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1 




(5om?U ^am ^rJinnl Eibtarjj 



Cornell University Library 
KF 570.K41 



V.I 



A treatise on the law of real property. 



3 1924 018 814 370 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924018814370 



THE LAW OF REAL PPvOPERTY. 



A TREATISE 



ON THE 



LA¥ OF REAL PROPERTY 



IN THREE VOLUMES 



- P.M^^'"^^ 



JAMES M. KERR 



YOLUME I. 



NEW YOKE AND ALBANY 
BANKS & BROTHERS, LAW PUBLISHERS 

1895 




COFTEIGHT 

JAMES M. KEKR 
1895 






PEEFACE. 



It has been the aim of the author to set forth in this 
work the law of real property, as it exists in the United 
States, and to give an account of the origin and history 
of the principles upon which this law is based. Incor- 
porated in the work are citations from American, Eng- 
lish, and Canadian adjudicated cases which enforce 
and illustrate the principles and doctrines of this branch 
of the law. "While our law r^ating to real property is 
founded upon the principles of the Common Law, yet 
some of the doctrines are derived from the Civil Law, — 
particularly those relating to equity and equitable estates 
(including Powers, Trusts, and Uses). The author has 
sought to give an account of the origin and history of 
principles, so as to meet the wants of the student just 
entering upon the subject. It is thought that the short 
account of Feudal Law, of Old English Tenures and Mod- 
ern English Tenures, and the origin of Chancery Powers, 
will be of assistance to the student in arriving at a clear 
conception of the present doctrines of this branch of 
the law. 

The author has sought to make this treatise a manual 
for the busy lawyer, wherein he can find discussed the 
various questions liable to come up in every-day practice. 
All the various estates, the methods of their creation, 
and their incidents are given especial attention. The 
chapter on Estate by the Curtesy is thought to furnish 
the only systematic and exhaustive treatise on the sub- 
ject. The chapter on Dower is also very full. The 
same is true of Estates for Years (including Farm Leases), 
Homestead Exemptions, and Equitable Estates (includ- 



vi PREFACE. 

ing Powers, Trusts, and Uses). Joint Estates (including 
the Partition thereof), Mortgages, Deeds, Title, Eights 
of Common, Ways, Easements, and Eents are fully 
discussed. 

In order to make this work of service to the profession, 
the author has referred to all reports and reporters where ■ 
the cases cited may be found, so that the practitioner may 
examine the authorities relied upon from the books on 
his shelves ; for this double citation will enable him to 
find at once the original report, no matter what series 
of official or unofficial reports he may own or have ac- 
cess to. This, it is thought, will be a great saving of 
time and trouble to the persons using this treatise. 
These duplicate citations have been made to the National 
Eeporter System, which embraces the whole body of 
American adjudications for the last decade ; to the 
American Decisions, the American Eeports, the American 
State Eeports, the Lawyers' Eeports Annotated, the Law- 
yers' Co-operative Publishing Company's edition of the 
United States Eeports, Moak's English Eeports, the 
English Common Law Eeports, the English Law and 
Equity Eeports, the Eevised Eeports, Smith's Leading 
Cases, and Ballard's Annual of the Law of Eeal Prop- 
erty. 

To render this treatise further serviceable, the cases 
are arranged in an orderly manner ; alphabetically ac- 
cording to States, followed by United States, Canadian, 
and English reports, in the order named, the case last 
reported being put first ; that is to say, each series is ar- 
ranged in the inverse order of decision. This method pre- 
ents the cases relied upon in an orderly manner, bringing 
all the authorities in one state, or court, together in one 
place, and enables the practitioner to readily run through 
each note, to secure the citation he wants. This, it is 
thought, will materially facilitate the work of "running 
down" a subject, or preparing a brief. 

JAMES M. KEEE. 
September 34, 1895. 



TO 

JUDGE SEYMOUR D. THOMPSON. 



CONTENTS, 



BOOK I. 
INTRODUCTORY. 



CHAPTER I. 

PEELIMINARY. 

PAQE 

g 1. Property — Generally 1 

§ 2. Same — Classes of property 3 

§ 3. Same — Blackstone's definition^ — Exclusive ownership 3 

§ 4. Same — Austin's definition — Restricted property 5 

§ 5. Early history of property 6 

§ 6. Same — Evolution of private property 7 

§ 7. Right of property and hereditary patrimony 9 

§ 8. Sam&— Recognition of the right of private property 10 

§ 9. Same — Alienation and devise 11 

§ 10. Same— The retrait 13 

§ 11. Theories of the origin of private property in land 13 

§ 12. Same — 1. The discovery theory 13 

§ 13. Same — 2. The occupation theory 14 

§ 14. Same— 3. The labor theory 15 

§ 15. Same — 4. The theory of contract 15 

§16. Same— 5. The Zea; theory 16 

§ 17. Same — 6. The natural-economic theory 16 

§ 18. Same — 7. The natural rights theory 17 

§ 19. Same — 8. The government-grant theory 18 

§ SO. Real and personal property — Distinction and devolution. ... 19 

§ 31. Definition of real property 30 

§ 32. Same — " Land " and " real estate " 31 

§ 23. Same — Maryland doctrine 33 

§34. Same— Tenement 33 

§ 35. Same — Hereditaments S3 

§ S6. Same — Same — Division of hereditaments 24 

ix 



X CONTENTS, 

CHAPTER II. 

WHAT IS REAL PROPERTY. 

PAGE 

§ 37. GeneraUy 37 

§ 38. Things real become personalty by agreement 37 

§ 39. Church-pews — Definition , 38 

§ 30. Same — Assignment of pews 29 

§ 31. Same— Rights of pew-holders in pews— English doctrine 30 

§ 33. Same — Same — American doctrine 30 

§ 33. Same— Same — ^Limitation and qualification of property in 

pew 33 

§ 34. Same — Same — As to right of occupancy 33 

§ 35. Same — Law regulating 33 

§ 36. Same — Same — Episcopal church 34 

§ 37. Same — Same — Same — ^Vestry's control 34 

§ 38. Same — Same — Free church — Power of trustees 35 

§ 39. Same — Grant in perpetuity 35 

§ 40. Same — Interest of pew-holders in church edifice and lands . . 36 

§ 41. Same — Restrictions on use and treatment of pew 37 

§ 43. Same — Abandonment or sale of church edifice 38 

g 43. Same — Changes and repaii-s 39 

g 44. Burial lots 40 

% 45. Corporate stocks and lands 43 

§ 46. Same — Realty held by corporation in trust when 43 

§ 47. Same — Land is real estate when 44 

§ 48. Same — Nature and object of investment 44 

§ 49. Electric poles and wires realty 45 

§ 50. Emblements — Crrowing crops. . . , 45 

§ 51. Same — When crop severed 47 

§ 53. Fee-farm lease 48 

§ 53. Pructus industriales 48 

§ 54. Same — Products of a mixed nature — Hops 53 

§ 55. Fructus naturales 53 

§ 56. Same — Growing trees 54 

§ 57. Same — Same — Overhanging trees 56 

§ 58. Same — Same — " Line trees." 57 

§ 59. Same — Cut trees 58 

§ 60. Ground-rent — Definition 58 

§ 61. Same — Nature and methods of creation 59 

§ 63. Same — Disposition of in case of intestacy 59 

§ 63. Heirlooms — Definition 60 

§ 64. Same — Not recognized in America 60 

§ 65. Houses and buildings 61 

§ 66. Same — Built by tenant 68 

§ 67. Same — Consent to erection 63 

§ 68. Same — Chamber or floor in building 63 

§ 69. Same — Same — Effect of destruction of building 66 



CONTENTS. xi 

CHAPTER III. 

WHAT IS REAL PROFERTY— continued. 

PAGE 

§ 70. Ice a part of the realty 68 

g 71. Same — On navigable streams 68 

§ "Hi. Same — Same — Where title extends to the tliread of the 

stream 70 

§ 73. Same — On non-navigable streams 70 

§ 74. Same — On ponds — 1. " Great ponds" 70 

§ 75. Same — Same — 2. Mill-ponds 71 

§ 76. Same — On canals 73 

§ 77. Same — Appropriation of ice 73 

§ 78. Incorporeal hereditaments — Definition and nature 74 

§ 79. Land usually real estate 74 

§ 80. Same — Exceptions to the general rule 77 

, § 81. Leasehold estate 77 

§ 82. Light and air 78 

§ 88. Manure — Real estate vphen 78 

§ 84. Same — Where made in other than agricultural pursuits. .. . 79 

§ 85. Same — Made on non-agricultural lands 80 

§ 86. Same — Agreement of parties respecting 81 

§ 87. Same — New Jersey and North Carolina doctrine 81 

§ 88. Same— English rule 83 

§ 89. Marketstalls 83 

§ 90. Mines and minerals 83 

g 91. Same — Common-law doctrine 85 

§ 92. Same — Royal charters 85 

§ 98. Same— New York doctrine 80 

§ 94. Same — Pennsylvania doctrine 87 

§ 95. Same — Georgia doctrine 87 

§ 96. Same — California doctrine 87 

§ 97. Same — Severance and conveyance 88 

§ 98. Same — Reservation of mineral ores 89 

§ 99. Same — Surface support 91 

§ 100. Same — Same — Rights of grantee 92 

§ 101. Same — Same — When owner retains surface 93 

§ 102. Same — Same — ^Where owner grants surface and retains 

minerals 98 

§ 103. Money real estate when 94 

§ 104. Movables realty when 96 

§ 105. Railroads — Road-beds, rails, etc 96 

§ 106. Same — Foundations, columns, etc., of railroad 97 

§ 107. Same— Rolling stock 97 

§ 108. Sea-weed— Marine increment 98 

§109. Same — ^When cast between high and low water-mark 99 

§ 110. Saw-mill, saw-dust, etc. , real estate when 99 

§ 111. Water real estate when 100 



xii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IV. 

FIXTURES. 

PAOB 

§113. Definition of fixture 103 

§ 113. What fixtures pass with the realty 103 

§ 114. Criteria for determining Ill 

§ 115. Same — 1. Actual annexation 113 

§ 116. Same — Same — ^Manner of annexation and character of 

article 113 

§ 117. Same — 3. Appropriation to tlie use. 114 

§118. Same — 3. Adaptation to the use 114 

§ 119. Same— 4. Policy of tlie law , 115 

§ 130. Same — 5. Intention of the parties 115 

§ 131. Same — Same — Permanency of attachment controlled by 

intent 117 

§133. Kinds or classes of fixtures 118 

§ 133. Same — 1. Agricultural fixtures 118 

§ 134. Same — 3. Domestic fixtures — a. Useful fixtures. 119 

§ 135. Same — Same — b. Ornamental (^omestic fixtures 130 

§136. Same — 3. Ecclesiastical fixtures 131 

§137. Same— 4. Trade fixtures 131 

§ 138. Same— 5. Mixed fixtiires 133 

§ 139. Between wliom the qviestion of fixtures may arise 124 

§ 130. Same — 1. Assignee in bankruptcy or for benefit of credi- 
tors and others 135 

§ 131. Same — 3. Debtor and execution creditor 135 

§ 133. Same — 3. Executor and heir at law 136 

§ 133. Same — 4. Executor of tenant for life and remainderman. . . 137 

§ 134. Same — 5. Heir at law and devisee 138 

§ 133. Same — 6. Landlord and tenant 128 

§136. Same — Same — Removal of fixtures by tenant 180 

§ 137. Same — Same — Renewal of lease without removal of fix- 
tures 131 

§ 138. Same — 7. Mortgagor and mortgagee 131 

§ 139. Same — 8. Personal representative and devisee 134 

§ 140. Same — 9. Tenants in common 134 

§ 141. Same — 10. Vendor and vendee 134 

§ 142. Same — Same — Gas-fixtures, chandeliers, etc 138 

§ 143. Same— Same — Fixtures annexed by one in possession under 

contract of purchase 139 

§ 144. Agreement in relation to fixtures 141 

§ 145. Same — Limitation of doctrine 143 

§ 146. Removal of fixtures 144 

§ 147. Same — Exceptions to the rule 146 



CONTENTS. xiii 

BOOK II. 

TENURES. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

PAGE 

§ 148. English origin of our institutions 148 

§ 149. Same — English common and statute law 149 

§ 150. Teutonic origin and English institutions 149 

§ 151. Same — The feudal system 150 

CHAPTER II. 

THE FEUDAL LAW. 

§ 153. Sources of the English law 153 

§ 153. Origin of feudal government 153 

§154. France and Clovis 153 

§ 155. Same — Riparian Franks 154 

§156. Same — Theodosian Code 154 

§ 157. Same — Introduction of feuds 154 

§ 158. Same — Laws of Normandy , 155 

§ 159. Establishment of feudal tenures 156 

§ 160. Same — Origin and growth of feudal customs 157 

§ 161. Same — Military services 158 

§ 162. Same — The German comites 160 

§ 163. Same— Allodial tenures 163 

§ 164. Same — Consuetudines feudorem 163 

§ 165. Definition of feuds 163 

§ 166. Kinds of feuds — Proper and improper 163 

§ 167. Same — Ligium and non-ligiiim 164 

§ 168. Same — Feuduni antiquum and feudum novum 164 

§ 169. Same — Feudum ndbile and feudum dignitatis 164 

§ 170. Investiture of feuds 165 

§ 171. Same — Improper or symbolical vestiture 165 

§ 173. Same — Breve testatum, 166 

§ 173. Fealty— Oath of 166 

§ 174. Homage— Ceremony of 167 

§ 175. Duties of lord and vassal 167 

§176. Feudal aids 168 

§ 177. Estate of vassal 168 

§ 178. Alienation of feuds 169 

§ 179. Same— Sub-infeudation 169 

§ 180. Estate of the lord 169 

§ 181. The lord's obligation on vassal's eviction 170 



xiv CONTENTS. 

PAGK 

§ 183. Descent of feuds 170 

§ 183. Same — Feudum talliatum ^'^^ 

% 184. Same — Distinguished from succession under Eoman law. . . 171 

§ 185. Investiture upon descent l'''^ 

§ 186. Same— Kelevium 173 

§187. Escheat of feuds 173 

§ 188. Forfeiture of feuds 173 

§ 189. Forfeiture of seigniory 173 

§ 190. Feudal jurisdiction 173 



CHAPTER III. 

ANCIENT ENGLISH TENURES. 

§ 191. Introduction of feuds 175 

§ 192. Doctrine that lands held of king 177 

§ 193. Consequences of establishment of feudal tenures 177 

§ 194. Same^-Effect on Bocland and Folcland 178 

§ 195. Nature of the tenures 178 

§ 196. Same — Escheat and forfeiture 179 

§ 197. Kinds of tenures 179 

§ 198. Same — Regarding free tenures 180 

§ 199. Villeinage and copyholds 183 

§ 200. Tenure in capite 184 

§ 301. Tenure de honore 184 

§ 302. Tenure by knight-service 185 

§ 203. Same — Duties imposed 185 

§ 304. Same — Scutagium 185 

§ 305. Same — Fruits of tenure by knight-service 186 

§ 206. Tenure by escuage 186 

§ 307. Tenures by grand serjeanty 186 

§ 308. Consequence of tenure 187 

§ 309. Statute Quia Emptores 187 

§ 310. Homage — Ceremony and importance of 188 

§ 811. Fealty — An incident of feudal tenure 188 

§ 212. Aids of the ancient English tenure 189 

§ 213. Reliefs — Sums paid on investiture 189 

§ 214. Primer seisin — Definition 190 

§215. Wardship — Distinction between male and female wards. . . 190 

§ 316. Marriage — Male and female wards 193 

§217. Abolition of military tenures 193 



CHAPTER IV. 

TENURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 

§ 218. Allodial tenures 194 

§ 319. Doctrine of tenure in the United States— Socage tenures. . . 195 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



PAGE 

P 320. Same— Discovery foundation of title 196 

§ 221. Same — Indian titles 196 

§ 222. Right of eminent domain 197 

§ 233. Restriction as to use 198 

§ 224. Same— Foundation of doctrine 199 

§225. Same— Application of maxim 200 



BOOK III. 
COEPOREAL HEREDITAMENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

ESTATES IN GENERAL. 

g 236. Definition of estate 201 

§ 337. The origin of estates 304 

§ 328. Estate in land— Definition 205 

§ 329. Same— Division of 205 

§ 330. Freehold estate in lands — Definition , 205 

§ 231. Same — Qualities of freehold estate 306 

§ 333. Sam(v-Seisin 206 

§233. Same— Entry 207 

§334. Same— Livery of seisin 308 

§ 235. Same— Disseisin 309 

§ 336. Same — Same — Kinds of disseisin 209 

§ 237. Same — Same — What constitutes a disseisin 211 

§338. Abatement— Effect of 212 

§ 239. Abeyance of freehold '. .. 313 

§ 340. Who may be freeholders 314 

§241. Same— Aliens 216 

§ 243. Same — Same — Federal and state statutes 218 

§ 243. Same — Corporations 334 

§ 244. Division of estates 235 



CHAPTER 11. 

ESTATES IN FEE-SIMPLE. 

§ 245. Definition of fee 336 

§ 246. Definition of fee-simple 327 

§ 347. Qiiantum of estate in fee-simple 238 



xvi CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

§ 348. Same — Taken by corporation 2^8 

§ 349. Tenant in fee-simple — Definition 329 

§ 350. Words of limitation 329 

§ 251. Same— Bastard 330 

§ 252. Same — Informal and implied limitation 230 

§ 253. Same — Statutory words of limitation 381 

§ 254. Same — Executory limitation 231 

§ 255. Same — To corporations — " Successors" 331 

§ 256. Same — Restrictions on ecclesiastical corporations 333 

§ 257. . Kinds of fees 333 

§ 258. Inferior estates derived out of fee-simple 333 

§ 259. Abeyance of fee 233 

§ 260. Same — Land granted to pious uses 234 

§ 261. Same — Franchise of corporation 235 

§ 263. Same — Present doctrine as to abeyance of fees 335 



CHAPTER III. 

INCIDENTS OF AN ESTATE IN FEE-SIMPLE. 

§ 263. Introduction 238 

§ 264. Power of alienation 239 

§ 365. Same — Definition of alienation 239 

§ 266. Same — Kinds of alienations 240 

§ 267. Same — Same — Voluntary alienations 240 

§268. Same — Same — Early histoiy of voluntary alienation 240 

§ 269. Same — Same — Under the feudal system 341 

§ 270. Same — Same — Burgage tenures 241 

§ 271. Same — Same — Alienation of purchased land 241 

§ 272. Same — Same — Gifts in maritagium 343 

§ 373. Same — Sub-inf eudations — Magna Charta. 343 

§ 374. Same — Tenants in capite 344 

§ 375. Same — Alienation in mortmain. . , 345 

§ 276. Same — Statute of Quia Emptores 245 

§ 277. Same — Involuntary alienation — Definition 346 

§ 378. Same — Same — Restrictions against, upheld when 347 

§ 379. Same — Same— Gifts to charitable uses 347 

§ 380. Same — Modes of alienation 348 

§ 281. Same — Same — 1. Alienation by deed 348 

§ 283. Same — Same — 3. Alienation by matters of record 348 

§ 383. Same — Same — 3. Alienation by devise 348 

§ 384. Same — General restraint of alienation 248 

§ 385. Same — Same — Exceptions to the general rule 350 

§ 286. Same — Same — Fee-farm estates 350 

§ 387. Same — Same — Ground-rent estate 251 

§ 288. Same — Same — Estates in fee-tail 253 

§ 289. Same — Same — Estate for life — English doctrine 253 

§ 390. Same — Same — Same — American doctrine 353 

§ 391. Same — Same— Reason for the Americal rule 354 



CONTENTS. xvii 

CHAPTER IV. 

INCIDENTS OF AN ESTATE IN FEE-SIMPLE. 

PAGE 

§ 293. Power of alienation — Estate for years 256 

§ 293. Same— Estates settled on feme covert 257 

§ 294. Same— Estates dedicated to charitable uses 257 

§ 295. Same — Conditions in conveyance 258 

§ 296. Same — Special restraints— Definition 258 

§ 297. Same— Same— Large's Case, 260 

§298. Same— Same — Prohibiting alienation to particular persons.. 261 

§ 299. Same — Same — Restricting alienations to particular persons.. 261 

§ 300. Same — Same — Restricting alienation to family 262 

§301. Same — Same — Restraining alienation for a particular time.. 268 

§ 302. Same — Same — Condition to do certain acts 265 

§ 303. Same — Same — Condition not to do certain acts 266 

§ 304. Same — Same — Restraints on estates of persons not sui juris, 269 

§ 305. Same — Same — Restraints on marriage 270 

§ 306. Same — Same — Restraints on second marriage 271 

§ 307. Same — Forfeiture — Fee-simple estate 271 

§308. Same— Same— Life estate 272 

§ 309. Same — Same^Estate for years 274 

§ 810. Same— Curtesy 274 

§ 311. Same— Descent 274 

§ 312. Same — Power of devise — Saxon and Danish rule 275 

§ 313. Same — Same — Under the Normans and their successors. . . . 275 

§ 314. Same — Same — Reason for the common-law rule 276 

§ 315. Same — Same — American rule 277 

§316. Same— Dower 277 

§ 317. Same— Forfeiture— English doctrine 277 

§ 318. Same — Same — American doctrine 277 

§ 319. Same — Liability for debts — Common-law doctrine 278 

§ 320. Same— Same — American doctrine 278 

CHAPTER Y. 

CREATION OF FEE-SIMPLE ESTATE BY DEED. 

§ 321. Methods of creating fee-simple estates 280 

§ 322. Same — Common-law rule — Apt words 281 

§ 323. Same — Whole estate need not be conveyed 281 

§ 324. Same— Reservations 283 

§ 325. " Heirs ' cannot be supplied by any other word 283 

§ 326. Same — Must appear in operative part of deed 285 

§ 327. Same — Supplied by reference to other instruments 287 

§ 328. Same— Exceptions to the rule 288 

§ 329. Same — Same — Deeds in trust and equitable estates 289 

§ 330. Same — Same — Deed to corporations 290 

§331. Same— Same— Deed to sovereign 290 

2 



xviii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

§ 333. Same— Abrogation of rule by statute 890 

§ 333. " Heii-s "—Definition 391 

§ 334. Same — Word of limitation, not of purchase 393 

§ 335. Same— Construed ' • children " when 393 

§ 336. Same — When to be ascertained 393 

§ 337. Same—" Present heirs " 393 

§ 338. Same—" Bodily heirs " or " heirs of the body " 294 

CHAPTER VI. 

CREATION OF FEE-SIMPLE BY DEVISE. 

§ 339. Introductory 395 

§ 340. Statute of uses — Eflfeot of its passage 396 

§ 341. Same— Adopted in this country 397 

§ 343. Same — Rules of construction — Evading the statute 398 

§ 343. Same — Same — American rules of construction 398 

§ 344. Statute of wills — Effect on power to devise lands 300 

§ 345. Devise of land carried fee when — Common-law doctrine. . . 301 

§ 346. Same — Doctrine in American courts 303 

§ 347. Same— Precatory devise 303 

§ 348. Same — Rules for interpretation of deeds not applicable 303 

§ 349. Same— Words of limitation 304 

§ 350. Same — " Heirs " not necessary to pass fee 305 

§ 351. Same — What words carry a fee 306 

§ 353. Same — " Estate " is ge7ius generalissimum 311 

§ 353. Same — What passes fee in reversion 313 

§ 354. Same — "\7hen the fee vests 314 

§ 355. Same — ^Words of survivorship in will — Doctrine of early 

English cases 315 

§ 356. Same — Same — Doctrine of later English cases 316 

§ 357. Same — Same — Doctrine of the American cases 316 

§ 358. Same — Limited remainder — ^Vesting of 316 

§ 359. Same — Devise with power — Carries fee when 317 

§ 360. Same — Same — When fee does not pass 319 

§ 361. Same — Same — Same — Reason for the rule 319 

§ 363. Same — Devise with limitation over — Contingent fee 330 

§ 363. Same — Same — Limitation over void for uncertainty 331 

§ 364. Same — Same — Same — Fee in first taker 333 

§ 365. Same — Devise to a person and his children 334 

§ 366. Same— Same— What children included 335 

§ 367. Same — Residuary clause carries fee when 336 

CHAPTER Vn. 

CREATION OF FEE-SIMPLE BY DEYISi:,— continued. 

§ 368. Enlargement of devise 327 

§ 369. Same — When estate not enlarged 338 



CONTENTS. Xix 

PAGE 

§ 370. Same — Intention of testator — Construction by comparison, 339 

§ 371. Same — Same — Reference to other devises in will 380 

§ 373. Same — Introductory clause 330 

§ 378. Same — Same — Words in intrductory clause enlarging estate 

to fee 833 

§ 374. Same— Conclusion of will— Intention of testator declared by, 334 
§ 375. Same — Where fee necessary to carry out intention of tes- 
tator 834 

§ 876. Same— Estates in trust 335 

§ 377. Same — Use devisee is to make of lands 336 

§ 378. Same — By implication — Control over land 337 

§ 379. Same — Same — Exceptions to the rule 339 

§ 380. Same — Where charge on devisee 339 

§ 381. Same — Same — Nature of charge on devisee 341 

§ 388. Same — Same — Reason for the doctrine 341 

§ 383. Same — Same — Failure or refusal to perform 343 

§ 384. Same — Where charge on the estate 343 

§ 385. Cutting down fee 344 

§ 386. Same — Fee not cut down when 345 

§ 387. Same — Doctrine of the American courts — Jackson v. Bull, 349 

§ 388. Same— Same— Doctrine of Smith v. Bell 351 

§ 389. Statutoi-y regulations 353 

§ 390. Construction of devises since the statutes 353 

CHAPTER VIII. 

DESCENT OF FEE-SIMPLE ESTATES. 

§ 391. Introductory 354 

§ 393. Local or special customs^Control over descent 355 

§ 393. Same— Gavelkind 855 

g 394. Same — Same — Where prevails 356 

§395. Same— Borough-English 356 

§ 396. Same— Effect on right to take as heir 357 

§ 397. Same— Copyholds 857 

§ 398. Descent as affected by domicil 858 

§ 399. Descent at common law 359 

§ 400. Same — Seisin in law 359 

§ 401. Same — Same — Prevents abeyance of freehold, 359 

§ 403. Same— Seisin in deed 360 

§ 403. Same — Same— How acquired 360 

§ 404. Same — Distinction between seisin in law and in fact 361 

§ 405. Same— When entry not necessary to convert seisin in law 

into actual seisin 363 

§ 406. Common-law rules of descent 363 

§ 407. Same— First rule 863 

g 408. Same— Same— Doctrine of possessio fratris 863 

§ 409. Same— Same— Same— Effect on dower and curtesy 864 

g 410. Same— Second rule 365 



XX CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

§411. Same— Third rule 365 

§ 412. Same— Fourth rule 365 

§ 413. Same— Fifth rule 365 

§ 414. Same— Sixth rule 366 

§415. Same— Seventh rule 366 

§ 416. Same— Eighth rule 366 

§ 417. Same — Same — Feudal origin of primogeniture 367 

8 418. Eules of descent in the United States 367 



CHAPTER IX. 

DETERMINABLE FEES. 

§ 419. Definition of determinable fees 370 

§ 420. Distinguished from fee-simple 371 

§ 421. Mode of limitation 371 

§ 422. Limitations creating a determinable fee 372 

§ 423. Kinds of determinable fees 373 

§ 424. Same— Direct limitation 373 

§ 425. Same — Collateral limitation 374 

§ 426. Converted into a fee-simple how 374 

§ 427. Determinable limitations and limitations upon condition — 

Distinction between 375 

§ 428. Alienation and devise of 876 

§ 429. Waste an incident of such estates 376 

CHAPTER X. 

CONDITIONAL FEES. 

§ 430. Introductory 377 

§ 431. Definition of conditional fee 377 

§ 432. Early history of conditional fees 378 

§ 483. Mode of limitation of conditional fees 378 

§ 434. Nature of heirs special 379 

§ 435. Statute X»e Bonis 380 

§ 436. In what sense limitation conditional 880 

§ 437. Descent of conditional fees 881 

§ 438. Executory devLse after fee conditional 382 

CHAPTER XI. 

BASE FEES. 

§ 439. Definition of base fee 884 

§ 440. Creation of base fees 385 

§ 441. Determinable conterminous with base fee 387 

§ 442. Merger of base fees 388 

§ 443. Descent of base fees 388 



CONTENTS. xxi 

CHAPTER XII. 

QUALIFIED FEE-SIMPLE. 

PAGE 

§ 444. Definition of qualified fee-simple 390 

§ 445. Power of tenant of qualified fee-simple over the estate 390 

§ 446. Qualified fee-simple distinguished from other fees 391 

§ 447. Objections to qualified fees-simple 391 

§ 448. The doctrine of Blake v. Hynes 393 

§ 449. Nature and mode of limitation 393 

§ 450. Course of descent of a qualified fee-simple estate 394 

§ 451. Alienation of qualified fee-simple 394 

CHAPTER XIII. 

ESTATES IN TAIL. 

§ 453. Definition of an estate-tail 395 

§ 453. "What construed an estate-tail 396 

§ 454. Distinguished from estates determinable 396 

§ 455. Origin of estate-tail 397 

§ 456. Same— Statute De Bonis 397 

§ 457. Same — Effect of construction 399 

§ 458. Attempt to defeat the statute De Bonis 400 

§ 459. Recognition in the United States.' 401 

§ 460. Kinds of tails 403 

§ 461. Same — General and special estates-tail 403 

§ 462. Same — Same — Limitation in tail special valid where 404 

§ 463. Same — Estates-tail male and female 404 

§ 464. Same — Estate in frank-marriage 405 

§ 465. Same — Fees-tail with conditional limitations 406 

§ 466. Same — Estates-tail after possibility 406 

§ 467. How estates-tail are created 407 

§ 468. Same — Words of procreation necessary 407 

§ 469. Same — Methods of creation — a. By deed 408 

§ 470. Same — Same — " Heir " nomen collectivum 409 

§ 471. Same — Same — b. By devise 410 

§ 473. Same — Same — Same — Words creating estate-tail 411 

§ 473. Same — Same — Same — Devise to several and survivors 413 

§474. Same — Same — Same — Remainder over on failure of issue. . 414 
§ 475. Same — Same — Same — Effect of reversion on indefinite fail- 
ure 417 

§ 476. Same— Same — Same— Rule of construction 418 

§ 477. Same — Same — Same — Intention of testator 419 

§ 478. Same — Same — Same — Expressions which carry estate-tail. . 480 

§ 479. Same — Same— Same — Fee reduced by context 434 

H 480. Same— Same— Same— Doctrine of Price v. Taylor 435 



xxii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

§ 481. Same— Same— Same— Devise in tail not enlarged by impli- 
cation 42" 

§ 482. Same— Same— Same— Doctrine of Wright v. Tliayer 427 

§ 483. Same — ^Words in frank-marriage sufficient _. 428 

CHAPTER XIV. 

ESTATES IN 1AIL— continued. 

§ 484. Rules relating to limitations creating estatesrtail 430 

§ 485. Of whom an estate in tail is held 432 

§ 486. "What property may be entailed 483 

§ 487. Same — What essential to an entailment 433 

§ 488. Same — Personalty not entailable 434 

§ 489. Same — Annuities not entailable 434 

§ 490. Same — Copyholds — Entailment by special custom 435 

§ 491. Same — Conditional fee-simple entailable 436 

§ 492. Same, — Freehold or chattel interest not entailable 436 

§ 493. Who may hold as tenant in tail 437 

§ 494. Remainder upon fee-tail 437 

§ 495. Heirs of donee in tail take by descent 437 

§ 496. Rule m Shelley's Case 438 

§ 497. Same — When rule prevails 438 

§ 498. Same — Where " heirs " deseriptio personarum 439 

§499. Same— What within the rule 440 

§ 500. Same — Rule of construction and not of law 441 

§ 501. Same — Applied to estates in husband and wife 441 

§ 502. Incidents of an estate in tail 442 

§503. Same — Power to commit waste 443 

§ 504. Same — Right to bar estate > 443 

§ 505. Same — Right to title-deeds— English rule 443 

§ 506. Same — Same — American rule 444 

§ 507. Same — Curtesy and dower 444 

§ 508. Same — Forfeiture for treason 444 

§ 509. Same — Incidents of fees which do not attach — Alienation . . 444 

§ 510. Same — Same — Duty to pay off incumbrances 445 

§ 511. Same— Same— Merger 446 

§ 512. Abolition and curtailment by statute 446 

§ 513. Same — Effect of abolishing estates-tail 447 

§ 514. Descent of estates-tail 448 

§ 515. Same — Successive descents 449 

§ 516. Same — Legislative change of descent. 450 

CHAPTER XV. 

ALIENATION AND BARRING ESTATE-TAIL. 

§ 517. Conditional fees 452 

§ 518. Same — Doctrine of the common law 452 



'CONTENTS. XXiii 

PAGE 

§ 519. Statute of "Westminster II.— Origin and effect 453 

§ 520. Same— Evils of the statute 453 

§ 531. Same — Evading the statute — Origin of fines and recoveries, 453 

§ 532. Ahenating estates-tail 454 

§ 523. Same — By issue in tail 455 

§ 534. Same — Meaning of statute 455 

§ 535. Same — Discontinuance 455 

§ 526. Same — Modes of discontinuance 455 

§ 527. Same — Effects of discontinuance 456 

§ 528. Same — When discontinuance not had 456 

§ 539. Same — Creates base fee vehen 457 

§ 530. Fines— Nature and kinds 457 

§ 531. Same — Common-law and statutory fines 458 

§ 533. Same — Fines in the United States 458 

§ 533. Common recovery — Definition 459 

§534. Same— Nature of 459 

§ 535. Same — Statutory tenant of the prcecipe 459 

§ 536. Same — ^Form of proceedings 460 

§ 537. Same— Effect of 460 

§ 538. Same— In United States 461 

§ 539. Same — Against estate of creator of entail 461 

§ 540. Same — By vrrit ad quod damnum 462 

§ 541. Alienation by bargain and sale — Englisli doctrine 463 

§ 542. Same — Doctrine in United States 463 

§ 543. Same— Statutory bar by deed 464 

§ 544. Same — Formality of deed 465 

§ 545. Same — Conveyance of limited interests 466 

§546. Same— Eecord of deed 466 

§547. Same— By mortgage 466 

§ 548. Same— By partition 466 

§ 549. Same — By sale on execution 467 

§ 550. Same — By leases and releases 467 

§ 551. Statutory abolition and curtailment 468 

§ 553. Equitable estates-tail 473 

CHAPTER XVI. 

ESTATES FOE LIFE. 

Section I. Nature and incidents of life estates. 

Section II. Duties incident to life estates, tenures, etc. 

Section III. Estate pur autre vie. 

Section TV. How estates for life created. 

Sectiok V. Emblements. 

Section VI. Estovers. 

Section VII. Waste. 

Section I. — Nature and Incidents of Life Estate. 

§ 553. Introductory 475 

§ 554. Estate for life under feudal law 476 



xxiv CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

§ 555. Same— Term of grant— Formal words of instrument 476 

§ 556. Definition of a life estate 477 

§ 557. Estate for life a freehold 477 

§558. What constitutes estate for life 478 

§ 559. Kinds of estates for life 479 

§560. Estates for life of the tenant 479 

§ 561. Quasi-tenania for life— Ecclesiastical persons 480 

§ 562. Determinable estates for life 480 

§ 563. Same — Special occupant 481 

§ 564. Life estate by implication 481 

§ 565. Same— What creates life estates by implication 483 

§ 566. Same — Adding words of limitation 482 

§ 567. Same — Absurd and superfluous expressions 483 

§ 568. Same — Same — Reason for the rule 483 

§ 569. Tenancy by the curtesy, etc 484 

§ 570. The conditions attached to life estates 484 

§ 571. Same — Liability for debts of tenant 485 

§ 573. Enlargement of life estate to a fee 486 

§ 573. Same — Power of disposition by will 486 

§ 574. Nature of estate for life 488 

§ 575. Same — Possession of tenant possession of reversioner 488 

§ 576. Adverse title — Purchase by life tenant 490 

§ 577. Same— Not entailable 490 

§ 578. Rights and incidents of an estate for life — 1. Right to pos- 
session and products 490 

§ 579. Same — Same — Right to possession of title-deeds 491 

§ 580. Same — 3. Right to recover damages 492 

§ 581. Same — Same — Rules for valuation of life estate 498 

§ 583. Same — 3. Right to estovers, etc 494 

§ 583. Same — 4. Right to work mines, quarries, etc 494 

§ 584. Same — Same — Right to open new mines, pits, and shafts. . . 494 

§ 585. Same — Same — Gaines v. Green Pond Iron Mining Co 495 

§ 586. Same — 5. Right to lease 496 

§ 587. Same — 6. Right to rents and profits 497 

§ 588. Same — Same — Apportionment of rent 497 

§ 589. Same — 7. Right to protection against sudden determina- 
tion of estate 498 

§ 590. Same — 8. Right of alienation 499 

§ 591. Same — Same — Restraint on alienation 499 

§ 593. Same — Same — Same — Active trust — Pennsylvania doctrine, 500 

§593. Same — Same — Same — Withdrawing estate from creditors . . 501 

§ 594. Same — Same — Must be made by deed 501 

§ 595. Same — Same — How great an estate may be conveyed by 

life tenant ." 501 

§ 596. Same — Same — Passesby assignment for benefit of creditors. 502 

Section II.— Duties Incident to Life Estates, Tenures, etc. 

§ 597. Duties of tenants of life estates — 1. To defend title — Pray- 
ing in aid : goa 



CONTENTS. 



X2V 



PAGE 

§ 598. Same — 3. To pay taxes — a. Ordinary taxes 504 

§ 599. Same— Same— b. Betterments 505 

§600. Same— 3. To make repairs 506 

§ 601. Same — Same — Exception to the rule 506 

§603. Same— 4. To keep down interest 508 

§ 603. Sajne — Same — Former rule 510 

§ 604. Same — Same — Rule as to widows • 510 

§ 605. Same — 5. To pay incumbrances 511 

§ 606. Same — Same — Apportionment of incumbrances 511 

§ 607. Same — Same — Same — Rule wliere widow the life tenant. . . 513 

§ 608. Same— 6. To insure 513 

§ 609. Tenure of estate for life 513 

§ 610. Permanent improvements — Rights of parties 514 

§ 611. Same — Exceptions to the rule 514 

§ 613. Partition by tenant for life 515 

§ 613. Forfeiture of life estates 515 

§ 614. Same — 1. By conveying in fee 516 

§ 615. Same — 3. By adverse possession , 517 

§616. Same— 3. By waste 518 

§ 617. Valuation of life estate 518 

§ 618. Same— English rule 518 

§ 619. Same — American rule 519 

§ 630. Merger of life estates 530 

§ 631. Same — Estates pur autre vie 531 

§ 633. Termination of life estate 531 

§ 633. Same — Exception to the rule 531 

§ 634. Same — Presumption of death 533 

Section III.— Estates Pue Adtre Vie. 

§ 635. Definition of the estate 523 

§ 636. Quantum of the estate 534 

§ 637. Nature of interest in the estate 534 

§ 628. Methods by which estate created 535 

§ 639. Rights of tenants — Alienation, devise, and entail 525 

§ 630. Same— Right to estovers 526 

§ 631. Occupancy — 1. Corporeal hereditaments— a. General oc- 
cupancy 526 

§ 633. Same— Same— Same— Abolition by statute 536 

§ 633. Same— Same— b. Special occupancy 537 

§ 634. Same— Same— Same— Who may be special occupants 538 

§ 635. Same — 3. Incorporeal hereditaments 538 

§ 636. Termination of estate 539 

Section TV.- How Estates foe Life Cebated. 

§ 637. Conventional and legal estates 539 

§ 638. Estates for life by implication 530 

§639. Creation by deed 530 

§ 640. Same— Words of limitation 531 



xxvi CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

§641. Same— What creates life estate 533 

§ 642. Created by devise 533 

§ 643. Same — Words which carry life estate 533 

§ 644. Same — Same — Raised by implication 584 

§ 645. Same^-Enlarging estate to a fee 535 

§ 646. Same — Same — Devise with power of disposition 535 

§ 647. Same — Same — Words in preamble 536 

Section V.— Emblements. 

§ 648. Definition of emblements 537 

§ 649. Life tenant entitled to 537 

§ 650. Crop must be planted by tenant 538 

§ 651. Where estate determined by tenant 538 

§ 653. Ingress, egress, and regress 539 

Section VI.— Estovers. 

§ 653. Definition of estovers 540 

§ 654. Kinds of estovers 540 

§ 655. Life tenant entitled to 541 

§ 656. Same — Where tenant a widow 541 

§ 657. What may be taken — Effect of exceeding right 542 

§ 658. Same — English and American doctrines 543 

§659. When to be taken 544 

§ 660. For what purposes taken 544 

§661. Where to be taken from 546 

§ 663. Where to be used 546 

§ 663. Common of estovers 547 

Section VII. — Waste. 

§ 664. Definition 549 

§ 665. What constitutes waste 549 

§ 666. Same — Exceptions to the rule 550 

§ 667. Kinds of waste 550 

§ 668. Same — Voluntary waste 550 

§ 669. Same — Permissive waste 550 

§670. Liability of life tenant for waste — Common-law doctrine. . . 551 

§ 671. Same — American doctrine 553 

§ 673. Same — Acts of strangers 553 

§ 673. Same — Tenants in dower and curtesy 554 

§ 674. Same — Same — Permissive waste 554 

§ 675. Kinds of lands subject to waste 554 

§ 676. Acts constituting waste — General rule 555 

§ 677. Same— 1. Felling timber— General rule 557 

§ 678. Same — Same — Amount to be taken 557 

§ 679. Same — Same — Particular kinds of trees 559 

§ 680. Same — Same— Local custom as to timber trees 559 

§ 681. Same — Same — Timber improperly cut — Property in 560 

§ 683. Same — 3. Opening mines 561 



CONTENTS. XXvii 

PAGE 

§ 683. Same — 3. In respect to building — Pulling down houses 562 

g 68 1. Same — Same — Dilapidations 563 

§ 685. Same — Same — Alterations 564 

§ 686. Same — Same — Erection of new buildings , 565 

§ 687. Same — 4. Changing course of husbandr}' 565 

§ 688. Same — Same — Permitting land to become foul 566 

§ 689. Same — 5. Destruction of heirlooms 567 

§ 690. Partial powers to commit waste 567 

§ 691. Waste by ecclesiastics 567 

§ 692. Destruction by fire 567 

§ 693. Without impeachment of waste 568 

§ 694. Remedies for waste — 1. Writ of estrepement and writ of 

waste 569 

§ 695. Same— 2. Injunction 570 

§ 696. Same — Same — Character of the remedy 571 

§ 697. Same— Same— When granted 573 

§ 698. Same — Same — Same — Threat to commit waste 573 

§ 699. Same — Same — Same — Permissive waste 573 

§700. Same— Same— Privity of title 573 

§ 701. Same — Same — In favor of whom granted 57."> 

§ 703. Same — Same — Against whom granted 5T5 

§ 703. Same — Same — Bill for accounting 577 

§ 704. Same— 3. Forfeiture of estate 577 



CHAPTER XVII. 

ESTATE BY CURTESY. 

Section I. Origin and requisites. 

Section II. Nature, incidents, and duties. 

Section III. Barring curtesy. 

Section IV. Curtesy under statute. 

Section V. Who may be tenants by curtes3^ 

Section VI. What property subject to curtesy. 

Section VII. What property not subject to curtesy. 

Section I. — Origin and Requisities. 

§ 705. Estate by curtesy— Introduction 580 

§ 706. Definition of estate by curtesy 580 

§ 707. Origin of estate by the curtesy— Lord Littleton's view 581 

§ 708. Same— Early origin of the estate 582 

§ 709. Same— Adopted from northern nations 583 

§710. Curtesy in England 584 

§ 711. Same— Curtesy in gavelkind lands 584 

§ 712. Curtesy in the United States 584 

§ 713. Same — Under married women's acts 587 

§ 714. Kinds of curtesy 588 

§ 715. Same — 1. Curtesy initiate 589 

8 716. Same — 3. Curtesy consummate 591 



xxviii CONTENTS.. 

PAGE 

Same — 3. Equitable curtesy 593 

Common-law requisites of curtesy 592 

Same — 1. Lawful marriage 593 

Same— Same — Lex loci governs 594 

Same — Same — Celebration of marriage 595 

Same — Same — Void and voidable mai-riage 597 

Same — 3.- Seisin of wife 597 

Same — Same — What seisin is sufficient 599 

Same — Same — Seisin in fact or in deed 600 

Same — Same — Same — ^Exceptions to the rule 601 

Same — Same — Seisin in law 603 

Same — Same — Same — Reason for relaxing rule 604 

Same — Same — Same — Extent to which rule relaxed 604 

Same — Same — Seizure by descent cast 605 

Same — Same — Seized at time of death 606 

Same — Same — Possession by coparcener 606 

Same — Same — Possession by co-tenant 606 

Same — Same — Possession by wife's tenant 607 

Same — Same — Same — Lease for life before marriage 609 

Same — Same — Same — Receiving rents and profits 609 

Same — Same — Possession by husband — Kentucky doctrine, 609 

Same — Same — Possession by husband's grantee 610 

S^ime — Same — Seisin of guardian 610 

Same — Same — Equitable title and seisin 610 

Same — Same — Same — Exception to the rule 611 

Same — Same — Actual entrj^ 613 

Same — Same — Same — Wild, waste, and uncultivated lands, 613 

Same — Same — Time of seisin 614 

Same — Same — Adverse possession 614 

Same — Same — Remainder and reversion 614 

Same — 3. Issue of marriage 616 

Same — Same — Change of rule by statute 616 

Same — Same — a. Bom alive 617 

Same — Same — Same — Degree of development and vitality, 618 

Same — Same — Same — Death of issue 619 

Same — Same — b. In lifetime of wife 620 

Same — Same — c. Be capable of inheriting 620 

Same — Same — Same — Seisin by wife 631 

Same — Same — Same — Estate devised to wife and heirs 621 

Same — Same — Same— Gives second husband curtesy 631 

Same — Same — Same — Wife's attainder 623 

Same — Same — d. Essentials need not coincide in point of 

time 623 

Same — 4. Death of wife 624 

Same — Same — Civil death and bigamy of wife 634 

Section II.— Nature, Incidents, and Duties. 

Nature of estate by the curtesy 636 

Same — Tenure , 636 



S717. 


S718. 


§ 719. 


§720. 


§ 731. 


§733. 


§733. 


§724. 


§ 725. 


§726. 


§ 727. 


§ 728. 


§729. 


§730. 


§731. 


§732. 


§ 733. 


§ 734. 


§735. 


§736. 


§737. 


§ 738. 


§ 739. 


§740. 


§741. 


§ 742. 


§ 743. 


§744. 


§745. 


§746. 


§747. 


§748. 


§ 749. 


§750. 


§ 751. 


§752. 


§753. 


§ 754. 


§ 755. 


§ 756. 


§ 757. 


§ 758. 


§759. 


§760. 


§ 761. 


§ 762. 



§ 


763. 


g 


764. 


§ 


765. 


§ 766. 


§ 


767. 


§ 


768. 


S 


769. 


§ 


770. 


§ 


771. 


§ 


772. 


g 


773. 


§ 


774. 


§ 


775. 


§ 


776. 


S 


777. 


§ 


778. 


§ 


779. 


§ 


780. 


§ 


781. 


§ 


782. 


§ 


783. 


§ 


784. 


§ 


785. 




786. 


§ 


787. 


§ 


788. 


§ 789. 


§ 


790. 


§ 


791. 




793. 


g 


793. 


§ 


794. 


§ 


795. 


§ 


796. 


§ 


797. 


S 


798. 


§ 


799. 


S 


800. 




801. 


S 


803. 


§ 


803. 




804. 


§ 


805. 


S 


806. 


§ 


807. 



CONTENTS. xxix 

PAGE 

Same — Same — At common law 637 

Same — Same — Continuation of wife's estate 637 

Same — Has character of title by descent, 637 

Same — When estate attaches 628 

Same— Same — Disclaimer 628 

Same — Same — Action by husband to recover 629 

Same — Same — Suspends descent 639 

Same — Suspends statute of limitation 639 

Same — Proceeds of judicial sale — Curtesy in 630 

Same— Insurable interest 631 

Incidents of curtesy — Genei-ally 633 

Same — 1. Eight to sell or lease 633 

Same — 2. Subject to the debts of the wife 634 

Same — 3. Subject to debts of tenant 634 

Same — Same — Wife's right as creditor against curtesy 636 

Same — Same — Curtesy initiate 686 

Same— Same — Same — Under statute subjecting " any estate 

held by debtor " 637 

Same — Same — Under recent American statutes 638 

Same — 4. Emblements — Tenant by curtesy entitled to 639 

Same — 5. Improvements — No allowance to tenant for 639 

Same — 6. Waste by tenant by curtesy 639 

Same — Same — LiabiUty of assignee 640 

Same— 7. Partition 640 

Same — 8. Power to sell, assign, or lease 641 

Same — Same — Effect of subsequent divorce 643 

Same — 9. Suits with i-ef erence to 648 

Same — Same — Damages to reversion G43 

Duties of tenant by curtesy 643 

Section III. — Baering Cuetest. 

Barring curtesy — By agreement of parties 645 

Same — By attainder of wife 648 

Same — By divesture of wife on breach of covenant 648 

Same — By judicial proceedings under statute 649 

Same — By consent of husband to wife's will 600 

Same — By statute of limitations 651 

Same— By statutory enactment 651 

Same— Bj' husband's conveyance 651 

Same— Same— In lands purchased with proceeds 632 

Same— By fine and recovery 653 

Same— By conveyance by wife during coverture 653 

Same— By settlement in trust 653 

Same — By instrument creating equitable estate 054 

Same— Same— Provisions excluding curtesy £54 

Same — By separate use for wife C5G 

Same— Not by will or deed of grantor C"0 

Same — Not by will of wife C57 

Same— Not by decree enjoining husband 657 



XXX 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

§ 809. Same — Not by attainder of wife after issue 658 

§ 810. Same — Not by ante-nuptial deed 658 

§ 811. Same — Not by ante-nuptial gift 658 

§ 812. Same — Not by abandonment of possession to co-tenant in 

common 659 

§813. Forfeiture— By alienage 659 

§ 814. Same — By decree of divorce 660 

§ 815. Same — Same — 1. Decree of nullity 660 

§ 816. Same — Same — 2. Decree nisi 661 

§ 817. Same — Same — 3. A vinculo 661 

§ 818. Same — Same — Same — At suit of wife 662 

§ 819. Same — Same — Same — At suit of husband 663 

§ 820. Same — Same — Same — Rights of third persons 663 

§ 821. Same— Same— 4. A mensa 663 

§822. Same— By adultery 664 

§ 823. Same — By abandonment of wife 664 

§ 824. Same — By failure to provide 665 

§825. Same— By bigamy 665 

§ 826. Same — By wrongful alienation 665 

§ 827. Same — By attainder of husband of treason or felony 666 



Section IV.- Ccetest undeh Statute. 

§ 828. Statutes— Generally. 666 

§ 829. Same — Construction of statutes 668 

§ 830. Same — Married women's acts 669 

§ 831. Same — Effect of statute — On curtesy initiate 670 

§ 832. Same — Same — On curtesy consummate 672 



Section V. — Who Mat be Tenants by the Curtesy. 

§ 883. Tenants by the curtesy — Generally 672 

§ 834. Same — Alienage 672 

§ 835. Same — Same — Naturalization 673 

§ 836. Same — Attainder of treason or felony 674 



Section VI. — ^What Property Subject to Curtesy. 

§ 837. Ancient rule 675 

§ 838. At common law 675 

§ 839. In estates-tail 676 

§ 840. Same — On failure of issue 676 

§ 841. Same — In this country 677 

g 842. In separate estate — At common law 677 

§ 843. Same — ^Under statute 678 

g 844. In equitable estates of inheritance 679 

§ 845. Same — Intention of grantor 680 



CONTENTS. xxxi 

PAGE 

§ 846. In estate of former husband 681 

§ 847. In lands recovered 681 

§ 848. In lands deed to which is taken in wife's name 681 

§ 849. In lands of which wife seized by direct gift 682 

§ 850. In lands conveyed to wife by husband 683 

§ 851. In lands conveyed to trustee — By husband 683 

§ 853. Same— By the wife 683 

§ 853. Same— By third party 683 

§ 854. Same — Same — Express exclusion of husband 684 

§ 855. In lands held by guardian 685 

§ 856. In wild lands 685 

§ 857. In lands cast by descent 686 

§ 858. In lands devised in trust 686 

§ 859. In lands of beneficiary under will 687 

§ 860. In mortgaged estate 688 

§ 861. In trust estate 6-i9 

§ 863. In fees with conditional limitation 6S9 

§ 863. In fees determinable 690 

§ 864. In estate in remainder 693 

§ 865. In estate in reversion 693 

§ 866. In lands held in joint tenancy 693 

§ 867. In estates in coparcenary 694 

§ 868. In merged estates 694 

§ 869. In money when 694 

§ 870. In incorporeal hereditaments 695 



Section VII. — ^What Pbopekty not Subject to Curtesy. 

§ 871. Introduction 696 

§ 873. Estates not of inheritance 696 

§ 873. Life estates 697 

§ 874. Separate estate when 697 

g 875. Same— WiU of grantor 698 

§ 876. Same — ^With resei'vation in 698 

§ 877. Same— Settlement by husband 699 

§ 878. Estates held as trustee 699 

§ 879. Pre-emption claim 700 

§ 880. Land assigned for dower 700 

§ 881. Estates held in joint tenancy 700 

§ 8S3. Determinable fees '■ 700 

§ 883. In proceeds of land 701 

§ 884. Lands of former husband 701 

§ 885. Lands sold before marriage 701 

§ 886. Adverse possession and bar of statute 703 

§ 887. In lands mortgaged to wife 703 

g 888. In remainder and reversion 703 



Section 


n. 


Section 


III. 


Section 


IV. 


Section 


V. 


Section 


YI. 


Section 


VII. 


Section 


vin. 



XYxij CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

DOWER ESTATE. 

Section I. Origin, history, and kinds of dower. 

Nature and incidents of dower. 

Requisites of dower. 

Wlio may be endowed. 

Wliat property and estates subject to dower. 

"What property and estates not subject to dower. 

Assignment of dower. 

Detention and recovery of dowei- — Actions affecting. 
Section IX. Barring dower. 
Section X. Provisions in lieu of dower — Election. 

Section I, — Origin, History, and Kinds op Dower. 

PAGE 

§ 889. Inti-oductory 704 

§ 890. Origin of dower 705 

§ 891. Same — German origin 707 

§ 893. Definition of dower 707 

§ 893. Favored in law 708 

§894. Kinds of dower 709 

§ 895. Same — 1. Dower by custom 709 

§ 896. Same — 2. Dower ad ostium ecclesioe 710 

§ 897. Same — 3. Dower ex assensus patris 710 

§ 898. Same — 4. Dower de la plus belle 710 

§ 899. Same — 5. Dower at common law 710 

§900. Dower in the United States 711 

§ 901. Dower under statute 711 

§ 902. Stages of dower 713 

Section II. — Nature and Incidents of Dower. 

§903. Nature of dower 714 

§ 904. Object of dower 715 

§ 905. When dower vests 71 5 

§ 996. Interest of wife in dower 715 

§ 907. Same — Rights before assignment 716 

K 908. Same — Rights after assignment 718 

§ 909. Law governing dower 719 

§ 910. Same — As to place 719 

§ 911. Same — As to time 721 

§ 912. Same — Where law changed during coverture 722 

g 913. Incidents of dower , 723 

S 914. Same — 1. Inchoate dower 725 

§ 915. Same — 3. Consummate dower 781 



CONTENTS. xxxiii 

PAGE 

§916. Same— Same— Right of quarantine 736 

§ 917. Same— 3. Assigned dower 737 

§ 91 8. Same— Same— Right of alienation 739 

§ 919. Same — Same — Duties imposed on 739 

§ 920. Same— Same— Liability for debts of widow 741 

S 921. Same— Same— Subject to waste 742 

§ 922. Same—Same— Subject to forfeiture 743 

g 923. Priority of dower 744 

§ 924. Revival of dower rights 745 

§ 925. Valuation of dower interest 745 

Section III. — Requisites op Doweh. 

§ 926. Legal dower— Generally 748 

§ 927. Same— 1. Marriage— Must be legal 750 

§ 928. Same — Same — Void and voidable marriage 755 

§ 929. Same — Same — Proof of marriage 757 

§ 930. Same— 2. Seisin of husband 759 

§ 931. Same — Same — What a sufficient seisin 763 

g 932. Same — Same — Character of seisin 763 

§ 933. Same — Same — Duration of seisin 765 

§ 934. Same — Same — Evidences of seisin 766 

§ 935. Same— 3. Death of husband 767 

§936. Same— Same— Proof of death 767 

§ 937. Equitable dower 767 

Section IV. — Who May be Endowed. 

§ 938. Introduction 768 

§ 939. Second marriage — Spouse living 769 

§ 940. Divorced wife 770 

§ 941. Abandonment and adultery 773 

§ 942. Alienage 774 

§ 943. Same — Naturalization 775 

Section V. — What Property and Estates Subject to Dower. 

§ 944. GeneraUy 776 

§ 945. Base and qualified fees 779 

§ 946. Determinable fees 780 

§ 947. Equitable estates 781 

§ 948. Equity of redemption 782 

§ 949. Estates for life— Pur autre vie 784 

§ 950. Estates for years 784 

§ 951. Estates in common 785 

§ 952. Estates in copartnership 785 

§ 953. Estates in expectancy 787 

§ 954. Estates in joint tenancy 787 

p 955. Estates in tail 787 

§ 956. Estates in trust 788 

3 



xxxiv CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

§ 957. Estates subject to conditions '''88 

§ 958. Growing crops TOS 

§ 959. Improvements — By liusband and lieir 789 

§ 960. Incorporeal hereditaments 790 

§ 961. Lands aliened during coverture 790 

§ 963. Lands conveyed in fraud of ci'editors 793 

§ 963. Lands conveyed in fraud of dower 794 

§ 964. Lands dedicated to public use 796 , 

§ 965. Lands exchanged 797 

§ 966. Lands held as dower 797 

§ 967. Lands held by incomplete title 798 

§ 968. Lands mortgaged — Mortgagor's wife 799 

§ 969. Same — Same — Redeemed by husband or representatives. . 801 

§ 970. Same— Mortgagee's wife 803 

§ 971. Lands not fully paid for 803 

§ 973. Lands redeemed 805 

§ 973. Lands sold by an assignee 806 

§ 974. Lands wild and uncultivated 806 

§ 975. Merged estates 807 

§ 976. Mines, mineral lands, and quarries 811 

§ 977. Money 813 

§ 978. Kents and profits 814 

§ 979. Reversions and remainders 815 

§ 980. Shares of corporation 816 

§ 981. Surplus proceeds of land 817 

Section VI. — What Peofeety and Estates not Subject to Dower. 

§ 982. Introductory 819 

§ 983. Improvements 832 

§ 984. Estates for years 833 

§ 985. Estates in joint tenancy 823 

§ 986. Estates in copartnership , 824 

§ 987. Estates in reversion and remainder , 825 

§ 988. Estates mortgaged 836 

§ 989. Estates in tail 837 

§ 990. Equitable estates 837 

§ 991. Lands condemned for public use 828 

§ 993. Lands given to public use 828 

§ 993. Momentary and transitory seisin 839 

§ 994. Pre-emption claims 830 

§ 995. Trust estates 831 

§ 996. Vendor's lien 832 

§ 997. Wild and uncultivated lands 833 

§ 998. Wrongful estatps 833 

Section VII. — Assignment of Dowek. 

§ 999. Necessity for assignment 834 

g 1000. When right to assignment accrues 835 



CONTENTS. XXXV 

PAGE 

§ 1001. Demand of assignment 835 

§ 1002. Widow's quarantine 835 

§ 1003. Right of dower— Cliaraoter 888 

§ 1004. Same— Right of alienation 838 

§ 1005. When dower assigned 839 

§ 1006. Same— Contribution to redemption 840 

§ 1007. Estimating value of dower 840 

§ 1008. In improvements 848 

§1009. Rents and profits 844 

§ 1010. In property not devisable 845 

§ 1011. In aliened lands 845 

§ 1013. In partitioned lands 846 

§ 1013. In crops growing on land 846 

§ 1014. How dower assigned — Generally 847 

§ 1015. Same — Manner of assignment 848 

§ 1016. Same — Same — According to the common right 849 

§ 1017. Same — ^Rules governing 849 

§ 1018. Same — ^Law governing 850 

§ 1019. Same — Estate granted 851 

§ 1020. Same — Assignment by parol 851 

§ 1021. Same — According to common right 852 

§ 1022. Same — Same — Assignment in special manner 853 

§ 1028. Game — Against common right 854 

§1024. By metes and bounds 854 

§ 1025. Same — Assignments in several parcels 856 

§ 1026. Same— Same— Where held in severalty 856 

§1027. Same— In common 857 

§1028. Same— Inmoney 857 

§ 1029. Same — Improper assignment 858 

§ 1080. Same — Failure of assignment 859 

§ 1031. Same — Re-assignment 860 

§ 1032. Who may make assignment of dower 861 

§ 1038. Effect of assignment of dower 862 

Section VIII. — Detention and Recovery of Dower — Actions 
Affecting. 

§ 1034. Action to recover dower 864 

§ 1035. Same — Writ of dower under nihil habet 865 

§1086. Same— Suit in equity 866 

§ 1037. Same — Pleading and practice 867 

§ 1038. Same— Same— Demand 867 

§ 1039. Same — Same — Where action to be brought 869 

§ 1040. Same— Same— Against whom action brought 869 

§ 1041. Same — Same — Abatement of action 870 

§1042. Same— Same— Estoppel 870 

§ 1048. Same— Same— Statute of Umitations 870 

§ 1044. Same— Same— Allowance of rents and profits 873 

§ 1045. Same— Same— Assignment of mortgaged lands 873 



Xxxvi CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

§ 1046. Same — Same — Valuation of dower interest 8~4 

§ 1047. Same^Same — Damages for detention 874 

§ 1048. Same— Same— Judgment 870 

§ 1049. Same— Same— Same— Form of 877 

§ 1050. Same — Same — Assignment 877 

§1051. Same — Same — Same — Writ of assignment — Return 878 

§1053. Same— Same— Costs 878 

§ 1053. Suits affecting dower 878 

Section IX. — Baeeing Dowee. 

§ 1054. Methods of barring dower 880 

§ 1055. Abandonment of husband not a bar to dower 891 

§ 1056. Act of liusband bars dower when 893 

§ 1057. Act of Legislature may bar dower 893 

§ 1058. Adultery of wife bars dower 894 

§ 1059. Agreement for voluntary separation bars dower 895 

§ 1060. Ante-nuptial contract bars dower 897 

§ 1061. Conveyance and release bar dower 899 

§ 1063. Same— Execution by wife 901 

§ 1063. Same — Acknowledgment by wife 903 

§ 1064. Same — Same — Defective acknowledgment — Curative stat- 
utes 904 

§ 1065. Same— Where wife an infant 905 

§ 1066. Same — Defeating conveyance by paramount title, etc. — 

Effect 905 

§1067. Same— Power of release 907 

§1068. Same— Mode of release 907 

§ 1069. Same — Consideration to support release 910 

§ 1070. Same — To whom release may be made 910 

§1071. Same— Effect of release 910 

§ 1073. Same— Evidence of release 911 

§ 1073. Same — Constraction of release 913 

§ 1074. Conveyance by husband — Bars dower when 913 

§ 1075. Conveyance in fraud of creditors — ^Effect of dower 914 

§ 1076. Devise in lieu of dower— Effect of 915 

§ 1077. Divorce bars dower 919 

§ 1078. Abandonment and adultery as bar to dower 931 

§ 1079. Eminent domain — Exercising power of, bars dower 931 

§ 1080. Enforcement of mechanic's lien does not bar dower 933 

§ 1081. Estoppel in pais bars dower 933 

§ 1083. Foreclosure as a bar to dower 924 

§ 1083. Jointure bars dower 936 

§ 1084. Judicial sale for debts as a bar to dower 936 

§ 1085. Mortgage as a bar to dower 928 

§ 1086. Provision in lieu of, bars dower 939 

§ 1087. Settlement during coverture as a bar to dower 939 

§ 1088. Statute of limitations as a bar of dower 930 

§ 1089. Statutory provisions in lieu of, bars dower 931 

§ 1090. Waste bars dower 931 



CONTENTS. XXXvii 

Section X.— Provisions in Ijeu of Dower— Election. 

PAGE 

§ 1091. Introductory 933 

g 1093. Effect of provision in lieu of dower 933 

§ 1093. Settlement in lieu of dower 933 

§ 1094. Same — Annuity — Calculation of 934 

g 1095. Testamentary provisions in lieu of dower 935 

§ 1096. Same — Incidents of a bequest in lieu of dower 936 

§ 1097. Acceptance by the widow 937 

§ 1098. Failure of provision in lieu of dower 938 

§ 1099. Forfeiture of provision in lieu of dower 939 

§ 1100. Election — In case of exchanged lands , 939 

§ 1101. Same — Of provision in lieu of dower 940 

§ 1102. Same — Right of election a personal one 941 

§ 1103. Same — When election necessary 942 

§ 1104. Same — When election not necessary 945 

§ 1105. Same — What constitutes an election 945 

§ 1106. Same — Retraction of election 948 

§1107. Same— Effect of an election 949 



CHAPTER XIX. 

JOINTURE. 

§ 1108. Definition 950 

§ 1109. Origin and history 951 

§ 1110. Kinds of jointure — 1. Legal jointure 951 

§ 1111. Same— 2. Equitable jointure 953 

§ 1112. Requisites of jointure 953 

§ 1113. Effect of jointure— Bars dower 957 

§ 1114. Who may limit a jointure 958 

§ 1115. Who may take a jointure 958 

§ 1116. Nature of jointure — Not continuation of husband's estate.. 9.59 

§ 1117. When made — 1. Before marriage 959 

§1118. Same— 2. After marriage 960 

§ 1119. Howmade 960 

§ 1120. Election 963 

§ 1121. Entry 963 

§ 1123. Favored in equity 963 

§ 1133. As affected by the statute of uses — Statute in United 

States 964 

§1124. Bar and forfeiture 964 

§ 1125. Eviction — Endowment in remainder 966 

§ 1126. Waste 967 



XXXviii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XX. 

ESTATES FOR YEAES. 



Section 


I. 


Section 


II. 


Section 


III. 


Section 


IV. 


Section 


V. 


Section 


VI. 


Section 


VII. 


Section VIII. 


Section 


IX. 


Section 


X. 


Section 


XI. 


Section 


XII. 


Section XITI. 



Origin and nature of estates for years. 

How estates for years created. 

The lease. 

The lease — The conditions. 

Tlie lease — The covenants. 

The lease — Assignment and subletting. 

The lease — Termination, holding over. 

Forfeiture, surrender, and merger. 

Eviction, destruction, and use of premises. 

Fixtures, alterations, improvements, and repairs. 

Incidents. 

Letting on shares. 

Descent. 



Section I. — Origin and Nature of Estates for Years. 

PAGE 

§ 1127. Definition 968 

§ 1128. The term 970 

§ 1129. Same — To begin in futuro 970 

§ 1130. Early tenure 971 

§ 1131. Distinguished from freehold estates 973 

§ 1132. Origin of estates for years 973 

§ 1133. How estate for years created 973 

§ 1134. Tenure of estate for years 973 

§ 1135. Nature of an estate for years 973 

§ 1136. Same — Freehold qualities by statute 976 

§ 1137. No seisin in tenant for years 977 

§ 1138. Jnteresse termini 978 

§1139. Enti-y by tenant for years 978 

§ 1140. Liability for rent before entry, 979 

§ 1141. Estate may be assigned before entry 979 



Section II. — How Estates for Yeaes Created. 

§ 1142. By lease and devise 980 

§ 1148. Character of the estate — A chattel interest 981 

§ 1144. Reservation of rent 981 

§ 1145. What may be leased 983 

§ 1146. Who may be lessors 985 

§ 1147. Who may be lessees 987 

§ 1148. Possession by lessee — Effects of 988 

§ 1149. Landlord and tenant — Consequences of relation of 988 

§ 1150. Tenure of estate and privity of parties 989 



CONTENTS. xsxix 

Section III.— The Lease. 

PAGE 

§ 1151. Defiuition 99O 

§ 1158. Lease and agreement to lease 991 

§ 1153. Lease as affected by statute of frauds 994 

§ 1154. Same — Parol lease to commence infuturo 997 

§ 1155. Same — Memorandum in writing 998 

§ 1156. Proper words to create a lease 1001 

§ 1157. Form of instrument 1003 

§ 1158. Must be for fixed term 1002 

§ 1159. Same— Length term may run 1003 

§ 1160. Same — Computing time 1005 

§ 1161. Same — Same— Optional number of years 1007 

§ 1162. Same — Renewable forever 1008 

§ 1168. Rent reserved 1010 

§ 1164. Parol lease ; 1010 

§ 1165. What lease embraces 1014 

§ 1166. Same —On demise of part of premises 1015 

§ 1167. Acceptance of lease 1016 

§ 1168. Entry— Statute of uses 1016 

§ 1169. Same — Effect of execution and delivery without 1017 

§ 1170. When lease takes effect 1017 

§ 1171. Who may make a lease 1017 

§ 1172. Same— By agents 1018 

§ 1173. Same— Corporation 1018 

§ 1174. Same — Executors and administrators 1020 

§ 1175. Same — Guardian 1021 

§ 1176. Same— Husband and wife ; 1024 

§ 1177. Same — Joint tenants and tenants in common 1026 

§ 1178. Same— Mortgagor 1027 

§ 1179. Same— Mortgagee 1028 

§ 1180. Same — Municipal corporations 1028 

§ 1181. Same— Partners 1029 

§ 1182. Same — Persons under disability — 1. Infants 1080 

§ 1183. Same— Same— 2. Lunatics 1032 

§ 1184. Same— Same— 8. Married women 1034 

§ 1185. Same— Pubhc officers 1035 

§ 1186. Same— Receivers 1036 

§ 1187. Same— Trustees 1036 

§ 1188. Same— Under powers 1038 

§ 1189. Lessors exceeding power 1040 

§ 1190. Ratification of leases 1041 

§ 1191. Signing lease 1042 

§ 1192. Same — Mode of signing by agent 1043 

§ 1193. SeaUng instrument— Effect 1044 

§ 1194. Fraud in procuring the execution of lease 1045 

§ 1195. Recording lease 1046 

§ 1196. Presumption of lease 1047 

8 1197. Construction of lease 1048 



xl CONTENTS. 



Section IV. — The Lease — The Conditions. 

PAGE 

§ 1198. Introductory 1049 

§ 1199. What conditions may be imposed 1050 

§ 1200. Same — Privilege of renewing lease 1053 

§ 1301. Same — Privilege of purchasing premises 1053 

§ 1303. Same — Privilege of terminating by sale 1053 

§ 1303. Implied conditions — Furnished house 1054 

§ 1304. Breach of condition — Involuntary act 105(5 

§ 1305. Same — License to break. 1057 

§ 1306. Same— Entry for 1058 

§1307. Same— Demand 1059 

§ 1308. Same— Same— For what made 1081 

§ 1309. Same— Same— Waiver of 1063 

Section V. — The Lea.se — The Covenants, 

§ 1310. Definition— How created 1063 

§ 1311. Kinds of covenants 1063 

§ 1313. Same — Express and implied covenants 1065 

§ 1313. Same — Implied covenants of lessor 1065 

§ 1314. Same— Same— Effect of 1067 

§ 1315. Same— Implied covenant of lessee 1067 

§ 1316. Same — Distinction between express and implied covenants, 1068 

§ 1317. Same — Real and personal covenants 1069 

§ 1318. Covenants running with the land — ^When covenants run 

with land 1070 

§ 1319. Same — Covenants running with part of the land 1071 

§ 1330. Same — What covenants run with the land 1074 

§ 1331. Same — Rights of assignee under '. 1076 

§ 1333. Same— When assignee bound 1078 

§ 1333. Covenants usually inserted in lease — On the part of lessor, 1079 

§ 1334. Same — Same — Covenant for quiet enjoyment 1079 

§133.5. Same — Same — Implied covenants for quiet enjoyment. .. . 1081 

§ 1336. Same — Same — Covenant to repair 1083 

§ 1337. Same — Same — Same — Effect of lessor's covenant to repair, 1085 

§ 1338. Same — Same — Covenant to renew lease 1086 

§ 1339. Same — Sarae — Covenant against incumbrances 1093 

§ 1330. Same — Same — Same — When covenant is broken — Damages 

for breach 1093 

§ 1331. Same — Same — Covenant for further assurance 1095 

§ 1333. Same— On part of lessee 1096 

§ 1333. Same — Same — Covenant to pay rent 1099 

§ 1334. Same — Same — Covenant to pay taxes 1101 

§ 1335. Same — Same — Covenant to insure premises 1103 

§ 1236. Same — Same — Covenant as to use of premises 1103 

§ 1337. Same — Same — Covenant not to assign or underlet 1104 

§ 1338. Same — Same — Covenant to deliver in good repair 1105 

§ 1239. Same — Same — Covenant against waste 1106 

§ 1240. Same — On part of assignee and sub-lessee 1107 



CONTENTS. Xli 

PAGE 

§ 1241. Covenants raised by fraud 1109 

§ 1243. Construction of covenants 1110 

Section VI.— The Lease— Assignment and Subletting. 

§ 1343. Assignment of lease 1111 

§ 1244. Same— Clause prohibiting 1113 

§ 1345. Same — Statutory restrictions 1113 

§ 1346. Same— Involuntary assignments 1113 

§ 1347. Same — By insolvent assignee 1114 

§ 1248. Same — Transfer of entire term in part of premises 1115 

§ 1349. Same — Assignee takes subject to burdens 1116 

§ 1250. Same— How made 1118 

§ 1251. Same— Of reversion 1119 

§ 1253. Distinction between assignment and sub-leasing 1131 

§ 13.53. Same — Effect of reservation 1132 

§1354. Sub-leasing 1133 

§ 1355. Same — Sub-lessee's covenants 1124 

Section VII. — The Lease— Termination, Holding Over. 

§ 1356. Termination of lease , 1135 

§ 1357. Same— By surrender 1136 

§ 1358. Same — By eviction of landlord 1136 

§ 1259. Same — By eviction of tenant by lessor 1137 

§ 1360. Same— By collateral event 1138 

§ 1361. Same — By exercise of riglit of eminent domain 1129 

§ 1363. Holding over— Definition 1130 

§ 1363. Same — What constitutes a holding over 1130 

§ 1364. Same— Effect of holding over 1131 

§ 1265. Same— Same — On terms of lease 1183 

§ 1366. Same— Same — On privileges conferred by the lease 1134 

§ 1367. Same — Holding over by consent— Character of tenancy. . . 1134 

Section VIIL— Forfeiture, Surrender, and Merger. 

§ 1268. Forfeiture of lease— Grounds of 1137 

§ 1369. Same— By alienation 1143 

§ 1370. Same— Same— Involuntary alienation 1143 

§ 1371. Same— By assigning or sub-leasing 1143 

§ 1373. Same— By disclaimer— Common-law doctrine 1144 

§ 1373. Same— Same— What amounts to a disclaimer 1145 

§ 1274. Same— Same— Effect on statute of limitations 1146 

§ 1275. Same— Same— American doctrine 1147 

§ 1276. Same— Same— Notice to lessor 1148 

§ 1377. Same— by failure or refusal to pay rent 1150 

§ 1378. Same— Same— Tender saves forfeiture 1151 

§ 1279. Same— By failure to insure 1153 

^ 1280. Same— By commission of waste 1153 



xlii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

§ 1381. Same — How taken advantage of 1153 

§ 1383. Same— Waiver of forfeiture 1153 

§ 1383. Same— Relief against forfeiture 1157 

§ 1384. Same— Effects of forfeiture 1158 

§ 1385. Surrender — Necessity of 1159 

§1386. Same— Requisites of 1160 

§ 1387. Same— Acceptance 1160 

§ 1388. Same — By operation of law 1161 

§ 1389. Same — What amounts to a surrendet 1163 

§ 1390. Same — Agreement to surrender — Consideration 1163 

§ 1391. Same— Effect on third person 1163 

§ 1393. Merger— Definition 1163 

8 1393. Same— When occurs 1164 



Section IX. — Eviction, Desteuction, and Use of Premises. 

§ 1394. Eviction- What constitutes 1168 

§ 1395. Same — Actual eviction 1167 

§ 1396. Same — Constructive eviction 1168 

§ 1397. Same— By landlord or of landlord 1169 

§ 1398. Same — By stranger — Duty of lessee 1169 

§ 1399. Same — Same — May attorn to stranger when 1170 

§ 1300. Same — By eminent domain 1170 

§ 1801. Same— Effect of eviction 1171 

§ 1303. Destruction of premises — Effect on covenants 1175 

§ 1303. Same— Effect on rent 1177 

§ 1304. Same — Same — Apportionment of rent 1180 

§ 1305. Same — Where term commences infuturo 1180 

§ 1306. Same — Effect on covenant to repair, etc 1181 

§ 1307. Same — Same — Effect of lessor's insurance 1181 

§ 1308. Same — Lessor not bound to repair 1183 

§ 1309. Same — Liability of lessee for property destroyed 1183 

§ 1310. Use of premises 1183 

§ 1311. Same — Restrictions on use 1184 

Section X. — Fixtures, Alterations, Improvements, and Repairs. 

§ 1313. Fixtures— What are 1186 

§ 1313. Same— Right of removal 1187 

§ 1814. Same — Same — On renewal of lease 1188 

§ 1315. Alterations by lessor 1189 

§ 1316. Improvements by tenant 1189 

§ 1317. Repairs — By lessor — Common-law doctrine 1190 

§1318. Same — Same — Statutory variance of the common-law rule, 1191 

§ 1319. Same — Same — May make repairs to prevent ruin 1193 

§ 1330. Same — Same — Liability for damage on repairing 1193 

§ 1331'. Same — Same — Damages resulting from defective premises, 1194 

§ 1333. Same — Same — Liability to tenant for failure to make 

repairs 1196 



CONTENTS. xliii 



PAGE 



§ 1323. Same— Same— Liability to lessee's servant for failure to 

make repairs II97 

§ 1324. Same— Same— Liability to stranger for failure to make 

repairs II97 

§ 1325. Same— Same— Repairing of unhealthy premises llfO 

§ 1326. Same — By lessee 1201 

§1327. Same— Same — Liability in damages for failure to repair. . 1201 



Section XI.— Incidents of an Estate foe Years. 

§ 1328. Introduction — General rights 1203 

§ 1329. Alienation— Right of 1204 

§ 1330. Accidental fire — Liability for 1204 

§ 1331. Emblements — When tenant is entitled to 1203 

§ 1332. Same — Lessee's title to crops 1207 

§ 1333. Same — Same — Away-going crops 1208 

§ 1334. Incumbrance on reversion 1211 

§ 1335. Entailment: 1213 

§ 1336. Estoppel to deny title 1212 

§ 1337. Same — Foundation of doctrine 1215 

§ 1338. Same — When estoppel arises 1216 

§ 1339. Same — Against vrhom estoppel extends 1216 

§ 1340. Same — Same — Lessee's assignee 1217 

§ 1341. Same — Wliere lessee has not gone into possession under 

lessor 1217 

§ 1342. Same — Time during wliioh estoppel lasts 1218 

§ 1343. Same— When may be invoked 1219 

§ 1344. Same — Acquirement of outside title 1220 

§ 1345. Same — Equitable title against landlord 1220 

§ 1346. Same— Expiration of landlord's title 1220 

§ 1347. Same — Demise of a franchise — Not within rule when 1230 

§ 1348. Same — In lease witli joint lessors 1221 

§ 1349. Same — Personal disability of lessor 1221 

§ 1350. Same — Purchase of title by lessee 1221 

§ 1351. Same— Title in state, etc .' 1233 

§ 1352. Same — When doctrine does not apply 1223 

§ 1353. Estovers— Right to take 1223 

§ 1354. Fixtures— Right to remove 1224 

§ 1355. Forfeiture 1224 

§ 1356. Insurable interest 1224 

§ 1357. Liability for debts 1224 

§ 1358. Limitation for life with remainder over 1226 

§ 1359. Merger 1226 

§ 1360. Notice to quit 12J7 

§ 1361. Rent 1227 

§ 1362. Taxes 1227 

§ 1363. Waste 1237 

§ 1364. Same — " Without impeachment for waste " 1328 



xliv CONTENTS. 

Section XII.— Letting on Shakes. 

PAGE 

§ 1365. Nature of the contract— Where rent payable in share of 

crop 1239 

§ 1366. Same— Where land tilled for share of crop 1233 

§ 1367. Same — Same — Where crop, or a part, to be consumed on 

premises 1235 

§ 1368. Same — Same — Where possession of crop to remain in 

lessor 1236 

§ 1369. Same — Same — Cropper's interest before division 1337 

§ 1370. Same— Same— Landlord's lien for rent 1338 

§ 1371. Same — Distinction between leasing and cropping on the 

shares 1338 

§ 1373. Same — Partnership between parties 1339 

§1373. Same — Breach of contract of lease on shares — Damages.. 1345 
§ 1374. Same— Same — Measure of damages 1247 

Section XIIL— Descent op a Term for Years. 

§ 1375. Common-law doctrine 1348 

§ 1376. Disposition of term— By deed 1349 

§ 1377. Same— By devise 1250 

CHAPTER XXI. 
ESTATES AT WILL. 

Section I. Nature of the estate. 

Section II. Incidents of the estate. 

Section III. How the estate created. 

Section IV. Between whom the estate may exist. 

Section V. How estate terminated. 

Section I. — Nature of the Estate. 

g 1378. Definition of estate at will 1351 

§ 1379. Nature of tenancy at will 1253 

§ 1380. Distinguished from an estate at sufferance 1253 

§ 1381. Distinguished from an estate from year to year 1354 

§ 1383. Same — Judicial conversion of estates at will into estates 

from year to year 1255 

§ 1383. Kinds of tenancies at will 1356 

§ 1384. When tenancy at vs^ill created 1357 

§ 1385. Who a tenant at wiU 1357 

§ 1386. When a term is a tenancy at w^ill 1260 

Section II. — Incidents of the Estate. 

§1387. Introductory... 1263 

§ 1388. Assignment and sub-leasing 1366 



CONTENTS. xlv 

PAGE 

§ 1389. Lessee's right to emblements 1267 

§ 1390. Lessee's right to estovers 1268 

§ 1391. Lessee estopped to deny lessor's title 1268 

§ 1393. Improvements by lessee — No right in 1268 

§ 1393. Ingress and egress— To remove crops, et3 1268 

§ 1394. Notice to quit— Reasonable time to remove 1369 

§ 1395. Rent— Necessity of and liability for 1275 

§ 1396. Waste— Liability for 1277 

Section III. — How Estate Created. 

§ 1397. Methods of creation— 1. By contract and implication of 

law 1278 

§ 1398. Same— 2. By deed 1279 

§ 1399. Words and acts of parties creating 1279 

§ 1400. Same — By agreement 1280 

§ 1401. Same— By entry under an agreement for a lease 1281 

§ 1402. Same— By entry under an agreement to sell 1282 

§ 1403. Same — By entry under a void deed or lease 1283 

§ 1404. Same — By grantor's retaining possession 1284 

§ 1405. Same — By holding over 128.") 

§ 1408. Same— By parol gifts of lands 12SG 

§ 1407. Same— By parol lease of lands 1286 

Section IV.— Between Whom Estate may Exist. 

§ 1408. Introductory 1287 

§ 1409. Between master and servant 1287 

§ 1410. Between vendor and vendee 1239 

Section V.— How Terminated, 

§ 1411. Inti'oduction — Common-law doctrine 1293 

§ 1412. Demand and notice — Sufficiency of 1294 

§ 1418. By act of lessor— Bankruptcy 1296 

§ 1414. By act of the lessee — Abandonment 1296 



CHAPTER XXII. 

ESTATE FROM YEAR TO YEAR. 

Section I. Nature and origin of the estate. 

Section II. Incidents of the estate. 

Section III. How the estate created. 

Section IV. Periods of tenancy for less than a year. 

Section V. Who may be tenants of the estate. 

Section VI. How the estate terminated. 

Section I.— Nature and Origin of the Estate. 

§ 1415. Definition 1298 

§ 1416. Origin of the estate 1299 



xlvi CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

§ 1417. Nature of the estate 1300 

§ 1418. Distinguished from term 1801 

§ 1419. Distinguished from tenancy at will 1303 

§ 1420. Reservation of rent necessary 1303 

§ 1421. Judicial legislation touching 1303 

§ 1422. Statutory regulation 1303 

Section II. — Incidents of the Estate. 

§ 1428. Introductoi-y 1305 

§ 1424. Occupation of premises 1306 

§ 1435. Eight to determine 1307 

§ 1426. Notice to quit^When required 1307 

§ 1427. Same— Time given in 1310 

§ 1428. Same — Where term, less than a year 1311 

Section III.— How the Estate Created. 

§ 1429. Introductory — Various methods of creation 1313 

§ 1430. By express agreement — A year or less 1314 

§ 1431. By holding over — Landlord's assent 1315 

§ 1433. By implication — Agricultural leases 1318 

§ 1433. By lease or permissive occupancy for indefinite time 1319 

§ 1434. By occupancy and payment of rent under a void lease. . . . 1331 

§ 1435. By parol lease — Parol continuance of lease 1333 

§ 1436. By rent reserved — Acceptance and demand 1334 

Section IV.'— Periods op Tenancy Less than a Year. 

§ 1437. Introductory— Periodical holding 1336 

§ 1438. Quarterly letting— When yearly holding 1338 

§ 1439. Monthly letting— Common-law doctrine 1328 

§ 1440. Same— Holding over— Effect on term 1329 

§ 1441. Weekly letting— Inference of law 1330 

§ 1442. Statutory regulations — Enlargement of term 1331 

Section V. — Who mat be Tenants of the Estate. 
§ 1443. Generally— Corporations 1331 

Section VI.— How the Estate Terminated. 

§ 1444. Methods of determination — Notice 1332 

§ 1445. Same — Insolvency of the lessor 1334 

§ 1446. Same — Death of tenant 1334 

§ 1447. Periodical tenancies 1334 

§ 1448. Notice to quit — Parol consent 1336 

§ 1449. Same — Tenancy from year to year 1337 

§ 1450. Same — Tenancies for less than a year 1338 



CONTENTS. xlvii 



PAGE 



§ 1451. Same— Same— Quarterly tenancy 1338 

§ 1453. Same— Same— Monthly tenancy . 1339 

§ 1458. Same — Same— Half -monthly tenancy 1340 

§ 1454. Same— Same— Weekly tenancy 1341 

§ 1455. Same — By tenant 1342 

§ 1456. Same— Parol or in writing I343 

§ 1457. Same — Service of notice of 1344 

§ 1458. Same — Waiver of notice 1344 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

ESTATES AT SUFFERANCE. 

Section I. Nature of the estate. 

Section II. Incidents of the estate. 

Section III. How estate created. 

Section IV. How estate terminated. 

Section I. — Nature of the Estate. 

§ 1459. Definition 1346 

§ 1460. Nature of the possession 1346 

§ 1461. Tenure of the estate 1347 

Section II. — Incidents of the Estate. 

§ 1463. Introductory — Rights and liabilities of tenant 1347 

§ 1463. Estoppel of tenant to deny owner's title 1348 

§ 1464. Improvements by a tenant at sufferance 1349 

§ 1465. Notice to quit— Service of 1350 

§ 1466. Same — Time to remove 1351 

§ 1467. Trespass and ejectment by tenant 1351 

§ 1468. Liabihty and damages 1353 

Section III. — How Estate Cheated. 

§ 1469. By act of law 1353 

§ 1470. By act of the parties 1353 

§ 1471. By lawful entry 1353 

§ 1473. Who are tenants at sufferance 1353 

Section TV. — How Estate Terminated. 

g 1473. Introductory 1356 

§ 1474. Modes of entry 1356 



xlviii 



CO^'TENTS. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



SEcnos 


I. 


Section 


n. 


Section 


m. 


Section 


IV. 


Section 


T. 


Section 


XI. 


Section 


\ii. 


Section 


S III 



ESTATES BY MARRIAGE. 

Husband's estate in wife's realty. 
Husband's estate jure uxoris. 
Homestead exemption — Introductory. 
Homestead exemption — ^Who entitled to. 
Homestead exemption — ^Property subject to. 
Homestead exemption — ^How acquired. 
Homestead exemption — Termination. 
Homestead exemption — Construction and procedure. 



§ U"5. 
§ liV6. 
g U77. 
g 147S. 
§ 1479. 



§ 1480. 
g 1481. 
§ 14S-3. 
§ 1483. 
§ 14S4. 
g 14S5. 
§ 14.S6. 
§ 14S7. 
§ 14SS. 
§ 1489. 
g 1490. 
§ 1491. 
§ 1492. 
g 1493. 
g 1494. 
§ 1495. 
§ 1496. 
g 1497. 
§ 1498. 



§ 1499. 
g 1500. 
g 1501. 
S 1502. 



Section I. — Husband's Estate in "Wife's Realty. 

FAGB 

Introductory 1358 

Estate during coverture — Effect of death or divorce 1359 

Estate in wife's estate of inheritance 1359 

Estate in wife's life estate 1360 

Estate in wife's dower estate 1363 

Section H. — Husband's Estate Juse Uxokis. 

Introductory — Nature of tlie estate 1363 

Distinguished from cxutesy initiate 1365 

Incidents of the estate — Generally 1366 

Same — 1. Right of alienation 1367 

Same — 2. Right to maintain action 1367 

Same— 3. Right to lease 1368 

Same — 4. Right to rents and profits 1368 

Same — 5. Right to the beneficial seisin 1369 

Same — 6. LiabiUty for waste 1369 

To what estates of wife attach 1370 

How estate prevented from attaching 1370 

Same — 1. By settlement 1371 

Same — 2. By conveyance during coverture 1373 

Same — Same — Xew Tork doctrine 1373 

Same — Same — In Xew England states 1374 

Same — Same — In other states 1375 

Same — 3. By statutory enactment 1376 

How estate barred 1377 

Statutory changes 1377 

Section HI. — ^Hoiiestead Exemption — ^Istroductoet. 

definition 1378 

Purpose and policy of 1379 

Homesteads favored in law 1880 

Nature and incidents of homestead estate 1381 



CONTENTS. Xlix 

FAQB 

§ 1503. What constitutes a homestead 1383 

§ 1504. Kinds of lioniesteads— 1. Rural and urban 1387 

§ 1505. Same— 3. Mixed homesteads 1387 

§ 1506. Same— 3. Business homesteads 1390 

§ 1507. Title and tenure necessary to support liomestead 1393 

Section IV. — Homestead Exemfhon — Who Entitled to. 

§ 1508. Who may claim homestead exemption — Generally 1395 

§ 1509. Same— Head of famUy 1396 

§ 1510. Same — Same — Unmarried person 1400 

§ 1511. Same — Same — A wife 1401 

§ 1512. Same — Same — A widower or widow 1403 

§ 1513. Executions ex delicto — Not affected by 1403 

§ 1514. Effect of death or loss of family on 1403 

§ 1515. Same — Marital survivor 1406 

§ 1516. Wife's rights in homestead exemption 1407 

§ 1517. Widow's right in homestead exemption 1409 

§ 1518. Same — Non-resident widow 1410 

§ 1519. Same — Effect on, of assignment of dower 1411 

§ 1530. Same — Ante-nuptial contract and re-marriage 1413 

§ 1531. Same — Actions affecting 1413 

§ 1533. Children's rights in homestead exemption 1413 

Section V. — Homestead Exemption — Property Subject to. 

§ 1533. What property subject to homestead — Generally 1415 

§ 1534. Same — Business property 1416 

§ 1535. Same— Same— Use as a hotel 1417 

§ 1536. Same — Community property 1418 

§ 1537. Same — Contiguous premises 1418 

§ 1538. Same— Double houses 1430 

§ 1539. Same — Encumbered property 1421 

§ 1530. Same— Equitable estates 1431 

§1531. Same — Same — Possession under contract of purchase 1423 

§ ir):;3. Same— Estates by the curtesy 1423 

§ 1533. S:ime— Estates by the entirety 1423 

§ 1534. Same— Estates for life and for years 1424 

§ 1535. Same — Leasehold estates 1424 

§ 1536. Same — Joint tenancies and tenancies in common 1434 

§ 1537. Same— Land purchased witli pension money 1437 

§ 1538. Same— Same— With proceeds of pension checli 1430 

§ 1539. Same— Offices, shops, and store 1431 

§ 1540. Same— Partnership realty 1433 

§ 1541. Same— Same— In house built with partnersliip funds 1432 

§ 1543. Same — Tenement houses 1433 

§ 1543. Same— Wife's separate estate 1434 

§ 1544. Amount and location of homestead — Introductory 1434 

§ 1545. Same— Rural homesteads 1437 

§ 1546. Same — Urban homesteads 1438 

4 



1 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

§ 1547. Same — Contiguous parcels of land 1439 

§ 1548. Same— Shifting homesteads 1440 

Section VI. — Homestead Exemption — How Acquired. 

§ 1549. How homestead acquired 1441 

§ 1550. Same — 1. Occupancy and use 1441 

§ 1551. Same — Same — Necessity for occupancy 1442 

§ 1553. Same — Same — Same — Intention to occupy ^. . 1444 

§ 1553. Same — Same — Nature of occupancy 1445 

§ 1554. Same — Same — Same — Exclusive use as a home 1446 

§ 1555. Same — 3. Declaration and election 1446 

§ 1556. Same — 3. Dedication and appropriation 1447 

§ 1557. Same — 4. Setting apart — Judicial proceedings , 1448 

§ 1558. Eights of husband in and over homestead 1449 

§ 1559. Eights of wife in and over homestead 1451 

Section VII.— Homestead Exemption— Termination. 

§ 1560. How homestead terminated 1453 

§ 1561. Same — 1. By abandonment 1454 

§ 1563. Same — Same — Temporary removal 1456 

§ 1563. Same — Same — What amounts to an abandonment 1460 

§ 1564. Same — Same — Intention to abandon 1461 

§ 1565. Same — Same — Change of intention 1463 

§ 1566. Same— Same— By husband 1463 

§ 1567. Same— Same— By wife 1463 

§ 1568. Same — Same — By widow 1464 

§ 1569. Same — Same — By infant children 1464 

g 1570. Same — Same — Evidence of abandonment 1465 

§ 1571. Same — Same — Effect of abandonment 1486 

§ 1573. Same— 3. By alienation 1467 

§ 1573. Same— Same— By husband 1468 

§ 1574. Same — Same — Same — Wliere homestead abandoned 1470 

§1575. Same — Same — Same — Where wife insane or living apart. . 1471 

§ 1576. Same— Same— Same— After wife's death 1473 

§ 1577. Same— Same— By wife 1472 

§ 1578. Same — Same — By husband and wife jointly 1473 

§ 1579. Same — Same — Eelinquishment of homestead 1476 

§ 1580. Same — Same — Eecord of instrument 1477 

§ 1581. Same — Same — Forced alienation 1477 

§ 1583. Same — Same— Form and sufficiency of instrument 1478 

§ 1583. Same — Same — Fraudulent conveyance 1480 

§ 1584. Same — Same — Eestraint upon alienation 1483 

§ 1585. Same — Same — Same — Contract to convey — Specific per- 
formance 1484 

§ 1586. Same— Same — Same — Damages for failure to convey 1487 

§ 1587. Same — 3. By incumbrance 1487 

§ 1588. Same — Same — By husband 1489 

§ 1589. Same — Same — By husband and wife 1490 



CONTENTS. li 

PAGE 

§ 1590. Same — Same — Purchase-money mortgage and trust-deed, 1491 

§ 1591. Same — Same — Sale under mortgage foreclosure 1493 

§1592. Same— 4. By forfeiture 1495 

§ 1593. Same — 5. By liabilitj' for claims of creditors 1496 

§ 1594. Same — Same — Liability for purchase-money 1496 

8 1595. Same — Same — Same — Wliat is purchase-money 1497 

§ 1596. Same — Same — Same — Money used in purcliasing outstand- 

* ing title 1498 

§ 1597. Same — Same — On attachment 1499 

§ 1598. Same — Same — On execution 1501 

§ 1599. Same — Same — On judgment 1504 

§ 1600. Same — 6. By waiver of homestead rights 1505 

Section VIII. — Homestead Exemption— Construction aud Practice. 

§ 1601. Inti'oductory — Constitutional and statutory provisions. . . . 1506 

§ 1602. Constitutionality of statutes creating homesteads 1508 

§ 1603. Same — Varying constitutional provision 1509 

§ 1604. Same— Retroactive statute's 1509 

§ 1605. Construction of homestead statutes 1513 

§ 1606. Same — Retroactive construction 1516 

§ 1607. Protection of homesteads — Mortgage not foreclosed when, 1518 

§ 1608. Descent of homesteads — Disposition by will 1519 

§ 1609. Actions affecting homestead — Pleadings 1522 

§ 1610. Same— Wife as party to 1523 



CHAPTER XXV 

EQUITABLE ESTATES— USES. 

Section I. Origin and history of uses. 

Section II. Uses before the statute of uses. 

Section III. Uses under the statute of uses. 

Section IV. Modern docti-ine of uses. 

Section I. — Origin and History of Uses. 

§ 1611. Introduction of uses — Saving from attainders 1525 

§ 1612. Same — Effect on system of conveyancing 1527 

§ 1613. Same— Time of introduction. 1527 

§ 1614. Derivation of uses — Fidei-commissum 1528 

§ 1615. Reason for the fldei-comm,issum 1528 

§ 1616. Hceres fiduciarius — Jusprecarium 1529 

§ 1617. Fidei-commissa — Historical origin 1529 

§ 1318. Cestui que use. — Clerical chancellors 1530 

g 1619. Secret uses — Chancery could not enforce 1531. 

§ 1620. Introduction of writ of subpoena 1531 

§ 1621. Same — Checks upon the chancellors 1532 

§ 1622. Same— Abuses of writ restrained 1533 



lii CONTENTS. 

Section II. — Uses Before the Statute of Uses. 

PAGE 

§ 1623. Definition — Rights and powers of trustee 1534 

§ 1624. Distinction between uses and trusts 1535 

§1625. How uses created — Separating beneficial use and seisin.. . 1535 

§ 1626. Same— By declaration 1535 

§ 1627. Same— By feoffment 1536 

§ 1628. Same— By resulting use 1536 

§ 1629. Same — Same — In what estates 1537 

§ 1630. Same — Consideration to support 1537 

§ 1631. Estates in uses — All common-law estates 1538 

§ 1632. Who may be grantees to uses 1539 

§ 1633. Same— Corporations 1539 

§ 1634. What may be conveyed to uses 1541 

§ 1635. Incidents of uses — Introductory 1541 

§ 1636. Same— Alienation 1542 

§ 1637. Same — Disposition by will 1543 

§ 1638. Same— Forfeiture for attainder 1543 

§ 1639. Enforcement of use 1544 

§ 1640. Lost by forfeiture 1545 

Section III.— Under the Statute of Uses. 

§ 1641. History of the statute of uses 1546 

§ 1642. Adoption of the statute in the United States 1548 

§ 1643. Uses under the statute 1550 

§ 1644. When statute operates 1551 

§ 1645. What property may be conveyed to uses 1553 

§ 1646. Who may be seized to uses 1554 

§ 1647. Feoifee in esse requisite 1555 

§ 1648. Feoffee and cestui que use same person — Merger 1556 

§ 1649. Cestui que use in esse necessary 1556 

§ 1650. Use in esse necessary 1557 

§ 1651. Use upon use 1558 

§ 1652. Active and passive uses 1559 

§ 1653. Use to married women 1560 

§ 1654. Words creating use — Limitations 1563 

§ 1655. Constructions of uses 1563 

§ 1656. Same — Rules of construction 1564 

§ 1657. Uses executed wlien 1565 

§ 1658. Extinguishment and supervision 1566 

Section IV. — Modern Doctrine of Uses. 

§ 1659. Contingent, etc., uses 1568 

§ 1660. Contingent future uses — Scintilla juris 1567 

§ 1661. Same— Meaning of term 1568 

§ 1662. Same — Springing uses 1569 

§ 1663. Same — Shifting or secondaiy use 1569 

§ 1664. Same — In chattel interests — Future use in 1570 

§ 1665. Same — Defeating springing and shifting uses 1570 

§ 1666. Same— Incidents of spi-inging and shifting uses 1571 



CONTENTS. 



Hii 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



EQUITABLE ESTATES— TRUSTS. 



Section 


I. 


Section 


II. 


Section 


III. 


Section 


IV. 


Section 


V. 


Section 


VI. 


Section 


VII. 


Section VIII. 


Section 


IX. 


Section 


X. 


Section 


XI. 


Section 


XII. 


Section XIII. 


Section XIV. 


Section 


XV. 


Section 


XVI. 



Nature and origin. 

Creation and extent of trust. 

Delivery and acceptance of trusts. 

Kinds of trusts. 

Trustee — Appointment, resignation, and removal. 

Trustee — Power of. 

Who may be beneficiary. 

Validity and construction of trusts. 

How trusts established. 

Jurisdiction over trusts. 

Eights and liabilities under trusts. 

Sale and assignment of trust property. 

Adverse possession. 

Renunciation of trust. 

Revocation of trust. 

Extinction and termination of trust. 



§ 1667. 
§ 1668. 
§ 1669. 
§ 1670. 
§ 1671. 
§ 1672. 
S 1673. 



§ 1674 
§ 1675. 
§ 1676. 
§ 1677. 
§ 1678. 
§ 1679. 
§ 1680. 
§ 1681. 
§ 1682. 
§ 1683. 
§ 1684. 
§ 1685. 
§ 1686. 
§ 1687. 



Section I. — Nature and Origin. 

PAGE 

Introductory — Definition 1573 

Origin of ti-usts — Early English statute 1575 

Incidents of trusts — Introductory 1576 

Same— Right to title 1576 

Same — Liability for debts 1579 

Same — Merger 1579 

In what estates trusts created 1581 

Section II. — Creation and Extent op Trusts. 

Introductory — At common law — First rule 1583 

Same — Same — Second Rule 1583 

Same — Same — Third rule 1584 

Same— In United States 1584 

Declaration of trust — Necessity for 1586 

Same — Who may make 1587 

Same — When made 1588 

Same — How made 1588 

Same — By instrument in writing 1589 

Same— By will 1591 

Same — Form of words 1591 

Same— Words of limitation 1594 

Estate taken by trustee 1595 

Same — Remainder 1596 



liv CONTENTS. 

Section III.— Delivery and Acceptance. 

FAQE 

§ 1688. Delivery of instrument. 1597 

§ 1689. Acceptance— By trustee 1598 

§ 1690. Same— Same— Effect of declination 1599 

§ 1691. Same — By cestui que trust 1600 

Section IV. — Kinds of Trusts. 

§ 1693. Introductory— Charitable trusts 1602 

§ 1693. Active and passive trusts '. 1604 

§ 1694. DiscretionaMry and dii-ectory 1608 

§ 1695. Executed and executory 1608 

§ 1696. Express trusts 1609 

§ 1697. Same— In land 1610 

§1698. Implied trusts— Definition 1611 

§ 1699. Same— How created 1613 

§ 1700. Same — Not within the statute of uses 1614 

§ 1701. Same — Within statute of limitations 1615 

§ 1702. Same — Constructive trusts 1615 

§ 1703. Same— Same— Trusts de son tort 1618 

§ 1704. Same — Same — Trusts ex malefacio 1619 

§ 1705. Same — Same — Acquisition and disposition of property— 

By trustee 1620 

§ 1706. Same— Same— Same— Fraud in 1683 

§ 1707. Same — ^Voluntary conveyance in fraud of creditors 1623 

§ 1708. Same— Precatory trusts 1636 

§ 1709. Same — Same — Words and expressions creating 1638 

§ 1 710. Same — Same — American doctrine 1600 

§ 1711. Same — Resulting trusts — Introductory 1633 

§1713. Same— How created 1634 

§ 1713. Same— Same— Exception to the rule 1686 

§ 1714. Same — Same — ^Where part of trust only declared, etc 1636 

§ 1715. Same — Same — By payment of purchase-money 1638 

§ 1716. Same— Same— Same— Parol proof 1641 

§ 1717. Same — Same — By purchase with funds of another 1643 

§ 1718. Same — Same — Same — Requisites 1645 

§ 1719. Same — Same — Same — Reason for the rule 1647 

§ 1730. Same— Same— Same— Parol proof 1648 

§ 1731. Same — Same — By agreement to purchase for another 1649 

§ 1733. Same — Same — By payment of part of purchase price 1650 

§ 1733. Same — Statutory provisions 1653 

§ 1734. Same— When arises 1653 

§ 1735. Same — Consideration requisite 1653 

§ 1736. Same — How established — Parol evidence 1653 

§ 1727. Passive trusts 1654 

Section V.— Trustee— Appointment, Resignation, and Removal. 

§ 1738. Who may be trustee 1655 



CONTENTS. Iv 

PAGE 

§ 1739. Appointment and change 1659 

§ 1730. Resignation of trustee 1660 

§ 1731. Removal of trustee 1661 

§ 1733. Survivoi-ship of trust 1663 

Section VI. — Trustees — Duty and Powers of. 

§ 1733. Duties of trustee 1663 

§ 1734. Same— To furnisli support 1665 

§ 1735. Same— To invest funds 1666 

§ 1736. Powers of trustees 1666 

§ 1737. Same — ^Delegation of personal trust 1667 

§ 1738. Other powers 1667 

Section VII. — Who may be Beneficiaeies. 

§ 1739. Introductory 1670 

§ 1740. Trusts for benefit of third persons 1671 

§ 1741. Trusts for benefit of married women 1673 

§ 1743. Same — Pennsylvania rule 1673 

Section VIII. — Vaudity and Construction of Trusts. 

§ 1743. Introductory 1674 

§ 1744. Aliens— Trusts by and for 1679 

§ 1745. Statutory regulations — New York statute 1680 

§ 1746. Trusts to accumulate income 1680 

§ 1747. Immoral trusts — Atheistical books 1681 

§ 1748. Trusts violating rule against perpetuities 1681 

§ 1749. Trusts void for uncertamty 1683 

§ 1750. Public charities 1684 

§ 1751. Trusts to religious uses 1686 

§ 1753. Bequests to burying-grounds, etc 1686 

§ 1753. Construction of trusts — Introductory 1689 

§ 1754. Same — ^Rules of construction 1693 

§ 1755. Same— Rule in Shelley's Case 1693 

§ 1756. When executed by statute — Pennsylvania rule 1694 

Section IX. — How Trusts Established. 

§ 1757. Introductory — Burden of proof 1695 

§ 1758. Proof of trust— Written instrument 1696 

§ 1759. Same — Same— Consideration 1696 

g 1760. Same— By parol 1699 

§ 1761. Same— By declaration of trust 1703 

§ 1763. Same — Same — Declarations of trustee 1703 

Section X.— Jurisdiction of Trusts. 

§ 1763. Equitable cognizance 1703 

§ 1764. Reason for the rule 1704 



Ivi CONTENTS. 

Section XI. — Rights and Liabilities Under Trusts. 

PAGE 

§1765. Introductory 1706 

§ 1766. Of trustee— In respect to beneficiary 1707 

§ 1767. Same — In respect to trust property — Estate and title 1709 

§ 1768. Same — Same — Continuance of estate 1711 

§ 1769. Same — Same — At common law 1711 

§ 1770. Same — Same — ^Right to maintain action 1712 

§ 1771. Same — In management of estate 1713 

§ 1773. Same — Same — General powers 1717 

§ 1773. Same— Same— Investment 1718 

§ 1774. Same — Same — Same — In name of trustee 1719 

§ 1775. Same — Same — Same — How investment made 1720 

§ 1776. Same — Same— Same — In what investment to be made 1721 

§1777. Same- Same— Right to sue 1723 

§ 1778. Same — Same — Liabilities for mismanagement 1723 

§ 1779. Same — Same — Allowance for improvements 1735 

§ 1780. Same — Accounting and discharge 1737 

§ 1781. Of co-tenants — Nature of estate taken — Survivorship 1739 

§ 1783. Sam&-Dutyof 1730 

§ 1783. Same— Liability of —Generally : 1733 

§ 1784. Same — Same — For acts of each other 1734 

§ 178S. Of beneficiary- Mutual relations 1 735 

§ 1786. Same— Title and interest of 1736 

§1787. Same— Enforcement of trusts 1737 

§ 1788. Same— Same— When enforced 1739 

§ 1789. Same— Rights and powers of 1740 

§ 1790. Same— Same— To call for legal title 1741 

§ 1791. Same — Same — Same — When reconveyance presumed 1743 

§ 1793. Same — Same — To maintain ejectment 1744 

§ 1793. Same— Estoppel of 1745 

§ 1794. Of third parties — Creditors of beneficiary 1746 

§ 1795. Same — For performance of trust 1749 

Section XII. — Sale and Assignment op Property. 

§ 1796. When may be made— Generally 1750 

§ 1797. Same — Upon demand of beneficiary 1753 

§ 1798. Same — Power of trustee to sell 1754 

§ 1799. Same — Same — Notice of sale under trust 1755 

§ 1800. Same — Conveyance in contravention of trust 1756 

§ 1801. Same — Same — Liability of trustee 1756 

§ 1803. Same — Setting sale aside — Inadequacy of price 1757 

§ 1803. Purchaser or assignee takes subject to trust 1759 

§ 1804. Same — Following property 1759 

§ 1805. Same — Purchaser without notice 1763 

§ 1806. Same — Purchaser withnotice 1764 

§ 1807. Purchase by trustee— Sale voidable 1766 

§ 1808. Same — Legal or actual fiduciary relations 1769 

§ 1809. Same — Purchase from cestui que trust 1772 



CONTENTS. Ivii 

PAGE 

§ 1810. Same — Purchase at sale of co- trustee 1773 

§ 1811. Same — Purchase at sherifiE's sale 1773 

§ 1813. Same — Purchase through third person 1774 

§ 1813. Same — Purchase voidable only 1775 

y 1814. Same — Same — ^Who may applj' to set aside sale 1775 

§ 1815. Same — Rights and title of purchaser 1776 

Section XIII. — Adverse Possession. 

§ 1816. Introductory 1779 

§ 1817. In express trusts 1780 

§ 1818. In implied trusts 1780 

§ 1819. Statute of limitations — Express trusts 1780 

§ 1830. Same— Constructive trusts 1783 

§ 1821. Same — Running against trustee 1784 

Section XIV.— Rentjncia.tion of Trust. 

§ 1833. Introductory 1785 

§ 1823. Renunciation by trustee 1787 

§ 1834. Same— Effect of refusal to act 1787 

§ 1835. Renunciation by beneficiary 1788 

Section XV. — Revocation op Trust. 

§ 1836. Voluntary trust — Power of revocation in deed 1789 

§ 1837. Same — Revocation after acceptance 1790 

§ 1838. Assignment for benefit of creditors 1793 

Section XVI. — Extinction and Termination op Trust. 

§ 1829. Introductory 1796 

§ 1830. Condition for termination — Deed of married woman 1798 

§ 1831. By surrender of trust 1799 

§ 1833. By death of beneficiary 1800 

§ 1833. By reconveyance of property 1800 

§ 1834. By sale under will 1801 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

EQUITABLE ESTATES— POWERS. 

§ 1835. Definition of power 1804 

§ 1836. Kinds of powers 1804 

§ 1837. Creation ot power— Form of words 1806 

§ 1838. Same — Instrument creating 1807 

§1839. Same— New York doctrine 1807 

g 1840. Powers distinguished from estates 1810 

§ 1841. Limitation of — Rule against perpetuities 1811 



Iviii CONTENTS. 

FAOE 

§ 1843. Same— Same— Validity of appointment 1813 

§ 1843. Construction of powers — Introductory 1813 

§ 1844. Same— Enlarging estate 1814 

§ 1845. Same — Life estate with power of sale 1815 

§ 1846. Same — Power to sell and use proceeds 1816 

§ 1847. Same — Personal confidence 1816 

§ 1848. Same — Power to trustees " and their heirs " 1317 

§ 1849. Same — Power to-a trustee "and his assigns" 1818 

§ 1850. Powers of appointment 1819 

§ 1851. Same— Extent of estate 1830 

§ 1852. Same — Power of disposal 1831 

§ 1853. Same— Power to appoint by will 1833 

§ 1854. Same — Absolute estate vests when 1833 

§ 1855. Liabilities of estates — For debt of donee 1834 

§ 1856. Same— For debts of beneficiary 1836 

§ 1857. Who may be donees 1836 

§ 1858. Who may be appointees 1838 

§ 1859. Who may execute powers 1829 

§ 1860. How executed 1830 

§ 1861. Same— Power to sell , 1831 

§ 1863. Same — Same — Given to several of a class 1833 

§ 1863. Power to married women 1836 

§ 1864. Same— By implication 1836 

§ 1865. Same — Excessive execution 1837 

§ 1866. Same — Successive execution 1838 

§ 1867. Same— Defective execution 1839 

§ 1868. Non-execution of power 1840 

§ 1869. Delegation on assignment of power 1841 

§ 1870. Survival of powers 1843 

§ 1871. Extinguishment and merger of power 1843 

§ 1873. Suspension and destruction of power 1844 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

CONDITIONAL ESTATES. 

§ 1873. Introductory 1846 

§ 1874. Definition of conditional estates 1847 

§ 1875. Nature of conditional estates 1848 

§ 1876. Same— Assignment , 1848 

§ 1877. Distinguished from a trust 1850 

§ 1878. Distinguished from conditional limitation 1851 

§ 1879. Kinds of conditions 1851 

§ 1880. Same — Express or in deed 1851 

§ 1881. Same— Imphed or in law 1853 

§ 1883. Same — Precedent condition 1853 

§ 1883. Same — Same — Copulative condition 1853 

S 1884. Same — Same — Particular estate 1854 



CONTENTS. lix 

PAGE 

§ 1885. Same — Subsequent condition 1854 

§ 1886. How created— Form of words 1855 

§ 1887. At what time created — As to things executed 1856 

§ 1888. Same — As to things executory 1857 

§ 1889. To what estates annexed 1857 

§ 1890. VaUd conditions — Conditions precedent 1837 

§ 1891. Same — Conditions subsequent 1858 

§ 1892. Void conditions — Conditions precedent 1859 

§ 1893. Same — Conditions subsequent 1860 

§ 1894. Failure to perform condition— EfiEect 1860 

§ 1895. Same — Who may enter for breach 1861 

§ 1896. Same — Same — After conveyance 1862 

§ 1897. Same — Apportionment 1863 

§1898. Performance of condition 1862 

§ 1899. Same — Time of performance 1864 

§ 1900. Same — Place of performance 1865 

§ 1901. Forfeiture by non-performance 1866 

§ 1903. Same— Waiver of 1867 

§ 1903. Same — Excusing non-performance 1869 

§ 1904. Same— Belief against 1869 

§ 1905. Same— Who bound by 1873 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

JOINT ESTATES. 



Section 


I. 


Estates in severalty. 


Section 


II. 


Estates in joint tenancy. 


Section 


III. 


Estates in common. 


Section 


IV. 


Estates in coparcenary. 


Section 


V. 


Estates in entirety. ^ 


Section 


VI. 


Estates in copartnership. 


Section 


VII. 


Incidents common to joint estates 


Section VIII. 


Partition of joint estates. 



Section I.— Estates in Severalty. 

§ 1906. Introductory 1874 

§ 1907. Holding in severalty 1874 

§ 1908. Holding jointly 1874 

Section II.— Estates in Joint Tenancy. 

§ 1909. Definition 18"6 

§ 1910. Nature of the estate 18^0 

§ 1911. How created 18''''' 

§ 1913. Same— ("ircumstances requisite 1878 

§ 1913. Same— Unity of interest 18'''8 



Ix CONTENTS. 

PAOE 

§ 1914. Same— Unity of title 1879 

g 1915. Same— Unity of time 1880 

§ 1916. Same — Unity of possession 1880 

§ 1917. Incidents of joint tenancy — Survivorship 1881 

g 1918. Same— Entry 1883 

§ 1919. Same— Not favored in equity 1883 

§ 1930. What may be held in joint tenancy 1883 

§ 1931. Who may be joint tenants 1884 

§ 1933. Same— Trustees 1884 

§ 1933. Same— Mortgagees 1885 

§ 1934. Same— Husband and wife 1886 

§ 1935. Same— Infants 1887 

§ 1936. Same — Executors and administrators 1887 

§ 1937. Same— Corporations 1888 

§ 1938. Obligations and liabilities 1888 

§ 1939. Same — To contribute share of purcliase price 1889 

§ 1930. Same — To contribute share of taxes 1889 

§ 1981. Same — To contribute share of incumbrance 1890 

§ 1933. Same — To contribute share of expenses for repairs 1891 

§ 1933. Same — To contribute share of expenses for improvements. 1898 

§ 1934. Same— To pay rent 1893 

§ 1935. Same — To account for rents and profits 1895 

§ 1936. Same — To share burdens and losses of common property. . 1896 

§ 1937. Adverse possession of joint tenant — What constitutes 1897 

§ 1938. Same— Ouster and disseisin 1898 

§ 1939. Same— Same— Effect of ouster 1899 

§ 1940. Same— Statute of limitations 1899 

§ 1941. Actions by and against joint tenants — By tenants 1900 

§ 1943. Same — Against tenants 1903 

§ 1943. Actions betvreen joint tenants 1903 

§ 1944. Same— At common lavsr 1903 

§ 1945. Same— In equity 1905 

Sbction III. — Estates in Common. 

§ 1946. Definition 1907 

§ 1947. Nature of the estate 1907 

§ 1948. Same — Independence of interest 1908 

§ 1949. Creation of the estate 1909 

§ 1950. Incidents of the estate 1910 

§ 1951. Possession by co-tenant 1913 

§ 1953. Same— Ouster 1915 

§ 1953. Joint estates — Tenancies in common vphen 1917 

§ 1954. Tenancies in common between husband and wife 1919 

§ 1955. Riglits and power of tenants in common 1931 

§ 1956. Same — To enter into agreements concerning common 

property 1931 

§ 1957. Same — To occupy common property 1933 

^ 1958. Same — To convey common property 1923 

g 1959. Same — Same — Whole of property 1923 



CONTENTS. Ixi 

PAGE 

§ 1960. Same— Same— Undivided part of property 1933 

§ 1961. Same— Same— Specified part of property 1924 

§ 1963. Same— To lease common property 1935 

§ 1963. To license acts upon common property 1926 

Section IV. — Estates in Coparcenary. 

§ 1964. Definition 1926 

§ 1965. When estate vests 1937 

§ 1966. Distinguished from joint tenancies 1928 

§ 1967. Incidents of estate 1928 

Section V. — Estates in Entirety. 

§ 1968. Definition and origin 1939 

§ 1969. Distinguished from joint tenancies 1930 

§ 1970. Common-law rule 1931 

§ 1971. Same — In what states in force 1933 

§ 1973. Same — In what states changed hy statute 1933 

§ 1973. Tenants in common — Effect of marriage between 1938 

§ 1974. Husband and wife — Holding by moieties 1938 

§ 1975. Survivorship 1940 

§ 1976. Same — Husband's control — Common-law doctrine 1941 

§ 1977. Same— Modern rule 1943 

§ 1978. Same — Lease by husband 1944 

§ 1979. Same — Conveyance by husband 1945 

g 1980. Same— Liability for husband's debts 1045 

§ 1981. Same— Wife's Inchoate interests 1946 

§ 1983. Community property — Origin of doctrine of 1946 

§ 1983. Same— What constitutes 1946 

§ 1984. Same — Same — Pi-operty purchased by husband 1947 

§ 1985. Same — Same — Property purchased by wife 1948 

§ 1986. Same— Liability for debts 1949 

§ 1987. Same— Descent of 19.50 

§ 1988. Effect of statute abolishing joint tenures 1950 

§ 1989. Effect of married women enabling statutes 1951 

§ 1990. Effect of divorce 1953 

§ 1991. Effect of partition 1955 

Section VI. — Estates in Copartnership. 

§ 19P3. Definition 1956 

% 1993. Nature of the estate 1957 

§ 1994. When treated as personal property 1957 

§ 1995. Interest of partners in 1959 

§ 1996. Incidents of the estate— Alienation 1961 

§ 1997. Same— Liability for debts 1963 

§ 1998. Same— Liability to curtesy and partition 1963 

§ 1999. Same— Descent of 1964 



Ixii CONTENTS. 

Section VII.— Incidents Common to Joint Estates. 

PAEB 

§ 2000. Incidents to the estate — The four unities 1965 

§ 2001. Same — Action by and against tenants 1966 

§ 2003. Same— Alienation by tenants 1967 

§ 2003. Same— Lease by tenants 1967 

§ 2004. Same — Livery of seisin 1967 

§ 2005. Same— Right of survivorship 1968 

§ 2006. Same— Same— How destroyed 1969 

§ 2007. Same— Waste 1969 

Section VIII. — Partition of Joint Estates. 

§ 2008. Introductory 1970 

§ 2009. Definition of partition 1971 

§ 3010. Partition at common law 1973 

§ 2011. Partition imder statute 1974 

§ 2013. Kinds of partition 1975 

§ 2013. Same— Voluntary partition 1976 

§ 2014. Same — Same — By arbitrators 1976 

§ 2015. Same — Involuntary partition 1977 

§ 2016. Same— Parol partition 1977 

§ 2017. Same— Partial partition 1978 

§ 2018. Who may have partition 1979 

§ 2019. Same— Seisin requisite 1981 

§ 2020. What may be partitioned 1983 

§ 3031. Parties in action for partition 1983 

§ 2023. Pleadings and practice in action for partition 1985 

§ 2033. Trial of title in action in partition 1985 

§ 3034. Judgment or decree in action for partition 1986 

§ 3025. Manner of allotment 1987 

§ 2036. Same— Owelty 1988 

§ 3037. Same— Sale of land for division 1989 

§ 3028. WaiTanty in partition deeds 1989 

§ 2039. Effect of partition 1990 

CHAPTER XXX. 

MORTGAGES. 

Section I. Origin and history. 

Section II. Nature and validity. 

Section III. Rights and liabilities under. 

Section IV. Rights and liabilities under — continued. 

Section V. Remedies incident to. 

Section I. — Origin and History. 

g 2030. Definition 1993 

§ 2031. Origin of mortgages— Civil-law doctrine 1994 



CONTENTS. Ixiii 

PAGE 

§ 3033. Same— Common-law doctrine 1994 

§ 3033. Same— Equity doctrine 1995 

§ 2034. Same— Same— Equity of redemption 1995 

§ 2035. Modern English mortgages 1996 

§ 3036. Doctrine of mortgages in the United States 1997 

§ 20.37. Kinds of mortgages 2000 

§ 3038. Same — Common-law mortgages 2001 

§ 3039. Same— Equitable mortgages 2001 

§ 3040. Same— Same— Deposit of title-deeds 3003 

§ 3041. Same— Same— Same— In this country 2003 

§ 2043. Same— Vendor's lien 2004 

§ 2043. Same — Same— Who may claim 2006 

§ 3044. Same — Same— Discharge of 2007 

§ 2045. Same — Vendee's lien 2008 

§ 2046. Welsh mortgages 2009 



Section II.— Nature and Validity. 

8 2047. Who may make mortgage— Common-law doctrine 3011 

§ 2048. Same — Married woman 2011 

§ 3049. Same — Imbeciles and lunatics 3013 

§ 3050. Same — Corporations 2013 

§ 2051. Same— Guardians, etc 2013 

§ 3053. Who may take a mortgage 3013 

§ 3053. What may be mortgaged 2015 

§ 3054. Same — Improvements 2016 

§ 2055. Same — After-acquired property 2017 

§ 3056. Same— Growing crops 3030 

§ 3057. What mortgage carries 2030 

§ 2058. Same — Essentials of mortgage — Introductory 2023 

§ 2059. Same— Parties to mortgage 2033 

§ 2060. Same— Property to be mortgaged 2023 

§ 2061. Same— Consideration 2024 

§ 2063. Same — Same — Payment of money 2036 

§ 2063. Same — Same — Performance of condition 2031 

§ 3064. Same— Execution and delivery 2033 

g 2065. Same— Registration 2035 

§ 2066. Form of mortgage 2036 

§ 3067. Same— Defeasance clause 2038 

§ 3068. Same— Same— Form of defeasance 3039 

§ 3069. Same— Same— In equity 2043 

§ 2070. Conditional sale or mortgage 2043 

§ 3071. Same — Parol evidence to explain 2045 

§ 2073. Contemporaneous agreements 2050 

§ 3073. Same — Agreement to repurchase 3051 

§ 3074. Subsequent agreements 3055 

§ 2075. Validity and effect of mortgages 2055 

g 2076. Invalidity of mortgages 3059 



Ixiv CONTENTS. 

Section III. — Rights and Liabilities undee. 

PAGE 

g 2077. Mortgagor — Interests and rights 2063 

g 2078. Same — Same — Eight to maintain action 2063 

§ 2079. Same— Same— Before condition broken 2063 

§ 2080. Same— Same— Eight to lease 2064 

§ 2081. Same — Same — Eight to rents and profits 2065 

§ 2082. Same— Same— Eight to emblements 2007 

§ 2083. Same — Same — Eight to impi'ove 2037 

§ 2084. Same — Same — Eight to convey — Subject to mortgage 2068 

i< 2085. Same — Same — Same — Assumption of mortgage 2069 

§ 2086. Same— Same— Right to redemption 2073 

§2087. Same— Same— Same— Loss of 2075 

§ 2088. Same — Same — Same — Contiibution on redemption 2075 

§ 2089. Same — Same — Eight to possession 2076 

§ 2090. Same — Same — Same — Agreement respecting 3078 

§ 2091. Same— Duties of— To pay taxes 3079 

§ 2093. Same— Same— To protect title 2030 

§ 2098. Same — Same — To preserve premises 2080 

§ 2094. Same— Liability of— To action at law 2081 

P 3095. Same — Same — To sell equity of redemption 2083 

§ 2096. Mortgagee — Interests and rights of — At common law 2084 

§ 2097. Same— Same— Under statutes 2084 

§ 2098. Same— Same— Eight to rents and profits 2085 

§ 2099. Same— Duty of— To pay taxes 2086 

§ 2100. Same— Same— To make repairs 2086 

§ 2101. Same — Liabilities of — To account for rents and profits. .. . 2087 

§2102. Same — Allowance for improvements and disbursements. . 2088 

§ 2108. Tenure under mortgage 2090 

§ 2104. Same — Adverse possession 2003 

§ 3105. Same— Same— "What constitutes 2094 

§ 2106. Same— Merger of interests 2095 

Section IV. — Rights and Liabilities undee — continued. 

§ 2107. Assignment of mortgagee's interest — How made 2099 

§ 3108. Same — Who may make 2101 

§ 3109. Same — Under common-law theory 2103 

§ 3110. Same — Under the lien theory 2104 

§ 2111. Same — Equitable assignment 2105 

§ 2113. Same — Consideration 3108 

§ 3118. Same — Notice and record 3109 

g 2114. Same — Construction of 3110 

§ 2115. Assignment of mortgagor's interest 3113 

§ 2110. Same — Notice to mortgagee 2113 

§ 3117. Insurance of property — By mortgagor 3113 

p 2118. Same — Same — Misrepresentations in application 2114 

g 2119. Same — Same — Violation of condition against alienation. . . 3115 

§ 2020. Same — By mortgages 3117 

§ 3121. Same— Same— Provision requiring insurance for benefit of. 3118 



CONTENTS. Ixv 

FAOE 

§ 2132. Registry and priority 3119 

§ 3133. Same— Index to record 3133 

§ 2134. Same— Priority of registry 2123 

§ 2125. Payment— By mortgagor 2136 

§ 2136. Same— Same— Before maturity 2137 

§ 2137. Same— Same— At matuiity 2128 

§ 2128. Same — Same — After condition broken 2128 

§ 3139. Same — Same — After decree of foreclosure 3129 

§ 2130. Same — Same — Directing application 2129 

§ 2131. Same— By third party— Effect 2130 

§ 2133. Tender of payment— On law day 3131 

§ 3133. Same— After default 3131 

§ 3134. Same — After foreclosure commenced 3181 

§ 3135. Re-lease and discharge — Form and effect 3133 

§ 2136. Same— Wliat acts amount to 2132 

§ 2137. Same— Effect of '. 2134 

Section V. — Remedies Incident. 

§ 2138. Subrogating mortgagees 2135 

§ 2189. Tacking mortgages 2138 

§ 2140. Enforcing mortgages — Foreclosures 2140 

§ 3141. Same — Same— Nature of foreclosure 3143 

§ 2143. Same — Same — Methods of foreclosure 3142 

§ 2143. Same — Same — Foreclosure by entry and possession 3143 

§ 3144. Same— Same— Strict foreclosure 3148 

§ 3145. Same — Same — Statutory foreclosure 2145 

§ 3146. Same — Same— By action in equity 3145 

§ 3147. Same — Same — Parties to foreclosure — Parties plaintiff 2146 

§ 2148. Same — Same — Same — Parties defendant 2149 

§ 2149. Same — Same — Decree of foreclosure 3152 

§ 2150. Same— Same— Same— Effect upon the land 2155 

§ 3151. Same— Same— Same— Effect upon the debt 2157 

§ 2152. Same — Same— Sale of mortgaged premises— Under decree. 2158 

§ 2153. Same— Same— Same— Under power 2159 

§3154. Same— Same— Same— Same— Extinguishment of power. . 2161 

§ 2155. Same— Same— Same— Rights of purchaser 2161 

§ 2156. Same— Same— Same— Purchase by mortgagee 2162 

§ 2157. Same— Same— Same— Application of proceeds of sale 2164 

§ 3158. Same— Same— Judgment for deficiency 3164 

§ 2159. Redemption— Definition and process 2167 

§ 2160. Same — Who may redeem 2169 

§ 2161. Same— When redemption may be made 2178 

§ 3163. Same— When right barred 2173 

§ 2168. Same— Same— How right of barred or lost 2174 

§ 3164. Same— Contribution on redemption 3176 

§ 3165. Same— Same— Between sureties of the mottgagors 3177 

§ 3166. Same— Same— Between mortgagor and his grantees 2178 

§ 2167. Same— Same— Between mortgagor's grantees 2179 

5 



IXvi "■ CONTENTS. 

TAOS 

§ 3168. Same — Same— Between mortgagor's personal property and 

pledged estate 2181 

§ 2169. Same — Same — Between mortgagor's devisees, heirs, and 

widow 3182 

§ 2170. Same — Same — Agreements affecting rights of 3183 

§ 2171. Same — Accounting by mortgagee 2184 

§2172. Waste— Action for damages 3185 

§ 2173. Same — Injunction against 3187 



BOOK IV. 
INCORPOREAL HEREDITAMENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTOBY. 

§ 3174. Incorporeal hereditaments — Definition 3188 

§ 2175. Same— Kinds 3188 

§ 2176. Same— How created * 3189 

§ 2177. Same— How lost 3189 



CHAPTER II. 

RIGHTS OF COMMON. 

§ 3178. Definition 2190 

§ 2179. Kindsof []][[ 2193 

§ 2180. Common of pasture 2192 

§ 3181. Same — Common appendant 2193 

§ 2182. Same — Common appurtenant 2192 

§ 2183. Same — Common of vicinage 2194 

§ 3184. Same — Common in gross 3194 

§ 2185. Common of estovers 2195 

§ 2186. Same — Not severable or apportionable 2196 

§ 2187. Common of turbary 2196 

§ 2188. Common of piscary 2197 

§ 2189. Divesting right of common , 2198 

§ 2190. Apportionment of common gigg 

§ 2191. Same — Common of pasture 2199 

§ 2192. Same— Common of estovers and piscary 3200 



CONTENTS Ixvii 



§ 2193. Extinguishment of common— By release 3300 

§ 2194. Same — By conveyance 3300 

§ 3195. Same — Unity of possession 3201 

§ 2196. Same— By severance 3301 



CHAPTEE III. 

WAYS. 

§ 3197. Introductory— Ways of two kinds— Public and private. . . 2303 

§ 3198. Kinds of ways 3304 

§ 2199. How acquired 3205 

§ 3300. Same— By prescription 3205 

§ 3201. Same — By dedication and condemnation 2305 

§ 3303. Same— By grant 3306 

g 3303. Same— From necessity 2307 

§ 3304. Divesting ways 3208 

§ 2205. Repairing ways 3308 

§ 3306. Extinguishing rightof way 3308 

§ 3307. How revived 3309 



CHAPTER IV. 

EASEMENTS AND SERVITUDES. 

§ 2208. Definition 2210 

§ 3209. Distinguished from license 2313 

§ 2310. Distinguished from profits a prendre 3313 

§ 3311. Distinguished from covenants 2314 

§ 3312. Nature and incidents of 3315 

§ 3318. Kinds of easements — Introductory 3216 

§ 3314. Same— Private ways 3217 

§ 3315. Same— Same— By grant 2218 

§ 3216. Same — Same — By prescription 3319 

§3317. Same— Same— By necessity 3230 

§ 2318. Same— Air and light 3223 

g 3219. Same — Same — How acquired 3322 

§ 2220. Same— In waters 2224 

§ 2331. Same — Same— How acquired 3335 

§ 3333. Same — Same — In natural water-course 3337 

§ 3323. Same — Same — In artificial water-course 3238 

§ 2334. Same— Same— Percolating waters and swamps 3339 

g 2235. Same— To lateral support 2381 

§ 2236. Same— Same— How acquired 2234 

§ 3337. Same— Same— Implied grant of lateral support 3234 

§ 3238. Same— Party walls 2234 



Ixviii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

§ 3339. Same— Mines and mining 2337 

§ 2380. Same — Legalized nuisance 2339 

§ 2331. How created 2340 

§ 2333. How lost or extinguished 3343 

§ 3333. Same— How merged 3344 

§ 2334. Same— By act of parties 3245 

§ 2335. Same— By release 2247 

§ 2336. Rights and liabilities of parties 2247 



CHAPTER V. 

RENTS. 

§ 2237. Definition 2249 

§ 3338. Nature of the estate 3350 

§ 3339. Kinds of rents 2253 

§ 2340. How payable 3253 

§ 3341. Wlien payable 3255 

§ 3343. Where i)ayable 2256 

§ 3343. To whom payable 3356 

g 3344. Who liable for— The tenant 3359 

§ 3345. Same — Parties continuing to occupy 3361 

§ 3346. Same — Assignee of tenant 3361 

§ 3347. Same — Assignee for benefit of creditors. 3365 

§ 3348. Same— Surety 3266 

§ 3349. Apportionment 2367 

§ 2350. Remedies of landlord 2270 

§ 2251. Same — Suit for use and occupation 3370 

§ 3353. Same— Suit for rent 3271 

§ 3353. Same— Distress for rent 3373 



BOOK V. 

TITLE. 



CHAPTER I. 

FOUNDATION OF TITLE. 

§ 3254. Introductory 3375 

§ 3355. Government grants 3376 

§ 3356. Other sources of title 3377 



CONTENTS. Ixix 

CHAPTER II. 

HOW ACQUIRED. 

Section I. By descent. 

Section II. By original acquisition. 

Section III. By public grant. 

Section IV. By private grant. 

Section V. By involuntary alienation. 

Section I.— By Descent. 

PAGE 

§ 3257. Introductory 3378 

§ 3358. Rules of descent 3379 

§ 3359. Same— To lineal descendants 3379 

§ 3360. Same— Same— Posthumous children 3379 

§ 3361. Same— Same— Illegitimate children 3380 

§ 2263. Same— Same— Adopted children 3383 

§ 3363. Same— To lineal ancestors 3383 

§ 2364. Same— Same— To father 3383 

§ 3365. Same— Same— To mother 3384 

§ 2366. Same— Same— To brothers and sisters . 3385 

§ 3267. Same— Same— Same— Of the whole and half-blood 3286 

§ 2368. Law governing descent of real property 2388 

§ 2269. Alienage as a bar 2289 

Section II.— By Original Acqihsitipn. 

§ 3270. Introductory 3390 

§ 3371. By prescription 2290 

§ 2273. By accretion 3293 

§ 2273. By adverse possession 2294 

§ 2274. By statute of limitations 2298 

§ 2275. By estoppel 2800 

§ 2276. By abandonment 3303 

Section III.— By Pcblio Grant. 

§ 3277. Introductory 2304 

§ 3378. Methods by which acquired 3305 

S 3279. Same— By pre-emption 3306 

§ 3380. Same— By homestead entry 3308 

§ 3381. Same— By timber culture entry 3309 

§ 3383. Same— By desert land entry 2309 

§ 3383. Same— By entry under bounty or military land warrants . 3310 

§ 3384. Same- By purchase at public auction or private sale 3311 

Section IV.— By Private Grant. 
§3385. Introductory 3311 



Ixx ■ CONTENTS. 

PAQE 

§ 2286. Common-law conveyances 3313 

§ 2387. Same— By feoffment 2313 

§ 2288. Same— By gift 2313 

§ 2289. Same— By grant 2313 

§ 2290. Same— By lease 2314 

§ 2291. Under statiite of uses 2314 

§ 2392. Same — Covenant to stand seized 2315 

§ 2293. Same— Bargain and sale 2318 

§ 2294. Same — Same — Limiting estate to commence infuturo. ... 3318 

§ 2295. Same — Lease and re-lease 2320 

§ 8296. Modem conveyances — By warranty deed 2320 

§ 3397. Same— By quit-claim deed 3331 

Section V.— By Involtjktaby Alienation. 

§ 3298. Introductory 3323 

§ 3399. Under exercise of eminent domain 3326 

§ 2300. Where persons under disability 3328 

§ 3301. Where title is defective 2330 

§ 3302. Where owner dies intestate 2333 

§ 3303. Where owner fails or refuses to pay just debts 3333 

§ 3304. Where owner fails or refuses to pay taxes 3335 



CHAPTER III. 

DEEDS. 

§ 2305. Introductory 2338 

§ 3306. Essentials of deeds 3338 

§ 3307. On what to be written 3339 

§ 3308. Sufficiency of writing 2339 

§ 3309. Same— Filling blanks 3340 

§ 2310. Wlio may convey by deed 2341 

§ 2311. Same— Persons blind, deaf, and dumb 2341 

§ 2312. Same— Corporations 2341 

§ 3313. Who may not execute deeds — Infants 3343 

§ 3314. Same — Same— Female infants 2344 

§ 2315. Same— Same— Male infants 2344 

§ 2316. Same— Idiots and lunatics 2344 

§ 2317. Same— Married women 3345 

§ 2318. Same— Persons attainted 2346 

§ 2319. Who may be grantees — Aliens , 2347 

§ 2330. Same— The wife 2347 

§ 2321. Same— Corporations 3348 

§ 2322. Consideration for deed 3348 

§ 3323. Description of property 2350 

§ 2324 Orderly parts of deed 2351 

§ 2325. Reading before signing 3351 



CONTENTS. Ixxi 

FAOE 

§ 2336. Signing and sealing 2353 

§ 3837. Delivery of deed 3353 

§3338. Same— Mode of delivery 3353 

§ 3339. Same— Delivery in escrow 2354 

§ 2330. Attestation 2354 

§ 3331. Formal parts of a deed 2355 

§ 2332. Same— The date 3355 

§ 2333. Same — The parties to the instrument 2355 

§ 3334. Same — Same — Description of parties 2356 

§ 2335. Same— The description of the property 2356 

§ 3336. Same— The recital 2358 

§2337. Same— Tlie consideration 3359 

§3338. Same— The granting clause 3359 

§3339. Same— The habendum 2360 

§2340. Same— The reddendum 23G1 

§ 2341. Same— The covenants 2361 

§ 2348. Same— The testimonium clause 2363 

§ 2343. Same— The acknowledgment 2363 

§2344. Recording deeds 2365 



TABLE OF OASES. 



Keferences are to pages. 



Aaron v. Bayne, 760, 761 
Abbe V. Goodwin, 2173, 2128 

V, Neuton, 1625 
Abendroth v, Greenwich, 2216 
Abbot V. American Hard Rubber Co., 176S 
Abbott V. Abbott, 1919, 2298 

V. Allen, 2061 

V. Bagley, 2346 

V. Berry, 1987 

V. Bosworth, 977, 1249 

V. Cromartie, 1382, 1502 

V. Gatch, 1247, 1248 

V. Godfrey, 2038 

V. Hampden Ins. Co., 2116 

V. Heard, 2348 

V. Jenkins, 423 

V. Kesson, 2130, 2131 

V. Parsons, 1030, 103 1 

V. Steams, 1173, 2266 

V. Sworder, 1697 

V. The Essex Co., 308, 320, 321, 335, 418 
Abbott's Exr, v. Reeves, 1750 
Abbott of Bury v. Bokenham, 521 
Abby zf. Billups, 1068, 1098, 1107, 1108 
Abdy, Doe d. v. Stevens, 1139, 1146 
Abeel v. RadclifE, 1003, 1087, 1088, 1590, 1591 
Abel V. Heathcote, 1669, 1670 
Abell V. Douglass, 368, 2058, 2289 

V. Lothrop, 1475 
Abercrombie v. Baldwin, 211, 1914 

V. Bradford, 1794 

V. Redpath, 2260 

V. Riddle, 746 
Aberdeen v. Blackmar, iioi 
Abemethy v. Society of Church of Puritans, 

32, 367 37, 38, 39 
Abington v. Boston, 1456 

V. Inhabitants of North Bridgewater, 
1456 
Abraham v. Bubb, 559, 576 

V. Buff, 544 

V. Twig, 1564 
Abrahams -v. Tappe, 1139 
Abrams v. Winshup, 342 
Abshire v. State, loig 

Academy of Music v. Hackett, io6r, 1154, 1155 
Acer &. Westcott, 1777, 2359 
Acheson «/. Miller, 1517 
Achilles v. Willis, 1439 
Acker v. Acker, 2175 

V. Trueland, 1445 
Ackerly v. Dygert, 515 
Ackerman v. Burrows, igog 
V. Emott, 1721, 1722 
V. Gorton, 1809 
V. Hensicker, 2120 
V. Horicon Co., 2248 



Ackerman v. Hunsicker, 2030 

V. Lyman, 2271 

V. Smiley, 1164 
Ackland v. Ackland, 340 

V. Lutley, 515, 969, 1006, 1596, 1605 

V. Pring, 975 
Ackley v. Chamberlain, 1386, 1387, 1392, 1416, 
1417, 1418, 1442, 1445, 1501, 1502, 
1504, 151S 
Ackroyd v. Smith, 2217, 2238 

V. Smithson, 1638 
Acocks V. Phillips, 1061, 1154 
Acton V. Blundell, 2231 

V. Woodgate, 1713, 1793, 1794 
Adair z/. Adair, 2108 

V. Bogle, 1245, 1246 

V. Brimmer, 1721 

V. Lott, 585, sg8, 600, 601, 603, 612, 624, 
626, 629, 679, 6S2, 692, 693, 703 

V. Shaw, 1764 

V. Stone, 1290 
Adams, Re, 1824 

Adams z/. Adams, 486, 751, 752, 940, 1021, 1357, 
1411, 1589, 1594, 1598, 1659, 1661, 
1786, 1788, 1797, 2252, 2257 

V. Ames Iron Co., 1975, 1981, 1982 

V. Andrews, 2240 

V. Angell, 2098 

V. fearron, 852, 856 

V. Beach, 1116, 1122, 1123 

V. Beadle, 132 

V. Beale, iig, 1408, 1451, 1452 

V. Bean, 2267 

V. Beekman, 781, 815, 820, 826, 889 

V. Brackett, 647 

V. Bradley, 2151 

V. Brereton, 555, 569 

v. Briggs Iron Co., 2237 

V. Buchanan, 200S 

V. Buckland, 1888 

V. Bucklin, 1004 

V. Carter, 1245 

7J. Chaplin, 383 

V. Corriston, iggg, 2030, 2078, 2187 

V. Cowherd, 2007 

V. Cruft, 434 

V. Decker, 1319 

V. French, 976 

V. Frothingham, 1922, 2293 

V. Gale, i7r5 

V, Gay, 2061 

V. Goddard, 1163 

V. Guerard, 2g7, 1548, 1649, 1694, 1700 

V. Hagger, 1301 

V. Jenkins, 1419 

V. Johnson, 2001 

V. Logan, 601, 603, 692, 693, 703 

V. Mackey, 1375 

V. McKesson, 1234, 1237 

Ixxiii 



Ixxiy 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Adams v. McPartlin, 2138 

V. Marshall, 64, 65, 507, 2241 

V. Palmer, 905, go8, 1906, 2323, 232**, 
2333 

•V. Parker, 2102, 2103 

•u. Pease, 68, 2198 

V. Perry, 299, 1548, 1606 

V. Rockwell, 2303 

•u. Ross, 281, 2S4, 286, 531, 532 

V. Savage, 1538, 1568, 1569 

V. Smith, 53 

V. Stevens, 2038 

•u. Storey, 882, 919 

V. Tanner, 2020 

V. Taunton, 1788 

•V. The Briggs Iron Co., 84, 88, 8g, 811, 
1924, 1988 

■u. Wadham, 2070 

V. Wilson, 1701 
Adams Ex. Co. v. McDonald, 1315 
Adamson v. Armitage, 1371 

V. Ayers, 708 
Addison v. Bowie, 1806 

V, Crow, 2152 

V. Dawson, 1032, 1033 

V. Hack, 2212, 2246 

V. Leavy, 2088 
Adriance v. Hafkemeyer, 1131 
Adsit V. Adsit, 880, 917, 918, 919, 935, 940, 946, 

952, 955 
jEtna Fire Ins. Co. v. Resh, 1932 
.^tna Life Ins. Co. v. Corn, 810 

v. Tyler, 2115, 2116, 2117, 2118 
Agar t/. Young, 1149 
Agate V. Gignoux, 996 

•u. Lowenbeiii, 564 
Agee V. Agee, 1815 
Ager V. Young, 114S 
Agnew V. Johnson, 1247, 1904 

V. Renwick, 2132 
Agricultural Ins. Co. v. Barnard, 2159 

V. Montague, 632 
Agricultural, Mechanical, etc., Assoc, v. Brews- 
ter, 164S 
Aheam v. Freeman, 2138 
Ah Hee v. Crippen, 88 
Ah Lew V. Choate, 88 
Ahrend z/. Odiorne, 2004, 2005 
Aiken v. Aiken, 974 

■V. Albany R. Co., 1070, 1075, 1078 

V. Bridgeford, 2171 

V. Bruen, 2153, 2180 

V. Gale, 2180, 2181 

•u. Milwaukee, 2155 

V. Milwaukee & St. P. R. R. Co., 811 

V, Morris, 2061 

V. Smith, 1232, 1234, 1238, 1239, 1605, 
1707, 1742, 1909 
Aikman v, Harsell, 838, 847, 848 
Aiiisworth v, Rit, 66, 1015, 1176 
Airey v. Buchanan, 1431 
Akeel v. Spraker, 2154 
Akerly v. Vilas, 2025 
Akin w. Jeiferson, 1894 
Alabama G. L. I. Co. -u. Oliver, 2250, 2251, 

2258 
Alabama G. S. R. Co. v. South & North R. 

Co., 2067 
Albanany's Case, 1894 
Albany Fire Ins. Co. v. Bay, 402, 447, 1832, 

2152 
Albany Saving Inst. v. Burdick, 2330, 2331 
Albany Street, Re, 2328 
Albatross v. Wayne, 1209 
Albee v. Carpenter, 351, 415, 423, 436 
Albergottie v. Chaplin, 1975 
Albert v. Bleeker St., etc., R. Co., 1247 
Albertson v. White, 2052 
Albin V. Lord, 896, 1035 

V. Riegel, 46 
Albright V. Cobb, 2102 
Alcorn v. Morgan, looi, 1271 



Alden v. Gilmore, 212 
V. Wilkins, 2090 
Aldershaw v. Breach, 1313 
Alderson v. Henderson, 856 

V, Schulze, 1905 
Aldred's Case, 2240 
Aldrich v. Albee, 1865 
V. Husband, 2021 
V. Martin, 1919 
V. Reynolds, 47 
V. Thurston, 1440 
Aldridge v. Tuscumbia C. & D. Ry., 671 
Alexander ». Alexander, 651, 661, 1040, 1667, 
1775, 1837, 183S 
V. Bishop, 1245 
V. Carew, 1294 
V. Cunningham, 820, 821 
•u. Dorsey, 1176 
V. Ellison, 1891 
V. Hamilton, 841 
V. Hodges, 1141, 1156 
V. Jackson, 141S, 1421, 1422 
V. Kennedy, 1882, 1913, 1914, 1915 
' V. Miller, 78 

z/. Pendleton, 2299 

•u. Polk, 501, 2298 

•V. Rodriguez, 2055 

V. Tams, 1646, 1653 

V. Touhy, 1 138 

V. Vennum, 1471 

V, Walter, 517 

V. Warrance, 586, 679, 680, 68g, 779, 

1004, 1658 
V. Williams, 1782 
Alexander's Exrs. v. Bradley, 746 

V. Selden, 876 
Alford "u. Lehman, 1485 

V. Vickery, 2252 
Alger z;. Kennedy, 1128, 1166, 1168, 1169 
Allan w. Smith, 823, 843 
AUard v. Carleton, 1975 
Allbyerz*. State, 671 
Alleghany v. Ohio & P. R. Co., 2191 
Alleghany Oil Co. v. Bradford, 272, 1867 
Allen V. Allen, 525, 955 

z/. Allen's Admrs., 767, 2166 

z/. Anderson, 520 

V. Ashley School Fund, 465 

•u. Backhouse, 1832 

V. Bartlett, 1316 

V. Bennett, 998, 1043 

•u. Berryhill, 986 

V. Billings, 2345 

V. Brown, 2147 

V. Bryan, 2270 

V. Caldwell, 1422 

V. Calvert, 1039, 1040 

V. Carpenter, 1350, 1351, 1354 

V. Chase, 1443, 1445 

•V. Chatfield, 2164 

V. Clark, 2076, 2153, 2178, 2180 

V. Craft, 302, 401, 1821 

V. Culver, 984, 1084, 1085, 1099, 2267 

V. Dent, 1 138 

V. Elderkin, 2067 

V. England, 1288 

V. Everly, 1998, 2078 

V. Gibson, 1909 

V. Gomme, 2219, 2220 

V. Hall, 757, 758, 759, 1897 

V. Harley, 1513 

V. Hawley, 1407, 1408, 1421, 1422 

V. Henderson, 420 

V. Hill, 1355 

V. Holten, 210, 1877, 2296 

V. Hooker, 1035 

V. Hooper, 647, 1360, 1361, 1364, 1367, 

1368 
V. Howe, 1864 
V. Hoyt, 1979 
V. Imlet, 1707 
V. Jaquish, 1126, 1160, 1162, 1310 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



Ixxv 



Allen V. Kennedy, 130, 145 

V. Lamden, 970, g8i 

V. Lanier, 1225 

V. Lathrop, 2030 

V. Lee, 1 701 

V. McCoy, 742, 776, 789, 806, 841, 842, 
844 

V. McCullougn, 771 

V. Mansfield, 1280, 1283, 1286 

V. Markle, 423 

V. Parish, 2303 

V. Paul, 1214 

V. Peay, 935 

V. Pegram, 42 

V. Poole, 20II 

V. Pray, 935 

V. Reynolds, ooi, 911 

V. Rhodebaugh's Admr., 1288 

V. Sayer, 1785 

V. Shackleton, 2061 

•v. Sun Mut. Ins. Co., 1224 

t'. Tate, 1919 

V. Thayer, 211 

V. Trustees of Ashley School, 418 

•V. Van Houten, 2252, 2257, 2259 

V. Van Meter, 315 

V. Withrow, 1590 

V. Woodward, 2021 

V. Wooley, 1070 
AUender's Lessee v. Sussan, 396, 974, 975, 

1249 
AUendorff v. Gaugengigl, 591 
Alley V. Bay, 1450, 1475, 147S 

V. Lawrence, 1831 
Allie V. Schmitz, 1920 
AUin V. Bunce, 448 
Ailing zi. Chatfield, 916, 934, 955 
Allis V. Billings, 757, 986, 1032 
Allison V. Armstrong, 2079 

V. Kurtz, 1700 

V. McCune, 2086 

V. Shilling, 1465, 1484, 1485, i486, 1495 

V. Sutherlin, 2177 

V. Wilson's Exrs., 1826, 1844 
Allore V. Jewell, 1034 
AUoway v. Barbineau, 757 
AUwood z'. Heywood, 491 
Allyn V. Mather, 211, 401, 447, 448 
Alman v. Duke of St. Albans, 1034 
Almond v. Bonnell, 1376, 1919 
Almy V. Daniels, 1894, 1895 
Alpass z'. Watkins, 424 
Alpaugh V. Roberson, 1795 
Alsberry v. Hawkins, 750, 774 
Alston V. Alston, 2125, 2286 

V. Grant, 1200 

V. Ulman, 1395 
Alsworth V. Cordtz, 1636 
Altemasz/. Campbell, 208 
Alten V. Jaynish, 1271 
Altes V. Hinckler, 47 
Altham v. Anglesea, 1538 
Althan's Case, 408, 446 
Althof V. Conheim, 1947 
Althorf V. Wolfe, 568 

Alton V. Pickering, 1292, 1293, 1296, 2251, 2260 
Alvis V. Morrison, 2125 
Alvord V. Lent, 1514 
Alvord Carriage Manf. Co. v. Gleason, 104, 

136 
Alwood V. Mansfield, 1212, 1230, 1231, 1233 
Ambler v. Bradley, '242 

V Norton, 955, 956, 957, 961, 964, 966 

V. Skinner, 1103, 1184 
Ambrose v, Ambrose, 1590, i6go 

V. Otty, 1590 
Ambs V. Hill, 130 
Amelong v. Dorneyer, 414, 4i6 
American Buttonhole Co. v. The Burlington 

Assoc, 2171 
A-nerican Central Ins. Co. u. McLanathan, 
632 



American Emigrant Co. v. Wright County, 

1765 
American Print Works v. Lawrence, 5, 2326 
American & Foreign Christian Union v. \ount, 

720, 2057, 22S8 
Ames, Ex Pa.rte, 146 

V. Chew, 2346 

V. Norman, 1024, 1920, 1931, 1933, 1938, 
1941, 1942, 1945, 1954 

V. Norton, 1423 

V. Port Huron L. D. B. Co., 1707, 1769 

V. Richardson, 2118, 2119 

V. Schuesler, 1134, 1135, 1136, 1315, 1316 
Amesbury v. Brown, 445, 509 
Amherst Academy v. Cowls, 1541, 1670 
Amick V. Biubaker, 1227 
Amonett V. Amis, 2018 
Amory -v. Kamnoffsky, 1161 

V. Meredith, 1837 

V. Reilly, 2005 
Amphlett v. Hibbard, 1425, 1426, 1432, 1450, 

1475. 1478 
Amsby v. Woodward, 1107, 1124 
Amsden v. Blaisdell, 1340 
Amst V. Alexander, 1087 
Anandale v. Anandale, 95 
Ancona v. Waddell, 501 
Audendreid v. Woodward, 2254 
Anders v. Meredith, 1905, 1969 
Andersoipe v. Bennett, 947 
Anderson's Appeal, 938, 946, 948 
Anderson v. Baumgartner, 1995, 2105, 2147 

V. Buchanan, 2217 

z'. Burwell, 1782 

V. Carey, 499 

V. Cary, 249, 259, 261 

V. Chicago Ins. Co., 1174 

V. Clanch, 1883, 1889, 1894, 1896 

V. Comeau, 2259 

V. Critcher, 1047 

V. Culvert, 1476, 1484 

V. Darby, 1023, 1213, 1215, 1217 

V. Dawson, 318, 329, 1836 

1). Dodd, 2298 

D. Duckie, 1199 

V. Dugeas, 2363 

•v. Greble, 310, 1890 

V. Hammond, 1228, 1591 

V. Harold, 998, 1042 

V. Harris, 1046 

V. Herold, 1017 

V. Hughes, 1986 

V. Jackson, 471 

ZI. Kent, 1465 

V. Kryter, 1085, 1197, iigS 

V. Layton, 2359 

V. McGowan, 1752, 1814 

■u. Mather, 1577, 1798 

V. Midland Railway Co., 1258, 1275, 
1282, 1292 

V. Neff, 2127, 2128 

V. Odell, 143 1 

V. Oppenheimer, io8r 

V. Prindle, gg6, 1257, 1282, 1327, 1335, 
1340 

V. Smith, 1159, 2258 

V. Tannerhill, 1919, 1930, 1952 

V. Taylor, 1274 

V, Tydings, 588, 635 
Anderson School Township v. Milroy Lodge 

F. & A. M., 1983 
Anding v. Davis, 1699, 2045 
Andrae v. Haseltine, 2235 
Andrew's Case, 1080, 1807 
Andrew ik Newcomb, 2020 

V. Roye, 1831 

V. Wrigley, 1784 
Andrew's Heirs v. Brown, 786, 787 
Andrews zi. jEtna Life Ins. Co., 2300 

V. Alcom, 1452 

%i. Andrews, 718, 8y8, 954, 957, 964 

V. Blumfield, 1814 



Ixxvi 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Andrews v. Erumfield, 337, 536 

V. Bruiiefield, 1837 

V. D. B. Co., 1187 

V. Fiske, 2083, 2107, 21x2, 2147, 2164 

V. Gillispie, 2147 

z/. Hagadou, 1419 

V. Hart, 2014, 2016, 2105, 2107 

V. Harriot, 367, 2288 

V. Hobson, 1593 

V. Jones, 959 

V, Page, 595, 597 

V. Paradise, 1166 

V. Pearson, 2358 

V. Pond, 2057 

V. Scotton, 2157, 2158 

7/. Senter, 1867, 1868 

V, Sparhawk, 1749 

V. Stella, 2150 

V. Thayer, 2033, 2035 

V. Torrey, 2056 

■V Townsend, 2107, 2111 
Androscoe-giii Bank v. Kimball, 2352 
Angel V. Boner, 811 
Angeil 1) Roseubury, 289, 290, 1594 
Angier, Re, 8go, 891 
Angier "V. Masterson, 2009 
Ankeny -v. Pierce, 12 12 
Anketel v. Converse, 2005 
Annable v. Patch, 310, igio 
Annapolis R. Co. v. Gantt, 1998 
Annapolis & E. R. Co. -v. Gault, 2076, 2077 
Anonymous Case, 53, 57, 260, 267, 319, 372, 

442, 653, 769, 1729, 1732, 2152 
Ansey v. Ansey, 661 
Anstice v. Brown, 94, 218, 1612, 1781 
Answorth zi. Johnson, 563 
Anthony 7/. Anthony, 2045 

V. Lapham, 2225, 2227 

V. Rees, 299, 1606 

V. Rogers, 2085, 2087, 2088 

V. J!lmith, 2008 

V. Wade, 1481 
Antomarchi v. Russel, 2237 
Antoni v. Belknap, 147, 1138, 1351, 1354 
Antory v. Frieze, 1245 
Apethorp v. Comstock, 2331 
Apperson v. Moore, 2018, 2020 
Apperson's Exrs. v. Bolton, 719, 720, 869, 955 
Apple V. Apple, 776, 777, 778, 8j5, 819 
Applegate v. Mason, 2133 
Applcton u. Boyd, 1881, 1885, 1886, 2014, 2101 

V. Rawley, 680, 684, 1372 

V. Warner, 383 
Apthrop V. Backus, 214, 672, 774 
Arbuckle v. Nehms, 2272 

•V. Ward, 2293 
Archambau v. Green, 2038, 2133 
Archdeacon v. Bowes, 2087 
Archer's Case, 1570 
Archer v. Deneale, 201, 202 

V. Jones, 489, 214S 

V. Phcenix, 2314 
Archibald v. Scully, 2357 
Arden v. PuUen, 1083, 1182, 1196 
Ardesco Oil Co. v. North American Oil Co., 

2252, 2256 
Areson v. Areson, 534 
Arkwright v. Cell, 2229 
Arlin v. Brown, 2005 
Arls V. Cummings, 2325 
Armfield v. Armfield 

V. Moore, 2300 
Armorers. Case, 327, 1948 
Armory v. Fairbanks, 2157 
Armour z/. Alexander, 1090, 1091, 1738 

V. McMichael, 2056 
Arms V. Ashley, 1589, 1592 

V. Burt, 285, 1005 

V. Lyman, 1979 
Armstrong . Armstrong, 1878, 1884 

V. Bach, 1135, 1316 

V. Bicknell, 1229 



Armstrong v. Caldwell, 88 

V. Campbell, 1615, 1766, 1770, 1774, 1782 

V. Cummings, 984 

V. Kattenhorn, 994 

V. Lawson, 55 

V. Morrill, 1598, 1599, 1786 

V. Pearce, 2363 

■v. Risteau, 211, 2299 

V. Ross, 2152 

V. Schermerhour, 1166 

V. Sovall, 2353 

■u. Toler, 518 

V. Wheeler, 1114, 1117, 1119, 1121, 2264 

u. Wholesey, 1566 

V. Wilson, 586, 633, 639, 669, 1367 
Amett V. Munnerlyn, 1906 
Arnold v. Arnold, 761, S15, 1930, 1932, 1942, 
1952 

V. Brown, 416, 577 

V. Clark, mo 

V. Cord, 1676 

V. Cornham, 2245 

V, Crowder, 105, 107, 131, 132, 2080 

V. Elmore, 69 

■V. Foot, 2228 

V. Foote, 2225 

-v. Gilbert, 75, 434, 1740, 1798 

V. Gotshall, 1420, 1435 

V. Green, 2173 

z>. Hempstead, 943 

V. Jack^s Exrs., 1882 

V. Jones, 1424 

•V, Lincoln, 308, 312 

V. Mattison, 2047, 2048 

u. Nash, 127?, 1294 

V. Richmond Iron Works, 986, 1032, 2345 

V. Ruggles, 42, 43, 817 

V. Stearn, 2240 

V, Stevens, 90, 2245, 2247 

V. Wainwright, 786, 1963 

V. Waltz, 1400 

V. Woodard, 12 12 
Amot V. Beadle, 1922 

V. Post, 2129 

V. Woodburn, 2177 
Amsby v. Woodward, 1058, 1138, 1143, 1159 
Amstett V. Amstett, 1951 
Amwine v. Carroll, 253, 273 
Arp V. Jacobs, 1406 
Arques v. Wasson, 2020 
Arrington v. Cherry, 1577, 1753 

V. Liscom, 2175, 2297 
Arrison v. Harstad, 195 
Arrowsmith v. Burlingim, 2324 
Arthur v. Broadnax, 2346 

V. Homestead Fire Ins. Co., 2330 
Arto V. Maydole, 1419 
Artz V. Grove, 2047 
Arundel v. Steere, 2196 
Arundell v. Phipps, 647 
Asay V. Hoover, 6Sg, 2062 
Ash's Case, 756 
Ash V. Bowen, 1656 

V. Cummings, 197 
Ashbaugh v. Ashbaugh, 1402 
Ashbury v. Sanders, 522 
Ashby V. Palmer, 75, 76 
Ashcroft V. Eastern Ark. Co., 283 

V. Eastern Railroad Co., 283, 2240, 
2361 . 
Ashe V. Cummins, 2327 

V. De Rossett, 1247, 1248 
Asherw. Mitchell, 1502, 2067 
Ashfield V. Ashfield, 1030 
Ashhurst's Appeal, 1748 
Ashhurst v. Given, 1564, 1637, 1670, 1674 

V. Potter, 77 
Ashley v. Warner, 1027, 1274, 1275, 1281, 1289, 

1297, 1851 
Ashley's Admr. %>. Robinson, 1789, 1794 
Ashmun v. Williams, 125, 140, 142 
Ashton's Case, 958 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



Ixxvii 



Ashton V. Ingle, 1434 
z'. Langdale, 42 
V. Wood, 1638 
Ashley v. Ashley, 2295 
Ashuelot R. Co. v. Elliott, 2331 
Ashurst V. Given, 254, 273, 300, 500, 1552, 1556, 

1557, 1606, 1675, 1748 
Askew V. Dupree, 596, 752 
Aslin, Doe d., v. Summersett, 1027 
Aspden v. Seddon, 93 
Astley V. Essex, 265 
Aston V. Aston, 544, 559, 572 
7/. Britland, loog 
V. Smallman, 1882 
Astor V. Hoyt, 6SS, Soo, 1117, 2000 
V. L'Amoreux, 2264 
V. Miller, 1071, 1072, 1075, 1112, 1117, 

2000 
Z'. Turner, 2066, 2162 
Astrom z'. Hammond, 2304 
Atchesoii z>. Atcheson, 1939 
Atchinson v. McCulloch, 2303 
V. Peterson, 2238 
V. Surguine, 2148 
V. Wheeler, 1465 
Atherton v. Corliss, 946 

V. Fowler, 2308, 2309 
7'. Johnson, 212, 2295 
Atkins V. Boardman, 2218, 
V. Bordman, 2218 
V. Byrnes, 2273 

V. Chilson, 1151, 1157, 1866, 1870, 1871 
V. Humphrey, 1343 
V. Kinnan, 2335 
V. Kron, 218, 520 
V. Merrill, 781 
V. Sleeper, 1005, 1006. 2256 
V. Yeoman, 870, 876 
Atkinson, Rey 1588, 1790 

Atkinson v. Atkinson, 1405, 1407, 1410, 1412, 
1413, 1462, 1463, r472, 1522 
V. Baker, 527, 528, 784 
V. Hewett, 2086 
V. Hutchinson, 433, 437 
V. Miller, 2059 
V. Morrissy, 811 
z'. Patterson, 2101 
V. Stewart, 803 
Atkyn's Lessee v. Horde, 651, 1039, 1040 
Atlantic Dock Co. v. Leavitt, 259, 267, 2G9, 
2068, 2071 
V. Libby, 267, 269 
Atlantic & St. L. R. R. Co. v. State, 976 
Atlin 7'. Bunce, 401, 405, 408, 411, 413 
Attenborough v. Thompson, 265 
AttersoU v. Stevens, 553, 1152, 1153, 1228 
Attomey-at-law v. Andrew, 1347 
Attorney-General v. Ailesbury, 1811 
V. Andrews, 1872 
V. Bishop of Chester, 1688 
V. Brooks, loog, 1088 
V. Chambers, 2293 
V. Christ's Hospital, 267, 1660, 1784, 

1872 
V. Crispin, 314 
V. Dixie, 1664 
V. Exeter, 1782 

V. Federal Street Meeting-house, 1796 
V. Gill, 322, 324 
V. Grasett, 1690 
V. Griffiths, 1037 
V. Hall, 344, 1684 
V. Hamilton, 1670 
V. Hinxman, 1604 
V. Hungerford, 1037 
V. Ironmongers' Co., 1685 
V. Kent, 1456 
V. Landersfield, 1540 
V. Marlborough, 442, 443 
V. Masters of Oath Hall, 258, i860 
V. Mayor of Exeter, 1783 
V. Merrimack Mfg. Co., 1850 



Attorney-General v. Moses, 1019 

V. Mylchrest, 83, 84 

V. New Castle, 1555 

V. Northumberland, 1685 

V Owens, 1037, 103S 

V. Proprietors Meeiing-house in Federal 
Street, 31, 35, 36, 289, 1553, 1563, 
IS94 

V. Purmort, 2015 

V. Putland, 1040 

V, Rochester, 1037 

V. Scott, 1559 

V. Skinners' Co., 1540 

V. Smith, looS, 1037 

V. South Sea Co., 1037 

V. Stawell, 557 

V. Tudor Ice Co., 5 

V, Utica Insurance Co,, 1540 

V. Vigor, 2084 

V. Windsor, 1638 
Attwater v. Attwater, 249, 261, 262, 263, 1858 

z'. Bodfish, 2219, 2244 

V. Butler, 882, 907. 909 

V. Manchester, 2170,2171 

zi. Manchester Sav. Bank, 2073, 2169, 
2170, 2171 

V. Walker, 2056 
Atwood V. Atwood, 711, 759, 760, 763, 819, 868 

7/. Fisk, 2059 

V. Norton, 998, 1013, 1323 

%'. Vincent, 2005, 2177 
Aubin V. Daly, 435, 790, 814, 819 
Aubuchon v. Bender, 1791 
Auburn & C. P. R. Co. z>. Douglass, 20, 2232 
Auding V. Davis, 2175, 2176 
Auer V. Penn, 1160 
Aughinlaugh 7/. Coppenheffer, 1067 
Aughtie V. Aughtie, 770 
Augusta Ins. Co. v. Morton, 367, 720, 2057, 

2288 
Auld V. Butcher, 1511 
AuU V. Lee, 2027, 2029 

AuU Savings Bank v. AuU's Admr,, 1277, 1700 
Aultman z>. Obermeyer, 646, 647, 895, 1938 
Auriol V. Mills, 1069, 2263, 2265 
Austen v. Halsey, 2008 
Austin V. Ahearne, 1026 

V. Austin, 835, 847, 861, 862, 2032 

V. Burbank, 2105, 2142 

V. Cambridge Parish, 1849, 1856, 1S61, 
1867 

V. Downer, 2040 

V. Field, 1015, 1176 

V. Grant, 2025 

V. Hall, 1909 

V. Hudson R. R. Co., 553, 2232 

V. Huntsville Coal & Mining Co., 979, 
983, 1002, 1017 

V. Rutland, 202, 515, 1982 

z'. Sawyer, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 104 

V. Shaw, 1885, 2101 

V. Stanley, 1378, 1445, 1454, 1457, 1460, 

M99 

V. Stevens, 489, 514, 564, 565, 1364 

V. Swaun, 948 

V. Taylor, i6og 

V. Thompson, 1251, 1266, 1306 

zj. Underwood, 1491, 1492, 1497, 1498 

zi. Wilson, 1292 
Auworth V. Johnson, 1067, 1068, 1153 
Avans v. Everett, 1426 
Aveling -v. Knife, 1876 
Avelyn v. Ward, 1849 
Averali v. Wade, 2155 
Averill V. Guthrie, 2139 

11. Taylor, 976, 2073, 2074, 2150,2169, 2172, 

2173 ^ 

V. Wilson, 1580 
Avery v. Chappel, 1648 
V. Judd, 20S0, 2ogi 
V. Payne, 1973 
V. Ryerson, 2172 



Ixxviii 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Avery v. Scott, 1051 

V. Stephens, 1490 
Avon Mfg. Co. V. Andrews, 2226 
Awdley v. Awdley, 77 
Ayer v. Ayer, 1574, 1672, 1673 

V. Emery, 1S56 

V. Hawkes, 1291, 1479, 1506 

V, Spring, 791, 822, 841, 842, 843, 845, 
891 

v. The Methodist Episcopal Church, 225, 
1549 
Ayers 7/ .Dixon, 2071 

V. Waite, 2091 
Aylesford's Case, 994 
Aylett V. Ashton, 1034 
Aylsworth v. Whitcomb, 1792 
Aymer v. Bill, 2101, 2103, 2111 
Aynsley v. Glover, 2246 

V. Grover, 2248 

V. Reed, 2173 
Ayres v. Hartford Fire Ins. Co., 240 

V. Husted, 2164 

V. M. E. Church, 1555, 1603 

•V Probasco, 1450, 1475, 1478 

a*. Waite, 2095, 2175, 2174 



B. 

