the Gonzaga family in Mantua, and d. in 1565 
(his successor was Giaches de Wert). 

Continuo (Ital.), really Basso c. or Continuato, 
a " continuous bass." This was the name given 
to the figured instrumental bass part which 
came into vogue in Italy about 1600, and from 
which was gradually evolved the modern style 
of accompaniment. {See Accompanying Parts 
and Accompaniment.) Caccini, Cavalieri, Via- 
dana, and others began about the same time to 
use the C, so that it is difiicult to say who was 
actually the first — ^probably Cavalieri. It is 
worthy of note that an Englishman, Richard 
Deering, coming from Rome, published already 
in 1597 at Antwerp, " Cantiones k 5 cum basso c." 

Contra (Lat. and Ital.), over, against, facing, 
opposite to. 
ContrabasBO (Ital.). {See Double-bass.) 
Contrainte (Fr.). (See Ostinato.) 

Contr'alto (Ital. ; Fr. Haute-contre). Alto 
voice. (See Alto.) 
Contra octave, the notes iC to \B : — 



^ -^ * » . . . 

(Cf. " Synopsis of notes," p. i of this Dic- 

Contrapunctus (Lat.), counterpoint (q.v.); C. 
aqualis, equal counterpoint , C. incequalis, un- 
equal counterpoint ; C. floridus, diminutus, orna- 
mental,, florid (i.e. unequal) counterpoint (two 




or more notes against one, in equal values or 
rhythmical motives). 

Contrapunto (Ital.), counterpoint (q.v.), C. 
alia zoppa, "limping," syncopated counterpoint 
(C. sittcopato); C. sopra (sotto) il soggetto, counter- 
point above (below) the Cantus firmus ; C. alia 
mente, improvised counterpoint (Fr. Chant sur le 
lime), the oldest kind of counterpoint ; for 
discant (see Discantus), i.e. placing a different 
part over against the tenor of the Gregorian 
chant, was at first (12th century) entirely an im- 
provisation. The rules for discant, which have 
been preserved, were not intended for composi- 
tions to be written out, but as instructions for 
the singers (who, in fact, were at that time the 
chief composers). The inevitable bad effects of 
discant in more than two parts naturally led to 
rules and regulations for counterpoint, which 
had to be worked out in writing. C. alia mente 
(al impromso) was, however, kept up until the 
i6th century. 

Contr'aico (Ital.), bowing (on the violin, etc.) 
in a manner contrary to rule. 

Contrary Motion is the opposite of Parallel 
Motion (c/. Movement, Kinds of, 3). Concern- 
ing the prohibition of many parallel progres- 
sions, and the way in which they can be avoided 
by Contrary Motion, see Parallels and Part- 
Writing. Concerning C. M. in another sense, 
viz., as inversion of a theme (theme in C. M.), 
which plays an important role in the imitative 
Style, c/. Inversion. 

_ Contratempo (Ital.), Fr. Contretemps, accent- 
iiig of a note on an unaccented part of a bar ; 
syncopation (q.v.). 

Contratenor (Lat.), countertenor. {See Alto.) 

Contredanse (Fr.), a dance of English origin 
(Anglaise), which was introduced into France at 
the beginning of the last century, and quickly 
became popular. The name C. refers to a char- 
acteristic feature of the dance — viz., that the 
couples are opposite to each other, and do not 
follow one another as in round dances. The 
derivation of the word from "country dance " 
is a false one, although Tiirk gives it in his 
" Klavierschule " (1789). 

Contre-sujet (Fr.), countersubject. 

Converse, Charles Crozat, American com- 
poser, b. 1832, Massachusetts, pupil of the 
Leipzig Conservatorium ; he lives, as a lawyer, 
at Erie (Pennsylvania). 

Conversio (Lat.), inversion. 

Conveyances are tubes in the organ which 
Carry the wind from the wind-chest to special 
rows of very great pipes which are not placed 
over the chest. C. are generally tin tubes of 
narrow measure. 

Cooke, (i) Benjamin, b. 1734, London, d. 
Sept. 14, 1793. In 1752 he became the succes- 
sor of Pepusch as conductor at the Academy of 
Ancient Music ; in 1757, after the retirement of 

Gates, choir-master, in 1758 lay vicar, and in 
1762 organist of Westminster Abbey. He 
handed over the conductorship of the Acadeihy, 
in 1789, to Arnold. In 1775 he took his degree 
of Mus.Doc. at Cambridge, and in 1782 like- 
wise at Oxford. C. is specially famed in 
England as a composer of glees, canons, and 
catches, for which he frequently received prizes 
from the Catch Club. He wrote, besides, 
anthems and other sacred pieces, also odes for 
the Academy of Ancient Music, and various in- 
strumental works ; and he was, at the same time, 
highly esteemed as a theorist. — (2) Thomas 
Simpson (Tom C), b. 1782, Dublin, d. Feb. 
26, 1848, London ; he was at first leader of the 
band at Dublin, then, for many years, opera 
singer (tenor) at London (Drury Lane), and, 
finally, conductor again at Drury Lane, Covent 
Garden, also assistant-conductor of the Phil- 
harmonic Society, and from 1846 leader of the 
Concerts of Ancient Music. C, like the above, 
was a composer who received many prizes for 
glees, catches, etc. ; but above all he was a 
very prolific opera composer (for Drury Lane), 
and a celebrated teacher of singing ; he aJso 
published a vocal Method. 

Cooper, George, b. July 7, 1820, London, 
d. Oct. 2, 1876 ; from a boy he occupied various 
posts as organist, and was afterwards singing- 
master and organist of Christ's Hospital, and 
in 1856, organist of the Chapel Royal. C. ren- 
dered meritorious service by the cultivation of 
Bach's organ works ; he also edited a number 
of instructive organ pieces. 

Ooperario (really Cooper), John, English 
lutenist and lute composer, and music teacher 
to the children of James I. ; Henry and Wil- 
liam Lawes were his pupils. Some piece's 
d' occasion (funeral odes and masques) appeared 
from 1606-14. Hs died in 1627. 

Coppola, Pier Antonio, b. Dec. 11, 1793, 
Castrogiovanni (Sicily), d, Nov. 13, 1877, 
Catania ; a talented opera composer, who. had 
the misfortune to be a contemporary of Rossini. 
After repeated attempts, crowned with only 
moderate success, he made a fortunate venture 
with Nina Pazza per Amore (1835), frequently 
performed not only on all Italian stages, but 
also at Vienna, Berlin, Madrid, Lisbon, and 
Mexico. It was given at Paris in 1839, in 
revised form, under the title Eva. About the 
same time C. undertook an engagement as 
maestro at the Royal Opera, Lisbon, and, later ' 
on, brought out new operas in Italy. Besides 
Nina, he had most success with Enrichetta di 
Baienfeld (Vienna, 1836) andGK Illinesi (Turin). 

Copula (Lat.), coupler ; also a term applied 
to flue stops ; (a) for 8-ft. Open Diapason, prob- 
ably because this stop is suitable for coupling 
with any others ; (6) for the 8-ft. Hohlflote 
(Koppelflote),, which, on the other hand, needs 
coupling with other stops. 

Copyright, the exclusive right which an 




author has of publishing his works for a 
number of years ; a right which he may sell 
absolutely, or conditionally, to a publisher or 
any o^her person. 

Cor (Fr.), horn; C. anglais, English horn 
(Altoboe, see Oboe). 

Coranto (Ital.), a courante (q.v.). 

Corbett, W i 1 1 i a m , an English violin virtuoso , 
member of the Queen's band ; he lived from 1711 
to 1740 in Italy (Rome). He occasionally gave 
concefts in most of the large towns, and col- 
lected musical books and instruments. After 
his return to London, he resumed his position 
in the band, and died in 1748. He bequeathed 
his collection of instruments to Gresham Col- 
lege, with a stipend for someone to look after 
them . C . published various instrumental works , 
especially for violin. 

Corda (Ital.) string ; una c. (" on one string ") 
indicates in pianoforte music that the left-hand 
(shifting) pedal is to be used ; dm corde (" with 
two strings "), with half shifting ; tutte U corde 
(" all strings "), i.e. without soft pedal. 

Cordons, Bartolomeo, b. 1700, Venice, d. 
May 14, 1757, Udine; an extremely prolific com- 
poser ; he entered, when young, the Franciscan 
order, but obtained a dispensation from the Pope, 
and withdrew from it. C. afterwards brought 
out a number of operas at Venice with moderate 
success. In 1735 he accepted the post of maestro 
at Udine Cathedral, and then wrote an immense 
amount of sacred music; for — although he 
handed over a large number of manuscript 
volumes to a firework manufacturer for the 
purpose of making rockets — over sixty masses, 
over a hundred psalms, including some for 
double choir, and motets, have been preserved. 

Cor de chasse (Fr.), a hunting-horn. 

Cordelia, Giacomo, prolific Italian opera 
composer, b. July 25, 1786, Naples, d. there 
Aug. 8, 1846, pupil of Fenaroli and Paesiello, 
theatre maestro, sub-conductor of the royal 
band, and teacher at Naples Conservatorio ; he 
wrote seventeen operas for Naples, also some 
cantatas, and sacred music. 

Corder, Frederick, gifted English composer, 
b. Jan. 26, 1852, London ; he first went into 
business, but afterwards became a pupil of the 
Roya,l Academy of Music, won the Mendelssohn 
Scholarship, and studied under Ferd. Hiller 
at Cologne. On his return he became con- 
ductor at the Brighton Aquarium, and 
brought the concerts there into high repute. 
Of his works the following deserve mention : 
Overture Prosfero (1885), The Bridal of Trier- 
main (cantata, 1886), the opera Nordisa (1887), 
"Roumanian Suite" (1887), The Minstrel's Curse, 
ballad for declamation with orchestra (1888), 
"Roumanian Dances" forpf. and violin(i883), etc. 

Corelli, Arcangelo, one of the first real 
virtuosi on the violin, and a classical composer 
for this instrument. He was b. Feb., 1653, 

Fusignano, near Imola, d. Jan. 18, 1713, Rome ;■ 
he studied counterpoint with Matteo Simonelli, 
and the violin with Giov. B. Bassani. Little is 
known of his early life, but he seems to have 
held an appointment about 1680 at the court of 
Munich. In 168 1 he settled in Rome, where he 
found in Cardinal Ottoboni a friend and patron. 
C. lived in the cardinal's palace until his death. 
Attempts were made to draw him away to- 
Naples, and, after repeated invitations, C. was 
induced to go there and play before the king. 
During the performance, however, he made 
several slips, and imagined that he had failed, 
and, in great excitement, travelled back to Rome. 
Here, thrown for a time into the shade by the 
performances of Valentini, a violinist of ordin- 
ary ability, he fell a prey to melancholy. His 
epoch-making works, which at the present day 
are highly esteemed by all violinists, are as 
follows : four sets of twelve sdnatas in three 
parts for two violins (1683-94) ; ^^ 3. third part 
Op. I has an organ bass. Op. 2 'cello and bass 
viol or cembalo. Op. 3 bass lute (Theorbo, 
Arciliuto) and organ bass. Op. 4 bass viol or 
cembalo ; further, twelve two-part sonatas, Op. 
5, for violin and bass viol or cembalo (1700), 
republished five times up to 1799, arranged as. 
"Concerti grossi" by Geminiani (they also 
appeared at Amsterdam arranged for two flutes 
and bass), and also for violin and piano by 
Gustav Jensen ; also nine sonatas for two violins 
and cembalo (1695 at Rome, and reprinted later 
at Amsterdam) ; a set of posthumous sonatas 
for two violins with organ bass ; and his last 
and greatest work (Op. 6) — twelve "Concerti 
grossi" for two violins and 'cello as solo in- 
struments ("Concertino obligate"), and also 
two violins, viola, and bass as accompanying 
instruments, which may also be doubled ("Con- 
certo grosso"). The forty-eight sonatas (Op. 
1-4) and the " Concerti grossi " (Op. 6) were pub- 
lished by Walsh at London in two volumes, and 
revised by Pepusch. The only complete modem 
edition of Corelli's works is that (in score) by Dr. 
Chrysander (London : Augener & Co.) . Some 
numbers from Op. 5 were edited by Alard and 
David ("Folies d'Espagne"). "AH Corelli's 
compositions succeeded' in gaining popularity, 
and were thus circulated far and wide, and 
served as models to the musicians of his time ; 
but the ' Opera Quinta ' was in this respect the 
most successful. It was taken up as a school- 
work in all countries" (Chrysander). 
Cormome (Fr.). {See Cromorne.) 
Cornamusa (Ital., Fr. comemuse), an old Italian 
kind of schalmey, but closed, at the lower 
end, so that the sound-waves were transmitted 
through the sound-holes. {C/. Bassanello.) 
Also similar to the word Bagpipe. 

Cornelius, Peter, b. Dec. 24, 1824, Mayence, 
d. there Oct. 26, 1874, a near relation of the 
painter of that name. He originally decided 
to become an actor, but, after an unfortunate 



Cor omnitoniqiie 

4e!mt on the stage, turned to music ; and from 
1845 to 1850 studied counterpoint with Dehn at 
Berlin. In 1852 he went to Weimar, where he 
joined company with Liszt, and in the Neue 
.Zeitschrift fir Musik became one of the most 
zealous champions of the new German school. 
His comic opera, Der Barbier von Bagdad, was 
given at Weimar in 1858, but it did not take 
with the public ; and Liszt, who held the work 
in high esteem, was so annoyed, that he left 
Weimar. C. now went to Wagner at Vienna, 
and followed him in 1865 to Munich, where he 
received an appointment at the Royal School 
of Music. A new opera {Cid) was produced at 
Weimar in 1865. A third (Gunlod, text from 
the "Edda") remained unfinished. His smaller 
works (songs, duets, part-songs for mixed and 
for msile chorus) have' become best-known ; 
although even these— on account of the un- 
comfortable voice-parts, and harshness of the 
iharmonies — are only enjoyed by the few. C. 
wrote the books of Ms operas, and the words for 
most of his songs ; and he also published a volume 
of lyric poetry (" Lyrische Poesien," 1861). 
The Barbier von Bagdad has recently been per- 
formed with success at Coburg, Hamburg, etc. 
It was also given twice in London (1891) by 
the pupils of the Royal College of Music. 

Cornet, Julius, opera singer and stage man- 
ager, b. 1793, Santa Candida (Italian Tyrol), 
d. Oct.. 2, i860, Berlin. He studied with Salieri 
at Vienna, and afterwards received further train- 
ing in Italy. He at first made furore as tenor 
singer, then, jointly with Miihling, undertook 
the direction of the Hamburg Theatre, which, 
however, came to an end after the great fire of 
1842. Some time afterwards he was called to 
Vienna as director of the " Hofoper," but could 
not endure any interference from higher author- 
ities, and had to give up the post. He was 
engaged as director of the Berlin Victoria 
Theatre, but died before it was complete4. 
C. wrote an excellent work — " Die Oper in 
Deutschland," and skilfully translated the li- 
bretti of La Muette di Portici, Zampa, and the 
Brasseur de Preston into German. 