Babb V. Perley, 1363, 1364, 1365, 1368, 1369, 

1370 
Babbitt v. Day, 823 

2/.Scroggin, 1931, 1932, 1935, 1938, 1940 
Babcock v. Babcock, 794, 912, 913 

V. Hoey, 1450, 1479, 1488 

V. Kennedy, 1027, 1028, 2065 

■v. Lisk, 2029, 2930 

V. Montgomery Co. Mut. Ins. Co., 2223 

z/. Scoville, 1 108, II 16 

V. Wyman, 1676, 2175 
Baca V. Ramos, 1962 
Bache z*. Doscher, 2165, 2167 
Eachino z/. Coste, 1947 
Bachman v. Crawford, 1399 
Back V. Andrews, 779, 1920, 1930, 1939, 1940 
Backenstoss ». Stahler's Admr,, 46, 52 
Backer v. Payne, 1045 
Backhouse v. Bonomi, 2232 
Backmanw. Crawford, 1403 
Backus V. Shepherd, 2324 
Bacon's Appeal, 1607, 1656, 1675 
Bacon v. Bacon, 1180 

V. Bowdin, 2169 

V. Bowdoin, 971, 992, 1000, 1014, 2073, 
2074, 2170, 2173 

V. Brown, 1131, 1132, 1316, 1346, 1347 

V. Cottrell, 2185 

z/. Howell, 1292 

V. Huntington, 1870, 1872 

V. Mclntyre, 2093, 2094 

V. Parker, 996, 2271 

V. Rives, 1782, 1783 

V. West Furniture Co., 1060, 1154, 1155 

V. Woodward, 305, 308, 335 
Badger v. Batavia Mfg. Co., 143 

V. Holmes, 1026, 1027 

■V. Keating, 15S0, 1654 
Badgley v. Bruce, 868 

V. Voltrain, 1612 
Badlamz'. Tucker, 1820 
Badon v. Brown, 2052 
Baer v. Martin, 72 
Baggett V. Meux, 251, 257, 1561 
Bagley z*. Freeman, 1073, 1108, 1115, 1117, nzt 
Bagnali v. Villar, 20S0 
Bagot V. Bagot, 495 
IJagshaw v. Spencer, 288, 289, 300, 373, 1583, 

1595, 1606, 1693, 1856 
Baher v. Harris, 1080 
Bailey's Petition, 1730, 1842, 1843 
Tailey v. Bailey, 291, 1662, 1699, 1798, 2050 



Bailey v. Brown, 1752 

V. Carten, 2075 

V. Carter, 2175 

V. Clark, 1242 

». Comings, 1457 

V. Duncan, 782, 820, 1363, 1368, 1369 

V. Fillebrown, 1234, 1267 

V. Gentry, 1217 

V. Gould, 2103, 2111 

V. Hobson, 1903, 1906 

V. Hoppin, 2301 

V. Kilburn, 1149 

V. Metcaff, 2131 

V. Miltenberger, 197 

V. Mittenberger, 2326 

V. Myrick, 2151, 2181 

V. Ogden, 998, 1017, 1042, 1087 

V. Richardson, 2097, 2098, 2262 

V. Robinson, 1717, 1766 

V. Rust, 1982 

V. Sisson, 1975 

v. Timberlake, 2171 

V. Tyrrell, 984 

V. Ward, 997, 1283, 1286 

V. Wells, 1159, 1 161, 1164, 2263, 2264 

V. West, 718 

V. White, 2357 
Bailie v McWhorler, 253 
Bailis V. Gale, 335 
Bailley v. Litten, 910 
Bain z/. Clark, T172, 1205, 1210, 1218 
Bainbridge v. Blair, 1600 
V. Owen, 2184 
V. Wilcocks, 2056 
Baines v. Barnes, 1717 
Bainton v. Ward, 1825 
Bainway v. Cobb, 129, 146 
Baird's Appeal, 1968 
Baird v. Baird's Heirs, 1671, 1913, 1957 
V. Jackson, 2067 
V. McConkey, 2165, 2167 
V. Rowan, 1810 
V. Shipman, 1194, 1195 
V. Stearne, 912, 913 
Baken v. Harder, 2012 
Baker v. Adams, 1337 

V. Armstrong, 2102 

V. Baker, 737, 740, 835, 847, 851, 868, 1647, 

1652 
V. Bank of Louisiana, 2024 
V. Bishop, 2015 
V. Bridge, 305, 330, 335, 340 
V. Chase, 728, 794, 795, 912 
u. Collins, 2059 
V. Copenbarger, 75, 1750 
V. Davis, 138 
V. Dayton, 892, 1462 
V. Dickson, 1288 
"v. Evans, 1738 
V. Fetters, 925 
z*. Floumey, 1363 
z*. Frick, 72 
V. Greenhill, 1102 
V. Hale, 1215 
V. Harlan, 1795 

V. Heiskell, 654, 656, 677, 679, 683,2286 
V. Holtzpaffell, 1179 
z'. Humphrey, 1585 
z'. Hunt, 284 
V. Jordan, 46, 654 
V. Kennett, 1030, 1031 
z'. Lamb, 1920 
i>. Lewis, 54 
"v. Massey, 2331 
z'. Matcher, 2359 
^. Mather, 1777 
^. Mattocks, 149 
z'. Nail, 679, 12 16 
'V, Newton, 1371 
"<■'. Oakwood, 702 
"V. Pierson, 213b 
o. Pratt, 1161 



Keferences are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



Ixxix 



Baker v. Ramey, 1497 

V. Red, 1614 

z;. Scott, 40S 

V. Shepherd, 2147 

V. Stewart, 1931, 1932, 1934, 1939, 1952, 
1954 

V, Swon, 2295 

1}. Terrell, 2150, 2178 

V. Thrasher, 1993, 2044, 2054 

V. Vining, 1634, 1638, 1641, 1647, 1648, 
1651, 1652, 1653, 1683, 1699 

V. Wall, 380 

V. Washington, 2366 

V. Westcot, 217 

V, Wheeler, 1926, 1962, 1963 

v> Whiteside, 1044 

V, Whiting, 1644, 1782 

V. Willis, 3S9 

V. Wind, 2038, 2039 
Balder z/. Blackborn, 1023, 1024 
Baldwin v. Allison, 1620, 1644 

V, Bean, 353 

V. Boyd, 2309 

V. Breed, 113 

V. Brown, 2298 

V. Campfield, 1636 

V. Carter, 1701 

V. City ot Newark, 671, 1518 

•V. Gray, 755 

V. Hatchett, 2ior 

V. Humphrey, 1587, 1592 

V. Jenkins, 2039 

V. Johnson, 1888 

V. Peet, 1794 

V. Porter, 1598, 1785 

V. Raplee, 2023 

V. Rees, 1151 

•u, Reiss, 1158 

V. Rogers, 1431 

V, Stark, 2304 

V. Thompson, 975 

V. Timmins, 2101 

V. United States Tel. Co., 1248 

V. Van Vorst, 1157 

V. Walker, 1027, 1028, 1046, 1071, 1120, 
2064, 2249 

V. Whiting, 1967 
Baldy's Appeal, 1510 
Bale z'. Newton, 1791 
Balfe V. West, 1183, 1191 
Balford v. Crane, 915 
Balgrave v. Balgrave, 1596 

V. Hancock, 1692 
Balir v. Van Blarcum, 534 
Balkum v. Wood, 1475 
Ball V. Ball, 954 

v. Covington, 2251 

V. Cullimore, 1259, 1278, 1290, 1294 

V. Deas, 1968 

V. Dunsterville, 1044 

V. First National Bank of CoWngton, 
2251, 2257, 2258 

V. Harris, 1832 

V. Palmer, 1898 

V. Payne, 416, 447, 472 

V. Wyeth, 1181 
Ballance v. Fortier, 1308, 1338 
Ballard v. Ballard, 2063 

V. Burgett, 1746 

V. Dyson, 2219, 2220 

V. Harrison, 2207 

V. Nichols, 917 

V. Perry, 2365 
Ballentine v. Clark, 2331 

V. Poyner, 495, 554 
Ballet V. Sprainger, 510, 518 
Ballew V. Clark, 1032 
Bailey v. WelleS, 1070 
Ballin v. Dillaye, 896 
Ballou V. Hale, 1905, 1924 

V. Jones, 117 
Balls V. Darapman, 1822 



Bally V, Wells, 1074 
Balmam ?■. Sliore, 314 
Baltimore v. Chester, 624 

V. May, 1515 

V. Porter, 1804 
Baltimore Annual Conference v. Schell, 1504 
Baltimore & O. K. Co. v. Polly, 1853 
Bambaugh v. Bambaugh, 1S81, 18^3, 1910 
Bancroft v. Cambridge, 4, 5 

V. Consen, 214, 672, 1622 

V. Wardell, 1276, 1283, 1291, 2271 

V. White, 764 
Bandy v. Cartwright, 2362 
Bange v. Flint, 2107 
Bangs V. Smith, 1836 
Bank v. Anderson, 2109 

V. Arnold, 800, 801 

V. Carpenter, 2001 

•v. Chamberlain, 201 1 

V. Finch, 2033 

V. Fordyce, 1699, 1702 

V. Haskie, 1008 

V. Houseman, 2316 

V, May, 2314 
Bank of America v. Banks, 1215, 2260 
Bank of Augusta v. Earle, 224 
Bank of Brighton v. Smith, 2014 
Bank of Buffalo v. Hortwright, 2339 
Bank of Columbia v. Okley, 2324 
Bank of Commerce v. Lanahan, 2076 

V. Owen, 803, 806. 813, 814, 817 
Bank of England v. Tarleton, 1763 
Bank of Greensboro v, Clapp, 2120 
Bank of Indiana v. Anderson, 2104, 2106 
Bank of Ithaca v. King, 1554 
Bank of Lansinburgh v. Crary, 53, 54, 55, 2020 
Bank of Louisville v. Hall, 1964 
Bank of Metropolis v. Huttschlick, 782, 1600, 

1601 
Bank of Niagara v. Rosevelt, 2170 
Bank of Ogdensburg v. Arnold, 1027, 2066, 

2067 
Bank of the Old Dominion v. McVeigh, 1512 
Bank of Pennsylvania 7'. Wise, 46, 1120, 2259 
Bank of Rochester v. Emerson, 2165, 2167 
Bank of South Carolina v. Rose, 2133 
Bank of United States v. Benning, 1777 

V. Dandridge, 2014 

V. Daniels, 2057 

V. Donnally, 2057 

V. Dunseth, 836, 874 

•V. Housman, 1538, 1625 

V. Huth, 1794 

V. Peters, 2136, 2137 
Bank of Utica v. Mersereau, 1027, n6o, 1221, 

1888 
Bank of Waltham v. Waltham, 42 
Bank of Westminster v. Whyte, 2037 
Banker z/. Braker, loog, 1088 
Bankes v. Le Despencer, 1692, 1740 
Bankhead v. Brown, 2327 
Banks v. American Tract Society, 2213, 2223 

V. Carter, 1262, 1274, 1329, 1335, 1340 

V. Haskie^ 1009, 1091 

V. Ogden, 2293 

V. Poitiaux, 224 

V. Sutton, 581, 705, 708, 714, 715, 840, 
1575. i704> 1736 

V. Walker, 2025 

V. Wilkes, 1732, 1734 
Banman v. James, 999 
Banning &. Taylor, 2324 
Bannon v. Angier, 2246 

V. Bean, 1643 

V. Brandon, 1355 

V. State, 198 
Banrfield, Doe ex d., v, Wetton, 424 
Bansiat &. Murrin, 732 
Banton v. Campbell, 1919 

V. Shorey, 54 
Banyster 7). Trussel, 625 
Baptist Association v. Hart, 1684 



Ixxx 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Baptist Church of Hartford v. Witherell, 32, 

34. 40. I5S7 
Barber v. Babel, 1450, 1475, 1478, 1934 

V. Gary, iSoS, i8og 

V. Harris, 1024, 1025, 1931, 1939, 1941, 
1942, 1945, 2362 

V. Root, 661, 662, 664, 771, gig, 1359, 
1360, 1363, 1364, 1368, 1369, 1370 

V. Rorabeck, 1500 

V. Wilhams, 733, 838 
Barbour v. Barbour, 721, 725, 771,783, 802,803, 

919, 940 
Barclay, Ex parte, 125 

V. Cameron, 354 

V. Hendrick, 1881, 1968 

V. Pickles, 1 171 

V. Wainwright, 121 1 
Barcroft v. Snodgrass, 1965 
Bard v. Elston, 996 
Barden v. Grady, 2155 
Bardish v. Schenck, 1229 
Bardstown R. Co. v. Metcalfe, 1722 
Bardswell v. Bardswell, 347, 1632 
Bardwell v. Howe, 2060 
Barford v. Street, 1825 
Barger v. Hobbs, 501 
Barheydt v. Barheydt, 332, 342, 533, 536 
Barhydt v. Burgess, 2263, 2264 
Baring v. Nash, 515, 1973, 1984 
Barker, Re, 95 
Barker v. Allen, 999 

V. Barker, 675, 697, 1372, 1623 

V. Bates, 99 

V. Bell, 1997, 1998, 2119, 2126, 2133 

V. Blake, 869, 870 

V. Cobb, 1857 

V, Crandall, 1605 

V. Dale, 976,983, 1138, 1150 

V. Dayton, 195, 1407, 1462, 1471 

V. Flood, 2096 

■V. Frye, 1691 

V. Greenwood, 300, i553>i5S3» i597» 1606, 
1607, 1797 

V. Keate, 1566 

V. Parker, 791, 815, 820, S26, 8gi, 927 

V. Salmon, 2303 

V. State ex rel. Mills, 2 

•v. Taylor, 743 
Barkley v. Lane's Exrs., 1592 
Barksdale v. Finney, 42 

V. Garret, 717, 871, 872, 930 
Barksworth v. Young, 1691 
Barlett v. Prescott, 2207 
Barley v. Cook, 1883 
Barlow v. Bateman, 265 

V. Bell, 1310, 1350 

V. Gaines, 2081 

V. Lambert, 195 

V. Rhodes, 2215, 2356 

V. Salter, 322 

V. Wainwright, 1014, 1264, 1295, 1300, 
1301, 1303, 1312, 1313, 1322, 1325, 
1326, 1337, 1342, 1343 
Bam V. Clark, 538 
Baniaby t'. Barnaby, 1030 
Barnard v. Bailey, 348 

V. Eaton, 2017 

V. Edwards, 870, 873, 930, 931 

V. Godcall, 2264 

V. Jewett, 1635, 1653 

•V. Norwich R. Co., 201S 

V. Poor, 567 

z'. Pope, 1913, 1982 

V. Whipple, 31 
Barnard's Heirs v. Ashley's Heirs, 2307 
Bamardiston -v. Fane, 1870 
Barnes 7* . Addy, 162 1, 1761 

V. Allen, 2282 

V. Barnes, 56, 2213 

u, Boardman, 2100, 2:03, 2127, 2128 

V. East London W. W. Co., 1038 

V. Ehrman, 2159 



Barnes v. Gay, 781, 804, 828, 1491, 149? 

V. Grant, 1630 

V. Gray, 777, 814 

V. Huson, 234 

z'. Irwin, 1829 

v. Lee, 2084 

V. Lloyd, 1919, 2242 

V. Mawson, 88 

V. Mott, 2154 

V. Raester, 2155 

V. Shinholster, 1281, 2261 

V. Simms, 1702 

V. Taylor, 1589 

V, Underwood, 585, 670 

V. White, 1444 
Bamet v. Bamet, 836, 874, 876, gii 

V. Dougherty, 1646, 1653 
Barnett's Appeal, 254, 299, 500, 1560, 1605, 1606, 
1607, 1655, 1656, 1674, 167s, 1682, 
1748, 1753 
Bamettz/. Barnes, 1044 

V. Barnett, 2332 

z/. French, 237 

v. Gaines, 729 

•u. Goings, 962 

z/. Harshbarger, 646 

V. Johnson, 20, 2223 

V. Knight, 1513 

V, Mendenhall, 1475, 1476, 1484 

V. Nelson, 2184, 2185 

V. Riser, 2004 
Barney v. Baltimore, 1983 

V. Frowner, 841, 842, 843 

V. Gay, 1497 

V. Keith, 1080, loSi 

V. Keokuk, 69, 2294 

V. Leeds, 1378, 1399, 1403 

V. Little, 2366 

V. Myers, 2181 

V. Patterson, 1751 

V. Saunders, 1665, 1720 

V. Sutton, 2120, 2365 

V. Trowner, 870 
Barnfather v. Jordan, 2265 
Banihart z>. Campbell, 1924 
Barns V. Hatch, 1016 

Bamum v. Barnum, 508, 509, 757, 1682, 
16S3 

V. Childs, 1700 

v. Landon, 1026, 1046, 1922 

V. Mayor of Baltimore, 265 
Baron v. Sollivellos, 1425 
Barr v. Doe ex d. Binford, 1225 

V. Doe ex d, Burford, 975 

V. Galloway, 600, 603, 613 

V. Gratz, 206, 207, 209, 1917 

V. Gratz's Heirs, 1752 

V. Graves, 1225 

v. Valanstine, 2176 
Barr, Lessee of, z'. Galloway, 601, 602, 702 
Barrage v. Merchants' Ex. Co., 2342 
Barrell v. Barrell, 1894 

V. Handrick, 1701 

V. Joy, 1588, 1590, 1592, 1600, i6gr 
Barren v. Barren, 1651, 1938 
Barren Creek Ditching Co. v. Beck, 1944 
Barrett's Appeal, 1584 
Barrett v. Bamber, 1621, 1623 

V. Bedford, 1102 

V. Blackman, 2148 

V. Blagrave, 1107 

V. Buxton, 1033 

V. Churchill, 890 

z/. Failing, 770, 771, gig, 920 

V. French, 1548, 2316, 2319 

V. Gomesserra, 1758 

V. Hinckley, 2106 

V. Marsh, 1591, 1824 

V. Richardson, 1510 

V. Rockport Ice Co., 74 

V. Sims, 1502, 1504, 151S 
Barroilhet v. Battelle, 2002 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



Ixxxi 



Barron v. Martin, 2095, 2174 

V. Paulling, 2088 
Barrow v. Barrow, 959 

V. Isaacs, 1091, 1871 

V. Richards, 267,268, 269, 1184, 2214 
Barruso v. Wodan, 1854 
Bany v. Adams, 2092 

V. Edgenorth, 202 

V. Glover, 1154 

V. Lambert, 1700 

V. Marriott, 1721 

V. Nesham, 1242 

V. Shelby, 535 
Barteau v. West, 2206 
Bartee v. Thompkius, S90 
Bartels v, Creditore, 1164, 2263 
Bartenback, Re, 8go 
Barthe v. Lines, 899 
Barthell v. Syverson, 2086 
Bartholomew v. Edwards, 2296 

•V. Hamilton, 143 

v. Hook, 1408, 1409 

V. West, 1415, 1421, 1422, 1424 
Bartle's Case, 234 
Bartles v. Nunan, 646 
Bartlett v. Baker, 1300 

V. Bartlett, 1537, 1589 

V. Brake, 9S7 

V. Downes, 1743 

•u. Drake, 1365 

V. Drew, 1760 

V. Gouge, 760, 788, 831 

V. Harlow, 1492, 1924, 1967 

V. Jones, 1Z43, 1244 

•V. Pickersgill, 2035 

ZK Van Zandt, 726, 746 

V. Wood, 133 
Bartol v. Calvert, 969, 1006 
Barton's Estate, 1721 
Barton v. Barton, 271 

V. Briscoe, 1844 

V. Drake, 1475, 1476, 1482, 1484, i486 

V. King, 225 

V. Williams, 1246, 1247 
Barziza v. Story, 1643 
Bascom v. Albertaon, 1603 

V. Smith, 520, 810, 1580, 2097 
Bashaw v. State, 595 
Bashford v. Pierson, 2339 
Baskins* Appeal, 328 
Baskins v. Giles, 645 
Bass V. Edwards, 2220 

V. Estill, 3366 

V. Scott, 1550, 1560, 1577, 1672, 1673 
Basse v. Gallegger, 2051 

V. Mitchell, 2357 
Basset v. Basset, 618, 646, 967, 2028, 2046 
Bassett v. Bradley, 2166 

V. Brown, 987 

V. Mason, 810, 2096, 2157 

V. Messner, 1388, 1390 
Bastow, Doe ex d., a. Cox, 1256, 1265, 1275, 

1278, 1294, 1295, 1318, 1326 
Ba'tchelder z'. Batchelder, 1275, 1307, 134a 

z/. Dean, 970, 971, 1003 

■V. Sanborn, 2212 

V. Sturgis, 730, 1095 
Batcheler v. Middleton, 2171 
Batchelor v. Macon, 346 

V. Whitaker, 284 
Bate V. Scales, 1733 
Bateman v. Allen, 1024 

V. Bateman, 1806 

V. Hotchkin, 560 

V. Pool, 1488 
Baten's Case, 21 
Bates 7/. Austin, 1146, 1309 
V. Ball, 1033 

£<. Bates, 7f I, 816, 826, 886, 1411, 1425, 
1686, 1687 

V. Coe, 1997 
V. Conrow, 1222 



Bates V, Dandy, 1360 

V. Equitable F.& M. Ins. Co., 2116 

V. Graves, 271 

V. Hurd, 1589, 1592 

V, Miller, 2146 

V. NelUs, 2274 

V. Norcross, 207, S84, 2365 

V. Phinney, 2247, 2271 

V. Ruddick, 2151, 2155, 2174, 2181 

V. Seely, 1887, 1920, 1931, 1940, 1952 

V. Shraeder, 629, 639, 640 

•v. Sparrell, 31, 32 
Batesville Institute v. Kauffmau, 1660, 2106 
Bath V. Valdez, i8g8 
Batin v. Bigelow, 522 
Batstone Z7. tlater, 1581, 1647 
Battersbee v. Farrington, 64S 
Batterton v. Chiles, 1973 
Batteste v. Maunsell, 1693 
Battey v. Hopkins, 1569 

V. Snook, 1996, 2040, 2050 
Battin v. Woods, 1618 

Battle V. Petway, 1577, 1578, 1741, 1742, 1753 
Battle Square Church v. Grant, 324, 371 
Batty V. Snook, 1996, 216S 
Baugh V. Barrett, 1428 
Baugher v. Merryman, 2047, 2052, 2055, 2:68 

V. Nelson, 1517 

V. Wilkins, 1079, 1081 
Baughman v. Baughman, 408 
Baum V. Baum, 759 

V. Grisby, 2006, 2007 
Baumgartner v. Guessfield, 1646 
Bavington v. Clarke, 1671, 1699, 1978 
Baxendale v. McMurray, 2238, 2240 
Baxter v. Boyer, 965 

V. Bradbury, 355 

V. Browne, 993 

V. Bush, 1030 

V. Child, 2050 

V. Dear, 2038, 2039 

V. Dyer, 2063 

V, Gilbert, 21 10 

V. Knowles, 2073 

?'. Lansing, 1140, 1872 

V. Mclntire, 2027, 2029, 2133 

V. Rodman, 1240 » 

V. Taylor, 550, 553, 567 
Bay V. Gage, 671 

V. Williams, 2166 
Bay City Gaslight Co. v. Industrial Works, 68 
Bay State Bank v. Kiley, 127^ 
Bayard v, Colefax, 1756 

tK Morshew, 883 
Bayer z*. Cockrill, 1563 
Bayles v. Baxter, 1651 
Bayley ». Bailey, 2041, 2119 

V. Fitzmaurice, 999, 1252 
, V. Glenn, 2106 

V. Gould, 2104 

V. Greenleaf, 2005, 2006 

V. Homan, 1869 

V. Lawrence, 1168, 1178 

V. McGraw, 2138 

V. Mollard, 2281 

V. Richardson, 1123 
Baylies v. Payson, 1665, i68g, 1691 

V. Peyton, 1690 

V. San Antonio Nat. Bank, 1510 

V. Sinex, 1211 
Bayne v. United States, 1761 
Baynton v. Finnall, 1024, 1033, 1364 
Bazemore v. Davis, 1893, 1909 
Beach v. Beach, 1595, 1707, 1713, 1742 

V. Campbell, 1758 

V. Child, 1905 

zi. Parish, 1083, 1175, 1177 

z). Frankenberger, 2206 

V. Hollister, 1887, 1951 

V. Miller, 587 

V. Nixon, 1 138 

c. Packard, 1698, 1702, 2349 



Ixxxii 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Beach 71. Sliaw, 2169 
Feachcroft v. Beachcroft, 307 
Beal v. Miller, 918, 942 

z'. Warren, 1625 
Beale v. Bealc, 618 

V. Holmes, 536 

V. Knowles, 1364, 1366, 1367 
Beall z/.. Holmes, 306^ 332 

V. Wliite, 2018 

V. Williamson, 2056 
Bealor v. Hahn, 663, 664 
Beals V. Providence Rubber Co., 1102 
Beamish v. Beamish, 595 

V. Cox, 1311, 1339 

V. Hoyt, 585, 670 

7/. Overseers, 689, 2062 
Beau V. Boothby, 2096 

V. Coleman, 72, 2361 

7'. Dickerson, 1071, 1078 

z/. Edge, 984, 2273 

V. French, 281, 283, 284 

z>. Mayo, 1094 

V. Morgan, 2346 

V. Murphy, 2231 

V. Pettingill, 2302 

V. Smith, 1481 

V. Valle, 1607 

V. Whitcomb, 2157 
Bear v. Bitzer, 46, 52 

V. Snyder, 712, 762, 819, 868 

V Whisler, 15S8, 1852 
Bearce v. Barstown, 2071 

V. Jackson, 206 
Beard v. Beard, 647 

V. Blum, 1502 

V. Federy, 217, 218 

7/. Fitzgerald, 2153, 2178, 2180 

V. Griggs, 961 

V. Knowlton, 712 

V. Knox, 711, 918, 943 

V. Linthicum, 1649 

z/. Murphy, 2231, 2232, 2233 

71. Nuthall, 953, 966 

V. State, 2020 
Beardman z*. Wilson, 1057, iiti, in2, inS, 

"59 
Beardslee 7'. Beardslfie, 761, 7S0, 815, 820, 883, 
884, 885 

V. French, 57 

V. TJnderhill, 730 
Beardsley 7/. Knight iggi 

V. Ontario Bank, 61, 113 

z'. Selectmen of Bridgeport, 1604 
Bears v. Ambler, 1201 

V. Covilland, 1923 
Bearss v. Ford, 2168 
Beatson 7/. Beatson, 1791 
Beattie v. Butler, 756 
Beatty v. Gregory, 1280 , 

7/. Mason, 2296, 2297 

z/. Wray, 1889 
Beaty v. Bordwell, 1891, 1892 

V. Gibbons, 82 

71. Harkey, 1870 
Beaufort v. Berty, 1021 

z'. Collier, 1361 
Beaumont's Case, 389, 756 
Beaumont v. Thorpe, 1626 
Beavnii ?'. Delahay, 540 

7'. McDonnell, 987, 1034 

7'. Speed, 1467 
Heavans z'. Briscoe, 539, 540 
Beaver 71. Lane, 1363, 1369 

7'. Nutter, 2235 

V. Snyder, 868 
Beaver Falls Water Power Co. v. Wilson, 88g 
Beavers 7'. Smith, 729, 814, 841, 844, 858 
Bebb V. Crowe, 1436 
Becar 7/. Fues, 971, 978, 997, mi, 2260 
Berk's Estate, /?e, 221, 222 
Beck V. Allison, 1083 

V, McGillis, 216, 217 



Beckw. Rebow, 109, 121, 127 

V. Uhrich, 1638, 1642, 1643. 17631 1779 
Becker z/. Becker, 1514 

V. De Forest, 979, 993 

V Werner, 1140, 1141, 1158 
Beckerdite v. Arnold, 1231 
Beckett 7t. Cordley, 2124 
Beckford v. Beckford, 1647 

V. Wade, 1783, 1784, 2176 
Beckwith v. Boyce, 115, 122 

7/. Howard, 1064 

V. Windsor Mfg. Co., 2141 
Beddingsford's Case, 864, 867 
Bedell's Case, 1557 
Bedell z/. Constable, 1021, 1022 

V. McClellan, 2160 

V. Shaw, 252, 489 
Bedford v. Bedford, 628, 639 

V. Kelley, 1213 

V. McEtherron, 1271 

V. McEtherrow, 1125, 1150, 1310 

V. Terhune, 1073. 1077, 1109, 1112, 1118, 
1H9, 1121, 1122, 1124, 1159, ii6i, 
1 162 
Bedill's Case, 2316 
Bedingfield v. Onslow, 2248 
Bedlow V. New York Floating Dry Dock Co., 

1306 
Bedon v. Bedon, 3S3 
Beebe v. Coleman, 2251 

V. Griffing, 2279, 2286 

V. State, 2328 
Beech v. Miller, 588 
Beecherz'. Baldy, 1475, 1502, 1503 

7r. Buckingham, 1887 

V. Hicks, 678, 6g8, 1372, 1709 

V. Parmele, 1351 
Beeder z/. Meeker, 2120 
Beegle v. Wentz, 1634, 1650 
Beekman v. Boiisor, 1603, 1604 

7>. Frost, 2 1 19 

7f. Hudson, 819 

V. Lansing, 50 

V. People, 1549, 1603 

7/. Saratoga & S. R. Co., 197, 2327, 2328 
Beekman Fire lus. Co. v. ist Meth. Church 

2031 
Beeler v. Dunn, 1727 
Beeman's Appeal, 2279 
Beenel v. Beenel, 1S94 
Beer v. Beer, 1026 
Beers zf. Beers, 553 

V. Broome, 1016 

z/. Haughton, 1517, 1518 

z/. Lyons, 1573 

V. St. John, 122, 145, 565 

71. Strong, 740 

V. Williams, J162 
Beeston v. Weate, 2229 
Beezeley z'. Burgett, 2251, 2258 
Began v. O'Reilly, 2023 
Begbie v. Crook, 1788, 1844 
Behman v. barto, logi 
Beidler 7/. Fish, 1160 
BeiU 7;. Chesseu, 2251 
Beinie v. Beinie, 675 
Belch V. Harvey, 2176 
Belcher, Ex parte, 132, 133 

V. Belcher, 1754 

■V. Butler, 2139 

V. Costello, 2107 
Belchier v. Parsons, 1713, 1714, 1723, 1728 
Belden v. Meeker, 2109 

V. Seymour, 1698, 1700 

V. Shade, 2170 
Beldiii; v. Cushing, 142 
Belford v. Belford, 778 

V. Crane, 670, 679, 792, 1638, 1640 
Belfour v. Weston, 1179, 1181, 1182 
Belk V. Massey, 2365 
Belknap v. Trimble, 1988 
Bell V. Adams, 2301 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



Ixxxiii 



Bell ». Bell, 1782, 1783, 1784 

7t. Deas, 1831 

t/. Denson, 2298 

V. Ellis' Heirs, 1291 

7'. Farmers' Bank of Ky., 2035 

V. Fleming, 2029, 2 113 

z>. Gilmore, 2167 

V. Hany, 1280 

7'. Holford, 1795 

V. Hartley, 2295 

V. Josselyn, 1194, iig6 

1'. Keefe, 2363 

V. Kennedy, 1456 

V. Lent, 2060 

V. Mayor of New York, 783, 8cxd, 8ot, 
802, 803, 945, 2000, 2075, 2c88, 2185, 
2272, 2282 

v. Morse, 2103, 2111 

V. Nealy, 733,' 887, 892, 894, S95, 921 

V. New York, 511, 925 

V. Norfolk S. R. Co., 199 

v. Norris, 1319 

V, Ohio & P. R. Co., 2191,2192, 2194, 
2201 

V. Perkins, 671 

V. Phyn, 1964 ' 

V. Pierce, 2034 

z'. Red Rock, 2303 

v. Scammon, 237, 307, 308,309,312, 322, 
323. 332, 34O) 342i 470. 2315, 2316, 
2318, 1.^19 

V. Scannan, 2359 

V. Schwarz, 1454 

V. Shrock, 2148 

v, Simpson, 2107 

zf. Smith, 2303 

z>. Tenny, 811 

V. Thomas, 2126 

V. Twilight, 744, 2301 

V. Western Ins. Co., 2115 

V. Wilson, 84, 94 

V. Woodward, 810, 2097, 2212 
Bell Co. V. Alexander, 303, 328, 335, 336 
Bellamy v. Bellamy. 1620, 1794 

v. Buckenden, 2089 

V. Burrow, i6go 
Bellas V. McCarthy, 278, 2365 
Bellasis v. Burbirchie, 979 

V. Burbrick^979 
Bellerz*. Robinson, 994, 996 
Bellias v. Ermine, 271 
Bellinger z/. Shafer, 1726 
BelHs v. Bellis, 2345 
Belloc V. Davis, 1058, 2031 

z*. Rogers, 2145, 2146, 2151; 
.Bellow V, New York Floating Dry Dock Co., 

61 
Bellows 7>. Burlington, C. & M. R. Co., 1028 

7'. Sackett, 1199, 2232 

V. Todd, 2342 

7/. Wells, 52 
Bells ?/. Gillispie, 416 
Belmont zr. Cuman, 266, 2068, 2069, 2179, 2180 

V. O'Brien, 1549, 1798, 1807, 1808, 1809, 
2093, 2094 
Belote 7'. Morrison, 2045 

7'. White, 1709 
Belt V. Ferguson, 794, 913 
Belton V. Avery, 2040 
Bemer z'. Call, 924 
Bemis v. DriscoU, 1425 

V. Leonard, 1005, 2256 

V. Wilder, 1050, 1057, 1058 
Benbow v. Townsend, 1649 
Benden v. Manning, 1183 
Bender 7/ . Fleurie, 411 
Bendred v. Griffigh, logi 
Benedict 7/. Bunnell, 1457 
7'. Gaylord, 1883, 1934 
7'. Gilman, 2088, 2171, 2185 
7'. Howard, 1905 

7/. Martin, 1194 



Benedict 7/. Morse, 1294, 1296, 1350, 1354 

V. Torrent, 1989 

V. Webb, 1450, 1478 
Benesch 7/. Clark, 317, 319, 320, 336,337,487, 

536 
Benett v. Costar, 2197 

Benfey v. Congdon, 1131, 1136, 1278, 1285, 1351 
Bengough v. Eldridge, 1693 
Benham v. Rowe, 1755, 2088,2090, 2163 
Benjamin z'. Ehnira R. Co., 2018, 2019 

V. Heeney, 1083 
Benkert v. Jacoby, 338 
Benneck v. Whipple, 1297 
Bennell v. Chancellor, 1032 
Benner 7/. Evans, 877 
Bennet z'. Bennet, 745 

V. Eullock, 1903, 1904, 1917 

V. Child, 1920, 1930, 1933, 1940, 1941, 1942, 
1945. 1952. 1971 

7'. Davis, 654, 656, 6S4, 699 

V. Harms, 721, 750 
Bennett, jE'jr/ar^^, 1771 

V. Atherton, 1082 

V. Austin, 1620, 1643, 1644, 2101 

V. Bates, 2109 

7'. Bennett, 1360, 1367 

V. Bittle, 1128, 1168 

v. CoUey, 1782, 1783 

zf. Cutler, 1382 

V. Davis, 6S0 

V. Garlock, 1577, 1784 

z/. Holbeck, 1888 

Tf. Hudson, 1637 

V. Mattingly, 2149 

v. Pierce, 1320 

7*. Plummer, 2064 

V. Robinson, 271, 1274, 1282, 1284, 1347, 
1350. 1355 

V. Solomon, 2106, 2349 

V. Tankerville, 426 

V. Union Bank, 1992, 2014 

V. Van Syckel, 1089 

7'. Waller, 2301 

zi. Williams, 1662 

V. Womack, 1065 

7'. Wyndham, 1817 

Doe d., V. Long, 1309 
Benning v. Benuing, 965 

V. Nelson, 1794 
Bennock v. Whipple, 1136, 1266, 1285, 1297, 

1304. 2039 
Benoist v. Mundin, 727 
Bensell v. Chancellor, 986 
Bensley 7/. Burdon, 2358 
Benson v. Aitken, 1460 

V. Miners' Bank, 89 

V. Morrow, 69 

V. Muuroe, 1180 

V. Scott, 790 

V. Suarez, 1199, 2232 
Bent z/. Stamford, 76 

7/. Weeks. 740 
Eentham z/. Smith, 183 1 
Bentley v. Barton, 976 

V. Mackay, i6go 

Zf. Oldfield, 2 

7'. Phelps, 2046, 2048, 2049 

V. Sill, 1128, 1166, 1168 

z'. Vanderheyden, 2070 

V. Whittlemore, 2134 
Benton 7'. Fay, 1248 

z/. Hatch, 2172 

V. Kent, 2139 

V. Shreeves, 2136, 2150 
Benyon v. Madison, 314 
Eepp V. Fox, 1961 
Beppers' Will, 1837 
Berberick z>. Fritz, 2047 
Berdan v. Sedgwick, 2060 
Berden v. Van Riper, 1729 
Berg V. Ingalls, 1952, 1953 

V. McLafferty, 1897 



kxx 



IV 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Bergen v. Bennett, 1805, 1806, i8ro, 1S26, 1832, 

1834, 1835, 1842, 1843, 2120 
Berger v. Duff, 1663, 1667, 1841, 2159 
Bergner v. Palethrop, 992 
Bergoyne v. Spurling, 2127 
Berkeley v. Hardy, 1805 

V. Rider, 347, 1600 
Berley v. Rampacher, 1514 

V. Taylor, 160D 
Bemal v. Hovious, 1234, 1235, 1239 
Bernhardt v, Lymbumer, 2153, 2154 
Bernard's Case, 576 
Bernard v. Bougard, 1653 

V. MiushuU, 1627, 1628, 1633 
Bemecker v. Miller, 1908, 1913 
Bernstein, In re, 1787 

V. Humes, 2083 
Berrellz/. Sabine, 2052 
Berridge v. Glassey, 969 
Berrien v. Berrien, 1590 

V. Conover, S73 

V. McLane, 1662 
Berrigan v. Fleming, 1920, 1933 
Berringer 7/, Cobb, 1288 

V. Schaefer, 26S 
Berrington v. Casey, 1000 
Berry 7/. Boggess, 1497 

V. Bo wen, 1040 

V. Dobson, 1386, 1394 

V. Hall, 693, 694, 700 

V. Liudley, 13 10, 1323 

V. Mutual Ins. Co., 2003, 2036,2120, 2123, 
2124 

V. Rigler, 2358 

V. Taunton, 1250 

V. Waring, 1697 

V. Whitney, 2069 

V. Williamson, 1609 
Berryman v. Potter, 2170 
Berthelemy z/. Johnson, 517 
Berthold v. Fox, 1993, 1999, 2076, 2078 

V. Holman, 1999 
Bertie v. Beaumont, 128S 

V. Falkland, 1857, 1858 
Bfertles z/. Nunan, 670, 1024, 1920, 1933, 1942, 

1945, 1950, igsr, 1952, 1953 
Bertram v. Cook, 1148, 1218, 1219 
Bessell v. Landsberg, 1336, 1337 
Bcsser v. Hawthron, Sii, 2000, 2077, 2078 
Besson v. Cribble, 751 
Best V. Allen, 1450, 1473, 1475, 1477 

V. Gholson, 1479, 1506 

V. Given, 2343 
Bethellw. McCool, 1903, 1904 
Bethlehem v. Annis, 1S49, 1S70, 2030, 2032 

V. Perseverance Fire Co., 1505 
Bettinger v. Baker, 539 
Bettison v. Budd, 1214, 1220 
Betts V. Brown, 2296 

V. Lee, 62 

V. Ratliff, 1234 

V. Union Bank, 2349 

V. Union Bank of Maryland, 1698 

V. Wirt, 2279 

V. Wise, 706, 711 
Beusen v. Mayor of Albany, 2335 
Bevan v. Hayden, 1483, 1514 

V. Pope, 832 
Bevans v. Briscoe, 1206 
Beverly's Case, 1032, 2344 
Beverly v. Burke, 212, 517, 2295 

V. Lincoln Gas Light & Coke Co., 1332 
Beverson's Estate, 759 
Bevins v, Cline, 1938 
Bewick V. Whitfield, 575 
Bexwell v. Christie, 1770 
Bibb V. Balser, 2126 

V. Bibb, 447, 468 
Bibby v. Carter, 2232 
Bible Society v. Pendleton, 1685 
Bicket V. Morris, 2228 
Btc!;ford -v. Daniels, 2039 



Bickley v. Biddle, 890 
Bickuell v. Bicknell, 2004 

iv, Byrnes, 2167 
Biddel v. Brizzolara, 2178 

Biddle iV. Hussman, 1127, J129, 1167, 1170, 1171, 
2250, 2268 

zi. Reed, 1182 
Biddulph V. Biddulph, 94, 434 

V. Lees, 417 
Bierer's Appeal, 960 
Bierne v. Bieme, 687 
Bigden v. Vallier, 1878 
Bigelow 7'. Bush, 2150 

V. Cassidy, 2136 

V. Collamore, 1099 

V. Finch, 976 

V. Forrest, 278 

V. Foss, 2302 

V. Hubbard, 729, 898, 1092, 1093 

V. Jones, 211, 1915 

V. Kinney, 1031, 2011 

V. Littlefield, 1978 

V. Pritcbard, 1510 

V. Shaw, 68, 71 

V. Striiigfellow, 2171 

V. Topliff, 1030, 1923, 2001, 2037 

V. Wilson, 1005, 2063, 2112, 2256 
Biggers v. Bird, 2046 
Biggs V. Brown, 1208 

V. Farrell, 982 

Doe d., V. White, 1039, 1040 
Bigler z*. Furman, 1149, 1213 

V. National Bank of Newburgh, 125 
Rill V. Cureton, 1791 
Billan v. Hercklebrath, 770, 771, 919 
Billings, Re, 219 
Billings V. Baker, 583, 587, 651, 660 

V. Billings, 310 

2'. Canney, 1314 

V. Clinton, 1646, 1648 

V. Hauver, 2014 

V. Sprague, 2177 

V. Taylor, 89, 494, 561, 742, 8u, 812, 853 

V. Tucker, 983 
Eillingsly v. Mersey, 982 
Bills V. Mason, 1496, 1504 
Bingham's Case, 432 
Bingham v. Barley, 103 1 

V. Clanmonis, 1788 

V. Jones, 1S42 

V. Jordan, 2125 
Blnnerman v. Weaver, 271, 1858 
Binney's Case, 44, 224 
Binzel v. Grogan, 1385 
Birch V. Wiight, 1121, 1300, 1308 
Bircher z^. Parker, 147, 118S, 1315, 1316, 1348 * 
Bird V. Bird, 883, 1895 

V. Decker, 2062, 2063, 2064 

V. Gardner, 805, 817, 830 

V. Greville, 1055 

V. Higginson, 2250 

V. Keller, 2175 

V. Kellow, 2075 

V. Wilkinson, 2040 
Birdsall v. Patterson, 2060 

V. Tieman, 268 
Birke v. Abbott, 2166 
Birmingham v. Empire Ins. Co., 1224 

V. Kirwan, 935, 956, 965 
Bimey v. Wilson, 804, S26 
Birt V. Barlow, 758 
Birtwhistel, Doe ex d., v. Vardill, 36S, 369, 719, 

2057, 2058 
Bisbee's Lessee z/. Hall, 974, 976, 1225 
Biscoe V. Perkins, 288, 299, 300, 1594, 1605, 

T712 
Bishop v. Bedford Charity, 1196, 1202 * 

V. Bishop, 52,96, 103, 105, 119, 136, 567 

V. Blair, 1363, 1370, 1376, 1904 

V. Boyle, 7o8,-7i4, 744, 745, 789, 8S5, 891, 
922, 923 

V. Doty, 1233, 1235, 1239 



References are 
10 pages 



TABLE OF CASES. 



Ix 



xxsv 



Bishop V. Douglass, 2o6g 

7'. Howard, 1265, 1317, 1324 

7'. Hubbard. 1426, 1482, 1501, 1504 

V. Lalouette's Heirs, 1212 
) V. Schneider, 2119, 2123, 2125, 2364, 2366 

V. Trustees, 1199 

V. Wall, 1S36 
Bishop of St. Albans v. Battersby, 1065 
BisKind 7f. Hewett, 864,2006 
Bismark Bldg. & Loan Assoc, u. Bolster, 974, 

975. 976 
Biss V. Smith, 417 
Bissell V. Bissell, 596 

V. Kellogg, 2060 

V. Penrose, 2015 

V. Taylor, 727 
nitner v. Brough, 729, 1093 ' 

Bittin^er v. Baker, 45, 46, 1234 1 
Bixby ZK Whitney, 1865 
Bizzell v. Nix, 2004 
Black's Appeal, 1964 
Black 7/. Black, 1963 

V. Cregg, 2002 

V. Curran, 1381, 1477, 1515 

ZK Dressell, 2013 

V. Galway, 2152 

I'. Gerichten, 2171 

V, Gilmore, 1080 

V. Hills, 1031 

V. Kuhlmau, 715, 818 

■V. Legion, 103 3 

•V. Ligon, 1037 

V. Lindsay, 1899, 1900 

■u. Morse, 2179, 2180 
Blackburn's Estate, 888 
Blackburn v. Crawford, 596 

z'. Gre^on, 2004 

V. Knigbt, 1384 

V. Randolph, 2331 

7'. Stables, 1693 

V. Warwick, 2051 
Elackerby v. Holton, 2359 
Blackford v. Christian, 1717 
Blackinton v. Blackinton, 964 
Blacklaw c. Lans, 1371 
Blackledge v. Nelson, 2153 
Blackman "v. Holms, 2327 

V. Wheaton, 1514 
Blackmer z/. Phillips, 1751 
Blackmon t/. Blackman, 933 

V. Blackmon, 956 
Blackmore v. Broadman, 1008, 1075, 1076, 1088 

V. Gregg, 1915 
Blackstone Bank v. Davis, 239, 240, 246, 249, 

256, 259, 263, 269, 273, 1857, 1S60 
BJackwell v. Bamett, 1993 

V. Wilkinson, 434 
Blagge V. Miles, 202, 311, 1836, 1S37 
Blagrave v. Blagrave, 1797 
Elain v. Everett, 1317 

V. Stewart, 2364 
Blaine v, Harrison, 718, 733, 734, 735, 736, 741, 

792, 793, 907 
Blajr V. Bass, 2104, 2106 

V. Claxton, 1167 

V. March, 2 151 

z>. Nugent, 1782 

V. Smith, 2300 

V. Thompson, 858 

V. Ward, 2113 

V. White, 2107 

V. Williams, 1511 
Blake, Re, 1562 
Blake v. Anscombe, 738, 1605 

V. Baker, 1102 

V, Blake, 76, 1691 

V. Clark, 1014 

V. Coats, 1230, 1231 

V. Colins, 297 

V. Crowninshield, 2256 

V. Everett, 2219 

%'. Ferris, 1194, iigs 



Blake v. Fish, 2355 

V. Flatley, 1485, i486 

V. Foster, 2174, 2301 

V. Irwin, 1825 

7'. Jones, 42, 1697 

V. Nutter, 824, 1957 

V. Peters, 231 

V. Respass, 133 

V. Sanderson, 1058, 1114, 1117, 1156,2262, 
2265 

1/. Williams, 367, 720, 2057, 2105, 2107, 
2288 
Blakely z/, Calder. 1980, 1982 
Blakeman z/, Blakeman, 2331 
Blakemore v. Tabor, 2024 
Blakeuey w. Ferguson, 781, 831, 892 
Blaker v. Anscombe. 542 
Elakeslee ^', Mobile Ins. Co., 2300 
Blakey v. Albert, 2159 
Rlakley v. Smith, 999 
Blamire v. Geldart, 314 
Blanchard -j. Baker. 2225 

V. Blanchard, 316, 1808 

7'. Blood, 1371 

7'. Bridges, 2222, 2247 

7'. Coohdge, J242 

7'. Kenton, 2047, 2131 

V. Lampert, 596 

7'. Moulton, 2296 

&. Raines, 2272 

■V. .Sheldon, 1594 

V. '^ler. 23SS 
Blanchard^ Factory cr. Warner, 234 
Bland v. Bland, 347, 1627, 1632, 1684 

V. Lipscombc, 2214 
Blande zk Asher, 1463 
Blandford v. Blandford, r88o 
Blaney v. Pearce, 1998, 2062, 20■J^ 
Blaukard zk Galdy, 149 
Blankeiiship zk Douglas, 1634 
Blantin v. Whitaker, 1219 
Blantou v, Taylor, 792 
Blashford z'. Duncan, 13SC 
Blasini v, Blasim, 596 
Blatch V. Milder, 1614 
Blatchford v. WooUey, 1826 
Blatchley zk Coles, 1253 
Blauvelt z). Ackermau, 1620 
Bleakney •&. Farmers & Mechanics' Bank, 67a 
Bleecker v. Hennerson, 737 

z/. Hennion, 731 

V. Smith, 1057, 1058, 115s, 1156 
Blessing?;. House, 1911 
Blethen v. Dwinal, 2093, 2146, 2173 

ZT. Towle, 107, 108, 129 
Blevins zi. Baker, 1902 

V. Rogers, 2004 

zf. Smith, 891 
Biewett V. Coleman, 1922 
Bligh V. Brent, 42, 43, 44, 45 
Blight V. Banks, 2153 

z'. Schenck, 1786 
Blight's Lessee z'. Rochester, 216, 1160, 1214, 

1222, 1241 
Blish V. Harlow, 1274 
Bliss V. American Bible Society, 1555 

V. Brainard, 2056 

V. Qark, 1504 

zi. Collins, 2269 

z}. Connecticut R. Co., 1032 

ZK Greeley, 21 

z/. Kennedy, 224S 

7'. Matteson, 75, 1623 

V. Sheldon, 967 

ZK Smith, 1550, 1551, 1566 

ZK Whitney, 129, 130, 145, 146, 1187 
Bloch V. Isham, 2235, 2236 
Blockley v. Fowler, 2163 
l^lodget V. Brent, 834, 891 
Blont z}. Winter, 939 

Blood ». Blood, 703, 798, 815, 821, 851, 2364, 
2366 



Ixxx 



VI 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References Eire 
to pages 



Blood V. Goodrich, 1026, 1042 
Bloodgood V. Clark, 506 

V. Mohawk & H. R. Co., 2327, 2328 
Bloodworth v. Stevens, 2250, 2252, 2257, 2259 
Eloom V. Gate, 2333 

V. McGehee, 2272 

V. Noggie, 2121 

V. Van Renssellaer, 2160, 2164 

V. Welsh, 40, 51 
Bloomer's Appeal, 1662 
Bloomer z^. Spittle, 2331 

V. Waldrou, 1663, 1810, 1S32 
Bloomingdale v. Barnard, 2138 

V. Bowman, 21H 
Blore V. Sutton, 999 
Blossom V. Blossom, 785, igii, 1912 

V. Milwaukee & C. R. Co., 2154, 2159 

V. Van Court, 1P94 
Blount V. Robeson, 1621, 1781 

;'. Winter, 965 
Bloutc. Blout, 2350, 2359 
Blow 7j. Maynard, 762, S15 
Blowar v. Murich, 937 
Bludwerth v. Lake, 2151 
Blue V. Blue, 1395, 1421, 1422, 1424, 1496 
-Blum V. Carter, 1444 

V. Robertson, 1271, 1278, 1282 

V. Rogers, 1461 
Blumbergz;. McNear, 2260 

V. Mitchell, 2087 
Biumenberg v, Myers, 1316, 13 17, 1326, 1327, 

1329* 1330 . 
Bliimenthal v. Bloomingdale, 996, 1324, 1325 
Blumfield's Case, 498 
Bluudell V. Dunn, 2282 
Blunden v. Baugh, 210 
Blunt iv. Aiken, 1199 

V. Gee, 866, 916, 936, 947 

V. Walker, 2014, 2016, 2107, 2111 
BIy, Doe d., v. Colman, 1040 
Blyer z>. Monholland, 2068, 2166 
Blythe V. Dagiu, 14S5 • 

7'. Dennett, 1058, 1345 
Boalmans Savings Bank v. Grewe, 2107 
Board of Commissioners v. Harman, 12S7, 2260, 

2261 
Board of Commissioners Tippecanoe County v. 
B. L. & R. Co., 1019 

V. L. M. & B. R. Co., 1019 
Boardman v. Bourne, 2335 

V. Catlett, 2169 

v. Cattle, 2073 

V. Florez, 1766 

V. Gore, 2339 

V, House, 1456 

V. Larabee, 2071, 2072 

V. Mosmau, 1733 

V. Osbom, 1 167 

V. Reed, 2304 
Boatman v. Lasley, 2217, 221S 
Boatwright v. Faust, 353 
Bob z/. State, 752 
Bobo V. Andrew, 2226 
Kobst V. Brocks, 1998 
Bockover v. Post, 1143 
Boddam, Ex parte, 260, 272 
Boddington 71. Robinson, 483, 531 
Bodiue v. Gladine, 1872 
Bodwell V, Webster, 2038, 2039, 2041 
Boehm v. Engle, 149 
Boester v. Byrne, 2156 
Eogardus v. Parker, 732, 1893 

z/. Trinity Church, 211, 225, 1148, 1898, 
1899 
Bogert V. Furmau, 94, 363 

V. Hertell, 2101 
Bogey If, Shute, 2148 
Bogg V. Hargrave, 8go 
Boggess -u. Meredith, 1924 
Boggett V. Frier, 426 
" sv. Black, 1271 

V. Boggs, 1464J 1919 



Boggs V. Fowler, 2149, 2151 
Bogie 7j. Rutledge, 766, 826, 830 
Bogy z>. Roberts, 597, 59S, 650, 652, 701 

7J. Shoab, 2321, 2322 
Bohall V. Dilla, 1586, 2306, 2307 
Bohaunan v. Combs, 794 
Bohannon z'. Sthreshley, 1781 
Bohon V. Bohon, 2301 
Boice V. Mich. L. Ins. Co., 2149 
Bokee v. Hammersley, 2266 
Boien -v. Crosby, 2099 
Bollenbacker w. Fritts, 1316, 1328 
Boiler V. Mayor of New York, 1029 
BoUes V. Beach, 2971 

Z-. Duff, 1036, 2144 

V. State Trust Co., 1580, 1655, 1920, 1931 
Boiling V. Boiling, 936 

V. Petersburg, 2205 
Bollinger 71. Chouteau, 2094 
Bollo v. Navarro, 1975 
Bolman v. Lohman, 1824 
Bolster v. Cushman, 717, 764, 834, 875 
Bolton V. Ballard, 791, 805, 845 

V. Bolton, 661 

zi Brewster, 2000 

V. De Peyster, 1837 

v. Duncan, 2273 

z>. Grantham, 1039 

•u. Hamilton, igi6 

V. Johns, 1517, i6gg 

•V. Landers, 1144, 1253, 1308 

V. Nallard, 802 

z'. Tomlin, 1313 

Denn d., v. Bowne, 310 
Boltz V. Stolz. 734 
Bomar v. Mullins, 1920 
Bomback v. Sykes, 1502 
Bond, In re, 1684 
Bond V. Bond, 986 

V. Bunting, 1587 

z'. Coke, 51, 104, 133, 2021 

z'. Dolby, 2166 

V. Hilton, 1903, 1921 

V. Hopkins, 1644, 2139 

V. Seymour, 1481 
Bonds?/. Boardman, 2103 

V. Smith, 1213 
Bone V. Cooke, 1608, 1735 
Bonham v. Galloway, 2101 
Bonifant v. Greenfield, 1788 
Bonuell v. Allen, 1184 

V. Smith, 1405 
Bonner v. Kennebeck Purchase, 1982 

zj. Peterson, 813, 814 

V. Petitioner, 1985 
Bonnett zk Saddler, 564, 1185 
Bonney v. Foss, 62, 123 

V. Ridgard, 1784 
Bonomi z>. Backhouse, 200, 2233 
Bonorden z'. Kriz, 1490 
Bonsall's Case, 1716 
Bonsall v. Comly, 1399, 1432 
Bonser v. Kinner, 1629 
Bonyhuri v. Flummerfelt, 2212 
Boody V. Boody, 661 

z/. Davis, 1786, 2027, 2028, 2029, 2046 

V. McKenny, 2343 

V. Neece, 2295 
Booker v. Bell, 730 

V, Carlile, 1548 

T. Jones, 2017, 2020 
Bool V. Mix, 515, 905, 985, 986, 1032, 2343 
Booley, Doe d., v. Roberts, 2 
Boon V. Murphy, 200S 

V. Pierpont, 2024, 2146 
Boone v. Boone, 933, 941 

V. Chiles, 1578, 1622,1662, 1782,2036,2123 

V. Citizens' Savings Bank, 1655 

V. Clark, 2133, 2140 

V. Moore, 2356 

z/, Pumell, 757 

V. Stover, 970, 976 



References are 

to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



Ixxxvii 



Boone v. Tipton, 722 ' 

Hooraem v. Wood, 2067 
Booth ti. Adams, 1903 

V. Ballimore Steam Packet Co., zo86, 

20S7. 208S 
z'. Bariium, 2027, 2029 
V. Booth, 1715, 1733 
V. Clark, 2365 
V. Conn. Mut. Life Ins. Co., 2166 

V. Cook, 2365 

7'. Kehoe, 1047 

V. Lambert, 855, 857 

V. Small, 229S 

7'. Stebbins, qi6, 935 

Doe d.. 7'. Field, 1605 
Boothby v. Baily, 30 

V. Vernon, 649, 675, 689, 694. 697 
liopp f. Fox, 7S7, S24 
Borah v. Archers, 19SS 
BoraLton's Case, 315, 1S48 
Borden z>. Downey, 1821, 1822 

V. Kin^bury, 448 
Bordman r-. Osbom, 1171 
Boreel v. Lawton, 1082, 1168 
Borell z>. Dann, 1697 
Borie V. Crissman, 49S 
Borland's Appeal, 2264 
Borland v. Dean, 1659 

z>. Nichols, 949 

V. Nicoll, 935 
Borland's Lessee 7>. Marshall, 517, 598, 603, 604, 

612, 614, 706 
Borroughs V. White, 1513 
Borst V. Boyd, 2075 

V, Spelman, 681 
}Joskowitz 7'. Davis, 1633 
Bosler v. Kuhn, 5S, 59 
Bosquett 2>. Hall, 1398, 1401 
Bostick V. Keizer, 1751 
Bostock V. Blakeny, 1726, 1727 
Boston V. Binney, 1213, 1297 

V. Richards. 2091 

V. Richardson, 4, 2092 
Boston Bank z'. Chamberlain, 2014, 2343 

V. Reed, 2064, 2066 
Boston, C. & M. R. Co. v. Gilmore, 98 
Bosion Franklinite Co. z/. Condit, 1729, 1S12, 

1843, 1924. 1983 
Boston Iron Co. v. King, 21S5 
Buston & L. R. Co. v. Boston & S. R. Co., 
2327 

7'. Salem & L, R. Co., 3 
Boston &. Roxbury Mills Co. v. Newman. 2316 
Bosion & W. R. Corp. v. Haven, 2089, 2090 

V. Sparhawk, 2092 
Boston Water Power Co. v. Boston & W. R. 

Co., 221 1, 2327 
Bostwick TJ. Atkins, 1031 

V. Beach, 839 

V. Blades, 270, 271 

v. Champion, 1240, 1244 

7'. Dry Goods Bank, 1746 

7'. Esiate of Dickson, 1783 

V. Frankfield, 1163 

V. Leach, 51, 52, 53, 143 

7'. Williams, 729, 1094 
Eoswell V. Buchanan, 2301 

7', Dillon, 1609 
Bosworth z'. Striskhart, 235S 

v. Sturtevant, 2357 
Botham V. Mclntier, 2015, 2144 
Bothell, Doe d., v. Martyr, 1626 
Botheroyd v. Woolley, i§oi, 1306 
Eotsford 7'. Burr, 1613, 1633, 1634, 1635, 1642, 
1646, 1651, 1653, 1696 

V. McLean, 2330 
Bott 7-. Perley, 2333 
Bottoms z/. Carley, 588 

V. Corley, 633, 1372 
Bottorf V. Connor, 2009 
Bouchard v. Bourassa, 1500 
Boudette v. Pierce, 1308, 1325, 1335 



Boudy 7'. Birdsall, 2.^47 

Bouffam v. Green, 2354 

Boughton 7/. Langley, 1607 

Bouldin v. Alexander, 1661, 2260, 2261 

Boulo V. New Orleans, M. & T. R. Co., 572 

Boulton 7'. Lies, 918 

Bourcier 7-, Edmondson, 2272 

Bourdillon t/. Dalton, 2266 

Bourn v. Gibbs, 1684 

Bourne v. Bourne, 2063 

V. Taylor, 84 
Boutell V. Cowdin, 1671 
Bovy's Case, Sir Ralph. 1626 
Bowas 7'. Pioneer Tow Line, 1248 
Bowditch 7'. Andrew, 1753 

z'. Banuelos, 1662, 1787 
Rowe's Case, 1328 
Bowen r'. Beck, 2068,2072 

7'. Bell, 1698 

7'. Bowen, 947, 1401, 1402, 1851, 1862 

V. Chase, 160^, 1661, 1671, 1672, 1680, 
1737 

V. Clark, 1 161 

V. Collins, 760 

7'. Conner, 282,285 

zf. Dean, 317 

V. Edwards, 1996 

V. Prestou, 1914 

7/. Proprietors of South Building, 1289, 
1890 

zf. Roach, 2257 

zf. Scowcroft, 324 

Zf. Team, 2211 

V. Wood, 106 
Bower 7/. Cooper, 1697 

V. Hill, 2240 
Bowers &. Bowers, 35, 754, 1709 

7'. Higbee, 984 

V. Johnson, 2111, 2112 

7'. Keeseecker, 831, 2306 

7'. Oyster, 2004 

7'. Poraeroy, 974 

7/. Porter, 533, 535 
Bowes 7/. East London W. Co., 1037, 1040 
Bowie V. Berry, 7S0, 7S2, 841, 1614 

z>. Rrahe, 2291 

V. O'Neale, 1751 

zi. Stonestreet, 647 
Bowker 7/. Collins. 1443 

V. Walker, 1212 
Bowler z'. Erhard, 2260 
Bowles' Case, 64, 372, 507, 521, 568, 815, 821, 

2186 
Bowles 7*. Berrie, 2186 

7/. Lyon, 1316, 1331, 1340 

V. Poore, 820 

V. Rogers, 2006 

V. Stewart, 491 
Bowling z>. Cook, 2120 
Bowman 7'. Bailey, 1240 

V. City of New Orleans, 2225 

V. CockriU, 2336 

V. Conn, 51 

V. Foot, 1058, 1155 

V, Kelemau, 2251 

V. Lee, 2299 

7/. Long, 1548, 2315 

V. Manter, 2134 

Zf. Middleton, 2324 

Zf. Norton, 1382 

V. Tallman, 1980 
Bowne v. Potter, 764, 800, 870 
Bowser ?'. Scott, 225a 
Bowyer's Appeal, 1382 
Bowyer z'. Anderson, 1244 

V. Martin, 1210 

Zf. Seymour, 1138, 1154 

Denne d., zf. Judge, 1970, 1971 
Boxheimer 7'. Gunn, 2133 
Boyce v. Blakewell, 2266 

7'. City of St. Louis, 1549 

V. Coster, ig6i 



Ixxxviii 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Eoyce 7'. Grundy, i66g 

z'. Kelbaugh, 2302 

z'. Owens, 2346 

V. Shiver, 2126 

V. Waller, 485 

z/. Washburn, 54, 55 
Boyce's Exr. tj. Tabb, 1515 
Koyd V. Allen, 2079, 2080 

V. Baker, 2027 

7/. Beck, 2ogi, 2093 

V. Blankman, 1620 

zf. Boyd, 1732 

V. Brincken, 1622 

V. Carlton, 789,841, 842, 843, S44, 857 

V, Conklin, 19S 

V. Croydon Railway Co., 1555 

V. Cudderback, 240, 1382, 1434, 1467, 1479, 
1506 

V. De La Moutagnie, 647 

V, Ellis, 1758, 2024 

7/. England, 1654 

V. Harris, 2093 

zf. Harrison, 721, 725, 732 

V. Hunter, 814, 816, 886 

v. Martin, 804 

V. McCombs, 2255 

zf. McLean, 1538, 1613, 1615, 1642, 1646, 
164S 

V. Parker, 2027 

V. ychlesinger, 1047 

V. Sherrock, 120, 126 

z/. Strahan, 339, 345 
Boyd's Lessee v. Talbert, 1154 
Boydell v. Drummond, 1087 

z/. Golightly, 1693 
Boyer z/. Cockerill, 2321 

V. Dively, 595, 596 

V. Smith, 1 160 

V. Sweei, 118, 45S 
Boyers v. Elliott, ig6i 

7/. Newbank, 739, 847, 851 
Boykin zf. Edwards, 1515 

V. Pace's Exr., 1587 

V. Rain, 66i, 663, 665 

7/. Shaffer, 1019 
Boyle V. Shulman, 1457 
Boyleston v. Cordes, 1901 

V. Carver, 2102 
Boylston Insurance Co. t/. Sylvester, 191 1 
Boyne v. Rogers, 1199 
Boynton v. Bodwell, 1274, 1275, 1342, 1344 

V. Dyer, 695 

V. Hodgdon, 2298 

V. Hubbard, 1770 

V. Longley, igS 

V. McNeal, 1481 

Zf. Reynolds, 2363 

V. Sawyer, 766, 783, 801, 826 
Boyst V. Ayerst, 1000 
Bozarth v. Largent, 588, 66g, 1359, 1363 
Bozeman z>. Browning, 1723 
Bozon V. Williams, 2002 
Bracebridge v. Cooke, 1025 
Bracken z'. Cooper, 1990 
Brace v. Duchess of Marlborough, 2124, 2139 

V. Yale, 2225 
Bracenbridge v Cooke, 1025 
Bracken v. Cooper, 1990 

V. Jones, 2296, 2298 

V. Martin, 2295 
Brackenridge v. Holland, 1724, 1775 
Bracket v. Norcross, 1914 
Brackett v. Goddard, 54, 58, 137 

V. Leighton, 707, 714, 776 

v. Persons Unknown, 779, 807 

V. Sears, 2030 

V. Wait, 1623 
Braddee v. Wiley, 2259 
Braden v. Canon, 414, 415, 423 
Bradenburg v. Reitheman, 1125 
Bradfield v. Eylton Land Co., 1045 
Bradford v. Belfield, 1778 



Bradford v. Bradford, 267, 2330 

v. Caldwell, 489, 513 

z>. Kimberly, 1889 

71. Limpus, 1758 

z'. Marvin, 2004 

z'. Patton, 1052 

V. Randall, 501 

7/. Street, 1814 
Bradfords v. Kents, 938, 946, 947, 948 
Bradish v. Gibbs, 1828, 1830 

V. Schenck, 1233, 1234, 1235, 1239 
Bradlee v. Christ's Hospital, 2236 
Bradley v. Bailey, 498 

V. Bosley, 2009 

V. Boynton, 1921 

zi. Chester Valley R. Co., 2142, 2157, 2160 

V. Corel, 1134, 1136, 1285, 1307, 1315, 1337 

V. Covel, 1255, 1299 

V. De Goicouria, 1168 

V. Dixon, 943 

7>. D wight, 194 

V. Fuller, 689, 1981, 1998, 2062, 2077 

z/. George, 2178, 2180, 2181, 21S3 

V. Holdsworth, 42, 43, 45, 817 

V. Peixoto, 249, 252, 337, 486, 499, i860 

z'. Rodelsperger, 1399 

7'. WestCQOt, 339 

V. Westcott, 319, 34S, 487, 1806, 1S16, 1S36 

V. White, 1240, 1241 
Bradley Fish Co. v. Dudley, 2244 
Bradner v. Faulkner, 45, 724. 821 
Bradshaw v, Callaghan, 732, 1982, 1984, 1989 

V. Hurst, 1457, 1521 
Bradstreet v. Clarke, 208, 261, 1060, 1855, 2291 

V. Rogers, 2325 

V. Supervisors of Oneida, 1657, 2014 
Bradswell v. Bradswell, 1630 
Bradwell 7/. Catchpole, 1733 
Brady v. Banta, 1381, 1454, 1514, 1520 

Zf. Brady, 1409 

V. Ins. Co., 1173 

V. Johnson, 2019 

V. Parker, 1649 

Zf. Peiper, 11 60 

7'. Waldron, 2081, 2187 
Bragg v. Beers, 2333 

z>. Bragg, 779 

V. Geddes, 1537 

V. Ins. Co., 2114 

V. Massie, 2047 

V. Paulk, 1589, 1691 

Zf. Tesseden, 2337 
Brahe v. Eldridge, 1795 
Brainard zf. Colchester, 784 

Zf. Cooper, 2073, 2074, 2136, 2137, 2170 
Brainerd z/. Arnold, 982 

v. Brainerd, 2035, 2046 
Brair zr. Robertson. 1013 
Braithwaite v Hitchcock, 132S 
Brake v. Ramsay, 985 
Brakeley v. Sharp, 2208, 2245 
Braker v. Devereaux, 1983 
Braldish v. Gibbs, 1820, 1829 
Bram v. Bram, 2150 
Braman v. Dowse, 2068, 2069 

V. Stiles, 253, 273 
Bramble v. Billups, 416, 447, 472 
Bramhall zf. Ferris, 246, 253, 260, 272, 1747 

V. Flood, 2029, 2059 

V. Hutchinson, 974, 975 
Branch z>. Doane, 970, 2314 

Zf. Jesup, 2018 

V. Tomlinson, 1506 
Branch Bank v. Fry, 2065 
Brand v. Frumveller, 1008, 1140, 1141, 1158 
Brands v. Grace, 1189 
Brandies 7/. Cochrane, 1748 
Brandon v. Aston, 260, 272 

7;. Bannon, 1145 

z/. Robinson, 246, 249, 252, 257, 260, 272, 
273» 500, 1373, 1858, i860 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 

Brandt 7'. Clark, 2ior 
Branford v. Braniord, 662, 1369 
Brauger v, Maciet, 1066, loSi 
Brannan v. Oliver, 1765 
Bmnnin v. Womble, 1425 
Brannon v. May, 1777 
Branson v. Hill, 314, 315, 316 

V. Labrot, igS 

V. Yancey, 731, 744, 837 
Brant v Gelston, 292, 319 

V. Virginia Coal & Iron Co., 319, 338, 
339. 351. 1S06, 2302 
Brantom v. Griffiths, 46 
Branton v. O'Briant, 1327, 132S, 1329, 1340 
Krashear v. Williams, ig6 
Brassey v. Chalmers, 1833, 1842 
Brastow v. Rockport Ice Co., 71 
Bratt V. Bratt, 975 

V. Bratt's Admrs., 976, 1249 
Bratton v. Clawson, 136 

V. Massey, 1563 

V. Mitchell, 1366, 1368, 1369, 1370 
Brawner v. Staup, 1642, 1646 
Braxon v. Bressler, 68, 1014 
Braxton v. Coleman, 7S9, 790, S23 

V. Lee, 794 
Bray v. Lamb, 8Sg, 927, 949 

V. Neill's Exrs., 936 

V. West, 1788 
Braybroke v. Inskip, 2083, 2084 
Braye & Camoy's Peerage, Matter of, 233 
Braythwayte v. Hitchcock, 1258, 1261, 1262, 

1264, 1276, 1320, 1324, 1325 
Brayton v. Jones, 2087 
Brazee v. Lancaster Bank, 2140 
Brazier v. Ansley, 1237 
Brearley w. Cox, 142 
Brearly -v. Brearly, 1810 
Breckenridge ti. Auld, 2001, 2040 

V. Brooks, 2085, 2087, 2088, 2070 

V. Ormsby, 986, 2011,2129, 2244, 2345 
Breckenridge 's Heirs v. Ormsby, 2132 
Brecknock v. Pritchard, 1098, 1183 
Bredell v. Collier, 315 
Breed v. Judd, 2343 
Breeden v. McLaurin, 1900 
Breeding v. Davis, 588, 669, 670 
Breese v. Bangs, 688 

V. McCann, 1139 
Brennan v. Wallace, 1461, 1465 

V. Whitaker, 143 

V. Wilson, 1786, 1800 
Brent's Case, 1550, 1551, 1568 
Brent z/. Best, 518 
Brenton v. Cannon, 518 
Bresee -u. Stiles, 1411 
Bressler v. Kent, 2345 
Brest V. Offley, 1629 
Brett V. Carter, 2019 

V. Cumberland, 3263 

71. Rigden, 1571 
Brevard v. Neely, 1598, 1795 
Brevoort v. Brevoort, 1980 
Brewer -v. Baxter, 236 

V. Boston Theater, 1019 

V. Connell, 728, 794, 795, 893, 913, 914) 

1576 
V. Craig, 1290 
V. Dyer, 11 19, 2265 
V. Hardy, 2316, 2317, 2319 
V. Harris, 969, 1006 
■V. Hill, 225, 475, 481, 969, 974, 1047 
V. Hyndman, 2172 
V. Keeler, 1212 
V. Linnseus, 1456 
V. Marshall, 2214 
V. Maurer, 2166 
V. Staples, 2150, 2179 
■V. Thorp, 1315, 1316 

V. Wall, 1408, 1414, i47Zj M73; 1474? i484» 
1485, i486, 1487 
Brewster &. Baker, 2044 



Ixxxix 



Brewster v. Carmes, 2109 

V. De Fremery, 1196, 1197, 1200 

V. Kitchell, 1869 

V. Lime, 1746, 1765 

V. Madden, 2059 

V. Striker, 299, 1606 
Briar v. Robertson, 1323 
Brice's Estate, 596 
Brice V. Randall, 2207. 2217 

V. Stokes, 1608, 1732, 1733, 1735 
Brick V. Getsinger, 2187 
Brick Co. V. Pond, 983 
Brick Presbyterian Church, Re. 38, 40 
Brick Presbyterian Church v. New Y^-rk City, 

40 
Bricker v Hughes, 51 

V. Whalley, 1939 
Brickhouse r/. Sutton, 878 
Bridge's Case, 958 
Bridge V. Wellington, 281, 291 
Bridge Proprietors v. Hoboken L. & J. Co., 

1516 
Bridgemans v. Wells, 1046 
Bridgen v. Carhart, 2139 
Bridgeport v. Bliun, 2073, 2169 

V. Hubbell, 2332 

V. Maxwell, 297, 889 
Bridger v. Pierson, 2361 
Bridges -v. Hitchcock, 1008 

V. Potts, 1337 
Bridgewater zk Bolton, 202, 309, 312 

V. PZgerton, 60 
Bridgford v. Riddel, 1376 
Bridgham v. Smith, 2207 

V. Tileston, 11 19, 2265 
Bridgney v. Hitchcock, 1008 
Briggs V. Austin, 1207 

V. Davis, 1795, 1798, 2169 

V. Earl of Oxford, 572 

V. Fish, 1993 

V. Hall, 1128, 1166 

V. Kaupman, 2153 

V. Morgan, 594 

V. Morse, 1095 

V. Partridge, 1042 

V. Penny, 1627, 1630, 1633, 1683 

V. Shaw, 307, 309, 312 

7J. Titus, 641 
Erigham v. Eveleth, 1896, 1967 

z/. Potter, 2060 

■u. Winchester, 1996 
Bright V. Eynon, 518 

V. McOuat, 1256, 1278, 1301, i3r4, 131% 
1327, 1328 

V. Pennywit, 2157 

V. Walker, 2292 
Brightman v. BriglUman, 418 
Brightwell V. Mallory, 817 
Brigland v. Shafter, 983 
Briles v. Pace, 996 

V. Paste, 995 
Brimmer v. Proprietors Long Wharf, 2091, 2092 
Brinckerhoff z*. Lansing, 2133 
Brindemagle v. German Ref. Church, 2156 
BringhofE v. Munzemaler, 103 
Bringloe v' Goodson, 1820, 1844, 1845 
Brinkerhoff v. Phelps, 1092, 2133 
Briiikley v. Walcott, 1133 

V. Willis, i78r 
Brinkman v. Jones, 2085 
Brinley v. Mann, 2013 

V. Whiting, 2092 
Brinton v. Datas, 2262 

T. Hooks, 1919 

T. Seevers, 2366 
Brisbane v. Dates, 1180 

V. Stoughton, 2159 
Briscoe V. McElween, 2273 

V. McGee, 1919, 2005, 2006 

zi. Powers, 2176, 2 181 
Bristol V. Carroll, 2298 

V. Morgan, 2166 



xc 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Bristow V. Warde, 1811, 1882, 1990 
Krittain v. McKay, 45, 48, 49, 51, 52 
Brittin v. Handy, 1618, 1619, 170S, 1770 
Brittlebank v. Goodwin, 1782 
Rritton's Appeal, 2126 
Brittoni'. Twining, 437, 1693 

V. Updyke, 2154, 2179, 2180 
Broach v. Barfiald, 2046 
Broadbeut v. Ramsbothatn, 2226 
Broaddus v. Turner, 416, 417 
Broadhurst v. Balgay, 1733 

V. Morris, 324 
Bioadman z/. Osborn, 1127 
Broadrup v. Woodman, 1592 
Broadwater v. Darne, 1033 
Brobst V. Brock, 1993, 1997, 199S 
Brock V. Eastman, 1914, 1982 

V. Smith, 103, loS 
Erocklehurst, 2095 
Brockway v. Thomas, 996, 1295 
Brodiev. Barry, 368, 719,2057, 2289 
Brogden v. Walker, 463 
Brograve v. Winder, 316 
Brolaskey v. Lota, 1168 
Brolasky v. Ferguson, 2270 

V. Fury, 2263 

V. Gaily's Exrs., 76 
Bromfield, Ex parte, 95 
Bromley v. Elliott, 1242, 1243 

V. Jefferies, 1053, 1087 
Brompton v. Aikis, 1968 
Broncker v. Coke, 1571 
Brondage v. Warner, 2236 
Brone's Admrs. v. Bockover, 670 
Bronson v. Coffin, 1069, 1092, 1093, 1094 

V. Kinzie, 1507, 1510,1511, 1512 

V. Newberry, 1518 

V. Rodes, 2254 

V. St. Peter's Church, 39 
Brook V. -Briggs, 1148 

V. Brook, 753 
Brookbank v. Brookbank, 1791 
Brooke's Appeal, 1690, 2121, 2122 
Brooke v. Berry, 1735 

V. Brooke, 707, 710, 752 
Brookings v. White, 1514, 2031, 2040 
Brookover v. Hurst, 1997 
Brooks V. Avery, 2o5o 

V. Brooks, 479, 497, 506, 1034 

V. Cliatham, 1499 

V. Cunningliam, 1248,^2255, 2273 

•V. Curtis, 2235 

7'. Dent, 161 1 

V. Everett, 692, 703, 761, 762, 78S, 797, 798, 
815 

V. Fowle, 1646 

V. Galster, 12 10 

V. Hyde, 1284, 1394 

V. Jones, 290 

V. Marbury, 1605. 1712, 1794 

V. Moody, 1094, 1095 

V. Pearson, 1748 

V. Shelton, 1633, 1646 

V. White, 1701 

V. Whitmore, 2124 

V. Wilcox, 2255 
Brookville & M. Hydraulic Co. -u. Butler, 68, 70, 

7^ 72i 73 
Broom v. Broom, 786, 825, 1957 

V. Hore, 2263 
Broome 71. Davis, 1385 
Broomfield v. Smith, 13 13 
Brophy v. Bellamy, 1740 
Brophy Co. v. B. N. D. Co., 1047 
Brossart v. Carlett, 2240 
Brost V. Simpson, 1862 
Brothers 7>. Cartwright, 76 

V. Harrill, 2047 

V. Hurdle, 47 

V. McCurdy, 249 
Brough V. Higgins, 506, 513 
Broughton v. Broughton, 1791 



Broughton v. Langley, 1703 

V. Randall, 765 
Brouwer v. Jones, 268, 1103 
Brow V. Clack, 667 
Browder v. Browder, 908 
Brower v. Bowers, 769 
Brown's Appeal, 1844 
Brown v. Adams, 1248, igii, 2255 

V. Alden, 411, 1050 

V. Anderson, 415 

V. Armistead, 1752 

V. Ashbough, 1456 

V. Austen, 1016 

V. Bailey, 1925 

V, Balen, 2331 

V. Bates, 1886, 2147 

7'. Beatty, 2326 

V. Berry, 2221 

7'. Best, 100 

V. Bigg, 315 

•V. Bowen, 2248 

V. Boyd, 313 

V. Bragg, 968, 969, 1280, 1327 

V. Bronson, 727, 794, 912, 913 

V. Brown, 71, 940, 987, 1398, 1400, 15S9, 
1590, 1980, 1981, 1989, 2252, 2303, 2341 

V. Budd, 2006 

V. Burlingham, 2279 

V. Caldwell, 956, 965, 1684, 1686 

V. Cantrell, 947 

V. Cayuga & S. R. Co., 1798 

V, Chamberlain, 1795 

IK Clark, 588, 672 

V. Clifford, 204S 

V. Coats, 1233 

V. Cockrell, 2296 

V. Cole, 2128, 2173 

V. Collins, 710 

V Combs, 1590, 1706, 2ogi 

V. Coon, 1413, J443, 1449, 1450, 1455, 1467, 
1468, 1469, 1478 

V, Corey, 88 

V. Ci-am, 1998. 2079 

•v. Cramm, 1998 

V, Crump, 79 

•V. Dean, 2042, 2121 

V. Delaney, 2147 

V. Dewey, 2031, 2042, 2052, 2053, 2054 

•u. Dillahunty, 1517 

V. Doane, 1586, 1616, 1617 

V. Duncan, 823, 826, 842. 844 

V. Dwelley, 1612 

V. Dwelly, 1614 

V. Dysinger, 1149, 1213 

V. East, 2008 

V. Engel, 1280 

V. Farran, 909 

V. Fifield, 1514,1515 

V. Fitz, 2312 

V, Gale, 1367, 1920, 1945 

z/. Gay, 211,2296 

V. Gilman, 2005 

V. Higginbotham, 1240 

z>. Higgs, 1628 

7/. Hodgdon, 98G 

V. Holyoke, 2039 

z'. Homan, 1990 

7'. Illius, 2230 

V. Jackson, 2263 

V. Jaddrell, 1034 

V. Johnson, 1716 

V. Kayser, 995, 1134, 1274, 1316, 1318, 
1326, 1336, 1337 

a. Keller, 1159, 1214, 1308, 1393, 1394, 
1410, 1424 

V. Kirkman, 2123 

V. Kite, 1123 

V. Lapham, 728, S02, 803, 8og, 810, 2097, 
2134 

V. Leach, 2031, 2032, 2079 

V. Leete, 2298 

V. Leitch, 1050 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



XCl 



Brown?'. Lillie, no, 113 

V. Lindsay, 1025 

V. Lunt, 2366 

71. Lynch, 1586, 1621, 1645, 1770 

V. Lyon, 17^4 

V. AlcKinally, 1180 

V. McKinney, 517, 2398 

v, McMullin, 1985 

V. Martin, 1378 

V. Matthews, 1046 

z'. Mauler, 2364 

V, Meredith, 733, 735 

V. Minturn, \-jc)^ 

7>. Morrill, 1956 

V. National Bank, 2142 

V. National Bank of Hamilton, 2S4 

V. Nevitt, 2056, 2149 

7'. Parson, 10S7, 1088, 1205, 1316 

V. Peck, 269 

V. Pecock, 270 

%'. Penstz, 2337 

V. Persons, 1290 

V. Phillips, 2301 

V. Porter, 234 

c. Powell, nil, 1123 

V. Raindle, 1970 

V. Ramsden, 1605 

7'. Ransey, 292 

7'. Renshaw, 1843 

V. Richards, 806 

z>. Rickets, 695, 1715, 1716 

z'. Robbins, 1242 

V. Sanborn, 51 

r'. Simon, 2089, 2090, 2153, 2180, 2183 

7*. Simons, 2090 

7'. Snell, 688,2062, 2063, 2147 

V. Sprague, 216, 221, 222 

V. Stanclift, 54 

7'. State, 1401 

7'. Stead, 2150, 2152 

V. Stewart, 1998, 2077, 2079 

7'. Storey, 1028 

V. Thurston, 1267, 2067 

V. Tigle, loog 

7'. Trumper, 1007, 1314 

7'. Turner, 1973, 1982 

V. Tyler, 2016 

V. Van Braam, 1516 

V. Vandergrif t, 84, 100 

7f. Van Horn, 1300, 1308, 1335, 1338 

V. Vanlier, 2006 

V. Weaver, 1776 

V. Webster, 1711 

V. Wellington, 1911 

V. Wenham, 196 

V. Werner, 2235, 2237 

V. Westbrook, 660 

V. Wever, 411, 412, 423, 447, 468, 671 

V. Whiteway, 1608, 1797 

V. Williams, S85, 886 

7'. Williamson, 254, 273, 1675 

V. Willis, 2167 

V. Windsor, 2234 

V. Wood, 305, 307, 308, 311, 312, 1913 

V. Wright, 1577, 1720, 1721, 1722, 2336 
Brown*s Admr. z>. Bragg, 1138, 1150 
Brown*s Exrs. v. Higginbotliam, 1241, 1244 
Browne v. Bockover, 592 

V. Brockville, etc., 1194, 1195 

V. Cavendish, 1794 

V. Kennedy, loi 

V. Potter, 764 
V. Warner, 1313 
V. Witt, 1398, 1400. 1401 
Browne's Lessee v. Anderson, 426 
Brownell zk Brownell, 291, 416, 423, 1975, 19S2 

V. Welch, 1327, 1329, 1335, 1339 
Browning 7/. Harris, 1381, 1476 
Brownlee v. Allen, 1956 
Browuson v. Gifford, 1984 

V. Hull, 1920, 1931, 1932, 1933. 1940. 1951. 
1952 



Brownsville 7'. Basse, 1140 
Broyles v. Nowlin, 1621, 1760 
Brubaker v, Paul, 2292 
Bruce, Ex parte^ 2002 
Bruce 7'. Booney, 2102 

V. Fulton National Bank, 1067, 1082, 
2362 

V. Luke, 2322, 2323 

V. Schuyler, 1517 

V. Strickland, 721 

V. Wood, 591, 1365 
Bruch zi. Landy, 2334 

V, Lantz,27g, 1703 
Brudenell v. Elwes, 1828 
Bruorton's Case, 547 
Brugman v, Noyes, 1103 
Brumfield v. Carson, 3 1 
; Brumfitt V. Roberts, 28, 30, 33, 36 
Brumley v. Fanning, 2081 
Brundage v. Brundage, 42, 43 
Bvundred v. Walker, 2151 
Brune, Doe d., 7'. Martyn, 1596 
Bruner v. Briggs, 670 

V. Meigs, 1808 
Brunson v. Hunter, 1629 
Bruntoii v. Hall, 2220 
Brunswick r-. Litchfield, 597 
Brunswick-Balke CoUander Co. v. R^es, 199 
Brunswick Sav. Inst. z>. Com. Uniou Ins. Co., 

2116, 2119 
Brush V. Kinsley, 2007 

V. Ware, 1778, 2304, 2359 
Bryan 7'. Atwater, 1915, 229S 

V. Batcheller, 773, 774, 887, 894, 920, 921 

V. Bradley, 208, 297, 1542, 1548, 1549, 
1551. i558>23i5 

7'. Butts, 2000, 2062 

7'. Cowart, 2039, 2047 

■V. Duncan, 1621 

ZK Lawrence, 120, 137 

V. Ramirez, 1890, 2364 

7'. Weems, 1712, 1781, 1784, 1797 

V. Wetherhead, 2216 

V. Whistler, 29 

Doe d., 7'. Bancks, 1058, 1138 
Bryan's Exrs. v. Thompson's Exrs., 1887 
Bryant v. Christian, 338 

zi. Cowart, 2039 

zi. Crosby, 51. 2047 

V. Erskine, 1849, 2031, 2032 

V. Hendricks, 1642, 1643, 1648 

V. Hunter, 786, 824 

V. Kinlaw, 1288 

V. McCane, .707, 916, 935 

7'. Pennell, 2020 

V. Russell, 1600, 1671 

V. Tucker, 1280, 1285 

V. Woods, 1513 
Brydges v. Brydges, 1580, 1591, 1693 
Bryson v McCreary, 2250 

7'. Rayner, 1770 
Bubier v. Porter, 951 

V. Roberts, 932, 955, 956 
Buccleuch 7'. Wakefield, 90 
Buchan v. James, 1782 

V. Summer, 694, 1671, 1957, 1958, 1960, 
1962, 1963 
Buchana z'. Monroe, 2062 
Buchanan's Estate, In re, 712, 918, 943, 1382, 

1406 
Buchanan z>. Buchanan, 963, 965 

z>. Curtis, 2205, 2206 

7'. Deshon, 750, 775 

V, Duncan, 603, 608, 675, 687 

V. Hamilton, 1600 

V, International Bank, 2120, 2126 

7'. King, 1990 

V. Monroe, 2112, 2150, 2152 
V. Schaffer, 788 
V. Sheffer, 687, 780 
V. Shiffer, 656 
Bucheridge v. Ingram, 44, 710 



xcu 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Buchill z'. Clary, 2343 
Buck 71. Binninger, 489 

7', Colbath, 1516 

z/. Conlogue, 1462, 1463, 1464 

V. Payue, iggS 

7.: Pickweli, 54, 55 

z!. Robinson, 794 

■u. Seyiriour, 2018 

7'. Spofford, 1894 

V. Swazey, 161S, 1635, 1646, 1651J 1652, 
1779 
Buckelew 7/. Snedeker, 1904 
Euckely 7/. Daley, 1998 
Euckenridge v. Ingi-am, 42, 776,816 
Buckeridge v. Ingram, 20 
Buckingham v. Hanna, 2300 

7/. Nelson, 1497 

V. Smith, loi, 2328 
Buckingham, Earl of, v. Drury, 923 
Buckingham's Exrs. v. Reeve. 975 
Buckinghamshire v. Drury, 951, 953, 955 
Buckinghamshire, Earl of, v. Hobart, 510 
Buckland v. Butterfield, 129 

V. Hall, logi, 2263 

V. Pappilian, 1008 
Buckle V. Mitchell, 1626 
Buckler's Case, 4S2, 530 

Buckles zT. Lafferty's Legatees, 1716, 1766, 1770 
Buckley v. Buckley, 61, 127, 138, 6c6, 607, 694, 
1671, i960, 1964 

v. Daley, iggS 

v. Nightengale, 278 

V. Taggart, 1222 ' 

V. Wheeler, 143 1 
Bucklin 7/. Truell, 2226 
Buckly V. Coles, 2208, 2215 
Bucknall v. Story, 1180 
Buckner 7/. Calcote, 1781 

V, Jewell, 2266 

V. Sessions, 2149 

7/. Warren, 1137, 1140, 1150 
Buckout V. Swift, 2021, 2022 
Buckridge z>, Ingram, 779 
Bucks V. Drury, 957 
Bucksport V. Spofford, 236 
Buckworth &. Thirkell, 581, 664, 690, 691,780, 

815,820, 826, 827, 885, 1569 
Budd 7/. Hiler, 724, 847 

V. State, 2332 
Buddie, Doe d., v. Lines, 1310 
Budge 7/. Gummow, 1664 
Buell 71. Buckingham, 1766, 1772, 1775 

7/. Irwin, 2365 
Buerger v. Boyd, 1015, 1176 
Buffalo City Cemetery 7/. Buffalo, 40 
Buffalo East Side R. Co. v. Buffalo St. R. Co., 

198 
Buffalo R. Co. V. Braiuard, 2325, 2327 
Bufferlow 7'. Newsom, 1216, 1217 
Buffin 7/. Hutchinson, 281 
Buffum v. Buffum, 7S6, 1963 

V. Deane, 1115, 2251, 2257, 2259 

V. Greene, 2349 

7/. Hutchinson, 283, 284, 285, 532 
Buford 7/. McKee, 2333 
Buhl 7>. Kenyon, 974, 976, 1225 
Buist 7'. Dawes, 383 
Bulfer V. Willingrod, 945 
Bulger v. Roche, 2299 

7/. Woods, 1922 
Bulkley v. Chapman, 211 1 

7/. De Peyster, 1598 

V. Dolbeare, 560 
Bull 7'. Bull, 1630 

7/. Conroe, 1388, 1513 

V. Griswold, 45, 51, 135, 996, loio, 2259 

V. Kentucky National Bank, 1677, 1679 

V. Schuberth, 1244 

7>. Sykes, 2015 
Bullard v. Briggs, 708, 715, 726, 746, 878, 1698 

V. Chandler, 1665 

7/. Goffe, 202 



Bullard v. Harrison, 2208 

V. Johnson, 2251 

V. Leach, 811, 2097 

v. Powers, 766 
Bullen V. Runnells, 2247 

Doe d., V. Mills, 1148 
BuUene 7'. Haitt, 1499 
Buller v. Burt, 1830 
Bullitt V. Musgrave, 1228 

Bullock 7'. Dommitt, 563, 1068, logS, 1099, 1153, 
1179, ii8r 

V. Hayward, 1901 

V. Thorne, 1845 
Bulwer v. Bulwer, 48, 539, 1206, 1207, 1253, 1267 
Bumgardner v. Circuit Court, 1518 
Bunce v. Gallagher, 2291 

7'. West, 2074, 2171, 2174 
Bunch V. Hurst, 1758 
Bundy z>. Iron Co., 2069 
Bunker v. Locke, 1378, 1419, 1443, i44S» 2188 
Bunn V. Channen, 2195 

7/. Daly, 637 

7/. Lindsay, 2138 

7>. Winthrop, 1791 
Bunnell z/. Evans, 533 
Bunner z/. Storm, 1649 
Bunny v. Wright, loig 

Doe ex. d., v. Rout, 2 
Bunting v. Ricks, 1759, 1765 
Bunz v. Cornelius, 1485 
Burbank v. Crooker, 1246 

7'. Day, 867, 869 

V. Dyer, 1020, 1021, 1135, 1304, 1315, 1316, 
1342 

v. Fay, 2291 

7/. Warwick, 2111 

V. Whitney, 1541 
Burch 7/. Burch, 1849 

V. Carter, 1777 

zi, Newbury, 2324 
Burchard v. Frazer, 2031 
Burchfield 7/. N. Cent. R. Co., 2262 
Burchman v. Wilson, 1176 
Burckle 71. Eckhart, 1240, 1243, 1244 
Eurd 7/. Den.sdale, 635, 636, 637 
Burden v. Sheridan, 1642 

7/. Tliayer, 1027, 1028, 1120, 1121, 1171, 
1847, 2064, 2151 
Burdeno t^. Amperse, 646, 895 

V. Banterse, 1938 
Burdet v. Hopegood, 618 
Burdett7;. Clay, 2104, 2105, 2106 

V. Doe d. Spilsbury, 1831 

7/. Withers, 1228 

Doe d., V, Wrighte, 1744 
Burdge V. Bolin, 143 1 
Burdick v. Briggs, 771, 919, 920 

V. Jackson, 2001 

V. Washburn, 1229, 1234 
Burditt 7/. Colbum, 2035 
Burette v. Briggs, 200S 
Burey zi. Reese, 2318 
Burford v. Rosenfield, 2158 
Burgaine v. Spurling, 2128 
Burge V. Smith, 901,911, 912 
Burger v. Potter, 2007, 2009 
Burges 7/. Curwin, 373 

ZI. Mawbey, 491, 509 
Burgess zj. Eve, 2030 

V. Rice, 12 14 

z'. Wheate, 157, 277, 299, 477, 1534, 1545, 
1551* 1558, i57S» 1597. 1692, 1704, 
1736, 2009 

V. Wheaton, iSoo 

7>. Wilson, 1349 
Burgett V. Taliaferro, 1882, 1898 
Burghardt v. Turner, 492, 1910 
Burgher v. Humphrey, 9S3 
Burgoyne z/. Spurling, 2127, 212S 
Burhans v. Burhans, 1982, 1984 

7^. Hutchens, 2096, 2 no 

7/. Van Zandt, 1738, 1883 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



XCiU 



Burk V. Chrisman, 2151; 

Burk, E.V parte, v. Hamstead Free School, 

1037 
Burke v. Adaras, 220 

V. Allen, 3126 

7j. Bank of Tennessee, 2064 

V. Barron, 731, 831, 835 

V. Colbert, 65O) 657 

V, Hale, 1212 

V, Lynch, 2094 

V. Miller, 2128 

V. Smith, 1 581 

V. State, 1243 

V. Valentine, 585, 588, 653, 670, 687 
Burkett v. Burkett, 1452 
Biirkham v, Beaver, 
Burks V. Burks, 1619, 1633, 1760 

V. Mitchell, 2297 
P'urland v. Kipp, 2099 
Burleigh v. Clough, 320, 336, 487, 1815, 1820 

V. Cluff, 487 

V. Coffin, 1024, 1363, 1364, 1367, 136S 
Burlen v. Shannon, 662 
liurleson v. Burleson, 1899 
Burling x*. King, 1697 
Bumap V. Cook, 1409, 1473, 1474, 1475, 1484, 

i4Q3i 1496, 1497. 1504. 1523 
Burne, Doe d., v. Prideaux, 1040 
r.urnes z/. Bryant, 973 

TV. McCubbin, 1137, 1143, 1146, 11 50 
Burnet v. Burnet, 720, 817, S18 

V. Davis, 677, 1372 

V. Deuniston, 415, 2097, 2136, 2139, 2x61 

V. Pratt, 2125 
Burnett v. Deunison, 2074 

V. Denuiston. 2073 

V. Lynch, 1073 

V. Marshall, 1910 

V. Pratt, 1886, 2102, 2125 

V. Rich, 1217 

V. Thompson, 974, 988, 1046 
Bumham 7>, Kempton, 2248 
Burns v. Bryant, 1274, 1278, 1280, 1291, 1344 

V. Bums, 597 

V. Cooper, 1230, 123 1, 2251 

V. Gallagher, 2241 

V. Harris, 1399 

V. Jones, 1454 

V. Lewis, 1952, 1953 

V, Lynde, 727, 1044, 2339 

V. O'Rourke, 1033 

V. Phelps, 1 1 68 

V. Thayer, 829 

w. "Thompson, 1947 
Burnside v. Merrick, 1963, 1964 

V. Merritt, 786, 825 

V. Terry, 1517, 1999, 2036, 2037 

V. Twitchell, 131, 133, 2186 

V. Wayman, 2038 

z'. Weightman, 46 
Bumson v. King, 1632 
Burr V. Beers, 207a, 2071 

V. (iraves, 976 

V. Hutchinson, 2331 

V. Mills, 2240 

V. Phcenix Glass Co., 2342 

V. Sim, 75, 522, 533 

V. Smith, 1541 

V. Spencer, 982 

V. Stenton, 1080, 1082, 1125, ii6g 

V. Veeder, 2089 
Burrage v. Briggs, 2282 
Burrell v. Bull, 1621, 1643 

V. Burrell, 2298 

Doe d., V. Perkins, 1309 
Burridge v. Bradyl, 937 
]?uiTill V. Sheil, 1599, 1663 
Burris z'. Page, 697, 698, 820, 821 
Burritt v. Saratoga M. F. Ins. Co., 2114 

V. Silliman, 1598 
Burrough v. Foster, 411, 414 

V. Philcox, 16S5 



P.urroi:ghs v. Nutting, 650, 657 

z.. Richman, 1033 
Burrow -v. Hensou, 2ib8 
Burrowes v. Gradin, 1306 

V. Lock, 1697, 1758 
Bursen v. Goodspeed, 1411 
Burson's Appeal, 1366 
Bursou V. Fowler, 1449, 1454 

V. Huntington, 2033, 2035 
Burston v. Jackson, 2301 
Burt V, Herron, 347, 1593 
Burt V. Hulburt, 661, 1377 

V. Merchants' Ins. Co., 2327 

V. Ricker, 2085 

V. Wilson, 1616, 2004 
Burton v. Barclay, 1163 

V, Baxter, 2100, 2102, 2104, 21Q& 

V. Burton, 750 

V. Hintrager, 2084 

V. Holley, 1247 

■u. Lies, 943, 2156 

V. Marshall, 646 

71. Martz, 2366 

V. Muffitt, 2235 

V. Murphy, 1899, 1900 

V. Rohrbeck, 1079 

V. Smith, 2083 

7'. Wheeler, 2136, 217S 
Burtt's Estate, Re, 1818 
Burwell v. Anderson, 317, 319 

V. Fauber, 1778 

V. Hobson, 2241, 2248 
Burwell's Exrs. v. Lumsden, 934 
Bury V. Hartman, 1759 
Burynham v. Grey Hospital, 1088 
Busby 7'. Busby, 202, 302, 311, 331 

V. Holthaus, 2231 

V. Salter, 322,324 
Busch V. Cooper, 2362 
Bush's Appeal, 1561, 1576, 1579, 1597, 1674, 

1736, 1747 
Bush V. Bradley, 600, 601, 603, 604, 612, 614, 619 

V. Bush, 1704, 1773 

v. Cole, 1092 

V. Cooper, 2059 

7'. Hicks, 2331 

V. Lathrop, 2109 

V. Lester, 1512 

V. Scott, 1497 

V. Sherman, 2160 

z'. Steinman, 1194 

V. Sullivan, 2212 
Bushby v. Dixon, 362 
Buskirk v. Stridkland, 2233 
Buss V. Dyer, 2242 
Busse's Estate, Matter of, 1521 
Bussman v. Ganster, 1001, 1002, 1098, 1178, 1182 
Bustard's Case, 798, 819, iggi 
Buswell V. Marshall, 2272 

v. Peterson, 2144 
Butcher v. Butcher, 1315, 1356 

V. Rogers, 2322 
Butler's Case, 821 
Butler V. Birkey, 2177 

V. Butler, 799, 975 

V. Carter, 1782 

V. Cheatham, 710, 759, 761, 815 

7'. Godley. 1580 

V. Haskell, 1745, 1757, 1758 

XI. Heustis, 403, 408, 183 1, 1839 

V. Kidder, 1176 

V. Ladue, 2140 

V. Little, 311, 330, 331, 332, 536 

V. Mulinhill, 1032, 1034 

V. Nelson, 1431 

I'. Page, 97, 112, 130, 131, 133, 136, 142, 
146, 1027, 2162 

z'. Portarlington, i6gi 

V. Rivers, 1225 

V. Roys, 191 1, 1984 

V. Seward, 808, 8og, 2130 

V. Porter, 1691 



XCIV 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pnges. 



IjuU 7>. EUettj 1051, 2018, 2020 

7'. Thomas, 417 
Hutte Canal & D. Co. v. Vaugn, 223S, 2239 
liuiterfield zf. Beall, 590, 1231, 13O4, 1367 

V. Field, 665 

V. Stanton, 959 

2'. Wicks, 141 1 
Butterick v. Holden, 1005 
Butterworth v. Crawford, 2241 
Buttlar V. Rosenblath, 1932, 1944, 1950, 1952 
Buttrick v. Wentworth, 2164 
Butts V. Broughtou, 1485, 2075, 2169, 2170, 

V. Trice, 960, 963 

71. Wood, 75 
Euxton 7'. Dearborn, 1419. 1483, 1514, 1515 

V. Inhabitants of Uxbridge, 402, 42S, 449 

z'. Rust, 1000 
Buzick V. Ruzick, 716, 726, 727, 746, 87S, 879 
Byam v. Bickford, 1897 
Byassee v. Reese, 54, 55 
Byckman, ?'. Gills, go 
1 yer v. Etnye, 882 
E)'ers V. Byers, 102S, 1403, 1405 

V. Danley, 1635 

7'. Wackman, 1648, 1700 
Byington 7>. Backwalter, 2169 
Byng V. Byng, 60, 324 
Bynum ?'. Bostwick, 184 
Byrane v. Rogers, 1060, 1154 
Byrd zt. McDaniel, 2175 
Byrne v. Beeson, 1144 

V. Byrne, 662 

V. Van Hoesen, 1022 
Byrnes 7/. Stillwell, 345 



Caballero v. Henty, 1765 

Cabeen v. Mulligan, 1386, 1442, 1443, 1459, 1460, 

1 461 
Cade V. Brownlee, 974, 976 
Cadell V. Palmer, 323, 971 
Cadmus 7'. Combes, 504 
Cadogau t. Kennet, 1626 

Doe d., 7/. Ewart, 300,315,322, 1553, 1557, 
1597, 1605, 1606 
Cadwalader v, Bailey, 2215, 2217 
Cadwallader v. App, 1145 

7>. Harris, 1515 
Cady !•. Allen, iioi 

V. Owen, 2302 

7'. Shepherd, loiS 
Caffney 7'. Hicks, 2041 
Cage V. Acton, 660, 770 

7/. Russell, 1157 
Cagger I/. Lansing, 1139 
Cahill V. Wilson, 1462 
Cain V. Cain, 916 

V. McGuire, 54, 55 
Caines f. Grant, 1618 
Cains v. Jones, 2359 
Cairncross 7>. Lorimer, 2302 
Cairns 7'. Chabert, 504, 505, 740 

71. Colbum, 1537 
Cairo & F. R. Co. v. Turner, 2324 
Cairo & St. L. R. R. Co. v. Wiggins Ferry Co., 

1317 
Calame v. Calame, 771, 772, 919, 920 
Calbraith v. Green, 763 
Calcraft zi. Roebuck, 202 
Caldecot v. Smythies, 1205, 1208 
Calder v. Bull, 885 
Calderwood 7/. Tevis, 1441 
Caldwall ?'. Baylis, 573 
Caldwell V. Copeland, 88 

V. Fulton, 88, 89, 2189 

V. Furgeson, 306, 331, 334, 337 

V. Harris, 1213 

r'. Smith, 1212, 1219 

V. Taggart, 2147 



Caledonian R. Co. ?'. Sprot, 66, go, 92 
Calhoun V. Atchison, 2255 

7/. Calhoun, 1491, 1497, 1562 
7'. Cook, 210, 533 
7'. Curtis, 1905, igir 
7'. Hays, 1977 
z'. McLendon, 1400 
7/. Williams, 1398, 1400 
California Dry Dock Co. z*. Armstrong, 1153, 

J228 
Califoniia Tel. Co. 7: Alta. Tel. Co., 197 
Calkins 7/. Calkins, 799, 2000 
7>. Isbell, 2095 
z>. Munsel, 2171 
, Call 7>. Barker, 19S1, 1982, 1983 
' Callahan 7>. Hawkes, 1120 
7'. Robinson, 917 
7'. Shaw, 2066 
Callender 7j. Marsh, 2232 
Callis V. Day, 2011 

V. Kemp, 416, 447 
V. Tolson, 17S1 
Calloway 71. People's Bank, 2159, 2160 
Calton 7/. Hilley, 990 
Calus V. Harper, 818 
Calver v. Harper, 885 
Calvert v. Aldrich, 64, 65, 1891, 2234 
V. Bradley, 11 17 
7'. Eden, 1548, 1583 
7'. Simpson, 996 
v. Williams, 1517 
Doe d., z/. Frowd, 1309 
Calvin's Case, 673 
Calvo V. Davies, 2150, 2071, 2072 
Cambria Iron Co.'s Appeal, 2273 
Cambridge Valley Bank ?'. Dilam, 2359 
Camden Mut. Ins. Co. 7>. Jones, 966 
Camel v. Portland Sugar Co., 1194 
Cameron v. Irwin, 20S6, 2127, 2128, 2129, 2155, 
2161, 21S5 
7/. Lewis, 1643 
V. Mason, 2005 
Cameto v. Dupuy, 1426 
Camley v. Stanfield, 1222 
Camp 7'. Camp, 1148, 1348 
7f. Chamberlain, 50 
7'. Cleary, 254 
7'. Homesley, 1903 ' 
V. Scott, 1139, 2257, 2274 
7'. Smith, 2101 
Campau z'. Barnard, 1990 
V. Campau, igo8 
ZI. Laffery, ggg 
z>. Shaw, 1023 
Campbell 71. Adair, 1380, 1457, i45g, 1460, 1461, 
1466, 1483, 1514, 1515 
Zi. Ayers, 1386, 1441, 1442 
?'. Baldwin, 2008 
V. Beaumont, 345, 352 
V. Bemis, 2151 
7'. Brown, 8go 
z>. Campbell, 6g4, 786, 801, 817, 825, 1464, 

1878, 1884, 1905 
zf. Carson, 306, 331, 333, 338 
7'. Crampton, 753, 754 
7/, Dearborn, 2041, 2044, 2045, 2047, 2048, 

2054 
ZI. Elliott, 1502 
7J. Evans, 2324 
?/. Foster, 273; 1747, 1798 
v. Gullatt, 596 
z>. Hampton, 1214 
V. Hunt, 976 
V. Johnson, 2357 
V. Johnston, 2155 
V. Jones, 1440 
v. Knight, 783, 803 
V. Kulm, 2345 
z/. Leach, 1039, 1838, 2014 
7J. Lewis, 1074 
?'. Lowe, 1979 
I'. Macomb, 2185 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



xcv 



Campbell v. McManus, 1387 

V, Mesier, 65, 508, 757, 2236,2237 
V, Miller, 1664, 1714, 1718, 1720, 1724 
V. Morris, 7 82 

1). Murphy, 802, 813, 841, S44, 866 
V, Patterson, 2068 
1). Proctor, 1252, 1266, 1291, 1305 
V. Roach, 2009 
V. Roddy, 112, 133 
V. Sandys, 525, 52S 
v. Shipley, 1139 
IK Smith, 2072, 2226 
V. Texas & N. O. R. Co., 2019 
V. Tompkins, 201 1 
V. Upshaw, 1699 
V. Vedder, 811, 2098, 2110 
V. Walker, 161 1, 1767. 
V, Wallace, igoi, 1928 
7'. Wenlock, 1056 
V. Wilkinson, 2291 
V. Wilson, 2242 
V. Winson, 2219 
Doa d., 1), Scott, 1339 
Campfield v. Johnson, 1751 
Campion v. Cotton, 959 
Canal Commissioners, v. People, loi 
Canal Co. v. Railroad Co., i860, 2188 
Canby's Lessee v. Porter, 51/, 635, 636, 637, 

1367 
Cancey v. Strove, 1024 
Candler v. Tillet, 1733 
Candy v. Stradley, 1983 
Canedv v. Haskins, 415 
Canfield v Fairbanks, 2345 

V. Ford, 23, 83, 88, 228, 19S0 
V. Shear, 2017 
Canfranque z'. Bumell, 2056 
Caiinaughton x>. Sands, 1400 
Cannel v. Buckel, 647 
Canning v. Canning, 344 
V. Piiikham, 2354 
Cannon v. Apperson, 265 
v. Cannon, 2353 
1). Copeland, 123 
V. Folsom, 1247 
V. Hare, 740 
V. Wilber, 1151; 

7/. Trotuman, 1545, 157S, 1595, 1777 
Cantagrel v. Van Lupin, 2298 
Cantrell v. Fowler, iig6 
Cape Fear Nav. Co. v. Wilcox, 1869 
Capen v. Peckham, 106, in, 112, 113, 116, 1186 

V. Richardson, 1538 
Capner v. Flemingtou Mining Co., 1153, 2187 
Cappell's Estate,' 975 
Capper v. Sibley, 1020 
Car V. Elliso'i. 376 
Carberry v. Willis, 2207, 2242, 2245 
Card V. Jaffray, 2049 

V. Patterson, 908 
Cardigan v. Armitage, 93 
Cardington t>. Armitage, 90 
Cardross's Settlement, 7??, 1827 
Cardwell, Re, 1720 
Care v. Keller, 930 
Carell v. Cuddtngton, 433, 446 
Carey v. Buntain, 731, 734, 741 

V. Rawson, 2002, 2040, 2049 
Cargile v. Wood, 751, 752, 789 
Carin v. Carin, 967 
Carithers v. Stuart, 2172 
Carle v. Monkhouse, 1207 
Carleston v. Rugg, 5 
Carleton v. Byington, 2120 

V. Cate, 2248 
Carley v. Lewis, 2261, 2262, 2263, 2264 
Carlies v. Howland, 2005, 2006 
Carlin v. Chappel!, gr, 2233 
V. Paul, 2218 
•V. Ritter, m, 112, 145 
Carlisle*s Appeal, 1021 
Carlisle v. Cooper, 2242 



Carll V. Butman, 783, 802, 803, 2074, 21S2 
Carlton v. Buckner, 2007 
V. Carleon, 3 
V, Dorset, 794 

V. Jackson, 805, 806, 808, 2134 
Carlyle v. Cannon, 310 

V. Patterson, 1923 
Carlyon v. Loveriiig, 2227, 2238 
Carmack v. Masterston, 998 
Carmichael z<. Buck, 1746 
V. Carmichael, 931 
V, State, 595, 596, 752 
Carnall z/. Duval, 2033, 2034 

V. Wilson, 718, 733, 735, 736, 737, 739, 
838, 881, 909 
Can\es v. Pollt, 519, 746 
Caro V. Metropolitan Elevated R. Co., 2, 3 
Carondelet v. Lannon, 102S, 1158 
V. St. Louis, 2192 
V. Wolfert, 1151 
Caroon v. Cooper, 801, 817 
Carpenter v. Bowen, jggS 
V. Canal Co., 1783 
V. Carpenter, 1664, 1713, 1714, 1723, 1725, 

1728, 1998, 2055 
V. Collins, 1334 
V. Davis, 652, 701 
V. Denoon, 516, 517 
V. Dexter, 2364 
V. Garret, 593, 598, 599, 615 
V. Griffin, 934 
V. Herrington, 1514 
V, Jones, 1267, 1297 
V. Koons, 2154, 2179, 2180 
V. Logan, 2108 
V. McBride, 1740, 1764, 1777 
V. Moores, 2125 
V, Providence Washington Ins. Co., 2089, 

2113, 2114, 2116, 2117 
1). Robinson, 1757 
zi. Thompson, 1148, 1218, 1348 
V. United Srates, 1276, 1291, 1292, 2261 
V. Walker, 122, 123 
V. Weeks, 764, 766 
V. Wescott, 1871 
7'. Williamson, 2151 
Carpentier v, Brenham, 2135, 2150 

7'. Williamson, 2146, 2321, 2322 
Carper v. Mumger, 2101 
Carr, Petitilioner, 1981 
Can- V. Allison, 1088 

V. Brady, 722, 723 
V. Caldwell, 1491, 1497, 1498 
V. Carr, 779, 2045 
V. Clough, 2343 
V, Dodge, 1909 
V. Ellison, 1009, 1088, 1089 
V. Estill, 324, 325 
7/. Givens, 585, 606, 612, 1911 
V. Hobbs, 2004 
V. Hodge, 2089 
V. Holbrook, 2040 
V. Hoxie, 2354 
V. Ireland, 76 

V. Rising, i459t 1465, 2044,2052, 2054 
V. Wallace, 2191 
Carradine v. Carradine, 1694 

V. O'Connor, 2159 
Carrick v. Errington, 1638 
Carrier v. Perley, 1136 

V. Sears, 986, 1032 
Carrig V. Dee, 2223 
Carrington v. Herrin, 1457 
V. Herrion, 1398 
V. Roots, 50, 51 
Carroll v. Ballance, 1163, 1164, 3998, 2079 
V. Carroll's Lessee, 940, 1516 
V. Gallion, 2296, 2297 
V. Hancock, 1568 
V. Lee, 1561 
•V. Newton, 80 
V. Renick, 646, 1609 



TXVl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Carroll v. Van Rennsselaer, 2004 
Carruthers v. Humphrey, 1999 
Carshore v. Murray, 960 
Carskadon z'. Torreyson, 1685 
Carson v, Rlakey, 1755 

v. Burnet, 2295 

?/. Carson, 1631 

7'. Coleman, 2325 

V. Crigler, 2250 

zf. Foley, 1626 

7'. Godley, 1054, 1066, 1202 

v. Marshall, 1644 

V. Murray, 905, 906, gio 

Doe d., 7^. Baker, 1255, 1278 
Carstairs v. Taylor, 1054 
Carter 7'. Balfour, 706 , 

7'. Barnardiston, 970, 973, 987 

V. Reals, 1920 

z'. Bennett, 1781, 2103, 211O 

V Burr, 21, 2268 

7'. Cantrell, 651, 1366 

z>. Carter, 1506, 2046 

z>. Castleberry, 1624 

V. Chadron, 2363 

V. Crawley, 19 

V. Dale, 588,656, 677, 678, 679, 680, 1372 

7'. Denman, 729 

V. Eveleigh, 1375 

V. Goodin, 802, 928 

z*. Goodman, 1468 

V. Goodwm, 782, 901, 902 

7>. Gregory, 2r2 

V. Hammett, 1114, 1117, 2262, 2264 

z/. McQuade, 1949 

V. McMichael, 461 

V. Montgomery, 1649 

v. Murcot, 2ig8 

V. Palmer, 1708 

7f. Parker, S41 

Tf. Peak, 1093 

z>. Peun, i8go 

7>. Reddish, 321 

V. Rockett, 2114, 2118, 2119 

V. Rolland, 1727 

V. Taylor, 811, 1993, 2097, 2137 

t>. Town of La Grange, 12 14 

V. Tyler, 462 

7'. Walker, 782 

v. Walter, 2274 

V. Warne, 1115 

V. Warner, 11 14 

V. Williams, 598, 599, 607, 608, 615 
Cartwright v. Miller, 1891, 1S92 

V. Pulney, 1973 

7/. Wise, 1640 
Caruthers v. Caruthers, 952, 955, 956 

V. Humphrey, 2129, 2131 

V. Wilson, 865 
Carver v. Jackson ex d, Astor,_io48, 2300 

7'. Pecks, 2082, 2083 

7'. Richards, 1040 

7'. Smith, 1919, 1932, 1944, 1952 
Carwardine v. Carwardine, 1569 
Carwin, District Township of, v. Moorhead, 995 
Cary v. Cary, 1629 

V. Daniels, 1092, 2211 

2f. Folsom, 2154 

z/. Willis, 1879 
Casad 7/. Hughes, T083 
Casamayos v. Strode, 2o8r 
Casboard v. Ward, 1658 
Casbume 7>. English, 2172 

V. Tnglis, 689 

7>. Scarfe, 509, 592, 599, 611, 1996, 2063, 
2084, 2 1 68 
Case 7>. Aniett, ic6 

7'. Case, 751, 1801 

v. Codding, 1633, 1634, 1646, 1651 

7'. Erwin, 1777 

7>. Gerrish, 1623 

7'. James, 2124 

7'. Heart, 1238 



Case v. McCabe, 2002 
Case of Private Road, 22 n 
Casey v. Buttolph, 1580, 2319 

t/. Buttulph, 237 

7/. Casey, 1707, 1769 

&. Gregory, 1169, 1170, 1222 

V. Inloes, 1768, 1773, 2291 

V. Rawson, 2357 
Caskey v. Brewer, 415 
Caslerz*. Shipmau, 2246 
Cason V. Hubbard, 908 
Casper v. Walker, 265 
Casporus 7/ Jones, 870 
Cass V. Martin, 511. 783, 802, 21S2 

V Thompson, 797. 821, 940 
Cass County Bank 7'. Webber. 1385, 1392 
Cassanave v Brooke, 519 
Cassell 7/. Coake, 536 

z>. Cooke, 306, 309, 321, 331, 332, 333 

V. Ross, 1407, 1409, 1413, 1451, 1454. 
1498, 1499, T717, 1756, 1778 
Casselman v. Packard, 1384, 1386, 1387, 1417, 

1431, M33. i435» 1436, 1442 
Cassidy v. LeFevre, 1248 
Cassily 7f. Rhodes, 46, 49 
Castle z'. Palmer, 1481, 1503 
Castleman v. Beit, 2064 
Castleton f. Langdon, 1850 
Castner e'. Walrod, 588 
Caston V. Caston, 872, 947 
Castro 7'. Illes, 720 

V. Tennent, 291 
Caswell V. Crane, 1013 

V. Districh, 1229, 1231, 1233, 1234, ^235, 
1239 
Cate 7>. Thayer, 2357 
Cater v. Eveleigh, 1375 
Catesby's Case, 13 11 
Cathcart's Appeal, 2099 
Cathcart 7>. Bowman, 1093 

7>. Robinson, 1697 

V. Turner, 2272 
Cathedral Church, Matter of, 29 
Catherwood v' Caslor, 595 

7/. Catherwood, 1652 
Catholic Mutual Benevolent Asso. v. Finiane, 

2280 
Cathorpe, Ex parte, 1721 
Catlin -v. Hayden, 1306 

V. Kidder, 1897, 1913 

V. Milner, 1365 

V. Munger, 151 1 

V. Ware, 789, 791, 822, 840, 841, 845, 900, 
902, 909 

v. Washburn, 1309, 2363 
Caton V. Caton, 998 
Catskill Bank v. Gray, 1241, 1242 
Catterall v, Sweetman, 597 
Catterlin v. Armstrong, 2067, 2171 
Cattley v Arnold, 1299, 1300, 1301, 1306, 1320, 

132.S 
Cauffman v. Cauffman, 942, 949 
Caufman v. Presbyterian Congregation of Cedar 
Springs, 490 

V. Say re, 2144 
Caujole V, Ferrie, 595, 596, 757, 759 
Cauifield r'. Maguire, 509 
Caulk V. Florida, 2319 

71. Fox, 237 
Caulkins 7'. Fry, 1033 
Cavan 7>. Doe d. Pulteney, 942, 1039 
Cavanaugh 71. Clinch, 1130, 1132 

7/. Peterson, 2119 

V. Smith, 1427 
Cave 7'. Mackenzie, 1644 
Cavender n. Cavender, 1661 

V. Smith, 717, 885 
Caw V. Robertson, 1S50 
Ceanies v. Irving, 1707 
Cecconi v. Redden, 1095 
Cecil 71, Salisbury, 985 
Center v. Pillinghurst, 2154 



Keferences are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



XCVll 



Center v. P. & M, Bank, 2103, 2106 

Central Bank v. Copeland, 641, 2060 

Central Branch R. Co. v. Fritz, 63, 139 

Central Bridge Co. v. Lowell, 2327 

Central Gold Min. Co. v. Piatt, 2327 

Central Mills Co. v. Hart, 2270 

Central Nat. Bank of Baltimore v. Connecticut 

Mut. L. lus. Co., 1761 
Central Park Extension, Matter of, 714, 796, 

873 
Central R. Co. zk Greely, 2327 

V. Hetfield, 2325 

w. Macon, loig 
Central Trust Co v Wabash, St. L. & P. R. 

Co., 2066 
Centrill v. Risk, 915 
Cesar w. Karutz, mo 

Chadbom, Doe d., v. Green, 1303, 1314, 1333 
Chadwick v Felt, 1612 

7'. Island Beach Co., 2069 

V. Moore, 1511 

V. Parker, 1060, 1154, 1157 

7/. Perkins, 1591 

V. Woodward, 1054 
Chaffee v. Dodge, 286 

V. Franklin, 813 
Chafron r'. Cassady, 2305 
Chahoon v. HoUenback, 1773 
Cliarne zk Wilson, 1456 
Chaires v. Brady, 2046 
Chalker v. Chalker, 1861, 1R67, 1868, 1869 
Challefoux v. Ducharme, 1897, 1917, 1919 
Challonerz'. Davies, 11 64 
Chalmer v. Bradley, 1778, 1782, 17S3 
Chalmers v. Wright, 2075 
Chalmonally v, Clinton, 2303 
Chamberlain v. Chamberlain, 225, 596, 712, 757 

V. Crane, 297, 1548, 2319, 2321 

7}. Gardner, 2144 

•u. Godfrey, 1016 

V. Lyell, 1450, 1467 

V. Marshall, 2304 

■V. Neale, 2254 

V. Sprague, 2363 

•V. Steams, 1683 

V. Taylor, 77, 1689 

V. Thompson, 288, 300, 688, 1594, 1596, 
1606, 1796, 1997, 1998, 2062, 2077 
Chamberlin v. Donohne, 1269, 1293, 1295, 1296, 

1297, 1309, 1322, 1326 
Chambers v. Fox, 1471 

V. Goldwin, 2051 

z'. Handley, 589 

V. Maudlin, 1712 

V. Minchin, 1732, 1733 

V. Pleak, 1915 

V, Penland, 1449 

V. Perry, 173 1 

7j. Vignaud, 1297 
Chambliss v. Jordan, 1512, 1513, 1517 
Chambovet v. Cagney, 646 
Champion v. Bostwick, 1240, 1241, 1242, 1243, 
1244 

V. Spencer, 1977 
Champlin v Foster, 2140 

V. Laytin, 2061, 2130 

V. Williams, 2150 
Champney v. Coope, 520, 1580, 2097, 2098, 2127, 

2134 
Chance v. Hinman. 1102 
Chancellor v. Poole, 2265 
Chancy v. Strong, 1363, 1368, 1369 

V. Chaney, 814 
Chandler v, Cheney, 1930, 193 1> »938, 1942. i9S2 

V. Dyer, 2073, 2139, 2140, 2170 

V. Hollingsworth, 658, 794 

V. Rowland, 1240, 1242, 1243 

V. Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, 2245 

V. Pocock, 76 

•u. Price, 322 

V. Ricker, 1898,1913 

V. Rider, 1814 



Chandler v. Temple, 2035 

V. Thurston, 48, 538, 1231, 1235, 1263, 
1268, 1297 

V. White, 2301 

& Hart V. Rossiter, 712 
Chanery v. Stevens, 207 
Chaney's Admrs. v. Chaney's Admrs., 813 
Chanome v. Fowler, 920 
Chapel V. Bull, 730, 1095, 2353 
Chapin v. Broder, 2167 

V. Chicopee University Soc, 2101 

V. First Universalist Society, 299, 1607 

'v. First Universalist Soc. of Chicopee, 
286, 1659, 1S12, 1813 

V. Foss, 2271 

V. Hill, 934, 935, 941, 956 

V. Schafer, 1031 

V. School District, 1540, 1555, 1850, 1972 

V, Wright. 2175 
Chaplin V. Chaplin, 445, 611, 68g, 702, 781, 1566 

V. Givens, 1660 

V. Sawyer, 141 1 

V. Simmon's Heirs, 736 

V. Tillinghast, 181 
Chapman v. Allen, 1947 

V. Armistead, 731 

V. Beardsley, 2005 

V. BHssett, 1606, 1797 

z'j Bluck, 1000 

V. Brown, 1604 

V. Chapman, 1952, 1953, 2002 

V. County Commissioners of Douglass, 
1633 

7). Glassell, 1551, 1561 

V. Gray, 28, 225, 969, 974, 975, 976, 1047, 
1225 

V. Harney, 1060, 1154, 1155, 2256 

V. Holmes, 1093 

V. Kendall, 1092 

V. Kirby, 1060, 1151 

V. I'Ong, 45 

V. Martin, 2274 

V. McGrew, 1044 

V. Miller, 591 

V. O'Brien, 2302 

V. Porter, 2085, 2087, 2184 

Vy Prickett, 2 

V, Robertson, 367, 368, 720, 2057, 2058, 
2288, 2289 

V. Schroeder, 776, 806, 878, 931 

V. Smith, 2088 

V. Tanner, 2004 

V. Towner, 1258, 1308, 1314 

v. Turner, 2168 

V. Union Mutual Life Ins. Co., no, 134, 
137 

V. West, 2152, 2154 

V. Wright, 1061, 1154 
Chappell V, Allen, 2107, 2147 

V. Brewster, 401 

V. Gregory, 1200 

V. New York, N. H. & H. R. Co., 2240, 
2241, 2242 
Charles v. Andrews, 955 

V. Charles, 645 

•v. Dubose, 1620, 1768 
Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge 

Co., 2291 
Charless v, Lamberson, 1380, 1386, 1441, 1442, 
1443, 1444, H45' ^4"^) H5^. 1483. i502r 
1518 

V. Rankin, 2231, 2232, 2233 
Charlewood v. Bedford, 1042 
Charlton v. Miller, 773 
Charter v. Otis, gi6 

V. Stevens, 2161 
Chase's Case, 776, 778, 779, 790, 814, 816, 8.10, 
844, 845, 848, 874, 875, 885, 902, 903, 
2045 
Chase v. Abbott, 1409, 1454, 1523, 1934, 207S, 
2079 

z'. Alley, 927, 951 



XCVUl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Chase v. Creed, 2034 

V. Chase, 660, 1631 

z/, Cheney, 34 

V. Hazelton, 550, 552, 556, 558, 561 

V. Lockerman, 1997, 20S5, 2103 

7). McDonald, 2140 , 

V. McLellan, 2174 

V. Peck, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2009 

■u. Silverstone, 2230 

V. Sutton Manuf. Co., 2244 

V, Wingate, 78, 79, 106 

V, Woodbury, 2076,2153,2176, 2178, 2181, 
2183 
Chasemore v. Richards, 2230 
Chastain v. Smith, 1643 
Chatfield v. Wilson, 2248 
Chatard v. O'Donovau, 1287, 128S 
Chatham v. Bradford, 2122 
Chatterton v. Fox, 1092 
Chattle 1). Pound, 1214 
Qhavener v. Wood, 2172 
Chaworth z*. Phillips, 1123, 1124 
Cheatham v. Jones, 1421 
Chedel v. Millard, 1028 
Chedworth v. Edwards, 1783 
Cheek v. Waldrou, 885, 940, 1363, 2160 
Cheese, Doe d., v. Creed, 1309 
Cheeseborough, Matter of, 5 

V. Green, 64, 65, 507, 2234 

V. Millard, 2137, 2164, 2176, 2177, 2178 
Cheetham v. Hampson, 1068, 1198, 1201, 1202 
Cheever v. Parsons, 1251 

V. Pearson, 234, loig, 1257, 1260, 1263, 
1280, 1281, 1282, 1296, 2212 

V. Parley, 2095 

V. Rutland, 207S 
Chegan v. Young, 2264 
Chellis V. Steams, 2077 
Chelton v. Green, 2065 
Chenango Bridge Co. v. Paige, 69 
Chenery 7'. Stevens, 1563, 1565, 2118,2316,2319, 

2334 
Cheney v. Arnold, 751, 752, 757 

V. Bonnell, 1140 

V. Pierce, 1362, 1370 

V. White, 2309 
Cherrington v. Abney Mill, 2222, 2247 
Cherry v. Bowen, 2050, 216S 

s/. Monro, 2124, 2150 

•V. Stein, 2223, 2229 
Chesapeake & O. R. Co. v. Paine, 43 
Cheseldine v. Brewer, 751 
Cheshire v. Payne, 654 
Cheshire Nat. Bk. v. Jewett, 49, 51 
Chesley v. Thompson, 1905, 1969 

V. Welch, 538, 1205, 1285 
Chesline v. Lewis, 1330 
Chesline Lines Committee v. Lewis, 1341 
Chess V. Chess, 1016 
Chess-Charlye Co. v. Purtell, 293 
Chesson -v. Chesson, 509 
Chester v. Chester, 326 

V. Dickerson, i960, 1961, 1962, 1964 

•V. Wheelwiight, 2031 

V. Willan, 1970 
Chesterfield v. Jansen, 15S6, 1645 
Chesterman v. Gardner, 1165 
Chestnut v. Shane's Lessee, 904, 2332, 2333 
Chestnut Hill Tumpipe Co. v. Piper, 2243 
Chetham v, Williams, 2189 
Chetwood v. Winston, 415, 416 
Chew's Appeal, 267 
Chew V. Bank of Baltimore, 986 

V. Bamett, 2018 

V. Barrett, 2019 

V. Chew, 415, 449, 469, 708, 760, 762, 785, 
788 

7-. Commissioners of Southwark, 599, 
603, 604, 611, 612, 68g, 699, 700 

V. Farmers' Bank, 431, 938 

V. Hyman, 2170 

V. Morton, 2291 



Chew V. Weems, 415 

Chew's Admrs. v. Beall, 1373, 1562 

Chicago V. Garrity, 2268 

V. Larned, 2325 

V. O'Brennan, 1201 

V. Robbins, 1516 
Chicago & Eastern 111. R. Co. o. Hay, 1781 
Chicago & N. W. R. Co. -u. Borough of Ft. 

Howard, 98 
Chicago R. Land Co. -u. Peck, 2136 
Chicago & Pacific R. Co. v. Stein, 1014 
Chicago K. N. R. Co. %>. Ozark Township, 233 
Chicago, R. I. & P. R. Co. v. Howard, 1041 

V. Kennedy, 1777 
Chicago, T. & M. C. Ry. Co. z-. TitleringtoJi, 

1469, 1474 
Chicago, etc., Co. v, U. S. Coal & Iron Co., 

983. 
Chick V. Rollins, 2093, 2094 

z'. Willetts, 1999, 2063, 2076, 2079 
Chickerley's Case, 1050 
Chickering v, Faile, 1883, 2151 

■V. Fullerton, 2152 
Chidester v. Consolidated Ditch Company, 

498 
Chighizole v. Le Baron, 1020 
Child V. Baylie, 433, 437 

V. Chappell, 2211, 2240 

•u. Gibson, 1715 

V. Sampson, 987 

V. Sand, 1902 

V. Singleton, 1447 
ChiJders zi. Bumgarher, 605, 607, 612, 630 

V. Childers, 1691 

V. Smith, 2250, 2251 
Childress v. Cutter, 1922 
Childs 7'. Childs, 689, 2062 

V. Clark, 1108, nog, 2262, 2264 

V. Dolan, 2067 

V. Drake, 758 

V. Jordan, 1615 

V. Smith, 737, 739, 740, 743 

V. Westcott,' 1024 
Chiles y.Bartleson, 534 

V. Coleman, 2359 

V. Conley, 1916, 2338, 2352 
Chilton V. Henderson, 441, 448 

V. Lyons, 2005 

V. Niblett, 1282 

V. Wilson, 2299 
Chinnary v. Blackman, 2066 
Chinnubee v. Nicks, 831 
Chinsley v. Langley, 260, 267, 268 
Chipman t. Emeric, 1057, 1139, 1143, 1154 

V. Tucker, 2033, 2035 
Chirac v. Reinecker, 213, 359 
Chisholm v. Chisholm, 141 1 

V. Georgia, 195 
Chissom v. Hawkins, 2272 
Chittenden v. Berney, 2075 
Cholmondeley v. Cholmondeley, 1630 

V. Clinton, 473, 1545, 1577, 1736, 1741, 
17S4, 1785, 2091, 2184 
Chopin V. Runte, 1482 
Choppell V. Gregory, 1054 
Chorpenning's Appeal, 1724, 1766 
Choteau v. Thompson, 976, 1225 
Chouteau v. Eckhart, 2192 

7/. Jones, 2366 
Chowning v. Cox, 2037 
Chretien v. Douey, 1320 
Christ Church Hospital v. Fuchsel; 2254 
Christ's Hospital v. Budgin, 1887 
Christian v. Crocker, 1239 

V. Dripps, 63, 138 

V. Ellis, 1958 

V. Newberry, 8ro 
Christian Union v. Yount, 367 
Christie's Appeals, 974, 1141 
Christie, Succession of, 1397, 1407, 1410 
Christie v. Gage, 489 

V. Herrick, 2147 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



XCIX 



• II73. II74 



Christine v. Witherill. 1989 
Christmas v. Mitchell, 1777 
Christopher v. Austin, 11295 

v. Sparke, 2174 

V. Williams, 1479 
Christy 2t. Alfred, 2299 

V. Dyer, 1386, 1441, 1442, 1443, 1444, 
1445, 1491, 1492. 1497 

V. McBride, 1713, 1714, 1723, 172S 

7'. Pridgeon, 15 16 
Chritien ?/. Doney, 1006 

Chudleigh's Case, 410, 1534, 1535, 1539, 1545, 
1551, 1554, 1556, 1557. 1558, 15^4^ 1565. 
1566, 156S, 1570, 1571 
Church V. Brown, 257, 1096, 1097 

T. Burghardt, 212, 2296, 2297 

z'. Chapin, 1623 

T. Ghurch, 814, 831, 1622 

z'. Edwards, 454 

v. Gilman, ioi6 

7'. Griffith, 122, 1226 

7'. Imperial Gas Light & Cobe Co-, 1332 

7'. Mundy, 307 

V. Ruland, 1701 

7j. Schoonmaker, 1305 

V. Seeley, 2262 

v. Sterling, 1620, 1622, 1643 

V. Wells, 31, 37, 38, 40, 83 
Church of Avquakcanonk v. Ackerman's Exrs., 

938, 948 
Churchill 7>. Dubben, 307 

z'. Hudson, 635, 639 

1'. Hulbert, 1356 

V. Hunt, iioi, 2025, 2026 

7'. Marks, 260, 272, 1677 
Churchman v. City of Indianapolis, 1781 

z'. Martin, 2325 
Chure zk Seeley, 2268 
Chute z>. Washburn, 1864 
Chynoweth f. Tannery, 2213 
Cibak 7'. Klekr, 2241 
Cibel V. Hills, 1174 
Cilley V. Huse, 1957 
Cilly 7'. Hawkins, 1245, 2246 

7'. Huse, 786 
Cincinnati College v. Yeatman, 78, 976 
Cissna v. Haynes, 2153 
Citizens' Bank z>. Knapp^ 123 
Citnerz*. McRea, 799 
City 7'. City, 795 

City Bank of Baltimore v. Smith, 1870, 1872 
City of Brooklyn, 1248 
City of Chicago z/. Laflin, 68 

v. McGinn, 68 

V. O'Brennan, iigg 
City of Cleveland v. State Bank, 1832 
City of Dubuque zf. Miller, 13 19 
City of Logansport v. Justice, 1247 

V. Seybold, 2325 
City of London v, Greyme, 556, 562, 564 

zj. Mitford, 1008, 1009 

V. Nash, 1083 
City of Philadelphie v. Girard's Heirs, 1604, 

1675, 1676, 1680, 16S2 
City of St. Louis v. Kamie, 1193 

z/. Laclede Gas Light Co., 1923 
City of Salem v. Eastern R. Co., 4 
City of San Antonio v, French, 1133 
City Council zf. Moorhead, 1182 
City Council of Montgomery v. Montgomery & 

W. Plank Road Co. ,982 
City Nat. Bank z/. Hamilton, 1635 
Claflin V. Boston & A, R. Co., 243, 2240, 2242 

z/. Carpenter, 54, 55- 2213 
Clagett z/. Hall, 2349 
Claiborne v. Handerson, 781, 820, 1543 
Claires z/. Brady, 2047 
Clancey v. Onondago Pine Salt Mnfg. Co., 1020 

z/. Stephens, 1448 
Clancy z/. Byrne, 1083, 1198, 1199 
Clanvickard v. Sidney, 1366, 1369, 1370 
Clap :'. Draper, 56, 2357 



Clapp V. Bromaghan,'i897, 1917, 1970, 1982, 2295 
z*. Coble, ii6g, 1 170 
z>. Inhabitants of Stoughton, 1359, 1360, 

1363* 1364 
z/. Maxwell, 2167 
V. Noble, 1131, 1316, 1327, 1329 
V Paine, 1310, 1315, 1334, 1351 
V. Stoughton, 1024, 136S, 1369, 1849 
Clare v. Appleby, 2108 
V. Hunt, 923 

7'. National, etc., 1194, 1195 
Clark V. Akres, 2355 
-71. Allen, 2340 
V. Babcock, 1066 
z'. Baker, 228, 416, 420, 423, 424, 2091, 

2300, 2358, 
77. Baltimore, 671 
7'. Bancroft, 2164 
zr. Barnes, 1004 
z'. Battorf, 724, 7S9, S46 
z/. Beach, 688, 1997, 2062, 2077 
7'. Bell, 2009 
7'. Brown, 2125 
TJ. Burgh, 1360 
zr. Caldwell, 1033 
V. Christ's Church, 1138 
z/. Clark, 517,, 5S5, 596, 653, 662, 664, 670, 

680, 683, 769, 773, 810, 920, 1024, 1065, 

1376, 1646, 1920, 1942, J951, 2222, 

2270 
V. Clark's Estate, 2260, 2261 
V. Coudit, 2050, 2160 
7'. Crego, 1S99, 1917 
7'. Crownshaw, 125 
V. Curtis, 2066 
z>. Douglass, 1623 
V. Dwelling-house, 632 
7/. Eaton (Clark z'. Trust Co.), 1757, 1758 
v. Eaton (Comr. of Friedman's Trust 

Co.), 1658 
■V. Everly, 1309 
Zf. Farrington, 2014, 2016 
z/. Field, 752 
V. Foot, 568 
7'. Fraley, 2273 
z'. Graham, 368, 720, 2058, 2157, 228S, 2289, 

2339. 2352 
V. Griffin, 916, 934, 935, 955 
V. Harvey, 120S, 1319, 1320, 1676 
z/. Henry, 2037, 2039, 2042, 2050, 2168 
7/. Herring, 977, iiii, 1249 
V. Holden, 552, 557, 559, 560, 566, 1139 
7'. Hornthaf, 1730, 1842 
z'. Howland, 1134, 1317 
z'. Hume, 2266 
z>. Hunt, 2008, 2009 
V. Jones, 105a. 1058, 1138, 1140 
r'. Kelliher, 1356 
7'. Koer.ig, 1474, 1485 
V. Laughlin, 810 
V. Lawrence, 2230 
V. Livering, 1997 
7'. Lott, 661, 662, 1359 
V. Lyon, 2038 
V. Mackin,2i36, 2172 
z/. McClure, 209, 210, 2297 
z/. Makenna, 1375 
V. Martin, 268 

z'. Munroe, 766, 783, 804, 829, 830 
V. Muzzey, 847, 848 

z/. New England Mut. F. Ins. Co.,2113 
7'. Nolan, 1408, 1472, i486 
7>. Ownes, 477 
7'. Parker, 1979 
7'. Prentice, 2149 
7'. Redman, 903 
7'. Reyburn, 2062, 2187 
7'. Rhoades, 1003, 1330 
7'. Richardson, 729, 863 
7/. Riddle, 1754, 1755 
z/. Robins, 2090 
7/. Rochester, 2325 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Clark V. Scott, 2gi 

V. Shannon, 1378, 1387, 1419, 1446, 1454, 

1475 

V. Sibley, 2184 

V. Sidway, 1956 

V. Slaughter, 661 

V. Smith, 1039, 1256, 2088, 2090 

-v. Swift, 729, 1092 

V. Taintor, 1662 

•u. Tennison, 271, 1165 

V. Thompson. 192a 

V. Tinker, 2194 

V. Titcomb, 2342 

V. Trawick, 1517 

T). Troy, 2363 

V. Wheelock, 1273, 1274, 1293, 1294 

V. White, 2328 

V. Williams, 197 

V. Wilson, 2089, 2 1 18 

V. Wright, 1087 

Doe d., V. Smaridge, 1136, 1303, 1307, 
1314, 1333, 1335 
Clarke's Appeal, 638, 1369 
Clarke's Estate, 500 
Clarke v. City of Rochester, 2335 

V. Clarke, 572, 1936 

z>. Clarke's Admr., 1219, 1221 

V. Cordis, 1910 

V, Cummiugs, 557, 1141 

V. Fuller, 999 

V. Rowland, 1136, 1315 

V. McCreary, 715, 2332 

^. McClure, 2n 

1). Merrill, 1052 

V. Mikell, 309 

V. Rannie, 1205 

V. Reybuni, 2084 

V. Royal Panopticon, 2159 

V. Samson, 1989 

V. Southwick, 2237 

V. Swaile, 1775 

V. Trawick, 1512 

V, Wagner, 2298 

V. Windham, 270 
Clarkson v. Doddridge, 2105 
Clary v. Fryer, 1810, 181 1 

V. Owen, 112, 2096 
Clason V. Corley, zo66, 2156, 2162 ] 

V, Norris, 2177 
Classen a. Carroll, 13 16 

V. Classen, 595 
Claussen v. Lafrenz, 1539 
Clavering v. Clavering, 495, 561, 1791 

V. Ellison, 1867 
Clawson v. Hutchinson, 671 
Clay V. Freeman, 786 

V. Richardson, 1475 

V. Sanders, 737 

V. Wren, 2079 
Clay, Heirs of, v. Clay, 216 
Clayton's Case, 2256 
Clayton v, Blakey, 981, 1013, 125S, 1264, 1322 

7>. Cagle, 1781 

V. Clayton, 302, 330 

7'. Freet, 2331 

V. Wardell, 751. 758, 759 
Clearwater v. Rose, 531, 532, 2105, 2106 
Cleary v. McDowell, 1365 
Clegg V. Rowland, 1038 

Clemence v. Steere, 506, 541, 542, 543, 556, 557, 
561, 563, 564, 565. 566, 575, 577, 578, 
"53 
Clemens v. Broomfield, 1017, 1042 

V. Clemens, 1548, 1603 
Clement v. Bennett, 2038 

&. Greenhouse, 2352 

V. Hadlock, 1240, 1244 
Clements v. Bostwick, 304 

V. Broomfield, 998 

V. Glass, 417 

V. Lacey, 141 1, 1525 

V. Lacy, 1407, 1457 



Clements v. Welles, 1185, 177S 

Clemm v. Wilcox, 12 18 

Clemmins v. Gotshall, 2303 

Clepper v. Livergood, 679, 6S0, 695, 701 

Clere's Case, Sir Edw., 1538, 1566, 1805, 1844 

Clere v. Brooks, 366 

Clerk V. Clerk, 1033 

Cleve V. Veer, 2154 

Cleveland v. Boerum, 2152 

V. Cohors, 21 XI 

V. Crawford, 489 

V. Flogg, 2296 

V. Hallett, 280, 284, 287, 289, 290, 1555, 
1563, 1592, 1594, 1597, 1710, 1796, 
1813 

7/. Martin, 2133 
Cleves V. Willoughby, 1054, 1066, 1175, 1180, 

I200 

Clews V, Bathurst, 661 
Cliff z'. Gibbons, 307 
Clifford V. Hare, 2248 

V. Watts, 1 168, 1 175 
Cliftw. Clift, 312 

V. White, Si I, 1580, 2098 
Clifton V, Clifton, 1364 

V. Lombe, 1629 
Climie v. Wood, 106, 122, 127, 133 
Clinan v. Cooke, 999 
Cline V. Inlow, 2 151 

7/. Upton, 1466 
Clinefelter r. Ayers, 1810, 1842 
Clinton v. Cox, 2175 

V. Fly, 266 

V. Myers, 69, 2225, 2227, 2228 

V. Westbrook, 1997, 1998 
Clinton National Bank v. Manwarring, 2083 
Clinton Wire Cloth Co. v, Gardner, 1131, 1316, 

1317 
Clock V. Gilbert, 2299 
Clore V. Lambert, 133, 135 
Close V. Hunt, 745 
Closs V. Boppe, 1636 
Cloud V. Calhoun, 1599, 1786, 1788 
Clough V. Bond, 1718, 1719, 1733 

V. Elliott, 777, 802 

V. Hosford, 1283, 1292 
Clow V. Derby Coal Co., 2152 
Clowdsley v. Pelham, 1630 
Clowes V. Dickenson, 907, 2076, 2154, 2180 
Cloyes V. Sweetser, 2357 
Clubb V. Wise, 1479, 1506 
Clun's Case, 497, 1172 
Clun, Doe d., v. Clarke, 1309 
Clure V. Commissioner, 693 
Class's Case. 1051 
Clute V. Bool, 1798 
Clyat V. Batteson, 51S 
Clymer v. Dawkins, 1914 
Clyner v. Dawkins, 1913 
Coakley v. Mahar, 1023, 1893 

V. Perry, 1349 
Coal Co. V. Fry, 1659 
Coal Creek Mining Co. v. Ross, 2301 
Coale V. Barney, 1981 

V. Hannibal & St. Jo. R. Co., 1153 
Coalter v. Hunter, 2213 
Coan 7'. Mole, 1322, 1334 
Coane v. Parmentier, 340 
Coape V. Arnold, 1694 
Coars V. Holderness, 1638 
Coates' Appeal, 347, 1632 

Coates 7'. Cheever, 89, 494, 495. 561, 712, 742, 
803, Sio, 8ii, 812, 841'. 853 

7'. Woodworth, 164S 
Coats V. New York City, 40 
Cobb V. Biddle, 60 

V. Davenport, 2198 

V. Dyer, 2069, 2136 

7'. Kibb, 2260 

V. Knight, 1792 

7'. Lavelle, 1014 

V. New England Ins. Co., 1051 



Keferences are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CI 



Cobb w. Stokes, 1310, 1333 
v. Thornton, 2167 
t: Webb, 1462 
Cobbey v. Knapp, 1474 
Cobble V. Tomliuson, 824 
Cobel V. Cobel, 2252, 2259 
Coble V. Nonemaker, 1777 
Coburn v. Holies, 210 

V. Palmer, 1149, 1213, 1266 
Cochran t. Cochran, 506 
V. Darcy, 1512, 1513 
V. Goodell, 1S85, 2041, 2125 
71. Guild, 1094 

V. Kemey, igrg, 19^5, 1945 
V. Ocean Dry Dock Co., 1014, 1015 
z'. Utt, 2024 

V. Van Surlay, 2323, 2324, 2327, 2329, 
2330. 2332 
Cochrane v. Libby, 757 

V, Willis, 1697 
Cock V. Goodfellow, 1715 
Cocke V. BaiUey, 804, S32 

V. Hanuum, 1464 
Cocker's Exrs. ?'. Phillips, 762 
Cockerell v. Dickens, 368, 719, 2057, 2289 
Cockerill v. Armstrong, 762, 763, 800 
Cocket f. Sheldon, 373 
Cockran v. O'Hern, 654, 655, 681, 683, 684, 685, 

6S7, 699, 1371, 1372, 1674 
Cockrell v. Curtis, 1454 

Cockrill V. Armstrong, 823, 928, 1592, 1593, 1630 
V. Downey, 58 
V. Morrey, 339 
Cockson V. Cook, 1074 
Coddiugton v. Dunham, 1079 
Coder v. Huling, 1956, 1963 
Codling v. Johnson, 2205, 2218 
Codman v. Hall, 1026, 1925 
V. Jenkins, 2271 
V. Johnson, 505, 1102 
V. Winslow, 1913 
Codwise v. Taylor, 2009 
Cody V. Quarterman, 996, 1212, 1283, 1293, 1294, 

1299, 1306, 1319, 1334 
Coe V. Bradley, 2304 
V. Clay, 1065 

V. Columbus, P. & Ind. R. Co., 98, 2038 
V. Delaware & L, R. Co., 2018 
v. Hobby, 996, 1162 
V. McBrown, 98, 2019 
V. Persons, 2322 
V. Smith, 1381 

V. Walcottville Manf. Co., 2292 
V. Winters, 2121 
V. Wolcottville, 591 
Coffee V. Ruffin, 1717 
Coffey V. Hunt, 2065 
Coffin V. Argo, 19S9 

v. Bramlitt, 1724 
v. Coffin, 573 
V. Heath, 1891 
V. Loring, 2016 

V. Lunt, 1270, 1271, 1274, 1285, 1304 
Coffman v. Coffman, 780 
z'. Huck, 1276, 2261 
Cogan V. Cogan, 1569 
Coggesgall, etc., Trustees of New Rochelle, v. 

Pelton, 1659 
Coggs V. Bernard, 1191 
Coghil V. Freelove, 2263 
Cogley V. Browne, 1157 
z>. Cushman, 201 1 
Cogreve v. Dehon, 1947 
Cogswell V. Cogswell, 506, 508, 510, 511, 943 
V. Lippet, 894 
V. Stout, 2134 
V. Tibbetts, 887, 895 
Cohen v. Broughton, 2274 

7>. Dry Dock, East Broadway & B, R. 

Co., 1x95 
t/. Dupont, ii66 
V. Kyler, 120, 135, 136, 1727 



Cohens v. Vir^ma, 1516 
Cohier v. Trinity Church, 36 
Cohi) V. Virginia Ins. Co., 632 
Coit V. Comstock, 16S6, 1687 
Cokerz/. Pearsall, 1027,2064 
v. Smith, 2151 
V, Whitlock, 2080 
Colbum V. Hollis, 2297 
v. Mason, 1912 
r', Morrill, 1128, 1173, 1174 
V. Morton, 1769 
V. Richards, 2227 
Colby V. Osgood, 1096 
Colchester 7'. Roberts, 2220 
Coldwell 71. Woods, 2040 
Cole 7/. Cole, 757, 945, 986, 1407, 1410 
V. Eastham, 2198 

V. Gill, 1286, 1290, 1445, 1497, 1504 
v. Laconia Savings Bank, 1443, i444r '445 
7'. Lake Co., 1297, 1S49 
V. Langley, 596, 757 
V. McKey, 1197 
V. Marple, 1514 
V. O'Neil, 654 
, V. Patterson, 2268 

V. Pennoyer, 1031,2344 

V. Rawlinsou, 309 

zf. Robinson, 1033 

V. Savage, 2071, 2112 

V. Scott, 2006 

V. Sewell, 1569 

7'. Smith, 976 

V. Sprowle, 2186, 2206 

V. Stewart, 133, 2186 

V. Terry, 1246 

v. Van Riper, 587, 588, 633, 669, 896, 

1362, 1377, 1514 
v. Wade, 1663, 1731, 1778, 1816, 1817, 

1818, 1833, 1841, 1842 
V. Wolcottsville Mfg. Co., 1365 
Colegrave v. Dias Santos, 96, 127, 145 
Coleman's Appeal, 2244, 2247 
Coleman's Estate, 204 
Coleman 71. Anderson, 2335 
V. Ballandi, 1509, 1513 
7/. Beach, 1808, 1809 
V. Billings, 2298 
V. Chadwick, 92, 2233, 2237 
V. Cocke, 1613, 1616 
v. Coleman, 1883, 1972, 1973 
V. De Wolf, 722, 723 
V. Doe, 18 

V. Duke of St. Albans, 2067, 2162 
V. Grubb, 1973 
V. Haight, 1084 
V. Hutchenson, 1906 
V. Lane, 1907 
■V. Rensselaer, 2082 
v. Satterfield. 588, 1364 
V. Stearns Mfg. Co., 106, 133 
z>. Walker, 1784 
V. Whitney, 2140 
V. Witherspoon, 2067 
V. Wooley, 1375, 1562 
Coles 7/. Allen, 1622, 1760 

V. Appleby, 2154, 2179, 2180 

V. Coles, 6S9, 783, 800, 1671, 1961, 1962, 

igSo, igSi 
V. Forrest, 2152 
V. Ragiiet, 2060 
V. Sims, 1778, 1872 
V. Soulsby, 1700 
V. Trecothick, 1621, 1697, 1707, 1758, 

1772 
V. Wooding, 1973, 1976 
Colgan V. McKeown, 750 

V. Pellens, 221 
Colgate 7;. Colgate, 919, 955, 965 

V. Owing's Case, 903 
Colgrove v. Gallman, 2671 
Colham v. Bradford, 2119 
Collam V. Hocker, 2240 



cu 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Collamer w, Hutchins, 1980 

•u. Kelley, 1122, 1164 

zr. Langdon, 2085, 2103 
CoUard v. Hare, 1784 
College Street, In re, 1102 
CoUett V. Collett, 270 
CoUey V. Merrill, 706 
Collier's Case, 340, 343 
Collier's Will, 1S37 
Collier v. Blake, 1662 

V. Brown, 1697, 1758 

V, Collier's Exrs., 7 

V. Corbett. 1901 

V. McBeam, 1606 

zi. Pierce, 2223, 

z/. Slaughter, 270, 271 

V. Walters, 1579, 1693 
CoUingswood v. Pace, 2287 

•D. Pays, 236 
Collins' Appeal, 1509 
Collins V. Barrow, 1168, 1200 

V. Blantem, 2059 

V. Canty, 1344 

V. Carlisle's Heirs, 536, 820, 821, 1593, 
1630, 1815 

V. Chaman's Heir, 75 

V. Champ's Heirs, 77, 95 

V. Dickinson, 1980 

z'. Forrey, 764 

z'. Harding, 984, 2250 

V. Hasbrouck, 1104, nog, 1112, - 1113, 
1143, "55 

V. Hoxie, 2281 

V. Johnson, 12S3, 12S6 

V. Larenburg, 1373, 1562 

V. Many, 1280 

V. Marcy, 268 

•u. Prentice, 2085, 2220 

u. Rowe, 2068 

V. Smitlt, 1621, 1707, 1769 

V. Tillou's Admr., 2046 

V. Torrey, 783, 800, 803, 2062 

V. Torry, 2094 

V. Warren, S37, 1957, 1964, 1965 

z/. Willdin, 1124 

V. Wood, 939 

Doe d., V. Weller, 1025, 1264, 1323 
Collins Mfg. Co. v. Marcy, 259, 266, 269, 1972 

V. Murray, 268 
Collinson v. Lister, 1715 
ColUs v. Kemp, 413 
Colman w. Clements, 1913 

If. Duke of St. Albans, 1027 
Colony V. Dublin, 671 
Colquhoun v. Atkinson, 2140, 2355 
Colsten V- Chaudet, 1814 
Colt V. Towle, 268 
Colton V. Gorham, 2263 

V. .^mith, 2091 
Columbia National Bank v. Embree, 1949 
Columbian Ins. Co. v. Lawrence, 166S, 2113, 

2114, 2117 
Colville V. Miles, 1207 
Colvin v. Worford, 974 
Colwell V. Caper, 976 

V, Carper, 1424 

V. Woods, 2039 
Colyear z;. Mulgrave, 2314 
Coman -u. Lakey, 434, 1614 
Comb's Case, 1043 
Combs z/. Branch, 2250, 2252, 2258 

V. Jordan, 2253 

V. Young, 767, 801. 809 

V. Young's Widow, 705, 744 
Comby z^ McMichael, 1597, F796 
Comer v. Chamberlain, 589, 592, 593, 623, 678 

V. Sheehan, 2258 

V. Shehan, 1028 
Coming, Ex parte, 2002 
Comins w. Comins, 211 
Comly z". Strader, 72 r, 1376 
Commercial Bank of Buffalo v. Warren, 2130 



Commercial Bank v. Corbett, 1426 
Commercial Bank of Lake Erie v. Western 

Reserve Bank, 2154 
Commercial Bank of Manchester v. Nolan, 

.^554 
Commercial Bulletin Co., In re, 2263, 2266 
Commercial Ins. Co. t. Spankneble, 239, 2116 
Commercial Real Estate Assoc v. Parker, 2171 
Commissioners v. Harman, 1287 

V. Smith, 890 

V. Walker, 1573, 15S5, 1610, 1670, 1671, 
1680, 1681 

V. Withers, 2325 
Commissioners of Pilots z>. Clark, 9S2 
Commissioners of the Sinking Fund z'. Walker, 
^555» i656» ^^57» 1658, 1712, 1714, 
171S, 1719, 1722 
Commissioners Tippecanoe County :•. L. M. & 

B. R Co., 1019 
Common v. Coupe, 2291 

Commonwealth z>. Alger, 5, 194, 195, 198, igg, 
200, 2323, 2325. 2328 

z>. Blodgett, 4 

V. Byrne, 2324 

V. Carter, 4 

V. Chapman, 149 

z'. Charleston, 195 

V. Cogan, 22 

V. Cook, 1403 

V. Cooley, 921 

7'. Dennis, 921 

zi. Eagle F. ins. Co., 1734 

». Essex Co., 2327 

V. Franklin Insurance Co., 1114, 1173 

V. Godley, 22 

V. Intoxicating liquors, 4 

ZI. Kennedy, 1919 

V. Kensey, 1357 

V. Knowlton, iiS, 149^ 458 

z/. Lane, 753, 754, 755 

V. Lay, 1403 

V. Leach, 149 

V. Lodge, 707 

v. McAllister, 1719 

z". McCaughey, 22 

V. Marshall, 921 

V. Martin's Exrs., 76 

v. Mateer, 1788 

V. Moltz, 1781 

V. Munson, 595, 752 

V. Phcenix Bank, r554 

•V. Reading Savings Bank, 2041 

•u. Richardson, 1029 

V. Sheriff, 1003 

w. Stauffer, 271, 1S58 

V. Stremback, 50 

V. Stump. 596, 752, 757, 759 

V. Tewkesbury, 4, ,198 

V. Thompson, 522 

V. Tiffany, 9S2, 1036 

z. Vincent, 71, 982, 1036 

V. Walker, 1456 

V. Weatherhead, 982 

V. Wise, 22, 1036 

V. York, 118, 458 
Comparel v. Randall, ic20 
Compton's Petition, 2206 
Compton V. Allen, 1099 

V. Oxenden, 1580, 2098 
Comstock V. Comstock, 1452, 1524 

V. Drohan, 2071, 2166 

V. Hitt, 2068, 2070 

ZI. Scales, 2020 

V. Van Dusen, 2220 
Comulet Co. zk Russell, 2364 
Conant v. Brackett, 121 1 

7'. Little, 739, 740,851, 852, 854 

V. Smith, 1983, 1988 
Conboy V. Kansas City &: S. W. R. Co., 1469, 

M73i 1474 
Concord Bank z*. Bellis, 2345 
Concord R. Co. v. Greeley, 232S 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cm 



Conde v. Shepherd, 2152 

Condict, Executors of, v. King, 415, 418 

Condit V. Neighbor, 2251, 2257 

Condon v. Barr, 13 iS, 1326 

Cone V. Dunham, 1581 

V, Hasmilton, 2083 

1'. Niagara F. Ins. Co., 2117 

V. Woodward, 1154 
Conger t^. Duryee. 1143, 11 56 

V, Ring, 1769 

V. Weaver, 1092 
Congleton v. Pattison, 1071, 107S, 1079 
Congregational Church v. Morris, 218, 219, 774 
Congregational Society v. Fleming, 108, 112, 
116 

V. Morris, 750 

V. Stack, 1850 
Conkey v. Everett, 1666 

v. Hart, 1511, 1517 
Conkliu 7'. Conkliu, 322, 323, 1893 

V. Egerton, 1752, 1835 

V. Foster, 565, 976, 1415, 1424, 1502, 1519 

V. Hinds, 2125 

7'. Parsons, 104 

V. White, 1342 
Conkling v. King, 1058 
Connally v. Hardwick, 1409 
Connaughton v. Sands, 1398, 1483, i5i4( 1515 
Connecticut Gen. Life Ins. Co. v. Eldredge, 

1765 
Connecticut Mut. L. Ins. Co. -a. Crawford, 2170 
Connell v. Connell, 909 

1'. Lamb, 2253 

V. Mayer, 2972 
Connelly v. Belt, 2159 

Connelly, 753 
Conner v. Banks, 2106 

V. Gerrard, 1792 

T. Hawkes, 143 1 

T'. Nichols, 1479, 1506 

V. Shepherd, 552, 776, 807, 833 

I'. Whitmore, 2091, 2103 
ConnoU v. Todd, 2358 
Connolly v. Branster, 928 

V. Smith, 712 
Connor, In re, 1465 
Connor z/. Bradley, 1059, 1060, 1061, 1154 

V. Clark, 135 

V. Coffin, 45> 78. io3> 106, 13s 

V. Lewis, 1614 

V. McMurray, 1382, 1450, 145S. H^?, 
M79 

V. Shepherd, 707 

V. Squiers, 135 

V. Stephen, 777 

V. Whitmore, 2084 
Conover v. Conover, 2260 

V. Hobart, 2069, 2071 

V. Hoffman, 1806 

V. Mutual Ins. Co., 239, 2115, 2116 

V. Porter, 8g6 

V. Warren, 2008 
Conrad v. Atlantic Ins. Co., 688, 1992, 1993 

V. Harrison, 2153, 2155, 2164 

V. Long, 269 

V. Saginaw Mining Co., 122, 123, 129, 
130 

V. Smith, 2262, 2263 

V. Starr, 1893 
Conroe v. Birdsall, 2343 
Conroy v. Sullivan, 1449, 1504 
Constable v. Bull, 1627 
Constant v. Abell, 1315, 1316 
Constantine v. Wake, 1109, 1122, 2262 
Continental Nat. Bank v. Weems, 1762, 1763 
Converse v. Blumrich, 2009 

V. Citizens' Ins. Co., 1957 

V. Ferre, 1892 
Conway, Ex parte, 1794, i795 
Conway 7/. Alexander, 2037, 2043, 2044, 2052, 
2053, 2054, 2055 

V. Cutting, 1690 



Conway v. Hale, 1658 

V. Kinsworthy, 1665, 1690 

V. Starkweather, 1130, 1134, 1136, 1318, 
1353 

V. Taylor's Exr., 1516 
Conwell V. Clifford, 2025, 2059 

V. Evill, 2045 

V Kuykendall, 2772 

V. McCowan, 2150 
Conyers sv. Kenan, 2296 
Cooch z/. Gen7, 1998 

V. Goodman, 1925 
Coogan V. Burling Mills, 2022, 2024 

V. Parker, 1083, 1084, 1177, 1179, 2269 
Cook V. Allen, 1974, 1977, 1983 

V. Babcock, 2296, 2297 

V. Bartholomew, 2031, 2032, 2141 

V. Bisbee, 521 

V. Brightley, 1071, igor 

V. Brown, 237, 2319 

V. Champlain Transportation Company, 
123, 553, 554. 1153. 1228 

V. Cholmondeley, 563 

V. Clinton, 1899 

V. Colyer, 2047 

z>. Cook, 541, 542, 545. 546, 547. 557. 727. 
743, 1212, 1296 

V. Cooper, 2085, 2100 

V. Corthell, 2018 

V. Creswell, 1337 

7'. Dillon, 1779 

V. Ellington, 1582, 1591, 1593, 1630 

V. Famam, 890 

V. Finkler, 2175 

V. Fisk, 853 

V. Fountain, 161 1, 1612 

V. Hammond, 194 

V. Holmes, 329, 342 

V. Hull, 72, 2227 

V. Johnson, 2258 

V. Klink, 1523 

V. McChristian, 1378, 1379, 1380, 1448, 
1465, 1502, 1510 

V. Newman, 1504 

V. Norton, 1353 

V. Parham, 2102 

V. Parker, 1032 

V. Patrick, 1639 

V. Steams, 2212, 2213 

V. Tullis, 1586, 1617, 1661 

V. Walker, 317, 319, 785 

V. Wardens of St. Paul's Church, 1853, 
1855 

V. Webb, T026, 1903 

V. Whiting, 58 

V. Winford, 967 

z'. Wood, 1723 
County V. Railroad Co. 
Cook's Exrs. v. Cook's Admrs., 855, 858 
Cooke, Ex parte, 1761 
Cooke V. Bremond, 1947 

V. Clayworth, 1032, 1034 

V. Crawford, 1817 

V. Culbertson, 2045 

z>. Husbands, 1373, 1562 

V. Lamotte, 1790, 1801 

z\ Loxley, 1214 

V. Neilsun, 1254, 1327, 1328, 1343 

V. Soltan, 1743 

V. Turner. 267 
Cookson V. Cookson, 1964 

V. Richardson, 1620, 1760 4 

Cooles V. Wooding, 1928 
Cooley V. Dewey. 2281 

V. Hobart, 2026 
Coolidge V. Learned, 1913,2197, 2290, 2291,2292 

V. Melvin, 2334 
Coolingwood v. Pace, 2287 
Coombe, Ex parte, 2003 
Coombs V. Anderson, 465 

V. Beaumont, 125 

V. Jackson, 1023 



CIV 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Coombs IP Jordan, 22, 47, 49, 51, 61, i44> 183, 
485,1225, 2140 
zi. Read, 1376 
V. Young, 927 
Coombe v. Clements, 93S 
Coomlerw. Hefner, 1304, 1316, 1327, 1328, 1331, 

1334, 1546 
Coon V. Bean, 1858 

V Brickitt, 1154, 1861, 186S 
Cooney v. Cooney, 1503 

V. Hayes, iiii 

V. Woodbuni, 1372 
Coope V. Eyer, 1241, 1242 
Cooper V. Adams, 62, 63, 479, 514, 1266, 1273, 
1277, 1294, 1296, 1297 

V. Barber, 2245 

V, Bigley, 2024, 2153 

V. Cedar Rapids, 1983 

V. Cole, T050, 1236, 2067 

V. Cooper, 440, 1024, 1398, 1404, 1405, 
1580, 1689, 1919, 1934, 1942, 1951 

V. Coursey, 411, 412 

V. Davis, 688, 2062, 2080, 2187 

V. Fields, 1251 

V. First Presbyterian Church, 40 

V. Foss, 206S 

V. Galbraith, 1758 

V. Jackson, 2079 

V. Johnson, 122, 123, 147 

V. Kynock, 344, 1693, 1796 

V. Lloyd, 774, S94 

V. Martin, 2151, 2172 

V. McClun, 1598, 1738 

V. McDonald, 656, 679, 680. 684, 1372 

V. McGrew, 1234 

V. Newland, 2099, 2101, 2111 

V. Presbyterian Church, 32 

V. Rankin, 1042 

V. Smith, 1213, 1216, 1217, 2226 

V. Slower, 1256, 126S, 1272 

V. Tabor, 890 

■V. Whitney, 788, 832, 1560, 2168 

V. Williams, 2328 

V. Wolf, 2018, 2019 

V. Wyatt, 260, 272, 1113, 1677 

V. Young, 1247 
Coosa River Steamboat Co. v. Barclay, 1517, 

1 5 18 
Cootee V. Richardson, iiii 
Coots V. Lambert, 849 
Coover's Appeal, 1964 
Cope V. Cope, 2188. 

V. Marshall, 57 

V. Wheeler, 2056, 2164, 2071 
Copeland v. Barron, 352, 534, 1815 

V. Copeland, 42, 816, 817, 2126 

V. Sauls, 216, 217, 673, 1349 

V. Stephens, 11 15 

V. Stevens, 1114 

V. Yoakum, 2039 
Copely V. Riddle, 2305 
Copis V. Middleton, 2137 
Copp z'. Hersey, 802, 955 

V, Norwich, 1583 
Coppage V. Alexander s Heirs, 1851, 1858 
Copper Mining Co. v. Beach, 1008 
Coppiii V. Coppin, 368, 719, 2057, 2289 

V. Gunner, 625 

V. Pennyhough, 1778 
Coray t. Eyre, 2036 
Corbet's Case, 1559, 1564, 2194 
Coibst V. Waterman, 5072 
Corbett v, Corbett, 249, 252, 499 
Corbin v. Cannom, 1914 

7'. Dale, 2240 

V. Healy, 287, 401, 402, 408, 410, 446, 449, 
,450 

V. Jackson, 1976 

7>. Minchin, 1473, 1480 
Corbitt V. Clenny, 1777 
Cord 71. Hirsch, 2152 
Cordes v. Miller, 1172, 1173 



Core 7>. Faupel, 2296, 2297, 2298 
Coreill w. Ham, 935 
Corey v. Bisliop, 80 

V. People, 834, 836 
Corinth V. Emery, 1945 
Corlass, /?/ re, 61S 
Corlies v, Corlies. 1721 
Corliss V. McLagin, 103, 133, 138, 2067 
Gorman v. Herritt, 2335 
Cormerais v. Genella, 2159, 2167 

V. Wesselhoeft, 1640 
Cormick v. Taylor, 860 

Corn Exchange Ins. Co. v. Babcock, 646, 2012 
Cornelius v. Ivins, 265, 266, 1849, 1851, 1972 

V. Smith, 1589, 1590 
Cornell v, t)ean, 1231 

V. Hall, 2043, 2052, 2053 

V. Hichens, 2014, 2016 

V. Lamb, 194. 2253, 2273 

V. Molton, 1005 

V. Prescott, 2112, 2150, 2166 

V. Vanartsdaien, 1202 
Comellison v. Cornellison, 1334 
Cornfoot v. Fowke, 1039, 11 10 
Corning v. Gould, 1174, 2243, 2247 

V. Murray, 2109 

V. Troy Iron & Nail Works, 1145, 1222 

V. Troy Nail Co., 224S 
Cornish v. Frees, 1427 

V. Mew, 51S 

V. Stubbs, 1312 
Cornwall v. Hoyt, 647 

Doe d., V. Matthews, 1310 
Corp V. Chandler, 287 
Corpman v. Baccastow, 2038 
Corporation of Hastings v. Ivall, 1351 
Corriel v. Ham, 917, 955 
Corrigan v. City of Chicago, 11 71 

V. Trenton, 2257 

V. Trenton Del. Tails Co., 1019 

V. Woods, 1276 
Corry v. Lamb, 949 
Corse V. Leggett, 161 7 
Cortleyou v. Hathaway, 2066 

7). Van Brundt, 2201 
Corven's Case, 121 
Corwin v. Corwin, 2318 

V. Cowan, 133 

z/. Davison, 1914 
Corwithe v. Griffing, 1985 
Corxall's Lessee v. Sherrerd, 452 
Cory V. Eyre, 2124 
Cost V. Rose, 1984 
Costabadie v. Costabadie, 1740 
Costar V. Clarke, 788, 827, 157S 

V. Lorillard, 761, 763, 788, 832, 1682, 1876, 
1877 
Coster V. Murray, 1781 
Costigan v. Gould, 2355 
Cotes V. The City of Davenport, 1261 

zi. Woodson, 1032 
Cottee V. Richardson, 1164 
Gotten zK Willoughby, 2020 
Cottenham, Succession of, 1481 
Cotter 7K Bettner, 1241 

7), Layer, 1840 
Cotterell v. Long, 2036, 2037, 2046, 2052 
Cottinger ?'. Fletcher, 1637 
Cottingham, Succession of, 1481 
Cottiiigton V. Fletcher, i6gi 
Cottman v. Grace, 1658 
Cotton, Ex parte, 125, 133 
Cotton V. McKee, 2039 

V. Pocassett Mfg. Co., 2219 

V. Wood, 1382 
Cottrell's Appeal, 2177 
Cottrell V. Adams, 2102, 2105 
Couch V. Anderson, 292 

V. Burke, 1280 

7'. Stratton, 881, 918, 944, 951, 952 
Coudert », Cohen, 1013 
Coulson V. Whiting, 1054 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CV 



Coulter V. Holland, 853, 856 

V. Robertson, 1553, 1710, 1711, 1727 
Coults r'. Walker, 1579 
Council V. Page, 1047 
Countess of Shrewsbury's Case, 1228, 1297 
County of Henry z*. Bradshaw, 2355 
County of Shrewbury u. Earl of Slirewbury, 

510 
Couutz V. Markling, gio 
Coursey v. Davis, 324 

Coursey Oil Co, zk Oilbreck & A R Co., loig 
Courthope ?'. Mapplesden, 577 
Courtiass ?'. Vanlore, 7S0 
Courtney v. Carr, 1999, 2076 

w. Taylor, 1063 
Courtots V, Carpenter, 2056 
Cousins V. Allen, 2169 
Coutant V. Servoss, 1S32, 2133 
Coutts V. Acworth, 1793 
Cove V. Cather, 744, 840 
Covendale v. Aldricb, 1^25 
Covender v. Culteel, 1962 
Coventry v. Coventry, 963 
Covert V. Hertzog, 888 
Covey z/. Pittsburgh, F. \V. & C. R. Co., 98, 

142 
Covilland v. Tanner, igoo 
Cowan V. Iowa St. Ins. Co., 2115 

V. Wheeler, 1610, 1616 
Cowart V. Cowart, 108 
Cowden*s Estate, 2179, 2180 
Cowdry v. Cowdrey, 141 1 

V. Day, 2051 
Cowell V. Colorado Springs Co., 259, 26S 

V. Lammei-s, 230S 

V. Lumley, 10S3, 1084, 10S6, 1126, 1175, 
1177 
Cowen V. Alsop, 1623 
Goweta Falls Mfg. Co. v. Rogers, 1247 
Cowgell V. Warrington, 1484, 1487 
Cowie V. Goodwin, 1177, 1200, 2269 
Cowing v. Howard, 1715 
Cowl V. Vamum, 2007 
Cowles V. Kendall, 2213 

V. Kidder, 2227 
Cowley V. Lumley, 2269 

V. Shelby, 2135 
Cowley's Heirs v. Chiles, 1213 
Cowling V. Higginson, 2220 
Cowman v. Hall, 761, 763, 788, 827, 831 

V. Harrison, 1684 
Cowper V. Cowper, 1692, 2287 

•u. Fletcher, 1021 
Cowton V. Wickersham, 2262 
Cox v. Bent, 1264, 1275, izgg, J313, 1324, 1325 

■V. Cox, 771 

V. Fonblanque, 501 

V. Garst, 802 

V. Grant, 163S 

V. Jagger, 718, 736, 739, 744, 838 

V. Joiner, 2334 

V. McBurney, 1956, 1963 

V. Shropshire, 1481 

V. Stafford, 1398 

V. United States, 2057 

z>. Vickers, 2149 

V. Walker, 1595 

•V. Wells, 901 

7). Wheeler, 2137, 2150, 2178, 2179 

V. Wilder, 792, 915, 1481 

Doe d., V. Day, 1040 
Coxall V. Sherrerd, 298 
Coxe V. Blanden, 1756 

v. Higbee, 841 

7J. Higher. 844 
Coy V. Coy, 1777 

V. Downie, iioo 
Coyle V. Wilkins, 2175 
Cozens v. Long, S83 

V. Stevenson, 1079 
Cozine v. Graham. 1592 
Cozzens v. Jaslin, 2279 



Crabb v. Pratt, 781 

Craddock v. Riddlesbarger, 49, 50, 51, 52 

Craft V. Webster, 2105 

V. Wilcox, igig, 1950, 1952 
Crafts V. Aspinwall, 2154, 2179, 2180 

V. Crafts, 826, 1921, 198S, 2029, 2172 
Craig V. Craig, 1754, 1755 

V. Firet Presbyterian Church, 33, 35, 36, 
39 

7'. Leslie, 218, 434, 673, 1560 

V. Merime, 2255 

z'. Parkis, 2099 

T'. Pinson, 2320 

V. Radford, 673 

z>. Somers, 1048 

V. Tappan, 2306 

V. Taylor, 1876 

z/. Watt, 485 

V. Wells, 259, 266, 269 
Craig's Heirs v. Walthall, 947, 964 
Grain v. Cavaua, 773, 8g8, Sgg, g2o, 954, 956, 
960 

V. Fox, 2245 

V. McGoon, 2127, 2128 

V, Wright, 1824 
Cram v. Burnham, 597, 752, 757, 759 
Cramer v. Hoose, 1634, 1651 
Crane %>. Bonnell, 2039, 2045, 2052, 2053 

V. Brigham, 117, 146 

T. Buchanan, 2045 

V. Caldwell, 2006 

V. Deming, 2027, 2029, 2030 

V. Linneus, 1428, 1429 

V. March, 2107, zio8 

V. Marshall, 212 

1'. Meginnis, 772, 2331 

V. O'Conner, 971, 975, 978, 1017 

z>. O'Reilley, 1290 

V. Palmer, 777, 804, 814, 832, 2005 

V. Reader, 2354 

V. Reeder, 220,2014, 2347 

z'. Turner, 2110, 2120 

V. Waggoner, 1434, 1894 
Cranson v. Cranson, 727, 794, 795, 912 
Cranstone z>. Crane, 2 161 
Cranz v. White, 1427, 1428 
Crary v. Goodman, 984, 1917, 2298 
Crashaw ?'. Maule, S25 

V Sumner, 2237 
Craske v. Christian Union Pub. Co., 996, 1264, 

13 19, 1322 
Crassen v. Swoveland, 2038 
Craufurd v. Hunter, 1668 
Craven z>. Brady, 271, 274, 501 

V. Craven, 917, 947 

z;. Winter, 722 
Graver v. Wilson, 2060 
Crawford's Appeal, 1739, 2313 
Crawford zl Chapman, 1071 

V. Crawford, 17S3 

V. Edwards, 2072 

V. Ellis, 2068 

V. Forshaw, 1816 

V. Hazelrigg, 2133 

V. Jones, 2256 

V. Kirksey, 1623, 1624, 1625 

V. Lockwood, 1506 

V. Longstreet, 1331, 13^3 

V. Morris, 13 14 

V. Scovell,2345 

V. Taylor, 2094, 2174, 2175 

V. Thompson, 270 

V. Wheeler, 1083 

V. Wick, 994 
Crawley's Case, 1352, i553 
Cray v. Willis, 1968 
Craythorne v. Swinburne, 2137 
Creager z*. Creager, 1383, 1443, 1607 
Crecelius zk Hurst, 727, 826, 913 
Creech v. Crockett, 1027, 1297 
Creekmur v. Creekmur, 2296, 2297, 2298 
Creel v. Kirkham, 1231, 1233 



cvi 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Cregan 7/. Cullen, 11S5 

Cregonin R. Co. v. Railway & Nav. Co., loig 

Creiger, Matter of, 675, 6S6, 692, 703, 762, 777, 

7qS 
Creiger v. Braun, 1327 
Creigh v. Henson, 1782 
Creightou 7/. McKee, 10S8 

V. Pringle, 1553 

V. Sanders, 1327, 1329, 1339, 1340 
Crenshaw v. Tliackston, 2150, 2072 
Cresiiiger v. Welch, gS6 
Cressman's Appeal, 1665, i6go, 1790 
Cresson v. Stout, 104, 105, 108, no, 126 
Crest T/. Jack, iSgi, 1892 
Crevelingw. Fritts, 1578 

V. West End Iron Co., 1151 
Crewe v. Dicken, 1778, 1818 
Crews V. pi^ndleion, 46, 47 

V. Threadgill, 2047, 2054 
Cribb V. Rogers, 282 
Crickmere 7/. Patterson, 1S47, 1848, 1856 
Cridland's Estate, 500, 1673 
Criley v. Chamberlain, 414 
Crim z'. Nelms, 1212 
Crine V. Tif ts, 49 
Crippen V. Baums, 2331 

V. Morrison, 146, 2063 

V. Morse, 1923 
Cripps V. Jee, 2049 

V. Wolcott, 316 
Crisfield v. Storr, 1927 
Crisp V. Martin, 29 

V. Miller, 2018 

Doe d., V. Barber, 1352 
Critchfield v. Ramaley, 1315, 1318, 1333, 1335, 

1337 
Crittenden v. Johnson, 764, 803,827,831,887, 
927 

V. Woodruff, 734, 764, 838, 888, 889, 927 
Crittenton -v. Alger, 2226 
Croade v, Ingraham, 734, 838, 984, 2262 
Croan tj. Joyce, 1935, 1940, 1950 
Croclieron v. Jaques, 1599 
Crocker v. Carson, 1S84, r8g7 

V. Crocker, 1642, 1645, i74S< 174*^1 '^7^'i> 
1765 

V. Fox, 847, 861, 873, 885 

V. Higgins, 1600 

V. Jewell, 2IOI 

V. Tiffany, 1924 
Crockett v. Crockett, 534, 544, 555, 566, 740, 

776, S87 
Crockford v. Alexander, 577 
Croft T. Biinster, 2033, 2100, 2107, 2108 

V Lumley, 1056, 1057, J105 

ti. Slee, 4S6 

V. Wilbar, 1364 

Doe d., V. Tidbury, 1215, 1306 
Croghan, Estate of, 1520, 1521 
Cromie v. Hoover, 141, 145, 1224 

V. Louisville, etc., Soc, 1659 

V. Ti-ustecs Wabash & Erie Canal Co., 
73 
Crommelin v. Thiess, 994, 1104, mi, 1112, 
iri8, 1123, 1133, 1168, 1254, 1255, 
1283, 1295, 1297, i3iS>!i3i6j 1317, i3'8 
Crompe v. Barrow, 1838 
Crompton 7'. Oxenden, 1164 
Cromwell's Case, 2340, 2349 
Cromwell V. Bank of Pittsburgh, 2161 

V. Brooklyn. 211Q 

V. Brooklyn F. Ins. Co., 21 18 

V. Delany, 450 

V. Tate, 2-i,(->T, 

•V. Wiichesier, 284, 285 
Cronin v. HaSwUine, 2101 
Cronklute 71. Cronklute, 2240 
Crook V. Crooking, i6gi 

V. Glenn, 2175 

7/. Ingoldsby, 1786 

V. Watts, 2287 
Crooke v. County of Kings, 1798, 1808, 1809 



Crooke v. De Vandes, 322 

V. Frazier, 2083 

V. O'Higgins, 2149, 2150, 2151 
Crocker v. Jewell, 2103, 2147 
Crookes v. Wliitworth, 1878, 1884, 1974 
Croom V. Herring, 76 

V. Talbot, 2250 
Crop V. Morton, 491 

V. Newton, 1700 

V. Norton, 1587, i6go 
Cropsey v. Ogden, 753, 754 
Crosby 7-. Allyn, igii 

7'. Berger, 2056 

V. Dodds, 310 

7'. Farmers' Bank of Andrew Co., 1946 

V. Hanover, 197 

V. Harlow, 1295 

V. Leavitt, 2085, 2128 

V. Loop, 2250, 2251, 2256, Z258, 2268 

7'. Wadsworth, 53, 54 
Croskey v. Chapman, 1777 
Cross, Re, 1037, 1450, 1467, 1488 
Cross's Appeal, 1645 
Cross 7', De Valle, 215, 216 

v. Carson, 1849, 1861, 1873 

V. Carter, 1866 

V. Everts, 1450, 1462, 1474, 1485 

V. Hudson, 1844 

V. Marston, 135, 139 

V. Robinson, 1915, 1993, 2128 

V. Tome, 2250, 2253 

V. Upson, 1119, 1281 
Crossley 7j. Lightowler, 220S, 2228, 2245 
Crossling v. Crossling, 1840 
Crpssman v. Field, 2, 305, 308, 335 
Croswell V. Crane, 1013 
Crotty V. Collins, 47 
Crouch 7/. Briles, 2270 

V. Fowle, 1054 

V. Puryear, 494, 495, 552, 553, 867, 742, 
Sir, 812 

7/. Shepherd, 2241 

V. Tregonning, 2265 

7/. Wabash, 11 56 
Crouse v. Derbyshire, 1234 

V. Holman, g86 
Crow V. Brown, 1427, 1428, 1429 

V. Knightingler, 1165 

V. Mark, igo5, igo6 

V. Vance, 2007, 2104, 2106 
Crowder v. Shackelford, 1021 
Crowe V. Wilson, g74 
Crowell V. Hospital of St. Barnabas, 2072 

V. Woodbury, igSS 
Crowey, /k re, 1379 
Crowher v. Rowlandson, 1032 
Crowhurst v. Amersham Burial Board, 57, igg 
Crowie 7'. Hoover, 1188 
Crowther v. Crowther, 1785 
Croxall V. Sherrerd, 401, 402, 447, 453, 454, 

, 459, 470, 473» 155S, 1559/ 173^ 
Crozier s Appeal, 941 
Cruger t/. Douglas, 1798 

V, Halliday, 1599, 1660, 1661, 1778, 1787 

z>. Haywood, 310 

71. McLaury, 1139, 1862,2258 

V. McLawry, 2268 
Cruikshank v. Duffin, 2159 
Crum 71. Moore, 1713 
Crumb v. Davis, 832 ' 

V. Sawyer, 910 
Crumbaugh v. Kugler, 1623 
Crumley v. Deake, 687, 6go 
Crummen v. Bennett, 1481 
Crump V. Norwood, 815 

7/. Redd, 1633 
Crutchfield v. Coke, 2165 
Cruwys 71. Colman, 1629 
Cubberly v. Yager, 2166 
Cubbins v. Ayers, 130 
Cubitt V. Porter, 1904, 2235, 2236 
Cudleigh's Case, 1525, 1528 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cvu 



Cudlip V. Randall, 1261 
Cuddworth v. Scott, 2020 
Cueman v. Broadnax, 298. 155S 
Curfee V. Milk, 415, 423, 466 
Culbevtsoii's Appeal, 1605, 1753 
Culbertson v. Duly, 30S 

V. Luckey, 1626 
CuUen V. Sprigg, 1863, 1S64 
Culley V. Doe d. Taylersoii, 607 
Culling w. Tuffnail, 124, 127 
CuUom V. Erwiii, 2106 
Cullough V. Norwood, g2o 
CuUum V. Branch Bank at Mobile, 2136 
CuUwick V, Swindell, 133 
Culow V. Rhodes, i8gS 
Culver V. Harper, 800 

•u. Rhodes, 1S99, ^Q^Si »9i6. 1917,2296 
Cumber ». Oilman, 2086 
Cumberland v. Codrington, 1672, 21S1 

V. Washington County Court 671 
Cumberland C. & I. Co. v. Sherman, 1768 
Cumming ?'. Camming. 2155, 21S0 

V. Williamson, 1832 
Cummi:igs v. Barrett, 68, 71, 73 

V. Freer, 2331 

V. Long, 1504, 1505 

z*. McCullough, 1624 

V. Mills, 1241 

V. Powell, 2344 

V. Shaw, 3/7, 31S 

i>. Show, 536 

V. Wyman, 2295 
Cunnea v. Williams, 2273 
Cunningham z/. Ashley, 2107 

V. Bell, 1646 

V. Bloodgood, 1509 

V. Cambridge Savings Bank, 128S 

V. Cunningham, 184, 657, 757, 759, 772 

V. Freeborn, 1794 

V. Gray, 1376 

V. Hawkins, 2095 

V. Horton, 1253, 1266, 1274, 1279, 1353 

V. Knight, 766, goS 

■V. McKi.idley, 1781 

V. Moody, 61 1 

V. Pattee, looS, 1026, 1087, 1088 

V. Shannon, 916, 934, 956, 965 
(7unynghame v. Tliurlow, 1844 
Cure V. Crawford, 1314 
Curell V. Miss., M. &. F. Ins. Co. 2115 
Curl V. Lowell, 1274, i2g5, i2g6, 1356 
Curlin v. Hendricks, 1697 
Currant v. Jags, 1647 
Curren v. Finn, 774 
Currie V. White, 1665, 1690 
Currier z/. Barker, 1013, 1274, 1335, 1338, 1341 

z/. Earl, 1 144, 1269, 1271, 1274, 1284, 
1285, 1293, 1295, 1Z97 

V. Gale, 2085, 2ogi, 2128, 22g2, 

V, Jordan, 1274, 1281 

7'. Parley, 1254, 1257, 1270, 1273, 1274, 
i27g, 1300, 1305, 1307, 1337, 1342 

V. Sutherland, 1382, 1481 
Currin %>. P'inn, 221 
Curry v. Bott, 635, 659, 1362 

V. Commonwealth Ins. Co., 2 113, 2 115, 
2117 

V. Curry, 898, 899, 958 

V. Lyles, 2348, 2349 
Curtinf'. Patton, 2344 
Curtis V. Board of Education, 1864 

V. Brownell. 2345 
V. Buckley, 2002 

V. Deering, 1094 
V. Des Jardins, 1464 

V. Fox. 681 

V. Francis, 2244 

V. Galpin, 2212 

V. Galvin, 1252, 1266, 1293, 1294, 1296, 

1354 
V. Gardner, 283, 285, 290, 1710 
V. Gooding, 2151 



Curtis?/. Goodnow, 2142 

V. Grand Trunk R. Co., 1195 

V. Grost, 62 

V. Hall, 1033 

V. Hewin, 2279 

V. Hitchcock, 2152 

V. Hobart, S35, 851, 852, S61, 920, 1376 

V. Hoyt, 63, 1252, 2206 

V. Hunton, 2289 

V. Hutton, 368, 369, 2057, 2058, 2289 

V. Keesler, 1913 

V. King, 1S97 

7'. Leavitt, 671 

V. Le Grande Hydraulic Water Co., 
2243 

V. Longstreth, 414, 415, 447, 472 

7). Lyman, 2iig 

I'. Mason, 1733 

V. Miller, iisg, 1161, 1164 

z<. O'Brien, 1050, 1506 

V. Pierce, 1102 

V. Price, 300, 344, 1606, 1797 

V. Riddle, 139, 142 

V, Kippon, 347, 1632 

V. Root, 1491, 1497, 2015 

V. Swearingen, 1921 

V. Wheeler, 1306 
Cusack v. While, 2346 
Gushing v. Adams, 1252 

V. Ayer, 2180 

V. Blake, 611, 654, 655, 669, 677, 678, 679, 
680, 682, 683, 1548, 1574, 1576, 1584, 
1609, 1692, 1694 

V. Hurd, 20S3 
Cushman v. Bailey, 1241 

V. Luther, 2031 

V. Smith, 5, 2327 
Cusic V. Douglass, 1507, 1508, 1509, 1510 
Cuson V. Bla2er, 6g 
Cuthbert %>. Chauvet, 1797 

1'. Kuhn, 1117, 1170, 2253, 226S, 2269 

V. Lawton, 2226 
Cutler V. Currier, 1894 

V. Dickinson, 2043 

V. Lincoln, 2014 

V. Pope, 51,54, 55 

V. Tuttle, 1634, 1636, 1653 

V. Winsor, 1240 

V. Wright, 920 
Cutter V. Davenport, 367, 720, 2057, 2058, 2288 

V. Doughty, 1637 
Cutting V. Cutting, 1807, 1808, 1809, 1810, 1820, 

1825 
Cutts V. York. Mfg. Co., 2015, 2016, 2071 
Cuylere/. Bradt, i6gi 

z'. Ensworth, 2177 
Cyr V. Madore, 2243 

D. 