Comet (Ger. Kornett, Ital. Cornetio), (i) same 
as ZiNK (q.v.). — (2) In the organ (a) a now 
obsolete reed-stop imitating the tone of the 
Zinken (8 ft., or as Cornettino 4 and 2 ft., and 
Grand Cornet 16 ft.). Its tone was of a bleating 
character, and it is now found only as a pedal 
stop of 2 or 4 ft. (6) A stop of 3, 4, and 5 
ranks, as a rule, 8 ft.; seldom 4 ft. The C. is 
distinguished by the third (fifth overtone), 
■which is the characteristic feature of the C. 
In the C. the overtones always occur in close 
series, and indeed commence when it is of 
5 ranks from the fundamental tone, when of 
4 from the octave, when of 3 from the twelfth, 
always ending with the seventeenth. At Heil- 
bronn there is one of 6 ranks, but it commences 
with the double octave (c = c', e',g', c", e", g"). 

Qornet-k-pistous, valve cornet, a brass' wind 
instrument of still higher compass than the 
trumpet; it was evolved from the old post-, 
horn by the application of valves. The har- 
monic scale of horns, trumpets, and cornets in c 
begins from below thus (the lowest C. with 
tubes of narrow bore does not readily speak) : 

Cornet: ^E^^^^ ^E^^ 
Trumpet: j^_ ^_ ^ 

Horn : ~ 

i.e. if the cornet notation were on the same 
principle as that of the horn and trumpet, the 
notes would sound an octave higher than those 
written, just as the horn in (low) c sounds an 
octave lower, the c-trumpet, on the other hand, 
in unison with the notation. But instead of 
that, the harmonic scale of the cornet is written 
an octave higher, i.e. the following notes sound 
alike on all of the three instruments named — 

But this 6' flat (according to the clang) is the . 
sixteenth harmonic of the horn, the eighth of 
the trumpet, the fourth of the cornet. The 
compass of the C, however, apart from notes 
obtainable by virtuosi, does not extend upwards 
higher than that of the trumpet. The valve 
cornet is still constructed in b\> (with an a crook). 
Owing to the want of nobility of its tone, the C. 
has not found a. place in the symphonic or- 
chestra. Arban and Legendre in Paris, Wurm 
in Petersburg, and J. Kosleck and his associates 
(" Kaiser-Kornett quartet") in Berlin are vii-- 
tuosi on the C. 

Cornetta (Ital.), (i) asmall horn. — (2) Acornet. 

Cornettino (Ital.), a small cornetto. 

Cometto (Ital.j, (i) a cornet (q.v.). — (2) An 
obsolete wood wmd instrument.- Cornetto muto, 
a mute — ij, soft-toned — horn ; cornetto torto, or 
storto, a crooked horn. 

Como (Ital^, horn. C. da caccia, French horn. 
C. di bassetto, basset horn. 

Como Inglese (Ital.), the English horn. {See 
CoR Anglais.) 

Comon, a large kind of curved Zink (q.v.) ; 
also a new brass instrument, of wide measure, 
constructed in 18.44 by Cerveny. 

Cornopean, a name formerly given to the 
cornet-a-pistons (q.v.). 

Cor omnitonique (Fr.), a horn invented by 
Sax of Paris, on which, by means of valves, all 
the tones and semitones of the scale can be 


doro (Ital.), a choir, a chorus. 

Corona (Ital.), a pause '^. 

Corps de voix (Fr.), quality or volume of the 

Correotorium (Lat.), tuning-cone, used in 
tuning an organ. 

Corrente (Ital.; Fr. couranie), an old dance 
form in triple time, incorporated into the Suite ; 
its characteristic feature is the lively movement 
of notes of equal value. So, at least, does it 
appear among the Italians (Corelli), whereas in 
German and French compositions it was of a 
more passionate character. 

Corr^p^titeur (Fr.), Correpetitor (Ger.), the 
musician who teaches the singers their parts ; 
also the musician who makes the ballet-dancers 
acquainted with the accompanying music. 

Corri, Domenico, b. Oct. 4, 1744, Rome, d. 
May 22, 1825, London. He studied with Por- 
pora, came to London in 1774, where he wrote 
the operas Alessandro neW Indie and The Travel- 
lers. His daughter married Dussek, with whom 
C. established (1797) a music business, which, 
however, failed. Besides many songs, rondos, 
arias, sonatas, etc., C. wrote " The Singer's 
Preceptor " (1798) ; " The Art of Fingering " 
(1799); "Musical Grammar," and a "Musical 

Corsi, J acopo, a Florentine nobleman, about 
1600, one of the men with whose name the 
early history of the opera is associated. He 
was a warm friend of art ; and in his house, and 
in that of his friend. Count Bardi, the founders 
of the new style — Peri, Caccini, Cavalieri, 
Galilei, etc. — -were frequent guests. C. himself 
played the gravicembalo (cembalo) at most of 
the performances of the first attempts at music 

Corteccia, Francesco Bernardo di, b. 
Arezzo, d. June 7, 1571, as court maestro and 
canon of the Lorenzo Church at Florence. 
Madrigals (one book, 1544) ; .Cantica, festival 
music for the marriage of Cosimo'I. de' Medici 
have beeh preserved in print, and a Hymnary 
in manuscript ; many other compositions have 
been lost. 

CoryphsBUB (Lat.), Coryphee (Fr.), Corypheus, 
the leader of the dramatic chorus. 

Cossmaim, Bernhard, performer of the first 
rank on the 'cello, b. May 17, 1822, Dessau, 
studied with Theodor Miiller and Kummer ; 
he was in the orchestra of the Grand Opera, 
Paris, in 1840; London in 1841; Gewandhaus, 
orchestra, Leipzig, in 1847 ; at Weimar, under 
Liszt, in 1852, professor of the 'cello at Moscow 
Conservatoire in 1866, and from 1870 to 1878 at 
Baden-Baden, without appointment. Since then 
he has been professor of the 'cello at Frankfort. 
C. is as good a quartet- as solo-player. 

Costa, (i) Michele, an opera composer of 
note, b. Feb. 4, 1810, Naples, d. April 29, 1884, 
Brighton. He studied music with his father, 

i65 CoTioy 

Pasquale C, his grandfather, Tritto, and Zin- 
garelli, and won his spurs as composer at the 
Naples theatres. In 1829 he was called to Eng- 
land by Zingarelli in order to conduct an import- 
ant work by the latter (Super Flumina, Babylon) 
at a Birmingham Musical Festival; but in- 
stead of so doing he appeared as a tenor singeri 
From that time he became a naturalised, Eng- 
lishman, and from 1830 was active in London 
as opera conductor. He himself wrote several 
operas (Malek Adel, Don Carlo), undertook in 
1846 the conductorship of the Philharmonic 
Society, and in 1848 that of the Sacred Har- 
monic Society. From 1849 he was regular 
conductor of the Birmingham Musical Festivals, 
and from 1857 of the Handel Festivals. At the 
Philharmonic Society, Wagner, for one season, 
(1855), was his successor. He received the 
order of knighthood in i86g. In 1871 he was 
conductor at Her Majesty's Theatre. C. wrote 
several oratorios for the musical festivals. His 
half-brother (2), Carlo, b. 1826, d. Jan., 1888, 
Naples, was teacher of theory at the Conserva- 
torio in that city. 

Cotillon (Fr.), lit., "petticoat." -A social 
game in form of a dance." The cotillon has 
no characteristic music ; a waltz, galop, or any 
other dance tune is used for the purpose. 

Cotta, Johann, b. May 24, 1794, Ruhla 
(Thuringia), d. March 18, 1868, as pastor at 
Willerstedt, near Weimar. He was the com- 
poser of the Volkslied, " Was ist des Deutschen 
Vaterland ? " 

Cotteau, GuithrumLouis, a popular com- 
poser of Canzoni in the Neapolitan dialect, b, 
Aug. 9, 1797, Paris, d. Oct. 31, 1847, Naples, 
where he had lived since 1806. His sons, 
Theodore (b. Nov. 7, 1827, Naples) and 
Jules (b. 1836, Naples), followed in their 
father's footsteps, and also acquired great popu- 
larity. A third, Filice, b. 1830, Naples, died 
there Jan., 1887. 

Cotto (Cottonius), Johannes, a writer on 
music (nth to 12th century), whose treatise, 
" Epistola ad Fulgentium," contains important 
notices concerning the beginnings of notation 
and solmisation (reprinted in Gerbeyt," Scrip- 
tores," II.). 

Couac (Fr.), the "quack" of the clarinet, 
oboe, and bassoon, caused by a bad reed or 
reeds, deranged keys, wearied lips, etc.; ia 
English it is called the " goose." 

Coucy, Regnault Chatelain de, trouba- 
dour of the 12th century, followed Richard 
Coeur de Lion in the third crusade, and fell in 
1192. When dying, he ordered that his heart 
should be sent to the lady whom he loved ; the 
jealous husband received it, had the heart 
roasted and served up before his spouse, who 
died heart-broken when she learned what she 
had eaten. So runs the tale in the " Roman 
vom Chastelain de C. und der Dame de Fayel." 



Coiintersubj ect 

Anumber (twenty-four) of Chansons by Chltelain 
de C. are preserved in the Paris Library, and 
are some of the oldest memorials of the music 
of the West. They have been carefully revised, 
collated with different mEinuscripts, and pub- 
lished with the melodies in old notation by 
Francisque Michel (1830). 

Coul^ {Ft.). IfSee SCHLEIPER.) 

Counterpoint, according to the present com- 
mon use of the term, is, first of all, a special 
part of musical technology (theory with a view 
to practice), in contradistinction to harmony 
which is concerned with figured basses ; poly- 
phonic writing without figures, i.e. the poly- 
phonic exposition of a given melody without fur- 
ther support of any kind. Yet by contrapuntal 
treatment of the parts is understood, in a more 
restricted sense, concertante treatment (a most suit- 
able term, and one which ought to be in general 
use), in which the parts vie with one another, 
and do not merely consist of one bearing the 
melody, and the rest mere harmonic stuffing, as 
in Italian operas the stereotyped — 


p ^—w—w ^ 

- I I I 

Here the harmony suggested by the melodic 
phrase is expressed in the most primitive man- 
ner. In the concertante style, all the parts are 
melodic, so that there is the effect of a struggle 
(concertatio) for pre-eminence. A good contra- 
puntal (polyphonic) conduct of the parts is 
therefore one in which they show themselves 
independent. To this independency there is 
naturally a limit; just as we can only under- 
stand several simultaneous, or quickly succeed- 
ing sounds if we can connect them with one 
sound, and thus obtain unity of meaning [see 
Dissonance and Scale), so the independent 
movement of several parts will only be intel- 
ligible, if they can be conceived in the sense of 
the same harmony. It is, of course, self-evident 
that one part cannot be in the scale of a17, and 
another in g; it is not, however, sufficient that 
both parts progress in the sense of the same 
clang, but the connection of this clang with others 
in the two parts must be clear. The teaching 
of this branch of counterpoint is, as yet, some- 
what confused. There are two methods op- 
posed to each other, and it is only by the fusion 
of the two, that the right one can be found ; of 
these two, the one is based upon the Church 
Modes, and the other, the modern, on the major 
and minor scales. The compiler of this Dic- 
tionary has shown, in his " Neue Schule der 
Melodik " (1S83), how these apparently irrecon- 
cilable elements may be united. (C/Scales.) 

When the name Contrapunctus came into use (in 
the 14th century) , the art of writing in parts was 
already developed to a high degree. The theoret- 
ical treatises bf a Johannes de Muris, Philipp 

V. Vitry, and others, which appeared as " Regulae 
de Contrapuncto," introduced therefore really 
nothing new ; but they are treatises on the mode 
of writing previously called Discantus, with 
changed terminology. They start from note 
against note (punctus contra pimctum, or nota contra 
notam), which Muris expressly called funda- 
mentum discanttts (Coussemaker, " Script.'' III. 
60). Vitry gives the definition : "Contrapunctus, 
i.e. nota contra notam" (in above work, 23). 
Muris calls unequal counterpoint Diminutio 
contrapuncti, a term still valid at the present 
day. Here is one of the examples which he 
gives — 


^^^^^^ ^^^ 



|S> - 


The imitative forms of counterpoint extend back 
to the 13th century. Walter Odington (Bishop 
of Canterbury, 1228) gives this definition of the 
Rondellus: "Si quod unus cantat, omnes per 
ordinem recitent " (Coussemaker, "Script." I. 
245). In the hands of the contrapuntists of the 
15th and i6th centuries these imitations deve- 
loped into subtleties (see Netherland School), 
but in the two following centuries they became 
simplified, and moulded into the art form of the 
fugue. Strict canon (q.v.) with close entry of 
voices, is, indeed, only an artifice, a playing with 
art. Of far different importance for composi- 
tion is the so-called double C, which is so 
arranged that the parts can exchange places, 
the higher becoming the lower, or vice versd. 
Double C. is in the octave, the tenth or the 
twelfth, according as the intervals are to be in- 
verted in the eighth, tenth, or twelfth. Already 
in 1558, Zarlino, in his " Istitutioni Armoniche," 
gives a clear exposition of the different kinds of 
double counterpoint and of canon. The treatises 
on counterpoint of Martini, Albrechtsberger, 
Cherubini, Fetis, Bellermann, Bussler, and 
others, are in the old style {i.e. based on the 
Church Modes). For these writers harmony is 
only an accident ; the rules, in the main, are 
the same as those which were in force when 
Discant flourished, and when there was no 
clear conception of harmony (intervals, rather 
than harmony, were taught). On the other 
hand, the works of Dehn, Richter, Tiersch, 
Jadassohn, and others abound in instruction in 
harmony, or, more correctly, their aim is to 
teach harmony by means of counterpoint ; the 
pupil learns instinctively to handle the former 
by means of the latter. It is' already shown 
above that a deep study of harmony on the lines 
of counterpoint, i.e. a union of both methods, 
will result in a satisfactory method of instruc- 
tion. Two important English works have re- 
cently been published: E. Front's "Counter- 
point, Strict and Free," and " Double Counter- 
point and Canon." 
CounterBubject is the counterpoint in a fugue 

ODuntersTibj edt 



with which the first voice continues, when the 
second voice enters with the answer. The C. is 
frequently turned to account in the further 
course of the fugue, and treated as a second 
subject, which in a double fugue it really is. 

Counter-tenor, male alto voice. {See Alto.) 

Coup d'archet (Fr.), a stroke of the bow in 
violin, violoncello, etc., playing. 