Dabney v. Bailey, 938, 948 

V. Manning, 1605 
Dacre v. Gorges, 845 
Dade v. Irwin, i66g 
Dadmun v. Lamson, 2og2, 2101, 2102 
Daggett V. Rankin, 2001, 2038, 2087, 2125 

Doe d., V. Snowden, 1308 
Dahm v. Barlow, 12 12 
Daidge v. Bowers, 1301, 1325 
Dailey v. Grimes, 2257, 2273 

V. Moor, 2339 
Daily v. Abbott, 2087 
Dairs v. The State Bank, 2332 
Dakin %>. Allen, 1290 

V. Cope, 1 138 
Dakins v. Berisford, 1372 
Dald V. Geiger, 1024 
Dale V. Hamilton, 787, 1644 

%i. McEvers, 2089, 2090, 2138 

V. Robinson, 2013 

V. Thurlow, 2364 



CVUl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Dall r;. Confidence Silver Mining Co., 8g 
iJ'Almaine v. Moseley, 307 
Tlalrymple v. Dalrymple, 594, 595, 751, 753 
Dalton V. Angus, 66, 2233 

V. Dalton, 546, 547 

V. Landahn, 2270 
Daly V. Burchell, 2150 
Dalzell V. Lynch, 1225 
Damainville v. Man, ito8, 1116,2269 
Damb v. Hoffman, 2263, 2264 
Dame v. Dame, 63, 116, 123, 1254, 1278, 1295, 

1296 
Damon v. Damon, 597 

V. Granby, 2360 
Damrell v. Hartt, 1815 
Dana v. Binney, 2133 

V. Coombs, 201 1 

V. Farrington, 1755 

V, Jackson, 1977, 1986 

V. Petersliam. 974 

V. Valentine, 2239, 2245 
Dand v. Kingscote, 90, 93 
Dane v. Kirkwall, 987, 1034 
Danforth v. Beattue, 1425, 1481 

V. Lowry, 1576 

V. Sargeant, 13 10 

V. Smith, 806, S65 

V. Talbot, 315 
Daniel v. Coker, 2087 

V. Day, 1723 

V. Grace, 2254 

V. Leitch, 784, 940 

V. Thompson, 419, 469 

V. Wood, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 83 
Daniels v. Alvord, 2035 

V. Bailey, 54 

V. Bowe, 132 

v. Brown, 1234 

V. Daniels, igoi 

V. Davison, 999, 1296 

V. Eisenbord, Z031, 2032 

V. Flower Brook Mfg. Co., 2127 

V. Newton, 1173 

V. Pond, 78, 79, 103, J06, 566, 567, 1153, 
11S4, 1277, 1297 

V. Richardson, 1024, 1074, 1077 
Danks t'. Quackenbush, 1510, 1511, 1518 
Dann v. Spurrier, 1007, ioo3 
Dansey zk Griffith, 322 
.Dansville, Town of, v. Pace, 671 
Danvers v. Dorrity, 1979 
D'Aquin v. Armant, 2262 
Darby V. Callaghan, 976, 2313 

z'. Darby, 1961, 1980 

V. Dixon, 1419 

V. Mayer, 2057, 2058, 2289 
Darby's Lessee v. Mayer, 367, 368, 720 
Darcy v. Askwith, 565 

V. Askworth, 563 
D'Arcy v. Blake, 798, 819, 1576 
Darden v. Cowper, igo8 
Dark v. Johnson, 84, 2211, 2212, 2213 
Darke v. Martyn, 1720 
Darke, Doe d., v. Bowditch, 1150 
Darling v. Chapman, 2131 

V. Kelly, 1230 

V. Pulteney, 1806, 1831, 1840 

V. Rogers, 1682 
Darlington's Appropriation, 641, 1978 
Darlington v. Bond, 1140, 1146 

V, Ulph, 1 152 
Darrill v. Stephens, 1317 
Darrow v. Kelly, 2126 
Darst V. Roth, 1805 
Dart V. Barbour, 2331 

V. Dart, 405, 414, 2301, 2323 

zi. Hercules, 123 
Dartmouth College v. Clough, 1107, 1124, 2257 

V. Woodward, 235, 2324 
Darvill v. Roper, 83 
Dash 7/. Vonkleek, 671 
Dashiell v. Attorney-General, 1637 



Dashiel v Collier. 841, 844 
Dater v. Bank of United States, 2342 
Daub V. Englebach, 206S 
Daubenspeck v. Piatt, 2054 
Dauchy v. Bennett, 2137, 2170 
Dand v. Kingscote, 223S 
Daugliaday v. Paine, 2006 
Daiigherty v. Daugherty, 945 

V. Deardorf, 215 1 

V. Matthews, 1143 
Davall V. New River Co., 42 
Davenish, Doe d., v. Moffatt, 13 10 
Davenkill n. Fletcher, 937 
Davenport v Buckman, iigg 

V. Coltman, 309, 1638 

V. Farrar, 2306 

V. Ferrar, 767, 781, 831 

V. Haynie, 2256 

V. Lawson, 2220 

V. Reg, 1138 

V. Tyrrell, 2299, 2301 

V. Young, 2332 
Davey z>. Durant, 2160 
David V. Beelman, 2268 

V. Ryan, 1105 
Davidson v. Allen, 2005 

V. Chalmers, 499 

V. Cooper, 2239 

V. Cowan, 21 19, 2126 

V. Coxe, 1999 

V. Ernest, 1289 

V. Ellmaker, 1214 

V. Foley, 1637 

V. Graves, 915 

V. Isham, 198 

V. Jones, 2349 

V. Lawrence, 2175 

V. Little, 1697 

V. New Orleans, 2324 

V. Sillman, 2302 

V. Thompson, 1S94 

V. Westchester Gas Light Co., 132 

v. Whittlesey, 733, 734, 741, 838 
Davie z*. Briggs, 523 
Davies, Ex parte, 321 
Davies v. Cannop, 1205 

V. Connop, 1207 

V. Mayor of New York, 1029 

V. Moreton, 1157, 1158 

V. Otty, 1590 

V. Ridge, 1669 

V. Speed, 1568 

V. Warner, 370 
Davies, Doe d., v. Davies, 486, 1594, 1597 

V. Gatacre, 461 

V. Thomas, 1334, 177S 
Daviess v. Meyers, 490, 511 
Davila v. Davila, 954 
Davis V. Alden, 1152, 1227 

V. Anderson, 1999, 2078 

V. Andrews, 1451 

ZI. Angel, 270 

z>. Ball, 1698 

V. Barrett, 2098 

V. Bartholomew, 7S5, 900, 909 

V. Bawcum, 305 

V. Bean, 1094, 2089, 2090 

V. Bechstein, 2108, 2109 

V. Benton, 2305 

V. Bowmar, 2296 

V. Brandon, 501 

V. Brocklebank, 1251, 1269, 1271 

V. Brown, 724 

V. Buffum, 115, 128, 135, 145, 1204 

V. Burrell, 1357 

V. Central Vt. R. Co., 199 

V. Christian, 786, 825, 1749 

V. Cincinnati, 976 

V. Clark, 1919, 1931, 1932, 1944, 1952 

V. Coburn, 1781 

V. Collier, 2272 

V. Connop, 538 



Keferences are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CIS 



Davis z'. Cook, 2135 

V. Cristian, 1957, 1961, 1965 

V. Darron, 764 

t'. Darrow, 712, Soo, 870 

•V. Davis, 596, 707, 794, 795, 8g6, 914,946, 
1402, ig'S, 2302 

V. Demming, 2168 

•V. Dendy, 2090 

V. Dudley, 201 1 

V. Easley, 62, 545 

V. Elkins, 202 

V. Eyton, 539, 11 13, 1206 

V. Garret, 1579 

V. Getchell, 222S, 2229 

V. Gilliam, 555, 1370 

V, Givens, 1882 

1}. Gray, 1089 

V. Hayden, 402, 403, 411, 438, 449 

V. Henson, 1403, 1503 

V. Hulett, 2166 

V. Hunt, 8S9 

V. Jones, 145 

V. Kelly, 1456, 1460, 1465, 1466 

V. King, 1990 

V. Lassiter, 2087 

V. Lennen, 1986 

V. Logan, 763, 824 

V. Loundes, 265 

x>. McDonald, 801, 896, 908, 909 

V. McFarlane, 51 

V. Mailey, 34S 

V. Mason, 208, 598, 600, 601, 602, 603, 604, 
605, 611, 613, 679, 680, 689, 695 

V. Maynard, 2133 

V. Miller, 334 

%'. Morris, 1107, 1122, 1124 

V. Moss, 115, 145, 146, 115s, 1158 

V. Murray. 889,. 1773 

V. Murphy, 1027, 1273 

v. Newton, 1376 

z'. New York Concert Co., 2140 

V. Ney, 1594 

V. O'Ferrall, 721, 831, 1376 

V. Peabody, 1492 

V. Perley, 2303 

V. Pierce, 810, 1580, 2097 

V. Richardson, 351 

V. Rock Creek, L. F. & M, Co., 1620 

V. Rowe, 20 

V. Scott, 2307 

V. Sear, 2208 

z>. Simpson, 1707, 1777 

7'. Skinner, 1894, 1922 

V. Smith, 1 126, 1175 

%'. Speed, 2319 

V. Stark, 1158 

V. Stinson, 355, 366 

V. Stonestreet, 2037, 2043, 2044, 2050, 
2053, 2054 

V. Taylor, 1009 

V. Thompson, 993, 1264, 1267, 1268, 1269, 
1270, 1274, 1293, 1294, 1295, 1296 

V. Tingle, 714 

V. Walker, 868 

V. Warner, 372 

V. Watts, 2261 

V. Wetherell, 728, 729, 731, 879, 1493, 
1494, 1646, 2074, 2173 

v. Whittlesey, 735 

V. Williams, 1797 

V. Winn, 2089, 2136, 2138 

v, Winslow, 2225 

V. Wood, 1405 
Davis, Doe d., v. Evans, 1309 
Davison's Appeal, 712 
Davison v. Davison, 949 

V. Johonnot, 2329 
Davol V. Rowland, 772, 920 
Davoue v. Fanning, 1708, 1768, 1770, 1771, 1772, 

1773, 1775' 2163 
Davy zi. Pepys, 278 
Daw 1'. Newborough, 1583 



Dawley v. Ayers, 1395, 1462 
Dawson, In re, 109 

V. Kank of Whitehaven, 885 

V. Bell, 943 

V. Clark, 1638 

V. Daniel, 78 

V, Dawson, 515 

V. Drake, 2085 

V. Godfrey, 216, 236 

T'. Hall, 2354 

V. Hayden, 1449, 1467. 1777 

7'. Holt, 1408, 1472, i486 

V. Mills, rgor 

7'. Oliver Massey, 270 

V. Shaver, 706 

7'. Small, 1687 

T'. Thurston, 2365 
Day z'. Adams, 2354 

V. Allender, 2206 

V. Cochran, 600, 603, 604, 607, 608, 612, 
620, 621, 634, 635, 636, 637 

v. Daveron, 307 

V. Davis, 1897 

V. Day, 2331 

V. Howard, igoo 

T. Micou, 278,-2142 

V. N. Y. C. R. Co., 2240 

V. Patterson, 2151, 2153 

V. Solomon, 767, 804 

V. Swackhamer, 2264 

V. Watson, 1128, 1174 

V. West, 920 
Dayrell t. Hoare, 1039 
Dayton 7'. Dayton, 2148 

V. Doozer, 1138 

V. Newman, 2353 

V. Rice, 2079 

7/. Vandoozer, T150 
Deadrick v. Armour, 1815 

V. Cantrell, 1608, 1631, 1633, 1635 
De Agreda v. Mantel, 2167 
Deaminville v. Mann, 1072 
Dean 7'. AUalley, 130 

V. Central Pass Co., 2333 

v. Comstock, 1289 

V. Dean, 1589, 1612, 1646 

V. Feeley, 1349 

V. McCarthy, 199 

V. Mitchell, 788, 827 

V. Nelson, 2176 

V. Nunnallv, 338, 339 

V. O'Meara, 1988 

v. Parker, 1950 

V. Phillips, 818 

v. Richmond, 663, 664, 773, 920 

V. Roesler, 1052, 1245 

V. Walker, 206S, 2o6cj. 2071, 2072 
Dean's Heirs v. Mitchell's Heirs. 76a, 7^1 
Dean of Rochester v. Pierce, 1332 
Dean of Windsor's Case, 1074, 1075 
Deane v. Aveling, 594 

V. Caldwell, 1069, 1173 

V. Hutchinson, 123, 129 
Dearborn v. Dearborn, 2032, 2079 

V. Eastman, 2343 

V. Taylor, 926, 2103 
Dearbome v. Taylor, 2178 
D'Arcy 7/. Blake, 781 
Dearden v. Evans, 61 
Deare v. Carr, 2158 
Dearing v. Thomas, 1395, 1398, 1460, 1503 

V. Watkins, 2126 
Dearman v. Dearman, 1481 
Dearmas v. Mayor, etc., of New Orleans, 18, 

Dearmond v. Dearmond, 727, 794, 912 

Deas 7*. Horrey, 383 

Deaver v. Rice, 976, 1230, 123 1, 1238 

De Pall V, Thompson, 1043 

De Barante v. Gott, 2 18, 645, 959 

De Baun v. Bean, 71 

De Bell v. Thomson, 999 



ex 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pagiis. 



Diboe w. Lowcn, 415, 469, 538 
]>.ibolle V. Pennsylvania Insurance Co., 2362 
Djbow V. Colfax, 48, 539, 1205, 1206, 1207, 1267 
l)i Castro V. Barry, iqSo 
De Caters v. Le Ray De Chaumont, 1770 
iJjch's Appeal, i8gi, 1893 
D-'cker z/. Adams, 1131, 1271 
I V. Boice, 1047, Z109 

, V, Livingston, 1359, 13(10, 1363, 1364, 

1367, 1368. 1369, -1901 

V. McManus, 1274 
Declonet v. Eorel, 2240 
I >e Cordova v. Hood, 2006, 2008 
I )c Cosier V. Villa, 661 
Decouch V, Savitier, 646, 753, 1781 
]Jecoursey v. Guarantee Co., 2274 
l)edmu:i z*. Lawson, 2091 
Dee V. Dowall, 2300 

Deere v. Chapman, 1393, 1414, 1415, 1424, 1483 
Deerfield v. Arms, 2294 
T'earhurst v. St. Alnams, 1693 
Deering &. Adams, 335, 1594, 1597, 1605, 1796 

V. Beard, 1456, 1465 
\ V. Boyle, 1513, 2012 
Deffelry v. Pico, 1502, 1519 
Deford v. Mercer 2331 
De Forest v. Bacon, 1794 

V. Byrne, 1076, 11S5 
De France v. De France, 2053, 2054 

V. Johnson, 751, 770 
Deg V. Deg, 1623, 1691 
De Gendre v. Kent, 43 
De Geofroy v. Riggs, 218 
De Godey v. De Godey, 712 
Degraffenreid 'u. Scruggs, ro6, 132, 135, 136 
De Grey v. Richardson, 362, 606, 607, 608, 692, 

693. 703 
De Hart w. Dean, 656, 678, 1372 

V. United States, 2212, 2213 
De Haven z/. Landell, 2146, 2156 
De Herques v. Marti, 2302 
De Hymel v. Scottish- American Mortgage Co., 

1476, 1467, 1490 
Deibert's Appeal, 299, 1606 
Deibler v. Barwick, 2004 
Deisher v. Stein, gg6 
Dejarnette v. Allen, 477, 479, 491, 552, 626, 635, 

1364, 1370 
Delahay v. Clement, 1997, 2077 

V. McConnell, 2037 
Delahoussaye v. Judice, 2226 
De La Howe v. Harper, 1512, 1513 
Delaire v. Keeman, 2001, 2043 
j'^ De Lancey z*. Ganong, 1142, 1144, 1145, 1146^ 
1 148, 1 151 

V. Steams, 2109 
Delaney, Estate of, 1378, 1445 

V. Fox, 12 14 

V. McCormack, 1807, 1808, i8og 

V. Rochereau, 1195 

V. Root, 51, 55, 56, 1231, 1233 
Delano v. Blake, 1031 

V. Montague, 1013, 1348, 1353 

V Wilde, 2083 
D^laplaine v. Lewis, 2150 
Dilashman v. Berry, 994 
Dilassus V. Poston, 2005 

V. United States, 3 
Da Laureal v. Kempner, 2107 
De Laurencel z*. De Boom, 1589, 1592 
Delaven v. Pratt, 1496 
Delaware & N. C. Co, -v. Bonnell, Sjo 
Delaware & R. Canal Co. v. Lee, ig8 
Delay v. Vinal, 948 

De Leon v. Higuera, 2001, 2024, 2036, 2051 
Dell V. Gardner, 2270 
Dellettzj. Whitmere, 514 
Dellinger's Appeal, 1594 
Dellingerz/. Tweed, 1504 
Delmas v. Merchants* Mutual Ins. Co., 1515 
Delmerge v. Mullins, 1219 
Delmonico v. GuiUaume, 787, 1961, 1963 



Deloney v. Hutchinson, 18S5, ig6i 
De Longz/. Mulcher, 2297 
De Mandeville z/. Crompton, 794 
Demarest v. Hardham, 198 

71. Koch, 1955 

V. Willard, 1074, 1075, 1077, 2064, 2251, 
2252 

7'. Wynkoop, 2085, 2095, 2104, 2175, 2176 
Demby v. Parsene, 1186 
Demers v. Bullett, 23G3 
Demi v. Bossier, 1208, 1209 
De Mill V. Lockwood, 450 
Deming v. Bullitt, 501 

V. Colt, 1963 

V. Deming, 66r 

V. Williams, 647 
De Mott V, Benson, 2028, 2030 

V. Hagerman, 1229, 1233, 1234, 1235, 1906 

V. McMullen, 2012 
Dempsey v. Kipp, 1306 

V. Tylee, 646 
Dempster, v. West, 2H7 
Den V. Adams, 13 19 

V. Bernard, 969, T004 

V. Blair. 1136, 1140, 1335 

V. Crawford, 534, 154S 

7'. Dimon, 2063, 2132 

i>. Drake, 1134, 1136, 1254, 1271, 1280, 1390, 
i29g, 1319, 1337 

v. Dodd, 835 

V. Emans. 403 

V. Fearnside, 1040 

V. Fogg, 405, 411, 413 

V. Fox, 401, 402, 447 

V. Gardner, 1920 

V. Green, 1292 

•V. Hanks, 1549, 2314, 2318 

V. Hugg, 403, 405, 415 

7'. Johnson, 9S0 

z'. Kinney, 544 

V. Laquear. 403 

V. Lloyd, 1146, 1271 

zi. Mackey, 1271, 1299, 1319 

V. McPeake, 408 

7'. Moore, 415 

V. Mulford, 22gi, 22g9 

V. Payne, 2 

V. Post, 1057, 1107, nil, 1123 

V. Quinby, 1364, 1367 

z/. Robinson, 445, 463 

V. Schenck, 401 

V. Sinnickon, 2295 

7'. Snowhill, 1334, 1336 

V. Stockton, 2077, 2084 

V. Troutman, 1703 

V. Wade, 1271, 1350, 1354 

V. Westbrook, 1291 

V. Winans, 12S5 
Den d. Doremus z/. Zabriskie, 470 
Den d. Hankinson v. Blair, 1307, 1309 
Den d. Humphries v. Humphries, 1303 
Den d. Irwin v. Cox, 1308 
Den d, Jacocks v. Gilliam, 464 
Den d. McEowen v. Drake, 1307 
Den d. Pollock v. Kittrell, 1257 
Den d Snowhill v. Snowhill, 1307 
Den ex d. Bockouverw. Post, 1104 
Den ex d. Crane v, Fogg, 415, 423 
Den ex d. Davidson v. Frew, 927 
Den ex d. Decker v. Adams, 1132, 1135, 1310, 
_ 1333. 1346, 135^ 

Den ex d. De Peyster v. Howland, 1929 
Den ex d. Ewan v. Cox. 412, 415. 423, 427 
Den ex d. Freemen v. Heath, 1160 
Den ex d. Grandy v. Bailey, ii6g, 1170 
Den ex d. Hardenbergh v. Hardenbergh, 1024, 
1876, 1881, igig, 1920, 1930, 193 1, 
1033- 1938. i93<5. 1940. 1942, 1950 
Den ex d, Harker v. Gustin, 1217 
Den ex d. Hinchman v. Clark, 415, 444 
Den ex d. Hopper v. Demarest, 598, 603, 604, 
614 



References are 

to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CSl 



Den ex d. Howell -v. Ashmore, 1220 

1'. Howell, I2Q3 
Den ex d. Hughes z*. Shaw, 914 
Den ex d. James v. Dubois, 401, 448, 450, 470 
Den ex d. Love v. Edmondstou, 12S2, 12S7, 

1309 
Pen ex d. Lyerly v. Wlieeler, 1751 
Den ex d. Miller v. Miller, 852, 859 
Den ex d. Needham v. Bronson, 1941, 1942 
Den ex d. Player v. Nicholls, 973, 980 
Den ex d. Roberts v. Forsythe, 2S6, 531 
Den ex d. Somers v. Peirson, 412, 415 
Den ex d. Spachius z>. Spachius, 450, 470 
Den ex d. Stamps v. Irwme, 123 1 
Den ex d. Stedman z'. Mcintosh, 1256 
Den ex d. Stewart v. Johnson, 915 
Den ex d. Williams 7'. Rennet, 873 
Den ex d. Williamson v. Snowhill, 1319 
Den ex d. Wilson v. Small, 411, 415, 426, 42S 
Den ex d. Wyckoff, 1929, 1930, 1933, 1944 
Den, Lessee, v. Webster, 1294 
Denegre 7/. Haun, 1495, 1512, 1524 
Denent v. Williams, 1978 
Dengenbart v. Craciaft, 908 
Denham n. Cornell, 94 

v. Holeman. 2299 
De Nicholls z'. Saunders, 2065 
Denike v. New York & Rosendale Lime Co., 

1019 
Denison -v. Denison, 595 

V. Ford, 1 166 
Denman v. Prince, 2237 
Denn v. Cartwright, 1314 

V. Gaines, 533 

V. Gnskin, 302, 320, 331 

V. Gillot, 441, 442 

V. Shenton, 322 
Denn d. Bolton v. Bowne, 310 
Denn d. Jackling v. Cartwright. 1334 
Denn ex d. Moor v. Meller, 344 
Denne t*. Judge, 1967 
Dennett v. Croker, 212 

V. Dennett, 237, 401, 545, 666, 682, 1034, 
2319 

V, Hopkinson, 45 

V. Penobscot Fair Ground Co., 1276, 
1292, 2261 
Denning v. Smith, 2335 

V, Van Deusen, 536 
Dennis v. Dennis, 752, 760 

V. McCagg, 154s 

V. Twitchell, 11 19 

V. Warder, 1290 

V. Wilson, 283, 285, 2218, 2361 
Dennison v. Ely, 2042 

V. Goehring, 1069, 1738 

V. Grove, 1045 

V. Reade. 1138, 1150 
Dennistoun ?', Walton, 1213 
Denny v. Cabot, 1240, 1241, 1242, 1243, 1244 

V. McCabe, 517, 651, 668, 669, 670, 701 

V. Palmer, 1756 

V. White, 1396, 1506 
Denson v. Mitchell, 317, 3191 486, 536, S03, i'ii4 
Dent 7'. Emmeger, 2192 

z/. Slough, 1376 
Denton z>. Cole, 2107 

V. Donner, 1621 

z'. Jackson, 41 

V. Ledell, 22.12 

V. Livingston, 43, 817 

V. McKenzie, 1639, 1650 

z/. Nanny, 511, 748, 757, 783, 800, 818, 
2169, 2170, 2173 

V. Strickland, 1237 
Dentzel ?'. Waldie, 901, 911 
Denzel v. Waldie, 2323 
Dcnys V. Suckburg, igo6 
Depas 7-/. Mayo, 720 
Dcpew V. Dewey, 2175 
De'PereCo. v. Reynen, 1317, 2270 
Dc Peyster v. Clendinning, 1555 



De Peyster v. Ferrers, 1885 

V. Michael, 48, 245, 249, 250, 251,252,256, 
2159, 261, 266, 1858, 1859, 1861 
De Puy ». Strong, 1901, 1909 
Deraismes v. Deraismes, 504 
Derbes v Romero, 2365 
Derby v. Taylor, 11 12 

z'. Weyrich, 1480 
Derby Bank v. Landon,2i44 
Dering v. Farrington, 1989 
Derm v. Gillot, 291 
Dermott v. Jones, 1099 
Derry %>. Deiry, 1622, 1652, 1760 
Derush "v. Brown, 761, 763, 788, S32 
De Rutte v. Muldrow, 259, 1039 
De Rutzen, Doe d., v Lewis, 1148 
De Ruyter v. St. Peter's Church, 2342 
Dervinz'. Jennings. 2048 
De Saussure %'. Lyons, i'^42 
Descarlett v. Dennett, 1871, 1872 
Deshler v. Buiy, 923,024 
Desilver, Matter f,f, 986 
Deskowitz v. Davis, 1646 
Desloge v. Peace, 2212, 2213 

V. Pearce, 995, 1280, 12S3, 2212 

V. Pierce, 2212 
Despard v. Churchill, 21, 974 

V. Walbridge. 1133, 1149. 2050 
Despatch Line v. Bellamy Mfg. Co., 105, 113, 

115. 131. ^-^s. 1041 
Detroit Savings Bank v. Bellamy, 1334, 1335, 

1340 
De Uprey v. De Uprey, 1983 
Devacht, Lessee of, v. Newsam, 1220 
De Vandal v. Malone, 21 19 
Devaughn v. Devaughn, 836, 850 
Devaynes z'. Robinson, 1832 
Devecmon v. Devecmon, 974, 975 
Devenpeck z/. Lambert, 2206 
De Verne, In re, 6S2 
Deville v. Wildoe, 1500 
Devin z'. Himer, 2340 
De Visme. In re, 1647 
Devoy v. Devoy, 1648 
Dewey v. Brownell, 2086 

V. Dewey, 1964 

V. Dupuy, 2264 

V. Goodenough, 1514 

V. Lambier, 1900 

V. Lambies, 1966 

V. Moyer, 1623 

V. Payne, 1322 

V. Van Deusen, 1996, 2085, 2104, 

V. Williams. 1861 
De Wilton v. Saxon, 1228 
De Windt v. De Windt, 405, 417 
Dewitt V. Cooper, 505 

V. Moulton, 2122, 2366 
De Witt V. Eldred, 401, 426, 443, 454, 459, 
818 

V. San Francisco, 1884, 1S88, 196S 
De Wolf V. Johnson, 2056, 2071 
Dexter v. Arnold, 1899, 2095, 2104 

V. Gradner, 1687 

V. Harris, 1993 

V. Manley, 1079, 1080, 1081, 1166 

71. Stewart, 161 r 
Dey V. Dey, 1622 

T. Dunham, 2039, 2042 
D^ Vampert v. Brown, 2134 
D'Eyncourt v. Gregory, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107., 

120, 128, 137 
De Young z/. Buchanan, 1131, 1315, 1316 
Diament v. Lore, 976 
Diamond Manuf. Co. -u. Atlantic Delaine Co., 

2225 
Dias 7/. Glover, 1930 
Dibble v. Clapp, 789 

V Hutton, 647 
Dice V. Sheffer, 309 
Dick V. Daughton, 912 

t'. Mawry, 2104, 2105, 2106, 2107 



cxu 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Dick V. Pitchford, 249, 253, 263, 257, 1577, 1578, 

1748 
Dickason v. Dawson, 2085 

v. Williams, 2006 
Dicken v. Johnson, 2341 

V. Morgan, 135 
Dickenaon v. Chase, 2007 

V. Harris, 983 

V. Jackson, 800 
Dickerraan v. Burgess, 2334 

V. Lust, 2171 
Dickerson's Appeal, 1579 
Dickerson, /« re, 266 
Dickeraon v. Brown, 596 

V. Chesapeake R. Co., 1928 

V. Cook, 2273 

V. Talbot, 2300 
Dickey v. Lyon, 2241 

V. McCullougli, 1863 

ti. Thompson, 2153, 2155, 2181 
Dickins v. Hamer, 812 
Dickinson, Appellant, 1666 
Dickinson v. Canal Co., 2230 

V. Codwise, 1618, 1619, 1940 

V. Davis, 778, 1640, 1647 

V. Goodspeed, 1253 

V. McLane, 1480 

z/. Mayor, 570 

V. Robbins, 1242 

7'. Williams, i8go, i8g6 
Dickson, In re, 267 
i)ickson z'. Chorn, 1386, 1442, 1491, 1522 

V. Desire, 2362 

V. Dickerson, 1488 

7'. Dickson's Heirs, 753 

z>. Parker, 2035 

zf. Saville, 782 
Dicus V. Hall, 1440 
Dietrick z'. Noel, 2296 
Diffendorf z/. Reformed Cal. Church, 34 
Digby 7'. Atkinson, logS, 1316, 1317 
Digby, Ex Parte, v. Jones, 1242 
Digg s Case, 1839, 1843 
Digg's Lessee v. Jarman, 1810 
Dighton z^. Tomlinson, 319 
Dikeman v. Norrie, 1634 
Dillaye v. Greenougb, 1696 
Diller v. Brubaker, 1728, 1735 

V. Roberrs, 1133, 1317 
Dillingham v, Fisher, 2306, 2307 

V. Hoffman, 2221, 2241 

V. Jenkins, 975 

V. Snow, 234 
Dillon V. Brown, 1026, 1029, 1030, 1296, 2102 

V. Birare, 2133 

V. Byrare, 2133 

V. Byrne, 1491, 1496, 1497 

V, Dillon, 525 

V. Frayne, 1559 

V, Freine, 410 

V. Parker, 946 

V. Plaskett, 2083 

V. Wilson, 2260, 2261 
Dilrow V. Bone, 1791 
Dilworth v, Mayfield, 1960, 1965 

V. Sinderling, 1768 
Dimmick v. Dimmick, 1949 
Dinion v. Delmonico, 1241 
Dimond v. Billingslea, 766 
Dimsdale v. Robertson, 1051 
Dinehart v. Thompson, 1229 

V. Wilson, 1229, 1234, 1909 
Dingley v, Buffum, i45t '204, 1266 

V. Dingley, 1568 
Dingman v. Kelly, looi 
Dinnan v. Nichols, 2151 
Dings V. Parshall, 2136, 2150 
Dinsdale v, Ives, 1296 
Dinwiddie v. Bell, 1906 
DiDpers at Tunbridge Wells, 1364 
Dircksz'. Brant, 1205, 1209. 1210 
Disborough V. Outcalt, 1748 



Disbrow v Folger, 1984 

District Attorney v. Lynn & Boston R. Co., 5 
District Township of Carwin v. Moorhead, 995 
Ditchett V. Hpuyten Duyvil & P. M. R. Co., 

1202 
Diver z'. Diver, 1024, 1940, 1951, 1952 
Divine e/. Mitchum, 1671, 1963 
Dix z/. Atkins, 13 14 

V. Burford, 1733 
Dixfield V. Newton, 2100, 2103 
Dixie, Doe d., v. Davies, 1265, 1275 
Dixon V. Baty, 1215 

V. Dixon, 2007 

V. Dixon's Exrs., 1407, 1410 

V. Haley, 2270 

V. McCue, 956 

V. Niccolls, 1230, 1231, 2255, 2257, 2258 

V. Nicolls, 2250, 2251 

z'. Saville, 940 
Doak z/. Donelson's Lessee, 1150, 1266, 1294 

V. Wiswell, 127 
Doane v. Bodger, 1891, 1892. 2208 

z/. Doane, 509, 141 1, 1421 
Dob V. Halsey, 1240, 1242, 1243 
Dobbin V. Hewett, 2056 

V. Rex, igSS 
Dobbins v. Duquid, 1245 

V. Lusch, 1280, 1285, 1295 
Dobschuetz v. HoUiday, 123, 1225, 1226 
Dobson's Estate, 76 
Dobson V. Butler, 771, 920 

V. Dobson, 732 

V. Lord, 2089 

V. Murphy, 878 
Docker v. Somes, 76, 1715, 1761 
Dockery v. Noble, 2103 

Dockham z'. Parker, 1231, 1234, 1239, 1267, 2255 
Doda 7'. Burchell, 2211 
Dodd V. Acklom, 1161 

V. Burchall, 2216 

V. Watson, 545, 558, 1898 
Dodds V. Snyder, 2153 

V. Wilson, 1034 
Dodge V. Berry, 71, 72 

V. Cole, 1622, 1760 

7J. Dodge, 936 

V. Evans, 2004, 2005 

V. Kinzey, 1944 

V. Kinzy, 1919 

V. Manning 1760 

V. Moore, 318 

V. Potter, 2122 

V. Stacy, 2206 

V. Woolsey, 76 

V. Wright, 1 1 54 
Dodgley v. Tolberry, 1023 
Dodkins z/. Kuykendall, 1384 
Dodson z/. Ball, 328, 329, 336, 500, 1602, 1655, 
1674, 1694, 1695, 1736, 1737, 1798, 1799 

V, Davis, 831 

V Hall, 1003 

V. Hay, 611, 695 
Doe V. Allen, 308, 331, 533 

V. Austin, 1 148 

V. Baines, 308 

V. Barton, 2092 

V. Bateman, 1107, 1109 

V. Batten, 1345 

V. Bernard, 2357 

V. Bevan, 257, 1057, 1113 

V. Birch, 1058, 1059, 1138 

V. Bird, 1914 

V. Bliss, 1058 

V. Britain, iSao, 1844 

V, Brown, 66r, 662, 1362, 1370, 2299 

V. Burt, 64, 66 

V. Campbell, 2299 

V. Carter, 274 

V. Chamberlaine, 1259, 1290 

V. Chapman, 202 

V. Charlton, 425 

V. Chase, 993 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CXlll 



. Claridge, 1607 
'. Clark, 2341 

. Clarke, 260, 272, 340, 343 
'. Corrie, 271 
. Crai^er, 416, 447, 472 
'. David, 1113 
'. Davies, 1261 
'. Donovau, 1338, 1339 
>. Dowail, 2300 
'. Driscoll, 271 
'. Bugan's Exrs., s^S 
'. Dyball, 23 
'. Kilis, 322 
'. Fenn, igoi 
'. Finch, 456 
'. Flanagan, 523 
'. Fiynn, T141 
'. Freeman, 271 
'. Fyldes, 333, 340 
'. GaiUers, H13 
'. Georgia R. & B. Co., 2324 
'. Gilbert, 307 
'. Godwin, 1139, 1146 
'. Green, 13 11 
: Grover, 993 
'. Harris, 1788 
'. Harter, 312, 343 
'. Hawks, 113 
'. Hicks, 1596,, 1797 
'. Hodgson, 1022 
'. Holmes, 340, 344 
'. Homfray, 1560 
'. Howland, 337 
I. Hughes, 1344 
'. Hull, 1346, 1347, 1348 
'. Hutton, 6go, 184S 
'. Ironmonger, 300, 1605 
'. Jones, 456, 1215, 1868, 1869 
'. Keen, 359, 363 
'. Killen, 617, 618 
'. Kinney. 312 
'. Knightley, 1311 
'. Lainckbury, 2, 307 
'. Lamb, 2257 
'. Langlands, 2, 307 
'. Laniug, 473 
'. Lanius, 2251, 2258 
'. Lawder, 1282 
'. Laxion, 525 
'. Lazenby, 216 
'. Maisey, 1279 
'. Marriott, 1149 
'. McKilvain, 2304 
'. McLoskey, 2029, 2063, 2064, 2104 
'. Miller, i2go 
'. Milward, 1344 
'. Morgan, 2, 322 
'. Morris Canal Co., 2325 
'. Needs, 1595 
. Nicholls, z88, 299 
. Oliver, 2323 
. Palmer, 1344, 1345 
, Parrott, 1920, 1940 
. Pearson, 259, 261, 262, 263 
. Pegge, 1 148 
. Perkins, 1353 
. Porter, 1306 
. Presser, 1913 
. Pritchard, 1349 
. Prosser, 1915 
, Raffan, 1317, 1335 
. Reade, 1713 

. Reynolds, 1144, 1148, 1212 
. Richards, 340, 342, 344, 1280 
. Rideout, 1306 
. Ries, 1000 

. Rivers, 387, 600, 692, 693, 702, 703 
. Rooke, 1837 
. Routledge, 299 
. Rutledge, 1553 
, Salkeld, 1558 
Scott, 1337 



Doe v. Scudamore, 694 

v. Scuddamore, 693 

t>. Seaton, 1074, 1149 

Vk Shewin, 1102, 1152 

V. Simpson, 970, 973, 980, 1597, 1711 

V. Smaridge, 132 1 

p. Smith, 1788, 1S31 

V, Snelling, 340, 343 

V. Spry, 1 184 

V. Staples, 1713 

V. Thomas, 1296 

w. Timins, 780, 1597 

V. Tolfield, 307 

zi. Turner, 1296, 1348 

V, Vincent, 1837 

V. Wadell, 2283 

V, Walters, 2302 

V. Watts, 1254 

V. Williams, 307, 309, 312 

z/. Wilson, 546 

t'. Wood, 1257, 1261, 1262, 1301, 1306 

^. Wright, 331, 1743 

V. Wrightmau, 13 11 

v, Wroot, 1713 

e-. Wichele, 363, 387 
Doe d. Abdy&, Stevens, 1139, 1146 
Doe d. Allen v Calvert, 1040 
Doe d. Anglesea o. Churchwardens of Rugley, 

1869 
Doe d. Aslin v. Summereett, 1027 
Doe d. Bastow v. Cox, 1265, 13 18, 1326 
Doe d. Bennett v. Long, 1309 
Doe d. Biggs v. White, 1039, 1040 
Doe d. Birtwliistle ?'. Vardill, 22S8, 2289 
Doe d. Blacknell v. Plowman, 1744 
Doe d. Blomfield tt. Eyre, i82ii, 1829, 1S30 
Doe d. Bly v. Colman, 1040 
Doe d. Booley z'. Roberts, 2 
Doe d. Booth v. Field, 1605 
Doe d. Bothell v. Martyr, 1626 
Doe d. Bowerman c. Sybouni, 1742, 1743 
Doe d. Brune 7/. Martyn, 1596 
Doe d. Bryan v, Bancks, 1058, 1138 
Doe d. Buddie v. Lines, 13 10 
Doe d. BuUeu v. Mills, 1148 
Doe d, Burne v. Prideaux, 1040 
Doe d. Burrell u, Perkins, 1309 
Doe d. Cadogan v. Ewart, 300, 315, 322, 1553, 

T577. 1597, 1605, 1606 
Doe d. Calvert f. Frowd, 1309 
Doed. Campbell v. Scott, 1339 
Doe d. Carson v. Baker, 1255, 1278 
Doe d. Carter zj. Barnard, 2299 
Doe d. Chadboni ?'. Green, 1303, 1314, 1333 
Doe d. Cheese z/. Creed, 1309 
Doe d. Clark z>. Smaridge, 1136, 1303, 1307, 1314, 

1333. 1335 
Doe d. Clarke w. Clarke, 2280 
Doe d. Clun z>. Clarke, 1309 
Doe d. Collins z'. Weller, 1025, 1264, 1323 
Doe d. Cooper v. Finch, 1807 
Doe d. Cornwall 7/. Matthews, 13 10 
Doe d. Cox V. Day, 1040 
Doe d. Crisp v. Barber, 1352 
Doe d. Croft zi. Tidbury, 1215, 1306 
Doe d. Daggett z'. Snowden, 1308 
Doe d. Darke v. Bowditch, 1150 
Doe d. Darlington v. Bond, 1140, 1146 

V. Ulph. 1 152 
Doe d. Davenish z'. Moffatt, 1310 
Doe d. Davies z'. Davies, 486, 1594, 1597 

zf. Gatacre, 461 

z>. Thomas, 1334 
Doe d. Davis z;. Evans, 1309 

V. Vincent, 1S28 
Doe d, De Rutzen 7>. Lewis, 1148, 1863, igor 
Doe d. Dixie v. Davies, 1265, 1275 
Doe d. Doremus v. Zabriskie, 427 
Doe d. Dormer z/. Wilson, 1920, 1930, 1939 
Doe d. Dyke v. Whittingham, 1570 
Doe d, Dymoke z>. Withers, 1039 
Doe d. Egremont v. Langdon, 1743 



CXIV 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Doe d. Evans v. Evans, 307 
Doe d. Fisher v. Giles, 1279 

V. Prossefj 518 
Doe d. Foster v. Waudlass, 1060 

V. Williams, 1309 
Doe d. Fowler z/. Peck, 1074, 1075, 1152, 1868, 

1869 
Doe d. Godsell v. Inglis, 1310 
Doe d. Gratrex v. Hompray, 299, 1574, 1583, 

1606 
Doe d. Graves z/. Wells, 1144, 1145, 1336 
Doe d. Gray v. Stanion, 1276, 1290 
Doe d. Grubb v. Burlington, 549, 550 

V. Grubb, 1309 
Doe d. Hall v. Tunnel!, 2084, 2091 
Doe d. Hallen v. Ironmonger, 1709 
Doe d. Hammond v. Cooke, 1743, 1744 
Doe d. Hampton v. Shelter, 1811 
Doe d. Harrington v. Dill, 341 
Doe d. Harris v. Masters, 1062, 1861 
Doe d. Harrison v. Murrell, 1215 
Doe d. Harvey v. Francis, 1318, 1326 
Doe d Hatt v. Miller, 1272 
Doe d. Hayes z/- Sturges, 1021 
Doe d. Herbert v. Thomas, 348, 1814 
Doe d. Hogg V. Taylor, 1308 
Doe d. Hollingsworth v. Stennett, 1269, 1270, 

1271, 1278, 1284, 1290 
Doe d. Holt V. Harrocks, 607 
Doe d. Howell, z'. Howell, 1294 
Doe d. Hull V. Greenhill, 1579 

V. Wood, 1265, 1280, 1306, 1320, 1325 
Doe d. Hurrell v. Hunell, 309 
Doe d. Jeffries v. Whittick, 1309 
Doe d. Jones v. Jones, 1261, 1275 
Doe d. Knight v. Nepean, 522 

V. Quigley, 1269, 1278, 1293 
Doe d, Knott v. Lawton, 312 
Doe d. Lancashire v. Lancashire, 228a 
Doe d, Landsell v. Gower, 1309 
Doe d. Lean v. Lean, 310 
Doe d. Leicester©. Briggs, 1560, 1574, 1607 
Doe d. Lewis z'. Reed, 1306 

z>. Rees, 1215 
Doe d. Litscombe v. Yates, 265 
Doe d. Lloyd w. Passingham, 1556, 1558, 1559, 

1583, 1655 
,Doe d. Lockwood v, Clarke, 1076 
Doe d. Lord v. Crago, 1265, 132c, 1324 
Doe d. Martin z/. Watts, 1299, 1307, 1308, 1318, 

1319, 1320, 1325, 1337 
Doe d. Mitchinson v. Carter, 1056, 1057, 1105, 

II 13, 1869 
Doe d. Moncic v. Geekie, 1314, 1333 
Doe d. Muller v. Claridge, 1797 
Doe d. Muston v. Gladwin, 1152 
Doe d. NichoU v. McKaeg, 1258, 1260, 1261, 

1275 
Doe d» Otley v. Mannmg, 1626 
Doe d. Parry v. Hazell, 1328, 1335, 1337, 1340, 

1341 
Doe d. Peacock v. Raffau, 1328, 1339, 1341, 1342 
Doe d. Pearson v. Ries, looi 
Doe d. Pennington v. Taniere, 1320, 1331, 1332 
Doe d. Player v. Nicholls, 1553, 1595, 1597, 

1694, 1797 
Doe d. Phillip v. Benjamin, looi 
Doe d. Phillips v. Butler, 1336 

7'. Rollings, 1309 
Doe d. Pidgen v. Richards, 1263, 1293, 1295 
Doe d. Pitt V. Hogg, 1146 
Doe d. Pratt v. Timins, 1595, 1596 
Doe d. Price v. Price, 1267, 1293, 1326 
Doe d. Prior v. Ongley, 1266 
Doe d. Puddicombe v. Harris, 1308 
Doe d. Rains z*. Keller, 1150 
Doe d. Read v. Ridout, 1335 
Doe d. Rendle, 1040 
Doe,d. Rigge v. Bell, 1022, 1136, 1323 
Doe d. Riggs v. Bell, 1013, 1014 
Doe d. Roberts v. Polgrean, 1360, 1361 
Doe d. Robertson z*. Gardiner, 1320 



Doe d. Robinson v. Dobell, 1310 
Doe d. Roby v. Maisey, 1295, 1350 
Doe d, Rogers v, Coote, 1039 

V. Pullen, 1258, 1294 
Doe d. Routledge, 1626 
Doe d. Shelley v. Edlin, 300, 1595, 1605 
Doe d. Sheppard v. Allen, 1104 
Doe d. Shore z-. Porter, 1135, 1136, 1254) 1270, 

1299, 1301, 1308, 1334 
Doe d. Smyth v. Smyth, 1788, 1844 
Doe d. Spencer v. Clark, 436 
Doe d. Spicer v. Lea, 1308 
Doe d. Stevens v. Scott, 1605 
Doe d. Strickland v. Spence, 1333, 1337 
Doe d. Sutton v. Harvey, 1040 
Dee d. Terry v. Collier, 1574, 1655 
Doe d. Tilt zj. Stratton, 1269, 1293, 1310 
Doe d. Thompson v. Gibson, 1549, 1550 

V. Pitcher, 1687 , 
Doe d. Thomson v. Amey, 1313, 1316 
Doe d. Tucker v. Morse, 1325 
Doe d. Upton v. Wilherwick, 1206 
Doe d. Warner z/. Browne, 1307, 1308, 1313, 1320 

1336 
Doe d. Watt v. Morris. 1347 
Doe d. Webb v. Dixon, 1008 
Doe d. Westmoreland v. Smith, 1314 
Doe d. Whayinan v. Chaplin, 1027 
Doe d. Wheeldon v. Paul, 1154 
Doe d. Whitaker v. HaleS, 2065 
Doe d. White zj. Simpson, 1595, 1596 
Doe d. Whitehead v. Pittman, 1141 
Doe d. Wilkinsons v. Fleming, 1923 
Doe d. Williams v. Cooper, 1309 

V. Matthews, 1039 

V. Pasquali, 1309 

V. Smith, 1336 
Doe d. Willis" z*. Martin, 1559 
Doe d. Wilson v. Phillips, 1150 
Doe d. Woodcock v. Barthrop, 1597, 1605 
Doe d. Wooden v. Shotwell, 5 
Doe d. Wright v. Gooden, 234 

V. Plumptre, 651, 1366 
Doe d. Wyatt v. Byron, 1108 
Doe ex d. Bastow v. Cox, 1256, 1275, 1278, 1294, 

1295 
Doe ex d. Birthwhistle z). Vardell, 719 
Doe ex d. Bunny v. Rout, 2 
Doe ex d. Burkett v. Chapman, 307 
Doe ex d. Cnllender v. Sherman, 1217, 1219 
Doe ex d. Carson zj. Baker, 1258, 1260, 1269, 

1271, 1275, 127S, 1294, 1301, 1324 
Doe ex d. Castletou v. Samuel, 1308 
Doe ex d. Chandler v. Douglass, 2328 

V. Smith, 426 
Doe ex d. Clarke v. Clarke, 618 
Doe ex d. Clinton v. Campbell, 517 
Doe ex d. Cook v. Webb, 734, 838 
Doe ex d. Cooper, 423 
Doe ex d. Cotton v. Stenlake, 345 
Doe ex d. Cox r. Day, 2353 
Doe ex d. Dalton -v. Jones, 564 
Doe ex d. Davison v. Frew, 791 
Doe ex d. De Peyster v. Howland, 1025 
Doe ex d. Doremus v. Zabriskie, 448 
Doe ex d. Evans v. Evans, 202 
Doe ex d. Flower v. Pick, 1074, 1075, 1152, 1S68, 

i86g 
Doe ex d. Freeland v. Burt, 1015 
Doe ex d. Garnons v. Knight, 1786 
Doe ex d. Glenn v. Peters, 1225 
Doe ex d. Gorham v. Brcnon, 1216, 1217 
Doe ex d. Gouverneur's Heirs v. Robertson, 

214, 215, 675 
Doe ex d. Green z>. Baker, 1138 
Doe ex d. Groves v. Groves, 1254, 1261, 1275 
Doe ex d. Grubb v. Burlington, 564 
Doe ex d. Harrington v. Dill, 326 
Doe ex d. Hollingsworth v. Stennett, 130S 
Doe ex d. Jackson zi. Ashburner, 993 
iJ)oe ex d. Jeff v. Robinson, 527 
Doe ex d. King v. Frost, 321 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



fXV 



Doe ex d. Kluge v. Lachenour, 1217 

Doe ex d. Knight v. Quigley, 1270 

Doe ex d. Lloyd ». Passingham, 298 

Doe ex d. Lockwood v, Clark, 1113 

Doe ex d. Longw. Prigg, 314, 315 

Doe ex d. Lunsford v. Alexander, 1216, 1217 

Doe ex d. Lyster 7'. Goldwiu, 6S9, 2062 

Doe ex d. Marriott v. Edwards, 1148 

Doe ex d. Martin v. Watts, 1256, 1270, 1299, 

1313 
Doe ex d. Miller v. Rogers. 673 
Doe ex d. Morgan v. Morgan, 307 
Doe ex d. Newton?^, Roe, 1159 
Doe ex d. Nutt v. Nutt, 752, S35 
Doe ex d. Palk v, Marchetti, 1139 
Doe ex d. Patterson 2>. Richards, 1251, 1260 
Doe ex d. Peyster v. Rowland, 1931, 1932, 1933, 

2346 
Doe ex d. Pidgeon v. Richards, 1251, 1260 
Doe ex d. Pitt^-. Hogg, 1105 
X>oe ex d. Player zi. NichoUs, 314, 315, 970, 1711 
Doe ex d. Poor v. Considine, 1797 
Doe ex d. Rawlings v. Walker, 971, 977, 978, 

1 163 
Doe ex d, Reade v. Reade, 1707 
Doe ex d. Regge v. Bell, 1270 
Doe ex d. Riddell v. Gwinnell, 709, 711, 790, 

S53 
Doe ex d. Rigger. BeU, 1135 
Doe ex d. Shore v. Porter, 1310 
Doe ex d. Thomson w. Amey, 563 
Doe exd. Thorley ». Thorley, 337, 487 
Doe ex d. Thorn v. Phillips, 340, 342 
Doe ex d. Tomes v. Cliamberlaine, 1272 
Doe ex d. Upton v. Witlierick, 47 
Doe ex d. Webb v. Dixon, 970 
Doe exd. Wheedon 11. Lea, 315 
Doe ex d. Wheeldon ?•. Paul, 1059, io6r 
Doe ex d. White v. Simpson, 1710 
Doe exd. Winders. Lawes, 1163 
Doe exd. Woodcock v. Barthrop, 1710, 1711 
Doebler's Appeal, 249, 1694 
Doellner v. Tynan, 5 
Doggett V, Hart, 1741, 1744, 1745 

V. Norton, 1212 
Doherty*. Allman, 554 
Doidge V. Bowers, 1255, 1324 
Dolan V. Mayor, etc, of Baltimore. 1717 
Dold V. Geiger, 1363, 1364, 1367, 1368, 1369 
Dole If, Olmstead, 1727 
Dolese ». Barberot, 1052, 1331 
Dolf V. Bassett, S41, 843 
Doll V. Anderson, 982 
Dollman v Harris, L451 
Dolman z'. Cools, 2069, 2079, 2147 
Dolph V. White, iioo 
Domestic Tel. & T. Co. z-. Metropolitan TeL 

& T. Co., 1087 
Dominick z/. Michael, 645, 985, 1031, 1S06, 2343 
Dommet v. Bedford, 260, 272, 274 
Donahue's Estate, 355, 2278 
Donahue v. Hubbai^, 1955 

V. Mayor of New York, 5 
Donalds v. Plumb, 1580 
Donaldson 7>. Bank of Cape Fear, 1962 

v. Lamprey, 1465 

■D. Phillips, 368, 2058, 2289 

V. Rouzan, 1488, 1502 

V. Smith, 1006 

V. Volts, 1509 
Donegan v. Wade, 267 
Donellan v. Read, 2252 
Donhaven's Appeal, 2334 
Donkersley z/. Levy, 1 162 
Donley v. Hayes, 2155 

V. Hays, 2099,2105, 2107, 2111 
Donnell v. Harshe, 1239 
Donnelly v. Decker, 199 

•V. Donnely, 751, 752, 755, 770 

V. Simonton, 1999, 2132 

V. Thieben, 1187 
Donnelly's Heirs v. Donnelly's Heirs, 751, 769 



Donnels v. Edwards, 1885 
Donner v. Redenbaugh, 1476, 1484 
Donnor v. Quartermas, 1975 
Douoghue V. Chicago, 856 
Dononue v. Chase, 2090 

7'. McNichol, 1682 
Donovan v. Donovan, 309, 312 

V. Pitcher, 236 
Doody ?'. Pierce, 2127, 2128, 2129 
Doolan v. McCauley; 1020 
Dooley ?'. Baynes, 627 

V, Potter, 2033 
Doolittle v. Blakesley, 1900 

V. Eddy, 970, 1268, 1272, 1283, 2212 

V. Lewis, 1820, T835, 1843 
Door V. Dudderar, 2081 
Dopp V. Albee, 1504, 1517 
Doran V. Chase, 11G6 
Dorchester v. Coventry, 823, 843, 844 

■V. Effingham, 1692 
Doremus, Doe d., v. Zabriskie, 427 
Borland v. Borland, 180/ 
Dormer's Case, 1147 
Borr z'. Barney, 1317, 1322, 1323 

V. Harrahan, 267, 268 

V. Munsell, 1033 

V. Wainwright, 434, 437 
Dorrance v. Jones, 1114, 1117. 2266 

V. Scott, 1376, 1674 
Dorrance's Admr- v. Commonwealth, 50 
Borrell v. Johnson, 1125, 1296, 1310, 1346, 1347, 

1350. '357 
Dorrill v. Stephens, 1132 
Borrow v. Kelly, 2139 
Dorsett 7>, Cray, 2251, 2252, 2257, 2258 
Dorsey v. Dorsey, 1707, 1766, 1769 

z*. Eagle, 1209 

7>. Hall, 2015 

z/. McFarland, 1450, 1473 

V. St. Louis. A. & T. H. R. R. Co., 1071 

V. Smith, 746 
Dostal z'. McCadden, no, 144, 145 
Doswell z'. Be La Lauza, 2299 
Botan z/. Russell, 1997, 1998, 2085 
Dothard v. Benson, 2296, 2298 
Bott z/. Cunnington, 408 

V. Willson, 1S78, 1884 
Botterer z'. Pike, 1622 
Boty V. Baker, 746 

z/. Burdick, 1140, 1159, 1217 

7f. Gorhani, 131, 142, 147, 1137, 1187 

V. Mitchell, 1375, 1562 
Bougal V. Fryer, 2^9, 263 
Bougail V. Bougall, 1690 
Dougherty v. Jack, 520 

ZI. McColgan, 2088, 2168 

zf. Moriett's Lessee, 534 

V. Thompson, 1277 
Doughty ZI. Browne, 306, 310, 331, 334 

V. Hope, 1515 

v. Sheriff, 1510 
Bouglas V. Anderson, 1317 

V. Cruger, 677, 1372, 1604, 1753, 1798 

Zf. Dickinson, 764 

z;. Feay, 916, 934 

v. Scot, 2300 

V. Shumway, 55, 2364 
Douglass V. IJryce, 1640, 1647 

z>. Clark, 2025, 2026 

V. Cline, 98, 2066 

Zf. Darin, 2084 

V. Dixon, 765 

z'. Durin, 2100, 2102, 3147 

Zf. Fulda, 1039 

V. Kline, 1036 

V. McCoy, 733, 736, 739, 907 

V. Scott, 1349, 2358 

V. Wells, 2166 

V. Wiggins, 564, 1 107 
Bougrey v. Topping, 923, 924 
Boupe V. Cenin, 1083, 1106, 1176, iigi, 1196, 
ii97j 120a 



CXVl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Dow V. Dow, 707, 776 

V. Jewell, 1646, 1651, 1654, 1976 

V. McKenney, 2296 
Dowels -u. Pond, 80 

V. Henniiigs, 2231, 2236 

V. Salliotte, 1953 
Downer -u. Button, 2107 

V. Clement, 2149 

V. Fox, 2136, Z13S 

V. Smith, 2321 

V. South Ralston Bank, 2036 

V, South Royalton Bank, 2123 

V, Wilson, 2075, 2130, 2172 
Downes v. Grazebrook, 1580, 1621, 2163 

V. Turner. 186S 
Downey v. Borden, 338 
Downie v. White, 136 
Downing -v. Marshall, 1559, 1603 

■D. Palmateer, 2140, 2165 

V. Wherrin, 322, 323 
Downs V. Allen, 732, 1036 

V. Cooper, 1149 

7'. Hopkins, ic&% 2087 
Dows V. Congdon, 83 
Doyal V. Smith, 271 
Doyle V. Blake, 1599, 1786 

V. Cobuni, 1398, 1403, 1405, 1406, 1450, 
1462, 147S 

V. Gibbs, 1287, 12S9 

V. Lord, 2223 

V, MuUady, 414. 415, 443, 467, 475 

V. Murphy, 1615, 1704 

V. O'Neill, 1316 

V. Teas, 1777 

V. White, 2031 
Doyler z/. Attorney-General, 181& 
Doyley v. Attorney-General, 1663, 1685, 1841 
Dozier v. Gregory, 565 
Drake v. Bowditcb, 1 138 

V. Gilmore, 671 

V. Mcx>re, 1432 

V. Newton, g8i, 996, 1013, 1264, 1322 

v, Ramsey, 905, gS6, 1031 

V. Root, 1441, 2076, 2078 

V. Rout, 1479 

V. Wells, 55, 56, 2313 
Drane v. Gregory, igSS. 1976 

V. Gregory's Heirs, 1150, 1222 

V. Gunter, 1787 
Draper 7'. Baker, 783 

V. Draper, 1361 

V, Jackson, 1S37, 1931, 1932,2014 

V. Stouvenal, 1035 
Drayto-i v. Grimke, 1835 

V. Marshall, 2095, 2158 
Drenuei) zk Walker, 831, igo6 
Dresbock v. McArthur, 2305 
Dresser v. Dresser, 1593, 1629 
Dreutzer v. Bell, 1480, 1481 
Drew 7'. Lockett, 2136 

V. Rust, 810, Z182 
Drewery v. Montgomery, 824, 1964 
Drewry z;. Barron, 331 
Drexler v. Tyrrell, 2059 
Driggs V. Dwight, 1092 
Drink v. Richtmyer, 982 
Driver v. Hussey, 456 

•u. Maxwell, 1083 
Drohan v. Drohan, 1037 
Drown V. Smith, 555, 2319 
Druce v. Dennison, 943 
Drucker v. Rosenstein, 1442 
Druhan z*. Adam, 1152, 1228 
Druid Park Heights Co. v. Oeltinger, 1599 
Drum V. Simpson, 1648 
Drummer v. Pitcher, 944 
Drummond v. Duke of St. Albans, 1027,2162 

f. Hopper, 1033 

V. Sent, 2094 
Drury v. Batchelaer, 1465 

V. Clark, 2150 

V. Drury, 923, 952, 957, 960 



Drury t/. Foster. 882, 2340 

V, Milwaukee & S. R. R. Co., 1586, 1616 

V. Tremont Imp. Co., 2068, 2069 
Drusadow v. Wilde, 310 
Druse v. Wheeler, 2212 
Drybutter v. Bartholomew, 42, 44, 816 
Dryden v. Haiiway, 1650, 1697, 1699 

V. Frost, 491 
Drysdale^s Appeal, 1751 
Dubber v. Trollop, 409 
Dublin & W. R. Co. v. Black, 1031 
Dubois' Appeal, 2102 
Dubois V. Beaver, 56, 57, 570, 2235 

V. Campau, 1990 

V. Hull, 2008, 2009 

V. Kelly, 55, 119, 1186, 1204 

V. Marshall, 2295 

zi. McLean, 2332 
Dubose V. Dubose, 1749 
Dubs 7/. Dubs, 616, 654, 65s, 675, 678, 679, 685, 

687, 781, 1372, 1561 
Ducey Lumber Co. v. Lane, 2261 
Ducker v. Belt, 2149 

V. Rapp, 2267 
Ducland v. Roseau, 2078 
Ducommun's Appeal, 1733 
Dudden 71. Guardians, 2231 
Dudley v. Bergen, 2130 

V. Bosworth, 1639, 1640, 1643, 1646, 1653 

V. Cadwell, 2104, 2300 

V. Caldwell, 1995 

7*. Davenport, 963 

V. Dickson, 2008 

V. Eastman, 927 

V. Foote, 105, 107 

V. Grayson, 2014 

V. Hurst, 106, 117, 132, 13$ 

V. Kelly, 2261 

7/. Shaw, 1473, 1480 

V. Sumner, 2313 

V. Warde, 128 

V. Witter, 1777 
Dudley Canal v. Grazebrook, 2227 
Duer V. Boyd, 416, 433 
Duff V. Beauchamp, 1919 

7'. Wilson, 1080, io8r, I2ZO, 1990 
Duffy zi. Calvert, 1578, 1749 

zi. Duncan, 695, 1715 

V. Ins. Co., 1561 

V. Ogden, 1338 
Dufour V. Camfranc, 1488, 150Z 
Dugan V. Gittings, 679, 959 

V, Massey, 792, 914 
Dugdale, Re, 249, 252, 499 

V. Robertson, 92 
Dugger V. Dugger, 683, 699, 1464 
Du Hourmelin v. Sheldon, 1657 
Duhring ZI. Duhring, 786, 787, 824 
Duke ZI. Balme, 2005 

ZI. Brandt, 799 

Z.I. Hague, 1026 

z/. Harper, gg6, 1141, 1144, 1146, 1148, 
1150, 1256, 1264, 1284, 1297, 1309, 1322, 
1348 

V. Reed, 1407 
Duke of Cumberland v. Graves, 221 
Duke of Norfolk's Case, 372, 1544 
Duke of Rutland v. Hudson, 1865 
Dulanty v. Pynchon, 1461 
Dulency v. Green, 1033 
Duley V. Kelley, 1261, 2261 
Dumaresly v. Fishly, 594, sgs, 751 
Dumas, Eg parte, ly^t 
Dumey z'. bchoeffler, 271, 1858 
Dummcrz/. Pitcher, gi8 
Dumn V. Rothermel, 996, 997, 1284, 1320, 1325, 

i335f 1338 
Dumond v. Magee, 664 

71. Strungham, 341 
Dumont z>. Dufore, 1900 

z>. Kellogg, 2225 
Dumoulin v. Druit, 595 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CXVll 



Dumphy v. Riddle, 8io 
Dumpor's Case, iS68 
Dumpor v. Symmons, 1250 
Dunbar v. Juuiper, 2262 
Dimbartou v, Franklin, 596, 752 
Duncan's Appeal, 794, 913 
Duncan v. Alexander, 1391, 1393 

z'. Bickford, 1947 

v. Blake, 2255 

V. City of Terre Haute, 670, 796, 821, 828, 
893. 921 

V. Dick, 720, 869 

V. Drury, 811, 2097 

7'. Duncan, 596, 752,935, 948, 2365 

V. Farrer, 1^3, 1969 

7'. Helm, 2057 

7'. Hodges, 2338, 2339, 2340 

"'. Jaudon, 1623, 1661, 1740, 1761, 1765 

v. McCullougli, 1033 

V. Miller, 2025, 2026 

z>. Potts, 1260, 1269, 1271, 1313 

V. Smith, 810, 2097 

V. Sylvester, 1905, 1911, 1924, 1967, 1979 
Dunch T'. Kent, 1749 
Duncomb v, Dunconib,8i5 

v. New York, H. & N. R. Co., 1768 
Duncombe v. Felt, 1223 

V. Mayer, 491 
Dundas v. Bowler, 2101 

7'. Hitchcock, 904 
Dunham v. Biscoff, 2072 

V. Chatham, 1947 

•u. Cincinnati, P. Ei C. R. Co., 2018 

V. Dey, 2 121 

V. Isett, 2018 

V. Osborne, 703, 761, 762, 798, 815, 820, 
826 

zi. Railway Co., 2019 

V. Rogers, 1240, 1648 

71. Wnght, 2345 
Dunk V. Hunter, 1281 
Dunker z/. Chedic, 1482, 1483 
Uunklee v. Adams, 1871, 1S72 

V. Wilton R. Co., 2242 
Dunkley v. Van Buren, 2158, 2165 
Dunlap V. BuUard, 1072, 1115, 1124, 1139, 2257 

V. Thomas, goS 

V. Wilson, 2073 
Dunlop 2'. Avery, 2 118 

V. Ball, 518 

V. Harrison's Exr., 1759 
Dunn V. Bagby, 1190 

V. Barton, 1141 

V. Bryan, 543 

V. Keeling, 1806 

V. Kelly, 2272 

V. I^eidy, 1763 

V. Raley, 2038 

V. Rogers, 2068 

V. Rothermel, 1275 

V. Sargent, 1910 

V. Tillery, 1292 

V. Tozer, 1450, 1452, i4S9» 1462, 1473, 
1475 
Dunne v. Dunne, 265 

V. Ferguson, 46, 50, 51, 52 

V. Trustees, 1258, 1261, 1269, 12S1, 1293, 
1295, 1339 
Dunner v. Pitcher, 779 
Dunnica v. Coy, 1641 
Dunning w. Finson, 1280, 1290 

V. The Ocean National Bank, 94, 1577, 
1662, 1752, 2164 

V. Vandusen, 486 

V. Wherren, 470 
Dunscomb v. Dunscomb's Exrs., 607, 611, 630, 

679, 680, 695, J715, 1716, 1725 
Dunseth v- Bank of United States, 789, 823, 
842 

7'. Banks, 841 
Dunshee 7j. Grundy, 1144, 1216, 2258 

V. Parmelee, 2133 



Dunton v. Brown, 103 1 

V, Harrison's Exrs., 1621 

V. Woodbury, 1466 
Dupas V. Wassell, 9S4, 1035 
Duppa V. Mayo, 1060, 1061, 1862, 2270 

V. Mayor, i86g 
Dupre V. Thompson, 1792 
Dupree Z'. McDonald, 645 
Dupuy V. Leavenworth, 824 

V. Wickwire, 2332 
Durand v. Curtis, 2262, 2265 

V. Isaacks, 2078, 2151 
Durando v. Durando, 206,601,711,759, 761, 762, 
815,819 

V. Wyman, 11 19 
Durant ?/. Johnson, 1918 

V. Ritchie, 298, 1558 

V. Palmer, 1202 
Durel V. Boisblanc, 2213, 2223 
Durfee v. Knowles, 2033 

V. Pavitt. 1652 
Durham v. Angier, 888, 930, 931 

v. Bishop, 2072 

V. Speeke, 2272 
Durkee v. Felton, 740 

V, Stringham, 44 
Durland z'. Seller, 1463,1495, 1496,1514, 1520, 

1521 
Durr V, Sim, 1605 
Durrett v. Whiting, 2156 
Duruty v. MusaccTiia, 1947, 1948 
Duryee v. Turner, 2255 
Dusenberry v Dawson, 221 
Dustin V. Cowdry, 1357 

V. Steele, 901, 911, 912 
Dutch Church v. Mott, 1742 
Dutcher v. Culver, 2250 
Dutoit z'. Uoyle, 2279 
Dutton 7', Colby, 1274 

V. Gerrisli, 1054, 1055, 1066, 1175, 1200 

V. Ives, 2297 

V. Warschaner, 1999, 2078 
Dutro V. Wilson, 976, 1225 
Duval V. Bibb, 1549, 1566,2006 

7'. McLosky, 2077, 2078, 21 10 
Du Val V. Johnson, 2142 

V. Marshall, 1633, 1646 
Duvall V. Craig, 729 

V. Waters, 549, 550, 569, 570, 572.573, 574. 
575. 576, 577, 2334 
Dwen 7'. Blake, 2002 
Dwenger v. Geary, 41I 
Dwight V. Cutler, 1290, 1291, 2260, 2271 

ZI. Mudge, 1069 I 
Dwinel v. Perley, 799, 2105 
Dwinneli v. Edwards, 1416, 1434 
Dwyer v. Carroll, 1192, 1193 

V. Garlough, 888 

V. Newman, 1313 
Dye 7'. Cook, 1383, 1396 

z/. Mann, 1450, 1473, 1475, 1478, 2137, 
2140 
Dyer's Appeal, 1689, i6gi 
Dyer, Matter of, 1023 
Dyer 71. Brannock, 596, 751 

V. City of St. Paul, 2233 

V. Clark, 786, 787, 824, 825, 1671, 1957, 
ig6r, 1963, 1965 

V. Depui, 2247 

V. Dyer, 1633, 1646, 1647 

V. Martin, 2004 

V. Osborne, 42 

V. Sanford, 2240, 2245, 2246, 2247, 2303 

V. Shurtleff, 2163 

V. Wightman, 1067, logS, 1117,1126, 1172, 

1 175 
V. Wilber, 1894 
V. Wittle, 629 
V, Wittier, 570 
V. Wrightman, 2269 
Dye V. North American Coal Co., 1373, 
1562 



CXVIU 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Dyett V, Pendleton, 1127, 1128, 1166, 1168, 1169, 

1172, 1174 
Dyke v. Randall, 952, 953,956 
Dyke, Doe d., v. Whittingham, 1570 
Dymoke, Doe d., v. Withers, 1039 
Dyson v. CoUick, 57 

V. Sheley, 1378, 1387, 1420 

E. 

Eade v. Eade, 1627, 1629, 1632 
Eadon v. JefEcock, 90, 93 
Eads V. Retherford, 1905 

V. Rucker, 1904 
Eager v. Commonwealth, 2176 

V. Funiivall, 602, 684 
Eagle Fire Ins. Co. v. Lent, 1032, 2089, 2343 
Eagles -v. Eagles,. 861 
Kakin v. Brown, 1200 

V. St. Louis, K. C. & N. R. Co., 1041 
Eales V. England, 1630 
Eardley v. Granville, 84 
Eare v. Snow, 885 
Earl V. Beadleston, 1193, 1194, 1195 

V. De Hart, 72, 2238 

V. Grim, 310 
Earl of Buckingham v. Drury, 923 
Earl of Buckinghamshire v. Hobart, 510 
Earl of Pembroke's Case, iggi 
Earl of Pomfret v. Windsor, 1783 
Earle v. Earle, 1407, 1660 

V. Hale, 1216 

V. Reed, 2343 

z'. Washburn, 1580 

■V. Wilson, 2281 

V, Wood, 1886 
Earle's Admx. v. Hale's Admr., 1216, 1217 
Early v. Burtis, 134 

V. Friend, 1905 
Earsham v. Myers, 1923 
Eashy v. Larkington, 2064 
Easter v. Little Miami R. Co., 268 
Easterbrooks v. Tillinghast, 161 1 
Eastern R. Co. v. Boston & M. R. Co., 2327 
Eastham v. Anderson, 982 
East India Co. v. Atkyns, 216S 

V. Clavell, 1626 
East Lincolnshire R. Co., Re,c^h 
Eastman v. Amskeag Mfg. Co., 2325 

s7. Batchelder, 266, 2032 

V. Caswell, 1514 

V. Foster, 63, 140, 2022 

V. Perkins, 1000, 1002 
Easton v. Pratt, 1040 
Eaton V. Campbell, 492 

V. Eaton, 2345 

7). Green, 2038, 2043, 2049, 2052 

•V. Jacques, 979, 1074, 1077 . 

V. Mason, 2152 

z/. Simonds, 802, 803, 808, 8og, 2090, 2097, 
2172, 2182 

7). Southby, 52 

V. Straw, 487, 1820 

■V. Tillinghast, 1791 

•u. Watts, 1630 

V. Whitaker, 994, 1024, 1025, 1363, 1368 

V. Whiting, 1995, 2050, 2062 
Eaves v. Estes, ri6, 117, 132, 143, 144 
Ebbets V. Quick, 415 
Eberle v. Fisher, 888, 8go, 907 
Eberlien v, Abel, 1343 
Ebert v. Fisher, 1983 

V. Gerding, 2136, 2137 

V. Wood, 1977 
Eberts v. Fisher, 1152 
Ebey z-. Ebey, 779, 831 
Ebrand v. Dancer, 1647 
Ebsworth v. Alliance Marine Ins. Co., 631 
Eby's Appeal, 76, 291 
Echelkamp 7>. Schrader, 572 
Eckert V. Reuter, 1514, 2012 



Eckman v. Eckman, 2316, 2331, 2359 
Eddy V. Baldwin, 1647 
Edelmen v. Yeakel, 2312 
Edgarton v. Young, 520, 810, 1580 
Edge V. Worthingtou, 2002 
Edgell V. Hazens, 1480 

V. Stanfords, 2028, 2029 
Edgerton v. Hufif, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73 

V. Page, 1082, 1128, 1129, 1166, 1168, 1169 

V. Paige, 1 1 74 

V. Young, 2096, 2097, 2105, 2106, 2157 
Edgewood v. Railway Co., 2328 
Edgewood R. Co's Appeal, 2328 
Edgington v. Hefner, 2132 
Edmands v. Mut. S. F. Ins. Co., 2117 
Edmonds v. Crenshaw, 1734 

ti. Eastwood, 2254 
Edmondsou w. Fort, 1247 

V. Hyde, 1483, 14S4 

V. Kite, 1278 

V, Montague, 782 
Edmonson v. Blessing, 1450, 1467 

z', Meacham, 1481 

V. Welch, 827 

V. Welsh, 764, 765, 831 
Edmuns v. Povey, 2139 
Edmunson v. Kite, 1262, 2270 
Edrington v. Harper, 1363, 1368, 1369, 2037, 

2038,. 2047, 2052, 2053, 2054 
Edsall V. Buchanan, 2095 
Edson z*. Colbum, 1236, 1237, 

V. Munsell, 2291, 2292 
Edward's Appeal, 2272 
Edward v. Cheyne, 1562 

V. Barnes, 2, 307 

V. Bibb, 447, 815, 820, 821, 826, 889 

V. Bishop, 535 

V. Brinker, 2366 

V. Candy, 1168 

V. Culberson, 1616 

V. Culbertson, 15S6 

V. Edwards, 1425, 1649, 1653, 2009 

V. Farmers' Fire Ins. Co., 799, 2131 

V. Freeman, 19 

V. Fry, 1443 

7'. Grand Trunk R. Co., 55 

V. Hale, 1348, 1351, 1353, 1355 

V. Hall, 42 

V. Heatherington, 1200 

V. Hetherington, 1177, 1200, 2269 

V. Kearzey, 1510, 1512, 1513 

V. New York& H. R. Co., 198, 1054 

V. Perkins, 974, 975, 981 

V. Salter, 1844 

V. Sanders, 2155 

V. Sheridan, 647 

V. Slater, 1826, 1845 

V. Sleater, 1805, 1806 

V. Stevens, 1514 

71. Sullivan, 901 

V. Taliafero, 2013 

V. Trumbull, 2003, 2004 

V. University, 1781 
Edwardsville R. Co. v. Sawyer, 281, 531 
Eels z'. Lynch, 75 
Egbert v. Butter, 1733 
Ege V. Medlar, 630, 655, 656, 677, 682, 684, 1372, 

2298 
Egemont v. Hellins, 1039 
Egertou v. Brownlow, 1569, 1570, 1609 

z'. Brownlow's Estate, 1539 

V. Earle. etc., 454 
Eggz/. Devey, 267 
Eggleston v. Bradford, 2358 

V. New York & H. R. R. Co., 1282 
Egremont, Doe d. d. Langdon, 1743 
Ehle V. Quackenboss, 2275, 2276 
Ehrman v. Mayer, 2268 
Eichart v. Bargas, 1154 

Eichelberger v. Bamitz, 396, 414, 416, 418, 434 
Eicman ik Finch, 2171 
Eidson v, Fontain, 645 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CXIX 



Eitelgeorge v. Mutual House Building Asso- 
ciation, 1755 
Elbers v. United Ins. Co.. 1456 
Elder w. Reel. 8S7, 891,892,894,895,921 
]':i Dorado Co. w. Davidson, 1035 
Kldred v. Leahy, 1082, 2258 
Eldredge v. Bell, 1143 

V. Forestal, 798 

V. Forrestal, 703, 761, 815 

v. Pierce. 1524 

V. Preble, 634 
Eldridge v. Fisher, 416, 447, 472 

V. Kin^sburv 2083 

z>. Pierce, 13S1, 1476 

w. Preble, 477, 479, 491, 626 

V. See Yup t"o, , i6Sg 

V. Smith, 2DJI 
YM^.v. Cole, 1993, 1999, 2078 
Elias V. Snowden Slate Quarries, 494 

V. Verdugo, 1426 
Eliot V. Thatcher, 1378, 1379 
Elkin V. Meredith, 890 
Elkius V. Edwards, 2093, 2094 
EUcock V. Mapy, 1637 
Ellerbrock z'. Flyiin, 1144 
Ellett V, Reid, 2333 
EUice, Ex parte, 1721 
EUicot V. Welch, 777, 832, 2005 

V. Mosier, 86i, 865, 866, 868, 870, 933, 956 
ElUnger 7'. Crowl, 1623 
Ellingsworlh v. Cook, 692, 703 
Elliot V. Davis, 2356 

V. Frakes, 1924 

V. Smith, 542, 545, 546, 724 

v. Sleeper, 2133 
Elliotson V. Fleetham, 2250 
Elliott, £jr^(ir/e, 1754 

Elliott V. Aiken, 1054, 1068, 1083, 1106, 1107, 
1 1 28, 1200 

V. Armstrong, 1576, 1635 

V. Ashland Mut. Fire Ins. Co.. 2113 

V. Bishop, 129 

V. Dycke, 1212 

•V. Fisher, 76, 1560 

■V. Fitchburgh R. Co., loi 

1}. Gower, 2012, 2013 

V. Horn, 1624 

V. luce, 1034 

V. Maxwell, 2044, 2054 

V, McKay, i8g6 

V. Minto, 368, 369, 719, 2057, 2058, 2289 

•u. Morris, i8g8 

V. Nichols, 1919, 1940, 1950 

V. Northeastern R. Co., 2229, 2232 

V. Pearsall, 411 

V. PearsoU, 413, 443, 903 

V. Perasoll, 467 

V. Rhett, 2246 

V. Royal Exchange Assurance Co., 1051 

V. Sackett, 2068, 2069 

V. Stone, 1027, 1278, 1284 

V, Teal, 1364, 1366 

z/. Turner, 1871, 1872 

7'. Wood, 2001, 2038, 2163 
Ellis V. Davis, 1404 

V. Duncan, 2230 

V. Ellis, 870, 1632, 1633 

V. Fisher, 1595, 1709, 1710, 1712, 1797 

V. Foster, 2251 

V, Fusher, 336 

V. Guavas, 2148 

V. Hussey, 1998, 2077 

V. Johnson, 2071, 2166 

V. Kenyon, 2r52 

V. Leek, 2144 

If. Lewis, 943, 945 

V. Martin, 2020, 2140 

V. Pa^e, 147, 1269 

». Paige, 131,997, 1136, T137, 1187, 1252, 
1264, 1269, 1270, 1271, 1284, 1285, 1295, 
12^6, 1299, 1304, 1305, 1322, 1338 

V, White, 1400 



Ellison's Trust, Re, 1788 
Ellison V. Airey, 326 

V. Brigham, 56 

V. Daniels, 1995, 1998, 2063, 2104, 3ixx 

V. Ellison, 17Q1 
ElHss V, Kreutzinger, 2 118 

V. Nimmo, 1841 
Elloit V. Fitchburg R. Co., 72, 2228 
Ells V. Sims, 2024 
Ellsworth V. Cook, 600, 601,603, 607, 613, 630 

V. Hale, 1266, 1280 

V. Hinds, 1024, 1362, 1370 

V, Lockwood, 2074, 2136, 2137, 2138, 2150, 
2169 

V. Tartt, 1240, 1242, 1244 
Ellwell 1/. Shaw, 1043 
Elmendorf v. Carmichael, 2347 

V. Lockwood, 734, 793, 835, 896, 900, 901, 
911,923 

•v. Taylor, 1785 
Elmendorff v. Carmichael, 211, 215 
Elmer v. Leper. 2087, 2088, 2090 
Elmes V. Sutherland, 1794 
Elmore v. Marks, 2034 
Elms V. Randall, 1220, 1223 
El ore z/. Robinson, 2267 
Elsee ?». Gatward, 1183, 1191 
Elston zi. Jasper, 986 

V. Robinson, 1386, 1443, 1444, 1445 
Elton V. Eason, 1212 
Elwell V. Buruside, 1969 
Elwes V. Maw, 118, 124, 127, 12S, 129, 130 
Elwood V. Deifendorf, 2177 

V. Forkel, 13x7 

V. Klock, 819 
Ely V. Alcott, 2349 

V. Beaumont, 975 

V. Eastwood, 1516 

7'. Ely, 2009 

V. Lyon, 1456 

V. McGuire, 2077 

V. McNight, 2070 

V. Scofield, 2036, 2iog, 2110 

If. Wilcox, 2366 
Emans v. Turnbull, 98 
Emanuel v. Hunt, 2104, 2106 
Emanuel College v. Evans, 1996 
Embree v. Ellis, 712, 766, 870, 874, 876 
Kmbrey -u. Owen, 2225, 2228 
Embury v. Connor, 2323, 2324, 2327, 232S 
Emerick z>. Tavener, 1315 

V. Taverner, 1317, 1335, 1350, 1355 
Emerson v. Atwater, 2045 

V. Cutler, 1024 

V. European & M. A. R. Co., 2018, 2019 

V. Fiske, 2212 

V. Harris, 763 

V. Proprietors, 730 

V. Simpson, 1867, 1972 

V. Spicer, 1022, 1023 

7'. White, 2345 

V. Wyley, 2362 
Emery v. Chase, 2315, 2316, 2317 

V. Grocock, 1743 

V. Ownings. 2027, 2030 
Emigrant Co. v. County of Wright, 1763 
Emison v. Risque, 2009 
Eramerson v. Heells, 51 
Emmert v. Hays, 681 
Emmes v. Feeley» 2260 

V. Feely, 1171, 1219, 1253, 1294 
Emmett v. Emmett, 223, 2014 

V. Hays, 1025 
Emmons v. Kiger, 1002 

V. Littlefield, 2349 

V. Newman, 1243 

V. Scudder, 12S1, 1348, 1352, 1353 

V. Williims, 2334 
Emmott V. Cole, 982, 2250 
EmonB v. Turnbull, 72 
Emory v. Keighan, 2127 

V, Wise, 14S6 



\ 



cxx 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
lo pages. 



Emporia 7). Sodam, 2230 
Enders v. Enders, 1648 
Enfield v. Day, 212, 2298 

Enfield Toll Bridge Co. u. Connecticut River 
Co., 1869 

V. Hartford R. Co., 197 
Engelbrecht v. Shade, 1387 
Engels V. Mitchell, 1253 
England v. Dowes, 654 

V. Downs, 659, 795 

V. Lewis, 2167 
England d. Sybouin v. Slade, 1742, 1743 
Engle V. Fitch, 1092 

V. Haines, 2068 

V. Underbill, 2082 
Englebrecht v. Shade, 1419 
Englefield's Case, 1544, 1842 
Englesz/. McKinley, 1117 
English V. Duncan, 2272 

V. English, 945, 946 

V. Foxall, 1666 

V. Key, 1120,2250,2257 

V. Lane, 2037 

V. Register, 1259 

V. Roche, 2024 
Englishba w. Helmutb, 207, 601 
Eno v. Del Yecchio, 2208, 2234, 2235, 2236, 2237 
Enos V. Cook, 1046 

z». Sutherland, 2038, 2169 
Ensign v. Colbum, 10271 2.188 
Enthoven i». Hoyle, 2339 
Enyeart v. Kepler, 1932, 1945, 1955 
Episcopal Charitable Society v. Episcopal 

Church, 1 020, 104a 
Eppes z*. Cole, 2270 
Epstein f. Greer, 1159, 1213 
Equitable Life Assn. Soc. v. Bostwicfc, 2070, 

2151 
Equitable Life Ins. Co. v. Bostwicfc, 2i65 

w. Stevens, 2165 
Equitable Life Ins, Soc. v. Von Glahn, 2080 
Erickson t». Michigan Land & Iron Co., 93, 94 

V. Patterson, 1207 

V. RafEerty, 1998 

V. Willard, 1593, 1629, 3631 
Erie V. Cau)kins, 1193 
Ernest 1). Ctoysdill, 1761 
Erskiner. Plwmmer, 54, 55 

v^ Townsend, 2040,2041, 2049, 2077, 2127, 
2128 
Ervine's Appeal, 2324 
Erwin v. Blanks, 2170 

V. Clark,, 1246 

V. Hurd, 33, 36, 39 

V. Olrastead, 12S2, 1903, 192a 

». Parham, 175S 

V. Shuey, 2037 
Erwin's App>eal„ 1064 
Escheator v. Smith, 1672, 1673 
Esdonr. Colbum, 1234 
Eskridge t>. McClure, 2005, 2007, 2009 
Eslava v. Lepetre, 826, 829, 925, 926 
Espy V. Fenton, 2270 
Essex V. Atkins, 1562 

V. Essex, 1964 
Essex Sav. Bfc. v. Meridan F. Ins. Co., 2113 
Estabroofc T*. Hughes, 1139 

V. Smith, 1094 
Estate of Sunderland, 2283 
Estate of Wiley, 2263 , 2264 
Estave v. Lepetre, 804 
Estcourt z/. Estcourt, 953, 955, 957 
Estep V. Estep, 1106, 1196 

V. Morton, 479 
Esterbrooks v. Tillinghast, 1637 
Esterly v. Purdy, 2028, 2030 
Estes V. Keedsey, 1356 
Estill V. Rogers, 594, 595 
Estvick's Case, 184 
Esty V. Baker, 997, 1253, 1269;^ 1270, 1286, 1293, 

1296, 1304, 1354 
Etheridge v. Vemoy, 214S 



Ethridge v. Malempre, 218, 750 
Ettenheiraer -v. Hefferman, 221 
Etting V. Bank of the United States, 518 
Eureka Clothes Wringing Machine Company!'. 
Bailey W. W. Machine Company, 
1042 
Eureka Co, v. Bailey Co., 1020 
Eustache v. Rodaquest, 220 
Eustis V. Keightley, 964 
Euston V. Friday, 2133 
Evan V. Jayne, 2236 
Evans* Estate, 1634, 1733 
Evans ly. Erittain, 1883, 1919 

V. Chew, 1662, 1752 

V. Clapp, 1051, 1052 

7'. Evans, 690,691,780,788,815,820, 826, 
885, 888 

V. Gibbs,. 2354 

V. Hardy, 1021, 2257,2258 

V. Hastings, 1125, 1310 

V. Huffman, 2093, 2094 

V. Iglehart, 537 

V. Jackson, 1037 

V. John, 1786 

V. Jones, 2120, 2173 

V. Ketterell, 2056 

V. Kimball, S09, 8ro 

V. King, 1609 

V. Kingberry, 1364 

V. Kingsberry, 76, 77, 1367 

V. Lamar, 1794, 2020 

V. Montgomery, 1511, 1518 

V. Norris, 2031, 2254 

V. Pierson, 935 

V. Read, 1350 

V. Reed, 1355 

•v. Roberts, 46, 49, 50, 52, 53, 537 

V, Rosser, 274 

V. Webb, 723, 917, 918, 938, 940, 942, 

945 

f. Webbs, 944 

V. Wells, 1042 

V. Womack, 13S8 
Evans, Doe d., w. Evans, 307 
Evansville Gas Light Co. v. State, 2153 
Evanturel v. Evanturel, 267 
Evarts V. Nason, 1782 

V. Steger, 2331 
Evelyn v. Raddish, 1091 
Evens v. Hardy, 2251 
Everett t* . Potter, 733, 734, 736 

V. Strong, 2102 
Everitt V. Everitt, 1793, 1807 

V. Thomas, 2358 
Everman &. Robb, 1051, 2020 
Everson v.. Carpenter, 2343 
Everts w. Beach, 1894 

V. Chittendon, 315 
Evertson v. Booth, 2105, 2107, 2164 

V. Sawyer, 976, 1149 

V. Tappen, 802 
Evoy V. Tewksbury, 2267 
Ewan, Doe d., v. Cox, 412, 415, 423, 427 
Ewart V. Smith, logg 
Ewer z/. Heyden, 1176 

•V. Hobbs, 1866, 1998 

V. Moyle, 2268 
Ewing V. Burnet, 2296 

V. City of St. Louis, 1515 

r. Coddington, 2254 

V. Jones, 1790, 1791 

V. Shannahan, 1792 

V. Smith, 1375, 1562 

V. Wilson, 1789 
Ewing's Lessees*. Burnet, 209, 211 
Excelsior F. Ins. Co. v. Royal Ins. Co., 2113, 

2117,2118 
Exchange & Deposit Bank v. Stone, 1935 
Executors of Lord v. Carbon Iron Mfg. Co., 

2233 
Exeter v. Odiome, 1548, 1560, 1606, 1607 
Exeter Bank v. Stowell, 1702 



References are 
to pages. 



Ex parte Allen, 2263 

Ex parte Coburn, 2212 

iijr/irtr/tf Duble, 2263 

Ex parte Faxon, 2266 

Ex parte Hall, 2252 

Ex parte Martin, 2324 

Ex parte Merriam, 2179, 21S0 

Ex Parte Morrish, 2263 

Ex parte Withers, 2325 

Extension of Central Park, Matter of, 922 

Exter V. Odiorne, 297, 299, 300 

Exton V. St. John, 820, 821 

Exum V, Canty, 2316 

Eyre z>. Potter, 1757, 175S 

Eyrick v. Hetrick, 254, 485, 1674, 1675, 1748, 

1786, 1788 
Eysaman?'. Eysaman, 1344 
Eysterw. GofE, 2153 

V. Hatheway, 1409, 1490, 1491, 1497, 1498, 

1524, 2060 
Eyton V. Jones, 1141 
Ezelle V. Parker, 1283, 1291, 2345 

F. 

Fabb V. Archer, 645 

Faber w. Police, 1570 

Fagan v. Scott, 1282 

Fahnestoc^c v. Faustenauer, 1300, 130S, 1315, 

1335, 1336 
Failing V, Schenck, 981 
Fair v. Brown, 2079, 2091 
Fairbank v. Cudworth, 2080, 2188 
Fairbanks v. Metcalf. 2353 

Fairchild %'. Chastelleux, 1024, 1364, 1367, 1930, 
1Q31, 1932, 1940. 1941J 1945 

V. Fairchild, 824, 1964 

7'. Lynch, 2068 
Fairfax v. Hunter, 2347 
Fairfax's Devisee d. Hunter's Lessee, 214, 215, 

236, 672, 673, 1657 
Fairfield v. Jeffreys, 1247 

V. Lawson, 1685, 1686 
Fairis v. Walker, 113 
Fairman v. Bavin, 1620 

V. Beal, 317, 319, 337, 536, 1815 

V. Peck, 1758 
Faivre v. Daley, 1467, 146S, 1473, 1474 
Falls V. Conway Ins. Co., 2055 
Falk V, Turner, 1791 
Falkner £». Campbell Printing Press Co., 2064, 

2065 
Fall V. Hazelregg, 1290 

V. Moore, 1133 
Fall River Whaling Co. v. Eorden, 824, 1957, 

i960 
Fallon^. Schilling, igS 
Falls Village W. P. Co. v. Tibbetts, 572 
Famworth v. Ferrers, 559 
Faming zk Chadwick, 1896, 1903 

•v. Dunham, 2060 

V. Kerr, 2160 
Fansworih v. Cole, 731 
Fant V, Cathart, 2343 
Fardy v. Williams, 998, 1042 
Farewell v. Cuttings, 728 

Farley v. Craig, 1004, 1120, 1139, 2251, :267, 
2269 

V. Farley, 1869 

V. Thompson, 2250, 2255, 2258 
Farmer v. Francis, 309 

V. Grose, 2045, 2047, 2052 

V. Ray, 887 

V. Rogers, 1160 

V. Simpson, 1492, 1497 

Tj. Turner, 1428 
Farmers' Bank v. Corder, 1937, 1952 

V. Duval, 2335 
Farmers & Mechanics' Bank v. Bronson, 2091, 
2122 

■i/. Greogory, 1920 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CXXl 



Farmers & Merchants' Bank of Rochester v. 

Gregory, 1952, 19S0 
Farmers & Merchants' National Bank v. Wal- 
lace, 1936 
Farmers' F. I. & L. Co. v. Edwards, 2131 
Fanners' F. & L. Co. v. Edwards, 2129 
Farmers' Ins. Co. v. Snyder, 2115 
Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. v. Carroll, 1550, 
1810 

V. Commercial Bank, 201S 

V. Fisher, 2018 

V. Hughes, 1662 

V. Maltby, 2154 

V. McKinney. 2014, 2322 

V. St. Jo. & D. R. Co., 98, loig, 1020 
Farmers' Nat. Bank v. Moran, 1797 
Famam v. Brooks, 162 1, 17S1 

V. Holman, 2262 

V. Loomis, 767 
Faniham v. Clements, 1586, 1645 
Farnival v. Crew, 1008, 1009 
Farnsworlh v. Boston, 688, 2062 

V. Duffer, 1045 
Famum v, Burnett, 2030, 2059 

"'. Loomis. 764 

x>. Peterson, 1095, 2301 

V. Piatt, 2206, 2208, 2222 
Farquharson v. Eichleberger, 289, 1553, 1594, 
1597 

•V. McDonald, 1600, 1789, 2023 
Farr v. Dudley, 2082 

V. Gilreath, 298, 1564 

V. Sherman, 1362 

V. Smith, 1246, 1904, 1905, 1969 
Farrand z'. Gleason, iSgi 

V. Marshall, 2231, 2232 
Farrant v. Love], 575, 576, 20S0, 2185 

V. Thompson, 984 
Farrar v. Ayres. 306, 330, 337, 340 

V. Chauffetele, 112, 114, 116, 126, 2334 

V. Cooper, 2245 

V. Dean, 216 

V. Eastman, 1913 

V. Stackpole, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 113, 
133. 135 

V. Winterton, 76 
Farrell v. Lloyd, 682, 1647 

V. Patterson, 1376 
Farrer v. Beswick, 1246 
Farrington v. Baley, 2273 

V. Barr, 1538, 1586, i6ro, 1612, 1637 

V. Kimball, 1072, 1073, 1115, 1117 

V. Morgan, 233 
Farris v. Houston, 1219, 1222, 2087, 2258 

V. Walker, 104, 136 
Farrow w. Edmundson, 1144, 1296 

V. Farrow, 896, 898, 899, 923, 956 
Farrow e v Beam, 841 
Farson v. Goodale, 1273, 1334, 1344 
Farwell v. Cotting, 925 

V. Dickenson, 1176, 2250 

V. Murphy, 2174 

V. Rogers, 209, 1005, 2256 
Farwell Brick, Tile & Clay Shingle Co. v. 

McKenna, 1464 
Fash V. Blake, 2323 

v- Kavanagh, 1343 
Fassett v. First Parish in Baylston, 36, 38, 39, 
40 

V. Mullock, 2106. 2153 
Fassitt V. Middleton, 975 
Faubanks v. Codworth, 2081 
Faulkner w. Anderson, 1253 

V. Brock en borough, 1998, 2077 

V. Dmiel, 510 

V. Daniels, 2170 

V. Davis, 1738, 1739 

V. Warren, 2251 
Faure v, Winans, 2089 
Faurote v. Carr, 1427, 1428 
Fawcett v. Whitehouse, 1621 
Fawcetts z/. Kinney, 2177 



cxxu 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Fawley v. Craig, 2253. 
Faxon, Ex Parte, 1173 

V. Folvey, 1589 
Fay w. Brewfer, 553, 563, 1153, 2086 

1). Cheney, 688, 1996, 2014 

V. Fay, 1605, 1810 

V. HoUoran, 984, 2249, 2252, 2259 

ZK Muzzey, 78, 79 

V. Salem & D. Aqueduct Co., 71 

■u. Taft, 1560, 1614 

V. Valentine, 2174 
Faysoux ff. Prather, 1723 
Fearoti v. Aylesford, 773, 939, 965 
Fears w. Brooks, 1371, 1373, 1561 
Feather v. Strohoecker, 1989, 1990 
Featherstonhaugh v. Lee Moor Porcelain Clay 
Co., roig 

V. Bradshaw, 2271 
Fee V. Swingly, 2085 
Fejavary v. Braesch, 1050, 2271 
Felch V. Finch, 841, 844 

&. Harriman, 1207 

V. Hooper, 1614 

V. Taylor, 1108, 1117, 2062 
Fell V. Brown, 2073, 2149 

V. Rich Hill Coal Mining Co., 976 
Fellows' Appeal, 1791, 1792 
Fellows V. Fellows, 1770 

V. Heermans, 1680 

V. Lee, 197 

V. Lewis, 1480 

V. Mitchell, 1732 

V. Smith, 1623 

v. Tann, 1561 
Felthouse v. Bi'idley, 1000 
Feltman v. Butts, 293 
Felton V. Bissell, 2177 

V, Deall, 982, 1232 
Fenn v. Holme, 1516 

V. Smart, 1849 
Fennings v. Granville, 1246 
Fenny n. Durrant, 862 
Fenton v. Emblers, g6i 

V. Holloway, 1034 

z'. Lord, 2o58 

V. Reed, 506, 752, 757, 758, 769, 883 

V. Stump, 759 
Fenwick z/. Floyd, 1501 
Fereday v. HorderU; 1240 
Ferguson v. , 1068 

v, Cornish, 1007, 1008 

V. Franklin, 1554 

V. Hardy, 2257 

V. Hass, 786 

V. Kimball, 2154 

V. Kumler, 1431 

11. Neville, 2014 

•v. Peden, 2298 

•V. Reed, 1425 

V. Stuart's Exrs., 76' 

V. Tweedy, 592, 593, 598, 6or, 604, 616, 
624, 692, 693, 703 

V. Wetsell, 2248 

V. WLtsell, 2242 
Ferguson's Lessee v. Zepp, 307, 308, 332, 536 
Fergusson v. Brent, 1099 
Ferfat v. Gojon, 594 
Ferraby v. Hobson, 1038 
Ferrall v. Kent, 1233, 1234, igog 
Ferre v. American Board Comrs., etc., 1842 
Ferriu v. Kennedy, 1294 

V. Kenny, 1293 
Ferris w. Cooper, 2335, 2336 

V. Crawford, 2070, 2071, 2112. 2150, 2166 

V. Ferris. 2051 

V. Gibson, 322, 323 

V. Quimby, 123 

V. Van Buskiric, 2237 

V. Van Vechten, 1622, 1760 
Ferriss v. Harshea, 730 
Ferry v. Bnrnell, 739 

V. Meckert, 2107 



Ferry v. Pumell, 733 
Fesmire v. Brock, 1026 
Fessler's Appeal, 2002, 2050 
Fetrie v. Shoemaker, 1034 
Fetrow v. Merriwether, 2318 

V. Wiseman, 2344 
Fetters v. Humphrey, 2211 

V. Humphreys, 2216 
Fettiplace v. Gorges, 1562 
Fewell V. Kessler, 2134 
Fickett V. Durham, 778 
Field V. Arrowsmith, 1598, 1716, 1766, 1795 

V. Columbet, 2322 

V. Craig, 1904 

«». "Helms, 2168 

V, Herrick, 1030, 1066, 13 16, 1327, 1329, 
1340 

V. HoUowell, 970 

•v. Howell, 971, 974, gSi 

V, Mayor, etc., of New York, 2017 

V. Mills, 1057, 1104, iiii, 1113, 1159 

V. Pierce, 42 

V. Schiefflin, 1022 

V. Stagg, 2341 

V. Swan, 1 1 19, 2065, 2257 
Fielden v. Slater, 1185 
Fielder zk Darrin, 2045, 2060 

V. Murphy, 2152 
Fields V. Fields, 1953 
Fiero zk Belt, 1229, 1234 

Fify Assoc, v. Howland, 1059, 1062, 1138, 1155 
Figart v. Halderman, 2071 
Fightmaster v. Beasley, 1969 

V. Beasly, 1905 
Filbert v. Hoff, 1904 
Files V. Magoon, 1277 
Fillebrown v. Hoar, 1171, T173, 1174, 2268 
Filley -v'. Register, 1623, 1625, 1626 
FilUter v, Phippard, 568 
Fillman v. Divers, 1622 
Fillor V. United States, 1035 
Finaly v. King's Lessee, 1864 
Finch's Case, 1348 
Finch 11. Finch, 650, 962, 966, 1647, 1653 

V. Miller, 1316 

z'. Newham, 2170 

V, Shackleford, 1153 
Finden v. Stephens, 1627 
Fiudlay v. Smith, 340, 495, 544, 550, 552, 553, 

561, 562, 742, 776, 806, 812 
Findlay's Kxrs. v, Findlay, 899 
Findley v. Findley, 933, 956 

V. Wilson, 1668 
Finlay r/. King's Lessee, 270, 305, 1770 
Finlayson v. Finlayson, 1586, 1616 
Finley z). Diedrick, 1388, 1513 

V. Dietrick. 1390 

V. McConnell, 1381, 1476 

V. United States Bank, 2147, 2148 
Finklemeier z*. Bales, 11 59 
Finney v. Cochran, 1782 

zi. Watkins, 128 
Finney's Trustees v. St. Louis, 1131, 1315, 1316, 

1348 
Fipps V. McGehee, 2364 
Fiquet v. Allison, 1234, 1246 
Firchburg Cotton Manf. Co. v. Melven, 1028 
Fire Ins. Patrol v. Boyd, 1751 
Firebrass v. Pennant, 646 
Firestone v. Firestone, 764, 804, 827, 832 
First Baptist Church v. Bigelow, 31 
First Baptist Society zk Grant, 33, 36 
First Baptist Church of Hartford v. Witherell, 

33. 35.36. 39 
First Congregational Society v. Atwater, 1555 
First Methodist Episcopal Society v. Brayton, 

37 
First Natl. Bank v. Bennett, 975 

V. Hughes, 1795 

V. Vevay, 1316 
First National Bank of San Luis Obispo v. 
Bruse, 1421, 1447 



References are 
to pages. .1 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cx^m 



First National Bank of Santa Barbara v. La 

Suerra. 1425 
First National Bank of Sioux City v. Gage, 

2066 
First National Bank of Stewart v. Holling- 

worth, 13S3, 1443, 1445 
Fii-st National Bank of Waterloo v. Elmore, 

810 
First Parish in Brunswick ?'. Dunning, 234 
First Parish of Sudbury r'. Jones, 142 
First Presby. Church's Lessee v. Pickett, 1139, 

1140 
Firat Presbyterian Society of Chili v. Bowen, 

1671 
Firit Religious Society in Whitestown v. 

Stone, 1671 
Fish i'. Chapman, logg 

v. Dodge, 119^,2070 

V. Fish, 783, 940, 2074, 2182 

V. Howland, 2008 

V. Potts, 2257 

V. Wilson, 1782 
Fishbach v. Lane, 1469 
Fisher's Appeal, 162 1 
Fisherz'. Banta, 76 

V, Brown, 1749 

V. Bush, 1211 

V. Cornell, 1443, 1445, 1459, 1462 

V. I>erring, 1120, 2258 

V. Dewerson, 1972 

V, Dixon, 104, 127 

V. Fair, 2218 

V. Fields, 288, 289, 290, 1542, 1563, 1574, 
^575> *592, 1594, 1596,1689,1690,1691, 
1796 

jr. Filbert, 1561 

V. Fislier, 102 1 

V. Forbes, 53, 724, 959 

V. Glover, 32, 39 

V. Grimes, 784, 821, 907 

V. Horicon, etc., Co., 1554 

V. Johnson, 2005, 2007 

V. Jewitt, 2343 

zi. Klein, 2347 

V. Krutz, 1643 

V. Lackey, 151 1 

7'. Meister, 2059, 2147 

V. MiDiken, 1098, 1172 

V. Morgan, 874, 875 

71. Mossman, 924 

r. Otis, 202S, 2105, 210S 

V. Prosser, 1170 

7/. Provin, 1024, 1930, 1932, 1942, 1952 

V. Smith, 1151, 2256 

V. Tallman, 2169 

V. Taylor, 273, 500, 1674, 1675, 174S 

V. Thirkell, 1202 

V. Wigg, 1246, 1883 
Fisher, Doe d., z>. Giles,. 1279 

V. Prosser, 518 
Fisk V. Chandler, 1866 

V, Eastman, 692, 703, 761, 815 
Fiske V. Fiske, 2031, 2032, 2033 

z/. Flores, 2359 

V. Tolman, 2068 
Fitch v. Archibald, 2254 

V. Ayer, 647 

V. Burk, 2020 

V. Cotheal, 2131 

V. Harrington, 1241 

7/. Pinckard, 1997 

V. Renner, 2057 
Fitchburg Cotton Co. v. Melvin, 2064 
Fitchburg Cotton Manfg. Corp. v. Melvin, 119, 

497, 1127, 1167, 1171, 1172, 1174 
Fitchburg R. Co. v. Page, 2295 
Fitcher v. Remer, 2057 
Fite V. Beasley, 1686 
Fitton V. Inhabitants of Hamilton City, 1043, 

1317, 1328, 1342 
Fitts V. Fitts, 1949 

V. Hoitt, 70S, 729, 1093 



Fitz V. Smallbrook, 1807 
Fitzgerald v. Anderson, 1187, n8S 

V. Barker, 2068, 2166 

7>. Beebe, 1125, 1169^1212 

V. Fernandez, 1426 

7J. Foulkes, 2272 

V. Reed, 986 

V. Topping, 1798 
Fitzlierbert v. Shaw, 130 
Fitzhugb V, Anderson, 2176 

V. Barnard, 1777 

V. Cregham, 2364 

V. Crigham, 5 1 7 

V. Croghan, 206, 601, 73*^ 2354, 2365 

V. Hellen, 486 
Fitzpatrick v. Childs, 1131, 1132 

V. Fitzgerald, 1706, 1707, 1713 

V. Fitzpatrick, 597, 1648 

V. Waring. 1038 
Fitzsimmons v. Ogden, 2124 
Flacks f. Kelly, 2136 
Fladland v. Delaplaine, 2000 
Fladung zr. Rose, 1919, 1932, 1939 
Flagg V. Bean, 641, 642,666 

V. Ely, 171 5 

V. Geltmacker, 2071 

V. Mann, 1590, 1738, 1990, iggs, 2037, 
2041, 2043, 2044, 2045,2046, 2048,2049 
2053, 2054, 2064, 2079, 2204, 232S 
Flaherty v. McCormick, 2296 
Flanagan v. Glanagan, 75 

v. Pearson, 1144, 1145, 1160 

7/. WeStCOtt, 2112 

Flanders?'. Clark, 1816, 1841, 1888 

V. Flanders, 1776 

71. Lamphear, 2032, 2033, 2064 

V. Thompson, 1623 
Fleek v. Zilhaver, 1933 
Fleeson ?'. Nicholson, 831, 8gi, 927 
Fleet V. Borland, 504, 505, 506 
Fleetwood v. Hull, T076 
Fleming 7/. Brush, 2356 

v. Buchanan, 1821, 1825 

V. Chunn, 2252, 2259 

V. Fleming, 597 

77. Gilmer, 17S4 

7'. Sitton, 2165 
Flemming v. Culbert, 1781 
Fletcher 7/. Ashburner, 94, 679, 695 

11. Ashley, 654 

7'. Chase, 2097, 2178 

7>. Com. Ins. Co., 1224 

V. Fletcher, 1791 

V. Herring, 8r 

7/. Holmes, 722, 924, 1999, 2106, 2167 

7>. Mayor, 2100 

V. McFarlane, 1076,2263, 2264 

v. Peck, 19, 1512 

7'. Rylands, 199 

z>. Smiton, 307, 311 

V. State Bank, 1093 

7/. State Capitol Bank, 1412, 1501 

V. Thunder Bay River Boom Co., 70 

V. Walker, 1720 
Fletcher v. Dyche, 2356 
Fleureau v. Thornhill, 1245 
Flinn v. McKinley, 1990 
Flint 7/. Clinton Co., 1786, 17SS, 2013 

V. Hughes, 347. 1632, 16S4 

tr. Phipps, 2033 

V. Sheldon, 2038, 2046 
Flint & P. M. R Co. v. Gordon, 2203 
Flinthan's Appeal, 33S, 1814 
Flinthan's Case, 317 
Flood V. Blood, 1348, 1354 
Florence 7/. Adams, 1766, 1776 

7/. Hopkins, 1917, 1982, 
Florence Sewing Machine Co. v. Grovor & 

Baker Sewing Machine Co., 1157 
Florentine 7'. Barton, 2333 
Flournoy v. Johnson, 1743 
Flowers z;. Elwood, 2133, 2161 



CXXIV 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Flower, Doe d., v. Peck, 1074," 1075, 1152, 1868, 

i86g 
Flower v. Miller, 1380, 1381 
Flowry v. Befiker, 662 
Floyd V. Calvert, 596 

V. Carow, 21 

V. Floyd, 1300, 1308, 1335, 1337 

•a. Morrow, 2018 

V. Ricks, 45, 2364 
Floper V. Lavington, 2168 
Fludz/. Flud. 518 
Fluke V. Fluke, 1754, 1810 
Flureau v. Thomhill, iigo 
Flyz'. Brooks, 2331 
Flynn v. Coffee, 523 

V. Hatton, 1054, 1086, 1248 

■v. Powers, 20 11 
Fl'ynt w. Arnold, 829, 2365 

V. Conrad, 48 

'V. Hubbard, 1647, 2080 
Fojal w. Pino, 514 
I'ogarty z'. Finley, 2364 

V. Sawyer, 2078, 2159 
Fo^ 1/. Clark, 2, 305. 307, 308, 310, 331 

V. Fogg, 1386, 1442, 1443, 1501, 1502, 1503, 

V. Price, 1053, 1093 
Fogle v. Chancy, 1309 
Folden v. State, 970, ggo, looi 
Foley w. Cooper, 1524 
V. Cowgill, 1701 
ff. Howard, 2033, 
■V. Parry, 347 
■V. Perry, 1630 

■V. Wyeth, 1253, 12S2, 1290, 2231, 2232, 
2248 
Folger k. Evic, 1638 
V. Kenuer, no 
27. Mitchell, 2191 
Folkingham v. Croft, 257 
Follansbez'. Kilbreth, 1735, 1736, 1746 
FoUett V. Heath, 2027. 2031 
V. Rose, 1757 
V. Tyrer, 684, 1372 
Folschow V. Werner. 1427 
Folsom ». Belknap Co. Mut. F. Ins. Co., 
2115 
p. Carli, 1445, 1504, 1505 
V, Chesley, 541 
v. Moore, 107, 1269 
V Perriii, 994 
Folts V. Huntley, 1127, 1167 
Foltz -v. Prouce, 2250, 2251, 2258 
Fonda w. Sage, 1861, 1862, 1873 
V. Van Home, 1023, 2344 
Fontatn v. Ravenel, 2348 
Fontaine -v, Bostman's Sav. Bank, 765 
Fonte V. Horton, 1734 
Fooler «/. Cooke, 1729 
Foos V. Scarf, 1822 
Foose -D. Whitmore, 1591, 1593 
Foot V. New Haven & N. Co., 1280, 2212, 2213 
0. New Haven R. R., 2212 
zi. Tewksbury, 1033 
V. Wiswall, 517 
Foote V. Bryant, 1615 

V. Cincinnatti, 1127, 1129, 1167,2268 

71. Colvin, 45, 1229, 1233, 1234, 1235, 1579, 

1615, 1622, 1638, 1642, 1648, 1747 
•V. Gooch, 132 
V. Hartford Ins. Co., 2116 
Footner v. Cooper, 2, 307 
Forbes v. Appleton, iiSo 

V. Balenseifer, 2212, 2213 

7j. Eden, 34 

v. Forbes, 1947 

z/. Hall, 1 74 1 

V. McCoy, 2025, 2026 

'V. Moffatt, 810, 1164, 1580, 2097 

V. Ross, 1708 

V. Scannell, 1795 

V. Smiley, 1258, 1273, 3260 



Forbes v. Smith, 679, "680 

V. Sweezy, 592, 628, 634, 635, 668, 669 
Forbush v. Lombard, 2021 

Ford z/. Conb, 61, 81, no, 117, 122, 125, 141, i43» 
144 

V. Cook, 447, 448, 468 

■u. Erskine, 867, 868 

V. Gray, 1913 

V. Grey, 208, 1968 

zi. Irskine, 807 

2/. Johnson, 1514 

z). Joyce, 2330 

V. Kiiapp, 1891, 1892 

V. Lacy, 2293 

%K Peering, 491 

V. Phillips, 1031 

V. Philpot, 782 

z'. Smith, 2005, 2009 

V. Tynte, 60 

ZK Williams, 141 

V. Wilson, 2300 
Forde v. Herron, 1962 
Fordyce zk Hicks, 1425 

V. Willis, 1590 
Foreman 7'. Foreman, 94, 434 
Forgy ZI. Merryman, 2071 
Fornshill v. Murray, 752, 757, 759 
Forrer t. Forrer, 1S89 
Forrest z>. Foirest, 771. 772, 920, 1359 

V. Tremmell, 764, 766 
Forrester v. Forrester, 750 
Forsaith v. Clark, 310 
Forsey v. Luton, 497 
Forshaw v. Higginson, 1787 

V. Welsby, j8oi 
Forster z/. Hale, 1590, 1591, 1592, 1691, 1692 
Forsyth -v. Preer, 1479 
Forsythe v. Price, 539, 540, 1208 
Fort V. Burch, 799, 2365 
Fortesque zi. Hennah, 795 
Forth V. Ballance, 1146 
Fortier v. Darst, 2106 
Fortman v. Goepper, 116, 143, 144 
Forward z>. Deetz, 1914 

V. Pittard, 498, 1099 
Fescue ZK Foscue, 1781 
Fosdick V. Fosdick, 323 

V. Gooding, 791, 851, 857, 870 

V. Schall, 2018 

V. Southern Car Co., 2018 
Foss V. Crisp, 659, 660, 673, 674, 750, 20T4 

z). Hildreth, 1033 

V. Strachn, 1383, 1449, 1451, 1455 

V. Van Driele, ii6g, 1170, 2258 
Foster's Appeal, 75, 1961 
Foster v. Abbott, 2092 

V. Atwatev, 2068 

V. Beals, 2 no 

V. Browning, 2212, 2213 

V. Byrne, 1428 

V. Cook, 943 

V. Davis, 1724, 1728 

ZI. Dawber, 1788 

V. Deacon, 2152 

•V. Dugan, 1349 

V. Dwinell. 764, 803, 827 

V. Equitable Ins. Co., 2118 

z). Foster, 1412, 1910 

7). Groton, 735 

V. Hall, 636 

v. Hawley, 759 

V. Hilliard, 509, 2182 

V. Joyce, 285, 477, 532 

•V. Mansfield, 2353 

V. McGregor, 1481 

ZK Marshal, 489, 589, 590, 624, 626, 630, 
632, 666 

v> Maybe, 144 

V. Merchant, 1034 

V. Morris, 1172, 1220 

V. Peyser, 1054, 1066, 1067, 1081, 1175, 
1200, 1201 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cxxv 



Foster v. Potter, 2164 
V. Prentiss, 142 
V. Reynolds, 2030 
V, Robinson, 1209 
V. Romney, 1564 
V. Rowland, 999 
V. Shreve, 534 
V. Stewart, 2, 30S, 309 
V. The Essex Bank, 2332 

V. Trustees, 1652 

V. Trustees of Athenseum, 2007 

z*. Van Reed, 21 17 

V. Westmoreland, 2272 
Foster, Doe d., v. Wandlass, 1060 

V. Williams, 1309 
Foteaux w. Lepage, 2251, 225S 
Fothergill v. Fothergill, 1839 
Fouch V. Wilson, 2004, 2037 
Foucher J', Leeds, 1316 

Fougerar'. Cohu, 1300, 13 17, 1321, 1335, 1442 
Foulk V. McFarlane, 1773 
Foulkes, Succession of, 1497 
Fountaine v. Pellett, 504, 1726 
Fourth Ecclesiastical Society v. Mather, 647 
Fowell V. Franter, 1007 
Fowke V. Slaughter, 1650 

11. Woodward, 1047 
Fowle V. Lawrason, 1669 

V. Torrey, 646 
Fowler, In re-, 2260 

V. ^tna Fire Ins. Co., 21 15 

V. Bailey, 786, 825 

V. Bailley, 1957 

V. Bott, 1082, 1099, 1175, 1179, 2250 

V. Bush, 2133 

7'. Fay, 810, 2068 

V. Fowler, 661, 1604, 1687, 1891 

V. Griffin, 739, 740, 780, 856 

7'. Hawkins, 2272 

z'. Payne, 1099, 1100 

V. Poling, 1 172 

V. Shearer, 900 

V. Stoneum, 2046 

V. Thayer, 1878 

V. Treboin, 647 
Fowler, Doe d., v. Peck, 1074, 1075 
Fowley v. Palmer, 2089 
Fox V. Blossom, 2293 

V. Carlyne, 1848 

V. Cash, 1781 

V. Corey, 970, 2257, 2263 

V. Fletcher, 1887, 1919, 1932 

V. Hanbury, 1246 

V. Lipe, 2060 

V. Long, 504, 520 

V. Mackreth, 76, 1619, 1621, 1761, 1772 

V. Nathans. 1006, 1320 

V. Phelps, 289, 331, 332, 340, 342, 533, 536 

V. Phoenix Ins. Co., 2113, 2117 

V. Pratt, 803, 885, 21G4 

&. Southack, 214, 215,672, 673,750, 774, 
1657, 2014 

V. Swann, 1250 
Foxcroft V. Barnes, 1983 
Foxton V. Manchester & Liverpool District 

Banking Company, 1783 
Foxwell V. Craddock, 223 
Foxworth V. White, 760 , 

Foy V. Foy, 1590 
Frail v. Ellis, 2006 
Frakes v. Elliott, 1904 
Frame v. Frame, 1589 
Framptgn v. Stephens, 770 
France's Estate, 210 
France v. Harrow, 722 
Francestown v. Deering, 1646 
Francis' Appeal, 2242 
Francis The, 1456 
Francis v. Cockrell, 1054, 1055 

V. Francis, 597 

V. (larrarJ, 841, 844 

V. Nash, 43 



Francis v. Porter, 1999, 2140, 2141 
V. Sayles, 1211 
V. Wells, 2004 
Franciscus v. Reigart, 58, 251, 1552, 1559, 1583, 

1672, 1673 
Frank's Appeal, 959 
Frank v. Brunnemann, 1184 
V. Davis, 2167 
V. Murphy, 2171 
V. McGuire, 2263, 2264 
V. Stovin, 424 
Franke v. Youmans, iiio 
Frankland v. Moultob, 143 
Franklin v. Brown, 1054, 1056, 1066 

z'. Carter, 11 72 

V, Coffee, 1378, 1379, 1380, 13S6, 1416, 
1439, 1442, 1443, 1444, 14^5, 1457, 1458, 
14S3, 1495, 1514 

V. Gorham, 2074 

V. Harier, 331 

V. McEntyre, 1613, 1651 

V. Merida, 1212 

V. Osgood, 1663, 1731, i8£o, i8i3» 1814, 
1832, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1S41, 1842, 1S43 

V. Palmer, 1164 

V. Robinson, 1889 

V. Thombury, 985 
Franklin Land, etc., Co. v. Card, 1130, 1131 
Franklin Sav. Inst. v. Central Mut. F. Ins. 

Co., 2119 
Franklin Savings Institution v. People's Sav- 
ings Bank, 1885 
Franklyn, Ex parte, 1721 
Franklyn v, Hayward, 2147 
Frary v. Booth, 1373, 1374, 1562 
Fraser z'. Davie, 2255 

V. Davis, 2273 
Frasur v. Hurey, 536 
Fratt V. Whittier, 105, 106, 107, 108, 121, 135, 

136, 138, 141 
Fraunces' Case, 1867 
Fray v. Packer, 281, 285 

Frazer v. Hightower, 655, 677, G82, 683, 
1372 

V. HilHard, 2017 

V. McPherson, 2314 

V. Pigott, 2281 

V. Robinson, 1213 
Frazier ?'. Bamum, 254, 1747 

V. Brown, 2226, 2230 

V. Brownlow, 1373, 1562 

7'. Frazier, 1671 

V. Pankey, 2333 
Frazier, Trustees of, v. Center, 766, 830 
Freak v. Hearsey, 2148 
Frear v. Drinker, 2095 

V. Hardenburgh, 52 
Frederick's Appeal, 1790 
Frederick v. Devol, 142, 143 

V. Gray, 1915 

V. Haas, 1700 

V. Youngblood, 1698 
Freeborn v. Wagner, 1808, i8og 
Freedland v. Manderville, 955 
Freeholders v. Henry, i68g 
Freeland v. Burt, 1176 

V. Freeland, 2059 

V. Harris, 2064 

V. Southworth, 107, iii 
Freeman v. Baldwin, 2038 

V. Barber, 1951 

V. Buniham, 1623 

V. Carpenter, 15141 ^S'S 

V. Coit, 345 

V. Cooke, 1707 

21. Dawson, 77 

V. Dunn, 658, 669 

V. Foster, 1094 

V. Freeman, 1696 

7'. Hartmen, 588, 658, 669, 1362, 1377 

V. Headly, 1259, 1277, 12S2, 1292 

V. Howe, 1516 



CXXVl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages, 



Freeman. 7/, Kelly, 1634, 1653 

V. McGaw, 809, 2016 

V. Ogden, 1317 

V. Parsley, 1828 

v. Peay, 2033 

V. Schofield, 2148 

V. Schroeder, 2125 

V. Smith, 76 

V. Underwood, 982, 9S3 

V. West, 1040 

V. Wilson, 2045, 2054 
Freeman, Den exd,, v. Heath, 1160 
Freemantle v. Bankes, 648 
Freer v. Lake, 1690, 2096 

V. Stotenbur, St2, 1204. 1227 
Freerez'. Moore. 2139 
Freethy v. Freetixy, 1514 
Fregonwell z>. Sydenham, 1692 
Freidlander v. Ryder, 1187 
Freidly v. Scheetz, S89 
Freligh v, Piatt, 31, 35, 36, 38, 40 
Fremont v. The United States, 88 
Frenqh zr. Braintree Manf. Co., 2247 

V. Brewer, 88 

V. Bums, 2046 

V. Cadden,4i8 

V. Crosby, S64. 911 

v. Edivards, 1800, 1801 

■v. Freeman, 79, 81 

V. Frencli. 297, 534, 1548, 2319, 2321 

■V. Fulier,'i2S2 

•V. Hatch, 319 

V. Hobson, 1733 

■V. Lord, 796, S13, 821, 828, gii, 921, 922 

i>. Lund, 1925 

V. Macale, 1872 

V. Marstin, 2219, 2220 

iv. Mayor, 1 106 

V. Mcllhenny, 302, 306, 309, 331, 333 

V. Mehan, 1920, 1933, 1939, 1940, 1941, 
1942, 1945 

V. Pearce, 210, 211, 2298 

z>. Peters, 854, 860, 900, 904 

V. Pratt, 849, 854, 856, 859, 860 

V. Rollins, 515, 665, 666, 1142 

V. Sturdivant, 2038, 2052, 2054 

V. Turner, 2104, 2106 
Frenches Heirs v. French, 1033 
Frewen v. Relfe, 1888 
Frey v. Rockfellcr, 2364 

V. Vanderhoof, 2131 
Freyvogle v. Hughes, 1674, 1675 
Frick Co. v. Petals, 1380, 1381 
Friedhoif ■z'. Smith, 996, 1322 
Friedland v. Johnson, 1712, 1761 
Friedlander z/. Ryder, 1188 
Friedly v. Hamilton, 2042, 2119, 2126 
Friend v, Garcelon, 1428, 1429 
Friendly 7/. Sheetz, 1773 
Frier v. Jacksou ex. d. Van Allen, 518 
Frierson ?/. Blan*on, 2066, 2067 

V. Frierson, 647 

7>. Williams, 720 
Frieze w. Chapin, 2160 
Frink v. Branch, 2027 

z/. Le Roy, 2175 

V. Murphy, 21^1 
Frisbie ?'. Fogarty, 2155 

v. Price, 1271, 1280, 1289 

V. Whitney, 2308 
Frissell 7'. Rosier, 646, 647, 895, 1938 
Frith, In re, i66g, 1974 
Frische v. Kramer's Lessee, 2078 
Frogmorton v. Holday, 331 

«7. Wharrey, 234,437 

V. Wright, 331, 533 
Frogmorton d, Fleming z*. Scott, 1352 
Frogmorton d. Robinson v. Wharrey, 442 
Frontier z*. Ballance, 1140 
Frontin v. Small, 1989 
Fronty v. Wood, 1132, 1317 
Frosdick zr. Sterling, 1366, 1369, 1370 



Frost V. Reekman, 1777, 2038, 2121, 2122, 

2123 
Frost V, Brisbin, 1456 

z*. Butler, 1859 

V. Cloutman, 470 

V. Crisp, 2025 

V. Deerjng, 901, 903 

V. Earnest, 1067 

V. Frost, 2150 

V. Peacock, 818, 925 

z/. Raymond, 1989, 2362 

V. Shaw, 2071, 2112 

V. Wolf, i960 

V. Yonkers Savings Bank, 2138, 2172 
Frothingham v. McKusick, 2186, 2187 
Front V. Hardin, 1230 
Fry V. Fry, 636 

V. Jones, 1230, 1237, 2255 

V. Merchants' Ins. Co., 858 

V. Sliehee, 2146 

V. Smith, 336 
Fryatt v. Sullivan, 2186 

V. The Sullivan Co., 103, 104, 143 
Frye v. Bank of Illinois, 2030 

V. Porter, 1692 
Fryer, In re, 1732 
Fryer v. Fryer, 596, 752 
Fudge V. Durn, 1713, 1714, 1723* 1728 
Fuhr z/. Dean, 1356, 1357, 2212, 2240 

V. Deane, 2213 
Fullas V. Pierce, 2366 
Fullenwider 7^. Watson, 1821 
Fuller V. Ferguson, 1946 

V. Fuller, 1889 

V. Hodgdon, 2079 

V. Hodgson, 2091 

z'. Hunt, 2068, 2069 

V. Parish, 2045, 2050 

V. Ruby, 1128, 1168, 1172, 1173, 1174 

z'. Scribner, 2152 

V. Sweet, 999, 1275, 1281, 1307, 1319 

V. Swett, 1171, 1172 

z/. Tabor, it6, 123 

z'. Tates, 535 

%K Wason, 541, 542, 543, 545, 546, 724 

V. Watson, 807 

V. Wright, 730 

V. Yates, 917, 918, 942, 944, 965 

V. Young, 2251, 2258 
Fulmer v. Williams, 199 
Fulthrope v. Foster, 2010 
Fulton V. Davidson, 1735 

V. Hood, 136 

V. Johnson, 603 

V. Norton, 103, no 

V. Stewart, 1139 

V, Stuart, 1112, III5' 
Fulwiler ?'. Infield, 1428 
Fulwood's Case, 723 
Funk V. Brigaldi, 112 

■V. Creswell, 2321 

z/. Eggleslon. 319, 337, 340, 1806, 1836, 
1837 

V. Halderman, 1973, 2189 

z'. McReynolds 

V. Newcomer, iggo, 2301 

V. Walter, 1522 
Funk's Lessee v. Kincaid, 1120, 1213 
Furbish v. Sears, 2032 

Furbush z*. Goodwin, 2077, 2084, 2103, 2104, 
^ , 2147 

Furlong f. Leary, 1273 
Furmanz/. Coe, 1725, 172S 

V. Fisher, 1598, 1599, 1600, 1601, 1786, 17S9, 
1790, 1795 

zf. Johnson, 2263 

V. McMillan, 1890 
Furnas v. Durgin, 2069 
Furrow z*. Athey, 1469 
Fusselman v. Worthington, 1144, 1296 
Fyffe V, Beers, 1422, 1457, 1458, 1459, 1460, 1461, 
1465, 1466, 149s 



Ileferences are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cxxvu 



G. 



Gabbert v. Schwartz, 2106 
Gable v. Daub, 402 
V. Miller, 34 
Gadberry v. Shspard, 261 

V. Sheppard, 1855, 1857. i860, 1867 
Gadd:ird v. Bolster, 2186 
Gadsden v. Cappedeville, 1797 

w. Whaley. 1587, 1592 
GafEee^s Trust, /« re, 1561 
Gaffee v. Caffee, 1361 
Gaffield v. Hapgood, 115, iiS, 119, 128, 129, 130, 

144. 145, 146, 1187 
Gafford v. Steams, 1909 
Gagare/. Eckert, 746 
Gage V. Bates, 1154 

V. Brewster, 2158, 2172 
V. Jenkinsoii, 2166 
V. Sleinkrauss, 71 
V, Ward, 765, 766 
Gaillard v. Parcher, 645 
Gaines v. Chew, 1609, 1662 

V. Gaines' Exrs. & Heirs, 821, 822 

V. Green Pond Iron Mining Co., 494, 495, 

496, 812 
zf. Relf, 770 
z/. Walker, 722 
z>. Wilson, 736 
Gains z'. Poor, 647 
Gaiaus !7. Cannon, 1417 
Galbraith v. Galbrailh, 18S3 
v. Gedge, 786, 1963 
V. Greene, 711, 759, 760 
Gale V. Cobum, 2317, 2319 
V. Edwards, 2250 
V. Gale, 15S6, 1645 
v. Hiues, 1903 
7f. Kinzie, 776, 844 
V. Mensing, 1777, 1794 
V. Morris, 2001 
z>. Nixon, 1063 

V. Oil Run Petroleum Co., 1145 
V. Ward, 105, 108, 112, 114, 116, 126, 133 
Galena & Chic. U. R. R. Co. v. Jacobs, 1288 
Gallagher v. Mars, 2004 

V. Shipley, 78, 79, So 
V. Waring, iigg 
Gallaher 7/. Herbert, 1157 
Gallatin Co. v. Beattie, 2063 
Gallego's Exr. v. Attorney-General, 1684 
Gallego V. Chevallie, 636 
Galleo V. Eagle, 1980 
Galliers 21. Moss, 1552, 1554, 2084 
Galligherz/. Smiley, 1381, 1384, iSH 
Galligo V. Chevallie, 635 
Gallop V. Newman, 1240 
Galloway v. Bonesteel, 2241 
V. Finley, 1617, 2304 
1/. Herbert, 1284 
V. Kerby, 1316 
Galloway, Lessee of, v. Ogle, 1213 
Gait V. Dibreil, 1712, 1795 
V. Dibsell, 2366 
V. Jackson, 2054 
Galusha 7/. Sinclear, i8gi 
Galveston, H. & H. R. Co. v. Cowdrey, 2018, 

2019 
Galway v. Fuilerton, 2107, 2152 
Gambette v. Brook, 1416, 1460 
Gamble's Estate, 616 
Gamble, Succession of, 31, 32 
Gamble v. Voll, 2171 
Gambril v. Gambril. 515 

7J. Doe ex d. Rose, 281, 284 
Gamhill v. Newby, 1904 
Gammis v. Clark, 2362 
Gammon zr. Freeman, 2357 

V. Vernon, 1072 
Gandy v, Jubber, 1300 
Ganet z'. Hall, 2316 
Gangwere's Estate, In re, 899 



Gangwere v. Gangwere, 957 
Gann vl Chester, 2007 
Gannaway v. Tarpley, 760 
Gannon v. Freeman, 7G4 

zi. Nowell, 355 
Gano V. Vanderveer, 994, 1081 
Gans z'. Thieme, 2101 
Ganseii v. Tomlinson, 2101 
Ganter v. Atkinson, 1320 
Gantley's Lessee v. Ewing, 1511 
Gantz V. Toles, 2172 
Garaty v. Dubois, 1394, 1421, 1422 
Garber v. Henry, 2120 
Garbut v. Bowlin, 8g6 
Gardeline v. Michel, 2336 
Gardener v. Finley, 47 
Gardenhire v. Hinds, 1797 
Gardiner?'. Astor, 2097, 2098 
V. Corson, 1063 
z'. Derring, 541, 544, 546, 557 
z/. Painter, 1626 
Gardiner Mfg. Co. v. Heald, 1976 
Gardinier z>. Corson, 2362 
Gardner t. Astor, 2095, 2097 
V. Barnes, 1093, 20S3 
V. Bennett, 1194, 1195 
V. Board of County Commissioners, 1131, 

1133, »f34. i'35 ' 
v. Collins, 22S6 
V. Commissioners of Dakota Co., 13)3, 

1315. i3'6 
z;. Corson, 1S55 
v. Emerson, 2136 
v. Finley, 2022 
V. Gardner, 1044, 1562, 1580 
V. Green, 761, 815 
z'. Hazleton, ggg, 1283, 1305 
v. Heartt, 800, 2186 
V. Heyer, 2281 
z/. Hoeg, 2020 
V. Hooper, 634 
V. James, 2134 

z>. Keteltas, 978, 1079, 1128, 1201 
V. Klutts, 617 
V. Moore, 1485, 2038 
V. Newburgh, 2224 
V. Ogden, 1621 
Garesche v. Priest, 1719 
Garfield v. Crow, 417 

V. Hatmaker, 768, 1548, 1559 
V. Williams, 1093 
Gariss V. Gariss, 1292 
Garit v. Chambers, 69 
Garland v. Executors of Crow, 480, 519 
V. Garland, 1677, 1678, 1679 
V. Jackson, 1037 
V. Richeson, 2105 
V. Towne, 198 
z/. Wynn, 2307 
Garlick v. Strong, 708, 726 
Gamer v. Bond, 1503 
V. Byard, 2263 
V. Garner, i6og 
V. Hannah, 1059, 1139, 1140, 1141, 1152, 

1157, 1158 
V. Jones, 1920, 1932, 1952 
z/. Manhattan Building Assoc, 1140, 
1141, 1158 
Gamett v. Macon, 1758 
Gamhart z'. Finney, 1058, 1086, 1155, 1156 
Gamons, Doe ex d., v. Knight, 1786 
Garnsey v. Mundy, 1609, 1791, 1792, 1793 

?'. Rogers, 2070, 2072 
Garrard v. Garrard, 956 

7/. Lauderdale, 1713, 1793 
V. Tuck, 1261 
Garraud, Jie Estate of, 1648 
Garretsie zi. Van Ness, 498 
Garretson v. Brien, 734, 741 
Garrett's Appeal, 1509 
Garrett z/. Beaumont, 671 
V. Buckett, 2106 



CXXVIU 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Gairett tt. Cheshire, 1380, 1510, 1512, 1518 

V. Clark, 531, 130S, 1320, 1335 

V. Cummins, 116G 

V. Moss, 909 

z/. Sconten, 1873 
Garrison, Re^ 856, 859, 860 
Garrison v. Moore, 59 

V. Rudd, 2217 

V. Sandford, 1093 
Garritt v. Sharpe, 2218, 2220, 2246, 2247 
Garson v. Green, 2005, 2006 
Garth v. Baldwin, 300, 1606 

V. Cotton, 575 

V. Mois, 1626 
Gartshore v. Chalie, 954, 956 
Gartside z/. Outley, 1125, ii6g, 1319, 2065 
Garvey v. Dodyns, 2256 

V. Jarvis, 173S 
Garvin v. Hatcher, 928 

V. Jennerson, 1292, 2261 
Gary w. Esterbrook, 1501, i5t9 
Gascoigne w. Thwing, 1648, 1700 
Gaskell v. Gaskell, 515 
Gaskill V. Sine, 2153, 2154, 2179, 2180 

■V. Trainer, 1061, 1154, 1164 
Gassage v. Taylor, 442 
Gassert v. Bogk, 2043, 2052 
Gast V. Baer, 414 
Gaston v. Wright, 1948 
Gate V. Wiseman, 648 
Gate City Land Co. v. Heilman, 1045 
Gates V. j^dams, 21S0 

V. Andrews, 1795 

V. Butler, 211 

V. Caldwell, 1989 

V. Salmon, 191 1, 1924, 1967 
Gales d. Markham v. Cooke, 2S9 
Gateward's Case, 2193 
Gatewood w. Gatewood, 2173 
Gather v. Welch, 2333 
Gathings z/. Williams, 755,883 
Gaule V. Bilyeau, 1226 
Gaulstine 7/. Royal Ins. Co., 632 
Gault V. McGrath, 2x33 

V. Neal, 1340 

V. Stormont, 1278 
Cause V. Hale, 645 

V. Wiley, 416, 424, 462 
Gausen z*. Tomlinsoii, 2125 
Gaven 7/. Ha^en, 1282 
Gawtry V. Leland, igS, 2245 
Gay's Case, 969, 974 
Gay V. Baker, 31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 83 

V. Edwards, 1781 

V. Gay, 58S, 634 

V. Hunt, 1648, 1701 

V. Joplin, 1 189 

V. Mitchell, 1259 

V. Mottiff, 2297 
Gay, Exrx.jZ/. Davey, 1179 
Gayetty v. Bethuiie, 2205, 2242, 2295 
Gayford v, Moffatt, 2238 
Gayle v. Johnston, 1894 

V. Price, 764 
Gaylord v. City of Lafayette, 1791 

V. Imhoif, 1432 
Gayner v. Laresborough, 883 
Gazely v. Price, 729 
Gazzoloz'. Chambers, 1067, io8i 
Geary v. Bearcroft, 526 
Geay v. McCune, 917 
Gebb V. Rose, 646, 882 
Gee V. Gee, 1464, 1453, 1640 

V. Moore, 1450, 1455, 1469, 1478, 1502, 
1518 

V. Thompson, 773, 920 

V. Young, 48, 538 
Gfeeber v. Kleckner, 988 
Geggetts V, Geggetts, 727 
Geheebee 7/. Stanby, 1316, 1331, 1340 
Geiger v. Braum, 996, 1329, 1339, 1343 

V. Browne ,1324 



Geisy v. Cincinnati, 2325, 2326 
Gellespie v. Worford, 604 
Gellett V, Rhode, 1013 
Gellig V. Maas, 2 121 
Gelpcke v. Blake, 136 

V. Dubuque, 1516 
Gelston v. Burr, 2066 

V. Sigmund, 1053 
Gelzer v. Gelzer, 923,927, 933, 950, 951, 954, 

957, g64 
Genet v. Tallmadge, 1023 
Genner z'. Tracey, 2176 
Gennings v. Lake, 2216 
Genty. Mayor, 1194 
Center -a. Morison, 2354 
Gentleman v Soule, 2206 
Gentry v. Wagstaff. 703, 1363, 1370 
George v. Andrews, 2071 

V. Baker, 2085. 2101 

V. Bussing, 650, 651 

i<. Cooper, S26 

V. Gardner, 2175 

V. Goldby, 1034, 1368 

•u. Kent, 2153, 21/8, 2183 

V. Morgan, 424, 466 

V. Putney, 1169, 1170, 225S 

V. Wake, 795 

7'. Wood, 2153, 2178, 2181, 21S3, 2184 
George's Creek Coal & Iron Co. v. Detmold, 

1997, 2079 
Georges v. Stanfield, 543, 544 
Georgia Home Ins. Co. v. Kinnier, 2116 
Gerald %>. EUey, 2331 
Gerard v. Basse, 2356 

Geiard Ins. Co. v. Chambers, 300, 32S, 1605 
Gerber 71, Grabel, 2223 
Gerdine z'. Menage, 2137, 2138 
German -u. Gabbald, 1G42, 1648, 1G49, ^^^1^ ^^99 

V. German, 327 
German Bk. v. Leyser, 2333 
German Ins. Co. v. Hynian, 631 
German Reformed Church v. Seibert, 34 
Germond v. Jones, 767 
Gerrish v. Brown, 2225 

V. Mace, 2060 
Gerry v. Stimson, 801, 1537 
Gervoy's Case, 966 
Gerzebek v. Lord, 1034, 10S6 ' 
Getman v. Getman, 1635, 1696 
Gettings v. Eastman, 368 

GetzandafEer v. Caylor, 2251, 2257, 225S, 226R 
Getzler v. Saroni, 1409 
Geugerz'. Braun, 1340 
Geyerz/. Wentzel, 313, 34S 
Ghegan v. Young, 2263 
Ghenny v. City National Bank, 1094 
Ghormley z'. Smith, 1677, 1678 
Gibbes v. Jenkins, 1089 

V. Smith, 1599 

V. Vincent, 523 
Gibbens z'. Thompson, 2255 
Gibbiiisz'. Dayton, 13 10 

V. Eyden, 589 

V. Shepard, 317 
Gibbon v. Gibbon, 8g8 
Gibbons v. Dayton, 1330, 1340 

7'. Dillingham, 45, r698, 2250 
Gibbs V. Diekma, 15S6 

V. Estey, 847, 851, 2021 

V. Esty, 60T 

V. Marsh, 1599, 1737, 1754, 1830 

V. Ougier, 77 

7'. Penny, 1677, 2044, 2046, 2055 

z'. Ross, 1 120, 2249, 2251 
Gibett V. Peteler, 1856, 2359 
Giblin v. Jordan, 1426 
Gibson v. Chedic, 1795 

V. Chouteau's Heirs, 2304, 2322, 2323 

7'. Courthope, 1343 

V. Crehore, 510, 803, 866, 808, Sog, 810, 
1494, 1921, 2074, 2090, 209s, 2097, 
2172, 2176, 21S2, 23O4 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CXXIX 



Gibson v. EUer, 1068, 1106, 1107, 1281, 1284, 
2037, 2054 
w. Foote, 1589, 1610, 1646 
V. Gibson, 635, 636, 889, 897, 899, 943, 

954, 956, 963 
V. Holden, 2235 
V. Holland, 1000 
V. Jeyes, 1707 
V. Maulton, 415 

V. McCormick 

V. Montfort, 2S8, 289, 290, 335, 1563, 1594, 
JS95 

V. Moulton, 447, 472 

V. Mulligan, 2257, 2272, 2274 

z'. Parlee, 2354 

V. Taylor, 2031 

V. Rees, 1795 

■V. Smith, 573 

V. Soper, 1032 

V. Sopier, gS6 

V. Wells, 570 

V. Zimmerman, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 
1940, 1950 
Giddeus v. Dodd, 1007 
Giddiiigs v. Cox, 676, 677, 1362 

V. Eastman, 1621, 2058, 2289 

V. Palmer, 1665, 16S9, 1790 

V. Smith, 401, 411, 412 
Giddon v. Andrew, 2074 
Gies v. Green, 2167 
Gifford 7'. Choate, 344, 351, 352 

V. First Presbyterian Society of Syracuse, 
37, mo 

V. McCloskey, 2166 
Gilbert v. Beach, 1194, 1195 

V. Carter, 1620 

V. Chapin, 1627 

V. Columbia Turnpike Co., 1515 

V. Dickerson, 1905 

V. Gilbert, 682, 2136 

•u. Holmes, 2059, 2060 

V. Husman, 2169 

V. Penn, 2016 

V. Peteler. 268, 1777, 1849 

V. Reynolds, 923 

V. Richards, 1878, 1884 

V. Sanderson, 2072 

V. Smith, 1974 

V. Wiman, iioi 
Gilbertson v. Richard, 2259 

V. Richardson, 1552 
Gilbraith v, Gedge, 824 
Gilchrist z/. Stevenson, 1599, 1660, 1787 
Giles V. Austin, 1157 

V. Baremore, 2094. 2146 

V. Boston F. & W. Soc, 1686 

z'. Ebsworth, 1220, 2273 

V. Dugro, 2236 

V. Gullion. 722, 828 

V. Hallock, 2309 

•u. Law, 722 

V. Little, 339, 345, 1822 

V. O'Toole, 1245 

V. Palmer, 1750, 1751 

V. Simonds. 55, 56 
Gilhooley v. Washington, 979, J199 
Gillian v. Norton, 1184, 1185 
Gilky V. Dickerson, 1231 
Gill's Estate, Re, 2r9, 774 
Gill V. Clark, 2oot, 2180 

v. Cook, 720 

V- Edwards, 1504 

V. Fauntleroy, 1928 

V. Logan, 1796 

V. Lyon. 2154 

V. Middleton, 1106, 1182, 1191 

V. Newell, 1639, 1652 

V. Ogburn, 1125 

V. Pinney, 2027, 2029 
Gillam v. Taylor, 1685 

V. Dixon, 1886, 1920, 1931, 1933 
Gillean v. Moore, 765 



Gillenwaters v. Miller. 1643 
Gillespie w. Bailey, 1031,2011 

V. Jones, 2297 

V. Mayor, 2268 

V. Moon, 2331 

V. Nabors, 274, 1980 

V. Smith, 1758 

V. Sommerville, 781, 782, 827 

V. Thomas, 1127, 1129, 1167, 1170, 2268 
Gillet V. Van Rensselaer, 695 
Gillett V. Balcom, 47, 2142, 2146 

V. Eaton, 2000 

V. Stanley, 985 

V. Tre^nza, 574 
Gillian v. Swift, gor 

Gilligan v. Aldermen of Providence, 976 
Gilliman v. Moore, 805, 818, 829, 836 
Gilling 7'. Maass, 1047 
Gillion z*. Finley, 1315 
Gillis V. Bailey. 1019, 1972 

V. Brown, G37, 712, 784, 820, 821 

7'. Martin, 2040, 2043, 2052, 2086, 2185 

7'. McKay, 1577, 1741 
Gillispie v. Walker, 1579 
Gillitt V. Truax, 49 
Gilman v. Brown, 2005, 2008 

V. Gilman, ^456 

V. Illinois & M. Tel. Co., 2066 

7', McArdle, 154S 

V. Milwaukee, 1029, 1132 

V. Moody, 2027, 2028 

V. Morrill, igig 

•v. Reddington, 1798 

V. Stetson, 1883 

u. Stevens, 2056 

7'. Williams, 1514, 1515 

7'. Wills, 2084 
Gilmer 7'. Limepoint, 197, 2326, 2327 
Gilmore v. Burch, 679, 681 

V. Driscoll, 2231, 2232, 2233, 2248 

V. Gilmore, 652 

V. Hamilton, 1002 

V. Ontario Iron Co., 983 

•V. Wilbur, igoi 
Gilpin V. Davis, 1625 

V. HoUings worth, ig28 

V. Howell, 42, 43, 817 
Gilson V. Boston, loio, 2260 

V. Gilson, 2040, 2031, 2037, 2041, 2042, 
2102 

V. Hutchison, 794, 913 

V. Zimmerman, 1920 
Gilworth V. Cody, iqoo 
Gindrat v. Western R. of Ala., 1800 
Ginger v. White, 423 
Gingrich v. Foltz, 175 1 
Girard v. Hughes, 2294 

V. Philadelphia, 165S, 1659 
Girard Life Ins. & Trust Co. v. Chambers, 
318, 500, 1675 

V. Stewart, 2070 
Girland v. Sharp, 1582 
Gist V. Cattel's Heirs, 938 
Givan v. Tout, 2103 
Given v. Doe, 2318 

V. Marr, 729, 771, 772, 8ro, 869, gig, 1093, 
1376, 2127, 212S 
Givens w, McCalmont, 2087, 2185 
Givins v, Easley, 2274 
Gladding v. Warner, 2087 
Gladwyn v. Hitchman, 2140, 2146, 
Glaister v. Hewer, 77g 
Glascock e*. Robards, 1271, 1290 
Glascow?/. Hortiz, 2192 
Glasgow (Earl) v. Hurlet Aim. Co., gi 
Glass V. Ellison, 1993, 1697, 2063 

V. Gilbert, 1781 

V. Glass, 755 

•V. Hulbert, 2045 

V. Warwick, 2152 
Glasscock ti. Glasscock, 2363 
Gleasou v. Emerson, 772, 919, 920 



cxxx 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Gleason v. Fayerweather, 239, 240, 249, 318 

V. Scott, 456, 462, 463 
Glegg V. Glegg, 963 

V. Rees, 1794 
Glein V. Rise, 1149 
Gleises v. Maignan, 2147 
Glen V. Gibson, 1160 
Glendale Wooleu Co. v. Protection Ins. Co., 

i6g3, 1701 
Glenn v. Bank of U. S., 902 

V. Canby, 1070 

V. Clark, 782, 804, 926 

V. Davis, 1S67 

V. Glenn, 719 

V. Peters, 974, 976 
Glenorchy, Lord, zl Bosville. 443 
Glidden v. Bennett, 63, 103, 104 

V. Blodgett, 645 

V. Strumpler, 924 
Glisson V. Hill, 2047 

Globe Marble Works Co. p. Quinn. 122, 132 
Gloninger v. Franklin Coal Co., 2189 
Glover z/. Monckton, 1596 

V. Payn, 2053, 2054 

•V. Reid, 1822 
Goddard*s Case, 2353 
Goddard 7/. Bolster, 105, 2186 

V. Brown, 1740 

V. Chase, 130, 137, 146, 2334 

V. Hall, 2271 

V. Lethbridge, 316 

V. Pomeroy, 225 

V. Sawyer, 2058, 2059 

V. Russ, 794 ■ 

V. Snow, 795 

V. South Carolina R. Co., 1308 
Goddard's Executors v. Railroad Co., 1335 
Godden v. Crowhurst, 274 
Godfrey v. Beardsley, 2304, 2365 

V. Bryan» 1024, 1945 

V. Cartwright, 1026, 1925 

V. Godfrey, 1630, 1633 

V. Humplxrey, 202, 305, 306, 308, 312, 335 

V. Poole, 1792 

V. Thornton, 146S, 1475 

V. Watson, 2185 
Godfrey ex p. Warren v. Rudall, 573 
Godley I/. Hagerty, 1197,1202 
Godolphin v. Godolphin, 1658 
Godrow w. Atkinson, 1883 
Godsell, Doe d., v. Inglis, 1310 
Goebel v. Iffla, 154S 
Goehrings* Appeal, 500 
Goelet V. Gori, 1951, 1952 
Goewayp. Urig, 1914 
Goff V. Anderson, 617, 618 
Going 7/. Emery, 118, 706, 1754 
Gold V. Ryan, 928 

Gold Mining Co. v. National Bank, 1020 
Goldbeck v. Goldbeck, 596 
Golden v. Prince, 2056 
Golden Fleece Co. v. Cable Con. Co., 221 
Golding V. Golding, 1948 
Goldman v. Clark, 1387, 1391, 1417, 141S 
Goldsberry v. Bishop, 1285, 1290 
Goldsborough v. Martin, 16S2 
Goldsmid v. Tunbridge Wells Improvement 
Commissioners, 2227 

V. Wilson, 1266, 1280 
Gomber w. Hackett, 1156 
Gomez v. Tradesman's Bank, 1592, i6gi 
Gonnon tj. Hargadon, 20 
Gonsolis V. Donchouquette, 1364 
Gooch V. Atkins, 715, 734, 735, 741, 838 
Good V. Coombs, 1924 

V. Fogg, 1514 

V. Good, 411, 417 

V. Zercher, 904 2324 
Goodall's Case, 1996 
Goodall V. Mopley, 2148 

V. New England Fire Ins. Co., 1668 
Goodbura v. Stevens, 786, 825, 1957, 2181 



Goode V. Crow, 890 

Goodell 7/. Jackson, rg7 ' 

Goodenough v. Warren, 2364 

Goodenow v. Allen, 1252, 1262, 1273, 1281 

V. Ewer, 1S94, 1999, 2151 
Goodere v. Lloyd, 163S 
Goodhue 2>. Barnwell, 1782 
Goodiil V. Brigham, 487, 1039, 1820 
Gooding v. Gibbes, 1664 
Goodlee v. Rogers, 1247 
Goodlel V. Cleveland, 1309 

v. Smithson, 2304,2305 
Goodlittie v. Billington, 1568 

■v. Holdfast, 1870 

V. Jones, 1595 

V. Newman, 703 
Goodman v. Grierson, 2044, 2168 

V. Hannibal & St. Jo. R. Co., 1188 

V. Kine, 2081,2188 

V. Randall, 2033, 2037, 2060, 2071 

V. White, 2073, 2146 
Goodmorst v. Goodmorst, 7S1 
Goodnow V. Empire Lumber Co., 103 1 
Goodrich v. City of Milwaukee, 1607, 1655, 1656 

V. Harding, 33^, 416 

V. Jones, 20, 78, 79, 96, J04, 106, 107, 136 

V. Pendleton, 1781 

V. Proctor, 288, i524» ^754 

7'. Russel, 215, 2/17673 

V. Staples, 2146 

V. Thompson, 1021 

7i. Walker, 2353 
Goodright v. Cator, 1844, 1845, 1S62 

v. Davids, 1139, 1143 

V. Mead, 387 

7'. Noright, 1 1 57 
Goodright d. Lisle v. Pullin, 424 
Goodriglit d. NichoUs v. Mark, 1007 
Goodright d. Walter v. Davids, j868 
Goodright ex d. Drewry v. Barron, 320 
Goodrum 1/. Goodrum, 1371 
Goodsell V. Myers, 2343 
Goodson z/. Ellison, 1742, 1743 
Goodspeed t. Fuller, 1700 
Goodtitle v, Bailey, 235S 

V. Burtenshaw, 405 

V, Funucan. 1040 

V. Jones, 1713, 1742 

V. Maddem, 340, 343, 344 

V. Newman, 359, 618 

V. Otway, 338, 1814 

V. Tombs, 1903 

V. Way, 993 

V. Whitby, 315 
Goodtitle d. Gurnel v. Wood, 1572 
Goodwin v. Gilbert, 1063 

V. Goodwin. 7S4, 823, 969, 974 

V. Hubbard, 208 

V. Hudson, 2259 

V. Jones, 367, 720, 2057, 22SS 

V. Richardson, 1886, i960, 1963, 2077 

V. Winston, 827 
Goodwright 7K Wells, 1574, 15S2, 2096 
Goodyear v. Vosburg, 501 
Goold z\ Great Western Coal Co., 90,93 
Goon V. Anthony. 2303 
Gordon v. Armstrong, 1238 

V. Bell, 2004 

71. Bulkely, 1042 

V. Dickinson, 763, 766 

V. George, 1074, 1075, 1076, 1304 

V. Gilman, 1270, 1274 

V. Hobart, 2174,2185 

V. Ingraham, 485 

V. Lewis, 2087, 2184 

V. Little, 120S 

V. Massachusetts Ins. Co., 21x3 

■u. Milne, 2235 

V. Overton, 1810 

V. Pearson, 1987 

V. Phillips, 1701 

V, Preston, 2014, 2016 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CXXXl 



Gordon v. Sizer, 2297 

c Small, 1781 

V. Sterling, 1985 

V. Stevens, 916, 918, 940, 942, 944, 945, 
946, 956 

V. Tweedy, 746, 747 

V. Ware, 2128 

V. West. [715 

V. Wlneldon, 1939 
(lore V. Brazier, S22, 841, 844, 843, 1095 

V. Gibson, 987, 1032, 1034 

V. Gore, 1569 

V. Jeiinisoii, 2187 

V. Stevens, 1127, 1169 

V. Townsend, 726, 727, 729, 822 
Goreton z'. George, 1135 
(Jorges V. Stanfield, 559 
Gorman v. Daniels, 237, 297, 776, 835, 1548, 

i549> 1550 
Gorham v. Arnold, 1999, 2078 

V. Daniels, 2315 

11. Gorham, 1980, 1984 

V. Lnckett. 706 
Gorton z>. Hadsell, 32 
Goshen v. Stonington, 1517, 2332 
Goslin z>. Agricultural Hall Co., 1195 
Goss V. Froman, 774, 892, 894 

V. Singleton, 1598, 1785, 1786, 1788 
Gosan V. Brown, 2137 
Gossom V. Donaldson, 1990 
<'iOtliard V. Fiynn, 2003 
Gott V, Cooke, 1560, 1604, 1684, 1798 

V. Gandy, iro6 
Gotzler z/. Saroni, 1481 
Goudie v. Johnston, 1822 ' 

Gough V. Bult, 1782 

V. Manning, 271, 939, 1858 
Gouhenant v. Cockrell, 1461 
Gould V. Boston Duck Co., 2227 

V. Cayuga Co. Nat. Bank, 225 

V. Chappell, 1664 

•u. Crow, 661, 771, 772, 919, 920 

V. Garrison, 2154 

V. Kemp, 1968 

V. Kerr, 2266 

V. Lamb, 284, 285, 287, 288, 289, 290, 1594, 
i597i 1710. 1796 

V. Lamp, 1754 

V. Lynde, 1537, 1586, 1637 

•V. Marsh, 2107 

V. Mather, 1814 

V. Newman, 2091, 2102, 2147 

V. School District, 969 

V. Sub- District No. 3, mi 

V. Tancred, 2088 

V. Thompsc-i 1257, 1260, 1261, 1281, 1290, 
2248 

V. Webster, 539, 66r, 662, 1025, 1368 
Gould's Exrs. v. Womack, 898 
Gourley v, Woodbury, 1988 
Gouverneur?'. Lynch, 2154 

V. Robertson, 1657, 2014 
Govdell V. Pierce, 2354 
Gove V. Gather, 790, 843, 858, 867, 8gi, go8 

V. Persue, 86 r 
Goverin v. Humboldt Safe Deposit & Trust Co., 

2127 
Governor v. Campbell, 1794 
Govier 7/. Hancock, 774, 894, 895, 921 
Gowen v. Shaw, 1904 
t Cower V. Eyre. 557 

V. Howe, 2105, 2106, 2147 

V. Quinlan, 1922 

V. Winchester, 2174 
Gowza w. Grantham, 1029 
Grabenhorst v. Nicodemus, 1166 
flrable v. McCulloh, 1999 
Grace v. Denison, 1053 

V. Newton Board of Health, 5 
V. Smith, 1241, 1243 

V. Webb, 271 
Gradner v. Rowe, i6gi 



Grady v. McCockle, 791, 888 

V. Wolsner, 1194 
Graff «*. Bennett, 1548 

?'. Castleman, 1667 

V. Fitch, 50, 51 
Graffney v. Peeler; 2301 
Grafton v. Grafton, 229s 
Grafton Bank v. Foster, 2133 
Graggz/. Gragg, 141 1 
Grahams'. Bennett, 596, 757 

V. Bleakie, 2156 

%K Cammamm, 517 

V. Campbell, 2007 

•V. Carondelet, 114a 

V. Crockett, 1400 

•V. Davidson, 1734 

V. Dunighan, 740 

i>. Graham, 671, 718, 736, 781, 784 

V. Lambert, 1691 

V. Long, 2152 

7.1. Luddington, 621 

V. Moore, 741 

V. Newman, 2104, 2105, 2106 

•u. Peat, 1351, 1352 

•u. Pierce, 1904 

7'. Public Admr., 1456 

V. Roberts, 513 

V. Stewart, 1521 

V. Way, 1117 
Graig v. Eastin, 1425 

t'. First Presbyterian Church, 41 
Gramham ^. Houston, 983 
Granby v. Amherst, 1456 
Grand Canal Co. v. Fitzsimons, 1173 
Grand Gulf Bank z>. Archer, 1554 
Grand Rapids Booming Co. v. Jarvis, 976 
Granderson zt. Gr, ndeison, 965 
Grandona v. Lovdal, 57 
Grandy, Doe ex d., v. Bailey, 1169, 1170 
Granger il Illinois & Michigan Canal, 1037 
Grannis v. Clark, 1081, 2362 
Grant v, Bissett, 2120, 2126 

V. Carpenter, 348 

V. Chase, 515, 743, 1142, 2242, 2245 

v. Cosby, 1513, 1516, 1517 

V. Duane, 2073, 2169 

7'. Fowler, 210, 211, 2296, 2297, 2300 

V. Grant, 75 

V. Hclmes, 2051 

7'. Parham, 717 

7/. Ramsey, 1264 

•V. Tallman, 1092 

7}. United States Bank, 2139 

V. White, 1213, 1281, 1285, 1316, 1317 
Grantham v. Hawiey, 538 
Grapengether v. Fejervary, 1738, 2004, 2106 
Grass v. Lange, 915 
Grassby v. Reinbach, 2106 
Gratrex, Doe d., v. Homprey, 299, 1574, 1583, 

1606 
Grattan v. Wiggins, 2078, 2147, 2175 
Graty v. Du Bois, 1400 
Gratz V. Ewoldt, 2362 

7'. Gratz, 1976 
Gravel Hill School District v. Old Farm School 

District, 233 
Gravenor 7/. Woodhouse, 1149 
Graves* Case, 556, 562, 564 
Graves v. Berdan, 65,66, 1015, 1126, 1175, 1176, 
1177, 1179, 1180, 2270 

7/. Boston Marine Ins. Co., 1669 

V. Boyle, 326 

V. Braden, 925 

7/. Carter, 1698 

V. Cochran, 737. 740, 837 

V. Dolphin, 246, 253, 273 

V. Graves, 1538, 1610, 1652, 2349 

V. Porter, 1075 

V. Sawcer, 1247 
V. Sayre, 2055 
7'. Smith, 223S 
V. Trueblood, 697 



CXXXll 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Graves 7'. Waterman, 1770 

V. Weld, 48, 49, S3 
Graves, Doe d., v. Wells, 1144, 1145, 1336 
Gravillon v. Richards' Exr., 1456 
Gray's Case, 28 
Gray, Ex parte ^ 225, 969, 974 
Gray v. Actor, 1025 
V. Baird, 1502 
V. Baldwin, 2187 
V. Bartlett, 2302 
V. Bates, 1897 
V. Blanchard, 259, 263, 267, 268,269, 1849, 

1861, 1862, 1868, 1972 
V. Clement, 2262 
z/. Cox, 1200 
V. Fox, 1720, 1721, 1724 
V. Givens, 1897, 1898, 1899 
V. Gray, 1630 
V. Henderson, 1662 
V. Hill, 1712 
V. Holdship, 104, 105, 106, 113, i44j 5^7: 

2022 
V. Jenks, 2076, 2132 
V. Johnson, 12 13 
w. Jones, 2310 
V. La Fayette Co., 2314 
V. Lynch, 1663, 1730, 1810, i8n, 1885 
V. McCune, 711, 949 
V. Mannock, 525, 526 
v. Mathis, 1360 
!:'..Obear, 501 
V. Palmer, 1957, 1964 
V. Rogers, 2258 
V. Shaw, 1755 
■V. Smith, 1691 
■V. Slivers, 2024 
V. Ulrich, 1777, 2364 
V. Wilson, 1050 
V. Winkler, 321 
Gray, Doe d., v. Stanion, 1276, 1290 
Graydon v. Church, 2016 
Grayson v. Atkinson, 306, 308, 326 
Greason v. Keteltas, 1037, 103S, 10S6 
Great Falls Co. v. Worster, 1998, 20S5 
Great Luxembourg R. Co. v. Magnay, 76, 1621 
Great Northern Dispatch Co. v. Nova Cassarea 

Harmony Lodge, Ohio. 2263, 2264 
Great Northern R. Co. v. Harrison, 1063 
Created v. Created, 249 
Greathead's Appeal, 734 
Greatorez v. Carey, 943 
Greeawalt v. Greeawalt. 465 
Greeley z*. Scott, 1379, 1419, 1420, 1433, i434 
Green's Case, 1S63 

Green v. Armstrong, 20, 21, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55 
V. Arnold, igii, 1987 
V. Beals, 2356 
V. Bethea, 2243 
V. Blackwell, 1662 
■V. Biddle, 1512 
V. Bridges, 1157 
V. Burke, 50, 2072 
V. Butler, 2025,2132 
V. Carsey, 767 
V. Chelsea, 207, 209, 760 
V. Clark, 2358 
V. Crockett, 2007, 2146 
V. Crow, 141 1 
V. Demoss, 2006, 2007 
V. Dietrich, 1008 
V. Dixon, 2152 
V. Drummond, 1634, 1641 
V. Eales, 1099 
V. Early, 1777 
V. Garrington, 2122 
V. Green, 694, 887, 916* 934. 935»9S5» i^3> 

J737 
V. Harman, 2296 
V. Hart, 1995, 210T, 2107 
V. Hewitt, 534 
V. Houston, 2071 
p. Hurt, 2099 



Green v. Keene, 742 

V. Kemp, 2060, 2125 

V. King, 1920 

V. Liter, 209, 600, 602, 607, 608, 613 

V. Maj-ks, 1451, 1496 

V. Marsden, 1627 

V, Massie, 2250, 2251, 2258 

V. Neal's Lessee, 1516 

V. Otte, 1377 

V. Pettingill, 1862 

V. Phillips. 103, 105, 117, 123, 126, 132, 
135, ^37 

z/. Porter, 955 , , „ 

V. Putman, 88,692, 703,718, 730,761,815, 
826, 1985, 1988 

V. Ramage, 2181 

V. Rampage, 2154 

z>. Redding, 1192 

V. Sargeant, 1717, 1776 

V. Siter, 2304 

V. Smith, 1243 

V. Spicer, 253 

V. Stephens, 434 

V. Sternberg, 2258 

V. Sutton, 1815 
. V. Tanner, 1624, 2136, 2139 

V. Tennant, 822, 842, 844 

V. Thomas, 2314 

V. Turner, 2020, 206S, 2069, 2071, 2075, 
2085, 2094 

V. Williams, 1245, 1246 

V. Winter, 1708, 1726, 1727, 1768 

V. Wynn, 2172 
Green Bay & Mississippi Canal Co. v. Hewitt, 

1822 
Green d. Cren z'. King, 1930 
Greenaway v. Adams, 1104, iiii 
Greenbaum v. Austrian, 799, 802 
Greenby v. Wilcocks, 1093 
Greene v. Barnard, 1497 

V. Beesley, 1240 

V. Cole, 553, 564, 570 

V. Couse, 1213 

V. Crowe, 1407 

V. Dennis, 1541, 1555 

V. Greene, 769, 786, 824, 825, 826, 885 

V. Keene, 735 

V. Rutherford, 1540 

V. Tyler, 2060 

V. Westcott, 2087 

z'. Windham, 1456 
Greener v. Klein, 728 
Greenfield's Estate, 1792, 1801 
Greenhold v. Stanforth, 215, 216 
Greenhouse, Ex parte, 1662 
Greenia v. Greenia, 220 
Greenlaw v. Greenlaw, 1919 
Greenleaf v. Allen, 1069, 2361, 2362 

71. Edes, 2120 

V. Francis, 2226, 2230 
Greenlee v. Davis, 2279 
Greenly v. Hall, 569 
Greeno v. Munson, 1144, 1145, 1150, 1160, 1214, 

1222 
Greenough's Appeal, looi 
Greenough v. Turner, 901, 902, 909, 911 

V. Welles, 1810 
Greenup v. Sewell, 1975, 1986 
Greenvault v. Davis, 1081, 1082 
Greenway v. Adams, 1057 

V, Hockin, 39 
Greenwich Hospital Improvement Act, Re, 307 
Greenwood v. Clarke, 519 
V. Coleman, 1796 
V. Curtis, 753, 754 
V. Ligon, 729, 730, 1093 
V. Maddox, 1398, 1423, 1475 
zi. Murdock, 2021 
V. Tyber, 1025, 1026 
71. Wakeford, 1787 
Greer v. Blanchar, 1877 

V. Mayor of New York, 519, 520, 746 



Refereices are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CXXXlll 



Greer v. Sankston, 775 

V. Tripp, itS97 
Gregg V. Blackmore, 1976, 2303 

V. Bostwick, 137S, 1379, 1384, 1386, 1387, 
1416, 1419, 1435, 1436, 1437, 1438, 
M39, i442» 1443. M45» M4^ '447 

V. ('oates, 267 

V. Currier, 1810 

V. Irish, 1029 

V, Sanford, 2018 
Greggs V. Smith, 764, 766 
Gregor «', Cady, 1191, 1193 
Gregory v. Cowgill. 1806, 1815 

zr. Ford, 1364 

p. Gregorj', 1987, 1989 

r. Hartley, 2025, 2026 

V. Henderson, 1607 

V. Paul, 2346 

v. Price, 234<i 

77. Rosenkrauz, 2067 

V. Savage, 2096 

V. Setter, 1648, 1649 

z/. Smith, 1627 
Gregsou v. Harrison, 1156 
Greider's Appeal, 1126, 1159, 1160, 1161, 1164 
Greiger v. Brown, 1322 
Oreiner v. Klein, 879 
Greither v. Alexander, 2071, 2150 
Grellet ?'. Heilsliorn, 810 
Grendon v. Bishop of Lincoln, 207 
Gresham 7/, King, 1936 

Cjresley z'. Mousley, 76 ^ 

Greton z/. Smith, 1013, 1168, 1258, 1322, 1323 
<ireve 77. Coffin, 2104 
Grey v. Cuthbertsor, 1071, 1078 

■p. Northumberland, 84 
Grice z'. Scarborough, 1094, 1702 

V. Shaw, 2098 
Grider v. Eubank, 938 

V. Payne, 1707, 1769 
Gridley z>. Bloomington, 1201, 1202 

27. Watson, 1623 

tf. Wynant, 1658, 1696 
Grier^*. Sampson, 1201 
Griffin ■zr. Banks, 769 

w, Bixby, 57 

v, Blanchar, 1622 

V. Colver, 1247, 1248 

zf. De Veulle, 756 

V. Dighton, 29 

v. Fellows, 516, 1140, 1142 

a/. Ford, 103S, 1039, 1040, 1682 

z/. Griffin, 1708, 1975, 2058 

V. Ktnsey, 2261 

V. Knisely, 1133 

z/. Lovell, 2129 

7/. Macauley, 1732 

V. Marine Co., 2017 

7/. McKenzie, 15 17 

7/. Nicholas, 2302 

V. Nichols, 1405, 1500 

v. Proctor. 1422, 1424 

V. Ransdell, 145 

V. Reece, 891, 927 

v. Sheffield, 1348, 1349, 1354 

v. Sheley, 1457 

V. Sutherland, 1398, 1457, 1514 

7K Thompkins, 1104 
Griffith's Case, 563, 1153 
Griffith IT'. Buffum, 1244 

V, Eustin, 1900 

v. Evan, 1627, 1629 

V. Godey, 1586, 1645 

7;. Gi-iffith, 764, 938, 1371, 1599 

V, Harrison, 1040, 1807 

V. Henderson, 983 

V. Hodges, 1167 

z'. Lovell, 2155 

V. Paramaley, 1023 

V. Parmley, 1212 

z>. Pownal, 1811 

7/. Puleston, 540 



Griffith V. Rickets, 76, 1794 

V. Robinson, 1806 

V. Schwenderman, 1030, 1031 

7/. Spratley, 519, 1758 

V. Watson, 42 

w, Wilcox, 719 

7/. Wright, 2302 
Griffiths CT. Hamilton, i888 

7f. Morrison, 2241 
Grigg 71. Banks, 2064 

V. Cocks, 1761 

V. Smith, 826 
Griggsby v. Hair, 2007 
Griejnon 7'. Astor, 2304 
Grim's Appeal, 535 
Grim 71. Dyar, 1917 

V. Wicker, 1905 
Grimes z'. Byru, 15 10 

z/. Kimball, 2134 

z>. Orrand, 292, 293 
Grimley v. Riley, 2363 
Grimshawe z'. Burnham, 106 
Grimstone v. Bruce, 1870 

V. Carter, 2365 
Gring's Appeal, 2138 
Grisham z'. State, 595, 752 
Grissell v. Swinhoe,9i8, 944 
Grissom z>. Hill, 247 
Grist z'. Hodges, 1079 
Griswold z'. Fowler, 2149, 2150, 2151 

z'. Gelding,- 2056 

». Griswold, 2133 

V. Huffaker, 1440 

z'. Johnson, 191 1, t924, 1967, 1997 

V. Messenger, 1537 

zT. Penniman, 686 
Gristwold 77. Mather, 1997 
Grizzle z/. Pennington, 1141 
Grob f. Cushman, 2170 
Grocers^ Co. 7'. Donne, 199 
Groff z/. Rohrer,68i 

zr. Levan, 1234 
Grogan v. Garrison, 898, 899, 957 
Gregory v. Duncan, 1758 
Grosholz zf. Newman, 1393, 1444 
Gross V, Jackson, 107, no, 113 

7f. Lange, 792 

77. McKee, 2060 

v. Welwood, 229s 
Grossley zf. Lightowler, 2227 
Grosvenor z/. Allen, 2036, 2123, 2124 

71. Henry, 1281, 1289, 1310 
Groton zt. Roiiorough, 689 
Groustra 71. Bourges, 1252 

Grout ». Townsend, 427, 471,489,513,516,629, 
633, 643, 666, 6go. 691, 744, 2349 

V. Van Schoonhoven, 1798 
Grove v. Barclay, 2261 

7/. Barklay, 2260 

7f. Brien, 2177 

71. Gather, 922 

V. Todd, 882, 896, 900, 904, 909 

7f. Trueblood, 688 
Grover 7'. Flye, 2127, 2128,2131 

V. Thatcher, 809, 810,2097 
Groves z'. Groves, 1635, 1697 

z>. Steel, i6g8 
Grubb V. Bayard, 93, 2189 

V. Guilford, 2189 
Grubb, Doe d., v. Burlington, 549, 550 

V. Grubb, 1309 
Grube v. Wells, 2296, 2297 
Grubbs ff. McGlawn, 1775 
Gruenewald zr. Schaales, 1334, 1335, 1340 
Crumley 71. Webb, 1619, 1620, 1766 
Grundin v. Carter, 1124, 1220 
Grute zr. Locroft, 1024 
Gruve ?'. Wells, 2295 
Grymes 7'. Boweren, 129 
Guard 7^ Bradley, 1016 
Guardians n. Nathans, 596 
Guardians of the Poor v. Nathan, 752 



CXXXIV 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Guardians of the WoodlMidge Union, The, v. 

The Guardians of Colneis, 1266 
Gudgell V. iVuvall, gg6, iiHg- 
Gudger v. Burnes, 1284 
Gue V. Tidewater Canal Co., ^ 
Gueriu v. Moore, 707, 841, 843 
Guernsey v. Kendall, 2068, 2o6y 
Guest V. Farley. 1548; 1559, 2515 
Guffey z'. Hukill, 1162 
Guier v. O'Daniel, 1456 
Guild z'. Richards, 1154, 1849, 186S 

V, Rogere, 2270, 2273 
Guion V. Locke, 2175 
Guiod V. Guiod, 1396, 1449, 1452, 1454, i455r 

. I4S7. 1461, 1470. M7i> 1524 

Guion z/. Anderson, 489, 589, 590, 591, 604^622^ 
623, 624, 1364. 1^366, 1369, 137=^ 

V. Knapp, 2154 
Gulf R. Co. V. Owen, 2297 
Gulliver d. Tasker v. Ban*, i3c8>. 1337 
Gully V, Ciego, 1629 

■V. Ray, 760, 763, 765, 766, 781, 782, 819,. 
827, 893 
Gunn w. Barryjigio, 1512, 1513, i5f5» 'S'?* 
1706 

V. Brantley, 2175 

V. Gudehaus,. 1395 

V. Pollock, 2254 

•v. Sinclair, 1164, 133-5, »3J9. iy4<' 

V. Thomtony 15,13 
Gunning z/. Carman, 505, 511,. 519,. 520, 7^ 
Gunnis z*. Kater, 1164 
Gunnison v. Twitchell, 1383 
Guns V. Scovi'1^2270' 
Gunsolus?'. Lormer, 1285 
Gunson v. Healy, 2220 
(iuphill V. Isbell, 1639, i642'^ 1707^- '729* '74ir 

1784, iSoo- 
Guptil V. McFee, 1399, 1432 
Guthrie's Appeal, 402,. 4501 472, 1674 
Guthrie V. Field, 2175 

V. Gardner, 779, 1647 

V. Jones, 109, 110, MZ, 125, i-^^ 139, 145, 
1225 

V. Kahle^2039 

V. Murphy, 985 

V. Owens, 873, 931 
Guttcridge v. Munyard, jogS. 
Guttman v. Scammell, 712 
Guy V. Butler, 2099 

V. De.- Uprey, 2130, 2138- 

V. Downs, 1459 
Guyer v. Maynard, 1605 
Guytherz/. Pettijohn, 1246, 1905 
Gwineth v. Thompson, iSgi 
Gwinneil "v. Fames, 1085, i rgg, 120* 
Gwynn zi. Jonesi'' Lessee, 212, 1285, 134S 

V. Turner, 2123 
Gwynne v. Cincinnati, 796, 828„893,,92e 

H. 

Haas V. Shaw 646 

Habergham v. Vincent, 315, 1831 

Habig «». Dodge, 1985 

Hackensack Sav. Bank -u. Terhune Mfg. Co., 

2137 
Hackett z>. Reynolds, 2003 
Hackley v. Draper, 21 58 
Haddock v. Perham, 415 
Haden v. Buddenseck, 2025, Z059 
Hadley v. Hadley Mfg. Co., 1850 

z. Morrison, 1291 

V. Pickett, 2008 
Hadlock v. Bulfinish, 2133 

V. Gray, 1939 
K.ifer, In re, 1399 

Haflic V. Stober, 115, 145, 146, 147, 1224 * 
Hagan v. Brainard, 2015 

V. Lucas, 1516 

V. Walker, 2149 



Hagar %>. Brainard, 2186 
Hagar v. Brainerd, 688, 1998, 2015, 2078 
V, Buck, 1074 
V, Wis wall, 19S7 
Hageman v. Sutton, 2107 
Hager v. Schiiidler, 2331 

7'. Spect, 1923 
Hagerty v. I ee, 2240, 2241 
Haggard v. Benson, 1610 
Haggart v. Morgan, 1456 
Haggin %k Haggin, 1975 
Hagthorp v. Hook, 1612, 1777 
Hague V. Cummings, 1138 
Hahn v. Concordia Soc, 1872 

V. Gilford, 1220 
Haigh, Ex parte, 2002 
Haiglit V. Hall. 678, 698 
Haines v. Beach, 2074, 2147, 2169, 2172 
V. Burnett, 1096 
V. Ellis, 652 

V. O'Connor, 1699, 1739 
V. Thomas, 2039 
V. Thompson, 2053, 2055 
V. Witmer, 416 
Hait 11. Hoale, 1450, 147.'?, 1475, 1478' 
Halbrook v. Halbrook, 2349 

T. State, 755 
Halcomb v. Halcomb, 2163 
Haldane 7*. Johnson, 1151 
Haldeman v. Haldeman, 411, 413, 420, 42; 

V. Jenings, 1872 
Hale zi. Bower, 1034 

V. Glidden,. 212, 2298 

V. Hale, 618, 1666 

V. Heaslip, 1386, 1441, 1443' 

v. Henrie, 1648 

V. James^ 823, 840, S41, 84^, 843, 844, 845, 

846, 934 
V. Jewell, 2039, 2045 
V. Lawrence, 4, 5 
V. Marsh, 317, 318, 536 
V. Munn, 764 

V. Nashua & L. R. Co., 102& 
V. Omaha Nat. Bank, 2272- 
V. Pew, 1693 
V. Plummer, 786, 825 
V. Rider, 215S 
V. Wilkinson, r6g7 
Hales z/. Petit, 442, 443 
Haley v. City of Philadelphia, 671 

V. Hickman's Heirs, i335', 1337^ 
Halford 71. Hatch, 1124 
7'. Stains, 1.637 
V. Tetherow, 1903, 1904 
Hall's Case, 916, 942, 949 
Hall's Estate, Re, 813 
Hall V. Ashby, 232, 278 
V. Bliss, 2163, 2316 
7/. Benner, 1017, ri42-, 1149^ 
7'. Burgess, 1162 
V. Caldwell, 2-176 
V, Carter, 1734 
V. Chaffee, 322, 470 
V. Comfort, 1027 
V. Commonwealth, 522 
V. Davis, 1894 
V, Dean, 1093 
II. Dennison, 1795 
V. Dewes, 1817, i8r8 
V. Dewey, 1144, 2295 
z/. Dickinson, 330, 333 
V. Doe d. Surtees, 2095 
V. Gay, 2298 

V. Goodwin, 304, 353. 536 
V. Hall, 221,629, 633, 643, 657, 750, 935, 
938, 940, 13 19, J334, 1336, 1790, 1793, 
1801, 1946, 1947, 1949, 2142 
V. Hancock, 2280 
V, Heyden, 2016 
V. Heydon, 1624 
V. Huggins, 2151 
V. Lance, 2063 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cxxxv 



Hall V. Lawrence, 215T, 2195, 2198, 2199, 22oo,v 
2201, 2295 
V. Leonard, 2357 
V. Loomis, 1485 
v. Mayor of Swansea, 1332 
V. McCaughey, 2246, 2247, 2248 
V. McDuff, 2003 
V. McLeod, 2220 
V. Meyers, 1134, 113G 
•V. Mobile, etc., B. Co., 2068 
V. Myers, 1135, 1307, 1337 
V. Mullin, 184 
V. Nelson, 2149, 2151 
7/. Page, 124G 
V- Peftny, 1514 
V. Piddock, 1893, 1S96 
V. Priest, 415, 418 
z'. Ryder, 1045 
V- Savill, 1999 
V. Saville, 2053 
V. Sayre, 1365 
V. Sewald, 122 
V. Smith, 2007 
V. Southmayd, 1131, 2270 
V. Sprigg, 1638, 1642, 1644, 1648 
v, Stevens, 1920, 1929, 1092, 1945 
v- Stevens, 1917, 1930* 
V. Surtees, 1279 
V. Swift, 2247 

1/. Thayer, 252, 396, 411, 465, 466 
V. Towne, 2163 
V. Tufes, 249 
V. Tuffts, 1S57 
V. Tufts, 2028, 2029, 2030 
zi. TuUerton, 1469 
•V. Tunnell, 1998, 2078 
V. Vandergrift, 409, 423, 427 
V. Wadsworfli. 1254, 1300, 1301, 1303, 
1307, 130S, 1322, 1325, 1336, 1337, 

1343 

V. Western Transportation Co., 1295 

V. Young, 1576, 1587 
Hallen, Doe d., z*. Ironmonger, 1709 
Hallene/. Runder, 143, 145, n86 
Hallenbeck v. Dewitt, 2352 
Hallesy v. Jackson, 2175 
Hallett's Estate, In re, 1621, 1761 
Hallett V. Collins, 595, 752, 1545, 1578, 1585, 
1765, 1782 

V. Oakes, 986, 1032 

V. Thompson, 246, 253, 273, 1747, 1798 

zi. Wyley, 1175 

V. Wylie, 992, 1175, 1176, 1179, 1126 
Halley v. James, 368 

V. Northampton, 252 

V. Oldham, 1773 
Hallifax v. Higgins, 2051 
Haliigan v. Wade, 1128, 1168, 1174, 226S 
Hallihan v. Hannibal & St. Jo. R. Co., 1197 
Hallowav V. Lacy, mo 
Hallowell z*. Saco, 1456 
Halluck V. Brush. 1016 
Halserg v. Brown, 21 it 
Halsey v. Beer, 221, 222 

V. Blood, 1883 

V. Fairbanks, 1713, 1795 

V. Martin, 2042 

V. Reed, 2069, 2072, 2112, 2150,2166, 217S, 
2179 
Halstead v. Bank of Kentucky, 2120 

V. Board of Commissioners cf Lake, 215, 
1657 

V. Commissioners, 2014 
Ham V. Ham, 1777, igu* 1931,2301 

V. Kendall, 1268 

V. Santa Rosa Bank, 1447 
Hambleton z/. Duhain, 2307 
Hamblin v. Wardecke, 1455, 1502 
Hambly v. Trott, 1228 
Hamburger. Re, 2260 
Hamby v. Walls, 1893 
Hamilton v. Hempstead, 448 



Hame! v. Lawrence, 1213, 1218, 1271 
Hamer v. Sidway, 1589 
Hamerton v. Stead, 1162, 1254, 1298, 1313 
Hamilton zk Badger, 2208 

V, Browning, 211 1 

p. Buckminster, 1754 

V. Buckwalter, 917, gi8, 938,942, 944,949 

V. Clanricarde, 1018, 1039 

V. Conine, 1889, 1902 

V. Dobbs, 2074, 2136, 2150, 2169 

V. Doolittle, 2321, 2322 

V. Elliott, 1864, 1S67, 1991 

zf. Fowlikes, 2006 

V. Greenwood, 1625 

V. Halpin, 1958 

z/. Hempstead, 414 

z>. Hughes, 7S2 

ZK Huntley, 132, 133 

z' Lubukee, 1670, 2106, 2110, 2163 

». McPherson, 1248 

V. Marsden, 1149 

V. Nutt, 2359 

V. Royse, 2155 

ZI. Wilson. 1093 

V. Wright, 1065, 1082, 2298 
Hamit v. Lawrence, 1213, 1309 
Hamlin t. Hamlin, 781, 787, 1376 

V. Parsons, 2022 
Hammann v. Jordan, 2235 
Hammekin v. Clayton, 216, 218, 2014 
Hammersley t'. Smith, 1673 
Hammon v Douglas, 1264, 1312, 1324, 1330, 

1331 
Hammond v. Crosby, 2298 

V. Dean, 996, 1322 

v. Hammond, 307, 309, 312 

V. Harper, 2272 

V. Hicks, 1783 

z<. Myrick, 2155 

V. Port Royal & A. R. Co., 1856 

V. Zehner, 2242 
Hammonds v. Hopkins, 2039 
Hamper, Ex parte, 1240, 1244 
Hampshire v. Wickens, 257, 1096, 1097 
Hampson v. Full, 1633, 1646 
Hampton v. Hodges, 21SS 

V. Levy, 2120 

7'. Nicholson, 2134 

zf. Spencer, 1691 

V. Wheeler, igoo 

V. White, 2264 
Hamrick z'. People's Bank, 1409 
Hanbury z>. Kirkland, 1733 

Hanchet v, Whitney, 1136, 1300, 1301, 1303, 
1308, 1313, 1319, 1320, 1322, 1336, 1337, 

Hancock v. American Life Ins. Co., 523 

V. Austin, 2252 

». Carlton, 688, 1S70, 1871, 1872, 2069, 
2244 

V. Day, 552, 575 

V. Fishing Ins. Co., 631 

V. Fleming, 2071 

V. Hancock, 810, 2098, 2148 

V. Harper, 2047 

V. Jordan, 105, 108 

zj. Morgan, 1378, 1387, 1419, i434, M46 

V. Titus, 1751 

V. Watson, 2023 

7'. Went worth, 2243, 2244 
Hancom v. Allen, 1720 
Hand v. Fairbanks, 2334 

V. Kennedy, 2068 

W.Winn, 1449, 1451 
Handley v. Cunningham^s Trustee, 2256 

V. Wrightson, 1627 
Handlin, Re, 1399, 1432 
Handy z'. Foley, 2361 

V. McK'm, 285 
Handly r'. Sydenstricker, 2305 
Hanford v. Fitch, 2176 

V. McNair, 1042 



CXXXVl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



ITanham v. Sherman, 1161 
Hanke v. Finke, 635 
Hanna's Appeal, 349 
Hanna v. Spotts' Hears, 1728 
Haanah v. Carrington, 1995 

V. Osbom, 533 

V. Swamer, 75 

V. Wadsworth, 2349 
Hannahs v. Felt, 1512 
Hannan v. Hannan, 2059 

V. Osborn, 1895 

V. Towers, 1878, 1932, 1940 
Hannay v. McEntire, 573 
Hannen v. Ewalt, 1108, 2262 
Hannibal & St. Jo. R. Co. z*. Green, 1777 
Hannon v. Christopher, 2301 

V. Sommer, 1475 
Hannum v. Mclnturf, 1513 
Hanover Fire Ids. Co. v. Tomlinson, 2167 
Hanrahan v. O'Reilly, 146 
Hanrick v. Patrick, 223 
Hansard v. Hardy, 2095 
Hansell v. Hubbeil, 414, 415 
Hansen v. Buckner, 2359 

V. Dennison, 2020 

V. Kairtley, 982 

V. Meyer, 1070, 1078 
Hansford v. Elliot, 316 
Hanson v. Buckner, 2350 

V. Gardiner, 577 

V. McCue, 2230 

V. Willard, 1973, 1979. J982 
Hantz z/. Seely, 595, 5g6, 752 
Hapgood V. Blood, 1998 
Haralson v. Bridges, 1359, 1363, 1364, 1368, 1369 

V. Redd, 319 
Harbison z>. Lemon, 1033 
Harbuckz'. Toledo, 2327 
Harburg v. Hussey, 1979 
Harcourt v. Wyman, 1363, 1364, 1368, 1369 
Hard v. Nearing, 2324 
Hardcastle, Ex parte, 1761 
Harde v. Harde, 544 
Hardeman 7k Downer, 1510 
Harden v. Cullins, 2301 

V. Hays, 331, 333, 341, 342 

V. Parsens, 1664 
Hardenbergh, Den ex d.. v. Hardenbergh, 1024, 
1876,1881,1919,1920, 1930,1931, 1950 
Hardenburgh zi. Blair, 499 
Harder?'. Harder, 563, 1612 
Hardin v. Baird, 1691 

V. Forsythe, 1212, 1217, 1220 

V. Gerard, 1292 

V. Iowa R. &. C. Co., 2155 

V. Wolf, 1506 
Harding v. Alden, 771, 782 

V. Cobb, 1035 

V. Glyn, 326, 1593, 1629, 1685 

V. Harding, 661 

V. Mill River Co., 2146 

V. Springer, 1919, 193 1. "^932. 1940.2203 

V. St. Louis Life Ins. Co., 336, 1709 

V. Wheaton, 1616 
Hardwicke v. Vemon,;i7S3 
Hardy v. De Leon. 216 

V. Gregg, 1883 

V. Johnson, igoi 

V. McCullough, 2241 

V. Redman's Admrs., 289, 335 

V. Van Harlingen, 677, 1372, 1373, 1562 

V. Waters, 2343 

V. Winter, 1257 
Hare v. Celey, 1233, 1235 

V. Groves, irSr 

V. Van Deusen, 200S 
Harford v. Johnson, 2S6 

V. Lloyd, 1761 
Hargis v. Price, 1309 
Hargrave zj. King, 256, 1057, 1104, iiii, 1113, 

1643 
Hargreaves v. Mitchell, 1782, 1783 



Harker v. Bitkbeck, 990 

Harker, Den ex d., v. Gustin, 1217 

Harkins v. Forsyth, 2157 

V. Pope, 1131, 1132, 1135, 1315, 13^6 
Harkness v. Burton, 1280. 

V. Sears, 118, 119, 122, 131, 134, 13S1 
137 

V. Underbill, 2307 
Harkrader ?/. Leiby, 1998 
Harlan v. Emery, 2260 

v. Harlan, 105, 133, 138 

V. Lehigh Coal Co., 88, 983 

V. Smith, 2156 

V. Stout, 1983 
Harland?'. Bromley, 1343 

71. Trigg, 346, 347> 1627* 1629, 1631, 1632 
Harle 7.'. McCoy, 12S3 

V. Richards, 1391, 1459 
Harley v. Platts, 1553 

V. Ring, 2265 

V. State, 218, 219, 2014 
Harlow v. Lake Superior Iron Co., 983 

V. Thomas, 730, 1095 
Harman v. Allen, 1211, 1225 

V. Kelly, 1983 
Harmes v. Chesapeake & O. C. Co., 2325 

7>. Palmer, 2074 
Harmon v. Brown, 1858 

7>. Gartman, 1969 

V. James, 214, 672 

V. Kelly, 1973, 1979 
Harmony Building Association v. Berger, loS, 

III 
Harmony Lodge v. White, 1100, 2263, 2264 
Harner v. Dipple, 20ti 
Harnett v, Maitland, 122S, 1277 

V. Yielding, loog 
Harney 7/. Donohoe, 220 

7'. Dutcher, 172?! 
Harnickell 7'. Orndorff, 2160 
Harpending 7/. Dutch Churcli, 1899, 1913, 1914 
Harper's Appeal, 2086, 2088 
Harper 7'. Archer, 19S0 

7'. Barsh, 2038 

71. Hlean, 304, 306, 313, 326 

V. Ely, 1998, 2077, 20S8, 2089, 2090 

V. Forbes, 1457, 1461, 1465, 1466 

7'. Gilbert, 902 

71. Hampton, 367, 720, 2057, 2288 

71. Leal, 1506 

7'. Phelps, 1591, 1593, 1635, 1651 
Harr 7'. Bridges, 1008 
Harrell 7>. Harrell, 1986 

7'. Miller, 53, 55, 56 
Harrer ?'. Walhier, 1934, 1954 
Harriman 7'. Gray. 905, 906, 910 

7J. Queen's Ins. Co., 1391, 1392, 1417 

7'. Stowe, 1 194, 1 196 
Harrington 7'. Allen, 2126 

V. Brown, 1770 

7'. Fortner, 2038 

7>. Harte, 1820, 1S25 

7'. Murphy, 729, 730, 1092, 1093, 1095 

71. Price, 443 

V. Watson, 1015, 10S3, 1176 

7'. Wilklns, 2295 
Harrington, Doe d., zi. Dill, 341 
Harris, /« re, 534 
Harris v, Bannon, 2081 

V. Barnett, 1592, 1614 

71. Booker, 1579 

7'. Cannon, 1031 

7'. Carson, 1205, 1207 

V. Casson, 1211 

7!. Cohen, 1202 

71. Cook, 2107 

7'. Elliot, 89 

7). Evans, 1007 

V. Frank, 1072 

71. Frink, 49, 50, 52, 973, 976, 980, 1206, 
1207, 1208, 1255, 1256, 1257, I25fV 
1267, 126S, 1269, 1271, 1272, 1275, 



References are 

to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cxxxva 



1276, 1278, 1280, 1282, 1286, 1289 
1291, 1297 

Harris v Gilbert, 2358 

V. GilUiigham, 63, 2212, 2213 

V. Glenn, 1513 

V. Hickmaa, 2264 

V. Hayies, q6, 138 

•V. Hydii?. 66, 88, 92, 93, 94, 533 

v. IngUdeii, 2176 

V, Jones, 2020 

z'. Knapp, 31S, i8o5 

V. Larkins, 1979 

V. Lloid, 2281 

V. Mirs'iill, 130-) 

V, McElroy, 1741, 1753 

If. McLaran, 293 

V. Mills, 2093, 2094, 2095, 2099 

V. Miller, 2240 

V. Mills. 565 

V. Morris, 9S3 

V. N'ortoa. 2125 

V. Pepperell, 2331 

V. Potts, 533 

V. Ryding, 2233, 2237 

V. Rucker, 1599 

V. Sumner, 1623 

•u. Slaght, 76, 225 

V. York Ins. Co., 632 
Harris, D32 d., v. Masters, 1062 
Harrisbargh v. Crangle, 4g3 
arrisburgh Electric Light Co. v. Goodman, 

45 
amson v. Battle, 1820, 1825 

V. Botts, 1908, 1925 

V. Boyd, 736, 782 

V, Brolaskey, 1674 

zi. CT.rroll, 909 

V. Eldridge, 791, 8gi, 925, 927 

•V. Foreman, 1909 

V. Graham, 1733 

V. Griffith, 832 

V. Harrison, i8go 

V. Harrison's Admx., 943, 1591, 1593, 
1627, 1631, 1727 

V. Hefln, 872 

V. Hicks, 2127, 212S 

•V. Howard, 1649 

v. Jackson, 1030, 1042 

V. Laverty, 1698 

V. Leach, 15 15 

V. Lemon, 2040 

V. Lincoln, 883 

V. McHenry, 1775, 1776 

i>. Metz, 671 

V. Middleton, 1261, 1269, 1281, 1293, 1294, 
1297. 1350 

V. Pag2, 2192 

V. Phillips, 2034, 2039, 2132, 2353 

V. Rays, 1955 

V. Ricks, 1238, 1288 

V. Smith, 1762 

V. Southampton, 661 

V. Stryes, 2058 

V. Town, 1697 

V. Trader, 959 

V. Trustees, 20^8 

V. Trustees Phillips' Academy, 2042, 
2055 

V. Wine, 2085, 2087, 2184 
Harrison, Doe d., v. Murrell, 1215 
Harrison's Exrs., v. Payne, 855, 858 
arrow v. Johnson, 783, 802, 817, 847, 940 

V. Meyers, 722 
Harrow School, Keepers, etc , v. Alderton, 554 
Harrower v. Heath, 1229, 2263 
Harston v. Tenison, 1782 
Hart's Appeal, 95 
Hart V. Burch, 717 

V. Chalker, 2026, 2027 

V. Chase, 810 

V. Evans, 2225 

V. Finney, 1315 



Hart V. Gregg, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 2256, 
2301 
V. Hart, 1008 
-v. Hill, 69 
V- Horn, 1456 

V. Hudson River Bridge Co., 1109 
V. Isreal, 1120 
V. Lindley, 1335, 1340, 1456 
V. Logan, 799 
V. Marks, 1S83 
V. McCullum, 914 
V. McGraw, 629 
V. Robertson, 1901 
V. Sheldon, 116 
V. Soward, 1372 
V. Thompson. 419 
V. Tribe, 1630 
V. \yiiite, 3c8, 310, 312 
V. Windsor, 1054, 1055, 1080, 1082, 1097, 
mo, 1175, 1200, 1201 
Hartford Bridge v. East Hartford, 2303 
Hartford, etc., Ore Co. v. Miller, 1924 
Hartley's Appeal, 1811, 1843 
Hartley v, Harrison, 2070, 2071, 2072, 2112, 
2166 
V. Hurle, 1371 
7'. O'Flaherty, 2155 
Hartman v, Kendall, 103 1 

V. Munch, 1421, 1422 
Hartness v. Thompson, 103 1 
Harton v. Harton, 299, 1561, 1574, 1594, 1608, 

165s, 1672, 1673, 1712 
Hartshome v. Hartshorae, 783, 802, 803, 813, 
814, 818, 866,1975 
V. Hubbard, 2079 
Hartwell 7/. Bissell, 49, 52 
v^ Blocker, 2147 
V. Cammen, 84, 85, 88 
V. Kelly, 63, 1154,2256,2272 
V. McDonald, 1519 
Hartwick v. Mynd, 1818 
Harvard v. Underwood, 2169 
Harvard College -v. Alderman of Boston, 505 
V. Boston, 1 102 
•V. Gore, 1456 
Harvey's Estate, Re, 1836 
Harvey v. Alexander, 1698 
zj. Aston, 1857 
V. Ball, 720 
V. Bridges, 1351 
V. Erydges, 1357 
V. Cherry, 1912 
V. Harvey, 127, 563, 1909 
V. McGraw, 1076, 1107, 1124 
V. Olmstead, 332, 342, 536 
V. Wickham, 603, 605, 612, 635, 637, 1512 
Harvey's Admrs. v. Thornton, 2149 
Harvey, Doe d., v. Francis, 1318, 1326 
Harville v. HoUoway, 785 
Harvy z/. Aston,.27i 
Harwood v. West, 1627, 1630, 1863 
Hasbrook v. Paddock, io8g, 1139 
Haseltine v. Donahue, 2363 
Haskell v. Bailey, 2093, 2094, 2147 
ZK Hervey, 1783 
ZI. House. 1810 
V- New Bedford, 2325 
7'. Putnam, 1214 
Haskill V. Sevier, 2033, 2034 
Haskins zk Hawkes, 2085 

V. Tate, 535 
Haslage v. Krugh, 2252, 2257, 2259 
Haslem &. Lockwood, 78, 79, 81 
Hasler v. Hasler, 695 
Haslett V. Glenn, 538 
Hass V. Choussard, 2226 
Hasselman, v. McKernan, 2171 
Hassett z'. Ridgly, 1977 
Hasson zi. Barrett, 2045 
Hastie & Silver v. Aiken, 1783 
Hastings v, Clifford, 932, 939 

V. Crunkleton, 495, 552, 743, 806 



CXXXVIU 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References arc 
to pages. 



Hastings 7>. Dickinson, 889, 897, 8g8, Sgg, 927, 
950,951, 953, 954^5^ 95S> 963>964. 9<^^ 

V. Dollarhide, 103 1 

V. Drew, 162a, 1760 

7'. Hastings, 1904, ig6g 

V. Hopkiiison, 1242 

7'. Livermore, 1252, 2248 

z'. Merriam, 286 

7/. Stevens, 511, 783, 802 

7'. Vaughn, 2364, 2365 

V. Weber, 998, 1000 

V. Wilson, 1 1 15 
Hasty V. Wheeler, 564 
Haston v. Castner, 1623 
Hatch V. Barr, 2013 

V. Dana, 1581 

V. Hart, 1234 

V. Hatch, 1016, 2287, 2353 

V. Kimball, 2097, 2130 

V. Palmer, 802, 805 

V. Pendergast, 1144 

V. Smith, 2295 

V. Sykes, 2257 

V. White, 2142, 2t57 
Hatcheli r. Kimbrough, 1230, 1231, 1237 
Hatcher?/. Hatcher, 1281 
Hatfield v. Fullerton, 2269 

V. Sneden, 447, 533, 585, 588, 626, 653, 670, 
673,678, 6go,6gj, 885,889, 1361,1362, 
1372, 1377 
Hathaway v. Spooner, 492, 503 
H a thorn z/. Calef, 1512 

V. Lyon, 622, 65;, 668, 670, 701, 1362 

V. Maynard, 1718, 1934 

7'. Stimson, 2241 
Hatstat z/. Packard, 1344 
Halt V. Doe d. Miller, 1272 
Hatton V. Weems, 415 
Haughabaugh z'. Honald, 1S81 
Haughery 71. Lee, 982 
Haughton t'. Harrison, 326 

V. Haughton, 270 
Haughery t>. Lee, 9^9. 1010 
Haulenbeck v. Conkright, 740 
Hause?'. Hause, 1894 
Haussknecht v. Claypool, 1516 
Hauxhurst 71. Lobree, 1135, 1309, 1350, 1353 
Haven v. Adams, 1028 

7/. Emery, 97, 116, 142, 144, 2018 

7/. Foster, 355, 2iSr 
Havens v. Havens, 917,918, 944, 955, 965 

V. Klein, 2224 

V. West Side Electric Light Co., 45 
Haverstick v. Sipe, 2223 
Haviland v. Halstead, 754 
Hawes z/. Show, 1149 
Haweyw. Thomas, 1026 
Hawke t/. Senseman, 2296 
Hawkes 7>. Hubback, 1561 

7'. Pike, 2033, 2034 
Hawkins 7/. Clermont, 2031 

V. Holmes, 998, 1017, 1042 

V. Hudson, 2298 

V. Kemp, 1040, 1830, 183 1, 1843 

V. Luscombe, 1608 

zf. McDougall, 1981 

V. McPugh, 1476, 1490 

V. Ragsdale, 720 

V. Reichert, 1288 

V. Senseman, 2297 

zf. Sbewen, 365 

V. Skegg, 48, 271, 538, 539 

z>. Taylor, 1986 
Hawksworth 71. Hawksworth, 202, 307 
llawley 7>. Bradford, S13, 814, 818, 926, 2164 

7'. Burgess, 647 

z'. City of Baltimore, 2205 

7'. Clowes, 575, 1903 

7f. Cramer, 1768, 1769, 1770 

V. James, 274, 434, 767, 7S0, 781, 782, S28, 
948, 1576, 1637, J63S, 1667,2058,2289 

V. Kramer, 1771 



Hawley v. Moody, ggS 

V. Northampton, 24q, 255, 329, 401,415, 
416, 448, 449, 450 
Haworth t. Wallace, 1226 
Hawralty 7>. Warren, 1486 
Haws v. Haws, jgio 
Hawshill Bridge v. County Commissioners, 

2327 
Hawthorne v. Smith, 1447. M4S, i499» ^5H 
Haxalls's Exrs. 7/. Shippen, 513 
Haxtun 7'. Bishop, 2142 
Hay 7'. Cohoes Co., ig8, 2231, 2233 

V. Cumberland, 984 

7'. Estell, 1975, 1987 

7'. Hill, 2123 

V. Mayer, 619, 656, 1837 

7'. Palmer. 1 172 

7'. The Cohoes Co., 2232 

7'. Watkins, 1837 
Haycraft 7j. liland, 1677, 1678 
HaydcU ?'. Hurck, 1739 
Havden 7: I'radley, 1084, 10S5 

7'. Inhabitants of Stoughton, 1854 

7>. IVIeintzer, 2349 

V. Merrill, 1894, 1969 

7'. Patterson, 1901 

7'. Smith, 2132 
Haydon 7'. Stoughton, 265, 266, 1S49, 1850, 1853, 
1855, 1856, J864 

7'. Wesser, 741 
Hayes 7'. Berwick, 522 

7'. Bickerstaff, 2362 

7'. P.ickerstall, 1989 

E'.-Fessenden, 1211 

7'. Kcdzie,2i3o 

7>. Kershaw, 2316 

7'. Kershow, 1558 

7'. 1 iviiigston, 2302 

V. N. Y. Mining Co., 123, 12S, 145 

If. People, 596, 757 

7'. Sanderson, 1369 

V. Tabor, 1559, 1655, 2301 

V. Waldron,2225 

V. Ward, 2136, 2177, 2178 

V. Whiiall, 928 
Hayes, Doe d., v. Sturges, 1021 
Hayford 7'. Benlows. 76 

7'. Spokesfield. 2245, 2247 
Haygood 7/. Cuthbert, 855 

7>. Harley, 2354 

V. Marlowe, 832 
Hayne v. Cummings, 1049, 1063 
Hayner 7>. Hayner, 963 

z'. Smith, 1128, 1167, 1168, 1174 
Haynes 7'. Aldrich, 1131, 1132 

z>. Bourne, 598, 599, 677, 696, 697 

7'. Jones, 1723 

7/. Powers, 868. 

V. Swan, 2046 

7/. Thomas, 2205 

z'. Wellington, 2148 
Haynew z-. Bailey. 1048 
Haynie z'. Hall's Exrs., 489, J782 
Hayrover z'. Thompson, 596 
Hays z'. Davis, igSi 

7>. Doane, 123, 129, 130 

71. Jackson, 1684 

7i. Lewis, 2104 

7/. Quay, 1594 

7'. Richardson, 2213 

7'. Sanderson, 661, 662, 663 
Hayse v. Ferguson, 2268 
Hay ward 7'. Angel, 1870 

77. Clark, 1427, 1428 

7'. Cuthbut, 874 

7>. Dimsdale, 2331 

7'. Howe, 415, 417, 447 

7'. Mayor, 2323 

7/. New York, 197 

7/. Range, 1184 

7' Sedgley. 1253 

7/. Stiliingfleet, 575 



References are 

to pages. " 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CXXXLX 



Haywood z>. Cope, 999 

7'. Fulmer, ggo, 1001 
V. Kinney, 1863 
V. Miller, 1287, 12SS 
z'. Rogers, 1237, [23S 
V. Tliomas, 2298 
Hayworth v. Worthingtoii, 1701 
Hazard v. Draper, 2118 

V. Robinson, 2241, 2245 
Hazard Powder Co. v. Looniis, 974, 975 
Hazelbaker». Goodfellow, 2303 
Hazehine v. Colburn, 1257, 1274, 1285, 1305 
Hazcllon v. Lesure, 766 

V. Putnam, 2211, 2212, 2213 
Har,lelt v. Powell, 1066, loSi, 1127, 1167 
Head z>. Head. 64S. 1513, 1335 

V. Sutton, 2251, 2257, 225S 
V, Temple, 1832 
Hcadley v. Goundry, 1995 
Headman v. Rose, 750 
Hcald's Petition, 898 
Ileald?'. Heald, 1682 
Hcaly v. Alstoon, 1580 
Heap V. Barton, 145, 1186 
Heard v. IJaird, 1741 

7f. Downer, 1450, 1479, 1514 
V. Eldredge, 1581 
7'. Fairbanks, 49 
7>. Pilley, 1644, 1648 
Heardson t. Williamson, 1797 
Hcarle 7'. Greenback, 598, 599, 609, 611, 654, 
G80, 684, 6S5, J035, 1372, 2125, 2127 
Heani z'. Gray, 1319 

2/. Kennedy, 1383, 1519 
Hearst z'. Pujol, 1589, 1785 
Heart 7'. State Bank. 817 
Henrilcy 7'. Nicholson, 1587 
Hcr.t'i T'. Riddle, 2303 
V. Bishop. 253 
7/. CJcalock. 1621 
7'. Hall, 2147 
J/. Heathe, 325 
7'. Henly, 17S2, 1783 
7'. Hewitt, 234, 293 
T. Hubbard, 1247 
z'..Knapp, J371 
V. Nutter. 1041 
V. Randall, 56, 2213 
V. West, 201 1, 2343 
V. White, 274, 581, 590, 593, 620, 621, 622, 

62-;, 626, 627, 630, 633, 22S1 
z-. Williamson, 1144, 2043, 2045, 2053, 
2058, 2067 
Heathcote v. Paignon, 519 
Heatherly v. Weston, 1026 
Heathman 7'. Holmes, 1385, 1390, 1391 
Heathon v. Lyon, 633 
Heatley v. Thomas, 1836 
Heaton v. Fryberger, 1480, 1702, 1758,. 2331 

V. Pralter, 2121 
Hebblethwaite t*. Hepwortb, 596 
Hebron v. Centre Harbor^ 2037, 2040 
Hebum v. Warner, 1993 
Hccht v. Ferris, 1221 
Heck V. Borda, 1320 
Hedge 7/. Drew, 1016 

V. Rose, 2261 
Hedges 7>. Bungay, 1786 
7'. Everard, 964 
7/. Riker, 1037, 103S 
Hedffepath v. Rose, 1286 
Heed 7'. Ford, 82b, 893 
Heeney v. Brooklyn Society, 215, 216, 217, 221 

V. St. Peters CInirch, 32, 35, 36,38 
Heermance v. Vernoy, 104, no 
Heermans t/. Clarkson, 2130 
Heeler^'. Eckstein, 1138, 1156 
Heffner v. Heffner. 883 
7/. Knapp, 416 
V. Knapper, 411, 414, 426 
7'. Lewis, 126 
Hegan v. Johnson, 1276, 1282 



Hegeman v. Fox, 1456 

V. McArthur, 1174 
Heigate ?>. Willir.ms, 2208 
Heim 7'. Vogel, 2166 
Hcimstreet v. Howland, 1241, 1244 

V. Winnie, 2171 
Heinsben-'. Nickman, 765 
Heirs of Clay 7'. Clay, 216 
Heiss 7'. Murphy, 1603 
Heisseltine 7j. Seavey, 1160 
Heister v. Fortner, 2121, 2168 

V. Futner, 2121 

z/. Maderin, 2168 
Helburn v. Moffard, noo 
Hele V. Bexley, 1027, 2162 
Helfenstein 7'. Cave, 1451, 1503, 1515, 1523 

V. Garrard, 297, 1549, 1550 
Helfrich v. Obermeyer, 8SS 
Hellawell v. Eastwood, 117, 134 
Heller, lie, 1892 
Heller 7'. Crawford, 2oGr 

7'. HufTsniitli, 1905 
Helm z/. Frisbie, 412 
Hellman v. Howard, 233S 
Hclmbold 7/. Man, 520 
Helmer v. Shoemaker, 311 
Melmcs v. Stewart, 1221 
Helms 7'. Franciscus, 648 

7K May, 149 
Helms' Exrs. 7/, Rogers. 17S3 
Helphenstein 7>, Meredith, 725 
Helwig 7^. Jordan, 1 194 
Hemenway, Ex parte, 118S 
Hemenway 7/ Cutler, 63 
Hemmingway v. Scales, 1024, 1887, 1919, 1932, 

1936, 1942, 1950. >95^ 
Hemphill v. Flynn, 1131. 1132, 1310, 131S 

7'. Giles, 20G4, 2065 

z*. Haas, 1490 

V. Ross, 688, iggS 
Plerapstead 71. Dickson, 319 

71. Johnston, 1600, 1601, 1G77, 17S9, 1794 
Henagan 7>. Harllee, Soi, 817, 2181 
Henderson v. Allen, 1229, 1234, 12S7 

V. Baltimore, 2355 

V. Cardwell, 1267, 1269, 1301 

V. Cross. 1684 

V. Eason, ife94 

7'. Ford, 1407, 141 1 

V. Grewell, 2364 

zi. Hill, 298, 336, 1560, 1709 

71. Hay, 1096, 1097 

71. Herderson, 1093, 1594, 1700,, 188S 

V. Herod, 2106 

7'. Hunter, 1849 

7'. Mayhew, 1701 

7>. McGhee, 2126 

V. Miller, 1292 

7/, Overton, 8S9, 1773 

ZI. Pilgrim, 2042, 2100, 2102 

7>. Squire, 1098 

V. Vaulx, 536 

V. Warmack, 1763 

ZI. Williamson, 1596 
Hendrick v. Cannon, 1310 

V. Crowley, 1700 

V. Judas, 1114 
Hendricks v. Rasson, 1900 

V. Stark, 2235 
Hendrickson's Appeal, 2120 
Hendrickson v. Cardwell, 1205 

V. Ivins, 55 
Hendrix v. McBeth, 561, Sir, 812, 838 
Hendry v. Squier, 1192, 1201 
Hendy v. Dinkerhoff, 139 
Hene v. Brooklyn Society, 775 
Henegan v. Haralles, 763, 802, 940 
Henisler v. Nickum, 804, 829, 830 
Henkle v. Allstadt, 2155, 2180 
Henley v. Branch Bank, 1212, 1216, 1217 

71. Hotaling, 2044, 2052, 2053, 2054 
Henne-j 71. Hayden, 1 193 



cxl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Hennessey ?/. Walsh, 1646, 1648 
Hemiesy 2/. Farrell, 2otx) 
Henningz'. Burnett, 22 iS 

V. Price, 755 

V. Barbersoii, gSo 
Henrietta v. Oxford, 1456 
Henrison -v. Cloud. 2364 
Henrose v, Griffith, 235S 
Henry's Appeal, 1481 
Henry's Case, 760, 2091, 2172 
Henry v. Bell, 20S2 

V. Carson, 1723 

V. City of Nevvburj'port, 4 

J/. Compton, 2177 

V. Davis, 2015, 2016, 2o;57, 2040, 2050, 

7' Henry, 962 

V. Stevens, 2252, 225S 

■V. Tupper, 1871, 1S72, 2032 
Henshaw v. Wells, iggS, 2065, 2077 
Henson v. Kinard, 1785 

z'. Moore, 5S6, 893 
Henstead's Case, 1026, 1294 
Hcnwood V. Cheeseman, 1278, 2260, 2270, 3271 
Hepburn's Case, 2169, 2328, 2333 
Hepburn n. Curtis, 1517 

V, Dubois, 903 

V. Hepburn, 1706, 1714 
Hcpsham v. Detre, 1224 
Hcmd 7'. James, 62 
Hcrbaugh -v. Zentmyer, 2262 
Herbert's Case, 2178 
Herbert v. Dupaty, 1070 

V. Gray, C7£ 

V. Hanrick, 211, 212, 2091, 2297 

?'. Herbert, 1016 

t'. Kenlon, etc., Assn., 1479 

%i. Wren, S14. S58, 866, 918, 932, 936, 944 
Herbert, Doe, d. v. Thomas, 34S 
Herbin v. Chard, J024 
Herkimer r/. Rice, 719 
Herkimer, Admr., v. Rice, 1912 
Herlakcnden's Case, 22, 128, 134 
Hermn.n v. Watts, 1988 
Herndon v. Kimball, 2366 

V. Pratt. 17S4 
Heron 7'. Hoffner, 949 
Hcrr's Estate, 1621 
Herrell e/. Sizcland, 1254, 1261, 1275, 12S0, 1294, 

1295, 1302, 1307, 130S, 1324, 1336 
Herrick V. Craves, 1459, 1461 
Herring v. Harris, 1020 

%>. Wickham, 959 

V. WoodhuU, 2099, 2102 
Herron v. Hill, 2272 
Hersey v. Gilbert, 999 
Hershey v. Metzgar, 46, 47, 52 
Hershizer v. Florence, 668 
Hershy v. Clark, 1912, 1918 

V. Shenk, 522 
Herskell v. Bushnell, 1231 
Hersom -v, Henderson, iGgS 
Hertell 7>. Vanburen, 1841 
Hertle v. McDonald, 2175, 2176 
Hervey 7'. Hervey, 932, 954 
Herzo V. San Francisco, 2342 
Heslet 7'. Heslet, 75 
Heslop T. Heslop, S94 
Hess's Estate, 2177 
Hess V. Marks, 1226 

E/. Singler, 346, 1591, 1593, i^JZj 1&S4, 
1824 
Hesse v. Briant, 76 
Hestell V. Bogarl, iSSS 
Hester, Re^ 890 
Hester v. Hester, 1752 

V, Wilkinson, 1664, 1716, 1727, 1728 
Heth V. Cocke. 826 

11. Richmond F. & P. R. Co., 1578, 1721, 
i7'6, 1759. 1764. 1777. 1779 
Hetheri.ngton v. Graham, 774, 892, 894, S95, 
921 



Hewell V. Coulburn, 2111 

Hewes V. Wiswell, 492 

Hetzel V. Barber, 1165, 1808, 1809 

Hewett, Ex parte ^ 1512, 1513 

Hewett V. Rankin, 824, 142 1, 1425, 1432 

Hewitt 7'. Foster, 1733 

7/. Long, 1464 

7^ Templeton, 1381, 1382, 1450, 1478 
Hewlins 7/. Shippam, 475. 477. 47^, 53') 2"2, 

221 1 
Hext V. Gill, 84, 89, 90, 94, 2233, 223S 
Hexter z*. Knox, 1085, 1086 
Hey V. McGrath, 1320 

». IToorhouse, 1350 

z>. Sterratt, 2223 
Heydon's Case, 435, 54c, 542 
Heyer v. Deaves, 2154 

7'. Pruyn, 2095 
Heyhoe v. Burge, 1242 
Heyman v. Lowell, 2151 
Heysham v. Dettre, 109, 135, 138 
Heyward z>. Mayor, 2325 
eywood v. Heywood, 2255 

V. Mayor, 2328 
Hibbard v. Lamb, 1663 
Hibbeler 7/. Gutheart, 1139 
Hibben7/. Soyer, 1480 
Hibblewhite v. McMorine, 1042, 1044 

V. Nivrine, 2339 
Hibberd v. Bower, 2120 
Hickey v. Hazard, 69 
Hicman v. Cantrell, 

V, Irvine, 558, 806, S61 

V. Perrin, 2 121 
Hickman's Case, 2327 
Hickok 11. Buck, 984 
Hickox V. Low, 2031, 2053 
Hicks w. Bell, 87 

V. Bingham, 2091 

•v. Bullock, 1900, 1923 

7'. Dowling, 1 109 

7.. Hicks, 491, 2040, 2168 

7'. Morris, 1497 

7'. Stebbius, 7S2 

V. Ward, 1815, 1816, 1823 
Hidden ii. Hopkins, 2088 

V, Johnson, 1651, 20SS 
Hieatt v. Morris, 2235, 2236 
Hiester v. Maderia, 2055 

7/. Shaeffer, 2262 
Higbee 7>. Rice, 208, 6or 

7'. Rodman, 1864 
Higby 7'. Rice, 209 
Higdon V. Higdon, 1647 
Higghibotham v. Barton, 1992 

V. Cornwell, 744. 880, 916, 934, 935, 
956 

V. Holmes, 26a, 272, 935 

If. Short, 1973, 1979, jgSS 
Higgins.7'. Breen, 714, 715, 755, 756, 769, 770 

7/. Halligan. 1133, 2261 

V. Johnson's Heirs, 1947 

V. Kendall, 2004 

V. Kusterres, 68 

7", Turner, 1 164 

ZK Wasgutt, 2361 

V. York Buildings Co., 1027, 2163 
Higginson v. Dall, 2113 
Pi^'^on V Mortimer, 80 
Hi^h V. Battle, 1754 
Hicham v. Baker, 2216 
Hi^hbergert/. Stiffler, 1735, 1769 
Hi,hway, ^ff, 2325 
Higley v. Millard, 1475 
Higman 7/. Stewart, 2179 
Hihn 7'. Peck, 576^ 1906 

7'. Peek, 1853, 1855 
IHhry?'. Walker, 1742 
Hilbourn'E'. Fogg, 1219, 1253, 1356 
Hildreth 7/._Conant, 1139, 1294 

V. Eliot, 1791 

V, Jones, 926 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cxli 



Hildreth v, Thompson, 717, 732, 733, 734, 735, 

736, 739> »77 
Hileman z'. Uuuslaugh, 214, 281, 424, 531, 672, 

1694 
Hiles z'. Coult, 217Q, 21S0 
Hiley z/. Bridges, 1513 
Hilhouse v. Mix, 1908 
Hiirs Case, 941 
Hill z'. Bacon, 1094, 144a 

V. Bailey, 1781 

V. Barclay. 265, 1091, 1157, 1158) 1S70, 
1871, 1872 

V Barrow, 416 

v. Barry, Hayes & J., 983 

V. Bishop of Exeier, 1626 

V. Bishop of London, 347, 1631 

V. Burrow, 414 

V. Chambers, 58S, 651, 668, 670 

V. Crosby, 2219 

V. Cutting, 2212 

V. Den, 1587, 1592 

V. De Rocheniont, 78, 79 

V. Draper, 2335 * 

V. Edmonds, 2152 

V. Edwards, 2031, 2104 

7'. Eldred, 2002 

z/. Eliot, 1623, i6g6 

V. Epley, 2365 

V. Fanners & Mechanics' Nat. Bank, 120, 
126 

V. Frazier, 1707, 1769 

V. Givin, 2064 

V. Grange, 2216 

V. Grant, 2044 

V. Gregory, 785 

V. Gwin, 2022 

V, Hagaman, 2242 

V. Hill, 396, 1291, 1510, 1641, 2212 

V. Holliday, 2170 

V. Josselya, 1731 

V. Kessler, 1510, 151 r, 1518 

V. La Crosse & M. R. Co , 201S 

V. Lancaster, 1481, 1482 

V. Lord, 2213, 2214 

V. Manchester & SaUord Water Works 
Co., 2013, 2342 

V. McCarter, 2153, 2179, 2180 

z'. McRae, 247, 254, 1747, 1748 

V. Meyers, 1614 

V. Mitchell, 705, 707, 847, 851, 861 

V. Moore, 2280 

V. More, 1051, 2031, 2103 

V. Newman, 2224 

V. Packard, 122 

■V. Reno, 1165 

V. Ressegieu, 729 

V. Robertson, 1998, 2078, 2131 

V. Robinson, 1159 

V. Samuel, 2364 

V. Saunders, 1024, 1025 

V. Sewald, 104, 106, 115, 133, 144 

V. Smith, 2038, 2238 

V. Stocking, 2274 

V. Thomas, 533 

V. Trustee, 2254 

V. Wentmorth, 96, 116, 117, 118, 133, 144, 
1046 

V. White, 2172 

V. Woodman, 1126, 11 75 

V. Wynn, 720 
Hillard v, Binford, 932, 935 
Hillary v. Waller, 1743, 2094, 2291, 2292 
Hilleary v. Hilleary, 717, 731, 732- 815, 820, 826 
Hillebrant v. Brewer, 1248 
Hillgartner v. Gebhart, 853, 854, 855 
Hillhouse V. Chester, 600 

V. Dunning, 2053 
Hilliard z'. Scoville, 1982 
Hills V. Dey, 1982, 1988 

V. Doe, 1910 

V. Eliot, 2147 

V. Loomis, 2046 



Hills 7K Miller, 22ir, 2214, 22/5, 2216 
Hilsendagan v. Scheich, 1251, 1262, 1269, i28r» 

1293. »327. 1329 
Hilton V. Bender, 1149 
V. Granville, 94 
V. Merrill, 121 1 
Himeswoith v. Edwards, loio, 1233, 2259 
Hinchliffe v. Shea, 792, »jo6, 907 
Hinchman v. Emans, 810, 1580 
V. Isle, 1297 

%>. Sliles, 783, 817, 928, 2164 
Hinchman, Den ex. d., z'. Clark, 415, 444 
Hinda[i v. Jordan, 2271 
Hinde v. Chorlton, 39, S3 

V. Longworth, 518, 1625 
Hinds' Estate, no 
Hinds V. Allen, 2146, 2156 

V. Ballou, 766, 802, 8og, 8io, 826, 2097, 

2100, 2103, 2104, 2130 
V. Pugh, 726 
V. Stevens, 886 
V. Terry, 1246, 1905 
Hinely z'. Margaritz, 2344 
Hines v. Anient, 116, 123 
V. Eallou, 2130 
V. Duncan, 1397 
V. J'ralliam, 2100 
V. Robinson, 1969, 2226 
V. Trantham, 1908 
Hingham v. Sprague. 1252, 1284 
Hingham & Quincy Bridge Co. u. County of 

Norfolk, 2327 
Hinklc*s Appeal, 1815 
H inkle z/. Wanzer, 15S5 
Hinkle's Lessee v. Sliadden, 236 
Hinkley?'. Russell, 561 
Hinkley & E. Iron Co. v. Black, 63, 139 
Hinman v. Cranmer, 209 
Hinsdale v. Humphrey, 1043, 1063 
Hinton, Ex parte, 1677 

V. Goye, 1S25 
Hintze v. Thomas, 2262, 2264 
Hipp z'. Babin, 1669 
Hiram v. Pierce, 753 
Hiscock V. Jacox, 824 
V. Jaycock, 787 
t/. Phelps, 167 1, 1962 
Hissem v. Johnson, 142S 
Hitchcock V. Carpenter, 764, 870 

V. Harrington, 688, 764, 782, 783, 799, 800, 
803, 804, 805, 830, 864, 867, 874, 809, 
930, 1580, 2062 
V. Hotchkiss, 4H5 
V. Merrick. 2101 

V. North- Western Ins. Co., 2116 
7'. United States Bank of Pa., 2144 
Hitchen v. Hitchen, 970, 973, 980 
Hitchens v. Ricketts, 1039 

V. Shaller, 2212 
Hilchinsz'. Hitchins, 816,819, 886, 935 

V. Masterson, 135 
Hitchison v. Kay, 126 
Hitchman v. Walton, 132, 135 

V. Wilton, 968 
Hith V. Cocke, 924 
Hitner v. Ege, 506, 686, 693, 703 
Hitt v. Holliday, 2073 
Hittinger v. Eaines, 71 
Hitz V. Metropolitan Bank, 641, 642, 1598 
Hixon V. George, 1457 
Hoadges v. Tennessee M. F. Ins. Co., 2116 
Hoadfey v. Hadley, 2033, 2124 
Hoag V. Hoag, 1149 

V. Wallace, 211 
Hoagland's Case, 2266 
Hoagland v. Crum, 2260 
Hoare v. Dawes, 1242 

V. Osborne, 1687. 168S 
Hobart v. Fnsbie, 2334 
V. Sanborn, 1998 
Hobbs 7'. Blanford, 65S, 794 
V. Harvey, 841, 842 



TABLE OF CASES, 



References are 



Hobbs r. Hobson, aoia 

t'. Lowell, 2^02 

r. Sniuh. J04 
Hobday t'. Peters, iSz6 
Hobert*s Case, 2176 
Hobson f. Kelt's. ::io3 

r*. Trevor, 1573 

T*, ^^■hitlo\v. 1690 

r-. Vancy. .^^52. 2250 
Hoby f, Hoby, Si 1, S3o. Spi 

V, Roobuck. ^^5J 
Hockley r\ M.iwbev, 1S12 
Hoddeil : . I'ugh. 7D 
Hodge f. Oiese, 104^ 

r. HoUisler. 147?, 1-179 

7-. Wyatt. I7v>4 
Hodgen r. limteiy. 2136. 2171. 2174. 
Hodges c. FJdy. j^gti, 2*07.:22k)S 

f. Greew, 31 

T\ Heal, K!2i 

T-. Howard, qoS, 999 

T*. Isaac, 325 

T'- R,iyii^"ind, 2227 

!■. Sliii-'lds, 1160. 1169, H70. «2i3, 1210, 

r222 

x». Tennessee Marine & Fire Ins. Co., 

Hodgklns c. Knnor. 2230 

V. Price. 1151 

r-. Robson, 1072 
HodgkiiKoii r*. Crowe, 1065, 1096, 1097 

f. Petitioner, igSi 
Hodgnian t'. Smith, 1341, 1242 
Hodgson f. Field, 90 

f. Lovell, 1477 

V. Shaw, 3137 
Hodley :■. Taylor. 1202 
Hodson :-. Sliarpe. 1353 

f. Treat, 2 15J, 2156 
Hoe\'eler r. Fleming, 1106, 1167, 1193 
Hoff V. Bann, 1153 

f. McCauley, 2i?>) 
Hoffar r. Dement. 1027, ioj? 
Hoffman T'. Armstrong, 20, 56 

f. Burke, 3158 

f- Clark, 13S0 

I'. Harrington, 1999, -i4t\ -17s 

T'. Hill, 1473 

r*. Kuhn, 22,^5 

I*. MAck.ill. i7.?S. 1756 

T". McC.illuni, 1330 

r. Newh.iiis. ijyL', 1403, 1414 

7'. Porter, z^j^o 

V. Risk. 2150 

r. Savage, 725, 742 

z\ Stigers, 1024, 1919, 1020, io,m. t'M-. 
i.)5i, uyS, 1977 
Hoffman Steam Coal Co. r*. Cumberland Coal 
& Iron Co., lOiS, 161U, 1O20, 1770, 
'774 
Hoffstettcr v. Blattner, 1898 
Hogan f . Andrews. 333, 536 

f, Barry, 2S4 

f. Jackson, 303, 302, 306, 309, 313, 336 

t'. Jacques, u\?7, it^iS, 1700 

7: Manners, gjt*, 1390, 1391, 1416, 1424, 
1446 

T'. Stayhorn, i(>37 
Hogau's Heirs v. ^\'clcker, 281, 531 
Hoge :'. Hall, iSt\t 

r'. Hojre, 1433, 1424, 1699, 1701, 1703 

T'. Hollister, 1450 
Ho-ell ;•. Ijudell, 204S 
Hogg 7', Longsiretch, 2136 
Hogg, Doe d., 7'. Taylor, 130S 
Hoghton 7'. Hoghton, iSoi 
Hogsbooni 7'. Hall. 1S72 
Hngsett 7'. F.llis, 2ob^ 
Hogle 7', .Stewart, SS3 
Hnit 7'. Russell, 2039 

Hoitt 7'. Webb, 137^, 1412, 1433, M45. "r^'O, 
1707 



Hoke r, Henderson, 2334, 2320, 23,11 

Hoker r*. Boggs, 646. 047. 103S 

Holbrook r. American Ins. Co., 3089,3116 

f. Bitton, 2015 

f. Chamberlin, isa, 1224, 2013 

r. Dickenson, 2120 

f. Finney, 7^2, 70,;. 705. 700, 7S5, S05, 
Si 7, S20, 1492, igio. 2357 

r. Xicliol. 23tx> 
Holconib 7'. Holcomb. 2149. ^155 
Holcombe v. l^ikc, 401, 423 
Holciafi 7'. King. 22o^ 
Holden f. Cox; 2272 

7'. New York C^!; Frie l>ank, 1760 

T'. Pike, Sio, 2097, 2153 

7'. Pinncy. 1444, 1449 

7*, ^tate. 1003 
Holder x: Coates, 56, 57 

T'. Taylor, 23^2 
Holderby t*. Siutforth. iSja 
Holderness r. Carmarthen. 24, 435 
Holdfast 7'. Marten. 311, 312 

7'. Morten, 202 
Holdrich 7'. Holdrich, o>S, 944. gt'5 
Holding f. Holding, v^;S 
Holdridge r. (.'.illcspic, 170S, 19^1^, 1996, 30(;t;, 

^l^S 
Holdship 7'. Patterson, 2S4, 273, 500, 1674, 

1675 
Hole r. Rittei house. 517 

T'. Thomas. 570 
Holford 7'. T^unnett. 1067 

7'. Hatch. UV3 
Holifield 7'. Robinson. 16S7 

7', White, 1245 
Hollaik^ 7'. l^arnes, 1033 

7', T'onis. 1 t;4o 

t'. Ciliiens' Sav. Bank, 2095, ^137, 2160, 
2l^2 

7'. Criift. 445, ^(xi, 2101 

r-. Fuller, 780. 1964 

7', Hodgson, 103, 120, 122, 125. 126, 127 

7'. Hoyt, 1041 

7'. Mayor. 07^ 
HoUbrook 7'. Chamberlin, loiS 
HoUenbeck 7'. McDonald, 38, 9S3. 3221. 2243 
HoUey 7'. Glover, 7S5 

7". Ha\v!c>', iSg7, 1899, 

7'. MetcaU. 1334 
Hollida z', Shoop. i('4r, 1642, 1652. 1634 
Holliday r-. Camsell, 1246 

7-. Cromwell, 2rg5, 2366, 

c. Mai^hall, 1091 

7'. Overton. 22S 
Hollifield V. Stell. 415. 419 
HolUmanr'. Smiili, 1445. 14(15 
HolUngs 7'. Mead. 2344 
Hollingsworth r-. Floyd, 2177 

7'. Stennelt. i2tK). 1270, 1271, 127S, 12S4, 

12I.JO 

7'. Trueblood, 075 
Hollis's Case, i 7S3 
HoUis r. lUirns. 1327, 132S, 1329, 1330, 1340 

„ ... ''■ I'^^ll; '--V- ;-(M. i35o. '354, i355 
HoIhster7'. Sliaw. 183^ 
Hoilocherv. Holiocher. 1700 
HoUoman 7'. Holloman. St>o, S64 
H olio way t'. Brinkloy. 1:13^ 

?'. HoUoway, 1380, 1402 

7' Sherman. isiS 
Hollowell 7', Simon^son. 040 
Holly 7'. Brown, 208, 113S, 1293, 1396 

p. no]l\'. 22';i, 2250 
Holman r. Hailev. 2i;7.'3i2S 

f. Creagmlles, 1093 

7'. llnlman, 849 

T', Loynes, 76 
Holmes* Case. 617 
Holmes 7', Best, 1804, 1895 

7'. Pilogg, 1031 

7'. Hridgnian. 479 

;'. Charleston ^lutual Fire Ins. Co., 1701 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cxliii 



Holmes r. Cleveland, 2303 

v. CogluU, 4S7, 1S20, 1825, 1S40 

V. Crowell. 2302 

7'. Day. 1307, 1320, 1336, 1343 

V. Field, 271, 2S9, 596, 636, 663, 664, 751, 
757, 75S, 795i So2, 1093 

z>. Fisher, 2033 

z'. Fregh, 2052 

V. Gardner, 2107 

V, Goring, 2242 

V. Grant, 2039, 2040, 2042, 2044, 2052, 
2053. 2054 

V. Holmes, K173. 1979 

t'. Johnson, 5^2 

V. Kring, S3 7 

V. McGee, 714, 725 

V. McGinly, 2105, 2107 

«'. McMaster, 993 

V. Mead, 154S 

7; Old Colony R. Co., 1241, 1243 

r', Pattison, 337 

z'. Rerason. 367, 720, 2057, 22S8 

z'. Seeley, 221S 

z'. Seely, 1023 

z'. Shepard, 1151 

V. Tallada, 1430 

z: Tremper, 105, loS, 124, 144 

z'. Turners Falls Lumber Co., 215S, 
2160 

V. Williams, 340 
Holridge V. Gillespie, 1769 
Holroy r-. Marshall, 2017 
Holsman zr. Abrams, 1315, 1317 

:'. Boiling Spring Co., 2225 
Holsmans z/. De Grey, 2262 
Holt I'. Creamer, 2030 

z'. Holt. logo 

V, Rees, 102S 

v. Sargent, 2206 
Holt, Doe d., 7'. Harrocks, 607 
Holthaus 7'. Hombostle, 1402 
Holzderber v. Forrestal, 996 
Home T. Home, 926 
Home Life Ins. Co. z'. Sherman, 1127, 1167, 

116S, 1 170, 1 172, 225S 
Homeopatliic Rlut. Life Ins. Co. .-. Marshall, 

2136 
Home Protection of Northern Alabama t\ 

Caldwell, 631 
Homer z\ Den ex d. Leeds, looi 

z>. Homer, js%! 1^-^. i*J&S> 1690 

z'. Shelton, 351 
Homes z\ Burt, 1425 
Homestead Cases, 13S0, 1512, 1513, 1517 
Homestead Assoc, z'. Knslow, 1450, 1467 
Hon 7'. Hon, 1652 
Hone V. Van Schaick, 19S0 

p. Woolsey, 1795 
Honore z\ Bakewell, 2006, 2007, 200S 

f. Hutcliings, 2043, 2054 

V. Lamar Ins. Co.. 2113, 21 17 
Honywood z'. Hoiiywood, 559, 560, 561 
Ho'.izik z: Delngise. 123 
Hoonberry z>. Harding, 297,298,336,499, 1560, 

1700. 171- 
Hood 7'. Hartshorn, 1051 

zi. Hood, 76, 662, 771, 919 

V. Mathis, 1213 

7'. Oglander, 1627, 1633 
Hoofnagle ?'. Anderson, 2304 
Hook 7'. Mowre, 1626 
Hooker 7-. Hooker, 0Q4, S16, 886 

7'. New Haven & N. Co., 2327 
Hooks z: Lee, 645 

Hooper 7'. Cummings, 1849, 1850, 1S51, 1855, 
iS'v. "072 

V. Dwiiinell, 996, 12S3 

V. Faniswcrtli, 1014, 1015 

r. Henrv, 2^01. 

v. Hooner, S65, 868 

c Robinson, 631 

V. Wilson, 2063 



Hoopes 7'. Bailey, 2044 

V. Carver, 2295 
Hooton 7'. Holt, 997, 1283, 12S6, 1305 
Hoots 7'. Graham, 731, 733, 734,735. 739. 74». 

S3 4 
Hoover t, Landes, 941 

7'. Samaritan Society, 1828, 1829, 1830 

V. United States, 1035 
Hope 7'. Cason, 1291 

7J. Johnson, 1605 

V. Rusha, 415, 418 

7'. Stone. 2009 
Hope ex d. Brown 7'. Taylor, 306, 309 
Hopewell 7'. Ackland, 307 
Hopkins z'. Carey, 1579 

?'. Dumas. 1649 

7'. Frye, 671, 781 

V. Gavrard, 2006 

V. Gihnan, 10S6 

V. Helmore, 2255 

V. Hopkins, 1551, 1552, 1557, 1558, 1564, 
17S2 

7'. Myall, 1831 

7'. Robinson, 2295 

V. Stevenson, 2oiiS 

7'. Threlkeld, 456, 464 

7'. Toll, 19S1 

7'. Ward, 1744, 2147 

T*. Wolley, 217c), 21S0 

V. Wooley, 2154 
Hopkinson 7'. Dumas, 761, 763, 781, 788,827, 

831, 15S0, 1622, 1646 
Hopper 7'. Childs, 1211 

V. Cummings, 1S61 

V. Dwinnell, 1304 

V. Hopper, S6S. 869 

7'. Parkinson, 1497 
Hopper, Den ex d., 7/. Demarest, 598, 603, 604, 

614 
Hoppock 7'. Ramsey, Sio 
Horn 7'. Baker, 125 

V. Cole, 2302 

7'. Indianapolis Xat Ek., 2073, 2074,2171, 

t'. Jones, 2149, 2151, 2152, 2171 

7'. KeteUas, 1702,2045,2048 

V. Taylor, 2222 

V. Tufts. 1425, 1444 
Hombeck z>. Westbrook, 266, 2356, 2361 
Hornberger 7'. Hornberger, i686 
Hornbrook 7'. Lucas, 2273 
Hornby 7'. Houlditch, 2263 

7>. MuCuUough, 2241 
Home 7f. Howell, igoo 

7'. Lyeth, 1(^109 
Homer 7'. Den ex d. Leeds, 1003 

7'. Dipple, 2343 

7'. Horner, 753 

T'. Swann, 1S44 

7'. Watson, 91, g2. 2233, 2237 

V. Zimmerman. 2156 
Homsey z-. Casey, 935 
Horser r'.Hoag. 22S9 
Horsey v, Hoi-sey, 1308 
Horsley 7'. Chaloner, 325 
Horstman 7'. Gerger, 2147 

7'. Gerker, 21 10 
Horton z'. Cook, 435 

7'. Cooley, 22'ii 

7>. Horton, 288 

7: McCoy, 94, 05 

c. N. V. Cent. R. R. Co., 1138, 1139, 

i'57 

v. Sledge, 207. 2316 
Horwitz 7'. Davis, 22OG 

7'. Noriis, iSjy 
Honvood 7'. West, 1.47, i6;,2 
Hosea 7'. Jacobs, t(>y2 
Hosford 7'. Ballard, 2262 

7'. Merwin, 1975 

7'. Nichols, 3^7, 720, 920, 2057, 205b, 22SS 

V. Wright, 730 



cxliv 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Hosier, Doe ex d., v. Hall, 1773 
Hoskin V. Woodward, 132 

Hoskins v. Litchdeld, 1407, 140S, 14931 i494> 
1495, 1506 

V. Rhodes, 1230, 1231, 2254 
Hosmer v. Carter, 2015 

V. Wallace, 2306, 2307, 2308 
Hosser's Succession, 2282 
Hoston V. Seeley, 839 
Hot 7/. Master, [814 
Hotchkiss V. Clifton Air Cure, 2161 

V. Elting, 1808 
Hotham v. East India Co., 1855 
Hotley V. Scoft, 1040 
Houble V. Volkening, 2131 
Houck V. Ritter, 652, 670 

V. Yates. 68 
Hougan v. Milwaukee & St. P. R. Co., 2230 
Hough V. Bailey, 2027, 2034, 2095 

V. Birge, 1276 

V. City F. Ins. Co., 2113 

•u. Osborne, 2106, 2111, 2147 
Houghtaling v. Houghtaling, 2213 
Houghton, /i^/Jari'^, 1173 
Houghton V. Cliicago R. Co., 69 

V. Hapgood, 679, 680, 689 

V. Houghton, g6i, 962, 1957 

V. Kendall, 234 

V. Lee, 1503, 1697 

V. Mfgrs. Ins. Co., 21 15 
House V. Burr, 2262, 2263, 2264 

V. Hoose, 96, 127, 510, 5ir, 802, 803, 8r8, 
1646 

V. Jackson, 711, 712, 761, 779, 780, 815 

V. Palmer, 211 
Houser v. Lament, 2039 
Houston V. Brown, 587, 588, 670 

V. Farris, 1159, 1212, 1220' 

V. Hughes, 288, 289, 1594, 1711 

V. Lafee, 2226 

V. Laffes, 2212 

V. McCluney, 1893 

V. Newsome, 1393 

V. Nowland, 1750, 1794 

•V. Smith, 711, 712, 759,760, 761 

V. Spruance, 1855 

z>. Winter, 1394 
Houston, etc., R. Co. v. Winter, 1445 
Houts V, Showalter, 46 
Houx V. Seat, 144 
Hovell V. Barnes, i6og 
Hovenden v. Annesley, 601, i6i5,"r785 

V. Knott, 2172 
Hovey v. Chase, 986, 1886 

V. Hill, 2iog 

V. Hobson, 986, 987, 1034, 2345 
How z/. Broom, 1173 

V. Kennett, 1301, 1306 

V. Stevens, 39 

V. Vigures, 1996 

V. Whitfield, 181S 
Howard v, Aiken, 1782 

V. Ames, 2163 

•V. Carpenter, 993, 1350, 1354, 1355 

V. Carusi, 1627 

V. Cavendish, 776, 778, 859 

V. Chase, 2125 

V. Davis, 2x63 

V. Dill, 2273 

V. Donohue, 1897 

V. Doolittle, 1054, 1175, 1197 

V. Fessenden, 141, 2021 

V. Ellis, 1103, 1184 

V. First Parish of North Bridgewater, 31, 
32, 35. 36, 38,40* 83 

•V. Francis, 936 

V. Gresham, 2129 

V. Handy, 2149 

■V. Harris, 2051, 2068 

V. Henderson, 297, 298, 1560 

•v. Hillbreth, 2095 

V. Hcey, 1199 



Howard v. Hopkins, 1872 

•u. Houghton, 2077 

V. Howard, 2128 

V. Logan, 1461 

V. Merriam, 1137, 1252, 1263, 1266, 1269, 
i27i,r,i284, 1293, 1294, 1322 

V. Miner, 1S65, 1S66 

V, Moale, 468 

V. Norfolk, 372, 1212, 1226 

zi. Priest, 786, 824, 825, 1957, i960, 1963 

V. Reedy, 2296 

zj. Rhodes, 1600 

V. Robinson, 199S 

^^ Runsen, 2270 
Howard v. Terry, 1223, 1259, 1282, 1290, 1292 

V. Wemsley, 1311 
Howard Co. v. Kyte, 1184 
Howard College v. Amory, 1719 
Howard Fire Ins. Co, v. Bruner, 2116 

V. Chase, 1667, 1668 
Howard Ins. Co. v. Halsey, 1777, 2022, 2120, 

2154, 2179, 2180 
Howe, Matter of, 1355 
Howe V. Adams, 1452, 1483, 1514, 1515 

V. Batchelder, 51, 53, 55 

V. Burr, 1320 

V. Howe, gS6, 1032 

V. Jackson, 787 

V. Lemon, 2072, 2176 

11. Lewis, 2r28, 2129 

•u. Russell 2037 

V. Scannett, 1025 

•V. Starkweather, 42, 817 

ZK Stevens, 31, 32, 36,38 

V. Wilder, 2134 
HowcU V. Barnes, 181 1 

V. City of Buffalo, 2335 

V. Earp, 225 

V. George, i486 

V. Harvey, 1244 

V. Howell, 1277, 1646 

ZI. McCork, 2225 

V. McCrie, 1490 

V. Price, 1994, 2010, 2082 

ZI. Ripley, 1027 

z). Schenck, 45, 47, 102S, 1209 

ZK WoUfort, 485 
Howell, Den ex d., w. Ashmore, 1220 
Howell, Den ex d., v. Howell, 1293, 1294, 1295, 

1296, 1297 
Howeth V. Anderson, 1181 
Howey v. Goings, 661, 662 

Howland -u. Coffin, 1071, 1072, 1074, 1075, 1077, 
1118 

zf, Howland, 2 

ZI. Shurtleff, 2093, 2095, 2146 
Howton 7', Frearson, 2220 
Hoxie ZI. Carr, 825 

zf. Ellis, 1985 

ZI. Hoxie, 1614 
Hoxsie v. Ellis, 717, 731, 732 
Hoxton ZI Archer, 403, 404 
Hoy V. Eramhall, 2153, 2166 

z). Bramhalt, 2068, 2069 

z}. Gronoble, 1245, 1247 

V. Hoh, 1069, 1098 

V. Sterrett, 2233, 2292 
Hoye V. Swan, 211, go8 
Hoyle V. Cazabat, 2128 

V. Jones. 325 

V. Plattsburgh & M. R. Co., 98, 112, 113, 
20i8, 2019, 2021 

V. Stowe, 1026, 1031, 1925 
Hoysradt zj. Holland, 2150 
Hoyt V. Bradley, 2032 

V. Davis, 892 

z}. Hillon, 2335 

z>. Home, 1519 

V. Howe, 1386, 1442, 1501, 1502, 1504, 
^»5'8 

z>. Jaques, ]8r6, 1832 

V. Kimball, 261, 1&67, 1873 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cxlv 



Hoyt V. Martense, 2016 
Hubbard v. Bagshaw, 105 

V. BurrelT, 1623, 1765 

ZK Chenango Bank, 233 

V. Coolidge, 1758 

V. Cummings, 2011 

z'. Elmer, 1832 

•u. Goodwin, 218 

7'. Harrison, 2106, 2111 

V. Hubbard, 936, 1154, i860, 1868, 1980, 
2031, 2033 

V. Jarrell, 1758 

V. Knous, 902 

V. Morton, 829 

V. Ricart, igSo 

V. Savage, 2029, 2030 

V. Shaw, 545, 1223, 2090 

V. Smith, 1277 

V. Town, 2223 
Hubbell V. Broadwell, 909 

V- Canady, 1386, 1407, 1408, 1431, 1441 

V. East Cambridge Five Cent Savings 
Bank, 106, 109, 122, 132 

V. Medbury, 1621, 1781 

V. Moulson, 800, 1993, 208s, 2184, 2185 

V. Sibley, 2147, 2175 
Hubby z'. Nubby, 2125 
Hubee v. Hubee, 516 
Huber's Appeal, 1655 
Huber v. Huber, 648 

V. Reiley, 2324 
Huckabee v. Billingsley, 1712, 1722, 1760, 1778, 

180 1 
Huckins v. Straw, 2063 
Huddleston v. Lazenby, 216 
Hudnall v. Burkle, 719 
Hudnit V. Nash, 2148 
Hudson V. Coppard, 1184 

V. Dismukes, 199 

V. Poindexter, 2633 

V. Porter, 1205 

V. Putney, 2180 

V. Revett, 2339, 2340 

V. Steere, 711, 776 

V. Treat, 1945 

V. Wheeler, 1263, 1269, 1293 
Hudspeth w. Harrison, 1430 
Huebsch v. Scheel, 520,810 
Huebschmann v. McHenry, 61 
Huerstel v. Lorillard, 
HuS V. Earl, 1620 

V. Farwell, 2155 

V. McAuley, 54, 55, 2214, 2240, 2313 
Huffell V. Armistead, 1311, 1327, 1330, 1342, 

1343 
Huffman v, McDaniel, 1003 

V. Starks, 1010, 1013 
Hufrman v. Starks, 2259 
Huger V. Dibble, 1301, 1303, 1315 
Huggins 7- Hall, 214S 
Hugh V. Eirge, 1202 
Hughes V. Blackwell, 2095 

V. Boyd, 271 

V. Brown, 1660 

V. Carne, 1985, 1986 

V. Chatham, 1273, 1288, 1289 

V. Devlin, 1980 

V. Edwards, i860, 1863, 1995, 2000, 2014, 
2027, 2037, 2042, 2046, 2048, 2049, 2078, 
2094, 2095, 2146, 2168, 2174 

V. Graves, 2155, 2299 

V. Holliday, 1908 

V. Hughes. igo8 

V. Kearney, 852, 2008 

V. Lane, 909 

V. Palmer, 1058, 1138 

V. Parker, 999 

V. Patterson, 2149 

w. Providence, 2206 

V. Robotham, 1165 

V. Shaw, 795 

V. Sheaff, 2043, 2044, 2053 

10 



Hughes V, Vanstone, 1152 

V. Watson, 905, 968 

V, Watt, 1 159, 1502 

V. Wood, 1066, 1245 

7/. Worley, 2030, 2140 
Hughes, Den. ex. d., v. Shaw, 914 
Hughlett V Harris, 573, 574, 577 

V. Hughlett, 1735 
Hugley V. Gregg. 764 
Huguein v. Baseley, 1801 
Hugunin v. Cochrane, 832 

V. Dewey, 1481 
Hukill V. Myers, 1151 
Hulburt V. Emerson, 405 
Hulett V. Inlow, 1024, 1919, 1941, 1945, 195c 

V. Nngent, 1310 
Hulick V. Scovil, 2347 
Huiings V. Guthie, 2120 
Hull z/.Hull, 662, 1359 

V. Culver, 488 
Hull, Doe d., V. Greenhill, 1579 
Hull, Doe d., V. Wood, loSo, 126^, 1306, 1320, 

1325 
Hullenbeck v, ^McDonald, 225 
Hulme V. Tenant, 1373, 2012 
Hulseman v. Griffiths, 2268 
Hulsey v. Hulsey, 661 
Hultain v. Munigle, 1274 
Humas v. Scruggs, 931 
Humberston v. Humberstou, 1693 
Humble v. Bowman, 337 

V. Langston, 1073 
Hume V. Beale, 1661 

V. Gossett, 1407, 1503 

V. Horn, 645 

V. Tenant, 1836 

V. Taylor, 1044 
Humes v. Scruggs, 792, 853, 915 

V. Providence Washington Ins. Co., 631 
Hummer v. Schott, 2008 
Humphrey v. Brown, 1018 

V. Phinney, 823, 841, 843 

V. Wait, 1197 
Humphreys z/. Brogden, 2231, 2232,2233,2234 

V. Frank, 1317 

V. Harrison, 576 

z/. Hurd, 1999, 2063, 2094 

V. Newman, 2121 
Humphries v. Brogien, 64, 92, 93, 94, 199 

V. Humphries, 539, 540, 1256, 1261, 1275 
1281, 1324 

V. Hoffman, 2296, 2298 

V. Rogden, 66 

V. Smith, 1323 
Humphries, Den d., v. Humphries, 1303 
Hungerford v, Anderson, 308 
Hungunin v. Cochrane, 832 
Hunnewell v. Taylor, igSi, 1982 
Hunsucker v. Smith, 801 
Hunt v. Acre, 733, 736, 2146 

V. Adams, 1701 

V. Allgood, 336 

z'. Amidon, 1074, iioi 

V. Bailey, 1131, 1133, 1315, 1316, 1348 

V. Bass, 1756, 1766, 1767 

V. Bay State Iron Co., g6, 97, 116, 141, 
142 

V. Benson, 825 

V, Browne, 1185 

V. Coison, 1289 

V. Comstock, g8i. 12S4 

V. Cope, 1174 

V. Crawford, 1756 

V. Danforth, 1075 

V. Ellison, 2175 

V. Frazier, 2331 

V. Hunt, 2, 806, 808, 8og, S.10, 1464, 1580, 
2016, zoqi, 2094, 2095, 2096, 2097, 
2102, 2321, 2363 

V. Johnson, 647, 2315, 2358 

V. Mattliews, 795 

V. Maynard, 2184 



cxlvi 



TABLE OF CASES. 



Rvferences are 
to pages. 



Hunt V. McConnell, 2155 

V. Morton, 1131, 1135, 1254, 1255, 1319 
1337 

V. Moore, 1646 

V. Mullanphy, 105, 108, 112, 116, 122, 135, 
138, 144, 145 

V. Rousmanier, 1804, 1830, 1840, 1843 

V. Stiles, 2157 

V. Thompson, 662, 771, 920, 1072, 1115, 
1717. 1757.2257 

7;. Watkins, 47, 509, 510, 511, 537, 539 

V. Wing, 1245 

V. Wolfe, 1 132 

V. Wright, 1858, 1972, 1973 
Hunter, Matter of, i486 
Hunter z/. Bilyen, 1649 

1/. Chrisman. 2298 

V. Dennis, 2170 

V. Fisher, 1757 

V. GalUers, 1141 

V. Jones, 1158, 1208, 1209 

V. Macklaw. 2149 

V. Martin, 1963 

V. Osterhoudt, 1156, 1861, 1868 

V. Parker, 1042 

V. Potts, 368, 719, 753, 2057, 2288 

V. Silvers, 1052 

7f. Stembridge, 1629, 1631 

V. Watsou, 292 

V. Whitfield, 2272 

V. Whitworth, 592, 593, 620, 623 
Huntington z/. Allen, 2298 

V, Asher, 2212, 2214 

V. Legroes, 1947 

V. Russell, J2I, 549, 553, 564, 1153 

7/. Smith, 2104 
Huntzinger v. Philadelphia Coal Co., 42 
Kurd V. Cass, 585, 588, 670, 679, 1514 

V. Coleman, 2174 

V. Curtis, 1069, 1070 

V. Cushing, 47:;, 477, 478, 481, 521 

V. Grant, S61, 864, 867, 870 

7/. Miller, 2271 

zi. Robinson, 2027, 2029 

V. Whitsett, 1315, 1316, 1327, 1329, 1331 
Hurdle v. Outlaw, 2 
Hurlbert v. Post, 992, 1169 
Hurlburt v. Emerson, 414, 415 
Hurlbut w. Post, 1128 
Hurleman v. Hazlett, 708 
Hurley v. Bannan, 2050 

V. Estes, 1994 
Hurly V. Bamed, 2048 
Hum V. Keller, 2333 

V. Soper, 2349 
Huron College v. Wheeler, 2109 
Hurrell, Doe d., v. Burrell, 309 
Hurst V. Bell, 2020 

V. McNeil, 1298, 1558, 1559 

V. Rodney, 1075, 1117, 2262, 2263, 2264 

V. Wilson, 2099 
Hurtt v. Fisher, 76 
Huss V. Stephens, 214, 672 
Hussey v. Jewett, 1031 
Husted*s Appeal, 840, 841 
Huston "u. Curl, 1947 

V. Markley, 1594, 1963 

V. Neil, 824 

V. Seeley, 733, 735 

7'. Springer, i8gi 

V. Wickersham, 520 
Hutching^s 7/. Carleton, 8og 
7;. Dixon, 645, 653 

V. Heywood, 298, 299, 1558, 1579, 1746 
V. Hutchings, 759 
V. Kimmell, 596, 751, 756 
7'. Lee, 1616 
7'. Lowe, 2308 
Hutchins z'. Byrnes, 2013 

V. Carleton, 2103, 2111 

V. King, 54, 55, 2015, 2022, 20S0 

V. Masterson, 103, 107,116, 117, 135, 20S0 



Hutchins 71. Shaw, 129 

V. State, 817 

V. State Bank, 42, 43, 1835 
Hutchinson. Re, 1591, 1824 
Hutchinson's Case, 641 
Hutchinson 71, Brown, 1033 

V. Chase, 1969 

7>. Copestake, 2246 

7'. Dearing, 2064 

V. Ford, 2020 

V. Kay, 109. 120 

V. Lloyd, 1714 

V. Lord, 1714, 1724 

V. Potter, 1274 

V. Tindall, 1592 
Hutchinson's Case v. Bradley's Case, 641 
Hutchman 7). Waltam, 1993 
Huth V. Carondelet, 1029, 1158 
Huttemeier v. Albro, 2241 
Hutton 7>. Benkard, 1807 

V. Duey, 1561 

V. Moore, 2007 
Huxford V. Milligan, 397 
Huxtep V. Brooman, 307 
Huyck V. Andrews, 2211, 2215 
Huyler v. Atwood, 2070, 2072 
Huyser 7/. Chase, 1283, 1327, 1329, 1335, 1336 
Hyatt 7/. Griffiths, 1316 

V. James, 2059 

V. Pugsley, 2297 

V. Spearman, 1496, 1504 

V. Wood, 1285, 1351, 1356 
Hyde v. Barney, 686 

V. Cookson, 62 

71. Goodnow, 2056 

V. Hyde, 1464 

V. Hyden, 1648, 1700 

V. Olds, 1794 

V. Skinner, 1009 

V. Stone, 1246, 1904, 1905, 1969 

V. Warren, 2159 

V. Woods, 74, 254, 274 
Hydraulic Works Co. v. Orr, 199 
Hyman ?/. Devereaux, 2159, 2160 

V. Devereux, 2105, 2107 

7). Kelly, 1999 
Hyndman v. Hyndman, 2055, 2163, 2168 
Hynes v, McDermott, 596 

V. Redington, 1721 

I. 

laege 7*. Bossieux, 836, 838, 839, S61, 862, 882, 

891, 909 
Ibbetson 71. Beckwith,zo3 
Iddings V. Bruen, 1769 

V. Nagle, 1205, 1207 
Ide V. Harwood, 3 

V. Ide, 319, 322, 415, 416 
Idle v. Cook, 372, 40S 
Iggulden V. May, 1008, 1009, 1098 
Iglehart ?'. Crane, 2183 

Iken V. Olenick, 1378, 1387, 1388, 1390, 1445 
llderton v. Ilderton, 751 
lies V. Martin, 1703 
Illingworth v. Miltonberger, 1151 
Illinois & Mich. Canal Co. v. Chicago, 197 
Illinois Cent. R. Co. v. Thompson, 2261 
Illinois Midland R. Co. v. People, loig 
Illinois F. Ins. Co. v. Station, 2114 
Illinois R. Co. v. Indiana A. R. Co., 2361 
Imboden 71. Hunter, 1770 
Imlay 7/. Huntingdon, 1373, 1562, 1608, 1694 
Imperial Fire Co. 71. Dunham, 2113 
Importers & Traders' Ins. Co. v. Christie, 1143 
Inches v. Leonard, 2093, 2094, 2146 
Indiana Ins. Co. v. Coquillard, 2116 
Indianapolis Manufacturers & Carpenters* 
Union v. Cleveland C. C. R. Co., 
nil, 1121, 1122, 1141 
Ingalls V. Morgan, 2154, 2179, 2180 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cxlvii 



Tngals V. Plamondon, 2235 
Inge 7'. Boardman, 936 
Ingersoll v. Ing^rsoll, 665 

V. Sargeant, 2253 

21. Sargent, 2262 

V. Sawyer, 2i6g 

V. Sei-geant, 59, 251, 1071, 2253 
Ingham z>. White, 646 
Inglebright v. Hammond, 1209, i6gS 
Inglehart v. Arminger, 2007 

V. Grain, 2153 

V. Crane, 2180 
Inglis V, Trustees of Sailors' Snug Harbor, 

Ingraham v. Baldwin, 986, 987, 1148, 1213, 1309, 
2345 
21. Drennell, 224S 
■V. Edwards, 1041 
V. Fraley, 1593 
V. Hutchinson, 2223 
V. Kirkpatrick, 1795 
7/. Wheeler, 1795 
Ingram v. Little, 2339 

f . Morris, 778 
Inhabitants of Cheshire v. Inhabitants of 

Shutesbury, 2021 
Inhabitants of Reading v. Inhabitants of 

Weston, 2046, 2047 
Inhabitants of Sudbury v. Inhabitants of Stow, 
202 
V. Jones, 61, 62, 63 
Inhabitants of West Roxbury v. Stoddard, 70, 

71 
Inhabitants of Windham v. Portland, 737 
Inmau z/. Jackson, 335, 1810, 
Innes v. Crawford, 1925, 
Innis Z'-. Campbell, 522 
/« re Commercial Bulletin Co., 2263 
/« re Fowler, 2260 
/« re Frith, 1974 

J« re Rensselaer & S. R. Co., 2237 
/n re Locke, 2253 
/« re Roper, 1836 
Insurance Co. v. Addicks, 206S 

V. Scott, 120 r 
International Life Assoc. Co. v. Commissioners 

of Texas, 1554 
International Life Ins. Co. &. Scales, 2123 
Inwood V. Twine, 1022 
Ireland v. NichoUs, 1058, 1155, 1156 

V. Woolman, 2153 
Ireson v. Wenn, 1250 
Ironsides z*. Ironsides, 633 
Irvin's Appeal, 291 
Irvin V. Armistead, 711 

V. Greever, 682, 699, 1640 
V. Wood, irgg, 1202 
Irvine v. Dunham, 1659 

V. Hanlin, 1894, 1895 
V. Irvine, 2301 

7J. Marshall, 1585, 1639, 1652, 1661 
•V. Scott, 1304 
V. Sullivan, 1628 
Irving z/. Richardson, 2089 
Irvins zi. Irvins, 865 
Irwin's Appeal, 1734 
Irwin V. Bank of United States, 59, 251 

V. Govode, 479, 494, 495, 561, 811, 812 

V. Cox, 1336, 1337 

V. Dixion, 572 

v. Dunwoody, 414 

■V. Ivers, 778, 1610,11638, 1641, 1696, 1697, 

i6g_9 
V. Lewis, 1499- 
Isaac V. Clarke, 1213 
Isaacs -ZI. Gearheart, 1309 
Jsenliart v. Brown, 936 

Isham V. Bennington Iron Co., 2013, 2342, 2366 
V. Delaware & L. R. Co., 1792 
V. Iron Co.. 42 
Isherwood v. Oklknow, lo^o 
Isom 71. First National Bank, 1777 



Israel v. Israel, 1894 
1st V. Morgan, 1292 
Ivas, Re, iitt 
Ive 7', King, 1884 
Iverson v. Shorter, 1511 
Ives, Ke, 1114 
Ives V. Ashley, 1776 

V. Davenport, 183 1, 1832 

V. Ives, 1282, 1356 

V. Mills, 1461, 1490 

V. Sawyer, 1349. 2346 

V. Williams, 1131, 1317 
Ivey V. Lalland, 2056 
Ivie 7J. Ivie, 491 

Ivimey 71. Stocker, 2226. 2229, 2244 
Ivory V. Burns, 1592, 1797 
Izard V. Bodine, 1894 
Izon V. Gordon, 1343 

V. Gorton, 1083, 1177, 1179, 1200, 1254, 
2270 



Jack V. Dougherty, 2348, 2349 

V. Nabor, 136 
Jackling, Denn d, v.. Cartwright, 1334 
Jackman 71. Hallock, 2007 

7'. Ringland, 1647 
Jacks V. Dyer, 718, 733, 733, 739 
Jackson 71. Adams, 215 

V. Aldrich, 1269, 1284, 1285, 1293 

V. Allen, J058, i86r, 1862, 1868, 2364 

V. Andrews, 564, 2322, 2331 

V. Ashburner, 991, 993 

7'. Babcock, 338, 2213 

7'. Bain, 2272 

V. Ball, 535 

V. Kateman, 1613 

V. Bard, 2353 

V. Beach, 236 

V. Berner, 2296, 2297 

7>. Billinger, 415 

V. Birner, 2297 

w. Blodget, 2107 

V. Blodgett, 2111 

V. Bowen, 2029, 2303 

V. Bradt, 973, 1255, 1261, 1269, 1271, 1278, 
1293, 1320 

V. Brown, 2014, 2016 

71. Brownson, 555, 557, 558, 2000 

V. Brush, 1625 

V. Bryan, 1256, 1271, 1280, 1299, 1319, 
1337 

z/. Bull, 340, 342, 343 

71. Burtis, 1813 

,7* Cairnes, 1364 

V. Carswell, 1999 

V. Carry, 1556, 1559 

V. Catlin, 1543 

•v. Cator, t;64 

V. Churchill, 865, 866, 867, 868, 915, 916, 
917, 918 

V. Chrysler, 1868 

V. Clark. "1755 

V. Cleveland, 1646 

V. Coleman, 1815 

V. Collins, 1144, 1154 

V. Cooley, 13 14 

v. Coombs, 1023 

V. Crafts. 2 13 1 

V. Crcigiiton, 1380 

V. Crysler, 1861 

71. Cuerder 1149 

V. Davis, T149, 1217, 1348 

7>. Deese, 1980 

V. Delacroix, looi 

V. Delancey, 2065 

V. Delancy, 202, 307, 311, 1149 

7J. Dewitt, 829, 2074, 2182 

V. Dillon, 2318, 2348 

v, Dobbin, 1223 



cxlviii 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Jackson v. Dominick, 2060 
V, Dubois, 2077 
V. Dunsbagh, 236, 237, 830, 1569, 2318, 

2319, 2320 
V. Dysling, 2247 
V. Eddy, 1 128, 1168, 1 169 
V. Edwards, 726, 746, 747, 886, 887, 893, 

1808, 1809 
V. Ellis, 1273 

V. Estey, 2335 ^ 

V. Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 



pany, 729, 1092 


V. 


Feller, 1648, 1653 


V. 


Ferris, 1730, 1810, 1814, 1843 


V. 


Fitzsimmons, 217 


V. 


French, 1270 


V. 


Gardner, 1160 


V. 


Gamsey, 202 


V. 


. Given, 1663 


V. 


Graham, 202 


V. 


. Groat, 255 


V. 


. Harder, 1976 


V. 


. Harris, 332. 34^, 342, 343 


V. 


. Harrison, 1060, 1061, 1123, 1138, 1150, 


V. 


I '54, "55. 1204 


V. 


. Harsen, 970, ggo, 1108 


V. 


. Hartwell, 1540, 1555 


V. 


. Hathaway, 89 


V. 


Hendricks, 359 


V. 


. Henry, 2159 


V. 


. Hinman, 1222 


V 


. Hixon, 865, 878 


V. 


. Hobbhouse, 252, 257 


V. 


. Hodges, 652 


V. 


. Holloway, 1368 


V. 


. Howe, 207, 209 


•V. 


. Hubble, 2322, 2323 


V. 


. Hughes, 1266, 1306, 1313, 1337 
. Hull, 2077 


V. 


V. 


. Ingraham, iS, 195, ig6 


V. 


. Jackson, 1633, 1640, 1884 


V. 


. Jansen, 1810 


•V. 


. Johnson, 693 


V. 


. Joy, 212, 2295 




. King, 1034, 2345 


V. 


. Kipp. 764, 780, 1060 


V. 


, Kniffen, 234 


V. 


. Lawrence, 2168, 2170 


V. 


. Leonard, 2299 


V. 


. Littell, 2301 


V. 


. Lodge, 2045, 2050 


V. 


. Losee, 2152 


•u. 


. Lunn, 216, 2014, 2347 


V, 


. Massachusetts Mut. Fire Ins. Co., 


V. 


2115, 2116, 2118 


v. 


. McCall, 517 


•V. 


. McConnell, 1024, 1940 


V. 


. McKenny, 237, 2319, 2320, 2358 


V. 


. McLeod, 1310, 1355 


V. 


. Mancius, 1142 


V. 


. Martin, 340, 342 


•u. 


. Matsdorf, 1640, 1647, 1740, 1764, 1777 


V. 


. Mayo, 103 1 


•u. 


. Mersereau, 2099 


V. 


. Merrill, 305* 307, 309. 312.331, 335, 34°, 


V. 


341, 342, 1770 


Jackson 


. Meyers, 281, 285, 477, 521, 522 


Jackson 


. Miller, 1271, 1290 


Jackson 


. Moore, 1723 


Jackson 


. Morse, 1614, 1635, 1638, 1641, 1648 


Jackson 


. Mowrey, 2260 


Jackson 


. Newton, 211 


V. 


. Neeley, 2359 


Jackson 


. Newcastle, 2248 


Jackson 


. Odell, nog, 11 68 


Jackson 


. O'Donaghy, 874 


Jackson 


. Parker, 202, 975, 2295 




. Parkhurst, 1346, 1347, 1350 


Jackson 


. Patterson, 1133, 1135, 1316 


Jackson 


. Pesked, 553 


Jackson 


, Phillips, 1685 


Jackson 


. Phipps, 1016, 2034 


Jackson 



Jackson 



V. Pierce, 1261, 1713, 1742 

Pixley, 517 

Porter, 2296 

Post, 2364 

Price, 517 

Richards, 2045 

Robbins, 317, 319, 337, 33* 

Robins, 1S15 

Rogers, 209, 1145, 1266, 1273, 1280, 
1286 

RounesviUe, 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 83 

Rowland, 1149 

Salmon, 1134, 1254, 1315, 1318, i334 

Sample, 1287 

Schauber, i6og, 1663 

Schoonmaker. 210, 2338, 2355 

Scliultz, 245. 267 

Scissam, 1223 

Sebring, 2316 

Sellick, 605 

Sharp, 212, 2295 

Shauber, 2094 

Sheldon, 2353 

Shelton, 1423, 1424, 1505 

Shepard, 2335 

Schultz, 263 

Silvernail, 255, 1204 

Slyck, 1707 

Smith, iSgS 

Spear, 1217 

Sprague, 2357 

Staats, 322, 340 

Stackhouse, 2129 

Stautts, 237 

Stephens, 2295 
, Sternbergh, 161 5 
, Stevens, 1643, 1940, 1952 

Stoats, 2319 

Swart, 237 
, Thomas, 2296 

Tibbits, 1897, 1917 

Todd, 2343 

Topping, 266, 555, 564, 565, 1139, i8s9, 
1862 

Torrence, 1949 

Trullinger, 2211 

Van Zandt, 227, 228, 401, 471 

Veeder, 1807 
, Vincent, 970, 1140 
, Walker, 1747 
, Walsh, 176S 
, Warren, 1998, 2076, 2157 
, Waters. 18, 2297 

Welden, 1149 
. Wells, 533 

Westerfieid, 267 
, Wheat, 2295. 2296, 2297 

Whedon, 1148, 1213 

Whitbeck, 1915 

Willard, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2107 
. Williard, 2103, 2104 

Wilsey, 1269, 1293, 1299, 1319, 1344. 
, Winne, 752 

, Wood, 517, 2094, 2174, 2318 
, Woodman, 209 

d. Henderson v. Davenport, 1843 

d. Van Vechten v. Sill, 2047 

ex d. Allen v. Florence, 2318 

exd, Anderson 71. McLeod, 1350 

ex d. Ballou v. Campbell, 2101 

ex d. Barclay v. Blodgett, 2099 

Hopkins, 2097 

ex d. Bartolmew v. Hughes, 1307 

ex d. Bauers v. Crafls, 1869 

ex d. Rayard v. Blodget, 2101 

ex d. Beekman v. Sellick, 600, 602, 603, 
612, 613, 806 

ex d. Benson v. Matsdorff, 830 

exd. Benton v. Langhhead, 1076, 1269 

ex d. Blanchard 7k Allen, 1155, 1156 

ex d. Bleecker v. Whitford, 1213, 1223 

ex d. Bogert v. Schauber, 1806, 1810 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cxlix 



Jackson ex d. Bradstreet v. Huntington, 211, 
212 

Jackson ex d. Pratt v. Tibbitts, 1913, 1914, 1916 
Jackson ex d. Erayton v, Burchin, 9S5, 986 
Jackson ex d. Brouck 71. Crysler, 1861 
Jackson ex d. Brown v. Hininan, 1148 
Jackson ex d. Browne v. Hinman, 114S 
Jackson ex d. Bush v. Coleman, 338 
Jackson ex d. Cadwallader v. Walsh, 2163 
Jackson ex d. Caldwell v. King, 986 
Jackson ex d. Campbell v. HoTloway, 1025 
Jackson ex d. Church v. Brownson, 543, 544, 806 

z>. Miller, 1256, 1344. 1807 
Jackson ex d. Clark v. O'Douaghy, 717, 718, 

834 
Jackson ex d. Clows 7/. Vanderheyden, 718, 

733, 736. 739. 1215 
Jackson ex d. Colden i'. Brownell, 1238 
Jackson ex d. Colton v. Harper, 1213, 1220, 

1222, 1223 
Jackson ex d. Corilandt v. Parkhurst, 1354 
Jackson ex d. Culverhouse z'. Beach, 1657 
Jackson ex d. Curtis v, Bronson, 2100, 2101, 

21 II 
Jackson ex d. Davy v. De Walts, 1223 
Jackson ex d. Dunbar v. Todd, 1031 
Jackson ex d. Erwin v. Moore, 514, 1588, 1590, 

1923 
Jackson ex d. Gansevoort v. Lunn, 1656, 1657 
Jackson ex d. Gillespy v. Woolsey, 517 
Jackson ex d. Gouch v. Wood, 501 
Jackson ex d. Gratz v. Catlin, 1544 
Jackson ex d. Hammond v. Veedcr, T823 
Jackson ex d. Hardeiiburgh v. Schoonmaker, 

489, 514, 630 
Jackson ex d. Harris v. Harris, 536 
Jackson ex d. Haverly v. French, 1309 
Jackson ex d. Herrick v. Babcock, 302, 306, 311, 

1815 
Jackson ex d. Hopkins z>. Leek, 2318 
Jackson exd. Houseman v. Sebring, 2316, 

2318 
Jackson ex d. Hudson </. Alexander, 2318, 

2360 
Jackson ex d. Hull v. Babcock, 2212 
Jackson exd. Hunt v. Luquiere, 535 
Jackson ex d. Jadwin v. Joy, 518 
Jackson ex d. Jones v. Striker, 518 
Jackson ex d. King v. Burts, 1843 
Jackson ex d. Limerick t. Voorhis, 2095 
Jackson ex d. Livingston v. Bryan, 1146, 1269 
V. Delancy, 2084, 2085, 2104 
V. Kipp, 1 155 
V. Krisselbrack, 993 

exd. Locksell v, Wheeler, 1146, 1150, 

1269 
ex d. Loucks v. Churchill, 940, 944, 

945, 946, 955, 965 
exd. Ludlow v. Meyers, 531, 532, 

1556, 1557. 1559. 1566 
ex d. Mackey v. Salter. 2075, 2095 
exd. Marritt v. Gumaer, 2345 
ex d. Martin v. Pratt, 2004 
ex d. McCrackin 71. Wright, 829 
ex d. McCraev. Mancius, 4S9, 497, 501, 

5M- 515. 576, 744 
Dunlap, 1016 

ex d. Merritt v. Gumaer, 986 
ex d Murphy v. Van Hoesen, 496, 499, 

502 
ex d. Newkirk v. Embler, 533 
ex d, Norton 7/. Sheldon, 1156 
Willard, 2101, 2111 
ex d. Ostrander v. Rowan, 1283, 

1298 
ex d. Pearson v. Housel, 2, 305, 307, 

308,309, 310 
ex d. Phillips v. Aldnch, 1296 
ex d, Pintard v. Bodle, 1019 
ex d. Randall v. Davis, 2132 
ex d. Rosevelt v. Stackhouse, 2132 
ex d. Ruggles v. Martin, 341 



Jackson 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Jackson 
Jackson 
Jackson 
Jackson 
Jackson 



Jackson 
Jackson 

Jackson 
Jackson 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Jackson 
Jackson 
Jackson 
Jackson 
Jackson 



"05, 



13 



Jackson ex d. Russell ?/. Rowland, 1148, 1220, 

134S 
Jackson exd. Sagoharie zk Dobbin, 1213 
Jackson ex d. Salisbury v. Fish, 2318 
Jackson ex d. Saunders v. Caldwell, 2318 
Jackson ex d. Schaick v. Davis, 1150 

V. Vincent, 48S 
Jackson ex d. Schuyler v. Corliss, 1056, 

1113 

Jackson ex d. Seelye v. Morse, 1356, 1635 
Jackson ex d. Shaw z>. Spear, 1160 
Jackson ex d. Sitzer v. Wallermire, 712 
Jackson ex d. Smith zi. Adams, 672, 673, 1657 

V. Stewart, 1213, 1268, 1272 
Jackson ex d. Stansbury 7>. Farmer, 1356 
Jackson ex d. Stevens zi. Silvernail, iio4j 

v. Stevens, 1074, 1930 
Jackson ex d. Stewart ?'. Kingsley, 1283 
Jackson ex d. Stoutenburg ?'. Murray, 518 
Jackson ex d. Suffern 7/. McConnell, 1024, 1930, 

1931. 1933' 1945 
Jackson ex d. Swartwout zl Johnson, 489, 513, 

51:7. 589. 590. 592, 593. 598,602,603, 

604, 605, 607, 608, 612, 614,621,622, 

623, 624, 629, 630, 602, 2291 
Jackson ex d. Ten Eyck z>. Richards, 48S, 1016 
Jackson ex d. Totten v. Spell, 71S, 733, 734, 736, 

739- 741 
Jackson ex d. Trowbridge -u. Dunsbagh, 1566, 

20S4, 2120. 2358 
Jackson ex d. Van Allen 71. Rogers, 1270 
Jackson ex d. Van Cortlandt v. Parkhurst, 1270, 

1271. 1355 
Jackson ex d. Van Denburg t, Rradt, 1270, 1271 
Jackson ex d. Van Rensellaer v. Andrew, 565 

V. Collins, 488, 1146, 1148 
Jackson ex d. Van Schaick 7>. Davis, jio8 

v. Vincent, 1140, 11441 im*^' 1^49 
Jackson ex d. X'iely?/. Guerden, 1273 
Jackson exd. Wadworth 7'. Wendell, 501 
Jackson ex d. Wallace v. Carpenter, 985, 986, 

1030, 1 05 1 
Jackson ex d. Walsh v. Colden, 2120 
Jackson ex d- Webber t. Hareen. 981, 2314 
Jackson ex d. Weidman 7/. Hubble, 1074 
Jackson ex d. Weldon 7' Harrison, 1104, 1107, 

1155 
Jackson ex d. Wells v. Wells, 536 
Jackson ex d. AVhitbeck v. Deyo, 1282 
Jackson ex d. White z>. Cary, 1557 
Jackson ex d. Wliittick v. Deigo, 1309 
Jackson ex d. Williams ?'. Miller, 1108, 1113, 

114S. 1348, 1586, 1638, 1645, i6g6 
Jackson ex d. Wills v. Stiles, 1148, 1213,1218 
Jackson ex d. Winthrop z'. Ingraham, 2276 
Jackson ex d. V/ood z'. Salmon, 1 135, 1307 

7'. Swart, 1063, 2316, 2319, 2320, 2362 
Jacob V. Rice, 634 

V. State, 706 
Jacobs V. Allard, 2225 

V. Miller, i9r9, 1932 

7'. Turpin, 2155 
Jacomb 7/. Harwood, 1021 
Jacoway ?/. Gault, 2037, 2364 

V. McGarrah, 718, 737, 838 
Jacques z'. Edgell, 1766 

V. Ennis, 630, 949, 652 

V, M. E. Church, 2012 

V. Short, 1075, 2262, 2359 
Jacquith v. Hudson, 1872 
Jaffe V. Hr.rteau, 1054, 1066, mo, 1126, 1175 

v. Skae, 2257 
Jaggers v. Estes, 282 
Jakques 7/. Millar, 999 
Jamaica 7*. Hart, 1139 
Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Corp. v. Chandler, 

283, 969, 2211, 2245 
James' Claim, 416 
James v. Allen, 1638, 1683 

V. Bion, 2i6g 

7/, Cowing, 1703 

V. Crawford, 3304 



cl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



James v. Dean, 1294, 1708 

V. Dubois, Den ex d., 401, 448, 450, 475 

V. Field, 8di 

V. Finney, 994 

V. Frearson, 1733 

V. Fulcrod, 1697, 1699 

V. Fuste, 2140 

V, Hubbard, 2154 

V, Jacques, 2177 

•a. Johnson, 809, 2096, 2109, 2110, 2121 

V. Johnston, 2(542 

V. Mayrant, 1375 

V. Mooray, 520 

V. Morey, 692, 803, 80S, 809,810,811, 1047, 
1163, 1164, 1579, 1580, 2095, 2096, 
2097, 2109, 2110, 2121 

V. Patterson, 1215, 1284 

V. Rice, 2002 

V. Roberts, 2060 

V. Rowan, 763 

V. Thomas, 2057 

7*. Worcester, 2086 
Jameson v. Smith, 1605, 1806, 1810 
Jamieson v. Bruce, 1997, 1998, 2076 
Jamison v. Glasscock, 1577, 1620, 1644, 1766, 
1769, 1707 

V. Graham, 1922 
Janes v. Janes, S83 

V. Jenkins, 2223, 2224 

V. Throckmorton, 1783 
Janesan v. Janeson, '2302 
Jansey -v. McCahill, 1044 
January v. January, 1517 

V. Martin, 175S 
Jaques v. Gould, 1181, 2251, 2259 

V, Methodist Episcopal Church, 1373 

•V. Miller, 1017 

V. Weeks, 2031, 2120, 2168 
Jarboe v. Maulry, 999 
Jardain v. Savings Fund Assoc, 1428 
Jarechi v. Philharmonic Society, log, 121, 135, 

T38. 139 
Jarmon v. Wiswall, 2166 
Jarratt v. McDaniel, 2020 

V. Steele, 29 
Jarstadt v. Smith, 2241 
Jarvis v. Brooks, 130, S24 

V. Dutcher, 2002, 2003, 2015, 2120 

V. Moe, 1391, 1392, 1457, 1465, 1504, 1576 

V. Prentice, 1576 

V. Woodruff, 2174, 2175 

V. Wyatt, 439 
Jason w. Eyres, 216S 
Jasper v. Maxwell, 1577 
Jaycox V. Collins, 670 
Jecko V. Taussig, 22S 
Jee V. Audley, 407 
Jefferson v. Coleman, 2151 
Jeiferson Branch Bank v. Skelly, 1516 
Jefferson Ins. Co. v, Cotheal, 2115 
Jefferson Medical College Case, 2254 
Jeffords. Ringgold, 1031 
Jeffreys. Honywood, 324, 325 

V. Neale, 1102 
Jeffries v. Whittick, Doe d., 1309 

V. Williams, 94 
Jeliett V. Rhode, 1323 
Jencks v. Alexander, 779, 1658, 1843 
Jeneson v. Jeneson, 2151 

V. Graves, 1612 
Jenki is v. Clement, 304, 305, 306, 309, 335 

V. Compton, 1821 

V. Continental Ins. Co., 2137, 2138, 2172 

V. Eldridge, 992, -1616, 1644, 2046, 2048, 
2049 

V. Fahey, 21, 640, 1981, 1986 

V. Freyer, 1980,2154 

V. Frink, 1619, 1622, 1738 

V. Gething, 120, 126 

V. Green, 2083 

V. Harrison, 1485 

V. Holt, 897, 964 



Jenkins v, Hopkins, 1003 

V. Jenkins, 282, 721, 756, 769, 799, 1060, 
* 1061, 2256 

•V. Jones, 2161 

V. Kemishe, 1626 

V. McCurdy, 100 

V. Pye. 1639 

V. Redding, 1288 

V. Smith, 2148 

V. Stetson, 2031, 2033 

V. Volz, 1425 

V. Walter, 1719 

V, Young, 1553, 1556, 1557 
Jenks V. Backhouse, 18S5, 1968 

V. Central Ins. Co., 2073 

V. Ward, 729, 1092, 1093 
Jenne v. Marble, 647, 648 
Jenner v. Clegg, 2252 

V. Morgan, 1172 

V. Turner, 270 
Jenners v. Howard, 1032, 1033 
Jenness z/. Robinson, 1921 
Jennings v. Alexander, 1107, 1124, 1132 

V. Bragg, 1034 

V. Conboy, 1807, 1808, 1809 

V. Jennings, 2154 

V. McComb, 995, 996, 998, 1262, 1284, 

1 3 OS 

V. Smith, 75 

V. Teague, 1842 

V. Ward, 2051 
Jennison v. Hapgood, 30T, 814, 817, 1455, 2163 

V. Walker, 2218, 2228, 2245, 2247 
Jennor v. Hardie, 1816 
Jenny zk Andrews, 1821, 1825 

V. Jenny, 728, 794, 893, 913, 1576 
Jepson zi. Patrick, 1718 
Jerman v. Orchard, 2358 
Jerome v. McCarter, 2149 
Jerritt v. Weare, 210 
Jervaise v. Clark, 1037 
Jervis v. Berridge, 554 

V. Bruton, 442, 443 
Jervoise v. Northumberland, 1693 
Jeslyn v. Wyman, 2128 
Jessen z/. Swelgert, 1197, 1198 
Jesser v. Gifford, 553 
Jessup V. Bridge, 2018 
Jesus College v. Bloom, 577 
Jeter v. Fellowes, 368, 2058, 2289 

V. Hewitt, 1516 

V. Penn, 1237, 1239 
Jew V. Wood, 1 148 
Jewell's Estate, 504, 509 
Jewell V. Warner, 252, 396, 401, 402, 447, 470 
Jewett V. Bailey, 2043 

V. Berry, 105 1 

V. Brock, 1451 

V. Burroughs, 234 

ZK Davis, 591 

V. Draper, 2068, 2069, 2070 

%!. Hussey, 2298 

V. Jewett, 2246, 2247 

V. Keenholts, 47 

V. Miller, 1766, 1767, 1768, 1770 

V. Ricker, 2361 

V. Siddons, 976 
Jewett's Trustees v. Perrette, 1981 
Jiggetts V. Davis, 416, 447. 472 

V. Jiggetts. 794, 795, 913, 914 
Jdlson V. Wilcox, 405, 416 
Joar V. Hodeg, 299 
Jobe V. O'Brien, 2181 
Jochen v. Tibbells, 1219 
Joel V. Mills, 1677 
Joest 71. Williams, lo'^'^ 
John & Cherry St., Re, 2327, 2328 
Johns V. Church, 2027, 2028, 2029 

7/. Johns, 42, 45, 817 

V. Reardon, 882, goo, 2122 
Johnson's Appeal, 2282 
Johnson's Petition, 278, 279 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cH 



Johnson v. Baker, 2354 

V. Eantock, 2323 

V. Bartlett, 2102 

V. Bates, 2263, 2264 

v. Bean, 210 

V. Beasley, 2358 

V. Beauchamp, 1276 

r-. Bennett, 75, 76 

7'. Blydenburgh, 2016 

V. Boyles, 2349 

V. Bradley, 666 

V. Branch, 2354 

V. Brown, 2148 

ZK Burford, 1947 

V. Candage, 2074. 20-'!;. ->ni3 

V. Carter, 1023, 1352, 221^ 

v. Carpenter, 2109 

V. Clark, 2051 

T'. Collhis, 1095 

z'. Connecticut Eank, 1746 

V. Cornet, 2103, 2111 

V. Crowley, 2071 

V. Cummings, 66g 

V. Cummins, 588, 678, 679, 1361, 2012 

v. Gushing, 1825 

V. Delony, 1592, i6go 

V. Dixon, 1202 

7'. Donnell,, 2142, 2144 

z'. Dougherty, 1622 

v. Elking, 1427 

I/. Elkins, 1430 

V. Elliot, 858 

V. Elwood, 2336 

V. Fleet, 1574, 1582, 158.^, i6ji, 1612 

V. Fritz, 656, 678, 679, 684, 695 

7'. Futch, 2258 

v. Gallagher, 2013 

V. Gaylord, 1521 

v. Gurley, 1138, 1150 

». Hannahan, 1351, 1357 

v. Harmon, 2174 

V. Hart, 195, 236, i933j 1939, 2107 

V. Harris, igog. 1919 

V. Harrison, 1451 

z/. Hines, 432, 22^0 

V. HoUfield, 16S6, 1687 

z'. Hoffman, 1231 

V. Hosford, 2074, 2171 

z/. Houston, iggg, 2078 

V. Johnson, 297, 328, 411, 420, 422, 541, 
542, 543, 54S> 546, 552» 556, 557, 558, 
575, 715. 757. 758, Sgg, 958, 1254, 1256, 
1259, 1262, 1275, 1281, 1294, 130s* '320, 
1548, 1551, 1639, 1652,2331 

V. Jones, 1923, 1928 

V. Jordan, 2207, 2224 

V. Kerman, 307, 310. 312 

7/. Kessler, 1425, 1426 

v. Leman, 1751 

V. Leonards, 79g, 2076, 2100 

z;. May, 1424, 1425 

V. Mcintosh, 14, 196, 197 

V. McGrew, 2004 

V. Miller, 791, 892, 1240, 2066, 2087 

s*. Monell, 2068, 2069, 2150 

z/. Morse, 731, 734, 848, 851 

z/. Morton, 331, 333 

V. Moore, 741 

V. Moser, 1420 

V. Mosier, 1435 

z/. Muzzy, 1063 

z>. Nash, 22gg 
. v. Neil, 847,851, 852 

7/. Neill. 856 

z>. Nyce, 730 

z/. Oppenheim, 2223 

V. Packer, 1030 

z>. Parcels, 831 

V. Parley, 807. 841 

». Phcenix Life Ins. Co., 999 

z/. Plume, 760, 763 

z/. Quarles, 1646 



Johnson 7/. Rankin, 2325 

z/. Rayner, 2021 

V. Rice, 2176, 2184 

V. Richardson, 21, 976, 1424, 1425 

V. Rogers, 646 

V. Ronald, 1590 

V. Shank, 1184 

z/. Sherman, iioS, nog, 1117, 2050, 2129, 
2264, 2265 

v. Shields, 731, 733, 736, 739 

V. Skillman, 2213 

z/. Smith, 504, 1 120, 2045 

7/. Stagg, 2036, 212), 2365 

V. State, 755 

V. Stewart, 1274 

V. Stillings, 647 

V. Sundry Articles of Mdse., 1456 

V. Swains, 1904 

V. Tatlinger, 135 

V. Taylor, 1408, 1472, i486 

V. Thomas, 874, 875 

zf. Thompson, 2071 

V. Thwatt, 1625 

z: Thweatt, 1777 

V. United States, 2306 

•V. Watson, 688 

V. Watts, 1349 

V. White, 2081, 2187 

V. Whiton, 234 

z/. Williams, 2153, 2178, 2180 

zf. Wilson, ig77 

V. Wiseman, 131, 133 

z/. Zink, 215a 
Johnson's Exrs. v. Wiseman's Exrs., 112, 113, 

115, 121, 127, 128, 136 
Johnston v. Bates, 1159, 2263, 2265 

V. Bush, 1466 

V, Donvan, 2151 

z/. Eason, 1756 

zf. Gray, 1996, 1997,2050,2051 

z>. Gwathmey, 1777 

7*. Hargrove, 1154 

Zf. Harmon, 2158 

V. Hastie, 1194, 1195 

z/. Humphrey, 17S2 

z>. Johnston, 647 

z'. Martin, 1384 

7>. Morrow, 2021 

V. Riddle, 2065 

V. Turner, 1407, 1410, 141 1 1 

zi. Van Dyke, 725, 842, 844, 893 

2/. Zane's Trustees, 247, 254, 1748 
Johnstone v. Huddlestone, 1162, 1254, 1308, 
1343 

z/. Hull, 1185 
Johnstown Cheese Mfg. Co. v. Veghte, 2226 
Johnstown Iron Co. z/. Cambria Iron Co., 88, 

2189 
Jones' Appeal, 595, 1732, 1734 
Jones, /r jr iarie, 456 
Jones's Will, 249 
Jones V. Andover, 2104 

V. Bacon, 318, 1814 

V. Barclay, 1955 

ZI. Barmbelt, 533 

V. Barter, 588, 1058, 

V. Bennett, 2285 

7'. Berkshire, 2038 

V. Bird, 2232 

V. Blumenstein, 1456 



1138 



V. Brandon, 1513, 1516 

V. Brewer, 716, 718, 737, 739, 835, 849,851, 

854, 860, 861 
V. Bright, 1200 
V. Britton, 1451 
V. Brown, 645, 655, 678, 683 
V. Bush, 1574 
V. Butler, 1031 
V. Cable, 1882 
V. Caldwell, 76 
V. Candage, 214S 



clii 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Jones V. Carter, 1862 

V. Chandler, 1932, 1952 

V. Chapelle, 565 

V. Chappell, 549 

•u. ChesapeakCj etc., R. Co., 1869 

V. Chiles, 210 

V. Clark, 1149, 2065 

V. Clerk, 1294 

V. Clifton, 647 

V. Cohen, 1904, 1905 

V. Conde, 2009, 2158 

u. Crane, 1969 

%i. Crittenden, 1517 

V. Crow, 2242 

V, Davies, 592, 624, 633, 670 

V. Davis, 2243 

&. Detroit Chair Co., 106,122, 132, 133, 

134, 1 164 
v. Devore, 8gi 
V. Dexter, 1620, 1622 
V. Doe, 1857, i860 
V. Dougherty, 1703, 1794 
V. Fenno, 2045 
V. Fleming, 769 
V. Flint, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54 
V. Fritchey, 1033 

V. Gardner, 729, 730, 1092, 1093, 1094 
V. Gerock, 720, 86g, 877 
V. Goff, 1485 
V. Gibbons, 2109, 2110 
V. Gillman, 2156 
V, Green, 1872 
V, Gregg, 2038 
V. Guaranty & I. Co., 2023 
V. Guedrin, 2254 
V. Gundrin, 1925 
V. Habersham, 257, 1657, 1659 
V. Harraden, 1967 
V. Harridan, 1896 
V. Harris, 1373 
V. Hart, 1499 
V. Hill, 2258 
V. Hockman, 2296, 2297 
V. Hughes, 815, 820, 826, 888 

V. Hunt, 504 

V. Hunter, 757 

V. Hurst, 1806 

V. Hutchinson, 1276, 2261 

V. Jones, 236, 345, 445, 577, 751, 757, 759, 
769, 850, 853, 856, 957, 959, 1259, 
1269, 1277, 1282, 1290, 1754, 1768, 
1822, 2005, 2025, 2334, 2349, 2353 

V. Doe d. Jones, 1261, 1275 

V. Jones' Exrs., 340 

V, Lackland, 2252, 2259 

V. Lapham, 2002, 2150 

V. Lewis, 1664, 1725, 1728 

V. Lipton, 2270 

V. Lloyd, j6go 

V. Lock, 1739 

V. Maffett, 1788 

V. Manley, 733, 736, 739, 838 
. "v. Massey, 1S94, 1S95 

V. Morgan, 446 

V. Marcey, 997 

V. Mills, 1308, 1311, 1331, 1336, 1337, 
1341, 1342 

V. Morgan, 421, 425, 443, 1693 

V. McDougal, 1676 

•v. McKee, 1701 

V. McMasters, 1657, 2014 

V. Myrick, 2155, 2180 

V. Neil, 865 

V. Nixon, 1314 

1). Oberclaim, 648 

•V. Patterson, 870, 1364 

V. Percival, 2205, 2208 

V. Perry, 2324, 2329, 2331, 2332, 2333 

V. Phelps, 2124, 2125 

V. Porter, 211, 2297, 2298 

V. Potter, 1920, 1933 

V. Powell, 880, 898, 918, 944, 952, 954 



Jones V. Price, 1818 

V. Read, 2235 

V. Redder, 1623 

V. Reddick, 758 

V. Reed, 1060, 1151, 1154, 115S 

V. Rice, 1817 

V. Richardson, 2020 

V. Roberts, 794 

V. Robin, 2194 

V. Roe, 1571, 1572, 1849 

1;. Salter, 270 

V. Say, 300, 1606 

V. Say and Seal, 1560 

V. Shay, 1264, 127S, 12S0 

V. Sherrard, 509, 511, 519, 746, 2182 

V. Slubey, i6gi 

V. Smith, 1773, 1776, 2110 

V. Stanton, 1990 

V. Statham, 2049 

V. Steinberg, 2166 

V. Tapling, 2246 

V. Timmons, 46 

V. Tipton, 1276, 2261 

V. Todd, 90S 

z;. Towne, 33, 36, 39, 40 

V. Trawick, 2047 

V. Vemey, 1039 

V. Wagner, 91, 92, 2233, 2237 

V. Walker, 1869 

V. Webster, 2271 

V. Weed, 2157 

V. Whinnipeack Bank, 2101 

V. Whitehead, 566 

V. Williams, 2093 

V. Willis, 13 19, 1324, 1327, 1329 

v. Wilson, i6go 

V. Winwood, 1S44 

V. Wood, 1837 

V. Yoakam, 1488 

V. Zoller, 769 
Jones' Admr. v. Smith, 984 
Jones' Assignee v. Clifton, 1825 
Jones, Ex parte^ v. Stiles, 1533 
Jongsma v. Jongsma, 202, 307 
Joor V. Hodges, 1553 
Jooss V. Fey, 1941 
Jordan v. Cheney, 2095, 2108, 2148 

V. Clark, 771 

V. Corey, 2346 

V. Forlong, 811 

V. Godman, 1449, 1450, 1455, 1461, 1469, 
1478 

V. Holkman, 271 

V. Mead, 1262 

V. Money, 1701 

V. Peak, 1488, 1490 

V. Pollock, 2354 

V. Roache, 321,402, 423, 447, 448, 470 

V. Savage, 932, 955 

V. Smith, 2133 

V. Staples, 1233 

V. Stevens, 2319 

V. Stickland, 1411 

V. Wilker, 1025 
Jorden v. Jorden, 2260 
Jordon v. Attwood, 2208, 2209 
Joseph V. United States, 290 
Joslin V, Rhoades, 1815 
Joslyn V. Joslyn, 1904 

V. Parlin, 2101 

7'. Wyman, 2127, 2134, 2140 
Josselyn v. Edwards, 2150 

■V. McCabe, 122, 123, 142, 145 
Jourdan v. Jourdan, 2346 
Journeay v. Brackley, 1108, 1114, 1115 

V. Gibson, 904 
Joy V. Campbell, 1733 

V. McKay, 1293 
Joyce V. J. I. Case Threshing Mach. Co., 1400 
Joyner v. Conyers, 493 

V. Speed, 713, 723, 737, 742, 806 

V. Statham, 2035 



References are 

to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clii 



111 



Judd V. Arnold, 1018, 1041 

V. Bushnell, 1847, 1850 

V. Fairs, 13 19 

V. Lawrence. 672, 673 

V. Mosely, 1643 

V. Seekins, 810, 2097 
Judson V. Dada, 2072 

V. Gibbons, 178S 
Julian V. Boston, C. F. & N. B. R. Co., 884 

V. Woodsmall, 71, 72 
Juliand v. Rathbone, 1795 
Jumel V. Jumel, 2178, 2179, 2180 
Junction R. Co. v. Harris, 590, 665, 1363, 1369 
Justice V, Lowe. 1141 
Juzanx &. Toulmin, 1716, 1717, 1728, 1735 

K. 

Kabley v. Worcester Gas Light Co., 992, 1000, 

lOOI 

Kade v. Lauber, 759, 772, 821 
Kahn v. Gumberts, 1623 

V. Lovez, 1 196 
Kain v. Fisher, 723, 724, 821 

V. Hoxie, 1073, iiig, 1121, 1129 
Kaiser z*. Seaton, 1503 
Kalis w. Seaton, 1 197, 1198 
Kalshmer z'. Upton, 2137, 2171 
Kamena v. Huelbig, 2100 
Kampf u. Jones, 322, 324, 1692 
Kane v. Bloodgood, 1615, 1781 

V. Goot, 75, 1549, 1680, 1681, 1798 

V. Mink, 1280, 1285 

V. Sanger, 1093 

V. Vanderburgh, 572 
Kane County v. Herrington, 924 
Kansas City Elevator Co. v. N. P. Ry. Co., 
1140, 1154 

V. Union Pac. R. Co., 1139, 1155 
Kansas City Land Co. v. Hill, 2162 
Kansas City, S. & M. R. v. Weaver, 493 
Karnes v, Lloyd, 1998, 2077 
Kashaw v. Kasliaw, 636 
Kasterz/. McWilliams, 1420, 1433, 1459 
Kastor v. Newhouse, 1191, 1201, 1202 
Kauffelt V. Bower, 2004, 2005 
Kaufman z'. Crawford, 17 16 

V. Myers. 2254 

V. Peacock, 818 
Kavanagh v, Gudge, 1138 
Kavish, Ex parte, 1432 
Kay V. Jones, 905 

V. Scates, 4i5j 417. 418, 421, 500, 1603, 
1607, 1655, 1673, 1674, 1694 

V. Whittaker, 2148, 2149 
Kean v. Connelly, 1894 

V. Hoffecker, 2279, 2288 
Kearly v. Duncan, 136 
Kearney v. Kearney, 534, 563 

V. Macomb, 1754. 2044 

V. McComb, 2053 

V. Taylor, 1774, 2333 
Kearney's Executors v. Kearney, 506, 513 
Kearsley v. Woodcock, 1677 
Keates v. Cadogan, mo 
Keating -v. Congdon, 1249, ^250 
Keating Implement & Machine Co. v. Marshall 

Elec. L. &P. Co., 45 
Keaton v. Cobb, 1774, 1766 

V. Terry, 1989 

V. Thomasson's Lessee, 1285 
Keats V. Hugo. 2223, 2224 

V. Rector, 2172 
Keay z/. Goodman, 1120, 1126, 1347, 1350, 1352 

V. Goodwin, 1976, 2074 
Keble v. Thompson, 1608, 1733, 1735 
Keckeley v. Keckeley, 802 
Keeble v. Cummings, 1032 
Keech v. Hall, 1169, 2074 

V. Sanford, 1623 
Keech d. Wame v. Hall, 1279 



Keegan v. Cox, 201 1 

V. Grahty, 2283 
Keeler v. Talwell, 908 

V. Davis, 1 139 

V. Eastman, 555, 556 

V. Fassett 1023 

V. Keeler, 121 

V. Tatnell, gog 
Keely v. Harrison, 774 

V. O'Connor, 976, 1201 
Keemler v. Ferguson, 2349 
Keen z'. Hartman, 924 
Keenan v. Keenan, 217 
Keene v. Munn, 2154,2179, 2180 
Keene d. Byron v. Deardou, 1743 
Keepers, etc., Harrow School v. Alderton, 572 
Keiffer v. Barney, 1399, 1402 

V. Starii, 2024 
Keir V. Peterson, 83. 84, 88, 494, 561, 983 
Keisel V. Earnest, 136, 1905 
Keith V. Horner, 2004, 2007 

v. Hyndman, 1388 

V. Reynolds, 2357 

V. Swan, 1028 

V. Trapier, 841 
Kellam v. Janson, 1355, 1357 
Kelland v. Fulford, 77, 95 
Keller v. Auble, iggo 

V. Keller, 1642 

V. Klopfer, 1290 

V. Michael, 890, 927 

V. McMicliael, 888 
Kelleran z;. Brown, 2039, 2043 
Kellersberger v. Kopp, 1426 
Kellett V, Kellett, 306 
Kelley v. Babcock, 1690 

V. Ball, 936 

z/. Canary, 1946 

V. Jenness, 1646 

V. Mayor, 1194 

V. Meins, 317, 1815 

V. Todd, 1205, 1206 

V. Whitmore, 1^52 
Kellog V. Dickinson, 31, 32, 37, 38, 40 

V. Hale. 298, 1560 
Kellogg V. Ames, 2130 

V. Blair, 305, 306, 308, 311, 312, 337 

V. Fi'azier,'2027 

V. Griswold, 1242 

V. Groves, 1309 

V. Kellogg, 1282 

V. Loomis, 2364 

V. Rand, 2154 

V. Robinson, 1074 

z/. Rockwell, 2085, 2087, 2184, 2185 
Kellum V. Smith, 15S6, 1635, 1645, 2050 
Kelly V. Baker, 1387, 1392, 1392 1436, 1446 

V. Bryan, 2047, 2052 

V. Dutch Church, 1245 

V. Harrison, 893 

V. Johnson, 1612, 1615, 1646 

V. Kelly, 366, 2138 

V. Love's Admrs., 1684 

V. Medlin, igoo 

V. Mills, 2120 

V. Nichols, 1686, 1729 

V. Patterson, 1264, 1310, 1316 

V. Roberts, 2072 

71. Seward, 2301 

z/.-Stimson, 916, 934, 955, g^S 

V. Strange, 890 

V. Thompson, 2039, 2053 

V. Weston, 1232 

V. Whitney, 2134 
Kelsey- v. Dunlap, 2364 

V. Durkee, 123 

z/. Hardy, 2279 

V. King, 5, 121 
Kemble Coal Co., w. Scott, 1002 
Kemp V. Cassart, 650 

V. Derrett, 1302, 1312, 1328. 1339 

V. Holland, 933 



cllv 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Kemp V. Porter, 1794 

■V. Sober, 1185 
Kemper v, Hughes, 2365 
Kempner v. Comer, 1489 
Kendall v. Garland, 978 

V. Clark, 1501, 1502, 1518, 1519 

V. Eyre, 416, 447, 472 

V. Gleason, 1802 

V. Granger, 163S, 1685 

•u. Honey, 874 

V. Lawrence, 985, 1030, 2343 

v. Mann, 1643, 1646 

V. Moore, 1136, 1304, 1417 

V. Neebuhr, 2179, 2180 

7J. Treadwell, 2144 
Kender v. Milward, 1649 
Kenege v. Elliott, 58, 2253 
KeiUey v. Hudelson, 1399, 1402, 1451 

V. Kenley, 883 
Kena v. Nugent, 1267 
Kennard tj. Brough, 135 

V. Harvey, 2272 
Kennedy, In re, 1510 
Kennedy "O. Brown, 2070, 2072 

V. Fury, 1706, 1744 

2/. Johnston, 941 

V. Kennedy, 444, 761, 780, 788, 1402, 1621, 

1975 

V, Mills, 916, 933, 935, 954 

V. Nedrow, 749, 919, 936, 956, 964 

V, Nunan, 1637, 1746 

V. Price, 1646 

V. Reames, 2272 

V, Robinson, 54 

V. Stacey, 1450, 1467, 1475, 1478 

V. Taylor, 1652 
Kennerly -v. Burgess, 2187 

V. Missouri Ins. Co., 714, 721, S50 
Kennett v. Plumraan, 1999 

V. Plummer, 2062, 2063 
Kenniston v. Leighton, 1538 
Kennon v. McRoberts, 307, 321, 334 

V. Wright, 2272 
Kenrick v. Beauclerck, 299, 1606, 1609 
Kent IK Agard, 2050 

•V. Beaty, 1454 

V. Dunham, 1604 

V. Hartpoole, 694 

V. Lasley, 2043, 2048 

V. Morrison, 1815, 1816 

•V. Plumb, 1777 

V. Waite, 2218 

V. Watson, 2301 

V. Welch, 1989 

V. Well, 492 

V. Welsh, 2362 
Kensington v. Bouverie, 509 

V. Dollond, 1371 
Kentucky River Nav. Co., v. Commonwealth, 

1 139, 1146 
Kentzinger's Estate, 662 
Kenvon v. Nichols, 2242 
Keofe V. Milwaukee & St. P. R. Co., 198 
Keogh V. Daniel, 122, 129, 146, 1158 
Kepple's Case, 348 
Keppell 7'. Bailey, 1070, 1074, 1078 
Kem V. Myll, 1045 

Kemochan v. 'Ne-w York Ins. Co., 2118 
Kemochan 7/. N. Y. Bowery Fire Ins. Co., 2117 
Kerr v. Clark, 981, 1013, 1284, 1322, 13^/ 

z'. Connell, 54 

v. Day, 1078 

z/. Freeman, 2321, 2322 

V. Gilmore, 2046 

V. Kingbury, 131, 1188, ii8g 

v. Kitchen, 1777 

v. Merchants' Exchange Co., 1015, 1016, 
1176, 1 180 

». Moon's Devises, 368 

V. Moon, 720, 2057, 205S, 2288, 2289 

V. Read, i6go 

V. White, 1777 



Kerrians v. Perple, 1273, 12S7, 128S, 12S9 
Kershaw v. Kelsey, 672, 673 

V. Thompson, 2145, 2156 
Kessler v. Draub, 1403, 1454, 1459 
Kester v. Stark, 1983 
Ketchem v. Crippen, 2136 

z/. Jauncy, 2141 
Ketchum v. Evertson, 729 

V. Shaw, 715, 802, 803, 806, 926 

z/. Walsworth, 1920,1930, 1931, 1932, 1940, 

1951 
Keteltas v. Coleman, 1152 
Ketsey*s Case, 1030 
Kettlewell v. Watson, 832, 2008 
Key V. Davis, g86 

V. Jennings, 2310 
Keyes v. Bump^ Admr., 2030 

v. Carlton, 1091, 1792, 1798 

V. Dearborn, 1003 

». Keyes, 751 

V. Powell, 988 

7/. Rines, 1500, 1503 

7/. Scanlon, 892, 1407 ' 

V. Wood, 2103, 2105, 2106, 2108 
Yieynerv. Summer, 2209 
Keys 2>. Goldsborough, 403 
Keyser's Appeal, 501 
.Keyser v. Evans, 1915 

v. Hitz, 2oi66 

V. Mitchell, 500, 1748 

7'. Nicholas, 500 

V. Philadelphia, 970 
Keyte v. Perry, 669 
Kezer v. Clifford, 2079 
Kibbey v. Jones, 1513, 1516 ■< 

Kibbie v. Williams, 633, 1364, 1366 
Kibbler z/. Miller, 182 1 
Kibby v. Chitwood's Admr., 2332 
Kidd z>. Dennison, 555, 556, 561, 1227 

z/, McCormick, logi 

V. Treple, 1993, 1999, 2015, 2063 
Kiddal v. Trimbell, 865 
Kidder v. Blaisdell, 864 

V. Rexford, 1922 
Kidwell V. Brumagin, 1652 

V. Kidwell, 2251, 2257, 2258 
Kieffer v. Imhof, 2211 
Kiersted v. Orange R. Co., 2271 
Kieth 2'. Paulk, 2257 

Kilborn v. Robbins, 805, 806, 8og, 2153, 2178 
Kilbum V. Mullen, 596 
Kile V. Biebner, 122 
Kilgour V. Ashcom, 2236 

V. Crawford, 1983, 1986 
Kilkenny Gas Co. ». Somerville, 1139 
Killeran v. Brown, 2049 
Killinger v. Ridenhouser, 794, 796, 913 
Kilmer 7f. Smith, 2330, 2331 
Kilmore ?/. Howlett, 54, 56 
Kilpatrick v. Henson, 2079 

V. Kilpatrick, 2006 
Kilpin v. Kilpin, 1647 
Kilsley v. Ames, 2160 
Kimball v. First Parish of Rowley, 32 

V. Ives, 1782 

V. Kimball, 764 

v. Lewiston, 2187 

z>. Lockwood, 1118, 2065 

V. Lohmars, 2298 

v. Master Grand Lodge of Masons, no 

7J. Morton, 1699, 1738 

z>. Myers, 2027, 2031 

V. Pike, 1 121, 2251 

V. Redding, 1714, 1717, 1718, 1719, 1721, 
1720 

z/. Rowland, 1061, 1344, 1345 

V. Sattley, 2020 

V. Second Parish of Rowland, 32, 37, 38, 

V. Stormer, 2298 

■V. Sumner, 1921, 2251, 2257, 2258 
Kimber v. Barber, 1621 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clv 



Kimbrel z-. Willis, 1403, 1404 
Kimmell v. Benna, 2301 

1'. Willard, 2073 
Kimpton z'. Rallaymy, 2199 

V. Walfer, logg 

V. Walker, 1067, jo6g, 1098, 2362 
Kincaid's Appeal, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41 
Kiuchelve v, Tracewell, 2298 
Kincks z>. Stubbin, 768 
Kindberg t'. Freeman, 2152 
King z'. Ackerman, 305, 795, 1823 

z'. Anderson, 2251, 2252, 2257, 2258 

V. Aldborougli, 1107, im, iiiS, 1123 

t'. Baldwin, 2136 

V. Barnes. 532 

V. Bellovd, 1S27 

z'. Bill, 1662 

V. Boys, 1554 

z'. Burcliall, 250, 252, 266 

V. Castle, 260 

V. Cole, 341, 342 

V. Connolly, 1274 

Z-. Cotton, 795 

v. Deedham, 2331 

■z'. Dodd, 1242 

Z-. Donnelly, 1599, 1788 

z'. Dunsford, Sii 

V. Duntz, 1755 

v. Fowler, 1267 

V. George, 2 

v. Gunnison, 890 

z'. Howard, igSo 

z'. Husatonic R. Co.. 225S 

V. Inhabitants Bosworlh, 1273 

Z'. Inhabitants of Herstmonceaux, 1302 

V. Insurance Co., 20S0 

v. Johnson, 129, 139, 140, 141 

V. Jones, 1077 

v. Kelstem, 1273, 12SS 

V. Kenan, 1625 

7'. Kerr, 730 

V. King, 314, 315, 505, 74S, 749, 792, 802, 

915. 2357 
z'. Langnville, 1273 
z>. Large, 26S 
V. Lawson, 1294 
z'. Leach, 1885 
z'. Little, 2252, 2257, 2259 
zi. Longnor, 1044 
V. Lucas, 1562 
2-. McCarley, 1383, 1519 
V. McVickar, 2120 
v. Mailing, 421, 422 
7/. Merchants' Exchange Co., 2148 
V. Milkridge, 1273 
V. Minister, 1273 
V. Mitchell, 1591, 1592, 1637 
z'. Morford, 1292 
V. Morris, 511 
zf. Murray, 1144, 2254 
z'. Newman, 2043, 2168 
V. New York Cent. & H. R. Co., 1194, 

"95 
V. Nutall, 517 
V. Oakley, 1022 
v. Otley, 123 
V. Paddock, 2346 
V. Parker, 1796, 18S6 
V. Patsrson & H. R. R. Co., 43 
z/. Pedly, 1202 
z>. Portis, 2 1 19 
z'. Rea, 294, 296, 2301 
v. Reed, 1988 
V. Reynolds, 1055 
V. Rundle, 1637 
z'. Shrives, 307 
V. State Mut. F. Ins. Co., 2113, 2114, 

2117, 2118 
V. Stetson, 766, 829 
V. Stock, 1272 
V. Talbot, 691;, 1664, 1721 
V. Topping, McClell. & Y., 250 



King zf. Utley, 439 

z>. Weeks, ^24 

v. Welborn, 13S3, 1392, 1417, 1418, 1438 

V. Wilcomb, 61, 119 

7j. Withers, 1572 

V. Woodruff, 13 16 

V. Yarborongh, 2293 
King of Spain zk Machado, 753, 755 
Kingdom v. Bridges, 1647 

z>. Briggs, 779 

Zf. Noddle, 2362 
Kingham v. Lee, 1364 
Kingman 7A Graham, 2302 

z>. Higgins, 1464 

V. Pierce, 2173 

V. Sparrow, 779, 822 
Kingsbiuy v, Buckner, 2073, 2172 

z'. Burnside, 1589, 1592, 1690 

V. Collins, 538, 1205, 1206, 1254 

V. Westfall, 1175 
Kingsland v. Clark, 1127, 1129, 1167, 1170, 2268 

Zf. Rapelye, 421, 423, 426 

7'. Ruckman, 1026 
Kingsley v. Holbrook, 51, 53, 55, 2354 

V. Kingsley, 1399, 1426, 1432 

V. Smith, 588, 651, 670, 671, 68i 
Kingsman v. Loomis, 2303 

V. Rouse, 2176 
Kingsmill z'. Millard, 1215 

Kingston Building Association v. Rainsford, 
1046 

z'. Lorton, 1630 
Kinloch z'. I'On, 1757, 1764 
Kinn v. Smith, 2102 

Kinna z>. Smith, 1995, 20S5, 2104, 2105, 2147 
Kinnard v. Thompson, 1794 
Kinnear 7'. Lowell. 1094, 2178 
Kinnen v. Maxwell, 2011 

z'. Slattery, 1898, 1900, 191 5 
Kinney v. Watts, 1082, 1245 
Kinnier 7'. Rogers, 1807 
Kinsell f. Billings, 127 

7/. Daggett, 2295 
Kinsey v. Lardner, 315 

V. Minnick, 1335, 1342, 1343 
Kinsler v. McCants, 787 
Kinsley z>. Ames, 1350, 1354 

z'. Abbott, 1885 
Kinsloving v. Pierce, 930 
Kinsmen v. Green, 1017 
Kinter v. Jenks, 1593, 1632 
Kintz V. Long, 485, 2334 
Kipp V. Kipp, 1920 
Kirby v, Boylston Market Assn., 1202 

ZI. Chetwood's Admr, 2323 

7'. Dalton, 804, S52 

z'. Moody, 1947 

V. Potter, 43 

V. Reese, 2170 

V. Vantreace, 781 

V. Webb, 1649 
Kirk V. Dean, 928 

V. Houston Direct Navigation Co., 1947 

V. King, 2303 

V. Talliaferre, 1211 

7/. Webb, 1700 
Kirkaldie v. Larrabee, 1467 
Kirkham 7' Booth, 1715 

z'. Boston, 2004, 2007 

V. Dupont, 2171 

Z'. Jarvis, 1168 

V. Sharp, 2220 

z/. Smith, 446 
Kirkland v. Cox, 289, 335, 1796 
Kirkman z>. Bank of America, 2177 
Kirkpatrick z'. Caldwell, 2.20 

V. Mathiot, 1921 

■V. Peshine, 268 
Kirkwood v. Doman, 1952, 1953 

V. Thompson, 2086 
Kirtland v. Pounsett, 1292 
Kirwan v. Latour, 105, 126, 135 



cl 



VI 



TABLE OP CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Kisler &. Kisler, 1611, 1635 

KisU:ig V. Shaw, 1735 

Kissaii V. Barclay, 122 

Kister v. Reiser, 283 

Kitchell V. Burgwin, 137S, 1397, i3gS, 1461 

z/. Mudgett, 2136 
Kitchen v. Bedford, 1592 

V. Pridgen, 1260, 1269, 1280, 1293, 1302, 
1306, 1524, 1333, 1334 
Kites V. Cliurch, iSgo, 1894, 2249 
Kitner z'. Ege, 10S3 
Kitterlin v. Milwaukee Mechanics' Mutual 

Insurance Co., 1470, 1479 
Kittle V. St. John, 1160 

V, Van Dyck, 766, 1492 
Kittridge v. Locks & Canals Merrimack, igg6 

V. Woods, 46, 78, 79, 103, 106, 135, 567 
Kitzmiller v. Van Renselaer, 907, 911 
KJapp's Assignees v. Shirk, 1795 
Kleemauz'. Frisbee, 2106 
Klenck v. Knoble, 1446 
Klein v. Isaacs, 2071 

V. McNamara, 2045, 2312 
Klinck V. Keckeley, 766 
V. Keckey, 926 
V. Price, 2001, 2046 
Kline's Estate, 960 

Kline v. Beebe, 600, 603,612,614, 985, 1031 
V. Cline, 960, 961 
V. Jacobs, 10S3, 1292, 1905 
V. McLain, 1196 
V. Moulton, 1020 
V. Ragland, 1932 
Klock V. Walter, 2045 
Klopfer V. Keller, logo 
Klotenbrock v. Cracraft, 641, 642, 666 
Klumpe V Baker, 2300 
Klutts V. Klutts, 799 
Knabe v. Femot, loig 
Knachbull v. Hallett, 1621 
Knapp V. Brown, 1211 

v. Hungerford, 1983 
V. Maltby, 2339 
V. Marlboro, 1080 
■V. Smith, 1035 
Knappen v. Freeman, 1046 
Knarr v. Conway, 20S1 
Knatchbull v, Hallett, 1761 
Knecht v. Mitchell, 996 
Kneeland v. Moore, 805 • 

V. Schmidt, 1161 
Kneil v. Egleston, 646 
Knickerbocker v. Seymour, 820, S21, 913 
Knickerbocker Life Ins. Co. v. Nelson, 2069 

V. Patterson, 2263 
Knight V. Barber, 817 
V. Bell, 1371 
V. Bennett, 1322 
V. Bowyer, 76 
V. Buckley, 1254 
V. Crockford, 998, 1043 
V. Duplessis, 673 
V. Dyer. 2042 
V. Gould, 1 838 
V. Indiana Coal & Iron Co., 88, 1251 

1263, 1280, 1293 
V. Knight. 346, 347, 1627, 1632, 2073 

V. Majoribanks, 2086 . 

•v. Manils, 764 
V. Mann, 766 
V. Mosely, 561 
V. Pursell, 2236 
Knight, Doe d., v. Nepean, 522 
Knight, Doe d., v. Quigley, 1068, 1278, 1283 
Knipe v. Palmer, 1034 
Knobb V. Lindsay, 1758 
Knoll's Case, 562 
Knott V. Lawton, Doe d., 312 

V. Receivers of Morris Canal Co., 1036 
Knouff z/. Thompson, 2302 
Knowlden v. Leavitt, 292 
Knowles v. Carpenter, 8ri, 2098 



Knowles -v. Hull, 1354, 1355 

•u, Lawton, 810, 2151, 2155 
V. Rablin, 2 171 
Knowlton v. Bradley, 1714, 1715, 1718, 1719, 
1721, 1724, 1728 
V. Redenbaugh, 671 
7'. Walker, 2094, 2095, 216S, 2175 
Knox V. Easton, 1997, 1998, 2065, 2077, 2078 
V. Flack, 2343 
V. Galligan, 2108, 2147 
V. Gye, 76, 1614 
V. Hester, 2269 
V. Hexter, 1085 
V, Hunt, 2273 
V. Hydrick, 56 
7'. Knox, 1627, 16S5 
V. Marshall, 1234, T909 
V. McFarran, 1690 
V. Silloway, 492 
Koch V. Briggs, 2140 

Koehler v. Black River Falls Iron Co., 76 " 
Koenig's Appeal, 1787 
Koenig v. Craft, 534 

V. Haddix, 2234 
Koester f. Burke, 1777 
Kohl V. United States, 197 
Kohler v. Knapp, 2251, 2259 
Kohlheim v. Harrison, 2175 
Koltenbrock v. Cracraft, 516, 517 
Konigmacher ?'. Kimmel, 1733 
Konvalinka v. Schlegel, 918, 944, 945 
Koplitzz'. Gustavis, 1135, 1136, 1264 
Kopmeir w. O'Neil, 2158 
Kopp V. Gnnther, 1792 
Korn V. Cutler, 2S9, 349 
Kornegay v. Collier, 2251, 2257 
Koms V. Shaffer, 1770, 2163 
Kortright v. Cady, 688, 799, 2062, 2085, 2105, 

2t2g, 2131 
K-Oser, Ex parte, igS 
Kramer v. Cleveland & P. R. Co., 2328 
%'. Cook, 1052, 10S2, 1126, 1175 
V. Knauff, 2217 
V. Rebham, 2156 

z;. Trustees of F. & M. Bank of Steu- 
benville, 2141 
Kratmeyer?'. Brink, 1290 
Krause's Appeal, 975 
Krause v. Beitel, 880 
Keigler 7/. Day, 664 
Krentz v, McKnight, 1154 
Kresin t. Man, 1419, 1439 , 
Krevet v. Meyer, 1057, 1356 1 
Kreutz v McKnight, 11 53 ^ 
Kriger v. Day, 663 
Krister v. Miller, 1160 
Krogan v. Kinney, 219 
Kronskop 7/, Shontz, 2012, 2013 
Krouse V. Ross, 122 ^ 

Krouskop V. Shontz, 8g6 
Krueger v. Farrant, igS, 200, 1197 

7/. Pierce, 1483, 1484, 1500 
Kruse v. Scripps, 2024, 2112 
Krulz V. Fisher, 1621, 1643 
Kublerz'. United States, 1036 
Kuevan v. Specker, 1481 
KMgler V. United States, 1316 
Kuhlmanj/. Hecht, 2217 
Kuhlmann v. Meier, 145 
Kuhn V. Newman, 1655, 1674, 1742 
Kuhns 7.'. Bankes, 2107 
Kulinger v. Redinhaur, 728 
Kull V. Kull, 221, 222 
Kunkle v, Franklin, 1517 

V. Wolfersberger, 2040, 2066 
Kuntz V. Kinney, 1483, 1514, 1515 
Kunzie v. Wixon, 1309, 1350 
Kurtz z'. Sponable, 2105,2106 
Kurz V. Brusch, 1384, 1386, 13S7, 1416, 1420, 

1436, 1442, 1476 
Kutch V. Holley, 1455 
Kutterz/. Smith, 129, 146, 1204 



References are 
to pages. 



Kutz' Appeal, 1781 
Kygerz/. Ryley, 1999, 2078 
Kyle z'. Barnett, 1715 

V. Kavanagh, 2322 

V. Kyle, 87s 

V. Roberts, 1030 
Kyne v. Kyne, 943, 955 
Kyner 7'. Kyner, 2177 
Kyte 7'. Commercial U. Assr. Co., 631, 632 

;'. Keller, 1184, 1233, 1234 

L. 

L'Amoureux t>. Van Rensselaer, 1798 

Labare v. Colby, 2012 

Laberee y, Carleton, 1852, 1863, 1S67 

Laberge v. Chauvin, 2105 

La Blanc, jRe, 1762 

Lacey, Ex parley 1621, 1770, 1771, 1772 

1-achland v. Downing, 411, 1447 

Lacon v. Allen, 2002 

V. Davenport, 1997, 1998 
V. Higgins, 753 
Laconia Savings Bank v. Rollins. 1502 
Lacustrine Fertilizer Co. v. Lake Guano & 

Fertilizer Co., 4, 51, 143 
Lacy V. Anderson, 953, 957 

ZK Clements, 1407, 1411, 1425 
Laddt'. Abel, 48 

7'. Dudley, 1512 
V. Harvey, 470 
v. Jackson, 1723 
7'. King, 1699 

V. Ladd, 1810, 1828, 1829, 1831 
7'. Perley, 1979 
V. Riggle, 1 141 
V. AViggin, 2101 
Lade v. Holford, 1743 
Ladley v. Creighton, 1047 
Ladue v. Detroit & M. R. Co., 2104, 2105 

V. Railroad Co., 2099 
Lady v. Madison's Case 
LafFan p. Naglee, 259, 1076, 1067 
La Farge v. Mansfield, 979 
La Farge Ins. Co. v. Bell, 2154 
Lafayette, etc., R. Co. v. Geiger, 2328 
Laffite 7'. Lawton, 646 
laflin V. Griffiths, 113 
Lafrombois v. Jackson, 2291 
Lagow 7'. Badolett, 1764,2008 
Laguerenne 7'. Dougherty, 1132, 1135, 1315, 1317 
Laiiy 7/. Holland, 1722, 1723 
Laidlaw v. Organ, mo 
Laidler v. Young, 402, 415,447, 456, 466, 467 

V. Young's Lessee, 414, 464 
Laidley v. Kline, 839 
Laight V. Pell, 2158 
Laing z<. Eariowe, 306 
V. Byrne, 2072 
7'. Fidgeon, 1200 
7'. Harbour, 202 
Lair 7/ . Hunsicker, 1595 
Laird v. Hedges, 2056 
Lake v. Campbell, 1044, 1046 
7'. De Lambert, 1658 
7', Dowd, 2001, 2038 
V. Freer, 1690 
7'. Gaines, 2272 
7'. Gray, 2364 

V. Thomas, 2004 -^ 

Lakeview v. Rosehill Cemetery, 4 
Lakin v. Lakin. 774, S87, 894, 920, 921 
Lallande v. Wentz, 1902 
Lamar v. Miles, 122 

V. McNamee, 1163 
Lamb v. Burbank, 1096 
V. Danforth, igo8 
V, Davenport, 2308 
V. Fames, 1828 
V. Jeffery, 2172 
V. Lamb, 697 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clvii 



Lamb v. Lathrop, 1865 

V. Montague, 2074, 2075, 2137, 2173 

V. Pierce, 1047 

V. Richards, 2137, 2170 

V. Scott, 707, 718, 720, 731, 733, 736, 739, 

S60 
V. Turner. 2359 
V. Wogan, 1463 
Lamb, Estate of, 1477 
Lambe v. Eames, 346, 1084 
Lambert v. Blumenthal, 19S2 
V. Borden. 1317 
v. Kinnery, 1502, 1519 

V. Monis, 2252 

V. Paine, 201, 203, 1823 

7'. Wanier, 742 
Lambert's Lessee v. Paine s, 202, 204, 305, 312 
Lambertons 7'. Stouffer, 1207, 2255 
Lambertville National Bk. v, McCready Bag& 

P. Co. (N, J.), 2147, 214S, 2172 
Lambson, Re, 1401 
Lamkin v, Knapp, 771 
Lammer v. Missen. 2293 
Lammott 7/. Gist, 1163 
Lamont v. Cheshire, 2152 
Lampel's Case, 900 
Lampert z'. Hydel, 1677. 167S 
Lampet's Case, 1250, 1570 
Lamphere v. Lowe, 122 
Lampleigh v. LampleigH, 1538, 1648 
Lamp man 7/. Milks, 20, 2211,2216, 2224, 2232, 

2236, 2241 
Lamprey v. Nudd, 2:04 
Lamson v. Clarkson, 1219 

7'. Drake, 2074, 2169, 2173 
Lanahan v. Sears, 1502, 2038 
Lancashire v. Mason, 2251, 2257 
Lancaster v. Detaford, 999 

V. Dolan. 1375, 1560, 1583, 1673, 1674, 
167s. 1799 

V. Lancaster, 748 

V. Seay, 1983 

V. Thornton, 1605, 1811 

•V. Washington Life Ins. Co., 523 
Lancaster Bank v. Myley, 286, 1963 
Lancaster County Bank 7/. Stauffer, 589, 590, 

616, 635, 636, 637, 1363, 1364 
Lance v. Gorman, 2170 
Lanchester 7/. Eve, 117 
Land Co. v. Gas Co., 1474. 1476 
Lander Contract, In re, 1097 
Landers %>. Beauchkamp, 133* 
Landes v Brent, 2015 
Laudon v. Burke, 2144 

V. Hooper, 2086 

V. Piatt, 1 1 86 

•V. Watson, 1149 
Landsberger v. Magnetic Tel. Co. 1247 
Landsell v. Gower, Doe d., 1309 
Lane v. Baker, 1403 

V. Bobyns, 1901 

V. Cowper, 1030, 1031 

V. Debenham, 1663 

V. Dickerson, 2052 

V. Dighton, 1623, 1649, 1760, 1761 

V. Dorman, 2324, 2332, 2333 

V. Erskine, 2149 

V, Ewing, 1593, 1702, 1739 

V. Gould, 210, 212 

V. Hitchcock, 2186, 2187 

V. Husband, 1793 

V. King, 45, 47, 688, 1206, 2065 

V. Lane, 249, 1614 

V. Ludlow, 2009 

V. Mutual F. Ins. Co., 21 16 ^ 

V. Osment, 1141, 1150 

V. Shears, 799, 2039 

V. Tyler, i960, 1963 

V. Wick, 1^16 
Lanfair 7/. Lanfair, 2015, 2031, 2040, 2041 
Lang 7'. Barnes, 1933, 1952 

V. Hitchcock, 634, 635 



clviii 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Lang V. Ropke, 1682 

V. Warring, 736, 824, 1961 

V. Wilbraham, 1682 
Lang's Heir v. Waring, 1957, 1959, 1960, 1963 
Langdale, ^-r/(zWe, 1241, 1242 
Langdon v. Buell, 2ogg, 2101, 2107 

V. In^m*s Guardian, 259, 261, 263 

V. KeitJi, 2105, 2107 

V. Mayor, 2294 

V. Paul, 2187 

V. Poor, 2335 

V. Potter, 1913 

V. Stevens, 850 

V. Strong, 671 
langeleyz/. Hammond, 2216 
Langfordz*. Eyrie, 1831 

V. Frey, 985 

V. Gascoyne, 1733 

V. Selmer, 2301 

V. Selmes, nog, 1121 
Langley v. Furlong. 563 

y. Hammond, 2211 

V. Ross, 1138 

V. Vaughn, 2024 
Langston v. Horton, 2017 

V. Norton. 2044 
Langworthy v. Heeb, 831 
Lanier v. Booth, 2243 

V. Driver, 1795 

V. Hill, 1221 
Lanigan v. Kille, 1190 
Lankford v. Green, 2270 
Lanphere v. Lowe, 126 
Lansing v. Goelet, 1996, 2144, 2146, 2157 

V. Pine, 1163 

V. Smith, 2304 

V. Stone, 568, 1181, 1183 

V. Van Alstyne, 226S 

V. Wiswall, 2218, 2241 
I,antshery v. Collier, iSii 
Lapham v. Norton, 135, 139, 1290 
Lapice v. Gereandeau, 720 
Lapish V. Bangor Bank, 99 
Lapman v. Milks, 2241 
Lappen v. Hill, 2071 
Lapsley v. Lapsley, 411, 414 
Large's Case, 259, 263, 1687, 1858 
Large ?'. Van Dowen, 2031, 2134 
Larkins' Estate, 1449 
Larkin v. Ames, 2360 

V. Avery, m,i3. i29q» i3o7) i3i9> ^337 
Lame v. Farren Hotel Co., 1202 
Lamed v. Bridge, 31S, 319 

V, Hudson, 1257, 1258, 1261, 1270, 1274, 
1278, 1280, 1344 
Larney 7/. Mooney, ir66 
Laroe v. Douglass, 1734 
Larrabee v. Eambert, 125S, 1272, 1285 

V. Lumbert, 1277 

V. Tucker, 2286 

V, Van Aylstyne, 880, 917, 918, 938, 942, 
944. 952 
Larreau v. Davignon, 1657 
].arrowe v. Beam, 841 
Larson v. Reynolds, 1409, 14501 i473» i475. 1478. 

1479, 1485, 1489, 1493, 1523 
Larwell v, Stevens, 2296 
Lary v. Dunham, 730- 

Lasala v. Holbrook, 92, 2231, 2232, 2233, 2234 
Lasare v. Rochereau, 2149 
Lash V. Lash, 1954 
Lasher 7/. Lasher, 708, 917, 918, 942 
Lassell v. Reed, 78, 79, 103, 106 
Lassells z'. Comwallis, 1825, 1840 
Lassen v. Vance, 766, 1492, 1497, 1591 
Latch V. Bright, 1047 
Latham v. Atwood, 53 

V, Blakely, 104 

V. Henderson, 1646 

7'. Lawrence, 1770 
Lathrop v. Arnold, igot, 1902 

», Atwood, 2025, Z026 



Lathrop v. Bampton, 1739, 1740, 1759, 1760 

zK Blake, 113 

V. Clewis, 983, 2249, 2257, 2272 

V. Commercial Bank, 118, 458 

V. Foster, 807, 835, 868, 896, 900, 909 

V. Rogers, 1236 

V. Scotia Bank, 224 

•V. Singer, 1403 

V. Smalley, 1715, 1721, 1722 
Latimer v. Elgin, 719 
Latimore v. Moore, 2087 
La Touche v. Earl of Lucan, 1793 
Latouche v. Dunsamp, 2139 
Latrobe v. Tieman, 1731, 1732, 1734 
Lauchner -v. Rex, 46 
Laud V. Parker, 2297 
Laughliu v, Fream, got 

?/. Wright, i3g2, 1416, 1418 
Laughter's Case, 1863, i86g 
Laughter v. Humphrey, 2253 
Laughnian v. Thompson, 890 
Laughran z/. Smith, 996,998, 1043, 1134, US'?. 

1300, 1322, 1327 
Lauriat v. Stratton, 2172 
Laurie, Re, 2266 

Lausman v. Drahos, 989, 1214, 1222 
Lautz V. Buckingham, 2059 
Lavender v. Abbott, 2004 

V. Lee, 1825 
Lavery z'. Egan, 291 
Laverty v. Woodward, 2251, 2258 
Law's Estate, Re, 1720 
Law V. Butler, 1468, 1473, 1474, i479> M^o 

1}. McDonald, 2226 

V. Paterson, igrs 
Lawes v. Lumpkin, 1165 
Lawney's Trustees v. St. Louis, 1134 
Lawrence v. Bartlett, 645 

V. Brown, 716, 718, 737, 740, 780, S63 

V. Burrell, 1166 

V. Cooke, i68g 

■u. Cornell, 2176 

V. Dale, 1770 

V. Davis, 1795 

V. Fox, 2072 

V French, 1128, 1168, 1174 

u. Heister, 903 

V. Kemp, 109, III, 121, 123, 139 

V. Knapp, 2ogg, 2104, 2106 

V, Knight, 1159 

V. Lawrence, 415, 465, 965 

7/. Mayor of Savannah, 1157 

V. Miller, 714, 716, 738, 838, 893, 1149, 
1220 

•V. Obee, 2245 

V. Shipman, 1193, 1194 

V. Smith, 55 

V. St. Mark's Ins. Co., 1224 

ZK Stratton, 2055, 2103, 2134 

V. Tayloa. 1042 

V. Taylor, 1041 

V. Towle. 2069 

zj. Tucker, 2023 

V. Wardell, 1246 
Fawry v. Tilleny, 2296 
Lawson v. Cunningham, 1259 

V. Love joy, 985 

7/. Morten, 781, 789, 841, 842, 857 
Lawther v. Corill, 998 
Lawton v. Adams, 1904 

V. Buckingham, 2349 

V. Ford, 1782 

V. Giles, 199 

z>. Lawton, 123, 124, 12S, 129 

V. Rivers, 2217, 2218, 2219, 2220, 2221 

V. Salmon, 107, 128, 130, 137 

V. Savage, 1294 
Lawyer v. Cipperly, 34 

V. Slingerhand, 1450, 1473 
Lay 7/. Gibbons, 1758 
Laylinz'. Knox, 2172 
Layman z*. Shultz, 2012 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clix 



Layman v. Throp, 1309, 1348 
Layne v. Pardee, 1456 
Layson v. Grange, 1454, 1495, 1496 
Layton v. Butler, S64, 867, S74, S75, 876 

V. Field, 1270 
Lazarus z*. 'Commonwealth Ins. Co., 631 
Lazear v. Porter, 806, 8go, 927 
Lazell V. Lazell, 1392, 1417, 1418, 1461 

V. Pinnick, 1033 
Lea V. Hernandez, 1281, 1294 

V, Netherton, 1150 
Leach v. Duvall, 794 

V. Leach, 585, 58S, 670, 711, 761, 776 

V. Pillsbury, 1456 
Leek V. Richmond Co., 1804 
Leadbeaterw. Roth, iio6, 116S 
Leaders*. Homewood, 115, 145, 1186 
Leak v. Gay, 1380 
Leake z-. Watson, 1661, 1668 
Lean, Doe d., z>. Lean, 
Lear v. Leggett, 253, 260, 272, 1056, 1113 
Learned v. Cutler, goi 

V. Foster, 2151 

V. Fritch, 1253 
Leary v. Patiison, 1151 

7/. Meier, 133S 
Leathers t'. Furr, 2246 

V. Gray, 439, 440 
Leavittz'. Beime, 273, 1739, 1747 

V. Bevine, 254 

V. Fletcher, 1068, 1083, 1099, iioo, 1106, 
1175, 1183, 1200 

Z-. Lamprey, 733, 736, 739, 798, 867, 874, 
875. 