Couperin is the name of a series of distin- 
guished organists of St. Gervais, Paris. The 
family sprang originally from Chaume (Brie), 
and first the three brothers: — (i) Louis, b. 
1630, d. 1665 as organist of St. Gervais, and 
Dessus de Viole (violinist) to Louis XIII. He 
left clavier pieces in manuscript. — (2) Charles, 
b. April 9, 1638, excellent performer on the 
organ, died already in 1669 as' organist of St. 
Gervais. — (3) Franjois (Sieur de Crouilly), 
b. 1631, studied the clavier under Cham- 
bonnieres, d. 1698 as organist of St. Ger- 
vais. He wrote "Pieces d'Orgue consistantes 
en Deux Messes, etc." — (4) Francois (le 
Grand), son of Charles C, b. Nov. 10, 1668, 
Paris, d. 1733 ; he was one year old when his 
father died. Jacques Thomelin, a friend of the 
latter and his successor at St. Gervais, became 
C.'s teacher. In 1698 Franfois succeeded his 
uncle as organist of St. Gervais, and in 1701 was 
appointed Claveciniste de la chambre du roi et 
organiste de sa ckapelle. His two daughters were 
excellent performers on the organ ; Maria n n e, 
who entered a convent, and became organist of 
e 1 1 e, who was claveciniste to the king. The works 
of C. occupy an important place in the history 
of music ; and in his younger days J. S. Bach 
followed C., especially in the treatment of French 
dance forms (above all, of the Courante). C. 
wrote four books of " Pieces de Clavecin " (1713, 
1716, 1722, 1730 ; to the third book of which are 
appended four concertos) ; " L'Art de Toucher 
le Clavecin" (1717) ; "Les Gouts Reunis" (new 
concertos, with a trio, "Apotheose de Corelli" 
1724); "Apotheose de L'Incomparable L." 
(Lully) ; " Trios pour Deux Dessus de Violon, 
]3asse d'Archet et Basse Chiffree ; " " Lejons des 
Tenebres." Dr. Chrysander, together vrith Joh. 
Brahms, has edited a new complete edition of 
Couperin's clavier works (London : Augener & 
Co.). "C. is the first great composer for the 
harpsichord known in the history of music. The 
eminent masters who preceded him — Merulo, 
Frescobaldi, and many others — applied their 
art quite as much to the organ as to the harpsi- 
chord; whereas Couperin, though he played 
both instruments, wrote for the latter only. He 
stands, therefore, at the commencement of the 
modern period, and must be regarded as clear- 
ing the way for a new art. Among his younger 
contemporaries, and, in part, his pupils, were 
Scarlatti, Handel, and Bach. Couperin's mode 
of writing music was very peculiar. It was his 
constant aim to set down the music with the 

greatest possible fulness, exactly as he played it 
on his instrument. Even the manifold embel- 
lishments are most accurately indicated. All 
this gives to his music a more technical appear- 
ance than to that of any other master of the 
period." (Chrysander.) — (5) Nicolas, b. Dec. 
20, 1680, Paris, son of the elder Francois, d. 
1748 as orgalnist of St. Gervais. — (6) Arm and 
Louis, son of the former, b. Feb. 25, 1725, 
Paris, d. 1789 ; a distinguished performer on 
the organ, but of less importance as a composer. 
He, also, was organist of St. Gervais, and at the 
same time court organist of the Ste. Chapelle, 
of, St. Barthelemy, Ste. Marguerite; and was 
also one of the four organists of Notre Dame, 
and an authority at the trial of new organs. 
His wife, Elizabeth Antoinette (nee Blanchet), 
was likewise a distinguished performer on the 
clavecin and organ. — (7) Pierre Louis, son of 
the former, assisted his father in his many posts 
of organist, but died already in the same year 
as his father (1789). — (8) Fran9ois Gervais, 
likewise a son of Armand Louis C, the last of 
the Couperin organists of St. Gervais, and in- 
heritor of all his father's postsi was unworthy 
of the distinctions conferred on him, for he was 
an organist of only moderate ability, and a 
composer of no importance. He was still living 
in 1815. 

Cowp\er{GeT.Kofpel: Lat. Copula), (i) An organ 
mechanism, by which playing on one keyboard 
presses down the keys of one or more other 
keyboards, so that the pipes belonging to the 
latter sound together with those of the former. 
A distinction is made between Manual couplers 
and Pedal couplers. The former unite two or 
three manuals, and, as a rule, in such a manner 
that with the Great Manual, two or three others 
may be played at the same time ; yet in large 
organs the other manuals are united amongst 
themselves by couplers. The Pedal C. is either 
constructed in a similar way (Anhangekoppel), 
or it acts directly on certain valves in the 
channels belonging to the wind-chest of the 
Great Manual, without drawing down the 
keys of the latter. According to the mode of, 
construction a distinction is made between 
those pedal couplers, which press, from above, 
down on the keys of a lower keyboard, or draw 
down those of a higher keyboard. — (2) The 
Octave Coupler unites with every key that of the 
upper- or under-octave, or both (in the latter case 
called Double-octave coupler), producing an ex- 
ceedingly full tone. 

Couplet, text-strophe (or several strophes 
sung to the same melody). In old music same 
as word variation, varied repetitions of the prin- 
cipal theme (as in the rondos and passacailles of 
Couperin). The term, which really means 
" little pair," is probably to be referred to the 
old dances accompanied by singing, in which 
solo-singing and tutti (refrains) alternated. 

Couppey. {See Le Couppey.) 




Couiante (Fr.). (See Correntk.) 
Couronne (Fr.), a pause. 

Courtois, Jean, French contrapuntist, about 
1539 maStre de chapelle to the Archbishop of 
Cambrai. Of the eight masses in the Munich 
Library ascribed to him by Gerber and F^tis, 
only one, Domine quis Habitabit, is by C. Besides 
this, only motets and psalms by C. have been 
preserved in print. 

CouTToisier, Karl, violinist and composer, b. 
Nov. 12, 1846, Basle, was originally destined 
for the career of a merchant, but attended the 
Leipzig Conservatorium, 1867, as pupil of David 
and Rontgen, and pursued his studies, from 
1869 to 1870 at Berlin, under Joachim. After a 
short engagement in the orchestra of the Thalia 
Theatre at Frankfort (1871), he worked in this 
city as teacher and conductor, studying, all the 
■wMle, singing under Gust. Barth. In 1875 he 
became conductor of the Dusseldorf Orchestra, 
but already in 1876 returned to teaching, de- 
voting himself also to the conductorshSp of 
chor^ societies. In 1885 he went to Liverpool, 
where he is especially occupied as a teacher of 
singing. C. published an essay, " Die Violin- 
technik" (translated into English by H. E. 
Krehbiel), which has become widely known, and 
aViolin School, "Ecole de la Velocite " (a large 
work containing violin exercises and studies ; 
London, Augener). Of his compositions, which 
have been produced with success, may be men- 
tioned, a symphony and two concert overtures ; 
a violin concerto is still in manuscript. Only 
small pieces have appeared in print. 

Coussemaker, Charles Edmond Henri 
de, b. April 19, 1805, Bailleul (Nord), d. Jan. 
10, 1876, Bourbourg. He studied law at Paris, 
and, at the same time, took private lessons in 
singing with Pellegrini, and in harmony with 
Payer and Reicha. At Douai, where he com- 
menced his career as a lawyer, he still studied 
counterpoint under Victor Lefebvre. He gave 
practiced proofs of the musical knowledge which 
he had acquired, in compositions of the most 
varied kind (masses, fragments of operas, Ave, 
Salve regina, etc. ; but, with the exception of a 
book of romances, everything remained in manu- 
script). Excited by the Revue Musicale, edited 
by F^tis, he now commenced to study the 
history of music, and to devote his attention to 
the study, especially, of the Middle Ages ; by 
unwearying investigations he became one of the 
most distinguished musical historians of our 
day. At the same time he pursued his career as a 
jurist, and became justice of the peace atBergues, 
tribunal judge at Hazebrouck, administrative 
officer at Cambrai, judge at Dunkirk and Lille. 
His musico-historical works are : " Memoire 
surHucbald" (1841) ; " Histoire de I'Harmonie 
au Moyen-Age" (1852); "Drames Liturgiques 
du Moyen-Age" (i860); " Les Harmonistes 
des XII. et XIII. Siecles " (1864); "L'Art 

harmonique au XII. et XIII. Siecles " (1865) ; 
" CEuvres completes d'Adam de la Halle " (1872) ; 
further, a magnificent collection in four stout 
quarto volumes, " Scriptores de Musica medii 
Mvi " (continuation of the Gerbert " Scriptores," 
1866-76). Of smaller pamphlets there are the 
following : " Notices sur les Collections Mu- 
sicales de la Bibliotheque de Cambrai et d'autres 
Villes du Departement du Nord " (1843) ; " Essai 
sur les Instruments de Musique au Moyen-Age " 
(in Didron's " Archaologische Annalen," -with 
many illustrations) ; " Chants Populaires des 
Flamands de France " (1856), etc. C. was cor- 
responding member of the French Acad^mie. 

Cousser. (See Kusser.) 

Coward, James, distinguished English or- 
ganist, b. Jan. 25, 1824, London, d. there Jan. 
22, 1880. He was organist at the Crystal 
Palace from the beginning, conductor of the 
Western Madrigal Society from 1864 to 1872. 
He was also conductor of the Abbey and City 
Glee Clubs ; and, besides, organist of the Sacred 
Harmonic Society, and the Grand Lodge of 
Freemasons. He himself composed anthems, 
glees, madrigals, pf. pieces, etc. 

Cowen, Frederic Hymen, b. Jan. z'g, 1852, 
Kingston, Jamaica, was brought to England by 
his parents when four years old ; he showed 
decided taste for music, and they wished him 
to be trained by Benedict and Goss. From 
1865-68 he continued his studies at Leipzig 
and Berlin. In 1882 he was appointed director 
of the Academy of Music at Edinburgh. He has 
written an operetta. Garibaldi; two operas, Pauline 
(produced with success at the Lyceum in 1876); 
Thorgrim (produced at Drury Lane in 1890) ; 
the choral works. The Rose Maiden (1870) ; The 
Corsair (1876) ; Saint Ursula (Norwich, 188 1) ; 
The Sleeping Beauty (Birmingham Festival, 1885) ; 
Ruth. (1887). Also five symphonies (a " Scan- 
dinavian," No. 3; a "Welsh," No. 4; No. 5 is 
in f) ; and an overture, an orchestral suite, 
"The Language of Flowers," several chamber 
works, songs, etc. 

Cracovienne (Fr.). {See Krakowiak.) 

Cramer, (i) Karl Friedrich, b. March 7, 
1752, Quedlinburg, d. Dec. 8, 1807, Paris. He 
was at first professor at Kiel, but lost his post 
in 1794, because he openly showed sympathy 
with the French Revolution. C. published 
several collections with critical introductions 
(" Flora," pianoforte pieces and songs ; "Poly- 
hymnia," operas in pianoforte score ; Magazin 
fur Musik, 1783-89). He translated Rousseau's 
works into German, and wrote a " Kurze Uber- 
sicht der Geschichte der Franzosischen Musik" 
(1786). — {2) Wilhelm, a distinguished violinist, 
b. 1745 (1743), Mannheim, d. Oct. 5, 1799, 
London. He studied with Stamitz and Cau- 
nabich, was in the Mannheim band up to 1772, 
and, after that, in London as conductor of the 
king's band, ^Jid at the same time leader at the 




Opera, Pantheon, Ancient Concerts, and the 
Professional Concerts ; he was also leader at 
the Handel Festivals of 1784 and 1787. He 
was highly esteemed as a solo player. — (3) 
Franz, b. 1786, Munich, nephew of the former, 
lived at Munich as principal flautist in the 
band. Flute concertos, variations, etc., of his 
appeared in print. — (4) Johann Baptist, one 
of the. most distinguished pianists and teachers 
of any age, b. Feb. 24, 1771, Mannheim, the 
eldest son of Wilhelm C. {see .2), d. April 16, 
185^, London. He studied with- Schroter and 
dementi, who imparted to him a knowledge of 
the classical composers; but in the matter of 
theory, he was, for the most part, self-taught. 
He began his concert tours in 1788, which 
quickly spread his fame as a pianist. He 
always regarded London as his home and rest- 
ing place ; he resided in Paris from 1832 to 
1845, but then returned to London. In 1828, 
jointly with Addison, he established a music- 
publishing house, which brought out, specially, 
classical works, and which he himself con- 
ducted up to 1842 ; the firm still flourishes 
under the title " C. & Co." Cramer's composi- 
tions- (105 pf. sonatas, seven concertos, a pf. 
quintet and pf. quartet, variations, rondos, etc.) 
are well-nigh forgotten at the present day; 
only his " Grosse Pianoforte -Schule," and 
especially the fifth part, the eighty-four Studies 
(also- separately as Op. 56, with sixteen new 
Studies; a selection, sixty, has been edited by 
Biilow, with remarks and certain alterations; 
and another selection, with a second pianoforte 
accompaniment, by Ad. Henselt) have, as material 
for instruction, achieved immortality. A noble, 
poetical spirit breathes through these studies ; 
and this renders them agreeable both to pupils 
and teachers. The " Schule der Fingerfertig- 
keit," Op. 100 (100 daily studies, the second 
part of the " Grosse Pianoforte-Schule "), also 
enjoys a certain name, but not to the extent 
which it deserves. 

Cranz, August, a music-publishing house in 
Hamburg, founded in 18 13 by August Hein- 
rich C. (b, 1789, d. 1870). The present pro- 
prietor, his son, Alwin C. (b. 1834), came into 
the business in 1857, bought, besides, in 1876, 
the important publishing business of C. A. 
Spina {cf. Schreiber), at Vienna, and set up a 
branch establishment (A. Cranz) at Brussels in 
1883, and at London, 1892. 

Craywiuckel, Ferdinand Manuel de, b. 
Aug. 24, 1820, Madrid, has been living in 
Bordeaux since 1825, where, he was trained by 
Bellon, one of Reicha's pupils. C. is a com^ 
poser of note (six grand masses, a Stabat, motets, 
Cantica, etc.). 

Create, to, to perform a musical work, to 
impersonate a r6le for the first time in public. 
Credo (Lat.), the third part of the Mass (q.v.). 
Cremouese Violins, a term applied to those 

instruments made by the Amati, Stradivari, and 
Guameri ; also to those of Bergonzi, Guadagnini, 
Montagnana, Ruggieri, Storione, and Testore. 

Crequillon (Crecquillon), Thomas, contra^ 
puntist of the i6th century, maestro to Charles 
V. at Madrid about 1544. He was afterwards 
canon at Namur, Terbonde, and finally at 
B^thune, where he died in 1557. He was one 
of the best masters during the period between 
Josquin and Orlando di Lasso. A great number 
of his works (masses, cantatas, etc.) have been 
preserved, partly in special editions, partly in 

Crescendo (Ital., "growing"), increasing in 
loudness. A C. is brought about in the orchestra 
in two ways ; either by the gradual addition of 
instruments, or by louder playing on the varioijs 
instruments. The human voice, wind and string 
instruments, have full power over the C, as 
they can swell out any particular tone ; on the 
pianoforte this is not possible, and the C. must 
be produced by a stronger touch. Formerly 
the organ entirely lacked the C. ; by gradually 
pulling out stops, an increase of sound was 
brought about, but the effect was naturally a 
jerky one. Within recent times, attempts have 
been made in two ways to remedy this evil : — 
(i) one or two soft stops have been enclosed in a 
box with movable shutter, worked by means of 
a pedal (Swell, Dachschwdler, JalousieschweUer) ; — 
(2) a clever mechanical apparatus, worked by a 
pedal, effects a gradual entry of the stops in a 
definite succession. But, even now, the organ 
cannot produce a real C, such as one hears in 
the orchestra; and this, perhaps, is not to be 
desired, as it would rob the organ tone of its 
majestic passionlessness, and tend to a senti- 
mental or pathetic mode of playing. {C/. Ex- 
pression, Dynamics, Phrasing, art of.) 