V. Leavitt, 1257, 1260, 1299, 1319, 1322, 
1335. 1338,2316 

V. Pell, 1828, 1829, 1832 

V. Pratt, 2130 

V. Wooster, 307, 340, 342 
Leaycraft v. Hedden, 1373, 1562 
Lebanon Mutual Fire Ins. Co. &. Erb, 631 
Le Beau z>. Glaze, 2129 
Le Breton v. Nouchet, 775 
Lebtnards'. White, 89 
Lecatt V. INIerchants' Ins. Co. 643 
Lechmere v. Carlyle, 1784 

V. Lavie, 347, 1627, 1630, 1632 
Lecompte v. Wash, 894 
Ledbetter z'. Cash, 1979 

V. Gash, 1975, 1986 

V. Quick, 2272 
Ledwich, /« re, 1599 
Ledyard v. Butler, 1997, 2063 ) 

V. Chapin, 2129, 2134 

V. Phillips, 47 

z/. Ten Eyck, 2294 
Lee V. Adkins, 2363 

v. Baumgardener, 84, 88, 89 

zf. Browder, 1633, 1645, 1648 

V. Evans, 1996, 2045, 2050 

V. Fletcher, 2034, 2056, 2061 

V. Fox, 1990 

V. Hanison, 1677 

■V. Jeddo Coal Co., 2336 

1/. Kilbum, 2044 

V. Kingsbury, 1413, 1480, 1488; 1504, 2158 

v. Kirby, 1697 

V. Lee, 1020, 1716 

V. Lindell, 725, 785, 786, 886, 887 

7/. McElvy, 4ir, 413, 415 

V. Miller, 1443 

z/. Moseley, 1395, 1458 

z'. Muggeridge, 1836 

2/. Payne, 1122 

V. Risdon, 119, 127, 145, 1186 

Zf. Selleck, 2056 

z;. Smith, 976, 2288 

V. Stanley, 1456 

2/, Stiger, 2068 

V. Stigner, 2069 

z>. Stone, 2140 

V. Summers, 1282 



Lee V. Turne, 1902 

V. Woodworth, 2024 

V. Zabriskee, 1920 
Leech v. Leech, 759 
Leed v. Beene, 1782 
Leeds zr. Cheetham, 1098, 1179, 1181 

V. Gifford, 2066 

z'. Wakefield, 1830 
Leefe, Matter of, 221, 645 
Leesz/. Nuttall, 1617,- 1644, ^645, 1708, 1771 
Le Farge F. Ins. Co. 7/. Bell, 2197, 2180 
Lefever v. Lefever, 918, 944 

V. Witmer, 1366, 1377 
Leffingw.ell v. Elliott, 1095 

V. Warren, 1516 
Leffler v. Armstrong, 1755 
Legard z>. Hodgers, 1665, 1690 
Legge V. Legge, 495 

V. Strudwick, 1300, 1307, 1313, 1314, 1321, 
1322 
Leggett V. Bullock, 2126 

z>. Dubois, 218, 1635, 1680 

z/. Hunter, 1599, 1798 

v. Hyde, 1241, 1243 

Zf. McClelland, 670 

v. New Jersey Mfg. & Bkg. Co., 2342 

V. Perkins, 299, 1374, 1559, 1606 

z/. Steele, 842 
Le Gierce v. Green, 2263 
Lehigh Valley R. Co. z/. McFarlan, 2292 
Legro V. Lord. 1480, 1481 
Lehman v. Br)'an, 1457 

V. Lewis, 1635 

z'. McQueen, 2109 

z'. Tallahassee Mfg. Co., 2065 
Leiby v. Wilson, 121 1 

Leicester, Doe d., v. Briggs, 1560, 1574, 1607 
Leiderkranz Society v. Beck, 863 
Leigh z/. Balcarres, 1040 

z/. Barry, 1732 

7/. Dickeson, 1891 

Zf. Hammer's Case, 750 

z>. Harrison, 1678 

V. Loyd, 2159 

Zf. Shepherd, 1927 

V. Smith, 178-1, 1785 
Leighton v. Preston, 1998, 2079 

Zf. Shapely, 2129 

v. Theed, 1267 
Leishman v. White, 1128, 1167, 1173, 1174 
Leitch V. Boyington, 2251, 2257, 2258 

V. Little, 1889 
Leitensdorfer z/. Delphy, 2S4 
Leith V. Irvine, 2051 
Lekeux ?/. Nash, 1074, 2265 
Leland z'. Adams, 307, 309, 312 

z/. Garrett, 63 

z'. Gassett, 62, iig, 2213 
' z'. Loring, 2157 
Le la Zerge z/. Kom, 1246 
Lemar v. Miles, 126 
Lemmond z'. Peoples, 1637 
Lemon z>. Graham, 284 

z>- Hayden, 2206 

Zf. Lemon, 965 
Lempet's Case, S85 

Lench v. Lench, 1623, 1642, 1644, 1700, 1761 
Lenfers z/. Henke, 561, 811, S12, 847, 851,852, 

Lenihan v. Hamann, 2152 
Lenmau z/. Lewis, 1633 
Lennox z/. Reed, 1999, 2149, 2151 
Lentz'. Howard, 1798 
Lentz 7'. Lentz, 18S2 

Leonard z/. American Bapt. Home Mission 
Soc, 1809 

V. Bell, 1603, 1680 

V. Burgess, 2251 

7J. Burr, 179S 

7'. Countess of Sussex, 1609 

71. Diamond, 1604, 1753 

V. Henderson, 1139, 1151 



clx 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Leonard v. Leonard, 849, S50, 1899, 2299 

V, Pitney, 1268, 1272 

V. Scarborough, 1246, 1905 

V. Steele, 942, 946, 949 

V. Stickney, 135, 136, 137 

V. Storer, 1085, 1199, 1201 
Leonis v. Lazzarovich, 2331 
Leppitt V. Hopkins, 536 
Lesesne v. Witte, 1593 
Leshey v. Gardner, 1697, i6g8 
Lesley v. Randolph, 1254, 1271, 1300, 1303, 1308, 
1315, 1320, 1325, 1328, 1335, 1336, 1338, 

1339 
Leslie v. Pounds, 1196 
Lessley v. Phipps, 1499, 1512, 1513, 1517 
Lester v. Garland, 1005, 174S 

V. Hardesty, 2262 
Lestrade v. Earth, 2331 
Letchford v. Gary, 1442, 1499 
Letheullier v. Tracey, 370, 373 
Le Toureau v. Smith, 1338 
Levering v. Heighe, 954, 956 
Levett V. Eickford, 1138, 1139, 1154 

V. United States, 1036 
Levi z". Erooks, 1194 
Levicks v. Walker, 1506 
Levins v, Sleator, 670, 771, 920 
Levitzki z'. Canning, 1166, 1168 
Levy V. Brush, 1559 

V. Dyess, 1068, 1098, logg, 1105, 1181, 
1183 

"u. Lane, 2080 

V. Levy, 1603 

V. Twiname, 2272 
Lewes v, Lewes, 260, 272, 273, 1677 

V. Ridge, 1849 
Lewinz/. Atkinson, 1984 

V. Mody, 2358 
Lewis V. Baird, 1786, 2366 

V. Beall, 2320 

V. Branthwaite, 988 

V. Chisholm, 1166 

V. City of St. Louis, 1140, 1151 

V. Clark, i8g6 

V. Coxe, 903, 927 

V. Day, 2068 

V. De Forrest, 2022, 2027 

V. Hawkins, 15S5, 1736, 1782 

V. James, 842, 844 

V. Jones, 80, 566, 567, 1184 

V. Lewis, 730, 933, 941, 1617 

z'. Lyman, 79, 1184, 1238, 1239 

V. Maddocks, 1761 

V. Malone, 2272 

V. McNatt, 51, 983, i2og 

V. Merserve, 764 

z'. Mobely, 522 

V. Naugh, 2073, 2170 

V. O. N. P. Co., 1188 

V. Palmer, 339 

z'. Payn, 1129, 1166, 1174 

V. Rickey, 240 

V. Simon, 1949 

V. Smith, 917, 918, 925, 935, 936, 941, 942, 
944,_ 946 

V, Wilkins, 2251, 2254 
Lewis, Doe d., v. Reed, 1306 
Lewis, Doe d., v. Rees, 1215 
Lewis ex d. Ormond v. Waters, 424 
Lewis' Heirs v. Ringo, 975 
Lewiston v. Proctor, 2206 
Lexington Life F. & M. Ins. Co. z-. Page, 1737, 

1738 
Leyman v. Abeel, 2191, 2200 
L'Hussier v. Zallee, 1066 
Libby v. Clark, 228 

V. Hopkins, 1762 

V. Staples, ggS, 1043 

V. Tolford, 1066, 1191, i2or 
I.iddard v. Liddard, 1630 
Lidderdale v, Robinson, 2177 
Liebschultz v. Moore, 1164 



Liefe v. Salingstone, 319, 487 

Lienow v. Ellis, iri8 

Liesz/. De Diablar, 1450, 1463, 1467, 1471, 1473 

Life Ins. Co. v. Cole, 2359 

Liford's Case, 60, 442, 443 

Liggins V. Inge, 2243, 2246, 2247 

Light V. Light, 949 

V. Scott, 1791, 1792 
Lightfoot V. Wallis, 2060 
Lightgow z>. Cavenagh, 342 
Ligon V. Spencer, 741 
Like V. McKinstry, 996, 1205 
Liles V, Fleming, 955, 963 
Lllford's Case, 55 

Lilley v. Fifty Associates, 1157, 2254 
Lillianskyoldt v. Goss, 1884 
Lillibridge %>. Adie, 417 
Lillie V. Dunbar, 54 
Lilly ZK Palmer, 810, 2070, 2130, 2178 
Lime Rock Bank v. Phettleplace, 7S6, 825 
Lime Rock Nat. Ek. v. Mowry, 2096 
Linch V. Broad, 1896 
Lincoln v. Buckmaster, 1034 

V. Edgecomb, 211, 2298 

V. Emerson, 2091 

■V. French, 1800 

V. Hapgood, 1456 

V. Lincoln, 2, 310, 315, 660 

■V. Newcastle, 1693 

V. Wright, 2049 
Lincoln & K. Bank v. Drummond, 1861 
Linden v. Graham, 740 

V. Hepburn, T112 
Lindley v. Groff, 1882 

V. Kelley, 1231, 1232 
Linde z'. Belisario, 595 
Lindsay v, Limbert, 11 15 

V. McCormack, 305, 306, 335, 336, 340, 
342 

V. Murphy, 1457 
Lindsey v. Bates, 2099 

V. Delano, 2175 

V, Leigliton, 1045 

V. Lindsey, 1956 

7'. Miller, 2304 

V. Platner, 1612, 1615 
IJndsley v. Coaies, 11 8, 458 
Line zi. Stephenson, 1080 
Lines v, Darden, 1561, 1654 
Lingen v. Lingen, 368 
Lingenfelter, z'. Ritchey, 1700 
Link V. Edmonson, 780, 885 
Linkenhoker's Heirs v. Detrick, 1506 
Linker z/. Benson, 1897, 1915 

V. Smith, 795 
Linn z'. Alexander, 425 

V. Ross, 1083, 1098, 1126, 117s, 1177 
Linn Co. Bank xl Hopkins, 1439, 1440 
Linnell v. Lyford, 2168 
Linsley v. Tibbals, ggg, 1002 
Linton v. Wilson, 578 
Linville v. Savage, 2008 
Linzee v. Mixer, 267, 268 
Lion V. Eurtiss, 447, 471 
Lippen v. Eldred, 310 
Lippett V. Hopkins, 321, 332 
Lippit V. Huston, 448 
Lipsky V. Borgmann, 61, 63 
Liptrotz/. Holmes, 1597, 1796 
Lisburne v. Davies, 1215, 1306 
Lishy V. Perry, 1481 
Lisle, Goodright d., v. PuUin, 424 
Lisloff V, Hart, 1642, 1643 
List 1'. Rodney, 407 
Litchfield v. Cudworth, 634, 636, 637 

V. McComber, 1517 

%'. White, 1713,1714, 1723, 1728 
Lithgow V. Kavenagh, 333, 340, 402, 414, 415, 
447, 466, 591, 2346 

V. Moody, 1285, 1310 
Litscombe, Doe d.. v. Yates, 265 
Littell & Smith Mfg. Co, v. Miller, 1949 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxi 



Litterer v. Berry, 2064 
Little V, Bennett, 1631 

v. Birdwell, 1858 

v. Dodge 

V. Duncan, 103 1 

2K Libby, 210, 211, 212, 973, gSo, 1149 

71. Palister, 1253, 1266 

V. Pearson, 1276, 1292, 2270, 2271 

7/. Snedecor 
Littlefield v. Brooks, 1456 

V. Nichols. 2124 
Littleton z>. Littleton, 727, 728, 794, 796, 

912 
Littlewort v. Davis, 2045 
Litton 7'. Baldwin, 1375 
Lively Z'. Ball, 1213 

V. Paschal, 907, 939 
Livennore v. Aldrich, 1648 
Livingston v. County of St. Clair, 2293 

V. Ketcham, 547 

V. Livingston, 647, 648, 962, 1640, 1647 

V. Miller, 2258 

V. Moingona Coal Co., 2238 

V. Murray, 1754, 1S20 

V. Potts, 1162 

7'. Peru Iron Co., 2297 

V. ReynoldS) 546, 554, 556, 1223, 1229 

z'. Stickles, 250, 255, 266, 1143 

V. Story, 1994 

V. Tanner, 1317, 1344, 1348, 1350, 1354, 
1355, 1356 

». Tenbrock, 2199, 2201 

V. Tompkins, 1146, 1872 
Livingston, Jackson ex d. v. Bryan, 1146, 1269 

V. Krisselbrack, 993 
Ller V. Routh, 2295 

Llewellyn v. Mackworth, 1782, 1783, 1785 
Lloyd z/. Branton, 267,270 

V. Carter, 1648, 1649, 1696 

71. Conover, 785, 786, 787 

V. Cozens, 1122, 1123, 1298, 1300, 1308, 
1314, 1315, 133s. 1336 

V. Chrispe, 1143, 1163 

V. Gordon, 1915, 1976 

V. Hart, 95 

V. Holly, 1847, "850 

z>. Lloyd, 202, 271, 307, 1637, i68q, 1858 

z/. Lynch, 1588, 1590, 1650, 1653, 1882, 
1990 

V. Malone, 862 

V. Read, 1646, 1647 

V, Spillett, 1537, 1538, 1611, 1637 

7'. Tomkies, 1166 
Lloyd, Doe d., v, Passingham, 1556, 1558, 1559, 

1583, 1655' 
Loach V. Famum, 1044 
Loader v. Kemp, 1086 
League v. Memphis, 2260, 2261 
Loan Association v. Watson, 1384 
Lobdell V. Hall, 2240 

V. Hayes, 731, 782, 828, 831, 893 

V. Lobdell, 1697 

V. Simpson, 2238 
Lobenthal v. Raleigh, 1816, 2167 
Lochenour v. Lochenour, 1647 
Lock V. Fulford, 2153, 2178 

V. Lock, 518 

V. Turze, 1092, 1190, 1245 
Locke 7/. Alexander, 1923 

7*. Barbour, 323, 500 

v. Caldwell, 2175 

V. Coleman, 1017, 1047 

V. Frasher, 1281 

V. Homer, 805, 2068, 2069 

V. Matthews, 1293, 1295 

z>. Palmer, 2055 

V. Rowell, 146X 
V. White, 2301 
Lockey v. Lockey, 1615 
Lockhardt v. Hardy, 2181 
Ix>ckhart v. Wyatt, 1600, 1704 
Lockitt's Admr. v. James, 9x4 

11 



Lockwood V. Lockwood, 106, 981, 1254, 1255, 
1264, 1300, 1322 

V. Marsh, 2137 

V. Nelson, 1794 

V. Sturdevant, Sio, 2096, 2098 

V. Thunder Bay Co., 2271 
Lockwood, Doe d., v. Clark, 1076 
Lockyer v. Savage, 1677 

7'. Sinclair, 594 
Lodge V. Patterson, 1914, 1915 

V. Simonton, 1756, 1759 
Loeb V. McMalion, 976, 1408 
Lofland z'. Emory, 1319 
Lofft V. Dennis, 1177, 1179, 2270 
Lofsky V. Maujr, 2066 
Loftis V. Glass, 76 
Loftus' Case, 1024 
Logan V. Bell, 1829 

7/. Green, 1165 

7/. Herron, 1125, 1131, 1271, 1300, 1308, 
1310, 1315, 1335, 1336, 1337 

V. McGill, 58S 

V. Phillips, 898 

v. Simmons, 659, 794, 795 

71. Smither, 2107, 2151, 2166 

V. Walker, 1646 

7/. Walton, 722 
Logue V. Batenian, 1821, 1822 
Logwood V. Hussey, 2044 
Lomax v. Bird, 2169 

V. Gendele, 1S83 
Lombard 7/. Kiiizie, 776, 1014 
Lombrat v. Kinzie, S44 
Lomers v. Johnston, 1046 
Londendyck v. Anderson, 2245 
London z*. London, 794 

V. Richmond, 2265 
London Chartered Bank of Australia z/. Lem- 

priere, 1826 
Londonberry v. Chester, 596, 751 
Long 7'. Barnes, 1940 

7/. Blackall, 2280 

V. Cason. 1782, 1785 

7'. Fitzsimmons, 5G3, 1083, 1202, 1228 

V. Graeber, 664 

7/. Green, 1207, 1231 

z'. Kinney, 646, 895, 1938 

V. Millar, 999, 1043 

V. Moler, 1094 

t', Mostyn, 1479 

Z'. Wade, 2065 

V. Whidden, 1032 

7>. White, 1371 

V. Woods, 1138 
Longbottom v. Berry, 105, 125. 127, 132, 133 
Longfellow v. Longfellow, 1160, 12 13, 1218, 
1220 

V. Quimbly, 1901 
Longford v. Eyre, 1831 
Longley v. Longley, 1637 
Longqiiet 7'. Scawen, 2010 
Longstretcher-7/. Pennock, 2266 
Longstaff 7/. Meagoe, 132 
Longwith V. Butler, 59, 2160 
Loomer v. Dawson, 1000 

7'. Wheelwriglit, 811, 201 1, 2099 
Loomis V. Bedell, 1166 

7/. Brush, 648 

7'. Gerson, 1504 

V. Lincoln, 2272 

V. Marshall, 1239, 1240, 1241, 1242, 1243, 
1244 

V. Pingree, 2355 

7/. Riley, 2152 
7/. Spencer, 2345 
V. Wilbur, 545. 546, 554 
Lord V. Carbon Iron Co., 198 
V. Crowell, 2083 
7/. Ferguson, 1617 
V. Folmer, 2354 
V. Lord, 936, 94o,<955. 957. '4i8 
V. Morris, 2095 ■ 



clxii 



TABLE OF OASES. 



References arc 
to pages. 



Lord V. Parker, 646, 1514 

V. Ramsey, 233S 

V. Wardle, 60 
Lord de la Warre's Case, 277 
Lord, Doe d., v, Crage, 1265, 1320, 1324 
Lord HoUis' Case, 1783 
Lore V. Pierson, 2261 
l^orentz v. Lorentz, 1647 
Lorieux z-. Keller, 1521 
Lorimer v. Lewis, 1035 
Loring v. Bacon, 64, 65, 507, 1891 

V. Blake, 1682 

V. Cooke, 2139 

V, Elliott, 1637 

V. Loring, 163 1 

V. Manufactures Ins. Co., 2119 

V. Marsh, 1662, 1814, 1842 

•V. Melendy, 1225 

V. Palmer, i6gi, 1705 

•V. Salisbury, 1749 

V. Steineman, 522, 523 

v. Stuart, 1949 
Lorman v. Benson, 68, 6g, 70, 194 
Losee v. Buchanan, 198 

V. Morey, 1697 
Losey v. Simpson, 2365 
Lothrop 7). Clewis, 2274 

V. Thayer, 1277 

V. Wightman, 1964 
Lett V. Thompson, 234 

V. Wyckoff, 370, 390 

V. Wykoff, 415, 447, 471 
Lottman u. Bamett, 1194, iig6 
Loubat V. Nourse, 786, 824, 825, ig6o, 1963 
Loucks, Jackson ex d., v. Churchill, 940, 944, 

945- 946. 955- 965 
Loud V. Lane, 809, iSto 

V. Loud, 896, 897 
Loudon V. Warfield, 574 

Loughborough's Ex. v. Loughborough's De- 
visees, 75 
Loughbridge z*, Harris, 
Loughmiller z*. Harris, 1763 
Loughran v. Ross, 115, 131, 146, 147, "89, 1224 

V. Smith, 1017 
Louisville C. & C. R. Co. ik Letson, 1540 
Louisville R. Co. v. Covington, 2245 
Louke V. Woods, 2206 
Lounsbery v, Snyder, 1013, 1128, 1169, 1322, 

1323 
Lounsbury v. Purdy, 1559, 1613, 1615 
Loupe V. Wood, 1054 
Loury v. Coulter, 50 
Louther w. Corrill, 1017 
Lovaller v. Menard, 1973 
Lovat V. Lord Ranelegh, 1841 

V. Ranelegh, 1157, 1158 
Love V. Buchanan, 1648 

V. Dennis, 1213 

V. Edmonston, 1140, 1259, 1269, 1290 

z;., Gates, 1349 

V. Howard, 1102 

V. Law, 1315, 1316,2272 

V. Mining Co., 2001 

V. Robertson, 1947 
Love, Den ex d., v. Edmonston, 1282, 1297, 

1309 
Loveacres v. Blight, 302, 338, 344, 1594 
Loveday v. Winter, 1040 
Lovelace's Case, 1044 
Lovelace v. Webb, 2065 
Lovell V. Briggs, 1766 

V. Leland, 2157 
Lover v. Bessenger, 1479 
Loveridge v. Cooper, 2124 
Lovering v. Levering, 1080, 1082 

V. Worthington, 323, 1682 
Lovett V. Gillender. 249 

V. Lovett, 780, 788, 815, 820, 826 
Lovingston v. County of St. Clair, 2293, 2294 
Low V. Burron, 490 

V. Burrow, 788, 820, 821 



Low V. Griffith, q88 

V. Henry, 2054 

z". Holmes, 1894 

V, Mumford, 1901 

V. Peno, 2016 

•V. Smart, 2137 
Lowe's Case, 1S4 
Lowe V. Brooks, 1729, 1882 

V. Cloud, 265 

V. Grinnan, 2161 

V. London & N. W. R. R. Co., 1331, 
133Z 

V. Miller, 1234, 1247, 1884, 1904, 2213 
Lowell's Appellant, 18S6, 1919 
Lowell V. Daniels, 924, 2345 

V, Middlesex Ins. Co.j 200S 

V. Shannon, 1419 
Lowell Meeting House v. Lowell, 64 
Lowenstein v. Chappel, 1247 
Lowndes v, Chrisolm, 2088, 2090 
Lowrey v. Byers, 2136, 2150 

V. Fulton, 1599 
Lowry ^^ Bradley, 1456 

V. Fisher, 792, 914 

V, Steele, 607, 60S, 609, 615, 654, 693, 
1372 

V, Tew, 1269 
Lowther v. Corill, 1042 
»z/. Lowther, 1758 
Loyd V. Read, 1634 
Lozo V. Sutherland, 1425, 1426 
Lucas V. Brooks, 1214, 1274 

•u. Cobbs, 1349 

V. Commerford, 1083 

V. Dorrien, 2002 

V. Harris, 2104, 2106 

V. Lockhardt, 1593, 1627, 1629, 1630, 163 1 

V. Lucas, 588, 648 

V. Peters, 1989 

V. Rickerich, 1363, 1368, 1369 

V. Sawyer, 709, 721, 725, 893 

V. Wasson, 1246 
Luce z*. Stubbs, 835, 868, 860 
Lucena v. Crauford, 631, 1668 
Luch's Appeal, 2003, 2004 
Lucier z/. Marsales, 2258 
Lucius Hart Manf. Co., Re, 2266 
Luckett V. Townshend, 2055 

V. White, 1870 
Lucy V. Levingstone, 1S69 
Lud V. Hoff, 1919, 1931, 1934 
Ludlamz*. Ludlam, 217 
Ludlow V. Cooper, 786, i960 

V. Hudson R. Co., 2232 
Ludlow, Jackson ex d., v. Meyers, 531, 532, 
1556, 1557, IS59. 1566 

■u. New York &. H. R. R. Co., 272, 
1058, 1840, i860, 1863, 1867, 1868 
Lufkin V. Curtis, 591, 900 

V. Preston, 2250 
Luhrs V. Eimer, 221, 775 
Luigart v. Ripley, 965 
Luige V. Ducbesi, 1739 
Lull v. Matthews, 1998 
Lumb V. Jer.kins, 660, 672 

V. Milnes, 1371, 1372 
Lumis z*. Reily, 191 1 
Lumley z/. Hodgson, 1120 
Lumley, Doe d., v. Scarborough, 1845 
Lummus v. Mitchell, 340 
Lunay v. Vantyne, 2282 
Lund V. Lund, 688, 1992, 2039, 2054 

V. Parker, 212 
Lundberg v. Sharvey, 1438 
Lunhamz'. Blundell, 1720 
Lunling v. Brady, 2151 
Lunn V. Gage, 1085, 1086 

V. Thornton, 2020 
Lunsford z*. Turner, 1148, 1169, 1170, 1219,1348 
Lunt 7'. Lunt, 2111 
Luntz V. Greve, 66g 
Luptou V. Lupton, 2181 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxiii 



Lurch's Appeal, 2004 
Lush r'. Wilkiiisou, 1626 
Lusher v. Banbong, 373 
Lusk z/. McNamar, 1763 

V. Smith, 749 
Lute V. Reilly, 1502, 1519 
Luther zk Arnold, 1923, 1924 

V. Borden, 1516 

V. Winn isim met t Co., 2230 
Luttrell's Case, 2222, 2247 
Lycoming v. Union, 1517 
Lycoming F. Ins. Co. z/. Jackson, 2114 
Lyddall v. Weston, 85 
Lyde v, Russell, 130, 145, 146, 1187, 1224 
Lydston v. Powell, 2159 
Lyford v. Thurston, 1622, 1746 

V. Ross, 799 
Lykes %'. Schwarz, 1132 
Lyle V. Burke, 1592, 17S6, 1788 

V, Richards, 401, 462 

z>. Palmer, 123 
Lylerly v. W'^:eler, 2355 
Lyles 7'. Dlcgie's Lessee, 533 

7'. Lyles, TS95, 2260 
Lyman v. Cessford, 1626 

V. Fiske, 1456 

V. Gedney, 2096 

z'. Hale, 56, 57 

V. Hollester, 744 

V. Lyman, 2155, 2180 

7'. Seames, 2358 

V. United Ins. Co., 1649 
Lynch v. Baldwin, 1166 

V. Clarke, 217 

V. Clements, 1590 

V. Onondaga Salt Co., 1098 

V. Pace, 1401 

V. Ulica Ins. Co., 2036, 2123 
Lynd v. Menzies, 34 

Lynde v. Hough, 1104, mi, 1112, 1113, 1118, 
1141, 1867 

V. O'Donnell, 2154 

V. Rowe, 133, 2065, 

V. Russell, 104 
Lyne's Exrs., 1376 

Lynn's Appeal, 494, 544, 553, 555, 55S, 561 
Lyon V. Adde, 252 

V. Cunningham, 1027, 125S, 1269, 1271, 
1289,1290, 1292, 1305 

V. Ilvaine, 1580 

V. Kain, 908 

V. La Mastem, 1213 

v. Lyon, 1776 

V, Mcllvane, 8ro, 2039, 2058, 2130 

V. Marsh, 305, 317 

V. Marclay, 178^ 

V. Robbins, 2075, 2172 
Lyons v. Adde, 2262 
Lysaght v. Edwards, 434 
Lysle V. Williams, 1005 
Lyster 'o. Kirkpatrick, 1884, 1888 
Lylle V. Arkansas, 2306, 2307, 2308 

M. 

Maberly v. Strod, 315 
Mabie v. Katingter, 2133 
Mably v. Stain back, 201, 202 
Mabone v. Williams, 2087 
Kabury v. Rutz, 1466 
Macauly v. Porter, 2052 
Macdonnell v. McKay, 54 
Macdonough v. Elam, 1488, 1502 
Mace V. Ramsey, 1247 
Macey v. Shurmer, 1629 
Machell v. Clarke. 455 
Macher v. Foundling Hospital, 1871 
Machette v. Wanless, 2027 
MachiU v, CHark, 387 
Machir v. May, 1723 
Mack V. Burt, 1133 



Mack V. Grover, 2149 

V. Patchin, 1082, logi, 1190, 1245, 1248 

V. Roch, 585 
Mackasou's Appeal, 1748 
Mackay z'. Bloodgood, 501 

V. Macieth, 975, 1306 
Mackey v. Collins, 730 

V. Dillon, 2192 

V. Proctor, 597, 608, 615, 692, 703 
Mackie v. Smith, 106 
Mackinnon ^^ Stewart, 1793 
Mackintosh v. Trotter, 145 
Macleay, Re, 258, 261, 262, 263 
Macklot V. Dubreuil, 2295 
Macknet v. Macknet, 938, 948 
Mackreth v. Symmons, 832, 200S, 2009 
Mackubin v. Whatcroft, 1059, 1060, 1139 
Macnab v. Whitbread, 1627, 1629 
Macnamara v. Jones, 347, 1632 
Macomber v. Cambridge Mut. F. Ins. Co., 
2116 

•0. Godfrey, 2228 

V. Parker, 2020 
Macreth v. Symmons, 2004, 2124 
Macy V. Combs, 1243, 1244 
Madden v. Madden. 1489 
Maddisoii v. Chapman, gi8, 944 
Maddocks v. Jellison, 740 

V. White, 1 184 
Madden v. U'hite, 1301, 1306 
Maddox v. Dent, 76 

V. Maddox>,27o, 1858 

•V. Simmons, 1032 

V, White, 1 104, 1107, 122S 
Madigan v. McCarthy, 2021 

V. Welsh, 730 
Madison Avenue Baptist Church 77. Baptist 

Church on Oliver Street, 35, 2295 
Madison & J. R. Co. v. Whiteneck, 212S 
Madison, etc., Plank Road Co. %\ Watertown 

Plank Road Co., 2014, 2016 
Madland 7>. Benland, 2336 
Madox tf. Humphries, 2254 
Maedar v. City of Carondelet, 1082 
Magaw V. Cannon, 1284, 1308, 1321, 1323 

V. Lambert, 1098, 1160, 1166, 1179, 1182 
Magdalene Hospital «'. Knott, 1019 
Magee v. Leggett, 2177 

V. Magee, 210, 211, 1492, 1497, 1498, 2295, 
2297 

V. O'Neill, 265 

7'. Mellon, 923 

V. Young, 714, 721, 725, 769, 850, 882, 893 
Maggart i>. Hausbarger, 1000, irSr 
Magill V. De Witt Co. County Sav. Bank, 
2137 

V. Hinsdale, 2065 
Magnay 7*. Edwards, 1173 
Magniac v. Thompson, 1561 
Magnolia v. Marshall, 6g 
Magnusson v. Johnson, 2053 
Magoun v. Lapham, 207 
Magruder v. Peter, 204 

V. State Bank, 2025, 2059 
Maguire v. Maguire, 594, 893 

V. Park, 123 
Magwood V. Johnson, 1562 
Mahagan v. Mead, 2153 
Mahan v. Brown, 2223, 2224 
Mahe v. Reynolds, 1135 
Maher v. Lanfrom, 2060 

V. McConaga, 1462 
Mahew v. Hardesty, 1117 
Mahon v. McGraw, 1621 

V. Smith, 708 
Malione v. Brown, 83 
Mahoney v. A. & St. L. R. R. Co., 976 

V. Young, 789, 797, 821, 822, 841, 937, 945 
Mahomer v. Harrison, 1653 
Maigly v. Hauer, 1538 
Main v. Featliers, 1075, iioo 

V. Festhers, 2262 



clxiv 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Main v. Green, 799, ii3g 

V. Schwarzwaelder, 104, 120, 137 
Mainwaring 7/. Giles, 30, 33 
Major V. Buckley, 1777 

V. Chadwick, 2226, 2229, 2361 
V. Lansley, 1371, 1562 
Makspeace v. Rogers, 17S2 
Wakinz'. Watkinson, 1084, 1097 
Malcolm v. Allen, 2131 

V. Malcolm, 411, 413, 415 
V. Rogers, igoi, 1927 
Iilalim V. Barker, 1630 

V. Keighley, 347, 1628, 1630, 1632 
Malin v. Clout, 804, 962 

V. Malin, 1588, 1653 
Mallalieu v. Wickham, 2170 
Mallett V- Page, 2134 
Mallinson v. Mallinson, 1464 
Mallon V. Gates, 1409, 1452, 1524 
Malloney v. Horon, 792, 793, 905, 906, 907, 915, 

923, 924 
Mallory v. Berry, 1483, 1484 

V. Clark, 1751 

V. Hitchcock, 810, 2097, 2098 

V. Russell, 824 

V. Stodder, 1016 

V. Westsbore R. Co., 2070 
Malmsby v. Milne, 96 
Malone v. Majors, 933, 947 

V. McLaurin, 587, 598, 604, 608, 612, 6ig, 
686, 638, 692, 693, 703 

V. O'Connor, 1630 
Malpas V. Ackland, 1038, 1778 
Maltby's Appeal, 339 
Manahan v. Manahan, 2ior 
Manchester v. Doddridge, 1258, 1269, 1281, 
1282, 1289, 1293, 1294, 1928 

V. Durfee, 41G, 465 
Manchester Bond W. Co. v. Carr, 1153 
Mandel v. McClave, 708, 715, gn, 929 

V. McClure, 726 
Manderbach v. Bethany's Orphan Home, 

2216 
Manderschild v, Dubuque, 2206 
Mandeville v. Solomon, iggo 

V. Welch, 2002 
Mandlebaum v. McDonell, 245, 24g, 252, 255, 

2gg, 263, 266, 444, 4g9 
Manes v. Durant, 795 
Manhattan Co. v. Evertson, 915 

V. Osgood, 1625 
Manhattan Life Ins. Co., v. Crawford, 2069 
Manhattan R. Co. v. N. Y. Elevated R. Co., 

1019 
Manice v. Brady, 2249, 2254 

V. Manice, 75, 299, 1606 

V, Millen, 11 56 
Manietf. Myers, 2223, 2292 
Manifee v. Manifee, S47, 861, 866 
Manion v. Titsworth, 1781 
Manks v. Enloe, 1967 
Maulone v. Komrumpf, 1457 
Manly v. Hunt, 1751 

V. Pettel, 1976 

V. Scott, 1034 

V. Slason, 832, 2005, 2006, 2008 
Mann's Appeal, 1362, 1366,1370, 1376 
Mami V. Best, 2160 ^ 

V. City of Utica, 15 17 

V. Darlington, 1623 

V. Eckford's Exrs., iioi 

V. Edson, 760, 764, 766, 7S1, 915 

V. Falcon, 2000 

V. Lovejoy, 1264, 1324, 1325 

V. Mann, 964, 1648 

V. Rogers, 1394 

z-. Taylor,vi264, 1324, 1325 

V. Young, 2301 
Manners v. Phila. Library Co., 1603, 1604, 1681 
Manning's Case, 606, 1250 
Manning v. Hayden, 1621, 1644 

V. Labore, 783, 797, 819, 841, 842, 844, 870 



Manning v. Manning,i7i5, 1716 

•u. Markel 2073 

V. Smiili 2247, 2361 

V. VVasdale, 2214, 2226, 2227 
Mannolt v. Brush, 1979 
Manriquand v. Hart, 1415 
Mansell's Estate, 2182 
Mausell v. Mansell, 1761 

V. Vaughan, 18 17 
Mansfield v. Alwood, 1714 

V. Blackburne, 142 

V. Doolin, 1051 

V. Hawkes, 2191 

V. Mansfield, 1804, 1833, 1842, 1843, 1844 

V. Mclntyre, 771, 772,920 

V. Pembroke. 877 
Mansfield, C. & L. M. R. R. Co. ^ . Drinker, 

594 
Manser's Case, 2352 
Mansur v. Willard, 1593 
Hanson v, Phcenix Ins. Co., 2113 
Mansony v. U. S. Bank, iggi 
Mansur &. Pratt, 2015 
Mantle v. Wellington, 1026 
Mantz V. Buchanan, 710, 801, 802, 817, 849, 

860 
Manvillc's Case, 775, 883 
Manwaring %>. Jenison, 116, 117 

V. Powell, ig32, 2o6g, 2072 

V, Tabor, 401;, 4og, 411, 413 
Maples ?'. Medlin, 1764, 1765 

V. Millon, 119, 132 
Mapps V. Sharpe, 2104, 2106 

V. Tyler, 1754, 1755 
Marable v. Jordan, 589, 1367 
Marble v. Lewis. S43, 844 

V. Price, 2298 
Marburg v. Cole, 1024, igig, 1931, 1932, 1942, 

1950, 1951 
Marcy v. Marcy, igts, 2296 
Marden v. Chase, 2317, 231S 

■V. Jordan, 1253 
Margraf v. Muir, 1697 
Margrave v. Archbold, loog 
Mariner z/. Saunders, 1931, 1934 
Mark v. Mark, 1864 

V. Murphy, 744, 891, 922, 2151 
Markel v. Evans, 2156 
Markell v. Erchelberger, 2133 
Markham v. Guerrant, 247, 254, 1748 

V. Howell, 1039, 1804 

V. Merritt, 786, 787, S41, 905 
Mariner z*. Burton's Admr., 1290 

V. Crocker, 11 19 
MarkilUe v. Ragland, 305 
Markland -v. Crump, 1074, 2251 
Marks v. Gartside, 1141 

V. Marks, 1572 

V. Marsh, 1454 

V. Pell, 2095, 2175 

V. Sewall, 1924 
Marlatt v. Warwick, 4 
Marlborough v. Godolphine, 1812 
Marler v. Tom.Tias, 1697 
Marley v. Rogers, 1149 
Marmiche v. Roumien, 1331 
Marmon v. Marmon, 2013 
Marple v. Myers, 1165 

V. Scott, 1094 
Marquart v. Bradford, 2303 
Marquette R. Co. v, Harlow, 2270 
Marquis of Camden, The, z/. Batterbury, 1301 
Marr v. Gilliam, 1915 

V. Lewis, 2164 
Marriot v. Marriot, 1738 
Marriott v. Abell, 1909 

V. Edwards, 1149 

V. Givens, 1712 
Marryat v. Townly, 315 
Marsellis v. Thalhimer, 274, 592, 617, 618, 619, 

620, igSo 
Marsh v. Austin, 2031, 2032 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxv 



Marsh v. Butterfield, 1172 
V. Hand, 1S96 
V. Higgins, 671 
V. Lee, 2139 
V. Marsh, 1465 
V. Pidgeway, 2158 
V. Pike, 2o6g, 2072, 2112, 2150, 21(36 
V, Towuer, 2005 
Marshall v. Barr, 1450, 1473, 1475 
V. Berridge, 999 
V. Carson, 1644 
z>. Christmas, 2008 
V. Conrad, 216, 2014 
7'. Crehore, 19S2 
V. Crutwell, 1647 

V. Davies, 2071, 2089, 2150, 2165, 2166 
V. Ferguson, 51, 52 
V. Fish, 297 

7'. Fiske, 149, 1548,2316, 2364 
V. Green, 55, 56 
V. Joy, 162 1 
V. King, 715. S5 1 
V. Lippman, 2262 
v. Marshall, 754, 755 
V. Moore, 2153 
V. Peters, 71, 72 
V. Ruddick, 2136 
V. Seare, 14S1 

z'. Stephens, 1375, 1562, 1621, 1717 
V. Stewart, 2039, 2040, 2055 
v. Wood, 2097 
Marshall Co. High School v. Evangelical Synod 

School, 1856 
Marshall County v. Schenck, 1041 
Marsham v. Hunter, 2202 
Marston v. Bradshaw, 2365 

V. Marston. 265, 1850, 2158 
Martien v. Norris, 945 
'Martin v. Baker, 1075 
z'. Ballou, 1857 
V. Beatty, 2017 
V. Benoist, 1194, 1196 
V. Blanchett, 998 
V. Dicksin, 2250 
V. Dwelly, 1450, 1478, 2011 
V. Fridley, 2085 
V. Funk, 1587, 1594, 1655 
V. Goble, 2222 

V. Hughes, 1419, 1509, 1513, 1517 
V. Hurlburt & R. Sav. Ek., 1428 
V. Jackson, 1781, 1933, 1940 
■V. Knapp, 1257, 1267, 1278 
V. Knowlys, 1969 
». Kirkpatrick, 1513 
V. Lincoln, 744 
V. Maguire, 1044 
V, Margham, 260, 272 
V. Martin, 647, 714, 755. 883. 896, 9io> 956. 
960, 1128, 1168, 1174, I557» 1773) 2250, 
2257, 2268, 2348 
V, Mayo, 103 1 
V. McReynolds, 1885, 2104, 2105, 2107, 

2148 
V. Mitchell, i486 
V. Morris, 2151 
•V. Nixon, 2060 
V. Noble, 915 

2/. O'Connor, 1077, 1112, 1122 
D. Ogdon, 198 

V. Pensacola & G. R. Co., 135 
V, Pond, 2142 
■v. Reynolds, 1886 
V. Robinson, 669 
J'. Robson. 587, 588 
V. Rce, 108, 109, 110, 121, 131, 147. "37) 

1187 
V. Searcy, 11 64 

V. Smith, 1323, 1559, T876, 1878, 1883 
V. Steams. 1159. n^i 
V. Sterling, 516 
V. Strachan, 454. 459 
•V. Tenison, 1689 



Martin v. Thompson, 47 
V. Tobes, 1 1 18 
V. Waddell's Lessee, 196 
V. Walker, 1396 
z', Williams, 1020, 1021 
Martin, Doe d., v. Watts, 1299, ^307i ^307. 1308, 

1318, 1319, 1320, 1325, 1337 
Martin Clothing Co, v. Henly, 1439 
Martin, Heir of Fairfax, z/. Hunter's Lessees, 

673 
Martindale v. Price, 1047 
Martineau v. McCullum, 2107 

V. Steele, 2263 
Martinez v. Thompson, 1201 
Martins v. Bennett, 795 
Martyn v. Knowllys, 1926 
Marvel ik Outlip, 12S2 

Marvin v. Brewster Iron Mining Co., 90, 92,93, 
2232, 2233, 2237 
V. Schilling, 2170 
•V. Smith, 839 
V. Trumbull, 1963 
Marvin Safe Co. v. Norton, 2056 
Marx V. Davis, 2082 

z/. McGlynn, 216 
Marx Frankel v. Marx, 1028 
Maryland Fire Ins. Co. v. Dalrymple, 1703, 

1705, 1769, 1770 
Maryland Mutual Benevolent Society v. Clen- 

dinen, 1822 
Maslin v. Thomas, 252, 396, 407, 408 
Mason's Estate, 20 
Mason n. Ainsworth, 1670 
V. Anderson, 2303 
V. Bascom, 1169, 1170 
V. Daly, 2060, 2061 
V. Day, 1091 
V. Deese, 645 
V. Denison, 1350 
z>. Fenn, 145, 147, 1188, 1204 
V. Finch, 1904 
V. Fuller, 720 
V. Grant, 2055 
V. Haile, 1512, 1517 
V. Hill, 72, 2225, 2226 
V. Holt, 1357 
V. Homer, 720 
z/. Jones, igSo 
V. Lord, 1580 
V, Martin, 176S 
V. Mason, 907, 1580, 1784 
V. M. E. Church, 1555 
V. Meyers, 1205 
7J. Moody, 2036, 2037 
V. Morgan, 1361 
V. Moyers, 12x0 
V. Payne, 2153. 2180 
V. Philbrook, 2302 
V. Pomeroy, 1752 
V. Smith, 1 173 
V. White, 2358 
Mason's Lessee v. Sexton, 903 
Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Co. -n. 

Wilson, 1 1 19 
Massey v. Banner, 1664, 1713, 1714, 1720, 1724J 
1728 
V. Farmers' Bank, 974, 975 
V. Hudson, 322 
V. O'Dell, 1782, 1783 
V. Papin, 2015, 2080 
Massie v. Long, 1026, 2356 
V. Watts, 1585, 1643 
V. Wilson, 2155 
Massie's Heirs v. Long, 1923 
Massot V. Moses, 983 
Master z/. Master, 66r 
V. Miller, 2338 
Masters-^/. Madison Co. Ins. Co., 239 

V. Pollic, 56, 57 
Masterton v. Mayor of Brooklyn, 1247 
Mastin V. Barnard, 1814 
V. Halley, 2364 



clxvi 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Masury v. Southworth, 1063, 1070, 1071, 1074, 

107S, 1 103 
Mather v. Chapman, gS, gg. 2332 

V. Fraser, 103, 120, 125, 126, 133, 1186 

V, Kunke, 2254 

7/. Norton, 1S06 
Mathews v. Aiken, 2126, 2178 

z>. Bennett, 643, 1781 

V. Heyward, 1623 

v. Stephenson, i57g 
Mathewson w. Phoenix Iron Foundry, 752 

%i. Thompson, 1339 
Mathis V. Stifflebeam, 1646 
Matlack v. Roberts, 414, 418, 467 
Matlock V. Fry, 50 

V, Lee, 733, 735, 739 

V. Matlock, 786, 824, 1961 
Matney v. Graham, 837 
Mattack v. James, 786 
Matter of Albany Street, 2324 

Bull, 1S04 

Eddy, 2269 

Latham, 1980, igSi 

Orr, 1521 

Prentiss, 1979 
Matterson v. Thomas, 2150, 2153 
Matthew z>. James, Baxter, 1033 
Matthewman's Case, 2012 ■ 
Matthews v. Duryee, 708, 709, 716, 727, 813, 
818, 925, 926, 2164 

V. Light, 1620, 1643 

V. Mayor, 1029 

V. Memphis, 2087, 2088 

V. Porter, 2047 

V. Puffer, 2345 

V. Wallwyn, 1995 

V. Ward, 194, 195, 298, 1261, 1294, 1548, 
1558, 1713, i742» 1750* 1800 
Matthewson v. Smith, 801, 802 
Maitice v. Lord, 1059 
Matti:igly v. Speak. 2331 
Mattis V. Robinson, 1160, 1212, 1222, 225S 
Mattison v. Marks, 2138 
Mattock V. Hightshue, 2261 

V. Stearns, 616, 635, 636, 637, 661, 769, 
1364 
Mattex V. Hightshue, 1291, 1924 

V. Weand, 2008 
Matts V. Hawkins, igo3 
Mauckz/. Mauck, 7S6 
Mauldin v. Armistead, 1794, 1885 
Maule 7'. Ashmead, 1067, 1080, 2362 

V. Stokes, 2254 

•u. Weaver, 59, 1063 
Maull V. Wilson, 567 
Maund's Case, 1050 
Maundrell v. Mauudrell, 1807, 1816, 1826, 1844, 

1S45, 1919 
Maunsell v. Hart, 564 
Maury V. Mason, 2175 
Mauser v. Dix, 1740 
Maverick v, Donaldson, 995 

V. Grier, 1718 

V. Lewis, 979, looi, 1127, ir69, 1233 
Mnxan v. Scott, 2012 
Maxey v. Loyal, 1503, 1517 
Maxfield v. Hoecker, Z059 

%>. Patchen, 2055 
Maxon v. Gray, 716, 734^ 735, 741, 848 
Maxwell v. Bay City Bridge Co., 70 

zi. McAfee, 72 

V. Brooks, 2121 

zi. Maxwell, 1975 

V. Reed, 1506 
May V. Calder, 735, 1023 

?'. Duke, 1718 

V. Hook, 2344 

V. Joyes, ^87 

V. Le Claire, 1661, 1761, 2322 

V. May, 645, 873, 877 

ZI. Parker, 1900, 1901 

V. Rawson, 2151 



May z>. Rice, 1027 

V, Rumney, 711, 7t7, 870, 871 

V. Slaughter, 1723 

V. Taylor, 1707 

V. Tillman, 764 
Mayberr>' w. Johnson, 1284 

V. Brien, 762, 766, 824, 829, 866, 940, 1492 

z'. Bryan, 783 
Mayer v. McLure, 354 

V. Moller, ro66 

V. Mordecai, 1664 
Mayers v. Paxton, 1383, 1467 
Mayfield v, Maasden, 1420 
Mayliam v. Combs, 2008 
Mayhew v. Cricket, 2172 

V. Durfee, 1895 
Mayho v. Buckhurst, 1074 

V. Cotton, 1419 
Mayn zk Mayn, 1884 
Maynard v. Esher, 2223 

zj. Hunt, 2128, 2129 

V. Maynard, 216, 1016, 1243, 2014, 2035 

V. Valentine, 5 
Maynes z/. Moore, 1517 
Mayo V. Blount, 2357 

V. Carrington. 2, 307, 309, 310 

V. Cartwright, 2302 

V. Fletcher, 2065, 2066, 2077, 2186, 2187 

zt. Judah, 2051 

V. Merrick, 2108 

V. Newiiolf, 1 186 

V. Shattuck, 2261 
Mayor v. Athrop, 2332 

V. Colies, 1197 

V. Darmon, 2332 

V. Elliott, 1555 

V. Latton, 1019 

V. Mebie, 975, 982, 983, 985 

V. Pearl, 2273 

V. Wylie, 1020 
Mayor of Baltimore v. Warren Mfg, Co., igS 
Mayor of Hamilton v. Hudson, 202. 307 
Mayor of Hull v. Homer, 22151 
Mayor of Kingston v. Horner, 518 
Mayor of Lpndon v. Tench. 1040 
Mayor of New York v. Exchange Fire Ins. Co., 
1189 

V. Lord, 5 

v. Mabie, 1065, 1080, 1081, 1082 

V. Slack, 5 

ZK Stuyvesant, 1851 
Mayor of Philadelphia v. Permanent Bridge 

Co., 1223 
Mayor of Stafford z>. Till, 1332 
Mayor of Thetford 7'. Tyler, 1133, 1317 
Mayor, etc., of Colchester zi. Lowton, 2331, 2342 
Mayson v. Sexton, 456, 463, 464 
Maywood v. Johnston, 1375 

V. Logan, 1197 
Mazyck zj. Vanderhost, 383 
McAdam zi. Walker, 595 
McAfee v. Eettis, 929 

V. Ferguson, 794 
McAlesterz*. Landers, ri66 
McAHster v. Hovauger, 892 

V. Montgomery, 1965 
McAllister 7/. Commonwealth, 1719 

V. Shaw, 233s 

V. Tate. 345 
McAlpin w. Powell, 1082, 1182 
McAlpine zi. Burnett, 2006 

v. Woodruff. 2268 

ZI. Zitzer, 2079 
McArthur v. Carrie, 872 

V. Franklin, 840, g25, 926, 2073, 2173 

V. Gordon, 1665, 1724 

V. Schenck, 2071 

V. Scott, 1682 

V. Sears, logg 
McBee, Ex parte, 76 
McBeth V. Trahue, 1923 
McBrayer v. Cariker, 1578 



References are 
to pa^es. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxvii 



McBiide's Estate, 650, 652 
McBride v. Smyth, 1673, 1675, 1797 

T. Williams. 645 
McHuniey zf. Mclntyre, 1104, 1113 
McCabe v. Bellows, 802, 840, 873, 879, 926, 927, 
92S, 1494, 2074 
z/. Grey, 212 1 

V. Mazzuchelli, 1421, 1422 
7/. Swap, S03, 805, 806, 80S, 809 
McCable v. Hunter, 501 
McCaffarty v. Griswold, 1245 

v. McCafferty, 769, 771, 772, 920, 1376 
V. Spuyteii Duyvil, 1194, 1195 
McCatTery v. Woden, 2020 
McCaffrey v. Woodiu, 1051, 2017, 2018 
McCain v. Pickens, 1794 
McC-iU V. Cawthorn, 2064 
7'. Lenox, 2064 
V. Walter, 123 
v. Yard, 2147 
McCall's Lessee 2>. Carpenter, 1973 
McCallam v. Carsell, 1783 

V. Carswell, 17S1 
McCalUster v. Brand's Heirs, 945, 947, 948 

7>. Willey, 1637 
McCallum v. Germantown Water Co., 2238 
McCammon v. Wheeler & Wilson Go., 998 
McCampbell v. RlcCambell, 497, 645 
McCandless' Appeal, 1988 
McCandless' Estate, 1781 
McCandless v. Warner, 1691 
McCann v, Rathbone, 1140, 1266, 1294 
McCanna z*. Johnston, 13 10 
McCants v. Bee, 1707, 1708, 1759. 1764, 1766, 

1776 
McCardley v. Barricklow, 2242 
McCarron v. Cassidy, 208S 
McCartee 7>. Camel, 522, 523 
V. Campbell, 522 
V. Ely, 987 
V. Teller, 899, 929, 933, 951, 953, 954, 957, 

958, 960 
V. Orphans' Asylum Soc, 224, 1541, 1565 
McCarthy's Estate, 94 
McCarthy v. Graham, 2167 
. V. McCarthy, 1783 
• V. Marsh, 217, 221 

V. Van Der Mey, 1520 
McCartney v. Bone, 872 

V. Hunt, 1212 
McCarty z'. Carter, 121 1 

V. Kitchenman, 2241 
z'. Terry, 221, 1637 
McCaskle v. Amaune, 2365 
McCaslin v. State. 2081, 2187 
McCaughal v. Ryan, 1603 
McCauley's Exrs. v. Dismal Swamp Land Co., 

742 
McCauley v. Fulton. 1965 

V. Grimes, 760, 763, 765, 766, 804, 817,826, 
829, 830 
McCausland's Estate, 751, 752 
McCausland v. McCausland, 596 
McCaw V. Burk, 959 
McChandles z/. Engle, 202 
McClafferty 7j. Spuyten Duyvil, 1193 
McClain v. Doe d. Malone, 1309 

V. Gregg, 1365 
McClanahan z'. Henderson, 1708, 1726, 1768 

V. Porter, 731, 791, 841, 844, 874, 891 
McClane v. White, 2047 
McClaren v. Spaulding, 1127 
McClaryz/. Bixby, 1425, 1451 
McCleary v. Edwards, 1166 
v. Ellis, 249, 252, 499 
McClellanz/. McClellan, 1590, 1592, 1696 
McClenaghan v. McClenaghan, 223 
McClenny v. Floyd, 1677 
' McClintock's Appeal. 56 
McClintockz/. Criswell, i2it 
McClosky V. Miller, 2271 
McClowry v. Cloghan's Admr., 1245 



McClung V. Ross, 1913, 1914, 1916, 1917, 2295 
McClure^S Appeal, 76 
McClure v. Douthitt, 328, 333 
V. Harris, 765, 777, 804 
V. McClure, 1271 
z'. Melton, 2096 
V. Miller, 659, 995 
McClure's Heirs 7>. Douthitt, 306, 310 
McClurg's Appeal, 665 
]VI,cClurg V. Phillips, 2038 
McClurkam 7'. Thompson, 2050, 2051 
McClurken v. McClurken, 1394 
McClui-y?'. Schwartz, 727 
McColl V. Fraser, 1762 
McCoUough's Appeal, 1858 
McCollough V. Gilmore, 259, 306, 331, 333, 348 
McComb p. Wallace, 1272 
McCombe v. Weight, 522 
McCombs V. Becker, 2272 
McConnaughy v. Baxter, 1420, 1433, 1441, 1442, 

1459 
McConnell v. Blood, 109, 120, 126, 132, 133, 134^ 
138, 2080 

z>. Bowdry's Heirs, 1160, 1216 

V. Brayner, 1700 

V. HoUowbush, 2087 

7'. Kibbe, 1979 

7/, Martin, 1919 

v. Reed, 1777, 2321, 2322, 2365 

V. Scott, 2141 

V. Smith, 309, 353 

z/. Varey, 1978 

V. Wenrich, 663 
McCord V. McCord, 1806 
McCormack v. Digby, 2106 

V. Sullivan, 367, 368, 720 
McCormic 7/. Leggett, 1031 
McCormick v. Bishop, 64, 63, 507 

V. Connell, 1061, 1154 

V. Crogan, 1701 

V. Gorgan, 1616 

z'. Grogan, 1644 

V. Hunter, S95 

V. Irwin, 2177 

V. Knox, 2074, 2172 

V. Rusch, 1511 

V. Sullivant, 2057, 2058, 2288, 2289, 2339 

V. Taylor, 847, 861 

V. Young, 2261, 2262 
McCorry z*. King's Heirs, 489, 513, 516, 586> 

590, 591, 600, 603, 613 
McCoster v. Brady, 299, 1595, 1606, 1753, 1788 
McCotter z*. Lawrence, 2314 
McCoy V. Bateman, 2257 

V. Scott, 1021,2252, 2257, 2259 
McCracken v. Hayward, 1512 

7'. Harris, i4q9 

V. Rogers, 2279 

z/. San Francisco, 2342 
McCrackin v. Wright, 2322, 2323 _ 
McCrackin, Jackson ex d., v. Wiight, 829 
McCrae, Jackson ex d., v. Mancius, 489, 497, 

501- 514. 5^5. 5i6» 744 
McCraken v. Hall, 115, 142, 14& 
McCraney v. Alden, 2060 

V. McCraney, 749, 750* 75Ij 769) 770t 77>» 
862, 920 
McCranklin v. McCranklin, 636,725, 1359 
McCrary v. Slaughter, 1241 
McCray 71. Samuel, 2272 
McCrea, Jackson ex d., &. Dunlap, ioi6 

V. Purmort, 1700 
McCready f. Guardians, 1731 
McCreary v. Boston & M. R. Co., 2243 

V. Casey, 1648, 1651 

V. Guardians, 1731 

V. McCreary, 662, 2365 

V. Marston, 1216 

V. Osborne, 135 
McCreery ?'. Allender, 215, 2014 

?'. Shaffer, 1490 
McCrickett v. Wilson, 2165, 2167 



clxviii 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



McCroan v. Pope, 1562 

McCroskey v. Walker, 1439, 1440 

McCruder v. Peter, 1023 

McCuan v, Turretitine, 141 1 

McCubbin v. Cromwell, 736, 783, 1589, 1598, 

1691, 1734 
McCue V. Gallagher, 1646 
McCufEey v. Finley, 2147 
McCulloch V. Good, 2274 
McCullom V. Turpee, 2153, 2180 
McCullough's Appeal, 271 
McCullough V. Allen, 917 

V. Andersou, 1821 

V. Cox, 1854 

•V. Dobson, 1048 

V. Ford, 1646 

V. Gilmore, 249, 261, 262, 263, 266, 267, 
499 

V. Gliddon, 292 

V. Irvine, 565 

V. Valentine, 687, 699 
McCully V. Smith, 836 
McCumber v. Gilman, 2185 
McCune v. McMichael, 2302 
McCurdy v. Canning, 1024, 1920, 1923, 1939, 

1940, 1944. 1951. 1952 
McDaniel v Colvin, 2027 

V. Carroll, 1984 

V. Douglas, 933 
McDearmau ti. McClure, 1906 
McDemottT^. Burke, 2065, 2173 
McDermont v. Burke, 975, 1028 

V. French, 1920, 1938, 1939, 1950 
McDermutt v. Strong, 2083 
McDevitt TJ. Lambert, 1330, 1340 

V. Sullivan, 2258 
McDill V. McDill, 2352 
McDonald v. Badger, 1419, 1947 

V. Black, 2113, 2114, 2117 

V. Crandall, 1381, 1450, 1453, 1460, 1468, 
1469, 1476, 1477, 1478, 1495, 1522 

V. Gayle, 1260, 13 13 

■V. Heylin, 504, 509 

V. Lindall, 2207 

V. McDonald, 1782, 2151 

V. Sims, 1781 

V. Stewart, loio, 2259 

V. Walgrove, 338 

V. Whitney, 2154 
McDonel v. State, 217 
McDonough v. Gilman, 1199 

V. Murdoch, 1676 

V. O'Neil, 1643, 1760,2045 

V. Squire, 2043 
McDougal 7K Bradford. 1950 
McDougald v. Hepburn, 817 
McDowell V. Adams, 2252, 2257,2259 

V, Brown, 249 

V. Fisher, 2025, 2059 

V. Goldsmith, 1781 

V, Gran, 1842 

V. Hendrix, 2262 

V. Simpson, 523, 981, 997, 1013, 1018, 
1041, 1042, 1254, 1255, 1264, 1284, 
1308, 1314, 1321, 1323, 1338 
McDuff V. Beauchamp, 1024, 1942, 1952 
McDugald V. Hepburn, 782 
McElderry v. Flannagan, 2269 

V Shipley, 1697, 1699 
McEImoyne v. Cohen, 2299 
McElroy v. Bixby, 1410, 1414, 1425 

V. McElroy, 1592, 1797 
McFadden v. Jenkyns, 1587 

V. Vincent, 1034 
McFardin i^. Rippey, 2268 
McFarlan v. Febeger's Heirs, 909, 912 

V. Watson, 1107, 1124 
McFarland v. Chase, 1266, 1294 

V. Febeger's Heirs, gii, 924 

V. Fish. J42S 

7'. Goodman, 1481 
McFarlane v. Feberger's Heirs, goi 



McFarlane -v. Williams, 999, 1043 
McFerran v. Davis, 1794 
McFerriu v. White, 2152 
McGanz;. Marshall, 985, 2104, 2343 
McGangley v. Henry, H20 
McGarron v. Cassidy, 2053 
McGarvey v. Puckett, 1141 
McGary v. Hastings, 1166 
McGaughey's Admrs. v. Henry, 1815 
McGaughney v. Henry, 821 
McGaw v^ Cannon, 13 14, 1338 
McGee v. Davie, 2165 

V. Ellis, 1773 

7'. Fitzer, 2020 

V. Gibson, 1262, 1272. 1289, 1297, 1329 

V. McGee, 893, 899, 2296 

V, Morgan, 2296, 2297 

V. Rice, 1472, i486 

V. Roen, iioi 
McGehee z/. McGehee, 840, S41, 844 
McGill V. Ash, 1903 
McGilHvray v. Evans, 1988 
McGinnis's Appeal, 2138 
McGinnis v. Fernandes, 1207 

V, Porter, 1145, 1150 

V. State, 1515 
McGirr 7/. Aaron, 1541, 1599 
McGiven v. Wheelock, 811, 2134 
McGlashan v. Tallmadge, io65, 1175 
McGlynn v. Butler, 1006 

V. Moore, 1060, 1154, 1156 
McGoon V. Ankens, 2303 

V. Scales. 1655, 1656, 1746 
McGovem v. Knox, 1646 
McGowan v. Baldwin, 1421 

V. McGowan, 778, 1634, 1640, 1651 

V. Smith, 783 
McGowen v. Sennett, 1338 
McGrane v. Archibald, 1872 
McGrath v. City of Boston, 992, 993 

V. Sinclair, 1424, 1425 
McGready v. McGready, 2031, 2051 
McGreary v. Osborne, 137 

McGregor z/. Brown, 54, 55, 543, 549, 555, 564, 
566 

z/. Comstock, 210, 211, 217, 401, 401, 43K, 
2289 ^^ 

V. Rawle, 1310, 1333 

V. Williams, 2074 
McGuire v. Grant, 198, 2231, 2232,2233, 2234 

V. McGowp.n, 1635 

V. Miller, 1624 

V. Van Pelt, 1425, 2015, 2160 
McGulich V. McAllister, 2274 
McGunnagle v. Thornton, 1018 
McHendry v. Reilly, 1497, 2005 
McHenry v. Carson, 2263 

V. Cooper, 2178 

V. Reilly, 1491 

V. Yokum, 746 
Mcllvaine v. Harris, 46 

V. Smith, 1747 
Mcllvane v. Kadel, 985 

V. Smith, 253 
Mclntire v. Norwich F, Ins. Co., 2116 

•V. Patton, 1213 

V. Plaisted, 2118 

V. Shaw 2038 
Mcintosh V. Ladd, 728, 795, 914 
Mclnturf v. Woodruff, 1457 
Mclntyre v. Chappel, 1456 

V. Ramsey, 332, 536 

V. Stedman, 1018 

V. Strong, 10 1 7 
Mclver v. Cherry, 782, 940, 214S 

V. Eastbrook, 122 
McKay d. Miimford, 1131, 1135 
McKeagre v. Hanover Fire Ins. Co., 105, 108, 

109, 121, 132, 139 
McKean v. Brown, 771 
McKee v. Brooks, 983 

V. Cottle, 603 



References are 
to pages. 

McKee v. Cuttle, 6gj 
V. Hicks, 2339 
V. Judd, 719. 839 
V, McKinley, 1674 
V, Pfout, 20S, 516, 987 
V. Reynolds, 908 
•u. Straub, 1974, 1977 
V. Wilcox, 1422, 1423, 1424, 1452 
McKee's Lessee v. Pfout, 666 
McKeilham v. Terry, 151 1, 1517 
McKelway v. Cook, 983 
7'. Seymour, 1862 
McKenkie's Appeal, 1814 
McKenna v. Hammond, ro6, 136 
McKennan v. Phillips, 1561 
McKenzie v. Jones, 404, 447, 470,600 

V. Lampley, 49, 2020 

V. Lexington, 1160, 1163 

V. Murphy, 1395 
McKeoii 71. Whitney, I118 
McKercher. In re, i3«"g 
McKey v. Welch, 191 i 
McKie ?'_. Anderson, 1219 
McKildoe's Exr. 7'. Darracott, 1156 
McKillip V. McKillip, 1666 
McKim 7'. Mason, 104, 114, 116, 133, 138, 2065 
McKinley v. Kuntx, 907 

V. Peter, 1925 
McKinn v. Mason, 1998 
McKinneyz'. Abbott, 2285 

V. Carroll, 1511 

V. Kinney, 2298 

V. Miller, 2153, 2180 

V. Peck, 1131, 1315, 1316 

V. Reader, 1160 

V. Rhodes, 2355 

V. Stewart, 291 

V. Stocks, 532 
McKinster v. Babcocks, 2022, 2023, 2027 
McKinstry v. Conley, 2168 

V. Conly, 2051 

z'. Mervin, 2140 
McKircher v. Hawley, 2064, 2066 
McKissack v. Bullington, 981 
^[cKissick V, Pickle, 1850 
McKnight v. Bell, 1977, 1978 

V. Wimer, 1810 
McKowen v. McGuire, 1456 
McKune v. Montgomery, 1219 
McLachlan v. McLachlan, 1S63 
McLain v. Nelson, 2354 
RIcLanahan v. Wyant, 1978 
McLanez/. Paschal, 1513 
McLaren v. Coombs, 106 

V. Hartford F. Ins. Co., 2116 
McLarren v. Brewer, 1622 

V. Spaulding, 1 167 
McLaughlin v. Bamum, 176S 

V. Cosgrove, 2059 

V. Curtis, 2073 

z'. Curts, 2172 

7'. Green, 2079 

V. Uimsen, 2120 

V. Johnson, 96, 103, 105, 107, 2036, 2120 

V. Long, 570 

V. McLaughlin, 847, 858 

V. Nash, 107, 129, 132, 135 

V. Shepherd, 2039 
McLaurie v. Partlow, 1592, 1691 

V. Thomas, 2153 
McLaurin v. Wright, 2052 
McLawlin v. Salley, 1246 
McLean v. Earee, 390 

V. Borce, 370 

V. Bovee, 47, 339 

V. Lafayette Bank, 1770 

V. McDonald, 338, 1595 

V Nelson, 1704 

V. Ragsdale, 2 141 

V. Rockey, 1225 

V. Spratt, 1154, 1340 

V. Sullivan, 1612 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxix 



McLean v. Swanton, 2289 

V. Towle, 21.18 
McLearn v. McLellan, 2005 
McLeery v. McLeery, 798, 8rg, 820 
McLellan v. Jenness, 1904, 1969 

V. Turner, 535, 536 
McLemore v. Manson, 729 
McLenan v. Sullivan, 1642, 1646 
McLeod 7>. Davis, 1021 

V. Evans, 1762 

7'. McDoniiel, 916, 934, 947 
McMahan v. Kimball, 711, 783 

7'. Russell, 2063 

7'. Stewart, 2070 
McMahilW/. McMahill, 1412 
MciMahn v. McMahn, 1077 
McMahon z>. Burchell, 1894 

V. McGraw, 1643. 2364 

zi. Russell, 510, gii, 928 

V. Williams, 2217 
McManus, In re, 2021 

V. Campbell, 1421, 1/22 

V. Carmichael, 69 

7'. Cooke, 564 

V. Crickett, 1195 
McMeehen v. Marman, 1579 
McMeekin v. Edmonds, 1768 
McIMiken v. Board of Directors of University, 

60 
McMillan v. Anderson, 2324 

V. Carson Hill Union Mining Co., 1332 

7'. Otis. 2084 

V. Richards, 1993, 1995, 1999 

V. Solomon, 66, 1014, 1015, 1016, 1175, 1176 

ZI. Sprague, 1517 

V. Turner, 847 

7'. Warner, 1455, 1465 
McMillan's Lessee v. Robbins, 504, 1141 
McMiller 7/. Mavo. 996 
McMillon V. Robins, 744 
McMullan 7'. Warner, 1460. 1461 
McMullen v. Riley, 996 
McMurray v. Montgomerj', 1735 

V. Shuck, 139S, 1400 
McMurphey v. Campbell, 878 
McMurphy 7'. Minot, 1060, 1117, 1154, 1164, iggS 
McMurty v. Brown, 2338 
McNab V. Young, 1548 2315 
McNabb v. Bond, 38 
McNair z'. Funt, 2295 

V. Lot, 2095, 2175 

V. Picotte, 2129 

71. Swartz, 2261, 2270 
McNally v. Connolly, 123 
McNaniara v. Culver, 2044, 2052 

7'. Seaton. 2296 
McNeal v. Emerson, 56 
McNamee v. Moreland, 2299 
McNeeley v. Hart, 1233 
McNees z>. Swaney, 2168 
McNeil 7'. Ames, 1057, 1072, 1115, 1142 

V. Kendall, 1072, 1112, 1115, 1121, 1123, 
1139, 2257 
McNeill V. Norsworthy, 2043 
McNew V. Booth, 2174 
McNish V. Guerard, 300, 1606, 1662 

V. Pope, 1 62 1 
McNulty V. Cooper, 1594 
Mcpherson v. Acher, 2242 

V. Cox, 1661, 1662 

V. Featherston, 2295 

V. Hayward, 2175 

V. Rollins, 1792 
McOuade v. Emmons, 1272, 1287, 1288 
McQueen v. Farquhar, 1669, 167a 

V. Turner, 1982 
McQuem v. Middleton Manuf. Co., 1555 
McQuesten zi. Morgan, io6r, 1154, 1155 
McQuircT/. Benoit, 2076 

V. Rag, 2018 
McRea z/. Central National Bank of Troy, 97, 
III, 112, 114, lib, 117, 132 



clxx 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



McRea v. Farrow, 1840 
McRe^'s Admrs. v. Means, 1593, 1629 
McReynolds v. State, 757 
McRimmons v. Martin, 2006 
McTaffgart v. Thompson, 2063 
McTavish v. Carroll, 2215, 2245 
Mc ^eigh V. Sherwood, 2153 
]V[cVev V. McQuality, 1622 
McWhite v. Roberts, 711 
McWilliams v. Bones, 1382 

V. Martin, 326 

». Nisly, 249, 255, 259, 261, 263, 267, 272, 
1858 
McWinn v. Richmonds, 985 
Meacham v. Steele, 299, 810, 1606 
Mead v. Leffingwell, 2293, 2298 

V. Mead, 925 

V. Orrery, 1667 

%'. York, 2134 

V. Randolph, 1677, 2046 
Meade v. Thompson, 2272 
Meader v. City of Carondelet, 1080, 1081 

V. Meader, 1421 

V. Place, 1403, 1405, 1407, 1462, 1463, 1472 

V. Stone, 1356 

V. White, 2061 
Meador v. Meador, 2004 
Meadow v. Wise, 2020 
Meads -v. Lansingh, 1648 
Mealior ?». Pomeroy, 1285 
Meakings v. Cromwell, 1842 
Means v. Wells, 208 
Meason's Estate, 42, 44 
Measure v. Gee, 424 
Mebane v. Mebane, 251, 253, 257 
Mechanics' Bank, Matter of, 1599 
Mechnnics' Bank v. Williams, 486, 634, 635 
Mechanics' Bank of Alexandria v. Seton, 1764 
Mechanics & Traders' Ins. Co. v. Scott, 971, 

978> 970, 1079 
Mechelen v. Wallace, 46 
Mechler v. Phcenix Ins. Co., 2114 
Meddock v. Williams, 904 
Mede v. Hand, igio 
Medford v. Frazier, 1895 

V. Learned, 671 
Media ik v. Downing, 1948 
Medley v. Elliott, 21 10 

V. Medley, 815, 820, 826, 888 
Medmsr v. Medmer, 1646 
Medsker v. Parker, 2153 
Medway v. Needham, 753 
Meech v. Ensign, 2166 

V. Estate of Meech, 1451 

V. Fowler, 2355 
Meeds v. Wood, 307 
Meehan v. Forrester, 2169 

V. Meehan, 664 
Meeker v. Claghom, 2147 

V. Meeker, 1700, 2349 

V. Winthrope Iron Co., 1019 

V. Wright, 646, 1920, 1951, 1952 
Meeks v. Bowerman, 1200 
Meeting St. Bap. Soc. v. Hail, 1796 
Megehe v. Draper, 1514 
Meggison v. Moore, 347, 1630, 1632 
Megianis v. Nunamaker, 493 
Mehaffey v. Dobbs, 19 15 
Meig's Appeal, 104, 112, 115, 120, 126, 135 
Meiggs V. Meiggs, 1791 
Mei'<s V. Dimock, 708 
Meily v. Wood, 75, 1964 
MeisterT/. Moore, 596, 597, 752 
Melhop V. Meinhart, 123 
ACelick v. Benedict, 223 

V. Pidcock, 1823 
Melin v. Reynolds, 2020 
Melizt's Appeal, 714, 769, 893, 941, 947 
Mell V. Mooney,2025 
Mjllee's Case, 9^8 
Mellen v. Momfl, 1202 
Melley v. Casey, 987 



Mellichamp v. MelHchamp, 1425, 1432 
Melliiiger v, Bausman, 651, 670, 1366 
Mellingz/. Leak, 1261, 1294 
Mellish V. Robertson, 2073 
Mellon V, Keed. 1978 
Mellor V. Watkins, 1J12 
Melius V. Snowman, 591, 1365 
Melner v. Herewood, 2344 
Melross v. Scott, 2006 
Melton %i. Lambard, 83, 2237 

V. Watkins, 1698, 1701 
Melvin v. Proprietor, 2298, 2299 

V. Proprietor of Locks, 211, 212, 590, 591, 
901, 911, 1364, 1365, 1366, 1369, 1370 

V. Waddell, 2292 

V. Whiting, 2197 
Memphill v. Ross, 2077 
Memphis Freight Co. v. Memphis, 2334 
Menagh v. Whitwell, 141 
Mendall v. Delano, 2246 
Mendelson v. Stout, 2267 
Mendenhall v. Klinck, 2212, 2213 

T. Mendenhall, 948 

V. Randall, 485 
Meng V. Hauser, 2151, 2157 
Mem V. Rathbone, 1060, 1140 
Menifee v. Menifee, 836 
Meno V. Haeffel, 1285, 13 17 
Menough's Appeal, 2255 
Menvil's Case, 393, 621, 623, 743 
Meraman's Heirs v. Caldwell s Heirs, 630, 641, 

642, 665, 1309 
Mercantile Trust Co. v. Missouri, 2141 

V. Missouri, K, & Q. R. Co., 2141 
Merced Mining Co. v. Boggs, 88 
Mercer's Lessee v. Selden, 601, 603, 612, 613, 

614 
Mercer v. Pittsburg, 2327 

7'. Stark, 1697 
Merceron v. Dowson, 1072 
Merchant v. Errington, 2358 

V. Thomson, 708, 2152 
Merchants' Bank v. Clavier, 1285 

V. Thomson, 708,2152 
Mercier v. Chaee, 1391, 1411, 1418 

V. Chase, 1417 

V. Hemme, 1622 

V, Missouri, Ft. S. & G. R. Co., 287 
Meredith v. Farr, 2281 

V. Heneage, 347, 348, 1627, 1629, 1631, 
1632 

V. Holmes, 1503 
Mergher v. Strong, 2338 
Meroney v. Wright, 1138, 1150 
Merrett v. Farmers' Ins. Co., 632 
Merriam v. Barton, 2073, 2169 

V. Barton, C. & F. R. Co., 924 

V. Harsen, 1700 

V, Hassam, 1784, 1785 

V. Willis, 1231 
Merrick v. Van Santwood, 224 

V. Wallace, 1777, 2122 
Merrifield v. City of Worcester. 2224 

V. Cobbergh, 1863, 18G7 

V. Lombard, 2228, 2248 

7'. Worcester, 4. 101 
Merrill v. Agricultural Ins. Co., 2275 

V. Berkshire, igo8, 1923, 1961 

V. Brown, 1541, 1352, 1554 

V. Bullock, 1352 

V. Chase, 2127, 2128, 2131 

V. Emery, 947, 1860, 1S63. 1869 

V. Engiesby, 1795 

V. Frame, 1080, 1989 

V. Mackman, 996 

V, Shattuck, 772 

V. Sherburne, 2331 

V. Watson, 1777 
Merrills v. Swift, 1786, 2027, 2^53 
Merriman v. Hyde, 2151 

V. Lacefield, 141 1 

V. Moore, 2068, 2071 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxxi 



M^rritt v. Abendroth, 309, 310 

V. ISartholick, 799, 3000, 2100, 2101, 2103, 

2104, 2111 
V. Brinkerhoff, 71, 2225 
V, Brown, 2052 

V. Disney, 281, 531 

V. Earle, 1099 

V. Fisher, 2249, 2253, 2255 

V. Harris, 1861, 2124 

V. Hosmer, 2182 

v. Hughes, igSi 

V. Judd, 89, 113, 123, 131, 1186, ii8g 

V. Phenix, 2 151 

V. Scott, 514 

V. Village of Portchester, 2158 

V. Wells, 2148 
Merritt, Jackson ex d., v. Gumaer, 986 
Merritt's Lessee v. Horn, 59S, 603, 612, 613, 

614 
Merry v. Hallett, 20, 21, 975, 1225 
Merryman v. Bourne, 1082 

V. Long, 975 
Mersou v. Blackmore, 331 
Merlins v. Jolliffe, 1778 
Mervin v. Ballard, 671 
Meserve 7'. Meserve, 847, 851, 852 
Messeley's Estate, 60 
Messengers. Armstrong, 13 10 
Messervey v. Barrelli, 2153 
Messouier v. Kauman, 1795 
Mestaer %•. Gillespie, 1738 
Metcalf V. Cooke, 1375, 1562 

V. Farminghara Parish, 329 

V. Van Brunt, 1795 
Methery -v. Walker, 1387 
Methodist Church v. Remington, 1670, 1675, 

1676, 1679 
Metropolitan Bank v. Godfrey, 2027 
Metropolitan Bank of St. Louis v. Taylor, 2012 
Metteforde's Case, 432 
Mettler v. Miller, 603, 6i3j 613, 652, 686 

V. Wiley, 945 
Meux V. Jacobs, 2021 
Mevey's Appeal, 2153 
Mewhof w. Mayo, 1049 
Meyer «». Bishop, 2159 

V. Eisler, 315 

V. Johnston, 98 

V. Kinser, 1947 

V. Lathrop, 2072 

7'. Meyer, 1410, 1411, 1412 

V. Mohr, 915 
Meyers v. Gale, 1366, 1376 

V. Schamp, 143 
Mhoon V. Drizzle, 1281, 1293 
Miall V. Brain, 943 

Miami Ex. Co. v. U. S, Bank, 2050, 2091, 2164 
Micels V. Miles, 2250 

Michaels v. New York Cent. R. Co., 1099 
Michel V. Tinsley, 2331 
Michigan Air-line R. Co. o. Mellen, 1586, 1622, 

1645 
Michigan Ins, Co. v. Brown, 2022, 2027 
Michigan State Bank v. Hastings, 1867 
Michlethwait v. Winter, 83, 84 
Michoud V. Girod, 1618, 1707, 1716, 1767, 1769, 

1773. 2163 
Mick V. Mick, 774 
I\Iickie V. Lawrence, 984, looi 

V. Miles, 984 
IVTickey v. Wintrode, 974, 975 
Mickle V. Mansfield 

V. Miles. 283 
Mlckles V. Dillaye, 2088, 2151, 2185, 2301 

V. Torondsen, 1580, 2130, 2131 
Micon V. Ashurst, 2095 

Middlesex R. Co. v. Boston & C. R. Co., 1020 
Middleton, Re, 2327 
Middleton v. Doddswell, 1037 

V. Dowsdell, 1038 

V. Middleton, 2260, 2261 

V. Pritchard, 68, 1014, 2293 



Middleton v. Stewart, 657 

Middletown Savings Bank v. Bates, 688, 1997, 

1998, 2077 
Midford v. Hardison, 1899 
Midgley v. Richardson, 2238 
Midland Counties R. Co. v. Oswin, 95,307 
Mikell V. Mikell, 1713, 1714, 1723, 1728 
Mikman v. Ordway, 1058 
Milborn v, Ferrers, 1582 
Mildinay's Case, 454, 499, 675 
Mildmay v. Mildmay, 789 
Mildred v. Austin, 2170 
Miles V. Elkin, 2261 

V. Chilton, 883 

V. Cook, loiS 

V. Fisher, 532, »676, 1876, 1882, 1883, 1968 

V. Gray, 2105, 2106 

V. Kaigler, 1023 

V. Miles, 496, 539, 541, 542, 543, 545, 546, 
^563. 575. 1412, 1413, 1522 

V. Neave, 1788 
MUford V. Holbrook, 1202 

V. Worcester, 595, 752 
Milhouse 7'. Patrick, 12 17 
Millapaugh v. McBride, 2097 
Millar v. Tumey, 2280 

V. Williamson, 479 
Millard v. Harris, 278, 279 

V. McMullin, 1164, 1897, 2095 

V. Willard, 2256 
Mill Dam Foundry v. Hovey, 501 
Milledge v. Lamar, 780, 788, 815, 820, 826, 885 

888 
Millenovich, Estate of, 1020 I 

Miller's Estate, Re, 234, 504, 505 
Miller v. Aldrich, 2118, 2119 

V- Antle, 1617 

V. Auburn, 2213 

V. Baker, 119 

V. Bates, 522 

V. Bear, 2147 

7'. Beverly, 864, 867, 870 

V. Bingham, 1561, 1779 

V. Birdsong, 1651 

V. Blackburn, 1638 

V. Bledsoe, 629, 630, 643 

V. Blose, 1648, 1700 

V. Bristol, 2206, 2208 

V. Brown, 2012 

V. Cappee, 2106 

7'. Cheney, 1205 

V. Chittenden, 1556, 1599, 1671, 1975,2347 

V. Craig, 1034 

7'. Crauford, 726, 731 

7'. Cresson, 2308 

V. Davidson, 1616, 1714, 1746, 1747 

7/. Davis, 1636 

V. Dennett, 1982 

V. Douthitt, 331 

V. Finegan, 1382, 1385, 1397, 1443, 15191 
1522 

V. Finn, 2096, 2137 

V. Fulton, 2254 

V. Garlock, 2292 

V. Goodwin, 897, 2317 

V. Havens, 1139, 1146 

V. Henshaw, 2365 

V. Hoyle, 2099 

V. Hughes, 1240, 1243 

V. Hull, 1755 

V. Jones, 1811 

V. Lang, 1149, 1214, 121S 

V. Larned, 2106 

V. Little, 2309 

V. Long Island R. Co., 2248 

v. Lynn, 306, 333 

V. McBair, 1045 

v. McBrier, 1149, 1213, 1221 

•V. Macomb, 322, 323 

V. McCarty, 1421 

V. Marx, 1475, i479t i503> ^S°9 

V. Miller, 666, 744, 755, 18S3, i8g6, igog, 



clxxii 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



1910, igig, ig20, 1930, 1951, 1967, 19781 
1983, 1988, 2225, 2228 
Miller V. Moore, 2001 
V. Morris, 1181 
V. Muilin, i88g 
». Musselman, 2120 
2'. Myers, igij 
■V. Piatt, 1917, 2291 
1). Plumb, 103, 104, 105, 128, 135, 137 
■V. Potterfield, 1821 
T. Ridgely, 1315, 1316 
». Shackleford, 210, 591, 744, 1307, 1315, 

1319, 2346 
v. Sharp, 2156 
V. Schnebly, 1449, 1467 
V. Shields, 552, 1067, 1152, 1153 
z/. Sparks, 1154 
V. Stagiier, 2250 
'V. State, 51 
V. Stokely, 2046 
V. Stump. 777, 781, 782, 804 
V. Thatcher, 1590, 1697 
i). Thompson, 1624, 2071 
V. Tipton, 2015 
7). White, 757 
V. Winchell, 2137 
V. Wison, 728, 781, 7S2, 795, 915, 962, 

1538 
V. Woodman, 733, 736, 739 
Miller, Den ex d,, v. Miller, 852, 859 
Miller's Exrs. v. Miller, g6i, 962 
Milligan's Appeal, 2136, 2138, 2153 
Milligan v. Poole, 1987 
V. Wedge, 1193 
1). Neher, 2020 
Milling V. Becker, 1335, 1342, 1343 
Millinger v. Bosman, 633 
Millikeu -v. Bailey, 208S 
Millikinw. Ifrown, 1915 
V. Ham, 2033 
V. Weljiver, 938, 946, 048 
Mill River, etc., Co. v. Smith, 73 
Mills V. Argall, 1795 
V. Bank, 1832 
V. Comstocic, 2098 
V. Dennis, 2145, 2146 
V. Estate of Grant, 1378, 1419, 144S, 1483, 

1514, 1515 
•v. Fogal, 368, 2058, 228 
V. Gore, 2035 
11. Graves, 2302 
V. Haines, 1599 
V. Harris, 1795 
f. Matthews, 1211 
7). Merryman, 2251, 2252, 2258 
V. Mills, gi6, 935, 941, 965, 2055, 2168 
■V. Morris, 959 
•V. Newberry, 1684 
V. Peed, 2258 
V. Van Voorliies, 588, 708, 716, 727, 766, 

782, 783, 800, 801, 925, 940, 2173 
V. Witherington, 1986 
Millspaugh v. McBride, 520, 2096, 2 131 
Milne -v. Moreton, 367, 720, 2057, 2288 J 

V. Schmidt, 1512 
Milner it. Freeman, 650 
V. Ramsey, 2009 
Milroyz/. Lord, 1587 

Miltimore v. Miltimore, 662, 771, 919, 920, 1359 
Milton V. Colby, 139, 140, 2022 
■V. Grenville, 92 
V. Haden, 982, 1045, 1221 
V. Hudson River Steamboat Co., 1248 
V. Milton, 856 
Milwaukee & M. R. Co. v. James, 98 

V. Soutter,g8 
Mims V. Lockett, 2007 

V. Macon W. R. Co. 2007 
V. Mims, 2122, 2149 
Miner v. Beekman, 2151, 2174, 2175,2185 
T. Brown, ig4i 
V. Gilmour, 2225 



Hiner v. Lorman, ig22 

V. Smith, 2150 

V. Stevens, 1354 
Miners Bank v. Heiner, 2282 
Mineral Point R. Co. v. Keep, 1554 
Mines, Case of, 86 
Mineville, Succes.sion of, 660 
Minigle v. City of Boston, 1129 
Miniter v. Miniter, 8g8, 957 
Minnesota v. Worthington, 5g4 
Minnesota Co. v. St. Paul Co., g8 
Minnesota Loan & Trust Co. v. Beebe, 1657 
Minning w. Batdorff, 315 
Minor v. Mayor, 2295 

r. Rogei-s, 1587, i5g3 

V. Sharon, 1200 

V. Willoughby, 1018, 1041 
Minot w. Mitchell, 1620 

V. Taylor, 16S2 

V. Thompson, 974 
Minsliall v. Lloyd, 71, 126, 130, 145, 146. 1186, 

1 187 
Minter v. Durham, 1883 
Minturn &. Seymour, 1697, 2314, 2315 
Mintzer v. St. Paul Trust Co., 1439, 1520 
Minuse v. Cox, 1725. 1755, 1756 
Mirick v. Hopi>en, 2064, 2258 
Missionary Society v. Calvert's Admr., 4S7 
Mississippi Valley, etc., R. Co. v. U. S. Express 

Co., 2064 
Missouri Inst, for Blind -v. How, 2205 
Mitchelw. Weller, 2255 
Mitchell V. Badgett, 2272 

■V. Bartlett, 2066, 2162 

V. Bogan, 2160, 2186 

V. Burlington, 1515 

V. Burnham, 799, 1992, 1993, 2031, 2032, 
2040, 2102, 2 log 

V. Commonwealth, ggo 

V. Davis, 1287, 1288 

V. Dors, 577 

V. Froedley, 143 

V. Home Ins. Co., 1224 

V. Jones, 19S0 

V. Kingham, 1032, 1033 

V. Mayor, 2236 

V. Miller, 847, 856, 860 

V. Milhoan, 1503 

■7J. Moore, 1372, 1660 

V- Parkham, 2363 

». Phillsbury, 1094 

V. Reed, loSg 

V. Rvan, 598, 600, 603, 604, 614, ioi5 

V. Seipel, 2241 

V. Sevier, 1365, 1367 

V. Skinner, 1652 

V. Starbuck, 1973 

zi. Stetson, 62 

V. Tarbutt, 1902, 1966 

V. The United States, 18 

V. Walker, 2291 

7J. Ward, 92g 

V. Warner, 1093 

V. Winslow, 839, 2017, 2019 

V. Woodson, 2301 

V. Word, 720, 86g 
Mitchell's Lessee v. Mitchell, 266, 885 
Mitchelson z/. Smith, 1380 
Mitchenert/. Atkinson, 937 
Mitchinson, Doe d., v. Carter, 1056,1057, 1105, 

i"3. 1973 
Mitford V. Mitford, 1361 
Mitnacht z/. Cocks, 976 
Mittel V. Karl, 1934, 1941 
Mitten v. Faudrye, 56 
Mix J/. Cowles, 

V. Hotchkiss,2o89, 2090, 2144 
Mixon V. Coffield, 1165,2251 
Mizell V, Burnett, 1857 
Mizner v. Russell, 2059 

■V. Munroe, 1272, 1294 
Moaers v. White, 215, 216, 217,236, 279 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxxiii 



Moak V. Coats, 734 

v> Johuson, 1245 
Mobile Branch Bank v. Hunt, 2130 
Wobile, M. D. & M. Ins. Co. v. Huder, 2153, 

2rSo 
Mocher v. Reeves, 20S1 
Mockbe^ 71. Clagett, 415 
Mocker z*. Reed, 2(^1 

Model Lodging House Assoc, v. City of Bos- 
ton, 2og5 
Moderwell v. Millison, 786, 1960 
Moffatt z/. Buchanan, 1779 

V. Shepard, 1643 

%>. Smith, 10S3, 1 100, 1120, 1182, 2271 

V. Strong, 10S2, 1 172 
I\Toff2t V. Stro.ig, 226S 
Mogs; V. Biker, 2018 

?'. Mog5, 490, 526. 1693 
Mohawk & Hudson R. R. Co. v. Clufe, 43 

z>. Niles, 1241 
Moeaquise it v. Commissioners of Roads, 2325 
Moioribanks t'. Hoveuden, 1831 
Moison 7'. Doe ex d. Cooper, 346 
Moltoa z*. Camroux, 1033 
Molyneux v. Molyneux, 1361 
Monck, Doe d., v. Geekie, 1314, 1333 
Moncrief v. Ross, 76, 1S09 
Monday v. Elmore, 1024 
Monell V. Monell, 1733 
Monkz'. C-ipen, 1411 

zi. Cooper, 1179 
Monkhouse z/. Holme, 314 

ZI. Noyes. logS 
Monroe v. Armstrong, 983 

V. Douglass, 36S, 2058, 2289 

V. Luke, 2092 

V. Merchant, 217, 799 

V. Van Meter, 5S9, 656, 680, 698, 1372 
Montacute v. Maxwell, 1616 
Montague t>. Boston & A. R. Co., 2089 

V. Dawes, 2i';9, 2161, 2163 

V, Dent, log, 121, 126, 132, 134, 138, 139 

V. Gay, 2269 

V. Hays, 1592, i6go, 1691 

V. Hail. 2272 

V. Maxwell, 965 

V. Richardson, 1483, 1514 

V. Smith, 28, 225, g6g, 974, 1004 
Montaye v. VVallahan, 2258 
Montgomery, Ex parte, 120, 126 

V. Agricultural Bank, 1562 

V. Bevans, 523 

V. Bruere, 764, 783, 1992 

V. Chadwick, 2053, 2075, 2175, 2185 

V. Craig, ii44j ii45. 1148 

V. Dorion, 21 1, 492, 672, 774 

V. Doxion, 215, 216 

V. Eveleigh, 1375 

V. Gibbs, 1180 

V. Hickman, 1942 

V. Horn, 856 

1). Kirksey, i62«; 

V. Masonic Hall, 2235 

V. McEwen, 2160 

V. Middlemess, 2145, 2155 
Montgomeiy v. Millikin, 327 

V. Sturtevant, 2321, 2360 

V. Tate, 1364, 1367 

V. Tutt, 1491, 1496^ 1497^ 2156 
Montpelier v. East Montpelier, 1555 
Monypenny v. During, 1693 
Mooberry v. Marye, 343 
Moodle V. Reid, 1841 
Moody z/. Aiken, 110 

V, Ruck, 1896 ■ 

V. Farr, 202 

V. Fleming, 517 

V. King, 690, 691, 780, 815, 820, 826, 885, 
iigo, 1273 

V. Moody, 1Q38, 1939 

•u. Seaman, 717 

V. Smoot, 1937 



Moody V. Snell, 415 
Mooers v. Dixon, i4!;o, 1478 

V. White, 1659 
Moon V, Durden, 671 

V. Rolling, 2303 
Mooneye/. Brinkley, 2187 

V. Cooledge, 2361 

V. Maas, 92^, 925, 926, 92S 
Moor V. Black, 733 

V. Deen, 535 

V. Denn, 340, 533 

V. Hawkins, 1572 
Moor, Denn ex d., v. Meller, 344 
Moorcroft -v. Dowding, i6gi 
Moore's Appeal, 2068 
Moore, Ex parte, 933 
Moore v. Armstrong, 1723 

V. Abernathy, 2286 

V. Beason, 810, 2073, 2097, 2136, 2138, 
2169, 2172 

V. Beasley, 1149, 1213, 1315 

V. Bowman, 2302 

v. Boyd, 1251, 1268, 1270, 1271, 1293, 1296, 
1351* 1356 

V. Byers, 1750 

V. Byrum, 2020 

V. Cable, 2087, 2088, 2ogo, 2095, 2175 

V. Chandler. 2153 

V, City of New York, 709, 712, 714, 715, 
71S, 725,726,731, 734, 737, 940, 741, 
746, 749, 751, 767, 793, 796, 813, 821, 
828, 834, 838, 869, 893, 921, 922 

V. Cord, 2173 

V. Cornell, 2084 

V. Darby, 589 

V. Dean, 343 

%i. Dimond, 535, 1831 

V. Dunning, 1460, 1463 

V. Estey, 764, 766, 800, 815, 1993 

V. Flynn, 1468, i46g 

V. Foley, 1008, 1009 

V. Frost, 871, 930 

V. Fuller, 2012, 2027 

V. Harrisburgh Bank, 811 

V. Harvey, 2270 

V. Hegeman, 755 

V. Hilton, 1707, 1769 

V. Hollins, 783 

V. Jackson, 983, 1742 

V. Kent, 711, 721, 722, 723,725 

V. Little Rock, 2085 

V. Loose, 1 165 

V. Luce, 490, 517, 520, 2300 

V. Lyons. 314, 316 

V. ^Iadden, i6gg 

V. Mandlebaum, 1621 

V. Mason, 1356 

V. Mayor, 798 

V. Mayor of New York, 819 

V. Miller, looi 

V. Moore, 1285, 1330, 1465, 1589, 1919, 
1940, 1974, 2343 

V. Morrow, 1347, 1350 

V. Page, 645 

V. Pickett, 1592, i6gi 

V. Pitts, 1113, 1856 

V. Plymouth, 266 

V. Reaves, 142 1, 1422 

V. Ranson, 2222, 2245, 2246, 2247 

V. Raymond, 2007 

V. Richardson, 1364 

V. Rollins, 89, 765, 766, 802, 8ii, 812, 940 

V. Sanders, 1853, i860 

V. Savill, i860 

■o. Shaw, 2165, 2167 

V. Schultz, 1559, 1561, 1565, 1655 

V. Smaw, 83, 84, 85, 88 

V. Smith, 115, 123, 145, 1289 

V, Spellman, 1713 

V. Spruill, 1234 

V. State, 1518 

V. Thomas, 903, 203S 



clxxiv 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Moore v. Thompson, 2298 

V. Tisdale, 750, 775, 909 

V. Titman, 1028,2080, 2086 

V. Townshend, 1277 

V, Turpin, 11 17, 2259 

V. Valentine, 139 

•V. Vinter, 1365, 1366, 1369, 1370 

z*. Wade, 2045, 2047 

V. Waller, 847,861 

V. Ware, 2103, 2148 

V. Watson, 2126 

V. Webb, 317, 338, 2228 

7*. Webber, 11 67 

V. Weber, 1066, 1079, 1081, 1082, 1127, 
1191, iig6, 1202 

V. Webster, 680, 684, 698, 1372 

V. Whittis, 1387, 1431, 1434, 1439 

V. Worthy, 832 
Moores v. Wait, 560 
Moors V. De Bervales, 767 

V, Moors, 661 
Moot V. Buxton, 1605 
Moran z*. Bank of Commerce, 1754 

V. Palmer, 786 

V. Somes, 663 
Mordant v. Thorold, 870 
Mordecai -v. Parker, 1595, 1707 
More V. Freeman, 648 

V. Herrick, 1648 
Moreen v. Ditchemendy, 893 

V. Saffara, 1956, 1962 
Moreau v. Saffaranas. 786 
Morehead v. Watkyns. 996, 1254, 1307, 1322, 

1337 
Morehouse v. Cotheal, 402,414,470,477,544, 555 
Moreland v. Myall, 51 
Morey v. Abemathy, 2343 

V. Heriick, 1634 
Morgan v. Abergavenny, 60 

V. Arthur, 137 

V. Bruttou, 1878, 1882 

z/, Boone, 1613 

V. Conn, 857 

z/. Cox, ig8 

V. Curtenius, 1516 

■v. Curtis, 29 

•V. Davies, 1311, 1336 

V. Davis, 2129 

V. Elam, T375, 1562 

V. Herrick, i88g, 1890 

V. King, 193, 1587 

V. Lones, 1948 

7). Moore, 1597 

■V. Morgan, 598, 611, 654, 656, 678,679, 
683, 684, 688, 689, 1267, 1372, 1893, 
2094,2175 

V. Neville, 1515 

z*. Plumb, 2157 

V. Reading, 69 

-v. Sackett, 801 

z/. Slaughter, 257 

V. Staley, 19S0, 1981 

•V. Steams, 1378, 1421, 1443, 1445, 1496, 
1503 

•V. Thames Bank, 647 

V. United States, 1275, 1281, 1329, 1342, 
1343 

V. Wilkins, 2165 
Morgan County v. Allen, 1581 
Moriarty v. Martin, 1627 
Morice V. Bishop of Durham, 1683 
Moring v. Ward, 983, 990, 1002 
Morley v. Morley, 1664, 1725, 1728 

V. Rennoldson, 270, 271 
Morphett v. Jones, 994 
Morrall v- Jacob, 1791 

V. Sutton, 531 

•V. Watterson, 1697, 1700 
Moran v. McLarty, 2330 

V. Somes, 1952, 1953 
Morrell v. Dickey, 1835 
Morrant v. Gougn, 1797 



Morret v. Paske, 76, 1708 
Morrice v. Antrobus, 2252 
Morrill v. Hopkins, 1450, 1467 

V. Mackman, 983, 1010, 1013, 1322, 2212, 
2260 

V. Morrill, 1973, 1982, 1988, 2173 

z>. Noyes, 201S, 2019 
Morris' Appeal, 125 
Morris z;. Bacon, 2107, 2108 

V. Clay, X032 

z/. Edgington, 1166,2222 

•V. Floyd, 2122 

V. French, 2021 

u. Hastings, 1947 

V. Henderson, 2 

V. Joseph, 1618, 1771 

z/. Miller, 758 

V. Morris, 670 

V. Mowatt, 799 

V. Niles, 1319,1324, 1328 

V. Nixon, 2037, 2046, 2048, 2049, 2i6g 

V. Oakford, 2178 

V. Pate, 2008 

V. Phaler, 317 

•V. Potter, 321 

V. Russel, 2335 

V. Sargent, 1450, 1473 

V. Showerraan, 9S3 

V. Tillson, 1083 

•V. Vanderen, 149 

V. Wallace, 1719, 1721, 1724 

If. Ward, 1450, 1475, 1478, 1502 

V. Way, 20T4 

V. Wheeler, 2148 
Morris Canal Co. v. Mitchell, 1273, 1287, 1288 
Morrison's Case, 756 
Morrison v. Abbott, 1431 

D. Bean. 1502, 2160 

V. Beirer, 1587 

V. Berry, 127, 140 

V. Bowman, 918, 942, 943 

V. Biaud, 2045, 2052 

V. Buckner, 2067, 2188 

V. Chadwick, 1168, 1174 

V. Clark, 1947 

V. Kelley, 1703, T766, 1777 

V. Kinstra, 1592 

V. Marquadt, 2223 

V. Mendenhall, 2100, 2101 

V. Rice, 893 

V. Rossignol, 971, 1008, 1009, 1053 

•V. Semple, 305, 308 

V. Shuster, 1795 

V. Stewart, 594 

V. Thistle, 647, 648, 895, 896 

V. Watson, 1522 
Morroney's Appeal, 2120 
Morrow v. Morgan, 2152 

V. Morrow, 938 

V. Scott, 2280 

V. Turner. 2001, 2079 
Morse v. Aldrich, 1076 

V. Churchill, 2296, 2297 

V. Copeland, 2211, 2240 

V. Goddard, 1081, 1119, ii6g, 1170, 1171, 
2065 

V. Goold, 1510; 1511, 1517, 1518 

V. Hayden, 1869 

V. Maddox, 1082, iig6 

V. Merritt, 1277 

V. Morse, 1980 

V. Roberts, 1221 

V. Royal, 1621, 1707, 1767, 1772, 1775 

V. Shattuck, 1538, 2349 

V. Smith, 2r7i 

V. Whitcher, 2066 
Morsell v. First Nat. Bank of Washington, 

1747 
Mortgage Co. v. Norton, 1489 
Mortlock V. Buller. 1758 

Morton v. Barrett, 288, 299, 300, 1534, 1553, 1560, 
1583, 1594, 1597, 1606, 1710, 1712 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxxv 



Morton t/. Ball, zogo 

V. McCanless, 1520 

V. Noble, 792, 793, 1999, 2076 

V. Ragan, 1481 

V. Robard. 2365 

V. Scholefteld, 2231 

V. Souibgate, 1577, 1739 

V. Tewart, 1691 

i>. Woods, 1050, 1058, 1294 
Mory V. Michael, 1822 
Mosby z*. Mosby, 1811 
Moseley v. Marshall, 50S, 511 
Moser. In re^ 125 
Moses V. Levi, 1733 

V. McPherson, irSo 

V. Murgatroyd, 1885 
Mosgrove v. Bouser, 2 121 
Mosher v. Mosher, 789, 797, 822, 841, 842, 940 

V. Vehne, 2086 

V. Yost, 525, 976 
Moshi^rz'. Meeks, 2004, 2007 

V. Norton, 2087 

V. Reding, loor, 1160, 1122, 1290, 1310, 
, i3'5. 1334. 1336 
Mosier s Appeal, 2177, 2138 
Mosle V. Ruhlan, 2359 
Mosley v. Mosley, 1820 
Moss's Appeal, 1581 
Moss V. Gallimore, 2065 

V. Moss, 1622. 1646 

V. Sheldon, 2S7 

V. Warner, 1457, 1462, 1483, 1514 
Mossy V. Mead, 1316 

Mostyn v. West Mostyn Coal & Iron Co., 1080 
Mostyne v. Lancaster, 1039 
Motley V. Blake, 1984 

V. Jones, 1242 

V. Whitemore, 1933, 1940, 1951 
Mott V. Buxton, 299, 1607 

V. Clark, 215S 

z/. Coddington, 1285 

V. Palmer, 20, 27, 6r, 122 

V. Schoolbred, 2248 
Motteux w. The London Assurance Co., 1742 
Moulton V. Cornish, 2144, 2145 

V. Cramroux, 9S7, 1034 

V. Moore, 9S4 

V. Robinson, 1234 
Mounce v. Byars, 2003, 2005, 2006 
Mounsey v. Ismay, 2204, 2211 
Mount V. Morton, 2978 

V. Potls, 2t54, 2179, 2180 

V. Vaile, 850 
Mount Holly v. Andover, 594 
Mt. Vernon Mfr. Co. v. Summit Ins. Co., 2166 
Mountain City Market House, etc., Assoc, v. 

Kearns, 1284, 1305 
Mountford z>. Cadogan, 1786 
Movan v. Hays. 1590 
Mower v. Fletcher, 2308 

V. Kemp, 1863 
Mowrey v. Sheldon, 2247 

V. Wood, 2111 
Mowry v. Wood, 2015 
Mowser v. Mowser, 773, 887, 891 
Moxley v. Ragan, 1506 
Moyer v. Drummond, 1397, 1425, 1432 

V. Pennsylvania Slate Co., 1515 
Moyle v. Ewer, 1267 

V. Moyle, 561, 1720 
Moynahan v. Moore, 2131 
Mozart Building Association -u. Frisdjen, 1355 
Mucklow & Fuller, 1733. 
Mueller v. Engeln, 1777 
Muggeridge's Trusts, 272, 1677 
Muir V. Berkshire, 2137 
Mulcarry z'. Eyre, 1141 
Muldoon V. Hite, 2262, 2264 
Muldowney v. Morris & Essex R. R. Co., 643 
Mulford V. Laframe, 2357 

V. Minch, 1745, 1776 

V, Peterson, 810, 2100, 2102, 2107 



Mulhollan v. Thompson, 831 

MuUaney v. MuUaney, 654. 656, 675, 6S7, 1609 

Mullanphy 7). Simpson, 2075 

Mullen 7'. St. John, 1197, iiyS 

V Strieker, 2223 
MuUensen's Estate, 2026 
Muller, Estate of, 1317, 1342 
Muller V. Baker, 128 

V. Boggs, 1894, 1901, igoS 

V. Inderreiden, 14S0, 1481 

V. Muller, 2321 

V. Wadlington, 2105, 2107, 2136 
Mulligan z'. Newton, 49 

i>. Wallace, 1714 
Mullikiii V. Mullikin, 2009 
Mullins V. Clark, 1506 
Mulloy 7). Kyle, 974 
Mulry V. Norton, 2294 
Mumby v. Bowden, 1193 
Mumford v. Bowman, 291 

V. Brown, 1054, 1083, 1182, 1191, 1201, 

i8qi 

V. Whitney, 49, 50, 55, 56, 2212, 2213 
Mumma v. Miimma, 1640 
Mummy v. Johnson, 2366 
Munch z*. Cockeral, 1038 

V. Shabel, 1652 
Mundy v. Monroe, 1999 

I'. Mundy, 1339 

V. Sawter, 1806 

V. Vawter, 2159 
Munger z'. Perkins, 792, 793 
Municipality No. i v. New Orleans, 9S2, loio, 

1053 
Municipality No. 2 "u. Orleans Cotton Press, 

2293, 2294 
Munnerbyn n. Munnerbyn, 666 
Munro v. Allaire, 1768, 1769 

V. Merchant, 2014 
Munroe v. C-ates, 1982 

V. Luke, 1915, igi6, 1967, 1983 

%i. Merchant, 1657 

V. Slickney, 2248 
Munsell v. Carew, 1231, 1236 
Munson v. Plummer, 1274, 1280 

V. Wray, 1002, 1329 
Munson's Admr. v. Plummer, 1286 
Murchison v. Plyler, 1441 
Murdoch's Case, 1766 
Murdock v. Chapman, 2016 

V. Clark, 2087 

•V. Clarke, 2088 

V. Ford, 2174, 2260 

V. Gifford, 109, 112, 125, 133 

V. Harris, 13S 

V. Hughes, 1622, 1781 

V. Johnson, 336, 1709 

V. Ratcliff, 823.974,975 

V. Shackleford's Hfeirs, 416 
Murly V. McDermott, 2236 
Murphy v. Abrahms, 1965 

V. Bamett, 1349 

V. Calley, 2041, 2043, 20^,0 

V. Crouch, 1481 

V. Farwell, 2174 

•u. Grice, 1577 

V. Hendricks, 2024 

V. Higginbottom, 889, 1773 

V. Hubert, 1648, 1649 

V. Marland, 129, 139, 140, 2022 

V. Murchy, 958 

V. Murphy, S98, 899 

V. Nathans, 1647 

V. Ottenheimer, 1031 

V. Peabody, 1633, 1648 

V. Purifoy, 2053 

V. Service, 997 

V. Thomas, 1020 

V. Trigg, 2047 
Murphy'? Heirs v. Jury, 1942 
Murphy, Jackson ex d., v. Van Hoesen, 496, 
499, 502 



clxxvi 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Murray t. Armstrong, 1261, 1284 

V. Ballou, 1622 

V. Barlee, 2012 

zi, Barney, 2030 

V. Elackledge, 1744 

z/. Catlett> 2101 

■7J. Cherrington, 1281 

V Emmons, 987, 1034, 1368 

V. Gilbert, 54 

V. Glass, i6gi 

V. Glasse, 645 

V. Hall, 1903 

V, Harway, 1058, 1143, 1156 

z'. Kelly, 215 

V. Kelley, 219 

V. Lilburn, 2109 

V. Mount, 2268 

V. Mountt, 1020 

V. Riley, 1277, 2040 

V. Selts, 1434 

V. Shanklin, 986 

V. Smith, 2068 

V. Stairs, 2354 

V. Walker, 2045, 2078 
Murrell v. Lyon, 1003 

V. Mandelbaum, 1956 

V. Matthews, 401 
Murry v. Wyse, 311 
Murthwaite v. Jenkinson, 288, 299, 373, 1594, 

1606, 1712 
Musgrave v. Brooks, 265 
Musham v. Musham, 1614, 1622 
Mushawer v. Patten, 2295 
Musick V. Barney, 2295, 2296, 2297 
Musselman v. Eshleman, 1776 
Musser v. Brink, 1239 

71. Hershery, 69 
Mussey v. Bulfinch Methodist Society, 37 

V. Holt, 1026, 1030, II2Q 

■V. Pierre, 673, 750 

V. Sanborn, 1982 
Mussina v. Bartlett, 2145 
Mussouri Bank v. Raynor, 1824 
Mustard v. Wohford's Heirs, 2344 
Mustin, Doe d., v. Goldwin, 1152, 186S 
Mutton's Case, 1569 

Mutual Benefit Life Ins. Co. v. Brown, 1044 
Mutual Fire Ins. Co. v. Deale, 632, 6S1, 682, 
1364, 1636, 1639 

V. Wagner, 631, 1641, 1700, 1703 
Mutual Life Ins. Co. v. Balch, 2162 

V. Boughrum, 2153 

V. Dake, 2121, 2122 

V. Shipman, 1808, 2173 

V. Southard, 2167 
Muzzey v. Davis, 2206 
Muzzy V. Whitney, 1241, 1244 
Myer v. Myer, 1408 

V. Whitaker, 68, 73 
Myers v. Buchanan, 2125 

V. Bums, 1074, 1084, 1086 

V. De Mier, 791 

V. Entriken, 1719 

7f. Estell, 2066 

V. Evans, 1473, 1475 

V. Forbes, 999 

V. Ford, 1400, 1405, 1^59, 1502, 1519 

zi. Gemmel, 2223 

V. Hazzard, 2106 

V. Hobbs, 2233 

z'. Kantman, 2254 

V. Mayfield, 2273 

V. Myers, 308, 312, 1648, 1667, 1729, 176S 

V. Reed, 1920, 1937 

V. Rice, 1988 

V. Spooner, 2303 

V. Stilljacks, 2262, 2268 

V. White, 47, 1995. 2064 

V. Wright, 2148 
Myers' Guardian v. Myers' Admr., 1520 
Myerson v. Neff, 1309, 1348 
Myrick v. Bill, 1393, 1484 



TS. 



Nab V. Nab, 1691 
Nace ZI. Boyer, 1792 
Nagle V. Ingersoll, 59 

V. Macy, 2078, 2104 
Naglee's Appeal, 1674 
Nailer v. Stanley, 2155, 2180 
Nairn zj. Prowse, 959 
Naish V. Tatlock, 2266 
Nallet V. Smith, 267 
Nance z^. Alexander, 2261, 2270, 2271 

V. Hill, 1432' 

V. Nance, 1431 
Nancy 7/. Hill. 1425 
Nanney v. Williams, i8or 
Nannock v. Horton, 319, 486 
Nant-y-Glo & B. Ironworks Co. z;. Graves, 1761 
Napier v. Bulwinkle, 2223, 2229, 2236 

V. Darlington, 1077 
Nash z/. Berkmeir, 996, 1264, 1322 

V. Coates, 1583, 1795 

V. Kelly, 2106 

zf. Kemp, 2235 

V. Minneapolis M. Co., 1202 

V. Norment, 1399 
Nason v. Allen, 841, 838 
Nassamon v. Nassamon, 597 
Nassbaum v. Northern Ins. Co., 2113, 2114 
Nathan v. Stern, 997 

National Bank of Metropolis v. Sprague, 786 
National Co. v. Bush, 2271 
National Fire Ins. Co.z/. McKay, 800 
National, etc., Co. v. Donald, 2244 
Navarre v. Rutton, 1783 
Nave z/. Berry, 1067, 1098, 1105, 1106, 11 12, 

1123, 1126, 1175. 1181, 1184 
Nay lor f. Arnitt, 1037, 1038 

V. Collinge, 142 

V. Field, 669, 679 
Nazareth Benevolent Institution v. Lowe, 2005 
Nazarther Lit. & Ben. Inst. v. Lowe, 744, 77S, 
804, 814, 832 

V. Ware, 2033 
Neal z>. Brockham, 1381, 1515 

V. Coe, 13S6, 1441, 1442, 1443 

V. Farmer, 706 

V. Gregory, 2302 

V. Robertson, 651, 1366 

V, Speigle, 2004 
Neale v. Hagthrop, 20S8 

%i. Mackenzie, 1167 
Neall V. Hill, 75 
Nearz/. Watts, 485 
Neary v. Bostwick, 1248 
Neate v. Blarlborough, 20S3, 2170 
Neave z'. Moss, 1149 
Needham, /« re, 1786 
Needham v. Allison, 80, 103, 106 

V. Bronson, 1940 

V. Hill, 1905 
Neel V. Neel, 89. 494, 495, 497, 544, 552, 561, 

562.811,812 
Neeley v. Grantham, 75 
Neely v. Butler, 597, 601, 603, 613 

V. Haskins, 1S63 

V. Jones, 2177 

7*. Lancaster, 669 \ 

V. Rood, 1667 
Negley v. Morgan, 2265 
Negroes Chase v. Plummer, 1632 
Negus, Matter of, 1102 
Neide v. Neide, 308, 309 
Neifert v. Ames, 2272 
Neill V. Keese, 1639, 1641. 1644, 1654 
Neilson v. Blight, 1600, 2105, 2107 

V. Iowa Eastorn R. Co., g8 

». Lagow, 1594, 1596, 1709, 1711, i796_, 
1797 
Neiswanger z*. Squier, 1188 
Nellis z). Coleman, 997 

V. Lathrop, 1149, 12 12, 2269 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxxvii 



Nellis 7*. Nellis, 471 
Nellons 71. Truax, 2154 
Nelson v. Bridgeport, 720 

V. Clay, ig86, 19SS 

V. Davis, 300, 1606, 1796 

V. Eaton, 1031 

V. HoUey, 733, 735, 739, 8g6, 923 

V. Liverpool Brewing Co., 1197, hq8, 
1199 

z'. Logow, 289 

V. McLenaghan, 736 

V. Pinegar, 1998, 2181, 2187 

V. Worrall, 1676 
Nelson's Heirs 7'. Clay, 552, 575 
NeoU V. Garnett, 947 
Neppach r'. Jordan, 1314 
Ntpeau 7'. Doe, 134S 
Nerac's Estate, 624, 767 
Nerhooth 7k Althouse, 1214 
Nesbit 7'. Hanway, 2174 
Xesbitt V. Tredenick, 1708 

7/. Trindle, 675 

V. Trunbo, 2327 
Nettleton v. Silkes, 54, 55, 56, 2213 
Neumaier v. Vincent, 1383, 1519 
Neufviile v. Thompson, 64S 
Neumeister 7'. Palmer, 1317, 1330 
Neumoyer z'. Andreas, 2189 
Neves 7'. Scott, 1516, 1594, 1608, i6og, 1694 
Nevil's Case, 433, 435 
Ne\il z*. Saunders, 300, 1560, 1561, 1606, 1672, 

1673 
Nevins v. City of Peoria, 2232 
Nevitt f. Bacon, 2093, 2094, 2146 
Nevlin 7k Osborn, 2355 
New V. NicoU, 1578 
New Albany 7'. Burke. 1581 
Newall V. Wright, 1120, 1220, 2063, 2077, 2112, 

2144, 2147 
Newark ?'. Branding, 983 
Newark Savings Institution v. Forman, 1518 
Newberry v. Brunswick, 591, 752 
Newbold's Appeal, 1621 
NewboM V. Newbold, 2077 

7'. Smart, 1889, 1890 
Newbrough v. Walker, 1245 
New Brunswick Land Co. v. Kirk, 54 
Newby v. Brownlee, 504 

V. Perkins, 1983, 1985 

7>. Vestal, 2261 
Newcomb w. Bonham, 1996, 2050, 2158 

7'. Clark, 2267 

V. Dewey, 2146 

V. Ramer, 49, 52, i'23i, 1239 

V. Reimer, 49 
Newcomer v. Orem, 720 
Newell zf. Fisher, 1033 

7/. Hayden, 1515 

V, People, 2328 

v. Sanford, 1285, 1260 

7/. Woodruff, 1898, 1913, 1915 
New England Jewelry Co. v. Merriam, 810, 

i4gt, 1497 
New England Oyster Company v. McGawey, 

1036 
Xewhall v. Bart, 2039 

V. Five Cent Savings Bank, 728, 814, 818, 
828, 925 

z>. Lynn F. C. Savings Bank, 2073, 2074, 
20S3 

V. Pierce, 2042 

7>. Wheeler, 289, 290, 299, 1560, 1563. 

1576. i.';94- 1607 

New Hampshire Bank v. Willard, 2029 

Newhart v. Peters, 2152 

New Haven Savings Bank v. Parttan, 1997, 

1998 
New Ipswich Factory v. Batchelder, 2242 
Newhoff 2/. Mayo, 1187 
New Jersey Tns. Co. 7/. Meeker, 810 
New Jersey R. Co. v. Van Syckle, 970 
Newkerk v. Nev/kerk, 265, 305, 309. 3io 

12 



Newkirk, Jackson ex d., v. Embler, 533 
Newland 7/. Holland, 1405 

V. Newland, 351 
Newlin v. Freeman, 1562 

z'. Newlin, 1375 
Newlove r/. Callaghan, 1946 
Newman's Estate, 2282 
Newman ?'. Anderton, 984, 1176, 2250 

7t. Chapman, 2092, 2365 

7J. Jenkins. 522, 767 

V. Kershaw, 2057 

V. Rutter, 1140, 1144 

2/. Samuels, 2037 

7'. Willetts. 741 
New Orleans v. Guillotte, 1029 
New Orleans Nat. Banking Assoc, c. Adams, 

1992 
New Orleans R. Co. ?'. Moye,22o6 

7'. The Steamship Company, 1036 

7'. United States. 2293 
New Parisli of Exter v, Odwine, 2319 
Newson 71. Hart, 1776 

V. Pryor, 2357 
New South Meeting House, He, 31, 35, 36 
Newton v. Askew, 1791 

V. Ayscough, 316 

7'. Cook, 802, 803, 805 

v. Griffith, 418, 469 

V. Hariand, 1351, 1356 

7/. Howe, 1246, 1911 

V. Marshall, 2079 

V. McKay, 2356 

V. McLean, 1706, 2006 

V. Newton, 2124 

7/. Porter. 1622, 1760 

V. Preston, 1649, 1700 

7'. Reid, 249, 257, 270 

7/. Sly, 761 

7'. Taylor, 1620, 1621, 1760 

7'. Wilson, 1176, 2056 
New Vienna Bank z'. Johnson, 2055 
New York Central R. Co. v. Saratoga & S. R. 

Co., 2247, 2251 
New York, C. & St. L. R. Co. v. Randall, 

1316 
New York Dry Dock Co. 7/. Stillman, 1548 
New York Elevated R. Co. 7/. Manhattan R. 

Co., lies 
New York & H. R. R. Co., Matter of, 197 

V. Kip, 2327, 2328 
New York &. M. R. Co. v. Van Horn, 2323 

7>. Van Home, 2324 
New York Life Ins. Co. v. Rector, etc., St. 

George's Church, 1157 
New York L. Ins. & T. Co. v. Cutler,2i54 

V. Milnor, 2153, 2154, 2242 

7/. Smith, 2iog, 2110 

V. White, 2i?f 
New York Mut. Life Ins. Co. 7/. Boughrum, 

2178, 2180 
New York State Bank 7/. Fletcher, 2136 
Niagara Falls International Bridge Co. -c. 

Great Westeni R. Co. 11S4 
Niblo 7'. N. A. Ins. Co., 1224 
Nice's Appeal, 318, 328, 1656, 1675, 2119, 2126 
Nichol V. Loy, 246, 253, 1515, 1746, 1748, 1749 

V. N. V. & Erie R. Co., 1861 
Nicholas t. Chamberlain, 2245 

7'. Purcell, 1410, 1412 
Nicholl 7'. Mumford, 1958 

7'. Walworth, 1796 
Nicholl, Doe d., v. McKaeg, 1258, 1260, 1261, 

1275 
Nicholls 7/. Butcher, 2, 308 

V. Bvrne, 1213 

71. O'Neill, 1364, 1366, 1367, ^369, 1370 

7'. "Skiimer, 322 
NichoUson 7/. Bettle, 450, 472 
Nichols, Matter of, 1517 
Nichols 7>. Allen, 1637, 1683, 1684 

7/. Baxter, 2113, 2118 

V. Bucknam, 1890 



clxxviii 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Nichols V. Cabe, 2046 

V. Denny, 1568, 1729, 1882, 1883, 1968 

V. Duprey, 2268 

V. Eaton, 253, 254, 274, 1748 

V. Foster, 2162 

V. Glover, 2007 

V. Hull, 2207, 2242 

V. Marshland, 199 

V. Nichols, 1980, 1981 

V. Overacker, 1497 

V, Randall, 2151 

V. Reynolds, 2046, 2048, 2092, 2101 

V. Smith, 1911, 1924, 1925, 1967, 2082 

•V. Williams, 1271, 1285, 1307, 1338 
Nicholson v. Halsey, 1580, 2095 

V. Lauderdale, 1615 

V. Leavitt, 720, 2057, 2288 

V. Munigle, 1171, 1172 

V. Smith. 1009 
Nicholson's Lessee v. Hemsley, 903 
Nickals v. Weim, 2309 
Nickels v. Otto, 2174 
NicoU, Matter of, 1023 

V. Mumford, 1712, 1794 

V. N. Y. & Erie R. Co., 259, 266, 269, 
272, 839, 1849, 1851, 1S52, 1854, 1855, 
1864, 1866, 1S67 

u. Ogdeo, 787, 824, 875, 881, 930, 1608, 
1702, 1717, 1736 

V. Scott, 75 

V. Walworth, 1577, 1743 
Nicolls V. Rogers, 2056 
Nicolson V. Wordsworth, 1788 
Nirrosi v. Phillipi, 617, 1212 
Nickell -v. Haiidly, 247, 274, 300, 1606 
Nickerson v. Bowley, 1084 
Niedeletz'. Wales, 1126, 1175 
Nightingale v. Burrell, 323, 396, 402, 411, 413, 
415. 418, 424, 447, 465 

V, Hidden, 297, 679, 680, 684, 1610, 1614 

7). Lawson, 519 
Niles V. Gray, 306, 308, 309, 321 

•V. Hamon, 2153, 2180 

V. Nye, 802 

V. Ransford, 1670, 1755 
Nitzell V. Paschall, 2246 
Niven v. Belknap, 2174, 2302 
Nixon's Appeal, 1646 
Nixon V. Bynum, 2000, 2077, 2078 

V. Nanney, 139S 

V. Nixon, 1836 

V. Potts, 1925 

V. Rose, 251, 257 

V. Widliams, 601, 6ro 
Noble V. Bosworth, 103, 104, 130, 136, 146 

V. Meyers, 1985 

V. McFarland, 588, 1361, 1377, 1903, 1994 

V. Hook, 1448 

V. Mermott, 1788 

V. Noble, 661 

V. Sylvester, 81 

V. Willock, 1836 
Nobles V. McCarty, 1281 
Noe V. Miller's Executors, 479 
Noel V. Bowley, 1743 

V. Ewing, 671, 705, 708, 714, 715, 725, 
893 

V. Henry, 1884 

V. Jevon, 832 

V. McCrory, 1131, 1132, 1322 
Noke's Case, 2362 
Nokes V. Smith, 462 
Nolan V. Reed, 1388, 1390 
Noland v. Nelligan, 1630 
Nolen V. Roysten. 1212 
Nookes' Case, 1989 
Noonan v. Brdley, Admr. of Lee, 2165 

V. Orton, 983, 1075, 1089 
Norbury v. Norbury, 1721 
Norcross v. Norcross, 1998 
Nordant v. Thorold, 876 
Normau v. Burnett, 1592 



Norman v. Cunningham, 1937 

V. Wells, 1059, 1076, 1077, 1124, 1138 
Norment v. Hull, 1244 
Norrice v. Baker, 56 
Norris v. Beyea, 344, 533, 671 

V. Hensley, 249 

V. Hoyt, 215 

V. Johnston, 254 

V. Johnstone, 174S 

V. Kidd, 1378 

V. Le Neve, 1708 

V. Milner, 1849, 1861 

V. Moody, 1863 

V. Morrill, 1344 

V. Morrison, 510 

V. Moulton, 1412, 1501, 207s 

V. Sullivan, 1903, 1904 

V. Taylor, 1772 

V. Thompson, 1844 

V. Watson, 49 

V. Wilkinson, 2002 
North V. Barnum, 1145, 1150, 1782 

V. Philbrook, 289, 1596 

V. Valk, 596 
North American Coal Co. v. Dyett, 1373, 1374 
North Baltimore Building Association v. Cald- 
well, 1770 
Northam v. Hurley, 2218, 2220, 2228, 2229 
Northampton Bank w. allet, 2110, 2111 
Northampton Paper Mills v. Ames, 2077 
Northbey v. Strange, 618 
North Carolina R. Co. v. Wilson, 1662 
Northcut XI. Whipp, 691, 761, 780, 815, 820, 826, 

883, 884,885 
Northern v. State, 49, 57 
Northern Bank of Kentucky u. Roosa, 975, 

1225 
Northern Cent. R. Co. v. Canton Co. of Balu- 

inore, 145 
Northern Trans. Co. of Ohio v. Chicago, 2238 
Northey v. Burbage, 325 
Northfield ti. Plymouth, 597 

V. Veshire, 597, 752 
North Hudson R. Co. v. Booraem, 61 
Northrup v. Marguam, 1897, 189S, 1S99, 1979 

7'. Foot, 2256 
Northumberland v. Aylesford, 946 
Northwestern Fertilizing Co. v. Hyde Park, 

1554 
Northwestern Mut. Life Ins. Co. a. Allis, 2012 
Northy v. Northy, 2099, 2105 
Norton v. Babcock, 1093, 1094, 1095 

V. Fagon, 774, 894 

V. Fraecker, 1552 

V. Gale, 995 

V. Doe ex d. Sanders, 1223 

V. Highleyman, 2138 

V. Hixon, 1703 

V. Ladd, 335, 1781 

V. Leonard, 299, 1560, 1594, 1607, i88g 

V. Lewis, 2151, 2155, 2180 

V. Norton, 1553, 1595, 1597, 1797 

V. Pettibone, 2332 

V. Phelps (" Hewitt v. Phelps "), 1749 

V. Snyder, 1087 

V. Turville, 1783 

7/. Webb, 2079 
Norton, Jackson ex. d., v. Sheldon, 1156 
Norvell v. Walker, 2363 
Norway v. Norway, 1788 

V. Rowe, 574 
Norwich v. Hubbard, 1995, 1996, 2084 
Norwich F. Ins. Co. v. Broomer, 2118 
Norwood V. Byrd, 1702 

V. Marrow, 714, 716, 739, 740, 759, 86i, 
870, 892, 1349 
Nottes' Appeal, 2006 

Nottingham v. Jennings, 322, 324, 826, 925 
Nourse -u. Henshaw, 2012 
Noves V. Clark, 2050 
Nowell V. Johnson, 2007 

V. Wentworth, 1154, 1293 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES, 



clxxix 



Nowlan r-. Trevor, 1274, 1337 
Nowlin V. Whipple, 2243 

V. Winfre, 416, 447 
Noyesr-. Blakeman, 1578, 1798 

V. Hemphill, 2248 

%>. Marsh, 1052 

V. Rich, 2064, 2066 

V. Stauff, gg6 

V. Sturdivant, 2093, 2094, 2095 

T'. Terrj', 105, 113 

V. Ward, 2302 
Nugent V. Cloon, 1754 

V. Gifford, 1667 

V. Riley, 2037, 2039, 2040, 2041, 2042, 21OS 
Nunemacher v. Ingle, 2157 
Nunn V. Givhan, 13.63, 1368, 1369 

■V. Wilsmove, 1626 
Nusom V. Clarkson, 2086 
Nussbaum ik Evans, 419 
Nutt V. Hamilton Ins. Co., 1051 
Nultal i>. Bracewell, 2227 
N. W. Mut. Life Ins. Co. v. Nelson, 1920 
Nyce's Estate, 1713 
Nyce V. Obertz, 730 
Nycom v. McAllister, 2307 
Nye's Appeal, 8S7, 891 

Nye V. Taunton Branch R. R. Co., 796, 828, 
922 



Oakes t'. Mfg. Ins. Co., 2116 

7'. Munroe, 1026, 1141 
Onkey z'. Bennett, 367, 2057, 2288 
Oakley 7'. Aspinwall, 1242 

1'. Scoonmaker, 1230 

7'. Stanley, 2215 
Oakman v. Dorchester Mut. F. Ins. Co., 139, 

141 
Oaks V. Oaks, 1460 
Gates 7'. Cooke, 290, 1563, 1594 
Gates d. Markham v. Cooke, 288, 1594 
Oatmaii V. Fowler, 2356 
0*Bannon7'. Paremour, 2300 

x<. Roberts, 2251,2257, 225S 
Oberley v. Lerch, 94 
Obert V. Obert, 1906, 1975 
O'Brien v. Capwell, 1054, 1066 

V. Elliot, 708, 714, 880, 886, 891, SgS, 899, 
gi8, 920, 924, 929, 940, 944, 952 

f. Troxel, i3r5, 1316 

V. Wetherell, 259, 266, 26S 
O'Byrne v. Feeley, 535 
Ocean Beach Association v. Brinkley, 70S, 719, 

761, 763, 788, 831 
Ocean National Bk. v. Olcott, 180S 
Ockington v. Richey, 55 
O'Connel v. McGrath, 1141 
O'Connell v. Kelly, 2090 
O'Connor v. City of Memphis, 1802 

I'. Kelly, 1154 

7/. O'Connor, 2269 
O'Daniel zk Bakers' Union, 2297 
Odell V. Buck, 1034 

7'. Durant, 1004 

V. Montross, 2038 

V. Odell, 1685 
Odenbaugh v. Bradford, 2050 
Odioma v. I^yford, 57 
Odiome v. Lyford, 1905. 1969 ] 
Odom V. Beverly, 690 

V. Weathersbee, 1899 
O'Doherty v. McGloin, 1407 
O'Donnell v. Hitchcock, 126 

V. McMurdie, 1286 
Oelrichs v. Williams (Oelrichs v. Spain), 1668 
0*Farrall v. Simplot, 646, 669, 711, 721, 895, 

1938 
Gfferman -v. Star, looi, 1002 
Officer 7'. Young, 2332 
Offut V. Scott, 1961 



O'Flaherty v. Sutton, 841, 875 

Ofpeer v. Burchell, 2166 

O'Gara v. Eiscnlohr, 751, 757 

Ogborn v. Eliason, 2027 

Ogbounie v. Ogburne, 737 

Ogdeu's Appeal, 299, 414, 1606, 1656, 1673 

Ogden V. Giidden, 2155 

V. Grant, 2038, 2040 

V. Groves, 2207, 2238 

7'. Larrabee, 1690 

■V. Robertson, 498 

'D. Saunders, 1512, 1518 

V. Stock, 63 

V. Walker, 1309 

V. Walters, 2121, 2156 
Ogdensbiirg& L. C. R. Co. v. Vt. & C. R,, 

Co., 1020 
Ogilvie V. Faljambe, 999 

V. Hull, ri68 
Ogle's Lessee 7-. Ogle, 455 
Oglesby v. HoUister, 1889, i8go 
Oglesby Coal Co. v. Pasco, 924 
O Grady v. Bamshel, 2336 
O'Hanlin v. Den. ex d. Van Kleek, 236 
O'Hanlon v. Unthank, Jr., 266,267 
O'Haraz/. O'Neill, i6gi 
O'Hearz/, De Goesbriand, 30, 31, 32 
Ohio Life Ins. Co. v. Ledyard, 2126 

V, Winn, 2178 
Ohio Life Ins. & T. Co. v. Readers, 2141 
Ohling V. Luitiens, 2146, 2151 
O'Keefe v. Caltliorpe, 1662 

7). Kennedy, 1/43, 1156 
Okeson v. Patterson, 2293 
Okey -v. Bennett, 720 
Oland's Case, 4g8, 53g, 1206, 1267 
Gland v. Burdwick, 1206, 1207 

V. Hardwicke, 539 
Olcott V. Bynum, 1635, 1650, 1651, 1652, 1683 

•v. Robinson, 2158 

V. Tioga R. Co., 1554, 1769, 1775 

7'. Wing, i960, 196 1 
Oldfield's Case, 2222 
Oldham z'. Halley, 2043, 2054 

7'. Henderson, 592, 624, 661, 1377 

V. Oldham, 501 

7'. Pickering, 528 

zK Sale, 821, 905 

7'. Woods, 1276 
Oldroyd v. Crampton, 983 
Olds 7'. Cummings, 2106 
Olti South Society v. Crocker, 16S6 
Olendorf v. Cook, 976 
Oleson V. Bullard, 1409, 1523 
O'Linda v. Lathrop, 72 
Oliver v. Alabama Gold Life Ins. Co., 1000 

7'. Court, 1608, 1735 

7'. Decatur, 2067 

7'. Dougherty, 1635, 1646 

V. Hook, 2212, 2213, 2215, 2241 

V. Houdlet, 103 1 

V. Montgomery, 1890 

7'. Oliver, 1830 

7'. Piatt, 1623, 1661, 1760, 1761, 1765, lyf'S, 
1782 

V. Pitman, 2207, 2221 

V, Snowden, 1387, 13S8, 143S, 1442, 1446 

V. Stone, 2353 
Olliffe V. Wells, 1637 
Olmstead %>. Blair, 92S 

V. Elder, 2103 

V. Niles, 53, 54, 55 

V. Olmstead, 340, 342 
Olney v. Howe, 1593 
Olson 7'. Nelson, 2056 
Olt V. Lohmas, ggS 

V. Lohnas, 996, 1013, 1323 
Omaha Hotel Co. v. Kouutze, 2066 
Ombony 7'. Jones, 1224 
O'Mulcahy V. Holley, 2111 
Onderdonk v. Ackerman, 1842 

V. Gray, 20S4, 2087 



clxxx 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



O'Neal V, Commonwealth, 597 
O'Neale v. Lodge, i6g8 

V. Ward, 271 
0*NeU V. Harkins, 2233 

V. Seixas, 2106 
O'Neill V. Capelle, 2045, 2048, 2052, 2054 

V. Henderson, 1722 
Ongley v. Chambers, 2216 
Onslow 1). , 79, 1 185 

V. Corrie, 2265 
Onsou V. Cown, 1643 
Ontario Bank v. Hennessey, 1241 

V. Loot, 1579 
Ontario State Bank v. Gerry, 1477 
Opdyke %>. Bartles, 783 

V. Barttes, 2173 
Opinions of Justices, 893 
Oppenheimer f . Fritter, 1393 
Orchard v. Hughes, 2165 
Ord V. Chester, 1026 

•V. Johnston, 1697 

V. McGee, 2104, 2106 
Ordway v. Remington, 2256 
Oregon Iron Co. v. TruUinger, 2223 
Oregon R. Co. v. Oregon R. & Nav. Co., 1020 
Oregon R. & N. Co. z/. Mosier, 129 
Orford v. Benton, 692, 693, 703 
Orgill V. Kinshead, 2263 
Oriental Bank v. Freeze, 671, 1517 

V. Haskins, 959 
O'Riley v. McChesney, 2225 
Orlando's Case, 48 

Orleans v Chatham, 1590, 1592, 1691, 1736 
Orleans Nav. Co 7/.Llard, 1140 
Orman v. Day, 2234, 2235 

V. Orman, 1456, 1457 
Orme's Case, 1556 
Ormiston v. Olcott, 1731 
Ormond v. Hutchinson, 1783 
Onidoff V. Turman, 402, 447, 453, 467, 473 
O'Rorke v. Smith, 2207, 2221 
Orr, Matter of, 1521 
Orr z/. Hadley, 68g, 2062, 2063 

V. Hodgson, 216, 218, 673, 1657, 2014 

V. Hodson, 2347 

V. Hollidays, 599, 6or 

V. O'Brien, 487 

V. Quimby, 2326, 2327 

V. Shaft, 1390, 1391, 1421, 1434, 1446 
Orrick z/. Boehen, 710 
Orser -u. Hoag, 217 
Orth V. Orth, 897 
Orton V. Knab, 2168 

V, Noonan, 1089 
Orvis V. Newell, 2140 
Osborn w Garden, 1022 

V. Carr, 2139 

V. Hart, 232S 

7/. Osborn, 1537, 1894 

V. Rider, 2355 

V. Schenck, 1922 

V. Wise, 983 
Osborne v. Brennon, 1244 

V. Crump, 2150, 2152 

V. Edwards, 1363 

V. Endicot, 778, 1635, 163S, 1651, 1699 

V. Farewell, 2254 

V. Hart, 2328 

V. Home, 866 

z/. Humphry, 974 

V. Morgan, 1194 

V. Shrieve, 416 

V. Tunis, 1998, 2013, 2129, 2157 
Osgood V, Abbott, 1861, 1S62 

V. Davis, 1701 

•V. Dewey, 1218 

V. Franklin, 1730, 1737, 1758, 1841, 1842, 
1843 

V. Howard, 63 

V. Thompson, 2046 

V. Thompson Bank, 2047 
Osman v. Sheage, 1558 



Osmond v. Fitzron, 1034 

V. Fitzroy, 756 
Osterhout v. Shoemaker, 764 
Osterman v. Baldwin, 1590, 2014 
Ostrander, Jackson ex d., v. Rowan, 1283, 1298 

V. Spickard, 916, 934, 935, 955 
Ostrom V. McCann, 2149, 2152 
Oswald V. F"atenburgh, 2264 

V, Kopp, 307 
Otis 7'. Beckwith, 1594 

V. McLellan, 1682 

V. McMillan, 225S 

V. Moulton. 212, 2298 

V. Parshley, 761, 764, 815, 826 

V. Prince, 270 

V. Sill, 2018 

V. Smith, 66 

V Warren, 870 
Otis Co. V Inhabitants of Ware, 1554 
Otiey 7'. McAlpine's Heirs, 641, 1981 
Otley, Doe d., v. Manning, 1626 
O'Tool V. Brown, 202 
Ott V Specht, 143 

V. Sprague, 147 1 
Ottauquechee Sav. Bk. %>. Holt, 2101 
Ottawa Plank Road Co. v. Murray, 2051 
Ottman v. Moak, 2011, 2177, 2178 
Otto V. Jackson, 1131, 2267 
Ottumwa Lodge 7/. Lewis, 64, 65, 507 
Ottumwa Woollen Mill Co. v. Hawley, 103, 

IDS, 123, 132, 133, 2080 
Ould V. Washington Hospital, 1609 
Ouseley v. Anstruther, 1623 
Outcalt V Ludlow, 2299 
Outerbridge v. Phelps, 2241 
Outland v. Bowen, 396 
Outon %>. Weeks, 1807 
Outtuon V. Dulin, 1213 
Overdeer z/. Lewis, 1253, 1310, 1357 
Overfield v. Christie, 2295 
Overholt's Appeal, 786, 1964 
Overman v. Sanborn, 2263 

V. Sims, 467 
Overseer of Poor v. Sears, 224 
Overstreet v. Bates, 1781 
Overton v. Hollinshade, 2023, 2024 

V. Lacy, 1878, 1880, 1968 

V. Williston, 115 
Overturf v. Dugan, 355 
Oves V. Oglesby, 137, 138 
Oviatt V. Brown, 1773 

V. Sage, 1246, 1247 
Owen V. Bertholomew, 2300 

V. Boyle, 2273 

V. Ellis, 1806 

V. Fields, 2021 

V. Hyde, 547, 555, 558, 566, 743, 806 

V. Morton, 1897, 19^4 

V. Norris, 2346 

V. Nye Company, 1035 

V. Peacock, 866, 930,931 

V. Perry, 2340 

V. Robbins, 781, 782 

7'. Slatter, 889, 890, 924 

V. Thomas, 999 

V. Wright, 1081 

ZK Yale, 897 ( 

Owens V. Collins, 1956 

V. Dickinson, 1835 

V. Dunn, 651 

V. Lewis, 55, 56 

V. Missionary Society of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, 1603, 1604, 1659 

7'. Owens, 1594 
Owing's Case, 1701 
Owston V. Ogle, 1903 
Oxford V. Ford, 1292, 2274 

V. Oxford, i6go 
Oxley, Bx parte, 1677 
Oxley V. James, 1300, 1301, 1306, 1333 

V. Lane, 249 
Oyster t-, Oyster, 534 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxxxi 



Pace 7'. Pace, 246, 253 

Pacific Iron Works v. Newhall, 2025 

Pacific Rolling Mill Co. v. Dayton, S & G. 

R. R. Co., I020 
Pack V. Bathurst, 1825 

V. Mayor, 1 194 

V. Thomas, i6gS, 1701 
Packard v. Putnam, 1589, 1592, 1691 
Packer z/. Rochester & y. K. Co., 2142,2146, 

2156, 2157 
Packington's Case, 544, 559 
Packington z'. Packington, 569 
Padding v. Clark. 918, 944 
Paddison v. Oldhan, 412 
Paddon v. Richardson, 1715 
Padelford v. Padelford, 545, 546, 547, 550 556, 

559. 738 
Padgett 7'. Lawrence, 1642, 1645, 1651 
Paffz*. Kenny, 17S1 
Page*s Estate, 684 
Page ZK Crown, 1793 

V. Cooper, 1832, 201 1 

V. Estey, 974, 1008 

V. Ewbanks, 1443 

V. Foster, 2053 

V. Fowlen, 47 

V. Hayward, 460 

V. Hinssman, 983, 1218 

ZK Lashley, 2250 

z}. Page, 835, 868, 869, 1635 

V. Palmer, 261, 1867 

V. Pierce, 2107 

V. Purr, 1 1 74 

V. Robinson, 2067, 2077, 2186, 21S7 

V. Rogers, 2042 

V. Roper, 1815 

zi. Summers, 1689 

zj. Way, 247 

z). Webster, 1882, 1979 

z). Western Ins. Co., 1668 

V. Wight, 1355 
Pahlman zi. Smith, 1842 
Paice V. Archbishop of Canterbury, 317 
Paige z>. Paige, 824 
Pain 7'. Smith, 2002 
Paine's Case, 620, 621, 623, 624, 675, 676, 677, 

681, 691, 788, 885 
Paine v, Aberdeen Hotel Co., 2272 

V. Benton, 2027 

z. City of Boston, 2223 

V. Coffin, 1 158 

V. French, 2105, 2107 

7/. Hutchens, 2290 

z'. Jones, 2330 

V. Slocum, 1890, igo6 

V. Upton, 2330 

V. Tucker, 1041 

V. Wagner, 1939 

V. Wood, 68, 70, 71, 72 
Pairo V. Vickery, 1736 
Paisley's Appeal, 1593 
Palk V. Clinton, 1749, 2149, 2150, 2172 

V. Lord Clinton, 2076 
Pall 7'. Baulkley, 1040 
Pallman v Mortgester, 1143 
Pally V. Saratoga R. Co., 2325 
Palmater 7/. Carey, 2166 
Palmer, Ex Parte, 514 
Palmer z*. AllJcock, 19 

V. Danney, 840 

V. Edwards, 1073,1109, 1112, 1118 

ZI. Fleshies, 2234 

■V. Forbes, 98, 103 

zj. Ford, 1139,1140,1x58 

V. Gumsey, 2168 

V. Guthrie, 2046 

V. Hawes, 1385, 1391, 1440 

V. Horton, 883 

V. Marguette Co., 1000 

V. Mead, 2157 



Palmer v. Miller, 2011 

V. Mulligan, loi, 2255 

V. Oakley, 1622 

V. Sawyer, 1030, 1073 

z>. Simonds, 1629 

V. Steiner, 2252 

ZK Stevens, 2085 

V. Wetmore, 1127, 1167, 2223 

z>. Young, logo 
Panton z'. Holland, ig8, 2231, 2232 

V. Manley, 1475, 1479, ispf' 
Papillon V. Voice, 444, 491 
Paquetel v. Gauche, 1213 
Papasy zk Papasy, 780 
Paradine v. Jane, 1099 

Pardee v. Lindley, 1407, 1408, 1414, 1437, '44^* 
1476, 1506, 1522, 1670, 2106 

7'. Treat, 2072 

V. Van Anken, 2136, 2137, 2170, 2172 
Pardue v. Giveus, 265 
Parent z'. Callerhand, 1035 
Parfitt 7/. Hember, 1693 
Parham zi. Parham, 957, 960, 963 

7'. Thompson, 49, 52 
Paris 7'. Hulett, 2157 
Parish zk Gates, 2047 

V. Gilmanton, 1998 

V. Gaspare, 2242, 2243 

7/. Scott, 2331 

z). Ward, 221, 2289 

V. Wheeler, 2014 
Park V. Baker, 110 

V. Brooks, 729 

V. Castle, 1 135, 1300, 1338 

V. Hardy, 685 

' V. Hawkins, 2357 

Parke v. Kilham, igoi, 1908 

7'. Mears, 2355 
Parker 7'. Allen, 1220 

7'. Banks, 2298 

V. Boston & M- R. Co., 2230 

7'. Carter, 621 

V. Chambliss, 57S 

V. Constable, 1269, 1337 

z). Converse, 1662, 1754 

7'. Copeland, 1104 

V. Foote, 1913, 2223, 2292 

V. Foy, 2006 

V. Girard, 1973 

V. Griswold, 2248 

V. Hayden, 936 

z/. Hill, 2034 

V. HoUis, 996, 998, 1013, 1131, 1316, 1323 

z). Hotchkiss, 2226 

V. Jacobs, 2017 

V. Jones, 2080 

V. King, 1388, 1513 

z*. Lincoln, 1873, 2014, 2015 

V. Murphy, 861, 869 

V. Nanson, 1213 

V. Nichols, 236, 2317, 2319 

V. O'Cear, 930 

V. Parker, 309, 335, 340, 342, 415, 417, 
723, 724, 790, 846, 877, 1838 

z/. Parmele, 2059 

7'. Proprietors of Locks and Canals, 212, 
1815, 1816, 1898, 1899 

V. Raymond, 1213 

V. Rochester, 2000 

7/. Rule, 2334 

V. Smith, gg, 2362 

V. Snyder, 1635, 1648 

V. .Staniland, 50, 51 

V. Sluckert, 214 

ZK Tootal, 411, 413 

V. Van Cortland, 1591 

V. Webb, 2262 

V. White, 1845 

V. Whyte, 1185 

V. Winnipiseogee, Lake C. &. W, Mfg. 
Co., X669 

-i/. Wood, 2020 



clxxxii 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Parkham v. Justices of Decatur Co., 2324 
Parkhurst v. Walertown Steam Engine Co. 
2106 

V. Northern Cent. R. Co., 2019 

V. Van Cortland, 2174 

V, Watertown Steam Engine Co., 2106 
Parkins z*. Coxey, 552, 553 

V. Dunham, 2223, 2345, 2347 
Parkinson's Appeal, 75, 76,2121 
Parkinson v. Hanbury, 2086 
Parkist z/. Alexander, 1617, 1643, 1745, 1771 

2015, 2036 
Parkman v. Bowdoin, 417, 423 

1;. Welch, 2153, 2184 
Pavkman's Admr. v. Aicardi, 1112, 1123, 1184 
Parke v. Nichols, 2312 
Parks, Re, 1433 
Parks z/. Boston, 1127, 1129, 1167,2268 

V. Brooks, 729, 799 

V, Hall, 1993, 2037, 2049, 2127, 2128 

V. Hardy, 823, 843, 865 

V. McLellan, 718 

V. Nichols, 2319 

V. Parks, 1607 

V. Webb, 2020 

z/. Whit, 1035, 1373 
Parmelee v. Cameron, 1697 

V. Dann, 2105, 2106, 2107 
Parmenter z/. Walker, 2163 

V. Weber, 1057, 1109, 1112, ii2i 
Parmer z/. Giles, 1750 

v, Parmer, 2168 
Parmle v. Sloan, 1641 
Parrett z*. Shaubhut, 2122, 2126 
Parrisz/. Cobb, 1032, 1782 
Parrish v. Stevens. 2206 
Parrot v. Barnes, 1301, 1306 

V. Barney, 1105, 1152, 1153, 1228 

If. Edmondson, 1842 
Parris v. Cobb, 1032, 17S2 
Parry v. Harbert, 255 

V. House, 1 148 

V. Wright, 2098 
Parry, Doe d., v. Hazell, 1336, 1337, 1340, 

1341 
Parrott v. Kumpf, 1497 
Papsell V, Stryker, 1004 
Parsons, In re, 234 
Parsons z/. Baker, 1630 

V. Bedford, 667 

V. Boyd, 1729, 1730, 1876, 1881, 1885, 1968 

V. Camp, 78, 79, 103, 106 

V. Copeland, 133, 134, 138 

V. Ely, 645 

V. Hughes, 2187 

V. Johnson, 2211,2216 

2/. Livingston, 1400, 1402, 1519, 1520 

V. Lyman, 1835 

7/. McCracken, 2176 

V. Miller, 1972 

V. Noggle, 2174, 2175 

V. Russell, 2324 

V. Smith, 55 

V. Wells, 1996, 2102, 2103, 2107 

V. Winslow, 270, 271, 514 
artee v. Stewart, 1399, 1402, 1434, 1451 

z/. Thomas, 1662 
Partington's Case, 400, 444 
Parteriche v. Powlet, 563, 740 
Parton v. Harvey, 752 
Partriche v. Broadhurst, 947 
Partridge v. Badger, 2342 

V. Berce, 2092, 2093 

V. Bere, 1279 

V. Dorsey, 401, 445, 463 

V. First Independent Church, 41, 2213 

p. Gilbert, 2232, 2235, 2236, 2237, 2243 

V. Havens, 1640 

z'. Messer, 1623 

z'. Partridge, 2105 

f. Scott, 2232 

V. Swazey, 2027 



Paschal v. Cushman, 1513 

z/. Davis, 1723 
Pasey v. Cook. 300 
Passinger v. Thorburn, 1247 
Patapsco Guard Co. v. Morrison, 1832 
Patch V, City of Covington, 1247, 1248 

V. Keeler, S52, 859 
Patchin v. Cromach, 2344 
Patersonz'. Boston, 1129 
V. Ellis, 322, 344, 396 
•u. Lanning, 1989 
•V. Murphy, i6gi, 1791 
V. Wabash, St. L. & Pac. R. Co., 198 
Paton V. Murray, 2147 
Patrick V. Commissioners, 2325 
V. Marshall, 1986 
V Morehead, 534 
z/. Sherwood, 504, 505, 553 
Patridge v, Bere, 1993 
Patten %>. Bond, 1164 

V. Dechon, 1059, 1071, 1072, 1073, 1077, 
1112, 1115, 1117, 1124, 1139, 2251, 
2262, 2265 
V. Pearson, 2157, 2163 
V. Smith, 1514 
Patterson v. Birdsdall, 2138 
V. Blake, 1960, 1964 
V. Blight, 2254 
V. Boston, 1 127, 1 167, 2268 
7/. Carneal, 799, 2076 
V. Campbell, 1624 
V. Douner, 2059 
V. Gaines, 755 
V. Hansel, 1145, 1723 
V. Huddart, 307 
V. Johnston, 2029 
V. Kreig, 1475 
V. Lanison, 2095 
V. Lawrence, 1820, 1823 
V. Martin, 1976 
V. McCousland, 228 
V. Moore, 281, 287, 531 
V. Patterson, 646, 647, 895, 1938 
V. Philadelphia & R. R. Co., S3 
V. Rabb, 2110 
z/. Robinson, 1562 
V. Snell, 2322 
V. Stoddard, 1258, 1282, 1290, 1291, 2261, 

2271 
•v. Sweet, 1216 
V. Wilson, 1822 
V. Yeaton, 2055 
Pattison's Appeal, 355, 2334 
Pattison v. Blanchard, 1241 
V. Hill, 2099, 2107 
V. Powers, 2082 
Patton V. Adkins, 2086 

V. Axley, 1254, 1299, 1315, 1319, ,324, 

1337 
V. Beecher, 1589, 1590 
V. Calhoun, 18S9 
V. Cliamberlain, 1592 
V. Crow, iSjo 
•V. Page, 2181 
V. Patton, 786 
•V. Philadelphia, 595, 596 
V. Philadelphia & New Orleans, 7<;i, i^'z 
V. Randall, 2 - /:> > /s 

V. Rankin, 1942, 1944 
Patty z/. Bogle, 2274 
V. Goolsoy, 1S24 
V. Middleton, 1950 
V. Pease, 2154, 2180 
Paul V. Paul, 1411, i4qi 
■V. Compton, 1629 
V. Davis, 2282 
V. Fulton, 1665, 1690, T759 
y. Ward, 1349 
Paullings v. Barron, 1997, 1998, 2169 
Paup V. Sylvester, 1408 
Pawlet V. Clark, 707 
Pawlins v. Stewart, 2090 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxxxiii 



Pawson v. Brown, 1638 
Paxson ?'. Lefferts, 423 

7'. Potts, 938 
Paxtou V. Douglass, 2081 

V. Harrier, 2134, 2184 
z'. Paul, 2129 
V. Potts, 937 
v. Stuart, 1689 
Payn v. Beal, 251 
Pa.yne, £ jv parUy 34, 1631, 1632 
Payne v. Atterburj', 2004, 2008 
V. Avery, 2004 

V. Beecker, 733, 734, 735, 741,838, 839 
v. BuUard, 1781 

v. Dotson, 892 • 

V. Harrell. 2009 
V. Herald, 215S 
V. James, 1202 
V. Patterson, 2011, 2017 
f. Payne, 654, 678, 679, 684, 688, 712, gi8, 

945. 1372 
V. Rogers, 1196, 1108, 1202 
V. Sale, 1796 
7>. Wilson, 2364 
Payton ?'. Sherburne, 1293 
Pea V. Pea, 106, 116, 132, 135 
Peabody v. Eastern Methodist in Lynn, 1886 
V. Hewett, 2299 
V. Lynn Methodis Soc, 2107 
V. Minot, 1911, 1912, 1922, 1967, 1985 
z'. Patten, 2172 
V. Roberts, 2174 
7'. Tarbel!, 1538, 1576, 1633 
Peacock 7-. Eastland, 383 
z/. Monk, 2012 
f. Purvis, 49 
V, Smart, 2279 
Peacock. Doe d., z;. Raffan, 1338, 1339, i34'» 

U42 
Peak V. EUicott, 1762 
Peake ». Cameron, 1446 
Pearce v. Ferris, 1350 
V. Foreman, 2006 
V. Hall, 2026 
v. McClenaghani, 1797, 2201, 2243, az45i 

2247, 2248 
7'. Morris, 2170 
V. Savage, 335, 1594, i597 
Pearl v. Harris, 1051 

V. McDowell, 2345 
Pears z'. Covilland, 617 
Pearse v. Baron, 1038 

7/. Ownes, 274 
Pearson 7/. Carlton, 1895 
V. East, 1620 
V. Howes, 596, 751 
V. Jamison, 1667 
7', Moreland, 1716 
V. Ries, ggi, looi 
V. Seay, 2044, 2051, 2053, 2054 
z>. Spencer, 2211, 2216 
z'. Taylor, 1766 
Pearson, Jackson ex d., v. Housel, ^, 305- 307 

309. 310 
Pease v. Benson, 2108 
7'. Kelly, 2005 

V. Pilot Knob Iron Co., 1999, 207S 
■V. Warren, 2100 
Peaslee v. Gee, 2357 
Peavey v. Tilton, 1786 
Peay v. Peay, 885 
Peck 7'. Austin, 1029 

V. Batchelder, 96, 104, 107, loS, 113, i35» 

136. ^7 
7f. Brummagen, 1947, i949 
-v. Carpenter, 1895, 191 1 
V. Fisher, 1030, 1957, 1963 
V. Henderson, 181 1 
V. IngersoU, 1107, 1124 
V. Jones, 1127, 1167 
V. Knickerbocker Ice Co., 2259 
f. Millans, 2024, 2122, 2365 



Peck V. Newton, 1713 

V. Northrop, 1120, 2250 
V. Peck, 572, 595, 597, 
V. Sherwood, 505, 513 
V. Vandenberg, 1700, 1947 
Peckham v. Haddock, 2134 

V. Hadwen, 762, 817, 819 
Pederick v. Searle, 2299 
Pedrick t. Searl, 517 * 

V. Searle, 2297, 2300 
Peebles 7/. Reading, 1644, ^744 
Peed V. McGee, 2059 
Peel V, Lewis, 2227 
Peeler v. Guilkey, 1897, 1915 
Pep;ues v. Pegues, 1635, 1646 
Peirce v. Goddard, 62, 97, 142, 144 
PeirsoU 7/. Elliot, 2331 
Peiton V. Banks, 310 
Pelan v, Bevard, 975, 1424 
Pelham's Case, 516 
Pell V. Decker, 1489 
Pellenz z'. Bullerdieck, 128 
Pelletreau v. Jackson, 1580 
Pelley v. Wathen, 20S9, 2090 
Pells V. Brown, 320, 321, 418 
Peiton V. Knapp, 2134 

V. Westchester Fire Ins. Co., 1614, 2113 
Pemberton v. Hicks, 580, 628, 665, 666, 2278 
V. King, 1225 
V, Pemberton, 935, 941 
Pemberton's Lessee v. Hicks, 666 
Pemington v. Hanby, 2ot;'^ 
Pence v. St. Paul, H. & M. R. Co., 1019 
Pender?'. Lancaster, 1397 

V, Rhea, 1236 

Pendleton v. Hooper, 1381 

V. Pomroy, 766 

V. Rooth, 2095 

zf, Vandevier, 516, 743 

Pendleton County 7>. Amy, 1041 

Pendergast z*. Yomig, 1120 

V. Foley, 1785 
Peneyert/. Brown, 1138 
Penfold 7/. Mould, 1587 
PenhoUow V. Dwight, 49, 51 
Penington v. Coats, 520 
Penman v. Slocum, 1611 
Penn z/. Clemans, 2169 
V. demons, 1758 
V. Klyne, 2305 
V. Ott, 2016 
V. Peacock, 1844 
Penn Salt Mfg. Co. z>. Ned, 1561 
Pennall's Appeal, 95 
Pennel 7'. Fern, 102 1 
Pennell 7>. Deffell, 1720 
Pennhollow v. Dwight, 2334 
Penniali v. Harbome, 1152 
Penniman v. French, 96 
Pennington v. Gellard, 2233 
7'. Hanby, 2168 

7/. Seal, 14, 31. i5'2, 1513. 15^7 
Pennington 7/. Veil, 538, 731, 733, 741 
Pennington, Doe d., z'. Taniere, 1320, 1331, 1332 
Pennock 7t. Coe, 98, 2018, 2019 
V. Eagles, 2127 
Pennock, 487, 1S06, 1836 
Pennock's Estate, 118, 346, 458, 1591. 1593. 

1631, 1632, 1633 
Pennoyer v. Neff, 2142, 2324 
Pennsylvania z'. Wheeling Bridge Co., 2326 
Pennsylvania Coal Co. z/. Blake, 2129 
V. Sanderson, 200 
V. Sandersons, 199 
Pennsylvania Ins. Co. v. Parke, 1972 
Pennsylvania Lead Co.'s Appeal, igg, 2222 
Pennsylvania R. Co. v. Jones, 2241 

V. Parke, 1972 
Pennsylvania Salt Co. v. Neel, 88 
Penny v. Black, 1241 
V. Davis, 1786 
Lennytiecker z/. McDougal, 113 



clxxxiv 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Penrose v. Erie Canal Co., 151S 

Pense %k Hixon, 891, 927 

Penthyn v. Huges, 509, 519 

Pentland -u. Stokes, 1785 

Penton v. Robert, 107, 119, 123, 129, 130, 131, 

145, 146 
People V. Bank of Dansville, 1762 

v> Bennett, 1141 

V. Botsford, 1324 

V. Broadway Wharf Co., 1029 

V. Brown, 755 

V. Burk, 1036 

V. Canal Appraisers, 2294 

V. Carpenter, 1517 

V. Caton, 2338 

V. Central R. Co., 20 

t». City Bank, 1763 

V. City Bank of Rochester, 1762 

V. Conklin, 216, 217, 1657 

V. Culver, 1028 

V. Dudley, 2269 

V. Ferris, 595 

I'. Field, 1356, 2291 

V. Folsom, 196, 215, 216, 21S 

z*. Gallaa;her. 2325 

V. Gillis, 820, 821 

V. Goelet, 969, 1340 

V. Haskins, 2253 

V. Home Ins. Co., 2335 

V. Hovey, 662, 1359 

V. Hewlett, 2254 

V. Irvin, 2289 

V. Jenness, 753 

V. Jeuners, 753 

7'. !Mayor of Brooklyn, 1102, 2325, 2335 

V. Mayor of New York, 197 

V. McCarthy, 1141 

V. Merchants' Bank, 1768 

V. New York Gas Light Co., 232S 

V. Norton, 1662, 1787 

V. Palmer, 646 

V. Paulding, 1307 

V. Quant, 2324, 2329 

V. Reed, 1263 

V. Rickert, 996, 1301, 1306, 1321, 1322, 
1323 

V. Robertson, 1006 

V. Salem, 2325 

■D. Shackno, 1274, 1344 

V. Schoonmaker, 1554 

V. Siner, 1213, 1216 

V. Smith, 197, 2327 

V. Snyder, 221, 222, 1657, 2014 

•u. Spaulding, 1334 

V. St. Patrick's Cathedral, 40, 41 

V. Superior Court of N. Y., 2031 

V. Supervisors of Montgomery Co., 
2335 

V. Toynbee, 2325, 232S 

V. Utica Cement Co., 498 

V. Utica Ins. Co., 1554 

V. Van Nostrand, 1263 

V. Van Rensselaer, 195, 209 

V. White, 370, 390 

People ex rel. Aldhouse v. Goelet, 1327, 1329 

People ex rel. Botsford v. Darling, 1202, 1302, 

1322, 1323, 1324, 1326, 1327, 1329, 

1335. 1340. 2232 

People ex rel. Chi-om. Steel Co. v. Spaulding, 

1317 
People ex rel. Dikherz/. German Tnited Evan- 
gelical Church, 34 
People ex rel. Grissler v. Dudley, 1052, 1062 
People ex rel. Hubbard z/. Annis, 1287, 128S 
People ex rel. Kline v. Rickert, 981, 1013 
People ex rel. Norton v. Gillis, 477, 478,501, 

521, 993 
People ex rel. New_ York & H. R. R. Co. if. 

Commissioners of Texas, 96, 98 
People ex rel, Parker Mills v. Commissioners 

of Texas, 1554 
People ex rel. Schock z/. Green, 1029 • 



People ex rel. The New York Elevated Rail- 
road V. Commissioners of Texas, 45 
People ex rel. Ward v. Kelsey, 992 
People's Bank v. Keech, 1884 
People's Ice Co. v. Davenport, 74 

V. Steamer Excelsior, 198, 983 

%i. The Excelsior, 68 
People's Loan & Building Association v. White- 
more, 12 1 3 
Peppard v. Deal, 306, 310, 331, 333, 334 
Pepper's Estate, 486, 487 
Pepper z/. Haiglit, 235S 

V. O'Dowd, 2297 
Peppercorn v. Wayman, 1788 
Peralta v. Caslro, 1697 
Perez v. Raybaud, 1191, 1197 
Perin V, Carey, 245, 257 
Perine v. Teague, 2678, 1317 
Perkins, Ex- pariey 36S 
Perkins v. Blood, 2304 

V. Boynton, 1884 

2/. Cartwell, 1781 

V. Cottrell, 1367 

V. Coxe, 561 

V. Dibble, 2038, 2039, 2129 

V. Dickinson, 247 

V. Eaton, 1898 

V. Governor, The, 1172 

V. Hay, 251, 257 

V. Little, 707, 776 

V. Malterson, 210S 

V. Matteson, '2106 

V. McDonald, 301 

V. NichollS; 1646, 1649 

V. Perkins, 1514 

V. Pitts, 2091 

V. Quigley, 1419 

V. Sterne, 2095, 2104, 2107, 2134 

V. Stockwell, 283 

V. Stone, 2099 

If. Swank, 118, 119, 122, 139 
Perley v. Chase, 2067 
Perminter ti. McDaniel, 2339, 2340 
Pemam v. Wead, 2220, 2221 
Perot V. Levasseur, 2099 
Perrin z'. Blake, 438 

V. Garfield, 2226 

V. Granger, 32, 40 

V. Lepper, 2251, 2256 

z>. Sargeant, 1517 
Perrine v. Chessman, 2363 

V. Dunn, 2156 

V. Hankinson, 2260 
Perrot v. Perrot, 572 
Perry v. Adams, 1918 

V. Aldrich, 497, 2255, 226S 

V. Brown, 142 

V. Carr. 79, 1153, 1297 

V. Goodwin, 975 

V. Granger, 1905 

J'. Grant, 2005 

V. Holden, 2357 

V. Karnes, 2069 

V. Kline, 238, 401, 408, 411, 415, 420, 447, 
469 

V. Meadowcraft, 661 

V. Meddowcraft, 2044, 2052, 2955 

V. McHenry, 1646, 1653 

V. Merritt, 1684- 

V. Perryman, 916, 935, 955 

V. Phillips, 1807 

V. Pierce, 2319 

V. Price, 2318 

V. Providence Ins. Co., 1005 

V. Roberts, 2099 

V. Swazey, 1636 

V. Tollier, 537 

V Woods, 315 
Perrv Manfg. Co. v. Brown, 369, 2oi;8 
Penifull 7.. Hind. 1457 
Person v. Merrick, 2148 

V. O'Neal, 2336 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxxxv 



Persons v. Alsip, 2148 

V. Schaeffer, 213S 
Pet V. Hammond, 2144, 2152 
Pete V. Hammond, 2150 

Peter v. Beverly, q4, 1555, 1560, 1599, 1663, 1731, 
1780, 1806, 1810, 1839, 1S41, 1842, 
1S43 

V. Kendal, 982 
Peters z/. Barns, 1160 

V. Elkins, 2065 

t/, Florence, 2134 

V, Grubb, 226S 

V. Jamestown Bridge Co., 2103, 2104, 
2110 

V. Lincoln & N. Y. H. R. Co., 1019 
Peterson v. Clark, 829, 2040, 2053, 20S0, 2187 

V, Edmonson, 1126, 1175 

V. Smart, 11 96 
Petition of Young, 2361 
Petland z'. Keep, 2241, 2243 
Petre z\ Espinasse. 1791 

V. Heneage, 60 
Petrie J'. Bury, 1925 
Petsch V. Briggs, 1335, 1340 
Pettee v. Case, i666, 2031, 2033 
Pettengili w. Evans, 1153, 1297 
Pettibone v. Edwards, 2148 

V. Griswold, 2027, 2029 
PettingUl V. Evans, 2067 
Pettinghill v. Porter, 2207, 2221 
Pettit p. Shepard, 2331 
Pettman v. Bridger, 29, 30, 32 
Petts w. Hendricks, 741 
Petty V. Doe d. Graham, 1308 

V. Kennon, 1286 

V. Malier, 599, 675, 734, 735, 741, 1309, 
228S 

V. Tooker, 34 

V. Petty, 708, 716, 727, 794, 795, S75, 912 
Pettyjohn v. Beasley, 933, 947 

V. Pettyjohn, 597 
Peugh V. Davis, 20.^9, 2168, 2169 
Peverly v. Sayles, 1483, 1514, 1515 
Peyton v. Jeffries, 867, 868, 875 

V. Smith, 304, 306, 309, 353, 1891 

V. Stith, 1214 
Pfanner v. Strumer, 47, 48, 1262, 1267 
Pfund y. Herlinger, 1166 
Pharis v. Leachman, 836, 1363 
Phelan Estate, Matter of, 1517 

V. Boylan, 504 

V. Gardner, 1033 

V. Kelly, 1873, 1917 
Phelon V. Stiles, 1194 
Phelps t/. Chesson, i860, 1862, 1868 

v. Conover, 1496, 200S 

1/. Jackson, 1622 

V. Jepson, 1876, 1881, 1882, 1883, iq68 

V. Harris, 1669, 1739, 1832 

V. Murray, 2018 

V. Nave, 11 13 

V. Phelps, 329, 647, 1506, 1689 

V. Rooney, 1378, 1379, 1387, 1390, 1417, 
1431- 1436, 1446, 1475 

V. Sage, 2085, 2 1 28 

V. Seely, i6go, i6gi 

V. Taylor, 1213 

V. Townsley, 2100 

V. Wait, 1 195 - 

V. Van Dusen, 2263, 2264 
Phelps & Bigelow Windmill Co. -u. Shay, 

1496 
Philadelphia v. Field, 2325 
Philadelphia Nat. Bank v. Dowd, 1761, 1762 
Philadelphia & R. R. Co. v. Durby, 1185, 1730 

V. Johnson, 2082 
Philadelphia, W. & B. R. -u. Woelpper, 2015, 

2018, 2019 
Philbrick V. Ewring, 136 

v. Spangler, 596 
Philbrook v. Delono, 1537, 1700, 2005 
Phileo z: Halliday, 487 



Philips w. Crammond, 1515, 1611, 1623, 1635, 
1636 

V, Doe, 1060, 1061 

V. Green, 2365 
Philleo V. Smalley, 137S, 1445 
Phillip's Estate, In r^, 233 
Phillip V. Benjamen, 991 

V. Doe ex d.. Tucker, 1155 
Phillipo 7'. Mumiings, 1782, 1783 
Phillipott's Cases, 1040 

Phillips V, Allen, 542, 543, 546, 547, 556, 557, 
560 

V. Aurora Lodge, 1019 

V. Bishop, 1473, 1474. J489 I 

V. Covert, 1 153, 1252, 1277, 1297 

V. Disney, 725 

V. Doe, 1138, 1150 

V. Doolittle, 1 157 

V. Eastern R. Co., 1019 

V. Eastwood, 1684 

V. Ferguson, 1858 

V. Grayson, 1361 

V. Green, 103 1, 2343 

V. Gregg, 1916 

V. Hele, 340 ' 

v. Holmes, 2045, 2067 

V. Hulsizer, 2045 

V. Hunter, 368, 2057, 2288 

V. Kent, 2299 

V. Kingsfield, 1456 

V. La Forge, 697 

V. Maxwell, 22-'2 

V. Mebury, 1858 

V. Monges, 1132, 1135,1317 

V. Moore, 2014 

zi. Mosely, 1318, 1326 

V. MulUngs, 1 801 

V. Pearson, 2126 

V. Phillips, 325, 610, 619, 623, 634, 786, 
2036, 2123, 2211, 2241, 2242 

V. Saunderson, 200S 

V, Sherman, 1908 

V. Sinclair, 2175 

V. Smith, 564 

V. South Park Commissioners, 1690 

V. Springfield, 1460, 1466 

V. Stanch, 1485 

V. Stevens, 1068, logS, 1099 

V, Tliompson, 1614 

V. Winslow, gS, 2018, 2019 

V. Wooster, 681 

V. Worfcrd, 689 
Phillips' Academy v. King, 1541, 1555, 1670 
Phillips, Doe d., v. Butler, 1336 

V. Rollins, 1309 
Phillips, Jackson ex d., v. Aldrich, 1296 
Phillips' Lessees. Robertson, 996, 1160, 1214, 

1322 
Phillipson v. Kerry, 1801 

V. Mullanphy, 13S 
Phillpott V. Elliott, 1649 
Philpot v. Hoare, 11 13 
Phinney v. Johnson, 841, 844, 924 
Phipps V. Ingraham, 994 

V. Kelynge, 1693 

V. Lord Ennismore, 1748 
Phoenix Co. v. Fletcher, 2239 
Phcenix Ins. Co. v. Continental Ins. Co., 1059 
Phyfe v. Riley, 2000, 2169 

V. Wardell, 1089, 1090, 1091 
Physick's Appeal, 318, 328, 1675 
Physick v. Physeck, 596 
Piatt z*. Dawes, 1020 

V. Hubbell, 1976 

V. Oliver, 695, 1623, 1770, 1963 

V. Vattier, 1519 
Pibusz/. Mitford, 1538 
Picardy ?'. Central Bank, 1690, 1691 
Pickard v. Collins, rigg 

V. Kleis, 1130, 1134 

V. Sears, 2302 
Pickens v. Reed, 136 



clxxxvi 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Pickeis V. Webster, 49 
lickering v. Coates, 1656 

V. Danson, 1200 

V. Langdon, 535, 536 

V, Pickering, 1872 

V. Reynold, 2334 

V. Shotwell, 1656 
Pickett V. Brown, 2206 

V. Euckner, 800, 801, 2164 

V. Chilton, 645 

V. Dowdell. 2303 

V. Ferguson, 1164 

V. Jones, 2104, 2160 

V. Lyles, igg 

V. Peay, gi8, 928, 935, 942, 944 

V. Pecay, 916 

zt. Sutter, 1033 
Pico V. Columbet, 1895, 1904 
Pickle V. McKessick, i860 
Picot V, Page, 1883, iggo 
Pidge V. Tyler, 208, 2364 
Pidgeley ti. Rawling, 560 
Pidgeon v. Trustee of Schools, 2071 
Pier ^ Carr, 112S, 1129, 1168 
Pierce v. Brew, 1094 

V. Brown, 1220, 1222 

v. Burroughs, 504 

V. Cambridge, 1288 

V. ChaCe, 1935, 1940, 1941 

V. Chicago, etc., R. R. Co.. 1515 

V. Commissioner of Emigi-ation, 1863 

V. Dyer, 64 

V. Emery, 97, 98, 142, 2017, zoiS, 2019, 
2342 

V. George, 106 

V. Goddard, 2186 

V. Hakes, 414, 600, 681, 692 

V. Hobbs, 731 

V. Keator, 2213, 2214, 2215, 2211, 2240 

V. McKeehan, 1759 

V, Methodist Episcopal Church, 41 

V. Milwaukee R. Co., 2018 

V. Milwaukee St St. P. R. Co., 2019 

V. Minturn, 220/^ 

V. Pierce, 966, 1131, 1634, 1657, 2254, 
2270 

V. Potter, 2158 

V. Robinson, 2045, 2047, 2050 

V. Trigg, 1964 

V. Wannett, 613, 628 

V. Williams, 852, 855, S58, 859, 877 

V. Win, 499 
Piercy z/. Roberts, 253 
Pierre -v. Fernald, 2223 
Pierrepont %>. Barnard, 55, 56 
Pierson v. Armstrong, 2359, 2360 

V. Hitchner, 859, 860 

V. Howey, 751, 752 

V. Lane, 118, 378, 380, 396, 4=2, 45S , 

V. Shore, 77, logi 

7'. Townsend, 2338 

V. Truax, 1456 

V. Turner, 212, 1309 
Pifer V. Ward, 744, 745, 778, 814, S91, 922, 923 
Piggot V. Mason, 1008 
Piggott's Case, 1827 
Pigot V. Garnish, 1023 
Pike V. Brown, 1063, 2068 

V. Collins, 2027 

V. Eyre, 1107, 1123 

V. Goodnow, 2153, 2181 

V. Miles, 1480, 1481 

V. Underbill, 806, 850 

V. Wassell, 504 
Pilcher v. Rawlins, 1778 
Pile V. McBratney, 501 
Pilkington v. Boughy, 1630, 1638 
Pilla V. Germain School Assoc, 217, 21S 
Pilling V. Armitage, 1087 
Pillow u. Love, 126 

V. Wade, 647 
Pillsbury v. Moore, 2226, 2245 



Pillsworth V. Hopton, 571 

Pim V. Downing, 1733, 1734 

P. R. M. Co. V. D. S. G. R. Co., T042. 

Pidgen, Doe d., v. Richards, 1263, 1293, 1295 

Pindall v. Trevor, 1620, 1760 

Pine V. Rector of Trinity Church, 1159 

V. Liecester, in8 
Pinero v. Judson, 1343 
Pingree v. Coffin, 1665, i6go 
Pingrel v. McDuffe, 2220 
Pingrey v. Watkins, 1112, 1117 
Pinhoi-n v. Souster, 1266, 1294, 1296, 1297, 1307, 

1334 
Pinkerton v. Tumlin, 1501, 1502,1579 
Pinkham t. Gear, 851, 852, 856 
Pinkston v. Brewster, 1781 
Pinnell %k Boyd, 206a, 2068, 2069 
Pinney v. Fellows, i6go, i6gi 
Pinnington v. Galland, 92 
Pinnock v. Clough, 1645, 1651, 1653 
Pinson v. Ivey, 1539, 1659 

V. McGehee, 1690 
Pinston v. Ivey, 1782 
Pintard ?/. Goodloe, 2006 
Pintard, Jackson ex d., v. Bodole, 1016 
Piper's Estate, 504, 506, 534 
Piper V. Johnston, 1362 

V. May, 662 

7'. Moulton, 1603, 1604, 16S6 

V. Richardson, 750 

V. Smith, ig6r, 1964, 1965 
Pipkin V. Allen, 1896 
Pippin V. Ellison, 2 

Piqua Branch State Bank t'. Knoop, 2335 
Piscataqua Bridge Co. z'. New Hampshire Co., 

2325 
Piscataqua Exchange Bank z/. Carter, 1699 
Pitcher v. Barrows, 2364 

V. Tovey, 1074, 2265 
Pitkin V. Noyes. 51 
Pitt, Doe d., V. Hogg, 1146 

V. Hunt, 1361 

V. Jackson, 656, 1040, 1838 

V. Shew, 145 

V, Smith, 1032, 1033, 1034 
Pittman -v. Pittman, 1586 
Pitts 1'. Aldrich, 80S, 925, 2130 

IK Aldridge, 728 

V. Cable, 2052, 2053 

V. Hall, 1884 

V. Hendrix, 46 

V. Parker, 2007 

V. Pitts, 894 
Pittsburg V. Danford, 2302 

V. Scott, 2328 
Pittsburgh, C. & St. L. R. Co. -u. Columbus 

C. R. Co., 1019 
Pittsburgh & St. L. R. Co. v. Rothchild, 368, 

2057 
Pittsburgh, etc., R. R. Co, v. Theobald, 1194 
Pittsburgh, V.-& C R. Co. v. Bentley, 473, 494 
Pittsfield Bank v. Howk, 1503 
Pixley V. Clark, 2232 

V. Pliggins, 2120 
Pizalla zi, Campbell, 737, 837 
Plaisted v Holmes. 1602 
Planter v. Cunningham, 1079 

7'. Scrwood, 624, 625, 627 
Planters' Bank v. Davis, 693, 698, 703 

V. Henderson, 14S1 

v. Neely, 1716 

V. Prater, 1622, 2106 

V. Sharp, 1510, 1511 

V. Walker, 136 
Planters' Bank of Mississippi v. Sharp, 2332 
Planters' Bank of Tennessee v. Davis, 692 
Planters' Ins. Co. v. Diggs, 1138, 1139, 1151, 

Planters and Merchants' Rank of Mobile v. 

Andrews, 1540, 1554 
Plantt V. Payne, 820 
Plato V. Roe, 1996, 2039, 2050, 2168 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxxx 



Vll 



Platt*s Estate, 636 
Piatt V. Brown, 2321 

V. Johnson, loi, 2225 

w. Smith, 2141 

V. Squire, 2147 

V. Stewart, 1975, 1985 
Platte V. Cady, 1476, 1496 
Player, Den ex d., t'. Nicholls, 973, 980, 1553, 

»5g5. '597- 1694 
Playford v, Playford, 2173 
Pleasant v. Benson, 1306, 1344 
Pleasants v. Claghorn, 1002, 1323 
Pledger 7'. Easterling, 17S4 

2/. EUerbee, 659, 760, 764, 781, 800, S70, 
925 
Plenty v. West, 1560 
Plimb's Case, 1554 
Plimpton V. Converse, 2207, zaig, 2244 

V. Farmers' Ins. Co., 2114 

z/. Insurance Co.,2iiS 
Pluck V. Diggs, 1 109 
Plumb V. Sawyer, 635, 637, 671, 1376 

&. Tubbs, 259, 267, 268, 269, 185S 
Plumer v. Guthrie, 2050 

V. Plumer, 78, 79, So, 566, 1213 
Plumleigh v. Cook, 706, 1071, iS.ig 
Plummer z/. Jarman, 1641 
Plunket &. Homes, 320, 693, 694 
Plush z*. Digges, 1112 
Plymouth v. Hickman, 1691 
Plympton v. Boston Dispensary, 504, 505 
Poad V. Watson, 335 
Podmore v. Gunning, 347, 1691 
Poedon v. Boston L. R. Co., 2216 
Peer v. Peebles, 2273 
Pogue z^. Clark, 2148 
Poiguard i>. Smith, 2091, 2092, 2101, 2295 
Poindexter -ii. Blackburn, 537 

V. McCannon, 2052, 2053 
Poindexter's Exrs. v. Green's Exrs., 510 
Polack V. Pioche, 1099, 1106, 1152 
Polk V. Gallant, 1773 

z'. Reynolds, 810, 1047 

V. Rose, 2335 , 

Pollack z*. Kelly, 1024, 1930, 1939, 1945 
Pollard V. Greenville, 1040 

V. Hagan, 707 

V, Jekyi, 208 

V. Mutual F. Ins. Co., 2115 

V. Noyes, 510 

z/. Shaafer, 553, 1072, 1074, 1075, 1203 

V. Slaughter, 780 

•u. Somerset Mut. F. Ins. Co., 2116 
Pollen V. Brewer, 1142, 1258, 1269, 1351 
Poliitt V. Forrest, 2254 

V. Long, 2225 
Pollock V. Cronise, 2251 

V. Kittrell. 1252 

V. Madison, 1998 

V. Speidel, 401, 402, 410, 447, 450, 461, 

465 

v. Stacy, II 12 
Polyblank v. Hawkins, 1364, 1365 
Pomeroy v. Bailey, 1623 

V. Lambeth, 1268 

V. Latting, 2124, 2125 

V. Mills, 22 1 1 

V, Partington, 1039, 1040,1807 

V. Pomeroy, 727, 794, 912 
Pomet 7'. Scranton, 2126 
Pomfret v. Ricroft, ti66, 2207, 2208 

V. Winsor, 1783 
Pond z/, Clarke, 2133,2141 

V. Eddy, 2045 

V. Johnson, 868 ^ 

V. Kimball, 1399, 1432 
Ponder z/. Catterson, 1214 

V. Graham. 597, 893 
Pool V. Balkie, 653, 656, 680, 688, 697, 699, 

1:^72 
V. Hathaway, 2127, 2130 
V. Lewis, 2228 



Pool z;. Morris, 446, 1912 

V. Pool, 1666 
Poole's Case, 49, 126, 130, 146, 1187 
Poole V. Bentleym, 993 

V. Cook, 1513 

V. Gerrard, 1406, 1409, 1450, 1452, 1454, 

M55i M70. 1473, M74) M9^ 1524 

V. Johnson, 2171 

z'. Longuerville, 1365 

z'. Mundy, 1715 
Pooley V. Budd, 1574 
Poor V. Horton, 711, 759 

V, Oakman, 63, 141, 514 
Pope z*. Anderson, 1881 

V. Biggs, 1 171, 1172, 2065 

z'. Devereaux, 2247 

V, Durant, 2146 

V. Elliott, 254, 272 

V. Garland, 1301, 1325 

V. Garvaud, 1182 

V. Harkins, 1212, 1894, 2250, 2257 

V. Henry, 211, 2366 

v. Jacobus, 2111 

z'. Meade, 733, 839 

V. Nickerson, 2057 

•u. O'Hara, 2246 

v. Pope, 347, 1627, 1632, 1684 

V. Town of Union, 2205, 2206 

V. Whitcombe, 316 
Pope's Exrs. v. Elliott, 1747 
Popham V. Banfield, 202, 1870 

zv. Banpfieid, 1807 
Popkin V. Bumstead, 803, SoS, 887, 928 
Poposkey z>. Munkwit?,, 1245 
Porch t*. Fries, 587, 588, 617, 620, 631, 632, 653, 

669, 670, 1362 
Porche v. Bodin, 45, 46, 49 
Porcherz*. Daniels, 1806 
Port z*. Clements, 2146 

V. Jackson, iioi, 2263,2264 

V. Port, 594, 596, 752, 757 
Porter z/. Bank of Rutland, 1371, 1502 

V. Batclay, 866 

V. Bowers, 671, 1363, 1364, 1366 

V. Blieler, 985, 1022, 1023 

V. Bradley, 320, 321, 322 

V. Cole. 2353 

V. Doby, 300, 1605, i6og, 1694 

V. Durham, 2225 

V. Gorden, 1324 

V. Hill, 1924, 1967, 1976 

V. Hubbard, 2271 

V. Lafferty, 2091 

V. Lazear, 792, 793 

V. Lopes, 1974 

V. Mayfield, 1213 

•V. McClure, 1239 

V. Mariner, 15 18 

V. Merill, 1072, 1115, 1156 

V. Moores, 1735 

V. MuUer, 1922,2036, 2151 

V. Nelson, 2046 

V. Noyes, 729, 730, 1092,1093 

V. Pierce, 169S 

V. Pillsbury, 2157 

V. Porter, 624, 633, 651, 66t, 662, 670, 1366 

V. Robinson, 715, 781, 836, 2349 

V. Rockford, 2335 

■V. Sweeney, 2252, 2257, 2259 

V. Vaughn. 1281 

V. Williams, 1795 
Portington's Case, 373, goo, 1851 
Portis T'. Hill, 1710, 1723 
Portland v. Topham, 1830 
Portlock z/. Gardener, 1784 
Posey V. Bass, 1454 

V. Budd, 401, 447 

V. Cook, 1560, 1606 
Post V. Dart, 2^071, 2112 

71. Dorr,*2o66 

z/. Kearney, 1075, riiz 

V. Kimberley, 1240 



.elxxxviii 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Post 71. Logan, 2268 

V. Moi-an, 1141 

V. Parshall, 2240 

71. Pearsal], 2211, 2212, 2214, 2217 

V. Phelun, 1287 

V. Post, 973, 1256, 1257, 1260, 1271, 1274, 
J280, i28ij 1337 

V. Velter, 1054, 1068, 1106, 1107, 1201 
Poston z/. Eubanks, 2155 

z. Gillespie, 658, 659, 795 

V. Jones, 1081 
Potiar V, Barclay, 751 
Potomac Coal Co. v. Cumberland, etc., R. Co., 

it8o 
Pott's Appeal, 396, 402, 419 
Pott V. Eyton, 1242 

V. Todhurst, 2349 
Pottenger v. Stewart, 415 
Potter 7'. Brown, 753, 755 

V. Chapin, 166 

V. Cromwell, 103, iii, 112, 113, 114, ir6, 
"7, 133. i35> »37j "86 

V. Everett. 839 

V. Gardner, 1749, 1764 

7>. Knowles, 1288 

V. McAlpine, 269 

V. Mercer, 992, 993, 1314 

V. Seymour, 1194, 1195 

V. Stevens, 2105, 2107 

V. Titcomb, 368, 750, 2058, 2289 

V. Wakefield, 646 

V. Wheeler, 785, 857, 886, 887, 1973, 1975, 
1989 

71. Worley, 955 
Potts 7'. Cloeman, 2297 

V. Davenport, 976, 1423, 1424, 1434, 1445, 
1461 

V. New Jersey Arms Co., 113 

V. Plaisted, 2131 

V. Smith, 2208 
Pouce V. McEloy, 1637 
Pouder v. Catterson, 1213 
Poullan V. Kinsinger, 2335 
Poulteney v. Shelton, 1185 
Poulter V. Killengback, 50 
Pouitneyz'. Barrett, 1138 

V. Holmes, 1118, 2252 
Pournell v. Harris, 411, 447, 468 
Powcey V. Bowen, 1838 
Power z'. Cassidy, 1637, 1684 

77. Haffley, 22S2 

71. Jendevine, 1824 

V. Nesbit 

7'. Power, 1985 
Powers V. Andrews, 2169, 2171 

V. Bergen, 2328, 2329, 1798 

V. Dennison, 144, 126S 

V. Golden Lumber Co., 2169 

V. Jackson, 779, 787 

V. Kueckhoff, 1755, 1778, 1779 

V. Lester, 200, 2016, 2101 

V. Ocean Ins. Co., 2114, 2115 

V. Wheler, 779 
Powell V. Boggs, 2291 

V. Conant, 2033, 2035 

V. De Hart, 1286 

V. Dillon, 998, 1043 

7j. Gossom, 607, 608, 6og, 610 

V. Glenn, 1796 

V. Glover^76, 1621 

V. Hadden's Exrs,, 1281 

V. Jewett, 1666 

z/. Knox, 1730, 1885 

V. Monson & B. Mfg. Co., 105, 106, 591, 
729, 730, 740, 761, 788, 789, 791, 823, 
827, 841, 842, 844, 866, 900, 909, 1092, 
1O03 

V. McAsham, 145 

V. Murray, 1562, 1781 

7j. Powell, 660, 733, 736, mo, 1887 

V. Rollins, 570 

V. Sims, 2223, 2224, 2241 



Powell 71. Smith, 1007, 2141 

7>. Tuttle, 2159 

V. Weeks, 773 

V. Williams, 1997 
Powis z/. Smith, 1901 
Pownal V. Myers, 1707, 1713 

V. Taylor, 1665, i6go, 1723 
Powseley v. Blackman, 1279 
Powys V. Blagiave, 570, 573 
Prall V. Smith, 669, 1366 
Praf.r 7j. Hoorer, 692 
Prather v. Foote, 974, 1039 

V. Hill, 1758 

V. McDowell, 901, 911, 1777 
Pratt, Re, 1463 
Pratt V. Ayer, 1592 

V. Bank of Bennington, 520, 2097, 2107 

7'. Brown, 2328 

V. Clark, 2005, 2009 

V. Coffman, 46 

V. Colt, 1747 

V. Douglass, 918, 944 

V. Farrar, 1137, 1293, 1294, 1296, 1351, 
1355 

V. Felton, 933, 947 

V. Flamer, 408, 415, 424 

71. Frear, 2174 

V. Levan, 1114, 11x5 

V. New York Central Ins. Co., 1058, 

*o59 

V, Pratt, 2080 

V. Sanger, 449 

V. Skofield, 2100 

V. Smith, 588 

V. Theft, 750 

7j. Thornton, 1714, 1726, 1767, 1768, 1776, 
1781 

7/. Van Wyck, 1997, 2009 
Pratt, Doe d.,.v. Timins, 1595, 1596 
Pray's Appeal, 1721 
Pray v. Clark, 1053, 1087 

V. Pierce, 2316, 2317 

V. Stebbins, 1024, 1033, 1935, 1942, 1944, 
1952 
Preacher s Aid Society v. England, 298, 1564, 

1796 
Preble v. Hay, 1310 
Preece 71. Corrie, 2252 
Preice v. Sellick, 2241 
Prendergast, 1740 
Prentice v. Acliorn, 1033 

V. Brimhall, 2166 

V. Geiger, 2225 

V. Jaassen, 1987 
Presbaker v. Freeman, 2038, 2039 
Presbyterian Church v. Andruss, 29, 31, 32, 33, 
36 

V. Johnston. 1744 
Prescott V. De Forrest, 1122 

7'. Elltngwood, 2102 

V. Elm 1274, 1335, 1338, 1340, 1341, 1343 

7J Hull, 2107 

71. Nevers, 210, 1899, 1914, 1915, 2296 

V. Otterstatter. 1084, 1085 

v. Prescott, 411, 1386, 1442, 1443 

V. Trueman, 729, 1092, 1093, 1094, 1095 

V. Walker, 760, 788 

V. White, 2228, 2229 

V. Williams, 2228, 2229 
Presley z/. Davis, 323, 1782 
Presly v. Siribbing, 1703, 1741 
Prestman v. Silljacks, 974, 1219, 1220 
Preston v. Briggs, 135, 145, 146, 1204 

V. Fyer, 647 

V. Hawlev, 2270 

V. McCall, 2254 

V. Ryan, 49 

V. Wilcox, 1662 
Pretts 7>. Ritchie, 711 
Pretty 7'. Bickmore, iigS, 1199, 1201 
Prettyman v. Unland, 2272 

V. Walston, 504, 505, iioi 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



clxxxix 



Prevost, Succession of, 595 
Prevost V. Clark, 1629 

V. Gratz, 1623, 1695, 17S2 
V. Prevost, 596 
Prevot V. Lawrence, 987, 1035, 1221 
Prewett v, Buckingham, 1781 

V. Wilson, 959 
Prey v. Johnson, 2362 
Prial V. Entwistle, 1323, 2271 
Price, In rtf, 1399. 1629 
Price V. Alexander, 1240, 1242, 1244 

V. Assheton, 1088 

V. Binfliam, 647 

V. Brayton, 119 

V. Byrn, 1776 

V. Chase, 591 

v. Cutts, 203S 

V. Dyer, 65, 1007, 1008 

V. Gover, 2045, 2047 

z'. Griffith, 999 

V. Haynes, 2354 

V, Hicks, 824 

T*. Hobbs. 711, 712, 713, 725, 748, 759, 
822, 8^0, S41, ^42, 843, 844 

V. Hunt, 1-357 

71. Johnston, 713 

V. Karnes, 2052 

V. Masterson, 2061 

V. Methodist Episcopal Church, 32 

V. Miiiot, 1665, 16S9, 1690 

7'. Mott. 671 

V. Mulford, 1783 

V. Nicholas, 998 

V. Perree, 1996, 2051 

V. Price, 42, 44, 769, 770, 816, 817, 857, 
1293, 1295 

z>. Pickett, 498, 538, 1207 

zi. Reeves, 1655, i6go 

V. Sisson, 1543, 1559, 1575, 1655, 1692, 1704, 
1736 

V. Weehawken Ferry Co., 61 

V. Woodford, 938 
Price, Doe d., v. Price, 1267, 1293, 1326 
Prichard, 225 

Prickett v. Ritter, 1131, ii35j "3fJ» 1316, 1339 
Pride v. Bubb, 2012 

V. Earl of Bath, 883 
Pridgeon v. Excelsior Boat Club, 1166, 1167 
Priest V. Cone, 2013 

zi. Cummings, 712, 750, 775, 905, 908, 1657 
Priestly v. Johnson, 123 
Primm V. Barton, i486 

V. Syewart, 523 

z>. Walker, 1911, 1924 
Prince's Case, 182/ 
Prince v. Case, 144. 617 

V. Hake, 1506 
Princeton v. Adams, 1850 
Principal Harrow School v. Alderton, 565, 

2212, 2213 
Prindle v. Anderson, 1302, 1326, 1328, 1339, 

n44 
Pringe v. Childs, 2291 
Pringle v. Dunkly, 271 

V. Dunn, 1778, 2121, 2123, 2359, 2366 

71. Pringle, 2100 

V. Witten, 730 
Prior V. Foster, 1045 
Prior, Doe d., v. Ongley, 1266 
Prison Charities, In re, 1685 
Pritchard v. Elton, 1996, 2168, 2321 
Pritts V. Ritchey, 759, 782, 804, 828 
Probasco v. Johnson, 2003, 2004 
Probert zf. Morgan, 964, 1837 
Procter v. Bigelow, 717, 871 

V. Cowper, 2176 

V. Ferebee, 75 

V. Gilson, 81 

V. Keith, X059 

V. Newhall, 686 

V. Procter, 1666 

V. Tows, 1140 



Proctor V. Hodgson, 2220, 2242 

V. Robinson, 2102 
Prodgers v. Laughran, 1626 
Proffitt V. Anderson, 566 
V. Henderson, 549 
Proprietors of Battle Sq. Church v. Grant, 302, 

322, 323, 327, 1049, j^si 
Proprietors of Kennebeck Purchase v. Springer; 

2098, 2291, 2292 
Proprietors of iMt:e ting-House v. City of 

Lowell, 64, 507 
Proprietois of No. Six z/. McFarland, 1258, 1290 
Proprietors of Soutli Congregational Meeti.ig- 

House V. Lowell, 1015 
Proprietors of Union Meeting-House v. Rowell, 

36 
Proseus v. Mclntyre, 1636, 1640 
Protchard v. Brown, 1579, 1697, 1699, 1700 
Proud V. Bates, 90, 93 
Prout V. Hoge, 2106 

V. Roby, 1059, 1060, 1061, 1154 
z>. Wiley, 1031 
Prouty z'. Prouty, 1274, 1338 
Prov. C. U. V. Cliott, 1043 
Providence County Bank zj. Benson, zriS 
Providence Gas Co. ?'. Thurber, 112, 1186 
Providence Savings Bank t. Hall, 1227 
Providence Tool Co. v. Corliss Steam Engine 

Co., 2242 
Provo -u. Calder, 9S2, 983, 985 
Provoost Z-. Clayer, 536 
Provost 71. Calder, 2263 
Prug V. Davis, 2282 
Pryal v. Entwistle. 996 
Pryon v. Mood, 299, 1553 
Pryor r. Bowryman, 2073 

V. Stone, 1386, 1387, 1419, 1420, 1431, 1434, 

1436, 1439, 1442, 1443, 1459 
V. Wood, 586 
Pue V. Pue, 2247 

Puddicombe Doe d., v. Harris, 1308 
Puffer V. Clark, 2142 
Pugh V. Arton, 129, 130, 143, 146 
2/. Bell, 782. 827 
V. Currie, 787, i960 
V. Good, 1977 
V. Holt, 2040, 2148 
V. Leed, 1006, 1040 
V. Pugh, 1622 
Pugsley V. Aikin, 975, 1134. 1136, 1224, 1254. 

1255, 1300, 1334, 1342 
Pulbam V. Byrd, 536 

Pullan V. Cincinnati & C. Air-Line R., 2066 
Pullch V. Bell, 63 
Pullen ». Middleton,436 
V. Ready, 11 57 
V. Rianhard, 1560, 1674, 1675 
PulHam V. Byrd, 317, 319, 1820 

V, Sewell, 1510 
Pulman v. Cincinnati, & C. Air-Line R. Co., 

2018, 2019 
Pulteney z>. Craven, 1040 

V. Shelton, 79 
Pulpress V. African Church, 1740 
Pulse V. Hamar, 996, 1036 
Pulvertoft z/. Pulvertoft, 1791 
Pumpelly v. Phelps, 1247 
Purcell, Matter of, 2016 

V. English, 1191, 1197 
V. Goshorn, 2331 
V- Smidt, 215, 216 
V, Wilson, 310, 1897, 1915 
Purdie v. Whitney, 288, 1754, 2159 
Purdy V. Bullard, 2002 

V. Huntingdon, 520, 810 

V. Huntington, 2096, 209S, 2104, 2110, 

2121 
V. Purdy, 782, 1613, 1651, 1881, 1968 
Purefoy v. Rodgers, 816 

V. Rogers, 322, 324. 886, 1940 
Purinton v. Northern Illinois R. Co., 135 
Purl V. Duvall, 782 



cxc 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Purner z'. Piercy, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55 

Purrington v. Pierce. 842, 2042 

Pursley z*. Forth, 2155 

Purvis V, Wilson, 1914, 1983 

Pusey V. Pusey, 60 

Pushman v. Filliler, 347, 1629, 1632, 1684 

v. Tilliter, 1627 
Putman v. Kitchie, 1726 

V. Mercantile Insurance Company. 1668 

V. Weslcott, 975, 1225 

V. Wise, looi, 1229, 1232, 1233, 1234, 1235, 
1236, 1238, 1239 
Putnam 7>, Bicknell, 647 

%i. Callamore, 305, 806, 808 

V. Emei-son, 305, 308, 311, 335 

V. Karnham, 2071 

ZK Gleason, 234 

V. Johnson, 1456 

V. New Albany & S. C. J. R. R. Co., 
15S1 

V. Putnam, 753, 1S84, 2151, 2184 

V. Retchie, 1022, 1023, igo8, 1912, 2185 
Putnam's Free School v. Fischer, 1730, 1788, 

1806 
Putney v. Day, 53, 54, 55, 537 

V. Dresser, 1877 
Pybus V. Smith, 251, 257, 647 
Pye, Ex Parte, 1587, 1739 
Pyer ?'. Carter, 2207 
Pyle V. Penncck, 105, iii, 113, 114, 138, 144, 

2022 
Pym V. Bowarman, 2170 

■V. Lockyer. 260, 272 
Pynchon v. Lester, 785, 802, 803 

V. Stearns, 521, 544, 550, 555, 557, 565, 575, 
1 164 

Q. 

Quackenboss v. Clarke, 11 14, 11 19 
Quackenbush v. Danks, 1510, 1511 
Quaker Society v. Dickenson, 225 
Quarles v. Garrett, 947 

V. Quarles, 2357 
Quarrington v. Arthur, 811 
Queen V. Brighton, 753 

V. Chorley, 2243, 2245, 2247 

t'. Inhabitants of Greenboro, 2203 

V. Inhabitants of Parish of Lee, 105 

V, Millis, 595 

V. Northumberland, 85 
Queen Anne's Co. v. Pratt, 814 
Queen's College v. Hallett, 553 
Quehl V. Peterson, 1453 
Quick V. Whitewater Township, 2325 
Quimby v. Conlan, 2300 

V. Dill, 516 

•u. Higgins, 2279, 2283 , 

V. Manhattan Cloth Co., 113, 117, 132 
Quinn v. Brittain, 2087, 2088 

zi. Coleman, 713 
Quincy V. Cheeseman, 2067 
Quincy, The Inhabitants of, v. Spear, 1290 
Quint V. Little, 2095 
Quinnette v. Carpenter, 1131, 1315, 1316 
Quinn v. Perham, 1045 

V. Shields, 1689 
Quiver 37. Baker, 2301 

R. 

Rabb V. Griffin, 603, 679, 686, 689 
Rabc V. Tyler, 1885 

V. Taylor, 1902 
Rabun v. Rabun. 1665, i6go 
Raby %>. Ridehalgh, 1721 
Race V. Oldridge, 1399, 1402 
Rachael v. Pearsall, loio, 2259 
Racine & M. R. R. Co. v. Farmers' L. & T. 
Co., 1727 



Racouillat v. Rene, 2037 

V. Sansevain, 215, 2126 
Radcliffe v. Mayor of Brooklyn, 2230, 2232 
RadclifEe v. Wood, 1399 
Radford v. Carwile, 251, 257, 896 

V. Willis, 1867 
Radley v. Kuhn, 1798 
Radway, Re^ 1504 
Rae V. Harvey, 202 
Rafferty v. Mallory, 1778 

V. New Brunswick Ins. Co., 2115 
Ragland v. Justice, 1995 

V. Rogers, 1390, 1419 
Ragsdale v. Lander, 996 

V. Ragsdale, 1589 
Raguet V. Roll, 2060 
Rahway Savings Institute v. Irving Street 

Baptist Church, no 
Rail V. Dotson, 338, 536 
Railroad Co. v. Boyer, 492 

V. Schurmeier, 69 

V. Siy, 1019 
Raines v. Corbin, 935, 941, 956 

V. Kneller, 1138, 1150 

•u. Walker, 2301 
Rakestraw v. Brewer, 2094 
Raleigh & Garton R. Co. v. Davis, 2325 
Ralls V. Highs, 931 
Ralph V. Lomer, 1214 
Raisback v. Walk, 996, 1322 
Ralston v. Fields, 2305 

V. Ralston, 723, 724, 789, 821, 840, 844, 
■ 846, 863 

V. Wain, 31S, 328, 1674 
Ramires v. Kent, 215, 122 
Ramirez -v. McCormack, 2207 
Rammelsburg v. Mitchell, 1740 
Ramsbottom v. Wallis, 2172 
Ramsdell v. Emery, 1646 

V. Fuller, 1947, 1948 

It. Maxwell, 1259 

zi. Ramsdell, 318, 536, 1815 
Ramsden v. Dyson. 1087 

V. MacDonald, 625 

V. Thorton, 1278 
Ramsey v. Joyce, 795 

V. March, 298, 1558, 1565, 1607, 1655 

V. Merriam, 2164 

V. Smith, 2330 
Ranba v. Bill, 835 
Rancel v. Croswell, 415 
Randalls'. Aburtis, 1166 

V. Bradley, 2174, 2175 

V. Cleveland, 553 

V, Duff, 2073, 2170 

V. Dusenhury, 1587 

V. Elwell, gS 

V. Ghent, 2331, 2359 

V. Hazleton, 2160 

V. Krieger, 714 

V. Lower, 2301 

7'. Mallett, 1911 

V. Phillips, 1618, 1885, 196S 

ZI. Sanderson, 2223 

V. Shrader, 1815 

V. Thompson, 997 

z). Tuchin, 305. 308, 310, 312 

7'. Chesapeake Canal Co., 2362 
Randal v. Elder, 1387, 1415, 1419, 1439, 1440 
Randolph v. Carlton, 1212, 2250, 2251 

7'. Doss, 764, 765 

V. Gwnne, 105 
Rands v. Kendall, 782, 826, 828, 1998, 2078 
Rangeley v. Midland R. Co., 2203, 2211 
Ranger v. Great Western R. Co., 1872 
Ranke zi. Hanna, 892, 912 
Rankert v. Clow, 2009 
Rankin's Appeal, 614 
Rankin v. Demott, 2254 

71. Harper, J647, 1658 

V. Kinsey, 2067 

V. Loder, 1794 



■References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CXCl 



Rankin v. Mayor, 2100, 2104, 2105, 2106, 2148 
7K Mortimere, 2050, 2168 
V. Rankin, 94, 656, 657, 1754, 1755 
V. Shaw, 1481 
V. Warner, 2359 
Ranlett v. Cook, 1320 
Kannells v. Geruer, 903 
Ranney ». McCuUen, 2166, 2167 
Ransley v. Stott, 252, 369, 454, 461 
Ransom, Matter of, 767, 768 
R.itisom, Re, 786, 787 
Ransom v. Babcock, 1290 
V. Nichols, 670 
V. RaiiEom, 587, 781 
V. Sutherland. 2167 
Ransone 7>. Prayser, 2055 
Rantin v. Robertson, 1079 
Rauyer v. Lee, 731 
Rapelye v. Prince, 2089 
Rapheal z>. Boehm, 1725 
Rapier v. Gulf City Paper Co., 2169 
Rapp V. Stoner, 2068 
Rappanier v. Bannon, 2136, 2138 
Rardin v. Walpole, 2136, 2138, 2160 
Rashleigh v. Master, 307 
Rasor v. Quails, 1205, 1210 
Rasure v. Hart, 1399, 1402 
RatclifEe v. Graves, 17 15 
Rathbone -u. Clark, 2154 
V. Dyckman, 965 
V. Tioga Nav. Co.. 224 
Raliff z'. Ellis, 1589, 1610, 1697, 1701 
Rattle V. Popham, 1039 
Raubdscheck v. Senken, 2257 
Rauch V. Dech, 2018 
Raugh V. Ritchie, 2274 
Rausch V. Moore, 711,734, 741, 838 
Ravencroft v. Ravencroft, 661 
Ravtrty t'. Fridge, 904 
Rawdon v. Rawdon, 660, 755 
Rawinson 7'. Clarke, 1241 
Rawley zk Holland, 1538 
Rawlings v. Adams, 679, 6S0 
V. Landes, 76 
V. Ruttell. 842 
Rawlins v Buttel, 894 
V. Goldfrap, 322 
V. Lowndes, 765, 804, 829 
V, Rawlins, 618 
Rawlinson z/. Miller, 1974 
Rawls V. Deshler, 1746 
Rawltings v. Hunt, 2020 
Rawson v. Inhabitants, 1856 

V. Inhabitants of School District No. 5, 

in Uxbridge, 1850 
V. Putman, 2092 
Rawstron v, Taj'lor, 2230 
'R?LY,Exparie, 1371 
Ray V. Adams, 1629 
V. Lynes, 2223 
V. Oliver, 2158 
V. Pung, 780, 885, 1576 
V. Simmons, 1586, 1587, 1592 
V. Sweeney, 21, 78, 2223 
Raybold 71. Raybold, 1592, 1691 
Rayboum v. Ramsdell, 1138, 1150, 2254 
Rayland v. Rogers, 1388 
Raymond v Holden, 591 
V. Kerker. 2250 
V. Thomas, 225: 
V. White, 104, 108 
Raynerv, Stone, 1083 
V. Lee, 717, 731 
Raynham v. Wilmarth, 864 
Raynor v. Haggard, 1290 
V. Selnus, 2146,2151 
V. Raynor, 841 
Re Adams, 1824 
Re Albany Street, 232S 
Re Rogers. 2327 

Re Sands Ale Brewing Co., 21 19 
Rea V. Copelin, 1620 



Read v. Allen, 11 70 

V. Erington, 1141 

^- Flogg. 2301 « 

V. Frankfort Bank, 1511 

•V, Gaillard, 2040 

V. Goodyear, 2295 

V. Lawnse, 2250 

V. Payne, 307 

V. Robinson, 1016, 1786 

V. Stedman, 1637 

V. Truelove, 1660 
Read, Doe d., v. Ridout, 1335 
Reade v. Livingston, 1626 

V. Ward, 117 
Reading's Case, 1917 
Reading v, Weston, 2054 
Reading R. Co. v. Boyer, 493 
Readman v. Conway, 1202 
Ready v. Hamm, 8co 

V. Kearsley, 297, 1592 
Real Estate Trust Co. v. Balch, 2330 
Ream v. Hamish, 1207, 1230 
Rear v. Rear, 772 

7'. Winkler, 730 
Rearich v, Swinehart, i6g8, 1702 
Reasoner v. Edmundson, iggg 
Reaume v. Chambers, 281, 288, 531, 586, 603, 

605, 612, 668, 706 
Reavis v. Fielden,2io6 
Re Hreck, 2260 
Recht V. Kelly, 1506 
Reek's Estate, 1420, 1433 
Recknow v. Schank, 1348, 1353 
Re Commercial Bulletin Co., 2266 
Re Commissioners Central Park, 2324 
Rector v. Burkhard, 1198 

V. Burkhart, 1197 

V. Gibbon, 1446 

v. Rotten, 1450, 1467 

V. Waugh, 284, 1877, 1924, 1967 
Rector, etc., of Trinity Church z/. Higgins, noi 

V. Vanderbilt, 1105 
Re Curry 71. Burrus, 2324 
Re D'Angibau, 1827 
Redd z>. Burrus, 2020 
Reddall v. Bryan, 2327 
Redden v. Barker, 1290 
Reddick t. Grossman, 1998, 2078 

V. Walsh, 731, 767 
Redding v. White, 1029 
Rede v. Farr, 1058, 1138 
Redfem v. Middleton, 515, 1142, 2321 

V. Redfern, 1403, 1405, 1407, 140S, 1450, 
1479 
Redfield v. Utica & S. R. Co., 970 
Redford v. Gibson, 2008 
Redgrave v. Redgrave, 757 
Redlon v. Barker, 103, 105, loS 
Redman v. Sanders, 1997, 1998, 2077, 2097 
Redpath v. Rich, 217 

V. Roberts, 1295, 1343 
Red River Roller Mills v. Wright, loi, 2224, 

2225 

Redshaw v. Governor, 1009 
Redstrake v. Townsend, 402. 447, 470 
Redus V. Hayden, 603, 688, 692, 703 
Redwood v. Riddick, 1782 
Reece t. Allen, 1707, 1713 
Reech 7>. Kenegal, 1616 
Reed z'. Allerton, j66o 

V. Ash, 718, 733, 735.739 

V. Austin, 1702 

7<. Bartlett, 2258 

V. Batchelder, 2343 

zK Campbell, 1087 

V. Crocker, 2278 

V. Dickerman, 918, 932, 944, 946, 947,951 

V. Fidelity Insurance Trust and Safe 
Deposit Co., 1988 

V. Gorden, 1558 

V. Johnson, 52 

V. Jones, 1893, 1896 



cxcu 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Reed v. Kennedy, 763, S24 

V. Latsou, 15S0, 2061 
^. Lewis, 1104, 11S4J 1185 

V. LukinSj 1665, i6go 

V. Marble, 2110, 2149, 2151 

V. Morrison, 765, 766, 783, 830, 923 

V, Reed, 561, 68r, 692, 700, 703, 812, 1266, 
1293, 1294, 1296; 1350, 1355, 2040, 2087, 
2ogo, 2185 

V. Reynolds, 1128, 1174 

V. Shepley, 1160 

V, Steveson, 764, 766 

z/. Underbill, 1826 

V. Union Bank of Winchester, 1506 

V, Ward, 2268 

V. Washington Fire Ins. Co., 1051 

V. West, 1923, 2244 

V. Whitney, 782, 831 
Reed, Executors of, v. Reed, 494 
Reader v. Barr, 2359 

V. Dargan, 

7/. Purdy, 1357 

7j. Sayre, 52, 205, 1208, 1210, 1264, 1300, 
1302, 1322, 1323, 1326. 1335 

V. Sheai-man, 533 
Reel V. Elder, 773 
Reelmau v. Sanders. 2073 
Rees V. Chicago, 2206 

V. Livingston, 1665, 1690 

V. Waters, 664 
Reese v. Waters, 659, 673, 750 
Reeve v. Attorney-General, 1605, 1659 

V. Bird, 1 173 
Reeves v. Baker, 1627 

7!. Dougherty, 1615 

V. Hayes, 2036, 2106, 2109 

V. Petty, 1404, 1405 

V. Treasurer of Word Co., 2328 
Reformed Dutch Church, Matter of, 36, 38, 40 
Reformed Dutch Church v. Veeder, 1556, 1557 
Reformed Pres. Church, 225 
Re Fowler, 2327 

Reformed Prot. Dutch Church v. Mott, 1557 
Reg. V. Brown, 755 

V. Howes, 1464 

V. London, etc., 479 

V. Spurrell, 1288 

V. The Inhabitants of Chawton, 13 14 

V. Westbrook, 2254 
Regan v. Baldwin, iiSo 

V. Zeeb, 1408 
Regina v. Chawton, 1334 

V. Copp, 2235 
Register v. Rowell, 287 
Re Hamburger, 2260 
Re Harvey's Estate, 1S36 
Re Heller, 1892 
Re Highway, 2325 
Rehoboth v. Hunt, 1908 
Re Hutchinson, 1824 
Rehm v. Chadwick, 91 
Reichert tj. McGlure, 2126 
Reickhoff v. Brecht, 1620, 1622 
Reid V. Atkinson, 1627, 1684 

ZK Blackstone, 1629 

V. Campbell, 917, 933 

V. Fitch, 15S8 

V. Gordon, 298 

V. Hollinhead, 1242 

V. Kirk, 61 

V. Lamar, 1375, 1562 

V. Mullins, 2164 

V. Parsons, 1058, 1138 

V. Shergold, 319, 1836 
Reidy v. Small, 1789, 1790 
Reiff V. Horst, 670, 713, 725, 726, 731, 741, 910 

V. ReifE, 537 
Reifsnyder v. Hunter, 348 
Reigard v. McNeil, 2045 
Reinhard v. Lantz, 402, 449, 450, 472 
Reilly v. Mayer, 2164 

V. Smith, i486 



Reily v, Miami Ex. Co , 924 

V. Ringland, 1267 
Reimer v. American Contract Co., 1861 
Reinbach v. Walter, 1419, 1499 
Reinders v. Koppelman, 1S15, 2282 
Reineman v. Robb, 2109 
Reinicker v. Smith, 1924 
Reinhard v. Bank of Kentucky, 1794 
Reinhardt w. Bradshaw, 2309 
Reinhart v. Collins, 2254 
Reinskopf v. Rogge, 1033 
Reise v. Enos, 2217, 221S, 2219 
Reitenbaugh -v, Ludwick, 2039, 2085, 2087, 

20SS, 2184 
Reithman v. Brandenburg, 1133, 1316, 1331 
Reitz v. Reitz, 1620, 1644, 1652 
Reitzell v. Eckard, 762, S19 
Relyea 7/. Beaver, 20, 58, 570 
Peniick v. Butterfield, 1766 
Remington v. Cardale, 1138 

V. Millard, 2206 
Remicker v. Smith, 1033 
Re Middleton, 2327 
Remsen v. Hay, 2168 
Remson v. Conklin, 1060 
Ren V. Buckelet, 1843 

V. Bulkely, 1807, 1845 
Renard v. Brown, 2073, 2137, 2172 
Renaud t>. Daskam, 1052 

V. Tourangeau, 499 
Rendle, Doe d., 1040 
Rendleman 7'. Rendleman, 919 
Reney v. Bell, 2151 
Renfe v. Harrison, 1016 
Renfoe's Heirs v, Taylor, 746 
Reniger v. Fagossa, 454 
Renolds v. Baker, 2175 
Renond v. Daskam, 1075, 1091 
Renwick v. Ren-wick, 635, 636, 661, 662 
Renzichausen v. Keyser, 1553, 1597 
Renzie v. Penrose, 2349 
Report of the Judges, 1548 
Repp V. Repp, 2006 
Repplier v. Buck. 1737 
Requa v. City of Rochester, 2206 
Reske v. Reske, 1385, 1500 
Resor -v. Resor, 962 
Respublica v. Campbell, 1263 
Reuff V. Coleman, 270 
Reuss V. Picksley, 1000 
Reusselaer & S. R. Co., In re, 2237 
Revalk z/. Kraemer, 1398, 1400, 1404, 1405, 1408, 
1418, 1434, 1450, 1451, 1473, 1475, 1478, 
1489, 1490, 1491, 1493, 1523 
Revel V. Watkinson, 509 
Reves V. Heme, 270 
Revett z>. Harvey, 1735 
Rex V. Bardwell, 1288 

7'. Cheshum, 1273 

V. Cheshunt, 1288, 1309 

V. Collett, 1261, 1267, 1275, 1280 

V. Edwards, 498 

V. Fillongley, 1275, 1278 

V. Greenhill, 1464 

V. Inhabitants of Fillongley, 1256 

V. Inhabitants of Herstmonceaux, 1339 

V. Inhabitants of Northamptonshire, 
2206 

V. Jobling, 1275 

V. Keletem, 1288 

V. Kelstern, 1309 

V. Longnor, 2352 

V. Minister, 1288 

7'. Pappineau, 57 

V. Pedley, iigg 

V. Penson, 755 

V. Rees, 1288 

V. Shipdham, 1288 

V. Snape, 1288 

V. Stock, 128S 

V. Tynemouth, 1288 

V. Wilson, 17S8 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CXClll 



Reybold v. Dodd Admrs., 1889 
Reybum v. Mitchell, 2136, 2137 
Reynal, Ex parte, 126 
i^eynald, Ex parte^ 120 
Reynard v. Spence, 785 
Keynolds z/. Baker, 2176 

V. Collins, 525 

V, Commi-s. of Stark Co., 2342 

V. Commrs. State Co., S23 

7'. Green, 2175 

V. Lathrop, 2250, 2257 

V. Lee, 487 

V, McCurry, 731, 733 

V. Monkton, 29, 30 

ZK Orvis, 233 

V. Pitt, 1 157, 1872 

V. Pixley, 1426 

V. Pool, 1245 

V. Reynolds, 760, 762, 771, 774, 815, 820, 
S94, 921 

7'. Robinson, 1648 

V. Shuler, 115, 145, 146, 1224 

V. Stark Co., 224, 974 

V. Sumner, 1641, 1651 

V. Vance, 728, 795, 913 

V. Waller, 1033 

V. Welch, 1624 

7/. Williams, gS8 

V. Wilmeth, 1894 

7'. Wilson, ii'^^, 2159 
Rhea v. Puryear, 1643 

7'. Tucker, 1634, 1699 
Rhet V. Rfason, 1633 
Rhien v. Robbins, 216 
Rhine v. Ellen, 1700 
Rhinehart v. Stevenson, 2156 
Rhines v. Baird, 2046 
Rhoades v. Canfield, 2124 

V. Davis, 960 

V. Parker, 2032, 2033, 2064 

•V. Rhoades, 1984 
Rhodes v. Dutcher, 2162 

V. Evans, 2150 

V. McCormick, 64, 1386, 1416, 1420, 1431, 
M35. M37. 1442 

V. Williams, 1432 
Rhone v. Gale, 11 52 
Rhyne v. Guevara, 1219 
Ricard v. Sanderson, 2166 

V. Williams, 210, 2242, 2290, 2292 
Rice V. Adams, 138 

V. Austin, 1240, 1241 

V. Barnard, 1961, 1965 

V. Bird, 2055 

7'. Bixler, 2349 

V. Boston & W. R. Co., 234 

V. Burnett, 299, 1553, 1673, 1710, 1712 

7'. Cribb, 2107 

7'. Cunningham, 1623 

V. Dewey, Z017, 2302 

V. Hoffman, 588, 624, 632, 643, 670, 672, 
1361, 1363, 1364 

•u. Lumley, 771, 773, 919. 92O1 i35'5 

V. Minnesota & N.W. R., Co., 2304, 2305, 

2313 

V. Nelson, 930 

V. Osgood, 234 

V. Parkman, 2329 

V. Peet, 1032, 1033 

V. Pelt, 2345 

V. Rice, 2031, 2040, 2041, 2049, 2053, 2123 

V. Rockfeller, 1677 

V. Sandors, 2070 

V. State, 595 
Rich V. Basterfield, 1194, J199 

V. Bolton, 1135, 1255, 1258, 1260, 1261, 
1269, 1270, 1271, 1275, 1281, 1293, 
1294, 1296, 1301, 1302, 1320, 1322, 
1325, 2254 

V. Cockell, 1562 

V. Doane, 2044, 2052, 2053, 2084 

V. Flanders, 671 

13 



Rich 7'. Hotchkiss, 1850 

V. Keyser, 1310, 1338, 1350 

V. Rich, 737 
Richard v. Ayers, 520 

V. Bent, 1094 

V. Brehm, 595, 596, 752 

V. Liford, 539 

V. Richard, 795 

V. Robson, 1687 

V. Talbird, 928 
Richards, In re. 125, 127 
Richards v. Bester, 105 1 

V. Chace, 1450, 1473, 1475, 1478 

V. Chambers, 1836 

V. Delbridge, 1588, 1638 

V. Folsom, 207 

V. Greene, 1402, 1451, 1475 

•V. Griffitli, 2138 

V. Holmes, 2163, 2164 

V. Learning, 2007 

V. Manson, 1957, 1963 

V. Mayor of New York, 5 

V. N. VV. Protestant Dutch Church, 41 

•v. Randolph, 2365 

V. Richards, 728 

V. Rose, 2234, 2298 

V. Sely, 11G2 

V. Tavemer, 11 76 

V. Torbet, 573, 576 

V. Wardell, 1231 

V. Whittle, 2263 

V. Wordell, 1207 
Richardson v. Baker, 2009 

V, Blakemore, 2272 

V, Borden, 104, 135, 136 

V. Boright, 1031,2011 

V. Bowman, 976 

V. Buswell, 1515 

•V. Cambridge, 2127, 2128, 2131 

V. Clements, 2240 

•u. Copeland, 96, 97, 133, 135, 138, 142, 
14^ 

V. Field, 2071 

V. Harvey, 1217 

V. Hildreth, 2085 

V. Hockenhull, 810 

V. Inglesby, 1592 

V. Jones, 1619, 1766, 1774, 1775 

V. Langridge, 1135, 1136, 1252, 1255, 1261, 
1262, 1265, 1268, 1281, 1302, 1320, 1321, 
1325 

V. Merrill, 1972 

7/. Monson, 1906 

V. Parrot, 2156 

V. Pate, 103 1 

V. Peterson, 2272 

V. Spencer, 1621 

V. Richardson, 1587, 1922 

7/. Ridgely, 2008 

V. Schultz, 959 

V. Stodder, 297, 1672, 1673 

V. Strong, 986, 1034 

V. Studenham, 1009 

V. Vermont Cent. R, Co., 2231, 2232, 
2326 

V. Wilson, 772 

V. Woodbury, 2038, 2045 

V. Wyatt, 824 

V. Wyman, 792, 905 

V. York, 478, 545 

V. Young, 2095 
Richart v. Richart, 948 
Richbergz/. Bartley, 1156 
Richmond v. Davis, 1037 

v. Vassalborough, 1456 
Rickard v. Robson, 1688 

V. Talbird, 926 
Rickards v. Rickards, 1088 
Ricketts v. Montgomery, 1707, 1769 
Riddell v. Grinnell, 823 
Riddick v. Cohoon, 350 

V. Walsh, 925 



CXCIV 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Riddle v. Brown, 84 

V. Cutter, 1609 

V. Driver, 62, 89 

V. Holl, 8go, 2059 

V. Littlefield, 1014, 1204 
Riddlesberger v. Mentzer, 888 
Riddlesden v, Wiga, 755 
Rideaut v. Paine, 202 
Rider w. Kidder, 779, 1646, 1647 

V. Kohler, 1226 

V. Maul, 1977, 1978 

V. Rider, 1634 

V. Smith, 2208 
Ridge V, Prathes, 2305 
Rid^eley v. Crandall, 2343 

V. Johnson, 1660, 1731 

V. Stillwell, 981, 1135, 1 136, 1254, 1264, 
12S4, 1303, 1307, 13 19, 1320, 1322, 
1326, 1328, 1339 
Ridgely's Exrs. v. Gartell, 2305 
Ridgely v. McLaughlin, 463, 466 
Ridgeway's Appeal, 1962 
Ridgeway*s Minors, 1721 

Ridgeway v. Hastings, 792, 905, 911, 915, 926, 
927 

V, McAlpine, 870, 872, 930, 931 

V. Undei-wood, 75 

V. Wharton, 1039 
Ridgley v. Stillwell, 2255 
Ridgwayz'. Parker, 337 
Ridley v. McNairy. 2260, 2261 

V. Ridley, 1033 
Ridout V. Harris, 30 

V. Paine, 314, 326 
Rife V, Geyer, 254, 273, 500, 1605, 1607, 1655, 
1656, 1673, 167s, 1694, 1695, 1736, 
1737, 1742, 1748, 1763 
P.igden v. Vallier, 1882, 1883, 1910, 1966, 1968 
Rigdon V. Vallie, 1882 
Rigge, Doe d., v. Bell, 1022, 1136, 1323 
Riggin V. Love, 1919 
Riggs V. American Tract Society, 2345 

V. Armstrong, 2029 

V. Sally, 403, 415, 418, 463, 464 
Riggs, Doe d.j w. Bell, 1013, 1014 
Right V. Darby, 1136, 1317 

V. Sidebotham, 302, 331 

V. Thomas, 1S07 
Right & Bassett v. Thomas, 1040 
Right d. Phillips v. Smith, 1607 
Righter v. Forrester, 2120 
Rigler v. Cloud, 611, 654, 655, 680, 682, 683, 685, 

699, 1372 
Rigney v. City of Chicago, 2 

V. Lovejoy, 2105, 2107 
Riker v. Durke, 641, 1981, 1982 
Riley v. Bates, 855, S58 

V. Glamorgan, 855, 858 

V. Jordan, 1281 

V. McCord, 2145 

V. Million, 1217 

V. Phelm, 1434 

V. Riley, 1024, 1361 

V. Simpson, 1197, 1198 
Rimyeyer v. Morss, 62, 63 
Rinehart v. Olwine, 1207, 1230, 1232, 1263 
Ring 7/. Burt, 1410, 1473 

V. Franklin, 1696 

V. Hardwick, 322, 323 

V. Huntington, 1033 

V. McCoun, 1559 
Ring's Exr. v. Woodruff, 2089 
Ringgold V. Barley, 1455 

V. Ringgold, 1608, 1617, 1618, 1669, 1708, 
1715, 1719, 1725, 1734, 1,-35, »757. '773 
Ringo 1), Binus, 1585 

V. Wotidruff, 2296, 2297 
Rinkin v. Rinkin, 74 
Ripley v. Davis, 1246 

.-. Luigart, 955 

■ii. Paige, 104, 107 

V. Seligman, 77 



Ripley w. Waterworth, 787 

V. Wentworth, 528, 825 

•V. Whittman, 1126 

V. Wightman, 1179, 2269 
Ripperdon v. Cozine, 2007 
Rippetoe v. Dwyer, 2155 
Rippon V. Norton, 247, 253 
Rippy V. Gaunt, 1034 
Risely v. Ryle, 1290 

Rising V. Stannard, 1026, 1252, 1253, 1266, 1270, 
1293, 1296, 1305, 1350, 1352, 1356, 1967 
Risk V. Hoffman, 2150 
Ritchie v. Eichelberger, 2i£o 

V. McDuffie, 2068 

V. Putman, 741 
Ritger^/. Parker, 2156, 2201, 2211, 2244 
Rittenhouse v. Leverring, S65 
Ritter's Appeal, 1791 
Ritter v. Phillips, 2071 
Rivard v. Gisenhof, 292 
Rivers v. Friff, 315 
Rives V, Dudley, 224, 1778 

V, Rives, 510 
Rivetts V. Brown, 1343 
Rix V. Smith, 1782 
Rizer?/. Berry, 1364 
Roab V. Beaver, 251 
Roach V. Davidson, 737 

V, Peterson, 1178 

V. Wadham, 1820 

V, White, 651, 657 
Roads V. Symmes, 2304, 2305 
Roanws v. Archer, 247 
Roath V. Driscoll, 572, 2227, 2230, 2233 
Robb V. McBride, 1459 
Robbins v. Butler, 1707, 1769 

V. Eaton, 201 1 

V. Eckler, 2192 

V. Love, 2349 

V. McDonald, 1425 

V. Mount, 1054, 1066, 1199 

V. Oldham, 51 

V. Robbins, 777, 885, 1824 
Robb's Appeal, 1623 
Robbs V. Ankeny, 465 
Robert z/. Coco, 15 10 

V. Ristine, 1154 

V, West, 1361 
Roberts' Will, In matter of, 1456 
Roberts v. Baker, 82 

V. Barker, 1263 

V. Brinker, 315 

V. Cone, 970 

V. Cooper, 1836 

V. Crayer, 725 

V. Dauphin Dep. Bank, 133, 138 

V. Davey, 1058, 113S 

V. Dixwell, 654, 684, 685, 697, 1693 

V. Fleming, 2163, 2185 

V. Forsythe, 281, 284 

V. Geis, 1107, 1123 

V. Grubb, 1338 

V. Haines, 94 

w. Jack, 2271 

V. Jackson, 692, 1163, 1164, 1580 

V. Jackson, ex d. Webb, 1047 

7'. Karr, 2206 

V, Mansfieldj 2094, 2095, 2106, 2175 

V. McCarty, 1963, 1964 

V. McCord, 2222 

V. McGraw, 1904 

•v. McMahan, 2045 

V. Richards, 2045 

V. Roberts. 237 

7.'. Shryer, 890 

V. Spicer, 1371 

V. Stanton, 1840 

7>. Sulherlin, 1994, 2000 

V. Taylor, 1732 

V. Tennell, 996, 1013, 1323 

V. Unger, 2303 

V. Welch, 2094, 2146 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cxev 



Roberts v. Whiting, 486, 541, 634, 635, 636, 637 
^-Wiggin, 829, 985,986, 1030, 1031,2011 
Roberts, Den ex d., v. Forsyth, 286, 531 
Roberts, Doe d. v. Polgrean, 1360, 1361 
Robertson v. Baker, 786' 
T'. Bullion, 74, 16G0 
7'. Campbell, 2043 
V. Corset, 106, 123, 142 
I'. Fraser, 1883 
2'. McAfee, 2359 
I'. Meadors, 543 
V. Movvell, 265 
%'. Norris, 1364, 1365 
V. Robertson, 1588, 1648 
T'. State, 596 

V. Stevens. 606, 615, 693, 1577, 167S, 1679 
V. Stark, 2027 
V. St. John, 1037 
V. Sublett, 1795 

V. Van Cleave, 2073, 2074, 2170, 2171 
7'. Walker, 2^30 

V. Western M. & F. Ins. C, 1766 
Robertson, Doe d., v. Gardiner, 1320 
Robertson's Admr. v. Paul, 1497 
Robeson v. Pittenger, 2223, 2224 
Robie v. Chapman, 682,684 

V. Smith, 1274, 1293, 1294, 1334 
Robinett v. Preston. 1967 
Robinson's Case, 1398 
Robinson v. Baily, 1215 

v. Bates, 745, 783, 792, 793, 810, 905, 907, 

911, 914 
V. Bland, 2339 
7'. Bliss, 1623 
7'. Brennan, 2022, 2024 
V. Brock, 645 
V. Buck, 658, 913 
V. Campbell, 720, 1516 
?/. Codman, 598, 611, 679, 680,684. ^89, 
763. 788, 798, 815, S32, 1576, 157S, 1579 
V. Cross, 2132 
V. Cropsey, 2042 
V. Dart's Exrs., 1375 
V. Deering, 997, 1127, 1167, 1171, 12S6, 

1293, 1304 
V. Doulass, 21 r 
V. Douthit, 2301 
V. Dusgale, 1814 
V. Dusgate, 317 

V. Grey, 300, 1605, 1606, 1672, 1673, 1709 
V. Eagle, 1024, 1919, 1932, 1941, 1950, 1952 
V. Kzzell, 2020 
V. Fairfield, 2346 
V. Farrelly, 2050 
V. Gee, 51 

V. Hardcastle, 1828, 1830, 183S 
V. Harman, logi, 1245 
V. Hathaway, 1214 
V. Hoit, 1131, 1144, ii45j "46, 1 147, 1212, 

1214, 1216, i2ig 
v. Hook, 1782 
V. Lakeman, 630 
V. Leavitt, 2097,2131, 2178 
V. Lehman, 2257, 2272 
7'. L'Engke, iioo 
V. Litton, 231, 575. 2188 
7'. Mauldin, 1703, 2018, 2020 
V. McDonald, 1988 
V. Miller, 516, 744, 781,819,828,831, 834, 

847,856, 861, 1133 
V. Moon, 905 
V. Perry, itii, 1118 
V. Phillips, 2298 
V. Rapelye, 1625, 1794 
V. Reynolds, 2346 

V. Robinson, 553, 650, 225';;,, 2260, 22G1 
V. Russell, 2o8i, 2187 
V. Ryan, 2151 
V. Sampson, 2134 
v. Smith, 1630 
V. .Swearingham, 1447, 1456 
V. Swell, 208, 210 



Robinson v. Swope, 2327 

V. Thrailkill, 2240, 2241 

V Townsend, 777, 819 
V. Urquhart, 2134, 2138 
V. Webb, 1194 

V, Weeks, 103 1 
V. Wheelright, 251, 257 
V. Wiley, 1483, 1514, 1515 
V. Williams, 2030, 2271 

V Willoughby. 2039 
V. Wilson, 1519 

V. Wright, 122 
Robinson, Doe d., v. Dobell, 1310 
Robion v. Walker, 1427, 1428, 1430 
Robson V. Flight, 1031 
V. Lindrum, 141 1 
Roby 7'. Handers, 746, S67, 873, 931 

7'. Phelon, 647 
Roby, Doe d., v, Maisley, 1295, 1350 
Roche V. Famsworth, 2151 
Rochford v. Hackman, 249, 253, 274, 485, 501, 

1677 
Rock 7>. Hart, 1725 
Rockford Ids. Co. v. Nelson, 2113 
Rockhill 7'. bpraggs, 2349 
Rockingham v, Penrice, 497 
Rochon V. Levcatt, 600, 601, 605, 629, 643, 645, 

655.657) 663, 1372 
Rockland v. Morrill, 522 
Rockman v. Alwood, 2045 
Rockwell 7'. Bradley, 199/ 
V. Hobby, 2003, 2112 
V. Hubbell's Admrs., 1502, 1516, 1518, 

1570 
V. Humphrey. 2044 
7>. Morgan, 494, 496, 561, Sir, 844, 848 
V. Rockwell, 794 
7'. Servant, 2094 
Roco V. Green, 1399 
Roddy's Appeal, 2137 
Roddy V. Cox, 1246, 1912 

7>. Elam, 2151 
Rodgers v. Bonner, 50 
V. J-ones, 2151 
71. Wallace, 1819 
Rodman v. Hedden, 2141 
Rodney v. Shankland, 1672 
Rodriguez v. Heffernan, 1756 
Rodwell V. Phillips, 53, 54 
Roe 7'. Baldwere, 446 
V. Blackett, 302 
7'. Davis, 416 
V. Farrers, 489 
V. Grew, 422 
V. Griffith, 830 
■V. Hodgeson, 1021, 1022 
z>. Jeffrey, 322. 418 
V. Jerome, 1700 

V. Lees, 1275, 1281, 1302, 1320, 1326, 133S 
V. Pattison, 2 
V. Popham, 1538 
V. Reade, 1742 
V. Rees, 1264 
Roe d. Brune v. Prideaux, 1838 
Roe d. Durant v. Roe, 13 11 
Roe d. Evans v. Davis, 444 
Roe d. Jordan v. Ward, 1264, 1325 
Roe ex d., v. Lees, 1325 
Roe ex d. Hunt v. Galliers, 257, 274 
Roe ex d. Hunter v. Galliers, 257, 274 
Roe ex d. Peter v. Pay, 339 
Roe ex d. West v. Davis, 1060 
Roe, Lessee of Posey, v. Budd, 469 
Roff iv. Duane, 998, 1017, 1042 

V. Johnson, 141 1, 1483, 1514 
Roffey V. Bent, 501 

V. Henderson, 145. 1186 
Rogan V. Walker, 237, iSs-^, 2048, 2050, 2169 
Rogers 7'. American Board, 271 
V. Benson, 1952 
7'. Boyntpn, J159 
V. Brooks, 33, 1369 



CXCVl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Rogers v. Brown, 123 

V. Buchard, 2365 

V. Colt, 1576 

V. Crow, log, iii, 117, 120, 121, 132, 134, 
i35» 136, i37t 138, 139 

V. Danforth, 26S 

V. De Forest, 2129 

V. Eagle Fire lus. Co., 237, 2316, 231S, 
2319, 2320 

V. Gillinger, 96, 2186 

V. Goodman, 2191 

V. Grazebrook, 2079 

V. Greenbush, 671 

V. Grider, 1024, 1729, 1920, 1935, i94i» 
1950, 2320 

V. Herroii, 2171 

V. Hillhouse, 2322, 2348 

V. Hinton, 1815 

V. Holyoke, 2152 

V. Humphreys, 2065 

V. Jones, 196, 2igi 

V. Joyce, 210 

V. Law, 267 

V. Ludlow, 1374, 1672, 1673 

V. Madden, 2295 

V. McCauley, 1652 

V. Meyers, 2073, 2169 

V. Moore, 108, 516,744, 1142 

V. Murray, 1653 

V. Prattville Mfg Co., 132 

V. Ragland, 1388 

V. Renshaw- 1450, 1475, 1478 

V. Rogers, 325, 1580 

V. Sebastian, 1857 

V. Sinsheimer, 2236 

V. Smith, 137s, 1376, 1674 

V. Snow, 1014, 1 154 

z^ Swain, 2223 

V. Taylor, 93 

V. Trader Ins. Co., 2133 

V. Walker, 986 

V. Waller, 114S, 1214, 1348 

Vm Wiggs, 1290 

w. Woody, 903 
Rogers, Doe d., v. Coote, 1039 

V. Pullen, 1258, 1294 
Rogers Locomotive, etc , Works z>. Kelly, 1655 
Rohrabacher v. Ware, 135 

Rohrbach v, Germania Fire Ins. Do., 631, 1912 
Rolfe V. Gregory, 1761, 1784 

V. Harris, 1157, 1871 
Roll V. Smalley, 2148 
Rollins V. Columbia Fire Ins. Co., 240, 21 15 

V. Forbes, 2157, 2167 

V. O'Farrel, 1455 

•V. Moody, 297 

V. Riley, 1S49. 1854,2314, 2315 
Rjolph V. Crouch, 1190 
Rolt V. Lord Somerville, 569 
Romilly v. James, 322 
Rona V. Meier, 259, 264, 499, 1814 
Rondall v. Dulf, 2073 
Rood V. New York & E. R. Co., 2360 

V. Willard, 976, 1017 
Roodhouse v. Roodhouse, 1984 
Roods 21. Symmes, 2291 
Roof V. Stafford, 985, 1030, 1031 
Rookerw. Benson, 808 
Rooks V. Moore, 983, 1246 
Roome v. Phillips, 315, 1752 
Rooney v. Crary, 1157 

V. Gillespie, 1294 
Roop V. Rogers, 1964 
Roose V. Hungate, 1334 
Roose, Evans, hi re, v. Williams, 724 
Roosevelt v. Fulton, 68" 
V. Hopkins, 1139 
V. Roosevelt, 273 
V. Thurman, 415, 447, 471 
Root V. Bancroft, 2092 

V. Brotherson, 369, 2058, 2339 
V. Collins, 2155 



Root V. McGrew, 1510 

V. State, 2335 

V. Stuyvesant, 1039, 1809, 1810 
Roper t'. Halifax, 1845 

V. McCook, 2oog 
Rose, Re, 2266 
Rose V. Baker, 2107 
Rcpley V. Prince, 2090 

V. Bun, 2240 

V. Clark, 596, 752, 759 

V. Gill, 1023 

V. Hayden, 1642, 1643, 1644 

». Hill, 315 

V. Reynolds, 957 

V. Sanderson, 1366 

v. Swan, 2151 

V. Wynn, 1245, 1246 
Roseboom v. Mosher, 188, 1842 

V. Roseboom, 345, 1895, 1904 1 

V. Vechten, 205, 454, 459, 477, 478, 481, 

Rosecarrick v. Benton, 1996 

Rosekrans v. White, 1984 

Rosenblat v. Perkins, 1322, 1333 

Roser v. Slade, 346 

Rosevelt v. Fulton, 800 

Rosewell v. Prior, 1199 

Ross V. Adams, 2S4, 66g, 679, 1368 

V. Barclay, 1609, 1729, 1787 

V. Blair, 718 

V. Boardman, 802 

V. Butler, 19S 

V. Cobb, 1023 

V. Drake, 316 

V. Duval, 1516 

V. Dysart, 1065, loSi, 1082, 225S 

V. Garrison, 1309, 1930 

V. Gill, 1023 

V. Gould, 211 

V. Hannah, 1447 

V. Heintzen, 2007 

V. Henderson, 1962 

V. Kennison, 2072 

V. Norvel, 164S 

V. Norveli, 2175 

V. Norville, 2046 

V. Overton, 109S, 1099, 1175 

V. Ross, 344, 66q, 662, 22S2, 2283, 2289 

V. Schneider, 1306, 1319 

V. Swaringer, 1231, 1232, 1233, 1238 

V. Sweeney, 1440 

V. Toms, 415, 447, 471 

V, Tremain, 1864 

V. Utter, 2148 

V. Van Aulen, 1290 

7j. Welch, 51 

V. Whitson, 2005 

V. Wilson, 785, 857, ?oi7 

V. Worthington, 2038 
Rosse V. Wainman, 83 
Rosseel v, Jarvis, 1145 
Rosseter v. Simmons. 2, 308 
Rossiter v. Cossit, 783, 802 
Rotch V. Morgan, 1768 
Roth zi, Duane, 1043 

V. Wells, 50 
Rothchild v. Hudson, 2263 

•v. Williamson, 969^ ^131, 1304, 1327, 1328, 
133 1 
Rotherham v. Greene, 2196 
Rothwell V. Dewees, 15S5. 1643, 1738, 1990 
Rounds V Delaware L. R, Co., 1 195 
Rountree v. Dennard, 1398 

V. Lane, 1976 ' ' 

V. Talbot, 479 
Roupe V. Carradine, 1516 
Rourke v. Coulton, 2069 
Rouse's Case, 1346 
Rouse V. Martin, 198 
Roush V. Emerick, 2255 
Routledge v. Dorrill, 1812, 1838 
Rovelsky v. Brown, 1958 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CXCVU 



Rowan ». Lytle, ri6o, 1310, 1319, 1344, 134S, 
T350. 1355 

V. Mercer, 2149 

;'. Riley, 2259 

V. Sharp's Rifle Mfg. Co., 2018, 2019, 
2020 

7-. State, 2324 
Rowan's Creditors v. Rowan's Heirs, 1747 
Rowand v. Anderson, 143 
Rowbotham z*. Pearce, 116S 

7>. Wilson, 90, 93, 2213, 2233, 2240 
Rowden z'. Malsier, 436 

7'. Wallster, 435 
Rowe 7'. Bradley, 794 

V. Hamilton, 910, 956, 960 

V. Johnson, 733, 736, 739, 870, 876 

7'. Power, S49. 851 

V. Table Mountain Water, 2167 

7'. Williams, 1051, 1052 

7'. Wood, 2185 
Rowel V. Walley, 510, 518 
Rowell V. Doyle, 71, 74 

■V. Jewett, 1854, 1872 

V. Kline, 538 
Rowen ?'. Kelsey, 83, 1016 

V. Riley, 2252 
Rowland 7>. Pendleton, 2271 

V. Rowland, 794, 913 

z>. Warren, 402 
Rowlandson, Ex Parte, 1240, 1241, 1242, 1244 
Rowlett z'. Grieve s Syndic, 2177 
Rowley V. Adams, 434 
Rowney?'. Rowney, 1368 
RowtoQ r'. Rowton, 781 
Royall's Admr. v. McKenzie, 1734 
Roy V. tlarnett, 1557 

V. Mcpherson, 1622 
Royce v. tiuggenheim, 1054, 1127, 1128, ri66, 

1167, 1168, 1169, 1x73, 1200 
Royer v. Ake, 1067, 1099, 2262, 2263 
Royster v. Royster, 761, 815, 870 
Royston 71. Royston, 893, 1364, 1988, 1989 
Rozelle 7'. Rhodes, 1428 
Rozenthal v. Mayhugh, 902 
Rozier v. Fagan, 2332 

V. Johnson, 1982 
Rubeck v. Gardner, 216 
Rubey v. Barnett, 317, 319, 338 

V. Barrett, 1815 
Ruby V. Abyssinian Society of Portland, 2088 
Ruch V. City of Rock Island, i86r, 1862 
Ruckler v. Hiller, 21 
Ruckman v. Astor, 2184 

V. Cutwater, 81 

V. Ruckman, 2100 
Rucks V. Taylor, 2149 
Rudd V. Golding, 1138, 1150 
Rudolph v. Rudolph, 957 
Rue V. Alter, 1515 
Rue High, Appellant, 1456 
Rueifsnyder 7/. Hunter, 249 
Ruffier V. Wormack, 2044, 2054 
Ruffii V. Cox, 801, 817 
Ruffiier V. McLennan, 711 
Ruggles z'. Barton, 2102, 2103 

V. Clare, 1864 

V. First Nat. Bank of Centreville, 47, 
2159 

7'. Lawson, 1016 

7', Lesure, 2213 

7'. Williams, 2046 
Ruggles, Jackson ex d., v. Martin, 341 
Riigely V. Robinson, 247, 253 
Ruiz 71. Norton. 1698 
Rumball v. Ball, 2142 
Rumery v. McCullen, 1795 
Rumfelt V. Clemens, 924 
Rumford Inhabitants v. Wood, 1029 
Rump 71. Gerkens, 1163 
Rund^ll 7/. Lakey, 1094 
Rundle z'. Allison, 695 

V. Delaware, etc., Canal Co., 69 



Rundle v'. Pegram, 594, 596 
Runey v. Edmands, 639, 1367 
Rung V. Shoneberger, 2297 
Runnels v. Runnels, 267 

V. Webber, 1093 
Runyan v. Coster's Lessee, 224, 225 

V. Mesereau, 800, 1995, 2000, 2105, 2111, 
2129 
Ruohs z>. Kooke, 1480, 1482 
Kupp. /« re, 1399 

V. Eberly, 332, 536 

7>. Orr, 1738 
Ruppe V. Steinbach, 1921 
Rush 7J. Davidson, 2335 

7'. Gordon, 1390, 1392 

v. Lewis, 1742, 2107, 2119, 2130 
Rushin v. Shields, 2122 
Rushmore v. Miller, 2166 
Rusing V, Rusiug, 291 
Russ V. Mebius, 1637 

V. Morris, 2331 

V. Perry, 729, 884, 1093 
Russel's Appeal, 1790, 1801, 2120 
Russell's Case. 982 
Russell V. Allard, 1274 

V. Allen, 1028, tii8, 2064, 2065, 2268 

71. Annable, 1029, 1030 

71. Austin, 803, 1580 

7<. Beebe, 2307 

V. iilake, 2088 

V. Brown, 2125 

7'. Clark's Exrs., 1622 

v. Coffin, 2316 

V. Darwin, 1009 

7'. Davis, 2295, 2296, 2297 

7'. Doty, 1017 

7'. Elden, 337 

V. Edwin's Administrator, 1020, 1212 

71. Fabyan, 1127, 1144, 1148, 1167) 1171, 
1213, 1285, 1297, 1309, 1317, 1318, 
1346, 1347, 134S, 1350, 1353, 1355, 
2258, 2268 

V. Gee, 842, 844 

V. Hammond, 1626 

V. Harford, 2216 

7'. Howard, 2136, 213S 

7'. Jackson, 2218, 2220, 2222 

71. Jarvis, 1147 

V. Lee, 823 

7'. Lennon, 1432 

V. Lewis, 1579, 1595, 1706 

7'. Lowth, 1510, 2309 

7'. I\Iarks, 1899, 1900 

7'. McCarthey, 1335, 1340 

7/. Miller, 824 

V. Mixer, 2130 

V. Peyton, 1662, 1783 

V, Pistor, 2069, 2070, 2112, 2166, 2178 

7'. Ramsey, 2323 

71. Randolph, 1512, 1513 

71. Richards, 56, 63, 123 

V. Rumsey, 904 

z/. Russell, 811, 1229, 1798, 1808, 1809, 
1905, 2002 

V. Shenton, iig8 

7/. Southard, 2031, 2037, 2043,2048,2049* 
2052, 2055, 2089, 2169 

V. State, 595 

V. Switzer, 1591, 1592 

V. Taylor, 727 

zf. Temple, 44, 817 

V. Titus, 1222 

V. Waite. 2042 
Russell, Jackson ex d., z*. Rowland, 1148, 1220, 

1148 
Rutgers v. Hunter, 1008, 1088, 1089 
Ruth 7'. Overbrunner, 225, 1680 
Rutherford ?'. Graham, 847 

V. Green, 1751 

71. Munce, 783, 926 

V. Read, 744 

V. Ruff, 1033 



CXCVIU 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to i)ages. 



Rutherford v. Stamper, 2301 

V. Stewart, 201S 

V. Williams, 2163 
Ruterland v. Williams, 2163 
Rutland Marble Co. v. Ripley, 88 
Rutledge v. Smith, 1590, 1796 
Rutt V, Howell, 14SS 
Rutter -v. Small, 189S, igoo 
Ruttledge v. Whelan, 1158 
Ryall If. Ryall, 1691, 1700 

V. Stevens, 125 
Ryan w. Adamson, 2114 

z/. Brown, 68, 70 

V. Carr, 2364 

V. Doyle, 1777 

V. Dox, 1611, 1614, 1619, 1620 

V. Dunlap, 2106 

XI. Freeman, 620 
Ryckman v. Gillis, 92, 2237 
Rycroft v. Christy, 1791 
Ryder v. Flanders, 2302 

V. Hulse, 653 

V. Mansell, 1219 

V, Ryder, 1464 

V. Sissin, 1715 

If. Thomas, 1193 
Ryer, Re, 2327 
Ryer v. Gass, 808, Sag 
Ryersoa z/. Eldred, 1160, 1213, 1222 

•u. Quackenbush, 2251, 2267, 2269 
Ryerss v. Farewell, 1279 
Rylands v. Fletcher, 199 
Ryras v. Ryras, 1883 



s. 

Sactiaveral v. Dale, 442 
Sachet v. Wheaton, 22, 23 
Sacheverell v. Trogate, 2259 
Sackett's Case. 1456 
Sackett v. Giles, 661 

V. Sackett, 149, 552, 1153 

V. Twining, 88g 
Sacltville Westz*. Holmesdale, 1609 
Saddler's Co. v, Badcock, 1077 
Sadler's Appeal, 1777 
Sadler z/. Hobbs, 1732, 1733 

V. Langham, 2327, 2328 

•V. Pratt, 1838 
Safely v. Gilmore, 1248, 2255 
Baffin's Case, 980 
Safford v. Annis, 51, 52 

V. Rantoul, 1588 

V. SafEord, 712, 759, 762, 777, 781, 819, 820 
Sagar v. Eckert, 493, 519, 520 

V. Tupper, 2153, 2172 
Sage V. Central R. Co., 2155 

V. Sherman, 1671 

V. Truslow, nor 
Sager w. Tupper, 2136 
Sag^tary -v. Hide, 1626 
Sagoharie, Jackson ex d., u. Dobbin, 1213 
Sahler v. Signer, 215 
Sailer 7'. Sailer, 1894 
Sainet v. Duchamp, 2254 
Sainsbury v. Matthews, 46, 49, 51, 52 
Saint V. Pilley, 125, 142 
St. John V. Benedict, 1538 

V. Bumpstead, 2x51, 2154 

V. Camp, 2027 

■V. Palmer, 1128, 1168, 1172 

V. Quitsom, 12 19 

V. Quitzow, 1212, 1220 

V. St. John, 1034 

V. Standring, 1247 
St. Johnsbury & L. R. Co. -u. Willard, 61 
St. Louis V. Kamie, 1202 

?'. Morton, 1029, 1213, 1221 
St. Louis, J. M. & G. R. Co. v. Hecht, 198, 
995. 1315* 1317 



St. Louis Smelting & Refining Co. v. Green, 

2304 
St. Louis University v. McClune, 2296 

V. Kemp, 1586 
St. Mary's Church v. Miles, 59 

V. Stockton, 1S72 
St. Michael's Church v. Behrens, 116S 
St. Saviour's v. Smith, 1074, 1077 
St. Victor's V. Daubert, 1241, 1242, 1243 
Sainter v. Furguson, 1872 
Salade v. James, 1234 
Sale V. Crutchfield, 409, 416, 419, 469 

V. Moore, 347, 162-7, ^^3*^) ^^S^i 1684 

V. Saunders, 1367 
Salem v. Edgerly, 2176 
Salisbury v. Bigelow, 1791 

V. Hale, 1131 

V. Marshall, 1200 

V. Shirley, 1026,2261, 2262 
Salisbury, Earl of, v. Bennett, 271 
Salle V. Primm, 2293 
Sal lee z/. Chandler, 162 1 
Salmer v. Forbes, 96 
Salmon V. Bennett, 1623, 1625 

V. Clagett, 515, 2080, 2081, 2187 

V. Hoffman, 2004 

V. Matthews, 11 76 

V. Smith, 979 

V, Stuyvesant, 1039 
Salter's Case, 529 
Salter v. Kidgley, 2361 
Saltmarsh v. Beene, 1765, 1774 

V. Smith, 718, 733, 735, 736, 739 
Saltonstall v. Sanders, 1685 
Salusbury v. Denton, 1685 
Sames v. Payne, 885 
Samllman v. Onions, 572 
Sammes' Case, 1556, 1557 
Sample v. Robb, 2303 

V. Rowe, 2106 

z'. Sample, ^17, 955 
Sampson v. Bumside, 2238 

%). Easterby, 1071, 1078 

z<. Graham, 142 

V. Grimes, 2250, 2258 

V. Henry, 1356, 1357 

V. Hoddinott, 2224, 2227, 2228, 2248 

V. Shaeffer, 1140, 1296 

V. Williamson, 1378, 1408, 1467, 1468, 
1473, 1475. 147S, 1488, 1489, 1490, 1491, 
1502, 1518 
Samson v. Thorton, 2034 
Sanborn v. Chamberlin, 1093 

V. Kittridge, 1773 

V. Morrill, 1247 

V. Osgood, 2060 

V. Rolinson, 2038 

V. Woodman, 1870 
Sandback v. Quigley, 870. 
Sanderlin v. Baxter, 2241 
Sanders v. Cassady, 2100 

V. Ellington, 82, 1205, 1207 

V. Hooper, 2089, 2090 

V. Hyatt, 415, 447, 471 

V. Martin, 2235 

V. Merryweather, 1058 

V. Morrison, 1729 

z/. Partridge, 1072. 1108,1115,1117, mg, 
1 1 19, 1 143, 1156, 2262, 2265 

V. Pope, 1157, 1158, 1872 

V. Reed, 2186 

V. Richards, 2159 

V. Wilson, 2185 
Sanderson v. Dobson, 202 

V. Jackson, 998, 1043 

V. Mayor, 1166 

■V. Price, 1998, 2078 
Sandford v. Clarke, iigg 

V. Harvey, 1274, 1335, 1340, 1343 

•u. Irby, 288, 299, 1594, 1711 

V. Jackson, 916, 917, gi8, 934, 942, 955 

V, Johnson, 1263^ ^274, 1281 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



cxcix 



Sandford v. McLean, 885, 867, 873, 886, 905, 930 

Sandfoss v. Lones, 1643 

Sandhill 7/. Franklin, 13 10 

Sands v. Ale Brewing Co., I7t re, 2119 

7K Church, 2112 

V. Hughs, 1 1 12, 1148 

V. Lynliam, 236, 279, 2347 

V. Pfeiffer, 136, 137 
Sandwith v. De Silver, 2262 
Saner w. Bilton, 1083, 1153 
Sanford v. Bulkley, 2147 

V. Jackson, 944 

V. Jarvey, 1340 

7'. Lackland, 253 

V. Non-is, 16^3 

V, Turner, n6o 
San Francisco v. Canavan, 2212 

z>. Fulde, 229S 
Sangamon & M. R. Co. v. Morgan Co., 98 
Sanger v. Uptown, 1581 
Sangster v. Love, 2103, 2106, 2111, 2140 
Sangston v. Love, 2105 
Sansom v. Harrell, 1464 
Santell v. Armor, 1425 
Sanxay v. Hunger, 2218 
Sarabusw. Fenlon, 1388, 1390 
Sargent f. Adams, 20 

V. Ashe, 2260 

V. Baldwin, 1792 

7>. Ballard, 2214, 2226, 2240 

V. Courier, 1230, 1231 

V. Howe, 2]o6 

V. Parson, 1894, 1967 

V. Pierce, 32 

V. Smith, 1074 

V. Townes, 337, 557 

V. Wilson, 1523 
, Sarles v. Sarles, 545. 54^, 555. 557. 565. 5^6, 
1141 
Sarsfield 7/. Healy, 1251, 1261, 1275 
Sarter v. Gordon, 1697 
Satterfield v. John, 1662 
Satterlee v. Matthewson, 1221 
Sander's Lessee v. Morningstar, 449 
Sauer z*. Meyer, it 56 
Saul V. Creditors, 755 

V. His Creditors, 1946 
Saumerez v. Saumerez, 307 
Saunders v. Edwards, 1609 

z'. Evans, 1839 

V. Frost, 2073, 2089,2090, 2173 

V. Hanes, 287, 973 

V. Harris, 1598 

V. Leslie, 832 

V. Musgrove, 1264, 1292 

V. Newman, 2229, 2247 

V. Saunders, 1887 

V. Schmaelzie, 1663 

V. Webber, 1667 
Savage v. Bumham, 917 

V. Crill, 910 

V. Dovley, 2062 

zf. Foster, 2147 

V. Hall, 728, 806, 809, 810, 2097, 2103, 
2131 

V. Holyoke, 201 1 

V. Mason, 1063, 1972 

V. O'Neil, 646 

V. Savage, igS/, 1982 
Savery v. King, 76 
Savile v. Blacket, 1847 

V. Scarburough, 60 
Saville's Case, 442 
Saville v. Saville, 511 
Savings Bank 7/. Allen, 2332 

V. Ayres, 1454, i495. 149^ 

V. Rates, 2332 

V. Freese, 2t48 

V. Grewe, 2099 
Sawter 7/. Kendall, 734 
Sawyer's Appeal, 1647 
Sawyer v. Adams, 2119, 2121 



Sawyer v. Davis, 4 

V. Dozier, 339 

V. Hanson, 2331 

V. Hoag, 15S1 

V. Kendall, 2299, 2357 

2>. Lyon, 2026 

V. Skowhegan, 1707 

V. Twiss, 78, 79, 103, 106, 184 

V. Wall, 683 

V. Zachary, 1023 
Saxton V. Hitchcock, 2044 

V. Mitchell, 311 
Say V. Barwick, 1034 

V. Stoddard, 1278, 1281, 1293, 1297 
Say-and-Seal v. Jones, 1709 
Saye v. Jones, 1797 
Sayers v. Hoskinson, 812 

7/. Wall, 678, 682, 699, 1372 
Saylor v. Kocher, 310 

V. Paine, 1637 
Saylors v. Saylors, 1600, 1601 
Sayre v. Hughs, 1647 

V. Townsends, 1634, 1646, 1651 

V. Weil, 1588, 1669 

V. Wisner, 671 
Scales T'. Maude, 1587 
Scammon v. Campbell, 841, 853 
Scanlan v. Geddes, 2021 

V. Porter, 321 

V. Turner, 903 

V. Wright, 215, 492, 503, 1657, 2014 
Scantlin v. Allison, 1894 
Scarborough v. Bormaii, 1373 

z'. Smith, 1894 

V. Stinson, 2090 

V, Watkins, 647, 895 
Scarry v. Eldrich,207i 
Schadt V, Heppe, 1521 
Schaefer v. Reilly, 2109 
Schaeffer v Beldsmeier, 1520 

V. Weed, 891 
Schaick ex d. Jackson v. Davis, 1150 
Schall V. Williams' Valley R Co., 2300 
Scharfenburg w. Bishop, 2018 
Schearff 7/. Dodge, 2131 
Schee v. Wiseman, 974, 975 
Scheerer v. Dickson, 1202 

V. Stanley, 1120 
ScheferingT'. Huffman, 646 
Scheible 7/. Bacho, 2059 
Scheldt v. Belz, 2258 
Scheifele v. Schmitz, 123 
Scheiffelin v. Carpenter, 1168 
Scheller v. Stein, 2122 
Schellinger v. Blackerly, 982 
Schenck i'. Conover, 2144, 2145 

V. Ellingwood, 1840 

V. O'Neil, 2059 

7'. Schenck, 1734 
Schenley's Appeal, 1226 
Schenley v. Commonwealth, 971 
Scheppi V. Gindele, 1066 
Schermer's Appeal, 1509 
Schermerhorn v. Buell, 988 

V. Gouge, mo 

V. Miller, 611 

V. Negus. 249, 259, 261, 262, 185S 

z'. Vanderheyden, 169S 
Schiack, Jackson ex d., v. Vincent, 488 
SchiefEelin z*. Carpenter, 1159 

V. Stewart, 1715, 1716. 1725 
Schiffer v. Pruden, 707, 774. 883, 894, 919, 920, 

921 
Schile 7'. Rrokhahus, 2236 
Schilling 7/. Holmes, 1128, ij68 
Schindel v. Schindel, 5S8, 681, 682 
Schinkei v. Hanewinkle, 2129 
Schintz V. McManamy, 2341 
Schlaeferw. Corson, 1622, 1760 
Schlarb 7/. Holderbaum, 1520 
Schlarfenburg v. Bishop, 1050 
Schley v. Fryer. 2068 



cc 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



S:hley V. Lyon, 1553, 1560, 1583 
Schlemmer v. North, 135 
Schluter v. Bowery Savings Bank, 165S, 1659 
Schmidt, Estate of, 1446, 1449 

V. Pettit, 109S, 1176 
Schmit V. Auferty, 996 
Schmitz V. Lauferty, 1323 
Schmucker v. Libert, 2070 
Schnelby v. Ragan, 2004 

ZK Schnelby, 776, S06, 856 
Schneider v. Botch, 229S 
V. Lord, 1322 
V. Staihr, 1364, 1367, 1827 
Schmitt V. Willis, 813 
Schoch's Appeal, 661 
Schoch's Estate, 662 

Schoffen v. Laudauer, 1391,1392, 1420, 1433 
Schofield V. Doscher, 2165 
School Directors v. Carlile, 1554 

V. Dunkelberger, 1744 
School District v. Benson, 517, 2299 

V. Lynch, 2299 
School Trustees v. Hovey, 1479, 1506 
Schoonmaker v. Stockton, 342 
Schott V. Harvey, 976 
Schouton v. Kilmer, 1503 
Schreiber v. Creed, 2214 
Schribarz*. Piatt, 1485 

Sihriverz*. Meyer, 313, 328, 330>33i. 33z» 333 
334 
V. Meyer, 306 
V. Teller. 2154 
!-'chroeder w. Gemeinder, 1052 
Schuck V. Gerlanch, 2074 
Schuessler v. Dudley, 1403 
Schuff V. Ransom, 2345 
Schuisler v. Amos, 1131, 1132 
Schult V. Harvey, 1201 
Schultz V. Moll, 661 

Schumeier v. St. Paul & Pac. R. Co., 69 
Schutt "v. Baker, 1247 
V. Large, 2365 
Schuyler.z/. Broughton, 1949 
V. Hanna, 1520, 1521 
V. Leggett, 996, 1013, 1321, 1322, 1323 
V. Smith, 969, 1131, 1132, 1 134. 1 135, 1 136, 
13157 1317, 1343. 1348 
Schuyler, Jackson ex d., v. Corliss, 1056, 1105, 

1113 
Schuykill v, Dauphan R. Co., 1067 

V, Schmoele, 1 129 
Schuykill, etc., R. Co. v. Schmoele, 1082, 1167, 

1127 
Schuykill Co. v. Thobum, 2062 
Schwartz's Estate, 102 1 
Schwartz v. Kuhn, 2295 
Schwarz v. Sears, 1999 
Schweickhardt v. St. Louis, 1193 
Schwoerer v. Boylston Market Assoc., 1069 
Scituate v. Hanover, 1588, 1592 
Scoggins V. State, 597 
Scofflns v. Grandstaff, 2301 
Scofield z^. Hopkins, 1500 
Scorell V. Eoxall, 49, 52 
Scott V. Alberry, 307 
V. Avery, 1051 
V. Bentel, 2-'4i 
V, Buchanan, 985, 986, 1031, 2052, 2073, 

2343. 2344 
V. Clinton, 98 
c/. Deyer, 1379, 1444 
V, Elkins, 2298 
V. Featherston, 2177 
V. Freeland, 1766, 1768, 1773, 2163 
V. Gallagher, 1764 
V. Gibbons, 247 
V. Guernsey, 653, 1905 
V. Hancock, 849, 860 
V. Hawsman, 1162,2260 
V. Henry, 2038, 2039 
V. Howard, 731 
V. Johnson, 985 



Scott V. Key, 1633 

r'. Levy, 1217, 1222 
V, Liverpool, 1051 
V. Logan, 315 
T'. Lunt*s Admr., 1071 
V. Lunts, 1004, 1 12 1 
V. McFarland, 2039 
•u. NicoU, 224S 
V. Perkins, 1806 
V. Porcher, 1600 
V. Purcell, 1773 
V. Ramsey, 1234 
V. Rand, 1662 

V. Scott, 856, 865, 1098, 1164 
V. Simmons, 1054, 1191, 1201, 1202 
V. State, 1923 
V. Stewart, 1754, 1755 
V. Stipe, 1S50 
V. Terry, 2288 
V. Turner, 2105, 2106 
V. Tyler, 271, 1S5S 
V. Umbarger, 1620 
V, Ward, 712 
Vy Ware, 2065, 2087, 2333 
V. Webster, 811, 2081 
V. Wharton, 218S 
7'. Whipple, 2356 
V. Willis, 1227 
Scott's Exrs. V. Gorton's Exrs., 1766 
Scovell V. Boxall, 537 
Scovill V. Kennedy, 1979 
Scoville V. Canfield, 2056 
Scranton 7r. Stewart, 103 1 
Screven v. Gregorie, 2207 
Scribnerz'. Hockok, 2177 
Scrimshire, 753 
Scriver v. Smith, 22 11 
Scrivner v. Dietz, 1791 
Scruggs V. Blair, 824, 1964 

V. Murray, 485 
Scudder v. Trenton, 2325, 232S 
Scuffield V. Brown, 220S 
Scull V. Beatly, 1519, 1522 

ff. Reeves, 1600, 1729, 1786, 1794, 1795 
Scully V. Delany, 1733 

V. Murray, 1326, 1327, 1328, 1329 
Scurfield v. Howes, 314, 1608, 1733, 1735 
Scuylerz*. Leggett, 2274 
Seabrook v. King, 2207 

V. Meyer, 1174, 2268 
Seabury, Doe ex d., v. Stewart, 1289 
Seagrave v. Seagrave, 773, 921, 939, 965 
Seager z'. McCabe, 813 
Seagood v. Meale, 1087 
Ssale V. Soto, 1986 
Sealer z/. Kittner, 11 13 
Seals 7'. Cashien, iggg 
Seamans v. Carter, 1504, 1505, 1517 
Searcy v. Short, 1398 
Seargent %k Steinberger, 1729 
Searle v. Chapman, 1494 
V. Price, 883 
zi. Whipperman, 2151 
Searles v. Jacksonville R. Co., 2136 
Sears v. City of Boston, 1455. 1456 

V. Cunningdam, 305, 1684, 1S24 

V. Dewing, 2254 

V. Dixon, 1450, 1475, 1478, 2042, 2043, 

2053 
V. Hanks, 1394, 1415, 1481 
V. Hind, 1250 
V. Hyer, 641 
V. Munson, 1893 
V. Russel, 323, 1796 
V. Sears, 1407 
V, Sellew, 1894 
V. Smith, 997, 1131, 1315, 1316 
V. Stinton, 1046 
Seaton v. Davis, 1344 
V. Jamison, 874 
V. Marshall, 1397 
V. Son, 1426 



Reierenccs are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CCl 



Seavcr v. Durant, 20S7, 2iSs 
w, Phelps, 9S7, 1032 
V. Spiuk. 2120 
Seawell z'. Greenway, 1724, 1725, 1728 
Sebastian v. Ford's Heirs, 1290 

V. Johnson, 2159 
Sebring 7'. Mei-sereau, 1984 
Second Congregational Church of North Bridge- 
water 7'. Waring, 33 
Second Nat. Bank s-. The O. E. Merrill Co., 

1316 
Second Pres. Church 7>. Disbrow, 336 
Second Reformed Pres. Churchz'. Disbrow, 

317. 319. 320, 346, 1593, 1632 
Secor, Ke, 2266 

Secor z'. Pestana, 1309, 1319, 1340 
Secrest t: McKenna, 760 

7'. Pruner, 2052, 2053 
Sedgewick 7'. Cleveland, 2132 

V. Laflin, 2S1, 283, 284, 285, 531 
See z'. Deer, 292, 203 
Seeger v. Pettit, 1224 
Seeger's Exrs. z'. Seeger, 1754 
Seekonk v. Rehoboth, 1005 
Seekright z/. Moore, 826 
Seelers z'. Seelers, 202 
Seely's Appeal, 897 
Seely v. Seely, 411, 415 

Seelye, Jaykson ex d., v. Morse, 1356, 1635 
Seem v. McLees, 1336, 1339, 1340 
Seers z'. Hind, 1057, 1249 

7'. Russell, 324 
Segee v, Perley, 54 
Segond 7'. Garland, 1373, 1562 
Seibert z-. Minneapolis & St. L. R. Co., 2141 

V. Wise, 423 
Seibold zi. Christman, 1640 
Seichrist's Appeal, 1643 
Seidenpnrger v. Spear, 2212, 2213 
Seider z'. Seider, 836, 1406 
Seiders z'. Giles, igSr 
Seifert v. City of Brooklyn, 5 
Seimon z'. Schurck, 1652 
Selby V. Alston, 1580, 2096 
V. Greaves, 2250 
7'. Stanley, 2005 
Selden v. Seymour, 2349 
z/. Vermilya, 1597 
z>. Vermilyea, 1S08, 1809 
Seldon's Appeal, 1592, i6gi 
Self's Admr. v. Tune, 534 
Selkrig v. Davies, 358, 719, 2289 
Sellars v. Davis, 883 
Selleck v. Selleck, 953 
Sellers v. Lester, 2020 
V. Sellers, 203 
z'. Stalcup, 2048, 
Selliman z/. Cummins, 904 

Sellman v. Bowman, 757, 758, 866, 870, 873,875, 
g3o 
V. Sellman, 234 
Sellon 7K Reed, i4;«2 
Sellwood V. Gray, 2147 
Selwin v. Selwin, 1572 
Semmons v. McKay, 694 
Semmes v. United States, 1253 
Semple v. Burd, 2126 

V. Lee, 2151 
Senhouse v. Christian, 2220 
Senter v. Mitchell, 2020 
Sentill V. Roberson, 679, 680, 699 

V. Robinson, 6S9 
Sentney v. Overton. 1723 
Sergeant ?'. Ingersoll, 1777 
7'. Ruble, 2133 

V. Steinberger, 1876, 1881, 1SS2, 1920, 
1036, 1969 
Session v. Donnelly, 531 
Seton V. Shade, 2050, 2168 
Settegast v Schrimpf, 216, 223 
Settembre ?'. Putnam, 1622 
Seuzeneau v. Saloy, 2059 



Severance v. Griffith, 2082, 2103 
Sevier v. Greenway, 2049 

7'. McWhorter, 1795 
Sewall w. Cargill, 1556 

V. Lee, 726, 750, 883 

7'. Proctor, S27 

V. Roberts, 292, 1791, 1792, 1798 

z'. Sewall, 662, 774 
Seward z'. Huntington, 2152 

z'. Jackson, 1626, 2349 
Sewell V. Angerstein, 105, 121 

7'. Denning, 1637 

7'. Holland, 1923 

V. HoUian, 1923 

z>. Howard, 403 
Sexton 7/. Chicago Storage Co., 1122 

ZK Wheaton, 64S, 1626 
Seymour's Case, 370, 372, 390, 456, 457, 827, 884, 

8S5 
Seymour z>. Canandaigua, N. F. & R. Co., 2017, 
2018 

V. Carli, 2298 

T'. Darrow, 2027, 202S 

7'. Delaucey, 1033, 1697,1758 

V. Davis. 2074, 2172 

7' Freer, 94, icgo, 1663", i6go, 17S2 

v. Harvey, 1847 

z'. Lewis, 2244 

V McDonald, 1184 

V. McKinstiy, 2109 

V. Sanders, 2309 
Seys V. Price, 953 

S. F. & O. R. Co. ». Oaklandj 1029 
Shaak's Estate, In re, 755 
Shackleford v. Bailey, 2295 

z: Hall, 270, 1858 

z>. Handley, 1696 
Shaeffer 7^ Chambers, 1087,2185 

V. Mill, 778 

V. Ward, 814 

V. Weed, 744, 745 
Shafcr z/. Wilson, 2233 
Shaffer v. Anderson's Admrs., 8gi 

w. Enew, 22S3 

V. Richardson's Admr.j 887, 892, 894 

T*. Shaffer, 947 

V. Sutton, 1299, 1303, 1327 

z>. Weed, 922, 923 
Shaftesbury v. Duchess of Marlborough, 1S32 
Shafto zf. Butler, 1361 
Shakespeare v. Alba, 996 
Shall z'. Biscoe, 2004, 2007 
Shallenberger v. Ashworth, 1364 
Shaller w. Brand, 911 
Shankland's Appeal, 273, 299, 500, 1583, 1606, 

1675. 1741, 1748 
Shanks 7', Blackiston, 415 

V. Klein, 1964 
Shannon z'. Bradstreet, 1039, 1040 

T. Burr, iiii, 1123 

V. Frost, 34 

V. Marselis. 2180 

7'. Marsellis, 2154 
Shapland v. Smith, 300, 1605, 1797 
Shapleighe^. Pillsbury, 1556, 1557, 1569 
Share v. Anderson , 947 
Sharkey v. McDermott, 2282 

V. Sharkey, 2039 
Sharman v. Eakin, 2309 

7'. Jackson, 292 
Sharon 7', Davidson, igoi 
Sharon Iron Co. v. Erie, 1835 

7'. City of Ene, 1869 
Sharp 7'. Bailey, 1477, 1480 

V. Barker, 2089 

V. Fly, 1789 

7'. Goodwin, 1622 

7'. Johnson, 1515 

r'. Orme, 2354 

7/. Pettit, 443, 461, 875, 876, 885 

z>. St. Sauveur, 750 

V. Sharp, 308,2333 



ecu 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Sharp V. Speir, 1515, 2335 
V. Thompson, 416 
Sharpe z/. Cosserat, 1677 
V. Gerry, 2027 

V. Kelley, 1146, 1221, 1297, 1309 
V. Orme, 2364 
Sharpless v. Borough of Westchester, 651 
z/. Welsh, 1585 
z/. West, 633, 670 
Sharpley v. Jones, 717, 731, 737 
Sharpsteen v. Tilton, iSio 
Shatterwhite v. Rosser, 2297 
Shattock V. Shattock, 1821, 1S25, 1826 
Shattuck V. Gregg, 807, S35, 847, 851, 852, 862 

V. Lovejoy, 1058, 1138 
Shaver v. Shaver, 1920 
Shaw V. Eeebe, 2303 
V. Beers, 515 
V. Beery, 1887 

V. Beveridge, 30, 31, 32, 38, 83 
V. Bill, 2018 
V. Bowman, 1208 
V. Boyd, 898, 954, 957 
%'. Bunny, 2086,2155 
V. Burton, 2082 
V. Famsworth, 1000 
V, Foster, 2002 
V. Gould, 719 
V. Hearsey, 1887, 1919, 1930, 1931, 1932, 

1938, 1952, 1967, 1969 
V. Hoadley, 2150, 2164 
V. Hussey, 344 
V. Lawless, 347, 1627, 1632 
V. Lenke, loi, 121, 135, 139 
V. Norfolk, 2040, 2041 
7'. Norfolk Co. R.. 2146 
V. Partridge, 1024, 1033, X360, 1363, 1364, 

1368, 1369, 2264 
V. Read, 1647 
w. Russ, gog 
V. Simmers, 1040 
z/. Spencer, 1622, 1637, 1714, 1745, 1746, 

1749. 1765 
V. Stenton, 1166 
V. Thompson, 820 
11. Walbridge, 216S 
V. Wallace, 983, 1287 
V. Weigh, 422, 1553, 1594 
V. White, S23, 843, 844 
V. Wright, 288, 289, 1594 
Shaw, Jackson ex d., ?'. Spear, 1160 
Shawhan v. Lang, 2258 

V. Long, 2251, 2257 
Shaw-mut Bank v. Boston, 1176 
Shawmutt Nat. Bank v. Boston, 66, 1015 
Shaw's Trust, Re, 1038 
Shea's Appeal, 899 
Shea V. Sixth Ave. R. Co., 1195 

7'. Tucker, 1651 
Sheaf e z/. Gushing, 534, 536 
V. Gerry, 2027. 2029 
z'. O'Neil, 215,673, 732, 864, 865 
Shearer z/. Corbin, 2336 
v. Loftin, 1794 

V. Ranger, 729, 1092, 1093, 1094 
V. Shearer, 694, 1961, 1964, ^965 
Shebert v. Winston, 1440. ^975 
Sheckell v. Hopkins, 2051, 2055, 2168 
Shee V. Hale, 253, 260, 272, 273, 1677 
Sheecomb v. Hawkins, 1040 
Sheedy z'. Reach, 1683 
Sheehy v. Miles, 1520. 1521, 1950 
Sheen, Re, Thomas, Ex parte, 105, 108, no 
Sheerer v. Stanley, 2259 
Sheet's Estate, 500, 1675 
Sheets r/. Peabody, 1722 

w. Selden, 1005, 1083, 1106, 3157, 1177, 
1182, 2256 
Sheetz's Will, 416, 424 
Sheffield z'. Lovering, 2286 
Sheible v. Bacho, 2056 
Sheildsz/. Atkins, 1783 



Shells zi. Stark, 1969 
Sheirburn v. Cordove, 15 16 
Shelby v. Hearne, 1074 

V. Shelby, 1782, 1874 
Sheldo V. Smith, 1795 
Sheldon v. Bird, 2170 

V. Bliss, 916, 935, 956 

V. Davey, 1269, 1271, 1293, 1319 

•u. Edwards, no, 125, 810, 2098 

V. Estate of Rice, 1715 

V. Hoffnagle, 2136 

V. Hopkins, 920 

V. School District, u8o 

V- Vail, 35 

V. Wildman, 1782 

V. Wright, 2158 
Shell V. Duncan, Sgr, 1453 

V. Martin, 2331 
Shelley's Appeal, 1509 
Shelley's Case, 302, 359, 423, 439, 440, 441, 460, 

498, 881, 1539, 1693, 1694 
Shelley, Doe d., v. Edlin, 300, 1595, 1605 
Shelley z/. Shelley, 60, 1609 
Shelton v. Alcox, 2276 

V. Armor, 2363 

V. Bliss, 933 

7/. Carroll, 729, 847, 861 

V. Codman, 975, 1072, 1074, 1120, 1125 

7). Doe, 1212 

V. Eslava, 1144 

V. Lewis, 1622 

V. Marshall, 2056 

V. Orr, 1423, 1424 

V. Shelton, 1590 
Shepard v. Brewer, 1464, 1466 

V. Briggs, 1 1 85 

V. Elliot, 2088 

V. Martin, 1213 

V. Merrill, 1172 

V. Philbrick, 47,49 

V. Pybus, 1200 

V. Rinks, 1978 

V. Shepard, 322, 323, 646, 648, 2141 

•V. Spaulding, 115, 130, 145, 146, 1164, 
1 187 

V. Taylor, 2096 

V. Wood, 2335 
Shepardson z*. Rowland, 191 1, 1924 
Sheperd z'. Adams, 2153 

V. Burkhalter, 2123 

V. Cassiday, 1455, 1457, 1460, 1461, 1462, 
1465* 1495 

V. Cummins, 996 

V. May, 2069, 2072 

7/. Nottidge, 1629 

V. White, 1497, 1649 
Shephardz* Little, 1538 
Shepherd z*. Commissioners of Ross Co., 1662 

V. McEvers, 1599, iJoo, 1660, 1661, 1662, 
1671, 1672, 1729, 1760, 1764, 1777, 
1786, 1787, 1795, iSoo 

V. Shepherd, 1697 

V. White, 1647 

V. Young, 1897 
Shepley v. Cowan, 2307, 2308 
Sheppard v. Pratt, 2094 

V. Warden, 903 
Sheppard, Doe d,, v, Allen, 1104 
Shepperd v. Cummins, 1322 
Sheratz v. Nicodemus, 2007 
Sherbunie v. Jones, 1267, 1284 
Sherensbury's Case, 2340 
Sheridan v. Welsh, 2091, 2101 
Sherill v. Sherill, 2302 

Sherman v. Champlain Transp. Co., 1144, 1150 
V, Dodge, 297, 1548, 1549, 1550, 1605, 1753, 

2315 
V. Dutch, 2251, 2257, 2258 
V. Kane, 1897 
V. Willett, 45, 821 

V. Williams, 1014, loSr, 1127, 1166, 1168 
Sherratt v, Bentley, 178S 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CClll 



Sherred z'. Cisco, 2235. 2237 

Sherrid z*. Southwick, 1471, 1472, 1524 

Sherrill v. Hopkins, 2056 

Sherrod v. Calleghan, 646 

Sheny v. Picken, 51. 52 

Sherwin v. Lasher, 2254, 2256 

Sherwood v. Andrews, 1791 

V. Barlow, 2322 

V. Dunbar, 2132 

V. Harral, 1102 

V. Phillips, 1322 

V. Reade, 1515, 1755 

V. Seaman, 1197 

v. Vanderburgh, 764, 800, 870 
Shiblaz/. Ely, 1781 
Shiel zf. McNitt, 1872 
Shields v. Atkins, 373, 17S2 

V. Batts, 717, 836 

zf. Hunt, 838 

V. Keys, 667 

V. Kinbrough, 1087 

z'. Loyear, 688, 1219 

V. Lozear, 1996, 1998, 2078, 2(29, 2131 

V. Netherland, 486 

7/. Shinn, 

V. Smith, 1752 

V. Stark, 1876 
Shields' Heirs v. Batts, 735, 741 
Shiells z;. Blackburne, 1183 
Shilling «». Holmes, loSi 
Shillingford zf. Good, 2259 
Shillito v. PuUen, 1026 
Shimer w. Hammond, 810, 2136 

7'. Mann, 396 
Shindelbeck v. Moon, 1085, 1198 
Shina v. Budd, 2137 

V. Fredericks, 2096, 2130 

7'. Holmes, 307, 309, 312, 326 

V. Shinn, 1932, 1944, 2150 
Shintz V. Laufeity, 995 
Shipbrook v. Hinchinbroek, 1732, 1733 
Shipe 7'. Renass, 1481 
Shipley v. Fifty Assoc, 1202 
Shipman v. Beers, 2223 

z/. Horton, 1031 

V. Mitchell, 1274, 1315. 1317, 1319, 1330 
Shippen's Appeal, 519, 520, 636, 746 
Shipper v. Stokes, 2016 
Shippey z/. Derrison, 998, 1043 
Shipwerth z/. Sreed, 1025 
Shipwith's Exrs. v. Cunningham, 1601 
Shirack v. Shirack. 1465 
Shirey v. Postelthwaite, 353 
Shirkey 7/. Hanna, 2147 
Shirley v. Bunch, 2033 

Zf. Burch, 2060 

V. Jones, 2148 

V. Shirley, 1361, 1371, 1561, 2008 

V. Sugar Refining Co., 2006 

V. Terne, 2354 
Shirras v. Craig, 2022, 2023, 2027, 2028, 2030, 

2036, 2123 
Shirtz V. Shirtz, 791, 823, 841, 842, 845, 876 
Shitz V. Diffenbach, 2004 
Shivers v. Goar, 267 
Shober v. Houser. 1703 
Shoemaker v. Huffnagle, 416, 433 

V. Simpson, 113, ir6 

V. Smith, 1613, 1651 

V. Walker, 679, 703, 781, 815 
ShoUenberRer v. Brinton, 2253 

V. Filbert, 2251 
Shone v. Larsen, 2366 
Shonk V. Brown, 251, 257, 904, 1371, 1561 
Shoofstall z/. Powell, 4'4. 4f5. »8o6 
Shook v. Shook, 1885 
Shoplane v. Royderer. 1022 
Shore, Doe d., v. Porter, 1135, 1136, 1254, 1270, 

1299, 1301, 1308, 1334 
Shores v. Carley, 604, 692, 693, 703 
Shorey v. Farrell, 1270 
Short V. Battle, 2012 



Short 7'. McGruder, 1432 

Short, Doe d., v. Prettymaii, 1984 

Shortall v. Hinckley, 588, 632, 633, 634, 635, 

641, 642, 643, 651, 1366 
Shortz V. Unangst, 1730, 1085 
Shote V. Tighe, 976 
Shotwell V. Mott, 1659 

V. Sedam's Heirs, 923, 924 

V. Shotwell, 772 
Shore v. Dow, 1918 

V. Sarsen, 2123 
Shotwell 77. Smith, 2067 
Shouse V. Krusor, 2251, 2254, 2257, 2259 
Shouton V. Kilmer, 1403 
Shovelton v. Shovelton, 1629, 1633 
Show V. Hussey, 536 

V. Show, 491 
Shrank v. Zubler, 2299 
Shreve z'. Hankinson, 1036 
Shrewsbury's Case, 570, 1277 
Shrieker z'. Field, 2145 
Shrieve v. Stokes, 2233 
Shroder z>. Brenneman, 2220 
Shropshire ?>. Bums, 2343 > 

V. Shepperd, 1244 
Shroyer z'. Nicknell. 1929 
Shrunk v. Schuylkill Nav. Co., 69 
Shryock v. Waggoner, 1622, 1748 
Shubert v. Stanley, 2055 
Shufelt z'. Shufelt, 2083, 2111 
Shulenberg 7*, Herriman, 1861 
Shull V. Kennon, 1979, 1980 
Shult V. Baker, 1153 
Shultz V. Elliott, 1 149 

V. Shultz, 323 

7/ Sprain, 2249, 2251 
Shumway v. Collins, 1050, 1058, 1073, 1115, "29, 

1 174 
Shury 7/. Piggott, 2208 
Shute V. Grimes, 2077, 2084 

V. Harder, 1579 
Shutler's Case, 2204, 2352 
Shutt V. Rambo, 346 
Shuttleworth z/. Greaver, 918, 944 
Shutz V. Desenberg, 2052 
Sibley v. Hoar, 983 

z>. Johnson, 2346 

V. Williams, 706 
Sicard v. Davies, 2338 
Siceloff V. Redman's Admr., 118, 440 
Side V. Hodley, 2241 
Sidenberg 7/. Ely, 504, 2089 
Sidle V. Maxwell, 2120 

V. Waters, 1588 
Sidmouth V. Sidmouth, 682, 1640, 1647 
Sidney v. Sidney, 664, 939, 963, 965 

7/. Stevenson, 2002 
Siefke z/. Roch, 2264 
Siemasen v. Bofer, 216 
Siemon v. Schurck, 1622, 1962 
Sientes v. Odier, 12 13 
Siewert V. Hamel, 2165, 2167 
Siglar z/. Van Riper, 19:7 
Sigmund v. Howard Bank, 1079 

V. Wilkins, 1067 
Sigoumey v. Eaton, 1918 

7'. Munn, 824, 825, 1777, 2359 

V. Stockwell, 734 
Silcock 7'. Farmer, 1141 
Sill v. Worswjck, 368, 719, 2057, 2288 
Sillard v. Robinson, 305 
Sillers z/. Lester, 2018, 2019 
Silloway v. Brown, 1403, 1405, 1425, i449i i503» 

1903, 1907, 1998 
Silsbury v. McCoon, 62 

Silsby 7/. Allen, 1264, 1300, 1301, 1312, 1322, 
1325, 1326, 1336.1337 

V. Bullock, 635, 638, 650, 651, 657 
Silva z>. Cambell, 1139 
Silver Lake Bank v. North, 1541, 2014, 2090, 

2136 
Silvernail v. Cole, 55 



CCIV 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Silverstein v. Stem, 2260 
Silvester v. Ralston, 1022 

V. Wilson, 288, 1594, 1605, 1712 
Silvester ex d. Law v. Wilson, 299, 300 
Silvey's Estate, 918, 943 
Silvey v. Summer, 1164 
Siinar &. Canady, 708, 709, 712, 716, 725, 726, 

727* 797. 821, 879, §93, 922 
Simers v. Saltus, 47, 1125, 1172 
Simmons 7'. Brown, 1247 

V. Gooding, 675 

zt. Hervey, 2340 

V. Johnson, 1504 

V. Lyles, 837, 884 

V. McElwain, 646, 648 

V. Norton, 543, 544, 559, 1227 

V. Palles, 1793 

V. Sines, 2217 
Simon v. Walker, 1425 
Simonds %>. Powers, 1517 

V. Simonds, 259, 261, 263, 1682, 1862 

z'. Turner, 1108 
Simons v. Farren, 1103 
Simonton's Estate, 2354 
Simonton v. Conielius, 1932, 1933, 1940 

V. Gray, 783, 802, 808, 810, 1580, 2097 

V. Houston, 938, 948, 949 
Simpkin v. Ashurst, 1354 
Simpkins v. Rogers, 1267, 1268, 1280 
Simpson v. Ammons, 1969, 1971 

V. Downing, 2299 

z/. Feltz, 1242, 1243 

V. Gutteridge, 1021, 1888 

V. Kelso, 75 

V. Leach, 787 

V. McAllister, 832 

V. Mundee, 2005, 2364 

». Pearson, 1944, 2301 

V. Robert, 2025 

zi. Savings Bank, 1518 

V. Seavey, 1897 

V. Simpson. 436 
Sims V. Dame, 1923 

V. Huntphries, 1344 

V. Hundley, 2160 

V. Irvine, 2305 

7'. McClure, 1034 

ZI. Ray, 1830 

V. Rickett, 645 

V. Thompson, 1425 

z). Walsham, 1430 
Simson v. Brown, 2072 
Sinclair v. Armitage, 2015 

V, Jackson, 1038, 1040. 1731, 2300 

V. "Slawson, 2365 
Singer Manfg. Co. v. Sayre, 994, 1315, 1316, 

1317 
Singleton v. Bremar, 236, 2S2 

z). Huff, 1411 

V. Scott, 1667, 1755, 1758 

V. Singleton, 835, 836, 849,860 
Singleton's Heirs z). Singleton's Exrs,, 737, 859 
Singstack z'. Harding, 1707, 1766, 1769 
Sinnet v. Herbert, 1872 
Sinnickson 7'. Johnson, 198 
Sip zt. Lawback. 856 
Sir Ralph Bovy*s Case, 1626 
Sisk v. Smilli, 801, 927 
Sisson z/. Donnelly, 281,284, 286 

V. Hibbard, 117, 141. 143 
Sistare zi. Sistare, 750, 774 
Siter V. M'Clanachan, 76, 2140 
Sitliff V. Forgey, 750 
Sitzer. Jackson ex d., zi. Waltermire, 712 
Skaggs V. Elkus, 1327, 1330 

7'. Nelson, 2006 
Skally V. Shute, 1166, 1168 
Skeel V. Spraker, 520, 811,1580,2036,2123,2127, 

2131 
Slcidmore v. Ramline, 1034 
Skillen v. Loyd, 346 
Skillman z/. Temple, 2130 



Skinner v. Beatty, 1491, 1497, 2157 

V' Buck, 1999, 2076, 2146, 2151 

V. Crawford, 2296 

V. Dayton, 1870, 1871, 1872 

z>. Harrison Township, 1657 

z). Hendrick, 2047 

V. Miller, 2047, 2052, 2168,2169 

V, Reyni-ck, 1488 

V. Wilder, 5G, 57 

V. Young, 2169 
Skipwith's Exrs. v. Cunningham, 1600 
Skipworth v. Cunningham, 1789, 1791, 1794 
Skrine v. Walker, 1633 
Slater v, Breese, 2024 

V. Dangerfield, 423 

7/. Jepherson, 210 

V. Nason, 216, 672, 673 

V Rawson, 206, 601; 2297 
Slatorz'. Brady, 1031 

V. Trimble, 103 1 
Slattery v. Wason, 1677, 3678 
Slaughter v. Foust, 839 
Slaymaker v. Gettysburg!! Bank, 43 
Slayton v. Blount, 234 
Sledge V. Reid, 1247 
Slee 7/. Manhattan Co., 2016 
Sleigh V. Strider, 411, 412 
Sleight V. Read, 234 
Slemmer v. Crampton, 479 
Slevin v. Brown, 1553, 1797 
Slice 7'. Derrick, 1976 
Sloan V. Coolbaugh, 1523 

V. Holcomb, 2061 

V. Whitaker, 947 

V. Whitman, 868 
Sloane zt. McConahy, 1555 
Slocum V. Catlin, 811 

ZK Hooker, 2343 

7'. Marshall, 1593 

V. Seymour, 53,55 

7'. Slocum, 434 
Sloper V. Saunders, 1258 
Slowey V. McMurray, 2054 
Slowley V. McMurray, 2044, 2045 
Slughter v. Foust, 2106 
Small V. Clifford, 1882, 1912, 1914, 1968 

V. Marwood, 1713, 1788 

V. Nainie, 257 

V. Proctor, 211, 831 
Smalley v. Hickok, 2174 
Smallmau zK Onions, 576 
Smart v. AUegaert, 2268 

V. Morton, 91, 92, 93, 2233, 2237 

7/. Taylor, 756 

V. Whaley, 755, 756, 769, 770 
Smelting Co, v. Kemp, 2304 
Smiles z>. Hastings, 2222 
Smiley 7/. Fries, 2301 

V. Van Winkle, 1122, 1159, 1160, 1164 

V. Wright, 781, 885, 923,924 
Smilie zi. Bifile, 75, 1723, 1784, 17S5 
Smillie t/. Titus, 2060 
Smith's Appeal, 414, 444, 788 
Smith, Re^ 95, 1432 
Smith zj. Ackerman, 729, 730, 1094 

z). Acton, 1782, 1783 

V. Adams, 781, 2230 

V, Addleman, 7S2, 822, 841, 842, 844 

V. Aiken, 1236 

V. Allen, 14S1, 1956, 1962, 2012 

V. Allt,_ii3r, 1135, 1317 

V. Ankins, 1177 

ZI. Ankrim, 1126, 1175, 2269 

7'. Atkins, 1050 

ZI. Ausboniie, igo6 

V. Baldwin, 932 

7'. Barrett, 1019, 1029 

V. Bell, 302, 339, 345, 419, 1131, 1132, 1806 

V. Benson, 56, 141 

V. Berry, 306, 308, 309 

V. Blaisdell, 1138, 1140, 1150 

V. Bowen, 1548, 1592, 1808, 1809, 1810 



References are 

to pages. 



Smith V. Brannan, iS6i 
V. Brannon, 1849 
V, Brinker, 1108, 2262 
V. Bryan, 51, 52, 55 
V, Bunn, 1466 
V. Bumham, 1623, 1634 
V. Burtis, 209, 210, 211, 212, 1917, 2297 
V. Calloway, 1781 
V. Carney, 1094, 1095 
ZK Carroll, 144 
V. City of Rochester, 69, 70 
v> Clark, 249, 1770, 2264 
V. Clay, 872 
•u. Clayton, 1205 
V. Coe, 1278 
zK Coffin, 307 
■'■ Collyer, 574, 577 
t'. Colson, 2250 

"'.Columbia Ins. Co., 2114, 2 118 
I'. Colvin, 670, 679 
V. Commonwealth, 135, 136 
V. Cooke, 491 
•V. Cooper, 516 
V. Countryman, iiro 
V. Croom, 1456 
V. Crosby, 2044 
V. Cushing, 2303 
V. Daniel. 552, 1759, 1764, 1777 
V. Darby. 92, 93, 94 
V. Day, 1040 
ZK Death, 1844 
V, De Russy, 2301 
V. Deschavimes, 1425 
V. Dinsmoor, 2138 
V. Dinsmore, 2136 
•V. Dodds, 974, 975 
V. Doe, 1807 
V. Dorr, 2283 
V, Durell, 2132 
V. Dyer, 1996, 2085, 2102, 2104 
V, Eldridge, 125S 
V. Elliott, iig4 
V. Emerson, 1964 
V. Estell, 974 
V. Eustis, 2182 
V. Evans, 2352 
7/. Fellows, 795 

V. Floyd, 2191,2194,2250,2273,2287 
V. Ford, 1592 
V. Freeman 1000 
V, Frost, 1620 
V, Fulkinson, 338 
V. Garland, 1791 
V. Godfrey, 2056 
•V. Goodwin, 2186 
•u. Grant, 1253 
V. Green, 2172 
V. Hance, 498 
V. Handy, 901,902,911 
V. Harrington, 323, 1604, 1753 
V. Harrison, 977, 1249,2262,2263,2264 
V. Heiskell, 107 
V. Hitchcock, 2100 
-v. Hosmer, 2298 
V. Houston, 1259,2271 
V. Howell, 903 
V. Hoyt, 2157 
V. Hunt, 2363 
V. Hurst, 2083 

V. Jackson, Soi, 814, 818, 1963 
V. Jewett, 541 
V. Johns, 2077 
V. Johnson. 46, 136,2084 
V. Jordan, 2126 
V. Kehr, 1481 

V. Kelley, 800, 2074,2085,2100, 2128 
V. Kenrick, 2227, 2231 
V. King, 102 1, 1906 
V. Kinkaid, 2271 
V. Knight, 1924 
V. Kniskem, gi6, 934. 955 
V. Knowlton, 523, 1786 



TABLE OF CASES. 



ccv 



Smith?'. Lavilts, 1794 

V. Lewis, 2080,2091 

V. Littlefield, 1,130, 1132, 1135, 1317, 1346, 

1347, 1350 
w. Low, 1023 
V. Lynne, 1791 
V. Malings, 2268 
V. Mallone, 1467 
V. Manlings, 1174 
V. Mapleback, 2252 
V. Marrable, 1055, 1168, 1200 
V. Marc, 14S9, 1516 
V. Matthews, 1589, 1592, 1692 
V. Mayo, 103 1 
V. Maxwell, 645 
V. McCampbell, 1093 
v. McCann, 1709, 171 1, 1750 
V. McCarty, 765 
V. McGregor, 61 
V. Metcalf, 1553, 1709, 1797 
V. Miller, 1047, 1479, 1506, 2198 
V, Monmouth Ins. Co., 2115, 2116 
V. Monmouth Mutual Fire Ins. Co., 240 
V. Moore, 139, 253, 2080 
V. Morehead, 660 
7/. Morrow, 2298 
V. Mundy, 1159, 1212 
V. Neale, 1000 
V. Newton, 2059, 2161 
V. Niel, 1625 
V. NIver, 1162 
V. North, 1076 
V. O'Hara, 223S 
V. Orton, 1746 
V. Osborne, 316 
V. Ostermeyer, 810 
V. Otley, 1349 
V, Pacard, 1518, 2157 
V. Painter, 889, 890, 1773 
V. Park, 1020 
V. Parkhurst, 516 
•V. Parks, 1871, 2078, 2079 
V. Pattom, 1634, 1646, 1647,1648, 1651,1700 
V. Paysenger, 924 
XI. Pendergast, 1159 
V. People's Bank, 2031, 2040 
V. Pettee, 1248 
V. Pollard, 2322 
V. Porter, 2219 
V. Poyas, 541 
V. Price, 103, 104, 135 
V. Pringle, 1 134 
V. Provin, 2160 

V. Putnam, 1056, 1057, 1105, H13 
V, Quiggans, 1420, 1435, 1446 
«*. Raleigh, 1168, 1174 
V. Rice, 1234 
V. Roberts, 2097 
V. Rowe, 1274 
V, Rowland, 2005 
z>. Rumsey, 14S1 
V. Sanger, 2152 
V. Schiiver, 333 
V Shackleford, 744 
V. Sharpe, 549, 552, 575 
V. Shaw, 717, 1253 
V. Shay, 2171 

V. Shepard, 497, 1171, 1220 
V. Sheperd, 2065 

V. Simons, 983, 985, 990, 991, looi, 1046 
V. Sinclair, 2174 
V. Smith, 300, 355, 469, 522, 712, 727, 731^ 

752. 769, no, 772, 844, 84S, 855, S57, 



1393, 



1606, 
igo6, 
2005, 



_ gi2, 933, 953, 1219, 
1627, 1634, 1651, 1718,. 1883, 
1933. 1947. 1956, 197s. 1979) 
2007, 2104, 2134, 2164, 2229 

. Spencer, 6go, 692 

. Stanley, 804, 829 

. Starr, 75, 317, 31S, 329, 1673, 1674 

.Stewart, 1268, 1271, 1272, 1276, 1283, 
1291, 2271 



CCVl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Smith V. Stigleman, 1128 

V. Strahan, 778,779, 1613, 1615, 1639, 1640, 
1646, 1647, 1651, 1658, 1703 

•u. Stuart, i6go 

V. Surman, 54, 55 

V. Tankersley, 2254 

V. Taylor, 1027, 2063 

V. Thomas, 2252, 2259 

V. Thompson, 2012, 2013 

V. Thurston, 1166 

V. Townsend. 1703, 1727, 1735, 1746, 1772 

V. Tritt, 49) 5I) 52 

V. Truslow, 2o6g, 2070 

V. Union Ins. Co., 2116 

V. United Stales, 3 

V. Van Gilder, 1518 

V. Van Ostrand, 344 

V. Vincent, 2128 

V. Waggoner, 141, 143 

V. Watson, 1242 

V, Wheeler, i5'f4, 1788 

V. Whitebeck, 1060, 1154 

V. Widlake, 1266, 131S, 1838 

V. Wiggin, 221 1 

V. Wilkinson, 1691 

V. Williams, 2301 

V, Wooding, 1289 

V. Wright, 1241 

V. Zaner, 1657 
Smith ex d. Teller v. Burtis, 489, 518 
Smith d. Teller v. Lorillard, 517 
Smith's Heirs, v. Smith, 849 

V. Stewart, 1213, 1268, 1272 
Smith, Jackson ex d., v. Adams, 672, 673, 1657 
Smith's Lessee v. Hunt, 1713 
Smith Paper Co. v. Servin, 133 
Smithdeal v. Smith, 203 

Smitheal v. Gray, 1639, 1640, 1641, 1700, 1764 
Smithers v. Hooper, 76 
Smithurst v. Edmunds, 2018 
Smithwick v. Ellison, 80, 82, 1263 

V. Jordan, 269, 1560 
Smoot V. Lecatt, 600, 664 

V. Strauss, 2273 
Smyles v. Hastings, 2241, 2247 
Smyrna B. L. A. v. Worden, 1028 
Smyth V. Carlisle, 959 

V. Tankersley, 1233, 1234 ' 

V. Mayor of New York, 96 
V. Naugle, 1008 
Smythe v. I^orth, 11 14 
Snape v. Thourton, 1807 
Snavely v. Pickle, 2046, 2176 

V. Wagner, 485, 1773 
Snedecor v. Freeman, 1425 
Snedeker v. Warring, 103, 107, 113, 116, 133, 

137- 1923 
Sneeld w. Ewing, 757, 758 
Sneed v. Atherton, 1990 

•V. Hooper, i6g8 
Sneider v. Heidelberger, 1510 
Snelgrave v. Snelgrave, 942 
Suell V. Atlantic Fire & Marine Ins. Co., 2331 

V. Kirby, 759 

V. Young, 287 
Snelling v. Utterback, 1648, 1649, 1699, 1701 
Snoddy v. Kreutch, 2297 
Snodgrass v. Reynolds, 1245 

V, Ricketz, 2302, 2305 
Snook V. Snook, 949 

V. Sutton, 1022 
Snow V. Cutler, 1040 

•v. Orleans, 2021 

V. Parsons, 2225 

V. Perkins, 80 

V. Stevens, 783 

V. Tifft, 829 
Snowden v. Craig, 132 

». Dunlavey, 1980, 1984 

V. McKinney, 1286 
^nowdon v. Dales, 253 

z<. Pales, 1576 



Snowdon v, Wilas, 72 
Snowhill V. Snowhill, 1810 
Snyder v. Kunkleman, 2273 

V. Riley, 1120, 2258, 2259 

V. Snyder, 783, 803, 810, 940, 2097 

V. Stafford, 21533 2154 

V. Vaux, 62 

V. Wolfovd, 1643 
Sobey v. Brisbee, 997 
Society v. Clendinen, 1837 

V. Haight, 983 
Society for Propagation of the Gospel v. Hart- 
land, 297, 1548 

V. New Haven, 1554 
Sock V. Suba. 1984 
Sockett V. Wray, 1836 
Soggins 71. Heard, 1643, 1781 
Soliier v. Massachusetts General Hospital, 
2329, 2333 

V. Trinity Church, 31, 39,40, 41, 514, 2333 
Solary v. Hewlett, 1443, 1444 
Solme v. Bullock, 2197 
Solomon v. Congregation B'nai Jeshurun, 39 

V. Fitzgerald, 1964, 1965 
Soltau V. Soltau, 682, 683 
Somers, Den ex d., v. Peirson, 412, 415 

V Pumphrey, 986, 987, 2345 
Somerset v. Fogwell, 982, 2198 
Somes V. Skinner, 2080 
Sommers v. Johnson, 1517 
Soper V. Guernsey, 2032, 2064 
Sorrels v. Self, 2309 
Souders v. Van Sickles, 2065 
Soulard v. United States, 2, 3 
Soule V. Abbe, 2027 

V. Barlow, 2297 

V. Soule, 465 
South V. Thomas, 1723 
South Bridge Savings Bank v. Stevens Tool 

Co., 106 
South Cong. Meeting-House v. Hilton, looi 
Soutliall V. Leadbetter, 1102 
Southard v. Central R. Co., 1849, 1855, 1861, 
1867, 1972 

V. Dorriugton, 2089 
Southerin v. Mendum, 492, 1998, 2074, 2105, 

2107, 21S2 
South Sciluate Savings Bank v. Ross, 1754 
Southsett V. Stowell, 1569 
South-Side Town M. & M. Co. -v. Rhodes, 

16S9 
Southworth v. Smith, 1922 

V. Southworth, 1912 

V. Van Pelt, 799 
Souverby v. Arden, 1791 
South Wales R. Co. v. Wythe, 1083 
Southwestern R. Co. v. Thomason, 42 
Soutter V. McRea, 1999 
Souverbye v. Arden, 2354 
Sowers 7'. Vie, 1225 
Spaulding t;. Shalmer, 1749 
Spangler v. Stauler, 225, 711, 784, 785, 78S, 821, 
„ . . |f3, 969, 974 
Spachius, Den ex d., v. Spachius, 450, 470 
Sparahawk v. Cloon, 253, 273 
Sparger?/. Compton, 1513 
Sparhawk v. Bagg, 1998, 2064 

z'. Broome, 11 14 

V. Sparhawk, 1662 
Sparkman v. Gove, 2068, 2069 
Sparks v. State Bank, 138, 2124, 2126 
Sparrow v. Hoven, 2297 

V. Kingman, 764, 870 

V. Pond, 53 

V. Shaw, 422 
Spaulding v. Brent, 2349 

V. Chicago & N. W. R. Co., 568 

V. Crane, 1443 

V. Hallenbeck. 266 

V. Warren, 229S 

V. Woodward, 1972, 1973 
Speake v. Kinard, 890 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CCVll 



Spear v. Cutter, 1152 

V. Fuller, 1058, 1143, 1150 

V. Fulton, 1138 

V. Lowell, 1034 

V. Orendorf, 13 16 

V, Spear, 1715 
Speckles v. Sax, 1084, 1086 
Speidel z'.Hetirici, 1782 
Speight, Ke, 1664 

7>. Gaunt, 1713, 1714, 1720, 1724, 1728 
Speiglemeyer v. Crawford, 2136 
Speir V. Opier, 1032 
Spelman v. Aldrich. 1428 
Spence v. Spence, 300, i6o6,'i6g3 

z>. Steadman, 1027, 2046,2254 
Spencer's Case, 982, 1070, 1071, 1074, 1075, ^o77) 

107S, 2250 
Spencer v. Austin, 1908 

V. Ayrault, 811, 1580 

V. Carr, 1016 

V. Chase, 370, 373 

V. Chick, 412 

V. Clarke, 436 

V, Geissman, 1304, 1502 

V. Godwin, 1624 

V. Harford, 2157 

V. Kunkle, 983 

z'. Lapsley, 2304 

V. Lewis, 1360 

V. Roper, 523 

V. Spencer, 658, 795, 1734 

V. Tobey. 1282 

V. Waterman, 2085 

V, Weston, 867, 875, 930 
Spencer, Doe d., v. Clark, 436 
Spendolmes v. Bun'itt, loig 
Spenesly v. Valentine, 2217 
Sperling V. Rockfort, 1373 
Sperry v. Pond, 259 

V. Sperry, 1061, 1155, 1861, 1862, 1867 
Sperry's Lessee v. Pond, 265, 266, 269, 478, 481, 

1852 
Spessard v. Rohrer, 289 
Spicer V. Spicer, 769, 770 
Spicer, Doe d.. v. Lea, 1308 
Spielmann v. Kliest. 2036 
Spies V. Chicago & E. L R. Co., 2019 
Spillerb v. SpiUer, 2x51 
Spindle v. Shreve, 1747, 1748 
Spindler v. Atkinson, 1768, 1771, 1773 
Spinning v. Spinning, 837 
Splits V. Wells, 1975 
Spooner v. Brewster, 33, 60 

V. Lovejoy, 302, 305, 308, 335, 341, 346, 
348, 1593, 1632, 1684 

V. Spooner, 1159 
Sprague z'. Barnard, 1684 

z'. Duel, 2345 

V. Dull, 1034 

V. Martin, 2142 

zi. Quinn, 1275, 1279, 1297 

V. Spargue, 297, 1607 

V. Woods, 1537, 153S 
Spraker v. Cook, 2249 

V. Van Alstyne, 340, 342 
Sprange v. Bamhard, 347, 1627, 1632 
Sprecker r.-. Wakeley, 1518 
Spriggs V. Bank of Mt. Pleasant, 2046, 2048, 

2049 
Spring V. Hyde Park, 2260 
Springer v. Arundel, 329, 336, 1673 

V. Berry, 1539, 1647, 1658 

V. Phillips, 2262 

V. Shields, 730 

V. Young, igoo 
■Springfield, City of, v. Norris, 2227 
Springle v. Shields, 729, 841 
Sprin^stein v. Schermerhom, 517 
Spruill 71. Moore, 322 
Snurgeon v. Collier, 2o.i;i 
Spurgin z'. Adamson, 2074, 2 171 
Spurr V. Taimble, 522, 523 



Squire v. Harder, 1612, 1635, 1700 
Squires v. Clark, 1898, 1912 

V. Huff, 1254, 1256, 1263, 1303, 1319, 1337 
Stacey v. Elph, 1660, 1788 

V. Rice, 1602 
Stackable v. Stackable's Estate, 1891 
Stackbergir v. Mosteller, 997, 1013 
Stacky v. Keefe, 1920, ig4J 
Stackpole ?'. Arnold, 2047 

V. Beaumont, 270, 1848 

7'. Curtis, 2246 
Stacy V. Vermont Central R. Co., 1292 
Stadden v. Hazzard, 999 
Staepler v. Knerr, 1945 
Stafford, hi re, 1719 

V. Buckley, 24, 44, 435, 819 

zf. Coyney, 2206 

V. Stafford, 2359 

7'. Van Rensselaer, 2005, 2125 
Stagg V. Eureka Tanning & Currying Co., 1216, 

1217 
Stahl V. Stahl, 819 
Stahle 7'. Spohn, 1217 
Stainback v. Geddy, 2073, 2171 
Staines v. Morris, 2263, 2265 
Stainforth v Fox, looi 
Stainsbury v. Matthews, 50 
Stall 7/. Cincinnati, 1749 

V. Wilbur, 821 
Stambaugh 7/. Yeats, 47 
Stamford Bank v. Benedict, 2136 
Stamper zi. Griffin, 1259 
Stamps. Den ex d., v. Irwine, 1231 
Stanard v. Eldridge, 2000 
Stanberry v. Sillon, 2336 
Stancer v. Roe, 1158 
Stancliffe v. Hardwick, 1246 
Standard Bank v. Stokes, 2233 
Stauden v. Chrismas, 112a 

V. Standen, 1823 
Standish v. Dow, 2148 
Stanfield V. Hobson, 2095 
St. Andrew's Church's Appeal, 1076 
Stanford v. Andrews, 2027 

V. Hurlestone, 571 

7*. Kempton, 2103 
Stanhope v. Suplee, 106 
Stanley v. Beatty, 2147, 2148 

V. Brunswick Hotel Corp., 998, 1017, 1019, 
1043 

V. Colt, 257, 1594, 1607, 1705, 1712, 1739, 
1752, 1850 

V. Gilmer, 1579 

V. Greenwood, 1379, 1387, 1395, 143 1, 
1445 

V. Leonard, 300 

V. Stanley, ig, 315 

V. Stocks, 2155, 2181 

z'.Towgood, logS 

7'. Valentine, 2134 
Stansbury, Jackson ex. d., v. Farmer, 1356 
Stansell v. Roberts, 1492, 2121 
Stansfield v. Habergbam, 231, 1572, 1638 

V. Mayor of Portsmouth, 1158 
Stanton v. Hall, 1372, 1677 

V. King, 1578 

V. Lewis, 2 
Stantons v. Thompson, 8ro, 2096, 2098, 2130 
Stanwood v. Clampitt, 2177 

V. Dunning, 765 

V. Stanwood, 647 
Staple V. Heyden, 2222 
Staples, Ex parte, 492 

z>. Anderson, mo, ri68, 1200 

V. Brown, 635, 638, 650 

V. Emery, 79, 106 
Stapley zf. Cowan, 2306 
Starbird v. Barrens, 1247 
Starin 7'. Mayor of New York, 1029 
Stark V. Barnett, 1967 

V, Cheatham, 2083 

V. Hunton, gi6,934 



CCVUl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to ijages. 



Stark V. McGown,2325 

V. Mercer, 2158,2165 

V. Stark, 2288 
Starke z/ Etheridge, 2060 

V. Harrison, 1364 

v. Starke, 1782 
Starkeweather v. Martin, 2363 
Starks v Traydor 223 
Starling v. Blair, 2024 

V. Parker. 42 
Starr z*. Ellis, 811, 2og6 

V. Jackson, 1252 

V. Moulton, 1739 

V. Pease, 632, 663, 769, 893 

V. Peck, 751 
Starry v. Starry, 862 
State z/. Atherton, 2206 

V. Atwood, 671 

V. Auditor, 671 

V Bank of Maryland, 1554, 2342 
V. V. Batesm,225 

V. Beakmo, 215, 216 

V, Bonham,9c), 125 

V. Boston, C. & M. R. Co., 215, 216, 224 

V. Brown, 2136 

V. Burwell, 1237 

V. Canatoo National Intelligencer, 87 

V. Carver, 2206 

V. Cincinnati, 1754 

■V. Collector of Bordentown, 1456 

V. Crowell, 233 

V. Curtis, 1287, 1288 

V. Danieils, 1456 

V. Diveling, 1422, 1424 

v. Davis, 2068 

V. Dawson, 2325 

V. Doherty, 2324 

V. Elliott, 115, 145, 1268 

V. Ferguson, 671 

V. Finn, 1397 

V Foy, 1247 

V. Franklin Falls Co., 2325 

V. Fry, 893 

V. Geddis, 1524 

V. Glen, 6g 

V. Goodwill, 5 

V. Graton, 2335 

V. Green, 2243 

V. Guilford, 1732, 1734 

V. Harden, 2203 

V. Hayes, 1288 

f. Heron, 2336 

V. Hodgskin, 597 

V. Horn, 2243 

V. Huntly, 706 

V. Jewell, 1234 

V. Johnson, 878 

V. Jones, 1237 

V. Killian, 220 

V, Lash, 1515 

V. Lawson, 2083 

V. Martin, 2262, 2263, 2264 

V. McCauley, 1036, 2263 

V. McKay, 1766 

V. McM. & M. R, Co., 1036 

V. McMinnville, 1268 

V. McReynolds, 2192 

V. Meagher, 1713, i7i4t 1724, 172S 

V. Metz, 976 

V. Moore, 706, 1350 

V. Murphy, 594, 596, 751 

V. Nanert, 2061 

V. Newark, 2332 

V. North Carolina, R. & D. R. Co., 1019 

V. Noyes, 4 

V. Page, gSi, 990, loio, 1048 

V. Patterson, 752 

V. Peck, 501 

V. Poor, 50 

V. Pottemeyer, 68, 70,71, 72 

V. Preble, 221 

v. Romer, 1514 



State V. Rood, 595, $^-j, 752 

V. Rose, 2272 

V. Samuel, 595, 752 

V. Simons, 2324 

V. Slater, 1399 

V. Smith, 2ig 

V. Spencer, 1399, 1452 

V. Staten, 2324 

V. Stewart, 1309 

V. Sutcliffe, 706 

71. Sutton, 1036 

V. Tachanatah, 595 

V. Titus, 2155 

V. Traphagen, 498 

V. Trask, 1568 

V. Trinity Church, 29, 30, 31, 34, 35 

V. Warren, 1659 

V. Winkley, 596 

V. Whaley, 596 

V. Wheeler, 198 

V. White, 597 

V. Whitener, 976 

V. Williams, 596 

V, Wilson, 596 

V. Wincroft, 725 

V. Worthington, 596 

V. Yopp, 5, 199 
State Bank v. Cox, 1746 

V, Hinton, 926, 928 

V. McCoy, 1033 

V. Smith, 1599 
State Bank of Elizabeth v. Ayers, 2071 
State of Georgia w. Canatoo National Intelli- 
gencer, 86 
State Savings Bank w. Kircheval, 132, 133 

V. Kirchenall, 2080 
State ex rel. Barton County v. Kansas City, F. 

& G. R. Co., 233, 522, 523 
State ex rel, Spencer v. Moore, 522, 523 
State Treasurer z'. SummerviUe & E. R. Co., 

98 
Stauffer v. Morgan, 1947 

V. Eaton, 1291 
Stayton v. Morris, 2250 
St. Clair v. Morris, 782, 925, 928 

V. Williams, 860, 966, 1072, 1115 
Steacy v. Rice, 1561, 1597, 1655, 1694, 1695, 1711 
Stead V. Nelson, 1035, 1562, 2012 

V, Newdigate, 76 

V. Piatt, 1360 
Steadman v. Gassett, 1354 

V. Pulling, 678 
Steams v. Earnett, 2349 

V. Godfrey, 1144 

V- Harris, 1861 

V, James, 2242 

V. Palmer, 290, 1796 

V. Quincy Mut. Ins. Co., 2118 

V. Sampson, 1355, 1356 

V. Swift, 822, 841, 844, 901 
Stears v. Hollenbeck, 2091 
Stebbins v. Hall, 2068, 2150 

V. Peeler, 1503 

V, Watson, 2060 
Stedman v. Korlune, 717, 835 

V. Gassett, 1319, 1350 

V. Mcintosh, 1134, 1135, 1136, 1256, 1257, 
1271, 1299, 1307, 1310, 1313, 1315, 1319, 
1324, 1334, 1335, 1337, 1342 
Steed V. Hinson, 2250 

z/. Preece, 95 
Steedman v. Weeks, 1982 
Steel V. Cook, 407, 433 

V. Frick, looi, 1234, 1237 

V. Galleatly, 930 

V. La Framboise, 8rg 

V. Sioux Valley Bank, 910 

V. Steel, 1371, 1998, 2037, 2040, 2042, 2043 
Steele, In re, 506 
Steele, Matter of, 541 
Steele v. Babcock, 1708 

V. Boone, 2125 



References are 
to pages. 



l-ABLE OF CASES. 



CCIX 



Steele v. Carroll, 7S1, 7S1 

V. Fabre, 46 

e>. Johnson, 2299 

V. Lowry, 1610 

c. Marks, 2353 

c. Magee> 893 

w. Mill*, 2254. 

e/. Taylor, 2305 

0. Thompson, 302, 309, 35s 
Steen v. Wardsworth, 1219 
Steeple -a. Downing, 2336 
Steere ■?. Childs, 2153, 2154 

p. Steers, 1590, 1592, i6i2> 1635^ 1655, 
1690, 1691, 1696, 1700, 1701 
Steers z». City of Brooklyn, 2294 
Stees V. Kran/,, 1 15S 
Sleffens v, Karl, 1*71, 1327, 1329, 1330, 13^3^ 

'335. i337> »339> »340 
Steffy c. Carpenter, S2i6 

ff. Steffy, SS2. 990 
Stegallw. StegaU> 773, 887J 894, ^921 
Steifel V. Mitz, 2268 
Sieigerjf. Hillan, 875 
Stein z: Burden^ 2292 

c. Jones, 2263, 2264. 

E/. Hanck, 2223 
Steinbach v. Relief F, Ins. Co*, &330 
Steinhausef 3. Kuhn, 1144 
Steininger -p. Williams, 997, 2273 
Steinle v. Bell, 2158 
Steinman v. Ewing, 1375, 1376 
Steinway v. Steinway> 1586 
Stell's Appeal, 1732 
Stetz V, Shreck. 1952, 1954 
Stemple v. Hentiinghouser^ 216, 774 
Stephen's Appeal, 2005 
Stephen v. Beald, 1775 

V. Beall, 2150 
Stephens -p. Bridges, 1165 

e*. Cornell, 2070 

w. Gibbes, 947 

•V. Hume, 603, 605, 612 

v. James, 1677 

V. Martin, 199 

z>. Reynolds, 1004. 

<v. Sherrod. 766 

z'. Smith, 760 

V. Stephens, 918, 944 

z'. Westwood, 1Q7 
Stephenson's Trusts, l7i re, 271 
Stephenson v> Haines, 2266 

V'. Hancock, 2259 

f. Osborne, 1510 

7/. Thompson, 1646 
Sterlien v. Daley, 2365 
Sterling v. Baldwin, 54, 56, 2020 

J'. Penlington, 607, 191 1 

V. Warden, 1351, 1356. 2212 
Stem z^. Florence Sewing Machine Co., 11 17, 

2264 
Sterne, Ex parte, 490 
Stemfels v. Clark, 1247 
Sterrett v. Wright, 2260 
Sterricker v. Dickinson, 1617 
Sterry v. Arden, 959, 1962 
Stetson z'. Day, 740, 744 

V. Gulliver, 2041, 2364 

V. Kempton, 37 

u. Massachusetts Ins. Co., 2080 

V. Massachusetts Mut. Fire Ins. Co., 2357 

%'. Patten, 1041 
Stevens v. Bridger, 1165 

V. Brown, 1999 

V. Buffalo & N. Y. C. R. Co., 98 

V. Buffalo & N. R. Co., 113 

V. Campbell, 250 

V. Cooper, 2072, 2076, 2176, 2181, 2184 

■V. Dedham Institution, 2176 

V. Dewing, 285, 1005 

V. Doe, 2346 

V. Dufour, 2157 

V. Enders, 706, 1982 

14 



Stevens \t. GAge, 1725, 1728 

v. Hampton, 2123, 2364, 2366 

c. Hollingisworth, 1434 

V. HolUster, 2298 

w. Hunt, 729 

«/. Kelley, 7i 

7'. Mayor^ 2357 

7J-. McNamai-a, 522, 523 

c. Nashua, 2206 

w. Owens, 777, 807, 833, 900, 901, 9*1 

w. Paterson & N. R. Co., ^o 

■v. Reed, 868 

c. Smith, 598, 6t 1, 748, 749, 759, 761, 766, 

779> 78i> 797> 52o,«2i,«27,S3i, ^^32, 

940 
riK Stevens, 537, 739, 740, 778, 844. 847, 

848^ 953. 9657 *074. 3492^ J640, 1G47, 

2212, 2213 

T'.Sieverts"' Heirs, 81^ 

7'. Thompson, 65, 1893 

IT'. Watsoft, '2124 

^. WinslMp,^i7,5iS,3J9, 456, 743 

z>. Win*lop, 536 

w. Winthrop^ 3^^ 
Stevens, Jackson "e^ ^.>^. Silvernail, 1104, 1113 
Steven'son 'fr, Oofferfn, 1:901, 1928 

?/, Dunlap'^s Heirs, 236 

W-. Gray. 75:;, 754 

c. Leslie, 1741 

n). Lombard, ro72, i[073, tiij, 1^74, 2262 

7/. Wallace, ■223t. 2240 
Stevenson^s 'Heirs?'. McReary, 517 
Stewart C'. Apel, ■996^ "344» 1300, 1301, 1321, 
1322 

?'. Appeal, n^So 

rv-, Barclay^ 609, 611, 692, 700, 703 

c. Bavow, 359, 263 

IK Barrow, 1997, 1998, 2076, 2077, 2079 

?), Beard, 927 

^K Brady, 259, 263, 1S5S 

v. Brand, 1457, 1459 

f. Brown, 1399, 1514 

z'. Caldwell, 2009 

V. Chadwick, 88, 1577, 1622, 1741, 1753 

7'. Clark, 497, 501, 531, 2266 

J'. Crosby, 20S5, 2128, 2132 

V. Doughty, 47, 48,49. 51. 52. 53-498,537. 
538, 540, 1205, 1206, 1207, 1234, 123S, 
1239 

7'. Fitch, 2270, 2271 

z>. Hall, 1794 

V. Hartman, 2220, 2327 

zj. Hutchings, 2040 

■V. Jones, 2288 

zi. Kenower, 424 

11. Long Island R. Co., 1122, 1123, 2262 

•V. Mackey, 1450, 1458, 1460, 146S, M^J^'i 
1475, 147S, 1488, 1489, 1490, 1491, 1495 

V. Martin, 733, 734, S38, 942, 944 

z). Meilish, 1615 

V, Pearson, 841 

V. Pettus, 16&3, 1730, 1SS5 

V. Putnam, 1201, 1202 

V. Reditt, 2353 

V. Roderick, 1220 

"v. Rogers, 1625, 1626 

V. Ross, 587, 589, 592, 593, 606, 652, 653, 
658, 668, 670, 672, 688 

V. Sanderson, 1719 

V. Smiley, 2257 

•v. State, 1758 

ZK Stewart, G54, 7597795.914.917.918,955 

zi. Stokes, 1737 

V. Walker, 344 

V, Winters,268, 1103, 1104, 1107, 1184, 
1 185 

z}. Wood, 2009 
Stewart, Den d., v. Johnson. 915 
Stewart, Jackson ex d., zj. Kingsley, 12S3 
Stewart's Lessee v. Stewart, 794, 913 
St. Felix t/. Rankin, 7892 
St. Helen's Smelting Co. v. Tipping, 2240 



ccx 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References arc 
to pages. 



Sticklehorn 7/. Hatchman, 563 
Stidman v. Mathews, 896, 903, 1777 
Stierlin v. Daly, 2335 
Stiger V. Mahone, 2166 
Siiles V. Japhet, 1948 

V. Looney, 2056, 2059 

V. West, 756 
Still v. Spear, 273 
Stilley V. Folgev, Sg8, 947, 957 
Stillman v. Flenniken, 107 

V. White River Mfg. Co., 2226 
Stillson v. Stillson, 719 
Stillwell V. Doughty, 505 

V. Pease, 1666 
Stilphen 7/. Houdlette, 771, 919 
Stimmel v. Waters, 2263 
Slimpson v. Battermaii, 1969 

V. Bishop, 2107 

V. Fnes, 1795 

V. Tliomaston, 764 
Stinchfield v. Milliken, 20S9 
Stine V. Wilkson, 1755 
Stinebaugh v. Wisdom, 599, 601, 603, 610 
Stiner t/. Cawthorn, S50 
Stines v. Dorman, 259, 267, 269 
Stinson v. Dousman, 1292 

V. Richardson, 1421, 1422 

V. Roas, 2064 

V. Ross, 2063 

V. Sumner, 745, 792, 793, 905, 906, 927 
.Stoakes v. Barrett, 87 
•Stoate V. Stoate, 661 
'^ockand z>. Bartlett, 1949 
Stockard v. Stockerd's Admr., 1600, 1601, 1613, 

1791- 1795 
Stockbridge z>. Stockbridge, 1608 
Stockbridge Iron Co. v. Cone Iron Works, 1139, 
* J14Z 

V. Hudson Iron Co., 283 
Stockett V. Holliday, 647 
Stockport Water Works Co. v. Potter, 2227 
Stocks V. Booth, 30, 33 ' 
Stockton V. Dundee Manfg. Co., 2156 

v Ford, 1585 

V. Martin, 433, 437 
Stockwell r/. Campbell, 103, no, 113, 120, 126, 
135' 136 

v.. Couillard, 283 

2/. Hunter,, 20, 64, 66, 507, 1015, 1176, iiSo 

V. Marks, 115, 145, 1310, 1315, 1334, 1336 

V. National Bank of Malone, 1438 

V. Phelps, 47 

V. Sargeant, 724, 725, 738 
Stoddard v. Gibbes, 601, 609, 611,692, 693, 703 

V. Hart, 2003, 2030, 2331, 2129 
Stoddart v. Cutcompt, 923 
Stoddert v. Newman, 2260 
Stoever v. Stoever, 308, 2037, 2039, 2164 
Stoffel V. Schroeder, 2322 
Stokee v. Singers, 2224 
Stokes V. Cooper, 1173 

V. Dawes, 236 

V. Detrick, 76 

V. Henshiger, 2247 

V. McAllister, 838 

V. McKibbin, 611, 653, 654, 655, 656, 677, 
680, 6Sg, 6gg, 1216, 1372 

V. Moore, 998, 1017, 1044 

V. O' Fallon, 750, 775, 889, 927 

7>. Payne, 1832 

V. Solomans, 2170 

V. Upton, 123 
Stokoe V. Lingers, 2245 
Stomfil V. Hicker, 1300, 1314 
Stone V. Bishop, 1707 

V. Bohn, 2272 

V. Che.shire, 1194 

V. Dar»ell, 1442, 1497 

V. Ellis, 1870, 1871 

V. Gazzam, 647 

V. Godfrey, 2074, 2170 

z/. Griffin, 1599 



Stone V. Hackett, 1594, 1791, 1792 

V. King, 1598, 1787, 1789, 1790, 1791 

V. X/ane, 2140 

V. McMuilin, 418, 420 

V. Newman, 386 

V. Patterson, 2250, 2258 

V. Proctor, 78, 79, 135 

V. Sprague, 1282 

V. Stone, 795 

V. Theed, 519, 1832 

7f. Wait, 970 
Stonehewer v. Thompson, 2073, 2136, 2171 
Stoner's Appeal, 328 
Stonestreet v. Doyle, 1684 
Stoney z/. Schultz, 2155, 2180 
Stookey v. Carter, 1923 

V. Stookey, 841 
Stoolfoos V. Jenkins, 604, 612, 614 
Stoops V. Devlin, 1218, 1315, 1316 
Stoppanios v. Richards,. 2264 
Stopplebein v. Schulte, 726, 784 
Stopplekamp z/. Mangeot, 1300, 1327, 1328, 

1329, 1330, 1331, 1334, 1340, 1343 
Storerz/. Batson, 673, 1538 

V. Freeman, 99 

V. Hunter, 49, 125 

V. Steiner, 1148 
Storm V. Manchang Co., 72 

V. Mann, 571, 574 
Storms z*. Storms, 2030 
Story V. Marshall, 77S, 1947, 1949 

V. Odin, 2223 

z/. Saunders, igo8, 1913 
Stose V. Heissler, 2260 
Stott V. Rutherford, 1081 

Stoughton z/. Leigh, 88, Sg, 561, 692, 703, 710, 
742, 77S, 779, 790,801, 811,814,853, 
860, 861 

V. Pasco, 2029, 2030, 2032 
Stout V. Curry, 1906 

V. Folger, 2025, 2026 

V. Kean, 1120, 2250 

7/. Keyes, 118, 458, 706 

V. Merrill, 1172 
Stoutenburgh, Jackson ex d., v. Murray, 518 
Stoutz 7/. Rouse, 2168 
Stouvenal v. Stephens, 
Stovall zf. Austin, 678 

V. Barnett, 2359 
Stovell V. Bennett, 2350 
Stover V. Bounds, 2170 

V. Cadwaller, 1013, 1305 

V. Cory, 1890 

V. Eycleshimer, 2017 

V. Herrington, 1625 
Stow V. Steel, 781, 782, 799 

V. Tifft, 765, 766, 805, 818, 829, 830, 1492, 
. 2358 
Stowe V. Bowen, 1732 
Stowell's Case, 773 
St. Paul's Church v. Ford, 31, 32 
Straat v. Uhrig, 1637 
Strachn z/. Force, 1412, 1413 

V. Foss, 1522 
Strafford v. Wentworth, 497 
Strahan z>. Smith, 1318, 1326 
Strang v. Allen, 2174 
Stratford v. Twynam, 1770 
Strathmore v. Bowes, 659, 794 
Stratton 7>. Gold, 2007 

V. Rogers, 645 

z/. Staples, 1202 
Strauss' Appeal, 2004 
Strawbridge v. Cartledge, 2349 
Strawn Exrs. v. Slrawn's Heirs, 736, 867, 875 
Strawns v. Strawn, 1397 
Streaper v. Fisher, 1071, 2216 
Street v. Beal, 2 171 

V. Bell, 2074 

V. Sanders, 723, 724, 789, 846 
Streeter v. Streeter, 1080 
Streubel v. Milwaukee & M. R. Co., 1518 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CCXl 



Stribling V. Ross, 88$ 
Strieker T*. Mott, 1980, 1984 
Strickland v. Aldridge, 1701, 1738 

V. Hudson, 1023 

V. Parker, 96, 137, 142 
Strickland, Doe d., v Spence, 1333, 1337 
Strickler v. Todd, 2242, 2292 

If. Tracey, 853 
Strikers. Kelly, 1515 

■D. Mott, 299, 1607 
Strimpfler v. Roberts. 517, 1552, 1576, 1638, 1639, 

1641, 1648, 1653, 1654. 1700 
Stringer 7/. Young, 2304 
Striplin v. Cooper, 1485 
Strode v. Russell, 2084 

V. Swim, 47 
Stroebe v. Fehl. 1364, 1366, 1369, 1370 
Strong T*. Blanchard, 2184 

V. Bragg. 717, 733, 735, 736, 739 

2-. Clem, 651, 670, 711, 733, 734, 736, 839, 
8c)3 

V. Colter, 1904 

z/. Converae, 728, 806, 808, Sog, 873, 925, 
928, 2068, 2069, 2134 

w. Crosby, 1321, 1323 

7). Dennis, 722 

7*. Doyle, 78, 79, 81, 143 

V. Gregory, 1825 

V. Jackson, 2108, 2111 

V. Manfs. Ins. Co., 2089,2113, 2114, 2115, 
2117 

V, Skinner, 990 

•u. Smith, 2364 

7/. Stewart, 2045, 2048 

V. Waterman, 196 
Stronghill v. Auterey, 1S32 
Stroiher v. Butler, igog 

z/. Law, 1670,2147 
Stroud, In re, 1266 
Stroud V. Morrow, 319 
Stryker-z*. Lynch, 1979, 19S0, 1981 
Stuart v. Beard, 891 

V. Bute, 134 

V. Kissam, 1371 

7/. Palmer, 2324 

•V. Phelps, 2060 

7*. Walker, 344, 534 

V. Worden, 2166 
Stubbings v. Village of Evanston, 1171 
Stubbs V, Kahn, 2363 

V. Sargon, 1638 
Stuck V. Mackey, 75 
Stuckeyj'. Keef*s Exrs., 1887, 1939 

V. Keefe, 1931, 1933 
Studdard 7/. Lemmond, 2302 
Studebacker Bros. Mfg. Co. v McCar-jur, 2107 
Stukely v. Butler, 55, 249, 499 
Stults V, Sale, 1403, 1405 
Stultz V. Dickey, 1208 
Stump V. Findlay, 461, 515, 516, 1142 

V. Henry, 517, 1751 
Stuphen v Leebas, 11 10 
Sturges V. Crowninshield, 1512 

V. Knapp, 1574 
Sturgis V, Corp, 1562 

v. Ewing, 711 

■V. Holiday, 1900 

V, Hull, 671 

7/. Morse, 1784 

77, Paine, 1824 

V. Warren, 108 
Sturm v. Atlantic Mutual Ins. Co., 631 
Sturtevant v. Jaques, 1637 

V. Norris, 721 

V. Sturtevant, 1576, 1590. '7oi 
Stuyvesant v. Davis, 1138 

7/- Hall, 2027, 2113. 2120, 2153, 2154, 2184 

V, Mayor, 1856, 1972 

V. Mayor of N. Y., 1862, 1864 

7/. Woodruff, 2215, 2242, 2244 
Styers v, Robins, 2331 
Style V. Rector, 997, 1039, 1733 



Styles 71, Wardle, 2256 
Suarez v. Pumpelly, 1587, 1662 
Succession of Christie, 1397, 1407, 1410 
Succession v. Navarro, 770 
Suffem V. Butler, 2352 

V. Townsend, 1256, 12S2 
Suffern, Jackson ex d., -v. McConnell, 1024 
Suffolk Ins. Co. %>. Boyden, 2 118 
Sugg V. Tillman, 2023 
Suggate V. Suggate, 1475 
Suiter v. Turner, 2366 
Sailings v. Richmond, 897, 958, 960, 964 

V. SuUings, 964 
Sullivan v. Bishop, 2252 

V Burnett, 216 

V. Carberry, 115, 145, 147, 1253 

V. Cary, 1300, 1307, 1315, 1316, 1322, 1336 

V. Enders, 1256, 1261, 1337 

z*. Hendrickson, 1499, 1504, 1518 

7'. Jones, 142, 1313 

■V. La Crosse, 1514 

V. McLenans, 778, 1638, 1640, 1642, 1646, 
logo 

V. Sullivan, 1983 

z'. Toole, 2021 
Sully V. Nebergail, 930 

V. Schmidt, ijg6 
Sulphine v. Dunbar, 2302 
Sulzbaclier 7'. Dickie, 1193 
Summer 7/. Waugh, 2153 

Summerlin v. Livingston, 883 ' 

Summers 7/. Eabb, 710, 713, 718, 731.733. 734. 
735. 737. 739. 741. 790. 79«. 792. 793. 
822, 838, S41, 842, 844, 891, gi4 

7". Brownley, 2158 

V. Cook, 54 

7/. Dame, 830 

V. Daniel], 1864 

V. Donnell, 855, 85S 

7/. Pumphrey, 1032 

7/. Roos, 2030 
Summersworth Savings Bank 7*. Roberts, 2027, 

2028, 2029 
Sumner 7/. Bromilow, 1158 

z/. Coleman, 2151 

V. Hampson, 787, 824, 1671 

V. Partridge, 675, 696, 697 

7'. Stevens, 2303 

V. Williams, 449, igSg, 2361, 2362 
Sumney v. Patton, 786 
Sumwalt V. Tucker, 1998, 2077 
Sunday v. Boon, 282 
Sunderland v. Sunderland, 1642, 1647 
Supervisors, etc., v. Patterson, 1S56 
Surget V. Byer, 1757 
Surplice v. Famsworth, 1065, 1201 
Surrogate, Re, of Cayuga County, 1824 
Sury V. Brown, 982, 983, 2250 
Sussex V. Roth, 1040 

Sussex Co. Mut. Ins. Co. «/. Woodruff, 2118 ' 
Suterw. Hillaird, 1686 
Sutheriand v. Brush, 1888 

v. Carter, 1234, 1246 

7'. De Leon, 1517 

7'. Ooodnow, 1053 

7'. Sutherland, 765, 2330 
Sutliff 7/. Atwood, 984, iioo, 2249, 2257, 2262, 
2263, 2264 

<... Forgey, 713, 731, 733. 734.736. 739) 74'. 
767. 774, 1929 
Sutphen v. Cushman, 2045, 2047 

7'. Seebass, 1054 

■v. Elis, 2102 
Sutter 7/. First Dutch Reformed Church, 34 

7'. San Francisco, 1925, 1978 
Sutton V. Aiken, 1563, 1654 

V. Askew, 711, 721, 727 

I'. Uurrows, 719, 847 

V. Calhoun, 2335 

V. Jervis, 791, 799, 800 

V. Mandeville, 2270 

V. Mason, iggg, 2078 



ccxu 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Sutton V. Miles, 472 

V. Robertson, 338 

V. Rolfe, 7S5, igii . 

V. Stone, 214s, 2147, 2157 

V. Sutton, 1759 

V. Temple, 1055, 1200 

v. Warren, 753, 754 
Sutton, Doe d., v. Harvey, 1040 
Sutton Parish v. Cole, 224, 1541, 1555 
Suydam v. Barber, 920 

•V. Bartle, 2082 

V. Jackson, 1176 

V. Jooes, 1074 

V. Moore, 1195 

V. Williamson, 15 16 
Swabey v. Palmer, 1195 

V. Swabey, 2098 
SwafEord v. Ferguson, 2343 

V. Whipple, 2349 
Swaine v. Kennerlay, 2281 

V. Ferine, 510, 519, 727, 746, 783, 792, 794 
795, 796, 802, 814, 840, 866, 867, 880, 
892,900,912, 913, 915, Q18, 927,929, 
932, 952, 953, 955, 963, 2182 
Swaineburn z<. Milburn, 1009 
Swallow V. Swallow, 1904, 1906 
Swan V. Clark, 995, loio, 1319, 2259 

V. Patterson, 2177 

V. Swan, 1892 

V. Yapple, 2103, 2109 
Swann v. Wilson, 1220 
Swanner z/, Swanner, 2254, 2255 
Swansborough v. Coventry, 2223 
Swart V. Service, 2045, 2047 
Swartwout, Jackson ex d,, v. Johnson, 489, 513, 
517- 589, 590. 592. 593> 598, 602, 603, 
604,605,607,608, 612, 6t4, 621, 622, 
623, 624, 629, 630, 692 
Swartz V. Ballon, 2340 

V. Leist, 2147 

V. Page, 2192 
Swazey v. American Bible Soc, 1687 

V. Little, 2270 
Swearinger, In re, 1424, 1426 
Sweat V. Hall, 647, 2348 
Sweeney v. Garrett, 1062 

V. Mallory, 923, 924 
Sweet V. Dutton, 291, 1675 

V. Gloversville, 1193 

V. Jacocks, r6i7, 1618, 1619, 1643, 1644, 
1738. 1771 

V. Parker, 2045, 2048 
Sweetapple v. Bindon, 598, 609, 6ti, 679, 695 
Sweetland v. Sweetland, 2038 
Sweetzer z/. Jones, 96, 133, 138, 2069 

V. J^^owell, 1028 
Sweezey v, Thayer, 2164 

V. WilHs, 363 
Swenson v. Moltine Plow Co., 2148 
Sweny v. Meany, 1978 
Swetland v. Swetland, 2045, 2052 
Swett V. Horn, 2131 

V. Patrick, igo8 

V. Sherman, 808, 809, 2178 
Swezay v. Shady, 924 
Swift V. Dean, 1149 

V. Dewey, 1474. 1490 

V. Kdson, 2142, 2149 

•V. Goodrich, 983 

•u. Kraemer, 1497 

V. Kromer, 2134 

V. Moseley, 984 

V. Mutual Ins. Co., 1668,2113, 2"7 

V. Thompson, 105, 108, no, 112. 114, 116, 
1 186 

V. Tyson, 1516 
Swigert v. Bank of Kentucky, 2164 
Swinburne v. Swinburne, 1621, 1622, 1760 
Swinfen v. Swinfen, 2098 
Swinnock v. Lyford, 2172 
Swisher v. Swisher, 2349 
Switzer v. Skiles, 1617, 1738 



Sword V. Low, 116,1085, '^39) 1198 
Sybum v. Slade, 1149 
Sykes v. Sykes, 7S6, 816, 825, 886, 974, 975 
Sylvester v. Downer, 1702 

V. Ralston, 1276 
Sym's Case, 1024 
Syme v. Sanders, 1219 
Symington v. Symingtpn, 1464 
Symouds v. Hall, 1230, 1234, 1236 

V. Harris, 138 
Symondson v. Tweed, 1087 
Sympson v. Turner, 1553 
Syms V. Mayor, 1009 
Symson v. Turner, 299, 1583 
Syndorw. Syndor, 414 
Sypher v. McHenry, 1766 
Syracuse City Bank v. Davis, 67 1 

V. Tallman, 1027, 2065, 2066 
Syracuse Savings Bank y, Holden, rSoS 

V. Porter, x8o8, 1809 



Tabb V. Baird, 15S4 

Tabele v. Tabele, 8r8, 926 

Tabeville z*. Ryan, 1029 

Tabler Z'. Wiseman, 702, 1975, 1980, igSr, 1982 

Tabor z*. Bradley, 2211 

V. Robinson, 104, 120, 137 
Tadlock v. Eccles, 1408, 1413, 1414, 1472, i486, 

1523 
Taffe V. Harteau, 1075 

V. Wamick, 105, loS 
Taft V. Kessel. 2009 

V. Stevens, 2085, 2102, 2103 

V. Taft, 1592 
Taggard v. Rosevelt, 1013, 1319, 1321, 1323 
Taggart's Appeal, 885 
Taggart v. Murray, 337 
Tainter f. Clark, 1599, 1663, 17S7, 17S8, 1S32, 

1833, 1835, 1841, 1842, 1844 
Taintor v. Cole, 1026, 1924, 1925 
Tait V. Hannum, 2071 
Takeway v. Barrett, 21 r, 212 
Talamo v. Spitzmiller, 1323 
Talbot 2/ . Braddil, 201:0 

V. BradhiU, 2051 

V. Miller, 723, 724, 846, 1206 

V. Whipple, 130, 146, 1 161, 11S7 

7>. Wilkins, 2t77 
Talbott V. Armstrong, 722 

V. Grace, 2243 

V. Todd, 1574 
Talbott's Exrs. v. Bell's Heirs, 1759, 1764, 1777 
Taliaferro v. Barnewall, 780 

V. Burwell, 619, 690 

V. Gay, 2063, 2162 
Talley v. Alexander, 1192 

V. Giles, 1091 
Tanin2:er 7/. Mandeville, 647, 896, 897 
Tallmadge v. Sill, 180S, 1820, 1825 

V. The East River Bank, 268 
Tallman J/. Coffin, 1071, 1078 

V, Ely, 2000, 2156 

V. Snow, r86o, r866, 1867 

V. Wood, i6og, 1694 
Tally V. Redd, 1751 
Talmo V. Spitzmiller, 12S4 
Talson v. Gamer, 1032 
T..itarum's Case, 400 
Tamm zi. Kelogg, 493 
Tamworth v. Ferrers, 544 
Taner v. I vie, 1667 
Tanguay v. Felthousen, 206S 
Tanner v. Fowler, 266 

V. Hicks, 2007 

w. Hills, 1234, 1909 

V. Livingston, 333,343 

V. Morse, 307 

V. Niles, 1985 

V. Skinner, 1587 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CCXIU 



Tanner v. Volentine, 2212 

V. Wise, 30S, 311 
Tantlingerw. Sullivan, 11S4, 1233, 1234 
Tapley v. Smith, 123 
Tapner v. Meriott, 1564 
Tappan's Appeal, 501 
Tarbell -v. Tarbell, 897, 964 

V. West, iq62 
Tardy w. Williams, 1017 
Tarletou v. Goldthwaite's Heirs, 1781 
Taipley -v. Gunnaway, 801 

■V. Hamer, 1518 
Tarpy v. Persing, 2272 
Tarrant v. Swain, 1421, 1425 
Tate V. Blackburn, 1187, 1224 

1*. Crowson, 1060, 1139, '^54 

V McClure, 1140 

V. McCormick, 2262, 2265 

V. Stoolfoos, go4 

V. StooUtzfoos, 671, 2332 

». Tally, 416 

V. Tate, 727, 794, gi2, 914 
Tatem v. Chaplin, 1076 
Tatom V. McLellan, 305, 497, 1773, 1776 
Tator V. Tator, 322, 323 
Tatro r'. Tatro, 919 
Tattersall v. Howell, 1S50 
Tatum V. Hunter, 1624 

V. Thompson, 1192 

V. Young, 2366 
Taul V. Campbell, 227, 1919, 1920, 1930, 1931, 

1932. 19331 1940, 1942, 1951 
Taunton v. Costar, 1347 

zi. Taylor, 4 
Tavemer's Case, 1178 
Tawney v. Crowther, 10S7 
Tayleur u. Wildin, 1307 
Tayloe v. Gould, 59S, 600, 608, 692, 694, 703 
Taylor, Matter of, 752 
Taylor, Re, 596 
Taylor v. Adams, 1028, 2152 

V. Agricultural Assoc, 2100 

V. Atlantic R. Co., 2031 

z*. Baldwin, 1892, 1893 

•V. Beebe, 982, 1029 

V, Benham, 218, 1585, 1636,1664, 1756 

V. Birmingham, 939 

V. Blake, 1984 

V. Boulware, 1388, 1389, 1390, 1403, 1404, 
1454, 1457, 1495 

V. Boyd, 1662 

2/. Bradley, 223, 1229, 1235, 1245 

V. Brodrick, 841, 844, 876 

V. Buckner, 517 

V. Bumsidcs. 2296 

V. Carondelet, 1029 

V. Carryl, 1516 

V. Chary, 532 

V. Collins, 117 

7). Cornelius, 2030 

•V. Cox, 1882 

z/. De Bus, 977, 1249, 2263, 2264 

V. Dickinson, 1731 

V. Duesterberg, 1431 

7}. Dulwich Hospital, 1037 

V. Eubanks, 1625 

V. Fields, 1958 

V. Fowler, 782, 891, 926, 92S 

V. George, 1629, 1630 

V. Glazer, 501 

V. Hampton, 2243* 2244, 2247, 2303 

V. Hargous, 1378, 1386, 1406, 1407, 1442, 
1448, 1451, 1460, 1461,1463, 1466, 1495 

V. Harwell, 501 

•V. Haygarth, 1638 

V. Heideron, 1071 

7'. Henry, 1587, 1594 

V. Hepper, 2362 

V. Heriot, 1625 

v. Hopkins, 2159 

v. Horde, 207, 209, 210, 398, 399, 459 

V. Hotchkiss, 2122 



Taylor v. Inhabitants of Plymouth, 4 

V. Kearn, 781 

V. King, 17C6, 1757 

V. Langford, 314 

p. Luther, 2046, 2048, 2049 

V. Mason, 249,265, 1S57, 1863 

V. Maule, 1159 

V. Mayo, 1747 

V. McClain, 2175 

V. McCracken, 731, 783, 838, 940 

V. Meads, 1807 

z/. Millard, 2218, 2240 

V. Moore, 934 

V. Mosely, 1760 

V. Needham, 1073 

V, Owen, 1076 

V. Patrick, 1033 

■V. Perkins, 1925 

7'. Plumer, 1760, 1761 

V. Porter, 197, 2074, 2170, 2323,2324, 2325, 
2327 

■V. Preston, 1063, 2069, 2362 

V. Pugh, 653, 794, 795 

z*. Rhyne, 1502, 1519 

V. Salom, 1644 

7'. Sample, 722, 723 

V. Sangrain, 2300 

V. Short, 2183 

7>. Shum, 1074, 2265 

V. Smith, 616, 620, 629, 634, 679 

V. Spader, 1047 

V. Stearns, 15 12 

V. Stibbert, 1009, 1765 

V. Sutton, 1848, 185s, 1857, 1859, i860, 
1867, 1872 

V. Sweet, 757, 758 

V. Taylor, 402, 4r8, 422^ 423, 461, 888, 
974. 975. 1517. 22O7 

V. Thomas, 2126 

V. Townsend, 2067 

7f. Wamaky, 2217 

V. Weld, 2040, 2042, 2049 

7'. Whitehead, 1:53, 2208 

V. Whitmore, 2069, 2072 

7/. Zamira, iioi 
Tazewell r-. Smith, 75, 76 
Teacle's, Re, 657 
Teaff p. Hewitt, 103, log, no, in, 112, 113, 

114, n6, 118,133, i3S»>3S, 144 
Teague v. Downs, 664 
Tealz*. Auty, 53, 54 

7'. Walker, 2066 
Teasdale v. Reaborne, 1625 
Tedford v. Wilson, 2018 
Teed v. Caruthers, 200S 
TefEt V. Munson, 2091, 2121 

V. Tefft, 755 
Telfair 17. Howe, 1888 
Telford v. Frost, ii6i 
Tellman v. Spann, 760 
Tempest v. Rawling, 993 
Temple v. Scott, 1515 
Templemau v. Biddle, 1209 

V. Gresham, 2272 
Templeton v. Twitty, 593, 598, 6n, 616, 619 
Tenant 7/. Goldwin, 64, 507, 1891 
Ten Eyck v. Caspard, 2087 

v. Creig, 2080, 2086,2155 
Ten Eyck, Jackson ex d., v. Richards, 488, 1016 
Tennant v. Stoney. 818, 924, 1794 
Tennent 7'. Pattons, 2333 

V. Tennent, 1693 
Tennessee v. Sneed, 151S 
Tenney v. East Warren Lumber Co., 2013 
Tenney d. Gibbs v. Moody, 1594, 1605 
Tenney d. Whinnett %>. John, 1743 
Tenny v. Agar, 322 

V. Moody, 299, 300, 1712 
Terhune v. Oldis, 2033 
Term v. Smart, 1141 
Terrel v. Page, 326 
Terrell v. Andrews Co., 2122, 2123 



ecxiv 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Terrell v. Martin, 1882, 1900 

V. Matthews, 1732 
Terrett v. Taylor, 234, 235 
TerriU v. Murray, iSgg 
Terrio v. Guidry, 2129 
Territory %i. Lee, 220, 2014 
Terry z>. Berry, 1426, 1432 

V. Briggs, 415 

u. Burnell, 736 

V. Ferguson, 1021 12 12 

V. Hopkins, 654, 794 

V. Resell, 1997,1998, 2076 

V. Tuttle, 2061 

V. Wiggins, 311, 337, 338 
Terry, Doe d., v. Collier, 1574, 1655 
Terry's Will, In re, 1627 
Tertelling, Re, 1391, 1446 
Terwilliger v. Brown, 1763 
Tevis V. McCreary, 950, 955, 956 

7'. Steele, 760 
Tevis' Exrs., 89S, 8gg, 936, 938 
Tew V. Jones, 1278, 12S5 

V. Winterton, 966 
Tewksbury -u. Magraff, 1212 
Texas Land and Loan Co. v. Blalock, 1409 
Texas Land Co. v. Truman, 1222 

■V. Williams, 2365 
Teynham v. Mullins, 1626 
Tharp v. Allen, 974 

V. Beltz, 20S5, 2087, 2088 
Thatcher v. Candee, 1660, 1778 

V. Omans, 1557, 1559, 15S3 

V. Powell, 2335 

V. St. Andrew s Church, 1777, 2353 
Thaxter v. Williams, 829 
Thayer v. Campbell. 2103, 2104, 2111 

V. Clemence, 1093 

V. Crammer, 2000, 2078 

V. Rock, 45 

v. Smith, 2151 

11. Society of United Brethren, 12 19 

V. Thayer, 727, 728, 773, 794, 795, S87, 891, 
912, 913, 914, 921 

V. Waples, 1 144 

V. Wellington, 1683 

V. Wright, 20 
Theall v. Theall, 917 
Thebaud v. Schmerhom, 1792 
Theibaud v. First Nat. Bk., 1135 
Thelluson v. Woodford, 618, 22B0 
Thelusson v. Smith, 1992 
Theobald z/. Duffy, 1361 
Theological Inst. v. Barbour, 226 
Theological Semmary v. Wall, 466 
Thetford v. Thetford, 1025 

V. Tyler, 1258 
Thiebaud 7/. First Nat, Bk., 1052, 1304, 1315, 

1335. 1338 
Thimes v. Stumpf, 14S5 
Thobolds V. Duffy, 971 
Thomas' Appeal, 2134, 2140 
Thomas v. Allen, rioi, 2025, 2026 

V. Blackemore, 976 

V. Brinsfield, 1781 

V. Connell, 1108 

j7. Cook, 1 161 

•V. Crout, 128, 145 

V. Davis, 123, 131, 132, 137 

V. De Baun, 1027, 1887, 1920, 1950 

V. Dickinson, 2071 

u. Evans. 504, 505 

V. Folwell, 1562, 1674, 1675 

V. Gammel, 908 

V. Garver, 1979 

V. Hanson, 804, 826 

V. Harris, 888 

V. Hatch, 1913 

V. Hesse, 721, 799, 857,888, 889,904, 908, 
927 

•u. Howell, 1864 

V. Kapff, 1 103 

V. Kelly, 1349 



Thomas v. Le Baron, 2363 

V. Marshtield, 2191, 2299 

v. Moody, 1267, 1269 

V. Nelson, 996, 1322, 1323 

V. Noel, 1205 

V. Packer, 1316, 1324 

V. Pemberton, 2266 

V. S. Co., 1273, 127s 

V. Scruggs, 1735 

V. Simpson, 733, 736, 741 

V. Standiford, 1622, 1646, 1648 

V. Stewart, 2138 

V. Stickle, 2301 

z/. Thomas, 50S, 600, 760, 763, 1785, 2226, 
2243 

V. Van Kapff, 1074 

V. Vanlieu, 2120 

V. Walker, 1623 

V. West Jersey R. Co., 2314 

V. Willialns, 1457 

V. Wood, 434, 937, 939, 2324 

V. Wright, J301, 1303, 1308, 1320, 1325, 
1333. '335. '336 
. V. Zumbalen, 1141, 1316, 1317 
Thomas' Admr. v. Kelly, 2118 
Thomas' Exrs. v. Van Kaff's Exrs., 2119 
Thomas Iron Co. v. Allenton Mining Co., 198 
Thomas' Lessee %>. Blackemore, 1225 
Thomason 7/. Anderson, 416, 447, 472 

V. Boyd, 103 1 
Thompson, Matter of, 1456 
Thompson v. Barks, 2054 

V. Platter. 20^7 

V. Blair, 1781 

V. Eostwick, 514 

V. Bowman, 1960 

V. Boyd, 764, 783, 803 

V, Branch, 1291 

V. Browcr, 1291 

V. Brown, 1715 

V. Chandler, 2073, 2097, 2139 

V. Clark, 1223 

V. Cochran, S04, 813, 814, 818, 874 

V, Commissioners, 1951 

11. Craigmyle, 49, 51 

V. Davenport, 2168 

V. Davies. 1770 

V- Egbert, 932, 933 

V. Finch, 1732 

V. Gant, 267 

V. Garwood, 325 

V. Gerrisli, 1903 

V. Gibson, 297 

V. Green, 651, 1366 

V. Gregoi7, 283, 2240 

V. Heywood, 805 

V. Hickery, 2059 

V. Hoop, 947 

V. Kenyon, 2100,2103 

V. Ketchani, 1702, 2056 

V. Lawley, 1807 

V. Leach, 9S6, 987, 1786, 1788 

V. Lyon, 1781, 1827 

V. Maberly, 1335 

V. Madison, B. & A. Assoc, 2160 

V. Marrow, 791 

V. Mawliinney,97o, 1233, 1234, 1909 

V. May, 763 

V. McClenachan, 2358 

V. Mead, 2272 

V. Meek, 1788 

V. Miner, 2241 ' 

V. Morrow, 789, 823, 841, 844, 845, ^3 
908 

V. Murray, 1827 

V. Murry, 761, 788, 820, 832 

V. Newton, 1S89 

V. Pioche, 16S7, 2297 

V. Rose, 1078 

V. Salmon, 1921 

V' Simpson. 1 142 

V. Spencer, 2321 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CCXV 



Thompson zf. Stacey, 719 
V. Swoope, 346 
•u. Thompson. 498, 538, 595, 764, 781 

784, 16S5, 1S67, 2070, 235s 
V. Vance, 780, 820, 821 
V. Waters, 224 
V. Wlieatiey, 1622 
V. Wilhte. 51 
Thompson, Doe d., v. Gebron, 1549, 1550 

V. Pitcher, 16S7, 2297 
Thompson's Lessee v. Green, 517 
V. Hoop, 306, 309 
V. White, 1699 
Thorns V. Thorns, 1409, 1452, 1524 
Thomson's Estate, j^^. 4S7, 1S06, 1836 
Thomson v. BarkerviUe's Case, 2149 
T'. Guyon, 1157 
V. MackworLh, 373 
r. Peake, 1219, 1610, i6n, 1614 
1'. Sanborn, 2216 
v. Shakespeare, 1689 
V. Waterloo, 22 11, 2216 
V. Wilcox, 2121 
Thomson, Doe d., v. Amey, 13 16 
Thorn v. Ingraham, 804 
V. Ingram, 832 

V. Thorn, 1425, 1438, 1964, 1988 
Thombrough v. Baker, 2049 
Thomburg z/. Jones, 1755 

V. Tliornburg, 731 
Thomdike v. Burrage, 1097, 1106 

V. Norris, 2100 
Thomdyke v. City of Boston, 1455 
Thome z*. Deas, 1183, 1191 
V. Newby, 2165 
V. Thorne, 2063 
Thomhill v. Hall, 345 
Thomley v. Thornley, 1952, 1953 
Thorns v. Adams, 733 
Thornton,/?/ re, 21 
Thornton v. Appleton, 1032 

V. Boyden, 1388, 1419, 1450, 1479, 1506 
V. Exchange, 1919 
V. Gaillard, [810 
V. Irwin, 1766, 2163 
V. Knapp, 6gi 
V. Knox, 2005, 2006 
V. Krepp, 6S9, 690 
V. McGrath, 671 
V. Mehring, 974, 975 
V. Mulquinne, 201, 202, 311. 312 
V. National Exchange Bank, 904 
z'. Payne, 992 
■V. Stokill, 1760 
V. Strauss, 1292 
'u, Thornton, 1920, 1937, 1952 
V. York Bank, 19 12 
Thornton's Exrs. v. Kreeps, 656, 657 
Thorough's Case, 2354 
The rough good's Case, 2353 
Thorp, In re, 1715 
Thorp, Davies, /« re^ 695 
Thorp V. Keokuk Coal Co., 2068, 2069, 2071, 

2072, 2322 
Thorpe v. Dunlap, 2006, 2007 
V. Fowler, 996, 2272 
Tj. Goodall, 1825 
V. Owen, 1587, 1824 
V. Rutland, etc., Co., 4 
V. Durbond, 2124 
Thortons v. Dick, 786 
Thrall v. Omaha Hotel Company, 989, 1213, 

1222 
Thrash v. Bennett, 2020 
Thrasher v, Bettis, 1449 

V. Pinkhard, 729, 844, 864 
Throgmorton v, Whelpdale, 1308 
Throop zi. Field, 1157 

V. Hatch, 1592 
Throp V. Johnson, 841, 844, 1849 

V Throp, 754, 1955 
Thrusby v. Plant, 2263 



Thunder d. Weaver v. Bekher, 134S 
Thurber f. Dwyer, 996, 1264, 1308, 1321, 1322, 
'335, 1338 
It. Townshend, 585, 651, 653, 670 
Thurber & Co. zk Conners, 976 
Thurbett v. Thurbett, 311 
Thurman zk Jenkins, 2023, 2024 
Thurston v, Dickinson, 514, i8gi 
V. Hancock, 223*, 2232, 2235 
zj. Haddocks, 1425 
V. Maslerson, 1882, iggo 
V. Minke, igir, X984 
z>. Prentiss, 2140 
Thynn v. Duvall, 518 

z>. Thynn, 777, 779, 1701 
Tibbals v. Jacobs, 1016 
Tibbetts z'. Percy, 1083, 1084, 1086 
Tibbiis V. Tibbits, 347, 1630, 1631 

Tibbson v. , 773 

Tibbs 7/. Allen, 19S6 

z). Morris, 2045 
Tice ZI. Annin, 2126, 2150, 2272 
Tickner z'. Wiswall, 2061 
Ticknor z/. McLelland, 51 
Tidbali 71. Ij.ipiou, 416, 425 
Tidd 7'. Lister, 1371 
Tidswell ?'. Whitworlh, 1 102 
Tierman 71. Hiiiman, 2051 

V. Thurman, 2004, 2006 
Tiernan 7'. Binns, 960 

V. Creditors, 1420 
V. Johnson, 1319, 1324, 1334 
V. Roland, 466 
Tifft ». Horton, 116, 117, 122,132,141 
Tilden v. Barker, 668, 701 
Tiley v. Meyers, 9S3 
Tilford », Fleming, 11 20 

z/. Torrey, 1622, 1645, 1760 
Tilghman's Estate, 630 
Tilghman ?'. Little, 1217, 1220, 1222, 1291 
Tilley zf. Simpson, 202, 306, 307, 326 
Tillingliast :-, Bradford, 253, 274 
ZI. Champlin, 1957, ig6i 
z). Coggsliall, 645, 656, 678, 679, 680, 683, 

6S4, 1372, r6o9 
V. Troy & Boston R. Co., 198 
Tillman t. Cowand, 2366 
V. Delacey, 116, 133 
7'. Fuller, 997 
Tillotson 71. Boyd, 2068 
v. Doe, 1 144 
V. Kennedy, 2301 
V, Millard, 1378, C3S6, 1442, 1443, 1445, 

1504, 1513, J517 
V. Smith, 2223, 2229 
ZI. Wolcott, 1503 
Tillson 7'. Moulton, 2047 
Tilly z'. Tilly, 1583 
Tilson V. Thompson, 865, S78 
Tilt, Doe d., v. Strattom, 1269, 1293, fjio 
Tilton V. Hunter, 2365 

V. Vail, 641 
Tilyoun v. Graveeend, 1029 
Times Co. v. Siebrecht, 1157 
Ttmewell v. Perking, 33S 
Timlin zi. Standard Oil Co., 1197 
Timmins v. Rawlinson, 1270, 1299, 1307, 1313, 

1320, 1338, 1344 
Timms v. Shannon, 136, 1993, 1995, 1997 
Timothy v. Chambers, 1524 
Tinder v. Davis, 1316. 2271 
Tinicum Fishing Co. v. Carter, 2189, 2213, 2214 
Tinker v. Cobb, 2272 

V. Van Dyke, 151S 
Tinnen v, Mebane, 1782 
Tinney v. Tinney, 955 
Tinsley v. Jones, 416, 447, 472 
Tinsman zk Belvidere, 2248 
Tippet ZI. Eyres, 1843, 1844 

V. Jett, 1213 
Tippets V. Waller, 42, 43, 817 
Tippin r/. Coson, 1537 



CCXVl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Tipping 7f. Cozzens, 153S 

V. Eckersley, 1 185 

V. Robbins. 1026, 1926 
Upton V. La Rose, 396 

V. Martin, 1521 
Tisdale 2'. Harris, 817 

V. Jones, 957 

?'. Risk, 832 

7'. Tisdale, 1766, 1770 
Titcheneli I'. Jackson, i6go 
Titcomb 7/. Morrill, 1537, 15S6, 1637 
Titman v. Moore, 1449, 1454, i459> >4'^i» 1462, 

1467 
Titterton 2'. Cooper, 2266 
Titsworth 7>. Stout, i8go, iggo 
Titus 7/. Glens Falls Ins. Co., 2114 

V. Miller, 730 

7/. Morse, 2302 

■V. Neilson, 68g, 783, Soo, 813, 814, 81S, 
940 
Titusville Novelty Iron Works v. Graham, 976 
Tobey v. McAllister, 2005, 2008 

7'. Moore, 266, 268 
Tobias 7*. Francis, 106, 108, J26 

V. Ketchum, 917, 918, 942, 944, 955, 1227, 
1592 
Tobin V. Young, 1227 
Toby V. County of Bristol, J051 

7'. Reed, 2067 
Todd V. Austin. 2326 

V. Raglow, 823 

V. Beatty, 839, 843, 844,890 

V. Flight, 1194, 1198, 1 199 

V. Gordy, 1445 

v^ Hardie, 2054 

r. Jackson, 1356 

r. Lee, 1373, 20I2 

v^ Moore, 1776 

V. Outlaw, 203S 

v. Oviatt, 692, 703 

7'. Pratt, 445 

V. Sawyer, 217 

V. Zachary, 1940 
Toker v. Toker, 1790 
Tolar v. Tolar, 307 

Toledo, P. & W. R. Co. v. Curtenins, 924 
Toler V. Seabrook, 2249, 3255, 2257 

V. Sebrook, 2255 

V. Siator, 1025, 1368 
Toleman v. Fortbury, 553, 1140, 1152 
Tollz/. Hiller, 2130 
Toll Bridge v. Osbom, 43 
Telle V. Orth, 969, 1131, 1135, 1304, 1315, 1316 
TolJes V. Wood, 1798 
Tollett 7/. ToUett, 1840 
Tolman v. Emerson, 207 

V. Sparhawk, 2303 
Tolson V, Tolson, 1593, 1631 
Tom V. Daily, 924 
Tome V. Merchants and Builders* Loan Co., 

2148 
Tomey f. Gerhart, 2165, 2167 
Tomkins 7'. Lawrence, 1300, 1301, 1306 
Tomlin v. Dubuque & M. R. Co., 69 

V. Hilyardj 1421, 1426 
Tomlinson v. Dighton, 319, 337, 487 

7f. Monmouth Ins. Co., 2042, 2116 
Tompkins, Estate of, 1382, J406, 1451 
Tompkins z'. Elliot, 1853, 1855 

V. Fonda, 733. 734, 735.736* 741, 838 

V. Snow, 1148, 1216, 12 17 

V. Wheeler, 1600, 1794 

V. Wiltberger, 2153 
Tompson ?'. Mawhinney, 2254 
Toms 7'. Boyes, 2080 

V. Williams, 1592 
Tondre v. Cushman, 1214 
Tone 7<. Brace, q74, 1065, 1080 
Tonkins 7'. Ennis, 1626 
Tong V. Eifort, 1475 

V. Marvin, e;86, 587, 653, 1362, 1514 
Tongue v. Nutwell, 1224 



Tood v. Pratt, 466 

V. Sands, 2106 
Tooke V. Hardeman, 717, 916, 935. 955 

V. Hartley, 2157 
Tookerv. Smith, 1303 
Tooker's Case, igii 
Toole 7/. Beckett, 1196 
Toombes z*. Conset, J034 
Tooney v. JNIcLean, 764, 80S 
Topham v. Portland, 1841 
Topping z/. Sadler, 1024, 1919, 1941, 1945 
Torpy V. Grand Trunk R. Co., 1194 
Torrence v. Carberry, 766 

7>. Carby, 760, 764 

V. Bank of Orleans, 1617, 1707, 1769 
Torrey v. Burnett, 122, 130, 142, 145, 146, 1224 

V. Deavitt, 2100, 21J0 

V. Minor, 731, 733, 734, 736, 741, 83S, 8S4 

V. Torrey, 1025, 1344, 1920, 1931, 1932, 

'9St 

V. Wains, 1074, 1077 
Torriano v. Young, 563, 1153 
Torres Estate, 1021, 2182 
Tottel V. Howell, 983 
Totten V. Stuyvesant, 785 
Totten, Jackson ex d., v. Aspell, 718, 733, 734, 

736, 739» 741 
Touchard t/. Crow, 2321 
Toulmin v. Austin, 2349 
Tourv V. Cassin. 2056 
Tourville V. Pierson, 1378, 1416, 1434, 1442 
Tousley v. Tousley, 2027, 2122 
Tower*s Appropriation, 1773 
Tower v. Davys, 939, 965 

2'. Divine, 810 
Towery v. Henderson. 1212 
Towie ?}. Ayer, 206, 209, 211,601 

z'. Palmer, 1853, 1S55 

V. Remsen, 1853, 1855 
Towles V. Burton, 1699, 1701 
Town 7'. Needham, 1892, 1900 
Town of Lemington v. Stevens, 1041 
Town of Pawlet 7/. Clark, 149, 234 
Towne v. Ammidown, 1734 

V. Butterfield, 1149, 1213, 12S2, 1297 

V. Campbell, 1312 

V. Fiske, 105, 108, iro, 123, 138, 139, 1224 
Towner v. McClelland, 2106, 2109, 2127 

V. Wells, 2140 
Townley v. Gibson, 84 

V. Rutan, 1319 

71. Sherburne, 1732, 1733 
Townsend 7>. Asli, 44 

71. Brown, 896 

71. Downer, 1913 

7>. Empire Dressing Co., 2031 

7'. Gilsey, 979 

V. Griffin, 661 

V. Harwell, 1794 

V. Jsenberger, 1230, 2230 

V. Jemison, 2299 

7'. Mathews, 645 

V. Mayer, 2325 

7', McDonald, 2226 

7'. Reed, 1124 

V. Riley, 2057 

7'. Stansgroom, 554 

V. Townsend, 671, 865, gio, 956, 960, 15:7 

V. Ward, 2070 

V. Wils*on, 1731, 1817, i8tS 
TownshendT'. Marquis Stangroom, 2048 

7^ Townshend, 1782, 1783. 17S4, 1984 

V. Windham, 1626, 1820, 1825 
Townson v. Tickell, 1786, 1788, 1780, 1844 
Trabuez/. McAdams, iirfi, 2262, 2264,227c 

V. Ramage, 1220, 1223 
Tracy v. Albany Exchange Co., 10S7, icSS, logi 
1092, 1320 

V. Atherson, 2291 

V. Atherton, 1913, 2219, 223S 

V. Colby, 1620 

V, Craig, 1620 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



ccxvu 



Tracyt^ Dutton, T014 

■V. Hereford. 509, 572 

V. Jenks, 2061 

7'. Kelley, 1622, 1760 

V. Kilborn,305, 311 

I'. IMunay, 937 

1}. Norwich, 229S 

"u. Suydam. 1902 

1'. Tracy, 1502 
Trade Ins. Co. v'. Barracliff, 632 
Trader 7'. Lowe, 646, Sgs, 193S 
Traders' Ins. Co. v. Newman, 632 
Trafford v Boehm, 1721 
Trafton 7'. Homes, 2316, 2317, 231S 

7'. Howes, 2315 
Train 7' Boston Disinfecting Co., 4 
Trammall v. Trammall, 63 
Trammell z>. Harrell, 18S4 
Transportation Co. v. Clijcago, 2232 
Traphagen 7'. Burt, 1652 
Trapnall z'. Brown, 1586, 1590, 1637, 1645 
Trappes 7'. Harter, 125 

V. jMeredith, 253 
Trash i-. White, 2094 
Trask v. Donoghue, 1598 

■V. Ford, 2292 

V. Patterson. 1364, 1365, 1367 

•u. Wheeler, 1849 
Traote 7'. White, 2235 
Travellers zk Noland, 707 
Travis z/. Bishop. 2125 
Trawick z/. Harris, 1405 
Tray nor 7'. Palmer, mo 
Trayser v. Trustees of Indiana, 2146 
Treackle v. Coke, 2265 
Tread way v. Sharon, 123 
Treadwell v. McKeon, 1621 

V. Salisbury Mfg. Co. 2342 
_v. Williams, 19G2 
Treat v. Pierce, 2077 

V. Reilly. J901 
Trelawney v. Booth, 94, 434 
Tremmel v. Kleiboldi, 654, 655, 678, 679, 682, 

6S3. 1372 
Tremmouth i'. City of San Francisco, 2308 
Trench z'. Harrison, 1623 
Trent 7/ . Hanning, 1594 
Trenton 7'. Water Power Co., 186G 
Trenton Banking Co. ?'. Woodruff, 1371 
Treon's Lessee 7'. Emerick, 1924 
Tress 7/. Savage, 1136. 1310, 1321 
Treves v. Townshend, 1725 
Trevivan ik Lawrence, 2301 
Trevor 7/. Trevor, 1693 
Trible v. Anderson, 2254 

V. Frame, 1356 
Trickey 7'. Sclilader, 2205 
Trim v. Marsli, 2295 
Trimble v. Trimble, 597 
Trimm v, Marsh, 1093, '*304> 2000, 2078, 2085 
Trimpston v. Hamill, 21S4 
Tripe v. Marcv, 2077, 2093, 2094, 2095, 2126, 

2146, 2175 
Triplett v. Graham, 1428 
Tripp V. Brownell, 2020 

V. Hasceig, 46 

V. Riley, 1909 

7>. Tripp, 1697 
Triscony v. Orr, 982 
Tritt V. Calwell, 13" 
Tritton v. Foote, loog 
Trivillo v. Tilford, 50 
TroUope v. Linton, 2344 
Tromans 7/. Mahlman, 1383, i445» '446 
Troth V. Hunt, 745. 923, 2149 
Trott V. City Ins. Co., 1051 
Trotter v. Blocker. 1670 

V. Cassady, 517 

V. Dobbs, 1499 

V. Howard, 1625 

71. Hughes, 266, 2068, 2069 
Trough's Estate, 1739 



Troughton v. Troughton, 1825 
Troup V. Haight, 2121 

7'. Sherwood, 625 

V. Wood, 1770 
Trousdale z', Darnell, 1337 
Trout V. McDonald, 1025, 1041 

V. Rumble, 1440 
Trow V. Berry, 2041 
Trowbridge v. Cushman, 2028 

V. Sypher, 802 
Trowbridge, Jackson ex d., u. Dunsbagh, 1566 
Trower v. Chadwick, 2232 
Troy V. Troy, 536 
Trucks V. Lindsay, 2052 

V. Lindsey, 2054 

V. Lindslay, 2053 
True V. Haley. 2150, 2169 

V. Morrill. 31, 137S, 1419, 1420, 1433, 1483, 
^5'4, 1515 

V. Nicholls, 294, 411 

V. Ranney, 594 
Truebody v. Jackson, 2006 

7/ Jacobson, 2004 
Truesdell v. White, 1881 
Trull V. Eastman, 1063 

V. Fuller, 117, 138, 143 

V. Granger, 971, 978, 997, 1092, iiii, 
1245 

V. Skinner, 2041, 2053, 2055, 2158 
Trullinger v. Webb, 45 
Truman v. McCallum, 2033 
Trumble z'. Trumble, 1521 
Trumbull, Den ex d., v. Gibbons, 323 
Truscott 7>. King, 2023, 2027 
Truss V. Old, 1022 
Trust & Loan Co. v. Covert, 2301 
Trust National Bank of Tama City?/. Hayzlett, 

2120 
Trustees v. Center, 1375 

V. Dickinson, 2294 

V. Dickson, 2077, 2181 

V. Kirk, iSq8 

•V. Pratt, 777 

7'. Spencer, 1043 

V. Watson, 2305 
Trustees, etc.,?'. Peaslee, 1555 
Trustees for Support of Public Schools r/. 

Anderson, 2166 
Trustees of Bridgewater Acad. ?>. Gilbert, 1670 
Trustees Concord Township z'. Miller, 1029 
Trustees of Farmington Academy v. Allem, 1670 
Trustees First Baptist Church of Ilhaca v. 