Crescent (Ger. Halbmond, Schellenbatim, Mo- 
hammedsfahne), a Turkish rattle- or bell-instru- 
ment introduced into the German regimental 
bands at the time of the Turkish wars. 

Crescentini, Girolamo, one of the last and 
most distinguished Italian sopranists (evirati), 
b. 1766, Urbania, near Urbino (Pipal States), d. 
1846. He made his debut at Rome in 1783, and 
was then engaged at Livorno, Padua,, Venice, 
Turin, London (1786), Milan, Naples (1788-89), 
and other places. Napoleon heard him in 1805, 
gave him the decoration of the Iron Crown, 
and attracted him to Paris in 1806 In 1812 he ' 
withdrew definitely from the stage. In 1816 he 
settled in Naples, and for many years was 
teacher of singing at the Real Collegia di Masiat'. 
F6tis speaks of him as the last great singer 
that Italy produced. To a voice of marvel- 
lously beautiful quality he united virtuosity of 
the highest order, and overpowering dramatic 
warmth. C. also composed several interesting 
vocal pieces ; and he published a collection of 
vocalises with introductory remarks on the art 
of singing. 




Ciesaent, Anatole, b. April 24, 1824, Ar- 
genteuil (Seine-et-Oise), d. May 28, 1870, as 
jurist in Paris ; he was a thoroughly well- 
trained musical amateur. In his will he left a 
legacy of francs (to which his heirs 
added 20,000) for the purpose of establishing a 
double competition for the writers of libretti, and 
for the composers of operas {Concours C). The 
prize, consisting of the interest of the capital, 
is given away every three years. The first to 
obtain it was William Chaumet, with a comic 
opera.,' Bathylle (1875). 

Cristofori (falsely called Cristofali, Cristo- 
Christophoris, the inventor of the Hammerclavier, 
or, as he named it, and as it is still called, 
pianoforte. He was born May 4, 1655, Padua, d. 
March 17, 1731. Florence ; he became principal 
clavier-maker in his native town, and later on 
(about 1690) at Florence, where, in 1716, Fer- 
dinand of Medici placed under his charge his 
collection of instruments. C.'s invention was 
announced and described by Marchese Scipioue 
Maffei in Giornale dei Letterati d'ltalia in 1711 ; 
but, notwithstanding this description — trans- 
lated by Konig, given in Mattheson's " Critica 
Musica " (1725); and in Adlung's " Musica 
Mechanica Organoedi" (1767), and the atten- 
tion called to all these proofs by Schafhautl in 
his well-known " Sachverstandigenbericht iiber 
die.Munchener Ausstellung, 1854" — O. Paul, 
in his "Geschichte des Claviers" (1869), attri- 
buted the honour of the invention to the or- 
ganist Schroter, of Nordhausen. (Cf. SchrSter.) 
Apart from clever improvements of certain 
details, the mechanism employed by C. was the 
same as that employed by Gottfried Silbermann, 
Streicher, Broadwood, etc., the so-called English 
action. {Cf. Pianoforte.), In honour of C., a 
grand festival was held at Florence in 1876, and 
a memorial tablet erected in the cloisters of 
Santa Croce. 

Crivelli, (i) Arcangelo, b. Bergamo, chapel- 
singer (tenor) to the Pope about 1583, d. 1610. 
He composed' masses, psalms, and motets, but 
these, with the exception of a few motets, re- 
mained in manuscript. — (2) Giovanni Bat- 
tista, b. Scandiano (Modena) ; from 1629 to 
1634 ^ was capellmeister at the Electoral Court, 
Munich, and engaged in a similar capacity to 
Franz I. of Modena (1631), and became maestro 
of S. Maria Maggiore, Bergamo, in 1654. He 
composed " Motetti concertati " (1626) and 
" Madrigali concertati " (1633). — (3) Gaetano, 
distinguished tenor singer, b. 1774, Bergamo, 
d. July 10, 1836, Brescia. He first sang on all 
the great stages of Italy, from 181 r to 1817 at 
the Theatre ItaKen, Paris, the following year at 
London, and after that, again in Italy. He sang 
up to 1829, although his voice had long been 
worn-out. His son, Domeuico, b. 1794. 
Brescia, wrote an opera for London, was for 
some years teacher of singing at the Real 

Colkgio di Musica, Naples, and, after that, lived 
as teacher of singing in London. He published a 
Method, "The Art of Singing" (Augener, 9998). 

Croce, Giovanni dalla, b. about 1560, 
Chioggia, near Venice (hence called "II Chio- 
zotto), d. May 15, i6og. He studied with Zar- 
lino, who placed him in the choir of St. Mark's, 
and in 1603 he became successor of Donato as 
maestro at that Cathedral. C. was not only a 
contemporary, but also of kindred mind with the 
younger Gabrieli, and one of the most important 
composers of the Venetian school. Those of his 
works which have been handed down to us are : 
— sonatas a 5 (1580), two books of motets a 8 
(1589-90) ; the Second book republished in 1605 
with organ bass, and the whole in 1607), two 
books of madrigals k 5 (1585-88), "Triacca 
Musicale " (1595, " MusikalischeArznei," humor- 
ous songs [Capricci] a 4-7 ; among others, the con- 
test between the cuckoo and the nightingale, with 
the parrot as umpire), six madrigals k 6 (1590), a 
fourth book of madrigals (i 5-B, 1607), "Can- 
tiones sacra " ^ 8 vnth coutinuo, canzonets a 4 
(2nd ed. 1595), masses a 8 (1596), Lamentations 
a 4 and a 6, Improperia a 4, Psalms a 3 and a 6, 
motets a 4, Magnificats a 6, vesper Psalms k 8, 
and many detached pieces in collections. 

Croche (Fr.), quaver ; Double c, semiquaver. 

Crocheta, (Lat.), crotchet. 

Croes, Henri Jacques de, baptised. Sept. 
19, 1705, Antwerp, d. Aug. 16, 1786, Brussels. 
He was, at first, violinist and deputy-con- 
ductor at St. James's, Antwerp, was appointed 
(probably capellmeister) at the Thurn and Taxis 
Court at Rati'sbon, Sept. 4, 1729. He went in 
1749 to Brussels, and became royal maitre de 
chapelle (1755). C. wrote many sacred and 
instrumental works. The complete catalogue 
of his works is in Fetis's " Biographie Uni- 

Croft (Crofts), William, b. 1678, Nether 
Eatington (Warwickshire), d. Aug. 14, 1727, 
London. He was one of the children of 
the Chapel Royal, and sworn in as a gentle- 
man (1700) ; in 1704, jointly with Clark, organ- 
ist of the same, and after the death of the 
latter (1707), sole organist. In 1708 he suc- 
ceeded Blow as organist of Westminster Abbey, 
and master of the children, and composer to 
the Chapel Royal. His principal works are; 
" Musica Sacra " (2 vols., forty anthems, and a 
Burial Service), the first English work engraved 
in score (1724); " Musicus apparatus academ- 
icus " (the exercise for his Doctor's degree), two 
odes for the Peace of Utrecht, violin sonatas, 
flute sonatas, etc. 

Crooks (Ger. Bagen, -Kmmmbogen), accessory 
pieces of tubing applied to the mouthpiece of the 
natural horn, by which means a c-horn can be 
changed into a bI? -horn, etc. In the few orches- 
tras in which natural horns are found, crooks 
are still used. 




Crosdill, John, an excellent performer on the 
'cello, b. 1751, London, d. Oct. 1825, Escrick 
(Yorkshire). From 1769 to 1787 he was prin- 
cipal 'cellist of the Festivals of the Three Choirs, 
and in 1776 of the " Concerts of Ancient Music," 
in 1777 violist of the Chapel Royal, in 1782 
chamber-musician to Queen Charlotte, and 
teacher to the Prince of Wales (George IV.). 
In 1788 he married a lady of fortune, and re- 
tired from public life. 

Cross-flute (Ger. Querfiote). (See Flute.) 

Crossing of parts takes place in a musical com- 
ppsition when, for example, the tenor occasion- 
ally goes above the alto, or the alto above the 
soprano, or the bass above the tenor, and so 
on. Crossing of parts in elementary exercises in 
four voices is forbidden ; but afterwards (when 
the pupil can write curnnte calamo), in order to 
make use of the full compass of a voice, also to 
make the parts move freely and melodiously, it 
becomes necessary for the teacher to point out 
the advantages of crossing of parts. 

Crotch, William, b. July 5, 1775, Norwich, 
d. Dec. 29, 1847, Taunton. He was an extra- 
ordinary youthful prodigy, for at the age of 2J 
he began to play on a small organ built by his 
father, who was a carpenter. An account by 
Burney of this rare phenomenon was printed in 
the Philosophical Transactions of 1779. C. did 
not become a Mozart ; he did not, however, as 
most wonder children, remain in the stage of 
early development, but became an accomplished 
musician and teacher. In 1786 he went to 
Cambridge as assistant to Professor Randall, 
studied for the church at Oxford from 1788, 
but was appointed ' organist of Christ Church 
there in 1790. He took his degree of Mus. Bac. 
in 1794, and in 1797 succeeded Hayes as Pro- 
fessor of Music at the University, and as organist 
of St. John's College. He received his Doctor's 
degree in 1799, and from 1800 to 1804 delivered 
lectures in the Music School. About 1820 he 
was appointed lecturer at the Royal Institution, 
London, and in 1822 was named Principal of 
the newly-established Royal Academy of Music, 
and remained in this post until his death. C. 
composed several oratorios (of which Palestine 
is the best), anthems, glees, cantatas for special 
occasions (odes), three organ concertos, etc. 
He also wrote; "Practical Thorough Bass," 
" Questions in Harmony" (Catechism, 1812), 
" Elements of Musical Composition " (1833). 

Crotchet, the name for the quarter-note (J). 
It is confusing to find that the French term for 
J^ is croche. The simple explanation is as fol- 
lows : — Crocketa was the old name for the semi- 
minima.when it was represented by a white note 

with a hook (Fr. croc, crochet), thus. 


the black semi-minima became general, the 
English retained the name for the value, but 
the French, for the figure. 
Crout (Crowd, Crwth). {See Chrotta.) 

Crucifixus (Lat.), a part of the Creio in the 

Cruger, (i) Pankraz, b. 1546, Finsterwalde 
(Niederlausitz), rector at Liibeck, d. 1614 as 
professor at Frankfort-on-the-Oder. According 
to Mattheson, he was an opponent of solmisa- 
tion, and was in favour of letter names for the 
notes ; and for this reason was dismissed from 
his post at Liibeck. — (2) Johannes, b. April g, 
1589, Grossbreesen, near Guben, d. Feb. 23, 
1662, Berlin. He was trained for a school- 
master, and was private tutor at Berlin in 1615, 
but went in 1620 to Wittenberg to study divinity. 
According to his own statement (1646) he ac- 
quired, at the same time, sound musical know- 
ledge, especially under Paulus Homberger at 
Ratisbon, who was a pupil of Joh. Gabrieli; 
and in 1622 he became organist of St. Nicholas' 
Church at Berlin, which post he retained until' 
his death. C. was one of the best composers of 
church song, and his chorales are still sung 
at the present day ("Nun danket alle Gott," 
" Jesus meine Zuversicht," " Schmiicke dich, o 
liebe Seele," " Jesus, meine Freude "). His col- 
lections of sacred melodies bear the titles : 
" Neues vollkbmliches Gesangbuch Augspurgis- 
cher Konfession, etc." (1640); "Praxis pietads 
melica, etc." (1644) ; " Geistliche Kirchenmelo- 
deyen, etc." (1649) ; " Dr. M. Luthers wie auch 
andrer gottseliger christlicher Xeute Geistliche 
Lieder und Psalmen " (1657).; " Psalmodia 
sacra, etc." (1658). Langbecker wrote a mono- 
graph on Criiger's chorales ' (1835). C. com- 
posed besides : " Meditationum musicarum Para- 
disus primus" (1622) and " secundus " (1626) ; 
" Hymni selecti " (without year of publication) ; 
" Recreationes musicas" (1651). The following 
works on theory are of the highest interest for 
a knowledge of musical art of that period: 
" Synopsis musica " ["musices"] (1624?, 1630, 
and enlarged in 1634) ; " Praecepta musicae 
figuralis " (1625); " Quaestiones musigae prac- 
ticae" (1650). 

Cruvelli, two sisters gifted with splendid voices 
(contralto), whose real name was Cruwell. 
The elder, (i) Friederike Marie, b. Aug. 29, 
1824, Bielefeld (Westphalia), appeared in London 
in 1851, and created great astonishment by her 
singing; but her success was not lasting, 
for she lacked solid training. §he soon with- 
drew from the stage, and died of grief, owing 
to her unfortunate career, at Bielefeld, July 26, 
1868. The younger— (2) Johanne Sophie 
Charlotte, b. March 12, 1826, Bielefeld; met 
with better — ^indeed great success. She made 
her debut at Venice in 1847, and celebrated 
brilliant triumphs. In 1848 she appeared in 
London as' the Countess [Figaro], but, as Jenny 
Lind played the part of Susanna, her merits 
were not fully recognised. Her passionate dis- 
position, as well as her imperfect training, led 
her more and more to modern Italian Opera. 
She went in 1851 to Paris, appeared at the 
Italian Opera, and obtained a brilliant success 




ih Verdi's Emani. Her Paris reputation as- 
sisted her in obtaining the recognition which 
she so desired in London. She sang here for 
several seasons, and in 1854 received an engage- 
ment at the Paris Opera-house with a yearly 
stipend of 100,000 francs. The enthusiasm of 
the public over her impersonation of Valentine 
in Les ■ Httgumots knew no bounds, but it was 
not of long duration. Even in Paris her faults 
began to attract notice ; but once more the 
public warmed towards her in Verdi's Vepns 
Siciliennes. In 1856 she married Count Vigier 
(d, Oct. 20, 1882), and withdrew from the stage. 
She resides alternately at Paris and at Bielefeld. 

Crystal Palace Concerts, Sydenham, London, 
were started Sept. 22, 1855, under the direction 
of August Manns, and their fame is not surpassed 
by any other similar institution. A concert 
takes place every Saturday from the beginning 
of October to the end of April, with a breai at 
Christmas. There are sixty-one strings in the 
orchestra, which is therefore greater than that 
of the Paris Conservatoire. The programmes 
are arrajiged on the same plan as those of the 
Gewandhaus, Leipzig (one symphony, two over- 
tures, one concerto, solos and songs). 

C sharp (Ger. Cis), c raised by a sharp, ci 

major chord = cl, e4, ^ J ; cj minor chord = et, 
'. ?4 ; ct mgijor key with signature of 7 * ; 
ci minor key with signature of 4 J. {See Key.) 

Gui, Cesar Antonowitsch, b. Jan. 6, 
1835, Wilna ; he first attended the Gymnasium 
there, then the School of Engineering, and the 
Engineering Academy in Petersburg ; and, when 
his studies were ended, was appointed first 
under-master, then successively teacher, as- 
sistant-professor, and finally professor of fortifi- 
cation at the same Academy. In connection 
with that special branch he wrote " Lehrbuch 
der Feldbefestigungen " (3rd ed. 1880), and a 
brief sketch of the history of fortification. From 
early youth C. busied himself with music, re- 
ceived regular theoretical instruction from Moni- 
uzsko, and, together with Balakireff, studied the 
scores of the best masters. From 1864 to 1868 
he contributed musical articles to the St. Peters- 
Imrger Zeitung, and warmly advocated the cause 
of Schumann, Berlioz, and Liszt. From 1878 to 
1879 he published in the Paris Revue et Gazette 
Musicale a series of articles — " La musique en 
Russie." As a composer C. belongs to the 
"innovators" (young Russian school; Rimski- 
Korsakoff, Mussorgski, Dargomyzski), i.e. pro- 
gramme-musicians ; yet with the intelligent re- 
servation that all programme-music shall be 
good music, even without the programme. His 
principal works are : four operas {Der Gefangene 
im Kauhasus, Der Sohn des Mandarins, William 
Ratcliff, Angela — the last two appeared with 
Russian and German words), two scherzi and 
a tarantelle for orchestra, a suite for pf. and 
violin, and over fifty songs. An " Esquisse 

Critique" on the composer and his works was 
written by Countess de Mercy-Argenteau. 

Cummings, William Hayman, an es- 
teemed English oratorio, singer (tenor), b. 1835, 
Sidbury (Devon) ; he was, at first, in the choir of 
St. Paul's and afterwards in that of the Temple 
Church. Later on he became tenor-singer at 
the Temple, Westminster Abbey, and the 
Chapels Royal, but resigned all these posts. 
He was appointed conductor of the Sacred 
Harmonic Society in 1882. He edits the pub- 
lications of the Purcell Society, and has also 
written a Purcell biography (for the " Great 
Musicians " series), and a " Primer of the Rudi- 
ments of Music " (Novello) ; he has also com- 
posed a cantata, The Fairy Ring, and sacred 

Curci, Giuseppe, b. June 15, 1S08, Barletta, 
d. there Aug. 5, 1877. He was a pupil of the 
Naples Conservatorio (Furno, Zingarelli, Cres- 
centini) and first became known in Italy as an 
operatic composer. He lived as a teacher of 
singing at Vienna, Paris, London, and finally 
returned to Barletta, C. published many sacred 
works, four organ sonatas, also cantatas, songs, 
^nd solfeggi. 

Curschmaun, Karl Friedrich, b. June 21, 
1805, Berhn, d. Aug. 24, 1841, Langfuhr, near 
Danzig. He first studied jurisprudence, but, 
already in 1824, changed in favour of music, 
and became a pupil of Hauptmann and Spohr 
at Cassel. In 1828 his one-act opera Abdttl 
und Erinnieh was produced at Cassel. From 
that time C. lived in Berlin as a composer of 
songs and also as an excellent singer. His songs 
(of which a complete edition was published in 
1871) stand about on the same level with those 
of Abt, perhaps somewhat higher ; and they are 
exceedingly popular. 

Curti, Franz, an opera composer, b. Nov. 
16, 1854, Cassel. He first studied medicine at 
Berlin and Geneva, then became the pupil of Ed. 
Kretschmer and Schulz-Beuthen at Dresden, 
where he has since resided. He wrote the 
operas Hertha (Altenburg, 1887), and Reinhard 
von Ufenau (Altenburg, 1889), and music to W. E. 
Kirchbach's stage stories, " Die letzten Men- 
schen" (Dresden, 1891, at a concert); also a 
choral work, "Die Gletscherjungfrau,"' songs, 
orchestral works, etc. 

Curwen, John, founder of the Tonic Sol-fa 
Method (q.v.), b. Nov. 14, 1816, Heckmondwike 
(Yorkshire), a. June 26, 1880, Manchester, was 
trained for the profession of his father, a Non- 
conformist minister. It was at a conference of 
teachers at Hull that he was first led towards 
the great object of his life. His " Grammar of 
Vocal Music" appeared in 1843, and ten years 
later he founded the Tonic Sol-fa Association, 
and in 1879 the Tonic Sol-fa College. Of 
his educational works may be named: "The 
Standard Course of Lessons and Exercises on 
the Tonic Sol-fa Method " (1861 ; 2nd ed. 1872) ; 




"The Teacher's Manual, etc." (1875); "How 
to Observe. Harmony" (1861 ; 2nd ed. 1872); 
" A Tonic Sol-fa Primer " (Novello) ; " Musical 
Theory" (1879); "Musical Statics" (1874). 
He also published the Tonic Sol-fa Reporter from 
185 1, various hymn- and tune-books, collections 
of part-music, etc. 

Cusanino. {See Carestini.) 

Cusins, William George, b. Oct. 14, 1833, 
London, was one of the Chapel Royal boys, 
became a. pupil of Fetis at the Brussels Con- 
servatoire in 1844, was King's scholar at the 
R. A. M., London, in 1847, under Potter, Bennett, 
Lucas, and Sainton. In 1849 he was appointed 
organist to the Queen, and became, at the same 
time, violinist in the orchestra of the Royal 
Italian Opera. In 1867 he became assistant 
professor, and later on professor, at the R. A. M. 
In 1867 he succeeded Bennett as conductor of 
the Philharmonic Society, and as examining 
professor at Queen's College. In 1870 he was 
appointed Master of the Music to the Queen, and 
resigned in 1893. In 1876 he became, jointly "with 
Hullah and Goldschmidt, examiner for the grant- 
ing of scholarships for the National Training 
School of Music. C. has also appeared at concerts, 
in Germany (Leipzig and Berlin) as violinist. 
As composer ne has written a serenade for the 
wedding of the Prince of Wales (1863), an 
oratorio, Gideon, some overtures, a pf. concerto, 
etc. D. Aug. 31, 1893, at Remouchamps. 

Custos (Lat.), a direct, the sign mi placed at 
the end of a line or page. 

Cuzzoni, Francesca, distinguished vocalist, 
b. 1700, Parma, d. 1770. She studied with Lanzi, 
sang from 1722 to 1726 under Handel, at London, 
with enormous success, but fell out with the 
composer, and was replaced by Faustina Bor- 
doni, who afterwards became the wife of Hasse 
(q.v.). For a whole year the two vocalists were 
bitter rivals, C. singing at the theatre set up in 
opposition to Handel. In 1727 she married the 
pianist and composer Sandoni, and accepted an 
engagement at Vienna, went afterwards to 
It^y, but failed, and was imprisoned in Holland 
for debt. In 1748 she reappeared in London, 
but made no impression, ^nd died in complete 
poverty in Italy, where during, her last years 
she earned a living by making silk buttons. 

Cyclic Forms. (See Form.) 

Cylinder (valves of horns, etc.). {See Pistons.) 

Cymbal (Ger.), (i) Dulcimer (q.v.), the pre- 
decessor of the clavier, which itself is only a 
dulcimer struck by means of a keyboard. (Klavi- 
CYMBAL.) The name C. in its Italian form, 
"CembaJo," was used for the harpsichord, and 
was a common term until the end of the last 
century. The C. is now only to be found in 
gipsy bands (Zimbalon) with a compass of four 
octaves (chromatic) , from e to e'". — (2) A mixture 
stop in the organ, of small scale, like the Scharf. 
{See Acuta.) 

Cymbals (Ger. Beckett; Fr. Cymbales; Ital. 
Piatti), percussion instruments of unchangeable 
and indefinite pitch, which produce a stirring, 
loud, sharp,, rumbling, and long-reverberating 
sound. If they are intended to give only short 
beats, immediately after being struck, the player 
deadens the sound by pressing the instrument 
against his chest. C. are plates of metal with 
broad, flat edges, which latter are really the 
sounding portions, while the middle concave 
perforated part, to which straps are fastened 
for the hand to lay hold of, does . not vibrate ; 
two such plates are struck together (forte), or 
the edges are made to jingle slowly against 
each other (piano). Originally C. were un- 
doubtedly instruments belonging to military 
music, and even now they are most frequently 
to be found in military bands (Janissaries' music), 
yet they have been introduced with good effect 
into operatic and symphonic music. C. are 
often played by the performer who has charge 
of the big drum, and one of the C. is fastened 
loosely to the big drum, so that the player can 
work both instruments at the same time ; with 
one hand he wields the drum-stick, with the other 
the second cymbal. This can be done when C. 
and drum have only, with rough strokes, to mark 
one rhythm; but artistic treatment of the C. 
requires the musician to hold one in each hand. 

Cymbalum, (i) a kind of cymbal (instrument 
of percussion) used by the Roiiians; hence, 
probably, the present Italian name for' cymbals 
(Cinelli). — {2) A kind of small bell, of which the 
monks (loth to 12th century) had a set cast 
with different pitch (a scale of from eight to 
nine notes), and this was worked .after the 
manner of a Glockenspiel. Many hints as to 
the mode of preparing them have been, handed 
down to us in Gerbert, " Scriptores, etc." 

Cymbelstem, a kind of toy ; a visible star with 
small bells, found on the pipes " in prospect " 
of old organs ; it was set in motion by a current 
of air acted on by a special draw-stop ; the 
tinkle which resulted was of no real artistic 

Czardas, a wild Hungarian dance with 
changes of tempo. 

CzartoTyska, Marcelline(Bl« Princess R a d- 
ziwill), b. 1826, Vienna, a pupil of Czerny's, 
and a distinguished pianist. She has been 
living in Paris since 1848. 

Czemohorsky, Bohuslaw, b. about 1690, 
Nimburg (Bohemia), d. 1720, whilst travelling 
to Italy. He entered the order of the Minorites, 
was Regens chori of St. Antonio at Padua, after- 
wards (about 1715) organist of the monastery 
church at Assisi (where Tartini was his pupil), 
about 1735 director of the music of St. James's 
Church, Prague (where Gluck was his pupil). 
C. was a distinguished composer of sacred 
music ; unfortunately nearly all his works were 
lost in. the fire which destroyed the monastery 
of the Minorites in 1754. 




Czemy, Karl, b. Feb. 20, 1791, Vienna, d. 
there July 15, 1857. He was the son and pupil 
of an excellent pianist and teacher, Wenzel C., 
and had, for some time, the privilege of lessons 
from Beethoven. His development was so 
rapid that already at the age of fifteen he was 
much sought after as a teacher. With the 
exception of some short journeys to Leipzig, 
Paris, London, etc., he lived in Vienna, teach- 
ing, and composing, for the most part, educa- 
tional works. Wonderful was the result of his 
activity as a teacher. Liszt, Dohler, Thalberg, 
Frau V. Belleville-Oury, Jaell, and others were 
his pupils. The number of Czemy's composi- 
tions exceeds one thousand, among which are 
many sacred (masses, offertoria, etc.), orchestral, 
and chamber-music works. Only his studies, 
however, have won lasting importance, espe- 
cially "Schule der Gelaufigkeit" (Op. 299), 
"Schule der Fingerfertigkeit " (Op. 740), forty 

" Tagliche Studien" (Op. 337), " Schule des Le- 
gato und Stakkato (Op. 335) ; Schule der Verzier- 
ungen " (Op. 355), " Schule des Fugenspiels " 
(Op. 400), "Schule des Virtuosen" (Op. 365), 
" Schule der linken Hand " (Op. 399), and the 
Toccata in c (Op. 92). C. understood better 
than anyone else the simple primitive forms 
from which all pianoforte-passage writing is 
evolved ; his studies, therefore, are of immense 
help in the earlier stages of development. In 
contrast to many modern studies, they are 
written in an uncommonly clear style, and are 
organic in structure. 

Czersky. (See Tschirch.) 

Czerveny. {See Cerveny.) 

Cziak. (See Schack.) 

Czibulka, Alphons, b. May 14, 1842, Szepes- 
Varallya (Hungary), bandmaster at Vienna, a 
prolific composer of dance music (also an 
operetta, Pfingsten in Flonnz, 1884). 


D, the letter name of the fourth note of the 
musical alphabet (q. v.) ; the <? of the twice-accented 

octave ^ j~f belonged, from the 13th cen- 
tury, to the Claves signata (clefs), but was 
scarcely ever employed. Only in the Tablature 
notation of the i6th century, when the melody 
is placed on a stave, do we find the dd-dei com- 
bined with the gg-clei : 

(For the solmisation names of D, c^ Mutation.) 
In France, Italy, etc., D is now simply called 
Re. — As abbreviation, d means the right hand 
(droite, dextra, destra, sc. main, mantis, memo, hence 
d. m. or TO. d.),ot the Italian da, dal, which, how- 
ever, it is better not to abbreviate (d. c.-^da 
capo, d. s. =zdal segno). As a label on vocal-part 
hooks, D (Discantits,Desstis) has the same mean- 
ing as C (Cantvs) and S (Sopranus, Superius). 

Da (Ital.), " from," Da Capo. (See Capo.) 

D'accord (Fr.), in tune. 

Dach (Ger. ; lit., "roof"), the upper part of 
the sound-box of a string-instrument ; the belly 
of a violin, etc. 

Dacha, Joseph, b. Sept. 30, 1825, Ratisbon; 
studied from 1844 at Vienna, under Halm and 
Czemy, now an esteemed teacher of the piano- 
forte at the Conservatorium ' ' der Musikfreunde . ' ' 

Dachsohweller. (See Crescendo.) 

Dactyl, a metrical foot consisting of three 

syllables, the first long, the other two 

short : — ^ ■^. 

Dactylion (Gr., " finger-trainer "), an appar- 
atus of the Chiroplast kind (q.v.), constructed 

by H. Herz in 1835, and, like all similar at- 
tempts, soon forgotten. 

Dal (Ital.), for da il (" from the "). 

Dalayrac, Nicolas (d'Alayrac), b. June 13, 
1753, Muret (Hte. Garonne), d. Nov. 27, 1809, 
Paris ; in his time he was a favourite French 
composer of operettas, of extraordinary fertility 
and rapidity of production (sixty-one operas in 
twenty-eight years, 1 781- 1809). His works, 
however, even during his lifetime, were not 
known beyond Paris. 

Dalberg, Tohann Friedrich Hugo, 
Reichsfreiherr von, b. May 17, 1752, 
Aschaffenburg, d. there July 26, 1812 ; member 
of the cathedral chapter at Treves and Worms ; 
he was an excellent pianist, fair composer, and 
thoughtful writer on music. He composed 
chamber-works, sonatas, variations, Evas Klage 
and Der sterbende Christ an seine Seek (both 
cantatas after Klopstock), etc., and wrote: 
"Blick eines Tonkiinstlers in die Musik der 
Geister" (1777), "Vom Erkennen und Er- 
finden" (179J), vUntersuchungen uberden 
Ursprung der Harmonic" (1801), "Die Xols- 
harfe, eih allegorischer Traum " (1801), " Ueber 
griechische Instrumentalmusik und Uire Wirk- 
ung," and translated Jones' " The Musical 
Modes of the Hindus " (1802). 

D' Albert. (See Albert.) 

Dall, Roderick, the last Scotch "wandering 
harpist " ; he was still alive about 1740 at Athol, 
wandering from one noblenian's seat to another. 
(Of. Bards.) 

Dalla (Ital), same as da la (" from the "). 