Bigelow, 31, 32, 36, S3 
Trustees of Frazier v. Centre. 826 
Trusteesof tween Tp. z'. Robinson, 1017, 1213 
Trustees of Hawesville v Hawes, 89 
Trustees of Limerick Acad. 7>. Davis, 1671 
Trustees of Louisville v. Gray, 2014 
Trustees of Mclntyre v, Zauesville Canal & 

Manf. Co., 16S4 
Trustees of Methodist Episcopal Church in 

Pulteney v. Stewart, 1706 
Trustees New York Prot. Epis. Public School, 

Re, 1517 
Trustees South Baptist Church z/. Yates, 1557, 

2150 
Trustees, etc.. Town of E. Hampton -v. Kirk, 

1916 
Trutch V. Bunnell, 233 
Trutt V. Spotts, 1063. 2362 
Trutton v. Foote, 10S8 
Tryon v. Munson, 2036, 2076, 2077 

V. Sutton V. 2023 
Tscheider z'. Biddle, 1086, 1089 
Tubb V. Fort, 2250, 2257 
Tucker v. Adams, 1276, 1282 

21. Andrews, 654, 658, 794 

71. Baldwin, 1701 

V. Buffum, 2090 

V. Burrow. 1647 

V. Campbell, igoi 

V. Cox, 2255 



ccxvm 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Tucker z*. Crowley, 805,806, 808,810 

V. Femio, 2014 

V. Field, Soo, 2024 

V. Fields, 2022 

V. Fitts, 876 

V. Kenniston, 1440, 1502, 1519 

V. Moorland, 985, 986 

V. Moreland, 1031,2342 

V. Palmer, 1704 

V Tucker, 292, 293, 914* 1721, 1722, 1808 

V. Vance, 733, 736, 739 

V. Whitehead, 2259, 2267 
Tucker, Doe d., v. Morse, 1325 
Tudor w. Samyue, 136 c 
Tufts V. Adams, 729, 1095 ' 

V. Tufts, 1770, 2314 
Tuffnal V. Page, 203 
Tuick V. Ludborough, 1844 
Tuite V. Stevens, 2125 
Tulk V. Moxhay, 267, 2214 
Tull V. David, 1735 
Tuller, Re, 671 
TuUett V. Armstrong, 252, 257, 270, 1361, 1373, 

1561 
TuUey v. Alston, 827 
Tullis' Admr, v. Young, 1035 
Tullit V. Tullit. 77, 95 
TuUoch V. Hailley, 719 

V. Hartley, 36S, 2057, 2289 
Tumlinson ^, Swinuey, 1378, 1386, 1439, 1442, 

M47. 1448. 1457. 1458 
Tunis V. Grandy, 2268 
Tunno v. Roberts, 2031 
Tuno V. Trezevant, 959 
Tunstall v. Christian, 2223, 2233 

V. Jones, 1497 
Tuolumne Redemptiou Club "V. Sedgwick, 2171 
Tupperw. Fuller, 1920 
Turbett V. Turbett's Exrs., 201, 202 
Turbeville v, Gibson, 784 
Turing, Ex parte, (i(yi, 756 
Turing v. Turing, 316 
Turk V. Funk, 2125 
Turley v. Massengill, 336, 499, 1709 
Tuillr/. Fuller, 103 
Turly V. Rodgers, 1217 
Turnag; v. Greene, 1577 
TumbuU V. Rivers, 2207 
Turner v. American Baptist Union, 2307 

V. BisssU, 1241, 1242, 1244 

V. Cool, 45 

V. Eford, 1612 

V. Fowler, 259 

V. Jenny, 795 

V. Johnston, 2160 

V. I vie, 1709 

V. Kerr, 2044, 2052 

V. Lowe, 1213, 1220 

V. Meymott, 1347 

V. Meyers, 594 

V. Morgan, 1973 

V. Peck, 161 1 

■V. Pettigrew, 1623 

V. Quincey Mut. F. Co., 2119 

V. Richardson, 1115 

V. Rusk, 2345 

V. Steep, 2364 

V. Street, 1764 

V. Teddult, 1855 

V. Thomas, 1290 

V. Thompson, 2223, 2241 

V. Timberlake, 1806 

V. Tuolumne Water Co., 1099 

7'. Turner, 24, 1361 

7'. Watkins, 1997, 1998, 2083 

V. Whittem, 1398 

V. V/illiams, 2268 

V. Wright, 231 
Turner, Doe d., z/. Bennett, 1293, 1296 
Tuniey v. Smith, 870, 876 

V, Sturges, 845 
Tumipseed v. Cunningham, 2052 



Turnure v. Hohenthal, 2267 
Tuthill V. Scott, 2228 
Turrill v. Northrup, 414 
Tuttle V. Amstead, 2166 

V. Bean, 1151, 1344 

V. Burlington & M. R. R. Co., 733 

V. Reynolds, 1214, 1309 

V. Strout, 1509 

V. Wilson, 872, 931 
Twelves v. Nevill, 292, 293 
Twinings' Appeal, 1792 
Twitchellw. McMurtie, 2102 
Twombly 7'. Cassidy, 2136, 2137, 2172 
Twomey v. Crowley, 1700 
Twopenny v. Peqton, 274 
Twort V. Twort, 576, 1903, 1969 
Twynman v. Pickard, 1072 
Tyler v. Mina. F. Ins. Co., 1912 

v. Beecher, 2328 

V. Carlton, 1698 

V. Disbrow, 1168 

V. Hammond, 2243 

V. Heidorn, 252, iro8, 1139, 2262 

7/. Lake, 1371 

zi. Taylor, 1905 

V. Tyler, 1689 

7'. Wilkinson, 2224, 2291,2292, 2334 
Tyrrel's Case. 299, 1559, 1564, 1582 
Tyrrell v. Marsh, 1S45 

V. Ward, 2136, 2138,2150 
Tyrringham's Case, 547, 2199 
Tyrwhitt v. Tyrwhitt, 2098 
Tyson v. Blake, 344 

v. Harrington, 799 

v. Post, 106, 107 

7'. Postlethwaite, 2286 

V. School Directors, 671 

u. 

Udall V. Kenney, 1757, 1758 
Udell V. Peak, 1214 
Uelker v, Hochn, 2011 
Uhler -v. Hutchinson, 2126 

V. Sample, 694, 824 
Uhlig V. Garrison, 984, 1035 
Ullman v. Herzburg, 1132 
Ulp 7'. Campbell, 909 
Underbill v. Collins, 1159, 1161 

V. Harwood, 2356 

V. Saratoga, 1848, 1854, 1855, 1856, 1862 
Underwood v. Birchard, 1079, 1080 

V. Birchwood, 1037 

V. Campbell, 501, 2319 

V. Carnig, 2218 

V. Hitchcox, 1087, 1758 

V. Lilly, 671, 904, 905 

Z'. Staney, 1870 

V. Stevens, 1733 

V. Sutliffe. 1652 
Unfried v. Heberer, 291 
Unger v. Bamberger, 1304 

V. Leiter, 715, 818 

V. Mooney, 2296, 2297 

V. Smith, 2166 1 
Uniacke, In re, 1786 
Union Bank v. Emerson, 103, 104, 132, 138 

z>. Meeker, 1701 

V. State, 42 
Union Banlcing Co. v. Gittings, 996, loio, 2260 
Union Canal Co. v. Young, 370, 390, 2297 
Union Gold Mining Co. v. Rocky Mountain 

Nat. Bank, 1042 ' 

Union Mut. Ins. Co. v. Campbell, 1592 
Union Mut. Life Ins. Co.z/. Levitt, 1999 

V. Slee, 2100, 2106 

z/. White, 2169 
Union Nat. Bank v. Matthews, 225 
Union Pac. Co v. De Busk, 198 

V. Durant. 1661, 1697, 1698, 1768, 1782 
Union Savings Bank v. Pool, 2040 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CCXIX 



Union Water Co. v. Crary, 2238, 2239 

V. Murphy's Fluming Co., 2017,2021 
Unitarian Soc. v, Woodbury, 1590, 1691 
United States z*. Amedy, 1540, 1554, 1553 

V. Appleton. 2223, 2234, -241 

V. Arredondo, 2304 

V. Athens Armory, iggg 

V. Bostwick, 1067, 1068, 1152, 1153, 1228 

V. Canibuston, T96 

V. Castillero, 88 

V. Crosby, 36S, 720, 2057, 2058, 22S8, 22S9 

V. Cutts, 2003 

V. Duncan, 055, 956 

V. Fitz^rald, 2306 

V. Gratiot, 970, 983, 2249, 2254,2314 

V. Hall, 1428 

V. Harmon, 5 

V. Hooe, 2030 

V. Kimmull, 1199 

V. King, 2357 

V. Lambert, 596 

V. McCorraick, 596 

V. McRae, 1036 

V. New Orleans, etc., R. Co., 201S 

V. Parrott, 98 

V. Railroad Bridge Co., 2307 

V. Reese, 370, 390 

V. Reid, 1516 

V. Schuler, 53, 58 

V. Shinn, 2309 

V. State Nat. Bank of Boston, 1761 

V. Sturges, 2028 

V. Sturgis, 2170 
United States Bank v. Bavery, 1605 

V. Covert, 2105 

V. Huth, 2342 
United States ex rel. Van Hoffman v. City of 

Quincy, 1512 
United States Ins. Co. v. Shriver, 2120 
Universities of Oxford v. Richardson, 572 
University v. Bank, 1783 
University of North Carolina 1'. Nat. Bank, 

1781 
University of Oxford 71. Clifton, 424 
University of Vermont v. Joslyn, 1118, 226S 

V. Reynolds, 1881 

V. Reynold's Exrs., 517 
Updegraff v. Edwards, 2106 
Updegraph v. Commonwealth, 1603, 1604, 16S1 
Upham z>. Archer, 2341 

V. Bradley, 1979, 1981 

V. Vaiing, 1579 

V. Vamey, 1597, 1604, 1796 
Upjohn V. Richland Board of Health, 41 
XTpman 7/. Second Ward Bank, 1504 
Upshaw V. Hargrove, 2006 

z'. Upshaw, 947, 948 
Upton V. Ferrers, 60 

V. Greenlees, 1174 

V. Townend, 1166, 1168, 1173, 1174 

V. Tribilcock, 1581 
Upton, Doe d., v. Witherwick, 1206 
Urann v. Coates, 1587, i68g, 1690 
Uray v. Davenport, 1448 
Urich's Appeal. 1815 
Urch V. Walker, 1786 
Uridiasw. Morrell, 1317, 1351 
Usher V. Moss, 1300, 1315, 133*? 

V. Richardson, 901 
Usina v. Wilder, 2024 



Vail V. Foster, 2008 

V. Vail, 300, 1605 
V. Weld, iig6 

Valentine v. Ford, 2346 
V. Havener, 2147 
V. Jackson, 2273 
V. McCue, 2158 
V. Piper, 2290, 2291 



Vallauce v. Bausch, 670, 679 

Valle V. Obenhause, 590 

Valletta 7/. Bennett, 1739, 1998 

Valley Falls Co. v. Dolan, 2242 

Valliant v. Dodemede, 2265 

Valpey v. Rea, 1032 

Valton V. National Life Assurance Co., mo 

Vanables v. Morris, 1583 

Van Aken v. Clark, 1958 

Van Allen, Jackson ex d., t*. Rogers, 1270 

Van Alstyne v. Spraker, 340, 535 

Van Amee v. Jackson, 1633 

Van Arsdale v. Drake, 515 

2>. Van Arsdale, 918, 940, 955 
Van Arsdall w. Fauntelroy, 517, 607, 608, 610, 

612 
Van Blarcom v. Kvp, 1268, 1271 
Van Bracklin v. Fonda, 1 199 
Van Bramer v. Cooper, 103 1 
Van Brocklin v. Corporation of Brantford, 1245 
Van Brunt 7'. Pope, 1961, 20S2, 2260 
Van Buren v. Olmstead, 2073, 2184 

V. St. Joseph Co. Ins. Co., 2114 
Vance's Heirs v. McNairy, 1773 
Vance w. Campbell, 271, 1858 

V. Johnson, 1215, 1284^ 1998, 2076, 2077 

V. McNairy, 2365 

V. Vance, 950, 954, 956, 963, 1739 
Van Cleaf 7'. Barnes, 919 
Van Cleave ?', Wilson, 1409, X523, 1524 
Van Cortland v. Laidley, 221, 222 
Van Cortlandt v. Tozer, 492 
Van Cortlandt, Jackson ex d., v. Parkhurst, 

1125, 1270, 1271, 1335 
Van Cott V. Prentice, 1690 
Vandecourt zf. Gould, 1035 

Van Denburg, Jackson ex d., Bradt, 1270, 1271 
Vanderbilt v. Schreyer, 2166 
Vanderburgh 7/. Hull, 1241, 1242 
Tandercook 7'. Baker, 2106 
Vandergrift's Appeal, 976 
Vanderheyden 7/. Craudall, 300, 359, 471,601, 

1605 
Vanderhorst t-. Bacon, 1399, 1402 
Vanderhuel v. StoiTs, 2270 
VanderkarT*. Reeves, 2263 
Vanderkam v. Neuderkan, 2362 
Vanderkemp 7'. Shelton, 811, 2097,2126, 2147. 

2149 
Vanderplank v. King, 1693 
Vanderpool z>. Allen, no 

V. Van Allen, loS, 113 
Van der Volgen 7'. Yates, 297, 1538,1551, 1564, 

1586, 1610, 1637 
Vanderwerker v. Vanderwerker, 342, 1980^ 

1984 
Van Derzee v. Van Derzee, 332, 536 
Van Deusen v. Young, 543, 557 
Vandever's Admrs. v. Freeman, 1697, 1759 
Vandever's Appeal, 1731 
Vandever z'. Baker, 890 
Vandike's Appeal, 1923 
Van Diveer v. Slickney, 1283, 1286 
Van Doren v. Everitt, 1022, 1023, 1209 

V. Todd, 2005 

V. Van Doren, 789, 823, 841, 843 
Van Duyne v Thayre, 783, 801, 803, 940 

V. Vanduyne, 346, 1593, it32 
Van Duzer v. Van Duzer, 635, 636, 637, 642 
Van Dyck v. Van Buren, 1915 

V. Johns, 1611, 1613, 1707, 1767, 1769, 1776 

V. Johnson, 1776 
Vane v. Barnard, 544, 559, 569, 572 
Van Epps v. Van Epps, 1617, 1707, 1769 
Van Etta v. Evanson, 2341 
Van Every 7'. Ogg, 1084, 1086 
Van Gelder7^ Post, 841, 843 
Van Gilder zl Park, 823 
Van Gordon v. Jackson, 518 
Van Grnder v. Smith, 182 1 
Van Guidler ?'. Justice, 955 
Van Horn v. Goken, 2272 



ccxx 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Van Horn z*. Harrison, 1564 

V. Keeuan, 2013 
Van Home v. Campbell, 344, 345, 349 

V. Grain, 1072, 1074, 1076, 1077 

v. Fonda, 1617, 1738. iqgo 
Van Home's Lessee %', Dorrance, 852, 1853, 

1854, 1855, 1857, 1863, 1869 
Van Houten v. First Reformed Dutch Cliurchj 

38.39 
Van Husan v, Kanouse, 2131, 2144 
Van Keureu 7/. Central R. Co. of N. J., 96 

V. Corkins, 2109, 2110 
Van Kirk v. Skillman, 2012 
Vanleer z/. Vanleer. 761, 762, 815 
Van Meter?'. McFadden, 2004 
Vann v. Rouse, it66 
Vanmeter v. Vanmeter. 2028 
Vannatta v. Brewer, 1138, 1150, 1151 
Van Ness w. Hyatt, 782 

V. Pacard, 118, 119, 122, 123, 130,458,707, 
1 187, 1209 
Van Nests'. Latsom, 2150 
Vannice %>. Bergen, 2134 
Van Nostrand -v. Wright, Hill & D., 985 
Van Note v. Downey, 1362, 1363, 1364, 1366, 

1368, 1369, 1370, 1376 
Van Ordenz/. Van Orden, 916,918, 935,944,946, 

947 
Van Peltz;. McGraw, 2186 
Van Rensselaer u. Akin, 1798 

V. Ball, 251, 1049, 1139, 1849, 1852, 1859, 
1 861 

V. Barrington, 2262 

V. Bradley, 1071, 1072, 1108, 1116, 2262 

V. Chadwick, 11 16, 1227 

V. Clark, 2365 

1}. Dennison, 249, 252,2015,2262 

V. Gallup, 1115, 1116, 1120, 1121 

V. Galop, 2267 

V. Hays, 194, 252, 1004, 1071, 2262, 2273 

2'. Jewett, 1051, 1138, 1150, '154, 1155 

V. Jones, 1072, 1 1 16, 2252, 2259 

•v. Kearney, 401, 471, 1516, 2300, 2301, 
2358 

•v. Poucher, 20, 203, 205, 206, 22S, 402, 
447. 471 

z/. Radcliff, 547, 548, 2igo, 2193, 2195, 
2ig6, 2200, 2201, 2262 

V. Read, 1076 

V. Smith, 1067, 1071, 1076, 1098, 1099, 

1 108 

V. Snyder, 1139, 1517 

V. Van Rensselaer 

V. Whitbeck, 1139 
Van Rensselaer, Jackson ex d. t/. Andrew, 

565 
Van Rensselaer, Jackson ex d. -u. Collins, 488, 

1146, 1 148 
Van Reynegan?'. Revalk, 1489, 1454 
Vansant v. Alleman, 1998 

V. Allman, 2106 

7'. Allmon, 2157 
Van Schaick, Jackson ex d. v. Davis, 1108 
Van Schaik 7/. Third Ave, R. R. Co, 1108, 

1 109 

Van Schaik, Jackson ex d. Vincent, ii40j i*44. 

1 146, 1 149 
Van Schuyverr-. Mufford, 1982 
Van Sickle %>. Haines, 2224 
Van Thormley i>. Peters, 2038, 2126 
Vantilberg z/. Shann. 2203 
Van Tuyl v. Van Tuyl, 596, 752 
Van Vetchen v. Keator, 76 
Van Voorhis v. Brintnall, 753, 754, 756 
Van Vocrhiss v. Hyatt, 782 
Van Vronker v. Eastman, 744, 803, 814, 891, 922 

V. Van Vronker, 778 
Van Wagenen z'. Brown, 810, 2097 

V. Van Wagener, 2029 
Van Wagner zf. Nan Nostrand, 1094, 2258 
Van Wert v. Benedict, 1837 
Van Wickle &. Landry, 1489, 1506 



Vanzant v. Vanzant, 1405, 1450, 1462, 1472, 1473, 

i475j 14791 1506 
Van Wicklenz'. Paulson, 2251, 2252 
Varick v. Edwards, 1:781 

V. Jackson, 210, 211 

V. Smith, 197, 2323, 2324, 2327, 2328 
Varnerz/. Rice, 2272 
Varney v. Howes, 2040 

•V. Stevens, 489, 504, 505, 740, 744 
Varnum v. Abbott, 1925, 1967, 1919 

V. Leek, 1894 

7'. Meserve, 2083, 2164 
Vartie v. Underwood, 818 
Vasey v. Board of Trustees, 1450, 1460, 1469, 

1478 
Vason V. Ball, 1993, 1999, 2063, 2078 
Vasquez v. Ewing, 2192 
Vass V. Wales, 1051, 1052 
Vassar v. Camp, 1243 
Vasser v. Vasser, 1697 
Vauduyn v. Hepner, 977 
Vaughan v. Bacon, 1912, 1913 

V. Blanchard, 1166, 1167 

V. Dickes, 414, 418 

V. Menlove, 2232 

V. Nurfeesboro. 3 

V. Thompson, 1481 

V. Tracy, 1047 

V. Vanderstegen, 1821, 1825, 1826 
Vaughan, In re, v. Thomas, 1687 
Vaughen v. Haldeman, log, 121, 134, 138, 139 
Vaughn -v. Atkins, 830 

7'. Hancock, 46 

7'. Locke, 2250 

•V. Lovejoy, 271 

V. Parr, 2344 
Vauxz/. Parke, 254. 300, 500, 1577, 1606, 1675, 

1753 
Veale v. Pryor, 982 
Veasey v. Graham, 2013 
Veeder 7/. Fonda, 2158 
Vegely v. Robinson, 1316,1322, 1324, 1327, 1330, 

^45 
Veghte V. The Raritan Water Power Co., 2212, 

2213, 2240 
Vehue v. Moser, 78 
Vetle V. Elodgett, 1622, 1761 
Venable v. Beauchamp, 1738, 1973, 1974, 1990; 
igOi 

7). McDonald, 1290, 1294 
Vendever Admrs. v. Freeman, 1703 
Vennum v. Babcock, 2055 
Ventress v. Collins, 1425 
Venus, The, 1456 
Verdier v. Youngblood, 502, 532 
Vermilyaz/. Austin, T174 
Vermont v. Society for the Propagation of the 

Gospel, 1862 
Vermont Mining Co. w. Windham Bank, 2354 
Vernam v. Smith, 1080, 1213, 1221 
Vernon's Case, 854, 936,951, 956, 957, 958, 960 
Vernon v. Bethell, 2054 

7'. Smith, 1074, 1075, 1076, 1077, 1082, 
2118 

V. Valk, 2333 

V. Vernon, 8g8, 936, 940, 941, 954, 955, 
1629 
Verplank t*. Sterry, 959, 1625, 2315 

V. Wright, 1076 
Vertner v. Humphrey, 720 
Verry v. Robinson, 925 
Vetter's Appeal, 2250, 2257 
Vick V. Ayers, 1292 

z'. Vicksburg, 1985 
Vickery v. Dickson, 2060 
Vicksburg, etc., R. R. Co. v. Ragsdale, 1247 
Vidal V. Commagere, 2282 

V. Gerard's Exrs., 2348 

V. Girard's Exrs., 1604. 1657, 1658, 1681 

V. Girard, 266, 1541, 155^ 
Viele V. Judson, 2108, 2109 

V. Osgood, 31, 35, 38 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CCXXl 



Viele V. Troy, etc., R. Co., 1697 
Viely, Jackson ex d., v. Cuerdeu, 1273 
Villa w. Rodriguez, 2169 

V, Rodroguez, i66[ 
Village of Brooklyn v. Smith, 68,70 
Village of Delhi v. YoumaLis, 7230 
Villen V. Beaumont, 1025 
Villers w. Beaumont, 1791 
Villiers v, ViUiei-s, 288, 1563, 1594 
Villines v. Norfleat, 1621 
Vincent f, Bishop, 1831 

V. Bishop of Sodoer, etc., 1831 

V. Corbin, 1006, 1300, 1335 

V. Ennys. 1844 

V. Hallowell, 2272 

V. Spooiier, 897, 933, 951, 956 
Viner v. Vaughn, 495, 561 
Vinety v. Abbott, 1791, 1792, 1798 
Vintner v. Bix, 271 
Violett V. Brookman, 267 
Visager zk Schofield, 1036 
Visard v. Longden, 955 
Viscount v. Morris, 2127, 2128 
Voe V. Handy, 2132 
Voegt V. Resor, 1 164 
Voelckner v. Hudson, 737, 836, 837 
Vogle V. Brown, 1890 

V. Ripper, 2133 
Vogler, Re, 1483 

V. Geiss, 224s 

V, Montgomery, 1415, 1481, 1502 
Voight V. Resor, 2260 
Voisey, Ej: parte, 1027 
Vole V. Handy, 2076 
Volentiiie v. Johnson, 1922 
Voller V. Carter, 417, 423, 424, 444 
VoUz V. Harris, 2267 
Vou V. Brashead, 2358 

Voohees z/. McGinnis, in, 112, 113, 114, 117, 
127, 144, 1186 

V. Presbyterian Church, 31, 38, 39, 40, 
990, 1549, 1551, i6ig, 1644 

V. Presbyterian Church of Amsterdam, 
646, 970, 1617 
Voorhis v. Freeman, 104, 106, in, J13, 114, 

126, 127, 130, 133, 135, 138, 20Z2 

Vorebeck v. Rowe, 53, 54, 55 

Voiisz'. Renshaw, 1867 

Vornberg z'. Owens, 1381, 1515 

Vose V. Handy, 2100, 2105, 2107, 2132, 2357 

Voss V. King, 12 14 

Vost V. Handy, 799 

Vredenburg v. Morris, 975, 1225 

Vreelau v. Jacobus, 728, 818 

Vreeland v. Blarcom, 2166 

V. Van Blarcom, 2068 

V. Vreeland, 596, 1361 
Vroom V. Van Horn, 1835 
Vrooman zi. McKaig, 1213, 1315, 1316 
Vyvyan v. Arthur, 1070, 1071, 1075, 1078 

w. 

Wabash Canal v. Brett, 983 

Wade's Case, 1865, 1906 

Wade V. American Colonization Society, 1555 

V. Baker, 1022, 1023 

V. Beldmeir, 2130, 2134 

V. City of Newborn, 996, 1029, 1042 

V, Colbert, 1033 

V. Coope, 2772 

V. Greenwood, 2005 

V. Halligan, 1067, 1080, 1081 

z>. Howard, 805, 2128 

V. Johnston, 117 

V, Jones, 1514 

7'. Lauber, 920 

V. Malloy, 504, 509 

V. Miller, 731, 949 

V. Paget, 164, 1579, 1580 

V. Wade, 1420, 1433 



Waddell v. Cook, 1246 

V. Glassell, 1698, 1701 

V. Hewett, 2165 
Waddingham v. Loker, 1665, 1690 
Wadham v. Marlowe, 2263 
Wadhams v. Swan, 2301 
Wadleigh v. Jauvrin, 103, 104, 124, 127, 131, 

132 
Wadley v. Janvin, 79 
Wadman v. Calcraft, 1871 
Wadsworth v. Lorangu, 2045 

V. Lyon, 2068 

V. Tillotson, 2224, 2225, 2226 

V. Wadsworth, 214, 215, 672, 673, 1657, 
2014 

V. Wendell, 501 

V. Williams, 805, 808, 2130, 2134 
Wadsworth, Jackson ex d., v. Wendell, 501 
Wadsworthville School z*. Meetze, 1144, 1309 
Wafer z*. Mocato, 1158, 1871, 1872 

V. Pratt, 2291 
Wagar %>. Stone, 1999, 2076 
Wager v. Wager, 344, 345 
Waggeuer 71. Waggener, 1729 
Waggoner v. Jermaine, 1199 

V. Speck, 1284 
Wagner v. Bissell, 118, 458 

V. Cleveland, in 

V. Cleveland & I. R. Co., ii6 

V. Hanna, 2211, 2215, 221S 

V. Varner, 2282 

V. White, 1168 
WagstafE v. Smith, 1562, 1655, 1656 
Wahl V. Barroll, 1164 
Wain V. Warlters, 2267 
Wainborough v. Schank, 522 
Wainer z/. Milford Mutual Ins. Co., 631, 2113 
Wainewright v. Elwell, 1574 
Wainscott v. Silvers, 1181, 1183, 12S1, 12G4 
Wainwright zi. Hardesty, 511 
Wait's Appeal, 1023 
Wait V. Belding, 335, 342 

V. Day, 1549 

V. Maxwell, 986, 987, 1032, 2344, 2245 

V. Wait, 711, 712, 713, 725, 748, 749, 767, 
771. 772, 773j 9»9» 920. i3.';9.234i 
Waite zi. Bowee, i9r9 

V. Paget, 2096 
Wake V. Hall, 61 

V. Wake, 946 
Wakefield v. Buccleuch, 91, 92 

ZI. Duke of Buccleuch, 2238 

V. Mining Co.. 1151 
Wakeman ?'. Roach, 891, 927 ' 

V. Walker, 1040 
Walbridge v. Pruden, 2274 
Walcot V. Botfield, 265 

:'. McKiiiney, iggg, 2078, 2084 
Walcott V. Sullivan, 2 1 10 
Waiden 2/. Bodley, 1144, 1293, 1296 

V. Karr, 1783 

z>. Sherburne, 1242 

V. Skinner, Exrs., 161 1 
Waldman v. Broder, 1902 
Waldo V. Hall, 1077, 2262 

V. Rice, 2075, 2094, 2175 
Waldrum v. Cheek, 782 
Wale V. Hill, 842 
Wales V. Bowdish, 1820 

V. Coffin, 591, 901, 911, 1886, igirj, 1931, 
1932, 1935, 1940, 1941 

V. Mellen, 2032, 2063, 2077, 2079 

V. Sherwood, 2167 

V. Webb, 2071 
Wales' Admrs. v. Bowdish Exr., 1677 
Walker's Case, 640, 1117,2268 
Walker v. At water, 2056 

z'. Baxter, 811, 2097 

V. Beal, 1658 

7'. Burrows, 1626 
V. Carringlon, 1621 
V. CoUrai:e, 2365 



CCXXll 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Walker v. Crowder, 1795 
V. Peaver, 721 
V. Denne, 202 
V. Dilworth, 641 
V. Doane, 717 
V. Dunshee, 415, 2288 
V. Ellis, 1309, 1337 
V. Engler, 1138, 1156 
V. Fitts, looi, 1233, 1234 
V. Furbush, 1275, 1307, 1328, 1342, 1343 
V. Gatlin, 197 
V. Gilbert, 2366 
V. Giles, 1275 

V. Grand Rapids Flouring Mill Co., 116 
V. Griswold, 2074, 2182 
V. Hall, I5q3, 1632, iggo 
z/. Harper, 1213 
V. Jarvis, 2149, 2156 
z*. Johnson, 2000, 2078 
V. Kee, 2107 
•V. Keile, 2363 

V. King, 2078, 2127, 2130, 2138, 2172 
V. Lincoln, 2322 
V. Locke, 1589, 1591 
V. Matthers, 2124 
V. Milne, 42 
V. Paine, 2021 
•v. Physick, 1069 
v. Pitts, 1231 
v. Pritchard, 1815 
V. Quiggs, 1810 
V Ricliardson, 983 
V. Schindel, 143 
■V. Schreiber, 2106 

•V, Schuyler, 776, 806, 823, 841, 842, 844 
D. Sherman, 78, 97, 104, 108, 109, no, 112, 

113, 117, 133, 135, 1186 
•V. Sharpe, 1335, 1339 
3/. Symonds, 1733 
w. Tipton, 982 
•V. Tucker, 1152 
V. Vincent, 249, 348, 1858 
V. Walker, 334, 745, 762, 792, 853, 856, 

857» 905. 955. 1538, 1616, 17S1, 2035 
V, Wheeler, 1870, 1871 
V. Whiting, 1614 
z>, Williams, 2007 
V. Wilson, 1280 
Wall ZK Colshead, 76 
V. Fife, 1890 

V. Goodenough, 1140, 1146 
7/. Hickey, 2035 
V. Hill, 841, 844 
V. Hill's Heirs, 986 
V. Hinds, no, 120, 121, 122, 128, 129, 130, 

140, 146. 563, 564, 1084, io36, 1108, 

1117, jgoi, 2263, 2264 
V. Lee, 33, 35, 36 
V. Maguire, 414, 415, 423 
V. Mason, 2128, 2129 
V. Shindler, 2297 
V. Wall, 2316 
Wallace -v. Blair, 811, 2097 
V. Bowens, 779, 1647 
V. Carpenter, 985, 986, 1030, 1031 
V. Coston, 1376, 1562, 1674 
v. Duffield, 518, 1615, 1623, 1648, 1649, 

1651, 1697, 1698, 1699. 2295 
V. Fletcher, 1913, 2291 
■V. Furber, 2166 
•u. Goodhall, 2104 
■ V. Hall, 718, 733, 734, 735, 739, 741, S34, 

838 
■V. Harmstad, 2253 
z/. Harmstea.d, 156, 163, 195, 226, 1004, 

1227 
•V. Headley, 983, 985 
■V. Lent, 1109, iiio, n68, 1200 
V. Lewis, 103 1 

•V. Long Island R. Co., 1019 
■V. McCuUough, 1044 
■V. Wainwright, 1574, 1590, 1592 



Wallace, Jackson ex d., v. Carpenter, 985, 986, 

1030, 103 1 
Wallach v. Chesley, 

V. Van Riswick, 236, 278 
Waller v. Mardus, 731, 734, 735* 74^ 

V Spots, 2099 

V. Waller's Admrs., 885, 1314 
Walley's Heirs v. Kennedy, 2324 
Walling V. Aiken, 2140 

V. Burgess, 1956 
Wallingsford v. Allen, 647, 648, 2345 
Wallis V. Doe, 741 

V. Harrison, 2213 

V. Hodson, 2213, 2280 

V. Manhattan, 2345 

V. Wallis, 236,2314,2316, 2317,2319, 2349, 
2359 

V. Wilson, 1662 
Walls z/. Atcheson, 1163 

V. Bard, 2132 

V. Preston, 970, 992, 1230, 1231, 1233, 
1234, 1238 
Wallwyn v. Coutts, 1793 
Walmesley v. Jewett, 1844 

V. Milne, 112, 117, 120, 126, 132, 133, 137, 
1 186 
Walphal V. Heath, 1026 
Walsh V. Horine, 1503 

V. Kelly, 773, 920, 956, 960 

V. Matthews, 1858 

V. Pemberton, 2250 

V. Philadelphia F. Assoc, 2113, 2114 

V. Phillips, 2103 

V. Powers, 2on 

V. Reiss, 855, 881, 1411 

V. Rutger's Fire Ins. Co., 208S 

V. Whitcomb, 1843 

tK Wilson, 840, 843, 844, 891 

V. Young, 1365 
Walsingham's Case, 204, 205, 370, 372, 384, 386, 

3S7. 391,457.627 
Walston V. Buyan, 1230 
Walter v. Alexander, 1139 

V. Eould, 455 

V. Dewey, 2253, 2256 

V. Greenward, 1893 

V. Hedge, 648 
Walters v. Jordan, 773, 887, 892, 894, 895, 921 

V. People, 1386, 1416, 1419, 1438, 1442, 
1443. 1444; 1445. M54. 1456, I457» 
1458, 1495 
Walthall V. Goree, 1933, 1951 

V. Rives, 2ogi 
Waltham Bank v. Waltham, 43 
Waltmeyer v. Baughman, 2296 
Walton's Estate, g38 
Walton z/. Cronly, 800, 1117, 2042 

V. Cronly's Admrs., 1116 

V, File, 1271, 1281, 1290, 1357 

V. Hargroves, 804, 832, 2006 

V. Hollywood, 2089 

ZK Johnson, 2081 

V. Jordan, 51 

V. Tims, 1500 

V. Walton, 473,661 

V. Waterhouse, 1068, 1107, 1176, 1179, 
1183 

7/. Withington, 2088 

V. Wray, 122, 126 
Walz V. Rhodes, 1083. iigi, 1201 
Wamble v. Battle, 2005 
Wamburzee v. Kennedy, 1782 
Wanamaker w. McCauUy, 11 57 
Wansborough v. Maton, 123 
Waples V. Harman, 415, 418 

V. Marsh, 2333 
Warburtoh v. Sands, 1663 

Ward V. Amory,344, 486, 1553, 1583, 1597, 1796, 
1815 

V, Arch, 1783 

V. Armstrong, 1610, 164S 

V. Bull, 1126, 1175 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



ccxxin 



Ward r. Carter, 2095 

•u. Crotty, 647 

V. Eden, 2109 

V. Egmont, 2359 

V. Fagin, iiq6, 1197 

V. Fuller, 208, 209, 492, 764 

V. Hugh, 1426 

V. Kelsey, 992, 1084, 1086 

V. Kilpatrick, 105, 106, 109, iii, 112, 114 

7'. Kitchen, 1721 

V. Krum, 1931 

V. Lewis, 1600, 1734 

z/. Mayfield, 1425 

V, Neal, 2223 

V. New York, 1248 

•u. Peloubet, 1631 

V. Seymour, 2136, 2138 

V. Shallett, 934 

V. Sheppard, 550, 553, 555, 556, 558, 743 

V. Thurston, 1039 

V. Ward, 1024, 1834, 1945, 2247, 2303 

V. Warren, 1913 

V. Wilson, 2267 
Warden v. Adams, 2102, 2105, 2111 

V. Enslen, 2175 

V. Richards, 1662, 1814, 1885 

7'. Southern Ry. Co., 224 
Wardner v. Hardwin, 1544 
Ward well 7/. Bassett, 237 

w. Barrett, 2319 
Ware v. Cann, 249 

V. Cowles, 1698 

V. Hall, 2252, 2259 

V. Murph, 76 

V. Owens, 721, 846 

V. Polhill, 95, 1811 

z*. Richardson, 292,294, 1534, 1550, 1551, 
156X, 1565, 1566, 1574, 1654, 1797 

V. Washington, 760, 784, 821, 823 
Warfield v. Fisk, 2041 

V. Lindell, 1913, 1914, 1997 

V. Warfield, 845 
Waring &. King, 1290, 1317 

V. Louisville & N. R. R. Co., 1318, 1326 

2/. Middleton, 309, 331 

V. Slinguff, 2273 

V. Smyth, 2000, 2076 

V. Smythe, 2063 
■ V. Sombom, 2069 

V. Waring, 1753 
Wark V. Willard, 2080, 2364 
Warley v. Warley, 511 
Warn v. Brown, 293 
Waraecke v. Lembca, 1670 
Warner z/. Abbey, 1230, 123 1 

V. Bacon, 1290 

V. Bates, 346, 1627, 1629 

V. Bennet, 259,266, 269, 1849, i860, 1870 

V. Blakeman, 2161 

V. Brooks, 2027 

V. Caulk, 59 

V. Crosby, 1479, 1506 

V. Crouch, 2345 

V. Hale, 996, 1327, 1329, 1334, 1340, 2270 

V. Gouverneur, 210S 

V. Hitchins, 1068, 1107, 1181 

7/. Hoisiugton, 1237 

v. Howell, 1837 

V. Kenning, 142 

V. Tanner, 475, 478, 481 

V. Van Alstyne, 777, 802, 804, 2005, 2006 

V. Willard, 1824 

v. Willington, 1000 
Warner, Doe d., v. Browne, 1307, 1308, 1313, 

1320, 1336 
Warrall v. Jacobs, 648 
Warren v. Aller, 1247 

V. Blake, 2207, 2241, 2244 

V. Chambers, 2293 

V. Childs, 207, 211 

V. Fenn, 2004, 2006 

v. Fredericks, 1976 



Warren v. Henshaw, 1904, 1922 

V, Homestead, 2102, 2103 

V. Jeniiinson, 2128, 2129 

V, Leland, 53, 54, 55, 537 

V. Lewis, 2038, 2054 

V. Lynch, 501. 2339, 2363 

z'. Lyons, 1049 

V. Moriis, 918, q44 

V. Prescott, 1338 

V. Rudall, 573 

V. Sennett, 2154 

V. Torney, 2273 

7). Twiller, 785 

V. Van Alstyne, 832 

7'. Wagner, 1168, 1175 

V. Warren, 2097, 2127, 2164 

V. Webb, 318, 534 
Warrender v. Warrender, 753 
Warriner zj. Rogers, 1587 
Warrington v. Warrington, 1939 
Wartenby v. Moran, 1004, 1138 
Warter v. Hutchinson, 1596, 1607, 1797 
Warwick z/. Bruce, 50, 51 

V. Warwick, 1621, 1759 
Washabaugh v. Entriken, 2293 
Washburn, Re, 2266 
Washburn v. Burnham, 1047 

V. Burns, 1024, 1944, 1945 

V. Cutter, 2295, 2296, 2297, 2298 

V. Oilman, 2225 

V. Merrills, 2035, 2046 

V. Sproat, 62, 63, 123. 565, 1367 
Washington v. Conrad, 1140 
Washington's Exrs. v. Abraham, 76 
Washington, A. & G. R. Co. v. Alexandria & 

N. R. Co., 1599 
Washington Ice Co. v. Shortall, 68, 70, 71, 

2224 
Washington Ins. Co. v. Kelley, 2115 

V. Kelly, 2113, 2117 
Wass V. Buckman, 590, 603, 607, 608 
Wassell 7'. Tunnah, 1379, 1380, 1483, 1514 
Watefall v. Penistone, 125 
Waterford v. People, 706 
Waterman v. Clark, 1139 

z'. Curtis, 2060 

V. Greene, 305, 310 

V. Matterson, 2077 

v. Matteson, 688, 1998, 2186, 2187 

■v. Soper, 56, 57 
Waters v. Gooch, 822, 841, 845, 864, 866, 867, 
874, 875, 876, 877, 878 

7'. Margerum, 443, 445 

V. Taxewell, 645, 1561 
Watertown v. Mayo, 4, 5 
Water Street, Re, 1129 
Waters v. Groom, 2163 

V. Hubbard, 2072 

V. Lilley, 2213, 2214 

V. Stewart, 2000 

V. Tazewell, 1857 

V. Randall, 2050, 2054, 2055,2159, 2168 

V. Young, '1006, 1335 
Waterson v. Devol, iggg 

V. Kirkwood, 2175 
Waterworks Co. v. Burkhart, 73 
Watkins, hi re, 864 
Watkins v. Blatschinski, 1503 

V. Eaion, 1921 

V. Gregory, 2040, 2053, 2083 

%>. Holman, 278, 279, 1291, 2091, 2092, 
2224, 2333 

V. Holman's Lessee, 368 

z*. Overby, 1499 

V. Peck, 2225, 2226, 2227, 2229, 2242 

V. Quarles, 315 

v. Sears, 401, 418, 447 

V. Specht, 1785, 1797, 1885 

V. Thornton, 598, 599, 603, 615, 703 

V. Wassell, 2300 

V. Watkins, 767, 773, 920 

V. Wyatt, 2018, 2020 



CCXXIV 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Watris z-. First Nat. Bank of Cambridge, 122, 

130, 145, 147, 1137, liS?) liBti, iiSg 
Watson, Ex Parte, 1240, 1244 
Watson V. Bioren, 2218 

V. Bondruant, 21 19 

z». Clendenin, 802, 925, 2365 

V. Dickens, 2039, 2078 

•V. Donnelly, 221, 222 

V. Doyle, 1437 

V. Dundee, 2107 

V. Erb, 1620 

V. Fletcher, 11 56 

•u. Gray, 2235 

V. Gregg, 517, 1916, 2358 

V. Hayes, 1637 

V. Hill, 1901 

zi. Hunter, 573 

V. Hunsworth Hospital, 1037 

V James, 1832 

V. Jones, 1658 

V. Le Row, 2036, 2123 

V. Master, 1008 

V. Mercer, 2333 

V. Mayrant, 1614 

V. McEachin, 1287 

V. Mercer, 671, 904 

V. O'Hern, 1002 

V. Pearson, 1797 

V. Penn, 2250 

V. Pennsylvania, 2252 

V. Powell, 331, 333 

V. Spence, 2149, 2151 

V. Spratley, 817 

V. Thompson, 1623 

V. Watson, 580, 581, 589, 591, 624, 628, 
629, 634, 636, 637, 652, 672, 864, S67, 
868, 8(3g, 874, 1360 

V. Wells, 2005 
Watt's Appeal, 2300 
Watt V. Watt, 2152 
Watt, Doe d., ?'. Morris, 1347 
Watts V. Ainsworth, 999 

V. Ball, 598, 611, 679, 689, 1577, 1741 

V. Clardy,'4ii, 413, 415 

V. Coffin, 1083, 2065, 2191 

V. Cole, 443, 445, 464, 465 

V. Corey, 920 

V. Gordon, 1424 

V. Kinney, 2177 

zi. Miller, 1469 

V. Symes, 2127 

V. Waddle, 36S, 2058, 2289 
Waughsv. Carver, 1242, 1243, 1244 

71. Riley. 673, 2014 
Waugh's Exrs. 7*. Waugh, 281 
Wauson v. Hawkins, 2157 
Way V. Holton, 2251 

V. Raymond, 1292 

V. Reed, 1050, 1069, 1072, H15 

z>. Way, 840 
Way's Trust, In re, 1791, 1792 
Wayman v. Cochrane, 2106 

V. Jones, 1734 

V. Southard, igi6 
Wayne v. Hanham, 2159 

V. Myddleton, 1832 

V. Steamboat General Pike, 1209 
Wealde v. Lower, 214 
Weare v. Linnell, 1652 

V. Van Meter, 1883 
Wearce v. Pierce, 2025, 2059 
Weatherbee v. Bennett, 730 
Weatherby v. Baker, loio, 2259 

V. Slack, 2179, 2180 
Weatherhead's Lessee v. Baskerville, 201 
Weathersby w. Sleeper, 117, 122, 131 

V. Weathersby, 2053 
Weaver v. Barden, 1746 

7'. Belcher, 2065 

■V. Crenshaw, 717, 838 

V. Cregg, 714, 725, 785, 796, 828, 886, S93 

V. Jones, 1259, 2271 



Weaver v. Leiman, 1781 

V. Sturtevant, 716, 717, 731, 732, 733, 736, 

739. 741 

V, Toogood, 2154 

V. Wible, 1990 

%t. Wood, 999 
Webb, Estate of, 1593 
Webb, Re, 2266 
Webb V. Bird, 2291 

V, Boyle, 718, 734, 741 

^- Byng, 324, 41 J". 4^2 

V. Cowley, 1398 

V. Danforth, 1905 
Webb, Doc d., v. Dixon, 1008 

V. Earl of Shaftesbury, 1693 

V. Evans, 955, 965 

V. Fair'maner, 1005, 2256 

V. Holt, 1428 

V, Hoselton, 1999, 2012, 2078 

■u. Lexington First Colored Baptist 
Church, 689, 6go 

V. Meloy, 811 

V, Mexan, 2147 

V. Pond, iioi 

%>. Portland Co., 2225 

V. Richardson, 2295 

V. Robinson, 2005, 2007 

v. Russell, 1028, 1069, 1 100 

z-. Seekins, 12S1 

V. Shaftesbury, 1845 

V. Smith, 711 

•V. Townsend, 552, 807, 833, 845 

7'. Woods, J 629 
Webber, Jackson ex d., v. Harsen, 981 

7'. Sherman, J132, 1254 
Webbs %>. Hynes, 517, 2292 
Weber v. Anderson, 2298 

V. Short, 1398 

V. Weber, 1655 
Webster v. Blodgett, 996 

V. Bowman, 2309 

V. Calden, 2084 

V. Clark, 999 

V. Cooper, 1655, 1710, 1711, 1796, 1797, 
1849, i860, 1866 

V. Ellingsworth, 692 

V. Ellsworth, 703 

V. Hall, 2364 

zi. Howe Machine Co., 2056 

V. King, 1620 

7/. Nichols, 1143, 1156, 1316, 2261, 2262, 
2272 

7/. Parker, 974, 975 

V. Potter, 141 

V. Stevens, 2236 

V. Upton, 1581 

V. Vandeventer, 1662, 1878, 1885, 1900, 
1966, 1969, 2TOI, 2146 

z). Vandewater, 1881 

V, Webster, 478, 541, 545, 546. 547, 549, 
550. 552. 555, 557) 559, 5*^4) 5<^^j ^'^^ 

V. Woodford, 1032 

7>. Zielly, 45 
Wedderburn v. Wedderbum, 76, 1621, 1715, 

1782, 1783, 1784, 2081 
Wedge V. Moore, 728, 764 
Weed ZI. Beebe, 2149 

7/. Crocker, 2255 

V. Lindsay, 994, 1281 

V. Panama R. Co.. 1195 
Weed Sewing maching Co. v. Emerson, 2068, 

2070, 2152, 2301, 2345 
Weekly v. Weekly, 42, 44 
Weeks v. Bowerman, 1054 

V. Comwell, 1689 

7'. Eaton, 2100, 2103 

V. Haas, 1651 

z>. Hull, 2256 

7'. Sego, 257 

V. Tomes, 2152 

V. White, 2308 
Weetjen v. Vibbard, 1731, 1734 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF cases; 



ccxxv 



Weeton v. Woodcock, 131, 145, 146, 1224 

Wegg z*. Villers, 1571 

Weichselbaum v. Curlett, 1214, 1222 

Weide v. Geh!, 2045, 2047 

Weidman, Jackson ex d., v. Hubble, 1074 

Weidner v. Foster, 2064 

Weigall z/. Waters, 1182 

Weight V. Freeman. 2303 

Weil V. Golden, 2056 

V. Raymond, 975 
Weill V. Lucerne, 2303 

V. Thompson, 123 
Weimar ?'. Fath, 1S42 
Weiner 7'. Heintz, 2151 
Weinsteine v. Harrison, igoi 
Weir V. Groat, 2012 

V. Humphries, 615, 703, 776, 777, 778, 826 

v. Simpson, 1083 

V. Smith, 487 

V. St. Paul, S. & T. F. R. Co., 197, 2325, 
2326, 2327 

V. Tate, 598, 760, 762, 763, 778, 7U0, 814, 
877. 885 
Weisbrod z>. Daenicke, 1483, 1484 
Weise v. Welsh, 633, 641 
Weiser 7/. Weiser, 1971, iq89, 1991 
Weisinger v. Murphy, 590, 591, 628, 651, 702, 

1366, 1369, 1370 
Welch V. Adams, 1220 

V. Agar, 1980 

Z'. Allen, 289, 1594, 1596, 1655, 1796 

V. Anderson. 941, 947, 1981 

V. Beers, 2181, 2183 

V. Chambers, 699 

V. Chandler, 658, 689, 701 

V. Clark, 1247 

V, Duckins, 760, 783, 826, 893 

V. Button, 2322 

V. Foster, 2318 

V. Meyers, 2266 

V. Nash, 57 

V. Priest, 2100, 2103 

V. Rice, 1407, 1462, 1463, 1472, 1473, 1475, 
1482 

V. Welch, 1371 
Welch's Heirs v. Chandler, 601 
Welcome v, Hess, 1160, 1161 
Weld V. Oliver, 1905 

V. Sabin, 810, 2136 

V. Traip, 993 

V. Williams, 402, 418, 443, 447 
Weldon, Jackson ex. d., v. Harrison, 1104, 1107, 

1155 
Welford v. Beasley, 998 
Wellborn t. Williams, 2007 
Weller v. Baker, 1366, 1368, 1369, 1370 

V. Rolason, 289, 290 

v. Snover, 190 

V. Weller, 690, 691, 781, 815, 820, 826, 
889, 141 1 
Welles V. Cowles, 42, 43, 44, 1023 

71. Olcott, 401, 411, 412, 448 
Wellford v. Beasley, 1043 

V. Chancellor, 1643 
Welling V. Ryerson, 2173 
Wellington v. Wellington, 373, 418 
Wellock V, Hammond, 1848 
Wells V. Bannister, 123, 142 

V. Beall, 866 

7'. Calnan, 1099 

V. Castles, 1066, 1084, 1086, »io7, 1126, 
1127, 1166, 1167, 1175. 1604, 1753 

V. Caywood, 646, 895, 1938 

V. Deming, 2260 

V. Evans, 1042 

V. Hart, 2004 

V. Heath, 1594, 1597 

V. Jackson, 2298 

7'. Lewis, 1663, 1842 

7/. Mason, 1079, 1149, 1172, 1220, 1291 

V. McCall, 500, 1673 

V. Moore, 83 1 



Wells V. Morrow, 2007, 2047 

v. Morse, 2176 

V. Newbold, 447, 463, 471 

V. Prince, 207 

V. Robinson, 1644, 1760 

V. Sheerer, 1140, 1212 

V. Thompson, 603, 605, 612,613, 633, 641, 
658, 664, 665, 686, 689, 690 

V. Wilmington, 1247 
Wells, Jackson ex d., v. Welld, 536 
Welp V. Cunther, 2067 
Welsh V. Foster, 236, 2317, 2319 

V. Phillips, 1993, 2102 

V. Usher, 2003 

V. Wilson, 1797 

V. Woodbury, 1815 
Welton V. Devine, 779, 1647 
Wendell v. Crandall, 226, 227, 228, 471, doi 

V. Jackson, 2357 

V. Johnson, 1283 

•V. Moulton, 211 

V. New Hampshire Bank, 2147 
Wentworth v. First Parish of Canton, 31, 35, 
36, 37. 38, 39. 40 

V. Miller, 1236 

V. Philpot, 2242 

V. Portsmouth, etc., R. Co., 1234 

V. Remick, 1920, 1936 

V. Wentworth, 523, 956, 1639, 1652, 1699, 
1763 
Wertz s Appeal, 2126 
Wescott V. Delano, 144 

V. Edmunds, 1655, 1744 
Wesley University v. Troy Conference Acad- 
emy, 1019 
West V. Barney, 1843, 1844 

V. Fitz, 1797 

V. Flannagan, 1307 

V. Fritche, 1266 

V. Hart, 1 106 

V. Hendrix, 2044, 2053, 2054 

V. Jones, 1733 

V. Kelly, 169S, 1701 

V. Moore, 724 

V. Randall, 2365 

V. Stewart, 62 

V. Ward, 1426, 1427 
West Cambridge v. Lexington, 212 
West Coast Lumber Co. v. Apfield, 11S8 
West Cumberland Iron Co. v. Kenyon, 200 
West Transportation Co. v. Lansing, 1075 
West Virginia Trans. Co. v. Ohio R. P. L. Co., 

2214 
West River Bank v. Gale, 143 1, 1434, 1457, 1499 
West River Bridge Co. v. Dix, 2327 
West Side Savings Bank v. Newton, 1166, 

n68 
Westbrook v. Eager, 49, 50, 51, 52 

■ V. Gleason, 2125 
Westcott V. Campbell, 841, 844 
Westerfield v. Bried, 2060 
Western v. Macdermott, 267 

V. Russell, 1758 
Western Bank v. Kyle, 1059 
Western Bank of Scotland v. Tallman, 2014, 

2016 
Western Ins. Co. v. Riker, 2116 
Western Mfg. Co. v. Peytonia, 2301 
Western National Bank's Appeal, 2235 
Western N. C. R. Co. v. Deal, 122, 129 
Western R. Co. v. Babcock, 1697 
Western Transportation Co. v. Lansing, 1003, 

1006, 1087, 1088, 1307, 1320, 1336 
Western Union Tel. Co. v. Caldwell, 2082 

V. Fain, 996, 1262, 1263, 1274, 1283, 1304, 
1329 
Westervelt v. Cregg, 2324 

V. Matheson, 1697 

V. People, 486 

V. Pinckney, 50 
Westfall V. Hintz, 92S 

7'. Jones, 2109 



CCXXVl 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Westfall V. Lee, goo 
Westgage v. Wixon, 2021, 2022 
Westgate v. Wixon, 139, 140, 141 
Westlake v. De Graw, 1054, 1175 

V. Wheat, 1689 
Westmeath v. Westmeath, 648 
Westmorland v. Foster, 2250 

V. Porter, 2267 
Westmoreland & Cambria Natural Gas Co. v. 

De Witt. 83, 84, 100, T139 
Westmoreland Coal Co. Appeals, 494, 495 
Westmoreland, Doe d., v. Smith, 13 14 
Westn Univ. v. Robinson, 2191 
Weston V. Alden, 2225 

V. Arnold, 2236 

V. Barker, 1600, 1672 

V. Hunt, 234 

V. Metropolitan Asylum District Man- 
agers, 1 141 

•V. Weston, 104 

V. Wilson, 2331 
Westover v. Chapman, 1715 
Wetherbee v. Bennett, 1095 

V. Ellison, 79 
Wetherell v. Howells, 1223 
Wetherby v. Slack, 2154 
Wethersby v. Sleeper, 123 
Wetmore v. Kissan, 898, 957 

V. Laird, 2365 

V. Porter, 1798 
Wetz-z/. Beard, 1378, 1459 
Wetzel V. Mayer, 2272 
Whale V. Booth, 1667 
Whalen v. Cadman, 1400, 1401 
Whaley & Others v. Jenkins, 309 

V. Whaley, 1150, 1348, 1349 
Whalin v. White, 1125, 1169, 1219, 2156 
Whalley v. Eldridge, 2175 

V. Small, 2123 
Wharf V. Howell, 2031, 2044, 2168 
Wharton v. Moore, 2067 

V. Taylot, 1509 

V. Wharton, 445 
Whatman v. Gibson, 267, 2214 
Whayman, Doe d., v. Chaplin, 1027 
Wheatland v. Dodge, 417, 424 
Weatley v. Baugh, 2226, 2230 

V. Calhoun, 766, 767, 787, 830, 1671 

z*. Purr, 1587 

V. Thomas, 277 
Wheatley's Heirs v. Calhoun, 803, 804, 805, 818 
Wheaton v. Andress, 320, 333, 535 

V. East, 985, 2343 

V. Gates, 32, 35 

V. Peters, 149, 7^7 
Whedon v. Gorham, 1516 
Wheeland v. Swartz, 2168 
Wheeldon, Doe d., v. Paul, 1154 
Wheeler v. Atkins, 257 

V. Bedell, 123 

V. Caryl, 1626 

V. Clark, 2236 

V. Clutterbuck, 2286 

2*. Conrad, 996, 998 

w. Cowan, 1274, 1304 

V. Crawford, 1083 

•u. Dunlap, 2 

V. Earle, 1141 

V. Factors & Traders' Ins. Co., 2119 

V. Frankenthal, 996, gg8, 1013, 1323 

V. Gorham, 486 

V. Hamey, 1903 

V. Hill, 1121 

V. Hotchkiss, 592, 624, 661, 662, 670 

V. Hughes, 2110 

z/. Kirkendall, 1205 

V. Kirtland, 532, 726, 797, 818, 893, 921, 
922 

V. Montefiore, 97S 

V. Morris, 799, 800, 926, 2173 

v. New Brimswick C. R. Co., 2302 

V. Perry, 1720 



Wheeler w. Redding, 1512 

V. Reynolds, 1590, 1702 

•V. Sage, 1586, 1645 

V. Stone, 2091, 2092 

V. Thoroughgopd, 980 

V. Walker, 1847, 1850, 1852, 1855, 1856, 1862 

V. West, 995 

V. Wheeler, 1021 

V. Whitall, 1870 

V. Willard, 2136, 2138 
Wheelock v. Dozzens, 706 

7). Warschauer, 1126, ii6g, 1172, 1220 
Wheelwright v. Wheelwright, 465, 1016, 2035, 

2354 
Whelan v. Reilly, 2161 

V. Whelan, 959, 1696, 2350 
Whelpdale v. Cookson, 1767 
Whetmore v. Kissam, 985 
Whetstone v. Bury, 1558, 1559, 1583 

V. Davis, 1314 

V. Saintbury, 299 
Whett V. Whetstone's Exrs., 1783 
Whichcote v. Lyie, 1674 
Whilden v. Wbilden, 916, 918, 934, 936, 944 
Whilton ZK Whilton, 1924 
Whipley v. Dewey, 146, 1138 
Whipple v. Adams, 1632 

V. Farrar, 1751 

•v. Foote, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 2334 
Whiskou V. Clayton, 338 
Whistler v. Hicks, 729, 730, 1094 

V. Newman, 1035 

V. Webster, 948 
Whitaker v. Brown, 88, 2241 

V. Cawthorne, 1268 

V. Greer, 867, 875 
Whitbank's Appeal, 1581 
Whitbeck, Jackson ex d., -u. Deyo, 1282 

V. Whitbeck, i6g8 
Whitbread, Ex parte ^ 2002 
Whitcomb v. Cardell, 1592, 1690 

V. Reid, 2288 

V. Taylor, 317, 417, 418 

V. Towers, 984 
White's Appeal, 122 
White V. Albertson, 1707 

V. Amdt, 115, 145, 146 

7'. Barker, 299, 1606 

V. Bass, 2208 

V. Bayley, 1287 

V. Baylor, 1796 

V. Bond, 2073, 2074, 2170 

V. Briggs, 347, 1630, 1632, 1693 

V, Brooks, 1923 

V. Brown, 2089, 2114 

V. Cannon, 1586, 1645 

V. Carpenter, 1634, 1635, 1649 

V. Chapin, 2226, 2244 

V. Chitty, 501 

V. Clark, 2328 

V. Clarke, 736, 737, 1460, 1463 

V. Cox, 1033 

V. Crawford, 2208, 2217, 2218, 2245 

V. Cutler, 541, 542, 543, 545, 546, 552, 557, 
724, 738, 807, 833 

V. Denman, 2126, 2364 

V. Dougherty, 2008 

V. Downs, 2007 

V. Dresser, 2233 

V. Drew, 761, 763, 1622 

V. Elwell, 1280 

V. Fisher, 2150 

V. Fitzgeralff, 1592, 1964 

v. Flora, 1758 

V. Foster, 53, 55, 56 

V. Givens, 1481 

V. Graves, 902 

V. GrifEng, 1114, 1164, 2266 

V. Hampton, 810, 1599, 1786, 1788, 2096, 
2097, 2171 

V. Hart, 1512 

V. Hicks, 1837 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



ccxxvu 



White V. Holland, 1013, 1323 

V. Howard, 368,2058, 2289 

V. Hunt, 1H4 

7'. Hussey, 1626 

V. Hutchinson, 1280 

■V. Hyatt, 2024 

V. Knapp, 811 

V. Leslie, 2364 

7'. Livingston, loor 

V. McGannon, 1697 

V. Middlesex R. Co., 1051 

■V. Miller, 1247 

z>. Molyneux, 10S3, 1126, 1175, 1177 

V. Montgomery, 1083, 1192 

1'. Moore, 2121 

V. Mosely, 1247 

V. Nashville, 713, 738, 2325 

V. Osbom, 1246 

V. Parker, 695 

V. Perkins, 630 

7'. Polleys, 1494, 2164 

V. Reid, 210 

V. Rittenmeyer, 688, 1997, 1999, 2062, 
2084, 2103, 2112 

V. Samson, 1626 

7'. Sayre, 1876, 1911 

V. State, 596 

V. Story, 853, 859 

V. Sutherland, 2106 

V. Trotter, 1773 

V. Trustees Methodist Episcopal Church, 
35.40 

V. Wager, 1938 

•V. Wagner, 552, 553, 563, 568, 570, 646, 
647,895, 1152, 1153 

V. Warner, 1157 

ti. Watts, 1758, 2146 

V. Williams, 1888, 2007, 2146 

V. Williamson, 532 

V. Willis, 807 

V. White, 216, 220. 236, 274, 500, 509, 519, 
846, 862, 881, 882, 884, 888, 893, 896, 
go8, 909, 912,916,918,919, 941, 944, 
1456, 1781, 2327, 2331 

7'. Whitney, 688, 1095, 2062, 2 112 
White, Doe d., v. Simpson, 1595, 1596 
White. Jackson ex d., v. Cary, 1557 
White's Admr. v. White, 1520, 1521 
White's Contract, Re^ 1693 
White River Turnpike Co. v. Vermont Cent. 

R. Co., 2327 
Whiteacre v. Rector, 1403, 1503 
Whitecomb v. Jacob, 1761 
Whitefield v. McLeod, 1758 
Whitehead v. Clifford, 1162 

V, Cummings, 886 

•V. Foley, 2366 

V. Hellen, 2'i63 

V. Mallory, 792, 821, 822, 915 

V. Tapp, 1398 
Whitehead, Doe d., v. Pittman, 1141 
Whiteman v. Field, 1466 
Whiteside v. Jackson, 1268, 1272 

V. Miller, i6go 
Whiteside et al. v. Jackson exd. Mumford, 1282 
Whitesides v. Cannon, 1373, 1562 
Whitewater Valley Canal Co. v. Vallette, 2342 
Whitfield v. Bewit, 495 

V. Prickett, 260, 272 

V. Taylor, 964 
Wliitham v. Osbum, 2328 
^^'h.ithers v. Yeadon, 1021 
Whiti ig w. Brastow, 131, 147, ii37t 1187 

V. Dewey, 2025 

V. Edmunds, 1144, 1145 

V. Gould, 1635, 1646 

V. Griffing, 2266 

V. Nicholl, 523 

V. Ohlert, 997 

V. Pittsburg Opera House, 996, 998, 1305 

7/. Salter, 512 

V. Stevens, 2343 



Whiting V. Street, 2258 

V. Whiting, 457, 780, 914, 1885 
Whitley v. Davis, 2353 
Whitlock's Case, 1039, 2361 
Whitlock V. Duffield, loog, 1087, 1088, 1089 

7'. Gosson, 1471, 1474 

V. Hale, 1975 

V. Horton, 1162 
Whitmarsh v. Cutting, 1205, 1207, 12 10, 1267 

V. Walker, 54, 56 
Whitmire v. Wright, 823 
Whitmore v. Gibbs, 1266 

V. Learned, 1635, 1648 

%i. Russell, 534 

V. Shiverick, 1999 

V. Weld, 437 

•V. Whitmore, 661 
Whitney v. Allaire, 971, 978, 979, mi 

V. Allen, 2156 

V. Batchelder, 2045 

V. Buckman,2ois, 2016, 2024, 2031 

V. Closson, 646, 648 

V. Cochran, 1291 

V. Dutch, 986, 1031, 2343 

V. French, 211, 1995,2038. 2039 

V. Gordon, 1275, 1307, 1328, 1342, 1343 

V. McKinney, 2147, 2150 

V. Meyers, 1162 

7*. Morrow, 574 

7/. Salter, 490, 505 

V. Stevens, 750 

V. Swett, 1262, 1264, 1265, 1284, 1295, 
1303. 1305. 1329 

V. Union R. Co., 268 
Whitridge v. Barry, 1878 
Whitsellw. Mills, 662, 770, 771, 919, 920 
Whitt V. Mayor of New York, 1321 
Whittaker z'. Hawley, 982, 983, 1126, 1176,1177, 

1178, 1180 
Whittemore 7'. Farrington, 2071, 2330 

V. Gibbs, 1998 

V. Moore, 1316 
Whitten v. Whitten, 647, 1975, 19S2 
Whitter v. Cochego, 2247 
Whitthaus v. Shack, 933 
Whittick, Jackson ex d., -u. Deigo, 1309 
Whittier v. Whittier, 779 
Whittingham's Case, 1031 
Whittington v. Wright, 2298 
Whittle V. Samuels, 1483 
Whittlesey v. Fritter, 1920, 1934 

V. McMahon, 1625 
Whitton V. Whitton, 191 1 
Whitwell 7/. Harris, 1050, 1141 

V. Warner, 1621 
Whitworth v. Gangain, 2003 

V. Stuckey, 416, 417 
Whyte z'. Nashville, 506, 710, 723, 731, 737,740 
Wickersham v. Bills, 284 

V. Irwin, rio8 
Wickes V. Clarke, 633, 642 

V. Jordan, 539, 1206 
Wickham v. Berry, 299, 1037, 1606, 1675 

V. Hawker, 90, 93 
Wickliffe v. Lexington, 1781 
Wickman v. Robinson, 2009 
Wickoff V. Davis, 2068 
Wicks z*. Mitchell, 896, 2012 

V. Scribens, 2173 
Widdowson v. Duck, 1721 
Widger v. Browning, 1344 
WiedlerT*. Farmers' Bank, 8go 
Wien z/. Simpson, nog 
Wier V. Humphries, 693 

V. Michigan Stove Co., 305 

V. Simmons, 1867 

V. Tate, 600 
Wiesner v, Zann, 2301 
Wigg's Case, 1026 
Wiggin V. Berry, 1850 

7'. Buzzell, 1445 

V. Chance, 1502, 1519 



CCXXVIU 



TAJBLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



"Wiggin V. He5''wood, 2082, 2083 
Wiggins I/. Holley, 210, 211,2297 

V. Keizer, 961 

V. McCleary, 2303 

V. New York, 2268 

V. Peters, 1005 

V. Wiggins, 64, 65, 507, 1278, 1876, i8gi, 
2270, 2271 
Wiggins Ferry Co. v. Ohio & M. R. Co., 370, 

390, 107 r 
Wiggleswoith z/ Dallison, 1205, 120S, 1209,1210 

V. Steers, 1032, 1033 
Wight XK Gray, 133 

V. Sliaw, 591 

V. Thayer, 252, 396, 411, 412, 427, 448, 449, 
450 
Wightman v. Gray, 2165 

V. Pettis, 678 

2'. Wightman, 660, 661, 751, 753, 754j 755, 
756, 757 
W^igley V, Beauchamp, 837, 938, 949 
Wikoff 2/. Davis, 2154, 2179, 2180 
Wilber v. Wilber, 793, 910 
Wilbraham v. Snow, 1969 
Wilburs'. Almy, 1731 

V, Tobey, 66a, 673 
Wilce V. Wilce, 310 
Wilcox f. Bates, 2046 

v, Danforth, 2235 

V. Hawley, 1514, 1515 

V. Heywood, 405, 416, 447, 472 

V. Morris, 1993, 2001 

ZK Randall, 797, 940 

V. Smith, 1769 

V. Wheeler, 289, 1797 

V. Wilbur, 12S0 

V. Wilcox, 1957, 1963, 1964 

I'. Wood, 1006 
Wilcoxen v. Bowles, 2254 
Wilcoxon V. Donnelly, 2251 
Wild's Case, 324, 325 
"Wild?/. Deig, 2327, 2328 

V. Milne, igSo 
Wild's Lessee v. Sei-pell, 1144, 1160, 1220 
Wilder'. Cantillon, 1346, 1347, 1356 

V. W'aters, 145 
Wilden v. Bodley, 1709 

z'. Brooks, 648 

V. Ewbank, 1156 

z'. Haughey, 1421, 1475, 2144 

7'. Houghton, 2066 

z\ House, 1357 

V. St." Paul, 2245 

%•. Whictemore, 2032, 2033 

V. Whirttemore, 1666 
Wildermuth v. Koenig, 1499 
Wildes V. Van Voorhis, 902, 1910 
Wildey v. Barney's Lessee, 1976 

z<. Bonney, 1928 

V. Collier, 2059 
Wilding V. Richard, 1793 
Wddman v. Taylor, 105S 

V. Wildman, 43 
Wilds V. Layton, 549, 572, 576 
"Will's Case, 2199 
Wiles V. Peck, 2364 
Wiley's Appeal, 975 
Wiley V. Collins, 1794 

V. Ewing, 2073, 2135, 2171, 2174 

z>. Knight, 1624, 2o6r 

v. Penson, 2148, 2150 

V. Smith, 415, 1694 

V. Wiley, goo 
V/ilford z>. Grant, 706 
Wilgus V. Commonwealth, 974 

V. Lewis, 1316, 1335, 1340 

"'. Whiteheart, 2255 
Wilhelm?'. Lee, 1998 

v. Mertz, 1025, 1047 
Wilhelmiz/. Leonard, 810,2096 
Wilhite's Admr. v. Boulware, 1957 
Wilkerson zk Adams, 22S1 



Wilkerson v. Rust, 121 r 
Wilkins v. Aarton, 1884, 1907 

V. Fry, 1065 

V. French, 688, 802, 1921, 1998, 2063, 2084, 
2103, 2i6g, 2173 

z'. Irvine, 1268 

V, Taliafero, 2255 

V. Taylor, 76 

V. French, 2062 

V. Varshbinder, 46, 52 
Wilkinson v. Adams, 2281 

V. Barry, 1778, 1787 

V. Bewick, 120 

V. Clauson, mo 

V. Deming, 1464 

V. Dent, gi8, 944 

V. Flowers, 2094, 2140 

Z'. Hall, 1327, 1328, i32g, 1338, 1901 

V. Jett, 1244 

V. Ketler, 2271 

V. Leland, 671, 2324, 2328, 2329, 2333 

V. Malin, 1731 

V. Merrill, 1403, 1404, 1454 

V. Nelson, 1840 

V. Parrish, 785, 886, 887 

V. Pearson, 1034 

V. Proud, 93 

V. Rogers, 1141 

V. Ccatt. 1538, 1700 

7'. Wilkinson, 265 
Willan V. Willan, 10S9 
Willard v. Benton, 1154, 1155 

7/. Eastham, 2012 

V. Finnegan, 2159, 2170, 2171 

V. Harvey,2i3i, 2251 

V. Henry, i860, 1869 

V. Rcas, 2005 

7'. Tillman, 1179,2251, 2258 

V. Ware, 1837 

V. Worsham, 2072 

7'. Winnelly, 1996, 2051 
Willet V. Beatty, 804, 813, 814, 817 

V. Brown, 694, 786, 824, 825 
Willets 7'. Burgess, 2050, 2 16S 
Willey V. Haley, 464 
Willi z>. Dryden, 1108, 2262 
William's Case, 519 
William z\ Farwell, 1812 

V. Roberts, 2005 
William and Mary College zk Powell, 934 
Williams' Appeal, 329, 336, 1561, 1604, 1655, 1664, 

1707, 1753 
Williams Case, 2146 
Williams, Ex parte, 1831 
Williams' Exrs., 526 
Williams v. Ackerman, 1134, 1125, 2260 

V. Ackerson, 1322 

V. Allen, 294 

V. Allison, 1758 

V. Angell, 1864 

V. Arkle, 1638 

7'. Bagnall. go 

V, Baker, 638. 639, 924 

V. Bartlett. 20S7 

V. Beasley, 440, 441 

V. Bennett, 873, 1334 

V. Brown, 1653 

V. Bosanquet, 979, 2262 

V. Bi-iggs, 2017, 2018. 2020 

V. Burrell, 1063, 1065, 1074, 1080, iigo, 
2362 

V. Carle, 658, 794 

V. Cash, 1212, 1297, 1308 

V. Castor, 489, 521 

V. Chitty, 953, 955, 957 

V. Cincinnati Ins. Co., 2089 

zi. Claiborne, 645 

V. Cleaver, 970 

V. Coade, 1638 

V. Conrad, 489. 514 

7'. Countney, 8q3 

V. Cowden, 270, 1858 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CCXXiX 



Williams v. Cox, 8i6 
V, Dakin, 1868 
V. Dawson, 914 
V. Deriar, 1255, 1275, 1281, 1301, 1307, 

1319. 1324. 1339 
V. Dickerson, 321, 322 
V. Dorris, 1442, 1444 
7). Downing, 1047, 1225 
V, Dwinnelle, 1703 
z*. Earle, 1076, 2264 
V. Engelbrecht, 2060 
V. Everett, 1600 
V. First Presbyterian Soc, 1596, 1684, 

1723, 1796 
•u. Garrison, 1159, 1222, 1579 
I', r.ibbes, 1665 
7'. Gray, 18S3 
z'. Groucott, 89 
V. Hall, 1419 
11. Hensley, 1309 
•V. Hichborn, 417 
•V. Hilton, 2027, 2o8g, 2090 
V. Hodge, 1282, 1292 
V. Hoilingsworth, 163 1, 1639, 1641, 1642, 

1644, 1700 
V. Holmes, 1249, 1820 
^. Howard, 984 
V. Inabnet, 1033 
V. James, 2220 
V. "jekyll, 1553 
V. Jenkins, igo6 
V. Johnson, 671 
^. Jones, 351, 1497 
V. Kershaw, 1638 
V. Lake, 999 
V. Lanier, 578 
V. Latourette, 648 
V. Leech, 1674 
•v. McCall, 1724 
V. McConico, 300, 1606 
V. Milton, 2o8g 
V. Morancy, 2105 
V. Moore, 2344 
V. Morgan, 1367 
V. Nelson, 72, 2247 
V, Nixon, 1733 
V. Nolan, 1233 
V. Oliphant, 1246 
V. Otey, 1782, 1785 
V. Owens, 2044, 2055 
V. Parisiene, 769 
' V. Perry, 2153 

V. Potter, 1139 
z;. Roberts, 200S 
V. Robinson, 2066 
V. Robson, 900,903, gog 
V. Roger Williams Ins. Co., 632 
V. Rogers, 11 53 
V. Sheldon, 1029, 1033 
V. Sharman, 1132 

V. Starr, 1450, 1473, i475i 1478*2133 
V. Steele, 2023 
V. Stratton, 2003 
V. Sweetland, 1407, i444) 1485 
■V. Tatnall, 2126 
V, Teachy, 2100, 2101 
V. Temer, 1622 
7). Terrall, 2151 
V. Thomas, 209 
V. Thorn, 273 
V. Tipton, 2177 
V. Townsend, 2086, 2146, 2155 
V. Vosanquet, n 1 7 
•u. Waters, 299, 1558 
V. Wethered, 1425 
z/. Whiting, 1456 
V. Williams, 347.407. 596, 755, 1627, 1628, 

1632, 1633, 1647 
V. Winsor, 2018 
V. Wood, 2006 
V. Woods, 814, S32 
V. Woodward, 233, 1114, iii9> ^832 



Williams v. Worthington, 1591, 1593 

V. Young, 1497, 1501, 1502, 20Qg 
Williams, Doe d., v. Cooper, 1309 
Williams, Doe d., v. Matthews, 1039 
Williams, Jackson ex. d., ?/. Miller, 1108, 1113, 

1 148, 1348, 1586, 1638, 164S, i6g6 
Williams, Doe d., v. Pasquale, 1309 
Williams, Doe d., v. Smith, 1336 
Williams' College v, Mallett, igii 
Williamson -u. Adams, 2281 

V. Ball, i75t 

•V. Keekham, 1373 

V. Berry, 1516, 1751, 2154 

V. Champlin, 20S2 

•v. Daniel, 408, 414, 416 

V. Farrell, 1838 

V, Field, 2147, 2151 

V. Field's Exrs., 315, 317 

V. Fontain, 1965 

V. Crank Trunk R. Co., iig5 

V. Mason, 813 

V. New Albany R. Co., 2067 

V- New Jersey S. R. Co., 61, 77, 98 

V. Parisen, 883 

7.1. Paxton, 1292, 1318, 13 19, 1326 

V. Perry, 2159 

V. Richardson, 2250 

z/. Steele, 2024 

V. Suydam, 1661, 1754 

7J. Wickersham, 336, 1709 

V. Wilkins, 4gi, 1741 

V. Williamson, 936 
Williamson, Den ex d., 11. Snowhill, 1319 
Williamson's Admx. v. Richardson, 974 
Williard v. Williard, 544, 1G90 
Williman -v. Holmes, 1561, 1655, 1672, 1673^ 

Willinik v. Morris Canal Co., 2018 

Willing V. Brown, igSi 

Willington v. Gale. 2062 

Willink V. Morris Canal, 201:9 

WillLngs V. Consequa, 2057 

Willion V. Berkly, 374, 375, 398, 399, 437, 452 

Willis V. Astor, 10S8, io8g 

71. Bucher, 340, 415, 417 

V. Doe, 838 

V. Farley, 2ogg, 2104 

V. Freeman, 786, 825 

V. Gay, 1778 

V. Hiscox, 1858 

V. Matthews, 1425, 1426 

V. Sherrall, 1843 

V. Twombly, 2109 

V. Valette, 2104 

V. Willis, 1648, 1700 

V. Wozencraft, 1276, 1290 
Willis, Doe d., v, Martin, issg 
Willis, Lessee v. Bucher, 424 
Willison V. Watkins, 1144, 1x46, 1T48, 1150, 
1160, 1214, 1222, i2g4, 1309,1913, 1914 
Willmarth v. Pratt, 2272 
Willmerding v, Mitchell, igg6 
Wills V. Cowper, 367, 720, 1164, 1835, 2057, 2288 

V. Gas Co., 1151 

V. Sayers, 137 1 

V. Slade, 515 
Wills, Jackson ex d., v. Stiles, 1148, 1213, 1218 
Willson V. Cleveland, 1159 

7). Glossop, 774 

V. Phillips, 1138 
Wilmarth v. Bancroft, 2186 

V. Bridges, 533, 761, 815 

V. Cutting, 538 
Wilmerding v. Mitchell, 1996 
Wilmington Star Min. Co. v. Allen, 1139, 1158 
Wilms V. Jess, gi, g2, 93, 94, 1743. 2033, 2237 
Wilson, Ex parte i 28 
Wilson z/. Abbott, 1331 

V, Arentz. 580, 624, 632 

V. Bennett, 181B, 2160 

V. Boyce, 2024 

V. Branch, 853, 858, 884 



ccxxx 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Wilson V. Brett, iigi 

V, Burton, 2072 

w. Chalfant, 2212, 2213 

V. Chesshire, 2g8, 1558, 1582 

V. Christopherson, 1479, 1480 

V. City of Bedford, 2230 

V. Cochran, 1384, i397. i400j r4or, 1420, 
1427, 1433, 1445, 1507 

V. Cox, gi6, 935, 955 

■V. Crook, 2333 

V. Davisson, 804, 829, 830, 832. 858, 2009 

V. Delaplaine, 1120, 2250, 2257 

V. Dent, i6gr 

V. Douglas, 978 

V. Drumrite, 2001, 2037, 216S 

V. Duguid, i6z8 

V. Edmonds, 506, 563 

V. Finch, 1200 

V. Fleming, 1883, 1920, 1936 

V. Forbes, 69 

11. Gaines, 1814 

V. Greenwood, 260, 272 

V. Gait, 1855, 1867 

V. Graham, 2008 

V. Hart, 267, 1778 

V. Harvey, 2060 

V. Halton, 1055, 1056 

V, Hayward, 2104, 2147 

V. Henry, 2297 

V. Herbert, 2012 

V, Hill, 596, 2116 

V, Hodges, 1258 

s». Hooper, 2078 

V. Hubbell, 1213, 1219 

V. Hunter, 2021 

v^. Jones, 1157, 1158 

V. Lester, 11 60 

V. Lyon, 2004, 2006 

V. Madison, 1502 

V. Maltby, 2187 

V. Mayor, 1627 

V. Mayor of New York, 5 

V. McCullough, 1764 

V. McEvan, 2298, 2301 

V. McLenaghan, 733, 931 

V. McNeal, 46 

V, Merrill, 12S0 

V. Moore, 1783 

V. Oatman, 822, 841, 842 

V. O'Connell, 533 

V. Oldham, 1034 

V. Page, 2158 

V. Pearson, 2303 

V, Peelle, 1882 

V. Prescott, 1274 

V. Reed, 1246 

V. Rodeman, 1333 

V. Russell, i6g8, 1700 

V. Scruggs, 1 189 

V. Shoenberger's Exrs., 203g, 2120 

V. Smith, S06, 1128, Ji2g, 1144, 1148, 1168, 
1335 

V. Spring, 2147 

V. Stillwell, 2025, 2026 

V. Taylor, 1327, i32g, 1343 

V. Taylor's Exrs., 730 

V. Towie, isgg 

V. Troup, 688, 7gg, 800, 1708, 1775, 1806, 
1S26, 1830, 1843, 1S44, 2ogg, 2100, 2101, 
2104, 2105, 2111, 2160 

•V. Unselt, 2151, 2157, 2158 

V. Wall, 1763, 1763 

V. Wallani, 2266 

V. Weatherby, 1160 

z*. Wilson, 311, 48g, 1848, 1862, 1872, ig35, 
2015 
Wilson, Doe d., v. Phillips, 11 50 
Wilson, Den ex d., v. Small, 411, 415, 426, 428 
Wilt V. Franklin, 1538, 1786, 1789 
Wilton V. Tazwell, i8g6 
Wiltshear v. Cottrell, 107 
Wiltshire &. Sidford, 2235, 2236 



Wimberly v. Bailey, 487 
Wimfish V. Tarlbois, 433 
Winans v. Peebles, 646, 647 

z'. Wilkie, 2068, 2og6 
Winbish v. Willoughby, 249 
Winchell v. Edwards, 2302 
Winchelsea v. Wentworth, 1570 
Winchester v. Tilghmau, 331 
Wind V. Jekyl, 20 
Winder v. Little, 841 

Windham v. Portland, 718, 739, 797, 819, 834 
Windle v. Brandt, 1466 
Windsor v. Sirapkins, 1982 
Windt z'. German Reformed Church, 41' 
Winebrinner v. Weisiger, 646, 895, ig38 
Wing V. Burgis, 2357 

V. Cooper, ig92, 2048, 2050, 2053,2160 

V. Cropper, 1407, 1408, 1443, 1489 

V. Gray, 118 

V. Hayden, 1450, 1479, 1502 

z>. McDowell, 2139 
Winkfield v. Brinkman, 1622 
Winkler v. Winkler, 5S7, 588, 593, 626, 633, 667, 

675. 1372 
Winland v. Holcomb, 1436 
Wiun u. Dillon, 1643, 1707, 1769 

V. Elliott, 781, 820 

V. Ingilby, 120, 126, 127 

V. Murehead, 2256 

V. State, 1049 
Winne, Inre, 1377 

Winne, Matter of. 274, 585, 587, 588, 590, 592, 
617, 620,624, 632,633, 635, 637, 641, 
651, 670, 678, 1366 
Winne v. Littleton, 2084, 2148 
Winningham v. Crouch, 974 
Winona & St. Peter R. Co. v. St. Paul & Sioux 

City R. Co., 1622 
Winship v. Bass, 1684 

V. Pitts, 544, 565 
Winslow V. Chiffelle, rg6i 

V. Clark, 2147, 2151 

V. Merchants' Ins. Co., g6, g7, 103, 105, 
106, log, 112, 117, 121, 123, 128, 130, 
131, 132, 133, 134, 142, 146, 1187 

V. Minnesota & P. R. Co., 1746, 1747 

V. Rand, 2250 

V. Winslow, 2297, 2299 
Winstead v. Bingham, 2108 
Winstell v. Hehl, 1025 
Winsthoff V. Dracourt, 534 
Winston v. Jones, 1754 

V. Franklin Academy, 1043, 1141, 1213 
Winter v. Anson, 832, 2008' 

V. Brockwell, 2246 

V. Henderson, 2154, 2i7g, 2180 

V. Stevens, i2g6, 1352, 1354, 1356 
Winterbottom 7/. Ingham, 1276 
Wintermute v. Light, 45, 46, 47 
Winters v. Cherry, 995 

V. McGhee, igor 
Winthrop 71. Benson, 210 

V. Fairbanks, 2361 

V. Farrar, 5 
Winton v. Barnum, 647 

V. Cornish, 983, 1015, 1176 
Wintour v. Clifton, gi8, 944 
Wire V. Mitchell, 108 
Wirth V. Bransom, 230S, 2310 
Wiscot's Case, 433, 446, 1024 
Wise V. Faukner, 2257 

V. Metcalf, 108, 109, no, 563, 1068 

V. Old, 2274 

V. Wise, 1786, 1787 
Wiseley v. Findlay, gig, 1973, 1975, i97g 
W:seman v. Beekman, 893 

&. Hutchinson, 1777 

V. Lucksinger, 2212, 2213 

V. Macy, 890 

V. Wiseman, 773, 887, 891 
Wiser V. Lockwood, 756 
Wislerz/. Hershey, 2217 



References are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CCXXXl 



Wislon e-. Patrick, 2054 
Wisner v. Faruham, 1523 

zi. Ocumpaugh, 2272 
Wistar v. Mercer, 2263 
Wistou V. Mowlin, 2106 
Wiswall V. Stewart, 1768 

V. WUkins, 1882, 1883, igo6 
\\'it V. Mayor, 1042 
Witczinski z>. Everman, 2030 
^Vitham v. Brooner, 1607 

V. Perkins, 589, 591, 624, 628, 659 
Withaus V. Schock, 737, 838, 894, 934 
Withers' Appeal, 95 
Withers w. Allgood, 1693 

V. Jenkins, 5S7, 679, 690 

z*. Larrabee, 997, 1251, 1269, la'o, 1274, 
1273. 12S6, 1293, 1294, 1304, 1328 

V. Withers, 1646 

V. Yeadou, 1614, 1737 
Witherspoon v. Duncan, 2307 

,,,■ , . ''■ I^4"1°P' 533, i973» 1977, i979 
withington s Appeal, 1806 
'\\'itlinell 1). Petzold, 1305, 1327, 1330, 1331 
Witman v. Watry, ii6i, 1162 
Witiner's Appeal, 13S, 2022 
Witt V. Mayor, 1020, 1130, 1134, 1135, 1136, 
1300, 1315, I3i7» 1329. 1334, 1338, 
1339. »342 
\\ itte V. Dawkins, 1035 

V. Witte, 1338 
^^"itte^ V. Briscoe, 901, 911, 912 
V. Dudley, 1777 
V. Witter, logo, 1091 
Witthaus T'. Shack, 715, 957 
Witty V. Matthews, 1054, 1083, iioo, 11S2, 1191, 

1 196, 1201 
Wixon's Estate, Matter of , 1382 
WixoQ V. Bear River ^ Auburn Water & Min- 
ing Co., 2239 
Woford V. Gaines, 1513, 1517 

z'. McKenna, 2357 
Woglam V. Cowperthwaite, 2273 
Wolcott V. Schenck, 1058, 1139, 1140, 1154 

V. Winchester, 2105, 2107, 210S 
Wolf f. Banning, 2151 
V. Bassett, 823 
V. Doser, 998, 1013, 1323 
V. Driggs, 2033 
V. Fogarty, 2364 
z'. Frost, 2244 
V. Mitchell, 993 
V. Smith, 2134 
Wolfe V. Doe ex d. Dowell, 1349 
V. Fleischacker, 1426 
V. Frost, 2211, 2212, 2213, 2215 
Wolffe V. Wolff, 1131, 1132, 1315, 1316, 1317 
Wolford V. Baxter, 123, 132 
Wollaston v. Hakewill, 1072, 1112 

V. Tribe, 1790, 1795, 1801 
Wolstenholme, Re, 499 
Wolveridge v. Steward, 1063, 1073, logS 
Wolverton v. Collins, 2035 
Wolz z>. Sanford, 1131, 1316, 1317 
Wo mack z'. McQuarry, 1015, 1176, 1178, 1180 
V. Whitmore, 19S2 
V. Womack, 2278 
Wood's Appeal, 2119, 2122 
Wood V. Ash, 982 

V. Bayard, 461, 465 

V. Beach, 2318 

V. Brown, 1734 

•V. Bumham, i6og, 1694 

V. Chambers, 1223, 1480, 1481 

V. Chapin, 2318, 2364, 2365 

V. Cheshire, 1972 

V. Cox, 1590, 1630, 163S 

V. Day, 1 148 

z'. Dummer, 1671 

•V. Fleet, 1976, 1988 

•u. Foster, 982 

V. Fowler, 6g, 74 

V. Gaynor, 740 



Wood V. Goddridge, 1805 

V. Goodrich, 1043, 1044, 1832 

V, Goodwin, 2170 

V. Griffin, 553. 16S2 

V. Hibbard, 2136 

■V. Hill, 306, 333 

V. Hubbell, 971, 97S, 993, 997, 1016, 1175, 
1180, 1 181 

V. Humphrey, 1051, 1052 

V. Hyatt, 1355 

V. Independent School District of 
Mitchell, 1193 

V. Jackson, 959 

V. Keyes, 857 

V. Krebbes, 1778 

V. Leadbitter, 2213 

V. Lee, 856, 861,916, 935 

V. Little, 1988 

V. Lord, 1407, 1461, 1462 

V. Mather, 300, 1606 

V. Mitcham, 2286 

V. Morgan, 841 

7' Morton, 1308 

V. Oakley, 2149 

V, Partridge, 1119, 1171,2265 

7/. Patterson, 1038 

7'. Phillips. 1356, 1914 

V. Rabe, 1643 

V. Robertson, 1821, 1S22 

V. Saunders, 224S 

V. Seeley, 924 

V. Seward, 1593, 1632 

7'. Smith, 2150 

V. Sou:hampton, 1S63 

7'. Sullens, 2004 

•V. Summons, 771 

V. I'ate, 1320, 1331 

V. Terry, 2158 

V. Trask, 688; 1006, 1996, 2000, 2063 

V Turner, 1217, 1285 

V. Warren, 648 

V. Weimer, 2023 

V. Wheeler, 1403, 1404 

V. Whelen, 132, 133, 2085 

zi. White, 1754 

V. Wilcox, 1255 

V. AVilliams, 2147 

V. Wood, 299, 918, 944, 945, 955, 1607, 
1680 
Wood, Jackson ex d., v. Salmon, 1135, 1307 
Wood, Jackson ex d., v. Swart, 1063 
Wood's Lessee v. Pindall, 1280 
Woodberry v. Materson, 708 
Woodburn's Admr. v. Stout, 1180 
Woodbury zk Bowman, 1600, 1601 

V. Lnddy, 1455 

V. Manlove, 2125 

V, Parshley, 2212 

V. Swan, 2068, 2069 
Woodcock V. Bennett, 1697, 2324 

V. Estey, 2361 

7/. Roberts, 1052 
Woodcock, Doe d., v. Barthrop, 1597, 1605 
Wooden zf. Shotwell, 2349 
Wooden, Doe d., v. Shotwell. 5 
Woodford z'. Higby, 1933, 1940 
Woodhill V. Great Western R. Co., 1194, 1195 
Woodhouslee v. Dalrymple, 2282 
WoodhuU y. Rosenthal, 1 107, 1109, 1115, 1121, 

IT22 

Woodlawn Cemetery v. Everett, 41 
Woodliff V. Drury, 1566 
Woodman v. Blake, 1870, 1871 

V. Coolbroth, 492, 2353 

V. Good, 1707 

V. Pitman, 69, 70 

V. Smith, 2355 
Woodmeston v. Walker, 252, 257, 270 
Woodrow V. Michael, 1262, 1274, 1281, 1329, 

1335. 1340, 1341 
Woodruff V. Adams, 1230, 1231, 1232, 1233 

V. Erie R. Co., 1020 



ccxxxu 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
to pages. 



Woodruff V, Johnson, 1747, 1748 

V. King, 2107 

V. North Bloomfield Gravel Minuig Co., 
199 

V. Trenton Water Power Co., 2214 

V. Woodruff, 1659 
Woods V. Bailey, 2004 

V. Buie, 1511 

•u. Davis, 1403, 1405 

V. Doherty, J049 

V. Hildebrand, 2063, 2092 

V. Hilderbrand, iggg 

V. Naumkeag Steam Cotton Co., 1054, 
1055 

V, Spaulding, 2154 

V. Wallace, 511,522, 802, S03, 2001, 2037, 
2043, 2053 
Woodson V. Good, 574 

V. Skinner, 11 57 

V. Smith, 489, 514 
Woodward v. Blanchard, 2295 

V. Brown, 1146, 1297, 1309 

V. Cone, T154, 1155 

V. Cowdery, ii\-\ 

V. Dowse, 774, 887, 892 

V. Lasar, 105, 108, no 

7J. Leiby, 1211 

V. McReynolds. 211, zi2 

•v. Murray, 1398, 1457 

V. Pickett, 2040, 2041, 2042, 2044, 2067 

•u. Seeley, 2212, 2213 

v. Spurr, 646 

V. Wilson, 638 

V. Wood. 2147 

V. Woodward, 2006 
Woodworth v. Campbell, 1026 

V. Comstock, 1400 

V. Guzman, 2001, 2037, 2126 

V. Paige, 792, 793, 915, 926, 928 

V. Payne, 32 
Woolen z*. Hillen, 1701 
Wooler 7/. Attorney-General of Victoria, 85 
Woolfolkz/. Rickets, 1462 
Wooliscroft V. Norton, 1076 
Woolley V. Holt, 1993, 2065 

V. Magoie, 821 
Woolman -v. Garringer, 2238 
Woolmore v. Burrows. 1693 
Woolcombe v. Ouldridge, 30 
Woolridge v. Lucas, 625, 767 

V. Planters' Bank, 1785 

V. Wilkins, 761, 766, 786, 823,824,'84i, 842 
Woolsey v. Seeley, 61 
Woolston V. Woolston, 1839 
Wooster v. Hunt & Layman Ins. Co., 717 
Wooten V. Eillinger, 2065 
Worcester v. Clark, 890, 927 

V. Eaton, 985, 986,987 

V. Great Falls Mfg. Co., 1247, 1248 
Worcester National Bank v. Cheeney, 810, 

2106, 2108, 2136 
Worchester v. Lord, 2296 
Word V. Trask, 2078 
Work V, Byayton, 976 

7'. Harper, 2364 
Workan v. Miffin, 1127, 1129, 1167 
Workman v. Greening, 216S 

V. Guthrie, 2295 

V. Mifflin, 2269 
Workel v. Munn, 2354 
Wormley v. Wormley, 645, 1752, 1765, 1766, 

1767, 1769, 1770 
Worrall's Appeal, 1721 
vVorrell v. Munn, 1042 
Worril V. Barnes, 2272 
Worsham v. Callison, 782 
Worsley z'. Granville, 347, 1632 

V. Worsley, 955, 956 
Worth V. Hill, 2155, 2181 

V. McAden, 1732, 1734 
Wortben v. Pearson, 941, 942, 943, 955 
Worthing v. Webster, 2335 



Worthington v. Cook, 2259, 2261, 2263, 2264 

z'. Gimaon, 2211. 2216 

z/. Lee, 1008, 1009 

V. Middleton, 909 

V. Parker, 198 

V. Roberts, 88g 

V. Staunton, 1906 

V. Young, 1025 
Worthy v. Johnson, 1723, 1766, 1775, 1776, 17S4, 

1785 
Wortly V. Bukgad, 2139 
Wortman v. Guthrie, 1923 
Wotton V. Healy, 1025 

V. Shirt, 2268 
Wragg V. Comptroller-General, 2005 
Wray v. Feddecke, 2125 

V. Steele, 1651 
Wren v. Bradley, 269 

V. Kirton, 1719, 1720 
Wriggins v. Holley, 2295 
Wright's Appeal, 95 
Wright z*. Atkyns, 347. 1627, 1629, 1631,2081 

V. Barlow, 183 1 

V. Barrett, 54 

V. Bates, 2046, 2055 

V. Bircher, 2018 

V. Briggs, 2068, 2166 

V. Brown, 1375, 1376, 1675, 1799 

z/. Bundy, 2026,2060, 2148 

•V. Burroughes, 1862 

V. Cartwright, 970, 1570 

V. Dane, 2005 

V. Delafield, 1796 

V. Denn, 331 

V. Ditzler, 1420, 1435 

V. Douglass, 21, 1592, 1691 

V. Dowley, 285 

V. Dunning, 1413, 1416, 1454, 1457, 1458, 
T460, 1464, 1465, 1495 

V. Eaves, 2095, 2150 

V. Evans, 2105 

V Gelvin, 725 

V. Gordon, 234 

V. Hays, 1484, 1485, i486, 1487 

V. Henderson, 2000, 2063, 207S 

V. Herron, 401,690, 6gi 

V. Hicks, 327 

V. Holbrook, 1194 

%i. Jennings, 705 

V. Kelley, 1108 

•V. King, 1653 

V. Langley, 2089 

V. Lattan, 1127, 116S 

V. Miller, 1675 

z/. Morgan, 2060, 2061 

V. Morley, 2172 

V. O'Brien, 116 

•V. Page, 23 

z/. Pierson, 300, 424, i6og, 1693 

V. Pratt, 1399 

z/. Roberts, 1278 

V. Rose, 2063 

V. Saddler, 1920, 1940 

V. Sadler, 221, 1931, 1951 

V. Scott, 417, 420, 427 

z/. Searles, 1906 

V. Shumway, 2080 

•V. Sperry, 2091 

z/. Stanard, 1757, 1758 

z'. Tallmadge, iSog, 1828, 1829, 1830 

V. Thayer, 402 

V. Trustees of M. E. Church, 2257. 2259 

V. Tuttle, 1850 

V. Wakeford, 183 1 

z/. West, 918 

z/. Wilkins, 1850 

V. Williams, 2238, 2252, 2259 

V. Wright, 595. 68i, 682, 910, 941, 944, 
959» 1363, 1364, 1366, 1369, 1591, 1904, 
2002 
Wright, Den d., v. Page, 304, 305, 309, 311, 331, 
339. 344 



Re£erences are 
to pages. 



TABLE OF CASES. 



CCXXXIU 



Wrij^lu, Doe d., v. Gordon, 234 

Wright, Doe d. Plumpton, Re^ 651, 1366 

Wright ex d. Shaw v. Russell, 320, 321, 331 

WurL's Kxrs. v. Page, 76 

Wusiier V. Fanihnm, 1444 

Western Union Tel. Co. v. Fain, 1327, 1329 

Wyant v. Deiffeiidafer, 574 

Wyatt, Doe d., v. Byron, 1108 

V. Harrison, 2230, 2231, 2232, 2233 

V. Sadler's Heirs, 331, 334 

z>. Simpson, 1368 

V. Stewart, 2042, 2125 

D. Watkins, 2020 
Wyble V. McPheters, 1594 
Wych V. East India Co., 1785 
Wycherle7 -u. Wycherley, 1697 
WyckofE y. Noyes, 213S 

IK Gardner, 1024 
Wyeth V. Stone, 2283 

Wykham v. Wykham, 288, 2gg, 1594, 1606, 1712 
Wylde V. Wylde, 1939 
Wylie V. McMakin, 2148 
Wylly V. Collins, 1562 
Wyman v. Babcock, 2046, 2048, 2049 

V. Brigden, 278 

V. Brown, 237, 1569, 2319 

V. Dorr, 982 

V. Farrar, 1014, 1015, 1183 

V. Fox, 792 

V. Wyman, 719 
Wymans v, Richardson, 717, 875 
Wyncook v. Burger, 2206 

z>. Cowing, 2168 
Wyndham v. Way, 119 
Wyne v. Styan, 2074 
Wynehamer v. People, 1517, 2324 
Wyukoop V. Burger, 2208 

V. Cowing, 2045, 2050, 2055 
Wynn v. Story, 414, 415, 416 
Wynne v. Fletcher, 265 

V. Hawkins, 347, 1627, 1632 

V. Newborough, 1036 

7'. Styan, 2172 

V. Wynne, 327, 1517 
Wyse r'. Damdridge, 1763 
Wythe 7'. Thurlston. 1828 
Wyther v. Casson, 2358 



Yale V. Dederer, 896, 1374, 1562 
Yancy v. Smith, 935 
Yandell v. Pugh. 8S9, 927 
Yandes v. Wright, 91, 92, 2233, 2237 
Yarborough z*. Newell, 2037, 2175 

V. Wood, 2005, 
Yard's Appeal, 249, 252, 257 
Yard v. Yard. 1034 
Yaniall's Appeal, 1656, 1673, 1694 
Yaniold v. Moorhouse, 260, 272, 1056, 11 13, 

1677 
Yates V. Been, 1032, 1034 

V. Cromptz/n, 181 1 

V. Houston, 752 

V. Joyce, 2187 

r'. Kinney, 13 15, 13 ^7 

V. Mallen, 2259 

V. Mullen, 99, loio 

V. Paddock, 865 

V. Woodruff, 2154 

7'. Yates, 1549. »6o3 
Yates County National Bank -v. Carpenter, 

1427 
Yeackel v. Litchfield, 1768 
Yeagerz/. Weaver, 1246 
Yeaker's Heirs v. Yeiker's Heirs, 216 
Yeakle v. Jacob, 55 
Yeatman v. Woods, 1905 
Yeaton. In re, 1115 
Yelland v. Fichs, 1845 
Yellow Jacket S. M. Co. v. Stevenson, 127S 



Yelverton v. Steele, 2297 
Yelverton v. Yelverton, 1541, 1552 
Yesler v. Hochslettler, 1948 
Yoe V. Dyer, 1285 

V. Mercerau, 781 
York V. Jones, 1120, 1165 
Yost z;. Devault, 1450, 1473, 1476, 1484, 1485, 

1487 
Youle V. Richards, 2050 
Youmans v. Caldwell, 46 

V. Wagener, 804, 902 
Youn z*. Flinn, 1583, 1640 
Young, In re, 399 
Young V. Adams, 1S82, 1912 

V. Boston, 22 

V. Boyd, 945 

V. Bradley, 1797 

V. Carter, 794 

V. Carter, 794 

V. Clark, 1758 

V. Clippinger, 2321 

V. Dake, 971, 997 

V. Davis, 59 1 

V. De Bruhl, 1909, 1917, 1919 

V. Frost, 1986 

V. Gammel, 1922 

V. Gregory, 772, 920 

V, Hargrave, 1081 

V. Hughes, 1621 

V. Ingle, 1278, 1291 

V. Keigliley, 1671 

T. Langbein, 6S9 

V. Mackall, 1781 

V. Marshall, 285 

V. Martin, 347, 1632 

V. Mclntyre, 703 

V. McKee, 201 1 

V. McKenzie, 2324 

V. Millar, 2103, 2105, 2107, 2108 

V. Naylor, 883 

V. Northern Illinois Canal & Iron Co., 
2066 

V. Peachy, 1616, 1633 

V. Polack, 1893 

V. Radford, 1024, 1361 

V. Ringo, 2349 

V. Smith, 1125, 1271, 1310, 1350 

•u, Spencer, 564 

V. Tarbell, 7S3, 801, S20, 847,861, 863 

V. Vough, 2177 

V. Waterpark, 1783 

7'. Williams, 20^3, 2172 

V. Wolcott, 721 

z/. Wood, 2008 

V. Young, 1274, 1277, 1285, 1296, 1304, 
I3»7> 1.319, 1324* 1336, 15S7. IS93. 
1594,1662 
Youngblood v. Eubank, 128, 130 
Younghusband v. Gisbome. 253 
Youngman v. Elmira & W. R. Co., 98, 1998, 

2077 
Youngs V. Carter, 727, 912 

V. Trustees Public Schools, 2072 
Youngworth v. Jewel, 1936 
Yunker v. Nichols, 2241 



z. 



Zabriskie v. Cleveland, C. & C. R. Co., 1041 

7'. Morris, 1576 

V. Morris & E. R. Co., 1595, 1596 

V. Salter, 2180, 2197 

V. Smith, 719, 839 
Zabriskie's Exrs. v. Wetmore, 1739 
Zacharias z>. Zacharias, 1781 
Zaegal 7/. Kuster, 948,2170 
Zamboco7'. Cassavetti, 1814 
Zane v. Kenedy, 1816, 201 1 
Zebach v. Smith, 1663, rSio. 1813, 1841, 1843 
Zebach's Lessee v. Smith, 1730, 18^5 
Zeiissweiss v. James, 1603, 1604, 16S1 



CCXXXIV 



TABLE OF CASES. 



References are 
lo pages. 



Zeiter v. Bowman, 1027, 2152 

Zell V. Rearae, 1357 

Zellers v. Beckman, 1409, 1524 

z/..Eckert, 1782 
Zeller's Lessee 7'. Eckert, 1150, 1917,2093, 2095 
Zentmyer v. Mittewar, 2005 
Ziegler v. Grim, igSx 
Zimmer v. Paulry, 1500 
Zimmerman v. Anders, 312 

V. Marchland, 1159 

z'. Schoenfeldt, 588, 670 



Zinc Co. z*. Franklinite Co., 92, 2233, 2237 
Zirkle v. McCue, igSo 
Zoller V. Ide, 2013 
Zorntlein z/. Bram, 1932 
Zottman v. San Francisco, 1029 
Zouch Tj. Parsons, 985, 1030, 1827, 2341 

V. Woolston, 1806, 1843 
Zuchtmann v. Roberts, 2301 
Zule V. 2ule. 770, 883, 984, 1116 
Zuverz/. LyonSj 1592, 2045 



BOOK L 

INTRODUCTORY. 



CHAPTER I. 



PRELIMINARY. 

Property — Generally. 

Same — Classes of property. 

Same — Blackstone's definition— Exclusive ownership 

Same — Austin's definition — Restricted property. 

Early history of propei-ty. 

Same — Evolution of private property. 

Eights of property and hereditary patrimony. 

Same — Recognition of right of private property. 

Same — Alienation and devise. 

Same — The retrait. 

Theories of the origin of private property in land. 

Same — 1. The discovery theory. 

Same — 2. The occupation theory. 

Same — 3. The labor theory. 

Same — i. The theory of contract. 

Same — 5. The lex theory. 

Same — 6. The natural-economic theory. 

Same — 7. The natural rights theory. 

Same — 8. The government grant theory. 

Real and personal property — Distinction and devolution. 

Definition of real property. 

Same — " Land " and " real estate." 

Same — Maryland doctrine. 

Same — Tenements. 

Same — Hereditaments. 

Same — Same — Division of hereditaments. 

Section 1. Property— Generally.— Property in the ab- 
stract is the right or interest which a person may have 



Sec. 


1. 


Sec. 


2. 


Sec. 


3. 


Sec. 


4. 


Sec. 


5. 


Sec. 


6. 


Sec. 


7. 


Sec. 


8. 


Sec. 


9. 


Sec. 


10. 


Sec. 


11. 


Sec. 


12. 


Sec. 


13. 


Sec. 


14. 


Sec. 


15. 


Sec. 


16. 


Sec. 


17. 


Sec. 


18. 


Sec. 


19. 


Sec. 


20. 


Sec. 


21. 


Sec. 


32. 


Sec. 


23. 


Sec. 


34. 


Sec. 


25. 


Sec. 


26. 



PROPERTY A GENERIC TERM. 



[Book I. 



in, to, or over anything to the exclusion of all others,^ 
and embraces every species of valuable thing ^ that may 
be made the subject of exclusive ownership.^ The Vford 
property is a term of the largest import, is nomen gcner- 
alissimum, and extends to every species of valuable right 
and interest, and embraces real * and personal property, 



' Rigney v. City of Chicago, 103 

111. 77 ; 
Jackson ex d. Pearson v. Housel, 

17 John. (N. Y.) 281, 283 ; 
Morrison v. Semple, 6 Binn. (Pa.) 

94, 98 ; 
SoTilard v. United States, 29 U. 

S. (4 Pet.) 511 ; bk. 7 L. ed. 

938; 
Doe V. Langlands, 14 East 370 ; 
Doe V. Lainckbury, 11 East 290, 

518. 
'Walker's Am. L. (9th ed.) 306, 

§133. 
' Stanton v. Lewis, 36 Conn. 444, 

449; 
Caro V. Metropolitan Railway 

Co.,46 N. Y. Super. Ct. 188; 

s.c. 19 Am. L. Reg. N. S. 

376. 
See : Barker v. State, ex rel. 

Mills, 109 Ind. 58 ; s.c. 9 N. E. 

Rep. 711. 
* For cases in which the word 

"property" has been adjudged 

to include land, see : 
Soulard v. United States, 39 U. 

S. (4 Pet.) 511 ; bk. 7 L. ed. 

938; 
Edwards v. Barnes, 3 Bing. N. C. 

253 ; s.c. 9 Eng. C. L. 534 ; 
Doe V. Morgan, 6 Bam. & C. 

513 ; S.C. 9 D. & R. 633 ; 13 

Eng. 0. L. 335 ; 
Doe V. Langlands, 14 East 370 ; 
Doe V. Lainckbury, 11 East 890. 
For cases in which held to pass a 

fee, see : 
Grossman v. Field, 119 Mass. 170, 

173; 
Lincoln v. Lincoln, 107 Mass. 

590; 
Leland v. Adams, 75 Mass. (9 

Gray) 171. 
Compare: Wheeler?;. Dunlap, 13 

B. Men. (Ky.) 291 ; 
Howland v. Rowland, 100 Mass. 

332; 
Hurdle v. Outlaw, 2 Jones (N. C.) 

Eq. 75 ; 
Chapman ■!;. Prickett, 6 Bing. 602 ; 

s.c. 4 M. & P. 404 ; 19 Eng. C. 

L. 273 ; 



Bang V. George, L. R. 5 Ch. Div. 
627 ; s.c. 36 L. T. N. 8. 759 ; 23 
Moak's Eng. Rep. 364 ; 

Doe, ex d. Bunny v. Rout, 2 
Marsh. 397 ; s.c. 7 Taunt. 79 ; 
3 Eng. C. L. 269. 

" Property " is equivalent to " estate," 
and operates to pass the interest 
as well as the land. 

Hunt V. Hunt, 70 Mass. (4 Gray) 
190; 

Morris v. Henderson, 37 Miss. 
492; 

Fogg V. Clark, 1 N. H. 163 ; 

Pippin V. Ellison, 12 Ired. (N. C.) 
L. 61 ; s.c. 55 Am. Deo. 403 ; 

Hurdle v. Outlaw, 3 Jones (N. C.) 
Eq. 75 ; 

Foster v. Stewart, 18 Pa. St. 23 ; 

Morrison v. Semple, 6 Binn. (Pa.) 
94; 

Rosseter v. Simmons, 6 Serg. & 
R. (Pa.) 452 ; 

Den V. Payne, 5 Hayw. (Tenn.) 
104; 

Mayo ■;;. Carringfcon, 4 Call (Va.) 
472; 

Doe d. Booley v. Roberts, 11 Ad. 
& E. 1000 ; s.c. 3 Per. & D. 
578 ; 39 Eng. C. L. 534 ; 

Bentley v. Oldfield, 19 Beav. 
225; 

Footncr v. Cooper, 3 Drew. 7 : 

Roe V. Pattisoji, 10 East 331 r 

Patton V. Randall, 1 Jac. & W. 
189; 

Nicholls V. Butcher, 18 Ves. 
193. 

" Property " as applied to land. — The 
Supreme Court of the United 
States say in the case of 
Soulard v. United States, 39 
U. S. (4 Pet.) 511 ; bk. 7 L. ed. 
938, that the term " property," 
as applied to lands, compre- 
hends every species of title, in- 
choate or complete ; that it is 
supposed to embrace also all 
rights which lie in contract. 
Those which are executory as 
well as those which are exe- 
cuted. 



Chap. I. g§ 2, 3.] CLASSES OF PEOPERTY. 3 

easements, franchises, and all incorporeal heredita- 
ments ^ ; and includes things in possession and things in 
exi)ectation.2 When applied to land, it comprehends 
every species of title, complete and inchoate, as well 
as all those rights which lie in contract, those which are 
executory as well as those which are executed.^ 

Sec. 2. Same— Classes of property.— Property is divided 
into two great classes, known as things real and things per- 
sonal. The class of things real includes every valuable 
thing of a fixed and inunovable nature, as well as every 
thing pertaining thereto, and passes under the general de- 
scription of "lands, tenements, and hereditaments," or 
simply as " realty " or " real estate. " Things personal in- 
clude all those things of an unfixed or movable nature, 
and pass under the general description of "goods and 
chattels," or simply "personalty."* There is a class of 
property which has been said to occupy a sort of interme- 
diate position between realty and personalty, some of 
which are called " chattels real," others " heirlooms," and 
others still "fixtures" ;^ but these are thought all to be 
properly classed and treated under the head of realty. 

Sec. 3. Same — Blackstone's definition— Exclusive owner- 
ship.— Property has been defiued by Blackstone ^ as 
" that sole and despotic dominion which one claims and ex- 
ercises over the external things of the world, in total ex- 
clusion of every other individual." This is the definition 
of exclusive ownership, or the absolute right of property ; 
but no such ownership does, or in the very nature of 
things can, exist in a civilized com m unity and under the 

' Caro V MetropoUtan Elevated B. (10 Pet.) 326, 329 ; bk. 9 L. ed. 

Co., 48 N. Y. Super. Ct. 138 ; 442 ; 

s c 19 Am L. EsR. N. S. 376 ; Delassus v. United States, 34 U. 

Boston & L. E. CoTtJ. Salem & S. (9 Pet.) 117, 133; bk. 9 L. 

L R. Co., 68 Mass. (2 Gray) 1, ed. 71, 77 ; 

35 "•• ^"- ' -^ ' Soulard v. United States, 29 U. S. 

s Carlti)n v. Carlton, 72 Me. 162 ; (4 Pet.) 512 ; bk 7 L. ed. 398. 
Ide V. Harwood, 30 Minn. 195; ^ 2 Bl Com 16, 384 ; 

B.C. 14N. W. Eep. 884; Walker Am. L. (9th ed.) 306, 

Vniie-ban V. Murfeesboro, 96 N. § 122. 

^^J'^of^'l g" 2 S E. Eep. 676 ; wllker's Am. L. (9th ed.) 306, 

Walker's' Am. L. (9th ed.) 306, 807, § 122. 



y 122. 
5 Smith V. United States, 85 U. S. 



« 2 Bl. Com. c. 1. 



OBLIGATIONS OF LAND-OWNERS. 



[Book I. 



polity of a civilized government. Under the Roman sys- 
tem ^ of laws and the English, alike, there are certain 
duties and obligations enjoined upon every land-owner ; 
and certain rights and privileges which the public at large 
have in his property. All property is acquired and held 
under the tacit understanding that it shall not be so used 
as to injure the equal rights of others, or so as to destroy 
or greatly impair the public rights and interests of the com- 
munity.^ The maxim of the common law is "sic utere 
tuo, ut alienum non Isedas, " use your own so as not to 
injure another's property.^ Private property must ever 
be held subject to the exercise of such rights as are for 
the common benefit.* No principle is better established 
than that the legislature may make what are called police 
regulations, declaring from time to time in what manner 
property may be used and enjoyed,^ so as to prevent its 



' See : Cushing's Domat, pt. I. , bk. 

ii., tit. 6. 
' Commonwealth v. Tewkesbury, 

53 Mass. (11 Met.) 55, 57. 
See : Henry v. City of Newbury- 
• port, 149 Mass. 583, 585 ; s.c. 32 

N. E. Rep. 75 ; 
Train v. Boston Disinfecting Co., 

144 Mass. 523, 530 ; s.c. 59 

Am. Rep. 113 ; 11 N. E. Rep. 

939; 
Bancroft v. Cambridge, 136 Mass. 

438, 441 ; 
Commonwealth v. Intoxicating 

Liquors, 115 Mass. 153 ; s.c. 

sub nom. Boston Beer Co. v. 

Massachusetts, 97 U. S. 35 ; bk. 

34 L. ed. 989 ; 
Watertown v. Mayo, 109 Mass. 

315, 318 ; s.c. 13 Am. Rep. 

694; 
Boston V. Richardson, 105 Mass. 

351, 363 ; 
City of Salem v. Eastern R. Co., 

98 Mass. 431, 443 ; s.c. 96 Am. 

Dec. 650. 
' Commonwealth v. Tewkesbury, 

53 Mass. (11 Met.) 55, 57. 
See: Kerr's "Adjudicated Woi'ds, 

Phrases, and Apphed Max- 
ims." 
* Commonwealth v. Carter, 133 

Mass. 13. 
See : Bancroft v. Cambridge, 136 

Mass. 438, 441. 
'Sawyer v. Davis, 136 Mass. 339, 

240; s.c. 49 Am. Rep. 37; 



Bancroft v. Cambridge, 136 
Mass. 348, 441. 

See : Lakeview v. RosehiU Cem- 
etery, 70 111. 193 ; 

State V. Noyes, 47 Me. 189 ; 

Merrifield v. Worcester, 110 Mass. 
216; 

Hale V. Lawrence, 31 N. J. L. 
(1 Zab.) 714; s.c. 33 N. J. L. 
(3 Zab.) 590; 57 Am. Dec. 
430; 

Thorpe v. Rutland, etc., R. Co., 
37 Vt. 140. 

Salus populi supremus lex. — " The 
maxim of the law, ' Salus pop- 
uli suprema lex,' should not 
be disregarded. It is the great 
principle on which the statutes 
for the security of the people 
are based. It is the foundation 
of criminal law in all govern- 
ments of all civilized countries, 
and of other laws conducive 
to the safety and consequent 
happiness of the people. This 
power has always been exer- 
cised, and its existence cannot 
be denied." 

State V. Noyes, 47 Me. 189 ; 

Taunton v. Taylor, 116 Mass. 354, 
360; 

Commonwealth v. Blodgett, 53 
Mass. (13 Met.) 56, 83; 

Taylor v. Inhabitants of Ply- 
mouth, 49 Mass. (8 Met.) 463, 
465 ; 

Marlatt v. Warwick, 19 N. J. Eq. 



Chap. I. § 4.] • AUSTIN'S DEFINITION OF PEOPERTY. 



use from being injurious to the equal enjojinent by- 
others of their property,^ and, in the exercise of this 
police power may even destroy private property altogether, 
when such a step is necessary for the protection of the 
public.^ 

Sec. 4. Same — Austin's definition — Restricted property. — 
Property, as known to us, is always a limited or restrict- 
ed interest in some tangible or intangible thing, and 
may properly be defined to be the right to use and deal 
with a given thing or subject in a manner and to an ex- 
tent that is indefinite, though not unlimited. Austin has 
defined property ^ to be "a right imparting to the owner 



(4 C. E. Gr.) 439, 454 ; s.c. 57 

Am. Dec. 434 ; 
American Print Works v. Law- 
rence, 33 N. J. L. (3 Zab.) 590, 

607; 
Hale V. Lawrence, 33 N. J. L. 

(3 Zab.) 590 ; s.c. 57 Am. Deo. 

430; 
Doe d. Wooden v. Shot well, 33 

N. J. L. (3 Zab.) 465, 474; 
Seifert v. City of Brooklyn, 101 

N. Y. 136, 144; s.c. 54 Am. 

Rep. 664 ; 4 N. E. Rep. 331 ; 3 

Cent. Rep. 138 ; 
Matter of Cheeseborough,78 N. Y. 

332, 237 ; 
Richards v. Mayor of New York, 

48 N. Y. Super. Ct. (J. & S.) 

315 33y* 
Kelse'y v. King, 32 Barb. (N. Y.) 

410, 418 ; s.c. 11 Abb. (N. Y.) 

Pr. 180, 186 ; 
Donahue v. Mayor of New York, 

3 Daly (N. Y.) 68 ; 
Wilson V. Mayor of New York, 

1 Den. (N. Y.) 595, 598 ; s.c. 43 

Am. Deo. 719; 
Doellner v. Tynan, 38 How. (N. 

Y.) Pr. 176 ; 
Mayor of New York v. Lord, 17 

Wend. (N. Y.) 285, 297 ; 
Mayor of New York v. Slack, 3 

Wheel. Cr. Cas. (N. Y.) 237, 

254; 
State V. Yopp, 97 N. C 

3 Am. St. Rep. 305 

Rep. 458 ; 
Maynard v. Valentine, 

3 ; s.c. 3 Pac. Rep. 195, 199 ; 
State V. Goodwill, 33 W. Va. 179 ; 

s.c. 10 S. E. Rep. 385 ; 6 L. R. 

A. 621 ; 41 Alb. L. J. 51. 
United States v. Harmon, 45 Fed. 



477; s.c. 
; 2 S. E. 

3 Wash. 



Rep. 414 ; s.c. 13 Crim. L. Mag. 
538; 

Kerr's " Adjudicated Words and 
Phrases, and Applied Maxims," 
The Century, vol. 45, p. 150. 

From this principle ai'e derived 
those rules which subordinate 
private rights as to persons and 
property to public good. See : 
Pom. Minn. L. (2d ed.) § 913. 

" A pond of stagnant water may 
endanger the health of the 
neighborhood, and the public 
may cause it to be drained at 
once, and for that purpose may 
dig the necessary drains, and 
the land may be entered with 
and for that purpose, under 
the police power, without com- 

Eensation." Matter of Cheese- 
orough, 78 N. Y. 333, 238. 
> Cushman v. Smith, 34 Me. 247, 258; 
Grace v. Newton Board of Health, 

135 Mass. 490, 493 ; 
Bancroft v. Cambridge, 126 Mass. 

428; 
Commonwealth v. Alger, 61 Mass. 
(7 Cush.) 53, 86. 
5 Carleton v. Rugg, 149 Mass. 550 ; 
s.c. 32 N. E. Rep. 55, 
Citing: Bancroft v. Cambridge, 

126 Mass. 428 ; 
Watertown v. Mayo, 109 Mass. 

315 ; s.c. 13 Am. Rep. 694 ; 
Attorney-General v. Tudor Ice 
Co., 104 Mass. 339 ; s.c. 6 Am. 
Rep. 327 ; 
Winthrop v. Farrar, 93 Mass. 

(11 AUen) 398 ; 
District Attorney v. Lynn & Bos- 
ton R. Co., 83 Mass. (16 Gray) 
243. 
' Jurisprudence, vol. II., § 1103. 



6 EARLY HISTORY OF PROPERTY. [Book I. 

a power of indefinite user, capable of being transmitted 
to universal successors by way of descent, and imparting 
to the owner the power of disposition, from himself and 
his successors per universitatem, and from all other 
persons who have a spes successionis under any existing 
concession or disposition, in favor of such person or series 
of persons as he may choose, with the like capacities and 
powers as he had himself, and under such conditions as 
the municipal or particular law allows to be annexed to 
the dispositions of private persons." 

Sec. 5. Early bistory of property — The early history of 
property remains yet to be written. Our present knowl- 
edge of property is derived from our own laws regulating 
property, founded upon the Eoman law, and the early Eng- 
lish law. Both of these systems of law grew up in a period 
when every recollection of the early condition of property 
and people had perished. When jurists are asked to ac- 
count for the origin of property rights, they have recourse 
to what they are pleased to term " the state of nature," 
from which they derive directly absolute individual 
ownership — a sort of quiritary dominium. This method 
of accounting for the origin of individual property in 
land is lame and unsatisfactory in this, that it ignores the 
well-established principles of evolution, — which apply. as 
well to the differentiation of social relations and to the 
individualizing of property, as to the development of all 
vegetable and animal organism, — disregards the law's 
gradual development found throughout all history, politi- 
cal and sociological, and contradicts facts now well estab- 
lished and well known. It is only after a series of evo- 
lutions, and that of a comparatively recent period, that 
individual ownership in land has arisen. The historical 
researches of all who have looked into the subject coin- 
cide in establishing the fact that originally the soil be- 
longed in common to tribes, communities, or kinsmen, ^ 
and that the separate ownership, as it now exists amongst 

1 Sir Henry Maine says : " Property but to large estates." Ancient 

once belonged not to individ- Law, p. 368. 

uals, nor to isolated families, 



Chap. I. § 6.] EVOLUTION OF PRIVATE PEOPEETY. 7 

most civilized people,^ is of comparatively modern 
growth.^ 

Sec. 6. Same— Evolution of private property While 

primitive man subsisted on wild food, — living by the 
chase, by fishing, or by gathering wild fruit, — there was 
no occasion for, or thought of, appropriating the soil. 
Under the pastoral system that followed, the notion of 
property in the soil began to spring up, but was always 
confined to the lands on which the herds of the nomadic 
tribes grazed ; but even then the idea that any individual 
could claim a part of the soil as exclusively his own did 
not occur to any one. The very conditions of pastoral 
life itself were opposed to such a conception. Even when 
a portion of the soil was put temporarily under cultiva- 
tion, the territory remained the undivided property of the 
tribe or clan occupying it ; and when the land was divided 
into parcels and distributed by lot among the several 
families, only a temporary occupancy was allowed to the 
individual, while the soil remained the collective property 
of the tribe or clan, to whom it returned, from time to 
time, for a new partition and distribution. This is the 
system Tacitus describes among the Germanic tribes,^ 
and which exists to-day in the Eussian m ir. 

Another stage in the individualization of private prop- 
erty in the soil leaves the parcels in the hands of groups 
of large patriarchal families dwelling in the same house 
and working together for the benefit of all, as in 

I Where private ownership of land is system of property that pre- 
not.— There are some ooun- vailed before feudalism over- 
tries, which are recognized as ran Europe, 
civilized, in portions of which, ' See : Spencer's " Principles of So- 
at last, the private ownership ciology," vol. II., c. XV. ; Sir- 
oflanddoesnotprevail: at least Henry Maine's "Early Hist, 
not in the sense in which we Inst.,"Lect. I.,ef seg. ; Id. '■ Vil- 
know it. Such as the Eussian lage Communities," Lect. III. ;. 
mir (see : Wallace's "Eussia," Id. " Ancient Law," Lect. 
c VIII.; Geddie's "Eussian VIIL ; Freeman's " Hist. Norm_ 
Empire," c. IX.; Laveleye's Conq.," vol. V. 463 ; Laveleye's 
" Primitive Property," c. III.) " Primitive Property," o. I., Dr;. 
and the Swiss a/Zmevfd. Lavel- Mayer's " Das Eigenthum nacb 
eye's " Primitive Property," c. den verschredenen Weltans- 
V Switzerland enjoys the dis- chanungen, Freiburg, I. Bl. 
tinction of standing alone in (1871) ; Professor Nasse's Ue- 
the world as & land that has ber die mitelalLlerliche Feldge- 
maintained both free political meinschaft in England." 
institutions and the internal ' Tac. Germ. c. 31. 



8 EVOLUTION OF PRIVATE PEOPEETY. [BOOK I. 

France and Italy during the Middle Ages, ^ and in Switz- 
erland at the present time. Then came William ithe Con- 
queror, and the feudal dispensation, ^ and finally indi- 
vidual heredity of property appears. Through these long 
stages of incipient civilization, the impediments in the way 
of securing private property in lands were great and the 
incentives small, because, as Herbert Spencer says, while 
subsistence on wild food continued, the wandering horde 
inhabiting a given area must continue to make joint use of 
the area ; both because no claim could be shown by any 
member to any portion, and because the marking out of 
small divisions, if sharing were agreed upon, would be im- 
practicable. Where pastoral life has arisen, ability to drive 
herds hither and thither within the occupied region is nec- 
essary. In the absence of cultivation, cattle and their 
owners could not survive were each owner restricted to one 
spot. There was nothing feasible but united possession of 
a wide tract. And when there comes a transition to the 
agricultural stage, either directly from the hunting stage 
or indirectly through the pastoral stage, several causes 
conspire to prevent, or to check, the growth of private land- 
ownerships. There is first the traditional usage. Joint 
ownership continues after circumstances no longer ren- 
der it imperative, because departure from the sacred ex- 
ample of forefathers is resisted. Sometimes the resist- 
ance is insuperable ; as with the Eechabites and the 
people of Petra, who by their vow were not allpwed to 
possess either vineyards or cornfields or houses, but were 
bound to continue the nomadic life. And obviously, 
where the transition to a settled state is effected, the sur- 
vival of habits and sentiments established during the 
nomadic state, must long prevent possession of land by 
individuals. Moreover, apart from opposing ideas and 
customs, there are physical difficulties in the way. Even 
did any member of a pastoral horde, which had become 
partially settled, establish a claim to exclusive possession 
of one part of the occupied area, little advantage could be 
gained before there existed the means of keeping out the 



Laveleye's "Primitive Property," -Treated fully «osf, Bk. II., cc. 
cc. XV., XVI. II. & III., §§ 153-218. 



Chap. I. § 7.] HEREDITARY PROPERTY AND PATRIMONY. 9 

animals belonging to others. Common use of the greater 
part of the surface must long continue from mere ina- 
bility to set up effectual divisions. Only small portions 
could at first be fenced off. Yet a further reason why 
land-owning by individuals, and land-owning by families, 
was established very slowly, was the fact that at first each 
particular plot had but a temporary value. The soil is 
soon exhausted ; and in the absence of advanced arts of 
culture becomes useless. Such tribes as those of the 
Indian hills show us that primitive cultivators uniformly 
follow the practice of clearing a tract of ground, raising 
from it two or three crops, and then abandoning it ; the 
implication being that whatever private claim had arisen, 
lapses, and the surface, again becoming wild, reverts to 
the community.^ 

Sec. 7. Right of property and hereditary patrimony. — 
Primitive nations, in obedience to an instinctive sen- 
timent, recognized in every man a natural right to oc- 
cupy a portion of the soil from which he might derive 
the means of subsistence from his labor. ^ At first they 
divided the collective property of the tribe equally among 
the heads of families, instead of parceling it out to the in- 
dividual members, and giving them a private property 
in it. Traditions of this distribution are common among 
the Greeks. We meet with it among the inhabitants 
of Cyclades,^ of Tenedos, Lesbos and the neighboring 
islands.* It is also said to have existed in Sardinia,^ and 
was found in the Peloponnese when overrun by the 
Dorians.^ This system still obtains in the Eussian mir,'' 
the Swiss allmend,^ the Javanese sawahs,^ and among the 
southern, slaves. ^" 

Publicists, economists, and statesmen vie with one 
another in repeating that without property there can be 

'See: "Principles of Sociology," " Laveleye's " Primitive Property," 

(1st ed..) vol. II. c. XV., § 149. 

538. ' Wallace's "Russia," c. VIII. ; 

2 Laveleye's " Primitive Property," Stepniack's "Russia under the 

333. Tsars," c. I. 

3 Diodorus, v. 84 ; ' Laveleye's " Primitive Property," 
* Diodorus, v. 81, 88, c. V. 

» Diodorus, v. 15. " Id. c. IV. 

■» Id. c. XIIL 



10 EIGHT OF PRIVATE PROPERTY IN LAND. [BOOK I. 

no liberty. Property, or the right of regarding as one's 
own determinate portions of matter, of enjoying it or 
disposing of it at will, without trenching upon the rights 
of another, always constitutes an essential foundation 
of a true form of society. Some of our modern thinkers, 
like Herbert Spencer,^ Henry George,^ Professor de 
Laveleye,* M. Huet,* and the German philosopher 
Fichte,^ maintain that rightly there can be no private 
property in land.^ 

Sec. 8. Same— Eeeognition of tlie right of private prop- 
erty.— With the troubles of the philosophers we have noth- 
ing to do. It is a condition and not a theory that confronts 
us, a settled system of laws with which we have to deal ; 
and, so far as this treatise is concerned, we have no more 
interest in their speculative theories than we have in 
Bishop Wycliffe's "inheritance of grace," or his difficul- 
ties with the Church at Eome. It may be remarked in 
passing, however, that in all ages and all degrees of civil- 
ization, from the Bedouins of the Arabian desert to the 
Arawaks of the North American plains ; "^ from the Bush- 

' See :" Social Statistics " (1st ed.), ed that the existing titles to 

c. IX. Herbert Spencer's recent such property are legitimate, 

thought and investigation has Should any one think so, let him 

greatly modified his views on look in the chronicles. Vio- 

the question of private property lence, fraud, the prerogative 

in land, and caused the erratic of force, the claims of superior- 

Henry George to bring out his cunning, — these are the sources 

caustic criticisrn entitled "A to which those titles may be 

Perplexed Philosopher ; " a traced. The original deeds 

work as unlearned, unreliable, were written with the sword, 

and misleading as any of that rather than with the pen ; not 

author's productions. lawyern, but soldiers, were the 

- " Progress and Poverty," 307 ; conveyancers, blows were the 

"A Perplexed Philosopher," jjos- current coin given in payment ; 

sim. and for seals, blood was used 

'"Primitive Property," particu- in preference to vyax. Could 

larly pp. xxv. to xliv. valid claims be thus consti- 

■• Le Regne social du christianisrae, tuted ? Hardly. And if not, 

bk. III., c. V. vrhat becomes of the preten- 

' Der geschlossene Handelstaat, B. sions of all subsequent holders 

I., K. 1, §§ 399, 402; K. 7, § of estates so obtained? Does 

446. sale or bequest generate a right 

" In the original edition of his where it did not pj-eviously ex- 
" Social Statistics," Herbert ist? Would the original claim- 
Spencer said: "Passing from ants be nonsuited at the bar 
the consideration of the possi- of reason, because the thing 
ble to that of the actual, we stolen from them had changed 
find yet further reason to deny hands ? " Chap. IX. , § 8, p. 138. 
the rectitude of property in ^ Spencer's "Principles of Sociol- 
land. It can never be pretend- ogy," vol. II., c. XV. 



Chap. I. § 9.] ALIENATION AND DEVISE OF LANDS. 



11 



men ^ of Africa to the animals of the prairie,'^ the right 
of private property is recognized and enforced, in accord- 
ance with the light and civilization of the people, the 
intelligence and progress of the animal.^ 

The evolution of private property in land has been set 
forth in great detail by a Belgian, Professor de Laveleye, 
in a work full of learning and research, but permeated 
with the pernicious influence of modern socialistic ideas.* 



Sec. 9. Same — Alienation and devise — Although the 
right of private ownership in land has long been recog- 
nized, it is only in comparatively recent times that the 
right of alienation and devise have been accorded to the 
possessor. Thus it was not allowed in ancient Germany * 
or Gothland,^ was unknown in ancient India ^ and Scot- 
land,^ was formerly forbidden in Sparta,^ and is not rec- 
ognized in the early laws of the Visigoths, as promul- 
gated by Blume.^" Alienation was prohibited by the Loc- 
rian and Leucadian laws," and the ordinances of Phido 
of Corinth. 12 



1 Lich. vol. II. 194. 

5 Kerr's " Black Hills," c. HI. 

3 It is a well-known fact that in- 
telligent animals display a 
sense of proprietorship, not 
only of movable property, but 
of real estate as well. Thus, the 
dog understands the exclusive 
possession of property. The 
domesticated dog fights in de- 
fense of his master's clothes, 
and the untamed dog for his 
lair or his burrow : the swans 
of each reach on the Thames 
river resist invading swans 
from other reaches, and the 
public dogs of Constantinople 
attack dogs from other quar- 
ters, if they encroach. Spen- 
cer's " Principles of Sociology," 
vol. L, § 292; Id. vol. II., § 
536; Kerr's "Black Hills," c. 
III. 

* "Primitive Property," passuJi. 

^Canciani, Bar. leg. antiq., vol. 
III., pp. 31-36; Laws of the 
Thuringians, tit. XIII. ; Walter, 
Corpus jus. Germ., vol. I., p. 
380 ; Laws of the Saxons, tit. 
XV. ; Pretz, Mon. Germ, Leg. 
tit. m.,pp. 532 to 568. 



' Guta-Lagh (Schildenei's trans- 
lation), Greifswald, 1818, p. 59; 
Mirror of Saxony, lib. I. , art. 34. 

i See Colebrooke, " A Digest of 
Hindu Law," IL 161, art. 
xxxiii., Orianne, Traite origi- 
nal des successions d'aprfes le 
droithindou : extrait du Mitac- 
shara de Vijuyaeswara (Paris, 
1844), pp. -49, 50 ; Pross' onno 
Coomar Tagore, "A succinct 
Commentary of the Hindoo Law 
prevalent in Mithila, from the 
original Sanscrit of Vachaspati 
Misra (Calcutta, 1863), p. 310 ; 
Caract. collect des premiferes 
propri^tes immobiUferes," by 
VioUet, p. 30. 

'Leges Burgorum, c. XXXVIII.; 
Honard, Trait^s sur les cou- 
tumes Anglo-Normades, tom. 
I., pp. 449, 450. 

' Plutarch's Lycurgus, agis ; 
1 Plut. Lives (Clough's ed.) 83-126; 
Aristotle's Politics, II. , p. 10. 

'» Blume, Die westgothische Antique 
Oder das Gesetzbush Reocared 
des Ersten(1847), c. 294, pp. 18, 
20 

" Aristotle's Politics, II. 4, 4. 

1^ Id. II. 3, 7. 



12 ORIGIN OF PRIVATE PROPERTY IN LAND. [Book I. 

Primitive law was as intolerant of testamentary de- 
vises as it was of sales, because the transmission of land 
was generally regarded as a matter of public interest, 
the regulation of which was not left to individual con- 
veniences or caprice.^ This was not the case, however, 
in Athens ^ or Corinth.^ Such a disposition of property 
was unknown in Germany,* ancient Hindoo,^ Eome be- 
fore the Twelve Tables," Sparta," or Thebes.^ 

Sec. 10. Same — The retrait — The retrait, or the right 
of claiming land that has been aliened to a stranger, 
recognized in the inhabitants of the village communities 
of pastoral and early agricultural times, was found 
everywhere,* and exists to-day in most Mussulman coun- 
tries, in Algeria, India, and Java,^" and was still in force 
in Illyria and Italy under the emperors, being abolished 
by a constitution concerning these provinces, A. D. 391,^^ 
and survived in France until within a very recent 
period.^ 

Sec. 11. Theories of the origin of private property in land. 
— Full ownership in the individual, as applied to the soil, 
is of quite recent creation. Agriculture commenced and 
was developed under the system of common ownership and 
periodical partition. In the Eoman Empire, which be- 
queathed to us the theory of quiritary property in land, 
the soil was originally occupied by title of usufruct. ^^ In 
the Middle Ages, the free-allod was the exception ; the 

'Laveleye's "Primitive Property," 'Laveleye's " Primitive Property," 

155. 156. 
° Plato's Lavrs, XI. ; Jewett's Plato, « lb. 

vol. IV., p. 434, et seq. ; Flu- 'Laveleye's " Pi-imitive Pi-operty," 

larch's Life of Solon, 1 Plut. 153. 

Lives (Clough's ed.), 168-303. '» Sir William Hay Macnaghten, 

5 Laveleye's " Primitive Property," "Principles of Hindu and Mo- 

156. hammedan Law," c. IV., pp. 
■* Nullum testamentum ; Tacitus, 204, 205. 

Germ., XX ; " Laveleye's " Primitive Property," 
Sir Henry Maine's "Ancient 152. 

Law,-' p. 173. ''^ See : Bourdot de Richebourg, vol. 
= See: Sir George Campbell's " Sys- I., pp. 306, 347; Libri foudo- 

tem of Land Tenure in Various ruin, lib. V. , tits. XIII. , XIV. 

Countries," in Cobden Club ^^li is said by Gaius, II. 7 : "In 

vol., p. 172. solo provinciali, dominium pop- 

•Fustel de Coulonges, "La cite iiU Romani est vel Csesaris, nos 

antiq. " (3ded),p. 89. autem possessionem tantum 

et usuf ructum habere videmm-. " 



Chap. L § 12.] RIGHT OF DISCOVERY. I3 

precarium, and the beneficium, the fief,— that is, a sort 
of hereditary usufruct,— was the rule ; and agricultural 
labor was executed by " maiumortables," serfs, who, so 
far from being owners of the soil they cultivated, were 
not eA-en owners of their own movables ; for the right of 
succession was denied them.^ Various systems or theo- 
ries have been put forward in explanation of the origin 
and justice of private property in land, the principal ones 
of which merit a moment's consideration. They are : 

1. The discovery theory ; 

2. The occupation theory ; 

3. The labor theory ; 

4. The contract theory ; 

5. The lex theory ; 

6. The natural-economic theory ; 
1. The natural rights theory ; and 
8. The government grant theory. 

Sec. 12. Same— 1. The discovery theory — The theory of 
title by discovery is one that our English ancestors main- 
tained, in common with the other nations of Europe, in 
regard tc the American soil. On the discovery of this 
immense continent, the great nations of Europe were 
eager to appropriate to themselves so much of it as they 
could respectively acquire. Its vast extent offered an 
ample field to the ambition and enterprise of all ; and the 
character and religion of its inhabitants afforded an 
apology for considering them as people over whom the 
superior genius of Europe might claim an ascendency. 
The potentates of the Old World found no difficulty in 
convincing themselves that they made ample compensa- 
tion to the inhabitants of the l^^ew World, by bestowing 
on them civilization and Christianity, in exchange for 
unlimited independence. But, as they were all in pur- 
suit of nearly the same object, it was necessary, in order 
to avoid conflicting settlements, and consequent war with 
each other, to establish a principle which all should ac- 
knowledge as the law by which the right of acquisition, 
which they all asserted, should be regulated as between 

' Laveleye's " Primitive Property," 338. 



11 TITLE BY REASON OF OCCUPATION. [Book t 

themselves. This principle was that ''discovery" gave 
title to the government by whose subjects, or by whose 
authority, it was made, against all other European gov- 
ernments ; which title might be consummated by posses- 
sion.^ 

But this theory, so far at least as it applies to this 
country, has no foundation in any known principle of 
jurisprudence or Christian policy. It was enforced and 
maintained only by the might of the sword and the 
scent of carnage. It never had any foundation in prin- 
ciple, and is indefensible, except on the theory that 
"might makes right," under which, Henry Lichten- 
stein ^ tells us, the more powerful among the savages 
of South America compel the weaker to resign their 
weapons, wives, and even their children. 

Sec. 13. Same — 2. The occupation theory — Some mod- 
ern jurists, as well as those of ancient Rome, consider 
the occupancy of things and lands without an owner as 
the principal title conferring individual property. This 
theory might be justifiable if any lands could be found 
that were not, in theory or in fact, already occupied. 
History shows us that since the dispersion at the build- 
ing of the Tower of Babel, when the tribes of Israel were 
scattered throughout the world, the earth has never been 
regarded by men as res nulUvs. The hunting-grounds 
of those tribes that lived by the chase, and the pasture- 
lands of those that lived from the produce of their flocks, 
have always been recognized as the collective domain of 
the tribe ; and this collective possession has continued in 
many instances, even after agriculture had begun to 
fertilize the soil. For this reason what is termed unoc- 
cupied land has never been regarded as without an 
owner. Everywhere, in former times as well as in our 
own, such land was considered as belonging to the com- 
munity or the state. Consequently there was no room in 
former times, any more than at the present day, for ac- 

' Johnson v. Mcintosh, 21 U. S. =" Travels in South America," voL 
(8 Wheat.) 543, 572 ; bk. 5 L. II., p 194. 

ed. 681, 688. 



Chap. I. § 15.] THE LABOR AND CONTRACT THEORY. 15 

quisition by occupancy. ^ Occupancy, being a fact re- 
sulting from force or chance, can give no basis for a title 
in the court of good conscience, and is inveighed against 
by philosophers of the Herbert Spencer type.^ Yet this 
is the only theory of the origin of the title of private 
property in land that Sir Henry Maine thinks it worth 
while to give consideration in his philosophic treatise on 
Ancient Law.^ 

Sec. li. Same — 3. The labor theory — Another class 
of philosophers and thinkers would make labor the 
basis of the right to the private ownership of land. This 
is the theory generally adopted by economists, because, 
since Adam Smith,* they have attributed to labor the 
production of all wealth. As expounded by John Locke ^ 
the theory is briefly this : God gave the soil to mankind 
at large, but as no one enjoys either the soil or that 
which it produces, unless he ba owner, individuals must 
be allowed the use, to the exclusion of all others. Every 
one has an exclusive right over his own person. The 
labor of his body and the work of his hands therefore are 
likewise his property. No one can have a greater right 
than he to that which he has acquired, especially if there 
remain a sufficiency of similar objects for others. 

According to this theory, labor establishes between man 
and the objects which he has transformed by his labor 
relations stronger than mere occupation, whether sym- 
bolic or actual, can give.® But this theory has been and 
is violently opposed by continental jurists,^ and the civil 
code has nothing to say in approval of it. 

Sec. 15. Same— 4. The theory of contract — It has been 
maintained by the philosopher Hobbes and others, that 



' M. Thiers' " De la Propriete,'' See : M. Thiers' De la Propriete, 

passim ; P- 38. 

M. Renourd " Du Droit industri- "Locke's "Civil Government," c. 

el," passim; IV. 

♦Spencer's "Social Statistics," c. « Roeder, " Die Gruentziige des Na- 

IX. turereohts," § 79. 

See : ante, § 7. '' See : M. Warukoenig's " Doctrinia 

» Maine's " Ancient Law," p. 338. jurists philosophica," p. 121 ; 

*" Wealth of Nations" (Ward & Ahern's " Naturrecht,"i)assim. 

Locke's 1 vol. ed.), p. 2, passim. 1 



IQ THE LAW THEORY— BENTHAM. [BOOK I. 

men abandoned the primitive community of property in 
consequence of a convention, or contract, and that there- 
by all private property in land began. ^ The great trouble 
with this theory is that it requires us to establish the 
reality of a convention, which cannot be done, because 
this consent or contract is not an historic fact, but simply 
a juristic necessity engendered by the theory. To our 
way of thinking, this fact is fatal to the theory. 

Sec. 16. Same— 5. The lex theory — Many writers, of 
various shades of opinion, without having recourse to ab- 
stract theories of natural justice, or to the obscurities of 
historical origins, have maintained the theory that prop- 
erty is the creature of law.'^ Bentham says ^ that property 
and law are born and must die together ; that before the 
law there was no property ; take away the law, all prop- 
erty ceases. He is of the opinion that " law alone has 
accomplished what all the natural feelings were not able 
to do. Law alone has been able to create a fixed and 
durable possession which deserves the name of property. 
The law alone could accustom men to submit to the yoke 
of foresight, at first painful to be borne, but afterwards 
agreeable and mild ; it alone could encourage in them 
labor superfluous at present, and which they are not to 
enjoy till the future." Montesquieu says * "that as men 
have renounced their natural independence to live under 
political laws, they have also renounced the natural com- 
munity of goods to live under civil laws. The former 
laws give them liberty, the latter laws give them prop- 
erty." Faucher declares ^ that the primitive community 
of goods has never been found in a state of nature ; and 
this is true as to personal property, but not as to landed 
property ; for this was collective everywhere in primitive 
times. * 

Sec. 17. Same— 6. The natural-economic theory Ac- 

• See Hobbes' "Works, vol. HI., c. " Bentham's "Works, vol. I., pp. 

XV. 307-309. 

'See: Bossuet, "Polit. tWe del ■'Montesquieu, "Esprit des Lois," 

I'Eorite, lib. I., art. 3, 4 props.; lib. XXVI., c. 15. 

Hobbes' "Works, vol. XL, p. 84; "See: Dictionnaire de I'Economie 

Id. vol. IV , 164. politique, tit. " Propri^te." 



Chap. I. § 18.] NATURAL EIGHTS THEORY. 17 

cording to certain economists, such as John Stuart 
Mill, Wilhelm Roscher, Adolph Wagoner, and others, 
human nature is such as to require property, because, 
without it there would he no stimulus to labor. Roscher 
says : "Just as human labor can only arrive at complete 
productivity when it is free, so capital does not attain to 
full productive power except under the system of free 
private property. Who would care to save and renounce 
immediate enjoyment, if ho could not reckon on future 
enjoyment ? " ^ 

This theory, by basing the right to private property on 
general utility, has the advantage of allowing successive 
improvements in existing institutions by the elimination 
of what is contrary to equity and against the general 
interest, and the introduction of modifications required 
by the conditions and wants of the community.^ 

Sec. 18. Same — 7. The natural rights theory — Another 
theory of the origin of individual property in land re- 
gards it as a natural right. According to this theory the 
personal right of man as determined by nature is, to pos- 
sess a sphere of action sufficient to supply him with the 
means of support. This physical sphere should therefore 
be guaranteed to every one, conditionally, however, on 
his cultivating it by his own labor. Thus all should 
labor, and all should also have wherewith to labor. The 
second in order of the four great German philosophers,^ 
maintains in his " Foundation of Natural Rights "* that; 
every man has an inalienable right to live by labor, 
and consequently to find the means of employing his. 
hands.'"' Hegel says^ that every one ought to be pos- 

' Roscher, Syst. I., S§ 77, 82. = Kant, Fiolite, Schilling and Hegel. 

^The student curious to pursue * Johann Gottlieb Fichte, "Grund- 

further this theory will find it lage des Naturrechts." 

well presented in a work enti- * The same author says in his work 

tl^d"Lehrbuch derpolitischen on the Fi-ench Revolution:; 

CEconomie, I. Gmndlegun," by " The transformation (pildungy 

Adolph Wagoner and Erwin of materials by our own efforts: 

j^asse ^ *''^® *'''^® juridical basis of 

See also two works of M. A. Sam- property, and the only natural 

ter one entitled " Die Social- one. He who does not labor- 

Lehre " and the other " Gesell- cannot eat, unless I give hiiu 

schaf tliches - und - private- Eig- food ; but he has no right to be- 

enthum," Leipzic, 1877. fed. He cannot justiy make- 

« " Rechtsphilosopliie," § 49. 



13 GOVERNMENT GEANT THEORY. [Book I. 

sessed of property. The poet Schiller has the idea in two 
lines, which have been said to contain the whole philosophy 
of history on the subject : 

" Etwas muss er sein eigen nennen, 
Oder des Mensch wird, modern und brennen." ' 

Which may be liberally rendered : 

" Something a man must have his own to call, 
Or on slaughter and burnings at once he'll fall." 

Sec. 19. Same — 8. The government grant theory Ac- 
cording to Blackstone it is a fundamental principle of 
the English law, derived from the maxim of the feudal 
tenure, that the king was the original proprietor, or lord 
paramount, of all the land in the kingdom, and the 
source of all titles.^ This principle has been adopted 
in this country and applied to our republican form of 
government, and has become a settled fundamental doc- 
trine with us. The title to the lands in this country is 
derived by direct grant from our local governments, or 
from the federal government since the Revolution. 
Titles prior to that date were derived from the crown or 
the royal chartered governments originally established 
here.^ All titles to land in this country are at present 
held through government grant, either from the crown, 
through the colonial corporations and the colonial or pro- 
prietary authorities, or through the governments of the 
various states or of thfe United States.* 

others work for him. Every ment of the United States, vest 

man has over the material a valid title in the purchaser, 

world a primordial right of without a patent. 

' appropriation,' and a right of Mitchell v. The United States, 34 

property over such things only U. S. (9 Pet.) 711, 748, 756, 

as have been modified by 757 ; bk. 9 L. ed. 283, 296, 299, 

him." 300. 

' Wallenstein, pt. I., Scenell. While this doctrine has been 

" See : 3 Bl. Com. 51, 53, 59, 86, questioned, the law is consid- 

105. ered as well settled that pur- 

3 Dearmas v. Mayor, etc., of New chases at India treaties with 

Orleans, 5 La. 182 ; the approbation of the govern- 

Jackson v. Waters, 12 John. (N. ment agent, carry a valid title 

Y ) 365 ; without the necessity of a 

Jackson v. Ingraham, 4 John. patent from the United States. 

(N. Y.) 163. Coleman v. Doe, 12 Miss. (4 Smed. 

Purchase at Indian treaties. — It has & M.) 40. 

been said that purchases at ■'Nature of Indian titles. — It is, said 

Indian treaties, under the com- by the supreme court of the 

petent sanction of the govern- United States in the case of 



Chap. I. § 20.] REAL AND PERSONAL PROPERTY. 19 

Sec. 20. Real and personal property— Distinction and dev- 
olution — There is now more personal property in this coun- 
try than there is real, but to the real property there still 
cling many of the ancient rules and laws, which invest 
it with an interest and importance not possessed by per- 
sonal property. Of these ancient laws none are more 
conspicuous than the feudal rule of descent, under 
which, in England, as modified by amending acts,^ 
when the owner dies intestate, his real property goes to 
his heir, and his personal property to the next of kin.^ 
In the United States, where there has been a greater 
breaking away from the feudal usages and customs, and 
a more thorough uprooting of the antiquated feudal 
laws, if the owner dies intestate his real property goes to 
his heirs and his personal property goes to his executor 
or administrator for distribution. In the United States 
the devolution of property by operation of law is 
regulated almost entirely by local statutes in the va- 
rious States. The majority, if not all, of these statutes 
are modeled after the English Statute of Distribution,^ 
which was borrowed from the civil law,* and are to be 
interpreted and applied according to the rules of the 
civil law rather than those of the common law.^ The 
provision of the English statute are pronounced by James 
Schouler,® one of those excellent enactments '^ following 
the Restoration, — one in striking contrast with the course 
of descent of the common law. Its great advantage 
seems to have been absolute equality at the expense of 
the fundamental rules of the common law, and it upsets 



Fletcher v. Peck, 10 U. S. (6 Cr.) = WilUams on Real Property, 10. 

87 ; bk. 3 L. ed. 163, that tlie » 22& 33 Car. II. c. 3, § 10. 

nature of the Indian titles to * Just. Nov. 118 ; 

lands lying within the terri- 3 Kent Com. (13th ed.) 423. 

torial limits of a state are en- ' Palmer v. AUicock, 3 Mod. 58 ; 

titled to be respected by the Carter v. Crawley, 1 T. Raym. 

courts imtil legitimately ex- 496 ; 

tinguished, and that the title is Edwards v. Freeman, 3 Pr. Wm. 

not such as to be absolutely re- 436 ; 

pugnant to seisin in fee on the 3 Redf . on Wills, 433, pi. 3 ; 

part of the state within whose 1 Woerner's American Laws of 

Turisdiotion the lands are sit- Admrs. p. 131, g 64. 

iated. " Schouler's Ex. & Admr. § 495. 

' 3 & 4 Will. rV. c. 106 ; ' Lord Hard wick says that it was 

Amended by 33 & 33 Vict. c. "very incorrectly penned" in 

351, 8S 19 & 30. Stanley v. Stanley, 1 Atk. 457. 



20 



DEFINinON OF EEAL PROPEETY. 



[Book I. 



the old doctrine of primogeniture, the preference of 
males over females, the blood of the first purchaser, the 
rule that property never ascends, and the exclusion of 
the half-blood. 1 

Sec. 21. Definition of real property— Real property, or 
real estate, is an estate in fee or for life in land ; ^ that is, 
something that may be held by tenure and passes to the 
heir of the possessor at his death instead of to his admin- 
istrator,^ and embraces lands, tenements and heredita- 
ments,* but does not comprehend terms for years, or any- 
thing short of a freehold estate.^ By the term land is 
ordinarily understood whatever is parcel of the terrestrial 
globe, or is permanently afl&xed to such parcel, whether 
by ordinary course of nature, — as grass, herbage, trees 
and water, or by the hand of man, — as buildings and 
fences ; <> and it not only includes the surface of the 
earth, but everything under it and over it, cujus est 
solum, ejus est usque ad ccelumJ Land is the most 

Green v. Armstrong, 1 Den. flST. 
Y.) 554 ; ^ 

Goodrich v. Jones, 3 HiU (N. Y ) 
143 ; ^ ' 

1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 4a, 6a. 
' Gonnon v. Hargadon, 93 Mass. (10 
Allen) 106, 109 ; 

Sargent v. Adams, 69 Mass. (3 
Gray) 73, 79 ; 

Stookwell V. Hunter, 53 Mass. (11 
Met.) 448, 455 ; 

Atkins V. Bordman, 43 Mass. (2 
Met.) 457, 467; s.c. 37 Am. Deo. 
100; 

Stevens v. Paterson & N. E. Co. 
. 30 N. J. Eq. (5 C. E. Gr.) 136, 
136 ; s.c. 34 N. J. L. (5 Vr.) 
533, 570 ; 3 Am. Eep. 360 ; 

Barnett v. Johnson, 15 N J. Ea 
(3 McCart.) 481, 489 ; 

Hoffman tj. Armstrong, 48 N. Y 
301 ; s.c. 8 Am. Rep. 537 affirm- 
ing 46 Barb. (N. Y.) 387, 338 ; 

People V. Central R. Co., 43 N. 
Y. 283, 396, reversing 48 Barb. 
(N. Y.) 478 ; s.c. 83 How. (N. Y.) 
Pr. 407 ; ^ ' 

Lampman v. Milks, 31 N. Y. 505, 
oil ; 

Auburn & C. P. R. Co. v. Doug- 
lass, .9 N. Y. 444 ; 

Mott V. Palmer, 1 N. Y, 569 ; 

Relyea v. Beaver, 34 Barb. (N Y \ 
547.551; \ • ^•) 



' Davis V. Rowe, 6 Rand. (Va.) 356, 

361. 
' 3 Kent Com. (13th ed.) 401. 
' See : Mason's Estate, 4 Watts. 
(,Pa.) 346 ; 
Bijckeridge v. Ingram, 2 Ves. Jr. 