Dall' Argine. (See Argine,) 

Dalvlmare, Martin Pierre, harpist of note, 
and composer for his instrument, b. 1770, 
Dreux (Eure-et-Loire). He first took up music 




as an amateur, but by the revolution of 1789 was 
compelled to depend upon his skill for support. 
In i8o5 he became harpist to the court, but 
gave up this post in 1812, as the inheritance of 
an estate placed him in easy circumstances. 
He was still living in 1837. His works are : 
sonatas for harp and violin, duets for two 
harp?, for harp and pf., harp and horn, varia- 
tions, etc. 

Damoke, Bert hold, b. Feb. 6, 1812, Han- 
over, d. Feb. 15, 1875, Paris ; pupil of Aloys 
Schmitt and F. Ries at Frankfort ; from 1837 
conductor of the Philharmonic Society at Pots- 
dam, and of the Choral Union for operatic 
music, with which he arranged grand concerts 
(1839-40). In 1845 D. went to Petersburg, 
where he obtained an honourable and lucrative 
post as teacher. In 1855 he moved to Brussels, 
and from 1859 lived in Paris. He was an 
ardent worshipper of Berlioz, and one of his 
most intimate friends (one of his executors). 
Damcke's own compositions (oratorios, part- 
songs, pf. pieces) show a practised hand, but 
little originality. The last years of his life 
were worthily employed in revising Mile. 
Pelletan's edition of the scores of Gluck's 

Damenisation. (See Bobisation.) 

Damm, (i) Friedrich, b. March 7, 1831, 
Dresden, pupil of Jul. Otto, Kragen and Reichel, 
lived for many years in America, and is now 
rnusic teacher at Dresden. He has published 
many brilliant pianoforte pieces; works of a 
more serious character remain in manuscript. — 
(2) G. (See Steingraber.) 

Damoreau, Laure Cinthie, nee Monta- 
lant, distinguished opera singer, b. Feb. 6, 
1801, Paris, d. there Feb. 25, 1863 ; she studied 
at the Conservatoire, first sang at the Italian 
Opera, under the name Mile. Cinti, in London 
(1822), then again in Paris; from 1826-35 was 
a "star" at the Grand Opera (Rossini wrote 
several rdles for her), then, until 1843, at the 
Opera Comique, where, amongst other works, 
Auber wrote the Domino Noir for her. After 
retiring from the stage, she appeared for several 
years at concerts in Belgium; Holland, Russia, 
also in America. In 1834 she was appointed 
teacher of singing at the Conservatoire, in which 
capacity she published a, " Methode de Chant " 
and romances of her own. In 1856 she retired 
to Chantilly. 

Damper. {See Sordino.) 

Dampfer (Ger.), a damper ; a mute. 

Dampfung (Ger.), (i) damping, muffling. — 
(2) The part of the pianoforte action which 
stops the vibrations of the strings. 

Damrosch, Leopold, b. Oct. 22, 1832, Posen, 
d. Feb. 15, 1885, New York, showed musical 
talent at an early age, and predilection for a 
musical vocation; but in obedience to the 
wishes of his parents he studied medicine, and 

in 1854 took his degree of Dr.Med. His pro- 
fessional studies at an end, he devoted himself 
entirely to music, though against his parents' 
wish ; and, as they withdrew all support, he was 
compelled to earn his living, and in a miserable 
way. He first travelled about as a violinist, 
visiting small towns and watering-places; then 
he obtained engagements as conductor at small 
theatres, until at last he received a fixed ap- 
pointment in the court band at Weimar. Here 
he entered into personal intercourse with Liszt 
and his most distinguished pupils, Biilow, 
Tausig, Cornelius, Lassen, Eind also into friendly 
relationship with Raff. D. married at Weimar 
Helene v. Heimburg, an excellent Lieder- 
singer, who had appeared on the stage there. In 
1858 he accepted the post of conductor of the 
Breslau Philharmonic Society, and gained merit 
by making known the works of Wagner,- Liszt, 
and Berlioz. In i860 he gave up this post, in 
order to make several concert-tours with Biilow 
and Tausig, but resided at Breslau, where he 
established Quartet soirles.. In 1862 he founded 
the Breslau Orchestral Society (seventy mem- 
bers ; present conductor Maszkowsky) ; the new 
enterprise was everywhere recognised, and the 
best artists appeared at its concerts. He estab- 
lished, besides, a choral union, conducted the. 
society for classical music, was for two years 
capellmeister at the theatre, and appeared, 
besides, as soloist at Leipzig, Hamburg, etc. 
In 1871 he was invited by the Arion Male 
Choral Union at New York to be their con- 
ductor, and this he accepted all the more 
willingly as his enthusiasm for new German 
tendencies had created many difficulties for him 
at Breslau. In New York he now developed his 
organising talent, raised the society to a state 
of extraordinary prosperity, founded in 1873 the 
Oratorio Society — a choral union which now 
counts hundreds of members, and produced 
the most important choral works from Handel, 
Haydn, Bach ("Matthew Passion"), Beethoven 
(every year the gth Symphony) to Brahms, 
Berlioz, and Liszt — and in 1878 the New York 
Symphony Society, both institutions of the 
highest importance for musical life in New 
York. His Symphony concerts at the Steinway 
Hall took the place of the Thomas Orchestra 
Concerts when the latter had been given up. 
The University of Columbia conferred on him 
the degree of Mus.Doc. Liszt dedicated to 
him his " Triomphe funebre du Tasse." D. 
himself composed twelve sets of songs, several 
works for violin (Concerto in d minor, serenades, 
romances, impromptus), a Festival Overture, 
some vocal works with orchestra (''Braut- 
gesang " for male choir; " Ruth und Naomi," 
and " Sulamith," Biblical idylls with soli and 
chorus ; " Siegfrieds Schwert," tenor solo), duets 
etc. D. distinguished himself as conductor of 
the first great musical festival held, at New 
York in 1 88 1 (over 1,200 sing'ers and 250 instru- 
mentalists). He established German Opera at 




New York (1884), in the direction of which his 
son Walter has succeeded him. 

Dances. The older dances were originally 
accoinpaniedby singing, like the German " Rin- 
gelreihen" and " Springtauze " ; the Spanish 
Sarabandes ; the French Branles, Gavottes, Cou- 
rantes, Gigues, Rigaudons, Musettes, Bourrees, 
Passepieds, Loures, etc. ; the Italian Paduane, 
Gagliarde, Ciacone, Passamezzi, etc. The players 
of instruments spread abroad the melodies, and, 
even before the i6th century, they may often 
have been played by instruments only, without 
singing. Anyhow, they were artistically worked 
out with polyphonic accompaniment, at latest, 
at the beginning of the i6th century, of which 
period many printed collections have been pre- 
served. Dances passed through a new phase 
of development, when several of them were 
united in a cycle, the unity of key forming, 
first of all, the bond of union. Hence resulted 
the form of the Partita (Partie) or Suite (q.v.), 
specially cultivated, from the 17th to the i8th 
century, for harpsichord or violin alone, or the 
latter with harpsichord. Thus D. became con- 
siderably extended, and consisted, not merely of 
short (repeated) sections of eight bars, but of 
theme, counter-theme, and developments. 

Danckerts (See Dankers.) 

Dancla, Jean Baptiste Charles, b. Dec. 
ig, 1818, Bagneres de Bigorre (Htes.-Pyrenees), 
pupil of Baillot (violin), Hal^vy, and Berton at 
the Conservatoire, Paris. Already in 1834 he 
entered the orchestra of the Opera-Comique 
as second solo violinist, soon made for him- 
self a name at the Society des Concerts, and 
in 1857 was appointed professor of the violin 
at the Conservatoire. His quartet soirhs en- 
joyed a high reputation ; in these two of his 
brothers took part : — Arnaud, b. Jan. i, 1820, 
d. Feb., 1862, Bagneres de Bigorre, an excellent 
'cellist and author of a 'cello Method; and 
Leopold, b. June i, 1823, who is likewise a 
good violinist, and has published studies, fan- 
tasias, etc. D. has written about 150 works, 
mostly for violin, or ensemble chamber music 
(violin concertos, quartets for strings, trios, 
etc.), and has repeatedly received prizes of high 
honour, among others, the Prix Chartier for 
chamber music (1861, jointly with Farrenc). 
Among his educational woiis are : a " M^thode 
elementaire et progressive de Violon," " Ecole 
de I'Expression," " fcole de la M^lodie," " Art 
de moduler sur le Violon," etc. 

Banel, Louis Albert Joseph, b. March 2, 
1787, Lille, d. there April 12, 1875. He was a 
printer, but retired in 1854, ^■"d devoted the 
last twenty years of his life to benevolent aims. 
D. invented an original notation for elementary 
musical instruction, the " Langue des Sons," as 
he called it, which expressed by letters, not only 
the name, but the duration of the notes, also 

the |, t>, etc. ; so that a syllable answered to each 
note. For example, bel = ^fe:^ (b = b, 

e = |®. l = b)- For further details see his 
" Methode simplifi^e pour I'enseignement popu- 
laire de la Musique Vocale " (4th edition, 1859). 
D., at great cost, established free courses of his 
method in various towns and villages of the 
D^partement du Nord. His efforts for the 
public good were rewarded with the Croix de la 
Legion d'Honneur. 

Danican. {See Philidor.) 

Daniel, Salvador, during the Commune of 
1871 was, for a few days, director of the Paris 
Conservatoire, as successor to Auber, but died 
on the 23rd of May of the same year in an en- 
gagement with the regular troops. However 
little qualified he may seem to have been for the ' 
post of Director of the Conservatoire, still he was 
not without merit, for he had been engaged for 
several years as music teacher in an Arab school 
at Algiers. In 1863 he published a monograph, 
" La Musique Arabe," together with a supple- 
ment on the origin of musical instruments; also 
an album of Arabian, Moorish, and cabahstic 
songs, and a treatise in letter form on the French 
chanson. He was for some time a contributor 
to Rochefort's Marseillaise. 

Banjou, Jean Louis Felix, b. June 21, 
1812, Paris, d. March 4, 1866, Montpelier; 
organist of various Paris churches, and, in 1840, 
of Notre-Dame. He was the first to start the 
question of the reform of Gregorian song in 
his pamphlet, " De I'fitat et de I'Avenir du 
Chant EccUsiastique " (1844), and made a deep 
study of the history of Church song, the results 
of which he made known in his " Revue de la 
Musique Religieuse, Populaire et Classique" 
(1845-49). In a journey undertaken with 
Morelot through the south of France and Italy, 
in 1847, he discovered a number of musical 
manuscripts of the Middle Ages, among them 
the celebrated Antiphonary of Montpelier (with 
neumes and so-called Notation Boetienne; cf. 
Letter Notation). For the sake of improving 
French church organs, D. made a deep study 
of the art of organ-building in Germany, Hol- 
land, and Belgium, and became associated with 
the Paris firm, Daublaine and Callinet (q.v.) ; 
but, by so doing, lost his fortune ; and, besides, 
his efforts at reform in the department of church, 
music raised up many enemies against him. 
Embittered, he entirely renounced music in 1849,. 
and lived first at Marseilles, then at Montpelier, 
as a political journalist. 

Bankers (Danckerts), Ghiselin, Dutch con- 
trapuntist of the i6th century, b. Tholen (Zee- 
land), singer in the Papal Chapel, 1538-65; 
in tne latter year he received a pension. Two 
books of motets, i 4-6, of his have been 
preserved (1559) ; detached motets exist in the 



Daublame et Cajliuet 

Augsburg collections of 1540 and 1545. He also 
wrote an autograph treatise on the ancient 
scales, the judgment in a controversy between 
Vicentino (q.v.) and Lusitano; this autograph 
is in the Vallicellan library, Rome. 

Danneley, John Feltham, b. 1786, Oak- 
ingham, d. 1836 as music teacher in London. 
He published an elementary instruction book, 
" Musical Grammar " (1826), and in 1823 a 
small " Encyclopedia, or Dictionary of Music." 

Dannreuther, Edward, b. Nov. 4, 1844, 
Strassburg. At the age of five he went with his 
parents to Cincinnati, where he received his 
first musical training from F. L. Ritter. From 
1859 to 1863 he attended the Leipzig Con- 
servatorium, and since then has resided in 
London. He is esteemed as pianist, teacher, 
and litterateur. D. is an enthusiastic champion 
of Wagner. In 1872 he founded the London 
Wagner Society, whose concerts he conducted 
from 1873 to 1874. He was one of the chief 
promoters of the Wagner Festival in 1877, and 
translated into English Wagner's " Briefe an 
einen franzosischen Freund," " Beethoven " 
(1880) — the latter with an appendix on Scho- 
penhauer's philosophy — and " Ueber das Di- 
rigiren " (1887). He is, besides, the author 
of " Richard Wagner, his Tendencies and 
Theories," "Musical Ornamentation," as well 
as articles in ^musical papers on Beethoven, 
Chopin, Wagner's Nibelmigen. He was a con- 
tributor to Grove's "Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians," and has given lectures on Mozart, 
Beethoven, and Chopin. D. is one of the most 
esteemed musicians in London. 

Danzi, (i) Franz, b, May 15, 1763, Mann- 
heim, d. April 13, 1826, Carlsruhe, was tha son 
of the 'cellist of the Electoral band, Innocenz 
D. He was a pupil of his father for the 'cello, 
and of Abbe Vogle,r for composition ; and in 
1778, when the band was removed to Munich, 
he became a member of it. In 1780 his first 
opera {Azakia) was produced, and was followed, 
up to 1807, by seven others ; two more remained 
in manuscript. In 1790 he married the singer, 
Margarete Marchand, daughter of the Munich 
theatre director. He received unlimited leave 
of absence, went with her to Leipzig, Prague, 
and travelled through Italy. After the death 
of his wife (1799), he retired for several years 
into private life. In 1798 he was appointed 
vice-capellmeister. From 1807-8 we find him 
again ca;pellmeister at Stuttgart, and, finally, 
occupying a similar post at Carlsruhe. Besides 
the ten operas, D. wrote a number of cantatas, 
masses, Te Deums, magnificats, symphonies, 
'cello concertos, sonatas, quartets, trios, songs, 
etc. — (2) Franziska. (Jee Lebrdn.) 

Dargomyzski, Alexander Sergiewitsch, 
b. Feb. 2, 1813, on his father's estate in the 
Russian Government of Tula, d. Jan. 29, 1869, 
Petersburg. At an early age he made attempts 
at composition, and appeared with success as a 

pianist. From 1835 he lived at Petersburg. 
He won his first success as a composer with 
the opera Esmeralda, written in 1839, produced 
at Moscow in 1847, and at the "Alexandra" 
theatre, Petersburg, in 1851. His Bacckus- 
fest (vocal ballet written in 1845) was first 
produced at Moscow in 1867. From 1843 to 
1850 he published a great number of songs and 
duets, which soon became popular. In Esn£r- 
alda he adopted the form of the operas most in 
vogue (Rossini, Auber) ; but in his Rtissalka 
(Die Nymphe after A. Puschkin), written in 
1855, and first performed in 1856, a more im- 
portant rdle was assigned to recitative. He 
only sketched a few scenes of a fantastic comic 
opera, Rogdana. In 1867 he was elected president 
of the Russian Musical Society ; and his house 
became the meeting-place of the young Russian 
school which pays homage to Schumann, Ber- 
lioz, Wagner, and Liszt. D. adopted more and 
more the principles of Wagner, until at last (and 
not to his advantage) he went further than the 
master. In his posthumous opera (Kammnoi 
g&st ["The Stone Guest "] , scored. by Rimsky- 
Korsakoff, and given, with an after-piece by Cui, 
at the " Maria" theatre in 1872), in which A. 
Puschkin's poem, " Don Juan," has been faith- 
fully adhered to, D. entirely does away with 
musical forms, and only recognises musical 
recitative. The orchestral compositions of D. 
■ — the "Finnish Fantasia," the "Kozaczek" 
(Cossack DEUice), " Baba-Jaza," etc. — and his 
songs, ballads, etc., have achieved great popu- 

Darmsaiten (Ger.), catgut strings. 

Daser, Ludwig, important German contra- 
puntist of the second half of the i6th century. He 
was, at first, capellmeister at Wurtemberg, and 
then at Munich (predecessor of Orlando Lasso). 
A Passion jl 4 of his is printed in the Patro- 
cinium, and a motet in the " Qrgel Tabulatur- 
buch" of J. Paix; but the Munich Library 
possesses masses of his (13 a 4, 7 a 5, and i a 6), 
also a series of mass-servjces and motets. 

Daube, J oh. Friedrich, b, about 1730 
(Cassel, Augsburg ?), d. Sept. 19, 1797, Augs- 
burg, court musician at Stuttgart, afterwards 
secretary to the Augsburg Academy of Sciences. 
He published sonatas for lute, and the following 
works : " Generalbass in drei Akkorden" (1756, 
attacked by Marpurg in the Beitrdge); "Der 
musikalischg Dilettant" (1773, Art of Composi- 
tion), "Anleitung zum Selbstunterricht in der 
Komposition " (1788, two parts). " The " General- 
bass in drei Akkorden" is of special import- 
ance : the three chords are — the tonic triad, the 
chord of the under-dominant with added sixth, 
and the chord of the upper-dominant with 

Daublaine et Callinet, Paris organ-builders. 
The firm was established in 1838 as Daublaine 
et Cie. D an j ou (q.v.) was the intelligent mind 
directing the business, andCallinet the skilled 

Daublaine et Calliiiet 



craftsman (b. 1797, Ruffach, Alsatia, joined the 
firm in 1839), while Daublaine was the mer- 
chant. Caliinet, in 1843, quarrelled with his 
partner, destroyed what had been constructed 
for the St. Sulpice organ, left the firm, and 
entered Cavaille's factory. The name of the firm, 
which has repeatedly changed hands, became, 
in 1845, Ducrocquet et Cie, in 1855, Merhlin, 
Schittze et iCw. The business is now carried on 
by Merklin (q.v.) alone, and the principal factory 
is at Lyons. 

Oaumenaufsatz (Ger.), thumb position. 

Dauprat, Louis Fraufois, famous horn- 
player and composer for his instrument, b. 
May 24, 1781, Paris, d. there July 16, 1868. He 
studied under Kenn at the Conservatoire, then 
became a member of the military band of the 
"Garde Nationale," afterwards of the " Musique 
des Consuls." From 1801 to 1805 he again went 
through a course of theory at the Conservatoire 
under Catel and Gossec ; from 1806 to 1808 he was 
principal horn-player at the Bordeaux Theatre, 
and afterwards succeeded Kenn and Duvernoy 
at the Paris Op6ra. He was, besides, chamber 
musician to Napoleon and to Louis XVIII. In 
1802 he was appointed assistant-teacher, and in 
1816 professor of the horn at the Conservatoire ; 
in 1831 he retired from the Op^ra, and in 1842 
from the Conservatoire. His pubUshed works 
are : " Methode pour cor alto et cor basse " (i.e. 
for first, and second horn), concertos for horn 
and ensemble chamber works with horn. Sym- 
phonies, a Method of harmony, a " Th^orie 
analytique de la Musique," etc., remained in 

Dasssoigne-Mehul, Louis Joseph, nephew 
and foster-son of Mehul, b. June 24, 1790, Givet 
(Ardennes), d. March 10, 1875, Liege. He was 
a pupil of Catel and Mehul at the Conservatoire, 
received in i8og the Grand Prix de Rome, and after 
his return from Italy, tried his luck as an opera 
composer; but he met with great difficulties, 
and after some moderate successes, renounced 
the stage. In 1827 he was appointed director 
of the Conservatoire at Liege, in which post he 
remained until 1862, raising the institution to a 
high degree of prosperity. That he had a sound 
talent is proved by the fact that in the post- 
humous works of his u^icle which he completed, 
the critics could not distinguish between what 
was his and what was his uncle's. As member 
of the Brussels Academie, B. published a series 
of musical treatises on the reports of the meet- 
ings of this institution. 

Davenport, Francis William, b. 1847, 
WUderslowe, near Derby, pupil, and afterwards 
son-in-law of G. Macfarren; he became professor 
of the Royal Academy of Music in 1879, and of 
the Guildhall School of Music in 1882. He has 
written two symphonies — one in D minor (first 
prize at the Alexandra Palace Competitiqn, 
1876), and the other in c major, an overture 
{Twelfth Night), prelude and fugue for orchestra. 

a pf. trio (bJ7), pieces for pf. and 'cello, part- 
songs and songs ; and likewise the theoretical 
works — "Elements of Music" (1884), and "Ele- 
ments of Harmony and Counterpoint " (1886). 

David, (i) Ferdinand, an important violinist 
and one of the best teachers that ever lived, b. 
Jan. 19, 1810, Hamburg, d. July 18, 1873, on a 
journey, at Klosters in Switzerland. He studied 
under Spohr andHauptmann at Cassel (1823-24), 
and, already in 1825, appeared as a finished artist 
in the Gewandhaus, Leipzig (with his sister Luise, 
afterwards Frau Dulcken). In 1827 he joined 
the orchestra of the " Kouigsstadt " Theatre 
at Berlin, and in 1829 became leader of a 
quartet party in the house of a wealthy amateur 
(von Liphardt) at Dorpat, whose daughter he 
married, and made himself a name as violinist 
in concerts at Petersburg, Moscow, Riga, etc. 
In 1836 Mendelssohn, who had made his ac- 
quaintance in Berlin, drew him to Leipzig as 
leader of the Gewandhaus .orchestra. The 
eminently musical nature of David now found 
a rich field of activity, especially after the estab- 
lishment of the Conservatorium in 1843 ; and, 
through his efforts, Leipzig was for a long period 
the high school of violin-playing, even after the 
prestige of Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Gade 
had declined. The manner in which he kept 
the Gewandhaus orchestra together will never 
be forgotten ; the ensemble movements of the 
bows of the violin-players made almost a 
military impression ; and D. who, as leader, had 
to conduct solo performances with orchestral 
accompaniment, was an object of terror to the 
virtuosi who made their debut there. His powers 
as a teacher may be measured by his pupils. 
The best German violinists of the later decades 
before his death studied iinder him (among 
them, Joachim and Wilhelmj). Mendelssohn 
held D. in high esteem, and, during the period 
of their collaboration in Leipzig, frequently 
sought his advice. The violin concerto of the 
former sprang into existence under David's 
eyes, and in its creation he lent a helping hand. 
David's compositions are : five violin coucertosy 
sets of variations, solo pieces, an opera (Hans 
Wacht), two symphonies, and, above all, a violin 
Method which ranks among the best, and the 
" Hohe Schule des Violinspiels " (a collection 
of old compositions for the violin, especially of 
French and Italian masters of the 17th and 
i8th centuries. His son, Peter Paul, b. Aug. 
I, 1840, Leipzig, leader at Carlsruhe from 1862 
to 1865, is now teacher of the violin at Up- 

(2)F61icien Cesar, distinguished French 
composer, b'. April 13, 1810, Cadenet (Vau- 
cluse), d. Aug. 29, 1876, St. Germain en Laye. 
On account of his beautiful voice he \yent 
as chorister to Saint Sauveur, Aix, and obtained 
a scholarship at the Jesuit College ; but, after 
three years, ran away from the school in 
order to devote himself entirely to music, and 




supported himself as clerk in a lawyer's office 
until he was appointed second chef d'orchestre 
at the Aix Theatre. In 1829 he was named 
choir-master of Saint Sauveur's; but he soon 
longed to acquire more knowledge, so as to be 
able to give expression, with technical correct- 
ness, to the musical thoughts which sprang up 
within him ; and, with a meagre support of 
fifty francs a month, he wandered to Paris. 
Cherubini, before whom he placed some of his 
attempts at composition, obtained for him admis- 
sion into the Conservatoire, and D. became a 
pupil of F^tis (composition) and Bfinoist (organ), 
receiving, in addition, private lessons from Reber. 
When at last his uncle withdrew his sniall sup- 
port, D. maintained himself by giving private 
lessons. Saint-Simonism, for which he became 
enthusiastic, proved the turning-point in his life. 
At first he wrote part-songs for the concerts of 
the apostles of Saint-Simonism, of whom he 
was one ; and, after the sect was abolished by 
law in 1833, he went, with some of the other 
apostles, to the East, as a missionary of the new 
doctrine. Meeting with all kinds of adventures, 
they went vid Marseilles to Constantinople, 
Smyrna, Egypt ; later on, D. passed alone 
through Upper Egypt to the Red Sea, but was 
driven away by the plague, and returned to Paris 
in 1838. His journey resulted in a thorough 
acquaintance with the music of the East, in a 
collection of original Oriental melodies, and 
powerful impressions exercising a lasting in- 
fluence on his imagination. The collection of 
Oriental airs which he published in 1835 did 
not produce the expected effect, and D., out of 
humour, withdrew to a friend's house in the 
country, where he wrote a large number of 
instrumental works, some of which were pro- 
duced at Paris. In 1844 he succeeded in get- 
ting his ode-symphonie, " Le Desert," performed 
at a Conservatoire concert — a work in which the 
noble impressions of his Oriental journey are 
musically recorded. It met with extraordinary 
success, and D. was at once recognised as a 
musician of importance. He was not able, in 
1845, to excite the same ecstasy in Germany; 
yet his reputation was firmly established, and 
attention was now bestowed on his former, 
likewise on all his future works. His oratorio, 
Moise au Sinai (1846), certainly only met with 
,a quiet reception, and the mystery, "Eden," 
and the ode-symphony, "Columbus," did not 
awaken the same enthusiastic applause as the 
" Desert." During the year 1848 the Parisians 
had no leisure to pay proper homage to works 
of art ; but D. had free course, and even found 
the doors of opera-houses open to his works. 
In 1857 he produced La Perle du BrHil at the 
Theatre Lyrique. His La Fin du Monde, by 
reason of the strange subject, was refused at 
the Grand Opera, but put into rehearsal at the 
Theatre Lyrique, though not produced. First 
in 1859 the Grand Opera gave it under the title 
— Henulanum; in 1862 followed Lalla Eookh, and 

in 1865 Le Saphir. His " D&ert," however, was, 
and remained, his master-work ; the Saphir was 
somewhat of a falling-off, whilst Lalla Eookh met 
with great success. A fifth opera. La Captive, 
D. himself withdrew, and wrote no more for 
the stage. Of his other works, the twenty-four 
stringed quintets ("Les Quatre Saisons"), two 
nonets for wind-instruments, a symphony in f, 
songs, etc., deserve special mention. In 1867 
D. received from the Acad^mie the great State 
Prize of 20,000 francs ; in 1869 he became 
Academician in Berlioz's place, and was ap- 
pointed successor to, the latter as librarian at 
the Conservatoire. 

(3) Samuel, b. Nov. 12, 1836, Paris ; he was 
pupil of Baziu and Hal^vy at the Conserva- 
toire, and from 1872 musical director of the 
Jewish Synagogue, Paris. In 1858 he received 
the Prix de Rome (cantata, Jephtha), and in 
1859 a prize for a work for male chorus and 
orchestra ("Le genie de la terre"), which 
was performed by six thousand singers. He 
wrote several comic operas and operettas — La 
Peau de I'Ours, 1858 ; Les Chevaliers du Poignard 
(rehearsed, but not performed) ; Mademoiselle 
Sylvia, 1868 ; Tu I'as voulu, i86g ; Le bieii 
d'autrui, 1869 ; Un Caprice de Ninon, 1871 ; La 
Fie des Bruyeres, 1878. The following remain in 
manuscript : La Gageure, Une Dragonnade, L'&ivr 
cation d'un Prince, Absalom, Les Chargeurs, and 7 
Maccabei (Italian) ; also four symphonies, many 
small songs, and a pamphlet—" L'Art de jouer 
en Mesure." 

(4) Ernest, meritorious writer on music, 
b. July 4, 1844, Nancy, d. June 3, 1886, Paris. 
In spite of a lively inclination towards music, 
he at first resolved to become a, merchant; 
and only in 1862, when paralysis of both legs 
compelled him to lead a retired life, did he 
devote himself to the study of the history 
of music under Fetis, with whom he corre- 
sponded. At first he contributed to the Revue 
et Gazette Musicale, the Minestrel, and the Biblio- 
graphe Musicale. In 1873 he published a study, 
" La Musique chez les Juifs," and with M. 
Lussy (q.v.) the "Histoire de la Notation 
Musicale depuis ses Origines " — a work which, 
although it received a prize, is not altogether 
original. D. also wrote a Bach biography (" La 
Vie et les CEuvres de J. S. Bach "). 

Davidoff, Carl, distmguished 'cellist, b. March 
15, 1838, Goldingen (Courland), d. Feb. 26, 
1889, Moscow. He went, as a boy, to Moscow, 
became a pupil of H. Schmidt for the 'cello, 
received further training from C. Schuberth at 
Petersburg, and then went to Leipzig, where 
he studied composition under Hauptmann. In 
1859 he appeared at the Gewandhaus with ex- 
traordinary success, was engaged as solo 'cellist, 
and entered the Conservatorium as teacher in 
the place of F. Griitzmacher. After some con- 
cert tours, however, he returned to Petersburg, 
where he became solo 'cellist in the Imperial 
orchestra, teacher at the Conservatoire (1862), 




and, later on, conductor of the Russian Musical 
Society, and director of the Conservatoire ; the 
last-named post he resigned in 1887. His com- 
positions consist principally of concertos, solo 
pieces, etc., for 'cello ; he published, however, 
some excellent chamber works (pianoforte 
quintet, etc.). 

Davies, Fanny, excellent pianist, b. Guernsey, 
was a pupil (pianoforte) of the Leipzig Con- 
servatorium in 1882, and from 1883 to 1885 at 
the Hoch Conservatorium at Frankfort (Clara 
Schumann) ; she made her dlbut at the Crystal 
Palace in 1885, and has since appeared in Eng- 
land, Germany (Berlin, Leipzig) and Italy, and 
with great success. 

Davison. (Sa Goddard.) 