652; 
Wind V. Jekyl, 1 Pr. Wm. 575. 
* 2 Bl. Com. 16 ; 
1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 4a. 
See : Van Rensselaer v. Pouoher, 

6 Den. (N. Y.) 35. 
" Lands " hi England. — In England, 
since the passage of Lord 
Brougham's Act, 13 & 14 
Vict. c. 21, § 4, the word 
"land" includes "messuages, 
tenements, hereditaments, 
houses and buildings, of any 
tenure, unless where there are 
words to exclude houses and 
buildings, or to restrict the 
meaning of tenements to some 
particular tenure." 
ChalUs' Real Prop. 36, 37. 
<> 1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 19, 30 ; 
3 Kent Com. (13th ed.) 343 ; 3 Id. 

401. 
See : Merry v. Hallet, 2 Cow. 
(N. Y.) 497. 
« Mott V. Palmer. 1 N. Y. 564, 572 ; 
Thayer v. Wright, 4 Den. (N. Y.) 
180; 



Chap. I § 22.] TERMS OF DESCRIPTION. . 21 

firm inheritance, and is therefore said to be solum 
quia est solidimn.^ In its more limited sense, the term 
land denotes the quality and character of the interest or 
estate which the tenant may own in lands ; and when 
used to describe an estate, it is understood to denote a 
freehold estate at least. ^ 

Sec. 22. Same—" Iiand " and " real estate." — The terms 
"land " and " real estate," as used in the statutes of the 
various states of the Union, include every freehold estate 
and interest in land ; that is, all estates in fee or for life,* 
as well as a remainder in fee,* and should be construed 
as co-extensive in meaning with "lands, tenements, and 
hereditaments, " ^ and in some states is declared to include 
every estate, interest, and right, legal and equitable, in 
lands, tenements, and hereditaments, except such as are 
determined or extinguished by the death, intestate, of any 
one seized or possessed thereof, or in any manner entitled 
thereto, and except leases for years and estates for the 
life of another person. ® Some statutes, like those of Mis- 
souri, extend the term real estate so as to include chat- 
tels real 



7 



Kelsey v. King, 33 How. (N. Y.) * Jenkins v. Fahey, 78 N. Y. 855, 

Pr. 39, 48 ; B.C. 1 Transc. App. 863. 

(N. Y.) 183, 141 ; "4 N. Y. Rev. Stat. (8th ed.) 2461, 

Green v. Armstrong, 1 Den. (N. § 10 ; 1 Rev. Stats. Codes & L. 

Y.)554; 839, §88; N. Y. Code Civ. 

Ruckler v. HiUer, 4 Campb. 219 ; Proc. § 3. 

Baten's Case, 9 Co. 54 ; See : Gen. Stats. Ky. c. 21, § 13 ; 

In re Thornton, 4 Exoli. 822 ; Mass. Gen. Stats, c. 3, § 7 ; 

2 Bl. Com. 17, 18 ; Ray v. Sweeney, 14 Bush. (Ky.) 

Broom's Max. 395 ; 1 ; s.c. 29 Am. Rep. 388, 391 ; 

Kerr's " Adjudicated Words and Floyd v. Carow, 88 N. Y. 561, 

Phrases and Applied Max- 569 ; 

jjug " . Despard v. Churchill, 58 N. Y. 

Pom. Mun. L. (2d ed.) § 315 ; 192, 199 ; 

Shep. Touch. 90. Bliss v. Greeley, 45 N. Y. 671, 

' 1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 4a. 674 ; s.c. 6 Am. Rep. 157 ; 

» Johnson v. Richardson, 33 Miss. Wright v. Douglass, 2 N. Y. 873, 

462 464. 376 ; 

3 Jenkins v. Fahey, 73 N. Y. 355, Carter v. Burr, 39 Barb. (N. Y.) 



362. 



65. 



The term " real estate," as used in Jenkins v. Fahey, 73 N. Y. 355, 

the New York Statutes, com- 862. This is but an elaboration 

prebends equitable as well as of the common law definition 

legal estates; L. 1843, c. 87, of the term 

S5 ■ 4N. Y. Rev. Stats. (8th ed.) Merry v. HaUet, 2 Cow. (N. Y.) 



.^25 ; 3 Rev. Stats. Codes & L. 497 

of N Y 2952 § a. 3 Kent Com. (13th ed.) 401. 



22 



MARYLAND DOCTRINE— TENEMENT. 



[Book T. 



Sec. 23. Same— Maryland doctrine. —In an early Maryland 
case it is said that ' ' as between vendor and vendee, mort- 
gagor and mortgagee, and as regards the mere question 
of the title of the defendant, land, in the legal significa- 
tion, comprehends all ground, soil, or earth whatever ; 
all minerals are, in this sense, component parts of land ; 
and it comprehends tide- water rivers, lakes, and running 
streams, as so much land covered with water ; it includes 
all houses, fences, and structures upon the ground ; 
and it also embraces all vegetable productions, as trees, 
herbage, grass, etc., standing upon and growing out of 
the soil.^ If either the owner of the fee-simple, a partic- 
ular tenant, or even a wrong-doer builds a house, or an- 
nexes to a house then standing upon the land any glass 
windows, wainscot, benches, doors, vats, furnaces, or the 
like, they are thereby immediately blended with the land 
itself, become parcel of it, and vest in the owner of the 
inheritance.^ All these things are embraced by the 
phrase land, in the legal and comprehensive sense of that 
term."^ 

Sec. 24. Same— Tenement — The word ''tenement " is 
frequently used in a restricted sense, as signifying a house 
or building,* but it is also used in a much more enlarged 
sense, as signifying land, or any incorporeal inheritance, 
or anything of a permanent nature that may be holden 
by a tenure, ^ whether it be of a substantial kind, like 



> 1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 4a. 

' Herlakenden's Case, 4 Co. 62 ; 
1 Co. Utt. (19th ed.) 53a. 

' Coombs V. Jordan, 3 Bland. Ch. 
(Md.) 384; s.c. 33 Am. Dec. 
336, 359. 

'' See : Sacket v. Wheaton, 34 
Mass. (17 Pick.) 103. 

' Commonwealth v. Wise, 110 Mass. 
181, 183 ; 
Sacket v. Wheaton, 34 Mass. (17 

Pick.) 103, 105 ; 
3 Kent. Com. (13th ed.) 401. 
Includes shops of one room. — Un- 
der the Massachusetts liquor 
laws it has been held that a 
shop consisting of one room, 
and not forming a part of a 
dwelling-house, constitutes a 
tenement. 



Commonwealth v. Cogan, 107 
Mass. 213 ; 

Citing : Commonwealth v. God- 
ley, 77 Mass. (11 Gray,) 454 ; 

Commonwealth v. McCaughey, 
75 Mass. (9 Gray) 396. 

Inclndes suite of rooms when. — 
Under a statute regulating the 
supply of water to the " occu- 
pant of a tenement," it has 
been held that the word " tene- 
ment" appUes to a suite of 
rooms in a model-tenement 
house, having separate water 
fixtures, and occupied by a 
separate tenant and his family, 
and containing the conven- 
iences of a common dweUing- 
house. 

Young V. Boston, 104 Mass. 95. 



Chap. I. § 25.] HEREDITAMENTS— WHAT INCLUDES. £3 

lands and houses/ or of an unsubstantial and ideal kind, 
like commons, lands, offices, and the like.^ Kents says ^ 
that a tenement comprises everything which may be 
holden, so as to create a tenancy in the feudal sense of 
the word, and includes things incorporate, though they 
did not lie in tenure.* 

Sec. 25. Same— Hereditaments — Hereditaments is a 
term of still broader extent than either lands or tene- 
ments, and includes not only lands and tenements, but 
comprehends whatever passes, without testamentary dis- 
position, on the death of the owner, to the heirs by hered- 
itary succession,^ and embraces heirlooms as well as 
lands and tenements.® Land regarded as a hereditament 
stands in a peculiar position, because its existence is 
wholly independent of the manner in which estates in 
land are limited, while other hereditaments can only by 
a metaphor be said to have any existence apart from their 
limitation for estates of inheritance. The word here- 
ditament, when used in relation to land, sometimes de- 
notes the land itself as a physical object, and some- 
times the estate in the land. The use of a single 
name to denote two such disparate ideas is not with- 
out inconvenience ; but the practice is now inveter- 
ate. Thus, with some degree of confusion, it is com- 
monly said that land is both a tenement and an heredita- 
ment. Here it is evident that the word tenement is not 
used in exactly the same sense as when a legal estate for 
life is styled a tenement ; and the word hereditament is 
not used in exactly the same sense as when a rent-charge 
ia fee-simple is styled a hereditament. In the case of 
land, the estate contemplated is the legal fee-simple ; and 
since this exhausts the whole possible interest, by way of 

' Sacket v. Wheaton, 34 Mass. (17 * See : Doe v. Dyball, 1 Moore & P. 



The 



Pick ) 103 ' ^^0. 

IB word " tenement " in a will 1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 19b, 20a ; 



has never been construed, in- 1 Prest Est 8. , ,„ ^ ^ 

dependent of otlier circuni- ^ Canfleld v. Ford, 28 Barb. (N. Y.) 

stances, to passing a fee. 336 ; 

Wrieht V. Page, 23 U. S. (10 2 Bl. Com. 17 ; 

Wheat ) 204; bk. 6 L. ed. 803. 1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 6a ; 

'2B1. Com. 17; ! I?^V4' ^ io -i« 

1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 6a. 1 Prest. Est- 12, 13. 

' 3 Kent Com. (13th ed.) 401. • See : post, § 6o. 



24 CLASSES OF HEEEDITAMENTS. [BOOK 1. 

estate, in the land, and since, for most purposes, it matters 
little whether we speak of the land itself, or of the ut- 
most possible interest in the land, some degree of obscur- 
ity is often permitted to exist as to which precisely of 
these two things is meant to be the subject of reference. 
The word has, to some extent, a double meaning. In 
other cases, in which the thing has no real existence 
apart from the estate in the thing, the words used have 
only a single meaning.^ 

Sec. 26. Same — Same — Division of hereditaments. — 
Hereditaments are commonly divided first into real, 
mixed, and personal hereditaments ; and second, into cor- 
poreal and incorporeal hereditaments. The phrase heredit- 
aments real, or real hereditaments, is commonly used to 
denote lands regarded as a physical object, and legal 
estates of inheritance in lands, whether in possession, 
remainder, or reversion. The phrase hereditaments 
mixed, or mixed hereditaments, includes all estates of in- 
heritance which savor of the realty. The phrase here- 
ditaments personal, or personal hereditaments, includes 
certain inheritable rights, either having no connection 
with lands, such as a personal annuity granted for an 
estate of inheritance,^ or having a connection which im- 
plies no participation either in lands or its profits ; also an- 
nuities grairt in fee,^ and certain annuities charged upon 
public revenues.* Corporeal hereditaments are fixed as 
to their definition by the legal maxim, that at common 
law they lie in livery, and not in grant. The phrase 
therefore includes only lands regarded as a physical 
object, and legal estates of inheritance in possession. 
The only conveyance in pais — that is, made between 
party and party, and not matter of record, as a fine or 
recovery, — by which these could at common law be con- 
veyed to a stranger, was a feoffment, and the essence of 
a feoffment is the livery of the seisin. All other here- 
ditaments, to which applies the description, tangi non 
possunt nee videri, are included under the term incor- 

' Challis on Real Prop. 39. ■* Holdemesse v. Carmarthen, 1 Bro. 

2 Turner v. Turner, Ambl. 776. C. C. 377. 

' Stafford v. Buohley, 3 Ves. Sr. 171. 



Chap. I. § 26.] INCORPOREAL HEREDITAMENTS. 25 

poreal hereditaments. These are said at common law to 
lie in grant ; because they would pass by the mere 
dehvery of a deed purporting to convey them, and the 
word grant was the most appropriate, though not the 
only, word of conveyance for the purpose. 



CHAPTEE II. 

WHAT IS REAL PROPERTY. 

Sec. 37. Generally. 

Sec. 28. Things real become personal by agreement. 

Sec. 29. Church-pews — Definition, 

Sec. 30. Same — Assignment of pews. 

Sec. 31. Same — Eights of pew-holders — English doctrine. 

Sec. 33, Same — Same — American doctrine. 

Sec. 33. Same — Same — Limitation and qualification of property in pew. 

Sec. 34. Same — Same — As to right of occupancy. 

Sec. 35. Same — Law regulating. 

Sec. 36. Same — Same — Episcopal church. 

Sec. 37. Same — Same — Same— Vestry's control. 

Sec. 38. Same — Same — Free church — Power of trustees. 

Sec. 39. Same — Grant in perpetuity. 

Sec. 40. Same — Interest of pew-holder in church edifice and lands. 

Sec. 41. Same — Restrictions on use and treatment of pew. 

Sec. 42. Same — Abandonment or sale of church edifice. 

Sec. 43. Same — Changes and repairs. 

Sec. 44. Burial lots. 

Sec. 45. Corporate stocks and lands. 

Sec. 46. Same — Realty held by corporation in trust when. 

Sec. 47. Same — Land is real estate when. 

Sec. 48. Same — Nature and object of investment. 

Sec. 49. Electric poles and wires realty. 

Sec. 50. Emblements — Growing crops. 

Skc. 51. Same — When crop severed. 

Sec. 52. Fee-farm lease. 

Sec. 53. Fructus industriales. 

Sec. 54. Same — Products of a mixed nature — Hops. ' 

Sec. 55. Fructus naturales. 

Sec. 56. Same — Growing trees. 

Sec. 57. Same — Same — Overhanging trees. 

Sec. 68. Same — Same — ''Line trees." 

Sec. 59. Same — Cut trees. 

Sec. 60. Ground-rent — Definition. 

Sec. 61. Same — Nature and methods of creation. 

Sec. 63. Same — Disposition of in case of intestacy. 

Sec. 63. Heirlooms — Definition. 

Sec. 64. Same — Not recognized in America. 



Chap. II. § 28.] THINGS WHICH ARE REAL PROPERTY. 27 

Sec. 66. Houses and buildings. 

Sec. 66. Same— Built by tenant. 

Sec. 67. Same — Consent to erection. 

Sec. 68. Same — Chamber or floor in building. 

Sec. 69. Same— Same— Effect of destruction of building. 

Section 27. Generally — Land, -as we shall presently 
see/ is generally regarded as real property ; and so also is 
anything that is permanently affixed to it, either by the 
act of man or the process of nature, as well as many of 
the intangible rights which adhere to it and grow out of 
its possession. Thus all trees, herbage, buildings, fences, 
and other improvements or betterments ^ upon the surface, 
and all mines, quarries, metals, minerals, oils, or gases 
within the soil belong to and pass with the land.® 
Yet the soil may be owned by one man, and the fences 
and buildings by another ; and as between such owners, 
such structures will be regarded as personal property. 
But in their nature, fences and buildings, like every- 
thing else attached to the earth, are real estate, and pass 
with the soil to the heir or grantee. It is truly said that 
rails are not in their nature real property. But a fence, 
though constructed of rails, is in its nature real property. 
It is just as plainly so as is a house. Both are made of 
materials which were once personal property ; but they 
become realty when formed into a structure and attached 
to the soil. The word land includes not only the soil, tut 
everything attached to it, whether attached by the course 
of nature, as trees, herbage, and water^ or by the hand 
of man, as buildings and fences. This is but common 
learning ; and there is no more room for question that a 
grant of land, eo nomine, will carry buildings and fences, 
than there is that it will carry growing trees and herb- 
age upon, or mines and quarries in, the groimd beneath 
the surface.* 

Sec 28. Things real become personalty by agreement — . 
There are many things which belong to and pass with 
the soil, and are accounted as real property, which by 
special agreement may be made the subject of a distinct 

1 See • Post § 79. ' Mott v. Palmer, 1 N. Y. 564, 573. 

^ See : Post, " Bettermente." " Mott v. Pabner, 1 N. Y. 564, 572-3. 



28 THINGS REAL PROPERTY BY AGREEMENT. [Book I. 

ownership, and thereby become personal property ; and 
many other things which are commonly regarded as per- 
sonal property become a part of the realty on becoming 
attached or affixed to it, and pass with it to the heir, 
devisee, or grantee as fixtures and the like. And there 
are certain interests in and connected with land, known 
as chattels real, which do not attach to or pass with it 
on its devolution.^ Thus a lease for years, being less 
than a freehold estate in the land, is regarded as a chattel 
interest. The duration of the term, whether for a few 
years or for a great number of years, is immaterial,^ pro- 
vided only it be fixed and determined, and there be a 
reversion or remainder in fee in some other person ; ^ ex- 
cept in those states where long tenures are made inherit- 
able by statute.* Thus under the present Massachusetts 
statute so long as fifty years of a lease for a hundred 
years or more remain unexpired, it is regarded for many 
purposes as an estate in fee-simple.^ Under the New 
York Code of Civil Procedure,^ five years of an unex- 
pired lease is regarded as real property for many pur- 
poses.^ 

Sec. 29. Church-pews-Befinition — A pew is a seat in a 
church, separated from all the others, with a convenient 
place to stand or kneel therein.* Strictly speaking, a 
church-pew is a closed seat in a church," and the word is 
so used in England ; but in this country, a pew is gener- 

' 3 Kent Com. (13th ed.) 343. might, perhaps, provide ex- 

" Chapman v. Gray, 15 Mass. 439, pressly for them ; but as they 

445 ; are extremely rare, they seem 

Montague v. Smith, 13 ss. 396. to have been left on the footing 

2 See : Hollenbeck v. McDonald, of all other chattels. 

113 Mass. 347, 349; 1 1 Wood Conv. XX. 

Chapman v. Gray, 15 Mass. 439, See : Post, chapter XX. " Estate 

445; for Years." 

Gray's Case, 5 Mass. 419 ; « Hollenbeck v. McDonald, 113 

3 Bl. Com. 386 ; Mass. 347, 349. 

1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 46a, 118a ; " N. Y.- Code Civ. Proc. § 1430 ■ 

3 Kent Com. (13th ed,) 343. 1 Revised Stats. Codes and Laws, 

leases for long term of years, — It is 1077. 

said by the Supreme Judi- ' See : JEx parte Wilson, 7 Hill (N. 

cial Court of Massachusetts in Y.) 150. 

the case of Chapman v. Gray, « 3 Bouv. L. Diet. (15th ed.) 413 

15 Mass. 439, 445, that if long » Brumfltt v. Roberts, L. E. 5 C. P. 

terms for years were more fre- 334, 333. 

quent among us, the legislature 



Chap. II. § 30.] CHURCH PEWS. 29 

ally understood to be a long low bench or slip, capable of 
seating several persons 

Sec. 30. Same — Assignment of pews — In England, be- 
fore the Eeformation, the body of the church was com- 
mon to all parishioners ; but after the Eeformation the 
practice arose of assigning particular seats or pews to 
individuals. This assignment of pews was made by the 
ordinary, by a faculty which was a mere license, and was 
personal to the licensee, and all disputes concerning it 
were determined in the spiritual courts.^ And while 
every parishioner has a right to a seat in the parish 
church, he cannot claim the right to have a particular 
pew assigned to his use.^ A right to a pew can exist 
only by a grant of an ordinary or a bishop, called a 
"faculty," or by prescription.^ At first the power of 
ordering the seats or pews in the church was discretion- 
ary and was vested by common law in the ordinary, but 
by custom it came to be exercised by the church wardens, 
who were the representatives of the ordinary in that 
respect, and whose assignment of seats was presumed to 
have been made with the approbation and consent of the 
ordinary.* As a consequence it has become the settled 
law of the English courts that church wardens have a 
discretionary power to appropriate the pev/s in the church, 
subject only to the control of the ordinary. ^ While it 
was formally held in England^ that a right to a pew may 
be acquired by prescription, it is thought that in this 

1 State V. Trinity Church, 45 N. J. Griffin v. Dighton, 5 Best &. S. 

L (16 Vr.) 330 ; s.c. 38 Alb. L. 93 ; s.c. 117 Eng. C. L. 93; 

J xii. Morgan i;. Curtis, 3 Man. & R. 389; 

See • Presbyterian Church v. An- Jarratt v. Steele, 3 Phill. 167; 

druss 31 N. J. L. (1 Zab.) 335, Pettman v. Bridger, 1 Phill. 316; 

329 . ' 3 Bl.Com. 438, 

Hume's' Eccl. L. tit. " Churches," * 3 Bac. Abr. 343; 

c 27 • 1 Burns Eccl. L. 359; 

Hook's Church Diet. tit. " Pews." Church Warden, 3 ; 

' State V. Trinity Church, 45 N. J. Woods Inst. 88-90. 

L (16 Vr ) 330; s.c. 38 Alb. L. ' See: State v. Trinity Church, 45 N. 

j'ill; ' J. L. (16 Vr.) 330; s.c. 38 Alb. 

Matter of Cathedral Church, 8 L. L. J. Ill; „ ,, ^ 

rp ggi Reynolds v. Monkton, 3 M. & 

'See:' Cri^p v. Martin, L. R. 3 Pro. Rob. 384: , 

Div 15- s.c. 19 Moak's Eng. Matter of Cathedral Church, 8 L. 

Rep 553- T. 861. 

Brvan v Whistler, 8 Barn. & C. « See: Morgan v. Curtis, 3 Mees. & 

388; s.c. 15 Eng. C. L. 147; R. 389. 



30 EIGHTS IN PEWS— ENGLISH DOCTRINE. [Book I. 

country an individual right to the occupation of a par- 
ticular pew will not arise from an occupation of it for 
ever so long a time,-^ unless it is annexed to a house, and 
it also be shown that the pew was repaired by the claim- 
ant, and those under whom he claims for the prescriptive 
period.^ 

Sec. 31. Same — Eights of pew-holders in pews— English 
doctrine — In England, the freehold to the church being 
in the parson for the time being, the right which the 
pew-holder has in his pew is merely an incorporeal in- 
terest, and is in the nature of an easement in the lands of 
another,^ entitling the party to a right to occupy the pew 
during divine services ; * but does not confer the right to 
be in the pew at all times, or at any other time than 
when the church is open for church purposes.^ 

Sec. 32. Same — Same — American doctrine In this 

country the title to pews in a church generally depend on 
the statutes enacted to regulate this kind of property. In 
some of the states church-pews are declared by statute to 
be an interest in real property,^ while in others they are 
declared to be an interest in personal property. In the 
absence of statutes regulating such property, the interest 
of a party in a ;^ew in a church, although a limited and 
qualified interest, is usually considered to be an interest in 



' See: Boothby u. Baily, Hob. 69; Pettman v. Bridger 1 Phill. 316. 

Stocks V. Booth, 1 T. R. 428 ; s.c. See: Daniel v. "Wood, 18 Mass. (1 

1 Rev. Rep. 344; Pick.) 102; s.c. 11 Am. Dec. 151; 

Wood's Inst. 90. Shaw v. Beveridge, 3 Hill (N Y.) 

» State V. Ti-inity Church, 45 N. J. 26, s.c. 38 Am. Dec. 616. 

L. (16 Yr.) 230; s.c. 28 Alb. L. •» 2 Add. Ecol. 419. 

J. 111. " Brumfltt V. Roberts, L. E. 5 C. P. 

See: Hook's Diet. tit. "Pews"; 232; 

Wood's Inst. 90. Mainwaring v, Giles, 5 Barn. & 

' Brmnfitt v. Roberts, L. R. 5 C. Aid. 356; s.c. 7 Eng. C. L. 198; 

P. 233; Gully v. Bishop of Exeter, 4 Bing. 

Woolocombe 17. Ouldridge, 3 Add. 294; s.c. 13 Eng. C. L. 508; 

1; Ridout V. Harris, 17 Up. Can. C. 

Mainwaring v. Giles, 5 Bam & P. 88. 

Aid. 356; s.c. 7 Eng. C. L. 198; « As in Massachusetts, outside of 

GuUyu. Bishop of Exeter, 4 Bing. the city of Boston, Jackson i\ 

290, 294; s.c. 13 Eng. C. L. 508, Rounesville, 46 Mass. (5 Met.) 

510; 137; and in Vermont, O'Hear 

Reynolds v, Monkton, 3 M. & v. De Goesbriand, 33 Vt. 593; 

Rob. 384; s.c. 80 Am. Dec. 653, 655. 



Chap. II. § 32.] RIGHTS IN PEW— AMERICAN DOCTRINE. 31 

real property, ^ notwithstanding the ownership is simply 
that of an exclusive easement for special purposes, ^ being 
merely a right to occupy under certain restrictions. ^ 
They are regarded and treated as real property in all 
cases arising under the statute of frauds,* the statute of 
conveyances,^ or of descent and distributions," and a 



' See: Succession of Gamble, 33 La. 
An. 9; 

Sohier v. Trinity Church, 109 
Mass. 1; 

Jackson v. RounsevUle, 46 Mass. 
(5 Met.) 127; 

Daniel v. Wood, 18 Mass. (1 Pick.) 
103; s.c. 11 Am. Dec. 151; 

Gay V. Baker, 17 Mass. 435, 438; 
s.c. 9 Am. Dec. 159; 

Bates V. Sparrell, 10 Mass. 833; 

Presbyterian Church v. Andruss, 
21 N. J. L. (1 Zab.) 825; 

St. Paul's Church v. Ford, 84 
Barb. (N. Y.) 16; 

Viele U.Osgood, 8 Barb.(N.Y.) 130; 

Shaw V. Beveridge, 3 Hill(N. Y.), 
26; s.c. 38 Am. Dec. 616; 

Trustees First Baptist Church of 
Ithaca V. Bigelow, 16 Wend. 
(N. Y.) 28; 

Church V. Wells, 24 Pa. St. 249; 

Howe V. Stevens, 47 Vt. 363; 

O'Hear v. De Goesbriand, 33 Vt. 
593: s.c. 80 Am. Deo. 653, 655; 

Barnard v. Whipple, 29 Vt. 401; 
s.c. 70 Am. Dec. 422; 

True V. Morrill, 28 Vt. 673; 

Hodges V. Green, 38 Vt. 358; 

KeUog V. Dickinson, 18 Vt. 366. 

Eight to nse church for purposes 
of worship — Interest inland. — In 
the case of Brumfield v. Car- 
son, 33Ind. 94; s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 
184, it is said that the right to 
use a church edifice to worship 
in when unoccupied by the 
church to which it belongs, is 
an interest in real estate, and a 
contract therefor, to be valid 
under the statute of frauds, 
must be in writing, signed 
by the party to be charged. 
' Daniel v. Wood, 18 Mass. (1 Pick.) 
103; 

Gay V. Baker, 17 Mass. 438; s.c. 
9 Am. Dec. 159; 

Church V. Wells, 24 Pa. St. 249. 
' Sohier v. Trinity Church, 109 
Mass. 1, 21; 

Citing : lie New South Meeting- 
house, 95 Mass. (13 AUen) 497 
502; 



Attorney-General v. Proprietors 
Meeting-house in Federal Street, 
69 Mass. (3 Gray) 1; 

Howard v. First Parish of North 
Bridgewater, 24 Mass. (7 Pick.) 
138; 

V\''entworth v. First Parish of 
Canton, 20 Mass. (3 Pick.) 344; 

Daniel v. Wood, 18 Mass. (1 Pick.) 
103; s.c. 11 Am. Dec. 151; 

Gay V. Baker, 17 Mass. 434; s.c. 
9 Am. Dec. 159. 
•> State V. Tiinity Church, 45 N. J. 
L. (16 Vr.) 230; s.c. 28 Alb. L. 
J. Ill; 

VoorheestJ. Presbyterian Church, 
17 Barb. (N. Y.) 103 ; aff'g 8 Id. 
135; 

Viele V. Osgood, 8 Barb. (N. Y.) 
130; 

Trustees of the First Baptist 
Church of Ithaca v. Bigelow, 16 
Wend. (N. Y.) 38; 

Barnard v. Whipple, 39 Vt. 401 ; 

s.c. 70 Am. Dec. 433. 

' Sights in a pew can be transferred 

only in the manner provided 

for the transfer of real property-. 

Barnard v. Whipple, 29 Vt. 401; 
S.C. 70 Am. Deo. 433. 

See: Viele v. Osgood, Barb. (N. 
Y.) 130. 
« Bates V. Sparrell, 10 Mass. 838; 

First Baptist Church v. Bigelow, 
16 Wend. (N. Y.) 38; 

O'Hear v. De Goesbriand, 33 Vt. 
593; s.c. 80 Am. Dec. 653, 655; 

Barnard v. Whipple, 39 Vt. 401; 
s.c. 70 Am. Dee. 422. 

In the case of Freligh v. Piatt, 5 
Cow. (N. Y.)494, the court say: 
'' A sale of real estate ex vi ter- 
mini means an absolute trans- 
fer of the property. But the 
sale of pews in a church is not 
a sale of real estate within the 
New York act i-egulating relig- 
ious societies. By the grant of 
a pew the grantee acquires a 
limited usufructuary right only. 
He must use it as a pew in a 
house of worship, but has not 
an unlimited, absolute right. 



33 



PEOPERTY IN PEW— LIMITATION. 



[Book I. 



devise of a testator's real estate carries with it his pew- 
rights.^ 

Sec. 33. Same — Same— Limitation and qualifleation of 
property in paw — While the pew-holder has an absolute 
and exclusive right to the possession and enjoyment of 
his pew for the purposes of public worship as long as ■ 
the house remains, and may maintain an action against 
a trespasser, or any person who disturbs him in the pos- 
session or enjoyment thereof, or in any way infringes 
upon his rights thereto,^ yet this interest in the pew is 
separate from the fee,^ and is limited and qualified both 
as to the nature of the estate and the time and manner of 
enjoyment.* 

Sec. 34. Same — Same — As to right of occupancy. — The 
assigning or leasing of a pew does not confer upon the 
holder thereof the right to be in it at any other time than 
during public worship, or to occupy it for any other pur- 



He cannot use it lawfully for 
purposes incompatible with its 
nature. The right, too, is lim- 
ited as to time." 

Bates V. Sparrell, 10 Mass. 323; 

See: Succession of Gamble, 2D La. 
An. 9; 

Presbyterian Cliurcli v. Andruss, 
21 N. J. L. (l.Zab.) 335; 

See: Gorton v. HadSeU, 03 Mass. 
(9 Gush.) 508; 

Jackson v. EounseviUe, 46 Mass. 
(5 Met.) 137; 

Sargent v. Pierce, 43 Mass. (3 
Met.) 80; 

Kimball v. Second Parish of Eow- 
ley, 41 Mass. (24 Pick.) 347; 

Howard v. First Parish of North 
Bridgewater, 34 Mass. (7 Pick.) 
188; 

Gay V. Baker, 17 Mass. 435; s.c. 
9 Am. Dec. 159; 

Fisher v. Glover, 4 N. H. 180; 

Woodworth v. Payne, 74 N. Y. 
196; s.c. 30 Am. Rep. 298; 

Wheaton v. Gates, 18 N. Y. 395; 

St. Paul's Church v. Ford, 34 
Barb. (N. Y.) 16; 

Cooper V. Presbyterian Church, 
33 Barb. (N. Y.) 223; 

Abernethey v. Society of Puri- 
tans, 3 Daly (N. Y.) 1; 

Heeney v. St. Peter's Church, 3 
Edw. Ch. (N. Y.) 608; 



Shaw V. Beveridge, 3 Hill (N. 

Y.) 36; s.c. 88 Am. Dec. 610; 
Baptist Church v. Witherell, 3 

Paige Ch. (N. Y.) 396, 303; s.c. 

34 Am. Dec. 323, 
Price V. Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 4 Ohio 515, 541; 
Howe V. Stevens, 47 Vt. 262; 
O'Hear v. De Goesbriand, 38 Vt. 

593; s.c. 80 Am. Dec. 653; 
Perrin v. Granger, 33 Vt. 101; 
Kellog V. Dickinson, 18 \'t. 260; 
Pettman v. Bridger, 1 Phill. 

Eccl. 316. 
' See Woodworth i\ Payne, 74 N. 

Y. 196, 200; s.c. 30 Am. Rep. 

398. 301; 
Shaw'v. Beveridge, 3 Hill (N. Y.) 

26; s.c. 38 Am Dec. 610; 
Trustees of the First Baptist 

Church of Ithaca v. Bigelow, 

16 Wend. (N. Y.) 28; 
Justice MiLLBR says in Wood- 
worth V. Payne, supra, that 

pews may be leased and held 

distinct from the fee. 
"•See: Kimball v. First Parish of 

Eowley, 41 Mass. (24 Pick.) 

347; 
Daniel v. Wood, 18 Mass. (1 Pick.) 

102; s.c. 11 Am. Dec. 151; 
Gay V. Baker, 17 Mass. 435; s,6. 

9 Am. Dec. 159. 



Chap. n. § 35.] RIGHT OF OCCUPANCY— LAW REGULATING. 33 

poses than those of pubHc worship,^ and matters connected 
therewith. ^ Thus where the parish or society lends or liires 
the use of the meeting-house in which the pew is situated 
for purposes not connected with the public religious wor- 
ship of the society or congregation which owns the house, 
it is thought that the use of the house extends to the use 
of the pews also, to the exclusion of the holders thereof.^ 
In the case of Shaw v. Beveridge,* the court say that 
the owners of pews have an exclusive right to their pos- 
session and occupation for the purposes of public worship ; 
not as an easement, but by virtue of their individual 
right of property therein, derived, perhaps, in theory at 
least, from the corporation represented by the trustees 
who are seized and possessed of the temporalities of the 
church. The owners hold and possess their particular 
seats in severalty, in subordination to the more general 
right of the trustees in the soil and freehold. These 
rights are distinct and separate ; and neither do they, 
nor the respective possessions growing out of the enjoy- 
ment of them, necessarily conflict with each other. ^ 

Sec. 35. Same— Law-regulating — At common law unless 
the right to a pew was an easement proper, that is, was 
appurtenant to some dominant tenement or estate, it was 
of purely ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and the remedies 
pertaining to it were of ecclesiastical cognizance.^ It 
is a well settled rule that courts of law will not interfere 

' First Baptist, Society v. Grant, 59 his pew in preference to any 

Me. 245; one else. 

Presbyterian Churcli v. Andruss, See: Wall v. Lee, 34 N. Y. 141,149; 

21 N J L (1 Zab.) 335; First Baptist Church of Hartford 

Erwin v. Hurd, 13 Abb. (N. Y.) v. Witherell, 3 Paige Ch. (N. 

N. C. 91; Y.)296. 

Craig V First Presbyterian ^ See: Jackson v. RounseviUo, 46 

Church, 88 Pa. St. 43, 51; s.c. Mass. (5 Met.) 137, 102. 

32 Am. Rep. 417; " 3 Hill (N. Y.), 26; s.c. 38 Am. Dec. 

Jones V. Towne, 47 Vt. 263; 616. , c, ■ . . 

Brumfltt V. Roberts, L. R. 5 C. = Second Congregational Society of 

p 232- North Bridgewater v. Waring, 

See! Pok, % 39. 41 Mass. (34 Pick.) 304. 

' Meetings for temporal purposes " Mainwaring v. Giles, tiarn Is. 

—such as meetings of the so- Aid. 356; s.c. 7 Eng. C. L. 198; 

ciety or congregation, held for Spooner v. Brewster^3 Bmg. 136; 

temporal purposes, at which s.c. 11 Eng. C. L. 75; 

times it is thought the pew- Rogers «. Brooks IT. R.4ol; 

holder has a right to occupy Stocks v. Booth, 1 T. R. 438; s.c. 

1 Rev. Rep. 244. 



Sj. CONTROL OF PEWS. [Book I. 

with the rules of a voluntary religious society, adopted 
■for the regulation of its own affairs, unless to protect 
some civil right which is infringed by their operation.^ 
It is said in the case of the Baptist Church v. Witherell,^ 
that over the church, as such, the legal tribunals do not 
profess to have any jurisdiction whatever, except to pro- 
tect the civil rights of others, and to preserve the peace. 
All questions relating to the faith and practice of the 
church, and its members, belong to the church judica- 
tories to which they have voluntarily subjected them- 
selves. It follows that, where property and other sub- 
stantial rights are not involved, the decisions of ecclesias- 
tical courts are final, as they are the best judges of what 
constitutes an offense against the word of God and the 
discipline of the church.^ 

Sec. 36. Same— Same — Episcopal church The English 

ecclesiastical law forms the basis of the law regulating 
the affairs of the Episcopal church in this country, and 
is in force, except as modified by statute and the usages 
and canons of the church.* 

Sec. 37. Same— Same— Vestry's control — The vestry of 
an Episcopal church may control the occupancy of a pew, 
and where the right to occupy has been given by them, 
it is not alienable or transmissible, and where the pew is 
rented annually, the one renting it has at most only a 

I Chase v. Cheney, 58 111. 509; s.c. Forbes v. Eden, L E 1 Sc J 

11 Am. Eep. 95; 10 Am. Leg. App. 568. 

Reg. 295; = 3 p^jge ch. (N. Y.) 296 ; s.c. 24 

State V. Trinity Chm-ch, 45. N. J. Am. Deo. 223 

L. (16 Vr.) 230; s.c. 28 Alb. L. See : Robertson v. BuUion 9 

J- 111; Barb. (N. Y.) 64 ; 

S?e: People ex rel. Dilcher v. The DifEendorf v. Reformed Cal 

German United Evangelical Church, 20 John (N Y ) 12 • 

Church, 53 N. Y. 103; Lawyer v. Cipperly, 7 PaiRe Ch 

Petty V. Tooker, 21 N. Y. 267; (N. Y.) 281 ; 

Robertson v. BuUion, 9 Barb. » German Reformed Church v Sei- 

(N. Y.) 64; bert, 3 Pa. St. 291. 

Gable v. -Miller, 10 Paige Ch. (N. See : Shannon v. Frost 3 B 

Y.) 627; S.C. 2 Den. (N. Y.) 492; Mon. (Ky.) 250, 258. 

Baptist Church of Hartford v. * State v. Trinity Church 45 N J 

Witherell, 3 Paige Ch. (N. Y.) L. (16 Vr.) 230 ; s.c. 28 Alb' l' 

296 ; s.c. 24 Am. Dec. 223 ; J. Ill ; 

Sutter V. First Dutch Reformed Lynd v. ' Menzies 33 N J L ('l 

Church, 42 Pa. St. 503 ; Vr.) 162 ; ' ' • • V 

German Reformed Church v. Sei- Hoffman's Law of the Church 14 

bert, 3 Pa. St. 283 ; 30, 34, 64. '-"uicn, it, 



Chap. H. § 39.] GRANTING PEWS IN PERPETUITY. 35 

leasehold interest for the term. The civil court will not 
review the action of vestrymen in excluding a member 
of a church from a particular pew : and this is true al- 
though they give no reason for their action, and do not 
give the complaining party a hearing.^ 

Sec 38. Same— Same— Free church — It has been said 
that in a free church where no charge is made for the 
sittings, the trustees have power to determine where at- 
tendants at worship shall sit, and may by force remove 
one who persists in sitting in a place other than that as- 
signed to him.2 But such trustees have not authority 
to distribute the property of the society among the indi- 
vidual members or any class of them ; nor can such right 
be conferred by the vote of a majority of the members 
of the society and the order of a court. ^ 

Sec. 39. Same— Granting in perpetuity — The grant of a 
pew in a church edifice in perpetuity does not give to the 
pew-holder an absolute right of property, as in a grant 
of land in fee-simple, but a limited usufructuary interest 
raerely,* being simply a right to occupy,'' under certain 

' State V. Trinity Church, 45 N. J. Fi-eUgh v. Piatt, 5 Cow. (N. Y.) 

L. (16 Vr.) 230 ; s.c. 28 Alb. L. 494 ; 

J 111. Heeney v. St. Peter's Church, 2 

= Sheldon u.Vail, 28 Hun (N. Y.) 354. Edw.' Ch. (N. Y.) 608 ; 

" Wheaton v. Gates, 18 N. Y. 395. White v. Trustees Methodist Epis- 

See : Madison Avenue Baptist copal Church, 3 Lans. (N. Y.) 

Church V. Baptist Church on 477, 481 ; 

Oliver St , 4 N. Y. 131, 140. First Baptist Church v. WithereU, 

<See: Re New South Meeting- 3 Paige Ch. (N. Y.) 296 ; s.c. 

house, 95 Mass. (13 AUen) 497, 24 Am. Deo. 323 ; 

I 502; Craig v. First Presbyterian 

Attorney-General v. Propria- Church, 88 Pa. St. 42, 51 ; s.c. 

tors Meeting-house in Federal 32 Am. Rep. 417 ; 

Street, 69 Mass. (3 Grav) 1 ; Kincaid's Appeal, 66 Pa. St. 411 ; 

Howard v. First Parish in North s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 377. 

Bridgewater, 24 Mass. (7 Pick.) * interrogating pastor from pew— 

j3g . Interfering with collection. — 

Wentworth v. First Parish in Brown, J. , says in the case of 



Canton, 20 Mass. (3 Pick.) 344 
Daniel t;. Wood, 18 Mass. (IPick. 

102 ; s.c. 11 Am. Dec. 151 ; 
Gay V. Baker, 17 Mass. 435, 438 

s.c. 9 Am. Dec. 159 ; 
WaU V. Lee, 34 N. Y. 149 ; 
Wheaton v. Gates, 18 N. Y. 395 



WaU V. 'Lee, 34 N. Y. 141, 149, 
that the pew-holder cannot us& 
his pew as a place from which 
to interrogate the clergyman 
and fix a quarrel upon him, or 
in any way interrupt the serv- 
ices ; nor to impede or inter- 



Viele V. Osgood, 8 Barb. (N. Y.) fere with charitable or other 

J30 . " collections taken up from the 



36 



PEW-HOLDER'S INTEREST IN EDIFICE. [Book I. 



restrictions/ the pew during public worship of the con- 
gregation,^ and possibly of sitting therein at meetings 
of the society held for temporal purposes.^ 



Sec. 40. Same — Interest of pew-liolder in church edifice 
and lands — Pews are held by very peculiar titles, which 
are a qualified and usufructuary right merely.* The 
interest in a pew, while in the nature of and treated as 
real estate, is incorporeal,^ and carries with it no interest 
in the church edifice, or the land upon which the church 
stands.® The parish or society is the sole owner of the 
fee both of the soil on which the church building stands 
and of the building itself.'^ Though limited both as to 
extent and manner of enjoyment and as to duration, the 
estate a pew-holder has in his pew may be for years, for 



congregation assembled foi- re- 
ligious worship. 
' Cohier v. Trinity Churoli, 109 

Mass. 1. 
See : Re New Soutli Meeting- 
house, 95 Mass. (13 Allen) 497 ; 
Attorney-General v. Proprietors 

Meeting-house in Federal 

Street, 69 Mass. (3 Gray) 1 ; 
Howard v. First Parish in North 

Bridgeport, 24 Mass. (7 Pick.) 

138; 
Wentworth •;;. First Parish in 

Canton, 20 Mass. (3 Pick.) 344 ; 
Daniel v. Wood, 18 Mass. (1 Pick.) 

103 ; s.c. 11 Am. Dec. 151. 
* First Baptist Society v. Grant, 59 

Me. 245 ; 
Presbyterian Church v. Andruss, 

21 N. J. L. (1 Zab.) 325 ; 
Jones V. Towne, 58 N. Y. 462 ; 

S.C. 43 Am. Rep. 603 ; 
Erwin v. Hurd, 13 Abb. (N. Y.) 

N. C. 91 ; 
Craig V. First Presbyterian 

Cliuroh, 88 Pa. St. 43, 51 ; s.c. 

33 Am. Rep. 417 ; 
Howe V. Stevens, 47 Vt. 362 ; 
Brumfitt V. Roberts, L. R. 5 C. P. 

232 
2 Wall V. Lee, 34 N. Y. 141, 149 ; 
First Baptist Church of Hartford 

V. Witherell, 3 Paige Ch. (N. 

Y.) 296 ; s.c. 24 Am. Dec. 223. 
^Sohier v. Trinity Church, 109 

Mass. 1, 20 ; 
Citing : Re New South Meeting- 
house, 95 Mass. (13 Allen) 497, 

503; 



Attorney-General v. Proprietors 

M e e t i n g-house in Federal 

Street,69 Mass. (3 Gray) 1 ; 
Howard V. First Parish in North 

Bridgewater, 24 Mass. (7 Pick.) 

138; 
Wentworth v. First Parish in 

Canton, 20 Mass. (3 Pick.) 344 ; 
Daniel v. Wood, 18 Mass. (1 Pick.) 

103 ; s.c. 11 Am. Dec. 151 ; 
Gay V. Baker, 17 Mass. 434 ; s.c. 

9 Am. Dec. 159. 
5 3 Kent Com. (13th ed.) 403. 
" See : Fassett v. First Parish in 

Boylston, 36 Mass. (19 Pick.) 

361; 
Daniel v. Wood, 18 Mass. (1 Pick.) 

103 ; s.c. 11 Am. Dec. 151 ; 
Matter of Reformed Church, 16 

Barb. (N. Y.) 337 ; 
Froligh V. Piatt, 5 Cow. (N. Y.) 

494 ; 
Abernethy v. Society of Church 

of Puritans, 3 Daly (N. Y.) 1, 4 ; 
Heeney v. St. Peter's Church, 2 

Edw. Ch. (N. Y.) 608. 
' Proprietors of Union Meeting- 
house V. Rowell, 66 Me. 400 ; 
Gay V. Baker, 17 Mass. 435 ; s.c. 

9 Am. Dec. 159. 
See : Jackson v. RounsevUle, 46 

Mass. (5 Meto.) 127 ; 
Daniel v. Wood, 18 Mass. (1 Pick.) 

102 ; s.c. 11 Am. Dec. 151 ; 
Trustees of First Baptist Church 

of Ithaca v. Bigelow, 16 Wend. 

(N. Y.) 28 ; 
Kincaid's Appeal, 66 Pa. St. 411 ; 

s.c. 5 Am. Eep. 377, 



Chap. n. § 41.] RESTEICTION ON USE OF PEW. 



37 



life, or even in fee ; and may be held in consideration of 
a fixed sum, or periodical payment of a stipulated amount, 
or assessments either fixed and certain or uncertain. ^ 
The deed or contract under which a pew is held is the 
only criterion of the nature and extent of the estate,^ as 
well as of the extent of the power of the society to tax 
the holder thereof.^ 



Sec. 41. Same— Restriction, use, and treatment of pew 

Having no title in or to either the soil beneath his pew,* 
nor the space above it,'' the pew-owner has no right to dig 
a vault under it nor erect anything over it, without the 
consent of the owners or trustees of the church ; ® neither 
has he the right to decorate such pew according to his 
fancy ; '' and should he do so the trustees may efface the 
objectionable decoration, fill up the excavation beneath. 



I Lease of pew at stipulated rental 
— Construction of lease. — In the 
case of Gifford v. First Pres- 
byterian Societv of Syracuse, 
56 Barb. (N. Y.) 114, a lease of 
a pew in a chnrcli contained a 
condition that the lessee and 
his assigns should pay to tlie 
trustees of the religious society, 
for the time being, all the taxes 
or assessments which might be 
levied or assessed thereon by 
said trustees, for certain speci- 
fied purposes. It also contained 
the following restrictions: " No 
taxes or assessments to be 
levied or assessed for the next 
ten years for tlie purchase of a 
bell or organ ; . . . nor are they 
in any one year to exceed ten 
per cent, on the original ap- 
praised value of said slips." 
This language was held to be 
general enough to cover the 
whole duration of the lease, 
and that it was the intention of 
thff parties to limit the taxa- 
tion to ten per cent, in each 
year while the estate should 
continue, and that the trustees 
were not authorized, at any 
time, to tax or assess upon the 
pew in question any more than 
at the rate of ten per cent, of 
the original appraised value 
thereof. 



* First Methodist Episcopal Society 

V. Brayton, 91 Mass. (19 Allen) 
349; 

Abernethy v. Society of Church 
of Puritans, 3 Daly (N. Y.), 1. 4. 
' Limitation in deed of pew on 
power to assess tax — If the 
power of a religious society to 
assess a tax upon a pew is de- 
rived from and limited by the 
deeds of the society to the pew- 
owners, a tax assessed in part 
for purposes not specifically 
named in the deed is void. 

Fu-st Methodist Society v. Bray- 
ton, 91 Mass. (9 Allen) 248. 

See : Musscy v. Bulfinch Metho- 
dist Society, 55 Mass. (1 Cush.) 
163; 

Stetson V. Kempton, 13 Mass. 273 ; 
B.C. 7 Am. Dec. 145. 

* Gay V. Baker, 17 Mass. 435 ; s.c. 

9 Am. Dec. 159. 
^ Kimball i\ Second Parish of Row- 
ley, 41 Mass. (24 Pick.) 347 ; 
Wentworth v. First Parish in 
Canton, 20 Mass. (3 Pick.) 344 ; 
Gay V. Baker, 17 Mass. 435; s.c. 

9 Am. Dec. 159 ; 
KeUogg V. Dickinson, 18 Vt. 366, 
273. 
" Wentworth v. First Parish of Can- 
ton, 20 Mass. (3 Pick.) 345 ; 
Daniels v. Wood, 18 Mass. (Pick.) 
103 ; s.c. 11 Am. Dec. 151. 
' Church V. Wells, 34 Pa. St. 249. 



38 ABANDONMENT OR SALE OF EDIFICE. [Book L 

or remove the obstruction above, which interferes with 
the equal enjoyment by others of the pews,^ 

Sec. 42. Same — Abandomnent, sale, or destruction of 
church ediaee — The fee to the land and the building being 
in the society, if the building should become useless or 
dilapidated, and is abandoned by the congregation as a 
place of worship, or is destroyed by fire or otherwise, the 
rights of the pew-holder, are gone.^ If the church edi- 
fice is sold and removed and a new structure erected, or 
the church and ground sold and the site abandoned as a 
place of worship, the pew-holder is not entitled to a share 
of the proceeds.^ He can neither compel the holding of 
divine services in the church, nor prevent the abandon- 
ment of it as a place of worship.* A court of equity wiU 
not, on the application of a pew-owner, enjoin the pull- 
ing down and rebuilding or removal of the church edi- 
fice, by the trustees, whenever it shall be deemed expedi- 
ent and proper.^ If a congregation abandon its meeting- 
house as a place of public worship, although it continue 
to be fit for that purpose, and erect a new one on a dif- 
ferent site, it does not thereby subject itself to any liability 
to the proprietor or lease-holder of a pew in the old meet- 
ing-house, in the absence of any showing that the society 
acted wantonly or with any intention to injure him.^ 

1 Kimball v. Second Parish of Row- Dutch Church, 17 N. J. Eq. (3 

ley, 41 Mass. (24 Pick.) 347 ; C. E. Gr.) 136, 130 ; 

Wentworth v. First Parish in Be Brick Presbyteria,n Church, 3 

Canton, 30 Mass. (3 Pick.) 344 ; Edw. Ch. (N. Y.) 155. 

Kellogg V. Dickinson, 18 Vt. 366, « See : Howard v. First Parish in 

273. North Bridgewater, 34 Mass. 

» Abernethy v. Society of Church (7 Pick.) 138 ; 

of Puritans, 3 Daly (N. Y.) 1. "Wentworth v. First Parish in 

Kincaid's Appeal, 66 Pa. St. 411 ; Canton, 20 Mass. (3 Pick.) 344 ; 

s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 377. Freligh v. Piatt, 5 Cow. (N. Y.) 

' Howe V. Stevens, 47 Vt. 363. 494, 496 ; 

See : Wentworth v. First Parish Heeney v. St. Peter's Church, 3 

of Canton, 30 Mass. (3 Pick.) Edw. Ch. (N. Y.) 613 ; 

345, 346 ; Shaw v. Beveridge, 3 Hill (N. Y.) 

Church V. Wells, 24 Pa. St. 249. 26 ; s. c. 38 Am. Deo. 616. 

'Matter of ReformedDutch Church, "See: Fassett v. First Parish in 

16 Barb. (N. Y.) 237 ; Boylston, 36 Mass. (19 Pick.) 

Viele V. Osgood, 8 Barb. (N. Y.) 361 ; 

135 ; Voorhees ■;;. Presbyterian Church, 

McNabb v. Bond, 4 Brad. (N. Y.) 8 Barb. (N. Y.) 152 ; 

^^"^ ' „ „ . , , -K^ Brick Presbyterian Church, 3 

Heeney v. St. Peter's Church, 3 Edw. Ch (N Y ) 155 ■ 

Edw. Ch. (N. Y.) 608, 612 ; Kincaid's Appeal, 66 pk. St. 411, 

Van Houten v. First Reformed 422 ; s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 377 ; 



Chap. II. § 43.] CHANGES AND REPAIRS— EFFECT ON PEW. 39 



Sec. 43. Same— Changes and repairs — All interest in and 
right to a pew is held subordinate to the right of the society 
or corporation to make necessary changes or desired 
repairs,^ alter the internal structure of the house, en- 
large the building, remodel the pews, or remodel or re- 
build the meeting-house itself, or tear it down and build 
a new structure elsewhere.^ The convenience of the in- 
dividual must, in such cases, be subject to the general 
convenience of the whole congregation, and whoever pur- 
chases or leases a pew, does so subject to this right of the 
society.^ If the edifice becomes useless by reason of age 
and dilapidation, or through injury, and the house has to 
be repaired or the building torn down and a new one 
erected in the same place, or if from some necessary cause 
the location is changed, the old edifice sold and a new one 
erected on the new spot selected, the pew -holder's rights 
are gone, and he has no claim either in law or equity.* 



First Baptist Church of Hart- 
ford V. WithereU, 3 Paige Ch. 
(N. Y.) 296; 8.0.^4 Am. Dec.223; 

Bronson v. St. Peter's Church, 7 
N. Y. Leg. Obs. 3G1. 
' Sohier v. Trinity Church, 109 
Mass. 1, 21 ; 

Van Houten v. First Dutch Re- 
formed Church, 17 N. J. Eq. 
(3 C. E. Gr.) 126 ; 

Erwin V. Hurd, 13 Abb. (N. Y.) 
N. C. 91 ; 

Abernethy v. Society of Church 
of Puritans, 7 Daly (N. Y.) 1, 7 ; 

Solomon v. Congregation B'nai 
Jeshurun, 49 How. (N. Y.) 263 ; 

How V. Stevens, 47 Vt. 263 ; 

Greenway v. Hockin, L. R. 5 C. 
P 235 ■ 

Hin'de v'. Chorlton, L. R. 2 C. P. 

104. 
Jones V. Towne, 58 N. H. 462; 
S.C. 42 Am. Rep. 602 ; 

Citing : Sohier v. Trinity Church, 
109 Mass. 1 ; 

Fassett v. First Parish of Boyls- 
ton, 63 Mass. (19 Pick.) 361 ; 

Kimball v. Second Parish of Row- 
ley, 41 Mass. (24 Pick.) 347 ; 

Daniel v. Wood, 18 Mass. (1 Pick.) 
103 ; B.C. 11 Am. Dec. 151 ; 

Gay V. Baker, 17 Mass. 438 ; s.c. 
9 Am. Dec. 159. 

See : Wentworth v. First Parish of 
Canton, 20 Mass. (3 Pick.) 
3-14 ; 



Van Houten v. First Reformed 
Dutch Church, 17 N. J. Eq. (3 
C. E. Gr.) 130 ; 

Voorhees v. Presbyterian Church, 
8 Barb. (N. Y.) 135 ; 

Kincaid's Appeal, G6 Pa. St. 411; 
s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 373 ; 

Craig V. First Presbyterian 
Church, 88 Pa. St. 43 ; s.c. 32 
Am. Rep. 417 ; 

Kellogg V. Dickinson, 18 Vt. 366. 

Pow held in subordination ta so- 
ciety's title and rights to repair. 
— In Voorhees v. Presbyterian 
Church, 8 Barb. (N. Y.) 151 ; 
s.c. 17 Id. 103 ; 5 How. (N. Y.) 
Pr. 74, it is said that the right 
that a pew-holder acquires, un- 
der a lease thereof, is in subor- 
dination to the more general 
right of tlie trustees in the soil 
and freehold, and to repair and 
alter tlie cliurch ; and that he 
cannot, tlierefore, by an action 
to recover the possession of the 
pew from them, practically en- 
join such repairs ; that his 
remedy, if tlie repairs deprive 
him of Ills pew, as by placing 
the pulpit on its site, is by an 
action for dama!;;es. 
3 Jones V. Towne, 58 N. H. 463; 
s.c. 43 Am. Rep. 602 : 

Fisher v. Glover. 4 N. H. 180. 
* Kincaid's Anpeal, 6G Pa. St. 411, 
433 ; s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 877, 883. 



40 BURIAL LOTS— PROPERTY IN. [BoOK I. 

The society, congregation, or parish may take down their 
meeting-house at any time in order to rebuild, either as a 
matter of necessity or of expediency. In the former case 
we have seen, they are not hable to indemnify the pew- 
holder for the loss of his pew ; but should the congrega- 
tion or parish, from mere motives of convenience or de- 
sire for ornament, determine to pull down the old build- 
ing and erect a new church edifice, they can do so only 
on an indemnity being paid to the pew-holder ; that is, 
the society or parish making the sale or lease of the pew 
must not wantonly deprive the grantee of the benefit of 
the license or privilege without making due compensa- 
tion.^ 

Sec, 44. Burial lots — Rights of sepulture in public 
cemeteries and under churches are peculiar, and are not 
very dissimilar from rights in church-pews, above set 
forth. 2 Cemeteries and places of general sepulture are so 
far public that private interests in them are subject to 
the control of the public authorities having charge of the 
police regulations.^ The purchaser of a lot in a cemetery 

Citing : Fassett v. Boylston, 36 ' Sohier v. Trinity Church, 109 

Mass. (10 Pick.) 361 ; Mass. 1, 21 ; 

Howard v. First Parish in North Gay v. Baker, 17 Mass. 435 ; s.c. 

Bridgewater, 24 Mass. (7 Pick.) 9 Am. Dec. 159 ; 

138 ; Jones v. Towne, 58 N. H. 462 ; 

Wentworth v. First Parish in s.c. 42 Am. Rep. 602 ; 

Canton, 20 Mass. (3 Pick.) 344 ; First Baptist Church of Hartford 

Daniel v. Wood, 18 Mass. (1 Pick.) v. Witherell, 3 Paige Ch. (N. Y.) 

lOa'; s.c. 11 Am. Dec. 151 ; 296 ; s.c. 24 Am. Dec. 223 ; 

Gay V. Baker, 17 Mass. 435 ; s.c. Provisions for indemnity to the 

9 Am. Dec. 159 ; pew-holder are made in some 

Cooper V. First Presbyterian states by statute, as Mass. Gen. 

Church, 32 Barb. (N. Y.) 222 ; Stats, o. 30, §§ 35, 36. 

Re Reformed Dutch Church of See : Sohier v. Trinity Church. 

Sand HiU, 16 Barb. (N. Y.) 237 ; 109 Mass. 1, 21. 

Voorhees v. Presbyterian Church, = Sohier v. Trinity Church, 109 Mass. 

8 Barb. (N. Y.) 135 ; s.c. 17 Id. 1, 21 ; 

103 ; 5 How. (N. Y.) Pr. 74 ; Buffalo City Cemetery v. Buffalo, 

FreUght;. Platt,5Cow. (N.Y.)494; 46 N. Y. 503 ; 

Re Brick Presbyterian Church, 3 People v. St. Patrick's Cathedral, 

Edw. Ch. (N. Y.) 133 ; 21 Hun (N. Y.) 191. 

Baptist Church of Hartford v. ' Sohier v. Trinity Church, 109 Mass. 

WithereU, 3 Paige Ch. (N. Y.) 1, 21 ; 

296 ; s.c. 24 Am." Dec. 223 ; Coats v. New York City, 7 Cow 

Church V. Wells, 24 Pa. St. 249 ; (N. Y.) 585, 604 ; 

Perrin v. Grange, 33 Vt. 101 ; Brick Presbyterian Church v 

Kellogg V. Dickinson, 18 Vt. 266. New York City, 5 Cow. (N. Y ) 

See : White v. Trustees of M. E. 538 ; 

Church, 3 Lans. (N. Y.) 477 • Kincaid's Appeal, 66 Pa. St. 411 ■ 

6.C. 3 Alb. L. J. 214. s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 377 ; 



Chap. n. § 44.J BURIAL LOTS CARRY NO TITLE TO LAND. 41 



belonging to a society for "burial purposes," does not 
carry with it any title to the land ; ^ and a lot-owner's 
certificate does not confer upon him any title or estate in 
the soil,^ but simply carries a right, exclusive of any and 
every other person, to bury ^ upon the subdivided plot 
assigned him as long as the ground is used for burial 
purposes.* Such right of burial is not an absolute right 
of property, but is a mere privilege or license to be en- 
joyed so long as the place continues to be used as a burial 
ground,^ subject alike to the right to abandon the use of 
the premises for burial purposes,® and municipal control 
over it ; and the right granted is revocable whenever 
public necessity requires.'' 



See : Town of Lake View v. Rose 
HiU Cemetery Co., 70 111. 191 ; 

Woodlawn Cemetery v. Everett, 
118 Mass. 354 ; 

Upjohn i\ Richland Board of 
Health, 46 Mich. 543 ; s.c. 9 N. 
W. Rep. 845 ; 
Eemoval of dead from cemetery 
by municipality. — The legisla- 
ture may at any time authorize 
a municipal corporation to re- 
move the dead from a cemetery 
within its limits. 

Craig V. First Presbyterian 
Church, 88 Pa. St. 42 ; s.c. 33 
Am. Rep. 417. 
' Sohier?;. Trinity Church, 109 Mass. 
i, 31 ; 

Kincaid's Appeal, 66 Pa. St. 411 ; 
s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 377. 

Sale of cemetery and removal of 
tnxied. — In Windt v. German 
Reformed Church, 4 Sandf. Ch. 
(N. Y.) 471, it was held that the 
sepulture of friends and rela- 
tives in a cemetery belonging 
to a religious society confers no 
right or title upon the surviv- 
ors, and they cannot prevent 
the sale of such cemetery by the 
corporation and the removal 
of the interred remains, when 
such removal is in all respects 
conducted according to law. 
'Partridge v. First Independent 
Church, 39 Md. 638 ; 

Richards v. N. W. Protestant 
Dutch Church, 33 Barb. (N. Y.) 
43 ; s.o. 30 How. (N. Y.) Pr. 
317 ; sub nom. Richards v. N. 
W. Dutch Church, 11 Abb. (N. 
Y.) Pr. 30 ; 



Windfc V. German Reformed 

Church, 4 Sandf. Ch. (N.Y.)471; 

Pierce v. Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 4 Ohio 515, 539. 

3 Kincaid's Appeal, 66 Pa. St. 411 ; 

s.o. 5 Am. Rep. 377, 380. 
" People V. St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
21 Hun (N. Y.) 191. 
Common property and control — 
Vote to divide. — Property of 
this kind, acquired by the com- 
mon contribution of the mem- 
bers of an association, is sub- 
ject to their common control. 
No separate interest is acquired; 
and such property is managed 
by the majority. Even a vote 
to divide gives to individuals no 
right to enforce any separate 
interest. 
Denton r. Jackson, 3 John. Ch. 

(N. Y.) 830, 329 ; 
Price V. Methodist Episcopal 
Churcli, 4 Ohio 515, 540-1. 
* See : Windt v. German Reformed 
Church, 4 Sandf. Ch. (N. Y.) 
471; 
Craig V. First Presbyterian 
Church, 88 Pa. St. 42 ; s.c. 33 
Am. Rep. 417 ; 
Kincaid's Appeal, 66 Pa. St. 411 ; 
s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 377. 881. 
^ Craig V. First Presbyterian 
Church, 88 Pa. St. 43 ; s.c. 33 
Am. Rep. 417. 
' Dwenger v. Geary, 113 Ind. 113 ; 
s.c. 14 N. E. Rep. 903 ; 13 West. 
Rep. 695 ; 
Richards v. N. W. Protestant 
Dutch Church, 33 Barb. (N. Y.) 
43; 
Craig V. First PresbyteriaJi 



42 



NATURE OF COBPORATE STOCKS. 



[Book I. 



Sec. 45. Corporate stocks and lands — In England, shares 
of stock in corporations whose property consists in a large 
measure of lands, have been declared to be real estate ; ^ 
and some of the earlier American cases manifest a ten- 
dency to regard them as in the nature of a right or interest 
in lands, and therefore themselves realty.^ But the doc- 
trine established by the later decisions is that shares of 
stock in railways,^ and other corporations, are incorporeal 
personal property,* and are treated as such in all respects.* 
Strictly speaking, however, shares of stock in a joint stock 
company are not real propsrty, or personal property, or 
choses in action even, but simply resemble in their nature 
choses in action,^ being simply evidences of property, and 
of a right to demand dividends as they accrue.'^ But 



Church, 88 Pa. St. 43 ; s.c. 33 

Am. Rep. 417. 
' Weekley v. Weekley, 3 Young & 

C. 381n ; 
Davall V. New River Co., 3 De G. 

& S. 394 ; 
Buckeridge v. Ingrain, 3 Ves. 

653; 
Drybutter v. Bartholomew, 3 Pr. 

Wms. 137. 
Compare : Walker v. Milne, 11 

Beav. 507 ; 
Starling v. Parker, 9 Beav. 450 ; 
Ashton V. Langdale, 4 De G. & 

S. 403 ; S.C. 30 L. J. R. (N. S.) 

Ch. 334 ; 4 Eng. L. & Eq. 80. 
'Welles V. Cowles, 3 Conn. 567 

s.c. 4 Conn. 182 ; 10 Am. Dec 

115; 
Copeland v. Copeland, 7 Bush 

(Ky.) 349 ; 
Price V. Price, 6 Dana (Ky.) 107 
Howe'y. Starkweather, 17 Mass, 

340; 
Meason's Estate, 4 Watts (Pa.) 

341. 
' Johns V. Johns, 1 Ohio St. 350 ; 
Huntzinger v. Philadelphia Coal 

Co., 11 Plila. (Pa.) 609. 
See : Walker v. Milne, 11 Beav. 

507; 
Starling v. Parker, 9 Beav. 450 ; 
Ashton V. Langdale, 4 De G. & S. 

403 ; s.c. 30 L. J. R. (N. S.) Ch. 

334 ; 4 Eng. L. & Eq. 80. 
■* Southwestern R. Co. v. Thomason, 

40 Ga. 408 ; 
Allen V. Pegram, 16 Iowa 163, 

173; 
Griffith V. Watson. 19 Kan. 33 ; 



Tippets V. Waller, 4 Mass. 595, 

596; 
Johns V. Johns, 1 Ohio St. 350 ; 
Dyer v. Osborne, 11 R. I. 331, 335 ; 

s.c. 33 Am. Rep. 460 ; 
Arnold v. Ruggles, 1 R. I. 165 ; 
Gilpin V. Howell, 5 Pa. St. 41 ; 

s.c. 45 Am. Dec. 730,; 
Union Bank v. State, 9 Yerg. 

(Tenn.) 490 ; 
Isham V. Iron Co., 10 Vt. 330; 
Barksdale v. Finney, 14 Gratt. 

(Va.) 356 ; 
Edwards v. Hall, 6De G. M. & G. 

74 ; s.c. 35 Eng. L. & Eq. 433. 
^ See : Tippets ■;;. Walker, 4 Mass. 

595; 
Blake v. Jones, 1 Bail. (S. C.) Eq. 

141 ; s.c. 31 Am. Dec. 530 ; 
Bradley v. Holdsworth, 3 Mees. 

& W. 433 ; 
BUgh V. Brent, 2 Young & C. 294. 
' A certificate of stock in a land 

company, which is different 

from other kind of companies 

holding land incidentally to 

their general purpose, has been 

said notto be land, but a mere 

chose in action. 
See : Blake v. Jones, 1 Bail. (S. 

C.) Eq. 141; s.c. 31 AmiDec.530. 
' Hutohins v. State Bank, 53 Mass. 

(12 Met.) 431, 436. 
See : Allen v. Pegram, 16 Iowa 

163, 173 ; 
Fields. Pierce, 103 Mass. 353, 361 ; 
Bank of Waltham v. Waltham, 

51 Mass. (10 Met.) 834, 339 ; 
Brundage v. Brundage, 60 N. Y, 

544; 



Chap. II. § 46.] COKPOEATE REALTY HELD IN TRUST 



43 



after the surplus has been earned and the dividend de- 
clared, whether such dividend be in money or stock, it 
becomes personal property.^ 

Sec. 46. Same— Realty held by corporation in trust when.— 
A corporation may be seized of a great deal of real as 
well as personal property, in which case each individual 
share-holder will be entitled to a share, in proportion to 
the amount of the stock held by him, out of the net 
product of both, when brought into one common fund.^ 
The reason for this is that the lands, buildings, and the 
like, of joint stock companies, used in the prosecution of 
the business of the corporation, are the mere instruments 
by means of which the joint stock of the company is made 
to produce the profit out of which dividends are declared, 
and belong exclusively to the corporate body ^ in trust 
for the individuals who hold the stock of and compose the 
company ; * and the interest of each individual member 
in the real estate thus held is ordinarily regarded as per- 
sonalty.^ 



Denton v. Livingston, 9 John. (N. 
Y.) 96 ; s.c. 6 Am. Dec. 264, 266 ; 

Slaymaker v. Gettysburgh Bank, 
10 Pa. St. 373 ; 

GUpin V. Howell, 5 Pa. St. 57 ; 
s.c. 45 Am. Dec. 720; 

Dyer v. Osborne, 11 R. I. 321 ; 
S.C. 22 Am. Rep. 460, 464 ; 

Arnolds v. Ruggles, 1 R. I. 165 ; 

Chesapeake & O. R. Co. v. Paine, 
39 Gratt. (Va.) 503, 506 ; 

De Gendre v. Kent, L. R. 4 Eq. 
Cas. 283 ; 

WUdman v. Wildman, 9 Ves. 177 ; 

Kirby v. Potter, 4 Ves. 751 ; s.o. 
4 Rev. Rep. 342; 

Francis v. Nash, 7 Geo. II.; 
Comyn. Dig. tit. " Execution," 
c. 4. 

Shares of stock ideal merely — 
Bhode Island doctrine. — It is 
said by Durfee, C. J., in the 
case of Arnold v. Ruggles, 11 
R. I. 165, that "a share is a 
mere ideal thing. It is no por- 
tion of matter, it is no portion 
of space, it is not susceptible of 
tangible and visible possession, 
actual or constructive. It is 
not, therefore, a chattel per- 



sonal, susceptible of possession 
actual or constructive * * * * 
If a right be an ideal thing 
merely, or something existing 
but in law or contract, the pos- 
session must be ideal, subsist- 
ing from law or contract. " 
' See : Hutchins v. State Bank, 53 
Mass. (12 Met.) 421; 
Tippets V. Walker, 4 Mass. 595 ; 
King V. Paterson & H. R. R. Co., 
29 N. J. L. (5 Dutch.) 82, 504 ; 
Brundage ■;;. Brundage, 60 N. Y. 

544. 
Covipare: "Welles v. Cowles, 3 
Conn. 567. 
2 Bradley v. Holdsworth, 3 M. & 

W. 334. 
' See : Waltham Bank v. Waltham, 
51 Mass. (10 Met.) 334, 339; 
Bradley v. Holdsworth, 3 Mees. 
& W. 432. 
■• Angel & Ames on Corp. § 569 ; 
Wordsworth on Joint Stock. Cos. 
388. 
' See : Toll Bridge v. Osborn, 35 
Conn. 7 ; 
Mohawk & H. R. R. Co. v. Chite, 

4 Paige Ch. (N. Y.) 384, 393 ; 
Bligh V. Brent, 2 Young & C. 368. 



44 NATURE AND OBJECT OF INVESTMENT. [Book I. 

Sec. 47. Same— Land is real estate when — Where the 
lands held by a corporation are vested in the individual 
share-holders, and the management only is vested in the 
body corporate, the shares are held to be real estate.^ 
And where a corporation is created solely for the pur- 
pose of holding, making use of, or improving real estate, 
the shares therein will be regarded as real estate. ^ 

Sec. 48. Same — Tfature and object of investment — It may 
be laid down as a general principle that shares in the 
property of a corporation are real or personal property, 
according to the nature, object and manner of invest- 
ment. Where the corporate powers are to be exercised 
solely in land,^ and the property in the land, though it 
be an incorporeal hereditament, is vested inalienably in 
the corporators themselves, the shares are deemed real 
estate*. Such has been considered by the common law 
to be the nature of shares in toll-bridges, canal and turn- 
pike corporations ; ^ but this doctrine has been greatly 
modified by the more recent cases in this country. ® Where 
the property originally entrusted was money, and was 
to be made profitable to the contributors by applying 
it to certain piirposes, in the course of which it had to bo 
invested in lands or personal property, and changed at 
jDleasure, the capital fund is vested in the body corpo- 

' See : Buckeridge v. Ingram, 2 * See : Townsend v. Ash, 3 Atk. 

Ves. Jr. 652 ; 336 ; 

Stafford v. Buckley, 2 Ves. Jr. Drybutter v. Bartholomew, 3 Pr. 

183 ; Wms. 137 ; 

Drybutter v. Bartholomew, 2 Pr. Buckeridge v. Ingram, 3 Ves. 

Wms. 137 ; 653. 

Weekley v. Weekley, 3 Young & ^ See : Welles v. Cowles, 3 Conn. 

C. Exch. 281 ; 567 ; 

Bligh V. Brent, 3 Young & C. Price v. Price, 6 Dana (Ky.) 107 ; 

268. Binney's Case, 3 Bland Ch. (Md.) 

' See : Welles v. Cowles, 2 Conn. 99, 145-146 ; 

567 ; Meason's Estate, 4 Watts (Pa.) 

Price V. Price, 6 Dana (Ky.) 107 ; 341, 346. 

Durkee v. Stringham, 8 Wis. 1. In Massacliusetts, however, from 

"As where original authority is an early period, shares in all 

given by the charter to remove these corporations have been 

obstructions in a river and held to be personal property, 

render it navigable, to open the holder having only a per- 

new channels, etc., to make a sonal action for his dividends, 

canal, erect waterworks, and See : Russell v. Temple, 3 Dane's 

the like. ' Abr. 108, 3-6. 



e 



See : Ante, § 45. 



Chap. II. §§ 49, 50.] ELECTRIC POLES AND WIRES. 45 

rate, and the shares of stock are deemed personal prop- 
erty.^ 

Sec. 49. Electric poles and wires realty The poles, 

wires, lamps, and other attachments erected in the streets 
for lighting purposes by an electrical company, have been 
held to be real and not personal property.^ By parity of 
reasoning the poles of an electrical street railway are real 
property. This is in harmony with the reasoning which 
makes the foundation and columns of the New York City 
Elevated Railroad land and liable to taxation as real prop- 
erty.^ But it has been held that the machinery and fix- 
tures of an electric light plant, placed in a building for a 
mere temporary purpose, are not a part of the realty.* 
Whether wires placed within the plastering of a building 
for the purpose of lighting it by electricity are a perma- 
nent addition to the building, and for that reason become 
fixtures, is to be determined from the intention of the 
parties and not the fact of physical annexation.^ 

Sec. 50. Emblements — Growing crops — Growing crops 
planted by the owner of the soil are a part of the realty, 
and, as a general rule, will pass with it on conveyance,® 
even though reserved by parol by the grantor at the time 

1 Johns V. Johns, 1 Ohio St. 350, Chapman v. Long, 10 Ind. 465 ; 

355 ; TruUiuger v. Webb, 3 Ind. IfiG, 
Bradley v. Holdsworth, 3 Mees. 200 ; 

& W. 422 ; Porche v. Bodin, 28 La. An. 761 ; 

Bligh v. Brent, 2 Young & C. Dennett ■u.Hopkinson, 68 Me. 350; 

Exch. 268, 294r-5. Connor v. Coffin, 22 N. H. 588 ; 

- Keating Implement & Machine Howell v. Sohenck, 24 N. J. L. 
Co. V. Marshall Elec. L. & P. (4 Zab.) 89 ; 

Co., 74 Tex. 605 ; s.o. 12 S. W. Sherman v. WiUett,42 N. Y. 146 ; 

Rep. 489. Bradner ■;;. Faulkner, 34 N. Y. 
3 People e.r rel. The New York Ele- 347 ; 

vated Railroad v. Commission- Morris v. Whitcher, 20 N. Y. 41 ; 

ers of Taxes, 82 N. Y. 459. Webster v. ZieUy, 52 Barb. 
See : Post, § 106. (N. Y.) 482 ; 

•• Havens -y West Side Electric Light Wintermute v. Light, 46 Barb. 
Co 44 N. Y. S. R. 589 ; s.c. 17 (N. Y.) 278, 283 ; 

N Y Supp 580 Foote v. Colvin, 3 John. (N. Y.) 
" Harrisburg Electric Light Co. r. 216, 222, 506 ; s.c. 3 Am. Dec. 

Goodman, 129 Pa. St. 206 ; s.c. 478 ; ^ , _ ^,^ wat v ^ 

19 Atl. Rep. 844. Thayer v. Rock, 13 Wend. (N. Y.) 
« Floyd u Ricks, 14 Ark. 286 ; s.c. 53; ,w v ^ 

58 Am. Deo. 374 ; Lane v. Kmg, 8 Wend. (N. Y.) 
Gibbons v. Dillingham, 10 Ark. 584 ; 

9 • s c 50 Am. Dec. 238 ; Brittam v. McKay, 1 Ired. (N. C.) 
Buli V. Griswold, 19 111. 631 ; 265 ; oo t. «f «r 

Turner v. Cool, 23 Ind. 56 ; s.c. Bittmger v. Baker, 29 Pa. St. 66 ; 
85 Am. Dec. 449 ; s.o. 70 Am. Dec. 154.; 



46 



GROWING CROPS— RULE AS TO. 



[Book I. 



of sale.^ And this seems to be the case even though the 
crops ara at the time standing in the field unharvested, 
although ripe, and the season for gathering them is long 
past.^ A different rule seems to prevail in Ohio ^ and 
Pennsylvania,* where growing crops are said to be per- 
sonal property, but pass with the land unless severed by 
reservation or exception, which may be by parol.® Such 
was the rule of the common law, and is held uniformly 
in England not to have been altered by the statute of 
frauds and perjuries.® It is the general rule that a crop 
growing on land at the time of a sale under execution 
passes to the purchaser ; '' and the same is true on a sale 
under a mortgage foreclosure.^ 



Wilson V. McNeal, 10 Watts (Pa.) 

433, 427 ; 
Burnside v. Weightman, 9 Watts 

(Pa.) 47, overruling Smith v. 
Johnson, 1 Pen. & W. (Pa.) 471 ; 

S.C. 21 Am. Dec. 404 ; 
Bank of Pennsylvania v. Wise, 3 

Watts (Pa.) 394, 406 ; 
Creigh v. Beelin, 1 Watts & S. 

(Pa.) 83 ; 
Crews V. Pendleton, 1 Leigh (Va.) 

397; s.o. 19 Am. Deo. 750; 
Brantom v. Griffits, 1 C. P. Div." 

849 ; S.C. 17 Moak's Eng. Rep. 

301; 
Meohelen v. Wallace, 7 Ad. & El. 

49 ; s.c. 34 Eng. C. L. 51 ; 
Vaughn v. Hancock, 3 C. B. 766 ; 

s.c. 54 Eng. C. L. 766 ; 
Earl of Falmouth v. Thomas, 1 

Cr. & M. 89. 
Growing wheat is an interest in 

land, it is said in Missouri cases, 

and that a contract concerning 

it is within the statute of frauds, 

and must be in writing. 
Mcllvaine v. Harris, 20 Mo. 457 ; 

S.C. 64 Am. Deo. 196. 
See : Steele v. Faber, 37 Mo. 80 ; 
Rattew. Goffman, 27 Mo. 424, 426. 
' Wintermute v. lights 4& Baxbi, 

(N. y.>.378 ; 
Austin V. Sawyei^ ft-Caw. (N. Y.) 

39. 
' Tripp V. Hasceig, 20 Mich. 254, 

261 ; s.c. 4 Am. Rep. 388 ; 
Kittredge v. Woods, 3 N. H. 503, 

s.c. 14 Am. Dec. 393. 
' Baker v. Jordan, 3 Ohio St. 438, 

followed in 
Youmans v. Caldwell, 4 Ohio St. 

72,78; 



Jones V. Timmons, 21 Ohio St. 

596, 604. 

* Backenstoss v. Staliler's Admr., 

33 Pa. St. 251 ; s.c. 75 Am. Dec. 

593; 

Lauchner v. Rex, 20 Pa. St. 464 ; 

Bear v. Bitzer, 16 Pa. St. 175 ; s.c. 

55 Am. Dec. 490 ; 
Smith V. Jolmston, 1 Penn. & W. 

(Pa.) 471 ; 
Wilkins v. Varshbinder, 7 Watts 
(Pa.) 378. 
' See : Cases cited in last two foot- 
notes. 
' Backenstoss v. Stahler's Admr., 
33 Pa. St. 231 ; s.c. 75 Am. Dec. 
593. 

Evans v. Roberts, 5 Barn. 
829 ; s.c. 11 Eng. C. L. 



Citing : 
& C. 
700; 

Dunne 



». Ferguson, Hayes (Ir. 

Exch.) 540 ; 
Sainsbury v. Matthews, 4 Mees. 

& W. 343. 
' Pitts V. Hendrix, 6 Ga. 453 ; 
Porche v. Bodin, 28 La. An. 761 ; 
Hershey v. Metzgar, 90 Pa. St. 

217 ; s.c. 9 Reporter, 384 ; 
Bittenger v. Baker, 29 Pa. St. 66 ; 

s.c. 70 Am. Dec. 154 ; 
Bear v. Bitzes, 16 Pa. St. 175. 
Sale on execution or in partition, 

' — In Ohio the crops do not pass 

to the purchaser under a sale 

on execution or in partition. 
See : Albin v. Riegel, 40 Ohio St. 

339; 
Houts V. Showalter, 10 Ohio St. 

125; 
Cassily v. Rhodes, 13 Ohio, 88. 
' Jones V. Thomas, 8 Blackf . (Ind.) 

428; ' 



Chap. H. § 51.] RULE WHEN CROP SEVERED. 47 

Sec. 51. Same — When crop severed. — A different rule 
prevails where the crop has been severed.^ Thus in the 
case of Dixon v. Niccolls,^ M^here land had been rented 
on the shares, and the grain had been severed from the 
realty, but remained stacked thereon, and undivided, it 
was held not to pass to the purchaser, by a deed to the 
land, without reservation or exception'; and it is said, in 
a recent case in Pennsylvania,^ that where there has been 
a severance of the growing grain, it does not pass to him 
who purchases the land subsequent to its severance.* 
And growing crops are a part of the realty as between 
the successful plaintiff in an action of ejectment and the 
evicted defendant,'' where the crops were planted after 
the commencement of the action in ejectment.^ But the 
rule is otherwise where the grain was sown and har- 
vested by one on lands to which he claimed title, and of 
which he was in actual possession.'^ Crops planted by a 
tenant who holds under the owner of the soil are, as be- 
tween the landlord and his tenant, personal property, 
and the tenant has the right to remove them ; ^ they be- 

Ledyard v. Phillips, 47 Mioli. 305 ; * See : Stambaugh v. Yeats, 3 

s.o. 11 N. W. Rep. 170 ; Rawle (Pa.) 161 ; 

Rusgles V. First Nat. Bk. of Gen- Myers v. White, 1 Rawle (Pa.) 

terville, 43 Mich. 193 ; s.c. 5 N. 353. 

W. Rep. 257 ; ° See : Altes v. Hinckler, 36 111. 375 ; 

Howell V. Schenck, 24 N. J. L. s.c. 85 Am. Dec. 407; 

(4 Zab.) 89 ; Crotty v. CoUins, 13 111. 567 ; 

Aldrioh v. Reynolds, 1 Barb. Ch. Strode v. Swim, 1 A. K. Marsh. 

(N. Y.) 613 ; (Ky.) 366 ; 

Gardener v. Finley, 19 Barb. (N. Brothers v. Hurdle, 10 Ired. (N. 

Y.) 317, 320 ; C.) L. 490 ; s.c. 51 Am. Dec. 

Jewett V. Keenholts, 16 Barb. 400 ; 

(NY) 193 ■ Doe ex d. Upton v. Witherwick, 

Gillett V. Balcom, Barb. (N. Y.) 3 Bing. 11 ; s.c. 11 Eng. C. L. 

370 • 1^- 

Simers k Saltiiff, 3 Den. (N. Y.) 'McLean v. Bovee, 34 Wis. 29&; 

2J4. . s.c. 1 Am. Rep. 185. 

Shemrd v. Philbrick, 3 Den. (N. ' Martin v. Thompson, 63 Cal. 618 ; 

Y^\l^ • S'C- 45 Am. Rep. 663 ; 

Lane v King, 8 Wend. (N. Y.) Page v. Fowler, 39 Cal. 413 ; s.c. 

584 ; s.c. 24 Am. Dec. 105 ; 3 Am. Rep. 463 ; 

Crews V. Pendleton, 1 Leigh (Va.) Stockwell v. Phelps, 34 N. \. 

397 ; s.c. 19 Am. Dec. 750. 363 ; s.c. 90 Am. Dec. 710 

See • Wiltsie on Mort. Forec. " Wintermute v. Light, 46 Barb. 

706-708 (N. Y.) 378 ; 

1 Coombs V. Jordan, 3 Bland. Ch. Pfanner u Stomer, 40 How. 

(Md.) 284 ; s.c. 33 Am. Dec. N. Y.) Pr. 401 ; 

kog '' ' Stewart v. Doughty, 9 John. 

» 39 m 372 ; S.C. 89 Am. Dec. 313. (N. Y.) 108 113 ; 

.Hershey i. Metzgar, 90 Pa. St. Hunt ^- Watkms, 1 Humph. 

317 ; S.C. 9 Reporter, 384. (Tenn.) 498. 



43 FEE-FARM LEASE. [Book I. 

come part of the realty, however, should the tenant vol- 
untarily abandon or forfeit possession of the premises.^ 

Sec. 52. Fee-farm lease — A fee-farm lease is the grant- 
ing of lands in fee, reserving rent, and is only letting 
lands to farm in fee-simple instead of the usual modes 
for life or for years.^ A farm- fee rent is a rent-charge 
issuing out of such an estate in fee, and is a perpetual 
rent, reserved on a conveyance in fee-simple. Fee-farms 
are lands held in fee, to render for them annually the 
true value, or more or less, and is called a fee-farm, be- 
cause a farm-rent is reserved, upon a grant in fee.^ It 
is expressly said in the statute Quia Emptores, that it ex- 
tends only to lands held in fee-simple,* but Sir Edward 
Coke declares that it extends to lands that are held in 
fee-farm.^ A fee-farm lease creates an estate of in- 
heritance in the grantee, his heirs and assigns. It is in 
fact a fee-simple estate, subject only to the payment of 
the rents reserved, and the performance of the lawful 
conditions contained in the instrument creating the 
estate.^ 

Sec. 53. Pruetus industriales — A distinction is to be ob- 
served, between fructus natui-ales, or the natural growths 
of the soil, such as trees, grasses, herbs, fruit on trees, 
and the like, which at common law are part of the soil, and 
fructus industriales, or fruits or products the result of 
the annua] labor of man in sowing and reaping, plant- 
ing and gathering," which, though strictly a part of the 

Compare : Ladd v. Abel, 18 Conn. Bulwer v. Bulwer, 2 Bam. & 

513 ; Aid. 470 ; 

Graves v. "Weld, 5 Barn. & Adol. Orlando's Case, 5 Co. lj.6a. 

105 ; s.o. 37 Eng. C. L. 53. 2 Dg Peyster v. Michael, 6- N. Y. 

' Chandler v. Thurston, 27 Mass. 467 ; s.c. 57 Am. Dec. 470 ; 

(10 Pick.) 205, 210 ; 2 Bl. Com. 43. 

Debow V. Colfax, 10 N. J. L. ^ 3 ingt. 44. 

(5 Halst.) 128 ; ^ 1 Evan's Stats. 195. 

Pfanner v. Stunner, 40 Hovsr. ' See : De Peyster v. Michael, 6 N 

(N. Y.) Pr. 401 ; Y. 467, 497 ; s.c. 57 Am. Dec. 

Stewart v. Doughty, 9 John. 470. 

(N. Y.) 108 ; « Brittain v. McKay, 1 Ired. (N. C.) 

Whipple V. Foote, 2 John. (N. Y.) L. 265 ; s.c. 35 Am. Dec. 738 ; 

418, 421n ; s.o. 3 Am. Dec. 442 ; Flynt v. Conrad, 1 Phil. (N C ) 

Gee V. Young, lHayw.(N.C.) 17; L. l^O, 193; s.c. 93 Am. Dec. 

Hawkins v. Skegg, 10 Humph. 588. 

(Tenn.) 81; 



Chap. II. § 53.] FEUCTUS INDUSTEIALES. 



4:9 



realty as much as those products which the soil brings 
forth without man's intervention, are treated as per- 
sonal property for many purposes.^ Crops, when 
planted by the owner of the soil, constitute, in general, 
part of the realty, and will pass to the vendee by a conj 
veyance of the land ; ^ but the owner of the soil may sell 
a crop to be cut without conveying any interest in the 
land, and the purchaser will acquire title to it as a chat- 
tel, even though not fit for harvesting at the time of the 
sale.^ Such crops as are planted by the owner of the 
soil, if mature and to be gathered immediately, may not 
only be sold by him,* but they may be taken on execu- 
tion,^ as personal property, where they can be readily 



^ See : Preston v. Eyan, 45 Mich. 

147 ; s.c. 7 N. W. Eep. 819 ; 
Brittain v. McKay, 1 Ired. (N. C.) 

L. 265 ; s.c. 35 Am. Dec. 738. 
"See: Ante, %50. 
' Harris v. Frink, 49 N. Y. 24, 27 ; 

s.c. 10 Am. Eep. 318, 320 ; 
See : Craddock v. Eiddlesbarger, 

3 Dana (Ky.), 206 ; 
Austin V. Sawyer, 9 Cow. (N. Y.) 

39, 42, 43 ; 
Newcomb v. Earner, 2 John. 

(N. Y.) 421, note a ; 
Jones V. FUnt, 10 Ad. & E. 753 ; 

s.c. 37 Eng. C. L. 396 ; 
Evans v. Eoberts, 5 Bam. & C. 

829 ; s.c. 11 Eng. C. L. 700 ; 
Sainsbury v. Matthews, 4 Mees. & 

W. 343. 
■* McKenzie v. Lampley, 31 Ala. 

526; 
Crine v. Tifts, 65 Ga. 644 ; 
Northern v. State, 1 Ind. 113 ; 
Craddock v. Eiddlesbarger, 2 

Dana (Ky.) 205 ; 
Parham v. Thompson, 3 J. 

Marsh. (Ky.) 159 ; 
Thompson v. Craigmyle, 4 

Mon. (Ky.) 391 ; s.c. 41 Am. 

Dec. 240. 
Pickens v. Webster, 31 La. An. 

870; 
Porche v. Bodin, 38 La. An. 761 ; 
Coombs V. Jordan, 3 Bland Ch. 

(Md.)313 ; s.c. 32 Am. Dec. 236 ; 
Cheshire Nat. Bk. v. Jewett, 119 

Mass. 341, 344 ; 
MuUigan v. Newton, 83 Mass. 

(16 Gray) 311 ; 
Heard v. Fairbanks, 46 Mass. 

(5 Met.) Ill ; S.C. 38 Am. Dec. 

394; 
4 



. J. 
B. 



Penhollow v. Dwight, 7 Mass. 74; 

s.c. 5 Am. Dec. 21 ; 
Preston v. Eyan, 45 Mich. 174; 

s.c. 7 N. W. Eep. 819 ; 
Gillitt V. Truax, 37 Minn. 528 ; 

s.c. 8 N. W. Eep. 767 ; 
Bloom V. Welsh, 37 N. J. L. 

(3 Dutch.) 177 ; 
Westbrook v. Eager, 16 N. J. L. 

(1 Harr.) 81 ; 
Shepard v. PhUbrick, 3 Den. 

(N. Y.) 174 ; 
Hartweir v. Bissell, 17 John. 

(N. Y.) 128 ; 
Stewart v. Doughty, 9 John. 

(N. Y.) 108. 
Whipple V. Foot, 3 John. (N. Y.) 

418 ; s.c. 3 Am. Dec. 443 ; 
Smith V. Ti-itt, 1 Dev. & B. (N. C.) 

L. 341; s.c. 38 Am. Dec. 565 ; 
Cassily v. Ehodes, 12 Ohio 88 ; 
Peacock v. Purvis, 2 Brod. & B. 

362; 
Storer v. Hunter, 3 Barn. & C. 

368; B.C. 10 Eng. C. L. 172; 
Poole's Case, 1 Salk. 368 ; 
Scorell V. Boxall, 1 You. & J. 398. 
Compare : Norris v. Watson, 22 

N. H. 364; s.c. 55 Am. Dec.160. 
* Green V. Armstrong, 1 Den. (N. Y.) 

550, 556. 
See : Austin v. Sawyer, 9 Cow. 

(N. Y.I 39 ; 
Newcomb v. Eeimer, 3 John. 

(N. Y.) 421n. ; 
Mumford v. Whitnev, 15 Wend. 

(N. Y.) 387 ; s.c. 30 Am. Dec. 

60; 
Jones V. Flint, 10 Ad. & E. 753 ; 

s.c. 37 Eng. C. L. 397 ; 
Graves v. Weld, 5 Barn. & Ad. 

105 ; s.c. 37 Eng. C. L. 53 : 



50 



CROPS PRODUCED BY LABOR. 



[Book I. 



severed, like wheat or corn, or dug like potatoes or tur- 
nips, or pulled like beets or onions ; ^ because, at common 
law, a growing crop, produced by the expense and labor of 
the occupier of the land, was, as the representative of that 
labor and expense, considered as an independent chattel, ^ 



Evans v. Roberts, 5 Barn. & C. 
829 ; s.c. 11 Eng. C. L. 700 ; 

Parker v. Staniland, 11 East 362 ; 
s.c. 10 Rev. Rep. 521 ; 

Warwick v. Bruce, 2 Maule & S. 
205; 

Stainsbury v. Matthews, 4 Mees. 
& W. 343 ; 

Carrington v. Roots, 2 Mees. & 
W. 348. 
' Dunne v. Ferguson, Hayes (Ir. 
Exch.) 543 ; 

Warwick v. Bruce, 3 Maule & S. 
305. 

Saiasbury v. Matthews, 4 Mees. & 
W. 343 ; 

As to what constitutes a valid levy, 
there is a variety of opinion 
amongst the decided cases. 

InWhipplew. Foot, 3 John. (N. Y.) 
418 ; B.C. 3 Am. Dec. 442, it is 
said that to make a valid levy 
of an execution on growing 
crops, it is not necessary tliat a 
manual possession . should be 
taken ; that it is sufficient 
merely to declare that the sub- 
jects is levied on under execu- 
tion. 

In State v. Poor, 4 Dev. & B. 
(N. C.) L. 384; s.c. 34 Am. 
Dec. 387, it is said that a levy 
upon a growing crop is insuf- 
ficient, unless the officer take 
open and notorious possession 
by entering the premises, and 
pubUcly announcing the seiz- 
ure to answer the writ. To the 
same effect is 

Trivillo v. Tilford, 6 Watts (Pa.) 
468 ; s.c. 31 Am. Dec. 484. 

See : Dorrance's Adrar. v. Com- 
monwealth, 13 Pa. St. 164 ; 

L,oury v. Coiilter, 9 Pa. St. 349,353. 

In Beekmanu. Lansing, B Wend. 
(N. Y.) 416 ; s c. 30 Am. Dec. 
707, it is said that to constitute 
a valid levy, the officer must 
enter upon the premises where 
the crops or goods are and take 
actual possession of them, if it 
can be done ; they must be 
brought within his view and 
iiiade subject to his control ; 
and this doctrine is approved in 



Roth V. WeUs, 39 N. Y. 485 ; 
Rodgers v. Bonner, 55 Barb. 

(N. Y.) 9, 24 ; 
Camp V. Chamberlain, 5 Den. 

(N. Y.) 203 ; 
Green v. Burke, 23 Wend. (N. Y.) 

490, 493 ; 
V/estervelt'u. Pinckney, 14 Wend. 

(N. Y.) 123 ; s.c. 28 Am. Dec. 

516. 
See : Commonwealth v. Strem- 

back, 3 Rawle (Pa.) 341 ; s.c. 

24 Am. Dec. 351. 
It seems that the officer should 

assert his title, by virtue of the 

writ, by acts which, were it not 

for the ' execution, would make 

him a trespasser. 
Westervelt v. Pinckney,14 Wend. 

(N. Y.) 133,; s.c. 28 Am. Dec. 

516. 
See : Roth v. Wells, 39 N. Y. 485 ; 
Camp V. Chamberlain, 5 Den. 

(N. Y.) 198, 203 ; 
Green v. Burke, 19 Wend. (N. Y.) 

497; 
Beekman v. Lansing, 3 Wend. 

(N. Y.) 446 ; s.c. 30 Am. Dec. 

707. 
' Graff V. Fitoh, 56 lU. 373 ; s.c. 11 

Am. Rep. 85 ; 
Matlock V. Fry, 15 Ind. 483 ; 
Craddock v. Riddlesbarger, 2 

Dana (Ky.) 305 ; 
Burner v. Piercy, 40 Md. 212 ; s.c. 

17 Am. Rep. 591; 
Westbrook v. Eager, 16 N. J. 

L. (1 Harr.) 81 ; 
Harris v. Frink, 49 N. Y. 34 ; s.c. 

10 Am. Rep. 318 ; 
Whipple V. Foot, 3 John. (N. Y.) 

418 ; s.c. 3 Am. Dec. 443 ; 
Austin V. Sawyer, 9 Cow. (N. Y.) 

39; 
Mumford v. Whitney, 15 Wend. 

(N. Y.) 387 ; s.c. 30 Am. Dec. 

60; 
Pourrier v. Raymond, 1 Haim. 

(N. B.) 530 ; 
Jones V. Flint, 10 Ad. & E. 758 ; 

s.c. 37 Eng. C. L. 396 ; 
Evans v. Roberts, 5 Bam. & C. 

839 ; s.c. 11 Eng. C. L. 700 ; 
Poulter V. KiHingbeck, 1 Bos. & 

P. 397 ; 



Chap. II. § 53.] IMMATtTBE. AND GEOWING CROPS. 



51 



and the purchaser has a lawful right of entry, egress 
and regress, for the purpose of removal.-' 

It has been said that the fact that the crop is imma- 
ture and growing will not invalidate the sale,^ because 
all crops of grain or vegetables, the annual product of 
human labor and the cultivation of the soil, are per- 
sonal property and subject to be sold as such before 
maturity, no matter how long they are to remain in the 
soil in order to complete their growth.^ The reason for 



Parker v. Stamland, 11 East 362; 
B.C. 10 Rev. Rep. 521 ; 

Dunne v. Ferguson, Hayes (Ir. 
Exch.) 542 ; 

"Warwick v. Bruce, 2 Maule & S. ; 
205; 

Sainsbury v. Matthews, 4 Mees. & 
W. 343; 

Another lino of English cases deny 
that crops are personal prop- 
erty, and maintain that they 
can be transferred as real estate 
only. 

See: Earl of Falmouth v. Tliomas, 
1 Cromp. & M. 89 ; 

Emmerson v. Heelis, 2 Taunt. 
88. 

• Thompson v. Craigmyle, 4 B. Mon. 

(Ky.) 391 ; s.c. 41 Am. Dec. 

240; 
Brittain v. McKay, 1 Ired. (N. C.) 

L. 265 ; s.c. 35 Am. Dec. 738. 
See : Coombs u Jordan, 3 Bland. 

Ch. (Md.) 284 ; s.c. 23 Am. Dec. 

236; 
Austin V. Sawyer, 9 Cow. (N. Y.) 

39 * 
Stewart v. Doughty, 9 John. 

(N. y.) 108 ; 
Whipple V. Foot, 3 John. (N. Y.) 

418 ; s.c. 3 Am. Dec. 442 ; 
Cheshire Bank v. Jewett, 119 

Mass. 224 ; 
PenhaUow v. Dwight, 7 Mass. 

34 ; s.c. 5 Am. Dec. 21 ; 
Bond V. Coke, 71 N. C. 100 ; 
Walton V. Jordan, 65 N. C. 172 ; 
Lewis V. McNatt, 65 N. C. 65 ; 
Smith V. Tritt, 1 Dev. & B. (N. C.) 

L. 241 ; s.c. 28 Am. Dec. 565 ; 
Robinson v. Gee, 4 Ired. (N. C.) 

L. 186, 101 ; 

* Craddock v. Riddlesbarger, 3 

Dana (Ky.) 200 ; 
Austin V. Sawyer, 9 Cow. (N. Y.) 

42 • 
Jones V. FUnt, 10 Ad. & E. 753 ; 

B.C. 37 Eng. C. L. 396 ; 



Carriugtonw. Roots, 3 Mees. & W. 

248. 
Compare: Emmerson v. Heelis, 

3 Taunt. 38. 
' DsTis V. McFarlane, 37 Cal. 634 ; 
Marshall v. Ferguson, 23 Cal. 65 ; 
Bostwick V: Leach, 3 Day (Conn.) 

476; 
Ticknor v. McClelland, 84 III. 471; 
Thompson v. Wilhte, 81 111. 356 ; 
Graff V. Fitch, 58 III. 373, 377 ; 

s.c. 11 Am. Rep. 85 ; 
Bull V. Griswold, 19 111. 631 ; 
MUler V. State, 39 Ind. 267 ; 
Sherry v. Kcken, 10 Ind. 375 ; 
Bowman v. Conn, 8 Ind. 58 ; 
Brioker v. Hughes, 4 Ind. 146 ; 
Northern v. State, 1 Ind. 113 ; 
Moreland v. Myall, 14 Bush (Ky.) 

474; 
Craddock v. Riddlesbarger, 3 

Dana (Ky.) 205 ; 
Robbins v. Oldham, 1 Duv. (Ky.) 

38; 
Bryant v. Crosby, 40 Me. 9, 23 ; 
Cutler V. Pope, 13 Me. 377 ; 
Saflford v. Annis, 7 Me. 168 ; 
Purner v. Piercy, 40 Md. 213 ; s.c. 

17 Am. Rep. 591 ; 
Smith V. Bryan, 5 Md. 141 ; s.c. 

59 Am. Dec. 104 ; 
Delaney v. Root, 99 Mass. 546 ; 

s.c. 97 Am. Dec. 53; 
Ross V. Welch, 77 Mass. (11 Gray) 

235; 
Brown v. Sanborn, 21 Minn. 402 • 
Howe V. Batchelder, 49 N. H. 204; 
Pitkin V. Noyes, 48 N. H. 294 ; 

s.c. 2 Am. Rep. 218 ; 
Kingsley v. Holbrook, 45 N. H. 

313 ; s.c. 86 Am. Dec. 173 ; 
Westbrook v. Eager, 16 N. J. L. 

(1 Harr.) 81 ; 
Bloom V. Welsh, 27 N. J. L. (3 

Dutch.) 177 ; 
Lacustrine Fertilizer Co. v. Lake 

Guano Fertilizer Co., 82 N. Y. 

476,484; 



0-2 



CROPS OF A MIXED NATUEE. 



[Boos h 



this is that growing crops being personal property so fa^ 
as to be capable of severance and sale by oral contract, 
an agreement for their sale is not an agreement for the 
sale of an interest in land.^ 

Sec. 54. Same — Products of a mixed nature — Hops. — 
There are some products of the earth which partake 
both of the nature of fructus industriales and fructus 
naturales. In such a case the true test has been said 
to be whether the crop is produced chiefly by the manur- 
ance and industry of man. Thus the fact that a crop is 
produced from perennial roots is not conclusive evidence 
that it is to be ranked as a fructus naturales, and as 
such to pass with the soil. Hop-roots are perennial,^ 
and doubtless as much a part of the soil as the forest 



Reeder v. Sayre, 70 N. Y. 180 ; 

s.c. 36 Am. Rep. 567, aflfii-mmg 

6Hun(N. Y.)563; 
Harris v. Frink, 49 N. Y. 34 ; s.c. 

10 Am. Rep. 318 ; 
Austin V. Sawyer, 9 Cow. (N. Y.) 

39; 
Green v. Armstrong, 1 Den. (N. 

Y.) 550, 554 ; 
Hartwell v. Bissell, 17 John. 

(N. Y.) 138 ; 
Stewart v. Doughty, 9 John. 

(N.Y.) 108 ; 
Frear v. Hardenberg, 5 John. 

(N. Y.) 373 ; s.c. 4 Am. Dec. 

356; 
Newcomb v. Ramer, 3 John. 

(N. Y.)431, note a; 
Whipple V. Foot, 3 John. (N. Y.) 

418 ; S.C. 3 Am. Dec. 443 ; 
Brittain v. McKay, 1 Ired. (N. C.) 

L. 265 ; 
Hershey v. Metzgar, 90 Pa. St. 

317; 
Baokenstoss v. Stahler's Admr., 

33 Pa. St. 361, 354 ; s.c. 75 Am. 

Deo. 592 ; 
Wilkins v. Vashbinder, 7 Watts 

(Pa.) 379 : 
Bellows V. Wells, 36 Vt. 509 ; 
Jones V. Flint, 10 Ad. & El. 753 ; 

s.c. 37 Eng. C. L. 396 ; 
Evans v. Roberts, 5 Bam. & C. 

829 ; s.c. 11 Eng. C. L. 700 ; 
Sainsbury v. Matthews, 4 Mees. 

& W. 343 ; 
Dunne v. Ferguson, 1 Hayes (T 

Exch.) 540. 



' See : Marshall /y. Ferguson, 33 Cal. 

65, 69 ; 
Bostwick V. Leach, 3 Day (Conn.) 

476; 
Reed v. Johnson, 14 III. 357 ; 
Sherry v. Picken, 10 Ind. 375 ; 
Craddock v. Riddlesbarger, 2 

Dana (Ky.) 304 ; 
Parham v. Thompson, 3 J. J. 

Marsh. (Ky.) 159 ; 
Saflford v. Annis, 7 Me. (7Greenl.) 

168; 
Pumer v. Piercy, 40 Md. 313 ; s.c. 

17 Am. Rep. 591 ; 
Smith V. Bryan, 5 Md. 141 ; s.c. 

59 Am. Deo. 104 ; 
Westbrook v. Eager, 16 N. J. L. 

(1 Harr.) 81 ; 
Green v. Armstrong, 1 Den. 

(N. Y.) 550 ; 
Smith V. Tritt, 1 Dev. &B. (N. C.) 

L. 241 ; s.c. 38 Am. Dec. 564 ; 
Brittain v. McKay, 1 Ired. (N. C.) 

L. 365 ; s.c. 35 Am. Dec. 738 ; 
Backenstoss v. Stahler's Admr., 

33 Pa. St. 351 ; s.c. 75 Am. Dec. 

593; 
Bear v. Bitzer, 16 Pa. St. 178 ; s.c. 

55 Am. Dec. 490 ; 
Wilkins v. Vashbinder, 7 Watts 

(Pa.) 378 ; 
Evans v. Roberts, 5 Bam. & C. 

839 ; s.c. 11 Eng. C. L. 700 ; 
Sainsbury v. Matthews, 4 Mees. 

& W. 343 ; 
Eaton V. Southby, Willes, 131 ; 
Scorell V. Boxall, 1 You. & J. 396. 
See: Bishop i;.Bishop, 11 N.Y. 12a 



Chap. II. § 55.] 



FRUCTUS NATUEALES. 



63 



trees, but the crop of hops grown from these roots de- 
pends entirely upon the manurance and industry of man 
for its value, and for that reason is classed as fructus 
industridles, and is personal property.^ 

Sec. 55. Pruetus naturales.— The natural product of 
the soil without man's intervention, such as trees before 
being felled and converted into timber,^ and fruit before 
it is gathered,^ were at common law regarded as much a 
part of the soil as the earth from which they sprung.* 
Yet they may in a measure be dealt with and treated by' 
the owner as chattels, the same as fructus industriales, 
and may be sold as such where the intention of the 
parties contemplates that they shall be severed and 
removed immediately, or within a reasonable time ; 
but should the sale contemplate their being left to grow 
or obtain additional strength and increase from the 
earth, it will be regarded as a sale of an interest in the 
realty,^ and for that reason is within the statute of 



> Stewart v. Doughty, 9 John. 
(N. Y.) 108 ; 

Graves v. Weld, 5 Barn. & Ad. 
105 ; S.C. 3 Nev. & M. 725 ; 27 
Eng. C. L. 53 ; 

Evans v. Roberts, 5 Barn. & Ores. 
839 ; s.c. 11 Eng. C. L. 700 ; 

Latham v. Atwood, Cro. Car. 
515; 

Anonymous Case, Freem. Ch. 
210; 

Fisher v. Forbes, 9 Vin. Abr. 
373, pi. 82 ; 

2 Bl. Com. 122 ; 

1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 55a, 55b. 
' See : United States v. Sohuler, 6 

McL. C. C. 87. 
' Blackberries finictns naturales.— In 
Sparrow v. Pond, 49 Minn. 413 ; 
s.c. 53 N. W. Rep. 36, in an opin- 
ion going over the ancient learn- 
ing on the subject, it is held that 
blackberries, while growing on 
the bushes, are not subject to a 
levy under an execution as 
personal property. They are 
not fructus industriales, like 
grain, but are fructus natur- 
ales, like natural bushes and 
grasses, and are regarded as a 
part of the realty. 
* See : Adams u Smith, Breese (111.) 
321; 



Olmstead v. Niles, 7 N. H. 523 ; 
Putney v. Day, 6 N. H. 430 ; s.c. 

25 Am. Dec. 470 ; 
Slocum V. Seymour, 36 N. J. L. 

(7 Vr,) 138 ; 
Bank of Lansingburgh v. Crary, 1 

Barb. (N. Y.) 543 ; 
Green v. Armstrong, 1 Den. (N. 

Y.) 550, 556 ; 
Teal V. Auty, 3 Brod. & B. 99 ; 
Crosby v. Wads worth, 6 East 

603 ; s.c. 3 Smith, 599 ; 8 Rev. 

Rep. 566 ; 
Rodwell V. Phillips, 9 Mees. & W. 

501. 
5 See : White v. Foster, 102 Mass. 

375 * 
Harreil v. MiUer, 35 Miss. 700 ; 
Howe V. Batchelder, 49 N. H. 

304; 
Kingsley v. Holbrook, 45 N. H. 

313 ; s.c. 86 Am. Dec. 173 ; 
Olmstead v. Niles, 7 N. H. 532 ; 
Slocum V. Seymour, 36 N. J. L. 

(7 Vr.) 138 ; 
Vorebeck v. Rowe, 50 Barb. (N. 

Y.) 303 ; 
Warren v. Leland, 3 Barb. (N. 

Y.) 613 ; 
Green v. Armstrong, 1 Den. (N. 

Y.) 550 ; 
Pattison's Appeal, 61 Pa. St 

394 ; s.c. 100 Am. Dec. 637 ; 



54 



GROWmG TREES— REALTY. 



[Book I. 



frauds, and should be in writing.^ This rule has been ap- 
plied in the sale of shrubs and nursery trees, ^ in the sale of 
growing trees, ^ in the sale of grass in the meadow ready 
to be cut,* and in the sale of an apple and peach crop/ 

Sec. 56. Same — Growing trees.— Growing trees are re- 
garded as a part of the land from which they spring,® 
and as such are real property. '^ Being an interest in 
land,^ as long as they are not actually, or in contempla- 
tion of law, severed from the soil, they are within the 
statute of frauds, and the property in them cannot be 
transferred by parol;* but when once they are severed, 



Huff V. MoCauley, 53 Pa. St. 306 ; 
Buck V. Pickwell, 27 Vt. 157 ; 
lillie V. Dunbar, 62 Wis. 198; 

s.c. 22 N. W. Rep. 467 ; 
Daniels v. Bailey, 48 Wis. 566 ; 
Summers v. Cook, 28 Grant (Ont.) 

179; 
Macdonnell v. McKay, 15 Grant 

(Ont.) 391. 
» Putney v. Day, 6 If. H. 480 ; s.c. 

25 Am. Dec. 470 ; 
Green v. Armstrong, 1 Den. (N. 

Y ") 550 556 ■ 
Olmstead v. Niles, 7 N. H. 523 ; 
Jones V. Flint, 10 Ad. & E. 

753 ; s.c. 87 Eng. O. L. 397 ; 
Teal V. Auty, 3 Brod. & B. 99 ; 
Crosby v. Wadsworth, 6 East 

603'; s.c. 3 Smith, 599 ; 8 Rev. 

Rep. 566 ; 
Rodwell V. Phillips, 9 Mees. & W. 

501. 
' See : Whitmarsh v. Walker, 42 

Mass. (1 Met.) 313. 
' Byassee v. Reese, 4 Met. (Ky.) 

872 ; s.c. 88 Am. Dec. 481 ; 
Cutler V. Pope, 13 Me. 377 ; 
Erskine v. Plummer, 7 Me. (7 

Greenl.) 447 ; 
Purner v. Piercy, 40 Md. 213 ; s.c. 

17 Am. Rep. 591 ; 
Nettleton v. Sikes, 49 Mass. (8 

Met.) 84 ; 
Claflin V. Carpenter, 45 Mass. (4 

Met.) 580 ; s.c. 8S Am. Dec. 

381 ; 
Putney v. Day, 6 N. H. 430 ; s.c. 

35 Am. Dec. 470 ; 
KOlmore v. Hewlett, 48 N. Y. 

569; 
Bovce V. Washburn, 4 Hun (N. 

Y.) 792 ; 
SterUng v. Baldwin, 42 Vt. 306. 
* See : Banton ■;;. Shorey, 77 Me. 48. 



" Cain V. McGuire, 13 B. Mon. (Ky.) 

340; 
Brown v. Stanclift, 80 N. Y. 637 ; 

s.c. 20 Alb. L. J. 55. 
See : Purner v. Pierce, 40 Md. 213 ; 

s.c. 17 Am. Rep. 591. 
« Baker v. Lewis, 38 Pa. St. 301 ; 

s.c. 75 Am. Dec. 698. 
' Vorebeck v. Roe, 50 Barb. (N. 

Y.) 302 ; 
Bank of Lansingburgh v. Crary, 

1 Barb. (N. Y.) 543 ; 
Green v. Armstrong, 1 Den. (N. 

Y.) 550 : 
Hutchins v. King, 68 U. S. (1 

Wall.) 58 ; bk. 17 L. cd. 544 ; 
Jones V. Fhnt, 10 Ad. & B. 753 ; 

s.c. 87 Eng. C. L. 397. 
8 Brackett v. Goddard, 54 Me. 809 ; 
Wright V. Barrett;, ,30 Mass. (13 

Pick.) 44 ; 
Warren v. Leland, 2 Barb. (N. 

Y.) 613. 
'McGregor v. Brown, 10 N. Y. 

114; 
Warren v. Leland, 3 Barb. (N. 

Y.) 613. 
Compare : Claflin v. Carpenter, 

45 Mass. (4 Met.) 580 ; 
Olmstead v. Niles, 7N. H. 532 ; 
Smith V. Surman, 9 Barn. & C. 

561 ; s.c. 17 Eng. C. L. 253. 
A parol contract conveys no interest 

in growing timber. — The New 

Brunswick Land Company v. 

Kirk, 1 Allen (N. B.) 443. 
Kennedy v. Robinson, 3 Cr. & 

Dix. 118 ; 
Kerr v. Connell, Bert. (N. B.) 

183 ; 
Murray v. Gilbert, 1 Hannay (N. 

B.) 553 ; ^ 

Segee v. Perley, 1 Kerr (N. B.) 

439. ^ 



Chap. n. § 56.] SALE OF TREES— FELLED TREES. 



55 



either in fact or in contemplation of law, they become 
personal property.^ The sale of growing trees, with the 
right at a future time — whether that time is fixed or in- 
definite — to enter upon the land and cut and remove 
them, conveys an interest in the land ; ^ but when the in- 
tention is to transfer the title of the trees after they shall 
have been felled, or separated from the realty, this is 
held to be an executory contract for the sale of personal 
property,^ and vests the title to the trees in the vendee 



' Claflin V. Carpenter, 45 Mass. (4 

Met.) 580 ; 
Smith V. Surman, 9 Bam. & C. 

561 ; s.c. 17 Eng. C. L. 353 ; 
Stukely v. Butler, Hob. 173. 
See : Olmstead v. Niles, 7 N. H. 

522 • 
Marshall v. Green, L. R. 1 C. P. 

Div. 35 ; s.c. 15 Moak's Eng. 

Rep. 218 ; 
Lilford's Case, 11 Co. 50. 
« Harrell v. Miller, 35 Miss. 700 ; 

s.c. 73 Am. Dec. 154; 
Howe V. Batchelder, 49 N. H. 

304; 
Kingsley v. Holbrook, 45 N. H. 

313; 
Ockington v. Richey, 41 N. H. 

275 ■ 
Ohnstead v. Niles, 7 N. H. 522 ; 
Putney v. Day, 6 N. H. 430 ; s.c. 

25 Am. Dec. 470 ; 
Hendrickson v. Ivins, 1 N. J. Eq. 

(1 Saxt.) 562 ; 
Slooum V. Seymour, 36 N. J. L. 

(7 Vr.) 138 ; s.c. 13 Am. Rep. 

433; 
McGregor v. Brown, 10 N. Y. 

114; 
Vorebeck r. Roe, 50 Barb. (N. Y.) 

303; 
SUvemail v. Cole, 13 Barb. 

(N. Y.) 685 ; 
Dubois V. KeUy, 10 Barb. (N. Y.) 

496; 
Pierrepont v. Barnard, 5 Barb. 

(N. Y.) 364 ; 
Warren v. Leland, 3 Barb. (N. 

Y.) 614 ; 
Bank of Lansingburgh v. Crary, 

1 Barb. (N. Y.) 543 ; 
Green v. Armstrong, 1 Den. (N. 

Y.) 550 ; 
Lawrence v. Smith, 37 How. (N. 

Y.) Pr. 337 ; 
Boyce v. Washburn, 4 Hun (N. 

Y.) 792 ; 
Mumford v. Whitney, 15 Wend. 



(N. Y.) 380 ; s.c. 30 Am. Dec. 

60; 
Harrell v. MUler, 35 Miss. 700 ; 
Bowers v. Bowers, 95 Pa. St. 

477; 
Pattison's Appeal, 61 Pa. St. 

394 ■ 
Huff V. McCauley, 53 Pa. St. 306 ; 

s.c. 91 Am. Dec. 303 ; 
Yeakle v. Jacob, 33 Pa. St. 376 ; 
Buck V. Pickwell, 87 Vt. 157 ; 
Hutchins v. King, 68 U. S. (1 

Wall.) 53 ; bk. 17 L. ed. 544. 
' Bostwiok V. Leach, 3 Day (Conn.) 

476, 481 ; 
Armstrong v. Lawson, 73 Ind. 

498; 
Owens V. Lewis, 40 Ind. 488 ; s.c. 

15 Am. Rep. 295 ; 
Byassee i\ Reese, 4 Met. (Ky.) 

373 ; s.c. 83 Am. Dec. 481 ; 
Cain V. McGuire, 13 B. Mon. (Ky.) 

340; 
Edwards v. Grand Trunk R. Co. , 

54 Me. 105 ; 
Cutler V. Pope, 13 Me. 377 ; 
Erskine v. Plummer, 7 Me. (7 

Greenl.) 447 ; s.c. 32 Am. Dec. 

316; 
Pumer v. Piercy, 40 Md. 312 ;: 

s.c. 17 Am. Rep. 591 ; 
Smith V. Bryan, 5 Md. 141 ; s.c. 

59 Am. Dec. 104 ; 
White V. Foster, 102 Mass. 375 ;: 
Delaney v. Root, 99 Mass. 546 ; 

s.c. 97 Am. Dec. 52; 
Drake v. Wells, 93 Mass. (11 Al- 
len) 141 ; 
Parsons v. Smith, 87 Mass. (5 A1-- 

len) 578 ; 
Giles t7.Simonds,81 Mass.(15 Gray).' 

441 ; s.c. 77 Am. Dec. 373 ; 
Douglas V. Shumway, 79 Mass. 

(13 Gray) 498 : 
Nettleton v. Sikes, 49 Mass.. (8^ 

Met.) 34 ; 
Claflin V. Carpenter, 45 Mass. (4' 

Met.) 580; s.c. 38 Am. Deo. 381; 



6G 



OVERHANGING TREES— PROPERTY IN. [Book I. 



absolutely.^ It has been said that the grant by the owner 
of land of all the timber standing and growing thereon 
to another and his heirs and assigns forever, with per- 
mission freely to enter, cut and carry them away at 
pleasure, conveys an estate of inheritance in the trees, 
with the right in the soil necessary for their support and 
growth, while the fee in the soil itself remains in the 
grantor.^ 

Sec. 57. Same — Same — Overhanging trees. — Where the 
trunk of a tree is wholly upon the land of one person, it is 
a part of his land^ and he is entitled to all its fruit,* not- 
withstanding the fact that some of the branches over- 
hang and some of the roots penetrate the land of an ad- 
jacent owner. ^ And this is thought to be true even after 



Whitmarsh v. Walker, 43 Mass. 

(1 Meto.) 313 ; 
Harrell v. Miller, 35 Miss. 700 ; 

s.c. 73 Am. Dec. 154 ; 
KiUmore v. Hewlett, 48 N. Y. 

569; 
Mumford v. Whitney, 15 Wend. 

(N. Y.) 380 ; s.c. 30 Am. Dec. 

60; 
McClintook's Appeal, 71 Pa. St. 

865; 
Sterling v. Baldwin, 43 Vt. 306 ; 
EUison V. Brigham, 38 Vt. 64 ; 
Marshall v. Green, L. R. 1 C. P. 

Div. 35 ; s.c. 15 Moak's Eng. 

Rep. 318. 
' Owens V. Lewis, 46 Ind. 488 ; s.c. 

15 Am. Rep. 395 ; 
Russell V. Richards, 11 Me. (3 

Fairf.) 371 ; s.c. 86 Am. Dec. 

583 ; 10 Me. (1 Fairf.) 429 ; 35 

Am. Dec. 254 ; 
Drake v. Wells, 93 Mass. (11 Al- 
len) 141, 143 ; 
Giles V. Simonds, 81 Mass. (15 

Gray) 441 ; s.c. 77 Am. Dec. 

373; 
McNeal v. Emerson, 81 Mass. (15 

Gray) 884 ; 
Heath v. Randall, 58 Mass. (4 

Gush.) 195 ; 
Nettleton v. Sikes, 49 Mass. (8 

Met.) 34 ; 
Pierrepont v. Barnard, 6 N. Y. 

379; S.C. 5 Barb. (N. Y.) 364; 
3 Am. Lead. Cas. (4th ed.) 739, 

740, 746, 753 ; 
Smith V. Benson, 1 Hill (N. Y.) 

176; 



Mumford v. Whitney, 15 Wend. 

(N. Y.) 380 ; s.c. 30 Am. Dec. 

60; 
Barnes v. Barnes, 6 Vt. 388. 
= See : White v. Foster, 102 Mass. 

375 ; 
Delaney v. Root, 99 Mass. 546; 

s.c. 97 Am. Deo. 53 ; 
Clap V. Draper, 4 Mass. 266 ; s.c. 

8 Am. Dec. 315 ; 
Knotts V. Hydrick, 13 Rich. (S. 

C.) L. 814. 
' Lyman v. Hale, 11 Conn. 177 ; 

s.c. 37 Am. Dec. 738 ; 
Hoffman v. Armstrong, 48 N. Y. 

301, 303 ; s.c. 8 Am. Rep. 537 ; 
Dubois V. Beaver, 35 N. Y. 123 ; 

s.c. 83 Am. Dec. 386 ; 
Holder v. Coates, 1 Moo. & M. 

113 ; s.c. 23 Eng. C. L. 485 ; 
Masters v. PoUie, 3 RoUe, 141. 
Compare : Waterman v. Soper, 1 

Ld. Raym. 787. 
* Hoffman v. Armstrong, 48 N. Y. 

201 ; s.c. 8 Am. Rep. 537 ; 
Skinner v. Wilder, 38 Vt. 115; 

s.o. 88 Am. Dec. 645 ; 
Master v. PoUie, 2 Rolle, 141. 
See : Norrice v. Baker, 3 Bulst. 

196; 
Mitten v. Faudrye, Poph. 161, 

163. 
' Lyman v. Hale, 11 Conn. 177 ; s.c. 

37 Am. Dec. 738 ; 
Hoffman v. Armstrong, 48 N. Y. 

301 ; s.c. 8 Am. Rep. 587 ; 

affirming 46 Barb. (N. Y.) 337, 
Dubois V. Beaver, 35 N. Y. 133 ; 

s.c. 88 Am. Dec. 836 ; 



ChaPo II. § 58.] LINE TREES— COMMON PROPEETY. 



57 



the fruit ripens and falls from the branches of the tree 
on to the land of such adjoining owner ; and that the 
owner of the tree may enter peaceably and take the fallen 
fruit away.^ The adjoining owner, however, cannot be 
required to submit to this trespass of the tree on his land, 
but may cut the penetrating roots and lop oif the over- 
hanging branches.^ 



Sec. 58. same — Same — " Line trees."— When a tree 
stands upon the boundary line between two adjacent 
properties, so that a part of the trunk of the tree is on 
one side and a part on the ©ther side of the line, the tree 
and its fruit is then the common property of the owners 
of the adjoining estates, and neither can remove or in- 
jure either without the consent of the other.^ 



Skinner tJ. Wilder, 38 Vt. 115 ; s.c. 
88 Am. Deo. 645. 

Eiglita of adjoining owners in tree 
wholly on one's land.— In Dubois 
V. Beaver, supra, Allen, J., 
says that diflerent opinions 
have been held as to the rights 
of the owners of adjoining es- 
tates in trees planted, and the 
bodies of which are wholly 
upon one, while the roots ex- 
tend and grow into the other ; 
some holding that, in .such 
cases, the tree, by reason of 
the nourishment derived from 
both estates, becomes the joint 
property of the owners of such 

Griffin v. Bixby, 13 N. H. 454 ; 

s.c. 37 Am. Dec. 325 ; 
Waterman v. Soper, 1 Ld. Eaym. 

737; 
2 Bouv. Inst. 158. 
While others, with better reason, 

it seems to me, hold that the tree 

is wholly the property of him 

on whose land the trunk stands. 
Lyman v. Hale, 11 Conn. 117 ; 

s.c. 27 Am. Deo. 728 ; 
Holder v. Coates, 1 Moo. & M. 

112; 
Masters v. PoUie, 3 EoUe, 141 ; 
Oabbe on Real Prop. § 96. 
1 See : Parsons' Laws of Business 

(2d ed.) 817. 
■2 Grandona v. Lovdal, 70 Cal. 161 ; 

s.c. 11 Pac. Rep. 623 ; 
Lyman v. Hale, 11 Conn. 173 ; 

8.C. 37 Am. Dec. 738, 731. 



Cope V. Marshall, 1 Burr. 368 ; 

Welch V. Nash, 8 East 394 ; s.c. 
9 Rev. Rep. 478 ; 

Waterman v. Soper, 1 Ld. Raym. 
737 ' 

Masters v. PoUie, 3 Rolle, 141, 
144; 

Rex V. Pappineau, 2 Str. 688 ; 

Crowhurst iK Am. Burial Board, 
39 L. T. N. S. 355. 

Noisauce of overhangingf branches 
abated, —In Lyman v. Hale, 11 
Conn. 173; s.c. 27 Am. Dec. 
728, 731, Btbsbll, J., ^ays : 
Now, if these branches were 
a nuisance to the defendant's 
land, he had clearly a right to 
treat them as such, and as such 
to remove them. But he as 
clearly had no right to convert 
either the branches or the fruit 
to his own use. 

Beardslee v. French, 7 Conn. 
125 ; s.c. 18 Am. Deo. 86 ; 

Dyson v. CoUick, 5 Barn. & Aid. 
600 ; 7 Serg. & Lowb. 205 ; s.c. 
7 Eng. C. L. 328 ; 

Welch V. Nash, 8 East 294. 
' Griffin v. Bixby, 12 N. H. 454 ; 
s.c. 37 Am. Dec. 225 ; 

Dubois V. Beaver, 35 N. Y. 123 ; 
s.c. 83 Am. Dec. 336 ; 

Skinner v. Wilder, 38 Vt. 115; 
s.c. 88 Am. Deo. 645 ; 

Waterman v. Soper, 1 Ld. Raym. 
737; 

Anonymous Case, 3 Rolle, 355. 

See : Odiorna v. Lvford, 9 N. H. 
502, 511,; s.c. 32 Am. Dec. 387.. 



5g CUT TREES— GEOUND-RENT. [BOOK I. 

Sec. 59. Same— Cut trees.— Although growing trees are 
a part of the soil, and pass with it on conveyance, whether 
upright or prostrate,^ as soon as trees are severed from 
the root by being cut or blown down they become " tim- 
ber" or "lumber," according to the use to which the 
fallen trunk can be applied.^ Where such tree-trunks 
are allowed to lie upon the ground where they fell, they 
will remain fixtures and pass by a deed of the land ; ^ 
but where the fallen trunks have been worked up into 
hewed timbers, posts and round logs, or other materials, 
and are lying loosely upon the land, though originally 
intended to be put into a building upon the land, they 
cease to be fixtures and do not pass by a deed of the 
realty, nor under the description of appurtenances.* 

Sec. 60. Ground-rent— Definition.-Ground-rent is a rent 
reserved by a grantor to himself and his heirs, as a 
consideration, or part consideration, of a conveyance of 
land in fee-simple.^ We are not aware that ground-rents, 
eo nomine, and as a species of real estate, exist in any 
state in the Union, aside from Pennsylvania.^ Being in 
the nature of a common-law rent, this species of property 
is deserving of a brief exposition here. Although ground- 
rents are frequently called, by conveyancers and others, 
rent charges, and although in drawing the ground-rent 
deed they are invariably treated as such, the land being 
expressly charged with the right of distress, yet it has 
been, settled since the case of IngersoU v. Sergeant,'' that 
they are rents service. 

Trespass for cutting "line" tree. '^ Bosler t). Kuhn, 8 Watts&S. (Pa.) 

— It is said in the case of Eel- 183, 185 ; 

yea v. Beaver, 34 Barb. (N. Y.) Kenege v. Elliott, 9 Watts (Pa.) 

547, that whether " line trees " 258, 263 ; 

are common property or not, Anderson's L. Die. 496; 

trespass wiU lie by one owner 1 Bouv. L. Diet. (15th ed.) 723. 

against an adjoining owner for " See an interesting and instructive 

cutting such a tree. paper on "Ground-rents in 

1 Cockrill V. Downey, 4 Kan. 426. Philadelphia," in the Quarterly 

See : Ante, § 56. Journal of Economics, vol. II. , 

' See : United States v. Schuler, G pp. 397-314. 

McL. C. C. 37. ' 1 Whart. (Pa.) 337. 

" Brackett v. Goddard, 54 Me. See : Franciscus v. Reigart 4 

309. Watts (Pa.) 98 ; 

•> Cook V. Whiting, 16 lU. 480. Kenege v. EUiott, 9 Whart. (Pa ) 

258, 263. ' 



Chap. II. §§ 61, 62.] CREATION OF GROUND-RENT. 59 

Sec. 61. Same— Nature and method of creation. — Ground- 
rent, like rent granted for owelty of partition, or in lieu. 
of dower, partakes of the realty, and has no touch of 
personal responsibility in its complexion ; and even where 
the reservation is attended with a clause of distress, the 
land is exclusively the debtor ; ^ that is, the obligation to 
pay a ground-rent arises from no mere personal covenant 
to pay, but by force of the reservation and acceptance 
of the land. The former is by words exclusively of the 
grantor himself, but by which the grantee becomes bound 
upon acceptance of the estate.^ It must not be under- 
stood by this that the grantee is not personally liable 
upon any express covenants he may have made to pay 
rent, or in an action of debt or assumpsit at common 
law ; ^ but simply that the ground-rent is created by the 
reservation and not by the covenant to pay. The con- 
sideration for the payment of the rent is the enjoyment 
of the land ;* there is, therefore, no personal responsibil- 
ity independent of such enjoyment, and hence it is that 
the land is termed the debtor.^ The covenant is but an 
accessory, the rent being the principal.® 

Sec. 62. Same — Disposition of in case of intestacy .—The 
interest of the owner of the ground-rent is an estate alto- 
gether distinct, and of a very different nature from that 
which the owner of the land has in the land itself. Each is 
considered the owner of a fee-simple estate. The one has 
an estate of inheritance in the rent, and the other has an 
estate of inheritance in the land out of which the rent 
issues. The One is an incorporeal inheritance in fee, and 
the other is a corporeal inheritance in fee.^ Ground- 

' Bosler v. Kuhn, 8 Watts & S. long as the title he receives from 

(Pa ) 183 185. the gi-antor proves sufficient to 

« 1 Co. Litt. '(19th ed.) '144a. secure and protect him'in that 

3 See : Maule v. Weaver, 7 Pa. St. enjoyment. „ „ „ o^ 

339 331 See : Nagle v. IngersoU, 7 Pa. St. 

* Warner vl Cault, 3 Whart. (Pa.) 185 ; 

193 197 . St. Mary's Church v. Mues, 1 



IngersoU v. Sergeant, 1 Whart. Whart. (Pa ) 229, 235 ; 

(Pa.) 337. Garrison v. Moore (Pa.), 9 Leg. 

le enioyment of the land is so Int. 2. . „ 1 

completely the consideration « Chief Justice Gibson, m Hosiery. 

for the payment of the rent, Kuha, 8 Watts & S (Pa^) 185. 

that the grantee of the land is ' Irwin v. Bank of United States, 

bound to pay the rent only as 1 Pa. St. 849. 



60 HEIRLOOMS— NOT RECOGNIZED HERE. [Book I. 

rents, being real estate,' in case of intestacy, go to the 
heirs and not to the administrator or executor.-' 

Sec. 63. Heirlooms — Definition.— Heirlooms are a class 
of goods and chattels whi(3h, contrary to the nature of 
chattel property, goes, by special custom in England, 
to the heir along with the inheritance, and not to the 
executor of the last proprietor,^ and is neither lands nor 
tenements, but a mere movable ; yet being inheritable 
is comprised under the general term hereditaments.^ 
Heirlooms are generally implements and articles of fur- 
niture * which cannot be taken away without damaging 
or dismembering the freehold ; ^ such as a horn long on 
the estate,® Journals of the House of Lords, delivered to 
a peer,^ family pictures,® doves in a dove-cot,^ rabbits in a 
warren,^" fish in a pond,^^ deer in a park,^ jewels in 
a crown, 1^ family jewels,^* and charts and evidences 
attendant on the inheritance.^'' 

Sec. 64. Same — Not recognized in America.— It is thought 
that the laws of this country do not recognize heir- 
looms,^® notwithstanding the fact that Ohio courts are 
said to have held that they are exempt from execution, i" 

' Cobb V. Biddle, 14 Pa. St. 444. Shep. Touch. 470. 

' 2 Bl. Com. 437 ; It seems that it wiU be otherwise 

I Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 18b ; where the deer are tamed. 

II Vin. Abr. 167. See : Morgan v. Abergavenny, 
See : Spooner v. Brewster, 3 Bing. 8 C. B. 768, 788 ; s.c. 65 Eng. 

136 ; s.c. 11 Eng. C. L. 75 ; C. L. 767, 787. 

Byng V. Byng, 10 H. L. Cas. '^ g gj Com. 438 ; 1 Co. Litt. 18. 

183 ; " These may be heirlooms inde- 

Petre v. Heneage, 13 Mod. 530 ; pendently of the real estate. 

s.c. 1 Ld. Raym. 738 ; SheUey v. Shelley, 37 L. J. Ch. 

Pusey V. Pusey, 1 Vem. 273. 357 ; s.c. L. R. 6Eq. 540 : 16 W 

' 3 Bl. Com. 17 ; R. 1036. 

1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 388 ; Books are not heirlooms, and if 

Shep. Touch. 433. limited to go with the entailed 

■* Id. goods or estate, they become 

' 4 Bl. Com. 437. the absolute property of the 

" Pusey V. Pusey, 1 Vem. 373. first tenant in taU. 

' Upton V. Ferrers, 5 Ves. 806. Bridgewater v. Egerton, 3 Ves. 

8 Liford's Case, 11 Co. 50 ; Sr. 133. 

Savile v. Scarborough, 1 Swan. " Lord v. Wardle, 3 Bing. N. C 

537 ; s.c. 1 Wils. Ch. 239. 680 ; s.c. 32 Eng. C. L. 314. 

" Ford V. Tynte, 2 Johns. & H. 150. " See: Messeley's Estate, 5 W. N.C 

'» Ford V. Tynte, 2 Johns. & H. 103 ; 

150. 1 "Woener's Am. L. Admrs. 590. 

" Liford's Case, 11 Co. 50 ; " McMicken v. Board of Directors 

Shep. Touch. 470. of University, 2 Am. L. Ree, 

" Liford's Case, 11 Co. 50 ; N. S. 489. 



Chap. II. § 65.] BUILDINGS REAL ESTATE WHEN. 61 

awarded exemplary damages for their conversion,^ and 
to have declared that the bond given does not take their 
place in replevin.^ But the first case simply relates to 
family pictures, which are exempt by statute, the second 
is merely a reference, by way of illustration, to family 
pictures and other relics as objects having ideal values, 
and the third is barely a statement made arguendo by 
the court that where the thing replevied is of a peculiar 
or fictitious value, ' ' such as family portraits, heirlooms, 
personal mementos, and the like," the defendant will not 
necessarily be compelled to accept the appraisement in 
lieu of the article. 

Sec. 65. Houses and tatiildings.— A well-known maxim 
of the common law, quicquid plantatur solo, solo cedit, 
whatever is affixed to or planted in the ground, is a 
part of the soil,^ is recognized alike in England* and 
America.^ Under this rule all houses and buildings are 
included in the terms " lands " and " real estate." ^ All 
houses heing prima facie a part of the realty,^ if one per- 
son erects a house upon the lands of another without any 
interest in the land, and without any agreement thereto, 
such house becomes a part of the realty and passes 

1 Woolsey v. Seeley, "Wright (Ohio) Bellow v. New York Floating 

360. Dry Dock Co., 113 N. Y. 263, 

'■ Smith V. McGregor, 10 Ohio St. 283 ; s.c. 20 N. Y. S. R. 707 ; 

461 473 Beardsly v. Ontario Bank, 31 

' Kerr's " Adjudicated Words, Barb. (N. Y.) 619, 630 ; 

Phrases and Applied Maxims." Buckley v. Buckley, 11 Barb. 

^ Wake V. Hall, L. R. 8 App. Cas. (N. Y.) 43, 54 ; 

195; s.c. 52 L. J. Q. B. 494 ; King i-. Wilcomb, 7 Barb. (N. Y.) 

48 L. T. 834 ; 31 W. R. 585 ; 47 263, 366 ; 

J P. 548, aff'g L. R. 7 Q. B. D. St. Johnsbury & L. C. R. Co. v. 

595 ; 50 L. J. Q. B. 545 ; 44 L. T. Willard, 61 Vt. 134 ; s.c. 17 

43 ; 45 J. P. 340 ; Atl. Rep. 38 ; 3 L. R. A. 528. 

Minsiiall v. Lloyd, 3 Mees. & W. « Coombs v. Jordan, 3 Bland. Ch. 

450 ; (Md.) 284 ; s.c. 22 Am. Dec. 233 ; 

Deard'en v. Evans, 5 Mees. & W. Inhabitants of Sudbury v. Jones, 

li ; 62 Mass. (8 Cush.) 184, 189 ; 

BroWn Max. 401 ; 3 Bl. Com. 17 ; 

1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 53a. 1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 4a. 

* Inhabitants of Sudbury v. Jones, ' Ford v. Cobb, 20 N. Y. 344 ; 

63 Mass. (8 Cush.) 184, 189 ; Mott v. Palmer, 1 N. Y. 564 ; 

Price V. Weehawken Perry Co., Reid v. Kirk, 12 Rich. (S. C.) L. 

31 N. J. Eq. (4 Stew.) 34 ; 54 ; 

Williamson v. New Jersey S. R. Lipsky v. Borgmann, 52 Wis. 

Co 29 N. J. Eq. (2 Stew.) 317 ; 256 ; s.c. 38 Am. Rep. 735 ; 

North Hudson R. Co. v. Booraem, Huebschmann v. McHenry, 39 

28 N. J. Eq. (1 Stew.) 450, 454 ; Wis. 655. 



G2 BUILDINGS PASS WITH LAND. [Book I. 

with a conveyance of the land.^ And if a man builds 
a house on his own land with the materials of another, 
the property in the land vests in the building by the 
right of accession, and the owner of the land is only 
obliged to answer to the owner of the materials 
for their value. ^ This is on the principle that the 
nature has been changed and that the articles have be- 
come a part of the freehold.^ By the law of England, as 
well as by the civil law, trespassers who willfully take 
the property of another can acquire no right in it on the 
principle of accession, but the owner may reclaim it so 
long as he can establish its identity,* whatever alter- 
ation of form it may have undergone,^ unless it be 
changed into a different species and be incapable of res- 
titution to its former state ; and by the civil law even 
then the trespasser could acquire no right by accession^ 
unless the materials had been taken away in ignorance of 
their being the property of another.^ 

Sec. 66. Same — Built by tenant.— We will see in a sub- 

' Bonney v. Foss, 63 Me. 248 ; not the owners but the builders. 

Inhabitants of Sudbury v. Jones, Mol. de Jure Mar. lib. 2, c.l, 

62 Mass. (8 Gush.) 184, 189-190 ; § 7. 

Cooper V. Adams, 39 Mass. (6 See Peirce v. Goddard, 39 Mass. 

Gush.) 87 ; (22 Pick.) 559 ; s.c. 33 Am. Dec. 

Peirce V. Goddard, 39 Mass. 764. 

(22 Pick.) 559 ; s.c. 33 Am. » See Bros. tit. " Property," pi. 33. 

Deo. 764 ; * Eiddle v. Driver, 12 Ala. 590 ; 

Washburn v. Sproat, 16 Mass. Davis v. Easley, 13 111. 192 ; 

449 ; Herad v. James, 49 Miss. 336 ; 

Bimteyer v. Morss, 4 Abb. Ct. Silsburyu. McCoon, 3 N. Y. 879; 

App. (N. Y.) 55 ; s.c. 5 Abb. s.c. 53 Am. Deo. 307 ; 

(N. Y.) Pr. N. S. 44 ; 3 Keyes Hyde v. Cookson, 31 Barb. (N. Y.) 

(N. Y.) 349 ; 93 ; 

West V. Stewart, 7 Pa. St. 133 ; Curtis v. Groat, 6 John. (N. Y ) 

Leland v. Gasset, 17 Vt. 403. 168 ; 

s Mitchell v. Stetson, 61 Mass. (7 Snyderii. Vaux, 3Eawle(Pa.)433: 

Cush.) 4C5, 439 ; s.c. 31 Am. Dec. 466. 

Peirce v. Goddard, 39 Mass. ' Mitchell v. Stetson, 61 Mass (7 

(33 Pick.) 559 ; s.c. 33 Am. Cush.) 435, 439 ; 

Dec. 764 ; Peirce v. Goddard, 39 Mass. (22 

3 Kent Com. (13th ed.) 360, 361. Pick.) 559, 561 ; s.c. 33 Am. 

It is laid down by MoUoy as a Dec. 764 ; 

settled principle of law that if Betts v. Lee, 5 John. (N. Y.) 348 • 

a man cuts down the trees of s.c. 4 Am. Deo. 368. ' ' ' 

another, or takes timber or " Peirce v. Goddard, 39 Mass. (33 

plank prepared for the erection Pick.) 559 ; s.c. 33 Am. Dec 

or repairing of a dwelling- 764. 

house, nay, thoughsoraeof them See : Betts v. Lee, 5 John (N Y ) 

are for shipping and building 348; s.c. 4 Am. Deo '368- 

a ship, the property follows 2 Kent Comm. (13th ed.) 362 



Chap. II. §§ 67, 68.] BUILDING— CONSENT TO ERECTION. 63 

sequent chapter ^ that where a tenant erects upon the 
lands occupied by him buildings for his own convenience 
or comfort in the occupancy or use of the premises, he 
has the right, within certain restrictions, to remove such 
buildings during the term of his lease, or the period of 
his future possessions as such tenant. But if such tenant 
intended building for the permanent improvement of the 
freehold, or if he have a permanent interest in the land 
as remainderman or revisioner,^ is the husband of the 
tenant in fee,^ or be in possession under a contract of 
purchase,* the structure becomes a part of the realty.^ 

Sec. 6T. Same ^ Consent to erection.— Where a house or 
other building is erected upon the lands of another with 
his consent, either express or implied, it will remain the 
property of the builder,^ as between the parties, and he 
may maintain trover for it as against the owner of 
the land.'^ But as between innocent third parties and 
bona fide purchasers this rule does not prevail. The right 
to erect a building upon the lands of another being an in- 
corporeal hereditament and not a tangible right * should 
be created only by written instrument.^ 

Sec. 68. Same— Chamber or floor in building.- As one 
may have the title in fee to a house without further in- 
terest in the land on which it stands than a right to have 

' See -.Post, chapter rv. "Fixtures." Leland v. Garrett, 17 Vt. 403 ; 

' Cooper v.Adams,60 Mass. (6 Cush.) Lipsky v. Borgmann, 53 Wis. 

87. 256 ; s.o. 9 N. W. Rep. 158. 

» Glldden v. Bennet, 43 N. H. 306. ^ Curtis v. Hoyt, 19 Conn. 154 ; 

See : Washburn v. Sproat, 16 Hartwell v. Kelly, 117 Mass. 235 ; 

Mass. 449. Inhabitants of Sudbury v. Jones, 

* Ogden V. Stock. 34 III. 533 s.c. 63 Mass. (8 Cush.) 184 ; 

85 Am. Dec. 382 ; Dame v. Dame, 38 N. H. 429 ; 

Hemenway v. Cutler, 51 Me. 407 ; s.c. 75 Am. Dec. 195 ; 

Pullen V. Bell, 40 Me. 814 ; . Harris v. Gillingham, 6 N. H. 9 ; 

Russell V. Richards, 10 Me. 429 ; s.c. 28 Am. Dec. 701. 

s c 11 Id. 371 ; 36 Am. Dec. ' Central Branch R. Co. v. Fritz, 

533 ; 20 Kan. 430 ; s.c. 37 Am. Rep. 

Poor V. Oakman, 104 Mass. 309 ; 175 ; 

Eastman v. Foster, 49 Mass. (8 Osgood v. Howard, 6 Me. (6 

jlet.) 19. Greenl.) 452 ; s.c. 20 Am. Dec. 

See : Hinkley & E. Iron Co. v. 322. 

Black, 70 Me. 473. » Bract. II. 18 ; 

> Rimteverv. Morss, 3 Keyes (N. Y.) 1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 20a, 49a. 

349 ; s.c. 4 Abb. Ct. App. (N. " 3 Kent. Com. (13th ed.) 403. 

Y 1 55 ■ 5 Abb. (N. Y.) Pr. N. See : Trammall v. Trammall, 11 

S/^.' Rich. (S. C.) L. 471. 
Christian v. Dripps, 28 Pa.St.279; 



04 



CHAMBER OR FLOOR IN BUILDING. 



[Book I. 



it remain there, so one may own the soil and other parties 
each own different floors respectively, or a single chamber 
even, in the building erected thereon, with right of way 
to and from.i Such owners will not be tenants in com- 
mon, but adjoining tenants, possessing as an essentially 
separate and distinct interest as if they were one by the 
side of the other.^ They will not be liable to each other 
for repairs to the roof or stories above, or to the founda- 
tion or stories below, or for damages caused because of a 
want of such repairs.^ This is because of the well-settled 
rule that the owner of one part of a building has no 
action to recover damages at law for the willful neglect 
of the owner of the other part in permitting his part 
to become ruinous and fall into decay, whereby the 
other part is injured.* In the case of Loring v. Bacon® 



' Rhodes v. McCormick, 4 Iowa 

368 ; s.o. 68 Am. Deo. 663 ; 
Cheeseborough v. Green, 10 Conn. 

318 ; S.C. 36 Am. Dec. 396 ; 
Lowell M. H. V. Lowell, 43 Mass. 

(1 Met.) 538 ; 
Loring v. Bacon, 4 Mass. 575 ; 
Humphries v. Brogden, 13 Q. B. 

739, 747, 756 ; s.c. 64 Eng. C. 

L. 738 ; 
Doe V. Burt, 1 T. R. 701. 
Cheeseborough v. Green, 10 Conn. 

318; s.c. 36 Am. Dec. 396; 
McCormick v. Bishop, 38 Iowa 

337; 
StockweU V. Hunter, 53 Mass. (11 

Met.) 448; s.o. 45 Am. Dec. 

330, 333 ; 
Proprietors of Meeting-house v. 

City of Lowell, 43 Mass. (1 Met.) 

541; 
Loring v. Bacon, 4 Mass. 575. 
' Cheeseborough v. Green, 10 Conn. 

318 ; s.c. 36 Am. Dec. 396 ; 
Ottumwa Lodge v. Lewis, 34 

Iowa 67 ; s.o. 11 Am. Rep. 185 ; 
Loring v. Bacon, 4 Mass. 575. 
See : Adams v. Marshall, 138 

Mass. 338, 338-9 ; s.c. 53 Am. 

Rep. 371 ; • 
Calvert v. Aldrich, 99 Mass. 74 

s.c. 96 Am. Dec. 693 ; 
Wiggin V. Wiggin, 43 N. H. 561 

s.c. 80 Am. Dec. 193. 
Pierce v. Dyer, 109 Mass. 374 

s.c. 13" Am. Rep. 716. 
Eeniedy at comiaon law. — In such 



cases, the remedy at common 
law is by writ de reparatione 
facitnda. 

Wiggin V. Wiggin, 43 N. H. 561 ; 
s.o. 80 Am. Dec. 193, 195. 

Citing : Bowles' Case, 11 Co. 
83; 

Tenant v. Goldwin, 1 Salk. 360; 

1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 54b, 300b ; 

4 Kent Com. (13th ed.) 370. 

So where one's house is ruinous 
and likely to fall on his neigh- 
bor's house, the same remedy 
is said to exist. 

1 Co. Litt. (19th ed.) 56b, and cases 
cited. 

Same — On action on the case, it is 
said it will lie at common law, 
for the neglect to r^^air, by 
reason of which a neighbor's 
house is in.iured. 

Wiggin V. Wiggin, supra. 

Citing : 1 Co. Litt. (10th ed.) 56b, 
note 3, and Fitzh. N. B. 137, 
note a. 

Same — Remedy in equity. — But 
in the case of Cheeseborough 
V. Green, 10 Conn. 319 ; s.c. 36 
Am. Dec. 396, the plaintiff 
owned and occupied the foun- 
dation and first and second 
stories of a building, and the 
defendant the third story and 
the roof, which had become 
leaky and ruinous, whereby the 
plaintiff's goods were injured, 
it was held that an action on the 



» 4 Mass. 575. 



Chap. II. § 68.] PART OWNERSOF BUILDINGS— REPAIRS. 65 

the defendant was seized in fee-simple of the lower floor 
and the cellar under it, and the plaintiff was seized of a 
chamber over it and of the remainder of the house. The 
roof became in such a condition that unless repaired no 
part of the house could be comfortably occupied. The 
defendant refused to join in making the repairs. The 
plaintiff then made the necessary repairs, and brought an 
action in assumpsit for labor and materials employed and 
money expended, and the court said : "Although in the 
case the parties consider themselves as severally seized 
of different parts of one dwelling, yet in legal contempla- 
tion each of the parties has a distinct dwelling-house ad- 
joining together, the one being situated over the other. 
The lower room and the cellar are the dwelling-house 
of the defendant ; the chamber, roof, and other parts of 
the edifice are the plaintiff's dwelling-house. And in this 
action it appears that having repaired, liis own house, he 
calls upon the defendant to contribute to the expenses, 
because his house is so situated that the defendant derives 
a benefit from his repairs and would have suffered a 
damage, if he had not repaired. Upon a very full search 
into the principles and maxims of the common law, we 
cannot find that any remedy is provided for the plaintiff. " ^ 

case would not lie, but that the tenement, and that the owner 

remedy must be sought in of the upper tenement has no 

equity. right to destroy the coverings 

See : A^'iggin «. Wiggin,43 N. H. that protect the lower tene- 

561 ; S.C. 80 Am. Dec. 192, 186 ; ment, although, at common 

Campbell v. Mesier, 4 John. Ch. law, neither is bound to the 

(N. Y.) 335 ; s.c. 8 Am. Dec. other to repair his tenement. 

570; The actual decisions on this 

4 Kent Com. (l.Sth ed.) 371, 412. subject are meager, except in 

' In the latter case of Adams v. the case of mines (see : Post, 

Marshall, 138 Mass. 228, 238-9, § 99), where the right of the 

the court say that in the case owner of the soil to subjacent 

of Pierce v. Dyer. 109 Mass. support is well settled." 

374, "it is assumed that the Citing : Cheeseborough u Green, 

right of support included that 10 Conn. 318; s.c. 26 Am. Dec. 

of shelter, but no decisions to 396 ; 

that effect have been shown us. Ottumwa Lodge v. Lewis, 34 Iowa 

Some analogy may perhaps be 07; s.c. 11 Am. Eep. 135 ; 

derived from the reciprocal McCormick v. Bishop, 28 Iowa 

rights and obligations of the 233 ; 

owner of an upper to the owner Calvert v. Aldrich, 99 Mass. 74; 

of a lower tenement in the s.c. 96 Am. Dec. 693 ; 

sam building. It has been Loring v. Bacon, 4 Mass. 574 ; 

said that the owner of the lower Stevens v. Thompson, 17 N. H. 

tenement has no right to de- 103 ; 

stroy the supports of the upper Graves v. Berdan, 26 N. Y. 498 ; 
5 



66 EFFECT OF DESTRUCTION OF BUILDINa. [Book I. 

Sec. 69. Same— Same— EflFect of destruction of building. — 
If distributed in the possession of such floors or chamber 
the owner may maintain ejectment therefor.^ In such a 
case each individual proprietor of floor or chamber has an 
interest in the soil so far as necessary for the enjoyment 
of the premises, and no further,^ and if the building 
should be destroyed by fire, or otherwise, the interest of 
the individual owning such floor or chamber in the land 
on which the house stood will be lost,^ in the absence of 
astipulation in the conveyance for re-building.* 

Dalton V. Angus, 6 App. Cas. 740 ; ^ Stockwell v. Hunter, 53 Mass. (11 

s.o. 34 Moak's Eng. Rep. 742 ; Met.) 448 ; s.c. 45 Am. Deo. 220. 

Caledonian R. Co. v. Sprot, 2 ^ Shawmutt Nat. Bank v. Boston, 

Macq. 449 ; 118 Mass. 125 ; 

Harris v. Ryding, 5 Mees. & W. Stockwell v. Hunter, 52 Mass. (11 

60 ; Met.) 448 ; s. c. 45 Am. Dec. 320. 

Humphries v. Rogden, 12 Q. B. * Stockwell v. Hunter, 52 Mass. (11 

739 ; s.c. 64 Eng. C. L. 138. Met.) 448 : s.c. 45 Am. Dec. 230. 

' Otis V. Smith, 26 Mass. (9 Pick.) See : McMillan v. Solomon, 42 

293 ; Ala. 356 ; s.c. 94 Am. Dec. 654 ; 

Doe V. Burt, 1 T. R. 701. Ainsworth v. Ritt, 38 Cal. 89 ; 

Graves v. Berdan, 26 N. Y. 498. 



Sec. 


70. 


Sec. 


71. 


Sec. 


73. 


Sec. 


73. 


Sec. 


74. 


Sec. 


75. 


Sec. 


76. 


Sec. 


77. 


Sec. 


78. 


Sec. 


79. 


Sec. 


80. 


Sec. 


81. 


Sec. 


83. 


Sec. 


83. 


Sec. 


84. 


Sec. 


85. 


Sec. 


86. 


Sec. 


87. 


Sec. 


88. 


Sec. 


89. 


Sec. 


90. 


SEa 


91. 


Sec. 


93. 


Sec. 


93. 


Sec. 


94. 


Sec. 


95. 


Sec. 


96. 


Sec. 


97. 


Sec. 


98. 


Sec. 


99. 


Sec. 


100. 


Sec. 


101. 


Sec. 


103. 


Sec. 


103. 


Sec. 


104. 


Sec. 


105. 


Sec. 


106. 



CHAPTER m. 
WHAT IS REAL PROPERTY — Continued. 

Ice a part of the realty. 

Same — On navigable streams. 

Same — Same — Where title extends to the thread of the stream. . 

Same — On non-navigable streams. 

Same — On ponds — 1. " Great ponds.'' 

Same — Same — 3. Mill-ponds, 

Same — On canals. 

Same — Appropriation of ice. 

Incorporeal hereditam.ents — Definition and nature. 

Land usually real estate. 

Same — Exceptions to the general rule. 

Leasehold estate. 

Light and air. 

Manure — Real estate when. 

Same — ^Where made in other than agricultural pursuits. 

Same — Made on non-agricultural lands. 

Same — Agreement of parties respecting. 

Same — New Jersey and North Carolina doctrine. 

Same — ^English rule. 

Market-stalls. 

Mines and minerals. 

Same — Common-law doctrine. 

Same — Eoyal charters. 

Same — New York doctrine. 

Sam e — Pennsylvania doctrine. 

Same — Georgia doctrine. 

Same — California doctrine. 

Same — Severance and conveyance. 

Same — Reservation of mineral ores. 

Same — Surface support. 

Same— Same— Rights of grantee. 

Same — Same — When owner retains surface. 

Same— -Same— Where owner grants surface and retains 

minerals. 
Money real estate when. 
Movables realty when. 
Railroads— Road-bed, rails, etc. 
Same — Foundations, columns, etc., of railroad. 

67 '^ 



68 ICE A PART OF THE REALTY. [Book L 

Sec. 107. Same — Rolling stock. 

Sec. 108. Sea-weed — Marine increment. 

Sec. 109. Same — ^When cast between high and low water-marks. 

Sec. 110. Saw-mills, saw-dust, etc., real estate when. 

Sec. 111. "Water real estate when. 

Section 70. loe a part of the realty.— While it is true 
that a riparian owner has simply a usufructuary interest 
in the water of a stream flowing through his land, yet 
when that water is congealed and the ice attaches to 
the soil it becomes a part of the land. ^ Hence the owner of 
the soil under the water on which the ice forms is to be re-' 
garded as the owner of the ice.^ This is true not only of 
ponds wholly or partially forming or being entirely upon 
such person's premises, but his riparian ownership of the 
bed of the stream will carry with it the right of the ice 
forming upon the surface of such streams, as far as 
riparian right of the soil extends.^ 

Sec. 71. Same— On navigable streams.— By the common 
law, where rivers are above the ebb and flow of the tide, 
but navigable in fact, the title of the riparian owner, 
prima facie, extends to the center of the stream ; and 
this rule has been held in this country to apply to our 
main rivers.* In some of the states, however, such as 

' Village of Brooklyn v. Smith, 104 » Bigelow v. Shaw, 65 Mich. 341 ; 

111. 429 ; s.c. 44 Am. Rep. s.c. 8 Am. Rep. 903 ; 33 N. Y. 

90 ; Rep. 800. 

Brookville & M. Hydraulic Co. v. See : Village of Brooklyn v. 

Butler, 91 Ind. 134 ; s.c. 46 Am. Smith, 104 111. 439 ; s.c. 44 Am. 

Rep. 580, 584 ; Rep. 90 ; 

State V. Pottemeyer, 33 Ind. 402 ; Washington Ice Co. v. Shortall, 

s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 224. 101 lU. 46; s.c. 40 Am. Rep. 196; 

' Washmgton Ice Co. v. Shortall, People's Ice Co. v. The Excelsior, 

101 III. 146 ; s.c. 40 Am. Rep. 44 Mich. 229 ; s.c. 38 A. R. 246 ; 

196 ; Lorman v. Benson, 8 Mich. 18 ; 

State V. Pottemeyer, 33 Ind. 402 ; s.c. 77 Am. Dec. 435. 

s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 324 ; " See : Adams v. Pease, 2 Conn. 481 ; 

Edgerton v. Huff, 26 Ind. 35 ; Houck v. Yates, 82 111. 179 ; 

Paine v. Woods, 108 Mass. 160, Braxon v. Bressler, 64 111. 488 ; 

l'i'3 ; City of Chicago v. McGinn, 51 111. 

Cummmgs v. Barrett, 64 Mass. 266 ; s.o. 2 Am. Rep. 295 ; 

(10 Cush.) 186 ; City of Chicago v. Laflin, 49 lU. 

Higgins V. Kusterres, 41 Mich. 172 ; 

318 ; s.c. 33 Am. Rep. 160 ; 2 N. Middleton v. Pritchard, 3 Scam. 

W. Rep. 13 ; (111.) 510, 516 ; s.c. 38 Am. Dec. 

Lorman v Benson, 8 Mich. 18 ; 113 ; 

82 s.c. 77 Am. Dec. 435 ; Bay City Gaslight Co. v. Indus- 

Myer v. Whitaker, 55 How. (N. " trial Works, 28 Mich. 183 ; 

Y.) Pr. 376 ; see comment on, . Ryan v. Brown, 18 Mich 196 ■ 

in 21 Am. L. Rep. 330. s.c. 100 Am. Dec. 154 ; ' 



Chap. III. § 71.] ICE ON NAVIGABLE STREAMS. 69 

lowa,^ Kansas,^ Missouri,^ North Carolina,* Pennsyl- 
vania,® and perhaps elsewhere,'' it has been held that the 
soil under rivers navigable in fact, though not subjected 
to the ebb and flow of the tide, does not belong to the 
riparian owner, but to the state. And where there is no 
ownership of the subjacent soil, a riparian owner has no 
title to the ice forming on the surface of the river.'^ The 
title of the soil being in the state, and the stream being a 
public highway, the ownership of the ice is held to rest in 
the general public, or in the state as the representative of 
that public. The riparian proprietor is said to have no 
more title to the ice than he has to the fish. "It is 
simply this, that his land joins the land of the state. 
The fact that it so joins gives him no title to that land or 
to anything formed or grown upon it, any more than it 
does to anything formed or grown or found upon the 
land of any individual neighbor. " ^ In those states where 
this view obtains the doctrine is that the ice belongs to the 
first appropriator, when such appropriation is effected by 
marking, surveying, and staking off of the ice.* 

Lorman v. Benson, 8 Mich. 18 ; Tomlin i\ Dubuque & M. R. Co., 

S.C. 77 Am. Dec. 439 ; 33 Iowa 106 ; s.c. 7 Am. Rep. 

Schurmeier v. St. Paul & Pac. R. 176 ; 

Co., 10 Minn. 83 ; s.c. 83 An. MoManus v. Carmichael, 3 Iowa 

Deo. 59; 1. 

Magnolia v. Marshall, 39 Miss. ° Wood v. Fowler, 36 Kans. 083 ; 

109 ; s.c. 40 Am. Rep. 330. 

Morgan v. Reading, 11 Miss. 366 ; ^ Benson v. Morrow, 61 Mo. 345 ; 

Garit v. Chambers, 3 Ohio, 496 ; Hickey v. Hazard, 3 Mo. App. 

Hart V. Hill, 1 Whart. (Pa.) 134 ; 480. 

Arnold v. Elmore, 16 Wis. 509 ; « Wilson v. Forbes, 3 Dev. (N. C.) 

Rundle v. Delaware, etc.. Canal L. 30 ; 

Co., 1 WaU. Jr. C. C. 375, 294. State v. Glen, 7 Jones (N. C.) L. 

" Fresh rivers, of whatsoever 331. 

kind, do of common right be- ' Cuson v. Blazer, 3 Binn. (Pa.) 475 ; 

long to the owners of the soil Shrunk v. Schuylkill Nav. Co., 

adjacent," is the expressive Ian- 14 Serg. & R. (Pa.) 71. 

guage of the common law, and « See : Barney v. Keokuk, 94 U. S. 

is of universal appUoation. 334 ; bk. 24 L. ed. 324 ; 

Chief Justice Ruger, in Smith Railroad Co. v. Schurmeier, 74 U. 

V. City of Rochester, 92 N. Y. S. (7 Wall.) 372 ; bk. 19 L. ed. 

463, 478 ; s.c. 44 Am. Rep. 393. 74. 

Citine : Chenango Bridge Co. v. " Wood v. Fowler, 36 Kans. 683 ; 

Paiie, 83 N. Y. 178; s.c. 38 s.c. 40 Am. Rep. 330, 335. 

Am. Rep. 407 ; ' Id. 

Clinton v Myers, 46 N. Y. 511 ; ' Woodman v. Pitman, 79 Me. 456 ; 

S.C. 7 Am. Rep. 373. s.c. 1 Am. St. Rep. 343 ; 10 Atl. 

> Houghton V. Chicago R. Co., 47 Rep. 321 ; , „ -. , 

Iowa 370 ; Hickey v. Hazard, 8 Mo. App. 

Musserv. Hershery, 43 Iowa 356 ; 480. 



70 ICE ON NON-NAVIGABLE STREAMS. [Book I. 

Sec. 73. Same— Same— Wliere title extends to thread of 
stream.- In those states where the title of the riparian 
owner extends to the thread of the stream, the common- 
law rule of ownership prevails, and the adjoining pro- 
prietors own the banks and bed of the streahi, and have 
a right to make such use of the land, and of all the bene- 
fits of the stream, as will not interfere with the public 
easement or servitude ; ^ and the ice formed on the water 
over the land of such proprietor is regarded as his exclu- 
sive property.^ To this rule, however, there are some 
exceptions. In Maine ^ and Massachusetts,* the right of 
harvesting ice upon a navigable river is not an abso- 
lute right in any person, but is a pubhc right com- 
mon to all persons who have a right to go upon the 
stream ; and depends very much upon first appropria- 
tion,^ as one man's possession may exclude others. 

Sec. 73. Same— On non-navigable waters.- The general 
rule applicable to and governing as to ice formed- on 
fresh navigable waters applies more universally to ice 
formed on fresh non-navigable streams fiowing in a nat- 
ural channel,® for the reason that most, if not all, those 
states which deny to the riparian proprietors the ownership 
of or right to the soil of the navigable fresh- water rivers 
do not hesitate to accord such right to the riparian pro- 
prietors along non-navigable fresh-water streams. 

Sec. 74. Same— On ponds— 1. " Great ponds."— It is on 
'the theory that the soil beneath the water of certain 
bodies of fresh water, known as " Great Ponds," is the 

■■ Fletcher v. Thunder Bay Elver Edgerton v. Huff, 36 Ind. 36. 



Boom Co., 51 Mich. 277, 284 

B.C. 16 K W. Rep. 645 ; 
Maxwell v. Bay City Bridge Co. 

41 Mich. 453, 466 ; s.c. 2 N. W. 

Rep. 639 ; 
Ryan v. Brown, 18 Mich. 207 

S.C. 100 Am. Dec. 154 ; 
Lorman v. Bensin, 8 Mich. 18 



3 See : Woodman v. Pitman, 79 Me. 
456 ; S.C. 1 Am. St. Rep. 343 ; 
10 Atl. Rep. 821. 
See : Paiae v. Woods, 108 Mass. 

160, 173 ; 
Inhabitante of West Roxbury v. 
Stoddard, 89 Mass. (7 AUen) 
158. 



s.c. 77 Am. Dec. 489. ' ggg . p^gf^ g ^7. 

' Village of Brooklyn v. Smith, 104 * See : BrookviUe & M. Hydraulic 

111. 429 ; S.C. 44 Am. Rep. 90 ; Co. v. Butler, 91 Ind. 184 ; s.c. 

Washington Ice Co. v. ShortaU, 46 Am. Rep. 580, 584 ; 

101 m. 46 ; s.c.40 Am. Rep.196; Smith v. The City of Rochester, 

State V. Pottemeyer, 33 Ind. 432 ; 92 N. Y. 468 ; s.c. 44 Am. Rep 

S.C. 5 Am, Rep. 324 ; 393. 



Chap. III. § 75.] ICE ON GREAT PONDS. 71 

property of the state, that the Supreme Judicial Court of 
Massachusetts have declared that the ice forming on such 
bodies of water belongs to whoever can get access to and 
cut it,^ so long as he does not interfere with the reason- 
able exercise by others of the like rights in the pond.^ 
The same rule prevails in Maine.^ But where the ice has 
formed on water over the land of a private proprietor, and 
not within the natural limits of a " great pond, " — the soil 
of the bed of whi6h is held to be public property, — the ice 
will be the individual property of the owner of the shores 
and bottom of the pond or stream.* 

Sec. T5. Same— Same— 2. Mill-ponds.— A riparian owner 
whose title runs to the center of a natural or artificial 
pond has the right to cut the ice on the water over his 
land, notwithstanding the right of another to flood such 
land for mill purposes, so long as he does not thereby 
actually and perceptibly injure the mill-owner in hia 
privilege.^ This right results from and grows out of the 
title to the bed of the stream or pond, and such right to 
the use of the water as results therefrom.^ The right of a 

1 See : Rowell v. Doyle, 131 Mass. See : Washington Ice Co. v. 

474 ; s.c. 38 Am. Rep. 255, note ; Shortall, 101 111. 46 ; s.c. 40 Am. 

Gage V. Steinkrauss, 131 Mass. Rep. 196 ; 

222 ; Jullen v. Woodsmall, 83 Ind. 568 ; 

Hittinger v. Eames, 121 Mass. Edgerton v. Huff, 26 Ind. 35 ; 

,539 ; State v. Pottemeyer, 33 Ind. 403 ; 

Fay V. Salem & D. Aqueduct Co., s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 224 ; 

111 Mass, 27 ; Paine i;. Woods, 108 Mass, 160, 173; 

Commonwealth v. Vincent, 108 Elliot v. Fitchburg R. Co., 64 

Mass. 441, 446 ; Mass. (10 Cush.) 191 ; 

Paine v. Woods, 108 Mass. 160, Cummingsu Barrett, 64 Mass. (10 

169, 173 ; Cush.) 186 ; 

Inhabitants of West Roxbury v. Bigelow v. Shaw, 65 Mich. 341 ; 

Stoddard,89 Mass. (7 AUen) 158; r..c. 8 Am. St. Rep. 902 ; 33 N. 

Cummings v. Barrett, 64 Mass. (10 W. Rep. 800 ; 

Cush.) 186. Brown v. Brown, 30 N. Y. 519; 

' Rowell 'v. Doyle, 131 Mass. 474 ; s.c. 86 Am. Dec. 406 ; 

s.c. 38 Am. Rep. 335, note ; Marshall v. Peters, 13 How. (N. 

Inhabitants of West Roxbury v. Y.) Pr. 218 ; 

Stoddard, 89 Mass. (7 Allen) DeBaun i;. Bean, 29 Hun (N. Y.) 

158. 336 ; 

'See: Brastow t). Rockport Ice Co. , Merritt v. Brmkerhoff, 17 John. 

77 Me. 100. (^- Y.) 300 ; s.c. 8 Am. Dec. 

* See : Paine v. Woods, 108 Mass. 404. 

]^gO 173 « Bigelow v. Shaw, 65 Mich. 341 ; 

s BrookVille' & M. Hydraulic Co. v. s.c. 8 Am. St. Rep. 903 ; 33 N. 

Butler, 19 Ind. 134; s.c. 46 Am. W. Rep. 800. 

jjgrj 580 • Citing : Washington Ice Co. v. 

Dodge V. Berry, 36 Hun (N. Y.) Shortall, 101 111,46 ; s.c. 40 Am. 

246. Rep. 196 ; 



72 ICE ON MILL-PONDS. [Book I. 

mill-owner to pond water on the land of another is simply 
a license or an easement,^ and does not take from the 
owner of the fee the right to make any profitable use he 
can of the land thus flooded, whether the right of flow- 
age is acquired by agreement under statute, or through 
prescription ; for in either case no right is acquired to 
the land itself, or to the profits which a use of it will 
produce.^ The owner of the servient estate has a right 
to all the profits which may arise from the soil, and may 
make such use of the soil as is not inconsistent with the 
license or easement.^ The owner of the land flooded 
must not indeed draw off by canals, aqueducts, or ditches 
the water which has been raised by the dam,* but he 
may use it for watering his cattle, irrigating his crops 
and garden, or any other reasonable purpose which does 
not particularly and in a perceptible and substantial 
degree impair the right to run the mill ; and he may there- 
fore take and carry away the water, when formed into 
ice, for use or for sale, so long as he does not thereby 
appreciably diminish the head of water at the dam of the 
mill-owner.^ 

Brookville & M. Hydraulic Co. v. Paine v. Woods, 108 Mass. 160 ; 

Butler, 91 Ind. 134 ; s.o. 46 Am. Storm v. Manchang Co., 95 Mass. 

Eep. 580 ; (13 Allen) 10 ; 

Stevens v. Kelley, 78 Me. 445 ; Williams v. Nelson, 40 Mass. (33 

S.C. 57 Am. Eep. 813 ; Pick.) 141 ; s.c. 34 Am. Dec. 45 ; 

Paine v. Woods, 108 Mass. 160, O'Linda v. Lathrop, 38 Mass. (21 

173 ; Pick.) 293 ; 

Marshall v. Peters, 13 How. (N. Earl-y. De Hart, 13 N. J En (1 

Y. ) Pr. 318 ; Beas. ) 380 ; s. c. 72 Am. Dec. 395 ; 

Dodge 17. Berry,36 Hun(N.Y.) 246. Bean v. Coleman, 44 K. H. 539 ; 

' Brookville & M. Hydraulic Co. v. Emons v. Turnbull, 2 John (N 

Butler, 91 Ind. 134 ; s.c. 46 Am. Y.) 313 ; 

Rep. 580, 583 ; Mason v. Hill, 5 Bam. & Ad. 1 ; 

Snowden v. Wilas, 19 Ind. 10; s.o. 87 Eng. C. L. 1. 

s.c. 81 Am. Dec. 370 ; ^ Julien v. Woodsmal'l, 83 Ind. 568. 

Baeri;.Martm, 8Blaokf.(Ind.)317. See : Brookville & M. Hydraulic 

' Brookville & M. Hydraulic Go. v. Co. v. Butler, 91 Ind. 184 • s c 

Butler, 91 Ind. 134 ; s.c. 46 Am. 46 Am. Rep. 580, 582 ; ' 

Eep. 580. Mason v. Hill, 5 Barn. & Ad. 1 ; 

See : Julien v. Woodsmall, 82 s.c. 37 Eng. C. L. 1. 

Ind. 568 ; * Paine v. Woods, 108 Mass. 160, 

State V. Pottemeyer, 33 Ind. 402 ; 173. 

s.c. 5 Am. Rep. 334 ; See,: Brookville & M.Hydraulic 

Edgerton v. Huff, 36 Ind. 35 ; Co. v. Butler, 91 Ind. 134 ; so 

Snovrden v. Wilas, 19 Ind. 10 ; 46 Am. Rep. 580, 584 ; 

Baer -y.Martin, 8 Blackf.(Ind.)317; Storm v. Manchang Co., 95 Mass 

Maxwell v. MoAtee, 9 B. Mon. (13 Allen) 10 ; 

(Ky.) 30 ; s.c. 48 Am. Dec. 409 ; Cook v. Hull, 20 Mass. (S Pick ) 

Baker v. Frick, 45 Md. 837, 339; 269 ; s.c. 15 Am. Dec 208 

S.C. 34 Am. Eep. 506 ; ^ pai^g ^_ Woods, 108 Mass. 160, 173; 



Chap. III. §§ 76, 77.] ICE ON CANALS. '73 

Sec. T6. Same— On canals.— Where the public has con- 
demned and taken land for the purpose of constructing 
a canal, the owners of the fee of the lands through or 
over which the canal passes, like the riparian proprietors 
along a river or pond, are entitled to harvest the ice 
therefrom, provided the taking does not interfere with 
the use of the water for navigation and hydraulic pur- 
poses.^ But where the legislature or the constitution of 
the state has authorized the seizure of the fee when re- 
quired for public purposes, and the fee is taken, the 
owner will not have the right to the ice forming on the 
water of the canal adjoining and attaching to his 
premises. The reason of this is because in such case the 
owner must be awarded, as compensation for the taking, 
the value of his land ; and the payment of this award 
deprives him not only of the land itself, but also of all 
the rights and privileges attaching thereto.^ 

Where the state condemns the fee for the construction 
of a canal, and afterwards, for a consideration, lets the 
canal and the waters thereof for a specified time, trans- 
ferring for that time " all tolls and revenues to be derived, 
or which may accrue from " the use of such canal, this 
will give to the transferees as much right to the ice 
forming on such canal, and to the proceeds thereof, as 
to the tolls and water-rents.^ 

Sec. 17. Same— Appropriation of ice.- In those states in 
which the title to the soil of the bed of the navigable 
streams and large ponds is in the state, the ice forming 

Gumming v. Barrett, 64 Mass. Of the latter case