Davison, James William, b. Oct. 5, 1813, 
London, d. March 24, 1885, Margate. He was 
a pupil of Holmes (pianoforte), and of G. A. 
Macfarren (theory). He first attempted com- 
position, but soon devoted himself entirely to 
musical criticism. He edited the Musical Ex- 
aminer from 1842 to 1844, and the Musical World 
from 1844 down to his death ; and wrote, like- 
wise, for the Saturday Review, Pall Mall Gazette, 
and Graphic. He was musical critic of The Times 
from 1846 to 1879, in which post he exercised 
great influence. D. suggested, and wrote the 
analytic programme-books for the Popular Con- 
certs until his death ; he wrote similar books 
for the " Hall^ " recitals. In 1859 he married 
Arabella Goddard, who had been his pupil 
since 1850. 

Davy (1), John, b. near Exeter, 1765, d. Feb. 
22, 1824, London, a favourite opera composer 
in London from 1800 to 1820. His songs, of 
which "The Bay of Biscay " was one, gained 
great popularity. — (2) Richard, an English 
composer of the early part of the i6th century. 

Day, Alfred, b. Jan., 1810, London, d. there 
Feb. II, 1849. He studied for the medical pro- 
fession in London and Paris, took his degree 
of Dr.Med. at Heidelberg, and practised as an 
homoeopathist in London. He is the author of 
an interesting " Treatise on Harmony " (1845), 
in which, with great intelligence, he strives after 
suitable reforms in the method of teaching. 
He replaces thorough bass figuring by a new 
bass figuring (and from this, unfortunately, he 
could not rid himself); in this figuring the 
identity of the harmonic meaning in the various 
positions of the same chord was to be made clear. 
The sore point of his system is the putting for- 
ward of the .monstrous chord of the thirteenth 
as a formation of chief importance. 

D. c, abbreviation for da capo. (See Capo.) 

D double-Bhaip, D doubly raised by a x . 

De Ahna, (i) Heinrich Karl Hermann, 
b. June 22, 1835, Vienna, d. Nov. i, 1892, 
pupil of Mayseder at Vienna, and afterwards 
of Mildner at the Prague Conservatorium ; he 
appeared, already at the age of twelve, at 

Vienna, London, etc., as a violinist, and in 
1849 was appointed chamber-virtuoso to the 
Duke of Coburg-Gotha. In spite, however, of 
good success, he gave up music, and entered 
the Austrian army as cadet on October i, 1851 ; 
he became lieutenant in 1853, and went through 
the Italian campaign of 1859.- When peace 
was concluded, his love for an artistic vocation 
revived ; he left the army, made concert tours 
through Germany and Holland, and in 1862 
settled in Berlin, and, first of all, as member 
of the royal band. In 1868 he was appointed 
leader, and in 1869 teacher, at the Royal High 
School of Music. D. was not only a good virtuoso, 
but also an excellent quartet player. — (2) Eleo- 
n o r e, sister of the former, b. Jan. 8. 1838, Vienna, 
studied under E. Mantius ; she was an excellent 
singer (mezzo-soprano), and was engaged at the 
court Opera, but died already May 10, 1865, at 

Debain, Alexander Francois, the inventor 
of the harmonium, b. 1809, Paris, d. there, Dec. 
3, 1877. He worked first with Ad. Sax, and 
afterwards set up a pianoforte factory of his own 
in 1834. I'l August, 1840, he took out a patent for 
the harmonium, which speedily made his name 
known. D. was a thoroughly skilled mechan- 
ician, and constructed all kinds of automatic 
musical works ; later on he improved the har- 
monium by means olprolongement, and also per- 
fected the accordion (concertina), etc. 

Debile, or Debole (Ital.), feeble, weak. 

Debillemont, Jean Jacques, b. Dec. 12, 
1824, Dijon, d. Feb. 14, 1879, Paris. He 
studied at the Paris Conservatoire under Alard 
(violin), Leborne, and Carafa, produced some 
operas in his bative town, then (1859) settled in 
Paris, where he became known by his operettas, 
feeries, and by some comic operas (Astaroth, 
produced at the Theatre Lyrique, 1861), can- 
tatas, etc. D. was formerly conductor of the 
concerts of the " Society des Beaux- Arts," and 
afterwards held a similar post at the Porte St. 
Martin theatre. 

Debois, Ferdinand, b. Nov. 24, 1834, Briinn, 
where he lives as bank director and conductor 
of a male choral union of which he was the 
founder. He has written part-songs for male 
voices, which have become popular ; als6 songs, 
duets, pf. pieces, etc. 

Debrois van Bruyck. (See Bruyck.) 

Debut (Fr.), a first appearance. 

Decachord (Ger.), D^cacorde (Fr.), an instru- 
ment of the guitar family, with ten strings. 

D^chant (Fr.). (See Discantus.) 

Decima (Lat.), the tenth degree of the scale, 
practically the same as the third. A muta- 
tion stop in the organ (Tenth, Tierce, Double 
Tierce), which gives the tenth of the 8-feet 
pipes, i.e. the fifth overtone of the i6-feet pipes, 
identical with the Tierce of 3-|-feet. 

Deciso (Ital.), in a decided manner. 




Decker, Konstantin, b. Dec. 29, 1810, Fur- 
stenau, Brandenburg, d. Tan. 28, 1878, Stolp 
(Pomerania), pupil of Denn at Berlin, an able 
teacher, pianist, also composer. He lived for 
some years at Petersburg, and then Konigsberg, 
where his opera Isolde was performed in 1852 ; 
and from 1859 at Stolp. 

Declamando (Ital.), declaiming, spealdng 
rather than singing. (C/. Declamation.) 

Declamation is the name in vocal composition 
for the transformation of poeticEil, into musical 
rhythm. The declamation of a song is bad if 
a weak syllable receives a strong musical accent, 
or is placed on a long note ; or if an accented 
syllable, or a word of special emphasis, has a 
short note, or occurs on the unaccented part of 
a bar. The metrical accent and the musical 
stress must, generally speaking, coincide, and 
for that, the melody need not be capable of 
regular scansion. The simple, popular song, as 
a rule, follows strictly the course of the metre, 
while the art-song moulds it in freer fashion, 
now lengthening, now shortening the periods — 
by extending the syllables, by the succession of 
a number of short notes, etc. (C/. Riemann, 
" Katechismus der Vocalmusik," 1891.) 

Decrescendo (Ital.), abbr. decresc, deer., de- 
creasing in loudness, becoming weaker. 

Dedekind, (i) Henning, cantor at Langen- 
salza about 1590, afterwards minister there, 
and in 1622 at Gebesee ; he died in 1628. D. 
published "Dodekatonon musicum Trincini- 
orum " (without year of publication ; 2nd edi- 
tion as " Neue auserlesene Tricinia," 1588) ; 
" Eine Kindermusik " (1589, an elementary in- 
struction-book of music arranged in the form 
of questions and answers) ; " Praecursor metricus 
musicae artis " (1590) ; and " Dodekas music- 
arum deliciarum, Soldatenleben, darinnen allerlei 
Kriegshandel, etc." (1628). The play upon the 
Greek word SwSena is probably a hint at the 
author's name. — (2) Konstantin Christian, 
b. April 2, 1628, Reindorf (Anhalt-Dessau), tax- 
collector, poet-laureate, and " Hofmusikus " at 
Meissen, speaks of himself in 1672 as " chur- 
furstl. Sachs, deutscher Konzertmeister" (he was 
still living about 1694). He composed sacred 
songs with instrumental accompaniment, which 
were much admired in their time : for example, 
" Musikalischer Jahrgang und Vespergesang " 
(120 concertos), 1674; "Davidischer Harfen- 
schall;" "Singende Sonn-und Festtagsaudach- 
ten," 1683 ; " Musikalischer Jahrgang, etc." 
(a 2 with organ, 1694), and other works. 

Dedler, Rochus, b. Jan. 15, 1779, Oberam- 
mergau, d. Oct. 15, 1822, Vienna, composer of 
the music for the Passion Play, which is still in 

Deering (Dering), Richard, sprang from an 
old Kentish family, received his first musical 
education in Italy, probably at Rome (Cavalieri, 
Viadana?), or at Florence, for he is the author 
of the oldest known work with continuo 

(continued instrumental bass). On his journey 
home from Italy he published at Antwerp — three 
years before Caccini's Euridice and Cavalieri's 
"Anima e corpo" (1600) — " Cantiones sacrK 
quinque vocum cum basso continuo ad or- 
ganum " (1597; 2nd book 1617, third book i6ig). 
In 1610 he took his degree of Mus. Bac. at Ox- 
ford, and in 1617, after much entreaty, became 
organist at the English nuns' convent at Brussels. 
In 1625 he became court organist to Queen 
Henrietta Maria, and died already in 1630. He 
published besides : "Cantica sacra ad melodiam 
madrigalium elaborata senis vocibus" (1618); 
two books of canzonets (Antwerp, 1620) ; " Can- 
tica sacra ad duas et tres voces cum basso 
continuo ad organum" (1662, probably a selec- 
tion of the first named). Some of his pieces 
are to be found in Playford's " Cantica sacra " 
(1674), and some manuscripts in the library of 
the Sacred Harmonic Society (now belonging 
to the Royal College of Music). 

Deferrari. {See Ferrari.) 

HeSks, Louis Pierre, b. July 25, 1819, 
Toulouse ; he vfent in 1839 from the branch 
establishment of his native town to the Paris 
Conservatoire, became a pupil of Halevy, and 
in 1847 received the Prix de Rome. Elegant 
structure and fine musical feeling are praise- 
worthy features in his compositions; but they 
lack originality. 

Deficiendo (Ital.), decreasing in tone and 
movement, like mancando and ccSando. 

Degele, Eugen, stage-singer (baritone), b. 
July 4, 1834, Munich, d. July 26, 1866, Dresden, 
a grandson of Valesi on his mother's side. He 
attended the Munich Conservatorium, first as a 
violin pupil, and soon afterwards for singing. He 
was first trained by A. Bayer and Fr. Dietz. 
After an unsuccessful dehut at Munich he re- 
ceived further instruction from W. Rauscher, 
and then made a successful appearance in 
Hanover as "Nevers" (1856); he was engaged, 
and remained up to 1861, and then went to 
Dresden, where he belonged to the court opera 
up to his death. Marschner held D. in high 
esteem, as representative of the chief roles in his 
operas. D. also obtained fair success as a song 

Degrees are the several divisions of the 
scale (tone-steps, "scala"). In counting them 
a start is generally made from the tonic ; so one 
speaks of the triad, chord of the seventh, etc., 
of the second, fifth, etc., degree of the scale. A 
distinction is also made between the various 
enharmonic tones ; it is said that c and ^ are 
placed on different degrees, c, cjt on the same 
degree of the fundamental scale (q.v.). 

Dehaan (de Haan), Willem, composer and 
conductor, b. 1849, Rotterdam, was trained at 
the music school there by Nicolai, de Lange and 
Bargiel. He was subsequently (1870-71) I)upil of 
the Leipzig Conservatorium, and, after visits to 
Berlin and Vienna, etc. (1872), became musical 




director at Bingen (1873), in 1876 conductor of 
the Mozart Verein at Darmstadt, and in 1878 
court capellmeister. His most noteworthy com- 
positions are, for chorus with orchestra : " Der 
Konigssohn," " Das Grab im Busento " (both 
for male voices), and "Harpa" (for mixed 
diorus) ; also an opera {Die KaiserstoenUr), songs, 
duets, pf. pieces, etc. 

Delm, Siegfried Wilhelm, b. Feb. 25, 
1799, Altona, d. April 12, 1858, Berlin. He was 
the son of a wealthy banker, studied law at 
Leipzig from 1819 to 1823, but, at the same 
time, took lessons in harmony with the organist 
Drobs, and perfected himself in 'cello playing. 
In 1823 he received an appointment at the 
Swedish Embassy, Berlin. In 1829 he lost 
the fortune which he had inherited, and adopted 
music as a vocation. He became a pupil of B. 
Klein, and was soon an accomplished theorist. 
In 1842 Meyerbeer procured for him the post of 
librarian Of the musical section of the royal 
library ; this he put into complete order, and drew 
up a catalogue. D. also enriched it, for he made 
search in all the libraries of Prussia, and added 
to the royal library such treasures as he dis- 
covered. He also wrote out a great number of 
old works in score. In 1849 he received the 
title of Royal Professor. From 1842 to 1848 he 
edited the musical paper Caecilia, founded by 
Gottfried Weber, and also wrote valuable 
articles for the same. But his chief work is the 
"Theoretisch-praktiscfae Harmonielehre ' ' (1840) , 
the preface of which contains valuable historical 
notes; he also published "Analyse dreier Fugen 
aus J. S. Bach's Wohltemperiertem Klavier und 
einer Vokaldoppelfuge G. M. Buononcinis " 
(1858), a " Sammlung alterer Musik aus dem 
16. und 17. Jahrhuridert " (twelve books) , a trans- 
lation of Delmotte's notice on Orlando Lasso, 
etc. B. Scholz published (1859), from docu- 
ments left by D., a " Lehre vom Kontrapunkt, 
dem Kanon und der Fuge " (2nd ed., 1883). 
D. was one of the most remarkable teachers 
of theory. Among his pupils were : Glinka, 
Kiel, A. Rubinstein, Th. KuUak, H. Hofmann, 

Dei (Ital.), same as di i (" from the "). 

Seiters, Hermann, writer on music, b. 
June 27, 1833, Bonn ; he studied there, first 
law, and afterwards philology, took his degrees 
of Dr.Jur. and Dr.Phil. (1858), and was suc- 
cessively active as collegiate teacher at Bonn 
(1858), Diiren (i86g), collegiate director at 
Kouitz, West Prussia (1874), Posen (1878), and 
Bonn (1883). In 1885 he was appointed " Pro- 
rinzialschuirath " at Coblenz, and in 1890 as- 
sistant in the ministry of puWic worship at 
Berlin. In addition to his active work as 
teacher, D. has appeared with great success as a 
writer on music. Valuable articles from his 
pen are to be found in Bagge's Deutsche Musik- 
ieitwtg (1860-62), and, besides, in the AUgemeine 
Miisihalische Zeitung, among which " Beethoven's- 

Dramatische KompoSitionen " (1865), " R. Schu- 
mann als Schriftsteller " (1865), " Otto Jahn'' 
(1870), " Beethoven's Sakularfeier in Bonn ' 

mann als Schriftsteller" (1865), "Otto Jahn' 

(1870), "Beethoven's Sakularfeier 

(1871), " Max Bruch's Odysseus " (1873), and a 

series of articles on Brahms ; also the Ergdn- 
zungsbldtter zur Kenntniss der Gegenwart, the 
Deutsche Warte, and the Munchemr Pnpylden con- 
tain articles of his ; also a number of musical 
biographies in the third edition of " Meyer's 
Konversations-Lexikon " were written by him. ' 
A special study on Brahms appeared in the 
Sammlung Musihalischer Vortrcige (1880), trans- 
lated into English by Rosa Newmarch. But 
D.'s chief work is the translation of A. W. 
Thayer's " Beethoven-Biographie," from the 
original English (not printed) manuscript (up to 
now 3 vols., 1866-79). A treatise on the sources 
of the " Harmonica " of Aristides Qjiintilianus . 
appeared in 1870 as a " Programm " of the Diiren 
Gymnasium. The following are also worthy of 
mention : " Cber das Verhaltniss der Matianus 
Capelle zu Aristides Quintilianus (1881), and 
" tJber die Verehrung der Musen bei den Grie-